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Phillip* Jfimxb. 





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Entehed, according to Act of Congress, in the Year One Thousand Eight Hun- 
dred a'nd Fifty-three, by H. LONG & BROTHER .e U* Office ofthe 
Clerk of the District Court of the United States, ior the Southern District ol 
New Y^r%. . 


■ All the labor of man is for his mouth" says Solomon. If this proverb 
is understood as it was, probably, meant — that the chief aim and purpose 
of all human labor is to make the homes of mankind places of enjoyment, 
■we see how important the Art of Household Management becomes. 

While preparing my work — " The Ladies' New Book of Cookery" — last 
year, I was naturally led to examine these subjects, and the result was a 
deep conviction of the need of another book on domestic economy, or direc- 
tions how to guide the house. This led me to prepare the present treatise, 
embodying rules and receipts, such as have never before been brought 
together, for the help and instruction of a household. 

In the economy and well-being of the family, personal and individual 
improvement should be sedulously kept in view. It is not enough that the 
woman understands the art of cookery and of managing her house : she 
must also take care of herself; of children; of all who will be dependent 
on her for direction, for health, for happiness. 

Personal appearance is important ; the art of beautifying a home is im- 
portant ; the knowledge of ways and means by which the clothing of a 
family may be kept in good order, with the least expense of time and 
money, is important ; some knowledge of plants, flowers, gardening, and of 
domestic animals, is of much benefit, particularly to those who live in the 
country ; and more important than all, is a knowledge of the best means of 
preserving or restoring health. All these things and many others, are 
treated of in this * New Household Receipt-Book," as any person may see 
by examining the " Table of Contents" and the " Index." 

Foreigners say that our climate is unhealthy ; that the Americans have, 
generally, thin forms, sallow complexions, and bad teeth. Is it not most 
likely that these defects are caused in part, if not wholly, because the diet, 
modes of living, and treating diseases, are unsuited to our climate and to 
the well-being of the people ? 


The aim of both my works on domestic matters has been to awaken the 
attention of my own sex to these subjects, belonging, so unquestionably, to 
woman's department. The home ad?ninistration is in her hands ; how salu- 
tary and powerful this may be made in its influence on humanity is yet 
hardly imagined, even by the most sagacious and earnest advocates of 
woman's elevation. 

"Would that those of my sex who are urging onward, into the industrial 
pursuits, and other professions appropriate for men, might turn their atten- 
tion to improvements in domestic economy. Here is an open field, where 
their heads and hearts as well as hands may find ample scope and noble 
objects. The really great woman never undervalues her own sphere. 
Madame Roland excelled in her menage; Mrs. Somerville is eminent for 
domestic qualities ; Mrs. Sigourney is a pattern housekeeper ; and a multi- 
tude of other names and examples may be met with in my recent work,* 
where genius is found adorning home pursuits. 

There should be Lectures on Housekeeping, and other subjects connected 
with domestic life, instituted in every female seminary. This would serve 
to remedy, in some degree, the evils that now attend a boarding-school 
education. The grand defect of this is, that teachers too often leave out of 
sight the application of learning to the home pursuits of young ladies. So 
when these return to the parental roof, they give themselves up to novel- 
reading, as their only mental resource. 

How much sound learning it really needs to make a Christian home 
what it should be — the place where every human faculty is developed and 
directed in harmony with the laws of God, would require a volume to ex- 
plain. Among the recently published works in our country, which will aid 
this family improvement, is " The Farmer's Every Day Book, or Social Life 
in the Country ;" by Rev. J. L. Blake ; and also a little book — " Letters to 
Country Girls ;" by Mrs. Swisshelm. 

Let me hope that my own books, that on " Cookery," <fcc., as well as this 
volume, will be found useful. I have sought to give variety in the receipts, 
so as to suit different conditions and constitutions. When one set of ingre- 
dients cannot be obtained, a substitute may be at hand ; and as all these 
rules and recipes have been the result of study, observation, experiment 
and experience, why should not the -families, using this book, exercise 
their own talents, and endeavor, by observation and experiment, to add to 
the general stock of knowledge on these subjects of immediate and univer- 
sal interest ? 

Philadelphia, June 22c?, 1853 

• Woman's Record, &c. 



Preface, iii 

Contents, v 

Useful Family Tables, vii 

PART 1. 


House Cleaning — Repairing Furniture — Washing — Mend- 
ing Glass, China, &c. — Dyeing — Blacking, for Boots, 
Shoes, &c. — To Destroy Insects — The Kitchen, &C....9 — 88 



Rules for the Preservation of Health, and Simple Recipes, 
found often efficacious in common diseases and slight 
injuries — Directions for Preparing Remedies, and min- 
istering to the Sick and Suffering — The Toilet, or 
Hints and Suggestions for the Preservation of Beauty, 
with some useful Recipes for those who need them, 89 — 150 



Needle- Work, Fancy Work — Preparations for Writing — 

Flowers— House-Plants— Birds— Gold Fish, &c 151—187 




Of the Different Kinds of Tea, Coffee, &c. — Preserving 

Fruits, Flowers, &c. — Care of Fires, and other Hints, 188 — 209 



In which are set forth the Prominent Duties of each depart- 
ment, and the most important Rules for the guidance 
and care of the Household, 210 — 264 



Of Soil, Hay, and the Grains — Of Vegetables — Destroying 
Reptiles, Rats, and other Vermin — Flowers — Fruits — 
Trees— -Timber— Buildings, &c 265—318 



Choice and Cheap Cookery — New Receipts — Southern 
Dishes — Gumbo, &c. — Home-made Wines, &c. — 
Dairy — Coloring — Diet — Health — Books — Periodi- 
cals, &c 319—384 


A. — Measure of Length. 

12 Inches = 1 Foot, 

3 Feet " 1 Yard, 

5i Yards " 1 Rod, or Pole, 

40 Poles " 1 Furlong, 

8 Furlongs M 1 Mile, 

69 6 \ Miles ■ 1 Degree of a Great Circle of the Earth. 

An inch is the smallest lineal measure to which a name is given, but subdivisions are 
used for many purposes. Among mechanics, the inch is commonly divided into eighths. 
By the officers of the revenue and by scientific persons it is divided Into tenths, hun- 
dredths, &.c. Formerly it was made to consist of 12 parts, called lines. 

A Nail 


B. — Particular Measures of Length. 




used for measuring Cloth of all kinds. 

2} Inches 
4 Nails 

Quarters I 

Quarters ] 

Inches, used for the height of Horses. 

Feet, used in measuring Depths. 

Tn 09 hHfVic ) used in Land Measure to facilitate 

Links r computation of the content, 10 sq. 

> chains being equal to an acre. 


C. — Measure of Surface. 

Square Inches = 1 Square Foot 

9 Square Feet " 1 Square Yard 

30} Square Yards " 1 Perch, or Rod 

40 Perches " 1 Rood 

4 Roods " 1 Acre 

640 Acres 4t 1 Square Mile. 

D. — Measures of Solidity and Capacity. 


1728 Cubic Inches = 1 Cubic Foot 
27 Cubic Feet " 1 Cubic Yard. 


4 Gills = 
2 Pints H 

4 Uuarts " 
2 Gallons 

8 Gallons " 
8 Bushels " 

5 Quarters " 

1 Pint = 34| cubic inches nearly. 

1 Quart " 69} " 

1 Gallon " 277} " 

1 Peck " 554} " 

1 Bushel " 2218* 

1 Quarter " 10} cubic feet nearly. 

1 Load « 51} 

The four last denominations are used for dry goods only. For liquids several denomi 
nations have been heretofore adopted, viz. : — For Beer, the Firkin of 9 gallons, the Kilder 
kin, of 18, the Barrel, of 36, the Hogshead, of 54, and the Butt, of 108 Galls. These will 



probably continue to be used in practice. For Wine and Spirits, there are the Anker, Run- 
let. Tierce, Hogshead, Puncheon, Pipe, Butt, and Tun ; but these may be considered 
rather as the names of the casks in which such commodities are imported, than as ex- 
pressing any definite number of gallons. It is the practice to gauge all such vessels, and 
to charge them according to their actual content. 

Flour is sold nominally by measure, but actually by weight, reckoned at 71b. Avoirdu- 
pois to a Gallon. 

E. — Measure of Avoirdupois Weight. 

27f| Grains 
16 Drams 
16 Ounces 
28 Pounds 
4 Quarters 
20 Cwt. 

1 Dram = 

1 Ounce i 

1 Pound (lb.) ' 

1 Quarter (qr.) 

1 Hundred-weight (cwt.) 


27^4 grains. 
437* " 
7,000 " 

This weight is used in almost all commercial transactions, and in the common dealings 
of life. 

A Firkin of Butter, 


A Barrel of Anchovies. 

.56 lb. I A Barrel of Soap 256 lb. 

.64" Raisins 112 " 

..30 " | AFother of Lead, 19* cwt. 

F. — Measures of Pounds. 

The following table of the number of pounds of various articles to a bushel, may be of 
interest to some of our farming friends. 

Of Wheat, 60 lbs... is... 1 bushel 

Shelled Corn, 46 u " 

Corn in the cob,... 70 ,fc ■ 

Oats, 35 " " 

Barley, 48 M " 

Potatoes, 60 " .* 

Beans, 60 " " 

Bran, 20 u « 

Of Clover Seed, 601bs. is 1 bushel 

Timothy Seed, 45 " " 

Flaxseed. 56 " " 

Hemp Seed, 44 " " 

Buckwheat 42 " " 

Blue-grass Seed,. ..14 u " 

Castor Beans 46 " " 

G. — Measures for Housekeepers. 

Wheat Fiour, lib is 1 quart 

Indian Meal, 1 "2oz.." 1 " 

Butter, when soft 1 " "1 " 

Loaf Sugar.broken, 1 4 ' "I " 

White Sugar, powdered, l"loz..."l " 

Best Brown Sugar, 1 lb. 2 oz. is 1 quart 

Eggs, 10 eggs are 1 lb. 

Flour, 8 quarts M 1 peck 

Flour, 4 pecks " 1 bush. 


4 quarts are one gallon 

A common-sized tumbler holds.. half a pint 

A common-sized wine-glass, half a giil 

25 drops are equal to one tea- spoonful. 

16 large table-spoonfuls, are half a pint 

8 large table-spoonfuls, are one gill 

4 largo table-spoonfuls, are half a gill 

2 gills, are half a pint 

2 pints, are one quart 

* By the above method, persons not having scales and weights at hand, may readily 
measure the articles wanted to form any receipt, without the trouble of weighing. Allow- 
ance to be made for an extraordinary dryness or moisture of the article weighed or 

The Nurse will find this manner of measuring liquids very convenient ; to the House- 
keeper it will be of importance. A similar "Table of Weights and Measures" is pre- 
fixed to " The Ladies' .Yew Book of Cookery." published last year (September, 1852) ; and 
to that work of mine the patrons of this u Receipt Book" are referred f.»r information on 
all matters of "household good," not found, or not fully explained in this treatise The 
two volumes are Intended as family companions, and will, I trust, be usually found 



House- cleaning — Repairing Furniture — Washing — Mending 
Glass, China, &c. — Dyeing — Blacking for Boots, Shoes, dfcc. — 
To destroy Insects — The Kitchen, dtc. 

1. House Cleaning. — The spring is more particularly the time 
for house-cleaning ; though, of course, it requires attention 

Begin at the top of the house ; first take up the carpets, and, 
if they require it, let them be scoured ; or as carpets are some- 
times injured by scouring, they may be well beaten, and if 
necessary, washed with soda and water. 

Remove all the furniture from the room, have the chimneys 
swept where fires have been kept, and clean and blacken the 
grates. Wrap old towels, (they should be clean), around the 
bristles of the broom, and sweep lightly the ceiling and paper ; 
or, if requisite, the paper should be cleaned with bread, as else- 
where directed. Then wash the paint with a flannel or sponge, 
and soap and water, and, as fast as one person cleans, another 
should follow, and with clean cloths, wipe the paint perfectly 
dry. Let the windows be cleaned, and scour the floor. Let 
the furniture be well rubbed ; and the floor being dry, and the 
carpets laid down, the furniture may be replaced. The paper 
should be swept every three months. 

2. To clean Bed-rooms. — In cleaning bed-room s infested with 
bugs, take the bedsteads asunder, and wash every part of them, 



but especially the joints, with a strong solution of corrosive 
sublimate in spirits of turpentine; as the sublimate is a fatal 
poison, the bottle containing the above solution should be la- 
belled " Poison ;" it should be used very carefully, and laid on 
with a brush kept for the purpose. Bugs can only be removed 
from walls by taking down the paper, washing them with the 
above poison, and re-papering. 

In bed-rooms with fires, a whisk-brush is best to clear the 
curtains and hangings from dust. 

To remove grease or oil from boards, drop on the spots spirits 
of turpentine before the floor is scoured. 

The house-maid should be provided with a box, with divisions, 
to convey her various utensils, as brushes, black lead, &c, from 
room to room, and a small mat to kneel upon while cleaning 
the grate. 

3. Scouring Bed-rooms. — This should never be done in winter 
if it can be avoided, as it is productive of many coughs and 
colds. If inevitable, a dry day should be selected, and the 
windows and doors should be left wide open till dusk. A fire 
ought always to be made in the room after cleaning. 

4. To clean Carpets, — Before sweeping a carpet, sprinkle over 
it a few handfuls of waste tea-leaves. A stiff hair-broom or 
brush should be used, unless the carpet be very dirty, when a 
whisk or carpet-broom should be used first, followed by another 
made of hair to take off the loose dirt. The frequent use of a 
stiff broom soon injures the beauty of the best carpet. An or- 
dinary clothes-brush is best adapted for superior carpets. 

When Brussels carpets are very much soiled, take them up 
and beat them perfectly free from dust. Have the floor thor- 
oughly scoured and dry, and nail the carpet firmly down to it. 
If still soiled, take a pailful of clean, cold water, and put into it 
about three gills of ox-gall. Take another pail, with clean, cold 
water only ; now rub with a soft scrubbing-brush some of the 
ox-gall water on the carpet, which will raise a lather. When a 
convenient-sized portion is done, wash the lather off with a clean 
linen cloth dipped in the clean water. Let this water be changed 
frequently. When all the lather has disappeared, rub the part 
with a clean, dry cloth. After all is done, open the window to 
allow the carpet to dry. A carpet treated in this manner, will be 
greatly refreshed in color, particularly the greens. Kiddermin- 


ster carpets will scarcely bear the above treatment without be- 
coming so soft as speedily to become dirty again. This may, 
in some measure, be prevented by brushing them over with a 
hot, weak solution of size in water, to which a little alum has 
been added. Curd soap dissolved in hot water, may be used 
instead of ox-gall, but it is more likely to injure the colors, if 
produced by false dyes. Where there are spots of grease in 
the carpeting, they may be covered with curd soap dissolved in 
boiling water, and rubbed with a brush until the stains are re- 
moved, when they must be cleaned with warm water as before. 
The addition of a little gall to the soap renders it more effi- 

The carpets should be nailed on the full stretch, else they will 

Fullers' earth is also used for cleaning carpets ; and alum, or 
soda, dissolved in water, for reviving the colors. 

5. To clean Turkey Carpets. — To revive the color of a Turkey 
carpet, beat it well with a stick till the dust is all got out ; then, 
with a lemon or sorrel juice, take out the spots of ink, if the 
carpet be stained with any ; wash it in cold water, and after- 
wards shake out all the water from the threads of the carpet. 
When it is thoroughly dry, rub it all over with the crumb of a 
hot wheaten loaf; and, if the weather is very fine, hang it out 
in the open air a night or two. 

6. Cheap Carpeting. — Sew together strips of the cheapest 
cotton cloth, of the size of the room, and tack the edges to the 
floor. Then paper the cloth, as you would the sides of a room, 
with any sort of room paper. After being well dried, give it 
two coats of varnish, and your carpet is finished. It can be 
washed like carpets, without injury, retains its gloss, and, on 
chambers or sleeping rooms, where it will not meet rough usage, 
will last for two years, as good as new. 

7. To beat a Carpet. — Hang the carpet upon a clothes-line, 
or upon a stout line between two trees ; it should then be beaten 
on the wrong side, by three or four persons, each having a pliable 
stick, with cloth tied strongly in a knob on the end, in order to 
prevent the carpet from being torn, or the seams split, by the 
sharp end of the stick. When thoroughly beaten on the wrong 
side, the carpet should be turned, and beaten on the right side. 


8. Floor or Oil Cloths. — Floor-cloths should be chosen that 
are painted on a fine cloth, which is well covered with the color, 
and the patterns on which do not rise much above the ground, 
as they wear out first. The durability of the cloth will depend 
much on these particulars, but more especially^!! the time it 
has been painted, and the goodness of the colors. If they have 
not been allowed sufficient time for becoming thoroughly har- 
dened, a very little use will injure them ; and, as they are very 
expensive articles, care in preserving them .is necessary. It 
answers to keep them some time before they are used, either 
hung up in a dry barn where they will have air, or laid down 
in a spare room. 

When taken up for the winter, they should be rolled round a 
carpet-roller, and observe not to crack the paint by turning the 
edges in too suddenly. 

Old carpets answer extremely well, painted and seasoned 
some months before laid down. If for passages, the width must 
be directed when thoy are sent to the manufactory, as they are 
cut before painting. 

9. To clean Floor cloths. — Sweep, then wipe them with a flan- 
nel ; and when all dust and spots are removed, rub with a 
waxed flannel, and then with a dry plain one ; but use little 
wax, and rub only enough with the latter to give a little smooth- 
ness, or it may endanger falling. 

Washing now and then with milk, after the above sweeping 
and dry-rubbing them, gives as beautiful a look, and they are 
less slippery. 

10. Method of Cleaning Paper-hangings. — Cut into eight 
half quarters a large loaf, two days old ; it must neither be 
newer nor staler. With one of these pieces, after having blown 
off all the dust from the paper to be cleaned, by means of a 
good pair of bellows, begin at the top of the room, holding the 
crust in the hand, and wiping lightly downward with the crumb, 
about half a yard at each stroke, till the upper part of the 
hangings is completely cleaned all round. Then go round again, 
with the like sweeping stroke downwards, always commencing 
each successive course a little higher than the upper stroke had 
extended, till the bottom be finished. This operation, if care- 
fully performed, will frequently make very old paper look al- 
most equal to new. 


Great caution must be used not by any means to rub the 
paper hard, nor to attempt cleaning it the cross, or horizontal 
way. The dirty part of the bread, too, must be each time cut 
away, and the pieces renewed as soon as it may become neces- 

11. To clean Paint. — Never use a cloth, but take off the dust 
with a little long-haired brush, after blowing off the loose parts 
with the bellows. With care, paint will look well for a long 
time, if guarded from the influence of the sun. When soiled, 
dip a sponge or a bit of flannel into soda and water, wash it off 
quickly, and dry immediately, or the soda will eat off the color. 
Some persons use strong soap and water, instead. 

When the wainscot requires scouring, it should be done from 
the top downwatds, and the water be prevented from running 
on the unclean parts as much as possible, or marks will be made 
which will appear after the whole is finished. One person 
should dry with old linen, as fast as the other has scoured off 
the dirt, and washed off the soap. 

12. To give to Boards a beautiful appearance. — After washing 
them very nicely with soda and warm water and a brush, wash 
them with a very large sponge and clean water. Both times 
observe to leave no spot untouched ; and clean straight up and 
dow T n, not crossing from board to board ; then dry with clean 
cloths, rubbed hard up and down in the same way. 

The floors should not be often wetted, but very thoroughly 
when done ; and once a-week dry-rubbed with hot sand and a 
heavy brush the right way of the boards. 

The sides of stairs or passages on which are carpets or floor- 
cloths, should be washed with sponge instead of linen or flannel, 
and the edges will not be soiled. Different sponges should be 
kept for the above tw T o uses; and those and the brushes should 
be well washed when done with, and kept in dry places. 

To extract Oil from Boards or Stone. — Make a strong ley of 
pearlashes and soft water, and add as much unslaked lime as 
it will take up ; stir it together, and then let it settle a few 
minutes ; bottle it, and stop close ; have ready some water to 
lower it as used, and scour the part with it. If the liquor 
should lie long on the boards, it will draw out the color of them ; 
therefore do it w r ith care and expedition. 


13. To scour Boards. — Mix together one part lime, three 
parts common sand, and two parts soft soap ; lay a little of this 
on the scrubbing-brush, and rub the board thoroughly. After- 
wards rinse with clean water, and dry with a clean coarse cloth. 
This will keep the boards a good color : it is also useful in keep- 
ing away vermin. For that object, early in the spring, beds 
should be taken down, and furniture in general removed and 
examined ; bed-hangings and window-curtains, if not washed, 
should be shaken and brushed ; and the joints of bedsteads, the 
backs of drawers, and indeed, every part of furniture, except 
polished mahogany, should be carefully cleaned with the above 
mixture, or with equal parts of lime and soft soap, without any 
sand. In old houses, where there are holes in the boards, which 
often abound with vermin, after scrubbing in, as far as the brush 
can reach, a thick plaster of the above should be spread over 
the holes, and covered with paper. When these things are time- 
ly attended to, and combined with general cleanliness, vermin 
may generally be kept away, even in crowded cities. 

14. To wash Stone Stairs and Halls. — Wash them first with 
hot water and a clean flannel, and then wash them over with 
pipe-clay mixed in water. When dry, rub them with a coarse 

15. To take Oil and Grease out of Floors and Stone Halls. — 
Make a strong infusion of potash with boiling water ; add to 
it as much quick-lime as will make it of the consistence of 
thick cream ; let it stand a night, then pour off the clear part, 
which is to be bottled for use. When wanted, warm a little of 
it ; pour it upon the spots, and after it has been on them for a 
few minutes, scour it off with warm water and soap, as it is 
apt to discolor the boards when left too long on them. When 
put upon stone, it is best to let it remain all night ; and if the 
stain be a bad one, a little powdered hot lime may be put upon 
it before the infusion is poured on. 

16. To clean Marble. — Muriatic acid, either diluted or pure, 
as occasion may require, proves efficacious. If too strong, it 
will deprive the marble of its polish, which may be easily re- 
stored by the use of a piece of felt, with some powder of putty 
or tripoli, with either, making use of water. 


17. To clean Marble. Another way. — Mix \ lb. of soft soap 
with the same of pounded whiting, 1 oz. of soda, and a piece 
of stone-blue the size of a walnut ; boil these together for ^ of 
an hour; whilst hot, rub it over the marble with a piece of 
flannel, and leave it on for 24 hours ; then wash it off with clean 
water, and polish the marble with a piece of coarse flannel, or 
what is better, a piece of an old hat. 

18. To take Stains out of Marble. — Mix unslaked lime 
in finest powder with stringent soap-ley, pretty thick, and in- 
stantly with a painter's brush lay it on the whole of the marble. 
Jn two months' time wash it off perfectly clean ; then have 
ready a fine thick lather of soft soap, boiled in soft water ; dip 
a brush in it, and scour the marble. This will, with very good 
rubbing, give a beautiful polish. 

19. To take Iron-stains out of Marble. — An equal quantity 
of fresh spirit of vitriol and lemon-juice being mixed in a bottle, 
shake it well ; wet the spots, and in a few minutes rub with 
soft linen till they disappear. 

20. Mixture for cleaning Stone Stairs, Hall Pavements, dec, — 
Boil together half a pint each of size and stone-blue water, 
with two table-spoonfuls of whiting, and two cakes of pipe- 
makers' clay, in about two quarts of water. Wash the stones 
over w T ith a flannel slightly wetted in this mixture ; and when 
dry, rub them with flannel and a brush. Some persons recom- 
mend beer, but water is much better for the purpose. 

21. To Color or Paper the Walls of Rooms. — If a ceiling or 
wall is to be whitewashed or colored, the first thing to be done is, 
to wash off the dirt and stains with a brush and clean water, being 
careful to move the brush in o$e direction, up and down, and 
not all sorts of ways, or the work will look smeary afterwards. 
When dry, the ceiling is ready for whitewash, which is to be 
made by mixing whiting and water together, till quite smooth, 
and as thick as cream. Dissolve half-an-ounce of glue in a tea- 
cupful of water, stir it into the whitewash. This size, as it is 
called, prevents the white or color rubbing off the wall, and a 
teacupful is enough for a gallon of wash. Stone color is made 
by mixing a little yellow ochre and blue black with the size, and 
then stirring it into the whitewash ; yellow or red ochre are also 


good colors, and, with vermilion or indigo, any shade may be 
prepared, according to taste. 

If paper is to be used, the wall must be washed with clean 
water, as above explained ; and while wet, the old color must 
be scraped off with a knife, or a smooth-edged steel scraper of 
any sort. It will be best to wet a yard or two at a time, and 
then scrape. Next, wash the wall all over with size, made with 
an ounce of glue to a gallon of water ; and when this is dry, 
the wall is ready for the paper. This must be cut into lengths 
according to the different parts of the room; one edge of the 
plain strip must* be cut off close to the pattern, and the other 
left half an inch wide. If the paper is thick, it should lie a 
minute or two after it is pasted ; but if thin, the sooner it is on 
the wall, the better. Begin by placing the close-cut edge of the 
paper at one side of the window, stick it securely to meet the 
ceiling, let it hang straight, and then press it down lightly and 
regularly with a clean cloth. The close-cut edge of the next 
length will cover the half-inch left on the first one, and so make 
a neat join ; and in this way you may go all round the room, 
and finish at the other side of the window. 

22. Damp Walls. — Damp may be prevented from exuding 
from walls by first drying them thoroughly, and then covering 
them with the following mixture : In a quart of linseed oil, boil 
three ounces of litharge, and four ounces of resin. Apply this 
in successive coats, and it will form a hard varnish on the wall 
after the fifth coating. 

23. To clean Moreen Curtains. — Having removed the dust 
and clinging dirt as much as possible with a brush, lay the cur- 
tain on a large table, sprinkle on it a little bran, and rub it 
round with a piece of clean flannel ; when the bran and flannel 
become soiled, use fresh, and 'continue rubbing till the moreen 
looks bright, which it will do in a short time. 

24. To clean Calico Furniture. — Shake off the loose dust ; 
then lightly brush with a small, long-haired furniture-brush ; 
after which wipe it closely with clean flannels, and rub it with 
dry bread. 

If properly done, the curtains will look nearly as well as at 
first ; and, if the color be not light, they will not require wash- 
ing for years. 


Fold in large parcels, and put carefully by. 

While the furniture remains up, it should be preserved from 
the sun and air as much as possible, which injure delicate colors; 
and the dust may be blown off with bellows. 

By the above mode curtains may be kept clean, even to use 
with the linings newly dipped. 

25. Making Beds, — Close or press bedsteads are ill adapted 
for young persons or invalids ; when their use is unavoidable^ 
the bed-clothes should be displaced every morning, and left for 
a short time before they are shut up. 

The windows of bed-rooms should be kept open for some 
hours every day, to carry off the effluvia from the bed-clothes ; 
the bed should also be shaken up, and the clothes spread about, 
in which state the longer they remain, the better. 

The bed being made, the clothes should not be tucked in at 
the sides or foot, as that prevents any further purification taking 
place, by the cool air passing through them. 

A warming-pan should be chosen without holes in the lid. 
About a yard of moderately-sized iron chain, made red hot and 
put into the pan, is a simple and excellent substitute for coals. 

26. To Detect Dampness in Beds. — Let the bed be well 
warmed, and immediately after the warming-pan is taken out, 
introduce between the sheets, in an inverted position, a clean 
glass goblet : after it has remained in that situation a few min- 
utes, examine it; if found dry and not tarnished with steam, 
the bed is perfectly safe ; and vice versa. In the latter case, it 
will be best to sleep between the blankets. 

27. Beech- tree Leaves. — The leaves of the beech-tree, col- 
lected at autumn, in dry weather, form an admirable article for 
filling beds for the poor. The smell is grateful and wholesome ; 
they do not harbor vermin, are very elastic, and may be replen- 
ished annually without cost. 

28. Useful Hints relative to Bed-clothes, Mattresses, Cushions, 
&c. — The purity of feathers and wool employed for mattresses 
and cushions ought to be considered as a first object of salu- 
brity. Animal emanations may, under many circumstances, be 
prejudicial to the health ; but the danger is still greater, when 


the wool is impregnated with sweat of persons who have expe- 
rienced putrid and contagious diseases. Bed-clothes, and the 
wool of mattresses, therefore, cannot be too often beat, carded, 
cleaned, and washed. This is a caution which cannot be too 
often recommended. 

It would be very easy in most situations, and very effectual, 
to fumigate them with muriatic gas. 

29. To clean Feathers of their Oil. — In each gallon of clean 
water mix a pound of quick-lime, and when the undissolved lime 
settles in fine powder, pour off the lime-water for use. Having 
put the feathers to be cleaned into a tub, pour the clear lime- 
water upon them, and stir them well about ; let them remain 
three or four days in the lime-w r ater, w T hich should then be sepa- 
rated from them by laying them in a sieve. The feathers should 
next be washed in clean w^ater, and dried upon fine nets ; they 
will then only require beating, to get rid of the dust, previous 
to use. 

To restore the spring of damaged feathers, it is only neces- 
sary to dip them in warm water for a short time. 

30. To purify Wool infested with Insects. — The process of 
purification consists in putting into three pints of boiling water 
a pound and a half of alum, and as much cream of tartar, which 
are diluted in twenty-three pints more of cold water. The wool 
is then left immersed in this liquor during some days, after 
which it is washed and dried. After this operation, it will no 
longer be subject to be attacked by insects. 

31. To clean Looking-glasses. — Keep for this purpose a piece 
of sponge, a cloth, and a silk handkerchief, all entirely free from 
dirt, as the least grit will scratch the fine surface of the glass. 
First, sponge it with a little spirit of wine, or gin and water, 
so as to clean off all spots ; then, dust over it powder-blue, tied 
in muslin, rub it lightly and quickly off with the cloth, and fin- 
ish by rubbing it with the silk handkerchief. Be careful not to 
rub the edges of the frames. 

32. To preserve Gilding, and clean it. — It is impossible to pre- 
vent flies from staining the gilding without covering it; before 
which, blow off the light dust, and pass a feather or clean brush 


over it, but never touch it with water; then, with strips of pa- 
per, or rather gauze, cover the frames of your glasses, and do 
not remove till the flies are gone. 

Linen takes off the gilding and deadens its brightness; it 
should, therefore, never be used for wiping it. 

A good preventive against flies is, to boil three or four leeks 
in a pint of water, and then with a gilding-brush wash over the 
glasses and frames with the liquid, and the flies will not go near 
the articles so washed. This will not injure the frames in the 
least. Stains or spots may be removed by gently wiping them 
with cotton dipped in sweet oil. 

33. To retouch the rubbed parts of a Picture-frame. — give the 
wood a coating of size made by dissolving isinglass with a w T eak 
spirit. When nearly dry, lay on some gold leaf; and polish, 
when quite dry, with an agate burnisher, or any similar 

34. Furniture Oil. — Put into a jar one pint of linseed oil 
into which stir one ounce of powdered rose pink, and one ounce 
of alkanet root, beaten in a mortar : set the jar in a warm place 
for a few days, when the oil will be deeply colored, and the 
substances having settled, the oil may be poured off, and will 
be excellent for darkening new mahogany. 

35. Furniture Paste. — Put turpentine into a glazed pot, and 
scrape beeswax into it, which stir about till the liquid is of the 
thickness of cream ; it will then be good for months, if kept 
clean ; and furniture cleaned with the liquid thus made, will not 
receive stains so readily as when the turpentine and wax are 
heated over the fire ; which plan is, besides, very dangerous ; 
but if the heating be preferred, place the vessel containing the 
wax and turpentine in another containing boiling water. 

36. French Polish for Furniture. — To one pint of spirits of 
wine, add half an ounce of gum-shellac, half an ounce of gum- 
lac, a quarter of an ounce of gum-sandarac ; place the whole 
in a gentle heat, frequently shaking it, till the gums are dissolved, 
when it is fit for use. Make a roller of list, put a little of the 
polish upon it, and cover that with a piece of soft linen rag, 
which must be lightly touched with cold-drawn linseed oil. 
Rub the wood in a circular direction, not covering too large a 


space at a time, till the pores of the wood are sufficiently filled 
up. After this, rub in the same manner spirits of wine, with 
a small portion of the polish added to it ; and a most brilliant 
polish will be produced. If the article should have been pol- 
ished with wax, it will be necessary to clean it off with fine 
glass paper. 

37. Another Polish and Varnish, — The only way to preserve 
polish on rosewood French-polished furniture, is to keep it con- 
tinually rubbed with a chamois leather and a silk handkerchief. 
We have no better remedy to offer for scratches on the wood 
than filling them in with a little oil covered with alkanet-root. 
The following varnish for furniture not French-polished, has 
been highly recommended : Melt one part of virgin white wax 
with eight parts of petroleum ; lay a slight coat of this mixture 
on the wood with a fine brush while warm ; the oil will then 
evaporate, and leave a thin coat of wax, which should after- 
wards be polished with a coarse woolen cloth. 

38. Polish for Dining Tables — Is to rub them with cold- 
drawn linseed oil, thus : Put a little in the middle of a table, 
and then with a piece of linen (never use woolen) cloth rub it 
well all over the table ; then take another piece of linen and 
rub it for ten minutes, then rub it till quite dry with another 
cloth. This must be done every day for some months, when 
you will find your mahogany acquire a permanent and beauti- 
ful lustre, unattainable by any other means, and equal to the 
finest French polish ; and if the table is covered with the table- 
cloth only, the hottest dishes will make no impression upon it ; 
and when once this polish is produced, it will only require dry 
rubbing with a linen cloth for about ten minutes, twice in a 
week, to preserve it in the highest perfection ; which never fails 
to please your employers ; and remember, that to please others 
is always the surest way to profit yourself. 

If the appearance must be more immediately produced, take 
some Furniture Paste. 

39. Varnished Furniture. — This may be finished off so as to 
look equal to the best French polished wood, in the following 
manner, which is also suitable to other varnished surfaces. 
Take two ounces of Tripoli powder, put it into an earthen pot, 
with just enough water to cover it; then take a piece of white 


flannel, lay it over a piece of cork or rubber, and proceed to polish 
the varnish, always wetting it with the Tripoli and water. It 
will be known when the process is finished by wiping a part of 
the work with a sponge, and observing whether there is a fair, 
even gloss. When this is the case, take a bit of mutton suet 
and fine flour, and clean the work. 

Frames of varnished wood may be cleaned to look new, by 
careful washing with a sponge and soap and water, but nothing 
stronger should be used. 

40. Varnish for Violins, &c. — Take a gallon of rectified spir- 
its of wine, twelve ounces of mastic, and a pint of turpentine 
varnish ; put them all together in a tin can, and keep it in a very 
warm place, shaking it occasionally till it is perfectly dissolved ; 
then strain it, and it is fit for use. If you find it necessary, you 
may dilute it with turpentine varnish. This varnish is also 
very useful for furniture of plum-tree, mahogany, or rosewood. 

41. White Varnish. — The white varnish used for toys is made 
of sandarac, eight ounces ; mastic, two ounces ; Canada balsam, 
four ounces; alcohol, one quart. This is white, drying, and 
capable of being polished when hard. Another varnish fur ob- 
jects of the toilet, such as work-boxes, card-cases, &c, is made 
of gum sandarac, six ounces ; elemi (genuine), four ounces : 
anime, one ounce ; camphor, half an ounce ; rectified spirit, one 
quart. Melt slowly. These ingredients may, of course, be les- 
sened in proportion. 

42. To remove Ink- sj^ots from Mahogany. — Drop on the spots - 
a very small quantity of spirits of salt ; rub it with a feather 
or piece of flannel, taking care not to let the spirit reach the fin- 
gers or clothes ; in four or five minutes, wash it off with water. 

Or, mix a teaspoonful of burnt alum, powdered, with a quar- 
ter of an ounce of oxalic acid, in half a pint of cold water ; to 
be used by wetting a rag with it, and rubbing it on the ink-spots. 

Or, crumple a piece of blotting-paper, so as to make it 
firm, wet it, and with it rub the ink-spot firmly and briskly, 
when it will disappear ; and the white mark from the operation 
may be immediately removed by rubbing it with a cloth. 

43. Or : — Dilute \ a teaspoonful of oil of vitriol with a large 
spoonful of water, and touch the part with a feather ; watch it, 
for if it stays too long, it will leave a white mark. It is, there- 
fore, better to rub it quickly, and repeat if not quite removed. 


44. To clean Chairs. — Scrape down one or two ounces of 
beeswax, put it into a jar, and pour as much spirits of turpen- 
tine over it as will cover it : let it stand till dissolved. Put a 
little upon a flannel or bit of green baize, rub it upon the chairs, 
and polish them with a brush. A very small portion of finely- 
powdered white rosin may be mixed with the turpentine and 

45. To clean and restore the Elasticity of Cane Chair Bot- 
toms, Couches, &c, — Turn up the chair bottom, &c., and with 
hot water and a sponge wash the cane work well, so that it may 
be well soaked; should it be dirty, you must add soap ; let it 
dry in the air, and you will find it as tight and firm as when 
new, providing the cane is not broken. 

46. Blacking for Leather Seats, &c. — Beat well the yolks of 
two eggs, and the white of one ; mix a tablespoonful of gin and 
a teaspoonful of sugar, thicken it with ivory black, add it to the 
eggs, and use as common blacking ; the seats or cushions being 
left a day or two to harden. 

47. — To prevent Hinges Creaking. — Rub them with soft soap, 
or a feather dipped in oil. 

48. Swallows' Nests. — To prevent swallows building under 
eaves, or in window corners, rub the places with oil or soft soap. 

49. To clean Polished Grates and Irons. — Make into a paste 
with cold water, four pounds of putty-powder and one of finely- 
powdered whiting ; rub off carefully the spots from the irons, 
and with a dry clean duster rub the irons with the mixture al- 
ways in the same direction till bright and clear. Plain dry 
whiting will keep it highly polished if well attended to every 
day. The putty mixture should be used only to remove spots. 

50. To clean the Back of the Grate, the inner Hearth, and the 
fronts of Cast-Iron Stoves. — Mix black lead and whites of eggs 

well beaten together ; dip a painter's brush, and wet all over ; 
then rub it bright with a hard brush. 

51. To remove the Black from the Bright Bars of Polhhed 
Stoves in a few minutes. — Rub them well with some of the fol- 


lowing mixture on a bit of broadcloth ; when the dirt is removed, 
wipe them clean, and polish with glass (not sand) paper. 

52. For Mixture : — Boil slowly one pound of soft soap in two 
quarts of water to one quart. Of this jelly take three or four 
spoonfuls, and mix to a consistence with emery. 

53. To clean Bright Stoves. — There are many ways of clean- 
ing a stove, but if the ornamental parts be neglected, rust will 
soon disfigure the surface, and lead to incalculable trouble. 
Emery dust, moistened into a paste with sweet oil, should be 
kept in a little jar ; this should be applied on a bung, up and 
down, never crossways, until marks or burns disappear. A 
dry leather should then remove the oil, and a polish should af- 
terwards be given with putty powder on a dry clean leather. 

54. Another way to clean Grates -The best mixture for cleaning 
bright stove-grates is rotten-stone and sw.eet oil : they require 
constant attention, for, if rust be once suffered to make its ap- 
pearance, it will become a toil to efface it. Polished fire-irons, 
if not allowed to rust by neglect, will require merely rubbing 
w r ith leather ; and the higher the polish, the less likely they are 
to rust. If the room be shut up for a time, and the grates be 
not used, to prevent their rusting, cover them with lime and 
sweet oil. 

Bright fenders are cleaned as stoves; cast-iron fenders require 
black lead ; they should not, however, be cleaned in the sitting- 
room, as the powdered lead may fly about and injure carpets 
and furniture. A good plan is to send cast-iron fenders to be 
bronzed or lackered by the iron-monger ; they will then only 
require brushing, to free the dust from the ornamental work. 
The bright top of a fender should be cleaned with line emery- 

55. To prevent Fire- Irons becoming Rusty. — Rub them with 
sweet oil, and dust over them unslaked lime. If they be rusty, 
oil them for two or three days, then wipe them dry, and polish 
with flour emery, powdered pumice-stone, or lime. A mixture 
of tripoli with half its quantity of sulphur, will also remove 
rust ; as will emery mixed with soft soap, boiled to a jelly. The 
last mixture is also used for removing the fire-marks from bright 


56. To Color the Backs of Chimneys with Lead Ore. — Clean 
them with a very strong brush, and carefully rub off the dust and 
rust ; pound about a quarter of a pound of lead ore into a fine 
powder, and put it into a vessel with half a pint of vinegar, 
then apply it to the back of the chimney with a brush. When 
it is made black with this liquid, take a dry brush, dip it in the 
same powder without vinegar ; then dry and rub it with this 
brush, till it becomes as shining as glass. 

57. To blacken the fronts of Stone Chimney-pieces. — Mix oil- 
varnish with lamp-black, and a little spirit of turpentine to thin 
it to the consistence of paint. Wash the stone with soap and 
water \ ery clean ; then sponge it with clear water ; and when 
perfectly dry, brush it over twice with this color, letting it dry 
between the times. It looks extremely well. The lamp-black 
must be sifted first. 

58. Composition that will effectually prevent Iron, Steel, &c, 
from rusting. — This method consists in mixing, with fat oil var- 
nish, four-fifths of well rectified spirit of turpentine. The var- 
nish is to be applied by means of a sponge ; and articles varnished 
in this manner will retain their metallic brilliancy, and never 
contract any spots of rust. It may be applied to copper, and 
to the preservation of philosophical instruments; which, by 
being brought into contact with water, are liable to lose their 
splendor, and become tarnished. 

59. To keep Arms and polished Metal from Rust. — Dissolve 
once ounce of camphor in two pounds of hog's lard, observing 
to take off the scum ; then mix as much black lead as will give 
the mixture an iron color. Fire-arms, &c, rubbed over with 
this mixture, and left with it on twenty-four hours, and then 
dried with a linen cloth, will keep clean for many months. 

60. To preserve Irons from Rust. — Melt fresh mutton-suet, 
and smear over the iron with it while hot ; then dust it well with 
unslaked lime pounded and tied up in a muslin. Irons so pre- 
pared will keep many months. Use no oil for them but salad- 
oil, there being water in all other. 

Fire-irons should be wrapped in baize, and kept in a dry 
place, when not used. 


61. To prevent polished Hardware and Cutlery from taking 
Rust. — Case-knives, snuffers, watch-chains, and other small ar- 
ticles made of steel, may be preserved from rust, by being 
carefully wiped after use, and then wrapped in coarse brown 
paper, the virtue of which is such, that all hardware goods from 
Sheffield, Birmingham, &c, are always wrapped in the same. 

62. Another way. — Beat into three pounds of fresh hog's-lard 
two drachms of camphor till it is dissolved; then add as much 
black lead as will make it the color of broken steel. Dip a rag 
in it, and rub it thick on the stove, &c, and the steel will never 
rust, even if wet. When it is to be used, the grease must be 
washed off with hot water, and the steel be dried before polishing. 

63. To take Rust out of Steel. — Cover the steel with sweet 
oil well rubbed on it, and in forty-eight hours use unslaked lime 
finely powdered, to rub until all the rust disappears. 

64. To clean Plate. — See that the plate is quite free from 
grease, by having been washed, if necessary, in warm soap and 
water. Then mix some whiting with water, and with a sponge 
rub it well on the plate, which will take the tarnish off, making 
use of a brush not too hard, to clean the intricate parts. Next, 
take some rouge-powder, mix it with water tu about the thick- 
ness of cream, and with a small piece of leather (which should 
be kept for that purpose only) apply the rouge. This, with a 
little rubbing, will produce a most beautiful polish. This is the 
actual manner in which silversmiths clean their plate. 

65. The common method of cleaning Plate. — First wash it well 
with soap and warm water ; when perfectly dry, mix together a 
little whiting and sweet oil, so as to make a soft paste ; then 
take a piece of flannel, rub it on the plate, then with a leather, 
and plenty of dry whitin^ rub it clean off again ; then with a 
clean leather and a brush, finish it. 

66. An easy way to clean Plate. — A flannel and soap, and soft 
water, with proper rubbing, will clean plate nicely. It should 
be wiped dry with a good-sized piece of soft leather. 

67. Plate Powder. — In most of the articles sold as plate pow- 



ders, under a variety of names, there is an injurious mixture of 
quicksilver, which is said sometimes so far to penetrate and ren- 
der silver brittle, that it will even break with a fall. Whiting, 
properly purified from sand, applied wet, and rubbed till dry. is 
one of the easiest, safest, and certainly the cheapest of all plate 
powders : jewelers and silversmiths, for small articles, seldom 
use any thing else. If, however, the plate be boiled a little in 
water, with an ounce of calcined hartshorn in powder to about 
three pints of water, then drained over the vessel in which it 
was boiled, and afterwards dried by the fire, while some soft linen 
rags are boiled in the liquid till they have wholly imbibed it ; 
these rags will, when dry, not only assist to clean the plate, 
which must afterwards be rubbed bright with leather, but also 
serve admirably for cleaning brass locks, finger-plates, &c. 

68. To cleanse Gold. — Wash the article in warm suds made 
of delicate soap and water, with ten or fifteen drops of sal-vola- 
tile. (The sal-volatile will render the metal brittle. This hint 
may be used or left at pleasure.) 

69. To clean Brass and Copper. — Rub it over slightly with a 
bit of flannel dipped in sweet oil ; next, rub it hard with another 
bit dipped in finely-powdered rotten stone ; then make it clean 
with a soft linen cloth, and finish by polishing it with a plate- 

70. Obs. — The inside of brass or copper vessels should be 
scoured with fullers' earth and water, and set to dry, else the 
tinning will be injured. 

71. Another way to clean Brass and Copper. — Put one penny- 
worth of powdered rotten stone into a dry, clean quart bottle; 
nearly fill it up with cold soft water; shake it well, and add one 
penny-worth of vitriol. Rub it on with a rag, and dry it with 
a clean, soft cloth, and then polish it with a plate-leather. This 
mixture will keep for a long time, and becomes better the longer 
it is kept. But the first method gives the most lasting polish, 
as well as the finest color. 

72. To clean Brass Ornaments. — Wash the ornament in a 
strong solution of boiled roche-alum, in the proportion of an 


ounce to a pint of water. When dry, rub them with fine trip- 
oli powder. 

73. Polishing Paste for Britannia metal, tins, brasses, and 
coppers, is composed of rotten-stone, soft soap, and oil of tur- 

The stone must be powdered and sifted through a muslin or 
hair sieve : mix with it as much soft soap- as will bring it to 
the stiffness of putty : to about half-a-pound of this, add two ozs. 
of oil of turpentine. It may be made up in balls, or put in gal- 
lipots ; it will soon become hard, and will keep any length of 
time. Method of using : — The articles to be polished should be 
perfectly freed from grease and dirt. Moisten a little of the 
paste with water, smear it over the metal, then rub briskly 
with dry rag or wash-leather, and it will soon bear a beautiful 

74. To clean Britannia metal. — Rub the article with a piece 
of flannel moistened with sweet oil ; then apply a little pounded 
rotten-stone or polishing paste with the finger, till the polish is 
produced ; then wash the article with soap and hot water, and 
when dry, rub with soft wash-leather, and a little fine whiting. 

75. To clean Pewter. — Scour it with fine white sand, and 
strong ley made with wood-ashes, soda, or pearl-ash; then rinse 
the pewter in clean water, and set it to drain. The best method, 
however, is to use the oil of tartar and sand. 

76. To clean Tin Covers. — Get the finest whiting ; mix a little 
of it powdered with the least drop of sweet oil, rub the covers 
well with it, and wipe them clean ; then dust over them some 
dry whiting in a muslin bag, and rub bright with dry leather. 
This last is to prevent rust, which the cook must guard against 
by wiping them dry, and putting them by the fire when they 
come from the parlor ; for if but once hung up damp, the inside 
will rust. 

^77. Safe Method of cleaning Tea-urns. — In an earthen gallipot 
put one ounce of bees'-wax, cut up in small pieces ; set it by 
the fireside, until perfectly melted and quite hot, very near boil- 
ing heat ; remove the jar from the fire, and stir into it rather 


less than a table-spoonful of salad oil, and rather more than a 
table-spoonful of best spirits of turpentine : continue stirring 
till well mixed and nearly cold ; fill the urn with boiling water 
so as to make it thoroughly hot, apply a thin coating of the 
above mixture, and rub with a soft cloth, till all stickiness is re- 
moved, then polish with a clean rag and a little crocus powder. 
N. B. — The crocus powder must be very fine, so as to sift 
through muslin. 

78. To clean Gilt or Lacquered Articles. — Brush them with 
warm soap and water, wipe them, and set them before the fire 
to dry ; finish with a soft cloth. By this simple means may be 
cleaned ormolu and French gilt candelabra, branches, and lamps; 
mosaic gold and gilt jewelry, toys and ornaments. Care is re- 
quisite in brushing the dirt from fine work, and finishing it quite 
dry. Any thing stronger than soap, as acids, pearl-ash, or soda, 
will be liable to remove the lacquer. 

To polish inlaid Brass Ornaments. — Mix powdered tripoli and 
linseed oil, and dip in it a piece of hat, with which rub the brass ; 
then, if the wood be ebony, or dark rosewood, polish it with 
elder ashes in fine powder. 

79. To clean Lacquer. — Make a paste of starch, one part ; 
powdered rotten-stone, twelve parts ; sweet oil, two parts ; ox- 
alic acid, one part ; water to mix. 

80. To clean Door-plates. — To clean brass-plates on doors, so 
as not to injure the paint at the edges, cut the size of the plate 
out of a large piece of mill-board, place it against the door, and 
rub the plate with rotten-stone, or crocus and sweet oil, upon 

81. To clean Mother -o } -pearl. — Wash in whiting and water* 
Soap destroys the brilliancy. 

82. To clean Knives and Forks. — Hold the knives straightly 
on the board, and pass them backward and forward in as straight 
a line as possible. Forks should be cleaned with a stick co^fc| 
ered with buff-leather, and finished with a brush. The best ar**" 
tide for cleaning is the powder of the well-known Flanders 


83. Of Knife-boards. — A knife-board properly made, should 
consist of an inch-deal-board, five feet long, with a hole at one 
end by which it is to be hung up when not in use. At this end, 
the left hand, and close to the front edge, should be fastened a 
stiff brush for cleaning forks. At the other end should be a 
box, with the open end towards the hand, and a sliding lid; this 
should contain a bath-brick, leathers for forks, &c., so that the 
materials for cleaning may be shut in and hung up with the 

Or, cover a smooth board free from knots, with thick buff- 
leather, on which spread, the thickness of a shilling, the follow- 
ing paste : — emery, one ounce ; crocus, three ounces ; mixed 
with lard or swe#t oil. This composition will not only improve 
the polish, but also the edges of the knives. 

84. To re-fasten the loose handles of Knives and Forks. — 
Make a cement of common brick-dust and rosin, melted toge- 
ther. Seal-engravers understand this receipt. 

a t 

85. Metal Kettles and other Vessels. — The crust on boilers and 
kettles arises from the hardness of the water boiled in them. 
Its formation may be prevented by keeping in the vessel a mar- 
ble, or a potato tied in a piece of linen. 

Tin-plate vessels are cleanly and convenient ; but, unless care- 
fully dried after washing, they will soon rust in holes. 

Iron coal-scoops are liable to rust from the damp of the coals. 

If cold water be thrown on cast-iron when hot (as the back 
of a grate), it will crack. Cast-iron articles are brittle, and can- 
not be repaired. 

The tinning of copper-saucepans should be kept perfect, clean, 
and dry : in w 7 hich case they may be used with safety. 

Copper pans, if put away damp, will become coated with 
poisonous crust, or verdigris, as will also a boiling-copper, if 
left wet. When used for cooking, and not properly cleaned, 
copper vessels have occasioned death to persons partaking of 
soup which had been warmed in a pan infected w r ith verdigris. 

Untinned copper or brass vessels are at all times dangerous : 
it is absurd to suppose, that if the copper or brass pan be scoured 
"""ght and clean, there is little or no danger, for this makes but 

'trifling difference; such vessels for culinary purposes ought to 
be banished for ever from the kitchen. 

A polished silver or brass tea-urn will keep the water hotter 


than ore of a dull brown color, such as is most commonly used. 
The more of the surface of a kettle that is polished, the sooner 
will water boil in it, as the part coated with soot drives off ra- 
ther than retains heat. 

A polished metal tea-pot is preferable to one of earthenware; 
because the earthen pot retains the heat only one-eighth of the 
time that a silver or polished metal pot will ; consequently, the 
latter will best draw the tea. 

A German saucepan is best adapted for boiling milk in : this 
is a saucepan glazed with white earthenware, instead of being 
tinned in the usual manner ; the glaze prevents the tendency to 
burn, which, it is well known, milk possesses. 

A stewpan, made as the German saucepan, is preferable to a 
metal preserving-pan ; simple washing keeps it sweet and clean, 
and neithef color nor flavor can by any chance be communi- 
cated to the article boiled in it. 

Ornamental furniture, inlaid with brass or buhl, should not 
be placed very near the fire, as the metal when it becomes 
warm expands, and, being then too large for the space in which 
it was laid, starts from the wood. 

u German silver" will not rust ; but it does not contain a par- 
ticle of silver, it being only white copper. If left in vinegar, or 
any acid mixture, it will become coated with verdigris. Salt 
should never be left in silver cellars, else the metal will be 
much injured. 

86. To clean Glasses. — Glasses should be first washed in 
warm clean soap-suds, and rinsed in fresh cold water ; wipe off 
the wet with one cloth, and finish them with another. 

87. Cleaning Decanters. — Those encrusted with dregs of port 
wine, can be readily freed from stain by washing them with the 
refuse of the teapot, leaves and all. Dip the decanter into a 
vessel containing warm water, to prevent the hot tea-leaves 
from cracking the glass, then empty the teapot into the decan- 
ter, and shake it well. The tannin of the tea has a chemical 
affinity for the crust on the glass. 

88. To clean Decanters. — Put into them broken egg-sheM 
pieces of coarse brown or blotting paper, with pearlash, aSP 
nearly fill them with lukewarm water; shake them well for a 
few minutes, or, if very dirty, leave them for some hours, when 


rinse the decanters with cold water. The settlement of the 
crust of wine in decanters, may be best prevented by rinsing 
at night, with cold water, all the decanters used during the day. 
To clean the outer work of decanters, rub it with a damp sponge 
dipped in whiting ; then brush it well, rinse the vessel in cold 
water, drain, and finish with a fine dry cloth. 

89. To remove Crust from Glass. — It often happens that glass 
vessels used for flowers and other purposes, receive an unsight- 
ly crust hard to be removed by scouring. The best method is 
to wash it with a little diluted spirit of salts, which will soon 
loosen it. 

90. To cleanse Bottles. — To cleanse bottles with bad smells, 
put into them pieces of blotting or brown paper, and fill up 
with water ; shake the bottles, and leave them for a day or two, 
when, if they be not sweetened, repeat the process, and rinse 
with pure water. 

91. To restore the Lustre of Glasses tarnished by Age or Acci- 
dent. — Strew on them powdered fuller's-earth, carefully cleared 
from sand, &c, and rub them carefully with a linen cloth. Ox- 
ide of tin (putty) would perhaps be better. 

92. To clean China. — China, is best cleaned, when very dirty, 
with finely-powdered fuller's-earth and w r arm water ; afterwards 
rinsing it well in clean water. A little clean soft soap may be 
added to the water instead of fuller's-earth. The same plan is 
recommended for cleaning glass. 

93. To clean Alabaster. — Remove any spots of grease with 
spirit of turpentine : then dip the article in w r ater for about ten 
minutes, rub it with a painter's brush and let it dry ; finish by 
rubbing it with a soft brush dipped into dry and fine plaster of 

94. To bleach Ivory. — Ivory that has become discolored, may 
e brought to a pure whiteness by exposing it to the sun under 
ses ; having first brushed the ivory with pumice-stone, burnt 
made into a paste with water. To conceal the cracks in 
'antique ivory, brush out the dust with warm water and soap, 
and then place the ivory under glass. It should be daily ex- 


be b 


posed to the sun, and turned from time to time, that it may 
become equally bleached. 

95. Glazed Vessels. — The glazing of stone ware is sometimes 
very imperfect: to test it, nearly fill the vessel with vinegar, 
into which put some fat of beef, salted ; boil for half an hour, 
and set it by for a day, when, if the glazing be imperfect, small 
black particles of lead will be seen at the bottom of the vessel. 

96. Use of Candle Snuffs for cleaning Glass. — Candle snuffs 
are generally thrown away as useless ; they are, however, of 
great utility for cleaning mirrors and windows, especially* the 
former. For this purpose take a small quantity of the burnt 
snuffs and rub them with a soft cloth upon the surface of the 
mirror. In a short time a splendid polish will appear, superior 
to that obtained by other means. We know those who clean 
the whole of the windows in a large house with snuffs ; and we 
are told that not only are the windows cleaned much better but 
also much quicker than by the ordinary methods. 

A Razor Strop) Paste is also made of candle-snuffs, and an- 
swers very well. It consists in simply rubbing a small quan- 
tity of the snuffs upon the strop ; this imparts a keener edge to 
the razor than when no such paste is employed. Mechi's cele- 
brated Magic Razor Strop Paste is certainly an excellent article, 
but we question whether it be much superior to the ordinary 
and common-place substance now recommended. 

97. To loosen the Glass Stopples of Smelling Bottles and Be- 
canters. — With a feather rub a drop or two of olive oil round 
the stopple, close to the mouth of the bottle or decanter, which 
must be then placed before the fire, at the distance of a foot or 
eighteen inches ; in which position the heat will cause the oil to 
spread downward between the stopple and the neck. When 
the bottle or decanter has grown warm, gently strike the stop- 
ple on one side, and on the other, with any light wooden in- 
strument ; then try it with the hand. If it will not yet mo^^ 
place it again before the fire, adding, if you choose, another 
drop of oil. After a while strike again as before; and by ^HV 
severing in this process, however tightly the stopple may be 
fastened in, you will at length succeed in loosening it. 


98. Or, knocking the stopper gently with a piece of wood, 
first on one side, then on the other, will generally loosen it. 
If this method does not succeed, a cloth wetted with hot water 
and applied to the neck, will sometimes expand the glass suffi- 
ciently to allow the stopper to be easily withdrawn. 

99. Crockery and Glass. — Crockery and glass, to be used for 
holding hot water, are best seasoned by boiling them, by put- 
ting the articles in a saucepan of cold water over the fire, and 
letting the water just boil ; the saucepan should then be re- 
moved, and the articles should be allowed to remain in it till 
the water is cold. Some kind of pottery is best seasoned by 
soaking in cold water. 

Choose thin rather than thick glasses, as the thin glass is less 
likely to be broken by boiling water than that which is thicker; 
for, thin glass allows the heat to pass through it in least time. 
The safest plan is to pour boiling water very slowly into cold 

As boiling water will often break cold glass, so a cold liquid 
will break hot glass ; thus wine, if poured into decanters that 
have been placed before the fire, will frequently break them. 

Glass dishes and stands made in moulds are much cheaper 
than others, and they have a good appearance, if not placed 
near cut-glass. 

Lamp-glasses are often cracked by the flame being too high 
when they are first placed round it ; the only method of pre- 
venting which is to lower the flame before the glass is put on 
the lamp, and to raise the flame gradually as the glass heats. 

100. Polished Tea Urns preferable to varnished ones. — Pol- 
ished tea urns may be kept boiling with a much less expense 
of spirits of wine, than such as are varnished ; and the cleaner 
and brighter the dishes, and covers for dishes, which are used 
for bringing food to table, and for keeping it hot, the more ef- 
fectually will they answer that purpose. 

101. Japanned Candlesticks and Tea- Trays, and Paper ivork. 
— To remove grease from these, let the water be just warm 

ough to melt it ; then wipe them w r ith a cloth, and if they 
ok smeared, sprinkle a little flour on them, and w r ipe it clean 
off. Wax candles should not be burned in the candlesticks, as 
the wax cannot be taken off without injuring the varnish. 



Paper work is liable to break if let fall, or if boiling water be 
poured on it. 

102. To clean Lamps. — Bronzed lamps should be wiped care- 
fully ; if oil be frequently spilled over them, it will cause the 
bronzing to be rubbed off sooner than it would disappear by 
wear. Brass lamps are best cleaned with crocus or .rotten- 
stone and sweet oil. Lackered lamps may be washed with soap 
and water, but should not be touched with acid or very strong 
ley, else the lacker will soon come off. When lamps are foul 
inside, wash them with potash and water, rinse them well, set 
them before the fire, and be sure they are dry before oil is again 
put into them. 

Lamps will have a less disagreeable smell, if, before using, 
the cottons be dipped in hot vinegar, and dried. 

To clean ground-glass shades, wash the insides carefully with 
weak soap and water, lukewarm, rub them very lightly and dry 
with a soft cloth. 

103. To make economical Wicks for Lamps. — When using a 
lamp with a flat wick, if you take a piece of clean cotton stock- 
ing, it will answer the purpose as well as the cotton wicks 
which are sold in the shops. 

104. Wax Candles. — Should they get dirty and yellow, wet 
them with a piece of flannel dipped in spirits of wine. 

105. Blowing out a Candle. — There is one small fact in do- 
mestic economy which is not generally known, but which is 
useful, as saving time, trouble, and temper. If a candle be 
blown out holding it above you, the wick will not smoulder 
down, and may therefore be easily lighted again ; but if blown 
upon downwards, the contrary is the case. 

106. Plain Hints about Candles. — Candles improve by keep- 
ing a few months. Those made in winter are the best. The 
most economical, as well as the most convenient plan, is to 
purchase them by the box, keeping them always in a cool, dry^^ 
place. If wax candles become discolored or soiled, they majfl 
be restored by rubbing them over with a clean flannel slightl^' 
dipped in spirits of wine. Candles are sometimes difficult to 
light. They will ignite instantly, if, when preparing them for 


the evening, you dip the top in spirits of wine, shortly before 
they are wanted. Light them always with a match r and do 
not hold them to the fire, as that will cause the tops to melt 
and drip. Always hold the match to the side of the wick, and 
not over the top. If you find the candles too small for the 
candlesticks, always wrap a small piece of white paper round 
the bottom end, not allowing the paper to appear above the 
socket. • Cut the wicks to a convenient length for lighting 
(nearly close) ; for if the wick is too long at the top, it will be 
very difficult to ignite, and will also bend down, and set the 
candle to running. Glass receivers, for the droppings of can- 
dles, are very convenient, as well as ornamental. The pieces 
of candles that are left each evening should be placed in a tin 
box kept for that purpose, and .used for bed lights. 

107. To make an improved Candle, — Make the wicks about 
half the usual size, and wet them with spirits of turpentine ; 
dry them, before dipping, in the sunshine, or in some favorable 
place, and the candles will be more durable, emit a steadier 
and clearer blaze, and be in every way superior to those made 
in the ordinary way. 

108. Quicksilver. — Tallow will take up quicksilver. Vinegar 

109. To give any Close-grained Wood the appearance of Mahog- 
any. — The surface of the wood must first be planed smooth, and 
then rubbed with weak aquafortis ; after which it is to be finished 
with the following varnish :— To three pints of spirit of wine 
is to be added four ounces and a half of dragon's blood and an 
ounce of soda, which have been previously ground together ; 
after standing some time, that the dragon's blood may dissolve, 
the varnish is to be strained, and laid on the wood with a soft 
brush. This process is to be repeated, and then the wood pos- 
sesses the perfect appearance of mahogany. When the polish 
diminishes in brilliancy, it maybe speedily restored by rubbing 
the article with linseed oil. 


10. To Darken Mahogany. — Drop a nodule of lime in a ba- 
of water, and wash the mahogany with it. 

111. To make Imitation Rosewood. — Brush the wood over 
with a strong decoction of logwood, while hot; repeat this pro- 


cess three or four times ; put a quantity of iron-filings amongst 
vinegar ; then with a flat open brush, made with a piece of 
cane, bruised at the end, or split with a knife, apply the solu- 
tion of iron-filings and vinegar to the wood in such a manner as 
to produce the fibres of the wood required. After it is dry, the 
wood must be polished with turpentine and bees'-wax. 

112. Imitation of Ebony. — Pale-colored woods are stained in 
imitation of ebony by washing them with, or steeping them in 
a strong decoction of logwood or galls, allowing them to dry, 
and then washing them over with a solution of the sulphate or 
acetate of iron. When dry, they are washed with clean water, 
and the process repeated, if required. They are, lastly, polished 
or varnished. 

113. Cheap Coloring for Rooms. — Boil any quantity of po- 
tatoes, bruise them, and pour on them boiling water until a 
pretty thick mixture is obtained, which is to be passed through 
a sieve ; then mix whiting with boiling water, and add it to 
the potato mixture. To color it, add either of the ochres, lamp- 
black, &c. 

114. Cheap Paint. — Tar mixed with yellow ochre makes an 
excellent green paint, for coarse wood-work, iron fencing, &c. 

115. Weather proof Composition. — Mix a quantity of sand 
with double the quantity of wood ashes, well sifted, and three 
times as much slackened lime ; grind these with linseed oil, and 
use the composition as paint ; the first coat thin, the second 
thick ; and in a short time it will become so hard as to resist 
weather and time. 

Or, slake lime in tar, and into it dip sheets of the thickest 
brown paper, to be laid on in the manner of slating. 

116. Artificial Marble. — Soak in a solution of alum a quan- 
tity of plaster of Paris. Bake it in an oven, and grind it to a 
powder. When wanted, mix it with water to about the consist- 
ency of plaster. It sets into an exceedingly hard composition, 
and takes a high polish. It may be mixed with various colore^^ 
minerals or ochres to represent the various marbles, and is/JH 
.valuable receipt. 


117. To give Wooden Stairs the Appearance of Stone. — Paint 
the stairs, step, by step, with white paint, mixed with strong 
drying oil. Strew it thick with silver sand. 

It ought to be thoroughly dry next morning, when the loose 
sand is to be swept off. The painting and sanding is to be re- 
peated, and when dry, the surface is to be done over with pipe- 
clay, whiting, and water ; which may be boiled in an old sauce- 
pan, and laid on with a bit of flannel, not too thick, otherwise it 
will be apt to scale off. 

A penny cake of pipe-clay, w T hich must be scraped, is the 
common proportion to half a lump of whiting. 

The pipe-clay and whiting is generally applied once a week, 
but that might be done only as occasion requires. 

118. Lime for Cottage Walls, &c. — Take a stone or two of un- 
slaked white lime, and dissolve it in a pail of cold water. This, 
of course, is whitewash. The more lime used, the thicker it 
will be ; but the consistence of cream is generally advisable. 
In another vessel dissolve some green vitriol in hot water. Add 
it, when dissolved, to the whitewash, and a buff is produced. 
The more vitriol used, the darker it will be. Stir it well up, 
and use it in the same way as whitewash, having first carefully 
got off all the old dirt from the walls. Two or three coats are 
usually given. For a border at top and base, use more vitriol, 
to make it darker than the walls. If you have stencil-plates, 
you can use it with them. This is cheap, does not rub off like 
ochre, and is pure and wholesome, besides being disinfecting. 

119. A White for Inside Painting, which dries in about four 
hours, and leaves no smell. — Take one gallon of snirits of tur 
pentine, and two pounds of frankincense ; let them simmer over 
a clear fire till dissolved, then strain and bottle it. Add one 
quart of this mixture to a gallon of bleached linseed oil, shake 
them well together, and bottle them likewise. Grind any quan- 
tity of white-lead very fine with spirits of turpentine, then add$ 
a sufficient quantity of the last mixture to it, till you find it fit 
for laying on. If it grows thick in working, it must be thinned 
with spirit of turpentine ; it gives a flat, or dead white. 

120. A Green Paint for Garden Stands, Trellisses, dec. — 
Cake mineral green, and white lead ground in turpentine ; mix 

up the quantity you wish with a small quantity of turpentine- 


varnish ; this serves for the first coat ; for the second, put as 
much varnish in your mixture as will produce a good gloss ; if 
you desire a brighter green, add a small quantity of Prussian 
blue, which will much improve the beauty of the color. 

121. Cheap and beautiful Green, — The cost of this paint is 
less than one-fourth of oil color, and the beauty far superior. 
Take four pounds of Roman vitriol, and pour on it a tea-kettle- 
ful of boiling water ; when dissolved, add two pounds of pearl- 
ash, and stir the mixture well with a stick until the effervescence 
cease ; then add a quarter of a pound of pulverized arsenic, and 
stir the whole together. Lay it on with a paint brush, and if 
the wall has not been painted before, at least two, or even three 

. will be requisite. If a pea-green is required, put in less, 
and if an apple-green, more, of the yellow arsenic. 

122. To Destroy the Smell "/Fresh Paint. — Mix chloride of 
lime with water, with which damp some hay, and strew it upon 
the floor. 

123. To take the Smell of Paint from Rooms. — Let three or 
four broad tubs, each containing about eight gallons of water, 
and one ounce of vitriolic acid, be placed in the new painted 
room near the wainscot ; this water will absorb and retain the 
effluvia from the paint in three days, but the water should be 
renewed each day during that time. 

124. Tc sant Odors. — The unpleasant smell of 
new paint is best removed by time and atmospheric ventilation ; 
but tubs of water placed in the apartment, will act more rapid- 
ly ; with this inconvenience, however, that the gloss of the paint 
will be destroyed. Unpleasant smells from water-closets, or 
all articles of furniture connected with them, may be modified 
by the application of lime-water, to which may be added the 
soap-suds that have been used in washing, which neutralize the 
pungently offensive salts ; a little quick-lime put into a night- 
chair will destroy all disagreeable effluvia. Aromatic pas 

of the following composition may be burned with great su> 
take of camphor, flowers of benzoin, powdered charcoal, pow^g 
dered cascarilla bark, powdered Turkey myrrh, and powderec( 
nitre, each equal quantities; beat them with syrup sufficient to 
form a mas ..vide into pastiles of a conical shape. They 


may be mixed up with spirit of turpentine (the rectified oil) or 
anything that is inflammable. Syrup does best, as it is most 

125. To prevent disagreeable Smells from Privies, Night Chairs, 
dec. — Milk of lime (water in which lime has been slaked, and 
which is whitened by the fine particles of that substance) must 
be mixed with a ley of ashes, or soapy water that has been 
used in washing, then thrown into the sink of the privy ; it will 
destroy the offensive smell. By these means, for the value of a 
few pence, any collection of filth whatever may be neutralized. 

For the night-chair of sick persons, put within the vessel 
half a pound of quicklime, half an ounce of powdered sal-am- 
moniac, and water one pint : this will prevent any disagreeable 

126. Remarks. — Quicklime, or even lime just slaked, answers 
the purpose without any addition. It is the only thing used in 
camps, particularly in hot countries, to keep the ditches from 
creating contagion. 

127. To clean Books or Prints. — Ink spots may be removed 
by oxalic acid dissolved in water, and carefully applied with a 
hair pencil. To remove oil or grease, warm the spot, lay over 
it blotting paper, and upon it the heated blade of a knife, when 
the blotting-paper will absorb the grease ; then apply spirits of 
turpentine, with a hair pencil, and restore the whiteness of the 
paper with spirits of wine. 

128. To preserve Books. — A few drops of any perfumed oil 
will secure libraries from the consuming effects of mouldiness 
and damp. Russian leather which is perfumed with the tar of 
the birch-tree, never moulds ; and merchants suffer large bales 
of this article to lie in the London Docks in the most careless 
manner, knowing that it cannot sustain any injury from damp. 

129. To clean Oil Paintings. — Clean the picture well with a 
sponge, dipped in warm beer ; after it has become perfectly dry, 
jmsh it with a solution of the finest gum-dragon, dissolved in 
^fre water. Never use blue starch, which tarnishes and eats 
out the coloring ; nor white of eggs, which casts a thick varnish 
over pictures, and only mends bad ones by concealing the faults 
of the coloring. 


130. To Light a Coal Fire, — A considerable saving of time and 
trouble might often be effected, if housemaids would attend to 
the following rules in lighting a fire : — Clear the grate well from 
ashes and cinders: then lay at the bottom of it a few lumps of 
fresh coal, about the size of ducks' eggs, so as not wholly to ob- 
struct the air passing between the bars on which they are placed. 
This done, put a small quantity of waste paper or shavings next 
upon the coal ; then a few sticks or pieces of split wood placed 
carefully above it, so that they may not project between the 
bars ; then a layer of the cinders you have before taken from the 
grate ; and next a few lumps of coal on the top. Take care to 
complete this process before applying the light, which may easily 
be done afterwards by means of a lucifer match, and you will 
seldom fail to have a good fire in a few minutes. 

Nothing is easier than to light a fire in the way here recom- 
mended, but the coals and cinders must be laid in place by 
hand, and not thrown in anyhow with the shovel. If the kin- 
dling wood be green or damp, it should be dried over night, as 
a more miserable task cannot be attempted than to light a fire 
with damp materials. 

131. Another Way. — To light a fire from one already kindled, 
put three or four pieces of charcoal between the bars of the 
grate ; then lay a few pieces of fresh coal upon the bottom of 
the grate in which the second fire is to be made, and place upon 
them, crosswise, the lighted pieces of charcoal ; cover them with 
pieces of fresh coal, and blow them with the hand- bellows, 
when the charcoal will set fire to the fresh coal, and a brisk fire 
will be made in a few minutes. On the contrary, if we light a 
fire with wood, some time must elapse before it can safely be 

132. Economy in Fuel. — A saving of nearly one-third of the 
coal consumed may be made by the following easy means: — 
Let the coal ashes, which are usually thrown into the dust bin, 
be preserved in a corner of the coal hole, and make your ser- 
vants add to them from your coal heap an equal part of the 
small coal or slack, which is too small to be retained in the 
grate, and pour a small quantity of water upon the mixture. 
When you make up your rite, place a few round coals in frd^P 
and throw some of this mixture behind; it saves the trouble of 
sifting your ashes, gives a warm and pleasant fire, and a very 
small part only will remain unburnt. 


133. Fire Balls. — Mix one bushel of small coal, or saw-dust, 
or both, with two bushels of sand, and one bushel and a half 
of clay ; make the mixture into balls with water, and pile them 
in a dry place, to harden them. A fire cannot be lighted with 
these balls ; but when it burns strong, put them on above the 
top bar, and they will keep up a strong heat. 

134. To prevent the ill effects of Charcoal. — Set over the burn- 
ing charcoal a vessel of boiling water, the steam of which will 
prevent danger from the fumes. 

135. Method of sweeping Chimneys without employing Chil- 
dren, and the danger attending the old Method pointed out. — Pro- 
cure a rope for the purpose, twice the length of the height of 
the chimney ; to the middle of it tie a bush (broom furze, or 
any other), of sufficient size to fill the chimney ; put one end of 
the rope down the chimney (if there be any windings in it, tie 
a bullet or round stone to the end of the rope), and introduce 
the wood end of the bush after the rope has descended into the 
chamber ; then let a person pull it down. The bush, by the 
elasticity of its twigs, brushes the sides of the chimney as it de- 
scends, and carries the soot with it. If necessary, the person at 
the top, who has hold of the other end of the rope, draws the 
bush up again ; but, in this case, the person below must turn 
the bush, to send the wood end foremost, before he calls to the 
person at top to pull it up. 

Many people, who are silent to the calls of humanity, are 
yet attentive to the voice of interest: chimneys cleansed in this 
way never need a tenth part of the repairs required where they 
are swept by children, who being obliged to work themselves 
up by pressing with their feet and knees on one side, and their 
back on the other, often force out the bricks which divide the 
chimneys. This is one of the causes why, in many houses, a 
fire in one apartment always fills the adjoining ones with smoke, 
and sometimes even the neighboring house. Nay, some houses 
have even been burnt by this means ; for a foul chimney, tak- 
ing fire, has been frequently known to communicate, by these 
apertures, to empty apartments, or to apartments filled with 
timber, where, of course, it was not thought necessary to make 
^feny examination, after extinguishing the fire in the chimney 
where it began. 


136. To revive a dull Fire. — Powdered nitre, strewed on the 
fire, is the best bellows that can be used. 

137. Fires, Stoves, &c. — It is wasteful to wet small coal, 
though it is commonly thought to make a fire last longer : in 
truth, it wastes the heat, and for a time makes a bad fire. 

A close stove intended to warm an apartment should not 
have a polished surface, else it will keep in the heat ; whereas, 
if of rough and unpolished cast iron, the heat will be dispersed 
through the room. 

Long, shallow grates, are uneconomical, as the body of the 
coal in them is not soon heated, and requires to be oftener re- 
plenished to keep up the fire. 

A good fire should be bright without being too hot : the best 
and quickest mode of making up a neglected fire is to stir out 
the ashes, and with the tongs fill up the spaces between the 
bars with cinders or half-burnt coals: this method will soon 
produce a glowing fire. If coke can be mixed with coals, the 
fire will require extra attention : coke, however, makes too 
much dust for fires in the best rooms. 

138. Water. — Hard water by boiling maybe brought nearly 
to the state of soft. A piece of chalk put into spring water will 
soften it. 

Rain, or the softest water, is better adapted than any other 
for washing and cleaning; but it must be filtered for drinking 
in large towns, as it becomes impure from the roofs and plaster 
of houses. The best water has the greatest number of air bub- 
bles when poured into a glass. Hard water will become thick 
and foul sooner than soft vvater. 

139. To 'purify Water for drinking. — Filter river water 
through a sponge, more or less compressed, instead of stone or 
sand, by which the water is not only rendered more clear, but 
wholesome; for sand is insensibly dissolved by the water, so 
that in four or five years it will have lost a fifth part of its 
weight. Powder of charcoal should be added to the sponge 
when the water is foul, or fetid. Those who examine the large 
quantity of terrene matter on the inside of tea-kettles will b^ 
convinced all water should be boiled before drunk. 

140. Or, take a large flower-pot, and put either a piece of 
sponge or some cleanly-washed moss over the hole at the bot- 


torn. Fill the pot three-quarters with a mixture of equal parts 
of clean sharp sand, and charcoal in pieces the size of peas. On 
this lay a piece of linen or woollen cloth, large enough to hang 
over the sides of the pot. Pour the water to be filtered into the 
basin formed by the cloth, and it will come out pure through the 
sponge or moss at the bottom. 

141. To 'purify River, or Muddy Water. — Dissolve half an 
ounce of alum in a pint of warm water, and stirring it about in 
a puncheon of water from the river, all the impurities will soon 
settle to the bottom, and in a day or two it will become quite 

142. To purify muddy Water of Rivers or Pits. — Make a 
number of holes in the bottom of a deep tub ; lay some clean 
gravel thereon, and above this some clean sand ; sink this tub 
in the river or pit, so that only a few inches of the tub will be 
above the surface of the water ; the river or pit water will filter 
through the sand, and rise clear through it to the level of the 
water on the outside, and will be pure and limpid. 

143. Method of making putrid Water sweet in a NigMs Time. 
— Four large spoonfuls of unslaked lime put into a puncheon 
of ninety gallons of putrid water, at sea, will, in one night, 
make it as clear and sweet as the best spring water just drawn : 
but unless the water is afterwards ventilated sufficiently to car- 
bonize the lime, it will be a lime water. Three ounces of pure 
unslaked lime should saturate ninety gallons of water. 

144. Lead Cisterns. — Lead Cisterns are unsafe to hold water 
for culinary purposes : if the water has stood in them several 
days undisturbed, a small white coating may be observed at 
the upper edge of the water : on any addition of water, this 
coating is washed off, and if there be the slightest acidity in the 
vessel, this coating will be dissolved in the water, and thus a 
poison be conveyed into the stomach. To prevent this, the 
insides of lead cisterns should be occasionally examined and 
cleared out. 

145. To prevent the freezing of Water in Pipes in the Winter 
Time. — By tying up the. ball-cock with straw or flannel during 


the frost, the freezing of pipes will often be prevented ; in fact, 
it will always be prevented where the main pipe is higher than 
the cistern or other reservoir, and the pipe is laid in a regular 
inclination from one to the other, for then no water can remain 
in the pipe ; or if the main is lower than the cistern, and the 
pipe regularly inclines, upon the supply's ceasing, the pipe 
will immediately exhaust itself. When water is in the pipes, 
if each cock be left a little dripping, the circulation of the water 
will prevent its freezing in the pipes. 

146. To preserve Water and Meat from Putrefaction in long 
Voyages. — The crews of two Russian ships, which sailed round 
the world, were extremely healthy. During the whole three 
years of their voyage only two men died of the crew of the 
Neva, and the Naveshda did not lose a single man. It is 
known that their fresh water was preserved in charred casks, 
but it is not so generally known that they used the same pre- 
caution for preserving their salted provisions. The beef they 
carried out with them tasted as pleasantly upon their return, 
as it did three years before, when first salted. 

147. To make Sea-water fit for washing Linen. — Soda put 
into sea-water renders it turbid ; the lime and magnesia fall to 
the bottom. Therefore, to make sea-water fit for washing linen, 
put in soda enough as not only to effect a precipitation of these 
earths, but to render the water sufficiently alkaline. 

148. Steam. — When the steam from a tea-kettle appears 
cloudy, it should be taken from the fire, as the water is then fast 
boiling away ; the steam when the water first boils being quite 
transparent, so as scarcely to be seen near the mouth of the 
spout. The top of the kettle should be kept bright, as a pol- 
ished surface keeps in the heat. 

149. To clean a Carriage. — Wash the body and wheels with 
a mop, brush, and plenty of water. Then blacken and clean 
all the straps and leather, first cleaning the brass or other orna- 
ments as those on harness. Next brush the inside lining, clean 
the glasses, and clean and trim the lamps. Stains may be re- 
moved from panels by rubbing them with sweet oil on baize. 
The wheels should be occasionally greased or oiled, and the 
linchpins examined. 


150. For Coach Wheels. — Melf over a slow fire one pound 
of lard, and half a pound of black lead in powder, stirring them 
well ; remove the mixture from the fire, and stir till cold. 

151. Harness Makers' Jet. — Take one drachm of indigo, a 
quarter of an ounce of isinglass, half an ounce of soft soap, four 
ounces of glue, one pennyworth of logwood raspings, and one 
quart of vinegar ; boil the whole together over a slow fire, till 
reduced to one pint. A small quantity is then to be taken up 
on a piece of clean sponge, and thinly applied to harness, boots, 
&c., taking care that they are previously well cleaned. 

N.B. — A small quantity of sulphate of iron (green vitriol) 
would perhaps greatly improve this. 

15^. To clean Harness. — Having washed off the wet dirt, 
sponge the harness clean, and hang it up to dry. Next, brush 
it with a dry, hard brush, and clean the brass ornaments. 

For this purpose, mix a quarter of a pint of turpentine, with 
two uunces of rotten-stone, two ounces of finely-powdered char- 
coal, and a quarter of a pint of droppings of sweet oil ; apply 
this paste with leather, and polish it off with powdered char- 

Or, clean the brass ornaments with the following mixture, 
which is used in the Royal Mews : dissolve one ounce of oxalic 
acid in a pint of water, to which add a pint of naphtha. To give 
the brass-work a fine color, powder some sal-ammoniac, moisten 
it with water, and rub it upon the ornaments ; then heat them 
over charcoal, and polish with dried bran and whiting. 

Or, wash the brass-work with a strong solution of roche alum, 
and polish it with tripoli. 

To restore the color of harness, clean it, and brush over it 
the following mixture : — boil half a pound of logwood chips in 
three quarts of soft water, to which add three ounces of galls 
bruised and one ounce of alum. 

153. Oiling Old Leather. — A practice is common of wetting 
harness, &c., before it is to be oiled, under the idea that it soaks 
in the oil better for wetting. No two things are less capable 
of union than oil and water. The leather appears soft after the 
above practice, but a dry day will soon show how hard the 
leather becomes when the water it has imbibed has evaporated, 
and how rotten the heart of the leather is, although the outside 


appears yet oily. If leather be dry and then oiled, the quantity 
of oil consumed will tell whether the leather has absorbed the 
oil or not. If it have, it will last for years, if it be oiled thor- 
oughly every spring. The most durable stuff to nail up garden 
trees, is leather soaked in oil, and then drained before use. Old 
shoes and harness will thus be of use when no longer of service 
to the body. 

154. General Washing. — Counterpanes, blankets, bed-hang- 
ings, &c, should be washed in summer, as they will then dry 
quickly, and be of good color. 

By putting linen and cotton stockings to soak the night before 
they are to be washed, much soap and labor will be saved. 

If clothes remain long dirty, they will not only require more 
soap and labor, but be much injured in washing. 

155. Washing Preparation. — Half a pound of soap; half a 
pound of soda; quarter of a pound of quick-\\me. Cut up the 
soap and dissolve it in half a gallon of boiling water; pour half _ 
a gallon of boiling water over the soda ; and enough boiling 
water over the quick-lime to cover it. The lime must be quick 
and fresh; if quick, it will bubble up when the hot water is 
poured over it. Prepare each of these in separate vessels. Put 
the dissolved lime and soda together, and boil them for twenty 
minutes. Then pour them into ajar to settle. 

Another method of making this preparation is — Instead of 
preparing each of the articles by themselves, dissolve over 
night half a pound of soda in one gallon of boiling water, pour 
it on the lime, and let it settle ; cut up the soap, and pour the 
clear water from the lime and soda upon it. Jn the morning it 
will be a dissolved mass, fit for use. In this way the twenty 
minutes' boiling of the lime and soda is dispensed with. 

In either of these processes white or common yellow soap 
may be used. But the lime should be white and quick. If it 
does not bubble and hiss when the water is poured on it, it is 
unfit for use. 

This preparation contains nothing injurious to the linen. It 
has been proved by trial that if the directions are rightly fol- 
lowed, it is less destructive than the old method. 

156. How to proceed after having made the Preparation. — Set 
aside the flannels and colored things, as they must not be washed 


in this way. They may be washed in the usual way while the 
others are boiling. 

The night before, the collars and wristbands of shirts, the 
feet of stockings, &c, should be rubbed well with soap and set 
to soak. 

In the morning pour ten gallons of water into the copper, 
and having strained the mixture of lime and soda well, taking 
great care not to disturb the settlings, put it, together with the 
soap, into the water, and make the whole boil before putting in 
the clothes. A plate should be placed at the bottom of the 
copper to prevent the clothes from burning. 

Boil each lot of clothes from half an hour to an hour. Then 
rinse them well in cold blue water. When dry they will be 
beautifully white. 

The same water will do for three lots. Wash the finer things 

After having been used for the clothes, the mixture may be 
employed for cleaning silver, brass, or any other kind of metal ; 
which should afterwards be dried and polished with leather. 
The liquid may also be used for scouring floors, or cleaning 

157. To make Starch. — Dissolve as much starch as will be 
required in a very small quantity of cold water ; then pour boil- 
ing water on it till it is of the right consistency, and let it boil 
once or twice. 

In mixing starch, put a lump of sugar in it to prevent it from 
sticking to the iron. Stirring the starch for a minute with a 
sperm candle improves it when it is wanted for shirt bosoms 
or collars. 

158. Gum Arabic Starch. — Get two ounces of fine white gum 
arabic, and pound it to powder. Next put it into a pitcher, 
and pour on it a pint or more of boiling water, (according to 
the degree of strength you desire,) and then having covered it, 
let it set all night. In the morning, pour it carefully from the 
dregs into a clean bottle, cork it, and keep it for use. A table- 
spoonful of gum water stirred into a pint of starch that has been 
made in the usual manner, will give to lawns (either white or 
printed) a look of newness to which nothing else can restore them 
after washing. It is also good (much diluted) for thin white 
muslin and bobbinet. 


159. To keep Muslins of a good Color. — Never wash muslins 
or any kind of white cotton goods, with linen ; for the latter 
deposits or discharges a gum and coloring matter every time it 
is washed, which discolors and dyes the cotton. Wash them by 

160. To wash Flannels. — Flannels should be washed in soft 
water, soap, and much blue. The water should be as hot as 
the hands will bear ; wring them as dry as possible, shake them 
and hang them out ; but do not rinse them after the lather. 

161. To make Flannels not shrink. — The first time of washing 
put them into a pail of boiling water, and let them lie till cold. 

162. To scour Flannels. — Slice half a pound of yellow soap, 
and dissolve it in boiling water, so as to make it of the thick- 
ness of oil ; cover the flannels with warm water, add a lump of 
pearlash, and about one-third of the soap-solution ; beat them 
till no head rises on the water ; then pour it off, and proceed 
as before with hotter water, without pearlash. 

163. To wash Woollens. — Use soft water; and, in order to 
make a lather, put half a pound of soap into a gallon of water, 
(or as much more in proportion as is necessary,) and boil it 
until the soap is dissolved ; wash through two waters, (unless 
one is found sufficient,) as warm as can be borne, adding, as 
you go on, what quantity of the soap-water is needed ; wring 
them out each time ; then throw them into a rinsing-tub, and 
fill, to covering, with boiling water. Let them remain until 
cool enough to admit of handling, then proceed to rinse well, 
and wring them. 

N.B. — Observe, the rinsing-water must be hard water — this 
is the secret. This method will do for any kinds of woollens ; 
but for large and strong, such as blankets, or carpets, &c, per- 
haps wringing would be better omitted, and in all cases, care 
should be taken to spread out the articles straight *and smooth. 

164. Drying Clothes. — If the weather be favorable, the dry- 
ing may be best finished in the open air ; but if the weather be 
damp or doubtful, the article should be, without delay, spread 
before a fire, or hung in an apartment where there is a strong 
current of air. A dry cloth should be placed on the line hedge, 


or horse, and the woollen article spread upon it. The more 
quickly the drying can be accomplished the better. For this 
reason, settled dry weather should be chosen for this kind of 
work ; if windy, all the better. 

165. Family Washing. — [The following method, tnough 
not generally known, is much practiced in many families.] 
Melt together half a pound each of wajping soda and of soap 
cuttings, mix well with sixteen gallon s%f water, pour it luke- 
warm over the dirty linen, and leave to soak for twenty-four 
hours. Drain this water from the clothes, and put them imjo a 
boiler, with a second supply of the same preparation cold, and 
let them boil for rather a longer time than if they had been pre- 
viously washed. They will then require to be washed out in 
clean, warm water, looking carefully over them that the parts 
requiring it may be rubbed; afierwards rinse in the usual way. 
This direction applies to all white and brown-holland articles. 
Bobbinet, and lace, retain their color best, if only scalded, not 
boiled. This mocie of washing has ,been adopted for many years 
in a fam'.jy of seven persons; the linen is of an excellent color, 
with only half the assistance formerly required, and the quan- 
tity of soap used is much lessened. 

N. B. The refuse water is a good manure for fruit trees. 

166. Substitutes for Soap. — Put any quantity of pearl-ash or 
soda into a large jar, cover it lightly, and in a few days it will 
become liifuid ; then mix with it an equal quantity of newly- 

§* slaked lime, and double its quantity of soft water: boil it half 
^ST hour, add as much more hot water, and pour off the liquor. 
f^ Two ounces of pearl-ash, used with a pound and a half of 
soap, will effect a considerable saving. 

For coarse purposes, soft soap is a saving of nearly one-half. 
The most economical plan of keeping hard soap, is to cut it into 
j)ieces of about a pound each, and keep it moderately dry. 

A little pipe-clay dissolved in the water, or rubbed with the 
soap on the clothes, will give the dirtiest linen the appearance 
of having been bleached ; it will also clean them with about 
half the labor, and a saving of full one-fourth of the soap. Pipe- 
clay will also render hard water nearly as soft as rain-water. 

Carpets, moreen curtains, or other woollen goods, may be 
cleaned with the coarse pulp of potatoes, used as a kind of soap. 



167. Horse-chestnut Soap. — It is not generally known that the 
horse-chestnut contains a soapy juice, not only useful in bleach- 
ing, but in washing linens and stuffs. The nuts must be peeled 
and ground, and the meal of twenty of them will be sufficient 
to mix with ten quarts of hot water, with which the clothes may 
be washed without soap ; the clothes should then be rinsed in 
spring-water. The same meal being steeped in hot water, and 
mixed with an equal quantity of bran, will make a nutritious 
food for poultry. 

168. To wash a Cotton Counterpane. — Slice a pound of mottled 
soap, dissolve it in a pailful of boiling water, and add a small 
lump of pearl-ash ; next, put the counterpane into warm water, 
with a bowl of the soap-solution, beat it and turn it, wash it in a 
second liquor, and rinse it in cold water ; then put three tea- 
spoonfuls of liquid blue into a thin liquor, stir together, and 
put in the counterpane ; beat it a few minutes, and dry it in the 

169. To wash Silk Stockings, White and Black. — Cut in thin- 
bits some white soap, and boil it in soft water; pour a little of 
it among cold, soft water, and wash the stockings, first upon the 
inner side ; repeat the washing with fresh suds and water, till 
they are washed quite clean ; turn the outside the last time of 
washing, and if the feet be very dirty, rub a little of the boiled 
soap upon them, but not upon the legs. If to be colored, mix 
the dye with a little clean suds, and dip in the white stockings; 
draw them out smooth, and lay them upon a sheet <on a bed, 
with the window open, and when almost dr^, lay them upon ;i 
piece of flannel, and with another bit rolled up, rub them hard 
and quick one way till they are dry. 

170. To wash Thread Stockings and Gloves. — Fine thread- 
stockings and gloves should be well soaped, put into a lather 
of cold water, and boiled; they should then be put into a fresh, 
cold lather, and be boiled again ; when, on taking them out, 
they will require little more than rinsing. 

171. To wash Cotton Stockings. — Lay them in cold water at 
night ; next day boil them in a copper with some soda and soap ; 
stir them well about, and they will become quite clean without 
any rubbing ; rinse them well in cold water, and bleach them ; 


when nearly dry, draw them smooth, folding them straight over 
the instep. Place thera under a heavy weight, or iron them. 

172. To wash Cotton Bed -furniture, and printed Calicoes in 
general. — 1. Get rid of as much dirt as possible, by brushing 
and shaking. 

2. Do not let the dirty things lie about in a damp wash-house, 
or in any way become damp before they are fairly wetted. 

3. On no account use a particle of soda, pearl-ash, or any 
thing of the kind. 

4. Allow plenty of water, and plenty of room in the tub. 

5. Use soft water, no hotter than would be pleasant for wash- 
ing the hands. 

6. Rub with soap in the ordinary way. Mottled soap is pre- 
ferable to yellow. If a general wash is about, the liquor in 
which flannels have been washed the second time, does very well 
for the first washing of colored things ; or that in which muslins 
have been washed a second time, provided no soda or anything 
else of the kind was used. 

7. When the first washing is completed, have ready another 
tub with water of the same degree of warmth, into which put 
each piece immediately on wringing it out of the first liquor 

8. Repeat the process of washing in the second liquor, care- 
fully observing that every part is clean. 

9. On wringing out of the second liquor, immediately plunge 
each piece into cold spring water for rinsing. 

10. On wringing each piece out of the rinsing water, imme- 
diately hang it out, and let it dry as quickly as possible. 

11. In hanging up, put any thick double parts next the line, 
letting the thinner part hang down and blow about. When 
these are dry, the positions may be changed, and the thick 
parts hung downwards. 

12. If, through unfavorable weather, or any other circum- 
stance, the drying cannot proceed at once, the things had better 
remain all night in the rinsing water, than be laid about damp. 
If they are half-dry out-of-doors, when taken in for the night let 
them be hung or spread in a room, and again hung out early 
next day. If there is no chance of favorable drying abroad, 
they should be quickly dried before a fire, or round a stove. 

13. If starching is required, a sufficient quantity of made 
starch may be stirred into the rinsing water. 


173. How to wash Printed Dresses. — A very cool lather of 
white soap, of the best quality, should be used, as the inferior 
soaps contain rosin, and other pernicious ingredients most de- 
structive to colors. Soda, pearl-ash, vinegar, alum, salt, wash- 
ing-powder, &c, although they may not injure some colors, 
should never be used ; for they will most certainly destroy 
others. Printed dresses should not be washed with household 
or body linen, or put into scalding water. It is desirable to 
wash colors with a light hand, so as not to subject them to hard 
rubbing, and to rinse w T ith plenty of clean cold water, and to 
dry in the open air. Claret, chocolate, purple, lilac, red, pink, 
and black, are the most permanent ; the cloth for these colors 
being prepared in a peculiar manner, and which process has the 
effect of better fixing them to it. Blue, green, drab, ruby, 
crimson, buff, dahlia, orange, and cinnamon, as they do not ad- 
mit of the cloth being so prepared, of course require more 
careful treatment, or some of the surface color may possibly on 
the first washing scale off and tinge the w r hite. especially if not 
well rinsed ; but by a little discretion the most delicate colors 
may be effectually preserved. 

174. To wash Chintz, so as to preserve its Gloss and Beauty. 
— Take two pounds of rice and boil it in two gallons of water, 
till soft ; when done, pour the whole into a tub ; let it stand till 
about the warmth you in general use for colored linens ; put 
the chintz in, and use the rice instead of soap; wash it in this, 
till the dirt appears to be out; then boil the same quantity as 
above, but strain the rice from the water, and mix it in warm 
water. Wash it in this till quite clean ; afterwards rinse it in 
the water the rice was boiled in ; this will answer the end of 
starch, and no dew will affect it, as it will be stiff while it is 
worn. If a gown, it must be taken to pieces, and when dried, 
hang it as smooth as possible ; after dry, rub it with a sleek 
stone, but use no iron. 

175. To protect Children from Burning. — Add one ounce of 
alum to the last water used in rinsing children's dresses, and 
they will be rendered uninflammable, or so slightly combustible 
that they would take fire slowly, if at all, and w r ould not flame. 

176. Composition for Washing in Sea- water. — Mix a strong 
solution of potash with an equal weight of pipe-clay, and work 


them to a paste, one pound of which will soften four gallons of 

177. To bleach a Faded Dress, — Wash the dress in hot suds, 
boil it and rinse it, then dry it in the sun. Should it not be 
rendered perfectly white, lay the dress in the sun for several 

178. To preserve the Color of a Print Dress. — Rip the skirt 
from the body, and wash them in cold rain water in which a 
handful of common salt has been thrown. Do not expose it to 
the sun to dry, but roll it tightly in a coarse cloth until dry 
enough to iron. 

