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Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 












Digitized by 



"TK^. i . Uj. R^odL^^yi^M^ 

Copyright, 190S, 1904, 1906, 190S, 1907 
By Dodd, Mead and Company 

AU rights reserved 

Prbsswork by The Univbrsity Prbss, Cambridgb, U. S. A. 
Binding bv Boston Bookbinding Co., Cambridgb, U. S. A. 

Digitized by 



Facsno Paos 


Mabsuplals 106 

msdfsjs and siphonophoba 274 

MnocBAXooY •••••••• 540 


Habtland • • • 124 

Massachusetts '•••••• 154 

Mexico ••..••. 404 

Michigan 440 

Milwaukee 526 

Minneapolis 556 

Minnesota 558 

Mississippi 602 

MissouBi 616 

Montana . . . • < 746 


Map, TopoGBApmcAL • . . . 34 

Maple 36 

Mabblb 40 

Megalithic Monuments 276 

Meissonieb, Jean Louis Ebnest ("Friedland, 1807") 282 

Metal-Wobking Machineby 368 

City of Mexico — ^The Cathedbal 418 

Michelangelo ("Creation of Adam**) 432 

Michelangelo ("Moses'') 434 

MicBOscoPE 452 

MiCBOScoPY, Clinical 466 

Milan — The Cathedbal 480 

Digitized by 



FAcnro Paoi 

Millet— ("The Gleaners") 516 

Milton, John • . . 624 


Mint 672 

Mint, etc 673 

Monkeys, Amebioan 726 

Monkeys op the Old World 727 

Monocotyledons, Types of , 730 

Mont St. Michel 774 

Moon 778 

Digitized by 










as in ale, fate. Also see 4, below. 

*' " senate, chaotic. Also see 4, below. 

" " glare, care. 

" ** am, at. 

" " arm, father. 

" *' ant, and final a in America, armada, 
etc. In rapid speech this yowel read- 
ily becomes more or less obscured and 
like the neutral vowel or a short 

** " final, r^;al, where it is of a neutral or 
obscure quality. 

" " aU,falL 

" " eve. 

" *' elate, evade. 

" " end, pet. The characters ^, a, and i 
are used for 4 in German, as in Gftrt- 
ner, Grftfe, Hfthnel, to the values of 
which they are the nearest English 
vowel sounds. The sound of Swedish 
d is also indicated by d. 

^ " fern, her, and as i in sir. Also for d, 
oe, in German, as in €^the, Goethe, 
Ortel, Oertel, and for eu and oeu in 
French, as in Neufchfttel, Cr^vecoeur; 
to which it is the nearest English 
vowel soimd. 

" " agency, judgment, where it is of a neu- 
tral or obscure quality. 

" " ice, quiet. 

" " quiescent. 

" " ill, fit. 

" " old, sober. 

" " obey, sobriety. 

" *' orb, nor. 

" ** odd, forest, not. 

" " atom, carol, where it has a neutral or 
obscure quality. 

*' " oil, boil, and for eu in German, as in 

'' " food, fool, and as i« in rude, rule. 

** " house, mouse. 

" " use, mule. 

" " unite. 

" " cut, but. 

'' '' full, put, or as oo in foot, book. Also 
for U in German, as in Mfinchen, 
Mtlller, and u in French, as in 
Buchez, Bud6; to which it is the 
nearest English vowel sound. 

" ** urn, bum. 

" « yet, yield. 

'* " the Spanish Habana, Cord<$ba, where it 
is like a v made with the lips alone, 
instead of with the teeth ana lips. 

** ** chair, cheese. 

D as in the Spanish Almodovar, pulgada, where 
it is nelLrly like th in English then, 

8 " " go, get. 

G " '* the German Landtag, and oh in Feuer- 
bach, buch; where it is a guttural 
sound made with the back part of the 
tongue raised toward the soft palate, 
as in the sound made in clearing the 

H as / in the Spanish Jijona, g in the Span- 
ish gila; where it is a fricative some- 
what resembling the soimd of % in 
English hue or y in yet, but stronger. 

hw *' wh in wmch. 

K '' c^ in the German ich, Albrecht, and g 
in the German Arensberg, Mecklen- 
burg; where it is a fricative sound 
made between the tongue and the 
hard palate toward which the tongue 
is raised. It resembles the sound 
of % in hue, or y in yet ; or the sound 
made by beginning to pronounce a k, 
but not completing the stoppage of 
the breath. The character k is also 
used to indicate the rough aspirates 
or fricatives of some of the Oriental 
languages, as of kh in the word Khan. 

n as in sinker, longer. 

ng " ** sing, long. 

N " ** the French bon, Bourbon, and m in the 
French Etampes ; where it is equiva- 
lent to a nasalizing of the preceding 
vowel. This effect is approximately 
produced by attempting to pronounce 
'onion' without touching the tip of 
the tongue to the roof of the mouth. 
The corresponding nasal of Portu- 
guese is also indicated by n, as in the 
case of Sfto AntSo. 

•h " " shine, shut. 

th " " thrust, thin. 

TH " " then, this. 

zh as £r in azure, and 8 in pleasure. 
An apostrophe ['] is sometimes used to denote 

a glide or neutral connecting vowel, as in tfi^b'! 

(table), kftz^'m (chasm). 
Otherwise than as noted above, the letters used 

in the respellings for pronunciation are to receive 

their ordinary English sounds. 

When the pronunciation is sufficiently shown 

by indicating the accented syllables, this is done 

without respelling; as in the case of very common 

English words, and words which are so spelled as 

to insure their correct pronunciation if they are 

correctly accented. See the article on Pnoifuw- 


Digitized by 




Professor Charles Russell Richards. Professor Alpheus Spring Packard and 


Professor Arthur L. Frothingham. METEMPSYCHOSIS 


Dr. Allan Herbert Willett. METEOROLOGY. 


Professor Melanchthon W. Jacobus. METHODISM. 

Professor John Merle Coulter. 


Professor Edward W. Hopkins. 


Professor Cleveland Abbe. 


Professor John Alfred Faulkner. 


Professor Munroe Smith, Professor METRE. 
Franklin H. Giddings, and Dr. Har- Mr. Vamum Lansing Collins. 

MARTINIQUE. Dr. George Kriehn. 

Professor Angelo Heilprin. MICROSCOPE. 
MARX, KARL. Professor William Hallock. 

Professor Samuel McCune Lindsay. MICROSCOPY, CLINICAL. 
MASONS, FREE. Dr. Frederick R. Bailey. 

^'lH.nI!!'ii"r?fTni T^f " "^^ ^' MIDDLE AGES. 

Thomas Gaffney Taaflfe. Professor Dana Carleton Munro. 

^^' Rev. Thomas J. Campbell, S. J. ''''^''^lo^l'^dward Hunter. 


Professor Francis M. Burdick. j^^ ^^^^^ Charles True, Dr. Mareu. 

MATERIALISM. Benjamin, and Dr. E. W. Allen. 

Professor Evander Bradley McGilvary. miltON. 
MATHEMATICS. Professor Wilbur Lucius Cross. 

Professor David Eugene Smith. MINERALOGY. 
MATTER. Mr. Herbert Percy Whitlock. 

Professor Joseph Sweetman Ames. MINING. 
MTCA T. Mr. Charles Shattuck HiU. 

Dr. Alfred Charles True. MISSIONS. 
MECHANICS. Professor Thomas Joseph Shahan and 

Professor Joseph Sweetman Ames. Dr. Henry Otis Dwight. 


Professor Francis R. Packard. Mr. Cyrus C. Adams and others. 


Dr. Alfred O. Lee. Professor Edwin A. Start and Mr. 

MEDUSA. Charles C. Sherman. 

Professor Alpheus Spring Packard and MOHAMMEDANISM. 

Mr. Gilbert Van Ingen. t>" ,vJl™ iV • t * j »%_ 

**T^in,^TTmxTxr^ ^,^^^T,^«^^« Professor Morns Jastrow and Pro- 

MEGALITHIO MONUMENTS. fessor Richard J. H. GottheiL 

MELANCHTHON. Professor Richard J. H. GottheiL 

Dr. James Maurice Whiton. 


Professor Edward Bradford Titchener. ^^' ^njamin Willis Wells. 


Professor Samuel McCune Lindsay. ^' Ja^^es J- Walsh. 


Dr. Albert Warren Ferris. I>r. Roland P. Falkner. 


Rev. Francis Edgar Mason. Professor Alvin Sydney Johnson and 

MESSIAH. I>r- Harlan F. Stone. 

Professor Nathaniel Schmidt and Dr. MOON. 
Reginald H. Starr. Professor Harold Jacoby. 

^^"^ P^JfSS w?i^®- T. K.^ XX uu MORAVIANS. 

Professor William Herbert Hobbs. Professor J. Taylor Hamilton. 

Digitized by 



MAKNA - CBOUP, or Manna 
Gboats. a kind of semolina, 
prepared in Kussia, ufliially from 
the hard wheats of Odessa and 
Taganrog. Another kind is made 
by husking the small grain of the 
aquatic grass Olyceria fluitana, which is care- 
l\il\y collected for the purpose; it is expensive, 
aiid is used only as a luxury. 

'MJlS^A.'QJSLASB, Floating Fescue, Float- 
rsQ Sweet Meadow Grass, etc. {Olyceria or 
Fanicularia fluitana), A perennial grass, three 
leet tall, found in marshes, ditches, and by the 
sides of stagnant pools in Europe, Asia, North 
America, and Australia. The stems are decum- 
bent at the base, and rooting at the loints; the 
leaves long and rather broad, the lower ones 
often floating; the inflorescence, a long, slender, 
nearly erect panicle. In irrigated meadows and 
in very wet grounds, manna-graas affords large 
craantities of cattle food. In many parts of 
Germany and Poland the seeds — which fall very 
readily out of the spikelets — are collected by 
spreading a cloth under the panicles and shak- 
ing them with a stick ; they are used in soups and 
gruels, are very palatable and nutritious, and 
are known as Polish manna. They are a favorite 
food of geese, and are also eagerly devoured by 
carp and other kinds of fish. 

KAHKA-INSEGT. A scale-insect ( Ooaaypa- 
ria mannifera) which lives on tamarisk in many 
places in countries bordering upon the Mediter- 
ranean Sea and produces 'manna,' which is a sub- 
stance very like honey. It is surely a product 
of the insect and not a secretion of the plant, 
although formerly it was supposed to exude from 
the plant through punctures made by the insect. 
The insect is found in Algeria, Arabia, Armenia, 
and Southern Russia. Formerly it was known as 
Coccus manmferua, or Chermes numnifer, the 
latter, the earliest name, having been proposed 
by Hardwick in 1822. 

MANNEBJBTB. A term applied to painters 
and jBculptors who make an exaggerated or im- 
meaning use of inherited or acquired forms, 
without independent study of nature and without 
understanding their significance. A work of art 
18 mannered when the forms are inappropriate 
to the ideas expressed. The term Mannerists is 
most frequently applied to those Italian painters 

who were pupils of or immediately followed the 
leaders of the High Renaissance — especially 
Michelangelo, Raphael, Correggio — whose styles 
they imitated and exaggerated. See Painting. 

KAN^NEBSL John. A British general. See 
Gbanbt, John Manners, Marquis of. 

MAKNEBS^ John James Robebt, Duke of 
Rutland (1818-—). An English statesman, bom 
at Belvoir Castle, Leicestershire, December 13, 
1818. He was educated at Eton and at Ttinity 
College, Cambridge. In 1841 he began his long 
Parliamentary career in the Conservative inter- 
est; was twice Postmaster-CJeneral (1874-80 and 
1885-86), and succeeded Earl Stanhope as chair- 
man of the Copyright Commission. On the death 
of his brother (1887) he became Duke of Rut- 
land. Among he publications are: England's 
Trust; A Plea for National Holydays; and Eng- 
Ush Ballads, a volimie of graceful verse. 

MANNEBT, mftn^nSrt, Konbad (1766-1834). 
A German historian and geographer, bom at 
Altdorf and educated at Nuremberg. In 1796 
he became professor of history at Altdorf, in 1805 
at Wflrzburg, in 1807 at Landshut, and in 1826 
at Munich. His geographical works include the 
valuable Oeographie der Oriechen und Romer 
(1795-1825, with Ukert) and an edition of the 
Tabula Peutingeriana (1824); and among his 
historical labors the more important are: Kom- 
pendium der deutschen Reichsgeschichte (1803; 
3d ed. 1819) ; Kaiser Ludvoig IV. (1812) ; and 
QescJUchte der alten Deutschen, hesonders der 
Franken (1829-32). 

MANNHABDT, manaiart, Wilhelm (1831- 
80). A German mythologist, bom at Friedrich- 
stadt in Schleswig. He was educated in the uni- 
versities of Berlin and Tflbingen, and became edi- 
tor of the Zeitschrift fur deutsche Mythologie 
und Sittenkunde ( 1855 ) . His books on Germanic 
myth include: Oermanische Mythen (1858) ; Die 
Gotter der deutschen und nordisohen Volker 
(1860); Roggenwolf und Roggenhund (2d ed. 
1866); Die Kornddmonen (1868); Klytia 
(1875) ; and his great works, Wald- und Feld- 
kulte (1875-77) And Mythologische Forschungen 
(ed. by Patzig, 1884). 

ULAKNWEIXy man'him. The capital of a 
district in Baden, formerly a town of the Pa- 
latinate; at the confluence of the Rhine and 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Neckar, 43 miles southwest of Frankfort (Map: 
Germany, C 4) . It is the third largest city on the 
Rhine, surpassed only by Cologne and Dttsseldorf ; 
since its connection by railroad with all important 
cities in the German Empire it has become the 
first commercial town in the Grand Duchy of 
Baden. The site of the town is low, and a high 
dike protects it from inundations. The Rhine, 
which is here 1200 feet in breadth, is crossed by a 
railway bridge which connects Mannheim with 
Ludwigshafen ; a chain bridge spans the Neckar. 
The town is remarkable for its cleanliness, and is 
the most regularly built town in Germany; it 
is divided into 136 square sections, and numbers 
its streets according to the American system. 
The palace, built 1720-29, by the Elector Palatine 
Charles Philip, is one of the largest buildings of 
the kind in Germany. The city contains a gym- 
nasium with a library, a botanic garden, an ob« 
servatory, and the National Theatre, founded in 
1776, in which Schiller's Robbers was first acted. 
Among notable public monuments are those of 
William I. and Prince Bismarck. The Schloss- 
garten, bordering on the Rhine, is the chief of 
the five public gardens surroimding the city. 
Since the construction of new harbors and ex- 
tensive docks in 1875^ Mannheim has had a great 
and increasing trade in grain, coal, petroleum, to- 
bacco, sugar, and ironware. Its chief industry, 
metal-working and machine-making, gives em- 
ployment to 10,000 persons; 2000 are engaged in 
a celluloid factonr. Cigars, varnish and rosin, 
carpets, rubber, glass and leather eoods are also 
manufactured. The population has increased 
from 61,273 in 1885 to 140,384 in 1900, and 162,- 
607 in 1905. The United States is represented 
by a consul. 

Mannheim is mentioned as a village as early as 
764. Its prosperity dates from the beginning of 
the seventeenth century, when, under the Elector 
Palatine Frederick IV., it became the refuge of 
religious exiles from the Netherlands. It suffered 
severely in the Thirty Years' War. The town was 
almost totally destroyed by the French in 1689. 
After being rebuilt it was again occupied by the 
French in 1795, and a large part of" it burned. 
In 1802 it was given to Baden. 

KAN'NINQ. A town and the county-seat of 
Clarendon County, S. C, 61 miles east by south 
of Columbia, on the Atlantic Coast Line Rail- 
road ( Map : South Carolina, D 3 ) . It is in a fer- 
tile, well-watered a^icultural section, having ex- 
tensive forests of pine. There are knitting mills 
and other industrial establishments. Population, 
1900, 1430; 1906 (local est.), 2500. 

MANNING-, Daniel (183187). An Ameri- 
can journalist and politician. He was born in 
Albany, N. Y., and at the age of ten entered the 
printing office of the Albany AtUis as a printer's 
apprentice. After the consolidation of the Atlas 
with the ArguSy he was appointed legislative re- 
porter, in which capacity he made a wide acquaint- 
ance among politicians and became known as an 
authority on State political affairs. In 1866 he 
became editor and part owner of the Argus, and 
in 1876 • a member of the New York Demo- 
cratic State Committee, of which he was chosen 
secretary in 1879 and chairman in 1881. In this 
position he was associated closely with Grover 
Cleveland, to whose election as Governor of New 
York he contributed greatly in 1882. To Man- 
ning's astuteness and tact also was largely due 


the successful presentation of Cleveland's name as 
a candidate for the Presidency in 1884. In the 
latter year his personal supervision contributed 
greatly to the success of the Democratic ticket 
in the pivotal State of New York. From 1886 
to 1887 he was Secretary of the Treasuiy in 
Cleveland's Cabinet, from which he retired short* 
ly before his death, on accoiut of ill health. 

MANNING, Henbt Edwabo (1808-92). An 
English Roman Catholic prelate, one of the most 
notable figures in the Church life of his time. He 
was bom July 15, 1807 (not 1808, as frequently 
given ) , at Totteridge, in Hertfordshire, and edu- 
cated at Harrow and at Balliol College, Oxford^ 
where he graduated in 1830. He was ordained 
in 1832, married in 1833, and in 1834 appointed 
rector of Lavington and Graffham in Sussex. His 
wife died in 1837. Manning devoted himself 
with increasing zeal, energy, and success to the 
work of his profession, and was recognized, 
though still a young man, as a leading figure 
in the group of Tractarian leaders. His appoint- 
ment in 1840 as Archdeacon of Chichester gave 
him a still more influential position. Newman's 
secession affected him painfully, and for a time 
seemed to increase his attachment to the Church 
of England; but in 1851 the decision in the noted 
Gorham case (see Gobham Contbovkrsy) , which 
seemed to claim for the Crown authority over a 
purely doctrinal question, shook his allegiance. 
After long and arduous consideration he made 
his submission to the Roman Catholic Church 
in 1851. Only two months later — an unusual 
recognition of his gifts and his theological at- 
tainments — ^he was ordained priest by Cardinal 
Wiseman. He made some further studies in 
Rome, and from 1852 to 1856 was informally 
connected with the Jesuit Church in Farm Street, 
London, finding much to do in preaching and 
spiritual direction. In 1857 he developed an 
English congregation of priests known as Oblates 
of Saint Charles, a revival of the community 
founded at Milan by Saint Charles Borromeo, 
and became its first superior. The same year saw 
his appointment as provost of the Chapter of 
Westminster, which brought him into close re- 
lations with Cardinal Wiseman, then Archbishop. 
In the difficult circumstances connected with the 
insubordinate attitude of Archbishop Errington, 
Wiseman's coadjutor, Manning was a loyal sup- 
porter of the Cardinal and of great service. On 
the latter's death in 1865, Pius IX. took the un- 
expected step of appointing Manning his suc- 
cessor as Archbishop of Westminster, and for the 
next quarter of a century he occupied a com- 
manding position in the religious life of England. 
He not only did much to bring the Roman Cath- 
olic body out of the obscurity in which centuries 
of repression had left it, but he was indefatigable 
in all kinds of good works — the care of the poor, 
religious education, social and temperance work. 
In the Vatican Council of 1870 he took a promi- 
nent part, standing among the pronounced ad- 
vocates of defining Papal infallibility, and en- 
gaging in a controversy, famous at the time, 
with Mgr. Dupanloup, Bishop of Orleans. • His 
Petri Privilegium (1871) is an exposition of 
the doctrine and an account of the proceedings. 
On the same subject he also published (1875) an 
answer to Gladstone's expostulations, giving his 
views of the bearing of the Vatican decrees on 
civil allegiance; and in 1877 he wrote The True 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Story of the Vatican Council. Among Manning's 
other published works are: The Temporal MiS' 
sion of the Holy Ohoat (1865); The Internal 
Mission of the Holy Ghost (1875) ; England and 
Christendom ( 1867 ) ; Sin and Its Consequences 
(1876). His manifold services were recognized 
by the gift of a cardinal's hat in 1875. He 
died in London, January 14, 1892. The full- 
est biography of him is by Purcell (2 vols., Lon- 
don, 1896), which is imfortunately disfigured 
bv many misleading inferences and grave faults 
of taste ; it may be corrected in particular as to 
the facts of the Errington case by Wilfrid 
Ward's Life and Times of Cardinal Wiseman 
(London, 1897). There is a shorter but in many 
ways more satisfactory biography by A. W. Hut- 
ton (ib., 1894). Consult also: Fitzgerald, Fifty 
Years of Catholic Life and Progress (London, 
1901 ) ; and a number of the biographical works 
cited under Oxford Movement. 

MANNTNa, James (1738-91). President of 
the (College of Khode Island (after 1804 Brovm 
University). He was born in Elizabeth town, 
N. J.; was graduated at Princeton (College in 
1762; was ordained to the Baptist ministry in 

1763. Ck>5perating with an association of Bap- 
tist ministers in Philadelphia, he went to Rhode 
Island and proposed to the Baptists in Newport 
a plan for the establishment of a "seminary of 
polite literature, subject to the government 
of the Baptists." A charter was obtained in 

1764. Manning was appointed in 1765 presi- 
dent of the institution, which was opened the 
next year as Rhode Island College. He served 
in that office (except during the Revolution, 
when the school was closed) till 1790, when he 
resigned. He was also most of the time pastor 
of the First Baptist Church in Providence. In 
1786 he was elected to the Congress of the 
Confederation, where he labored to secure the 
adoption of the national Constitution. Consult 
Guild, The Life, TimeSy a/nd Correspondence of 
James Manning^ and the Early History of Brovm 
University (Boston, 1864). See Bbown Uni- 

MANNING, Robebt (1784-1842). An Ameri- 
can pomologist, one of the pioneers in horti- 
cultural nomenclature. In order to determine 
the value of varieties he established at Salem, 
Mass., a fruit garden, in which he raised vari- 
eties of all fruits that could withstand the 
rigor of the climate of that State, and in which 
at the time of his death nearly 2000 varieties 
were growing. He published a descriptive cata- 
logue, called Book of Fruits , in 1838. Manning 
was one of the founders of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, and during his later 
years was recognized as an authority on horti- 
cultural matters, especially on fruit varieties. 

MANNING, Thomas (1772-1840). An Eng- 
lish traveler, bom November 8, 1772, at Broome, 
Norfolk, where his father was rector. In 1790 
he entered Caius College, Cambridge, where he 
became distinguished in mathematics ; but he left 
without a degree, owing to his unwillingness to 
take the oaths. From 1800 to 1803 he studied 
Chinese in Paris. In 1806 he went out to Canton as 
doctor. In 1810 he proceeded to Calcutta, whence 
he made his way into Tibet to Lhasa (1811). 
He was the first Englishman to enter the holy 
city. On returning to England in 1817, after a 
Tisit to Peking, a shipwreck near the Sunda 


Islands, and after a call on Napoleon at 
Saint Helena, he lived for several years at a 
cottage called Orange Grove, near Dartford, in 
the midst of his Chinese books. There he was 
visited by the chief literary men of the day* 
One of his many eccentricities was a long, flow- 
ing beard. This he plucked out by the roota 
before leaving Orange Grove for Bath, where he 
died. May 2, 1840. Charles Lamb made the ac- 
quaintance of Manning in 1799, and a memorable 
friendship ensued. Consult Lamb's Letters and 
Essays of Elia ("The Old and the New School- 
master," and "A Dissertation on Roast Pig^') ; 
also the tfarratives of the Mission of 0, Boyle to 
Tibet and of the Journey of T, Manning to Lhasa, 
ed. with memoirs by Markham (London, 1876). 

KANNTNG, Thomas Coubtland (1831-87). 
An American jurist, born at Edenton, N. C. He 
was educated at the University of North Caro- 
lina, and was admitted to the bar. In 1855 he 
removed to Alexandria, La., and built up a large 

gractice. He was a member of the Secession 
onventicm, entered the Confederate Army as 
a lieutenant, and in 1863 became adjutant-gen- 
eral with the rank of brigadier-general. He waa 
a member of the Supreme Court (1864-65) and in 
1872 a Democratic Presidential Elector. In 1876 
he was vice-president of the National Democratic 
Convention. From 1877 untij the adoption of the 
new Constitution he was Chief Justice of the 
State Supreme Court. He was again Presidential 
Elector, and was elected to the United States 
Senate, but was refused admission. From 1882 
to 1886 he was again justice of the Supreme 
Court, and during 1886-87 was United Statea 
Minister to Mexico. He was also trustee of the 
Peabody Fimd from 1880 imtil his death. 

KANNTTE (from manna), C6H.(OH)«. A 
hexahydric alcohol found in the manna from 
Fraxinus omus (Linnfi) , which ctows in the basin 
of the Mediterranean. It was discovered in that 
manna by Proust in 1806 and may be readily ex- 
tracted from it with hot water or boiling weak 
alcohol. It is found also in many other vegetable 
products, including onions, celery, asparagus, many 
fungi, etc.; and it has been prepared artificially 
from several varieties of sugar, such as Isevulose^ 
dextrose, and mannose, by reduction with sodium 
amalgam. Vice versa, by careful oxidation of 
mannite with nitric acid a mixture of sugars may 
be obtained, to which the name mannitose i» 
sometimes applied. Mannite is produced also 
when cane-sugar undergoes fermentation. It may 
be obtained either in the form of rhombic prisms, 
or in the form of silky needle-like crystals; it 
melts at 165-166° C, and it is readily soluble 
in hot water or alcohol, but only moderately sol- 
uble in cold water, and scarcely soluble at all in 
cold alcohol and in ether. Its pure aqueous solu- 
tion has a very slight action on polarized light; 
the action is, nowever, greatly increased by the 
presence of free alkali as well as of certain salts,, 
especially borax. Mannite is capable of existence 
in three distinct modifications, having the same 
chemical constitution and therefore much the 
same properties, yet diflfering from one another in 
their power of rotating the plane of polarized 
light. The chemical constitution of mannite is 
represented by the formula CH,(OH). CH(OH). 
CH(OH) . CH(OH) . CH(OH) . CH,(OH) 
CH. The hexahydric alcohol sorbite found in 
plums, apples, pears, cherries, and other fruits, 
and the hexahydric alcohol dulcite found in 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Madagascar manna, are in many respects yeiy 
similar to mannite. 

MANNLICHEB, mftnllK-Sr, Ferdinand von 
< 1848-1904). An Austrian engineer and in- 
ventor. He was bom at Mainz, Germany, and 
for many years served as chief engineer of the 
Northern Railroad (Kaiser Ferdinands Nord- 
bahn). In 1809 he was called to the Austrian 
Upper House in recognition of his public ser- 
vices. He became widely celebrated through his 
many inventions and improvements in militaiy 
firearms, as magazine, repeating, and automatic 
rifles and revolvers, which introduced principles 
that have been largely adopted in the small- 
arm equipments of several European powers. 
See Small Abms. 

MANNS, m&ns, August (1825-1907). A Ger- 
man-English musical conductor, bom at Stolz^i- 
berg, Pomerania. He received his early training 
in music from a village musician and from Ur- 
ban, the town musician of Elbing. He became 
a member of a military band at Danzig, then at 
Posen, and in 1848 joined GungPs orchestra in 
Berlin. Soon after he became conductor and 
first violin at Kroll's Garden, Berlin. In 1861 
Von Boon, the War Minister, selected Manns 
as bandmaster of his regimental band; first at 
Kdnigsberg, then at Cologne. In 1854 he became 
assistant conductor, and in 1855-1905 was con- 
ductor at the Crystal Palace, London, where he 
accomplished important results in the furtherance 
of the newer romantic music of Germany. He also 
changed the original wind band into an orchestra, 
and founded (1856) the now famous Saturday 
concerts. He conducted the Glasgow Choral 
Union (1879-92), and six Triennial Handel Fes- 
tivals. He was knighted in 1904. 

KAN^irS (connected with Goth, tnanna, 
AS., Eng., OHG. matiy Ger. Mantif Skt. manu, 
man; of doubtful origin, the usual derivation 
from man, to think, being incredible ; cf . perhaps 
Lat. manus, hand). According to Tacitus {Oer- 
mania, chap. 2 ) , the name given by the Germans 
to the son of the earth-born god Tuisto. From 
his three sons they derived their three great 
tribes, the IngcBvonea, the HermioneSf and the 
l8ta!von€8, Mannus belongs, not to the Teutonic 
people alone, but to the great mythus of the 
origin of the human race, common to the whole 
Aryan family, and, like the Hindu Manu or 
Manus, stands forth as the progenitor of the in- 
habitants of earth endowed with reason. 

MAN^NYNO, RoBEBT (or Robert de 
Bbunne) (flourished c.1290-1340). An English 
poet, native of Brunne, or Bourne, in Lincoln- 
shire. In 1288 he joined the neighborinjj broth- 
erhood of Gilbertine canons at Semprmgham. 
There he wrote Handlyng Synne (1303), a free 
paraphrase of the Manuel dea Pechiez by William 
of Wadington. It depicts, with much sharp sa- 
tire, the social life of the time. The best manu- 
script (the Harleian), with the French original, 
was edited by F. J. Fumivall for the Roxburghe 
Club in 1862. In 1338 Manning, then resident in 
the Gilbertine priory of Sixhill, Lincolnshire, fin- 
ished his Chronicle of England. It has little his- 
torical value, as it closely follows the earlier 
chronicles. The earlier part of the Chronicle was 
edited by Fhraivall for the Rolls Series (London, 
1887) ; and the latter part by T. Hearae in 1725. 
To Mannyng is also attributed 3f«ft*aoyu»w of the 


8oper of oure Lorde Ihesus, edited for the Early 
English Text Society (London, 1875). 

KANOA, m&-n?^A. A city fabled to have been 
built on an island in Parma Lake, Guiana, and 
governed by El Dorado (q.v.). 

MANOBOy m&-n</b6, or Cuulman. A Malay 
head-hunting people in Dftvas Province, Minda- 
nao. They are said to be partly Indonesian. See 
PHnjppiNE Islands. 

nH'sh^m&n^td. A Portuguese poet. See Nasoi- 
MENTO, Mangel oo. 

HANCETJVBES (Fr. manoeuvre, OF. man- 
ouvre, manovre, from ML. manuopera, manupera^ 
a working with the hand, from Lat. manus, hand 
-|- opera, work) . Field exercises of large or small 
bodies of troops, designed to teach in time of 
peace the duties of troops in war. In Europe 
these are carried on in most great armies througn- 
out the year, the grand manoeuvres (of one or 
more army corps) usually taking place in the 
autumn, and simulating the conditions of war 
as closely as possible. In the United States there 
are similar operations, usually held in the fall, 
in which the Regular Army and the militia par- 

Naval manoeuvres and the combined manoeuvres 
of sea and land forces working in harmony are 
of more recent origin than their military counter- 
part. Frederick the Great of Prussia first con- 
ceived the idea of having sham battles between 
his troops, an idea which Napoleon utilized in 
the great camp of Boulo^e in 1805, during his 
preparation for the invasion of England. It was 
Von Moltke, however, and the Prussian general 
staff who first developed the idea of manoeuvres 
into its full modem significance, and in the com- 
bined naval and mili&ry operation around the 
city of Flensburg in Schleswig-Holstein (1800) 
set an example which was soon copied. The 
United States naval and military manoeuvres held 
in 1902 in the vicinity of New York followed 

Sractically the same plan of campaign as did 
rermany in the instance already cited. England 
and France, and the United States, hold periodi- 
cal naval manoeuvres, the problem usually being 
the attack or defense of shore defenses. In naval 
manoeuvres particularly, conditions may be 
created which are faithful replicas of actual 
battles and campaigns. Besides their value in 
the formulation of the most effective scheme of 
shore defense against attack or invasion, they 
are just as important in the training under war 
conditions of the naval personnel, besides which 
they afford commanders excellent experience io 
the practice of battle tactics and strategy. Flaws 
in methods and material which otherwise might 
not be discovered until too late are noted and 
subsequently remedied ; new ideas in the applica- 
tion of strategical or tactical principles carried 
out; the employment of torpedoes, mines, de- 
stroyers, submarines, wireless telegraphy, search- 
lights, and the various experiments in coaling at 
sea, thoroughly tested; and the whole carehilly 
observed and noted by officers of the National 
Government appointed for the purpose, whose 
report usually forms the basis for future naval 
legislation. See Tactics, Militabt; Tactios, 

MAN OF BLOOD, The. A designation ap- 
plied by the Puritans to Charles I. of England. 

Digitized by 



name given to Prince Bismarck, originating in a 
phrase used b^ himself in regard to the settle- 
ment of the differences of Prussia and Austria. 

KAN OF DECEKBEB, The. Napoleon III., 
so called because of his coup d'6tat of December 
2, 1861. 

KAN OF DESTINY^ The. A name given to 
Napoleon Bonaparte, who considered himself spe- 
cially chosen and directed by fate. 

MAN OF LAW'S TALE, The. One of Chau- 
cer's Canterbury Tales, It is the story of Con- 
stance, told in Gower*8 Confeasio Amantis, and 
taken from old French romances. Constance, 
daughter of the Emperor of Rome, married the 
Sultan of Syrie, who was killed at a feast. In 
a rudderless ship Constance reached Northumbria 
and wedded King Alia. Enemies place her and 
her son in the ship, and after many perils she is 
found by Alia at Home. 

KAN OF KODE, The, or Sib Topung Flitt- 
TEE. A comedy by George Etherege, presented in 

KAN OF SIN. See Antichrist. 

KAN-OF-THE-EABTH. A weed. See 

KAN-OF-WAB. An armed naval vessel 
regularly commissioned by some acknowledged 
government and fitted for purposes of war. As 
such she possesses the privileges of war ; her deck 
is, by a legal fiction, taken to be a portion of the 
soil of the nation whose flag she hoists; in time 
of war she is justified in attacking, sinking^ burn- 
ing, or destroying the ships and goods of the foe, 
and, by the law of nations, she may stop and 
search the merchant vessels of neutral powers 
which she suspects of carrying aid to her enemy. 
(See Contraband op War; and Neutbaltty.) 
In case of being overpowered, the crew of a man- 
of-war are entitled to the ordinary mercy granted 
to vanquished combatants, lawfully fighting. Any 
vessel making war, but not belonging to an ac- 
knowledged government, is either a privateer ( see 
Mabque, Lettebs of) or a pirate (see Pibaoy). 
See Cl^BtnsER; Ships, Armored; Shipbuilding; 
Navies ; Rah ; Mortar Vessel. 

KAN-OF-WAB,. Portuguese. See Portu- 
guese Man-of-War. 

KAN-OF-WAB BIBD, or HAWK (so called 
from its predatory habits). A frigate-bird (q.v.), 
but occasionally the term is applied to some other 
swift and predaceous sea fowl, as a skua. 

KANOKOBTEB (from Gk. uav6f, mano8, thin, 
rare -f fdrpcv^ metron, measure ) . An instrument 
for measuring the density or pressure of the air 
or any gas. A barometer (q.v.) is one form of 
manometer, as the pressure of the atmosphere is 
measured by the height of the column of mer- 
cury which it supports. The manometer in its 
simplest form would be a glass tube open at both 
ends and bent into the form of a U and contain- 
ing a sufficient quantity of some liq^uid to cover 
the bend and rise to a small height m each arm. 
The vessel containing the gas whose pressure is 
to be ascertained is connected with one arm of 
the tube, and if the gas is at the same pressure 
as the atmosphere the liquid will stand at the 
same level in both tubes. If the gas is at a 
greater pressure the liquid in the arm of the tube 
on which it acts will be at a lower level, and the 
pressure of the gas will be obtained by adding 
to the pressure of the atmosphere the weight of 


a column of the liquid whose height is equal to 
the difference in level in the two tubes. When 
the pressure of the gas is considerably greater 
than that of the atmosphere we use mercury on 
account of its high specific gravity, and when 
the pressures are sufficient a tube with one arm 
closed can be em- 
ployed and the press- 
ure determined by 
measuring the extent 
to which the air is 
compressed. Now, ac- 
cording to Boyle's or 
Mariotte's law, a 
pressure exerted on 
the column of mer- 
cury sufficient to force 
the air into half the 
space it occupies at 
the normal atmos- 
pheric pressure, must 
become doubled, or 15 
pounds to the square 
mch must be added. 
Again, to compress 
the air into half the 
remaining space, 30 
pounds, or double the 
pressure required for 
the reduction to the 
first half, must be 
added, making in all 
a pressure of four at- 
mospheres for the re- 
duction to one-fourth 
the original volume. 
It is evident, there- 
fore, that a graduated 
scale, to exhibit the degrees of pressure, must have 
its spaces decrease from below upward. If the gas 
is considerably rarer than the air, as for example 
in the receiver of an air pump, we employ a 
shortened barometer consisting of a bent tube 
with one end closed but filled with mercury, which 


A, for pressnres greater than 
one atmosphere; a, for pres- 
sures less than one atmos- 


is supported by the pressure of the atmosphere. 
In this case the pressure is measured oy the dif- 
ference in level of the two columns, which would 
be zero were the vacuum perfect. 

These manometers are of course constructed in 
various forms, depending upon the use to which 
they are to be put, and the tubes and air cham- 
bers are variously constructed. The most common 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


form of manometer is the steam gauge, which 
may be either a piston actuated by the pressure 
to move an indicator against the face of a spring, 
or more commonly a metal tube of elliptical cross- 
section bent into circular shape. One end of this 
tube is permanently fastened to the case of the 
instrument and through it the steam or gas en- 
ters, while the other end is closed but free to 
move. It is connected with a spring and a series 
of levers, so that its motion, which depends upon 
the pressure, is commimicated to an indicator 
moving over a scale graduated usually in pounds 
in the United States and England, and atmos- 
pheres in Europe. These steam gauges must of 
course be adjusted and calibrated by reference to 
some direct source of pressure, such as would 
be furnished by a column of liquid in a vertical 

MAN ON HOBSEBACEy The. A name given 
to the French General Boulanger (q.v.), who 
usually appeared in public riding a black horse. 
The name is used of one who gains ascendency 
in a period of lawlessness, and, by the exercise of 
despotic power^ restrains violence and restores 
law and order. 

MANON LESCATJT, m&'nON^ le-sky. A 
noted romance by the Abb6 Provost. It was pub- 
lished in 1731, and was originally only .an epi- 
sode of his M^moires (Tun homme de quality. The 
Chevalier des Qrieux and Manon fall in love at 
their first meeting, and fly together to Paris. 
Here she deceives her lover and becomes the mis- 
tress of various rich admirers through her love 
of luxury. She is at last arrested and trans- 
ported to New Orleans, accompanied by the 
Chevalier des Grieux, whose constancy remains 
unshaken by his knowledge of her character. At 
New Orleans the son of the Governor, who falls 
in love with Manon, is dangerously wounded by 
the Chevalier des Grieux, and the lovers escapie 
to the desert, where Manon dies of exhaustion. 
The story has been used frequently for operatic 
purposes, notably by Auber (1856), Massenet 
(1884), and Puccini (Turin, 1893). 

MANOB. The district of a lord and his non- 
noble feudal dependents. The term began to be 
used in Englana after the Norman conquest, but 
the system existed in Anglo-Saxon times. A 
manor consisted of two parts: (1) The inland 
(demesne) or home-estate, which the lord held 
in his own hands, and upon which his house was 
built. (2) The outland (geneatland), which was 
held by tenants for rent or for service performed 
for the lord on the island. The tenants were 
usually all villeins, who dwelt together in vil- 
lages and lived ordinarily by agriculture. It is 
held by writers like Gneist, otubbs, and Freeman 
that originally there were few manors, but that 
they gradually increased in number, imtil in the 
tenth century the prevailing system of society 
was that of manors with dependent peasants. In 
1883 a new theory was advanced by Frederic See- 
bohm, namely, that during the whole Anglo-Sax- 
on period the mass of the population was servile, 
and that the invaders copied the manor system 
from the Roman villa. Thus there are two 
schools of historians at present, the one believing 
the economic development of England to have 
proceeded from free village communities to man- 
ors, and the other holding that the process was 
the reverse. 

In the thirteenth century the lord of the manor 


often was removed three degrees, sometimes even 
five degrees, in the feudal scale from the king, 
since the creation of new manors by subinfeuda- 
tion was a recognized practice. Moreover, a lord 
might hold several manors. Sir Edward Coko 
(1552-1634) formulated the theory that a manor 
must have at least two freehold tenants, so that 
a 0)urt Baron (q.v.) could be held- The earlier 
practice, however, according to Maitland, knew 
no such distinction, and many manors must have 
had only villeins occupying the land. 

Two important statutes put a check upon the 
development of the manorial system, which has 
since declined to a mere shadow. The Statute 
of Marlborough, in 1269, had the effect of pre- 
venting the establishment of new Courts Baron, 
and the famous statute of Westminster iii., in 
1290, known as the statute Quia Emptores, made 
it lawful for a freehold tenant to sell his lands, 
and provided that the purchaser should hold of 
the chief lord of the manor, instead of his ven- 
dor, and thus prevented further subinfeudation. 
After this legislation it became customary to 
parcel the land out in individual holdings, and 
with the decay of the manorial system, the later 
conception, as linking the immediate freehold 
tenant or 'tenant paravair by a shortening feu- 
dal chain to the king, became predominant. 
Lands in a manor were parceled out to freehold 
and leasehold tenants, and the freeholders might 
hold by any form of feudal tenure; as by 
'Ejiight's service,' 'in free and common socage,' 
etc. The manors were the great reservoirs of 
customary law, and each manor modified the 
common law of land, and might modify the com- 
mon tenures to conform to its ancient customs. 
These customs, not being a part of the common 
law of the kingdom, were originally not cogniz- 
able by the common law courts, but were de- 
termined or 'found,* and administered, as the 
local law of each manor, by its own courts. The 
principal one of these, and the one which came 
in the course of time to be regarded as the prin- 
cipal characteristic, and (as Lord Coke called 
it) the "chief prop" of the manor, was the Court 
Baron. This court exercised the civil jurisdiction 
vested in the lord of the manor, and the Court 
Leet took cognizance of criminal causes. No new 
manors have been created in England since the 
legislation above referred to, but many old man- 
ors still exist. They may be extinguished by the 
lord purchasing the lands of his freehold tenants, 
so that there will be no one to hold the Court 
Baron without which a manor ceases to exist. 

