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OVER ONE EODRED ENGRAVINGS;-)
TOGETHEB WITH ^ U ' .^
THE CHART AND CHARAt?f ER OF
AS MARKED BT
BY O. S: AND L. K FOWLER,
SKLF-knowledge is the essence of all knowledge.
Tour character corresponds with your organization.
FOWLER AND WELLS, PUBLISHERS,
No. 308 BROADWAY.
FOWLER AND WELLS,
rat THE CLERK'S OFFICE OF THE DISTRICT COURT OF THE TJNITID
STATES TOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK.
AVIKS AND ItoBHirrs. Stereotype!*,
IIS Nassau Street, New York.
For a Full Explanation of this Table, and the Marking of
Circulatory Power. . . .
Size of Brain, inches
2. Parental Love
4. Inhabit! veness
li\ Secreti veness
the Chart, the Keader is referred to Pages 7 and 8.
h 1 "- 1 "-
15. Conscientiousness . . .
28. Mirthfulness ...
C. Human Nature
NUMBERING AND DEFINITION OF THE ORGANS.
1. AMATIVBNESS, Love between the sexes.
A. CONJUGALITY, Matrimony love of one. [etc.
2. PARENTAL LOVE, Regard for offspring, pets,
8. FRIENDSHIP, Adhesiveness sociability.
4. iNHABiTivENnss, Love of home.
5. CONTINUITY, One thing at a time.
E. VlTATIVENESS, LOV6 Of life. '
6. COMBATIVENESS, Resistance defense.
7. DESTISUCTIVENESS, Executiveness -force.
8. ALIMKNTIVENESS, Appetite hunger.
9. ACQUISITIVENESS, Accumulation.
in. SBOKETIVENESS, Policy management.
11. CAUTIOUBNKSS, Prudence provision.
12. AppROBA.nyB.tB8a. Ambition display.
13. SELF-KSTEKM, Self-respect dignity.
14. FIRMNESS, Decisionperseverance.
15. CONSCIENTIOUSNESS, Justice, equity.
16. HOPE, Expectation-enterprise.
IT. SPIRITUALITY, Intuition faith credulity.
18. VENERATION, Devotion respect.
19. BENSVOLBNCE, Kindness goodness.
20. CONSTRUCTTVENESS, Mechanical ingenuity
21. IDEALITY, Refinement taste purity.
B. SUBLIMITY, Love f grandeur infinitude.
22. IMITATION, Copying patterning.
28. MIRTHFULNESS, Jocoseness wit fun.
24. INDIVIDUALITY, Observation.
25. FORM. Recollection of shape.
2S. SIZE, Measuring by the eye.
27. AVEIGHT, Balancing-climbing.
2S. COLOR, Judgment of colors.
29. ORDER, Method- system arrangement.
80. CALCULATION, Mental arithmetic.
81. LOCALITY, Recollection of places.
82. EVENTUALITY, Memory of facts.
83. TIMK, Cognizance of duration.
84. TUNE, Sense of harmony and melody.
85. LANGUAGE, Expression of ideas.
36. CAUSALITY, Applying causes to effect, [lion.
37. CoMPARisoN,Inducti ve reasoning il lustra.
0. HCMA.N XATUKE, Perception of motives.
D. AtfREEABLESMS, Pleasautiiess sua*ity.
To TEACH LEARNERS those organic conditions which indicate charac-
ter is the first object of this manual. And to render it accessible to
all, it condenses facts and conditions, rather than elaborates arguments
because to expound Phrenology is its highest proof states laws and
results, and leaves them upon their naked merits ; embodies recent
discoveries, and crowds into the fewest words and pages just what
learners need to know, and hence requires to be STUDIED rather than
merely read. "Short, yet clear," is its motto. Its analysis of the
faculties and numerous engravings embody the results of the very
extensive observation and experience of the Authors.
To RECORD CHARACTER is its second object. In doing this, it describes
those organic conditions which affect and indicate character in SEVEN
degrees of power very large, large, full, average, moderate, small,
and very small indicated by the seven numerals 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2,
and 1 and refers those who have their physiological and phrenological
conditions correctly marked in the accompanying table,- to those para-
graphs which both describe themselves, and also contain specific direc-
tions how to perfect their characters and improve children. Its plan
for recording character is seen at a glance in the following
EXPLANATION OF THE TABLES.
The examiner will mark the power, absolute and relative, of each
function and faculty, by placing a figure, dot, or dash on a line with
the name of the organ marked, and in the column headed "large,"
or "small," according to the size of the organ marked, while tho>
printed figure in the square thus marked refers to those pages in thie
book where, under the head "large," " small," etc., will be found
description of the character of the one examined in respect to that
organ, and at the end of this description, hi the book, another figure
will be found, which refers to "FOWLER'S PHRENOLOGY," a standard
work, in which will be found an extended description of those shad-
ings of character caused by various combinations of faculties, while in
the two right-hand columns, in the tables marked ' ' cultivate' ' and
' ' restrain, ' ' are figures referring to pages in this work where directions
for cultivating and restraining may be found ; and at the close of these
sentences are figures which refer the reader to the numbered paragraphs
in three books, entitled "Physiology," "Self-Culture," and "Mem-
ory," or called, when bound together, " Education Complete." These
works give extended directions for self-improvement and the manage-
ment of children.
"When an organ is half way between two sizes, it is represented by
two figures, as 5 to 6, or 3 to 4, etc., which is equivalent to 5 or 3$.
In these cases both sentences referred to may be read, and a medium
between the two will be appropriate.
The sign +, plus, signifies about one third of a degree more, and ,
mimts, one third of a degree less, than the marks indicate, thus giving
virtually a scale of twenty-one degrees.
Several persons can be marked on one table by using a dot for one,
and dashes, horizontal, perpendicular, slanting to the right, left, etc.,
for each of the others.
Those organs and conditions marked 7, or very large, are sovereign
in their influence over character and conduct, and, combining with
those marked large, direct and control feeling and action. Those
marked 6, or large, have a powerful and almost controlling influence,
both singly, and especially in combination, and press the smaller ones
into their service. Those marked 5, or full, play subordinate parts,
yet their influence is considerable, though more potential than appa-
rent. Those marked 4, or average, have only a medium influence,
and mainly in combination with larger ones. Those marked 8, or
moderate, are below par in fact, and still more so in appearance ; exert
but a subordinate influence, and leave character defective in these
respects. Those marked 2, or small, are deficient, so much so as easily
to be perceived; leave their possessor weak and faulty in these
respects, and should be assiduously cultivated ; while those marked 1
are very small, and render their possessor almost idiotic in these
ORGANIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS AS AFFECTING
LIFE AND INDICATING CHARACTER
l.-LIFE-ITS OBJECT, ORGANS, AND FUNCTIONS.
A PROBLEM bow wonderful ! an entity, an embodiment how compli-
cated, yet how perfect ! How worthy even a GOD to create, and man
to possess, improve, and study ! These it is the object of this volume
What, then, is life ? In what does it consist ? In its vast variety
of functions, so embodied as to act together.
But its end alone can expound its entity. That end is happiness.
This is the one, single, only ultimate of both life in the aggregate, and
of each of its individual functions. And the more there is of life, the
more there is of happiness, and vice versa. Hence, to promote or impair
either, thereby promotes or impairs the other. And the conditions of
either are equally those of the other a base line of incalculable value
in deciphering our problem of life, its functions and improvement. And
the fact is both coincident and important, that the happy exercise of
every faculty improves, while its painful exercise impairs, both it and
its organ. That is, present enjoyment increases our capacities for
future happiness. Hence the happier we are, the higher and truer
our life. And the better. For all goodness consists in obeying, and
all badness in violating, the laws of our being. All happiness also
consists in this same obedience, as all misery is occasioned by thi.s
same violation, of these very same laws. Therefore he who is the
happiest is so because the best ; that is, because he obeys tbe most law.
But he suffers the most who is the most sinful ; that is, who has
broken the most law. Therefore Happiness, Goodness, and Obedience
to the laws of our being are all one and the same, while Suffering,
Sinfulness, and Death are synonymous are cause and effect. Then
what is the first law and condition of health and happiness ?
10 THE ORGANIC CONDITIONS
2. ORGANISM 13 AS FUNCTION.
Nature operates always and everywhere by means of organs, or instru-
mentalities never without them. What one function ever is, has
been, or can be, carried forward without them? None, ever, any-
And what is more, the organism is in perfect correspondence with the
function. Thus, whenever Nature would put forth power of function,
she does so by means of power in the organ which puts it forth. And
so of quickness, and all other functional conditions. Thus the office
of wood is to rear aloft that stupendous tree-top, and hold it there in
spite of all the surgings of powerful winds upon its vast canvas of
trunk, limbs, leaves, and fruit. Now this requires an immense
amount of power, especially considering the great mechanical disad-
vantage involved. This power Nature supplies, not by bulk, because
this, by consuming her material and space, would prevent her making
many trees, whereas her entire policy is to form all the trees she can ;
but by rendering the organic texture of wood as solid and powerful as
its function is potential. And the more solid its structure, the more
powerful its function, as seen in comparing oak with pine, and lignum
vite with poplar. But, letting this single example suffice to illustrate
this law, which obtains throughout the entire vegetable kingdom, let
us apply it to the animal.
The elephant, one of the very strongest of beasts, is so powerfully
knitted together, in dermis, muscle, and bone, that bullet after bullet
shot at him, flatten and fall harmless at his feet. The lion, too, is as
strong in texture as in function. Only those who know from observa-
tion can form any adequate idea of the wiry toughness of those mus-
cles and tendons which bind his head to his body, or of the solidity
of his bones corresponding with the fact that, seizing bullock in
his monster jaw, he dashes with him through jungle and over ravine,
as a cat would handle a squirrel. And when he roars, a city trembles:
The structures of the white and grizzly bear, of the tiger, hyena, and
all powerful animals, and, indeed, of all weak ones, in like manner
correspond equally with their functions. All quickness of function is
put forth by quick-acting organs, all slowness by the slow ; and thus
of all organs and functions throughout every phase and department of
universal life and nature. Indeed, in and by the very nature of things
this correspondence must exist. For how could weak organs possibly
put forth powerful functions, or slow organs quick functions ? In
short, this correspondence between organic conditions and functions
is fixed and absolute is necessary, not incidental is universal, not
partial is a relation of cause and effect, and governs every organ and
function throughout universal life and nature.
AS AFFECTING MENTALITY. 11
Governs, reader, you and I. And in all our functions. How can
weak muscles put forth strength, or a sluggish brain manifest mental
activity ? Hence, to become great, one must first become strong and
in the special organs in whose functions he would excel. Would you
become great mentally, then first become strong cerebrally. Or,
would you render that darling boy a great man, first make him a
powerful animal. Not that all powerful animals are great men, but that
all great men are, and must needs be, powerful animals. Our animal
nature is the basis of all mental and moral function. It so is in the
very constitution of things, that mind can be put forth only in and by
its material organism, and is strong or weak, quick or sluggish, as its
organism is either. If, in the plenitude of Divine Wisdom, man had
been created a purely mental being, he would have needed no body,
and could not have used one ; whereas, instead, he has been created
a compound being, composed of both body and mind. Nor are those
seemingly opposite entities strangers to each other. Instead, they
are inter-related by ties of the most perfect reciprocity so perfect
that every conceivable condition of either reciprocally affects the
HEREDITARY ORGANISM AS AFFECTING MENTALITY.
Hereditary organic quality is the first, basilar, and all-potent condition
of all power of function, all happiness, all everything. This is con-
genital is imparted by the parentage along with life itself, of which
it is the paramount condition and instrumentality. It depends mainly
on the original nature of the parents, yet partly also on their existing
states of body, mind, and health, their mutual love or want of it, and
on other like primal life-conditions and causes. It lies behind and
below, and is infinitely more potential than, education, and all asso-
ciations and surrounding circumstances is, in short, what renders the
grain cereal, the oak oaken, fish fishy, fox foxy, swine swinish, tiger
tigerish, and man human.
Each creature much resembles a galvanic battery, and its life-force
depends mainly on how that battery is "got up," and this on those
congenital conditions which establish the life-conditions a subject infi-
nitely important, and generally overlooked, but treated elsewhere.
This condition can not well be described, hardly engraved, but is easily
perceived by a practiced eye. It is quite analogous to Temperament,
on which little has yet been written, but lies behind and below
all temperaments is, indeed, their determining cause. Some of its
signs are coarseness and fineness of hair, skin, color, form, motion,
general tone of action and mental operation, etc. A comparison of
* See " Love and Parentage." " Hereditary Descent," ety.
12 THE OJSGANIC CONDITIONS
the following engravings of the artist Carpenter with the idiot Emer-.
eon will give some outline idea of this point. A still better is found
in comparing man with animal. In fact, the main differences between
vegetables and animals, as
compared among one another,
and all as compared with
man, and different men as
compared with each other, as
well as the entire style and
cast of character and senti-
ment, everything, is conse-
quent on this condition in
short, is what we call "bot-
tom* ' in the horse, ' ' the
breed" in full-blooded ani-
mals, and ' ' blood' ' in those
high and nobly born. Those
7. Are pre-eminently fine-
grained, piire- minded, ethe-
real, sentimental, refined,
high-toned, intense in emo-
; tion, full of human nature,
most exquisitely susceptible
impressions of all kinds,
most poetic in temperament,
lofty in aspiration, and en-
dowed with wonderful intui
tion as to truth, what is right, best, etc., are unusually developed
in the interior or spirit life, and far above most of those with whom
they come in contact, and hence find few congenial spirits, and are
neither understood nor appreciated ; when sick, suffer inexpressibly,
and if children, are precocious too smart, too good to live, and abso-
lutely must be treated physiologically, or die early.
6. Are like 7, only less so ; are finely organized, delicate, suscep-
tible, emotional, pure-minded, intellectual, particular, and aspiring
after a high state of excellence ; full of human nature, and true to its
intuitions and instincts ; have a decided predominance of the mental
over the physical ; are able and inclined to lead excellent human lives,
and capable of manifesting a high order of the human virtues.
5. Are more preinclined to the good than bad, to ascend than
* Hereafter the words "those marked" will be omitted, and the description begin,
1 7. Are." etc.
AS AFFECTING MENTALITY.
descend in the human scale ; can, by culture, make excellent men and
women, .but require it ; and should avoid those habits which clog or
deprave the mental manifestations, and, to attain superiority, must
"strive to enter in."
4. Are simply fair in organic tone ; are good under good surround-
ings, but can be misled ; must avoid all deteriorating habits and
causes, spirits and tobacco, bad associates, etc. ; assiduously cultivate
the pure and good, and study to discipline intellect, as well as purify
the passions, and rely the more on culture and a right physiological
life, because the hereditary
endowment is simply respect-
3. Are rather lacking in
organic quality, and better
adapted to labor than study ;
rather sluggish mentally, and
given to this world's pleas-
ures ; had but a commonplace
parentage ; need to be strictly
temperate in all things, and
avoid all forms of temptation,
vulgar associates in particular,
and make up by the more
assiduous cultivation what has
been withheld by nature.
2. Are coarse-grained in
structure and sentiment, and
both vulgar and non-intellec-
tual ; had poor parental conditions ; are low, groveling, and carnal,
as well as obtuse in feeling and intellect ; are poorly organized, and
incapable of high attainments ; hence restrain the passions, and culti-
vate intellect and the virtues as much as possible, and especially avoid
alcoholic liquors, tobacco, and low associates.
1. Are really dotish, and non compos mentis.
To CULTIVATE. First, guard against all perversion of the faculties,
all forms of intemperance, over-eating, pork, rich pastry, especially
late suppers ; be much of the time in the open air ; work and exercise
abundantly ; bathe daily, and keep the body in just as good condition
as possible ; mingle with the high and good ; exercise all the faculties
assiduously, in the best possible manner, and in strict accordance
with their natural functions ; cultivate a love of nature, art, beauties,
and perfections in short, encourage the good, true, and right, and
avoid the bad.
To RKSTRAIX. Cultivate a love of the terrestrial of this world, its
No. 2. EMERSON, AN IDIOT.
THE ORGANIC CONDITIONS
pleasures and luxuries for you require animalizing. You live too
much in the ideal ; live more with the actual and tangible. Callous
yourself against much that now abraids your finer sentiments, and
shrink not from contact with those not quite up to your standard.
You are adapted to a more advanced state of humanity, but should
come down to the present and material. Above all, do not be too
fastidious, qualmish, or whirnmy, but make the best of what is ; cling
to life ; and enamor yourself of its objects and pleasures.
8.-HEALTH ITS VALUE, CONDITIONS, AND KESTOEATION.
Health consists in the normal and vigorous exercise of all the phys-
ical functions, and disease in their abnormal action. Health is pleas-
urable, disease painful. Health
is life, for life consists in the
normal action of those same
functions in which health con-
sists. And to improve health
is to increase life itself, and all
its pleasures. Some writer has
appropriately denned health
Planting your foot upon the
green sod, looking around, and
yielding yourself to whatever
feelings naturally arise, health
is proportionate to that buoy-
ant, jubilant, exhilarating, ec-
static feeling which supervenes.
It is to all our functions what
motive power is to machinery
sets them off with a rush and
a bound. It both makes us
happy, and causes everything
else to increase that happiness. But disease renders us miserable, and
turns everything around us into occasion of misery. It both weakens
and perverts the interior being. Indeed, health is the quintessence
of every earthly good disease, of every terrestrial evil. Poor indeed
is he, however rich in money, in honors, in office, in everything else
whatsoever, whose health is poor ; for how can he enjoy his dollars and
honors ? But rich indeed is he who is healthy, however poor in money,
for he enjoys whatsoever he has or is. A rich man may, indeed, pur-
chase a luxuriant dinner, but without health does not, can not relish
it ; whereas a poor man, with health, enjoys even a dry crust.
The rich need health to enjoy their riches ; the poor doubly, in
No. 3. HEALTH.
AS AFFECTING MENTALITY. 15
order to prerent becoming poorer. But to be poor and sickly is the
uttermost of human evil. Nor can the poor afford to be sick ; for
their health is their all, to themselves and families. Nor should they
allow anything whatsoever to impair it, but make health paramount.
Even the very talents of men depend mainly on health. Is not the
brain confessedly the organ of the mind ? Now, what means it, that
the eye is the organ of vision, but that all as existing states reciprocate
with its physical conditions ? That the stomach is the organ of diges-
tion, but that the nutritive function is vigorous or impaired, in exact
correspondence with its existing states? That the brain is the organ
of the mind, but that all its conditions similarly affect the mentality ?
And since all the states of the body and brain act reciprocally conse-
quent on that vast network of nerves which ramify throughout every
part and parcel of the body, and terminate in the brain of course all
existing conditions of the body similarly affect these nerves, and
thereby the brain, and therefore the mind, rendering all the states of
either body or mind reciprocal with those of the other. Is the body
sick, or weak, or exhausted, or inflamed, or sleepy, or exhilarated, is
not the mind equally so ? Then to originate great thoughts, or to
conceive pure and exalted sentiments, must not the brain .be in a vig-
orous state ? And in order to acquire cerebral vigor, must not all the .
bodily functions be equally vigorous? And to this end, must not
those health-laws which cause this vigor be observed ? Of what avail
the learning of the sickly scholar, the talents of the invalid, or the
goodness of the pious dyspeptic? They can do nothing, can enjoy
nothing are but a burden to themselves and friends. Can we think,
or remember, or study without that energy furnished by the body ?
No more than move machinery without motive power. How, then,
can that boy become a great or learned man without possessing
physical vigor ? Or that delicate and beautiful girl a capable or good
woman, wife, or mother without possessing animal vigor? Let it
be forever and everywhere remembered, that both judgment and
memory, reason and poetry, eloquence and philosophy, even morality
and religion, all the virtues and all the vices in short, one and all
of the human functions, are carried forward by animal power. Even
the very sensual pleasures of the debauchee are exercised by this very
animal force, and weaken when and because it declines. And as phys-
ical power depends on the observance of certain physical laws, the
violation of which weakens both body and mind, of course the first
duty of every human being to himself and Creator of parents to
their children of ministers to people writer to reader, and one to
all, is to
LEARN AND OBEY THE HEALTH-LAWS.
And on this point is just where our whole educational system col-
16 THE ORGANIC CONDITIONS
legiate especially is radically defective. It eclipses more genius by
weakening the body tban it eliminates by study. Children are always
smarter and better relatively than adults, because injured by that false
educational system which impairs mind, memory, and morals by
breaking down a good physical constitution. The Romans appropri-
ately named their schools "gymnasia," from those muscular exercises
which both formed their leading feature, and secured a strong mind
by strengthening the body. Our schools and colleges are, and will
continue to be, fundamentally defective, till remodeled upon the basis
of health, and as a means of scholarship and talents.
Nor intellect merely, but our very morals and piety, depend on
health. Can we even pray or worship without vitality ? And what
is more, the very vices of mankind are consequent mainly on the
infringement of the physical laws.
Hereditary conditions in parents cause depravity in their children ;
yet even they do it by deranging the body. It is what men eat and
drink, it is how they live, sleep, etc., it is their physiological conditions
and habits, that cause nine tenths of human depravity. Are not both
children and adults depraved when cross, and cross because sick ; that
is, rendered sinful by being unwell ? Who does not know that drink-
ing engenders depravity makes the best of men bad ? But why, and
how? By disordering the body. And since by alcohol, why not by
tobacco, gluttony, or any other wrong physical state? Are not
drunkenness and debauchery concomitants ? Are not dyspeptics
always irritable? The truth is, that all abnormal physical action
causes abnormal mental action, which is sin. To become good, and
answer the end of their being, men must live right must learn to eat
right, and sleep, exercise, bathe, breathe, etc., in accordance with
nature's requisitions. And nine tenths of the evil in men have this
purely physical origin, and can be cured by physical means.
Health is the natural state of man, animal, vegetable, all that lives
is the ultimate of life. Like all else in nature, it has its laws ; and
these laws obeyed, will render it perfect from birth to death. It even
requires immense violation of these laws seriously to impair it. Bird
and beast are rarely unhealthy, except when rendered sickly by man.
Has our benevolent Creator granted this greatest of boons to beasts,
but denied it to man? He has not. None need ever be sick, for
there are health-laws, which, if obeyed, guaranty the very perfection
of health. To become sickly is foolish ; for it cuts off every pleasure,
and induces every ill is even wicked, for it is consequent only on a
violation of the laws of our being, and all violation of law is sin.
And the health-laws are as much laws of God written by his finger
on our very constitution as the Decalogue. In short, none have any
business to be sick. It is alike the privilege, as it is the sacred duty,
AS AFFECTING MENTALITY. 17
of one and all to be and keep well ; that is, to observe the health-
laws. And of parents to keep their children well.
" But, you forget that sickness and death are God's chastising mes-
sengers, his special providences." Are they, indeed? Then in all
conscience submit patiently, passively to them. Take no medicines.
Do nothing whatever to restore health, for in so doing you resist
Providence you disobedient child. If sickness is providential, every
attempt at restoration is open, direct rebellion against God is prac-
tically saying to Him : "I know you sent this sickness as a providen-
tial messenger of good to me ; but I am not going to be sick ; I am
going to get well if I can, in spite of Providence." The fact is,
nobody believes practically that sickness is providential ; for if so, their
every restorative effort, nursing, medicine, all, is downright rebellion.
This ascribing sickness and premature death to Providence has
killed millions. Long enough has it thrown on our heavenly Father
the effects of our own sinful violation of his health- laws. Health is
either governed by law, or it is not. If thus governed, it is cause and
effect, not providential, except as the rising of the sun and all else in
nature is providential. Therefore, oh, man, know that health is both
your first privilege and bounden duty, and both learn and fulfill its
EXISTING STATES OF HEALTH, AND ITS IMPROVEMENT.
While this condition has a most important influence on both the
quantity and quality of all the mental manifestations, yet to mark it
correctly, without aid from those examined, is exceedingly difficult.
It may seem good, when actually poor, because its functions may be
exhilarated by inflammation, which both perverts and weakens ; or it
may seem much poorer than it really is, because of merely temporary
debility, while the heart's core remains sound. But its serious impair-
ment leaves all the functions, phrenological included, proportionally
less vigorous than the sizes of their organs indicate. Those who have
7. Are full to overflowing of life, buoyancy, light-heartedness, and
ecstasy ; are strong and lively ; enjoy food, sleep, action, nature, all
the physical functions, to the highest degree ; rarely ever have a pain
or ache, or become tired ; can do and endure almost any and every-
thing ; withstand miasma and disease remarkably ; recuperate readily ;
experience a certain gush, glow, vivacity, and briskness in the action
of all the faculties ; as well as the hjghest and most perfect flow and
exercise of each of the life-functions.
6. Are healthy and happy ; exercise all the organs with vigor and
power ; turn everything into pleasure, and dash off trouble as if a
mere trifle, and yet can endure any amount of pain and exposure ; feel
18 THE OBGA.NIC CONDITIONS
jubilant and joyous year in and year out ; and do everything easily,
all the functions being condensed and hearty, and the whole being full
of snap and life.
6. Have a good, full share of life-force, vigor, and vivacity of
health, happiness, desire and ability to perform, enjoy, and accom-
plish ; can stand a good deal, but must not go too" far, and have suffi-
cient stamina for all practical purposes, but none to spare or waste
4. Have fair, average health, if it is well cared for, yet are some-
times subject to ailments ; are in the main healthy and happy, but
must live regularly ; experience rather a tame, mechanical action of
all the faculties, instead of that zest and rapture imparted by perfect
health ; can accomplish and enjoy much, but must take things leis-
urely ; if careful, can live on and wear a good while yet, but if care-
less, are liable to break down suddenly and finally ; and become irri-
table, dissatisfied, dull, forgetful, and easily fatigued, and must cherish
what health remains.
3. Are deficient in animation and recuperative power, and feel
tired and good for nothing most of the time ; with activity 6 or 7 are
constantly overdoing, and working up in mental or physical action
those energies which ought to go to the restoration of health, not to
labor ; need abundance of rest and recreation, and give out at once if
deprived of sleep ; must stop all unnecessary vital drains, such as
chewing, smoking, drinking, late hours, and all forms of dissipation,
and should eLaarrate all the vitality possible, but expend the least.
2. Are weakly, sickly, and inert ; feeble in desire and effort ; capable
of enduring and enjoying but little ; live a monotonous, listless, care-
for-nothing, half-dead-and-alive life, and must either restore health
or give up, and enjoy comparatively nothing.
1 . Have barely life enough to keep soul and body together ; are
just alive, and have almost lost life's pleasures, powers, desires, and
To CULTIVATE. First ascertain what causes your disease or debility ;
if heart, lungs, muscles, stomach, etc. , are marked low, apply special
culture to the weak organs see the cultivation of each and assidu-
ously study the health-laws, and conscientiously fulfill them, making
everything else subservient thereto. Especially take extra pains to
supply vitality, but waste none in any form of excess.
RESTRAIN You NEED NOT. Health can not be too good. When,
however, you find a surplus of animal vigor, work it up in one or
another of life's ends and efforts.
4. -THE TEMPEEAMENTS.
This term hs long been employed to designate certain physical con-
AS AFFECTING MENTALITY. 19
Btitutions as indicative of certain mental characteristics. The idea
expressed in our definition of " hereditary organism" is very like that
of the temperaments. They were formerly classified thus : The ner-
vous, indicated by light complexion, large brain, and smaller stature,
and indicating superior talents, refinement, and scholarship ; the bil-
lious, indicated by dark complexion, large bones, powerful muscles,
prominent features, and a large and spare form, and indicating by a sup-
posed surplus of bile, irritability, violence of passion, and melancholy,
along with strength of character ; the sanguine, indicated by a florid
complexion, sandy hair, blue eyes, fullness of person, and abundance
of blood, and indicating warmth, ardor, impulsiveness, and liability
to passional excesses ; and the lymphatic, indicated by full, plethoric
habit, distended abdomen, excessive adipose deposit, and indicating a
good, cosy, lax, enjoying disposition, with a stronger proclivity to
sensuous pleasures, rather than intellect or action of any kind. But
this classification is practically discarded, without its place having
been supplied. The doctrine of the temperaments in full remains
unwritten. Meanwhile we propound the following
CLASSIFICATION AND DEFINITIONS.
Man is composed physically of three great classes of organs, the
predominance or deficiency of each of which is called a predominant
or deficient temperament, both giving a particular form to the body
shape being its index and likewise a particular set of phrenological
developments, and consequent traits of character. That is, given
forms of body indicate and accompany special talents, dispositions,
and mental proclivities ; and the art in delineating phrenological
character depends in a great degree on reading correctly the tempera-
ment and organic conditions, and their controlling influence on char-
acter ; for they exert, as it were, the ground-swell as to the direction
and action of the phrenological manifestations. Thus Causality, with
the vital temperament predominant, takes on the phase of planning,
of common sense, of reasoning on matter, of adapting ways and
means to ends, etc. But with the nervous or mental predominant,
the same sized Causality manifests itself in logic, metaphysics,
investigation, the origination of ideas, in intellectual clearness and
power, etc. And it requires the sharpest eye and clearest head in the
examiner to discern the bearings and influences of these temperaments
and organic conditions on the intellectual and moral manifestations.
And the mistakes of amateurs, of connoisseurs even, are more tem-
peramental than phrenological. Still, they are sometimes consequent
on health conditions. Thus the same person in one state of health ia
irritable, violent, passional, perhaps even sensual and wicked, who
in another physical condition is amiable, even tempered, moral, and
20 THE ORGANIC CONDITIONS
good. ( 4 ) A given amount of Ideality is much more ideal, of Language
much more expressive, of the affections more affectional, and moral
tone more lofty, in combination with the mental temperament than
vital. But our proposed limits do not allow us to extend our observa-
tions. Still, the following descriptions give the outline, and put
inquirers on the track of further observations.
5. THE VITAL TEMPERAMENT.
This embraces the heart, lungs, stomach, liver, bowels, and that
entire system of internal organs which creates life-force. It is very
large in Hall, and small in Eev. I. N. Walter.
No. 4. WM. G. HALL.
The large end of a good egg is warmer than its other parts, because
its vitality resides there ; but, this cold, life is extinct. Incubate
it a short time, and break the shell at this end, and you will fin 1
the heart palpitating and blood-vessels formed the yolk furnishing
the required nutrition. The vital apparatus forms first, and deposits
* These raised figures, called superiors, refer to those numbered paragraphs or
headings found throughout this work, and are employed to save repetition^
AS AFFECTING MENTALITY.
the material for forming the other portions ; is more active during
juvenility than the other parts ; sustains the whole animal economy ;
is the source of all power and energy ; creates animal heat ; resists
cold and heat, disease and death ; and re-supplies muscle, brain, and
nerve with that life-power expended by their every exertion. It
is to the man what fire, fuel, water, and steam are to machinery the
vis anirruz, the primum mobile the first great pre-requisite of life itself
and all its functions.
Its decided predominance is accompanied by a round head, well
developed at the base, large Amativeness, Acquisitiveness, Aliment-
iveness, Benevolence, and
Language ; large organs
of the animal propensi-
ties generally ; a rapid
widening of the head
from the corners of the
eyes to the tips of the
ears ; side-head spherical
and well filled out ; fore-
head generally full or
square, and broad rather
than high ; perceptive
organs large, and all the
organs short and broad
rather than long or
7. Are fleshy ; short
and broad built ; stocky ;
deep and large-chested ;
broad and round-shoul-
dered ; impetuous ; im-
pulsive ; enthusiastic ;
hearty ; good livers ;
fond of meats, condi-
ments, stimulants, and
No. 5. REV. I. N. WALTKB. animal pleasures ; have a
strong, steady pulse ; large lungs and nostrils ; a full habit ; florid
complexion ; flushed face ; light or sandy hair and whiskers ; sound
and well-set teeth ; great endurance of fatigue, privation, and expo-
sure ; great love of fresh air, out-of-door exercise, and physical action,
but not of hard work ; a restlessness which can not endure in-door
confinement, but must be abroad, and constantly doing something ;
great zeal, ardor of desire, and more practical common sense than
book learning, and of general knowledge of men and things than
22 THE OKGANIC CONDITIONS
accurate scientific attainments ; more shrewdness and off-hand talent
than depth ; more availability than profundity ; and love of pleasure
than power of thought.
6. Are like 7, though not in as great extremes ; generally fleshy
and of good size and height, if not large ; well-proportioned ;
broad-shouldered ; muscular ; prominent and strongly-marked in fea-
tures ; coarse and homely ; stern and harsh ; strong, but often awk-
ward, and seldom polished ; best adapted to some laborious occupa-
tion, and enjoy hard work more than books or literary pursuits ; have
great power of feeling, and thus require much self-government ; pos-
sess more talent than can exhibit to others ; manifest mind more in
business, in creating resources and managing matters, than in liter-
ary pursuits, or mind as such ; prefer some light, stirring, active
business, but dislike drudgery ; turn everything, especially bargains,
to good account ; look out for self ; get a full share of what is to be
had; feel and act out, "every man for himself," and are selfish
enough, yet abound in good feeling ; incline to become agents, over-
seers, captains, hotel-keepers, butchers, traders, speculators, politi-
cians, public officers, aldermen, contractors, etc., rather than anything
requiring steady or hard work ; and are usually healthy, yet very sick
when attacked, brought at once to the crisis, and predisposed to gout,
fevers, apoplexy, congestion of the brain, etc.
5. Have a good share of life-force, yet none to spare ; withstand a
good deal, yet must not waste vitality, and should live in a way to
4. Have sufficient vitality to sustain life, and impart a fair share
of energy to the functions, but by no means sufficient to put forth
their full power, and should make its increase a first life-object.
3. Are rather weakly and feeble ; often half prostrated by a feeling
of languor and lassitude ; can keep doing about all the time if slow,
and careful not to overdo, the liability to which is great when Activ-
ity is 6 or 7 ; need much rest ; can not half work, or enjoy either
body or mind ; suffer much from fatigue and exhaustion, and would
be glad to do, but hardly feel able.
2. Are too weak and low to be able either to do, enjoy, or accom-
plish much ; should both give the vital organs every possible facility
for action, and also husband every item of vitality ; be extremely
careful not to overwork, and spend much time in listless, luxuriating
ease, while nature restores the wanting vitality.
1. Are almost dead from sheer inanition.
To CULTIVATE. Ascertain which of the vital organs is deficient, and
take all possible pains to improve its action ; see directions for
increasing the action of heart, lungs, stomach, etc. ; alternate with
rest and exercise ; "away with melancholy," banish sadness, trouble,
AS AFFECTING MENTALITY. 23
and all gloomy associations, and cultivate buoyancy and light-heart-
edness ; enjoy the present, and make life a glorious holiday instead of
a weary drudgery ; if engaged in any confining business, break up this
monotony by taking a long leave of absence a trip to Europe or Lake
Superior, a long journey, by horticulture, or parties, or frolicking
with children ; by going into young and lively society, and exercising
the affections ; bringing about as great a change as possible in all your
habits and associations. Especially cultivate a love of everything
beautiful and lovely in nature, as well as study her philosophies ; bear
patiently what you must, but enjoy all you can ; keep doing all you
are able, but other things than formerly, and what interests you. You
should watch and follow your intuitions or instincts, and if you feel a
special craving for any kind of food or pleasure, indulge it ; especially
be regular in sleep, exercise, eating, and all the vital functions, as
well as be temperate in all things ; and above all, keep your mind
toned up to sustain the body ; aid your weak organs by will-power
that is, bring a strong will to aid digestion, breathing, etc. , and keep
yourself up thereby. Determine that you won't give up to weakness
or death, but will live on and keep doing in spite of debility and dis-
ease. Fight life's battles like a true hero, and keep the head cool by
temperance ; the feet warm by exercise ; the pores and evacuations
open by ablution and laxative food ; and heart warm by cherishing a
love of life and its pleasures. And don' t fail to keep up a gentle pound-
ing and frequent brisk rubbing of chest, abdomen, and feet, so as to
start the mechanical action of the visceral organs. Nothing equals
this for revivifying dormant or exhausted vitality, and none are too
poor or too much occupied to avail themselves of it.
To RESTRAIN. Those who manufacture vitality faster than they
expend it, are large in the abdomen ; too corpulent ; even obese ; often
oppressed for breath ; surcharged with organic material ; too sluggish
to expend vitality as fast as it accumulates, and hence should work,
work, work, early and late, and with all their might, and as much as
possible with their muscles, and out of doors ; should eat sparingly,
and of simple food ; avoid rich gravies, butter, sweets, fat, and pastry,
but live much on fruits ; sleep little ; keep all the excretory organs
free and open by an aperient diet, and especially the skin by frequent
ablutions, the hot bath, etc. ; breathe abundantly, so as to burn up
the surplus carbon ; sit little, but walk much ; never yield to indo-
lence ; work up energy by hands and head, business and pleasure, any
way, every way, but keep consuming vitality as fast as possible. Some
fleshy persons, especially females, give up to indolence and inanity ;
get "the blues," and lounge on rocking-chair and bed. What is
wanted is to do, not to loiter around. Inertia is your bane, and action
your cure. If flushed, feverish, nervous, etc., be careful not to over-
24 THE ORGANIC CONDITIONS
do, and rely on air, warm bath, and gentle but continued exercise,
active or passive, but not on medicines.
6. THE LUNGS BKEATHING.
All that live, down even to vegetables and trees, breathe must
breathe in order to live live in proportion as breathe begin life's
first function with breathing, and end its last in their last breath.
And breathing is the most important function of life from first to last,
because the grand stimulator and sustainer of all. Would you get
and keep warm when cold, breathe copiously, for this renews that
carbonic consumption all through the system which creates all animal
warmth. Would you cool off and keep cool in hot weather, deep,,
copious breathing will burst open all those myriads of pores, each of
which, by converting the water in the system into insensible perspira-
tion, casts out heat, and refreshes mind and body. Would you labor
long and hard, with intellect or muscle, without exhaustion or injury,
breathe abundantly ; for breath is the great re-invigorator of life and
all its functions. Would you keep well, breath is your great prevent-
ive of fevers, of consumption, of "all the ills that flesh is heir to."
Would you break up fevers, or colds, or unload the system of morbid
matter, or sare both your constitution and doctor's fee, cover up
warm, drink soft water cold, if you have a robust constitution suf-
ficient to produce a reaction ; if not, hot water should be used then
let in the fresh air, and breathe, breathe, breathe, just as fast and
much as possible, and in a few hours you can " forestall and prevent"
the worst attack of disease you eA r er will have ; for this will both
unload disease at every pore of skin and lungs, and infuse into the
system that vis animce which will both grapple in with and expel disease
in all its forms, and restore health, strength, and life. Nature has no
panacea like it. Try the experiment, and it will revolutionize your con-
dition. And the longer you try, the more will it regenerate your
body and your mind. Even if you have the blues, deep breathing
will soon dispel them, especially if you add vigorous exercise. Would
you even put forth your greatest mental exertions in speaking or
writing, keep your lungs clear up to their fullest, liveliest action.
Would you even breathe forth your highest, holiest orisons of thanks-
giving and worship deepening your inspiration of fresh air will like-
wise deepen and quicken your divine inspiration. Nor can even bodily
pleasures be fully enjoyed except in and by copious breathing. In
short, proper breathing is the alpha and omega of all physical, and
thereby of all mental and moral 3 function and enjoyment.
7 and G. Have either a full, broad, round chest, or a, deep one, 01
both ; breathe freely, but rather slowly ; fill the lungs clear up full
at every inspiration, and empty them well out at every expiration ,
AS AFFECTING MENTALITY. 25
are warm, even to the extremities ; red-faced ; elastic ; buoyant ;
rarely ever subject to colds, and cast them off readily ; feel buoyant
and animated, and are thus qualified to be vigorous in all the func-
tions, physical and mental.
5 and 4. Are neither pale nor flushed, neither ardent nor cold, but
a little above medium in these respects, and somewhat liable to colds.
3. Breathe little, and mainly with the top of the lungs ; move
the chest but little in breathing, and the abdomen less, perhaps none
at all ; are often pale, yet sometimes flushed because feverish ; fre-
quently do and should draw in long breaths ; are quite liable to colds
and coughs, which should be broken up at once, or they may induce
consumption ; often have blue veins and goose-flesh, and are frequently
tired, listless, and sleepy, and should take particular pains to increase
2. Arc strongly predisposed to lung diseases ; have blue veins and
sallow complexion, and are very subject to coughs and colds ; are
often dull, and always tired ; frequently catch a long breath, which
should be encouraged by making all the breaths long and frequent ;
are predisposed to consumptive diseases, but can stave them off, pro-
Tided proper means are adopted ; break up colds as soon as they appear,
and take particularly good care of health.
1. Have barely lung action enough to live, and every function of
body or mind is poorly performed.
To CULTIVATE. First and mainly breathe deeply and rapidly ; that is,
draw long and full breaths ; fill your lungs clear up full at every
inspiration, and empty them out completely at every expiration ; not
only heave the chest in breathing, but work the abdomen. To do
this, dress loosely and sit erect, so that the diaphragm can have full
play ; begin and keep up any extra exertion with extra lung action ;
often try how many deep and full breaths you can take ; ventilate
your rooms, especially sleeping apartments, well, and be much of the
time in the open air ; take walks in brisk weather, with special refer-
ence to copious respiration ; and everywhere try to cultivate full and
frequent lung inflation, by breathing clear out, clear in, and low down
that is, make all your breathing as when taking a long breath.
"For the blood thereof is the life thereof." The blood is the
great porter of the system ; carries all the material with which to
build up and repair every part, and hurries off all the waste material,
which it expels through lungs and skin.
And the heart is this circulatory instrumentality. Without heart,
even lungs would be of no account, nor heart without lungs. They
are twin brothers, are co-workers at the very fountain-head of life
26 THE ORGANIC CONDITIONS
and all its energies. Even diseased organs are unloaded of morbid
matter, reanimated, and rebuilt mainly by blood. Blood gt>od or
poor, the whole system, brain and mind included, is in a good or poor
condition ; but blood wanting, all is wanting ; heart poor, all is poor ;
heart improved, all improved.
7 and 6. Have an excellent and uniform circulation, and warm
hands, feet, and skin ; never feel chilly ; withstand cold and heat
well ; perspire freely ; have a slow, strong, steady puls&, and are not
liable to sickness.
5 and 4. Have a fair, yet not remarkably good, circulation, and
generally, though not always, warm hands and feet ; -are not much
pinched by cold ; perspire tolerably freely, yet better if more ; and
need to promote circulation, at least not impede it.
3. Have but poor "irculation, along with uneasiness and palpita-
tion of the heart ; are subject to cold hands and feet, headache, and
a dry or clammy skin ; find the heart to beat quicker and stronger
when drawing than expiring breath ; are chilled by cold, and over-
come by hot, weather ; are subject to palpitation of the heart on any
extra exertion, walking fast or up stairs, or a sudden startle, etc., and
very much need to equalize and promote the circulation.
2. Have weak circulatory functions, and either a fluttering pulse,
very fast and very irregular, or it is weak and feeble ; suffer from
chilliness, even in summer ; are very much affected by changes in the
weather ; very cold in the extremities, and suffer much from headache
and heat and pressure on the brain ; are subject to brain fever, and
often a wild, incoherent action of the brain, because the blood which
should go to the extremities is confined mainly to the head and vital
organs ; feel a sudden pain in the "head when startled Or beginning to
put forth any special exertion, and suffer very much mentally and
physically from heart affections and their consequences.