179. To wash White Lace, — A quarter of a cake of white 
wax, six lumps of sugar, and a dessert-spoonful of made starch, 
to be mixed with a quart of soft water. Tack the lace very 
slightly in a thin cloth dipped in cold water, then let it lie in a 
strong lather for one day. Change the water, and leave it in a 
second lather all night. Put the above materials into a sauce- 
pan, boil the lace in it for ten minutes, then throw it into cold 
water, and when nearly dry iron it. 

180. Washing Kid Gloves. — Have ready a little new milk 
in one saucer, and a piece of brown soap in another, and a 
clean cloth or towel, folded three or four times. On the cloth, 
spread out the glove smooth and neat. Take a piece of flannel, 
dip it in the milk, then rub off a good quantity of soap to the 
wetted flannel, and commence to rub the glove downwards to- 
wards the fingers, holding it firmly with the left hand. Con- 
tinue this process until the glove, if white, looks of a dingy 
yellow, though clean : if colored, till it looks dark and spoiled. 
Lay it to dry, and the operator will soon be gratified to see 
that her old gloves look nearly new. They will be soft, glossy, 
smooth, shapely, and elastic. Dark, and especially black 
mourning gloves, should be of the very best and high-priced. 

181. To iron Shirt Fronts and Dresses.— Shirt-fronts are most 
conveniently ironed upon a deal board about 12 inches long 
and 8 wide, covered with fine flannel ; to be placed between the 
back and front of the shirt, after the back is ironed. The skirts 
of dresses also may be ironed in a similar manner, using a 


board as long as the skirt, 26 inches wide at one end, and 12 
inches at the other. The board should be covered with a blan- 
ket, and rest upon a thin block of wood at each end, to keep 
it from creasing the skirt beneath it. 

182. To clean Hair Brushes and Combs. — Sub-carbonate of 
soda or potass, sometimes called salt of tartar or salt of worm- 
wood, is to be dissolved in boiling water — two heaped tea- 
spoonfuls will be sufficient for half a pint; into this mixture dip 
the hairs of the brush, and draw the comb through many times. 
The brush and comb, with the help of this solution, will quickly 
cleanse each other ; dry quickly and they will be as white as 
new. Observe two things : the potass must be kept in a stop- 
per bottle, or it will soon become liquid ; when liquid it is not 
injured for use, but if left in paper would be wasted ; also the 
mahogany or satin-wood back of the brush must be kept out 
of the solution, as it is apt to discolor wood. 

183. To clean Sponge. — Put into two pints of hot water 
about three cents worth of Salts of lemon, and steep the sponge 
in it. After it is clean, rinse it in clean water. 

Or, immerse it in cold buttermilk, and let it soak a few 
hours. Then rinse it in pure water. 

184. To clean Ermine and Minivar. — Take a piece of soft 
flannel, dip it in common flour, and rub the fur with it, being 
careful to rub it against the grain. Shake it well and rub again 
with the flannel till all the flour is out of it. 

185. To clean Swansdown. — White swansdown may be 
washed in soap and water; after washing, shake it out, and 
when the down is somewhat raised, shake it before a clear fire 
to drv. 

186. To clean Leather Cases. — To clean hat cases, writing- 
desks, &c, dissolve in warm water a small quantity of oxalic 
acid, and wash the articles with a sponge wet in the solution. 
When dry they will look almost equal to new. 

187. To take Stains out of Linen. — Stains caused by Acids 
can be removed by wetting the part, and laying on it some salt 
of wormwood; then rub it without diluting it with more water. 


Or, let the cloth imbibe a little water without dipping, and 
hold the part over a lighted match, at a due distance. The 
spots will be removed by the sulphureous gas. 

Or, tie up in the stained part some pearlash ; then scrape 
some soap into cold soft water to make a lather, and boil the 
linen till the stain disappears. 

188. Stains of Wine, Fruit, <£c., after they have been long in 
the Linen. — Eub the part on each side with yellow soap ; then 
lay on a mixture of starch in cold water very thick; rub it well 
in, and expose the linen to the sun and air till the stain comes 
out. If not removed in three or four days, rub that off and 
renew the process. When dry it may be sprinkled with a little 

Recent Stains of Fruit may be removed by holding the linen 
tightly stretched over a tub and pouring hot water over the 
part. This must be done before any soap has been applied 
to it. 

Obs. As soon as a stain is made on table-linen, &c., rub on 
it common table salt before it has time to dry ; the salt will 
keep it damp till the cloth is washed, when the stain w T ill dis- 
appear ; or wash the stain lightly when the cloth is removed. 

189. To restore Scorched Linen. — Peel and slice two onions, 
and extract the juice by squeezing or pounding. Cut up half 
an ounce of white soap and two ounces of fullers' earth; mix 
with them the onion juice and half a pint of vinegar. Boil this 
composition well, and spread it, when cool, over the scorched 
part of the linen, leaving it to dry thereon. Then wash out the 

190. To restore Linen that has long been Stained. — Eub the 
stains on each side with wet brown soap ; mix some starch to 
a thick paste, with cold water, and spread it over the soaped 
places ; then expose the linen to the air. If the stains do not 
disappear in three or four days, rub off the mixture, and repeat 
the process with fresh soap and starch. Then dry it, wet it 
with cold water, and wash it. 

191. Grease or Wax Spots. — Grease-spots should be rubbed 
with strong pearlash and water. Spots of wax or oil paint 
should be rubbed with turpentine, and washed with soap and 


water : or, wax, if moistened repeatedly with spirits of wine, 
may be brushed off. Or, dissolve six ounces of alum in half a 
pint of water, warm it, wash the stained part with it, and leave 
it to dry. 

Or, in a quart of warm water, dissolve a little white soap, 
and one ounce of pearlash ; to which add two spoonsful of ox- 
gall, and a little essence of lavender or bergamot: mix the 
w T hole, strain it, and keep it in a bottle. In using it, put a small 
quantity on the spot, brush, and wash it with warm water, so 
as entirely to remove the liquor applied, which might injure 
the cloth if allowed to remain. 

192. Other Stains. — Many other Stains may be taken out 
by dipping the linen in sour buttermilk, and drying it in a ho<5 
sun. Then wash it in cold water, and dry it, two or three times 

193. Ironmoulds. — Ironmoulds should be wetted, then laid on 
a hot water-plate, and a little essential salt of lemons put on the 
part. If the linen becomes dry, wet it, and renew the process, 
observing that the plate is kept boiling hot. Much of the pow- 
der sold under the name of salt of lemons is a spurious prepa- 
ration ; and therefore it is necessary to dip the linen in a good 
deal of water, and wash it as soon as the stain is removed, to 
prevent the part from being worn into holes by the acid. Ink 
spots can be removed in the same way. 

194. To take Mildew out of Linen. — Take soap, and rub it 
well ; then scrape some fine chalk, and rub that also in the 
linen ; lay it on the grass ; as it dries wet it a little, and it will 
come out at twice doing. 

195. Or, mix soft soap with starch powdered, half as much 
salt and the juice of a lemon ; lay it on the part on both sides 
with a painter's brush. Let it lie on the grass day and night 
till the stain comes out. 

196. To discharge all Stains which are not Metallic. — Mix two 
tea-spoonfuls of water with one of spirit of salt ; let the stain 
lie in it for one or two minutes ; then rinse the article in cold 
water. This will be found particularly useful in removing 
stains from white doilys. 


197. Prepared Ox-gall for taking out Spots. — Boil together 
one pint of ox-gall and two ounces of powdered alum ; to which 
add two ounces of common salt; let the liquor settle, add a 
few drops of essence of lemon, pour it off into a bottle, and 
cork tightly. 

198. Salt of Lemons. — Mix one ounce of salt of sorrel in very 
fine powder, with an equal quantity of cream of tartar ; this is 
the salt sold in the shops ; but, as it is only recommended for 
removing ironmoulds or ink spots, it will be better to use only 
the salt of sorrel. 

199. To bleach Linen. — Mix common bleaching powder, in 
the proportion of one pound to a gallon of water ; stir it occa- 
sionally for three days, let it settle, and pour it off clear. 
Then make a ley of one pound of soda to a gallon of boiling 
soft water, in which soak the linen for twelve hours, and boil 
it half an hour ; next, soak it in the bleaching liquor, made as 
above ; and lastly, wash it in the usual manner. 

Discolored linen or muslin may be restored, by putting a 
portion of bleaching liquor into the tub w 7 herein the articles are 

200. Use of Potatoes in Bleaching. — This method of bleaching 
consists in substituting for soap, an equal quantity of potatoes 
three-parts boiled. The linen is first boiled for nearly an hour ; 
it is next put into a tub of boiling water, from which each piece 
is taken separately, and rubbed with the potatoes, as with soap. 
The linen is then boiled with the potatoes for half an hour, next 
taken out, rubbed, and rinsed two or three times in cold soft 
water, wrung, and hung up to dry. Kitchen linen, which has 
mostly the smell of tallow, loses it after having been bleached 
by this process. 

201. To Remove fresh Ink Stains, — Let one person hold the 
part that is spotted between his two hands over a basin and rub 
it, while another pours water gradually from a decanter upon it, 
and let a whole pitcher-full be used if necessary ; or if the ruf- 
fle, apron, &c. be at liberty, let it be dipped into a basin filled 
with water, and there squeezed and dipped in again, taking care 
to change the water every two or three squeezes. If the ink be 
spilled on a green table carpet, it may immediately be taken 



out with a tea-spoon so entirely, that scarcely any water at all 
shall be wanted afterwards, provided it was only that instant 
spilled, as the down of the cloth prevents the immediate soak- 
ing in of the ink, or of any other liquor (except oil) ; but if it 
have lain some time, be the time ever so long, provided the 
place be still w T et, by pouring on it fresh clean water, by little 
and little at a time, and gathering it up again each time with a 
spoon, pressing hard to squeeze it out of the cloth into the 
spoon, you will at last bring it to its natural color, as if no 
such accident had happened. 

202. To take out Spots of Ink. — As soon as the accident hap- 
pens, wet the place w T ith juice of sorrel or lemon, or with vine- 
gar, and the best hard white soap. 

203. To remove Ink Stains. — Get a pint cup, or narrow-top- 
ped jug, full of boiling water ; place the stained part (of the 
linen, etc.) on the top of the cup ; dip it in, draw it tight over 
the top of the cup, and, while wet and hot, with your finger 
rub in a little salt of sorrel. The acid should remain on the 
linen for half-an-hour before it is washed. As salt of sorrel is 
a powerful poison, the paper should be marked poison, and 
kept carefully locked up, when not in use. 

204. The fumes of brimstone useful in removing Spots or Stains 
in Linen, etc. — If a red rose be held in the fumes of a brimstone 
match, the color will soon begin to change, and, at length, the 
flower will become white By the same process, fruit-stains or 
iron-moulds maybe removed from linen or cotton cloths, if the 
spots be previously moistened with water. With iron-moulds, 
weak muriatic acid is preferable, assisted by heat ; as by laying 
the cloth on a tea-pot or kettle, filled with boiling water. 

203. To remove Stains from Black Bombazine, Grape or 
Cloth. — Boil a large handful of fig-leaves in two quarts of 
water until reduced to a pint; squeeze the leaves quite dry, 
and put the liquor into a bottle for use. The article should be 
rubbed with a sponge dipped in the liquor. The word poison 
should be written on the bottle, to prevent any accident. 

206. To clean Black Satin. — Boil three pounds of potatoes 
to a pulp in a quart of water ; strain through a sieve, and brush 


the satin with it on a board or table. The satin must not be 
wrung, but folded down in cloths for three hours, and then 
ironed on the wrong side. 

207. To restore Color taken out by Acids, — Sal-volatile or 
hartshorn will suffice for this purpose. It may be dropped on 
silk without doing any injury. 

208. To take out Spots on Silk. — Rub the spots with spirit 
of turpentine ; this spirit exhaling, carries off with it the oil that 
causes the spot. 

209. To extract Grease from Silks. — Scrape French chalk, put 
it on a grease-spot, and hold it near the fire, or over a warm 
iron, or water-plate filled with boiling water. The grease will 
melt, and the French chalk absorb it. Brush or rub it off; re- 
peat if necessary. 

210. Another way. — To remove a grease spot from silk, 
scrape some French chalk on the wrong side ; let it remain 
some time, and then brush off. Magnesia is also a good re- 

211. To extract Grease from Silks or Stuffs {another way). — 
Take a lump of magnesia, and rub it wet over the spot ; let it 
dry ; then brush the powder off, and the spot will disappear. 

Or, take a visiting or other card ; separate it, and rub the 
spot with the soft internal part, and it will disappear without 
taking the gloss off the silk. 

212. To take Spots out of Cloths, Stuffs, Silk, Cotton, and 
Linen. — Take two quarts of spring water, put in it a little fine 
white potash, about the quantity of a walnut, and a lemon cut 
in slices ; mix these well together, and let it stand for twenty- 
four hours in the sun ; then strain it off, and put the clear liquid 
up for use. This water takes out all spots, whether pitch, 
grease, or oil, as well in hats, as cloths and stuffs, silk or cotton, 
and linen. As soon as the spot is taken out, wash the place 
with fair .water; for cloths of a deep color, add to a spoonful 
of the mixture as much fair water as to weaken it. 

Grease spots in cloth may be removed by using soap and 
water with a tooth or nail brush, and afterwards wiping off the 


lather with the wet corner of a towel. Essence of lemon, or 
pure spirit of turpentine, will remove pitch from cloth, &c. 

In woollen cloth, an easier method is to scrape off the hard 
tallow with the edge of a tea-spoon, then rub the part briskly 
with a clean woollen rag, shifting the rag as the part becomes 
dirty ; or, place some blotting paper on the spot, and press it 
with a hot iron, occasionally moving the paper. 

213. To clean Silks or Merinoes, dx. — Grate two or three 
large potatoes, add to them a pint of cold water, let them stand 
a short time, and pour off the liquid clear, or strain it through 
a sieve, when it will be fit for use. Lay the silk on a flat sur- 
face, and apply the liquid with a clean sponge, till the dirt is 
well separated, dip each piece in a pail of clean water, and hang 
up to dry without wringing. Iron whilst damp on the wrong 
side. Should the silk be of more than one color, it is desirable 
to wet a small piece first, lest the dress should be spoiled, by 
moisture causing the colors to run ; but for self-colored silks, 
the direction is an excellent one ; and satinettes, even of light 
colors, if not greased or stained, make up again nearly equal to 

214. To clean Silks. — If of any other color than black, wash 
them in a hot lather of soft soap and water, and rinse them in 
plain warm water, to which a small quantity of dye may be 
added, according to the color : a few drops of vitriol added to 
the water will freshen crimson, scarlet, maroon, or bright yel- 
low ; lemon-juice for pink, rose, or carnation ; pearlash for blue 
and purple ; and for olive-green, a pinch of verdigris ; but acid 
must not be used for fawn, brown, or orange. Then squeeze 
the liquid from the silk, roll it in a coarse sheet, and w T ring it : 
spread it out, and rub it on the wrong side with gum -water, 
with a little pearlash in it ; dry it in a warm room, and finish 
with calendering or mangling it. 

Black silk should be sponged with hot ox-gall on both sides, 
then rinsed, and dried smooth on a board. Or, spread black 
plain silks upon a board, soap the dirty place, and brush the 
silk on both sides with a fine soap lather ; put it into hot water, 
rinse it through cold water, and, having squeezed and dried it, 
smooth it on the right side with an iron, moderately heated. 

215. To make Old Silk look as well as Xew. — Unpick the 
dress, put it into a tub and cover it with cold water ; let it re- 


main an hour; dip it up and down, but do not wring it; hang 
it up to drain. Iron it very damp, and it will look well. 

216. To clean Silks. — A quarter-pound of soft soap, a tea- 
spoonful of brandy, a pint of gin. Mix all well together. With 
a sponge or flannel spread the mixture on each side of the silk 
without creasing it. Wash it in two or three pails of cold 
water, and iron on the wrong side when rather wet. 

217. To remove Stains from Silks. — Stains produced by vin- 
egar, lemon-juice, oil of vitriol, or other sharp corrosives, may 
often be removed from silks by mixing a little pearlash with 
soap-lather and passing the silk through them. Spirits of harts- 
horn will also often restore the color. 

218. To dip Rusty Black Silk. — Boil logwood and water 
half an hour, in which simmer the silk for the same time ; then 
take it out, and put into the dye a little blue vitriol, or green 
copperas; cool it, and simmer the silk in it for half an hour. 
Or, boil a handful of fig-leaves in two quarts of water until it 
be reduced to one pint ; squeeze the leaves, and bottle the li- 
quor for use. When wanted, sponge the silk with it. 

The w r ord Poison should be written on the bottle. 

219. Black Reviver. — Upon two ounces of powdered logwood, 
and half an ounce of green copperas, pour three pints of boiling 
water : let it stand till cold, when strain for use, by sponging 
the faded stuff w 7 ith it. 

To revive black cloth, boil it with logwood in water for half 
an hour, the cloth having been previously cleaned, dipped in 
warm water, and squeezed dry ; next, take out the cloth, add a 
small piece of green copperas, and boil it another half hour; 
then hang it in the air an hour or two, rinse it twice or thrice 
in cold water, dry it, and finish it with a soft brush, over which 
two or three drops of olive oil have been rubbed. 

220. White Satin. — Stone blue and flannel will make white 
satin look nearly new, especially if rubbed afterwards with 
crumbs of bread. 

221. Blond Lace. — When blond lace gets tumbled, breathing 
upon it, and afterwards shaking it, will be found to answer the 


purpose of an iron, without chance of making the lace look yel- 
low, as it probably would be by the use of an iron. There is 
no necessity for unpicking the lace. 

222. To raise the Surface or Pile of Velvet when pressed down. 
— Warm a smoothing-iron moderately, and cover it with a wet 
cloth, and hold it un^fer the velvet ; the vapor arising from the 
heated cloth will raise the pile of the velvet, with the assistance 
of a rush whisk. 

223. To remove Grease or Oil Paint from Cloth. — Moisten 
them with a few drops of concentrated solution of subcarbonate 
of potash ; rub the spot between the fingers, and then wash the 
spot with a little warm water. 

224. Another way. — To remove oil paint, rub the part with a 
bit of flannel dipped in spirits of wine or turpentine. 

225. — Spots from Woollen Cloths. — Fullers' earth, or tobac- 
co pipe-clay, being put wet on an oil spot, absorbs the oil as 
the water evaporates, and leaves the vegetable or animal fibres 
of cloth clean, on being beaten or brushed out. When the spot 
is occasioned by tallow or wax, it is necessary to heat the part 
cautiously by an iron or the fire, while the cloth is drying. In 
some kinds of goods, blotting paper, bran, or raw starch, may 
be used with advantage. 

226. To clean a White or Drab Coat. — If the coat be much 
soiled, brush well into the cloth, the way of the nap some of 
the following: mix pounded pipe-clay and whiting, some ful- 
lers' earth, and a little stone blue dissolved in vinegar enough 
to form the whole into a paste. When the coat is quite dry, 
rub it well, beat it to get out the dust, and brush it well. 

227. To clean Cashmere Stuff. — If common soap be employed, 
these valuable fabrics will be injured, and rendered less pliant 
and velvety than before. The proper method is to use a soapy 
root common in Russia and the East, in the Greek islands, and 
in Italy. Its original name is ishkar, and it affords an ash- 
colored powder, which, mixed with w r ater into a paste, will free 
the stuff frrom any greasy stains, and leave them the yellow 
tint so much prized. 


228. To make Portable Balls for removing S])otsfrom Clothes 
in general. — Take fullers'-earth perfectly dried, so that it crum- 
bles into powder, moisten it with the clear juice of lemons, and 
add a small quantity of pure pearl-ashes ; then work and knead 
the whole carefully together, till it acquires the consistence of 
a thick elastic paste ; form it into convenient small balls, and 
expose them to the heat of the sun, in which they ought to be 
completely dried. In this state they are fit for use in the man- 
ner following : — First, moisten the spot on your clothes with 
water, then rub it with the ball just described, and suffer it again 
to dry in the sun : after having washed the spot with pure water, 
it will entirely disappear. 

229. To make Breeches Balls. — Mix half a pound of Bath 
brick in fine powder, one pound of pipe-clay, two ounces of 
pumice-stone in fine powder, and three ounces of ox-gall ; color 
the mixture with yellow ochre, umber, or Irish slate, to the 
desired shade, and shape into balls. 

230. Scouring Drops. — Mix with one ounce of pyroligneous 
ether, three drachms of essence of lemon. These will remove 
oil or grease from woollen cloth, silk, &c, by rubbing the spot 
with a piece of the same article, moistened with the drops. 

231. To take out Wax or Spermaceti from Cloth. — Hold a red- 
hot iron steadily within about an inch of the cloth, and in a few 
minutes the wax will evaporate ; then rub the cloth with whitish 
paper, to remove any mark that may remain. 

232. To take Wax out of Velvet of all Colors except Crimson. 
— Take a crummy wheaten loaf, cut it in two, toast it before 
the fire, and, while very hot, apply it to the part spotted with 
wax. Then apply another piece of toasted bread hot as before, 
and continue the application till the wax is entirely taken out. 

233. For taking Grease out of the Leaves of Books. — Fold up, 
in two small bags made of fine open muslin, some ashes of 
burnt bones, finely powdered, or of calcined hartshorn, which 
is always ready prepared at the shops of the druggists. Lay 
the bags of muslin containing the powder, one on each side 
of the greasy leaf; and, having heated a pair of fire-tongs, or 
hair-dresser's pinching-tongs, of a moderate warmth, press with 


them the two bags against the greasy spot, and hold them some 
time in that situation. Repeat the process, if necessary. 

When the irons cannot be conveniently used, the powder 
may be heated over the fire, in a clean earthen vessel ; and, 
whilst hot, applied, without any muslins, on each side of the 
grease spot, and a weight laid on it to assist its effect. 

234. To removetSpots of Grease from Paper. — Take an equal 
quantity of roach alum, burnt, and flour of brimstone, finely 
powdered together ; wet the paper a little, and put a small 
quantity of the powder on the place, rubbing it gently with 
your finger, and the spot will disappear 

235. To discharge Grease from Leather. — Apply the white 
of an egg to the spot, and dry it in the sun ; or, mix two 
table-spoonfuls of spirit of turpentine, half an ounce- of mealy 
potatoes, and some of the best Durham mustard. Apply this 
mixture to the spot, and rub it off when dry. A little vinegar 
added, renders it more efficacious. 

236. For cleaning light Kid Gloves. — If the gloves are not 
so much soiled as to require wetting, they may be cleaned 
thus : — Scrape fine as much as a tea-spoonful of French chalk. 
Put on the gloves as for wear, taking care that the hands be 
not only clean, but cool and dry. Put some of the powdered 
chalk into the palm of one glove, and rub the hands and fingers 
together, just as if the chalk were soap employed in washing 
the hands. In this way rub in all the chalk. Then take off 
the gloves, without shaking them, and lay them aside for an 
hour or two, or a night, if it suit. Again put them on, and 
clap the hands together till all the chalk is shaken out. F ullers' 
earth, powdered and sifted, may be used in the same manner 
as French chalk, and will answer nearly as well. Or, gloves 
slightly soiled, may be cleaned by rubbing with a very clean 
and dry bit of India-rubber. White kid gloves, or very light 
stone-color, or lilac, (not darker than what is called a French 
white,) may be stained of a bright and delicate yellow, jusl 
the color of cowslips, by rubbing them with the petals of the 
common white rose. The roses must be fresh gathered foi 
this purpose; and the best method of applying the leaves, is 
by putting the glove on its proper hand, and then rubbing. If 
not convenient to do the whole at one time, the effect is not 


injured by laying them aside, and taking up again. When 
done, they look quite equal to new, and keep clean longer than 
gloves of the same color stained in the ordinary way. 

237. Another way to clean Kid Gloves. — First see that your 
hands are clean ; then put on the gloves^and wash them, as 
though you were washing your hands, in^lfeasin of turpentine. 
Burning fluid will do equally well. Then hang them up in a 
warm place, or where there is a good current of air, which will 
carry off all smell of turpentine. This method was brought 
from Paris, and thousands of dollars have been made by it. 
The spirits of hartshorn may be substituted for the turpentine. 

238. Washing Gloves. — If the gloves are so much soiled as 
to require washing, the best application is a strong lather made 
of curd soap with new milk ; or water will do. A very small 
quantity of liquid will suffice. Before wetting the glove, run 
a strong thread through the opposite sides, close to the wrist 
binding. Leave it about a quarter of a yard long, and make 
a large knot at each end. This is to form a loop or handle 
by which to hang up the glove to dry, and hold it open. Hav- 
ing prepared the lather, put one glove on the hand, and apply 
the lather by means of a shaving brush or a piece of fine flannel, 
carrying the strokes downwards — that is, from the wrist or arm 
to the tips of the fingers. Continue this process till the dirt 
disappears, though the glove appears of a dingy, ill-looking 
color. Then take a clean soft towel, and dab it till the soap 
is removed. Take off the glove, blow into it to open all the 
fingers, and, by means of the aforesaid loop, hang it to dry 
in a shady but airy place. The loop should be fixed to two 
pegs, or by two pegs or strings, fastened to a line in such a 
manner as to keep the sides of the glove apart while drying. 
When dry, they will have regained their original color, and 
be smooth, glossy, soft, and shapable. . Or, the gloves when 
cleaned as above, may be laid to dry on several folds of clean 
linen above and below. Limerick gloves should be washed 
clean with a strong lather of soap and water, applied with a 
brush as above. The lather must not be warmer than new 
milk. When dry from the lather, apply a solution of saffron, 
stronger or weaker, according to the color desired. A very 
small quantity of saffron will suffice. Pour boiling water to it, 
and let it steep at least twelve hours before using. Those who 


are frequently cleaning this kind of gloves, may steep a drachm 
of saffron in half-a-pint of boiling water, and when cold, put the 
whole into a bottle, without straining. Cork it close, and it 
will keep a long time for use as required. 

239. To clean Stmw Bonnets. — Put a chafing-dish, with some 
lighted charcoal, ^ro a close room or large box ; then strew 
on the coals an ounce or two of powdered brimstone, and let 
the bonnets hang in the room or box for some hours, when 
they remain to be blocked. 

240. To bleach Straw Hats, dc. — Straw r hats and bonnets 
are bleached by putting them, previously washed in pure water, 
into a box with burning sulphur ; the fumes which arise, unite 
with the water on the bonnets, and the sulphurous acid thus 
formed, bleaches them. 

241. Method of Bleaching Straiv. — Dip the straw in a solution 
of oxygenated muriatic acid, saturated with potash. (Oxyge- 
nated muriate of lime is much cheaper.) The straw is thus 
rendered very white, and its flexibility is increased. 

242. Varnish for Straw or Chip Hats. — Powder half-an- 
ounce of black sealing-wax, put it into a bottle with two ounces 
of spirits of wine, and set it in a warm place. Lay it on warm 
with a soft hair-brush, before the fire or sun. 

243. Straw Bonnets. — If a straw bonnet is not worth the 
expense of properly cleaning, it may be greatly improved both 
in comfort and appearance, by washing it with soap and water, 
applied by means of a bit of flannel or sponge. Afterwards 
rinse with clean water, and dry quickly in the air. When dry, 
wash over with the white of an egg, finely beaten. The wire 
had better be removed before washing, and put on afresh. 
There is no great art in reducing a straw bonnet for a child. 
Take off all the ribs of straw that form a sort of border by going 
round the edge ; as many also of the straight ribs as will leave 
the front nearly of the deptlv required. From the remaining 
front ribs cut off a little at each end; fasten the ends securely. 
and again set on the border ribs^ Unpick the sewing of the 
head-piece, till two, three, or more of the top rounds are taker 
off, so as to bring it to the size required. Then sew again at 


many as will bring it to a proper depth. It is not intended to 
say, that a person who never learned the art of straw bonnet- 
making, and has not the proper blocks, &c., will do it as well 
as one who has ; but any notionable needle-woman may do it, 
so as to look much better than a large bonnet on the small head 
of a child. A bonnet-shape of pasteboard^r buckram may be 
renewed by laying it between two sheets W*damp paper, and 
ironing with a hot iron. The wire must be previously removed 
and afterwards put on afresh. To clean silk and ribbons, wash 
in cold rain water with a very little soap. Avoid squeezing 
and wringing. If very' dirty, two waters maybe requisite; the 
second may be slightly blued, unless the color of the silk for- 
bids it (as yellow or red). Spread on a clean towel, and 
while damp, iron with a piece of clean paper placed between 
the silk or ribbon and the iron. 

244. Paste, — Take two table-spoonfuls of flour and stir it 
into a half pint of cold water until the lumps are all broken, 
then pour this into a pint of boiling water, stirring while doing 
so ; afterwards let it boil up once or twice, and take off. 

245. Superior Paste — Mix flour and water, with a little 
brown sugar, and a \ery smail quantity of corrosive sublimate 
in powder, and boil it until sufficiently thick and smooth. The 
sugar will keep the paste flexible, and prevent it scaling off 
from smooth surfaces, and the corrosive sublimate will check 
its fermentation : a drop or two of oil of anise-seed, lavender, or 
bergamot will prevent the paste turning mouldy. 

246. Bookbinders 1 Paste. — Mix w 7 heaten flour first in cold 
water, then boil it till it be of a glutinous consistence ; this 
method makes common paste. Mix & fourth, fifth, or sixth of 
the weight of the flour of powdered alum, and if required 
stronger, add a little powdered resin. 

247. Bice Glue. — Mix rice flour smoothly with cold water, 
and simmer it over a slow fire, when it will form a delicate and 
durable cement, not only answering all the purposes of com- 
mon paste, but well adapted for joining paper and card-board 
ornamental work. 


248. A most excellent Glue. — Beat an ounce of isinglass to 
shreds : dissolve it gradually in a pint of brandy, by means of 
gentle heat, and then strain the solution through a piece of fine 
muslin. The glue thus obtained should be kept in glass closely 
stopped.* When required for use, it should be dissolved with 
moderate heat, when it will appear thin, transparent, and 
almost limpid, jflpen applied in the manner of common glue, 
its effect is so powerful as to join together the parts of wood 
stronger than the wood itself is united. This glue dries into a 
very strong, tough, and transparent substance, not easily dam- 
aged by anything but aqueous moisture, which renders it unfit 
for any use where it would be much exposed to wet or 
damp air. 

249. Parchment Glue. — Take one pound of parchment, and 
boil it in six quarts of water till the quantity be reduced to 
one, then strain off the dregs, and boil it again till it be of the 
consistence of glue. 

The same may be done with glovers' cuttings of leather, 
which make a colorless glue, if not burnt in the evaporation of 
the water. 

250. To make Lip Glue, for joining Paper, Silk, or thin 
Leather, d % c. — Take of isinglass and parchment glues, of each 
one ounce ; sugar-candy and gum-tragacanth, each two drachms ; 
add to them an ounce of water, and boil the whole together till 
the mixture, when cold, is of the consistence of glue; then form 
the same into small rolls, or any other figure that may be most 
convenient, and it will be fit for use. 

This glue may be wet with the tongue, and rubbed on the 
edges of the paper, silk, or leather, that are to be joined ; and 
on being laid together, and suffered to dry, they will be united 
as firmly as any other part of the substance, 

251. Liquid Glue. — Pour naphtha upon shellac until of a 
creamy consistence, and keep it closely corked. This glue will 
unite iron, wood, glass, &c. It is w r ater-proof, and dries 

252. Glue to hold against Fire or Water. — Mix a handful of 
quick-lime in four ounces of linseed-oil, boil them to a good 


thickness, then spread it on tin plates in the shade, and it will 
become exceedingly hard ; but may be easily dissolved over 
the fire, as glue. 

253. To mend China, — Mix together equal parts of fine glue, 
white of eggs, and white of lead, and with it anoint the edges 
of the article to be mended ; press the^Jogether, and when 
hard and dry scrape off as much of the cement as sticks about 
the joint. The juice of garlic is another good cement, and 
leaves no mark where it has been used. 

254. Cement and Ground Glass Imitation. — In half-a-pint 
spirits of wine steep one ounce of isinglass twenty-four hours, 
then dissolve it over a slow fire, keeping the vessel covered 
that the spirit may not evaporate (for this purpose a double 
saucepan should be used, the outer one containing water, after 
the manner of a glue-pot ; or the solution may be made in a jar 
with a lid, tied over also with bladder, and placed in a sauce- 
pan of water — the water should surround the jar to the height 
of two inches or more, but not so high as to float it). When 
the isinglass is completely dissolved, add the juice of garlic, 
obtained by pounding in a mortar six cloves of the root, and 
straining through linen. Mix well, and cork close for a short 
time. The mixture will then cement either glass or crystal. 

Cement to resist Fire and Water. — Half-a-pint each of vinegar 
and milk, simmer them together till the curd separates. Strain, 
and with the whey mix the whites of five eggs well beaten up. 
The mixture of these two substances being complete, add sifted 
quick-lime, and make the whole into the consistence of putty. 
Let it be carefully applied — that is, to lay it on every part of 
the broken edges, and to make the edges fit exactly ; as soon as 
it is perfectly dry, it will be found to resist both heat and mois- 
ture. Whatever the article was originally calculated to bear, it 
is again fitted to bear as much as if it had never been broken. 

255. To imitate Ground Glass. — Rub the glass over with a 
lump of glaziers' putty, carefully and uniformly until the sur- 
face is equally covered. This is an excellent imitation of 
ground glass, and is not injured by rain or damp. It is useful 
for kitchen windows, &e. 


256. To cement Broken China. — Mix some oyster-shell pow- 
der with the white of a fresh egg, to the thickness of white paint, 
lay it on thick at the two edges and join them as exact and 
quick as possible, then put it before the fire till the china is 
quite hot, and it will cement in about two minutes. Pour 
boiling water into it directly, wipe it dry, scrape it clean on 
both sides with a penknife, and it will appear only as a crack. 
Mix no more than ^Jfci can use for one or two things at a time ; 
for if the cement grows hard, it will be spoiled. The powder 
may be bought at the apothecaries' ; but it is best prepared at 
home, which is done as follows :— Choose a large, deep oyster- 
shell ; put it in the middle of a clear fire till red-hot, then take 
it out and scrape away the black parts ; pound the rest in a mor- 
tar as fine as possible; sift and beat it a second time, till quite 
smooth and fine. 

257. Obs. — In cementing china and glass, first heat the por- 
tions, and when the cement is applied, press them closely toge- 
ther, as the thinner the cement is, the more firmly it holds. 

258. To cement Broken China or Glass. — Beat lime to the 
finest powder, and sift it through fine muslin ; then tie some 
into a thin muslin ; put on the edges of the broken china some 
white of egg; dust some lime quickly on the same, and unite 
them exactly. 

259. Chinese method of mending China. — Take a piece of 
flint-glass, beat it to a fine powder, and grind it well with the 
white of an egg, and it joins china without riveting, so that no 
art can break it in the same place. You are to observe, that 
the composition is to be ground extremely fine. 

260. Improved Corks for preserving Wine or Chemical Li- 
quors. — Melt together two parts of white wax and one part 
of beef suet; dip your corks in this mixture, and immediately 
dry them in a stove upon an iron plate ; repeat this operation 
twice, and the corks thus prepared will preserve any liquor 
well without imparting any ill-flavor thereto. 

261. Bottle Cement. — Common red and black sealing-wax, of 
each half-a-pound ; bees'-wax, quarter of an ounce. Melt them 
in an earthen pipkin or brass kettle. The former is preferable, 


because the cement may be kept in it, and again melted when- 
ever it is wanted for use. When the mixture begins to froth, 
and seems likely to boil over, stir with a tallow candle, which 
will settle the froth. As soon as the whole is melted, it is 
ready for use. 

262. Bottle Cement, — Melt in an iron ladle some rosin, and a 
quarter as much bees'- wax ; add a little Venetian red, stir with 
a piece of candle, and, when smoothly melted, dip in the top 
of the bottles, so as completely to cover them. In making this 
cement, be careful not to leave it a moment while it is on the 

263. Blood Cement — Blood Cement, for repairing copper 
boilers, &c, is made by pounded quick-lime and ox-blood 
mixed together : it must be applied fresh made, as it soon be- 
comes so hard as to be unfit for use. 

264. Diamond Cement — Diamond Cement, for glass or 
china, is made by dissolving a quarter of an ounce of isinglass 
in water, by boiling it to the consistence of cream. Add a 
table-spoonful of spirits of wine. Use warm. 

265. Cement for attaching Metal to Glass or Porcelain. — 
Take two ounces of a thick solution of glue, and mix with one 
ounce of linseed oil varnish, or three-quarters of an ounce of 
Venice turpentine. Boil together, agitating them until thor- 
oughly mixed. The pieces to be cemented should be left 
untouched, after having been united, for forty-eight or sixty 

266. Ta mend Tortoise- Shell. — To mend tortoise-shell, bring 
the edges of the pieces to fit each other, observing to give the 
same inclination of grain to each ; then secure them in a piece 
of paper, and place them between hot irons or pincers ; apply 
pressure, and let them cool. Take care that the heat is not too 
great, or it will burn the shell. 

267. To clean Gold Chains, dx. — Make a lather of soap and 
water; boil the chain in it for a few minutes, and immediately on 
taking it out, lay it in magnesia powder which has been heated 
by the fire ; when dry, rub it with flannel ; if embossed, use a 


Or: — Wash it well in soap and water, and put it while wet 
into a bag with some fresh, clean bran ; shake it well, and in a 
few minutes it will be found perfectly clean. 

268. To restore Pearls.— Soak them in hot water in which 
bran has been boiled, with a little salt of tartar and alum, and 
rub them gently between the hands ; rinse them in lukewarm 
water, and lay them out to dry. 

To preserve the color of pearls, keep them in dry common 
magnesia, instead of the cotton-wool used in jewel-cases, and 
they will never lose their brilliance. 

269. To clean Gold or Silver Lace. — Rub it gently with cot- 
ton wool, or a soft brush dipped in spirits of wine, taking care 
not to injure the silk beneath. 

270. To clean Gold and Silver Lace. — Sew the lace in linen 
cloth, and boil it in a pint of water, and two ounces of soap ; 
and then wash the lace in water. 

271. To improve Gilding. — Mix one gill of water, two ounces 
of purified nitre, one ounce of alum and one ounce of common 
salt. Lay this over gilt articles with a brush, and their color 
will be much improved. 

272. Incombustible Varnish for Wood. — Equal parts of alum 
and isinglass, dissolved and mixed, applied to wood, prevents it 
from burning. Liquids can be boiled in a wooden vessel on a 
common fire, if this varnish be applied to it. The wood chars 
sometimes, but does not flame. 

273. Cement for Iron Flues. — Common salt and sifted wood- 
ashes in equal parts, made into a paste with water, is a very 
good cement for iron flues, and may be applied when the flue 
is hot or cold. Iron filings and vinegar will do almost as well, 
or rather iron filings moistened with diluted muriatic acid. 
These are generally used for filling up the space between cylin- 

274. Preparation of common Cement for joining Alabaster \ 
Marble, Porphyry, or other Stones. — Take of bees'-wax two 
pounds, and of rosin one pound ; melt them, and add one pound 


and a half of the same kind of matter, (powdered,) as the body 
to be cemented is composed of, strewing it into the melted 
mixture, and stirring them well together, and afterwards knead- 
ing the mass in water, that the powder may be thoroughly in- 
corporated with wax and rosin. The proportion of the powder- 
ed matter may be varied, where required, in order to bring 
the cement nearer to the color of the bo$y on which it is em- 

This cement must be heated when applied ; as must also the 
parts of the subject to be cemented together; and care must be 
taken likewise, that they be thoroughly dry. 

When this composition is properly managed, it forms an 
extremely strong cement, which will even suspend a projecting 
body of considerable weight, after it is thoroughly dry and set, 
and is therefore of great use to all carvers in stone, or others 
who may have occasion to join together the parts of bodies of 
this nature. 

Melted sulphur, applied to fragments of stones previously 
heated (by placing them before a fire) to at least the melting 
point of sulphur, and then joined with the sulphur between, 
makes a pretty firm and durable joining. 

Chips out of corners, and similar little deficiencies in the 
stone, may also be filled up with melted sulphur, in which some 
of the powder of the stone has been mixed : but the stone should 
be previously heated. 

275. Strong Cement. — To prevent the escape of the vapors 
of water, spirit, and liquors not corrosive, the simple applica- 
tion of slips of moistened bladder will answer very well for 
glass, and paper with good paste for metal. Bladder, to be 
very adhesive, should be soaked some time in water moderately 
warm, till it feels clammy, it then sticks very well ; if smeared 
with white of eggs instead of water, it adheres still closer. 

276. To scour a Hat. — Rub yellow soap on a hard brush, dip 
it into boiling water, and brush the hat round with the nap ; if 
the nap be clotted, continue to brush it till it is smooth, and 
free from soap ; then, if requisite, scrape out the dirt, by pass- 
ing round the hat an edged piece of wood, or the back of a knife ; 
next, beat the nap with a cane, hang the hat to dry, and pass a 
heated flat iron two or three times gently over it ; brush it 



277. Management of Razor Strops. — Most razor strops are 
spoiled by being left too dry ; a drop or two of sweet oil, fre- 
quently added to the strop, would remedy this ; and, after using 
the strop, passing the razor on the inside of a warm hand, gives 
the smoothest and finest edge ; putting the razor in warm water 
makes it cut very keen, and perhaps nothing makes a better 
razor strop than crocus martis, with a little sweet oil, rubbed 
well on leather with a glass bottle. 

278. To prevent Gentlemen's Hats from, being injured by Rain. 
— Shake off the water as much as possible ; then with a clean 
linen cloth or silk handkerchief wipe the hat carefully, keeping 
the beaver flat and smooth, in the same direction as it was first 
placed ; then with hands fix it in the original shape, and hang it 
at a distance from the fire to dry. A few hours after, or the 
next morning, lay the hat on the table, and brush it round and 
round several times with a soft brush in the proper direction, 
and you will find your hat not in the least injured by the rain. 

If the gloss is not quite so high as you wish, take a flat iron, 
moderately heated, and pass the same two or three times gently 
over the hat ; brush it afterwards ; and it will be nearly as hand- 
some as when first sent home from the shop. 

279. Dyeing. — Occasionally, when colored articles of silk, 
wool, or cotton have been cleaned, their color requires to be 
made deeper; at other times, it may be desirable to change 
the color altogether, when that already in the stuff must be 
discharged, and the article dyed anew. 

Articles of any color may be dyed black, and black may 
easily be re-dyed. Blues can be made green or black ; green 
may be made brown, and brown, green ; and any color on re- 
dyeing, will take a darker tint than at first. A black may be 
dyed maroon, claret, or dark-brown ; but green is the best color 
into which black can be changed. 

Most colors can be discharged by boiling the articles in water, 
with a small quantity of spirits of salts in it. Yellows, browns, 
and blues, are not easily discharged ; maroons, reds of some 
kinds, and olives, may be easily discharged, by boiling them 
in water, with a small quantity of the following articles : roche- 
alum, for maroons ; oil of vitriol — a very small quantity — for 
olives and grays ; alum, pearlash, or soap, will discharge green 
to a yellow, which may be boiled off with soap. 


280. To Alum Silks. — Silk should be alumed cold, for when 
it is alumed hot, it is deprived of a great part of its lustre. 
The alum liquor should always be strong for silks, as they take 
the dye more readily afterwards. 

281. Various Dyes. — The following are the articles employed 
for the colors most in use, the proportions depending upon the 
depth or the shade required. 

Lilac and Purple. — Boil archil in water; or, boil logwood 
in water ; and, when cold, dip the article to be dyed into it, 
having previously passed it through a weak solution of alum 
in water. From logwood also may be obtained different shades 
of Violet. 

Effective Lilac dyes may be produced from the berries of 
the Portugal laurel ; and from the black currant, after the juice 
has been expressed. 

Red is obtained from madder, and Brazil wood; the article 
being first dipped in weak alum and water, then in the dye. 
and lastly in a decoction of archil and water, to give it a bloom. 

Mosey Flesh-color, Poppy, and Cherrry-red, are obtained from 
a decoction of carthamus in water, with a little soda and lemon- 
juice. For a poppy-color, the article should first be dipped in 
a weak solution of arnatto in water ; and for a pale carnation,, 
a little soap should be added to the carthamus. 

Pink Bloom. — Archil is employed to give a bloom to pinks, 
whites, &c., as for silk stockings ; for which purpose, also, pink 
saucers are used. 

Scarlet is obtained from cochineal ; but, for cotton and wool, 
the color derived from it is little superior to that given by 

Nankeen is obtained from Spanish arnatto dissolved in hot 
water, with a small portion of pearlash in it. 

Blue is prepared from indigo ; but, as this dye is not easily 
made, it will be better to purchase a bottle of " Blue Dye." 

Yellow may be obtained from the juice of the tops of potato- 
flowers, fustic chips, weld or dyers' weed, turmeric, and Dutch 

Green consists of blue and yellow dyes, mixed. 

Orange is extracted from carthamus. Cinnamon from log- 
wood, Brazil wood, and fustic, mixed ; or from a strong decoc- 
tion made from the green tops and flowers of the common heath. 

Black is formed by logwood and green copperas boiled in 


water; the color being improved by first boiling the article 
with galls, or alder-bark, in water ; or by first dyeing it with 

Gray is produced by diluting black dye. 

Brown is obtained from walnut-peels, or the bark of birch. 

Olives are made from blue, red, and brown. 

The pericarp of the Scotch rose contains a fine purple juice, 
which, diluted with water, dyes silk and muslin P each- color ; 
the addition of alum will make it a deep Violet dye. 

In all cafses, except otherwise specified, the article to be dyed 
should be first steeped in a weak solution of alum in water. 

282. To dye the Linings of Curtains, Furniture Covers, dtc. — 
Wash the articles clean, and, having prepared the dye accord- 
ing to either of the previous recipes, dip them, rinse them in 
pump water, then in water-starch ; dry them quickly, and man- 
gle or calender them. 

283. To dye Silk Stockings. — Wash and boil the stockings, 
if requisite, in soap and water, and rinse them in clear hot 
water. Put three table-spoonfuls of archil into a wash-hand 
basin of hot water, in which soak the stockings until they be- 
come of a lilac shade, when rinse them lightly in cold water. 
Dry them in fumes of brimstone, and when they are bleached 
to the required flesh-color, rub the right side with clean flannel 
or glass, and iron them. If the pink saucer-color be used in- 
stead of archil, the stockings will not require bleaching with 

For Black Stockings. — Having dyed them, finish them on 
wooden legs, by rubbing them with flannel moistened with 
olive oil. Rub each pair half an hour. 

284. To dye Gloves to look like York Tan. — Put some saffron 
into one pint of soft water boiling hot, and let it infuse all 
night ; next morning wet the leather with a brush. The tops 
should be sewn close to prevent the color from getting in. 

To dye White Gloves a beautiful Purple. — Boil 4 ozs. of log- 
wood and 2 ozs. of roche-alum in 3 pints of soft water till half- 
wasted. Let it stand to be cold after straining. Let the 
gloves be nicely mended ; then do them over with a brush, and 
when dry repeat it. Twice is sufficient, unless the color is to 
be very dark. When dry, rub off the loose dye with a coarse 


cloth. Beat up the white of an egg, and with a sponge rub it 
over the leather. The dye will stain the hands, but wetting 
them with vinegar before they are washed will take it off. 

285. To dye Straw and Chip Bonnets Black. — Boil them in 
strong logwood liquor three or four hours, occasionally adding 
green copperas, and taking the bonnets out to cool in the air, 
and this must be continued for some hours. Let the bonnets 
remain in the liquor all night, and the next morning take them 
out, dry them in the air, and brush them with a soft brush. 
Lastly, rub them inside and out with a sponge moistened with 
oil, and then send them to be blocked. 

286. To make Nankeen Dye. — Boil equal parts of arnatto and 
common potash in water, till the whole are dissolved. This 
will produce the pale reddish buff so much in use, and sold 
under the name of Nankeen Bye. 

287. To dye Cotton a fine Buff Color. — Let the twist or yarn 
be boiled in pure water, to cleanse it; then wring it, run it 
through a dilute solution of iron in the vegetable acid, which 
printers call iron liquor ; wring, and run it through lime-water, 
to raise it ; wring it again, and run it through a solution of 
starch and water ; then wring it once more, and dry, wind, 
w r arp, and weave it for use. 

288. To dye Worsted or Woollen Black. — Put in half a gallon 
of water a piece of bi-chromate of potash, the size of a horse- 
bean. Boil the articles in this seven or eight minutes. Take 
them out and wash them. Then in another half-gallon of water 
put in one table-spoonful and a half of ground logwood ; boil the 
articles in this the same length of time as before. Then wash 
them in cold water. 

289. To dye Hair and Feathers Green. — Take of verdigris or 
verditer 1 oz., gum water, 1 pint; mix them well, and dip the 
hair or feathers into the mixture, shaking them well about. 

290. Waterproof Clothing.— First make the cloak, coat, or 
trowsers of linen ; then soak them well for a day or two in 
boiled oil ; then hang them up in a dry place till perfectly dry, 
without wringing the oil out; then paint chem, without turpen 


tine or dryers being in the paint, black, or any other color you 
like, and lay the paint on thinly, and let it dry. (This is the 
method practised by seamen.) 

Waterproof Clothing. — Make the garment of strong unbleach- 
ed calico ; hang it up in a dry place, and, with a brush, give it 
two coats of boiled linseed oil. Buy the oil ready-boiled ; a 
pint will be sufficient for a cape or pair of overalls. Canvas 
may be prepared in the same way for rick-cloths, or other roof- 
ing purposes. 

Another way. — Get some weak size, such as is used by paper- 
makers ; make it hot, and stir a small lump of alum, and a 
small quantity of soap lather into it. Then with a brush apply 
it to the garment equally ail over, as recommended above with 
the oil. \i the garment be of good cloth, the size may be laid 
on inside. 

291. Chinese Method of rendering Cloth Water proof. — To one 
ounce of white wax, melted, add one quart of spirits of turpen- 
tine, which, when thoroughly mixed and cold, dip the cloth in 
and hang it up to dry. By this cheap and easy method, mus- 
lin, as well as the strongest cloths, will be rendered impenetra- 
ble to the hardest rains, without the pores being filled up, or 
any injury done, when the cloth is colored. 

292. To preserve Furs and Woollens from Moths. — Let the 
former be occasionally combed while in use, and the latter be 
brushed and shaken. When not wanted, dry them first, let 
them be cool ; then mix among them bitter apples from the 
apothecary's in small muslin bags, sew the articles in several 
folds of linen, carefully turned in at the edges, and keep them 
from damp. 

Or, lay amongst them the cuttings of Russia leather. 

293. Or — Leaves from the tobacco plant are very effectual 
in keeping off moths. Lay them between the folds of the 
blankets, carpets, &c. Air furs, occasionally. 

294. To prevent Moths. — In the month of April beat your fur 
garments well with a small cane or elastic stick, then lap them 
up in linen without pressing the fur tbo hard, and put between 


the folds some camphor in small lumps ; then put your furs in 
this state in boxes well closed. 

When the furs are wanted for use, beat them well as before, 
and expose them for twenty-four hours to the air, which will 
take away the smell of the camphor. 

295. Easy Method of preventing Moths in Furs or Woollens. — 
Sprinkle the furs or woollen stuffs, as well as the drawers or 
boxes in which they are kept, with spirits of turpentine; the 
unpleasant scent of which will speedily evaporate, on exposure 
of the stuffs to the air. Some persons place sheets of paper, 
moistened with spirits of turpentine, over, under, or between 
pieces of cloth, &c., and find it a very effectual method. 

296. To preserve Furs, Woollens, dx. — many woollen-drapers 
put bits of camphor, the size of a nutmeg, in papers, on differ- 
ent parts of the shelves in their shops; and as they brush their 
cloths every two, three, or four months, this keeps them free 
from, moths ; and this should be done in boxes where furs, &c, 
are put. A tallow candle is frequently put within each muff 
when laid by. 

297. To keep Moths, Beetles, dc.,from Clothes. — Put a piece 
of camphor in a linen bag, or some aromatic herbs, in the draw- 
ers, among linen or w 7 oollen clothes, and neither moth nor worm 
will come near them. 

298. A celebrated Blacking Cake for Boots and Shoes. — Take 
one part of gum tragacanth, four parts of river water, two parts 
of neat's-foot, or some other softening, lubricating oil, two parts 
of superfine ivory-black, one part of Prussian blue in fine pow 
der, or indigo, four parts of brown sugar-candy ; boil the mix- 
ture ; and when the composition is of a proper consistence, let 
it be formed into cakes of such a size that each cake may make 
a pint of liquid blacking. 

299. Good Blacking for Boots and Shoes. — Take of ivory 
black, one pound ; lamp-black, half an ounce ; treacle, one pound ; 
sweet oil, one ounce and a half; coarse gum Arabic, half an 
ounce ; green copperas, three-quarters of an ounce ; and stale 
vinegar, three pints and a half. Mix all well together, having 


first dissolved the gum in a little water ; then add gradually, 
briskly stirring the mixture, half an ounce of oil of vitriol ; let it 
stand two days, occasionally stirring it, and it will be fit for use. 
Or, two ounces of ivory-black, one tea-spoonful of oil of vit- 
riol, a table-spoonful of sweet-oil, and two ounces of sugar- 
candy, to be mixed with half a pint of vinegar. 

300. Liquid Blacking. — Ivory-black, quarter of a pound ; 
treacle, half a pound, well mixed ; to which add sweet oil, one 
pennyworth, and small beer three pints ; add after, oil of vit- 
riol, one pennyworth, which will cause it to boil. Fit tor use 
in three days. 

301. French Polish for Boots and Shoes. — Logwood chips, 
half a pound ; glue, quarter of a pound ; indigo, pounded very 
fine, quarter of an ounce ; soft soap, quarter of an ounce ; isin- 
glass, quarter of an ounce ; boil these ingredients in two pints 
of vinegar and one of water, during ten minutes after ebullition, 
then strain the liquid. When cold it is fit for use. To apply 
the French polish, the dirt must be washed from the boots and 
shoes ; when these are quite dry, the liquid polish is put on 
with a bit of sponge. 

302. To clean White Satin Shoes. — Rub them lengthways 
of the satin, with a piece of new white flannel dipped in spirits 
of wine. If slightly soiled, you may clean them by rubbing 
with stale bread. 

White satin shoes should be kept in blue paper closely wrap- 
ped, with coarse brown paper outside. 

To keep your thin, light slippers in shape, when you put them 
away, fold them ever lengthways or sideways, and tie the 
strings round them. You should have a covered box purposely 
fur your shoes. 

303. To clean Boot-tops Brown — Mix, in the same quantity 
of water, one ounce of oxalic acid, half an ounce of muriatic 
acid, a small vial of spirits of lavender, and two tea-spoonfuls 
of salt of lemon. Each bottle should be carefully labeled and 
marked " Poison." 

304. Directions for using the Liquid. — For the white tops : 
to be scrubbed well with a clean hard brush, then spunged 


well with cold water, all one way, and allowed to dry gradually 
in the sun, or by the fire. 

Brown tops are not to be scrubbed with a brush, but sponged 
all over with the mixture, till all stains be removed ; then 
sponged well with cold water, and rubbed with flannel till they 
be highly polished. 

305. Shoes. — When about being measured for shoes, place 
the foot firmly on the ground, as the foot is larger in a standing 
than in a sitting posture. 

306. Shoes. — One hint about shoes — a most essential and 
expensive article of family wear. However worn and full of 
holes the soles may be, if the upper leathers are whole, or 
soundly mended, and the stitching firm, the soles may be 
covered with the newly adopted article gutta percha, and at a 
very small expense the shoes will be rendered as good as new. 
We have seen shoes which even the eldest daughter of the 
Smith family despised as not worth carrying home, made quite 
sound and respectable in appearance, and to serve many months 
in constant wear, by being thus soled at the cost of only a few 
pence. Thin shoes that have been worn only in-doors, and 
which are laid aside on account of the tops becoming shabby, 
perhaps worn out, while the sewing is sound, may be made 
very tidy by covering with woollen cloth, or with a bit of thick 
knitting, or platted list, stitched on as close as possible to the 
regular seam. 

307. To prevent Snow-water from penetrating Boots and 
Shoes. — Take equal quantities of bees'-wax and mutton-suet, 
and melt them in an earthen pipkin over a slow fire. Lay the 
mixture, while hot, over the boots and shoes, which ought also 
to be made warm. Let them stand before the fire a short time, 
and set them aside till they are cold ; then rub them with dry 
woollen stuff, so that you may not grease the blacking-brushes. 
If you black the shoes before the mixture be put on, they will 
afterwards take the blacking much better. 

O/, boil together for half an hour, a quart of linseed oil, two 
ounces of resin, and half an ounce of white vitriol, and incorpo- 
rate with them a quarter of a pint of spirit of turpentine, and 
two ounces of well-dried oak sawdust. Lay the mixture on 
the soles of the boots. 



308. Water-proof Boots. — A pint of boiled linseed oil, half 
a pound of mutton suet, six ounces of clean bees'- wax, and four 
ounces of resin, are to be melted and well mixed over a fire. 
Of this, while warm, but not hot enough to shrink the leather, 
with a brush lay on plentifully over new boots or shoes, when 
quite dry and clean. The leather remains pliant. The New 
England fishermen preserve their boots water-tight by this 
method, which, it is said, has been in use among them above 
one hundred years. They can thus stand in water hour after 
hour without inconvenience. 

309. Water-proof Boots. — I have had three pairs of boots 
for the last six years (no shoes), and I think I shall not require 
an}' more for the next six years to come. The reason is, that 
I treat them in the following manner : I put a pound of tallow 
and half a pound of rosin in a pot on the fire ; when melted 
and mixed, I warm the boots and apply the hot stuff with a 
painter's brush, until neither the sole or the upper-leather will 
suck in any more. If it is desired that the boots should imme- 
diately take a polish, melt an ounce of wax with a tea-spoonful 
of lamp-black. A day after the boots have been treated with 
tallow and rosin, rub over them this wax in turpentine, but not 
before the fire. The exterior will then have a coat of wax 
alone, and will shine like a mirror. Tallow, or any other grease, 
becomes rancid, and rots the stitching as well as the leather ; 
but the rosin gives it an antiseptic quality, which preserves the 
whole. Boots and shoes should be so large as to admit of 
wearing cork soles. — Correspondent of Mechanic^ Magazine. 

310. To make Cloth or Outer Clothing of any description 
Water-proof. — Take a quarter of an ounce of yellow or Castile 
soap, and one gallon of rain water; boil for twenty minutes; 
skim, and when cold, put in the cloth or garment; let it remain 
soaking twenty -four hours; take it out, and hang to drain; 
when half-dry, put it into the following solution : — Alum, half 
a pound ; sugar of lead, quarter of a pound ; dissolved in four 
gallons of rain water. - Let the cloth be thoroughly soaked, and 
then hang to dry.' This process entirely destroys the capillary 
attraction in the fibres and threads of the cloth, and the rain or 
wet pours off the surface without lodging or penetrating through 
the cloth. The solution has no effect in altering the texture or 
appearance of the cloth or article immersed. Great care must 


be taken as regards the sugar of lead, not to leave it where 
children or any persons ignorant of its qualities can get access 
to it, as it is a powerful poison. 

311. To make an Oil-shin Coat or Wrapper. — If a stout coat 
or wrapper is wanted, let the material be strong unbleached or 
brown calico. If a light one is preferred, make use of brown 
holland. Soak it (when made) in hot water, and hang to dry ; 
then boil ten ounces of India-rubber in one quart of raw linseed 
oil, until dissolved ; (this will require about three hours' boil- 
ing,) when cold, mix with the oil so prepared about half a pint 
of paint of any color which may be preferred, and of the same 
consistency as that used for painting wood.. With a paint- 
brush lay a thin coat over the outside of the wrapper, brushing 
it well into the seams. Hang it to dry in a current of air, but 
sheltered from a powerful sun. When thoroughly dry, give it 
another coat ; dry as before, and then give a third and last coat. 
The wrapper, when well dried, will be ready for use. 

312. To make Gutta Percha Soles. — The gutta percha pos- 
sesses properties which render it invaluable for winter shoes. 
It is, compared with leather, a slow conductor of heat; the effect 
of this is, that the warmth of the feet is retained, however cold 
the surface may be on which the person stands, and that clam- 
my dampness, so objectionable in the wear of India rubber 
shoes, is entirely prevented. On first using gutta percha shoes, 
the wearer is forcibly struck with the superior warmth and 
comfort which is produced by this non-conducting property ; 
and I confidently predict, that all those who try gutta percha, 
will be steady consumers. 

We shall now give the method of fixing the gutta percha 
soles. Make the sole of the boot perfectly clean and dry, 
scratch it with an awl or a fork until it becomes rough, warm 
it before the fire, and spread over it with a hot iron or poker 
some of the " solution" sold for this purpose, or in the absence 
of this, place some of the thin parings of the gutta percha on 
the sole, holding it to the fire, and spreading it as before. 
When this has been repeated two or three times, and all is well 
covered, warm the gutta percha sole, and the sole of the boot 
at the same time, until both become soft and sticky, place the 
sole on the boot, and press it down carefully, beginning at the 
toe, so as to press out the air and make it adhere closely : 


nothing more remains to be done, than as soon as it becomes 
hard to pare the edges with a sharp knife, and trim off as may 
be necessary. All the parings and old pieces should be saved, 
as gutta percha is not injured by use, and may be sold to the 
manufacturer in order to be restored and made up again. 

313. Fly Water. — Most of the fly-waters, and other prepara- 
tions commonly sold for the destruction of flies, are variously dis- 
guised poisons, dangerous and even fatal to the human species : 
such as solutions of mercury, arsenic, etc., mixed with honey or 
syrup. ' The following preparation, however, without endanger- 
ing the lives of children, or other incautious persons, is not less 
fatal to flies than even a solution of arsenic. Dissolve two 
drachms of the extract of quassia in half a pint of boiling water ; 
and adding a little sugar or syrup, pour the mixture on plates. 
To this enticing food the flies are extremely partial, and it never 
fails to destroy them. 

A strong infusion of green tea, sweetened, is as effectual in 
poisoning flies, as the solution of arsenic generally sold for that 

314. To destroy Flies. — Ground black pepper and moist 
sugar, intimately mixed in equal quantities, and diluted with 
milk, placed in saucers, adding fresh milk, and stirring the mix- 
ture as often as necessary, succeeds admirably in occasioning 
their death. 

315. Another way to destroy Flies. — Pour a little simple 
oxymel (an article sold by druggists) into a common tumbler 
glass, and place in the glass a piece of cap paper, made into the 
shape of the upper part of a funnel, with a hole at the bottom 
to admit the flies. Attracted by the smell, they readily enter 
the trap in swarms, and by the thousands soon collected prove 
that they have not the wit or the disposition to return. 

316. To remove Flies. — Flies and other insects may be kept 
from attacking meat, by dusting it over with pepper, powdered 
ginger, or any other spice, or by skewering a piece of paper to 
it on which a drop of creosote has been poured. The spices 
may be readily washed off with water before dressing the meat. 

317. To keep off Flies. — Place camphor on or near what you 
wish to protect from them. 


318. Wasps and Flies. — These insects may be killed imme- 
diately by dipping a feather in a little sweet oil, and touching 
their backs with it. When intent on fruit this can easily be 
done. Insects of different kinds are readily killed by oil ; it 
closes up the lateral pores by which they breathe. 

319. To destroy Ants and Wasps. — Ants are destroyed by open- 
ing the nest and putting in quick-lime, and throwing water on it. 

Wasps may be destroyed in the same way ; only it will be 
requisite that the person who does it should be covered with 
muslin, or something over the face, hands, &c., so that the 
wasps shall not be able to sting them. 

320. To destroy Ants. — Ants that frequent houses or gardens 
may be destroyed by taking flour of brimstone, half a pound, 
and potash, four ounces : set them in an iron or earthen pan 
over the fire till dissolved and united ; afterwards beat them to 
a powder, and infuse a little of this powder in water ; and wher- 
ever you sprinkle it the ants will die, or fly the place. 

321. Another Method. — Corrosive sublimate, mixed well with 
sugar, has proved a mortal poison to them, and is the most effec- 
tual way of destroying these insects. 

322. To destroy Cockroaches, &c. — Stir a small quantity of 
arsenic with some bread-crumbs, which lay near the insects' 
haunts ; meantime, be careful to keep dogs and cats out of the 
way. Poisoned wafers are also made for killing cockroaches : 
a trap is made with a glass well, for the same purpose ; but a 
more simple contrivance is to half-fill a glazed basin, or pie- 
dish, with sweetened beer or linseed oil, and set in places fre- 
quented by cockroaches. They will attack the red wax of seal- 
ed bottles, but will not touch black wax. 

323. To destroy Crickets. — To destroy crickets at night, set 
dishes or saucers filled with the grounds of beer or tea, on the 
kitchen-floor, and, in the morning, the crickets will be found 
dead from excess of drinking. 

324. To drive away Fleas. — Sprinkle about the bed a few 
drops of oil of lavender, and the fleas will soon disappear*- 


Fumigation with brimstone, or fresh leaves of penny-royal 
sewed in a bag, and laid in the bed, will have the desired effect. 

325. Liquor for destroying Caterpillars, Ants, and other In- 
sects, — Take a pound and three-quarters of soap, the same quan- 
tity of flower of sulphur, two pounds of champignons, or puff- 
balls, and fifteen gallons of water. When the whole has been 
well mixed, by the aid of a gentle heat, sprinkle the insects 
with the liquor, and it will instantly kill them. 

326. To destroy Rats. — Cut a number of corks or a piece of 
sponge as thin as sixpences ; stew them in grease, and place 
them in the way of the rats. They will greedily devour this 
delicacy, and will die of indigestion. 

327. To kill Rats, another way. — There are two objections 
to the common mode of killing rats, by laying poison for them ; 
first, the danger to which it exposes other animals and even 
human beings ; second, the possibility that the rats may cause 
an intolerable stench, by dying in their holes. The following 
method is free from these objections, and has proved effectual 
in clearing houses infested with these vermin. * 

Oil of amber and ox-gall in equal parts, add to them oat- 
meal or flour sufficient to form a paste, which divide into little 
balls and lay them in the middle of a room which rats are 
supposed or known to visit. Surround the balls with a num- 
ber of vessels filled with water. The smell of the oil will be 
sure to attract the rats, they will greedily devour the balls, 
and becoming intolerably thirsty, will drink till they die on 
the spot. 

328. To expel Rats. — Catch one in a trap; muzzle it, with 
the assistance of a fellow-servant, and slightly singe some of 
the hair; then smear the part with turpentine, and set the ani- 
mal loose ; if again caught, leave it still at liberty, as the other 
rats will shun the place which it inhabits. It is said to be a 
fact that a toad placed in a cellar will t'vee it from rats. 

Rats may be expelled from cellars and granaries simply by 
scattering a few stalks and leaves of mullen in their paths. 
There is something very annoying in this plant to the rat. It 
affords, therefore, a very easy method of getting rid of a most 


perplexing evil, and much more economical and less trouble- 
some than gunpowder, " rat exterminator," cats, or traps. 

329. To destroy Fleas and other Vermin on Animals. — To de- 
stroy them on dogs, rub the animal, when out of the house, 
with the common Scotch snuff, except the nose and eyes. Rub 
the powder well into the roots of the hair. Clear lime-water 
destroys the flea-worm without injuring the skin or hair. 

Oil of turpentine, when applied to animals, which were 
covered w r ith insects, destroyed the insects, without hurting the 

330. To destroy Bugs. — Mix half a pint of spirits of turpen- 
tine and half a pint of best rectified spirits of wine, in a strong 
bottle, and add in small pieces about half an ounce of camphor, 
which will dissolve in a few minutes. Shake the mixture well 
together; and, with a sponge or brush dipped in it, well wet 
the bed and furniture where the vermin breed. This will infal- 
libly destroy both them and their nits, though they swarm. 
The dust, however, should be well brushed from the bedstead 
and furniture, to prevent, from such carelessness, any stain. If 
that precaution is attended to, there will be no danger of soil- 
ing the richest silk or damask. On touching a live bug with 
only the tip of a pin put into the mixture, the insect will be 
instantly deprived of existence, and should any bugs happen to 
appear after using the mixture, it will only be from not wet- 
ting the linen, &c, of the bed, the foldings and linings of the 
curtains near the rings or the joints, or holes in and about the 
bed or head-board, in which places the vermin nestle and breed ; 
so that those parts being well wetted with more of the mixture, 
which dries as fast as it is used, and pouring it into the joints 
and holes, where the sponge and brush cannot reach, it will 
never fail totally to destroy them. . The smell of this mixture, 
though powerful, is extremely wholesome, and to many persons 
very agreeable. It exhales, however, in two or three days. 
Only one caution is necessary ; but that is important. The 
mixture must be well shaken when used; but never applied by 
candle light, lest the spirits, being attracted by the flare of the 
candle, might cause a conflagration. 

331. Kitchen Cloths. — The four kinds of cloths requisite for 
the kitchen, are knife-cloths, dusters, tea and glass-cloths. 


Knife-cloths should be made of coarse sheeting. Dusters are 
generally made of mixed cotton and linen. The best material 
for tea and glass-cloths, is a sheet which has begun to wear thin. 
Besides the above cloths, are knife-tray-cloths, house-cloths 
for cleaning, pudding and cheese-cloths, and towels. 

332. Clothes' Posts soon decay at the bottom, if left standing 
in the ground ; but, if fitted into sockets so as to be remov- 
able, they will last for years. The sockets should be made of 
one-inch elm, eighteen inches in length, tapering downwards. 
When finished, they ought to be about three inches square 
inside, at the upper end. They are to be driven firmly into 
the earth till just level with the surface. The posts are then 
made to drop in and stand firm, and can be taken out, and put 
under shelter when not in use. A cover should be fitted to 
each socket, to keep litter from falling in when the post is 
removed. A drying-ground should not be too much exposed 
to the wind, as the violent flapping tears the corners of table- 
cloths, sheets, &c., and overblown linen feels flabby after man-" 
g lin g- 

333. Out-houses and Cellars. — If these have not been recently 
cleansed, have them thoroughly cleaned out and white-washed. 
A dirty cellar is an abomination, and the fruitful source of 
many diseases. Let all your out-buildings have a thorough 
overhauling and repairing. 

334. To purify Houses. — An able chemist recommends a 
mixture of one pound of chloride of lime in ten gallons of 
water. Throw a quart of this daily down the sink or water- 
closet. It will not cost five cents a week. 

One of the best and most pleasant disinfectants is coffee. 
Pound well-dried raw coffee-beans in a mortar, and strew the 
powder over a moderately heated iron plate. The simple 
traversing of the house with a roaster containing freshly roasted 
coffee will clear it of offensive smells. 


PAET n. 


Rules for the preservation of Health, and simple Recipes found 
often efficacious in common diseases and slight injuries — Direc- 
tions for preparing Remedies and ministering to the Sick and 
Suffering — The Toilet, or hints and suggestions for the pre- 
servation of Beauty, with some useful Recipes for those who 
need them. 

335. Means of preserving Health. — Light and sunshine are 
needful for your health. Get all you can ; keep your windows 
clean. Do not block them up with curtains, plants, or bunches 
of flowers : these last poison the air in small rooms. 

Fresh air is needful for your health. As often as you can, 
open all your windows, if only for a short time, in bad weather ; 
in fine weather, keep them open, but never sit in draughts. 
When you get up, open the windows wide, and throw down 
the bed-clothes, that they may be exposed to fresh air some 
hours daily before they are made up. Keep your bed-clothes 
clean ; hang them to the fire when you can. Avoid wearing at 
night what you wear in the day. Hang up your day clothes 
at night. Except in the severest weather, in small crowded 
sleeping-rooms, a little opening at the top of the window-sash 
is very important; or, you will find one window-pane of perfo- 
rated zinc very useful. You will not catch cold half so easily 
by breathing pure air at night. Let not the beds be directly 
under the windows. Sleeping in exhausted air creates a desire 
for stimulants. 

Pure water is needful for your health. Wash your bodies 
as well as your faces, rubbing them all over with a coarse cloth. 


If you cannot wash thus every morning, pray do so once a week. 
Crying and cross children are often pacified by a gentle washing 
of their little hands and faces — it soothes them. Babies' heads 
should be washed carefully, every morning, with yellow soap. 
No scurf should be suffered to remain upon them. Get rid of 
all slops and dirty water at once, but do not throw them out 
before your doors ; and never suffer dead cabbage-leaves or dirt 
of any kind to remain there; all these poison the air, and bring 
fevers. All bad smells are poison ; never rest with them. 
Keep your back yards clean. Pig-sties are very injurious ; 
slaughter-houses are equally hurtful : the smells from both 
excite typhus fever, and cause ill health. Frederick the Great 
said, that one fever was more fatal to him than seven battles. 
Disease, and even death, is often the consequence of our own 
negligence. Wash your rooms and passages at least once a 
week ; use plenty of clean water ; but do not let your children 
stay in them while they are wet — it may bring on croup or 
inflammation of the chest. If you read your Bibles — which it 
is earnestly hoped you do — you will find how cleanliness, both 
as to the person and habitation, was taught to the Jews by God 
himself; and we read in the 4th chapter of Nehemiah, that 
when they w r ere building their second temple, and defending 
their lives against their foes, having no time for rest, they con- 
trived to put off their clothes for washing. It is a good old 
saying, that Cleanliness is next to Godliness. See II eb. x. 22. 

Wholesome food is needful for your health. Buy the most 
strengthening. Pieces of fresh beef and mutton go the farthest. 
Eat plenty of fresh salt with food;' it prevents disease. Pray 
do not let your children waste their pocket-money in tarts, 
cakes, sugar-plums, sour fruit, &c. ; they are very unwholesome, 
and hurt the digestion. People would often, at twenty years 
of age, have a nice little sum of money to help them on in 
the world, if they had put in the savings-bank the money so 
wasted. Cocoa is cheaper and much more nourishing than tea. 
None of these liquids should be taken hot, but lukewarm ; when 
hot, they inflame the stomach, and produce indigestion. All 
kinds of intoxicating drinks are to be avoided, or take^i in the 
utmost moderation. If possible, abstain from them altogether. 
Money saved from drink, will help to educate your children, 
and make your homes happier. 

We are all made to breathe the pure air of heaven, and there- 
fore much illness is caused by being constantly in-doors. This 


is especially the case with mothers of families, young milliners, 
ironers, shoe-makers, tailors, &c. Let such persons make a 
point, whenever it is possible, of taking exercise in the open air 
for at least an hour and a half, daily. Time would be saved 
in the long-run, by the increased energy and strength gained, 
and by the warding off of disease. 

Be sure to get your children vaccinated, between the third 
and sixth month after birth, before teething begins, and when 
they are in a good state of health for it. This would save a 
great many lives. On no account give your children laudanum, 
or any kind of sleeping medicine; numbers are killed by it. 

336. Directions in severe Sickness. — Whenever any one of 
your family is taken violently ill, send as soon as possible for 
the most skilful physician — and follow, carefully, his orders. 
But, many times, the mother is the best physician, and the 
only one needed for her children, if she has been trained to 
take proper care of her own health, as every woman should be. 
The following recipes and directions may be of great service 
to young mothers, and those who have not been accustomed 
to minister to the sick. 

337. To purify the Chambers of the Sick. — Close the windows 
and doors of the room to be purified, except one door ; close 
also the chimney aperture, except two or three inches at the 
bottom, and remove all the iron and brass furniture ; then put 
three table-spoonsful of common salt into a dish or pan, place 
it upon the floor of the apartment, and pour at once upon the 
salt a quarter of a pint of oil of vitriol ; retire, and close the 
room for forty-eight hours, during which time vapor will con- 
tinue to rise and diffuse itself completely through the room, so 
as to destroy the matter on which infection depends. The room 
may then be entered, the doors and windows thrown open, and 
a fire made in the grate, so that the apartment may be perfectly 

338. To prevent Infection. — As a preservative, carry with 
you and smell occasionally, a handkerchief sprinkled with this 
mixture ; half an ounce of spirits of camphor, half a pint of 
water, and five ounces of pyroligneous acid. 

Cascarilla bark is good to smoke, to prevent the effects of 
malaria, and in sick rooms to correct bad effluvia. It yields a 


fine aromatic odor, and is very wholesome for sedentary and 
studious people to smoke, if mixed with good tobacco. The 
proportions for either of these purposes are as follow : one 
pound of Turkey tobacco, four ounces of Dutch canister 
tobacco, and one ounce of Cascarilla bark, broken small ; mix 
the above, and smoke a pipe of it every evening, when the 
house is shut up ; it is also a good digester after meals. 

339. Fumigating Pastilles. — Pound and mix gum benja- 
min and frankincense in powder, of each two drachms ; gum 
myrrh, storax, cascarilla bark, and nitre, of each, powdered, one 
ounce and a half; and charcoal powder, one ounce : moisten, 
and shape into pastilles with gum-water, and a very little tur- 

The stalks of dried lavender, if burnt, have an agreeable 
scent, and form a substitute for pastilles ; they may be cut 
small, and burnt in little vessels. 

340. To use Chloride of Lime. — This preventive of contagion - 
may be used as follows: stir one pound of the chloride of lime 
into four gallons of water ; allow it to settle for a short time, 
pour off the clear solution, and keep it in well-corked bottles. 

In houses infected, sprinkle the rooms morning and evening 
with the above liquid ; and pour some of it into shallow dishes 
or basins. Sprinkle it about the room and bed-linen occasion- 
ally, and admit fresh air. Infected linen should be dipped in 
the mixture about five minutes, and then in common water, 
before it is sent to the wash. 

A wine-glassful added to the water of a night-chair or bed- 
pan, will prevent any smell. To destroy the effluvia from 
drains, sewers, cesspools, &c, pour into them a quart of the 
mixture, with a pail of water. 

Meat sprinkled with, or dipped in the mixture, and hung in 
the air, will not be attacked by flies, nor be tainted, for some 

Water in cisterns may be purified, and its animalcula killed, 
by putting about a pint of the mixture to one hundred gallons 
of water. 

This mixture will also destroy bugs, if the joints and crevices 
of bedsteads be washed with it. It will likewise remove the 
smell of paint Id a day, if the newly painted room be sprinkled 
with it, and if some be placed there in dishes or saucers. 


341. Disinfecting Liquid. — In a wine-bottle full of cold water 
dissolve two ounces of sugar of lead, and add two ounces of 
aqua-fortis. Shake the mixture well. A very small quantity 
of the liquid in its strongest form should be used for cleansing 
all chamber utensils. To remove offensive odors, dilute the 
liquid with eight or ten parts of water, moisten clean cloths 
thoroughly with it, and hang them in various parts of the room. 
The offensive gases are neutralized by chemical action. Fumi- 
gation is merely substituting one odor for another. In all 
practicable cases, fresh air, and plenty of it, is far the best dis- 

342. To prevent Abrasions of the Skin in persons confined to 
their beds ; a very valuable recipe. — Apply occasionally to the 
tender parts of the body, with a feather, this mixture. Beat to 
a strong froth the white of an egg^ then drop in gradually, 
while beating it, two tea-spoonfuls of spirits of wine. Bottle it 
for use. 

343. To prevent Discolor ations of the Skin after a blow or 
fall. — Moisten a little dry starch or arrow-root with cold water, 
and lay it on the injured part. It should be done immediately, 
so as to prevent the action of the air upon th# skin ; however, 
it may be applied with good effect some hours afterwards. It 
is a French receipt, and is quite valuable. 

344. A recipe for Neuralgia in the Face. — Make a lotion with 
half a pint of rose-water and two tea-spoonfuls of white vine- 
gar. Apply it to the part affected, three or four times a-day, 
using a fresh linen cloth each time. In two or three days the 
pain will pass away. This has been an effectual cure with 
many, but as the disease arises from various causes, there is no 
specific for it. 

345. Eye Water for weak eyes. — Infuse in boiling water, till 
cold, half an ounce of poppy heads, and the same quantity of 
chamomile flowers. Strain this mixture, and add two table- 
spoonfuls of vinegar, and one of brandy. Apply it warm, 
night and morning. 

346. Another. — Put into a two-ounce phial fifteen drops of 
laudanum, fill it with two-thirds of rose-water, and one-third of 
rectified spirits of Mindererus. Use it with a sponge. 


347. To cure a Bruise in the Eye. — Take conserve of red 
roses, or a bruised apple, put them in a fold of thin cambric, 
apply it to the eye, and it will draw the bruise out. 

348. Cold or Inflammation of the Eyes. — Mix a few bread 
crumbs with the white of an egg, put it in a bag of soft muslin, 
and apply it to the eye. It will afford relief in a few minutes, 
and generally a cure in a day. It is best applied at night, or 
when lying down. When removed, bathe the eye well with 
warm water, using a bit of muslin, not a sponge. 

349. Carvacrol, the new remedy for the Tooth-ache. — Dr. 
Bushman gives (in the Medical Times) the following account of 
this new compound, which, though well known in Germany as 
a quick and effectual cure for one of the most worrying ills 
" that flesh is heir to," is now for the first time published in 
England. Carvacrol is an oily liquid, with a strong taste and 
unpleasant odor. It may be made by the action of iodine on 
oil of caraway or on camphor. A few drops applied on cotton 
wool (to a decayed and painful tooth) give immediate relief. 
Carvacrol much resembles creosote in appearance, and is used 
in similar cases of tooth-ache, but its effect is much more speedy 
and certain. 

350. To cure Tooth-ache. — A remedy, often effectual, is to 
fill the mouth with w T arm w r ater, and immediately after with 

351. Another cure for Tooth-ache. — Powdered alum will 
not only relieve the tooth-ache, but prevent the decay of the 

352. Gum-boils. — A gum-boil is sometimes a primary dis- 
ease, depending on an inflammation of the gums from accidental 
and common causes, in which case the lancet, or leaving it to 
nature, soon restores the gum to a healthy state ; but it more 
generally arises from a carious tooth, in which case extraction 
is necessary. If there be any constitutional disturbance about 
the face, leeches and purgatives, and the usual means for sub- 
duing inflammation may be resorted to. 

353. Diseases of the Ear. — Sometimes car-ache is connected 
with chronic ulceration in the internal and external part of the 


ear — when injections of warm water and soap are advisable. 
In this case, there is sometimes a constant foetid discharge — for 
which the following mixture has been recommended: — Mix 
three drachms of ox-gall and one drachm of balsam of Peru. 
Put a drop on a little cotton in the ear. 

354. Temporary Deafness. — If the ear be inflamed, inject 
water into it with a syringe, as warm as the patient can bear it, 
and foment the part with the decoction of poppy-heads and 
chamomile flowers. Should this not relieve the pain, a drop 
of oil of cloves with a little oil of almonds should be dropped 
into the ear, and cotton wool put into it. If the ear discharge 
much, inject warm water with Castile soap into it. 

355. For a Pain in the Ear. — Oil of sweet almonds, two 
drachms, and oil of amber, four drops. Apply four drops of 
this mixture, when in pain, to the part affected. 

356. Another cure for the Ear-ache. — Dip a little cotton into 
a mixture of oil of sweet almonds and laudanum, and put it 
into the ear ; or, apply a small poultice, in which is put a raw 
chopped clove of garlic ; or, roast a small onion, and put as 
much of the inside into the ear as you conveniently can. 

357. To kill Earwigs, or other Insects, which may accidentally 
have crept into the Ear. — Let the person under this distressing 
circumstance lay his head upon a table, the side upwards that 
is afflicted ; at the same time, let some friend carefully drop 
into the ear a little sweet oil or oil of almonds. A drop or two 
will be sufficient, which will instantly destroy the insect and 
remove the pain, however violent. 

358. Bleeding at the Nose. — In obstinate cases, blow a little 
gum Arabic powder up the nostrils through a quill, which will 
immediately stop the discharge. 

359. Another cure for Bleeding at the Nose. — Elevating the 
patient's arm will often have the desired effect. The explanation 
is based upon physiological grounds : the greater force required 
to propel the blood through the vessels of the arm, when ele- 
vated, causes the pressure upon the vessels of the head to be 
diminished, by the increased action which takes place in the 


course of the brachial arteries. If the theory be sound, both 
arms should be elevated. 

360. To destroy Corns and Warts. — Put into an earthen 
pipkin a quarter of a pint of linseed oil, to which add one ounce 
of resin and a little litharge. Warm them together ; spread 
them upon leather, and apply them to corns or warts. 

361. To destroy Warts. — Dissolve as much common washing 
soda as the water will take up ; wash the warts with this for 
a minute or two, and let them dry without wiping. Keep the 
water in a bottle, and repeat the washing often. It will remove 
the largest warts. 

Caustic is an effectual though troublesome application. The 
juice of the common annual spurge plant is as efficacious a 
remedy ; as is the bark of the willow tree, burnt to ashes, mix- 
ed with vinegar, and applied to the warts. The juice of the 
marigold is another remedy. 

362. A certain care for Warts. — Steep in vinegar the inner 
rind of a lemon for twenty-four hours, and apply it to the wart. 
The lemon must not remain on more than three hours, and 
should be applied fresh every day. To apply acetic acid with 
a camel's hair-brush, is still better. 

363. Corns on the Feet. — These are usually made by wearing 
shoes over-tight; but, walking on pavement in very thin shoes 
will cause corns and bunions, because of bruising the feet on 
the hard stones. 

364. To prevent Corns from growing on the Feet. — Easy shoes; 
frequently bathing the feet in lukewarm water, with a little salt 
or potashes dissolved in it. 

365. Sir H. Davy's Corn Solvent. — Potash, two parts ; 
of sorrel, one part ; each in fine powder. Mix, and lay a small 
quantity on the corn for four or five successive nights, binding 
it on with a rag. 

366. To cure Corns. — An effectual remedy. — The cause of 
corns, and likewise the torture they occasion, is simply friction ; 
and to lessen the friction, you have only to use your toe as you 
do in like circumstances a coach wheel — lubricate it with «<^™« 


oily substance. The best and cleanest thing to use, is a little 
sweet oil rubbed on the affected part (after the corn is carefully 
pared) with the tip of the finger, which should be done on get- 
ting up in the morning, and just before stepping into bed at 
night. In a few days the pain will diminish, and in a few days 
more it will cease, when the nightly application may be dis- 

367. Another cure for Corns. — Place the feet for half an hour 
for two or three nights successively, in a pretty strong solution 
of common soda. The alkali dissolves the indurated cuticle, 
and the corn falls out spontaneously, leaving a small excava- 
tion, which soon fills up. This is an almost certain remedy. 

368. To cure soft Corns. — Dip a soft linen rag in turpen- 
tine, and place it over the corn night and morning. In a few 
days the corn w r ill disappear. A little sweet oil rubbed on 
them is often of great service. Or, a small piece of cotton 
placed between the toes is sometimes efficacious ; or, the juice 
or pulp of a lemon. 

369. To cure Bunions in their commencement — Bind the joint 
tightly, either w r ith broad tape or adhesive plaster. The strip 
should be kept on as long as the least uneasiness is felt. It 
should wrap quite round the foot. 

370. Lotion for Chilblains. — Mix distilled vinegar and spirit 
of mindererus, of each four ounces, with half an ounce of borax. 

In common cases of chilblains, apply pieces of soft linen, 
moistened with spirits of camphor, soap liniment, camphor lini- 
ment, &c. When the swellings break, apply emollient oint- 
ments for a few days. Equal quantities of sweet oil, lime 
water, and spirits of wine, are also an excellent remedy for 

371. Simple remedy for Chilblains. — Soak them in warm bran 
and w r ater, then rub them well with mustard-seed flour^; but it 
w r ill be better if they are done before they break. 

372. Another remedy. — Cut an onion in thick slices, and with 
these rub the chilblains thoroughly, on two or three nights, 
before a good fire, and they will soon disappear. 



373. Sir A. Cooper's Chilblain Liniment. — One ounce of cam. 
phorated spirit of wine, half an ounce of liquid subacetate of 
lead ; mix, and apply in the usual way three or four times a 
day. Some persons use vinegar as a preventive ; its efficacy 
might be increased, by the addition to the vinegar of one-fourth 
of its quantity of camphorated spirit. 

374. Note. — Those who are most liable to chilblains, should, 
on the approach of winter, cover the parts most subject to be 
affected, with woollen gloves or stockings, and not expose the 
hands or feet too much to wet and cold. 

375. To stop violent Bleeding from a Cut. — Make a paste, 
by mixing fine flour with vinegar, and lay it on the cut. 

376. An excellent Styptic. — The outside woof of silk-worms 
has been tried with great success by several people, more 
especially by a lady, who, in mending a pen, cut her thumb 
to the bone, and through part of the nail ; it bled profusely ; 
but, by trying this styptic, and binding up the wound, the 
hemorrhage stopped, and the wound healed in three days. 

377. A new and useful Styptic. — Take brandy, or common 
spirit, two ounces ; Castile soap, two drachms ; potash, one 
drachm; scrape the soap fine, and dissolve it in the brandy ; 
then add the potash, and mix it well together, and keep it 
close stopped from the air in a phial. When you apply it, 
warm it in a vessel, or dip pledges of lint into it, and the blood 
will immediately congeal. It operates by coagulating the 
blood, both a considerable way within the vessels, as well as 
the extravasated blood without, and restraining, at the same 
time, the mouths of the vessels. 

It forms a valuable embrocation, in cases of tumors or swell- 
ings from bruises, by being frequently rubbed on the part. It 
is also used in a similar manner for rheumatic pains. 

378. To prevent Wounds from mortifying. — Sprinkle sugar 
on them. The Turks wash fresh wounds with w T ine, and sprinkle 
sugar on them. Obstinate ulcers may be cured with sugar 
dissolved in a strong decoction of walnut leaves. 

379. To cure Ring-worms. — Dissolve borax in water, and 
apply it- at first, it will produce a burning sensation and red- 


ness; it should then be discontinued for a few days, and being 
resumed, the ring-worm will soon disappear. 

To sponge the head daily with vinegar and water, in the pro- 
portion of half a pint of vinegar to a pint and a half of water, 
will prevent or cure ring-worms. 

380. Another cure for Ring -worms — To one part of sulphuric 
acid, add about twenty parts of water. Use a brush or fea- 
ther, and apply it to the part, night and morning. A very 
few dressings will generally cure. If the solution is too strong, 
dilute it with more water; and if the irritation is excessive, 
rub a little oil or other softening applicant ; but avoid soap. 

While the patches are in an inflamed and irritable condi- 
tion, it is necessary to limit the local applications to regular 
washing or sponging with warm water, or some softening fo- 

381. Cure for Erysipelas. — A simple poultice made of cran- 
berries, pounded fine, and applied in a raw state, has proved a 
certain remedy. 

382. Remedy for Minting. — First place the patient in the 
horizontal posture, throw cold water over the face, and bathe 
the hands with vinegar and water ; loosen the dress, and admit 
a free current of fresh, cool air. Pungent salts, ether, or eau 
de Cologne, should be held occasionally to the nose, and the 
temples should be rubbed with either of the two latter. When 
the patient has partly recovered, a small quantity of wine, cold 
water, or ten or twenty drops of sal-volatile or ether, in water, 
should be given. 

383. Remedy for Fits. — If a person fall in a fit, let him re- 
main on the ground, provided his face be pale ; for should it be 
fainting or temporary suspension of the heart's action, you may 
cause death by raising him upright, or by bleeding ; but if the 
face be red or dark-colored, raise him on his seat, throw cold 
water on his head immediately ; cold water is the best re- 

384. German method of preventing Hysterics. — Caraway 
seeds, finely pounded, with a small proportion of ginger and 
salt, spread upon bread and butter, and eaten every day, espe- 


cially early in the morning, and at night, before going to bed, 
are successfully used in Germany, as a domestic remedy 
against hysterics. 

385. Stomachic Mixture.— Camphor julep, one ounce ; sweet 
spirit of nitre, half an ounce ; compound tincture of cardamoms, 
spirit of anise-seed, of each five drachms ; oil of caraway, twelve 
drops ; syrup of ginger, two drachms ; peppermint-water, two 
drachms. Mix. A table-spoonful occasionally in flatulency 
and dyspepsia. 

386. Red lavender drops for Nervous Attacks. — Fill a quart 
bottle with the blossoms of lavender, and pour on it as much 
brandy as it will contain ; let it stand ten days, then strain it, 
and add of nutmeg bruised, cloves, mace, and cochineal, a quar- 
ter of an ounce each, and bottle it for use. In nervous cases, 
a little may be taken dropped on a bit of sugar ; and in the 
beginning of a bowel complaint, a tea-spoonful, taken in half a 
glass of peppermint water, will often prove efficacious. 

387. Eggs in Jaundice. — The yolk of an egg, either eaten 
raw, or slightly boiled, is perhaps the mjst salutary of all the 
animal substances. It is a natural soap, and, in all jaundice 
cases no food is equal to it. When the gall is either too weak, 
or, by accidental means, is not permitted to flow in sufficient 
quantity into the duodenum, our food, which consists of watery 
and oily parts, cannot unite so as to become chyle. Such is 
the nature of the yolk of an egg, that it is capable of uniting 
water and oil into an uniform substance, thereby making up 
for the deficiency of natural bile. — Dr. A. Hunter. 

388. Aperient for Children. — Gingerbread made with oat- 
meal instead of flour, is a very useful aperient for children. 

389. Cramp. — Cramp in the calves of the legs is a very dis- 
agreeable complaint, to which these who have their legs con- 
fined in tight boots are subject in travelling. An effectual pre- 
ventative of this pain, is to stretch out the heel of the leg as far 
as possible, at the same time drawing up the toes towards the 

A garter applied tightly rounc}^ limb affected will, in most 
cases, speedily remove this complaint. When it is more obsti 


nate, a brick should be heated, wrapped in a flannel bag, and 
placed at the foot of the bed, against which the person troubled 
may place his feet. JVo remedy, how ever, is equal to that of dili- 
gent and long -continued friction. 

Cramp is apt to attack the calves of the legs and toes soon 
after retiring to rest. Get out of bed, and exercise the muscles 

390. For Spasms. — Mix four table-spoonsful of camphor julep 
and twenty drops of sal-volatile, for a dose, to be repeated 
twice or thrice a day. 

391. To apply Leeches. — Make the part clean and dry, and 
dry the leeches in a clean cloth ; if this fail, scratch the surface 
of the skin with a point of a lancet, and apply the leech on the 
spot, moistened with the blood. To apply a number of leeches, 
put them into a very small wine-glass, which hold over them till 
they are fixed. If the skin be much inflamed and heated, pour 
a little tepid water into the water containing the leeches, before 
they are taken out to be applied. If sulphur be taken inter- 
nally, or applied externally, leeches will not bite ; neither will 
they bite if the skin be covered with perspiration ; or if there 
be tobacco smoke or vinegar-vapor in the room. 

All that is requisite to stop the bleeding, after the leech is 
taken away, is constant pressure on the spot ; a piece of sponge 
or cotton, the size of a pin's head, is to be put upon the aper- 
ture, and kept there by cross slips of adhesive plaster spread 
upon linen, or the surgeon's strapping : if greater pressure be 
necessary, some linen may be placed between the stopper and 
the plaster. 

392. A useful embrocation for Rheumatism, Lumbago, or 
Strains. — Half an ounce of strongest camphorated spirit, one 
ounce spirits of turpentine, one raw egg, half pint best vinegar. 
Well mix the whole, and keep it closely corked. To be rubbed 
in three or four times a day. For rheumatism in the head, or 
face-ache, rub all over the back of the head and neck, as well 
as the part which is the immediate seat of pain. 

393. For Gout and Rheumatism. — Mix in one pound of 
honey one ounce of flour of sulphur, half an ounce of cream of 
tartar, two drachms of gin^jfc in powder, and half a nutmeg, 
grated : for rheumatism, add half a drachm of gum-guaiacum, 


powdered. The full dose is two tea- spoonsful at bed-time and 
early in the morning, in a tumbler of hot water. This is " the 
Chelsea Pensioners' recipe." 

394. Influenza, — Influenza is an Italian word, and means 
what we express in English by almost the same word, influence. 
The word as applied to this disease, originated from the belief 
held by our ancestors, of the influence of the stars upon human 
affairs. When a complaint suddenly appeared, and affected 
great numbers without an obvious cause, the visitation was 
ascribed to the stars. Whatever might have been the origin 
of the name, it is an appropriate one, for the Influenza certainly 
springs from some pervading influence. It may, for anything 
we can prove to the contrary, be occasioned by some subtle 
poison diffused throughout the atmosphere, which medical men 
call a miasm. Bad air, rising from marshy ground, occasions 
ague ; and bad air arising from drains in towns, from cess-pools, 
and other collections of filth, gives rise to the worst kinds of 
fe\er. And it is not a matter of chance : the ague will continue 
in marshy countries till these are drained ; and in the dirty 
quarters of a large town, there is sure to be typhus fever. If 
we cannot, in these ^ases, see, taste, or touch the bad air, or 
even smell it, we know that fens poison the air with a matter 
that causes ague, and animal refuse with what causes fever and 
many other diseases. But, the existence of a peculiar poison 
in the air in influenza, is very doubtful. It is likely, however, 
and generally believed by medical men, that influenza arises 
from certain states or changes in the air connected with heat 
and moisture. Now, though it appears in hot weather and 
cold, in dry and wet, it may still depend on certain conditions 
of the weather, just as a person will sometimes take a cough 
in a warm moist day, and again in a dry east wind ; and just, 
in fact, as we see a fog, which depends on atmospheric changes, 
produced under different circumstances. The brisk air of the 
country often gives town-people a head-cold, and country people 
sometimes suffer in the same way when they visit town. Dur- 
ing every season, certain people have " head-colds," coughs, 
and " feverish colds." These are produced by certain states 
of climate acting on certain states of constitution. At particular 
seasons such complaints abound^ — at others they abound still 
more; and again, from some singularity, they prevail so much, 
that people say, there is an Influenza. 


