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SKLF-knowledge is the essence of all knowledge. 
Tour character corresponds with your organization. 


No. 308 BROADWAY. 





AVIKS AND ItoBHirrs. Stereotype!*, 
IIS Nassau Street, New York. 

For a Full Explanation of this Table, and the Marking of 




' 4 




Organic Quality 




l - 


! 1 
i j 





Vital* Temperament. 
Breathing Power 
Circulatory Power. . . . 
Digestive Power 




. 27 








Motive Temperament. 



. 81 






ileatal Temparannnt. 


















Size of Brain, inches 












1. Amativcness 


. 71 







A. Conjugality 









2. Parental Love 
3. Friendship 










4. Inhabit! veness 

















E. Vitativeness 












6. Combativeness 









7. Destructiveness 









8. Alimentiveness 









9. Acquisitiveness 









li\ Secreti veness 
11. Cautiousness 
12. Approbativeness 
13. Self-Esteem 
14. Firmness 


















the Chart, the Keader is referred to Pages 7 and 8. 






h 1 "- 1 "- 

15. Conscientiousness . . . 










16. Hope 


17. Spirituality 
IS. Veneration 





4 125 

! 123 




19. Benevolence 
20. Constrnctiveness. 











21. Ideality 



B. Sublimity 









22. Imitation 









28. Mirthfulness ... 










24. Individuality 











26. Size 









27. Weight 









23. Color 









2J Order 









30. Calculation 









81. Locality 









32. Eventuality 




... 154 





83. Time 








34. Tune 









35. Language 
So Causality 
















37. Comparison 
C. Human Nature 
J>. Agrceablcnes* 



















1. AMATIVBNESS, Love between the sexes. 

A. CONJUGALITY, Matrimony love of one. [etc. 

2. PARENTAL LOVE, Regard for offspring, pets, 
8. FRIENDSHIP, Adhesiveness sociability. 

4. iNHABiTivENnss, Love of home. 

5. CONTINUITY, One thing at a time. 

E. VlTATIVENESS, LOV6 Of life. ' 

6. COMBATIVENESS, Resistance defense. 

7. DESTISUCTIVENESS, Executiveness -force. 

8. ALIMKNTIVENESS, Appetite hunger. 

9. ACQUISITIVENESS, Accumulation. 

in. SBOKETIVENESS, Policy management. 

11. CAUTIOUBNKSS, Prudence provision. 

12. AppROBA.nyB.tB8a. Ambition display. 

13. SELF-KSTEKM, Self-respect dignity. 

14. FIRMNESS, Decisionperseverance. 

15. CONSCIENTIOUSNESS, Justice, equity. 

16. HOPE, Expectation-enterprise. 

IT. SPIRITUALITY, Intuition faith credulity. 

18. VENERATION, Devotion respect. 

19. BENSVOLBNCE, Kindness goodness. 

20. CONSTRUCTTVENESS, Mechanical ingenuity 

21. IDEALITY, Refinement taste purity. 

B. SUBLIMITY, Love f grandeur infinitude. 

22. IMITATION, Copying patterning. 

28. MIRTHFULNESS, Jocoseness wit fun. 

24. INDIVIDUALITY, Observation. 

25. FORM. Recollection of shape. 
2S. SIZE, Measuring by the eye. 
27. AVEIGHT, Balancing-climbing. 
2S. COLOR, Judgment of colors. 

29. ORDER, Method- system arrangement. 

80. CALCULATION, Mental arithmetic. 

81. LOCALITY, Recollection of places. 

82. EVENTUALITY, Memory of facts. 

83. TIMK, Cognizance of duration. 

84. TUNE, Sense of harmony and melody. 

85. LANGUAGE, Expression of ideas. 

36. CAUSALITY, Applying causes to effect, [lion. 

37. CoMPARisoN,Inducti ve reasoning il lustra. 
0. HCMA.N XATUKE, Perception of motives. 
D. AtfREEABLESMS, Pleasautiiess sua*ity. 


To TEACH LEARNERS those organic conditions which indicate charac- 
ter is the first object of this manual. And to render it accessible to 
all, it condenses facts and conditions, rather than elaborates arguments 
because to expound Phrenology is its highest proof states laws and 
results, and leaves them upon their naked merits ; embodies recent 
discoveries, and crowds into the fewest words and pages just what 
learners need to know, and hence requires to be STUDIED rather than 
merely read. "Short, yet clear," is its motto. Its analysis of the 
faculties and numerous engravings embody the results of the very 
extensive observation and experience of the Authors. 

To RECORD CHARACTER is its second object. In doing this, it describes 
those organic conditions which affect and indicate character in SEVEN 
degrees of power very large, large, full, average, moderate, small, 
and very small indicated by the seven numerals 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 
and 1 and refers those who have their physiological and phrenological 
conditions correctly marked in the accompanying table,- to those para- 
graphs which both describe themselves, and also contain specific direc- 
tions how to perfect their characters and improve children. Its plan 
for recording character is seen at a glance in the following 


The examiner will mark the power, absolute and relative, of each 
function and faculty, by placing a figure, dot, or dash on a line with 
the name of the organ marked, and in the column headed "large," 
or "small," according to the size of the organ marked, while tho> 
printed figure in the square thus marked refers to those pages in thie 
book where, under the head "large," " small," etc., will be found 
description of the character of the one examined in respect to that 
organ, and at the end of this description, hi the book, another figure 
will be found, which refers to "FOWLER'S PHRENOLOGY," a standard 
work, in which will be found an extended description of those shad- 


ings of character caused by various combinations of faculties, while in 
the two right-hand columns, in the tables marked ' ' cultivate' ' and 
' ' restrain, ' ' are figures referring to pages in this work where directions 
for cultivating and restraining may be found ; and at the close of these 
sentences are figures which refer the reader to the numbered paragraphs 
in three books, entitled "Physiology," "Self-Culture," and "Mem- 
ory," or called, when bound together, " Education Complete." These 
works give extended directions for self-improvement and the manage- 
ment of children. 

"When an organ is half way between two sizes, it is represented by 
two figures, as 5 to 6, or 3 to 4, etc., which is equivalent to 5 or 3$. 
In these cases both sentences referred to may be read, and a medium 
between the two will be appropriate. 

The sign +, plus, signifies about one third of a degree more, and , 
mimts, one third of a degree less, than the marks indicate, thus giving 
virtually a scale of twenty-one degrees. 

Several persons can be marked on one table by using a dot for one, 
and dashes, horizontal, perpendicular, slanting to the right, left, etc., 
for each of the others. 

Those organs and conditions marked 7, or very large, are sovereign 
in their influence over character and conduct, and, combining with 
those marked large, direct and control feeling and action. Those 
marked 6, or large, have a powerful and almost controlling influence, 
both singly, and especially in combination, and press the smaller ones 
into their service. Those marked 5, or full, play subordinate parts, 
yet their influence is considerable, though more potential than appa- 
rent. Those marked 4, or average, have only a medium influence, 
and mainly in combination with larger ones. Those marked 8, or 
moderate, are below par in fact, and still more so in appearance ; exert 
but a subordinate influence, and leave character defective in these 
respects. Those marked 2, or small, are deficient, so much so as easily 
to be perceived; leave their possessor weak and faulty in these 
respects, and should be assiduously cultivated ; while those marked 1 
are very small, and render their possessor almost idiotic in these 





A PROBLEM bow wonderful ! an entity, an embodiment how compli- 
cated, yet how perfect ! How worthy even a GOD to create, and man 
to possess, improve, and study ! These it is the object of this volume 
to expound. 

What, then, is life ? In what does it consist ? In its vast variety 
of functions, so embodied as to act together. 

But its end alone can expound its entity. That end is happiness. 
This is the one, single, only ultimate of both life in the aggregate, and 
of each of its individual functions. And the more there is of life, the 
more there is of happiness, and vice versa. Hence, to promote or impair 
either, thereby promotes or impairs the other. And the conditions of 
either are equally those of the other a base line of incalculable value 
in deciphering our problem of life, its functions and improvement. And 
the fact is both coincident and important, that the happy exercise of 
every faculty improves, while its painful exercise impairs, both it and 
its organ. That is, present enjoyment increases our capacities for 
future happiness. Hence the happier we are, the higher and truer 
our life. And the better. For all goodness consists in obeying, and 
all badness in violating, the laws of our being. All happiness also 
consists in this same obedience, as all misery is occasioned by thi.s 
same violation, of these very same laws. Therefore he who is the 
happiest is so because the best ; that is, because he obeys tbe most law. 
But he suffers the most who is the most sinful ; that is, who has 
broken the most law. Therefore Happiness, Goodness, and Obedience 
to the laws of our being are all one and the same, while Suffering, 
Sinfulness, and Death are synonymous are cause and effect. Then 
what is the first law and condition of health and happiness ? 



Nature operates always and everywhere by means of organs, or instru- 
mentalities never without them. What one function ever is, has 
been, or can be, carried forward without them? None, ever, any- 

And what is more, the organism is in perfect correspondence with the 
function. Thus, whenever Nature would put forth power of function, 
she does so by means of power in the organ which puts it forth. And 
so of quickness, and all other functional conditions. Thus the office 
of wood is to rear aloft that stupendous tree-top, and hold it there in 
spite of all the surgings of powerful winds upon its vast canvas of 
trunk, limbs, leaves, and fruit. Now this requires an immense 
amount of power, especially considering the great mechanical disad- 
vantage involved. This power Nature supplies, not by bulk, because 
this, by consuming her material and space, would prevent her making 
many trees, whereas her entire policy is to form all the trees she can ; 
but by rendering the organic texture of wood as solid and powerful as 
its function is potential. And the more solid its structure, the more 
powerful its function, as seen in comparing oak with pine, and lignum 
vite with poplar. But, letting this single example suffice to illustrate 
this law, which obtains throughout the entire vegetable kingdom, let 
us apply it to the animal. 

The elephant, one of the very strongest of beasts, is so powerfully 
knitted together, in dermis, muscle, and bone, that bullet after bullet 
shot at him, flatten and fall harmless at his feet. The lion, too, is as 
strong in texture as in function. Only those who know from observa- 
tion can form any adequate idea of the wiry toughness of those mus- 
cles and tendons which bind his head to his body, or of the solidity 
of his bones corresponding with the fact that, seizing bullock in 
his monster jaw, he dashes with him through jungle and over ravine, 
as a cat would handle a squirrel. And when he roars, a city trembles: 
The structures of the white and grizzly bear, of the tiger, hyena, and 
all powerful animals, and, indeed, of all weak ones, in like manner 
correspond equally with their functions. All quickness of function is 
put forth by quick-acting organs, all slowness by the slow ; and thus 
of all organs and functions throughout every phase and department of 
universal life and nature. Indeed, in and by the very nature of things 
this correspondence must exist. For how could weak organs possibly 
put forth powerful functions, or slow organs quick functions ? In 
short, this correspondence between organic conditions and functions 
is fixed and absolute is necessary, not incidental is universal, not 
partial is a relation of cause and effect, and governs every organ and 
function throughout universal life and nature. 


Governs, reader, you and I. And in all our functions. How can 
weak muscles put forth strength, or a sluggish brain manifest mental 
activity ? Hence, to become great, one must first become strong and 
in the special organs in whose functions he would excel. Would you 
become great mentally, then first become strong cerebrally. Or, 
would you render that darling boy a great man, first make him a 
powerful animal. Not that all powerful animals are great men, but that 
all great men are, and must needs be, powerful animals. Our animal 
nature is the basis of all mental and moral function. It so is in the 
very constitution of things, that mind can be put forth only in and by 
its material organism, and is strong or weak, quick or sluggish, as its 
organism is either. If, in the plenitude of Divine Wisdom, man had 
been created a purely mental being, he would have needed no body, 
and could not have used one ; whereas, instead, he has been created 
a compound being, composed of both body and mind. Nor are those 
seemingly opposite entities strangers to each other. Instead, they 
are inter-related by ties of the most perfect reciprocity so perfect 
that every conceivable condition of either reciprocally affects the 


Hereditary organic quality is the first, basilar, and all-potent condition 
of all power of function, all happiness, all everything. This is con- 
genital is imparted by the parentage along with life itself, of which 
it is the paramount condition and instrumentality. It depends mainly 
on the original nature of the parents, yet partly also on their existing 
states of body, mind, and health, their mutual love or want of it, and 
on other like primal life-conditions and causes. It lies behind and 
below, and is infinitely more potential than, education, and all asso- 
ciations and surrounding circumstances is, in short, what renders the 
grain cereal, the oak oaken, fish fishy, fox foxy, swine swinish, tiger 
tigerish, and man human. 

Each creature much resembles a galvanic battery, and its life-force 
depends mainly on how that battery is "got up," and this on those 
congenital conditions which establish the life-conditions a subject infi- 
nitely important, and generally overlooked, but treated elsewhere. 
This condition can not well be described, hardly engraved, but is easily 
perceived by a practiced eye. It is quite analogous to Temperament, 
on which little has yet been written, but lies behind and below 
all temperaments is, indeed, their determining cause. Some of its 
signs are coarseness and fineness of hair, skin, color, form, motion, 
general tone of action and mental operation, etc. A comparison of 

* See " Love and Parentage." " Hereditary Descent," ety. 


the following engravings of the artist Carpenter with the idiot Emer-. 
eon will give some outline idea of this point. A still better is found 
in comparing man with animal. In fact, the main differences between 

vegetables and animals, as 
compared among one another, 
and all as compared with 
man, and different men as 
compared with each other, as 
well as the entire style and 
cast of character and senti- 
ment, everything, is conse- 
quent on this condition in 
short, is what we call "bot- 
tom* ' in the horse, ' ' the 
breed" in full-blooded ani- 
mals, and ' ' blood' ' in those 
high and nobly born. Those 

7. Are pre-eminently fine- 
grained, piire- minded, ethe- 
real, sentimental, refined, 
high-toned, intense in emo- 
; tion, full of human nature, 
most exquisitely susceptible 
impressions of all kinds, 
most poetic in temperament, 
lofty in aspiration, and en- 
dowed with wonderful intui 
tion as to truth, what is right, best, etc., are unusually developed 
in the interior or spirit life, and far above most of those with whom 
they come in contact, and hence find few congenial spirits, and are 
neither understood nor appreciated ; when sick, suffer inexpressibly, 
and if children, are precocious too smart, too good to live, and abso- 
lutely must be treated physiologically, or die early. 

6. Are like 7, only less so ; are finely organized, delicate, suscep- 
tible, emotional, pure-minded, intellectual, particular, and aspiring 
after a high state of excellence ; full of human nature, and true to its 
intuitions and instincts ; have a decided predominance of the mental 
over the physical ; are able and inclined to lead excellent human lives, 
and capable of manifesting a high order of the human virtues. 

5. Are more preinclined to the good than bad, to ascend than 

* Hereafter the words "those marked" will be omitted, and the description begin, 
1 7. Are." etc. 



descend in the human scale ; can, by culture, make excellent men and 
women, .but require it ; and should avoid those habits which clog or 
deprave the mental manifestations, and, to attain superiority, must 
"strive to enter in." 

4. Are simply fair in organic tone ; are good under good surround- 
ings, but can be misled ; must avoid all deteriorating habits and 
causes, spirits and tobacco, bad associates, etc. ; assiduously cultivate 
the pure and good, and study to discipline intellect, as well as purify 
the passions, and rely the more on culture and a right physiological 
life, because the hereditary 
endowment is simply respect- 

3. Are rather lacking in 
organic quality, and better 
adapted to labor than study ; 
rather sluggish mentally, and 
given to this world's pleas- 
ures ; had but a commonplace 
parentage ; need to be strictly 
temperate in all things, and 
avoid all forms of temptation, 
vulgar associates in particular, 
and make up by the more 
assiduous cultivation what has 
been withheld by nature. 

2. Are coarse-grained in 
structure and sentiment, and 
both vulgar and non-intellec- 
tual ; had poor parental conditions ; are low, groveling, and carnal, 
as well as obtuse in feeling and intellect ; are poorly organized, and 
incapable of high attainments ; hence restrain the passions, and culti- 
vate intellect and the virtues as much as possible, and especially avoid 
alcoholic liquors, tobacco, and low associates. 

1. Are really dotish, and non compos mentis. 

To CULTIVATE. First, guard against all perversion of the faculties, 
all forms of intemperance, over-eating, pork, rich pastry, especially 
late suppers ; be much of the time in the open air ; work and exercise 
abundantly ; bathe daily, and keep the body in just as good condition 
as possible ; mingle with the high and good ; exercise all the faculties 
assiduously, in the best possible manner, and in strict accordance 
with their natural functions ; cultivate a love of nature, art, beauties, 
and perfections in short, encourage the good, true, and right, and 
avoid the bad. 

To RKSTRAIX. Cultivate a love of the terrestrial of this world, its 



pleasures and luxuries for you require animalizing. You live too 
much in the ideal ; live more with the actual and tangible. Callous 
yourself against much that now abraids your finer sentiments, and 
shrink not from contact with those not quite up to your standard. 
You are adapted to a more advanced state of humanity, but should 
come down to the present and material. Above all, do not be too 
fastidious, qualmish, or whirnmy, but make the best of what is ; cling 
to life ; and enamor yourself of its objects and pleasures. 


Health consists in the normal and vigorous exercise of all the phys- 
ical functions, and disease in their abnormal action. Health is pleas- 
urable, disease painful. Health 
is life, for life consists in the 
normal action of those same 
functions in which health con- 
sists. And to improve health 
is to increase life itself, and all 
its pleasures. Some writer has 
appropriately denned health 
thus : 

Planting your foot upon the 
green sod, looking around, and 
yielding yourself to whatever 
feelings naturally arise, health 
is proportionate to that buoy- 
ant, jubilant, exhilarating, ec- 
static feeling which supervenes. 
It is to all our functions what 
motive power is to machinery 
sets them off with a rush and 
a bound. It both makes us 
happy, and causes everything 
else to increase that happiness. But disease renders us miserable, and 
turns everything around us into occasion of misery. It both weakens 
and perverts the interior being. Indeed, health is the quintessence 
of every earthly good disease, of every terrestrial evil. Poor indeed 
is he, however rich in money, in honors, in office, in everything else 
whatsoever, whose health is poor ; for how can he enjoy his dollars and 
honors ? But rich indeed is he who is healthy, however poor in money, 
for he enjoys whatsoever he has or is. A rich man may, indeed, pur- 
chase a luxuriant dinner, but without health does not, can not relish 
it ; whereas a poor man, with health, enjoys even a dry crust. 

The rich need health to enjoy their riches ; the poor doubly, in 

No. 3. HEALTH. 


order to prerent becoming poorer. But to be poor and sickly is the 
uttermost of human evil. Nor can the poor afford to be sick ; for 
their health is their all, to themselves and families. Nor should they 
allow anything whatsoever to impair it, but make health paramount. 

Even the very talents of men depend mainly on health. Is not the 
brain confessedly the organ of the mind ? Now, what means it, that 
the eye is the organ of vision, but that all as existing states reciprocate 
with its physical conditions ? That the stomach is the organ of diges- 
tion, but that the nutritive function is vigorous or impaired, in exact 
correspondence with its existing states? That the brain is the organ 
of the mind, but that all its conditions similarly affect the mentality ? 
And since all the states of the body and brain act reciprocally conse- 
quent on that vast network of nerves which ramify throughout every 
part and parcel of the body, and terminate in the brain of course all 
existing conditions of the body similarly affect these nerves, and 
thereby the brain, and therefore the mind, rendering all the states of 
either body or mind reciprocal with those of the other. Is the body 
sick, or weak, or exhausted, or inflamed, or sleepy, or exhilarated, is 
not the mind equally so ? Then to originate great thoughts, or to 
conceive pure and exalted sentiments, must not the brain .be in a vig- 
orous state ? And in order to acquire cerebral vigor, must not all the . 
bodily functions be equally vigorous? And to this end, must not 
those health-laws which cause this vigor be observed ? Of what avail 
the learning of the sickly scholar, the talents of the invalid, or the 
goodness of the pious dyspeptic? They can do nothing, can enjoy 
nothing are but a burden to themselves and friends. Can we think, 
or remember, or study without that energy furnished by the body ? 
No more than move machinery without motive power. How, then, 
can that boy become a great or learned man without possessing 
physical vigor ? Or that delicate and beautiful girl a capable or good 
woman, wife, or mother without possessing animal vigor? Let it 
be forever and everywhere remembered, that both judgment and 
memory, reason and poetry, eloquence and philosophy, even morality 
and religion, all the virtues and all the vices in short, one and all 
of the human functions, are carried forward by animal power. Even 
the very sensual pleasures of the debauchee are exercised by this very 
animal force, and weaken when and because it declines. And as phys- 
ical power depends on the observance of certain physical laws, the 
violation of which weakens both body and mind, of course the first 
duty of every human being to himself and Creator of parents to 
their children of ministers to people writer to reader, and one to 
all, is to 


And on this point is just where our whole educational system col- 


legiate especially is radically defective. It eclipses more genius by 
weakening the body tban it eliminates by study. Children are always 
smarter and better relatively than adults, because injured by that false 
educational system which impairs mind, memory, and morals by 
breaking down a good physical constitution. The Romans appropri- 
ately named their schools "gymnasia," from those muscular exercises 
which both formed their leading feature, and secured a strong mind 
by strengthening the body. Our schools and colleges are, and will 
continue to be, fundamentally defective, till remodeled upon the basis 
of health, and as a means of scholarship and talents. 

Nor intellect merely, but our very morals and piety, depend on 
health. Can we even pray or worship without vitality ? And what 
is more, the very vices of mankind are consequent mainly on the 
infringement of the physical laws. 

Hereditary conditions in parents cause depravity in their children ; 
yet even they do it by deranging the body. It is what men eat and 
drink, it is how they live, sleep, etc., it is their physiological conditions 
and habits, that cause nine tenths of human depravity. Are not both 
children and adults depraved when cross, and cross because sick ; that 
is, rendered sinful by being unwell ? Who does not know that drink- 
ing engenders depravity makes the best of men bad ? But why, and 
how? By disordering the body. And since by alcohol, why not by 
tobacco, gluttony, or any other wrong physical state? Are not 
drunkenness and debauchery concomitants ? Are not dyspeptics 
always irritable? The truth is, that all abnormal physical action 
causes abnormal mental action, which is sin. To become good, and 
answer the end of their being, men must live right must learn to eat 
right, and sleep, exercise, bathe, breathe, etc., in accordance with 
nature's requisitions. And nine tenths of the evil in men have this 
purely physical origin, and can be cured by physical means. 

Health is the natural state of man, animal, vegetable, all that lives 
is the ultimate of life. Like all else in nature, it has its laws ; and 
these laws obeyed, will render it perfect from birth to death. It even 
requires immense violation of these laws seriously to impair it. Bird 
and beast are rarely unhealthy, except when rendered sickly by man. 
Has our benevolent Creator granted this greatest of boons to beasts, 
but denied it to man? He has not. None need ever be sick, for 
there are health-laws, which, if obeyed, guaranty the very perfection 
of health. To become sickly is foolish ; for it cuts off every pleasure, 
and induces every ill is even wicked, for it is consequent only on a 
violation of the laws of our being, and all violation of law is sin. 
And the health-laws are as much laws of God written by his finger 
on our very constitution as the Decalogue. In short, none have any 
business to be sick. It is alike the privilege, as it is the sacred duty, 


of one and all to be and keep well ; that is, to observe the health- 
laws. And of parents to keep their children well. 

" But, you forget that sickness and death are God's chastising mes- 
sengers, his special providences." Are they, indeed? Then in all 
conscience submit patiently, passively to them. Take no medicines. 
Do nothing whatever to restore health, for in so doing you resist 
Providence you disobedient child. If sickness is providential, every 
attempt at restoration is open, direct rebellion against God is prac- 
tically saying to Him : "I know you sent this sickness as a providen- 
tial messenger of good to me ; but I am not going to be sick ; I am 
going to get well if I can, in spite of Providence." The fact is, 
nobody believes practically that sickness is providential ; for if so, their 
every restorative effort, nursing, medicine, all, is downright rebellion. 

This ascribing sickness and premature death to Providence has 
killed millions. Long enough has it thrown on our heavenly Father 
the effects of our own sinful violation of his health- laws. Health is 
either governed by law, or it is not. If thus governed, it is cause and 
effect, not providential, except as the rising of the sun and all else in 
nature is providential. Therefore, oh, man, know that health is both 
your first privilege and bounden duty, and both learn and fulfill its 


While this condition has a most important influence on both the 
quantity and quality of all the mental manifestations, yet to mark it 
correctly, without aid from those examined, is exceedingly difficult. 
It may seem good, when actually poor, because its functions may be 
exhilarated by inflammation, which both perverts and weakens ; or it 
may seem much poorer than it really is, because of merely temporary 
debility, while the heart's core remains sound. But its serious impair- 
ment leaves all the functions, phrenological included, proportionally 
less vigorous than the sizes of their organs indicate. Those who have 

7. Are full to overflowing of life, buoyancy, light-heartedness, and 
ecstasy ; are strong and lively ; enjoy food, sleep, action, nature, all 
the physical functions, to the highest degree ; rarely ever have a pain 
or ache, or become tired ; can do and endure almost any and every- 
thing ; withstand miasma and disease remarkably ; recuperate readily ; 
experience a certain gush, glow, vivacity, and briskness in the action 
of all the faculties ; as well as the hjghest and most perfect flow and 
exercise of each of the life-functions. 

6. Are healthy and happy ; exercise all the organs with vigor and 
power ; turn everything into pleasure, and dash off trouble as if a 
mere trifle, and yet can endure any amount of pain and exposure ; feel 


jubilant and joyous year in and year out ; and do everything easily, 
all the functions being condensed and hearty, and the whole being full 
of snap and life. 

6. Have a good, full share of life-force, vigor, and vivacity of 
health, happiness, desire and ability to perform, enjoy, and accom- 
plish ; can stand a good deal, but must not go too" far, and have suffi- 
cient stamina for all practical purposes, but none to spare or waste 

4. Have fair, average health, if it is well cared for, yet are some- 
times subject to ailments ; are in the main healthy and happy, but 
must live regularly ; experience rather a tame, mechanical action of 
all the faculties, instead of that zest and rapture imparted by perfect 
health ; can accomplish and enjoy much, but must take things leis- 
urely ; if careful, can live on and wear a good while yet, but if care- 
less, are liable to break down suddenly and finally ; and become irri- 
table, dissatisfied, dull, forgetful, and easily fatigued, and must cherish 
what health remains. 

3. Are deficient in animation and recuperative power, and feel 
tired and good for nothing most of the time ; with activity 6 or 7 are 
constantly overdoing, and working up in mental or physical action 
those energies which ought to go to the restoration of health, not to 
labor ; need abundance of rest and recreation, and give out at once if 
deprived of sleep ; must stop all unnecessary vital drains, such as 
chewing, smoking, drinking, late hours, and all forms of dissipation, 
and should eLaarrate all the vitality possible, but expend the least. 

2. Are weakly, sickly, and inert ; feeble in desire and effort ; capable 
of enduring and enjoying but little ; live a monotonous, listless, care- 
for-nothing, half-dead-and-alive life, and must either restore health 
or give up, and enjoy comparatively nothing. 

1 . Have barely life enough to keep soul and body together ; are 
just alive, and have almost lost life's pleasures, powers, desires, and 

To CULTIVATE. First ascertain what causes your disease or debility ; 
if heart, lungs, muscles, stomach, etc. , are marked low, apply special 
culture to the weak organs see the cultivation of each and assidu- 
ously study the health-laws, and conscientiously fulfill them, making 
everything else subservient thereto. Especially take extra pains to 
supply vitality, but waste none in any form of excess. 

RESTRAIN You NEED NOT. Health can not be too good. When, 
however, you find a surplus of animal vigor, work it up in one or 
another of life's ends and efforts. 

This term hs long been employed to designate certain physical con- 


Btitutions as indicative of certain mental characteristics. The idea 
expressed in our definition of " hereditary organism" is very like that 
of the temperaments. They were formerly classified thus : The ner- 
vous, indicated by light complexion, large brain, and smaller stature, 
and indicating superior talents, refinement, and scholarship ; the bil- 
lious, indicated by dark complexion, large bones, powerful muscles, 
prominent features, and a large and spare form, and indicating by a sup- 
posed surplus of bile, irritability, violence of passion, and melancholy, 
along with strength of character ; the sanguine, indicated by a florid 
complexion, sandy hair, blue eyes, fullness of person, and abundance 
of blood, and indicating warmth, ardor, impulsiveness, and liability 
to passional excesses ; and the lymphatic, indicated by full, plethoric 
habit, distended abdomen, excessive adipose deposit, and indicating a 
good, cosy, lax, enjoying disposition, with a stronger proclivity to 
sensuous pleasures, rather than intellect or action of any kind. But 
this classification is practically discarded, without its place having 
been supplied. The doctrine of the temperaments in full remains 
unwritten. Meanwhile we propound the following 


Man is composed physically of three great classes of organs, the 
predominance or deficiency of each of which is called a predominant 
or deficient temperament, both giving a particular form to the body 
shape being its index and likewise a particular set of phrenological 
developments, and consequent traits of character. That is, given 
forms of body indicate and accompany special talents, dispositions, 
and mental proclivities ; and the art in delineating phrenological 
character depends in a great degree on reading correctly the tempera- 
ment and organic conditions, and their controlling influence on char- 
acter ; for they exert, as it were, the ground-swell as to the direction 
and action of the phrenological manifestations. Thus Causality, with 
the vital temperament predominant, takes on the phase of planning, 
of common sense, of reasoning on matter, of adapting ways and 
means to ends, etc. But with the nervous or mental predominant, 
the same sized Causality manifests itself in logic, metaphysics, 
investigation, the origination of ideas, in intellectual clearness and 
power, etc. And it requires the sharpest eye and clearest head in the 
examiner to discern the bearings and influences of these temperaments 
and organic conditions on the intellectual and moral manifestations. 
And the mistakes of amateurs, of connoisseurs even, are more tem- 
peramental than phrenological. Still, they are sometimes consequent 
on health conditions. Thus the same person in one state of health ia 
irritable, violent, passional, perhaps even sensual and wicked, who 
in another physical condition is amiable, even tempered, moral, and 


good. ( 4 ) A given amount of Ideality is much more ideal, of Language 
much more expressive, of the affections more affectional, and moral 
tone more lofty, in combination with the mental temperament than 
vital. But our proposed limits do not allow us to extend our observa- 
tions. Still, the following descriptions give the outline, and put 
inquirers on the track of further observations. 


This embraces the heart, lungs, stomach, liver, bowels, and that 
entire system of internal organs which creates life-force. It is very 
large in Hall, and small in Eev. I. N. Walter. 

No. 4. WM. G. HALL. 

The large end of a good egg is warmer than its other parts, because 
its vitality resides there ; but, this cold, life is extinct. Incubate 
it a short time, and break the shell at this end, and you will fin 1 
the heart palpitating and blood-vessels formed the yolk furnishing 
the required nutrition. The vital apparatus forms first, and deposits 

* These raised figures, called superiors, refer to those numbered paragraphs or 
headings found throughout this work, and are employed to save repetition^ 



the material for forming the other portions ; is more active during 
juvenility than the other parts ; sustains the whole animal economy ; 
is the source of all power and energy ; creates animal heat ; resists 
cold and heat, disease and death ; and re-supplies muscle, brain, and 
nerve with that life-power expended by their every exertion. It 
is to the man what fire, fuel, water, and steam are to machinery the 
vis anirruz, the primum mobile the first great pre-requisite of life itself 
and all its functions. 

Its decided predominance is accompanied by a round head, well 
developed at the base, large Amativeness, Acquisitiveness, Aliment- 

iveness, Benevolence, and 
Language ; large organs 
of the animal propensi- 
ties generally ; a rapid 
widening of the head 
from the corners of the 
eyes to the tips of the 
ears ; side-head spherical 
and well filled out ; fore- 
head generally full or 
square, and broad rather 
than high ; perceptive 
organs large, and all the 
organs short and broad 
rather than long or 

7. Are fleshy ; short 
and broad built ; stocky ; 
deep and large-chested ; 
broad and round-shoul- 
dered ; impetuous ; im- 
pulsive ; enthusiastic ; 
hearty ; good livers ; 
fond of meats, condi- 
ments, stimulants, and 
No. 5. REV. I. N. WALTKB. animal pleasures ; have a 

strong, steady pulse ; large lungs and nostrils ; a full habit ; florid 
complexion ; flushed face ; light or sandy hair and whiskers ; sound 
and well-set teeth ; great endurance of fatigue, privation, and expo- 
sure ; great love of fresh air, out-of-door exercise, and physical action, 
but not of hard work ; a restlessness which can not endure in-door 
confinement, but must be abroad, and constantly doing something ; 
great zeal, ardor of desire, and more practical common sense than 
book learning, and of general knowledge of men and things than 


accurate scientific attainments ; more shrewdness and off-hand talent 
than depth ; more availability than profundity ; and love of pleasure 
than power of thought. 

6. Are like 7, though not in as great extremes ; generally fleshy 
and of good size and height, if not large ; well-proportioned ; 
broad-shouldered ; muscular ; prominent and strongly-marked in fea- 
tures ; coarse and homely ; stern and harsh ; strong, but often awk- 
ward, and seldom polished ; best adapted to some laborious occupa- 
tion, and enjoy hard work more than books or literary pursuits ; have 
great power of feeling, and thus require much self-government ; pos- 
sess more talent than can exhibit to others ; manifest mind more in 
business, in creating resources and managing matters, than in liter- 
ary pursuits, or mind as such ; prefer some light, stirring, active 
business, but dislike drudgery ; turn everything, especially bargains, 
to good account ; look out for self ; get a full share of what is to be 
had; feel and act out, "every man for himself," and are selfish 
enough, yet abound in good feeling ; incline to become agents, over- 
seers, captains, hotel-keepers, butchers, traders, speculators, politi- 
cians, public officers, aldermen, contractors, etc., rather than anything 
requiring steady or hard work ; and are usually healthy, yet very sick 
when attacked, brought at once to the crisis, and predisposed to gout, 
fevers, apoplexy, congestion of the brain, etc. 

5. Have a good share of life-force, yet none to spare ; withstand a 
good deal, yet must not waste vitality, and should live in a way to 
improve it. 

4. Have sufficient vitality to sustain life, and impart a fair share 
of energy to the functions, but by no means sufficient to put forth 
their full power, and should make its increase a first life-object. 

3. Are rather weakly and feeble ; often half prostrated by a feeling 
of languor and lassitude ; can keep doing about all the time if slow, 
and careful not to overdo, the liability to which is great when Activ- 
ity is 6 or 7 ; need much rest ; can not half work, or enjoy either 
body or mind ; suffer much from fatigue and exhaustion, and would 
be glad to do, but hardly feel able. 

2. Are too weak and low to be able either to do, enjoy, or accom- 
plish much ; should both give the vital organs every possible facility 
for action, and also husband every item of vitality ; be extremely 
careful not to overwork, and spend much time in listless, luxuriating 
ease, while nature restores the wanting vitality. 

1. Are almost dead from sheer inanition. 

To CULTIVATE. Ascertain which of the vital organs is deficient, and 
take all possible pains to improve its action ; see directions for 
increasing the action of heart, lungs, stomach, etc. ; alternate with 
rest and exercise ; "away with melancholy," banish sadness, trouble, 


and all gloomy associations, and cultivate buoyancy and light-heart- 
edness ; enjoy the present, and make life a glorious holiday instead of 
a weary drudgery ; if engaged in any confining business, break up this 
monotony by taking a long leave of absence a trip to Europe or Lake 
Superior, a long journey, by horticulture, or parties, or frolicking 
with children ; by going into young and lively society, and exercising 
the affections ; bringing about as great a change as possible in all your 
habits and associations. Especially cultivate a love of everything 
beautiful and lovely in nature, as well as study her philosophies ; bear 
patiently what you must, but enjoy all you can ; keep doing all you 
are able, but other things than formerly, and what interests you. You 
should watch and follow your intuitions or instincts, and if you feel a 
special craving for any kind of food or pleasure, indulge it ; especially 
be regular in sleep, exercise, eating, and all the vital functions, as 
well as be temperate in all things ; and above all, keep your mind 
toned up to sustain the body ; aid your weak organs by will-power 
that is, bring a strong will to aid digestion, breathing, etc. , and keep 
yourself up thereby. Determine that you won't give up to weakness 
or death, but will live on and keep doing in spite of debility and dis- 
ease. Fight life's battles like a true hero, and keep the head cool by 
temperance ; the feet warm by exercise ; the pores and evacuations 
open by ablution and laxative food ; and heart warm by cherishing a 
love of life and its pleasures. And don' t fail to keep up a gentle pound- 
ing and frequent brisk rubbing of chest, abdomen, and feet, so as to 
start the mechanical action of the visceral organs. Nothing equals 
this for revivifying dormant or exhausted vitality, and none are too 
poor or too much occupied to avail themselves of it. 

To RESTRAIN. Those who manufacture vitality faster than they 
expend it, are large in the abdomen ; too corpulent ; even obese ; often 
oppressed for breath ; surcharged with organic material ; too sluggish 
to expend vitality as fast as it accumulates, and hence should work, 
work, work, early and late, and with all their might, and as much as 
possible with their muscles, and out of doors ; should eat sparingly, 
and of simple food ; avoid rich gravies, butter, sweets, fat, and pastry, 
but live much on fruits ; sleep little ; keep all the excretory organs 
free and open by an aperient diet, and especially the skin by frequent 
ablutions, the hot bath, etc. ; breathe abundantly, so as to burn up 
the surplus carbon ; sit little, but walk much ; never yield to indo- 
lence ; work up energy by hands and head, business and pleasure, any 
way, every way, but keep consuming vitality as fast as possible. Some 
fleshy persons, especially females, give up to indolence and inanity ; 
get "the blues," and lounge on rocking-chair and bed. What is 
wanted is to do, not to loiter around. Inertia is your bane, and action 
your cure. If flushed, feverish, nervous, etc., be careful not to over- 


do, and rely on air, warm bath, and gentle but continued exercise, 
active or passive, but not on medicines. 


All that live, down even to vegetables and trees, breathe must 
breathe in order to live live in proportion as breathe begin life's 
first function with breathing, and end its last in their last breath. 
And breathing is the most important function of life from first to last, 
because the grand stimulator and sustainer of all. Would you get 
and keep warm when cold, breathe copiously, for this renews that 
carbonic consumption all through the system which creates all animal 
warmth. Would you cool off and keep cool in hot weather, deep,, 
copious breathing will burst open all those myriads of pores, each of 
which, by converting the water in the system into insensible perspira- 
tion, casts out heat, and refreshes mind and body. Would you labor 
long and hard, with intellect or muscle, without exhaustion or injury, 
breathe abundantly ; for breath is the great re-invigorator of life and 
all its functions. Would you keep well, breath is your great prevent- 
ive of fevers, of consumption, of "all the ills that flesh is heir to." 
Would you break up fevers, or colds, or unload the system of morbid 
matter, or sare both your constitution and doctor's fee, cover up 
warm, drink soft water cold, if you have a robust constitution suf- 
ficient to produce a reaction ; if not, hot water should be used then 
let in the fresh air, and breathe, breathe, breathe, just as fast and 
much as possible, and in a few hours you can " forestall and prevent" 
the worst attack of disease you eA r er will have ; for this will both 
unload disease at every pore of skin and lungs, and infuse into the 
system that vis animce which will both grapple in with and expel disease 
in all its forms, and restore health, strength, and life. Nature has no 
panacea like it. Try the experiment, and it will revolutionize your con- 
dition. And the longer you try, the more will it regenerate your 
body and your mind. Even if you have the blues, deep breathing 
will soon dispel them, especially if you add vigorous exercise. Would 
you even put forth your greatest mental exertions in speaking or 
writing, keep your lungs clear up to their fullest, liveliest action. 
Would you even breathe forth your highest, holiest orisons of thanks- 
giving and worship deepening your inspiration of fresh air will like- 
wise deepen and quicken your divine inspiration. Nor can even bodily 
pleasures be fully enjoyed except in and by copious breathing. In 
short, proper breathing is the alpha and omega of all physical, and 
thereby of all mental and moral 3 function and enjoyment. 

7 and G. Have either a full, broad, round chest, or a, deep one, 01 
both ; breathe freely, but rather slowly ; fill the lungs clear up full 
at every inspiration, and empty them well out at every expiration , 


are warm, even to the extremities ; red-faced ; elastic ; buoyant ; 
rarely ever subject to colds, and cast them off readily ; feel buoyant 
and animated, and are thus qualified to be vigorous in all the func- 
tions, physical and mental. 

5 and 4. Are neither pale nor flushed, neither ardent nor cold, but 
a little above medium in these respects, and somewhat liable to colds. 

3. Breathe little, and mainly with the top of the lungs ; move 
the chest but little in breathing, and the abdomen less, perhaps none 
at all ; are often pale, yet sometimes flushed because feverish ; fre- 
quently do and should draw in long breaths ; are quite liable to colds 
and coughs, which should be broken up at once, or they may induce 
consumption ; often have blue veins and goose-flesh, and are frequently 
tired, listless, and sleepy, and should take particular pains to increase 
lung action. 

2. Arc strongly predisposed to lung diseases ; have blue veins and 
sallow complexion, and are very subject to coughs and colds ; are 
often dull, and always tired ; frequently catch a long breath, which 
should be encouraged by making all the breaths long and frequent ; 
are predisposed to consumptive diseases, but can stave them off, pro- 
Tided proper means are adopted ; break up colds as soon as they appear, 
and take particularly good care of health. 

1. Have barely lung action enough to live, and every function of 
body or mind is poorly performed. 

To CULTIVATE. First and mainly breathe deeply and rapidly ; that is, 
draw long and full breaths ; fill your lungs clear up full at every 
inspiration, and empty them out completely at every expiration ; not 
only heave the chest in breathing, but work the abdomen. To do 
this, dress loosely and sit erect, so that the diaphragm can have full 
play ; begin and keep up any extra exertion with extra lung action ; 
often try how many deep and full breaths you can take ; ventilate 
your rooms, especially sleeping apartments, well, and be much of the 
time in the open air ; take walks in brisk weather, with special refer- 
ence to copious respiration ; and everywhere try to cultivate full and 
frequent lung inflation, by breathing clear out, clear in, and low down 
that is, make all your breathing as when taking a long breath. 


"For the blood thereof is the life thereof." The blood is the 
great porter of the system ; carries all the material with which to 
build up and repair every part, and hurries off all the waste material, 
which it expels through lungs and skin. 

And the heart is this circulatory instrumentality. Without heart, 

even lungs would be of no account, nor heart without lungs. They 

are twin brothers, are co-workers at the very fountain-head of life 



and all its energies. Even diseased organs are unloaded of morbid 
matter, reanimated, and rebuilt mainly by blood. Blood gt>od or 
poor, the whole system, brain and mind included, is in a good or poor 
condition ; but blood wanting, all is wanting ; heart poor, all is poor ; 
heart improved, all improved. 

7 and 6. Have an excellent and uniform circulation, and warm 
hands, feet, and skin ; never feel chilly ; withstand cold and heat 
well ; perspire freely ; have a slow, strong, steady puls&, and are not 
liable to sickness. 

5 and 4. Have a fair, yet not remarkably good, circulation, and 
generally, though not always, warm hands and feet ; -are not much 
pinched by cold ; perspire tolerably freely, yet better if more ; and 
need to promote circulation, at least not impede it. 