The manorial system was introduced into New 
York, when under the English rule, and substan- 
tially the same peculiar customs, etc., prevailed 
as in England at that time. Manorial courts 
were established and the system was the basis of 
the land tenures. Some of these manors gave 
names to districts, which are preserved to the 
present day, as Pelham Manor, Van Cortlandt 
Manor, etc. As the manorial system was incon- 
sistent with the institutions of the United States, 
it ceased to exist after the separation from Eng- 

The various views held by historical scholars 
will be found by consulting the following authori- 
ties: Stubbs, Constitutional History of England^ 
vol. i. (6th ed., Oxford, 1897) ; Maitland, Select 
Pleas in Manorial Courts (London, 1889) ; An- 
drews, The Old English Manor (Baltimore, 1892) ; 
Seebohm, The English Village Community (4tti 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

ed., London, 1890) ; Venogradoff, Growth of the 
Manor (London, 1905) ; Ashley, An Introduction 
to English Economic History and Theory (2 vols., 
London, 1888-93). See Feudal System; Tsnuee. 


MANBESAy m&n-rfi^8&. A town in the Prov- 
ince of Barcelona, Spain, 30 miles northwest 
of the city of that name (Map: Spain, F 2). It 
is picturesquely situated on tne left bank of the 
Cardoner, and in an amphitheatre of hills 
crowned by a large Gothic cathedral of the four- 
teenth century. It has a high school, conducted 
by the Jesuits, and in the neighborhood is the 
Convent of Santo Domingo, in which Ignatius of 
Loyola dwelt for a year, and which is on that 
account a place of pilgrimage. The surrounding 
region is irrigated by a canal fed by the Llobre- 
gat River. Manresa has manufactures of cotton 
and woolen yams, and silk fabrics. In 1811 it 
was set on nre by Marshal Macdonald. Popula- 
tion, in 1887, 19,000; in 1900, 23,416. 

ICANBIQTTE, m&n-reOdL, Gomez (1412-91). 
A Spanish poet, uncle of the more celebrated 
Jorge, bom in 1412, of a noble family. He 
played an important part in the disturbances of 
the reign of Henry IV. In his earlier lyrics 
he adhered to the Provencal-Galician methods, 
but he soon affiliated himself with the movement 
that aimed at the Italianizing of Castilian 
poetical forms. He attained some success in 
the composition of the political satire, but the 
pathetic note is the most distinctive one in his 
lyrics. Gomez also essayed the drama in several 
pieces, the best of which is the liturgical play, 
Representacidn del nacimiento de Nuestro SeHor, 
Consult his Cancionero, edited by A. Paz y Melia 
(Madrid, 1885-86). 

HANBIQITE, Jobgk (1440-78). A Spanish 
poet. He fell in battle in 1478, when yet hardly 
•Id enough to have attained the fullness of his 
poetical power. The greater part of his verse 
preserved in the Cancionero general of 1511 and 
m other Cancioneros gives little evidence of any 
extraordinary merit in him, and his fame is 
really based on a single poem, that written in 
commemoration of the death of his father, the 
Maestre de Santiago. This suffices, however, to 
make his name one to be remembered as long as 
bis language remains intelligible. In verses 
mournfully sweet of tone, the exquisite copUis 
of this composition proclaim the vanity and brief 
duration of all things terrestrial and the neces- 
sity of yielding to death as so many, even the 
most powerful and exalted of human beings, have 
had to do. Longfellow's graceful translation of 
the poem has preserved much of the dignity and 
pathos of the original. The Spanish text may 
be found in vol. xxxv. of the Bihliateca de autores 
espanoles (Madrid, 1872). 

MANS. An aboriginal people occupying some 
of the moimtainous parts of the Chinese prov- 
inces of Sze-chuan and Yun-nan, portions of Tong- 
king, etc. During the last half century they have 
been forced more and more into the hills. The 
Mans are short in stature and mesocephalic. 
Th^ are more or less nomadic and do not mix 
readily with other peoples of the country. They 
are looked upon as part of the aboriginal popu- 
lation of Sze-chuan, driven back in& Tun-nan 
about the third century a.d. by the advance of 
the Chinese, and now moving seaward along the 


heights of land. The Mans and the Lolos (q.y.) 
seem to be linguistically related. 

MANS^ mlkm, Le. The capital of the Depart- 
ment of Sarthe, and formerly of the Province of 
Maine in Northwestern France. It is situated in 
the centre of the department, on both sides of 
the river Sarthe, 116 miles (132 miles by rail) 
southwest of Paris ( Map : France, N., E 4) . It is 
an old town, but has many wide streets and 
avenues, some of recent construction, and several 
parks and promenades. The most notable build- 
mg is the Cathedral of Saint Julien, which is 
one of the most beautiful churches of France. It 
^ was built in the period between the eleventh and 
the fifteenth centuries, and has a magnificent 
choir built in pure Gothic style. It holds the 
tomb of Berengaria, the Queen of Richard Coeur- 
de-Lion. The Church of Notre Dame de la Cou- 
ture is also notable. The town has a seminary, 
two normal Schools, and a public library, con- 
taining 53,000 volumes. There are also excellent 
museums of natural history, art, and archaeology. 
The principal manufactures are chemicals, es- 
pecially sulphuric acid, tobacco, sail-cloth, in- 
struments and clocks, chocolate, and candles. 
There is a chamber of commerce and of agricul- 
ture, and the town has considerable trade in 
cattle, poultry, eggs, fruit, grain, and wine. 
Population of the commune, in 1891, 57,412; in 
1901, 63,272; in 1906, 65,467. 

Le Mans existed before the Roman conquest. 
Its original name was Vindinum. It was the 
chief city of the Cenomani, from whom it received 
its present name. It was fortified by the Romans, 
and became one of the most important cities of 
the Frankish Kingdom. It was taken by William 
the Conqueror in 1063, and suffered manv sieges 
during the long Anglo-French wars. The Ven- 
deans were defeated here in December, 1793, and 
the city subjected to a massacre. In 1871 it was 
the scene of the defeat of Chanzy's army by the 
Germans under Prince Frederick Charles, in a 
battle lasting from the 10th to the 12th of Janu- 

ICANSABD BOOF. A form of roof named 
after Francois Mansart (q.v.). It is constructed 
with a break in the slope of the roof, so that each 
side has two planes, the lower being steeper than 
the upper. This kind of roof has the advanta^ 
over the common fonn of giving more space m 
the roof for living room. 

MANSABT, m&N'sar', or MANSABD, Fran- 
cois (1598-1666). A French architect, bom in 
Paris. He designed many important private 
houses in Paris and provincial chftteaux, the 
Church of Val de GrAce, parts of the Chftteau of 
Blois, and the Hfttel Camavalet. The form of 
roof known as Mansard is named from him. — His 
nephew, Jules Habdouin-Mansart (1645-1708), 
also an architect, was born in Paris, the son of an 
obscure painter, named Hardouin, who had mar- 
ried a sister of Francois Mansart. He studied 
architecture under his great-uncle and under 
Bruant, and, being also a skillful courtier, se- 
cured Louis XrV. for patron, and entered upon 
the construction of some of his most splendid 
works. The dJhftteau de Clagny was his first 
work, executed for Mme. de Montespan. His next 
was on the Palace of Versailles, which he began 
in 1660, building the south wing, the Grande 
(Jalerie, then the north wing, the grand stairway, 
and the chapel (1677-1708). Besides this, he. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


built a number of other noted ch&teaux at Ver- 
sailles (1672). The extravagance and rage of 
palace building which possessed the King was 
turned to the greatest advantage by Mansart, 
both as an artist and as a man of business. He 
accumulated an immense fortune, and was cov- 
ered with dignities and honors. The Grand Tri- 
anon was his wcnrk; but his most perfect design 
is the dome of the Church of the Invalides in 
Paris, which, though inferior to very many domes 
in size, surpasses all in the exquisite proportions 
of its exterior lines. The Chftteau of Marly, the 
Place Venddme, and the Place des Victoires in 
Paris were also designed by Mansart. 

MANSE. In Scotch law, the dwelling house 
of a minister of the Established Church. Every 
minister of a rural parish is entitled to a manse, 
which the heritors or landed proprietors are 
boimd to build and maintain; and he is also en- 
titled, as part of the manse, to a stable, cow- 
house, and garden. The manse must, by statute, 
be near to tne church. The amount fixed by law 
as the allowance for the manse has varied from 
time to time, and it may vary more or less, ac- 
cording to circumstances, but it is now usually 
fixed at a value of £1000. It is only the min- 
isters of rural parishes that are entitled to a 
manse, and not ministers of a royal burgh where 
there is no landward district. 

MAN'SELy Henbt Longueville (1820-71). 
An English metaphysician, bom at Cosgrove, 
Northamptonshire. He graduated at Saint 
John's College, Oxford, in 1843, and in 1855 was 
appointed reader in moral and metaphysical 
philosophy in Magdalen College. In 1859 he be- 
came Waynflete professor, and in 1886 received 
the appointment of professor of ecclesiastical 
history. He belongs to the school of Sir W. 
Hamilton, whose lectures he edited (1859) with 
the assistance of Professor Veitch. He was well 
versed in the erudition of metaphysical philos- 
ophy, and wrote in a clear and elegant style. The 
best known of his publications is his Bampton 
Lectures (1858-59 and 1867) on "The Limits of 
Religious Thought," in which, applying the idea 
developed in Hamilton's articles, "The Philos- 
ophy of the Unconditioned," he maintained that 
any attempt to arrive at an idea of the Absolute 
through the categories of substance or cause is 
attended by insurmountable difficulties. It was 
urged by many that the work, though purport- 
ing to be theistic, was really agnostic, and Spen- 
cer asserted (in the prospectus to his Synthetic 
Philosophy, 1860) that he was merely working 
out "the doctrine put into shape bv Hamilton and 
Mansel." Controversies resulted between Mansel 
and F. D. Maurice and (Joldwin Smith, and Man- 
sel characterized his opponents' statements as 
misrepresentations. His further works include: 
Prolegomena Logica ( 1851 ) , in exposition of the 
science as a formal one; The Philosophy of the 
Conditioned (1866) ; and The Onostic Heresies 
of the First and Second Century (1875; edited 
by Dr. Lightfoot, with sketch by Lord Carnar- 
von). Consult the sketch referred to; also, 
Burgon, Lives of Twelve Good Men (London, 

MAKSFELD, mftns'fSlt, Ebnst, Count (1580- 
1626). A German soldier. He was the illegiti- 
mate son of Peter Ernst, Coimt of Mansfeld, and 
was educated by his godfather. Archduke Ernst 
of Austria. In return for valuable military ser- 


vices under Rudolph II. he was legitimizefd by 
Imperial decree. The title and estates of his 
father were, however, withheld from him, and in 
revenger he joined the enemies of Austria in the 
Thirty Years' War as a stanch Protestant cham- 
pion. He fought snillantly in Bohemia and on 
the Rhine for the Elector Palatine. His efforts 
failed, but brou«;ht him great reno\iii. In 1625, 
aided by English and French subsidies, he again 
attacked Austria. Wallenstein met and over- 
came his force at Dessau, April, 1626. Mansfeld 
was driven from the field and died in Dalmatia 
before the close of the year. 

MANS^JTIEU). A market-town in Notting- 
hamshire, England, 14 miles north of Notting- 
ham, surrounded by the remains of the ancient 
forest of Sherwood (Map: England, E 3). The 
town is regularlv built and has a grammar school 
founded in 1561, twelve almshouses founded in 
1693, and other charitable institutions. Its pub- 
lic buildings include a town hall and municipal 
offices, a mechanics' institute, free library and 
isolation hospital, and it owns water, gas, mar- 
kets, bath and pleasure grounds. It stands in 
the centre of a large manufacturing and mining 
district. Silk, cotton, and doubling mills are in 
operation, and it also carries on bootmaking, 
iron-founding, and an important trade in cattle 
and agricultural produce. Population, in 1891, 
15,900; in 1901, 21,400. 

MAKSFIELD. A city and the county-seat of 
Richland County, Ohio, 79 miles southwest of 
Cleveland; on the Baltimore and Ohio, the Erie, 
and the Pennsylvania railroads, and interurban 
lines connecting with points on the Big Four 
system (Map: Ohio, E 4). It has the Ohio State 
Reformatory, a memorial soldiers' and sailors' 
building, a public library with about 13,000 vol- 
umes, Sherman-Heineman Park of 85 acres, and 
two smaller parks. The city is an important 
trade centre for the adjacent agricultural coun- 
try, and is noted for its manufactures, which 
include threshing machines, boilers, engines, en- 
gine fittings and brass goods, stoves, pumps, bug- 
gies, street cars, ci^rs, webbing and suspenders, 
electrical and electric railway supplies, etc. Mans- 
field is governed under the Ohio municipal code, 
which provides for a mayor, elected biennially, a 
city council, and administrative boards of public 
safety and of public service. The water-works are 
owned and operated by the municipality; also a 
large sewage and garbage disposal plant. Set- 
tled in 1808, Mansfield was first incorporated in 
1828. It was the home of John Sherman (q.v.). 
Population, in 1890, 13,473; in 1900, 17,640; in 
1906 (local cen.), 24,000. 

MANSFIELD. A borough in Tioga County, 
Pa., 36 miles southwest of Elmira. N. Y. ; on the 
Tioga River, and on the Erie Railroad (Map: 
Pennsylvania, G 2). It is the seat of a State 
normal school with a library of nearly 6000 vol- 
umes, and has a public library of 2500 volumes. 
The annual county fair is held here in a beauti- 
ful park. Mansfield is a shipping point for live 
stocK and farm produce, and there are various 
manufactures. Population, in 1900, 1847; in 
1906 (local est.), 2000. 

MANSFIELD, Mount. The highest peak of 
the Green Mountains in the State of Vermont, 
situated in the northwestern part of the State, 
20 miles east of Burlington (Map: Vermont, 
D 3). It rises 3000 feet above the surrounding 

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eoontr^r and has three peaks, the highest of 
which is 4364 feet above sea-level. Its summit 
affords one of the finest views in New England, 
including Lake Champlain with the Adirondacks 
beyond, and a large part of the Green and White 

MANSFIELD, Edwabd Deebsnq (1801-80). 
An American auUior, bom in New Haven, Conn. 
He graduated at West Point in 1819, but declined 
to enter the army and studied at Princeton, from 
which he graduated in 1822. In 1825 he was ad- 
mitted to the bar. He afterwards removed to 
Cincinnati, and in 1836 became professor of con- 
stitutional law in Cincinnati College. Shortly 
afterwards, however, he abandoned the l^al pro- 
fession to engage in journalism, and edited suc- 
cessively the Cincinnati Chronicle , Atlas, and 
Railroad Record. He was Commissioner of Sta- 
tistics for the State of Ohio from 1857 to 1867, 
was a member of the Soci6t6 Francaise de Statis- 
tiqne Universelle, and published : Political Oram- 
wtar of the United States (1834) ; Life of Qen, 
Winfield Soott (1846) ; History of the Mewioan 
War (1848); and American Education (1850). 

MANSFIELD, Joseph King Fenno (1803- 
62 ) . An American soldier. He was bom in New 
Haven, Conn., graduated second in his class at 
West Point in 1822, was assigned to the Engineer 
Corps as brevet second lieutenant, and during 
the next twenty-four years was engaged almost 
continuously on engineering work for the Gov- 
ernment, his most importimt service being the 
construction of Fort Pulaski, for the defense of 
Savannah River, Ga., to which he devoted most 
of his time between 1830 and 1846. During the 
Me:dcan War he served throughout the north- 
em campaign as chief engineer imder General 
Taylor, with the rank of captain, constructing 
and aiding in the defense of Fort Brown, taking 
a prominent part in the battle of Monterey 
(where he was wounded) and in the battle of 
Buena Vista, and receiving the successive brevets 
of major, lieutenant-colonel, and colonel. He 
then served as a member of the Board of Engi- 
neers for the Atlantic coast defense from Mar5i, 
1848. to April, 1853, and of the board for the 
Pacific coast defenses from April to May, 1853, 
and from 1853 to April, 1861, was inspector -gen- 
eral of the United States Army with the rank of 
colonel. During the Civil War he was engaged 
in organizing companies of volunteers at Colura- 
btts, Ohio, in April, 1861 ; commanded the De- 
partment of Washington from April to July, 
1861; was appointed brigadier-general of volun- 
teers in May; was in command of the city of 
Washington from July to October; then com- 
manded successively at Camp Hamilton, Newport 
News, and Suffolk, Va.; captured Norfolk, Va., 
on May 10, 1862; was raised to the rank of 
major-general in July; commanded a division in 
the Army of the Potomac during the Maryland 
campaign, and was mortally wounded at Antie- 
tam on September 17, 1862. 

KAHSFIELD, RiCHABD (1857—). An Ameri- 
can actor, born in the island of Helgoland, May 
24. 1857, the son of Madame Rudersdorff (Mans- 
field), the noted singer. He was educated chiefly 
in Germany and England, and when about seven- 
teen years of age came to Boston, Mass., where 
be worked as a clerk and studied painting for a 
short time. In 1875 he returned to England, and 
after several years of severe privation engaged 


with some success In comic opera. His' first ap* 
pearanoe on the American stage was in 1882 in 
New York. In January, 1883, he won success aa 
Baron Chevrial in A Parisian Romance. This 
was followed by a number of rOles, which within 
ten years gained him a leading place among 
American actors. Among his parts have been 
l>octor Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1887); Richard 
ITI., produced in Ijondon in 1889; Beau Brum- 
mell (1890); Arthur Dinmaesdale in his own 
dramatization of The Scarlet Letter (1892); 
Shylock (1893); Bluntschli in Arms and the 
Man (1894) ; Dick Dudgeon in The DeviVs Dis- 
ciple (1897) ; Cyrano de Bergerac (1898) ; Henry 
V. (1900); Monsieur Beaucaire (1901); Bru- 
tus in Julius Cofsar ( 1902 ) ; Prince Heinrich 
in Old Heidleherg ( 1903 ) ; and the leading parts 
in Man the Terrible (1904), Don Carlos (1905), 
Molifere's Misanthrope (1905), and Ibsen's Peer 
Oynt (1906). Deep study and careful elabora- 
tion of detail characterised Mansfield's work. 
Consult: Hapgood, The Stage in America in 
1897-1900 (New York, 1901 )j Strang, Famous 
Actors of To-day in America (Boston, 1900) ; 
McKay and Wingate, Famous American Actors of 
To-day (New York, 1896). 

liAHSFIELB, WnuAH Murray, first Earl 
of (1705-93). A celebrated British jurist He 
was bom March 2, 1705, the fourth son of 
David, Viscount Stormont. He studied at Christ 
Church, Oxford, took the degree of M.A. in 1730, 
and was called to the bar in the same year. 
Through the facility and force of his oratory, as 
well as through the cleamess of his understand- 
ing, he acquired a brilliant reputation and an 
extensive practice; in cases of appeal he was 
often employed before the House of Lords. In 
1741 he was appointed by the Ministry Solicitor- 
General, entered the House of Commons as mem- 
ber for Boroughbridge, and at once took a high 
position. In 1746 he acted, ex-officio, as counsel 
against the rebel lords Lovat, Balmerino, and 
Kilmarnock; and in 1754 he was appointed 
King's Attorney. He became CJhief Justice of the 
King's Bench in 1756. At this time he entered 
the House of Lords under the title of Baron 
Mansfield of Mansfield in the County of Notting- 
ham. As his opinions were not those of the 
popular side, he was exposed to much abuse and 
party hatred. Junius, among others, bitterly 
attacked him; and in the Gordon riots of 1780, 
his house, with all his valuable books and manu- 
scripts, was burned. He declined with dignity 
indemnification by Parliament. In 1776 he was 
made Earl of Mansfield. He worked hard as a 
judge till 1788, when age and ill health forced 
him to resign. His death occurred on March 20, 
1793. He was a brilliant parliamentary debater, 
fluent, clear, and logical, and one of the greatest 
who ever sat on the bench. Consult: A General 
View of the Decisions of Lord Mansfield (ed. by 
Evans, London, 1803) ; Report of Cases Argued 
and Adjudged in the Court of the King's Bench 
During the Time of Lord Mansfield's Presidency 
in that Court (Dublin, 1794) ; Holliday, Life of 
William^ Late Earl of Mansfield (London, 1797). 

MANSFIELD COLLEGE. A theological col- 
lege at Oxford, England, not incorporated with 
the university. It was founded in 1886 by the 
transfer to Oxford of Spring Hill College, Bir- 
mingham, and has been erected and supported by 
the (Ik)ngregational churches for the study oi 

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theology, particularly for the education of Con- 
gregational ministers. The buildings consist of 
an open quadrangle with hall, oomm<Hi rooms, 
library lecture rooms, and chapel, and are very* 
well designed in Gothic style. 

MANSI, mlUi^s^, Giovanni Dombnioo (1692- 
1769). Roman Catholic Archbishop of Lucca, 
He was bom at Lucca, February 16, 1692; taught 
theology many vears at Naples; made literary 
journeys through Italy, France, and Germany; 
established an academy in Lucca over which he 
presided ; was made Archbishop in 1765 ; and died 
m Lucca, September 27, 1769. He is best known 
as the editor of the great work on the Councils, 
Saororum Conciliorum Nova et AmpUasima Col- 
lectio (31 vols., Florence, 1769 sqq.), which goes 
down to the middle of the fifteenth century. Con- 
sult his Life, by Zatta (Venice, 1772). 

gftr-s^ft, Eduabda ( 1838 — ) . A South American 
author, bom in Buenos Ayres. She married the 
Argentine diplomatist Manuel Garcia, in 1855. 
Her novels deal with Argentine subjects, and 
have some value from their descriptive quali- 
ties. They include: El medico de San Luis 
(1857), and the historical Lucia Miranda, and 
Pahlo 6 la vida en las pampas (1868), which 
was published in French at Paris. 

MANSION HOUSE. The name given to the 
official residence of the Lord Mayor of Lond<Hi, 
situated opposite the Royal Exchange. In its 
great banqueting hall, known as the Egyptian 
Hall, are given the state banquets. 

MANSLAUGHTEB. The unlawful killing 
of another without malice, express or implied. 
It is this absence of malice which distinguishes 
the act from murder. Not infrequently persons 
are charged with this crime who are admittedly 
free from any moral blame. At common law, 
manslaughter is of two kinds, voluntary and in- 
voluntary. The former includes cases of inten- 
tional killing, upon sudden heat or passion due 
to provocation, which palliates the offense; as 
when the person killed grossly insults or 
wrongs the slayer or quarrels with him. /n- 
voluntary manslaughter occurs when the killing 
is not intended, but results from the commis- 
sion of an unlawful act which falls below the 
grade of felony (q.v.), or from the doing of a 
lawful act in an unlawful manner, as in cases of 
culpable negligence (q.v.). A railroad engineer, 
a trolley-car raotorman, or a horse-car driver, 
whose negligent misconduct causes the death of 
a human being is guilty of manslaughter. By 
modem statutes the offense has been extended 
to every kind of homicide (q.v.) which on the 
one hand is not murder (q.v.), and on the other 
is not justifiable or excusable. It has also been 
divided into degrees — the first degree including 
cases marked by unusual cruelty, or by unlawful 
conduct of a grave character, such as a deliberate 
assault or the use of dangerous weapons, or ad- 
ministering drugs to procure miscarriage; while 
the second degree embraces culpable acts and 
omissions which are less blameworthy. The 
common law treated manslaughter as a felony, 
but within the benefit of clergy. Modem statutes 
in England punish the more serious forms by 

ral servitude for life, and the lighter forms 
^ imprisonment or fine. In the United States 
manslaughter in the first degree is punishable 

by imprisonment for a term generally varying 
from five to twenty years; in the second degree, 
by imprisonment for a shorter term, or by a fine 
of a limited amount, or by both fine and im- 
prisonment. See Criminal Law (consult the 
authorities there cited) ; Hohioide; Mubdeb. 

KANSO, m&n'sd, Johann Kaspab Fbiedbicu 
(1760-1826). A German philologian and histo- 
rian, bom at Blasienzell (Gotha). He studied at 
Jena, and from 1790 until his death was rector 
of an academy at Breslau. His translations from 
the classics— Vergil's Qeorgics (1783) ; the (Edi- 
ptia ResD of Sophocles (1786) — ^were not success- 
ful, but the Oischichte des preussischen StCMtes 
his zur zweiten Pariser Ahkunft (3 vols., 1819- 
20), has more merit, and was much read. 

HANSON, Geobqe (1850-76). A Scotch 
water-color painter and engraver, born in Edin- 
burgh. He at first worked as an engraver, and 
during this time and afterwards studied paintin^r 
in the Edinburgh School of Art, and in 1875 
under Cadart in Paris. His pictures are usually 
of homely rustic subjects, treated with much deli- 
cacy and beauty of color; e.g., **Milking Time," 
and "The Gypsy Well." As an eng^ver, Manson 
imitated the simple, direct methods of the Be- 
wicks. Consult the preface by Gray in Oeorge 
Manson and His Works (Edinburgh, 1880). 

MANSON, Patrick (1844—). A disUn- 
guished English physician and parasitologist, 
and writer on tropical diseases. He first became 
known by his investigations into the pathology 
of filarial diseases, and was one of the first to 
suggest the hypothesis that the mosquito is an 
active agent in the propagation of malaria. In 
1897 he was made medical adviser to the British 
Colonial Offices. In 1904 he investigated cachex- 
ial fevers, including kala-azar (q.v.). He has 
published many monographs on tropical diseases. 
His most important works are: The Goulstonian 
Lectures (1896) ; Lectures on Tropical Diseases 
(1905) ; and Diseases of Warm Climates (1905). 
See Insects, Propagation of Disease bt. 

MANSTJBAHy m&n-8?S^rft. A town of Lower 
Egypt, capital of the Province of Dakahlieh, 
situated on the right bank of the Damietta arm 
of the Nile, about 35 miles southwest of Dami- 
etta, on the Cairo-Damietta Railway (Map: 
Egypt, CI). It has extensive cotton manu- 
factures and carries on a large trade in raw 
cotton. The town was founded in 1222 and is 
noted as the place where Louis IX. of France was 
defeated and made prisoner in 1250. Population, 
in 1897, 36,131. 

MANT, Richard (1776-1848). An Irish 
bishop. He was bom at Southampton, England; 
was educated at Winchester School and Trinity 
College, Oxford, taking his bachelor's degree 
in 1797; was elected fellow of Oriel College in 
1798; was ordained priest in 1803; and was cu- 
rate and vicar of several parishes in and near 
London, 1804-20. He was made Bishop of Kil- 
laloe and Kilfenoragh, Ireland, in 1820, and in 
1823 was transferred to the See of Down and 
Connor. In the House of Ijords, Bishop Mant 
voted against Catholic Emancipation in 1821 and 
1825. He was a member in 1830 of the Royal 
Commission to inquire into ecclesiastical union. 
He was a prolific writer of poetry, as well as 
of historical and theological works ; and many of 
his h3rmns are included in different collections. 

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With George jyOjly (q.v.) he prepared the 
annotated edition of the Bible known as D'Oyly 
and Mant's Bible (1814), which had an immense 
sale in England, and was republished in New 
York, with additions by Bishop Hobart. He also 
published: The Book of Common Prayer with 
Notes (1820), and a History of the Church of 
Ireland from the Reformation to the Union of 
the Churches of England and Ireland in 1801 
(1840). His poetical works include a version 
of the Psalms (1824), and Ancient Hymns from 
the Roman Breviary, with Original Hymns 
( 1837 ) . Consult the memoir by his son, Walter 
Bishop Mant (Dublin, 1857). 

"Mr A NT A, mUn^tA. A port of entry of Ecuador, 
situated on the Pacific Coast, 150 miles west- 
southwest of Quito (Map: Ecuador, A 4). Its 
harbor is deep enough for large vessels. The 
town exports straw hats, rubber, and coffee, and 
is the seat of a United States consular asent. 
It is the port of Monticristi, 10 miles inland. 
It was founded in 1535. 

MANTA (Sp., blanket). A name about Pan- 
ama of the huge ray {Manta hirostris), more 
commonly known as 'devil-fish' (q.v.) or *sea 
devil,' which is greatly dreaded by the pearl- 
fishers, "whom it is said to devour after envelop- 
ing them in its vast wings," sometimes 20 feet 
across, as in a blanket. See Plate of Rats and 

TWANTAIiINIy m&n'to-le^n^. In Dickens's 
Nicholas Nicklehy, a fop given to mild forms of 
swearing. He is supported by the labor of his 
wife, a mantua-maker. 

KANTABO, mAn-ta'rd. A river in Peru. It 
is formed at a height of 13,000 feet above sea- 
level by the small headstreams of lake Chin- 
chaycocha, in the western part of the Province 
of Junin. Thence it flows southeast past the 
towns of Jauja and Huancayo into the Province 
of Huancavelica, where it tiums northeast, 
breaks through a deep gap in the eastern Cordil- 
leras, and joins the Apurimac to form the En6, 
which joins the Quillabamba to form the Uca- 
yalli. Its length is about 280 miles, and it is 
navigable a few miles above the jimction. 

MANTCHXJBIAy m&n-ch?^rl-ft. See Man- 

MANTEGAZZA, man'tA-gtt'tsA, Paolo (1831 
— ) . An Italian physiologist and anthropologist, 
bom at Monza. After studying medicine in the 
universities of Pisa and Milan he received his 
doctor's degree at Pavia ( 1864 ) , and then traveled 
extensively in Europe, India, and South America, 
where he practiced for a time in Paraguay and 
the Argentine Republic. In 1858 he returned to 
Milan, was appointed i)hysician at the hospital 
in that city the following year, and became in 
1860 professor of pathology at Pavia. In 1870 
he was made professor of anthropology at the 
Istituto di Studii Superiori in Florence, and there 
he founded the Museum of Anthropology and of 
Ethnology, the first in Italy, as well as the Italian 
Anthropological Society, and a review, Archivo 
per VAntropologia e V Etnologia. He was Deputy 
for Monza in the Italian Parliament from 1885 
until 1876, when he was appointed to the Senate. 
His philosophical and medical works include: 
Elementi dHgiene (1875); Igiene delV amore 
(1877) : Pisiologia del dolore (1880) ; Fisiologia 
del piacere (1881) ; Fisonomia e mimica (1883) ; 
Vol. xni.— 2. 

on amori degli uomtni, Saggio di una etnologia 
delV amore (1886); Le estasi umane (1887); 
Fisiologia della donna (1893); Fisiologia deW 
amore (1896) ; Uanno 3000 (1897) ; and L'omore 
(1898). He also published travel sketches and 
political treatises: Rio della Plata e Teneriffe 
(1877); Viaggio in Lapoma (1884); India 
( 1884) ; Btudi sulla etnologia dell* India ( 1886) ; 
and Ricordi d*un fantacoino al parlamento ital- 
iano (1896). 

MANTEQNA, mAn-tft'nyA, Andbka (1431- 
1506). An Italian painter and line-engraver of 
the early Renaissance, the chief master of the 
Paduan school. He was bom at Vicenza, the 
son of a peasant named Biagio (Blasius) . After 
the death of his father, at the age of ten 
he was adopted by the painter Squarcione, whose 
apprentice and pupil he became. They dis- 
agreed repeatedly, and finally separated, upon 
the marriage of Andrea with the daughter of 
Jacopo Bellini, in 1453. It is the tendency of 
the latest criticism to minimize the influence 
of Squarcione upon Mantegna's art ; nevertheless, 
it is certain that we find all the characteristics 
of Squarcione's school in it. He was also in- 
fiuenced by the work of Donatello, Paolo Uocello, 
and Fra Filippo Lippi at Padua, but there is 
no evidence in his works of the infiuence of his 
father-in-law. At the age of seventeen Mantegna 
was an independent master, practicing his art at 
Padua, where he remained imtil the end of 1459. 

The chief works of this early Paduan period 
are his seven mural naintin^ in the Chapel of 
Saints James and Christopher, in the Cnurch 
of the Eremitani, in which the entire progress 
of his art can be traced. Mantegna's paintings 
are far superior to those of the other pupils 
of Squarcione in the chapel, and were as im- 
portant for Northern Italy as the Brancacci 
frescoes for Florence. Five are from the life of 
Saint James, and two from the life of Saint 
Christopher. His earliest work is a wall-paint- 
ing representing Saints Bemardinus and An- 
tonius (1452), above the main portal of San 
Antonio in Padiia. Others are the altar-piece 
of San Giustiniano (1453), containing panels of 
saints in arched frames, the most prominent of 
whom is Saint Luke; ''Saint Eufemia," in the 
Museum of Naples; the 'Tresentation of Christ 
in the Temple," and the portrait of Cardinal 
Luigi Scarampi, in the Berlin Museum. His 
'Tietft," in the Brera at Milan, is a remarkable 
piece of foreshortening, in which the reclining 
Saviour is represented with his feet toward the 
spectator. The altar-piece of Saint Zeno (1458- 
59) has rich classical decoration of columns and 
garlands; in the centre is the Madonna, sur- 
rounded by angels and by a group of saints on 
either side. The predella contained a "Cruci- 
fixion" of infinite pathos, now in the Louvre, 
which was fianked by "Gethsemane" and the 
"Resurrection," at present in the Museum of 

In 1459, after repeated invitations from Lodo- 
vico Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua, Mantegna 
removed to that city, where he resided for the 
remainder of his life. Although very independent 
and sometimes irritable, he was treated with 
high honor and great consideration by the Mar- 
quis and his successor, Francesco II., under 
whose patronage he continued until his death. 
In 1483 Lorenzo de' Medici visited him, and in 

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1488 Pope Innocent VIII. summoned him to 
Home to decorate the Belvedere Chapel, now 
destroyed. In 1490 he returned to Mantua, where 
he died September 13, 1506. His last years were 
darkened by financial troubles, consequent upon 
his building a family chapel in the Church of 
Sant* Andrea. 

His chief work at Mantua was the decora- 
tion of the Camera dei Sposi, in the Castello di 
Corte, finished in 1474. Two of the walls and 
the ceiling remain. One of these, which is par- 
tially damaged, is covered with a realistic group 
of the Marquis, his wife, and the entire Court. 
The other shows a meeting of the Marquis with 
Cardinal Francesco Qonzaga, both attended by 
relatives. The figures are nearly all in profile 
and stiff in action, but intensely realistic and 
of monumental grandeur. The same wall con- 
tains a hunting scene, somewhat damaged, and a 
group of beautiful genii holding an inscrip- 
tion. The ceiling is richly decorated and con- 
tains a circular dome painted to represent the 
open sky, with angels and other figures looking 
over a parapet. Before going to Rome, Mantegna 
had al^ begun his nine cartoons, the 'Triumph 
of CfiBsar," now in Hampton Court, which he 
finished soon after his return to Mantua. They 
are drawn on paper in high colors, to represent, 
as if in bas-relief, a continuous triumphal pro- 
cession, and were used as hangings. No other 
monument of the fifteenth century shows such 
knowledge and feeling for the antique. For 
Isabella of Este, Marchioness of Mantua, he 
painted two pictures in the famous chamber 
which she furnished with paintings by prominent 
Italian artists, viz. the "Triumph of Virtue Over 
Vice" and "Parnassus," the latter containing 
groups of graceful classical figures in a romantic 
landscape. Both are now in the Louvre. 

Among his other works of the Mantuan period 
are : "Saint Sebastian," in the Gallery of Vienna ; 
"Saint George," in the Academy of Venice; 
"Summer," "Autumn," and the "Triumph of 
Scipio," in the National Gallery, London. In 
later life he painted a large number of Madonnas, 
of which there are good examples in the Uffizi at 
Florence, the National Galleiy, London, the Dres- 
den Gallery, and the Trivulzio Collection, Milan. 
Particularly famous is the "Madonna della Vit- 
toria" (1496), painted in commemoration of a 
supposed victory over the French, and now in 
the Louvre. Under a canopy of fruit and leaves, 
the Virgin, surrounded by saints, is represented 
blessing Francesco Gonzaga. 

Mantegna was a highly cultured man for his 
day, was well versed in classical literature, 
numbering among his friends prominent Human- 
ists, like Felice Feliciano, who dedicated a book 
to him. No other painter of the Renaissance 
understood antique art as did Mantegna. His 
paintings were its sculpture transferred to can- 
vas, and he mastered completely its decoration. 
The figures and draperies are sharp and rigid, 
and his archaeology is sometimes more learned 
than artistic. He was a severe student of na- 
ture, and an intense realist. His portraits are 
full of strength and character, his ideal fig- 
ures noble and grand. No artist of the early 
Renaissance had greater invention and imagina- 
tion. His execution was careful, his composi- 
tion good, and the excellence of his drawing is 
attested by the finished drawings in the Louvre, 
British Museum, Uffizi, and other collections. As 

a colorist he did not stand on the same high 
level. All of his work was in tempera; and his 
wall paintings, which were painted upon dry 
plaster, are improperly called frescoes. 

Mantegna was the greatest line-engraver of 
Northern Italy, and his infiuence upon that art 
was potent not only in Itely, but in Germany 
as well. Unlike Italian engravers before him, 
he engraved copper plates from his own designs. 
At first his technique was primitive, but it im- 
proved with the study of German engravings. 
In all cases his invention is more interesting 
than his technique. The best-known plates of 
his Paduan period are the "Flagellation of 
Christ," and "Christ at the Gates of HeU;" to 
the Mantuan period belong the "Resurrection of 
Christ," "Deposition from the Cross," and En- 
tombment." This last plate had a greater influ- 
ence upon art than any other ever executed. Its 
composition was adopted by Raphael in his pic- 
ture of the same name, by Holbein (q.v.) in the 
"Basel Passion" series, and the figure of Saint 
John was used by Dttrer in his "Crucifixion.'* 
Mantegna also engraved a number of classical 
Bubjecte, the best known of which are two Bac- 
chanals and two "Battles of Tritons," and sev- 
eral plates from the "Triumph of Caesar." He 
had a large number of followers who developed 
his technique and eng^ved his compositions, 
the best known of whom was "Jacopo de* Bar- 

BiBLiOGBAPHT. The sources for the life of 
Mantegna are chiefly his correspcmdence and 
other documents. Consult: Baschet, "Documents 
sur Mantegna/' in Gazette dea Beaux-Arta, vol. 
XX. (Paris, 1806). Vasari (q.v.) is unreliable 
upon Mantegna. The best and most complete 
modem authority is Kris teller, Andrea Man- 
tegna, trans, by Strong (London, 1901). Wolt- 
mann's biography in Dohme, Kunst und KUnstler 
Jtaliena (Leipzig, 1878), is a scholarly treatise. 
Crutwell, Mantegna (ib., 1901), is a good brief 
account, while Cartwright's biography in the 
"Great Artiste Series" (London, 1881) is of a 
popular character. Consult also the monographs 
by Thode (Bielefeld, 1897) and Yriarte (Paris» 

MAN^ELLy Gideon Algebnon (1790-1852). 
An eminent British geologist, bom at Lewes, in 
Sussex. He studied medicine and surgery, but 
devoted himself chiefly to geology and paleontol- 
ogy. His excellent collection of fossils was 
bought by the British Museum. He carried out 
investigations concerning the fossils of the Weal- 
den formations, and discovered the great Dino- 
saurian reptiles. Besides a large number of 
papers in the Philosophical Transactions and the 
Geological Transactions, he published The Won- 
ders of Geology (1838), and The Medals of 
Creation (1844). 

ILANTES, m&Nt. The capitel of an arron- 
dissement in the Department of Seine-et-Oise, 
France, beautifully situated on the left bank of 
the Seine, 30 miles west-northwest of Paris by 
rail (Map: France, N., G 4). A twelfth-century 
bridge crosses the Seine above the town, and 
modem bridges connect Mantes with an islet in 
the Seine, and with Limay on the opposite river 
bank. The fine Gk)thic Church of Notre Dame» 
dating from the twelfth century, occupies the site 
of the prior church burned during the siege of 
1087; and there are other ancient buildings. 

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Kantes has large tanneries, saltpetre factories, 
and a considerable agricultural trade. Mantes 
was a Celtic town from which Julius Ciesar ex- 
pelled the Druids; it is the Roman Medunta, 
William the Conqueror destroyed the town in 
1067 and here received the injury which caused 
Ms death. Population, in 1901, 8034. 

KAKTEXTEFEIiy mftn'toi-fel, Edwin Hans 
Kabl, Baron von (1800-85). A Prussian general. 
He was born at Dresden, February 24, 1809, and 
in 1827 entered the army. He became in 1843 the 
personal aide of Prince Albrecht, and in 1848 of 
King Frederick William IV. His promotion was 
rapid, and he played a prominent rOle in the 
peat Prussian military reforms. He took part 
m the war of 1864 against Denmark, and in 
1865 became the Governor of Schleswig, and as 
such played a prominent rdle in the ultimate 
solution of the Schleswlg-Holstein question. 
During the war of 1866 against Austria he 
commanded the Army of the Main, and during 
the Franco-Prussian War he commanded the 
First Army Corps, and participated in the battles 
of Colombey-Nouilly and Noisseville. Later he 
became the c(»nmander-in-chief of the German 
troops in South France, and operated efTectively 
there, driving Bourbaki's army across the Swiss 
frontier. After the close of the war he was 
made commander-in-chief of the German army 
of occupation. In 1873 he was created field- 
marshal, and later sent on important diplomatic 
missions to Russia. His last prominent post was 
that of Governor of the Imperial Province of 
Alsace-Lorraine. He died June 17, 1885, at 

KANTBTJITBL, Otto Theodob, Baron von 
(1805-82) . A German statesman, born at Lttbben. 
He studied jurisprudence at Halle, and became 
in 1845-46 a director of one of the departments 
in the Prussian Ministry of the Interior. When 
Count Brandenburg, under took the suppression of 
the revolutionary movement of 1848, he was ap- 
pointed Minister of the Interior. In 1850 he 
took office as Minister of Foreign Affairs and 
president of the Cabinet, and as such pursued a 
reactionary policy. In 1856 he was sent as 
Plenipotentianr to the Congress of Paris, and in 
1858 retired nrom the Ministry. From his lit- 
erary bequest H. von Poschinger published Unter 
Friedrich Wilhelm IV. Denkwurdigkeiten des 
Ministers Otto FreiKerm von Manteuffel (1900- 
01 ) ; and Preussens auswartige Politik, 1850-58 
(ib., 1902). For his biography, consult Hesekiel 
(Berlin, 1851). 

VANTI, mftn'tL A city and the county-seat 
of Sanpete County, Utah, 124 miles south of Salt 
Lake City, on the Rio Grande Western and the 
San Pete Valley railroads (Map: Utah, C 3). 
The Mormon temple which cost $1,500,000 is a 
noteworthy feature of the city, and there are two 
fine public school buildings. Manti is surrounded 
by a productive agricultural country, largely en- 
gaged also in sheep-raising, and has flour mills 
and a creamery. In the vicinity are productive 
eoal mines. Manti was settled in 1849 and incor- 
porated two years later. Population, 1900, 2408 : 
1906 (local est.), 2950. 