In simple cases, confinement to a pure and temperate air, 
warm drinks, and a warm bath, or at least a warm foot-bath, 
with an extra blanket, and a little more rest than usual, keep- 
ing to mild food and toast and water, and taking, if necessary, 
a dose of aperient medicines — is all that is required. In serious 
cases, the domestic treatment must become professional. Mus- 
tard plasters to the back, relieve the head-ache. Squills, and 
other medicines, " loosen " the outstanding cough. Bark and 
wine, and even cold baths, are sometimes requisite for the 
weakness left behind. But these things can only be used with 
discrimination by a regular professional man. 

395. For the Breath. — Persons who suffer from difficulty of 
breathing and oppression on the chest, will find great relief 
from the following simple contrivance. A tea-kettle is to be 
kept boiling, either over a fire or over a common night-lamp 
or nursing-candlestick. A tin tube is to be fitted on to the 
spout of the tea-kettle, of such length and form as to throw 
the steam in front of the sick person, who will then breathe 
in it. This prevents the distressing sensation occasioned by 
inhaling the cold night air, which will be felt by persons suffer- 
ing from asthma or water on the chest, and which is not ob- 
viated either by clothing or fire. 

396. To relieve Asthma. — Soak some blotting-paper in a strong 
solution of saltpetre; dry it, take a piece about the size of your 
hand, and on going to bed, light it, and layit>*upon a plate in 
your bed-room. By doing so, persons, however badly afflicted 
with asthma, will find that they can sleep almost as well as 
when in health. (Many persons have experienced relief from 
the use of this specific.) 

397. Relief for Asthma — another way. — Mix two ounces of 
the best honey with one ounce of castor oil, and take a tea- 
spoonful, night and morning. 

398. Garyle for Sore Throat. — On twenty five or thirty leaves 
of the common sage, pour a pint of boiling water ; let the 
infusion stand half an hour. Add vinegar enough to make it 
moderately acid, and honey to the taste. Use it as a gargle, 
several times a day. This combination of the astringent and 
emollient principle seldom fails to produce the desired effect. 


399. To prevent Lamps from being pernicious to Asthmatic 
persons, or others liable to Complaints of the Chest. — Let a sponge, 
three or four inches in diameter,, be moistened with pure water, 
and in that state be suspended by a string or wire, exactly 
over the flame of the lamp, at the distance of a few inches ; 
this substance will absorb all the smoke emitted during the 
evening or night; after which, it should -be rinsed in warm 
water, by which means it will be again rendered fit for use. 

400. The use of Tar-water in expanding the Lungs of Public 
Speakers, &c. — It has been found by the experience of many, 
that drinking tar- water very much deterges and opens the 
lungs, and thereby gives a very sensibly greater ease in speak- 
ing. A quart of tar is to be stirred six minutes in a gallon of 
water ; but if there be somewhat less tar, it may do as well, 
especially at first, to try how it sits on the stomach. Take 
about one-fourth of a pint, at four several times, at a due dis- 
tance from meals. Begin taking it in the spring for about 
fourteen days, and continue it for a greater length of time, a3 
occasion may require. 

401. To prevent Banger from Wet Clothes. — Keep if possible 
in motion, and take care not to go near a fire or into any very 
warm place, so as to occasion a sudden heat, till some time 
after you have been able to procure dry clothes. 

402. Cold and Damp Feet. — Nothing can be more erroneous 
than the notion that by pouring spirits into boots and shoes, 
when the feet are wet, will prevent the effects of cold ; on the 
contrary, the practice often produces cold, inflammation, and 
obstruction in the bowels. When the spirit reaches the feet, it 
immediately evaporates : the stronger it is, the more quickly it 
evaporates, and the greater is the cold produced. 

403. For Whooping Cough. — Mix two tea-spoonfuls of pare- 
goric elixir, one table-spoonful of oxyrn^l of squills, and the 
same quantity of water and mucilage of gum-arabic. A tea- 
spoonful may be taken three or four times a-day, or when 
the cough is troublesome. 

Treat the whooping cough with the same care as you would 
any other cough. Keep the children warmly clothed, and dryly 
lodged, and in the house, at all times, except in warm sunny 


days, when air and exercise in moderation, observing that they 
do not overheat themselves, may do good. Put their feet in a 
pan of warm water just before they go to bed, and be careful 
to wipe them dry and wrap them in flannel. During the day 
they must wear woollen stockings and thick-soled shoes. Let 
their drink be toast-water, tea and raspberry vinegar mixed 
with water, two table-spoonfuls to a half-pint, or less if it be 
very sharp. Red or black currant-jelly dissolved in water 
makes a pleasant, cool drink. Be sure you give no kind of 
quack medicines — but an occasional dose of simple opening 
medicine, if the bowels are confined ; and a quarter of a grain, 
or half a grain of plain ipecacuanha powder in a tea-spoonful of 
gruel or jelly at bed-time. Rub the chest and between the 
shoulders, with equal parts of rum and turpentine, adding a lit- 
tle oil, if it is too harsh for the skin. The child might suck an 
ipecacuanha lozenge two or three times a-day. Effervescent, 
saline draughts are very grateful and beneficial, where there is 
not only continual nausea, but frequent sickness from the 
spasmodic nature of the cough. If it be attended with pain in 
the chest or side, seek advice from a medical man without 

404. For common Coughs. — Mix one ounce of oil of almonds, 
one drachm of powdered gum arabic, one ounce of syrup, and 
one ounce and a half of water ; take a tea-spoonful or two oc- 

405. Winter Cough. — Mix two ounces of oxymel of stramo- 
nium with six ounces of the decoction of Iceland moss ; take 
a dessert-spoonful when the cough is troublesome. 

406. For Cough and Hoarseness. — Beat well a newly laid 
egg, and stir it into a quarter of a pint of new milk, warmed, 
to which add a table-spoonful of capillaire. 

A piece of anchovy will almost instantly restore the just 
tone of voice to any one who has become hoarse by public 

407. White Mixture for Coughs. — Beat well the yolk of an 
egg, mix with it in a mortar half a drachm of powdered 
spermaceti, a little loaf sugar and twenty drops of lauda« 



num (tincture of opium) ; add a gill of water, and mix well : a 
table-spoonful of this mixture will relieve an obstinate cough. 

Or, mix half a pint of almond emulsion, two drachms of 
syrup of poppies, the same of oxymel of squills, and one 
drachm of powder of gum tragacanth ; two table-spoonfuls to 
be taken often. 

408. Colds. — A daily exposure to the outward air is abso- 
lutely necessary to secure us against the injurious influence of 
our variable climate. For cure of catarrh, reduce the amount 
of food, take exercise, keep the bowels open, and bathe the feet 
in warm water at bed-time. — Henderson. 

409. For a Cold in the Head. — What is called a head-bath 
is useful. Fill a wash-hand basin with boiling water, and add 
an ounce of flour of mustard; then hold the head, covered with 
a cloth to prevent the escape of the steam, over the basin as 
long as any steam arises. 

410. For a troublesome Cough. — Take of treacle and the best 
white wine vinegar six table-spoonfuls each ; add forty drops of 
laudanum ; mix it well, and put it into a bottle. A tea-spoon- 
ful to be taken occasionally when the cough is troublesome. 

411. For a sudden Hoarseness. — Mix one tea-spoonful of 
sweet spirits of nitre in a wine-glassful of water. This may be 
taken two or three times a day. 

412. Hoarseness. — A piece of flannel, dipped in brandy, and 
applied to the chest, and covered with a dry flannel, is to be 
worn all night. Four or six small onions, boiled, and put on 
buttered toast, and eaten for supper, are likewise good for colds 
on the chest. 

413. — Children's Coughs. — A few tea-spoonfuls of warm 
treacle taken occasionally, and particularly at bed-time, or 
when the cough is troublesome, will be found beneficial, espe- 
cially for infants and children. 

414. For a " hacking" Cough. — Dissolve an ounce of mutton 
*uet in a pint of milk, and drink it warm. 


415. For a Cough. — Mix vinegar and treacle in equal quan- 
tities, and let a tea-spoonful be taken occasionally, when the 
cough is troublesome. This is the recipe of Dr. James, of 

416. Quinsy, or Ulcerated Sore Throat. — Bake or roast three 
or four large onions or six smaller ones, till soft. Peel them 
quickly, and beat them flat with a rolling-pin or glass bottle. 
Then put them immediately in a thin muslin bag that will 
reach from ear to ear, and about three inches deep. Apply it 
speedily, and as warm as possible, to the throat. Keep it on 
day and night, changing it when the strength of the onions ap- 
pears to be exhausted, and substituting fresh ones. Flannel 
must be worn round the neck after the poultice is removed. 

417. Saline Draught — Dissolve one scruple of carbonate of 
potassa, (salt of tartar), in a table-spoonful of lemon-juice, and 
three table-spoonfuls of water ; sweeten with lump sugar, and 
drink while it effervesces. This is an excellent remedy for 
sore throats, nausea, &c. 

418. Another. — Dissolve one drachm each of nitric acid and 
carbonate of potassa in three-quarters of a pint of water ; add 
one ounce each of syrup of orange-peel and spirit of nutmeg, 
and mix. Two table-spoonfuls to be taken in fevers and inflam- 
matory sore throats. 

419. To make Gargles. — For relaxed sore throat, mix five 
ounces of Cayenne pepper gargle, two ounces of infusion of 
roses, and one ounce of syrup of roses. 

Or, mix with the Cayenne pepper gargle, three ounces of 
vinegar, three drachms of tincture of myrrh, and four drachms 
of honey of roses. 

For inflammatory sore throats, mix six ounces of infusion of 
roses, one ounce of tincture of myrrh, and one ounce of honey 
of roses. 

Or, mix one drachm and a half of saltpetre, two ounces of 
honey, and six ounces of rose water. 

For scorbutic gums, mix six ounces of infusion of roses, one 
ounce of borax, and one ounce of honey of roses. 

To make the Cayenne pepper gargle, pour six ounces of boil- 


ing water upon one scruple of Cayenne pepper \ cover it, and 

let if. stand for thrp.p. hours. 

420. To cure Hiccough. — This is caused by flatulency, indi- 
gestion, and acidity. It may be relieved generally by a sudden 
fright or surprise, or any sudden application of cold ; also by 
drinking cold water slowly, eating a small piece of ice, taking 
a pinch of snuff, or anything that excites coughing. Or, take 
one tea-spoonful of common vinegar. 

421. A simple cure for Dysentery — which has never failed. — 
Take some butter off the churn, immediately after being churn- 
ed, just as it is, without being salted or washed ; clarify it over 
the fire like honey. Skim off all the milky particles when 
melted over a clear fire. Let the patient (if an adult) take two 
table-spoonfuls of the clarified remainder, twice or thrice within 
the day. This has never failed to effect a cure, and in many 
cases it has been almost instantaneous. 

422. For Diarrhoea. — Fill a tea-cup with dry flour, press it 
down, and cover it with a buttered cloth, tying it very closely ; 
boil it three hours, when turn it out to cool into a hard mass. 
Grate a tea or a dessert-spoonful of it into peppermint water 
for children, or into a glass of port wine for adults. 

423. Chalk Mixture. — Mix half an ounce of prepared chalk, 
the same of lump sugar, and one ounce of powdered gum 
Arabic, with a pint of water. This is an excellent remedy for 

424. Fig Paste for Constipation. — Cut up small one pound 
of figs, and mix it with two ounces of senna carefully picked 
over, and one tea-cupful of molasses ; stew it till it becomes 
thoroughly mixed and firm ; then cool it. A piece about half 
as large as a fig will generally be sufficient. 

425. Laxatives. — Infusions of Epsom salts and senna are 
often taken as laxatives, or opening medicines. It is a well- 
known fact, that a tea-spoonful of salts in a tumbler of cold 
water, if drunk before breakfast, is as effectual a dose as the 
usual ounce. Senna, too, if steeped in cold water, is equally 
efficacious, and free from the nauseous bitter taste which it has 
when infused in boiling water. 


426. To cure Boils. — Boil in half a pint of milk one table- 
* spoonful of shot; pour it off, and drink it in small doses. 

427. To cure a Felon. — A felon generally appears on the 
end of the fingers or thumbs ; it is extremely painful for weeks, 
and sometimes for months, and, in most cases, cripples or dis- 
figures the finger or thumb that falls a victim to it. But it 
can easily be cured, if attended to in time. As soon as the 
pain is felt, take the thin white skin of an egg^ which is found 
inside next to the shell ; put it round the end of the finger or 
thumb affected, and keep it there until the pain subsides. As 
soon as the skin becomes dry, it will be very painful, and 
likely continue so for half an hour or more ; but be not alarmed. 
If it grows painful, bear it; it will be of short duration in com- 
parison to what the disease would be. A cure will be certain. 


428. We mention several remedies which have obtained 
popular reputation in these accidents, and which are valuable 
not only as giving more or less relief, but as being generally 
at hand, or to be readily procured in every dwelling. They 
are, wheat flour, which may be thickly sprinkled over the 
injured parts with a common kitchen dredger, till a perfect 
crust is formed — an excellent application. Finely-scraped 
chalk or magnesia, applied in the same way. These act both 
by excluding the atmospheric air, and absorbing the fluid se- 
creted by the vessels of the inflamed surface. Another appli- 
cation reported to be very efficacious in allaying the pain, is a 
piece of lint wetted with a saturated solution of carbonate of 
soda. A poultice of grated raw turnip or potato, applied cold, 
is quickly productive of ease in slight burns, but requires renew- 
ing often enough to keep up the sensation of coldness. 

429. Burns. — Apply to, or wrap round the burnt part, some 
folds of cotton bought in sheets ; however severe the pain may 
be, it will abate in a few hours. Should blisters arise, they 
may next day be carefully pricked with a needle, so as to break 
the skin as little as possible ; and the cotton kept on till the 
cure is effected. 


430. A remedy for a Burn or Scald. — Apply immediately a 
thick covering of wool to the burnt part, and bind it on tight; 
in the course of half an hour very little pain will be felt, and 
scarcely any blister will remain. As this remedy is so simple, 
no housekeeper should be without loose wool at hand, in case 
of an accident. This remedy was discovered by the child of a 
woolcomber having been dreadfully scalded : its mother laid it 
in a basket of newly carded wool, whilst she ran for a doctor ; 
when she returned, she found the child fast asleep amongst the 
wool, and when it awoke the excessive pain had subsided. We 
have frequently tried it, and invariably with success. 

431. For Burns and Scalds. — Plunge the injured part into 
cold spring or ice water ; or, lay on it pounded ice wrapped 
in linen. 

Or, dissolve four ounces of alum in a quart of hot water ; 
dip a cloth into it, and lay it on the part. As soon as it be- 
comes hot and dry, repeat the application. 

Apply to a burn, bruise, or cut, the moist surface of the 
inside coating of the shell of a raw egg ; it will adhere of itself, 
and heal without pain. 

432. Efficacy of Vinegar in curing Burns and Scalds. — Vinegar 
is a great antiseptic and corrector of putrescence and mortifica- 
tion. The progressive tendency of burns of the unfavorable 
kind, or those that are ill-treated, is to putrescence and mortifi- 
cation. When the outward skin is not broken, it may be freely 
used every hour or two ; where the skin is broken, and if it 
gives pain, it must be gently used. But, equal parts of tepid 
vinegar and water applied every three or four hours, is the 
best rule to be directed by. 

433. Vitriol Accidents. — For a burn by vitriol, or any simi- 
lar cause, lay on, with a feather, the white of eggs mixed with 
powdered chalk, and immediate relief will follow. 

Or, immediately after the accident, plunge the scalded limb 
in spirit of turpentine, and keep it there a few minutes. 

Or, dissolve in water or fresh soap-boilers' lees, a little s'oda 
or potash, and apply it instantly, and it will prevent all injury 
to the person or clothing. 



434. Feverish symptoms in young children may be reduced, 
and often entirely cured by sponging in tepid or cold water, 
according to the age and condition of the patient. Rest, in a 
clean bed, after sponging, is necessary. Should the fever con- 
tinue, a gentle emetic may be given. Cold water is the best 
beverage in fevers, but if very thirsty, give the child a little 
warm tea. 

435. Dr. Dickson's cure for a Fever. — When a man is hot, 
and his skin dry all over, no matter what the cause be, you 
may bring his condition to the state of health by throwing cold 
water over him. You may do the same by an emetic. Oh ! 
an emetic has a wonderful power in fever ; and the old physi- 
cians treated all fevers in the first instance by emetics. They 
did not trouble themselves much about the cause. The state 
of the patient w T as what they cared most about. When he was 
cold, they warmed him, sometimes with one thing, sometimes 
with another. When hot, they cooled him ; not in the Sangra- 
do fashion of these days, by draining him of his life's blood ; 
but by the employment of an emetic, or by sponging him over 
with cold water ! 

436. Easy and almost instantaneous cure for the Fever and 
Ague. — An hour or two before the fit comes on, take a new- 
laid egg, in a glass of vinegar or brandy, and go to bed imme- 

This very simple recipe has cured a great many, after more 
celebrated preparations have proved unsuccessful. 

437. Cure for Yellow Fever. — The New Orleans Tropic 
gives the following recipe, which is said to be used with great 
success in Mexico, in cases of yellow fever : " A tumbler two- 
thirds full of olive oil, well mixed with the juice of two limes, 
and a tea-spoonful of fine table salt, is the common remedy in 
that country ; that he has seen it used in hundreds of cases, 
many of them the most desperate he ever saw. and that he never 
knew it fail to produce a cure in a solitary instance ! It some- 
times causes the patient to vomit ; in such cases it should be 
repeated until the stomach will retain it. 


438. Treatment of Scarlet Fever — important prescription, — 
Dr. Lindsly, of Washington, strongly recommends the mode of 
treatment of scarlet fever, resorted to by Dr. Schneemann, 
physician to the King of Hanover. It is as follows, and exceed- 
ingly simple : 

Treatment of Scarlet Fever by inunction. — From the first day 
of the illness, and as soon as we are certain of its nature, the 
patient must be rubbed morning and evening over the whole 
body with a piece of bacon, in such a manner that, with the 
exception of the head, a covering of fat is everywhere applied. 
In order to make this rubbing-in somewhat easier, it is best to 
take a piece of bacon the size of the hand, choosing a part still 
armed with the rind, that we may have a firm grasp. On the 
soft side of this piece slits are to be made, in order to allow the 
oozing out of the fat. The rubbing must be thoroughly per- 
formed, and not too quickly, in order that the skin may be regu- 
larly saturated with the fat. The beneficial results of the 
application are soon obvious ; with a rapidity bordering on 
magic, all, even the most painful symptoms of the disease are 
allayed ; quiet, sleep, good humor, appetite, return ; and there 
remains only the impatience to quit the sick room. 

439. Inflammatory Fevers. — In diseases termed " inflamma- 
tory," what measure so ready or so efficacious as to dash a 
pitcher or two of cold water over the patient — Cold Affusion, 
as it is called] Whilst serving in the army, I cured hundreds 
of inflammatory fevers in this manner — fevers, that, in the 
higher ranks of society, under the bleeding and starving sys- 
tems — would have kept an apothecary and physician — to say 
nothing of nurses and cuppers — visiting the patient twice or 
thrice a-day for a month, if he happened to live so long. 

Gentlemen, with the cold dash you may easily, 

" While others meanly take whole months to slay," 
Produce a cure in half a summer's day. — Dn. Dickson. 

440. Beverage for Fevers — Boil two drachms of pow T dered 
alum in a pint of milk, and strain. The draught is a wine- 

441. Mustard Poultices. — Make a bag of the size required 
of fine, close muslin ; mix equal quantities of mustard and flour, 
(or a larger proportion of mustard, should the case require it), 


with boiling water, until of a proper consistency. Fill the bag 
with it ; sew it up, and, covering it with a handkerchief or piece 
of clean, soft linen, apply it to the part affected. When it has 
been on long enough, take it off, and lay on another piece of 
soft linen. 

442. Bread Poultice. — Mr. Abernethy directs a bread and 
water poultice to be made as follows : — Put half a pint of hot 
water into a pint basin ; add to this as much of the crumb of 
bread as the water will cover, then place a plate over the basin, 
and let it remain about ten minutes ; stir the bread about in 
the water, or, if necessary, chop it a little with the edge of a 
knife, and drain off the water, by holding the knife on the top 
of the basin, but do not press the bread as is usually done ; 
then take it out lightly, spread it about one-third of an inch 
thick on some soft linen, and lay it upon the part. If it be a 
wound, you may place a bit of lint dipped in oil beneath the 
poultice. There is nothing better than the bread poultice for 
broken surfaces. 

443. Linseed Poultice — Is made by simply mixing linseed 
meal into a paste with hot water. 

444. Management of Blisters. — Spread the plaster thinly on 
paper or linen, and rub over it a few drops of olive oil. In 
this way the blister acts speedily, and with less irritation than 

445. Simple Ointment — This is made by melting in a pip- 
kin, by the side of the fire, without boiling, one part of yellow 
or white wax, and two parts of hog's lard or olive oil. 

446. Spermaceti Ointment. — This consists of a quarter of an 
ounce of white wax, three quarters of an ounce of spermaceti, 
and three ounces of olive oil, melted as before. This is the 
common dressing for a blister. 

447. Elder- flower Ointment. — This is the mildest, blandest, 
and most cooling ointment which can be used ; and it is very 
suitable for anointing the face or neck when sun-burnt. It is 
made of fresh elder-flowers, stripped from the stalks, two pounds 
of which are simmered in an equal quantity of hog's-lard till 


they become crisp ; after which, the ointment, whilst fluid, is 
strained through a coarse sieve. 

448. Calamine Ointment, or Turner s Cerate. — This consists 
of half a pound of yellow wax and a pint of olive oil, which are 
to be melted together ; this being done, half a pound of cala- 
mine powder is to be sifted in, and stirred till the whole be 
completely mixed. 

449. Sulphur Ointment. — This is made by rubbing well to- 
gether three ounces of flowers of sulphur and half a pound of 
hog's lard. This ointment, if properly applied, is a certain 
cure for that nastiest of all nasty, and most easily-caught dis- 
ease, the itch, which, although generally found among poor 
people, occasionally steals into the houses of the wealthy. The 
proper mode of managing it is, for the infected to rub himself 
well all over with the ointment, night and morning, for three 
days, during which time he must wear, without change, some 
old body-linen, stockings, and gloves, and lie in a pair of old 
sheets or blankets. Washing in the least degree is to be care- 
fully avoided as the plague, for it will protract the cure. On 
the fourth day let him go into a warm bath, wash himself 
clean, and he will then be found quite well. Everything which 
had been worn during the cure should be burnt, sheets and all ; 
but the blankets may be scoured. 


450. The beneficial influence obtained from all such local ap- 
plications depends upon the change of temperature they are 
capable of producing. Their results will vary with constitu- 
tions. Most patients, who suffer from chronic disease, point to 
a particular spot as the locality where they are most incom- 
moded with " cold chills." This is the point for the application 
of the galbanum or other " warm plaster." A plaster of this 
kind to the loins has enabled me to cure a host of diseases that 
had previously resisted every other mode of treatment. The 
same application to the chest, when the patient complained of 
chilliness in that particular part, has materially aided me in the 
treatment of many cases of phthisis. In both instances, where 
heat was the more general complaint, cold sponging has been 
allowed by an equally beneficial effect. 


The ingredients of plasters, blisters, ointments, lotions, &c., 
what are they but combinations of the agents with which we 
combat fever? Their beneficial influence depends upon the 
change of motion and temperature which they produce by theit 
electrical or chemical action on the nerves of the part to which 
they are directed. Cantharides will not blister the dead — they 
have very little effect even on a dying man ! — Dr. Dickson's 

451. Liquid Opodeldoc. — Dissolve one ounce of camphor in 
a little spirits of wine, and two ounces of soft soap in a little 
water ; put these into a bottle, add half a drachm of oil of rose- 
mary and the same of oil of thyme ; shake them well together; 
add three-quarters of a pint of spirits of wine, and a quarter of 
a pint of water; set it in a warm place, and shake it occasion- 
ally, for a few days. This is an excellent remedy for bruises, 
sprains, chilblains, &c. 

452. Extract of Arnica, for Bruises, Sprains, Burns, &c. — 
Take one ounce of arnica flowers, dried ; that prepared by the 
Shakers is considered the best ; and put them in a wide-mouthed 
bottle; pour just enough scalding water over them to moisten 
them, and afterwards about a pint or a pint and a half of spirits 
of wine. In case of a burn or bruise, &c, wet a cloth in the 
arnica and lay it on the part affected. Renew the application 
occasionally, and the pain will soon be removed. 

453. For a Sprain. — Mix equal parts of spirit of camphor, 
distilled vinegar, and turpentine, and rub the part affected. 

Cold water applications are excellent for sprains ; as, to 
bathe the part in cold water, to pour cold water upon it, or to 
put bandages wet in cold water around it. 

Extract of arnica, applied to a sprain, will remove the pain 
in a short time. 

454. Contusions or Bruises. — In slight bruises, and those not 
likely to be followed by much inflammation, nothing more is 
usually necessary than to bathe the part in cold water, or with 
spirit, as eau de Cologne, brandy, &c, mixed with an equal 
proportion of vinegar and water. In more severe cases, how- 
ever, and where the accident is near an important part, as the 


eye, or any of the joints, it becomes a desirable object to pre- 
vent the approach of inflammation. This is to be attempted 
by the application of leeches, repeating them according to cir- 
cumstances ; purgatives and a low diet may become necessary. 
In the last stage of a bruise, where there is merely a want of 
tone in the parts, and swellings from the effused blood, &c, 
friction should be employed, either simply, or with any com- 
mon liniment, as opodeldoc. Wearing a bandage, pumping 
cold water on the part, succeeded by warm friction, also a satu- 
rated solution of common salt in water, have each been found 
beneficial. The roots of bryony and Solomon's seal, bruised 
and applied as a poultice, are efficacious in hastening the disap- 
pearance of the lividity of bruises. 

455. Lime Water. — Pour three quarts of water upon eight 
pounds of unslaked lime; let stand half an hour, when add 
three gallons of water, and pour it off. 

It is useful in cases of derangement of the digestive organs. 

456. Walnut Water. — This is recommended as a remedy in 
subduing nausea and vomiting, if administered in doses of a 
wine-glassful every half-hour. It is distilled from green walnuts, 
angelica-seeds, and brandy. 

457. Uses of Borax. — Powdered borax, mixed with honey, 
or conserve of roses, is an excellent remedy for inside sores of 
the mouths of children. 

If a little of the mixture be dissolved in warm water, it will 
form, when cold, an efficacious gargle for an ulcerated sore 

If a weak solution of borax in rose-water be constantly ap- 
plied, by means of a fine linen cloth, over the redness which 
often affects the noses of delicate persons, it will relieve the 
sense of heat, and remove the redness. Many other spots on 
the face may be similarly removed. 

It is likewise a very useful application to chilblains. 

458. The virtues of Sage. — This valuable herb was held in 
such high esteem among the ancients, that they have left us a 
Latin verse, which signifies— 

u Why should a man die whilst he has sage in his garden?" 


It is reckoned admirable as a cordial, and to sweeten and 
cleanse the blood. It is good in nervous cases, and is given in 
fevers, with a view to promote perspiration. With the addition 
of a little lemon-juice, it is very grateful and cooling. 

459. Sage Tea. — Wood sage, which grows naturally, is the 
finest kind ; with a little alum it makes an excellent gargle for 
a sore throat. It may be made as tea, but is better if boiled. 

460. Senna Tea. — Macerate for an hour, in a covered vessel, 
one ounce and a half of senna, a drachm of ginger, sliced, and 
a pint of boiling water ; the dose is from one-half to a wine- 
glassful. Or, mix two drachms of senna, with a little Bohea 
tea, in a quarter of a pint of boiling water, and add, when pour- 
ed off clear, a little sugar and milk. 

461. Chamomile Tea. — Take of chamomile flowers one ounce, 
boiling water, one quart ; simmer for ten minutes, and strain. 

Chamomile tea is well known as an emetic, when taken in a 
tepid state. In some parts of England, a strong infusion of 
chamomile is frequently taken at bed-time, as hot as it can be 
swallowed, when it produces perspiration, and next morning 
acts as a purgative. It is also there considered as one of the 
best remedies for indigestion, colic, pains and obstructions of 
the bowels, especially when arising from cold. A cup of coffee 
taken hot on an empty stomach, will frequently be as efficacious 
as the chamomile, in either of the above cases. 

A small cupful of the tea, cold, taken in the morning, fasting', 
is often serviceable for indigestion. Chamomiles are also em- 
ployed in fomentations, their greatest use being to retain the 
heat of the application. 

462. Linseed Tea. — Pour two quarts of boiling water upon 
one ounce of linseed, and two drachms of liquorice-root, sliced ; 
let it stand six hours. 

463. Mint Tea. — Mint, to be used as. tea, should be cut 
when just beginning to flower, and should fee dried in the shade. 
The young leaves are eaten in salads, and some eat them as the 
leaves of sage, with bread and butter. 

464. Nitre is a cheap and valuable medicine, both cooling 
and purifying to the blood. In the feverishness that attend? 


a cold, from seven to ten grains of purified nitre, in a glass of 
water, may be taken two or three times a day, with safety and 
advantage. For old wounds, such as are commonly called 
" a bad leg," great benefit will be derived from taking a solu 
tion of nitre, prepared thus : — In one pint of boiling water, dis- 
solve two ounces of saltpetre ; of which take a table-spoonful 
twice a day. If it should occasion pain, a little hot ginger-tea 
will soon give relief. 

465. To make Verjuice. — The acid of the juice of the crab or 
wilding is called by the country people, verjuice, and is much 
used in recent sprains, and in other cases, as an astringent or 

466. Medicines in Travelling. — In case of change of food dis- 
agreeing with the stomach, dissolve a tea-spoonful of Epsom 
salts in half a pint of water, as warm as it can be drunk, and 
repeat the dose every half-hour, until it operates. 

For diarrhoea, or acidity of stomach, mix one drachm of 
compound powder of kino, with half an ounce of compound 
powder of chalk ; divide into six powders, and take one or two 
a day, in three table-spoonfuls of water, and a tea-spoonful of 

467. To prevent Sea-sickness. — Pass a broad belt round the 
body, and place within it, on the region of the stomach, a 
pad stuffed with wool or horse-hair ; this, when tightly braced, 
restrains the involuntary motion of the stomach, occasioned by 
the lurching of the vessel. During sickness, very weak cold 
brandy and water will be found the best means of allaying the 
heat and irritation. 

The frequent use of any sea-sickness preventive is, however, 
attended with danger. 

468. Valuable properties of Cherry-tree Gum. — The gum that 
exudes from the trunk and branches of the cherry-tree is equal 
to gum-arabic. Hasselquist relates that, during a siege, more 
than an hundred m^fciwere kept alive for two months nearly, 
without any other sustenance than a little of this gum taken 
into the mouth sometimes, and suffered gradually to dissolve. 

469. How to get Sleep. — How to get sleep is to many persons 
a matter of high importance. Nervous persons who are trou. 


bled with wakefulness and excitability, usually have a strong 
tendency of blood on the brain, with cold extremities. The 
pressure of the blood on the brain keeps it in a stimulated or 
wakeful state, and the pulsations in the head are often painful. 
Let such rise and chafe the body and extremities with a brush 
or towel, or rub smartly with the hands to promote circulation 
and withdraw the excessive amount of blood from the brain, 
and you will sleep in a few moments. A cold bath, or a 
sponge bath and rubbing, or a good run, or a rapicl walk in the 
open air, or going up or down stairs a few times, just before 
retiring, will aid in equalizing circulation, and promoting sleep. 
These rules are simple and easy of application in castle or 
cabin, and minister to the comfort of thousands who would 
freely expend money for an anodyne to promote "Nature's 
sweet restorer, balmy sleep." 

470. Remedy for Bad Breath. — Take from five to ten drops 
of muriatic acid, in an ale-glassful of barley-water, and add a 
little lemon-juice and lemon-peel to flavor; mix for a draught 
to be taken three times a day, for a month or six weeks at 
least, and, if effectual, it may be continued occasionally. 
Another medicine of this kind, which has often proved benefi- 
cial when the stomach has been wrong, and the bowels costive, 
is the following : Take one drachm of sulphate of magnesia, 
two drachms of tincture of calumba, one oua^e and a half of 
infusion of roses ; make a draught, to be taken every morning, 
or every other morning, an hour before breakfast, for at least a 

471. Corpulence. — Those who are afflicted with corpulence 
should not allow themselves above six hours' sleep in the 
twenty-four. They should take as much exercise as possible, 
and avoid cream, malt liquors and soups — at least until they 
have succeeded in reducing their bulk. Salt provisions are 
good, having a tendency to promote perspiration, and carry off 
fat. Soda water is also beneficial. Recipe : Take Castile soap, 
in the form of pills, or electuary, of from one to four drachms 
dissolved in a quarter of a pint of soft water, when going to 
bed. But let not our lovely girls abuse their constitutions by 
drinking vinegar for this purpose, for consumption has often 
been produced by that habit. 


472. Leanness, — This is not a disease ; on the contrary, lean 
people are generally healthy, muscular, strong, and active, and 
remarkable for a keen appetite. But when there appears a 
diminution of strength — when the spirits sink, and the food does 
not freely digest — then leanness is the sign of lurking disease. 
Such patients should take a cup of milk warm from the cow 
every morning, or cold milk, with two raw fresh eggs beaten 
up with it. A pint of the best porter or stout at dinner, and 
the same at supper. Tea is better than coffee, and salad with 
strong supplies of oil, not much vinegar, are recommended. 

473. Cure for Stammering. — Impediments in the speech may 
be cured, where there is no malformation of the organs of ar- 
ticulation, by perseverance for three or four months in the 
simple remedy of reading aloud, with the teeth closed, for at 
least two hours in the course of each day. 


474. Acids. — These cause great heat, and sensation of burn- 
ing pain, from the mouth down to the stomach. Remedies, 
magnesia, soda, pearl ash, or soap, dissolved in water ; then use 
stomach-pump or emetics. 

475. Alcohol. — First cleanse out the stomach by an emetic? 
then dash cold water on the head, and give ammonia (spirits 
of hartshorn.) 

47G. Alkalies. — Best remedy is vinegar. 

477. Ammonia. — Remedy, lemon-juice or vinegar, afterwards 
milk and water or flaxseed tea. 

478. — Arsenic. — ^Remedies, in the first place evacuate the 
stomach, then give the white of eggs, lime-water, or chalk and 
water, charcoal and the preparations of iron, particularly 

479. Belladonna, or Xight Henbane. — Give emetics, and then 
plenty of vinegar and water or lemonade. 


480. Charcoal. — In poisons by carbonic gas, remove the pa- 
tient to open air, dash cold water on the head and body, and 
stimulate nostrils and lungs by hartshorn, at the same time 
rubbing the chest briskly. 

481. Corrosive Sublimate. — Give white of eggs freshly 
mixed with water, or give wheat flour and water, or soap and 
water freely. 

482. Creosote. — White of eggs and the emetics. 

483. Laudanum. — Same as opium. 

484. Lead. White Lead and Sugar of Lead. — Remedies, 
alum, cathartic, such as castor oil and Epsom salts, especially. 

485. Mushrooms, when poisonous. — Give emetics, and then 
plenty of vinegar and water, with dose of ether, if handy. 

486. Nitrate of Silver, (lunar caustic). — Give a strong solu- 
tion of common salt, and then emetics. 

487. Nitrate of Potash, or Saltpetre. — Give emetics, then 
copious draughts of flaxseed tea, milk and water, and other 
soothing drinks. 

488. Opium. — First give a strong emetic of mustard and 
water, then strong coffee and acid drinks, dash cold water on 
the head. 

489. Oxalic Acid. — Frequently mistaken for Epsom Salts. 
Remedies, chalk, magnesia, or soap and water freely, then 

490. Prussic Acid. — When there is time, administer chlo- 
rine, in the shape of soda or lime. Hot brandy and water. 
Hartshorn and turpentine also useful. 

491. Snake Bites , &c. — Apply immediately strong hartshorn, 
and take it internally ; also, give sweet oil, and stimulants 
freely. Apply a ligature tight above the part bitten, and then 
apply a cupping-glass. 

6 . 


492. Tartar Umetic.—G'we large doses of tea made of galls, 
Peruvian bark, or white oak bark. 

493. Tobacco. — First an emetic, then astringent tea, then 

494. Verdigris. — Plenty of white of egg and water. 

495. White Vitriol. — Give the patient plenty of milk and 

In almost all cases of poisoning, emetics are highly useful, 
and of those, one of the very best, because most prompt and 
ready, is the common mustard flour or powder, a spoonful of 
which, stirred up in warm water, may be given every five or 
ten minutes, until free vomiting can be obtained. 

Emetics and warm demulcent drinks, such as milk and 
water, flaxseed or slippery elm tea, chalk water, &c., should be 
administered without delay. The subsequent management of 
the case will of course be left to a physician. 

490. To prevent Death from the Bite of Venemous Animals. — 
From observations made by Dr. Bancroft, it is found, that in 
South America, where the most venomous serpents abound, 
a very tight ligature, instantly made after the bite, between the 
part bitten and the trunk of the body, will prevent immediate 
danger, and allow time for proper means of remedy, either by 
excision of the whole joint, just above the ligature, or by topical 
applications upon the part bitten. 

For instance, if the bite should be upon the end of the finger, 
a tight ligature of small cord should immediately be made be- 
yond the next joint of the finger. 

If the bite is on any part of the hand, the ligature should 
be made above the wrist, by means of a garter or cord, lapped 
several times round the arm, and rendered as tight as possible, 
by a small stick thrust betwixt the folds of the cord or garter, 
and twisted round very hard, to prevent the circulation of the 
blood betwixt the part bitten and the other part of the body. 
Ligatures of the same kind, applied by any one present, or the 
man himself, will frequently save a person's life, where, by 
accident, an artery in any of the limbs is wounded, and no sur- 
geon is at hand. 


497. Prevention of Hydrophobia. — As there has been hitherto 
no remedy discovered which can be said to possess a specific 
control over this dreadful malady, and therefore little hope can 
be entertained of a cure for it, our best endeavors should be 
directed to the preventive treatment. This is to be commenced, 
then, by completely cutting out the whole wound as soon as 
possible after the bite of a suspected animal. After this, bleed- 
ing should be encouraged by immersion in warm water, or the 
application of a cupping-glass. Caustic should next be applied 
to every part of the wound, which is then to be covered with 
a poultice, and suffered to heal by granulation, or be kept open, 
and made to suppurate, by irritating ointments. The excision 
should never be omitted, even though the bitten part have 
healed, and let the interval since its occurrence be what it may. 
As for any of innumerable so-called specifics, there is not one 
that is worth a moment's trial. 

498. To alleviate the Pain occasioned by the Sting of Gnats. — 
The disagreeable itching occasioned by the sting of these insects, 
may be removed by volatile alkali, or immediately rubbing 
and washing the part affected w T ith cold w r ater. 

At night, to rub with fuller's earth and water, lessens the 

499. Simple and effectual cure for those who may accidentally 
have swallowed a Wasp. — Instantly, on the alarming accident 
taking place, put a tea-spoonful of common salt in your mouth, 
which will instantaneously not only kill the wasp, but at the 
same time heal the sting. 

500. For the Sting of a Wasp or Bee. — Spread over the part 
a plaster of salad oil and common salt ; if oil be not at hand, 
the salt may be used, moistened with water or vinegar. Or, 
keep the part constantly moist with a rag dipped in sal-volatile 
and cold water, as strong 'as can be borne without raising the 
skin. Or, immediately after taking out the sting, get an onion 
and bruise it, and apply it to the stung place, and it will afford 
immediate relief. Or, a washerwoman's blue-bag, applied in 
the same manner, will have a like effect. 

501. Sting of a Nettle. — Rub the part affected with balm, 
rosemary, mint, or any other aromatic herb, and the smart 
will soon cease. 



502. The best materials for constructing baths, are slabs of 
polished marble, bedded with water-tight cement, in a wooden 
case, and carefully united at the edges. But, as white or veined 
marble baths are apt to get yellow or discolored by frequent 
use, and cannot easily be cleaned, large Dutch tiles, or square 
pieces of white earthenware, are sometimes substituted ; these, 
however, are with difficulty kept water-tight, so that marble is 
altogether preferable. Copper, or tinned iron plates, are also 
used ; the former is more expensive at the outset, but far more 
durable than the latter, which is also liable to leakage at the 
joints, unless excellently made. Both copper and iron should 
be well covered, in and outside, with several coats of paint. 
Wooden tubs — square, oblong, or oval — are sometimes used 
for warm baths, and are cheap and convenient; but the wood 
contracts a mouldy smell, and there is great difficulty in pre- 
venting shrinkage in them, and keeping them water-tight. 

The fittest place for baths, is the bed-room floor ; they are 
sometimes placed in the ba* itory, which is cold and 

damp, and ill all weather disagreeable. 

Due attention should be paid to the warming and ventilation 
of the bath-room. A temperature of 70 degrees, by the ther- 
mometer, should be kept up in it ; and ventilation is requisite, 
to prevent the moisture settling upon the walls and furniture. 

An improvement in the construction of baths, is a slightly 
hollowed space at one end, to receive the head of the bather, 
so as to prevent that sensation of cramp which is often c 
rienced from the ordinary, abrupt shape of a bath. 

The hand is a very uncertain test for the heat of water, and 
should, therefore, not be reiied on in preparing a bath; but a 
thermometer should be employed, which will denote the actual 
temperature, thus : — 

Cold bath, from 32° to 75° of Fahrenheit. 
Tepid - - 7.3 to 92 " 
Warm M w 92 to 98 « 
Hot " " 98 to 114 " 
Vapor " " 100 to 140 - " 

503. Hand Shower- Bath. — An excellent hand shower-bath 
for children, has been invented. It consists of a metal vc 


containing about a gallon, the bottom of which is pierced with 
holes, while the upper part is open, and provided with a handle. 
When intended to be used, the vessel is immersed in a pail of 
water, and it quickly fills from the lower part. The thumb is 
placed over the aperture at the apex, which prevents all escape 
of water. It may be held at a convenient distance over the 
child, and the moment the thumb is removed, there falls a re 
freshing shower, which may be stopped instantaneously, by 
placing the thumb over the upper opening. 

504. Simple Vapor Bath. — Wrap the patient in blankets, 
which fasten closely about the neck, leaving the head exposed : 
then place him in a chair, under which set a basin or deep dish, 
with half a pint of spirits of wine, or whisky, which should be 
ignited : close the blankets to the floor, and in a few minutes 
the patient will be in a profuse perspiration, and should be put, 
to bed between warm blankets. 

505. Advantages of Bathing. — It is a fact officially recorded, 
that during the terrible visitations of cholera in France, out of 
nearly 16,228 subscribers to the public baths of Paris, Bor- 
deaux, and Marseilles, only two deaths among them were 
ascribed to cholera. We doubt whether there exists a more 
effectual preventive of disease of every kind, and a greater pro- 
moter of good health at all times, than the practice of daily 

506. Uses of Hot Water. — The efficacy of hot water, on many 
occasions in life, cannot be too generally known. It is an ex- 
cellent gargle for a bad sore throat, or quinsy. In bruises, hot 
water, by immersion and fomentation, will remove pain, and 
prevent discoloration and stiffness. It has the same effect after 
a blow. It should be applied as quickly as possible, and as hot 
as it can be borne. Insertion in hot water will also cure that 
troublesome and very painful ailment, the whitlow. 

507. Good effects of Bathing. — " I am often asked, what baths 
are safest — as if everything, by its fitness or unfitness, is not 
safe, or the reverse. The value of all baths depends upon their 
fitness ; and that, in many instances, can only be known by 
trial. It depends upon constitution, more than upon the name 
of a disease, whether particular patients shall be benefited by 


one bath or another. Generally speaking, when the skin is hot 
and dry, a cold bath will do good ; and when chilly, a hot bath. 
But the reverse sometimes happens. The cold stage of ague, 
may at once be cut short by a cold bath. I have seen a shiver- 
ing hypochondriac dash into the cold plunge bath, and come 
out, in a minute or two, perfectly cured of all his aches and 
whimseys. But, in cases of this nature, everything depends 
upon the glow or reaction which the bath produces ; and that 
has as much to do with surprise or shock as with the tempera- 
ture of the bath. I have seen a person with a hot, dry skin, 
go into a warm bath, and come out just as refreshed as if he 
had taken a cold one. In that case, the perspiration which it 
excited, must have been the principal means of relief. 

" So far as my own experience goes, I prefer the cold and 
tepid shower-baths, and the cold plunge-bath, to any other ; but 
there are cases in which these disagree, and J, therefore, oc- 
casionally order the warm or vapor-bath instead." — Dr. Dickson. 

508. Diet for Patients. — " I am every day asked by my pa- 
tients, what diet they should take. 1 generally answer by the 
question, i How old are you V Suppose they say, Forty — 
1 Forty ! : 1 rejoin : 'you who have had forty years' experience 
of what agrees and disagrees with you — how can you a^k me 
who have no experience of the kind in your case whatever?' 
Surely, gentlemen, a patient's experience of what agrees and 
disagrees with his own particular constitution, is far better than 
any theory of yours or mine. Why, ble.>s my life! in many 
chronic diseases, the diet which a man can take to-day, would 
be rejected with disgust to-morrow ; under such circumstances, 
would you still, according to common medical practice, tell a 
sick person to go on taking what he himself found worried him 
to death % Gentlemen, I hope better things of \ou. 

"The only general caution you need give your patients on 
the subject of diet, is moderation; moderation in using the 
things which they find agree with themselves best. You may 
direct them to take their food in small quantities at a time, at 
short periodic intervals — intervals of two or three hours, lor 
example; and tell them to take the trouble to masticate it 
properly before they swallow it, so as not to give a weak 
stomach the double work of mastication a 
jjrocesses being, even ii stinct Unless 

properly comminuted and mixed with tl can you 


expect the food to be anything but a source of inconvenience 
to persons whom the smallest trifle will frequently discom- 
pose ?" — Dr. Dickson's Lectures. 

509.. Abstinence, or Starvation. — Beware of carrying this too 
far! — for "abstinence engenders maladies." So Shakspeare 
said, and so nature will tell vou, in the teeth of all the doctors 
in Europe ! Abstinence may produce almost every form of 
disease which has entered into the consideration of the phy- 
sician. — Ibid. 

510. The Blood is the Life — never be Bled ! — " He who loses 
a pint of blood, loses a pint of his life. Of what is the body 
composed? Js it not of blood, and blood only] What nils 
up the excavation of an ulcer or an abscess ? What re-produces 
the bone of the leg or thigh, after it has been thrown off dead, 
in nearly all its length? what but the living blood, under the 
vito-electrical influence of the brain and nerves ! How does 
the slaughtered animal die? Of loss of blood solely. Is not 
the blood, then, in the impressive language of Scripture, 'the 
life of the flesh V How remarkable, that while the value of 
the blood to the animal economy should be thus so distinctly 
and emphatically acknowledged, blood-letting is not even once 
alluded to, among the various modes of cure mentioned in the 
sacred volume. We have 'balms,' 'balsams,' 'baths,' 'charms,' 
'physics,' — 'poultices,' even — but loss of blood, never! Had 
it been practised by the Jews, why this omission? Will the 
men who now so lavishly pour out the blood, dispute its im- 
portance in the animal economy ? Will they deny that it forms 
the basis of the solids? that when the body has been wasted 
by long disease, it is by the blood only it can recover its healthy 
volume and appearance V — Dr. Dickson's Lectures. 


511. Personal beauty is the gift of nature, but its preserva- 
tion depends much on the care of its possessor. Beauty may 
also be cultivated and enhanced ; even plainness may be im- 
proved, and the defects that sickness, accidents, and age impress 
on the human features and form, may be greatly remedied by 
simple means, and attention to a few important rules. 



The first requisite for the preservation and improvement of 
personal beauty is good temjyer. The teachings of the New 
Testament, if you follow its precepts, will insure you this 
grace. The second requirement is good health. The most im- 
portant rules for its preservation and recovery are given in this 
chapter. The third requisite comprises attention to neatness, 
and that general care of the person which the rules and receipts 
we here subjoin, will aid in making complete. 

512. Of the Hair. — It is a great mistake to plait the hair of 
children under eleven or twelve years of age. The process of 
plaiting more or less strains the hairs in their roots by pulling 
them tight: tends to deprive them of their requisite supply of 
nutriment; and checks their growth. The hair of girls should 
be cut rather short, and allowed to curl freely. When they 
are about eleven or twelve, the hair should be twisted into a 
coil, not too tight, nor tied at the end with thin thread, but with 
a piece of riband. 

513. Do not Shave the Head. — Shaving the head is always 
injurious to the hair, the bulbs being frequently destroyed by 
the process; and washing frequently with an alkaline prepara- 
tion, such as soap and water, is decidedly objectionable, for. 
that, as well as sea-water, is very apt to change the color of the 

514. To 'purify and beautify the Hair. — An excellent means 
of keeping the hair sweet, clean, glossy, and curly, is to brush 
it with a rather hard brush dipped by the surface only in eau 
de Portugal ( t; Portugal water : '). In order to have it fresh and 
of fine quality, take a pint of orange flower water, a pint of rose 

. and half a pint of myrtle water. To these put a quarter 
of an ounce of distilled spirit of musk, and an ounce of spirit 
of ambergris. Shake the whole well together, and the water 
w ; ll be ready for use. Only a small quantity should be made 
at a time, as it does not keep long, except in moderate weather, 
being apt to spoil either with cold or heat. 

515. Tn promote the Growth of Hair. — Mix equal parts of 
olive oil and spirits of rosemary, and add a few drops of oil of 
nutmeg. If the hair be rubbed e\ery night with a little of this 
liniment, and the proportion be very gradually augmented, it 


will answer every purpose of increasing the growth of hair, 
much more effectually than can be attained by any of the boast- 
ing empirical preparations which are imposed on the credulous 

516. Curling Liquid for the Hair. — When the hair will not 
curl naturally, the curling irons should not be used ; they only 
extract the moisture, and render the hair crisp and harsh. An 
excellent curling liquid is the following : — Put two pounds of 
common soap, cut small, into three pints of spirits of wine, 
with eight ounces of potash, and melt the w r hole, stirring it with 
a clean piece of wood. Add some essence of amber, vanilla, 
and nevoli, about a quarter of an ounce of each, to render the 
fluid agreeable. The liquids which are sold for the professed 
purpose of assisting in curling the hair, are chiefly composed 
of either oily or extractive substances. 

517. To 'prevent Hair from falling out. — Make a strong 
decoction of white-oak bark in water, and use it freely, it is 
best to make but little at a time, and have it fresh at least 
once a fortnight. 

518. To avoid Grey Hairs. — Those who would avoid that 
prominent mark of approaching old age, called grey hair, 
must be careful in the treatment of the hair in their youth. 
They must avoid constricting the skin, and strangling the hair 
at its roots, and everything that may thro w_ into the blood an 
undue portion, of lime. We say an undue portion, because a 
certain quantity of lime is indispensable in our system for re- 
pairing the wear and tear of the bones, teeth, &c. The lime 
necessary for the repair of bone is manufactured by the sto- 
mach and liver, along with the blood, from various articles of 
our diet which contain it. The greatest supply is usually from 
the water which we drink, or which is employed in the various 
processes of cooking and preparing liquors. All animal food 
also contains some portion of lime, as well as some of the sorts 
of vegetable food. Ascertain, then, by chemical trial, whether 
the water used for your tea, coffee, soups, &c, contains a large 
proportion of lime ; and, if it do, you must either have it chem- 
ically purified, or remove to some other place where the watei 
is more free from lime, if water be bard, you may be certain 
that it contains too much lime to be safely used. Rain-water 


130 THE R? :?T-BOOK. 

is the safest for tea and other liquids. Bread will always con- 
tain a portion of lime: fill in deal- 
ing with respectable bakers, who will not increase that una- 
voidable quantity by means of adulterating matter (such as 
whiting) which contains lime. 

519. To soften and cleanse the Hair. — Beat up an egg. r 
well into the hair, and then wash the head well. If the hair is 
very oily, add the juice of half a lemon. This receipt also an- 
swers much better for washing pet dogs than soap. 

520. To make a C . — Melt a piece 
of white bees r -wax, about the size of a filbert kernel or large 
pea, in one ounce of olive oil ; to this add one or two drops of 
ottar of roses or any other perfume. 

521. Gen. Twiqns' Hair Dye. — Dissolve in a pint of rose- 
water, one ounce of lac sulphur, and half an ounce of sugar of 
It* ad. Wet the hair with this mixture thorou^hlv every i 
shaking the bottle occasionally. Some persons prefer whisky 
to rose-water, in mixing the articles. 

522. To change Hair to a a- . — A solution of silver 

caustic in water is the foundation of all the nostrums for this 
purpose. It must be well diluted before used. 

523. To dye the Hair Black. — Procure from the dyer's a 
quantity of walnut-water ; and with this wash the hair, as the 
first part of the Then make an aromatic tincture of 
galls, by scenting the common tincture with any agreeable per- 
fume; and with this wet the hair, which must next be moistened 
with a strong solution of sulphate of iron. 

524. A sirrqAe Hair-dye. — Boil in a pint of water a handful of 
rosemary ; when cold, strain and bottle, but do not cork it. 
Renew it every few weeks. Wet the hair with it every night. 

525. To darken theEye-brows. — Take an ounce of walnut-, an 
ounce of frankincense, an ounce of resin, and an oun 

tick. Burn them all on clear, red-hot charcoal, and receive the 
fumes into a funnel, in which a \ery fine black powder, slightly 
perfumed and unctuous, will adhere. Mix this with a little oil 


of myrtle, in a leaden mortar, and apply it to the eye-brows. 
This paste has the property of resisting both heat and perspira- 
tion ; but it must be occasionally renewed. The following 
method may also be used : Burn a clove in the flame of a wax- 
candle, dip it into the juice of elder-berries, and apply it to the 
eye-brow r s. The powder, also, which is used in the East for 
painting the eye-lashes, and which is composed of antimony and ,> 
bismuth, may be safely and advantageously used. Or, a paste 
prepared from powdered black lead, with eau de Cologne, or 
oil of myrtle, or essence of bergamot, will suffice for the pur- 
pose. When the eye-brows become long and shaggy, they give 
a ferocious and repulsive expression to the countenance. The 
scissors should in that case be often used. Some of the longest 
hairs might also be removed with the tweezers. 

526. To know whether Hair Powder is adulterated with Lime. 
— Put a little crude sal-ammoniac, in powder, to the suspected 
hair powder, and add a little warm water to the .mixture, and 
stir it about ; if the powder has been adulterated with limef a 
strong smell of volatile alkali will arise from this mixture. 

527. To perfume Hair Powder. — Take one drachm of musk, 
four ouuces of lavender blossoms, one and a half drachm of 
civet, and half a drachm of ambergris ; pound the whole toge- 
ther, and pass it through a sieve. Preserve this mixture ii 
well-stopped bottles, and add more or less thereof, as agrees 

in your hair powder. 

528. To improve the Hair. — Powdered hartshorn, mix?d 
with oil, being rubbed upon the head of persons who have lost 
their hair, will cause it to grow again. A very good oil for the 
hair is made by mixing one part of the liquid hartshorn with 
nine parts of pure castor-oil. 

529. An economical Hair Wash. — Dissolve in one quart of 
boiling water one ounce of borax and half an ounce of camphor ; 
these ingredients fine. When cool, the solution will be ready 
for use. Damp the hair with it frequently. This wash not 
only cleanses and beautifies, but strengthens the hair, preserves 
the color, and prevents baldness. 


530. To remove Superfluous Hair. — This is very difficult, for 
if you pull the hair out by the roots from those places which it 
disfigures, there are thousands of roots ready to start through 
the skin the moment you make room for them. Old authors 
recommend depilatories in great variety. The principal of 
these methods consist in rubbing upon the part from which the 
hair is to be removed, leaven, parsley water, juice of acacia, the 
gum of ivy or of the cherry-tree, dissolved in spirits of wine, 
&c. Madame Elisi Voiart, in her " Encyclopedic des Dames," 
recommends a few drops of dulcified spirit of salt, (that is, mu- 
riatic acid distilled with rectified spirits of wine.) to be applied 
with a camel hair pencil. 


531. Never Paint. — The use of white paint as a cosmetic affects 
the eyes, which it renders painful and watery. It changes the 
texture of the skin, on which it produces pimples ; attacks the 
teaeth, destroys the enamel, and loosens them. It heats the 
mouth and throat, infecting and corrupting the saliva. Lastly, 
it penetrates the pores of the skin, acting by degrees on the 
spongy substance of the lungs, and inducing disease. Powdered 
magnesia, or violet powder, is no further injurious than uy 
stopping the pores of the skin ; but this is quite injury enough 
to preclude its use. The best cosmetics are early hours, exer- 
cise, and temperance. 

532. To soften the Skin and improve the Complexion. — Mix 
in a cup of milk a little flowers of sulphur ; let it stand for an 
hour or two; then, without disturbing the sulphur, rub the milk 
into the skin. It will keep it soft and clear. It should be used 
before washing. 

533. Hoic to treat Freckles. — Most of us have observed the 
effect produced on white paper by holding it closely to the fire : 
it changes rapidly from white to brown, and becomes scorched. 
Chemists tell us that most combustible things, both in the ani- 
mal and vegetable world, have carbon for their bans — so has 
the skin ; and, if it be exposed to the heat, it becomes, like 
them, spotted or charred. The iron and oxygen in the blood 
also assist to produce this effect. Thus we have the cau 
freckles. Those who, like Richard Occur de Lion, and Mary 


Queen of Scots, have red hair (which is caused by a red-colored 
oil, more strongly impregnated with iron than others), are most 
liable to freckles. 

The most effectual means of removing freckles, is the use of 
those chemicals which will dissolve the existing combination. 
The freckles are situated in the second or middle membrane of 
the skin ;. and, before any other application, it will be ad- 
visable to soften the surface by the use of some mild balsam 
or paste. 

534. For Freckles. — One ounce of bitter almonds, one ditto 
of barley flour, mix with a sufficient quantity of honey to make 
the whole into a smooth paste ; with which the face, more par- 
ticularly where the freckles are visible, is to be anointed at 
night, and the paste washed off in the morning. After a few 
days the skin will be prepared for a chemical remedy. 

535. Another. — To decompose the freckles, by laying hold 
of the iron, the following mixture may be applied : Take one 
drachm of muriatic acid, half a pint of rain-water, half a tea- 
spoonful of spirit of lavender ; mix well together, and apply 
two or three times a day to the freckles, with a camel's hair 
brush. The acid seizes upon the iron, and the oxygen is disen- 

536. Purifying water for Freckled Skin. — Take one tea- 
spoonful of liquor of potassa, two ounces and a half of pure 
water, and ten drops of eau de Cologne. Mix, and apply three 
times a clay with a camel's hair brush. 

537. Cosmetic Lotion for Freckles. — Take a tea-cupful of cold 
sour milk, scrape into it a quantity of horse-radish. Let this 
stand from six to twelve hours ; and then, being well strained, 
let it be applied, as before directed, two or three times a day. 

538. Preventive Wash for Sunburn. — Take two drachms of 
borax, one drachm of Roman alum, one drachm of camphor, 
half an ounce of sugar-candy, aifd one pound of ox-gall ; mix 
and stir well together, and repeat the stirring three or four 
times a day, until the mixture becomes transparent; then strain 
it through filtering paper, and it is fit for use. 


539. Grape Lotion for Sunburn. — Dip a bunch of green 
grapes in a basin of water ; sprinkle it with powdered alum 
and salt, mixed together ; wrap it in paper, and bake it 
under hot ashes; then express the remaining juice, and wash 
the face with the liquid. 

540. Lemon Cream for Sunburn and Freckles. — Put two 
spoonfuls of fresh cream into half a pint of new milk ; squeeze 
into it the juice of a lemon, arid half a glass of brandy, a little 
alum, and loaf sugar ; boil the whole, skim it well, and, when 
cool, it will be fit for use. 

541. A French Receipt. — Take equal parts of the seeds of 
the melon, pompion, gourd, and cucumber, pounded and re- 
duced to powder or meal ; add to it fresh cream sufficient to 
dilute the flour ; beat all up together, adding a sufficient quan- 
tity of milk, as it may be required, to make an ointment, and 
then apply it to the face. Leave it there for half an hour, and 
then wash it oif with warm soft water. Pimpernel water is 
often used on the continent for the purpose of whitening the 
complexion. It is there in so high reputation, that it is said 
generally that it ought to be continually on the toilet of every 
lady who cares fur the brightness of her skin. 

542. Moles. — The author of c; The Art of Beauty, n whose 
work appeared in 1824, has very judiciously observed : "The 
commou brown mole appears to be much of the same nature as 
freckles, and to be situated in the middle layer of the skin, or 
membrane of color. Moles are sometimes so placed as to im- 
prove rather than injure a^fine face. They contrast with the 
delicacy of a fair skin, and give a pleasing archness of expres- 
sion to the countenance. They are, however, most frequently 
found on women of a dark complexion. The coloring matter, 
as in the case of freckles and sunburn, is probably some chemi 
cal combination of iron. Moles have evidently a supera- 
bundant vitality, and a tendency to increased action, in conse- 
quence, perhaps, of the stimulus of the iron ; and hence they 
are often slightly elevated above the surface, and the natural 
down of the skin is changed into a tuft of hair. The sam> 
metic applications may be tried as for freckles, with gentle fric- 
tion, but they are seldom successful. But it will be found very 


dangerous to apply depilatories to eradicate the tufts of hair on 
moles, as cancer in the face is not unfrequently the consequence 
of such applications." 

543. Birth Marks. — Let them alone, or apply to some emi 
nent surgeon to attempt their removal. 

544. Worm Pimple, with black joints. — They are very com- 
mon, and very unsightly, giving the skin an oily, greasy, and 
dirty appearance. Their origin is to be traced to the obstruc- 
tion of the fountains or glands placed immediately under the 
skin, from which a minute pipe carries off the perspiration. 
This moisture, not getting free egress, thickens and closes the 
pores : it then catches the dust and other impurities, floating 
in the atmosphere, and soon becomes black. If squeezed vio- 
lently between the nails, this thickened matter will be driven 
out, in the form of a yellowish white worm, with a black head, 
which is nothing more than the extraneous matter just men- 
tioned. That there is any vitality in it, is an absurd, but popu- 
lar and prevalent error. These pimples generally cluster on 
the sides of the nose and on the forehead, whilst the skin around 
them is greasy. They should be thoroughly pressed out of 
every pore, or there they will remain, and no cosmetic will dis- 
lodge them. When this is effectually done, the following safe 
and simple application may be tried : take one ounce of bitter 
almonds and one ounce of barley -flour ; mix them with honey, 
until they form a smooth paste, and anoint the skin at night. 
Gentle friction, either with the hand or with a soft glove, is also 
good. When this state of the skin is induced by bilious disor- 
ders, indigestion, &c, sulphur, purgatives, and other remedies 
must be taken to remove it ; but not without medical advice, 
as they often are the reverse of effectual. 

545. Another simple Remedy, — Bathe the pimples several 
times a day with lukewarm water and a sponge, rubbing the 
sponge over a piece of yellow soap. There is a truly healing 
power in soap, which is surprising when we learn to appreciate 
it, and which is quite distinct from mere cleanliness. 

546. Wash for Pimples. — Dissolve half a drachm of salt of 
tartar in three ounces of spirit of wine ; apply with linen or a 
camel-hair pencil. 


547. A Paste for the Skin. — Boil the whites of four eggs in 
rose-water ; add to it a small quantity of alum ; beat the whole 
to the consistence of a paste. This will give great firmness to 
the skin. 

548. Cold Cream. — Take two ounces of oil of sweet almonds, 
and one drachm each of white wax and spermaceti, or half an 
ounce of white wax alone, which scrape very fine, and put them 
with the oil into an earthen dish, to melt slowly on the embers, 
and stir it till it becomes quite smooth. When it is cooling, 
add one ounce of rose-water, and put it into a gallipot, closely 
covered. It should be a very thick cream. 

549. Fard. — This paste is useful in removing sun-burnings, 
effects of wind on the face, and accidental cutaneous eruptions. 
It must be applied on going to bed. First, wash the face, 
and, when dry, rub the fard over it, and let it remain all night. 
Take two ounces of oil of sweet almonds, and the same quantity 
of spermaceti ; melt them over a slow fire. When they are 
dissolved and mixed, take it from the fire, and stir into it one 
table-spoonful of fine honey. Continue stirring it till it is cold, 
and it is then fit for use. 

550. Court-plaster , or black Sticking-plaster. — Take half an 
ounce of benzoin, and six ounces of rectified spirit; dissolve 
and strain ; then take one ounce of isinglass, and half a pint of 
hot water; dissolve and strain separately from the former. 
Mix the two. and set them aside to cool, when a jelly will be 
formed; and this is warmed and brushed ten or twelve times 
over a piece of black silk, stretched smooth. When thia is 
done enough, and dry, finish it with a solution of four ounces 
of chian turpentine in six ounces of tinctur- zoin. 

551. An excellent Tooth-powder. — One of the best tooth-pow- 
ders is made by mixing together one ounce and a half of pre- 
pared chalk, half an ounce of powder of bark, and a quarter of 
an ounce of camphor. 

552. Charcoal Tooth-powder. — Pound charcoal as fine as pos- 
sible, in a mortar, or grind it in a mill ; then well sift it. 
apply a little of it to the teeth at* ek, and it will 
not only render them beautifully white, but will also make the 
breath sweet, and the gums firm and comfortable. 


If the charcoal is ground in a mortar, it is convenient to grind 
it in water, to prevent the dust from flying about. Indeed, the 
powder is more convenient for use, when kept in water. 

553. A safe Tooth-powder. — Cut a slice of thick bread into 
squares, and burn it till it becomes charcoal. Pound it, and 
sift it through a fine muslin. It is then ready for use. 

554. Another Tooth-powder. — Mix hartshorn shavings, cal- 
cined and pulverized, three-fifths ; myrrh, pulverized, tw T o-fifths. 

555. A good Dentifrice.— Dissolve two ounces of borax in 
three pints of boiling water; before it is quite cold, add one 
tea-spoonful of tincture of myrrh, and one table-spoonful of 
spirits of camphor. Bottle the mixture for use. Add one 
wine-glassful of the solution to half a pint of tepid water, and 
use it daily. It preserves and beautifies the teeth, arrests de- 
cay, and induces a healthy action in the gums. 

556. Camphor Tooth-powder. — This excellent dentifrice is 
made by mixing prepared chalk, finely pulverized, and sifted 
through a fine muslin, with an equal quantity of pulverized 
camphor, prepared in the same way. It is a good preservative 
of the teeth. 

557. Orris-root Tooth-powder. — Mix equal quantities of finely 
pulverized and sifted orris-root and prepared chalk. Charcoal 
may be used instead of chalk, in both these receipts, but it 
must be prepared with great care, else its grittiness will injure 
the enamel of the teeth. 

558. To whiten the Teeth. — Mix honey with finely powdered 
charcoal, and use the paste as a dentifrice. 

559. Wash for the Teeth. — One ounce of myrrh, powdered, 
and dissolved in one pint of spirits of wine. A little of this 
dropped on the tooth-brush, is excellent for the teeth and gums. 

560. To remove Tartar from the Teeth. — 1st. The use of the 
tooth-brush night and morning, and at least rinsing the mouth 
after every meal at which animal food is taken. 2d. Once 
daily run the brush lightly two or three times over soap, then 


dip it in salt, and with it clean the teeth, working the brush up 
and down rather than — or as well as — backwards and forwards. 
Tnis is a cheap, safe, and effectual dentifrice. 8d. Eat freely 
of common cress — the sort used with mustard, under the name 
of small salad ; it must be eaten with salt only. If thus used 
two or three days in succession, it will effectually loosen tartar, 
even of long standing. The same effect is produced, though 
perhaps not in an equal degree, by eating strawberries and 
raspberries, especially the former. A leaf of common green 
sage rubbed on the teeth, is useful both in cleansing and polish- 
ing, and probably many other common vegetable productions 

561. Obs. Soap is not at all a desirable medium for cleaning 
the teeth, as, though it may whiten for the time, the alkaline 
process destroys the enamel. 

562. To fill a decayed Tooth. — When a tooth is too much 
decayed to be filled by a dentist, or the person is at a distance 
from one, gutta percha will be found an useful expedient. 
Drop a small piece of this substance in boiling water, then 
taking off as much as will probably fill the tooth nearly level, 
press it, while soft, into the cavity. Then hold cold water in 
the mouth on that side, to harden it. It has been known to 
preserve a tooth two years at least, and keeps it free from cold. 


563. To make soft Pomatum. — Beat half a pound of unsalted 
fresh lard in common water; then soak and beat it in two rose- 
waters; drain it, and beat it with two spoonfuls of brandy; 
let it drain from this; add to it some essence of lemon, and 
keep it in small pots. 

564. Or: Soak half a pound of clear beef marrow, and one 
pound of unsalted fresh lard, in water, two or three days, 
changing and beating it every day. Put it into a sieve, and, 
when dry, into a jar, and the jar into a saucepan of water. 
When melted, pour it into a basin, and beat it with two spoon 
fuls of brandy ; drain off the I randy, and then add essence of 
lemon, bergamot, or any other scent that is liked. 


565. Hard Pomatum. — Prepare equal quantities of beef 
marrow and mutton suet, as before, using the brandy to pre- 
serve it, and adding the scent; then pour it into moulds, or, if 
you have none, into phials of the size you choose the rolls to 
be. When cold, break the bottles, clear away the glass care- 
fully, and put paper round the rolls. 

566. Or: Take equal quantities of marrow, melted and 
strained, lard, and castor oil ; warm all together; add any scent 
you please; stir until cold, and put into pots. 

567. Pomade Divine. — Clear one and a half pound of beef 
marrow from the strings and bone; put it into an earthen pan 
or vessel of water fresh from the spring, and change the water 
night and morning for ten days ; then steep it in rose-water 
twenty-four hours, and drain it in a cloth till quite dry. Take 
one ounce of each of the following articles, namely : storax, 
gum-benjamin, and odoriferous cypress powder ; half an ounce 
of cinnamon, two drachms of cloves, and two drachms of nut- 
meg, all finely powdered : mix them with the marrow above 
prepared ; then put all the ingredients into a pewter pot that 
holds three pints ; make a paste of white of egg and flour, and 
lay it upon a piece of rag. Over that must be another piece 
of linen, to cover the top of the pot very close, that none of the 
steam may evaporate. Put the pot into a large copper pot 
with water, observing to keep it steady, that it may not reach 
to the covering of the pot that holds the marrow. As the water 
shrinks, add more, boiling hot — for it must boil four hours 
without ceasing a moment. Strain the ointment through a 
linen cloth into small pots, and, when cold, cover them. Do 
not tou^h it with anything but silver. It will keep many years. 

568. To make Jessamine Butter. — Hog's lard melted, and 
well washed in fair water, laid an inch thick in a dish, and 
strewed over with jessamine flowers, will imbibe the scent, and 
make a very fragrant pomatum. 

569. Rowland's Macassar Oil. — This is made by boiling cas- 
tor oil, scenting it with oil of roses, and coloring it, while warm, 
with alkanet root. 

570. Macassar Oil — Common oil, three quarts; spirits of 
wine, half a pint; cinnamon powder, three ounces; bergamot, 


two ounces : heat them together in a large pipkin, then remove 
it from the fire, and add four small pieces of alkanet root, keep- 
ing it closely covered for several hours. Let it then be filtered 
through a funnel lined with filtering paper. 

571. Wash for the Skin. — Four ounces of potash, four ounces 
of rose-water, two ounces of pure brandy, and two ounces of 
lemon-juice ; put all these into two quarts of water, and when 
you wash, put a table-spoonful or two of the mixture into the 
basin of water you intend washing in. 

572. To make Milk of Roses. — To one pint of rose-water, add 
one ounce of oil of almonds and ten drops of the oil of tartar. 
N. B. — Let the oil of tartar be poured in last. 

573. Almond Paste. — Blanch half a pound of sweet almonds 
and a quarter of a pound of bitter almonds, and beat them to 
powder in a mortar with half a pound of loaf sugar ; then beat 
them into a paste with orange-flower water. 

574. Almond Powder. — Blanch six pounds of bitter almonds, 
dry and beat them, and press from them one pint of oil ; then 
beat them in an iron mortar, and pass the powder through a 
sieve. Keep it from air and moisture in a glass jar. Used 
instead of soap for washing the hands, it imparts a singular deli- | 
cacy to their appearance. 

575. Violet Powder. — This preparation is universally applied i 
for drying the skin after washing, especially at the joints, which, I 
if left even damp, produces chaps and chafing, often followed, j 
if neglected, by inflammation. Violet powder is best prepared 
by mixing three parts of the best wheat starch with one of 
finely-ground orris-root; the latter adds to the drying power l 
of the starch, and imparts, at the same time, an agreeable odor 
like that of violet — hence the name of the mixture. It is also 
prepared by perfuming starch with essential oils, without the 
addition of orris-root: but, though the scent of the powder is 
stronger, and to some more tempting to use, it is far less bene- 
ficial in its application. The scent, acting as a stimulant t 
the skin, increases rather than abates any tendency to redness. 
Unperfumed pow r der is, therefore, the best to use, dusted over 
the part with a little brush made of swan's-down, called a puff. 


576. Another Powder for Chaps, &c. — Take dry hemlock 
bark, powder it, by rubbing on a fine grater ; then sift this 
powder through gauze or muslin, and sprinkle it lightly on the 
part chapped. It is a safe and certain curative. 

577. Pearl White. — Bismuth dissolved in aqua-fortis, is pearl 
white. This, though at first it whitens, afterwards blackens 
the skin, as all preparations from lead do ; and therfore none 
of them are safely to be used. — Dr. Moyes* Lectures. 

578. Pot-pourri. — Put into a large china jar the following 
ingredients in layers, with bay-salt strewed between the layers : 
two pecks of damask roses, part in buds and part blown ; vio- 
lets, orange-flowers, and jessamine, a handful of each; orris- 
root sliced, benjamin and storax, two ounces of each ; quarter 
of an ounce of musk ; quarter of a pound of angelica root, 
sliced ; a quart of the red parts of clove-gillyflowers ; two 
handfuls of lavender flowers ; half a handful of rosemary flow- 
ers ; bay and laurel leaves, half a handful of each ; three Se- 
ville oranges, stuck as full of cloves as possible, dried in a cool 
oven, and pounded; half a handful of knotted marjoram; and 
two handfuls of balm of Gilead, dried. Cover all quite close. 
When the pot is uncovered the perfume is very fine. 

579. A. quicker sort of sweet Pot-pourri. — Take three handfuls 
of orange-flowers, three of clove-gilly flowers, three of damask- 
roses, one of knotted marjoram, one of lemon-thyme, six bay- 
leaves, a handful of rosemary, one of myrtle, half of mint, one 
of lavender, the rind of a lemon, and a quarter of an ounce of 
cloves. Chop all, and put them in layers, with pounded bay- 
salt between, up to the tip of the jar. 

If all the ingredients cannot be obtained at once, put them in 
as you get them ; always throwing in salt with every new 

580. Hungary Water. — Mix one quart of spirits of wine; 
half a pint of water; and three-quarters of an ounce of oil of 

581. Lavender Water. — Mix in a quart bottle three drachms 
of oil of lavender ; one pint rectified spirit of wine ; shake them 


well together, and add an ounce of orange-flower water, ar 
ounce of rose-water, four ounces of distilled water, and, if you 
like, two or three drachms of essence of musk. 

582. Rose-water. — When the roses are in full bloom pick the 
leaves carefully off, and to every quart of water put a peck of 
them ; put them in a cold still over a slow fire, and distil 
gradually; then bottle the water; let it stand in the bottle 
three days, and then cork it close. 

583. Another. — Take two pounds of rose leaves, place them 
on a napkin tied round the edges of a basin filled with hot 
water, and put a dish of cold water upon the leaves; keep the 
bottom water hot, and change the water at top as soon as it 
begins to grow warm. By this kind of distillation you will 
extract a great quantity of the essential oil of the roses by a 
process which cannot be expensive, and will prove very bene- 

584. Tincture of Roses. — Put into a bottle the petals of the 
common rose, and pour upon them spirits of wine ; cork the 
bottle, and let it stand for two or three months. It will then 
yield a perfume little inferior to otto of roses. Common vine- 
gar is much improved by a very small quantity of this mixture 
being added to it. 

585. Honey Water. — One ounce of essence of bergamot, 
three drachms of English oil of lavender, half a drachm of oil 
of cloves, half a drachm of aromatic vinegar, six grains of 
musk, one and a half pint of spirits of wine. Mix and distil. 

586. Honey Water. — Take one pint of spirit as above, and 
three drachms of essence of ambergris; shake them well daily. 

587. Sweet-scented Water. — Put one quart of rose-w r ater, and 
the same quantity of orange-water, into a large and wide- 
mouthed glass : strew' upon it two handfuls of jessamine flow- 
ers ; put the glass in the balneum marice, or on a slow fire, and 
when it is distilled, add to it a scruple of musk and the same 
quantity of ambergris. 

588. A very fine Scent. — Take six draehms of oil of lavender, 
three of the essence of bergamot, sixty drops of ambergris, and 


two grains of musk. Mix these into a pint of the best rectified 
spirits of wine. 

589. To whiten the Hands. — Take a wine-glassful of eau de 
Cologne, and another of lemon-juice ; then scrape two cakes of 
brown Windsor soap, or the same quantity of pure white soap, 
to a powder, and mix well in a mould. When hard, it will be 
excellent for whitening the hands. 

590. Camphor Cerate for Chapped Hands. — The following 
receipt was given to the contributor by a maid of honor to 
Queen Victoria. It is an excellent one. Scrape into an earthen 
vessel one ounce and a half of spermaceti and half an ounce of 
white wax ; add six drachms of pounded camphor, and four 
table spoonfuls of the best olive oil. Let it stand near the lire 
till it dissolves, stirring it well when liquid. Before the hands 
are washed, rub them thoroughly with a little of the cerate, 
then wash them as usual. Putting the cerate on before retiring, 
answers very well. This quantity costs about twenty-five 
cents, and will last three winters. The vessel it is kept in 
should be covered, to prevent evaporation. 

591. Paste for Chapped Hands. — Mix a quarter of a pound 
of unsalted lard, which has been washed in soft water, and then 
in rose-water, with the yolks of two new-laid eggs, and a large 
spoonful of honey. Add as much fine oatmeal or almond-paste 
as will work into a paste. 

Or : — Blanch one pound of bitter almonds, and pound them 
smooth in a marble mortar ; add half an ounce of camphor, 
one ounce of honey, quarter of a pound of spermaceti, pounded 
and mixed with the almonds, till it becomes a smooth paste. 
Put it into jars, and tie it down till wanted. 

592. To prevent inconvenience from Perspiration of the Hands, 
— Ladies who work lace or embroidery sometimes suffer incon- 
venience from the perspiration on their hands ; which may be 
remedied, by rubbing the hands frequently with a little dry 
wheaten bran. 

593. Another. — Any of the milder kinds of soaps will be found 
to answer the purpose of keeping the hands clean, soft, and as 
white as^ nature will permit. 


594. For preserving the Kails, — One ounce of oil of bitter 
almonds ; one drachm of oil of tartar per deliquium ; one 
ounce of prepared crabs'-eyes. Mix up with essence of lemon, 
to scent it. 

La Forest reeommends rubbing the nails with lemon as a 

595. To whiten the Kails. — Mix two drachms of diluted sul- 
phuric acid, one drachm of tincture of myrrh, and four ounces 
of spring-water. Cleanse the nails with soap, and then dip the 
fingers in the mixture. 

59G. To remove Stains from the Hands. — Dip your hands in 
warm water, and rub on the stain a small portion of oxalic acid 
powder and cream of tartar, mixed together in equal quantities. 
Keep it in a box. When the stain disappears, wash the hands 
with fine soap or almond cream. A box of this stain powder 
should always be kept on hand. 

597. To make Wash-balls. — Shave thin two pounds of new 
white soap into about a tea-cupful of rose-water, then pour on 
as much boiling water as will soften it. Put into a brass pan 
a pint of sweet oil, half an ounce of oil of almonds, half a pound 
of spermaceti, and set all over the fire till dissolved ; then add 
the soap and half an ounce of camphor, that has first been 
reduced to powder by rubbing it in a mortar, with a few drops 
of spirits of wine, or lavender-water, or any other scent. Boil 
ten minutes, then pour it into a basin, and stir it till it is quite 
thick enough to roll into hard balls, which must then be done 
immediately. If essence is used, stir it in quickly after it is 
taken off the fire. 

598. Essence of Soap, for shaving or washing hands. — Take 
a pound and a half of fine white soap, in thin slices, and add 
thereto two ounces of salt of tartar; mix them well together, 
and put this mixture into one quart of spirits of wine, in a bottle 
which will hold double the quantity of the ingredients : tie a 
bladder over the mouth of the bottle, and prick a pin through 
the bladder; set it to digest in a gentle heat, and shake the 
contents from time to time, taking care to take out the pin at 
such times, to allow passage for the air from within. When 
the soap is dissolved, filter the liquor through paper, to free it 


from impurities; then scent it with a little be;gamot or essence 
of lemon. It will have the appearance of fine oil, and a small 
quantity will lather with water like soap, and is much superior 
in use for washing or shaving. 

599. Naples Soap, — Put into a pipkin or saucepan half a 
pint of ley, (strong enough to bear an egg,) with two ounces of 
lamb suet and one ounce of olive oil ; simmer them over a fire 
until they be thick, when pour the mixture into a flat pan, 
cover it with glass, and expose it to the heat of the sun for 
seven weeks, stirring it once a day : the soap will then be made, 
and may be perfumed with a few drops of oil of ambergris, 
which should be w r ell mixed. Put the soap into small jars, 
and it will be improved by keeping. 

600. Transparent Soap. — Put into a bottle Windsor soap, in 
thin shavings; half fill with spirits of wine, and set it near the 
fire till the soap be dissolved, when pour it into a mould to cool. 

601. Genuine Windsor Soap. — To make this famcus soap 
for washing the hands, shaving, &c, nothing more is necessary 
than to slice the best white soap as thin as possible, melt it 
in a stew-pan over a slow fire, scent it well with oil of caraway, 
and then pour it into a frame or mould made for that purpose, 
or a small drawer, adapted in size and form to the quantity. 
When it has stood three or four days in a dry situation, cut 
into square pieces, and it is ready for use. By this simple 
mode, substituting any more favorite scent for that of caraway, 
all persons may suit themselves with a good perfumed soap, 
at the most trifling expense. 

602. To make Lady Derby's Soap. — Two ounces of bitter 
almonds, blanched, one ounce and a quarter of tincture of ben- 
jamin, one pound of good plain white soap, and one piece of 
camphor the size of a walnut. The almonds and camphor are 
to be beaten in a mortar until they are completely mixed, then 
work up with them the tincture of benjamin. The mixture 
being perfectly made, work the soap into it in the same man- 
ner. If the smell is too powerful of the camphor and tincture 
of benjamin, melt the soap, by the fire, and the perfume will 
go off. This soap has been tried by many persons of distinc- 
tion, is excellent in its qualities for cleansing the skin, and will 



be found greatly to assist the complexion, the ingredients being 
perfectly safe. 

603. To make superior Honey Soap. — Cut into thin shavings 
two pounds of common yellow or white soap ; put it on the 
fire with just water enough to keep it from burning : when quite 
melted, add a quarter of a pound of honey, stirring it till it 
boils ; then take it off, and add a few drops of any agreeable 
perfume : pour it into a deep dish to cool, and then cut it into 
squares. It improves by keeping. It will soften and whiten 
the skin. 

604. Paste for Chapped Lips. — Put four ounces of olive oil 
into a bottle with one ounce of alkanet root; stop it up, and 
set it for some days in the sun, shaking it often until it becomes 
perfectly bright ; then strain the oil from the alkanet, add to it 
one ounce of white wax, and one ounce and a half of clarified 
mutton suet: let the mixture simmer a little while over a slow 
fire. When it begins to cool, mix with it a few drops of any 
essential oil. 

605. Chapped or Sore Lips — May be healed by the frequent 
application of honey-water, and protecting them from the influ- 
ence of cold air. 

606. Lip Salve. — Melt together an ounce of white wax, the 
same of beef marrow, and three ounces of white pomatum, with 
a small piece of alkanet root, tied in muslin ; perfume, when 
cool, wfth otto of rose or any other essence. It should be 
strained while hot. 

607. Bad Breath from Onions. — A few leaves of parsley 
eaten with vinegar, will prevent any disagreeable consequences 
from eating onions. 

608. Wash for the Mouth. — An excellent wash for the mouth 
is made of half an ounce of tincture of myrrh and two ounces 
of Peruvian bark. Keep in a phial for use. A few drops in 
a glass of water are sufficient. 

609. Eau de Cologne — Mix essence of bergamot, lemon, 
lavender, and orange-flower, of each one drachm ; essence of 


cinnamon, half a drachm ; spirit of rosemary, and honey. water, 
each two ounces ; spirits of wine, one pint : let the mixture 
stand two weeks, then put it in a glass retort, the body of which 
immerse in boiling water contained in a vessel placed over a 
lamp, while the beak of the retort is introduced into a large 
reservoir (a decanter, for example) : keep the water boiling, 
while the mixture will distil into the receiver, which should 
be covered with cold wet cloths. In this manner Cologne-water 
may be obtained as good as the best Farina, at one-fourth the 
price. A coffee-lamp or nursery-furnace will best answer to 
boil the water. 

The above is the most simple method of distilling, without 
the regular still. 

610. To make Eau de Cologne. — Rectified spirits of wine, 
four pints; oil of bergamot, one ounce; oil of lemon, half an 
ounce ; oil of rosemary, half a drachm ; oil of Neroli, three- 
quarters of a drachm ; oil of English lavender, one drachm ; oil 
of oranges, one drachm. Mix well, and then filter. If these 
proportions are too large, smaller ones may be used. 

611. A very pleasant Perfume, afld Wso jjreventive against 
Moths. — Take of cloves, caraway seeds, nutmeg, mace, cinna- 
mon, and Tonquin beans, of each one ounce; then add as much 
Florentine orris-root as will equal the other ingredients put 
together. Grind the whole w r ell to powder, and then put it in 
little bags, among your clothes, &c. 

612. Method of extracting Essences from Flowers. — Procure 
a quantity of the petals of any flowers which have an agreeable 
fragrance; card thin layers of cotton, w 7 hich dip into the finest 
Florence or Lucca oil ; sprinkle a small quantity of fine salt 
on the flowers, and lay them, a layer of cotton and a layer of 
flowers, until an earthen vessel or a wide-mouthed glass bottle 
is full. Tie the top close with. a bladder, then lay the vessel 
in a south aspect to the heat of the sun, and in fifteen days, 
when uncovered, a fragrant oil may be squeezed away from 
the whole mass, little inferior (if roses are used) to the highly- 
valued otto of roses. 

613. Curious small Cakes of Incense for perfuming Apart- 
ments. — Take equal quantities of lignum rhodium and anise, 


in powder, with a little powder of dried Seville orange-peel, 
and the same of gum benzoin, or benjamin, and beat all together 
in a marble mortar : then, adding some gum-dragon, or traga- 
canth, dissolved in rose-water, put in a little civet; beat the 
whole again together; make up this mixture into small cakes, 
and place them on paper to dry. One of these cakes being 
burnt in the largest apartment, will diffuse a most agreeable 
odor through the whole room. 

614. To perfume Linen. — Rose-leaves dried in the shade, 
cloves beat to a powder, and mace, scraped ; mix them together, 
and put the composition into little bags. 

615. To make an excellent Smelling-bottle. — Take an equal 
quantity of sal-ammoniac and unslaked lime, pound them sepa- 
rately, then mix, and put them in a bottle to smell to. Before 
you put in the above, drop two or three drops of the essence 
of bergamot in the bottle, then cork it close. A drop or two 
of ether, added to the same, will greatly improve it. 

616. Aromatic Vinegd.r. — Throw into two pounds of acetic 
acid one ounce each o^the dried tops of rosemary and the dried 
leaves of sage, half an ounce each of the dried flowers of laven- 
der and of bruised cloves. Let them remain untouched for 
seven days; then express the liquid and filter it through paper. 
This is useful in sick rooms. 

617. Lavender Vinegar. — Prepare a stone jar or bottle, and 
to each pint of vinegar put into it, add half an ounce of fresh 
lavender flowers ; cover closely, and set it aside for a day or 
two ; then set the jar upon hot cinders for eight or ten hours ; 
and when cold, strain and bottle it. It is a refreshing perfume. 

618. Spirit and Oil of Roses. — A few drops of otto of roses, 
dissolved in spirits of wine, form the esprit de rose of the per- 
fumers; and the same quantity dissolved in fine sweet oil, 
their huile antique a la rose. 

619. Essence of Mvsk. — Mix one drachm of musk with the 
same quantity of pounded loaf sugar; add six ounces of spirit 
of wine : shake together, and pour off for use. 


Musk is seldom obtained pure : when it smells of ammonia, 
it is adulterated. To preserve it, it should be made quite dry ; 
when to be used as a perfume, it should be moistened. 

620. Odeur Delectable. — Mix four ounces of distilled rose- 
water, four ounces of orange-flower water, one drachm of oil 
of cloves, two drachms of oil of bergamot, two grains of musk, 
one pint of spirits of wine. Macerate thoroughly, and add one 
drachm of essence of musk. This delicious scent is a universal 
favorite with the ladies of the beau monde in Paris. 

621. Eau D' } Ange. — Pound in a mortar fifteen cloves and 
one pound of cinnamon ; put the whole into a quart of water, 
with four grains anise-seed ; let it stand over a charcoal firo 
twenty-four hours ; then strain off the liquor and bottle it. 
The perfume is excellent, and will be useful for the hands, face, 
and hair. 

622. Shaving. — The hone and razor-strop should be kept in 
good condition. The German hone is best : it should be frequently 
moistened with oil, and laid up in a place where it will not 
readily become dry : if it be rubbed with soap, instead of oil, 
previously to using, it will give additional keenness and fine- 
ness to the edge of the razor. 

The strop should also be kept moist with a drop or two of 
sweet oil : a little crocus and oil rubbed in the strop with a 
glass bottle will give the razor a fine edge ; as will also a 
paste made of tutty powder and solution of oxalic acid. 

Mr. Knight, president of the Horticultural Society, has 
invented the following apparatus and method of sharpening a 
razor : Procure a round bar of cast steel, three inches long, 
and about one-third of an inch in diameter ; rub it smooth from 
end to end with glass paper ; next, smear over its surface a paste 
of oil and the charcoal of wheat straw, and fix the steel into a 
handle. To set a razor, dip it in hot water, raise its back, and 
move it without pressure, in circles, from heel to point, and 
back again ; clean the blade on the palm of the hand, and again 
dip it into hot water. This newly invented apparatus may be 
purchased at any cutler's. 

A very small piece of nitre, dissolved in water and applied 
to the face after shaving, will remove any unpleasant sensation, 
though the first application may be somewhat painful. 


623. Shaving Liquids. — 1. Kub in a marble mortar an ounce 
of any fine soap, with two drachms of carbonate of potassa. 
When these two substances are incorporated, continue rubbing, 
and add gradually a pint of lavender-water, or any other odor- 
ous water made by dissolving essential oils in alcohol sixty de- 
grees above proof. When the whole is well combined, filter 
the liquid, and bottle it for use. To make a lather, put a few 
drops into a wine-glass of tepid water ; dip your brush in the 
mixture, and, when rubbed on the face, a fine lather will ap- 
pear. 2. Dissolve any quantity of fine soap in alcohol, either 
with or without perfume. Use it according to the preceding 

624. An Easy Shave. — The operation of shaving may be 
robbed of its unpleasant sensations by rubbing the chin over 
with grease, or a sweet oil, before the application of the razor. 
The best razor-strop in the world is one's own hand, moistened 
with its own natural oil or perspiration. Sharpen the razor 
thus before you wash your hands, and you will find this natural 
strop most efficacious. After shaving, to allay irritation, wash 
the chin with Portugal water. 

625. Composition for Shaving, without the use of razor, soap, 
or water. — Mix one pint and a half of clear lime-water, two 
ounces of gum-arabic, half an ounce of isinglass, an eighth of an 
ounce of cochineal, a quarter of an ounce of turmeric-root (made 
into powder), an eighth of an ounce of salt of tartar, and an 
eighth of an ounce of cream of tartar, together : boil them for 
one hour at least (stirring up the mixture during the whole 
time of boiling, and be careful not to let it boil over), clear it 
through a sieve ; then add two and a half pounds of pumice 
stone, finely pulverized ; mix the whole together with the hands, 
by the assistance of th« white of two eggs, well stirred up. 
Then divide the cake into twelve small ones. Dry them in the 
open air for three days ; put them into an oven moderately 
heated for twenty-four hours, when they will be ready for use. 
Apply them, with a gentle friction, to the beard, and they will 
produce the effect of shaving by rubbing off the hair. 



Needle -work, Fancy-work — Preparations for Writing — Flow- 
ers — House Plants — Birds — Gold Fish, &c. 

The first and best use of the needle is common or plain 
sewing. Every woman and girl should understand this art, 
the beginning of all arts, and the most indispensable to civili- 

It is unnecessary to dilate on the importance of common 
needlework, and to this female accomplishment, so universally 
necessary, we shall principally confine our directions. 

626. Requisites for Sewing. — A neat work-box well supplied 
with all the implements required, including knife, scissors (of 
at least three sizes), needles and pins in sufficient variety, bod- 
kins, thimbles, thread and cotton, bobbins, marking silks, black 
lead pencils, &c, should be provided, and be furnished with a 
lock and key, to prevent the contents being thrown into confu- 
sion by children or unauthorized intruders. 

The lady, being thus provided, and having her materials, im- 
plements, &c., placed in order upon her work-table, to the edge 
of which it is an advantage to have a pincushion affixed by 
means of a screw — may commence her w 7 ork, and proceed with 
it with pleasure to herself, and without annoyance to any 
visitor who may favor her with a call. We would recommend, 
wherever practicable, that the work-table should be made of 
cedar, and that the windows of the working parlor should open 
into a garden well supplied with odoriferous flowers and plants, 
the perfume of which will materially cheer the spirits of those 


especially, whose circumstances compel them to devote the 
greatest portion of their time to sedentary occupations. If these 
advantages cannot be obtained, at least the room should be 
well-ventilated, and furnished with a few cheerful plants, and 
a well-filled scent-jar. The beneficent Creator intended all his 
children, in whatever station of life they might be placed, to 
share in the common bounties of his providence ; and when she, 
who works not for pleasure, but to obtain the means of subsist- 
ence, is compelled to seclude herself, for days or weeks to- 
gether, from the cheering influence of exercise in the open air, 
it becomes both her duty, and that of those for whom she 
labors, to secure as much of these advantages, or of the best 
substitutes for them, as the circumstances of the case will 


627. Hemming. — Turn down the raw edge as evenly as pos- 
sible. Flatten, and be careful, especially in turning down the 
corners. Hem from right to left ; bring the point of the needle 
from the chest toward the right hand. Fasten the thread 
without a knot, and when you finish, sew several stitches close 
together, and cut off the thread. 

628. Mantua-maker *s Hem. — You lay the raw edge of one 
©f your pieces a little below that of the other; the upper edge 
is then turned over the other twice, and felled down as strong 
as possible. 

629. Sewing and Felling. — If you have selvages, join them 
together, and sew them firmly. If you have raw edges, turn 
down one of the edges once, and the other double the breadth, 
and then turn half of it back again. This is for the fell. The 
two pieces are pinned together, face to face, and seamed to- 
gether — the stitches being in a slanting direction, and just deep 
enough to hold the separate pieces firmly together. Then 
flatten the seam with the thumb, turn the work over, and fell it 
the same as hemming. The thread is fastened by being worked 
between the pieces, and sewn over. 

630. Running. — Take three threads, leave three, and, in order 
that the work may be kept as firm as possible, back-stitch 


occasionally. If you sew selvages, they must be joined evenly 
together; but if raw edges, one must be turned down once, 
and the other laid upon it, but a few threads from the top : in 
this case, it must be felled afterwards. 

631. Stitching. — The work must be as even as possible. 
Turn down a piece to stitch to; draw a thread to stitch upon, 
twelve or fourteen threads from the edge. Being thus prepared, 
you take two threads back, and so bring the needle out from 
under two before. Proceed in this manner to the end of the 
row ; and, in joining a fresh piece of thread, take care to pass 
the needle between the edges, and so bring it out where the 
last stitch is finished. 

632. Gathering. — You begin by taking the article to be gather- 
ed, and dividing it into halves, and then into quarters, putting 
on pins to make the divisions. The piece to which you are 
intending to gather it, must be gathered about twelve threads 
from the top, taking three threads on the needle, and leaving 
four ; and so proceeding alternately until one quarter is gather- 
ed. Fasten the thread by twisting it round a pin ; stroke the 
gathers, so that they lie evenly and neatly, with a strong needle 
or pin. You then proceed as before, until all the gathers are 
gathered. Then take out the pins, and regulate the gathers 
of each quarter so as to correspond with those of the piece to 
which it is to be sewed. The gathers are then to be fastened 
on, one at a time ; and the stitches must be in a slanting direc- 
tion. The part to be gathered must be cut quite even before 
commencing, or else it will be impossible to make the gathering 
look well. 

633. Double Gathering, or Puffing. — This is sometimes em- 
ployed in setting on frills, and, when executed properly, has a 
pretty effect. You first gather the top in the usual way ; then, 
having stroked down the gathers, you gather again under the 
first gathering, and of such a depth as you wish the puffing to 
be. You then sew on the first gathering to the gown, frock, 
&c., you design to trim, at a distance corresponding with the 
width of the puffing, and the second gathering sewed to the 
edge, so as to form a full hem. You may make a double hem, 
if you please, by gathering three times instead of only twice ; 
and one of the hems may be straight, while the other is drawn 



to one side a little. This requires much exactness in the exe- 
cution, but, if properly done, it gives a pleasing variety to the 

634. German Hemming. — Turn down both the raw edges 
once, taking care so to do it as that both turns may be toward 
your person ; you then lay one below the other, so as that the 
smooth edge of the nearest does not touch the other, but lies 
just beneath it. The lower one is then to be hemmed or felled 
to the piece against which you have laid it, still holding it be- 
fore you. You are next to open your sleeve, or whatever else 
you have been employed upon, and, laying the upper fold over 
the lower, fell it down, and the work is done. 