1. Have scarcely any pulse, and that little is all on a flutter ; are
cold, and "more dead than alive."
To CULTIVATE. Immerse hands and feet daily in water as hot as can
be borne, ten minutes, then dash on or dip in cold water, and rub
briskly, and heat by the fire till warm, and follow with active exer-
cise, breathing at the same time according to directions just given ;
if there is heat or pain about the heart, lay on a cloth, wrung out of
cold water at night ; rub and pat or strike the chest on its upper and
left side, and restrain appetite if it is craving, and cultivate calmness
and quiet. If sufficient vitality remains to secure reaction, putting
the feet in ice-cold water will be of great service.
To KESTRAIN is not necessary, except when excessive circulation is
consequent on disease, in which case remove the cause, A healthy
circulation can not be too great.
AS AFFECTING MENTALITY. 27
By that truly wonderful process, digestion, food and drink are
made to subserve intellect and moral sentiment converted into
thought and emotion. Then, must not different kinds of food produce
different mental and moral traits? A vast variety of facts answer
affirmatively. Eollin says that pugilists, while training for the
bloody arena, were fed exclusively on raw meat. Does not the food
of lion, tiger, shark, eagle, etc., re-increase their ferocity, and that of
deer, dove, and sheep redouble their docility ? Does not this principle
explain the ferocity of the Indian, force of the Anglo-Saxon, and
subserviency of the Hindoo ? Since alcoholic drinks excite the animal
passions more than the intellectual and moral faculties, why not also
meat, condiments, and all stimulating food as well ? And why not
vegetables and the cereals, by keeping the system cool, promote mental
quiet, intellectual clearness, and moral elevation ? At all events, less
meats and more vegetables, grains, and fruits would render men less
sensual, and more talented and good. And those who would become
either, must mind what and how they eat.
STOMACH. 7. Can eat anything with impunity, and digest it per-
fectly ; can live on little, or eat much, and need not be very particular
as to diet.
6. Have excellent digestion ; both relish and dispose of food to
perfection ; are not liable to dyspepsia ; have good blood, and plenty of
it, and a natural, hearty appetite, but prefer the substantial to knick-
nacks ; hate a scanty meal, and have plenty of energy and good flesh.
6. Have good, but not first-rate digestion, and it will continue
good till bad eating impairs it, still must not invite dyspepsia by bad
4. Have only fair digestive vigor too little to be abused and
need to promote it.
3. Have a weak digestive apparatus, and variable appetite very
good, or else very poor; are a -good deal pre-inclined to dyspepsia;
often feel a goneness and sinking at the stomach, and a general lassi-
tude and inertia ; sleep poorly, and feel tired and qualmish in the
morning ; have either a longing, hankering, pining, hungry feeling,
or a loathing, dainty, dormant appetite ; are displeased and dissatisfied
with everything ; irritable and peevish, dispirited, discouraged,
gloomy, and miserable ; feel as if forsaken and neglected ; are easily
agitated, and oppressed with an indefinable sense of dread, as if some
impending calamity awaited ; and should make the improvement of
digestion the first business of life.
2 and 1. Are like 3, only more so. Everything eaten gives pain,
and life is but a burden.
28 THE ORGANIC CONDITIONS
To CULTIVATE. Eat simple, plain, dry food, of which unbolted wheat-
en bread, and especially crackers made of the same, are best ; and but
little at that, especially if the appetite is ravenous ; and masticate
and salivate thoroughly ; eat in a cheerful, lively, pleasant spirit,
talking and laughing at meals ; consult appetite, or eat sparingly and
leisurely that which relishes ; boiled wheat, or puddings made of
wheaten flour, or grits, or oatmeal, or .rye-flour, eaten with cream and
sugar, being the best staple article say a teacupful of wheat or Gra-
ham flour per day, thoroughly boiled ; should eat little after 5 p. M.,
and if hurried in business, before -or after, but not during business
hours, nor in a hurried, anxious state of mind, but as if determined
to enjoy it ; above all, should cast off care, grief, business anxieties,
troubles, and all painful remembrances and forebodings, and just,
luxuriate in the passing moment.
Dyspepsia, now so alarmingly prevalent, is more a mental than
corporeal disease is consequent more on a worried, feverish, unhappy
state of mind, than stomachic disorder merely. It is usually brought
on by eating very fast right after working very hard, and then work-
ing very hard right after eating too fast and too much, which allows
so little energy to go to the stomach, so that its contents ferment instead
of being digested, which inflames the whole system, and causes the
morbid action of both the mental and physical functions. This
inflammation creates a morbid, craving, hankering appetite, as well
as a general irritable state of mind. But the more food is eaten the
more it re-inflames the stomach, and thereby re-increases these morbid
hankerings ; while denying appetite diminishes this inflammation and
consequent hungering and irritability. Sometimes eating gives tem-
porary relief right at first, before what has just been eaten fer-
ments, but only re- increases the pain soon afterward. Starvation is
the cure in all cases of a craving appetite, but a poor appetite needs
pampering, by providing any dainties that may relish. Or, perhaps
the system is pining for want of some special aliment. If so, the
appetite will hanker after it, and should be gratified, however seem-
ingly unnatural, provided it be an alimentary article. See Aliment-
iveness. Above all, avoid alcohol and tobacco in all their forms,
and also tea and coffee, using, instead, a coffee made by browning
wheat, rye, peas, corn, sweet potatoes, bread, etc., and prepare the
same as Java.
Next, rub and pat, or lightly pound the stomach, liver, and bowels.
"While in college, a graduate came around advertising a specific panacea
for dyspepsia, but requiring secrecy. It consisted simply in rubbing
and kneading the abdomen. This supplies that mechanical action
which restores them to normal action. Those manual exercises,
which call the abdominal muscles into special action, are pre-emi-
AS AFFECTING MENTALITY. 29
nently useful, such as rowing, chopping wood, hoeing, and various
If the stomach is sore or painful, lay on at night a wet cloth, with
a dry one over it, folded several thicknesses. If the bowels are tor-
pid, induce an action of them at a given hour daily, and live much
on boiled wheat, unbolted wheaten bread, and puddings, figs, and
fruits, if the stomach will bear them. Observe all the health laws
with scrupulous fidelity, relying more on nature, but little on medi-
cines, and remit no efforts and spare no exertions to restore digestion ;
for, till you do, you can only half think, study, remember, feel,
transact business, or do or enjoy anything.
To RESTRAIN it, make less a god of the appetite, direct, or work up
in other respects those energies now consumed by the stomach, and
" be temperate in all things." *
THE ABDOMINAL VISCERA complete the digestive functions. The
stomach may solve its food, yet dormant liver, intestines, and mes-
entery glands fail to appropriate it. Or the latter may be good, and
7 and 6. Are very fleshy, round favored, and fat, and eliminate food
material faster than is consumed, besides sleeping well, and enjoying
ease and comfort, and do only what must be done.
5 aud 4. Have a good, fair share of flesh and abdominal fullness,
and appropriate about as much food as their systems require.
3. Are rather slim, poor in flesh, and gaunt ; may digest food
well, but sluggish bowels and mesenteries fail to take up and empty
into the circulation enough to fully sustain the life-functions, and have
hence strong tendencies to constipation.
2. Are very slim, poor, dormant, weak, and dyspeptic.
To CULTIVATE. Eat aperient food, and keep the whole system open
and free as possible.
To RESTRAIN. Breathe deeply, work hard, sleep little, and eat lightly.
6.- THE MOTIVE OE MUSCULAR TEMPERAMENT.
Motion is a necessary, an integral part and parcel of life itself.
What could man do, what be, without it? How walk, work, or
move ? How even breathe, digest, or circulate blood ? for what aro
these, indeed all the physical functions, but action in its various phases ?
And this action is effected by means of bones and muscles or fibers,
the fleshy portions of the system. These bones constitute the founda-
* See the " Family Gymnasium," by FOWLEB AND WELLS invaluable in every
family, and especially to ladies and clerks, and men confined to any kind of office
business or sedentary habits. It will restore to health most invalids who practice
it, and keep healthy those who are already well. Give it a trial.
THE ORGANIC CONDITIONS
tion on which the muscular superstructure is built, are articulated at
their ends by the joints, anl firmly bound together by ligaments, yet
allowed free motion. Toward the middle of these bones the muscles
are firmly attached, so that when they contract they give motion to
the end of the bone opposite the belly of the muscle. These muscles,
of which there are some 527 in the human body, constitute the lean
meat or red flesh of ell animals, and are rendered red by the immense
number of minute blood-vessels which are ramified upon every fiber
of every muscle, in order to re-supply that vital power which is
expended by its exercise. The contractile power of these muscles is
truly astonishing, as is evident from the wonderful feats of strength
and agility of which man is capable ; and that, too, though these
muscles act under a great mechanical disadvantage.
These bones and muscles collectively constitute the framework of
the system give it its build and form are to the man what the
timbers, ropes, and pulleys are to the ship, and constitute the Motive
Temperament. Its predominance confers power of constitution, and
strength of character, and
7. Are lean, spare ; of
good size and height, and
athletic ; have strongly
marked features ; a large,
Eoman nose ; high and
large cheek-bones ; large
and broad front teeth all
the bones of the body
projecting ; a deep, grum,
bass voice ; distinctly
marked muscles and
joints ; hard flesh ; great
muscular power or phys-
ical strength ; ease of ac-
tion, and love of physical
labor, of lifting, working,
etc.; dark, and often
coarse, stiff, abundant,
and perhaps bushy hair ;
a black and heavy beard ; No - 6. ALEXANDER CAMPBELL.
dark skin and eyes ; a harsh, expressive visage ; strong, but coarso
and harsh feelings the movements like those of the draught-horse,
slow, but powerful and efficient ; tough ; thorough-going ; forcible ;
strongly marked, if not idiosyncratic ; determined, and impressive
AS AFFECTING MENTALITY.
both physically and mentally ; and stamp their character on all they
touch, of whom Alexander Campbell furnishes a good example.
The motive, 7, mental, 6, and vital, 5, are capable of powerful and
sustained mental effort, and great power in any department, especially
that of mind as mind, of swaying a commanding influence over man-
kind, taking the lead in a large business, etc.
This Temperament is always accompanied by prodigious coronal and
perceptive regions, Firmness, and Combativeness, and large Destruc-
tiveness its natural accompaniment the very organs required to
re-increase its force and efficiency, and indispensable to its exercise.
6. Are like 7, except less in degree ; are tough, hardy, and strong
constitutioned ; evince power, efficiency, and force in whatever they
undertake ; use strong expressions ; are stout, limber-jointed, and
both need and can endure a world of action and fatigue ; are like a fire
made of hard wood, or anthracite coal, making a slow but powerful
and continuous heat, and will make a decided mark in the business
world, or in whatever other department these energies may be exer-
cised. With the vital 6 or 7, and the mental 3 or 4, are broad and
prominent In form ; large, tall,
well proportioned, broad-
shouldered, and muscular ;
usually coarse-featured, home-
ly, stern, and awkward ; enjoy
hard work more than books
or literary pursuits ; have great
power of feeling, and thus
require much self-govern-
ment ; are endowed with good
sense, but have a poor way of
showing it ; are strong minded,
but possess more talents than
power to exhibit them ; mani-
fest talents more in managing
machinery, creating resources,
"and directing large operations
than in mind as such ; im-
prove with age, growing bet-
ter and more intellectual as
they grow older ; accomplish
wonders ; are hard to beat, indomitable, and usually useful citizens,
but endowed with strong passions when once roused ; and capable of
being deeply depraved, especially if given to drink.
5. Have a good share of the hearty, enduring, efficient, and poten-
tial ; move right forward, with determination and vigor, irrespective
7. PHIXEAS STEVENS.
32 THE ORGANIC CONDITIONS
of hindrances, and bring a good deal to pass ; and are like 6, only
4. Are not deficient in motive power, yet more would be better ;
wrought up by special circumstances, can p\it forth unwonted strength,
but it will be spasmodic, and liable to overstrain ; can work hard, but
are loth to ; prefer the sedentary to the active, and business to labor ;
with the vital 6 or 7 are indolent physically, and do only what they
must, and need to cultivate muscular power.
3. Dislike work ; prefer sitting to moving, and riding to labor ;
may be quick and flashy, but are not powerful ; lack strength and
weight of character ; need much more exercise than they love to take ;
and first of all should cultivate both muscular action and strength of
character. With the vital 6, and mental 6 or 7, are rather small-
boned, but plump, well formed, light complexioned, and often hand-
some ; have usually auburn or brown hair ; are most exquisitely
organized, most pathetic and sympathetic, sentimental, exalted, and
spiritual ; have redoubled glow and fervor of feeling, derived from both
the vital and mental, which they are hardly able to contain ; easily
receive and communicate impressions ; are quite too much influenced by
first impressions, and intuitive likes and dislikes ; have hobbies ; are
most enthusiastic ; throw a great amount of feeling into everything ;
use strong and hyperbolical expressions ; are fond of company, if not
forward in it ; have a quick, clear, sharp, keen, active mind, and good
business talents ; a ready flow of ideas and a talent for communicating
them, either on paper or in social MOTIVE 8, MENTAL 6, VITAL 4.
conversation ; show taste, refinement,
and delicacy in everything ; have an
under-current of pure virtuous feel-
ing, which will prevent the grosser
manifestation of animal passion, and
give the intellectual and moral the
ascendency ; sin only under some sud-
den and powerful excitement ; are
passionately fond of poetry, novels,
tales, light* and sentimental reading,
belles-lettres, newspapers, etc., and
inclined to attempt this kind of com-
position ; have a retentive memory,
shrewdness, smartness, and enough of No. 8. FANNY FOBEESTEE.
selfishness to take good care of self, yet not sufficient momentum or
power to become great, but are rather effeminate. This temperament
is found much oftener and more perfect in the female than male, and
is admirably illustrated by Fanny Forrester. Children thus organized
are precocious, and liable to die prematurely, and their physical culture
AS AFFECTIXG MENTALITY. 33
would save to their parents and the world those brightest stars, which
now generally set while rising, to shine no more on earth.
Mental 7, vital 5, and motive 3, may be smart, but can not be great ;
may be brilliant, but are flashy, meteoric, vapid, too emotional, imag-
inative, and impulsive, and like a fire made of pine wood or shavings
intense, but momentary.
2 and 1. Work, walk, move, and use muscles only when obliged
to ; run much more to the emotional and vapid than potential, and
should cultivate the muscles assiduously.
MUSCULAR EXERCISE is indispensable to greatness and happiness. By
a law of things, all parts must be exercised in about equal proportions.
When the brajn is worked more than the muscles, it becomes partially
congested, loses its snap, leaves the mind dull, memory indefinite, and
thought obtuse, which exercise remedies. None need ever think of
becoming great intellectually, however^ splendid their heads or tem-
peraments, without a world of vigorous exercise of real hard work,
even. All eminent men have laid the foundations of their superiority
by working hard during their minority, and continuing to exercise
daily through life ; while those students brought up without labor
rarely take a high intellectual stand, except- in parrot-like scholarship.
They always lack vim and pith, and close, hard thought. And this
deficiency grows on them. J. Q. Adams always rose before the sun to
take his exercise, and as he became old took much of it in 8^Yimming,
which he said gave the required exercise without heating his blood.
Benton took a great amount of exercise. Jefferson always worked
" like a Trojan." Polk rose before the sun to take his morning walk.
Webster would have his seasons of hunting, fishing, and rowing,
besides taking a daily walk. Washington was a robust, hard-working
farmer and soldier. Physical exercise is as indispensable to greatness as
the intellectual organs themselves. And one principal reason why so
many men, having all the phrenological indications of greatness, do
not distinguish themselves, is a want of physical exercise.
To CULTIVATE. Take all the muscular exercise you can any way
endure, but only gentle ; make yourself comfortably tired every day ;
choose those kinds of exercise most agreeable, but practice some kind
assiduously ; dance more and sit less ; if a child, should be allowed to
run and play, to skate and slide down hill, romp and race, climb and
tear around all it likes, and furnished with playmates to encourage
this out-of-door life. Fear neither exposure nor dirt, clothes or shoes,
bad associates, or anything else that furnishes this great desideratum,
To RESTRAIN. Use your muscles less and brain more.
THE ORGANIC CONDITIONS
T. TIIK MENTAL TEMPERAMENT.
This embraces the brain and nerves, or that portion of the system
called into exercise in the production of mind as such thought, feel-
ing, sensation, memory, etc.
The brain consists at first of a mere ganglion of nervous matter,
formed at the top of the spinal column. To this additions are made
upward and forward,
the brains of various
animals, from that of the
fish and toad, through
that of the dog and
monkey, up to the per-
fectly developed brain
of the human adult.
Let it be observed that
the base of the brain,
or the animal organs,
which alone can be ex-
ercised by infante, are
developed first, while
ness, Veneration, Con-
structiveness, and some
others which cannot be
exercised by them, are
not developed till some
years after birth.
The construction of
the brain is most inter-
To. 9. EDGAR A. FOB. esting. Its internal por-
tion is fibrous, while its outer is soft and gelatinous. It is folded up
into layers or furrows, called convolutions, which are expanded, by
dropsy of the brain, into a nervous sheet or web. These convolutions
allow a great amount of nervous 3 natter to be packed up in a small
compass, and their depth and size are proportionate to the amount of
mind and talent. Thus in animals and idiots they are small and shal-
low ; in men of ordinary talents, much deeper ; while the dissectors
of the brains of.Cuvier, Lord Byron, and other great. men, remark
with astonishment upon their size and depth.
Some writers say five times as n.uch blood is sent to the brain in
proportion to its volume as is sent to uny other portion of the system,
some say eight times, others fifte^a, and one twenty ; but all agree aa
AS AFFECTING MENTALITY. 35
to the general fact. The difference between them is doubtless owing
to the difference in the talents of those operated upon, intellectual
subjects having the most. The distinctness and protrusion of the
veins in the heads of great men, as also the immediate filling up of
these veins when one laughs or becomes excited, have the game cause.
Through the medium of the spinal column, and by means of the
nerves that go off from the spinal marrow through the joints of the
back-bone, the brain holds intercourse with every part of the body,
the nerves being ramified upon every portion of its surface, so that not
even~ the point of a needle can penetrate any portion of it without
lacerating them, and thus producing pain. This spinal marrow is
composed of four principal columns, the two anterior ones exercising
voluntary motion, the two posterior ones sensation. Let the nerves
that go off from the two posterior columns be severed at their root,
and the parts on which they are ramified will be destitute of sensation,
not feeling anything, though able to move ; but on severing the
nerves that go off from the two anterior columns, though the patient
will feel the prick of the needle, he will be unable to move the limb
to which the nerve goes. Now, observe that these two" anterior or
motor columns are in direct connection with the frontal portion of the
brain, in which the intellectual organs are located, so that each can
communicate freely with the other, while the two posterior columns, or
those of sensation, are in connection with the back part of the brain, in
which the organs of the feelings are located. They are most abundant
on the outer surface of the body, and accordingly the skin and adja-
. cent flesh is .the seat of much more intense pain from wounds than the
7. -Have a small stature ; light build ; small bones and muscles ;
a slim, tall, spare, sprightly person ; quickness of motion ; great phys-
ical activity too much for strength ; sharp features and phrenological
organs ; thin lips ; small, pointed nose ; and sharp teeth, liable to
premature decay. They are characterized mentally by a predominance
of mind over body, so that its states affect the body more than the
body mind ; are in the highest degree susceptible to the influence of
stimuli, and of all exciting causes ; are refined and delicate in feeling
and expression, and easily disgusted with anything coarse, vulgar, or
out of taste ; enjoy and suffer in the highest degree ; are subject to
extremes of feeling ; have their disgusts, sympathies, and preposses-
sions easily excited ; experience a vividness and intensity of emotion,
and a clearness, pointedness, and rapidity of thought, perception, and
conception, and a love of mental exercise imparted by no other tem-
perament ; have a deep flow of pure and virtuous feeling, which
will effectually resist vicious inclinations ; intense desires, and put forth
correspondingly vigorous efforts to gratify them ; arc eager in pursuits,
36 THE ORGANIC CONDITIONS
and feel that their ends are of the utmost importance, and must be
answered now ; are thus liable to overdo, and prematurely exhaust the
physical powers, which at best are none too good ; are very fond of
reading and study ; of thinking and reasoning ; of books and literary
pursuits ; of conversation, and all kinds of information, and apt to
lie awake at night, thinking, or feeling, or reading ; incline to some
profession, or light mental occupation, such as a clerk, merchant,
teacher, or, if a mechanic, should be a goldsmith, or something
requiring light action, but not hard lifting more head work than
hand work ; should avoid close application ; take much pleasurable
recreation and exercise ; avoid all kinds of stimulants, wines, tobacco,
tea and coffee included ; use vegetable food mostly ; endeavor to enjoy
existence ; and avoid being worried.
6. Are like 7 in character, only less in degree. ; more given to intel-
lectual and moral than animal pleasures, and action than rest ; can
not endure slow or stupid employees ; with the motive 6, are of good
size ; rather tall, slim, lean, and raw-boned, if not homely and awk-
ward ; have prominent bones and features, particularly front teeth
and nose ^& firm and distinct muscle ; a tough, wiry, excellent phys-
ical organization ; a firm, straightforward, rapid, energetic walk ; great
ease and efficiency of action, with little fatigue ; a keen, penetrating
eye ; large joints, hands, fret, etc. ; a long face and head, and a high
head and forehead ; a brain developed more from the nose over to the
occiput than around the ears ; large intellectual and moral organs ;
strong desires, and great power of will and energy of character ; vig-
orous passions ; a natural love of hard work, and capacity for carrying
forward and managing great undertakings ; that thorough-going spirit
which takes right hold of great projects with both hands, and drive
into and through thick and thin, in spite of obstacles and opposition,
however great, and thus accomplish wonders ; superior business tal-
ents ; unusual strength and vigor of intellect ; strong common sense ;
good general judgment ; with a large intellectual lobe, and a cool,
clear, long, calculating head ; a reflective, planning, discriminating
cast of mind, and talents more solid than brilliant ; are more fond of
the natural sciences than literature ; of philosophy than history ; of
the .deep, solid branches than belles-lettres ; of a professional and
mental than laborious vocation ; of mental than bodily action ; and the
moral than sensual.
5. Have good, fair muscles ; are quite prominent-featured, easy of
motion, enduring, tough, hardy, clear-headed, and fond of intellectual
pursuits ; have good ideas, and excellent native sense and judgment ;
talk, speak, and write to the purpose, if at all ; love action and exer-
cise, and walk and work easily ; are efficient, and capable of doing up
$ gqod Ijfp labor, but not a genius. With t)ie vifal , are sprightly,
AS AFFECTING MENTALITY.
A WELL-BALANCED TEMPERAMENT.
lively, vivacious, and happy ; and with the motive 3, are not adapted
to a life of labor, but should choose some office business, yet exercise
a great deal no matter how much.
4. Have fair mental action, if circumstances fully call it forth ; if
not, are commonplace ; must depend for talents more on culture and
plodding studiousness than natural genius ; with culture, can do well,
without it little ; with the motive and vital 6 or 7, are by far best
adapted to farming or manual pursuits than literary, and should culti-
vate intellect and memory.
3. Have little love of literary pursuits ; are rather dull, and fall
asleep over books and sermons ; and can not marshal ideas for speaking
2. Are exceedingly dull of comprehension ; slow of perception ;
poor in judgment and memory ; hate books ; must be told what and
how to do ; and should seek the direction of superior minds.
1. Are almost senseless and idiotic.
8. A WELL-BALANCED TEMPERAMENT
Is by far the best. That most favorable to true greatness and gen-
eral genius, to strength of char-
acter, along with perfection, and
to harmony and consistency
throughout, is one in which each
is strongly marked, and all about
Excessive motive with deficient
mental gives power with sluggish-
ness, so that the talents lie dor-
mant. Excessive vital gives
physical power and enjoyment,
but too little of the mental and
moral, along with coarseness and /
animality. Excessive mental
confers too much mind for body,
too much sentimentalism and ex-
quisiteness, along with green-
house precocity. Whereas their
equal balance gives an abundant
supply of vital energy, physical
stamina, and mental power and
susceptibility. They may be
compared to the several parts of .
a steamboat and its appurten-
No. 10. WASHINGTON.
ances, The vital is the steam-power ; the motive, the hulk or frame
38 THE ORGANIC CONDITIONS
work ; the mental, the freight and passengers. The vital predomi-
nating, generates more animal energy than can well be worked off,
and causes restlessness, excessive passion, and a pressure which endan-
gers outbursts and overt actions ; predominant motive' gives too much
frame or hulk ; moves slowly, and with weak mental, is too light
freighted to secure the great ends of life ; predominant mental over-
loads, and endangers sinking ; but all equally balanced and powerful,
carry great loads rapidly and well, and accomplish wonders. Such
persons unite cool judgment with intense and well-governed feelings ;
great force of character arid intellect with perfect consistency ; schol-
arship with sound common sense ; far-seeing sagacity with brilliancy ;
and have the highest order of both physiology and mentality. Such a
temperament had the immortal Washington, and his character corre-
Most diseases, too, are consequent on this predominance or defi-
ciency of one or another of these temperaments, and when either fail,
all fail. Hence the infinite importance of cultivating those that are
weak. A well-balanced phrenology is equally important, and its ab-
7 or 6. Are uniform, consistent, harmonious in character, even-
tempered, popular, and generally liked ; not remarkable for any
specialties of talents or character, nor for any deficiencies, and
" maintain' the even tenor of their way" among men.
5 or 4. Are in the main consistent, and in harmony with them-
selves, but more or less affected by circumstances ; show general uni-
formity of life and doctrine, but different circumstances change their
3. Have uneven heads and characters ; are singular in expression,
looks, and doctrine, and variable in conduct ; often inconsistent, and
with excitability 6 or 7, the creatures of circumstances ; take one-
sided views of things ; are poor counselors ; need and should take
advice ; are easily warped in judgment ; propound strange ideas, and
run after novelties ; and need to cultivate unity and houiogencousness
of opinion and conduct.
2. Are like 3, only more so ; are nondescripts ; idiosyncratic in
everything ; just like themselves, but unlike anybody else ; and neither
like, nor are liked by, others.
To CULTIVATE. Exercise the weaker and restrain the stronger facul-
ties and temperaments according to directions in this work.
9.-SIZB OF BKAIN.
That size, other conditions being equal, is a measure of power, is a
universal law. In general, the larger a piece of iron, wood, anything,
the stronger ; and large men and animals are stronger than those that
AS AFFECTING MENTALITY. 39
are small. This is a natural law. Still, sometimes smaller men,
horses, etc., are stronger, can lift, draw, and endure more than others
that are larger, because they are different in organic quality, health,
etc." 3 4 6 . But where the quality is the same, whatever is largest
is proportionally the most powerful. And this undisputed law of
things is equally true of the brain, and , that mental power put
forth thereby. All really great men have great heads merely smart
ones ; or those great only in certain faculties or specialties of character,
not always.- The brains of Cuvier, Byron, and Spurzheim were among
the very heaviest ever weighed. True, Byron's hat was small, doubt-
less because his brain was conical-, and most developed in the base ;
but its great weight establishes its great size. So does that of Bona-
parte. Besides, he wore a very large hat one that passed clear over
the head of Col. Lchmenouski, one of his body-guard, whose head
measured 23^ inches, so that Bonaparte's head must- have measured
nearly or (juite 24 inches. Webster's head was massive, measuring
over 24 inches, and Clay's 23 ; and this is about Van Buren's size ;
Chief Justice Gibson's, the greatest jurist in Pennsylvania, 24^ ; and
Hamilton's hat passed over the head of a man whose head measured
23. Burke's head was immense, so was Jefferson's, while Franklin's
hat passed over the ears of a 24-inch head. Judge McLean's head
exceeds 23J inches. The heads of Washington, Adams, and a thou-
sand other celebrities, were also very large. Bright, apt, smart, liter-
ary, knowing, even eloquent men, etc., often have only 'average,
even moderate-sized heads, because endowed with the very highest
organic quality, yet such arc more admired than commanding ; more
brilliant than powerful ; more acute than profound ; though they may
show off well in an ordinary sphere, yet are not the men for great
occasions ; nor have they that giant force of intellect which molds and
sways nations and ages. The phrenological law is, that size, other things
being equal, is a measure of power ; yet these other conditions, such as
activity, power of motive, health, physiological habits, etc., increase
or diminish the mentality, even more than size. Quality is more
important than quantity, but true greatness requires both cerebral
quantity and quality.
Still, those again who have very- large heads, are sometimes dull,
almost foolish, because their organic quality is low 5 . As far, then,
as concerns Phrenology itself, this doctrine of size appertains to the
different organs in the same head, rather than to different heads. Still
this doctrine, that size is the measure of power, is no more a special
doctrine of Phrenology than of every other department of nature. And
those who object to this science on this ground arc objecting to a
known law of things. If size were the only condition of power, their
cavils might be worthy of notice ; as it is, they are not.
40 THE ORGANIC CONDITIONS
Though tape measurements, taken around the head, from Individu-
ality to Philoprogenitiveness or Parental Love, give some idea of the
size of the brain, the fact that some heads are round, others long,
some low, and others high, so modifies these measurements that they
do not convey any very correct idea of the actual quantity of brain.
Yet these measurements range somewhat as follows in adults :
7 or Very Large, 23f inches and upward ; 6 or Large, from 22f to
23| ; 5 or Full, from 22 to 22| ; 4 or Average, from 21 to 22 ; 3 or
Moderate, from 201 to 2 U 5 2 or Small, from 20 to 20$ ; 1 Below, 20.
Female heads are half an inch to an inch below these measurements.
VERY LARGE. With quality good, are naturally great ; with quality
and activity 6 or 7, and the intellectual organs 6 or 7, are a natural
genius, a mental giant ; even without education, will surmount all
disadvantages, learn with wonderful facility, sway mind, and become
pre-eminent ; with the organs of practical intellect and the propelling
powers 6 or 7, will possess the first order of natural abilities ; mani-
fest a clearness and force of intellect which will astonish the world,
and a power of feeling which will carry all before them ; and, with
proper cultivation, become bright stars in the firmament of intellec-
tual greatness, upon which coming ages will gaze with delight and
astonishment. With quality and activity 5 or 4, are great 011 great
occasions, and, when thoroughly roused, manifest splendid talents,
and naturally take the lead among men, otherwise not ; with activity
or quality deficient, must cultivate much in order to become much.
LARGE. With activity and quality 6 or 7, combine great power of
mind with great activity ; exercise a commanding influence over other
minds to sway and persuade ; and enjoy and suffer in the extreme ;
with perceptives 6, can conduct a large business or undertaking suc-
cessfully ; rise to eminence, if not pre-eminence ; and evince great
originality and power of intellect, strong native sense, superior judg-
ment, great force of character and feeling, and make a conspicuous and
enduring mark on the intellectual or business wdrld, or in whatever
direction these superior capacities are put forth. With activity and
quality 5, are endowed with superior natural talents, yet require strong
incentives to call them out ; undeveloped by circumstances, may pass
through life without accomplishing much, or attracting notice, or evinc-
ing more than ordinary parts ; but with the perceptive and forcible
organs also 6, and talents disciplined and called out, manifest a vigor
and energy far above mediocrity ; are adequate to carry forward great
undertakings, demanding originality and force of mind and character,
yet are rather indolent. With activity only average, possess consider-
able energy of intellect and feeling, yet seldom manifest it, unless
brought out by some powerful stimulus, and are rather too indolent to
exert, especially intellect.
AS AFFECTING MENTALITY. 41
FULL. With quality or activity 6 or 7, and the organs of practical
Intellect and of the propelling powers large, or very large, although
not really great in intellect, or deep, are very clever ; have consider-
able talent, and that so distributed that it shows to be even more or
.better than it really is ; are capable of being a good scholar, doing a
fine business, and, with advantages and application, of becoming dis-
tinguished somewhat, yet inadequate to great undertakings ; can not
sway an extensive influence, nor become really great, yet have excel-
lent natural capacities ; with activity 4 or 5, will do tolerably well,
and manifest a common share of talent ; with activity only 3, will
neither be nor do much worthy of notice.
AVERAGE. With activity 6, manifest a quick, clear, sprightly mind,
and off-hand talents ; and are capable of doing a fair business, espe-
cially if the stamina is good ; with activity 7, and the organs of the
propelling powers and of practical intellect 6 or 7, are capable of doing
a good business, and possess fair talent, yet are not original or pro-
found ; are quick of perception ; have a good practical understanding ;
will do well in an ordinary business or sphere, yet never manifest great-
ness, and out of this sphere are commonplace ; with activity only 4,
discover only an ordinaiy amount of intellect ; are indisposed and
inadequate to any important undertaking ; yet, in a common sphere,
or one that requires only a mechanical routine of business, can do well ;
with moderate or small activity, will hardly accomplish or enjoy any-
thing worthy of note.
MODERATE. With quality, activity, and the propelling and percep-
tive faculties 6 or 7, possess an excellent intellect, yet are more showy
than sound ; with others to plan and direct, can execute to advantage,
yet are unable to do much alone ; have a very active mind, and are
quick of perception, yet, after all, have a contracted intellect ; possess
only a fair mental caliber, and lack momentum, both of mind and
character ; with activity only 4, have but a moderate amount of intel-
lect, and even this too sluggish for action, so as neither to Suffer nor
enjoy much ; with activity 3 or 2, are dull, and hardly compos mentis.
2 or 1. Are weak in character and inferior in intellect indeed,
simple or idiotic. *
This doctrine, that " size is a measure of power," is equally true of
different groups of organs, and regions of the brain. Those who have
a large forehead, with a deficient back and side-head, if of good tem-
perament, will be a deep, original thinker, but lack force and energy
of character ; while those who have heavy base and back-head, with a
smaller forehead, will possess energy, courage, passion, sociability, and
vim, but lack intellectual capacity. But this point will be eliminated
4:2 THE OKGA.NIC CONDITIONS
10. FOEM AS COEEESPONDING WITH CHAEACTEE.
NATURE classifies all her works into orders, genera, and species.
FORM constitutes her great base of this classification. She always does
up similar characteristics in like configurations apple character in
apple shape, fish character in fish configuration, hear nature in bear
form, human nature in human shape, and so on throughout all her
works. And things alike in character are so in form all oaks and
pines like all. All kernels of wheat, corn, rye, etc. , are formed like
all others of the same character. All tigers are like all others, and all
canines resemble each other in shape and character. All human
beings resemble all others in looks and mentality, and monkeys
approximate toward man in both shape and character. Therefore,
since outline shape indicates outline character, of course all the minute
details of shape indicate like peculiarities of character, so that every
wrinkle and shade of configuration indicates a like diversity in their
mentality. And since the brain is confessedly the organ of the mind,
its special form must of course correspond with the special traits of
character. Or thus : since universal shape corresponds with universal
character, of course the form of the head is as the special characteris-
tics of the mind. And this involves the doctrines of Phrenology. In
short, the correspondence between form and character is absolute and
universal on a scale at once the broadest and most minute possible.
Then, what special forms indicate what particular characteristics ?
11. HOMOGENEOUSNESS, OE ONENESS OF STETTCTTJEE.
Every part of everything bears an exact correspondence to that thing
AS A WHOLE. Thus, tall-bodied trees have long branches and leaves ;
short-bodied trees, short branches and roots ; and creeping vines, as
the grape, honeysuckle, etc., long, slim roots, that run under ground
as extensively as their tops do above. The Rhode Island Greening, a
large, well-proportioned apple, grows on a tree large in trunk, limb,
leaf,- and root, and symmetrical, while the gillifleur is conical, and its
tree long-limbed, and runs up high to a peak at the top, while flat and
broad-topped trees bear wide, flat, sunken-eyed apples. Very thrifty-
growing trees, as the Baldwin, Fall Pippin, Bartlett, Black Tartarian,
etc., generally bear large fruit, while small fruit, as the Seckel Pear,
AS AFFECTING MENTALITY. 4:3
Lady Apple, Bell de Choisy Cherry, etc., grow slowly, and have many
small twigs and branches. Trees that bear red fruit, as the Baldwin,
etc., have red inner bark ; while yellow and green- colored fruits grow
on trees the inner rind of whose limbs is yellow or green. Peach-trees
that bear early peaches have deeply-notched leaves, and the converse
of late ones ; so that, by these and other physiognomical signs, expe-
rienced nurserymen can tell what a given tree bears at first sight.
Correspondingly, long-handed persons have long fingers, toes, arms,
legs, bodies, heads, and phrenological organs ; while short and broad-
shouldered persons are short and broad-handed, fingered, faced, nosed,
and limbed, and wide and low bodied. When the bones on the hand
are prominent, all the bones, nose included, are equally so, and thus
of all other characteristics of the hand, and every other portion of all
bodies. Hence, a hand thrust through a hole proclaims the general
character of its owner, because if it is large or small, hard or soft,
strong or weak, firm or flabby, coarse-grained or fine-textured, even
or prominent, rough or smooth, small-boned or large-boned, or what-
ever else, the whole body is built upon the same principle, with which
the brain and mentality also correspond. Hence, also, small-nosed
persons have little soul, and large-nosed a great deal of character of
Bonaparte chose large-nosed men for his generals, and the opinion
prevails that large noses indicate long heads and strong minds. Not
that great noses cause great minds, but that the motive or powerful
temperament cause both*. Flat noses indicate flatness of mind and
character, -by indicating a poor, low organic structure 2 . Broad noses
indicate large passage-ways to the lungs, and this, large lungs and
vital organs, and this, great strength of constitution, and hearty ani-
mal passions, along with selfishness ; for broad noses, broad shoulders,
broad heads, and large animal organs go together. But when the
nose is narrow at the base, the nostrils are small, because the lungs are
small, and need but small avenues for air ; and this indicates a predis-
position to consumptive complaints, along with an active brain and
nervous system, and a passionate fondness for literary pursuits. Sharp
noses indicate a quick, clear, penetrating, searching, knowing, saga-
cious mind 1 6 , and also a scold ; indicate warmth of love, hate, gen-
erosity, moral sentiment indeed, positiveness in everything, while
blunt noses indicate and accompany obtuse intellects and perceptions,
sluggish feelings, and a soulless character. The Roman nose indicates
a martial spirit, love of debate, resistance, and strong passions, while
hollow, pug noses indicate a tame, easy, inert, sly character, and
straight, finely-formed Grecian noses harmonious characters. Seek
their acquaintance. We have chosen our illustrations from the nose,
because it is easily seen and described, and renders observation on the
44: THE ORGANIC CONDITIONS
character easy and correct. But the principle here exemplified applies
to all the other organs and portions of the face and body.
And the general forms of the head correspond with those of the
body and nose. Where the nose is sharp, all the bones and phreno-
logical organs, and of course mental characteristics, are equally sharp
the whole person being built on the sharp principle, and of breadth,
prominence, length, etc.
Tall persons have high heads, and are aspiring, aim high, and seek
conspicuosity, while short ones have flat heads, and seek the lower
forms of worldly pleasures. Tall persons are rarely mean, though
often grasping ; but very penurious persons are often broad built.
Small persons generally have exquisite mentalities, yet less power
the more precious the article the smaller the package in which it is
done up while great men are rarely dwarfs, though great size often
co-exists with sluggishness. To particularize there are four leading
forms which indicate generic characteristics, all existing in every one,
yet in different DEGREES. They are.
12. BREADTH AS INDICATING ANIMALITT.
Spherical forms are naturally self-protecting. Roundness protects
its possessor. So all round-built animals, as Indian pony, bull-dog,
elephant, etc., are round favored and strong-constitutioned, tough,
enduring, and very hardy, but less active and sprightly in body and
mind. And this applies equally to human beings. Broad-built per-
sons may be industrious, plodding, good feeling, and the like, but love
their ease, are not brilliant, and take good care of self. Yet they
wear like iron, and unless health has been abused, can live to a great
age. This form corresponds with the vital temperament 5 .
18. PROMINENCE INDICATES POWER.
"A lean horse for a long pull" is an observation as true as trite.
This corresponds with the motive temperament, which it indicates 8 .
14-ACTIVITY INDICATED BY LENGTH.
In and by the nature of things length of form facilitates ease of
action. Thus, deer, gazelle, grayhound, giraffe, tiger, weasel, eel,
and all long and slim animals, arc quick-motioned, lively, sprightly,
nimble, and agile. The same principle applies equally to persons.
Thus, those very long-favored, or in whom this form is
7. -Are as quick as a flash to perceive and do ; agile ; light-motioned ;
limber-jointed ; nimble ; always in motion ; restless as the wind ; talk
too rapidly to be emphatic ; have no lazy bones in their bodies ; are
always moving head, hands, feet, something ; are natural scholars ;
AS AFFECTING MENTALITY. 45
quick to learn and understand ; remarkably smart and knowing, and
love action to keep doing for its own sake ; wide awake ; eager ;
uncommonly quick to think and feel ; sprightly in conversation ; ver-
satile in talent ; flexible ; suggestive ; abounding in idea ; apt at most
things ; exposed to consumption, because action exceeds strength ;
early ripe ; brilliant ; liable to premature exhaustion and disease,
because the mentality predominates over the vitality, of which the
late Captain Knight, who had a world-wide reputation for activity,
enterprise, daring, impetuousness, promptness, judgment, earnestness,
executiveness, affability, and spright-
liness, furnishes a good example.
6. Are active, restless, brisk, stir-
ring, lively, anything but lazy, with
a good organism ; are quick-spoken ;
clear-headed ; understand matters
and things at the first glance; see
right into and through business, and
all they touch readily ; are real
workers with head or hands, but
prefer head-work ; positive ; the one
thing or the other ; and are strongly
pro-inclined to the intellectual and
moral. Their characters, unless per-
verted, like their persons, ascend
instead of descending ; and they are
better adapted to law, merchandise,
banking, or business than to farming,
or heavy mechanical work. Yet, if
mechanics, should choose those kinds |
requiring more sprightliness thanJJ
strength, and mind than muscle.
6 or 4. Have a fair, but only
fair, share of natural activity "and No - U--CAPTAW E. KNIGHT. _
sprightliness ; do what they well can, and with tolerable ease, but do
not love action for its own sake.
3. Are rather inactive ; do only what they must, and that grudg-
ingly ; love to be waited on, but not to wait ; and get along with tho
fewest steps possible ; seek a sedentary life, and are as loth to exercise
mind as body.
2 and 1. Are downright slothful, lazy, and good for nothing to
themselves or others.
To CULTIVATE. Keep doing, doing, doing all the tune, and in as
lively ami sprightly a manner as possible ; and live more on foot thau
4:6 THE ORGANIC CONDITIONS
To RESTRAIN. Sit down and rest when tired, and let the world jog
on while you enjoy it. Do only half you think you must, and be
content to let the rest go undone. Do for once just see if you can't
be lazy. Work as few hours as possible, and take all the advantage
you can to get along with the least outlay of strength possible. Do
sit down, and enjoy what you have already got, instead of trying to
get so much more. Live on your laurels. Don't tear and fret so, if
all is not exactly to your liking, but cultivate contentment.