KANTINWA (Lat., from Gk. Mavriveia, 
Maniineia), A city of Arcadia, in the Pelopon- 
aesus, oa the high tableland west of Argolis. It 
was situated on the river Ophis, in the midst of 
a brood plain, and was at first a group of open 

villages, owning the supremacy of Sparta. Und€r 
Argive influence the five villages united in a 
fortified city, but the community was dissolved 
later hy the Spartans, only to be reconstituted 
by the Thebans under Epaminondas. The plain, 
from its strategic importance, was the scene of 
several battles, of which the most famous was 
that of B.o. 362, when Epaminondas defeated the 
Spartans and Athenians, but fell himself in the 
moment of victory. Excavations conducted by 
the French School at Athens during 1887 and 
1888 have clearly determined the course of the 
walls, and laid bare the Agora and its surround- 
ing buildings, including a small but interesting 
theatre. The site of the city is now called Pal»- 
opoli. Consult Foug^res, Mantin^e et VArcadie 
orientale (Paris, 1898). 

ICANTIQTJEIBA, m&N't^k&'^r&, Sebba da. 
A mountain range in Southeastern Brazil. It 
extends for about 200 miles parallel with the At- 
lantic coast and about 70 miles away from it, 
first along the boundary between the States of 
SSo Paulo and Minas Geraes, and then for a 
short distance into the latter, where it divides 
into two branches^ the Serra dos Aimores con- 
tinuing along the coast, and the Serra do Espin- 
haco extending through the centre of Minas €re- 
raes. The name Mantiaueira is sometimes applied 
to this whole system, but is properly confined to 
the single range in the south. It is granitic 
in character, and the highest and roughest in 
Brazil. Its highest point. Mount Itatiaia, on the 
State boundary, has an altitude of 9000 feet. The 
range is the watershed of the Rio Grande, the 
principal headstream of the Paran&. 

KANTIS (Neo-Lat., from Gk. ^vr<c, diviner, 
prophet; so called from the position of the fore 
legs, which resembles the attitude of prayer). 
One of the popular names for any of the orthop- 
terous insects of the family Mantide, and the 
scientific name of the type genus. Other popu- 
lar names are 'praying insect,* 'soothsayer,* 
'prophet,' 'rear-horse,* 'mule-killer.* The family 


At ^liltmalB StAgmomuDtia CatoUda; b, egg-cetae. 

Mantidse form the old group of the Orthoptera 
known as the Raptoria or graspers. They have 
the prothorax long and the front legs fitted for 
grasping their prey. The head is oblique and 
generally three-cornered. They are much more 
abundant in tropical regions than elsewhere, and 
exhibit striking instances of protective resem- 
blance and aggressive resemblance. The so-called 

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'flower mantes' of tropical countries resemble the 
flowers of certain plants, and in these flowers 
they lurk awaiting the visits of the insects upon 
which they feed. The term 'praying* insects has 
been derived from the attitude which they assume 
when at rest or when waiting to ^rasp another 
insect; the knees are bent and the front lees 
are held as though supporting a prayer-book. 
The commonest North American species is the 
'rear-horse* or 'mule-killer' {Btagmomantie 
Carolina), but the European (ManiiM reUgio- 
aa) has been introduced into the United States 
by accident, and has become acclimatized. 
The eggs of the Mantid» are laid in tough 
cases attached to the twigs of trees, where 
the young when hatched begin immediately ^ 
to feed upon plant-lice or other small soft-bodied 
insects, the size of the insects attacked increas- 
ing with the growth of the mantes. They have 
always been recognized as beneficial insects, but 
they are indiscriminate in their diet, and will 
feed upon other beneficial insects as well as upon 
injurious forms. Their eggs are frequently para- 
sitized by a very curious chalcis-fly of the*genu8 
Podagrion, which by means of a long ovipositor 
is enabled to pierce the tough egg cases of the 

These insects seem always to have been re- 
ffarded with superstitious awe. They were used 
by the Greeks in soothsaying, and the Hindus 
display a reverential consideration of their move- 
ments and flight. In Southern France the peas- 
ants believe that they point out a lost way; the 
Turks and other Moslems recognize intelligence 
and pious intentions in the actions of the mantis ; 
a South African species is, or was, venerated by 
the Hottentots; the Chinese and the Javanese 
keep them in cages and cause them to fight for 

MANTISSA. See Logabithhs. 

MANTIS SHBUCP, or Sea Mantis. A large 
burrowing crustacean (SquUla empuaa), of the 
order Stomapoda, which lives in large irregular 
holes which it excavates at or near low-water 
mark of spring tides. It is so called from the 
resemblance of the great spiny claw to that of 
the mantis (q.v.). This claw is borne on the legs 
of the second pair, and instead of ending in a for- 
ceps-like claw, which is armed with a row of 
six sharp curved spines fitting into correspondinjg 
sockets, the terminal joint is turned back and is 
attached to the penultimate segment like the 
blade of a pocket knife to the handle. By means 
of these singular organs, says Verrill, the shrimps 
hold their prey securely, and can give a severe 
wound to the human hand, if handled incautious- 
ly. It has large eyes, but, as it remains in its 
burrow constantly,, it is blind, the facets of the 
eye being partly atrophied. It lives chiefly on 
annelid worms. The European species is used as 
food, and the American species is probably edible. 

KANTLE (AS. mcentel, mentel, OF. mantel, 
Fr. manteau, from Lat. mantellum, mantelum, 
cloak, mantle, from Lat. manus, hand -j- tela, 
texture, from texere, to weave, Skt. takf, to cut, 
to fashion). A long flowing robe, worn in the 
Middle Ages over the armor, and fastened by a 
fibula in front, or at the right shoulder. The 
mantle is an important part of the official in- 
signia of the various orders of knighthood. La- 
dies of rank wore similar mantles, in many in- 
stances decorated with heraldic charges, in which 


case the mantle bore either the impaled arms of 
the lady and her husband, or her husband's arms 

MANTLINO, Lakbbequin, or Contoise. A 
heraldic ornament attached to the helmet. Some- 
times it is cut into irregular strips and curls of 
the most capricious forms, supposed to indicate 
that it has been torn on the field of battle; but 
usually the strips fall in graceful, fiowing lines. 
In British heraldry the mantling of the sovereign 
is of gold lined with ermine; that of peers 
ordinarily of crimson velvet lined with ermine; 
but sometimes the livery colors (see Livebt) 
are adopted instead, as is generally the practice 
in Continental heraldry. See Hebaldbt. 

MANTBASy mftn'tr&z. A people of the terri- 
tory of Malacca and Rembau, formerly regarded 
as a Negrito people of the Malay Peninsula, but 
more recently described as Sakai-Malay half- 
breeds. The mixture of these peoples has result- 
ed in giving the Mantras a somewhat taller stat- 
ure than the Sakai and a whiter skin. 

MANTXTAy mfin^fi-^ (It. Mantova). A city 
of Lombardy, Italy, situated on the Mincio, 25 
miles by rail southwest of Verona (Map: Italy, 
E 2). It was formerly the capital of the Duchy 
of Mantua and is now the capital of the province 
of the same name. It occupies two islands in 
the river and is elaborately fortified. Three 
lakes formed by the river half surroimd the 
town and there are marshes adjacent. It is 
not a healthful city. Architecturally it is in- 
teresting on account of the Renaissance churches ' 
and secular edifices by Alberti (q.v.) and other 
great builders. It is still more prominent in the 
world of painting, owing to the works of Man- 
tegna and Giulio Romano, both of whom resided 
here. The inadequate population and the sullen 
massive grandeur of the edifices explain why the 
traveler in Mantua associates the city with a 
gloomy decadence. The streets are regular and 
spacious, but poorly paved. There are several 
fine squares. The most important church is the 
spacious Sant' Andrea. Begun in 1472 as a crea- 
tion of Alberti, it has been subjected to many 
changes of plan during the centuries. Its white 
facade of marble is adorned with a portico, and 
contrasts curiously with the adjacent red brick 
campanile. The interior (110 yards long) con- 
tains many frescoes by prominent artists. The 
Cathedral of San Pietro is not attractive, but 
has a fine ceiling. 

The Corte Reale, formerly the ducal palace 
of the Gonzagas and now consigned to military 
purposes, is a notable structure dating from the 
beginning of the fourteenth century. It was em- 
bellished with frescoes by Giulio Romano. Its 
apartments are of exceptional interest for their 
varied decorations, representing the most delight- 
ful Italian period of the art of interior ornamen- 
tation. Another fine old Mantuan palace is the 
Palazzo del Th, constructed by Giulio Romano, 
and adorned by him in a most artistic style. Some 
of the frescoes are excellent. The friezes in the 
loggia are by Primaticcio, who was educated in 
Mantua under Giulio Romano. In the old castle 
of the Gk)nzagas is a collection of archives. Among 
the frescoes here by Mantegna only two remain in 
a satisfactory condition. The Vergil ian Academy 
of Arts and Sciences contains some specimens of 
art. The neighboring library in the Lyceum has 
a work by Rubens, who lived and studied in Man- 

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tua several years. In the adjacent museum are 
some good Qreek busts and sarcophagi, and the 
iiuseo Patrio possesses other antiquities. A 
statue of Dante and the house of Giulio Romano 
are shown as attractions to the visitor in Mantua. 
The city has a theological institute, a botanical 
garden, an astronomical observatory, a public li- 
brary with 80,000 volumes, and an excellent, 
ccnnmodious military hospital. The trade and 
manxifactures are unimportant. Population 
(commune), in 1901, 29,142. 

HifiiOBT. Mantua was originally an Etruscan 
city. It became a Roman municipium just be- 
fore the time of Vergil, who was bom in the 
neighboring village of Andes. The town rose to 
importance in the twelfth century, when it be- 
came one of the city republics and a member of 
the Lombard League. Toward the close of the 
thirteenth century began the rule of the House of 
Bonacoolai, who was succeeded in 1328 by the 
House of Gonzaga. A century later Mantua with 
its territory was erected into a marquisate, and 
from 1530 the €k)nzagas were dukes of Majitua. 
The State prospered greatly under this dynasty, 
its political power and territory being increased 
at the expense of Venice and Milan. The Gon- 
zagas were liberal patrons of the arts and learn- 
ing. After the Mantuan War of Succession 
(1628-30) the city began to decline. The last 
I>uke was driven away in 1703 and died in 1708, 
and Mantua fell to Austria. The French took the 
city in 1797. It wa^ left to the Austrians by the 
Treaty of Villafranca (1859), and was ceded to 
Italy 1866. During the Austrian occupation 
it was of great military importance and constitut- 
ed one of the so-called Quadrilateral of fortresses, 
the others being Verona, Legnago, and Peschiera. 
See Gk>i7ZA0A, House of. 

Titles applied to Vergil in allusion to his birth- 
place, Mantua. 

MANXr, nia'n<5(5 (from Skt. manu, man). An 
ancient mythical sage of India, the progenitor 
of mankind, according to the Hindus, and the 
reputed author of the great law-book known as 
the CJode of Manu (Skt. Mdnava-Dharma-SHstra) , 

There is no good groimd for accepting the ex- 
istence of Manu as a historical personage. In 
the Rig Veda he is merely the ancestor of the 
human race, the first one to offer a sacrifice to the 
gods. In the Satapatha Brahmana and in the 
Siahabharata he alone survives the imiversal 
deluge. In the first chapter of the law-book as- 
crib^ to him, he declares himself to have been 
produced by Viraj, who was an offspring of the 
Supreme Being, and to have created all this uni- 
verse. Hindu mythology knows, moreover, a suc- 
cession of Manus, each of whom created, in his 
own period, the world anew after it had perished 
at the end of a mundane age. 

The Manava-DharmorSastra, written in verse, 
is a collection of religious ordinances, customs, 
and traditions, such as would naturally grow up 
by established usage and receive divine sanction 
in course of time. This work is not a mere law- 
book in the European sense of the word; it is 
likewise a system of cosmogony; it propounds 
metaphysical doctrines, teaches the art of govern- 
ment, and treats of the state of the soul after 
death. In short, it is the religious, secular, 
and spiritual code of Brahmanism. It is di- 
Tided into twelve books. The chief topics are 


the following: (1) Creation; (2) education 
and the duties of a pupil, or the first or- 
der; (3) marriage and the duties of a house- 
holder, or the second order; (4) means of sub- 
sistence, and personal morality; (5) diet, puri- 
fication, and the duties of women; (6) the duties 
of an anchorite and an ascetic, or the duties of 
the third and fourth orders; (7) government, 
and the duties of a king and the military caste; 

(8) judicature and law, private and criminal; 

(9) continuation of the former, and the duties of 
the commercial and servile castes; (10) mixed 
castes and the duties of the castes in time of dis- 
tress; (11) penance and expiation; (12) trans- 
migration and final beatitude. 

The text of Manu has often been edited and 
translated, as by Jolly, Mdnava-Dharma-S^tra 
(London, 1887), by Mandlik, with seven native 
commentaries (Bombay, 1886), and in the series 
of the Nimaya Sagara Press (Bombay, 1887). 
There are several translations; especially by 
Btthler, The Lawn of Manu (Oxford, 1886) ; and 
by Bumell and Hopkins, The Ordinances of Mamu 
(London, 1884). Consult, also, Hopkins, Mutual 
Relations of the Four Castes According to the 
Mdnavadharmagdstram (Leipzig, 1881); Joly, 
Reoht und Bitte (Strassburg, 1896). 

MAJrCTAL (Lat. manualis, relating to the 
hand, from manus, hand). The keyboard of an 
organ played by tiie hands, in contradistinction 
to the pedal, played by the feet. The number of 
manuals varies from two to four according to 
the size of the organ. In older French organs 
even five manuals are found. The names of the 
different manuals are: (1) Great organ; (2) 
choir-manual; (3) swell-manual; (4) solo-man- 
ual; (5) echo-manual. Each manual really is a 
separate organ in itself, having its own set of 
pipes and stops. By means of couplers any or 
all of the manuals can be connected, so that by 
striking a n6te on one manual the same note 
soimds on all the other manuals that are 
coupled. The usual compass of manuals is four 
octaves and a fifth, C-g*. 

KAKUAL OF ABICS. A text-book of rules 
and explanations for the instruction of military 
recruits in the use of their arms and their care 
and preservation. The Manual of Arms owes 
much of its elaborateness, both in the United 
States and England, to its German origin. In 
this connection it is interesting to note that while 
the manual remains practically unchanged in 
the two former coimtries, the exercise in Ger- 
many has dwindled to three positions, viz.: 
Slope arms, order arms, and present arms. In 
the United States Army all drills are prefaced 
and concluded with an examination of cartridge 
chambers, as a precaution against accidents, and 
for purposes of instruction the movements are 
divided into motions, and executed in detail. 
The command of execution determines the prompt 
execution of the first motion, and the commands 
Two, Three, etc., the other motions. The com- 
mands and movements of the manual of arms 
are given after the soldier is in position with rifle 
at the order, and are as follows: (1) Order 
arms; (2) present arms; (3) right shoulder 
arms; (4) port arms. Other movements are: 
(5) Parade-rest; (6) fix bayonets; (7) charge 

MANTTAL TRAIHINO. This terra, in spite 
of c<Hisiderable criticism, has come to be gener- 

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ally applied to the use of constructive hand work 
in the schools, as a feature of general education. 
The term ia broadly used to include the work of 
both boys and girls in various materials, in 
which case instruction in domestic art and 
science is understood, but it is often used in a 
narrower sense as relating only to the work with 
tools commonly given to boys. 

The earliest official recognition of manual 
training as a legitimate part of school work was 
obtained in European countries. As early as 
1858; Uno Cygnffius organized a plan of manual 
training for the primary schools of Finland, and 
in 1866 instruction in some branch of manual 
work was made compulsory in the training col- 
leges for male teachers in that country, and in all 
primary schools for boys in coimtry districts. 
Sweden is, however, the country which con- 
tributed most toward the early development of 
manual training, and from which has come the 
largest influence in its propagation. In 1872 
the (rovemment reached the conclusion that 
schools for instruction in Sloyd were necessary 
to counteract the tendency toward concentration 
in cities, and the decline of the old home indus- 
tries. The schools first established had natu- 
rally an economic rather than an educational 
significance. This was changed, however, as the 
movement grew, until a thoroughly organized 
scheme of educational tool work for lK>ys ^tween 
twelve and fifteen years of age was developed. 
In 1877 the work was introduced into the folk- 
school, and the Government granted aid in sup- 
port of the instruction. In 1897 it is reported 
that Sloyd instruction was ^ven in about 2000 
schools. The Sloyd Seminarium at NlUls, estab- 
lished in 1874 under the direction of Otto Solo- 
man, has not only been an active and stimulating 
force in the development of the work in Sweden, 
but has exercised a far-reaching influence upon 
the thought and practice of other coimtries. At 
present Sloyd is taught in all the regular normal 
schools of the country. 

In France manual training was made obliga- 
tory in the elementary primary schools by the 
law of 1882. The official programme for manual 
training is very complete and thorough, but its 
provisions are only partially realized because 
of the failure of communes to provide workshops, 
and of the insufficient supply of trained teachers. 
In Paris one hundred and twenty-four schools 
were equipped with workshops in 1897-98, and at 
this time one-third of the regular teachers in 
the city schools had taken normal courses in 
manual training. A feature of the French work 
is the variety of materials and processes used, 
and the fact that hand-work instruction has been 
planned for every grade of the elementary pri- 
mary school. 

Germany, although the seat of a very active 
propaganda issuing from the German Association 
for Manual Training for Boys, has done very 
little toward incorporating manual training with 
the regular work of the common schools. A large 
number of workshops have been established in 
various parts of the Empire, supported mainly 
by individuals and societies, in which pupils of 
the public schools are given instruction out of 
school hours. The educational ministries of 
Prussia, Saxony, and Baden now make annual 
contributions in aid of this instruction, but the 
work is obligatory in only a very few places. 
Manual work for girls, on the other hand, has 

been for a long time a compulsory branch of in- 
struction in the common schools of Germany. The 
Manual Training Seminary at Leipzig, founded 
in 1887 by the Association for Manual Training 
for Boys, imder the leadership of Dr. Waldemar 
Gotze, is the active centre of the movement, and 
the main institution for the training of teachers. 

The history of manual training in the United 
States involves both the development of the idea 
and the development of practice. Expressions 
of the layman's point of view are presented in 
such booKB as the following: Ham, Manual Traiiu 
ing (London, 1886) ; McArthur, Education in its 
Relation to Manual Industry (New York, 1884) ; 
Jacobson, Higher Ground (Chicago, 1888). In 
the field of practice, little of a purely educational 
character appeared before 1878, at which time 
the Workingman's School was founded by the 
Ethical Culture Society of New York. This in- 
stitution comprised a kindergarten and an ele- 
mentary school, in which manual work formed 
from the first a vital and important part of the 
educational scheme. The general movement^ 
however, took its large beginning, as has been 
the case with so many educational movements^ 
at the top inst&E^ of the bottom of the school 
system. In 1880, through the efforts of Dr. 
Calvin A. Woodward, the Saint Louis Manual 
Training School was opened in connection with 
Washington University. The work of this school 
attracted! wide attention, and its success led to thm 
speedy organization of similar schools in other 
large cities: Chicago, Baltimore, and Toledo, 
1884; Philadelphia, 1885; Cleveland, Cincinnati^ 
and Omaha, 1886. The first provision for girls* 
work in these schools was made in the case of the 
Toledo school, and included sewing, dressmaking, 
millinery, and cooking. In 1895 the Massachu- 
setts Legislature, under the lead of the State 
Board of Education, made it obligatory upon 
every city in the State of 30,000 or more inhab- 
itants to establish and maintain manual training 
in a high school. 

The rapid development of this type of second- 
ary school has resulted in an institution peculiar- 
ly American. In other countries the introduction 
and spread of manual training has been confined 
to the elementary school, and no institution ex- 
ists in Europe, of a purely educational character, 
that presents any parallel to the comprehensive 
and costly equipment of these schools. The shop- 
work comprises joinery, turning, pattern-making, 
forging, and machine work, and sometimes foun- 
dry practice and tinsmithing. The nature of 
this work has been very similar in the various 
schools, and until late years has been almost 
imiformly based upon the principles of the 
'Russian System.' The central idea of this system 
of shopwork instruction, developed in a technical 
school for the instruction of engineers, is the 
analysis of a craft into its elementary processes 
and constructions, and the presentation of these 
details in an orderly and sequential scheme as 
separate elements. Compared with the develop- 
ment of manual training in the high school, the 
introduction of the work in the public element- 
ary school came at first but slowly. Experi- 
mental classes in carpentry, the expense for 
which was borne by Mrs. Quincy A. Shaw, were 
conducted at the Dwight School in Boston, in 
1882. These were taken under the care of the 
city and transferred to temporary quarters in 
the English High School building in 1884, but 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




the work did not receive a place in the course of 
study until 1888. In Springfield, Mass., sewing 
was introduced in the schools in 1884, and in 
1886 a manual training school was established, 
at which pupils coming voluntarily from the ele- 
mentary schools received instruction in knife- 
work. In 1885 the Legislature of New Jersey 
passed a law providing that the State would 
duplicate any amount between $500 and $5000 
raised by a city or town for instruction in manual 
training. This led to the early introduction of 
the work in a number of places in various parts 
of the State. In 1888 the city of New York 
began the introduction of a manual training 
course of study, including drawing, sewing, cook- 
ing, and woodwork. 

All this early work was <irude and experi- 
mental, and it was not until the influence ema- 
nating from the Sloyd School of Boston began to 
be felt that tool work for boys in the elementary 
school took on a more dd^ite character. A 
vital principle of the Sloyd work is the appeal 
to the interest of the worker through the con- 
struction of a finished object of definite use re- 
lated, generally, to the needs of home life. This 
principle has gained general acceptance in the 
work of the elementary school, and has to quite 
an extent modified the character of the work 
done in the high schools. From the upper grades 
of the grammar school with the provisions for 
shopwork for boys, and cooking and sewing for 
girls, hand work has made considerable progress 
in its way downward. Work in clay, paper, card- 
board, sewing, weaving, basketry, bent iron, and 
simple wood construction are the processes most 
commonly employed. 

Consult: Dewey, The Bohool a/nd Society (Chi- 
cago, 1899) ; James, Talks to Teachers on Psychol- 
ogy (New York, 1899) ; Parker, Talks on Peda- 
gogics (New York, 1894) ; Salomon, The Theory 
of Educational Sloyd (Boston, 1896) ; Ware, The 
Educational Foundations of Trade and Indus^ 
try (New York, 1901) ; and the Proceedings of 
the National Educational Association, Data on 
the early history of the movement in the United 
States are contained in part ii. of the Report upon 
Education in the Industrial and Fine Arts in the 
United States^ issued by the United States Bu- 
reau of Education. 

English dramatist of the seventeenth century. It 
appears that he was aided in hia literary en- 
deavors by James Compton, Earl of Northamp- 
ton, of whose retinue he was a member. During 
the civil wars he was successively captain and 
major of infantry, and afterwards he busied 
himself in the instructing of private pupils and 
the writing of plays. His poverty was somewhat 
relieved by application first to Cromwell, and 
afterwards to Charles II. Twelve plays, nine in 
manuscript and three printed, are generally as- 
cribed to him. There is no evidence that any was 
presented. One, The Just General (1652), de- 
scribed as a *tragi-comedy/ is written throughout 
in a peculiar rhythmical blank verse, scarcely dif- 
ferent from prose. Consult : Lamb, Specimens of 
the English Dramatic Poets (London, 1808; and 
subsequent editions) ; Fleay, A Biographical 
Cfhroniole of the English Drama, 1559-1642 (Lon- 
don, 1891). 

XANTTCODE (Malay Manukdevata, bird of 
the gods). The name originally given to the 

king bird-of-paradise, but now applied to certain 
Papuan birds probably not relatives of the Para- 
diseidffi at all. They have glossy, steel-blue 
plumage, and are remarkable for their vocal 
powers. Lesson, Forbes, and other ornithologists 
assert that they are able to pass through every 
note of the gamut. Eight or ten species are 
known, of which Manuc^Ddia viridis is common 
throughout the entire Papuan region. It is de- 
scribed by Wallace as being powerful and active, 
clinging to the smaller branches of the trees 
on which it finds the fruit that constitutes its 

irANTTBLI.,COMNEanTS (1120-80). By- 
zantine Emperor from 1143 to 1180. He 
was the youngest son of the Emperor Calo- 
johannes, whom he succeeded upon the throne. 
He became at once involved in an uninterrupted 
series of wars in Asia and Europe. In 1144 Ray- 
mond, Prince of Antioch, who had thrown off 
the Byzantine yoke, was compelled to submit 
again to vassalage. In 1147 the Crusaders, un- 
der Louis VII. of France and Conrad III. of 
Germany, marched through Manuel's dominions 
without serious hindrance on his part, as he was 
at this time entangled in a war with Roger, King 
of Sicily. This confiict proved a long and ardu- 
ous one. For a time the Byzantine arms were 
victorious, but the fortune of war changed and 
no substantial gain resulted. Manuel was en- 
gaged in protracted wars with the Seljuks, who 
in 1176 defeated his forces in a great battle at 
Myriocephalon. He sought to drive Frederick 
Barbarossa out of Italy, but failed. He also 
waged war with the Hungarians and with the 
Venetians, being unsuccessful against the latter. 
He died September 24, 1180. The reign of Manuel 
was one of great splendor, but the expenses of the 
numerous wars and his policy of allowing the 
Italians to monopolize the trade sapped the 
strength of the Empire. Consult: Taiel, Kom- 
nenen und Normarmen (2d ed., Stuttgart, 1870) ; 
Kap-Herr, Ahendldndische Politik Kaiser Manuels 
(Strassburg, 1881); Finlay, History of Greece, 
vol. iii. (London, 1877). 

1425). Byzantine Emperor from 1391 to 1425. 
He succeeded his father, John V., as sole ruler 
after he had been an associate in the Empire 
since 1373. Fearing that Constantinople would 
fall into the hands of the Turks, Manuel applied 
for aid to the Western princes, whose army was 
defeated with great slaughter by Bajazet (q.v.) 
at Nicopolis, in 1398. In 1398 a nephew of 
Manuel with the aid of Bajazet rose in rebellion, 
and the Emperor was compelled to make him co- 
Emperor. He was known as John VII. Manuel 
was in constant peril until Bajazet was defeated 
by Timur at Angora, in 1402, and taken prisoner. 
After the death of Bajazet in 1403 Manuel 
reigned in peace for eighteen years, for the yoimg 
Sultan Monammed I. was his intimate friend. 
But when in 1421 Mohammed died and Amurath 
II. came to the throne, the old contest was re- 
newed. In 1422 Constantinople was besieged, 
and although the siege failed, Manuel had to 
sign a humiliating treaty. He retired to a mon- 
astery in 1423, after a severe illness, his son John 
VIII. becoming practically the sole ruler. Manu- 
el died in 1425. Consult Xivrey, "Sur la vie et 
les ouvrages de Vempereur Manuel Pal6ologue," 
in M&moires de VAcad^mie des Inscriptions, vol. 
xix. (Paris, 1853). 

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MANUEL L, THE Great (14691521). A 
King of Portugal, in whose reign that country 
attained the highest pitch of power and splendor. 
He succeeded <K>hn Ii. in 1495, ruled throughout 
with the help of the Cortes, and did much for 
art and letters by his generous patronage. The 
only blot on his domestic administration was his 
persecution of the Jews. But the same militant 
Christianity led him to attempt conquests in 
Africa, in which he was unsuccessful, to enter 
into diplomatic relations with many far-off lands, 
and to fit out great expeditions of exploration 
and c(Hiquest. It was Manuel who sent Vasco 
da Gama around the Cape, Cabral upon the voy- 
age which resulted in the accidental discovery of 
l^uth America, Cortereal to North America, and 
Almeida and Albuquerque to the East Indies, 
where a wide field was opened for Portuguese 

MANUEL, mk'nj^'^V, Eug£:ne (1823-1901). 
A French poet and prose writer, bom in Paris 
of Jewish parents. From 1849 to 1871 he taught 
rhetoric in different Parisian lyceums. He was 
appointed chief of cabinet to the Minister of 
Public Instruction in 1871, a year later was 
made inspector of the Academv of Paris, and 
in 1878 inspector-general. With his brother-in- 
law, E. L6vi-Alvarfes, he published four voliunes 
of lectures for the use of students, entitled La 
France (1864-55; 6th ed. 1868). Several of his 
verse collections were crowned by the Academy. 
They include: Pages intimes {Sd ed., 1869); 
Po&mes populaires (1871); Pendant la guerre 
(1871) ; Un voyage (5th ed. 1890) ; Ponies du 
foyer et de l'4cole (16th ed. 1892). His play 
Lea ouvriera (1870) also received academic hon- 
ors, and Mme. Sarah Bernhardt made her first 
appearance at the CJomfidie Francaise in his 
drama L'ahaent ( 1873) . Manuel edited the (Euvres 
lyriquea de Jean Baptiate Rouaaeau (1852) and 
Ch^nier's Po^aiea ( 1884) . 

MANUEL, mrnv'ftl', Don Juan (1282-1349). 
A Spanish prince and author, bom at Escalona. 
He was the nephew of Alfonso X., called *the 
Wise.' His father died in his youth, and he was 
brought up by his cousin, Sancho IV., who was 
succ^ded by Ferdinand IV. Upon his death, 
Don Manuel was co-regent for the young heir 
Alfonso XI. (1320). When the King reached 
his majority he refused to marry Constance, the 
daughter of Don Manuel, or in other ways recog- 
nize his authority. From 1327 to 1335 there was 
active war between them, ending in the King's 
victory. He afterwards received Don Manuel 
into favor, and made him general-in-chief of the 
army against the Moors. Don Manuel is bet- 
ter remembered now as author than as soldier. 
His prose is clear, vigorous, and interesting. 
Several of his works may be found in Riva- 
deneyra's Bihlioteca de autorea eapaAoleSy vol. 
xi. ('Madrid, 1884). The most important of them 
is the Conde Luoanor (1575), with a commen- 
tary by Gonzalo Argote de Molina. This con- 
sists of forty-nine stories, told somewhat in the 
Oriental manner, with a little moral in verse at 
the end of each tale. More modern editions of 
El Conde Lucanor are those of Stuttgart (1839), 
Barcelona (1853), and Madrid (1860). There 
is an English translation by James York (Lon- 
don, 1868 and 1888). 

MANUEL, mA'nv'Sr, Nikolaus (1484-1530). 
A Swiss painter, poet, and magistrate, bom at 

Bern. His early profession was probably that 
of painter and engraver, and in his youth he 
traveled a good deal, and was a pupil of Titian 
at Venice. Upon his return to Bern he became 
a member of the Great Senate (1512), and after- 
wards served in the French Army. He was a 
pronounced supporter of the Swiss reformation. 
His writings include the satirical comedies: Vom 
Papst und aeiner Prieaterachaft, Der Ahlasa- 
kriimer, Barheli, and Elali Tragdenknahen, re- 
edited by Tittmann in 1868 and Bachtold in 1878. 
His works as an artist are very interesting; they 
consist of a few oil and water-color paintings, and 
a number of drawings, best studied in the Basel 
Museum. His frescoes, "The Dance of the Dead," 
painted on the walls of the Dominican convent 
( 1515-21 ) at Bern, were destroyed, but have been 
well copied in the twenty-four lithographs, Nik- 
laua Manuela Totentanz (Bern, 1829-31). 

which has been created by the application c3 
labor to crude materials, whereby they are trans- 
formed into a new and different quality, shape, or 
form, having a distinctive name, character, or 
use, and capable of being used without alteration. 
The term is sometimes confused with manufac- 
tured 'products,' such as 'pig iron' or 'pig lead,' 
which are merely iron and lead reduced from the 
native ores and freed from impurities, and which 
are, in law, considered as 'raw' or crude ma- 
terials, ready to be manufactured into articles. 
The word article, therefore, in its technical legal 
sense means a thing adapted for use. The dis- 
tinction between manufactured articles and crude 
or raw materials is of great importance under 
tariff and revenue acts where tne former are 
assessed with a higher rate of duty than the 
latter. The distinction above mentioned has 
been adopted by the United States courts in the 
interpretation of our tariff laws. For example, 
india-rubber, which is a product obtained by re- 
ducing the juice or sap of certain tropical trees 
and plants to a solid form by dipping convenient 
molds into it, and drying it over a fire made 
from a peculiar kind of nut, was held not to be 
a manufactured article under a tariff act tax- 
ing articles made of rubber. The court de- 
scribed it as a "raw material in a more portable, 
useful, and convenient form for other manufac- 
tures here." The court, however, held that rub- 
ber shoes, made by the same process, except that 
the mold was in the form of the human foot> 
were manufactured articles, as they were adapted 
for immediate use. Consult: Carr, Judicial In- 
terpretation of Tariff Acta (1894) ; Elmes, Law 
of the Cuatoma; also the authorities referred to 
under Sales. 

MANUEACTUBEBS, National Assocla- 
TiON OF. An association of American manufac- 
turers organized in Cincinnati in 1805 for the pur- 
poses of increasing their export trade, influencing 
legislation affecting their interests, and of coping 
with the demands of labor organizations. The 
association maintains a central office in New 
York which supplies members with information 
about foreign markets, prices, credit reports, 
and undertakes through its international freight 
bureau the shipment and delivery of foreign 
consignments. Its most conspicuous function is 
the energetic campaign which it wages against 
radical legislation and trade unionism. The pub- 
lic measures with which the association has been 

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most promineiitly connected are the reform of the 
patent law and of the consular and postal ser- 
vices. The association has placed itself on record 
as not being opposed to labor organizations as 
such, but maintains that employers must be 
free to employ their working people with- 
out interference on the part of individual 
organizations and that they must be un- 
molested in the management of their business 
and in the use of any methods or systems of pay 
which are equitable. The association provided 
for the organization of separate defense associa- 
tions in the different lines of industry it repre- 
eents. Provision was further made for the 
federation of these aflUiated protected associa- 
tions into a "permanent central organization that 
will create a clearing-house for ideas and provide 
means for codperation on matters of common in- 
terest." The association has evidently entered 
upon a programme of positive opposition to trade 
unionism. The association had, in 1903, more 
than 1900 members, and claimed that, measured 
by capital invested, workmen employed, or prod- 
ucts manufactured, it constitutes the largest 
trade body in the world. The association pub- 
lishes the American Trade Index and the Confi- 
dential Bulletin of Inquiries from Foreign 
Buyers; its organ is American Industries, pub- 
lished semi-monthly at New York. 

MANITFAC^UBES (ML. manufactura, from 
Xiat. manufaotus, manu faotus, made by hand, 
from manUf abl. sg. of manuSy hand, and foetus, 
p.p. of facere, to make) . In a broad sense of the 
term, manufactures are such forms. of industry 
as elaborate for economic use materials whicn 
are themselves the product of industry. Manu- 
factures are thus distinguished from extractive 
industry, which procures wealth from nature in 
its primary forms. In practice it is difficult to 
draw a hard and fast line between these two 
types of industry, since many commodities which 
are commonly classed as raw materials have been 
subject to one or more elaborative processes, as, 
for example, raw cotton, raw sugar, pig iron. 
The practice of American statisticians is to class 
with extractive industry processes which are di- 
rectly connected with the exploitation of natural 
products. Butter and cheese which are made on 
the farm are treated as agricultural products; 
when produced in factories distinct from the 
farm they are classed with manufactures. A 
product in its earliest merchantable form may 
then be classed with raw materials; when sub- 
jected to further processes of elaboration it be- 
comes a manufactured commodity. For the tech- 
nical legal distinction in this matter, see Manu- 
factured ABnci£. 

Again, many commodities undergo minor 
changes incidental to consumption. The prepa- 
ration of food may be cited as a case in point. 
Such processes are not usually placed under 
manufactures. If the preparation of food is 
carried on in separate establishments with a 
view to supplying a market, it will fall under 
the head of manufactures. This distinction is 
obviously difficult to make in practice. The 
twelfth census of the United States excludes 
from manufactures proper most forms of order 
production, confining the term to production of 
standard commodities for a general market. 
From a theoretical point of view, however, it is 
better to include under manufactures all proc- 


esses of elaboration of merchantable materials 
into commodities primarily designed for sale. 

In this sense of the term manufactures pre- 
suppose a considerably developed economic life. 
They did not exist when each household produced 
exclusively for its own consumption. In West^ 
em Europe they were first carried on under the 
guilds (q.v.), forming, however, but an insignifi- 
cant part of the economic life. With the rise of 
capital in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, 
manufactures were carried on more extensively 
under the domestic system. The capitalist-mer- 
chant put out materials to be worked up at home 
by workmen whose chief occupation was usually 
agriculture. This form of manufacture still ex- 
ists in America and England; it is widely prac- 
ticed in France, Germany, and Russia; and in 
some European districts, notably in Norway, it 
is the prevalent form. 

In the more advanced nations domestic manu- 
facture has been largely supplanted by the fac- 
tory sjTstem (q.v.). The extension of the market 
in early modem times, requiring a vastly in- 
creased production of goods of standard kinds, 
led first to excessive division of labor and later 
to the invention of machinery. The first indus- 
tries to respond to these influences were the 
textile and the iron industries as discussed in 
detail under the heads of Textile Manufactub- 
ING and Ibon and Steel, Metallubgy of. 

Manufactubes in the United States. At 
the end of the colonial period manufacturing in- 
dustry in America was of slight importance. The 
principal salable articles were raw materials, 
such as the products of the forests. Each house- 
hold provided itself with the chief commodities 
for consumption. In New England, however, the 
manufacture of rum was extensive, and the pro- 
duction of hats, coarse cloth, and nails was car- 
ried on under the domestic system of industry. 
The total value of the manufactures of America at . 
the time of the adoption of the Constitution has 
been estimated at $20,000,000; but this includes 
much domestic production for home consumption. 

Machine production scarcely existed before 
1790. In that year a British mechanic, Slater, 
set up spinning, machinery in Rhode Island. In 
1794 Whitney invented the cotton gin, thus as- 
suring a supply of raw materials for the new 
cotton manufacture. By 1810 machinery had 
been generally introduced in textile manufacture, 
although large quantities of goods were still 
produced under the older system. The value of 
textiles produced in that year was estimated at 
about $40,000,000. 

The iron manufacture developed more slowly. 
Iklachinery of improved types was introduced in 
the first and second decades of the nineteenth 
century, but the greater part of the production 
and manufacture was carried on in a primitive 
fashion, until the fifth decade of the century, 
when anthracite began to be substituted for 
charcoal in smelting. From that time increase 
was rapid, as will l^ seen in the statistics given 
under Iron and Steel, Metallurgy of. 

The value of the manufactures of the United 
States for the year 1810 was estimated by Tench 
Coxe to be $198,613,471. In 1820 the value was 
$268,000,000. The following table, taken from 
the Twelfth Census, Manufactures, part %., and 
Bulletin 51, Census of Manufactures: 1905, shows 
the growth of manujfactures from 1850: 

Digitized by 






1906 « 

1900 « 







Capitol 1. 


























Total wages i 



▼aloe of prodnoto > 





t Millioni of dollars. 

* TbMe two oolomns glre a oomparison of manufactures for 1900 and 1906 on the basis of the 
I daased as factories. 

of 1906, which included only 


Total wages 

Cost of materials... 
Talue of producto .. 

Arerage number of wage-gamers. 

Per cent, of increase 

1900-1906 1890-1900 1880-1890 1870-1880 1860-1870 














In estimating the economic significance of the 
development of manufactures as shown in the 
above table, it will be necessary to make allow- 
ance for the fact that a considerable number 
of operations are now carried on as manufactures 
which formerly were a part of household indus- 
try. The increase in the net product of manu- 
factures above cost of material is not wholly a 
net increase in national income, although the 
Heater part may be so regarded. It is further 
to be kept in mind that the statistics of capital 
are based upon estimates which in the nature 
of the case are not very reliable. 

The following table shows the rank of the 
States and Territories in value of manufactures 
for establishments classed as factories in 1905: 

"Few York 82 

PttmsyWania 1 

niinob 1 

Hassachusetto. 1 


If ew Jersey 








Bhode Island . 


Iowa .... 



Georgia . . 




Iforth Carolina 



Hew Hunpshire . . . . 



West Virginia 

^uth Carolina 










District of Columbia . 


Couth DakoU 

North DakoU 


If ew Mexico 



.4:0,31^.1 L*y 




IGl,<>*< 1.406 


l2;i,iiH 1,004 



iN^M ■.).!;,% 


The four States New York, Pennsylvania, Il- 
linois, and Massachusetts produce nearly one- 
half the manufactures of the United States. The 
greatest concentration of manufacturing industry 
is in southern New England and New York and 
eastern Pennsylvania. But there apears to be 
a general tendency toward extension of the area 
of manufactures. 

The United States occupies at present the fore- 
most rank as a manufacturing nation. The suc- 
cessive stages by which it has reached this posi- 
tion are illustrated by the following table, taken 
from the Twelfth Centus, Manufactures, part i. 
(MulhaU's estimates) : 

Akktjal YAiiini or MAirurAOTUBxa. 



TTnlfMl innorvloTn 





Qermanr. ...... . . 



United States 


other States 




United Kingdom 









United States 


Other States 


BiBiJOGBAPHY. For the rise of manufactures 
in England, consult: Cunningham, Orowth of 
English Industry (Cambridge, 1890-92), and 
Ashley, Economic History (London, 1888-93). 
For the growth of manufactures in America, 
consult: Wright, Industrial Evolution of the 
United States (New York, 1897), and Wells, Re- 
cent Economic Changes (New York, 1898) ; and, 
in general, Unwin, Industrial Organization in the 
Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (Oxford, 
19d4) ; Shadwell, Industrial Efficiency (London, 
1906). Consult also the several censuses of the 
United States, particularly the Twelfth Census, 
and MulhalPs Dictionary of Statistics (London, 
1899), article "Manufactures." See the articles 
on the manufacturing industries, such as Cotton; 
Iron and Steel; Wool; etc. 

MANTJFACTTJBES, Amebican. See United 
States, Manufactures, 

Digitized by 


MANXJXy ma^nvl (Malav word). A small 
wild cat {Felts manul) of Tibet and Siberia. It 
is whitish-gray, with black marks on the chest and 
about the head, and dark vertical bands across 
the loins. It has a very broad, round head. 