3. Have but poor "irculation, along with uneasiness and palpita- 
tion of the heart ; are subject to cold hands and feet, headache, and 
a dry or clammy skin ; find the heart to beat quicker and stronger 
when drawing than expiring breath ; are chilled by cold, and over- 
come by hot, weather ; are subject to palpitation of the heart on any 
extra exertion, walking fast or up stairs, or a sudden startle, etc., and 
very much need to equalize and promote the circulation. 

2. Have weak circulatory functions, and either a fluttering pulse, 
very fast and very irregular, or it is weak and feeble ; suffer from 
chilliness, even in summer ; are very much affected by changes in the 
weather ; very cold in the extremities, and suffer much from headache 
and heat and pressure on the brain ; are subject to brain fever, and 
often a wild, incoherent action of the brain, because the blood which 
should go to the extremities is confined mainly to the head and vital 
organs ; feel a sudden pain in the "head when startled Or beginning to 
put forth any special exertion, and suffer very much mentally and 
physically from heart affections and their consequences. 

1. Have scarcely any pulse, and that little is all on a flutter ; are 
cold, and "more dead than alive." 

To CULTIVATE. Immerse hands and feet daily in water as hot as can 
be borne, ten minutes, then dash on or dip in cold water, and rub 
briskly, and heat by the fire till warm, and follow with active exer- 
cise, breathing at the same time according to directions just given ; 
if there is heat or pain about the heart, lay on a cloth, wrung out of 
cold water at night ; rub and pat or strike the chest on its upper and 
left side, and restrain appetite if it is craving, and cultivate calmness 
and quiet. If sufficient vitality remains to secure reaction, putting 
the feet in ice-cold water will be of great service. 

To KESTRAIN is not necessary, except when excessive circulation is 
consequent on disease, in which case remove the cause, A healthy 
circulation can not be too great. 



By that truly wonderful process, digestion, food and drink are 
made to subserve intellect and moral sentiment converted into 
thought and emotion. Then, must not different kinds of food produce 
different mental and moral traits? A vast variety of facts answer 
affirmatively. Eollin says that pugilists, while training for the 
bloody arena, were fed exclusively on raw meat. Does not the food 
of lion, tiger, shark, eagle, etc., re-increase their ferocity, and that of 
deer, dove, and sheep redouble their docility ? Does not this principle 
explain the ferocity of the Indian, force of the Anglo-Saxon, and 
subserviency of the Hindoo ? Since alcoholic drinks excite the animal 
passions more than the intellectual and moral faculties, why not also 
meat, condiments, and all stimulating food as well ? And why not 
vegetables and the cereals, by keeping the system cool, promote mental 
quiet, intellectual clearness, and moral elevation ? At all events, less 
meats and more vegetables, grains, and fruits would render men less 
sensual, and more talented and good. And those who would become 
either, must mind what and how they eat. 

STOMACH. 7. Can eat anything with impunity, and digest it per- 
fectly ; can live on little, or eat much, and need not be very particular 
as to diet. 

6. Have excellent digestion ; both relish and dispose of food to 
perfection ; are not liable to dyspepsia ; have good blood, and plenty of 
it, and a natural, hearty appetite, but prefer the substantial to knick- 
nacks ; hate a scanty meal, and have plenty of energy and good flesh. 

6. Have good, but not first-rate digestion, and it will continue 
good till bad eating impairs it, still must not invite dyspepsia by bad 

4. Have only fair digestive vigor too little to be abused and 
need to promote it. 

3. Have a weak digestive apparatus, and variable appetite very 
good, or else very poor; are a -good deal pre-inclined to dyspepsia; 
often feel a goneness and sinking at the stomach, and a general lassi- 
tude and inertia ; sleep poorly, and feel tired and qualmish in the 
morning ; have either a longing, hankering, pining, hungry feeling, 
or a loathing, dainty, dormant appetite ; are displeased and dissatisfied 
with everything ; irritable and peevish, dispirited, discouraged, 
gloomy, and miserable ; feel as if forsaken and neglected ; are easily 
agitated, and oppressed with an indefinable sense of dread, as if some 
impending calamity awaited ; and should make the improvement of 
digestion the first business of life. 

2 and 1. Are like 3, only more so. Everything eaten gives pain, 
and life is but a burden. 


To CULTIVATE. Eat simple, plain, dry food, of which unbolted wheat- 
en bread, and especially crackers made of the same, are best ; and but 
little at that, especially if the appetite is ravenous ; and masticate 
and salivate thoroughly ; eat in a cheerful, lively, pleasant spirit, 
talking and laughing at meals ; consult appetite, or eat sparingly and 
leisurely that which relishes ; boiled wheat, or puddings made of 
wheaten flour, or grits, or oatmeal, or .rye-flour, eaten with cream and 
sugar, being the best staple article say a teacupful of wheat or Gra- 
ham flour per day, thoroughly boiled ; should eat little after 5 p. M., 
and if hurried in business, before -or after, but not during business 
hours, nor in a hurried, anxious state of mind, but as if determined 
to enjoy it ; above all, should cast off care, grief, business anxieties, 
troubles, and all painful remembrances and forebodings, and just, 
luxuriate in the passing moment. 

Dyspepsia, now so alarmingly prevalent, is more a mental than 
corporeal disease is consequent more on a worried, feverish, unhappy 
state of mind, than stomachic disorder merely. It is usually brought 
on by eating very fast right after working very hard, and then work- 
ing very hard right after eating too fast and too much, which allows 
so little energy to go to the stomach, so that its contents ferment instead 
of being digested, which inflames the whole system, and causes the 
morbid action of both the mental and physical functions. This 
inflammation creates a morbid, craving, hankering appetite, as well 
as a general irritable state of mind. But the more food is eaten the 
more it re-inflames the stomach, and thereby re-increases these morbid 
hankerings ; while denying appetite diminishes this inflammation and 
consequent hungering and irritability. Sometimes eating gives tem- 
porary relief right at first, before what has just been eaten fer- 
ments, but only re- increases the pain soon afterward. Starvation is 
the cure in all cases of a craving appetite, but a poor appetite needs 
pampering, by providing any dainties that may relish. Or, perhaps 
the system is pining for want of some special aliment. If so, the 
appetite will hanker after it, and should be gratified, however seem- 
ingly unnatural, provided it be an alimentary article. See Aliment- 
iveness. Above all, avoid alcohol and tobacco in all their forms, 
and also tea and coffee, using, instead, a coffee made by browning 
wheat, rye, peas, corn, sweet potatoes, bread, etc., and prepare the 
same as Java. 

Next, rub and pat, or lightly pound the stomach, liver, and bowels. 
"While in college, a graduate came around advertising a specific panacea 
for dyspepsia, but requiring secrecy. It consisted simply in rubbing 
and kneading the abdomen. This supplies that mechanical action 
which restores them to normal action. Those manual exercises, 
which call the abdominal muscles into special action, are pre-emi- 


nently useful, such as rowing, chopping wood, hoeing, and various 
gymnastic exercises.* 

If the stomach is sore or painful, lay on at night a wet cloth, with 
a dry one over it, folded several thicknesses. If the bowels are tor- 
pid, induce an action of them at a given hour daily, and live much 
on boiled wheat, unbolted wheaten bread, and puddings, figs, and 
fruits, if the stomach will bear them. Observe all the health laws 
with scrupulous fidelity, relying more on nature, but little on medi- 
cines, and remit no efforts and spare no exertions to restore digestion ; 
for, till you do, you can only half think, study, remember, feel, 
transact business, or do or enjoy anything. 

To RESTRAIN it, make less a god of the appetite, direct, or work up 
in other respects those energies now consumed by the stomach, and 
" be temperate in all things." * 

THE ABDOMINAL VISCERA complete the digestive functions. The 
stomach may solve its food, yet dormant liver, intestines, and mes- 
entery glands fail to appropriate it. Or the latter may be good, and 
former poor. 

7 and 6. Are very fleshy, round favored, and fat, and eliminate food 
material faster than is consumed, besides sleeping well, and enjoying 
ease and comfort, and do only what must be done. 

5 aud 4. Have a good, fair share of flesh and abdominal fullness, 
and appropriate about as much food as their systems require. 

3. Are rather slim, poor in flesh, and gaunt ; may digest food 
well, but sluggish bowels and mesenteries fail to take up and empty 
into the circulation enough to fully sustain the life-functions, and have 
hence strong tendencies to constipation. 

2. Are very slim, poor, dormant, weak, and dyspeptic. 

To CULTIVATE. Eat aperient food, and keep the whole system open 
and free as possible. 

To RESTRAIN. Breathe deeply, work hard, sleep little, and eat lightly. 


Motion is a necessary, an integral part and parcel of life itself. 
What could man do, what be, without it? How walk, work, or 
move ? How even breathe, digest, or circulate blood ? for what aro 
these, indeed all the physical functions, but action in its various phases ? 

And this action is effected by means of bones and muscles or fibers, 
the fleshy portions of the system. These bones constitute the founda- 

* See the " Family Gymnasium," by FOWLEB AND WELLS invaluable in every 
family, and especially to ladies and clerks, and men confined to any kind of office 
business or sedentary habits. It will restore to health most invalids who practice 
it, and keep healthy those who are already well. Give it a trial. 



tion on which the muscular superstructure is built, are articulated at 
their ends by the joints, anl firmly bound together by ligaments, yet 
allowed free motion. Toward the middle of these bones the muscles 
are firmly attached, so that when they contract they give motion to 
the end of the bone opposite the belly of the muscle. These muscles, 
of which there are some 527 in the human body, constitute the lean 
meat or red flesh of ell animals, and are rendered red by the immense 
number of minute blood-vessels which are ramified upon every fiber 
of every muscle, in order to re-supply that vital power which is 
expended by its exercise. The contractile power of these muscles is 
truly astonishing, as is evident from the wonderful feats of strength 
and agility of which man is capable ; and that, too, though these 
muscles act under a great mechanical disadvantage. 

These bones and muscles collectively constitute the framework of 
the system give it its build and form are to the man what the 
timbers, ropes, and pulleys are to the ship, and constitute the Motive 
Temperament. Its predominance confers power of constitution, and 
strength of character, and 

7. Are lean, spare ; of 
good size and height, and 
athletic ; have strongly 
marked features ; a large, 
Eoman nose ; high and 
large cheek-bones ; large 
and broad front teeth all 
the bones of the body 
projecting ; a deep, grum, 
bass voice ; distinctly 
marked muscles and 
blood-vessels; large 
joints ; hard flesh ; great 
muscular power or phys- 
ical strength ; ease of ac- 
tion, and love of physical 
labor, of lifting, working, 
etc.; dark, and often 
coarse, stiff, abundant, 
and perhaps bushy hair ; 
a black and heavy beard ; No - 6. ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. 

dark skin and eyes ; a harsh, expressive visage ; strong, but coarso 
and harsh feelings the movements like those of the draught-horse, 
slow, but powerful and efficient ; tough ; thorough-going ; forcible ; 
strongly marked, if not idiosyncratic ; determined, and impressive 




both physically and mentally ; and stamp their character on all they 
touch, of whom Alexander Campbell furnishes a good example. 

The motive, 7, mental, 6, and vital, 5, are capable of powerful and 
sustained mental effort, and great power in any department, especially 
that of mind as mind, of swaying a commanding influence over man- 
kind, taking the lead in a large business, etc. 

This Temperament is always accompanied by prodigious coronal and 
perceptive regions, Firmness, and Combativeness, and large Destruc- 
tiveness its natural accompaniment the very organs required to 
re-increase its force and efficiency, and indispensable to its exercise. 

6. Are like 7, except less in degree ; are tough, hardy, and strong 
constitutioned ; evince power, efficiency, and force in whatever they 
undertake ; use strong expressions ; are stout, limber-jointed, and 
both need and can endure a world of action and fatigue ; are like a fire 
made of hard wood, or anthracite coal, making a slow but powerful 
and continuous heat, and will make a decided mark in the business 
world, or in whatever other department these energies may be exer- 
cised. With the vital 6 or 7, and the mental 3 or 4, are broad and 

prominent In form ; large, tall, 
well proportioned, broad- 
shouldered, and muscular ; 
usually coarse-featured, home- 
ly, stern, and awkward ; enjoy 
hard work more than books 
or literary pursuits ; have great 
power of feeling, and thus 
require much self-govern- 
ment ; are endowed with good 
sense, but have a poor way of 
showing it ; are strong minded, 
but possess more talents than 
power to exhibit them ; mani- 
fest talents more in managing 
machinery, creating resources, 
"and directing large operations 
than in mind as such ; im- 
prove with age, growing bet- 
ter and more intellectual as 
they grow older ; accomplish 
wonders ; are hard to beat, indomitable, and usually useful citizens, 
but endowed with strong passions when once roused ; and capable of 
being deeply depraved, especially if given to drink. 

5. Have a good share of the hearty, enduring, efficient, and poten- 
tial ; move right forward, with determination and vigor, irrespective 



of hindrances, and bring a good deal to pass ; and are like 6, only 
less so. 

4. Are not deficient in motive power, yet more would be better ; 
wrought up by special circumstances, can p\it forth unwonted strength, 
but it will be spasmodic, and liable to overstrain ; can work hard, but 
are loth to ; prefer the sedentary to the active, and business to labor ; 
with the vital 6 or 7 are indolent physically, and do only what they 
must, and need to cultivate muscular power. 

3. Dislike work ; prefer sitting to moving, and riding to labor ; 
may be quick and flashy, but are not powerful ; lack strength and 
weight of character ; need much more exercise than they love to take ; 
and first of all should cultivate both muscular action and strength of 
character. With the vital 6, and mental 6 or 7, are rather small- 
boned, but plump, well formed, light complexioned, and often hand- 
some ; have usually auburn or brown hair ; are most exquisitely 
organized, most pathetic and sympathetic, sentimental, exalted, and 
spiritual ; have redoubled glow and fervor of feeling, derived from both 
the vital and mental, which they are hardly able to contain ; easily 
receive and communicate impressions ; are quite too much influenced by 
first impressions, and intuitive likes and dislikes ; have hobbies ; are 
most enthusiastic ; throw a great amount of feeling into everything ; 
use strong and hyperbolical expressions ; are fond of company, if not 
forward in it ; have a quick, clear, sharp, keen, active mind, and good 
business talents ; a ready flow of ideas and a talent for communicating 
them, either on paper or in social MOTIVE 8, MENTAL 6, VITAL 4. 
conversation ; show taste, refinement, 
and delicacy in everything ; have an 
under-current of pure virtuous feel- 
ing, which will prevent the grosser 
manifestation of animal passion, and 
give the intellectual and moral the 
ascendency ; sin only under some sud- 
den and powerful excitement ; are 
passionately fond of poetry, novels, 
tales, light* and sentimental reading, 
belles-lettres, newspapers, etc., and 
inclined to attempt this kind of com- 
position ; have a retentive memory, 
shrewdness, smartness, and enough of No. 8. FANNY FOBEESTEE. 
selfishness to take good care of self, yet not sufficient momentum or 
power to become great, but are rather effeminate. This temperament 
is found much oftener and more perfect in the female than male, and 
is admirably illustrated by Fanny Forrester. Children thus organized 
are precocious, and liable to die prematurely, and their physical culture 


would save to their parents and the world those brightest stars, which 
now generally set while rising, to shine no more on earth. 

Mental 7, vital 5, and motive 3, may be smart, but can not be great ; 
may be brilliant, but are flashy, meteoric, vapid, too emotional, imag- 
inative, and impulsive, and like a fire made of pine wood or shavings 
intense, but momentary. 

2 and 1. Work, walk, move, and use muscles only when obliged 
to ; run much more to the emotional and vapid than potential, and 
should cultivate the muscles assiduously. 

MUSCULAR EXERCISE is indispensable to greatness and happiness. By 
a law of things, all parts must be exercised in about equal proportions. 
When the brajn is worked more than the muscles, it becomes partially 
congested, loses its snap, leaves the mind dull, memory indefinite, and 
thought obtuse, which exercise remedies. None need ever think of 
becoming great intellectually, however^ splendid their heads or tem- 
peraments, without a world of vigorous exercise of real hard work, 
even. All eminent men have laid the foundations of their superiority 
by working hard during their minority, and continuing to exercise 
daily through life ; while those students brought up without labor 
rarely take a high intellectual stand, except- in parrot-like scholarship. 
They always lack vim and pith, and close, hard thought. And this 
deficiency grows on them. J. Q. Adams always rose before the sun to 
take his exercise, and as he became old took much of it in 8^Yimming, 
which he said gave the required exercise without heating his blood. 
Benton took a great amount of exercise. Jefferson always worked 
" like a Trojan." Polk rose before the sun to take his morning walk. 
Webster would have his seasons of hunting, fishing, and rowing, 
besides taking a daily walk. Washington was a robust, hard-working 
farmer and soldier. Physical exercise is as indispensable to greatness as 
the intellectual organs themselves. And one principal reason why so 
many men, having all the phrenological indications of greatness, do 
not distinguish themselves, is a want of physical exercise. 

To CULTIVATE. Take all the muscular exercise you can any way 
endure, but only gentle ; make yourself comfortably tired every day ; 
choose those kinds of exercise most agreeable, but practice some kind 
assiduously ; dance more and sit less ; if a child, should be allowed to 
run and play, to skate and slide down hill, romp and race, climb and 
tear around all it likes, and furnished with playmates to encourage 
this out-of-door life. Fear neither exposure nor dirt, clothes or shoes, 
bad associates, or anything else that furnishes this great desideratum, 

To RESTRAIN. Use your muscles less and brain more. 





This embraces the brain and nerves, or that portion of the system 
called into exercise in the production of mind as such thought, feel- 
ing, sensation, memory, etc. 

The brain consists at first of a mere ganglion of nervous matter, 
formed at the top of the spinal column. To this additions are made 

upward and forward, 
forming, successively, 
the brains of various 
animals, from that of the 
fish and toad, through 
that of the dog and 
monkey, up to the per- 
fectly developed brain 
of the human adult. 
Let it be observed that 
the base of the brain, 
or the animal organs, 
which alone can be ex- 
ercised by infante, are 
developed first, while 
Benevolence, Amative- 
ness, Veneration, Con- 
structiveness, and some 
others which cannot be 
exercised by them, are 
not developed till some 
years after birth. 

The construction of 
the brain is most inter- 
To. 9. EDGAR A. FOB. esting. Its internal por- 
tion is fibrous, while its outer is soft and gelatinous. It is folded up 
into layers or furrows, called convolutions, which are expanded, by 
dropsy of the brain, into a nervous sheet or web. These convolutions 
allow a great amount of nervous 3 natter to be packed up in a small 
compass, and their depth and size are proportionate to the amount of 
mind and talent. Thus in animals and idiots they are small and shal- 
low ; in men of ordinary talents, much deeper ; while the dissectors 
of the brains of.Cuvier, Lord Byron, and other great. men, remark 
with astonishment upon their size and depth. 

Some writers say five times as n.uch blood is sent to the brain in 
proportion to its volume as is sent to uny other portion of the system, 
some say eight times, others fifte^a, and one twenty ; but all agree aa 


to the general fact. The difference between them is doubtless owing 
to the difference in the talents of those operated upon, intellectual 
subjects having the most. The distinctness and protrusion of the 
veins in the heads of great men, as also the immediate filling up of 
these veins when one laughs or becomes excited, have the game cause. 

Through the medium of the spinal column, and by means of the 
nerves that go off from the spinal marrow through the joints of the 
back-bone, the brain holds intercourse with every part of the body, 
the nerves being ramified upon every portion of its surface, so that not 
even~ the point of a needle can penetrate any portion of it without 
lacerating them, and thus producing pain. This spinal marrow is 
composed of four principal columns, the two anterior ones exercising 
voluntary motion, the two posterior ones sensation. Let the nerves 
that go off from the two posterior columns be severed at their root, 
and the parts on which they are ramified will be destitute of sensation, 
not feeling anything, though able to move ; but on severing the 
nerves that go off from the two anterior columns, though the patient 
will feel the prick of the needle, he will be unable to move the limb 
to which the nerve goes. Now, observe that these two" anterior or 
motor columns are in direct connection with the frontal portion of the 
brain, in which the intellectual organs are located, so that each can 
communicate freely with the other, while the two posterior columns, or 
those of sensation, are in connection with the back part of the brain, in 
which the organs of the feelings are located. They are most abundant 
on the outer surface of the body, and accordingly the skin and adja- 
. cent flesh is .the seat of much more intense pain from wounds than the 
internal portions. 

7. -Have a small stature ; light build ; small bones and muscles ; 
a slim, tall, spare, sprightly person ; quickness of motion ; great phys- 
ical activity too much for strength ; sharp features and phrenological 
organs ; thin lips ; small, pointed nose ; and sharp teeth, liable to 
premature decay. They are characterized mentally by a predominance 
of mind over body, so that its states affect the body more than the 
body mind ; are in the highest degree susceptible to the influence of 
stimuli, and of all exciting causes ; are refined and delicate in feeling 
and expression, and easily disgusted with anything coarse, vulgar, or 
out of taste ; enjoy and suffer in the highest degree ; are subject to 
extremes of feeling ; have their disgusts, sympathies, and preposses- 
sions easily excited ; experience a vividness and intensity of emotion, 
and a clearness, pointedness, and rapidity of thought, perception, and 
conception, and a love of mental exercise imparted by no other tem- 
perament ; have a deep flow of pure and virtuous feeling, which 
will effectually resist vicious inclinations ; intense desires, and put forth 
correspondingly vigorous efforts to gratify them ; arc eager in pursuits, 


and feel that their ends are of the utmost importance, and must be 
answered now ; are thus liable to overdo, and prematurely exhaust the 
physical powers, which at best are none too good ; are very fond of 
reading and study ; of thinking and reasoning ; of books and literary 
pursuits ; of conversation, and all kinds of information, and apt to 
lie awake at night, thinking, or feeling, or reading ; incline to some 
profession, or light mental occupation, such as a clerk, merchant, 
teacher, or, if a mechanic, should be a goldsmith, or something 
requiring light action, but not hard lifting more head work than 
hand work ; should avoid close application ; take much pleasurable 
recreation and exercise ; avoid all kinds of stimulants, wines, tobacco, 
tea and coffee included ; use vegetable food mostly ; endeavor to enjoy 
existence ; and avoid being worried. 

6. Are like 7 in character, only less in degree. ; more given to intel- 
lectual and moral than animal pleasures, and action than rest ; can 
not endure slow or stupid employees ; with the motive 6, are of good 
size ; rather tall, slim, lean, and raw-boned, if not homely and awk- 
ward ; have prominent bones and features, particularly front teeth 
and nose ^& firm and distinct muscle ; a tough, wiry, excellent phys- 
ical organization ; a firm, straightforward, rapid, energetic walk ; great 
ease and efficiency of action, with little fatigue ; a keen, penetrating 
eye ; large joints, hands, fret, etc. ; a long face and head, and a high 
head and forehead ; a brain developed more from the nose over to the 
occiput than around the ears ; large intellectual and moral organs ; 
strong desires, and great power of will and energy of character ; vig- 
orous passions ; a natural love of hard work, and capacity for carrying 
forward and managing great undertakings ; that thorough-going spirit 
which takes right hold of great projects with both hands, and drive 
into and through thick and thin, in spite of obstacles and opposition, 
however great, and thus accomplish wonders ; superior business tal- 
ents ; unusual strength and vigor of intellect ; strong common sense ; 
good general judgment ; with a large intellectual lobe, and a cool, 
clear, long, calculating head ; a reflective, planning, discriminating 
cast of mind, and talents more solid than brilliant ; are more fond of 
the natural sciences than literature ; of philosophy than history ; of 
the .deep, solid branches than belles-lettres ; of a professional and 
mental than laborious vocation ; of mental than bodily action ; and the 
moral than sensual. 

5. Have good, fair muscles ; are quite prominent-featured, easy of 
motion, enduring, tough, hardy, clear-headed, and fond of intellectual 
pursuits ; have good ideas, and excellent native sense and judgment ; 
talk, speak, and write to the purpose, if at all ; love action and exer- 
cise, and walk and work easily ; are efficient, and capable of doing up 
$ gqod Ijfp labor, but not a genius. With t)ie vifal , are sprightly, 




lively, vivacious, and happy ; and with the motive 3, are not adapted 
to a life of labor, but should choose some office business, yet exercise 
a great deal no matter how much. 

4. Have fair mental action, if circumstances fully call it forth ; if 
not, are commonplace ; must depend for talents more on culture and 
plodding studiousness than natural genius ; with culture, can do well, 
without it little ; with the motive and vital 6 or 7, are by far best 
adapted to farming or manual pursuits than literary, and should culti- 
vate intellect and memory. 

3. Have little love of literary pursuits ; are rather dull, and fall 
asleep over books and sermons ; and can not marshal ideas for speaking 
or writing. 

2. Are exceedingly dull of comprehension ; slow of perception ; 
poor in judgment and memory ; hate books ; must be told what and 
how to do ; and should seek the direction of superior minds. 

1. Are almost senseless and idiotic. 


Is by far the best. That most favorable to true greatness and gen- 
eral genius, to strength of char- 
acter, along with perfection, and 
to harmony and consistency 
throughout, is one in which each 
is strongly marked, and all about 
equally developed. 

Excessive motive with deficient 
mental gives power with sluggish- 
ness, so that the talents lie dor- 
mant. Excessive vital gives 
physical power and enjoyment, 
but too little of the mental and 
moral, along with coarseness and / 
animality. Excessive mental 
confers too much mind for body, 
too much sentimentalism and ex- 
quisiteness, along with green- 
house precocity. Whereas their 
equal balance gives an abundant 
supply of vital energy, physical 
stamina, and mental power and 
susceptibility. They may be 
compared to the several parts of . 

a steamboat and its appurten- 


ances, The vital is the steam-power ; the motive, the hulk or frame 


work ; the mental, the freight and passengers. The vital predomi- 
nating, generates more animal energy than can well be worked off, 
and causes restlessness, excessive passion, and a pressure which endan- 
gers outbursts and overt actions ; predominant motive' gives too much 
frame or hulk ; moves slowly, and with weak mental, is too light 
freighted to secure the great ends of life ; predominant mental over- 
loads, and endangers sinking ; but all equally balanced and powerful, 
carry great loads rapidly and well, and accomplish wonders. Such 
persons unite cool judgment with intense and well-governed feelings ; 
great force of character arid intellect with perfect consistency ; schol- 
arship with sound common sense ; far-seeing sagacity with brilliancy ; 
and have the highest order of both physiology and mentality. Such a 
temperament had the immortal Washington, and his character corre- 

Most diseases, too, are consequent on this predominance or defi- 
ciency of one or another of these temperaments, and when either fail, 
all fail. Hence the infinite importance of cultivating those that are 
weak. A well-balanced phrenology is equally important, and its ab- 
sence unfavorable. 

7 or 6. Are uniform, consistent, harmonious in character, even- 
tempered, popular, and generally liked ; not remarkable for any 
specialties of talents or character, nor for any deficiencies, and 
" maintain' the even tenor of their way" among men. 

5 or 4. Are in the main consistent, and in harmony with them- 
selves, but more or less affected by circumstances ; show general uni- 
formity of life and doctrine, but different circumstances change their 

3. Have uneven heads and characters ; are singular in expression, 
looks, and doctrine, and variable in conduct ; often inconsistent, and 
with excitability 6 or 7, the creatures of circumstances ; take one- 
sided views of things ; are poor counselors ; need and should take 
advice ; are easily warped in judgment ; propound strange ideas, and 
run after novelties ; and need to cultivate unity and houiogencousness 
of opinion and conduct. 

2. Are like 3, only more so ; are nondescripts ; idiosyncratic in 
everything ; just like themselves, but unlike anybody else ; and neither 
like, nor are liked by, others. 

To CULTIVATE. Exercise the weaker and restrain the stronger facul- 
ties and temperaments according to directions in this work. 


That size, other conditions being equal, is a measure of power, is a 
universal law. In general, the larger a piece of iron, wood, anything, 
the stronger ; and large men and animals are stronger than those that 


are small. This is a natural law. Still, sometimes smaller men, 
horses, etc., are stronger, can lift, draw, and endure more than others 
that are larger, because they are different in organic quality, health, 
etc." 3 4 6 . But where the quality is the same, whatever is largest 
is proportionally the most powerful. And this undisputed law of 
things is equally true of the brain, and , that mental power put 
forth thereby. All really great men have great heads merely smart 
ones ; or those great only in certain faculties or specialties of character, 
not always.- The brains of Cuvier, Byron, and Spurzheim were among 
the very heaviest ever weighed. True, Byron's hat was small, doubt- 
less because his brain was conical-, and most developed in the base ; 
but its great weight establishes its great size. So does that of Bona- 
parte. Besides, he wore a very large hat one that passed clear over 
the head of Col. Lchmenouski, one of his body-guard, whose head 
measured 23^ inches, so that Bonaparte's head must- have measured 
nearly or (juite 24 inches. Webster's head was massive, measuring 
over 24 inches, and Clay's 23 ; and this is about Van Buren's size ; 
Chief Justice Gibson's, the greatest jurist in Pennsylvania, 24^ ; and 
Hamilton's hat passed over the head of a man whose head measured 
23. Burke's head was immense, so was Jefferson's, while Franklin's 
hat passed over the ears of a 24-inch head. Judge McLean's head 
exceeds 23J inches. The heads of Washington, Adams, and a thou- 
sand other celebrities, were also very large. Bright, apt, smart, liter- 
ary, knowing, even eloquent men, etc., often have only 'average, 
even moderate-sized heads, because endowed with the very highest 
organic quality, yet such arc more admired than commanding ; more 
brilliant than powerful ; more acute than profound ; though they may 
show off well in an ordinary sphere, yet are not the men for great 
occasions ; nor have they that giant force of intellect which molds and 
sways nations and ages. The phrenological law is, that size, other things 
being equal, is a measure of power ; yet these other conditions, such as 
activity, power of motive, health, physiological habits, etc., increase 
or diminish the mentality, even more than size. Quality is more 
important than quantity, but true greatness requires both cerebral 
quantity and quality. 

Still, those again who have very- large heads, are sometimes dull, 
almost foolish, because their organic quality is low 5 . As far, then, 
as concerns Phrenology itself, this doctrine of size appertains to the 
different organs in the same head, rather than to different heads. Still 
this doctrine, that size is the measure of power, is no more a special 
doctrine of Phrenology than of every other department of nature. And 
those who object to this science on this ground arc objecting to a 
known law of things. If size were the only condition of power, their 
cavils might be worthy of notice ; as it is, they are not. 


Though tape measurements, taken around the head, from Individu- 
ality to Philoprogenitiveness or Parental Love, give some idea of the 
size of the brain, the fact that some heads are round, others long, 
some low, and others high, so modifies these measurements that they 
do not convey any very correct idea of the actual quantity of brain. 
Yet these measurements range somewhat as follows in adults : 

7 or Very Large, 23f inches and upward ; 6 or Large, from 22f to 
23| ; 5 or Full, from 22 to 22| ; 4 or Average, from 21 to 22 ; 3 or 
Moderate, from 201 to 2 U 5 2 or Small, from 20 to 20$ ; 1 Below, 20. 
Female heads are half an inch to an inch below these measurements. 

VERY LARGE. With quality good, are naturally great ; with quality 
and activity 6 or 7, and the intellectual organs 6 or 7, are a natural 
genius, a mental giant ; even without education, will surmount all 
disadvantages, learn with wonderful facility, sway mind, and become 
pre-eminent ; with the organs of practical intellect and the propelling 
powers 6 or 7, will possess the first order of natural abilities ; mani- 
fest a clearness and force of intellect which will astonish the world, 
and a power of feeling which will carry all before them ; and, with 
proper cultivation, become bright stars in the firmament of intellec- 
tual greatness, upon which coming ages will gaze with delight and 
astonishment. With quality and activity 5 or 4, are great 011 great 
occasions, and, when thoroughly roused, manifest splendid talents, 
and naturally take the lead among men, otherwise not ; with activity 
or quality deficient, must cultivate much in order to become much. 

LARGE. With activity and quality 6 or 7, combine great power of 
mind with great activity ; exercise a commanding influence over other 
minds to sway and persuade ; and enjoy and suffer in the extreme ; 
with perceptives 6, can conduct a large business or undertaking suc- 
cessfully ; rise to eminence, if not pre-eminence ; and evince great 
originality and power of intellect, strong native sense, superior judg- 
ment, great force of character and feeling, and make a conspicuous and 
enduring mark on the intellectual or business wdrld, or in whatever 
direction these superior capacities are put forth. With activity and 
quality 5, are endowed with superior natural talents, yet require strong 
incentives to call them out ; undeveloped by circumstances, may pass 
through life without accomplishing much, or attracting notice, or evinc- 
ing more than ordinary parts ; but with the perceptive and forcible 
organs also 6, and talents disciplined and called out, manifest a vigor 
and energy far above mediocrity ; are adequate to carry forward great 
undertakings, demanding originality and force of mind and character, 
yet are rather indolent. With activity only average, possess consider- 
able energy of intellect and feeling, yet seldom manifest it, unless 
brought out by some powerful stimulus, and are rather too indolent to 
exert, especially intellect. 


FULL. With quality or activity 6 or 7, and the organs of practical 
Intellect and of the propelling powers large, or very large, although 
not really great in intellect, or deep, are very clever ; have consider- 
able talent, and that so distributed that it shows to be even more or 
.better than it really is ; are capable of being a good scholar, doing a 
fine business, and, with advantages and application, of becoming dis- 
tinguished somewhat, yet inadequate to great undertakings ; can not 
sway an extensive influence, nor become really great, yet have excel- 
lent natural capacities ; with activity 4 or 5, will do tolerably well, 
and manifest a common share of talent ; with activity only 3, will 
neither be nor do much worthy of notice. 

AVERAGE. With activity 6, manifest a quick, clear, sprightly mind, 
and off-hand talents ; and are capable of doing a fair business, espe- 
cially if the stamina is good ; with activity 7, and the organs of the 
propelling powers and of practical intellect 6 or 7, are capable of doing 
a good business, and possess fair talent, yet are not original or pro- 
found ; are quick of perception ; have a good practical understanding ; 
will do well in an ordinary business or sphere, yet never manifest great- 
ness, and out of this sphere are commonplace ; with activity only 4, 
discover only an ordinaiy amount of intellect ; are indisposed and 
inadequate to any important undertaking ; yet, in a common sphere, 
or one that requires only a mechanical routine of business, can do well ; 
with moderate or small activity, will hardly accomplish or enjoy any- 
thing worthy of note. 

MODERATE. With quality, activity, and the propelling and percep- 
tive faculties 6 or 7, possess an excellent intellect, yet are more showy 
than sound ; with others to plan and direct, can execute to advantage, 
yet are unable to do much alone ; have a very active mind, and are 
quick of perception, yet, after all, have a contracted intellect ; possess 
only a fair mental caliber, and lack momentum, both of mind and 
character ; with activity only 4, have but a moderate amount of intel- 
lect, and even this too sluggish for action, so as neither to Suffer nor 
enjoy much ; with activity 3 or 2, are dull, and hardly compos mentis. 

2 or 1. Are weak in character and inferior in intellect indeed, 
simple or idiotic. * 

This doctrine, that " size is a measure of power," is equally true of 
different groups of organs, and regions of the brain. Those who have 
a large forehead, with a deficient back and side-head, if of good tem- 
perament, will be a deep, original thinker, but lack force and energy 
of character ; while those who have heavy base and back-head, with a 
smaller forehead, will possess energy, courage, passion, sociability, and 
vim, but lack intellectual capacity. But this point will be eliminated 




NATURE classifies all her works into orders, genera, and species. 
FORM constitutes her great base of this classification. She always does 
up similar characteristics in like configurations apple character in 
apple shape, fish character in fish configuration, hear nature in bear 
form, human nature in human shape, and so on throughout all her 
works. And things alike in character are so in form all oaks and 
pines like all. All kernels of wheat, corn, rye, etc. , are formed like 
all others of the same character. All tigers are like all others, and all 
canines resemble each other in shape and character. All human 
beings resemble all others in looks and mentality, and monkeys 
approximate toward man in both shape and character. Therefore, 
since outline shape indicates outline character, of course all the minute 
details of shape indicate like peculiarities of character, so that every 
wrinkle and shade of configuration indicates a like diversity in their 
mentality. And since the brain is confessedly the organ of the mind, 
its special form must of course correspond with the special traits of 
character. Or thus : since universal shape corresponds with universal 
character, of course the form of the head is as the special characteris- 
tics of the mind. And this involves the doctrines of Phrenology. In 
short, the correspondence between form and character is absolute and 
universal on a scale at once the broadest and most minute possible. 
Then, what special forms indicate what particular characteristics ? 

Every part of everything bears an exact correspondence to that thing 
AS A WHOLE. Thus, tall-bodied trees have long branches and leaves ; 
short-bodied trees, short branches and roots ; and creeping vines, as 
the grape, honeysuckle, etc., long, slim roots, that run under ground 
as extensively as their tops do above. The Rhode Island Greening, a 
large, well-proportioned apple, grows on a tree large in trunk, limb, 
leaf,- and root, and symmetrical, while the gillifleur is conical, and its 
tree long-limbed, and runs up high to a peak at the top, while flat and 
broad-topped trees bear wide, flat, sunken-eyed apples. Very thrifty- 
growing trees, as the Baldwin, Fall Pippin, Bartlett, Black Tartarian, 
etc., generally bear large fruit, while small fruit, as the Seckel Pear, 


Lady Apple, Bell de Choisy Cherry, etc., grow slowly, and have many 
small twigs and branches. Trees that bear red fruit, as the Baldwin, 
etc., have red inner bark ; while yellow and green- colored fruits grow 
on trees the inner rind of whose limbs is yellow or green. Peach-trees 
that bear early peaches have deeply-notched leaves, and the converse 
of late ones ; so that, by these and other physiognomical signs, expe- 
rienced nurserymen can tell what a given tree bears at first sight. 

Correspondingly, long-handed persons have long fingers, toes, arms, 
legs, bodies, heads, and phrenological organs ; while short and broad- 
shouldered persons are short and broad-handed, fingered, faced, nosed, 
and limbed, and wide and low bodied. When the bones on the hand 
are prominent, all the bones, nose included, are equally so, and thus 
of all other characteristics of the hand, and every other portion of all 
bodies. Hence, a hand thrust through a hole proclaims the general 
character of its owner, because if it is large or small, hard or soft, 
strong or weak, firm or flabby, coarse-grained or fine-textured, even 
or prominent, rough or smooth, small-boned or large-boned, or what- 
ever else, the whole body is built upon the same principle, with which 
the brain and mentality also correspond. Hence, also, small-nosed 
persons have little soul, and large-nosed a great deal of character of 
some kind. 

Bonaparte chose large-nosed men for his generals, and the opinion 
prevails that large noses indicate long heads and strong minds. Not 
that great noses cause great minds, but that the motive or powerful 
temperament cause both*. Flat noses indicate flatness of mind and 
character, -by indicating a poor, low organic structure 2 . Broad noses 
indicate large passage-ways to the lungs, and this, large lungs and 
vital organs, and this, great strength of constitution, and hearty ani- 
mal passions, along with selfishness ; for broad noses, broad shoulders, 
broad heads, and large animal organs go together. But when the 
nose is narrow at the base, the nostrils are small, because the lungs are 
small, and need but small avenues for air ; and this indicates a predis- 
position to consumptive complaints, along with an active brain and 
nervous system, and a passionate fondness for literary pursuits. Sharp 
noses indicate a quick, clear, penetrating, searching, knowing, saga- 
cious mind 1 6 , and also a scold ; indicate warmth of love, hate, gen- 
erosity, moral sentiment indeed, positiveness in everything, while 
blunt noses indicate and accompany obtuse intellects and perceptions, 
sluggish feelings, and a soulless character. The Roman nose indicates 
a martial spirit, love of debate, resistance, and strong passions, while 
hollow, pug noses indicate a tame, easy, inert, sly character, and 
straight, finely-formed Grecian noses harmonious characters. Seek 
their acquaintance. We have chosen our illustrations from the nose, 
because it is easily seen and described, and renders observation on the 


character easy and correct. But the principle here exemplified applies 
to all the other organs and portions of the face and body. 

And the general forms of the head correspond with those of the 
body and nose. Where the nose is sharp, all the bones and phreno- 
logical organs, and of course mental characteristics, are equally sharp 
the whole person being built on the sharp principle, and of breadth, 
prominence, length, etc. 

Tall persons have high heads, and are aspiring, aim high, and seek 
conspicuosity, while short ones have flat heads, and seek the lower 
forms of worldly pleasures. Tall persons are rarely mean, though 
often grasping ; but very penurious persons are often broad built. 
Small persons generally have exquisite mentalities, yet less power 
the more precious the article the smaller the package in which it is 
done up while great men are rarely dwarfs, though great size often 
co-exists with sluggishness. To particularize there are four leading 
forms which indicate generic characteristics, all existing in every one, 
yet in different DEGREES. They are. 


Spherical forms are naturally self-protecting. Roundness protects 
its possessor. So all round-built animals, as Indian pony, bull-dog, 
elephant, etc., are round favored and strong-constitutioned, tough, 
enduring, and very hardy, but less active and sprightly in body and 
mind. And this applies equally to human beings. Broad-built per- 
sons may be industrious, plodding, good feeling, and the like, but love 
their ease, are not brilliant, and take good care of self. Yet they 
wear like iron, and unless health has been abused, can live to a great 
age. This form corresponds with the vital temperament 5 . 


"A lean horse for a long pull" is an observation as true as trite. 
This corresponds with the motive temperament, which it indicates 8 . 


In and by the nature of things length of form facilitates ease of 
action. Thus, deer, gazelle, grayhound, giraffe, tiger, weasel, eel, 
and all long and slim animals, arc quick-motioned, lively, sprightly, 
nimble, and agile. The same principle applies equally to persons. 
Thus, those very long-favored, or in whom this form is 

7. -Are as quick as a flash to perceive and do ; agile ; light-motioned ; 
limber-jointed ; nimble ; always in motion ; restless as the wind ; talk 
too rapidly to be emphatic ; have no lazy bones in their bodies ; are 
always moving head, hands, feet, something ; are natural scholars ; 


quick to learn and understand ; remarkably smart and knowing, and 
love action to keep doing for its own sake ; wide awake ; eager ; 
uncommonly quick to think and feel ; sprightly in conversation ; ver- 
satile in talent ; flexible ; suggestive ; abounding in idea ; apt at most 
things ; exposed to consumption, because action exceeds strength ; 
early ripe ; brilliant ; liable to premature exhaustion and disease, 
because the mentality predominates over the vitality, of which the 
late Captain Knight, who had a world-wide reputation for activity, 
enterprise, daring, impetuousness, promptness, judgment, earnestness, 
executiveness, affability, and spright- 
liness, furnishes a good example. 

6. Are active, restless, brisk, stir- 
ring, lively, anything but lazy, with 
a good organism ; are quick-spoken ; 
clear-headed ; understand matters 
and things at the first glance; see 
right into and through business, and 
all they touch readily ; are real 
workers with head or hands, but 
prefer head-work ; positive ; the one 
thing or the other ; and are strongly 
pro-inclined to the intellectual and 
moral. Their characters, unless per- 
verted, like their persons, ascend 
instead of descending ; and they are 
better adapted to law, merchandise, 
banking, or business than to farming, 
or heavy mechanical work. Yet, if 
mechanics, should choose those kinds | 
requiring more sprightliness thanJJ 
strength, and mind than muscle. 

6 or 4. Have a fair, but only 
fair, share of natural activity "and No - U--CAPTAW E. KNIGHT. _ 
sprightliness ; do what they well can, and with tolerable ease, but do 
not love action for its own sake. 

3. Are rather inactive ; do only what they must, and that grudg- 
ingly ; love to be waited on, but not to wait ; and get along with tho 
fewest steps possible ; seek a sedentary life, and are as loth to exercise 
mind as body. 