15. EXCITABILITY INDICATED BY 8IIAKPNESS.
All sharp things are, in and by the very nature of their form,
penetrating, of which the needle furnishes an example. And this law
applies equally to human beings. From time immemorial a sharp
nose has been considered indicative of a scolding disposition ; yet it is
equally so of intensity in the other feelings, as well as those which scold.
7. Are extremely susceptible to impressions of all kinds ; intensely
excited by trifles ; apt to magnify good, bad, everything, far beyond
the reality ; a creature of impulse and mere feeling ; subject to ex-
treme ups and downs of emotion ; one hour in the garret, the next in
the cellar ; extremely liable to neuralgia and nervous affections ; with
quality and activity 6 or 7, have ardent desires ; intense feelings ;
keen susceptibilities ; enjoy and suffer in the extreme ; are whole-
souled ; sensitive ; positive in likes and dislikes ; cordial ; enthusiastic ;
impulsive ; have hobbies ; abound in good feeling, yet are quick-tem-
pered ; excitable; liable to extremes; have a great deal of SOUL or
passion, and warmth of feeling ; are BRILLIANT writers or speakers,
but too refined and sensitive for the mass of mankind ; gleam in the
career of genius, but burn out the vital powers on the altar of nervous
excitability, and like Pollok, H. K. White, McDonald Clarke, and
Leggett, fall victims to premature death, and should keep clear from
all false excitements and stimulants, mental and physical tea, coffee,
tobacco, drugs, and alcoholic drinks, and cool off and keep cool.
6. Are like 7, only less so ; warm-hearted, impetuous, impulsive,
full of soul, and too susceptible to external influences ; swayed too
much by feeling ; and need much self-government and coolness.
5. Are sufficiently sensitive and susceptible to exciting causes, yet
not passional, nor impulsive ; and easily roused, yet not easily carried
away by excitements. With activity 6 or 7, are very quick, but per-
fectly cool ; decide and act instantly, yet. knowingly ; -do nothing
without thinking, but think and do instantaneously ; are never flus-
tered, but combine great rapidity with perfect self-possession.
4. Are like the placid lake no waves, no noise, and evince the
same quiet spirit under all circumstances.
3. Are rather phlegmatic ; slow to perceive and feel ; rather cold
AS AFFECTING MENTALITY. 47
and passionless ; rarely ever elated or depressed ; neither love nor hate,
enjoy nor suffer, with much spirit ; are enthusiastic in nothing, and
throw little life or soul into expression or action.
2. Are torpid, soulless, listless, spiritless, half asleep about every-
thing, and monotonous and mechanical in everything.
1. Are really stupid, and about as dead and hard as sole-leather
having the texture of humanity, but lacking its life and glow, and
enjoy and suffer very little.
To CULTIVATE. Yield yourself up to .the effects or influences, persons
and things, naturally operating on you ; seek amusements and excite-
ments ; and try to fed more than comes natural to you.
To RESTRAIN. First, fulfill all the health conditions, so as thereby
to allay all false excitement, and secure a quiet state of the body.
Eat freely of lettuce, but avoid spices and condiments. Air, exercise,
water, and sleep, and avoiding stimulants, constitute your great phys-
ical opiates. Second, avoid all unpleasant mental excitements, and
by mere force of will cultivate a calm, quiet, luxurious, to-day-enjoy-
ing frame of mind. If in trouble, banish it, and make yourself as
happy as possible.
These primary forms and characteristics usually combine in different
degrees, producing, of. course, corresponding differences in the talents
and characteristics. Thus, eloquence accompanies breadth combined
with sharpness. They create that gushing sympathy, that spontaneous
overflowing of soul, that high-wrought, impassioned ecstacy and in-
tensity of emotion in which true eloquence consists, and transmit it
less by words than look, gesture, and those touching, melting, soul-
stirring, thrilling intonations which storm the citadel of the soul.
Hence it can never be written, but must be seen, heard, and felt.
This sharpness and breadth produce it first by giving great lungs to
exhilarate the speaker, and send the blood frothing and foaming to
the brain, and secondly, by conferring the utmost excitability and
intensity of emotion, and it is in this exhilaration that real eloquence
mainly consists. This sharp and broad form predominates in Bascom,
whom Clay pronounced the greatest natural orator he ever heard ; in
Chapin and Beecher, to-day confessedly our finest speakers in the pul-
pit or the rostrum ; in Everett ; in "the old man eloquent," indeed,
both the Adamses ; in Dr. Bethune, and a host of others. Still, in
Patrick Henry, Pitt, and John B. Gough, each unequaled in his day
and sphere, the sharp combine with the long. This gives activity united
with excitability. Yet this form gives also the poetic more than tho
oratorical gives the impassioned, which is the soul of both.
Authorship, again, is usually accompanied by the long, prominent,
and sharp. Reference is not now had to flippant scribblers of exciting
newspaper squibs, or even of dashing editorials, or highfalutin pro-
THE ORGANIC CONDITIONS
ductions, nor to mere compilers, but to the authors of deep, sound,
original, philosophical, clear-headed, labored productions. It predom-
inates in Kevs. Jonathan Edwards, Wilbur Fiske, N. Taylor, E. A.
Parke, Leonard Bacon, Albert Barnes, Oberlin, Pres. Day, Drs. Parish
and Rush, Hitchcock, B. F. Butler, Hugh L. White, Dr. Caldwell,
Elias Hicks, Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, Chief-Justice Marshall,
Calhoun, John Q. Adams, Percival, Noah Webster, George Combe,
Lucrctia Mott, Catherine Waterman, Mrs. Sigourney, and nearly every
distinguished author and scholar.
THE POETIC, OR LONG AND SHARP FORM.
Poetry inheres in various forms. Some distinguished poets are
broad and sharp, others long and sharp, but all sharp. Those who
evolve the highest, finest, and most fervid style and cast of sentiment,
THE MENTAL-MOTIVE TEMPERAMENT.
No. \Z. WILLIAM COXLEN BRYANT.
have more of the long, yet less of the prominent, yet with the long
a predominance of the sharp, and are often quite tall. Win. C. Bryant
furnishes an excellent illustration of this shape, as his character does
of its accompanying mentality. Those who poetize the passions are,
like orators, broad and sharp, of whom Byron furnishes an example hi
poetry and configuration. The best combination of forms for writer?
AS AFFECTING MENTALITY. 4:9
and scholars is the sharp predominant, long next, prominent next
and all conspicuous. The best form for contractors, builders, mana-
gers of men and large mechanical operations, is the broad and promi-
nent combined. But they should not be slim. A farmer may have
any form but a spindling one, yet a horticulturist or nurseryman may
16.-RESEMBLANCE BETWEEN MEN AND ANIMALS.
That certain men " look like" one or another species of animals is
an ancient observation. And when in looks, also in character. That
No. 13. DANIEL WEBSTER. THE LION FACE.
is, some have both the lion, or bull-dog, or eagle, or squirrel expres-
sion of face, and likewise traits of character. Thus, Daniel Webster
was called the "Lion of the North," from his general resemblance in
50 THE OEGANIC CONDITIONS
form, having shoulders, hair, and general expression to that king of
beasts ; and a lion he indeed was, in his sluggishness when at his ease,
but power -when roused ; in his magnanimity to opponents, and the
power of his passions.
He had a distinguished cotemporary, whose color, expression of
countenance, manners, everything, resembled those of the fox, and
foxy indeed he was, in character as well as looks, and introduced into
the political machinery of our country that wire-working, double-
game policy and chicanery, which has done more to corrupt our ever-
glorious institutions than everything else combined, even endangering
their very existence. Freemen, hunt it down.
Those who resemble the bull-dog are broad-built, round favored,
square-faced, round-headed, having a forehead square, and perhaps
prominent, but low ; mouth rendered square by the projection of the
eye or canine teeth, and smallness of those in front ; corners of the
mouth drawn down ; and
voice deep, guttural,
growling, and snarling.
Such, if fed, will bark
and bite for you, but, if
provoked, will lay rignt
hold of you, and hold
on till you or they perish
in the struggle. And
when this form is found
on female shoulders,
' ' the Lord deliver you. ' ' j
called in Congress the
11 Bald Eagle," from his
having the aquiline or
eagle-bill nose, a projec-
tion in the upper lip,
falling into an indenta-
tion in the lower, his No. 14. TBISTAM BTTBGES. THE EAGLB FACE.
eagle-shaped eyes and eyebrows, as seen in the accompanying engrav-
ing, was eagle-like in character, and the most sarcastic, tearing, and
soaring man of his day, John Randolph excepted. And whoever has
a long, hooked, hawk-bill, or Roman nose, wide mouth, spare form,
prominence at the lower and middle part of the forehead, is very
fierce when assailed, high tempered, vindictive, efficient, and aspiring,
and will fly higher and farther than others.
Tigers are always spare, muscular, long, full over the eyes, large-
mouthed, and have eyes slanting downward from their outer to inner
A8 AFFECTING MENTALITY. 51
angles ; and human beings thus physiognomically characterized, are
fierce, domineering, revengeful, most enterprising, not over humane,
a terror to enemies, and conspicuous somewhere.
Swine fat, loggy, lazy, good-dispositioned, flat and hollow-nosed
have their cousins in large-abdomoned, pug-nosed, double-chinned,
talkative, story-enjoying, beer-loving, good-feeling and feeding, yes-
yes humans, who love some easy business, but hate HARD work.
Horses, oxen, sheep, owls, doves, snakes, and even frogs, etc., also
have their men and women cousins, with then: accompanying characters.
These resemblances are plain, but more difficult to describe ; but the
voice, forms of mouth, nose, and chin are the best bases of observation.
17.-BEAUTIFUL, HOMELY, AND OTHER FOEMS.
In accordance with this general law, that shape is as character, well-
proportioned persons have harmony of features and well-balanced
minds ; whereas those, some of whose features stand right out, and
others fall far in, have uneven, ill-balanced characters, so that homely,
disjointed exteriors indicate corresponding interiors, while evenly-bal-
anced and exquisitely formed men and women have well-balanced and
susceptible mentalities. Hence, woman, more beautiful than man,
has finer feelings and greater perfection of character, yet is less power-
ful and the more beautifully formed the more exquisite and perfect
the mentality. Nature never deceives never clothes that in a beau-
tiful, attractive exterior which is intrinsically bad or repellant. True,
the handsomest women sometimes make the greatest scolds, just as
the sweetest things, when soured, become correspondingly sour. The
finest things, when perverted, become the worst. These two extremes
are the worst tempered those naturally beautiful and exquisitely
organized, that when perverted they become proportionally bad, and
those naturally ugly formed are naturally bad-dispositioned.
Yet homely persona are often excellent tempered, benevolent,
talented, etc., because they have a few POWERFUL traits, and also fea-
tures the very thing we are explaining that is, they have EXTREMES
alike of face and character. Thus it is that every diversity of charac-
ter has its correspondence in both the physiognomical form and organic
18. WALK AS INDICATING CHARACTER.
As already shown, texture corresponds with character 2 , and motion
with texture, and therefore character. Those whose motions are awk-
ward yet easy, possess much efficiency and positivencss of character
yet Lick polish ; and just hi proportion as they become refined in
miiid will their movements be correspondingly improved. A short
and quick step indicates a brisk and active but rather contracted mind.
52 THE ORGANIC CONDITIONS
whereas those who take long steps general! y have long heads ; yet if
the step is slow, they will make comparatively little progress, while
those whose step is LONG AND QUICK will accomplish proportionately
much, and pass most of their competitors on the highway of life.
Their heads and plans, too, will partake of the same far-reaching
character evinced in their carriage. Those who sluff or drag their
heels, drag and drawl in everything ; while those who walk with a
springing, hounding step, abound in mental snap and spring. Those
whose walk is mincing, affected, and artificial, rarely, if ever, accom-
plish much ; whereas those who walk carelessly, that is, naturally, are
just what they appear to he, and put on nothing for outside show.
Those who in walking roll from side to side, lack directness of charac-
ter, and side every way, according to circumstances ; whereas those
who take a hee line that is, whose hody moves neither to the right
nor left, but straight forward have a corresponding directness of pur-
pose, and oneness of character. Those, also, who tetter up and down
when they walk, rising an inch or two every step, will have many
corresponding ups and downs in life, because of their irregularity of
character and feeling. Those, too, who make a great ado in walking,
will make much needless parade in everything else, and htnce spend a
great amount of useless steam in accomplishing nothing ; whereas
those who walk easily, or expend little strength in walking, will ac-
complish great results with but little outlay of strength, both mental
and physical. In short, every individual has his own peculiar mode
of moving, which exactly accords with his mental ch.tracter ; so that,
as far as you can see such modes, you can decipher such outlines of
To dancing these principles apply equally. A small, delicately
molded, fine skinned, pocket- Venus, whose motions are light, easy,
waving, and rather characterless, who puts forth but little strength in
dancing, is very exquisite in feelings, but rather light in the upper
story, lacking sense, thought, and strength of mind ; but a large,
raw-boned, bouncing Betty, who throws herself far up, and comes
down good and solid, when she dances, is a strong, powerful, deter-
mined character, well suited to do up rough work, but destitute of
polish, though possessed of great force. Some dance all dandy, others
all business, yet few all intellect.
19. -LAUGH AS CORRESPONDING WITH CHARACTER.
Laughter is very expressive of character. Those who laugh very
heartily have much cordiality and whole-souledness of character, ex-
cept that those who laugh heartily at trifles have much- feeling, yet
little sense. Those whose giggles are rapid, but light, have much
intensity of feeling, yet lack power ; whereas those who combine
AS AFFECTING MENTALITY. 53
rapidity with force in laughing, combine them in character. One of
the greatest workers I ever employed, I hired just because he laughed
heartily, his giggles being rapid and loud. But a colored domestic
who laughed very rapidly, but LIGHTLY, took a great many steps to do
almost nothing, and though she worked fast, accomplished little.
Vulgar persons always laugh vulgarly, and refined persons show refine-
ment in their laugh. Those who -ha, ha right out, unreservedly,
have no cunning, and are open-hearted in everything ; while those
who suppress laughter, and try to control their countenances in it, are
more or less secretive. Those who laugh with their mouths closed
are non-committal ; while those who throw it wide open are unguarded
and unequivocal in character. Those who, suppressing laughter for a
while, burst forth volcano-like, have strong characteristics, but are
well governed, yet violent when they give way to their feelings. Then
there is the intellectual laugh, the love laugh, the horse laugh, the
philoprogenitive laugh, the friendly laugh, and many other kinds of
laugh, each indicative of corresponding mental developments.
20.-THE MODE OF SHAKING HANDS
Also expresses character. Thus, those who give a tame and loose
hand, and shake lightly, have a cold, if not heartless and selfish dis-
position, rarely sacrificing much for others, are probably conservatives,
and lack warmth and soul. But those who grasp firmly, and shake
heartily, have a corresponding whole-sotiledness of character, are hos-
pitable, and will sacrifice business to friends ; while those who bow
low when they shake hands, add deference to friendship, and are easily
led, for good or bad, by friends.
21. MOUTH AND EYES PECULIARLY EXPEESSIVE OF CHAEACTEB.
Every mouth differs from every other, and indicates a coincident
character. Large mouths express a corresponding quantity of mental-
ity, while small ones indicate a lesser amount. A coarsely formed
mouth indicates power, while one finely formed indicates exquisite
susceptibilities. Hence small, delicately-formed mouths indicate only
common minds, with very fine feelings and much perfection of char-
acter. Whenever the muscles about the mouth are distinct, the char-
acter is correspondingly positive, and the reverse. Those who open
their mouths wide and frequently, thereby evince an open soul, while
closed mouths, unless to hide deformed teeth, arc proportionately
And thus of the eyes. In traveling west, in 1837, we examined a
man who made great pretension to religion, but was destitute of
Conscience, whom we afterward ascertained to be an impostor. While
attending the Farmers' Club, in New York, this scamp came in, and
54: THE ORGANIC CONDITIONS
besides keeping his eyes half closed half the time, frequently shut
them so as to peep out upon those present, but opened them barely
enough to allow vision. Tlaose who keep their eyes half shut are
peekaboos and eavesdroppers.
Those, too, who keep their coats buttoned up, fancy high-necked
and closed dresses, etc., are equally non-communicative, but those
who like open, free, flowing garments, are equally open-hearted and
22. -INTONATIONS AS EXPKESSING CHARACTER.
Whatever makes a noise, from the deafening roar of sea, cataract,
and whirl Y.'ind's mighty crash, through all forms of animal life, to the
sweet and gentle voice of woman, makes a sound which agrees per-
fectly with the maker's character. Thus the terrific roar of the lion,
and the soft cooing of the dove, correspond exactly with their respect-
ive dispositions ; while the rough and powerful bellow of the bull, the
fierce yell of the tiger, the coarse, guttural moan of the hyena, tho
swinish grunt, the sweet warblings of birds, in contrast with tho
raven's croak and owl's hoot, each corresponds perfectly with their
respective characteristics. And this law holds equally true of man.
Hence human intonations are as superior to brutal as human character
exceeds animal. Accordingly, the peculiarities of all human beings
are expressed in their voices and mode of speaking. Coarse-grained
and powerful animal organizations have a coarse, harsh, and grating
voice, while in exact proportion as persons become refined and elevated
mentally, will their tones of voice become correspondingly refined and
perfected. We little realize how much of character we infer from this
source. Thus, some female friends are visiting me transiently. A
male friend, staying with me, enters the room, is seen by my female
company, and his walks, dress, manners, etc., closely scrutinized, yet
he says nothing, and retires, leaving a comparatively indistinct im-
pression as to his character upon my female visitors, whereas, if he
simply said yes or no, the mere SOUND of his voice communicates to
their minds much of his character, and serves to fix distinctly upon
their minds clear and correct general ideas of his mentality.
The barbarous races use the guttural sounds more than the civilized.
Thus Indians talk more down the throat than white men, and thus of
all, whether lower or higher in the human scale. Those whose voices
are clear and distinct have clear minds, while those who only half
form their words, or are heard indistinctly, say by deaf persons, are
mentally obtuse. Those who have sharp, shrill intonations have cor-
respondingly intense feelings, and equal sharpness both of anger and
kindness, as is exemplified by every scold in the world ; whereas those
with smooth or sweet voices have corresponding evenness and goodness
AS AFFECTING MENTALITY. 65
of character. Ye,t, contradictory as it may seem, these same persons
not unfrequently combine both sharpness and softness of voice, and
such always combine them in character. There are also the intellec-
tual, the moral, the animal, the selfish, the benignant, the mirthful,
the devout, the love, and many other intonations, each accompanying
corresponding peculiarities of characters. In short, every individual
is compelled, by every word uttered, to manifest something of the true
character a sign of character as diversified as correct.
2S. COLOR AND TEXTUKE OP HAIE, SKIN, BEAED, ETC.
Everything in nature is colored, inside and out ; and the color al-
ways corresponds with the character. Nature paints her coarse pro-
ductions in coarse drab, but adorns all her finer, more exquisite pro-
ductions with her most beautiful colors. Thus, highly-colored fruits
are always highly- flavored ; the birds of the highest quality are
arrayed in the most gorgeous tints and hues.
So, also, particular colors signify particular qualities. Thus, through-
out all nature black signifies power, or a great amount of character ;
red, the ardent, loving, intense, concentrated, positive ; green, imma-
turity ; yellow, ripeness, richness, etc. Hence all black animals are
powerful, of which bear, Morgan horse, black snake, etc., furnish
examples. So black fruits, as blackberry, black raspberry, whortle-
berry, black Tartarian, cherry, etc., are highly-flavored and full of
rich juices. So, also, the dark races, as Indian and African, are strong,
muscular, and very tough. All red fruits are acid, as the strawberry ;
but the darker they are the sweeter, as the Baldwin, gillifleur, etc. ;
while striped apples blend the sweet with the sour. But whatever is
growing, that is, still immature, is green ; but all grasses, grains,
fruits, etc., pass, while ripening, from the green to the yellow, and
sometimes through the red. The red and yellow fruits are always
delicious. Other primary colors signify other characteristics.
Now, since coarseness and fineness of texture indicate coarse and
fine-grained feelings and characters 2 , and since black signifies power,
and red ardor, therefore coarse black hair and skin signify great power
of character of some kind, along with considerable tendency to the
sensual ; yet fine black hair and skin indicate strength of character,
along with purity and goodness. Dark-skinned nations are always
behind the light-skinned in all the improvements of the age, as well
as in the higher and finer manifestations of humanity. So, too, dark-
haired persons, like Webster, sometimes called "Black Dan," possess
great power of intellect and propensity, yet lack the finer and more
delicate shadings of sensibility and jmrity. Coarse black hair and
skin, and coarse red hair and whiskers, indicate powerful animal pas-
sions, together with corresponding strength of character ; while fine,
56 THE OEGANIC CONDITIONS
or light, or auburn hair indicates quick susceptibilities, together with
refinement and good taste. Fine dark or brown hair indicates the
combination of exquisite susceptibilities with great strength of char-
acter, while auburn hair, -with a florid countenance, indicates the
highest order of sentiment and intensity of feeling, along with corre-
sponding purity of character, combined with the highest capacities
for enjoyment and suffering. And the intermediate colors and textures
indicate intermediate mentalities. Curly hair or beard indicate a
crisp, excitable, and variable disposition, and much diversity of char-
acter now blowing hot, now cold along with intense love and hate,
gushing, glowing emotions, brilliancy, and variety of talent. So look
out for ringlets ; they betoken April weather treat them gently, lov-
ingly, and you will have the brightest, clearest sunshine, and the
sweetest, balmiest breezes ; but ruffle them, and you raise oh, what
a storm ! a very hurricane, changeable, now so very hot, now so cold
that you had better not ruffle them. And this is doubly true of
auburn curls ; though auburn ringlets need but a little right, kind,
fond treatment to render them all as fair and delightful as the bright-
est spring morning.
Straight, even, smooth, and glossy hair indicates strength, harmony,
and evenness of character, and hearty, whole-souled affections, as
well as a clear head and superior talents ; while stiff, straight, black
hair and beard indicate a coarse, strong, rigid, straightforward char-
acter. Abundance of hair and beard signifies virility and a great
amount of character ; while a thin beard signifies sterility and a thinly
settled upper story, with rooms to let ; so that the beard is very sig-
nificant of character. And we shall soon sec a reason why it should
not be shorn.
Coarse-haired persons should never turn dentists or clerks, but seek
some out-door employment ; and would be better contented with
rough, hard work than a light or sedentary occupation, although
mental and sprightly occupations would serve to refine and improve
them ; while dark and fine-haired persons may choose purely intellec-
tual occupations, and become lecturers or writers with fair prospects
of success. Eed-haired persons should seek out-door employment, for
they require a great amount of air and exercise ; while those who have
light, fine hair should choose occupations involving taste and mental
acumen, yet take bodily exercise enough to tone up and invigorate
Generally, whenever skin, hair, or features are fine or coarse, the
others are equally so 11 . Yet some inherit fineness from one parent,
and coarseness from the other, .while the color of the eye generally
corresponds with that of the skin, and expresses character. Light
eyes indicate warmth of feeling, and dark eyes power.
AS AFFECTING MENTALITY. 57
The mere expression of the eye conveys precise ideas of the existing
and predominant states of the mentality and physiology. As long as
the constitution remains unimpaired, the eye is clear and bright, hut
becomes languid and soulless in proportion as the brain has been en-
feebled. Wild, erratic persons have a half-crazed expression of eye,
while calmness, benignancy, intelligence, purity, sweetness, love,
lasciviousness, anger, and all the other mental affections, express
themselves quite as distinctly by the eye as voice, or any other mode.
24.-EEDNESS AND PALENESS OF FACE.
Thus far our remarks have appertained to the constant colors of the
face, yet those colors are often diversified or changed for the tune being.
Thus, at one time the whole countenance will be pale, at another
very red ; each of which indicates the existing states of body and mind.
Or thus : when the system is in a perfectly healthy state, the whole
face will be suffused with the glow of health and beauty, and have a
red, but never an inflamed aspect ; yet any permanent injury of health,
which prostrates the bodily energies, will change this florid complexion
into dullness of countenance, indicating that but little blood comes to
the surface or flows to the head, and a corresponding stagnation of the
physical and mental powers. Yet, after a time, this dullness fre-
quently gives way to a fiery redness ; not the floridness of health, but
the redness of inflammation and false excitement, which indicates a
corresponding depreciation of the mental faculties. Very red-faced
persons, so far from being the most healthy, are frequeatly the most
diseased, and are correspondingly more animal and sensual in charac-
ter ; because physiological inflammation irritates the propensities
more, relatively, than the moral and intellectual faculties, though it
may, for the time being, increase the latter also. "When the moral
and intellectual faculties greatly predominate over the animal, redness
may not cause coarse animality, because, while it heightens the animal
nature, it also' increases the intellectual and moral, which, being the
larger, hold them in check ; but when the animal about equals or
exceeds the moral and intellectual, this inflammation evinces a greater
increase of animality than intellectuality and morality. Gross sensu-
alists and depraved sinners generally have a fiery red countenance.
Stand aloof from them, for their passions are all on fire, ready to
ignite and explode on provocations so slight that a healthy physiology
would scarcely notice them. This point can hardly be mbre fully
intelligible ; but let readers note the difference between a healthy
floridness of face and the fiery redness of drunkards, debauchees,
meat-eaters, etc. Nor does an inflamed physiology merely increase
the animal nature, but gives it a far more depraved and sensual cast,
thereby doubly increasing the depraved tendencies.
THE OEGANIO CONDITIONS
25. PHYSIOGNOMY A TEUE SCIENCE.
That nature has instituted a SCIENCE of Physiognomy as a facial
expression of mind and character is proclaimed by the very instincts
of man and animals. Can not the very dog tell whether his master
is pleased or displeased, and the very slave, who will make a good,
and who a cruel master and all by the expressions of the counte-
nance ? The fact is, that nature compels all her productions to pro-
claim their interior virtues their own shame, even and hoists a true
flag of character at their masthead, so that he who runs may read.
Thus, all apples both tell that they possess apple character by their
apple shape 10 , but what kind of apple whether good, bad, or indif-
ferent by their special forms, colors, etc. ; all fish, not only that they
are fish, but whether trout or sturgeon, and all humans that they are
human by their outline aspect. And thus of all things.
Moreover, though all human beings have the general human form
and features though all have eyes, nose, mouth, skin, etc., yet every
one has a different face and look from every other. And more yet, the
same person has a very different facial look at different times, according
as he is angry or friendly, etc. And always the same look when in the
same mood. Of course, then, something causes this expression espe-
cially, since att who are angry, friendly, etc. , have one general or sim-
ilar expression ; that is, one look expresses anger, another affection,
another devotion, another kindness, etc. And since nature always
works by means, she must needs have her physiognomical tools. Nor
are they under the control of will, for they act spontaneously. We can
not help, whether we will or no, laughing when merry, even though
in church, pouting when provoked, and expressing all our mental
operations, down even to the very innermost recesses of our souls, in
and by our countenances. And with more minuteness and complete'
ness than by words, especially when the expressions are intense or pecu-
liar. Spirits are said to converse mainly by their expressions of coun-
tenance to look their thoughts and emotions, instead of talking them.
Certain it is that the countenance expresses a greater amount *f
thought and feeling, together with their nicer shades and phases, than
words can possibly communicate. By what MEANS, then, is this effect-
ed ? By magnetic centers, called poles. Every physical and mental
organ has its pole stationed in a given part of the face, so that, when
such organ acts, it influences such poles, and contracts those facial
muscles which express this action. That there exists an intimate
relation between the stomach and one part of the face, the lungs and
another, etc., is proved by the fact that consumptive patients always
AS AFFECTING MENTALITY. 59
have a hectic flush on the cheek, just externally from the lower por-
tion of the nose, while inactive lungs cause paleness, and healthy ones
give the rosy cheek ; and that dyspeptic patients are always lank and
thin opposite the double teeth, while those whose digestion is good
are full between the corners of the mouth and lower portion of the
cars. Since, therefore, SOME of the states of some of the internal
organs express themselves in the face, of course every organ of the
body must do the same. The magnetic pole of the heart is in the
chin. Hence, those whose circulation is vigorous, have broad and
rather prominent chins ; while those who are small and narrow-chinned
have feeble hearts ; and thus all the other internal organs have their
magnetic poles in various parts of the face. Now, since the beard
covers these facial poles of the internal organs, of course it helps to
guard heart, viscera, etc., from atmospheric changes. Obviously, it
was not created for naught, and can not be amputated with impunity.
It also protects the throat and chest, especially of elderly men. And
why shave off this natural sign of masculinity ? Shaving is, to say
the least of it, rather barbarous.
So all the PHRENOLOGICAL organs have likewise their facial poles,
some of which are as follows : That of Acquisitiveness is on each side
of the middle portion of the nose, at its junction with the cheek,
causing breadth of nose in proportion to the money-grasping instincts,
as in Jews, while a narrow nose indicates a want of the speculative
turn. Firmness is indicated by length, prominence, and a compression
of the upper lip. Hence, when we would exhort to determined perse-
verance, we say, "Keep a stiff upper lip." Self-Esteem has its pole
externally from that of Firmness, and between the outer portion of
the nose and the mouth, causing a fullness, as if a quid were under
the upper lip. The affections have their poles in the edges of the lips ;
hence the philosophy of kissing. The pole of Mirthfulness is located
outward and upward from the outer corners of the mouth ; hence the
drawing up of these corners in laughter. Approbativeness has its pole
directly outward from these corners, and hence the approbative laugh
does not turn the corners of the mouth upward, but draws them
straight back, or outwardly. Like locations are assigned to all the
other organs. That physiognomy has its science that fixed and abso-
lute relations exist between the phrenological organs and given por-
tions of the face is an unquestionable truth. By these and other
means the inherent character of every living being and thing gushes
out through every organ of the body, every avenue of the soul ; and
both brute and man have a character-reading faculty, to take intuitive
cognizance of the mental operations. Nor will she let any one lie,
any more than lie herself, but compels all to carry their hearts in their
hands, so that all acquainted with these signs may read them through.
60 PIIBENOLOGICAL CONDITIONS
If we attempt deception, the very effort convicts us. And if all nature's
signs of character were fully understood, all could read not only all
the -main characters of all they see, but even most of the thoughts
and feelings passing in the mind for the time being a gift worth more
than Astor's millions. And the great rule for reading one and all is,
" Notice all one says and does, ask why, what faculty did or said this
or that, and especially yield yourself up to drink in or be affected by
these manifestations. ' '
PHRENOLOGICAL CONDITIONS AS INDICATING CHARACTER.
26. DEFINITION AND PEOOF.
PHEEKOLOGT points out those relations established by nature between
given developments and conditions of BRAIN and corresponding mani-
festations of MIND. Its simple yet comprehensive definition is this :
every faculty of the mind is manifested by means of a particular por-
tion of the BRAIN, called its organ, the size of which, other things
being equal, is proportionate to its power of function. For example :
it teaches that parental love is manifested by one organ, or portion of
the brain ; appetite by another, reason by a third', etc., which are the
larger in proportion as these corresponding mental powers are stronger.
Are, then, particular portions of the brain larger or smaller in pro-
portion as particular mental characteristics are stronger or weaker?
Our short-hand mode of proof is illustrated by the following anecdote :
A Mr. Juror once summoned to attend court, died before its sitting.
It therefore devolved upon Mr. Simple to state to the court the reason
of his non-appearance. Accordingly, when Mr. Juror's name was
called, Mr. Simple responded, " May it please the court, I have twenty-
one reasons to offer why Mr. Juror is not in attendance. The first is,
he is DEAD. The second is ' ' ' ' That ONE will answer, ' ' replied the
judge. " One such reason is amply sufficient." But few of the many
proofs that Phrenology is true will here be stated, yet those few are
Firstly. THE BRAIN is THE ORGAN OF THE MIND, This is assumed, be-
cause too universally admitted to require proof.
Secondly. Is the brain, then, a SINGLE organ, or is it a bundle of organs ?
Does the WHOLE brain think, remember, love, hate, etc., or does one
oortion reason, another worship, another love money, etc. ? This is the
determining point. To decide it affirmatively, establishes Phrenology ;
negatively, overthrows it. It is proved by the following facts :
THE EXERCISE OF DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS SIMULTANEOUSLY. We can
^valk, think, talk, remember, love, and many other things, all TOGETHER
the mind being, in this respect, like a stringed instrument, with
several strings vibrating at a time, instead of like a flute, which stops
AS INDICATING CHARACTER. 61
the preceding sound when it commences a succeeding one ; whereas,
if it were a single organ, it must stop thinking the instant it began to
talk, could not love a friend and express that love at the same time,
and could do but one thing at once.
MONOMANIA.- Since mental derangement is caused only by cerebral
disorder, if the brain were a single organ, the WHOLE mind must be
sane or insane together ; whereas most insane persons are deranged
only on one or two points, a conclusive proof of the plurality of the
organs of the brain and of the mental faculties.
DIVERSITY OF TALENT, or the fact that some are remarkable for sense,
but poor in memory, or the reverse ; some forgetting names, but
remembering faces ; some great mechanics, but poor speakers, or the
reverse ; others splendid natural singers, but no mechanics, etc. , con-
ducts us to the same conclusion.
INJURIES OF THE BRAIN furnish still more demonstrative proof. If
Phrenology is true, to inflame Tune, for example, would create a sing-
ing disposition ; Veneration, a praying desire ; Cautiousness, ground-
less fears ; and so of all the other organs. And thus it is. Nor can
this class of facts be evaded. They abound in all phrenological works,
especially periodicals, and drive and clench the nail of proof.
COMPARATIVE PHRENOLOGY, or- the perfect coincidence existing be-
tween the developments and the characters of animals, constitutes the
highest proof of all. Since man and brute are fashioned upon one
great model since the same great optical laws govern the vision of
both, the same principle of muscular contraction which enables the
eagle to soar aloft beyond our vision, and the whale to furrow and
foam the mighty deep, also enables man to walk forth in the conscious
pride of his strength, and thus of all their other common functions
of course, if man is created in accordance with certain phrenological
laws, brutes must also be, and the reverse. If, then, this science is
true of either, it must be true of both must pervade all forms of
organization. What, then, are the facts ?
Phrenology locates the animal propensities at the SIDES of the head,
between and around the ears ; the social affections in its BACK and
lower portion ; the aspiring faculties in its CROWN ; the moral on its
TOP, and the intellectual on the FOREHEAD ; the perceptives, which
relate us to matter, OVER THE EYES ; and the reflectives, in the UPPER
part of the forehead. (See cut No. 15.)
Now, since brutes possess at least only weak moral and reflective
faculties, they should, if Phrenology were true, hare little top-head,
and thus it is. Not one of all the following drawings of animals have
much brain in either the reflective or moral region. Almost all their
mentality consists of the ANIMAL PROPENSITIES, and nearly all their
brain is found BETWEEN and AROUND THEIR EARS, just where, according
to Phrenology, it should be. Yet the skulls of all human beings rise
high above the eyes and ears, and are long on top, that is, have full
intellectual and moral OEGANS, as we know they possess these mental
No. 15. GEOUPINQ or ORGANS.
1C. HUMAN SKULL.
ELEMENTS Compare the accompanying human skull with those of
brutes Those of snakes, frogs, turtles, alligators, etc. , slope straight
back from the nose ; that is, have almost no moral or intellectual
No. 17. SNAKE. No. 18. TUBTLE.
organs ; tigers, dogs, lions, etc. , have a little more, yet how insignifi-
cant compared with man, while monkeys are between them in these-
organs and their faculties. Here, then, is INDUCTIVE proof of Phrenol-
ogy as extensive as the whole brute -creation on the one hand, con-
trasted with the entire human family on the other.
Again, Destructiveness is located by Phrenology over the ears, so as
to render the head wide in proportion as this organ is developed.
No. 19. HYENA SIDE VIEW.
No. 20. HYENA BACK VIEW
Accordingly, all carnivorous animals should be wide-headed at the
ears ; all herbivorous, narrow. And thus they are, as seen in tigers,
AS INDICATING CHAKACTEK.
hyenas, bears, cats, foxes, ichneumons, etc. , compared with rabbits,
sheep, etc. (Cuts 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, and 30.)
No. 21. BBAB TOP VIEW. No. 22. BEAB BACK VIEW.
No. 23. SHEEP TOP VIEW. No. 24. RABBIT BIDE VIEW.
To large Destructiveness, cats, foxes, ichneumons, etc., add largo
SECRETIVE.NESS, both in character and head.
BICHETIVENES3 AND DESTRTTCTIVENES8 BOTH LARGE.
7, No. 26. ICHNEUMON BIDE VIEW. No. 27. Do.-
No. 2?. CAT BACK
NO. 29 (JAT 8IDB
VIEW. NO. SO. TlGEE TOP VIEW.
Fowls, in like manner, correspond perfectly in head and character
with the phrenological requisitions. Thus, owls, hawks, eagles, etc.,
have very wide heads, and ferocious dispositions ; while hens, turkeys,
etc., have narrow heads, and little Destructiveness in character. (Cuts
31, 32, 33, and 34.)
No. 31. OWL. No. 82. HAWK. , No. 33. HEN. No. 84. CBOW.
The crow (cut 34) has very large Secretiveness and Cautiousness in
the head, as it is known to have in character.
Monkeys, too, bear additional testimony to the truth of phrenolog-
ical science. They possess,
in character, strong per-
ceptive powers, but weak
reflect! ves, powerful pro- ,
pensities, and feeble moral
I elements. Accordingly,
they are full over the
No. 35. OEANG-OUTANQ. eyes, but slope straight
back at the reasoning and moral faculties, while the propensities engross
most of their brain.
The OEANG-OUTANG has more forehead larger intellectual organs,
both perceptive and reflective than any other animal, with some of
the moral sentiments, and accordingly is called the " half- reasoning
man," its phrenology corresponding perfectly with its character.
PERCEPTIVES 1ARGER THAN REFLECTIVES.
The various races also accord with phrenological science. Thus,
Africans generally have full perceptives, and large Tune and Language,
but retiring Causality, and accordingly are deficient in reasoning ca-
pacity, yet have excellent memories and lingual and musical powers.
Indians possess extraordinary strength of the propensities and per-
ceptives, yet have no great moral or inventive power ; and, hence,
have very wide, round, conical, and rather low heads, but are large
over the eyes.
Indian skulls can always be selected from Caucasian, just by these
developments ; while the Caucasian race is superior in reasoning power
AS INDICATING CHARACTER.
and moral elevation to all the other races, and, accordingly, .has a
higher and bolder forehead, and more elevated and elongated top-head.
No. 87. AFRICAN. No. 38. INDIAN CHIEF.
Finally, contrast the massive foreheads of all -giant-minded men-
Bacons, Franklins, Miltons, etc., with the low, retiring foreheads of
idiots. In short, every human, every brutal head, is constructed
LARGE AND SMALL INTELLECTUAL REGION.
w. No. 40. IDIOT.
throughout strictly on phrenological principles. Ransack air, earth,
and water, and not one palpable exception ever has been, ever can be,
adduced. This WHOLESALE view of this science precludes the possibil-
ity of mistake. Phrenology is therefore a PART AND PAKCEL OF NATURE
A UNIVERSAL FACT.
THE PHILOSOPHY OF PHRENOLOGY.
All truth bears upon its front unmistakable evidence of its divine
origin, in its philosophical consistency, fitness, and beauty, whereas
66 PHRENOLOGICAL CONDITIONS
all untruth is grossly and palpably deformed. All truth, also, har-
monizes with all other truth, and conflicts with all error, so that, to
ascertain what is true, and detect what is false, is perfectly easy.
Apply this test, intellectual reader, to one after another of the doc-
trines taught by Phrenology. But enough on this point of proofs.
Let us proceed to its illustration.
27.-PHRENOLOGICAL SIGNS OF CHARACTER.
The brain is not only the organ of the mind, the dome of thought,
the palace of the soul, but is equally the organ of the body, over which
it exerts an all-potent influence for good or ill, to weaken or stimu-
late, to kill or make alive. In short, the brain is the organ of the
body in general, and of all its organs in particular. It sends forth
those nerves which keep muscles, liver, bowels, and all the other bod-
ily organs, in a high or low state of action ; and, more than all other
causes, invites or repels disease, prolongs or shortens life, and treats
the body as its galley-slave. Hence, healthy cerebral action is indis-
pensable to bodily health, while a longing, pining, dissatisfied, fretful,
or troubled state of mind is most destructive of health, and productive
of disease ; so is violence in any and all the passions ; indeed, the
state of the mind has mainly to do with that of the health. Even
dyspepsia is more a mental than physical condition, and to be cured
first and mainly by banishing that agitated, flashy, eager, craving
state of mind, and securing instead a calm, quiet, let-the-world-slide
state ; nor will any physical appliances avail much without this men-
tal restorative. Hence, too, we walk or work so much more easily
and efficiently when we take an interest in what we do. Therefore,
those who would be happy or talented must first and mainly keep
their BRAIN vigorous and healthy 3 .
The brain is subdivided into two hemispheres, the right and left, by
the falciform process of the dura mater a membrane which dips down
one to two inches into the brain, and runs from the root of the nose
over to the nape of the neck. This arrangement renders all the
phrenological organs DOUBLE. Thus, as there are two eyes, ears, etc.,
so that when one is diseased, the other can carry forward the functions,
so there are two lobes to each phrenological organ, one on each side.
The brain is divided thus : the feelings occupy that portion commonly
covered by the hair, while the forehead is occupied by the intellectual
organs. These greater divisions are subdivided into the animal brain,
located between and around the ears ; the aspiring faculties, which
occupy the crown of the head ; the moral and religious sentiments,
which occupy its top ; the physico-perceptives, located over the eyes ;
and the reflectives, in the Tipper portion of the forehead. The pre-
dominance of these respective groups produces both particular shapes
AS INDICATING CHARACTER. 67
of head and corresponding traits of character. Thus, the head pro-
jecting far back behind the ears, and hanging over and downward in
the occipital rjpi, indicates very strong domestic ties and social
affections, a lov^f home, its relations and endearments, and a corre-
sponding capacity of being happy in the family, and making family
happy. Very wide and round heads, on the contrary, indicate strong
animal and selfish propensities, while thin, narrow heads indicate a
corresponding want of selfishness and animality. A head projecting
far up at the crown indicates an aspiring, self-elevating disposition,
proudness of character, and a desire to be and to do something great ;
while the flattened crown indicates a want of ambition, energy, and
aspiration. A head high, long, and wide upon the top, but narrow
between the ears, indicates Causality, moral virtue, much practical
goodness, and a corresponding elevation of character ; while a low
and narrow top-head indicates a corresponding deficiency of these
humane and religious susceptibilities. A head wide at the upper part
Of the temples indicates a corresponding desire for personal perfection,
together with a love of the beautiful and refined, while narrowness in
this region evinces a want of taste, with much coarseness of feeling.