ICANTmiSSION (Lat. manumiaaio, from 
manumittere, to manumit, from manus, hand + 
mittere, to send). In Roman law, the enfran- 
chisement of a slave. In the older law (jus ci- 
vile), this could be accomplished: (1) Vindicta, 
Le. by a fictitious action. In the later law, the 
forms of suit were dropped, and the master sim- 
ply appeared before the magistrate and declared 
that the slave was to be set free. (2) Censtt, 
i.e. by the entry of the slave's name, with the 
assent of the master^ on the register of citizens. 
This form disappeared in the Imperial period. 
(3) Testamento, i.e. by a bequest of liberty in the 
master's will. When the Roman Empire became 
Christian, a fourth mode of manumission was 
recognized — manumisaio in ecclesia, by declara- 
tion of the master in the presence of priest and 
congregation. Informal manumissions 'among 
friends,' or *by letter,' were originally void; but 
in the later Republican period individuals thus 
freed were protected by the magistrates and in 
the Imperial period they were recognized as 
l^;ally free. These informal manumissions were 
regulated, under Justinian, by requiring five wit- 
Besses to prove the manumission. The right of 
a master to manumit his slaves was restricted 
in the Imperial period. Some of the restrictions 
were imposed in the interest of creditors; others 
in the intere^ of the public. 

By manumission the slave usually became a 
citizen, but his political rights were restricted. 
Moreover, he remained for life in a relation of 
dependency ; he was the 'client' of his master and 
of his master's children, and owed them certain 
semi-feudal observances and services. He and 
his children were also debarred from marriage 
with free-bom persons. Consult the authorities 
referred to under Civil Law. 

Among the early Germans also the ordinary 
forms of manumission, by the act of the master 
alone, gave the freedman only a partial freedom ; 
he was dependent upon his former master for 
protection. There were, however, methods of 
manumission which gave the former slave the 
full rights of a freeman, viz. his adoption into 
a kinship group or into the tribe. 

manucevrer, manovrer, Fr. manoevrer, to manage, 
work by hand, from OF. manouvre, manovre, 
from ML. manuopera, manopera, a working with 
the hand, from Lat. manus, hand H- opera, work) . 
In a broad sense, the term manure is applied to 
any substance used to increase the productive- 
ness of soil. The word is commonly used in a 
more restricted sense to mean the excreta (solid 
and liquid) of farm animals, either mixed or 
unmixed with litter, and more or less fermented. 
In this article the term is used in its broader 
sense. Manures may be direct or indirect in their 
effect. The former supply plant food which is 
lacking in the soil, the latter render active the 
insoluble fertilizing constituents already present 
and improve the chemical, physical, and bio- 
logical conditions in the soil. The first class in- 
cludes the so-called commercial or artificial fer- 
tilizers, such as superphosphates, nitrate of soda. 


etc.; the second embraces natural manures, such 
as the green manures, sea- weed (q.v.), and ani- 
mal manures, and the soil amendments or soil 
improvers, such as lime, gypsum, salt, etc. Under 
certain conditions all these manures may be both 
direct and indirect in their action. 

Plants derive the bulk of their food directly or 
indirectly from the atmosphere. A small but 
very essential portion, however, is drawn from 
the soil. This includes the inorganic or ash 
constituents and nitrogen, which, however, is in 
certain cases derived indirectly from the air. 
These substances, being soluble, are transported 
by water, which is not considered a food. Of the 
soil constituents which plants need only four are 
likely to be exhausted bv ordinary systems of 
cropping, viz. nitrogen, phosphoric acid, potash, 
and, in some cases, lime. Direct manures supply 
one or more of these constituents, which are 
known as the essential fertilizing elements. The 
fertility of the soil would remain practically 
unchanged if all the ingredients removed in the 
various farm products were restored to the land. 
This may be accomplished to a large extent by 
feeding the crops grown on the farm to animals, 
carefully saving the manure and returning it to 
the soil, and when practicable combining a ju- 
dicious use of green manures with a system of 
stock feeding in which those farm products 
comparatively poor in fertilizing constituents 
are exchanged for feeding stuffs rich in these 
substances. Under such practice the loss of soil 
fertility may be reduced to a minimum or there 
may even be an actual gain in fertility. Under 
or(unary conditions of farming, however, the ma- 
nure produced on the farm is not sufficient to 
maintain its fertility. Roberts estimates that in 
ordinanr mixed husbandry only about one-half of 
the fertility taken from the soil by crops is re- 
stored in farm manures. Hence the necessity 
for supplying the deficiency from other sources, 
resulting in the wide use of artificial or com- 
mercial fertilizers of various kinds. 

Natubal Maitubes. These include all manu- 
rial substances derived from natural sources 
without undergoing any specific treatment or 
process of manufacture, such as animal excreta 
and all animal and vegetable refuse of the farm, 
as well as various factory wastes. The natural 
manures are, as a rule, bulky in character and 
contain small amounts of the essential constitu- 
ents. The most important and useful of the 
natural manures is farmyard or barnyard ma- 
nure. Its quality, which is very variable, depends 
upon the care taken in its preservation, the kind 
and age of the animal producing it, the quantity 
and quality of the food used, nature and amount 
of the litter added. Experiments conducted at 
the Agricultural Experiment Station of Cornell 
University furnish the data on following page 
regarding the amount and value of the manure 
produced by different farm animals under ordi- 
nary conditions of liberal feeding. 

Mature animals, neither gaining nor losing 
weight, excrete practically all of the fertilizing 
constituents consumed in the food. Growing ani- 
mals and milch cows excrete from 50 to 75 per 
cent, of the fertilizing constituents of the food; 
fattening or working animals from 90 to 95 
per cent. Roberts states that the value of the 
manure produced by animals is from 30 to 60 
per cent, of the food they consume. As regards 

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Amoumt and Valub* of liAinrBE Pboduoed bt Fabm Ljtb Stook 
[New York Cornell Experiment Station] 

KIin> OP ▲RlMAIi 



Go we.... 

Amount of 

excrement per 

1000 lbs. live 


per day 



Value of 

excrement per 

1000 lbs. live 

weight daily 


Composition and yalae of manure 
(mixed excrement and litter) f 

Nitrogen '""•^SS"* ^"^ Jr^^n 

Per cent. 

Per cent. 



* Valuing nitrogen at 16 cente. phosphoric add at 6 cents, and potash at 4% cents per pound. 
t Fine-cut straw of known composition In sufficient quantity to keep the animals clean. 

the fertilizing value of equal weights of manure in 
its normal condition, farm animals probably stand 
in the following order : poultry, sheep, pigs, horses, 
cows. Poultry manure is the richest of the ani- 
mal manures, because it consists of a mixture, in 
somewhat concentrated form, of both the solid 
(intestinal) and liquid (urinary) excreta. The 
liquid excretum of farm animals is the most valu- 
able part of the manure, being especially rich in 
nitrogen and potash, but poor in phosphoric acid. 
Sheep manure is drier and hence richer in fer- 
tilizing constituents than pig, horse, or cow 
manure. Pig manure contains as much water as 
cow manure and more than horse manure, but is 
richer in nitrogen. Horse manure is a compara- 
tively dry manure, which ferments rapidly. For 
this reason it is called a 'hot' manure and is 
especially valuable for use in hotbeds and for 
forcing early crops. Cow manure is a wet 'cold' 
manure, which ferments slowly. Its low per- 
centage of fertilizing constituents is due to its 
hi^h percentage of water. The amounts of fer- 
tilizing constituents in animal manure stand in 
direct relation to those in the food. As regards 
the value of the manure produced the concen- 
trated feeding stuffs, such as meat scrap or 
meal, cottonseed meal, linseed meal, gluten meal, 
and wheat bran, stand first; the leguminous 
plants (clover, peas, beans, etc.) second; the 
grasses third; cereals (oats, com, etc.) fourth; 
and root crops, such as turnips, beets, and man- 
gel-wurzels, last. High salting and succulent 
foods as a rule give watery and poor manure. 
With high feeding there is less complete digestion 
and hence richer manure. Highly nitrogenous 
foods give richer manures, although at the same 
time they increase the excretion of urine, thus 
requiring more bedding and reducing the value 
of the manure, because as a rule the materials 
commonly used as litter are poorer in fer- 
tilizing constituents than the animal excreta. 
Animals kept in cold quarters probably digest 
their food more closely, and hence make poorer 

Barnyard manure rapidly deteriorates from 
two chief causes: (1) fermentation, which be- 
gins as soon as the manure is dropped; (2) 
weathering and leaching, which rapidly reduce 
the value of unprotected manure. Roberts re- 
ports experiments at Ithaca, N. Y., in which 
manure exposed in loose heaps of from 2 to 10 
tons each lost from 42 to 62 per cent, of its 
value in six months, and cow manure 30 per 
cent.; while mixed and composted manure lost 
only 9 per cent. The loss from destructive fer- 
mentation may be considerably reduced by the use 

of proper absorbents (litter) and preservatives, 
such as superphosphate, kainit, etc.; but the 
most perfect preservation is secured by storing 
the mixed manure of different animals under 
cover or in pits, keeping it moist and compact 
.to exclude air. Extremes of temperature and 
moisture should be avoided to prevent 'fire- 
fanging* and to secure a uniform, moderate, and 
harmless fermentation. Such fermentation, in 
fact, improves the quality of poor, coarse manure, 
by rendering its constituents more available 
as plant food. 

When practicable, it is best to avoid storage 
by hauling the manure directly to the fields 
and spreading it upon land occupied by plants. 
From 10 to 40 tons per acre is usually applied. 
Moderate applications at frequent intervals are 
preferable to large but infrequent applications, 
except when the purpose is to warm the soil to 
force early crops. The forcing effect of fresh ma- 
nure renders it better suited to early garden 
truck, grasses, and forage plants than to plants 
grown for seed, such as cereals. Direct applica- 
tions to root crops, such as sugar beets, potatoes, 
or tobacco, often prove injurious. This result can, 
as a rule, be avoided by applying the manure 
some months before the planting of the crop or 
by using only well-rotted manure. Barnyard 
manure is not applied to fruit trees with the 
same good results as in case of other crops. It 
does not stimulate fruiting to the same extent 
as the mineral fertilizers. This is probably due 
to the fact that it is poor in total and available 
mineral constituents and comparatively rich in 
nitrogen, which tends to promote the growth of 
the vegetative organs, its tendency being to pro- 
duce large growth but a poor quality of fruit. 
As a rule, therefore, the best results are likely 
to be obtained by using barnyard manure in con- 
nection with commercial fertilizing materials, 
lime, gypsum, etc., either in compost (q.v.) or 

Other natural manures of secondary impor- 
tance are peat, ashes (qq.v.), wool waste, which 
contains on an average 5.5 per cent, of nitrogen, 
1 per cent, of phosphoric acid, and 2 per cent, of 
potash; hair waste, containing 7 per cent, of 
nitrogen and less than 1 per cent, of phosphoric 
acid; felt waste with about 8 per cent, of nitro- 
gen; leather with about 7 per cent, of nitrogen. 
These substances are principally valuable for 
the nitrogen they contain, but this is very slowly 
available to plants and hence not of great value. 

There is a class of substances used for fertil- 
izing purposes which is intermediate in character 
between the natural manures proper and arti- 

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fidal or commercial fertilizers. These soil 
amendments or soil improvers, as they are called, 
include marl, lime, gypsum, salt, and are usually 
used for their indirect effect more than for their 
direct action. 

Artificial ob Gommeboial Febtujzebs. With 
the continued sale of products from the farm the 
natural manures available are often insufficient, 
as already explained, to maintain the original 
fertility of the soil. In specialized intensive 
farming, moreover, there is a demand for an 
abundant supply in the soil of more active plant 
food than farm manures furnish, in order that 
the high value crops grown imder such condi- 
tions may be forced into early, rapid, and vigor- 
ous growth. Under such circumstances the more 
concentrated and available forms of commercial 
fertilizing materials are used to good advantage. 
There are numerous sources of supply of such 
materials, which may be divided into three classes, 
viz. nitrogenous, furnishing nitrogen ; phosphatic, 
furnishing phosphoric acid; and potassic, fur- 
nishing potash. It is assumed in the preparation 
of fertilizers that the constituents most likely 
to be deficient in soils are nitrogen, phosphoric 
acid, and potash. A fertilizer, therefore, containing 
all three of these is termed complete, one con- 
taining only one or two of them incomplete. 

Nitrogen, the most costly ingredient of fer- 
tilizers, is derived from three sources, viz. or- 
ganic matter, ammonium salts, and nitrates. Ni- 
trates furnish the most available form of nitro- 
gen. The nitrate most commonly used as a fer- 
tilizer is nitrate of soda (Chile saltpetre), which 
contains on the average 16 per cent, of nitrogen. 
The more valuable sources of organic nitrogen 
are dried blood, dried meat or 'azotine,' and 
tankage, which are produced in large quantities 
in slaughter-houses and rendering establish- 
ments; dried fish, refuse from fish oil and can- 
niii£[ establishments; and cottonseed meal, a bv- 
proauct of cottonseed oil manufacture. (See table 
on page following for composition. ) Nitrogen in the 
form of ammonia stands between that of nitrates 
and organic nitrogen as regards availability. It 
is obtained for use as a fertilizer almost ex- 
clusively from ammoniu^i sulphate, prepared 
largely as a by-product of gas works, coke ovens, 
etc., and containing on an average about 20 per 
cent, of nitrogen. The nitrates are readilv avail- 
able, but also very soluble, and hence likely to be 
rapidly leached out of the soil. The ammonia 
salts, however, while considered less available 
than nitrates, are not so readily leached out of 
the soil, althou&rh extremely soluble. The organic 
forms of nitrogen ate practically insoluble and 
unavailable until they have been converted into ^ 
ammonia compounds and undergo^ie nitrification 
(q.v.) in the soil. They vary widely with re- 
spect to the rapidity with which these changes oc- 
cur, dried blood and meat products, freed as 
completely as possible from fat, standing first, 
cottonseed meal and similar vegetable products 
next, and leather, hair, horn, and hoof lowest. 

Phosphoric acid of fertilizers is derived from 
bone, mineral phosphates and phosphatic, basic, 
or Thomas slag, a by-product of the manufacture 
of steel from phosphatic ores. In these it is 
present mainly as calcium phosphate (tri-calcium • 
phosphate, (CaO)8P,05, in the first two, tetra- 
calcium phosphate, (CaO^PjOg, in the last). It 
is found in fertilizers in three forms : ( 1 ) tri-cal- 
cium phosphate, largely insoluble in water and 

other weak solvents, designated in fertilizer an- 
alysis as "insoluble" phosphoric acid; (2) sol- 
uble in water and readily available to plants, 
as the superphosphates, which are prepared from 
bones, bone-black, mineral phosphat^, etc., by 
grinding and treatment with sulmiuric acid, thus 
converting the insoluble tri-calcium phosphate 
into soluble mono-calcium or acid phosphate, 
CaO(H,0)2Pj05; (3) 'reverted' or in form 
of dicalcium phosphate, {CaO)^^ fiFfi^^ which 
is not soluble in pure water, but is soluble in 
weak solutions of organic acids and their salts. 
This form results from the tendency of soluble 
monocalcium phosphate to revert to a less soluble 
(dicalcic) form. In fertilizer analvses it is 
classed with the water-soluble as available. 

Potash, as a constituent of fertilizers, exists 
in a number of forms, but chiefly as chloride or 
muriate and as sulphate. All forms are freely 
soluble in water and are believed to be nearly, 
if not quite, equally available, but it has been 
found that the chlorides may injuriously affect 
the quality of tobacco, potatoes, and certain 
other crops. The chief sources of potash are the 
potash salts from Stassfurt, Germany — ^kainit, 
sylvinit, muriate of potash, sulphate of potash, 
and double-manure salt (sulphate of potash and 
magnesia). Wood ashes and cotton-hull ashes are 
also important sources of potash. Kainit and 
sylvinit are crude products of the Stassfurt 
mines, and contain, in addition to potash, a num- 
ber of other salts, chiefly ordinary salt (sodium 
chloride) and ma^esium sulphate. The potash 
in kainit, though m the form of a sulphate, pro- 
duces an effect quite similar to that derived from 
the use of muriate, because of the large quantities 
of chlorides mixed with it. It contains on the 
average about 12% per cent, of actual potash. 
Sylvinit differs from kainit in containing a 
slightly higher per cent, of potash, which exists 
boUi in the form of sulphate and of chloride, and 
a lower content of the magnesia and other salts. 
The other potash products mentioned are manu- 
factured from the crude forms and are much more 
concentrated. The muriate and sulphate con- 
tain on the average about 60 per cent, of actual 
potash. The chief impurity in the case of the 
muriate is common salt. The double sulphate of 
potash and magnesia contains about 26 per cent, 
of actual potash, though much lower grades of 
this material are found. See also table of com- 
position below. 

The substances referred to above as the sources 
of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash are 
the raw materials from which the various manu- 
factured brands of fertilizers are compounded. 
The quality of a mixed fertilizer will depend 
upon the character of the raw materials selected, 
as regards both amoimt and availability of their 
fertilizing constituents, and upon the proportions 
in which they are mixed. For instance, in one 
brand the nitrogen may be entirely in the form of 
insoluble organic materials and the phosphoric 
acid as insoluble mineral phosphates, while in 
another all three forms of nitrogen may have 
been used, viz. nitrates, ammonium salts, and 
organic matter, with phosphoric acid entirely in 
the form of superphosphate. The total plant 
food may be just as large in the first as in the 
second brand, but its availability and the im- 
mediate effects from its use would be much larger 
in the second case than in the first. Since chemi- 
cal analysis cannot always tell with certainty 

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the source and availability of the essential ccm- 
stituents of fertilizers, especiaUy of the organic 
nitrogen, it is often desirable to purchase the 
unmixed materials, either for use separately or 
to be mixed on the farm as required. 

To use fertilizers to the best advantage it is 
necessary to take into consideration a variety 
of conditions, among the more important of which 
are the character of the fertilizer itself, the char- 
acter of the soil and its previous manuring and 
cropping, the climate, and the crop to be grown. 
In general, concentrated fertilizers prove most 
profitable on: (1) soils in cood physical condi- 
tion, i.e. well tilled and abimdantly supplied with 
humus; and (2) high value crops, such as are 
grown in market-^rdening. Different classes of 
farm crops vary in their fertilizer requirements. 


{^rowing beets and mangels; soluble phosphates 
m abundance for the turnip; and potash for po- 
tatoes, white and sweet. That is, while the fertiliz- 
ers should contain all three elements, individual 
crops, because of their peculiarities of growth, re- 
quire certain fertilizing constituents in greater 
relative amounts and m immediately available 
forms. Fruit trees are slow-growing plants and 
therefore do not need quick-acting fertilizers as a 
rule. Highly soluble manures, such as nitrate 
of soda, are likely to be washed out of the soil 
without being utilized. For this reason the use 
of nitrate of soda is not advised except where 
the growth of nursery stock is to be forced or 
where bearing trees exhibit a lack of luxuriance 
in foliage. The old and still common practice of 
fertilizing fruit trees every few years with slow- 















iupplylog nitrogen : 
Nitrate of soda , 

Sulphate of ammonia 

Dried blood (high grade) 

Dried blood (low grade) 

Concentrated tankage 

Tankage (bone) 

Dried fish scrap 

Cottonseed meaL 

Castor pomace 

3. Supplying phosphoric acid : 

South Carolina rock phosphate. 

South Carolina rock super- 
phosphate (dissolved South 
Carolina rock phosphate)... 

Florida land rock phosphate. 

Florida pebble phosphate 

Florida superphosphate (dis- 
solved Florida phosphate) 

Boneblack , 

Bonoblack superphosphate (dis- 
solved boneblack). 

Ground bone 

Steamed bone 

Dissolved bone 

Thomas slag. 

Per cent. 
15.6 to 16 
19 to 90.S 
13 toU 

10 toll 

11 to 12.6 

6 to 6 

7 to 9 
6.5 to 7.6 
6 to 6 

Per ceaU 

Per cent. 

2.5 to 4.5 
1.5 to 2.6 
2 to S 

12 to 16 

Uto 16 

15 to 17 
6to 8 
6to 9 

13 to 16 

26 to 28 

Ito S 
8Sto 35 
26 to 82 

Ito 4 
82 to 36 

Ito 2 
16 to 17 
16 to 20 

2to 8 

Per cent. 

8 to 6 

1 to 2 

11 to 14 

6 to 8 
1.5to 2 

1 to 1.5 

26 to28 

13 to 16 
88 to35 
26 to82 


2to 8 
Ito 1.5 

Per eeot. 


to 20 
to 86 

8. Supplying potash : 

Muriate of potash 

Sulphate of potash (high grade) 
Sulphate of potash and mag- 



(^tton-huU asheet 

Wood ashes (unleached)t 

Wood ashes (leached) t 

Tobacco stems 

2 to 8 

17 to 18 
20 to25 
22 to29 
15 to 17 

7 to 9 

1 to 3 

1 to 1.5 

3 to 5 

48 to 62 
48to 6i 

26 to 80 
12 to 12.6 
16 to 20 
20 to 30 
2to 8 
Ito 2 
6to 8 

45 to 48 
.5 to 1.6 

1.5 to 2.6 
to 82 
42 to 46 

* In good Thomas slag at least 80 per cent, of the phosphoric acid should be soluble In ammonium citrate, Le. 

tCk)tton-hull ashes contain about 10 per cent, of lime, unleached wood ashes 80 to 86 per cent., and leached woo^ 
ashes 86 to 40 per cent. 

The cereals, maize excepted, and grasses are simi- 
lar in their habits of growth, and are able to 
utilize comparatively insoluble forms of mineral 
plant food, but are much benefited by nitrogen, 
especially nitrates, applied in time to carry them 
through the period preceding maturity. It is for 
the latter reason that nitrogen has been termed 
the ruling or dominant element for this class of 
plants. Leguminous plants — clover, peas, beans, 
etc. — ^which are capable of acquiring nitrogen 
partly from the air, make liberal use of the min- 
eral constituents, especially potash and lime. 
Fertilizers for such plants should therefore con- 
tain an abundance of the mineral constituents 
only, potash being the dominant element. Root 
and tuber crops require an abundance of all the 
fertilizing constituents in readily available forms. 
Of the three classes of fertilizing constituents, 
the nitrogen is especially useful for the slow- 

ly decomposing manures, such as barnyard ma- 
nure, leatner waste, horn refuse, wool waste, leaf 
mold, tobacco stems, etc., is thus seen to have 
more or less of a scientific basis. Frequently, 
however, it is desirable to stimulate the growth 
and fruitfulness of the trees, and for this pur- 
pose more active fertilizing materials than the 
above are needed. In selecting and mixing the 
latter the fact that fruits are potash feeders 
should be taken into consideration. The fertilizer 
requirements of small fruits are similar to those 
of orchard fruits, but, being as a rule more rapid 
growers, they can utilize to advantage heavier 
applications of soluble fertilizing materials and 
do not derive the same benefit as orchard fruits 
from slowly decomposing manures. 

It may be said that in general crops grown on 
soils poor in decaying vegetable matter (humus) 
are as a rule benefit^ by applications of nitrog- 

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enous manures, while those grown upon soils 
well supplied with this substanoe are more bene- 
fited by phosphates and potash. Upon heavy 
soils phosphates are likely to be more beneficial 
than nitrogen, while the reverse is the case on 
light dry soil Sandy soils are as a rule de- 
ficient in potash, while clayey soils contain this 
element in larger quantities. Deep-rooting crops 
with long seasons of growth are able to ac- 
quire the necessary plant food where shallow- 
rooted and short-season crops would suffer. As 
r^ards the different forms of fertilizing mate- 
rials it may be said that nitrates and soluble 
phosphates should be applied only a short time 
before they are required by the plant. Potash 
salts, ammonium sulphate, organic nitrogenous 
matter, and insoluble phosphate, being less like- 
ly to be converted into less available forms or 
leached out of the soil, may be safely applied 
weeks or even months before they are needed. In 
general farm practice the best results are likely 
to be obtained in the use of fertilizers by applying 
them systematically, i.e. by adopting a combined 
system of rotation and manuring which is 
adapted to the given conditions of crop, climate, 
and season, and which provides for the utiliza- 
tion to the best advantage of the home and local 
sullies of manures. 

Tne preparation and use of commercial fer- 
tilizers on an extensive scale practically dates 
from the annoimcement of Liebig's theory of 
plant nutrition in 1840 and the publication about 
'the same time of the results of Lawes's experi- 
ment on the preparation and use of superphos- 
phates as a fertilizer. Since that date the in- 
dustry has grown to enormous proportions. It is 
estimated that over $60,000,000 worth of ferti- 
lizers are annually consumed in the United States 
alone. This large and rapidly growing industry 
is under strict legal supervision for the pre- 
vention of fraud. Every State in which com- 
mercial fertilizers are used to any great extent 
has provided for fertilizer inspection. 

The composition of the more important mate- 
rials used in the preparation of fertilizers is 
shown in the table on the preceding page. 

BiBUOGBAPHT. Sempers, Manures — How to 
Make and How to Use Them (Philadelphia, 
1893) ; Aikman, Manures and Manuring (Edin- 
burgh and London, 1894) ; Roberts, The Fertility 
of the Land (New York, 1897) ; Storer, Agricul- 
ture (New York, 1897) ; Voorhees, Fertilizers 
(New York, 1902) ; Brooks, Agrioulture, vol. ii. 
(Springfield, Mass., 1901); United States De- 
partment of Agriculture, Farmers^ Bulletins 44, 
192 ; Snyder, Soils and Fertilizers (Easton, 1905 ) . 
SeeGBEEN MANuamo; Bone Febtilizebs; Guano. 

ICAjnusuaIPT (Lat manu scriptum, written 
by hand). A term applied to anything written 
by hand, on either hard or soft and flexible sub- 
stances. The hard substances are principally 
stones, metals, bone, and wood, on which the 
writing is in the nature of engraving ; the soft or 
flexible substances are especially papyrus, wax, 
parchment and other skins, textiles, and paper, 
while terra-cotta or clay partakes of both classes. 
The instruments used were the wedge, stylus, brush, 
and graver for the hard, and the reed, quill, 
stylus, and metal pen for the soft substances. 
The stone chisel was used in rock- writings. In 
the matter of inks, black was always the ordi- 
nary color, and red was used at an early date 
{e.g. in Egypt) for decorative purposes; other 


colors had a special meaning, as purple was the 
Imperial color of the Byzantine and Carlovin-; 
gian emperors, and yellow the Imperial color in 
China. For the history of the methods of pro- 
duction and preservation of various kinds of 
manuscripts, see Paleoobapht; Book; Libra- 
BIE8; Codex; Papybus; Cuneifobm Inscbip- 


ICANTTSCBIPTS, Illumutation of. The art 
of embellishing manuscripts with miniatures and 
ornaments, an art of the most remote antiquity. 
The term miniature, so often used indiscriminate- 
ly to designate such ornamentation, as well aa 
minute pamting on ivory or other material, is 
derived from minium (cinnabar, red lead)> 
whence miniare, to write or design in red. The 
Egyptian papyri of the ritualistic class, as 
old as the Eighteenth Dynasty, es])ecially the Book 
of the Dead, are ornamented with vignettes or 
miniatures, attached to the chapters, either de- 
signed in black outlines, or painted in primary 
colors in tempera. Except these papyri, no other 
manuscripts of antiquity were, strictly speaking, 
illuminated; such Greek and Roman ones of the 
first century as have reached the present day be- 
ing written only. Pliny, indeed, mentions from 
Varro that authors had their portraits painted 
on their works, and mentions a biographical 
work with niunerous portraits introduced, but 
all such have disappeared in the wreck of ages, 
the oldest illuminated manuscripts which have 
survived dating from the fourth century. Saint 
Jerome complains of the abuse of the practice, as 
shown by filling up books with capital letters of 
preposterous size. The art of illuminating manu- 
scripts with gold and silver letters is supposed 
to have been derived from Egypt, but it is re- 
markable that no papyrus has any gold or silver 
introduced into it. The artists who painted in 
gold, called chrysographi, are mentioned as early 
as the second century. There were, in fact, from 
the beginning two distinct classes of illuminated 
manuscripts: (1) those with decorative letters 
and (2) those with figured compositions. These 
were often crossed, and figures painted within 
and around the letters. The purely figured il- 
lustrations, similar to the larger compositions 
in mosaic and fresco, originated in early Byzan- 
tine art, and the decorative letter style was a 
specialty of the northern races, especially Irish 
and Saxon. One of the oldest manuscripts of this 
style is the Codex Argenteus of Ulphilas (c.50O 
AJ>.), and the charter of King Edgar (a.d. 966) 
eihovffi the use of these letters. The principal late 
Roman illustrated manuscripts are the two Ver- 
gils of the Vatican, the Iliad of the Ambrosian 
(Milan), and the Roman Philocalian Calendar at 
Vienna, all belonging to the fourth century or the 
early part of the fifth, and illustrating the last 
phase of the secular school. There exist also a 
few copies of originals of this date or earlier, 
such as the Terence plays at the Vatican and 
Biblioth^ue Nationale and the Calendar of Ara- 
tus at Boulogne. Of Greek classic descent are 
the exquisite pictures in the Viennese manuscript 
of the medical writings of Dioscorides, not exe- 
cuted till A.D. 505. 

Fifth and Sixth Centubies. It was during- 
the fifth and sixth centuries that illuminating 
became an important branch of Christian art,, 
to remain so until the sixteenth century. Manu- 
scripts of the Old Testament, either as a whole 
or in separate books, and Gospel manuscripts 

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were systematically searched for incidents of 
historic or religious importance. At first there 
was even a superabundance of pictures, ■ as in 
the roll of Joshua at the Vatican, and, though 
less so, in the fifth-century codices of Genesis 
at Vienna and the British Museum. The nor- 
mal type was given at this time by the Ros- 
^cmo Oospela, a work of the Byzantine school 
which was creating the new art. In the teaching 
of the people by pictures it is difficult to decide 
which branch of art gave the suggestive types 
for the scenes — the mihiature painters or the 
mosaicists and fresco-painters. Outside of the 
Bible the chief work is the manuscript of Cosmas 
Indicopleustes at the Vatican, with its flfty-foiir 
pictures of the sixth century. Until the seventh 
century the illuminations were square or oblong 
pictures interrupting the text^ but at that time 
the calliCTaphic style of decoration began, with 
its initial letters and its interweaving of human, 
animal, and geometric forms with the letters. 
Already in the famous Syriac manuscript at the 
Laurentian Library (Florence) this decorative 
sense had shown itself. It was developed by the 
Byzantine artists of the Iconoclastic age, who 
preferred ornamentation to the human figure, and 
by the Irish and Anglo-Saxon schools, which 
showed an originality and boldness in decorative 
work equal to their Ineptitude in treating the fig- 
ure. Meanwhile in toe West the Benedictine 
monks of the sixth and seventh centuries had 
continued the degenerate Roman style, as in the 
Pentateuch of Tours, or were copying Byzantine 
models, as in the Cambridge Oospela. 

Irish and Anglo-Saxon. The Irish and their 
pupils, Anglo-Saxon miniaturists, broke away 
entirely not only from all classic traditions, 
but from all naturalism. Spirals, knots, bands, 
zigzags, and other geometric forms, derived large- 
ly from metal work, were interwoven often with 
fantastic beasts and impossible men. The Book 
of Deir, the Dorbeer Life of Columha, the Lindia- 
fame Oospela, the Book of Kelts, the Saint Oall 
Ooapela, the WUrzhurg Epistles, the Utrecht 
Psalter, are among the finest works of this school. 

Carolingian. The prominence of Irish and 
Anglo-Saxon monks in the missionary and educa- 
tional worlds in the eighth century throughout 
Northern Europe made them the teachers of the 
Carolingian school of illuminators that sprang up 
in France and Germany. This school, while adopt- 
ing much of the decorative scheme, including the 
immense and highly ornamental initial letters, 
added the use of sacred compositions with the 
human figure, largely from Latin or Byzantine 
models. Rich architectural details are used to 
frame the scenes, and large single figures of 
Christ, the Emperor, the Evangelists, etc., prevail. 
The backgrounds are not gilt, but plain or broken 
up by accessories. The Gospel-book of Charle- 
magne from Soissons (Biblioth^ue Nationale, 
Paris) is dated 781 and is one of the earliest and 
finest works of the school. It had several 
branches. In France were : ( 1 ) the Franco-Saxon 
branch, extending from Paris to the Rhine, of 
which over thirty examples remain, including the 
Gospels at Arras, the Psalter at Vienna, and the 
above Gospels from Soissons; (2) the branch of 
Tours, founded by Alcuin, illustrated by Bibles 
and Gospels, in the British Museum, belonging to 
Alcuin, Charles the Bald, and Lothair; (3) the 
branch of Orleans, with Bibles at the Biblio- 
th^ue Nationale and Le Puy. In Germany were: 

( 1 ) the branch at Metz, to which the Sacramen- 
taiT of Drogo belongs; and (2) that at Saint 
Gall, which has specimens in the Munich Library. 
In these Carolingian works the colored outline 
drawing was brilliant rather than solid, the 
figures clumsy and inclined to over-action. But 
the general effect was of splendor and originality. 

RoiCANESQUB. The true continuators of the 
Carolingian style in the Romanesque period were 
the German illuminators of the time of the 
Othos and the Henrys, who tempered the ear- 
lier exaggerations of movement and size throu^ 
contact with Byzantine art. Both the Rhenish 
and the Saxon schools, especially the latter, have 
left many works executed for these emperors, 
now preserved at Bamberg, Munich, Treves, Paris, 
etc., especially €rospel-books. The architectural 
details and borders are particularly good and 
rich, including also the animals and birds so fre- 
quent in Romanesque art. Body colors, usually 
light in tone, replaced the Carolingian outline 
style; figures were better drawn and more dig- 
nified. In the eleventh century the richness of 
initials and backgrounds increased, often with 
tapestry effects as in the Regensburg Gospels; 
but there came a decadence, which lasted nearly 
up to the Gothic period. 

Meanwhile other countries were lagging far 
behind. In France the Carolingian methods be- 
came crude and barbarous, as in the Noaillea 
Bible, Italy had never even participated in the 
Carolingian revival and confined itself to clumsy 
figure painting, mostly in outline, without dis- 
playing anjr decorative ability. The English 
school contained the older Irish and Anglo-Saxon 
work with modifications first due to Carolingian 
infiuence, as in JEthelwold's BenedictionaL With 
the Conquest, however, the body-color technique 
replaced the outlined work, as in Germany. 

Late Btzantine. The three centuries before 
the twelfth were most prolific and successful 
in Byzantine miniature painting. The Mace- 
donian dynasty saw a return to more classic 
models, to figure-painting in place of the decora- 
tive work of the Iconoclastic age. The famous 
Paris Psalter has scenes of antique grace showing 
a copying of very early models; but even worlS 
of purely contemporary art like the Paris ser- 
mons of Gregory of Nazianzus show an under- 
standing of form and drapery denied to Western 
art. The brilliant gold grounds, the rich solid 
coloring, the simplicity of composition and orna- 
ment belong to a severer style. One of the most 
extensive series of pictures is contained in the 
Menologium of Emperor Basil II. (976-1025), in 
the Vatican, which heralds a decadence in Bvzan- 
tine art. T?he decline is evident in the Paris 
Saint John Chryaostom illuminated for Nice- 
phorus III. (1078-81), and culminated in the 
works done for the Palseologi, when the figures 
have become merely decorated puppets, and when 
the artists in despair turn to decorative work and 

Gothic. While Byzantine illumination was 
dying, the golden age of the art in Europe 
was beginning, at the close of the twelfth cen- 
tury. First Germany and then France take 
the lead. The Hortus Deliciarum of Herrad of 
Landsperg, a sort of cyclopaedia in design, was 
a forerunner of Gothic design, whose first steps 
are shown by Landgrave Hermann's Psalter. It 
was under Saint Louis (1226-70) in France, 
however, that the Gothic style of illumination 

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eortwwMr, i*OA*v soeoi wcao * company 



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really originated and developed. The influence 
of Byzantine art is shown in the clear outlines, 
the solid strong coloring, the small-sized figures, 
the simplicity of accessories, and the good taste 
shown in every particular. Of course the orna- 
ments and other details were adapted from the 
Gothic style of architecture, with growing realism 
in the use of plants and flowers. A Psalter of 
Saint Louis is the earliest masterpiece of the 
type so familiar to the strong style of stained 
glass windows. In the course of the fourteenth 
century a lighter scheme was introduced, with 
delicate shading instead of flat tints, with more 
detail and expression. This French Gtothic school 
was extremely systematic in its use of subjects — 
in this as in the larger arts — and it originated 
the type of the Bible Historic, corresponding to 
the German Bihlia Pauperum, with its great 
wealth of illustrations. The other main class of 
religious illuminated manuscripts was the Book 
of Hours or prayer-book. Such works, executed 
for the use of royal and feudal personages, were 
the most exquisite products of the school. But 
the field of subjects was immeasurably enlarged 
bevond the religious sphere, which had hitherto 
reigned alone. Works of poetry and legend, of 
history and literature of every kind, were deco- 
rated as a matter of course with illuminations. 

Other countries followed timidly and awkward- 
ly in the wake of France, adopting her Gothic 
style in this as in other branches of art. Still, 
though England, Germany, and the Netherlands 
had flourishing schools, there was a lack of orig- 
inality and far less perfection of design and 

In France itself the latter part of the four- 
teenth century saw a further approach to the 
methods of naturalistic painting. Exquisite bor- 
ders of elaborate floral patterns commonly in- 
closed the entire page, often enlivened by little 
birds, animals, and figures. Contemporary cos- 
tume, furniture, and other accessories are repro- 
duced with minute fidelity. Brush work is evi- 
dent in the modeling, and faces are exquisitely 
treated. Work in monochrome, in the light 
grisaille, and in oamaieu became popular. The 
libraries of King Charles V. and of the dukes of 
Berry, Anjou, and Burgundy^ were enriched with 
many illuminated manuscripts, often by Court 
illuminators — missals, gospels, psalters, brevi- 
aries, books of hours, romances, poems, treatises 
on falconry, jousting, astronomy, physics. The 
number of illuminations in some of these works 
can be judged by the fact that a Bible done for 
the Duke of Burgundy contained over 2500 pic- 
tures. The great public and private collections 
testify to the enormous productivity of the 
French schools during the latter part of the 
thirteenth and the whole of the fourteenth cen- 

It was at this time that two influences are 
noticeable: that of Italy and that of Flanders. 
The Italian Giottesque revival extended to illu- 
mination, and Giotto's contemporary, the Sienese 
master Simone Memmi, executed illustrations to 
Vergil and to Petrarch in a simple broad style, im- 
ported from wall-painting, which henceforth char- 
acterized Italian illuminating. The manuscript 
statutes of the Order of the Holy Ghost illustrate 
the development of this school. When the popes 
established themselves at Avignon the Italian 
miniaturists with them began to influence the 
French artists. On the other hand, the powerful 

Vni. XIII.— «. 

school of Flanders began to dominate French art 
on the northern side, in this as in other branches, 
with tendency to heaviness, realism, and portrait- 
ure, especially remarkable in the following cen- 

The fifteenth century still belongs to the golden 
age in the West. In France, except for a few 
exceptional men who adopted the Renaissance 
style, led by Fouquet, the Grothid manner still 
ruled supreme. Here it was the feudal nobles 
and the royal family, and not the churches or 
monasteries, for whom nearly all the master- 
pieces were executed: the Books of Hours or 
prayer-books were especially beautiful. Those of 
Philip the Good of Burgundy, at The Hague, 
and those of Charles the Bold and Mary of Bur- 
gimdv, at Vienna, are typical of Flemish art, 
which was taking the lead in powerful natural- 
ism. The Breviary of the Duke of Bedford 
(c. 1430) shows Franco-Flemish art in the service 
of England. The Hours executed for Chevalier 
and the Jewish Antiquities of Josephus are 
among the masterpieces of Fouquet, even more 
great as a painter than miniaturist, who combined 
the pure Italian Renaissance with North French 
realism. In Bohemia also the art was royally 
patronized by Emperor Charles IV. and his son 
Wenceslas, while King Matthias Corvinus of 
Hungary helped develop the genius of some of 
the greatest Italian miniaturists. 

Renaissance. Italy forged to the front during 
this century. The Sforzas at Milan, the dukes of 
Ferrara, the royal House of Naples, the Medici 
at Florence were the greatest patrons besides the 
cathedral churches. The Cathedral of Siena still 
has the finest collection of illuminated missals 
and choir books decorated by Liberale da Verona, 
Girolarao da Cremona, Francesco di Lorenzo, 
Roselli, and other leading artists. But the great- 
est of all artists was Attavante, some of whose 
work can be seen at Florence ( in the Cathedral ) , 
beside that of Gherardo, of Strozzi, the pupil of 
Fra Angel ico, and others. Some of Attavante's 
greatest masterpieces were executed for Matthias 
Corvinus (e.g. Missal of 1485-87). This Italian 
school did not aim at the delicate French effects. 
It remained broader; preferred to use large 
capital letters to frame its compositions; aimed 
at simplicity of composition with few figures. 