635. Binding. — Various kinds of work have binding set on 
to them, in preference to hemming them, or working them in 
herring-bone stitch. Flannel is generally bound, sometimes 
with a thin tape, made for the purpose, and called "flannel 
binding." It is also common to bind flannel with sarcenet 
riband. The binding is so put on as to show but little over 
the edge on the right side, where it is hemmed dow r n neatly ; 
on the other side it is run on with small stitches. 

636. Braiding. — Silk braid looks pretty, and is used for a 
variety of purposes. In putting it on, it is best to sew it with 
silk drawn out of the braid, as it is a better match, and the 
stitches will be less perceived. 

637. Marking. — It is of essential importance that clothes 
should be marked and numbered. This is often done with ink; 
but as some persons like to mark with silk, we shall describe 
the stitch. Two threads are to be taken each way of the cloth, 
and the needle must be passed three ways, in order that the 
stitch may be complete. The first is aslant from the person, 
toward the right hand ; the second is downward toward you ; 
and the third is the reverse of the first — that is, aslant from you, 
toward the left hand. The needle is to be brought out at the 
corner of the stitch Dearest to that you are about to make. 
The shapes of the letters or figures can be learned from an 
inspection of any common sampJer. 

638. Piping. — This is much used in ornamenting children's 
and other dresses. It is made by enclosing a card of the proper 


thickness in a strip of silk cut crosswise, and must be put on 
as evenly as possible. 

639. Plaiting. — The plaits must be as even as it is possible 
to place them one against another. In double plaiting, they 
lie both ways, and meet in the middle. 

640. To keep Thread, Sewing-silk, dtc. — In making up linen, 
thread is much preferable to cotton. Sewing-silk should be 
folded up neatly in wash-leather, and colored threads and cotton 
in paper, as the air and light are likely to injure them. But- 
tons, hooks and eyes, and all metal implements, when not in 
use, should be kept folded up, as exposure to the air not onlj 
tarnishes them, but is likely to injure them in a variety of ways. 


641. Bedroom Linen. — This includes quilts, blankets, sheets, 
pillow-covers, towels, table-covers and pincushion-covers. 

642. Quilts. — These are of various sizes and qualities, in ac- 
cordance with the purposes to which they are applied. They 
are generally made of the outside material and the lining — 
wadding or flannel being laid between — and stitched in dia- 
monds or other devices. The stitches must pass through the 
whole, and the edges of the quilt are to be secured by a braid- 
ing or binding proper for the purpose. They are best done in 
a frame. 

643. Blankets. — These are generally bought, ready-prepared 
for use. It is sometimes necessary to work over the edges at 
the end, which should be done with scarlet worsted, in a very 
wide kind of button-hole stitch. 

644. Sheets. — These are made of fine linen, coarse linen, and 
cotton-sheeting. Linen sheets are best for summer, and many 
prefer them at all seasons. If the sheeting is not sufficiently 
wide for the bed, two lengths must be sewed together. The 
seam up the middle must be sewed as neatly as possible, and 
the ends may be either hemmed or seamed : the latter is the 
preferable method. Sheets and all bedroom linen should be 
marked and numbered; to add the date of the year is also an 


645. Pillow-cases. — These are made of fine or coarse linen, 
and sometimes of cotton cloth. The material should be of such 
a width as to correspond with the length of the pillow. One 
yard and three nails, doubled and seamed up, is the proper size. 
One end is seamed up, and the other hemmed with a broad 
hem, and furnished with strings or buttons as is deemed most 
convenient. We think the preferable way of making pillow 
covers is to procure a material of a sufficient width, when 
doubled, to admit the pillow. The selvages are then sewed to- 
gether, and the ends seamed and hemmed as before directed. 
Bolster covers are made in nearly the same manner, only that 
a round patch is let into one end, and a tape for a slot is run 
into the other. 

646. Towels. — Towels are made of diaper or huckaback, of a 
quality adapted to the uses to which they are applicable. They 
should be one yard long and about ten or twelve nails wide. 
The best are bought single, and are fringed at the ends.^ Others 
are neatly hemmed, and sometimes have a tape-loop attached 
to them, by which they can be suspended against a wall. 

647. Dressing Table Covers. — These may be made of any 
material that is proper for the purpose. Fine diaper generally, 
but sometimes dimity and muslin are employed, or the table is 
covered with a kind of Marseilles quilting, which is prepared 
expressly for the purpose. Sometimes the covers are merely 
hemmed round, but they look much neater if fringed, or bor- 
dered with a moderately full frill. Sometimes a worked bor- 
der is set on. All depends upon taste and fancy. A neat and 
genteel appearance, in accordance with the furniture of the 
apartment, should be especially regarded. 

648. Pincushion Covers. — A large pincushion, having two 
eovers belonging to it, should belong to each toilet table. The 
covers are merely a bag into which the cushion is slipped. They 
may be either worked or plain ; always of white muslin or 
linen cambric; and should have small tassels at each corner, 
and a frill or fringe all round. 

649. Table Linen. — This department of plain needlework 
comprises table-cloths, dinner-napkins, and large and small tray 


650. Table-cloths. — These may be purchased either singly, 
or cut from the piece. In the latter case the ends should be 
hemmed as neatly as possible, and marked and numbered. 

651. Dinner Napkins, — These are of various materials; if cut 
from the piece, they must be hemmed at the ends the same as 
table-cloths. Large and small tray napkins and knife-box 
cloths, are made in the same maimer. The hemming of all 
these should be extremely neat. It is a pretty and light em- 
ployment for very young ladies ; little girls even should do 
this work, and thus early acquire habits of neatness and useful- 
ness, which will prove useful in after life. 

652. Housemaid and Kitchen Linen. — In the housemaid's de- 
partment, paint cloths, old and soft, and chamber bottle cloths, 
fine and soft, are to be provided. To these must be added 
dusters, flannels for scouring, chamber bucket-cloths, which last 
should be of a kind and color different from everything else. 
All these must be neatly hemmed and run, or seamed if neees- 
sary. Nothing, in a well-directed family, should bear the im- 
press of neglect, or be suffered to assume an untidy appearance. 

653. Clothes-bags. — Clothes-bags of different sizes should 
also be provided, of two yards in length, and either one breadth 
doubled, in which case only one seam will be required, or of 
two breadths, which makes the bags more suitable for large 
articles of clothinsr. These bags are to be seamed up neatly at 
the bottom, and to have strings which will draw run in at the 
top. The best material is canvas, or strong unbleached linen. 
In the kitchen department, you will require both table and 
dresser cloths, which should be made as neat as possible. 

654. Mending. — In cutting up an old garment, it is a great 
advantage to have a portion of the same material new. For 
this reason, when purchasing cloth for a new garment, buy a 
little additional quantity for repairs, and take care that it is kept 
for that purpose, and not wasted in any way. 

It was formerly the custom with all careful women, when 
buying a dress, to buy an extra yard for new sleeving. To be 
sure a gown was then more expensive than now ; but it should 
be remembered, that if six gowns can be bought for the money 
that used to buy three or four, they cannot be made up in the 


same time at home, nor for the same money if put out. Any 
tolerably handy woman, though she may not choose to ventura 
upon cutting out and making a new dress, may repair one, 
having the old pattern and lining to work by, and the very 
creases and stitches for a guide. If, by so doing, a gown will 
wear half as long again, the price of a little over-quantity at 
first, and a few hours employed on the work, are well bestowed. 
The same remark applies to the garments of men. Unless 
these be bought ready-made, the pieces should be carefully laid 
by for repairs. In children's clothing, these alterations and re- 
pairs are often needed. 

655. Patchwork, — Many improvements may be made in 
patchwork that most of us have been accustomed to see for 
years. It is a kind of needlework very interesting for little 
girls; and old ladies frequently resort to this for amusement 
by their cosy firesides, during the long winter evenings, when 
tired of reading. 

656. Of the Materials. — The materials necessary for patch- 
work are such portions of wearing apparel, whether cloth, cali- 
co, linen, holland, silk, velvet, cotton, &c., such as would other- 
wise be thrown away, or saved for the rag-man. No matter 
how small the portion, every scrap has its use. The next ne- 
cessary article is some stiff paper — old envelopes, backs of let- 
ters, brown paper, &c, to form the shapes; lastly, the design — 
shapes, cut out in tin, and the designs themselves. 

The materials should be arranged into shades and qualities. 
After having been cut to required sizes, and the irregularities 
of the edges neatly repaired, rhey are ready for use. 

657. Patterns. — The imttemu may be varied ad infinitum, if 
the person possesses the least talent for drawing ; but for the 
sake of those who may not be able to do this, we submit the 
following simple and effective designs to be executed in any 
of the materials. 

658. To make the Patchwork. — The pattern should be placed 
before the person, and the shades being selected, the several 
pieces arranged so as to form the design, and the edges then 
neatly sewed together; after which they are either pressed, or 
ironed, the papers removed, and the lining proceeded with. 



When silks and velvets are employed, it improves the effect 
to combine the two, taking the silk for the lighter, and the vel- 
vet for the darker shades; or, as in figures 5, 6, 8, and 11, to 
have silk for the lighter shades, and two velvets for the others, 
shaded to pattern. 

A very pretty effect is produced by combining Holland and 
calico, silk and satin, silk or satin and velvet, and rough and 
fine cloth. 

The various articles that may be manufactured, are quilts in 
colored and white calico ; anti-macassars in silks ; ottomans in 
silks and velvets, silks and cloth; table-covers in silks and 
cloth ; cushions for chairs or sofas, in silks ; and mats, rugs, and 
carpets, in cloth. 

We have seen many useful white quilts for children's cots, 
made from the cuttings remaining after shirt making. The 
centre might be of Holland and calico, pattern 10, fig. 5, and 
then fig. 7, with a fringe border, knitted. Numerous rugs 
might be made in colored cloths, to look equal to carpets, for 
poor people, and wear much better. 





"""*" S " / ; \vertS' 



659. The materials required, consist of braid of various hues, 
purse-silk of different shades, bed-ticking, feathers, down, horse- 
hair, or worsted ends; the design-shapes, some cord for pipings, 
the various colored cloths, silks, &c., and a curtain-ring or a 
piece of cardboard for the centre. 

The size varies from fifteen to eighteen inches in diameter, 
according to taste. 

The colors cannot be fixed, because it depends much. upon 
taste, but we have made the elegant musnud given p. 160, by 
placing cobalt as the right hand centre-piece, then (proceeding 
from right to left) white, salmon, purple, crimson, amber, pea 
green, and madder-brown. The handles are amber, the side 
brown, and the back purple. 

It is better, in combining or arranging all colors for patch- 
work, to keep as near as possible to the harmony observed by 
Nature ; therefore, to attend to the same order displayed in the 
case of a refracted ray of light, viz., violet, indigo, blue, green, 
yellow, orange, and red, adding, in this case, white, to represent 
the ray in its natural state before refraction or dispersion of its 
colors took place. 

To make the Musnud. — Cut two circles of fifteen or eighteen 
inches in diameter in bed-ticking, and a strip of the same mate- 
rial three inches deep, and thrice the length of the diameter ; 
make into the usual shape, and stuff with feathers, down, horse- 
hair, or the refuse ends of worsted. Cut out two handles as in 
the design, of the same material, and sew them on. Rub the 
inside of the bed-ticking with a lump of bees'-wax previous to 
making up the musnud, (as it prevents the feathers and dust 
working through,) and tack the centre down. 

Cut out the back in a piece of purple moreen, or any ofcher 
material, then cut four strips of brown cashmere, each three 
inches deep and five long, join these neatly together to form 
the side, and braid the following design in bright yellow on 
it, finishing the veining of the leaves in chain-stitch with purse 

The wedge-shaped pieces should now be cut out in the va- 
rious colored cloths, &c., and braided as in the design, four being 
braided with floral, and four with fancy designs. Each piece 
should measure nine inches in length and six inches and three- 
quarters in breadth at the outer part. The centre piece should 
measure two inches and a quarter in diameter, be of a dark 
brown, and braided with a bright yellow star. 


To cover the musnud, sew the pieces neatly together, and 
cover the joining with narrow strips of dark brown cloth, 
braided in bright yellow to resemble a chain ; cover the curtain 
ring, or circular piece of card-board, with the central piece, and 
sew it on. 

Now affix the pipings cut crossways out of brown cloth, and 
cover the handles with amber-colored material, braid and pipe 
them ; join the back to the side with an intervening piping, slip 
the musnud into the lower covering, and sew on the top. 

In braiding the patterns, the purple ground should have a 
scarlet braid. 

The brown, yellow. 

In finishing the braiding, it will require the occasional aid of 
some chain-stitch work in purse-silk, for the veinings of the 
leaves, stamens, tendrils, &c. 

Note. — This particularity in arranging colors and patterns 
may seem very trifling to some people; but rules are required 
in all finished w r ork. Habits of attention are an important part 
of education, or, rather, are indispensable to a well- trained 
mind. Therefore, we say, be particular to do all you undertake 
in a proper manner; and if you are making patchwork, aim at 
perfection of its kind. But never fall in love with your own 
creations, and worship them as idols; and never neglect com- 
mon household duties for fanciful needlework. Remember, 
also, that readug is more refining to the taste than finger-work; 
and that to read well is a much higher accomplishment than any 
mere skill in counting stitches and matching shades. 


660. Useful Patterns for working in Cord, Silk, and Muslin. — 
These are what are called " endless patterns," to be worked in 

These fashions for embroidering the borders of eloaks, pelisses, 
sacques, &c, on merino, or fine cassimere, or flannel, with silk, 
are to be wrought with coarse or fine silk, or with a mixture 
of the two, according to the degree of intricacy or simplicity 
in the parts of the pattern. 

We give two designs ; from these, other combinations may 
be made, to suit the fancy of the embroiderer. 



See p, 164. 

661. — In these patterns for embroidering the borders of 
cloaks, pelisses, sacques, &c., on merino, or fine cassimere, or 
flannel, with silk, are to be wrought with coarse or fine silk, or 
with a mixture of the two, according to the degree of intricacy 
or simplicity in the parts of the pattern. 

These patterns are equally serviceable for muslin, or any 
other material. 

No. 1, to be worked on fine flannel or merino, with a mixture 
of coarse and fine silk. 

No. 2, to be worked on flannel or merino, with fine silk. 

No. 1 

No. 2. 


662. Sewing on glazed Calico. — By passing a cake of white 
soap a few times over a piece of glazed calico, or any other 
stiffened material, the needle will penetrate as easily as through 
any other kind of work. 

663. To make Glass Jars to look like China. — Paint figures 
to resemble those in China jars, and cut them out so that none 
of the white paper remains; then, with >,hiek gum-arabic water, 
fasten them to the inside of the glass. Let them stand to dry 
for twenty-four hours. Then wipe off with a wet cloth the gum- 
arabic on the glass between the prints, and let them stand a 
few hours longer. Then take white wax and flake white, ground 
very fine, and melt them together. With a japanning-brush 
go over all the glass above the prints: done in this manner, 
they will hold water. For a blue ground, use white wax and 
Prussian blue, ground fine; for red, wax and vermilion, or car- 
mine ; for green, wax and verdigris ; for chocolate, wax and 
burnt umber. 

664. To give Plaster Figures the ap2*arance of Marble. — Put 
into a well-glazed earthen vessel, four pounds of clear water 
and one ounce of pure curd soap, grated ; add one ounce of 
white bees'-wax, cut into thin slices. Let them dissolve over 
a slow fire. As soon as the whole is incorporated, it is fit for 
use. Let the figure be thoroughly dried, then suspend it by a 
twine, and dip it once into the varnish ; upon taking it out, the 
varnish will appear to have been absorbed ; in two minutes' 
time, stir the compost, and dip it a second time, which is gene- 
rally sufficient. Cover it carefully from the dust for a week ; 
then, with a soft muslin rag, rub the figure gently, when a most 
brilliant gloss will be produced. 

665. To improve Plaster Casts. — Brush them over with size, 
ind, when dry, varnish them with copal varnish. 

666. To dissolve Putty. — To remove old putty from glazed 
frames, brush over it pearlash and slaked stone-burnt lime, 
mixed to the thickness of paint. 




667. This elegant and most useful work is very easy in its 
execution, while the means and appliances for its performance 
are within the reach of every one. The materials are simply 
yellow withered leaves, a little dissolved gum, black paint, and 
copal varnish : while the objects to be ornamented may be a 
box, cupboard, table, &c, in fact, any old furniture that has 
been rendered unsightly by age or long use. A plain deal box, 
costing about a shilling, may by this process, so far as the out- 
side goes, be converted into a costly-looking dressing-case. An 


exquisite chess-board may be made, with very little skill, from 
a square piece of deal. Flower-pots, pole-screens, folding and 
hand-screens, may all be decorated in this manner, and, from 
untidy-looking lumber, may be converted into articles of use, 
elegance, and beauty ; and this at a merely nominal expense, 
taste being the chief requisite in the production. The employ- 
ment forms one of the most agreeable and pleasing amusements 
for summer days and winter evenings; in the summer, giving 
a purpose and an aim to many a joyous ramble, for in these 
desultory walks a goodly collection may be made of Nature's 
ambered jewels. 

All leaves that are small, of uneven shape, and serrated at 
the edges, are w r ell adapted for this work. As they are collect- 
ed, they should be placed between sheets of paper, but not 
close together, then pressed by placing a board on the top, 
with a weight upon it, to express any moisture that may be 
therein, and to render them quite flat. In the autumn, the 
sweet-scented geranium-leaves, the maple, thorn, chrysanthe- 
mum, wild parsley, fern, and a multitude of others, may be 
found, including the smaller sycamore and small vine-leaves ; 
but they must all have turned of a golden hue, or reddish-tinted 
yellow. Prepare the article to be ornamented, thus: — First 
rub the surface smoothly down with sand-paper; then coat it 
over with black paint, which can be procured, ready-mixed, 
at any oil-shop ; when dry, rub it down smoothly with pumice- 
stone, and give two more coats. When these are dry, arrange 
the leaves on the surface in a careless manner, but not in groups, 
unless preferred. Butterflies drawn, and colored yellow with 
gamboge, or cut out of prints, and then colored, may be stuck 
at different spaces with advantage ; but there should be no 
other color than the brown and different tints of yellow in the 
leaves. Gum the wrong side of the leaf, and press it on in its 
appointed place with a hard tuft of wadding, fastened tightly 
up in a piece of silk. Continue this with the whole of the 
leaves; and when they are all gummed on, dissolve some gela- 
tine or isinglass in warm water, and while rather warm, brush 
it well over every portion of the work, using the brush entirely 
one way, not forward and back. When dry, give the work 
three coats of the best copal varnish, letting the article remain 
a day or two between each coat. This process, though elabo- 
rate in detail, is easily and even quickly done, and will well 
repay any trouble that may be taken, as, with a renewed coat 


of varnish every five or six years, it will remain, as long as the 
wood will hold together, as bright in appearance as when first 

668. Sealing Wax Varnish, — For fancy work, this has, of 
late years, been much used, and if well applied, and the wax 
good, will be a very good imitation of India Japan. The me- 
thod of making the varnish or japan is very easy, being simply 
reducing the wax to a coarse powder, and pouring the best spirits 
of wine on it in a bottle, and letting it gradually dissolve with- 
out heat, shaking the bottle occasionally till it is all dissolved. 
A two-ounce stick of the best wax will be enough for a quarter 
of a pint of spirits. Recollect that much depends on the good- 
ness of the sealing-wax ; and that you may vary the color of the 
varnish by using different colored wax. As this varnish dries 
very quickly, it should not be made until it is wanted for use. 

669. Method of preparing the Composition used for Colored 
Drawings and Prints, so as to make them resemble Paint in Oil. 
— Take of Canada Balsam, one ounce ; spirit of turpentine, two 
ounces ; mix them together. Before this composition is applied, 
the drawing or print should be sized with a solution of isinglass 
in water, and when dry, apply the varnish with a camel-hair 

670. Oil and Water Gilding. — In oil gilding, the frame is first 
covered with a composition of whiting and parchment size, then 
with a coating of " oil gold size" (a kind of varnish,) upon which 
when nearly dry, gold leaf is applied. 

671. In Water Gilding, a size mixed with water is used. 
Parts of the frame are burnished, other parts left dead. This 
is the most beautiful and expensive style of gilding, but it does 
not bear washing as oil gilding does. 

[" The Carver and Gilder," published by Knight, furnishes 
much useful information on this subject.] 

672. To mount Prints or Maps. — Upon a table, floor, or board, 
stretch a piece of calico or smooth canvas, by first fixing it with 
tacks along one side, then straining it tightly with one nand, 
and driving the tacks with the other: nail the remaining edges, 
leaving no wrinkles on the surface. Paste the back of the print 


or map, fold it together, and let it remain until the paper is 
soaked, then open 5t, and place it evenly on the canvas, cover it 
with a sheet of clean paper, and beginning in the middle, rub it 
down carefully with the hand, going from the centre all round 
to the edges, until all the air is excluded, and the paper adheres 
closely to the canvas. When quite dry, with a large camel- 
hair brush lay on a coating of parchment size, repeating this 
when dry : then varnish with mastic varnish. Parchment size 
is made by boiling parchment cuttings in water, until it forms 
a jelly when cold. Mastic varnish may be procured at oil and 

673. New Camera Lucida. — Sir John Robinson devised, a few 
years since, a cheap and easily-used camera lucida, applicable 
to the delineation of flowers and other small objects. A piece 
of plate glass is made to stand in a vertical position by means 
of a support. It rests on a table covered with white paper, 
and the object is placed on the paper on one side of the glass. 
On looking down from that side of the glass diagonally, an 
image of the object is seen on the paper on the other side, and 
a drawing of it can be readily taken. 

674. Varnish for Oil Pictures. — According to the number of 
your pictures, take the whites of the same number of eggs, and 
an equal number of pieces of sugar-candy, the size of a hazel-nut, 
dissolved, and mix it with a tea-spoonful of brandy ; beat the 
whites of your eggs to a froth, and let it settle; take the clear, 
put it to your brandy and sugar, mix them well together, and 
varnish over your pictures with it. 

This is much better than any other varnish, as it is easily 
washed off when your pictures want cleaning again. 

# 675. To take Impressions of Butterflies'' Wings. — Lay the 
wings gently on paper, wet with gum arabic water, and nearly 
dry ; a copy will be left when the wing is removed, but inferior 
in beauty to the wing itself. It is better to gum the wings 
themselves on paper, and paint the body of the fly in its natural 

676. To preserve the Eggs of Bit ds. — First clean them of their 
contents. This may be done with the larger eggs by making 
a hole on one side large enough to admit a quill, and shaking out 



the contents. Then wash them well with a solution of camphor, 
not too strong, or it will make them brittle. When dry. fasten 
them with gum on the side in which the hole was made to a 
piece of card board, and write the name under each. As the 
colors of many of them are perishable, to preserve them give 
them a slight coating of varnish. The best varnish for this 
purpose is isinglass dissolved in gin. In cleaning the smaller 
eggs, make a hole at each end, a little to one side, and blow 
them. The camphor solution need not be used. 

677. To make Artificial Coral. — Melt together four parts of 
yellow resin and one part of vermilion. Dip twigs, cinders or 
stones in this, and when dry they will resemble coral. 

678. An Excellent Pen- Wiper for Steel Pens. — Fill a short, 
wide-mouthed vial with shot, the smaller the better. When- 
ever it is necessary to clean the pen, rub it up and down in the 
shot. This is much more effectual than cloth wipers, and the 
shot will last a life-time. 

679. To preserve Steel Pens. — Metallic pens may be pre- 
served from rusting by throwing into the bottle containing the 
ink a few nails, or broken pieces of steel pens, if not varnished. 
The corrosive action of the acid which the ink contains is ex- 
pended on the iron so introduced, and will not therefore affect 
the pen. 

680. Black Paper for drawing Patterns. — Mix and smooth 
lamp-black and sweet oil; with a bit of flannel cover a sheet 
or two of large writing-paper with this mixture; then dab the 
paper dry with a bit of fine linen, and keep it by for using in 
the following manner : — Put the black side on another sheet 
of paper, and fasten the corners together with small pins. Lav 
on the back of the black paper the pattern to be drawn, and 
go over it with the point of a steel pencil ; the black paper will 
then leave the impression of the pattern on the under sheet, on 
which you must draw it with ink. 

If you draw patterns on cloth or muslin, do it with a pen 
dipped in a bit of stone blue, a bit of sugar, and a little water, 
mixed smooth in a teacup, in which it will be always ready for 
use, if fresh: wet to a due consistence as wanted. 



681. To make Transparent Paper for Drawing. — Tracing 
paper is readily made by taking a sheet of very thin silk, or 
other paper, and rubbing it over gently with some soft sub- 
stance, filled with a mixture of equal parts of drying oil, and 
oil of turpentine, which, being suspended and dried, will be fit 
for use in a few days ; or it may be had at any of the shops. 
Lay this transparent material on the print or drawing to be 
transferred, and, with a sharp black lead pencil, trace the out- 
lines exactly as they appear through the paper. If more per- 
manent or stronger lines are wished, ink mixed with ox-gall 
will be necessary to make it adhere to the oiled surface. 

682. Transparent Paper. — Wet some fine paper with a fea- 
ther on both sides with a thin layer of rosin, dissolved in spirits 
of wine. It will then serve to put over anything you wish to 
take off» 

683. Method of using Tracing Paper. — Take a piece of the 
size required, and rub it equally over, on one side, with black 
lead, reduced to a powder, till the surface will not readily soil 
a finger ; then lay a piece of white paper with the leaded side of 
this paper next to it, under the print, and securing them firmly 
together with pins at the corners, proceed to take the outlines 
with a blunt point, and some degree of pressure, which will trans- 
fer the lead to the clean paper precisely in the direction the point 
passed over the print ; this may be corrected w r ith the black lead 
pencil, and cleansed of any soil by the crumbs of stale bread. 

684. Method of setting Pencil Drawings. — A solution of alum 
water, in which the drawing is to be dipped (not washed on 
with a brush, as it would smear) will answer the purpose ex- 
tremely well. 

685. Wash for preserving Drawings made with Black Lead 
Pencil, or with hard Black Chalk. — A thin wash of isinglass will 
fix either black lead or hard black chalk, &c, so as to prevent 
their rubbing out ; or the same effect may be produced by the 
simple application of skimmed milk. The best way of using 
the latter, is, to lay the drawing flat upon the surface of the 
milk, and then, taking it up expeditiously, to hang it by the 
one corner till it drains and dries. The milk must be perfectly 
free from cream, or it will grease the paper. 


686. To make Red Sealing Wax. — To every ounce of shell-lac 
take half an ounce each of resin and vermilion, all reduced to a 
fine powder. Melt them over a moderate fire; and when tho- 
roughly incorporated and sufficiently cool, form the composition 
into what are called sticks. On account of the dearness of shell- 
lac, seed-lac is usually substituted. A more ordinary sort, but 
sufficiently good for most occasions, may be made by mixing 
equal parts of resin and shell-lac with two parts of red lead and 
one of vermilion. In a still commoner sort, the vermilion is 
often entirely omitted. 


687. Mix in six drachms of distilled water, two drachms of 
sub-nitrate of silver, and two drachms of gum-arabic. For the 
mordant, mix with four ounces of water, half an ounce of gum- 
arabic, and half an ounce of sub-carbonate of soda. The article 
to be marked should first be wetted w r ith the mordant, and 
pressed smooth, and should be thoroughly dried before it is 
written upon. The mark should be exposed to the light for 
some time, to become black. 

688. Permanent Red Ink for marking Linen. — This useful pre- 
paration, which was contrived by Dr. Smellie, of Edinburgh, 
who was originally a printer in that city, may be used either 
with types, a hair pencil, or even with a pen: Take half an 
ounce of vermillion, and a drachm of salt of steel ; let them be 
finely levigated with linseed oil, to the thickness or limpidity 
required for the occasion. This has not only a very good ap- 
pearance, but will, it is said, be found perfectly to resist the 
effects of acids, as well as of all alkaline leys. It may be made 
of other colors, by substituting the proper articles instead of 

689. An Indelible Ink for marking Linen. — Pour a little aqua- 
fortis into a cup, and add to it a small piece of pure silver ; 
when the effervescence ceases, filter the solution through a piece 
of blotting-paper, and put it into a small phial ; then add to it 
a little gum-arabic and a little of the paint called sap-green. 
After the whole is perfectly combined it is then fit for use. 


690. To take out Writing. — When recently written, ink may 
be completely removed by the oxymuriatic acid (concentrated 
and in solution). The paper is to be washed over repeatedly 
with the acid ; but it will be necessary afterwards to wash it 
also with lime-water, for the purpose of neutralizing any acid 
that may be left on the paper, and which would considerably 
weaken it. But if the ink have been long written, it will have 
undergone such a change as to prevent the preceding process 
from taking effect. It ought therefore to be washed with liver 
of sulphur (sulphuret of ammonia), before the oxymuriatic acid 
is applied. It may be washed with a hair pencil. 

691. To make Old Writing legible. — Take six bruised gall- 
nuts, and put them to a pint of strong white wine ; let it stand 
in the sun for forty-eight hours. Dip a brush in it and wash 
the writing, and by the color you will discover whether the 
mixture is strong enough of the galls. % 

692. Sympathetic Ink. — With a clean pen write on paper 
with a solution of muriate of cobalt, so diluted with water, that 
the writing when dry will be invisible. On gently warming 
the paper, the writing will appear of a blue or greenish color, 
which will disappear again when cool. A solution of muriate 
of copper forms a yellow and sympathetic ink, and acetate of 
cobalt a rose or purple. If a landscape be drawn representing 
a winter scene, the paper being overlaid where the foliage 
should be with the green sympathetic ink, then, on gently 
warming the drawing, it will represent summer. Sky and 
water may be drawn with the blue, and standing corn with the 
yellow ink. 

693. Blue Ink. — Dissolve a small quantity of indigo in a 
little oil of vitriol, and add a sufficient quantity of water, in 
which gum-arabic has been dissolved. 

694. Yellow Ink. — Dissolve gamboge in a solution of gum 

695. Scarlet Ink. — Dissolve vermilion in a solution of gum- 


696. Red Ink. — Boil one ounce of "Brazil wood in half-a-pint 
of water for a quarter of an hour ; add to the decoction three 
drachms of gum-arabic, and an ounce of alum. 

697. Green Ink. — Verdigris, two ounces ; cream of tartar, 
one ounce ; water, half a pint ; boil till reduced to one half, and 

698. Excellent Writing Ink. — Boil eight ounces of galls in 
coarse powder, and four ounces of logwood in thin chips, in 
twelve pints of rain water, for one hour : strain the liquor, and 
add four ounces of green copperas, three ounces of powdered 
gum-arabic, one ounce of blue vitriol, and one ounce of rock 
candy, powdered ; stir the mixture until the whole be dissolved, 
then let it subside twenty-four hours ; decant it very steadily, 
and puu it into stone bottles for use. 

A clove kept in it will prevent it from becoming mouldy. 

699. Black Ink. — To make one gallon, take of pounded blue 
nutgalls one pound ; copperas, six ounces; gum common, four 
ounces ; soft water, one gallon. Dissolve the gum separately 
by the fire, and add, after it has boiled a quarter of an hour. 
Let the ink be boiled over a slow fire three-quarters of an hour. 

700. To make Ink. — To four ounces of bruised galls, allow 
two of copperas and two of gum-arabic; put the galls into a 
large bottle, with three pints of rain water ; and, in three or 
four days, dissolve the gum in hot water, and add it with the 
copperas. Shake the bottle frequently for some days. A few 
cloves may be put into the bottle, to prevent the ink from 

701. Ink Powder. — Take five ounces of the cleanest nutgalls, 
bruise them, and sift the powder very fine ; then add one ounce 
of white copperas, two ounces of Koman vitriol, gum-arabic, 
half an ounce ; pound and sift them very fine. An ounce of 
this powder will make a pint of very black ink. 

702. To prevent Ink from moulding. — Half-a-dozen cloves, 
bruised with gum-arabic, are to be put into the bottle. If a 
very fine ink is wanted, white wine, or vinegar and water, 
should be used, instead of water alone. 


703. To make Indian Ink. — Put six lighted wicks into a dish 
of oil ; hang an iron or tin concave cover over it, so as to receive 
all the smoke; when there is a sufficient quantity of soot settled 
to the cover, then take it off gently with a feather upon a sheet 
of paper, and mix it up with gum-tragacanth to a proper con 

N. B. The clearest oil makes the finest soot, consequently 
the best ink. 

704. Indian Ink. — Take horse-beans, burn them till they are 
perfectly black, grind them to a fine powder, and, with weak 
gum-arabic water make it into a paste, and form it into long 
square cakes. 

705. To make China Ink. — Take dried black horse-beans, 
burn them to a powder, mix them up with gum-arabic water, 
and bring them to a mass ; press it well, and let it dry. 


706. Canary-birds, that are kept tame, will breed three or 
four times in the year. Towards the middle of March, begin 
to match your birds, putting one cock and hen into the breeding- 
cage, which should be large, so that the birds may have room 
to fly and exercise themselves. Place two boxes or little 
basket-nests in the cage, for the hen to lay her eggs in, because 
she will sometimes have a second brood before the first are 
fit to fly, leaving the care of them to the father-bird, who feeds 
and brings them up with much care, while she is sitting on her 
second nest of eggs. Whilst your birds are pairing, feed them, 
besides the usual seeds, with the yolks of hard-boiled eggs, 
bread that has been moistened, or, if hard, grated fine, and 
pounded almond-meat. When the young birds are to be fed, 
give the same soft food, and be sure have it fresh every day ; 
also furnish the old birds with fresh greens, such as cabbage- 
lettuce, chickweed, groundsel, &c. Give fresh water every day, 
and a clean bath every morning. The hen lays, commonly, 
four or five eggs, and sits fourteen days. W hen the young are 
hatched, leave them to the care of the old birds, to nurse and 
bring up till they can fly and feed themselves, which is, usually, 
in about twenty days. 


707. Gold and Silver Fish. — Pure rain-water is best to keep 
these delicate little creatures in ; they should never be put into 
water that has been boiled. It is a good plan to throw them in 
the morning into a large bowl of fresh water, with a few bread- 
crumbs in it, and let them remain there an hour. Then put 
them in pure fresh water in their vases. The water should be 
changed every day. If the bread remains in the water to be- 
come sour, it will kill the fish. 

708. Improvement in the management of Bees. — The improve- 
ment is that of having double skeps or hives, the one on the 
top of the other. When the lower skep is filled with honey, 
it is to be removed after the bees are admitted (through a pas- 
sage which is made to be opened) into the upper skep ; into 
this skep food must be put, and the bees will remain there, 
and go on with their work in it. When it is filled with honey, 
the former skep, with food in it, may be replaced, and the bees 
again admitted into it. The full skep is then to be taken away. 
This change of the skeps must always be made about mid- 
summer ; and by thus annually removing the full one, more 
honey will be collected than is usual, and the bees will not be 

709. To preserve Flowers in Water. — Mix a little carbonate 
of soda with the water, and it will preserve the flowers for a 
fortnight. Common saltpetre is also a good preservative. 

710. To preserve Flowers in Winter. — Take the latest buds 
just as they are ready to open ; cut them off, leaving the stem 
about three inches long; cover the end of the stem with melted 
sealing-wax, and when the buds are a little withered, wrap them 
separately in paper, and place them in a dry box. When you 
wish to have the buds blossom, cut off the sealed end, and put 
them into water in which a little saltpetre has been dissolved. 
In twelve hours the buds will be open. 

711. To take Impressions of Leaves. — Dissolve in a saucerful 
of water about a tea-spoonful of bichromate of potash. Pa^s 
the paper to be u&ed through this solution, and, while wet, 
press the leaves lightly upon it, and expose it to the sun when 
it is shining brightly. When perfectly dry, remove the leaves, 
and a facsimile will be left in a light lemon shade, while the 
vest of the paper will be of a dark brown. 


712. To preserve the natural color in Petals of dried Flowers. — 
Immerse the petals for some minutes in alcohol. The colors 
will fade at first, but in a short time they will resume, perma- 
nently, their natural tint. 

713. To revive faded Flowers. — Nearly all flowers may be 
revived, when faded, by placing one-third of the stalks in hot 
water ; when it has become cold, the flowers will be re-set and 
fresh ; the end of the stalks should then be cut off, and the flow- 
ers put into cold water. 

Or, clip flowers in spirits of wine for twenty minutes; at first 
they will appear to have entirely faded ; but in drying, the 
colors will revive, and the fragrance be prolonged. 

A few grains of salt put into the water with flowers, will 
keep them from fading. 

Sand may be substituted for water. 

Flowers may be preserved throughout the winter, if plucked 
when they are half-blown, dipped, stalks downward, in equal 
quantities of water and verjuice mixed, and sprinkled with bay 
salt. They should be kept in an earthenware vessel, closely 
covered, and in a warm place ; when, in mid-winter, if the 
flowers oe taken out, washed in cold water, and held before a 
gentle fire, they will open as if in their first bloom. 

714. To paint Cloth, Cambric, Sarcenet, dec, so as to render 
them Transparent. — Grind to a fine powder three pounds of 
clear white resin, and put it into two pounds of good nut-oil, 
to which a strong drying quality has been given : set the mix- 
ture over a moderate fire, and keep stirring it till all the resin 
is dissolved ; then put in two pounds of the best Venice turpen- 
tine, and keep stirring the whole well together; and if the cloth 
or cambric be thoroughly varnished on both sides with this 
mixture, it will be quite transparent. In this operation, the sur- 
face upon which the varnish is to be applied, must be stretched 
tight and made fast during the application. This mode of ren- 
dering cloth, &c. transparent, is excellently adapted for window- 
blinds. The varnish will likewise, admit of any design in oil- 
colors being executed upon it as a transparency. 

715. Varnish to prevent the rays of the Sun from passing 
through the glasses of Windows. — Pulverize gum-tragacanth, 
and put it to dissolve for twenty-four hours in whites of eggs, 



well beaten. Lay a coat of this on the panes of your windows, 
with a soft brush, and let it dry. 

716. To stain paper or parchment Yellow. — Paper may be 
stained of a beautiful yellow, by the tincture of turmeric, formed 
by infusing an ounce or more of the root, powdered, in a pint 
of spirit of wine. This, by the addition of water, may be made 
to give any tint of yellow, from the lightest straw to the full 
color called French yellow, and will be equal in brightness 
even to the best dyed silks. If yellow is wanted of a warmer 
or redder cast, anotta, or dragon's blood, must be added to the 

717. To stain paper or parchment Crimson. — A very fine 
crimson stain may be given to paper, by a tincture of the 
Indian lake, which may be made by infusing the lake some 
days in spirit of wine, and then pouring off the tincture from 
the dre&s. 

718. To stain paper or parchment Green. — Paper or parch- 
ment may be stained green by the solution of verdigris in 
vinegar, or by the crystals of verdigris dissolved in water ; 
also by the solution of copper in aquafortis, made by adding 
filings of copper, gradually, to the aquafortis, till no ebullition 
ensues; or, the spirit of salt may be substituted for the aqua- 


719. Plants require much light and fresh air ; a light garret 
is an excellent place for them ; even those which will not bear 
the outer air, must have the air of the room frequently fresh- 
ened by ventilation, to preserve them in health. They should 
not stand in a draught of air. In frosty weather the windows 
should be kept close, and at night, the shutters. In sharp frost, 
instead of stirring out the fire, leave a little on retiring to rest, 
with a guard before it for security. 

As a general rule, never water plants while the sun shines. 
The time should be in the evening, or early in the morning, un- 
less it be confined to watering the roots, in which ca.^e trans- 
planted plants, and others in a growing state, may be watered 
at any time ; and, if they are shaded from the sun, they may 
also be watered over the tops. 


The water, if taken from a well or cold spring, should be ex- 
posed one day to the sun, otherwise it will chill the plants. A 
small quantity only should be applied at a time, that it may 
have the effect of refreshing rain. 

Rain water is the best for plants; next river water ;' hard 
spring water is the worst. 

720. To air Plants, and ventilate Rooms wherein they are con- 
tained, — Plants should have air, every day in the year, to make 
them grow well ; but this matter, in sitting-rooms, will not of 
course be regulated foi their sakes, especially in the colder sea- 
sons. Wherever placed, however, some attention should be 
paid to airing and ventilating the rooms regularly, by opening 
the windows, and occasionally the doors, in order to excite a 
free circulation of air. This should be done to a certain extent 
every day, according to the state of the weather, except in the 
time of severe frost, when it would not be advisable to admit 
external air. But at such times, if bad weather be of long 
continuance, the rooms may be ventilated by means of the 
doors, and by exciting a current of air in the passages, or other 
parts of the house. 

In very severe frost, or in a continuation of damp weather, 
moderate fires should be made for the sake of the plants, if 
placed in rooms not occupied. The window shutters should 
also be closed at night. 

721. Hints to Lovers of Flowers. — A most beautiful and 
easily -attained show of evergreens may be had by a very sim- 
ple plan, which has been found to answer remarkably well on 
a small scale. If geranium branches taken from luxuriant and 
healthy trees, just before the winter sets in, be cut as for slips, 
and immersed in soap-water, they will, after drooping for a few 
days, shed their leaves, put forth fresh ones, and continue in the 
finest vigor all the winter. By placing a number of bottles 
thus filled in a flower-basket, with moss to conceal the bottles, 
a show of evergreens is easily insured for the whole season. 
They require no fresh water. 

722. Bulbous Roots. — The time to put bulbous roots, as the 
hyacinth, narcissus, and jonquil, into glasses filled with water, 
is from September to November, and the earliest will begin 
blooming about Christmas. The glasses should be blue, as that 


color best suits the roots ; put in water enough to cover the 
bulb one third ; let the water be soft, change it once a week, 
and put in a pinch of salt at each change. Keep the glasses in 
a moderately warm place, and near to the light. 

They should have fresh water about once in ten days. The 
leaves should not be plucked off before they decay, or the root 
will be deprived of much of its natural nourishment. When 
they have decayed, the bulbs should be taken up, laid in the 
shade to dry, cleaned, and kept in sand in a dry place till wanted 
to replant. The offsets should be taken off, and planted accord- 
ing to size. 

723. Geraniums. — The shrubby kinds are commonly in- 
creased by cuttings, which, if planted in June or July, and 
placed in the shade, will take root in five weeks. The}* are the 
most tender, and when placed out of doors, should be defended 
from strong winds, and be so placed as to enjoy the sun till 
eleven o'clock in the morning. As the shrubby kinds grow 
fast, so as to fill the pots with their roots, and push them 
through the opening at the bottom, they should be moved every 
two or three w r eeks in summer, and the fresh roots cut off. 
They should also be newly potted twice in the summer: once 
about a month after they are piaced abroad, and again towards 
the end of August. When this is done, all the roots outside 
the earth should be pared off, and as much of the old earth re- 
moved as can be done without injuring the plants. They 
should then be planted in a larger pot ; some fresh earth should 
first be laid at the bottom, and on that the plant should be 
piaced, so that the old earth adhering to it may be about an 
inch below the rim of the pot ; it should next be tiiied up, and 
the pot slightly shaken : the earth must then be gently pressed 
down at the top, leaving a little space for water to be given 
withuut running over the rim; finally, the plant should be libe- 
ral iv watered, and the stem fastened to a stake, to prevent the 
Mind displacing the roots before they are newly fixed. 

As the branches grow, and uew leaves are formed at the top 
of them, the lower ones may die, and shomd be pmcked off 
every week. 

Geranium slips should be planted in May, June, or July, 
taking only the last year's shoots, from which the^leaves must 
be stripped. When planted, give them water, and place them 
in the shade : when they have taken root, let them have the 


sun in the morning. The slips chosen for cutting should not 
be such as bear flowers ; and they should be inserted about 
half their length in the earth. 

Geraniums, except the shrubby kinds, require shelter from 
frost only, and should have free air admitted to them, when 
the weather is not very severe. In sultry weather, they should 
all be watered liberally every morning, except some few of a 
succulent nature, which must be watered sparingly ; the latter 
may be known by plucking a leaf from them. Geraniums 
may be watered three times a week, when not frosty, in 

724. Artificial Mould for Plants. — Russian potash, one 
drachm ; water, four ounces ; one tea-spoonful of oil. Mix the 
whole well together. Seeds put in this mixture will grow for 
a time at least, as well as if planted in common soil. 

725. To take Impressions of Plants, — Take half a sheet of 
fine paper, and cover the surface with sweet oil ; let it stand a 
minute or two, then rub oft' the superficial oil, and hang the 
paper in the air; when almost dry, move the paper slowly 
over the flame of a candle or lamp, till it is perfectly black ; 
lay on it the plant or leaf, place a piece of clean paper over, 
and rub it equally with the fingers for half a minute. Then 
place the plant on the paper or scrap-book where it is desired 
to have the impression, cover it with blotting paper, and, on 
repeating the rubbing, a representation of the plant will appear 
equal to the finest engraving. The same piece of black paper 
will serve for a number of impressions. 

726. Another Process. — Burn a common cork till reduced to 
powder; mix with it a tea-spoonful of olive oil, making a thick 
paste. Paint the veiny side of the leaf with a camel-hair 
brush, and lay it, with the painted side down, on a piece of 
clean paper. Submit it to a strong and even pressure (it is 
best placed in a book and put under a weight,) for about fifteen 
minutes; remove the leaf carefully, and there will be an exact 
representation left. Very veiny leaves are best. These impres- 
sions are almost equal to engravings. Collections of them 
might be made interesting, by having narratives of rambles 
written under them, stating the features of the spot from which 
the leaves were gathered. 



727. Through January and February. — The summer flower- 
ing-plants — such as geraniums, fuchsias, &c. — should be kept 
as nearly dormant as possible, allowing just enough water to 
prevent flagging, and all the light that can be spared from the 
more interesting division of winter-bloomers ; of the latter class, 
such things as china-roses, cinerarias, hyacinths and other bulbs, 
will now be in an active state, some of them flowering, and 
others about to do so; these must be liberally treated with 
water. Mignonnette, however, must be excepted. Above every- 
thing, keep the leaves clean ; they are few in number, and feeble 
in action, but they have yet an important function to perform ; 
and, without they are kept as healthy as possible, the plant 
cannot begin a new growth with the vigor it is desirable it 
should possess. The pots should be occasionally scrubbed with 
clean water, but do not paint or otherwise fill up their pores, 
for air is as essential to the roots as to the foliage, and no 
inconsiderable quantity finds its way to them through the sides 
of a clean pot. With the same view, the surface of the soil 
should be frequently stirred ; the process keeps it open, pre- 
vents the grow th of moss and weeds, and imparts a better ap- 
pearance. The water given should always be rather warmer 
than the atmosphere of the room ; and rain-water, slightly heat- 
ed, is the best. 

728. March. — The whole of these plants will be benefited by 
re-potting. Geraniums and fuchsias delight in light rich earth; 
calceolarias (lady's slipper), roses, the chimney campanula, and 
others which grow as freely, should have a larger proportion of 
loam; whatever manure is added for either, must ue thoroughly 
deca\ed. The pots should be perfectly clean, inside and out; 
take care to have each properly drained with pieces of slate or 
potsherds, in size and number proportionate to the pot ; the 
larger ones require from one to three inches of this drainage. 
In removing the plants, take off the matted fibres with a knife; 
loosen the soil moderately, and, when in its place, press the new 
earth tightly round it; give a gentle watering, and keep them 
rather warm for a few days; afterwards they should have plenty 
of air on fine days, and water as they become dry. Station 
each where it may receive the direct light, ana pay particular 
attention to keeping the leaves clean. 


729. April. — On the attention given through this month, 
most of the success for the season will depend. The plants are 
now, or ought to be, in a very active growth, which must be 
encouraged by moderate and regular supplies of w T ater and air. 
Pinch out the points of the growing shoots of such plants as 
are required to become bushy ; this is commonly called "stop- 
ping," and, with such things as geraniums, fuchsias, myrtles, 
and others of similar habit, is very necessary. Cactuses must 
have a sunny position, and plenty of water. Mignonette in 
pots and boxes, will require thinning, so as to leave the plants 
about three inches apart. The several kinds of China roses 
form beautiful window ornaments, and occasion but little trou- 
ble : at this time they are coming rapidly into bloom. Look 
for and destroy insects of all sorts, every few days; they mul- 
tiply so fast, that without constant attention, the plants are 
soon overrun. The leaves must be kept clear of dust, and the 
branches properly tied out to sticks, that the centre may receive 
its due share of light. 

730. May. — As the influence of the advancing season and 
power of the sun begins to be felt, the management of window- 
plants becomes easier, and must be gradually changed from 
the careful nursing hitherto necessary, to a course of almost 
constant exposure that will render the plants robust and hardy. 

731. June. — From this time till the middle of September, 
plants in pots may be placed out of doors ; they are, in fact, 
better in the open air, than in the heated atmosphere of a room. 
Except in stormy seasons, they may stand out night and day, 
in some slightly-sheltered spot. As a precaution against the 
effects of strong sun-light, it is advisable to place the pots in 
which the plants grow, into others a size or two larger, and fill 
the space between them with moss ; for many plants, having 
slender fibrous roots, are easily injured by the heat of the sun 
scorching them through the pot. Such as stand upon the ground, 
should have a thick layer of ashes spread for them, to prevent 
worms from creeping in. Wash their leaves frequently with 
clean water, and remove insects. When any portion of the 
eollection is kept in-doors, a window facing the north or west 
is to be preferred, and plenty of air must be admitted. As 
soon as geraniums have done flowering, they should be cut 
down, re-potted, and the tops struck, to form plants for next 


year. This is a good time to propagate nearly all kinds of 
pot-plants ; most of them strike with freedom on a warm border 
in sandy soil, covered with a glass, and kept moderately water- 
ed. Myrtles, and some other hard-wooded plants, may be 
struck by placing the cuttings, for about half their length, into 
a phial filled with water. Seeds must be sown in light earth, 
as soon as they are thoroughly ripe. 

732. July, — Fuchsias, in a growing state, should receive a 
final potting : place them in large, perfectly clean pots, using 
a mixture of turfy loam and peat, or leaf mould ; train the 
shoots, and water liberally. Geraniums that have done flower- 
ing, should also be re-potted ; they require a lighter soil, such 
as one part turfy loam, two parts leaf mould, and the remainder 
sand : cut down the tops to within two or three joints of their 
base, and set the plants in a warm sheltered place, to induce 
them to grow again : the cuttings may be struck in a frame or 
hand-glass, and will form nice plants by next season. Cactuses 
should be kept in a sunny situation, and have plenty of water. 
Camellias which have made their season's growth, may be set 
out of doors, to ripen. China roses may be re-potted, if requi- 
site, and are easily propagated now, in the same manner as 
geraniums. Separate and pot violets, for early spring-flowering ; 
keep them and similar plants, as the cyclamen, &c., in the most 
shaded place out of doors. The whole tribe of lilies are hand- 
some window-plants, and some of the dwarf Japan kinds pecu- 
liarly adapted for the purpose; they are just beginning to 
bloom, and should have plenty of air and water. The Chinese 
primrose may be sown in pots of light rich earth, and, if cover- 
ed with a piece of glass, will vegetate quickly, and form nice 
plants by the autumn. Propagation of such plants as myrtles, 
sweet-scented verbena, or lemon plant, chimney campanulas, 
&C., is now easy, and should be attended to without loss of 
time. Water all the plants with regularity, and in quantities 
oroportionate to their size and the state of the weather ; but 
particularly keep the leaves clean, by frequent sprinklings of 
dean water and sponging. The essential [joints in the culture 
of every plant, is to allow the functions of both root:} and leaves 
to be carried on in a proper manner — the first, by placing them 
in suitable soil, and the latter, by clearing them of ail im- 


733. August — Needs only a continuance of the attention 
recommended last month. Let them have plenty of air, light, 
and water, with a slight protection from the mid-day sun ; pro- 
pagation may still be carried on successfully. Pot the bella- 
donna and Guernsey lilies, to flower in autumn ; and the young 
plants of the Chinese primrose should be placed three or four 
together, in pots of light rich earth, and nursed, to forward their 
growth as far as possible. 

734. September. — The geraniums cut down in July, will now 
be pushing forth a number of young shoots ; these must be en- 
couraged as much as possible, by keeping the plants in a shel- 
tered place, and duly supplying them with moisture. When 
the shoots have grown two or three joints, they should be stop- 
ped by picking out the points, in order to render them bushy. 
The cuttings made at the same period will now be fit for potting ; 
put each one separately into a small pot, and treat them as the 
older plants. Young plants of myrtles, and indeed all others that 
are properly rooted, should receive similar treatment. Cinera- 
rias are among the most useful of spring-flowering plants, and 
if a few seedlings can be obtained now, they will make nice 
plants, with the treatment recommended for geraniums. Cycla- 
men, Guernsey, or Bella-donna lilies, and Lachenalias should be 
repotted ; the first and last are very handsome spring-flowering 
plants, and the lilies are exceedingly beautiful through October 
and November; all of them are of reasonable price, and well 
worth adding to the usual stock of window plants. Fill a few 
pots with fibrous loam, and sprinkle them over with mignonette, 
nemophiila insignis, and intermediate stocks; leave the pots in 
the open air, and thin the plants to about three or four of the 
strongest, as soon as they can be handled. Pot off china prim- 
roses, putting one plant into each three-inch pot. Encourage 
the chrysanthemums in pots with alternate applications of ma- 
nure water, repot the strongest, and allow them all plenty of 
room, or the leaves are liable to injury. Set all plants as they 
grow out of flower in the sun, to ripen their wood, but do not 
let them suffer from drought. 

735. October, — The principal endeavor among this class of 
plants must now be directed towards getting them into a state 
of rest ; water very cautiously, giving air whenever the weather 
will permit, and at all times let them enjoy whatever sunshine 


occurs, and uninterrupted light. Now that the respiring power 
of the leaves becomes lessened, it is most essential that every 
particle of dust be carefully removed; the surface of the soilin 
which they grow should be occasionally stirred, to keep it clean 
and porous, and even the outside of the pots should be washed, 
for the same end. \f it be necessary to stand the pots in sau- 
cers, when the plants are watered, the waste which runs through 
should be regularly emptied away, as much mischief ensues 
from allowing the roots to remain in the water. 

736. November. — The directions given last month must be 
closely observed throughout the remainder of the year. The 
great object being to keep the majority of the plants in a rest- 
ing condition, that they may start the more vigorously on the 
return of genial weather. Winter, or early spring-flowering 
plants, such as violets. China primroses, cyclamen, and roses, 
are, however, to be excepted from this rule ; they are now in 
an active state, and must be encouraged accordingly. As soon 
as hyacinths and other bulbs, placed in pots last month, have 
become pretty well rooted, they may be brought into the win- 
dow, and being placed near the light, will grow rapidly ; those 
in glasses should have the water changed once or twice a week. 
Chrysanthemums in pots require plenty of water while in 
bloom, and when their beauty declines, the plants should be 
taken to a warm part of the garden, or placed in a light shed, 
to complete their maturity. 

737. December. — If the geraniums or other plants taken from 
the borders in autumn, exhibit signs of rottenness, remove the 
decaying parts, and du>t the wounds with quick-lime or sul- 
phur, keep them comparatively dry and as much exposed to 
the sun as possible; air is essential whenever it can be admit- 
ted. Remember previous directions regarding the employ- 
ment of pans ; they are a most tatal source of disease and death 
when left with water in them. Water sparingly, keep the 
leaves clean, and wait patiently. Flowering plants must still 
form the exception, as mentioned last month. 

738. To manage a Watch. — First: Wind your watch as 
nearly as possible at the same hour every day. Secondly : Be 
careful that your key is in good condition, as there is much 
danger of injuring the machine when the key is worn or cracked ; 


there are more mainsprings and chains broken through a jerk 
in winding, than from any other cause, which injury will, 
sooner or later, be the result, if the key be in bad order. 
Thirdly : As all metals contract by cold, and expand by heat, 
it must be manifest, that to keep the watch as nearly as possi- 
ble at one temperature, is a necessary piece of attention. 
Fourthly : Keep the watch as constantly as possible in one po- 
sition — that is, if it hangs by day, let it hang by night against 
something soft. Fifthly : the hands of a pocket-chronometer 
or duplex watch, should never be set backwards ; in other 
watches this is a matter of no consequence. Sixthly : The glass 
should never be opened in watches that set and regulate at the 
back. One or two other directions more, it is of vital import- 
ance that you bear in mind. On regulating a watch, should it 
be fast, move the regulator a trifle towards the slow, and if 
going slow, do the reverse ; you cannot move the regulator too 
slightly or too gently at a time, and the only inconvenience that 
can arise is, that you may have to perform the duty more than 
once. On the contrary, if you move the regulator too much at 
a time you will be as far, if not farther than ever, from attain- 
ing your object ; so that you may repeat the movement until 
quite tired and disappointed — stoutly blaming both watch and 
watch-maker, while the fault is entirely your own. Again, you 
cannot be too careful in respect of the nature and condition of 
your watch-pocket; see that it be made of some material that 
is soft and pliant — such as wash-leather, which is the best ; and, 
also, that there be no flue or nap that may be torn off when 
taking the watch out of the pocket. Cleanliness, too, is as 
needful here as in the key before winding ; for if there be dust 
or dirt in either instance, it will, you may rely upon it, work 
its way into the watch, as well as wear away the engine turning 
of the case. 



Of the different kinds of Tea, Coffee, &c. — Preserving Fruits, 
Flowers, dtc. — Care of Fires — and other Hints. 


739. — The names of the different kinds of tea, relate to the 
time of their being gathered, or to some peculiarity in their 
manufacture. It is a general rule, that all tea is fine in pro- 
portion to the tenderness and immaturity of the leaves. The 
quality and value of the different kinds diminish as they are 
gathered later in the season. 

Black Teas. — As soon as the leaf-bud begins to expand, 
it is gathered to make Pekoe. A few days' later growth pro- 
duces black-leaved Pekoe. The next picking is called Souchong ; 
as the leaves grow larger and more mature, they form Congou ; 
and the last picking is Bohea. 

Bohea is called by the Chinese, Ta-cha (large tea), on account 
of the maturity and size of the leaves; it contains a larger pro- 
portion of woody fibre than other teas, and its infusion is of a 
darker color and coarser flavor. 

Congou, the next higher kind, is named from a corruption 
of the Chinese Koongfoa (great care, or assiduity). This forms 
the bulk of the black tea imported, and is mostly valued for 
its strength. 

Souchong — Seaou-choong (small, scarce sort), is the finest of 
the stronger black tea, with a leaf that is generally entire and 
curly. It is much esteemed for its fragrance and fine flavor. 

Pekoe is a corruption of the Canton name, Pak-ho (white 


down), being the first sprouts of the leaf-buds ; they are covered 
with a white silky down. It is a delicate tea, rather deficient 
in strength, and is principally used for flavoring other teas. 

740. Green Teas. — The following are the principal kinds: 
Tivankay, Hyson- Skin, Hyson, Gunpowder, and Young Hyson. 

Young Hyson is a delicate young leaf, called in the original 
language, Yu-tsien (before the rains), because gathered in the 
early spring. 

Hyson, from the Chinese word He-tchnne, which means, 
flourishing spring. This fine tea is gathered early in the season, 
and prepared with great care and labor. Each leaf is picked 
separately, and nipped off above the footstalk, and every sepa- 
rate leaf is rolled in the hand. It is much esteemed for its 

Gunpowder Tea is only Hyson rolled and rounded, to give it 
the granular appearance whence it derives its name. The Chi- 
nese call it Choo-cha (pearl tea). 

Hyson-Skin is so named from the Chinese term, in which 
connection skin means the refuse, or inferior portion. In pre- 
paring Hyson, all leaves that are of a coarse yellow, or imper- 
fectly twisted appearance, are separated, and sold as skin-tea, 
at an inferior price. 

Twankay is the last picking of green tea, and the leaf is not 
rolled or twisted as much as the dearer descriptions. There is 
altogether less trouble bestowed on the preparation. 


741. — The infusion or decoction of the roasted seeds of the 
coffee-berry, when not too strong, is a wholesome, exhilarating, 
and strengthening beverage; and, when mixed with a large 
proportion of milk, is a proper article of diet for literary and 
sedentary people. It is especially suited to persons advanced 
in years. People who are bilious and liable to costiveness, 
should abstain from it. When drank very strong, it proves 
stimulating and heating in a considerable degree, creating thirst 
and producing watchfulness. By an abusive indulgence in this 
drink, the organs of digestion are impaired, the appetite is de- 
stroyed, nutrition is impeded, and emaciation, general debility; 
paralytic affections, and nervous fever, are brought on. 


742. Proper method of making Toast and Water, and tlu 
advantages resulting therefrom. — Take a slice of fine and stale 
loaf-bread, cut very thin — as thin as toast is ever cut — and let 
it be carefully toasted on both sides, until it be completely 
browned all over, but nowise blackened or burned in any way. 
Put this into a common deep stone or china jug, and pour over 
it, from the tea-kettle, as much clean boiling water as you wish 
to make into drink. Much depends on the water being actually 
in a boiling state. Cover the jug with a saucer or plate, and 
let the drink cool until it be quite cold ; it is then fit to be used. 
The fresher it is made the better, and of course the more agree- 
able. The above will be found a pleasant, light, and highly- 
diuretic drink. It is peculiarly grateful to the stomach, and 
excellent for carrying off the effects of any excess in drinking. 
It is also a most excellent drink at meals, and may be used in 
the summer-time, if more agreeable to the drinker. 

743. Baked Milk. — Put half a gallon of milk into ajar, and 
tie it down with writing-paper. Let it stand in a moderately 
warm oven about eight or ten hours. ' It will then be of the 
consistence of cream. It is used by persons who are weak or 

744. Substitute for Cream, in Tea or Coffee. — Beat the white 
of an egg to a froth, put to it a very small lump of butter, and 
mix well. Then turn the coffee to it gradually, so that it may 
not curdle. If perfectly done, it will be an excellent substitute 
for cream. For tea, omit the butter, using only the egg. This 
might be of great use at sea, as eggs can be preserved fresh in 
various ways. 

745. Economical use of Nutmegs. — If a person begin to grate 
a nutmeg at the stalk end, it will prove hollow throughout ; 
whereas the same nutmeg, grated from the other end, would 
have proved sound and solid to the last. This circumstance 
may thus be accounted for : — The centre of a nutmeg consists 
of a number of fibres issuing from the stalk, and its continuation 
through the centre of the fruit; the other ends of which fibres, 
though closely surrounded and pressed by the fruit, do not ad- 
here to it. When the stalk is grated away, those fibres, having 
lost their hold, gradually drop out, and the nutmeg appears 
hollow : as more of the stalk is grated away, others drop out 


in succession, and the hollow continues through the whole nut. 
By beginning at the contrary end, the fibres above-mentioned 
are grated off at their core end, with the surrounding fruit, and 
do not drop out and cause a hole. 

746. To ascertain the quality of Nutmegs, — Oil of nutmegs 
being of great value, it is often extracted from the nuts which 
are exposed to sale, and which are thereby rendered of very 
little value. To ascertain the quality of nutmegs, force a pin 
into them ; and if good, however dry they may appear, the oil 
will be seen oozing out all round the pin. 

747. Essence of Nutmeg — Is made by dissolving one ounce 
of the essential oil in a pint of rectified spirits. It is an expen- 
sive but invaluable mode of flavoring, in the arts of the cook 
or confectioner. 

748. To make Essence of Celery. — Soak for a fortnight half 
an ounce of the seeds of celery in one gill of brandy. A few 
drops will flavor a pint of soup or broth equal to a head of 

749. Tincture of Lemon-peel. — Fill a wide-mouthed pint bottle 
half full of brandy ; when a lemon is used, pare off the rind 
very thin, and put it into the brandy. In two weeks the spirit 
will be strongly impregnated with the flavor of the lemon. 

750. To test the purity of Spirits. — See if the liquor will 
burn away entirely : or, place a hollow ivory-ball in it ; the 
deeper the ball sinks, the lighter the liquor, and consequently 
more spirituous. 

751. To purify Olive Oil. — Turn the oil into a crock or bottle, 
and pour in a quantity of pure water; shake the vessel vigor- 
ously, and let it stand two hours. The mucilaginous matter 
which is the cause of rancidity, will be separated from the oil, 
and remain in the water. The oil can be decanted, and re- 
bottled for use. 

752. To preserve Eggs. — The most simple and easy mode of 
preserving eggs, is to rub the outside of the shell, as soon as 
gathered from the nest, with a little butter, or any other grease 



that is not fetid. By filling up the pores of the shell, the evap- 
oration of the liquid part of the egg is prevented ; and either 
by that means, or by excluding the external air, which Four- 
croy supposes destroys the milkiness which most people are 
fond of in new-laid eggs, that milkiness will be preserved for 
months, as perfect as when the egg was taken from the nest. 

753. Cream preserved in Long Voyages. — Mix with a quantity 
of fresh rich cream half its weight of white sugar in powder ; 
stir the whole weli together, and preserve it in bottles well 
corked. In this state it is ready to mix with tea or coffee, and 
has continued in good condition during a voyage to America. 

754. To preserve Hazel Nats in great perfection for many 
months. — Hazel nuts may be kept a long time in full kernel by 
burying them in earthen pots, well closed, a foot or two in the 
ground. They keep best in gravelly or sandy places. 

755. Easy Method of preserving Animal Food. — Fresh meat 
may be kept for nine or ten days perfectly sweet and good, in 
the heat of summer, by lightly covering the same with bran, 
and hanging it in a high and windy room ; a cupboard full of 
small holes, or a wire safe, is recommended to be placed in 
such a room, to keep away the flies. 

75G. To purify Lemon-juice. — Add one ounce of pulverized, 
well burnt charcoal, to a quart of lemon-juice ; after standing 
twelve hou re, filteBhe juice through white blotting-paper; it 
will keep good several years in a cellar, in a bottle, well 
corked ; a thick crust will form beneath the cork, and the mu- 
cilage will fall to the bottom. 

757. To detect Copper in Liquids. — Spirit of hartshorn mixed 
with them, turns them blue, 'lherefore tea is not dried on cop- 
per, as an infusion of it is not turned blue by this mixture. 
Cider, being passed through brass pots, is detected by this ex- 
periment. — JJr. Moyes Lectures. 

758. To detect the Mixture of Arsenic. — A solution of blue 
vitriol dropped into any liquid in which arsenic has been put, 
will turn it green. 



759. To test Mushrooms. — Rub the upper skin with a gold 
ring or an^ piece of gold: the part rubbed will turn yellow if 
it is a, poisonous fungus. 

760. To prepare Salt. — Set a lump of salt in a plate before 
the fire, and when dry, pound it in a mortar, or rub two pieces 
of salt together ; it will then be free from lumps, and in very 
fine powder. 

761. To make Cheap and Good Vinegar. — To eight gallons 
of clear rain water, add three quarts of molasses ; turn the mix- 
ture into a clean tight cask, shake it well two or three times, 
and add three spoonsful of good yeast, or two yeast cakes. 
Place the cask in a warm place, and in ten or fifteen days, add 
a sheet of common wrapping-paper, smeared with molasses, and 
torn into narrow strips, and you will have good vinegar. The 
paper is necessary to form the " mother," or life of the liquor. 

762. To prevent Mouldiness. — The best preventive is any ot 
the essential oils, as the oil of lavender, cloves, peppermint, &c. 
Russia leather, which is scented with the tar of the birch-tree, 
is not subject to mouldiness, and books bound in it will even 
prevent mouldiness in other books bound in calf, near which 
they happen to lie. 

Aromatic seeds are not subject to mould, and gingerbread, 
or cakes containing caraway seeds are far less liable to mouldi- 
ness than plain bread. Children have been poisoned by eating 
mouldy bread. 

763. To keep Fruits. — To preserve fruits, you must keep 
them in a room rather above the ground floor, sheltered alike 
from the sun and damp ; it is even prudent, in order to avoid 
opening the windows, to let out the humid exhalations of the 
fruit, to have a stove in the room, and light a fire in it now and 
then. The decaying fruit should be carefully removed. Cher- 
ries, grapes, &c, are kept sound by hanging them to threads, 
and then inclosing them in new boxes or barrels ; these are 
closed as tightly as possible, and deposited in a dry place. 
Some preserve them by laying them in sawdust or bran. 

764. To preserve Apples. — Dry a glazed jar perfectly well, 
put a few pebbles in the bottom ; fill the jar with apples, and 



cover it with a bit of wood made to fit exactly ; and over that, 
put a little fresh mortar. The pebbles attract the damp of the 
apples. The mortar draws the air from the jar, and leaves the 
apples free from its pressure, which, together with the principle 
of putrefaction which the air contains, are the causes of decay. 
Apples, kept thus, have been found quite sound, fair, and juicy, 
in July. 

765. To keep Potatoes from frost. — If you have not a conve- 
nient store-place for them, dig a trench three or four feet deep, 
into which they are to be laid as they are taken up, and then 
covered with the earth taken out of the trench, raised up in the 
middle like the roof of a house, and covered with straw, to 
carry off the rain. They will be thus preserved from the frost, 
and can be taken up as they are wanted. 

766. To dry Com for winter use. — Sweet corn is the best. 
Husk it. Have a pot of boiling water — put in your corn and 
let it boil three minutes — then cut it from the cobs and put it 
in pans in a warm oven. It must be stirred frequently ; when 
perfectly dry put it away in bags. When wanted for use, soak 
it all night, next day boil it an hour with a little salt; before it 
is dished stir in flour, pepper, and butter. 

767. To preserve Aromatic and other Herbs. — The boxes and 
drawers in which vegetable matters are kept should not impart 
to them any smell q^taste ; and more certainly to avoid this, 
they should be lined with paper. Such as are volatile, of a 
delicate texture, or subject to suffer from insects, must be kept 
in well covered glasses. Fruits and oily seeds, which are apt 
to become rancid, must be kept in a cool and dry, but by no 
means in a warm or moist place. 

768. To dry Herbs. — Dry the gathered crop, thinly spread 
out, and shaded from the sun ; tie the herbs in small bundles, 
and keep them compactly pressed down and covered with white 
paper. Or, after drying them, put each sort into a small box, 
and by means of boards, of the size of the interior length and 
width of the box, and a screw-press, press the herbs into cakes, 
or little trusses. These should be afterwards carefully wrapped 
up in paper, and be kept in a dry place, when they will retain 
their aroma as perfectly as when they were put into the press, 


for, at least, three years. By the common mode of hanging up 
herbs in loose bundles, the odor soon escapes. 

769. To dry Chamomile Flowers. — Pull them, from time to 
time, as they are produced ; for the plants continue to blossom 
in succession for several months. When gathered, dry them 
gradually, partly in the sun, and partly in the shade, by being 
spread upon a mat or sheet, removed out of the sun in the heat 
of the day, and placed in it mornings and evenings. 

Lavender Flowers should also be dried as chamomiles. 

Marigold Flowers, dried, improve broths and soups, however 
much they may have got into disuse. 

770. Winter Herbs. — The best time for gathering herbs for 
winter use is when they are in blossom. If left till they are in 
seed, the strength goes to the seed. They are best picked 
from the stocks, dried quickly (but not burnt), before the fire, 
and rubbed into powder, then bottled. 

771. Galvanism a Protector of Trees. — A German journal 
states that the application of galvanism has been made in Aus- 
tria for preserving trees and plants from the ravages of insects. 
The process is very simple, consisting only in placing two 
rings, one of copper, the other of zinc, attached together, around 
the tree or plant. Any insect that touches the copper receives 
an electric shock, which kills it or causes it to fall to the 

772. Moss on Trees. — The following is an excellent applica- 
tion to the scraped trunk to prevent the growth of moss, and 
destroy eggs of insects. One gallon of soft soap, one pound 
of flour of sulphur, and one quart of salt, to be well stirred to- 
gether and put on with a hard brush. 

773. To destroy Caterpillars in Gooseberry Trees. — Gather dust 
from any turnpike road, and shake it well among the trees, and 
the caterpillars will immediately fall to the ground. It is an 
excellent plan to dust the trees twice or three times a week, as 
it will effectually prevent the lodgment of caterpillars. 

774. A neat method of Grafting. — Prepare the stock and the 
graft in the same way as for grafting with clay in the common 


way. Then take a long slip of India-rubber, three-quarters of 
an inch broad, and about the thickness of a shilling. Tie one 
end of this elastic riband with a thread, well prepared by rub- 
bing with shoemakers' wax, to the stock, a little below where 
it is cut for being joined to the graft ; then make the joint as 
neatly as possible, and wrap it round with the riband, taking 
due care to keep the India-rubber fully stretched, and to make 
it overlap at each turn fully one-half of the breadth of the pre- 
vious round, till the whole is covered, then tie the top with a 
thread in the same manner as at the bottom, and the operation 
is finished. After grafting the trees in the manner described, 
nothing is done to them till they are completely set, when the 
India-rubber slips are taken off to be ready again for the next 
year. When opened up, there is scarcely any appearance of a 
ioint, and altogether they are much neater than when done with 

775. To Kill Vermin on Plants. — Tobacco water is much 
used for the above purposes ; it is made by pouring a gallon 
of boiling water upon a pound of tobacco leaves, and straining 
it in twenty mi nut 

Or, syringe the plants with this mixture : put into a jar five 
gallons of spring water and four ounces of chloride of lime, to 
which add four ounces of vitriol ; when the lime is precipitated, 
pour off the clear solution, and keep it air-tight. 

Or, mix coal tar and water, and sprinkle it over the infected 

776. To Propagate Plants. — It may be received as a general 
principle, that all plants which produce shoots may be propa- 
gated by cuttings; though some plants are much more difficult 
to propagate in this manner than others. Generally speaking, 
all the soft-wooded plants which have abundance of sap, such 
as geraniums, fuchsias, petunias, and verbenas, strike root 
readily. The usual mode for striking cuttings is to put them 
in fine sand, and to cover them with a bell-glass. Some cut- 
tings which are difficult to strike are directed to have bottom 
heat; that is, the pots in which they are planted should be 
plunged into a hot-bed, that the stimulus afforded by the heat 
may induce the cuttings to throw out roots. 


777. Plants watered by being placed in Dishes, improper. — The 
practice of placing flats or saucers under plants, and feeding 
them by the roots, that is, pouring the water continually into 
these dishes, and never on the earth at top, is highly improper. 
The water should always be poured on the surface of the earth, 
that it may filter completely through it, to the benefit and re- 
freshment of the fibres. 

778. When to plant Annual and Perennial Flowers. — Many 
kinds of annuals and perennials, sown in March and the begin- 
ning of April, will be fit for transplanting about the end of 
May, and may either be planted in patches about borders, or 
in beds, as fancy shall direct. Of these, the kinds improved by 
transplanting are, amaranthuses, China asters, columbines, 
French and African marigolds, fox-gloves, hollyhocks, In- 
dia pinks, love-lies-bleeding, mallows, mignonette, prince's 
feather, scabious, stocks, sun-flowers, sweet-williams, wall- 
flowers, and others. They should be planted out in a showery 
time, if possible, or otherwise be frequently watered, till they 
have struck root. 

779. To preserve Flower Seeds. — Those who are curious 
about saving flower-seeds must attend to them in the month of 
August. Many kinds will begin to ripen apace, and should be 
carefully sticked and supported, to prevent them from being 
shaken by high winds, and so partly lost. Others should be 
defended from much wet; such as asters, marigolds, and gen- 
erally those of the class Syngenesia ; as from the construction 
of their flowers they are apt to rot, and the seeds to mould, in 
bad seasons. Whenever they are thought ripe, or indeed any 
others, in wet weather, they should be removed to an airy 
shed or loft, gradually dried, and rubbed or beat out at con- 

780. Easy Method of discovering whether or not Seeds are suf- 
ficiently ripe. — Seeds, when not sufficiently ripe, will swim, but 
when arrived at full maturity, they will be found uniformly to 
fall to the bottom ; a fact that is said to hold equally true of 
all seeds, from the cocoa-nut to the orchis. 



781. There are some things that all farmers ought to know. 

Sheep put into fresh stubble are apt to be killed by eating 
too much grain. 

A bare pasture enriches not the soil, nor fattens the animals, 
nor increases the wealth of the owner. 

One animal well fed is of more value than two poorly kept. 

The better animals can be fed, and the more comfortable they 
can be kept, the more profitable they are — and all farmers work 
for profit. 

Ground once well plowed is better than thrice poorly. 

Bountiful crops are more profitable than poor ones. Make 
the soil rich, pulverize it well, and keep it clean, and it gen- 
erally will be productive. - 

Weeds that grow unmolested around the fences, stumps, and 
stones, scatter their seeds over the farm, and are xevy likely to 

Cows well fed in winter give more milk in summer. An ox 
that is in good condition in the spring, will perform more 
labor, and stand the heat of summer much better than one that 
is poor. 

When you see the fence down, put it up : if it remains until 
to-morrow, the cattle may get over. 

What ought to be done to day, do it; for to-morrow it may 

A strong horse will work all day without food, but keep him 
at it, and he will not last long. 

A rich soil will produce good crops without manure, but 
keep it at it, and it will tire. 

- Farmers' sons had better learn to hold the plow, and feed 
the pigs, than measure tape and count buttons. 

Young ladies who have the good fortune to become farmers' 
wives will find it more profitable to know how to make Johnny- 
cake, butter, and cheese, than to play on the piano. 

All who wish to be rich, must spend less than they earn. 


782. When a horse is brought in hot, loosen the girth, and 
allow the saddle to remain on for five minutes. Let him be 


walked about in summer, and, in the winter, be put directly 
in the stable. 

A horse should not be permitted to drink cold water, whilst 
warm ; neither should the legs or feet of a horse be washed, 
until he gets cold. 

Horses prefer soft water, and it is best for them. If the 
water be very hard and brackish, put a small piece of chalk 
into a pail of water, some time before it is given to the horse. 

Fourteen pounds of hay in one day, or one hundred pounds 
a week, with three feeds of corn a day, are sufficient for a horse 
that is not over-worked. 

In travelling, after the principal feed, let a horse have not 
less than two hours' rest, that his food may have time to digest. 

After a hard day's work, give a horse about two gallons of 
gruel, made with a quart of oatmeal, half a gallon of ale, half 
a quartern of brandy, and the proper quantity of water. Wet- 
ted bran may be given advantageously to lean horses. 

783. To dress a Horse. — On entering the stable, first give him 
about a gallon of clean water in a clean pail ; then shake up 
the best litter under the manger, sweep out the stall, and clean 
out the stable. 

Whilst the horse is feeding, dress him : first, curry him all 
over with the currycomb, to loosen the dirt and dust on his 
skin ; then remove the dust with a whalebone brush ; next, 
smooth and cleanse the coat with a wisp of straw ; and again 
use the brush and currycomb, to take off what dust may remain ; 
after which, whisk him again with a darmp lock of hay ; and, 
finally, rub him down with a woollen or linen cloth. ' 

Then turn round the horse in the stall, brush his head well, 
and wisp it clean and smooth with a damp lock of hay. Then 
wipe the dust and filth from the inside of the ears with a damp 
sponge, and draw the ears through the hands for a few minutes, 
until they are warm. Wash out the sponge, and with it cleanse 
the dust, &c, from the eyes; sponge the nostrils, and then rub 
the whole head with a cloth, in the same manner as tho body. 

Next, turn the horse round into his proper situation, put on 
the head-stall, and with a sponge wash the dirt and filth from 
under the tail. Then, clean and lay the mane with a comb and 
water-brush, used alternately with both hands; again wipe over 
the head and body, put on the body-clothes, and fasten them 
with a surcingle. 


Examine the heels, pick out the dirt from the feet, and wash 
the heels with a brush and plenty of water. If the horse has 
bad feet, they should be dressed and stuffed. 

Lastly, shake hay into the rack ; and then the horse will be 
completely dressed. 

784. Horse Flies. — To prevent horses being teased with flies, 
take two or three small handfuls of walnut leaves, upon which 
pour two or three quarts of soft cold water ; let it infuse one 
night; pour the whole next morning into a kettle, and let it 
boil for a quarter of an hour : when cold, it will be ready for 
use. Nothing more is required than to moisten a sponge with 
the liquid, and, before the horse goes out of the stable, let those 
parts which are most irritable be smeared over with the liquor, 
namely, between and upon the ears, the flank, &c. 

785. To milk Cows. — A cow should be milked clean. Not 
a drop, if it can be avoided, should be left in the udder. It 
has been proved that the half-pint that comes out last, has 
twelve times. I think it is, as much butter in it, as the half-pint 
that comes out first. The udder would seem to be a sort of 
milk-pan, in which the cream is uppermost, and, of course, comes 
out last, seeing that the outlet is at the bottom. But, besides 
this, if you do not milk clean, the cow will give less and less 
milk, and will become dry much sooner than she ought. — 


786. There is scarcely any branch of farming operations more 
productive than the raising of poultry for market ; and yet, 
with a large majority of our agriculturists, it is considered of 
but little account. The proximity to a great market, and the 
facilities for reaching it possessed by many of our farmers in 
this country, should make the rearing of poultry an object of 

787. To fatten Poultry. — Poultry should be fattened in coops, 
and kept very clean. They should be furnished with" gravel, 
but with no water. Their only food, barley-meal, mixed so 
thin with water, as to serve them for drink. Their thirst makes 
them eat more than they would, in order to extract the water 


that is among the food. This should not be put in troughs, 
but laid upon a board, which should be clean washed every 
time fresh food is put upon it. It is foul and heated water 
which is the sole cause of the pip. 

788. Method of expeditiously fattening Chickens. — Take, for 
that purpose, a quantity of rice, and grind or pound it into a 
fine flour; mix sufficient for present use with milk and a little 
coarse sugar; stir the whole well over the fire, till it makes a 
thick paste; and feed the chickens, in the day-time only, by 
putting as much of it as they can eat, but no more, into the 
troughs belonging to their coops. It must be eaten while warm ; 
and, if they have also beer to drink, they will soon grow very 
fat. A mixture of oatmeal and treacle, combined till it crum- 
bles, is said to form a food for chickens, of which they are so 
fond, and with which they thrive so rapidly, that at the end of 
two months they become as large as the generality of full-grown 
fowls fed in the common way. 

789. Method of fattening Geese and Ducks. — Geese, the more 
quiet and undisturbed they are kept, the faster and better they 
fatten. Put young geese into a place that is almost dark ; feed 
them with ground malt mixed with milk, and they will very 
soon, and at very little expense, be fit to* Ml: 

Another way is cheaper still : — Mix barley-meal, pretty thick, 
with water, which they must constantly have by them, to eat 
as they choose ; in another part of the shed where they are, 
keep a pan with some boiled oats and water, for them to resort 
to when they are inclined to change their food. This variety 
is agreeable to them, and they thrive apace, being so fattened 
at less expense than in any other manner. 

790. Cobbetfs method of fattening Geese. — Geese are raised 
by grazing : but, to fat them, something more is required. 
Corn of some sort, or boiled Swedish turnips, or carrots, or 
w r hite cabbages, or lettuces, make the best fatting. The modes 
that are resorted to by the French for fatting geese, are, I hope, 
such as Englishmen will never think of. He who can deliber- 
ately inflict torture upon an animal, in order to heighten the 
pleasure his palate is to receive in eating it, is an abuser of the 
authority w T hich God has given him, and is, indeed, a tyrant in 
his heart. Who would think himself safe, if at the mercy of 
*»uch a man ? 9* 


791. Swedish method of raising Turkeys. — As soon as the 
young turkeys leave the she]], they are made to swallow one 
or two pepper-corns, and returned to their mother. They are 
afterwards fed with crumbs of bread and milk, and with com- 
mon dock-leaves, chopped small, and mixed with fresh butter- 
milk, and kept in a warm place or sunshine, and guarded from 
the rain or from running among nettles. 

Nothing, however, is more useful for them than the common 
garden pepper-cress, or cut-leaved cress. They are very fond 
of it; and, supplied with as much of it as they will eat, they 
will not be delicate in their other food. 

792. To fatten Turkeys as they do in Xorfolk. — The quality 
and size of the Norfolk turkeys are superior to those of any 
other part of England. They are fed almost entirely with 
buckwheat; and give them with it boiled oats, boiled malt, or 
boiled barley, and sometimes, for change, even boiled wheat 
and water. 

793. To fatten Ducks. — Feed them with the same food as 
the turkeys or geese, and let them hav», a pan of water to 
dabble in. 

794. To make Hens lay perpetually. — Hens will lay perpetu- 
ally, if treated in the following manner: — Keep no roosters 
(cocks) : give the hens fresh meat, chopped up like sausage- 
meat, once a day ; a very small portion, say half an ounce a day 
to each hen, during the winter, or from the time insects disap- 
pear in the fall till they appear again in the spring. Never 
allow any eggs to remain in the nest for what are called M nest 
eggs.'" When the roosters do not run with the hens, and no 
nest eggs are left in the nest, the hens will not cease laying 
after the production of twelve or fifteen eggs, as they always do 
when roosters and nest eggs are allowed ; but continue laying 
perpetually. The only reason why hens do not Jay in winter 
as freely as in summer, is the want of animal food, which they 
get in summer in abundance, in the form of inst 



795. Cautions. — Sweep chimneys regularly; sweep fre- 
quently the lower part of the chimney within reach ; the kitchen 
chimney should be swept once a month. 

796. Fires in Chimneys. — When a chimney or flue is on fire, 
throw into the fire-place handfuls of flour of sulphur, which will 
destroy the flame. Or, apply a wet blanket, or old carpet, to 
the throat of the chimney, or over the front of the fire-place. 
A chimney-board, or register-flap, will answer the same pur- 
pose, by stopping the draught of air from below. 

Beware of lights near combustibles ; of children near fires 
and lights ; and do not trust them with candles. Do not leave 
clothes to dry by the fire un watched, either day or night ; do 
not leave the poker in the fire; see that all be safe before you 
retire to rest. 

797. Persons in Danger. — When a fire happens, put it out in 
its earliest stage ; if suffered to extend itself, give the alarm. 
Beware of opening doors, &c, to increase the fire by fresh air. 
Muster the whole family, see that none are missing. First save 
lives, then property. Think of the ways of escape; by the 
stairs, if no better way — creep along a room where the fire is, 
and creep down stairs backwards on hands and knees — (heated 
air ascends) ; come down stairs with a pillow before your 
face, and a wet blanket round the body, and hold your breath ; 
or try the roof of the adjoining house. Throw out of the win- 
dow a feather bed, to leap upon in the last extremity — fasten 
fire-escapes to the bed-posts first — send children down by the 
sack fastened to a rope, taking care of the iron spikes and area ; 
then lower yourselves. 

798. Means of Extinction. — The safety of the inmates being 
ascertained, the first object at a fire should be the exclusion of 
all fresh and the confinement of all burnt air — suffocate the 
flames — and remember that burnt air is as great, if not a greater 
enemy to fire than water. For both purposes, of excluding the 
one air, and confining the other, all openings should be kept as 
carefully closed as possible. The prevailing practice of break- 
ing windows is peculiarly mischievous. The only excuse for 
this is the admission of water ; but if the firemen were provided 


with self supporting ladders, (that need not lean against the 
wall,) they might direct the water-hose through a single broken 
]3ane, with ten times more accuracy than by their random 
squirting from the street. Water should be made to beat out 
the fire by its impetus ; sprinkling is useless. 

799. Neighbors and Spectators. — When a fire happens, let 
every respectabte neighbor attend. Send instantly for engines, 
both of the parish and of the insurance companies, and the par- 
ish and other ladder and fire-escapes. Look for the nearest fire- 
plug — send instantly for policemen, and see they attend, and 
are active. 

800. Method of escape from Fire. — The following simple ma- 
chine ought always to be kept in an upper apartment. It is 
nothing more thaa a shilling or eighteen-penny rope, one end 
of which should always be made fast to something in the cham- 
ber, and at the other end should be a noose to let down chil- 
dren or infirm persons, in case of fire. Along the rope there 
should be several knots, to serve as resting places for the hands 
and feet of the person who drops down by it. No family oc- 
cupying high houses should ever be without a contrivance of 
this kind. 

801. To make Water more efficacious in extinguishing Fires. — 
Throw into a pump, which contains fifty or sixty buckets of 
water, eight or ten pounds of salt or pearlashes, and the water 
thus impregnated will wonderfully accelerate the extinction of 
the most furious conflagration. Muddy water is better than 
clear, and can be obtained when salt and ashes cannot. 

802. To extinguish Fires speedily. — Much mischief arises from 
want of a little presence of mind on these alarming occasions. 
A small quantity of water, well and immediately applied, will 
frequently obviate great danger. The moment an alarm of fire 
is given, wet some blankets well in a bucket of water, and 
spread them upon the floor of the room where the fire is, and 
afterwards beat out the other flames with a blanket thus wet. 
Two or three buckets of water thus used early, will answer 
better than hundreds applied at a later period. Linen thus 
wet will be useful, but will not answer so well as woollen. 


803. To escape from or go into a House on fire, — Creep or 
crawl with your face near the ground, and, although the room 
be full of sm Ae to suffocation, yet near the floor the air is 
pure, and may be breathed with safety. The best escape from 
upper windows is by a knotted rope; but, if a leap is unavoid- 
able, then the bed should be thrown out first, or beds prepared 
for the purpose. 

804. Hints respecting Women's and Children s Clothes catch- 
ing fire. — The females and children in every family should bo 
particularly told and shown, that flame always tends upwards ; 
and, consequently, that as long as they continue erect, or in 
an upright posture, while their clothes are burning, the fire 
generally beginning at the lower part of the dress, the flames 
meeting additional fuel, as they rise, become more powerful 
in proportion ; whereby the neck and head, being more exposed 
than other parts to the intense and concentrated heat, must 
necessarily be most injured. In a case of this kind, where the 
sufferer happens to be alone, and cannot extinguish the flames 
by instantly throwing the clothes over the head, and rolling or 
lying upon them, she may still avoid great agony, and save her 
life, by throwing herself at full-length on the floor, and rolling 
herself thereon. This method may not extinguish the flame, 
but, to a certainty, will retard its progress, prevent fatal injury 
to the neck and head, and afford opportunity for assistance ; 
and it may be more practicable than the other, to the aged and 
infirm. A carpet or hearth-rug instantly lapped round the head 
and body, is almost a certain preventive of danger. 

805. Method of rendering all sorts of Paper, Linen, and Cot- 
ton, less combustible. — This desirable object may be, in some 
degree, effected, by immersing these combustible materials in 
a strong solution of alum-water ; and, after drying them, repeat- 
ing this immersion, if necessary. Thus, neither the color nor 
the quality of the paper will be in the least affected ; on the 
contrary, both will be improved : and the result of the experi- 
ment may be ascertained, by holding a slip of paper, so pre- 
pared, over a candle. 

806. To extricate Horses from fire. — If the harness be thrown 
over a draught, or the saddle placed on the back of a saddle 
horse, they may be led out of the stable as easily as on common 


occasions. Should there be time to substitute the bridle for the 
halter, the difficulty towards saving them will be still further 

807. Method of rendering assistance to persons in danger of 
Drowning. — This desirable object appears attainable by the 
proper use of a man's hat and pocket-handkerchief, which (being 
all the apparatus necessary) is to be used thus : — Spread the 
handkerchief on the ground, and place a hat, with the brim 
downwards, on the middle of the handkerchief; and then tie 
the handkerchief round the hat as you would tie up a bundle, 
keeping the knots as near the centre of the crown as may be. 
Now, by seizing the knots in one hand, and keeping the opening 
of the hat upwards, a person, without knowing how to swim, 
may fearlessly plunge into the 'water with what may be neces- 
sary to save the life of a fellow-creature. 

If a person should fall out of a boat, or the boat upset, by 
going foul of a cable, &c, or should he fall off the quays, or 
indeed fall into any water from which he could not extricate 
himself, but must wait some little time for assistance — had he 
presence of mind enough to whip off his hat, and hold it by the 
brim, placing his fingers withinside the crown, and hold it so, 
(top downwards), he would be able, by this method, to keep 
his mouth well above water till assistance should reach him. 
It often happens that danger is descried long before we are 
involved in the peril, and time enough to prepare the above 
method; and a courageous person would, in seven instances 
out of ten, apply to them with success ; and travellers, in ford- 
ing rivers at unknown fords, or where shallows are deceitful, 
might make use of these methods with advantage. 

808. To prevent excessive Thirst, in cases of emergency at Sea, 
in the summer-time. — When thirst is excessive, as is often the 
case in summer-time, during long voyages, avoid, if possible, 
even in times of the greatest necessity, the drinking of salt water 
to allay the thirst; but rather keep thinly clad, and frequently 
dip in the sea, which will appease both hunger and thirst for a 
long time, and prevent the disagreeable sensation of sw r allowing 
salt water. 

809. Best mode of avoiding the fatal Accidents of Open Car- 
riages. — Jumping out is particularly dangerous, (the motion 


of the gig communicating a different one to the one you give 
yourself by jumping), which tends very much to throw you on 
your side or head. Many suppose it very easy to jump a little 
forward, and alight safe: they will not find it so on trial. The 
method of getting out behind the carriage, is the most safe of 
any, having often tried it when the horse has been going very 
fast. Perhaps it is best to fix yourself firm, and remain in the 

810. Recovery from Suffocation, &c. — There are many occa- 
sions of danger, on which a person who can hold breath for a 
minute or two, may save the life of [mother. The best prepa- 
ration for rendering such assistance is, by breathing deep, hard, 
and quick, (as a person would do after running.) and ceasing 
with his lungs full of air; he will then find himself able to hold 
his breath more than twice as long as he would without such 

If in a brewer's fermenting vat, or an opened cess-pool, one 
man sinks senseless and helpless, from breathing the foul air, 
another man of cool mind would, by the above preparation, 
have abundant time, in most cases, to descend by the ladder or 
bucket, and rescue the sufferer, without any risk to himself. 
In entering a room - on fire, a knowledge of this fact may be 

The following precautions should also be regarded. Avoid 
all unnecessary exertion; go coolly and quietly to the spot 
where help is required ; do no more than is needful, leaving the 
rest to be done by those in a safe atmosphere. 

In case of choke-damp, as in a brewer's vat, hold the head as 
high as may be : in case of a fire in the room, keep the head 
as low as possible. 

If a rope be at hand, fasten it to the person who is giving 
help, that he may be succored, if he venture too far. Many 
deaths happen in succession in cess-pools, and similar cases, for 
want of this precaution. 

It is hardly needful to say, do not try to breathe the air of 
the place where help is required. Yet many persons fail, in 
consequence of forgetting this precaution. If the temptation to 
breathe be at all given way to, the necessity increases, and the 
helper himself is greatly endangered. Resist the tendency, and 
retreat in time. 

Be careful to commence giving aid with the lungs full of air, 


not empty ; for the preparation consists chiefly in laying up foi 
the time, in the lungs, a store of that pure air which is so essen 
tial to life. 

811. Thunder Storms. — The safest situation during a-thunder- 
storm is the cellar ; for when a person is below the surface of 
the earth, the lightning must strike it before it can reach him, 
and will probably be expended on it. Dr. Franklin advises 
persons apprehensive of lightning to sit in the middle of a room, 
not under a metal lustre, or any other conductor, and to place 
their feet upon another chair. It will be still safer, he adds, to 
lay two or three beds or mattresses in the middle of the room, 
and to place the chairs upon them. A hammock suspended 
with silk cords would be an improvement on this apparatus. 
Persons out of doors should avoid trees, &c. 

The distance of a thunder-storm and its consequent danger 
can easily be estimated. As light travels at the rate of 192,000 
miles in a second of time, its effects may be considered as in- 
stantaneous within any moderate distance. Sound is transmit- 
ted at the rate of only 1142 feet in a second. By observing, 
therefore, the time which intervenes between the flash of light- 
ning and the thunder which accompanies it, a very near calcu- 
lation may be made of its distance. 

812. Stroke of Lightning, — Throw cold water upon them as 
soon as possible. It will often restore persons struck by light- 
ning when apparently insensible, or even dead. 

SI 3. A few Concise Rules for the Recovery of Persons ap- 
parently Drowned. — Ihe body on being taken out of the water, 
should be conveyed to the nearest house, in the gentlest manner 
possible ; the wet clothes must be removed, and the body well 
dried with a towel ; it must then be placed on a mattresj, laid 
on a table of proper height and length. Care must always be 
taken to lay the head considerably higher than the extremities, 
and to place the body on the right side. The lungs should be 
inflated with a pair of bellows, not forcibly, but gradually, so 
as to imitate the action of respiration. 

Do not place the body in a high degree of heat; (below 98 
degrees of .Fahrenheit's scale is the best temperature,) clear the 
apartment of all supernumerary persons, and let the windows 
and doors be open, to admit a free circulation of air. 


Apply friction, after the lungs have been expanded, with the 
nand only, or with a little oil on the fingers. 

No injections are necessary, nor emetics, except in particular 
cases: bleedng is also a doubtful remedy: electricity, in judi- 
cious hands, may prove highly beneficial. 

Let no rolling of the body be used with a view of emptying 
it of water ; there is no water present, or scarcely any. The 
heart being overloaded with blood, may be burst by this inju- 
dicious proceeding, and more mischief has been done by tossing 
and rolling the body, than by any other erroneous treatment. 
Hot water, in bottles, may be applied to the feet and # ankles, 
as soon as respiration commences : when the blood begins to 
circulate, heat may be gradually increased, and the patient re- 
moved to a warm bed, where he must be carefully watched till 
the action of the heart be completely restored. 



In which are set forth the 'prominent Duties of each department, 
and the most important Rules for the guidance and care of the 


814. The taste and management of the mistress are always 
displayed in the general conduct of the table ; for, though that 
department of the household be not always under her direction, 
it is always under her eye. Its management involves judgment 
in expenditure, respectability of appearance, and the comfort 
of her husband as well as of those who partake of their hospi- 
tality. Inattention to it is always inexcusable, and should be 
avoided for the lady's own sake, as it occasions a disagreeable 
degree of bustle, and evident annoyance to herself, which is 
never observable in a well-regulated establishment. 