Fullness over the eyes indicates excellent practical judgment of mat-
ters and things appertaining to property, science, and nature in gen-
eral ; while narrow, straight eyebrows indicate poor practical judgment
of matter, things, their qualities, relations, and uses. Fullness from
the root of the nose upward indicates great practical talent, love of
knowledge, desire to see, and ability to do the right thing at the right
time, and in the best way, together with sprightliuess of mind ; while
a hollow in the middle of the forehead indicates want of memory, and
inability to show off to advantage. A bold, high forehead indicates
strong reasoning capabilities, while a retiring forehead indicates less
soundness, but more availability of talent. And thus of other cere-
23. THE NATURAL LANGUAGE OF THE FACULTIES.
Phrenology teaches that every faculty, when active, throws head
and body hi the direction of the acting organ. Thus, intellect, in the
fore part of the head, throws it directly forward, and produces a for-
ward hanging motion of the head. Hence, intellectual men never
carry their heads backward and upward, but always forward ; and
logical speakers move their heads in a straight line, usually forward,
toward their audience ; while vain speakers carry their heads back-
ward. Hence it is not a good sign to stand so straight as to lean
backward, for it shows that the brain is in the wrong plarf more in
the animal than intellectual region. Perceptive intellect, when active,
throws' out the chin and lower portions of the face ; whil rfiflfictive
intellect causes the upper portion of the forehead to hang forward,
and draws in the chin, as in the engravings of Frai^^n, Webster, and
other great thinkers. Benevolence throws the hesBpid body slightly
forward, leaning toward the object which excites its sympathy ; while
Veneration causes a low bow, which, the world over, is a token of
respect ; yet, when Veneration is exercised toward the Deity, as in
devout prayer, it throws the head UPWARD ; and, as we use intellect
at the same time, the head is generally directed forward.
He who meets you with a long, low bow thinks more of you than
of himself; but he who greets you with a short, quick bow who
makes half a bow forward, but a bow and a half backward thinks
one of you, and one and a half of himself. Ideality throws the head
slightly forward and to one side, as in Washington Irving, a man as
'o. 41. WASHINGTON IBVING.
gifted in taste and imagination as almost any living writer ; and, in
his portraits, his finger rests upon this faculty, while in Sterne the
finger rests upon Mirthfulness. Very firm men stand straight up and
down, inclining not a hair's breadth forward or backward, or to the
right or left; hence the expression, "He is an up-and-down man."
And this organ is located exactly on a line with the body. Self- Esteem,
A3 INDICATING CHAItAOTEE. 69
located in the back and upper portion of the head, throws the head
and body upwarjj and backward. Large feeling, pompous persona
walk in a very dignified, majestic manner, and throw their heads in
the direction of Self-Esteem ; whilo approbative persons throw their
heads backward, but to
one side or both. The
difference between the
natural language of
these two organs being
slight, only the practical
phrenologist can per-
fectly distinguish them.
A coxcomb once ask-
ing a philosopher,
" What makes you hang
your head down so ?. why
don't you hold it up,
and look as I do ?" Avas
answered : " Look at
that field of wheat!
No. 4>.-A CONCEITED SIMPLETON. The heads that are well
filled bend downward, but those that stand up straight are empty."
There is, moreover, a natural language of money loving, a leaning
forward and turning, which carries the head to one side, as if in ardent
pursuit of something, and ready to grasp it with outstretched arms ;
while Alimentiveness, situated lower, hugs itself down to the
dainty dish with the greediness of an epicure, better seen than
described. The shake of the head is the natural language of Combat-
iveness, and means no, or, I resist you. Those who are combating
earnestly shake the head more or less violently, according to the
power of the combative feeling, but always shake it slightly inclining
backward; while Destructiveness, inclining forward, causes a shaking
of the head slightly forward, and turning to one side. When a per-
son who threatens you shakes his head violently, and holds it par-
tially backward, and to one side, never fear he is only barking ; but
whoever inclines his head to one side, and shakes it violently, will
bite, whether possessed of two legs or four. The social affections arc
located in the back part of the head ; and, accordingly, woman being
more loving than man, when not under the influence of the other
faculties, usually inclines her head backward ; and when she kisses
children, and those she loves, always turns the head directly backward,
and rolls it from side to side, on the back of the neck. Thus it is that
each of the various postures assumed by individuals expresses the
present or permanent activity of their respective faculties.
70 THE PHRENOLOGICAL yACULTIES,
THE PHRENOLOGICAL FACULTIES, THEIR ANALYSIS, AND
BUT the highest evidence, most conclusive to a thinking mind, that
Phrenology is true, is this : Whatever is true bears indisputable evi-
dence of its divine origin, in its infinite perfection ; while that which is
human is imperfect. If, therefore, Phrenology is true, every part and
parcel of it will be perfection itself in its facts, its philosophies, its
teachings. And that proposed analysis of the phrenological faculties
to which we now proceed will so expound its internal workings as to
show whether it is or is not thus perfect or imperfect true or false.
Its perfection is seen especially in these three aspects :
First, the grouping and location of its organs. Throughout all
nature, the place of every organ serves to facilitate its function. Thus,
foot, eye, heart, each bone and organ, can fulfill its office better,
placed where it is, than if placed anywhere else. And if Phrenology
is true, each of the phrenological organs will be so located, both
absolutely and as regards the others, that their position shall aid the
end they subserve. And their being thus placed furnishes additional
proof that Phrenology is divine.
Though the phrenological organs were discovered, some in one cen-
tury and continent, and others in another, yet on casting the analytical
eye over them all, we find them seZ/- classified by their geographical
position in the head. When on first taking a general survey of the
phrenological organs, thinking to improve the classification somewhat,
I adopted this rule, beginning at the lowest posterior organs in the
head, and classifying them in accordance with the geographical position
upward and forward in the head ; and have seen since no chance to
improve on this general principle.
And what is more, all those organs are in groups whose faculties
perform analogous functions. Thus, all the social affections are
grouped in one portion of the head the back and lower ; and their
position is beneath and below all, just as their function is basilar, yet
comparatively unseen. Neither do these organs obtrude themselves
on our vision ; nor do we stand on the corners of the streets to pro-
claim how much we love husband, wife, children, or friends. So the
THEIR ANALYSIS AND CLASSIFICATION.
animal organs are placed at the top of the spinal column and base of
the brain, or just where the nerves from the various portions of the
body ramify on the brain. Now the office of these organs is to carry
forward the various bodily wants. This, nature fulfills, by placing
them right at the head of those nerves which enable them to commu-
nicate with the body in the most perfect manner possible. So the
organs in the top of the head, being the highest of all, fulfill the most
exalted functions of all. By a law of structure, as we rise from the
sole of the foot to the crown of the head, at every inch of our ascend-
ing progress we meet with functions more and more important as their
organs are located still higher up. Feet, located lowest of all, perform
the menial services of all ; while the organs in the lower part of the
body proper, higher in position, are also higher in function ; for
whereas we can live without feet, convenient though they be, yet we
can not live long without the visceral organs. Yet longer and better
without these than heart or lungs, which, located highest of all in the
body proper, fulfill its most important functions, their suspension
causing simultaneous death. But even these perform functions less
elevated than head, which, located highest of all, fulfills the crowning
function of all MIND : that for which the entire body, as well as uni-
versal nature, was created. And we might therefore infer that the
various parts of this brain would fulfill functions more important,
according to their position upward from the base to the top. And so
it is. For while the animal and social organs are to man what founda-
tions are to house absolutely indispensable, yet that there is a
higher quality or grade to man's moral faculties than animal to those
which ally him to angels and to God, than to matter, to immortality
than mortality is but the common sentiment of mankind. Is not
the good man higher in the human scale than those of powerful ani-
mal functions ? Are not those great intellectually greater than those
great animally? The talented above the rich? or reason above
acquisitiveness ? Does not the philosophy involved in this position of
the respective organs both absolutely, and as regards each other,
evince a divine hand in its construction ?
Secondly. Equally philosophical and perfect is the analysis of the
phrenological faculties, considered both in reference to man's necessary
life-requisitions, and as regards universal nature. Man, having a
material department to his nature, must needs be linked to matter,
and possessed of all its properties. He is so. Then might we not
expect some department of his nature to inter-relate him to each prop-
erty of matter ? These phrenological faculties furnish that relation.
And it so is that each phrenological faculty is adapted and adapts man
to some great element in matter and arrangement in nature, as also to
some special want or requisition of his being. Thus appetite relates
72 THE PHRENOLOGICAL FACULTIES,
trim to his need of food, and to that department of nature which sup-
plies this food, or to her dietetic productions. Causality adapts him
to nature's arrangements of cause and effect ; Comparison, to her
classifications ; Form, to her configurations 10 ; Ideality, to the beauti-
ful ; and in like manner each of the other faculties adapt him to some
institute of nature. And to point out this adaptation furnishes the
finest explanation of the faculties to be found, as well as the strongest
proof that "the hand that formed them is divine." That is, Parental
Love is adapted, and adapts man to, the infantile and parental rela-
tions. Nature must needs provide for the rearing of every individual
child ; and this she effects by creating in all parents vegetable, ani-
mal, human the parental sentiment, or loye of their mm young,
particularly as infants, thus specifying what adult shall care for each
particular child, thus absolutely providing for the rearing of all.
Hence, whatever concerns the relations of parents to their children
conies under this faculty ; and its correct analysis unfolds whatever
concerns parents and their children. So Constructivencss adapts man
to his need of clothes, houses, and materials for creature comforts,
and is adapted to nature's mechanical institutes. And each of the
other phrenological organs has a like adaptation to some great fact or
provision in the economy of things.
And what is more yet, each phrenological faculty is found to run
throughout all animal, all vegetable life, and to be an inherent prop-
erty of things of nature, of matter. Thus, the phrenological faculty
of Firmness expresses a principle which runs throughout every phase
of nature, as seen in the stability of all her operations the perpetual
return of her seasons, the immutability of her laws, the stability of
her mountains, the uniformity and reliability or firmness of all her
operations. Time, too, expresses a natural institute. For it not only
appertains to man and all his habits the natural period of his life
included but all plants are timed, observe each its own times and
seasons. Each seed, fruit, animal, everything has its time. Some
things begin and end their lives, as it were, in a day others a year ;
while the cedars of Lebanon or California live through many centuries.
But even they have their germination, adolescence, maturity, decline,
death, and decay. Given fruits ripen each at its given season ; and
even 'flowers and vegetables, transplanted from a southern to a north-
ern latitude, keep up their periodical function in spite of opposite sea-
sons. Has not every rock, even, its age ? that is, a time clement
appertaining to the earth, and every one of its productions and their
functions, as well as to every star is a universal institute of nature.
So is Order. For are not eye, foot, heart, spine, always in their re-
pective places? And so of bark, root, limb, fruit, every organ of
every animal and vegetable that is, method is quite as^nuch an ele-
THEIR ANALYSIS AND CLASSIFICATION. 73
ment of universal nature as of man. Color is equally universal.
So is Form. And is not conscientiousness in nature's arrangement
that, all her laws obeyed, reward violated, punish ? A tree injured
inflicts punishment by withholding its fruit. And every wrong done
to man, animal, or thing becomes its own avenger, while every right
embodies its own reward, showing that the entity we call conscien-"
tiousness is a universal" institute, not of man alone, but of every phase
of life and function of nature. And so of all the other faculties.
Thirdly. Phrenology teaches the true philosophy of life. It unfolds
the original constitution of man. That constitution was right was as
perfect even as its divine Author could render it. And in pointing
out the original constitution of humanity, Phrenology shows who
departs therefrom, and wherein. That is, by giving a beau ideal of
human perfection, it teaches one and all, individuals and communities,
wherein and how far they conform to, and depart from, this perfect
human type, and thereby becomes the great reformer. And as far as
individuals and communities live in accordance with its requisitions,
they live perfect lives. That is, each of its faculties has a normal
action. That normal action fulfilled is perfection. Has also an abnor-
mal, which is imperfection. And in teaching us both their normal
and abnormal, it thereby teaches us just how to live, even in details ;
and thereby settles all questions in morals, in ethics, in deal between
man and man, in every possible phase and aspect of life, down to its
minutest details and requisitions, thereby becoming the great law-
giver of humanity.
But to follow out these grand first principles would unduly enlarge
our volume. Having stated them, the reader, curious to follow them
up, will find in the American Phrenological Journal, and in works on
Phrenology, these and kindred ideas amplified. Meanwhile, to pro-
ceed with the phrenological organs, their groups, and individual
THE SOCIAL GROUP, OK FAMILY AFFECTIONS.
These occupy the back and lower portion of the head, causing it to
project behind the ears, and create most of the family affections and
7. Are pre-eminently attached to family and home, and enjoy them
more than any of the other pleasures of life ; love companions and
children with passionate fondness, and will do and sacrifice anything
for them ; must have a home and home joys, and pine away without
6. Love family, home, country, and the fireside relations devotedly,
and regard family as the center of most of life's pleasures or pains ;
are eminently social and companionable, and strive to make home
V4r THE PHRENOLOGICAL FACULTIES,
pleasant and family happy ; sacrificing often and much on the domestic
5.' Love and enjoy the domestic relations well, but not as life's
highest good ; and seek other things and pleasures first, though home
4. Have fair, average commonplace family ties, and do much, but
not over much, for companion, children, and friends.
3. Are rather indifferent in and to the family, and take a little,
though no great pleasure, in them ; and need to cultivate the domes-
2. Care little for home, its inmates, or pleasures, and are barren*
of its virtues.
1. Have scarcely any social ties, and they weak.
THEIB ANALYSIS AND CLASSIFICATION.
ANALYSIS AND COMBINATIONS OP THE FACULTIES.
No. 48. BCTST OF AAEON BUP.B.
o. 44. Miss MODESTY.
SEXUALITY ; the LOVE element ; attachment to the OPPOSITE
SEX ; desire to LOVE, BE loved, and MARRY.
Everything in nature is SEXED is male or female. And this sexual
institute embodies those means employed by the Author of all life for
its inception for the perpetuity and multiplication of the race, of all
forms of life. It creates in each sex admiration and love of the other ;
renders woman winning, persuasive, urbane, affectionate, loving, and
lovely ; and develops all the feminine charms and graces ; and makes
man noble in feeling and bearing ; elevated in aspiration ; gallant,
tender, and bland in manner ; affectionate toward woman ; pure in
feeling ; highly susceptible to female charms ; and clothes him with
that dignity, power, and persuasiveness which accompanies the mascu-
line. Perverted, it occasions grossness and vulgarity in expression and
action ; licentiousness in all its forms ; a feverish state of mind ; de-
praves all the other propensities ; treats the other sex merely as a
minister to passion now caressing, and now abusing them ; and ren-
ders the love-feeling every way gross and animal.
VERY LARGE. Are admirably sexed, or well-nigh perfect as a male
or female ; literally idolize, almost worship, the opposite sex ; treat
them with the utmost consideration ; cherish for them the most exalted
feelings of regard and esteem, as if they were superior beings ; have
the instincts the true spirit and tone of the male or female in a
pre-eminent degree ; must love and be beloved, and with inexpressible
tenderness ; are sure to elicit and return love ; are winning, attractive
to, and attracted by, the other sex ; and that by instinct, in behavior,
in conversation, in all they say and do ; with organic quality 6, and
the other social organs large, have the conjugal intuition in a pre-emi-
nent degree ; assimilate and conform to those loved, and become per-
fectly united ; and with Conjugality large, manifest the most clinging
fondness and utmost devotion^ and are made or unmade for life by the
state of the affections. For other combinations, see large.
LARGE. Are well sexed, or very much of a man or woman ; that is,
have the form, carriage, spirit, manners, and mind of the true man
or woman In a high degree ; are eminently both loving and lovely ;
are full of love, and with Conjugality large, of the real conjugal sen-
timent and intuition ; strongly attract, and are strongly attracted by,
the opposite sex ; admire and love their beauty and excellences ; easily
win their affectionate regards, or kindle their love ; have many warm
friends, if not admirers, among them ; love young and most intensely,
and are powerfully influenced by the love elements for good or evil,
according as it is well or ill placed ; with Adhesiveness and Conjugal-
ity large, will mingle pure friendship with devoted love ; can not
flourish alone, but must have a matrimonial mate, with whom to be-
come perfectly identified, and whom to invest with almost superhuman
perfections, by magnifying their charms and overlooking their defects ;
in the sunshine of whose love be perfectly happy, but proportionally
miserable without it ; with large Ideality and the mental tempera-
ment added, will experience a fervor and intensity of love, amounting
almost to ecstasy or romance ; can marry those only who combine
refinement of manners with correspondingly strong attachments ; with
Parental Love and Benevolence also large, are eminently qualified to
enjoy the domestic relations, and be happy in home, as well as render
home happy ; with Inhabitiveness also large, will set a high value on
house and place ; long to return home when absent, and consider fam-
ily and children as the greatest of life's treasures; with large Con-
scientiousness added, will keep the marriage relations inviolate, and
regard unfaithfulness as the greatest of sins ; with Combativeness
large, will defend the object of love with great spirit, and resent
powerfully any indignity offered them ; with Alimentiveness large,
will enjoy eating with the family dearly ; with Approbativeness large,
can not endure to be blamed by those beloved ; with Cautiousness and
Secretiveness large, will express love guardedly, and much less than
is experienced ; but with Secretiveness small, will show in every look
and action the full, unvailed feeling of the soul ; with Firmness, Self-
Esteeni, and Conjugality large, will sustain interrupted love with for-
titude, yet suffer much damage of mind and health therefrom ; but
with Self-Esteem moderate, will feel crushed and broken down by
disappointment ; with the moral faculties predominant, can love those
only whose moral tone is pure and elevated ; with predominant Ideal-
ity, and only average intellectual faculties, will prefer those who are
showy and gay to those who are sensible, yet less beautiful ; but with
Ideality less than the intellectual and moral organs, will prefer those
who are substantial and valuable rather than showy ; with Mirthful-
ness, Time, and Tune, will love dancing, lively company, etc. : p. 57.
FULL. Possess quite strong susceptibilities of love for a congenial
spirit ; are capable of much purity, intensity, and cordiality of love ;
with Adhesiveness and Benevolence large, will be kind and affec-
tionate in the family ; with Secretiveness large, will manifest less
love than is felt, and show little in promiscuous society ; with a
highly susceptible temperament, will experience great intensity of
love, and evince a good degree of masculine or feminine excellence,
etc. : p. 59.
AVERAGE. Are capable of fair sexual attachments, and calculated
to feel and exhibit a good degree of love, provided it is properly placed
and fully called out ; experience a greater or less degree of love in
proportion to its activity ; as a man, are quite attached to mothers
and sisters, and fond of female society, and endowed with a fair share
of the masculine element, yet not remarkable for its perfection ; as a
woman, quite whining and attractive, yet not particularly susceptibl
to love ; as a daughter, fond of father and brothers, and desirous of
the society of men, yet not extremely so ; and capable of a fair share
of conjugal devotedness under favorable circumstances ; combined
with an ardent temperament, and large Adhesiveness and Ideality,
have a pure and platonic cast of love, yet can not assimilate with a
coarse temperament, or a dissimilar phrenology ; are refined and faith-
ful, yet have more friendship than passion ; can love those only who
are just to the liking ; with Cautiousness and Secretiveness large, will
express less love than is felt, and that equivocally, and by piecemeal,
nor then till the loved one is fully committed ; with Cautiousness,
Approbativeness, and Veneration large, and Self-Esteem small, are
diffident in promiscuous society, yet enjoy the company of a select few
of the opposite sex ; with Adhesiveness, Benevolence, and Conscien-
tiousness large, and Self-Esteem small, are kind and affectionate in
the family, yet not particularly fond of caressing or being caressed ;
and do much to make family happy, yet will manifest no great fond-
ness and tenderness ; with Order, Approbativencss, and Ideality large,
seek in a companion personal neatness and polish of manners ; with
full intellectual and moral faculties, base their conjugal attachments
in the higher qualities of the affections, rather than their personal
attractiveness or strength of passion ; but with a commonplace tem-
perament, and not so fall moral and intellectual faculties, are indiffer-
ent toward the opposite sex, and rather cool toward them in manners
and conversation ; neither attract nor are attracted much, and are
rather tame in love and marriage, and can live tolerably comfortably
without loving or being beloved, etc. : 56.
MODERATE. Will be rather deficient, though not palpably so, in the
love element, and averse to the other sex ; and love their mental
excellences more than personal charms ; show little desire to caress
or be caressed; and find it difficult to sympathize with a conjugal
partner, unless the natural harmony between both is well-nigh per-
fect ; care less for marriage, and can live unmarried without inconve-
nience ; with Conjugality large, can love but once, and should marry
only the first love, because the love-principle will not be sufficiently
strong to overcome the difficulties incident to its transfer, or the want
of congeniality, and find more pleasure in other things than in the
matrimonial relations ; with an excitable temperament, will experi-
ence greater warmth and ardor than depth and uniformity of love ;
with Ideality large and organic quality 6, are fastidious and over-mod-
est, and terribly shocked by allusions to love ; pronounce love a silly
farce, only fit for crack-brained poets ; with Approbativeness large,
will soon become alienated by rebukes and fault-finding ; with Adhe-
siveness and the moral and intellectual faculties large, can become
strongly attached to those who are highly moral and intellectual, yet
experience no affinity for any other, and to be happy in marriage,
must base it in the higher faculties : p. 59.
SMALL. Dislike the opposite sex, and distrust and refuse to assimi-
late with them ; feel little sexual love, or desire to marry ; are cold,
coy, distant, and reserved toward the other sex ; experience but little
of the beautifying and elevating influence of love, and should not
marry, because incapable of appreciating its relations, and making a
companion happy : p. 59.
VERY SMALL. Are passively continent, and almost destitute of
love : p. CO.
To CULTIVATE. Mingle much in the society of the c ther sex ; ob-
serve and appreciate their excellences, and overlook their faults ; be
as gallant, as gentlemanly or lady-like, as inviting, as prepossessing,
as lively and entertaining in their society as you know how to be, and
always on the alert to please them ; say as many complimentary and
pretty things, and as few disagreeable things, as possible ; that is, feel
and play the agreeable ; if not married, contemplate its advantages
and pleasures, and be preparing to enjoy them ; if married, get up a
second and an improved edition of courtship ; re-enamor both your-
self and conjugal partner, by becoming just as courteous, loving, and
lovely as possible ; luxuriate in the company and conversation of those
well sexed, and yield to drink in their inspiriting influence ; be less
fastidious, and more free and communicative ; establish a warm, cor-
dial intimacy and friendship for them, and feast yourself on their mas-
culine or feminine excellences ; if not married, marry, and cultivate
the feelings, as well as live the life of a right and a hearty sexuality.
To RESTRAIN. Simply direct this love element more to the mental,
and less to the personal qualities of the other sex ; admire and love
them more for their minds than bodies, more for their moral purity
and conversational powers than instruments of passion ; seek the soci-
ety of the virtuous and good, but avoid that of the vulgar ; should
mingle in their society but 'to derive moral elevation and inspiration
therefrom, not to feed the fires of passion ; to be made better and
yield to their molding influences for good ; should be content to
commune with their spirits ; should sanctify and elevate the cast and
tone of love, and banish its baser forms ; especially should lead a right
physiological life avoid tea and meats, and abstain wholly from cofiee,
tobacco, and all forms and degrees of alcoholic drinks, wines and
beer included; exercise much in the open air; abstain wholly from
carnal indulgence ; work off your vital force on other functions as a
relief of this ; bathe daily ; eat sparingly ; study and commune with
nature; cultivate the pure, the intellectual, the moral as the best
means of rising above the passional, and put yourself on a high human
plane throughout. Remember these two things first, that you require
its purification, elevation, and right direction rather than restraint,
because it is more perverted than excessive it can not be too great if
rightly exercised and secondly, that the inflamed state of the body
irritates and perverts this passion, of which a cooling regimen is a
Bpecific antidote- 218.
MONOGAMY ; UNION FOR LIFE ; FIRST love ; the PAIRING
instinct ; attachment to ONE conjugal partner ; duality and ex-
clusiveness of love. Perverted action a broken heart ;
jealousy; envy toward love rivals. Located between Aina-
tiveness and Adhesiveness and adapted to parents living with
and educating all their own children in the same family.
Some birds, such as doves, eagles, geese, robins, etc., pair,
and remain true to their connubial attachment ; while hens,
turkeys, sheep, horses, and neat cattle associate promiscu-
ously, which shows this to be a faculty distinct from Amative-
ness and Adhesiveness.
VERT LARGE. Select gome ONE of the opposite sex as the sole object
of love ; concentrate the whole soul on the single one beloved ; mag-
nifying excellences and overlooking faults; long to be always with
that one ; are exclusive, and require a like exclusiveness ; are true and
faithful in wedlock, if married in spirit ; possess the element of conju-
gal union, of flowing together of soul, in the highest degree, and
with Continuity 6, become broken-hearted when disappointed, and
comparatively worthless in this world ; seek death rather than life ;
regard this union as the gem of life, and its loss as worse than death ;
and should manifest the utmost care to bestow itself only where it
can be reciprocated for life.
LARGE. Seek one, and but one, sexual mate ; experience the keen-
est disappointment when love is interrupted ; are restless until the.
affections are anchored ; are perfectly satisfied with the society of that
one ; and should exert every faculty to win the heart and hand of the
one beloved ; nor allow anything to alienate the affections.
FULL. Can love cordially, yet are capable of changing their object,
especially if Continuity is moderate ; will love for life, provided cir-
cumstances are favorable, yet will not bear everything from a lover
or companion, and if one love is interrupted can readily form, another.
AVERAGE. Are disposed to love but one for life, yet capable of
changing their object, and, with Secretiveness and Approbativeness
large, and Conscientiousness only full, are capable of coquetry, espe-
cially if Amativeness is large, and Adhesiveness only full, and the
temperament more powerful than fine-grained ; such should cultivate
this faculty, and not allow their other faculties to break their first
MODERATE. Are somewhat disposed to love only one, yet allow
other stronger faculties to interrupt that love, and, with Amativeness
large, can form one attachment after another with comparative ease,
yet are not true as a lover, nor faithful to the connubial union.
SMALL. Have but little conjugal love, and seek the promiscuous
society and affection of the opposite sex, rather than a single partner
VERT SMALL. Manifest none of this faculty, and experience little.
To CULTIVATE. Do not allow new faces to awaken new loves, but
PARENTAL LOVE. 81
cling to the first one, and cherish its associations and reminiscences ;
do not allow the affections to wander, but be much in the company of
the one already beloved, and both open your heart to love the charms,
and keep up those thousand little attentions calculated to revive and
perpetuate conjugal love : 230.
To EESTKAIN. Try to appreciate the excellences of others than the
first love, remembering that " there are as good fish in the sea as ever
were caught ;" if a first love dies or is blighted, by no means allow
yourself to pore over the bereavement, but transfer affection just as
soon as a suitable object can be found, and be industrious in finding
one, by making yourself just as acceptable and charming as possible.
Above all, do not allow a pining, sad feeling to crush you, nor allow
hatred toward the other sex: 230.
2. PARENTAL LOVE.
No. 45. THE GOOD MOTIIEB. No. 46. TIIE UNMOTHEELT.
Attachment to one's own offspring ; love of children, pets,
and animals generally, especially those young or small ;
adapted to that infantile condition in which man enters the
world, and to children's need of parental care and education.
This faculty renders children the richest treasure of their
parents, casts into the shade all the toil and expense they
cause, and lacerates them with bitter pangs when death or
distance tears them asunder. It is much larger in woman
than in man ; and nature requires mothers to take the princi-
82 PARENTAL LOVE.
pal care of infants. Perverted, it spoils children oy excessive
indulgence, pampering, and humoring.
VERY LARGE. Experience the parental feeling with the greatest
possible intensity and power ; almost idolize their own children, grieve
immeasurably over their loss, and, with large Continuity, refuse to be
comforted ; with very large Benevolence, and only moderate Destruc-
tiveness, can not bear to see them punished, and with only moderate
Causality, are liable to spoil them by over-indulgence ; with large
Approbativeness added, indulge parental vanity and conceit ; with
large Cautiousness and disordered nerves, are always cautioning them,
and feel a world of groundless apprehensions about them ; with
Acquisitiveness moderate, make them many presents, and lavish money
upon them ; but with large Acquisitiveness, lay up fortunes for them ;
with large moral and intellectual organs, are indulgent, yet love them
too well to spoil them, and do their utmost to cultivate their higher
faculties, etc. : p. 63.
LAEGE. Love their own children devotedly ; value them above all
price ; cheerfully endure toil and watching for their sake ; forbear
with their faults ; win their love ; delight to play with them, and
cheerfully sacrifice to promote their interests ; with Continuity large,
mourn long and incessantly over their loss ; with Combativeness,
Destructiveness, and Self- Esteem large, are kind, yet insist on being
obeyed ; with Self- Esteem and Destructiveness moderate, are familiar
with, and liable to be ruled by, them ; with Firmness only average,
fail to manage them with a steady hand ; with Cautiousness large,
suffer extreme anxiety if they are sick or in danger ; with large moral
and intellectual organs, and less Combativeness and Destructiveness,
govern them more by moral suasion than physical force by reason
than fear ; are neither too strict nor over-indulgent ; with Approba-
tiveness large, value their moral character as of the utmost importance ;
with Veneration and Conscientiousness large, are particularly inter-
ested in their moral improvement ; with large excitability, Combat-
iveness, and Destructiveness, and only average Firmness, will be, by
turns, too indulgent, and over-provoked will pet them one minute,
but punish them the next ; with larger Approbativeness and Ideality
than intellect, will educate them more for show than usefulness
more fashionably than substantially and dress them off in the extreme
of fashion ; with a large and active brain, large moral and intellectual
faculties, and Firmness, and only full Combativeness, Destructiveness,
and Self-Esteem, are well calculated to teach and manage the young.
It renders farmers fond of stock, dogs, etc., and women fond of birds,
lap-dogs, etc. ; girls fond of dolls, and boys of being among horses and
cattle ; and creates a general interest in young and small animals : 62.
FKIEXDSHIP. . 83
FULL. Love their own children well, yet not passionately do much
for them, yet not more than necessary and with large Combativeness,
Destructiveness, and Self-Esteem, are too severe, and make too little
allowance for their faults ; but with Benevolence, Adhesiveness, and
Conscientiousness large, do and sacrifice much to supply their wants
and render them happy. Its character, however, will be mainly
determined by its combinations : p. 63.
AVERAGE. Love their own children tolerably well, yet care but
little for those of others ; with large Adhesiveness and Benevolence,
like them better as they grow older, yet do and care little for infants
are not duly tender to them, or forbearing toward their faults, and
should cultivate parental fondness, especially if Combativeness,
Destructiveness, and Self-Esteem are large : p. 61.
MODERATE. Are not fond enough of children ; can not bear much
from them ; fail to please or take good care of them, particularly of
infants ; can not endure to hear them cry, or make a noise, or disturb
things ; and with an excitable temperament, and large Combativeness,
are liable to punish them for trifling offenses, find much fault with
them, and be sometimes cruel ; yet, with Benevolence and Adhesive-
ness large, may do what is necessary for their comfort : p. 64.
SMALL. Care little for their own children, and still less for those
of others; and with Combativeness and Destructiveness large, are
liable to treat them unkindly and harshly, and are utterly unqualified
to have charge of them : p. 64.
VERY SMALL. Have little or no parental love or regard for children,
but conduct toward them as the other faculties dictate : p. 64.
To CULTIVATE. Play with and make much of children ; try to ap-
preciate their loveliness and innocence, and be patient and tender and
indulgent toward them; and if you have no own children, adopt
some, or provide something to pet and fondle : 221.
To RESTRAIN. Set judgment over against affection; rear them
intellectually ; give yourself less anxiety about them, and if a child
dies, by all means turn your mind from that loss by seeking some
powerful diversion, and a change of_associations, removing clothes
and all remembrances, and keep from talking or thinking about them.
Social feeling ; love of society ; desire to congregate, asso-
ciate, visit, seek company, entertain friends, form and recipro-
cate attachments, and indulge the friendly feelings. When
perverted it forms attachments for the unworthy, and leads to
bad company. Adapted to man's requisition for concert of
action, copartnership, combination, and community of feeling
and interest, and is a leading element of his social relations.
VERT LARGE. Love friends with the utmost tenderness and intens-
ity, and will sacrifice almost anything for their sake ; with Amative-
ness large, are susceptible of the highest order of conjugal love, yet
base that love primarily in friendship; with Combativeness and
Destructiveness large, defend friends with great spirit, and resent and
retaliate their injuries; with Self-Esteem moderate, take character
from associates ; with Acquisitiveness moderate, allow friends the free
use of their purse ; but with Acquisitiveness large, will do more than
give ; with Benevolence and Approbativeness moderate, and Acquisi-
tiveness only full, will spend money freely for social gratification;
with Self-Esteem and Combativeness large, must be first or nothing ;
but with only average Combativeness, Destructiveness, and Self-
Esteem, large Approbativeness, Benevolence, Conscientiousness, Ideal-
ity, Marvelousness, and reasoning organs, will have many friends, and
but few enemies be amiable and universally beloved; with large
Eventuality and Language, will remember, with vivid emotions, by-
gone scenes of social cheer and friendly converse ; with large reason-
ing organs, will give good advice to friends, and lay excellent plans
for them ; with smaller Secret! veness and large moral organs, will not
believe ill of them, and dread the interruption of friendship as the
greatest of calamities ; willingly make any sacrifice required by friend-
ship, and evince a perpetual flow of that commingling of soul, and
desire to become one with others, which this faculty inspires : p. 65.
LARGE. Are warm, cordial, and ardent as friends ; readily form
friendships, and attract friendly regards in return ; must have society
of some kind ; with Benevolence large, are hospitable, and delight to
entertain friends ; with Alimentiveness large, love the social banquet,
and set the best before friends ; with Approbativeness large, set the
world by their commendation, but are terribly cut by their rebukes ;
with the moral faculties large, seek the society of the moral and ele-
vated, and can enjoy the friendship of no others ; with the intellectual
faculties large, seek the society of the intelligent ; with Language
large, and Secretiveness small, talk freely in company ; and with
Mirthfulness and Ideality also large, are full of fun, and give a lively,
jocose turn to conversation, yet are elevated and refined ; with Self-
Esteem large, lead off in company, and give tone and character to
others; but with Self-Esteem small, receive character from friends,
and with Imitation large, are liable to copy their faults as well as vir-
tues ; with Cautiousness, Secretiveness, and Approbativeness large, are
apt to be jealous of regards bestowed upon others, and exclusive in
the choice of friends having a few select, rather than many common-
place ; with large Causality and Comparison, love philosophical con-
versation, literary societies, etc., and are every way sociable and com-
panionable' : p. 65.
FULL. Make a sociable, companionable, warm-hearted friend, who
will sacrifice much on the altar of friendship, yet offer up friendship
on the altar of the stronger passions; with large or very large Com-
bativeness, Destructiveness, Self-Esteem, Approbativeness, and Ac-
quisitiveness, will serve self first, and friends afterward ; form attach-
ments, and break them, when they conflict with the stronger faculties ;
with large Secretiveness and moderate Conscientiousness, will be
double-faced, and profess more friendship than possess ; with Benevo-
lence large, will cheerfully aid friends, yet it will be more from sym-
pathy than affection ; will have a few warm friends, yet only few, but
perhaps many speaking acquaintances ; and with the higher faculties
generally large, will be a true, good friend, yet by no means enthusi-
astic; many of the combinations under Adhesiveness large, apply to
it when full, allowance being made for its diminished power : p. 66.
AVERAGE. Are capable of tolerably strong friendships, yet their
character is determined by the larger faculties; enjoy present friends,
yet sustain their absence ; with large Acquisitiveness, place business
before friends, and sacrifice them whenever they conflict with money-
making; with Benevolence large, are more kind than affectionate,
relish friends, yet sacrifice no great for their sake ; with Amativeness
large, love the person of the other sex more than their minds, and
experience less conjugal love than animal passion ; with Approbative-
ness large, break friendship when ridiculed or rebuked, and with
Secretiveness large, and Conscientiousness only average, can not be
trusted as friends : p. 64.
MODERATE. Love society somewhat, and form a few, but only few,
attachments, and these only partial ; may have many speaking acquaint-
ances, but few intimate friends ; with large Combativeness and Destruc-
tiveness, are easily offended with friends, and seldom retain them long ;
with large Benevolence, will bestow services, and with moderate
Acquisitiveness, money, more readily than affection ; but with the
selfish faculties strong, take care of self first, and make friendship
subservient to interest : p. 67.
SMALL. Think and care little for friends ; dislike copartnership ;
are cold-hearted, unsocial, and selfish ; take little delight hi company,
but prefer to be alone ; have few friends, and with large selfish facul-
ties, many enemies, and manifest too little of this faculty to exert a
perceptible influence upon character : p. 67 .
VERY SMALL. Are perfect strangers to friendship : p. 67.
To CULTIVATE. Go more into society; associate freely with thoso
around you ; open your heart ; don't be so exclusive and distant ; keep
your room less, but go more to parties, and strive to be as companion-
able and familiar as you well can ; nor refuse to affiliate with those
not exactly to your liking, but like what you can, and overlook faults.
To RESTRAIN. Go abroad less, and be more select in choosing friends ;
besides guarding yourself against those persuasions and influences
friends are apt to exercise over you, and trust friends less, as well as
properly direct friendship by intellect : 227.
No. 47. CLAY, THE PATRIOT. No. 48. TUB KAMBLER.
The HOME feeling ; love of HOUSE, the PLACE where one
was born or has lived, and of home associations. Adapted to
man's need of an abiding place, in which to exercise the fam-
ily feelings ; patriotism. Perversion homesickness when
away from home, and needless pining after home.
VERY LARGE. Are liable to homesickness when away from home,
especially for the first time, and the more so if Parental Love and
Adhesiveness are large; will suffer almost any inconvenience, and
forego bright prospects rather than leave home ; and remain in an
inferior house or place of business rather than change. For combina-
tions, see Inhabiti veness large : p. 68.
LARGE. Have a strong desire to locate young, to have a home or
room exclusively ; leave home with great reluctance, and return with
extreme delight ; soon become attached to house, sleeping- room, gar-
den, fields, furniture, etc. ; and highly prize domestic associations ; are
not satisfied without a place on which to expend this home instinct ;
with Parental Love, Adhesiveness, Individuality, and Locality large,
will love to travel, yet be too fond of home to stay away long at a
time ; may be a cosmopolite in early life, and see much of the world,
but will afterward settle down ; with Approbativeness and Coinbative-
noss large, will defend national honor, praise own country, govern-
ment, etc., and defend both country and fireside with great spirit;
with Ideality large, will beautify home ; with Friendship large, will
delight to see friends at homo rather than abroad ; with Alimentive-
ncss large, will enjoy food at home better than elsewhere, etc. : p. 68.
FULL. Prefer to live in one place, yet willingly change it when
interest or the other faculties require it; and with large Parental
Love, Adhesiveness, and Amativeness, will think more of family and
friends than of the domicile : p. 69.
AVERAGE. Love home tolerably well, yet with no great fervor, and
change the place of abode as the other faculties may dictate ; take
some, but no great interest in house or place, as such, or pleasure in
their improvement, and are satisfied with ordinary home comforts;
with Acquisitiveness large, spend reluctantly for its improvement;
with Constructiveness moderate, take little pleasure hi building addi-
tions to home ; with Individuality and Locality large, love traveling
more than staying in one place, and are satisfied with inferior home
accommodations : p. 63.
MODERATE OR SMALL. Care little for home ; leave it without much
regret ; contemplate it with little delight ; take little pains with it ;
and with Acquisitiveness largo, spend reluctantly for its improve-
ment : p. 69.
VERY SMALL. Feel little, and show less, love of domicile as such.
To CULTIVATE. Stay more at home, and cultivate a love of home,
and its associations and joys, and the love of country : 232.
To RESTRAIN. Go from home, and banish that feeling of homesick-
ness experienced away from home.
5. CONTINUITY. .
A patient DWELLING upon one thing till it is done ; CON-
SECUTIVENESS and CONNECTEDNESS of thought and feeling.
Adapted to man's need of doing one thing at a time. Per-
version prolixity, repetition, and excessive amplification.
VERT LARGE. Fix the mind upon objects slowly, yet can not leave
them unfinished ; have great application, yet lack intensity or point ;
are tedious, prolix, and thorough in a few things, rather than an ama-
teur in many : p. 70.
LARGE. Give the whole mind to the one thing in hand till it is
finished ; complete at the time ; keep up one common train of thought,
No. 49. LABGE. No. 50. SMALL.
or current of feeling, for a long time ; are disconcerted if attention ia
directed to a second object, and can not duly consider either ; with
Adhesiveness large, pore sadly over the loss of friends for months and
years ; with the moral faculties large, are uniform and consistent in
religious exercises and character; with Combativeness and Destruc-
tiveness large, retain grudges and dislikes for a long time ; with Ideal-
ity, Comparison, and Language large, amplifyand sustain figures of
speech ; with the intellectual faculties large, con and pore over one
thing, and impart a unity and completeness to intellectual investiga-
tions ; become thorough in whatever study is commenced, and rather
postpone than commence, unless sure of completing : p. 70.
FULL. Dwell continuously upon subjects, unless especially called
to others ; prefer to finish up matters in hand, yet can, though with
difficulty, give attention to another thing ; with the business organs
large, make final settlements ; with the feelings strong, continue their
action, yet are not monotonous, etc. : p. 71.
AVERAGE. Can dwell upon things, or divert attention to others, as
occasion requires ; are not confused by interruption, yet prefer one
thing at a time ; with the intellectual organs larg % are not a smat-
terer, nor yet profound ; with the mental temperament, are clear in
style, and consecutive hi idea, yet never tedious ; with Comparison
large, manufacture expressions and ideas consecutively, and connect-
edly, and always to the point, yet never dwell unduly : p. 70.
MODERATE. Love and indulge variety and change of thought, feel-
ing, occupation, etc. ; are not confused by them ; rather lack applica-
SELFISH PROPENSITIES. 89
tion ; with a good intellectual lobe, and an active temperament, know
a little about a good many things, rather than much about any one
thing ; with an active organization, think clearly, and have unity and
intensity of thought and feeling, yet lack connectedness ; with large
Language and small Secretiveness, talk easily, but not long at a time
upon any one thing ; do better on the spur of the moment than by
previous preparation ; and should cultivate consistency of character
and fixedness of mind, by finishing all begun : p. 71.
SMALL. With activity great, commence many things, yet finish few ;
crave novelty and variety ; have many irons in the fire ; lack appli-
cation ; jump rapidly from premise to conclusion, and fail to connect
and carry out ideas; lack steadiness and consistency of character;
may be brilliant, yet can not be profound ; humming-bird like, fly
rapidly from thing to thing, but do not stay long ; have many good
thoughts, yet they are scattered ; and talk on a great variety of sub-
jects in a short time, but fail sadly in consecutiveness of feeling,
thought, and action. An illustrative anecdote. An old and faithful
servant to- a passionate, petulant master finally told him he could
endure his testiness no longer, and must leave, though with extreme
reluctance. " But," replied the master, " you know I am no sooner
angry than pleased again." "Aye, but," replied the servant, "you
are no sooner pleased than angry again :" p. 71.
VERY SMALL. Are restless, and given to perpetual change ; with
activity great, are composed of gusts and counter-gusts of passion, and
never one thing more than an instant at a time : p. 72.