2 and 1. Are downright slothful, lazy, and good for nothing to 
themselves or others. 

To CULTIVATE. Keep doing, doing, doing all the tune, and in as 
lively ami sprightly a manner as possible ; and live more on foot thau 


To RESTRAIN. Sit down and rest when tired, and let the world jog 
on while you enjoy it. Do only half you think you must, and be 
content to let the rest go undone. Do for once just see if you can't 
be lazy. Work as few hours as possible, and take all the advantage 
you can to get along with the least outlay of strength possible. Do 
sit down, and enjoy what you have already got, instead of trying to 
get so much more. Live on your laurels. Don't tear and fret so, if 
all is not exactly to your liking, but cultivate contentment. 


All sharp things are, in and by the very nature of their form, 
penetrating, of which the needle furnishes an example. And this law 
applies equally to human beings. From time immemorial a sharp 
nose has been considered indicative of a scolding disposition ; yet it is 
equally so of intensity in the other feelings, as well as those which scold. 

7. Are extremely susceptible to impressions of all kinds ; intensely 
excited by trifles ; apt to magnify good, bad, everything, far beyond 
the reality ; a creature of impulse and mere feeling ; subject to ex- 
treme ups and downs of emotion ; one hour in the garret, the next in 
the cellar ; extremely liable to neuralgia and nervous affections ; with 
quality and activity 6 or 7, have ardent desires ; intense feelings ; 
keen susceptibilities ; enjoy and suffer in the extreme ; are whole- 
souled ; sensitive ; positive in likes and dislikes ; cordial ; enthusiastic ; 
impulsive ; have hobbies ; abound in good feeling, yet are quick-tem- 
pered ; excitable; liable to extremes; have a great deal of SOUL or 
passion, and warmth of feeling ; are BRILLIANT writers or speakers, 
but too refined and sensitive for the mass of mankind ; gleam in the 
career of genius, but burn out the vital powers on the altar of nervous 
excitability, and like Pollok, H. K. White, McDonald Clarke, and 
Leggett, fall victims to premature death, and should keep clear from 
all false excitements and stimulants, mental and physical tea, coffee, 
tobacco, drugs, and alcoholic drinks, and cool off and keep cool. 

6. Are like 7, only less so ; warm-hearted, impetuous, impulsive, 
full of soul, and too susceptible to external influences ; swayed too 
much by feeling ; and need much self-government and coolness. 

5. Are sufficiently sensitive and susceptible to exciting causes, yet 
not passional, nor impulsive ; and easily roused, yet not easily carried 
away by excitements. With activity 6 or 7, are very quick, but per- 
fectly cool ; decide and act instantly, yet. knowingly ; -do nothing 
without thinking, but think and do instantaneously ; are never flus- 
tered, but combine great rapidity with perfect self-possession. 

4. Are like the placid lake no waves, no noise, and evince the 
same quiet spirit under all circumstances. 

3. Are rather phlegmatic ; slow to perceive and feel ; rather cold 


and passionless ; rarely ever elated or depressed ; neither love nor hate, 
enjoy nor suffer, with much spirit ; are enthusiastic in nothing, and 
throw little life or soul into expression or action. 

2. Are torpid, soulless, listless, spiritless, half asleep about every- 
thing, and monotonous and mechanical in everything. 

1. Are really stupid, and about as dead and hard as sole-leather 
having the texture of humanity, but lacking its life and glow, and 
enjoy and suffer very little. 

To CULTIVATE. Yield yourself up to .the effects or influences, persons 
and things, naturally operating on you ; seek amusements and excite- 
ments ; and try to fed more than comes natural to you. 

To RESTRAIN. First, fulfill all the health conditions, so as thereby 
to allay all false excitement, and secure a quiet state of the body. 
Eat freely of lettuce, but avoid spices and condiments. Air, exercise, 
water, and sleep, and avoiding stimulants, constitute your great phys- 
ical opiates. Second, avoid all unpleasant mental excitements, and 
by mere force of will cultivate a calm, quiet, luxurious, to-day-enjoy- 
ing frame of mind. If in trouble, banish it, and make yourself as 
happy as possible. 

These primary forms and characteristics usually combine in different 
degrees, producing, of. course, corresponding differences in the talents 
and characteristics. Thus, eloquence accompanies breadth combined 
with sharpness. They create that gushing sympathy, that spontaneous 
overflowing of soul, that high-wrought, impassioned ecstacy and in- 
tensity of emotion in which true eloquence consists, and transmit it 
less by words than look, gesture, and those touching, melting, soul- 
stirring, thrilling intonations which storm the citadel of the soul. 
Hence it can never be written, but must be seen, heard, and felt. 
This sharpness and breadth produce it first by giving great lungs to 
exhilarate the speaker, and send the blood frothing and foaming to 
the brain, and secondly, by conferring the utmost excitability and 
intensity of emotion, and it is in this exhilaration that real eloquence 
mainly consists. This sharp and broad form predominates in Bascom, 
whom Clay pronounced the greatest natural orator he ever heard ; in 
Chapin and Beecher, to-day confessedly our finest speakers in the pul- 
pit or the rostrum ; in Everett ; in "the old man eloquent," indeed, 
both the Adamses ; in Dr. Bethune, and a host of others. Still, in 
Patrick Henry, Pitt, and John B. Gough, each unequaled in his day 
and sphere, the sharp combine with the long. This gives activity united 
with excitability. Yet this form gives also the poetic more than tho 
oratorical gives the impassioned, which is the soul of both. 

Authorship, again, is usually accompanied by the long, prominent, 
and sharp. Reference is not now had to flippant scribblers of exciting 
newspaper squibs, or even of dashing editorials, or highfalutin pro- 


ductions, nor to mere compilers, but to the authors of deep, sound, 
original, philosophical, clear-headed, labored productions. It predom- 
inates in Kevs. Jonathan Edwards, Wilbur Fiske, N. Taylor, E. A. 
Parke, Leonard Bacon, Albert Barnes, Oberlin, Pres. Day, Drs. Parish 
and Rush, Hitchcock, B. F. Butler, Hugh L. White, Dr. Caldwell, 
Elias Hicks, Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, Chief-Justice Marshall, 
Calhoun, John Q. Adams, Percival, Noah Webster, George Combe, 
Lucrctia Mott, Catherine Waterman, Mrs. Sigourney, and nearly every 
distinguished author and scholar. 


Poetry inheres in various forms. Some distinguished poets are 
broad and sharp, others long and sharp, but all sharp. Those who 
evolve the highest, finest, and most fervid style and cast of sentiment, 


v li 


have more of the long, yet less of the prominent, yet with the long 
a predominance of the sharp, and are often quite tall. Win. C. Bryant 
furnishes an excellent illustration of this shape, as his character does 
of its accompanying mentality. Those who poetize the passions are, 
like orators, broad and sharp, of whom Byron furnishes an example hi 
poetry and configuration. The best combination of forms for writer? 


and scholars is the sharp predominant, long next, prominent next 
and all conspicuous. The best form for contractors, builders, mana- 
gers of men and large mechanical operations, is the broad and promi- 
nent combined. But they should not be slim. A farmer may have 
any form but a spindling one, yet a horticulturist or nurseryman may 
be slim. 

That certain men " look like" one or another species of animals is 
an ancient observation. And when in looks, also in character. That 


is, some have both the lion, or bull-dog, or eagle, or squirrel expres- 
sion of face, and likewise traits of character. Thus, Daniel Webster 
was called the "Lion of the North," from his general resemblance in 


form, having shoulders, hair, and general expression to that king of 
beasts ; and a lion he indeed was, in his sluggishness when at his ease, 
but power -when roused ; in his magnanimity to opponents, and the 
power of his passions. 

He had a distinguished cotemporary, whose color, expression of 
countenance, manners, everything, resembled those of the fox, and 
foxy indeed he was, in character as well as looks, and introduced into 
the political machinery of our country that wire-working, double- 
game policy and chicanery, which has done more to corrupt our ever- 
glorious institutions than everything else combined, even endangering 
their very existence. Freemen, hunt it down. 

Those who resemble the bull-dog are broad-built, round favored, 
square-faced, round-headed, having a forehead square, and perhaps 
prominent, but low ; mouth rendered square by the projection of the 
eye or canine teeth, and smallness of those in front ; corners of the 
mouth drawn down ; and 
voice deep, guttural, 
growling, and snarling. 
Such, if fed, will bark 
and bite for you, but, if 
provoked, will lay rignt 
hold of you, and hold 
on till you or they perish 
in the struggle. And 
when this form is found 
on female shoulders, 
' ' the Lord deliver you. ' ' j 

Tristam Surges, 
called in Congress the 
11 Bald Eagle," from his 
having the aquiline or 
eagle-bill nose, a projec- 
tion in the upper lip, 
falling into an indenta- 
tion in the lower, his No. 14. TBISTAM BTTBGES. THE EAGLB FACE. 
eagle-shaped eyes and eyebrows, as seen in the accompanying engrav- 
ing, was eagle-like in character, and the most sarcastic, tearing, and 
soaring man of his day, John Randolph excepted. And whoever has 
a long, hooked, hawk-bill, or Roman nose, wide mouth, spare form, 
prominence at the lower and middle part of the forehead, is very 
fierce when assailed, high tempered, vindictive, efficient, and aspiring, 
and will fly higher and farther than others. 

Tigers are always spare, muscular, long, full over the eyes, large- 
mouthed, and have eyes slanting downward from their outer to inner 


angles ; and human beings thus physiognomically characterized, are 
fierce, domineering, revengeful, most enterprising, not over humane, 
a terror to enemies, and conspicuous somewhere. 

Swine fat, loggy, lazy, good-dispositioned, flat and hollow-nosed 
have their cousins in large-abdomoned, pug-nosed, double-chinned, 
talkative, story-enjoying, beer-loving, good-feeling and feeding, yes- 
yes humans, who love some easy business, but hate HARD work. 

Horses, oxen, sheep, owls, doves, snakes, and even frogs, etc., also 
have their men and women cousins, with then: accompanying characters. 

These resemblances are plain, but more difficult to describe ; but the 
voice, forms of mouth, nose, and chin are the best bases of observation. 


In accordance with this general law, that shape is as character, well- 
proportioned persons have harmony of features and well-balanced 
minds ; whereas those, some of whose features stand right out, and 
others fall far in, have uneven, ill-balanced characters, so that homely, 
disjointed exteriors indicate corresponding interiors, while evenly-bal- 
anced and exquisitely formed men and women have well-balanced and 
susceptible mentalities. Hence, woman, more beautiful than man, 
has finer feelings and greater perfection of character, yet is less power- 
ful and the more beautifully formed the more exquisite and perfect 
the mentality. Nature never deceives never clothes that in a beau- 
tiful, attractive exterior which is intrinsically bad or repellant. True, 
the handsomest women sometimes make the greatest scolds, just as 
the sweetest things, when soured, become correspondingly sour. The 
finest things, when perverted, become the worst. These two extremes 
are the worst tempered those naturally beautiful and exquisitely 
organized, that when perverted they become proportionally bad, and 
those naturally ugly formed are naturally bad-dispositioned. 

Yet homely persona are often excellent tempered, benevolent, 
talented, etc., because they have a few POWERFUL traits, and also fea- 
tures the very thing we are explaining that is, they have EXTREMES 
alike of face and character. Thus it is that every diversity of charac- 
ter has its correspondence in both the physiognomical form and organic 


As already shown, texture corresponds with character 2 , and motion 
with texture, and therefore character. Those whose motions are awk- 
ward yet easy, possess much efficiency and positivencss of character 
yet Lick polish ; and just hi proportion as they become refined in 
miiid will their movements be correspondingly improved. A short 
and quick step indicates a brisk and active but rather contracted mind. 


whereas those who take long steps general! y have long heads ; yet if 
the step is slow, they will make comparatively little progress, while 
those whose step is LONG AND QUICK will accomplish proportionately 
much, and pass most of their competitors on the highway of life. 
Their heads and plans, too, will partake of the same far-reaching 
character evinced in their carriage. Those who sluff or drag their 
heels, drag and drawl in everything ; while those who walk with a 
springing, hounding step, abound in mental snap and spring. Those 
whose walk is mincing, affected, and artificial, rarely, if ever, accom- 
plish much ; whereas those who walk carelessly, that is, naturally, are 
just what they appear to he, and put on nothing for outside show. 
Those who in walking roll from side to side, lack directness of charac- 
ter, and side every way, according to circumstances ; whereas those 
who take a hee line that is, whose hody moves neither to the right 
nor left, but straight forward have a corresponding directness of pur- 
pose, and oneness of character. Those, also, who tetter up and down 
when they walk, rising an inch or two every step, will have many 
corresponding ups and downs in life, because of their irregularity of 
character and feeling. Those, too, who make a great ado in walking, 
will make much needless parade in everything else, and htnce spend a 
great amount of useless steam in accomplishing nothing ; whereas 
those who walk easily, or expend little strength in walking, will ac- 
complish great results with but little outlay of strength, both mental 
and physical. In short, every individual has his own peculiar mode 
of moving, which exactly accords with his mental ch.tracter ; so that, 
as far as you can see such modes, you can decipher such outlines of 

To dancing these principles apply equally. A small, delicately 
molded, fine skinned, pocket- Venus, whose motions are light, easy, 
waving, and rather characterless, who puts forth but little strength in 
dancing, is very exquisite in feelings, but rather light in the upper 
story, lacking sense, thought, and strength of mind ; but a large, 
raw-boned, bouncing Betty, who throws herself far up, and comes 
down good and solid, when she dances, is a strong, powerful, deter- 
mined character, well suited to do up rough work, but destitute of 
polish, though possessed of great force. Some dance all dandy, others 
all business, yet few all intellect. 

Laughter is very expressive of character. Those who laugh very 
heartily have much cordiality and whole-souledness of character, ex- 
cept that those who laugh heartily at trifles have much- feeling, yet 
little sense. Those whose giggles are rapid, but light, have much 
intensity of feeling, yet lack power ; whereas those who combine 


rapidity with force in laughing, combine them in character. One of 
the greatest workers I ever employed, I hired just because he laughed 
heartily, his giggles being rapid and loud. But a colored domestic 
who laughed very rapidly, but LIGHTLY, took a great many steps to do 
almost nothing, and though she worked fast, accomplished little. 
Vulgar persons always laugh vulgarly, and refined persons show refine- 
ment in their laugh. Those who -ha, ha right out, unreservedly, 
have no cunning, and are open-hearted in everything ; while those 
who suppress laughter, and try to control their countenances in it, are 
more or less secretive. Those who laugh with their mouths closed 
are non-committal ; while those who throw it wide open are unguarded 
and unequivocal in character. Those who, suppressing laughter for a 
while, burst forth volcano-like, have strong characteristics, but are 
well governed, yet violent when they give way to their feelings. Then 
there is the intellectual laugh, the love laugh, the horse laugh, the 
philoprogenitive laugh, the friendly laugh, and many other kinds of 
laugh, each indicative of corresponding mental developments. 


Also expresses character. Thus, those who give a tame and loose 
hand, and shake lightly, have a cold, if not heartless and selfish dis- 
position, rarely sacrificing much for others, are probably conservatives, 
and lack warmth and soul. But those who grasp firmly, and shake 
heartily, have a corresponding whole-sotiledness of character, are hos- 
pitable, and will sacrifice business to friends ; while those who bow 
low when they shake hands, add deference to friendship, and are easily 
led, for good or bad, by friends. 


Every mouth differs from every other, and indicates a coincident 
character. Large mouths express a corresponding quantity of mental- 
ity, while small ones indicate a lesser amount. A coarsely formed 
mouth indicates power, while one finely formed indicates exquisite 
susceptibilities. Hence small, delicately-formed mouths indicate only 
common minds, with very fine feelings and much perfection of char- 
acter. Whenever the muscles about the mouth are distinct, the char- 
acter is correspondingly positive, and the reverse. Those who open 
their mouths wide and frequently, thereby evince an open soul, while 
closed mouths, unless to hide deformed teeth, arc proportionately 

And thus of the eyes. In traveling west, in 1837, we examined a 
man who made great pretension to religion, but was destitute of 
Conscience, whom we afterward ascertained to be an impostor. While 
attending the Farmers' Club, in New York, this scamp came in, and 


besides keeping his eyes half closed half the time, frequently shut 
them so as to peep out upon those present, but opened them barely 
enough to allow vision. Tlaose who keep their eyes half shut are 
peekaboos and eavesdroppers. 

Those, too, who keep their coats buttoned up, fancy high-necked 
and closed dresses, etc., are equally non-communicative, but those 
who like open, free, flowing garments, are equally open-hearted and 


Whatever makes a noise, from the deafening roar of sea, cataract, 
and whirl Y.'ind's mighty crash, through all forms of animal life, to the 
sweet and gentle voice of woman, makes a sound which agrees per- 
fectly with the maker's character. Thus the terrific roar of the lion, 
and the soft cooing of the dove, correspond exactly with their respect- 
ive dispositions ; while the rough and powerful bellow of the bull, the 
fierce yell of the tiger, the coarse, guttural moan of the hyena, tho 
swinish grunt, the sweet warblings of birds, in contrast with tho 
raven's croak and owl's hoot, each corresponds perfectly with their 
respective characteristics. And this law holds equally true of man. 
Hence human intonations are as superior to brutal as human character 
exceeds animal. Accordingly, the peculiarities of all human beings 
are expressed in their voices and mode of speaking. Coarse-grained 
and powerful animal organizations have a coarse, harsh, and grating 
voice, while in exact proportion as persons become refined and elevated 
mentally, will their tones of voice become correspondingly refined and 
perfected. We little realize how much of character we infer from this 
source. Thus, some female friends are visiting me transiently. A 
male friend, staying with me, enters the room, is seen by my female 
company, and his walks, dress, manners, etc., closely scrutinized, yet 
he says nothing, and retires, leaving a comparatively indistinct im- 
pression as to his character upon my female visitors, whereas, if he 
simply said yes or no, the mere SOUND of his voice communicates to 
their minds much of his character, and serves to fix distinctly upon 
their minds clear and correct general ideas of his mentality. 

The barbarous races use the guttural sounds more than the civilized. 
Thus Indians talk more down the throat than white men, and thus of 
all, whether lower or higher in the human scale. Those whose voices 
are clear and distinct have clear minds, while those who only half 
form their words, or are heard indistinctly, say by deaf persons, are 
mentally obtuse. Those who have sharp, shrill intonations have cor- 
respondingly intense feelings, and equal sharpness both of anger and 
kindness, as is exemplified by every scold in the world ; whereas those 
with smooth or sweet voices have corresponding evenness and goodness 


of character. Ye,t, contradictory as it may seem, these same persons 
not unfrequently combine both sharpness and softness of voice, and 
such always combine them in character. There are also the intellec- 
tual, the moral, the animal, the selfish, the benignant, the mirthful, 
the devout, the love, and many other intonations, each accompanying 
corresponding peculiarities of characters. In short, every individual 
is compelled, by every word uttered, to manifest something of the true 
character a sign of character as diversified as correct. 


Everything in nature is colored, inside and out ; and the color al- 
ways corresponds with the character. Nature paints her coarse pro- 
ductions in coarse drab, but adorns all her finer, more exquisite pro- 
ductions with her most beautiful colors. Thus, highly-colored fruits 
are always highly- flavored ; the birds of the highest quality are 
arrayed in the most gorgeous tints and hues. 

So, also, particular colors signify particular qualities. Thus, through- 
out all nature black signifies power, or a great amount of character ; 
red, the ardent, loving, intense, concentrated, positive ; green, imma- 
turity ; yellow, ripeness, richness, etc. Hence all black animals are 
powerful, of which bear, Morgan horse, black snake, etc., furnish 
examples. So black fruits, as blackberry, black raspberry, whortle- 
berry, black Tartarian, cherry, etc., are highly-flavored and full of 
rich juices. So, also, the dark races, as Indian and African, are strong, 
muscular, and very tough. All red fruits are acid, as the strawberry ; 
but the darker they are the sweeter, as the Baldwin, gillifleur, etc. ; 
while striped apples blend the sweet with the sour. But whatever is 
growing, that is, still immature, is green ; but all grasses, grains, 
fruits, etc., pass, while ripening, from the green to the yellow, and 
sometimes through the red. The red and yellow fruits are always 
delicious. Other primary colors signify other characteristics. 

Now, since coarseness and fineness of texture indicate coarse and 
fine-grained feelings and characters 2 , and since black signifies power, 
and red ardor, therefore coarse black hair and skin signify great power 
of character of some kind, along with considerable tendency to the 
sensual ; yet fine black hair and skin indicate strength of character, 
along with purity and goodness. Dark-skinned nations are always 
behind the light-skinned in all the improvements of the age, as well 
as in the higher and finer manifestations of humanity. So, too, dark- 
haired persons, like Webster, sometimes called "Black Dan," possess 
great power of intellect and propensity, yet lack the finer and more 
delicate shadings of sensibility and jmrity. Coarse black hair and 
skin, and coarse red hair and whiskers, indicate powerful animal pas- 
sions, together with corresponding strength of character ; while fine, 


or light, or auburn hair indicates quick susceptibilities, together with 
refinement and good taste. Fine dark or brown hair indicates the 
combination of exquisite susceptibilities with great strength of char- 
acter, while auburn hair, -with a florid countenance, indicates the 
highest order of sentiment and intensity of feeling, along with corre- 
sponding purity of character, combined with the highest capacities 
for enjoyment and suffering. And the intermediate colors and textures 
indicate intermediate mentalities. Curly hair or beard indicate a 
crisp, excitable, and variable disposition, and much diversity of char- 
acter now blowing hot, now cold along with intense love and hate, 
gushing, glowing emotions, brilliancy, and variety of talent. So look 
out for ringlets ; they betoken April weather treat them gently, lov- 
ingly, and you will have the brightest, clearest sunshine, and the 
sweetest, balmiest breezes ; but ruffle them, and you raise oh, what 
a storm ! a very hurricane, changeable, now so very hot, now so cold 
that you had better not ruffle them. And this is doubly true of 
auburn curls ; though auburn ringlets need but a little right, kind, 
fond treatment to render them all as fair and delightful as the bright- 
est spring morning. 

Straight, even, smooth, and glossy hair indicates strength, harmony, 
and evenness of character, and hearty, whole-souled affections, as 
well as a clear head and superior talents ; while stiff, straight, black 
hair and beard indicate a coarse, strong, rigid, straightforward char- 
acter. Abundance of hair and beard signifies virility and a great 
amount of character ; while a thin beard signifies sterility and a thinly 
settled upper story, with rooms to let ; so that the beard is very sig- 
nificant of character. And we shall soon sec a reason why it should 
not be shorn. 

Coarse-haired persons should never turn dentists or clerks, but seek 
some out-door employment ; and would be better contented with 
rough, hard work than a light or sedentary occupation, although 
mental and sprightly occupations would serve to refine and improve 
them ; while dark and fine-haired persons may choose purely intellec- 
tual occupations, and become lecturers or writers with fair prospects 
of success. Eed-haired persons should seek out-door employment, for 
they require a great amount of air and exercise ; while those who have 
light, fine hair should choose occupations involving taste and mental 
acumen, yet take bodily exercise enough to tone up and invigorate 
their system. 

Generally, whenever skin, hair, or features are fine or coarse, the 
others are equally so 11 . Yet some inherit fineness from one parent, 
and coarseness from the other, .while the color of the eye generally 
corresponds with that of the skin, and expresses character. Light 
eyes indicate warmth of feeling, and dark eyes power. 


The mere expression of the eye conveys precise ideas of the existing 
and predominant states of the mentality and physiology. As long as 
the constitution remains unimpaired, the eye is clear and bright, hut 
becomes languid and soulless in proportion as the brain has been en- 
feebled. Wild, erratic persons have a half-crazed expression of eye, 
while calmness, benignancy, intelligence, purity, sweetness, love, 
lasciviousness, anger, and all the other mental affections, express 
themselves quite as distinctly by the eye as voice, or any other mode. 


Thus far our remarks have appertained to the constant colors of the 
face, yet those colors are often diversified or changed for the tune being. 

Thus, at one time the whole countenance will be pale, at another 
very red ; each of which indicates the existing states of body and mind. 
Or thus : when the system is in a perfectly healthy state, the whole 
face will be suffused with the glow of health and beauty, and have a 
red, but never an inflamed aspect ; yet any permanent injury of health, 
which prostrates the bodily energies, will change this florid complexion 
into dullness of countenance, indicating that but little blood comes to 
the surface or flows to the head, and a corresponding stagnation of the 
physical and mental powers. Yet, after a time, this dullness fre- 
quently gives way to a fiery redness ; not the floridness of health, but 
the redness of inflammation and false excitement, which indicates a 
corresponding depreciation of the mental faculties. Very red-faced 
persons, so far from being the most healthy, are frequeatly the most 
diseased, and are correspondingly more animal and sensual in charac- 
ter ; because physiological inflammation irritates the propensities 
more, relatively, than the moral and intellectual faculties, though it 
may, for the time being, increase the latter also. "When the moral 
and intellectual faculties greatly predominate over the animal, redness 
may not cause coarse animality, because, while it heightens the animal 
nature, it also' increases the intellectual and moral, which, being the 
larger, hold them in check ; but when the animal about equals or 
exceeds the moral and intellectual, this inflammation evinces a greater 
increase of animality than intellectuality and morality. Gross sensu- 
alists and depraved sinners generally have a fiery red countenance. 
Stand aloof from them, for their passions are all on fire, ready to 
ignite and explode on provocations so slight that a healthy physiology 
would scarcely notice them. This point can hardly be mbre fully 
intelligible ; but let readers note the difference between a healthy 
floridness of face and the fiery redness of drunkards, debauchees, 
meat-eaters, etc. Nor does an inflamed physiology merely increase 
the animal nature, but gives it a far more depraved and sensual cast, 
thereby doubly increasing the depraved tendencies. 



That nature has instituted a SCIENCE of Physiognomy as a facial 
expression of mind and character is proclaimed by the very instincts 
of man and animals. Can not the very dog tell whether his master 
is pleased or displeased, and the very slave, who will make a good, 
and who a cruel master and all by the expressions of the counte- 
nance ? The fact is, that nature compels all her productions to pro- 
claim their interior virtues their own shame, even and hoists a true 
flag of character at their masthead, so that he who runs may read. 

Thus, all apples both tell that they possess apple character by their 
apple shape 10 , but what kind of apple whether good, bad, or indif- 
ferent by their special forms, colors, etc. ; all fish, not only that they 
are fish, but whether trout or sturgeon, and all humans that they are 
human by their outline aspect. And thus of all things. 

Moreover, though all human beings have the general human form 
and features though all have eyes, nose, mouth, skin, etc., yet every 
one has a different face and look from every other. And more yet, the 
same person has a very different facial look at different times, according 
as he is angry or friendly, etc. And always the same look when in the 
same mood. Of course, then, something causes this expression espe- 
cially, since att who are angry, friendly, etc. , have one general or sim- 
ilar expression ; that is, one look expresses anger, another affection, 
another devotion, another kindness, etc. And since nature always 
works by means, she must needs have her physiognomical tools. Nor 
are they under the control of will, for they act spontaneously. We can 
not help, whether we will or no, laughing when merry, even though 
in church, pouting when provoked, and expressing all our mental 
operations, down even to the very innermost recesses of our souls, in 
and by our countenances. And with more minuteness and complete' 
ness than by words, especially when the expressions are intense or pecu- 
liar. Spirits are said to converse mainly by their expressions of coun- 
tenance to look their thoughts and emotions, instead of talking them. 


Certain it is that the countenance expresses a greater amount *f 
thought and feeling, together with their nicer shades and phases, than 
words can possibly communicate. By what MEANS, then, is this effect- 
ed ? By magnetic centers, called poles. Every physical and mental 
organ has its pole stationed in a given part of the face, so that, when 
such organ acts, it influences such poles, and contracts those facial 
muscles which express this action. That there exists an intimate 
relation between the stomach and one part of the face, the lungs and 
another, etc., is proved by the fact that consumptive patients always 


have a hectic flush on the cheek, just externally from the lower por- 
tion of the nose, while inactive lungs cause paleness, and healthy ones 
give the rosy cheek ; and that dyspeptic patients are always lank and 
thin opposite the double teeth, while those whose digestion is good 
are full between the corners of the mouth and lower portion of the 
cars. Since, therefore, SOME of the states of some of the internal 
organs express themselves in the face, of course every organ of the 
body must do the same. The magnetic pole of the heart is in the 
chin. Hence, those whose circulation is vigorous, have broad and 
rather prominent chins ; while those who are small and narrow-chinned 
have feeble hearts ; and thus all the other internal organs have their 
magnetic poles in various parts of the face. Now, since the beard 
covers these facial poles of the internal organs, of course it helps to 
guard heart, viscera, etc., from atmospheric changes. Obviously, it 
was not created for naught, and can not be amputated with impunity. 
It also protects the throat and chest, especially of elderly men. And 
why shave off this natural sign of masculinity ? Shaving is, to say 
the least of it, rather barbarous. 

So all the PHRENOLOGICAL organs have likewise their facial poles, 
some of which are as follows : That of Acquisitiveness is on each side 
of the middle portion of the nose, at its junction with the cheek, 
causing breadth of nose in proportion to the money-grasping instincts, 
as in Jews, while a narrow nose indicates a want of the speculative 
turn. Firmness is indicated by length, prominence, and a compression 
of the upper lip. Hence, when we would exhort to determined perse- 
verance, we say, "Keep a stiff upper lip." Self-Esteem has its pole 
externally from that of Firmness, and between the outer portion of 
the nose and the mouth, causing a fullness, as if a quid were under 
the upper lip. The affections have their poles in the edges of the lips ; 
hence the philosophy of kissing. The pole of Mirthfulness is located 
outward and upward from the outer corners of the mouth ; hence the 
drawing up of these corners in laughter. Approbativeness has its pole 
directly outward from these corners, and hence the approbative laugh 
does not turn the corners of the mouth upward, but draws them 
straight back, or outwardly. Like locations are assigned to all the 
other organs. That physiognomy has its science that fixed and abso- 
lute relations exist between the phrenological organs and given por- 
tions of the face is an unquestionable truth. By these and other 
means the inherent character of every living being and thing gushes 
out through every organ of the body, every avenue of the soul ; and 
both brute and man have a character-reading faculty, to take intuitive 
cognizance of the mental operations. Nor will she let any one lie, 
any more than lie herself, but compels all to carry their hearts in their 
hands, so that all acquainted with these signs may read them through. 


If we attempt deception, the very effort convicts us. And if all nature's 
signs of character were fully understood, all could read not only all 
the -main characters of all they see, but even most of the thoughts 
and feelings passing in the mind for the time being a gift worth more 
than Astor's millions. And the great rule for reading one and all is, 
" Notice all one says and does, ask why, what faculty did or said this 
or that, and especially yield yourself up to drink in or be affected by 
these manifestations. ' ' 


PHEEKOLOGT points out those relations established by nature between 
given developments and conditions of BRAIN and corresponding mani- 
festations of MIND. Its simple yet comprehensive definition is this : 
every faculty of the mind is manifested by means of a particular por- 
tion of the BRAIN, called its organ, the size of which, other things 
being equal, is proportionate to its power of function. For example : 
it teaches that parental love is manifested by one organ, or portion of 
the brain ; appetite by another, reason by a third', etc., which are the 
larger in proportion as these corresponding mental powers are stronger. 

Are, then, particular portions of the brain larger or smaller in pro- 
portion as particular mental characteristics are stronger or weaker? 
Our short-hand mode of proof is illustrated by the following anecdote : 
A Mr. Juror once summoned to attend court, died before its sitting. 
It therefore devolved upon Mr. Simple to state to the court the reason 
of his non-appearance. Accordingly, when Mr. Juror's name was 
called, Mr. Simple responded, " May it please the court, I have twenty- 
one reasons to offer why Mr. Juror is not in attendance. The first is, 
he is DEAD. The second is ' ' ' ' That ONE will answer, ' ' replied the 
judge. " One such reason is amply sufficient." But few of the many 
proofs that Phrenology is true will here be stated, yet those few are 

Firstly. THE BRAIN is THE ORGAN OF THE MIND, This is assumed, be- 
cause too universally admitted to require proof. 

Secondly. Is the brain, then, a SINGLE organ, or is it a bundle of organs ? 
Does the WHOLE brain think, remember, love, hate, etc., or does one 
oortion reason, another worship, another love money, etc. ? This is the 
determining point. To decide it affirmatively, establishes Phrenology ; 
negatively, overthrows it. It is proved by the following facts : 

^valk, think, talk, remember, love, and many other things, all TOGETHER 
the mind being, in this respect, like a stringed instrument, with 
several strings vibrating at a time, instead of like a flute, which stops 


. -.- 

the preceding sound when it commences a succeeding one ; whereas, 
if it were a single organ, it must stop thinking the instant it began to 
talk, could not love a friend and express that love at the same time, 
and could do but one thing at once. 

MONOMANIA.- Since mental derangement is caused only by cerebral 
disorder, if the brain were a single organ, the WHOLE mind must be 
sane or insane together ; whereas most insane persons are deranged 
only on one or two points, a conclusive proof of the plurality of the 
organs of the brain and of the mental faculties. 

DIVERSITY OF TALENT, or the fact that some are remarkable for sense, 
but poor in memory, or the reverse ; some forgetting names, but 
remembering faces ; some great mechanics, but poor speakers, or the 
reverse ; others splendid natural singers, but no mechanics, etc. , con- 
ducts us to the same conclusion. 

INJURIES OF THE BRAIN furnish still more demonstrative proof. If 
Phrenology is true, to inflame Tune, for example, would create a sing- 
ing disposition ; Veneration, a praying desire ; Cautiousness, ground- 
less fears ; and so of all the other organs. And thus it is. Nor can 
this class of facts be evaded. They abound in all phrenological works, 
especially periodicals, and drive and clench the nail of proof. 

COMPARATIVE PHRENOLOGY, or- the perfect coincidence existing be- 
tween the developments and the characters of animals, constitutes the 
highest proof of all. Since man and brute are fashioned upon one 
great model since the same great optical laws govern the vision of 
both, the same principle of muscular contraction which enables the 
eagle to soar aloft beyond our vision, and the whale to furrow and 
foam the mighty deep, also enables man to walk forth in the conscious 
pride of his strength, and thus of all their other common functions 
of course, if man is created in accordance with certain phrenological 
laws, brutes must also be, and the reverse. If, then, this science is 
true of either, it must be true of both must pervade all forms of 
organization. What, then, are the facts ? 

Phrenology locates the animal propensities at the SIDES of the head, 
between and around the ears ; the social affections in its BACK and 
lower portion ; the aspiring faculties in its CROWN ; the moral on its 
TOP, and the intellectual on the FOREHEAD ; the perceptives, which 
relate us to matter, OVER THE EYES ; and the reflectives, in the UPPER 
part of the forehead. (See cut No. 15.) 

Now, since brutes possess at least only weak moral and reflective 
faculties, they should, if Phrenology were true, hare little top-head, 
and thus it is. Not one of all the following drawings of animals have 
much brain in either the reflective or moral region. Almost all their 
mentality consists of the ANIMAL PROPENSITIES, and nearly all their 
brain is found BETWEEN and AROUND THEIR EARS, just where, according 


to Phrenology, it should be. Yet the skulls of all human beings rise 
high above the eyes and ears, and are long on top, that is, have full 
intellectual and moral OEGANS, as we know they possess these mental 



ELEMENTS Compare the accompanying human skull with those of 
brutes Those of snakes, frogs, turtles, alligators, etc. , slope straight 
back from the nose ; that is, have almost no moral or intellectual 

No. 17. SNAKE. No. 18. TUBTLE. 

organs ; tigers, dogs, lions, etc. , have a little more, yet how insignifi- 
cant compared with man, while monkeys are between them in these- 
organs and their faculties. Here, then, is INDUCTIVE proof of Phrenol- 
ogy as extensive as the whole brute -creation on the one hand, con- 
trasted with the entire human family on the other. 

Again, Destructiveness is located by Phrenology over the ears, so as 
to render the head wide in proportion as this organ is developed. 




Accordingly, all carnivorous animals should be wide-headed at the 
ears ; all herbivorous, narrow. And thus they are, as seen in tigers, 



hyenas, bears, cats, foxes, ichneumons, etc. , compared with rabbits, 
sheep, etc. (Cuts 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, and 30.) 




To large Destructiveness, cats, foxes, ichneumons, etc., add largo 
SECRETIVE.NESS, both in character and head. 


7, No. 26. ICHNEUMON BIDE VIEW. No. 27. Do.- 


No. 2?. CAT BACK 

NO. 29 (JAT 8IDB 


Fowls, in like manner, correspond perfectly in head and character 



with the phrenological requisitions. Thus, owls, hawks, eagles, etc., 
have very wide heads, and ferocious dispositions ; while hens, turkeys, 
etc., have narrow heads, and little Destructiveness in character. (Cuts 
31, 32, 33, and 34.) 

No. 31. OWL. No. 82. HAWK. , No. 33. HEN. No. 84. CBOW. 

The crow (cut 34) has very large Secretiveness and Cautiousness in 
the head, as it is known to have in character. 

Monkeys, too, bear additional testimony to the truth of phrenolog- 
ical science. They possess, 
in character, strong per- 
ceptive powers, but weak 
reflect! ves, powerful pro- , 
pensities, and feeble moral 
I elements. Accordingly, 
they are full over the 

No. 35. OEANG-OUTANQ. eyes, but slope straight 
back at the reasoning and moral faculties, while the propensities engross 
most of their brain. 

The OEANG-OUTANG has more forehead larger intellectual organs, 
both perceptive and reflective than any other animal, with some of 
the moral sentiments, and accordingly is called the " half- reasoning 
man," its phrenology corresponding perfectly with its character. 


The various races also accord with phrenological science. Thus, 
Africans generally have full perceptives, and large Tune and Language, 
but retiring Causality, and accordingly are deficient in reasoning ca- 
pacity, yet have excellent memories and lingual and musical powers. 

Indians possess extraordinary strength of the propensities and per- 
ceptives, yet have no great moral or inventive power ; and, hence, 
have very wide, round, conical, and rather low heads, but are large 
over the eyes. 

Indian skulls can always be selected from Caucasian, just by these 
developments ; while the Caucasian race is superior in reasoning power 



and moral elevation to all the other races, and, accordingly, .has a 
higher and bolder forehead, and more elevated and elongated top-head. 


Finally, contrast the massive foreheads of all -giant-minded men- 
Bacons, Franklins, Miltons, etc., with the low, retiring foreheads of 
idiots. In short, every human, every brutal head, is constructed 


w. No. 40. IDIOT. 

throughout strictly on phrenological principles. Ransack air, earth, 
and water, and not one palpable exception ever has been, ever can be, 
adduced. This WHOLESALE view of this science precludes the possibil- 
ity of mistake. Phrenology is therefore a PART AND PAKCEL OF NATURE 



All truth bears upon its front unmistakable evidence of its divine 
origin, in its philosophical consistency, fitness, and beauty, whereas 


all untruth is grossly and palpably deformed. All truth, also, har- 
monizes with all other truth, and conflicts with all error, so that, to 
ascertain what is true, and detect what is false, is perfectly easy. 
Apply this test, intellectual reader, to one after another of the doc- 
trines taught by Phrenology. But enough on this point of proofs. 
Let us proceed to its illustration. 


The brain is not only the organ of the mind, the dome of thought, 
the palace of the soul, but is equally the organ of the body, over which 
it exerts an all-potent influence for good or ill, to weaken or stimu- 
late, to kill or make alive. In short, the brain is the organ of the 
body in general, and of all its organs in particular. It sends forth 
those nerves which keep muscles, liver, bowels, and all the other bod- 
ily organs, in a high or low state of action ; and, more than all other 
causes, invites or repels disease, prolongs or shortens life, and treats 
the body as its galley-slave. Hence, healthy cerebral action is indis- 
pensable to bodily health, while a longing, pining, dissatisfied, fretful, 
or troubled state of mind is most destructive of health, and productive 
of disease ; so is violence in any and all the passions ; indeed, the 
state of the mind has mainly to do with that of the health. Even 
dyspepsia is more a mental than physical condition, and to be cured 
first and mainly by banishing that agitated, flashy, eager, craving 
state of mind, and securing instead a calm, quiet, let-the-world-slide 
state ; nor will any physical appliances avail much without this men- 
tal restorative. Hence, too, we walk or work so much more easily 
and efficiently when we take an interest in what we do. Therefore, 
those who would be happy or talented must first and mainly keep 
their BRAIN vigorous and healthy 3 . 

The brain is subdivided into two hemispheres, the right and left, by 
the falciform process of the dura mater a membrane which dips down 
one to two inches into the brain, and runs from the root of the nose 
over to the nape of the neck. This arrangement renders all the 
phrenological organs DOUBLE. Thus, as there are two eyes, ears, etc., 
so that when one is diseased, the other can carry forward the functions, 
so there are two lobes to each phrenological organ, one on each side. 
The brain is divided thus : the feelings occupy that portion commonly 
covered by the hair, while the forehead is occupied by the intellectual 
organs. These greater divisions are subdivided into the animal brain, 
located between and around the ears ; the aspiring faculties, which 
occupy the crown of the head ; the moral and religious sentiments, 
which occupy its top ; the physico-perceptives, located over the eyes ; 
and the reflectives, in the Tipper portion of the forehead. The pre- 
dominance of these respective groups produces both particular shapes 


of head and corresponding traits of character. Thus, the head pro- 
jecting far back behind the ears, and hanging over and downward in 
the occipital rjpi, indicates very strong domestic ties and social 
affections, a lov^f home, its relations and endearments, and a corre- 
sponding capacity of being happy in the family, and making family 
happy. Very wide and round heads, on the contrary, indicate strong 
animal and selfish propensities, while thin, narrow heads indicate a 
corresponding want of selfishness and animality. A head projecting 
far up at the crown indicates an aspiring, self-elevating disposition, 
proudness of character, and a desire to be and to do something great ; 
while the flattened crown indicates a want of ambition, energy, and 
aspiration. A head high, long, and wide upon the top, but narrow 
between the ears, indicates Causality, moral virtue, much practical 
goodness, and a corresponding elevation of character ; while a low 
and narrow top-head indicates a corresponding deficiency of these 
humane and religious susceptibilities. A head wide at the upper part 
Of the temples indicates a corresponding desire for personal perfection, 
together with a love of the beautiful and refined, while narrowness in 
this region evinces a want of taste, with much coarseness of feeling. 
Fullness over the eyes indicates excellent practical judgment of mat- 
ters and things appertaining to property, science, and nature in gen- 
eral ; while narrow, straight eyebrows indicate poor practical judgment 
of matter, things, their qualities, relations, and uses. Fullness from 
the root of the nose upward indicates great practical talent, love of 
knowledge, desire to see, and ability to do the right thing at the right 
time, and in the best way, together with sprightliuess of mind ; while 
a hollow in the middle of the forehead indicates want of memory, and 
inability to show off to advantage. A bold, high forehead indicates 
strong reasoning capabilities, while a retiring forehead indicates less 
soundness, but more availability of talent. And thus of other cere- 
bral forms. 