Perhaps there are few occasions on which the respectability 
of a man is more immediately felt, than the style of dinner to 
which he may accidentally bring home a visitor. Every one 
ought to live according to his circumstances, and the meal of 
the tradesman ought not to emulate the entertainments of the 
higher classes ; but, if merely two or three dishes be well served, 
with the proper accompaniments, the table-linen clean, the 
small sideboard neatly laid, and all that is necessary be at hand, 
the expectation of both the husband and friend will be gratified, 
because no interruption of the domestic arrangements will dis- 
turb their social intercourse. 

Should there be only a joint and a pudding, they should 


always be served up separately ; and the dishes, however small 
the party, should always form two courses. Thus, in the old- 
fashioned style of " fish, soup, and a roast," the soup and fish 
are placed at the top and bottom of the table, removed by the 
joint with vegetables and pastry ; or, should the company con- 
sist of eight or ten, a couple or more of side-dishes in the first 
course, with game and a pudding in the second, accompanied 
by confectionary, are quite sufficient. 

In most of the books which treat of cookery, various bills of 
fare are given, which are never exactly followed. The mistress 
should give a moderate number of those dishes which are most 
in season. The cuts which are inserted in some of those lists, 
put the soup in the middle of the table — where it should never 
be placed. For a small party, a single lamp in the centre is 
sufficient ; but, for a larger numoer, the room should be lighted 
with lamps hung over the table, and the centre occupied by a 
plateau of glass or plate, ornamented with flowers or figures. 

815. Carefulness. — A proper quantity of household articles 
should always be allowed for daily use. Each should also be 
kept in its proper place, and applied to its proper use. Let 
all repairs be done as soon as wanted, remembering the old 
adage of "a stitch in time;' 5 and never, if possible, defer any 
necessary household concern a moment beyond the time when 
it ought to be attended to. 

In the purchase of glass and crockery-w T are, either the most 
customary patterns should be chosen, in order to secure their 
being easily matched, when broken ; or, if a scarce design be 
adopted, an extra quantity should be bought, to guard against 
the annoyance of the set being spoiled by breakage — which, in 
the course of time, must be expected 'to happen. There should 
likewise be plenty of common dishes, that the table-set may not 
be used for putting away cold meat, &c. 

The cook should be encouraged to be careful of coals and cin- 
ders : for the latter there is a new contrivance for sifting, without 
dispersing the dust, by means of a covered tin bucket. 

Small coal, wetted, makes the strongest fire for the back of 
the grate, but must remain untouched till it cakes. Cinders, 
lightly wetted, give a great degree of heat, and are better than 
coal, for furnaces, ironing-stoves, and ovens. 

816. Attention to little things. — By attention to little things, 
the neat appearance of a house may be secured, and time and 


labor saved. For instance, when you are sewing, carefully de- 
posit your bits of thread, &c, in a little basket or box, instead 
of throwing them on the floor. And again : set your chairs 
out a little from the wall, instead of putting them close to it 
which would not only rub the paint from the chairs, but would 
soon deface the beauty of the wall-paper. These appear like 
trifling things — but nothing is too trifling to demand our atten- 
tion, when we are endeavoring to fulfil the duties of our sphere. 

817. Cheerfulness. — Does it seem singular that cheerfulness 
is placed among the requisites for good house-keeping] But 
it is of far more importance than you would, at first view, 
imagine. What matters it to a brother or husband, if the house 
be ever so neat, or the meals punctually and well prepared, if 
the mistress of it is fretful and fault-finding — ever discontented 
and complaining. The outside of such a house is ever the most 
attractive to him, and any and every excuse will be made for 
absenting himself ; and the plea of business or engagements will 
be made to her who is doomed to pass her hours needlessly in 

818. Of Economy in Expenditure. — Economy should be the 
first point in all families, whatever be their circumstances. A 
prudent housekeeper will regulate the ordinary expenses of a 
family, according to the annual sum allowed for housekeeping. 
By this means, the provision will be uniformly good, and it will 
not be requisite to practise meanness on many occasions, for 
the sake of meeting extra expense on one. 

The be^t check upon outrunning an income is to pay bills 
weekly, for you may then retrench in time. This practice is 
likewise a salutary check "upon the correctness of the accounts 

To young beginners in housekeeping, the following brief 
hints on domestic economy, in the management of a moderate 
income, may perhaps not prove unacceptable. 

A bill of parcels and receipt should be required, even if the 
money be paid at the time of purchase; and, to avoid mis- 
takes, let the goods be compared with these when brought 
home; or, if paid or at future periods, a bill should be scut 
with the article, and regularly hied on separate files for each 

An inventory of furniture, linen, and china should be kept, 


and the things examined by it twice a-year, or oftener if there 
be a change of servants ; the articles used by servants should 
be intrusted to their care, with a list, as is done with the plate. 
In articles not in common use, such as spare bedding, tickets of 
parchment, numbered and specifying to what they belong, 
should be sewed on each ; and minor articles in daily use, such 
as household cloths and kitchen requisites, should be occasion- 
ally looked to. 

819. Books and Accounts. — Housekeeping books, with printed 
forms for the various heads of expenditure, and the several arti- 
cles, are used in many families ; but accounts may be kept with 
as much certainty in plain books. 

820. Servants. — In the hiring of Servants, it is an excellent 
plan to agree to increase their wages annually to a fixed sum, 
where it should stop, and to recommend that a portion of it 
should be regularly placed in a savings-bank. An incentive 
will thus be offered to good conduct ; and w^hen the hoard saved 
up amounts to any considerable sum, the possessor will gene- 
rally feel more inclined to enlarge than to expend it. 

A kindly feeling of indulgence on the part of the mistress 
towards her servants, in the matter of petty faults, coupled 
with good-natured attention to their daily comforts, and occa- 
sional permission to visit and receive a few of their near friends, 
would go far to create a cordial degree of attachment, which 
must be ever desirable to a respectable family, and cheaply 
purchased by such consideration. Mildness of language will 
generally be met by respectful language on the part of a ser- 
vant, and of itself will produce a saving of temper at least to 
the master or mistress. Due praise will mostly be found a 
powerful stimulus to good, and in some measure a preventive 
to bad conduct, on the part of a servant. 

Do not speak harshly or imperatively to servants, or tell 
them of their faults in the presence of strangers or visitors ; but 
take the earliest opportunity of reproving them after your com- 
pany have left. 

821. Store-room. — A store-room is essential for the custody 
of articles in constant use, as well as for others w r hich are only 
occasionally called for. These should be at hand when wanted, 
each in separate drawers, or on shelves and pegs, all under the 



lock and key of the mistress, and never be given out to the ser- 
vants but under her inspection. 

Pickles and preserves, prepared and purchased sauces, and 
all sorts of groceries, should be there stored ; the spices pounded 
and corked up in small bottles, sugar broken, and everything 
in readiness for use. Lemon-peel, thyme, parsley, and all sorts 
of sweet herbs, should be dried and grated for use in seasons of 
plenty ; the tops of tongues saved, and dried, for grating into 
omelets, &c. ; and care taken that nothing be wasted that can 
be turned to good account. 

Coarse nets suspended in the store-room are very useful in 
preserving the finer kinds of fruit, lemons, &c, which are 
spoiled if allowed to touch. When lemons and oranges are 
cheap, a proper quantity should be bought and prepared, both 
for preserving the juice, and keeping the peel for sweetmeats 
and grating, especially by those who live in the country, where 
they cannot always be had ; and they are perpetually wanted 
in cookery. 

822. Sugar. — The lowest-priced and coarsest sugar is not the 
cheapest in the end, as it is heavy, dirty, and of a very inferior 
degree of sweetness; that which is most refined is the sweet- 
est : the best has a bright and gravelly appearance. East India 
sugars appear finer in proportion to the price ; but they do not 
contain so much sweetness as the other kinds. Loaf-sugars 
should be chosen as fine and as close in texture as possible, ex- 
cept they are for preserving, when the coarse, strong, open kind 
is preferable. 

823. Pepjyer. — The finest Cayenne pepper consists of pow- 
dered bird-pepper ; but, as this is of a bad color, it is often 
adulterated to heighten the color. English chilies, dried and 
pounded, make good pepper. 

White pepper is inferior to black, although the former is 
sold at the highest price. White pepper is merely black pep- 
per deprived of its outer coating, which has a stimulating 
property ; so that white pepper is much weaker than black. 

824. Cinnamon^ when good, is rather thin and pliable, and 
about the substance of thick paper, of yellowish-brown color, 
sweetish taste, and pleasant odor : that which is hard, thick, 
and dark-colored, should be rejected. 


825. Articles in Season. — Some weak-minded persons affect 
to despise articles of food when they are plentiful and cheap, 
not knowing that such is the time when the articles are in the 
greatest perfection. 

Young and inexperienced housekeepers sometimes incur un- 
necessary expense by ordering articles of food when they are 
scarce, dear, and hardly come into season. This can only be 
prevented by attention to the seasons of different articles. 

826. Every Family to make their own Sweet Oil. — With a 
small hand-mill, every family might make their own sweet oil. 
This may easily be done, by grinding or beating the seeds of 
white poppies into a paste, then boil it in water, and skim off 

t the oil as it rises ; one bushel of seed weighs fifty pounds, and 
produces two gallons of oil. Of the sw T eet olive oil sold, one- 
half is oil of poppies. The poppies will grow in any garden ; 

, it is the large-head white poppy, sold by apothecaries. Large 
fields are sown with poppies in France and Flanders, for the 
purpose of expressing oil from their seed for food. When the 
seed is taken out, the poppy head when dried is boiled to an 
extract, which, is sold at two shillings per ounce, and it is to be 
preferred to opium, which now sells very high. Large fortunes 
may be acquired by the cultivation of poppies. Women and 
children could attend to the cultivation of any quantity re- 
quired for their own use, in making oil, and it would be found 
a profitable branch of industry, when engaged in on a large 

827. Candles and Lamps. — In purchasing wax, spermaceti, 
or composition candles for company, there will be a saving by 
proportioning the length and size of the lights to the probable 
duration of the party. Mixed wax and spermaceti make the 
best candles, of which a long four (that is, four to the pound,) 
will last ten hours ; a short six will burn six hours ; a three, 
twelve hours. 

A moderate-sized French table-lamp, will consume a quarter 
of a pint of oil in twelve hours and a half. 

A common japanned kitchen-lamp, with one burner, will 
consume one-eighth of a pint of oil in nine hours. 

828. Neats'-foot Oil. — Boil the feet for several hours, as for 
making stock for jelly ; skim off' the oily matter from time to 


time as it rises, and, when it ceases to come up, pour off the 
water ; next day, take off the cake of fat and oil which will be 
found on the top ; boil it and the oil before obtained, together 
with a little cold water; let it cool; pour off the water, and 
bottle the oil for use. This oil being perfectly pure, and free 
from smell, may be used with the French lights in a sick-room. 

829. Soap. — Soap, as well as candles, is improved by keep- 
ing. Buy your store for the winter as early as September, 
and cut the large bars of soap into pieces, to dry. It goes far- 
ther, and is better. 

830. Coals. — Lay in your stock of coal and wood, during 
summer, when fuel of all kinds is cheapest. 

831. Good method of making Fires. — In managing your fires 
during the day, first lay on a shovelful of the dust and ashes 
from under the grate, then a few coals, then more ashes, and 
afterwards a few more coals, and thus proceed till your grate 
is properly filled, placing a few round coals in front. You will 
find that the ashes retain the heat better than coals alone ; you 
will have less smoke, a pleasant fire, and a very little waste 
left at night. 

832. Kitchen-Paper. — Whited-brown and common writing 
is much used : it should be bought by the ream or half-ream, 
which will be much cheaper than by the quire. White paper 
only should be used for singeing, and for covering meat, pas- 
try, &c. 

833. Economy in Tinder. — The very high price of paper, at 
present, renders the saving of even the smallest quantity of 
linen or cotton rags of consequence, as they sell very dear. 
Trifling as it may be thought, yet it will be found that a con- 
siderable quantity of rags may be saved in a family, by using 
as tinder for lighting matches, the contents of the common 
snuffers, collected in the course of the evening. 

834. To prevent Accidents, from leaving a poker in the fire. — 
The following invention is equally simple and secure: — Imme- 
diately above that square part of the poker, by blacksmiths 


called "the bit," let a small cross of iron, about an inch and a 
half each way, be welded in. 

The good consequences of this simple contrivance will be — 

1st. If the poker, by the fire giving way, should slip out, it 
will probably catch on the edge of the fender. 

2d. If it should not, it cannot injure the hearth or carpet, as 
the hot part of the poker will be borne up some inches e 

3d. The poker cannot be run into the fire further than the 
bit, which, in regard to a polished poker, is also of some con- 


835. In a previous work — " The Ladies' New Book of Cook- 
ery," — I gave many receipts for preparing food for invalids 
and children ; but something more is needed. Young mothers 
and nurses, who are often inexperienced, will, I am sure, thank 
me for taking pains to procure, from the most eminent authori- 
ties, the best directions and recipes to aid them in the discharge 
of their arduous and most important duties. The preservation 
of life, and the formation of the physical constitution, as well 
as the moral development of the young beings committed by 
Divine Providence to the especial care of woman, render it 
one of the best accomplishments of our sex, to learn all we can 
respecting the high vocation whereunto we are called, viz., that 
of conservators of humanity. 

836. Of young Infants, — Immediately on the birth of the 
child, it should be received into soft fine flannel, sufficient com- 
pletely to envelop or wrap round the body, in which, with the 
mouth and nose scarcely exposed, it should repose at least an 
hour. The child may then be washed with tepid water, tenderly 
and cautiously, yet speedily made dry with soft linen cloth. 
Afterwards let it be expeditiously dressed, and put into a warm 
bed, and, during the first week or fortnight, exposed as little 
as possible to cold air : how long this caution may be necessary, 
will depend on the season of the year, or the temperature of 
the atmosphere. By strictly adhering to this mode of mana- 
ging a new-born infant, it will not suffer from catarrh, cough, 
difficulty of breathing, diarrhea, sore eyes, or stoppage in the 




Children are frequently placed under the care of a nurse, 
who, from her experience, is supposed qualified for the impor- 
tant trust ; but it often happens, either from her obstinacy or 
self-importance, that the most judicious plan of treatment re- 
commended by the attending physician, is defeated. 

At this period the mother is called on, by religious and 
moral obligation, as well as by the ties of natural affection, to 
suckle her infant: no doubt could be entertained of her imme- 
diate assent to so powerful an impulse, if uninfluenced by her 
friends or relatives. It cannot be denied, that she may be dis- 
qualified for the office by various maladies, by an incipient 
phthisis, by a scorbutic or scrofulous taint, by hysterical or 
nervous affections, &c. However, the fitness or unfitness of 
the mother for this endearing office, should be determined by 
the attending physician. There are many instances recorded of 
women who had been extremely delicate and sickly previous to 
their first confinement, becoming afterwards healthy and robust. 
On the contrary, there are several histories of other women, 
w 7 ho previously had enjoyed good health, suffering from coun- 
teracting the regular process of nature. The flow of the milk 
being checked, undue determinations have taken place to the 
chest or head, and m some cases proved fatal. 

In the bowels of children at the time of their birth, there is 
an accumulation of what is called " the meconium." For what- 
ever purpose it was intended before the birth of the child, it 
would become injurious were it afterwards suffered to remain. 
Nature has provided the means for its removal, by giving to 
the new milk an aperient quality. Therefore it is advisable to 
wait, even to the third day, for the appearance of the milk, 
rather than attempt to remove the meconium by castor oil, or 
any other mild aperient medicine. The coats of the child's 
stomach and bowels are so extremely tender and irritable, that 
the mildest purgative will give pain, and disorder the health 
of the infant. By waiting for the milk, relief is obtained by 
the means nature has provided, without the slightest incon- 

837. Clothing. — The clothing for children cannot be too sim- 
ple : it should be so formed as to admit of being easily and 
quickly changed, free from all bandages or pins, and secured 
only by tape. Shoes or stockings may be dispensed with, until 
the child begins to use its legs, as they keep the feet wet and 


unpleasant, unless changed every hour. The child left to itself, 
will soon J^egin to enjoy the use and freedom of its limbs. 

838. Food. — The proper food for children is a subject of 
more importance. That which nature has provided is the milk 
of its parent ; but, when this is lacking, a preparation formed 
of cow's milk and water, with a little loaf sugar, in the follow- 
ing proportions, supplies the desideratum : — Take of fresh 
cow's milk, one table-spoonful ; hot water, two table-spoonfuls ; 
loaf sugar, as much as may be agreeable. Such nourishment 
will alone be sufficient for its support, until the end of the first 
three months. At this period, it may require a small portion 
of light animal food, of which, how to select the most nutritious, 
to regulate the quantity, and to administer it, after proper inter- 
vals, must depend on the experience of the nurse. Experience 
is often superseded by convenience : if the child cries, the nurse 
attributes it to a want of food, and, by her agency, it is fed 
almost every hour, both night and day. It is seldom that a 
child cries from abstinence, if it be healthy and free from pain. 
In the infantile state, the powers of the digestive organs are 
much weaker than at a more advanced period of life; and there- 
fore, although the food is more simple, it requires an interval 
of some hours to convert it into chyle : if this process be inter- 
rupted by frequent feeding, the chyle will be crude, and pass 
off without affording due nourishment to the child. Sickness 
in children arises from the quality or quantity of their food, un- 
duly administered. The food for children should be light and 
simple — gruel alone, or mixed with cow's milk; mutton broth, 
or beef tea ; stale bread, rusks, or biscuits, boiled in water to 
a proper consistence, and a little sugar added. The great mor- 
tality of children in large towns, may be attributed to the 
poverty of their parents, who cannot purchase the necessary 
food or clothing, nor find leisure to attend to cleanliness, air, 
and exercise, so indispensably necessary to the well-being of 
their offspring. In the wealthy ranks of society, these means 
are easily obtained ; and in the management of their children, 
we have only to dread the abuse of these advantages. Happy 
would it be both for rich and poor, if the superfluities of the one 
could be transferred for the benefit of the other. 

When six months old, a child may be fed every four hours, 
when awake. Nothing can be more injurious to health than 
too frequent or irregular meals. Children, if left to themselves, 


soon acquire the habit of passing through the night without 
being fed. 

839. Weaning of children should not take place under six 
months, if the mother be in health, nor be deferred beyond nine 
months. It cannot be too frequently impressed on the mind 
of the parent, that the future health and strength of her child 
depend on a due supply of the food which nature has provided. 
Regarding her own health, the chances are that it will be im- 
proved — at all events, it is incumbent on her to make the ex- 
periment ; if her strength falls off, she may at any time retire 
from the effort, and engage a wet-nurse. 

This foster-parent should not be more than thirty years of 
age, nor should her milk be more than three months old. She 
should be in health, free from scorbutic or scrofulous taints, 
from cutaneous scurf, or eruptions, perfectly clean in her per- 
son, and extremely neat in her management of whatever con- 
cerns the child. She must be sober and temperate : her diet 
should consist of a due proportion of bread, fresh meat, and 
vegetables; her drink, tea. chocolate, and milk and water; 
but on no consideration either wine or any other spirituous 
liquors. These, if drank by the nurse, will prove injurious to 
the child. 

840. Proper Medicines for Infants. — Nature has not only 
provided food for infants, but likewise given to them a constitu- 
tion capable of correcting those slight deviations from health, 
to which alone they are liable when properly nursed. This 
has induced many to assert that medicines are not required in 
the nursery : perhaps the assertion might be correct, it children 
were suffered to remain in a state of nature : the further they 
are removed from it, the evils they have to contend with bear 
a proportionate increase. As most of their complaints arise 
from a want of attention to their food, to air, and exercise, by 
a prompt and skilful use of medicine, these complaints may be 
removed; therefore, it is not the use but the abuse of medicine 
that should be avoided. If a child be tormented by a pin run- 
ning into the flesh, no one would contend against the removal 
of the pin. 

The diseases to which children are liable, are sore eyes, sore 
ears, sore head, scald head, sickness and vomiting, thrush, red 


gum, yellow gum, pain in the bowels, diarrhea, dentition, chil- 
blains, rickets, worms, scrofula, catarrh, cough, measles, &c. 

841. Sore Eyes frequently occur on the second or third day 
after the birth, occasioned by too early an exposure of the child 
to a cold atmosphere : the eyelids swell, become closed, and 
discharge a purulent matter. It may be relieved by fomenting 
the eyelids with equal parts of lime water and elder-flower 
water. Dip some fine old linen cloth into this mixture, mode- 
rately warmed, and apply it to the eyelids. This is a mild 
astringent application : if the swellings should not be reduced 
by it, the following, which is more astringent, will probably 
succeed : Take of white vitriol, two grains ; rose-water, two 
ounces ; mix them together. Should it be necessary, the quan- 
tity of white vitriol may be increased. 

842. Sore Ears. — Excoriations of the skin frequently happen 
either behind the ears, in the folds of the skin, on the neck, in 
the groins, or wherever the folds of the skin, come in contact. 
Wash the skin morning and evening with cold water, make it 
perfectly dry with a fine linen cloth, then shake on lightly the 
following powder : Take white ceruse, one part ; wheaten 
starch, in flour, three parts ; mix them together. Or, take 
Goulard's extract, French brandy, of each, one drachm ; rose- 
water, four ounces. Mix them together, and apply it with soft 
linen cloth to the excoriations of the skin. 

The following liniment may be relied on : Take acetate of 
lead, one scruple ; rose-water, half an ounce ; melted beef mar- 
row, one ounce. Rub the acetate of lead in the rose-water, until 
they are intimately mixed, ihen melt the marrow over a gentle 
heat ; afterwards pour the mixture upon the marrow by little 
and little, taking care that each addition be incorporated with 
the marrow, so as to form an uniform mass. This may be ap- 
plied with a camels'-hair pencil. 

843. Sore Head. — This complaint appears first on the fore- 
head, in large white spots or scabs, which, if neglected, soon 
spread over the whole surface of the head. It is sometimes 
dry, at others moist, with a thin, watery discharge. It is named 
the crusta lactea, or milky crust. There are two methods of 
treating it. Nurses encourage the discharge by applying cab- 
bage leaves, oil-cloth, &c. ; this is by no means necessary •, it 


makes the head offensive, and the appearance of the child dis- 
gusting. It is much better to cure it as soon as possible, by 
washing the scabs night and morning with equal parts of brandy 
and water ; then lay on the following ointment: Take, olive 
oil, five drachms ; white wax, two drachms ; calcined zinc, one 
drachm. Melt the oil and wax together, then add the zinc by 
degrees, and keep stirring it until they are intimately mixed. 

S44. Scald Head is totally unlike the preceding disease : 
brown-colored scabs appear on the crown of the head, which dis- 
charge a glutinous matter, and unite the hairs, so as to prevent 
their being separated with a comb : these scabs continue to 
spread until they occupy the whole of the scalp. 

Keep the hair cut as close as possible, wash the head with a 
strong solution of soap in water, night and morning; as soon as 
it can be done, instead of cutting the hair with scissors, let it be 
shaved close once a day. 

Every one has a remedy for this complaint ; perhaps the fol- 
lowing ointment will be found one of the most effective : Take 
Barbadoes tar, one ounce; the du>t of the lycoperdon, or puff 
fungus, one drachm. JNlix them well together, and rub in a 
part of it to th< I the hair, after washing the head with 

the soap and water. By steadily ring in these means, 

and giving an occasional purge, the cure will soon be accom- 

845. Sickness and Vomiting. — Soon after the birth, children 
are frequently annoyed by these symptoms: they are occa- 
sioned by the indiscreet conduct of the nurses, who are apt to 
give either improper food or medicine. At this early period, 
as before remarked, the stomach is incapable of digesting any 
other food than the milk of its mother; consequently, what- 
ever is forced into it, remains there undigested, until, by a con- 
vulsive effort, it is thrown off by vomiting. So long as it re- 
mains in the stomach, the child is restless, and in other resj 
indisposed. It may be relieved by a b ful of castor-oil, 

to be repeated, until one or two motions are occasioned. 

Children who are dry nursed are most subject to sickness 
and vomiting ; the natural n - the breat tealthy 

woman. Without this relief, gripings and diarrhea frequently 
come on and prove fatal. 


Children so circumstanced, may be relieved by the following 
emetic : 

Take of ipecacuanha, two drachms ; boiling water, four 
ounces. Let them stand together until the water grows cold, 
then strain off the liquor. To one ounce of the liquor, add 
eight drops of antimonial wine. Dose, two tea-spoonfuls every 
half hour, until it excites vomiting. 

846. The Thrush, or sore mouth, is a complaint very pain- 
ful, and, if neglected, fatal to children. When it first comes on, 
it resembles small pieces of curd lying loose upon the tongue ; 
it gradually spreads itself over the inside of the mouth, but af- 
terwards rapidly advances to the throat, stomach, and bowels. 
Therefore, when the white specks appear, proper means should 
be instantly employed to remove them, or to suspend their 
progress. If the child be costive, give the following aperient : 

Take of calcined magnesia, two scruples ; common mint 
water, two ounces ; mix them together. The dose, a dessert- 
spoonful every half hour, until it operates. Or, take of manna, 
one ounce; senna leaves, one drachm; common mint-water, 
four ounces. Boil them together, until the manna be dissolved, 
then strain off the liquor. Dose, two drachms every half hour, 
until two or more motions are occasioned. 

For cleaning the mouth, take equal parts of borax and white 
sugar; rub them together into a fine powder. Of this put a 
small quantity into the child's mouth, which will be distributed 
to every part by the motion of its tongue. Repeat this appli- 
cation three or four times a day : if used early, it will keep the 
mouth free from white specks, and remove the complaint in 
a few days. 

li] on the contrary, it should be neglected, and suffered to 
extend to the stomach and bowels^ gentle emetics ought to be 
employed, such as the following antimonial emetic: Take of 
antimonial wine, forty drops ; mint-water, two ounces. Mix 
them together. Dose, a dessert-spoonful every half hour, until 
it excites vomiting. 

This disease rarely occurs in children, who take no other food 
but the milk of the mother, or foster-parent. It is so far conta- 
gious, that if a healthy child be put to the breast of a woman, 
who is suckling another child, having the thrush, it will contract 
this complaint. 


847. Red Gum requires no farther attention than keeping the 
bowels gently open, and avoiding an exposure to cold air. It 
is symptomatic of healthy action, and ought not to be checked. 

848. Infantile Jaundice. — The skin of new-born infants is 
sometimes tinged with bile, and gives the appearance of jaun- 
dice ; by some it has been named the yellow gum. It seems 
to be occasioned by the sudden change in the circulation of the 
blood, immediately on the birth, by which an increased flow of 
blood is conveyed to the liver, and consequently an increased 
secretion of bile follows, which from various causes may be 
prevented from passing off freely into the intestines. It is at- 
tended with no danger, and is generally removed by mild pur- 

The hace-lip, fraenum linguae, or tongue-tied, requires surgi- 
cal aid. 

849. Pain in the Bowels may happen with or without diar- 
rhea, and is often produced by improper food, or exposure to 
cold air. The symptoms are frequent fits of crying, drawing 
up the knees towards the bowels, which are hard and tense to 
the touch, accompanied either with an obstinate costiveness, or 
thin, watery, and frequent evacuations, slimy, sour, and of a 
green color. This complaint is oftentimes relieved by the fol- 
lowing powders : Take Turkey rhubarb, in very fine powder, 
calcined magnesia, of each, twelve grains ; compound powder 
of ipecacuanha, four grains. Mix them well together, and di- 
vide them into six doses : one to be given night and morning, 
to a child under three months ; above that age, the dose should 
be increased. 

The health and diet of the mother, or nurse, should be strictly 
attended to. In some cases the pain is extremely acute, and 
the agony of the child is known by its cries. Whenever this 
happens, the following mixture may be given : Take of Turkey 
rhubarb, in fine powder, twelve grains; magnesia, eight grains; 
tincture of rhubarb, one drachm ; syrup of poppies, two 
drachms ; simple mint-water, an ounce and a half. Mix them 
together. Dose, if within the first or second month, two tea- 
spoonfuls every fourth hour. The phial should be shaken be- 
fore the medicine is poured out. 


850. Other remedies for the Colic in Infants. — A great varietj* 
of cordials, spices, and opiates, has been recommended, and 
frequently used, to relieve the pain and expel the wind. They 
may sometimes answer the purpose, especially in sudden fits 
of pain in the stomach, from cold or any other accidental cause. 
At all times, they should be sufficiently diluted with water, 
cautiously given, and seldom repeated. When the effects of 
these medicines go off, the pain returns ; therefore it is not a 
desirable mode of obtaining relief. Of the cordials, Geneva, 
mixed with water, is the least objectionable ; being impregnated 
with the essential oil of juniper-berries, it is an excellent and 
safe carminative. However, these warm medicines are by no 
means to be relied on for the removal of the cause of this 
malady, their effect being merely temporary : such as Godfrey's 
cordial, and other nostrums — being compounds of opium, spi- 
ces, and brandy. Opium, when judiciously administered, is 
an invaluable remedy ; the dose of it should be most accurately 
proportioned to the age of the patient, and urgency of the symp- 
toms, otherwise it may become a poison ; and, therefore, should 
never be given to children, unless under the direction of the 
most skilful in the profession. Few nurseries are without a 
medicine of this kind ; it quiets the pain of the infant, induces 
sleep, and leaves the nurse to her repose. Children under this 
treatment become languid, pallid, incapable of exertion, and, at 
length, rickety. 

The following anodyne mixture will generally relieve the 
griping pains of diarrhea : — Take of prepared chalk, and gumx 
arabic, each one drachm ; syrup of white poppies, three drachms ; 
Geneva, two drachms ; water, four ounces. Mix them together. 
Dose, a dessert-spoonful after each motion. 

In bowel-complaints, chalk has been objected to, as too power- 
ful an astringent in checking diarrhea suddenly : this may be 
obviated by giving it only after each motion. When the bowels 
have been previously acted on, either by the rhubarb powders, 
or by the antimonial emetic, the chalk mixture is a never-failing 
remedy. It may be given with or without opium, according 
to the urgency of the symptoms. 

The following medicine, by exciting a determination to the 
skin, effectually relieves the sufferings of the child : — Take ipe- 
cacuanha, in coarse powder, two drachms ; boiling water, four 
ounces. When cold, strain off the liquor through a fine piece 
of linen cloth : then add to three ounces of this liquor — of Ge- 



neva, three drachms; syrup of white poppies, two drachms. 
Dose, a dessert-spoonful every fourth hour. 

When this state of the bowels is followed by convulsions, 
the lower extremities, or the whole body, should be immersed 
in a warm bath. During the preparation of a bath, flannel 
dipped in warm water and wrung dry, may be applied to tht 
extremities. Leeches and blisters, under skilful directions, will 
subdue the violence of the symptoms. 

851. Convulsions — Are generally symptomatic, and, for the 
most part, in children, occasioned by the growth of their teeth: 
therefore, the gums should be carefully examined, to ascertain 
whether they arise from this cause ; if so, the lancet should be 
immediately and freely used, to divide the gum down to the 
teeth. This operation is not painful, nor in the least degree 
hazardous, therefore ought not to be delayed. 

852. Dentition. — There is no period in infancy that requires 
more skill and attention, than that which passes from the first 
movement of the teeth in their sockets, to their subsequent ad- 
vance through the gums. At the birth of the child, the teeth 
are lodged within the jaw-bones, and enveloped by a membrane 
or bag, which is distended as the teeth enlarge and press for- 
ward, frequently attended with pain, fever, diarrhea, and con- 
vulsions. These symptoms first appear towards the end of 
the third month, when the child is said to be breeding its teeth: 
they arise from the first enlargement of the teeth in their sock- 
ets, and subside as soon as they pass above the jaw. Between 
the sixth and ninth month, the teeth as they rise, press upon 
the gums, when the same train of symptoms take place. Some 
children suffer very little pain during this process; others suffer 
most severely : this depends chiefly on the nerves being more 
or less irritable. When the child preserves its appetite and 
cheerfulness, and is free from t'awar, no medicine can be re- 
quired, except what may be necessary to obviate costiveness. 
This should be carefully attended to, as nothing tends more 
effectually to relieve or prevent the symptoms of dentition, 
than a free discharge from the bowels. 

An increased secretion of saliva marks the first advance of 
the teeth, followed, in irritable habits, by diarrhea, fever, thirst, 
and convulsions. The use of the gum-lancet should not be 
neglected, whenever the symptoms are urgent. The parents 


frequently object to this mode of relief, conceiving it to be a 
painful operation. As a proof of the contrary, children that 
have once been relieved by it, will eagerly press their gums 
upon the lancet. If the tooth should not appear after the first 
use of the lancet, the incision may be frequently repeated. 

The symptoms may be relieved by the following emetic : — 
Take of tartar-emetic, one grain ; dissolve it in two ounces of 
distilled water. Dose, two tea-spoonfuls every half-hour, until 
it excites vomiting. 

This remedy will relax the tension of the gums, and lessen 
the force of the fever. 

If the habit of the child should be costive, the mildest purga- 
tives should be employed, to occasion two or more motions 
daily — such as manna, dissolved in common mint-water; or 
senna-tea ; or the following : — Take of senna leaves, one drachm ; 
the yellow rind of the lemon, eight grains : boil them in two 
ounces of water ; strain off the liquor, when cold ; and give a 
dessert-spoonful as a dose for children three or four months old. 
Or, take manna and fresh-drawn oil of sweet almonds, of each, 
one ounce ; syrup of roses, two ounces : mix them together. 
Dose, a dessert-spoonful. 

853. The Croup — At its commencement has the appearance 
of common catarrh, but speedily assumes its peculiar character, 
which is marked by hoarseness, with a shrillness and ringing 
sound in coughing and breathing ; so shrill is the noise made by 
the child, that it resembles the sound of air forced through a tube 
of brass. This inflammation, seated in the membrane which 
lines the windpipe, is attended with stricture, difficult respiration, 
cough, quick pulse, heat, and a flushed countenance. 

This disease comes on suddenly, and is extremely rapid in 
its progress ; therefore, vigorous measures must be instantly 
adopted. Give an emetic, then apply a blister across the throat, 
and keep the bowels open with laxative injections. 

854. Cure for Croup, — Dr. Fisher, of Boston, relates in a late 
number of the Medical Journal, a case in which a severe attack 
of croup was cured by the application of sponge, wrung out of 
hot water, to the throat, together with water treatment, which 
he describes as follows : — 

" Soon after making the first application of sponges to the 
throat, I wrapped the child in a woilen blanket, wrung out in 


warm water, as a substitute for a warm bath, and gave twenty 
drops of the wine of antimony in a little sweetened water, which 
w r as swallowed with difficulty. I persevered in the application 
of the hot, moist sponges for an hour, when the child was so 
much relieved that I ventured to leave it. 

" These applications were continued through the night, and in 
the morning the child was well." 

It will never do to trifle with this terrible disease. The quicker 
the remedies are applied, the better. Instead of antimony, we 
would recommend small quantities of alum water, given every 
ten or fifteen minutes, until the child vomits. 

855. Rickets — Are, for the most part, induced by improper food 
and bad nursing. Their approach is marked by a sickly, pallid 
countenance, cough, and difficult respiration. The bones of the 
legs and arms lose their firmness, and become more or less 
crooked ; the bones of the head do not unite, and the spine be- 
comes distorted. At its first appearance it may be successfully 
counteracted by a strict attention to cleanliness in every thing 
that concerns the child, by exercise in the open air, by cold 
bathing, by friction of the limbs night and morning, and by a 
light, nutritious diet. Before the use of the bath, the bowels 
should be cleared by the following aperient powder : — 

Take of Rhubarb, in fine powder, six grains; calcined magne- 
sia, three grains ; common mint-water, six drachms. Mix them 

During the use of the cold bath, either Peruvian bark or steel 
may be employed to strengthen the child : such as, 

The precipitate of the sulphate of iron, three grains ; syrup 
of cinnamon, a tea-spoonful. When mixed, to be taken three 
times a-day. Or, take of the resinous extract of bark, one 
drachm ; the syrup of cinnamon, seven drachms. Mix them 
together. The dose, a tea-spoonful, three times a-day 

856. Scrofula, — Although it has been considered as an hered- 
itary disease, may be induced in a child, whose j^arents have 
no such taint, by a neglect of proper food, air and exercise. 
On the contrary, when the taint does exist in the parent, the 
offspring may pass through life with the enjoyment of tolerable 
health, by a strict attention to those means which are known to 
invigorate the body. Of preventives, there are none so effica- 
cious as sea air, sea bathing, and the internal use of the sea wa- 


ter, in sufficient quantity to act on the bowels, and the local ap- 
plication of it to the glands which are enlarged. Indeed, the 
children of diseased parents should reside on the coast, in order 
to have the full benefit of these advantages. Friction should 
be applied generally on the surface of the body, with the hand 
covered with a flannel glove, night and morning. Food of easy 
digestion is to be preferred, such as shell-fish, game, poultry, 
beef or mutton. Bark and steel, as medicines, may be occa- 
sionally administered with good effect. This disease, which bids 
defiance to the regular physician, cannot with propriety be 
placed on the list of casualties, or sudden seizures. 

857. Worms. — There are three species of worms which in- 
fest the intestines : namely, the flat worm, or taenia ; the long, 
round worm, or lumbrici ; the short, round worm, or ascarides. 
The taenia is of rare occurrence when compared with the lum- 
brici or ascarides, but more difficult to* remove. Full doses of 
sulphate of iron, with occasional active doses of calomel, force 
them to retire. The lumbrici are destroyed by repeated doses 
of calomel and scammony. The ascarides, being found in the 
lowest portion of the intestines, are easily removed by injec- 
tions of lime-water, or a solution of aloes. 

Parents who would preserve their children from worms, ought 
to allow them plenty of exercise in the open air ; to take care 
that their food be wholesome and sufficiently solid ; and, as far 
as possible, to prevent their eating raw herbs, roots, or green 
trashy fruits. It will not be amiss to allow a child who is subject 
to worms, a glass of red wine after meals ; as every thing that 
braces and strengthens the stomach, is good both for preventing 
and expelling these vermin. In order to prevent any mistake 
of what I have here said in favor of solid food, it may be proper 
to observe, that I only made use of that word in opposition to 
slops of every kind ; not to advise parents to cram their chil- 
dren with meat, two or three times a-day. This should only bo 
allowed at dinner, and in moderate quantities, or it would cre- 
ate, instead of preventing, worms ; for there is no substance in 
nature which generates so many worms as the flesh of animals, 
when in a state of putrefaction. Meat, therefore, at the prin- 
cipal meal, should always be accompanied with plenty of good 
bread, and young, tender, and well-boiled vegetables ; especially 
in the spring, when these are poured forth from the bosom of 
the earth in such profusion. They promote the end in view, by 


keeping the body moderately open, without the aid of artificial 
physic. The ripe fruits of autumn produce the same effect; 
and. from their cooling, antiputrescent qualities, are as whole- 
some as the unripe are pernicious. I also very earnestly con- 
jure parents not to take the alarm at every imaginary symptom 
of worms, and directly run for drugs to the quack, or apothe- 
cary. They should first try the good effects of proper diet and 
regimen, and never have recourse to medicines till after une- 
quivocal proofs of the nature of the complaint. 

Honey arid milk are very good for worms ; so is strong salt 
water ; likewise, powdered sage and molasses taken freely. 

858. Quinsy — Is the common inflammatory sore throat, 
attended by a sense of heat and fulness in the throat, by diffi- 
cult deglutition, generally preceded by shivering, with a sense 
of coldness. On inspection, the tonsils appear red and enlarged. 
These symptoms continuing to increase, the patient is threatened 
with suffocation, the tonsils suppurate, when, by a spontaneous 
bursting of the abscess, relief instantly follows. It often hap- 
pens that the abscess does not give way so soon as expected, 
when the puncture of a lancet puts an end to the alarming suf- 
ferings of the patient. In some cases, the quantity of matter 
contained in the tumor is very considerable, and instances have 
occurred, when, from the sudden bursting of the tumor, the 
patient being in a horizontal position, suffocation has followed, 
from the matter falling into the lungs. 

To guard against these evils, an emetic of ipecacuanha should 
be administered, and a blister applied to the neck. As soon 
as the effect of the emetic has ceased, and the stomach will 
receive it, give the following aperient mixture: — Take of tar- 
tarized kali, three drachms; infusion of senna, two ounces; 
tincture of senna, two drachms. Mix them together. 

If blisters are objected to, a piece of fine flannel, moistened 
with the compound spirit of ammonia, may be placed round 
the neck. Gargles are to be used in every stage of this disease ; 
at first, they should be mildly detergent, as the following : — 
Take of barley-water, six ounces and a half; honey of roses, 
one ounce ; tincture of myrrh, and vinegar, of each, two drachms. 
Mix them together, and cleanse the mouth and throat with 
some of the gargle from time to time. 

When the violence of the symptoms begins to subside, a 
sharper gargle becomes necessary ; for this purpose the follow- 


ing is recommended : — Take of infusion of red roses, seven 
ounces; honey of roses, one ounce; diluted sulphuric acid, 
twenty drops. Mix them together. 

Throughout the course of this disease, keep the bowels open 
with mild purgatives or laxative injections. When the swelling 
of the tonsils comes on rapidly, send instantly for a surgeon. 

859. Whooping Cough. — This is a violent, convulsive cough, 
attended at first with slight febrile symptoms. Its shortest 
duration is three weeks; during this time, the symptoms may 
be rendered milder, or more aggravated, by the mode of treat- 

During the first three or four weeks, keep the child or patient 
in an uniform degree of temperature ; if possible, never below 
G4 degrees of Fahrenheit's scale. The diet should be light, 
chiefly bread, milk, and vegetables with butter. Rice or Indian 
puddings, with plenty of molasses, are good food for children 
in this disease. If the cough is very violent, and the phlegm 
hard in the throat, a gentle emetic of ipecacuanha, or some pre- 
paration of antimony, should be given every second or third 
morning, to clear the stomach from the mucus w 7 hich, in this 
cough, is constantly secreted. By these means, the violence 
of the disease wall soon be overcome ; whereas, by an exposure 
to cold air, and neglecting all precautions, you may aggravate and 
continue the cough for months. In the summer, change of air 
is one of the best remedies; and be sure to avoid whatever has 
a tendency to irritate the throat, or excite the action of the 
heart. In this, as in every other disease, the state of the bowels 
should be carefully attended to. A mild aperient is sometimes 

860. Colds. — The best preventive of colds, is to wash your 
children every day thoroughly in cold water, if they are strong 
enough to bear it ; if not, add a little warm water, and rub the 
skin dry. This keeps the pores open. If they do take cold, 
give them a warm bath as soon as possible ; if that is not con- 
venient, bathe the feet and hands, and wash the body all over 
in warm water ; then give a cup of warm tea, and cover the 
patient in bed. 

861. — If a Sore Throat follow, take a tumbler of molasses 
and water, half-and-half, when going to bed ; and rub the throat 


with a mixture of sweet or goose-oil and spirits of turpentine ; 
then wear flannel round it. 

862. Canker, or Sore Mouth. — Steep blackberry-leaves, sweet- 
en with honey, sprinkle in a little burnt alum, and wash the 
mouth often with this decoction. 

863. Cutaneous Eruptions in Children. — Children, while on 
the breast, are seldom free from eruptions of one kind or other. 
These, however, are not often dangerous, and ought never to 
be dried up but with the greatest caution. They tend to free 
the bodies of infants from hurtful humors, which, if retained, 
might produce fatal disorders. The eruptions of children are 
chiefly owing to improper food and neglect of cleanliness. If a 
child be stuffed at all hours with food that its stomach is not 
able to digest, such food not being properly assimilated, instead 
of nourishing the body, fills it with gross humors. These must 
either break out in form of eruptions upon the skin, or remain 
in the body, and occasion fevers and other internal disorders. 

Eruptions are the effect of improper food, or want of cleanli- 
ness : a proper attention to these alone will generally be suffi- 
cient to remove them. If this should not be the case, some 
drying medicines will be necessary. When they are applied, 
the body ought at the same time to be kept open, and cold is 
carefully to be avoided. We know no medicine that is more 
safe for drying up cutaneous eruptions than sulphur, provided 
it be prudently used. A little of the flour of sulphur may be 
mixed with fresh butter, oil, or hog's lard, and the parts affected 
frequently touched with it. 

The most obstinate of all the eruptions incident to children 
are, the tinea capitis, or scabbed head, and chilblains. The 
scabbed head is often exceedingly difficult to cure, and some- 
times, indeed, the cure proves worse than the disease. I have 
frequently known children seized with internal disorders, of 
which they died soon after their scabbed heads had been healed 
by the application of drying medicines. The cure ought always 
first to be attempted by keeping the head very clean, cutting 
off the hair, combing and brushing away the scabs, <&c. If this 
is not sufficient, let the head be shaved once a-week, washed 
daily with yellow soap, and gently anointed with a liniment 
made of train-oil, eight ounces, red precipitate, in fine powder, 
one drachm. And if there be proud flesh, it should be 


touched with a bit of blue vitriol, or sprinkled with a little burnt 
alum. While these things are doing, the patient must be con- 
fined to a regular light diet, the body should be kept gently 
open, and cold, as far as possible, ought to be avoided. To 
prevent any bad consequences from stopping this discharge, it 
will be proper, especially in children of a gross habit, to make 
an issue in the neck or arm, which may be kept open till the 
patient becomes more strong, and the constitution be somewhat 

864. Wounded Feet. — When a nail or pin has been run into 
the foot, instantly bind on a rind of salt pork ; if the foot swell, 
bathe it in a strong decoction of wormwood, then bind on 
another rind of pork, and keep quiet till the wound is well. 
The lockjaw is often caused by such wounds, if neglected. 

865. For a Bruise or Sprain. — Bathe the part in cold water, 
till you can get ready a decoction of wormwood. This is one 
of the best remedies for sprains and bruises. When the worm- 
wood is fresh gathered, pound the leaves and wet them either 
with water or vinegar, and bind them on the bruise ; when the 
herb is dry, put it into cold water, and let it boil a short time, 
then bathe the bruise and bind on the herb. 

Always keep cotton wool, scraped lint, and wormwood on 

866. Ear-ache in Children. — The ear-ache is usually caused 
by a sudden cold. Steam the head over hot herbs, bathe the feet 
and put into the ear cotton wool wet with sweet oil and 

867. To make Artificial Sea Water, for bathing Children. — 
Take common sea salt, two pounds ; bitter purging salt, two 
ounces ; magnesia earth, half an ounce ; dissolve all in river 
water, six gallons. These are the exact proportions and con- 
tents of sea water, from an accurate analyzation. 

868. Another method of making Sea Water. — Take common 
salt, half an ounce; rain, or river water, pure, a pint ; spirit of 
sea salt, twenty drops. Mix it. 


869. Valuable concise Rules for preserving Health in Winter, 
— Keep the feet from wet, and the head well defended when hi 
bed ; avoid too plentiful meals ; drink moderately warm and 
generous, but not inflaming liquors ; go not abroad without 
breakfast. Shun the' night air as you would the plague; and 
let your houses be kept from damps by warm fires. By 
observing these few and simple rules, better health may be ex- 
pected than from the use of the most powerful medicines. 

870. Avoid, as much as possible, living near Church-yards. — 
The putrid emanations arising from church-yards are very dan- 
gerous ; and parish-churches, in which many corpses are inter- 
red, become impregnated with an air so corrupted, especially 
in spring, when the ground begins to grow warm, that it is pru- 
dent to avoid this evil as much as possible, as it may be, and, 
in some cases, has been, one of the chief sources of putrid fe- 
vers which are so prevalent at that season. 

871. Cautions in visiting Sick Rooms. — Do not venture into 
a sick room if you are in a violent perspiration; for the mo- 
ment your body becomes cold, it is in a state likely to absorb 
the infection ; no'r visit a sick person, (if the complaint be of a 
contagious nature.) with an empty stomach, nor swallow your 
saliva. In attending a sick person, place yourself where the air 
passes from the door or window, to the bed of the invalid, not 
between the invalid and the fire, as the heat of the fire will 
draw the infectious vapor in that direction, and you would run 
much danger from breathing in it. 

872. Syncope, or Fainting. — When fainting comes on from 
loss of blood, inanition, or sudden emotions of the mind, the 
patient should be placed in a horizontal positifrn, with the head 
gently raised. Volatile salts should be applied to the nose, and 
when the patient is sufficiently recovered, a few spoonfuls of 
warm cordial medicine should be administered. 

873. Preventive of Autumnal Rheumatisms. — For the sake 
of bright and polished stoves, do not, when the weather is cold, 
refrain from making fires. There is not a more useful docu- 
ment for health to the inhabitants of this climate, than " follow 
your feelings." 


874. To promote Sleep. — No fire, candle, rusb-light, or lamp, 
should be kept burning, during the night, in a bed-room ; for it 
not only vitiates the air, but disturbs the nerves of the child. 
Keep the bed-chamber well ventilated — this greatly promotes 
healthful rest. 

875. Useful Properties of Celandine. — The juice of this plant 
cures tetters and ring-worms, destroys warts, and cures the itch. 

876. Singularly useful Properties of Garlic. — The smell of 
garlic, which is formidable to many ladies, is, perhaps, the 
most infallible remedy in the world against the vapors, and all 
the nervous disorders to which women are subject. Of this 
(says St. Pierre) I have had repeated experience. 

877. The Usefulness of two common Plants. — Every plant in 
the corn-field possesses virtues particularly adapted to the mal- 
adies incident to the condition of the laboring man. The poppy 
cures the pleurisy, procures sleep, stops hemorrhages, and spit- 
ting of blood. Poppy seeds form an emulsion similar to that 
from almonds in every respect, when prepared in the same man- 
ner. They also yield, by expression, fine salad oil, like that 
from Florence. The blue-bottle is diuretic, vulnerary, cordial, 
and cooling ; an antidote to the stings of venomous insects, and 
a remedy for inflammation of the eyes. 


878. Good Temper. — An even temper is among the principal 
qualifications, if not the most desirable one, for a good nurse ; 
and without this gentleness and a kind manner, she must be 
considered deficient. 

879. Firmness. — Next in importance to good temper, are 
firmness and decision of character, the exercise of which is 
frequently, or rather absolutely indispensable, in the manage- 
ment of the sick. 

880. Discrimination. — This talent enables the nurse to dis- 
tinguish between circumstances which, to an unobserving per- 
son, appear nearly allied to each other, but where there is, in 


reality, an important difference. It is only or generally ac- 
quired by experience and observation, and requires good sense 
as its foundation and support. It is the faculty of right judg- 

881. Self-denial. — The business of taking care of the sick, 
if rightly attended to, requires a devotion to the interests and 
wants of the patient, which can only be given by the good 
nurse, who can willingly, and from her heart, practise the 
heavenly precepts of doing as she would be done by, and deny- 
ing herself any indulgences that interfere with her duties. 

882. General Intelligence. — Another important qualification 
of a good nurse, is such knowledge of reading, and subjects of 
general interest, as make her able to interest and amuse her 
patient during the weary hours of slow recovery, or desponding 
intervals of intermitting diseases. 

883. Abstinence from improper habits. — The habit of using 
snuff in any manner — smoking — sipping intoxicating liquors — 
taking opium — or indulging in any improper and disagreeable 
habit of actions or expressions, should be carefully avoided by 
those who hold the responsible and important station of nurses 
of the sick. 

884. Cleanliness. — This is a cardinal virtue ; and no woman 
can be a good nurse who is careless in her own apparel, and 
slatternly in her habits. In the preparation of food for the sick, 
the most scrupulous neatness should be observed. 

885. Industry, Economy, and Good Housewifery. — All three 
of these qualifications are essential, and usually associated in 
the same person ; but, the exercise of qualities is necessary to 
their improvement — and a nurse who has proved herself com- 
petent, is most worthy of being trusted. 

886. Prudence and Piety. — The principles of true discretion, 
or prudence of character, are based on the Christian religion, 
as are all the moral virtues. The nurse must be religious, or 
she will rarely be discreet ; and the opportunities constantly 
afforded her of influencing the mind and heart of her patient, 


render her station one of great trust and responsibility. A 
good nurse is a woman that deserves honor as wel' as reward. 

887. Rules for the Nurse. — 1. Keep the patient's room quiet, 
well-aired, and clean as possible. 

2. Never excite disagreeable mental emotions in the sick, by 
telling sad stories and melancholy news ; nor allow the presence 
of unpleasant persons or objects. 

3. Never whisper, nor seem to be telling what the sick are 
not permitted to hear. 

4. Administer to the necessities of the invalid, promptly and 
kindly ; but do not worry him with questions and constant 
attentions, when these are not needed. 

5. Never disturb the quiet sleep of the patient, even to give 
medicine, unless peremptorily charged to do so by the phy- 
sician. A refreshing sleep is often better than medicine, for 
the sick ; but do not sleep yourself, and allow the suffering one 
to lie awake, and needing your care. 

888. Administering Medicine. — There are certain rules, if 
observed in giving medicine, that w T ill render the duty less 
disagreeable to the nurse, by making it more tolerable to the 

1st. Select the most agreeable and suitable ingredient in 
which it is to be exhibited. 

2d. Take as small a quantity of this as can possibly be made 
to answer the purpose of mixing. 

3d. If it be disagreeable to the taste, prepare the mouth for 
its reception by holding in, and rinsing it with some acid, as 
strong vinegar, lemon juice, or something of the kind. 

4th. Never mix the medicine within sight or hearing of the 

5th. Let it be prepared without her knowledge ; and insist 
upon its being taken immediately upon being presented, for the 
longer her mind is permitted to dwell upon it, the more abhor- 
rent it will become. 

6th. Endeavor to destroy the taste and smell as much as pos- 
sible, by any appropriate means, when it has not been done by 
the apothecary or physician. 

7th. Let the mouth be well rinsed with the acid after taking 
it, and let a swallow or two of lemonade, or some other admis- 
sible drink, be taken. 


889 I and Poultices — Mustard Plasters. — Take a suf- 

crumbs finely rubbed, add mustard in 

the required strength ; form a poultice of the 

or water. Dr. Wood 

thinks water pi : the opinion that vinegar de- 

.nustard. Mustard employed 

- a rain, fresh as can be procured, 

died in a mortar, or by any other convenient 

D mustarc - procured, horse radish leaves 

Lied with a rolling-pin, to 

.lid withered by pouring 

: must be frequently ex- 
Often inure harm 
his part of her duty- 
B are frequently directed to b 

the same manner, and 

-. — Pnlvei annamon, and Cay- 

.. and add flour and wine 

; lay it hot on 

r pains and spasms. 

„Ai '. .—Take any quantity of the white of 

it with a large lump of alum, till it be coagulated. 

mum Salt — Take crumbs of bread, and 
b equal ] ■ iterated with salt^ a 

it a proper c l 

the indolent swellings of the 

.-.lent is deprived of 

v uae of it will 

(lamination of the skin, requiring 

W the 
j]d be repea \nt use of 

| ..:gements, 

. totally d 

— \ .. . : -j ermaceti oint:. 

.ah. Mix 


This is the proper application to ■ 


994. Bark 1 — I 

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qniit them 

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896. A s for wh 

will he [>f E a ; — 

stances thai arc the most soluble — 

Second. Those thai .\ i . -. has - be \ the most 

mount of stimulus. 
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of the truth of 
regoing a as — in 

B97. .row-root — _ .:* proper- 

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Take of arrow-root, one table-spoonful ; sweet milk, half a 
pint ; boiling-water, half a pint : boil these together for a few 

898. Arrow-root Jelly . — Take one spoonful of arrow-root, and 
cold water sufficient to form a paste ; add one pint of boiling 
water: stir it briskly, and boil it a few minutes, when it will 
become a smooth, clear jelly. A little sugar and sherry wine 
may be added, for debilitated patients ; but for infants, a drop 
or two of the essence of caraway-seed or cinnamon is preferable, 
wine being very apt to become acid in the stomach of infants, 
and thus disagree with the bowels. 

899. Sago. — Take two table-spoonfuls of sago, and one pint 
of boiling water ; stir together, and boil gently, until it thick- 
ens. Wine, sugar, and nutmeg may be added, according to 

900. Boiled Flour. — Take of fine flour, one pound ; tie it up 
in a linen cloth as possible, and, after frequently dip- 
ping it in cold water, dredge the outside with flour, till a crust 
is formed round it. which will prevent the water soaking into it 
while boiling. It is then to be boiled until it becomes a hard, 
dry mass. 

Two or three spoonfuls of this may be grated, and prepared 
in the same manner as arrow-root, for which it forms an excel- 
lent substitute, and can be obtained in the country, where, 
perhaps, the other cannot. 

901. A nourishing Jelly for a Sick Person. — Put into a stone 
jar or jug, a set of calf's-feet, cut in pieces, a quart of milk, 
five pints of water, a little mace, half an ounce of isinglass, 
and a handful of hartshorn shavings. Tie some brown paper 
over the jug, and put it into the oven with household I . 
When done, strain it through a sieve ; and when cold, take off 
the fat. Some of it may occasionally be warmed up with wine 
and sugar, it is good taken as broth, with herbs. 

902. Restorative. — One ounce of candied eringo-root, one 
ounce of sago, one ounce of pearl-barley, and one ounce of rice. 
Boil them in four quarts of water, till reduced to half that 
quantity. Take a dessert-spoonful either in milk or wine. 


903. Vegetable Soup. — Take one turnip, one potato, and 
one onion; let them be sliced, and boiled in one quart of water 
for an hour ; add as much salt and parsley as is agreeable, and 
pour the whole on a slice of toasted bread. 

904. Egg Gruel. — Boil a pint of new milk; beat two new- 
laid eggs to a light froth, and pour in while the milk boils ; 
stir them together thoroughly, but do not let them boil ; 
sweeten it with the best of loaf sugar, and grate in a whole 
nutmeg; add a little salt, if you like it. Drink half of it while 
it is warm, and the other half in two hours. It is said to be 
good for the dysentery, as well as nourishing. 

905. Rice Jelly. — Boil a quarter of a pound of rice-flour with 
half a pound of loaf-sugar, in a quart of water, till the whole 
becomes one glutinous mass ; then strain off the jelly, and let it 
stand to cool. This food is very nourishing and beneficial to 

906. Gruels. — Have ready a pint of boiling water, and mix 
three large spoonfuls of finely-sifted oat-meal, rye, or Indian, 
in cold water ; pour it into the skillet while the water boils ; 
let it boil eight or ten minutes. Throw in a large handful of 
raisins to boil, if the patient is well enough to bear them. 
When put in a bowl, add a little salt, white sugar, and nutmeg. 

907. Stewed Prunes. — Stew them very gently in a small 
quantity of water, till the stones slip out. Physicians consider 
them safe nourishment in fevers. 


908. Water is the beverage prepared by the bountiful Creator 
to allay the thirst of all living creatures on the earth ; and 
when the bare quenching of thirst is the object, clear, pure cold 
water is the best drink that can be given : but, when other 
objects are to be attained, a combination becomes necessary, 
into which, generally, enters an acid, an alkali, a stimulus, 
a tonic, or some article of nourishment. In bilious diseases, 
acidulated drinks are often found beneficial — and one of the 
best of these is in the form of lemonade. 



909. Lemonade. — Take fresh lemon-juice, four ounces ; fresh 
and very thin-peeled lemon, half an ounce; white sugar, four 
ounces ; boiling water, three pints. Let this mixture stand till 
cold, then strain for use. As this drink sometimes causes pain 
in the bowels, it should not be drank too freely. 

910. Apple-Water. — Take one tart apple of ordinary size, 
well baked ; let it be well mashed ; pour on it one pint of boil- 
ing water ; beat them well together ; let it stand to cool, and 
strain it off for use. Add loaf-sugar, if the patient desire it. 

911. Vinegar Mixture. — Take of good vinegar three ounces ; 
water, one pint ; loaf-sugar, two-and-a-half ounces. 


912. These are used for what is commonly termed, a sour 
stomach — heart-bum — arising from indigestion. The following 
is the combination employed by an eminent physician, in his 
own case. 

913. Dyspeptic Ley. — Take of hickory ashes, 1 quart ; soot, 
two ounces; boiling water, 1 gallon. Mix, and let them stand 
for twenty-four hours, frequently stirring the ingredients ; then 
pour off the ley, and bottle it up. A tea-cup of this liquor may 
be given three times a-day. 


914. These are given in cases of great debility. Madeira, 
sherry, or port wines are usually combined with some other 
fluid, like the following. 

915. Wine Whey. — Take of fresh cow's milk, half a pint > 
white Madeira wine, one ounce. Boil the milk, then add the 

916. Mustard Whey. — Cow's milk, 1 pint ; bruised mustard 
seed, one ounce; simmer together till the curd separates, then 
add half a pint of Madeira wine. A spoonful of this to be 
taken every hour or two, in low fevers and cases of debilitated 



917. Decoction of Peruvian Bark. — Peruvian bark, bruised, 
one ounce ; cold water, one pint. Boil together for ten minutes, 
then add half an ounce of Virginia snake-root, and two drachms 
of orange-peel, bruised. Keep the infusion near the fire for 
half an hour, in a close vessel. A wine-glassful may be taken 
every hour. 

918. Columbo Root and Ginger. — Columbo root, bruised, one 
ounce ; ginger, two drachms ; boiling water, one pint. Let them 
infuse one hour by the fire ; and give of the strained liquor 
(cold) a wine-glassful every two hours. 

This infusion, when freely used, has proved successful in 
bowel complaint (chronic diarrhea) of long standing. 

919. Peruvian Bark and Valerian. — For this decoction, take 
Peruvian bark, bruised, one ounce ; water, one pint ; take of 
Valerian root, one ounce ; boiling water, one pint ; infuse for 
one hour and strain. Add the decoction of bark to this infu- 
sion, and give a tea-cupful, cold, three or four times a-day. 

This is chiefly employed in rheumatic headache, in which it is 
sometimes very serviceable. It was a favorite prescription of the 
late Dr. Parrish. 

920. Chamomile and Orange-peel. — For this infusion, take 
chamomile-flowers, one ounce; orange-peel, half an ounce; cold 
water, three pints ; soak together twenty-four hours. Take a 
tea-cupful four times a-day. 

The chamomile infusion is more agreeable to the taste when 
cold, and is less apt to spoil than when made of boiling water. 

921. Wild Cherry-tree Bark. — Take of this bark, dried and 
bruised, one ounce ; orange-peel, bruised, two drachms ; water, 
one pint. Boil the bark alone for ten minutes, then add the 
orange-peel. Take a wine-glassful, cold, twice a-day. 

922. Dog-wood Bark. — Dog-wood bark, bruised, one ounce ; 
water, one pint. Boil for twenty or thirty minutes and strain. 
A wine-glassful may be given every hour. This is a very good 
substitute for Peruvian bark in fever-and-ague. 


923. Sage Tea. — Night sweats have been cured, when more 
powerful remedies had failed, by fasting morning and night, 
and drinking cold sage tea constantly and freely. 

924. Gentian-root Infusion. — Gentian-root, half an ounce ; 
orange-peel, pounded, two drachms ; hot water, one pint. Let 
these stand an hour. This will be found useful in debility of 
the digestive organs. A wine-glassful may be given every two 
or three hours. 

925. Infusion for Rheumatism, — One ounce of gum-guaiacum 
must be bruised and put into a pint of French brandy, in which 
it must remain for at least thirty hours. When the gum is 
dissolved, shake the bottle, and pour a little of this infusion into 
rather more than a wine-glassful of tepid water ; take this at 
bed-time, for three nights. 

926. Mixture for Rheumatism. — One ounce of salad mustard 
must be simmered in a pint of soft water, till the liquor is re- 
duced to half a pint ; strain it through muslin, and add a pint 
of milk, fresh from the cow. Let it boil only two minutes, and 
take a small tea-cupful, milk-warm, night and morning. 


927. The best Method of obtaining pure Soft Water for Medi- 
cinal Pur%)oses, without distilling it. — Place an earthen pan in 
the fields, at a considerable distance from the smoke of any 
town, to catch the rain as it falls. People living in the country, 
can easily save this clean, pure rain-water. Set it for an hour 
in a cool cellar, or put ice into it, and it is the most reviving 
drink for a thirsty invalid. 

928. Toast and Water. — Toast thin slices of bread on both 
sides carefully ; then pour cold water over the bread and cover 
it tight for one hour ; or use boiling water, and let it cool. 

929. Waters for cooling Draughts of Preserved or Fresh 
Fruits — Apple Water, Lemon Water, dec. — Pour boiling water 
on the preserved or fresh fruits, sliced ; or squeeze out the juice, 
boil it with sugar, and add water. 


930. Barley Water, — Take pearl barley, two ounces ; wash 
it, till it be freed from dust, in cold water : afterwards boil it 
in a quart of water for a few minutes, strain off the liquor, and 
throw it away. Then boil it in four pints and a half of water, 
until it be reduced one half. 

93L Laxative Whey. — Take of the dried buds of the damask 
rose, one ounce ; rennet whey, one quart. Let them stand to- 
gether twelve hours, then strain off the liquor, and add of crys- 
tals of tartar, and white sugar, a suitable proportion, to render 
it more active, and at the same time more palatable. 

932. Wine Whey. — Wine whey is a cooling and safe drink 
in fevers. Set half a pint of sweet milk at the fire, pour in one 
glass of wine, and let it remain perfectly still, till it curdles ; 
when the curds settle, strain it, and let it cool. It should not 
get more than blood-warm. A spoonful of rennet-water hastens 
the operation. Make palatable with loaf-sugar and nutmeg, if 
the patient can bear it. 

933. Lemon Syrup, for a Cough. — To a pint and a half of water, 
add two large poppy-heads, and two large lemons. Boil them 
till they are soft, press the lemons into the water, strain the 
liquor, and add half a drachm of saffron, and half a pound of 
brown sugar-candy, pounded. Boil all together till the sugar- 
candy is dissolved ; stir the whole till you perceive it will 
jelly ; strain it a second time, and take the seeds from the 

934. Turnip Syrup, for a Cold or Affection of the Lungs. — 
Roast twelve or more fine turnips in an apple roaster, press the 
juice from them, and add sugar-candy to your taste. Take a 
tea-cupful at night and in the morning. 

935. Rose Gargle. — Take of red rose-buds, dried, half an 
ounce ; boiling water, two pints ; diluted vitriolic acid, three 
drachms ; mix these together, macerate for half an hour, and 
draw off the liquor. Sweeten with an ounce of honey. 

936. JJetergent Gargle. — Borax powder, two drachms ; rose- 
water, six ounces ; honey of roses, one ounce. Mix together. 
To be used in the thrush. 


937. Common Gargle. — Honey-water, seven ounces ; honey 
of roses, six drachms; vinegar, half an ounce; tincture of 
myrrh, two drachms. Mix these together. 

938. Starch Injection. — Take of the jelly of starch, four 
ounces ; linseed oil, half an ounce. Mix them over a gentle 
heat, and add forty drops of tincture of opium. To be used in 
alvine fluxes, to allay the irritation which occasions constant 

939. Spermaceti Ointment. — Take of spermaceti, half an 
ounce ;*jwhite wax, two ounces; olive oil, four ounces. Melt 
them together over a slow fire, and keep stirring till cold. 

940. Elder-flower Ointment. — Gather the buds or earliest 
flowers of the elder-bush ; simmer these in fresh butter, or 
sweet lard ; it makes a healing and cooling ointment for the 
skin,* in cutaneous diseases. 

941. Elder-flower Poultice. — A poultice of elder-flower tea 
and biscuit, is good as a preventive to mortification. 

942. White-bean Poultice. — Nothing is so good to take down 
swellings, as a soft poultice of stewed white beans, put on in a 
thin muslin bag, and renewed every hour or two. 


943. Squill Mixture. — Take of the milk of ammoniacum, 
four ounces; syrup of squills, three ounces ; mix them together. 
Dose, two large spoonsful every sixth hour. It is efficacious in 
coughs, asthma, and oppression on the chest. 

944. Chalk Mixture — Take of prepared chalk, one ounce; 
double refined sugar, six drachms; gum arabic, in powder, one 
ounce ; water, two pints. Mix them together. 

945. Camphor Mixture. — Take of camphor, one drachm ; rec- 
tified spirit of wine, a few drops. Rub them together. Add 
half an ounce of double refined sugar and one pint of boiling 
distilled, or rain water. When cold, strain off the liquor. 


946. Infusion of Senna, — Take of senna leaves, one ounce 
and a half; ginger, in powder, one drachm; of boiling distilled, 
or rain water, one pint. Macerate for an hour. When cold, 
strain off the liquor. 

947. Cordial Julep, — Take of peppermint water, four ounces ; 
pimento water, two ounces ; compound spirit of ammonia, 
tincture of castor, of each two drachms. Mix them together. 
Dose, two large spoonsful. 

948. Mucilage of Quince Seed. — Take of quince seeds, one 
drachm ; rain or distilled water, half a pint. Boil over a gen- 
tle fire, until the liquor becomes thick and viscid. 

949. Lime Water. — Take of quick lime, eight ounces ; rain 
or distilled water, twelve pints. Suffer them to stand together 
one hour, then decant the liquor. 

950. Alum Whey. — Take of alum, two drachms; cow's milk, 
one pint. Boil them together, until the curd be formed ; then 
strain off the liquor, and add spirit of nutmeg, two ounces; 
syrup of cloves, one ounce. 

It is employed with advantage in diabetes, in uterine and 
other fluxes. 

951. Whortleberries. — Whortleberries, commonly called 
huckleberries, dried, are a useful medicine for children. Made 
into tea, and sweetened with molasses, they are very beneficial, 
when the system is in a restricted state, and the digestive pow- 
ers out of order. 

952. Blackberries. — Blackberries are extremely useful, in 
cases of dysentery. To eat the berries is very healthy ; tea, 
made of the roots and leaves is beneficial ; and a syrup made 
of the berries is still better. Blackberries have sometimes 
effected a cure when physicians despaired. 

953. Method of causing Children to cut their Teeth easily. — 
Feed them with an ivory spoon and boat — to be made thick, 
round, and smooth at the edges. Ivory being of the same 
hardness and texture as the jaws and tender teeth, the gums 


are not hurt or injured, but, when they are thus pressed, faci- 
litate the teeth in their progress ; whereas, the silver imple- 
ments, being of a hard texture, and the edges made thin, bruise 
and wound the gums, and make a hard seam ; so that the teeth 
cannot make their way direct, and, if they do cut, come irregu- 
larly ; so that the operation of lancing is frequently absolutely 
necessary, which, of course, must prejudice the teeth, as some 
are exposed before the time they are fit to cut. 

By this method, fevers, convulsions, &c., owing to the teeth 
being not able to find their way through the hard seam, may 
be prevented. It must be often observed, that children cry 
much when feeding, as if ill, or disgusted with their food ; 
whereas it is frequently owing to quite the contrary ; for, being 
hungry, and over eager to take their food, they press hard, 
through eagerness, on the boat and spoon, which, being sharp, 
bruises and cuts the gums, and consequently causes great pain, 
which, by the ivory implements, will be prevented. Those 
who cannot afford ivory, may have horn or wood, or even pew- 
ter is greatly preferable to silver, provided the edges are made 
thick, round, and smooth. The wooden sort, unless they are 
kept very sweet and clean, on that very account, are the least 
eligible, and should be made, however, of box, or such hard 
and close-textured wood as is the least liable to be tainted by 
the milky food. 

954. Rules for the Preservation of the Teeth and Gums. — 
The teeth are bones, thinly covered over with a fine enamel, 
and this enamel is more or less substantial in different persons. 
Whenever this enamel is worn through by too coarse a powder, 
or too frequently cleaning the teeth, or eaten through by a 
scorbutic humor in the gums, the tooth cannot remain long 
sound, any more than a filbert-kernel can, when it has been 
penetrated by a worm. 

The teeth, therefore, are to be cleaned, but with great pre- 
caution ; for, if you wear the enamel off faster by cleaning the 
outside than nature supplies it within, your teeth will suffer 
more by this method, than perhaps by a total neglect. 

955. Stammering. — Impediments in the speech may be cured, 
where there is no mal-formation of the organs of articulation, 
by perseverance, for three or four months, in the simple remedy 
of reading aloud, with the teeth closed, for at least two hours 
in the course of each day. 


956. Of Preservers, and Rules for the Preservation of Sight. — 
Though it may be impossible to prevent the absolute decay of 
sight, whether arising from age, partial disease, or illness, yet, 
by prudence and good management, its natural failure may 
certainly be retarded, and the general habits of the eyes strength- 
ened, which good purposes will be promoted by a proper atten- 
tion to the following maxims : — 

1. Never sit for any length of time in absolute gloom, or 
exposed to a blaze of light. The reasons on which this rule is 
founded, prove the impropriety of going hastily from one ex- 
treme to the other, whether of darkness or of light, and show 
us that a southern aspect is improper for those whose sight is 
weak and tender. 

2. Avoid reading small print. 

3. Never read in the dark ; nor, if the eyes be disordered, 
by candle-light. Happy those who learn this lesson betimes, 
and begin to preserve their sight before they are reminded by 
pain of the necessity of sparing them. The frivolous attention 
to a quarter of an hour in the evening, has cost numbers the 
perfect and comfortable use of their eyes for many years ; the 
mischief is effected imperceptibly — the consequences are in- 

4. The eye should not be permitted to dw T ell on glaring 
objects, more particularly on first waking in the morning; the 
sun should not, of course, be suffered to shine in the room at 
that time, and a moderate quantity of light only be admitted. 
It is easy to see that, for the same reasons, the furniture of a 
bed should be neither altogether of a white or red color ; indeed, 
those whose eyes are weak, w r ould find considerable advantage 
in having green for the furniture of their bed-chamber. Nature 
confirms the propriety of the advice given in this rule ; for the 
light of the day comes on by slow degrees, and green is the 
universal color she presents to our eyes. 

5. The long-sighted should accustom themselves to read with 
rather less light, and somewhat nearer to the eye than what 
they naturally like ; while those that are short-sighted, should 
rather use themselves to read with the book as far off as pos- 
sible : by this means, both would improve and strengthen 
their sight ; while a contrary course will increase its natural 

There is nothing w T hich preserves the sight longer than always 
using, both in reading and writing, that moderate degree of light 
which is best suited to the eye : too little, strains them — too 



great a quantity, dazzles and confounds them. The eyes are 
less hurt by the want of light, than by the excess of it : too little 
light never does any harm, unless they are strained by efforts 
to see objects to which the degree of light is inadequate; but 
too great a quantity has, by its own power, destroyed the sight. 
Thus, many have brought on themselves a cataract, by fre- 
quently looking at the sun or a fire; others have lost their sight 
by being brought too suddenly from an extreme of darkness 
into the blaze of day. How dangerous the looking on bright, 
luminous objects, is to the sight, is evident from its effects in 
those countries which are covered, the greater part of the year, 
with snow, where blindness is exceedingly frequent, and where 
the traveller is obliged to cover his eyes with crape, to prevent 
the dangerous and often sudden effects of too much light: even 
the untutored savage tries to avoid the danger, by framing a 
little wooden case for his eyes, with only two narrow slits. A 
momentary gaze at the sun will, for a time, unfit the eyes for 
vision, and render them insensible to impressions of a milder 

957. The Feet — Should be washed in cold water every morn- 
ing, and wiped very dry. Stockings, if too small, cripple the 
feet as surely as small shoes. Always be careful to give the 
foot room enough, and you will be rarely troubled with corns. 
When the toe-nails have a tendency to turn in, so as to be 
painful, the nail should always be kept scraped very thin, and 
as near the flesh as possible. As soon as the corner of the nail 
can be raised up out of the flesh, it should be kept from again 
entering, by putting a tuft of fine lint under it. 

958. For Sore Feet. — The thin white skin which comes from 
suet, is excellent to bind upon the feet, for chilblains. Rubbing 
with Castile soap, and afterwards with honey, is likewise highly 

959. A Vapor-Bath at home. — Place strong sticks across a 
tub of water, at the boiling-point, and sit upon them, entirely 
enveloped in a blanket, feet and all. The steam from the water 
will be a vapor-bath. Some people put herbs into the water. 
Steam-baths are excellent for severe colds, and for some disorders 
in the bowels. They should not be taken without the advice 
of an experienced nurse or physician. Great care should be taken 
not to renew the cold after ; it would be doubly dangerous. 



960. Of the Cookmaid. — When a young woman undertakes 
the situation of cookmaid in a family, where only one or two 
other servants are kept, she will have many duties to perform, 
besides preparing and dressing the provisions, although that is 

her principal business What those duties are, will, of course, 

depend very much upon the habits of the family with whom 
she lives ; and whether there is a man-servant or a boy kept; 
as, if not, the cleaning of knives, shoes, and various things that 
would be done by them, become the business of the cook-maid. 

961. General duties of the Cookmaid. — The part of the house 
in which her chief work lies is the kitchen ; but she is also ex- 
pected to clean the passage or hall, the stone door-steps, the 
bell-pull, name-plate, knocker, and all things outside the house 
which are kept cleaned ; also, the kitchen stairs, pantry, ser- 
vants 5 offices, and areas ; and, in many families, the dining- 
room as well as the kitchen windows, and the light over or at 
the sides of the hall door. It is her place to scour the dresser, 
table, shelves, &c, in the kitchen and pantry, and to keep both 
places clean and in order ; to wash the plates and dishes, to 
keep the saucepans and all other vessels used in cooking, or for 
keeping eatables in, perfectly clean, so that they may always 
be ready for use ; to wash and keep the pudding-cloths sweet 
and clean ; to sweep the carpet, and clean the grate, fender, 
fire-irons, and hearth, in the breakfast-parlor ; to clean the 
kitchen candlesticks ; to assist the housemaid in making the 
beds after they have been laid open to air; to answer the door 
to the trades-people ; and, if there is no man-servant, nor boy 
kept, to brush the clothes and shoes of the gentlemen of the 

It is of great importance that the cookmaid should be cleanly 
in her person, as well as in her cooking ; and that she should 
never be seen with dirty hands, which may be easily prevented 
by using thick gloves, when blacking a stove or doing any 
other dirty w T ork, and always washing her hands as soon as 
she has finished. Nothing can be more disagreeable than to 
see the person who prepares one's meals with dirty hands 
or apron. 


962. Arrangements for Work in the Kitchen. — The cookmaid 
should always be furnished with her own pails, brushes, flan- 
nels, and everything she requires for her own work, and should 
never use the housemaid's pails or brushes, nor suffer the 
housemaid to use hers.- A strict attention to this rule pre- 
vents much discomfort and confusion, and the work is sure to 
be done with more regularity, and much time saved. 

963. Work in the Breakfast-room. — Your work in the break- 
fast-room generally is to light the fire, clean the stove, fender, 
fire-irons, and hearth ; take up the ashes, sweep the carpet, 
shake the hearth-rug, and lay it down again ; but this is some- 
times varied in different families. If you find there are more 
cinders than you can use for lighting the fire, you should take 
them down to burn in the kitchen. 

964. Of Neatness in the Breakfast-room. — In order to avoid 
soiling the carpet in the breakfast-parlor, while you are lighting 
the fire and cleaning the stove, you should have a piece of drug- 
get, about a yard wide and two yards long, or cloth of some 
kind, to lay down ; but whichever you use, always use it the 
dirty side upwards. Without this precaution, the most care- 
ful person cannot prevent the carpet from getting dirty before 
the fire-place. 

965. Punctuality in S Punctual ery essen- 

tial quality in a cookmai light to regulate her work so 

that the dinner should always be ready at the appointed time ; 
and to avoid any mistake in this particular, she should know 
\se\y the length of time required to cook each kind of I 

ding to the taste of those for whom she cooks, and then 
she should allow herself about fifteen to twenty minutes more, 

ke up the dinner, and for any little hindrance that may 
occur, she will be tolerably exact. The best means of being 
punctual is to keep everything in its proper place, and lit for 
use, so that no time may be lost in looking for this thing or 
that, or in having to clean any utensils that may be wanted for 

966. Economy in the Kitchen. — Never waste anything, but 
have places and purposes for all articles in your keeping. 
Habits of economy are easily acquired, and the cookmaid 


would do well to consider how much more valuable she must 
be to her employers, and how much more she will be respected, 
if she be careful, and make the most of the property that is 
intrusted to her charge, than if she uses it wastefuily. 

967. Cleaning the Hall, dec. — If you are quick with the 
breakfast-parlor work, you will, very likely, have time to clean 
the door-steps and passage before breakfast, which is much bet- 
ter than leaving them tiJl afterwards: but this will, of course, 
depend on the breakfast-hour, as you must not, on any account, 
neglect to see that the water in the kettle is boiling, the urn- 
iron hot, and everything ready to take up the moment it is 

968. Making Breakfast. — If you have toast to make, or bacon 
to cook, take care to have a clear fire, so that it may be done 
quickly, when wanted, and not before ; for both toast and ba- 
con should be hot from the fire, and not suffered to stand after 
they are done. Dry toast should be thin and crisp ; to keep it 
so, set it on its edge in the toast-rack, directly it is made. 

Never boil eggs by guess ; if you have no clock in the 
kitchen, you should have a sand-glass or egg-boiler, for in 
guessing at the time, it is not possible to be quite exact, and 
half a minute too much or too little will spoil an egg. It is the 
duty of the cookmaid to prepare the breakfast ; and that of the 
housemaid to carry it up to the breakfast-parlor, 

969. Cold Meats at Breakfast — In some families, whatever 
cold meat or cold poultry may have been left from the previous 
day, is served up at breakfast ; in which case it is the cook- 
maid's duty to send it up, laid out neatly on clean and rather 
small-sized dishes, with breakfast plates and small clean knives 
and forks ; sometimes it will require a little putting to rights, 
by trimming, and garnishing with a few sprigs of parsley, 
which, of course, she will attend to. 

970. To arrange for Children, &c. — If the children of the 
family breakfast in the nursery, or require to go to school 
early, you will, most probably, be expected to cut their bread 
and butter, and get their breakfast ready for them ; or, at all 
events, assist in doing so. It is your place also to get the 
kitchen breakfast ready for yourself and the housemaid, dec. ; 


and it will materially add to the comfort of your situation, if 
you take care to keep your table-cloth clean, and neatly folded, 
so that it may not have an untidy appearance when spread 
upon the table ; and let the knives, and all the things you use 
for yourself and fellow servants, be clean like those you send 
up to the table of the family. 

971. Taking Directions for Dinner, — In most families, it is 
the custom of the lady of the house, to go into the kitchen ev- 
ery morning, to make arrangements with the cook about the 
dinner, and to give out from the store-closet such things as may 
be required for the day's use, either by the cookmaid or house- 
maid. You must then remember to ask for whatever you will 
want, so that you may not have to give trouble a second time. 
Some ladies prefer that the cookmaid should come into the 
parlor, to receive directions. Should this be the custom, you 
should make it a rule to wash your hands, and put on a clean 
apron, before you go in. There are some foolish servants, who 
have a mistaken notion that a lady should not trouble herself 
much with her kitchen ; but every one ought to have the good 
sense to know that it is the province and duty of a mistress to 
superintend the order and management of every part of her 
household ; and those servants who are conscious that they 
waste not, and perform their duties to the best of their ability, 
will never feel an objection; but, on the contrary, will be 
pleased that their mistress should see that they do so. 

972. Making Beds, &c. — When you have taken orders about 
dinner, you should go up into the bed-rooms, to assist the 
house-maid in making the beds — having already washed your 
hands, and put on your clean bed-apron. It is very proper to 
keep a bed-apron entirely for this purpose, one that will wrap 
quite round you, and tie together behind; and to take it off, 
and fold it up, as soon as the beds are made. It will serve 
for a week, with care ; therefore, if you make a rule to put on 
a clean one every Monday morning, the bed-clothes and furni- 
ture will never get soiled by rubbing against your gown or 
clothes. Attention to such little niceties as these is so easy, 
that it is surprising any one should neglect them, particularly 
as they make all the difference between a good servant and a 
bad one. 


973. Arrangement of the Dinner-Table. — Always have the 
salt-cellars filled with fine clean salt, and the cruets and cruet- 
stand dusted ; and that each of the cruets are about half-full 
of vinegar, oil, pepper, sugar, &c, such as they are intended to 
hold ; and although this is the housemaid's duty, it is only kind 
in the cookmaid to give the housemaid all the information she 
may require or ask for ; a good dinner will look very un- 
handsome, unless the housemaid takes care that the salts and 
cruets are clean, and sufficiently filled to accompany it to table. 
The housemaid should also see that the mustard-cruet is quite 
clean, before it is put on the table; for if the mustard is dried 
on the edges, or on the spoon, it has a very disagreeable appear- 
ance, and betokens an untidy servant. 

974. The Dinner-Hour, and its Duties. — In order more surely 
to be correct to the dinner-hour, allow yourself from fifteen 
to twenty minutes for taking up the dinner, and for any hin- 
drances that may occur ; and take care to have the fire made up 
in proper time for cooking — regulating the size of it according 
to what you have to cook. It should be stirred as little as 
possible while you are cooking; indeed, a good cookmaid stirs 
her fire only once during her roasting, and that is when she 
turns the meat, or alters the hanging of it, at which times she 
takes the meat and dripping-pan away from the fire, as stirring 
creates both dust and smoke ; but as dust or coal may, by acci- 
dent, fall into the dripping-pan, keep ready a dish-cloth, to 
wipe it out directly, Be mindful, also, to keep in the house 
a stock of the things that are commonly wanted, such as flour, 
salt, pepper, spices, &c. ; but always make a point of using up 
what you had, before you begin upon the fresh supply ; and 
be sure to put them away into their proper places, as you 
receive them — as mustard, pepper, spices, tea, coffee, &c, will 
spoil, if kept in the papers they are sent home in. 

975. Of Re-cooking. — In cities, where the master of the house 
is often engaged in business until late in the day, the dinner- 
hour may be as late as four or five o'clock ; in that case, there 
is an early dinner for the children and servants, for whom a 
pudding is usually to be made. It is a very material part of 
your business to know how to dress over, nicely, anything left 
from the preceding day's dinner, so that it may be used in the 
kitchen, if not required in the dining-room. For this purpose, 


you should, when a joint is brought down from the dining-room, 
put it on a clean dish, and pour the gravy into a small basin 
or jelly-pot, and you will find it very useful in making nice, 
savory dishes of cold meat, or to put into hashes and stews, 
or warming up for gravy. 

976. Hot Plates for Dinner. — Before sending up dinner, take 
care that you have enough hot plates. It is better to heat a 
few more than the exact number, lest an extra one may be 

977. Serving up Dinner. — Whilst the dinner is being served 
up, the cook-maid may be required to assist, by taking the 
dishes to the door of the dining-parlor ; also, in some families, 
by taking them from the housemaid, or from the outside of the 
dining-room door, when they are done with, that the house- 
maid, if she waits at dinner, may not have to leave the room. 
And the cookmaid will save herself much time and trouble, 
if she gets her dish-tub, in the sink, half filled with hot water, 
so that she may put the dishes and plates into it the moment 
they are brought from the dinner-table. 

978. Washing Dishes. — The dirty dishes and plates should 
be put into a dish-tub of warm water, immediately they are 
taken from the dinner table ; for, by this means, half the 
trouble of washing-up will be saved, as it will prevent the 
gravy, mustard, juice, &c, from cooling and drying on the 
plates and dishes. When you commence washing them, add 
sufficient boiling water to make it hot enough to wash them in, 
and with a dish-cloth wash them clean on both sides, one at a 
time. Rinse them immediately, in a pan full of cold water, 
part of which should stand under the tap, which should be 
turned a little on to keep it full. The reason for keeping the 
pan full of water and running over, is, that any grease, &c, 
which may rinse off the plates and dishes, may swim over into 
the sink in the act of rinsing, otherwise it would remain on the 
water, and make those you rinse, after the first few, look 
greasy, instead of clean and bright. 

979. Washing Saucepans, Kettles, dec. — When you have 
washed all the dishes and plates used at dinner, as above di- 
rected, and put them in the rack to drain, the saucepans and 


kettles which have been used for cooking, should next be 
cleaned. The proper plan is to fill them with cold water as 
soon as the food has been taken out of them, as, by this means, 
whatever may hang about the sides cannot stick close, nor dry 
on hard, and they will clean much more readily. If the insides 
are discolored or dirty, a little soda or wood-ash is the best 
thing to clean them with ; or, if they are very dirty, the ; wood- 
ashes, or some soda, must be boiled up in them. They should 
afterwards be well rinsed with boiling-hot water, wiped, and 
made perfectly dry, by being placed for some time bottom up- 
wards, before the kitchen fire. The upper rims of saucepans, 
and the rims and insides of the lids, must be kept quite clean. 
If tin saucepans are not completely dry, they will soon get 
rusty, and if copper ones are not perfectly cleaned and dried, 
they become poisonous. Never leave food of any kind in a 
saucepan to become cold. 

980. Washing Pudding -cloths, dc. — Pudding-cloths should 
be washed as soon as possible after the puddings are taken out 
of them. They should be washed in clean w T arm water, with- 
out soap, rinsed and thoroughly dried before being folded and 
put in the kitchen drawer, otherwise they will give a musty 
smell to the puddings that are next boiled in them. The 
paste-brush, egg-w r hisk and sieves must also be washed, first in 
cold and then in warm water, and put away clean and dry, or 
they will spoil whatever you use them for afterwards. All 
things through which eggs are strained, should be washed, first 
in cold and then in hot water. 

981. Cleaning the Sink. — First, wipe into one corner and 
take up all the little bits of gristle, fat, or vegetables, or what- 
ever else may have collected in the sink ; and, if you live in or 
near to a town, throw 7 it on the back part of the top of the 
kitchen fire; for, if thrown into the dust-bin, it will either entice 
rats or other vermin, or Mse cause an offensive and unwhole- 
some smell. If forced down the sink holes, the same unplea- 
sant consequences will follow, besides stopping-up and destroy- 
ing the drains. But if you live in the country where a pig is 
kept, it may be thrown into the pig tub with the dish washings. 

You must next clean the sink, which, if of stone, is best done 
with a hard brush and a little soda ; or, if of lead, with the fol- 
lowing mixture : — One pennyworth of pearlash, one pennyworth 


of soft-soap, and one pennyworth of fullers-earth, (the fuller's- 
earth dried,) mixed together in a pipkin, or something of the 
kind, with a quart of water. About a table-spoonful of this on 
a piece of flannel will clean the leaden sink. 

982. Cleaning the Spit, Frying-pan, &c. — The spit, if one is 
used, must also be always perfectly cleaned when done with. 
A little dripping rubbed on a hot frying-pan or gridiron, afcer 
cleaning it, will greatly remove the smell and taste of fish ; but 
some persons rub a little salt well about the inside of a hot 
frying-pan, with a piece of clean paper, which also removes the 
taste of fish or onions. If these things are put away into damp 
places, they will soon become unfit for use. 

983. Cabbage-water to be thrown away. — Always remembeW 
that green water, that is, water in which cabbage, or any other ve- 
getable is boiled, should be thrown down the sink the moment 
the vegetables are out of it, while it is quite hot, and then a 
pailful of cold water thrown after it, will prevent the unhealthy 
smell arising from green water ; but if it be left till it is cold, 
or nearly cold before you throw it away, twenty pails of water 
thrown after it will not prevent the smell. 

984. Scalding Milk vessels. — Be careful to scald every vessel 
which has contained milk, having previously let it stand for 
some time filled with cold water, and never let any other 
liquid be put into it till it has undergone this process ; or what- 
ever you put in will be spoiled. 

985. Cleaning Bread-pans, <£c. — Your pan for keeping bread 
should be wiped out every day, and scalded once a week ; in 
the same way clean the cheese-pan, or both your bread and 
cheese will become mouldy and musty ; and cheese should 
always be kept standing on its rind ; and the rind should be 
scraped before it is sent to the table. 

986. Keeping Beer. — You should not let beer stand in a pot 
or jug; but, if there be any left, put it into a clean bottle, with 
a tea-spoonful of sugar, and cork it tightly. 

987. Never suffer two things to be put together, which would 
give to each other a disagreeable taste or flavor. Never cut 


bread, or butter, or meat, with a knife which has been used 
for cheese or onions, or the bread, butter, or meat will taste of 
them. Therefore, you should put the knife which you have 
used for these purposes, in some place separate from the other 
knives, and never allow it to be put with them until it has 
been properly cleaned. 

988. Washing Pickle and Preserve- Jars. — Whenever pickle 
or preserve-jars are empty, wash them well in cold water — dry 
them thoroughly — and put them in a dry place. If you wash 
pickle or preserve-jars in hot water, it will crack their glazed 
surface, and make them porous, which spoils them for use, as 
pickles and preserves require to have the air kept from them. 

989. Cleaning Dish-Covers. — Dish-covers should always be 
wiped and polished as soon as they are removed from the table. 
If this is done whilst they are warm, it will be but little trouble; 
but, if the steam be allowed to dry on them,. you will find much 
difficulty in getting the tarnish off from the insides. When 
they are wiped and polished, hang them up in their places im- 

990. Of the Paste-Board, Rolling-Pin, &c. — After making 
puddings or pastry, wash your rolling-pin and paste-board, 
without soap, and put it away quite dry. Never use, nor allow 
others to use, any of the family dinner or tea-service, in the 
kitchen ; as, if one thing be broken, it would perhaps spoil a 
valuable set ; but, always use for cooking, the plates, dishes, 
and cups, provided for that purpose, which are usually plain, 
and though of course equally clean, are much less expensive. 
Keep the bread, cheese, butter, flour, dripping, milk, eggs, and 
every thing else you may require in cooking, in their distinct 
and separate places ; and be careful to put them away as soon 
as you have done with them. 

991. Of keeping Hot Water. — It is highly necessary that you 
should keep a plentiful supply of hot water, by constantly 
filling-up the boiler whenever water is taken out of it. A self- 
acting boiler does not require to be filled, as it fills itself as 
fast as the water is drawn out ; but you must be very careful 
in frosty weather, to watch whether the water continues to run ; 
for if the water in the pipes becomes frozen, and you allow the 


boiler to get empty, the consequence is almost sure to be, that 
when the frost melts, the cold water comes suddenly into the 
hot boiler, and splits it. The damage can only be repaired by 
having a new boiler, which costs, perhaps, from ten to twenty- 
five dollars ; so you may see how important it is that you 
should prevent so serious an accident. 

992. Of Ventilating Rooms. — Do not keep your kitchen 
always hot, and be sure you let in fresh air. If the attention 
of every master or mistress of a family turned to the ventilation 
of their dwelling, it would be greatly the means of insuring 
health. One single ventilator in the uppermost staircase win- 
dow, would effect a great deal. Great attention ought to be 
paid to letting the chamber-windows down from the top, fre- 
quently through the day, particularly where the family sits. 

993. Of preparing Tea. — When the tea-time arrives, it is 
your duty to cut the bread-and-butter, or make the toast. You 
should never send up more than one or two rounds of buttered 
toast at once, according to the number to partake of it, that it 
may be hot and fresh when it is handed round. You must cut 
off the crusts as close as you can, after it is made and buttered. 
If a tea-urn is used, it will be your duty to get it ready in time, 
and put in the boiling water when it is wanted : you must also 
remember to make the urn-iron red-hot, by putting it into the 
kitchen fire after dinner, or at least for an hour before tea-time. 
"When you use the tea-urn, be careful to do as follows : — 

Take care that the w T ater boils, and that the urn-heater is 
red-hot ; then, in the first place, dust the urn, and put the boiling 
water into it, before you put in the heater; and, to prevent 
giving an unpleasant taste, or spoiling the boiling water by 
dust, or particles of the hot iron, (which may rub off the heater 
as you are putting it into its place,) be careful to put on the 
round rim, or ring, before you put in the red-hot heater; and 
be sure, also, to avoid pouring any water into the place where 
the heater goes ; otherwise, when the iron is put in, the steam 
may fly up in your face, and scald you seriously. Taking the 
urn up into the parlor or drawing-room, is the housemaid's 
business ; and she should not forget the rug to place it on, or 
the heat issuing from it will certainly spoil the polished table : 
and it is also the housemaid's business to empty the urn when 
done with which she must be careful to turn upside down, to 


994. Taking care of the Fire. — The cookmaid's last duties 
of the day, are — to take great care that the kitchen fire is so 
nearly out, as to be quite safe ; and that nothing is left hanging 
before the fire-place ; then she must see that the kitchen win- 
dows and shutters are fastened, and lock and bolt all the doors 
and windows that have not been fastened earlier in the evening. 

995. Cleaning Knives, Forks, dec. — If a lad or man-servant 
is kept, he cleans the steel knives and forks, as well as the 
shoes and boots; and also brushes the gentlemen's clothes: 
but, in that large number of families who keep no boy nor man, 
it becomes the business of the cookmaid to clean the steel 
knives and forks. [See the best manner of preparing the knife- 
board, &c, in another part of this book.] 

996. Care of Table-Knives. — Be careful to keep a good edge 
to your knives, and do your utmost to preserve them from 
notches, especially the carving-knife, otherwise a hot joint may 
get cold while the knife has to be sent from table to be sharp- 
ened. A keen edge may be given by cleaning alone, if care 
be taken, in passing the knife from you, not to let the edge 
lean on the board, but, in drawing it towards you, to lean with 
a little pressure on the edge. 

The knives which are not in daily use, should, after being 
wiped with a dry cloth, be put into the cases, or wrapped in 
very dry brown paper, and so placed as not to touch each other, 
the same way as the cutlers keep them. Great care should be 
taken that the place in which they are put is perfectly dry — 
as all articles made of steel have a tendency to contract rust, 
that metal having the property of extracting damp from the 
atmosphere, or from anything moist near to it. If the ivory 
handles of the knives and forks get stained, or become discolor- 
ed, mix a table-spoonful of water with a few drops of spirits of 
salt — rub it well on with a little bit of clean rag — wash it off 
with cold water — and wipe them perfectly dry. 