To CULTIVATE. Dwell on, and pore over, till you complete the
thing in hand ; make thorough work ; and never allow your thoughts
to wander, or attention to be distracted, or indulge diversity or variety
hi anything : 234.
To RESTRAIN. Engage in what will compel you to attend to a great
many different things in quick succession, and break up that prolix,
long-winded monotony caused by an excess of this faculty : 234.
These provide for man's ANIMAL wants ; create those desires
and instincts and supply those wants which relate more espe-
cially to his animal existence and physical necessities.
VERY LARGE. Experience these animal impulses with great inten-
sity ; enjoy animal existence and pleasures with the keenest relish ;
and with great excitability or a fevered state of body, are strongly
predisposed to sensual gratification and sinful desires ; yet if properly
90 SELFISH PROPENSITIES.
directed, and sanctified by the higher faculties, have tremendous force
of character arid energy of mind.
LARGE. Have strong animal desires ; and that selfishness which
takes good care of number one ; are strongly attached to this world
No. 51. YANKEE totTLLiVAU. No. 52. REV. DB. BOND.
and its pleasures ; and with activity great, use vigorous exertions to
accomplish worldly and personal ends ; with the moral organs less
than the selfish, connected with bodily disease, are liable to their de-
praved and sensual manifestation ; but with the moral and intellectual
large, and a healthy organization, have great force, energy, determi-
nation, and that efficiency which accomplishes wonders.
FULL. Have a good share of energy and physical force, yet no more
than is necessary to cope with surrounding difficulties ; and, with large
moral and intellectual faculties, manifest more mental than physical
AVERAGE. Have a fair share of animal force, yet hardly enough to
grapple with life's troubles and wrongs ; with large moral and intel-
lectual faculties, have more goodness than efficiency, and enjoy quiet
more than conflict with men ; and fail to manifest what goodness and
MODERATE. Rather lack efficiency ; yield to difficulties ; want forti-
tude and determination ; fail to assert and maintain rights ; and with
large moral organs, are good-hearted, moral, etc. ; yet border on
SMALL. Accomplish little ; lack courage and force, and with large
intellectual organs, are talented, yet utterly fail to manifest that tal-
ent ; and with large moral organs, so good as to be good for nothing.
To CULTIVATE. Keep a sharp eye on your own interests ; look out
well for number one ; fend off imposition ; harden up ; don't be so
good ; and in general cultivate a burly, driving, self-caring, physical,
worldly spirit ; especially increase the physical energies by observing
the health laws, as this will re-increase these animal organs.
To RESTRAIN. First and most, obviate all causes of physical inflam-
mation and false excitement ; abstain from spirituous liquors, wines,
tobacco, mustards, spices, all heavy and rich foods ; eat lightly, and
of farinaceous rather than of flesh diet, for meat is directly calculated
to inflame the animal passions ; avoid temptation and incentives to
anger and sensuality ; especially associate only with the good, never
with those who are vulgar or vicious ; but most of all, cultivate the
higher, purer moral faculties, and aspire to the high and good ; also
cultivate love of nature's beauties and works, as the very best means
of restraining the animal passions.
TENACITY of life ; resistance to death ; love of existence
as such ; dread of annihilation ; love of life, and clinging tena-
ciously to it for its own sake.
VERY LARGE. Shrink from death, and cling to life with desperation ;
struggle with the utmost determination against disease and death ;
nor give up to die till the very last, and then by the hardest ; with
Cautiousness very large, and Hope moderate, shudder at the very
thought of dying, or being dead ; but with Hope large, expect to live
against hope and experience. The combinations are like those under
large, allowance being made for the increase of this faculty.
LARGE. Struggle resolutely through fits of sickness, and will not
give up to die till absolutely compelled to do so. With large animal
organs, cling to life on account of this world's gratifications; with
large moral organs, to do good to promote human happiness, etc. ;
with large social faculties, love life both for its own sake and to bless
family; with very large Cautiousness, dread to change the present
mode of existence, and with large and perverted Veneration and Con-
scientiousness, and small Hope, have an indescribable dread of enter-
ing upon an untried future state ; but with Hope large, and a culti-
vated intellect, expect to exist hereafter, etc.
FULL. Lore life, and cling tenaciously to it, yet not extravagantly ;
hate to die, not from the fear of being dead, but yield to disease and
death, though reluctantly.
AVERAGE. Enjoy life, and cling to it with a fair degree of earnest-
ness, yet by no means with passionate fondness ; and with a given con-
stitution and health, will die easier and sooner than with this organ
MODERATE OB SMALL. Like to live, yet care no great about exist-
ence for their own sake ; with large animal or domestic organs, may
wish to live on account of family, or business, or worldly pleasures,
yet care less about it for their own sake, and yield up existence with
little reluctance or dread.
VERY SMALL. Have no desire to live merely for the sake of living,
but only to gratify other faculties.
To CULTIVATE. Think on the value of life, and plan things to be
done and pleasures to be enjoyed that are worthy to live for: 236.
To RESTRAIN. Guard against a morbid love of life, or dread of
death. Kegard death as much as possible as a natural institution, and
this life as the pupilage for a better state of being : 237.
No. 63. LARGE. No. 54 SMALL.
RESISTANCE ; OPPOSITION ; DEFENSE ; DEFIANCE ; BOLDNESS ;
COURAGE ; SPIRIT ; DESIRE TO ENCOUNTER ; SELF-PROTECTION ;
PRESENCE OF MIND ; DETERMINATION ; GET-OUT-OF-MY-WAY ;
LET-ME-AND-MINE-ALONE. Adapted to man's requisition for
overcoming obstacles, contending for rights, etc. Perversion
anger ; contrariety ; fault-finding ; contention ; ill-nature ;
VERY LARGE. Show always and everywhere the utmost heroism,
boldness, and courage ; can face the cannon's mouth coolly, and stare
death in the face without flinching ; put forth remarkable efforts in
order to carry measures ; grapple right in with difficulties with a real
relish, and dash through them as if mere trifles ; love pioneer, adven-
turous, even hazardous expeditions ; shrink from no danger ; are ap-
palled by no hardships ; prefer a rough and daring life one of strug-
gles and hair-breadth escapes to a quiet, monotonous business ; are
determined never to be conquered, even by superior odds, but incline
to do battle single-handed against an army ; with Cautiousness only
full, show more valor than discretion, are often fool-hardy, and alwayg
in hot water ; with smaller Secretiveness and Approbativeness, are
most unamiable, hatefulness sticking right straight out ; with drink-
ing habits and bad associates, have a most violent, ungovernable tem-
per ; are desperate, most bitter, and hateful, and should never be pro-
voked. For additional combinations see large, allowing for difference
in size : p. 77.
LARGE.g^Are bold, resolute, fearless, determined, disposed to grapple
with and remove obstacles, and drive whatever is undertaken ; love
debate and opposition ; are perfectly cool and intrepid ; have great
presence of mind in times of danger, and nerve for encounter ; with
large Parental Love, take the part of children ; with large Inhabitive-
ness, defend country ; with a powerful muscular system, put forth all
their strength in lifting, working, and all kinds of manual labor ; with
great Vitativeness and Destructiveness, defend life with desperation ;
with large Acquisitiveness, maintain pecuniary rights, and drive
money-making plans ; with large Approbativeness, resent ineult, and
large Adhesiveness added, defend the character of friends ; with full
or large Self-Esteem, defend personal interest, take their own part
with spirit, and repel all aggressions ; with Self-Esteem small, and
Benevolence and Friendship large, defend the interest of friends more
than of self; with large Conscientiousness, prosecute the right, and
oppose the wrong most spiritedly ; with large intellectual organs,
impart vigor, power, and impressiveness to thoughts, expressions, etc. ;
with disordered nerves, are peevish, fretful, fault-finding, irritable,
dissatisfied, unreasonable, and fiery in anger, and should first restore
the nerves to health, and then restrain this fault-finding disposition,
by remembering that the cause is IN THEM, instead of in what they
fret at : p. 75.
FCM,. Evince those feelings described under large, yet in a less
degree, and as modified more by the larger organs ; thus, with large
moral and intellectual faculties, show much more moral than physical
courage ; maintain the right and oppose the wrong ; yet, with Firm-
ness large, in a decided rather than a combative spirit, etc. : p. 78.
AVERAGE. Evince the combative spirit according to circumstances ;
when vigorously opposed, or when any of the other faculties work in
conjunction with Combativeness, show a good degree of the opposing,
energetic spirit ; but when any of the other faculties, such as large
Cautiousness or Approbativeness, work against it, are irresolute, and
even cowardly ; with an active temperament, and disordered nerves,
especially if dyspeptic, have a quick, sharp, fiery temper, yet lack
power of anger ; will fret and threaten, yet mean, and actually do,
but little ; with a large brain, and large moral and intellectual organs,
will put forth some intellectual and moral force when once thoroughly
roused, which will be but seldom ; with large Approbativeness, and
small Acquisitiveness, will defend character, but not pecuniary rights ;
with large Cautiousness, may be courageous where danger is far off,
yet will run rather than fight ; with smaller Cautiousness, will show
some resentment when imposed upon, but submit rather tamely to
injuries ; with very large Parental Love, and only average friendship,
will resent any injuries offered to children with great spirit, yet not
those offered to friends, etc. : p. 75.
MODERATE. Rather lack efficiency ; with only fair muscles, are poor
workers, and fail to put forth even what little strength they have ;
with good moral and intellectual organs, possess talent and moral
worth, yet are easily overcome by opposition or difficulty ; should seek
some quiet occupation, where business conies in of itself, because loth
to intrude unbidden upon the attention of others ; are too good to be
energetic ; with weak Acquisitiveness, allow virtual robbery without
resentment ; with large Cautiousness, are tame and pusillanimous ;
with large Approbativeness, can not stand rebuke, but wilt under it ;
with moderate Self-Estcem and Hope, are all "I can't, it's hard,"
etc., and will do but little in life : p. 78.
SHALL. Are inert and inefficient ; can accomplish little ; never feel
self-reliant or strong ; and with large'moral and intellectual organs,
are too gentle and easily satisfied ; with large Cautiousness, run to
others for protection, and are always complaining of bad treatment :
VERY SMALL. Possess scarcely any energy, and manifest none : p. 79.
To CULTIVATE. Encourage a bold, resistant, defiant, self-defending
spirit ; fend off imposition like a real hero ; rather encourage than
shrink from encounter ; ejigage in debate, and the mental conflict of
ideas and sentiments in politics, in religion, in whatever comes up,
and take part in public meetings ; take sides in everything ; say and
try to feel, None shall provoke me with impunity : 239.
To RESTRAIN. Do just the opposite of the preceding advice ; when-
ever you find anger rising, turn on your heel ; avoid debate, and say
mildly and pleasantly whatever you have to say ; bear with imposi-
tion rather than resent it ; cultivate a turn-the-other-cheek spirit ;
never swear, or scold, or blow up anybody, and restrain temper and
wrath in all their manifestations : 240.
EXECCTIVENESS ; SEVERITY; STERNNESS; the DESTROYING
and PAiN-causiug faculty ; HARSHNESS ; EXTERMINATION ;
INDIGNATION ; disposition to BREAK, CRUSH, and TEAR DOWN ;
the WALK-RIGHT-THROUGH-SPIRIT. Adapted to man's destroy-
ing whatever is prejudicial to his happiness ; performing and
enduring surgical operations ; undergoing pain, etc. Perver-
sion wrath ; revenge ; malice ; disposition to murder, etc.
VERY LARGE. Experience the most powerful incligaation, amount-
ing even to rage and violence, when thoroughly provoked ; and with
large or very large Combativeness, act like a chafed lion, and feel like
No. 55. BLACK HAWK. No. 56. JAUP, PEES. FIRST PEACE CONG.
rushing into the midst of perilous dangers ; tear up and destroy what
ever is in the way ; are harsh and often morose in manner, and should
cultivate pleasantness ; with large Combativeness, Firmness, Self-Es-
teem, and Approbativeness moderate, are exceedingly repulsive, hating
and hateful when angry, and much more provoked than occasion
requires ; trith large intellectuals, put forth tremendous mental
energy ; and should offset this faculty by reason and moral feeling,
and cultivate blandness instead of wrath : p. 83.
LARGE. Impart that determination, energy, and force which re-
move or destroy whatever impedes progression ; with Firmness large,
give that iron will which adheres till the very last, in spite of .every-
thing, and carry points anyhow ; with large Combativeness, impart
a harsh, rough mode of expression and action, and a severity, if not
fierceness, to all encounters ; with large Acquisitiveness and Conscien-
tiousness, will have every cent due, though it cost two to get one, yet
want no more, and retain grudges against those who have injured
the pocket ; with large Approbativeness and Combativeness, experi-
ence determination and hostility toward those who trifle with reputa-
tion or impeach character ; with large Self-Esteem, upon those who
conflict with its interests, or detract from its supposed merits ; with
large Adhesiveness, when angry with friends, are very angry; with
large Benevolence and Conscientiousness, employ a harsh mode of
showing kindness ; with large Comparison and Language, heap very
severe and galling epithets upon enemies ; with large Ideality, polish
and refine expression of anger, and put a keen edge upon sarcasms,
yet they cut to the very bone, etc. Such should avoid and turn from
whatever provokes : p. 82.
FULL. Evince a fair degree of this faculty, yet its tone and direc-
tion depend upon the larger organs ; with large propensities, manifest
much animal force ; with large moral organs, evince moral determina-
tion and indignation ; with large intellectual organs, possess intellec-
tual might and energy, and thus of its other combinations ; but with
smaller Combativeness, are peaceful until thoroughly roused, but then
rather harsh and vindictive ; if boys, attack only when sure of victory,
yet are then harsh ; with smaller Self- Esteem, exercise this faculty
more in behalf of others than of self ; with large Cautiousness and
moderate Combativeness, keep out of danger, broils, etc., till com-
pelled to engage in them, but then become desperate, etc. : p. 83.
AVERAGE. Are like full, only less so : p. 82.
MODERATE. Evince but little harshness or severity, and shrink
from pain ; with large Benevolence, are unable to witness suffering or
death, much less to cause them ; possess but little force of mind, or
executiveness of character, to drive through obstacles ; with large
moral organs added, are more beloved than feared, manifest extreme
sympathy, amounting sometimes even to weakness, and secure ends
more by mild than severe measures ; with moderate Combativeness
and Self-Esteem, are irresolute, unable to stand ground, or take care
of self ; fly to others for protection ; can do little, and feel like trying
to do still less ; fail to realize or put forth strength ; and with large
Cautiousness added, see lions where there are none, and make moun-
tains of mole-hills ; and with small Hope added, are literally good for
nothing ; but with large Hope and Firmness, and full Self-Esteem and
Combativeness, accomplish considerable, yet in a quiet way, and by
perseverance more than force by siege rather than by storm and
with large intellectual and moral faculties added, are good, though
not tame ; exert a good influence, and that always healthful, and are
mourned more when dead than prized while living. The combina-
tions under this organ large, reversed, apply to it when moderate : p. 84.
SMALL. With large moral faculties, possess too tender a soul to
enjoy our world as it is, or to endure hardships or bad treatment ; can
neither endure nor cause suffering, anger being so little as to provoke
only ridicule, and need hardness and force : p. 82.
VERT SMALL.- Experience little, and manifest none of this faculty.
To CULTIVATE. Destroy anything and everything in your way ;
killing weeds, blasting rocks, felling trees, using edge tools, tearing
up roots, plowing new ground, cultivating new farms, hunting,
exercising indignation when wronged, and against public wrongs ;
espousing the cause of the oppressed ; fighting public evils, such as
intemperance and the like, are all calculated to cultivate and strengthen
this faculty. Still, care should be taken to exercise it under the con-
trol of the higher faculties, and then no matter how great that exer-
To RESTRAIN. Kill nothing ; and offset destructiveness by benevo-
lence ; never indulge a rough, harsh spirit, but cultivate instead a
mild and forgiving spirit ; never brood over injuries or indulge re-
vengeful thoughts or desires, or aggravate yourself by brooding over
wrongs ; cultivate good manners ; and when occasion requires you to
reprove, do it in a bland, gentle manner rather than roughly ; never
tease, even children, or scourge animals, but be kind to both, and
offset by benevolence and the higher faculties: 243.
No. 57. LARGK. No. 53. SHALL.
APPETITE ; the FEEDING instinct ; RELISH for food ; HUNGER.
Adapted to man's need of food, and creating a disposition to
eat. Perverted, it produces gormandizing and gluttony, and
causes dyspepsia and all its evils.
VERT LARGE. Often eat more than is requisite ; enjoy food exceed-
ingly well ; and hence are liable to clog body and mind by over-eat-
ing ; should restrain appetite ; will feel better by going without an
occasional meal, and are liable to dyspepsia. This faculty is liable
to take on a diseased action, and crave a much greater amount of
food than nature requires, and hence is the great cause of dyspepsia.
Its diseased action may be known by a craving, hankering, gone
sensation before eating ; by heart-burn, pain in the stomach, belching
of wind, a dull, heavy, or painful sensation in the head, and a desire
to be always nibbling at something ; lives to eat, instead of eating to
live, and should at once be eradicated by omitting one meal daily, and,
in its stead, drinking abundantly of cold water.
LARGE. Have a hearty relish for food ; set high value upon table
enjoyments, and solid, hearty food ; with Acquisitiveness large, lay up
abundance of food for future use perhaps keep so much on hand that
some of it spoils ; with Ideality large, must eat from a clean plate,
and have food nicely cooked ; with large Language and intellect, en-
joy table-talk exceedingly, and participate in it ; with large social
faculties, must eat with others ; can cook well, if practiced in culinary
arts ; and with larger Approbativeness and Ideality than Causality,
apt to be ceremonious and over-polite at table, etc. Such should
restrain this faculty by eating less, more slowly, and seldom : p. 8G.
FULL. With a healthy stomach, eat freely what is offered, asking
no questions ; enjoying it, but not extravagantly ; rarely over-eat,
except when the stomach is . disordered, and then experience that
hankering above described, which a right diet alone can cure. For
combinations, see large: p. 87.
AVERAGE. Enjoy food well, and eat with a fair relish ; yet rarely
over-eat, except when rendered craving by dyspeptic complaints : p. 86.
MODERATE. Rather lack appetite ; eat with little relish, and hence
require to pamper and cultivate appetite by dainties, and enjoying
rich flavors ; can relish food only when other circumstances are favor-
able ; feel little hunger, and eat to live, instead of living to eat ; with
Eventuality small, can not remember from one meal to another what
was eaten at the last : p. 87.
SMALL. Eat "with long teeth," and little relish ; hardly know or
care what or when they eat ; and should pay more attention to duly
feeding the body : p. 88.
VERY SMALL. Are almost wholly destitute of appetite.
This faculty is more liable to perversion than any other, and exces-
sive and fast eating occasions more sickness, and depraves the animal
passions more than all other causes combined. Properly to feed the
body is of the utmost importance. Whenever this faculty becomes
diseased, the first object should be to restore its natural function by
abstinence. Medicines rarely do it.
To CULTIVATE. Consider before you provide or order your meals
what would relish best, and as far as possible provide what seems to
you will taste good ; pamper appetite ; eat leisurely, and as if deter-
BIBATIVENES3 OR AQUATIVENESS. 99
mined to extract from your food all the rich flavors it may contain,
and in eating be governed more by flavor than quantity ; endeavor to
get up an appetite, even when you feel none, by eating some dainty,
as if to see if it were not good ; do by food and drinks as wine con-
noisseurs do in testing viands that is, taste things with a view of
ascertaining their relative flavors ; in short, exercise and indulge appe-
tite ; also, do as directed in order to cultivate digestion : 245.
To KESTRAIN. Eat but seldom for by keeping away from table
this faculty remains comparatively quiet ; and when you eat, eat
slowly, leisurely, quietly, pleasurably, as if determined to enjoy eat-
ing, for this satisfies appetite with much less food than to eat vora
ciously ; mingle pleasant conversation with meals ; direct attention
more to how good your food than how much you eat ; always leave
the table with a good appetite, and stop the moment you have to
resort to condiments or desserts to keep up appetite ; eat like ^the epi-
cure, but not like the gourmand as if you would enjoy a little rather
than devour so much ; eat sparingly, for the more you eat the more
you re-inflame the stomach, and thereby re-increase that hankering
you need to restrain : 246.
F. BIBATIVENESS OR AQU ATI YEN ES S.
FONDNESS for LIQUIDS; desire to DRINK ; love of WATER,
washing, bathing, swimming, sailing, etc. Adapted to the
existence and utility of water. Perversion drinking in ex-
cessive quantities ; drunkenness ; and unquenchable thirst.
VERT LARGE. Are excessively fond of water, whether applied
internally or externally, and a natural swimmer ; and with Individu-
ality and Locality, a natural seaman ; with large Adhesiveness and
Approbativeness, and small Self-Esteem and Acquisitiveness, should
avoid the social glass, for fear of being overcome by it.
LARGE. Love to drink freely, and frequently ; experience much
thirst; enjoy washing, swimming, bathing, etc., exceedingly, and are
benefited by them ; with Ideality large, love water prospects.
FULL. Enjoy water well, but not extravagantly ; drink freely when
the stomach is in a fevered state, and is benefited by its judicious
AVERAGE. Like to drink at times, after working freely or perspiring
copiously, yet ordinarily care little about it.
MODERATE. Partake of little water, except occasionally, and are
not particularly benefited by its external application, further than is
necessary for cleanliness ; dislike shower or plunge-baths, and rather
dread than enjoy sailing, swimming, etc., especially when Cautiouj
ness is large.
SMALL. Care little for liquids in any of their forms, or for any
soups, and, with large Cautiousness, dread to be on or near the water ;
with Alimentiveness large, prefer solid, hard food to puddings or
VERY SMALL. Have an unqualified aversion to water and all fluids.
No. 59. WM. TELLER, THIEF AND
No. 60. Mr.. GOSSE
ECONOMY ; FRUGALITY ; the ACQUIRING, SAVING, and HOARD-
ING instinct; LAYING UFA SURPLUS, and allowing nothing to
be WASTED ; desire to POSSESS and OWN ; the MINE-AND-THINE
feeling ; claiming of one's own things ; love of TRADING and
AMASSING PROPERTY. Adapted to man's need of laying up
the necessaries and comforts of life against a time of future
need. Perversion a miserly, grasping, close-fisted penuri-
VERT LARGE. Hasten to be rich ; are too eager after wealth ; too
industrious ; too close in making bargains ; too small in dealing ; with
large Cautiousness, are penny wise, but pound foolish ; hold the six-
pence too close to the eye to see the dollar farther off, and give entire
energies to amassing property ; with smaller Secretiveness and large
Conscientiousness, are close, yet honest, will have due, yet want no
more, and never employ deception ; but, with large Secretiveness and
but average Conscientiousness, make money anyhow ; palm off infe-
rior articles for good ones, or at least over-praise what is on sale, but
run down in buying ; and with large Parental Love and Perceptives
added, can make a finished horse-jockey ; with small Self-Esteem, are
small and mean in deal, and stick for the half cent ; with very large
Hope, and only full Cautiousness, embark too deeply in business, and
are liable to fail ; with large Adhesiveness and Benevolence, will do
for friends more than give, and circulate the subscription-paper rather
than sign it ; with large Hope and Secretiveness, and only average
Cautiousness, buy more than can be paid for, pay more in promises
than in money, should adopt a cash business, and check the manifesta-
tions of this faculty by being less penurious and industrious, and more
liberal : p. 92.
LARGE. Save for future use what is not wanted for present ; allow
nothing to go to waste ; turn everything to a good account ; buy
closely, and make the most of everything ; are industrious, econom-
ical, and vigorously employ all means to accumulate property, and
desire to own and possess much ; with large social organs, industri-
ously acquire property for domestic purposes, yet are saving in the
family ; with very large Adhesiveness and Benevolence, are industri-
ous in acquiring property, yet spend it too freely upon friends ; with
large Hope added, are too apt to indorse for them ; with small Secre-
tiveness, and activity greater than power, are liable to overdo, and
take on too much work in order to save so much, as often to incur
sickness, and thus lose more than gain ; with large Approbativencss
and small Secretiveness, boast of wealth, but with large Secretiveness,
keep pecuniary aftairs secret ; with large Constructiveness, incline to
make money by engaging in some mechanical branch of business ;
with large Cautiousness, are provident; with large Ideality, keep
things very nice, and are tormented by whatever mars beauty ; with
large intellectual organs, love to accumulate books, and whatever
facilitates intellectual progress ; with large Veneration and Self-Esteem,
set great store by antique and rare coins, and specimens, etc. : p. 89.
FULL. Take good care of possessions, and use vigorous exertions to
enhance them ; value property for itself and its uses ; are industrious,
yet not grasping ; and saving, without being close ; with large Benev-
olence, are too ready to help friends ; and with large Hope added, too
liable to indorse ; and with an active temperament, too industrious to
come to want ; yet too generous ever to be rich : p. 93.
AVERAGE. Love property ; yet the other faculties spend quite as
fast as this faculty accumulates ; with Cautiousness large or very
large, love property in order to be safe against future want ; with
large Approbativcness, desire it to keep up appearances ; with large
Conscientiousness, to pay debts ; with large intellectual organs, will
pay freely for intellectual attainments ; yet the kind of property and
objects sought in its acquisition depends upon other and larger facul-
ties : p. 89.
MODERATE. Value and make property more for its uses than itself ;
seek it as a means rather than an end ; with Cautiousness large, may
evince economy from fear of coming to want, or with other large
organs, to secure other ends, yet care little for property on its own
account ; are rather wasteful ; do not excel in bargaining, or like it ;
have no great natural pecuniary tact, or money-making capability, and
are hi danger of living quite up to income ; with Ideality large, must
have nice things, no matter how costly, yet do not take first-rate care
of them ; disregard small expenses ; purchase to consume as soon as
to keep ; prefer to enjoy earnings now to laying them up ; with large
domestic organ, spend freely for family ; with strong Approbativeness
and moderate Cautiousness, are extravagant, and contract debts to
make a display ; with Hope large, run deeply in debt, and spend money
before it is earned : p. 94.
SMALL. Hold money loosely ; spend it often without getting its
value ; care little how money goes ; with Hope very large, enjoy
money to-day Without saving for to-morrow ; and with large Appro-
bativeness and Ideality added, and only average Causality, are prodi-
gal, and spend money to poor advantage ; contract debts without pro-
viding for their payment, etc. : p. 95.
VERY SMALL. Neither heed nor know the value of money ; are
wasteful ; spend all they can get ; lack industry, and will be always
in want : p. 95.
The back part of this organ, called Acquisition, accumulates prop-
erty ; the fore part, called Accumulation, saves ; the former large and
latter small, encompass sea and land to make a dollar, and then throw
it away, which is an American characteristic ; and get many things,
but allow them to go to waste. Properly to spend money implies a
high order of wisdom. Every dollar should be made an instrument
of the highest happiness.
To CULTIVATE. Try to estimate the value of money intellectually,
and save up as a philosophy ; economize time and means ; culti-
vate industry ; engage in some mercenary business ; determine to
get rich, and use the means for so doing, and le what you consider
even small in expenditures ; lay by a given sum at stated times, with-
out thinking to use it except in extreme want ; and when enough is
laid by, make a first payment on real estate, or launch into business,
thus compelling yourself both to save the driblets, and earn what you
can in order to save yourself, and do by intellect what you are not dis-
to do by intuition : 249.
To RESTRAIN. Think less of dollars ; study means for enjoying your
property ; often quit business for recreation ; attend more relatively to
other life ends, less to mere money-getting ; that is, cultivate the
other faculties, and be more generous : 250.
No. 61. LAKGE. No. 62. SMALL.
SELF-GOVERNMENT ; ability to RESTRAIN feelings ; POLICY ;
MANAGEMENT; RESERVE; EVASION; DISCRETION; CUNNING;
adapted to man's requisition for controlling his animal nature.
Perverted, it causes duplicity, double-dealing, lying, decep-
tion, and all kinds of false pretensions.
VERT LARGE. Are non-committal and cunning in the extreme, and
with only average Conscientiousness, deceptive, tricky, foxy, double-
lealing, and unworthy to be trusted ; with large Acquisitiveness
added, will both cheat and lie ; with large Cautiousness, are unfathom-
able even by acknowledged friends ; with very large moral organs, and
only average or full propensities, are not dangerous, and have a good
moral basis, yet instinctively employ many stratagems calculated .to
cover up the real motives ; and should cultivate openness and sincer-
ity : p. 98.
LARGE. Throw a vail over countenance, expression, and conduct ;
appear to aim at one thing, while accomplishing another ; love to sur-
prise others ; are enigmatical, mysterious, guarded, politic, shrewd,
managing, employ humbug, and are hard to be found out ; with Cau-
tiousness large, take extra pains to escape detection ; with Conscien-
tiousness also large, will not tell a lie, yet will not always tell the
truth ; evade the direct question, and are equivocal, and though honest
in purpose, yet resort to many little cunning devices ; with large intel-
lectual organs and Cautiousness, express ideas so guardedly us t-. >}-. k
distinctness and directness, and hence to be often misunderstood ; with
large Approbativeness, take many ways to. secure notoriety, and hoist
some false colors ; with large Acquisitiveness, employ too much cun-
ning in pecuniary transactions, and unless checked by still larger
Conscientiousness, are not always strictly truthful or honest ; with
large social organs, form few f iendships, and those only after years
of acquaintance, nor evince half the attachment felt ; are distant in
society, and communicate even with friends only by piecemeal ; divulge
very few plans or business matters to acquaintances, or even to friends ;
lack communicativeness, and have little or no fresh-hearted expression
of feeling, but leave an impression of uncertainty as to character and
intention : p. 96.
Fun. Evince much self-government ; yet, if the temperament is
active, when the feelings do break forth, manifest them with unusual
intensity ; with large Acquisitiveness and Cautiousness, communicate
but little respecting pecuniary affairs ; with large Approbativeness,
take the popular side of subjects, and sail only with the current of
public opinion ; with Conscientiousness large, are upright in motive,
and tell the truth, but not always the whole truth ; and though
never hoist false colors, yet do not always show true ones : p. 99.
AVERAGE. Maintain a good share of self-government, except when
under excitement, and then let the whole mind out fully ; with large
Combativeness and an active temperament, though generally able to
control resentment, yet, when once provoked, show the full extent of
their anger ; with large Cautiousness, see that there is no danger
before allowing the feelings to burst forth ; but with an excitable
temperament, and especially a deranged stomach, show a general want
of policy and self-government, because the feelings are too strong 'to
be kept in check ; but if this faculty is manifested in connection with
stronger faculties, it evinces considerable power, yet is wanting when
placed in opposition to them : p. 96.
MODERATE. Express feelings with considerable fullness ; pursue an
open, direct course ; are sincere and true ; employ but little policy,
and generally give full vent to thoughts and feelings ; with Cautious-
ness large, evince prudence in deeds, but imprudence in words ; ex-
press opinions unguardedly, yet are safe and circumspect in conduct ;
with large Acquisitiveness and Conscientiousness, prefer the one-price
system in dealing, and can not bear to banter ; with large Adhesive-
ness, are sincere and open-hearted in friendship, and communicate
with perfect freedom ; with large Conscientiousness and Combativeness
added, are truthful, and speak the whole mind too bluntly ; with fine
feelings, and a good moral organization, manifest the higher, finer
feelings, without restraint or reserve, so as to be the more attractive ;
are full of goodness, and show all that goodness without any inter-
vening vail ; manifest in looks and actions what is passing within ;
express all mental operations with fullness, freedom, and force ; choose
direct and unequivocal modes of expression ; disclose faults as freely
as virtues, and leave none at a loss as to the real character ; but with
the harsher elements predominant, appear more hating and hateful
than they really are, because all is blown right out : p. 100.
SMALL. Are perfectly transparent ; seem to be just what, and all
they really are ; disdain concealment in all forms ; are no hypocrite,
but positive and unequivocal in all said and done ; carry the soul in
the hands and face, and make way directly to the feelings of others,
because expressing them so unequivocally ; with large Cautiousness,
are guarded in action, but unguarded in expression ; free the mind
regardless of consequences, yet show much prudence in other respects ;
with Conscientiousness large, love the truth wherever it exists, and
open the mind freely to evidence and conviction ; are open and above-
board in everything, and allow all the mental operations to come right
out, unvailed and unrestrained, so that their full force is seen and
felt : p. 101.
VEKY SMALL. Conceal nothing, but disclose everything : p. 101.
To CULTIVATE. Supply by intellect that guardedness and *policy
lacked by instinct, for you are too spontaneous ; try to "lie low, and
keep dark," and suppress your natural outgushings of feeling and
intellect, cultivate self-control by subjecting all you say and do to
judgment, instead of allowing momentary impulses to rule conduct ;
do not tell all you know or intend to do, and occasionally pursue a
roundabout course ; be guarded, politic, and wary in everything ; do
not make acquaintances or confide in people as much as is natural,
but treat everybody as if they needed watching : 252.
To KESTRAIN. Cultivate a direct, straightforward, above-board, and
open way, and pursue a course just the opposite from the one suggested
for its cultivation : 253.
CAREFULNESS ; WATCHFULNESS ; PRUDENCE ; PROVISION
against want and danger ; SOLICITUDE ; ANXIETY ; APPREHEN-
SION ; SECURITY ; PROTECTION ; AVOIDING prospective evils ;
the SENTINEL. Adapted to ward off surrounding dangers,
and make those provisions necessary for future happiness.
Perversion irresolution ; timidity ; procrastination ; indeci-
sion ; fright ; panic.
VERY LABGE. Are over-anxious ; always on the look-out ; worried
about trifles ; afraid of shadows ; forever getting ready, because so
many provisions to make ; are careful in business ; often revise deci-
sions, because afraid to trust the issue ; live in perpetual fear of evils
and accidents ; take extra pains with everything ; lack promptness
and decision, and refuse to run risks ; put off till to-morrow what
ought to be done to-day ; with excitability 7, live in a constant panic ;
procrastinate ; are easily frightened ; see mountains of evil where
there are only mole-hills ; are often unnerved by fright, and overcome
by false alarms ; with only average or full Combativeness, Self-Esteem,
and Hope, and large Approbativeness, accomplish literally nothing,
No. 63. DEACON TKREY. No. 64. CHAELES XII. OP SWEDEK.
but should always act under others ; with large Acquisitiveness, prefer
small but sure gains .to large but more risky ones, and safe investments
to active business : p. 105.
LAUGE. Are always on the look-out ; take ample time to get ready ;
provide against prospective dangers ; make everything safe ; guard
against losses and evils ; incur no risks ; sure bind that they may sure
find ; with large Combativeness, Hope, and an active temperament,
drive, Jehu-like, whatever is undertaken, yet drive cautiously ; lay on
the lash, yet hold a tight rein, so as not to upset plans ; with large
Approbatjveness, are doubly cautious as to character ; with large
Approbativeness and small Acquisitiveness, are extra careful of char-
acter, but not of money ; with large Acquisitiveness and small Appro-
bativeness, take special care of all money matters, but not of reputa-
tion ; with largo Adhesiveness and Benevolence, experience the great-
est solicitude for the welfare of friends ; with large Conscientiousness,
are careful to do nothing wrong ; with large Causality, lay safe plans,
and are judicious; with large Combativeness and Hope, combine
judgment with energy and enterprise, and often seem reckless, yet are
prudent ; with large intellectual organs and Firmness, are cautious in
coming to conclusions, and canvass well all sides of all questions, yet,
once settled, are unmoved ; with small Self-Esteem, rely too much on
the judgment of others, and too little on self; with large Parental
Love and disordered nerves, experience unnecessary solicitude for chil-
dren, and take extra care of them, often killing them with kindness,
etc. : p. 104.
FULL. Show a good share uf prudence and carefulness, except when
the other faculties are powerfully excited ; with large Combativeness
and very large Hope, have too little prudence for energy ; are toler-
ably safe, except when under considerable excitement ; with large
Acquisitiveness, are very careful whenever money or property are
concerned ; yet, with only average Causality, evince but little general
prudence, and lay plans for the present rather than future, etc. : 105.
AVERAGE. Have a good share of prudence, whenever this faculty
works in connection with the larger organs, yet evince but little in
the direction of the smaller ; with large Combativeness and Hope, and
an excitable temperament, are practically imprudent, yet somewhat
less so than appearances indicate ; with large Causality, and only
average Hope and Combativeness, and a temperament more strong
than excitable, evince good general judgment, and meet with but few
accidents ; but with an excitable temperament, large Combativeness
and Hope, and only average or full Causality, are always in hot water,
fail to mature plans, begin before ready, and are luckless and unfortu-
nate in everything, etc. : p. 103.
MODERATE. With excitability great, act upon the spur of the mo-
ment, without due deliberation ; meet with many accidents caused by
imprudence ; with large Combativeness, are often at variance with
neighbors ; with large Approbativeness, seek praise, yet often incur
criticism ; with average Causality and large Hope, are always doing
imprudent things, and require a guardian ; with small Acquisitiveness,
keep money loosely, and are easily over-persuaded to buy more than
can be paid for ; with large Parental Love, play with children, yet
often hurt them ; with large Language and small Secretiveness, say
many very imprudent things, etc. ; and with large Combativeness,
have many enemies, etc. : p. 106.
SMALL. Are rash, reckless, luckless ; and with large Hope, always
in trouble ; with large Combativeness, plunge headlong into difficulties
in full sight, and should assiduously cultivate this faculty : p. 10G.
VERY SMALL. Have so little of this faculty, that its influence on
conduct is rarely ever perceived : p. 107.
To CULTIVATE. Count the advantages against, but not for ; look out
for breakers ; think how much indiscretion and carelessness have
injured you, and be careful and watchful in everything. Imprudence
ia your fault be judicious ; and remember that danger is always much
greater than you anticipate so keep aloof from every appearance
of it : 255.
To KESTRAIN. Offset its -workings by intellect ; remember that you
perpetually magnify dangers ; let intellect tell Cautiousness to keep
quiet ; offset it by cultivating a bold, combative, daring spirit ; en-
courage a don't-care feeling, and a let-things-take-their-course why-
Bhould-I-worry-about-them ; do not indulge so much anxiety when
children or friends do not return as expected ; never allow a fright-
ened, panic-stricken state of mind, but face apprehended evils, instead
of quailing before them; and remember that you magnify every
appearance of evil: 256.
Regard for CHARACTER, APPEARANCES,
etc. ; love of PRAISE ; desire to EXCEL and
be ESTEEMED; AMBITION; AFFABILITY;
POLITENESS ; desire to DISPLAY and show
off; sense of HONOR; desire for a GOOD<
NAME, for NOTORIETY, FAME, EMINENCE,
DISTINCTION, and to be THOUGHT WELL
of; PRIDE of character; SENSITIVENESS
to the speeches of people; and love of No. 65.- CLABA FISHM.
POPULARITY. Adapted to the reputable and disgraceful.
Perversion vanity ; affectation ; ceremoniousness ; aristocra-
cy ; pomposity ; eagerness for popularity, outside display, etc
VEKT LARGE. Set everything by the good opinion of others ; are
ostentatious, if not vain and ambitious ; love praise, and are mortified
by censure inordinately ; with moderate Self-Esteem and Firmness,
can not breast public opinion, but are over-fond of popularity ; with
only average Conscientiousness, seek popularity without regard to
merit ; but with large Conscientiousness, seek praise mainly for virtuous
doings ; with large Ideality, and only average Causality, seek praise
for fashionable dress and outside appearances rather than internal
merit ; are both vain and fashionable as well as aristocratic ; starve
the kitchen to stuff the parlor ; with large Acquisitiveness, boast of
riches ; with large Adhesiveness, of friends ; with large Language, are
extra forward in conversation, and engross much of the time, etc.
This is the main organ of aristocracy, exclusiveness, fashionableness,
go-called pride, and nonsensical outside show : p. 110.
LARGE. Love commendation, and are cut by censure ; are keenly
alive to the smiles and frowns of public opinion ; mind what people
say ; strive to show off to advantage, and are affable, courteous, and
desirous of pleasing ; love to be in company ; stand on etiquette and
ceremony ; aspire to do and become something great ; set much by
appearances, and are mortified by reproach ; with large Cautiousness
and moderate Self-Esteem, are careful to take the popular side, and fear
to face the ridicule of others ; yet, with Conscientiour-ness and Combat-
iveness large, stick to the right, though unpopular, knowing that it
will ultimately confer honor ; with large Benevolence, seek praise for
works of philanthropy and mercy ; with large intellectual organs,
love literary and intellectual distinctions ; with large Adhesiveness,
desire the good opinion of friends, yet care little for that of others ;
with large Self-Esteem, Combativeness, and excitability, are very
touchy when criticised, seek public life, want all the praise, and hate
rivals ; with large perceptives, take a forward part in literary and de-
bating societies ; with large Combativeness, Hope, and activity, will
not be outdone, but rather work till completely exhausted, and are
liable to over-do, in order to eclipse rivals : p. 108.
FULL. Value the estimation of others, yet will not go far after it ;
seek praise in the direction of the larger organs, yet care little for it
in that of the smaller ; are not aristocratic, yet like to make a fair
show in the world ; with large Adhesiveness, love the praise and can
not endure the censure of friends ; with large Conscientiousness, set
much by MORAL character, and wish to be praised for correct MOTIVES ;
yet, with moderate Acquisitiveness, care little for the name of being
rich ; with large Benevolence and intellectual organs, desire to be
esteemed for evincing talent in doing good, etc. : p. 110.
AVERAGE. Show only a respectable share of this faculty, except
when it is powerfully wrought upon by praise or reproach ; are morti-
fied by censure, yet not extremely so, and call the other faculties to
justify ; are not particularly ambitious, yet by no means deficient ;
and not insensible to compliments, yet can not well be inflated by
MODERATE. Feel some, but no great, regard for popularity ; and
evince this faculty only in connection with the larger organs ; with
large Self-Esteem and Firmness, are inflexible and austere ; and with
large Combativeness and small Agreeableness, lack civility and com-
plaisance to others ; disdain to flatter, and can not be flattered, and
should cultivate a pleasing, winning mode of address : p. 112.
SMALL. Care little for the opinions of others, even of friends ; are
comparatively insensible to praise ; disregard style and fashion ;
despise etiquette and formal usages ; never ask what will persons
thiik, and put on no outside appearances for their own sake ; with
large Self -Esteem, Firmness, and Combativeness, are destitute of
politeness, devoid of ceremony, and not at all flexible or pleasing in
manners ; with large Combativeness and Conscientiousness, go fur the
right regardless of popularity, and are always making enemi^; say
and do things in so graceless a manner as often to displease ; with
large Acquisitiveness and Self-Esteem, though wealthy, make no boast
of it, and are as commonplace in conduct as if poor, etc. : p. 112.
VERY SMALL. Care almost nothing for reputation, praise, or censure.
To CULTIVATE. Eemember that you often stand in your own light
by caring little for the speeches of people, for appearance and charac-
ter ; and cherish a higher regard for public opinion, for your character
and standing among men, for a good name, and do nothing in the
least to tarnish your reputation, but cultivate a winning, politic,
pleasant manner toward all, as if you would ingratiate yourself into
their good- will: 258.