Phrenology teaches that every faculty, when active, throws head 
and body hi the direction of the acting organ. Thus, intellect, in the 
fore part of the head, throws it directly forward, and produces a for- 
ward hanging motion of the head. Hence, intellectual men never 
carry their heads backward and upward, but always forward ; and 
logical speakers move their heads in a straight line, usually forward, 
toward their audience ; while vain speakers carry their heads back- 
ward. Hence it is not a good sign to stand so straight as to lean 
backward, for it shows that the brain is in the wrong plarf more in 
the animal than intellectual region. Perceptive intellect, when active, 
throws' out the chin and lower portions of the face ; whil rfiflfictive 



intellect causes the upper portion of the forehead to hang forward, 
and draws in the chin, as in the engravings of Frai^^n, Webster, and 
other great thinkers. Benevolence throws the hesBpid body slightly 
forward, leaning toward the object which excites its sympathy ; while 
Veneration causes a low bow, which, the world over, is a token of 
respect ; yet, when Veneration is exercised toward the Deity, as in 
devout prayer, it throws the head UPWARD ; and, as we use intellect 
at the same time, the head is generally directed forward. 

He who meets you with a long, low bow thinks more of you than 
of himself; but he who greets you with a short, quick bow who 
makes half a bow forward, but a bow and a half backward thinks 
one of you, and one and a half of himself. Ideality throws the head 
slightly forward and to one side, as in Washington Irving, a man as 


gifted in taste and imagination as almost any living writer ; and, in 
his portraits, his finger rests upon this faculty, while in Sterne the 
finger rests upon Mirthfulness. Very firm men stand straight up and 
down, inclining not a hair's breadth forward or backward, or to the 
right or left; hence the expression, "He is an up-and-down man." 
And this organ is located exactly on a line with the body. Self- Esteem, 


located in the back and upper portion of the head, throws the head 
and body upwarjj and backward. Large feeling, pompous persona 
walk in a very dignified, majestic manner, and throw their heads in 
the direction of Self-Esteem ; whilo approbative persons throw their 

heads backward, but to 
one side or both. The 
difference between the 
natural language of 
these two organs being 
slight, only the practical 
phrenologist can per- 
fectly distinguish them. 
A coxcomb once ask- 
ing a philosopher, 
" What makes you hang 
your head down so ?. why 
don't you hold it up, 
and look as I do ?" Avas 
answered : " Look at 
that field of wheat! 
No. 4>.-A CONCEITED SIMPLETON. The heads that are well 

filled bend downward, but those that stand up straight are empty." 

There is, moreover, a natural language of money loving, a leaning 
forward and turning, which carries the head to one side, as if in ardent 
pursuit of something, and ready to grasp it with outstretched arms ; 
while Alimentiveness, situated lower, hugs itself down to the 
dainty dish with the greediness of an epicure, better seen than 
described. The shake of the head is the natural language of Combat- 
iveness, and means no, or, I resist you. Those who are combating 
earnestly shake the head more or less violently, according to the 
power of the combative feeling, but always shake it slightly inclining 
backward; while Destructiveness, inclining forward, causes a shaking 
of the head slightly forward, and turning to one side. When a per- 
son who threatens you shakes his head violently, and holds it par- 
tially backward, and to one side, never fear he is only barking ; but 
whoever inclines his head to one side, and shakes it violently, will 
bite, whether possessed of two legs or four. The social affections arc 
located in the back part of the head ; and, accordingly, woman being 
more loving than man, when not under the influence of the other 
faculties, usually inclines her head backward ; and when she kisses 
children, and those she loves, always turns the head directly backward, 
and rolls it from side to side, on the back of the neck. Thus it is that 
each of the various postures assumed by individuals expresses the 
present or permanent activity of their respective faculties. 





BUT the highest evidence, most conclusive to a thinking mind, that 
Phrenology is true, is this : Whatever is true bears indisputable evi- 
dence of its divine origin, in its infinite perfection ; while that which is 
human is imperfect. If, therefore, Phrenology is true, every part and 
parcel of it will be perfection itself in its facts, its philosophies, its 
teachings. And that proposed analysis of the phrenological faculties 
to which we now proceed will so expound its internal workings as to 
show whether it is or is not thus perfect or imperfect true or false. 

Its perfection is seen especially in these three aspects : 

First, the grouping and location of its organs. Throughout all 
nature, the place of every organ serves to facilitate its function. Thus, 
foot, eye, heart, each bone and organ, can fulfill its office better, 
placed where it is, than if placed anywhere else. And if Phrenology 
is true, each of the phrenological organs will be so located, both 
absolutely and as regards the others, that their position shall aid the 
end they subserve. And their being thus placed furnishes additional 
proof that Phrenology is divine. 

Though the phrenological organs were discovered, some in one cen- 
tury and continent, and others in another, yet on casting the analytical 
eye over them all, we find them seZ/- classified by their geographical 
position in the head. When on first taking a general survey of the 
phrenological organs, thinking to improve the classification somewhat, 
I adopted this rule, beginning at the lowest posterior organs in the 
head, and classifying them in accordance with the geographical position 
upward and forward in the head ; and have seen since no chance to 
improve on this general principle. 

And what is more, all those organs are in groups whose faculties 
perform analogous functions. Thus, all the social affections are 
grouped in one portion of the head the back and lower ; and their 
position is beneath and below all, just as their function is basilar, yet 
comparatively unseen. Neither do these organs obtrude themselves 
on our vision ; nor do we stand on the corners of the streets to pro- 
claim how much we love husband, wife, children, or friends. So the 


animal organs are placed at the top of the spinal column and base of 
the brain, or just where the nerves from the various portions of the 
body ramify on the brain. Now the office of these organs is to carry 
forward the various bodily wants. This, nature fulfills, by placing 
them right at the head of those nerves which enable them to commu- 
nicate with the body in the most perfect manner possible. So the 
organs in the top of the head, being the highest of all, fulfill the most 
exalted functions of all. By a law of structure, as we rise from the 
sole of the foot to the crown of the head, at every inch of our ascend- 
ing progress we meet with functions more and more important as their 
organs are located still higher up. Feet, located lowest of all, perform 
the menial services of all ; while the organs in the lower part of the 
body proper, higher in position, are also higher in function ; for 
whereas we can live without feet, convenient though they be, yet we 
can not live long without the visceral organs. Yet longer and better 
without these than heart or lungs, which, located highest of all in the 
body proper, fulfill its most important functions, their suspension 
causing simultaneous death. But even these perform functions less 
elevated than head, which, located highest of all, fulfills the crowning 
function of all MIND : that for which the entire body, as well as uni- 
versal nature, was created. And we might therefore infer that the 
various parts of this brain would fulfill functions more important, 
according to their position upward from the base to the top. And so 
it is. For while the animal and social organs are to man what founda- 
tions are to house absolutely indispensable, yet that there is a 
higher quality or grade to man's moral faculties than animal to those 
which ally him to angels and to God, than to matter, to immortality 
than mortality is but the common sentiment of mankind. Is not 
the good man higher in the human scale than those of powerful ani- 
mal functions ? Are not those great intellectually greater than those 
great animally? The talented above the rich? or reason above 
acquisitiveness ? Does not the philosophy involved in this position of 
the respective organs both absolutely, and as regards each other, 
evince a divine hand in its construction ? 

Secondly. Equally philosophical and perfect is the analysis of the 
phrenological faculties, considered both in reference to man's necessary 
life-requisitions, and as regards universal nature. Man, having a 
material department to his nature, must needs be linked to matter, 
and possessed of all its properties. He is so. Then might we not 
expect some department of his nature to inter-relate him to each prop- 
erty of matter ? These phrenological faculties furnish that relation. 
And it so is that each phrenological faculty is adapted and adapts man 
to some great element in matter and arrangement in nature, as also to 
some special want or requisition of his being. Thus appetite relates 


trim to his need of food, and to that department of nature which sup- 
plies this food, or to her dietetic productions. Causality adapts him 
to nature's arrangements of cause and effect ; Comparison, to her 
classifications ; Form, to her configurations 10 ; Ideality, to the beauti- 
ful ; and in like manner each of the other faculties adapt him to some 
institute of nature. And to point out this adaptation furnishes the 
finest explanation of the faculties to be found, as well as the strongest 
proof that "the hand that formed them is divine." That is, Parental 
Love is adapted, and adapts man to, the infantile and parental rela- 
tions. Nature must needs provide for the rearing of every individual 
child ; and this she effects by creating in all parents vegetable, ani- 
mal, human the parental sentiment, or loye of their mm young, 
particularly as infants, thus specifying what adult shall care for each 
particular child, thus absolutely providing for the rearing of all. 
Hence, whatever concerns the relations of parents to their children 
conies under this faculty ; and its correct analysis unfolds whatever 
concerns parents and their children. So Constructivencss adapts man 
to his need of clothes, houses, and materials for creature comforts, 
and is adapted to nature's mechanical institutes. And each of the 
other phrenological organs has a like adaptation to some great fact or 
provision in the economy of things. 

And what is more yet, each phrenological faculty is found to run 
throughout all animal, all vegetable life, and to be an inherent prop- 
erty of things of nature, of matter. Thus, the phrenological faculty 
of Firmness expresses a principle which runs throughout every phase 
of nature, as seen in the stability of all her operations the perpetual 
return of her seasons, the immutability of her laws, the stability of 
her mountains, the uniformity and reliability or firmness of all her 
operations. Time, too, expresses a natural institute. For it not only 
appertains to man and all his habits the natural period of his life 
included but all plants are timed, observe each its own times and 
seasons. Each seed, fruit, animal, everything has its time. Some 
things begin and end their lives, as it were, in a day others a year ; 
while the cedars of Lebanon or California live through many centuries. 
But even they have their germination, adolescence, maturity, decline, 
death, and decay. Given fruits ripen each at its given season ; and 
even 'flowers and vegetables, transplanted from a southern to a north- 
ern latitude, keep up their periodical function in spite of opposite sea- 
sons. Has not every rock, even, its age ? that is, a time clement 
appertaining to the earth, and every one of its productions and their 
functions, as well as to every star is a universal institute of nature. 
So is Order. For are not eye, foot, heart, spine, always in their re- 
pective places? And so of bark, root, limb, fruit, every organ of 
every animal and vegetable that is, method is quite as^nuch an ele- 


ment of universal nature as of man. Color is equally universal. 
So is Form. And is not conscientiousness in nature's arrangement 
that, all her laws obeyed, reward violated, punish ? A tree injured 
inflicts punishment by withholding its fruit. And every wrong done 
to man, animal, or thing becomes its own avenger, while every right 
embodies its own reward, showing that the entity we call conscien-" 
tiousness is a universal" institute, not of man alone, but of every phase 
of life and function of nature. And so of all the other faculties. 

Thirdly. Phrenology teaches the true philosophy of life. It unfolds 
the original constitution of man. That constitution was right was as 
perfect even as its divine Author could render it. And in pointing 
out the original constitution of humanity, Phrenology shows who 
departs therefrom, and wherein. That is, by giving a beau ideal of 
human perfection, it teaches one and all, individuals and communities, 
wherein and how far they conform to, and depart from, this perfect 
human type, and thereby becomes the great reformer. And as far as 
individuals and communities live in accordance with its requisitions, 
they live perfect lives. That is, each of its faculties has a normal 
action. That normal action fulfilled is perfection. Has also an abnor- 
mal, which is imperfection. And in teaching us both their normal 
and abnormal, it thereby teaches us just how to live, even in details ; 
and thereby settles all questions in morals, in ethics, in deal between 
man and man, in every possible phase and aspect of life, down to its 
minutest details and requisitions, thereby becoming the great law- 
giver of humanity. 

But to follow out these grand first principles would unduly enlarge 
our volume. Having stated them, the reader, curious to follow them 
up, will find in the American Phrenological Journal, and in works on 
Phrenology, these and kindred ideas amplified. Meanwhile, to pro- 
ceed with the phrenological organs, their groups, and individual 


These occupy the back and lower portion of the head, causing it to 
project behind the ears, and create most of the family affections and 

7. Are pre-eminently attached to family and home, and enjoy them 
more than any of the other pleasures of life ; love companions and 
children with passionate fondness, and will do and sacrifice anything 
for them ; must have a home and home joys, and pine away without 

6. Love family, home, country, and the fireside relations devotedly, 
and regard family as the center of most of life's pleasures or pains ; 
are eminently social and companionable, and strive to make home 


pleasant and family happy ; sacrificing often and much on the domestic 
altar. . 

5.' Love and enjoy the domestic relations well, but not as life's 
highest good ; and seek other things and pleasures first, though home 
pleasures much. 

4. Have fair, average commonplace family ties, and do much, but 
not over much, for companion, children, and friends. 

3. Are rather indifferent in and to the family, and take a little, 
though no great pleasure, in them ; and need to cultivate the domes- 
tic virtues. 

2. Care little for home, its inmates, or pleasures, and are barren* 
of its virtues. 

1. Have scarcely any social ties, and they weak. 







o. 44. Miss MODESTY. 

SEXUALITY ; the LOVE element ; attachment to the OPPOSITE 
SEX ; desire to LOVE, BE loved, and MARRY. 

Everything in nature is SEXED is male or female. And this sexual 
institute embodies those means employed by the Author of all life for 
its inception for the perpetuity and multiplication of the race, of all 
forms of life. It creates in each sex admiration and love of the other ; 
renders woman winning, persuasive, urbane, affectionate, loving, and 
lovely ; and develops all the feminine charms and graces ; and makes 
man noble in feeling and bearing ; elevated in aspiration ; gallant, 
tender, and bland in manner ; affectionate toward woman ; pure in 
feeling ; highly susceptible to female charms ; and clothes him with 
that dignity, power, and persuasiveness which accompanies the mascu- 
line. Perverted, it occasions grossness and vulgarity in expression and 
action ; licentiousness in all its forms ; a feverish state of mind ; de- 
praves all the other propensities ; treats the other sex merely as a 
minister to passion now caressing, and now abusing them ; and ren- 
ders the love-feeling every way gross and animal. 


VERY LARGE. Are admirably sexed, or well-nigh perfect as a male 
or female ; literally idolize, almost worship, the opposite sex ; treat 
them with the utmost consideration ; cherish for them the most exalted 
feelings of regard and esteem, as if they were superior beings ; have 
the instincts the true spirit and tone of the male or female in a 
pre-eminent degree ; must love and be beloved, and with inexpressible 
tenderness ; are sure to elicit and return love ; are winning, attractive 
to, and attracted by, the other sex ; and that by instinct, in behavior, 
in conversation, in all they say and do ; with organic quality 6, and 
the other social organs large, have the conjugal intuition in a pre-emi- 
nent degree ; assimilate and conform to those loved, and become per- 
fectly united ; and with Conjugality large, manifest the most clinging 
fondness and utmost devotion^ and are made or unmade for life by the 
state of the affections. For other combinations, see large. 

LARGE. Are well sexed, or very much of a man or woman ; that is, 
have the form, carriage, spirit, manners, and mind of the true man 
or woman In a high degree ; are eminently both loving and lovely ; 
are full of love, and with Conjugality large, of the real conjugal sen- 
timent and intuition ; strongly attract, and are strongly attracted by, 
the opposite sex ; admire and love their beauty and excellences ; easily 
win their affectionate regards, or kindle their love ; have many warm 
friends, if not admirers, among them ; love young and most intensely, 
and are powerfully influenced by the love elements for good or evil, 
according as it is well or ill placed ; with Adhesiveness and Conjugal- 
ity large, will mingle pure friendship with devoted love ; can not 
flourish alone, but must have a matrimonial mate, with whom to be- 
come perfectly identified, and whom to invest with almost superhuman 
perfections, by magnifying their charms and overlooking their defects ; 
in the sunshine of whose love be perfectly happy, but proportionally 
miserable without it ; with large Ideality and the mental tempera- 
ment added, will experience a fervor and intensity of love, amounting 
almost to ecstasy or romance ; can marry those only who combine 
refinement of manners with correspondingly strong attachments ; with 
Parental Love and Benevolence also large, are eminently qualified to 
enjoy the domestic relations, and be happy in home, as well as render 
home happy ; with Inhabitiveness also large, will set a high value on 
house and place ; long to return home when absent, and consider fam- 
ily and children as the greatest of life's treasures; with large Con- 
scientiousness added, will keep the marriage relations inviolate, and 
regard unfaithfulness as the greatest of sins ; with Combativeness 
large, will defend the object of love with great spirit, and resent 
powerfully any indignity offered them ; with Alimentiveness large, 
will enjoy eating with the family dearly ; with Approbativeness large, 
can not endure to be blamed by those beloved ; with Cautiousness and 


Secretiveness large, will express love guardedly, and much less than 
is experienced ; but with Secretiveness small, will show in every look 
and action the full, unvailed feeling of the soul ; with Firmness, Self- 
Esteeni, and Conjugality large, will sustain interrupted love with for- 
titude, yet suffer much damage of mind and health therefrom ; but 
with Self-Esteem moderate, will feel crushed and broken down by 
disappointment ; with the moral faculties predominant, can love those 
only whose moral tone is pure and elevated ; with predominant Ideal- 
ity, and only average intellectual faculties, will prefer those who are 
showy and gay to those who are sensible, yet less beautiful ; but with 
Ideality less than the intellectual and moral organs, will prefer those 
who are substantial and valuable rather than showy ; with Mirthful- 
ness, Time, and Tune, will love dancing, lively company, etc. : p. 57. 

FULL. Possess quite strong susceptibilities of love for a congenial 
spirit ; are capable of much purity, intensity, and cordiality of love ; 
with Adhesiveness and Benevolence large, will be kind and affec- 
tionate in the family ; with Secretiveness large, will manifest less 
love than is felt, and show little in promiscuous society ; with a 
highly susceptible temperament, will experience great intensity of 
love, and evince a good degree of masculine or feminine excellence, 
etc. : p. 59. 

AVERAGE. Are capable of fair sexual attachments, and calculated 
to feel and exhibit a good degree of love, provided it is properly placed 
and fully called out ; experience a greater or less degree of love in 
proportion to its activity ; as a man, are quite attached to mothers 
and sisters, and fond of female society, and endowed with a fair share 
of the masculine element, yet not remarkable for its perfection ; as a 
woman, quite whining and attractive, yet not particularly susceptibl 
to love ; as a daughter, fond of father and brothers, and desirous of 
the society of men, yet not extremely so ; and capable of a fair share 
of conjugal devotedness under favorable circumstances ; combined 
with an ardent temperament, and large Adhesiveness and Ideality, 
have a pure and platonic cast of love, yet can not assimilate with a 
coarse temperament, or a dissimilar phrenology ; are refined and faith- 
ful, yet have more friendship than passion ; can love those only who 
are just to the liking ; with Cautiousness and Secretiveness large, will 
express less love than is felt, and that equivocally, and by piecemeal, 
nor then till the loved one is fully committed ; with Cautiousness, 
Approbativeness, and Veneration large, and Self-Esteem small, are 
diffident in promiscuous society, yet enjoy the company of a select few 
of the opposite sex ; with Adhesiveness, Benevolence, and Conscien- 
tiousness large, and Self-Esteem small, are kind and affectionate in 
the family, yet not particularly fond of caressing or being caressed ; 
and do much to make family happy, yet will manifest no great fond- 


ness and tenderness ; with Order, Approbativencss, and Ideality large, 
seek in a companion personal neatness and polish of manners ; with 
full intellectual and moral faculties, base their conjugal attachments 
in the higher qualities of the affections, rather than their personal 
attractiveness or strength of passion ; but with a commonplace tem- 
perament, and not so fall moral and intellectual faculties, are indiffer- 
ent toward the opposite sex, and rather cool toward them in manners 
and conversation ; neither attract nor are attracted much, and are 
rather tame in love and marriage, and can live tolerably comfortably 
without loving or being beloved, etc. : 56. 

MODERATE. Will be rather deficient, though not palpably so, in the 
love element, and averse to the other sex ; and love their mental 
excellences more than personal charms ; show little desire to caress 
or be caressed; and find it difficult to sympathize with a conjugal 
partner, unless the natural harmony between both is well-nigh per- 
fect ; care less for marriage, and can live unmarried without inconve- 
nience ; with Conjugality large, can love but once, and should marry 
only the first love, because the love-principle will not be sufficiently 
strong to overcome the difficulties incident to its transfer, or the want 
of congeniality, and find more pleasure in other things than in the 
matrimonial relations ; with an excitable temperament, will experi- 
ence greater warmth and ardor than depth and uniformity of love ; 
with Ideality large and organic quality 6, are fastidious and over-mod- 
est, and terribly shocked by allusions to love ; pronounce love a silly 
farce, only fit for crack-brained poets ; with Approbativeness large, 
will soon become alienated by rebukes and fault-finding ; with Adhe- 
siveness and the moral and intellectual faculties large, can become 
strongly attached to those who are highly moral and intellectual, yet 
experience no affinity for any other, and to be happy in marriage, 
must base it in the higher faculties : p. 59. 

SMALL. Dislike the opposite sex, and distrust and refuse to assimi- 
late with them ; feel little sexual love, or desire to marry ; are cold, 
coy, distant, and reserved toward the other sex ; experience but little 
of the beautifying and elevating influence of love, and should not 
marry, because incapable of appreciating its relations, and making a 
companion happy : p. 59. 

VERY SMALL. Are passively continent, and almost destitute of 
love : p. CO. 

To CULTIVATE. Mingle much in the society of the c ther sex ; ob- 
serve and appreciate their excellences, and overlook their faults ; be 
as gallant, as gentlemanly or lady-like, as inviting, as prepossessing, 
as lively and entertaining in their society as you know how to be, and 
always on the alert to please them ; say as many complimentary and 
pretty things, and as few disagreeable things, as possible ; that is, feel 


and play the agreeable ; if not married, contemplate its advantages 
and pleasures, and be preparing to enjoy them ; if married, get up a 
second and an improved edition of courtship ; re-enamor both your- 
self and conjugal partner, by becoming just as courteous, loving, and 
lovely as possible ; luxuriate in the company and conversation of those 
well sexed, and yield to drink in their inspiriting influence ; be less 
fastidious, and more free and communicative ; establish a warm, cor- 
dial intimacy and friendship for them, and feast yourself on their mas- 
culine or feminine excellences ; if not married, marry, and cultivate 
the feelings, as well as live the life of a right and a hearty sexuality. 

To RESTRAIN. Simply direct this love element more to the mental, 
and less to the personal qualities of the other sex ; admire and love 
them more for their minds than bodies, more for their moral purity 
and conversational powers than instruments of passion ; seek the soci- 
ety of the virtuous and good, but avoid that of the vulgar ; should 
mingle in their society but 'to derive moral elevation and inspiration 
therefrom, not to feed the fires of passion ; to be made better and 
yield to their molding influences for good ; should be content to 
commune with their spirits ; should sanctify and elevate the cast and 
tone of love, and banish its baser forms ; especially should lead a right 
physiological life avoid tea and meats, and abstain wholly from cofiee, 
tobacco, and all forms and degrees of alcoholic drinks, wines and 
beer included; exercise much in the open air; abstain wholly from 
carnal indulgence ; work off your vital force on other functions as a 
relief of this ; bathe daily ; eat sparingly ; study and commune with 
nature; cultivate the pure, the intellectual, the moral as the best 
means of rising above the passional, and put yourself on a high human 
plane throughout. Remember these two things first, that you require 
its purification, elevation, and right direction rather than restraint, 
because it is more perverted than excessive it can not be too great if 
rightly exercised and secondly, that the inflamed state of the body 
irritates and perverts this passion, of which a cooling regimen is a 
Bpecific antidote- 218. 


instinct ; attachment to ONE conjugal partner ; duality and ex- 
clusiveness of love. Perverted action a broken heart ; 
jealousy; envy toward love rivals. Located between Aina- 
tiveness and Adhesiveness and adapted to parents living with 


and educating all their own children in the same family. 
Some birds, such as doves, eagles, geese, robins, etc., pair, 
and remain true to their connubial attachment ; while hens, 
turkeys, sheep, horses, and neat cattle associate promiscu- 
ously, which shows this to be a faculty distinct from Amative- 
ness and Adhesiveness. 

VERT LARGE. Select gome ONE of the opposite sex as the sole object 
of love ; concentrate the whole soul on the single one beloved ; mag- 
nifying excellences and overlooking faults; long to be always with 
that one ; are exclusive, and require a like exclusiveness ; are true and 
faithful in wedlock, if married in spirit ; possess the element of conju- 
gal union, of flowing together of soul, in the highest degree, and 
with Continuity 6, become broken-hearted when disappointed, and 
comparatively worthless in this world ; seek death rather than life ; 
regard this union as the gem of life, and its loss as worse than death ; 
and should manifest the utmost care to bestow itself only where it 
can be reciprocated for life. 

LARGE. Seek one, and but one, sexual mate ; experience the keen- 
est disappointment when love is interrupted ; are restless until the. 
affections are anchored ; are perfectly satisfied with the society of that 
one ; and should exert every faculty to win the heart and hand of the 
one beloved ; nor allow anything to alienate the affections. 

FULL. Can love cordially, yet are capable of changing their object, 
especially if Continuity is moderate ; will love for life, provided cir- 
cumstances are favorable, yet will not bear everything from a lover 
or companion, and if one love is interrupted can readily form, another. 

AVERAGE. Are disposed to love but one for life, yet capable of 
changing their object, and, with Secretiveness and Approbativeness 
large, and Conscientiousness only full, are capable of coquetry, espe- 
cially if Amativeness is large, and Adhesiveness only full, and the 
temperament more powerful than fine-grained ; such should cultivate 
this faculty, and not allow their other faculties to break their first 

MODERATE. Are somewhat disposed to love only one, yet allow 
other stronger faculties to interrupt that love, and, with Amativeness 
large, can form one attachment after another with comparative ease, 
yet are not true as a lover, nor faithful to the connubial union. 

SMALL. Have but little conjugal love, and seek the promiscuous 
society and affection of the opposite sex, rather than a single partner 
for life. 

VERT SMALL. Manifest none of this faculty, and experience little. 

To CULTIVATE. Do not allow new faces to awaken new loves, but 


cling to the first one, and cherish its associations and reminiscences ; 
do not allow the affections to wander, but be much in the company of 
the one already beloved, and both open your heart to love the charms, 
and keep up those thousand little attentions calculated to revive and 
perpetuate conjugal love : 230. 

To EESTKAIN. Try to appreciate the excellences of others than the 
first love, remembering that " there are as good fish in the sea as ever 
were caught ;" if a first love dies or is blighted, by no means allow 
yourself to pore over the bereavement, but transfer affection just as 
soon as a suitable object can be found, and be industrious in finding 
one, by making yourself just as acceptable and charming as possible. 
Above all, do not allow a pining, sad feeling to crush you, nor allow 
hatred toward the other sex: 230. 




Attachment to one's own offspring ; love of children, pets, 
and animals generally, especially those young or small ; 
adapted to that infantile condition in which man enters the 
world, and to children's need of parental care and education. 
This faculty renders children the richest treasure of their 
parents, casts into the shade all the toil and expense they 
cause, and lacerates them with bitter pangs when death or 
distance tears them asunder. It is much larger in woman 
than in man ; and nature requires mothers to take the princi- 


pal care of infants. Perverted, it spoils children oy excessive 
indulgence, pampering, and humoring. 

VERY LARGE. Experience the parental feeling with the greatest 
possible intensity and power ; almost idolize their own children, grieve 
immeasurably over their loss, and, with large Continuity, refuse to be 
comforted ; with very large Benevolence, and only moderate Destruc- 
tiveness, can not bear to see them punished, and with only moderate 
Causality, are liable to spoil them by over-indulgence ; with large 
Approbativeness added, indulge parental vanity and conceit ; with 
large Cautiousness and disordered nerves, are always cautioning them, 
and feel a world of groundless apprehensions about them ; with 
Acquisitiveness moderate, make them many presents, and lavish money 
upon them ; but with large Acquisitiveness, lay up fortunes for them ; 
with large moral and intellectual organs, are indulgent, yet love them 
too well to spoil them, and do their utmost to cultivate their higher 
faculties, etc. : p. 63. 

LAEGE. Love their own children devotedly ; value them above all 
price ; cheerfully endure toil and watching for their sake ; forbear 
with their faults ; win their love ; delight to play with them, and 
cheerfully sacrifice to promote their interests ; with Continuity large, 
mourn long and incessantly over their loss ; with Combativeness, 
Destructiveness, and Self- Esteem large, are kind, yet insist on being 
obeyed ; with Self- Esteem and Destructiveness moderate, are familiar 
with, and liable to be ruled by, them ; with Firmness only average, 
fail to manage them with a steady hand ; with Cautiousness large, 
suffer extreme anxiety if they are sick or in danger ; with large moral 
and intellectual organs, and less Combativeness and Destructiveness, 
govern them more by moral suasion than physical force by reason 
than fear ; are neither too strict nor over-indulgent ; with Approba- 
tiveness large, value their moral character as of the utmost importance ; 
with Veneration and Conscientiousness large, are particularly inter- 
ested in their moral improvement ; with large excitability, Combat- 
iveness, and Destructiveness, and only average Firmness, will be, by 
turns, too indulgent, and over-provoked will pet them one minute, 
but punish them the next ; with larger Approbativeness and Ideality 
than intellect, will educate them more for show than usefulness 
more fashionably than substantially and dress them off in the extreme 
of fashion ; with a large and active brain, large moral and intellectual 
faculties, and Firmness, and only full Combativeness, Destructiveness, 
and Self-Esteem, are well calculated to teach and manage the young. 
It renders farmers fond of stock, dogs, etc., and women fond of birds, 
lap-dogs, etc. ; girls fond of dolls, and boys of being among horses and 
cattle ; and creates a general interest in young and small animals : 62. 


FULL. Love their own children well, yet not passionately do much 
for them, yet not more than necessary and with large Combativeness, 
Destructiveness, and Self-Esteem, are too severe, and make too little 
allowance for their faults ; but with Benevolence, Adhesiveness, and 
Conscientiousness large, do and sacrifice much to supply their wants 
and render them happy. Its character, however, will be mainly 
determined by its combinations : p. 63. 

AVERAGE. Love their own children tolerably well, yet care but 
little for those of others ; with large Adhesiveness and Benevolence, 
like them better as they grow older, yet do and care little for infants 
are not duly tender to them, or forbearing toward their faults, and 
should cultivate parental fondness, especially if Combativeness, 
Destructiveness, and Self-Esteem are large : p. 61. 

MODERATE. Are not fond enough of children ; can not bear much 
from them ; fail to please or take good care of them, particularly of 
infants ; can not endure to hear them cry, or make a noise, or disturb 
things ; and with an excitable temperament, and large Combativeness, 
are liable to punish them for trifling offenses, find much fault with 
them, and be sometimes cruel ; yet, with Benevolence and Adhesive- 
ness large, may do what is necessary for their comfort : p. 64. 

SMALL. Care little for their own children, and still less for those 
of others; and with Combativeness and Destructiveness large, are 
liable to treat them unkindly and harshly, and are utterly unqualified 
to have charge of them : p. 64. 

VERY SMALL. Have little or no parental love or regard for children, 
but conduct toward them as the other faculties dictate : p. 64. 

To CULTIVATE. Play with and make much of children ; try to ap- 
preciate their loveliness and innocence, and be patient and tender and 
indulgent toward them; and if you have no own children, adopt 
some, or provide something to pet and fondle : 221. 

To RESTRAIN. Set judgment over against affection; rear them 
intellectually ; give yourself less anxiety about them, and if a child 
dies, by all means turn your mind from that loss by seeking some 
powerful diversion, and a change of_associations, removing clothes 
and all remembrances, and keep from talking or thinking about them. 



Social feeling ; love of society ; desire to congregate, asso- 
ciate, visit, seek company, entertain friends, form and recipro- 
cate attachments, and indulge the friendly feelings. When 
perverted it forms attachments for the unworthy, and leads to 


bad company. Adapted to man's requisition for concert of 
action, copartnership, combination, and community of feeling 
and interest, and is a leading element of his social relations. 

VERT LARGE. Love friends with the utmost tenderness and intens- 
ity, and will sacrifice almost anything for their sake ; with Amative- 
ness large, are susceptible of the highest order of conjugal love, yet 
base that love primarily in friendship; with Combativeness and 
Destructiveness large, defend friends with great spirit, and resent and 
retaliate their injuries; with Self-Esteem moderate, take character 
from associates ; with Acquisitiveness moderate, allow friends the free 
use of their purse ; but with Acquisitiveness large, will do more than 
give ; with Benevolence and Approbativeness moderate, and Acquisi- 
tiveness only full, will spend money freely for social gratification; 
with Self-Esteem and Combativeness large, must be first or nothing ; 
but with only average Combativeness, Destructiveness, and Self- 
Esteem, large Approbativeness, Benevolence, Conscientiousness, Ideal- 
ity, Marvelousness, and reasoning organs, will have many friends, and 
but few enemies be amiable and universally beloved; with large 
Eventuality and Language, will remember, with vivid emotions, by- 
gone scenes of social cheer and friendly converse ; with large reason- 
ing organs, will give good advice to friends, and lay excellent plans 
for them ; with smaller Secret! veness and large moral organs, will not 
believe ill of them, and dread the interruption of friendship as the 
greatest of calamities ; willingly make any sacrifice required by friend- 
ship, and evince a perpetual flow of that commingling of soul, and 
desire to become one with others, which this faculty inspires : p. 65. 

LARGE. Are warm, cordial, and ardent as friends ; readily form 
friendships, and attract friendly regards in return ; must have society 
of some kind ; with Benevolence large, are hospitable, and delight to 
entertain friends ; with Alimentiveness large, love the social banquet, 
and set the best before friends ; with Approbativeness large, set the 
world by their commendation, but are terribly cut by their rebukes ; 
with the moral faculties large, seek the society of the moral and ele- 
vated, and can enjoy the friendship of no others ; with the intellectual 
faculties large, seek the society of the intelligent ; with Language 
large, and Secretiveness small, talk freely in company ; and with 
Mirthfulness and Ideality also large, are full of fun, and give a lively, 
jocose turn to conversation, yet are elevated and refined ; with Self- 
Esteem large, lead off in company, and give tone and character to 
others; but with Self-Esteem small, receive character from friends, 
and with Imitation large, are liable to copy their faults as well as vir- 
tues ; with Cautiousness, Secretiveness, and Approbativeness large, are 


apt to be jealous of regards bestowed upon others, and exclusive in 
the choice of friends having a few select, rather than many common- 
place ; with large Causality and Comparison, love philosophical con- 
versation, literary societies, etc., and are every way sociable and com- 
panionable' : p. 65. 

FULL. Make a sociable, companionable, warm-hearted friend, who 
will sacrifice much on the altar of friendship, yet offer up friendship 
on the altar of the stronger passions; with large or very large Com- 
bativeness, Destructiveness, Self-Esteem, Approbativeness, and Ac- 
quisitiveness, will serve self first, and friends afterward ; form attach- 
ments, and break them, when they conflict with the stronger faculties ; 
with large Secretiveness and moderate Conscientiousness, will be 
double-faced, and profess more friendship than possess ; with Benevo- 
lence large, will cheerfully aid friends, yet it will be more from sym- 
pathy than affection ; will have a few warm friends, yet only few, but 
perhaps many speaking acquaintances ; and with the higher faculties 
generally large, will be a true, good friend, yet by no means enthusi- 
astic; many of the combinations under Adhesiveness large, apply to 
it when full, allowance being made for its diminished power : p. 66. 

AVERAGE. Are capable of tolerably strong friendships, yet their 
character is determined by the larger faculties; enjoy present friends, 
yet sustain their absence ; with large Acquisitiveness, place business 
before friends, and sacrifice them whenever they conflict with money- 
making; with Benevolence large, are more kind than affectionate, 
relish friends, yet sacrifice no great for their sake ; with Amativeness 
large, love the person of the other sex more than their minds, and 
experience less conjugal love than animal passion ; with Approbative- 
ness large, break friendship when ridiculed or rebuked, and with 
Secretiveness large, and Conscientiousness only average, can not be 
trusted as friends : p. 64. 

MODERATE. Love society somewhat, and form a few, but only few, 
attachments, and these only partial ; may have many speaking acquaint- 
ances, but few intimate friends ; with large Combativeness and Destruc- 
tiveness, are easily offended with friends, and seldom retain them long ; 
with large Benevolence, will bestow services, and with moderate 
Acquisitiveness, money, more readily than affection ; but with the 
selfish faculties strong, take care of self first, and make friendship 
subservient to interest : p. 67. 

SMALL. Think and care little for friends ; dislike copartnership ; 
are cold-hearted, unsocial, and selfish ; take little delight hi company, 
but prefer to be alone ; have few friends, and with large selfish facul- 
ties, many enemies, and manifest too little of this faculty to exert a 
perceptible influence upon character : p. 67 . 

VERY SMALL. Are perfect strangers to friendship : p. 67. 



To CULTIVATE. Go more into society; associate freely with thoso 
around you ; open your heart ; don't be so exclusive and distant ; keep 
your room less, but go more to parties, and strive to be as companion- 
able and familiar as you well can ; nor refuse to affiliate with those 
not exactly to your liking, but like what you can, and overlook faults. 

To RESTRAIN. Go abroad less, and be more select in choosing friends ; 
besides guarding yourself against those persuasions and influences 
friends are apt to exercise over you, and trust friends less, as well as 
properly direct friendship by intellect : 227. 



The HOME feeling ; love of HOUSE, the PLACE where one 
was born or has lived, and of home associations. Adapted to 
man's need of an abiding place, in which to exercise the fam- 
ily feelings ; patriotism. Perversion homesickness when 
away from home, and needless pining after home. 

VERY LARGE. Are liable to homesickness when away from home, 
especially for the first time, and the more so if Parental Love and 
Adhesiveness are large; will suffer almost any inconvenience, and 
forego bright prospects rather than leave home ; and remain in an 
inferior house or place of business rather than change. For combina- 
tions, see Inhabiti veness large : p. 68. 

LARGE. Have a strong desire to locate young, to have a home or 
room exclusively ; leave home with great reluctance, and return with 
extreme delight ; soon become attached to house, sleeping- room, gar- 


den, fields, furniture, etc. ; and highly prize domestic associations ; are 
not satisfied without a place on which to expend this home instinct ; 
with Parental Love, Adhesiveness, Individuality, and Locality large, 
will love to travel, yet be too fond of home to stay away long at a 
time ; may be a cosmopolite in early life, and see much of the world, 
but will afterward settle down ; with Approbativeness and Coinbative- 
noss large, will defend national honor, praise own country, govern- 
ment, etc., and defend both country and fireside with great spirit; 
with Ideality large, will beautify home ; with Friendship large, will 
delight to see friends at homo rather than abroad ; with Alimentive- 
ncss large, will enjoy food at home better than elsewhere, etc. : p. 68. 

FULL. Prefer to live in one place, yet willingly change it when 
interest or the other faculties require it; and with large Parental 
Love, Adhesiveness, and Amativeness, will think more of family and 
friends than of the domicile : p. 69. 

AVERAGE. Love home tolerably well, yet with no great fervor, and 
change the place of abode as the other faculties may dictate ; take 
some, but no great interest in house or place, as such, or pleasure in 
their improvement, and are satisfied with ordinary home comforts; 
with Acquisitiveness large, spend reluctantly for its improvement; 
with Constructiveness moderate, take little pleasure hi building addi- 
tions to home ; with Individuality and Locality large, love traveling 
more than staying in one place, and are satisfied with inferior home 
accommodations : p. 63. 

MODERATE OR SMALL. Care little for home ; leave it without much 
regret ; contemplate it with little delight ; take little pains with it ; 
and with Acquisitiveness largo, spend reluctantly for its improve- 
ment : p. 69. 

VERY SMALL. Feel little, and show less, love of domicile as such. 

To CULTIVATE. Stay more at home, and cultivate a love of home, 
and its associations and joys, and the love of country : 232. 

To RESTRAIN. Go from home, and banish that feeling of homesick- 
ness experienced away from home. 


A patient DWELLING upon one thing till it is done ; CON- 
SECUTIVENESS and CONNECTEDNESS of thought and feeling. 
Adapted to man's need of doing one thing at a time. Per- 
version prolixity, repetition, and excessive amplification. 

VERT LARGE. Fix the mind upon objects slowly, yet can not leave 
them unfinished ; have great application, yet lack intensity or point ; 



are tedious, prolix, and thorough in a few things, rather than an ama- 
teur in many : p. 70. 

LARGE. Give the whole mind to the one thing in hand till it is 
finished ; complete at the time ; keep up one common train of thought, 

No. 49. LABGE. No. 50. SMALL. 

or current of feeling, for a long time ; are disconcerted if attention ia 
directed to a second object, and can not duly consider either ; with 
Adhesiveness large, pore sadly over the loss of friends for months and 
years ; with the moral faculties large, are uniform and consistent in 
religious exercises and character; with Combativeness and Destruc- 
tiveness large, retain grudges and dislikes for a long time ; with Ideal- 
ity, Comparison, and Language large, amplifyand sustain figures of 
speech ; with the intellectual faculties large, con and pore over one 
thing, and impart a unity and completeness to intellectual investiga- 
tions ; become thorough in whatever study is commenced, and rather 
postpone than commence, unless sure of completing : p. 70. 

FULL. Dwell continuously upon subjects, unless especially called 
to others ; prefer to finish up matters in hand, yet can, though with 
difficulty, give attention to another thing ; with the business organs 
large, make final settlements ; with the feelings strong, continue their 
action, yet are not monotonous, etc. : p. 71. 

AVERAGE. Can dwell upon things, or divert attention to others, as 
occasion requires ; are not confused by interruption, yet prefer one 
thing at a time ; with the intellectual organs larg % are not a smat- 
terer, nor yet profound ; with the mental temperament, are clear in 
style, and consecutive hi idea, yet never tedious ; with Comparison 
large, manufacture expressions and ideas consecutively, and connect- 
edly, and always to the point, yet never dwell unduly : p. 70. 

MODERATE. Love and indulge variety and change of thought, feel- 
ing, occupation, etc. ; are not confused by them ; rather lack applica- 


tion ; with a good intellectual lobe, and an active temperament, know 
a little about a good many things, rather than much about any one 
thing ; with an active organization, think clearly, and have unity and 
intensity of thought and feeling, yet lack connectedness ; with large 
Language and small Secretiveness, talk easily, but not long at a time 
upon any one thing ; do better on the spur of the moment than by 
previous preparation ; and should cultivate consistency of character 
and fixedness of mind, by finishing all begun : p. 71. 

SMALL. With activity great, commence many things, yet finish few ; 
crave novelty and variety ; have many irons in the fire ; lack appli- 
cation ; jump rapidly from premise to conclusion, and fail to connect 
and carry out ideas; lack steadiness and consistency of character; 
may be brilliant, yet can not be profound ; humming-bird like, fly 
rapidly from thing to thing, but do not stay long ; have many good 
thoughts, yet they are scattered ; and talk on a great variety of sub- 
jects in a short time, but fail sadly in consecutiveness of feeling, 
thought, and action. An illustrative anecdote. An old and faithful 
servant to- a passionate, petulant master finally told him he could 
endure his testiness no longer, and must leave, though with extreme 
reluctance. " But," replied the master, " you know I am no sooner 
angry than pleased again." "Aye, but," replied the servant, "you 
are no sooner pleased than angry again :" p. 71. 

VERY SMALL. Are restless, and given to perpetual change ; with 
activity great, are composed of gusts and counter-gusts of passion, and 
never one thing more than an instant at a time : p. 72. 

To CULTIVATE. Dwell on, and pore over, till you complete the 
thing in hand ; make thorough work ; and never allow your thoughts 
to wander, or attention to be distracted, or indulge diversity or variety 
hi anything : 234. 

To RESTRAIN. Engage in what will compel you to attend to a great 
many different things in quick succession, and break up that prolix, 
long-winded monotony caused by an excess of this faculty : 234. 


These provide for man's ANIMAL wants ; create those desires 
and instincts and supply those wants which relate more espe- 
cially to his animal existence and physical necessities. 