The invention of printing, while it limited the 
scope of illumination by greatly diminishing the 
demand for manuscripts, did not at once give it 
its death blow. Printed books were often at 
first illuminated with initials or pictures added 
by hand in spaces left for them, a practice that 
lasted even into the first decade of the sixteenth 
century. Quite as fatal was the introduction of 
foreign methods into the art, borrowed from 
fresco and oil painting. The old simplicity and 
aloofness from naturalism gave way to attempts 
at efl'ects that were totally foreign to the true 
spirit of illumination: shading and delicacy of 
coloring, imitation of natural objects, importance 
given to perspective and accessories. Prominent 
among the works of the old school is the some- 
what earlier Grimani Breviary (c.l477) in Ven- 
ice, so long ascribed to Memling. A remarkable 
facsimile of this great work was made in Ger- 
many in IftOO, one of the copies coming to 
Columbia University. In France the famous 
Missal of Anne of Brittany ( 1.508, Saint Peters- 
burg Library) is the expiring eflTort of the 
national school, which was succeeded by the 

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Italian masters of the Fontainebleau group. The 
breaking down of the technical diflferences be- 
tween the larger forms of painting and illumina- 
tion, was at this time helped by the work of 
such artists as Fra Bartolommeo della Porta, 
who practiced both branches. Henceforth illu- 
mination ceased to count in the history of art. 
In the reign of Louis XIV. the art became ex- 
tinct, ending in the style called camaieu gris, a 
kind of monochrome in which the lights are white 
or gold, and shaded so as to emulate bas-reliefs. 
Obiental. Among Oriental nations the Persians, 
Hindus, and Chinese have illuminated manuscripts 
of great beauty, with figured compositions, while 
the branches of Mohammedan art stricter than 
the Persians have confined their illuminations to 
ornamental work, as in the mediaeval works of 
the schools of Cairo and Damascus, mainly repre- 
sented by magnificent Korans. The best works 
were produced during the comparatively brief 
period between the thirteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies. The style of these illimiinations is de- 
scribed under Indian Akt; Mohammedan Abt; 

BiBLiOGBAPHT. There are very good chapters 
in such general historic works as Woltmann and 
VVoermann, History of Painting (Eng. trans.. 
New York, 1880) ; but for full details, see such 
works as W. J. Audsley, Guide to the Art of 
Illuminating and Missal Painting (London, 
1862) ; and J. W. Bradley, Dictionary of Minia- 
turists (London, 1887-89). A recent special 
treatise is G. E. WsLTuer, Illuminated Manuscripts 
(London, 1900), in the "British Museum Series." 
In its special branch, J. 0. Westwood, Facsimiles 
of the Miniatures and Ornaments of the Anglo- 
Saxon and Irish Manuscripts {Ijondonf 1868) , has 
never been displaced, and the general historic 
treatment in J. Labarte, Histoire des arts indus- 
tries (Paris, 1866), remains excellent. So is the 
handbook in the French series of Quantin, Lecoy 
de la Marche, Les manuscrits et la miniature 
(Paris, 1884). Good German works are: Tik- 
kanen, Die Psalter-Illustrationen im Mittelalter 
( Helsingfors, 1895 seq.) ; Kobell, KunstvoUe 
Miniaturen und Initialen aus Handschriften 
des 4- ^w ^^- Jahrhunderts (2d ed., Munich, 

MANXmTTS, m&nti'shi-tls. The Latin name 
of a famous family of Italian printers. Teobaldo 
Manucci, better known as Aldo Manuzio (Aldus 
Manutius), was born at Sermoneta, near Rome, 
in 1450. Having studied Latin at Rome under 
Gasparino da Verona and Greek at Ferrara under 
Guarino da Verona, Manuzio went in 1482 to live 
at Mirandola with his old friend Giovanni 
Pico. Pico got Manuzio a place as tutor to his 
nephews, Alberto and Lionello Pio, princes of 
Carpi. Alberto supplied the funds with which 
the great press was founded. Manuzio, or Aldo, 
to use the name now most familiar, settled in 
Venice in 1490, and soon published the undated 
Eero and Leander of Musffius, the Galeomyo- 
machia, and the Greek Psalter. In 1495 the first 
volume of Aristotle appeared. Nine comedies of 
Aristophanes followed in 1498. Thucydides, 
Sophocles, and Herodotus came out in 1502; 
Xenophon's Hellenics and Euripides appeared in 
1503, Demosthenes in 1504. In 1513 Plato was 
issued, and Pindar, Hesychius, and Atheneeus 
came out in 1514. Aldo's press now devoted itself 
to printing Latin and Italian works, including 
the Divine Comedy. These works (1495-1514) 

were printed with Aldine types, a style said ta 
have been copied from the handwriting of Pe- 
trarch. Italic type was invented by Aldo, as is 
shown by his Monitum of March 16, 1503, re- 
printed in Renouard (vol. iii.). Italics were 
soon adopted by Lyonese printers. Apparently 
the first book thus printed at Lyons was. 
issued in 1501. Aldo was an ardent hu- 
manist. He loved the books that he printed 
and wished to make not only them but his 
manuscripts accessible to many. Symonds 
roughly estimates the current price of Aldo's 
pocket series of Greek, Latin, and Italian 
classics, begun in 1501, at two shillings a vol- 
ume. The five volumes of Aristotle were worth 
about £8. Thus Aldo*s books were cheaper than 
those of modem publishers, who have hardly sur- 
passed him in quality at their best. In 1499^ 
Aldo had wedded Maria Torresano of Asola. Her 
father, Andrea, a celebrated printer, jointed Aldo, 
and Asolanus came to be printed along with 
Aldus on the title pages of Aldine editions* 
On February 6, 1515, Aldo died, leaving three 
sons to help carry on his business. — PAULua 
Manutius (1512-74), born in Venice, June 12,. 
1512, took up in 1533 the task which had mean- 
while been done mainly by his grandfather, Andrea 
Torresano. Paolo set up his own firm and de- 
voted himself mainly to the Latin classics. He 
skillfully edited Cicero's Letters and Orations, 
and published his own J>atin version of Demos- 
thenes. In 1561, at the invitation of Pius IV., he 
went to Rome, where he was to have 500 ducats a 
year and enough to defray the cost of his press. 
The profits were to be equally divided between 
Paolo and the Camera Apostohca. Aldo seems to 
have fared well under Pius IV., but the coldness 
of Pius V. compelled him to leave Rome. He went 
back, however, and died there in 1574. His 
partnership with the Papacy was more favorable 
to theological writers than to classic literature. 
— Aldus Manutius, the younger (1547-97), son 
of Paolo, was born February 13, 1547, and died 
in Rome, October 28, 1597. At the age of nine 
his name appeared on the title page of the 
Eleganze delta lingua toscana e latina. In 1561, 
whether with or without help we do not know, 
he produced a work on Latin spelling, Ortho- 
graphiw Ratio, which he completed with an 
Epitome Orthographies in 1575, both highly valu- 
able books. In 1572 Aldo married Francesca 
Lucrezia, daughter of Bartolommeo Giunta, 
grandson of a Giunta who had established a 
famous Venetian press. This was a lucky alli- 
ance, for the Aldine press had been steadily de- 
clining, while the other was growing richer. In 
1574 his father's death in Rome made Aldo the 
younger head of the firm. His commentary of the 
Ars Poetica of Horace (1576) maintained the 
family's traditional blending of good printing and 
scholarship. As a professor of belles-lettres Aldo 
went to Bclcctia (1585), and thence to Pisa 
(1587). There he printed Alberti's comedy 
Philodoxius, and attributed it strangely to 
Lepidus. In 1588 he went to Rome and again 
turned to printing, with Clement VIII. as his 
patron, until his death. Consult: Schlick, 
Aldus Manutius und seine Zeitgcnossen (Berlin, 
1862) ; Goldsmid, A Bibliographical Sketch of 
the Aldine Press at Venice (Edinburgh, 1887) ; 
and Omont, Catalogue des livres grecs et latins 
imprimis par Aide Manuce (Paris, 1892). See 
Aldine Editions. 

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MAN WHO LAUGHS, The. See Homme 


story by Edward Everett Hale, published anony- 
mously in the Atlantic Monthly (1863). Philip 
Nolan, a young army officer, became involved in 
Aaron Burr's treason, and in his disgrace he 
publicly cursed the United States. He was sen- 
tenced never to hear his coimtry's name again, 
and until he died, repentant, was transferred 
from one United States ship on foreign service to 
another, so that he never saw his own land. 

MANX CAT. See Domestic Cats, under Cat. 

MANX LITEBATUBE. The Celtic dialect 
still spoken on the Isle of Man is closely related 
to Irish and Scotch Gaelic, standing nearer on 
the whole to the latter. (See cSltic Lan- 
guages.) Unlike both of them, Manx has aban- 
doned the traditional Gaelic orthography and 
modeled its spelling rather upon English. Manx 
literature, so far as preserved, is scanty and con- 
fined to the modem period. The principal monu- 
ments are the translations of the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer and of the Bible. The former was 
first published in 1765; the latter in 1771-75. 
But an older manuscript version of the Prayer- 
book, completed by Bishop Phillips in 1610, has 
been recently printed by John Rh^s and A. W. 
Moore (Douglas, 1894). Moore has also pub- 
lished several books dealing with the history 
and popular traditions of the Isle of Man. 

BiBLiOGRAFHT. A general account of Manx 
remains was given by H. Jenner in the Trans- 
actions of the London Philological Society for 
1875. Kelh^'s Practical Grammar of Manx and 
Manx Dictionary have both been published by the 
Manx Society. Professor Rh^s contributed an 
investigation on the Outlines of Manx Phonology 
to the edition of Bishop Phillips's Book of Com- 
mon Prayer (Douglas, 1894). The following 
publications of A. W. Moore are all of value: 
The Surnames and Place Names of the Isle of 
Man (London, 1890) ; The Folklore of the Isle 
of Man (Douglas, 1891); Manx Carols (Doug- 
las, 1891) ; and A History of the Isle of Man 
(London, 1900). 

MAN-YOSHUy mAn'yd-8h?55' (Japanese, Col- 
lection of a Thousand Leaves) . The most ancient 
anthology in the Japanese language. It was 
formed in the eighth century a.d., being one of 
the first books written in Japan. It retains the 
highest place in the estimation of Japanese crit- 
ics, and a whole literature has gathered around 
it. To the foreign student its chief value is in 
its facts and allusions, which make it a prime 
source for the study of ancient Japanese history 
and sociology. 

MANZANABES, mUn'thii-nrrfts. A town in 
the Province of Ciudad Real, Spain, situated 98 
miles south of Madrid, in a vast and arid plateau 
known as La Mancha, 1882 feet above the sea- 
level (Map: Spain, D 3). The town is well 
built, and contains a modern church of Gothic 
architecture and an ancient castle surrounded 
by a moat. The countrv around is flat, requiring 
irrigation to render tne soil productive. The 
climate is healthful and delightiful; the chief in- 
dustry is the raising of saffron and making Val- 
de-Pefias wine. There are manufactures of cloth, 
soap, and brandy. Population, in 1900, 11,181. 

MANZANILLO, m^'sA-n$^yA. A seaport 
and port of entry of Cuba, in the Province of San- 

tiago de Cuba (Map: Cuba, H 6). It is situated 
on the western coast of the province, at the head 
of the Gulf of Guacanabo, in a low and unhealthful 
region surrounded by mangrove swamps. Though 
not very attractive in appearance, it is regularly 
built, with straight and wide streets crossing at 
right angles. It has four high schools, several 
hospitals, and a good market. The roadstead, 
protected by the Keys of Manzanillo, forms a 
capacious harbor. The city serves as the port 
of Bayamo, and is the outlet for the products 
of the fertile Canto Valley, the chief of which 
are sugar, tobacco, and lumber. Population, in 
1899, 14,464; of the municipal district, 32,288. 

MANZANILLO (Puerto de Colima). A sea- 
port of the State of Colima, Mexico, situated on 
the Pacific coast at the entrance to the lagoon 
of Cuyutlan (Map: Mexico, G 8). A railroad 
connects the town with Colima, the capital of 
the State, 40 miles inland. Population, 4000. 

MANZANITA, m&n'z&-ne^tA. A California 
shrub. See Abctostaphtlos and Plate of Cali- 
fornia Shrubs. 

MANZONTy m&n-z(/n6, Alessandro (1785- 
1873). An Italian poet and novelist, born at 
Milan, March 7, 1785. Having completed his 
earljr training at Milan and Pavia, he accom- 
panied his mother to Paris in 1805, and with her 
he frequented some of the most fashionable sa- 
lons, especially those in which the encyclopaedic 
and rationalistic ideas of the preceding century 
still retained a hold. But the skeptical opinions 
that this Parisian sojourn gave him were not to 
last. His acquaintance with the French scholar 
Fauriel began at this time and greatly influenced 
his later artistic development. Back in Milan in 
1808, he married Enrichetta Blondel, a follower of 
the Reformed religion. The couple went to Paris, 
and there in 1810 the marriage was resolemnized 
according to the rites of the Catholic faith, 
which the wife embraced and which Manzoni 
practiced from this time on with sincere ardor. 
After 1810 he made his home in the region of 
Milan. He was on terms of close friendship 
with such writers as Massimo d'Azeglio, who 
married his daughter, Tommaso Grossi, the nov- 
elist, and Berchet. Although an avowed patriot, 
he played no very public part in the struggles 
for political independence, so that he was in- 
cluded in no proscription. He became a Senator 
in I860. He died May 22, 1873. During his 
youthful period Manzoni produced poems after 
the manner of the school of classicists, reflecting 
his earlier skeptical feelings, e.g. the Trionfo 
delta liberty, obviously written under the in- 
fluence of Monti; a composition in blank verse 
entitled In morte di Carlo Imhonati, and the 
Urania. The period between 1816 and 1825 was 
his most active one in the production of works 
in both prose and verse. To it belong the Inni 
sacrif which are full of exalted religious senti- 
ment, one or two political canzoni, and the poem 
that made him really famous, the Cinque maggio, 
an ode on the death of Napoleon (1821). Of this 
same period are his dramatic compositions with 
which he hoped to inaugurate a reform in the 
Italian theatre. They are the Conte di Car- 
magnola and the Adelchi, the former published in 
1820 and the latter in 1822 (at Milan). Admir- 
able as literary performances, they are not 
adaptable to scenic production, and neither was 
well received at home, although Goethe warmly 

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praised the Conte di Carmagnola. In connection 
with these pieces Manzoni enunciated the follow- 
ing principles: the dramatic composer should 
adapt the poetic invention to the historic fact 
and not follow the contrary practice; the unities 
of time and place need not be observed ; the style 
and the dialogue should be perfectly natural; 
and the Chorus^ a sort of commentary on the 
events enacted, should provide a place in which 
the author may freely express his own feelings. 
Of the prose publications of Manzoni, the first 
to be noted is the Morale oattolico (Milan, 
1819), a reply to Sismondi's strictures upon 
Catholicism. His masterpiece is the novel / 
promeasi sposi (Milan, 1825-26), which is more 
remarkable as an excellently framed psycholog- 
ical novel than as an historic novel. The story 
relates events supposed to have taken place in 
Lombardy during the years 1628 to 1631, and 
as background to the account of the marriage of 
two peasants, long thwarted by a tyrannous 
local potentate, gives a picture of the manners 
of the time. The novel contains a most graphic 
description of the ravages of the plague in Milan 
in 1630. / promessi sposi has passed through 
about 150 Italian editions, and has been trans- 
lated into very many modem languages. Con- 
vinced that pure Tuscan was the only true literary 
Italian, he revised the form of the tale with a 
view to expunging Gallicisms and Lombard dia- 
lect expressions, and republished it in 1840. With 
the second edition of / promeasi spoai appeared 
a sort of sequel to it, the Colonna infame. His 
Sacred Hymns and The Napoleonic Ode were 
translated into English rhyme (Oxford, 1905). 

Consult: Opere varie di A. Manzoni (Milan, 
1845-70, with additional prose works) ; the edi- 
tion of his letters or Epistolario, byG. Sforza 
(Milan, 1882-83) ; Vismara, Bibliografia man- 
eoniana (Milan, 1875) ; Bersezio, A. Manzoni, 
studio hiografico e oritico (Turin, 1873) ; De 
Gubematis, A, Manzoni, studio hiografico (Flor- 
ence, 1879) ; C. Canttl, A. Manzoni, reminiscenze 
(Milan, 1885) ; V. Waille, Le romantisme de 
Manzoni (Paris, 1890). 

MAOBI, mS/d'To, The Polynesian race found 
in New Zealand by the first white men who dis- 
covered the island. Above the average in 
stature, they are more or less robust, with 
athletic frames. The head-form is dolicho- 
cephalic. The women for the most part are 
strong and vigorous. Both sexes are adepts 
in swimming, and the people are fond of bodily 
exercise. Some authorities hold, on insuflBcient 
grounds, that the Maoris and other Eastern 
Polynesians are non-Malay, and Caucasic rather 
than Mongol ic, although they admittedly speak 
dialects of the common Malayo-Polynesian speech. 
A few more venturesome inquirers have even 
sought to sAow that the Maori tongue is related 
to the Aryan family of languages. But all such 
efforts are vain. The Moriori of Chatham 
Islands are hardly more than a branch of the 
Maori, with perhaps more of a pre-Maori Mela- 
nesian intermixture, noticeable not only in phys- 
ical characteristics, but also in art, weapons, 
etc. The Maoris are noted for their tattooing, 
their ornamental and decorative art, their epic 
poetr}\ legends, and mythology. In early times 
they were among the most cannibalistic of Poly- 
nesian peoples, despite their relatively high cul- 
ture. Their long and valiant struggle with the 
British colonists, in the course of which they 

displayed some brilliant war tactics, gained for 
them the respect of their opponents, and they 
now have their representatives in the Legislature 
on the same basis as their white fellow country- 
men. The Maoris, scattered over parts of the 
northern island and the northern portion of the 
southern island, seem, according to the last 
census, to be increasing in numbers. Consider- 
able intermarriage has also taken place. There 
were two Maoris in the New Zealand Cabinet of 
1906. Consult: Finsch, Reise in der SUdsee ( Wien, 
1884) ; White, The Ancient History of the Maori, 
His Mythology and Traditions (London, 1889) ; 
Tregear, Maori Polynesian Comparative Diction- 
ary (Wellington, New Zealand, 1891); id., The 
Maori Race { ib., 1904 ) ; Robley, Moko, or Maori 
Tattooing (London, 1896) ; Reeves, The Long 
White Cloud (London, 1898). See Polyne- 

MAP (from Lat. mappa, napkin). A delinea- 
tion upon a plane surface of objects that are 
actuaUy located upon a spherical surface. The 
word was brought into use in the Middle Ages 
and signified that maps were originally printed 
on cloth. In common usage map is nearly 
synonymous with chart, although there is a 
tendency to limit the former word to representa- 
tions of the earth's surface, while delineations 
of stars in the celestial vault and of hydrographic 
facts are generally designated as charts. The 
earliest maps were purely empirical drawings 
presenting the relative positions of known points 
and defining in a general way the limits of land 
and water areas. Modern maps, however, whose 
construction involves a high degree of skill and 

i'udgment, are faithful epitomes of our earth 
Tiowledge, recording that which is revealed by 
geographical surveys and discoveries or added to 
or taken away from the earth by man's industry. 
HiSTOBT OF Map-Makino. The earliest ex- 
amples of cartographic art are furnished by the 
Egyptians and Babylonians. Picture maps illus- 
trating events as early as the fifteenth century 
B.C. have been found among the Babylonians, to 
whom also belongs the credit of dividing the circle 
into degrees, minutes, and seconds, according to 
cur present sexagesimal system. The Greeks de- 
veloped the knowledge of these ancient peoples 
upon a scientific basis. Anaximander of Miletus 
(sixth century B.C.) is credited with the first 
attempt to draw a map of the then known world, 
but the honor of founding the methods of rational 
cartography must be assigned to Claudius Ptole- 
mseus, who lived in the second century a.d. Al- 
though largely indebted to the labors of Hip- 
pa rchus, who provided the necessary means for 
the determination of geographical position, to 
Eratosthenes, the keeper of the Alexandrian Li- 
brary, and especially to Marinus of Tyre, Ptolemy 
combined the results of their investigations and 
constructed a general map of the world that not 
only excelled all previous efforts in this direction, 
but is generally recognized as the most complete 
summary of geographical knowledge available 
previous to the sixteenth century. Under the 
Romans map-making was confined to such de- 
lineations as were useful for military and polit- 
ical purposes. They did not apply astronomical 
methods to the art, and the few examples of 
world maps were constructed upon an oval plan, 
in which the earth appeared to be twice as long 
from east to west as from north to south. 
The Middle Ages witnessed a return to the 

Digitized by 


KAP. 81 

Homeric conception of a flat circular earth sur- 
rounded by the ocean. With the Renaissance, 
however, Ptolemy's work again came into use, 
and when wood and copper engraving began to be 
employed for the reproduction of maps cartog- 
raphy made rapid progress. To satisfy the in- 
creasing requirements of navigation, the Italians 
produced a series of nautical charts called loxo- 
dromes, in which all points were connected with 


The earliest attempt to construct a map of an 
extended territory upon a trigonometric and to- 
pographic survey — that is, upon modern scientific 
principles — was made in 1733 by C4sar Gassini, 
the director of the astronomical observatory at 
Paris. Assisted at first by the French Academy 
of Sciences and afterwards by a private company, 
he undertook to map the entire area of France. 
The first sheets appeared in 1744 and the last 

PTOLEMY'S MAP (C. 150). 

each other by straight lines, which represented 
compass bearings and enabled the navigator to 
lay out his course to any objective point. With the 
progress of geographical discoveries in the fif- 
teenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries, map- 
making became an established industry in Ger- 
many and Holland. To this period belong the 
great cartographers — Johann Werner, of Nurem- 
berg, who in 1513 devised the equal area cordi- 
form projection; Gerhard Kramer, generally 

were completed in 1793. The work aroused 
widespread interest among all civilized govern- 
ments, and so forcibly illustrated the value of 
accurate maps that the French Government soon 
undertook an elaborate survey, an example that 
has been generally followed in Europe and Amer- 

Thbobt of Map Constbuction. As it is im- 
possible to make the surface of a sphere conform 
with a plane, the problem of representing por- 


known as Mercator, who invented the first de- 
veloped projection and published a map of the 
world (1569); Ortelius, the publisher of an 
atlas, Theatrum Orhis Terrarum (1570); and 
Blaeu (died 1638), author of Atlas Novua, Ho- 
mann (died 1724) issued the first school atlas, 
AtUis 8cholasticu8. Mercator*s projection prac- 
tically revolutionized the method of map-matcing, 
as it solved for the navigator the complex prob- 
lems involving the relations of courses and dis- 
tances to latitude and longitude. 


tions of the earth's surface upon a map can be 
solved with only approximate accuracy. The 
solution may be approached by various methods 
which lead to results more or less valuable for 
particular purposes. Among these methods are 
the orthographic and stereographic projections of 
Hipparchus, the gnomic projection of Thales, and 
the globular or equidistant projection devised by 
Niccolisi. These projections, which are based 
upon the relative positions of the eye and the 
plane of projection, are best adapted for the 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




representation of hemispheres and are seldom 
used in mapping small areas. 

The orthographic projection assumes that the 
eye is placed at an infinite distance, so that all 
lines leading from it to the object are parallel. 
The plane of projection is at right angles to the 
line of sig^t and every point upon the hemi- 


(On plane of the Equator.) 

sphere is referred to the plane by a perpendicular 
let fall on it. In this projection the central 
portions of the hemisphere are faithfully repre- 
sented, but near the circumference the areas be- 
come greatly diminished and the relative angular 
directions are greatly changed. 

The stereographic projection is obtained when 

the surfaces are much larger than on the globe; 
but, on the other hand, the relative positions of 
objects that are near together are well preserved. 

The gnomic projection assumes that the eye is 
placed at the centre of a sphere while the plane 
of projection is tangent to its surface. 

The globular or equidistant projection was de- 
signed to correct, as much as possible, the con- 
traction of the orthographic and the expansion of 
the stereographic projections. In this method 
the eye is supposed to be placed along the diameter 

of the sphere at a distance — = times the radius 

above the surface, and the plane of projection is 
perpendicular to the diameter. In this con- 
struction all circles on the sphere become ellipses, 
and objects are not represented with their true 
outlines, but the relative dimensions are fairly 
well preserved. An equidistant method for 
polar projections of the sphere is employed in 
the meteorological charts of the Northern and 
Southern hemispheres frequently used by the 
United States Weather Bureau. 

Modern maps upon large scales are constructed 
by so-called projections which are actually de- 
velopments of projections. Development is ren- 
dered possible by the substitution of a cylindrical 
or conical surface for the ordinary plane of 
projection, the eye occupying an arbitrary posi- 
tion when not assumed at the centre of the 
sphere. The surface of the cylinder or cone is 
developed subsequently in a plane. Various re- 
sults may be obtained by changing the place at 
which the cone or cylinder is tangent to the 













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160 mo 160 140 920 rOD 80 60 40 20 20 40 SO 83 100 120 J40 160 


the eye is placed at any point on the surface of 
the sphere and the line of sight to any point on 
the opposite hemisphere is prolonged until it in- 
tersects the plane of projection tangent to the 
hemisphere. By this method the central portion 
of the map is enlarged relative to the correspond- 
ing surface of the globe, and in the outer zones 

sphere, while by substituting for the tangent 
cylinder or cone a secant cylinder or cone lying 
partly within and partly without the sphere, 
projections are obtained which are known as 
equal surface projections and which are valuable 
for the construction of maps exhibiting statis- 
tical information and for celestial charts. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Among the most important projections using 
the idea of development is that devised by Mer- 
«ator. In this projection a cylinder is assumed 
as tangent to the sphere at the equator, the axis 
of the former being coincident with that of the 
latter. The eye is supposed to be placed at the 
centre of the sphere and the lines of sight passing 
through points on the surface of the sphere are 
prolonged until they intersect the circumscribing 
cylinder. On developing (unrolling) the cylinder 
in a plane the projected meridians become paral- 
lel and equidistant straight lines which are inter- 
sected at right angles by parallel straight lines 
representing latitudes. The defects of Mercator's 
projection relate to scale and area. The scale is 
correct only on the equator, from which north- 
ward and southward the successive parallels of 
latitude increase in distance from each other in 
the ratio of the tangent of the latitude, attaining 
an infinite value at the poles. This increase of 
the latitudes, together with the parallelism of 
the meridians, produces such an exaggeration of 
areas as to make the map of little use for any 
purpose except that of navigation. 


•If a cone is placed tangent to the surface of the 
sphere, with its axis coincident with the axis of 
the latter, the surface of the sphere may be pro- 
jected from the centre of the cone, which can 
then be unrolled or developed on a plane. In 
this case each parallel of latitude is a curved 
line concave to the pole, while the longitudes are 
straight lines converging toward the poles. A 
modified form of this projection known as the 
polyconic projection assumes that an infinite 
number of cones inclose the sphere. By this 
method each parallel of latitude is developed by 
its own cone and determines the value of its 
own longitudinal intervals. This method, devised 
by Hassler, the former superintendent of the 
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, is the 
most perfect of all projections for mapping areas 
not exceeding a latitudinal amplitude of more 
than 40**, as it preserves an almost absolutely 
uniform scale over the entire map. It has been 
universally adopted for the construction of maps 
of land areas on large scales. 

83 HAP. 

Practical Methods. The construction of the 
necessary basic projections as a preliminary to 
the making of a map is now a very simple mat- 
ter, since the work is accomplished by merely 
laying off tabular values computed for the gen- 
eral use of map-makers. Tables for these pro- 
jections are easily obtained; those computed and 
published by the United States Coast and Geo- 
detic Survey for various scales in meters and 
inches and by the Hydrographic OflSce of the 
United States Navy Department are the most 
useful for the purpose. 

The preparation of an exact map presupposes 
a corresponding exact survey. For all maps of 
permanent value the survey must be based upon 
careful geodetic triangulations and levelings. For 
less exact work there are corresponding styles of 
maps, such as the plattings of sections and town- 
ships by the United States Land Office ; the general 
maps of the counties, compiled by county sur- 
veyors by the use of the pedometer and the sur- 
veyor's compass; the rapid military reconnais- 
sance in which the en^neer officer, note-book in 
hand, sketches in such features as may afl'ect 
military operations ; the elab- 
orate maps of the United 
States Geological Survey, 
which undertake to give mi- 
nute details as to geology, 
mines, forests, and topog- 
raphy ; and the perfect hydro- 
graphic maps of the Coast 
and Geodetic Survey. 

The maps of the Coast and 
Geodetic Survey are mainly 
hydrographic in their char- 
acter. The original maps are 
projected on a polyconic base, 
and on this base the elaborate 
system of triangulations con- 
necting carefully measured 
base - lines is platted from 
the field notes by skillful 
draughtsmen. The main points 
of the coasts being thus indi- 
cated, the interlying areas of 
the triangles are worked in 
from the notes of surveys 
made by stadia, chain, or 
tape; and the hydrographic 
data obtained by careful 
soundings along definite lines are also entered. 
The base map thus prepared is reduced by hand 
to the scale of publication, and a finished map 
is prepared as a guide for the engraver. On this 
map the hydrography is indicated by uniform 
signs. The shoals and sandbars are represented 
by dots, close together along the shore and wider 
apart as they fall away into deeper waters. 
Lighthouses are indicated in their exact posi- 
tions, together with their bearings from im- 
portant points and their relation to channel 
entrances, etc. In short, all information re- 
lating to the hydrography of the seaboard is 
carefully marked by appropriate signs consis- 
tent on all the maps. From the finished map 
the engraver makes a tracing on hard gela- 
tin sheets, which he transfers in reverse to 
a copper plate from which the ultimate prints 
are obtained. In late years, in order to 
satisfy the increased demand for maps, a 
great deal of the hand reduction has been super- 
seded by photographic methods, and lithographs 

Digitized by 


MAP. 84 

have taken the place of the beautiful copper-plate 

The general scope of the work of the United 
States Geological Survey is the surveying and 
mapping of the entire territory of the United 
States to obtain basic topographic maps for the 
exhibition of geological data. Each square de- 
gree, called a * rectangle/ in which the country is 
divided, is surveyed and mapped separatelv. (See 
Surveying.) The detailed information thus ob- 
tained in the field survey is roughly inked in at 
the close of the season^ and then turned over to 
the photographer for reduction to the scale of 
publication. From the reduced photographic 
copies engravings are made on stone, each sheet 
requiring three separate stone engravings. From 
the engraved stones transfers are made to other 
stones and the sheets printed on a lithographic 

The map shown on the accompanying plate 
has been designed to illustrate the methods of 
delineation employed by the United States Coast 
and Geodetic Survey and United States Geologi- 
cal Survey in the preparation of their charts and 
topographical maps. The map is, of course, 
ideal, and shows the use of the various conven- 
tional signs. In the upper right-hand comer is 
a compass card indicating the true north and the 
magnetic variation of the particular locality, 
while the depths of the ocean are given in fath- 
oms. The shoals are indicated' as already ex- 
plained, and also the lighthouses, rocks, beacons, 
buoys, etc. The contour lines which form such a 
prominent feature of a topographical map connect 
all places at the same height above sea-level, and 
the interval between them is 60 feet, darker lines 
being drawn at the intervals of 250 feet. (See 
CoNTOUBS.) In the topographical maps of the 
United States Government the contour interval is 
generally 20 feet, with heavier lines marking every 
100 feet. In the maps of the Geological Survey 
these contour lines or relief figures are in brown to 
distinguish them from the drainage, which is in 
blue. Such cultural features as buildings, roads, 
trails, railroads, tunnels, ferries, and bridges all 
have their appropriate markings, which are 
shown in the map. Fresh marshes are distin- 
guished from salt marshes by different conven- 
tional signs, while wooded country is shown in 
the lower right-hand comer of the map. Triangu- 
lation stations are marked by a A and bench 
marks by an X. Mines and quarries, mine tun- 
nels and shafts, also have their appropriate signs 
as indicated. 

Relief maps are usually constructed after a 
contour map has been prepared by building up 
the surface of the country, using* cardboard of 
uniform thickness to represent the successive 
contour lines. When one such relief map has 
been constructed, copies are made either in 
plaster of Paris or papier mach#. 

Maps of the United States. The following 
is the list of the more important bureaus of the 
United States Government which publish maps 
for general distribution: United States Coast 
and Geodetic Survey, Washington — maps pertain- 
ing to the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the 
United States, and those of Alaska, the West 
Indies, and the Philippines. United States Geo- 
logical Survey, Washington — topographical maps, 
special monograph maps of mining districts, and 
maps relating to irrigation. General Land Office, 
Washington — township plats, State maps, maps 


of mineral and private land claims, enlarged 
maps of the United States. United States Hy- 
drographic Office, Navy Department, Washing- 
ton — hydrographic charts of domestic and foreigu 
harbors, of coast lines, and pilot charts of the 
North Atlantic Ocean. Office of the Survey of 
the Great Lakes, Detroit, Mich. — ^maps pertain- 
ing to the hydrography of the Great Lakes. Mis> 
sissippi River Commission, Saint Louis, Mo. — 
maps of the Mississippi River. 

BiBLiOQBAPHT. Gretschel, Lehrhuch der Kar- 
tenprojektion (Weimar, 1873) ; Schott, "A Com- 
parison of the Relative Value of the Polyconic 
Projection," Report of United States Coast and 
Geodetic Survey , Appendix 15 ( Washington,. 
1880) ; Fiorini, Le projezioni delle carte geogra- 
fiche (Bologna, 1881); Tissot, M&moire sur la 
representation des surfaces et les projections des^ 
cartes g4ographiques (Paris, 1881); Craig, "A 
Treatise on Projections," United States Coast 
and Geodetic Survey (Washington, 1882) ; Stein- 
hauser, GrundzUge der mathematischen Geogrft^ 
phie und Landkartenprojektion (3d ed., Vienna^ 
1887) ; Vemer, Map Reading and Elementary 
Field Sketching (London, 1893) ; West, The 
Elements of Military Topography (London,. 
1894) ; Woodward, Geographical Tables (Wash- 
ington, 1894) ; Cebrian and Los Arcos, Teoria 
general de las proyecciones geogrdficas (Madrid,. 
1895) ; Gelcich and Sauter, Kartenkunde ge- 
schichtlich dargestellt (Stuttgart, 1897) ; Zon- 
dervan, Allgemeine Kartenkunde (Leipzig, 1901). 
See Chabt; Hydrogbapht; Surveying. 

MAP, or MAPES,. Walteb. A mediaeval au- 
thor, of Welsh descent, bom probably in Here- 
fordshire, England, about 1140. He studied in 
Paris soon after 1154; was connected with the 
household of Henry II., whom he attended 
abroad; was sent on missions to Paris (1173) 
and Rome (1179) ; and was precentor of Lincoln, 
incumbent of Westbury, Gloucestershire, canon 
of Saint Paul's, and Archdeacon of Oxford 
( 1197 ) . He died about 1210. Map's one undoubted 
work is De Nugis Curialium ("The Triflings of 
Courtiers"), a curious and interesting medley 
of anecdotes, reminiscences, and stories, to which 
we owe most of our knowledge of Map's life. In 
several of the manuscripts of the prose Lancelot, 
Grail, and Morte d'Arthur his name occurs as the 
author. But recent scholarship places them at a 
later date. With some doubt the Golias poems 
are ascribed to him, satires in Latin on the 
clergy. Map was especially a foe of Jews and 
Cistercians. In this collection occurs the famous 
drinking song "Meum est propositum in tabema 
mori," which was rendered into English by^ 
Leigh Hunt. Consult the Latin Poems Attributed 
to Map and De Nugis Curialium^ ed. by Wright, 
Camden Society (London, 1841 and 1850). 

MAPLE (AS. mapol, mapul, mafpel^ Icel. 
mopurr, OHG. mazzaltra, mazzoltra^ Get. Mas- 
holder , maple), Acer, A genus of trees of the 
natural order Aceracese, containing nearly 100 
species, natives of north temperate regions, espe- 
cially abundant in North America and Eastern 
Asia. They have opposite, lobed or palmate 
leaves without stipules; flowers in small axil- 
lary racemes or corymbs, rich in nectar, and at- 
tractive to bees; fruits, two small winged nuts, 
one or two seeded. With a few exceptions the 
entire order is embraced in the genus Acer. 
The best-known European species are Acer cam- 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 





_f ^ KlIomelTa. ^OQIP 
^ HYDROGRAPHY :(r'«".'» <'!•'■<'"**«' "T?**^ ^ 

/Contour interval 50 &eti 

[dcfith* infttt,other« in Athemi. 

Digitized by 





pestre and Acer Pseudo-Platanus. The common 
maple {Acer campestre), a shrub or small tree 
seldom attaining a height of 50 feet» is a native 
of many parts of Europe and Asia. Its wood is 
hard, fine-grained, takes a high polish, and is 
much used hj turners and for carved work. The 
greater maple, sycamore, or plane tree of Eu- 
rope {Acer PaetidO'Platanus) is extensively 
planted both in Europe and in America. It is a 
laree tree with a spreading head, 70 to 00 feet 
tall, of rather quick, vigorous growth. Its wood, 

if A PL* LKATS8. 

1. European maple (Acer campeatre) ; % striped maple 
{Acer PennBylvAuicum): 3, sugar maple (i4c0r«aeeAariDum); 
4. cot leaved form of Japanese maple (Acer Juponicum, 
Tar. disaeetum). 

which is white, compact, moderately hard, re- 
ceives a fine polish, and is much used by wheel- 
wrights, turners, etc. Sugar is sometimes made 
from the sap. 

The Norway maple {Acer platanoidea) , a na- 
tive of Europe, is commonly planted in the East- 
em United States and elsewhere as a shade tree. 
It grows to a height of 100 feet, and has a com- 
pact, round head, that renders the shade very 
dense. It is by some preferred as a shade 
tree to the sugar maple, which it resembles. 
Among the American species 
perhaps the best known is the 
sugar maple {Acer aacchari- 
num), a large tree, 90-120 feet 
high, and found from New- 
foundland to Georgia and west- 
ward to the northern shores of 
the Great Lakes, eastern Ne- 
braka, and Kansas. The wood 
has a satiny appearance and is 
extensively used in cabinet work 
and finishing houses. When the 
grain has a pronounced wavy 
appearance the wood is called 
bird*8-eye maple, and is used as 
veneer. From the sap of this 
tree large quantities of syrup 
and sugar are made. To obtain 
the sap, holes are bored into the 
tree for half an inch or more 
when the sap is circulating 
freely in the late winter or 
early spring. The sap caught in vessels is 
evaporated imtil the residue becomes syrupy 
or until a yellowish or brown sugar is obtained. 
Trees will yield from 2 to 6 pounds of sugar 
during a season, and if the tapping, as it is 
called, is properly done, the tree sufl'ers little 
in j ury . The black maple ( A cer nigrum ) , by some 
botanists considered identical with Acer saccha- 
rinum, is also an abundant producer of sugar. 
The tree is of similar habit and range to the 
former, and is distinguished from it by its black 
bark and generally duller appearance. By many 
it is considered only a variety. The silver maple 

{Acer saccharinum, better known as Acer daay- 
carpum) is a large, rapidly growing species of 
the same range as the last. It is an ornamental 
tree, with li^t, brittle wood, and is extensively 
planted as a shade tree, but, aside from its rapid 
growth, 'is not equal in this respect to the sugar 
maple. The tree is very hardy and easily grown, 
but on account of its brittleness is especially 
liable to damage by winds and storms breaking 
its limbs. This species was named Acer aaccha- 
rinum by Linnaeus under the impression that it 
was the true sugar maple, a tree which it is now 
believed he never saw. Sugar is made from it, 
but the sap is less sweet than that of either of 
the two species most commonly tapped. The 
striped maple {Acer Pennsylvanicum) is a small 
tree with greenish bark striped with white lines. 
Its compact habit of growth and large leaves 
make it an excellent shade tree. The red or 
scarlet maple {Acer rubrum) has about the same 
range as the sugar maple. It somewhat resembles 
the silver maple in habit, but is of slower growth. 
Its timber is valuable, and the sprine coloring 
of the fiowers and fruits and the autumn coloring 
of the leaves make it a very qmamental tree. 
The mountain maple {Acer spioatum)^ a small 
tree in the Eastern United States, the large- 
toothed or Oregon maple {Acer grandidentata) , 


a. Btaminate 
flowers ; b, pistil- 
late flowers. 

BID MAPLB {Acer rubrum). 
Spray with fruits. 

and the vine maple ( Acer circinnat urn ) of the Rocky 
Mountains and Pacific Coast, are other common 
and well-known species possessing the habits and 
uses described above. All of the species are valu- 
able for fuel, in this respect exceeding all other 
woods except hickory in popular estimation. Of 
many of the species there are numerous culti- 
vated varieties difi'ering in their habit of growth, 
color and character of foliage, etc. The autumn 
coloring of the maples, especially in the United 
States, is not surpassed by any other group of 
trees, the reds and yellows of their leaves adding 
greatly to the beauty of the autumn landscape. 

Among the species of Eastern Asia are a num- 
ber that have been introduced into Western coun- 
tries, and some have proved valuable for plant- 
ing, such as the famous Japanese maples, most 
of which are varieties of Acer palmatum and 
Acer Japonicum, They are mostly small trees or 
shrubs, and on account of their great variety in 
color and the deep and often curious lobing of 
their leaves, they are extensively planted as or- 

There is one group of Acer called the ash- 
leaved maples, on account of their compound 
leaves, that is often separated under the generic 
name Negundo. There are representatives of this 
group in Japan and in the United States^ the 

Digitized by 





best known of which is Acer Negundo {Negundo 
aceroides), the box elder (q.v.). 

The earliest fossil representatives of the genus 
Acer have been recognized by leaves and fruits 
from the Cretaceous rocks. In the Miocene Ter- 
tiary beds the genus is abundantly represented, 
not only in the temperate regions, but also in 
the Arctic regions of North America and Europe. 
Some flowers of the maple have been found in 
the amber of the Baltic region. The ash-leaved 
maple {Negtmdo) is represented by fossil ances- 
tors, very like the modem forms, in the Miocene 
beds of North America. 

MAPLE INSECTS. The different species of 
maple are greatly subject to the attacks of in- 
jurious insects, certain species, such as the silver- 
leaved maple, being more susceptible than others. 
Several insects bore in the trunks of these trees. 
The sugar-maple borer {Qlycobiua speciosus), a 
black. Ions-horned beetle which has yellow bands, 
destroys tne sugar maple in the northern parts of 
the United States; the homtail borer (see Horn- 
tail) and the larva of a clear- winged moth 
{^geria acemi) also bore the trunks, the latter 
being especially abundant in the Mississippi Val- 
ley. A buprestid beetle, Dicer ca divaricata, in 
the larval stage bores in red maple stumps, 
although undoubtedly originally an enemy of the 
beech. The principal bark-borer of the sugar 
maple in the Northern United States is Corthylus 
punciatissimus, one of the Scolytidae. The striped 
maple-worm (larva of Anisota rubicunda) is 
a widespread enemy of these trees, frequently 
feeding up<Mi the leaves in such great numbers 
as entirely to defoliate long rows of shade trees. 
The tent-caterpillar of the forest {Malacosoma 
disstria) is a decided enemy of all species of 
maples, and has greatly damaged the sugar 
maples in New York and New England. The tus- 
sock-moth's caterpillar (Orgyia leucostigtna) 
and the fall webworm {Hyphantria cunea) fre- 
quently defoliate the shade trees of the larger 
cities. The cottony maple scale {Pulvinaria in- 
numerahilis) is occasionally so numerous as to 
cause serious injury, and another scale-insect 
( Pseudococcus aceris ) , probably introduced from 
Europe, is very abundant on the shade trees of 
•certain cities. The so-called gloomy scale {Aspi- 
diotus tenehricosua) has a southern range, and 
is frequently the unnoticed cause of the death of 
otherwise vigorous shade trees. Several species 
of plant-lice, notably Pemphigus (icerifolii, 
damage the leaves of early summer, and a gall- 
mite {Phytoptus quadripes) disfigures the leaves 
with its massed reddish galls. Consult Packard, 
Fifth Report of the United States Entomological 
Commission (Washington, 1890). 