To RESTRAIN. Remember that you are infinitely too sensitive to
reproof ; that your feelings are often hurt when there is no occasion ;
that you often feel neglected or reproved without cause ; that evil
speaking breaks no bones, and will ultimately thwart itself ; lay aside
that affected, artificial, nippy style of manners and speaking ; be more
natural ; walk, act, feel as if alone, not forever looked at ; be less
particular about dress, style, appearance, etc., and less mindful of
praise and blame ; subject Approbativeness io conscience that- is, do
what is right, and let people say what they like ; be more independ-
ent, and less ambitious and sensitive to praise and flattery : 259.
StLF-appreciation and valuation ; self-RESPECT and RELI-
ANCE ; MAGNANIMITY ; NOBLENESS ; INDEPENDENCE ; DIGNITY ;
SELF-SATISFAI TION and complacency ; love of LIBERTY and
power ; an ASPIRING, SELF-ELEVATING, RULING instinct; PRIDE
of character ; MANLINESS ; LOFTY-MINDEDNESS, and desire for
elevation. Adapted to the superiority, greatness, and exalted
dignity of human nature. Perversion : egotism ; hauteur ;
forwardness ; tyranny ; superciliousness ; imperiousness.
VERY LARGE. Have the highest respect for self; place special stress
on the personal pronouns ; carry a high head, and walk so straight as
to lean backward ; have a restless, boundless ambition to be and do
some great thing ; with only full intellect, have more ambition thau
8ELF-EETKEM. _ 11.1
-alents, and are proud, pompous, supercilious, and imperious, and with
Hope large, must operate on a great scale or none, and launch out too
deeply ; with Approbativeness large, are most aristocratic ; and with
only fair intellect, arc a swell-head and great brag, and put self above
everybody else ; with only average Approbativeness and Agreeable-
No. 66. SUBMISSION. No. 67. AUTHOEITY.
ness, take no pains to smooth off the rougher points of character, but
are every way repulsive ; with average Parental Love, are very domi-
neering in the family, and insist upon being waited upon, obeyed,
etc. ; and should carry the head a little lower, and cultivate humility :
LARGE. Put a high estimate upon self sayings, doings, and capa-
bilities ; fall back upon their own unaided resources ; will not take
advice, but insist upon being their own master ; are high-minded 5
will never stoop, cr demean self; aim high; are not satisfied with
moderate success, or a petty business, and comport and express with
dignity, and perhaps with majesty ; are perfectly self-satisfied ; with
large Parental Love, pride self in children, yet with Combativeness
large, require implicit obedience, and are liable to be stern ; with large
Adhesiveness, seek society, yet must lead ; with large Acquisitiveness
added, seek partnership, but must be the head of the firm ; with large
Firmness and Combativeness, can not be driven, but insist upon doing
their mm will and pleasure, and are sometimes contrary and headstrong ;
with large Hope, think that anything they do can not possibly fail,
because done so well ; with large moral organs, impart a tone, dignity,
aspiration, and elevation of character which command universal
respect ; and with large intellectual faculties added, are desirous of,
and well calculated for, public life ; are a natural leader, but seek
moral distinction, and lead the public mind; with large Combative-
ness, Destructiveness, Firmness, and Approbativeness, love to be cap-
tain or general, and speak with that sternness and authority which
enforce obedience ; with large Acquisitiveness, aspire to be rich the
richest man in town partly on account of the power wealth confers ;
with large Language, Individuality, Firmness, and Combativeness,
seek to be a political leader ; with large Constructiveness, Perceptives,
Causality, and Combativeness, are well calculated to have the direc-
tion of men, and oversee large mechanical establishments ; with only
average brain and intellect, and large selfish faculties, are proud,
haughty, domineering, egotistical, overbearing, greedy of power and
dominion, etc. : p. 114.
FULL. Evince a good degree of dignity and self-respect ; yet are
not proud or haughty ; with large Combativeness, Firmness, and Hope,
rely fully upon their own energies in cases of emergency, yet are will-
ing to hear advice, though seldom take it ; conduct becomingly, and
secure respect ; and with large Combativeness and Firmness, and full
Destructivcness and Hope, evince much power of this faculty, but
little when these faculties are moderate : p. 116.
AVERAGE. Show this faculty mainly in combination with those that
are larger ; with large Approbativeness and Firmness, and a large
brain and moral organs, rarely trifle or evince meanness, yet are rarely
conceited, and think neither too little nor too much of self, but place
a just estimate upon their own capabilities ; with large Adhesiveness,
both receive and impart character to friends, yet receive most ; with
large Conscientiousness, pride self more on moral worth than physical
qualities, wealth, titles, etc. ; and with large intellectual and moral
organs, mainly for intellectual and moral excellence : p. 113.
MODERATE. Rather underrate personal capabilities and worth ; feel
rather inferior, unworthy, and humble ; lack dignity and manliness,
and are apt to say and do trifling things, and let self down ; with large
intellectual and moral organs, lead off well when once placed in a
responsible position, yet at first distrust their own capabilities ; with
large Conscientiousness, Combativeness, and activity, often appear self-
sufficient and positive, because certain of being right, yet it is founded
more on reason than egotism ; with large Approbativeness, lore to
show off, yet are not satisfied with self ; go abroad after praise, rather
than feel internally conscious of personal merits ; are apt to boast,
because more desirous of the estimation of others than conscious of
personal worth ; with large moral and intellectual powers, have ex-
alted thoughts and aspirations, and communicate well, yet often de-
tract from them by commonplace phrases and undignified expressions ;
will be too .familiar to be respected in proportion to merit, and should
vigorously cultivate this faculty by banishing mean, and cultivating
high, thoughts of self: p. 116.
SMALL. Feel diminutive ; lack elevation and dignity of tono and
manner ; place too low estimate on self ; and, with Approbativeness
large, are too anxious to appear well in the eyes of others ; with largo
Combativeness and Destructiveness, show some self-reliance when pro-
voked or placed in responsible positions, yet lack that dignity and
tone which command universal respect, and give a capability to lead
off in society ; lack self-confidence and weight of character ; shrink
from responsible and great undertakings, from a feeling of unworthi-
ncss ; underrate self, and are therefore undervalued by others, and
feel insignificant, as if in the way, or trespassing upon others, and
hence often apologize, and should cultivate this faculty.
VERY SMALL. Feel little, and manifest none of this faculty.
To CULTIVATE. Say of yourself what Black Hawk said to Jackson
" I am a man" one endowed with the ennobling elements of hu-
manity ; try to realize how exalted those human endowments conferred
on you, and hence duly to estimate yourself, physically, intellectually,
morally ; recount your good traits, and cultivate self- valuation in view
of them ; pride yourself on what you are, but never indulge self-
abasement because not dressed, because not as rich or stylish as others ;
be less humble toward men, but hold up your head among them, as
if good enough for any ; assume the attitude of self-esteem ; study its
phrenological definition, and cultivate the self-esteem feeling: 261.
To RESTRAIN. Bear in mind that you esteem yourself much better
than you really are ; that you overrate all your powers, and are too
forward and self-confident ; that more modesty would improve you ;
that you incline too much to be arbitrary, and domineer ; that you are
more faulty than you suppose, and need humility ; 263.
STABILITY ; DECISION ; PERSEVERANCE ; FIXEDNESS of pur-
pose ; TE-NACITY of WILL, and aversion to change. Adapted
to man's requisition for holding out to the end. Perversion
obstinacy ; willfulness ; mulishness ; stubbornness ; unwilling-
ness to change, even when reason requires.
VERT LARGE. Are well-nigh obstinate, stubb;rn, and with large
Combativeness and Self- Esteem, as unchangeable as the laws of the
Medes and Persians, and can neither be persuaded nor driven ; with
large activity, power, brain, and intellectual organs, are well calculated
to carry forward some great work which requires the utmost determi-
nation and energy ; with large Causality, can possibly be turned by
potent reasons, yet by nothing else.
LARGE. Are set and willful; stick to and carry out what is com-
menced ; hold on long and hard ; continue to the end, and may he
fully relied upon ; with full Self- Esteem and large Combativeness, can
not be driven, but the more they are forced the more they resist ; with
large Combativeness and Destructiveness, add perseverance to stability,
and not only hold on, but drive forward determinedly through diffi-
culties; with large Hope, undertake much, and carry all out; with
large Cautiousness and Causality, are careful and judicious in laying
No. 68. LARGE. No. 69. SMALL.
plans and forming opinions, yet rarely change ; may seem to waver
until the mind is fully made up, but are afterward the more unchang-
ing ; with Hope very large, and Cautiousness and Causality only aver-
age, decide quickly, even rashly, and refuse to change ; with Adhe-
siveness and Benevolence large, are easily persuaded, especially by
friends, yet can not be driven ; and with large Cautiousness, Combat-
iveness, Causality, perceptives, activity, and power, will generally
succeed, because wise in planning and persevering in execution ; with
Combativeness and Self-Esteem large, and Causality only average, will
not see the force of opposing arguments, but tenaciously adhere to
affirmed opinions and purposes ; with large Conscientiousness and
Combativeness, are doubly decided wherever right or justice are con-
cerned, and in such cases will never give one inch, but will stand out.
in argument, effort, or as a juryman till the last : p. 119.
FULL. Like Firmness large, show a great degree of decision when
this faculty works with large organs, but not otherwise ; with Com-
bativeness and Conscientiousness large, show great fixedness where
right and truth are concerned, yet with Acquisitiveness moderate, lack
perseverance in money matters ; with moderate Combativeness and
Self-Esteem, are easily turned ; and with large Adhesiveness and
Benevolence, too easily persuaded, even against their better judgment ;
with Cautiousness and Approbativeness large, or very large, often
MORAL SENTIMENTS. 115
evince fickleness, irresolution, and procrastination ; and with an un-
even head, and an excitable temperament, often appear deficient in
this faculty: p. 131.
AVERAGE. When supported by large Combativeness or Conscien-
tiousness, or Causality, or Acquisitiveness, etc. , show a good degree
of this faculty ; but when opposed by large Cziutiousness, Approba-
tiveness, or Adhesiveness, evince its deficiency, and have not enough
for great undertakings : p. 119.
MODERATE. Rather lack perseverance, even when the stronger facul-
ties support it ; but when they do not, evince fickleness, irresolution,
indecision, and lack perseverance ; with Adhesiveness large, are too
easily persuaded and influenced by friends ; with large Cautiousness
and Approbativeness, and moderate or small Sclf-Esteem, are flexible
and fickle, and go with the current : p. 132.
SMALL. With activity great, and the head uneven, arc fitful, im-
pulsive, and, like the weather-vane, shift with every changing breeze,
and are ruled by the other faculties, and as unstable as water : p. 122.
VERY SHALL. Are changed by the slightest motives, and a perfect
creature of circumstances, and accomplishes nothing requiring perse-
verance : p. 122.
To CULTIVATE. Have more a mind of your own ; make up your
mind wisely, and then stand to your purpose ; be sure you are right,
then hold on ; surmount difficulties, instead of turning aside to avoid
them ; resist the persuasions of others ; begin nothing not worthy of
finishing, and finish all you begin : 265.
To RESTRAIN. Remember that you are too obstinate and persistent
often to your own loss ; at least listen to the advice of others, and
duly consider it, and govern Firmness by Intellect and Conscience, not
allow it to govern them : 266.
THESE render man a moral, accountable, and religious
being humanize, adorn, and elevate his nature ; connect him
with the moral nature of things ; create his higher and nobler
faculties ; beget aspirations after goodness, virtue, purity,
and moral principle, and ally him to angels and to God.
VERY LARGE. Have a most exalted sense and feeling of the moral
and religious, with a high order of practical goodness, and the strongest
aspirations for a higher and holier state, both in this life and that
which is to come.
116 MOKAL SENTIMENTS.
LARGE. Experience a high regard for things sacred and religioun .
have an elevated, moral, and aspiring cast of feelings and conduct :
right intentions, and a desire to become good, holy, and moral in
feeling and conduct ; and, with weak animal feelings, are a rose in the
FULL. Have a good moral and religious tone, and general correct-
ness of motive, so as to render feelings and conduct about right ; hut
with strong propensities, and only average intellectual faculties, are
o. 70. EEV. DB. TYNG. No. 71. HALEFACTOB.
sometimes led into errors of belief and practice ; mean right, yet
sometimes do wrong, and should cultivate these faculties, and restrain
AVERAGE. Surrounded by good influences, will be tolerably moral
and religious in feeling, yet not sufficiently so to withstand strong pro-
pensities ; with disordered nerves, are quite liable to say and do wrong
things, yet afterward repent, and require much moral cultivation.
MODERATE. Have a rather weak moral tone ; feel but little regard
for things sacred and religious ; are easily led into temptation ; feel
but little moral restraint ; and, with large propensities, especially if
circumstances favor their excitement, are exceedingly liable to say
and do what is wrong.
SMALL. Have weak moral feeling ; lack moral character ; and with
large organs of the propensities, are liable to be depraved, and a bad
member of society.
VERT SMALL. Feel little, and show no moral tendencies.
To CULTIVATE. Yield implicit obedience to the higher, better sen-
timents of your nature ; cultivate a respect for religion ; lead a moral,
spotless life ; cultivate all the human virtues ; especially study and
contemplate nature, and yield yourself to those elevating influences
enkindled thereby ; cultivate adoration and love of the Deity in His
works ; study natural religion, and make your life as pure, right,
true, and good as possible.
To KESTRAIN. To avoid becoming morbid in the action of the
moral sentiments, and to obviate it when it exists, subject Benevo-
lence or generosity, justice or conscientious scruples, Veneration or
devotion, Spirituality or faith, to the guidance of intellect ; and be
more selfish, or at least less self-sacrificing think more of material
No. 72. LARGE. No. 73. SMALL.
MORAL PRINCIPLE ; INTEGRITY ; PERCEPTION and love of
right ; innate sense of ACCOUNTABILITY and obligation ; love
of JUSTICE and truth ; regard for DUTY ; desire for moral
PURITY and excellence ; disposition to fulfill PROMISES, agree-
ments, etc. ; that internal MONITOR which approves the right
and condemns the wrong ; sense of GUILT ; PENITENCE ; CON-
TRITION ; desire to REFORM. Adapted to the Tightness of
right, and the wrongness of wrong, and to the moral nature
and constitution of things. Perverted, it makes one do wrong
from conscientious scruples, and torments with undue self-
VERT LARGE. Place moral excellence at the head of all excellence ;
make duty everything ; are governed by the highest order of moral
principle ; would on no account knowingly do wrong ; fire scrupu-
lously exact in all matters of right; perfectly honest in motive;
always condemning self and repenting, and very forgiving to those
who evince penitence, but inexorable without; with Combativeness
large, evince the utmost indignation at the wrong, and drive the right
with great force; arc censorious, make but little allowance for the
faults and follies of mankind, and show extraordinary moral courage
and fortitude ; with small Secretivcness and an active temperament,
are liable to denounce evil-doers ; with large Friendship, can not tol-
erate the least thing wrong in friends, and are liable to reprove them ;
with large Parental Love, exact too much from children, and with
large Combativeness, are too liable to blame them ; with large Cau-
tiousness, are often afraid to do, for fear of doing wrong ; with large
Veneration, reasoning faculties, and Language, are a natural theolo
gian, and take the highest pleasure in reasoning and conversing upon
all things having a moral and religious bearing; with Veneration
average, and Benevolence large or very large, can not well help being
a thorough-going reformer, etc. : p. 129.
LARGE. Love the right as right, and hate the wrong because wrong ;
are honest, faithful, upright in motive; mean well; consult duty
before expediency ; feel guilty when conscious of having done wrong ;
ask forgiveness for the past, and try to do better in future; with
strong propensities, will sometimes do wrong, but be exceedingly sorry
therefor ; and, with a wrong education added, are liable to do wrong,
thinking it right, because these propensities warp conscience, yet mean
well ; with large Cautiousness, are solicitous to know what is right,
and careful to do it ; with weaker Cautiousness, sometimes do wrong
carelessly or indifferently, yet afterward repent it ; with Jarge Cau-
tiousness and Destnictiveness, are severe on wrong-doers, and unre-
lenting until they evince penitence, and then cordially forgive ; with
large Approbativeness, keep the moral character pure and spotless
value others on their morals more than wealth, birth, etc., and make
the word the bond; with large Benevolence, Combativeness, and
Destructiveness, feel great indignation and severity against oppressors,
and those who cause others to suffer by wronging them ; with large
Ideality, have strong aspirations after moral purity .and excellence;
with large reasoning organs, take great pleasure, and show much
talent in reasoning upon and investigating moral subjects, etc. : 126.
FULL. Have good conscientious feelings, and correct general inten-
tions, yet are not quite as correct in action as intentions ; mean well,
yet with large Combativeness, Destructiveness, Amativcness, etc.,
may sometimes yield to these faculties, especially if the system is
somewhat inflamed ; with large Acquisitiveness, make very close bar-
gains, and will take such advantages as are common in business, yet
do not intend to wrong others out of their just dues, still have more
regard for money than justice ; with large intellectual organs, love to
reason upon subjects where right arid duty are involved, yet too often
take the ground of expediency, and fail to allow right its due weight ;
and should never allow conscience to be in any way weakened, but
cultivate it assiduously : p. 130.
AVERAGE. When not tempted by stronger faculties, do what is
about right; generally justify self, and do not feel particularly indig-
nant at the wrong, or commendatory of the right ; with large Appru-
bativeness and Self-Esteem, may do the honorable thing, yet Tjhere
honor and right clash, will choose the former; with only average
Combativeness and Destructiveness, allow many wrong things to pass
unrebuked, or even unresented, and show no great moral indignation
or force ; with moderate or small Secretiveness and Acquisitiveness,
and large Approbativeness, Benevolence, and Ideality, will do as nearly
right, and commit as few errors as those with Secretiveness, Acquisi-
tiveness, and Conscientiousness all large, and may be trusted, espe-
cially on honor, yet will rarely feel guilty, and should never be blamed,
because Approbativeness will be mortified before conscience is con-
victed ; with large propensities, especially Secretiveness and Acquisi-
tiveness, and only full Benevolence, are selfish ; should be dealt with
cautiously, and thoroughly bound in writing, because liable to be slip-
pery, tricky, etc. ; and should cultivate this faculty by never allowing
the propensities to overcome it, and by always considering things in
the moral aspect : p. 124.
MODERATE. Have some regard for duty in feeling, but less in prac-
tice ; justify self; are not very penitent or forgiving; even temporize
with principle, and sometimes let interest rule duty : p. 131.
SMALL. Have few conscientious scruples, and little penitence, grati-
tude, or regard for moral principle, justice, duty, etc., and are gov-
erned mainly by the larger faculties ; with large propensities, and only
average Veneration and Spirituality, evince a marked deficiency of
moral principle ; with moderate Secretiveness and Acquisitiveness, and
only full Destructiveness and Combativeness, and large Adhesiveness,
Approbativeness, Benevolence, Ideality, and Intellect, and a fine tem-
perament, may live a tolerably blameless life, yet, on close scrutiny,
will lack the moral in feeling, but may be safely trusted, because true
to promises; that is, conscience having less to contend with, its defi-
ciency is less observable. Such should most earnestly cultivate this
faculty : p. 132.
VERT SMALL. Are almost wholly destitute of moral feeling, and
wholly controlled by the other faculties : p. 133.
To CULTIVATE. Always ask yourself what is right and wrong, and
adhere closely to the former, and studiously avoid the latter ; make
everything a matter of principle ; do just as nearly right as you know
how in everything, and never allow conscience to be borne down by
any of the other faculties, but keep it supreme; maintain the tight
everywhere and for everybody; cultivate a high sense of duty and
obligation, and try to reform every error ; in short, ' ' let justice be
done, though the heavens fall." : 268.
To RESTRAIN. Remember that you are too exact and exacting in
everything ; that you often think you see faults where there are none ;
that you carry duty and right to a boundless extreme, and so far as
to make it wrong ; that you are too condemnatory, and need to culti-
vate a lenient, forbearing, forgiving spirit ; that you trouble yourself
unduly about the wrong-doing of others ; that you often accuse people
of meaning worse than they really intend look at minor faults as
mountains of wrong ; are too censorious ; too apt to throw away the
gold on account of dross ; to discard the greater good on account of
lesser attendant evils ; too liable to a feeling of guilt and unworthi-
ness, as if unfit to live, and too conscience-stricken. Extreme Con-
scientiousness, with 6 or 7 organic quality, and large Combativeness,
along with disordered nerves or dyspepsia, makes one of the most un-
pleasant of characters querulous, eternally grumbling about nothing,
magnifying everybody's faults, thus making mischief among neigh-
bors ; perpetually accusing everybody, and chiding children for mere
trifles ; too rabid in matters of reform, and violent in denouncing its
opponents of whom rabid radicals, punctilious religionists, and old
maids furnish examples : 270.
EXPECTATION ; ANTICIPATION of future success and happi-
ness. Adapted to man's relations with the future. Perverted,
it becomes visionary and castle -building.
VERT LARGE. Have unbounded expectations ; build a world of
castles in the air; live in the future; enjoy things in anticipation
more than possession ; with small Continuity, have too many irons in
the fire ; with an active temperament added, take on more business
than can be worked off properly ; are too much hurried to do things
in season ; with large Acquisitiveness, are grasping, count chickens
before they are hatched, and often two to the egg at that ; with only
average Cautiousness, are always in hot water ; never stop to enjoy
what is possessed, but grasp after more, and will never accomplish
much, because undertake too much, and in taking one step forward,
often slip two steps back : p. 133.
LARGE. Expect much from the future ; contemplate with pleasure
the bright features of life's picture ; never despond ; overrate pros-
pective good, and underrate and overlook obstacles and evils ; calcu-
late on more than the nature of the case will warrant ; expect, and
. hence attempt, a great deal, and are therefore always full of business ;
are sanguine, and rise above present trouble by hoping for better
things in future, and though disappointed, hope on still ; build some
air-castles, and live in the future more than present ; with large Com-
bativeness, Firmness, and Causality, are enterprising, never give up
the ship, but struggle manfully through difficulties ; and with large
Approbativeness, and full Self-Esteem added, feel adequate to diffi-
culties, and grapple with them spiritedly ; with large Self-Esteem,
think that everything attempted must succeed, and with large Causal-
ity added, consider their plans well-nigh perfect ; with large Acquisi-
tiveness, lay out money freely in view of future gain ; with largo
Approbativeness and Self-Esteem, hope for renown, honor, etc. ; with
large Veneration and Spirituality, hope to attain exalted moral excel-
lence, and should check it by acting on only half it promises, and
reasoning against it : p. 137.
FULL. Expect considerable, yet realize more; undertake no more
than can be accomplished; are quite sanguine and enterprising, yet
with Cautiousness large are always on the safe side; with large
Acquisitiveness added, invest money freely, yet always safely ; make
good bargains, if any, and count all the cost, yet are not afraid of
expenses where they will more than pay ; with larger animal organs
than moral, will hope more for this world's goods than for another,
and with larger moral than animal, for another state of being than
this, etc. : p. 139.
AVERAGE. Expect and attempt too little, rather than too much ;
with large Cautiousness, dwell more on difficulties than encourage-
ments; are contented with the present rather than lay out for the
future ; with large Acquisitiveness added, invest money very safely,
if at all, and prefer to put it out securely on interest rather than risk
it in business, except in a perfectly sure business ; will make money
slowly, yet lose little ; and with large intellectual organs, in the long
run may acquire considerable wealth : p. 136.
MODERATE. With large Cautiousness, make few promises ; but with
large Conscientiousness, scrupulously fulfill them, because promise
only what can be performed ; with small Self-Esteem, and large Ven-
eration, Conscientiousness, and Cautiousness, if a professed Christian,
will have many fears as to his future salvation ; with only average
propensities, will lack energy, enterprise, and fortitude; with large
Firmness and Cautiousness, are very slow to embark, yet once com-
mitted, rarely give up ; with large reasoning faculties, may be *sure
of success, because see why and horn it is to be brought about ; with
large Acquisitiveness, will hold on to whatever money is once acquired,
or at least spend very cautiously, and only where sure to be returned
with interest ; should cheer up, never despond, co'unt favorable, but
not unfavorable chances, keep up a lively, buoyant state of mind, and
" hope on, hope ever :" p. 139.
SMALL. Expect and undertake very little ; with large Cautiousness,
put off till it is too late ; are always behind ; may embark in projects
after everybody else has succeeded, but will then be too late, and in
general knock at the door just after it has been bolted ; with large
Cautiousness, are forever in doubt ; with large Approbativeness and
Cautiousness, though most desirous of praise, have little hopes of ob-
taining it, and therefore exceedingly backward in society, yet fear
ridicule rather than hope for praise ; are easily discouraged ; see lions
in the way ; lack enterprise ; magnify obstacles, etc. : p. 140.
VERY SMALL. Expect next to nothing, and undertake less : p. 140.
To CULTIVATE. Look altogether on the bright side, the dark none ;
calculate all the chances for, none against you ; mingle in young and
lively society ; banish care, and cultivate juvenility ; cheer up ; venture
more in business; cultivate trust in the future, and "look aloft !"272.
To BESTRAIN. Offset excessive expectation by intellect; say to
yourself, " My hope so far exceeds realities that I shall not get half I
expect, ' ' and calculate accordingly ; do business on the cash principle,
in both buying and selling, otherwise you are in danger of being
swamped of buying more than you can pay for, and indorsing too
much ; build no castles in the air ; indulge no revelings of hope ;
shoulder only half the load you feel confident you can carry, and bal-
ance your visionary anticipations by cool judgment : 273.
FAITH ; PRESCIENCE ; the " LIGHT WITHIN ;" TRUST in
prophetic GUIDINGS ; perception and feeling of the SPIRITUAL ;
interior perception of TRUTH, what is BEST, what is about to
transpire, etc. Adapted to man's prophetic gift and a future
life. Perversion superstition ; witchcraft ; and with Cau-
tiousness large, fear of ghosts.
VERT LARGE. Are led and governed by a species of prophetic guid-
ing ; feel by intuition what is right and best ; are forewarned of dan-
ger, and led by spiritual monition into the right way ; feel internally
what is true and false, right and wrong, best and not best ; unless well
regulated, are too credulous, superstitious, and a believer in dreams,
ghosts, and wonders, and liable to be misled by them and so-called
prophecies, as well as to become fanatical on religion : p. 143.
LARGE. Perceive and know things independent of the senses or
intellect, or, as it were, by prophetic intuition ; experience an internal
consciousness of what is best, and that spiritual communion which
constitutes the essence of true piety ; love to meditate ; experience a
species of waking clairvoyance, as it were "forewarned;" combined
with large Veneration, hold intimate communion with the Deity, who
is profoundly adored ; and take a world of pleasure in that calm, happy,
half-ecstatic state of mind caused by this faculty; with large Causal-
ity, perceive truth by intuition, which philosophical tests prove cor-
rect ; with large Comparison added, have a deep and clear insight into
spiritual subjects, and embody a vast .amount of the highest order of
truth ; and clearly perceive and fully realize a spiritual state of being
after death : p. 142.
FULL. Have a full share of high, pure, and spiritual feeling;
many premonitions or interior warnings and guidings, which, implic-
itly followed, conduct to success and happiness through life ; and an
inner test or touchstone of truth, right, etc., in a kind of interior
consciousness, which is independent of reason, yet, unperverted, in
harmony with it; are quite spiritual-minded, and, as it were, "led by
the spirit:" p. 143.
AVERAGE. Have some spiritual premonitions and guidings, yet they
are not always sufficiently distinct to secure being followed ; but when
followed, they lead correctly ; see this light within, and feel what is
true and best with tolerable distinctness, and should cultivate this
faculty by following its light : p. 141.
MODERATE. Have some, but not very distinct perception of spiritual
things ; rather lack faith ; believe mainly from evidence, and little
from intuition; with large Causality, say "Prove it," and take no
man's say unless he gives good reasons: p. 144.
SMALL. Perceive spiritual truths so indistinctly as rarely to admit
them ; are not guided by faith, because so weak ; like disbelieving
Thomas, must see the fullest PROOF before believing ; have very little
credulity, and doubt things of a superhuman origin or nature ; have
no premonitions, and disbelieve hi them : p. 145.
VERY SMALL. Have no spiritual guidings or superstitions : p. 146.
To CULTIVATE. Muse and meditate on divine things the Deity, a
future existence, the state of man after death, immortality, and that
class of subjects ; and, especially, follow your innermost impressions or
presentiments in everything, as well as open your mind to the intui-
tive reception of truth: 276.
To RESTRAIN. Cultivate the terrestrial more and celestial less ; ab-
stain from and restrain spiritual musings and contemplations, and
confine yourself more to the practical, tangible, and real ; keep away
from fanatical meetings, and confine yourself more to life as it is to
what and where you are, instead of are to be to earth, its duties and
DEVOTION ; ADORATION of a Supreme Being ; REVERENCE
for religion and things sacred ; disposition to PRAY, WORSHIP,
and observe religious rites. Adapted to the existence of a
God, and the pleasures and benefits experienced by man in
worshiping him. Perverted, it produces idolatry, superstitious
reverence for authority, bigotry, religious intolerance, etc.
LARGE. VERY LARGE. Experi-
ence the highest degree of
Divine love and worship ;
place God as supreme upon
the throne of the soul, and
make His worship a cen-
tral duty ; manifest ex-
treme fervor, anxiety, and
delight in divine worship,
and are pre-eminently fer-
^ vent in prayer ; obsequious
reverence for age, for
time-honored forms, cere-
PHIL- mon i es i an d institutions;
EMET with moderate Self-Es-
teem, and large Conscien-
tiousness and Cautious-
ness, and a disordered
the utmost unworthiness
and guiltiness in His sight,
and are crushed by a sense
of guilt and vileness, espe-
cially before God, yet
should never cherish these
feelings ; are always dread-
ing the wrath of Heaven,
no matter whether the
No. 75.-A NQSO"MUKDEBEB, WHO IGNORED ALL actions are right or wrong ;
KBLIGIOK. ' and should cultivate reli-
gious cheerfulness and hope of future happiness : p. 149.
TO KEPENT AND P
k.Y TO GOD.
LARGE. Experience an awe of God and things sacred ; love to adore
the Supreme Being, especially in His works ; feel true devotion, fer-
vent piety, and love of divine things ; take great delight in religious
exercises ; have much respect for superiority ; regard God as the cen-
ter of hopes, fears, and aspirations ; with large Hope and Spirituality,
worship Him as a spirit, and hope to be with and like Him ; with large
Ideality, contemplate His works with rapture and ecstasy ; with large
Sublimity, adore Him as infinite in everything ; with large reasoning
organs have clear, and, if the faculties are unperverted, correct ideas
of the Divine character and government, and delight to reason thereon;
with large Parental Love, adore Him as a friend and father ; and with
large Benevolence, for His infinite goodness, etc. ; with large Causality
added-, as securing the happiness of sentient beings by a. wise institu-
tion of law, and as the great first CAUSE of all things ; with large and
perverted Cautiousness, mingle fear and dread with worship ; with
large Constructiveness and Causality, admire the system evinced in
His architectural plans, contrivances, etc. : p. 148.
FULL. Experience a good degree of religious worship whenever cir-
cumstances excite this faculty, and allow the stronger faculties frequently
to divert it, yet pray at least internally ; with large or very large
Conscience or Benevolence, place religion in doing right and doing
good more than in religious observances, and esteem duties higher
than ceremonies ; with strong propensities, may be devout upon the
Sabbath, yet will be worldly through the week, and experience some
conflict between fhe religious and worldly aspirations : p. 149.
AVERAGE. Will adore the Deity, yet often make religion subservient
to the larger faculties ; with large Adhesiveness, Benevolence, and
Conscience, may love religious meetings, to meet friends, and pray for
the good of mankind, or because duty requires their attendance ; yet
are not habitually and innately devotional, except when this faculty
is especially excited by circumstances ; p. 147.
MODERATE. Will not be particularly devout or worshipful ; with
large Benevolence and Conscientiousness, if religiously educated, may
be religious, yet will place religion more in works than faith, in duty
than prayer, and be more moral than pious ; in prayer will supplicate
blessings upon mankind, and with Conscientiousness large, will confess
sin more than express an awe of God ; with large reflectives, worship
no further than reason precedes worship ; with moderate Spirituality
and Conscientiousness, care little for religion as such, but with large
Benevolence, place religion mainly in doing good, etc. ; and are by no
means conservative in religion, but take liberal views of religious sub-
jects ; and are religious only when this faculty is considerably excited :
SMALL. Experience little devotion or respect, and are deficient in
fervor ; care little for religious observances, and are not easily im-
pressed with the worshiping sentiment : p. 150.
VERY SMALL. Are almost destitute of the feeling and practice of
To CULTIVATE. Study and admire the divine in nature, animate
and inanimate, heaven and earth, man and things, present and future ;
cultivate admiration and adoration of the Divine character and govern-
ment, of this stupendous order of things, of the beauties and perfec-
tions of nature, as well as a regard for religion and things sacred ; but
contemplate the Divine mercy and goodness rather than austerity, and
salvation than condemnation : 279.
To 'RESTRAIN is rarely, if ever, necessary, unless where religious ex-
citement endangers religious fanaticism and hallucination. In such
cases avoid religious meetings, conversations, etc. , as much as possible ;
cultivate the other faculties, and especially those which relate to this
world and its pleasures ; take those physical remedies, exercise, bath-
ing, etc., which will withdraw blood from the head, and promote
health ; and especially do not think of the Deity with feelings of awe,
fear, or terror, but as a kind and loving heavenly Father, good to all
His creatures : 280.
So. 76. MB. GOSSK GAVE AWAY TWO
No. 77. JUDAS, JR.
SYMPATHY ; KINDNESS ; HUMANITY ; desire to make OIHERS
happy; a SELF-SACRIFICING disposition ; PHILANTHROPY; GEN-
EROSITY ; the ACCOMMODATING, NEIGHBORLY spirit. Adapted
to man's capability of making his fellow-men happy. Perver-
sion misplaced sympathies.
VERY LARGE. Are deeply and thoroughly imbued with a benevo-
lent spirit, and do good spontaneously ; with large Adhesiveness and
moderate Acquisitiveness, are too ready to help friends ; and with
large Hope added, especially inclined to indorse for them ; with large
Acquisitiveness, bestow time more freely than money, yet will also
give the latter ; but with only average or full Acquisitiveness, freely
bestow both substance and personal aid ; with large Veneration and
only full Acquisitiveness, give freely to religious objects ; with large
Combativeness and Destructiveness, are more severe in word than deed,
and threaten more than execute; with larger moral than animal
organs, literally overflow with sympathy and practical goodness, and
reluctantly cause others trouble ; with large reasoning organs, are
truly philanthropic, and take broad views of reformatory measures ;
with large Adhesiveness and Parental Love, are pre-eminently qualified
for nursing; with large Causality, give excellent advice, etc., and
should not let sympathy overrule judgment : p. 157.
LARGE. Delight to do good ; make personal sacrifices to render
others happy ; can not witness pain or distress, and do what can well
be done to relieve them ; manifest a perpetual flow of disinterested
goodness ; with large Adhesiveness, Ideality, and Approbativeness,
and only average propensities and Self-Esteem, are remarkable for
practical goodness ; live more for others than self ; with large domes-
tic organs, make great sacrifices for family ; with large reflectives, are
perpetually reasoning on the evils of society, the way to obviate them,
and to render mankind happy ; with large Adhesiveness, are hospit-
able ; with moderate Destructiveness, can not witness pain or death,
and revolt at capital punishment ; with moderate Acquisitiveness,
give freely to the needy, and never exact dues from the poor ; with
large Acquisitiveness, help others to help themselves rather than give
money ; with large Combativeness, Destructiveness, Self-Esteem, and
Firmness, at times evince harshness, yet generally are kindly disposed :
FULL. Show a good degree of kind, neighborly, and humane feel
ing, except when the selfish faculties overrule it, yet are not remark-
able for disinterestedness ; with large Adhesiveness, manifest kindness
toward friends ; and with large Combativeness and Destructiveness,
are unrelenting toward enemies ; with large Acquisitiveness, are be-
nevolent when money can be made thereby ; with large Conscientious-
ness, are more just than kind, and with large Combativeness and
Destructiveness, are exacting and severe toward offenders : p. 158.
AVERAGE. Manifest kindness only in conjunctidn with Adhesiveness
128 TIIE SELF-PEKFECTING GEOUP.
and other large organs ; and with only full Adhesiveness, if kind",
are so for selfish purposes ; with large Acquisitiveness, give little or
nothing, yet may sometimes do favors ; with large Veneration, are
more devout than humane ; and with only full reasoning organs, are
neither philanthropic nor reformatory : p. 153.
MODERATE. Allow the selfish faculties to infringe upon the happi-
ness of others; with large Combativeness, Destructiveness, Self-
Esteem, and Firmness, are comparatively hardened to suffering ; and
with Acquisitiveness and Secretiveness added, evince almost unmiti
SMALL. Care little for the happiness of man or brute, and do still
less to promote it ; make no disinterested self-sacrifices ; are callous to
human woe ; do few acts of kindness, and those grudgingly, and have
unbounded selfishness : p. 159.
VERT SMALL. Feel little and evince none of this sentiment, but are
selfish in proportion as the other faculties prompt : p. 159.
To CULTIVATE. Be more generous and less selfish ; more kind to
others, the sick included ; interest yourself in their wants and woes,
as well as their relief ; and cultivate general philanthropy and prac-
tical goodness in sentiment and conduct ; indulge benevolence in all
the little affairs of life, in every look and action, and season your
whole conduct and character with this sentiment : 282.
To EESTRAIN. Lend and indorse only where you are willing and
can afford to lose ; give and do less freely than you naturally incline
to ; bind yourself solemnly not to indorse beyond a given sum ; harden
yourself against the woes and sufferings of mankind ; avoid waiting
much on the sick, lest you make yourself sick thereby, for your
Benevolence is in danger of exceeding your strength ; be selfish first
and generous afterward, and put Benevolence under bonds to judgment.
THE SELF-PERFECTING GROUP.
LOVE of, and TALENT for, the FINE ARTS ; and for IMPROVE-
MENT in self-perfection, and obtaining and acquiring whatever
is BEAUTIFUL and PERFECT.
This group elevates and chastens the animal faculties, prevents the
propensities, even when strong, from taking on the grosser sensual
forms of action, and hence is rarely found in criminals ; elevates even
the moral sentiments, and constitute a stepping-stone from the animal
to the moral, and a connecting link between the moral and the intel-
lectual in man.
VERY LARGE. Perfectly abhor the coarse, low, sensual, carnal, and
animal action of the propensities, and follow after the beautiful and
perfect in nature and art ; with strong propensities, manifest them in a
proper manner ; with a large moral lobe, adopt imposing and eloquent
forms of religion, as the Episcopalian, etc.
LARGE. Aspire after a higher and more perfect state or style of
feeling and character and conduct ; and discard the imperfect and
ensual in all their forms ; and are like very large, only less so.
FULL. Like style, but can live without it ; are like large in quality,
only less in degree.
AVERAGE. Have only commonplace aspirations after a high life,
and love of the fine arts, etc.
MODERATE. Are comparatively indifferent to the beauties of nature
and art, fail both to appreciate and adopt them, and prefer common
houses, clothes, furniture, and style of living to the artistical and
stylish, and feel out of place when surrounded by the elegances of
life ; with large Veneration, have a rude religion, etc.
SMALL. Are rude, uncultivated, contented with few and plain
articles of dress, furniture, property, etc., and prefer the rudeness of
savage to the elegances of civic life.
VERT SMALL. Are almost destitute of these perfecting aspirations
To CULTIVATE. Associate with persons of wit, ingenuity, and refine-
ment ; visit galleries of art and mechanism, scenes of beauty and
perfection, and read poetry and other works of the most polished and
To RESTRAIN. Give more attention to the common affairs of life,
and refrain from fostering esthetic subjects ; read history, science, and
metaphysics rather than poetry, romance, etc.
The MAKING instinct ; the xooL-using talent ; SLEIGHT of
hand in constructing things. Adapted to man's need of things
made, su$h as houses, clothes, and manufactured articles of
all kinds. Perverted, it wastes time and money on perpetual
motion, and other like futile inventions.
VERY LARGE. Show extraordinary mechanical ingenuity, and a
perfect passion for making everything ; with large Imitation, Form,
Size, and Locality, have first-rate talents as an artist, and for drawing,
engraving, etc. ; and with Color added, are excellent limners ; with
Ideality, add niceness to skill ; with large Causality, add invention to
execution, etc. : p. 162.
LARGE. Love to make ; are able and disposed to tinker, mend, and
fix up, build, manufacture, employ machinery, etc. ; show mechanical
skill and dexterity in whatever is done with the hands ; with large
Causality and perceptives, are inventive; and with large Imitation
No. 78. JACOB JOEDAN. No. 79. LOKD LIVERPOOL.
added, can make after a pattern, and both copy the improvements of
others, and supply defects by original inventions, as well as improve
on the mechanical contrivances of others ; with the mental tempera-
ment, and large intellectual organs and Ideality, employ ingenuity in
constructing sentences and arranging words, and forming essays, sen-
timents, books, etc. : p. 161.
FULL. Can, when occasion requires, employ tools and use the hands
in making, tinkering, and fixing up, and turn off work with skill, yet
have no great natural passion or ability therein ; with practice, can be
a good workman ; without it, would not excel : p. 163.
AVERAGE. Like full, only less gifted in this respect : p. 160.
MODERATE. Are rather awkward in the use of tools, and in manual
operations of every kind ; with large Causality and perceptives, show
more talent to invent than execute, yet no great in either ; with the
mental temperament, evince some mental construction, yet no great
physical ingenuity: p. 163.
SMALL. Are deficient in the tool-using capability ; awkward in
making and fixing up things ; poor in understanding and managing
tnachinery ; take hold of work awkwardly and wrong end first ; write
poorly, and lack both mental and physical construction : p. 163.
VERY SMALL. Can make nothing, except in the most awkward
manner : p. 163,
To CULTIVATE. Try your hand in using tools, and turning off work
of any and every kind ; if in any writing business, in writing well and
cutting nourishes ; if a mechanic, in doing with skill and dexterity
what you undertake, etc. ; observe and study machinery and inven-
tions, and call out this faculty in its various phases that is, zvork.285.
To BESTRAIN. Give yourself more to the exercise of your other
faculties, and less to mechanical inventions and executions ; especially
abstain rrom chimerical inventions, perpetual motion, and the like ;
and spend no more time or money on inventions than you can spare
wita,y inconvenience : 286.
. 80. FANNY FOBBESTEE. No. 81. JACOB JOEDAN.
PERCEPTION and admiration of the BEAUTIFUL and perfect;
good TASTE and refinement ; PURITY of feeling ; sense of PRO-
PRIETY, ELEGANCE, and GENTILITY ; POLISH and IMAGINATION.
Adapted to the beautiful in nature and art. Perverted, it gives
fastidiousness and extra niceness.