VERY LARGE. Experience these animal impulses with great inten- 
sity ; enjoy animal existence and pleasures with the keenest relish ; 
and with great excitability or a fevered state of body, are strongly 
predisposed to sensual gratification and sinful desires ; yet if properly 


directed, and sanctified by the higher faculties, have tremendous force 
of character arid energy of mind. 

LARGE. Have strong animal desires ; and that selfishness which 
takes good care of number one ; are strongly attached to this world 

No. 51. YANKEE totTLLiVAU. No. 52. REV. DB. BOND. 

and its pleasures ; and with activity great, use vigorous exertions to 
accomplish worldly and personal ends ; with the moral organs less 
than the selfish, connected with bodily disease, are liable to their de- 
praved and sensual manifestation ; but with the moral and intellectual 
large, and a healthy organization, have great force, energy, determi- 
nation, and that efficiency which accomplishes wonders. 

FULL. Have a good share of energy and physical force, yet no more 
than is necessary to cope with surrounding difficulties ; and, with large 
moral and intellectual faculties, manifest more mental than physical 

AVERAGE. Have a fair share of animal force, yet hardly enough to 
grapple with life's troubles and wrongs ; with large moral and intel- 
lectual faculties, have more goodness than efficiency, and enjoy quiet 
more than conflict with men ; and fail to manifest what goodness and 

MODERATE. Rather lack efficiency ; yield to difficulties ; want forti- 
tude and determination ; fail to assert and maintain rights ; and with 
large moral organs, are good-hearted, moral, etc. ; yet border on 

SMALL. Accomplish little ; lack courage and force, and with large 
intellectual organs, are talented, yet utterly fail to manifest that tal- 
ent ; and with large moral organs, so good as to be good for nothing. 

To CULTIVATE. Keep a sharp eye on your own interests ; look out 
well for number one ; fend off imposition ; harden up ; don't be so 
good ; and in general cultivate a burly, driving, self-caring, physical, 
worldly spirit ; especially increase the physical energies by observing 
the health laws, as this will re-increase these animal organs. 

To RESTRAIN. First and most, obviate all causes of physical inflam- 
mation and false excitement ; abstain from spirituous liquors, wines, 
tobacco, mustards, spices, all heavy and rich foods ; eat lightly, and 


of farinaceous rather than of flesh diet, for meat is directly calculated 
to inflame the animal passions ; avoid temptation and incentives to 
anger and sensuality ; especially associate only with the good, never 
with those who are vulgar or vicious ; but most of all, cultivate the 
higher, purer moral faculties, and aspire to the high and good ; also 
cultivate love of nature's beauties and works, as the very best means 
of restraining the animal passions. 


TENACITY of life ; resistance to death ; love of existence 
as such ; dread of annihilation ; love of life, and clinging tena- 
ciously to it for its own sake. 

VERY LARGE. Shrink from death, and cling to life with desperation ; 
struggle with the utmost determination against disease and death ; 
nor give up to die till the very last, and then by the hardest ; with 
Cautiousness very large, and Hope moderate, shudder at the very 
thought of dying, or being dead ; but with Hope large, expect to live 
against hope and experience. The combinations are like those under 
large, allowance being made for the increase of this faculty. 

LARGE. Struggle resolutely through fits of sickness, and will not 
give up to die till absolutely compelled to do so. With large animal 
organs, cling to life on account of this world's gratifications; with 
large moral organs, to do good to promote human happiness, etc. ; 
with large social faculties, love life both for its own sake and to bless 
family; with very large Cautiousness, dread to change the present 
mode of existence, and with large and perverted Veneration and Con- 
scientiousness, and small Hope, have an indescribable dread of enter- 
ing upon an untried future state ; but with Hope large, and a culti- 
vated intellect, expect to exist hereafter, etc. 

FULL. Lore life, and cling tenaciously to it, yet not extravagantly ; 
hate to die, not from the fear of being dead, but yield to disease and 
death, though reluctantly. 

AVERAGE. Enjoy life, and cling to it with a fair degree of earnest- 
ness, yet by no means with passionate fondness ; and with a given con- 
stitution and health, will die easier and sooner than with this organ 

MODERATE OB SMALL. Like to live, yet care no great about exist- 
ence for their own sake ; with large animal or domestic organs, may 
wish to live on account of family, or business, or worldly pleasures, 
yet care less about it for their own sake, and yield up existence with 
little reluctance or dread. 


VERY SMALL. Have no desire to live merely for the sake of living, 
but only to gratify other faculties. 

To CULTIVATE. Think on the value of life, and plan things to be 
done and pleasures to be enjoyed that are worthy to live for: 236. 

To RESTRAIN. Guard against a morbid love of life, or dread of 
death. Kegard death as much as possible as a natural institution, and 
this life as the pupilage for a better state of being : 237. 


No. 63. LARGE. No. 54 SMALL. 

LET-ME-AND-MINE-ALONE. Adapted to man's requisition for 
overcoming obstacles, contending for rights, etc. Perversion 
anger ; contrariety ; fault-finding ; contention ; ill-nature ; 
and fighting. 

VERY LARGE. Show always and everywhere the utmost heroism, 
boldness, and courage ; can face the cannon's mouth coolly, and stare 
death in the face without flinching ; put forth remarkable efforts in 
order to carry measures ; grapple right in with difficulties with a real 
relish, and dash through them as if mere trifles ; love pioneer, adven- 
turous, even hazardous expeditions ; shrink from no danger ; are ap- 
palled by no hardships ; prefer a rough and daring life one of strug- 
gles and hair-breadth escapes to a quiet, monotonous business ; are 
determined never to be conquered, even by superior odds, but incline 
to do battle single-handed against an army ; with Cautiousness only 


full, show more valor than discretion, are often fool-hardy, and alwayg 
in hot water ; with smaller Secretiveness and Approbativeness, are 
most unamiable, hatefulness sticking right straight out ; with drink- 
ing habits and bad associates, have a most violent, ungovernable tem- 
per ; are desperate, most bitter, and hateful, and should never be pro- 
voked. For additional combinations see large, allowing for difference 
in size : p. 77. 

LARGE.g^Are bold, resolute, fearless, determined, disposed to grapple 
with and remove obstacles, and drive whatever is undertaken ; love 
debate and opposition ; are perfectly cool and intrepid ; have great 
presence of mind in times of danger, and nerve for encounter ; with 
large Parental Love, take the part of children ; with large Inhabitive- 
ness, defend country ; with a powerful muscular system, put forth all 
their strength in lifting, working, and all kinds of manual labor ; with 
great Vitativeness and Destructiveness, defend life with desperation ; 
with large Acquisitiveness, maintain pecuniary rights, and drive 
money-making plans ; with large Approbativeness, resent ineult, and 
large Adhesiveness added, defend the character of friends ; with full 
or large Self-Esteem, defend personal interest, take their own part 
with spirit, and repel all aggressions ; with Self-Esteem small, and 
Benevolence and Friendship large, defend the interest of friends more 
than of self; with large Conscientiousness, prosecute the right, and 
oppose the wrong most spiritedly ; with large intellectual organs, 
impart vigor, power, and impressiveness to thoughts, expressions, etc. ; 
with disordered nerves, are peevish, fretful, fault-finding, irritable, 
dissatisfied, unreasonable, and fiery in anger, and should first restore 
the nerves to health, and then restrain this fault-finding disposition, 
by remembering that the cause is IN THEM, instead of in what they 
fret at : p. 75. 

FCM,. Evince those feelings described under large, yet in a less 
degree, and as modified more by the larger organs ; thus, with large 
moral and intellectual faculties, show much more moral than physical 
courage ; maintain the right and oppose the wrong ; yet, with Firm- 
ness large, in a decided rather than a combative spirit, etc. : p. 78. 

AVERAGE. Evince the combative spirit according to circumstances ; 
when vigorously opposed, or when any of the other faculties work in 
conjunction with Combativeness, show a good degree of the opposing, 
energetic spirit ; but when any of the other faculties, such as large 
Cautiousness or Approbativeness, work against it, are irresolute, and 
even cowardly ; with an active temperament, and disordered nerves, 
especially if dyspeptic, have a quick, sharp, fiery temper, yet lack 
power of anger ; will fret and threaten, yet mean, and actually do, 
but little ; with a large brain, and large moral and intellectual organs, 
will put forth some intellectual and moral force when once thoroughly 


roused, which will be but seldom ; with large Approbativeness, and 
small Acquisitiveness, will defend character, but not pecuniary rights ; 
with large Cautiousness, may be courageous where danger is far off, 
yet will run rather than fight ; with smaller Cautiousness, will show 
some resentment when imposed upon, but submit rather tamely to 
injuries ; with very large Parental Love, and only average friendship, 
will resent any injuries offered to children with great spirit, yet not 
those offered to friends, etc. : p. 75. 

MODERATE. Rather lack efficiency ; with only fair muscles, are poor 
workers, and fail to put forth even what little strength they have ; 
with good moral and intellectual organs, possess talent and moral 
worth, yet are easily overcome by opposition or difficulty ; should seek 
some quiet occupation, where business conies in of itself, because loth 
to intrude unbidden upon the attention of others ; are too good to be 
energetic ; with weak Acquisitiveness, allow virtual robbery without 
resentment ; with large Cautiousness, are tame and pusillanimous ; 
with large Approbativeness, can not stand rebuke, but wilt under it ; 
with moderate Self-Estcem and Hope, are all "I can't, it's hard," 
etc., and will do but little in life : p. 78. 

SHALL. Are inert and inefficient ; can accomplish little ; never feel 
self-reliant or strong ; and with large'moral and intellectual organs, 
are too gentle and easily satisfied ; with large Cautiousness, run to 
others for protection, and are always complaining of bad treatment : 
p. 79. 

VERY SMALL. Possess scarcely any energy, and manifest none : p. 79. 

To CULTIVATE. Encourage a bold, resistant, defiant, self-defending 
spirit ; fend off imposition like a real hero ; rather encourage than 
shrink from encounter ; ejigage in debate, and the mental conflict of 
ideas and sentiments in politics, in religion, in whatever comes up, 
and take part in public meetings ; take sides in everything ; say and 
try to feel, None shall provoke me with impunity : 239. 

To RESTRAIN. Do just the opposite of the preceding advice ; when- 
ever you find anger rising, turn on your heel ; avoid debate, and say 
mildly and pleasantly whatever you have to say ; bear with imposi- 
tion rather than resent it ; cultivate a turn-the-other-cheek spirit ; 
never swear, or scold, or blow up anybody, and restrain temper and 
wrath in all their manifestations : 240. 



and PAiN-causiug faculty ; HARSHNESS ; EXTERMINATION ; 
INDIGNATION ; disposition to BREAK, CRUSH, and TEAR DOWN ; 


the WALK-RIGHT-THROUGH-SPIRIT. Adapted to man's destroy- 
ing whatever is prejudicial to his happiness ; performing and 
enduring surgical operations ; undergoing pain, etc. Perver- 
sion wrath ; revenge ; malice ; disposition to murder, etc. 

VERY LARGE. Experience the most powerful incligaation, amount- 
ing even to rage and violence, when thoroughly provoked ; and with 
large or very large Combativeness, act like a chafed lion, and feel like 


rushing into the midst of perilous dangers ; tear up and destroy what 
ever is in the way ; are harsh and often morose in manner, and should 
cultivate pleasantness ; with large Combativeness, Firmness, Self-Es- 
teem, and Approbativeness moderate, are exceedingly repulsive, hating 
and hateful when angry, and much more provoked than occasion 
requires ; trith large intellectuals, put forth tremendous mental 
energy ; and should offset this faculty by reason and moral feeling, 
and cultivate blandness instead of wrath : p. 83. 

LARGE. Impart that determination, energy, and force which re- 
move or destroy whatever impedes progression ; with Firmness large, 
give that iron will which adheres till the very last, in spite of .every- 
thing, and carry points anyhow ; with large Combativeness, impart 
a harsh, rough mode of expression and action, and a severity, if not 
fierceness, to all encounters ; with large Acquisitiveness and Conscien- 
tiousness, will have every cent due, though it cost two to get one, yet 
want no more, and retain grudges against those who have injured 
the pocket ; with large Approbativeness and Combativeness, experi- 
ence determination and hostility toward those who trifle with reputa- 
tion or impeach character ; with large Self-Esteem, upon those who 
conflict with its interests, or detract from its supposed merits ; with 


large Adhesiveness, when angry with friends, are very angry; with 
large Benevolence and Conscientiousness, employ a harsh mode of 
showing kindness ; with large Comparison and Language, heap very 
severe and galling epithets upon enemies ; with large Ideality, polish 
and refine expression of anger, and put a keen edge upon sarcasms, 
yet they cut to the very bone, etc. Such should avoid and turn from 
whatever provokes : p. 82. 

FULL. Evince a fair degree of this faculty, yet its tone and direc- 
tion depend upon the larger organs ; with large propensities, manifest 
much animal force ; with large moral organs, evince moral determina- 
tion and indignation ; with large intellectual organs, possess intellec- 
tual might and energy, and thus of its other combinations ; but with 
smaller Combativeness, are peaceful until thoroughly roused, but then 
rather harsh and vindictive ; if boys, attack only when sure of victory, 
yet are then harsh ; with smaller Self- Esteem, exercise this faculty 
more in behalf of others than of self ; with large Cautiousness and 
moderate Combativeness, keep out of danger, broils, etc., till com- 
pelled to engage in them, but then become desperate, etc. : p. 83. 

AVERAGE. Are like full, only less so : p. 82. 

MODERATE. Evince but little harshness or severity, and shrink 
from pain ; with large Benevolence, are unable to witness suffering or 
death, much less to cause them ; possess but little force of mind, or 
executiveness of character, to drive through obstacles ; with large 
moral organs added, are more beloved than feared, manifest extreme 
sympathy, amounting sometimes even to weakness, and secure ends 
more by mild than severe measures ; with moderate Combativeness 
and Self-Esteem, are irresolute, unable to stand ground, or take care 
of self ; fly to others for protection ; can do little, and feel like trying 
to do still less ; fail to realize or put forth strength ; and with large 
Cautiousness added, see lions where there are none, and make moun- 
tains of mole-hills ; and with small Hope added, are literally good for 
nothing ; but with large Hope and Firmness, and full Self-Esteem and 
Combativeness, accomplish considerable, yet in a quiet way, and by 
perseverance more than force by siege rather than by storm and 
with large intellectual and moral faculties added, are good, though 
not tame ; exert a good influence, and that always healthful, and are 
mourned more when dead than prized while living. The combina- 
tions under this organ large, reversed, apply to it when moderate : p. 84. 

SMALL. With large moral faculties, possess too tender a soul to 
enjoy our world as it is, or to endure hardships or bad treatment ; can 
neither endure nor cause suffering, anger being so little as to provoke 
only ridicule, and need hardness and force : p. 82. 

VERT SMALL.- Experience little, and manifest none of this faculty. 

To CULTIVATE. Destroy anything and everything in your way ; 



killing weeds, blasting rocks, felling trees, using edge tools, tearing 
up roots, plowing new ground, cultivating new farms, hunting, 
exercising indignation when wronged, and against public wrongs ; 
espousing the cause of the oppressed ; fighting public evils, such as 
intemperance and the like, are all calculated to cultivate and strengthen 
this faculty. Still, care should be taken to exercise it under the con- 
trol of the higher faculties, and then no matter how great that exer- 
cise: 242. 

To RESTRAIN. Kill nothing ; and offset destructiveness by benevo- 
lence ; never indulge a rough, harsh spirit, but cultivate instead a 
mild and forgiving spirit ; never brood over injuries or indulge re- 
vengeful thoughts or desires, or aggravate yourself by brooding over 
wrongs ; cultivate good manners ; and when occasion requires you to 
reprove, do it in a bland, gentle manner rather than roughly ; never 
tease, even children, or scourge animals, but be kind to both, and 
offset by benevolence and the higher faculties: 243. 


No. 57. LARGK. No. 53. SHALL. 

APPETITE ; the FEEDING instinct ; RELISH for food ; HUNGER. 
Adapted to man's need of food, and creating a disposition to 
eat. Perverted, it produces gormandizing and gluttony, and 
causes dyspepsia and all its evils. 

VERT LARGE. Often eat more than is requisite ; enjoy food exceed- 
ingly well ; and hence are liable to clog body and mind by over-eat- 
ing ; should restrain appetite ; will feel better by going without an 
occasional meal, and are liable to dyspepsia. This faculty is liable 


to take on a diseased action, and crave a much greater amount of 
food than nature requires, and hence is the great cause of dyspepsia. 
Its diseased action may be known by a craving, hankering, gone 
sensation before eating ; by heart-burn, pain in the stomach, belching 
of wind, a dull, heavy, or painful sensation in the head, and a desire 
to be always nibbling at something ; lives to eat, instead of eating to 
live, and should at once be eradicated by omitting one meal daily, and, 
in its stead, drinking abundantly of cold water. 

LARGE. Have a hearty relish for food ; set high value upon table 
enjoyments, and solid, hearty food ; with Acquisitiveness large, lay up 
abundance of food for future use perhaps keep so much on hand that 
some of it spoils ; with Ideality large, must eat from a clean plate, 
and have food nicely cooked ; with large Language and intellect, en- 
joy table-talk exceedingly, and participate in it ; with large social 
faculties, must eat with others ; can cook well, if practiced in culinary 
arts ; and with larger Approbativeness and Ideality than Causality, 
apt to be ceremonious and over-polite at table, etc. Such should 
restrain this faculty by eating less, more slowly, and seldom : p. 8G. 

FULL. With a healthy stomach, eat freely what is offered, asking 
no questions ; enjoying it, but not extravagantly ; rarely over-eat, 
except when the stomach is . disordered, and then experience that 
hankering above described, which a right diet alone can cure. For 
combinations, see large: p. 87. 

AVERAGE. Enjoy food well, and eat with a fair relish ; yet rarely 
over-eat, except when rendered craving by dyspeptic complaints : p. 86. 

MODERATE. Rather lack appetite ; eat with little relish, and hence 
require to pamper and cultivate appetite by dainties, and enjoying 
rich flavors ; can relish food only when other circumstances are favor- 
able ; feel little hunger, and eat to live, instead of living to eat ; with 
Eventuality small, can not remember from one meal to another what 
was eaten at the last : p. 87. 

SMALL. Eat "with long teeth," and little relish ; hardly know or 
care what or when they eat ; and should pay more attention to duly 
feeding the body : p. 88. 

VERY SMALL. Are almost wholly destitute of appetite. 

This faculty is more liable to perversion than any other, and exces- 
sive and fast eating occasions more sickness, and depraves the animal 
passions more than all other causes combined. Properly to feed the 
body is of the utmost importance. Whenever this faculty becomes 
diseased, the first object should be to restore its natural function by 
abstinence. Medicines rarely do it. 

To CULTIVATE. Consider before you provide or order your meals 
what would relish best, and as far as possible provide what seems to 
you will taste good ; pamper appetite ; eat leisurely, and as if deter- 


mined to extract from your food all the rich flavors it may contain, 
and in eating be governed more by flavor than quantity ; endeavor to 
get up an appetite, even when you feel none, by eating some dainty, 
as if to see if it were not good ; do by food and drinks as wine con- 
noisseurs do in testing viands that is, taste things with a view of 
ascertaining their relative flavors ; in short, exercise and indulge appe- 
tite ; also, do as directed in order to cultivate digestion : 245. 

To KESTRAIN. Eat but seldom for by keeping away from table 
this faculty remains comparatively quiet ; and when you eat, eat 
slowly, leisurely, quietly, pleasurably, as if determined to enjoy eat- 
ing, for this satisfies appetite with much less food than to eat vora 
ciously ; mingle pleasant conversation with meals ; direct attention 
more to how good your food than how much you eat ; always leave 
the table with a good appetite, and stop the moment you have to 
resort to condiments or desserts to keep up appetite ; eat like ^the epi- 
cure, but not like the gourmand as if you would enjoy a little rather 
than devour so much ; eat sparingly, for the more you eat the more 
you re-inflame the stomach, and thereby re-increase that hankering 
you need to restrain : 246. 


FONDNESS for LIQUIDS; desire to DRINK ; love of WATER, 
washing, bathing, swimming, sailing, etc. Adapted to the 
existence and utility of water. Perversion drinking in ex- 
cessive quantities ; drunkenness ; and unquenchable thirst. 

VERT LARGE. Are excessively fond of water, whether applied 
internally or externally, and a natural swimmer ; and with Individu- 
ality and Locality, a natural seaman ; with large Adhesiveness and 
Approbativeness, and small Self-Esteem and Acquisitiveness, should 
avoid the social glass, for fear of being overcome by it. 

LARGE. Love to drink freely, and frequently ; experience much 
thirst; enjoy washing, swimming, bathing, etc., exceedingly, and are 
benefited by them ; with Ideality large, love water prospects. 

FULL. Enjoy water well, but not extravagantly ; drink freely when 
the stomach is in a fevered state, and is benefited by its judicious 
external application. 

AVERAGE. Like to drink at times, after working freely or perspiring 
copiously, yet ordinarily care little about it. 

MODERATE. Partake of little water, except occasionally, and are 
not particularly benefited by its external application, further than is 
necessary for cleanliness ; dislike shower or plunge-baths, and rather 



dread than enjoy sailing, swimming, etc., especially when Cautiouj 
ness is large. 

SMALL. Care little for liquids in any of their forms, or for any 
soups, and, with large Cautiousness, dread to be on or near the water ; 
with Alimentiveness large, prefer solid, hard food to puddings or 
broth, etc. 

VERY SMALL. Have an unqualified aversion to water and all fluids. 




No. 60. Mr.. GOSSE 


ING instinct; LAYING UFA SURPLUS, and allowing nothing to 
be WASTED ; desire to POSSESS and OWN ; the MINE-AND-THINE 
feeling ; claiming of one's own things ; love of TRADING and 
AMASSING PROPERTY. Adapted to man's need of laying up 
the necessaries and comforts of life against a time of future 
need. Perversion a miserly, grasping, close-fisted penuri- 

VERT LARGE. Hasten to be rich ; are too eager after wealth ; too 
industrious ; too close in making bargains ; too small in dealing ; with 
large Cautiousness, are penny wise, but pound foolish ; hold the six- 
pence too close to the eye to see the dollar farther off, and give entire 
energies to amassing property ; with smaller Secretiveness and large 
Conscientiousness, are close, yet honest, will have due, yet want no 


more, and never employ deception ; but, with large Secretiveness and 
but average Conscientiousness, make money anyhow ; palm off infe- 
rior articles for good ones, or at least over-praise what is on sale, but 
run down in buying ; and with large Parental Love and Perceptives 
added, can make a finished horse-jockey ; with small Self-Esteem, are 
small and mean in deal, and stick for the half cent ; with very large 
Hope, and only full Cautiousness, embark too deeply in business, and 
are liable to fail ; with large Adhesiveness and Benevolence, will do 
for friends more than give, and circulate the subscription-paper rather 
than sign it ; with large Hope and Secretiveness, and only average 
Cautiousness, buy more than can be paid for, pay more in promises 
than in money, should adopt a cash business, and check the manifesta- 
tions of this faculty by being less penurious and industrious, and more 
liberal : p. 92. 

LARGE. Save for future use what is not wanted for present ; allow 
nothing to go to waste ; turn everything to a good account ; buy 
closely, and make the most of everything ; are industrious, econom- 
ical, and vigorously employ all means to accumulate property, and 
desire to own and possess much ; with large social organs, industri- 
ously acquire property for domestic purposes, yet are saving in the 
family ; with very large Adhesiveness and Benevolence, are industri- 
ous in acquiring property, yet spend it too freely upon friends ; with 
large Hope added, are too apt to indorse for them ; with small Secre- 
tiveness, and activity greater than power, are liable to overdo, and 
take on too much work in order to save so much, as often to incur 
sickness, and thus lose more than gain ; with large Approbativencss 
and small Secretiveness, boast of wealth, but with large Secretiveness, 
keep pecuniary aftairs secret ; with large Constructiveness, incline to 
make money by engaging in some mechanical branch of business ; 
with large Cautiousness, are provident; with large Ideality, keep 
things very nice, and are tormented by whatever mars beauty ; with 
large intellectual organs, love to accumulate books, and whatever 
facilitates intellectual progress ; with large Veneration and Self-Esteem, 
set great store by antique and rare coins, and specimens, etc. : p. 89. 

FULL. Take good care of possessions, and use vigorous exertions to 
enhance them ; value property for itself and its uses ; are industrious, 
yet not grasping ; and saving, without being close ; with large Benev- 
olence, are too ready to help friends ; and with large Hope added, too 
liable to indorse ; and with an active temperament, too industrious to 
come to want ; yet too generous ever to be rich : p. 93. 

AVERAGE. Love property ; yet the other faculties spend quite as 
fast as this faculty accumulates ; with Cautiousness large or very 
large, love property in order to be safe against future want ; with 
large Approbativcness, desire it to keep up appearances ; with large 


Conscientiousness, to pay debts ; with large intellectual organs, will 
pay freely for intellectual attainments ; yet the kind of property and 
objects sought in its acquisition depends upon other and larger facul- 
ties : p. 89. 

MODERATE. Value and make property more for its uses than itself ; 
seek it as a means rather than an end ; with Cautiousness large, may 
evince economy from fear of coming to want, or with other large 
organs, to secure other ends, yet care little for property on its own 
account ; are rather wasteful ; do not excel in bargaining, or like it ; 
have no great natural pecuniary tact, or money-making capability, and 
are hi danger of living quite up to income ; with Ideality large, must 
have nice things, no matter how costly, yet do not take first-rate care 
of them ; disregard small expenses ; purchase to consume as soon as 
to keep ; prefer to enjoy earnings now to laying them up ; with large 
domestic organ, spend freely for family ; with strong Approbativeness 
and moderate Cautiousness, are extravagant, and contract debts to 
make a display ; with Hope large, run deeply in debt, and spend money 
before it is earned : p. 94. 

SMALL. Hold money loosely ; spend it often without getting its 
value ; care little how money goes ; with Hope very large, enjoy 
money to-day Without saving for to-morrow ; and with large Appro- 
bativeness and Ideality added, and only average Causality, are prodi- 
gal, and spend money to poor advantage ; contract debts without pro- 
viding for their payment, etc. : p. 95. 

VERY SMALL. Neither heed nor know the value of money ; are 
wasteful ; spend all they can get ; lack industry, and will be always 
in want : p. 95. 

The back part of this organ, called Acquisition, accumulates prop- 
erty ; the fore part, called Accumulation, saves ; the former large and 
latter small, encompass sea and land to make a dollar, and then throw 
it away, which is an American characteristic ; and get many things, 
but allow them to go to waste. Properly to spend money implies a 
high order of wisdom. Every dollar should be made an instrument 
of the highest happiness. 

To CULTIVATE. Try to estimate the value of money intellectually, 
and save up as a philosophy ; economize time and means ; culti- 
vate industry ; engage in some mercenary business ; determine to 
get rich, and use the means for so doing, and le what you consider 
even small in expenditures ; lay by a given sum at stated times, with- 
out thinking to use it except in extreme want ; and when enough is 
laid by, make a first payment on real estate, or launch into business, 
thus compelling yourself both to save the driblets, and earn what you 
can in order to save yourself, and do by intellect what you are not dis- 
to do by intuition : 249. 



To RESTRAIN. Think less of dollars ; study means for enjoying your 
property ; often quit business for recreation ; attend more relatively to 
other life ends, less to mere money-getting ; that is, cultivate the 
other faculties, and be more generous : 250. 


No. 61. LAKGE. No. 62. SMALL. 

SELF-GOVERNMENT ; ability to RESTRAIN feelings ; POLICY ; 
adapted to man's requisition for controlling his animal nature. 
Perverted, it causes duplicity, double-dealing, lying, decep- 
tion, and all kinds of false pretensions. 

VERT LARGE. Are non-committal and cunning in the extreme, and 
with only average Conscientiousness, deceptive, tricky, foxy, double- 
lealing, and unworthy to be trusted ; with large Acquisitiveness 
added, will both cheat and lie ; with large Cautiousness, are unfathom- 
able even by acknowledged friends ; with very large moral organs, and 
only average or full propensities, are not dangerous, and have a good 
moral basis, yet instinctively employ many stratagems calculated .to 
cover up the real motives ; and should cultivate openness and sincer- 
ity : p. 98. 

LARGE. Throw a vail over countenance, expression, and conduct ; 
appear to aim at one thing, while accomplishing another ; love to sur- 
prise others ; are enigmatical, mysterious, guarded, politic, shrewd, 
managing, employ humbug, and are hard to be found out ; with Cau- 
tiousness large, take extra pains to escape detection ; with Conscien- 
tiousness also large, will not tell a lie, yet will not always tell the 
truth ; evade the direct question, and are equivocal, and though honest 
in purpose, yet resort to many little cunning devices ; with large intel- 
lectual organs and Cautiousness, express ideas so guardedly us t-. >}-. k 
distinctness and directness, and hence to be often misunderstood ; with 


large Approbativeness, take many ways to. secure notoriety, and hoist 
some false colors ; with large Acquisitiveness, employ too much cun- 
ning in pecuniary transactions, and unless checked by still larger 
Conscientiousness, are not always strictly truthful or honest ; with 
large social organs, form few f iendships, and those only after years 
of acquaintance, nor evince half the attachment felt ; are distant in 
society, and communicate even with friends only by piecemeal ; divulge 
very few plans or business matters to acquaintances, or even to friends ; 
lack communicativeness, and have little or no fresh-hearted expression 
of feeling, but leave an impression of uncertainty as to character and 
intention : p. 96. 

Fun. Evince much self-government ; yet, if the temperament is 
active, when the feelings do break forth, manifest them with unusual 
intensity ; with large Acquisitiveness and Cautiousness, communicate 
but little respecting pecuniary affairs ; with large Approbativeness, 
take the popular side of subjects, and sail only with the current of 
public opinion ; with Conscientiousness large, are upright in motive, 
and tell the truth, but not always the whole truth ; and though 
never hoist false colors, yet do not always show true ones : p. 99. 

AVERAGE. Maintain a good share of self-government, except when 
under excitement, and then let the whole mind out fully ; with large 
Combativeness and an active temperament, though generally able to 
control resentment, yet, when once provoked, show the full extent of 
their anger ; with large Cautiousness, see that there is no danger 
before allowing the feelings to burst forth ; but with an excitable 
temperament, and especially a deranged stomach, show a general want 
of policy and self-government, because the feelings are too strong 'to 
be kept in check ; but if this faculty is manifested in connection with 
stronger faculties, it evinces considerable power, yet is wanting when 
placed in opposition to them : p. 96. 

MODERATE. Express feelings with considerable fullness ; pursue an 
open, direct course ; are sincere and true ; employ but little policy, 
and generally give full vent to thoughts and feelings ; with Cautious- 
ness large, evince prudence in deeds, but imprudence in words ; ex- 
press opinions unguardedly, yet are safe and circumspect in conduct ; 
with large Acquisitiveness and Conscientiousness, prefer the one-price 
system in dealing, and can not bear to banter ; with large Adhesive- 
ness, are sincere and open-hearted in friendship, and communicate 
with perfect freedom ; with large Conscientiousness and Combativeness 
added, are truthful, and speak the whole mind too bluntly ; with fine 
feelings, and a good moral organization, manifest the higher, finer 
feelings, without restraint or reserve, so as to be the more attractive ; 
are full of goodness, and show all that goodness without any inter- 
vening vail ; manifest in looks and actions what is passing within ; 


express all mental operations with fullness, freedom, and force ; choose 
direct and unequivocal modes of expression ; disclose faults as freely 
as virtues, and leave none at a loss as to the real character ; but with 
the harsher elements predominant, appear more hating and hateful 
than they really are, because all is blown right out : p. 100. 

SMALL. Are perfectly transparent ; seem to be just what, and all 
they really are ; disdain concealment in all forms ; are no hypocrite, 
but positive and unequivocal in all said and done ; carry the soul in 
the hands and face, and make way directly to the feelings of others, 
because expressing them so unequivocally ; with large Cautiousness, 
are guarded in action, but unguarded in expression ; free the mind 
regardless of consequences, yet show much prudence in other respects ; 
with Conscientiousness large, love the truth wherever it exists, and 
open the mind freely to evidence and conviction ; are open and above- 
board in everything, and allow all the mental operations to come right 
out, unvailed and unrestrained, so that their full force is seen and 
felt : p. 101. 

VEKY SMALL. Conceal nothing, but disclose everything : p. 101. 

To CULTIVATE. Supply by intellect that guardedness and *policy 
lacked by instinct, for you are too spontaneous ; try to "lie low, and 
keep dark," and suppress your natural outgushings of feeling and 
intellect, cultivate self-control by subjecting all you say and do to 
judgment, instead of allowing momentary impulses to rule conduct ; 
do not tell all you know or intend to do, and occasionally pursue a 
roundabout course ; be guarded, politic, and wary in everything ; do 
not make acquaintances or confide in people as much as is natural, 
but treat everybody as if they needed watching : 252. 

To KESTRAIN. Cultivate a direct, straightforward, above-board, and 
open way, and pursue a course just the opposite from the one suggested 
for its cultivation : 253. 


against want and danger ; SOLICITUDE ; ANXIETY ; APPREHEN- 
SION ; SECURITY ; PROTECTION ; AVOIDING prospective evils ; 
the SENTINEL. Adapted to ward off surrounding dangers, 
and make those provisions necessary for future happiness. 
Perversion irresolution ; timidity ; procrastination ; indeci- 
sion ; fright ; panic. 

VERY LABGE. Are over-anxious ; always on the look-out ; worried 
about trifles ; afraid of shadows ; forever getting ready, because so 


many provisions to make ; are careful in business ; often revise deci- 
sions, because afraid to trust the issue ; live in perpetual fear of evils 
and accidents ; take extra pains with everything ; lack promptness 
and decision, and refuse to run risks ; put off till to-morrow what 
ought to be done to-day ; with excitability 7, live in a constant panic ; 
procrastinate ; are easily frightened ; see mountains of evil where 
there are only mole-hills ; are often unnerved by fright, and overcome 
by false alarms ; with only average or full Combativeness, Self-Esteem, 
and Hope, and large Approbativeness, accomplish literally nothing, 


but should always act under others ; with large Acquisitiveness, prefer 
small but sure gains .to large but more risky ones, and safe investments 
to active business : p. 105. 

LAUGE. Are always on the look-out ; take ample time to get ready ; 
provide against prospective dangers ; make everything safe ; guard 
against losses and evils ; incur no risks ; sure bind that they may sure 
find ; with large Combativeness, Hope, and an active temperament, 
drive, Jehu-like, whatever is undertaken, yet drive cautiously ; lay on 
the lash, yet hold a tight rein, so as not to upset plans ; with large 
Approbatjveness, are doubly cautious as to character ; with large 
Approbativeness and small Acquisitiveness, are extra careful of char- 
acter, but not of money ; with large Acquisitiveness and small Appro- 
bativeness, take special care of all money matters, but not of reputa- 
tion ; with largo Adhesiveness and Benevolence, experience the great- 
est solicitude for the welfare of friends ; with large Conscientiousness, 
are careful to do nothing wrong ; with large Causality, lay safe plans, 
and are judicious; with large Combativeness and Hope, combine 
judgment with energy and enterprise, and often seem reckless, yet are 
prudent ; with large intellectual organs and Firmness, are cautious in 


coming to conclusions, and canvass well all sides of all questions, yet, 
once settled, are unmoved ; with small Self-Esteem, rely too much on 
the judgment of others, and too little on self; with large Parental 
Love and disordered nerves, experience unnecessary solicitude for chil- 
dren, and take extra care of them, often killing them with kindness, 
etc. : p. 104. 

FULL. Show a good share uf prudence and carefulness, except when 
the other faculties are powerfully excited ; with large Combativeness 
and very large Hope, have too little prudence for energy ; are toler- 
ably safe, except when under considerable excitement ; with large 
Acquisitiveness, are very careful whenever money or property are 
concerned ; yet, with only average Causality, evince but little general 
prudence, and lay plans for the present rather than future, etc. : 105. 

AVERAGE. Have a good share of prudence, whenever this faculty 
works in connection with the larger organs, yet evince but little in 
the direction of the smaller ; with large Combativeness and Hope, and 
an excitable temperament, are practically imprudent, yet somewhat 
less so than appearances indicate ; with large Causality, and only 
average Hope and Combativeness, and a temperament more strong 
than excitable, evince good general judgment, and meet with but few 
accidents ; but with an excitable temperament, large Combativeness 
and Hope, and only average or full Causality, are always in hot water, 
fail to mature plans, begin before ready, and are luckless and unfortu- 
nate in everything, etc. : p. 103. 

MODERATE. With excitability great, act upon the spur of the mo- 
ment, without due deliberation ; meet with many accidents caused by 
imprudence ; with large Combativeness, are often at variance with 
neighbors ; with large Approbativeness, seek praise, yet often incur 
criticism ; with average Causality and large Hope, are always doing 
imprudent things, and require a guardian ; with small Acquisitiveness, 
keep money loosely, and are easily over-persuaded to buy more than 
can be paid for ; with large Parental Love, play with children, yet 
often hurt them ; with large Language and small Secretiveness, say 
many very imprudent things, etc. ; and with large Combativeness, 
have many enemies, etc. : p. 106. 

SMALL. Are rash, reckless, luckless ; and with large Hope, always 
in trouble ; with large Combativeness, plunge headlong into difficulties 
in full sight, and should assiduously cultivate this faculty : p. 10G. 

VERY SMALL. Have so little of this faculty, that its influence on 
conduct is rarely ever perceived : p. 107. 

To CULTIVATE. Count the advantages against, but not for ; look out 
for breakers ; think how much indiscretion and carelessness have 
injured you, and be careful and watchful in everything. Imprudence 
ia your fault be judicious ; and remember that danger is always much 


greater than you anticipate so keep aloof from every appearance 
of it : 255. 

To KESTRAIN. Offset its -workings by intellect ; remember that you 
perpetually magnify dangers ; let intellect tell Cautiousness to keep 
quiet ; offset it by cultivating a bold, combative, daring spirit ; en- 
courage a don't-care feeling, and a let-things-take-their-course why- 
Bhould-I-worry-about-them ; do not indulge so much anxiety when 
children or friends do not return as expected ; never allow a fright- 
ened, panic-stricken state of mind, but face apprehended evils, instead 
of quailing before them; and remember that you magnify every 
appearance of evil: 256. 

etc. ; love of PRAISE ; desire to EXCEL and 
POLITENESS ; desire to DISPLAY and show 
off; sense of HONOR; desire for a GOOD< 


of; PRIDE of character; SENSITIVENESS 
to the speeches of people; and love of No. 65.- CLABA FISHM. 
POPULARITY. Adapted to the reputable and disgraceful. 
Perversion vanity ; affectation ; ceremoniousness ; aristocra- 
cy ; pomposity ; eagerness for popularity, outside display, etc 

VEKT LARGE. Set everything by the good opinion of others ; are 
ostentatious, if not vain and ambitious ; love praise, and are mortified 
by censure inordinately ; with moderate Self-Esteem and Firmness, 
can not breast public opinion, but are over-fond of popularity ; with 
only average Conscientiousness, seek popularity without regard to 
merit ; but with large Conscientiousness, seek praise mainly for virtuous 
doings ; with large Ideality, and only average Causality, seek praise 
for fashionable dress and outside appearances rather than internal 
merit ; are both vain and fashionable as well as aristocratic ; starve 
the kitchen to stuff the parlor ; with large Acquisitiveness, boast of 
riches ; with large Adhesiveness, of friends ; with large Language, are 
extra forward in conversation, and engross much of the time, etc. 
This is the main organ of aristocracy, exclusiveness, fashionableness, 
go-called pride, and nonsensical outside show : p. 110. 


LARGE. Love commendation, and are cut by censure ; are keenly 
alive to the smiles and frowns of public opinion ; mind what people 
say ; strive to show off to advantage, and are affable, courteous, and 
desirous of pleasing ; love to be in company ; stand on etiquette and 
ceremony ; aspire to do and become something great ; set much by 
appearances, and are mortified by reproach ; with large Cautiousness 
and moderate Self-Esteem, are careful to take the popular side, and fear 
to face the ridicule of others ; yet, with Conscientiour-ness and Combat- 
iveness large, stick to the right, though unpopular, knowing that it 
will ultimately confer honor ; with large Benevolence, seek praise for 
works of philanthropy and mercy ; with large intellectual organs, 
love literary and intellectual distinctions ; with large Adhesiveness, 
desire the good opinion of friends, yet care little for that of others ; 
with large Self-Esteem, Combativeness, and excitability, are very 
touchy when criticised, seek public life, want all the praise, and hate 
rivals ; with large perceptives, take a forward part in literary and de- 
bating societies ; with large Combativeness, Hope, and activity, will 
not be outdone, but rather work till completely exhausted, and are 
liable to over-do, in order to eclipse rivals : p. 108. 

FULL. Value the estimation of others, yet will not go far after it ; 
seek praise in the direction of the larger organs, yet care little for it 
in that of the smaller ; are not aristocratic, yet like to make a fair 
show in the world ; with large Adhesiveness, love the praise and can 
not endure the censure of friends ; with large Conscientiousness, set 
much by MORAL character, and wish to be praised for correct MOTIVES ; 
yet, with moderate Acquisitiveness, care little for the name of being 
rich ; with large Benevolence and intellectual organs, desire to be 
esteemed for evincing talent in doing good, etc. : p. 110. 

AVERAGE. Show only a respectable share of this faculty, except 
when it is powerfully wrought upon by praise or reproach ; are morti- 
fied by censure, yet not extremely so, and call the other faculties to 
justify ; are not particularly ambitious, yet by no means deficient ; 
and not insensible to compliments, yet can not well be inflated by 
praise: p.aOT. 

MODERATE. Feel some, but no great, regard for popularity ; and 
evince this faculty only in connection with the larger organs ; with 
large Self-Esteem and Firmness, are inflexible and austere ; and with 
large Combativeness and small Agreeableness, lack civility and com- 
plaisance to others ; disdain to flatter, and can not be flattered, and 
should cultivate a pleasing, winning mode of address : p. 112. 

SMALL. Care little for the opinions of others, even of friends ; are 
comparatively insensible to praise ; disregard style and fashion ; 
despise etiquette and formal usages ; never ask what will persons 
thiik, and put on no outside appearances for their own sake ; with 


large Self -Esteem, Firmness, and Combativeness, are destitute of 
politeness, devoid of ceremony, and not at all flexible or pleasing in 
manners ; with large Combativeness and Conscientiousness, go fur the 
right regardless of popularity, and are always making enemi^; say 
and do things in so graceless a manner as often to displease ; with 
large Acquisitiveness and Self-Esteem, though wealthy, make no boast 
of it, and are as commonplace in conduct as if poor, etc. : p. 112. 

VERY SMALL. Care almost nothing for reputation, praise, or censure. 

To CULTIVATE. Eemember that you often stand in your own light 
by caring little for the speeches of people, for appearance and charac- 
ter ; and cherish a higher regard for public opinion, for your character 
and standing among men, for a good name, and do nothing in the 
least to tarnish your reputation, but cultivate a winning, politic, 
pleasant manner toward all, as if you would ingratiate yourself into 
their good- will: 258. 

To RESTRAIN. Remember that you are infinitely too sensitive to 
reproof ; that your feelings are often hurt when there is no occasion ; 
that you often feel neglected or reproved without cause ; that evil 
speaking breaks no bones, and will ultimately thwart itself ; lay aside 
that affected, artificial, nippy style of manners and speaking ; be more 
natural ; walk, act, feel as if alone, not forever looked at ; be less 
particular about dress, style, appearance, etc., and less mindful of 
praise and blame ; subject Approbativeness io conscience that- is, do 
what is right, and let people say what they like ; be more independ- 
ent, and less ambitious and sensitive to praise and flattery : 259. 