MAPLESON, ma'p'1-son, James Henry 
(1821)1901). An English operatic impresario, 
born in London. He studied the violin for two 
years at the Royal Academy of Music, and then 
went to Italy for singing lessons ; but soon after 
his return a throat affection made a vocal career 
out of the question, and he was engaged in the 
-orchestra at Her Majesty's Theatre. After hav- 
ing made tours with several leading artists, in 
1861 he succeeded E. T. Smith as manager of 
the Italian opera at the Lyceum in London. He 
controlled Her Majesty's Theatre (1862-69), and 
then went to Drury Lane until 1877. when he 
returned to Her Majesty's, and the foUowinsr year 
he brought Italian opera to the United States. 

He was successor to Strakosch at the Academy 
of Music in New York City. He introduced Patti 
(1883-84), Gerster, Campanini, Del Puente, Ga- 
lassi, Marie Roze, Belocca, Albani, Scalchi, Nor- 
dica, and Minnie Hauck to New York audiences. 

MAPLE SUaAB. See Sugar. 

MAP TXJBTLE. One of the names of a com- 
mon North American land-turtle {Malaclemmys 
geographicus) , also called 'geographic tortoise.' 

MAPITBITO, ma'p<R5-r6'td. See Conepate; 

MAQTJET, mA'kd', Auouste (1813-88). A 
French author, bom in Paris. He was educated 
at the College Charlemagne, where he was for a 
time teacher. Having written the drama Ba- 
thilde, he was introduced to Alexandre Dumas, 
who, impressed by his talent, proposed their 
working together. It has generallv been ad- 
mitted that in this capacity of collaborateur he 
furnished large portions of Dumas's most famous 
books and plays. Under his own name he pub- 
lished the romances Beau d'Angennes (1843), 
La belle Gabrielle (1853-55), and many others. 
For the theatre he prepared Le chdteau de Gran- 
tier (1852), Le comte de Lavemie (1855), La 
belle Oabrielle (1857), and a number of others. 

MAQTTIy malcw^ (Sp. maqui, from the Chilean 
name), Aristotelia Macqui. One of a few species 
of a genus of plants sometimes referred to the 
natural order Tiliacese, a Chilean evergreen or 
sub-evergreen shrub of considerable size. The 
small green or yellow flowers, borne in axillary 
racemes, are followed by three-celled edible black 
acid berries about the size of peas, and are used 
by the Chileans to make wine. The wood is used 
for making musical instruments, and the tough 
bark for instrument strings. The maoui is fre- 
quently cultivated as an ornamental shrub, and 
in favorable conditions sometimes bears fruit in 
northern countries. 

MAQT7I. A peculiar type of xerophytic thick- 
et characteristic of the Mediterranean region 
of Europe. The plants are chiefly evergreen 
shrubs and half -shrubs, and comprise a large 
number of well-known plants, such as the myrtle, 
box, laurel, and oleander. See Thicket. 

MAQUOKETA, m&kd^«-tA. A city and the 
county-seat of Jackson County, Iowa, 38 miles by 
rail northwest of Clinton; on the Maquoketa 
River, and on the Chicago and Northwestern and 
the Chicago, Milwaukee and Saint Paul railroads 
(Map: Iowa, G 2). It has a Boardman reference 
and a Carnegie library containing about 6000 
volumes. Maquoketa is a trade and industrial 
centre of considerable importance, its manufac- 
tures including lime, flour, foundry and machine- 
shop products, woolen goods, brick and tile, etc. 
In the vicinity are valuable hardwood forests and 
quarries of limestone. The water-works are 
owned and operated by the municipality. Popu- 
lation, in 1900, 3777; in 1905, 3666. 

MAUA, mll'rA, Gertbude Elizabeth Schmel- 
ING (1749-1833). A German singer, born at Cas- 
sel. She began to play the violin at such an early 
age that her father, a poor musician, gave her a 
few lessons, and then exhibited her as a prodigy 
in Vienna and London. In the latter citv she 
took a few singring lessons from Paradisi and was 
so successful that thereafter she devoted herself 
entirelv to vocalization. Her first engajjement 
was at Leipzig; she then sang at the Dresden 

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HASA. 87 

Court Opera, and in 1771 accepted an engagement 
for life at the Berlin Court Opera. In Berlin she 
married the violoncellist Mara, who squandered 
her fortune. In 1780, owing to a series of an- 
noyances, she broke her contract and went to 
Vienna, and from there, in 1782, to Paris, where 
her great rivalry with Todi (q.v.) became an his- 
toric event, and the French public was divided 
into *Maradists' and *Todists.* With the excep- 
tion of two visits to Italy, she spent the period 
from 1784 to 1802 in England. Upon leaving 
London she went to Paris, and then, after an ex- 
tensive tour, to Russia, where she lost her prop- 
erty at the time of the French invasion. Her 
voice had now failed her, and she became a 
singing teacher at Keval, where she died in great 
poverty. Consult Rochlitz, Fur Freunde der 
Tonkunst, vol. i. (Leipzig, 1824). 

MAKABOXJ {mSiT'ii-h^) STOBK (Fr. mar- 
-about, Sp. marabu, from Ar. murHbit, hermit, 
from rabata, to bind). The African name of a 
stork allied to the adjutant (q.v.) or argala of 
India. Both species belong to the genus Leptop- 
tilus, which is remarkable for having the feathers 
of the anal region lengthened, so as to conceal 
the true tail feathers, and these elongated feath- 
ers are the so-called 'marabou feathers' which 
■were formerly much used for trimming ladies' 
hats and dresses. The African species is Leptop- 
tilus crumenifer. It is white with the back and 
wings greenish slate color. The sausage-like 
pouch which hangs from its neck is capable of 
being inflated, giving the bird a strange appear- 
ance. It is gregarious in its wild state, frequent- 
ing the mouths of rivers, and living upon animals 
too large for other storks to swallow. It is easily 
domesticated, but its exceeding voracity impels it 
on every occasion to purloin poultry, cats, and 
puppies, swallowing them whole. 

MABABOXTTS, mJlr'A-boots'. The French 
form of the name of a Mohammedan sect, from 
-which sprang the Almoravides (q.v.) , who founded 
a dynasty in Northwest Africa and in Spain 
during the eleventh century. The descendants of 
these ascetic missionaries form to-day a sort of 
order among the Berbers, leading a sanctified and 
contemplative life, though the appellation Mara- 
bout is generally given them only after their 
death. TTiey are the western counterpart of the 
eastern Mujdhid, who, suppressing the passions, 
seeks union {IttihUd) with Allah, and of the 
saints (toUlis) of the Sufis. They are often at- 
tached to mosques, chapels, or places of pilgrim- 
age, explaining the Koran and providing the 
faithful with amulets. As their influence is very 
great, their orders are implicitly obeyed. There 
are various divisions among them; the higher 
Marabouts living in a sort of monastery {Zd- 
wiyah), composed of a mosque^ a domed-building 
ikubbah), in which are the tomb of some saint, 
schools for children and for the teaching of the 
Koran and the sciences, as well as living rooms 
for scholars and travelers. The tomb of the saint 
is sometimes itself called a Marabout, and is an 
object of pilgrimage for the pious Mohammedans. 
Consult Rinn, Marabouts et Khouans (Algiers, 

MABACAIBO, ma'rti-kl'b6. A city of Vene- 
zuela, situated on a sandy plain on the west shore 
of the strait which connects Lake Maracaibo with 
the Gulf of Maracaibo (or of Venezuela) (Map: 
Venezuela, CI). It is a handsome town, with 


a hot but healthful climate, and has several fine 
buildings, notably the Government palace, the 
city hall^ and the school of arts. Among its 
other educational institutions are a nautical 
school and several libraries. The town hospital 
has a fine location on an island opposite the 
city. Its streets are lighted by electricity and 
traversed by surface railroads. Maracaibo does 
some manufacturing, but its importance is due 
to its harbor, which has the finest dockyards in 
the Republic, and is deep enough to admit the 
largest vessels; the entrance is, however, made 
difiicult by a shifting bar. The chief articles of ex- 
port are coffee, hides, and cabinet woods. Steam- 
ship lines run to the United States, and a United 
States consulate is established here. Population, 
35,000. Maracaibo was founded in 1571 by Manso 
Pacheco. It was formerly the capital of the 
State of Zulia. 

HABACAIBO, Gulf of. See Venezuela, 
Gulf of. 

MABACAIBOy Lake. A large sheet of water 
in the northwestern part of Venezuela, connected 
with the Gulf of Maracaibo (or of Venezuela) by a 
strait nearly nine miles wide ( Map : Venezuela, C 
2 ) . It is of nearly rectangular shape, with a length 
from north to south of 100 miles and a width of 
50 to 60 miles. Its extreme depth in the north- 
em part is 500 feet, but it shoals rapidly toward 
the south, where the shores are low and marshy 
and the water shallow. The entrance is obstruct- 
ed by a bar with only 7 to 14 feet of water, so 
that large vessels cannot enter. Owing to the 
narrow entrance and to the great number of 
rivers which discharge into it, the water of the 
lake is fresh and the tides are scarcely felt, so 
that, though its form is that of a marine inlet, it 
is to be considered as an inland lake. It occu- 
pies part of a much larger lake basin surrounded 
by lofty mountains. This basin has been partly 
filled up by alluvium, leaving a number of 
smaller lakes connecting by creeks with the main 

MABAGHA, ma'r&gft^ An old town in the 
west of Persia, in the Province of Azerbaijan, 
55 miles south of Tabriz and 20 miles east of 
Lake Urumiah ( Map : Persia, B 3 ) . It consists 
mostly of mud houses inclosed by a high, dilapi- 
dated wall. The town is celebrated as the site of 
an observatory which Hulaku Khan built for the 
astronomer Nasir-ed-Din. The famous marble 
pits produce a nearly transparent marble. Pop- 
ulation, about 15,000. 

MABAIS, m&'rft^ Le. (1) A name given 
during the French Revolution to the centre party 
of the Legislative Assembly and of the Conven- 
tion, usually called the Plain. (2) A quar- 
ter of Paris, built on marshy ground, east 
of the Rue Saint Denis and including the Place 
des Vosges, formerly, as the Place Royale, the 
centre oi aristocratic Paris. It contains fine 
buildings from the time of Henry IV. and Louis 
XIII. (3) Vast plains in the west of France, 
reclaimed ifrom the sea, consisting of two distinct 
divisions, the Breton or western and the Poitevin 
or southern. The soil, since the draining of the 
region, is exceedingly fertile. The Marais con- 
tains many scattered hills, representing former 
islands. It is still inundated during the winter. 

MABAjd, ma'rA-zh</. or Joannes. A large 
island formed bv the estuaries of the Amazon and 
the Parft and the network of river arms connect- 

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1IARAJ6. S8 

ing them (Map: Brazil, H 4). It is 165 miles 
long from east to west and 120 miles wide. Its 
surface is very low and flat; the northern part 
consists of immense swamps, while the western 
part is covered with forests, consisting largely 
of rubber trees. There are several large lakes 
in the interior, and in the wet season the greater 
part of the island is flooded. In the dry season 
it affords excellent grazing. The population is 
scanty, consisting largely of hunters and rubber- 
gatherers visiting the island during the dry 
season. The principal settlement is Saur6, on 
the eastern coast. 


it, mA'rHK. A large species of deer 
{Cervus maral) of the Caspian provinces of Per- 
sia, which is closely related to the European red 
deer in structure and habits, and perhaps is only 
a variety of that species. Its antlers always 
terminate in more than two tines. Consult Lyd- 
deker, Deer of All Lands (London, 1898). 

Hungary. See MAbmabos-Sziget. 

MAB'ANATH^A. An expression found in the 
New Testament near the close of Paul's First 
Epistle to the Corinthians (xvi. 22 — "If any man 
love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be anath- 
ema, maranatha''). The term^ not being Greek, 
but Aramaic, has occasioned much discussion. 
Interpreters ignorant of Aramaic, or in localities 
where there was no old tradition as to its 
meaning, considered it a threat of some sort. But 
ancient Eastern tradition and modern scholar- 
ship explain it as made up of two Aramaic words, 
mUran or nUlrand ('Lord' or *C)ur Lord*) and 
athd or thd, 'come' (or 'has come,' if ath& be the 
form). It is therefore to be under9tood as a 
fervent prayer or exclamation, 'Lord (or Our 
Lord), Come!' A parallel is found in Rev. 
xxii. 20 ("Even so, come. Lord Jesus"). Mara- 
natha is also found in the Didache (see Teach- 
ing OF THE Twelve Apostles) apparently with 
the same sense, at the end of a thanksgiving 
prayer in connection with the Eucharist. The 
expression doubtless came into vogue very early 
in Palestinian circles in connection with the ex- 
pectation of the speedy return of Jesus, and prob- 
ably as a part of the celebration of the agapse or 
love feasts. Consult: Thayer in the Hastings 
Dictionary of the Bible; Schmidt, in the Journal 
of Biblical Literature, vol. xiii. (1894) ; Dalman, 
Orammatik dea jiidisch-paldatinischen AranUiisch 
(Leipzig, 1894). 

MABANHA, m&-r£l^ny&, MIKANHA, or 
MABIANA. A fierce cannibal tribe of Ara- 
wakan stock (q.v.), ranging from the Jutahy 
River on the south, across the Amazon and Putu- 
mayo, to the YapurA on the north, in Western 
Brazil and the adjacent parts of Colombia and 
Peru. They wear wooden labrets and ear pen- 
dants, with nose pendants of shell, but do not 
tattoo. The boring of a child's lips is celebrated 
by a feast. When a boy is twelve years old four 
gashes are cut near his mouth by his father, and 
he must then fast five days. At a later period 
the boys whip themselves as a test of manhood. 
In fighting expeditions each man carries a small 
bag of salt as an antidote against poisoned 

MABANHiO, mR'rft-nyouN^ or MABAN- 
HAM. A northern State of Brazil, bounded by 
the Atlantic Ocean on the north, the State of 
Piauhy on the east, and by Goyaz and ParA -on 

the west (Map: Brazil, H 4). Its area is 177,561 
square miles. The surface is only slightly ele- 
vated and traversed by a number of rivers. The 
coast land is generally low and subject to inunda- 
tions. The whole State is well wooded and the 
climate is excessively hot, but on the whole not 
unhealthful. The chief rivers are the Parana- 
hyba, which marks the eastern boundary of the 
State, Itapicurfl, GuajahO, Mearim, and Pindare. 
The soil is largely fertile and produces sugar,^ 
coflTee, cacao, cotton, rice, corn, and many kinds of 
southern and tropical fruits. Stock-raising is 
increasing in importance, as the natural condi- 
tions of the region are very favorable for the 
development of that industry. The agricultural 
development of the State is greatly handicapped 
by the scarcity of population, and efforts are 
being made to establish agricultural colonies for 
the natives as well as to attract foreign set- 
tlers by liberal grants of land. The chief ex- 
ports are sugar, coffee, cotton, rice, rubber, to- 
bacco, cattle, hides and skins. The population of 
Maranhao in 1800 was 430,854, and in 1900, 499,- 
308. The inhabitants are chiefly whites of Portu- 
guese descent, but there is also a considerable 
number of negroes and mulattoes and about 20,-» 
000 Indians. The capital is MaranhSo. 

MABANHJlO, or Sto Luiz db MabanhXo. 
The capital of the State of Maranhffo, Brazil. It 
is situated on an island in the Bay of Sfto Marcos, 
between the mouths of the Mearim and Itapi- 
curd rivers, 280 miles southeast of Par& (Map: 
Brazil, J 4). The ground is low, but hilly, and 
though the cliaate is very warm, the location 
is not unhealthful. The town is well built and 
clean, and has handsome public buildings, a the- 
atre, a hospital, a cathedral, and a fine bishop's 
palace. The commerce is declining and the orig- 
mally good harbor is gradually filling with sand. 
A United States consular agent is stationed here. 
Population, with the surrounding district, about 
32,000 in 1902. The town was founded by the 
French in 1612. 

MABANO BI NAPOU, m&r&''n6 d^ nH^- 
p6-l6. A town in the Province of Naples, Italy, 
situated about five miles northwest of Naples 
(Map: Italy, D 10). It lies in a fertile region 
and produces wine, grain, and fruit. Population^ 
in 1901, 10,317. 

MABASTON, mU'rA-nyon'. A name some- 
times applied to the upper course of the Amazon 

MABASCHINOy m&'iift-ske^nd (It., from ma- 
rasca, sort of cherry, from Lat. amarus, bitter ) . 
A liqueur distilled from the fermented juice of 
the marasca cherry and flavored with its pits. 
The marasca cherry is a small black fruit, so 
named from its bitterness. Maraschino is chiefly- 
made in Zara, Dalmatia. See Liqueur. 

MABASH,. m&r&sh^ The capital of the 
sanjak of the same name in the Vilayet of Aleppo, 
Asiatic Turkey, situated at the foot of Mount 
Taurus, about 90 miles north -northeast of its 
port, Alexandretta (Map: Turkey in Asia, G 4). 
It is a well-built city with fine bazaars and a 
considoTable trade in Kurd carpets and embroid- 
eries. Besides mosques and Mohammedan 
schools there are a number of Christian churches, 
a college and schools attached to the American 
miRsion. and a Jesuit establishment. In the vi- 
cinity of the town are found traces of Roman 

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fortifications and tombs with Greek inscriptions. 
Many Hittite monuments have also been discov- 
ered near Marash. The population is estimated 
at from 40,000 to 52,000, including many Ar- 

MABAS^MTJS (Neo-Lat., from Gk. /mpafffjuit, 
marasmo8f decay, from fMpalvtLv, marainein, to 
weaken; ultimately connected With Skt. mar, to 
grind, mid, weaken, Olr. meirb, AS. mearu, OHG. 
tiiuruwi, munoi, Ger. murhe, soft). A term some- 
what vaguely used by the older medical writers 
to designate those cases of general emaciation 
or atrophy for which they did not see any special 
cause. The word is now seldom used except occa- 
sionally as a synonym for tabes mesenterica, or 
tubercular disease of the mesenteric glands. See 


MARAT, mA'ri', Jean Paul (1744-93). One 
of the radical leaders of the French Hevolution^ 
bom May 24, 1744, at Boudry, near Neufch&tel, 
Switzerland. In youth he made himself master 
of several languages; subsequently he studied 
medicine at Bordeaux and at Paris, and, after 
traveling extensively in Europe, removed to Lon- 
don. There he practiced medicine and published 
An Essay on Man (1772) and the Chains of 
Slavery (1776). Keturning to Paris, he wrote 
on optical subjects and electricity, and entered 
the service of the Count of Artois as a veterinary 
surgeon in 1777. The fruits of his studies in 
physics appeared in a number of paradoxical pub- 
lications on electricity and optics. Upon the 
outbreak of the Revolution Marat soon came 
to the front as one of its most extravagant, pas- 
sionate, and demagogical leaders, and won a large 
following. On September 12, 1789, he established 
a journal, Le Puhliciste Parisien, which became 
better known as L'Ami du Peuple, and, after 
♦September 21, 1792, as Le Journal de la R^puh- 
lique. The more conservative revolutionists 
looked with abhorrence upon this incarnation of 
the worst passions of the hour^ but the support 
of the lowest among the populace kept him in 
a position of influence. His violence caused an 
order of arrest to be issued against him in 1790, 
but he succeeded in evading capture, thanks to 
the protection of the Club of the Cordeliers, of 
which he was a member. A bitter foe of the Gi- 
rondists, he clamored for their destruction after 
the return of the King from Varennes. Danton, 
who had found Marat useful in the preparation 
of the events which led up to the storming of the 
Tuileries (August 10, 1792), made him a mem- 
ber of the Commune of Paris. It was in a great 
measure the influence of Marat which led to the 
cruelties and massacres of September, 1792, in 
the midst of which he was elected a member of 
the Convention. His journal became more fero- 
cious and sanguinary than ever. During the 
King's trial he was urgent for his immediate 
execution, and in his journal called upon the 
people to slay 200,000 of the adherents of the 
old regime. On April 14, 1793, he was brought 
before the Revolutionary Tribunal on the charge 
of fomenting sedition, but was acquitted (April 
24th) and returned to the Convention more 
powerful than ever. He played probably the 
leading part in the events of May 31- June 2, 
which brought about the downfall of the Giron- 
dists, who had long regarded him as their most 
inveterate enemy. On July 13, 1793, Marat was 
stabbed in his own house by Charlotte Corday 
iq.v.). His death aroused tremendous public 


feeling. His bust was placed in the Hall of 
the Convention; the scene of his murder was 
painted by David; fetes in perpetuation of his. 
memory were held all over France; mothers 
named their children after the *martyr of the 
people,' and in November the Ck)nvention de- 
creed to Marat's remains the honors of the Pan- 
theon. Consult: Bax, Jean Paul Marat, the 
People's Friend (Boston. 1901), a rehabilita- 
tion; Burnet, Marat (Paris, 1862), Cabanes, Ma- 
rat inconnu, Vhomme priv6, le mMecin, le satHint, 
d*apr^ des documents nouveaux et inMits ( Paris, 
1891); Ch^vremont, Jean Paul Marat (Paris, 
1880) ; Polish Letters from The Original Un- 
published M88. (2 vols., Boston, 1905). 

MAR ATHI, mk'TJi't^, A language spoken in 
Western India, and closely related to Sindhi, 
Gujarati, and other modern vernaculars of Indo- 
Iranian origin. It is the tongue of between 
15,000,000 and 20,000,000 people, and is divided 
into several dialects, which are comprised under 
the two great groups Dakhani and Konkani. The 
former of these is found, as its name implies, in 
the Deccan, and contains the standard dialect, 
called Deshi, spoken near Poona. The district 
of the Konkani is along the coast in the south- 
western portion of the coimtiy of the Mahrattas. 
It contains a considerable mixture of Dravidian 
words from the neighboring Kanarese, and around 
Goa it has numerous Portuguese loan-words. 
Marathi as a whole, despite its importations from 
Persian and Arabic, has departed less from the 
Sanskrit form than almost any other New In- 
dian language. It is probably descended from 
the vernacular form of the Maharashtri Prakrit 
dialect of mediaeval India. 

Marathi literature is abundant. It begins in 
the thirteenth century with Namdev, a predeces- 
sor of the famous Tukaram (a.d. 1609), who 
wrote religious poems of a pronounced Vishnu- 
itic trend. Another poet almost as highly es- 
teemed as Tukaram was Mayur Pandit or Moro- 
pant in the eighteenth century. Prose works in 
Marathi are comparatively unimportant. Mod- 
ern literature in this language, under English in- 
fluence, is copious but rather mediocre. The 
alphabet employed by the Marathi is the Devana- 
gari, in which Sanskrit is written. 

Consult: Navalkar, Student's Marathi Gram- 
mar (Bombay, 1880) ; Joshi, Comprehensive 
Marathi Grammar (Poona, 1900) ; Moles worth 
and Candy, MarHthi and English Dictionary 
(2d ed., Bombay, 1857) ; Godbole, Selections from 
the Marathi Poets (5th ed., Bombay, 1864) ; Mit- 
chell, "The Chief Marathi Poets," in the Transac- 
tions of the Ninth International Congress of Ori- 
entalists, vol. i. (London, 1892) ; Manwaring, 
Marathi Proverbs Collected and Translated (Ox- 
ford, 1899). 

MAB/ATHON* (Lat., from Gk. UapaOiiw), 
Anciently a small town on the eastern coast of 
Attica, about twenty miles northeast of Athens. 
The modem village lies at the point where a 
valley opens into the plain of Marathon, which 
is surrounded by a semicircular range of moun- 
tains on the north, west, and south, while on the 
east it is washed by the Bay of Marathon. South 
of the valley of Marathcm is another valley, in 
which is the little village of Vrana, probably the 
site of the ancient town, while from the southern 
extremity of the plain, between the sea and the 
mountains, a road leads by a circuitous route 
between Mounts Pentelicus and Hymettus into 

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the Attic plain. Along with three other towns Mar- 
athon belonged to the Tetrapolis, which claimed a 
very early legendary origin and independent ex- 
istence until the time of TheBeus. It is clear 
that the league continued to exist for religious 
purposes until at least the fourth century B.C., 
and probably for a longer time. The plain of 
Marathon is espnecially famous as the scene of the 
decisive battle in which Miltiades led the Athe- 
nians and Platsans to victory over the army of 
Darius under the command of Datis and Arta- 
phemes in B.C. 490. The details of the battle are 
not easy to determine, as the ancient accounts are 
confused. It is probable that the Athenians occu- 
pied the valley of Vrana, and attacked the Per- 
sians either when they were preparing to re- 
embark or to execute a turning movement by the 
road to the south. The Greek force- seems to 
have numbered about 10,000, of whom 192 fell. 
The numbers of the Persians are unknown, but 
the traditional 100,000 is certainly much exag- 
gerated; their loss is said to have been 6400. 
Contrary to custom, the Athenian dead were 
buried on the field, and over their remains was 
raised the great mound (or Soros) which is still 
conspicuous in the southern part of the plain. 
Its identity, at one time much disputed, was 
proved by the excavations of the Greek Archae- 
ological Society in 1890 and 1891, which brought 
to light human bones, ashes, vases of the early 
fifth century B.C., and a sacrificial trench, where 
offerings had been made before the earth was 
heaped up. The literature on the subject is very 
extensive. Besides the standard histories of 
Greece, may be consulted: Fraser, P^usanias, 
vol. ii. (London, 1898), where is a large bibli- 
ography; Milchhefer's Text to Curtius and Kau- 
pert. Karten von Attika (Berlin, 1881-95) ; 
Macan, HerodotuSy iv., v., vi. (London, 1895) ; 
and Journal of Hellenio Studies, vol xix. (Lon- 
don. 1899). 

MAHATTI, m&-r&t^t«, or MARATTA, Carlo, 
(1625-1713). An Italian painter, bom at Cam- 
erano. May 13, 1625. He was a pupil of 
Andrea Sacchi, of the Roman school, and was 
influenced by the works of Raphael and the 
Carracci. Considered the most eminent painter 
in Rome, he long enjoyed the Papal patronage. 
In 1702-03 Clement XI. commissioned him to 
restore Raphael's frescoes in the Vatican, and 
Innocent XI. appointed him superintendent of the 
paintings in the Vatican. He died at Rome, 
December 15, 1713. while Prince of the Academy 
of Saint Luke. Most of his pictures are small 
easel paintings in oil, his best works being 
portraits. His design is academic, his color 
pleasing, his brush -handling weak; his style re- 
sembles that of Guido Rem, and lacks original- 
ity of character. He etched a number of im- 
portant plates. Among his best paintings are 
the following: "Madonna," Palazzo Doria, Rome; 
"Annunciation," Turin Gallery; "Adoration of 
Shepherds," Basel Museum ; "Holy Night," Dres- 
den Museum; "Saint John at Patmos," "Sleep- 
ing Child." "Portrait of a Cardinal," Old Pina- 
kothek, Munich; "Presentation in the Temple." 
"Portrait of Clement IX.," Hermitage, Saint 
Petersburg; "Madonna in Glory," "Hagar and 
Ishmael," Madrid Museum; portrait of Cardinal 
Cerri, National Gallery, London. 

MAB'AVE'DI, 8p, pron, ma'rA-vA-d§' (Sp., 
from Ar. Murdhitiny name of a Moorish dynasty, 
pi. of murahit, hermit). The name borne by 

certain Spanish coins. One of gold weighing about 
60 grains wae issued by the Moorish emirs in 
the eleventh and twelfth centuries; subsequently 
the maravedi constituted the lowest denomina- 
tion in the Spanish coinage, varying in value from- 
one-seventh to one-third of a cent. 

MABBEAXJ, mir'by, Jean Baptiste (1798- 
1875). A French philanthropist, bom at Brives. 
In 1841, while a city official at Paris, in mak- 
ing some investigations of the charitable insti- 
tutions, he was struck with the lack of pro- 
vision for the care of babies under two years 
of age whose mothers were compelled to go out 
to work. He wrote a book, Des creches, ad- 
vocating the establishment of day nurseries. 
The first was established at Chaillot November 
11, 1844. An association of cr^hes was formed 
in 1846. Throughout the rest of his life, while 
specially interested in creches, he took an active 
part in furthering various charities. Among 
his writings are: Etudes sur V^conomie socials 
(1844; 2d ed. 1875) ; Des creches, ou le moyen 
de diminuer la misSre en augmentant la popula- 
tion (1845; many later editions) ; Du paup&riante 
en France et des moyens d'y remidier (1847) ; 
De Vindigence et des secours (1850). He died 
at Saint Cloud, October 10, 1875. 

MAB^ECK, or MEBBECK, John ( ?-c.l585) . 
An English musician and theologian, organist 
of Saint George's Chapel, Windsor, in the reign 
of Henry VIII. and his successor. He early 
read Calvin's writings, adopted his views, and 
joined an association in support of the Reformed 
doctrines. Among the members were a priest, 
a chorister of Saint George's Chapel, and a 
tradesman, and these men, together with Mar- 
beck, were arrested on a charge of heresy. Their 
papers were seized, and in Marbeck's handwriting 
were found notes on the Bible, a concordance 
in English, and a copy of an epistle of Calvin 
against the mass. They were all condemned 
to the stake, but Marbeck, on account of his 
musical talents and through the interposition of 
Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, was pardoned 
and restored to his place as organist. He lived 
to see the triumph of his principles, and to pub- 
lish his work. The Boke of Common Prater 
Noted (1550); reprinted in facsimile 1844, 
and in Jebb's Choral Responses and Lit antes , 
1857). He published also his Concordance to 
the Bible (1550), which was the first work of 
the kind in English on the entire Bible. A Te 
Deum of his and a mass of five voices are found 
in Smith's Musica Antiqua, now in the British 
Museum. In 1574 was published The I/yves of 
Holy Sainctes, Prophetes, Patriarches, and oth- 
ers ; and subsequently The Eolie Historic of King 
Davidy draton into English meetre (1579), and 
.4 Ripping Up of the Pope's Fardel (1581). 

MABBEIXA, roar-bft1y&. A port of South- 
ern Spain in the Province of Malaga. It is situ- 
ated amid picturesque surroundings on the shore 
of the Mediterranean, 35 miles northeast of Gib- 
raltar. It is a well-built town, with a notable 
Church of the Incarnation. In the neighborhood 
are granite quarries, and mines of sulphur, lead, 
and iron; the town has iron foundries and sugar 
refineries. The harbor is used principally in 
local coasting trade; it is an ill -sheltered, open 
roadstead, but equipped with a large iron pier 
reaching into deep water and a lighthouse visible 
for twelve miles. The principal exports are 

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c*eTOP|t)i^^ed by CiOOglC 

Digitized by 


iron, grain, sugar, cork, and fish. Population, 
in 1900, 9075. 

MABBLE (OF. marble, marhre, Fr. marbre, 
Prov. marme, marbre, from Lat. marmor, marble, 
from Gk. ftdpfMpos, marmaros, bright stone, 
marble, from /iopfuUpeip, marmairein, to sparkle). 
In a strict sense a crystalline limestone having 
a granular structure. The term has, however, 
become broadened as a result of commercial use 
and now includes any limestone, either crystalline 
or non-crystalline, which will take a polish. 
Marbles vary considerably in their texture and 
color. Some are extremely fine-grained, like 
those of Vermont, while others are coarsely 
granular, as in New York State. ITiose com- 
posed entirely of carbonate of lime are pure 
white, but many are colored gray or blue by car- 
bonaceous matter, while others exhibit beautiful 
shades of pink, yellow, red, and brown, due to 
iron compounds. The presence of fossil remains 
may also add to their beauty. Marbles are 
usually found in regions of metamorphic rocks 
(see (jEOLOGy), and hence the rock has been at 
times subjected to crushing forces. These have 
developed fissures in the rock, which subsequently 
became filled by foreign mineral matter, and it is 
to this that much of the beautiful marking or 
veining of many ornamental marbles is due. 

Marble occurs in many geological formations, 
but in the United States it is obtained mostly 
from the Paleozoic rocks. The best-known de- 
posits are found in the Eastern States. In •west- 
em Vermont, at West Rutland, Proctor, Bran- 
don, and other localities, some of the quarries 
have reached a depth of 400 feet, and contain 
many grades, varying from the purest white 
statuary marble to the gray, or *true blue' 
variety, as it is called. Vermont supplies 80 
per cent, of the marble used for monimiental 
work in the United States. A fine-grained, white, 
dolomitic marble is quarried at Lee, in western 
Massachusetts, and also near Pittsfield. Much 
marble for structural work is obtained from Saint 
Lawrence and Westchester counties, N. Y.; from 
Cockeysville, Md., and Pickens County, Ga. These 
are all magnesian marbles of coarsely crvstalline 
character. A lustrous black marble is quar- 
ried near Glens Falls, N. Y.; and at Swanton, 
Vt., there occurs a deposit of variegated marble' 
much used for wainscoting and floors. Some of 
the varieties found here resemble imported 
marbles. About 60 per cent, of the marble used 
in the United States for furniture tops and in- 
terior decoration is obtained from near Knox- 
ville, Tenn. The colors are variegated, but 
chiefly veinings and mottlings in red, brown, 
pink, and gray. Aside from these areas, marble 
of white and gray striping is quarried in Inyo 
County, Cal. Two types which have attracted 
some attention are the serpentine or verde an- 
tiques found in eastern Pennsylvania, and the 
onyx marbles from Arizona, Colorado, and Cali- 
fornia. These latter are not true onyx, but a 
travertine, comoosed of carbonate of lime, and 
formed in caves or around calcareous springs. 

Many ornamental marbles are imported into 
the United States from various European coun- 
tries. Among the more important types are: 
Black and Oold^ a black Italian limestone veined 
with yellow; Brocatelle, a light yellow marble 
with red cloudings, obtained from the Pyrenees; 
Carrara, the white marbles quarried at Carrara, 
Italy; Giallo antico, a yellow marble much 

sought after by the ancient Greeks and Romans; 
and Oriotte, a bright red variety, obtained in 
the Pyrenees, The last named is also found at 
Swanton, Vt. Landscape marble is a variety con- 
taining coloring matter dispersed through it in 
such a manner as to resemble a landscape. Nero 
antico is a greenish-black 'serpentine marble; 
Numidian marble is an African variety, often of 
yellow color; Parian, a white marble much used 
by the ancient Greeks and obtained from the 
island of Paros; Pentellic is another white 
marble used by the ancient Greeks, occurring 
near Athens; Roaso antico, a red marble; Siena, 
a yellowish marble, often with veins or patches 
of gray or purple. 

The most famous marble known to the ancients 
was the Parian marble, which was a finely granu- 
lar and very durable stone, of waxy appearance 
when polished. Some of the finest Grecian sculp- 
tures were formed of this marble, among them 
being the Venus de* Medici. The Pentellic 
marble was at one time preferred by the Greeks 
to Parian, because it was whiter and finer grained. 
The Parthenon was entirely built of it. It does 
not resist the weather well. The quarries at 
Carrara were known to the ancients, but their 
chief importance has been in modem times. The 
temple of Jupiter Serapis near Naples was 
constructed of a gray streaked micaceous marble, 
much used by the ancients and known as cipo- 

Marble suitable for structural work sells at 
from $1.50 to $4 per cubic foot, while statuary 
marble brings $12 or $15 per cubic foot. Marble 
must commonly meet certain requirements as 
to strength, color, texture, freedom from flaws, 
and durability in the open air. Its crushing 
strength is commonly from 10,000 to 12,000 
pounds per square inch. 

The opening of a marble quarry is usually 
expensive and attended with financial risks, as a 
thickness of from 10 to 30 feet of rock usually 
has to be taken off before sound marble is reached. 
After a sufficient area of surface has been pre- 
pared by the removal of the imperfect stone, 
channeling machines, which may be either per- 
cussion or diamond drills, are set to work, and 
rectangularly crossed channels are cut to a 
desired depth, say from 6 to 7 feet. One of the 
blocks, called the key block, is then broken off 
at the base by wedging and lifted out with a 
crane. This gives ready access to the others, 
which are then drilled as circumstances may 
require, the quarry being worked out in floors. 
The blocks removed commonly run 4 feet 6 
inches by 6 feet 6 inches, but much larger ones 
are sometimes extracted on special demand. The 
marble after quarrying is taken to the mill and 
sawed into blocks or slabs, or chiseled into mon- 
umental pieces. The first smoothing is done with 
sand and water, but the final polishing with a 
mixture of putty powder and weak acid rubbed 
on with a flannel -covered revolving bufl'er. The 
total value of marble produced annually in the 
United States exceeds $6,000,000. 

Bibliography. Merrill, Stones for Building 
and Decoration; "Mineral Resources," United 
States Geological Sun^'i/ (Washington, annual) ; 
McCallie, "Marbles of Oeorgria," in Georgia Geo- 
logical Survey; Hopkins, "Report on Marbles." 
Arkansas Geological K«rrei/. vol. iv. (1890) ; 
Ries, "Limestones and Marbles of Western Now 
England," Seventeenth Annual Report United 

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States Oeological Survey (Washington, 1896) ; 
Stone (New York, monthly). See Building 

MABBLEy Manton (1835—). An American 
journalist. He was born in Worcester, Mass. ; 
graduated at Rochester University in 1855, and 
became a journalist in Boston, where he was con- 
nected successively with the Journal and the 
Traveller, He removed to New York in 1858, 
and was employed during the next two years on 
the editorial staff of the Evening Post. In 1860 
he united with others in founding the World, 
of which he eventually became sole proprietor. 
Under his management the paper gained influence 
as a Democratic free-trade organ. In 1876 he 
retired from the World, and in 1878 published 
A Secret Chapter of Political Uistory, in which 
he upheld Mr. Tilden's claim to the Presidency. 
In 1885 he was a delegate to the Bimetallic Con- 
gress in Europe. 


MABBLED .TiaEB-CAT. A very distinct 
and beautiful wild cat of the eastern Himalayas 
and Malayan region {Felis marmorata), which 
in appearance is a miniature of the clouded 
leopard. It is al)out the size of the domestic cat, 
and has unusually soft and warm fur and a long 
tail, not ringed, but spotted. The ground color 
is dull reddish yellow, marked with numerous 
elongate, wavy black spots, somewhat clouded 
or marbled. There are dark lines on the head, 
and the flanks and legs are thickly spotted with 
black, while the belly is vellowish white. It has 
a Tibetan variety. Its habits are little known, 
but arc supposed to be mainly arboreal. 

MABBLE FAUN, The. A romance by Haw- 
thorne (1860). The title originally proposed 
was The Transformation of the Faun, changed 
in the English edition to Transformation, and in 
the American to The Marble Faun. 

Iff A BBLEHE A TV. A town, including the vil- 
lages of Clifton, Devereux, and Marblehead 
Neck, in Essex County, Mass., 18 miles northeast 
of Boston; situated on a rocky peninsula in 
Massachusetts Bay, and on the Boston and Maine 
Railroad (Map: Massachusetts, F 3). It has a 
commodious harbor; is a popular yachting and 
summer resort, and possesses many pre-revolu- 
tionary buildings and other features of historic 
interest. In Abbot Hall are the town offices, 
the public library, and an art gallery. There are 
Crocker, Fort Sewall, and Fountain parks. The 
principal industries include boat-builaing and the 
manufacture of shoes, though fishing and seed 
growing are of some importance. The govern- 
ment is administered by town meetings. Popula- 
tion, 1900, 7582; 1905, 7209. Settled in 1629 by 
emigrants from the east and south of England, 
and later by people from the islands of Jersey 
and Guernsey, Marblehead was under the juris- 
diction of Salem until 1649, when it was incor- 
porated as a separate town. It ranked for a time 
next to Boston in its maritime and fishing trade. 
Marblehead was the birthplace, and for many 
years the home, of Elbridge Gerry and Judge 
Story. Consult Roads, The History and Tradi- 
iions of Marblehead (Marblehead, 1897). 

MABBLEHEAD. A sailors' name for the 
"North Atlantic fulmar (q.v.). 

MABBLES AND Mabble-Plating. Marbles 
«ro little balls of marble or some other hard sub- 

stance, and are used as playthings by children. 
They have been in use from the earliest times, 
and are to be foimd among all the peoples of the 
world. They are manufactured in large quanti- 
ties in Saxony, and are exported to India, China, 
Africa, and practically every nation of Europe 
and America. There is an endless variety of 
games of marbles. 

MAB'BO, or MABOBCyDXTUS (c.ll B.C.-41 
A.D.). A Germanic chief. King of the Marco- 
manni. See Mabcomanni. 

MABBOD, mftr'bd' (c.1035.1123). A French 
bishop and author. He was bom at Angers, the 
son of a merchant, and taught with great suc- 
cess, becoming in 1067 head of the diocesan 
school, in which he trained many prominent 
scholars and statesmen. Marbod was made arch- 
deacon in 1081 and Bishop of Rennes in 1096. 
His works include biographies, hymns, the Versus 
Canonicales, valuable as giving a picture of the 
monkish life of the period, and De Lapidibus 
Pretiosis, which, following a Greek original, 
treats of the mysterious properties of gems. Mar- 
bod's works are contained m Migne, Patrologia 
Latina, vol. clxxi. (1854). 

HABBOia, mar'bwa', FEANgois, Marquis de 
Babb£. a French statesman. See Babb£-Mab- 


MABBXJBG, mar^oorK. A town in the 
Crowqland of Styria, Austria, 40 miles by rail 
south-southeast of Gratz, on the left bank of the 
navigable Drave (Map: Austria, D 3). The town 
has a cathedral, a castle, and a casino, and is 
the seat of the Bishop of Lavant. Its educational 
institutions include schools of theology and |)eda- 
gogy and a pomological school. The chief in- 
dustries are the manufacture of leather, foot- 
wear, flour, beer, and spirits. The extensive work- 
shops of the Southern Railway are situated in the 
suburbs of Sankt Magdalena. Marburg carries ou 
an extensive trade in wine and lumber, the chief 
products of the surrounding country. Popula- 
tion, in 1890, 19,898; in 1900, 24,501, mostly 
Germans. Consult BUcking, Geschichtliche Bilder 
aus Marburgs Vergangenlwit (Marburg, 1901). 