VERY LARGE. Have the highest order of taste and refinement ; love
the exquisite and perfect beyond expression, and are correspondingly
dissatisfied with the imperfect, especially in themselves ; admire
beauty in bird and insect, flower and fruit, animal and man, the phys-
ical and mental ; are perfectly enraptured with the impassioned, ora-
torical, and poetical in speech and action, in nature and art, and live
much in an ideal world ; have a most glowing and vivid imagination,
and give a delicate finish and touch of perfection to every act, word,
thought, and feeling, and find few things to come up to their exalted
standard of taste ; with only average Causality, have more taste than
solidity of mind and character, and more exquisiteness than sense ;
but with large reflectives, add the highest artistical style of expression
to the highest conceptions of reason, and with organic quality 6 or 7,
are always and involuntarily eloquent.
LARGE. Appreciate and enjoy beauty and perfection wherever found,
especially in nature ; give grace, purity, and propriety to expression
and conduct, gracefulness and polish to manners, and general good
taste to all they say and do ; are pure-minded ; enjoy the ideal of
poetry and romance ; long after perfection of character, and desire to
obviate blemishes, and with Conscientiousness large, moral imperfec-
tions ; with large social organs, evince a nice sense of propriety in
friendly intercourse ; eat in a becoming and genteel manner ; with
large moral organs, appreciate most highly perfection of character, or
moral beauties and excellences ; with large reflectives, .odd a high order
of sense and strength of mind to beauty and perfection of character ;
with large perceptives, are gifted with a talent for the study of nature,
etc. : p. 166.
FULL. Evince a good share of taste and refinement, yet not a high
order of them, except in those things in which it has been vigorously
cultivated ; with large Language, Eventuality, and Comparison, may
compose with elegance, and speak with much natural eloquence, yet
will have more force of thought than beauty of diction; with large
Constructiveness, will use tools with considerable taste, yet more skill ;
with large Combativeness and Destructiveness, show general refine-
ment, except when provoked, but are then grating and harsh ; with
large moral organs, evince more moral beauty and harmony than per-
sonal neatness ; with large intellectual organs, possess more beauty
of mind than regard for looks and outside appearances, and prefer the
sensible to the elegant and nice, etc. : p. 168.
AVERAGE. Prefer the plain and substantial to the ornamental, and
are utilitarian ; with large intellectual organs, prefer sound, solid
matter to the ornaments of style, and appreciate logic more than elo-
quence ; with Benevolence and Adhesiveness large, are hospitable,
and evince true cordiality, yet care nothing for ceremony ; with Appro-
bativeness large, may try to be polite, but make an awkward attempt,
and are rather deficient in taste and elegance ; with Constructiveness
large, make things that are solid and serviceable, but do not polish
them off ; with Language large, talk directly to the purpose, without
paying much attention to the mode of expression, etc. : p. ICO.
MODERATE. Eather lack taste in manners and expression ; have but
little of the sentimental or finished ; should cultivate harmony and
perfection of character, and endeavor to polish up ; with strong pro-
pensities, evince them in rather a coarse and gross manner, and are
more liable to their perverted action than when this organ is large,
and are homespun in everything : p. 163.
SMALL. Show a marked deficiency in whatever appertains to taste
and style, also to beauty and sentiment : p. 163.
VERY SMALL. Are almost deficient in taste, and evince none : 164.
To CULTIVATE. First, avoid all disgusting habits swearing, chew-
ing, and drinking, low conversation, vulgar expressions and associates ;
and drs and appear in good taste, and cultivate personal neatness,
good behavior, refinement and style in manners, purity in feeling, the
poetical and sentimental, an elegant and classical style of conversation,
expression, and writing, and love of the fine arts and beautiful forms ;
of the beauties of nature, of sunrise, sunset, mountain, lawn, river,
scenery, beautiful birds, fruits, flowers, mechanical fabrics and produc-
tions in short, the beautiful and perfect in nature, in general, and
yourself in particular: 288.
To RESTRAIN. Remember that in you the ideal and imaginative ex-
ceed the practical ; that your building airy castles out of bubbles
prevents your building substantial structures, and attaining useful life
ends; that you are too symbolical, fastidious, and ornamental, too
much tormented by a spot and wrinkle, too apt to discard things that
are almost perfect, because not quite so, and hold in check the revelings
of Ideality, and learn to prize what is right, instead of discarding
the greater good because of minor faults. Especially do not refuse
to associate with others because they are not in all particulars just to
your fastidious tastes: 289.
PERCEPTION and appreciation of the VAST, ILLIMITABLE,
ENDLESS, OMNIPOTENT, and INFINITE. Adapted to that infini-
tude which characterizes every department of nature. Per-
verted, it leads to bombast, and a wrong application of ex-
travagant words and ideas.
VERY LARGE. Have a literal passion for the wild, romantic, bound-
less, endless, infinite, eternal, and stupendous, and are like large, only
LARGE. Appreciate and admire the grand, sublime, vast, and mag-
nificent in nature and art ; admire and enjoy exceedingly mountain
scenery, thunder, lightning, tempests, vast prospects, and all that
is awful and magnificent, also the. foaming, dashing cataract, a
storm at sea, the lightning's vivid flash, and its accompanying thun-
der ; the commotion of the elements, and the star-spangled canopy
of heaven, and all manifestations of omnipotence and infinitude ; with
large Veneration, are particularly delighted by the infinite as apper-
taining to the Deity, and His attributes and works ; and with large
Time added, have unspeakably grand conceptions of infinitude as ap-
plicable to devotion, the past and future, and the character and works
of the Deity ; with large intellectual organs, take a comprehensive
view of subjects, and give illimitable scope to all mental investigations
and conceptions, so that they will bear being carried out to any ex-
tent ; and with Ideality large, add the beautiful and perfect to the
sublime and infinite.
FULL. Enjoy grandeur, sublimity, and infinitude quite well, and
impart considerable of this element to thoughts, emotions, and expres-
sions, and evince the same qualities as large, only in a less degree.
AVERAGE. Possess considerable of this element, when it is power-
fully excited, yet, under ordinary circumstances, manifest only an
ordinary share of it.
MODERATE. Are rather deficient in the conception and appreciation
of the illimitable and infinite ; and with Veneration moderate, fail to
appreciate this element in nature and her Author.
SMALL. Show a marked deficiency in this respect, and should earn-
estly cultivate it.
VERY SMALL. Are almost destitute of sublime emotions and con-
To CULTIVATE. -Mount the lofty summit to contemplate the out-
stretched landscape ; admire the grand and stupendous in towering
mountain, rolling cloud, rushing wind and storm, loud thunder, ma-
jestic river, raging sea, rearing cataract, burning volcano, and the
boundless, endless, infinite, and eternal in nature and her Author.291
To RESTRAIN which is rarely ever necessary refrain from the
contemplation of the sublime : 292.
ABILITY and disposition to COPY, TAKE PATTERN, and IMI-
TATE. Adapted to man's requisition for doing, talking, acting,
etc., like others. Perverted, it copies even their faults.
VERY LARGE. Can mimic, act out, and pattern after almost any-
thing ; with large Mirthfulness, relate anecdotes to the very life ; have
a theatrical taste and talent ; gesticulate almost constantly while
speaking ; and with large Language, impart an uncommon amount
of EXPRESSION to countenance, and everything said ; with large Indi-
viduality, Eventuality, Language, Comparison, and Ideality, can
make a splendid speaker ; and with large Mirthfulness, and full Sccre-
tivcuess added, can keep others in a roar of laughter, yet remain seri-
ous ; with an uneven head, are droll and humorous in the extreme ;
with large Approbativeness, delight in being the sport-maker at par-
No. 82. CLARA FISHER. No. 88. JACOB JEBVIS.
ties, etc. , and excel therein ; with large Constructiveness, Form, Size,
Locality, and Comparison, full Color, and a good temperament, and a
full-sized brain, can make a very superior artist of almost any kind ;
but with Color small, can engrave, draw, carve, model, etc., better
than paint: p. 171.
LARGE. Have a great propensity and ability to copy and take pat-
tern from others, and do what is seen done ; describe and act out well ;
with large Language, gesticulate much ; with large perceptives, re-
quire to be shown but once ; with large Constructiveness, easily learn
to use tools, and to make things as others make them ; and with small
Continuity added, are a jack-at-all-trades, but thorough in none ;
begin many things, but fail to finish ; with large Causality, perceptives,
and an active temperament added, may make inventions or improve-
ments, but never dwell on one till it completes it, or are always
adding to them ; with large Approbativeness, copy after renowned
men ; with large Adhesiveness, take pattern from friends ; with large
Language, imitate the style and mode of expression of others ; with
large Mirthfulness and full Secretiveness, create laughter by taking
off the oddities of people ; with large Form, Size, and Constructive-
ness, copy shape and proportions; with large Color, imitate colors,
and thus of all the other faculties : p. 170.
FULL. Copy quite well, yet not remarkably so ; with large Causality,
had rather invent a new way of doing things than copy the ordinary
mode, and evince considerable imitating talent when this faculty works
in conjunction with large organs, yet but little otherwise : p. 171.
AVERAGE. Can copy tolerably well when this faculty is strongly
excited, yet are not a mimic, nor a natural copyist; with only full
Constructiveness, evince little manual dexterity ; yet with large Caus-
ality, can originate quite well, and show no great disposition or ability
to copy either the excellences or deficiencies of others, but prefer to
be original : p. 169.
MODERATE. Have little inclination to do what and as others do ;
but with large Causality, prefer to strike out a new course, and invent
an original plan of their own ; with large Self-Esteem added, have an
excellent conceit of that plan ; but if Causality is only fair, are full
of original devices, yet they do not amount to any great things : 171.
SMALL. Copy even commonplace matter with extreme difficulty and
reluctance, and generally do everything in their own way : p. 172.
VERY SMALL. Possess scarcely any, and manifest no disposition or
ability to copy anything, not even enough to learn to talk well : 173.
To CULTIVATE. Study and practice copying from others in manners,
expressions, sentiments, ideas, opinions, everything, and try your hand
at drawing, and in every species of copying and imitation, as well as
conforming to those around you ; that is, try to become what they
are, and do what and as they do : 294.
To RESTRAIN. Maintain more your own personality in thought,
doctrine, character, everything, and be less a parrot, an echo, and cul-
tivate the original and inventive in everything : 295.
INTUITIVE PERCEPTION of the absurd and ridiculous ; dis-
position and ability to JOKE and MAKE FUN, and LAUGH at
what is improper, ill-timed, or unbecoming ; PLEASANTNESS ;
FACETIOUSNESS. Adapted to the absurd, inconsistent, and
laughable. Perverted, it makes fun on solemn occasions, and
where there is nothing ridiculous at which to laugh.
VERT LARGE. Show an extraordinary 'disposition and capacity to
make fun ; are always laughing and making others laugh ; with large
Language, Comparison, Imitation, Perceptives, and Adhesiveness, and
moderate Self-Esteem and Secretiveness, are ' ' the fiddle of the com-
pany;" with only average Ideality added, are clownish, and often say
undignified, and perhaps low things, to raise a laugh ; and with only
moderate Causality, things that lack sense, etc. : p. 175.
LARGE. Enjoy a hearty laugh at the absurdities of others exceed-
ingly, and delight to make fun out of everything not exactly proper
or in good taste, and are always ready to give as good joke as get ;
with large Amativeness, love to joke with and about the other sex ;
No. 84. LATTEENCE STEUNE.
No. 85. INDIAN CHIEF.
and with large Imitation and Language added, to talk with and tell
stories to and about them ; with large Combativeness and Ideality
added, make fun of their imperfections in dress, expression, manners,
etc., and hit them oif to admiration; with large Adhesiveness, Lan-
guage, and Imitation, are excellent company ; with large Causality,
Comparison, and Combativeness, argue mainly by ridicule or by show-
ing up the absurdity of the opposite side, and excel more in exposing
the fallacy of other systems than in propounding new ones ; with large
Ideality, show taste and propriety in witticisms, but with this faculty
average or less, are often gross, and with large Amativeness added,
vulgar in jokes ; with large Combativeness and Destructiveness, love
to tease, and are sarcastic, and make many enemies ; and with large
Comparison added, compare those disliked to something mean, dis-
gusting, and ridiculous : p. 173.
FULL. Possess and evince considerable of the fun-making disposi-
tion, especially in the direction of the larger organs ; with large or
very large Comparison, Imitation, and Approbativeness, and moderate
Self-Esteem, manifest more of the laughable and witty than is really
possessed ; may make much fun and be called witty, yet it will be
owing more to what may be called drollery than pure wit ; with mod-
erate Secretiveness and Self-Esteem, and an excitable temperament,
let fly witty conceptions on the spur of the moment, and thus
138 INTELLECTUAL FACULTIES.
increase their laughableness by their being well-timed, unexpected,
sudden, etc. : p. 175.
AVERAGE. Are generally serious and sedate, except when this faculty
is excited, yet then often laugh heartily, and evince considerable wit ; '
with large Individuality and Language, often say many laughable
things, yet they owe their wit more to argument or the criticism they
embody than to this faculty : p. 172.
MODERATE. Are generally serious, sedate, and sober, and with large
Self-Esteem, stern and dignified, nor companionable except when
Adhesiveness is large, and in company with intimate friends ; with
only average Ideality and Imitation, are very poor in joking, have to
expand witticisms, and thereby spoil them ; have some witty ideas,
yet lack in perceiving and expressing them ; fail to please others in
witticisms, and with large Approbativeness and Combativeness, are
liable to become angry when joked, and should cultivate this faculty
by laughing and joking more : p. 176.
SMALL. Make little fun ; are slow to perceive, and still slower to
turn jokes ; seldom laugh, and think it foolish or wrong to do so;
with only average Adhesiveness, are uncompanionable; with large
reflectives and Language, may do well in newspaper diction, yet not
in debate : p. 177.
VERT SMALL. Have few, if any, witty ideas and conceptions : 177.
To CULTIVATE. Get rid of the idea that it is sinful or undignified to
laugh ; try to perceive the witty and the facetious aspects of subjects
and things ; cultivate the acquaintance of mirthful people, and read
witty books, and as much as may be imbibe their spirit: 297.
To RESTRAIN. Cease hunting for something to laugh at and make
fun of ; observe in the conduct and appearance of others all that is
congruous, correct, and proper, and not that merely which is droll or
ridiculous ; avoid turning everything into ridicule, punning, playing
upon words, double entendre, etc : 298.
KNOWING, REMEMBERING, and REASONING powers ; general
INTELLECTUAL CAPABILITY and desire. Adapted to the phys-
ical and metaphysical. Perverted, they apply their respective
power to accomplish wrong ends.
VERY LARGE. Have natural greatness of intellect and judgment,
and a high order of talents and sound sense, with originality, capa-
ciousness, and comprehensiveness of mind which can hardly fail to
make their mark.
THE PERCEPTIVE FACULTIES. 139
LARGE. Confer sufficient natural talent and intellectual capability
to take a high stand among men ; give strength of mind, superior
judgment, and power both of acquiring knowledge easily and reason-
ing profoundly. Their direction depends upon the other faculties ;
with large animal organs and weak morals, they make philosophical
sensualists ; with large moral and weaker animal organs, moral and
religious philosophers, etc.
FULL. Have good intellectual capabilities and much strength of
mind, provided it is well cultivated ; with large Acquisitiveness, a
talent to acquire property ; with large moral organs, to enlighten and
improve the moral character ; with large Constructiveness, mechanical
AVERAGE. Evince fair mental powers, provided they are cultivated,
otherwise only moderate intellectual capabilities; with an excitable
temperament, allow the feelings and stronger faculties to control judg-
ment ; with large moral organs, have more piety than talents, and
allow religious prejudices and preconceived doctrines to prevent im-
partial intellectual examination ; with moderate Acquisitiveness, will
never acquire property ; with average Constructiveness, will be a poor
MODERATE. Are rather deficient in sense and judgment, yet not
palpably so ; can be easily imposed upon ; are deficient in memory, and
rather wanting in judgment, comprehension, and intellectual capacity.
SMALL. Are decidedly deficient in mind ; slow and dull of compre-
hension ; lack sense, and have poor powers of memory and reason.
VERY SMALL. Are naturally idiotic.
These faculties are divided into three classes the Perceptive, the
Literary, and the Reflective which, when large, confer three kinds
To CULTIVATE. Exercise the whole mind in diversified studies and
intellectual exercises. See specific directions in ' ' Fowler on Memory.' '
And probably nothing is so well calculated to discipline and improve
intellect as the study and practice of Phrenology.
To RESTRAIN. Divert the flow of blood from the brain to the body
by vigorous exercise, an occasional hot bath, frequent ablutions, and
a general abstinence from intellectual exercises, especially reading
THE PERCEPTIVE FACULTIES.
These bring man into direct intercourse with the physical
world ; take cognizance of the physical qualities of material
140 THE PERCEPTIVE FACULTIES.
things ; give correct judgment of the material properties of
things, and a practical cast of mind.
VERY LARGE. Are pre-eminent in these respects ; know by intuition
the proper conditions, fitness, value, etc. , of things ; have extraordi-
No. 86. GOVEENEUB MORRIS. No. ST. MEDITATION.
nary power of observation, and ability to acquire knowledge, and a
natural taste for examining, collecting statistics, studying the natural
sciences, etc. For combinations see large.
LARGE. Judge correctly of the various qualities and relations of
material things ; with Acquisitiveness large, form correct ideas of the
value of property, goods, etc., and what kinds are likely to rise in
value, and make good bargains; with large Constructiveness, can
conduct mechanical operations, and have very good talents for build-
ing machinery, superintending workmen, etc. ; with the mental tem-
perament, and large intellectuals added, are endowed by nature with
a truly scientific cast of mind, and a talent for studying the natural
sciences, and are useful in almost every department and situation in
life ; with an active temperament and favorable opportunities, know
a good deal about matters and things in general ; are quick of obser-
vation and perception and matter-of-fact, common-sense tact, and will
show off to excellent advantage ; appear to know all that they really
do, perhaps.more ; have superior talents for acquiring and retaining
knowledge with facility, and attending to the details of business ;
becoming an excellent scholar, etc. ; and have a strong thirst after
FULL. Have fair perceptive powers, and a good share of practical
sense ; learn and remember most things quite well ; love reading and
knowledge, and with study can become a good scholar, yelTnot with-
out it; with large Acquisitiveness, judge of the value of things with
sufficient correctness to make good bargains, but with moderate
Acquisitiveness, lack such judgment ; with large Constructiveness,
aided by experience, have a good mechanical mind, but without expe-
rience, or with only moderate Constructiveness, are deficient to this
AVERAGE. Are endowed with only fair perceptive and knowing
powers, but, well cultivated, know considerable about matters and
things, and learn with tolerable ease ; yet without cultivation are
deficient in practicability of talent, and capability of gathering and
retaining knowledge. For combinations see full.
MODERATE. Are rather slow and dull of observation and perception,
require some time to understand things, and even then lack specific
knowledge of detail ; are rather deficient in matter-of-fact knowledge,
and show off to poor advantage ; learn slowly, and fail in off-hand
judgment and action ; with only average Acquisitiveness, are deficient
in judging of the value of things, and easily cheated ; and with mod-
erate Language, are rather wanting in practical talent, and can not
show advantageously what is possessed.
SMALL. Are very deficient in remembering and judging ; lack prac-
tical sense, and should cultivate the knowing and remembering facul-
VERT SMALL. See few things, and know almost nothing about the
external world, its qualities, and relations.
To CULTIVATE. Exercise each separately, and all together, in exam-
ining closely all the material properties of physical bodies ; study the
natural sciences, especially Phrenology ; examine the natural qualities
of all natural objects: 403.
To RESTRAIN is never necessary.
OBSERVATION ; desire to SEE and EXAMINE ; cognizance of
individual OBJECTS. Adapted to individual existence, or the
THINGNESS of things. It is the door through which most
forms of knowledge enter the mind. Perverted, it makes the
starer and the impudently observing.
VERY LARGE. Have an insatiable desire to see and know all about
everything, together with extraordinary powers of observation ; can
not rest satisfied till all is known ; individualize everything, and are
very minute and particular in observation of things ; with large
Ideality, employ many allegorical and like figures ; with large Human
Nature and Comparison, observe every little thing which people say
and do, and read character correctly from what smaller Individuality
would not notice : p. 185.
LARGE. Have a great desire to see, know, examine, experience,
etc. ; are a great and practical observer of men and things ; see what-
ever is transpiring around, what should be done, etc. ; are quick of
perception, knowing, and with large Acquisitiveness, quick to perceive
whatever appertains to property ; with large Parental Love, whatever
concerns children ; with large Alimcntiveness, whatever belongs to
the flavor or qualities of food, and know what things are good by
looking at them ; with large Approbativeness or Self-Esteem, see
quickly whatever appertains to individual character, and whether it
is favorable or unfavorable ; with large Conscientiousness, perceive
No. 83. EPHEAIM BYBAM. No. 89. DEACON SETH TBBET.
readily the moral, or right and wrong of things ; with large Venera-
tion, "see God in clouds, and hear him in the winds;" with large
Ideality, are quick to perceive beauty, perfection, and deformity ; with
large Form, notice the countenances and looks of all met ; with small
Color, fail to observe tints, hues, and shades ; with large Order and
moderate Ideality, perceive disarrangement at once, -yet fail to notice
the want of taste or niceness. These and kindred combinations show
why some persons are very quick to notice some things, but slow to
observe others : p. 184.
FULL. Have good observing powers, and much desire to see and
know things, yet are not remarkable in these respects; with large
Acquisitiveness, but moderate Ideality, are quick to notice whatever
appertains to property, yet fail to observe instances of beauty and de-
formity ; but with large Ideality and moderate Acquisitiveness,
quickly see beauty and deformity, yet do not quickly observe the
qualities of things or value of property; with large Parental Love
and Ideality, see at once indices of beauty and perfection in children ;
but if Ideality and Language are moderate, fail to perceive beauty of
expression or sentiment, etc. : p. 135.
AVERAGE. Observe only the more conspicuous objects, and these
more in general than detail, and what especially interests the stronger
faculties : p. 183.
MODERATE. Are rather deficient in observing disposition and capa-
bility, and should cultivate this faculty ; with large Locality, may
observe places sufficiently to find them again ; with large Order, ob-
serve when things aro out of place ; with large Causality, see that it
may find materials for reasoning, etc. : p. 185.
SMALL. Observe only what is thrust upon the attention, and are
quite deficient in this respect : p. 186.
VERY SMALL. See scarcely anything : p. 186.
To CULTIVATE. Notice whatever comes within the range of your
vision ; observe attentively all the little things done and said by
everybody, all their minor manifestations of character in short, keep
a sharp look-out : 422.
To RESTRAIN of which there is little, if any need look and stare
less, and think more.
No. 90. REUBENS. No. 91. GEO>.GE BELL.
FORM, SIZE, AND COLOK. FORM, SIZE, AND COLOK.
COGNIZANCE and recollection of SHAPE ; memory of COUN-
TENANCES and the LOOKS of persons and things seen ; percep-
tion of RESEMBLANCES, family likenesses, etc. Adapted to
shape. Perverted, sees imaginary shapes of persons, things,
etc., as in delirium tremens.
VERT LARGE. Possess this capability in an extraordinary degree ;
recognize persons not seen for many years ; with large Ideality, take
extreme delight in beautiful forms ; with large Spirituality, see the
spirits of the departed ; with disordered -nerves, see horrid images,
etc. : p. 188.
LARGE. Notice, and for a long time remember, the faces, counte-
nances, forms, looks, etc. , of persons, beasts, and things once seen ;
know by sight many whose name is not remembered ; with Individu-
ality large, both observe and recollect persons and things, but with
Individuality moderate, fail to notice them, and hence to remember
them, unless business or something special draws attention to them ;
with large Parental Love, notice and recollect children, favorite ani-
mals, etc. ; with large Acquisitiveness, Individuality, and Locality,
readily detect counterfeits, etc. : p. 187.
FULL. Have a good recollection of the countenances of persons and
shape of things, yet not remarkably good unless this faculty has been
quickened by practice, or invigorated by some strong incentive to
action ; with large Ideality, will recollect beautiful shapes ; with large
Locality and Sublimity, beautiful and magnificent scenery, etc. ; and
should endeavor to impress the recollection of shape upon the mind :
AVERAGE. Have only a fair natural recollection of shapes, counte-
nances, etc. ; yet with practice may do tolerably well, but without
practice will be only fair in these respects, and should cultivate this
faculty : p. 186.
MODERATE. Are rather deficient in recognizing persons and things
seen ; fail to recognize by their looks those who are related to each
other by blood, and should cultivate this faculty by trying to remem-
ber persons and things : p. 189.
SMALL. Have a poor recollection of persons, looks, etc. ; often meet
persons the next day after an introduction, or an evening interview,
without knowing them ; with Eventuality large, may remember their
history, but not their faces; with Locality large, where they were
seen, but not their looks, etc. : p. 189.
VERY SMALL. Manifest scarcely any of this faculty : p. 189.
To CULTIVATE. Scan the shape of everything you would remem-
ber ; study botany, conchology, Phrenology, and especially those
studies which involve configuration ; when talking to persons, scan
eyes, nose, mouth, chin, forehead, looks, expression of countenance,
especially of eye, as if you were determined ever afterward to remem-
ber them looking at them critically, as a police detective looks at
a rogue, as if saying to himself, "I'll know you, my man, next time
1 see you." . 437.
To RESTRAIN is never necessarv.
COGNIZANCE of BULK, MAGNITUDE, QUANTITY, PROPORTION,
etc. ; ability to measure by the EYE. Adapted to the absolute
and relative magnitude of things. Perverted, it is pained by
disproportion and architectural inaccuracies.
VERY LARGE. Are endowed with an extraordinarily accurate archi-
tectural eye ; detect at one glance any departure from perfect accuracy
and proportion ; often detect errors in the work of good workmen ;
can tell how high, wide, long, far, much, heavy, etc., with perfect
accuracy ; judge correctly, as if hy intuition, the texture, fineness,
coarseness, qualities, etc., of goods; excel in judging of property
where bulk and value are to be estimated by eye ; with Constructive-
ness, can fit nice machinery, and in many things dispense with meas-
uring instruments because accurate enough without, and do best on
work requiring the most perfect accuracy : p. 191.
LARGE. Have an excellent eye for measuring angles, proportions,
disproportions, and departures therefrom, and with large Construc-
tiveness, a good mechanical eye, and judge correctly of quantity in
general ; love harmony of proportion, and are pained by disproportion.
This faculty is necessary to artisans, mechanics, all kinds of dealers,
students, etc. : p. 190.
FULL. Possess a good share of this eye-measuring power, yet are
not remarkable ; with practice, do well ; without it, only fairly, and
in this respect succeed well in their accustomed business : p. 191.
AVERAGE. Have a fair eye for judging of bulk, distances, weight
by the size, etc., and with practice do tolerably well in this respect :
MODERATE. Measure by eye rather inaccurately, and have poor
judgment of bulk, quantity, distance, and whatever is estimated by
this faculty: p. 191.
SMALL. Are obliged always to rely on actual measurements, because
the eye is too imperfect to be trusted : p. 191.
VERT SMALL. Are almost destitute of this faculty : p. 192.
To CULTIVATE. Pass judgment on whatever involves how much,
how heavy, how far, the center, the amount, architectural accuracy,
guessing the weight, the quantity of groceries, of everything by eye-;
judging how much grain to the acre, and everything involving the
exercise of this faculty: 441.
To RESTRAIN. Do not allow architectural inaccuracies or any dispro-
portion to disturb you as much as it naturally does that is, put up
with things not regulated bv size and proportion.
For illustration of Weight large, see Brunell, cut No. 97
INTUITIVE perception and application of the laws of GRAV-
ITY, MOTION, etc. Adapted to man's requisition for keeping
his balance. Perverted, it runs imminent risk of falling by
venturing too far.
VERY LARGE. Have control over the muscular system, hence can
climb or walk anywhere with safety ; can not he thrown by fractious
horses ; are sure-footed ; never slip or fall; are a dead shot, even " on
the wing ;" have an intuitive gift for skating, swimming, balancing,
circus-acting, hurling, everything requiring muscular control ; are an
excellent judge of perpendiculars and levels ; can plumb anything by
the eye ; as a sculptor or other artist, always make the picture or
statue in an easy, natural, and well-balanced attitude, and are annoyed
if the mirror or pictures, etc., do not hang plumb ; with Construc-
tiveness large, will succeed in any mechanical avocation requiring a
steady hand, as in surgery, dental operations, sleight-of-hand perform-
ances, fancy glass-blowing, etc. : p. 194.
LAEGE. Have an excellent faculty for preserving and regaining
balance, riding a fractious horse, skating, carrying a steady hand, etc. ;
easily keep from falling when aloft, or in dangerous places ; throw a
stone, ball, or arrow straight ; are pained at seeing things out of
plumb ; judge of perpendiculars very exactly ; love to climb, walk on
the edge of a precipice, etc. ; with Form and Size large, are an excel-
lent marksman; with Constructiveness large, possess an excellent
faculty for understanding and working machinery ; with Approbative-
ness large, are venturesome, etc., to show what risks can be run with-
out falling : p. 193.
FULL. Have a good degree of this faculty, and with practice excel,
yet without it are not remarkable : p. 194.
AVERAGE. Like full, only less gifted in this respect; with only
average Constructiveness and perceptives, should never engage in
working machinery, because deficient in this talent : p. 192.
MODERATE. Can keep the balance under ordinary circumstances,
yet have rather imperfect control over the muscles in riding a fractious
horse, or walking a narrow beam aloft, hurling, etc. ; with large Cau
tiousness, are timid in dangerous places, and dare not venture far ; are
rather poor in shooting, skating, throwing, etc., unless rendered so
by practice, and should cultivate this faculty by climbing, balancing,
hurling, etc. : p. 194.
SMALL. Are quite liable to sea-sickness, dizziness when aloft, etc. ;
with large Cautiousness, are afraid to walk over water, even on a wide
plank, and where there is no danger ; never feel safe while climbing,
and fall easily : p. 195.
VERY SMALL. Can hardly stand erect, and have very little control
over the muscles : p. 195.
To CULTIVATE. Skate, slide down hill, practice gymnastic feats,
balance a long pole on your hand, walk a fence, climb, ride on horse-
back, go to sea, practice gunnery, archery, thro whig stones, pitching
quoits any thing to call this faculty into exercise : 446.
To RESTRAIN. Do not allow yourself to climb aloft, and walk nar-
row, dangerous places as much as naturally inclined to. Persons often
lose their lives by ambitiously showing what extraordinary feats they
PERCEPTION, recollection, and application of COLORS, and
DELIGHT in them. Adapted to that infinite variety of coloring
interspersed throughout nature. Perverted, are over-particu-
lar to have colors just right.
VEBY LARGE. Have a natural taste and talent, as well as a perfect
passion, for whatever appertains to colors ; can carry colors perfectly
in the eye, and match them from memory ; take the utmost delight
in viewing harmonious colors, and with very large Constructiveness,
Imitation, Form, and Size, and large Weight, a full or large-sided
brain, and organic quality 6 or 7, have a natural taste and talent for
painting, and are a real genius in this line. For combinations see
LARGE. Can discern and match colors by the eye with accuracy ;
with Comparison large, can compare them closely, and detect similar-
ities and differences ; with Constructiveness, Form, Size, and Imitation
large or very large, can excel in painting ; but with Form and Size
only average, can paint better than draw ; with Ideality large, are
exceedingly delighted with fine paintings, and disgusted with imper-
fect coloring ; with large Form and Size, manage the perspective and
lights and shades of painting admirably : p. 195
FULL. Possess a good share of coloring ability and talent, provided
it has been cultivated ; take much pleasure in beautiful flowers, varie-
gated landscapes, beautifully colored fruits, etc. : p. 196.
AVERAGE. Possess a fair share of this talent, yet are not extraordi-
nary : p. 195.
MODERATE. With practice, may judge of colors with considerable
success, yet without it will be deficient in this respect ; with large
Form, Size, Constructiveness, Ideality, and Imitation, may take an
excellent likeness, yet will fail in the coloring : p. 197.
SMALL. May tell the primitive colors from each other, yet rarely
notice the color of dress, eyes, hair, etc. ; can not describe persons
and things by them, and evince a marked deficiency in coloring, taste,
and talent : p. 197.
VERT SMALL. Can hardly tell one color from another, or form any
idea of colors : p. 197.
To CULTIVATE. Observe color in general, and its shadings in par-
ticular ; try to appreciate their beauties ; relish, revel in their richness,
as seen in flower, bird, fruit, lawn, twilight, everywhere, and cultivate
an appreciation of fine paintings : 450.
To RESTRAIN is rarely necessary ; go less into rapturous ecstasy over
a new flower or painting, but give more attention to other things.
METHOD, SYSTEM, ARRANGEMENT. Adapted to Heaven's
first law. Perverted, it overworks, annoys others to keep
things in order, and is tormented by disarrangement.
VERY LARGE. Are perfectly systematic, and are very particular
about order, even to old-maidishness ; work far beyond strength to
have things just so ; and with large Ideality, and an active tempera-
ment, and only fair Vitality, are liable to break down health and
constitution by overworking in order to have things extra nice, and
take more pains to keep things in order than this order is worth ; with
large Ideality, are fastidious about personal appearance, and extra
particular to have every little thing very nice ; and with Acquisitive-
ness added, can not bear to have garments soiled, and are pained in
the extreme by grease-spots, ink-blots, and like deformities : p. 199.
LARGE. Have a desire to conduct business on methodical principles,
and to be systematic in everything; with large Acquisitiveness and
Causality, have good business talents ; with large Locality, have a
place for everything, and everything in its place; with large lime,
have a time for everything, and everything in season ; with large
Continuity, Comparison, and the mental temperament, have every
idea, paragraph, and head of a subject in its proper place ; with large
Constructiveness, have tools always in place, so that they can be
found in the dark ; with large Combativeness, are excessively vexed
by disarrangement ; with large Language, place every word exactly
right in the sentence ; with large Approbativeness, are inclined to con-
form to established usages ; with large Size, must have everything ia
rows, at proper distances, straight, etc. ; and with large Ideality, must
have everything neat and nice as well as methodical, etc. : p. 199.
FULL. If educated to business habits, evince a good degree of
method, and disposition to systematize, but without practice may
sometimes show laxity ; with a powerful mentality, but weaker mus-
cles, may like to have things in order, yet do not always keep them
so ; with large Causality added, show more mental than physical
order ; with large moral organs, like to have religious matters, codes
of discipline, etc. , rigidly observed, and have more moral than per-
sonal method ; with Acquisitiveness and perceptives large, are suffi-
ciently methodical for all practical business purposes, yet not extra
particular : p. 200.
AVERAGE. Like order, yet may not always keep it, and desire more
than practically secure : p. 198.
MODERATE. Are very apt to leave things where they were last used,
and lack method ; with Ideality moderate, lack personal neatness, and
should cultivate this desirable element by being more particular : 20F.
SMALL. Have a very careless, inaccurate way of doing everything ;
leave things where it happens ; can never find what is wanted ; take a
long time to get ready, or else go unprepared, and have everything in
perpetual confusion : p. 201 .
VERY SMALL. Are almost wholly destitute of this arranging power
and desire : p. 201 .
To CULTIVATE. Methodize and arrange everything ; be regular in
all your habits ; cultivate system in business ; have a place for every-
thing, and keep everything in place, so that you could find it in the
dark in short, EXERCISE order: 456.
To RESTRAIN. Work and worry less to keep order, for it costs more
to keep it than it is worth ; you waste your very life and strength hi
little niceties of order which, after all, amount to little, but are cost-
ing you your sweetness of temper and very life itself.
COGNIZANCE of NUMBERS ; ability to reckon figures IN THE
HEAD ; MENTAL arithmetic. Adapted to the relations of num-
VERY LARGE. Possess this calculating capability in a most extraor-
dinary degree ; can add several columns at once very rapidly and cor-
rectly, and multiply and divide with the same intuitive powers ; love
mental arithmetic exceedingly, and with large reflectives, are a natu-
ral mathematician : p. 203.
LAKGE. Excel in mental arithmetic, in adding, subtracting, multi-
plying, dividing, reckoning figures, casting accounts, etc., in the
No. 92. ZKEAH COLBUKN AT NINE.* No. 93. GEOBGE COMBK.*
head ; with large perceptives, have excellent business talents ; and
large Locality and Causality added, excel in the mathematics : p. 202.
FULL. Possess good calculating powers ; with practice, can calculate
in the head or by arithmetical rules easily and accurately, yet without
practice are not remarkable; with large Form, Size, Comparison,
Causality, and Constructiveness, can be a good geometrician or mathe-
matician, yet will do better in the higher branches than merely the
arithmetical : p. 204.
AVERAGE. Can learn arithmetic and do quite well by practice, yet
are not naturally gifted in mental arithmetic : p. 202.
MODERATE. Add, subtract, divide, and calculate with difficulty;
and with large Acquisitiveness and perceptives, will make a better
salesman than book-keeper : p. 204.
SMALL. Are dull and incorrect in adding, subtracting, dividing,
etc. ; dislike figuring ; are poor in arithmetic, both practical and
theoretical, and should cultivate this faculty : p. 205.
VERY SMALL. Can hardly count, much less calculate : p. 205
To CULTIVATE. Add, subtract, divide, multiply, count, and reckon
figures in the head as far as possible, and learn and practice arithmetic.
To RESTRAIN is rarely ever necessary. Avoid counting everything.
* Zerah Colburn, at the age of nine years, without education, astonished the
world by his great calculating talent. George Combe, though he studied mathe-
matics seven years, never could master the multiplication table.
COGNIZANCE of PLACE ; recollection of the LOOKS of places,
roads, scenery, and the LOCATION of objects ; WHERE on a
page ideas are to be found, and position generally; the GEO-
GRAPHICAL faculty; desire to SEE places, and the ability to
FIND them. Adapted to nature's arrangement of space and
place. Perverted, it creates a cosmopolitic disposition, and
would spend everything in traveling.
VEKT LAEQE. Always keep a correct idea of the relative and abso-
lute position, either in the deep forests or the winding street ; can not
be lost ; are perfectly enamored of traveling ; have literally a passion
for it : p. 206.
LARGE. Remember the whereabouts of whatever they see ; can
carry the points of the compass easily in the head, and are lost with
difficulty either in the city, woods, or country ; desire to see places,
and never forget them ; study geography and astronomy with ease ;
and rarely forget where things are seen ; with Constructiveness, re-
member the arrangement of the various parts of a machine ; with
Individuality, Eventuality, and Human Nature, love to see men and
things as well as places, and hence have a passion for traveling :
FULL. Remember places well, yet not extraordinarily so ; can gen-
erally find the way, yet may sometimes be lost or confused ; with large
Eventuality, remember facts better than places : p. 207.
AVERAGE. Recollect places and positions seen several times, yet in
city or roads are occasionally lost ; have no great geographical talent,
yet by study and practice can do tolerably well : p. 205.
MODERATE. Recollect places rather poorly ; dare not trust to local
memory in strange places or large cities ; are not naturally good in
geography, and to excel in it must study hard ; should energetically
cultivate this faculty by localizing everything, and remembering just
how things are placed : p. 207.
SMALL. Are decidedly deficient in finding places, and recollect them
with difficulty even when perfectly familiar with them : p. 208.
VERY SMALL. Must stay at home unless accompanied by others,
because unable to find the way back : p. 208.
To CULTIVATE. Notice, as you go, turns in the road, landmarks,
and objects by the way, geography, and the points of compass, when
you see things, and charge your memory where on a page certain ideag
or accounts stand recorded, and position in general, and study geog-
152 LITERARY FACULTIES.
raphy by maps and traveling, the location of anatomical and phreno-
logical organs, and position or place in general : 4G7.
To RESTRAIN. Settle down, and give over your restless, roving de-
sire to travel.
THESE collect information, anecdotes, and remember mat-
ters of fact and knowledge in general, and give what is called
a good memory. Adapted to facts, dates, and the communi-
cation of ideas and feelings.
VERY LARGE. Have a most remarkable memory ; are extraordinarily
well informed, if not learned and brilliant ; according to advantages
are a first-rate scholar ; have a literal passion for literary pursuits, and
a remarkably knowing mind.
LARGE. Are smart, knowing, and off-hand ; can show off to good
advantage in society ; with large Ideality, are brilliant as well as
FULL. Have a fair, matter-of-fact cast of mind and knowing pow-
ers, fair scholarship, and a good general memory.
AVERAGE. If cultivated, have a good general memory, and store
up considerable knowledge ; yet without cultivation, only a common-
place memory and no great general knowledge.
MODERATE. Know more than you can think of at the time, or tell ;
with large reflective faculties, have more judgment than memory, and
strength of mind than ability to show off.
SMALL OR VERY SMALL. Have a poor memory of most things, and
inferior literary capabilities.
To CULTIVATE. Read, study, inform yourself, read the papers ; keep
pace with the improvements of the day ; study history and the experi-
mental sciences ; and pick up and store up whatever kinds of knowl-
edge, of your line of business, and of matter-of-fact knowledge comes
in y.our way ; write your thoughts in a daily journal or for the press ;
join a lyceum or debating society, and read history or science with a
view to remember its substance, for the purpose of using it in argu-
ment ; remember the news, and tell it to friends ; in short, read,
write, and talk.
To RESTRAIN. Read and study less, but divert your mind from
books and business by cultivating the other, and especially physical
faculties, and never read, or study, or write nights.
No. 94. LARGE. No. 95.-SMALL.
MEMORY of FACTS ; recollection of CIRCUMSTANCES, NEWS,
OCCURRENCES, and historical, scientific, and passing EVENTS ;
what has been SAID, SEEN, HEARD, and once KNOWN. Adapted
to ACTION, or those changes constantly occurring around or
VERY LARGE. Possess a wonderfully retentive memory of everything
like facts and incidents ; with large Language and Imitation, tell a
story admirably, and excel in fiction, etc. ; have a craving thirst for
knowledge, and literally devour books and newspapers, nor allow any-
thing once in the mind to escape it : p. 211.
LARGE. Have a clear and retentive memory of historical facts, gen-
eral-knowledge, what has been seen, heard, read, done, etc., even iu
detail ; considering advantages, are well informed and knowing ; desire
to witness and institute experiments ; find out what is and has been,
and learn anecdotes, particulars, and items of information, and readily
recall to mind what has once entered it ; have a good general matter-
of-fact memory, and pick up facts readily ; with Calculation and Ac-
quisitiveness, remember business matters, bargains, etc. ; with large
social feelings, recall friends to mind, and what they have said and
done ; and with large Locality, associate facts with the place where
they transpired, and are particularly fond of reading, lectures, general
news, etc., and can become a good scholar : p. 210.
FULL. Have a good general memory of matters and things, yet it
is considerably effected by cultivation that is, have a good memory
if it is habitually exercised if not, only an indifferent one ; with largo
Locality, recollect facts by associating them with the place, or by
recollecting where on a page they are narrated ; with large reflectives,
remember principles better than facts, and facts by associating them
with their principles ; and with large Language, tell a story quite
well: p. 212.
AVERAGE. Eecollect leading events and interesting particulars, yet
are rather deficient in memory of items and details, except when it is
well cultivated : p. 209.
MODERATE. Are rather forgetful, especially in details ; and with
moderate Individuality and Language, tell a story very poorly, and
should cultivate memory by its exercise : p. 212.