StLF-appreciation and valuation ; self-RESPECT and RELI- 

SELF-SATISFAI TION and complacency ; love of LIBERTY and 
of character ; MANLINESS ; LOFTY-MINDEDNESS, and desire for 
elevation. Adapted to the superiority, greatness, and exalted 
dignity of human nature. Perversion : egotism ; hauteur ; 
forwardness ; tyranny ; superciliousness ; imperiousness. 

VERY LARGE. Have the highest respect for self; place special stress 
on the personal pronouns ; carry a high head, and walk so straight as 
to lean backward ; have a restless, boundless ambition to be and do 
some great thing ; with only full intellect, have more ambition thau 

8ELF-EETKEM. _ 11.1 

-alents, and are proud, pompous, supercilious, and imperious, and with 
Hope large, must operate on a great scale or none, and launch out too 
deeply ; with Approbativeness large, are most aristocratic ; and with 
only fair intellect, arc a swell-head and great brag, and put self above 
everybody else ; with only average Approbativeness and Agreeable- 


ness, take no pains to smooth off the rougher points of character, but 
are every way repulsive ; with average Parental Love, are very domi- 
neering in the family, and insist upon being waited upon, obeyed, 
etc. ; and should carry the head a little lower, and cultivate humility : 
p. 116. 

LARGE. Put a high estimate upon self sayings, doings, and capa- 
bilities ; fall back upon their own unaided resources ; will not take 
advice, but insist upon being their own master ; are high-minded 5 
will never stoop, cr demean self; aim high; are not satisfied with 
moderate success, or a petty business, and comport and express with 
dignity, and perhaps with majesty ; are perfectly self-satisfied ; with 
large Parental Love, pride self in children, yet with Combativeness 
large, require implicit obedience, and are liable to be stern ; with large 
Adhesiveness, seek society, yet must lead ; with large Acquisitiveness 
added, seek partnership, but must be the head of the firm ; with large 
Firmness and Combativeness, can not be driven, but insist upon doing 
their mm will and pleasure, and are sometimes contrary and headstrong ; 
with large Hope, think that anything they do can not possibly fail, 
because done so well ; with large moral organs, impart a tone, dignity, 
aspiration, and elevation of character which command universal 
respect ; and with large intellectual faculties added, are desirous of, 
and well calculated for, public life ; are a natural leader, but seek 
moral distinction, and lead the public mind; with large Combative- 
ness, Destructiveness, Firmness, and Approbativeness, love to be cap- 


tain or general, and speak with that sternness and authority which 
enforce obedience ; with large Acquisitiveness, aspire to be rich the 
richest man in town partly on account of the power wealth confers ; 
with large Language, Individuality, Firmness, and Combativeness, 
seek to be a political leader ; with large Constructiveness, Perceptives, 
Causality, and Combativeness, are well calculated to have the direc- 
tion of men, and oversee large mechanical establishments ; with only 
average brain and intellect, and large selfish faculties, are proud, 
haughty, domineering, egotistical, overbearing, greedy of power and 
dominion, etc. : p. 114. 

FULL. Evince a good degree of dignity and self-respect ; yet are 
not proud or haughty ; with large Combativeness, Firmness, and Hope, 
rely fully upon their own energies in cases of emergency, yet are will- 
ing to hear advice, though seldom take it ; conduct becomingly, and 
secure respect ; and with large Combativeness and Firmness, and full 
Destructivcness and Hope, evince much power of this faculty, but 
little when these faculties are moderate : p. 116. 

AVERAGE. Show this faculty mainly in combination with those that 
are larger ; with large Approbativeness and Firmness, and a large 
brain and moral organs, rarely trifle or evince meanness, yet are rarely 
conceited, and think neither too little nor too much of self, but place 
a just estimate upon their own capabilities ; with large Adhesiveness, 
both receive and impart character to friends, yet receive most ; with 
large Conscientiousness, pride self more on moral worth than physical 
qualities, wealth, titles, etc. ; and with large intellectual and moral 
organs, mainly for intellectual and moral excellence : p. 113. 

MODERATE. Rather underrate personal capabilities and worth ; feel 
rather inferior, unworthy, and humble ; lack dignity and manliness, 
and are apt to say and do trifling things, and let self down ; with large 
intellectual and moral organs, lead off well when once placed in a 
responsible position, yet at first distrust their own capabilities ; with 
large Conscientiousness, Combativeness, and activity, often appear self- 
sufficient and positive, because certain of being right, yet it is founded 
more on reason than egotism ; with large Approbativeness, lore to 
show off, yet are not satisfied with self ; go abroad after praise, rather 
than feel internally conscious of personal merits ; are apt to boast, 
because more desirous of the estimation of others than conscious of 
personal worth ; with large moral and intellectual powers, have ex- 
alted thoughts and aspirations, and communicate well, yet often de- 
tract from them by commonplace phrases and undignified expressions ; 
will be too .familiar to be respected in proportion to merit, and should 
vigorously cultivate this faculty by banishing mean, and cultivating 
high, thoughts of self: p. 116. 

SMALL. Feel diminutive ; lack elevation and dignity of tono and 


manner ; place too low estimate on self ; and, with Approbativeness 
large, are too anxious to appear well in the eyes of others ; with largo 
Combativeness and Destructiveness, show some self-reliance when pro- 
voked or placed in responsible positions, yet lack that dignity and 
tone which command universal respect, and give a capability to lead 
off in society ; lack self-confidence and weight of character ; shrink 
from responsible and great undertakings, from a feeling of unworthi- 
ncss ; underrate self, and are therefore undervalued by others, and 
feel insignificant, as if in the way, or trespassing upon others, and 
hence often apologize, and should cultivate this faculty. 

VERY SMALL. Feel little, and manifest none of this faculty. 

To CULTIVATE. Say of yourself what Black Hawk said to Jackson 
" I am a man" one endowed with the ennobling elements of hu- 
manity ; try to realize how exalted those human endowments conferred 
on you, and hence duly to estimate yourself, physically, intellectually, 
morally ; recount your good traits, and cultivate self- valuation in view 
of them ; pride yourself on what you are, but never indulge self- 
abasement because not dressed, because not as rich or stylish as others ; 
be less humble toward men, but hold up your head among them, as 
if good enough for any ; assume the attitude of self-esteem ; study its 
phrenological definition, and cultivate the self-esteem feeling: 261. 

To RESTRAIN. Bear in mind that you esteem yourself much better 
than you really are ; that you overrate all your powers, and are too 
forward and self-confident ; that more modesty would improve you ; 
that you incline too much to be arbitrary, and domineer ; that you are 
more faulty than you suppose, and need humility ; 263. 


pose ; TE-NACITY of WILL, and aversion to change. Adapted 
to man's requisition for holding out to the end. Perversion 
obstinacy ; willfulness ; mulishness ; stubbornness ; unwilling- 
ness to change, even when reason requires. 

VERT LARGE. Are well-nigh obstinate, stubb;rn, and with large 
Combativeness and Self- Esteem, as unchangeable as the laws of the 
Medes and Persians, and can neither be persuaded nor driven ; with 
large activity, power, brain, and intellectual organs, are well calculated 
to carry forward some great work which requires the utmost determi- 
nation and energy ; with large Causality, can possibly be turned by 
potent reasons, yet by nothing else. 


LARGE. Are set and willful; stick to and carry out what is com- 
menced ; hold on long and hard ; continue to the end, and may he 
fully relied upon ; with full Self- Esteem and large Combativeness, can 
not be driven, but the more they are forced the more they resist ; with 
large Combativeness and Destructiveness, add perseverance to stability, 
and not only hold on, but drive forward determinedly through diffi- 
culties; with large Hope, undertake much, and carry all out; with 
large Cautiousness and Causality, are careful and judicious in laying 

No. 68. LARGE. No. 69. SMALL. 

plans and forming opinions, yet rarely change ; may seem to waver 
until the mind is fully made up, but are afterward the more unchang- 
ing ; with Hope very large, and Cautiousness and Causality only aver- 
age, decide quickly, even rashly, and refuse to change ; with Adhe- 
siveness and Benevolence large, are easily persuaded, especially by 
friends, yet can not be driven ; and with large Cautiousness, Combat- 
iveness, Causality, perceptives, activity, and power, will generally 
succeed, because wise in planning and persevering in execution ; with 
Combativeness and Self-Esteem large, and Causality only average, will 
not see the force of opposing arguments, but tenaciously adhere to 
affirmed opinions and purposes ; with large Conscientiousness and 
Combativeness, are doubly decided wherever right or justice are con- 
cerned, and in such cases will never give one inch, but will stand out. 
in argument, effort, or as a juryman till the last : p. 119. 

FULL. Like Firmness large, show a great degree of decision when 
this faculty works with large organs, but not otherwise ; with Com- 
bativeness and Conscientiousness large, show great fixedness where 
right and truth are concerned, yet with Acquisitiveness moderate, lack 
perseverance in money matters ; with moderate Combativeness and 
Self-Esteem, are easily turned ; and with large Adhesiveness and 
Benevolence, too easily persuaded, even against their better judgment ; 
with Cautiousness and Approbativeness large, or very large, often 


evince fickleness, irresolution, and procrastination ; and with an un- 
even head, and an excitable temperament, often appear deficient in 
this faculty: p. 131. 

AVERAGE. When supported by large Combativeness or Conscien- 
tiousness, or Causality, or Acquisitiveness, etc. , show a good degree 
of this faculty ; but when opposed by large Cziutiousness, Approba- 
tiveness, or Adhesiveness, evince its deficiency, and have not enough 
for great undertakings : p. 119. 

MODERATE. Rather lack perseverance, even when the stronger facul- 
ties support it ; but when they do not, evince fickleness, irresolution, 
indecision, and lack perseverance ; with Adhesiveness large, are too 
easily persuaded and influenced by friends ; with large Cautiousness 
and Approbativeness, and moderate or small Sclf-Esteem, are flexible 
and fickle, and go with the current : p. 132. 

SMALL. With activity great, and the head uneven, arc fitful, im- 
pulsive, and, like the weather-vane, shift with every changing breeze, 
and are ruled by the other faculties, and as unstable as water : p. 122. 

VERY SHALL. Are changed by the slightest motives, and a perfect 
creature of circumstances, and accomplishes nothing requiring perse- 
verance : p. 122. 

To CULTIVATE. Have more a mind of your own ; make up your 
mind wisely, and then stand to your purpose ; be sure you are right, 
then hold on ; surmount difficulties, instead of turning aside to avoid 
them ; resist the persuasions of others ; begin nothing not worthy of 
finishing, and finish all you begin : 265. 

To RESTRAIN. Remember that you are too obstinate and persistent 
often to your own loss ; at least listen to the advice of others, and 
duly consider it, and govern Firmness by Intellect and Conscience, not 
allow it to govern them : 266. 


THESE render man a moral, accountable, and religious 
being humanize, adorn, and elevate his nature ; connect him 
with the moral nature of things ; create his higher and nobler 
faculties ; beget aspirations after goodness, virtue, purity, 
and moral principle, and ally him to angels and to God. 

VERY LARGE. Have a most exalted sense and feeling of the moral 
and religious, with a high order of practical goodness, and the strongest 
aspirations for a higher and holier state, both in this life and that 
which is to come. 


LARGE. Experience a high regard for things sacred and religioun . 
have an elevated, moral, and aspiring cast of feelings and conduct : 
right intentions, and a desire to become good, holy, and moral in 
feeling and conduct ; and, with weak animal feelings, are a rose in the 

FULL. Have a good moral and religious tone, and general correct- 
ness of motive, so as to render feelings and conduct about right ; hut 
with strong propensities, and only average intellectual faculties, are 

o. 70. EEV. DB. TYNG. No. 71. HALEFACTOB. 

sometimes led into errors of belief and practice ; mean right, yet 
sometimes do wrong, and should cultivate these faculties, and restrain 
the propensities. 

AVERAGE. Surrounded by good influences, will be tolerably moral 
and religious in feeling, yet not sufficiently so to withstand strong pro- 
pensities ; with disordered nerves, are quite liable to say and do wrong 
things, yet afterward repent, and require much moral cultivation. 

MODERATE. Have a rather weak moral tone ; feel but little regard 
for things sacred and religious ; are easily led into temptation ; feel 
but little moral restraint ; and, with large propensities, especially if 
circumstances favor their excitement, are exceedingly liable to say 
and do what is wrong. 

SMALL. Have weak moral feeling ; lack moral character ; and with 
large organs of the propensities, are liable to be depraved, and a bad 
member of society. 

VERT SMALL. Feel little, and show no moral tendencies. 

To CULTIVATE. Yield implicit obedience to the higher, better sen- 
timents of your nature ; cultivate a respect for religion ; lead a moral, 
spotless life ; cultivate all the human virtues ; especially study and 
contemplate nature, and yield yourself to those elevating influences 



enkindled thereby ; cultivate adoration and love of the Deity in His 
works ; study natural religion, and make your life as pure, right, 
true, and good as possible. 

To KESTRAIN. To avoid becoming morbid in the action of the 
moral sentiments, and to obviate it when it exists, subject Benevo- 
lence or generosity, justice or conscientious scruples, Veneration or 
devotion, Spirituality or faith, to the guidance of intellect ; and be 
more selfish, or at least less self-sacrificing think more of material 



No. 72. LARGE. No. 73. SMALL. 

right ; innate sense of ACCOUNTABILITY and obligation ; love 
of JUSTICE and truth ; regard for DUTY ; desire for moral 
PURITY and excellence ; disposition to fulfill PROMISES, agree- 
ments, etc. ; that internal MONITOR which approves the right 
and condemns the wrong ; sense of GUILT ; PENITENCE ; CON- 
TRITION ; desire to REFORM. Adapted to the Tightness of 
right, and the wrongness of wrong, and to the moral nature 
and constitution of things. Perverted, it makes one do wrong 
from conscientious scruples, and torments with undue self- 

VERT LARGE. Place moral excellence at the head of all excellence ; 
make duty everything ; are governed by the highest order of moral 
principle ; would on no account knowingly do wrong ; fire scrupu- 
lously exact in all matters of right; perfectly honest in motive; 
always condemning self and repenting, and very forgiving to those 
who evince penitence, but inexorable without; with Combativeness 


large, evince the utmost indignation at the wrong, and drive the right 
with great force; arc censorious, make but little allowance for the 
faults and follies of mankind, and show extraordinary moral courage 
and fortitude ; with small Secretivcness and an active temperament, 
are liable to denounce evil-doers ; with large Friendship, can not tol- 
erate the least thing wrong in friends, and are liable to reprove them ; 
with large Parental Love, exact too much from children, and with 
large Combativeness, are too liable to blame them ; with large Cau- 
tiousness, are often afraid to do, for fear of doing wrong ; with large 
Veneration, reasoning faculties, and Language, are a natural theolo 
gian, and take the highest pleasure in reasoning and conversing upon 
all things having a moral and religious bearing; with Veneration 
average, and Benevolence large or very large, can not well help being 
a thorough-going reformer, etc. : p. 129. 

LARGE. Love the right as right, and hate the wrong because wrong ; 
are honest, faithful, upright in motive; mean well; consult duty 
before expediency ; feel guilty when conscious of having done wrong ; 
ask forgiveness for the past, and try to do better in future; with 
strong propensities, will sometimes do wrong, but be exceedingly sorry 
therefor ; and, with a wrong education added, are liable to do wrong, 
thinking it right, because these propensities warp conscience, yet mean 
well ; with large Cautiousness, are solicitous to know what is right, 
and careful to do it ; with weaker Cautiousness, sometimes do wrong 
carelessly or indifferently, yet afterward repent it ; with Jarge Cau- 
tiousness and Destnictiveness, are severe on wrong-doers, and unre- 
lenting until they evince penitence, and then cordially forgive ; with 
large Approbativeness, keep the moral character pure and spotless 
value others on their morals more than wealth, birth, etc., and make 
the word the bond; with large Benevolence, Combativeness, and 
Destructiveness, feel great indignation and severity against oppressors, 
and those who cause others to suffer by wronging them ; with large 
Ideality, have strong aspirations after moral purity .and excellence; 
with large reasoning organs, take great pleasure, and show much 
talent in reasoning upon and investigating moral subjects, etc. : 126. 

FULL. Have good conscientious feelings, and correct general inten- 
tions, yet are not quite as correct in action as intentions ; mean well, 
yet with large Combativeness, Destructiveness, Amativcness, etc., 
may sometimes yield to these faculties, especially if the system is 
somewhat inflamed ; with large Acquisitiveness, make very close bar- 
gains, and will take such advantages as are common in business, yet 
do not intend to wrong others out of their just dues, still have more 
regard for money than justice ; with large intellectual organs, love to 
reason upon subjects where right arid duty are involved, yet too often 
take the ground of expediency, and fail to allow right its due weight ; 


and should never allow conscience to be in any way weakened, but 
cultivate it assiduously : p. 130. 

AVERAGE. When not tempted by stronger faculties, do what is 
about right; generally justify self, and do not feel particularly indig- 
nant at the wrong, or commendatory of the right ; with large Appru- 
bativeness and Self-Esteem, may do the honorable thing, yet Tjhere 
honor and right clash, will choose the former; with only average 
Combativeness and Destructiveness, allow many wrong things to pass 
unrebuked, or even unresented, and show no great moral indignation 
or force ; with moderate or small Secretiveness and Acquisitiveness, 
and large Approbativeness, Benevolence, and Ideality, will do as nearly 
right, and commit as few errors as those with Secretiveness, Acquisi- 
tiveness, and Conscientiousness all large, and may be trusted, espe- 
cially on honor, yet will rarely feel guilty, and should never be blamed, 
because Approbativeness will be mortified before conscience is con- 
victed ; with large propensities, especially Secretiveness and Acquisi- 
tiveness, and only full Benevolence, are selfish ; should be dealt with 
cautiously, and thoroughly bound in writing, because liable to be slip- 
pery, tricky, etc. ; and should cultivate this faculty by never allowing 
the propensities to overcome it, and by always considering things in 
the moral aspect : p. 124. 

MODERATE. Have some regard for duty in feeling, but less in prac- 
tice ; justify self; are not very penitent or forgiving; even temporize 
with principle, and sometimes let interest rule duty : p. 131. 

SMALL. Have few conscientious scruples, and little penitence, grati- 
tude, or regard for moral principle, justice, duty, etc., and are gov- 
erned mainly by the larger faculties ; with large propensities, and only 
average Veneration and Spirituality, evince a marked deficiency of 
moral principle ; with moderate Secretiveness and Acquisitiveness, and 
only full Destructiveness and Combativeness, and large Adhesiveness, 
Approbativeness, Benevolence, Ideality, and Intellect, and a fine tem- 
perament, may live a tolerably blameless life, yet, on close scrutiny, 
will lack the moral in feeling, but may be safely trusted, because true 
to promises; that is, conscience having less to contend with, its defi- 
ciency is less observable. Such should most earnestly cultivate this 
faculty : p. 132. 

VERT SMALL. Are almost wholly destitute of moral feeling, and 
wholly controlled by the other faculties : p. 133. 

To CULTIVATE. Always ask yourself what is right and wrong, and 
adhere closely to the former, and studiously avoid the latter ; make 
everything a matter of principle ; do just as nearly right as you know 
how in everything, and never allow conscience to be borne down by 
any of the other faculties, but keep it supreme; maintain the tight 
everywhere and for everybody; cultivate a high sense of duty and 

120 HOPE. 

obligation, and try to reform every error ; in short, ' ' let justice be 
done, though the heavens fall." : 268. 

To RESTRAIN. Remember that you are too exact and exacting in 
everything ; that you often think you see faults where there are none ; 
that you carry duty and right to a boundless extreme, and so far as 
to make it wrong ; that you are too condemnatory, and need to culti- 
vate a lenient, forbearing, forgiving spirit ; that you trouble yourself 
unduly about the wrong-doing of others ; that you often accuse people 
of meaning worse than they really intend look at minor faults as 
mountains of wrong ; are too censorious ; too apt to throw away the 
gold on account of dross ; to discard the greater good on account of 
lesser attendant evils ; too liable to a feeling of guilt and unworthi- 
ness, as if unfit to live, and too conscience-stricken. Extreme Con- 
scientiousness, with 6 or 7 organic quality, and large Combativeness, 
along with disordered nerves or dyspepsia, makes one of the most un- 
pleasant of characters querulous, eternally grumbling about nothing, 
magnifying everybody's faults, thus making mischief among neigh- 
bors ; perpetually accusing everybody, and chiding children for mere 
trifles ; too rabid in matters of reform, and violent in denouncing its 
opponents of whom rabid radicals, punctilious religionists, and old 
maids furnish examples : 270. 

16. HOPE. 

EXPECTATION ; ANTICIPATION of future success and happi- 
ness. Adapted to man's relations with the future. Perverted, 
it becomes visionary and castle -building. 

VERT LARGE. Have unbounded expectations ; build a world of 
castles in the air; live in the future; enjoy things in anticipation 
more than possession ; with small Continuity, have too many irons in 
the fire ; with an active temperament added, take on more business 
than can be worked off properly ; are too much hurried to do things 
in season ; with large Acquisitiveness, are grasping, count chickens 
before they are hatched, and often two to the egg at that ; with only 
average Cautiousness, are always in hot water ; never stop to enjoy 
what is possessed, but grasp after more, and will never accomplish 
much, because undertake too much, and in taking one step forward, 
often slip two steps back : p. 133. 

LARGE. Expect much from the future ; contemplate with pleasure 
the bright features of life's picture ; never despond ; overrate pros- 
pective good, and underrate and overlook obstacles and evils ; calcu- 
late on more than the nature of the case will warrant ; expect, and 

HOPE. 121 

. hence attempt, a great deal, and are therefore always full of business ; 
are sanguine, and rise above present trouble by hoping for better 
things in future, and though disappointed, hope on still ; build some 
air-castles, and live in the future more than present ; with large Com- 
bativeness, Firmness, and Causality, are enterprising, never give up 
the ship, but struggle manfully through difficulties ; and with large 
Approbativeness, and full Self-Esteem added, feel adequate to diffi- 
culties, and grapple with them spiritedly ; with large Self-Esteem, 
think that everything attempted must succeed, and with large Causal- 
ity added, consider their plans well-nigh perfect ; with large Acquisi- 
tiveness, lay out money freely in view of future gain ; with largo 
Approbativeness and Self-Esteem, hope for renown, honor, etc. ; with 
large Veneration and Spirituality, hope to attain exalted moral excel- 
lence, and should check it by acting on only half it promises, and 
reasoning against it : p. 137. 

FULL. Expect considerable, yet realize more; undertake no more 
than can be accomplished; are quite sanguine and enterprising, yet 
with Cautiousness large are always on the safe side; with large 
Acquisitiveness added, invest money freely, yet always safely ; make 
good bargains, if any, and count all the cost, yet are not afraid of 
expenses where they will more than pay ; with larger animal organs 
than moral, will hope more for this world's goods than for another, 
and with larger moral than animal, for another state of being than 
this, etc. : p. 139. 

AVERAGE. Expect and attempt too little, rather than too much ; 
with large Cautiousness, dwell more on difficulties than encourage- 
ments; are contented with the present rather than lay out for the 
future ; with large Acquisitiveness added, invest money very safely, 
if at all, and prefer to put it out securely on interest rather than risk 
it in business, except in a perfectly sure business ; will make money 
slowly, yet lose little ; and with large intellectual organs, in the long 
run may acquire considerable wealth : p. 136. 

MODERATE. With large Cautiousness, make few promises ; but with 
large Conscientiousness, scrupulously fulfill them, because promise 
only what can be performed ; with small Self-Esteem, and large Ven- 
eration, Conscientiousness, and Cautiousness, if a professed Christian, 
will have many fears as to his future salvation ; with only average 
propensities, will lack energy, enterprise, and fortitude; with large 
Firmness and Cautiousness, are very slow to embark, yet once com- 
mitted, rarely give up ; with large reasoning faculties, may be *sure 
of success, because see why and horn it is to be brought about ; with 
large Acquisitiveness, will hold on to whatever money is once acquired, 
or at least spend very cautiously, and only where sure to be returned 
with interest ; should cheer up, never despond, co'unt favorable, but 


not unfavorable chances, keep up a lively, buoyant state of mind, and 
" hope on, hope ever :" p. 139. 

SMALL. Expect and undertake very little ; with large Cautiousness, 
put off till it is too late ; are always behind ; may embark in projects 
after everybody else has succeeded, but will then be too late, and in 
general knock at the door just after it has been bolted ; with large 
Cautiousness, are forever in doubt ; with large Approbativeness and 
Cautiousness, though most desirous of praise, have little hopes of ob- 
taining it, and therefore exceedingly backward in society, yet fear 
ridicule rather than hope for praise ; are easily discouraged ; see lions 
in the way ; lack enterprise ; magnify obstacles, etc. : p. 140. 
VERY SMALL. Expect next to nothing, and undertake less : p. 140. 

To CULTIVATE. Look altogether on the bright side, the dark none ; 
calculate all the chances for, none against you ; mingle in young and 
lively society ; banish care, and cultivate juvenility ; cheer up ; venture 
more in business; cultivate trust in the future, and "look aloft !"272. 

To BESTRAIN. Offset excessive expectation by intellect; say to 
yourself, " My hope so far exceeds realities that I shall not get half I 
expect, ' ' and calculate accordingly ; do business on the cash principle, 
in both buying and selling, otherwise you are in danger of being 
swamped of buying more than you can pay for, and indorsing too 
much ; build no castles in the air ; indulge no revelings of hope ; 
shoulder only half the load you feel confident you can carry, and bal- 
ance your visionary anticipations by cool judgment : 273. 


prophetic GUIDINGS ; perception and feeling of the SPIRITUAL ; 
interior perception of TRUTH, what is BEST, what is about to 
transpire, etc. Adapted to man's prophetic gift and a future 
life. Perversion superstition ; witchcraft ; and with Cau- 
tiousness large, fear of ghosts. 

VERT LARGE. Are led and governed by a species of prophetic guid- 
ing ; feel by intuition what is right and best ; are forewarned of dan- 
ger, and led by spiritual monition into the right way ; feel internally 
what is true and false, right and wrong, best and not best ; unless well 
regulated, are too credulous, superstitious, and a believer in dreams, 
ghosts, and wonders, and liable to be misled by them and so-called 
prophecies, as well as to become fanatical on religion : p. 143. 


LARGE. Perceive and know things independent of the senses or 
intellect, or, as it were, by prophetic intuition ; experience an internal 
consciousness of what is best, and that spiritual communion which 
constitutes the essence of true piety ; love to meditate ; experience a 
species of waking clairvoyance, as it were "forewarned;" combined 
with large Veneration, hold intimate communion with the Deity, who 
is profoundly adored ; and take a world of pleasure in that calm, happy, 
half-ecstatic state of mind caused by this faculty; with large Causal- 
ity, perceive truth by intuition, which philosophical tests prove cor- 
rect ; with large Comparison added, have a deep and clear insight into 
spiritual subjects, and embody a vast .amount of the highest order of 
truth ; and clearly perceive and fully realize a spiritual state of being 
after death : p. 142. 

FULL. Have a full share of high, pure, and spiritual feeling; 
many premonitions or interior warnings and guidings, which, implic- 
itly followed, conduct to success and happiness through life ; and an 
inner test or touchstone of truth, right, etc., in a kind of interior 
consciousness, which is independent of reason, yet, unperverted, in 
harmony with it; are quite spiritual-minded, and, as it were, "led by 
the spirit:" p. 143. 

AVERAGE. Have some spiritual premonitions and guidings, yet they 
are not always sufficiently distinct to secure being followed ; but when 
followed, they lead correctly ; see this light within, and feel what is 
true and best with tolerable distinctness, and should cultivate this 
faculty by following its light : p. 141. 

MODERATE. Have some, but not very distinct perception of spiritual 
things ; rather lack faith ; believe mainly from evidence, and little 
from intuition; with large Causality, say "Prove it," and take no 
man's say unless he gives good reasons: p. 144. 

SMALL. Perceive spiritual truths so indistinctly as rarely to admit 
them ; are not guided by faith, because so weak ; like disbelieving 
Thomas, must see the fullest PROOF before believing ; have very little 
credulity, and doubt things of a superhuman origin or nature ; have 
no premonitions, and disbelieve hi them : p. 145. 

VERY SMALL. Have no spiritual guidings or superstitions : p. 146. 

To CULTIVATE. Muse and meditate on divine things the Deity, a 
future existence, the state of man after death, immortality, and that 
class of subjects ; and, especially, follow your innermost impressions or 
presentiments in everything, as well as open your mind to the intui- 
tive reception of truth: 276. 

To RESTRAIN. Cultivate the terrestrial more and celestial less ; ab- 
stain from and restrain spiritual musings and contemplations, and 
confine yourself more to the practical, tangible, and real ; keep away 
from fanatical meetings, and confine yourself more to life as it is to 



what and where you are, instead of are to be to earth, its duties and 
pleasures: 277. 


for religion and things sacred ; disposition to PRAY, WORSHIP, 
and observe religious rites. Adapted to the existence of a 
God, and the pleasures and benefits experienced by man in 
worshiping him. Perverted, it produces idolatry, superstitious 
reverence for authority, bigotry, religious intolerance, etc. 


ence the highest degree of 
Divine love and worship ; 
place God as supreme upon 
the throne of the soul, and 
make His worship a cen- 
tral duty ; manifest ex- 
treme fervor, anxiety, and 
delight in divine worship, 
and are pre-eminently fer- 
^ vent in prayer ; obsequious 
reverence for age, for 
time-honored forms, cere- 
PHIL- mon i es i an d institutions; 
EMET with moderate Self-Es- 
teem, and large Conscien- 
tiousness and Cautious- 
ness, and a disordered 
temperament, experience 
the utmost unworthiness 
and guiltiness in His sight, 
and are crushed by a sense 
of guilt and vileness, espe- 
cially before God, yet 
should never cherish these 
feelings ; are always dread- 
ing the wrath of Heaven, 
no matter whether the 
No. 75.-A NQSO"MUKDEBEB, WHO IGNORED ALL actions are right or wrong ; 
KBLIGIOK. ' and should cultivate reli- 

gious cheerfulness and hope of future happiness : p. 149. 

N-o. 74-DiAN 


k.Y TO GOD. 


LARGE. Experience an awe of God and things sacred ; love to adore 
the Supreme Being, especially in His works ; feel true devotion, fer- 
vent piety, and love of divine things ; take great delight in religious 
exercises ; have much respect for superiority ; regard God as the cen- 
ter of hopes, fears, and aspirations ; with large Hope and Spirituality, 
worship Him as a spirit, and hope to be with and like Him ; with large 
Ideality, contemplate His works with rapture and ecstasy ; with large 
Sublimity, adore Him as infinite in everything ; with large reasoning 
organs have clear, and, if the faculties are unperverted, correct ideas 
of the Divine character and government, and delight to reason thereon; 
with large Parental Love, adore Him as a friend and father ; and with 
large Benevolence, for His infinite goodness, etc. ; with large Causality 
added-, as securing the happiness of sentient beings by a. wise institu- 
tion of law, and as the great first CAUSE of all things ; with large and 
perverted Cautiousness, mingle fear and dread with worship ; with 
large Constructiveness and Causality, admire the system evinced in 
His architectural plans, contrivances, etc. : p. 148. 

FULL. Experience a good degree of religious worship whenever cir- 
cumstances excite this faculty, and allow the stronger faculties frequently 
to divert it, yet pray at least internally ; with large or very large 
Conscience or Benevolence, place religion in doing right and doing 
good more than in religious observances, and esteem duties higher 
than ceremonies ; with strong propensities, may be devout upon the 
Sabbath, yet will be worldly through the week, and experience some 
conflict between fhe religious and worldly aspirations : p. 149. 

AVERAGE. Will adore the Deity, yet often make religion subservient 
to the larger faculties ; with large Adhesiveness, Benevolence, and 
Conscience, may love religious meetings, to meet friends, and pray for 
the good of mankind, or because duty requires their attendance ; yet 
are not habitually and innately devotional, except when this faculty 
is especially excited by circumstances ; p. 147. 

MODERATE. Will not be particularly devout or worshipful ; with 
large Benevolence and Conscientiousness, if religiously educated, may 
be religious, yet will place religion more in works than faith, in duty 
than prayer, and be more moral than pious ; in prayer will supplicate 
blessings upon mankind, and with Conscientiousness large, will confess 
sin more than express an awe of God ; with large reflectives, worship 
no further than reason precedes worship ; with moderate Spirituality 
and Conscientiousness, care little for religion as such, but with large 
Benevolence, place religion mainly in doing good, etc. ; and are by no 
means conservative in religion, but take liberal views of religious sub- 
jects ; and are religious only when this faculty is considerably excited : 
p. 150. 

SMALL. Experience little devotion or respect, and are deficient in 



fervor ; care little for religious observances, and are not easily im- 
pressed with the worshiping sentiment : p. 150. 

VERY SMALL. Are almost destitute of the feeling and practice of 
this sentiment. 

To CULTIVATE. Study and admire the divine in nature, animate 
and inanimate, heaven and earth, man and things, present and future ; 
cultivate admiration and adoration of the Divine character and govern- 
ment, of this stupendous order of things, of the beauties and perfec- 
tions of nature, as well as a regard for religion and things sacred ; but 
contemplate the Divine mercy and goodness rather than austerity, and 
salvation than condemnation : 279. 

To 'RESTRAIN is rarely, if ever, necessary, unless where religious ex- 
citement endangers religious fanaticism and hallucination. In such 
cases avoid religious meetings, conversations, etc. , as much as possible ; 
cultivate the other faculties, and especially those which relate to this 
world and its pleasures ; take those physical remedies, exercise, bath- 
ing, etc., which will withdraw blood from the head, and promote 
health ; and especially do not think of the Deity with feelings of awe, 
fear, or terror, but as a kind and loving heavenly Father, good to all 
His creatures : 280. 




No. 77. JUDAS, JR. 



to man's capability of making his fellow-men happy. Perver- 
sion misplaced sympathies. 

VERY LARGE. Are deeply and thoroughly imbued with a benevo- 
lent spirit, and do good spontaneously ; with large Adhesiveness and 
moderate Acquisitiveness, are too ready to help friends ; and with 
large Hope added, especially inclined to indorse for them ; with large 
Acquisitiveness, bestow time more freely than money, yet will also 
give the latter ; but with only average or full Acquisitiveness, freely 
bestow both substance and personal aid ; with large Veneration and 
only full Acquisitiveness, give freely to religious objects ; with large 
Combativeness and Destructiveness, are more severe in word than deed, 
and threaten more than execute; with larger moral than animal 
organs, literally overflow with sympathy and practical goodness, and 
reluctantly cause others trouble ; with large reasoning organs, are 
truly philanthropic, and take broad views of reformatory measures ; 
with large Adhesiveness and Parental Love, are pre-eminently qualified 
for nursing; with large Causality, give excellent advice, etc., and 
should not let sympathy overrule judgment : p. 157. 

LARGE. Delight to do good ; make personal sacrifices to render 
others happy ; can not witness pain or distress, and do what can well 
be done to relieve them ; manifest a perpetual flow of disinterested 
goodness ; with large Adhesiveness, Ideality, and Approbativeness, 
and only average propensities and Self-Esteem, are remarkable for 
practical goodness ; live more for others than self ; with large domes- 
tic organs, make great sacrifices for family ; with large reflectives, are 
perpetually reasoning on the evils of society, the way to obviate them, 
and to render mankind happy ; with large Adhesiveness, are hospit- 
able ; with moderate Destructiveness, can not witness pain or death, 
and revolt at capital punishment ; with moderate Acquisitiveness, 
give freely to the needy, and never exact dues from the poor ; with 
large Acquisitiveness, help others to help themselves rather than give 
money ; with large Combativeness, Destructiveness, Self-Esteem, and 
Firmness, at times evince harshness, yet generally are kindly disposed : 
p. 155. 

FULL. Show a good degree of kind, neighborly, and humane feel 
ing, except when the selfish faculties overrule it, yet are not remark- 
able for disinterestedness ; with large Adhesiveness, manifest kindness 
toward friends ; and with large Combativeness and Destructiveness, 
are unrelenting toward enemies ; with large Acquisitiveness, are be- 
nevolent when money can be made thereby ; with large Conscientious- 
ness, are more just than kind, and with large Combativeness and 
Destructiveness, are exacting and severe toward offenders : p. 158. 

AVERAGE. Manifest kindness only in conjunctidn with Adhesiveness 


and other large organs ; and with only full Adhesiveness, if kind", 
are so for selfish purposes ; with large Acquisitiveness, give little or 
nothing, yet may sometimes do favors ; with large Veneration, are 
more devout than humane ; and with only full reasoning organs, are 
neither philanthropic nor reformatory : p. 153. 

MODERATE. Allow the selfish faculties to infringe upon the happi- 
ness of others; with large Combativeness, Destructiveness, Self- 
Esteem, and Firmness, are comparatively hardened to suffering ; and 
with Acquisitiveness and Secretiveness added, evince almost unmiti 
gated selfishness. 

SMALL. Care little for the happiness of man or brute, and do still 
less to promote it ; make no disinterested self-sacrifices ; are callous to 
human woe ; do few acts of kindness, and those grudgingly, and have 
unbounded selfishness : p. 159. 

VERT SMALL. Feel little and evince none of this sentiment, but are 
selfish in proportion as the other faculties prompt : p. 159. 

To CULTIVATE. Be more generous and less selfish ; more kind to 
others, the sick included ; interest yourself in their wants and woes, 
as well as their relief ; and cultivate general philanthropy and prac- 
tical goodness in sentiment and conduct ; indulge benevolence in all 
the little affairs of life, in every look and action, and season your 
whole conduct and character with this sentiment : 282. 

To EESTRAIN. Lend and indorse only where you are willing and 
can afford to lose ; give and do less freely than you naturally incline 
to ; bind yourself solemnly not to indorse beyond a given sum ; harden 
yourself against the woes and sufferings of mankind ; avoid waiting 
much on the sick, lest you make yourself sick thereby, for your 
Benevolence is in danger of exceeding your strength ; be selfish first 
and generous afterward, and put Benevolence under bonds to judgment. 

LOVE of, and TALENT for, the FINE ARTS ; and for IMPROVE- 
MENT in self-perfection, and obtaining and acquiring whatever 


This group elevates and chastens the animal faculties, prevents the 
propensities, even when strong, from taking on the grosser sensual 
forms of action, and hence is rarely found in criminals ; elevates even 
the moral sentiments, and constitute a stepping-stone from the animal 
to the moral, and a connecting link between the moral and the intel- 
lectual in man. 


VERY LARGE. Perfectly abhor the coarse, low, sensual, carnal, and 
animal action of the propensities, and follow after the beautiful and 
perfect in nature and art ; with strong propensities, manifest them in a 
proper manner ; with a large moral lobe, adopt imposing and eloquent 
forms of religion, as the Episcopalian, etc. 

LARGE. Aspire after a higher and more perfect state or style of 
feeling and character and conduct ; and discard the imperfect and 
ensual in all their forms ; and are like very large, only less so. 

FULL. Like style, but can live without it ; are like large in quality, 
only less in degree. 

AVERAGE. Have only commonplace aspirations after a high life, 
and love of the fine arts, etc. 

MODERATE. Are comparatively indifferent to the beauties of nature 
and art, fail both to appreciate and adopt them, and prefer common 
houses, clothes, furniture, and style of living to the artistical and 
stylish, and feel out of place when surrounded by the elegances of 
life ; with large Veneration, have a rude religion, etc. 

SMALL. Are rude, uncultivated, contented with few and plain 
articles of dress, furniture, property, etc., and prefer the rudeness of 
savage to the elegances of civic life. 

VERT SMALL. Are almost destitute of these perfecting aspirations 
and sentiments. 

To CULTIVATE. Associate with persons of wit, ingenuity, and refine- 
ment ; visit galleries of art and mechanism, scenes of beauty and 
perfection, and read poetry and other works of the most polished and 
refined writers. 

To RESTRAIN. Give more attention to the common affairs of life, 
and refrain from fostering esthetic subjects ; read history, science, and 
metaphysics rather than poetry, romance, etc. 


The MAKING instinct ; the xooL-using talent ; SLEIGHT of 
hand in constructing things. Adapted to man's need of things 
made, su$h as houses, clothes, and manufactured articles of 
all kinds. Perverted, it wastes time and money on perpetual 
motion, and other like futile inventions. 

VERY LARGE. Show extraordinary mechanical ingenuity, and a 
perfect passion for making everything ; with large Imitation, Form, 
Size, and Locality, have first-rate talents as an artist, and for drawing, 
engraving, etc. ; and with Color added, are excellent limners ; with 


Ideality, add niceness to skill ; with large Causality, add invention to 
execution, etc. : p. 162. 

LARGE. Love to make ; are able and disposed to tinker, mend, and 
fix up, build, manufacture, employ machinery, etc. ; show mechanical 
skill and dexterity in whatever is done with the hands ; with large 
Causality and perceptives, are inventive; and with large Imitation 



added, can make after a pattern, and both copy the improvements of 
others, and supply defects by original inventions, as well as improve 
on the mechanical contrivances of others ; with the mental tempera- 
ment, and large intellectual organs and Ideality, employ ingenuity in 
constructing sentences and arranging words, and forming essays, sen- 
timents, books, etc. : p. 161. 

FULL. Can, when occasion requires, employ tools and use the hands 
in making, tinkering, and fixing up, and turn off work with skill, yet 
have no great natural passion or ability therein ; with practice, can be 
a good workman ; without it, would not excel : p. 163. 

AVERAGE. Like full, only less gifted in this respect : p. 160. 

MODERATE. Are rather awkward in the use of tools, and in manual 
operations of every kind ; with large Causality and perceptives, show 
more talent to invent than execute, yet no great in either ; with the 
mental temperament, evince some mental construction, yet no great 
physical ingenuity: p. 163. 

SMALL. Are deficient in the tool-using capability ; awkward in 
making and fixing up things ; poor in understanding and managing 
tnachinery ; take hold of work awkwardly and wrong end first ; write 
poorly, and lack both mental and physical construction : p. 163. 

VERY SMALL. Can make nothing, except in the most awkward 
manner : p. 163, 



To CULTIVATE. Try your hand in using tools, and turning off work 
of any and every kind ; if in any writing business, in writing well and 
cutting nourishes ; if a mechanic, in doing with skill and dexterity 
what you undertake, etc. ; observe and study machinery and inven- 
tions, and call out this faculty in its various phases that is, zvork.285. 

To BESTRAIN. Give yourself more to the exercise of your other 
faculties, and less to mechanical inventions and executions ; especially 
abstain rrom chimerical inventions, perpetual motion, and the like ; 
and spend no more time or money on inventions than you can spare 
wita,y inconvenience : 286. 



PERCEPTION and admiration of the BEAUTIFUL and perfect; 
good TASTE and refinement ; PURITY of feeling ; sense of PRO- 

Adapted to the beautiful in nature and art. Perverted, it gives 
fastidiousness and extra niceness. 

VERY LARGE. Have the highest order of taste and refinement ; love 
the exquisite and perfect beyond expression, and are correspondingly 
dissatisfied with the imperfect, especially in themselves ; admire 
beauty in bird and insect, flower and fruit, animal and man, the phys- 
ical and mental ; are perfectly enraptured with the impassioned, ora- 
torical, and poetical in speech and action, in nature and art, and live 
much in an ideal world ; have a most glowing and vivid imagination, 
and give a delicate finish and touch of perfection to every act, word, 


thought, and feeling, and find few things to come up to their exalted 
standard of taste ; with only average Causality, have more taste than 
solidity of mind and character, and more exquisiteness than sense ; 
but with large reflectives, add the highest artistical style of expression 
to the highest conceptions of reason, and with organic quality 6 or 7, 
are always and involuntarily eloquent. 