M ABBUBG-. A town in the Province of 
Hesse-Nassau, Prussia, situated on the Lahn, 
60 miles by rail north of Frankfort (Map: Prus- 
sia, C 3). It is commanded by a thirteenth- 
century castle, originally the residence of the 
landgraves of Hesse, and later a State prison. It 
is one of the most extensive ancient secular build- 
ings in Germany, and is of interest on account 
of the disputation between Luther and Zwingli 
which took place in the Rittersaal in 1529. An- 
other architectural feature of Marburg is the 
thirteenth-century Church of Saint Elizabeth, 
a perfect specimen of early Gothic architecture. 
It was erected by the Teutonic knights soon after 
the death of Saint Elizabeth, and was restored in 
the middle of the eighteenth century. It con- 
tains the fine tomb of the Saint, as well as nu- 
merous monuments to the Hessian rulers and 
Teutonic knights. Noteworthy are also the Rat- 
haus (1512) and the administration buildings. 
The educational institutions of Marburg include 
the university (see Marbubq, University op), 
a gymnasium, a 'real' school, and an agricultural 
school. The chief manufactures are leather, 
pottery, machinery, surgical instruments, car- 
pets, and tobacco. The environs are of great 

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natural beauty. Population, in 1890, 14,520; in 
1900, 17,527; in 1905, 20,136, chiefly Protestante. 

First mentioned in the thirteenth century, Mar- 
burg was endowed with municipal rights by the 
Landgrave Louis of Thuringia in 1227, and after 
his death became the residence of his widow, 
Elizabeth of Hungary, later canonized. During 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries Marburg 
was one of the residences of the landgraves of 
Hesse. It passed with Hesse-Cassel to Prussia in 
1866. The fortifications were demolished by the 
French in 1810-11. 

MABBUBG, Uni\'ER8Ity of. The first Prot- 
estant imiversity of Germany, founded by Philip, 
Landgrave of Hesse, in 1527, and endowed with 
the income of thirteen suppressed monasteries. 
The Imperial assent was ffiven in 1541. The new 
foundation drew largely from Wittenberg for its 
early teaching staff, became a stronghold of 
Lutheran doctrine, and flourished accordingly. In 
1607 Landgrave Moritz converted it into a Cal- 
vinistic school, which conversion resulted in the 
departure of many professors and students, and 
the foundation of the University of Giessen. ITie 
Thirty Years* W^r nearly ruined the university, 
which was reconstituted in 1653. Since the incor- 
poration of Hesse-Cassel with Prussia it has 
flourished greatly. In 1905 it had a budget of 
1,077,000 marks, and 1650 students, including 
eighteen women, in theology, medicine, law, and 
philosophy, the majority being in the two latter 
faculties. Its library contains about 200,000 vol- 
umes, and 150,000 dissertations. 

MABBUBY vs. MADISON. The title of a 
famous decision rendered by the Supreme Court 
of the United States in 1803 and reported in the 
fourth volume of Cranch*8 Reports, Its impor- 
tance in the constitutional development of the 
XJnited States lies in the fact that this was the 
first instance in which the Supreme Court as- 
sumed the right to declare a statute of Congress 
null and void on account of its repugnance to the 
Constitution. It is popularly regarded as the 
chief basis for the American doctrine of the right 
of the courts to disregard unconstitutional stat- 
utes, although the right had been asserted by 
State courts in some naif a dozen instances be- 
fore the adoption of the Federal Constitution. 
The case of Marbury vs. Madison arose out of an 
attempt of the plaintiff to secure a writ of man- 
damus from the Supreme Court to compel James 
Madison, then Secretary of State, to deliver to 
him a commission as justice of the peace of the 
District of Columbia. Marbury had been ap- 
pointed to this office by President Adams, the 
Senate had confirmed the nomination, and his 
commission had been made out, signed and sealed, 
but had not been delivered. When Madison en- 
tered upon his duties as Secretary of State he 
found the commission and refused to deliver it. 
Marbury, in bringing his suit, relied upon an act 
of Congress, which empowered the Supreme Court 
to issue the writ of mandamus to executive offi- 
cers to compel them to perform their duties in 
certain cases. But as the Constitution expressly 
enumerates the cases in which the Supreme Court 
shall have original jurisdiction and nowhere 
mentions the right of issuing the writ of man- 
damus, the Congressional act in question was 
clearly without constitutional warrant. This 
evident repugnance of the statute to the Con- 
stitution was the first question decided by the 
court. The second point in the decision related 
Vol. XIII.-4. 

to the power of the court to declare the act 
null and void and to refuser to be bound thereby 
when its repugnance to the C<mstitution was 
once established. Chief Justice Marshall, who 
delivered the opinion of the court, declared that 
if two laws conflict with each other, the courts 
must decide on the operation of each, and if a 
law be in opposition to the Constitution so that 
the court would have to decide the case conform- 
ably to the law disregarding the Constitution, or 
conformably to the Constitution disregarding the 
law, the court must decide which of these con- 
flicting rules governs the case. If then, he said, 
the courts are to regard the Constitution, and if 
the Constitution is supreme over any ordinary 
statute, the Constitution and not the statute 
must govern the case to which they both apply. 
Marshall's argument was readily accepted as the 
only correct and just rule, and thus was laid the 
foundation of a judicial prerogative which has 
immensely influenced the legal and constitutional 
development of the United States — a power, too, 
which is peculiar to the American courts. 

MAB^CASITE (Fr. marcassite, Sp. mar- 
guesitOy from Ar. marqashitha, from raqashOf to 
speckle, to embellish). An iron disulphide that 
crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, has a 
metallic lustre, is of a pale bronze-yellow color, 
and resembles pyrite, from which it differs 
only in crystalline form. It is found in Bohemia, 
Saxony, Hungary, and in the United States at 
various localities in New York, Massachusetts, 
Connecticut, and New Hampshire. The mineral 
is mined in some parts of Europe for its sulphur, 
and for the ferrous sulphate that may be made 
from it. The word was applied indifferently to 
crystallized varieties of iron sulphide until 1845, 
when it was retained exclusively for the ortho- 
rhombic variety. 

MABCATO,* mar-ka'td (It., marked). In 
music, a term signifying in a strongly accentu- 
ated manner. 

MABCEAU, m&r'sy, FBANgois S^vebin Dbs- 
GRAVIEB8 (1769-96). A soldier of the French 
Revolution, bom at Chartres. He joined the 
army as a private at the age of sixteen, partici- 
pated actively in the capture of the Bastille, and 
in 1792 was in the Army of the Ardennes com- 
manded by Lafayette. His services under West- 
ermann in La Vend^ made him general of divi- 
sion in 1793. With K16ber he crushed the re- 
bellion at Cholet, then fought under Jourdan at 
Fleurus, and in 1795 and 1796 on the Rhine, at 
Coblenz among other places. A Prussian sharp- 
shooter mortally wounded him at Altenkirchen. 
In 1889 his remains were placed in the Pantheon 
at Paris. 

MABCEL, mAr'sCK, Etienne (T-1358). Pro- 
vost of the merchants of Paris from December, 
1355, until his death. After the battle of 
Poitiers (q.v.). Marcel took the entire govern- 
ment of Paris into his own hands. To check the 
abuses to which the citizens were subjected, he 
had two of the most prominent officials of the 
King put to death. In order not to be obliged 
to obey the commands of King John, who was in 
the hands of the English, Marcel induced the 
Dauphin to take the regency. Finding the Re- 
gent opposed to him, he sought aid from Charles 
the Bad, King of Navarre, from the Jacquerie 
(q.v.), and finally, from the English. This made 
him unpopular and he was slain by a rising, on 

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July 31, 1358. For a few months he had been the 
most powerful man in France. It is impossible 
now to judge his conduct or his aims with cer- 
tainty. Consult Lavisse, Histoire de France^ vol. 
iv., part i. (Paris, 1902), and the works cited 

MAB'CELU'NTJSy Saint. Bishop of Rome, 
or Pope, 296-304. He was bom in Rome, but lit- 
tle is known of his life or administration. There 
is an account of a synod held at Sinuessa in 303 
or 304, at which Marcellinus is said to have con- 
fessed that, at the instance of Diocletian, he had 
offered incense to Vesta and Isis. The synod is 
said to have deposed Marcellinus, who, with 
many members of the synod, was put to death 
by Diocletian. The story is denied by Augustine 
and Theodoret, and is not credited by either the 
Roman Catholics or the Protestant controver- 
sialists. The Roman Church commemorates Mar- 
cellinus on April 24th. Consult DOllinger, Fables 
Respecting the Popes of the Middle Ages (New 
York, 1871). 

MABCELLO, m&r-chend, Benedetto (1686- 
1739). An Italian composer. He studied music 
under Gasparini and Lotti, and is chiefly known 
for a mass, the oratorio Oiudetta, the opera 
Psyche, and the music to Giustiniani's para- 
phrase of fifty Psalms. The characteristics of his 
musical style are melody, simplicity, and a sound 
good taste. He was also an instructor of wide 
reputation, and a conservatory at Venice is 
named after him. He wrote the satire II 
teatro alia moda (1720). 

MABCEI/LUS. The name of two popes. 
Mabcellus I., Saint, Pope 308-309, a Roman by 
birth, elected after an interregnum of four years 
due to the persecution of Diocletian. A new out- 
break under Maxentius drove him from Rome, 
the attention of the heathen authorities being 
directed to him by his severity against the 
lapsed. He died in exile, but his body was 
brought back to Rome and buried in the Cemetery 
of Priscilla with that of his predecessor, Marcel- 
linus. — Mabcellus II., Pope 1555, Marcello Cer- 
vini degli Spannocchi. He was bom in 1501 at 
Montepulciano, and made Bishop of Nicastro and 
Cardinal in 1539. He was one of the legates ap- 
pointed to preside over the Council of Trent, and 
was elected Pope in spite of the opposition of 
the Imperial party. His reign, however, for 
which his character and learning had given great 
hopes, lasted only twenty-two days. He disliked 
the new polyphonic music, and was thinking of 
prohibiting its use in church when Palestrina 
wrote his famous "Missa Papae Marcelli," had 
it performed in the presence of the Pope, and so 
charmed him that he withdrew his opposition. 

MABCELLUS^ Marcus Claudius. (1) A 
famous Roman general. He belonged to a distin- 
guished plebeian family. He was consul for the 
first time in B.C. 222, and obtained a decisive vic- 
tory over the Insubrians in Cisalpine Gaul, slay- 
ing with his own hand their King, Britoraartus or 
Viridomarus, whose spoils .le dedicated to Jupi- 
ter, and was honored with i triumph. This was 
the third and last occasion in Roman history on 
which spolia opima were offered to Jupiter 
Feretrius. In the Second Punic War Marcellus 
fought as prsptor, in B.C. 216 against Hannibal at 
Nola, in Campania; and the victory which he 
gained was the more important, as it showed 
that Hannibal was not invincible, and that the 


Romans had not been irreparably overthrown at 
Canns. In the course of two years he thrice 
repulsed the Carthaginian general at this place. 
Being consul again in b.c. 214, he was intrusted 
with the command of the war in Sicily. He took 
Leontini, massacring in cold blood 2000 Roman 
deserters whom he found there, and then ad- 
vanced against Syracuse, which he tried to storm. 
All his efforts were rendered unavailing by the 
skill of Archimedes, and he was compelled to 
blockade the city. Famine, pestilence, and ul- 
timately treachery on the part of the Spanish, 
auxiliaries of the Syracusans enabled Marcellus 
to make himself master of the place (b.c. 212),. 
after which the remainder of Sicily was soon 
brought under the dominion of the Romans. In 
B.C. 210 he was again consul, and was again op- 
posed to Hannibal^ with whom he fought an in- 
decisive battle at Numistro, in Lucania, and by 
whom he was defeated at Canusium, in Apulia^ 
in B.C. 209, but on the day following retrieved the 
defeat. In B.C. 208 he was for the fifth time 
elected to the consulate, and assumed once more 
the command of the Roman army against Han- 
nibal. When out reconnoitring one day he fell 
into an ambuscade and was slain. (2) A de- 
scendant of the above, the son of Augustus's sister 
Octavia, born B.c. 43. In B.C. 25 the Emperor 
adopted him as his son and successor, and mar- 
ried his daughter Julia to him, but two yeara 
later the young man died. The famous lines of 
Vergil {A'Jneid, vi. 860-886) refer to his death. 
Augustus named a theatre in Rome in his honor. 

MABCELLUS, Tiieatbe of. A theatre in 
Rome, begun by Julius Caesar, completed by 
Augustus in B.c. 13, and named for his nephew 
and son-in-law Marcellus. The stage lay toward 
the river. The semicircular portion is similar 
to the Coliseum, and is built of travertine with 
Doric arcades in the lower tier and Ionic in 
the upper. The pilasters of the attic were Corin- 
thian and the windows were rectangular. The 
theatre could seat about 13,500 spectators. In the 
fourth century some of the travertine blocks 
were used in restoring the Cestian bridge. In 
the eleventh century the building was turned into 
a stronghold of the Pierleoni, and in the four- 
teenth century it was purchased by the Savelli^ 
upon whose extinction it passed to the Orsini in 
1712. The palace of the latter family stands 
upon the stage and seats which are buried under 
fifteen feet of modem soil. Many corridors and 
chambers of the original building are preserved 
and are used as offices of the palace. The remains 
of the Doric arcades are used as low shops. 

MABCH. See Mabchino. 

MABCH. See Month. 

MABCH (OF., Fr. marche, from Goth., OHG. 
marka, Ger. Mark, AS. mearc, border; connected 
with Lat. mar go, Olr. bril, Welsh, Corn, hro, 
Av. m^r^zu, boundarj'). A term applied in Eng- 
land during the early Middle Ages and later to 
the frontier or border line between England and 
Wales and between England and Scotland. In 
Anglo-Saxon times the word appears \mder the 
form Mercia as the name of the most western of 
the English kingdoms. See Mabk. 

In Scotland the word came into common use to 
designate the boundaries of real property, corre- 
sponding to the English term boundary (q.v.). 

MABCH, mftrK (Lat. Marus, Slav. Morava), 
A tributary of the Danube and the princip*) 

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MABCH. 45 

river of Moravia (Map: Austria, E 2). It rises 
in the Sudetic Mountains on the boundaiy of 
Silesia, and runs southward, forming in its lower 
course the boundary between Austria and Hun- 
gary, and entering the Danube 26 miles east of 
Vienna, after a course of about 217 miles, for the 
last 80 of which it is navigable. See Mabchfeld. 

ICABCH (Fr. marche, from marcher, to walk, 
march, probably from OF., Fr. tnarche, boundary ; 
or possibly from Lat. marcua, hammer; connected 
with Skt. mar, to grind, on account of the beat 
of the feet). A musical composition having 
primarily for its object to regulate the steps 
of a large number of persons in motion. Even 
in remote antiquity, solemn processions were al- 
ways accompanied by music. In the Greek 
tragedy the entrance as well as the exit of the 
chorus was so accompanied. The military march 
undoubtedly was developed from soldiers' songs. 
The ordinary march used for parades, drills, etc., 
has about 75 steps to the minute, the quick-step 
about 100, and the double quick or charge about 

120. The march as an art form was developed 
from the dance forms during the seventeenth cen- 
tury. Lully in his operas and F. Couperin in his 
piano works established the march form as con- 
sisting of two reprises of eight or sixteen meas- 
ures. To this was added, somewhat later, a por- 
tion distinguished by repose and broad melodic 
outline, generally in a closely related key. This 
was called the trio, because at first it was in 
three-part writing as against the two-part writ- 
ing of the first section. After the trio the first 
section is repeated. To-day the art form of the 
march is highly developed and employed on vari- 
ous occasions. A special kind of march is the 
fimeral march. It is written in very slow time 

(grave, lento, adagio), and always in the minor 
mode. The trio is in the relative or correspond- 
ing major. Beethoven's great funeral march in 
the Eroica Symphony is in C minor with trio in 
C major; Chopin's funeral march in the Sonata 
op. 35 is in B flat minor with trio in D flat 

MABCH, AusiAS ( ?-c.l458) . A Catalan poet, 
bom in Valencia, probably before the end of the 
fourteenth century. He was admired and praised 
not only by his fellow citizens in Catalonia, but 
also by noted Spanish authors. In March's chief 
works, the Cants d*amor and the Cants de mort, 
he is visibly \mder the influence of Petrarch, as 
are so many of his contemporaries. He avoided all 
close imitation, however, and may safely stand on 
his own merits. Liveliness of fancy and genuine- 
ness of sentiment are among his best traits; his 
chief defect is a certain obscurity of expression. 
Consult the edition of his poems by Pelayo y Britz 
(Barcelona, 1864), and that of Barcelona, 1888, 
neither of them a good reproduction of the six- 
teenth century editions; J. Rubio y Ors, Ausias 
March y su ipoca (Barcelona, 1862) ; A. Pagjfes, 
"Documents in^its relatifs ft la vie d'Ausias 
March," in the Romania, vol. xvii. (Paris, 1888). 

KABCH, Fbancts Andbew (1825—). An 
American philologist and author, bom at Mill- 
bury, Mass. He graduated in 1845 at Amherst, 
where he was tutor in 1847-49, and, after study- 
ing law in New York, was in 1850 admitted to 
the bar. Having taught at Fredericksburg, Va., 
from 1852 to 1855, he was appointed tutor in 
Lafayette College in the following year, and in 
1856 became professor of the English language 


and comparative philology. In 1873 he was elected 
president of the American Philological Associa- 
tion, and in 1891 succeeded James Russell Lowell 
as president of the Modern Language Association 
of America. In 1879 he was chosen to be the head 
of the American staff of A Neto English Diction- 
ary on Historical Principles, prepared under the 
direction of the Philological Society of London. 
His publications include: A Method of Philo- 
sophical Study of the English Language (1865) ; 
Anglo-Saxon Reader (1870); and Comparative 
Qrammar of the Anglo-Saxon Language (1870). 
He also edited a series of text-books of Greek and 
Latin authors, and was consulting editor of the 
Standard Dictionary (1890-94). In 1906 he be- 
came a pensioner under the Carnegie fund. He re- 
ceived various distinctions from foreign societies. 

MABCHAND, mar'shftw^ F£lix Gabriel 
( 1832 — ) . A Canadian statesman, bom at Saint 
John's, Quebec. He studied at Saint Hyacinthe 
College, and was admitted a notary in 1855. In 
1867 he was elected a member of the Legislative 
Assembly of the Province of Quebec, and from 
1878 to 1879 was Provincial Secretary. From 
1887 to 1892 he was Speaker of the Assembly, 
and in 1897 was appointed Premier and Treas- 
urer. In 1860 he established Le Franco-Canadien, 
which he edited for some time. He wrote: 
Fatenville (1869); Erreur n'est pas compte 
(1872) ; Un honheur en attire un autre (1884) ; 
and Lea fauw hrillants (1885). 

MABCHAND, Jean Baftiste (1863—). A 
French officer and explorer, born at Thoissey, Ain. 
His explorations in search of an improved route to 
the Gulf of Guinea from the valley of the Niger 
resulted in a scheme for the Transnigerian Rail- 
way between the Bandama and Niger rivers. In 
1898 he established on the White Nile the post 
of Fashoda, which resisted attacks from the 
Dervishes, but found a more formidable foe in 
General Kitchener with British forces fresh from 
their victory over the Mahdi and determined to 
take possession of the country. Major Marchand 
refused to withdraw, and international complica- 
tions ensued; but the affair was settled when 
the French Government retired from the posi- 
tion while Marchand was on his way home to re- 
port. See Fashoda. 

MABCHENA, mftr-cha^nft. A town of South- 
em Spain in the Province of Seville, situated 28 
miles east of Seville, on the railroad between 
Cadiz and Cordova (Map: Spain, C 4). It is a 
picturesque old town, partly surrounded by the 
grass-covered remains of Moorish fortifications, 
and contains a half-ruined palace of the dukes 
of Areos, and two notable Gothic churches. In 
the neighborhood are sulphur springs; the sur- 
rounding region is fertile, growing fine olives. 
Population, in 1900, 12,255. 

MABCHES, The (It. Le Marche, the boun-. 
daries). A name frequently occurring in Italian 
history as applied to a stretch of territory in the 
central part of the Peninsula, comprising the 
present provinces of Ancona, Ascoli-Piceno, Ma- 
cerata, and Pesaro e Urbino. 

KABCHESA COLOMBI^ mar-ka'zft kd-ldm^- 
b$. A pseudonym of the Italian author Maria 
Torelli-Torriani (q.v.). 

MABCHESI, mftr-ka'zft, Mathtlde, n^e Grau- 
MANN (1826—). A German-French singing 
teacher, bom at Frankfort-on-the-Main. She 

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studied under Nicolai in Vienna, and with Man- 
uel Garcia in Paris, afterwards appearing as 
a concert singer in London and on the Con- 
tinent. Her voice was pleasing, but not remark- 
able. In 1862 she married Signor Marchesi and 
taught singing at the Vienna Conservatory from 
1854 to 1861, after which she moved to Paris 
and succeeded in making her salon one of the 
most important circles of musical life in .the 
city. She taught at Cologne from 1865 to 1868, 
then at Vienna for a number of years, but ulti- 
mately settled in Paris. Among her pupils were 
Tremelli, Caroline Sulla, Emma Schuk-Proska, 
Gerster, Melba, Eames, Calv6, Sibyl Sanderson. 
Consult Hayme, Marchesi and Music: Passages 
from the Life of a Famous Singer (New York, 

MABCHESI, PoMPEO Cavaliere ( 1789-1858) . 
An Italian sculptor. He was bom at Sal trio, 
near Milan, August 7, 1789, and studied at Rome 
under Canova. He was professor of sculpture at 
the Academy of Milan for many years. Among 
his earliest works are the relief sculptures "Terp- 
sichore" and "Venus Urania" for the Simplon 
Arch and the colossal statue of King Charles Em- 
manuel in the Cathedral at Turin. His later works 
include the sitting statue of Goethe for the 
Frankfort Library; a statue of Emperor Fran- 
cis I. of Austria for Gratz, and another for the 
Hofburg in Vienna. One of his best works is 
the colossal group for the Church of San Carlo 
at Milan, in which is the figure of the famous 
"Mater Dolorosa;" also important is the sepul- 
chral monument for Duke Emmanuel Philibert of 
Savoy (1843) in the Turin Cathedral. He died 
at Milan, February 6, 1858. 

MABCHETTI, mttr-kSt't^, Fillippo (1835- 
1902). An Italian composer, bom in Bolognola. 
His principal work, Oiulietta e Romeo, first pro- 
duced at Triest in 1865, and afterwards at La 
Scala, Milan, was the corner-stone of his reputa- 
tion as a composer, after which time Ruy Bias 
(1869) was his only conspicuous success. In 
1881 he was appointed Director of the Royal 
Academy of Saint Cecilia, Rome. His com- 
positions include considerable chamber music, be- 
sides several symphonies, choruses, and a few 

MABCHFELD, m&rK^f6lt. A large plain on 
the north bank of the Danube, opposite Vienna. 
It is bounded on the east by the river March. It 
contains only a few villages. Because of the 
physical characteristics, this has been a noted 
battle field. Here Marcus Aurelius contended 
with the Marcomanni. In 1260 King Ottokar of 
Bohemia defeated B6la IV. of Hungary on the 
Marchfeld. On the same plain in 1278 Ottokar 
was defeated by Rudolph of Hapsburg and slain. 
In modern times the most important battles 
fought on the Marchfeld were those of Aspem 
(q.v.) and Wagram (q.v.) in 1809. 

MARCH FLY. Any one of the dipterous in- 
sects of the family Bibionidap, so called because 
these flies are most common in the early spring. 
They are of medium size, rather thick-bodied and 
rather hairy, but they are weak fliers. The 
wings are frequently fuscous. More than 300 
species are kno\m. The larvae feed upon excre- 
mental or vegetable substances, and are supposed 
to attack the roots of growing grass. The larvje 
of some species have been found on the surface of 


snow. One of the commonest species in the 
United States is the white-winged bibio {Bihio 
albipennis)y which sometimes occurs in enor- 
mous numbers. The smallest forms belong to the 
genus Scatopse and breed in decaying animal and 
vegetable matter. 

MABCHIENNE-ATr-PONT, mar'sh^'«^n'6'- 
pON^ A town in the Province of Hainault, 
Belgium, two miles west of Charleroi, on the 
Sambre River. It is an important coal-mining 
centre. Population, in 1900, 18,461. 

KABCHING. One of the essentials to mo- 
bility and effectiveness in the field is the ability 
of the soldier to carry out long marches with a 
minimum of fatigue. To this end his physical 
development is advanced by various systems of 
physical exercise, both in the gymnasium and on 
the drill ground; while equal importance is at- 
tached to foot-drill, to insure precision and regu- 
larity of step. Throughout the world drill evo- 
lutions and all ceremonial exercises are carried 
out in cadenced step. On the march, troops are 
frequently allowed to break or march in route 
step. Units of organization are kept intact as 
much as possible; the cavalry belongs in front, 
and the engineers and bridge-train must also be 
well advanced in the column; the field artillery 
is needed early, but it also requires protection, 
therefore no general rule as to its proper position 
can be given: the circumstances must decide. 
The artillery of position is in the main column, 
at the end of which march the ammunition col- 
umns, and finally the train. If an army corps 
marches on two roads, each division may be fol- 
lowed by a portion of the ammunition columns and 
the train. The average march of infantry is a mile 
in from 18 to 20 minutes, and an average of 14 or 
15 miles a day, which in extreme emergency could 
be increased to 38 or 40 miles in from 28 to 30 
hours. Under fair to good conditions, cavalry 
usually accomplish from 30 to 38 miles in a day 
of 24 hours — several days in succession; doing 
15 minutes at the walk, and 45 at the trot, the 
average march of 14 or 15 miles a day being 
accomplished in three hours. Artillery consume 
four hours in accomplishing the same result, and 
the train five hours. The average European in- 
fantry division at war strength, marching on a 
single road, and observing the usual distances, 
would occupy a length of 10% miles, and would 
take 4 hours and 19 minutes to pass a given 
point. Under the same conditions an army corps 
occupies a stretch of nearly 24 miles, and takes 
9% hours to pass. The shortest or most direct 
road is given to infantry, the best to artillery, 
and the softest to cavalry — ^when conditions per- 

Halts are as a rule governed by conditions, 
and are regulated under ordinary conditions 
either by time or distance. The United States 
infantry drill regulations prescribe a halt of 15 
minutes after the first 45 minutes* marching, to 
enable the men to relieve themselves and to ad- 
just their clothing and accoutrements. After- 
wards there is a halt of 10 minutes every hour. 
If marching in the vicinity of an enemy the 
march is made in several columns, avoiding ex- 
treme depth, and facilitating deployment. Strag- 
glers are picked up by the provost-guard, which 
marches in the rear. The following table gives 
in round numbers the rate of marching in the 
leading armies of the world: 

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United States. 


Average per 


Average per 




(Average milee per hour) 














per hour 







per hour 








VJlBCHINQ thbough geobgia. a 

"widely popular ballad of the Civil War, begin- 
ning "Bring the good old bugle, boys." It com- 
memorates Sherman's famous march to the sea, 
and was written by H. C. Work soon after the 
march commenced, on November 16, 1864. 

MABCHIONESS, The. In Dickens's Old 
Curiosity Shop, a small servant to Sampson 
Brass, and a friend of Dick Swiveller. 

MABCIANISE, mftr'ch^-Ane^zd. A town in 
the Province of Caserta, Italy, 18 miles by rail 
from Naples, in a low, unhealthful plain, where 
are several small lakes (Map: Italy, J 6). The 
raising of fruits and grain constitutes the prin- 
cipal industry. Population, in 1901 (commime), 

MABCIONy mUr^shon. A second century 
Christian, classed among the heretics. He was 
bom in Sinope, Pontus, and died after 160. About 
the year 140 he came to Rome, where he fell 
imder the influence of the Syrian Cerdon, from 
whom his Gnostic ideas were perhaps derived, and 
here he foimded his church. He afterwards trav- 
eled through the East, visiting Rome again in 
the episcopate of Anioetus (154-165). Nothing 
is known of his later life. His disciples, chief 
among whom was Apelles, continued his work, 
and Marcionite churches were soon to be found 
scattered over North Africa, Gaul, Asia Minor, 
and Egypt. 

It is said that Polycarp (q.v.) once met Mar- 
cion in the streets of Rome and saluted him as 
*the first-bom of Satan.' In this he gave expres- 
sion to the general sentiment of the Church, for 
Marcion was attacked by almost every orthodox 
writer from Justin onward. Yet Marcion 
regarded himself in the light of a reformer. 
He believed that Christianity marked an essen- 
tially new departure, but that it had already 
become corrupted through the admixture of 
Jewish elements. These must be purged out. 
For him Paul was the only true Apostle, because 
he alone thoroughly abjured Judaism. These 
principles appear in Marcion's Scripture canon — 
the earliest Christian collection known — ^which 
embraced one Gospel (Luke, without the intro- 
ductory part, which was 'Jewish') and ten of 
Paul's Epistles (omitting those of Timothy and 
Titus). Church writers accused him, with ap- 
parent justice, of 'mutilating* the Scriptures. 
His own chief work, entitled Antitheses^ set forth 
the alleged contradictions between Law and Gos- 
pel. The Creator of the Old Testament was rep- 
resented as a cruel and vindictive being, wholly 
different from the God of love, revealed through 
Christ. Marcion's Christology was docetic, i.e. 
he taught that Christ suffered only in appear- 
ance. (See DocET-«.) Hi.s ethics resulted in a 
severe asceticism. His Gnostic tendency appears 

in the dualistic tenet that man's body cannot be 
saved, only his spirit, which is the opposite of 
matter. This was a striking departure from 
the common Christian belief. An attempt 
has recently been made to prove anti-Mar- 
cionite influence in the formulation of the 
old Roman symbol, which lies at the basis of 
the Apostles' Cre^. The Marcionite Church 
was completely organized, having its clergy, its 
rites, ana its Scriptures. The sacrament of bap- 
tism was administered much as in the orthodox 
Church, but in the Eucharist water was substi- 
tuted for wine. In the East Marcionite churches 
are foimd as late as the sixth century, but in the 
West they disappeared earlier, being absorbed by 
the more virile Manichaeans. ( See A^NiCHi£iSM. ) 
Their downfall was due in part to ecclesiastical 
opposition, and in part to hostile legislation un- 
der Christian emperors from Constantine on- 
ward. In the persecutions through which they 
passed, not a few Marcionites suffered a mar- 
tyr's death, and the property of their churches 
was declared forfeited to the Catholic Church. 
For information as to the surviving fragments of 
Marcion's works, consult: Krtiger, History of 
Early Christian Literature (New York, 1897); 
Cruttwell, Literary History of Early Christianity 
(London, 1893). Among the sources consult the 
interesting work of Tertullian, Against Marcion, 
trans, in The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. iii., ed. 
by Roberts and Donaldson (American edition). 
In general, consult: Harnack, History of Dogmay 
vol. i. (London, 1894) ; Smith and Wace, Diction- 
ary of Christian Biography, article "Marcion." 

MABCO BOZZABIS. A well-known poem 
by Fitz-Greene Halleck on the death of the 
Greek patriot Bozzaris (q.v.). It appeared in 
the New York Review in 1825. First Ime: "At 
midnight in his guarded tent." 

MABCO DA OGGIONE, marOcO da 6d-jyni. 
An Italian painter. See Oqqione, Mabco da. 

MAB'COMAN^NI (Lat., from OHG. •J/arfca- 
man, border-man, from marca, border -f man, 
man). An ancient German people who, in the 
time of CflBsar, lived along the banks of the Rhine, 
but afterwards, as appears from Tacitus and 
Strabo, settled in Bohemia, from which they 
expelled the Boii. Their King, Maroboduus, en- 
tered into an alliance with the tribes living 
around them to defend Germany against the Ro- 
mans. The combined forces of the alliance num- 
bered 70,000 men, and the Emperor Tiberius 
signed a treaty with them in a.d. 6; but the 
Marcomannic alliance was beaten eleven years 
later by the Cherusci and their allies; and in 
19 the Gothic Catualda drove Maroboduus from 
the throne, and himself usurped the sovereignty. 
But he was soon overthrown, and the native 
dynasty established, under whose mle the Mar- 

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comanni extended their territory up to the Dan- 
ube, till their encroachments alarmed the Ro- 
mans, who attacked them in the time of Domi- 
tian. This war, which subsided for a time in 
the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian, broke out 
again under Marcus Aurelius, and was carried 
on with bitterness from 166 to 180, when it was 
ended by the Peace of Commodus. The Marco- 
manni continued to make raids into the provinces 
of Noricum and Rhstia, and in 270 invaded Italy 
as far as Ancona. Soon after this their name 
fades away from history, the people figuring later 
tuider the name of Boiarii. See Bavabia. 

KABCCVNTy GuGLiELMO (1875—). An Ital- 
ian electrician, inventor of the wireless telegraph. 
He was bom near Bologna at Griffone, studied 
under Rosa at Leghorn, and then entered the Uni- 
versity of Bologna. There he came in contact 
with Professor Righi, who had long been inter- 
ested in the nature of the Hertzian waves. The 
young man saw the possibilities of using these 
waves for the transmission of messages, improved 
the coherers of Onesti and Branly, made several 
successful experiments at GrifTone in 1895, and 
in 1896, having failed to interest the Italian Gov- 
ernment in his behalf, went to England, where 
his plans were laid before the post-office authori- 
ties. There his project was well received. Sir 
William Preece, engineer-in-chief of the British 
telegraph system, who had himself made experi- 
ments in 1893 and 1894, took up the new method, 
tested it, and declared it successful, but limited in 
application. Almost immediately afterwards, 
t^ts of the Marconi method were made by the 
Italian Ministry of Marine at Spezzia. In 1897 
the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company was 
founded with a large capital. Two years later 
signals were succesHfully exchanged across the 
English Channel, and the system was established 
pretty generally in the British and Italian 
navies, although some insular jealousy was 
aroused in England that the scheme of a for- 
eigner should be adopted in view of Preece's early 
study of the problem, and this in spite of the 
fact that Marconi's mother was an Irish woman. 
In December, 1901, from Saint John's, N. F., 
Marconi sent a signal to the Irish coast, and on 
December 19, 1902, succeeded in transmitting a 
message. See Wireless Telegraphy. 

MABCO POLO. See Polo, Marco. 

MABCOU, mar'k?55', Jules (1824-98). A 
French geologist, born in Sal ins. in the Depart- 
ment of Jura. He was educated in Paris, and, 
after completing his course at the College Saint 
Louis, made geological excursions through the 
Alps. In 1846 he was attached to the mineral- 
ogical department of the Sorbonne, and conducted 
geological investigations in various parts of 
Europe, and from 1848 to 1850 in the United 
States. For some time he was employed by the 
United States Government in surveying the 
Rocky Mountains, but he returned in 1855 to Eu- 
rope to accept the chair of paleontological geol- 
ogy in the Polytechnic School of Zurich. In 1860 
he again visited the United States and was 
engaged with Prof. Louis Agassiz in paleonto- 
logical researches, and afterwards entered the 
Government service. Professor Marcou is best 
known, perhaps, for his works, Rccherches g6o- 
logique sur le Jura aalinoia (1848), and The 
Taconic fiystem and Its Position in Stratigraphic 
Geology (1885). He published many scientific 

papers besides the following more important 
works: Geology of North America (1858) ; Geo- 
logical Map of the World (1861) ; De la science 
en France (1869) ; Origin of the Name America 
(1875) ; First Discoveries of California, and the 
Origin of Its Name (1878). 

MAB^CUS. Bishop of Rome, or Pope, Janu- 
ary 18 to October 7, 333. He was a native of 
Rome, and is said to have had a share in the 
building of two churches, one of which still re- 
mains as San Marco, although frequently altered 
and repaired. 

See Aurelius. 

MAB/CY, Mount. The loftiest of the Adiron- 
dack Mountains, and the highest point in New 
York State, situated in Essex County, 10 miles 
south of Lake Placid (Map: New York, G 1). 
It is 5344 feet high, and was known to the In- 
dians as Tahaious, the 'cloud-divider.' On its 
side, 4327 feet above the sea, is the picturesque 
Lake Tear of the Clouds, one of the sources of 
the Hudson River. 

MABCYy Henbt Oblando (1837—). An 
American surgeon, bom at Otis, Mass. He volun- 
teered in the Union Army as assistant surgeon in 
1863. He was assistant in chemistry at Har- 
vard after the close of the war; then studied 
surgery at Berlin (1869) and in England under 
Lister, and devoted himself especially to the bac- 
teriology of wounds. Marcy wrote Best Methods 
of Operative Wound Treatment (1882), and the 
very valuable work on Anatomy and Surgical 
Treatment of Eemia (1892). 

MABCY, Randolph Barnes (1812-87). An 
American soldier, bom at Greenwich, Mass. He 
graduated at West Point in 1832, was promoted 
to a captaincy in 1846, and served in the war 
with Mexico. Subsequently he was engaged in 
explorations in the Red River coimtry (1852) , 
in operations against the Seminoles (1857), and 
in the Utah expedition of 1857-58. He was ap- 
pointed paymaster, with the rank of major, in 
1859, and inspector-general, with the rank of 
colonel, in 1861 ; was chief of staflf to General 
McClellan, his son-in-law, in West Virginia, on 
the Peninsula, and in Maryland; and in 1865 was 
brevetted major-general in the Regular Army for 
faithful and meritorious services during the war. 
In 1868 he was appointed inspector-general of the 
United States Army, with the rank of brigadier- 
general, and was president of the Army Regula- 
tion Board until January 1, 1881, when he retired 
from active service. He published: Exploration 
of the Red River (1853) ; The Prairie Traveler 
(1859) ; Thirty Years of Army Life on the Bor- 
der (1866) ; and Border Reminiscences (1871). 

MABCY^ William Learned (1786-1857). An 
American statesman, bom December 12, 1786, 
at Southbridge, Mass. He graduated at Brown 
University in 1808, and soon entered upon the 
practice of law at Troy. N. Y. At the open- 
ing of the War of 1812 he entered the volunteer 
service as a lieutenant, and on October 22, 1812, 
led a successful attack upon Saint Regis, a 
Canadian post. For this he was soon after- 
wards promoted to be captain. Before the end 
of the war he returned to Troy, where he was 
active as a newspaper writer and politician, sup- 
porting the Tompkins faction against the Clinto- 
nians. and allying him.self with the *Albany Re- 
gency* (q.v.). After filling several minor offices, 

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and after a service of six years as Comptroller of 
the State, he was made an associate justice of the 
New York Supreme Court in 1829. In 1831 he was 
elected Senator of the United States by the Demo- 
cratic Party, but resigned the office upon being 
chosen Governor of New York in 1832. In the 
Senate he served as chairman of the Judiciary 
Committee, and gained distinction by his defense 
of Martin Van Buren against the attacks of Henry 
Clay. In the course of a speech on the question of 
appointment to office, he upheld the right of the 
President to bestow the offices upon his political 
supporters, saying, "We can see nothing wrong in 
the maxim that to the victors belong the spoils," 
thus associating his name in history with the 
spoils system. He served as Governor for three 
terms, and was nominated for a fourth term in 
1838, but was defeated by William H. Seward 
(q.v.). He was appointed a commissioner on 
claims against the Mexican Government in the 
same year, and served in that capacity until 
1842. In 1845 he became the Secretary of War 
in President Polk's Cabinet. His ability in this 
position was severely tested by the Mexican 
War. In the Presidential campaign of 1848 he 
supported General Cass. The last and most im- 
portant public station in which he served was 
that of Secretary of State during Pierce's admin- 
istration (1853-57). Among the foreign compli- 
cations or treaties which demanded action on his 
part in this capacity were the settling of the 
Mexican boundary, the Canadian reciprocity 
treaty. Commodore Perry's negotiations with 
Japan, the British fishery dispute, the Ostend Con- 
ference, and the so-called *Koszta AflTair* (q.v.), 
which added much to his popularity. In these 
and in other matters Marcy successfully defended 
the interests of his country, and displayed the 
qualities of a trained statesman and accomplished 
diplomat. One of his notable diplomatic papers 
was his instructions to the American ministers 
abroad to appear at Court in the simple dress 
of an American citizen when this could be done 
without detriment to the interests of the United 
States. Marcy's death occurred at Ballston Spa, 
X. Y., but a few months after the expiration 
of his term of office. He is entitled to high rank 
as a statesman, while as a shrewd politician he 
was at his time almost unsurpassed. Consult 
Lives of the Oovemors of Neto York, by Jenkins 
(Auburn, 1851), and Alexander, Political History 
of the State of Neto York (New York, 1906). 

MABDI GBAS, mfir'd^' grft^ See Carnival. 

MABDIN, mar-d§n^ The capital of a san- 
jak in the Vilayet of Diarbekir, in Northern 
Mesopotamia, Asiatic Turkey (Map: Turkey in 
Asia, J 4). It is strikingly situated on the 
steep slopes of a conical hill, crowned by the 
ruins of an old castle. It has a number of 
mosques, bazaars, and baths, as well as Chris- 
tian churches and monasteries, and is the seat 
of an important American mission with a church 
and a school. Population, about 15,000, of whom 
over one-half are Moslem Kurds; the rest are 
Christians of various Eastern sects. 

MABDO^NITTS (Lat., from Gk. Ma/)(J<Jv£Of, 
Mardonioa, from OPers. Marduniya) . A Persian 
general, son of Gobryas, and son-in-law of Darius 
Hystaspes. In B.c. 492 he conunanded an expedi- 
tion sent out by Darius to punish the Eretrians 
and Athenians for the aid they had given to the 
lonians. Near Mount Athos, however, his fleet 


was destroyed by a storm, and when, shortly 
afterwards, his land forces were cut to pieces, he 
returned to Asia^ and was relieved of his com- 
mand by Darius. On the accession of Xerxes he 
was restored to favor^ and was appointed one of 
the generals of the expedition against Greece. 
After the battle of Salamis (b.c. 480), he was 
left by Xerxes with 300,000 men to conquer 
Greece. In the following year, B.C. 479, he was 
defeated and probably slain in the battle of 
Platsea, by the Greeks imder Pausanias. (Herodo- 
tus, vi. 43-45, 94 ; vii. 5, 9, 82 ; viii. 100 et seq., 
113 et seq., 133-44; ix. 1-4, 12-15, 38-65.) 
MABa>XTK. See Mebodacu. 

MABE AU DIABLE, mftr A d^'H^iV, La (the 
devil's pool). A romance by George Sand 
(1846). The story of a young farmer who seeks 
another wife for the sake of his children, and 
finds her in a young girl who accompanies him 
part way on his visit to a rich widow recom- 
mended to him as a suitable spouse. The story 
is written with much charm and naturalness. 