SMALL. Have a treacherous and confused memory of circumstances;
often forget what is wanted, what was intended to be said, done, etc. ;
have a poor command of knowledge, are unable to swear positively to
details, and should strenuously exercise this remembering power :
VKRY SMALL. Forget almost everything, both generals and par-
ticulars : p. 213.
To CULTIVATE. Charge your mind with whatever transpires ; remem-
ber what you read, see, hear, and often recall and re-impress it, so
that you can swear definitely in a court of justice ; also, impress on
your mind what you intend to do and say at given times ; read his-
tory and study mythology with a view of weaving such knowledge
into the every-day affairs of life ; tell anecdotes, recount incidents in
your own life, putting in all the little particulars ; write down what
you would remember, yet only to impress it, but trust to memory
rather than to manuscript : 476.
To RESTRAIN. Read less ; never allow yourself to recount the pain-
ful vicissitudes of life, or to renew past pain by remembrance, for this
does only damage ; but when you find your mind running on painful
subjects, change it to something else, and forget whatever in the past
COGNIZANCE and recollection of DURATION and SUCCESSION ;
the LAPSE of time, WHEN things occurred, etc., and ability to
carry the time of the day in the HEAD ; PUNCTUALITY.
Adapted to periodicity. Perverted, it is excessively pained
by bad time in music not keeping steps in walking, etc.
VERY LARGE. Can wake up at any pre-appointed hour, tell the
time of day by intuition almost as correctly as with a time-piece, and
the time that transpired between one event and another, and are a
natural chronologist : p. 216.
LARGE. Can generally tell when things occurred, at least the order
of events, and the length of time between one occurrence and another,
etc. ; tell the time of day without time-piece or sun, well ; and keep
an accurate chronology in the mind of dates general and particular ;
with large Eventuality, rarely forget appointments, meetings, etc.,
and are a good historian : p. 215.
FULL. With cultivation, can keep time in music, and also the time
of day in the head quite correctly, yet not exceedingly so : p. 216.
AVERAGE. With practice, have a good memory of dates and succes-
sions, yet without it are rather deficient : p. 214.
MODERATE. Have a somewhat imperfect idea of tune and dates ;
with moderate Individuality, Eventuality, and Language, are a poor
historian : p. 216.
SHALL. Fail to keep the correct time in the head, or awaken at ap-
pointed times ; have a confused and indistinct idea of the time when
things transpired, and forget dates : p. 217.
VERY SMALL. Are almost wholly destitute of this faculty : p. 217.
To CULTIVATE. Periodize everything ; rise, retire, prosecute your
business, everything, by the clock ; appropriate particular times to
particular things, and deviate as seldom as possible ; in short, cultivate
perfect regularity in all your habits, as it respects time: 491.
To RESTRAIN. Break in upon your tread-mill monotony, and deviate
now and then, if only for diversion, from your monotonous routine.
The MUSIC instinct and faculty ; ABILITY to learn and re-
member tunes BY ROTE. Adapted to the musical octave.
Perversion excessive fondness for music to the neglect of
VERY LARGE. Possess extraordinary musical taste and talent, and
ire literally transported by good music ; and with large Imitation and
Constructiveness, fair time, and a fine temperament, are an exquisite
performer ; learn tunes by hearing them, sung once ; sing in spirit and
with melting pathos ; show intuitive taste and skill ; sing from the
. soul to the soul : p. 219.
LARGE. Love music dearly ; have a nice conception of concord,
discord, melody, etc., and enjoy all kinds of music ; and with large
Imitation, Constructiveness, and Time, can make most kinds, and play
well on, musical instruments ; with large Ideality, impart a richness
and exquisiteness to musical performances ; haye a fine ear for music,
and are tormented by discord, but delighted by concord, and take a
great amount of pleasure in the exercise of this faculty ; with large
Combativeness and Destructiveness, love martial music ; with large
Veneration, sacred music ; with large Adhesiveness and Amativeness,
social and parlor music ; with large Hope, Veneration, and disordered
nerves, plaintive, solemn music, etc. : p. 218.
FULL. Have a good musical ear and talent ; can learn tunes by rote
quite well ; and with large Ideality, Imitation, and Firmness, can be
a good musician, yet will require practice : p. 220.
AVERAGE. Have fair musical talents, yet, to be a good musician,
require considerable practice ; can learn tunes by rote, yet with some
difficulty ; with large Ideality and Imitation, may be a good singer
or player, yet are indebted more to art than nature, show more taste
than skill, and love music better than can make it : p. 217.
MODERATE. Have no great natural taste or talent for music, yet,
aided by notes and practice, may sing and play quite well, but will be
rather mechanical ; lack that pathos and feeling which reach the soul :
SMALL. Learn to sing or play tunes with great difficulty, and that
mechanically, without emotion or effect : p. 221.
VERY SMALL. Have scarcely any musical idea or feeling, so little as
hardly to tell Yankee Doodle from Old Hundred : p. 221.
To CULTIVATE. Try to sing ; learn tunes by ear ; practice vocal and
instrumental music, and give yourself up to the spirit and sentiment
of the piece ; attend concerts, listen appreciatingly and feelingly to
gifted performers, and cultivate the soul of music : 504.
To RESTRAIN. Give relatively less time and feeling to music, and
more to other things.
The EXPRESSION of all mental operations by words, written
or spoken, by gestures, looks, and actions ; the COMMUNICATING
faculty and instinct in general. Adapted to man's requisition
for holding communication with man. Perversion verbosity,
pleonasm, circumlocution, garrulity, excessive talkativeness,
telling what does harm, etc.
LANGUAGE. 15 T
VERT LARGE. Are exceedingly expressive in all they say and do ;
have a most expressive countenance, eye, and manner in everything ;
have a most emphatic way of saying and doing everything, and thor-
oughly impress the various operations of their own minds on the
minds of others ; use the very word required by the occasion ; are intu-
itively grammatical, even without study, and say oratorically whatever
No. 96. CHABLES DICKENS. No. 97. BRUNEI.
they attempt to say at all ; commit to memory by reading or hearing
once or twice ; learn languages with remarkable facility ; are both
fluent and copious, even redundant and verbose ; with large or very
large Imitation, add perfect action, natural language, and gesticulation
to perfect verbal expression ; with large Ideality, are elegant and
eloquent ; and with large Individuality, Eventuality, Compfirison, and
organic quality added, possess natural speaking talents of the highest
order ; say the very thing, and in the very way ; choose words almost
as by inspiration, and evince the highest order of communicating
capacity : p. 226.
LARGE. Express ideas and feelings well, both verbally and in writ-
ing ; can learn to speak languages easily ; recollect words, and commit
to memory well ; have freedom, copiousness, and power of expression ;
with large Amativeness, use tender, winning, persuasive words ; with
large Combativeness and Destructiveness, severe and cutting expres-
sions ; with large moral faculties, words expressive of moral senti-
ments ; with large Acquisitiveness, describe in glowing colors what is
for sale ; with large Ideality, employ richness and beauty of expres-
sion, and love poetry and oratory exceedingly ; with large Imitation,
express thoughts and emotions by gesticulation ; with activity great
and Secretiveness small, show in the looks the thoughts and feelings
passing in the mind ; with large reflective faculties, evince thought
and depth in the countenance ; with large Comparison, use just the
words which convey the meaning intended ; with large Ideality, Indi-
viduality, Eventuality, Comparison, and the mental temperament, can
make an excellent editor or newspaper writer ; and with large Causal-
ity added, a philosophical writer : p. 224.
FULL. Say well what is said at all, yet are not garrulous; with
small Secretiveness, speak without qualification, and also distinctly
and pointedly ; express the manifestations of the larger faculties with
much force, yet not of the smaller ones ; with large Secretiveness and
Cautiousness, do not always speak to the purpose, and make ideas fully
understood, but use rather non-committal expressions ; with large
Comparison, Human Nature, Causality, Ideality, activity, organic
quality, and power, have first-rate writing talents, and can speak well,
yet large Secretiveness impairs speaking and writing talents by ren-
dering them wordy and non-committal : p. 227.
AVERAGE. Have fair communicating talents, yet not extra ; with
activity great and Secretiveness small, speak right out, and to the
purpose, yet are not eloquent, and use commonplace words and ex-
pressions ; with large Individuality, Eventuality, and Comparison, and
moderate Secretiveness, can make an excellent writer by practice ; use
none too many words, but express itself clearly and to the point ; with
large Causality, have more thought than language ; with moderate
Individuality and Eventuality, find it difficult to say just what is de-
sired, and are not fully and easily understood ; with large Ideality,
have more beauty and elegance than freedom : p. 222.
MODERATE. Are not particularly expressive in words, actions, or
countenance, nor ready in communicating ideas and sentiments ; with
large Ideality, Eventuality, Comparison, activity, and power, may
succeed well as a writer, yet not as a speaker ; with large Causality
and moderate Eventuality, have abundance of thoughts, but find it
quite difficult to cast them into sentences, or bring in the right adjec-
tives and phrases at the right time ; are good in matter, yet poor in
delivery ; commit to memory with difficulty, and fail to make ideas
and feelings fully understood, and to excite like organs in others ;
with large Eventuality, Locality, Form, and Comparison, may be fair
as a linguist, and learn to read foreign languages, yet learn to speak
them with difficulty, and are barren in expression, however rich in
matter : p. 228.
SMALL. Have poor lingual and communicative talents ; hesitate for
words ; speak with extreme difficulty and very awkwardly, and should
cultivate this faculty by talking and writing much : p. 228.
VERY SMALL. Can hardly remember or use words at all, or even
remember their meaning : p. 229.
To CULTIVATE. Talk, write, speak as much, as eloquently, as well
REFLECTIVE OK REASONING FACULTIES. 159
as you can ; often change clauses with a view to improving sentences ;
erase unnecessary and improper words, and choose the very words ex-
actly expressive of the desired meaning ; throw feeling and expression
into all you say -into action, and expressions of countenance ; study
languages and the classics, but especially fluency in your mother
tongue ; narrate incidents ; tell what you have heard, seen, read,
done ; debate ; if religious, lead in religious exercises anything,
everything to discipline and exercise this faculty: 615.
To RESTRAIN. Talk less ; never break in when others are talking ;
lop off redundancies, pleonasms, and embellishments, and use simple
instead of bombastic expressions.
REFLECTIVE OR REASONING FACULTIES.
No. 98. GALILEO. No. 99. INDIAN "WOMAN.
THESE give a PHILOSOPHIZING, PENETRATING, INVESTIGAT-
ING, ORIGINATING cast of mind ; ascertain CAUSES and abstract
RELATIONS ; CONTRIVE, INVENT, ORIGINATE ideas, etc. Adapted
to the first principles, or laws of things.
VERY LARGE. Possess extraordinary depth of reason and strength
of understanding ; and with large perceptives, extraordinary talents,
and manifest them to good advantage ; with perceptives small, have
great strength of mind, yet a poor mode of manifesting it ; are not
appreciated, and lack intellectual balance, and are more plausible than
reliable, and too deep to be clear.
LARGE. Possess the higher capabilities of intellect ; reason clearly
and strongly on whatever data is furnished . by the other faculties ;
have soundness of understanding, depth of intellect, and that weight
which carries conviction, and contributes largely to success in every-
thing ; with perceptives small, possess more power of mind than can
be manifested, and fail to be appreciated and understood, because more
theoretical than practical.
FULL. Possess fair reflective powers, and reason well from the data
furnished by the other faculties ; and with activity great, have a fair
flow of ideas and good general thoughts.
AVERAGE. Eeason fairly on subjects fully understood, yet are not
remarkable for depth or clearness of idea ; with cultivation, will mani-
fest considerable reasoning power without it, only ordinary.
MODERATE. Are rather deficient in power and soundness of mind ;
but with large perceptives, evince less deficiency of reason than is
SMALL. Have inferior reasoning capabilities.
VERT SMALL. Are almost destitute of thought, idea, and sense.
To CULTIVATE. Muse, meditate, ponder, reflect on, think, study,
and pry deep into the abstract principles and nature of things.
To RESTRAIN. Theorize less, and give more time to the other facul-
No. 100. DK. GALL. No. 101. HEWLETT, ACTOR.
PERCEPTION and application of CAUSATION ; THOUGHT
ORIGINALITY; COMPREHENSIVENESS of mind; FORETHOUGHT
the RESOURCE-creating power ; adaptation of ways and mean?
to ends. Adapted to nature's institutes, plans, cause, and
effect. Perverted, it reasons in favor of untruth and injurious
VERY LARGE. Possess this cause-seeking and applying power to an
extraordinary degree ; perceive by intuition those deeper relations of
things which escape common minds ; are profound in philosophy, and
deep and powerful in reasoning, and have great originality of mind
and strength of understanding : p. 236.
LARGE. Desire to know the WHY and WHEREFORE of things, and to
investigate their LAWS ; reason clearly and correctly from causes to
effects, and from facts to their causes ; have uncommon capabilities of
planning, contriving, inventing, creating resources, and making the
head save the hands ; kill two birds with one stone ; predicate results,
and arrange things so as to succeed ; synthetize, and put things to-
gether well ; with large Combativeness, love to argue ; with large
perceptives, are quick to perceive facts and conditions, and reason
powerfully and correctly from them ; with Comparison and Conscien-
tiousness large, reason forcibly on moral truths ; with the selfish facul-
ties strong, will so adapt ways and means as to serve personal pur-
poses ; with moderate perceptives, excel more in principles and philos-
ophy than facts, and remember laws better than details ; with
Comparison and Human Nature large, are particularly fond of mental
philosophy, and excel therein ; with Individuality and Eventuality
only moderate, are guided more by reason than experience, by laws
than facts, and arrive at conclusions more from reflection than obser-
vation ; with large perceptives, possess a high order of practical sense
and sound judgment ; with large Comparison and moderate Eventu-
ality, remember thoughts, inferences, and subject-matter, but forget
items ; with the mental temperament and Language moderate, make
a much greater impression upon mankind by action than expressions,
by deeds than words, etc. : p. 233.
FULL. Have good cause-seeking and applying talents ; reason, and
adapt ways and means to ends, well ; with large perceptives, Compari-
son, activity, and thought, possess excellent reasoning powers, and
show them to first-rate advantage ; with moderate perceptives and
large Secretiveness, can plan better than reason ; with large Acquisi-
tiveness and moderate Constructiveness, lay excellent money-making,
but poor mechanical plans, etc. : p. 236.
AVERAGE. Plan and reason well in conjunction with the larger
faculties, but poorly with the smaller ones ; with moderate Acquisi-
tiveness, lay poor money-making plans ; but with large Conscientious-
ness, reason well on moral subjects, especially if Comparison is large,
etc. : p. 231.
MODERATE. Are rather deficient in discerning and applying causes ;
perceive them when presented by other minds, yet do not originate
them ; with activity and perceptives large, may do well in the ordi-
nary routine of business, yet fail in difficult matters : p. 237.
SMALL. Are deficient in reasoning and planning power ; need per-
petual telling and showing ; seldom arrange things beforehand, and
then poorly ; should work under others ; lack force of idea and
strength of understanding : p. 238.
VEEY SMALL. Are idiotic in reasoning and planning : p. 238.
To CULTIVATE.-^ First and mainly, study nature's causes and effects,
adaptations, laws, both in general and in those particular departments
in which you may feel any special interest ; think, muse, meditate,
reason ; give yourself up to the influxes of new ideas ; plan ; adapt
ways and means to ends ; endeavor to think up the best ways and
means of overcoming difficulties and bringing about results ; espe-
cially study Phrenology and its philosophy, for nothing is equally
suggestive of original ideas, or as explanative of nature's laws and
first principles: 545-548.
To IVESTRAIN which is rarely necessary divert your mind from ab-
stract thought by engaging more in the practical and real, nor allow
any one thing, as inventing perpetual motion, or reasoning on any
particular subject, to engross too much attention.
No. 102. LINN-EUS.
No. 108. ME. BAELOW.
INDUCTIVE reasoning; ability and disposition to ANALYZE,
CLASSIFY, COMPARE, DRAW INFERENCES, etc. Adapted to na-
ture's classifications of all her works. Perverted, is too re-
dundant in proverbs, fables, and figures of speech.
VERY LARGE. Possess this analyzing, criticising, and inductive
faculty in a truly wonderful degree ; illustrate with great clearness
and facility from the known to the unknown ; discover the deeper
analogies which pervade nature, and have an extraordinary power of
discerning new truths ; with large Individuality, Eventuality, and
activity, have a great faculty of making discoveries ; with large Lan-
guage, use words in their exact meaning, and are a natural philolo-
gist; with full Language, explain things plausibly and correctly:
LARGE. Reason clearly and correctly from conclusions and scientific
facts up to the laws which govern them ; discern the known from the
unknown ; detect error by its incongruity with facts ; have an excel-
lent talent for comparing, explaining, expounding, criticising, expos-
ing, etc. ; employ similes and metaphors well ; put this and that
together, and draw correct inferences from them ; with large Conti-
nuity, use well-sustained figures of speech, but with small Continuity,
drop the figure before it is finished ; with large Individuality, Even-
tuality, activity, and power, have a scientific cast of mind ; with large
Veneration, reason about God and His works ; with large Language,
use words in their exact signification ; with large Mirthfulness, strike
the nail upon the head in all criticisms, and hit off the oddities of
people to admiration ; with large Ideality, evince beauty, taste, and
propriety of expression, etc. : p. 241.
FULL. Possess a full share of clearness and demonstrative power,
yet with large Causality, and only moderate Language, can not ex-
plain to advantage ; with large Eventuality, reason wholly from facts ;
with moderate Language, fail in giving the precise meaning to words ;
and make good analytical discriminations : p. 243.
AVERAGE. Show this talent in a good degree in conjunction with
the larger organs, but poorly in reference to the smaller ones :
MODERATE. Rather fail in explaining, clearing up points, putting
things together, drawing inferences, and even use words incorrectly ;
with Individuality and Eventuality moderate, show much mental
weakness ; with large Causality, have good ideas, but make wretched
work in expressing them, and can not be understood ; with Mirthful-
ness full or large, try to make jokes, but they are always ill-timed
and inappropriate : p. 244.
SMALL. Have a poor talent for drawing inferences ; lack appropri-
ateness in everything, and should cultivate this faculty : p. 244.
VERY SMALL. Have little, and show almost none, of this element :
To CULTIVATE. Put this and that together, and draw inferences ;
spell out truths and results from slighter data ; observe effects, with a
164 nor AN N ALT BE.
view to deduce conclusions therefrom ; study logic and metaphysics,
theology and ethics included, and draw nice discriminations ; explain
and illustrate your ideas clearly and copiously, and exercise it in
whatever form circumstances may require : 536.
To RESTRAIN. Keep back redundant illustrations and amplifications ;
and be careful to base important deductions on data amply sufficient.
C. HUMAN NATURE.
DISCERNMENT of CHARACTER ; perception of MOTIVES ; IN-
TUITIVE physiognomy. Adapted to man's need of knowing
his fellow-men. Perverted, it produces suspiciousness.
VERY LARGE. Form a correct judgment as to the character of all
they meet, and especially of the opposite sex, at the first glance, and
as if by intuition ; may always trust first impressions ; are a natural
physiognomist ; and with Agreeableness large, know just when and
how to take men, and hoodwink if they choose ; and with Secretive-
ness added, but Conscientiousness moderate, are oily and palavering,
and flatter their victim that, serpent-like, salivate before they
swallow ; with Comparison and organic quality large or very large,
dearly love the study of human nature, practically and theoretically,
and therefore of mental philosophy and Phrenology, etc.
LARGE. Read men intuitively from their looks, conversation, man-
ners, and walk, and other kindred signs of character ; with Individu-
ality and Comparison large, notice all the little things they do, and
form a correct estimate from them, and should follow first impressions
respecting persons ; with full Secretiveness and large Benevolence added,
know just how to take men, and possess much power over mind ; with
Mirthfulness and Ideality large, see all the faults of people, and make
much fun over them ; with Comparison large, have a talent for meta-
FULL. Read character quite well from the face and external signs,
yet are sometimes mistaken ; may generally follow first impressions
safely ; love to study character ; with Ideality and Adhesiveness large,
appreciate the excellences of friends ; with Parental Love large, of
children ; with Combativeness and Conscientiousness very large, all
the faults of people ; and with only average Adhesiveness, form few
friendships, in consequence of detecting so many blemishes in charac-
AVERAGE. Have fair talents for reading character, yet not extra,
and should cultivate it.
MODERATE. Fail somewhat in discerning character; occasionally
form wrong conclusions concerning people ; should be more suspicious,
watch people closely, especially those minor signs of character dropped
when off their guard ; have ill-timed remarks and modes of addressing
people, and often say and do things which have a different effect from
SMALL. Are easily imposed upon by others ; with large Conscien-
tiousness and small Secretiveness, think everybody tells the truth ;
are too confiding, and fail sadly in knowing where and how to take
VERY SMALL. Know almost nothing about human nature.
To CULTIVATE. Scan closely all the actions of men, with a view to
ascertain their motives and mainsprings of action; look with a sharp
eye at man, woman, child, all you meet, as if you would read them
through ; note particularly the expression of the eye, as if you would
imbibe what it signifies ; say to yourself, What faculty prompted this
expression or that action ; drink in the general looks, attitude, natu-
ral language, and manifestation of the man, and yield yourself to the
impressions naturally made on you that is, study human nature both
as a philosophy and as a sentiment, or as if being impressed thereby ;
especially study Phrenology, for no study of human nature at all com-
pares with it, and be more suspicious : 540.
To RESTRAIN. Be less suspicious, and more confidential.
PERSUASIVENESS, PLEASANTNESS, BLAXDNESS. Adapted to
please and win others.
VERY LARGE. Are peculiarly winning and fascinating in manners
and conversation, and delight even opponents.
LARGE. Have a pleasing, persuasive, conciliatory mode of addressing
people, and of saying things ; with Adhesiveness and Benevolence
large, are generally liked ; with Comparison and Human Nature large,
say unacceptable things in an acceptable manner, and sugar over ex-
pressions and actions.
FULL. Are pleasing and persuasive in manner, and with Ideality
large, polite and agreeable, except when the repelling faculties are
strongly excited ; with small Secretiveness, and strong Combativeness
and activity, are generally peasant, but when angry are sharp and
blunt ; with large Benevolence, Adhesiveness, and Mirthfulness, are
AVERAGE. Have a good share of pleasantness in conversation and
appearance, except when the selfish faculties are excited, but are then
MODERATE. Are rather deficient in the pleasant and persuasive, and
should by all means cultivate this faculty by smoothing over all said
SMALL. Say even pleasant things very unpleasantly, and fail sadly
in winning the good graces of people.
VERY SMALL. Are almost totally deficient in this faculty.
To CULTIVATE. First try to fed agreeably, and express those feelings
in as pleasant and bland a manner as possible ; study and practice
politeness as both an art and a science ; compliment what in others
you can find worthy, and render yourself just as acceptable to thotw
around you as lies in your power : 300.
To KESTRATN is rarely necessary
BULES FOB FINDING THE OKGANS. 167
FOR FINDING THE ORGANS.
PRE-EMINENTLY is Phrenology a science of FACTS. Observation dis-
covered it observation must perfect it ; observation is the grand
instrumentality of its propagation. To be convinced of its truth, nine
hundred and ninety-nine men out of every thousand require to SEE it
to be convinced by INDUCTION, founded upon experiment. Hence
the importance of giving definite RULES for finding its organs, by
which even disbelievers may test the science, and believers be con-
firmed in its truth, and advanced in its study.
The best mode of investigating its truth is somewhat as follows :
You know a neighbor who has extreme Firmness in character who
is as inflexible as the oak, and as obstinate as the mule. Now, learn
the location of the phrenological organ of Firmness (see cuts No. 68,
69) and apply that location to his head that is, see whether he has
this organ as conspicuous as you know him to have this faculty in
character, and if you find a coincidence between the two, you have
arrived at a strong phrenological fact.
You know another neighbor who is exceedingly cautious, timid,
safe, wise, and hesitating ; who always looks at the objections and
difficulties in the way of a particular measure, instead of at its advan-
tages ; who always takes abundant time to consider, and is given to
procrastination. Learn the location of Cautiousness (see cuts No. 63,
64), and see whether he has this phrenological organ as conspicuous
as you know this faculty to exist in his character. By pursuing this
course, you can soon arrive at a sure knowledge of the truth or falsity
of phrenological science ; and altogether the best mode of convincing
unbelievers of its truth is by means of the marked coincidence be-
tween the phrenology and character of those they know. Nor is it
possible for the human mind to resist proof like this.
To promote this practical knowledge the application of this science
we give the following RULES FOR FINDING its organs, fully assured
that we can fill our pages with nothing more interesting or useful.
Follow these rules exactly, and you will have little difficulty in finding
at least all the prominent ones.
168 BULBS FOE FINDING THE ORGANS.
Your first observation should be made upon TEMPERAMENT, or organi-
zation and physiology, with this principle for your basis : that when
bodily texture or form is coarse, or strong, or fine, or soft, or weak,
or sprightly, the texture of the brain will correspond with that of
body, and the mental characteristics with that of the brain. But we
have already discussed the influence of various temperaments upon
the direction of the faculties.
Tour second observation should be to ascertain what faculties CON-
TROL the character, or what is the dominant motive, desire, object, or
passion of the person examined. In phrenological language, what
faculties predominate in action. And it should here be observed that
the relative size of organs does not always determine this point. Some
faculties, though very dominant in power, can not, in their very na-
ture, constitute a motive for action, but are simply executive func-
tions, simply carrying into effect the dominant motives. For example,
Combativeness rarely ever becomes a distinct motive for action. Few
men love simply to struggle, quarrel, or fight for fun, but exercise
Combativeness merely as a means of obtaining the things desired by
the other dominant faculties. Few men have for their motive the
mere exercise of will. That is, Firmness is generally exercised to
carry into effect the designs of the other faculties ; and instead of
subjecting the other faculties to itself, simply keeps them at their
work, whatever it may be. And thus of some other faculties. But
Amativeness, Friendship, Alimentiveness, Acquisitiveness, Benevo-
lence, Veneration, Conscientiousness, Intellect, Constructiveness, Ide-
ality, or the observing faculties, may each become dominant motives.
And it requires much phrenological shrewdness to ascertain what single
faculty, cluster, or combination of faculties leads off the character.
Let us take, then, for our starting-point the outer angle of the eye,
and draw a line to the middle of the top of the ears, and DESTRUC-
nvENESs (see cuts No. 55, 56) is exactly under this point, and extends
upward about half an inch above the top of the ears. In proportion
to its size will the head be wide between the ears. When Secretive-
ness is small and Destructiveness large, there will be a horizontal
ridge extending forward and backward, more or less prominent,
according to the size of this organ.
SECRETIVENESS is located three quarters of an inch above the middle
of the top of the ears. When this organ is large, it rarely gives a
distinct projection, but simply fills and rounds out the head at this
point (see cuts No. 61, 62). When the head widens rapidly from the
junction of the ears as you rise upward, Secretivcness is larger than
Destructiveness ; but when the head becomes narrower as you rise, it
is smaller than Destructiveness.
To find these two organs, and their relative size, place the third
RULES FOR FINDING THE ORGANS. 169
finger of each hand upon the head, just at the top of the ears ; let
the lower side of the third finger be even with the upper part of the
ear; that finger then rests upon Destructiveness. Then spread the
second finger about one eighth of an inch from the other, and it wiH
rest upon Secretiveness. Let the end of your longest finger come as
far forward as the fore part of the ears, and they will then rest upon
these two organs.
Take, next, this same line, starting from the outer angle of the eye,
to the top of the ears, and extend it straight backward an inch and a
half to an inch and three quarters, and you are on Combativencss
(see cuts No. 53, 54). This organ starts about midway to the back part
of the ears, and runs upward and backward toward the crown of the
head. To ascertain its relative size, steady the head with one hand,
say the left, and place the balls of your right fingers upon the point
just specified, letting your elbow be somewhat below the subject's
head, which will bring your fingers directly ACROSS the organ. Its
size may be ascertained partly from the general fullness of the head,
and partly from its sharpness, according as the organ is more or less
active ; yet observers sometimes mistake this organ for the mastoid
process directly behind the lower part of the ears. Remember our
rule, namely : a line drawn from the outer angle of the eye to the top
of the ear, and continued an inch and a half or three quarters straight
back. Follow that rule, and you can not mistake the position of this
organ ; and will soon, by comparing different heads, be able to arrive
at those appearances when large or small.
To find PARENTAL LOVK (see cuts No. 45, 46), extend this line
straight back to the middle of the back head, and you are on the
organ ; and in proportion as the head projects backward behind the
ears at this point, will this organ be larger or smaller.
About an inch, or a little less, directly BELOW this point, is the organ
which controls MUSCULAR MOTION ; and in proportion as this is more or
less prominent, will the muscular system be more or less active and
powerful. Those who have this prominence large will be restless,
always moving a hand or foot when sitting, and even when sleeping ;
will be light-footed, easy-motioned, fond of action, and willing to
work, as well as possessed of a first-rate constitution. But when that
prominence is weak, they will be found proportionally inert.
IXHABITIVENESS is located three fourths of an inch ABOVE Parental
Love (see cuts No. 47, 48). When Inhabitiveness is large, and Con-
tinuity is moderate, there will be found a prominence somewhat
resembling an angle of a triangle, at the middle of the head, together
with a sharp prominence at this point. But when Inhabitiveness is
small, there will be a depression just about large enough to receive
the end of a finger, with the bow downward.
170 KULES FOE mSTDIiSTG THE ORGANS.
An inch on each side of this point is FRIENDSHIP. When Friendship
is large, especially if Inhabit! ven ess and Continuity are small, there
will he two swells, somewhat resembling the larger end of an egg ;
but if small, the head will retire at this point.
CONTINUITY (see cuts No. 49, 50) is located directly above Inhabitive-
ness and Friendship. Its deficiency causes a depression resembling a
new moon, with the horns turning DOWNWARD, surrounding the organs
of Inhabitiveness and Friendship. When Continuity is large, how-
ever, there will be no swell, but simply a FILLING our of the head at
AMATIVENESS (see cuts No. 43, 44) may be found thus.: Take the
middle of the back part of the cars as your starting-point ; draw a line
backward an inch and a half, and you are upon this organ. Yet the
outer portion next to the ear exercises the more gross and animal
function of this faculty, while the inner portion takes on a more spir-
To find CAUTIOUSNESS (see cuts No. 63, 64), take the back or posterior
part of the ears as your starting-point. Draw a perpendicular line,
when the head is erect, from the extreme back part of the ear, straight
up the side of the head, and just where the head begins to round off
to form the top, Cautiousness is located. This organ is generally well
developed in the American head, and those prominences, generally
seen at this point, are caused by a full development of this faculty.
To find ALIMENTIVENESS (see cuts No. 57, 58), take the upward and
forward junction of the ear with the head as your starting-point;
draw a line half an inch forward, inclining a little downward, and you
are upon this organ. Then rise three quarters of an inch straight
upward, and you are on that part of ACQUISITIVENESS which gets prop-
erty. Yet a-better rule for finding it is this : Find Secretiveness in
accordance with the rule already given, and Acquisitiveness is an inch
TORWARD of the point, and about an inch above the middle of the tip
of the ear. Or thus : Take the middle of the top of the ear as your
Btarting-point ; draw a perpendicular line an inch upward, and you
are on Secretiveness ; then about an inch forward, and you are on
Acquisitiveness (see cuts No. 59, 60). When the head widens rapidly
as you pass from the outer angles of the eyes to the top of the ears,
Acquisitiveness is large ; but when the head is thin in this region,
Acquisitiveness is small.
SUBLIMITY, IDEALITY (see cuts No. 80, 81), and CONSTRUCTIVENESS (see
outs No. 78, 79) can be found by the following rule : First find Cau-
tiousness as already directed ; then pass directly forward an inch, and
you are on Sublimity ; extend this line on another inch, and you are
on Ideality ; then an inch downward brings you upon Constructiveness.
It should be remembered that Cautiousness, Sublimity, and Ideality
BULKS FOB F1XDIXG THE OHCAKS. 171
are just .upon the round of the head, or between its top and sides.
Usually the head is much wider at Cautiousness than at Sublimity,
and at Sublimity than Ideality. When, however, the head is as wide
at Ideality as at Cautiousness, the subject will possess unusual good
taste, purity, refinement, elevation, and personal perfection. Half an
inch forward of Ideality is the organ which appertains to dress, and
secures personal neatness. In those who care but little what they
wear, or how they appear, this organ will be found small.
FIRMNESS (see cuts No. 68, 69) can best be found by the following
rule : Let the subject sit or stand erect, and hold the head in a line
with the spinal column. Taking the opening of the ear as your start-
ing-point, draw a line straight upward till you reach the middle line
on the top of the head, and you are on the fore part of Firmness.
When this organ is large, and Veneration small, its forward termina-
tion resembles in shape the fore part of a smoothing-iron, rapidly
widening as it runs backward. The organ is usually about an inch
and a half long.
SELF-ESTEEM (see cuts No. 66, 67) is an inch and a half back of Finn-
ness. Its upper part gives a lofty, aspiring air, magnanimity, and a
determination to do something worthy ; while half an inch farther
back is that part of Self-Esteem which gives WILL, love of liberty, and
a determination not to be ruled.
APPROBATIVENESS (see cut No. 65) is located on the two sides of Self-
Esteem, about an inch outwardly. These two lobes run backward
toward Friendship, and upward toward Conscientiousness.
The relative size of Approbativeness and Self-Esteem may be found
thus : Place one hand, say the left, upon the forehead, to steady the
head ; point the finger from above directly down upon Firmness ; then
move it two inches directly backward, and place the balls of the second
and third fingers upon the points just found. When Self-Esteem is
small, these balls will fall into the hollow which indicates its defi-
ciency, while the ends of the fingers will strike upon the swells caused
by Approbativeness, when this organ is large ; and the middle of the
second joint of these fiagers will apprehend the size of that lobe of
Approbativeness which is next to it. Or thus : Stand behind the pa-
tient, and so place your fingers upon his head that the second finger
shall reach upward to the back part of Firmness ; then lay the first
and second joints of that finger evenly with the head, and place the
first and third fingers upon the head alongside of it. When Self-
Esteem is larger than Approbativeness, the second finger will be pushed
up farther than the others ; but when the two lobes of Ap'probative-
ness are larger than Self-Esteem, the second finger will fall ink- a
hollow running up and down, while the first and third fingers will
rest upon the two lobes of Approbativeness. Or thus : In nineteen
172 KULES FOli FINDING THE ORGANS.
females out of every twenty, Appr jbativeness will be found consider-
ably larger than Self-Esteem ; and by applying this rule to their heads,
a hollow will generally be found at Self-Esteem, and a swell at Appro-
bativeness, by which you can localize these organs ; and a few appli-
cations will soon enable you to form correct ideas of their appearance
when large and small.
HOPE and CONSCIENTIOUSNESS (see cuts No. 72, 73) are found thus :
That line already drawn to find Firmness passes over the back part of
Hope, which is on each side of the fore part of Firmness, while Con-
scientiousness is just back of that line, on the two sides of the back
part of Firmness, and joins Approbativeness behind.
As these two organs run lengthwise from Firmness down toward
Cautiousness, and are near together, it is sometimes difficult to deter-
mine which is large, and which small. -The upper part of Conscien-
tiousness, next to Firmness, experiences feelings of obligation to God,
or sense of duty to obey His laws ; while the lower part creates a feel-
ing of obligation to our fellow-men.
VENERATION (see cuts No. 74, 75) is on the middle of the top of the
head, or about an inch forward of the point already described for
finding Firmness ; while BENEVOLENCE (see cuts No. 76, 77) is about
an inch forward of Veneration. When, therefore, the middle of the
top-head rounds out and rises above Firmness and Benevolence, Ven-
eration is larger than either of these organs ; but when there is a swell
at Benevolence, and a depression as you pass backward in the middle
of the head, and another rise as you pass still farther back to Firm-
ness, Veneration is smaller than Benevolence or Firmness. The back
of Benevolence experiences philanthropy and a desire to do good and
remove evil on a large scale, while the fore part sympathizes and
bestows minor gifts in the family and neighborhood. The fore part
of Veneration gives respect for our fellow-men, while the back part
supplicates and depends upon the Deity. The fore part of Firmness,
working with Conscientiousness, gives moral decision ; while the lat-
ter, acting with Self-Esteem, gives physical decision, determination to
accomplish material objects, and what we commonly call perseverance.
SPIRITUALITY is located on each side of Veneration. It may be
found by the following rules : Standing behind the subject, Avho should
be seated, so place your fingers that the first fingers of each hand shall
be about an inch apart that the ends of your second fingers shall be
about three quarters of an inch forward of a line drawn across the
middle of the head from side to side, and the balls of your fingers
will be on Spirituality. Or, reversing your position, so as to stand in
FRONT of the subject, so place your hands that the first fingers of each
hand shall be as before, about an inch apart, and the ends of your
longest fingers shall just touch the fore part of Hope, and the balls
BULES FOR FINDING THE OEGAN8. 173
of your second and third fingers will rest on Spirituality. This organ
is generally low, so that it may usually be found by that depression
which indicates its smallness. When it is large, the head is filled out
in this region, instead of sloping rapidly from Veneration. Its two
lobes are about an inch on each side of Veneration, and directly above
IMITATION (see cuts No. 82, 83) is upon the two sides of Benevolence,
directly forward of Spirituality. The best rule for finding it is this :
Standing in front of the subject, place your hands so that the first
fingers <if each hand shall be separated about three quarters of an inch,
and the end of your longest finger shall reach a line drawn through
Veneration and Spirituality that is, through the middle of the head
from side to side and the balls of your fingers will be on Imitation.
It will be found larger in children than adults ; so that the ridge
usually found in their heads at this point may be taken as the loca-
tion of this organ. It runs from Benevolence downward toward
Constructiveness. The upper part, toward Benevolence, mimics ; the
lower part, toward Constructiveness, makes after a pattern, copies, etc.
"We are now brought to the intellectual lobe. Take the root of the
nose as your starting-point ; the first organ met in passing upward is
INDIVIDUALITY (see cuts No. 88, 89). It is between the eyebrows, and
when large causes them to arch DOWNWAED at their inner termination,
and that part of the head to project forward.
EVENTUALITY (see cuts No. 94, 95) is three quarters of an inch up-
ward, and slightly below the center of the forehead, which in children
is usually large, and in adults frequently small. From this center of
the forehead, COMPARISON (see cuts No. 102, 103) extends upward to
where the head begins to slope backward to form the top of the head ;
at which point, or between Benevolence and Comparison, HUMAN NA-
TURE is located, which is usually large in the American head, as is also
Comparison. AGEEEABLENESS is located about an inch on each side of
the organ of Human Nature, and is usually small, so that we can
ascertain its location by observing its deficiency. When both of these
organs are large, the forehead will be wide and full as it rounds back-
ward to form the top-head, or where the hair makes its appearance.
CAUSALITY (see cuts No. 100, 101) is located about an inch on each side
of Comparison, and MIRTHFULNESS (see cuts No. 84, 85) about three
quarters of an inch still farther outwardly, toward Ideality. FORM
(see cuts No. 90, 91) is located internally from Individuality, just
above and partly between the eyes, so as to set them wider apart, in
proportion as it is the larger.
SIZE is located just in the turn between the nose and eyebrows, or
beneath the inner portion of the eyebrows ; and when large, causes
their inner portions to project outward over the inner portion of the
174: RULES TOR FINDING THE ORGANS.
eyes, like the eaves of a house, giving to the eyes a sunken appear-
ance. Size can generally be observed by sight, yet if you would test
your sight by touch, proceed as follows : Place the end of your thumb
against the bridge of the nose, with the lower part of your hand
turned outward, and your thumb lying nearly parallel with the eye-
brows, and the ball of your thumb will be upon Size. When this
organ is large, there will be a fullness in this region, as if half a bean
were beneath your thumb.
To find WEIGHT and COLOR, proceed as follows : Let the eyes be
directed straight forward, as if looking at some object ; draw an imag-
inary line from the middle of the eye to the eyebrow ; Weight is
located internally from this line beneath the eyebrows, while Color ia
located beneath the eyebrows, just outwardly from this line. ORDEK
is located just externally to Color, and TIME partly above and between
Color and Order.
CALCULATION (see cuts No. 92, 93) is located beneath the outer ter-
mination of the eyebrows, and in proportion as they are long and.
extend backward of the eye, will this organ be more or less developed.
Three fourths of an inch ABOVE the outer angle of the eyebrow, TUNE
is located. Spurzheim's rule for finding it is this : Stand directly
before the subject, and if the head widens over the outer eyebrow aa
you rise upward, Tune is large ; but if you observe a hollow at this
point, Tune is small. I have generally found this organ small in
adults, so that it is difficult to find its relative size, but in children it
is very easily found. Its decline is consequent on its non-exercise.
Time and Tune join each other, while Time, Tune, and Mirthfulness
occupy the three angles of a triangle, nearly equilateral, the shortest
Bide being between Time and Tune.
LANGUAGE (see cuts No. 96, 97) is located partly above and partly
behind the eyes. When it is large, it pushes the eyes downward and
outward, and of course shoves them forward, which gives them a full
and swollen appearance, as if they were standing partly out of their
sockets, and causes both the upper and under eyelids to be wide and
broad. When the eyes are sunken, and their lids narrow, Language
will be found small.
By following these rules exactly and specifically, the precise location
of the organs can be ascertained, and a few observations upon heads
will soon teach you the appearance of the respective organs when they
are large, small, or midway in size. Some slight allowances are to be
made, however, in calculating the size of the head, or the relative
size of the organs. Thus, the larger Combative-ness is, the longer
the line from Combativeness to the ear ; yet large and small Combat-
iveness do not vary this line over from a quarter to half an inch.
Probably the most difficult point of discrimination is between Hope
EULES FOR FINDING THE ORGANS.
and Conscientiousness, and it should be distinctly borne in mind that
Hope is generally placed too far forward. Between Hope, Cautious-
ness, and Approbativeness there probably exists an organ, the natural
functions of which are discretion. It measures words and acts, and in
business leads one to take receipts, draw writings, etc. There are
doubtless other organs yet undiscovered, especially in the middle line
of the head, between Benevolence and Parental Love, and also between
Imitation and Causality. Phrenology is yet in its infancy. Though
it is perfect in itself, yet our KNOWLEDGE of it is not yet perfected.
As every successive generation make advances upon the preceding one
in astronomy, chemistry, and other departments of science, so Gall
and Spurzheim have discovered only the landmarks of this science, and
have left much to be filled up by us and those who come after us.
TRADES AND PROFESSIONS.
A dash ( ), placed before the name of a trade or profession, indi-
ates that the person might succeed in those thus marked.
Agent, General Business.
Agent, Insurance, Express.
Captain of Steamer.
Designer of Carpets, Decora-
tions, Prints, Structures,
Finisher, of Work.
TKADES A^D PROFESSIONS.
President, Insurance Co.
President of a Public Body.
Justice of Peace.
Real Estate Dealer.
Merchant, Dry Goods'.
Watchmaker (fine work).
Walking Gentleman, Hotel.
Walking Gentleman, Store.
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