LARGE. Appreciate and enjoy beauty and perfection wherever found, 
especially in nature ; give grace, purity, and propriety to expression 
and conduct, gracefulness and polish to manners, and general good 
taste to all they say and do ; are pure-minded ; enjoy the ideal of 
poetry and romance ; long after perfection of character, and desire to 
obviate blemishes, and with Conscientiousness large, moral imperfec- 
tions ; with large social organs, evince a nice sense of propriety in 
friendly intercourse ; eat in a becoming and genteel manner ; with 
large moral organs, appreciate most highly perfection of character, or 
moral beauties and excellences ; with large reflectives, .odd a high order 
of sense and strength of mind to beauty and perfection of character ; 
with large perceptives, are gifted with a talent for the study of nature, 
etc. : p. 166. 

FULL. Evince a good share of taste and refinement, yet not a high 
order of them, except in those things in which it has been vigorously 
cultivated ; with large Language, Eventuality, and Comparison, may 
compose with elegance, and speak with much natural eloquence, yet 
will have more force of thought than beauty of diction; with large 
Constructiveness, will use tools with considerable taste, yet more skill ; 
with large Combativeness and Destructiveness, show general refine- 
ment, except when provoked, but are then grating and harsh ; with 
large moral organs, evince more moral beauty and harmony than per- 
sonal neatness ; with large intellectual organs, possess more beauty 
of mind than regard for looks and outside appearances, and prefer the 
sensible to the elegant and nice, etc. : p. 168. 

AVERAGE. Prefer the plain and substantial to the ornamental, and 
are utilitarian ; with large intellectual organs, prefer sound, solid 
matter to the ornaments of style, and appreciate logic more than elo- 
quence ; with Benevolence and Adhesiveness large, are hospitable, 
and evince true cordiality, yet care nothing for ceremony ; with Appro- 
bativeness large, may try to be polite, but make an awkward attempt, 
and are rather deficient in taste and elegance ; with Constructiveness 
large, make things that are solid and serviceable, but do not polish 
them off ; with Language large, talk directly to the purpose, without 
paying much attention to the mode of expression, etc. : p. ICO. 

MODERATE. Eather lack taste in manners and expression ; have but 
little of the sentimental or finished ; should cultivate harmony and 
perfection of character, and endeavor to polish up ; with strong pro- 


pensities, evince them in rather a coarse and gross manner, and are 
more liable to their perverted action than when this organ is large, 
and are homespun in everything : p. 163. 

SMALL. Show a marked deficiency in whatever appertains to taste 
and style, also to beauty and sentiment : p. 163. 

VERY SMALL. Are almost deficient in taste, and evince none : 164. 

To CULTIVATE. First, avoid all disgusting habits swearing, chew- 
ing, and drinking, low conversation, vulgar expressions and associates ; 
and drs and appear in good taste, and cultivate personal neatness, 
good behavior, refinement and style in manners, purity in feeling, the 
poetical and sentimental, an elegant and classical style of conversation, 
expression, and writing, and love of the fine arts and beautiful forms ; 
of the beauties of nature, of sunrise, sunset, mountain, lawn, river, 
scenery, beautiful birds, fruits, flowers, mechanical fabrics and produc- 
tions in short, the beautiful and perfect in nature, in general, and 
yourself in particular: 288. 

To RESTRAIN. Remember that in you the ideal and imaginative ex- 
ceed the practical ; that your building airy castles out of bubbles 
prevents your building substantial structures, and attaining useful life 
ends; that you are too symbolical, fastidious, and ornamental, too 
much tormented by a spot and wrinkle, too apt to discard things that 
are almost perfect, because not quite so, and hold in check the revelings 
of Ideality, and learn to prize what is right, instead of discarding 
the greater good because of minor faults. Especially do not refuse 
to associate with others because they are not in all particulars just to 
your fastidious tastes: 289. 


PERCEPTION and appreciation of the VAST, ILLIMITABLE, 
ENDLESS, OMNIPOTENT, and INFINITE. Adapted to that infini- 
tude which characterizes every department of nature. Per- 
verted, it leads to bombast, and a wrong application of ex- 
travagant words and ideas. 

VERY LARGE. Have a literal passion for the wild, romantic, bound- 
less, endless, infinite, eternal, and stupendous, and are like large, only 
more so. 

LARGE. Appreciate and admire the grand, sublime, vast, and mag- 
nificent in nature and art ; admire and enjoy exceedingly mountain 
scenery, thunder, lightning, tempests, vast prospects, and all that 
is awful and magnificent, also the. foaming, dashing cataract, a 


storm at sea, the lightning's vivid flash, and its accompanying thun- 
der ; the commotion of the elements, and the star-spangled canopy 
of heaven, and all manifestations of omnipotence and infinitude ; with 
large Veneration, are particularly delighted by the infinite as apper- 
taining to the Deity, and His attributes and works ; and with large 
Time added, have unspeakably grand conceptions of infinitude as ap- 
plicable to devotion, the past and future, and the character and works 
of the Deity ; with large intellectual organs, take a comprehensive 
view of subjects, and give illimitable scope to all mental investigations 
and conceptions, so that they will bear being carried out to any ex- 
tent ; and with Ideality large, add the beautiful and perfect to the 
sublime and infinite. 

FULL. Enjoy grandeur, sublimity, and infinitude quite well, and 
impart considerable of this element to thoughts, emotions, and expres- 
sions, and evince the same qualities as large, only in a less degree. 

AVERAGE. Possess considerable of this element, when it is power- 
fully excited, yet, under ordinary circumstances, manifest only an 
ordinary share of it. 

MODERATE. Are rather deficient in the conception and appreciation 
of the illimitable and infinite ; and with Veneration moderate, fail to 
appreciate this element in nature and her Author. 

SMALL. Show a marked deficiency in this respect, and should earn- 
estly cultivate it. 

VERY SMALL. Are almost destitute of sublime emotions and con- 

To CULTIVATE. -Mount the lofty summit to contemplate the out- 
stretched landscape ; admire the grand and stupendous in towering 
mountain, rolling cloud, rushing wind and storm, loud thunder, ma- 
jestic river, raging sea, rearing cataract, burning volcano, and the 
boundless, endless, infinite, and eternal in nature and her Author.291 

To RESTRAIN which is rarely ever necessary refrain from the 
contemplation of the sublime : 292. 


ABILITY and disposition to COPY, TAKE PATTERN, and IMI- 
TATE. Adapted to man's requisition for doing, talking, acting, 
etc., like others. Perverted, it copies even their faults. 

VERY LARGE. Can mimic, act out, and pattern after almost any- 
thing ; with large Mirthfulness, relate anecdotes to the very life ; have 
a theatrical taste and talent ; gesticulate almost constantly while 


speaking ; and with large Language, impart an uncommon amount 
of EXPRESSION to countenance, and everything said ; with large Indi- 
viduality, Eventuality, Language, Comparison, and Ideality, can 
make a splendid speaker ; and with large Mirthfulness, and full Sccre- 
tivcuess added, can keep others in a roar of laughter, yet remain seri- 
ous ; with an uneven head, are droll and humorous in the extreme ; 
with large Approbativeness, delight in being the sport-maker at par- 


ties, etc. , and excel therein ; with large Constructiveness, Form, Size, 
Locality, and Comparison, full Color, and a good temperament, and a 
full-sized brain, can make a very superior artist of almost any kind ; 
but with Color small, can engrave, draw, carve, model, etc., better 
than paint: p. 171. 

LARGE. Have a great propensity and ability to copy and take pat- 
tern from others, and do what is seen done ; describe and act out well ; 
with large Language, gesticulate much ; with large perceptives, re- 
quire to be shown but once ; with large Constructiveness, easily learn 
to use tools, and to make things as others make them ; and with small 
Continuity added, are a jack-at-all-trades, but thorough in none ; 
begin many things, but fail to finish ; with large Causality, perceptives, 
and an active temperament added, may make inventions or improve- 
ments, but never dwell on one till it completes it, or are always 
adding to them ; with large Approbativeness, copy after renowned 
men ; with large Adhesiveness, take pattern from friends ; with large 
Language, imitate the style and mode of expression of others ; with 
large Mirthfulness and full Secretiveness, create laughter by taking 
off the oddities of people ; with large Form, Size, and Constructive- 
ness, copy shape and proportions; with large Color, imitate colors, 
and thus of all the other faculties : p. 170. 


FULL. Copy quite well, yet not remarkably so ; with large Causality, 
had rather invent a new way of doing things than copy the ordinary 
mode, and evince considerable imitating talent when this faculty works 
in conjunction with large organs, yet but little otherwise : p. 171. 

AVERAGE. Can copy tolerably well when this faculty is strongly 
excited, yet are not a mimic, nor a natural copyist; with only full 
Constructiveness, evince little manual dexterity ; yet with large Caus- 
ality, can originate quite well, and show no great disposition or ability 
to copy either the excellences or deficiencies of others, but prefer to 
be original : p. 169. 

MODERATE. Have little inclination to do what and as others do ; 
but with large Causality, prefer to strike out a new course, and invent 
an original plan of their own ; with large Self-Esteem added, have an 
excellent conceit of that plan ; but if Causality is only fair, are full 
of original devices, yet they do not amount to any great things : 171. 

SMALL. Copy even commonplace matter with extreme difficulty and 
reluctance, and generally do everything in their own way : p. 172. 

VERY SMALL. Possess scarcely any, and manifest no disposition or 
ability to copy anything, not even enough to learn to talk well : 173. 

To CULTIVATE. Study and practice copying from others in manners, 
expressions, sentiments, ideas, opinions, everything, and try your hand 
at drawing, and in every species of copying and imitation, as well as 
conforming to those around you ; that is, try to become what they 
are, and do what and as they do : 294. 

To RESTRAIN. Maintain more your own personality in thought, 
doctrine, character, everything, and be less a parrot, an echo, and cul- 
tivate the original and inventive in everything : 295. 


INTUITIVE PERCEPTION of the absurd and ridiculous ; dis- 
position and ability to JOKE and MAKE FUN, and LAUGH at 
what is improper, ill-timed, or unbecoming ; PLEASANTNESS ; 
FACETIOUSNESS. Adapted to the absurd, inconsistent, and 
laughable. Perverted, it makes fun on solemn occasions, and 
where there is nothing ridiculous at which to laugh. 

VERT LARGE. Show an extraordinary 'disposition and capacity to 
make fun ; are always laughing and making others laugh ; with large 
Language, Comparison, Imitation, Perceptives, and Adhesiveness, and 
moderate Self-Esteem and Secretiveness, are ' ' the fiddle of the com- 
pany;" with only average Ideality added, are clownish, and often say 



undignified, and perhaps low things, to raise a laugh ; and with only 
moderate Causality, things that lack sense, etc. : p. 175. 

LARGE. Enjoy a hearty laugh at the absurdities of others exceed- 
ingly, and delight to make fun out of everything not exactly proper 
or in good taste, and are always ready to give as good joke as get ; 
with large Amativeness, love to joke with and about the other sex ; 


and with large Imitation and Language added, to talk with and tell 
stories to and about them ; with large Combativeness and Ideality 
added, make fun of their imperfections in dress, expression, manners, 
etc., and hit them oif to admiration; with large Adhesiveness, Lan- 
guage, and Imitation, are excellent company ; with large Causality, 
Comparison, and Combativeness, argue mainly by ridicule or by show- 
ing up the absurdity of the opposite side, and excel more in exposing 
the fallacy of other systems than in propounding new ones ; with large 
Ideality, show taste and propriety in witticisms, but with this faculty 
average or less, are often gross, and with large Amativeness added, 
vulgar in jokes ; with large Combativeness and Destructiveness, love 
to tease, and are sarcastic, and make many enemies ; and with large 
Comparison added, compare those disliked to something mean, dis- 
gusting, and ridiculous : p. 173. 

FULL. Possess and evince considerable of the fun-making disposi- 
tion, especially in the direction of the larger organs ; with large or 
very large Comparison, Imitation, and Approbativeness, and moderate 
Self-Esteem, manifest more of the laughable and witty than is really 
possessed ; may make much fun and be called witty, yet it will be 
owing more to what may be called drollery than pure wit ; with mod- 
erate Secretiveness and Self-Esteem, and an excitable temperament, 
let fly witty conceptions on the spur of the moment, and thus 


increase their laughableness by their being well-timed, unexpected, 
sudden, etc. : p. 175. 

AVERAGE. Are generally serious and sedate, except when this faculty 
is excited, yet then often laugh heartily, and evince considerable wit ; ' 
with large Individuality and Language, often say many laughable 
things, yet they owe their wit more to argument or the criticism they 
embody than to this faculty : p. 172. 

MODERATE. Are generally serious, sedate, and sober, and with large 
Self-Esteem, stern and dignified, nor companionable except when 
Adhesiveness is large, and in company with intimate friends ; with 
only average Ideality and Imitation, are very poor in joking, have to 
expand witticisms, and thereby spoil them ; have some witty ideas, 
yet lack in perceiving and expressing them ; fail to please others in 
witticisms, and with large Approbativeness and Combativeness, are 
liable to become angry when joked, and should cultivate this faculty 
by laughing and joking more : p. 176. 

SMALL. Make little fun ; are slow to perceive, and still slower to 
turn jokes ; seldom laugh, and think it foolish or wrong to do so; 
with only average Adhesiveness, are uncompanionable; with large 
reflectives and Language, may do well in newspaper diction, yet not 
in debate : p. 177. 

VERT SMALL. Have few, if any, witty ideas and conceptions : 177. 

To CULTIVATE. Get rid of the idea that it is sinful or undignified to 
laugh ; try to perceive the witty and the facetious aspects of subjects 
and things ; cultivate the acquaintance of mirthful people, and read 
witty books, and as much as may be imbibe their spirit: 297. 

To RESTRAIN. Cease hunting for something to laugh at and make 
fun of ; observe in the conduct and appearance of others all that is 
congruous, correct, and proper, and not that merely which is droll or 
ridiculous ; avoid turning everything into ridicule, punning, playing 
upon words, double entendre, etc : 298. 


INTELLECTUAL CAPABILITY and desire. Adapted to the phys- 
ical and metaphysical. Perverted, they apply their respective 
power to accomplish wrong ends. 

VERY LARGE. Have natural greatness of intellect and judgment, 
and a high order of talents and sound sense, with originality, capa- 
ciousness, and comprehensiveness of mind which can hardly fail to 
make their mark. 


LARGE. Confer sufficient natural talent and intellectual capability 
to take a high stand among men ; give strength of mind, superior 
judgment, and power both of acquiring knowledge easily and reason- 
ing profoundly. Their direction depends upon the other faculties ; 
with large animal organs and weak morals, they make philosophical 
sensualists ; with large moral and weaker animal organs, moral and 
religious philosophers, etc. 

FULL. Have good intellectual capabilities and much strength of 
mind, provided it is well cultivated ; with large Acquisitiveness, a 
talent to acquire property ; with large moral organs, to enlighten and 
improve the moral character ; with large Constructiveness, mechanical 
intelligence, etc. 

AVERAGE. Evince fair mental powers, provided they are cultivated, 
otherwise only moderate intellectual capabilities; with an excitable 
temperament, allow the feelings and stronger faculties to control judg- 
ment ; with large moral organs, have more piety than talents, and 
allow religious prejudices and preconceived doctrines to prevent im- 
partial intellectual examination ; with moderate Acquisitiveness, will 
never acquire property ; with average Constructiveness, will be a poor 
mechanic, etc. 

MODERATE. Are rather deficient in sense and judgment, yet not 
palpably so ; can be easily imposed upon ; are deficient in memory, and 
rather wanting in judgment, comprehension, and intellectual capacity. 

SMALL. Are decidedly deficient in mind ; slow and dull of compre- 
hension ; lack sense, and have poor powers of memory and reason. 

VERY SMALL. Are naturally idiotic. 

These faculties are divided into three classes the Perceptive, the 
Literary, and the Reflective which, when large, confer three kinds 
of talent. 

To CULTIVATE. Exercise the whole mind in diversified studies and 
intellectual exercises. See specific directions in ' ' Fowler on Memory.' ' 
And probably nothing is so well calculated to discipline and improve 
intellect as the study and practice of Phrenology. 

To RESTRAIN. Divert the flow of blood from the brain to the body 
by vigorous exercise, an occasional hot bath, frequent ablutions, and 
a general abstinence from intellectual exercises, especially reading 
and writing. 


These bring man into direct intercourse with the physical 
world ; take cognizance of the physical qualities of material 


things ; give correct judgment of the material properties of 
things, and a practical cast of mind. 

VERY LARGE. Are pre-eminent in these respects ; know by intuition 
the proper conditions, fitness, value, etc. , of things ; have extraordi- 


nary power of observation, and ability to acquire knowledge, and a 
natural taste for examining, collecting statistics, studying the natural 
sciences, etc. For combinations see large. 

LARGE. Judge correctly of the various qualities and relations of 
material things ; with Acquisitiveness large, form correct ideas of the 
value of property, goods, etc., and what kinds are likely to rise in 
value, and make good bargains; with large Constructiveness, can 
conduct mechanical operations, and have very good talents for build- 
ing machinery, superintending workmen, etc. ; with the mental tem- 
perament, and large intellectuals added, are endowed by nature with 
a truly scientific cast of mind, and a talent for studying the natural 
sciences, and are useful in almost every department and situation in 
life ; with an active temperament and favorable opportunities, know 
a good deal about matters and things in general ; are quick of obser- 
vation and perception and matter-of-fact, common-sense tact, and will 
show off to excellent advantage ; appear to know all that they really 
do, perhaps.more ; have superior talents for acquiring and retaining 
knowledge with facility, and attending to the details of business ; 
becoming an excellent scholar, etc. ; and have a strong thirst after 

FULL. Have fair perceptive powers, and a good share of practical 
sense ; learn and remember most things quite well ; love reading and 
knowledge, and with study can become a good scholar, yelTnot with- 
out it; with large Acquisitiveness, judge of the value of things with 
sufficient correctness to make good bargains, but with moderate 
Acquisitiveness, lack such judgment ; with large Constructiveness, 
aided by experience, have a good mechanical mind, but without expe- 
rience, or with only moderate Constructiveness, are deficient to this 


AVERAGE. Are endowed with only fair perceptive and knowing 
powers, but, well cultivated, know considerable about matters and 
things, and learn with tolerable ease ; yet without cultivation are 
deficient in practicability of talent, and capability of gathering and 
retaining knowledge. For combinations see full. 

MODERATE. Are rather slow and dull of observation and perception, 
require some time to understand things, and even then lack specific 
knowledge of detail ; are rather deficient in matter-of-fact knowledge, 
and show off to poor advantage ; learn slowly, and fail in off-hand 
judgment and action ; with only average Acquisitiveness, are deficient 
in judging of the value of things, and easily cheated ; and with mod- 
erate Language, are rather wanting in practical talent, and can not 
show advantageously what is possessed. 

SMALL. Are very deficient in remembering and judging ; lack prac- 
tical sense, and should cultivate the knowing and remembering facul- 

VERT SMALL. See few things, and know almost nothing about the 
external world, its qualities, and relations. 

To CULTIVATE. Exercise each separately, and all together, in exam- 
ining closely all the material properties of physical bodies ; study the 
natural sciences, especially Phrenology ; examine the natural qualities 
of all natural objects: 403. 

To RESTRAIN is never necessary. 


OBSERVATION ; desire to SEE and EXAMINE ; cognizance of 
individual OBJECTS. Adapted to individual existence, or the 
THINGNESS of things. It is the door through which most 
forms of knowledge enter the mind. Perverted, it makes the 
starer and the impudently observing. 

VERY LARGE. Have an insatiable desire to see and know all about 
everything, together with extraordinary powers of observation ; can 
not rest satisfied till all is known ; individualize everything, and are 
very minute and particular in observation of things ; with large 
Ideality, employ many allegorical and like figures ; with large Human 
Nature and Comparison, observe every little thing which people say 
and do, and read character correctly from what smaller Individuality 
would not notice : p. 185. 

LARGE. Have a great desire to see, know, examine, experience, 
etc. ; are a great and practical observer of men and things ; see what- 


ever is transpiring around, what should be done, etc. ; are quick of 
perception, knowing, and with large Acquisitiveness, quick to perceive 
whatever appertains to property ; with large Parental Love, whatever 
concerns children ; with large Alimcntiveness, whatever belongs to 
the flavor or qualities of food, and know what things are good by 
looking at them ; with large Approbativeness or Self-Esteem, see 
quickly whatever appertains to individual character, and whether it 
is favorable or unfavorable ; with large Conscientiousness, perceive 


readily the moral, or right and wrong of things ; with large Venera- 
tion, "see God in clouds, and hear him in the winds;" with large 
Ideality, are quick to perceive beauty, perfection, and deformity ; with 
large Form, notice the countenances and looks of all met ; with small 
Color, fail to observe tints, hues, and shades ; with large Order and 
moderate Ideality, perceive disarrangement at once, -yet fail to notice 
the want of taste or niceness. These and kindred combinations show 
why some persons are very quick to notice some things, but slow to 
observe others : p. 184. 

FULL. Have good observing powers, and much desire to see and 
know things, yet are not remarkable in these respects; with large 
Acquisitiveness, but moderate Ideality, are quick to notice whatever 
appertains to property, yet fail to observe instances of beauty and de- 
formity ; but with large Ideality and moderate Acquisitiveness, 
quickly see beauty and deformity, yet do not quickly observe the 
qualities of things or value of property; with large Parental Love 
and Ideality, see at once indices of beauty and perfection in children ; 
but if Ideality and Language are moderate, fail to perceive beauty of 
expression or sentiment, etc. : p. 135. 

AVERAGE. Observe only the more conspicuous objects, and these 



more in general than detail, and what especially interests the stronger 
faculties : p. 183. 

MODERATE. Are rather deficient in observing disposition and capa- 
bility, and should cultivate this faculty ; with large Locality, may 
observe places sufficiently to find them again ; with large Order, ob- 
serve when things aro out of place ; with large Causality, see that it 
may find materials for reasoning, etc. : p. 185. 

SMALL. Observe only what is thrust upon the attention, and are 
quite deficient in this respect : p. 186. 

VERY SMALL. See scarcely anything : p. 186. 

To CULTIVATE. Notice whatever comes within the range of your 
vision ; observe attentively all the little things done and said by 
everybody, all their minor manifestations of character in short, keep 
a sharp look-out : 422. 

To RESTRAIN of which there is little, if any need look and stare 
less, and think more. 

25. FORM. 

No. 90. REUBENS. No. 91. GEO>.GE BELL. 


COGNIZANCE and recollection of SHAPE ; memory of COUN- 
TENANCES and the LOOKS of persons and things seen ; percep- 
tion of RESEMBLANCES, family likenesses, etc. Adapted to 
shape. Perverted, sees imaginary shapes of persons, things, 
etc., as in delirium tremens. 

VERT LARGE. Possess this capability in an extraordinary degree ; 
recognize persons not seen for many years ; with large Ideality, take 
extreme delight in beautiful forms ; with large Spirituality, see the 
spirits of the departed ; with disordered -nerves, see horrid images, 
etc. : p. 188. 

LARGE. Notice, and for a long time remember, the faces, counte- 
nances, forms, looks, etc. , of persons, beasts, and things once seen ; 
know by sight many whose name is not remembered ; with Individu- 
ality large, both observe and recollect persons and things, but with 
Individuality moderate, fail to notice them, and hence to remember 
them, unless business or something special draws attention to them ; 
with large Parental Love, notice and recollect children, favorite ani- 
mals, etc. ; with large Acquisitiveness, Individuality, and Locality, 
readily detect counterfeits, etc. : p. 187. 

FULL. Have a good recollection of the countenances of persons and 
shape of things, yet not remarkably good unless this faculty has been 
quickened by practice, or invigorated by some strong incentive to 
action ; with large Ideality, will recollect beautiful shapes ; with large 
Locality and Sublimity, beautiful and magnificent scenery, etc. ; and 
should endeavor to impress the recollection of shape upon the mind : 
p. 188. 

AVERAGE. Have only a fair natural recollection of shapes, counte- 
nances, etc. ; yet with practice may do tolerably well, but without 
practice will be only fair in these respects, and should cultivate this 
faculty : p. 186. 

MODERATE. Are rather deficient in recognizing persons and things 
seen ; fail to recognize by their looks those who are related to each 
other by blood, and should cultivate this faculty by trying to remem- 
ber persons and things : p. 189. 

SMALL. Have a poor recollection of persons, looks, etc. ; often meet 
persons the next day after an introduction, or an evening interview, 
without knowing them ; with Eventuality large, may remember their 
history, but not their faces; with Locality large, where they were 
seen, but not their looks, etc. : p. 189. 

VERY SMALL. Manifest scarcely any of this faculty : p. 189. 

To CULTIVATE. Scan the shape of everything you would remem- 
ber ; study botany, conchology, Phrenology, and especially those 
studies which involve configuration ; when talking to persons, scan 
eyes, nose, mouth, chin, forehead, looks, expression of countenance, 
especially of eye, as if you were determined ever afterward to remem- 
ber them looking at them critically, as a police detective looks at 
a rogue, as if saying to himself, "I'll know you, my man, next time 
1 see you." . 437. 

To RESTRAIN is never necessarv. 


26. SIZE. 

etc. ; ability to measure by the EYE. Adapted to the absolute 
and relative magnitude of things. Perverted, it is pained by 
disproportion and architectural inaccuracies. 

VERY LARGE. Are endowed with an extraordinarily accurate archi- 
tectural eye ; detect at one glance any departure from perfect accuracy 
and proportion ; often detect errors in the work of good workmen ; 
can tell how high, wide, long, far, much, heavy, etc., with perfect 
accuracy ; judge correctly, as if hy intuition, the texture, fineness, 
coarseness, qualities, etc., of goods; excel in judging of property 
where bulk and value are to be estimated by eye ; with Constructive- 
ness, can fit nice machinery, and in many things dispense with meas- 
uring instruments because accurate enough without, and do best on 
work requiring the most perfect accuracy : p. 191. 

LARGE. Have an excellent eye for measuring angles, proportions, 
disproportions, and departures therefrom, and with large Construc- 
tiveness, a good mechanical eye, and judge correctly of quantity in 
general ; love harmony of proportion, and are pained by disproportion. 
This faculty is necessary to artisans, mechanics, all kinds of dealers, 
students, etc. : p. 190. 

FULL. Possess a good share of this eye-measuring power, yet are 
not remarkable ; with practice, do well ; without it, only fairly, and 
in this respect succeed well in their accustomed business : p. 191. 

AVERAGE. Have a fair eye for judging of bulk, distances, weight 
by the size, etc., and with practice do tolerably well in this respect : 
p. 190. 

MODERATE. Measure by eye rather inaccurately, and have poor 
judgment of bulk, quantity, distance, and whatever is estimated by 
this faculty: p. 191. 

SMALL. Are obliged always to rely on actual measurements, because 
the eye is too imperfect to be trusted : p. 191. 

VERT SMALL. Are almost destitute of this faculty : p. 192. 

To CULTIVATE. Pass judgment on whatever involves how much, 
how heavy, how far, the center, the amount, architectural accuracy, 
guessing the weight, the quantity of groceries, of everything by eye-; 
judging how much grain to the acre, and everything involving the 
exercise of this faculty: 441. 

To RESTRAIN. Do not allow architectural inaccuracies or any dispro- 
portion to disturb you as much as it naturally does that is, put up 
with things not regulated bv size and proportion. 

146 WEIGHT. 

27. WEIGHT. 

For illustration of Weight large, see Brunell, cut No. 97 

INTUITIVE perception and application of the laws of GRAV- 
ITY, MOTION, etc. Adapted to man's requisition for keeping 
his balance. Perverted, it runs imminent risk of falling by 
venturing too far. 

VERY LARGE. Have control over the muscular system, hence can 
climb or walk anywhere with safety ; can not he thrown by fractious 
horses ; are sure-footed ; never slip or fall; are a dead shot, even " on 
the wing ;" have an intuitive gift for skating, swimming, balancing, 
circus-acting, hurling, everything requiring muscular control ; are an 
excellent judge of perpendiculars and levels ; can plumb anything by 
the eye ; as a sculptor or other artist, always make the picture or 
statue in an easy, natural, and well-balanced attitude, and are annoyed 
if the mirror or pictures, etc., do not hang plumb ; with Construc- 
tiveness large, will succeed in any mechanical avocation requiring a 
steady hand, as in surgery, dental operations, sleight-of-hand perform- 
ances, fancy glass-blowing, etc. : p. 194. 

LAEGE. Have an excellent faculty for preserving and regaining 
balance, riding a fractious horse, skating, carrying a steady hand, etc. ; 
easily keep from falling when aloft, or in dangerous places ; throw a 
stone, ball, or arrow straight ; are pained at seeing things out of 
plumb ; judge of perpendiculars very exactly ; love to climb, walk on 
the edge of a precipice, etc. ; with Form and Size large, are an excel- 
lent marksman; with Constructiveness large, possess an excellent 
faculty for understanding and working machinery ; with Approbative- 
ness large, are venturesome, etc., to show what risks can be run with- 
out falling : p. 193. 

FULL. Have a good degree of this faculty, and with practice excel, 
yet without it are not remarkable : p. 194. 

AVERAGE. Like full, only less gifted in this respect; with only 
average Constructiveness and perceptives, should never engage in 
working machinery, because deficient in this talent : p. 192. 

MODERATE. Can keep the balance under ordinary circumstances, 
yet have rather imperfect control over the muscles in riding a fractious 
horse, or walking a narrow beam aloft, hurling, etc. ; with large Cau 
tiousness, are timid in dangerous places, and dare not venture far ; are 
rather poor in shooting, skating, throwing, etc., unless rendered so 
by practice, and should cultivate this faculty by climbing, balancing, 
hurling, etc. : p. 194. 

SMALL. Are quite liable to sea-sickness, dizziness when aloft, etc. ; 

COLOB. 147 

with large Cautiousness, are afraid to walk over water, even on a wide 
plank, and where there is no danger ; never feel safe while climbing, 
and fall easily : p. 195. 

VERY SMALL. Can hardly stand erect, and have very little control 
over the muscles : p. 195. 

To CULTIVATE. Skate, slide down hill, practice gymnastic feats, 
balance a long pole on your hand, walk a fence, climb, ride on horse- 
back, go to sea, practice gunnery, archery, thro whig stones, pitching 
quoits any thing to call this faculty into exercise : 446. 

To RESTRAIN. Do not allow yourself to climb aloft, and walk nar- 
row, dangerous places as much as naturally inclined to. Persons often 
lose their lives by ambitiously showing what extraordinary feats they 
can accomplish. 

28. COLOR. 

PERCEPTION, recollection, and application of COLORS, and 
DELIGHT in them. Adapted to that infinite variety of coloring 
interspersed throughout nature. Perverted, are over-particu- 
lar to have colors just right. 

VEBY LARGE. Have a natural taste and talent, as well as a perfect 
passion, for whatever appertains to colors ; can carry colors perfectly 
in the eye, and match them from memory ; take the utmost delight 
in viewing harmonious colors, and with very large Constructiveness, 
Imitation, Form, and Size, and large Weight, a full or large-sided 
brain, and organic quality 6 or 7, have a natural taste and talent for 
painting, and are a real genius in this line. For combinations see 

LARGE. Can discern and match colors by the eye with accuracy ; 
with Comparison large, can compare them closely, and detect similar- 
ities and differences ; with Constructiveness, Form, Size, and Imitation 
large or very large, can excel in painting ; but with Form and Size 
only average, can paint better than draw ; with Ideality large, are 
exceedingly delighted with fine paintings, and disgusted with imper- 
fect coloring ; with large Form and Size, manage the perspective and 
lights and shades of painting admirably : p. 195 

FULL. Possess a good share of coloring ability and talent, provided 
it has been cultivated ; take much pleasure in beautiful flowers, varie- 
gated landscapes, beautifully colored fruits, etc. : p. 196. 

AVERAGE. Possess a fair share of this talent, yet are not extraordi- 
nary : p. 195. 

148 ORDER. 

MODERATE. With practice, may judge of colors with considerable 
success, yet without it will be deficient in this respect ; with large 
Form, Size, Constructiveness, Ideality, and Imitation, may take an 
excellent likeness, yet will fail in the coloring : p. 197. 

SMALL. May tell the primitive colors from each other, yet rarely 
notice the color of dress, eyes, hair, etc. ; can not describe persons 
and things by them, and evince a marked deficiency in coloring, taste, 
and talent : p. 197. 

VERT SMALL. Can hardly tell one color from another, or form any 
idea of colors : p. 197. 

To CULTIVATE. Observe color in general, and its shadings in par- 
ticular ; try to appreciate their beauties ; relish, revel in their richness, 
as seen in flower, bird, fruit, lawn, twilight, everywhere, and cultivate 
an appreciation of fine paintings : 450. 

To RESTRAIN is rarely necessary ; go less into rapturous ecstasy over 
a new flower or painting, but give more attention to other things. 

29. ORDER. 

first law. Perverted, it overworks, annoys others to keep 
things in order, and is tormented by disarrangement. 

VERY LARGE. Are perfectly systematic, and are very particular 
about order, even to old-maidishness ; work far beyond strength to 
have things just so ; and with large Ideality, and an active tempera- 
ment, and only fair Vitality, are liable to break down health and 
constitution by overworking in order to have things extra nice, and 
take more pains to keep things in order than this order is worth ; with 
large Ideality, are fastidious about personal appearance, and extra 
particular to have every little thing very nice ; and with Acquisitive- 
ness added, can not bear to have garments soiled, and are pained in 
the extreme by grease-spots, ink-blots, and like deformities : p. 199. 

LARGE. Have a desire to conduct business on methodical principles, 
and to be systematic in everything; with large Acquisitiveness and 
Causality, have good business talents ; with large Locality, have a 
place for everything, and everything in its place; with large lime, 
have a time for everything, and everything in season ; with large 
Continuity, Comparison, and the mental temperament, have every 
idea, paragraph, and head of a subject in its proper place ; with large 
Constructiveness, have tools always in place, so that they can be 
found in the dark ; with large Combativeness, are excessively vexed 


by disarrangement ; with large Language, place every word exactly 
right in the sentence ; with large Approbativeness, are inclined to con- 
form to established usages ; with large Size, must have everything ia 
rows, at proper distances, straight, etc. ; and with large Ideality, must 
have everything neat and nice as well as methodical, etc. : p. 199. 

FULL. If educated to business habits, evince a good degree of 
method, and disposition to systematize, but without practice may 
sometimes show laxity ; with a powerful mentality, but weaker mus- 
cles, may like to have things in order, yet do not always keep them 
so ; with large Causality added, show more mental than physical 
order ; with large moral organs, like to have religious matters, codes 
of discipline, etc. , rigidly observed, and have more moral than per- 
sonal method ; with Acquisitiveness and perceptives large, are suffi- 
ciently methodical for all practical business purposes, yet not extra 
particular : p. 200. 

AVERAGE. Like order, yet may not always keep it, and desire more 
than practically secure : p. 198. 

MODERATE. Are very apt to leave things where they were last used, 
and lack method ; with Ideality moderate, lack personal neatness, and 
should cultivate this desirable element by being more particular : 20F. 

SMALL. Have a very careless, inaccurate way of doing everything ; 
leave things where it happens ; can never find what is wanted ; take a 
long time to get ready, or else go unprepared, and have everything in 
perpetual confusion : p. 201 . 

VERY SMALL. Are almost wholly destitute of this arranging power 
and desire : p. 201 . 

To CULTIVATE. Methodize and arrange everything ; be regular in 
all your habits ; cultivate system in business ; have a place for every- 
thing, and keep everything in place, so that you could find it in the 
dark in short, EXERCISE order: 456. 

To RESTRAIN. Work and worry less to keep order, for it costs more 
to keep it than it is worth ; you waste your very life and strength hi 
little niceties of order which, after all, amount to little, but are cost- 
ing you your sweetness of temper and very life itself. 


COGNIZANCE of NUMBERS ; ability to reckon figures IN THE 
HEAD ; MENTAL arithmetic. Adapted to the relations of num- 

VERY LARGE. Possess this calculating capability in a most extraor- 
dinary degree ; can add several columns at once very rapidly and cor- 


rectly, and multiply and divide with the same intuitive powers ; love 
mental arithmetic exceedingly, and with large reflectives, are a natu- 
ral mathematician : p. 203. 

LAKGE. Excel in mental arithmetic, in adding, subtracting, multi- 
plying, dividing, reckoning figures, casting accounts, etc., in the 


head ; with large perceptives, have excellent business talents ; and 
large Locality and Causality added, excel in the mathematics : p. 202. 

FULL. Possess good calculating powers ; with practice, can calculate 
in the head or by arithmetical rules easily and accurately, yet without 
practice are not remarkable; with large Form, Size, Comparison, 
Causality, and Constructiveness, can be a good geometrician or mathe- 
matician, yet will do better in the higher branches than merely the 
arithmetical : p. 204. 

AVERAGE. Can learn arithmetic and do quite well by practice, yet 
are not naturally gifted in mental arithmetic : p. 202. 

MODERATE. Add, subtract, divide, and calculate with difficulty; 
and with large Acquisitiveness and perceptives, will make a better 
salesman than book-keeper : p. 204. 

SMALL. Are dull and incorrect in adding, subtracting, dividing, 
etc. ; dislike figuring ; are poor in arithmetic, both practical and 
theoretical, and should cultivate this faculty : p. 205. 

VERY SMALL. Can hardly count, much less calculate : p. 205 

To CULTIVATE. Add, subtract, divide, multiply, count, and reckon 
figures in the head as far as possible, and learn and practice arithmetic. 

To RESTRAIN is rarely ever necessary. Avoid counting everything. 

* Zerah Colburn, at the age of nine years, without education, astonished the 
world by his great calculating talent. George Combe, though he studied mathe- 
matics seven years, never could master the multiplication table. 



COGNIZANCE of PLACE ; recollection of the LOOKS of places, 
roads, scenery, and the LOCATION of objects ; WHERE on a 
page ideas are to be found, and position generally; the GEO- 
GRAPHICAL faculty; desire to SEE places, and the ability to 
FIND them. Adapted to nature's arrangement of space and 
place. Perverted, it creates a cosmopolitic disposition, and 
would spend everything in traveling. 

VEKT LAEQE. Always keep a correct idea of the relative and abso- 
lute position, either in the deep forests or the winding street ; can not 
be lost ; are perfectly enamored of traveling ; have literally a passion 
for it : p. 206. 

LARGE. Remember the whereabouts of whatever they see ; can 
carry the points of the compass easily in the head, and are lost with 
difficulty either in the city, woods, or country ; desire to see places, 
and never forget them ; study geography and astronomy with ease ; 
and rarely forget where things are seen ; with Constructiveness, re- 
member the arrangement of the various parts of a machine ; with 
Individuality, Eventuality, and Human Nature, love to see men and 
things as well as places, and hence have a passion for traveling : 
p. 205. 

FULL. Remember places well, yet not extraordinarily so ; can gen- 
erally find the way, yet may sometimes be lost or confused ; with large 
Eventuality, remember facts better than places : p. 207. 

AVERAGE. Recollect places and positions seen several times, yet in 
city or roads are occasionally lost ; have no great geographical talent, 
yet by study and practice can do tolerably well : p. 205. 

MODERATE. Recollect places rather poorly ; dare not trust to local 
memory in strange places or large cities ; are not naturally good in 
geography, and to excel in it must study hard ; should energetically 
cultivate this faculty by localizing everything, and remembering just 
how things are placed : p. 207. 

SMALL. Are decidedly deficient in finding places, and recollect them 
with difficulty even when perfectly familiar with them : p. 208. 

VERY SMALL. Must stay at home unless accompanied by others, 
because unable to find the way back : p. 208. 

To CULTIVATE. Notice, as you go, turns in the road, landmarks, 
and objects by the way, geography, and the points of compass, when 
you see things, and charge your memory where on a page certain ideag 
or accounts stand recorded, and position in general, and study geog- 


raphy by maps and traveling, the location of anatomical and phreno- 
logical organs, and position or place in general : 4G7. 

To RESTRAIN. Settle down, and give over your restless, roving de- 
sire to travel. 


THESE collect information, anecdotes, and remember mat- 
ters of fact and knowledge in general, and give what is called 
a good memory. Adapted to facts, dates, and the communi- 
cation of ideas and feelings. 

VERY LARGE. Have a most remarkable memory ; are extraordinarily 
well informed, if not learned and brilliant ; according to advantages 
are a first-rate scholar ; have a literal passion for literary pursuits, and 
a remarkably knowing mind. 

LARGE. Are smart, knowing, and off-hand ; can show off to good 
advantage in society ; with large Ideality, are brilliant as well as 

FULL. Have a fair, matter-of-fact cast of mind and knowing pow- 
ers, fair scholarship, and a good general memory. 

AVERAGE. If cultivated, have a good general memory, and store 
up considerable knowledge ; yet without cultivation, only a common- 
place memory and no great general knowledge. 

MODERATE. Know more than you can think of at the time, or tell ; 
with large reflective faculties, have more judgment than memory, and 
strength of mind than ability to show off. 

SMALL OR VERY SMALL. Have a poor memory of most things, and 
inferior literary capabilities. 

To CULTIVATE. Read, study, inform yourself, read the papers ; keep 
pace with the improvements of the day ; study history and the experi- 
mental sciences ; and pick up and store up whatever kinds of knowl- 
edge, of your line of business, and of matter-of-fact knowledge comes 
in y.our way ; write your thoughts in a daily journal or for the press ; 
join a lyceum or debating society, and read history or science with a 
view to remember its substance, for the purpose of using it in argu- 
ment ; remember the news, and tell it to friends ; in short, read, 
write, and talk. 

To RESTRAIN. Read and study less, but divert your mind from 
books and business by cultivating the other, and especially physical 
faculties, and never read, or study, or write nights. 




No. 94. LARGE. No. 95.-SMALL. 

OCCURRENCES, and historical, scientific, and passing EVENTS ; 
what has been SAID, SEEN, HEARD, and once KNOWN. Adapted 
to ACTION, or those changes constantly occurring around or 
within us. 

VERY LARGE. Possess a wonderfully retentive memory of everything 
like facts and incidents ; with large Language and Imitation, tell a 
story admirably, and excel in fiction, etc. ; have a craving thirst for 
knowledge, and literally devour books and newspapers, nor allow any- 
thing once in the mind to escape it : p. 211. 

LARGE. Have a clear and retentive memory of historical facts, gen- 
eral-knowledge, what has been seen, heard, read, done, etc., even iu 
detail ; considering advantages, are well informed and knowing ; desire 
to witness and institute experiments ; find out what is and has been, 
and learn anecdotes, particulars, and items of information, and readily 
recall to mind what has once entered it ; have a good general matter- 
of-fact memory, and pick up facts readily ; with Calculation and Ac- 
quisitiveness, remember business matters, bargains, etc. ; with large 
social feelings, recall friends to mind, and what they have said and 
done ; and with large Locality, associate facts with the place where 
they transpired, and are particularly fond of reading, lectures, general 
news, etc., and can become a good scholar : p. 210. 

FULL. Have a good general memory of matters and things, yet it 
is considerably effected by cultivation that is, have a good memory 
if it is habitually exercised if not, only an indifferent one ; with largo 

154: TIME. 

Locality, recollect facts by associating them with the place, or by 
recollecting where on a page they are narrated ; with large reflectives, 
remember principles better than facts, and facts by associating them 
with their principles ; and with large Language, tell a story quite 
well: p. 212. 