997. Of cleaning Boots and Shoes. — Where no man-servant 
is kept, the cook or housemaid must clean the shoes and boots. 
First, scrape the dirt off the shoe with a wooden knife, or piece 
of firewood, cut to something of an edge. When the worst 
of the dirt is thus taken off, use your hard brush to remove 
the remainder, or the leather will never be bright. Stir the 


blacking with a short fine sponge, tied round one end of it ; 
and, with this, put some blacking on the blacking-brush, and 
black the shoe all over; use the polishing-brush directly, while 
it remains damp, and rub it lightly, yet briskly, till the shoe 
shines perfectly bright. When boots or shoes are laid down 
before a fire to dry, let them be placed at a good distance, or 
the leather will harden and shrink, and the shoes get out of 

998. Of cleaning Candlesticks. — It is the duty of the cook- 
maid to clean the chamber candlesticks used by the servants, 
and the candlesticks belonging to the kitchen (those used by 
the family in the parlors, drawing-rooms, and best bed-rooms, 
belong to the housemaid's work). Before you commence, have 
a sheet of thick brown paper laid on a table, or on whatever 
else you intend to clean them, to save making a grease. Then 
scrape off the grease on to the brown paper with a piece of fire- 
wood, and put all you scrape off into your kitchen-stuff. The 
candlesticks should then be put, upside down, in the deepest 
candlestick, at a little distance from the fire, so that all the 
grease may melt, and drain into one. This grease should also 
be put into the kitchen stuff, and the candlesticks wiped per- 
fectly clean with the candlestick-rag, or with a cloth kept for 
that purpose. The polishing should be done with a little dry 
rotten-stone, or dry whiting, put on a leather. The cookmaid 
has usually a candle-box provided for her, into which she puts 
all the pieces of candle, for kitchen use. This box should be 
lined with white paper, which should be frequently renewed, or 
the candles will become very dirty, and be unpleasant to burn, 
from bits of the snuff sticking to them. Always set the candles 
in the candlesticks in the fore part of the day, that they be 
ready when wanted, and that all the dirty work may be done 
before cooking commences. 

999. Washing-Day. — If the washing be done at home, the 
cookmaid will have to assist ; and the changes of linen, and the 
kitchen things, usually fall to her share. She generally folds 
and irons all but the fine things and the dresses. It is usual 
also for her to fill the copper; and for the housemaid to sort 
the clothes ready for the wash. Much time as well as labor 
wiil be saved by preparing the clothes for the wash the day be- 
fore the washing-day ; that is, by putting them in soak, the 


fine things and coarse things in different tubs, after having ex- 
amined, and rubbed with soap such places as are most dirty, 
such as the collars and wristbands of shirts, the parts of table 
cloths which are most soiled, and any place in the different arti 
cles which would require more than usual rubbing. Indeed, 
everything should be prepared the day before ; the copper filled, 
with soft water, the tubs rinsed and wiped, inside and out 
(taking care that they do not leak). The best way to prevent 
the tubs from leaking, is to turn them bottom upwards after 
using, and keep the bottom filled with water, without which 
they will not only leak but fall to pieces, in summer weather. 

1000. Care of Clothes-lines, &c. — Clothes-lines, when done' 
with, should be wiped quite clean, and put away dry in a bag, 
for future use, or they will dirty the clothes. A bag should 
also be kept for the pegs ; and both bags should be kept in a 
dry place. 

1001. Folding and Mangling, — Before you begin to fold the 
clothes, let the board be quite clean and dry, and a clean linen 
cloth placed upon it. Separate those things which are to be 
mangled, and those which are for rough-drying. Turn shirts, 
shifts, night-gowns, pillow-cases, petticoats, &c, the right side 
outwards; fold them very smoothly, and sprinkle them to a 
proper dampness for ironing. If the collars, wristbands, and 
frills, or pleated front of a shirt, be dipped in a little starch, 
then into water, and rolled up without squeezing, it will bring 
the whole of the shirt to a proper dampness, when it has lain 
for some time. 

The articles usually mangled are, sheets, towels, table-linen, 
pillow-cases, and other straight things ; but if there be any 
folds, they will not look well when mangled. Pearl-buttons 
will break in the mangle, and cut the cloth, therefore, all things 
with buttons, and even pillow-cases, if they have buttons, 
should not be mangled. 

1002. Of Ironing. — The ironing-blanket should be made of 
a thick kind of flannel, called swan's-skin, and a coarse cloth 
should be spread between it and the board. When you are 
ironing, be careful to try your iron first upon some coarse 
article, or one of little value, for fear of its soiling or singeing 
the better clothes. Let the heat be in proportion to the article 


you are about to iron, and be sure to make every part per 
fectly smooth. 

After they are ironed, the things should be hung upon the 
horse to air. The cookmaid is now done with the washing, 
as it is the housemaid's business to air them, and to place them 
in the drawers, when aired ; but in many families, the putting 
of them away is done by the mistress of the house, or by some 
of the young ladies. 

In ironing the skirts of dresses, it is best and most proper to 
have a board about thirteen inches wide and four feet long, on 
which fasten, with tapes, an ironing-blanket ; place one end of 
it on a table, and the other end on the dresser, or something 
that is firm, of the same height as the table. In using this 
board, pass it through the skirt, taking care that the wet part 
of the dress falls into a clothes-basket, or a cloth, which you 
must first put on the floor, under the middle of the board, to 
save the skirt from being soiled ; and turn the skirt of the dress 
round the board, as you iron it. 

1003. Save the Rags. — All rags of cotton or linen should be 
saved by the cookmaid ; they should never be thrown away 
because they are not clean. Mop-rags, lamp-rags, all should 
be washed, dried and put in the rag-bag. There is no need of 
expending soap on them ; just boil them out in the suds after 
you have done washing. 

Linen rags should be carefully saved; for they are ex- 
tremely useful in sickness. If they have become dirty and 
worn by cleaning silver, &c, wash them, and scrape them into 




Of Soil, Hay and the Grains — Of Vegetables — Destroying Fer- 
rets, Reptiles, Rats and other Vermin — Mowers, Fruits, 
Trees — Timber — Buildings, 

1004. Advantage of Knowing something about Agriculture. — 
In a work designed, chiefly, for women, it may seem odd to find 
farming treated of, as though they needed such information. 
But while far the greater portion of American men* are till- 
ers of the soil, it w r ould be questioning the good sense as well 
as affection of their wives and daughters to suppose them indif- 
ferent to such pursuits. 

The husband will work with more pleasure, when feeling his 
wife takes an interest in his employments. The daughter of a 
farmer should be ready to read her father's books and papers 
on agriculture, whenever he desires it, and assist in the garden, 
orchard, and among domestic animals, when such cases are 
suitable for her. 

So, trusting you have a garden-hoe and pruning-knife for 
your own use, and can assist in transplanting flowers and 
shrubs, I shall give rules for these, and also a few hints oa 
other matters connected with country life and the economy of 
farming. These rules are selected, chiefly, from British authori- 
ties. England is famous for its agricultural science and modes 
of gardening, and planting trees. Such knowledge and taste are 
much needed in our land. But be careful, fair girl and comely 
macron, and do not expose your health or injure your personal 
appearance while helping in out-door work. A sun-bonnet or 
broad-brimmed stratu hat and thick gloves should always be 
worn, when engaged in such employments. 

• The rural population of America is 19,263,000. 



1005. Important Fact in Agriculture. — Whatever may be 
the nature of the soil, or of the crop cultivated, it should always 
be the aim of the farmer to grow full crops. Partial and some- 
times extensive failures will even then but too often occur; but 
to neglect making the best known preparations, or only to pre- 
pare for half a crop, has a direct tendency to unprofitable 

1006. Manure for Clover. — Some farmers make it a rule to 
spread about fifty bushels per acre of ashes over their clover in 
March, which they find, from long experience, to be a good 
manure for this grass. Wood-ashes will be useful on any soil ; 
coal-ashes chiefly on stiff clays. On the stiff*oils of some parts 
of Buckinghamshire, ashes of all kinds are much esteemed, and 
have risen to a high price. 

1007. How to preserve Manure. — Put it in heaps, and cover 
it with earth two feet deep. Never leave manure in the barn 
yard ; put it all, year by year, on your land. 

1008. Dr. Taylor 's Easy Method of ascertaining the Qualities 
of Marl, Lime Stones, or Quick Lime, for the purposes of Agri- 
culture. — This was a communication by Dr. Taylor to the Man- 
chester Agricultural Society ; the general use of marl and 
lime as manures, having prompted him to point out the import- 
ance of an easy and certain method of determining the qualities 
of different earths and stones, and ascertaining the quantity of 
calcareous earth in their composition; their value, in agricul- 
ture, commonly increasing in proportion to the greater quantity 
of it which they contain. The process recommended is thus 
described : — The marl or stone being dried, and reduced to 
powder, put half an ounce of it into a half pint glass, pouring 
in clearwater till the glass is half full; then gradually add a 
small quantity of strong marine acd, commonly called spirit 
of salt, and stir the mixture well together. As soon as the 
effervescence thus excited subsides, add a little more marine 
acid ; thus continuing the operation while any of the earthy 
matter appears to dissolve; and till the liquor, after being well 
stirred and allowed to stand for half an hour, appears sensibly 
acid to the taste. When the mixture has subsided, if the liquor 
above it be colorless, that marl or lime-stone is the best which 
leaves the least in quantity of sediment or deposit in the bot- 


torn of the glass. This experiment is sufficient to determine 
which of the samples tried is the most proper for the uses of 
agriculture : as pure calcareous earth or lime, which is the 
earth useful in agriculture, will be entirely dissolved ; but clay 
or sand will not be sensibly acted on by the acid. Where great 
accuracy is required in determining the experiment, lay a soft 
spongy paper, of which the weight is exactly taken, in an 
earthen colander — for no metallic vessel, or implement for stir- 
ring, &c, must be used in any part of the process — and, pour- 
ing the saturated mixture of earth and acid on it, let all the 
liquor filter through, then pour a little clear water over the 
earthy matter remaining on the filter ; and, when that water has 
also filtered through, dry the paper with the earthy matter on 
it which remains undissolved, when the deficiency found, on 
weighing them, from their original weight, will discover what 
portion of the marie or lime has been dissolved in the acid. 
What quantity of earthy matter has been dissolved may be 
made evident to the sight, by gradually adding, to the liquor 
which has been filtered through the paper, a clear solution of 
pearl-ashes, or ashes of burnt wood ; this will occasion a pre- 
cipitation of the contained lime or calcareous earth to the 
bottom of the vessel, which precipitate must be dried and 

1009. To preserve Seeds, when sown, from Vermin. — Steep 
the grain or seed three or four hours, or a sufficient time for it 
to penetrate the skin, or husk, in a strong solution of liver of 

1010. Striped Grass recommended for Hay. — The Indian 
striped or riband grass, which is cultivated in gardens, would 
answer admirably for hay. In rich grounds plants are fre- 
quently four feet high ; what a burden of hay would a field so 
cropped produce ! Cattle are exceedingly fond of it ; the seeds 
are easily saved, so that a person might soon have enough for 
a rood, and from that save again and again, for as many acres 
as he might choose. It is probable that the crop might be 
much too large to be made on the field where it grew ; but 
if so, it would be worth while to carry part into another field. 

1011. When to cut Bye-grass for Hay. — Rye-grass, if mown 
for hay, should be cut when in blossom, and not green. The 


hay made from it does not heat or sweat so much, and is very 
good for horses, but not for sheep and cattle. If it is suffered 
to stand too long before it is cut, the seeds rob the plants of 
their juices, and leave it no better than wheat or rye-straw. 

1012. To prevent the Smut in Wheat. — The means (to pre- 
vent smut) are simple ; and no other than immersing the seed 
in pure water, and repeatedly scouring it therein, just before it 
is sown or dibbled in. Whether well, spring, or river water 
be used, is indifferent; but repeated stirring and change of 
water is essential to remove the possible particles of infection 
that may have imperceptibly adhered to the seed ; thus puri- 
fied, the subsequent crop will be perfect in itself, and seed suc- 
cessively so likewise, if there be no adjacent fields from whence 
this contamination may be wafted. 

The addition of any alkaline or earthy salt, by increasing 
the specific gravity of the water, is of advantage in floating off 
the unsound grains, and after the seed is washed, it should be 
dried immediately by rubbing it with newly slaked lime. 

1013. Fertilizing Steeps for Turnips, Wheal, or Barley. — 
Steep turnip-seed twelve hours in train oil, which strain through 
a fine seive, and immediately thoroughly mix the quantity of 
seed you would wish to sow on an acre, with three bushels of 
dry loamy earth, finely sifted, which drill (or sow) as soon as 
possible; and when the plants begin to appear, throw a smail 
quantity of soot over them. 

1014. Steep for Wheat, Barley, or other Grain. — Put a peck 
and a halt of wood-ashes, and a peck of unslaked lime, into a 
tub that will hold forty gallons; then add as much water as 
will slake the lime, and render the mixture into the consistence 
of stiff mortar. In this state it should remain ten or twelve 
hours; then add as much water as will reduce the mortar to a 
pulp, by thorough stirring. In this state fill the tub with water, 
and occasionally keep stirring for two or three days. After 
which, draw off the clear \ya into an open vessel, and gradually 
put the grain into it: skim off the light grains; and, after the 
corn has been steeped thn e hours, spread it on a clean floor 
to dry, when it will be sufficiently prepared for drilling or sow- 
ing. The lye will retain its full virtue, and may be repeatedly 


Remark. — It has been doubted whether steeps are of any 
use, except so far as they facilitate the separation of the light 
grains, and wash off the seeds of the parasite plants, which are 
thought to occasion smut, &c. In the best-cultivated parts of 
Scotland, seed-wheat is steeped in stale urine, or in a brine 
made with common salt, which, by increasing the specific gravity 
of the water, floats the unsound grains. The seed is well wash- 
ed, and then dried, by mixing it w T ith fresh slaked lime, and 
rubbing it briskly with a wooden shovel. The quick-lime and 
rubbing is thought to assist in cleansing the seed ; but, indepen- 
dent of that, the mere drying the seed quickly is convenient. 

1015. To sow Wheat to advantage, without laying on Manure. 
— It has been found expedient sometimes to sow wheat without 
laying on any manure ; and, in the beginning of February, to 
collect twenty bushels of lime, unslaked, for every acre, and 
forty bushels of sand, or the rubbish of a brick-kiln ; then, about 
the end of the month, to slake the lime, which doubles the 
measure, and mix it well with the sand, and, immediately after- 
wards, to scatter it by way of top-dressing over the green wheat. 
As rain generally succeeds, it is soon washed down to the roots 
of the plants, and gives them a vigor and strength, which, to 
those who never made the experiment, is astonishing. The 
lime, sand, and rubbish, are particularly useful in breaking the 
tenacity of stiff clays. In a clay soil, where coal was very 
cheap, the clay was slightly burned in the field, and spread 
over the surface, as the cheapest way of subduing the coarse- 
ness and stiffness of the soil. The refuse or rubbish from mines 
in the neighborhood has been burned, and applied with advan- 
tage on the same principle. 

1016. Approved method of solving Wheat on narrow ridges. — 
The seedsman should walk up one side of the bed and down 
the other side, alw T ays keeping his face, and the hand with which 
he sows, towards the bed he is sowing ; his eye must be con- 
tinually on the edge of the opposite interfurrow, and deliver his 
seed principally on the side of the bed next to it : as he returns, 
the sides will of course be reversed, and the beds become evenly 

1017. Great utility of sowing Buckwheat. — In light lands, 
buckwheat may be raised to great advantage, as a lucrative 


crop. When green, it is a fine feed for milch-kine ; and when 
ploughed, is a fine preparation for the land. It fattens pigs 
with great economy, and, passed through the mill, is, with car- 
rot, a capital feed for work-horses. The seed is excellent food 
for poultry, and, when ground, makes good bread. 

1018. To keep Crows from Com. — Take a quart of train oil, 
and as much turpentine and bruised gunpowder; boil them to- 
gether, and, when hot, dip pieces of rags in the mixture, and 
fix them on sticks in the field. About four are sufficient for an 
acre of corn. 

1019. Proper Soil for the Culture of Turnips. — Sandy loams, 
in good heart, are most favorable to their growth, though they 
will thrive well on strong loams, if they are not wet; but, on 
clayey, thin, or wet soils, they are not worth cultivating; for, 
though a good crop may be raised on such ground, when well 
prepared and dunged, more damage is done by taking off the 
turnips in winter, in poaching the soil, than the value of the 
crop will repay. , 

1020. Instructions for raising Potatoes to advantage. — The 
earth should be dug twelve inches deep, if the soil will allow 
it; after this, a hole should be opened about six inches deep, 
and horse-dung, or long-litter, should be put therein, about three 
inches thick ; this hole should not be more than twelve inches 
diameter. Upon this dung or litter, a potato should be planted 
whole, upon which a little more dung should be shaken, and 
then the earth must be put thereon. In like manner, the w hole 
plot of ground must be planted, taking care that the potatoes 
be at least sixteen inches apart. When the young shoots make 
their appearance, they should have fresh mould drawn round 
them with a hoe; and if the tender shoots are covered, it will 
prevent the frost from injuring them : they should again be 
earthed when the shoots make a second appearance, but not 
covered, as, in all probability, the season will be less severe. 

A plentiful supply of mould should be given them ; and the 
person who performs this business should never tread upon the 
plant, or the hillock that is raised round it, as the lighter the 
earth is, the more room the potato will have to expand. 

A gentleman obtained from a single root, thus planted, very 
near forty pounds' weight of large potatoes ; and, from almost 


every other root upon the same plot of ground, from fifteen to 
twenty pounds' weight ; and, except the soil be stony or gra- 
velly, ten pounds, or half a peck, of potatoes, may almost be 
obtained from each root, by pursuing the foregoing method. 

1021. Use of the Dandelion. — This is an excellent salad, and 
a good green. Where it grows as a weed, cover it early in the 
spring, with rotten tan, or decayed leaves ; it will soon 
come up. 

1022. Preparations for Carrots and other winged Seeds. — 
Take two bushels of dry loamy earth, finely sifted ; to which 
add one bushel of bran, and a sufficient quantity of carrot seed, 
cleaned from stalks, and well rubbed between the hands ; all 
which thoroughly mix together, and drill (or sow). The car- 
rot seed will stick to the bran, which, with the earth, will be 
regularly discharged. 

1023. To raise a Salad quickly. — Steep lettuce-seed, mustard) 
cresses, &c, in aqua vitas. Mix a little pigeon's dung with 
some mould, and powdered slacked lime. In forty-eight hours 
the salad will be produced. 

1024. Important Discovery relative to the Preservation of 
Grain. — To preserve rye and secure it from insects and rats, 
nothing more is necessary than not to winnow it after it is 
thrashed, but merely separate it from the straw, and to stow it 
in the granaries, mixed with the chaff. In this state it has been 
kept for more than three years without experiencing the 
smallest alteration, and even without the necessity of being 
turned to preserve it from humidity and fermentation. Rats 
and mice may be prevented from entering the barn, by putting 
some wild vine or hedge plants upon the heaps; the smell of 
the wood is so offensive to these animals, that they will not 
approach it. The experiment has not yet been made with 
wheat and other kinds of grain, but they may probably be pre- 
served in the chaff with equal advantage. It must however be 
observed, that the husks and corns of rye are different from 
most other grain. It has been sown near houses where many 
poultry were kept, for the purpose of bringing up a crop of 
grass, because the poultry do not destroy it, as they would 
have done wheat, oats, or even barley in the same situation. 


1025. To preserve Grain in Sacks. — Provide a reed cane, or 
other hollow stick, made so by gluing together two grooved 
sticks; let it be about three feet nine inches long; and that it 
may be easier thrust down to the bottom of the corn in the 
sack, its end to be made to taper to a point, by a wooden plug 
that is fixed in, and stops the orifice. About one hundred and 
fifty small holes, of one-eighth of an inch In diameter, are to be 
bored on all sides of the stick, from its bottom for about two 
feet ten inches of its length ; but no nearer to the surface of 
the corn, lest too great a proportion of the air should escape 
there. By winding a packthread in a spiral form round the 
stick, the boring of the holes may be the better regulated, so as 
to have them about half an inch distant towards the bottom, 
but gradually at wider distances, so as to be an inch asunder at 
the upper part; by which means the lower part of the corn 
will have its due proportion of fresh air. To the top of the 
stick Jet there be*fixed a leathern pipe ten inches long; which 
pipe is to be distended by two yards of spiral wire, coiled up 
within it. At the upper part of the pipe is fixed a taper 
wooden faucet, into which the nose of a common household bel- 
lows is to be put, in order to ventilate the corn. 

If wheat, when first put into sacks, be thus aired, every other 
or third day, for ten or fifteen minutes, its damp sweats which 
would hurt it, will, in a few weeks, be carried oil' to such a de- 
gree, that it will afterwards keep sweet with very little airing 
as has been found by experience. 

By the same means other kinds of seeds, as well as wheat, 
may be kept sweet either in sacks or small bins. 

1026. To preserve Oats from being musty. — Richard Fermor, 
Esq. of Tusmore, in Oxfordshire, has in his stable a contri- 
vance to let oats down from a loft out of a vessel, like the 
hopper of a mill, whence they fall into a square pipe, let into a 
waiJ, about four inches diagonal, which comes into a cupboard 
set into a wall, but with its end so near the bottom, that there 
shall never be above a desirable quantity in the cup-board at a 
time, which being taken aw ay, another parcel succeeds; by this 
motion the oats are kept constantly sweet (the taking away 
one gallon moving the whole above), which, when laid up 
otherwise in great quantities, frequently grow musty. 

1027. Easy Method of destroying Mites or Weevils in Gra- 
naries. — A very sagacious farmer has succeeded in destroying 


weevils, by a very easy process. In the month of June, when 
his granaries were all empty, he collected great quantities of 
the largest sized ants, and scattered them about the places in- 
fested with the weevils. The ants immediately fell upon and 
devoured every one of them ; nor have any weevils since that 
time been seen on his premises. 

Remark. — The large, or wood-ant, feeds entirely on animal 
substances ; of course it would not destroy the corn. 

1028. To 'preserve Carrots, Parsnips, and Beets, all the Win- 
ter. — A little before the frost sets in, draw your beets or pars- 
nips out of the ground, and lay them in the house, burying 
their roots in sand to the neck of the plant, and ranging 
them one by another in a shelving position ; then another 
bed of sand, and another of beets, and continue this order 
to the last. By pursuing this method, they will keep very 
fresh. When they are wanted for use, draw them as they 
stand, not out of the middle or sides. 

1029. To preserve Turnips from Frost. — The best way is to 
stack them up in straw in the following manner : — One load of 
any sort of dry straw is sufficient for an acre of fifty tons' 
weight. Pull up the turnips, top and tail them, then throw 
them in a sort of windrow, and let them lie a few days to dry. 

First, lay a layer of straw next the ground, and upon it a 
layer of turnips about half a yard thick; then another layer of 
straw ; so go on alternately with a layer of straw and a layer 
of turnips ; every layer grows narrower, till it comes to a 
point at the top, like a sugar-loaf. The last layer must be 
straw, which serves to keep all dry. You must observe 
always when you have laid a layer of turnips, to stroke or 
lap over the ends of the under layer of straw, in order to 
keep them close or from tumbling out. The heap should be as 
large as a hay-cock ; the tops may be given to sheep or cattle 
as they are cut off. 

1030. Another. — Turnips placed in layers, though not thick, 
have been found, after a few weeks, to rot. In some places 
the following method is adopted. Lay the turnips close 
together in a single layer, on a grass held, near the farm- 
yard, and scatter some straw and branches of trees over them ; 
tins will preserve them from sudden alternations of frost and 



thaw. They keep as well as stored turnips can do. The bare 
grass is of no value in winter, and may rather perhaps receive 
some benefit from the shelter of the turnip. An immense 
quantity may thus be stored on a small extent of grass ground. 
It is chiefly useful for small farmers, in soils unfit for the tur- 
nip, but who are forced to raise it for milk-cows, or to support, 
in the winter, the sheep they feed in the summer on the com- 
mons, and which they keep, perhaps, principally in the night, 
on the fields they have no other means of manuring. But it 
may be useful, even on proper turnip soils, to save the latter 
part of the crop from the sudden frosts and sunshine in the 
spring, or in an open winter, which rot so great a portion of it ; 
perhaps a fourth or third part of what is then on the ground. 

1031. The good effects of Elder in preserving Plants from 
Insects and Flies. — 1. For preventing cabbage and cauliflower 
plants from being devoured and damaged by caterpillars. 2. 
For preventing blights, and their effects on fruit-trees. 3. For 
preserving corn from yellow flies and other insects. 4. For 
securing turnips from the ravages of flies. The dwarf elder ap- 
pears to exhale a much more fetid smell than the common 
eld^r, and therefore should be preferred. 

1032. The use of Sulphur in destroying Insects on Plants, 
and its Benefit for Vegetation. — Tie up some flower of sulphur 
in a piece of muslin or fine linen, and with this the leaves of 
young shoots of plants should be dusted ; or it may be thrown 
on them by means of a common swans'-down puff, or even by a 

Fresh assurances have repeatedly been received of the pow- 
erful influence of sulphur against the whole triue of insects and 
worms which infest and prey on vegetables. Sulphur has also 
been found to promote the health of plants, on which it was 
sprinkled ; and that peach-trees, in particUiar, were remarkably 
improved by it, and seemed to absorb it. It has likewise been 
observed, that the verdure, and other healthlul appearances, 
were perceptibly increased ; for the quantity of new shoots and 
leaves formed subsequently to the operation, and having no 
sulphur on their surfaces, served as a kind of comparative 
index, and pointed out distinctly the accumulation of health. 

1033. Method of stopping the Ravages of the Cater -pillars J r rcm 
Shrubs, Plants, and Vegetables. — Take a chahng-dish, with 


lighted charcoal, and place it under the branches of the tree, 
or bush, whereon are the caterpillars; then throw a little brim- 
stone on the coals. The vapor of the sulphur, which is mortal 
to these insects, and the suffocating fixed air arising from the 
charcoal, will not only destroy all that are on the tree, but will 
effectually prevent the shrubs from being, that season, infested 
with them. A pound of sulphur will clear as many trees a3 
grow on several acres. 

Another method of driving these insects off fruit-trees, is to 
boil together a quantity of rue, wormwood, and common to- 
bacco (of each equal parts), in common water. The liquor 
should be \evy strong. Sprinkle this on the leaves and young 
branches every morning and evening during the time the fruit 
is ripening. 

In the Economical Journal of France, the following method 
of guarding cabbages from the depredations of caterpillars is 
stated to be infallible, and may, perhaps, be equally service- 
able against those which infest other vegetables. Sow with 
hemp all the borders of the ground wherein the cabbage is 
planted ; and, although the neighborhood be infested with cater- 
pillars, the space inclosed by the hemp will be perfectly free, 
and not one of these vermin will approach it. 

1034. To prevent the Increase of Pismires in Grass Lands 
newly laid down. — Make a strong decoction of walnut-tree 
leaves, and after opening several of the pismires' sandy habita- 
tions, pour upon them a quantity of the liquor, just sufficient to 
fiil the hollow of each heap : after the middle of it has been 
scooped, throw in the contents from the sides, and press down 
the whole mass with the foot, till it becomes level with the 
rest of the field. This, if not found effectual at first, must be 
repeated a second or a third time, when they infallibly will be 

1035. To prevent the Fly in Turnips. — From experiments 
lately made, it has been ascertained that lime sown by hand, 
or distributed by a machine, is an infallible protection to tur- 
nips against the ravages of this destructive insect. It should be 
applied as soon as the turnips come up, and in the same daily 
rotation in which they were sown. The lime should be slacked 
-lmediateiy before it is used, if the air be not sufficiently moist 
to render that operation unnecessary, 


1036. To prevent Mice from destroying early sown Peas.— 
The tops of furze, or whins, chopped and thrown into the drills, 
and thus covered up, (by goading them in their attempt to 
scratch,) is an effectual preventive. Sea-sand, stewed pretty 
thick upon the surface, has the same effect. It gets into their 
ears, and is troublesome. 

1037. Another. — In the gardens in Devonshire, a simple 
trap is used to destroy mice. A common brick, or flat stone, 
is set on one end, inclined at an angle of about forty-five de- 
grees. Two strings, tied to a cracked stick, stuck in the ground, 
with loops at the ends of the strings, are brought round to the 
middle of the under part of the brick, and one loop being put 
into the other, a pea or bean, or any other bait, makes the 
string fast, so as to support the brick. When the animal re- 
moves the bait, the loops separate, and the brick, by falling, 
smothers the animal. 

1038. To Destroy Beetles. — Take some small lumps of un- 
slaked lime, and put into the chinks or holes from which they 
issue, it will effectually destroy them ; or it may be scattered 
on the ground, if they are more numerous than in their holes. 

1039. Another Method. — The simplest and most effectual 
way of destroying beetles is by means of red wafers. As it 
has become usual to substitute vermilion for red lead in the 
composition of wafers, it will be necessary to ask particularly 
ior such as have been made with red lead. Strew these in the 
neighborhood of the crevices from which these insects issue, 
and their future incursions will be speedily prevented. Cock- 
roaches may be destroy ed by the same means. 

1040. For Destroying Bugs and Worms in Wood.— An emi- 
nent physician has discovered that by rubbing wood with a 
solution of vitriol, insects and bugs are prevented from harbor- 
ing therein. When the strength of this remedy is required to 
be increased, there need onJy be boiled some eoloquintida 
apples in water, in which,' afterwards, vitriol is dissolved, and 
the bedstead, with the wood about them, and the wainscoting, 
being anointed with the Jiquor, will be ever after clear of 
worms or bugs. 1 he wall may be likewise rubbed with the 
composition, and some of it may be dropped into the holes 


where these insects are suspected to be harbored. As to the 
walls, they require only to be washed over with the vitriol 

1041. To Destroy Insects on Wall Fruit Trees. — Take an old 
tin watering-pan, or any similar vessel, and make a charcoal 
fire in it; add a tube or pipe, made of either tin, leather, or 
stiff paper, to the spout, which may be of any sufficient length ; 
then strew some brimstone, tobacco-dust, fine shreds of leather, 
&c, upon the fire, in the pan, and cover the top; having a pair 
ui bellows ready, hold the wind-flap over the tube or pipe to 
receive the smoke, which it will do very effectually when you 
use the bellows. By this means the suffocating vapor may be 
directed through the bellows to any part of the tree with the 
greatest ease and facility, and the tree soon cleared of all 

1042. To Destroy the Insect which attacks the Apple Tree, 
commonly called the White Blight, or American Blight. — To a 
strong decoction of the digitalis or foxglove, add a sufficient 
quantity of fresh cow-dung, to give it such a consistence as may 
enable you to apply it with a painters' brush to those parts of 
the bark of the tree, which afford a harbor for this destructive 
insect. The insect is generally destroyed by the first applica- 
tion, though in some instances it may be necessary to repeat it. 
It has been remarked that the insect never returns in future 
years to those parts of the tree which have been thus treated. 

1043. For Destroying Caterpillars on Gooseberry Bushes. — 
Take one Scots pint (two English quarts) of tobacco liquor 
(which may be made, where it cannot be purchased, by infus- 
ing any kind of tobacco in water till all the strength be ex- 
tracted) which the manufacturers of tobacco generally sell for 
destroying bugs, and mix them with about one ounce of alum ; 
and when the alum is sufficiently dissolved, put this mixture 
into a plate, or other vessel, wide and long enough to admit of 
a brush, like a weaver's brush, being dipped into it ; and as 
early in the season as you can perceive the leaves of the bushes 
to be in the least eaten, or the eggs upon the leaves (which 
generally happens about the end of May), and which will be 
found in great numbers on the veins of the leaves on their 
under side; you are then to take the preparation, or liquor, 


and after dipping the brush into it, and holding the brush to- 
wards the under side of the bush, which is to be raised and sup- 
ported by the hands of another person ; and by drawing your 
hand gently over the hairs of the brush, the above liquid is 
sprinkled, and falls in small drops on the leaves ; the conse- 
quence of which is, if the eggs are there, they never come for- 
ward ; and if they have already generated worms, in a minute 
or two after the liquor touches them, they either die or sicken, 
so as to fall off the bush ; at least they do so upon giving it a 
little shake. If, upon their thus falling off, they shall not ap- 
pear completely dead, the bush should be held up, and either 
a little boiling water from a watering-pot thrown over them, or 
a bruise given them by a spade or shovel ; or the earth, where 
they lie, turned over with a hoe. This preparation does not in 
the least injure the bushes. 

1044. To Preserve Flowers, Leaves, and Fruit, from Cater- 
pillars. — These depredators are destroyed by oils, which close 
the lateral pores by which they breathe. For this purpose it is 
advised, that on the approach of spring, a cloth, dipped in train 
oil, be laid on such parts of the tree in which there is the least 
appearance of them. 

1045. Method to destroy or drive away Earth Worms, and 
other Insects, hurtful to Fields and Gardens. — Three parts of 
quick-lime, newly made, and two parts of soap-boilers' ley or 
potash dissolved in water, will produce a somewhat milky liquor 
sufficiently caustic, and highly hostile and poisonous to earth- 
worms and other small animals; for as soon as it touches any 
part of their bodies, it occasions in them violent symptoms of 
great uneasiness, if this liquor be poured into those holes, in 
which the earthworms reside under ground, they immediately 
throw themselves out as if driven by some force, and, after 
various contortions, languish and die. If the leaves of plants or 
fruit-trees, frequented by the voracious caterpillars, which are 
so destructive to them, be sprinkled over with this liquor, 
these insects suddenly contract their bodies and drop to the 
ground. For, though nature has defended them tolerably well 
by their hairy skins, from any thing that might injure their deli- 
cate bodies; yet, as soon as they touch with their feet or mouths 
the leaves which have been moistened by this liquor, they be- 
come, as it were, stupefied, instantly contract themselves, and 
fall down. 


1046. To destroy Earwigs and Wood Lice. — A very simple 
way of ensnaring them, and by which they may be taken alive 
in great quantities, is to place four inch-cuts of reeds, bean- 
haulm, or strong wheat-straw among the branches, and also lay 
a number on the ground, at the bottom of the wall, [n these 
the insects take refuge at day-break, as they depredate chiefly in 
the night; and any time through the day they may be blown 
into a bottle with a little water in it, and so be drowned. Or 
a cheaper way is to burn the straw, and scatter fresh on the 

1047. To destroy Fleas on Dogs. — Rub the animal, when 
out of the house, with the common Scotch snuff, except the nose 
and eyes. Rub the powder well into the roots of the hair. 
Clear lime-water destroys the whitish flea-worm without injuring 
the skin or hair. Oil of turpentine will likewise do so ; but if 
there be any manginess, or the skin be broken, it will give the 
animal much pain. 

1048. To clear Gardens of Vermin, by Ducks. — Ducks are 
excellent vermin-pickers, whether of caterpillars (such as are 
within their reach), slugs, snails, and others, and ought to be 
turned into the garden one or two days every week throughout 
the season. Never keep them longer in than two or three 
hours at a time, else they become indolent. While here, they 
should have a little water set down to them, if there be no pond 
or stream in the garden. 

Never turn them into the garden in the time of heavy rains, 
or in continued wet weather, as in that case, and particularly 
if the soil be stiff, they patter and harden the surface, to the 
great injury of small crops and rising seeds. 

1049. The use of Garlic against Moles, Grubs, and Snails. — 
Moles are such enemies to the smell of garlic, that, in order to 
get rid of these troublesome and destructive guests, it is suffi- 
cient to introduce a few heads of garlic into their subterraneous 
walks. It is likewise employed with success against grubs and 

1050. To prevent the destruction of Fi 'eld Turnips by Slugs. — 
A few years since, a considerable farmer, near Bath, observing 
the turnips in one of his fields strongly attacked by something, 


discovered, by accident, that the enemy was really a slug; and 
immediately prevented farther damage by well rolling the whole 
field, hy night, which killed all the slugs. 

N. B. This was the grand secret which was advertised for 
two thousand subscribers, at one guinea each, by W. Vagg, 
for destroying the fly in turnips — which it will not do ! 

1051. Method of destroying Insects on Fruit Trees. — Make 
a strong decoction of tobacco, and the tender shoots of elder, 
by pouring boiling water on them ; then sprinkle your trees 
with the same (cold) twice a w T eek, for two or three weeks, 
with a small hearth-brush, which will effectually destroy the 
insects, and the leaves will retain their verdure until the fall 
of the year. 

If used early, as soon as the bud unfolds itself, it will proba- 
bly prevent the fly. The effect of tobacco has been long known, 
and elder- water frequently sprinkled on honeysuckles and roses, 
has been found to prevent insects from lodging on them. 

The quantity to be made use of, is one ounce of tobacco to 
one gallon of water, with about two handfuls of elder. You 
may, however, make it as strong as you please, it being per- 
fectly innocent to the plants. 

1052. To destroy Insects prejudicial to Apple-Trees. — To one 
hundred gallons of human urine, and one bushel of lime, add 
cow-dung to bring it to the consistence of paint. With this 
composition anoint the trees. The month of March is the pro- 
per season for applying it. if the white efflorescence-like sub- 
stance in which the insects are lodged, has made its appearance, 
it should previously be brushed off. 

1053. To destroy wasps on Fruit-Trees. — Wasps, about the 
month of July, will begin to swarm about the early fruits; and 
for their destruction, phials should be hung about the branches, 
half-filled with honey and water, or with sugar and small-beer. 
These should be emptied and replaced once in two or three 
days, otherwi>e they do not take so well — these little animals 
being extremely sagacious, and disliking the appearance of their 
own species, when dead. 

1054. Another. — Winter is the proper season to apply the 
following solution. The juiees are then determined to the root. 


Soft soap, two pounds; leaf or roll tobacco, one pound; 
nux-vomica, two ounces; and turpentine, half an English gill : 
boil them in eight English gallons of soft or river water, to six; 
and use it milk-warm. 

Unnail or untie all the branches from the wall or trellis ; 
brush every part of the tree clean with a soft brush, such as is 
used for painting; then, with a sponge, carefully anoint every 
branch, root, and bud ; and be sure rub it well into every joint, 
hole, and angle, as it is there the eggs or larvae of the insects 
are chiefly lodged. The rails, spars, &c, of the espalier or 
trellis, should also be anointed as above. 

This operation should be repeated every winter, some time 
between the fall of the leaf and the first of February, jls may 
be most convenient. The solution is effectually destructive to 
all kinds of insects, their eggs or larvae. 

1055. To kill Reptiles. — Twelve ounces of quick-lime in 
powder, two ounces of Scotch snuff, two ounces of basket salt, 
two ounces of sulphur vivum, dissolved in ten gallons of water, 
and thrown on the insects, either in the liquid or powder, will 
destroy them. 

1056. To prevent Slugs from getting into Fruit-Trees. — If the 
trees are standards, tie a coarse horse-hair rope about them, 
two or three feet from the ground. If they are against the wall, 
nail a narrow slip of coarse horse-hair cloth against the wall, 
about half a foot from the ground, and they will never get over 
it; for if they attempt it, it will kill them, as their bellies are 
soft, and the horse-hair will wound them. 

105?. To destroy Snails. — Snails are great enemies to wall- 
fruit; and any dewy -morning you may easily find where they 
most delight to breed ; but the best way is to find out their 
haunts in a hard winter, and then destroy them : they lie much 
in holes of walls, under thorns, behind old trees or old and close 
hedges. Jf you pluck not the fruit they have begun to devour, 
but let it alone, they will finish their repast on this, before they 
begin another. 

1058. To destroy the Red Spider, so troublesome in dry sea- 
sons. — The red spider makes its appearance in hot, dry weather, 
and is always found on the under sides of the leaves, generally 


on roughish leaves, but not always so. It preys on the apple 
cherry, fig, peach, pear, and plum — seldom on ihe apricot. It 
is among the smallest of the acari, and is sometimes not dis- 
tinguishable without a microscope, it' the bark of the leaf be 
viewed through one, it appears full of its webs ; and if many 
abound on it, the leaf appears full of punctures, becomes dis- 
colored, and brown on the upper surface, fades, and falls off. 

This insect is more troublesome in dry seasons than in moist 
ones, and is wonderfully encouraged by heat — insomuch, that 
hot-houses of every description are sadly infested with it. Wa- 
ter, and water only, is its bane; and the syringe, or the force- 
pump, the engine of its destruction. It is not a mere sprinkling 
that will do; it requires a forcible dashing to and fro, and that 
often repeated, to be effectual. 

1059. To destroy Vermin in Granaries and other Outbuild- 
ings, — Cover completely the wall:* and jailers, above and below, 
of the granaries, &c, which are infested with weevils and other 
verm in, with quick-lime sJaked in water, in which trefoil, worm- 
wood, and hyssop have been boiled. This composition ought 
to be applied as hut as possible. 

10G0. To destroy Worms in Gardens. — Water your beds 
with a strong decoction of walnut-tree leaves where there are 
worm casts; the worms will immediately rise up out of the 
earth, and )ou may easily take and cut them to pieces, and fat- 
ten your poultry therewith, or feed fish in ponds with them. 

By laying ashes or lime about any plant, neither snails nor 
worms v\iil come near it. As the moisture weakens it, you 
must, more or less, continue to renew the lime or ashes. 

10G1. To destroy Worms in Gravel Walks, dec. — Pour into 
the holes a ley, made of wood ashes and lime; this will also 
destroy insects, if trees are sprinkled with it. bait and water 
will do as well. 

10G2. Usefulness of the Wren in destroying Insects. — As a 
devourer of pernicious insects, one of the most useful birds is 
tiie house wren, 'lhis little bird seems to be particularly fond 

of the society of man, and it must be confessed that it is often 
protected by his interested care. It has long been a custom, in 
many parts of the country, to fix a small box at the end of a 


long pole, in gardens, about houses, &c, as a place for it to 
build in. In these boxes they build and hatch their young. 
When the young are hatched, the parent bird feeds them with 
a variety of different insects, particularly such as are injurious 
hi gardens. An intelligent gentleman was at the trouble to 
observe the number of times a pair of these birds came from 
their box, and returned with insects for their young. He found 
that they did this from 40 to 60 times in an hour, and in one 
particular hour, the birds carried food to their young 71 times. 
In this business they were engaged the greater part of the day ; 
say 12 hours. Taking the medium therefore of 50 times in an 
hour, it appeared that a single pair of these birds took from the 
cabbage, salad, beans, peas, and other vegetables in the gar- 
den, at least 600 insects in the course of one day. This calcu- 
lation proceeds upon the supposition that the two birds took 
only a single insect each time. But it is highly probable they 
often took several at a time. 

1063. To destroy Rats and other Vermin. — Sponge, if cut in 
small pieces, fried or dipped in honey, and given to vermin, 
distends their intestines, and effectually destroys them. The 
addition of a little oil of Khodium will tempt them to eat. 

A better method would be to feed them regularly two or 
three weeks in any apartment which they infest. The hole, by 
which they enter, being first fitted with a sliding door, to 
which a long string may be added ; any apartment might thus 
be turned into a gigantic rat-trap. 

1064. Another Method of Destroying Rats. — Lay bird-lime 
in their haunts, for though they are nasty enough in other re- 
spects, yet being very curious of their fir, if it is but daubed 
with this stuff, it is so troublesome to them that they will even 
scratch their skins from off their own backs to get it off, and 
will never abide in a place where they have suffered in this 

1065. To destroy Rats or Mice. — Mix flour of malt with 
some butter; add thereto a drop or two of oil of anise-seeds ; 
make it up into balls, and bait your traps therewith. If you 
have thousands, by this means you may take them all. 

1066. A Mouse Trap, by which forty or fifty Mice may be 
caught in a Night. — Take a plain four-square trencher, and put 


into the two contrary ends of it a large pin, or piece of thick 
knitting-needle; then take two sticks about a yard long, and 
lay them on your dresser, with a notch cut at each end of your 
sticks, placing the two pins, stuck on the corner of the trencher, 
on the notches of the two sticks, so that one corner of your 
trencher may lie about an inch upon your dresser or place that 
the mice may come to ; then let the corner that lies opposite 
to this be baited with some butter and oatmeal, plastered fast 
on, and when the mice run off the dresser to the butter, it will 
tip them into a vessel full of water, which you must place under 
the trencher, in which they will be drowned. 

That your trencher may not tip over, with a little sealing- 
wax and a thread seal the string to the dresser and trencher, 
and it will remain in good order for weeks or months. 

1067. New, simple, and effectual Method of destroying Rats. 
— A few years ago, the corn-mill at Glossop was \ery much 
infested with rats. A quantity of barley, which lay on the 
chamber floor was hourly visited by some of them. The miller 
one day going to drive them away as usual, happened to catch 
one of them under his hat, which he killed ; he then singed all 
the hair off its body, &c., until its skin, tail, and legs, became 
stiff by the operation. In this condition he set it upon its feet 
by the side of a heap of barley, where it stood, with pricked- 
up ears and tail, for some time ; after this, no rat dared to 
come near it; and in a short space of time the mill was cleared 
of those depredators, and has continued so ever since. 

1068. To prevent the Burrowing of Rats in Houses. — Rats 
may be effectually prevented from burrowing under the foun- 
dation of houses, by making an offset of stone or brick, about 
two feet in breadth, and eighteen inches below the surface ; and 
by carrying up a perpendicular wall from the edge of this off- 
set, to within a few inches of the ground. The adoption of the 
same plan inside will prevent the burrowing of these animals in 
cellars ; for rats always burrow close to a wall ; and finding 
their perpendicular course impeded, they take a horizontal di- 
rection, as far as the offset continues, when they are again 
stopped by the outside wall. Thus baffled, they .ascend, and 
go off. 

Those persons who have suffered in their granaries, ice- 
houses, and in the cellars of their dwelling-houses, by the depre- 


dations of rats, will probably deem this one of the most valu- 
able articles of the present work. 

1069. To keep Ponds and Artificial Pieces of Water free from 
Weeds. — At the Marquis of Exeter's seat, near Burghley, there 
is an artificial piece of water, about a mile in length, which 
used to be so over-run with weeds, that three men were em- 
ployed constantly, for six months in every year, to keep them 
under ; in which they never perfectly succeeded. About seven 
years ago, two pair of swans were put on the water : they com- 
pletely cleared away all the weeds the first year, and none have 
appeared since, as the swans constantly eat them before they 
rise to the surface. 

1070. Usefulness of Mowing Weeds. — In the month of June 
weeds are in their most succulent state ; and in this state, espe- 
cially after they have lain a few hours to wither, hungry cattle 
will eat greedily almost every species. There is scarcely a 
hedge, border, or nook, but at this season is valuable, and it 
must certainly be good management to embrace the transient 
opportunity ; for in a few weeks they will become nuisances. 

1071. On the great Increase of Milk from feeding Milch Cows 
with Sainfoin. — The quantity of milk produced by cows fed by 
sainfoin is nearly double to that of any other food. The milk 
is also much richer, and will yield a larger quantity of cream. 
The butter will also be better colored and flavored than any 

1072. Parsnips productive of Milk in Cows. — Parsnips cause 
cows to produce abundance of milk, and they eat them as free 
as they do oil-cake. Land, 11. an acre in Guernsey, is sown 
with parsnips to feed cattle, and the milk is like cream. — Sheep, 
when lambing, fed with them, produce much milk. They are 
improper food for horses, subjecting them to blindness. 

1073. Most proper Food for Milch Cows. — Milch cow T s are in- 
finitely more profitable kept in the house than out of doors ; 
but they must be trained to it, otherwise they do not thrive. 

The best food for them are clover, lucern, potatoes, yams^ 
turnips, carrots, cabbages, peas, and beans. 

Such cows as those in the neighborhood of London, kept in 


the house, and properly fed, ought to yield nine gallons per day, 
for the first four months after calving. 

1074. Additional Quantity of Milk to be gained by keeping 
Milch Cows in the House. — In the management of cows a warm 
stable is highly necessary ; and currying them like horses not 
only affords them pleasure, but makes them give their milk 
more freely. They ought always to be kept clean, laid dry, 
and have plenty of good sw T eet water to drink. Cows treated 
in this manner have given two gallons of milk at a time, when 
within ten days of calving. 

1075. Utility of Carrots as Food for Horses and other stall 
Beasts. — Carrots are excellent food for horses, either given 
alone, or along with hay, likewise for fattening stall beasts. 
They make them eat straw, and very indifferent hay, greedily. 
If the same be given to cows, the milk will have a much less 
offensive taste and smell than when they are fed on turnips. 

Remark. — It must be noted, however, that carrots, though 
very excellent, are a very expensive food. They would not 
enable a farmer to pay his rent. 

1076. Excellent Method of rearing Calves, and of preserving 
the Cream, and a great Part of the Milk during that Time. — 
Put some water on the fire, nearly the quantity that the calf 
can drink. When it boils, throw into it one or two handfuls 
of oatmeal, and suffer the whole to boil for a minute. Then 
leave it to cool until new-milk-warm. Then mix with it one 
\ or two quarts of milk, that has stood twelve hours, and has 
been skimmed : stir the whole, and give it the calf to drink. 
At first it is necessary to make the calf drink by presenting the 
fingers to it, but it soon learns to do without this help, and will 
grow incomparably faster than by the old method. This new 
method is not orfly a theoretical truth, but its success is con- 
firmed by experience. 

The economical advantages resulting from it are as follows. 
According to the old method, a calf intended for slaughter is 
made to suck for three weeks, and those intended for agricul- 
ture, from six to eight weeks. Supposing the cow gives only a 
moderate quantity of milk, the value of it will amount, in 
three weeks, to nearly the value of the calf. If, on the con 
trary, we rear a calf according to this method, we consume 


during the three weeks only three quarts of oatmeal, at most, 
and the skimrned milk. 

Calves that have been brought up by this method have been 
always healthy and strong, and not subject to disease. They 
are not suffered to suck at all, but to have the pure milk of the 
mother to drink for the first four days, because it has been ob- 
served, that the separation, after four days, is more painful to 
the mother than when the calf is taken from her soon after its 

1077. Rules for Milking Cows. — Cows should be milked 
three times a day, if fully fed throughout the summer, and 
great caution should be exercised by the persons employed, to 
draw the milk from them completely, not only to increase the 
quantity of produce, but to preserve its quality. Any portion 
which may be left in the udder seems gradually absorbed in 
the system, and no more is formed than enough to supply the 
loss of what is taken away, and by the continuance of the same 
mode, a yet farther diminution of the secretion takes place, till 
at length scarcely any is produced. This last method of milk- 
ing is always practised, when it is intended that a cow should 
be rendered drv. 

1078. Proper Temperature for a Dairy. — The apartments 
appropriated for dairy purposes should, if possible, possess a 
moderate temperature throughout the year, and should be kept 
perfectly clean and dry. The temperature of about fifty-live 
degrees is most favorable for the separation of the cream from 
the milk. The utensils of the dairy are best made of wood; 
lead and copper are soluble in acid, and highly pernicious; and 
though iron is not injurious, the taste of it might render the 
produce of the dairy unpalatable. 

1079. Method of making excellent Butter from the Milk of 
Cows fed upon Turnips. — Let the bowls, either lead or wood, 
be kept constantly clean, and well scalded with boiling water, 
before using. When the milk is brought into the dairy, to 
every eight quarts mix one quart of boiling water ; then put 
up the milk into the bowls to stand for cream. By keeping 
strictly to this method, you will have, during the winter, con- 
stantly sweet and well-tasted butter from the milk of cows fed 
upon turnips. 


1080. Improved Method of making Butter. — If the dairy con- 
sists of three or four cows, they should be milked in the sum- 
mer thrice a day ; in the morning, at noon, and in the evening. 
Each milking must be kept by itself, in flat wooden vessels, to 
cool in like manner; and thus in succession for two or three 
days, according to the temperature of the air, the milk thickens, 
and thence is fit for churning, soonest in the warmest 
weather. The quantity of butter will be generally in the pro- 
portion of a pound (twenty-two ounces) for each ten pints, or 
five English gallons of milk. In winter, the cows are to be 
milked only twice a day, and the milk is to be put into the 
churn warm from the cow, where it must stand a day or two 
longer than in summer before it becomes sufficiently thick ; 
although to promote the coagulation, it is sometimes brought 
near the kitchen fire, particularly on the preceding night before 
it is churned ; and, in intense cold, it will be necessary to add 
a small quantity of boiling water. The operation of churning 
is performed with the plunge-churn, from two to three hours, 
for thirty or forty pints of milk; and at the last stage of the 
process, a little coid water thrown in has the effect of pro- 
moting the separation of the butter from the milk. This me- 
thod of making butter lias long been practiced in England ; it 
may be worth trial in A • rica. 

N.B. — The dairy-maid must not be disheartened if she does 
not succeed perfectly in her first attempt. 

1081. To prevent Cow.s from contracting bad Hahits while 
Milking, — Cows should always be treated with great gentleness, 
and soothed by mild usage, especially when young and ticklish, 
or when the paps are tender, in which case the udder ought to 
be fomented with warm water, before milking, and touched 
with the greatest gentleness, otherwise the cow will be in 
danger of contracting bad habits, becoming stubborn and un- 
ruly, and retaining her milk ever after. A cow never lets 
down her milk pleasantly to the person she dreads or dislikes. 
The udder and paps should always be washed with clean water 
before milking ; but care should be taken that none of that 
water be admitted into the milking pail. 

1082. To mark Sheep, without injury to the Wool. — To thirty 
spoonfuls of linseed oil, add two ounces of litharge and one 


ounce of lamp-black : unite them together by boiling, and mark 
the sheep therewith. 

1083. To improve the Wool of Sheep, by Smearing. — Imme- 
diately after the sheep are shorn, soak the roots of the wool 
that remain all over with oil or butter and brimstone ; and 
three or four days afterwards, w r ash them with salt and water. 
The wool of next season will not only be much finer, but the 
quantity will be in greater abundance. It may be depended 
upon, that the sheep will not be troubled with the scab or 
vermin that year. Salt water is a safe and effectual remedy 
against maggots. 

1084. To preserve Cattle from Disease in the Winter. — When 
cattle are kept out in the winter, it is recommended as an use- 
ful practice to rub some tar at the root of the horn, which pre- 
vents the wet from getting between the root and the skin, and, 
it is said, contributes to preserve the health of the animal, and 
to keep it free from various diseases to which it may otherwise 
be liable. 

1085. How to Promote the Health of Farm Animals. — All 
domestic animals should be abundantly furnished with salt. A 
supply kept within their reach, whenever it can be done, is re- 
commended. Horses and pigs should occasionally have ashes 
given them in their food ; and pigs ought at all times, when 
confined in pens, to be supplied with charcoal, as, besides being 
a medicine, it is a cheap and valuable food. 

1086. Parsley recommended to Farmers to be sown with Rape- 
seed, as a preservative against the Resp in Sheep. — A correspon- 
dent of the " Chester Chronicle " recommends to all farmers 
who sow rape-seed, to sow with it a small portion of parsley 
at the same time ; this he pronounces an infallible preservative 
against the malady well-known by the name of resp, in sheep : 
he also advises to sow parsley on turnip land at the time of 
hoeing turnips. The above correspondent asserts, that he has 
pursued this plan upwards of twenty -five years, and during tfat 
time he has never lost one sheep, either in rape or turnip land. 

Remark. — In some counties, parsley is sown with clover, on 
the supposition that it prevents cattle from being bursten, or 
hoven. IS 


1087. How to catch Sheep. — Never seize them by the wool 
on the back ; it hurts them exceedingly, and, in some cases, 
has been known to kill them, particularly in hot weather, when 
they are large and fat. The best way is to avoid the wool alto- 
gether ; accustom yourself to take them by the hind leg, or 
what is still better, by the neck, placing one hand under the 
jaws, and the other at the back of the ears. By lifting up the 
head, in this manner, a child may hold almost any sheep, with- 
out danger to the animal or himself. 

1088. Mr. BakewelVs Liquid for the cure of the Foot-ret in 
Sheep. — Dissolve four ounces, each, of vitriol and common 
alum, three ounces of verdigris, an ounce and a half of white 
mercury, and an ounce of white copperas, all finely pulverized, 
in a quart of white- wine vinegar. 

10S9. Mr. Cullefs Bed Salve, to care the Rot in Sheep. — 
Mix four ounces of the best honey, two ounces of burnt alum, 
reduced to powder, and half a pound of Armenian bole, with 
as much train or fish oil as will convert these ingredients into 
the consistence of a salve. The honey must first be gradually 
dissolved, when the Armenian bole must be stirred in ; after- 
wards the alum and train oil are to be added. 

1090. A profitable way of fattening Pigs. — Put four pigs in 
a sty, for they feed best in company ; but if there are too many, 
they are apt to quarrel : feed them moderately the first week ; 
and thrice during the second week, mix with their barley-meal 
as much antimony as will lie on a shilling; and the third w r eek, 
twice give them the same quantity. I need scarcely observe, 
it is in powder. 

This purifies the blood, gives them an appetite, and makes 
them thrive apace. 

1091. New mode of fattening Pigs. — A pig lately gained, by 
feeding on Indian corn, in the course of six weeks and three 
days, the enormous weight of fifteen stone. This mode of feed- 
ing has long been known to the Neapolitans, whose pigs are so 
fat, as hardly to be able to move. 



1092. Proper situation for a Green-House. — The aspect of a 
green-house may be at any point from east to west, following 
the course of the sun ; or, it may even be a little to the north 
of east or west ; but only a little, and the less the better, other- 
wise the plants will not generally thrive in it, nor will the 
flowers acquire their natural colors. A south aspect is to be 

1093. On preserving Seeds of Plants in a state fit for Vege- 
tation. — Seeds of plants may be preserved, for many months 
at least, by causing them to be packed, either in husks, pods, 
&c, in absorbent paper, with raisins or brown moist sugar; 
or, a good way, practised by gardeners, is to wrap the seed in 
brown paper or cartridge paper, pasted down, and then varnish- 
ed over. 

1094. To facilitate the Growth of Foreign Seeds. — Mr. Hum- 
boldt has found, that seeds which do not commonly germinate 
in our climate, or in our hot-houses, and which, of course, we 
cannot raise for our gardens, or hope to naturalize in our fields, 
become capable of germinating, when immersed for some days 
in a weak, oxygenized muriatic acid. This interesting discovery 
has already turned to advantage in several botanic gardens. 

1095. To plant and make Edgings. — Edgings of daisies, thrift, 
violets, gentianella, &c, should be planted in February ; but 
those of box succeed better, if planted in April or August. 

1096. To train Evergreen and other Hedges. — Evergreen 
hedges may be dipt about the beginning, but not later than 
the middle of April, as by that time they will begin to grow — 
and it is proper that this work should be previously performed. 
Some content themselves with clipping but once a year, in 
which case the end of July, or first of August, is a better time. 

In trimming these, or indeed any hedge intended as a close 
fence, they should be dressed up to a thin edge at top, as other- 
wise they are apt to get full of gaps below ; and the cause is 
obvious, that the under part, in square or cut hedges, is too 
much shaded by the upper part. Now, by sloping the sides, 


every part of the hedge is freely exposed to the air ; nor is any 
part over-dropped by another. A hedge, intended merely as 
a fence, need seldom be more than five feet high, or at most 
six. Screen hedges may be allowed to run to any height 
thought necessary for the purpose ; neither is it requisite to trim 
them so often as fence-hedges ; once a year, or in two years, 
may be sufficient. 

In the training of any hedge, it should not be topped or short- 
ened, till it has arrived at a full yard in height; but it may 
then have a little taken off the points, in order to make it bush 
the better, and shoot afterwards of a more regular height ; the 
sides, however, should be trimmed from the second or third, 
year of planting, that it may grow the more complete and close 
below, for therein consists the excellence of any fence. It should 
not in topping, at any time while in training, be much cut in, 
as that would make it push the stronger to the top, to the detri- 
ment of the sides. When fence-hedges outgrow their limits, 
they must, of course, be cut either wholly or partly down ; but 
if they be tolerably well kept, it is seldom necessary to cut 
them down more than half to the ground. 

1097. How to cut Box Edgings. — Box edgings should be cut 
about the beginning of April, or in the end of July. They 
should, however, be cut once a year, and should be kept two 
inches in breadth at bottom ; being tapered up to a thin edge 
at top; for nothing looks so ill as a large, bushy edging, espe- 
cially to a narrow walk. The use of edging is to separate the 
earth from the gravel ; and the larger they are allowed to grow, 
the less effectual they become ; getting the more open below, 
as they advance in height. Such also harbor snails, and other 
troublesome vermin. 

1098. A sure method of curing Gravel-Walks. — Three parts 
pond-water to one of brine, from the salting-tub in a family, 
poured with a watering-pot upon gravel- walks, will not only 
kill the moss upon them, but drive aw T ay the worms which 
make so many holes in them, and also prevent w r eeds springing 
up. This a gentleman lately tried, who has several gravel- 
walks in a grove near his house. Since he moistened his walks 
with brine — which is now four years ago — they are incommoded 
neither by moss, w r eeds, nor worms. Every autumn he causes 
them to be well watered with the brine and pond-water, during 


a whole week, to prevent moss ; and a week in the spring, to 
guard against weeds and worms; besides giving them a sprink- 
ling every now and then, in the summer-season, when they 
seem to want it. 

1099. Proper method of laying Carnations. — In summer, 
towards the latter-end of June, or any time in July or begin- 
ning of August, when the shoots of the year are advanced to a 
proper growth, being from four, five, or six, to seven or eight 
inches long, which are to be laid as they grow on the plants, 
and to remain affixed thereto till rooted on the ground. 

Thus far observed, begin the work by first clearing away all 
weeds about the plants, and loosen the earth a little around 
them, and if the surface is low, add some mould thereto suffi- 
cient to raise it high enough to receive the layers easily ; then 
begin laying the shoots one by one ; strp off the lower leaves 
so as to have some inches of a clear shoot below ; and trim the 
top leaves shorter and even, and then slit or gash the shoot on 
the under side ; in doing which, fix on a joint about the middle 
of the shoot underneath, and with your sharp knife cut half 
through the joint, and slanting upwards, so as to slit the shoot 
up the middle half an inch, or but little more ; which done, 
directly lay it, by bending it down to the earth with the gash 
or slit part open, making an opening in the earth, and peg it 
down with one or two of the small-hooked sticks, and earth 
over the body of the layer an inch or two deep, still keeping 
the slit open and the top raised gently upright, pressing the 
earth moderately upon them ; and in this manner proceed with 
laying all the shoots on each plant ; and when all are laid, give 
a gentle watering to settle the earth close about the layers, 
and repeat it frequently in dry weather. 

They will soon emit roots at the gash or slit part, generally at 
the bottom of the tongue, and in five or six weeks will often be 
rooted fit for separating and planting off from the parent, so 
that when they have been about five, six, or seven weeks laid, 
you will examine the progress they have made in rooting, by 
opening the earth gently about some of the layers ; and as 
soon as they appear to be tolerably rooted, let them be cut off 
from the old plant with a sharp knife, in order to be timely 
planted out in nursery beds, that they may root more abun- 
dantly, and get due strength before winter ; observing, in cut- 
ting them off from the mother plant, to open the ground so as 


to take them up with all the roots they have made, and cut 
them clean off beyond the gash; afterwards trim off any naked 
woody part or bottom, but preserve all the roots, and trim the 
long tops a little, then plant them in nursery cows, six inches 
asunder, or you may prick some in small pots, one layer in 
each, giving water directly at planting, and repeat it often in 
dry weather till they take good root, and grow freely, keeping 
them clean from weeds. 

Those in the nursery beds will, by October, be good strong 
plants. The choicest sorts may then be planted in pots, to 
move under occasional shelter in time of severe frost, and for 
which purpose, either use small pots (32) to contain them all 
winter, or plant them in large pots (24 or 1G) to remain to 
flower, observing to take them up out of the nursery beds for 
potting, &c, with a garden trowel, each layer with a good ball 
of earth about the roots; and having the pots ready, place a 
shell over the holes at bottom, and put some good light rich 
earth therein ; plant one layer with its ball about the roots en- 
tire in each pot, fill up with more earth, and give some water ; 
you may also at the same time plant some of the more ordi- 
nary or common sorts into flower-borders or beds, to stand the 
full weather all the year ; but the choicer sorts in the pots may, 
in November, be placed close together, either in a garden- 
frame, to have occasional protection of the glasses, or mats, in 
severe frost, and have the full air in all open weather and mild 
days, or may be plunged in a raised bed of any dry compost, 
raised some inches above the common level, and arched over 
with hoop arches, in order to be protected with occasional cov- 
ering of garden mats when hard frosts prevail ; but in either 
method, be sure to expose them fully in all open weather, as 

In the spring, such as have remained all winter in small pots 
should, in February or early in March, be turned out with the 
ball of earth about the root, and planted into larger pots, to 
remain for flowering, giving proper waterings ; and those which 
were potted at once into larger pots in autumn .should now have 
the earth stirred at top, taking out some, and fill up with fresh 
good earth, and give a little water. 

The layers planted in the common borders of the pleasure 
and flower garden require no other care than keeping them 
clean from weeds, and tying up the flower stalks to sticks when 
they are advanced long enough to require support. 


1100. To remove Herbs and Flowers in the Summer. — If you 
have occasion to transplant in the summer season, Jet it be in 
the evening after the heat is past ; plant and water the same 
immediately, and there will be no danger from the heat next 
day ; but be careful, in digging up the earth, you do not break 
any of the young shoots, as the sap will exude out of the same 
to the great danger of the plants. 

1101. New Method of raising Cucumbers. — From the best 
seed that can be got of the common prickly cucumber, raise 
plants on a moderate hot-bed, not hurrying them too much in 
their growth. In May, when the danger of the frost is nearly 
over, familiarize the plants, by degrees, to the air, and towards 
the latter end of the month plant them in the open ground 
against a south wall. Take care not to give them too much 
water, as that will injure the fruit. When they have run up 
about five feet, they will send forth blossoms, and the fruit will 
begin to show itself soon after. The flesh of cucumbers raised 
in this manner will be thicker and firmer, and the flavor vastly 
more delicious, than those raised from the same seed, but 
planted in the ordinary way, and the runners suffered to trail 
on the ground. Though a south wall in most gardens, is too 
much appropriated to other things, to give room for cucumbers 
in general, yet in every garden a few plants may be so trained 
by way of rarity, and to save seed, which is found to be greatly 
improved by this method, so as to produce much better 
cucumbers in the common way of raising them. One or two 
plants, so raised, will supply a sufficient quantity of seed for a 
large garden. 

Laying a cucumber or melon-bed with tiles, is also of par- 
ticular service in improving the fruit, and giving it a proper 

1102. To prevent the irregular Growth of Melons. — It is well 
known that melons frequently, in certain situations, lose their 
circular form, and grow larger on one side than the other, and 
that those misshapen fruits are always bad. To remedy this, 
take a small forked stick, in proportion to the size of the melon, 
and thrust it in the ground as nearly as possible to the tail of 
the fruit, taking the precaution to lay a little moss between the 
two prongs, and suspend the melon to this fork. In a few days 
the melon will resume its form, when the fork may be removed, 


and the operation is finished. The quality of the fruit remains 

1103. Easg Method of producing Mushrooms. — If the water 
wherein mushrooms have been steeped or washed be poured 
upon an old bed, or if the broken parts of mushrooms be 
strewed thereon, there will speedily arise great numbers. 

1104. To obtain a good Crop of Onions. — In order to obtain 
a good crop of onions, it is proper to sow at different seasons, 
viz., in light soils, in August, January, or early in February ; 
and in heavy wet soils, in March, or early in April. Onions, 
however, should not be sown in January, unless the ground be 
in a dry state, which is not often the case at so early a period 
of the season ; but if so, advantage should be taken of it. 

1105. The Advantage of sowing Peas in Circles instead of 
straight Rows. — It is a great error in those persons who sow 
the rows of tall-growing peas close together. It is much better 
in all those sorts, which grow six or eight feet high, to have 
only one row, and then to leave a bed ten or twelve feet wide 
for onions, carrots, or any crops which do not grow tall. 

The advantages which will be derived are, that the peas will 
not be drawn up so much, be stronger, will flower much nearer 
to the ground, and in wet weather can be more easily gathered 
without wetting you. 

But instead of sowing peas in straight rows, if you will form 
the ground into circles of three feet diameter, with a space of 
two feet between each circle, in a row thirty feet long, you will 
have six circles of peas, each nine feet, in all fifty-four feet of 
peas, instead of thirty, on the same extent of ground. 

If you want more than one row of circles, leave a bed of ten 
or twelve feet before you begin another. 

For the very tall sorts, four feet circles will afford more 
room for the roots to grow in, and care must be taken, by ap- 
plying some tender twigs, or strings, to prevent the circles from 
joining each other. 

This method is equally applicable for scarlet-beans. 

1106. To raise Peas in Autumn, and to prevent Mice from 
eating them when sown. — The purple-flowered peas are found to 
answer best for a late crop in autumn, as they are not so liable 


to be mildewed as many of the other sorts, and will continue 
flowering till the frost stops them. 

Those peas may be sown in July, August, or so late as the 
first week in September, if sown in a warm, sheltered situation, 
and in a soil inclining to sand. 

Soak the peas in warm milk, and after you have drawn the 
drills, water them before you sow the peas ; it is best to sow 
them towards the evening. If the autumn should prove very 
dry, they will require frequent watering. 

When peas are sown before winter, or early in spring, they 
are very apt to be eaten by mice. 

To prevent this, soak the peas for a day or two in train oil 
before you sow them, which will encourage their vegetation, 
and render them so obnoxious to the mice, that they will not 
eat them. 

1107. Method of cultivating Radishes for Salad, so as to have 
them ready at all seasons of the year. — Take seeds of the common 
radish, and lay them in rain-water to steep for twenty-four hours ; 
then put them quite wet into a small linen bag, well tied at the 
mouth with packthread. If you have steeped a large quantity 
of seeds, you may divide them into several bags. Then expose 
the bags in a place where they will receive the greatest heat of 
the sun, for about twenty-four hours, at the end of which time 
the seed will begin to grow, and you may then sow it in the 
usual manner, in earth well exposed to the heat of the sun. 
Prepare two small tubs to cover each other exactly. These 
may be easily provided, by sawing a small cask through the 
middle, and they will serve in winter ; in summer one will be 
sufficient for each kind of earth that has been sown. As soon 
as you have sown your seeds you must cover them with your 
tub, and at the end of three days you will find radishes of the 
size and thickness of young lettuces, having at their extremities 
two small round leaves, rising from the earth, of a reddish 
color. These radishes, cut or pulled up, will be excellent, if 
mixed with salad, and they have a much more delicate taste 
than the common radishes which are eaten with salt. 

By taking the following precautions, you may have them in 
the winter, and even during the hardest frosts : After having 
steeped the seeds in warm water, and exposed them to the sun, 
as already directed, or in a place sufficiently hot to make them 
shoot forth, warm the two tubs ; fill one of them with earth 



well dunged ; sow your seeds, thus prepared, in one of them, 
and cover it with the other tub; you must then be careful to 
sprinkle it with warm water as often as may be necessary. 
Then carry the two tubs closely joined, taking care they cover 
each other, into a warm vault, or cellar, and at the end of fif- 
teen days you may gather a fine salad. 

1108. To preserve Strawberry Plants from the Heat of the 
Sun, dec. — Sir Joseph Banks, from a variety of experiments, 
and the experience of many years, recommends a general revi- 
val of the now almost obsolete practice of laying straw under 
strawberry-plants, when the fruit begins to swell ; by which 
means the roots are shaded from the sun, the waste of moisture 
by evaporation prevented, the leaning fruit kept from damage 
by resting on the ground, particularly in wet weather, and 
much labor in watering saved. Twenty trusses of long straw 
are sufficient for 1800 feet of plants. 

1109. Jjircctions for managing Strawberries in Summer. — On 
the management of strawberries in June and July, the future 
prosperity of them greatly depends; and if each plant has not 
been kept separate, by cutting off the runners, they will be in 
a state of confusion, and you will find three different sorts of 

1. Old plants, whose roots are turned black, hard, and 

2. Young plants, not strong enough to flower. 

3. Flowering plants, which ought only to be there, and per- 
haps not many of them. 

Before the time of flowering is quite over, examine them, 
and pull up every old plant which has not flowered ; for, if 
once they have omitted to flower, you may depend upon it 
they never will produce any after, being too old, and past bear- 
ing ; but to be fully convinced, leave two or three, set a stick 
to them, and observe them the next year. 

If the young plants, runners of last year, be too thick, take 
some of them away, and do not leave them nearer than a foot 
of the scarlet, alpines, and wood, and fifteen or sixteen inches 
of all the larger sorts; and in the first rainy weather in July or 
August, take them all up, and make a fresh plantation with 
them, and they will be very strong plants for flowering next 


Old beds, even if the plants be kept single at their proper 
distance, examine, and pull all the old plants which have not 

When the fruit is nearly all gathered, examine them again, 
and cut off the runners ; but if you want to make a fresh plant- 
ation, leave some of the two first, and cut off all the rest. Then 
stir up the ground with a trowel, or three-pronged fork, and in 
August they will be fit to transplant. 

If you have omitted in July, do not fail in August, that the 
runners may make good roots, to be transplanted in Septem 
ber ; for, if later, the worms will draw them out of the ground, 
and the frost afterwards will prevent them from striking root ; 
the consequence of which is, their not flowering the next spring ; 
and you will lose a year. 

1110. To cultivate the common Garden Rhubarb. — It is not 
enough to give it depth of good soil, but it must be watered in 
drought; and in winter must be well covered with straw or 
dung. If this is attended to, your rhubarb will be solid when 
taken out of the ground ; and your kitchen, if a warm one, 
will soon fit it for use. 

1111. Method of cultivating and curing Turkey Rhubarb from 
Seed. — The seed should be sown about the beginning of Febru- 
ary, on a bed of good soil, (if rather sandy, the better) exposed 
to an east or west aspect in preference to the south ; a full sun 
being prejudicial to the vegetation of the seeds, and to the 
plants whilst young. 

The seeds are best sown moderately thick, (broad cast) tread- 
ing them regularly in, as is usual with parsnips and other light 
seeds, and then raking the ground smooth. When the season 
is wet, make a bed for sowing the rhubarb seeds upon, about 
two feet thick, with new dung from the stable, covering it near 
one foot thick with good soil. The intent of this bed is not for 
the sake of warmth, but solely to prevent the rising of earth- 
worms, which in a moist season will frequently destroy the 
young crop. 

If the seed is good, the plants often rise too thick ; if so, 
when they have attained six leaves, they should be taken up 
carefully, (where too close), leaving the standing crop eight or 
ten inches apart : those taken up may be planted at the same 
distance in a fresh spot of ground, in order to furnish other 


plantations. When the plants in general are grown to the size 
that cabbage-plants are usually set out for a standing crop, they 
are best planted where they are to remain, in beds four feet 
wide, one row along the middle of the bed, leaving two yards' 
distance between the plants, allowing an alley between the beds 
about a foot w 7 ide, for conveniency of weeding the plants. 

In the autumn, when the decayed leaves are removed, if the 
shoveling of the alleys is thrown over the crowns of the plants, 
it will be found of service. 

1112. Cultivation of Turkey Rhubarb, by offsets. — Slip off 
several offsets from the heads of large plants; set them with 
a dibble about a foot apart, in order to remove them into other 
beds ; and, in the autumn, they will be in a thriving state. 

1113. Method of curing Rhubarb. — The plants may be taken 
up, either early in the spring or in autumn, when the leaves 
are decayed, in dry weather, if possible : when the roots are to 
be cleared from dirt, (without washing,) let them be cut into 
pieces, and, with a sharp knife, freed from the outer coat, and 
exposed to the sun and air for a few days, to render the outside 
a little dry. 

In order to accelerate the curing of the largest pieces, a hole 
may be scooped out with a pen-knife ; these and the smaller 
parts are then to be strung on packthread, and hung up in a 
w^arm room, where it is to remain till perfectly dry. Each 
piece may be rendered more sightly by a common file, fixing it 
in a small vice during that operation ; afterwards rub over it 
a very fine pow T der, which the small roots furnish in beautiful 
perfection, for this and ewery other purpose where rhubarb is 

An easier and simpler method of drying rhubarb is, after 
cutting the root into handsome pieces, to wrap up each sepa- 
rately, in one or more pieces of whitish-brown paper, and then 
to place them on the hob of a common Bath stove. Lemon 
and orange-peel dry beautifully in this way. 

1114. Proper Soil for the culture of Turnips. — Sandy loams, 
in good heart, are most favorable to their growth, though they 
will thrive well on strong loams, if they are not wet ; but on 
clayey, thin, or wet soils, they are not worth cultivating ; for 
though a good crop may be raised on such ground, when well 


prepared and dunged, more damage is done by taking off the 
turnips in winter, in poaching the soil, than the value of the 
crop will repay. 

1115. Preservation of Succulent Plants. — Green succulent 
plants are better preserved after a momentary immersion in 
boiling water, than otherwise. This practice has been success- 
fully used in the preservation of cabbage and other plants, dried 
for keeping; it destroys the vegetable life at once, and, in a 
great degree, prevents that decay which otherwise attends them. 

1116. Various useful properties of Tobacco to Gardeners. — 
Tobacco is employed for so many different uses, that there is 
no person possessed of a garden but will find both pleasure 
and profit in the cultivation of it, especially as it is now at 
such a high price. The seed is very cheap, and may be pro- 
cured of most nurserymen, and will answer the same end as 
the foreign for most purposes, and considerably cheaper. 

Uses to which it may be applied. — 1. To florists, for two ele- 
gant annual plants to decorate the borders of the flower-garden ; 
or, on account of their height, to fill up vacant places in the 
shrubberies; or, w T hen put into pots, they will be very orna- 
mental in the green-house during the winter. 

2. Kitchen-gardeners w r ould in a few days lose their crops 
of melons, if not immediately fumigated with tobacco-smoke, 
when attacked by the red spider ; and it is useful to destroy 
the black flies on cucumbers in frames. 

3. Fruit-gardeners. When peach and nectarine-trees have 
their leaves curled up, and the shoots covered with smother- 
flies ; or, the cherry-trees have the ends of the shoots infested 
with the black dolphin-fly ; canvas, pack-sheets, or doubled 
mats, nailed before them, and frequently fumigated under them, 
will destroy those insects. 

4. Forcing-gardeners, who raise roses and kidney-beans in, 
stoves, can soon destroy the green flies which cover the stalks 
and buds of roses, and the insects which appear like a mildew 
on kidney-beans, by the assistance of the fumigating bellow r s. 

5. Nurserymen. When the young shoots of standard cherry- 
trees, or any other trees, are covered with the black dolphin- 
flies, an infusion is made with the leaves and stalks of tobacco ; 
a quantity is put into an earthen pan, or small, oblong wooden 
trough ; one person holds this up, whilst another gently bends 


the top of each tree, and lets the branches remain about a minute 
in the liquor, which destroys them. 

6. Graziers, when their sheep are infected with the scab, find 
relief from making a sheep-water with an infusion of the leaves 
and stalks. Moles, when only a few hills are at first observed, 
may probably be soon driven out of the ground, by fumigating 
their holes. 

7. Herb tobacco is also greatly improved by having some of 
the leaves, when dried, cut with a pair of scissors, and mixed 
with the herbs in any quantity you may think proper, according 
to the strength you require, and save you the expense of buying 

The herbs generally used for this purpose are colt's-foot and 
wood betony-leaves ; the leaves and flowers of lavender, rose- 
mary, thyme, and some others of the like nature. 


1117. To prevent Blossom and Fruit-trees from being damaged 
by earhj Spring Frost. — If a rope (a hempen one, it is presumed) 
be introduced among the branches of a fruit-tree m blossom, 
and the end of it brought down, so as to terminate in a bucket 
of water ; and, should a slight frost take place in the night- 
time, in that case the tree will not be affected by the frost; 
but a film of ice, of considerable thickness, will be formed on 
the surface of the bucket in which the rope's-end is immersed, 
although it has often happened that another bucket of water, 
placed beside it for the sake of experiment, has had no ice at all 
upon it. 

1118. Chinese mode of propagating Fruit-trees. — The ingenious 
people of China have a common method of propagating several 
kinds of fruit-trees, which of late years has been practised with 
success in Bengal. The method is simply this : — They strip 
a ring of bark, about an inch in width, from a bearing branch, 
surround the place with a ball of fat earth, or loam, bound fast 
to the branch with a piece of matting : over this they suspend 
a pot or horn, with water, having a small hole in the bottom 
just sufficient to let the water drop, in order to keep the earth* 
constantly moist. The branch throws new roots into the earth 
just above the place where the ring of bark was stripped off. 


The operation is performed in the spring, and the branch is 
sawed off and put into the ground at the fall of the leaf. The 
following year it will bear fruit. 

1119. To improve Fruit-trees by attention to the Color of thl 
Soil. — The color and also the quality of soils have an effect 
on the color and flavor of fruits — even on the color of many 
flowers. The effects of the color of soils on that of fruits, are 
most perceptible on the delicate kinds, such as grapes, peaches, 
&c. ; but to a nice observer, it extends in a greater or less de- 
gree to all fruits. For instance, if two black Hamburgh grapes, 
made from the cuttings of the same plant, shall be planted, the 
one in a dry, hazelly loam, and the other in a moist, black earth, 
the fruit of the one will be brown, or of a grizzly color, and the 
other very dark red or black ; and the grape will be more juicy, 
though better in flavor, than the other grown in a dryer soil. 

1120. To increase the Growth in Trees. — It may be depended 
upon as a fact, that by occasionally washing the stems of trees, 
their growth will be greatly increased ; for several recent experi- 
ments have proved, that all the ingredients of vegetation united, 
which are received from the roots, stem, branches, and leaves 
of a mossy and dirty tree, do not produce half the increase 
either in wood or fruit, that another gains whose stem is clean. 
It is clearly obvious, that proper nourishment cannot be re- 
ceived from rain, for the dirty stem will retain the moisture 
longer than when clean ; and the moss and dirt will absorb the 
finest parts of the dew, and likewise act as a screen, by de- 
priving the tree of that share of sun and air which it requires. 

A common scrubbing-brush and clean water is all that is ne- 
cessary, only care must be observed not to injure the bark. 

1121. To prevent Hares and Babbits from Barking young 
Plantations. — Hares, rabbits, and rats, have a natural autipathy 
to tar ; but tar, though fluid, contracts, when exposed to the 
sun and air for a time, a great dryness and a very binding 
quality ; and if applied to trees in its natural state, will occasion 
them to be bark-bound. To remove this difficulty, tar is of so 
strong a savor, that a small quantity mixed with other things, 
in their nature open and loose, will give the whole mixture such 
a degree of its own taste and smell, as will prevent hares, &c., 
touching what it is applied to. 


Take any quantity of tar, and six or seven times as much 
grease, stirring and mixing them well together; with this com- 
position brush the stems of young trees, as high as hares, &c, 
can reach ; and it will effectually prevent their being barked. 

1122 Bad effects of Iron Nails, &c, on Fruit-trees, or mis~~ 
chievous effects of Iron Nails, in conjunction with Branches of 
Fruit-trees — It often happens that some of the limbs of fruit- 
trees, trained against a wall, are blighted and die, while others 
remain in a healthy and flourishing state. This has been 
hitherto erroneously attributed to the effects of lightning; but, 
from closer observation, and from several experiments, it has 
been found to arise from the corroding effects of the rust of the 
nails and cramps with which trees in this situation are fastened. 
To avoid this inconvenience, therefore, it requires only to be 
careful in preventing the iron from coming in contact with the* 
bark of the trees. 

1123. To destroy Moss on Trees. — Remove it with a hard 
scrub oing-brush, in February and March, and wash the trees 
with cow-dung, urine, and soap-suds. 

1124. Necessity of talcing off superfluous Suckers from Shrubs. 
— Many flowering shrubs put out strong suckers from the root, 
such as lilacs, syringa, and some of the kinds of roses, which 
take greatly from the strength of the mother-plant ; and which, 
if not wanted for the purpose of planting next season, should 
be tw r isted off, or otherwise destroyed. 

1125. To cure the Disease in Apple-trees. — Brush off the 
white down, clear off the red stain underneath it, and anoint 
the places infected with a liquid mixture of train-oil and Scotch- 

1126. To cure the Canker in Trees. — Cut them off to the 
quick, and apply a piece of sound bark from any other tree, 
and bind it on with a flannel roller. Cut off the canker, and 
h, new shoot will grow strong, but in a year or two you will 
find it cankered. 

1127. A method of curing Fruit-trees infected with an Easterly 
Blight. — Where valuable fruit-trees are infected with this blight, 


they may, with little trouble and expense, be in a short time 
cured, by fumigating them with brimstone strewed on lighted 
charcoal ; this effectually kills it; but the workman must ob- 
serve to get to windward of the trees, as the fumes, both of 
brimstone and charcoal, are very offensive and pernicious. 

Mr. Miller recommends washing and sprinkling the blighted 
trees from time to time, with common water, (that is, such as 
hath not had anything steeped in it,) and the sooner that is 
performed, (whenever we apprehend danger,) the better; and 
if the young and tender shoots seem to be much infected, wash 
them with a woollen cloth, so as to clear them, if possible, 
from all glutinous matter, that their respiration and perspiration 
may not be obstructed ; and if some broad, flat pans, or tubs, 
are placed near the trees, it will keep their tender parts in a 
ductile state, and greatly help them ; but whenever this ope- 
ration of washing the trees is performed, it should be early in 
the day, that the moisture may be exhaled before the cold 
of the night comes on, especially if the nights are frosty; nor 
should it be done when the sun shines very hot upon the wall, 
which would be subject to scorch up the tender blossom. 

1128. Experienced method of healing Wounds in Trees. — This 
method consists in making a varnish of common linseed oil, 
rendered very drying, by boiling it, for the space of an hour, 
with an ounce of litharge to each pound of oil, mixed with 
calcined bones, pulverized and sifted, to the consistence of an 
almost liquid paste. With this paste the wounds of trees are 
to be covered, by means of a brush, after the bark and other 
substance have been pared, so as to render the whole as smooth 
and even as possible. The varnish must be applied in dry 
weather, in order that it may attach itself properly. 

1129. Composition for healing Wounds in Trees. — Take of 
dry, pounded chalk, three measures; add of common vegetable 
tar, one measure ; mix them thoroughly, and boil them, with 
a low heat, till the composition becomes of the consistency of 
bees'-wax : it may be preserved for use, in this state, for any 
length of time. If chalk cannot conveniently be got, dry brick- 
dust may be substituted. 

Application. — After the broken or decayed limb has been 
sawed off, the whole of the saw-cut must be very carefully pared 
away, and the rough edges of the bark, in particular must be 


made quite smooth ; the doing of this properly is of great con- 
sequence ; then lay on the above composition, hot, about the 
thickness of half-a-dollar, over the wounded place, and over the 
edges of the surrounding bark; it should be spread with a hot 

1130. To prune Wall Fruit. — Cut off all fresh shoots, how- 
ever fair they may appear to the eye, that will not, without 
much bending, be well placed to the wall ; for if any branch 
happen to be twisted or bruised in the bending or turning 
(which you may not easily perceive), although it may grow 
and prosper for the present, yet it will decay in time, and the 
sap or gum will issue from that place. 

1131. To prune Vines to Advantage. — In pruning vines, leave 
some new branches every year, and take away (if too many) 
some of the old, which will be of great advantage to the tree, 
and much increase the quantity of fruit. 

\\ hen you trim your vine, leave two knots, and cut them 
off the next time; for, usually, the two buds yield a bunch of 
grapes. Vines, thus pruned, have been known to bear abun- 
dantly, whereas others that have been cut close to please the 
eye, have been almost barren of fruit. 

1132. The most proper Times when Leaves of Trees ought to 
be collected for pharmaceutical and economical Purposes. — It is at 
that period when the plant is in full flower, that the leaves pos- 
sess their full virtue. They drop off when their particular life 
has terminated. 


1133. To promote the Growth of Forest-trees.— It is highly to 
be censured, the neglect of permitting ivy-twines, which grow 
to forest-trees, to remain attached to them. Their roots enter- 
ing into the bark, rob the trees of much of their nourishment ; 
they in a manner strangle their supporters, by impeding the 
circulation of their juices, and in time destroy the trees. They 
should be torn up by the roots, for, if any part of them adhere 
to the tree, they will spread, as they obtain nourishment by their 
adhering roots. 


1134. White-washing the Trunks of Trees, recommended. — 
Being one day upon a visit (observes Mr. Northmore, who 
recommends this experiment) at my friend's near Yarmouth, 
in the Isle of Wight, I remarked that several of the trunks of 
trees in his orchard had been covered with whitewash ; upon 
inquiring the reason, he replied, that he had done it with a view 
to keep off the hares, and other animals, and that it was 
attended not only with that good effect, but several others, for 
it made the rind smooth and compact, by closing up the cracks ; 
it entirely destroyed the moss; and as the rains washed off the 
lime, it manured the roots. These several advantages, derived 
from so simple a practice, deserve to be more generally known. 
The white-wash is made in the usual manner with lime, and 
may be applied twice, or oftener, if necessary. 

1135. To cure Wounds in Trees. — Wounds in trees are best 
cured by covering them with a coat of common lead paint with- 
out turpentine (for turpentine is poison to vegetation) in the 
sun, on a fine dry day. 

1136. Trees for Shade, Nursery Trees, &c. — Forest Trees 
selected for shade should be of kinds not liable to be attacked 
by worms and insects. The rock or sugar maple is always re- 
markably free from worms, and it makes the most dense and 
beautiful shade of all our deciduous trees. This is becoming a 
very popular tree, and we hope to see it extensively propa 
gated. There is no more risk in transplanting this than the 
elm, and the limbs are not liable to be broken by the winds 
and snow. 

We believe it is generally admitted that transplanted trees 
succeed best when their early grow T th has been in soil similar 
to that for which they are destined to be placed permanently. 
If raised in such a soil, and transplanted to that which is thin 
and poor, they seem to receive a shock from which with diffi- 
culty they recover. As a gentleman once remarked, it is like 
feeding a calf with all the milk he will take till he is six 
months old, and then suddenly turning him off to live on a short 

Large trees may be as successfully planted as small ones. 
The mode and result of an experiment made by Messrs. Pome- 
roy and Dutton, of Utica, are thus given : Those gentlemen 
transplanted trees, comprising maples, elm, beech, &c., some 


thirty feet in height, which were transplanted without being 
shorn of any of their branches. The process of removal was as 
follows : — In the fall, before the frost, a trench was dug around 
the trees selected, from ten to fifteen feet in diameter, and the 
roots severed. In the winter when the ground had become 
solid from freezing, the trees were pulled out by the aid of 
oxen and levers, with the mass of earth firmly attached to the 
roots. They were then transported erect on a strong sled, built 
for the purpose, and set out. 

These trees grew in open land, a mile and a half from the 
city. They put on their foliage last spring, as if wholly uncon- 
scious that they were not still in their native soil, and the en- 
terprising gentlemen who undertook this unusual course, are 
rewarded with shade trees which by the old practice it would 
have required twenty years to produce. 

Summer pruning is sometimes necessary in order to give form 
and proper direction to nursery trees, and standard trees may 
need thinning, in order to expose the fruit to light and air; but 
in pruning trees thoroughly, particularly if large limbs are to 
be cut off, it is best to defer the business till the last of July, 
August, or the former part of September. 

Late in summer and early in autumn, the bark does not peel 
as it does early in the summer, when it often starts from the 
tree which is injured by going into trees and stepping on limbs 
with hard shoes. The sap will ooze out of some trees early in 
summer, which not only injures them generally, but it often 
causes the wounded part to decay. 

But in late pruning, the wood, when the branch is cut off, be- 
comes sound and well seasoned ; and though it may not heal 
over so readily as when cut early in summer or spring, it re- 
mains in a healthy state. 

1137. To preserve Wood in Damp Situations. — Two coats of 
the following preparation are to be applied, after which the 
wood is subject to no deterioration whatever from humidity. 
Twelve pounds of resin are to be beaten in a mortar, to which 
three pounds of sulphur and twelve pints of whale oil are to be 
added. This mixture is to be melted over the fire, and stirred 
during the operation. Ochre, reduced to an impalpable pow- 
der, by triturating it with oil, may then be combined in the 


proportion necessary to give either a lighter or a darker color 
to the material. The first coat should be put on lightly, having 
been previously heated ; the second may be applied in twd 
or three days, and a third after an equal interval, if from the 
peculiar dampness of the situation it should be judged expe- 

Remark. — It is highly probable (though the experiment has 
not been tried) that this composition would be improved by 
adding a small portion of the liquid leather, which is now com- 
monly sold in London, being the refuse of the purification of 
fish oil by tar. 

Where the work will bear the expense, and is not exposed to 
a heat of more than 130 degrees of Fahrenheit, the best com- 
position is the following : Equal parts of turpentine (the fluid 
resin, not the essential oil), bees'-wax, black resin and maltha, 
or coal tar, boiled together till they cease to rise — that is, till 
the white cream or scum proceeding from the separation of the 
essential oil disappears. Apply it warm with a turpentine 
brush — two or three coats, to cover the cracks or pores left by 
the brush. This lute was first proposed by Chaptal, without 
the addition of the coal tar, which is a gr^at improvement. A 
piece of wood covered with three coats of it, and immersed for 
two years in water, was found to be quite dry on cutting off the 

Take care not to allow water to fall into the pan, as it would 
make the hot materials explode. If the composition catch fire, 
put on the cover directly, and remove the pan for an instant 
from the fire. 

1138. Cause and Prevention of the JDry Rot. — The cause of 
the dry rot in wood is moisture ; and to prevent well-dried 
timber from decaying above or under ground, is done by char- 
ring it well. 

1139. Cure for the Dry Rot in Timber, so as to make it inde- 
structible by Water. — Melt twelve ounces of resin in an iron 
pot ; add three gallons of train oil, and three or four rolls of 
brimstone ; and when the brimstone and resin are melted and 
become thin, add as much Spanish brown, or red and yellow 
ochre, or any other color required, first ground fine with the 
same oil, as will give the whole a shade of the depth preferred ; 
then lay it on with a brush as hot and thin as possible ; some 


time after the first coat is dried, give it a second. This prepa- 
ration will preserve planks for ages, and keep the weather from 
driving through brick work. 

1140. Method of trying the Goodness of Timber for Ship- 
building, used in the Arsenal at Vienna. — One person applies 
his ear to the centre of one end of the trunk, while another, 
with a key, hits the other end with a gentle stroke. If the 
tree be sound and good, the stroke will be distinctly heard at 
the other end, though the tree should be a hundred feet or 
more in length. 

1141. To season and render Green Timber immediately fit 
for use. — After the timber has been cut down from the stock, 
take off, immediately, both the outer bark and also the inner 
rind, clean to the wood; cut it up to the different purposes for 
which it may be wanted, whether scantlings for roofings, joists, 
planks, deals, or the like. After preparing them for their 
proper use, steep them in lime-water a few days, or pay them 
over with a little of the lime, along with the water. The hotter 
it is used after the lime is slaked, so much the better. Lime- 
water is made by slaking the lime-shells in water. This will 
answer equally well for round trees. The author of this method 
says, he has been, for a great number of years past, used to 
take down and repair both ancient and modern buildings, in 
which a good deal of Scots fir had been used, but he never 
foimd one inch either rotten or worm-eaten, where it was in the 
least connected with lime, and kept dry ; on the contrary, he 
found it more hard and firm than when first used. 


1142. Artificial Stone Floors and Coverings for Houses, as 
made in some parts of Russia. — The floors and coverings of 
houses, in some parts of South Russia, are made in the follow- 
ing manner : — For a floor, let the ground be made even, and 
some stones of any shape be put on, and, with a heavy wooden 
rammer, force or beat the stones into the ground, continuing 
to beat the floor till it become quite even, and incapable of 
receiving any farther impression. Then run lime, immediately 
after it has been slaked, through a fine sieve, as expeditiously 


as possible, because exposure to the air weakens the lime. Mix 
two parts of coarse sand, or washed gravel, (for there must be 
no earth in it,) with one part of lime-powder, and wet them 
with bullocks' blood ; so little moist, however, as merely to 
prevent the lime from blowing away in powder ; in short, the 
less moist, the better. Spread it on the floor, and, without a 
moment's loss of time, let several men be ready, with large 
beetles, to beat the mixture, which will become more and more 
moist by the excessive beating requisite. Then put on it some 
of the dry sand and lime, mixed, and beat it till like a stone, 
If required to be very fine, take for the next layer finely-sifted 
lime, with about a tenth part of rye-flour, and a little ox-blood ; 
beat it till it becomes a very stiff mortar, and then smooth it 
with a trowel. The next day, -again smooth it with a trowel ; 
and so continue to do, daily, till it be entirely dry. When 
it is quite dry and hard, rub it over with fresh ox-blood, taking 
off all which it will not imbibe. No wet will penetrate this 
composition, which, however, after some time, is often painted 
with oil-colors. The whole floor appears as a single stone, and 
nothing will affect it, The drier it is used, the better, provided 
that, with much beating, it becomes like a very stiff mortar, 
and evidently forms a compact body. On flat tops of houses, 
the beetle, or rammers' ends, must be smaller, to prevent the 
rebounding of the boards and timber, which would crack the 
cement; but, when the thickness of afoot is laid on, it will 
beat more firmly. A thin coating of ox-blood, jflour, and lime, 
being beat in large, strong, wooden troughs, or mortar, till it 
can be spread with a trowel, may be used without beating it 
again on the floor or house-top ; but it must be very stiff, and 
used most expeditiously. Even frost will not affect it. With 
this composition, artificial stone may be made, rammed very 
hard into strong wooden frames of the required shape ; particu- 
larly to turn arches for buildings of rammed earth. It is well 
known, that earth which is not too argillaceous, with only the 
moisture it has when fresh dug, on being rammed between 
frames of wood, till the rammer will no longer impress it, 
makes eternal walls ; but a mass as hard as stone may be made 
with a little lime added to sand, horse-dung, and ox-blood. 
The more the lime is beaten, the moister it becomes ; and it 
must contain so much moisture as to become, by beating, a 
solid mass, adhering in all its parts, and not remain crumbling, 
that will properly set as mortar. If there be too little moisture 


at first, it will remain a powder ; if there be too much, it will 
become a soft mortar. Lime is of no use, mixed with clay or 
vegetable earths ; which, if well beaten, are stronger without it. 

1143. To cure Damp Walls. — Boil two quarts of tar, with 
two ounces of kitchen-grease, for a quarter of an hour, in an 
iron pot. Add some of this tar to a mixture of slaked lime 
and powdered glass, which have passed through a flour-sieve, 
and been completely dried over the fire in an iron pot, in the 
proportion of two parts of lime and one of glass, till the mix- 
ture becomes of the consistence of thin plaster. The cement 
must be used immediately after being mixed, and therefore it 
is proper not to mix more of it than will coat one square foot 
of wall, since it quickly becomes too hard for use; and care 
must be taken to prevent any moisture from mixing with the 
cement. For a wall merely damp, a coating one-eighth of an 
inch thick is sufficient ; but if the wall is wet, there must be a 
second coat. Piaster made of lime, hair, and plaster of Paris, 
may afterwards be laid on as a cement. The cement above 
described will unite the parts of Portland stone or marble, so 
as to make them as durable as they were prior to the fracture. 

1144. To increase the Durability of Tiles for covering Build- 
ings. — The following composition has been found to be of 
extraordinary durability, as a glazing or varnish for tiles. No 
sort of weather, even for a considerable length of time, has had 
any effect upon it. It prevents that absorption of water, by 
which common tiles are rendered liable to crumble into dust, 
hinders the shivering of tiles, and gives to red bricks a soft 
lustre, by which their appearance is much improved. 

Over a weak fire heat a bottle of linseed oil, with an ounce 
of litharge, and a small portion of minium, till such time as a 
feather, used in stirring it, shall be burnt to the degree of being 
easily rubbed to powder between the fingers. Then take off 
the varnish, let it cool, clarify it from any impurities which 
may have fallen to the bottom, and heat it again. Having, 
in the mean time, melted from three to four ounces of pitch, 
mix this with the warm varnish. The specific gravity of the 
pitch hinders it from mingling thoroughly with the varnish, 
though it even remain so long upon the fire as to be evapo 
rated to considerable thickness. It is not till the varnish be 
cooled, nearly to the consistency of common syrup, that this 


effect takes place in the requisite degree. If it be too thick, 
let hot varnish be added, to bring it to the proper consistency ; 
if it be too thin, add melted pitch. Next, put in as much brick- 
dust as the mixture can receive, without being made too thick 
for convenient use. The finer the brick-dust, and the easier 
it is to be moved with the point of a pencil, so much the fitter 
will it be to fill up the chinks and unevenness of the bricks, 
and, as it were, to incorporate itself with their substance. Pre- 
pare the brick-dust in the following manner : — Take a certain 
number of pieces of good brick, beat them into dust, and sift 
the dust in a hair-sieve. Then, to improve its fineness, rub it 
on a stone with water, dry it, and mix it with the varnish in 
the necessary proportion. If the brick-dust be naturally of too 
dark a color, a portion of some that is brighter may be added, 
to make the color clear. 

It is to be laid on the tiles in the same manner in which 
oil-colors in general are put upon the substances on which they 
are applied. The composition must be heated from time to 
time, when it is to be used. 

1145. Economical Method of employing Tiles for the Roofs 
of Houses, — A French architect (M. Castala) has invented a 
new method of employing tiles for the roofs of houses, so as to 
save one half of the quantity usually employed for that pur- 
pose. The tiles are made of a square instead of an oblong 
form ; and the hook that fastens them is at one of the angles, 
so that, when fastened to the laths, they hang down diagonally, 
and every tile is covered one-fifth part on two sides by the su- 
perior row. 

1146. To improve Chimney Fire-places \ and increase the Heat, 
by a proper attention to the Setting of Stoves, Grates, dx. — The 
best materials for setting stoves or grates are fire-stone and 
common bricks and mortar. Both materials are fortunately 
very cheap. When bricks are used, they should be covered 
with a thin coating of plaster, which, when it is dry, should be 
white-washed. The fire-stone should likewise be white-washed 
when that is used; and every part of the fire-place, which is not 
exposed to being soiled and made black by the smoke, should 
be kept as white and clear as possible. As white reflects more 
heat, as well as more light, than any other color, it ought 
always to be preferred for the inside of a chimney fire-place j 



and black, which reflects neither light nor heat, should be more 

1147. To cure Smoky Chimneys. — Put on the top of the 
chimney a box, in each of whose sides is a door hanging on 
hinges, and kept open by a thin iron rod running from one to 
the other, and fastened by a ring in each end to a staple. When 
there is no wind, these doors are at rest, and each forms an 
angle of 45 degrees, which is decreased on the windward side 
in proportion to the force of the wind, and increased in the 
same ratio on the leeward side. If the wind be very strong, 
the door opposed to the w r ind becomes close, while the opposite 
one is opened as wide as it can be. If the wind strikes the 
corner of the box, it shuts two doors and opens their opposites. 
This scheme has been tried with success in a chimney which 
always filled the room with smoke, but which, since adopted, 
has never smoked the room at all. The expense is trifling, and 
the apparatus simple. 

1148. A Preparation to preserve Wood from catching Fire y 
and to preserve it from Decay. — A member of the Royal Acad- 
emy at Stockholm says, in the memoirs of that academy, 
" Having been within these few years to visit the alum mines 
of Loswers, in the province of Calmar, I took notice of some 
attempts made to burn the old staves of tubs and pails that 
had been used for the alum works. For this purpose they were 
thrown into the furnace, but those pieces of wood which had 
been penetrated by the alum did not burn, though they re- 
mained fur a long time in the fire, where they only became red ; 
however, at last they were consumed by the intenseness of the 
heat, but they emitted no flame." 

He concludes, from this experiment, that wood, or timber, 
for the purpose of building, may be secured against the action 
of fire, by letting it remain for some time in water, wherein 
vitriol, alum, or any other salt has been dissolved, which con- 
tains no inflammable parts. 

To this experiment it may be added, that wood, which has 
been impregnated with water, wherein vitriol has been dis- 
solved, is very fit for resisting putrefaction, especially if after- 
wards it is brushed over with tar, or some kind of paint ; in 
order to* this, the wood must be rubbed with very warm vitriol 
water, and afterwards left to dry, before it is painted or tarred. 


Wood prepared in this manner will for a long time resist the 
injuries of the air, and be preserved in cellars and other low 
moist places. It is to be observed, that if a solution of vit- 
riol is poured on such parts of timber where a sort of champig- 
nons are formed by moisture, and rubbed off, none will ever 
grow there again. 

By boiling, for some hours, the spokes of wheels in vitriol 
water, they are not subject to rottenness in the parts where 
they enter the stocks. After boiling them in this manner, they 
are dried as perfectly as possible, and then, in the accustomed 
way, painted with oil color. 

1149. Cheap and excellent Composition for preserving Weather 
Boarding, Paling, and all other Works liable to be injured by the 
Weather. — Well burnt lime will soon become slaked by expo- 
sure in the open air, or even if confined in a situation not re- 
markably dry, so as to crumble of itself into powder. This is 
called air-slaked lime, in contradistinction to that which is slaked 
in the usual way, by being mixed with water. For the purpose 
of making the present composition to preserve all sorts of wood- 
work exposed to the vicissitudes of the weather, take three 
parts of this air-slaked lime, two of wood-ashes, and one of fine 
sand ; pass them through a fine sieve, and add as much linseed- 
oil to the composition as will bring it to a proper consistence 
for working with a painter's brush. As particular care must 
be taken to mix it perfectly, it should be ground on a stone 
slab with a proper muller, in the same manner as painters 
grind their white-lead, &c. ; but where these conveniences are 
not at hand, the ingredients may be mixed in a large pan, and 
well beat up with a wooden spatula. Two coats of this compo- 
sition being necessary, the first may be rather thin ; but the 
second should be as thick as it can conveniently be worked. 
This most excellent composition for preserving wood, when ex- 
posed to the injuries of the weather, is highly preferable to the 
enstomary method of laying on tar and ochre. 

1150. To make durable Barn-Jloors. — A durable barn-floor 
may be made of well-burnt polished brick on edge, placed in 
the herring-bone form, on a pavement of stone three inches and 
a. half in thickness; or oaken plank two inches and a half in 
thickness ; or even of well-tempered indurated loam, of a pro* 
per substance, not less than eight inches, and laid upon dry 


materials or bottom. Any of them will make a durable barn- 
floor, provided it is kept free from wet; wagon-wheels, and 
horses' feet. The best threshing-floor for small farms of 150 
acres is made of sound plank. In large farms (say 300 acres 
and upwards) the threshing machine should supersede the flail. 

1151. The Virtues of Poplar Wood for the Flooring of Grana- 
ries. — The Lombard poplar is recommended as a timber adapted 
for flooring granaries, which is said to prevent the destruction 
of corn by weevils and insects. Poplar wood will not easily 
take fire. 

1152. Improved Ventilators for Rooms. — Different methods 
are adopted for ventilating, or changing the air of rooms. — 

Mr. Tid admitted fresh air into a room by taking out the 
middle upper sash pane of glass, and fixing in its place a frame 
box, with a round hole in its middle, about six or seven inches 
diameter, in which hole is fixed, behind each other, a set of 
sails, of very thin, broad copper plates, which spread over and 
cover the circular hole, so as to make the air, which enters the 
room, and turning round these sails, to spread round in thin 
sheets sideway, and so not to incommode persons by blowing 
directly upon them, as it would do if it were not hindered by 
the sails. This well-known contrivance has generally been em- 
ployed in public buildings, but is very disagreeable in good 
rooms; instead, of it, therefore, the late Mr. Whitehurst sub- 
stituted another, which was, to open a small square or rectan- 
gular hole, in the party wall of the room, in the upper part, 
near the ceiling, at a corner or part distant from the fire; be- 
fore it he placed a thin piece of metal, or pasteboard, &c, 
attached to the wall in its lower part, just before the hole, but 
declining from it upwards, so as to give the air that enters by 
the hole a direction upwards against the ceiling, along which it 
sweeps, and disperses itself through the room, without blowing 
in a current against any person. This method is very useful to 
cure smoky chimneys, by thus admitting, conveniently, fresh 
air. A picture, placed before the hole, prevents the sight of it 
from disfiguring the room. 

1153. Approved Method of removing Bees. — Set the hive 
where there is only a glimmering light /turn it up ; the queen 


first makes her appearance ; once in possession of her, you are 
master of all the rest; put her into an empty hive, whither she 
will be followed by the other bees. 

1154. Useful Method of preserving Bees. — Instead of destroy- 
ing whole swarms in their hives, to get the honey when the 
hives are full, they clear them out into a fresh hive, while they 
take the combs out of the old one ; and they prevent their per- 
ishing in winter by putting a great quantity of honey into a 
very wide earthen vessel, covering its surface with paper, exactly 
fitted on, and pricked full of holes with a large pin ; this being 
pressed by the weight of the bees, keeps a fresh supply continu- 
ally arising. Their most fatal destruction by severe cold they 
prevent, by taking as many large tubs as they have hives, and 
knocking out the heads, they set the other end in the ground, 
laying a bed of dry earth or chopped hay in it, of six inches 
deep ; over this they place the head knocked out, and then 
make a small wooden trough for the passage of the bees ; this 
is transfixed through a hole cut through each side of the tub, at 
such a height as to lay on the false bottom, on which is placed 
the covered dish of honey for the food of the bees, leaving a 
proper space over this, covered with strong matting ; they then 
fill up the tub with more dry earth, or chopped hay, heaping it 
up in the form of a cone, to keep out the rain, and wreathing it 
over with straw on account of the warmth. 

1155. Sir Ashton Lever's method of preserving Birds, Beasts, 
Fishes, &c. — Beasts. Large beasts should be carefully skinned, 
with the horns, skull, jaws, tail, and feet, left entire ; the skins 
may then either be put into a vessel of spirit, or else rubbed 
well in the inside with the mixture of salt, alum, and pepper, 
hereafter mentioned, and hung to dry. Small beasts may be 
put into a cask of rum, or any other spirit. 

Birds. Large birds may be treated as large beasts, but must 
not be put in spirits. Small birds may be preserved in the fol- 
lowing manner : — Take out the entrails, open a passage to the 
brain, which should be scooped out through the mouth ; intro- 
duce into the cavities of the skull, and the whole body, some 
of the mixture of salt, alum, and pepper, putting some through 
the gullet and whole length of the neck ; then hang the bird in 
a cool, airy place — firgt by the feet, that the body may be im- 
pregnated by the salts, and afterwards by a thread through the 


under mandible of the bill, till it appears to be sweet ; then 
hang it in the sun, or near a lire : after it is well dried, clean 
out what remains loose of the mixture, and fill the cavity of 
the body with wool, oakum, or any soft substance, and pack it 
smooth in paper. 

Fishes, &c. Large fishes should be opened in the belly, the 
entrails taken out, and the inside well rubbed with pepper, 
and stuffed with oakum. Small fishes put in spirit, as well as 
reptiles and insects, except butterflies and moths ; and any in- 
sects of fine colors, should be pinned down in a box prepared 
for that purpose, with their wings expanded. 

1156. Birds that have been^Shot. — When fresh-killed, observe 
to put tow into the mouth, and upon any wound they may 
have received, to prevent the feathers being soiled ; and then 
wrap it smooth, at full-length, in paper, and pack it close in a 
box. If it be sent from a great distance, the entrails should be 
extracted, and the cavity filled with tow dipped in rum or other 
spirit. The following mixture is proper for the preservation 
of animals : — One pound of salt, four ounces of alum, and two 
ounces of pepper, powdered together. 

1157. To preserve Game in Hot Weather. — Game or poultry 
may be preserved for a long time, by tying a string tight round 
the neck, so as to exclude the air, and by putting a piece of 
charcoal into the vent. 

1158. Russian method of preserving Fish. — When the Rus- 
sians desire to keep fish perfectly fresh, to be carried a long 
journey in a hot climate, they dip them into hot bees'- wax, 
which acts like an air-tight covering. In this way they are 
taken to Malta, even sweet in summer. 


Choice and Cheap Cookery — New Receipts — Southern Dishes — 
Gumbo, cbc. — Home-made Wines, &c. — Dairy — Coloring — 
Diet — Health, <kc. 

1159. To preserve Ginger. — Take green ginger, pare it with 
a sharp knife, and then throw it into cold water as pared, to 
keep it white ; then boil it till tender, in three waters, at each 
change putting the ginger into cold water. For seven pounds 
of ginger, clarify eight pounds of refined sugar ; when cold, 
drain the ginger, and put it into a pan, with enough of the syrup 
to cover it, and let it stand two days; then pour the syrup to 
the remainder of the sugar, and boil it some time; when cold, 
pour it on the ginger again, and set it by for three days; then 
boil the syrup again, and pour it hot over the ginger. Proceed 
thus till you find the ginger rich and tender, and the syrup is 
highly flavored. If you put the syrup on hot at first, or if too 
rich, the ginger will shrink, and not take the sugar. 

1160. Orange Syrup — Is so easily made, and can be used so 
constantly with advantage, that no housekeeper should be with- 
out it. Select ripe and thin-skinned fruit ; squeeze the juice 
through a sieve ; to every pint, add a pound a half of powdered 
sugar ; boil it slowly, and skim as long as any scum rises ; you 
may then take it off, let it grow cold, and bottle it off. Be 
sure to secure the corks well. Two table-spoonfuls of this syrup, 
mixed in melted butter, make an admirable sauce for a plum 
or butter-pudding ; and it imparts a fine flavor to custards. 

1101. Apple or Quince Jelly. — Pare, quarter, and core the 
apples ; put them in a sauce-pan, with enough water to cover 


them only ; let them boil five minutes ; put them in a bag, and 
let them drain until the next day. To one pint of juice, put 
one pound of sugar, and boil it from fifteen to twenty minutes. 
[Cranberry Jelly may be made in the same way.~\ 

1162. Brandy Cherries. — Take the nicest carnation cher- 
ries, and trim them, leaving a short stem to keep in the juice ; 
wash and wipe them tenderly, and put them into wide-mouthed 
bottles. Make a good syrup, and, when it is nearly done, add 
a pint and a half of French brandy to one pint of syrup ; mix it 
thoroughly, and, when cold, pour it over the cherries. If care- 
fully sealed, the fruit will be good for years. 

1163. Brandy Peaches. — Drop the peaches in weak, boiling 
lye ; let them remain till the skin can be wiped off; make a 
thin syrup, and let it cover the fruit ; boil the fruit till they can 
be pierced with a straw ; take it out; make a very rich syrup, 
and add, after it is taken from the fire, and while it is still hot, 
an equal quantity of brandy. Pour this, while it is still warm, 
over the peaches in the jar. They must be covered with it. 

1164. Brandied Peaches — an excellent way. — After having 
removed the skin in the usual manner, by using lye, and throw- 
ing them in cold water, weigh the peaches, and put them in a 
stone jar — allowing room at the top for three-quarters of a 
pound of sugar for each pound of peaches ; then pour over- 
enough white brandy to cover the fruit. Set the jar in a pot of 
cold water, and let it remain over the fire till the brandy comes 
to a scald. When they are cold, they may either be put in 
glass jars, and tied down with bladder, or left in the same jar. 

1165. Tomato Catchup. — To one gallon of skinned tomatoes, 
add four table-spoonfuls of salt ; four table-spoonfuls of black 
pepper, ground fine ; half a table-spoonful of allspice, ground 
fine ; three table-spoonfuls of mustard ; eight pods of red pep- 
per. Simmer it slowly in sharp vinegar, in a pewter vessel, 
three or four hours; then strain it through a wire-sieve, and 
bottle it up. When cold, seal up the corks, and it will last for 

1166. Green Tomato Pickle. — Cut in thin slices one peck of 
green tomatoes; sprinkle them with salt, and let them stand a 


day or two. Slice ten or twelve small onions. Mix together 
one bottle or small tin box of mustard ; half an ounce of mus- 
tard-seed ; one ounce of cloves ; one ounce of pimento ; two 
ounces of turmeric. Put in the kettle a layer of tomatoes, then 
one of onions and spice, till all are in. Cover it with good 
vinegar, and let it simmer till the tomatoes are quite clear. 

1167. French Mustard. — Put on a plate, one ounce of the 
best powdered mustard ; a salt-spoonful of salt ; a few leaves 
of tarragon ; and a clove of garlic, minced fine. Pour on it, by 
degrees, sufficient vinegar to dilute it to the proper consistency ; 
about a wine-glassful ; mix it with a wooden spoon. Do not 
use it in less than twenty-four hours. 

1168. India Pickle. (U. JR.) — Put two hundred gherkins, 
three pints of small onions, one quart of nasturtiums, one quart 
of radish-pods, 1 quartern of string-beans, six cauliflowers, and 
two hard, white cabbages, sliced, into a pan, and sprinkle them 
with salt — the onions having been previously peeled, and laid 
in salt and water for a week, to take off their strength. Then, 
after a day or two, take them out of the pan, and dry them 
thoroughly in a warm place, in the shade : they must be spread 
out separately. To two gallons of vinegar, put one ounce and 
a half of allspice, the same of long pepper and of white, and 
two ounces of ginger, tied up in muslin bags. When cold, mix 
with the vinegar one pound and a half of flour of mustard, and 
two table-spoonfuls of Cayenne pepper. Boil it well together, 
and pour it on the pickle. The vegetables mentioned, not be- 
ing all procurable at the same time, may be added separately, 
at different periods, but they must all undergo the salting and 
drying process. 

In choosing those vegetables, some discrimination may also 
be used. When in season, few things add a higher flavor to 
the pickle than the buds and flowers of the elder. 

1169. Horse-radish. — Let the horse-radish lie one or two 
hours in cold water ; then scrape off the skin, grate it, and 
moisten it with vinegar. Serve it with roast meat. 

1170. Oyster Gumbo. — Mix well one table-spoonful of flour 
and one of lard, and brown the mixture in a frying-pan ; take 
the liquor of two quarts of oysters, set it on the fire, and when 



it boils, add the browned flour with some chopped leeks and pars- 
ley ; then put in the oysters, and let the whole simmer for fifteen 
minutes ; next sift into it a table-spoonful and a half of powdered 
sassafras, to give it the fillet ; leave it two or three minutes longer 
on the fire, and serve it very hot. No spices, but black pep- 
per. This dish will require more or less time to prepare, ac- 
cording to the ingredients of which it is to be composed. For 
chicken or turkey gumbo, the fowl must first be fricasseed. 
Any good cook will understand how to make a piquante and pal- 
atable stock, of whatever she may select for her gumbo. 

1171. Mayonnaise, — Roast a pair of chickens or a turkey, in 
the morning, and put them away to settle the juices. Imme- 
diately before serving the dish, carve the fowls, and put them 
compactly into a dish ; take the yolks of six eggs, and pour, in 
a very fine and continued stream upon them, half a bottle of 
olive oil, and stir the eggs one way, till they are creamed ; then 
put half a tea-spoonful of vinegar into this dressing, and having 
put pepper, salt, and a little vinegar on the fowl, pour the 
dressing over it, and arrange all over it bunches of cool, fresh 
lettuce. Garnish with hard eggs. 

1172. Jambalaya — Cut up, and stew till half done, a fowl, 
brown or white ; then add rice, and a piece of ham well minced ; 
this must be left on the fire till the rice has taken up the liquid ; 
the roundness of the grain must be preserved, yet the dish must 
not be hard and dry. It is served in a heap, on a flat dish. 
Pepper and salt the only seasoning. 

Southern children are very fond of this essentially home-dish. 
It is said to be of Indian origin. Wholesome as it is palatable, 
it makes part of almost every Creole dinner. 

1173. Imitation of Mock Turtle. — Put into a pan a knuckle 
of veal, two fine cow-heels or two calf's feet, two onions, a few 
cloves, peppers, berries of allspice, mace, and sweet herbs ; cover 
them with water, then tie a thick paper over the pan, and set 
it in an oven for three hours. When cold, take off the fat very 
nicely ; cut the meat and feet into bits an inch and a half 
square ; remove the bones and coarse parts, and then put the rest 
on to warm, with a large spoonful of walnut and one of mush- 
room catchup, half a pint of sherry or Madeira wine, a little 
mushroom-powder, and the jelly of the meat. When hot, if it 


wants any more seasoning, add some; and serve with hard 
eggs, forcemeat balls, a squeeze of lemon, and a spoonful of 
soy. This is a very easy way, and the dish is excellent. 

1174. Oyster Sausages. — Beard, rinse well in their strained 
liquor, and mince, but not finely, three dozen and a half of 
plump oysters, and mix them with ten ounces of fine bread- 
crumbs, and ten of beef-suet chopped extremely small ; add a 
salt-spoonful of salt, and one of pepper, or less than half the 
quantity of cayenne, twice as much pounded mace, and the third 
of a small nutmeg grated; moisten the whole with two unbeaten 
eggs, or with the yolks only of three, and a dessert-spoonful of 
the whites. When these ingredients have been well worked to- 
gether, and are perfectly blended, set the mixture in a cool place 
for two or three hours before it is used ; make it into the form 
of small sausages or sausage-cakes, flour and fry them in butter, 
of a fine light brown ; or throw them into boiling water for 
three minutes, drain, and let them become cold ; dip them into 
egg and bread-crumbs, and broil them gently until they are 
lightly colored. A small bit should be cooked and tasted be* 
fore the whole is put aside, that the seasoning may be height- 
ened if required. The sausages thus made are very good. 

Small plump oysters, three dozen and a half; bread-crumbs, 
ten ounces ; beef-suet, ten ounces ; seasoning of salt, cayenne, 
pounded mace, and nutmeg ; unbeaten eggs, two, or yolks of 

Obs. — The fingers should be well floured for making up these 

1175. New England Chowder. — Have a good haddock, cod, 
or any other solid fish, cut it in pieces three inches square, put 
a pound of fat salt pork in strips into the pot, set it on hot 
coals, and fry out the oil. Take out the pork, and put in a 
layer of fish, over that a layer of onions in slices, then a layer 
of fish with slips of fat salt pork, then another layer of onions, 
and so on alternately, until your fish is consumed. Mix some 
flour with as much water as will fill the pot ; season with black 
pepper and salt to your taste, and boil it for half an hour. 
Have ready some crackers soaked in water till they are a little 
softened ; throw them into your chowder five minutes before 
you take it up. Serve in a tureen. 


1176. Curing Hams — the Newbold Receipt. — Take seven 
pounds coarse salt, five pounds brown sugar, two ounces pearl- 
ash, 4 gallons of water. Boil all together, and scum the pickle 
well when cold. Put it on the meat. Hams remain in it eight 
weeks — beef three weeks. The above is for one hundred and 
ninety pounds weight. 

1177. A Pickle that will keep for years, for hams, tongues, or 
beef, if boiled and skimmed between each parcel of them. — To two 
gallons of spring water put two pounds of coarse sugar, two 
pounds of bay and two and a half pounds of common salt, and 
half a pound of saltpetre, in a deep earthen glazed pan that will 
hold four gallons, and with a cover that will fit close. Keep 
the beef or hams as long as they will bear before you put them 
into the pickle ; and sprinkle them with coarse sugar in a pan, 
from which they must drain. Rub the hams, &c., well with 
the pickle, and pack them in close, putting as much as the pan 
will hold, so that the pickle may cover them. The pickle is 
not to be boiled at first. A small ham may lie fourteen days, a 
large one three weeks ; a tongue twelve days, and beef in pro- 
portion to its size. They will eat well out of the pickle with- 
out drying. When they are to be dried, let each piece be 
drained over the pan ; and when it will drop no longer, take a 
clean sponge and dry it thoroughly. Six or eight hours will 
smoke them, and there should be only a little sawdust and wet 
straw burnt to do this; but if put into a baker's chimney, sew 
them in a coarse cloth, and hang them a week. Add two pounds 
of common salt and two pints of water every time you boil the 

1178. To smoke Hams and Fish on a small scale. — Drive the 
ends out of an old hogshead or barrel ; place this over a heap 
of sawdust of green hard wood, in which a bar of red-hot iron 
is buried ; or take corn-cobs, which make the best smoke ; 
place them in a clean iron kettle, the bottom of which is cov- 
ered with burning coals ; hang the hams, tongues, fish, &c., on 
sticks across the cask, and cover it, but not closely, that the 
cobs or sawdust may smoulder slowly, but not burn. 

1179. Onion Sauce. — Peel the onions, and boil them tender; 
squeeze the water from them ; chop them ; and pour on them 
butter that has been carefully melted, together with a little 


good milk, instead of water. Boil it up once. A turnip boiled 
with the onions, makes them milder. 

1180. Sauce Robert. — Cut into small dice, four or five large 
onions, and brown them in a stew-pan, with three ounces of 
butter, and a dessert-spoonful of flour. When of a deep yel- 
low-brown, pour to them half a pint of beef or of veal-gravy, 
and let them simmer for fifteen minutes ; skim the sauce ; add 
a seasoning of salt and pepper, and, at the moment of serving, 
mix in a dessert-spoonful of made-mustard. 

Large onions, four or five ; butter, three ounces ; flour, a des- 
sert-spoonful : ten to fifteen minutes. Gravy, half a pint: fif- 
teen minutes. Mustard, a dessert-spoonful. 

1181. Tomato Sauce, — Crush half a dozen, more or less, of 
very ripe, red tomatoes ; pick out the seeds, and squeeze the 
water from them ; put them into a stew-pan, with two or three 
finely-sliced shalots, and a little gravy : simmer till nearly 
dry; when add half a pint of brown sauce, and simmer twenty 
minutes longer ; then rub it through a tammy into a clean 
stew-pan ; season with Cayenne pepper and salt, a little glaze, 
and lemon-juice ; simmer a few minutes, and serve. Tarragon 
or Chili vinegar are sometimes added ; and sliced onions may 
be substituted for the shalots. 

1182. Brown Caper Sauce. — Thicken half a pint of good veal 
or beef-gravy, as directed for Sauce-Tournee ; and add to it 
two table-spoonfuls of capers, and a dessert-spoonful of the 
pickle-liquor, or of Chili vinegar, with some Cayenne, if the 
former be used, and a proper seasoning of salt. 

Thickened veal, or beef-gravy, half a pint; capers, twr 
table-spoonfuls; caper liquor, or Chili vinegar, one dessert 
spoonful. \ 

1183. Horse-radish Sauce. — Scrape, finely, a stick of horsi, 
radish into about half a pint of brown sauce and a gravy-spook 
ful of vinegar ; simmer, and season with salt and sugar. Thi* 
sauce is eaten with hot roast beef. 

1184. Sauce for cold Roast Beef. — Mix scraped horse-radish, 
made-mustard, and vinegar, and sweeten with white sugar. 


1185. Mint Sauce. — Mix vinegar and brown sugar, and let 
it stand at least an hour ; then add chopped mint, and stir to 
gether. It should be very sweet. 

1186. Mild Mustard. — Mustard, for instant use, should be 
mixed with milk, to which a spoonful or two of very thin cream 
may be added. 

1187. Mustard, the common way. — The great art of mixing 
mustard, is to have it perfectly smooth, and of a proper con- 
sistency. The liquid with which it is moistened, should be 
added to it in small quantities, and the mustard should be well 
rubbed, and beaten with a spoon. Mix half a tea-spoonful of 
salt with two ounces of the flour of mustard, and stir to them, 
by degrees, sufficient boiling water to reduce it to the appear- 
ance of a thick batter. Do not put it into the mustard-glass 
until cold. Some persons like half a tea-spoonful of sugar, in 
the finest powder, mixed with it. It ought to be sufficiently 
diluted always to drop easily from the spoon. 

1188. Parsley and Butter. — Scald a large handful of parsley 
in boiling water that has some salt in it ; when tender, chop it 
fine, and stir it into some rather thick melted butter. There 
should be sufficient parsley to make the sauce green ; and the 
parsley should not be put to the melted butter until about to 
be served, otherwise it will turn brown. 

1189. To make Sage and Onion Stuffing, for Roast Pork, 
Geese, Ducks, dtc. — To make this stuffing, take two middling- 
sized onions, peel them, and boil them for about ten minutes 
in plenty of water; next take as much dry sage-leave*, as, when 
rubbed into powder and sifted through the top of your flour- 
dredger, will fill a table-spoon. When the onion has boiled 
about ten minutes, squeeze it dry, chop it fine, and mix it with 
the crumbled sage ; then add to them a tea-cupful of stale, 
white bread-crumbs, with a tea-spoonful of black pepper, a very 
little pinch of Cayenne, and a salt-spoonful of salt. Mix all 
well together, and it is ready. 

1190. Sippets of Bread, for Garnishing. — Cut the crumb of 
A stale loaf in slices a quarter of an inch thick: form them into 
diamonds or half-diamonds, or in any other way : fry them in 


fresh butter. Dry them well, and place them around the dish 
to be garnished. 

1191. Seasoning for Stuffing. — One pound of salt, dried and 
sifted; half an ounce of ground white pepper; two ounces of 
dried thyme ; one ounce of dried marjoram ; and one ounce of 
nutmeg. When this seasoning is used, parsley only is required 
to be chopped in sufficient quantity to make the stuffing green. 
The proportions are — half a pound of bread-crumbs ; three 
eggs ; a quarter of a pound of suet ; half an ounce of seasoning ; 
and the peel of half a lemon, grated. 

1192. White Bread- Crumbs. — Put the crumb of very white 
bread into a slow oven or screen, and let it dry without color ; 
beat and sift it ; keep it in a close-covered pan in a dry, warm 
place : everything looks well, done with it. The crust may be 
dried, beaten, and sifted, for frying and garnishing. 

When crumbs are not prepared till wanted, the bread is 
never in a proper condition ; so that the crumbs are not only 
coarse and vulgar, but a sponge for fat, which shows bad taste, 
as well as being wasteful. 

1193. Panada — Is indispensable in making good farce of any 
kind ; it is even better for it than Naples' biscuit, and is made 
as follows : — Steep a sufficient quantity of good stale bread- 
crumb in cream or stock ; set it over the fire in a sauce-pan, 
and work it with a wooden spoon till it is as smooth and dry 
as a stiff paste : let it cool, and beat it with a yolk or two, 
according to the quantity, in a mortar : it is then ready to be 
put into all kinds of farces. 


1194. Wine Crust for Cakes or Pastry — a foreign Receipt. — 
Pour gradually to the well-beaten yolks of three fresh eggs, 
cleared from the specks, a quarter of a pint of light white wine 
(Marsala will serve for the purpose well enough), stirring them 
briskly as it is added ; throw in half a salt-spoonful of salt, and 
an ounce and a half of pounded sugar ; and when this last is 
dissolved, or nearly so, add the mixture to as much flour as 
will be required to form a smooth, firm paste : about three- 


quarters of a pound will be sufficient, unless the eggs should 
be of an unusual size. Roll it out, cut it asunder, and spread 
one half with eight ounces of butter, cut small ; lay the other 
half of the paste upon it, and roll them together as lightly as 
possible ; turn the paste on the board, and fold the two ends 
over each other, so as to make the whole of equal thickness ; 
roll it quite thin, and repeat the folding once or twice, touching 
the paste in doing it as little as can be, and rolling it very 
lightly. It may be used for any kind of sweet pastry ; or it 
may be served in the form of cakes, either iced or plain ; these 
again may be adapted to the second course, by spreading the 
under-sides of one half with rich preserve, and pressing the oth- 
ers on them. 

1195. Pic-nic Biscuits, — Work, very small, two ounces of 
fresh butter into a pound of flour ; reduce to the finest powder, 
and mix, intimately, half a salt-spoonful of very pure carbonate 
of soda (Howard's is the best), with two ounces of sugar ; min- 
gle these thoroughly with the flour, and make up the paste with 
a few spoonfuls of milk; it will require scarcely a quarter of a 
pint. Knead it very smooth, roll it a quarter of an inch thick, 
cut it in rounds about the size of the top of a small wine-glass ; 
roll these out thin, prick them well, lay them on lightly-floured 
tins, and bake them in a gentle oven until they are crisp quite 
through. As soon as they are cold put them into dry canis- 
ters. The sugar can be omitted at pleasure. If thin cream 
be used instead of milk, in making the paste, it will much 
enrich the biscuits ; but this would often not be considered an 
improvement, as plain simple biscuits are generally most in 

Carraway seeds or ginger can be added, to vary these at 
pleasure. The proportion of soda used should be too small to 
be perceptible, even to the taste : it will be no disadvantage to 
use milk with it which is slightly acid. 

1196. A good Soda Cake. — Rub half a pound of good butter 
into a pound of fine dry flour, and work it very small ; mix 
well with these half a pound of sifted sugar, and pour to them 
first a quarter of a pint of boiling milk, and next three well- 
whisked eggs ; add some grated nutmeg, or fresh lemon-rind, 
and eight ounces of currants ; beat the whole well and lightly 
together, and the instant before the cake is moulded and set 


into the oven, stir to it a tea-spoonful of carbonate of soda in 
the finest powder. Bake it from an hour to an hour and a 
quarter, or divide it in two, and allow from half to three-quar- 
ters of an hour for each cake. 

Flour, one pound ; butter, three ounces ; sugar, eight ounces , 
milk, full quarter-pint ; eggs, three ; currants, half a pound ; 
carbonate of soda, one tea-spoonful ; one hour to one and a 
half. Or, divided, a half to three-quarters of an hour — mode- 
rate oven. 

Obs. — This, if well made, resembles a pound-cake, but is 
much more wholesome. It is very good with two ounces less 
of butter, and with caraway-seeds or candied orange or citron 
substituted for the currants. 

1197. To make Fine Pancakes, Fried without Butter or Lard. 
— Take a pint of cream and six new-laid eggs ; beat them well 
together ; put in a quarter of a pound of sugar and one nutmeg 
or a little beaten mace — which you please, and so much as 
will thicken — almost as much as ordinary pancake flour batter ; 
your pan must be heated reasonably hot, and wiped with a 
clean cloth ; this done, spread your batter thin over it, and fry. 

1198. To make Loaves of Cheese-curd. — Take a porringer full 
of curds, and four eggs, whites and yolks, and as much flour as 
will make it stiff; then take a little ginger, nutmeg, and some 
salt ; make them into loaves, and set them into an oven with a 
quick heat ; when they begin to change color, take them out, 
and put melted butter to them, and some sack, and good store 
of sugar ; and so serve. 

1199. Cheap Ginger Biscuits. — Work into quite small 
crumbs three ounces of good butter, with two pounds of flour ; 
then add three ounces of pounded sugar and two of ginger, in 
fine powder, and knead them into a stiff paste, with new milk. 
Roll it thin, cut out the biscuits with a cutter, and bake them 
in a slow oven until they are crisp quite through, but keep 
them of a pale color. A couple of eggs are sometimes mixed 
with the milk for them, but are no material improve/neat ; an 
additional ounce of sugar may be used when a sweeter biscuit 
is liked. To make good ginger cakes, increase the butter to six 
ounces, and the sugar to eight, for each pound of flour, and wet 
the ingredients into a paste with eggs \ a little lemon-grate will 
give it an agreeable flavor. 


Biscuits — flour, two pounds; butter, three ounces; pounded 
sugar, three ounces ; ginger, two ounces. 

Cakes — flour, one pound ; butter, six ounces ; sugar, eight 
ounces ; ginger, one ounce ; three to four eggs ; rind of half a 

1200. Ginger Snaps. — Beat together half a pound of butter, 
and half a pound of sugar ; mix with them half a pint of mo- 
lasses, half a tea-cupful of ginger, and one pound and a half of 

1201. Gingerbread. — Mix together three and a half pounds 
of flour ; three-quarters of a pound of butter ; one pound of 
sugar ; one pint of molasses ; a quarter of a pound of ginger, 
and some ground orange-peel. 

1202. Raspberry Cakes. — Take any quantity of fruit you 
please, weigh and boil it, and when mashed, and the liquor is 
washed, add as much sugar as was equal in weight to the raw 
fruit. Mix it very well off the fire till the whole is dissolved, 
then lay it on plates, and dry it in the sun. When the top 
part dries, cut it ofT into small cakes, and turn them on a fresh 
plate. When dry, put the whole in boxes, with layers of 

1203. Rock Cakes. — Mix together one pound of flour; half 
a pound of sugar; half a pound of butter; half a pound of 
currants or cherries, and four eggs, leaving out the whites of 
two ; a little wine and candied lemon-peel are a great improve- 

1204. Cup Cakes.— Mix together five cups of flour; three 
cups of sugar ; one cup of butter ; one cup of milk ; three eggs, 
well beaten ; one wine-glass of wine ; one of brandy, and a little 

1205. Jumbles. — Take one peund of loaf-sugar, pounded fine; 
one pound and a quarter of flour; three-quarters of a pound of 
butter; four eggs, beaten light, and a little rose-water and 
spice ; mix them well, and roll them in sugar. 


1206. Sponge Cake. — Take the weight of the eggs in sugar ; 
half their weight in flour, well sifted ; to twelve eggs, add the 
grated rind of three lemons, and the juice of two. Beat the 
eggs carefully, white and yolks separately, before they are 
used. Stir the materials thoroughly together, and bake in a 
quick oven. 

1207. Apple Fritters. — Pare and core some fine large pip- 
pins, and cut them into round slices. Soak them in wine, sugar, 
and nutmeg, for two or three hours. Make a batter of four 
eggs ; a table-spoonful of rose-water ; a table-spoonful of wine ; 
a table-spoonful of milk ; thicken with enough flour, stirred in 
by degrees, to make a batter ; mix it two or three hours before 
it is wanted, that it may be light. Heat some butter in a fry- 
ing pan ; dip each slice of apple separately in the batter, and 
fry them brown ; sift pounded sugar, and grate nutmeg over 

1208. A Charlotte Russe. — It is very difficult to prepare this 
delicate dish, and we advise all inexperienced house-keepers 
not to undertake it without the superintendence of a professed 

Extract the flavor from a vanilla-bean, by boiling it in half 
a pint of milk. The milk must then be strained ; and, when 
cold, mix with it a quarter of a pound of loaf sugar. Beat the 
yolks of four eggs very light, and stir them into the mixture. 
Heat it over the fire for five minutes, until it becomes a cus- 
tard, but take great care that it does not boil. Boil an ounce 
of isinglass with a pint of water. The isinglass must be tho- 
roughly dissolved before it is fit for use, and one-half of the 
water boiled away. The custard being cold, drain the isinglass 
into it, and stir them hard together. Leave them to cool, 
w r hile you prepare the rest of the mixture. Whip a quart of 
cream to a froth, (the cream should be rich,) and mix it with 
me custard ; in whipping the cream, great care should be taken 
to make it quite light; the safest way is, to remove the froth 
as fast as it gathers, with a strainer, until the whole is whipped. 

Take two round slices of almond sponge-cake; glaze them 
with the beaten white of egg mixed with sugar. Lay one on 
the bottom of a circular mould, and reserve the other for the 

Cut some more sponge-cake into long pieces ; glaze them 


carefully with the egg, and line the sides of the mould with 
them. Each piece should lap a little over the other, or the 
form will not be perfect. The custard will by this time be just 
beginning to congeal; pour it gently into the mould, and cover 
the top with the piece of cake which has already been prepared. 
The cake around the sides must be trimmed evenly, so that 
the upper piece will fit without leaving any vacancies. 

Pound some ice, and throw it into a tub, covering it well 
with coarse salt. The mould should then be set into the midst 
of this ice, and must remain there an hour. Prepare an icing 
with powdered sugar and the beaten white of egg, flavoring it 
with lemon-juice, or essence of lemon, orange, or rose-water, 
according to the taste. The Charlotte Russe is then turned out 
upon a handsome dish, and iced over. It should be moved 
about as little as possible ; and, to ensure success in preparing 
it, the utmost care must be taken to follow the above direc- 

At large parties, a Charlotte Russe is as indispensable on the 
supper-table as ice-cream. 

1209. Batter Pudding. — Take six ounces of fine flour, a little 
salt, and three eggs ; beat it up well with a little milk, added 
by degrees till the batter is quite smooth : make it the thick- 
ness of cream : put it into a buttered pie-dish, and bake three- 
quarters of an hour ; or, in a buttered and floured basin, tied 
over tight with a cloth: boil one hour and a half or two hours. 

Any kind of ripe fruit that you like may be added to the 
batter — only you must make the batter a little stifler. Blue- 
berries, or finely-chopped apple, are most usually liked. 

1210. French Batter, (for frying Vegetables, and for Apple, 
Peach, or Orange Fritters). — Cut two ounces of good butter 
into small bits; pour on it less than a quarter of a pint of boil- 
ing water ; and, when it is dissolved, add three-quarters of a 
pint of cold water, so that the whole shall*not be quite milk- 
warm : mix it then by degrees, and very smoothly, with twelve 
ounces of fine, dry flour, and a small pinch of salt, if the batter 
be for fruit-fritters, but with more, if for meat or vegetables. 
Just before it is used, stir into it the whites of two eggs beaten 
to a solid froth ; but, previously to this, add a little water, 
should it appear too thick, as some flour requires more liquid 
than others, to bring it to a proper consistency. 


Butter, two ounces; water, from three-quarters to nearly a 
pint; little salt; flour, three-quarters of a pound; whites of 
two eggs, beaten to snow. 

1211. Terrines of Rice, sweet and savory, — Wash four ounces 
of Carolina rice in several waters, and leave it to soak for ten 
minutes ; then put it into a common Nottingham jar, with a 
cover, and in shape, larger, considerably, in the middle than at 
the top — as those of narrower form and proportionably greater 
height will not answer so well. This jar may contain one quart 
or two, as the stove-oven in which it is to be placed, may per- 
mit. The smaller size has, on compulsion, been used for the 
present and following receipts — the iron-plate in the centre of 
the only oven which the writer had at command, preventing 
a larger one from standing in it. Pour on the rice an exact pint 
of new milk; add two ounces of pounded sugar, the slightest 
pinch of salt, and any flavor which may be liked. Stir the 
whole well for a minute or two ; put on the cover of the jar ; 
make a bit of paste with flour and water, sufficient to form a 
wide, thick band ; moisten the side which is laid on the jar, 
and bind the edges of the cover and the jar together securely 
with it ; tie brown paper over, and set it into the coolest part 
of the oven of the kitchen-range. Bake the rice gently for two 
hours and a quarter at the least, and turn the jar half-round 
once or twice while it is in the oven. Stir it lightly up, heap it 
on a hot dish, and send it to table. A compote of fresh fruit 
is an admirable accompaniment to it. 

1212. Nutmeg Pudding, — Pound, fine, two large or three 
small nutmegs ; melt three pounds of butter, and stir into it 
half a pound of loaf-sugar, a little wine, the yolks of five eggs, 
well beaten, and the nutmegs. Bake on a puff-paste. 

1213. Wine Jelly, — Soak four ounces of gelatine in one quart 
of cold water, for half an hour. In the meantime, mix w T ith 
two quarts of cold w T ater, six table- spoonfuls of brandy ; one 
pint of white- w 7 ine ; six lemons, cut up with the peel on ; the 
w T hites and shells of six eggs, the whites slightly beaten, the 
shells crushed ; three pounds of white sugar : then mix the 
gelatine with the other ingredients, and put them over the fire. 
Let it boil, without stirring, for twenty minutes. Strain it 
through a flannel-bag, without squeezing. Wet the mould in 


cold water. Pour the jelly in, and leave it in a cool place foi 
three hours. 

1214. Economics. — It is often a matter of great convenience 
as well as of economy, to give a new r and presentable form to 
the remains of dishes w r hich have already appeared at table: 
the following hints may, therefore, be not unacceptable to some 
of our readers. 

No. 1. — Calf's- feet jelly and good blanc-mange are excellent 
when just melted and mixed together, whether in equal or un- 
equal proportions. They should be heated only sufficient to 
liquify them, or the acid of the jelly might curdle the blanc- 
mange. Pour this last, when melted, into a deep earthen bowl, 
and add the jelly to it in small portions, whisking them briskly 
together as it is thrown in. A small quantity of prepared 
cochineal — which may be procured from a chemist's — will serve 
to improve or to vary the color, when required. Many kinds 
of creams and custards also may be blended advantageously 
with the blanc-mange, after a little additional isinglass has been 
dissolved in it, to give sufficient firmness to the whole. It 
must be observed, that, though just liquid, either jelly or blanc- 
mange must be as nearly cold as it will become without thick- 
ening and beginning to set, before it is used for this receipt. 

A sort of marbled or Mosaic mass is sometimes made by 
shaking together, in a mould, remnants of various-colored blanc- 
manges, cut nearly of the same size, and then filling it up 
with some clear jelly. 

No. 2. — When a small part only of an open tart has been 
eaten, divide the remainder equally into triangular slices, place 
them at regular intervals round a dish, and then fill the inter- 
mediate spaces, and cover the tart entirely, with slightly-sweet- 
ened and well-drained whipped cream. 

1215. Pumpkin Pie. — Stew the pumpkin dry, and make it 
like squash pie, only season rather higher. In the country, 
where this real Yankee pie is prepared in perfection, ginger is 
almost always used with other spices. There, too, part cream, 
instead of milk, is mixed with the pumpkin, which gives it a 
richer flavor. 

1216. Rhubarb Stalks, or Persian Apple — Is the earliest 
ingredient for pies, which the spring offers. The skin should 


be carefully stripped, and the stalks cut into small bits, and 
stewed very tender. These are dear pies, for they take an 
enormous quantity of sugar : seasoned like apple pies. Goose- 
berries, currants, &c, are stewed, sweetened, and seasoned like 
apple pies, in proportions suited to the sweetness of the fruit ; 
there is no way to judge but by your own taste. Always re- 
member, it is more easy to add seasoning, than to diminish it. 

1217. Superlative Mince-meat, for Pies. — Take four large lem- 
ons, with their weight of golden pippins, pared and cored, of jar- 
raisins, currants, candied citron and orange-rind, and the finest 
suet, and a fourth-part more of pounded sugar. Boil the lemons 
tender, chop them small; but be careful first to extract all the 
pips; add them to the other ingredients, after all have been 
prepared with great nicety, and mix the whole well with from 
three to four glasses of good brandy. Apportion salt and spice 
by the preceding receipt. We think that the weight of one 
lemon, in meat, improves this mixture ; or, in lieu of it, a small 
quantity of crushed macaroons, added just before it is baked. 

1218. Rolls. — Rub into a pound of sifted flour, two ounces 
of butter ; beat the whites of three eggs to a froth, and add 
a table- spoonful of good yeast, a little salt, and sufficient warm 
milk to make a stiff dough. Cover and put it where it will 
be kept warm, and it will rise in an hour. Then make it into 
rolls, or round cakes ; put them on a floured tin, and bake in 
a quick oven or stove. They will be done in ten or fifteen 

1219. To make Yeast in the Turkish manner. — Take a small 
tea-cupful of split or bruised peas, and pour on it a pint of boil- 
ing water, and set it in a vessel all night on the hearth, or any 
warm place. The next morning the water will have a froth on 
it, and be good yeast, and will make as much bread as two 
quartern loaves. 

1220. Dyspepsia Bread. — The following receipt for making 
bread, has proved highly salutary to persons afflicted with 
dyspepsia, viz : — Three quarts unbolted wheat meal ; one quart 
soft water, warm, but not hot; one gill of fresh yeast; one gill 
of molasses, or not, as may suit the taste ; one teaspoonful of 


This will make two loaves, and should remain in the oven 
at least one hour ; and when taken out, placed where they will 
cool gradually. Dyspepsia crackers can be made with unbolted 
flour, water, and saleratus. 

1221. Unfermented Bread. — This keeps moist longer than 
bread made with yeast, and is more sweet and digestible. The 
brown bread made in this way is particularly recommended 
for dyspeptics. Take four pounds of flour, half an ounce avoir- 
dupois of muriatic acid ; the same of carbonate of soda ; about 
a quart of water. First mix the soda and flour well together 
by rubbing in a pan ; pour the acid into the water, and stir it 
well together. Mix all together to the required consistence and 
bake in a hot oven immediately. If instead of flour, unbolted 
meal should be used, take three pounds of meal ; half an ounce 
avoirdupois of muriatic acid ; the same of carbonate of soda ; 
and water enough to make it of a proper consistence. Mix in 
the same way. 

1222. Rice Caudle. — When the water boils, pour into it some 
ground rice mixed with a little cold water; when of a proper 
consistency, add sugar, lemon-peel, and cinnamon, and a glass 
of brandy to a quart. Boil all smooth. 

Or : — Soak some Carolina rice in water an hour, strain it, 
and put two spoonfuls of the rice into a pint and a quarter of 
milk ; simmer till it will pulp through a sieve, then put the 
pulp and milk into the saucepan, with a bruised clove, and a 
bit of white sugar. Simmer ten minutes : if too thick, add a 
spoonful or two of milk, and serve with thin toast. 

1223. — Johnny Cakes. — Sift a quart of corn meal into a pan ; 
make a hole in the middle, and pour in a pint of warm water. 
Mix the meal and water gradually into a batter, adding a tea- 
spoonful of salt; beat it very quickly, and for a long time, till 
it becomes quite light ; then spread it thick and even on a stout 
piece of smooth board ; place it upright on the hearth before a 
clear fire, with something to support the board behind, and bake 
it well ; cut it into squares, and split and butter them hot. 

They may also be made with a quart of miJk, three eggs, one 
tea-spoonful of carbonate of soda, and one tea-cupful of w beaten 
floury add Indian corn-meal sufficient to make a batter like that 
of pancakes, and either bake it in buttered pans, or upon a 
griddle, and eat them with butter. 


1224. Green Com — Must be boiled in clear water, with salt, 
from twenty minutes to half an hour ; if old, it will require a 
longer time. It must be sent to table directly it is done, as it 
loses its sweetness by either boiling after it is done, or standing 
when dished. 

(A tea-spoonful of saleratus boiled with corn is said to pre- 
vent sickness.) 

1225. Com Oysters. — One pint of grated green corn, one 
cup of flour, one dessert-spoonful of salt, one tea-spoonful of 
pepper, one egg. 

Mix the ingredients together, drop, and fry them in hot lard. 
In taste they resemble fried oysters. They are an excellent 
relish for breakfast, and a good side-dish for dinner. 

1226. Sackatash, or Corn and Beans. — Boil three pints of 
shelled beans, or a quarter of a peck of string beans, half an 
hour, pour off the water. Cut the corn off of four dozen ears — 
put it in the pot among the beans, add salt and pepper, and 
cover them with boiling water — boil all together twenty minutes. 
Rub flour into a large piece of butter and stir it in, then let it 
boil up once. Pour it into your tureen and send it to table. 

1227. Winter Sackatash. — As in winter the beans and corn 
are both dried, they will have to be soaked over night. Par- 
boil the beans in one or two waters, then add the corn, and boil 
all together until the beans are boiled to pieces, which will be 
several hours. Add a small piece of loaf sugar. Before dish- 
ing it for table, mix a large piece of butter with flour, stir it in 
and let it boil. 

1228. To make Curry Powders. — Take one ounce of ginger, 
the same of coriander-seed, half an ounce of cayenne pepper, 
and two ounces of fine pale turmeric ; these ingredients to be 
pounded separately to a fine powder, and then warmed by the 
fire, and mixed together. Put the powder into a wide-mouthed 
bottle, cork it well down, and put it into a dry place. 

Those who dislike the flavor of turmeric may substitute saffron. 

1229. To prepare a Curry. — The meat should be fresh and 
free from bone. Cut it into pieces which can be easily served. 
To each pound of meat add a table-spoonful of curry powder, 



and about half the quantity of flour, and a little salt; mix these 
together, and rub a portion of it upon the meat before it is fried, 
the remainder afterwards. Fry the meat in a little butter. 
Pry onions a light brown, with a clove of garlic if approved ; 
drain the fat from both the meat and onions ; put them into a 
stewpan, and cover with boiling water ; stew for twenty minutes, 
then rub the remainder of the powder smooth with a little cold 
water, add it, and let it stew for an hour, or according to the 
time necessary for the meat to be well done. If no other acid 
is used, stir- in a little lemon-juice just before serving: place it 
in the centre of the dish, and put carefully boiled rice round it. 

1230. Lord Clives Curry, — Slice six onions, one green apple, 
and a clove of garlic ; stew them in a little good stock until 
they will pulp, then add one tea-spoonful of curry -powder, a 
few table-spoonfuls of stock, a little salt, and a little cayenne 
pepper, half a salt-spoonful of each ; stew in this gravy any 
kind of meat cut into small pieces, adding a piece of butter, 
the size of a walnut, rolled in flour. 

1231. To free Molasses from its sharp taste, and to render 
it Jit to be used instead of Sugar. — Take twenty-four pounds 
of molasses, twenty -four pounds of water, and six pounds of 
charcoal, coarsely pulverized : mix them in a kettle, and boil 
the whole over a slow wood fire. When the mixture has boiled 
half an hour, pour it into a flat vessel, in order that the charcoal 
may subside to the bottom : then pour off the liquid, and place 
it over the fire once more, that the superfluous water may evapo- 
rate, and the molasses be brought to their former consistence. 
Twenty-four pounds of molasses will produce twenty -four 
pounds of syrup. 

1232. To make Apple Molasses. — Take new sweet cider just 
from the press, made from sweet apples, and boil it down as 
thick as West India molasses. It should be boiled in brass, 
and not burned, as that would injure the flavor. It will keep 
in the cellar, and is said to be as good, and for many purposes 
better than West India molasses. 

1233. To dress Chestnuts for Dessert.— Let them be well 
roasted, and the husks taken off. Dissolve a quarter pound of 
sugar in a wine-glassful of water, and the juice of a lemon. 


Put this and the chestnuts into a saucepan over a slow fire for 
ten minutes; add sufficient orange-flower water to flavor the 
syrup ; serve in a deep dish, and grate sugar over them. To 
be handed round whilst quite hot. 

1234. To improve Claret Wine when acid, — Place the cask 
on a stand for refining, put into it a quarter pound of chalk 
broken into small pieces. Let it remain one day, and then re- 
fine with the whites of six eggs, the shells broken, and a hand 
ful of salt ; all these are to be mixed with some of the wine, 
and then thrown into the cask. The shells are not to be powder 
ed, but simply crushed in the hand. The wine will be fit for 
bottling in two weeks. When bottled, it should be laid on 
the side. The bungs to be out as short a time as possible. 

1235. To improve Home-made wines, — When there is a ten 
dency to acidity in wine, add to it sugar-candy in the proportion 
of a pound to every four gallons ; dissolve it, and put it into 
the cask, incorporating it well. 

Poor wines may be improved by the addition of bruised 
raisins. If one ounce of powdered roche-alum be put into a cask 
of four gallons of wine, it will make it fine and brisk in ten days. 
Ripe medlars, or bruised mustard-seed, tied in a bag, will re- 
move mustiness, or other disagreeable taste/ 

Pricked wines may be improved, if not recovered, by being 
racked off into a ca^k that has contained the same kind of wine. 
The cask should be first matched or sulphured ; and, to every 
ten gallons of wine, put two ounces of oyster-shell powder, and 
half an ounce of bay-salt ; stir it, and leave it a few days to 
fine ; after which, rack it into another cask, also matched. 

Burn dry walnuts over a charcoal fire, and when they are 
well lit, throw them into the wine, and bung up ; in forty- 
eight hours they will correct the acidity. One walnut will 
suffice for every gallon of wine. 

If bottled wine be ropy, shake it for twenty minutes, uncork 
it, and pour off the froth or scum, when the rest of the wine 
will be drinkable. 

1236. Cashing. — The casks should be washed with hot salt 
and water, then with hot water, and lastly with a portion of 
the fermented liquor made to boil. 

After the liquor is removed into the cask, it will slowly fer- 


ment, and some will evaporate. The cask should, however, be 
kept filled near the bung-hole, else the scum cannot be thrown 

When the fret subsides, close the bung-hole, and bore a hole 
for a peg, to be withdrawn occasionally, else the cask may 

In the following Spring, determine whether you bottle or 
keep in wood another year ; but wines that have been properly 
fermented, and promise well, will be improved by remaining 
in the cask another year. Then, if the wine wants rich flavor, 
add to twenty gallons, five pounds of sugar-candy. 

1237. Bottling. — Brisk wines should be bottled on the ap- 
proach of Spring. 

If the wine be not fine enough, draw off a quart, in which dis- 
solve isinglass in the proportion of half an ounce to twenty gal- 
lons, and pour the solution in at the bung-hole. In about three 
weeks, the liquor will be sufficiently clear for bottling. 

In drawing off, be careful to tap the cask above the lees. 
The wine, to be fit for bottling, should be fine and brilliant, 
el>e it will never brighten after. When bottled, it should be 
stored in a cool cellar, and the bottles laid on their sides, and 
in sawdust ; but, on no account set upright. 

In making wines, it is a good plan to use two casks, one a 
very small one, from which the larger one may be filled up, 
during the fermentation. 

1238. Fining for Wine. — Put an ounce of isinglass into a 
quart jug, with one pint of wine ; stir it twice Of thrice a day, 
and it will soon dissolve ; when strain it through a sieve. A 
pint of this fining will be sufficient for a ca.-k of twenty 

When the fining is put into the cask, stir it up with a stick, 
taking care not to touch the bottom, so as to disturb the lees. 
Fill up the cask, if necessary, bung it down, and in a week 
the wine will be fit for bottling. 

For white wine only, add and mix, as above, a quarter of a 
pint of milk to every gallon of wine. It may also be fined 
with the whites of eggs, beaten up with some wine, in the pro- 
portion of four whites to sixteen gallons of wine. 

1239. To sweeten Casks. — If a cask, after the contents are 
drunk out, be well stopped, and the lees be allowed to remain 


in it till it is again to be used, it will only be necessary to 
scald il ; taking care, before you fill it, to see that the hoops 
are well driven. Should the air get into the cask, it will be- 
come musty, and scalding will not improve it ; the surest way 
will be then to take out the head of the cask, to be shaved, 
then to burn it a little, and scald it for use. Or, put into the 
cask some quick lime and cold water, bung it down, shake it 
for some time, and then scald it ; or, burn a match in it, and 
scald it. 

Or, mix half a pint of the strongest sulphuric acid in an 
open vessel, with a quart of water, put it into the cask, and 
roll it well about ; next day, add one pound of chalk, bung it 
down, and in three or four days the cask should be washed out 
witJi boiling water. 

To prepare a match, melt some brimstone, and dip into it a 
long narrow piece of coarse linen cloth, or brown paper ; when 
to be used, set fire to the match, put it in at the bung-hole of 
the cask, fastening one end under the bung, and let it remain 
for a few hours. 

1240. A Filtering Bag — Will be useful in fining wines : it 
may be made of a yard of moderately-fine flannel, laid sloping, 
so as to have the bottom very narrow, and the top the full 
breadth ; strongly sew up the side, and fold and sew the upper 
part of the bag about a broad wooden hoop, to be suspended 
by a cord fastened in three or four places. 

1241. Coloring Wines. — In the coloring of wines, many sub- 
stances have been used, and it is desirable to select such as 
may also communicate an agreeable flavor. Red colors are 
easily obtained from beet-root, logwood, or the berries of the 
elder ; and every variety of yellow may be produced by the 
use of burnt sugar, which also gives an agreeable bitterness. 

There is no end to the materials which have been used to 
give a flavor to wine. The flowers of elder, cowslips, clove- 
pinks, and mignonette, are well known. The shavings of orris- 
root, in the proportion of half an ounce to twenty gallons, will 
be found to communicate an agreeable perfume. The shavings 
should be tied in a linen bag, and suspended in the cask by a 
string, so as to be removable at pleasure, if, upon trial, it is 
found that the flavor is likely to be too predominant. 


1242. To check Fermentation. — Sulphate of potash will stop 
fermentation. One dram is sufficient for a pipe of liquor. It 
will be useful to the confectioner to know, that by the use of 
the same salt, the fermentation of syrups and preserves may 
also be effectually prevented. 

1243. Currant Shrub ; easily made. — To every quart of juice, 
add one pound of sugar, and one gill of brandy. Bottle and 
cork it tight. Do not put it over the fire. 

1244. Damson Wine. — To four gallons of boiling water, add 
a peck of damsons ; stir this liquor twice every day. Let it 
stand for three days, and then strain the whole through a lawn 
sieve. Add nine pounds of loaf sugar, and three spoonsful of 
yeast ; after it has worked in a tub for three days, turn it into 
a cask, and add three quarts of elder syrup. Rack the wine 
in a fortnight. Put in two lemons, sliced, a quarter of a pound 
of loaf sugar, rubbed on the peel, and two pounds of raisins, 
chopped. Stop it close till March, and then bottle it. 

1245. Red Cherry Wine. — Strip, when full ripe, any quan- 
tity of the finest red, or Kentish cherries, from their stalks, and 
stamp them, in the same manner as apples for cider, till the 
stones are broken. Put the whole into a tub, and cover it up 
closely for three days and nights ; then press it in a cider- 
press ; put the liquor again into a tub, and let it stand, covered 
as before, two days longer. Carefully take off the scum, with- 
out in the smallest degree disturbing the liquor, which is to be 
poured off the lees, into a different tub. After it has thus 
stood to clear another two days, it must again be cautiously 
skimmed, and the clear liquid poured off as before. If the 
cherries are, as they ought to be, quite ripe and sweet, a pound 
and a half of good sugar will be sufficient for each gallon of 
juice, which is to be well stirred in, and the liquor again closely 
covered up, without being any more disturbed till the next 
day; then pour it carefully from the lees, as before, put it to 
stand, in the same manner, another day ; and then, with the 
like care, pour it off into the. cask, or casks, in which it is in- 
tended to be kept. The above process must be often repeated, 
should the lees appear gross and likely to make the liquor fret. 
When entirely settled, stop it up, for at least seven or eight 
months - } then, if perfectly fine, put it in bottles ; if not, drain 


it off into another vessel, and stop it up for six months longer, 
before you venture to bottle it, when it will want only age to 
equal, if not exceed, all foreign wines. It will, however, be 
best not to drink it till at least ten or twelve months old. 

1240. Rich Morella Cherry Wine.-r-Heivmg picked off from 
their stalks the ripest and soundest morella cherries, bruise 
them well, without breaking the stones, and let the whole stand 
twenty-four hours in an open vessel. Then press out all the 
juice, and for every gallon, add two pounds of fine loaf sugar. 
Put this wine into a cask, and when the fermentation ceases, stop 
it close. Let it stand three or four months, then bottle it, and 
in two months more it will be fit to drink. Some crack the 
stones, and hang them, with the bruised kernels, in a bag, from 
the bung, while the wine remains in the cask. 

1247. Incomparable Apricot Wine, — Take eight pounds of 
ripe apricots, slice them into two gallons of spring water, and 
add five pounds of powdered loaf sugar. Boil them together 
for some time, without taking off the scum ; then skim it off 
as it continues to rise, and put it in a clean sieve, over a pan, 
to save the liquor which comes from it. When the boiling 
liquor is as clear as it can be made from the dross of the 
sugar, pour it, with the drainings of the sieve, hot on the ker- 
nels of the apricots, which must be put with the stones into the 
pan, where it is intended the wine should be left to cool. Stir 
all well together, cover it up closely till it grows quite cool, 
and then work it w r ith a toast and yeast. In two or three days, 
when it is found to be settled, fine it off into a cask, leaving it 
to ferment as long as it will. After it has done working, pour 
in a bottle of old hock, mountain, or sherry, and stop it up for 
six months ; then, if very fine, bottle it, and keep it twelve 
months. This is indeed a most delicious wine. 

1248. To detect Sugar of Lead in Wines. — The tincture of 
orpiment converts wine so adulterated to a black color. 

1249. Orange Wine. — To ten gallons of water put twenty- 
eight pounds of loaf sugar, and the whites of six eggs. Boil 
them together for three-quarters of an hour, keeping the liquor 
well skimmed all the time, and then pour it hot into a tub, or 
large pan, over the peels of fifty Seville oranges. When it is 


nearly cold, take three spoonsful of yeast, spread on a piece of 
toasted bread, and put in the liquor to make it ferment. After 
it has stood two or three days, pour it from the peels into the 
cask, with a gallon of orange juice, which takes about a hun- 
dred and twenty oranges. Let it remain in the cask till it has 
done hissing, when the fermentation will have ceased. En- 
deavor to proportion the size of the cask to the quantity, as it 
must be kept filled, so as to work out at the bung-hole. When 
the fermentation is over, draw off as much of the wine as will 
admit one quart of brandy for every five gallons of wine. It 
will be fit to bottle, or drink from the cask, in four or five 
months. This wine, if carefully made, according to these plain 
directions, will be found exquisitely delicious ; and were it 
kept four or five years, would far surpass most of the best 
foreign wines, as they are usually sold in England. 

1250. Red Currant Wine. — To eight gallons of water add 
twenty-four pounds of loaf sugar ; boil the syrup and skim it, 
till the scum disappears. Have ready, picked from the stalks, 
two gallons of red currants, taking care not to bruise them. 
Pour the syrup, boiling hot, on the currants. Let it all stand 
till nearly cold ; then add a teacupful of yeast. Let it fer- 
ment for two days ; then strain it through a sieve, into the 
cask, and when the fermentation entirely ceases, bung it tight. 
It will be ready to bottle at the end of two months. Into 
each bottle put a small lump of sugar. 

1251. Raisin Wine. — To every gallon of water weigh seven 
pounds of raisins ; pick them from the stalks, and put them 
into a tub ; pour the water on the fruit, and let it stand a fort- 
night or three weeks, stirring it several times a day. Strain 
it, and press the fruit very dry through hair bags, then put it 
into a barrel, but do not stop it close. In about four months 
rack it, and then put a little fresh fruit, and some brandy, into 
the barrel. A quart of brandy, and eight or ten pounds of 
fruit, are sufficient for twenty-five or thirty gallons of wine. 
When the wine is racked, draw it off into a tub, and pass the 
sediment that remains through a flannel bag ; the head of the 
barrel must then be taken out, and the barrel rinsed with a 
little of the wine. After the head is again put in, add the 
brandy and fruit. Put the bung in for a little time, but not 
very tight. It will be necessary to refine the wine with isin- 


glass, about three weeks before it is bottled, which should not 
be in less than a year. One ounce of isinglass, dissolved in 
half a pint of wine, and stirred into the barrel, will be suffi- 

Before the water is poured on the fruit, it should be boiled 
with the stalks, and with hops ; the latter in the proportion of 
a quarter of a pound to every thirty gallons of water. Strain 
the liquor, let it grow cold, and then add it to the fruit. 

1252. Spruce Wine. — To every gallon of water take a pound 
and a half of honey, and half a pound of fine starch. Before 
the starch is mixed with the honey-syrup, it must be reduced 
to a transparent jelly, by boiling it with part of the water pur- 
posely reserved ; — a quarter of a pound of essence of spruce 
must be used to five gallons of water, and when sufficiently 
stirred and incorporated, pour the wine into the cask. Then 
add a quarter of a pint of good ale-yeast, shake the cask well, 
and let it work for three or four days, after which, bung it. It 
may be bottled in a few days, and in ten days afterwards, will 
be fit to drink. When this wine is bunged, a quarter of an 
ounce of isinglass, first dissolved in a little of the warmed 
liquor, may be stirred in by way of fining it. In cold weather, 
the quantity of yeast should be increased : in warm weather, 
very little ferment is requisite. 

1253. American Currant Wine. — To one gallon of currant 
juice add two of water; to each gallon of this mixture add 
three pounds and a quarter of sugar, a gill of brandy, and a 
quarter of an ounce of powdered alum : put the whole into a 
clean cask, in March draw of, and add another gill of brandy 
to each gallon. 

1254. Mich Mead. — Mix well the whites of six eggs in twelve 
gallons of water ; and to this mixture, when it has boiled half an 
hour and been well skimmed, add thirty-six pounds of the finest 
honey, with the rinds of two dozen lemons. Let them boil 
together some little time, and on the liquor's becoming suffi- 
ciently cool, work it with a little ale-yeast. Put it with the 
lemon peel into a seasoned barrel, which must be filled up as it 
flows over with some of the reserved liquor ; and when the hiss- 
ing ceases, drive the bung close. After the wine has stood 
five or six months, bottle it for use. If intended to be kept 



several years, put in a pound more honey for every gallon of 

1255. Red and White Mead with Raspberries and Currants, — • 
For every gallon of wine to be made, take one pound and a 
half of honey, half an ounce of tartar, or Bologna argol, and 
three-quarters of a pound of fruit. If for white wine, white 
argol should be used with white currants ; if for red wine, red 
argol with red currants or raspberries. Prepare the honey by 
mixing it with as much water as will, when added to the juice 
of the fruit (allowing for diminution by boiling, &c), make the 
proposed quantity of wine. This being well boiled and clari- 
fied, infuse in it a moderate quantity of rosemary leaves, laven- 
der, and sweet-brier, and when they have remained for two 
days, strain the liquor, and add it to the expressed juice of the 
fruit, put in the dissolved argol, stir the whole well together, 
and leave it to ferment. In two or three days, put it in a 
seasoned barrel; keep filling it up, as the liquor flows over; 
and on its ceasing to work, sink in it a muslin bag of Seville 
orange and lemon peel, with cinnamon, cloves and nutmegs, 
and closely bung the cask. If kept for six months or more in 
the wood, and at least nine in bottles, # thisjyine will be excellent, 
whether red or white. In a similar way may be made all sorts 
of fruit wines, thus substituting honey for sugar. 

1256. JVcctar. — Take half a pound of raisins of the sun, 
chopped, one pound of powdered loaf sugar, two lemons, sliced, 
and the peel of one. Put them into an earthen vessel with two 
gallons of water, the water having been boiled half an hour; 
and put them in while the water is boiling. Let the whole 
stand three or four days, stirring it twice a day ; then strain it, 
and in a fortnight it will be ready for use. 

1257. Syrup of Cloves, Cinnamon, or Mace. — All these syrups 
are made exactly on the same plan. — Take two ounces of either 
cloves, cinnamon, or mace, well pounded, and put it into a pint 
of boiling water in a small stewpan. Let it boil half an hour, 
pass the liquor through a hair sieve, dissolve in it a pound and 
a half of powdered loaf sugar, clear it o\^r the fire, with the 
white of an egg beaten to a froth, and a little rose or orange- 
flower water, and let it simmer gently till the syrup is formed 
and clear. When quite cold, put it in bottles, which must be 
closely corked. 


1258. Syrup of Ginger. — Steep ai . half of beaten 

ginger in a quart of boiling water, closely covered up for twei ty- 
fuur hours ; then, straining off the infusion, make it into a syrup, 

by adding at least two | sugar, dissolved, and 

boiled up in a hut water bath. 

1259. French Rossoli rs. — Boil two 

quarts of spring water, to take off the hardness ; then take it 
off the fire, and when it is only lukewarm, throw in a pinch of 
the most odoriferous flo? let them infuse till the liquid 

is cold, and the fragrance ail extracted. Then take away the 
Sowers with a skimmer, strain the iiqu i pint 

of clarified syrup, and half a pint of spirits of wine, and a ros- 
solis, or sun-dew, will ue produced. 

1260. Bergamot Water. — Make a pint of syrup ; and when 
cold, press into it half a dozen fine lemons, with, or without, a 
Seville orange, or two China oranges, adding as much water as 
may be necessary ; then putting in a tea-spoonful of genuine 
essence of bergamot, run the whole through a lawn sieve, and 
it is immediately ready for drinking. 

1261. Peach and Apricot Waters. — Both these waters, as well 
as those of other fruits, are readily made by mixing two or 
three table-spoonfuls of the respective jams with a few blanched 
and pounded bitter almonds, lemon-juice, and cold spring water, 
with powdered loaf sugar to your taste. On bein^ run through 
a lawn sieve, these waters are immediately fit to drink. 

1262. Persian and Turkish Sherbet. — The method pursued 
by the Persians, Turks, &c, is to extract the fragrant, rich, and 
acidulated juices oi the finest flowers and fruits, and make them, 
with the addition of sugar, into what we call fruit jellies or 
lozenges, which are dissolved in the purest spring water, and 
thus form the agreeable beverage denominated sherbet. Fur 
example, they evaporate the purified juice of citrons in a water 
bath with a slow fire, till it becomes of nearly the consistence of 
honey, melting, in the mean time, some finely powdered loaf 
sugar in a silver dish, and continually stirring it with a flat 
wooden spoon ; when the sugar is very dry. they sprinkle over 
it, a little at a time, the prepared juice of citron; continuing to 
stir it till the whole has sufficient moisture to form a paste, 


which they make into lozenges, and keep in a dry, and rather 
warm situation ; in this way, they prepare all the acid juices, 
such as barberries, lemons, gooseberries, &c. : with the less 
acid and more delicately flavored fruits, they proceed differently, 
only well heating the sugar in a silver dish, adding to it by de- 
grees the fresh juice, and stirring it constantly till a paste is 
formed. This must not be made into lozenges till perfectly dry, 
;\nd they must be put into a box lined with paper, and kept in 
a dry place. They are variously prepared with orange-flowers, 
roses, &c. The Persians and Turks are said to prepare a favor- 
ite sherbet with violet vinegar, pomegranate-juice, and sugai 
formed into lozenges. 

1263. Hypocras, as made at Paris, — Put into a quart of the 
best and strongest red wine half a pound of powdered loaf 
sugar, half a dram of cinnamon, a pinch of coriander seeds, two 
white pepper-corns, a little Seville orange peel, a blade of mace, 
a small quantity of lemon-juice, and four cloves ; the spices, &c., 
being all previously beaten in a mortar. When the whole has 
infused three or four hours, add a table-spoonful of milk ; and 
filtering the liquid through a flannel bag, it will prove excellent 
for present or future use. 

1264. Strawberry Sherbet, — On half a pound of sugar of the 
best quality, broken into lumps, pour a quart of spring water. 
Let it stand until nearly dissolved ; give it a stir, and boil it 
for about ten minutes. Take off the scum, and throw into the 
syrup a pint and a half of sound ripe strawberries, measured 
without their stalks. Let these simmer gently until they shrink 
much and begin to break, and keep them well skimmed, or the 
sherbet will not be clear. Before it is taken from the fire, add the 
strained juice of a sound fresh lemon, then turn the preparation 
into a jelly-bag, or let it stand for a quarter of an hour, and 
then strain it through a muslin folded in four. This latter 
method is generally quite sufficient to render any liquid not 
thickened by the o^er-boiled pulp of fruit, quite transparent. 
When strawberries abound, a quart, or even more, may be 
used for this preparation ; and the proportion of sugar can al- 
ways be increased or diminished to the taste. To give the 
sherbet an Oriental character, boil in it the petals of six or 
eight orange, lemon, or citron blossoms; or orange-flower 
water may be used. 


1265. Lemonade {Italian). — Two dozen lemons must be pared 
and pressed; the juice should be poured on the peels, and re- 
main on them all night ; in the morning add two pounds of 
loaf sugar, a quart of good white wine, and three quarts of 
boiling w r ater. When these ingredients are blended, add a 
quart of boiling milk. Strain the whole through a jelly-bag 
till it becomes quite clear. 

1266. Lemonade. — One of the best methods of making lemon- 
ade is to prepare a syrup of sugar and water, over a clear fire, 
skimming it quite clean ; to this add the juice of any number 
of lemons, according to the quantity you wish to make ; also 
some of the rinds. 

1267. Rich Orangeade. — Steep the yellow rinds of six China, 
and two Seville oranges in a quart of boiling water, closely 
covered up for five or six hours ; then make a syrup with a 
pound of sugar, and three pints of water, mix the infusion and 
syrup together, press in the juice of a dozen China oranges, and 
the two Seville oranges from which the rind was taken, stir the 
whole well together, and run it through a jelly-bag ; afterwards, 
if agreeable, a little orange-flower water, with some capillaire 
syrup, may be added, should sweetness be wanted. Two 
lemons may be used, as well as the two Seville oranges ; 
but care should be taken that the flavor of the lemons does not 

1268. Orgeat Paste. — This paste, which will keep twelve 
months, is nearly as soon made into orgeat as the orgeat syrup. 
The mode of preparing it in Paris, is by well pounding blanched 
almonds with a little water, to prevent their turning to oil ; 
then adding half the weight of the almonds in pounded sugar, 
and mixing both together into a paste. \ 

Of this paste, when wanted, mix a small portion, about the 
size of an egg, in a pint of spring water, and strain it through 
a napkin. The usual English mode of making orgeat paste is, 
by pounding in the same manner, half an ounce of bitter, to a 
pound of sweet, almonds ; and boiling a quart of common 
syrup, till it becomes what is called blow ; mixing the almonds 
. with it over the fire, well stirred all the time, to prevent burn- 
ing, till it becomes a stiff paste ; then, on its getting quite cold, 
putting it in pots, to be used in the same manner as the other. 



1269. To cork, and preserve Cider in Bottles. — Good corks 
are highly necessary, and if soaked before used in scalding 
water, they will be more the pliant and serviceable ; and by lay- 
ing the bottles so that the liquor may always keep the cork wet 
and swelled, will much preserve it. 

1270. Soda Water and Ginger Beer Powders.— Carbonate of 
soda and tartaric acid, of each two ounces ; fine loaf sugar 
rolled and sifted, six ounces ; pure essence of lemon, twenty- 
five or thirty drops. To be well mixed in a marble mortar, 
kept in a bottle closely corked, and in a very dry place. When 
required for use, two tea-spoonfuls to less than a half pint of 
water, to be mixed in a glass that will hold twice that quantity, 
and drunk while in a state of effervescence. If half an ounce 
or one ounce (according as it may be liked more or less hot), 
of best ground ginger be mixed with the above quantity, it will 
be <; ginger-beer powder." 

1271. Spruce Beer. — For white spruce, pour ten gallons of 
boiling water upon six pounds of good raw or lump sugar, and 
four ounces of essence of spruce; ferment with half a pint of 
good yeast, put into stone bottles, cork and tie them over. 
For brown spruce use treacle instead of sugar. 

Essence of spruce is a remedy for colds, rheumatisms, &c., 
if drunk warm at bed-time. 

1272. An Irish Cordial. — To every pound of white currants 
stripped from the stalks and bruised, put the very thin rind of 
a large fresh lemon, and a quarter of an ounce of ginger, well 
pounded and sifted. Pour on these one quart of good old whis- 
key ; mix the whole up thoroughly, and let it stand for twenty- 
four hours in a new well-scalded stone pitcher, or deep pan 
{crock), covered closely from the air. Strain it off; stir in it, 
until dissolved, a pound and a quarter of pounded sugar, and 
strain it again and bottle it. This is an Irish receipt, and is 
given without variation from the original. 

1273. To prevent Beer from growing fiat. — In a cask contain- 
ing eighteen gallons of beer, becoming vapid, put a pint of 
ground malt, suspended in a bag, and close the bung perfectly ; 
the beer will be improved during the whole time of drawing it 
for use. 


1274. To recover sour Beer. — When beer has become sour, 
put into the barrel some oyster-shells, calcined to whiteness, or 
a little fine chalk or whiting. Any of these will correct the 
acidity, and make the beer brisk and sparkling ; but it cannot 
be kept long after these additions are made. 

1275. Rose Vinegar for Salads or the Toilette. — To one quarter 
of a pound of rose-leaves put two quarts of good vinegar ; 
cover it firmly ; leave it to infuse till a fine tincture is obtained ; 
then strain it. 

1276. Raspberry Vinegar. — Pour one quart of vinegar on 
two pounds of fresh raspberries, and let it stand twenty-four 
hours. Then strain them through a hair-sieve without break- 
ing the fruit ; put the liquor on two pounds more fruit, and, 
after straining it in the same manner, add to each pint of juice 
half a pound of loaf sugar ; put it in a stone vessel, and let it 
stand in boiling water until the sugar is dissolved ; when cold, 
take off the scum, and bottle it. 

1277. Cheap znd easy method of Brewing. — One bushel of 
malt and three-quarters of a pound of hops will, on an average, 
brew twenty gallons of good beer. 

For this quantity of malt, boil twenty-four gallons of water ; 
and, having dashed it in the copper with cold water to stop the 
boiling, steep the malt (properly covered up) for three hours ; 
then tie up the hops in a hair-cloth, and boil malt, hops, and 
wort, altogether, for three-quarters of an hour, which will re- 
duce it to about twenty gallons. Strain it oft, and set it to 
work when lukewarm. 

In large brewings, this process perhaps would not answer, 
but in small ones, where the waste is not so great, and where 
the malt can be boiled, the essence is sure to be extracted. 

1278. To make excellent and wholesome Table Beer. — To eight 
quarts of boiling water put a pound of treacle, a quarter of an 
ounce of ginger, and tw T o bay leaves ; let this boil for a quarter 
of an hour, then cool, and w 7 ork it with yeast, the same as other 

1279. How the Chinese make Tea. — The art of making tea 
:onsists in pouring the w r ater on and off immediately, so as to 
get the flavor. 


1280. Tea. economically, — Young Hyson is supposed to be a 
more profitable tea than Hyson ; but though the quantity to a 
pound is greater, it has not so much strength. In point of 
economy, therefore, there is not much difference between them. 
Hyson tea and Souchong mixed together, half and half, is a 
pleasant beverage, and is more healthy than green tea alone. 
Be sure that water boils before it is poured upon tea. A 
tea-spoonful to each person, and one extra thrown in, is a good 
rule. Steep a few minutes. 

1281. Turkish method of making Coffee. — The coffee must 
be slowly roasted, not burnt, and brought only to an amber 
brown : it must be roasted day by day. The flavor dissipates 
in a few hours ; it must be reduced by pounding to an impal- 
pable powder. In making it, two opposite and, apparently, in- 
compatible ends are to be secured — strength and flavor. To 
obtain the first, it must be boiled ; by boiling, the second is 
lost. The difficulty is surmounted by a double process — one 
thorough cooking, one slight one ; by the first a strong infusion 
is obtained ; by the second, that infusion is flavored. Thus a 
large pot with coffee-lees stands simmering by the fire ; this is 
the sherbet. When a cup is wanted, the pounded coffee is put 
in the little tin or copper pan, and placed on the embers ; it 
fumes for a moment, then the sherbet is poured on ; in a few 
seconds the froth (caimah) rises ; presently an indication that 
it is about to boil is made manifest, when the coffee is instantly 
taken from the fire, carried into the apartment, turned into the 
cup, and drank. 

1282. Cheap and valuable substitute for Coffee. — The flour of 
rye, and yellow potatoes, are found an excellent substitute for 
coffee. Boil, peel, and mash the potatoes, and then mix with 
the meal into a cake, which is to be dried in an oven, and af- 
terwards reduced to a powder, which will make a beverage 
very similar to coffee in its taste, as well as in other properties, 
and not in the least detrimental to health. 

1283. Substitute for Cream. — If you have not cream for 
coffee, it is a very great improvement to boil your milk, and 
use it while hot. 

1264. Cocoa is the foundation of chocolate ; it may be 


pounded, and either boiled as milk, or boiling water may be 
poured on it. It is very digestible, and of a fattening nature. 

1285. Racahout des Arabes ; a pleasant beverage for Invalids. — 
Mix thoroughly one pound of ground rice ; one pound of ar- 
row-root ; half pound of fine chocolate. Put the mixture into 
a jar for use. When it is wanted, make a tablespoonful of the 
Racahout into a paste with cold water or milk ; then stir it 
into half a pint of boiling milk, and let it boil up for a minute 
or two ; add sugar, if agreeable, and drink it as you would 

1286. How to judge the Properties of Nutmegs, — The largest, 
heaviest, and most unctuous of nutmegs are to be chosen, such 
as are the shape of an olive, and of the most fragrant smell. 

1287. To keep Grapes. — Gather the grapes in the afternoon 
of a dry day, before they are perfectly ripe. Have ready a 
clean dry barrel and wheat bran. Proceed then with alternate 
layers of bran and grapes, till the barrel is full, taking care that 
the grapes do not touch each other, and to let the last layer be 
of bran ; then close the barrel, so that the air may not be able 
to penetrate, which is an essential point. Grapes, thus packed, 
will keep nine or even twelve months. To restore them to 
their freshness, cut the end of the stalk of each bunch of grapes, 
and put that of white grapes into white wine, and that of the 
black grapes into red wine, as you would put flowers into water, 
to revive or keep them fresh. 

1288. To keep Oranges and Lemons. — Take small sand and 
make it very dry ; after it is cold, put a quantity of it into a 
clean vessel ; then take your oranges, and set a laying of them 
in the same, the stalk-end downwards, so that they do not touch 
each other, and strew in seme of the sand, as much as will 
cover them two inches deep ; then set your vessel in a cold 
place, and you will find your fruit in high preservation at the 
end of several months. 

1289. Another Method. — Freeze the oranges, and keep them 
in an ice-house. When to be used, put them into a vessel of 
cold water till they are thawed. By this means they may be 
had in perfection at any season of the year. 


1290. Keeping Apples. — Apples should be placed on a dry 
floor three weeks before they are packed away in barrels. They 
should be kept in a cool place ; if inclosed in a water-tight cask, 
they may be kept all winter in a loft or garret without further 
care, and will come out sound and fresh in the spring. 

1291. To keep Onions. — Onions should be kept very dry, and 
never carried into the cellar except in severe weather, when 
there is danger of their freezing. By no means let them be in 
the cellar after March ; they will sprout and spoil. 

1292. A good way of cooking onions. — It is a good plan to 
boil onions in milk and water; it diminishes the strong taste 
of that vegetable. It is an excellent way of serving up onions, 
to chop them after they are boiled, and put them in a stewpan, 
with a little milk, butter, salt, and pepper, and let them stew 
about fifteen minutes. This gives them a fine flavor, and they 
can be served up very hot. 

1293. To keep Parsnips. — Parsnips should be kept down cel- 
lar, covered up in sand, entirely excluded from the air. They 
are good only in the Spring. 

1294. To keep Cabbages. — Cabbages put into a hole in the 
ground will keep well during the winter, and be hard, fresh, and 
sweet in the Spring. Many farmers keep potatoes in the same 

1295. To keep Potatoes. — The cellar is the best place for them, 
because they are injured by wilting ; but sprout them carefully, 
if you want to keep them. They never sprout but three times; 
therefore, after you have sprouted them three times, they will 
trouble you no more. 

Note. — Boiled potatoes are said to cleanse the hands as well 
as common soap ; they prevent chaps in the v;inter season, and 
keep the skin soft and healthy. 

1296. Boiling Potatoes. — The following method of dressing 
potatoes will be found of great use at the season of the year, 
w hen skins are tough and potatoes are watery. Score the skin 
of the potato with a knife, lengthwise and across, quite around, 
and then boil the potato in plenty of water and salt, with the 


skin on. The skin readily cracks when it is scored, and lets 
out the moisture, which otherwise renders the potato soapy and 
wet. The improvement to bad potatoes by this method of 
boiling them is very great, and all who have tried it find a 
great advantage in it, now that good potatoes are very difficult 
to be obtained. 

1297. To keep Celery. — Celery should be kept in the cellar, 
the roots covered with tan, to keep them moist. 

1298. To keep Lettuce. — If the tops of lettuce be cut off when 
it is becoming too old for use, it will grow up again fresh and 
tender, and may thus be kept good through the summer. 

1299. Good Squashes. — Green squashes that are turning yel- 
low, and striped squashes, are more uniformly sweet and mealy 
than any other kind. 

1300. To dry Pumpkin. — Cut it round horizontally in tole- 
rably thin slices, peel them and hang them on a line in a warm 
room. When perfectly dry, put them away for use. When 
you wish to use it, put it to soak over night ; next day pour off 
the water, put on fresh water, stew and use it as usual, &c. 

Another and, as some think, a much better way, is to boil 
and sift the pumpkin, then spread it out thin in tin plates, and 
dry hard in a warm oven. It will keep good all the year 
round, and a little piece boiled up in milk will make a batch 
of pies. 

1301. To pickle large Mushrooms. — Pick them carefully, and 
take out the stalks; put them into a jar, and pour on them 
boiling spiced vinegar, with a little salt in it. 

1302. To preserve Green Currants. — Currants may be kept 
fresh for a year or more, if they are gathered when green, sepa- 
rated from the stems, put into dry, clean junk bottles, and 
corked very carefully, so as to exclude the air. They should 
be kept in a cool place in the cellar. 

1303. Walnut Ketchup. — Take half a bushel of green wal- 
nuts, before the shell is formed, and grind them in a crab mill, 
or beat them in a marble mortar ; then squeeze out the juices 


through a coarse cloth, and wring the cloth well to get all the 
juice out, and to every gallon of juice put a quart of red wine, 
a quarter of a pound of anchovies, the same of bay salt, one 
ounce of allspice, two of long or black pepper, half an ounce of 
cloves and mace, a little ginger and horse-radish, cut in slices; 
boil all together till reduced to half the quantity ; pour into a 
pan ; when it is cold bottle it, cork it tight, and it will be fit to 
use in three months. If you have any pickle left in the jar 
after your walnuts are used, to every gallon of pickle put in two 
heads of garlic, a quart of red wine, an ounce each of cloves 
and mace, long, black, and Jamaica pepper, and boil them all 
together, till it is reduced to half the quantity, pour it into a 
pan, and the next day bottle it for use, and cork it tight. 

1304. To discover if Bread is adulterated with Alum. — Make 
a solution of. lime in aquafortis, and put a little of this solution 
into water, in which you have steeped the bread suspected to 
contain alum. If such should be the case, the acid, which was 
combined with the alum, will form a precipitate or chalky con- 
cretion at the bottom of the vessel. 

1305. To preserve Biscuit from Putrefaction. — To preserve 
biscuit a long time sweet and good, no other art is neces- 
sary than stowing it, well baked, in casks exactly caulked, 
and carefully lined with tin, so as to exclude the air ; at the 
same time the biscuit must be so placed as to leave as little va- 
cant room as possible in the cask ; and when the same is 
opened through necessity, it must be speedily closed again with 
great care, 

1306. A good Yeast. — Put into one gallon of water a double- 
handful of hops ; — boil them fifteen or twenty minutes, then 
strain off the water while it is scalding hot ; stir in wheat flour 
or meal till it becomes a thick batter, so that it will hardly 
pour ; — let it stand till it becomes about blood-warm, then add 
a pint of good lively yeast, and stir it well ; and then let it 
stand in a place where it will be kept at a temperature of about 
seventy degrees Fahrenheit, till it becomes perfectly light, 
whether more or less time is required ; and then it is fit for 
use ; — or if it is desired to keep a portion of it, let it stand sev- 
eral hours and become cool; and then put it into a clean jug 
and cork it tight, and place it in the cellar, where it will keep 


cool ; and it may be preserved good, ten or twelve days, and 
even longer. 

1307. The Dairy, — Dairymen will find a great advantage in 
cheese making, by putting their milk, which is to stand over 
night, into small air-tight vessels. They will also find it an 
advantage, when it thunders, to suspend the vessels by a cord 
or chain, as the jarring of the shocks, which sour the milk, will, 
in a great measure, be prevented. We may prevent the com- 
mencement of sourness, which takes place in milk standing in 
large quantities, by a wooden follower being fitted to the vat, 
and pressed on the milk. If any one doubt the utility of this, 
let him try the experiment for himself. Cover the bottom of 
your cheese-vat to the depth of half an inch with milk, and let 
it stand through the night, and then try to make a breakfast of 
it in the morning. You could relish tallow as well, or a piece 
of bread and butter that had lain in the sun an hour. Neither 
milk, butter, nor cheese will do to stand in the light of the sun, 
though it be reflected, as it will produce rancidity. 

1308. Butter. — Keep your pails, churn, and pans sweet. In 
winter warm the pans and churns with hot water, in summer 
cool them with cold. Keep your milk in summer where it is 
cool and airy, in winter where it is warm. In warm weather, 
skim your milk as soon as it is thick; in colder weather skim as 
soon as there is a good thick cream, and be careful not to let 
it remain too long, as it will acquire a bad taste. Churn as 
often as you have cream enough, never less than once a week. 
If the cream is of the right temperature when commenced, it 
will not froth, and if it does, put in a little salt. Use no salt 
but the best ground salt ; work out all the butter-milk with a 
ladle in summer, in winter use clean hands. If you wish to 
keep it some time, put it down in a jar or firkin, or pickle in 
layers, as clean and free from butter-milk as it is possible, leav- 
ing a space for pickle over it, in the following proportions. 
Half a pail of water, one quart of fine salt, two ounces of loaf- 
sugar, one ounce of saltpetre, well boiled and skimmed. When 
cold, cover with this, and it will keep good and sweet, the year 

1309. Cream. — The quantity of cream on milk may be 
greatly increased by the following process : Have two pans 


ready in boiling hot water, and when the new milk is brought 
in, put it into one of these hot pans and cover it with the 
other. The quality as well as the thickness of the cream is 

1310. Method of curing bad Tub Butter. — A quantity of tub 
butter was brought to market in the AYest Indies, which, on 
opening, was found to be very bad, and almost stinking. A 
native of Pennsylvania undertook to cure it, which he did, in 
the following manner : — 

He started the tubs of butter in a large quantity of hot water, 
which soon melted the butter ; he then skimmed it off as 
clean as possible, and worked it over again in a churn, and 
with the addition of salt and fine sugar, the butter was sweet 
and good. 

1311. Method of taking the Rankness and disagreeable Taste 
from Irish Salt Butter — The quantity proposed to be made use 
of, either for toasts or melting, must be put into a bowl filled 
with boiling water, and when the butter is melted, skim it quite 
off; by this method it is so separated from any gross particles, 
that it may require a small addition of salt, w r hich may be put 
into the cold water that is made use of in melting butter for 
sauce ; and though the butter is oiled by hot water, it becomes 
a fine cream in the boiling for sauce. 

1312. To remove the Taste of Turnips from Milk or Butter. — 
The taste of the turnip is easily taken off milk and butter, by 
dissolving a little nitre in spring water, which being kept in a 
bottle, and a small tea-cupful put into eight gallons of milk, 
when warm from the cow, entirely removes any taste or flavor 
of the turnip. 

1313. To make Salt Butter fresh. — Put four pounds of salt 
butter into a churn, with four quarts of new milk, and a small 
portion of arnotto. Churn them together, and, in about an 
hour, take out the butter, and treat it exactly as fresh butter, 
by washing it in water, and adding the customary quantity of 

This is a singular experiment. The butter gains about three 
ounces in each pound, and is in every particular equal to fre^h 
butter. It would be greatly improved by the addition of two 


or three ounces of fine sugar, in powder. A common earthen 
churn answers the same purpose as a wooden one, and may be 
purchased at any pot shop. 

1314. Method of making Stilton Cheese. — Take the night's 
cream, and put it to the morning's new milk, with the rennet ; 
when the curd is come it is not to be broken, as is done with 
other cheeses, but take it out with a soil dish all together, and 
place it on a sieve to drain gradually, and, as it drains, keep 
gradually pressing it, till it becomes firm and dry ; then place 
it in a wooden hoop ; afterwards to be kept dry on boards, 
turned frequently, with cloth-binders round it, which are to be 
tightened as occasion requires. 

h\ some dairies the cheeses, after being taken out of the 
wooden hoop, are bound tight round with a cloth, which cloth 
is changed every day until the cheese becomes firm enough to 
support itself; after the cloth is taken away, they are rubbed 
every day all over, for two or three months, with a brush ; and 
if the weather is damp or moist, twice a day ; and even be- 
fore the cloth is taken off, the top and bottom are well rubbed 
every day. 

1315. Coloring for Cheese.— The, coloring for cheese is, or at 
at least should be, Spanish arnotto ; but as soon as coloring be- 
came general in this country, a color of an adulterated kind was 
exposed for sale in almost every shop ; the weight of a guinea 
and a half of real Spanish arnotto is sufficient for a cheese of 
fifty pounds' weight. If a considerable part of the cream of the 
night's milk be taken for butter, more coloring will be requi- 
site. The leaner the cheese is, the more coloring it requires. 
The manner of using arnotto is to tie up, in a linen rag, the 
quantity deemed sufficient, and put it into half a pint of warm 
water over night. This infusion is put into the tub of milk, in 
the morning, with the rennet infusion ; dipping the rag into the 
milk, and rubbing it against the palm of the hand as long as any 
color runs out. 

1316.. To make Cement for Bottles or Preserve Jars. — Take 
one-third bees'-wax and two-thirds rosin, according to the quan- 
tity of cement required. Pound the rosin fine, and put it with 
the wax to melt in any old vessel fit for the purpose. When 
it is melted, take it off the fire, and add powdered brick-dust 


till it is as thick as melted sealing-wax. Then dip the bottle 
necks into the cement, and in a few minutes the mixture will 
be dry. 

1317. Blue Wash for Walls, — Take one pound of lump blue 
vitriol ; pound it in a stone mortar as fine as possible ; dissolve 
it in a quart or two of hot water. Slake about a quarter of a 
peck, or perhaps a little more of lime, and when cold pour in 
the blue water by degrees, and make it whatever shade you 

The lime must be slaked and the vitriol dissolved in earthen 
or stone ware, and the whole mixture stirred with a metal 
spoon. If wood is used for any of the above purposes, the 
color will be changed. A new brush should also be used to 
put it on the walls, and they must first have a coat or two of 
whitewash, to destroy all smoke and other impurities. 