AVERAGE. Eecollect leading events and interesting particulars, yet 
are rather deficient in memory of items and details, except when it is 
well cultivated : p. 209. 

MODERATE. Are rather forgetful, especially in details ; and with 
moderate Individuality and Language, tell a story very poorly, and 
should cultivate memory by its exercise : p. 212. 

SMALL. Have a treacherous and confused memory of circumstances; 
often forget what is wanted, what was intended to be said, done, etc. ; 
have a poor command of knowledge, are unable to swear positively to 
details, and should strenuously exercise this remembering power : 
p. 213. 

VKRY SMALL. Forget almost everything, both generals and par- 
ticulars : p. 213. 

To CULTIVATE. Charge your mind with whatever transpires ; remem- 
ber what you read, see, hear, and often recall and re-impress it, so 
that you can swear definitely in a court of justice ; also, impress on 
your mind what you intend to do and say at given times ; read his- 
tory and study mythology with a view of weaving such knowledge 
into the every-day affairs of life ; tell anecdotes, recount incidents in 
your own life, putting in all the little particulars ; write down what 
you would remember, yet only to impress it, but trust to memory 
rather than to manuscript : 476. 

To RESTRAIN. Read less ; never allow yourself to recount the pain- 
ful vicissitudes of life, or to renew past pain by remembrance, for this 
does only damage ; but when you find your mind running on painful 
subjects, change it to something else, and forget whatever in the past 
is saddening. 

33. .TIME. 

COGNIZANCE and recollection of DURATION and SUCCESSION ; 
the LAPSE of time, WHEN things occurred, etc., and ability to 
carry the time of the day in the HEAD ; PUNCTUALITY. 
Adapted to periodicity. Perverted, it is excessively pained 
by bad time in music not keeping steps in walking, etc. 

TUNE. 155 

VERY LARGE. Can wake up at any pre-appointed hour, tell the 
time of day by intuition almost as correctly as with a time-piece, and 
the time that transpired between one event and another, and are a 
natural chronologist : p. 216. 

LARGE. Can generally tell when things occurred, at least the order 
of events, and the length of time between one occurrence and another, 
etc. ; tell the time of day without time-piece or sun, well ; and keep 
an accurate chronology in the mind of dates general and particular ; 
with large Eventuality, rarely forget appointments, meetings, etc., 
and are a good historian : p. 215. 

FULL. With cultivation, can keep time in music, and also the time 
of day in the head quite correctly, yet not exceedingly so : p. 216. 

AVERAGE. With practice, have a good memory of dates and succes- 
sions, yet without it are rather deficient : p. 214. 

MODERATE. Have a somewhat imperfect idea of tune and dates ; 
with moderate Individuality, Eventuality, and Language, are a poor 
historian : p. 216. 

SHALL. Fail to keep the correct time in the head, or awaken at ap- 
pointed times ; have a confused and indistinct idea of the time when 
things transpired, and forget dates : p. 217. 

VERY SMALL. Are almost wholly destitute of this faculty : p. 217. 

To CULTIVATE. Periodize everything ; rise, retire, prosecute your 
business, everything, by the clock ; appropriate particular times to 
particular things, and deviate as seldom as possible ; in short, cultivate 
perfect regularity in all your habits, as it respects time: 491. 

To RESTRAIN. Break in upon your tread-mill monotony, and deviate 
now and then, if only for diversion, from your monotonous routine. 

34. TUNE. 

The MUSIC instinct and faculty ; ABILITY to learn and re- 
member tunes BY ROTE. Adapted to the musical octave. 
Perversion excessive fondness for music to the neglect of 
other things. 

VERY LARGE. Possess extraordinary musical taste and talent, and 
ire literally transported by good music ; and with large Imitation and 
Constructiveness, fair time, and a fine temperament, are an exquisite 
performer ; learn tunes by hearing them, sung once ; sing in spirit and 
with melting pathos ; show intuitive taste and skill ; sing from the 
. soul to the soul : p. 219. 

LARGE. Love music dearly ; have a nice conception of concord, 


discord, melody, etc., and enjoy all kinds of music ; and with large 
Imitation, Constructiveness, and Time, can make most kinds, and play 
well on, musical instruments ; with large Ideality, impart a richness 
and exquisiteness to musical performances ; haye a fine ear for music, 
and are tormented by discord, but delighted by concord, and take a 
great amount of pleasure in the exercise of this faculty ; with large 
Combativeness and Destructiveness, love martial music ; with large 
Veneration, sacred music ; with large Adhesiveness and Amativeness, 
social and parlor music ; with large Hope, Veneration, and disordered 
nerves, plaintive, solemn music, etc. : p. 218. 

FULL. Have a good musical ear and talent ; can learn tunes by rote 
quite well ; and with large Ideality, Imitation, and Firmness, can be 
a good musician, yet will require practice : p. 220. 

AVERAGE. Have fair musical talents, yet, to be a good musician, 
require considerable practice ; can learn tunes by rote, yet with some 
difficulty ; with large Ideality and Imitation, may be a good singer 
or player, yet are indebted more to art than nature, show more taste 
than skill, and love music better than can make it : p. 217. 

MODERATE. Have no great natural taste or talent for music, yet, 
aided by notes and practice, may sing and play quite well, but will be 
rather mechanical ; lack that pathos and feeling which reach the soul : 
p. 220. 

SMALL. Learn to sing or play tunes with great difficulty, and that 
mechanically, without emotion or effect : p. 221. 

VERY SMALL. Have scarcely any musical idea or feeling, so little as 
hardly to tell Yankee Doodle from Old Hundred : p. 221. 

To CULTIVATE. Try to sing ; learn tunes by ear ; practice vocal and 
instrumental music, and give yourself up to the spirit and sentiment 
of the piece ; attend concerts, listen appreciatingly and feelingly to 
gifted performers, and cultivate the soul of music : 504. 

To RESTRAIN. Give relatively less time and feeling to music, and 
more to other things. 


The EXPRESSION of all mental operations by words, written 
or spoken, by gestures, looks, and actions ; the COMMUNICATING 
faculty and instinct in general. Adapted to man's requisition 
for holding communication with man. Perversion verbosity, 
pleonasm, circumlocution, garrulity, excessive talkativeness, 
telling what does harm, etc. 


VERT LARGE. Are exceedingly expressive in all they say and do ; 
have a most expressive countenance, eye, and manner in everything ; 
have a most emphatic way of saying and doing everything, and thor- 
oughly impress the various operations of their own minds on the 
minds of others ; use the very word required by the occasion ; are intu- 
itively grammatical, even without study, and say oratorically whatever 


they attempt to say at all ; commit to memory by reading or hearing 
once or twice ; learn languages with remarkable facility ; are both 
fluent and copious, even redundant and verbose ; with large or very 
large Imitation, add perfect action, natural language, and gesticulation 
to perfect verbal expression ; with large Ideality, are elegant and 
eloquent ; and with large Individuality, Eventuality, Compfirison, and 
organic quality added, possess natural speaking talents of the highest 
order ; say the very thing, and in the very way ; choose words almost 
as by inspiration, and evince the highest order of communicating 
capacity : p. 226. 

LARGE. Express ideas and feelings well, both verbally and in writ- 
ing ; can learn to speak languages easily ; recollect words, and commit 
to memory well ; have freedom, copiousness, and power of expression ; 
with large Amativeness, use tender, winning, persuasive words ; with 
large Combativeness and Destructiveness, severe and cutting expres- 
sions ; with large moral faculties, words expressive of moral senti- 
ments ; with large Acquisitiveness, describe in glowing colors what is 
for sale ; with large Ideality, employ richness and beauty of expres- 
sion, and love poetry and oratory exceedingly ; with large Imitation, 
express thoughts and emotions by gesticulation ; with activity great 
and Secretiveness small, show in the looks the thoughts and feelings 
passing in the mind ; with large reflective faculties, evince thought 


and depth in the countenance ; with large Comparison, use just the 
words which convey the meaning intended ; with large Ideality, Indi- 
viduality, Eventuality, Comparison, and the mental temperament, can 
make an excellent editor or newspaper writer ; and with large Causal- 
ity added, a philosophical writer : p. 224. 

FULL. Say well what is said at all, yet are not garrulous; with 
small Secretiveness, speak without qualification, and also distinctly 
and pointedly ; express the manifestations of the larger faculties with 
much force, yet not of the smaller ones ; with large Secretiveness and 
Cautiousness, do not always speak to the purpose, and make ideas fully 
understood, but use rather non-committal expressions ; with large 
Comparison, Human Nature, Causality, Ideality, activity, organic 
quality, and power, have first-rate writing talents, and can speak well, 
yet large Secretiveness impairs speaking and writing talents by ren- 
dering them wordy and non-committal : p. 227. 

AVERAGE. Have fair communicating talents, yet not extra ; with 
activity great and Secretiveness small, speak right out, and to the 
purpose, yet are not eloquent, and use commonplace words and ex- 
pressions ; with large Individuality, Eventuality, and Comparison, and 
moderate Secretiveness, can make an excellent writer by practice ; use 
none too many words, but express itself clearly and to the point ; with 
large Causality, have more thought than language ; with moderate 
Individuality and Eventuality, find it difficult to say just what is de- 
sired, and are not fully and easily understood ; with large Ideality, 
have more beauty and elegance than freedom : p. 222. 

MODERATE. Are not particularly expressive in words, actions, or 
countenance, nor ready in communicating ideas and sentiments ; with 
large Ideality, Eventuality, Comparison, activity, and power, may 
succeed well as a writer, yet not as a speaker ; with large Causality 
and moderate Eventuality, have abundance of thoughts, but find it 
quite difficult to cast them into sentences, or bring in the right adjec- 
tives and phrases at the right time ; are good in matter, yet poor in 
delivery ; commit to memory with difficulty, and fail to make ideas 
and feelings fully understood, and to excite like organs in others ; 
with large Eventuality, Locality, Form, and Comparison, may be fair 
as a linguist, and learn to read foreign languages, yet learn to speak 
them with difficulty, and are barren in expression, however rich in 
matter : p. 228. 

SMALL. Have poor lingual and communicative talents ; hesitate for 
words ; speak with extreme difficulty and very awkwardly, and should 
cultivate this faculty by talking and writing much : p. 228. 

VERY SMALL. Can hardly remember or use words at all, or even 
remember their meaning : p. 229. 

To CULTIVATE. Talk, write, speak as much, as eloquently, as well 


as you can ; often change clauses with a view to improving sentences ; 
erase unnecessary and improper words, and choose the very words ex- 
actly expressive of the desired meaning ; throw feeling and expression 
into all you say -into action, and expressions of countenance ; study 
languages and the classics, but especially fluency in your mother 
tongue ; narrate incidents ; tell what you have heard, seen, read, 
done ; debate ; if religious, lead in religious exercises anything, 
everything to discipline and exercise this faculty: 615. 

To RESTRAIN. Talk less ; never break in when others are talking ; 
lop off redundancies, pleonasms, and embellishments, and use simple 
instead of bombastic expressions. 


No. 98. GALILEO. No. 99. INDIAN "WOMAN. 

ING, ORIGINATING cast of mind ; ascertain CAUSES and abstract 


to the first principles, or laws of things. 

VERY LARGE. Possess extraordinary depth of reason and strength 
of understanding ; and with large perceptives, extraordinary talents, 
and manifest them to good advantage ; with perceptives small, have 
great strength of mind, yet a poor mode of manifesting it ; are not 
appreciated, and lack intellectual balance, and are more plausible than 
reliable, and too deep to be clear. 

LARGE. Possess the higher capabilities of intellect ; reason clearly 
and strongly on whatever data is furnished . by the other faculties ; 
have soundness of understanding, depth of intellect, and that weight 
which carries conviction, and contributes largely to success in every- 
thing ; with perceptives small, possess more power of mind than can 



be manifested, and fail to be appreciated and understood, because more 
theoretical than practical. 

FULL. Possess fair reflective powers, and reason well from the data 
furnished by the other faculties ; and with activity great, have a fair 
flow of ideas and good general thoughts. 

AVERAGE. Eeason fairly on subjects fully understood, yet are not 
remarkable for depth or clearness of idea ; with cultivation, will mani- 
fest considerable reasoning power without it, only ordinary. 

MODERATE. Are rather deficient in power and soundness of mind ; 
but with large perceptives, evince less deficiency of reason than is 

SMALL. Have inferior reasoning capabilities. 

VERT SMALL. Are almost destitute of thought, idea, and sense. 

To CULTIVATE. Muse, meditate, ponder, reflect on, think, study, 
and pry deep into the abstract principles and nature of things. 

To RESTRAIN. Theorize less, and give more time to the other facul- 



No. 100. DK. GALL. No. 101. HEWLETT, ACTOR. 

the RESOURCE-creating power ; adaptation of ways and mean? 
to ends. Adapted to nature's institutes, plans, cause, and 
effect. Perverted, it reasons in favor of untruth and injurious 


VERY LARGE. Possess this cause-seeking and applying power to an 
extraordinary degree ; perceive by intuition those deeper relations of 
things which escape common minds ; are profound in philosophy, and 
deep and powerful in reasoning, and have great originality of mind 
and strength of understanding : p. 236. 

LARGE. Desire to know the WHY and WHEREFORE of things, and to 
investigate their LAWS ; reason clearly and correctly from causes to 
effects, and from facts to their causes ; have uncommon capabilities of 
planning, contriving, inventing, creating resources, and making the 
head save the hands ; kill two birds with one stone ; predicate results, 
and arrange things so as to succeed ; synthetize, and put things to- 
gether well ; with large Combativeness, love to argue ; with large 
perceptives, are quick to perceive facts and conditions, and reason 
powerfully and correctly from them ; with Comparison and Conscien- 
tiousness large, reason forcibly on moral truths ; with the selfish facul- 
ties strong, will so adapt ways and means as to serve personal pur- 
poses ; with moderate perceptives, excel more in principles and philos- 
ophy than facts, and remember laws better than details ; with 
Comparison and Human Nature large, are particularly fond of mental 
philosophy, and excel therein ; with Individuality and Eventuality 
only moderate, are guided more by reason than experience, by laws 
than facts, and arrive at conclusions more from reflection than obser- 
vation ; with large perceptives, possess a high order of practical sense 
and sound judgment ; with large Comparison and moderate Eventu- 
ality, remember thoughts, inferences, and subject-matter, but forget 
items ; with the mental temperament and Language moderate, make 
a much greater impression upon mankind by action than expressions, 
by deeds than words, etc. : p. 233. 

FULL. Have good cause-seeking and applying talents ; reason, and 
adapt ways and means to ends, well ; with large perceptives, Compari- 
son, activity, and thought, possess excellent reasoning powers, and 
show them to first-rate advantage ; with moderate perceptives and 
large Secretiveness, can plan better than reason ; with large Acquisi- 
tiveness and moderate Constructiveness, lay excellent money-making, 
but poor mechanical plans, etc. : p. 236. 

AVERAGE. Plan and reason well in conjunction with the larger 
faculties, but poorly with the smaller ones ; with moderate Acquisi- 
tiveness, lay poor money-making plans ; but with large Conscientious- 
ness, reason well on moral subjects, especially if Comparison is large, 
etc. : p. 231. 

MODERATE. Are rather deficient in discerning and applying causes ; 
perceive them when presented by other minds, yet do not originate 
them ; with activity and perceptives large, may do well in the ordi- 
nary routine of business, yet fail in difficult matters : p. 237. 



SMALL. Are deficient in reasoning and planning power ; need per- 
petual telling and showing ; seldom arrange things beforehand, and 
then poorly ; should work under others ; lack force of idea and 
strength of understanding : p. 238. 

VEEY SMALL. Are idiotic in reasoning and planning : p. 238. 

To CULTIVATE.-^ First and mainly, study nature's causes and effects, 
adaptations, laws, both in general and in those particular departments 
in which you may feel any special interest ; think, muse, meditate, 
reason ; give yourself up to the influxes of new ideas ; plan ; adapt 
ways and means to ends ; endeavor to think up the best ways and 
means of overcoming difficulties and bringing about results ; espe- 
cially study Phrenology and its philosophy, for nothing is equally 
suggestive of original ideas, or as explanative of nature's laws and 
first principles: 545-548. 

To IVESTRAIN which is rarely necessary divert your mind from ab- 
stract thought by engaging more in the practical and real, nor allow 
any one thing, as inventing perpetual motion, or reasoning on any 
particular subject, to engross too much attention. 



No. 102. LINN-EUS. 

No. 108. ME. BAELOW. 

INDUCTIVE reasoning; ability and disposition to ANALYZE, 
ture's classifications of all her works. Perverted, is too re- 
dundant in proverbs, fables, and figures of speech. 


VERY LARGE. Possess this analyzing, criticising, and inductive 
faculty in a truly wonderful degree ; illustrate with great clearness 
and facility from the known to the unknown ; discover the deeper 
analogies which pervade nature, and have an extraordinary power of 
discerning new truths ; with large Individuality, Eventuality, and 
activity, have a great faculty of making discoveries ; with large Lan- 
guage, use words in their exact meaning, and are a natural philolo- 
gist; with full Language, explain things plausibly and correctly: 
p. 243. 

LARGE. Reason clearly and correctly from conclusions and scientific 
facts up to the laws which govern them ; discern the known from the 
unknown ; detect error by its incongruity with facts ; have an excel- 
lent talent for comparing, explaining, expounding, criticising, expos- 
ing, etc. ; employ similes and metaphors well ; put this and that 
together, and draw correct inferences from them ; with large Conti- 
nuity, use well-sustained figures of speech, but with small Continuity, 
drop the figure before it is finished ; with large Individuality, Even- 
tuality, activity, and power, have a scientific cast of mind ; with large 
Veneration, reason about God and His works ; with large Language, 
use words in their exact signification ; with large Mirthfulness, strike 
the nail upon the head in all criticisms, and hit off the oddities of 
people to admiration ; with large Ideality, evince beauty, taste, and 
propriety of expression, etc. : p. 241. 

FULL. Possess a full share of clearness and demonstrative power, 
yet with large Causality, and only moderate Language, can not ex- 
plain to advantage ; with large Eventuality, reason wholly from facts ; 
with moderate Language, fail in giving the precise meaning to words ; 
and make good analytical discriminations : p. 243. 

AVERAGE. Show this talent in a good degree in conjunction with 
the larger organs, but poorly in reference to the smaller ones : 
p. 239. 

MODERATE. Rather fail in explaining, clearing up points, putting 
things together, drawing inferences, and even use words incorrectly ; 
with Individuality and Eventuality moderate, show much mental 
weakness ; with large Causality, have good ideas, but make wretched 
work in expressing them, and can not be understood ; with Mirthful- 
ness full or large, try to make jokes, but they are always ill-timed 
and inappropriate : p. 244. 

SMALL. Have a poor talent for drawing inferences ; lack appropri- 
ateness in everything, and should cultivate this faculty : p. 244. 

VERY SMALL. Have little, and show almost none, of this element : 
p. 244. 

To CULTIVATE. Put this and that together, and draw inferences ; 
spell out truths and results from slighter data ; observe effects, with a 

164 nor AN N ALT BE. 

view to deduce conclusions therefrom ; study logic and metaphysics, 
theology and ethics included, and draw nice discriminations ; explain 
and illustrate your ideas clearly and copiously, and exercise it in 
whatever form circumstances may require : 536. 

To RESTRAIN. Keep back redundant illustrations and amplifications ; 
and be careful to base important deductions on data amply sufficient. 


TUITIVE physiognomy. Adapted to man's need of knowing 
his fellow-men. Perverted, it produces suspiciousness. 

VERY LARGE. Form a correct judgment as to the character of all 
they meet, and especially of the opposite sex, at the first glance, and 
as if by intuition ; may always trust first impressions ; are a natural 
physiognomist ; and with Agreeableness large, know just when and 
how to take men, and hoodwink if they choose ; and with Secretive- 
ness added, but Conscientiousness moderate, are oily and palavering, 
and flatter their victim that, serpent-like, salivate before they 
swallow ; with Comparison and organic quality large or very large, 
dearly love the study of human nature, practically and theoretically, 
and therefore of mental philosophy and Phrenology, etc. 

LARGE. Read men intuitively from their looks, conversation, man- 
ners, and walk, and other kindred signs of character ; with Individu- 
ality and Comparison large, notice all the little things they do, and 
form a correct estimate from them, and should follow first impressions 
respecting persons ; with full Secretiveness and large Benevolence added, 
know just how to take men, and possess much power over mind ; with 
Mirthfulness and Ideality large, see all the faults of people, and make 
much fun over them ; with Comparison large, have a talent for meta- 
physics, etc. 

FULL. Read character quite well from the face and external signs, 
yet are sometimes mistaken ; may generally follow first impressions 
safely ; love to study character ; with Ideality and Adhesiveness large, 
appreciate the excellences of friends ; with Parental Love large, of 
children ; with Combativeness and Conscientiousness very large, all 
the faults of people ; and with only average Adhesiveness, form few 
friendships, in consequence of detecting so many blemishes in charac- 
ter, etc. 

AVERAGE. Have fair talents for reading character, yet not extra, 
and should cultivate it. 

MODERATE. Fail somewhat in discerning character; occasionally 


form wrong conclusions concerning people ; should be more suspicious, 
watch people closely, especially those minor signs of character dropped 
when off their guard ; have ill-timed remarks and modes of addressing 
people, and often say and do things which have a different effect from 
that intended. 

SMALL. Are easily imposed upon by others ; with large Conscien- 
tiousness and small Secretiveness, think everybody tells the truth ; 
are too confiding, and fail sadly in knowing where and how to take 

VERY SMALL. Know almost nothing about human nature. 

To CULTIVATE. Scan closely all the actions of men, with a view to 
ascertain their motives and mainsprings of action; look with a sharp 
eye at man, woman, child, all you meet, as if you would read them 
through ; note particularly the expression of the eye, as if you would 
imbibe what it signifies ; say to yourself, What faculty prompted this 
expression or that action ; drink in the general looks, attitude, natu- 
ral language, and manifestation of the man, and yield yourself to the 
impressions naturally made on you that is, study human nature both 
as a philosophy and as a sentiment, or as if being impressed thereby ; 
especially study Phrenology, for no study of human nature at all com- 
pares with it, and be more suspicious : 540. 

To RESTRAIN. Be less suspicious, and more confidential. 


please and win others. 

VERY LARGE. Are peculiarly winning and fascinating in manners 
and conversation, and delight even opponents. 

LARGE. Have a pleasing, persuasive, conciliatory mode of addressing 
people, and of saying things ; with Adhesiveness and Benevolence 
large, are generally liked ; with Comparison and Human Nature large, 
say unacceptable things in an acceptable manner, and sugar over ex- 
pressions and actions. 

FULL. Are pleasing and persuasive in manner, and with Ideality 
large, polite and agreeable, except when the repelling faculties are 
strongly excited ; with small Secretiveness, and strong Combativeness 
and activity, are generally peasant, but when angry are sharp and 
blunt ; with large Benevolence, Adhesiveness, and Mirthfulness, are 
excellent company. 

AVERAGE. Have a good share of pleasantness in conversation and 


appearance, except when the selfish faculties are excited, but are then 

MODERATE. Are rather deficient in the pleasant and persuasive, and 
should by all means cultivate this faculty by smoothing over all said 
and done. 

SMALL. Say even pleasant things very unpleasantly, and fail sadly 
in winning the good graces of people. 

VERY SMALL. Are almost totally deficient in this faculty. 

To CULTIVATE. First try to fed agreeably, and express those feelings 
in as pleasant and bland a manner as possible ; study and practice 
politeness as both an art and a science ; compliment what in others 
you can find worthy, and render yourself just as acceptable to thotw 
around you as lies in your power : 300. 

To KESTRATN is rarely necessary 




PRE-EMINENTLY is Phrenology a science of FACTS. Observation dis- 
covered it observation must perfect it ; observation is the grand 
instrumentality of its propagation. To be convinced of its truth, nine 
hundred and ninety-nine men out of every thousand require to SEE it 
to be convinced by INDUCTION, founded upon experiment. Hence 
the importance of giving definite RULES for finding its organs, by 
which even disbelievers may test the science, and believers be con- 
firmed in its truth, and advanced in its study. 

The best mode of investigating its truth is somewhat as follows : 
You know a neighbor who has extreme Firmness in character who 
is as inflexible as the oak, and as obstinate as the mule. Now, learn 
the location of the phrenological organ of Firmness (see cuts No. 68, 
69) and apply that location to his head that is, see whether he has 
this organ as conspicuous as you know him to have this faculty in 
character, and if you find a coincidence between the two, you have 
arrived at a strong phrenological fact. 

You know another neighbor who is exceedingly cautious, timid, 
safe, wise, and hesitating ; who always looks at the objections and 
difficulties in the way of a particular measure, instead of at its advan- 
tages ; who always takes abundant time to consider, and is given to 
procrastination. Learn the location of Cautiousness (see cuts No. 63, 
64), and see whether he has this phrenological organ as conspicuous 
as you know this faculty to exist in his character. By pursuing this 
course, you can soon arrive at a sure knowledge of the truth or falsity 
of phrenological science ; and altogether the best mode of convincing 
unbelievers of its truth is by means of the marked coincidence be- 
tween the phrenology and character of those they know. Nor is it 
possible for the human mind to resist proof like this. 

To promote this practical knowledge the application of this science 
we give the following RULES FOR FINDING its organs, fully assured 
that we can fill our pages with nothing more interesting or useful. 
Follow these rules exactly, and you will have little difficulty in finding 
at least all the prominent ones. 


Your first observation should be made upon TEMPERAMENT, or organi- 
zation and physiology, with this principle for your basis : that when 
bodily texture or form is coarse, or strong, or fine, or soft, or weak, 
or sprightly, the texture of the brain will correspond with that of 
body, and the mental characteristics with that of the brain. But we 
have already discussed the influence of various temperaments upon 
the direction of the faculties. 

Tour second observation should be to ascertain what faculties CON- 
TROL the character, or what is the dominant motive, desire, object, or 
passion of the person examined. In phrenological language, what 
faculties predominate in action. And it should here be observed that 
the relative size of organs does not always determine this point. Some 
faculties, though very dominant in power, can not, in their very na- 
ture, constitute a motive for action, but are simply executive func- 
tions, simply carrying into effect the dominant motives. For example, 
Combativeness rarely ever becomes a distinct motive for action. Few 
men love simply to struggle, quarrel, or fight for fun, but exercise 
Combativeness merely as a means of obtaining the things desired by 
the other dominant faculties. Few men have for their motive the 
mere exercise of will. That is, Firmness is generally exercised to 
carry into effect the designs of the other faculties ; and instead of 
subjecting the other faculties to itself, simply keeps them at their 
work, whatever it may be. And thus of some other faculties. But 
Amativeness, Friendship, Alimentiveness, Acquisitiveness, Benevo- 
lence, Veneration, Conscientiousness, Intellect, Constructiveness, Ide- 
ality, or the observing faculties, may each become dominant motives. 
And it requires much phrenological shrewdness to ascertain what single 
faculty, cluster, or combination of faculties leads off the character. 

Let us take, then, for our starting-point the outer angle of the eye, 
and draw a line to the middle of the top of the ears, and DESTRUC- 
nvENESs (see cuts No. 55, 56) is exactly under this point, and extends 
upward about half an inch above the top of the ears. In proportion 
to its size will the head be wide between the ears. When Secretive- 
ness is small and Destructiveness large, there will be a horizontal 
ridge extending forward and backward, more or less prominent, 
according to the size of this organ. 

SECRETIVENESS is located three quarters of an inch above the middle 
of the top of the ears. When this organ is large, it rarely gives a 
distinct projection, but simply fills and rounds out the head at this 
point (see cuts No. 61, 62). When the head widens rapidly from the 
junction of the ears as you rise upward, Secretivcness is larger than 
Destructiveness ; but when the head becomes narrower as you rise, it 
is smaller than Destructiveness. 

To find these two organs, and their relative size, place the third 


finger of each hand upon the head, just at the top of the ears ; let 
the lower side of the third finger be even with the upper part of the 
ear; that finger then rests upon Destructiveness. Then spread the 
second finger about one eighth of an inch from the other, and it wiH 
rest upon Secretiveness. Let the end of your longest finger come as 
far forward as the fore part of the ears, and they will then rest upon 
these two organs. 

Take, next, this same line, starting from the outer angle of the eye, 
to the top of the ears, and extend it straight backward an inch and a 
half to an inch and three quarters, and you are on Combativencss 
(see cuts No. 53, 54). This organ starts about midway to the back part 
of the ears, and runs upward and backward toward the crown of the 
head. To ascertain its relative size, steady the head with one hand, 
say the left, and place the balls of your right fingers upon the point 
just specified, letting your elbow be somewhat below the subject's 
head, which will bring your fingers directly ACROSS the organ. Its 
size may be ascertained partly from the general fullness of the head, 
and partly from its sharpness, according as the organ is more or less 
active ; yet observers sometimes mistake this organ for the mastoid 
process directly behind the lower part of the ears. Remember our 
rule, namely : a line drawn from the outer angle of the eye to the top 
of the ear, and continued an inch and a half or three quarters straight 
back. Follow that rule, and you can not mistake the position of this 
organ ; and will soon, by comparing different heads, be able to arrive 
at those appearances when large or small. 

To find PARENTAL LOVK (see cuts No. 45, 46), extend this line 
straight back to the middle of the back head, and you are on the 
organ ; and in proportion as the head projects backward behind the 
ears at this point, will this organ be larger or smaller. 

About an inch, or a little less, directly BELOW this point, is the organ 
which controls MUSCULAR MOTION ; and in proportion as this is more or 
less prominent, will the muscular system be more or less active and 
powerful. Those who have this prominence large will be restless, 
always moving a hand or foot when sitting, and even when sleeping ; 
will be light-footed, easy-motioned, fond of action, and willing to 
work, as well as possessed of a first-rate constitution. But when that 
prominence is weak, they will be found proportionally inert. 

IXHABITIVENESS is located three fourths of an inch ABOVE Parental 
Love (see cuts No. 47, 48). When Inhabitiveness is large, and Con- 
tinuity is moderate, there will be found a prominence somewhat 
resembling an angle of a triangle, at the middle of the head, together 
with a sharp prominence at this point. But when Inhabitiveness is 
small, there will be a depression just about large enough to receive 
the end of a finger, with the bow downward. 


An inch on each side of this point is FRIENDSHIP. When Friendship 
is large, especially if Inhabit! ven ess and Continuity are small, there 
will he two swells, somewhat resembling the larger end of an egg ; 
but if small, the head will retire at this point. 

CONTINUITY (see cuts No. 49, 50) is located directly above Inhabitive- 
ness and Friendship. Its deficiency causes a depression resembling a 
new moon, with the horns turning DOWNWARD, surrounding the organs 
of Inhabitiveness and Friendship. When Continuity is large, how- 
ever, there will be no swell, but simply a FILLING our of the head at 
this point. 

AMATIVENESS (see cuts No. 43, 44) may be found thus.: Take the 
middle of the back part of the cars as your starting-point ; draw a line 
backward an inch and a half, and you are upon this organ. Yet the 
outer portion next to the ear exercises the more gross and animal 
function of this faculty, while the inner portion takes on a more spir- 
itual tone. 

To find CAUTIOUSNESS (see cuts No. 63, 64), take the back or posterior 
part of the ears as your starting-point. Draw a perpendicular line, 
when the head is erect, from the extreme back part of the ear, straight 
up the side of the head, and just where the head begins to round off 
to form the top, Cautiousness is located. This organ is generally well 
developed in the American head, and those prominences, generally 
seen at this point, are caused by a full development of this faculty. 

To find ALIMENTIVENESS (see cuts No. 57, 58), take the upward and 
forward junction of the ear with the head as your starting-point; 
draw a line half an inch forward, inclining a little downward, and you 
are upon this organ. Then rise three quarters of an inch straight 
upward, and you are on that part of ACQUISITIVENESS which gets prop- 
erty. Yet a-better rule for finding it is this : Find Secretiveness in 
accordance with the rule already given, and Acquisitiveness is an inch 
TORWARD of the point, and about an inch above the middle of the tip 
of the ear. Or thus : Take the middle of the top of the ear as your 
Btarting-point ; draw a perpendicular line an inch upward, and you 
are on Secretiveness ; then about an inch forward, and you are on 
Acquisitiveness (see cuts No. 59, 60). When the head widens rapidly 
as you pass from the outer angles of the eyes to the top of the ears, 
Acquisitiveness is large ; but when the head is thin in this region, 
Acquisitiveness is small. 

SUBLIMITY, IDEALITY (see cuts No. 80, 81), and CONSTRUCTIVENESS (see 
outs No. 78, 79) can be found by the following rule : First find Cau- 
tiousness as already directed ; then pass directly forward an inch, and 
you are on Sublimity ; extend this line on another inch, and you are 
on Ideality ; then an inch downward brings you upon Constructiveness. 

It should be remembered that Cautiousness, Sublimity, and Ideality 


are just .upon the round of the head, or between its top and sides. 
Usually the head is much wider at Cautiousness than at Sublimity, 
and at Sublimity than Ideality. When, however, the head is as wide 
at Ideality as at Cautiousness, the subject will possess unusual good 
taste, purity, refinement, elevation, and personal perfection. Half an 
inch forward of Ideality is the organ which appertains to dress, and 
secures personal neatness. In those who care but little what they 
wear, or how they appear, this organ will be found small. 

FIRMNESS (see cuts No. 68, 69) can best be found by the following 
rule : Let the subject sit or stand erect, and hold the head in a line 
with the spinal column. Taking the opening of the ear as your start- 
ing-point, draw a line straight upward till you reach the middle line 
on the top of the head, and you are on the fore part of Firmness. 
When this organ is large, and Veneration small, its forward termina- 
tion resembles in shape the fore part of a smoothing-iron, rapidly 
widening as it runs backward. The organ is usually about an inch 
and a half long. 

SELF-ESTEEM (see cuts No. 66, 67) is an inch and a half back of Finn- 
ness. Its upper part gives a lofty, aspiring air, magnanimity, and a 
determination to do something worthy ; while half an inch farther 
back is that part of Self-Esteem which gives WILL, love of liberty, and 
a determination not to be ruled. 

APPROBATIVENESS (see cut No. 65) is located on the two sides of Self- 
Esteem, about an inch outwardly. These two lobes run backward 
toward Friendship, and upward toward Conscientiousness. 

The relative size of Approbativeness and Self-Esteem may be found 
thus : Place one hand, say the left, upon the forehead, to steady the 
head ; point the finger from above directly down upon Firmness ; then 
move it two inches directly backward, and place the balls of the second 
and third fingers upon the points just found. When Self-Esteem is 
small, these balls will fall into the hollow which indicates its defi- 
ciency, while the ends of the fingers will strike upon the swells caused 
by Approbativeness, when this organ is large ; and the middle of the 
second joint of these fiagers will apprehend the size of that lobe of 
Approbativeness which is next to it. Or thus : Stand behind the pa- 
tient, and so place your fingers upon his head that the second finger 
shall reach upward to the back part of Firmness ; then lay the first 
and second joints of that finger evenly with the head, and place the 
first and third fingers upon the head alongside of it. When Self- 
Esteem is larger than Approbativeness, the second finger will be pushed 
up farther than the others ; but when the two lobes of Ap'probative- 
ness are larger than Self-Esteem, the second finger will fall ink- a 
hollow running up and down, while the first and third fingers will 
rest upon the two lobes of Approbativeness. Or thus : In nineteen 


females out of every twenty, Appr jbativeness will be found consider- 
ably larger than Self-Esteem ; and by applying this rule to their heads, 
a hollow will generally be found at Self-Esteem, and a swell at Appro- 
bativeness, by which you can localize these organs ; and a few appli- 
cations will soon enable you to form correct ideas of their appearance 
when large and small. 

HOPE and CONSCIENTIOUSNESS (see cuts No. 72, 73) are found thus : 
That line already drawn to find Firmness passes over the back part of 
Hope, which is on each side of the fore part of Firmness, while Con- 
scientiousness is just back of that line, on the two sides of the back 
part of Firmness, and joins Approbativeness behind. 

As these two organs run lengthwise from Firmness down toward 
Cautiousness, and are near together, it is sometimes difficult to deter- 
mine which is large, and which small. -The upper part of Conscien- 
tiousness, next to Firmness, experiences feelings of obligation to God, 
or sense of duty to obey His laws ; while the lower part creates a feel- 
ing of obligation to our fellow-men. 

VENERATION (see cuts No. 74, 75) is on the middle of the top of the 
head, or about an inch forward of the point already described for 
finding Firmness ; while BENEVOLENCE (see cuts No. 76, 77) is about 
an inch forward of Veneration. When, therefore, the middle of the 
top-head rounds out and rises above Firmness and Benevolence, Ven- 
eration is larger than either of these organs ; but when there is a swell 
at Benevolence, and a depression as you pass backward in the middle 
of the head, and another rise as you pass still farther back to Firm- 
ness, Veneration is smaller than Benevolence or Firmness. The back 
of Benevolence experiences philanthropy and a desire to do good and 
remove evil on a large scale, while the fore part sympathizes and 
bestows minor gifts in the family and neighborhood. The fore part 
of Veneration gives respect for our fellow-men, while the back part 
supplicates and depends upon the Deity. The fore part of Firmness, 
working with Conscientiousness, gives moral decision ; while the lat- 
ter, acting with Self-Esteem, gives physical decision, determination to 
accomplish material objects, and what we commonly call perseverance. 

SPIRITUALITY is located on each side of Veneration. It may be 
found by the following rules : Standing behind the subject, Avho should 
be seated, so place your fingers that the first fingers of each hand shall 
be about an inch apart that the ends of your second fingers shall be 
about three quarters of an inch forward of a line drawn across the 
middle of the head from side to side, and the balls of your fingers 
will be on Spirituality. Or, reversing your position, so as to stand in 
FRONT of the subject, so place your hands that the first fingers of each 
hand shall be as before, about an inch apart, and the ends of your 
longest fingers shall just touch the fore part of Hope, and the balls 


of your second and third fingers will rest on Spirituality. This organ 
is generally low, so that it may usually be found by that depression 
which indicates its smallness. When it is large, the head is filled out 
in this region, instead of sloping rapidly from Veneration. Its two 
lobes are about an inch on each side of Veneration, and directly above 

IMITATION (see cuts No. 82, 83) is upon the two sides of Benevolence, 
directly forward of Spirituality. The best rule for finding it is this : 
Standing in front of the subject, place your hands so that the first 
fingers <if each hand shall be separated about three quarters of an inch, 
and the end of your longest finger shall reach a line drawn through 
Veneration and Spirituality that is, through the middle of the head 
from side to side and the balls of your fingers will be on Imitation. 
It will be found larger in children than adults ; so that the ridge 
usually found in their heads at this point may be taken as the loca- 
tion of this organ. It runs from Benevolence downward toward 
Constructiveness. The upper part, toward Benevolence, mimics ; the 
lower part, toward Constructiveness, makes after a pattern, copies, etc. 

"We are now brought to the intellectual lobe. Take the root of the 
nose as your starting-point ; the first organ met in passing upward is 
INDIVIDUALITY (see cuts No. 88, 89). It is between the eyebrows, and 
when large causes them to arch DOWNWAED at their inner termination, 
and that part of the head to project forward. 

EVENTUALITY (see cuts No. 94, 95) is three quarters of an inch up- 
ward, and slightly below the center of the forehead, which in children 
is usually large, and in adults frequently small. From this center of 
the forehead, COMPARISON (see cuts No. 102, 103) extends upward to 
where the head begins to slope backward to form the top of the head ; 
at which point, or between Benevolence and Comparison, HUMAN NA- 
TURE is located, which is usually large in the American head, as is also 
Comparison. AGEEEABLENESS is located about an inch on each side of 
the organ of Human Nature, and is usually small, so that we can 
ascertain its location by observing its deficiency. When both of these 
organs are large, the forehead will be wide and full as it rounds back- 
ward to form the top-head, or where the hair makes its appearance. 
CAUSALITY (see cuts No. 100, 101) is located about an inch on each side 
of Comparison, and MIRTHFULNESS (see cuts No. 84, 85) about three 
quarters of an inch still farther outwardly, toward Ideality. FORM 
(see cuts No. 90, 91) is located internally from Individuality, just 
above and partly between the eyes, so as to set them wider apart, in 
proportion as it is the larger. 

SIZE is located just in the turn between the nose and eyebrows, or 
beneath the inner portion of the eyebrows ; and when large, causes 
their inner portions to project outward over the inner portion of the 


eyes, like the eaves of a house, giving to the eyes a sunken appear- 
ance. Size can generally be observed by sight, yet if you would test 
your sight by touch, proceed as follows : Place the end of your thumb 
against the bridge of the nose, with the lower part of your hand 
turned outward, and your thumb lying nearly parallel with the eye- 
brows, and the ball of your thumb will be upon Size. When this 
organ is large, there will be a fullness in this region, as if half a bean 
were beneath your thumb. 

To find WEIGHT and COLOR, proceed as follows : Let the eyes be 
directed straight forward, as if looking at some object ; draw an imag- 
inary line from the middle of the eye to the eyebrow ; Weight is 
located internally from this line beneath the eyebrows, while Color ia 
located beneath the eyebrows, just outwardly from this line. ORDEK 
is located just externally to Color, and TIME partly above and between 
Color and Order. 

CALCULATION (see cuts No. 92, 93) is located beneath the outer ter- 
mination of the eyebrows, and in proportion as they are long and. 
extend backward of the eye, will this organ be more or less developed. 
Three fourths of an inch ABOVE the outer angle of the eyebrow, TUNE 
is located. Spurzheim's rule for finding it is this : Stand directly 
before the subject, and if the head widens over the outer eyebrow aa 
you rise upward, Tune is large ; but if you observe a hollow at this 
point, Tune is small. I have generally found this organ small in 
adults, so that it is difficult to find its relative size, but in children it 
is very easily found. Its decline is consequent on its non-exercise. 
Time and Tune join each other, while Time, Tune, and Mirthfulness 
occupy the three angles of a triangle, nearly equilateral, the shortest 
Bide being between Time and Tune. 

LANGUAGE (see cuts No. 96, 97) is located partly above and partly 
behind the eyes. When it is large, it pushes the eyes downward and 
outward, and of course shoves them forward, which gives them a full 
and swollen appearance, as if they were standing partly out of their 
sockets, and causes both the upper and under eyelids to be wide and 
broad. When the eyes are sunken, and their lids narrow, Language 
will be found small. 

By following these rules exactly and specifically, the precise location 
of the organs can be ascertained, and a few observations upon heads 
will soon teach you the appearance of the respective organs when they 
are large, small, or midway in size. Some slight allowances are to be 
made, however, in calculating the size of the head, or the relative 
size of the organs. Thus, the larger Combative-ness is, the longer 
the line from Combativeness to the ear ; yet large and small Combat- 
iveness do not vary this line over from a quarter to half an inch. 

Probably the most difficult point of discrimination is between Hope 



and Conscientiousness, and it should be distinctly borne in mind that 
Hope is generally placed too far forward. Between Hope, Cautious- 
ness, and Approbativeness there probably exists an organ, the natural 
functions of which are discretion. It measures words and acts, and in 
business leads one to take receipts, draw writings, etc. There are 
doubtless other organs yet undiscovered, especially in the middle line 
of the head, between Benevolence and Parental Love, and also between 
Imitation and Causality. Phrenology is yet in its infancy. Though 
it is perfect in itself, yet our KNOWLEDGE of it is not yet perfected. 
As every successive generation make advances upon the preceding one 
in astronomy, chemistry, and other departments of science, so Gall 
and Spurzheim have discovered only the landmarks of this science, and 
have left much to be filled up by us and those who come after us. 


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