1318. Yellow Wash for Walls, — One quarter of a pound of 
chrome yellow, one quarter of a pound of gum Senegal, two 
pounds of whiting. 


1319. " Blue Composition" a compound of vitriol and in 
digo, is usually kept by hatters and apothecaries. It colors a 
good and durable blue. An ounce vial, that may be bought 
for a trifle, will color a large number of articles. It is an eco- 
nomical plan to use it for old silk linings, ribbons, &c. The 
original color should be boiled out, and the material thoroughly 
rinsed in soft w T ater, so that no soap may remain in it ; for soap 
ruins the dye. Twelve or sixteen drops of the blue composi- 
tion, poured into a quart bowl full of warm soft water, stirred, 
(and strained, if any settlings are perceptible,) will color a great 
many articles. If you wish a deep blue, pour in more of the 
compound. Cotton must not be colored; the vitriol destroys 
it; if the material you wish to color has cotton threads in it, 
it will be ruined. After the things are thoroughly dried, they 
should be washed in cool suds, and dried again ; this prevents 
any bad effects from the vitriol; if shut up from the air, 
without being washed, there is danger of the texture being de- 


1320. How to color Green. — If you wish to color green, have 
your cloth free as possible from the old color, clean and rinsed, 
and, in the first place, color it a deep yellow. Fustic boiled in 
soft water makes the strongest and brightest yellow dye ; but 
saffron, barberry bush, peach leaves, or onion skins, will answer 
pretty well. Next take a bowl full of strong yellow dye, and 
pour in a great spoonful or more of the blue composition. Stir 
it up well with a clean stick, and dip the articles you have al- 
ready colored yellow into it, and they will take a lively grass- 
green. This is a good plan for old bombazet curtains, dessert 
cloths, old flannel for desk coverings, &c. 

1321. Slate Color. — Tea-grounds boiled in iron, and set with 
copperas, make a very good slate color. 

1322. Purple Slate Color. — The purple paper, which comes 
on loaf sugar, boiled in cider, or vinegar, with a small bit of 

* alum, makes a fine purple slate color. Done in iron. 

White maple bark makes a good light-brown slate color. 
This should be boiled in water, set with alam. The color is 
reckoned better when boiled in brass, instead of iron. 

The purple slate and the brown slate are suitable colors for 
stockings ; and it is an economical plan, after they have been 
mended and cut down, so that they will no longer look decent, 
to color old stockings, and make them up for children. 

1323. To make Nankin Color. — A pailful of lye, with a piece 
of copperas half as big as a hen's egg boiled in it, will color a 
fine nankin color, which will never wash out. This is very use- 
ful for the linings of bed-quilts, comforters, &c. Old faded 
gowns, colored in this way, may be made into good petticoats. 
Cheap cotton cloth may be colored to advantage for petticoats, 
and pelisses for little girls. 

1324. Nankin Color, another way. — The common birch-bark 
makes a very beautiful nankin dye. Cover the bark with water, 
and boil it thoroughly in a brass or tin kettle. Bark stripped 
from the trees in autumn is best. Set the color with alum. A 
piece as large as a hen's egg is sufficient for two pailsful of dye. 
Dip the articles, wet thoroughly in clean water, into the alum 
water, then into the dye. 



1325. To make Straw-color and Yellow. — Saffron, steeped in 
earthen and strained, colors a fine straw color. It makes a deli- 
cate or deep shade, according to the strength of the tea. The 
dry outside skins of onions, steeped in scalding water and 
strained, color a yellow very much like the u bird of paradise 1 ' 
color. Peach leaves, or bark scraped from the barberry bush, 
color a common bright yellow. In all these cases, a little bit 
of alum does no harm, and may help to fix the color. Ribbons, 
gauze handkerchiefs, &c., are colored well in this way, especially 
if they be stiffened by a bit of gum-arabic, dropped in while the 
stuff is steeping. 

1326. To make Rose-color. — Balm blossoms, steeped in water, 
color a pretty rose-color. This answers very well for the 
linings of children's bonnets, for ribbons, &c. It fades in the 
course of one season, but it is very little trouble to re-color 
with it. It merely requires to be steeped and strained. Per- 
haps a small piece of alum might serve to set the color, in some 
degree. In earthen or tin. 

1327. To color Black. — Logwood and cider, boiled together, 
in iron — add water for the evaporation — makes a good and du- 
rable black. Rusty nails, or any bits of rusty iron, boiled in 
vinegar, with a small piece of copperas, will also dye black; so 
will ink-powder, if boiled with vinegar. In all cases, black 
must be set with copperas. 

1328. General Rules for Coloring. — The materials should be 
perfectly clean; soap should be rinsed out in soft water; the 
article should be entirely wetted, or it will spot ; light colors 
should be steeped in brass, tin, or earthen ; and if set at all, 
should be set with alum. Dark colors should be boiled in 
iron, and set with copperas. Too much copperas ruts the 

1329. To Wash Carjyets. — Put the carpets down on a per- 
fectly clean floor ; wash them first with warm and weak soap- 
suds, wringing the wash-cloth almost dry ; rinse them with 
clear water. Open the windo v that they may dry quickly. 

It is obvious that the abWe directions are only applicable to 
the lighter sorts of carpets, Scotch, Kidderminster, and Vene- 
tian. If it be desired to cleanse a carpet which has an under 


texture of thread, as Brussels, tapestry, or velvet, the carpet 
having been well beaten or shaken, and washed, should be 
spread out, and scrubbed with a scrubbing brush and ox- 
gall. A pint of gall and three gallons of water will clean a 
large carpet. 

After the use of the gall, the carpet must be thoroughly 
rinsed, and dried in the open air. 

1330. To Wash Clothes, on a small scale. — For a wash for 
three persons put three-quarters of an ounce of soda in soap and 
water over the fire. Wash the clothes first in soap and 
water; rub soap on the soiled or greasy places, and throw them 
in the mixture. Let them boil an hour ; rinse them in clear, 
cold water; rinse thern again in water with a little bluing' in it. 
If the clothes are much soiled, put them to soak over night. 

1331. Washing of Woollen Articles ; an excellent way. — It is 
a common complaint that woollen articles thicken, shrink, and 
become discolored in washing. The, complaint applies both to 
the lighter articles of knitted wool, such as shawls, &c, and to 
thicker and heavier materials — table baizes, carpets, and men's 
woollen garments. The difficulty in either case may be obvi- 
ated by strict attention to the method about to be explained. 
To clear the way, it may be well first to point out some things 
which never ought to be done, but which frequently, perhaps 
generally, are done : — 

1. Woollen articles are never to be washed in hard water, 
nor in water softened by soda, potash, or anything of that kind. 
Soap even should never touch them. 

2. They are never to be rubbed at all. 

3. They are never to be put in lukewarm water for washing, 
nor in cold water for rinsing. 

4. They are never to remain lying still in the water a single 

5. They are never to be wrung. 

6. When taken out of the water, they must not be laid down 
at all, before the process of drying is commenced, nor at any 
time afterwards until they are perfectly dry. 

These things are to be avo : ded : — Now what is to be done ? 

1. Let the things to be vv^ied be first well brushed and 
shaken, to get rid of the dust. 

2. Before the woollen things are wetted at all, take care to 
have everything that will be required, ready and within reach. 


3. If several things are to be done, let each be begun and 
finished separately. This makes no difference in expanse or 
trouble. A smaller vessel and smaller quantity of lather will 
suffice, and the stuff in which one article has been washed, 
would do no good, but harm, to others ; it is, in fact, good for 

4. Use only fresh rain water, or very clear river water ; rain 
is preferable. 

5. With a piece of sponge or old flannel, rub up a very 
strong lather of either soft soap or best yellow soap. For very 
large, greasy things, the lather may be made of ox-gall, half a 
pint to six quarts of water, whisked up with a handful of birch 
twigs (like that old-fashioned thing, a rod). In either case, the 
lather may be prepared with a small quantity of water, and the 
remainder added, boiling hot, the moment before using it. The 
whole should be as hot as the hand can bear it ; the hotter the 
better, if the articles are very dirty, two lathers will be re- 
quired in succession ; and unless a second person is at hand, to 
rub up the second while the first is being used, both had better 
be prepared in separate vessels before the wools are wetted, 
leaving only the boiling water to be added. 

6. Take the article to be washed, and without leaving hold 
of it, keep on dipping and raising, dipping and raising, tor two 
or three minutes. By that time the lather will be absorbed by 
the wool, and the liquor will resemble slimy suds. 

7. Squeeze the article as dry as may be, without wring- 
ing it. 

8. The second lather having been brought to the same heat 
as the first, proceed in the same manner, dipping and raising. 
N. B. — If the article was very little soiled, and after the first 
washing appears quite clear and clean, the second washing may 
be in hot water without soap. Whether lather or water only, 
a blue-bag may be slightly drawn through before the second 
washing. When gall has been used, a third washing in hot 
w r ater only, will be required to take off the smell. 

9. Having again squeezed the article as dry as may be, for 
the lighter things, such as shawls, &c, spread it on a coarse dry 
cloth, pulling it out to its proper shape; lay over it another 
coarse dry cloth, roll the whole up tightly, and let it remain 
half an hour. This rule does not apply to large, heavy things ; 
they must be hung out at once. 


1332. To make Soft Soap. — Bore some holes in your lye- 
barrel ; put some straw in the bottom ; lay some unslaked lime 
on it, and fill your barrel with good hard-wood ashes ; wet it, 
and pound it down as you put it in. When full, make a basin 
in the ashes and pour in water ; keep filling it as it sinks in the 
ashes. In the course of a few hours the lye will begin to run. 
When you have a sufficient quantity to begin with, put your 
grease in & large iron pot, let it heat, pour in the lye, let it 
boil, &c. Three pounds of clean grease are allowed for two 
gallons of soap. 

1333. — Of Fish as Food. — As food, fish is easier of diges- 
tion than meats are, with the exception of salmon ; this kind 
of fish is extremely hearty food, and should be given sparingly 
to children, and used cautiously by those who have weak 
stomachs, or who take little exercise. 

The small trout, found in rivers, are the most delicate and 
suitable for invalids ; lake fish are also excellent, and any kind 
of fresh-water fish, if cooked immediately after being caught, 
are always healthful. 

But the ocean is the chief dependence for the fish-market, 
and there is little danger (if we except salmon and lobsters) 
that its kind of aliment will, in our country, be eaten to excess. 
It would be better for the health of those who do not labor, if 
they would use more fish and less flesh for food. But then fish 
cannot be rendered so palatable, because it does not admit the 
variety of cooking and flavors that other animal food does. 

Fish is much less nutritious than flesh. The white kinds of 
fish, cod, haddock, flounders, white fish, &c, are the least nu- 
tritious ; the oily kinds, salmon, eels, herrings, &c., are more 
difficult to digest. 

Shell fish have long held a high rank as restorative food ; but 
a well-dressed chop or steak is much better to recruit the 
strength and spirits. 

Cod, whiting, and haddock, are better for being a little salted, 
and kept one day before cooking. 

1334. — Of Beef as Food. — Ox beef is considered the best; 
heifer beef is excellent where well fed, and is most suitable for 
small families. If you want the best, choose that which has a 
fine smooth grain — the lean of a bright red ; the fat white or 
nearly so. 


The best roasting-piece is the sirloin ; then the first three 
ribs — if kept till they are quite tender, and boned, they are 
nearly equal to the sirloin, and better for a family dinner. 

The round is used for alamode beef, and is the best piece for 

The best beef steak is cut from the inner part of the sirloin. 
Good steak may be cut from the ribs. 

Jf you wish to practise economy, buy the chuck, or piece 
between the shoulder and the neck ; it makes a good roast or 
steak, and is excellent for stewing or baking. The thick part 
of the flank is also a profitable piece ; good to bake or boil, or 
even roast. 

The leg and shin of beef make the best soup — the heart is 
profitable meat, and good broiled or roasted. The leg rand is 
used for mince pies — it needs to be boiled till it is very tender. 
The tongue, when fresh, is a rich part for mince pies. If eaten 
by itself, it should be pickled and smoked. 

1335. — Of Pork as Food. — Pork, that is fed from the dairy, 
and fattened on corn, is the best — potatoes do very well for 
part of the feeding. But pork fattened from the still-house is 
all but poisonous; it should never be eaten by those who wish 
to preserve their health. 

The offals, &c, with which pork in the vicinity of a city is 
fattened, make it unsavory and. unwholesome. Such stuff 
should be used for manure, and never given as food to animals, 
whose flesh is to be eaten by man. 

When pork is good, the flesh looks very white and smooth, 
and the fat white and fine. Hogs two years old make the best 
— older than that, their flesh is apt to be rank. Measly pork 
is very unwholesome, and never should be eaten. It may be 
known, as the fat is filled with small kernels. 

When the rind is thick and tough, and cannot easily be im- 
pressed with the finger, the pork is old, and will require more 

If pork is not cooked enough, it is disagreeable and almost 
indigestible ; it should never be eaten unless it is thoroughly 

The fat parts of pork are not very healthy food. Those who 
labor hard may feel no inconvenience from this<jiet; but chil- 
dren should never eat it; nor is it healthy fur the delicate and 
sedentary. Fat pork seems more proper as materia] for frying 


fish and other meats, and as a garnish, than to be cooked and 
eaten by itself. It is best and least apt to prove injurious dur- 
ing the cold weather. 

1336. Of Mutton. — Mutton is best from August till January. 
It is nutritious, and often agrees better than any other meat 
with weak stomachs. To have it tender, it must be kept as 
long as possible without injury. Be sure and cook it till it is 
done ; the gravy that runs when the meat is cut, should never 
show the least tinge of blood. 

1337. Of using Gravies. — Make it a general rule never to 
pour gravy over any thing that is roasted ; by so doing, the 
dredging, &c.,is washed off, and it eats insipid. 


1338. Meat for Children. — Lamb, veal, and fowls are deli- 
cate and healthy diet for the young and sedentary ; and for all 
who find fat meats and those of coarse fibre do not agree with 

1339. Economicals of Cooking Meats. — The most economical 
way of cooking meat is to boil it, if the liquid be used for soup 
or broth, as it always ought to be. 

Baking is one of the cheapest ways of dressing a dinner in 
small families, and several kinds of meat are excellent, done in 
this way. Legs and loins of pork, legs of mutton, and fillets 
of veal will bake to much advantage; especially if they be fat. 
Never bake a lean, thin piece ; it will all shrivel away. Such 
pieces should always be boiled or made into soup. Pigs, geese, 
and the buttock of beef are all excellent baked. Meat always 
loses in weight by being cooked. — In roasting, the loss is the 
greatest. It also costs more in fuel to roast than to boil — still 
there are many pieces of meat which seem made for roasting ; 
and it would be almost wrong to cook them in any other way. 
Those who cannot afford to roast their meat, should not pur- 
chase the sirloin of beef. Stewing meat is an excellent and 
economical mode of cookery. 

1340. Butter as Diet. — Butter, when new and sweet, is nu- 
tritious, and, in our climate, generally healthy ; during the 


winter, when made very salt, it is not a good article of diet for 
some people. 

1341. Condiments. — Pepper, ginger, and most of the condi- 
ments, are best during summer ; they are productions of hot 
climates, which shows them to be most appropriate for the hot 
season. On the other hand, fat beef, bacon, and those kinds ot 
food we denominate " hearty," should be most freely used 
during cold weather. 

1342. Eat Slowly. — Eat slowly. One of the most usual 
causes of dyspepsia among our business men, arises from the 
haste in which they swallow their food without sufficiently 
chewing it, and then hurry away to their active pursuits. In 
England very little business is transacted after dinner. There 
ought to be, at least, one hour of quiet after a full meal, from 
those pursuits which tax the brain, as well as those which exer- 
cise the muscles. 

1343. Of Breakfast. — Persons of a delicate constitution 
should never exercise much before breakfast. 

If exposure of any kind is to be incurred in the morning, 
breakfast should always be taken previously. The system is 
more susceptible of infection and of the influence of cold, 
miasma, &c., in the morning before eating, than at any other 

Those who walk early will find great benefit from taking a 
cracker or some little nourishment before going out. 

Never go into a room of a morning, where a person is sick 
with a fever, before you have taken nourishment of some kind 
— a cup of coffee, at least. 

In setting out early to travel, a light breakfast before start- 
ing should always be taken ; it is a great protection against 
cold, fatigue and exhaustion. 

In boarding schools for the young and growing, early break- 
fast is an indispensable condition to health. Children should 
not be kept without food in the morning till they are faint and 

1344. Of Supper. — Never eat a hearty supper just before 
retiring to rest. 


Food should never be eaten when it is hot — bread is very 
unhealthy, eaten in this way. 

1345. Of Dinner. — It is injurious to eat when greatly heated 
or fatigued. It would very much conduce to the health of la- 
boring men, if they could rest fifteen or twenty minutes before 

The diet should always be more spare, with a larger propor- 
tion of vegetables and ripe fruits, during summer. Fruits are 
most wholesome in their appropriate season. The skins, stones, 
and seeds, are indigestible. 

Rich soups are injurious to the dyspeptic. Much liquid food 
is rarely beneficial for adults ; but a small quantity of plain, 
nourishing soup is an economical and healthy beginning of a 
family dinner. 

Meats should always be sufficiently cooked. It is a savage 
custom to eat meat in a half-raw -half-roasted state, and only a 
very strong stomach can digest it- 
Rich gravies should be avoided, especially in the summer 

1346. — Of Drinks. — Most people drink too much, because 
they drink too fast. A wine-glass of water, sipped slowly, will 
quench the thirst as effectually as a pint swallowed at a draught. 
When too much is taken at meals, especially at dinner, it hin- 
ders digestion. Better drink little during the meal, and then, 
if thirsty an hour or two afterwards, more. The practice of 
taking a cup of tea or coffee soon after dinner is a good one, if 
the beverage be not drank too strong or too hot. 

Dyspeptic people should be careful to take but a small quan- 
tity of drink. Children require more, in proportion to their 
food, than adults. But it is very injurious to them to allow a 
habit of continual drinking as you find in some children. It 
greatly weakens the stomach, and renders them irritable and 

The morning meal requires to be lighter and of a more fluid 
nature than any other. Children should always, if possible to 
be obtained, take milk — as a substitute, during the winter, good 
gruel with bread, or water, sweetened with molasses, is healthy. 
Never give children tea, coffee, or chocolate with their meals. 

Coffee affords very little nourishment, and is apt, if drank 
strong, to occasion tremors of the nerves. It is very bad for 
bilious constitutions. The calm, phlegmatic temperament can 



Lear it. With a good supply of cream and sugar, drank in 
moderation, by those who exercise much and take considerable 

solid food, it may be used without much danger. 

Strong green tea relaxes the tone of the stomach, and excites 
the nervous system. Persona of delicate constitution are al- 
most sure to be injured by it. Black tea is much less delete- 
rious. If used with milk and sugar, it may be considered 
healthy for most people. 

Chocolate, when it agrees with the constitution, is very nutri- 
tious and healthy. But it seldom can be used steadily except 
by aged persons who are very active. It agrees best with per- 
sons of phlegmatic temperament : and is more healthy in the 
winter season than during warm weather. 

No kind of beverage should be taken hot — it injures the 
teeth and impairs digestion. 

1347. A few Rules for Health. — Rise early. Eat simple 
food. Take plenty of exercise. Never fear a little fatigue. 
Let not children be dressed in tight clothes ; it is necessary 
their limbs and muscles should have foil play, if you wish for 
either health or beauty. Wash very often, and rub the skin 
thoroughly with a coarse towel. 

Wash the eyes in cold water every morning. Do not read 
or sew at twilight, or by too dazzling a light. If far-sighted, 
read with rather less light, and with the book somewhat nearer 
to the eye. than you desire. If near-sighted, read with a book 
as far off as possible. Both these imperfections may be dimin- 
ished in this way. 

Clean teeth in pure water two or three times a day ; but, 
above all, be sure to have them clean before you go to bed. 

Have your bed-chamber well aired ; and have fresh bed linen 
every week. Never have the wind blowing directly upon 
you from open windows during the night, it is not healthy to 
sleep in heated rooms. 

Wear shoes that are large enough. It not only produces 
corns, but makes the feet misshapen to cramp them. 

Avoid the necessity of a physician, if you can, by careful at- 
tention to your diet. Eat what best agrees with your system, 
and resolutely abstain from what hurts you, however well you 
may like it. % A few days' abstinence, and cold water for a 
beverage, with cold or warm athing, as the case may require, 
have driven off many an aj g disease. 


If you find yourself really ill, send for a good physician. 
Have nothing to do with quacks ; and do not tamper with 
quack medicines. You do not know what they are ; and what 
security have you that they know what they are ? 

1348. A few Remedies for Sickness. — The ague may be ren. 
dered milder by the timely use of an emetic, given one hour 
before the fit is expected to return. For this purpose, one 
scruple of ipecacuanha may be given in an ounce of water. 
After each return of vomiting, give half a pint of tepid chamo- 
mile tea, which may be repeated three or four times, but not 
oftener. When the disease has continued for some days, and 
the force of the fever is weakened by emetics, give to an adult 
the following preparation of bark :— 

Take of Peruvian bark, in fine powder, one ounce ; port wine, 
one quart; mix them, and let them stand together for twelve 
hours. Shake the bottle, and give four large spoonsful imme- 
diately after the hot stage of the disorder, repeating it every 
second hour till the whole be taken ; unless the coming on of 
the next ague- fit should require its suspension. 

1349. Hysteric Affections. — So numerous and various are the 
symptoms said to belong to this disease, that it becomes diffi- 
cult to mark its peculiar character. It is frequently described 
by the patient, as a round body moving in the bowels, ascend- 
ing to the stomach, and from thence affecting the throat with a 
sense of stricture, threatening suffocation. The patient also 
complains of palpitation, a costive habit, cold feet and legs, &c. 
To counteract the force of these attacks, the bowels should be 
kept open by the following aperient mixture : — 

Take of infusion of senna, one ounce and a half; tincture of 
senna, tincture of cardamoms, of each half an ounce. Three 
large spoonsful to be taken occasionally. 

The feet and legs should be kept warm, the head cool ; the 
diet should consist chiefly of animal food of easy digestion, as 
beef or mutton; avoiding vegetables and malt liquor, indeed 
everything that has a tendency to generate flatulency. As a 
beverage, weak brandy and water, toast and water, tea or cof- 
fee, whichever suits the palate of the patient, may be freely 
used. Much depends on the cause — as that varies, so must the 
treatment. A dash of cold water on the face will frequently put 
an end to the paroxysm. 


1350. Mumps are sometimes epidemic and manifestly con- 
tagious ; they come on with shivering and a sense of coldness, 
followed by an increased heat, and a considerable enlargement 
of the glands on each side the neck, below the ear, near to the 
angle of the jaw-bone. This swelling continues to increase 
until the fourth or fifth day, when it gradually subsides ; but 
before it entirely disappears, it often happens that other tumors 
take place in the breasts of women, to which the male sex are 
also subject in different parts of the body. 

They are more or less painful, but commonly run their 
course without any alarming symptoms, and therefore scarcely 
require any remedies. This entirely depends on good nursing ; 
care should be taken to avoid exposure to cold air, and no ap- 
plication should be used except a slight additional covering. 
Fomentations, liniments, blisters, and whatever may have a 
tendency to check the regular process of this disease, may 
occasion a sudden determination to the brain, and prove fatal 
to the patient. 

A spare diet, gentle laxative medicines, and a free use of 
weak diluting liquors, are the best means to be employed ; 
these, with a well-regulated temperature, will generally guard 
off the secondary tumors. But when the disease has been im- 
properly managed, and a determination to any vital part 
Drought on, send for the physician. 

1351. Measles frequently assume an alarming character, too 
much so to entitle them to a place in the list of common casual- 
ties. They are at all times too serious to be left, with safety, 
in the hands of the domestic practitioner. Medical aid, there- 
fore, should be instantly sought for, as much depends on proper 
management during the first stage of the fever. The approach 
of this disease may be known, by attending to the symptoms 
which precede the eruption, in the following order : First, the 
patient complains of shivering, with a sense of coldness, a thin 
watery discharge from the nose, hoarseness, cough, and a con- 
tinued flow of tears from the eyes, which appear red and 
inflamed. These symptoms continue to increase in violence, 
until the eruption is completed, when they gradually subside. 
As this disorder has frequently a putrid tendency, which can 
only be counteracted by the scientific skill of the physician, and 
which, if neglected, or improperly treated, proves fatal, there 
can be no excuse for not calling for his aid at the commence- 


ment of the attack. But that no time may be lost, should 
there be no physician present, an emetic of some gentle kind 
may be given and repeated every half hour till vomiting be 
excited. If it should not act on the bowels, take mild aperient 
medicine every fourth hour; but this is not to be repeated after 
a motion has been procured. The patient should be kept in an 
equal temperature, near sixty-four degrees of Fahrenheit; if 
exposed to a higher degree of heat, the fever might be increased ; 
if to a lower temperature, the cough and hoarseness would be 
aggravated. Wine, or wine and water, and all other fermented 
liquors must be avoided. Toast and water, barley water, ap 
pie-water, rennet whey, tamarind tea, coffee, tea, or any other 
weak diluting beverage, may be freely used, provided they are 
of an equal warmth to milk when drawn from the cow ; also, 
weak lemonade. 

1352. Soothing Beverage for a Cough, after Measles. — Two 
ounces of figs, two ounces of raisins, two ounces of pearl barley, 
and half an ounce of liquorice-root. Boil them together in a 
pint and a half of water, and strain off the liquor. A tea-cupful 
to be taken night and morning. 

1353. Costiveness may be relieved by a change of diet, exer- 
cise on horseback, or any other exercise in the open air, or by 
taking one of the following pills an hour before dinner: — 

Take of Socotrine aloes, thirty grains ; gum mastic, ten 
grains ; oil of wormwood, one drop ; tincture of aloes, a sufficient 
quantity to form the ingredients into a mass, which must be 
divided into twelve pills. 

This is an excellent dyspeptic pill, and will afford great relief 
in all cases of weak digestion. 

1354. Remedies for Dysentery. — Black or green tea, steeped 
in boiling milk, seasoued with nutmeg, and best of loaf-sugar, 
is excellent for the dysentery. Cork burnt to charcoal, about 
as big as a hazel-nut, macerated, and put in a tea-spoonful of 
brandy, with a little loaf sugar and nutmeg, is very efficacious 
in cases of dysentery and cholera-morbus. If nutmeg be want- 
ing, peppermint- water may be used. Flannel wet with brandy, 
powdered with Cayenne pepper, and laid upon the bowels, 
affords great relief in cases of extreme distress. 


1355. Another Remedy. — Dissolve as much table-salt in keen 
vinegar as will ferment and work clear. When the foam 1* 
discharged, cork it up in a bottle, and put it away for use. A 
large spoonful of this, in a gill of boiling water, is very effica- 
cious in cases of dysentery and colic. 

1356. Loss of Appetite. — This is generally symptomatic, and 
varies according to the occasional cause. The continued use 
of warm tea, of wine, or other spirituous liquors, diluted with 
warm water, or the use of warm water alone, if long continued, 
will occasion a relaxed state of the muscular coat of the sto- 
mach. This organ also suffers from anxiety of mind, a seden- 
tary life, or a costive habit ; from these and other causes it 
becomes weakened, irritable, and incapable of digesting the 
most simple food. To restore the tone of the stomach, first 
give this emetic : — 

Take of ipecacuanha, in fine powder, one scruple ; horse-radish 
tea, two ounces. Mix them together. Between the times of 
the operation, half a pint of horse-radish tea should be drank, 
but not repeated oftener than twice or thrice. Afterwards 
keep the bowels regular by the following aperient pills : — 

Take, rhubarb, in fine powder, carbonated kali, of each thirty 
grains ; ginger, in fine powder, one scruple ; balsam of Peru, a 
sufficient quantity to form a mass ; divide it into twenty-four 
pills. Dose, three or four every other night, at bed-time. 

At the same time, to restore the tone of the digestive organs, 
the following decoction should be taken : — 

Take of Peruvian bark, six drachms ; Cascarilla bark, two 
drachms. Bruise them in a mortar, and boil them in a pint 
and a half of water for a few minutes; strain off the liquor 
while hot, then add tincture of bark, two ounces; diluted nitric 
acid, a drachm and a half. Dose, four large spoonsful, three 
times a day. 

1357. Cramp and Spasm. — It frequently happens that per- 
sons are extremely annoyed by cramp during the night, which 
may be relieved by the following tincture : — 

Take of tincture of opium, tw T o drachms ; ether, half an 
ounce. Mix them together, and take thirty or forty drops ev- 
ery night, at bed-time. 

1358. How to apply Blisters. — A considerable degree of pain 
and inflammation often follows the application of blisters, which 


may be obviated, by covering the blister-plaster with very thiu 
muslin, which will prevent any part of it remaining on the skin, 
after the removal of the blister. The muslin should be pressed 
down, and rubbed with the finger upon the surface of the blis- 

1359. Mustard Plasters — Should be covered with muslin, 
or the poultice put in a cloth bag, before being applied to the 

1360. To prevent Lock-jaw. — Immerse the part injured in 
strong lye, as warm as can be borne. But first, as in all cases 
of wounds, apply spirits of turpentine on lint. 

1361. For a Stiff Joint. — An ointment made from the com- 
mon ground-worms, which boys dig to bait fishes, rubbed on 
with the hand, is said to be excellent, when the sinews are 
drawn up by disease or from a sprain. 

1362. Easy Method of curing the Scurvy. — The root of the 
garden carrot abounds in a nutritious saccharine juice, and is 
slightly aromatic. These are desirable properties against the 
scurvy. To experience the good effects of these properties, the 
roots must be eaten raw. There is nothing unpleasant in this ; 
on the contrary, it is what the common people often do by 
choice. These roots would keep well during the longest voy- 
age, packed up in casks, having the interstices filled with 
sand. Each sailor might be allowed to eat one root everyday, 
or every other day, according to the state of their health, and 
the quantity of roots on board. 

1363. To make Oliver, or Goose-grass Ointment; remarkable 
for its salutary effects in cases of inveterate Scurvy. — To a pound 
of hog's-lard melted, without spice or salt, put as much clivers 
as the lard will moisten, and boil them together over a slow 
fire ; after stirring it till it becomes a little brown, strain it 
through a cloth ; and when cold, take the ointment from the 
water that will remain at the bottom, and it will be fit for use. 

1364. Easy Method of attracting Ear-wigs from the Ear. — A 
person lately having an earwig crept into his ear, and knowing 
the peculiar fondness that insect has to apples, immediately ap- 


plied a piece of apple to the ear, which enticed the creature cut, 
and thereby prevented the alarming consequences which might 
have otherwise ensued. 

1365. Simple remedies for Scarlet Fever. — Open the bowels 
regularly every day, with some mild aperient medicine, such as 
castor oil, senna, etc., and keep the patient at rest, and comfort 
ably warm ; sponge the surface with tepid water, two or thre6 
times a day ; while it is hotter than natural, admit fresh air ; 
live on a bland diet, such as a cup full of arrow-root, several 
times a day ; toast-water for common drink. Gargle made of 
strong sage tea, honey and alum, or borax, may be used from 
the commencement, if the throat is affected."— Dr. T. P. 

1366. The French Method of making Whey. — Mix together 
equal parts of best vinegar and cold water ; a table-spoonful of 
each will suffice for a pint of milk. It is not, however, all to 
be put in, whether necessary or not; but when the milk just 
boils, pour in just as much of the acid as will turn it, and no 
more. Beat up together the white and shell of one egg, which 
boil up in the whey. Then set it aside till quite clear. Pour 
it off very steadily through a muslin strainer. Sweeten to 
taste, with loaf-sugar. This whey is very pleasant, and answers 
every good purpose of white wine whey, while it is not liable 
to the objection of being heating, and is also very much less 

1367. Calves'-feet Jelly. — Take tw^o calves' feet, and add to 
them one gallon of water ; which reduce, by boiling, to one 
quart. Strain it, and when cold skim the fat entirely off. Add 
to this the white of six or eight eggs, well beaten, half a pint 
of wine, half a pound of loaf-sugar, and the juice of four lemons, 
and let them be well mixed. Boil the whole for a few min- 
utes, stirring it constantly, and then pass it through a flannel 

This forms a very nutritious article of diet for the sick and 
convalescent. When it is desired, the wine can be omitted. — - 

1368. Chicken Water. — Take half a chicken, divested of all 
fat, and break the bones ; add to this half a gallon of water, 
and boil for fifteen or twenty minutes. Season with salt 


This was freely employed by the late Dr. Parrish in cholera 
at its commencement. Taken warm, it produces vomiting, and 
washes out the stomach. 

1369. Essence of Beef . — Put into a porter bottle a sufficient 
quantity of lean beef, sliced, to fill up its body, cork it with a 
paper stopple, and place it in a pot of cold water, attaching the 
neck, by means of a string, to the handle of the vessel. Boil 
this for three-quarters of an hour, then pour off the liquor, and 
skim it. To this preparation may be added spices and salt. 

1370. A very reviving Odor. — Fill with recently gathered, 
and dried lavender-flowers, stripped from their stalks, small 
wide-necked scent-bottles, and just cover them with strong 
acetic acid. A morsel of camphor, the size of a hazel-nut, may 
be added, with advantage, to the lavender, in each bottle. 
Sound, new, and closely fitting corks should be used, to secure 
the mixture from the air. It is exceedingly refreshing and 
wholesome, and has often proved very acceptable to invalids. 
The lavender should be gathered for it before it is quite fully 

1371. Easy Method of obtaining Water in almost any situa- 
tion. — The ground must be perforated by a borer. In the per- 
foration is placed a wooden pipe, w T hich is driven down with a 
mallet, after which the boring is continued, that the pipe may 
be driven still farther. In proportion as the cavity of the 
borer becomes loaded, it is draw r n up and emptied ; and in 
time, by the addition of new portions of wooden pipe, the 
boring is carried to any depth, and water is generally obtained. 

1372. Method of Draining Ponds in Level Grounds. — At a 
certain distance below 7 the surface of the earth, there sometimes 
is a stratum of loose sand, which freely admits the passage of 
water. This stratum is at various depths, in different eleva- 
tions ; but it w T ill be generally found, that lands most subject 
to stagnant ponds have but a shallow stratum of clay over the 
sand. All that is necessary, therefore, is to dig a pit in the 
bottom of the pond, till you arrive at this stratum of sand, 
when the water will be immediately absorbed, and the pond 


1373. To preserve Fishing-rods. — Oil your rods, in summer, 
with linseed oil, drying them in the sun, and taking care the 
parts lie flat : they should be often turned, to prevent them 
from warping. This will render them tough, and prevent their 
being worm-eaten ; in time they will acquire a beautiful brown 
color. Should they get wet, which swells the wood, and makes 
it fast in the sockets, turn the part round over the flame of a 
candle a short time, and it will be easily set at liberty. 

1374. To gild Letters on Vellum or Paper. — Letters written 
on vellum or paper are gilded in three ways ; in the first, a lit- 
tle size is mixed with the ink, and the letters are written as 
usual ; when they are dry, a slight degree of stickiness is pro- 
duced by breathing on them, upon which the gold leaf is imme- 
diately applied, and by a little pressure may be made to adhere 
with sufficient firmness. In the second method, some white- 
head or chalk is ground up with strong size, and the letters are 
made with this by means of a brush ; when the mixture is 
almost dry, the gold leaf may be laid on, and afterwards bur- 
nished. The last method is to mix up some gold powder with 
size, and make the letters of this by means of a brush. 

1375. To make Pounce. — Gum-sandarac, powdered and sifted 
very fine, will produce an excellent preventive to keep ink from 
sinking in the paper after you have had occasion to scratch out 
any part of the writing. 

1376. Another Method. — Cuttle-fish bone, properly dried, one 
ounce ; best rosin, one ounce ; and the same quantity of burnt 
alum, well incorporated together, will make very good pounce, 
equal, if not superior, to any bought at the shops. 

1377. To cut Glass. — Take a red-hot shauk of a tobu 

lay it on the edge of your glass, which will then begin to crack ; 
then draw the shank end a little gently before, and it will fol- 
low any way you draw your hand. 

1378. Mrs. Hooker's Method of preparing and apply it 
Composition for Painting in Imitation of the Ancient G> 

—Put into a glazed earthen vessel four ounces and a 

half of gum arabic, and eight ounces, or half a pint (wine mea- 
sure) of cold spring water; when the gum is dissolved, stir in 


seven ounces of gum-mastic, which has been washed, dried, 
picked, and beaten fine. Set the earthen vessel containing the 
gum-water and gum-mastic over a slow fire, continually stirring 
and beating them hard with a spoon, in order to dissolve the 
gum-mastic; when sufficiently boiled, it will no longer appear 
transparent, but will become opaque and stiff, like a paste. As 
soon as this is the case, and the gum-water and mastic are quite 
boiling, without taking them off the fire, add five ounces of 
white wax, broken into small pieces, stirring and heating the 
different ingredients together, till the wax is perfectly melted, 
and has boiled. Then take the composition off the fire, as boil- 
ing it longer than necessary would only harden the wax, and 
prevent its mixing so well afterwards with water. When the 
composition is taken off the fire, and in the glazed earthen ves- 
sel, it should be beaten hard, and whilst hot (but not boiling) 
mix with it, by degrees, a pint (wine measure) or sixteen 
ounces more of cold spring water ; then strain the composition, 
as some dirt will boil out of the gum-mastic, and put it into 
bottles. The composition, if properly made, should be like a 
cream, and the colors when mixed with it as smooth as with oil. 
The method of using it, is to mix with the composition, upon an 
earthen pallet, such colors in powder, as are used in painting 
with oil, and such a quantity of the composition to be mixed 
with the colors as to render them of the usual consistency of 
oil colors ; then paint with fair water. The colors, when mixed 
with the composition, may be laid on either thick or thin, as 
may best suit your subject; on which account, this composition 
is very advantageous, where any particular transparency of 
coloring is required ; but in most cases it answers best if the 
colors be laid on thick, and they require the same use of the 
brush as if painting with body colors, and the same brushes as 
used in oil painting. The colors, if ground dry, when mixed 
with the composition, may be used by putting a little fair water 
over them ; but it is less trouble to put some water when the 
colors are observed to be growing dry. In painting with this 
composition, the colors blend without difficulty when wet, and 
even when dry the tints may easily be united by means of a 
brush and a very small quantity of fair water. When the 
painting is finished, put some white wax into a glazed earthen 
vessel over a slow fire, and when melted, but not boiling, with 
a hard brush cover the painting with the wax, and when cold 
take a moderately hot iron, such as is used for ironing linen, 


and so cold as not to hiss, if touched with anything wet, and 
draw it lightly over the wax. The painting will appear as if 
under a cloud till the w r ax is perfectly cold, as also whatever 
the picture is painted upon is quite cold ; but if, when so, the 
painting should not appear sufficiently clear, it may be held 
before the fire, so far from it as to melt the wax but slowly ; 
or the wax may be melted by holding a hot poker at such a 
distance as to melt it gently, especially such parts of the pic- 
ture as should not appear sufficiently transparent or brilliant ; 
for the oftener heat is applied to the picture, the greater will be 
the transparency and brilliancy of coloring ; but the contrary 
effect would be produced if too sudden or too great a degree of 
heat was applied, or for too long a time, as it would draw the 
wax too much to the surface, and might likewise crack the 
paint. Should the coat of wax put over the painting, when fin- 
ished, appear in any part uneven, it may be remedied by draw- 
ing a moderately hot iron over it again, as before mentioned, 
or even by scraping the wax with a knife ; and should the wax, 
by too great or too long application of heat, form into bubbles 
at particular places, by applying a poker heated, or even a 
tobacco-pipe made hot, the bubbles would subside; or such 
defects may be removed by drawing anything hard over the 
wax, which would close any small cavities. 

When the picture is cold, rub it with a fine linen cloth. 
Paintings may be executed in this manner upon wood (having 
first pieces of wood let in behind, across the grain of the wood, 
to prevent its warping), canvas, card, or plaster of Paris. The 
plaster of Paris would require no other preparation than mix- 
ing some fine plaster of Paris, in powder, with cold water, the 
thickness of a cream ; then put it on a looking-glass, having 
first made a frame of bees'-wax on the lookiu^-^lass. the form 
and thickness you would wish the plaster of Paris to be of, and 
when dry take it off, and there will be a very smooth surface 
to paint upon. Wood and canvas are best covered with some 
gray tint, mixed with the same composition of gum-arabic, 
gum mastic, and wax, and of the same sort of colors as before- 
mentioned, before the design is begun, in order to cover the 
grain of the wood or the threads of the canvas. Paintings may 
also be done in the same manner, with only gum-water and 
gum-mastic, prepared the same way as the mastic and wax ; 
but instead of putting seven ounces of mastic, and, when boil- 
ing, adding five ounces of wax, mix twelve ounces of gum-mas- 


tic with the gum-water, prepared as mentioned in the first part 
of this receipt ; before it is put on the fire, and when sufficiently 
boiled and beaten, and is a little cold, stir in, by degrees, 
twelve ounces, or three-quarters of a pint (wine measure) of 
cold spring water, and afterwards strain it. It w r ould be 
equally practicable painting with wax alone, dissolved in gum- 
water in the following manner : Take twelve ounces, or three- 
quarters of a pint (wine measure) of cold spring water, and 
four ounces and a half of gum-arabic, put them into a glazed 
earthen vessel, and when the gum is dissolved, add eight ounces 
of white wax. Put the earthen vessel, with the gum-water and 
wax, upon a slow fire, and stir them till the wax is dissolved, 
and has boiled a few minutes ; then take them off the fire, and 
throw them into a basin, as by remaining in the hot earthen 
vessel the wax would become rather hard ; beat the gum-water 
and wax till quite cold. As there is but a small proportion of 
water in comparison to the quantity of gum and wax, it would 
be necessary, in mixing this composition with the colors, to 
put also some fair water. Should the composition be so made 
as to occasion the ingredients to separate in the bottle, it will 
become equally serviceable, if shaken before used, to mix with 
the colors. 

1379. The Best Season for Painting Houses. — The outside 
of buildings should be painted during autumn or winter. Hot 
w r eather injures the paint by drying in the oil too quickly; 
then the paint will easily rub off. But when the paint is 
laid on during cold w 7 eather, it hardens in drying, and is firmly 

1380. A cheap and simple Process for Painting on Glass, suf- 
ficient for the purpose of making a Magic Lanthorn. — Take good 
clear resin, any quantity, melt it in an iron pot ; when melted 
entirely, let it cool a little, and before it begins to harden, pour 
in oil of turpentine sufficient to keep it liquid when cold. In 
order to paint with it, let it be used with colors ground in oil, 
such as are commonly sold in color shops. 

1381. To make Phosphorus. — Two-third parts of quick-lime 
(t, e. calcined oyster-shells), and one-third of flour of brimstone, 
put into a crucible for an hour, and exposed to the air for an 
hour, become phosphorus. 


1382. To make an Illuminated or Phosphoric Bottle, which 
will preserve its Light for several months. — By putting a piece 
of phosphorus, the size of a pea, into a phial, and adding boil- 
ing oil until the bottle is a third full, a luminous bottle is 
formed ; for, on taking out the cork, to admit atmospheric air, 
the empty space in the phial will become luminous. 

Whenever the stopper is taken out in the night, sufficient 
light will be evolved to show the hour upon a watch ; and if 
care be taken to keep it, in general, well closed, it will pre- 
serve its illuminative power for several months. 

1383. To Marble Books or Paper. — Marbling of books or 
paper is performed thus : — Dissolve four ounces of gum arabic 
in two quarts of fair water ; then provide several colors mixed 
with water in pots or shells, and with pencils peculiar to each 
color ; sprinkle them by way of intermixture upon the gum- 
water, which must be put into a trough, or some broad vessel ; 
then, with a stick, curl them, or draw them out in streaks to as 
much variety as may be done. Having done this, hold your 
book, or books, close together, and only dip the edges in, on 
the top of the water and colors, very lightly ; which done, take 
them off, and the plain impression of the colors in mixture will 
be upon the leaves ; doing as well the ends as the front of the 
book in like manner, and afterwards glazing the colors. 

1384. To Write Secretly on a Pocket Handkerchief. — Dis- 
solve alum in pure w r ater, and write upon a fine white handker- 
chief, which, when dry, will not be seen at all ; but when you 
would have the letters visible, dip the handkerchief in pure 
water, and it will be- of a wet appearance all over, except where 
it was written on with the alum water. 

You may also w r rite with alum water upon writing paper, 
which will not be visible till dipped in water. 

1385. To keep Insects out of Bird-Cages. — Tie up a little sul- 
phur in a silk bag, and suspend it in the cage. For mocking- 
birds this is essential to their health; and the sulphur will 
keep all the red ants and other insects from cages of all kinds 
of birds. Red ants will never be found in a closet or drawer, 
if a small bag of sulphur is kept constantly in these places. 


1386. Of Books, Mental Cultivation, dec. — Our work would 
be incomplete, without some reference to mental as well as ma 
terial improvement. In truth, we have aimed, throughout this 
and a former book,* to make the connection between the culti- 
vation of the mental faculties and true household economy 
apparent. To work properly we must think rightly. Science 
is as necessary in the kitchen as in the laboratory. The rea- 
son why men cooks are preferred above women cooks, and bet- 
ter paid, is, the former study their art as a science. Knowledge 
is power, in domestic life as well as in the political arena. Let 
the woman elevate her position by her learning ; let her un- 
derstand the nature and influence of her daily employments, 
cultivating her taste and refining her manners by the true stand- 
ard of moral excellence ; thus making her home-pursuits con- 
duce to the harmony and happiness of the general plan of life 
in which she, the wife and mother, is the centre of attraction 
and volition, and how important for humanity her sphere 

1387. Choice of Reading. — Never keep house without books. 
Life is not life to any great purpose where books are not. The 
Bible is indispensable. Out of its treasures of Divine wisdom 
all best human wisdom is derived or directed. Then have 
other books, as your means permit. If these are rightly cho- 
sen, every volume will be a teacher, a friend — a fountain, from 
whence may be drawn sweet streams of pleasure and profit. 
Poetry, story, biography, history, essays, and religious works — 
1 name these in the order a child chooses books — all are needed. 
American literature — that is, books on subjects connected with 
our own country, should be first in our reading. Bancroft's 
" History of the United States," Sparkes' "American Biogra- 
phies," Lippincott's " Cabinet Histories of the States," Mrs. 
Ellet's " Women of the Revolution" — these should be accessible 
to every family in the Union. Eead on every subject con- 
nected with your own pursuits and employments. Knowledge 
will aid you even in hand labor ; and a good book is a safe 
refuge in idle hours. 

1388. Of Periodicals and Newspapers. — Every family should 
take a newspaper ; this, the lady of the house should insist 

* See " The Ladies' New Book of Cookery." 


upon— kindly, to be sure; for a pleasant request is as powerful 
as "a soft answer" in "turning away wrath." Men, usually, 
are willing to subscribe for a paper, though some ai-e indiffer- 
ent to this great source of family instruction as well as pleasure ; 
but they forget, when the year comes round, t^ renew their sub- 
scription in the right way. So the women of the family should 
be sure to remember the printer. 

Another important source of family improvement is the peri- 
odicals or monthly magazines. These are now, thanks to the 
cheap postage system, accessible to the dwellers in the most 
remote places of our wide land. As a work for our own sex, 
Godey's Lady's Book is the best that can be taken in a family, 
because it furnishes information on every branch of home du- 
ties and pursuits ; and moreover, upholds that pure standard 
of morals in its lightest fiction, which renders it a safe enjoy- 
ment for the young. 

Many other periodicals might be named, all excellent of 
their kind, and where the expense can be afforded, each house- 
hold should obtain one or more of these. A better way would 
oe for a neighborhood to unite and take a half dozen different 
publications, securing the inestimable advantage of reading 
every month the best religious, medical, agricultural, scientific, 
literary, and illustrated magazines — thus keeping up with the 
progress of art, the march of mind, the material advancement, 
and the moral improvement of the world. 

1389. How can we Pay for the Magazines'? — Is the question 
with many families. Very easily, if you have the will — one 
half of the money spent on tobacco would, if laid out in books, 
soon give every family a library. And, young ladies, if you 
cannot persuade your brothers to throw aside their cigars, and 
subscribe, why, look over this book, and see, if from its eco- 
nomical hints you cannot devise some plan of earning or saving, 
whereby you may be able to pay for the magazines. Do this 
one year ; husband or brother will then be ready to aid. 
Woman has everything to gain from Christian civilization ; she 
should lead the way. 



Abrasions of the skin, To 

prevent 93 

Abstinence 127 

Accidents in open car- 
riages, Best method of 

avoiding 206 

Acids 120 

Acids, To restore color ta- 
ken out by 59 

Agriculture, Some hints 

about 265 

Agriculture — Important 

fact 266 

Alabaster, To clean 3 

Alcohol 120 

Alder, Advantages of. &c. 263 

Alkalescent Drinks 242 

Alkalies 120 

Alum Whey 247 

Ammonia 120 

Anglo-Japanese Work. . . .166 
Antidotes and Poisons. . . . 120 

Ants, To destroy 85 

Ants, To destroy, (anoth- 
er way). 85 

Ants and Wasps, To de 

stroy 85 

Aperient for Children 100 

Appetite, Loss of 374 

Apples, Keeping 354 

Apples, To preserve 193 

Apple Fritters 331 

Apple Trees 304 

Apple Water 242 

April 183 

Arms and Polished Metal, 

To keep from rust 24 

Arnica, Extract of 115 

Aromatic Vinegar 148 

Arrow-root 239 

Arrow-root Jelly 240 

Arsenic 120 

Arsenic, To detect 192 

Asthma, To relieve 103 

Asthma, To relieve (ano 

ther way) 103 

August 18:1 


Balls, Breeches, To make.. 63 
Ball3 for removing spots, 

To make 63 

Barn floors, To make du- 
rable 315 


Bark, Wild Cherry 243 

Barley Water 245 

Bathing, Advantages of. ..125 
Bathing, Good effects of ... 125 

Baths and Bathing 124 

Bath, Vapor, at home 250 

Batter, French 332 

Batter Pudding 332 

Bed Clothes, Useful hints 

relative to 17 

Bed Furniture, &c, To 

wash 51 

Bed-room Linen 155 

Bed-rooms, Scouring .10 

Bed rooms, To clean 9 

Beds, Making, fee 254 

Bee or Wasp, Sting of 123 

Beech Tree Leaves 17 

Beef as Food 365 

Beef, Essence of 37' 

Belladonna 120 

Beer, Keeping 258 

Beer, To Prevent growing 

flat 350 

Beer, Sour, To recover. . .351 
Beer, Table, To make.... 351 
Bees, Improvement in the 

management of 176 

Bees, Method of preserv- 
ing 317 

Bees, Method of remov- 
ing 316 

Beetles, To destroy 276 

Beets, &c, To preserve 

all winter 273 

Binding 154 

Birds, Beasts, Fishes, &c., 

Method of preserving. . .31 
Birds that have been shot, 
Method of preserving. . .318 

Birth Marks 135 

Biscuit, To preserve 356 

Biscuits, Cheap Ginger... 329 

Biscuits, Pic-nic 328 

Bite of Venomous Ani- 
mals, To prevent death 

from 122 

Black, To Color 362 

Black Paper for drawing 

patterns 170 

Black Reviver 61 

Black Silk, To dip 61 

Blackberries 247 

Blacking, celebrated cake, 
for boots, &c 79 

Bark, Dog-wood 243iBlacking, Good 79 


Blacking, Liquid 80 

Blacking, for Leather 

Seats 22 

Blankets 155 

Bleaching Straw, Method 

of 66 

Bleeding at the Nose 95 

Bleeding at the Nose, 

another remedy 95 

Bleeding from a Cut, To 

stop 98 

Blisters, How to apply 374 

Blisters, Management of. . 1 13 

Blond Lace 61 

Blood, The, is the Life. . .127 
Boards, To give a beauti- 
ful appearance to ,. .13 

Boards, To scour 14 

Boards or Stone, To ex- 
tract Oil from 13 

Boils, To cure 109 

Bonnets, Straw 66 

Bonnets, Straw, To clean. .66 
Bonnets, Straw and Chip, 

To dye 77 

Books and Accounts 213 

Books, To preserve 39 

Books or Prints, To clean.. 39 

Book*, To choose 383 

Boots and Shoes, Of clean- 
ing 261 

Boots and Shoes, To pre- 
vent snow-water, &x 81 

Boots, Water-proof 82 

Boot Tops, To clean brown .80 

Borax, Uses of 1 16 

Bottles, To cleanse 31 

Bottling 340 

Bowels, Pain in 224 

Braiding 155 

Brandied Peaches 320 

Brandy Cherries...., 320 

Brass and Copper, To 

clean 26 

Brass and Copper, To 

clean (another way) 26 

Brass Ornaments, To clean .26 
Bread, To discover if 

adulterated 356 

Bread, Lippets of 326 

Bread, Unfermented. . , .336 
Bread, Crumbs, White. . . .327 
Bread-pans, Cleaning ....258 

Bread Poultice 113 

Breakfast 368 

Breakfast, Making 253 




Breakfast, Cold Meats at. .253 
Breakfast-room, Neatness 

in the 252 

Breakfast-room, Work in 

the 252 

Breath, For the 103 

Breath, bad from onions.. 146 
Breath, Remedy for bad. ..119 
Brewing, Cheap and easy 

method of 351 

Britannia Metal, Tins, &c, 

Polishing paste for 27 

Britannia Metal, To clean. .27 

Bruises or Con tusions 115 

Bruise or Sprain 233 

Buckwheat, Utility of 

Sowing 269 

Bugs, To destroy 87 

Bugs and Worms, To de- 
stroy , 276 

Building 310 

Bulbous Roots 179 

Bunions, To cure in their 

commencement, 97 

Burning. To Protect Chil 

dren from 52 

Burns 109 

Burns and Scalds 109 

Burn or Scald 110 

Butter 357 

Butter 287 

Butter, Improved method 

of making 288 

Butter, Method of curing 

bad tub 358 

Butter, Salt, To make 

fresh 358 

Butter or Milk, To remove 

the Taste of Turnips 

from 358 

Butter as Diet ..367 

Butterflies' Wings, To take 

impressions of 169 

Cabbage Water, To be 
thrown away 258 

Calico Furniture, To clean.. 10 

Calicoes and Cotton Bed- 
furniture, To wash 

Calves, Excellent method 
ot rearing 

Calves -feet Jelly 

Camera Lucida, new 

Camphor Mixture 

Canary Birds, Manage- 
ment of 

Candle, To make an im- 

Candle, Blowing out a. . . . 

Candles, Plain hints about 

Candles and Lamps 

Candle Snuffs, Use of. ... . 

Candlesticks, Cleaning. . . . 

Cane Chairs and Couches, 
To clean, &c 22 

Canker, or Sore Mouth... .232 

Carefulness 211 

Carnations, Laying 293 

Carpets, To beat 1' 

Carpets, To clean 10 

Carpets, Turkey, To clean.. 11 

Carpets, To wash 362 

Carriage, To clean 44 

Carrots, &c, To preserve 

all winter 273 

Carrots, Utility of 

Carrot-seeds, &c, Prepa- 
rations for 271 

Carvacrol 94 

Cashmere Stuff, To clean. .6' 

Casking 339 

Casks, To sweeten 340 

Ca taplasm, Alum 238 

Cataplasm of common salt.238 
Caterpillars, To destroy... 195 

Caterpillars 274 

Caterpillars, For destroy- 
ing 277 

Caterpillars, To destroy. ..278 
Caterpillars, Ants, &c, 

Liquor for 86 

Cattle, To preserve 

winter 289 

Cautions 203 

Cautions in Visiting Sick 

Rooms 234 

Celandine, Useful Proper- 
ties of 235 

Celery, Essence of 191 

Celery, To keep 355 

Cellars and Outhouses. . . 
Cement and ground glass 

Imitation 69 

Cement to resist Fire and 

Water 69 

Cement, Bottle 70 

Cement, Bottle 71 

Cement, Blood 71 

Cement, Diamond 71 

Cement for attaching me- 
tal to glass, &c, 71 

Cement for Iron Flues 72 

Cement for joining Ala- 
baster, &c 72 

Cement, Strong 73 

Cement for Bottles, 359 

Qerate of Cantharides 238 

Chalk Mixture 108 

Chalk Mixture 246 

Chambers of the Sick, To 

purify 91 

Chairs, To clean 22 

Chamomile Flowers, To 

dry 195 

Chamomile Tea 117 

Chamomile and Orange 

peel 243 

Charcoal 121 

Charcoal, To prevent ill- 
effects of 41 

Charlotte Russe, 331 


Cheap Carpeting 11 

Cheerfulness 212 

Cherry-tree Gum 1 18 

Cheese, Coloring for 359 

Cheese Curd, To make 

loaves of 329 

Chestnuts, To dress for 

Dessert 338 

Chickens, Method of Fat- 
tening 201 

Chicken Water 376 

Chilblains, Lotion for 97 

Chilblains, Simple reme- 
dy for 97 

Chilblains, ;.. mer reme- 
dy for 97 

Chilblain Liniment 98 

Children, Management of 

young 217 

Children, To arrange for. .253 

Chimneys, Fires in 203 

Chimneys, Smokey, To 

cure 313 

Chimneys, To Sweep 

without children 41 

Chimneys, To color the 

backs of. 24 

Chimneys, Stone, to black- 
en 24 

China, To clean 31 

China, to mend 69 

China, Broken, To ce- 
ment 70 

China or Glass, To ce- 
ment 70 

Chinese method of Mend 

ing China 70 

Chintz, To wash 52 

Chloride of Lime, To use.. 92 
Chowder, New England.. 323 

Church Yards 234 

Cider, in bottles, To cork. .350 

Cinnamon 214 

Cisterns, Lead 43 

Oliver, To make 375 

Cloth, Cambric, &c, To 

paint 177 

Clothing for children 218 

Clothes Bags 157 

Clothes Posts 88 

Clothes Lines, &c, Care 

of 263 

Coach Wheels 45 

Coals 216 

Coal Fire, To light 40 

Coal Fire, To light (anoth- 
er way) 40 

Coat, white or drab, To 

clean 62 

Cockroaches, &c, To de- 
stroy 85 

Cocoa 352 

Coffee 189 

Coffee, Turkish method 

of making 352 

Coffee, Substitute for 352 




Colds 231 

Colds 106 

Cold in the Head 106 

Cold Cream - . . . . 135 

Colic in Infants, Other 

remedies for 225 

Cologne Water 146 

Coloring Clothing 360 

Coloring, General rules for.36'2 
Coloring for rooms, Cheap. .36 
Col umbo Root and Gin- 
ger 243 

Combs, &c. To clean 54 

Complexion, Of the 13'2 

Complexion, To improve. . 132 

Composition, Blue 360 

Composition, To prevent 

iron, &c. from rusting — 24 
Composition for washing 

in sea-water 52 

Composition for colored 

drawings, &c 168 

Composition, Cheap and 

excellent , 315 

Condiments 368 

Contusions or Bruises 115 

Convulsions 226 

Cookmaid, General duties 

of . . . ^ 251 

Cookmaid, Of the 251 

Copper and Brass, To 

clean 26 

Copper in Liquids, To de- 
tect 192 

Coral, artificial, To make.. 170 

Cordial Julep .247 

Corks, Improved 70 

Corn, To dry for winter 

use 194 

Corn, Green 337 

Corn Oysters 337 

Corns on the feet 96 

Corns, To prevent 96 

Corns, To cure 96 

Corn Solvent , 

Corns, To cure another 

way 97 

Corns, soft, To cure 97 

Corns and Warts 96 

Corpulence 119 

Corrosive Sublimate 12' 

Costiveness 373 

Cotton, To dye buff" 77 

Coughs, For common 105 

Coughs, Winter 105 

Cough and Hoarseness If" 

Cough, White mixture for. II 

Cough, Troublesome 106 

Coughs, Children's 106 

Cough, Hacking 106 

Cough, For a l(T 

Counterpanes, cotton, To 

wash 50 

Court Plaster 136 

Cows, Feeding with sain 

foin 285 


Cows, Parsnips product- 
ive of milk in 285 

Cows, Proper food for 285 

Cows. Milch 286 

Cows, Rules for milking.. 287 
Cows, To prevent bad 

habits 288 

Cows, To milk 200 

Cramp 100 

Cramp and Spasm 374 

Cream 357 

Cream, Substitute for 352 

Cream, Substitute for 190 

Cream, preserved in long 

voyages 192 

Creosote 121 

Crickets, To destroy 85 

Crockery and Glass 33 

Croup, The 227 

Croup, Cure for the 227 

Crows, To keep from corn. 270 

Crust, Wine 327 

Cucumbers 295 

Cup-cakes ?30 

Currants, To Preserve 

Green 355 

Currant Shrub 342 

Curry, To prepare a 337 

Curry, Lord Clives 338 

Curry Powders, To make. 337 
Cutaneous Eruptions in 
children 232 


Dairy, The 357 

Dairy, Temperature for the.2b7 

Damp Walls 16 

Dampness in Beds, To 

detect 17 

Dandelion, Use of 271 

Danger from Fire 203 

Deafness, Temporary 95 

Decanters, Cleaning 30 

Decanters, To clean 30 

December 186 

Dentition 226 

Dentifrice, A good 137 

Diarrhea 108 

Diet for patients 126 

Dinner 369 

Dinner, Hot plates for 256 

Dinner, Taking directions 

for .254 

Dinner, Serving up 256 

Dinner-hour and its duties. 255 
Discolorations of the Skin, 

To prevent 93 

Dishes, Washing 256 

Dish-covers, Cleaning 259 

Disinfecting Liquid 93 

Door-plates, To clean 28 

Draining Ponds 377 

Drawings, Pencil, Method 

of setting 171 

Drawings, Wash for pre- 
serving 171 

Dress, Print, To preserve 

the color of 53 

Dress, Faded, To bleach. . .53 
Dresses, Printed, To wash. 52 

Dresses, &c, To iron 53 

Dressing Table, For the. ..138 

Drinks 369 

Drinks, Alkalescent 242 

Drinks, Nutritive 244 

Drinks, Stimulating 242 

Drinks, Tonic 243 

Drinks for the Sick 241 

Drowning, Persons in 

danger of 206 

Drowning, Recovery from. 208 

Dry Rot 309 

Dry Rot in Timber, Cure 

for 309 

Ducks, To fatten 202 

Ducks and Geese 201 

Dyeing 74 

Dyes, Various 75 

Dysentery, A simple cure 

for 108 

Dysentery, Remedies for. .373 
Dysentery, (another reme- 
dy for) 374 

Dyspepsia Bread 335 


Ear, Diseases in 94 

Ear, For a pain in the 95 

Ear-ache 85 

Ear-ache 233 

Ears, Sore 221 

Earwigs, &c, in the ear, 

To kill 95 

Earwigs, &c, To destroy.. 279 

Eat Slowly 368 

Eau d' Ange 149 

Eau de Cologne 146 

Eau de Cologne 147 

Ebony, Imitation of 36 

Economics 334 

Economicals of Cooking 

Meats 367 

Economy in Expenditure. .212 
Edgings, To plant and 

make 291 

Edgings, Box, To cut 283 

Eggs in Jaundice 100 

Eggs, To Preserve 191 

Eggs of Birds, To preserve. 169 
Elder, Good effects of, &C..274 

Embankments 266 

Embroidery, Silk 162 

Embroidery, Silk 163 

Ermine and Minever, To 

clean 54 

Erysipelas, Cure for 99 

Essences from Flowers, 

To extract 147 

Eye, To cure a bruise in * 

the 94 

Eyes, Cold or inflamma- 
tion in 94 




Eyes, Sore 221 

Eye Water, for weak 

eyes 93 

Eye Water, (another) 93 

Eye-brows, To darken the. 130 


Fainting or Syncope 234 

Fainting, Remedy for 99 

Fard 136 

Farmers, Hints to 198 

Feathers, To clean of 

their oil 18 

Feathers and Hair, To 

dye green 77 

Feet, The 250 

Feet, Cold and damp 104 

Feet, Sore 250 

Feet, Wounded 233 

Felon, To cure 109 

Fermentation, To check. .342 

Fevers Ill 

Fever, Dr. Dickson's cure 

for Ill 

Fever and Ague Ill 

Fevers, Beverage for 112 

Fevers, Inflammatory 112 

Fever, Scarlet 112 

Fever, Yellow Ill 

Fig-Paste 108 

Filtering Bag 341 

Fire, Preservation of Life 

from 203 

Fires in Chimneys 203 

Fire, Means of extinction. 203 
Fire, Method of escape 

from 204 

Fire. To make water more 

efficacious, &c 204 

Fire, To extinguish speed- 
ily 204 

Fire, To escape from a 

house on 205 

Fire, Hints respecting cloth 

ing on 205 

Fire, To extricate Horses 

from 205 

Fires, Good method of 

making 216 

Fire, Taking care of 261 

Fires, Stoves, &c, 42 

Fire, To revive a dull 42 

Fire-balls 41 

Fire-irons, To prevent 

rusting 23 

Fire-places, To improve.. .313 

Fish, Gold and silver 176 

Fish, as Food 365 

Fish, Russian method of 

preserving .318 

Fishing-rods, To preserve. 378 

Fits, Remedy for 99 

Flannels, To prevent 

shrinking 43 

Flannels, To scour 48 

Flannels, To wash 48 


Fleas, To drive away 85 

Fleas, &c, To destroy 87 

Fleas on Dogs, To destroy .279 

Flies, To destroy 84 

Flies, To keep off. ...84 

Flies, To remove 84 

Floors, Artificial stone 310 

Floor or Oil-cloths 12 

Floor cloths, To clean 12 

Flour, Boiled 240 

Flowers, To preserve in 

water 176 

Flowers, To preserve in 

winter 175 

Flowers, Dried 177 

Flowers, faded, To revive . 177 
Flowers, Hints to lovers 

of 179 

Flowers, When to plant.. 197 

Fly-water 84 

Folding and Mangling 203 

Food for Children 219 

Food for the Sick and for 

Children 239 

Foot-rot in Sheep 290 

Freckles, How to treat 132 

Freckles 133 

Freckles (another receipt).133 
Freckles, Cosmetic Lo- 
tion for 133 

Freckles and Sun-burn, 

Lemon Cream for 134 

Freckled Skin, Water for. 133 
French Polish for Boots 

and Shoes 80 

French Polish for Furni 

ture 19 

French Receipt for the 

Skin 134 

Fro^t, To prevent injuring 

Trees 302 

Fruits, To keep 193 

Fruit Trees, To improve. .303 
Fruit Trees, Chinese 

mode of, &c 302 

Fruit Trees infected with 

Blight 304 

Fuel, Economy in 40 

Furniture Oil 19 

Furniture Paste 19 

Furs and Woollens, To 

preserve 78 

Game, To preserve in hot 

weather 318 

Gardening 291 

Gargles, To make 107 

Gargle, Common 246 

Gargle, Detergent 245 

Gargle, Rose 245 

Garlic, Use of against 

Moles, &lc 279 

jGarlic, Useful properties 

of 235 

iGathering 153 


Gathering, double, or Puff- 
ing 153 

Geese, Cobbett's method, 

&c 201 

Geese and Ducks 201 

Gentian Root Infusion 244 

Geraniums 180 

Gilding, To improve 72 

Gilding, Oil and Water... . 168 

Gilding, Water 168 

Gilding, To preserve and 

clean 18 

Gilt or Lacquered Arti- 
cles, To clean 28 

Gingerbread 330 

Ginger Snaps 330 

Ginger, To preserve 319 

Glasses, To clean 30 

Glasses, To restore the 

lustre of. 31 

Glass, To remove crust 

from 31 

Glass, To cut 378 

Glass Stopples, To loosen. .32 

Glass aryl Crockery 33 

Glass or China, To ce- 
ment 70 

Glass Jars, To make look 

like China 155 

Glazed Vessels 32 

Gloves, For cleaning light 

kid 64 

Gloves, To clean 65 

Gloves, Washing 65 

Gloves, Thread, To wash 50 

Gloves, To dye 76 

Glue, A most excellent 68 

Glue, Lip 68 

Glue, Liquid 68 

Glue, Parchment 68 

Glue, Rice 67 

Glue, To hold against fire 

and water 68 

Gold, To cleanse 26 

Gold Chains, To clean 71 

Gout and Rheumatism 105 

Gout, Rheumatism, Lum- 
bago, &c 101 

Grafting, Neat method of. 195 
Grain, Important discov- 
ery relative to 271 

Grain, To preserve in 

sacks 272 

Granaries, To destroy 

mites, &c., in , 272 

Granaries, Poplar wood 

for 316 

Grapes, To keep 353 

Grapes, To preserve till 

winter 192 

Grass, Striped 267 

Grass, Rye, When to cut. 267 

Grates. To clean 2 

Gravel-walks .292 

Gravies, Of using 367 

Grease or Wax Spots 55 


Grease from Silks, To ex- 
tract 59 

Grease or Oil Paint, To 

remove from cloth 62 

Grease or Oil Paint, (ano- 
ther way) 62 

Grease, To remove from 

the leaves of books 63 

Grease, To remove from 

paper 64 

Grease, To discharge from 

leather 64 

Green, A cheap and beau- 
tiful 38 

Green Paint for garden 

stands 37 

Green, How to color 361 

Green house, Situation for.291 
Ground Glass, To imitate. .69 

Gruels 241 

Gruel, Egg 241 

Gumboils 94 

Gutta-percha Soles 83 


Hair, Of the 128 

Hair, To purify, &c, 

Hair, To promote the 

growth of 128 

Hair, Curling fluid for the. 129 
Hair, Curling fluid for the. 130 
Hair, To prevent from 

falling out 129 

Hairs, To avoid grey 129 

Hair, To soften and 

cleanse 130 

Hair, To improve the 131 

Hair, To remove superflu- 
ous 132 

Hair-wash, An economical 131 
Hair Powder, To perfume. 131 
Hair Powder, To detect 

adulteration in 131 

Hair Dye, Gen. Twiggs'. ..130 

Hair Dye, A simple 130 

Hair, To dye black 130 

Hair, To change a deep 

brown 130 

Hair Brushes, &c, To 

clean 54 

Hair and Feathers, To 

dye green 77 

Hall, Cleaning the 253 

Hams, Curing 324 

Hams and Fish, To 

smoke 324 

Hands, Camphor Cerate 

for 143 

Hands, Paste for 143 

Hands, To prevent Perspi- 
ration of the 143 

Hands, To remove Stains 

from 144 

Hands, To whiten 143 

Hardware and Cutlery, to 

prevent rusting .25 


Hardware and Cutlery 25 

Hares and Rabbits, To pre 

vent from, &c 303 

Harness, To clean. 45 

Harness-maker's Jet 45 

Hat, To scour a 73 

Hats, Straw, To bleach . . .66 
Hats, To prevent being in 

jured by rain 74 

Hazel Nuts, To preserve. . 192 
Head, Do not shave the .128 

Head, Scald 22 

Head, Sore 221 

Health and Beauty 89 

Health, Means of preserv. 

ing 89 

Health, To preserve in 

winter 234 

Health, A few rules for. . .370 
Health of Animals, How 

to promote 

Hedges, To train 291 

Hem, Mantua-makers'. . . .152 

Hemming 152 

Hemming, German 154 

Hens, To make lay per- 
petually 202 

Herbs, Aromatic, To pre- 
serve 194 

Herbs, To dry 194 

Herbs, Winter 195 

Hiccough, To cure • • 108 

Hinges, To prevent creak 

ing 22 

Hoarseness 106 

Hoarseness, A sudden .... 106 
Home and its Employ- 
ments 9 

Home Pursuits and Do- 
mestic Arts 151 

Honey Soa p, To make 146 

Honey Water 142 

Hooker's Method, &c 378 

Horse, Management of. . . . 198 

Horse, To dress 199 

Horse-flies 200 

Horse-radish 321 

Horse-chestnut Soap 50 

Hot Water, Uses of 125 

House-cleaning 9 

Houses, To paint, and 

when 381 

Houses, To purify 88 

Hungary Water 141 

Hydrophobia 123 

Hypocras 348 

Hysteric Affections 371 


Impressions of Plants, To 
take 181 

Impressions of Plants — 
another 181 

Incense, Curious small 
cakes of 147 

Infants, Management of.. .217 


Infants, Proper medicines 

for 220 

Infection, To prevent 91 

Influenza 102 

Ink, To make 174 

Ink, Black 174 

Ink, Blue 173 

Ink. Excellent writing 174 

Ink, Green 174 

Ink, Indelible 172 

Ink, Marking 172 

Ink, Permanent Red 172 

Ink, Red 174 

Ink, Scarlet 173 

Ink, Sympathetic 173 

Ink, Yellow, 173 

Ink-powder 174 

Ink, To prevent moulding. 174 

Ink, To make Indian 175 

Ink, Indian 175 

Ink, China, To make 175 

Ink-stains, To remove 57 

Ink-stains, To remove 58 

Ink, To take out spots of. ..58 

Insects, To destroy 277 

Insects on Apple-trees 277 

Insects on Apple-trees. . . .280 

Insects on Fruit-trees 280 

Insects and Earth-worms. 277 

Irish Cordial 350 

Ironing 263 

Irons, to preserve from 

rust 24 

Iron-moulds 56 

Iron Nails in Fruit-trees. ..304 
Ivory, To bleach 31 


Jambalaya 322 

January and February ...182 
Japanned Candlesticks, 

&c 33 

Jaundice, Infantile 224 

Jelly, Nourishing 240 

Jelly, Rice 241 

Jelly-apple 319 

Jessamine Butter, To 

make 139 

Johnny Cakes 336 

')int, For a stiff 375 

July 184 

Jumbles 330 

June 183 


Kid Gloves, Washing 53 

Kitchen, Arrangements for 

work in 252 

Kitchen Cloths 87 

Kitchen, Economy in 253 

Kitchen Paper 216 

Kn ife-boards 29 

Knives and Forks, To 

clean 28 

Knives and Forks, Clean- 
ing 861 



Knives and Forks, To re- 
fasten, &c 29 

Knives, Table, To clean. .261 


Lace, Blond 61 

Lace, Gold or Silver 72 

Lace, white, To wash 58 

Lacquer. To clean 28 

Lamps, To clean 34 

Lamps, Economical wicks 

for 34 

Lamps, To prevent being 

pernicious 104 

Lamps and Candles 215 

Lavender Vinegar 148 

Lavender Water 141 

Laudanum 121 

Laxatives 108 

Lead 121 

Leanness 120 

Leather Cases, To clean . . .54 

Leather, old, Oiling 45 

Leaves, To take Impres- 
sions of 176 

Leaves, When to collect.. 306 

Leeches, To apply 101 

Lemonade 242 

Lemonade 349 

Lemonade, Italian 349 

Lemon-juice, To purify. . . 192 

Letters, To gild 378 

Lettuce, To keep 355 

]^ey, Dyspeptic 242 

Lightning, Stroke of 208 

Lime for cottage walls 37 

Lime Water 116 

Lime Water 247 

Linen, To bleach 57 

Linen, Housemaid and 

kitchen 15' 

Linen, To perfume 148 

Linen, To take Stains out 

of 54 

Linen, Scorched 55 

Linen, To restore, that 

has, &c 55 

Linings of Curtains, &c, 

To dye... 

Linseed Poultice 113 

Linseed Tea 11 

Lips, Chapped 146 

Lips, Paste for 146 

Lip Salve 146 

Lock-jaw, To prevent 375 

Looking Glasses, To clear . . 18 
Lunar Caustic 121 


Manure. How to preserve. 266 

Macassar Oil 139 

Macassar Oil, Rowland's.. 139 

Magazines to be read 384 

Mahogany, To darken 35 

Mahogany, To give any 
close grained wood, &.C..35 


Mahogany, To remove 

ink-spots from 

Maid 210 

Making Beds 1 

Management of Infants, 

&c 21 

Manure for Clover 266 

Manure 266 

Maps or Prints, To mount. 168 

Marble, To clean 14 

Marble, To clean 15 

Marble, To take Stains 

out of 15 

Marble, To take Iron 

Stains out of 15 

Marble, To, Books or Pa- 
per 382 

Marble, Artificial 36 

March 182 

Marking 154 

Marking Ink 172 

Marl, Lime-stones, &c 266 

May 183 

Mayonnaise, 322 

Mead, Red and white 346 

Mead, Rich 345 

Measles 372 

Meat for children 367 

Medicine, Administering. .237 
Medicines in travelling. . .118 
Melons, To prevent irreg- 
ular growth in 295 

Mending 157 

Merinoes and Silks, To 

clean 60 

Metal Kettles, &c 29 

Mice, To destroy 276 

Mildew, To take out of 

Linen ... 56 

Milk, B;tked 190 

Milk of Roses 140 

Milk Vessels, Scalding.... 258 
Mince-meat, Superlative. .335 
Minever and Ermine, To 

clean 54 

Mint Tea 117 

Miscellaneous 319 

Mistress 210 

Mixture for cleaning Stone 

Stairs, &.c 15 

Mock Turtle, Imitation of. 322 

Molasses 338 

Molasses, Apple 338 

Moles 134 

Moreen Curtains, To clean. 16 

Moss on Trees 195 

Mother 210 

Mother-ot-Pearl, To clean.. 28 

Moths, To prevent 7rt 

Moths, Easy method of 

preventing 79 

Moths, To preserve Furs, 
&c, from 

Pa ok 
Mouldiness, To prevent. . 193 

Mouse-trap 283 

Mouth, Wash for Hfi 

Mumps 312 

Mushrooms : 

Mushrooms, To te.-t \\:\ 

Mushrooms, when poison- 
ous 12: 

Mushrooms, To pickle 355 

Musk, Essence of 148 

Muslins, To keep a good 

color 48 

Musnud, For a sofa 161 

Mustard, French.... 321 

Mustard, Mild 326 

Mustard, The common 

way 326 

Mustard Plasters 375 

Mustard Poultices 122 

Mutton 367 

Nails, For preserving the.. 144 

Nails, To whiten 144 

Nankeen Dye 77 

Nankin Color, To make. .,361 
Nankin Color, Another. . .361 

Napkins, Dinner 157 

Naples Soap 145 

Nectar , 348 

Neighbors and Spectators. 204 

Neuralgia in the Face 93 

Newspapers, Importance 

of 383 

Nitrate of Silver 121 

Nitrate of Potash 121 

Nitre 117 

November 186 

Nutmegs, Economical use 

of 190 

Nutmegs, To ascertain 

the quality of 191 

Nutmegs, To judge of 353 

Nutmeg, Essence of 191 

Nutmeg Pudding 3?3 

Nur>e, Qualifications of a. 235 
Nurse, Rules for 237 

Oats, To preserve 272 

October 185 

Odeur Delectable 149 

Odor. A very reviving 377 

Odors, To remove unplea- 
sant 38 

Oil, To make Sweet 215 

Oil, Neat-foot 215 

Oil-Paint and Grease, To 

remove 62 

Oil Painting*, To clean, 39 

Oil-skin Coat, To make 83 

Ointment, Calamine 114 

Ointment, Elder-Flower. ..113 

Moths, Beetles. &c 79 Ointment, Simple 113 

Mould, Artificial, for Ointment, Spermaceti.... 113 
PlanU 181 [Ointment, Sulphur 114 




Olive Oil, To purify 191 

Onions 296 

Onions, To cook 354 

Onions, To keep 3.54 

Opodeldoc, Liquid 115 

Opium 121 

Oranges and Lemons, To 

ke*p 353 

Oranges. &c, To keep 353 

Orangeade, Rich 349 

Orchard, The 302 

Orgeat Paste 349 

Out-houses and Cellars. . . .88 

Oxalic Acid 121 

Ox-gall, Prepared 5' 

Oyster Gumbo 321 

Oyster Sausages 323 

Paint, To clean 13 

Paint, Cheap 36 

Paint, Fresh, To destroy 

the smell of 38 

Painting Houses 381 

Paint, To take the smell 

from rooms 38 

Painting on Glass, 381 

Panada 327 

Pancakes 329 

Paper, Black for Patterns. .170 

Paper, Transparent 171 

Paper, Transparent for 

drawing 171 

Paper, Tracing 171 

Paper or Parchment, To 

stain crimson 178 

Paper or Parchment, To 

stain green 178 

Paper or Parchment, To 

stain yellow 17 

Pnper Hangings, Method 

of cleaning 12 

Paper or Color, To, the 

Walls of Rooms 15 

Paper Work and Japan- 
ned Candlesticks 33 

Paper, Method of render- 
ing less combustible. . , .203 

Parchment Glue 68 

Parsley and Butter 326 

Parsnij)s, To keep 354 

Parsnips, &c.,To preserve 

all winter 273 

Paste, Almond 140 

Paste for the Skin 136 

Paste 67 

Paste, Bookbinders' 67 

Paste, Superior 67 

Paste-board, Rolling-pin, 

&c 259 

Pastilles. Fumigating 92 

Patchwork 158 

Patchwork, To make 158 

Patterns 158 

Patterns for working in 

Cord, dec 162 

Pearls, To restore and pre 

serve 72 

Pearl. White 141 

Peas, Sowing in circles. . .296 
Peas, To raise in autumn.. 296 

Pepper 214 

Perfumery, A very pleas- 
ant 14' 

Periodicals , 384 

Peruvian Bark, Decoction 

of 243 

Peruvian Bark and Vale- 
rian 243 

Pewter, To clean 27 

Phosphoric Bottle, To 

make 382 

Phosphorus, To make 381 

Pickle, India 321 

Pickle that will keep for 

years 324 

Pickle and Preserve Jars, 

washing .259 

Picture-frame, To retouch 19 

Pigs, Fattening 290 

Pigs, Mew mode of Fatten 

ing 290 

Pillow-cases 156 

Pimples, Wash for 135 

Pincushion Covers 156 

Piping 154 

Plaiting 155 

Plants, House 178 

Plants, Succulent 301 

Plants, To air, &c 1 

Plants, To kill Vermin on . 196 

Plants, To propagate 196 

Plants, Watered, &c 197 

Plants, Window 182 

Plasters, Blisters, Oint- 
ments, &c 114 

Plasters and Poultices 238 

Plaster, Mustard 238 

Plaster, Spice 238 

Plaster Casts, To improve. 165 

Plaster Figures 165 

Plate, To clean 25 

Plate, The common meth- 
od of cleaning 25 

Plate Powder 25 

Poisons and Antidotes. . ..120 
Polish for Dining Tables. . .20 
Polish and Varnish for 

Furniture 20 

Polished Grates, &c, To 

clean 22 

Polishing Paste, for Bri 

tannia, &c 27 

Pomatum, Hard 139 

Pomatum, Soft 138 

Pomade Divine 139 

Ponds, To keep free from 

Weeds.. 285 

Pork as food 366 

Potatoes, Boiling 354 

Potatoes, To keep from 
frost 194 


Potatoes, To keep 351 

Potatoes, Instructions for 

raising 270 

Potatoes in Bleaching, 

Use of 57 

Pot Pourri 141 

Poultice, Bark 231 

Poultice, Bread 113 

Poultice, Flder-flower, 246 

Poultice, Linseed 113 

Poultice, iMush 239 

Poultice, Mustard 1 12 

Poultice, White Bean 246 

Poultry, Raising 200 

Poultry, To fatten 200 

Pounce, To make 378 

Powder, Almond 140 

Powder for Chaps 14 i 

Powder, Violet 140 

Prints or Maps, To mount. 168 
Prints or Books, Toclean..39 
Privies, Night-chairs, &C...39 

Prunes, Stewed 241 

Prussic Acid 121 

Pudding-cloths, &c, Wash- 
ing 257 

Pumpkins, To dry 351 

Pumpkin Pie 334 

Putty, To dissolve 165 


Quicksilver 35 

Quilts 155 

Quince-seed, Mucilage of. 247 

Quinsy 107 

Quinsy 230 


Racahout des Arabes 353 

Radishes 297 

Rags, Save the 264 

Raspberry Cakes 330 

Raspberry Vinegar 351 

Rats, To destroy 86 

Rats, To kill 86 

Rats, To expel 86 

Rats, To destroy 283 

Rats or Mice 283 

Rats, New method of de- 
stroying 284 

Rats, To prevent burrow- 
ing 284 

Razor-strop Paste 3J 

Razor Strops, Manage- 
ment of 74 

Re-cooking 255 

Red Gum ...224 

Red Lavender Drops.... . . 100 

Reptiles. To kill 281 

Resp in Sheep, Parsley 

for 289 

Restorative 240 

Rheumatism and Gout. . .-101 
Rheumatism, Lumbago, 

Embrocation for 101 

Rheumatism. Infusion for. 244 


Rheumatism, Mixture fur. 244 

Rhubarb. Garden 299 

Rhubarb.Method of curing 300 

Rhubarb .Stalks 334 

Rhubarb, Turkev .209 

Rhubarb, Turkev 300 

Rice Caudle 330 

Kiekets, The 228 

King-worms 98 

Ring-worms 99 

Rock Cakes 330 

Roils 335 

Rooms, Ventilating 200 

Ro>e Color, To make 262 

Roses, Spirit and oil of.. . . 148 

Roses. Tincture of 14-2 

Rose Vinegar 351 

Rose Water 142 

Rosewood, To make imi- 
tation^. 35 

Rossolis. French 34' 

Rot in Sheep. Salve for... 290 

Running 152 


Sickatash.....' 337 

Sackatash. Winter 33" 

Sage, The virtues of 116 

Sage and Onion Stuffing.. 326 

Sage Tea 117 

Sage Tea 244 

Sago 240 

Salad, To rai>e quickly.. .271 

Saline Draught ' ...107 

Salt of Lemons 57 

Saltpetre 12J 

Satin, Black, To clean 58 

Satin, White 61 

Sauce, Brown Caper 325 

Sauce for cold Roast Beef.325 

Sauce, Horse-radish 325 

Sauce, Mint 326 

Sauce, Onion 324 

Sauce Robert 325 

Sauce. Tomato 3-25 

Sauce-pans. Kettles, &c. 

Washing 856 

Scalds and Bums 100 

Scald* and Burns 110 

Scarlet Fever 376 

Scent, A wry liae 142 

Scouring Drops 63 

Scrofula 228 

Scurvy, Easy method of 

curing 375 

Sea-sickness. To prevent. .1 18 

Sea Water. Artificial 233 

Sea Water. To make 233 

Sea Witter. To make tit 

for washing 44 

Sealing Wax, Red, To 

make 172 

Sealing Wax Varnish 168 

Seasoning for Stuffing 327 

Seeds, To preserve from 

vermin 267 

Seeds, On preserving, &C..291 

Seeds, Method of discov- 
ering if ripe 197 

Seeds, Flower, To pre- 
serve 197 

Seeds, Foreign , 291 

Senna, Infusion of 247 

Senna Tea 1 17 

September 185 

Servants 213 

Servants. Punctuality in.. 252 
Servants, Women, Rules 

for 251 

Sewing, Requisites for 151 

Sewing and Felling 152 

Sewing on glazed calico. . 165 

Shave An easy 150 

Shaving ". 149 

Shaving, Composition for. 150 

Shaving Liquids 150 

^heep. To catch 290 

Sheep, To mark ■ 288 

Sheets 155 

Sherbet, Persian and Turk- 
ish 347 

Sherbet, Strawberry 348 

Shirt-fronts, &.c. To iron... 53 

Shoes 81 

Shoes, To prevent snow- 
water, &c 81 

Shoes, White Satin, To 

clean 80 

Shower-bath, Hand 124 

Sick. Management of . . .217 
Sickness, A few remedies. 371 
sickness, Directions in se- 
vere 91 

Sickness and Vomiting. ..222 
Sight, Rules for the pre- 
servation of 249 

Silk, Old 60 

Silk, rusty black, To dip. . .61 

ro aloin 75 

Silks, To clean 60 

Silks, To clean 61 

Silks, To extract grease 

from 59 

Silks and Merinoes, To 

clean 60 

Silks and Stuffs To ex- 
tract grease from 59 

Sink, Cleaning the 25" 

Skin, To soften, &c 132 

Skin, Wash for 140 

Slate Color 361 

Slate Color, Purple 361 

Sleep, How to get 118 

Sleep. To promote 235 

Slugs, To prevent 281 

Smelling Bottle 148 

Smut in Wheat 2ffi 

To destroy 281 

Snake Bite, 121 

Soap 216 

Soap, Essence of 144 

Soap, Cenuine Windsor. . 145 
Soap, Lady Derby'* 145! 


oap. Naples 145 

Soap, Superior honey 146 

Soap, Transparent 146 

Soap, Soft 365 

Soap, Substitutes for 49 

Soda-cake, a good 328 

Soda-water and Ginger- 
beer Powders 350 

Sore Throat, Gargle for. . .103 
Sore Throat, Ulcerated. . . 107 

Soup, Vegetable 241 

Spasms 101 

Spermaceti or Wax, To 

remove from cloth 63 

Spermaceti Ointment 246 

Spider, Red, To destroy. ..281 
Spirits, To test the purity 

of 191 

Spit, &c, Cleaning 258 

ponge, To clean 54 

Sponge Cake 331 

Spots on Silk, To take out.. 59 
Spots, To take out of 

Cloths, &c 59 

pots from Woollen Cloths .62 
pots or Stains in Linen, 

To remove.. 58 

Sprain, For a 115 

Sprain or Bruise 233 

Spruce Beer 350 

Squashes. Good 355 

Squill Mixture -...246 

Stains of Wine, &c 55 

Stains, Other 56 

Stains that are not metal- 
lic 56 

Stains, Ink 57 

Stains, To remove from 

Bombazine 57 

Stains, To remove from 

Silks 61 

Stammering 248 

tammering, Cure for 120 

Starch, To make 47 

Starch, Gum Arabic 47 

Sttrch Injection 246 


To take rust out of.. .25 
Steel-pens, To preserve. ..170 
Steel pens, Pen-wiper for.. 170 

Steeps, Fertilizing 268 

Steep for Wheat. &c 268 

Hilton Cheese 359 

Sting of Gnats 123 

Sting of a Nettle 123 

Sting of a Wasp or Bee... 123 
Stitches. Explanation of. . 152 

Stitching 153 

Stockings, Cotton, to wash. 50 
Stockings. Silk, To wash.. .50 
Stockings, &c, . Thread, 

To wash 50 

Stockings. Silk, To dye.... 76 

Stomachic Mixture 100 

Stone Stairs and Halls, 

To wash 14 



Btone Halls and Floors, 

To take oil, &c, out of. ..14 
Stoves, Bright, To clean... 23 
Stoves, Cast-iron, To clean. 22 

Stoves, Polished 22 

Strains, &.c, Embrocation 

for 101 

Straw, Method of Bleach- 
ing 66 

Straw Bonnets 66 

Straw Color and Yellow. ..36i 

Straw Hats 66 

Strawberries 298 

Strawberry Plants 298 

Striped Grass for Hay 267 

Styptic, An excellent 98 

Styptic, A new and use- 
ful 98 

Suckers from Shrubs 304 

Sugar of Lead in Wines, 

To detect 343 

Sulphur, Use of 274 

Sunburn, Preventive wash 

for 133 

Sunburn, Grape Lotion 

for 134 

Sunburn and Freckles 134 

Supper 368 

Swan's-down, to Clean.... 54 

Sweet-scented Water 142 

Syncope, or Fainting 234 

Syrup of Cloves, &c 346 

Syrup of Ginger 347 

Syrup, Lemon 245 

Syrup, Turnip 245 


Table 210 

Table-cloths 15" 

Table-covers, Dressing.. ..156 

Table Linen 156 

Tables, Useful Family 

Tar Water, Use of 104 

Tartar Emetic 122 

Tea, From the Chinese 

make.... 351 

Tea, Economically 352 

Tea, Preparing 260 

Teas, Black 188 

Teas, Green 

Tea, Sage 244 

Tea-urns, Cleaning 27 

Tea-urns, Polished 33 

Teeth, To remove tartar 

from 137 

Teeth, To whiten the 137 

Teeth, Wash for the 137 

Teeth, Children's, To 

cause them to cut easily .247 
Teeth and Gums, Rules 

for 248 

Terrines of Rice 333 

Thirst, To prevent exces- 
sive 206 

Thread, &c, To keep ,155 

Throat, Sore 231 


Thrush, or Sore Mouth.. .233 

Tiles 312 

Tiles 313 

Timber 306 

Timber, Green, To season.310 
Timber, Method of trying. 310 

Tin covers, To clean 27 

Tinder, Economy in 216 

Toast and Water 190 

Toast and Water 244 

Tobacco 122 

Tobacco, Useful Proper- 
ties of 301 

Toilet, The 127 

Tomato Catchup 320 

Tomato Pickle, Green . . . .320 
Tooth. Decayed, To fill... 138 
Tooth. powder. Camphor. . 13~ 
Tooth-powder, Charcoal. .136 
Tooth-powder, Orris-root. 137 
Tooth-powder, Excellent. 137 

Tooth powder, Safe 137 

Tooth-powder 137 

Tortoise-shell, To mend. ...71 

Towels 156 

Transplant, To 295 

Trees, To increase the 

growth of 303 

Trees, To destroy moss on.304 
Trees, To cure the Cank- 
er on 304 

Trees, Healing wounds in. 305 
Trees, Composition for 

healing 305 

Trees, To cure wounds in. 307 

Trees for Shade 307 

Trees, Forest 306 

Trees, Whitewashing 307 

Turkeys, To fatten 202 

Turners' Cerate 114 

Turnip Syrup 244 

Turnips, Proper Soil for. ..270 

Turnips, To preserve 273 

Turnips, To prevent Fly 


Turnips, To prevent Slugs 


Useful Hints relative to 
Bed-clothes, &c, 17 

Vapor Bath at Home 250 

Vapor Bath, Simple 125 

Varnish for Violins 21 

Varnish, White 21 

Varnish for Straw or Chip 

Hats 66 

Varnish, Incombustible 72 

Varnish for Oil Pictures .. 169 
Varnish, To prevent the 

rays of the sun, &c 17' 

Varnished Furniture 20 

Velvet, To raise the Pile 

of 62 

Venomous Animals, Bite 

of. ...122 


Ventilators, Improved.. . .316 

Verdigris 122 

Verjuice, How to make... 118 
Vermin, To clear gardens 

of 279 

Vermin in Granaries, To 

destroy 282 

Vermin on Plants, To kill. 196 
Vinegar, Efficacy in 

Burns, &c 110 

Vinegar, To make cheap 

and good 1 93 

Vinegar, Aromatic 148 

Vinegar, Lavender 148 

Vinegar Mixture 242 

Vines, To prune 306 

Vitriol, White 122 

Vitriol Accidents 110 


Wall Fruit, To Prune 306 

Walls, Damp, To cure. .. .312 

Walnut Ketchup 355 

Walnut W T ater 116 

Warts, To destroy 96 

Warts and Corns, To cure.. 96 
Warts, A certain cure for.. 96 

Wash for Pimples 135 

Wash for Walls, Blue. . . .360 
Wash for Walls, Yellow. .360 

Wash, To 363 

Wash Balls, To make .... 144 

Washing, General 46 

Washing, Family 49 

Washing of woollen arti- 
cles 363 

Washing Day 262 

Washing Preparation 40 

Washing Preparation, To 

use 46 

Wasps and Ants, To de- 
stroy 85 

Wasps and Flies 85 

Wasp or Bee, Sting of 123 

Wasp, Cure for swallow- 
ing 123 

Watch, To manage 186 

Water 42 

Water, To purify 42 

Water, River, To purify. . .43 
Water, Muddy, To pu- 
rify 43 

Water, Putrid, To make 

sweet ...43 

Water, To prevent freez- 
ing in pipes 43 

Water and Meat, To pre- 
serve in Voyages 44 

Water, Best method of ob- 
taining pure 244 

Water, Easy method of 

obtaining 377 

Water, Keeping hot 259 

Water, Barley 245 

Water Bergamot 347 

Waters for Cooling 
Draughts 244 




Waters, Peach and Apri- 
cot 347 

Waterproof Clothing 77 

Waterproof Clothing 

Waterproof Cloth, To 

make 82 

Waterproof Cloth, Chi- 
nese method 78 

Wax or Grease Spots 55 

Wax, &c„ To remove 

from Cloth 63 

Wax, To take out of Vel- 
vet.., 63 

Wax Candles 34 

Weaning Children 220 

Weather-proof Composi- 
tion 36 

Weeds, Usefulness of 

mowing 285 

Wet Clothes, To prevent 

danger from 104 

Wheat, To sow 269 

Wheat, Sowing 269 

Wheat, To prevent Smut in.27 

Whey, Alum 247 

Whey, French method of 
raakimr .376 


Whey, Laxative 245 

Whey, Mustard 242 

Whey, Wine 242 

White, For inside Paint- 
ing 37 

White Satin 61 

White Varnish 21 

Whooping Cough 104 

Whooping Cough 231 

Whortleberries 247 

Windsor Soap, genuine. . .145 
Wine, American Currant. 345 
Wine, Claret, To improve. 339 

Wine, Apricot 343 

Wine, Damson 342 

Wine, Home-made, To im 

prove 339 

Wine, Morel lo Cherry.... 343 

Wine, Orange 343 

Wine, Raisin 344 

Wine, Red Cherry 34: 

Wine, Red Currant 344 

Wine, Spruce 345 

Wine, Coloring 34' 

Wine, Fining for 340 

Wine Jelly 333 

Wood To preserve 308 


Wood, To preserve from 

Fire 314 

Wooden Stairs, To give 
the appearance of stone.. 37 

Wool, To purify 18 

Woollens and Furs, To 

preserve 78 

Woollens, To wash 48 

Wool of Sheep, To im- 
prove 289 

Worm Pimple 1 35 

Worms 229 

Worms in Gardens 282 

Worms in Gravel Walks. 282 
Worsted or Woollen, To 

dye black 77 

Wounds, To prevent mor- 
tifying 98 

Wren, Usefulness of 282 

Write, To, Secretly 382 

Writing, old, To make legi- 
ble 173 

Writing, To take out 173 


Yeast, A good 356 

Yeast Turkish 335