MAB^CHAIi, mA'r&'sh&F, Pierre Sylvain 
(1750-1803). A French atheistical writer, bom 
in Paris. He studied law, but became sub-libra- 
rian at the College Mazarin, and held that position 
until 1784. His parody on the Psalms (1784) 
caused his dismissal, and four years afterwards 
his Almanach dee honndtea g€n», a sort of cal- 
endar, in which the names of celebrated men 
were substituted for those of saints, earned him 
four months in prison. His other works include : 
Lea voyagea de Pythagore (1799) and a Diction- 
naire dea atMea anciena et modernea (1800), in 
which he was assisted by Lalande, the astrono- 

MABE CliAUSUM, mft'rfe klft'siim or ma'rft 
klou^sym (Lat., closed sea). A sea or portion of 
a sea under the jurisdiction of one nation as dis- 
tinguished from the high or open sea {mare libe- 
rum). The two terms were used in contradis- 
tinction by Grotius and Selden in the seventeenth 
century as the titles of their respective works, 
the former attacking the pretensions of Spain 
and Portugal to universal sovereignty, the latter 
in his reply (If are Otei^«MW ) defending England's 
claim to control over her adjacent waters. 

Though as a doctrine of international law 
mare clauaum has practically disappeared, it 
formed the text for the controversy finally deter- 
mining the modern principles of maritime territo- 
rial jurisdiction. The conditions of the ancient 
world rendered the sea "open to all for depreda- 
tion;" but during the Middle Ages the mari- 
time jKJwers of Europe asserted a claim to sov- 
ereignty over those portions of the high seas ad- 
jacent to their territories or by any assumption 
under their control. Thus England claimed do- 
minion over the Channel, North Sea, the seas 
westward from Ireland, and more vaguely the 
Bay of Biscay and the ocean north of Scotland. 
Denmark and Sweden held the Baltic jointly, and 
the former disputed England's pretensions to the 
Icelandic fisheries, while Venice enforced strict 
sovereignty over the Adriatic. This claim was 
not deemed to carry with it the right of ex- 
cluding the ships of other nations from these 
waters, and was supposed to involve the duty of 
keeping the seas free from pirates, though under 
the pretext of providing funds for this purpose 
it was sought to impose tolls on passing ships, 
and compensation was required for fishing privi- 

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leges within the territorial zone. But with the 
impetus given to commerce and navigation by the 
discovery of the New World and the exorbitant 
pretensions of Spain and Portugal, whereby the 
former not only claimed the Pacific Ocean and the 
. Gulf of Mexico and the latter the Indian Ocean 
and the Atlantic Ocean south of Morocco, but 
sought to prevent the entrance of other nations 
to these waters, the commercial powers of the 
seventeenth century revolted against these exac- 
tions. The predatory voyages of Drake and 
Cavendish and the steadily growing trade of Hol- 
land were the practical answer to these claims, 
while the jurists of the Northern nations sought 
theoretical justification for their acts in the 
doctrine of the Roman law that the ocean was 
incapable of appropriation. 

England, however, persisted in her claim of 
sovereignty over surrounding waters. In 1609 
Grotius published his treatise on Mare lAherum, 
contending that the sea was wholly free under 
the principles of the precedents of the civil law, 
though in a later work this doctrine was some- 
what modified to permit the exception of gulfs 
and marginal waters that could be reduced to 
actual ownership. This has formed the founda- 
tion for the modern rules of international law. In 
1635 Selden sought to defend England's position, 
though maintaining that a State could not re- 
fuse the navigation of the seas to other nations. 
The contest between England and Holland over 
the waterways which formed the avenues for 
Dutch commerce resulted in the series of wars 
terminated by the Treaty of Westminster ( 1674) , 
in which England's sovereignty was recognized 
from Cape Finisterre to Stadland in Norway. Dur- 
ing the eighteenth century recognition of the 
British flag within these waters was strenuously 
maintained, though the practical value of this 
claim gradually diminished. It proved, however, 
an insurmountable obstacle to the closing of ne- 
gotiations with the United States in 1803 on the 
question of search, through the imwillingness of 
the English Government to surrender this right 
within the British Seas. In 1805 the Admiralty 
Regulations directed that foreign ships be re- 
quired to *strike their topsails and take in their 
nag* within these waters. The engrossing de- 
mands of the Napoleonic wars, however, nullified 
this order, and since their close nothing has been 
heard of the English claim. The pretensions of 
Denmark during the eighteenth century shrank 
to a prohibition of fishing within 69 miles of 
Greenland and Iceland, but the difficulty of en- 
forcing such a rule resulted in its final surrender. 

The only occasion upon which the doctrine of 
mare clauaum was invoked during the nineteenth 
century was in 1893 by the United States in the 
controversy with Great Britain over the Bering 
Sea seal fisheries. See Bering Sea Contbo\t:bsy. 

Thus, partly through insensible abandonment, 
but more because of the principle that maritime 
occupation must be effective in order to be valid, 
the old doctrine of mare clausum has been cur- 
tailed to the assertion of territorial jurisdiction 
over deeply indented gulfs or bays or other 
waters wnose peculiar conditions render feasible 
a national control. In general, such waters form 
the only exception to the limit of one maritime 
league from the shore as laid down by Bynker- 
shoek, though the principle has been nullified 
in practical effect by the increase in range of 
modern guns. Not only are territorial waters 

open to the commercial vessels of a foreign State^ 
but ships of war have right of 'innocent passage.^ 
Consult the authorities referred to under Inter- 
national Law; High Sea; and Bering Sea 

MABEEy Loch. A beautiful lake in Ross and 
Cromartyshire, northwestern Scotland. It is 
about 12 miles long by 2 miles wide, and very 
deep. It is studded with islets, and surrounded 
by moimtains 3000 feet high. 

MABEFA, or MA'BEO^TIS (Lat., from Gk. 
MapeQris), A salt lake in the north of Egypt, 
south of Alexandria, separated from the Mediter- 
ranean by a narrow isthmus of sand. Its mod- 
ern name is Birket or Behcet Marydt. It is 
some 12 miles long, with width of about the same 
extent, but in antiquity it is said to have been 
somewhat larger. The surrounding district was 
anciently very fruitful and the Mareotic wine 
had a high reputation. During the Middle Ages 
the lake dried up because the canals flowing into 
it from the Nile were choked with sand. In 
1801 the English, during the siege of Alexandria, 
cut through the isthmus west of Abukir, allowed 
the sea to flow in, and destroyed 150 villages. 
Mehemet Ali tried to reclaim the resulting 
salt marsh (6-10 feet deep), but with little 
success. The water of the lake is used for the 
manufacture of salt by evaporation. Consult: 
Lane-Poole, History of Egypt in the Middle Ages 
(London, 1901); Baedeker, Aegypten (4th ed., 
Leipzig, 1897). 

MABE ISLAND. An island in Solano Coun- 
ty, Cal., at the eastern end of the Bslj of San 
Pablo and opposite the city of Vallejo, from 
which it is separated by a strait half a mile wide. 
It has ferry connection with that city. On 
it is situated the Pacific station of the United 
States Navy, its yard being one of the largest 
in the country. It has a naval arsenal, sec- 
tional floating dock, an observatory, and a light- 
house of the first order. 

MABEMMA, m&-r$m^m& (corruption of Ma- 
rittima^ *situated on the sea'). A vast marshy 
region of Western Italy, extending along the coast 
of Tuscany, from the mouth of the Cecina to 
Orbetello, and 15 to 20 miles inland (Map: Italy, 
F 6). The Pontine marshes and the Campagna 
of Rome are similar districts. In ancient times 
these districts were well cultivated and inhabited, 
but the neglect of watercourses has broujrfit 
about their present pestiferous condition. The 
area of land free here from the deadly malaria is, 
however, growing steadily larger. The railway 
line along the coast of Tuscany has greatly con- 
tributed to the improvement of the district. 

MABENCO, mA-r^o^A, Carlo, Count ( 1800- 
46). An Italian dramatist, born at Cassolnuovo, 
in Piedmont. He was the author of some fifteen 
tragedies, dealing with medicpval subjects and 
revealing the influence of Alfieri, as well as a 
tendency to adopt the methods of the historical 
drama of Romanticism. The most popular of 
his plays were Buondclmontc, Pia de^ Tolomci, 
and Amaldo da Brescia. The last-named piece 
treats the same subject as Niccolini's play, but 
is manifestly inferior to it. Consult: the edition 
of his Tragedie (Turin. 1837-44) ; the Tragedie 
inSdite, etc. (Florence, 1856) ; Ponte, L'Arnaldo 
da Brescia del Niccolini e di C, Marenoo (Son- 
drio, 1880). 

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IffAKENCO, Leofoldo, Count (1831-99). An 
Italian poet and dramatist, bom at Ceva, in 
Piedmont. He was the son of Carlo Marenco, 
and wrote his play Isabella Orsini when only 
twenty years old. His plays include: Picoarda 
DoncUi (1869) ; 8affo (1880) ; Rosalinda {ISS^) ; 
Lo spiritismo (1869); II ghiaociaio di Monte 
Bianco (1870) ; Quel che nostro non d (1877) ; 
Giorgio Qandi (1882); and Bice (1884). His 
collected works were published in twenty volumes 
(1884etseq.) at Turin. 

MARENGO^ m&-r$o^gd. A locality near Ales- 
sandria, Italy, the scene of one of the most 
famous of Napoleon's battles, fought on June 
14, 1800, in which the French completely def^ted 
the Austrians under General Melas. In 1798 a 
second coalition had been formed, by England, 
Austria, and Russia, against France. Napoleon 
was absent in Egypt, and the coalition had been 
completely successful, though Russia soon de- 
serted the allies, the Czar, Paul I., believing him- 
self to have been betrayed by Austria. Mean- 
while on the 18th Brumaire (November 9), 1799, 
Napoleon, who had returned from Egypt, ob- 
tained complete control of the Grovernment, and 
a vigorous war was resolved upon. Moreau 
(q.v.) was sent to Germany, while Napoleon 
crossed the Great Saint Bernard Pass into Italy 
with about 40,000 men. Though he was too late 
to relieve Genoa, where Mass^na (q.v.) had been 
besieged a long time, the Austrian advance- 
guard was defeated on June 9, 1800, at Monte- 
bello, and thereby Napoleon barred farther Aus- 
trian advance. On June 14th Melas crossed the 
Bormida, assailed the French, and at first was 
successful, but, luckily for Napoleon, at five in 
the afternoon Desaix (q.v.) and Kellermann 
(q.v.) appeared with fresh troops, and swept 
all before them, though the former lost his life 
in the charge. The battle firmly established Na- 
poleon's supremacy in France. General ^felas 
was compelled to sign the Convention of Ales- 
sandria, oy which he surrendered Genoa, Pied- 
mont, and the Milanese, and promised to with- 
draw the Austrian garrisons from all cities to 
the west of the Mincio. Military critics have 
generally maintained that the Marengo campaign 
was one of the most brilliant conceptions in the 
history of warfare. See Napoleon I. 

MABENGO. A city and the county-seat of 
Iowa County, Iowa, 31 miles west by north of 
Iowa City; on the Iowa River, and on the Rock 
Island System Railroad (Map: Iowa, Ed). It 
haa a Carnegie Library, is surrounded by an agri- 
cultural and stock-raising district, and has some 
manufactures. Marengo was settled in 1846. 
Population, in 1900, 2007; in 1905, 2072. 

MABEll^OLTZ-B'tlXOW, ma'ren-h^lts h\V- 
16, Bebtha von (1810-93). A German educator, 
born in Brunswick. Attracted by the ideas of 
Friedrich Frobel (q.v.), whom she met in 1850, 
she became his disciple and devoted her life to 
foimding kindergartens in Germany and many 
other European countries. Among her writings 
are: Beitrage zum Verst-dndnis Friedrich Fro- 
hels (1876), and a number of pamphlets on the 
kindergarten, several of which have been trans- 
lated into English. Consult Goldschmidt, "Ber- 
tha von Marenholtz-Balow," No. 239, in the 
Sammlung toiaaenschaftlicher Voririige (Ham- 
burg, 1896). 

51 MABEY. 

MABENZIO, m&rSn'tsI-A, LuOA (c.l656- 
99). An Italian composer of madrigals, bom at 
Coccaglio, between Bergamo and Brescia. He 
was a chorister in the Brescia Cathedral and re- 
ceived musical instruction from its organist, Gi- 
ovanni Contini. He began publication in Venice 
(1581), with a collection of madrigals for five 
voices, and he issued nine books of the same 
within ten years. About 1584 he was living in 
Rome, employed by Cardinal d'Este as maestro 
di cappella, and in 1587 he had a post at the 
Polish Court, but went back to Rome (1595), 
and received an appointment in the chapel of the 
Pope. He composed a quantity of Church music, 
but it is on account of the great advance he 
made upon his predecessors in the production of 
madrigals that he is chiefly remembered. Six 
books of them for six voices were published in 
Venice (1582-1609), and he wrote others for 
three, four, eight, and twelve voices. 

MABESCH, ma'resh, Johann Anton (1719- 
91). A Russian musician of Bohemian birth, 
and the inventor of Russian 'hunting horn' mu- 
sic. He was born at Chotebor, Bohemia, and 
studied music in Dresden and Berlin. He made 
many mechanical improvements in the construc- 
tion of the Russian horn, an unbent brass tube of 
conical shape. In 1755 he gave an exhibition 
before the Imperial Court, when a band of 37 
men, furnished with horns varying from 7 feet to 
1 foot in length, produced concerted pieces, each 
being careful I v drilled to sound his own instru- 
ment at precisely the proper instant. For the 
skill and dexterity displayed in this somewhat 
ludicrous performance, Maresch was richly re- 
warded by the Empress Elizabeth. He died at 
Saint Petersburg. 

KABET, mA'rA', HuouES Bebnabd. A French 
general and statesman. See Bassano, Hugues 
Bebnabd Mabet, Duke of. 

MABETZEK, mil're-ts&k. Max ( 1821-97 ) . A 
German-American composer, director, and im- 
presario, born in Briinn, Moravia. He studied 
music there, and also at Vienna and Paris. 
In 1843 he composed the opera Hamlet, which 
secured him the place of music director at the 
Royal Opera in London. In 1847 he went to New 
York, and in 1848 was the musical director at the 
Astor Place Opera House. In 1849 he commenced 
his career as an impresario of Italian opera in 
New York, and continued it until 1878, subse- 
quently teaching. He published in 1855 Crotchets 
end Quavers: or. Revelations of an Opera Mana- 
ger in America; composed the opera Sleepy Hol- 
low (1879) ; and wrote chamber and orchestral 
music. He died in Staten Island, N. Y. 

MABEY, m&'ri',ETiENNE Jules (1830-1904). 
A French physiologist, born at Beaune (COte- 
d'Or). He went to Paris when twenty years old 
and took the degree of doctor of medicine in 
18G0, and the same year opened a course in 
physiology at the College de France. In 1864 
he established a physiological laboratory, and 
in 1867 was appointed adjunct professor of 
physiology in the College de France. He be- 
came a laur^at of the Tnstitut, and of the 
Ecole de M^decine. Ho beean to publish scien- 
tific tracts as early as 1857. and worked on the 
experimental physiology of the heart and circula- 
tion, on animal heat, on the electric phenomena 
which provoke or accompany movements in ani- 
mals, and on the action of poisons which espe- 

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cially concern the nerves and muscles. His 
studies and works on motion in animals, espe- 
cially on the flight of birds and insects, have given 
him a wide reputation, since he devised new 
methods of recording the motions of the wings. 
His works in this direction are: Du mouvement 
dans les fonctions de la me (1869) ; M^moire sur 
le vol des insectes et des oiseauw (1872) ; Animal 
Mechanism : A Treatise on Terrestrial and Aerial 
Locomotion (Paris, 1874; New York, 1879); 
Movement (1895). 

MABFO^IO. The popular name of a colos- 
sal statue of a river god, holding a shell, now in 
the Capitoline Museum in Rome. The statue 
probably represents the Rhine and received its 
name from its position in the Forum of Mars 
during the Middle Ages. It was at one time cus- 
tomary to afiix to this statue replies to the gibes 
and satirical notices posted on the Pasquino 

MABGADAKT^ mar-gft-dant', Simon. The 
real name of the German humanist Simon Lem- 
nius (q.v.). 

MAB^GABET (1353-1412). Queen of Den- 
mark, Norway, and Sweden. She was the second 
daughter of Valdemar IV., King of Denmark, 
and the wife of Haakon VI., King of Norway, 
whom she married in 1363. On the death of her 
father without direct male heirs, the Danish no- 
bles, after an interregnum, offered the crown in 
1376 to Margaret and her husband in trust for 
their infant son Olaf. By the death of Haakon in 
1380 Margaret became sole guardian of the young 
Prince, who died in 1387. Such was the skill with 
which she had conducted the Grovernment during 
her sole regency that the estates of both kingdoms 
concurred in electing her as their joint sovereign. 
With the concurrence of her subjects, she nomi- 
nated her grand-nephew, Eric of Pomerania, her 
successor; and although, owing to Eric's infancy 
a.t the time, and his subsequent incapacity, the 
real power rested in the hands of Margaret, she 
oontented herself from that time with the title 
of *'Margaret, by the grace of God, daughter of 
Valdemar, King of Denmark." At the moment that 
Margaret was cementing the union of Norway 
■and Denmark, the condition of affairs in Sweden 
opened the way for a further extension of her 
power. The Swedish King, Albert of Mecklen- 
burg, had so thoroughly alienated the affections 
of his subjects that the nobles, declaring the 
throne vacant, offered to acknowledge Margaret 
as their ruler. The Queen lost no time in sending 
an army into Sweden to support her pretensions, 
and defeated the King's German troops at Fal- 
koping in 1389, where Albert fell into her hands. 
The King remained in prison till 1395, during 
which time Margaret continued the work of sub- 
jugating Sweden. In 1397 she effected the so- 
called Union of Kalmar, by which the crowns of 
the three Scandinavian kingdoms were henceforth 
to remain united. Eric, who was in his sixteenth 
year, was invested with the triple dignity. Mar- 
garet continued to exert great influence in the 
Government. She died toward the close of 1412, 
while she was attempting to bring about peace 
between Eric and the Duke of Holstein. Con- 
sult Ott^, Scandinavian History (London, 1874). 

ffret (variously called of ANOOULftME, op Va- 
ix)i8, OF Alenqon, and of Navarre) (1492- 
1649). A daughter of Charles of Orleans, Duke 

of Angoul^me, sister of King Francis I. of 
France. She was bom in Angoultoie, April 11, 
1492. She married (1509) the Duke d'Alencon, 
and later (1527) Henri d'Albret, who became 
King of Navarre. His small dominions she 
governed after his death (1544). Their daugh- 
ter, Jeanne d'Albret, was mother of Henry of 
Navarre (Henry IV. of France). Margaret was 
active in politics, in religious reform, and in 
literature. She favored religious liberty rather 
than Protestantism, and was for a time an effect- 
ual defender and patron of advocates of reform of 
such varied complexion as Rabelais, Desp^riers, 
Marot, Dolet, and many lesser men of letters 
and learning. Her little courts at N^rac and 
at Pau, for a time the most brilliant intel- 
lectually in Europe, roused seemingly ground- 
less slander. Her literary remains comprise: 
Letters (1842-43) ; a collection of poems, largely 
dramatic and religious, poetically called Mar- 
guerites de la Marguerite (which was first 
printed at Paris, 1873) ; and other poems dis- 
covered in the National Library in 1895 and pub- 
lished as Derni^res poesies (Paris, 1896). Until 
recently Margaret of Navarre was supposed to be 
the author of the famous collection of tales called 
the Heptameron (q.v.), but this is now generally 
regarded as the work of various hands. Though 
apparently of no great personal beauty, she 
combined in singular measure sweetness oif dis- 
position with intellectual strength, and prob- 
ably contributed more to the renaissance of learn- 
ing in France than did Francis himself. Consult : 
Brant()me, Les dames illustres, vol. vi. (Paris, 
1668) ; Bayle, Dictionnaire historique (ib., 1820- 
24) ; Leroux de Lincy, Essai sur la vie et lea 
ouvrages de Marguerite d'AngouMme (ib., 1853) ; 
La Ferrifere, Le livre de d^penses de la reine de 
Navarre (ib.. 1862) ; Comtesse d'Haussonville, 
Marguerite de Vatois (ib., 1870) ; Lotheissen, 
Konigin Margarete von Navarra (Berlin, 1885) ; 
and Freer, The Life of Marguerite d''AngouUme 
(London, 1895). 

MABGABET, Saint (c.I046-93). A queen of 
Scotland. She was the daughter of Edward the 
Exile, a son of Edmund Ironside, and was born, 
according to tradition, in Himgary. In 1067 she 
came to Scotland with her brother Edgar Athe- 
ling (q.v.), and soon after became the wife of 
King Malcolm III. She appears in the chronicles 
as a woman of almost angelic character and 
saintly virtues, and numerous instances are re- 
corded of her works of piety and unceasing de- 
votion to the cause of the Church. She exercised 
a refining influence on the rough manners of the 
Scottish Court by the example of her stainless 
life, and advanced the welfare of her people by 
her wide beneficence to the crippled, the orphaned, 
and the poor. She died November 16, 1093, after 
receiving news of the death of her husband and 
her eldest son in a border raid. She was canon- 
ized by Pope Innocent IV. in 1250. 

MABGABET OP ANJOU, a^'zhSS' (1430 
82). Queen Consort of Henry VI. of England. 
She was born on March 23, 1430, and was the 
daughter of Ren^ the Good of An jou, titular King 
of Naples. When in 1439 the peace party in Eng- 
land, headed by Cardinal Beaufort, came into 
power, they sought to end the Hundred Years' 
War, and as a step in this direction looked 
around for a suitable French princess as a xi^ife 
for the young Henry VI. Their choice fell upon 

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Margaret, though the powerful Duke of Glouces- 
ter opposed the match. In 1445 the marriage took 
place, and when in 1447 the Duke of Gloucester 
fell, Margaret obtained complete control over the 
weak King and the whole Government. She be- 
came, however, rapidly unpopular, the loss of the 
English possessions in France being charged 
against her. When in 1453 a son was bom to her, 
Richard, Duke of York, gave up all hope of suc- 
ceeding peacefully to the crown, and in 1455 he 
led the Yorkists in arms against the House of 
Lancaster, inaugurating the Wars of the Roses. 
Margaret became leader of the Lancastrians. Li 
1460 she was victorious at Wakefield, where the 
Duke of York fell, but the battle of Towton 

(q.v.) in 1461 was disastrous to the Lancastrian 
cause. In 1464 Margaret made an attempt to 
restore the fortunes of her house and invaded 
England, but her adherents were defeated at 
Hexham, after which she lived for some years 
with her father. In 1470 Warwick (q.v.) joined 
the Lancastrians and restored Henry VI. to 
the throne, but in 1471 Edward IV. won a de- 
cisive victory at Bamet, and Henry was recap- 
tured, and spent the remaining month and a 
half of his life in the Tower. Meanwhile Mar- 
garet had landed in England, but was defeated 
and taken at Tewkesbury in 1471, while her' son 
lost his life on the battlefield. She remained in 
captivity for about five years, till Louis XI. re- 
deemed her for 50,000 crowns. She then retired 
to France, and died at the Chateau of Dampierre, 
near Saumier, in Anjou, on August 15, 1482. 
Consult: Ramsay, Lancaster and York, vol. ii. 

(Oxford, 1892) ; Gairdner*s introduction to the 
Past on Letters (London, 1872-75). See Roses, 
Wabs of the, and Henby VI. 

A daughter of Maximilian I. of Austria and of 
Mary of Burgundy. She was bom in the Nether- 
lands and brought up at the French Court. Affi- 
anced to the Dauphin, afterwards Charles VIII., 
by the Treaty of Arras ( 1482) , she was sent back 
in 1491 by the King, who married Anne of Brit- 
tany. About five years later she married John, 
Prince of Asturias, heir to the Spanish throne, 
but he died the next year. In 1501 she became 
the wife of Philibert, Duke of Savoy, who died 
three years later. In 1507 her father made her 
Regent of the Netherlands. In this office she dis- 
played great ability, carried on the policy of cen- 
tralization, repressed heresy, but watched also 
over the material welfare of the country. She 
participated in the conference at Cambrai in 
1508, and negotiated with Louise of Savoy the 
Peace of Cambrai (1529), called the Paix des 
Dames (Ladies' Peace). 

st antit^ople (c. 1200-79). 0)unte8s of Flanders 
and Hainault. She was the younger daughter of 
Baldwin IX., Coimt of Flanders and Hainault, 
who died without male issue, the succession pass- 
ing to her elder sister, Jeanne. Margaret mar- 
ried Bouchard d'Avesnes, bailiff of Hainault, in 
opposition to her sister's wishes, and after a 
number of years the marriage was annulled, ow- 
ing to the fact that Bouchard in early life had 
taken the lower orders of priesthood. Bouchard 
was taken prisoner by Jeanne and put to death. 
In 1223 Margaret married William of Dampierre, 
and between the children of the two marriages 
bitter strife ensued for the succession to the 


lordship over the two counties, which Margaret 
had attEkined in 1244, on the death of her sister. 
The dispute was referred to the arbitrament of 
Louis IX. of France, who decided that after the 
death of Margaret Hainault should go to the sons 
of d'Avesnes, while the children of the second 
marriage were to receive Flanders. Margaret's 
reign of thirty-five years seems to have been one 
of prosperity for her subjects. 

Regent of the Netherlands. She was an illegiti- 
mate daughter of the Emperor Charles V., and 
was bom and brought up in Brussels. In 1536 
she married Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of 
Florence, who was murdered in 1537; and in 
1538 Ottavio Farnese, who became Duke of Farma 
and Piacenza. She was appointed by Philip II. 
in 1559 to govern the Netherlands with Granvella 
(q.v.) as her chief adviser. Though well in- 
clined personally to the people of the Netherlands 
and their liberties, she yielded readily to the 
fanatic orders of Philip and the counsels of 
Granvella. The attempt to introduce the Inquisi- 
tion into the country brought about the insurrec- 
tion of 1566, which was the beginning of the long 
struggle for independence in the Netherlands. In 
1567 Alva (q.v.) was sent to crush out all oppo- 
sition with halter and sword, and Margaret re- 
signed her office. She was a gifted woman, mas- 
culine in stature and in mind, and liberal in 

MABGABET OF VALOIS, v&'lwa^ or of 
France (1553-1615). A French princess, daugh- 
ter of Henry II. of France and Catharine de' 
Medici, and wife of Henry IV. She was born 
at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, May 14, 1553, and 
received an excellent education. Her marriage to 
Henry of Navarre at Paris on August 18, 1572, 
was intended to be a bond of perpetual reconcilia- 
tion between Catholics and Huguenots, but was 
followed after a week by the massacre of Saint 
Bartholomew. With no love lost on either side, 
husband and wife, during Henry's forced sojourn 
at the French Court, lived in good-natured tolera- 
tion of each other's transgressions. After the 
flight of Henry of Navarre in February, 1576, she 
was detained for some time as a hostage, but in 
1578 reioined her husband at Pau, in Gascony. 
There she remained for four years and then re- 
turned to Paris. Her intrigues at CJourt aroused 
the resentment of Henry III., who subjected her 
to repeated humiliations, imprisoned her, and 
finally destroyed her reputation entirely by a 
public investigation into her conduct (1583). 
From 1587 to 1605 she lived at the Chateau 
of Usson in Auvergne, and there wrote her 
M Moires, which are frank and light-hearted 
in tone, and evince but an elementary grasp 
on certain moral truths. In 1599, after 
the death of Gabriel le d'Estr^s, the favor- 
ite of Henry IV., whom Margaret detested, she 
consented to a divorce from the King, who for a 
number of years had been desirous of an heir. In 
1606 she returned to Paris, where she lived on 
the best of terms with Henry, attending the coro- 
nation of her successor, Maria de' Medici, in 
1610. Her hdtel in the Rue de Seine was a centre 
for Paris learning and fashion until her death. 
With her the House of Valois became extinct. 
Her J/dmotrcs, Poesies, and Lettres were published 
by Guessard (Paris, 1842). Consult Saint-Poncy, 
Histoire de Margiierite de Valois (Paris, 1887) ; 
Merki, La reine Margot (Paris, 1905). 

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MAB'GABET TU^DOB (1480-1541). The 
wife of the Scottish King James IV. (q.v.). She 
was born at Westminster, November 29, 1489, 
the daughter of Henry VII. by Elizabeth oit York. 
She was married after considerable negotiation 
to King James IV. of Scotland on August 8, 
1503. She played a considerable rOle in the 
shifting politics of her time, especially after the 
death of her husband in 1513, but her importance 
to posterity consists chiefly in the fact that from 
her James VI. of Scotland derived his claims 
to the English throne, which he ascended as 
James I. of England in 1603. 

MABGAB^C ACID (from Lat. margarita, 
from Gk. ftapyaplnis, margarita, pearl, from 
fuipyapotf margaroa, pearl-oyster; so called from 
being deposited as pearly scales during cool- 
ing m alcohol in which it has been dissolved), 
CiJlajCOOH. An artificial solid fatty acid, sim- 
ilar to stearic acid and melting at about 60° C. 
It is said to occur in adipocere. An acid having 
the same molecular composition as margaric acid, 
but melting at a somewhat lower temperature 
(55° C), has been found in the seeds of Datura 
Stramonium, Linn6, and is therefore named 
daturio acid. The name margaric acid was for- 
merly applied to a mixture of palmitic and 
stearic acids that occurs in certain natural prod- 
ucts. The fact that this substance was a mix- 
ture, and not a dcfinitcf chemical compound, was 
demonstrated by Heintz. 

MABGABITA, m&r'g&re^t&. An island in 
the Caribbean Sea close to the coast of Venezuela, 
to which country it belongs. From 1863 to 1881, 
and again from 1901 to 1904, it constituted the 
State of Nueva Esparta ; it forms now a part of 
the Federal District (Map: Venezuela, El). It 
is about 45 miles long and from 5 to 20 miles 
broad, with an area of 444 square miles. It con- 
sists of two mountain ranges, one of them over 
4000 feet high, united by a low isthmus. There 
is a little agriculture and cattle-raising, but the 
principal industries are fisheries and the produc- 
tion of salt. Formerly there were valuable pearl 
fisheries, whence the island received its name, 
which means "pearl." The population is about 
40,000, mostly civilized Indians. The island was 
discovered by Columbus in 1498. Principal towns, 
Asunci6n and Pampatar. 

MAB^GABITE (OF. marguerite, Fr. mar- 
garitCy marguerite, pearl, from Lat. margarita, 
pearl), or Peabl Mica. A hydrated calcium- 
aluminum silicate, closely related to the mica 
group and crystallizing in the monoclinic system. 
It is of a light gray, red, or yellow color, and is 
found associated with corundum, especially in the 
emery deposits in Asia Minor and the islands of 
the Grecian Archipelago; also in Chester, Mass., 
Unionville. Pa., and localities in North Carolina.- 

to'nA d&-r6'ts6 (c.1236-89). The earliest promi- 
nent Tuscan painter after Giunta Pisano. He 
was a native of Arezzo, Italy. His frescoes in 
San Clemente at Arezzo have perished, but his 
Madonna and his Crucifix at San Francesco, his 
altar-piece at the National Gallery, and his vari- 
ous portraits of Saint Francis, show crude color, 
childish drawing, and lack of life; he was a 
representative of the end of the Italo-Byzantine 
decline rather than a herald of the Giottesque 
revival. Portraits of Saint Francis were his 
favorite theme; several remain, both signed and 


unsigned, in the Vatican, at Siena, Florence^ 
Pisa, Castiglione, and elsewhere. Vasari's con- 
tention that he excelled as a sculptor and archi- 
tect is open to doubt, as the works he attributes 
to him — the Church of San Ciriaco at Ancona 
and the monument of Gregory X. at Arezzo— are 
not of his age or manner. 

MAB/GATE. A popular watering place in 
the Isle of Thanet, Kent, England, 70 miles east- 
southeast of London (Map: England, H 5). It 
has important fisheries, but is more noted for all 
the usual resources of a watering place, theatre, 
baths, libraries, zoological gardens, esplanade, 
etc. It is the great resort for Londoners. The 
shore, covered with fine, firm sand, affords good 
sea-bathing, and there are many pleasant walks 
along the sands and cliffs, and inland. The town 
owns its water supply. Its ancient name was^ 
Meregate — ^the gate to the sea. Its interesting 
parish church was founded in 1050. Population, 
m 1891, 18,600; in 1901, 23,000. 

MABOATE FISH, or Mabgabet Grunt. A 
food fish {Hcsmulon album), one of the grunts 
or roncos of the Gulf of Mexico and southward, 
where it is common in water of moderate depth; 
and reaches a length of two feet or more. It ia 
white, with olive-colored back and fins and in- 
distinct spots; the mouth is orange. In some 
places no one will eat it, but at Pensacola and 
Key West, and in Nassau and other parts of the 
British West Indies, it is commonly sold in the 
markets, frequently imder the name *porgy.* 

MABGAY, m&r^g& (Brazilian name). A wild 
cat {Felia tigrina) of the forested parts of tropi- 
cal America. The animal is so variable in size, 
color, and markings that several species have 
been described from its varieties. It seems to 
differ little from cats generally in its habits, and 
occasionally is domesticated. 

MABGELAN, n^r'ge-lan^ Old and New. 
Two towns in the Territory of Ferghana, Rus- 
sian Turkestan (Map: Asia, Central, Ml). Old 
Margelan, about 40 miles east of Khokand, is 
an Asiatic city, surrounded by a wall and con- 
taining mosques and bazaars, etc. Population, 
in 1897, 36,592, mostly Sarts, Tajiks, and Jews. 
New Margelan, situated about 10 miles south of 
the old town, is the seat of the administration of 
the Territory, and had in 1897 a population of 
8977, mostly Russians. 

MABGGBAFE, mftr^grftf, Hermann (1809- 
64 ) . A German poet and humorous author. He 
was born at ZUllichau; studied at Berlin, and, 
devoting himself to journalism, lived and wrote 
in Leipzig, Munich, Aujifsburg, and Frankfort, 
finally settling in Leipzig (1853) as editor of 
the Blatter fiir literarische Unterhaltung. He 
wrote the critical essay, Deutachlands jUngste 
Litteratur und Kulturepoche (1839) ; several 
plays; humorous novels, including Justus und 
Chn/sostomuSy Oehriider Pech (1840), Johannes 
Mackel (1841), and Fritz Beutel (1855); a bi- 
ography of Ernst Schulze (Leipzig, 1855) ; FIchil- 
lets und Komera Freundachaftahund (1859); 
Oedichte (1857) ; and Balladenchronik (1862). 

MABGHEBITA (Maria Maboherita Te- 
resa GiovANNA DE Savoia) (1851 — ). Queen 
Dowager of Italy, the daughter of Ferdinand, 
Duke of Genoa. She was married in 1868 to 
her cousin, Humbert, the Prince Royal, who suc- 
ceeded his father, Victor Emmanuel I., as King 

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of Italy, January 9, 1878, and who was assas- 
sinated at Monza on July 29, 1900. Her charm 
of manner and sweetness of disposition made 
her extremely popular in Italy. 

MABGOT DEAI<S (OF. margine, from Lat. 
§nargo, boundary). Transactions in which one 
person, in the character of purchaser, puts up 
collateral security for the performance of his 
agreement to purchase. At tmies, they are legal 
transactions. For example, a person employs a 
broker to purchase stock or other property for 
him. Not naving the money with which to pay 
the price, the broker advances it, upon receiving 
from the buyer (his principal) the deposit of a 
specified sum and an agreement that he (the 
broker) may sell the stock in case it depreciates 
80 that the stock and margin are no longer ample 
security for his advance. Such a transaction is 

Serfectly valid and enforceable at common law. 
y constitutional or statutory provisions in some 
of our States, however, even margin deals of that 
sort have been put under the ban and are void. 
In such jurisdictions the buyer may repudiate 
the agreement and recover from the broker any 
moneys put into his hands as a margin. 

The term is more frequently applied to con- 
tracts entered into, and deposits made, to dis- 
guise gambling transactions m stocks or in prop- 
erty sold for future delivery. Deals of this sort 
are illegal and void at common law. Not only 
is the contract itself unenforceable, but nego- 
tiable paper or other securities given as a part 
of the transactions are void, and property de- 
posited as a margin may be recovered. Margin 
deals, which are in reality gambling transac- 
tions, are punishable in some of our States as 
criminal offenses. Consult : Mechem, The Law of 
Agency (Chicago, 1889) ; CJonstitution of Cali- 
fornia, Art. 4, § 26; Sheeby V8, Shim, 103 Cal. 
Rep., p. 325, or 37 Pac. Rep., p. 393 ( 1894) ; Dos 
Passos, Treatise on the Law of Stock Brokers 
and Stock Exchanges (2d ed.. New York, 1905). 

MABGITES, mllr-ji't€z. A mock-heroic epic, 
ascribed to Homer by Aristotle, and by him con- 
sidered to be the germ of comedy. It has also 
been attributed to Pogres of Halicarnassus, the 
brother of Queen Artemisia. It describes the va- 
rious predicaments in which Margites, a foolish 
young fellow, who knew many things badly, was 

MABOOUOUTH, mUT-gG^X-T^t, David Sam- 
uel ( 1868— ) . An English Arabic scholar, bom 
in London. He studied at Winchester and New 
College, Oxford, was fellow of New College 
( 1881), and in 1889 became Laudian professor of 
Arabic at Oxford. He also held the post of as- 
sistant keeper of Oriental books and manuscripts 
in the British Museimi. He wrote : Analecta Ori- 
entalia ad Poeticarti Aristoteleam ( 1888) ; Jepheth 
Ben EH, Commentary on the Book of Daniel 
(1889) ; Arabic Papyri of the Bodleian Library 
(1893); Chrestomathia Baidawiana (1894); 
Letters of Abul *Ala (1898) ; Lines of Defense of 
the Biblical Revelation (19()0) ; Mohammed and 
the Rise of Islam (1905). 

KABGBAVE (Ger. Afarfc^raf, border-count). 
In early mediceval times the military chieftains 
or guardians to whom was intrusted the defense 
of the border, with the government over such 
frontier provinces, known as marks or marches. 
In Continental Europe these margraves at first 
held their offices only during life, but as they 

became more independent and powerful, their 
positions and titles became vested in the same 
line, and they were established as a powerful 
hereditary order of nobility. In England the 
lords or wardens of the marches were appointed 
to guard the frontiers of Wales and Scotland, and 
the office was long regarded as special or tem- 
porary; the term marquis was not applied to 
the office imtil 1385. See Gbaf; Mabk; Mab- 


MABGBY, mar'gry, Pierre (1818-94). A 
French historian, bom at Paris. He became as 
a young man adjimct curator of the archives 
of the department of the Minister of Ma- 
rine, and in 1842 was intrusted with the 
task of studying the colonial history of France 
in America. Among his works are: La na- 
vigation du Mississippi et les pr4curseurs de 
Fulton aum Etats-Unis (1859); Les Normands 
dans les valUes de VOhio et du Mississippi 
(1860) ; Les navigateurs frangais et la r&oolu- 
tion maritime du XlVdme au XVIdme siicle 
(1867); Relations et m^moires pour servir d 
rhistoire de la France dans les pays d*outre mer 
(1867) ; Les seigneurs de la Martinique (1879) ; 
D^couvertes et ^tablissements des Frangais dans 
l*Am4rique septentrionale (1879-88); and Le 
€0nqu4rant des ties Canaries (1880). He edited 
Les souvenirs d*un homme de lettres, based on 
Augustin JaPs manuscripts (1877). 

MABGTTEBITE. A garden plant. See 

cipal female character in Goethe's Faust, 

MARGUERITTE, mSr'g'-r^t', Paul ( I860—) , 
and Victor (1867 — ), French novelists, brothers, 
sons of a general who fell at Sedan, born in Alge- 
ria. Paul made his debut as a naturalist writer 
but has turned more and more towards introspec- 
tion and problems of individual and natural mor- 
ality. Alone he wrote: Tous quatre (1885) ; La 
confession posthume (1886); Maison ouverte 
(1887) ; Pascal Gefosse (1887) ; Jours d'^preuve 
(1889) ; Amants (1890) ; Ma grande (1893) ; La 
tourmente (1894); Uessor (1896). Victor had 
published some verse, and the novels Le camaval 
de Nice { 1897 ) and Poum { 1897 ) , when he entered 
into one of the most notable collaborations in 
literary history with his brother. Together they 
produced a series of romances dealing with the 
Franco-German War, including Le d^sastre 
( 1898) , Les tronqons du glaive ( 1900) , Les braves 
gens (1901), and La commune (1904). Their 
views on the social position of women are em- 
bodied in Femmes nouvelles (1899), Les deux 
vies ( 1902), and Le prisme (1905), the second of 
which was dramatized with great success as La 
caour et la loi ( 1905). They also published a pop- 
ular history of the war with Germany ( 1903 ) , and 
a volume of miscellaneous essays, Quelques Id^es 
(1905). Paul Margueritte was one of the origi- 
nal members of the Acad^mie Goncourt. Con- 
sult Pilon, Paul et Victor Margueritte (Paris, 

KARHEINEKE^ mftr-hl'ne-ke, Phiupp Kon- . 
RAD (17801846). A German theologian. He 
was bom at Hildesheim, May 1, 1780; educated 
at G5ttingen; became repetent there 1804; pro- 
fessor extraordinary of theology at Heidelberg, , 
1805; professor ordinary there 1809; and in 
1811 was called to the same position at Berlin^ 
and chosen pastor of the Church of the Trinity, 

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where he became a colleague of Schleiermacher. 
His studies lav principally in the direction of 
Christian symbolism and dogmatics. To the 
former he devoted his Chriatliche Symbolik 
(1810-14) and his Institutiones Symholicce 
( 1812) ; to the latter, his Orundlehren der christ- 
lichen Dogmatik (1819). His method of treat- 
ment is historical rather than dogmatic and his 
position entirely independent. The positive form 
of his theology may be found in his Enttourf der 
praktischen Theologie (1837). He wrote many 
books besides those named, including the impor- 
tant Geschiohte der deutschen Reformation 
(1816) and Die Reformation, ihre Entstehung 
und Verbreitung in Deut8chlandf dem deutschen 
Volke erzahlt (1846). He died in Berlin, May 
31, 1846. His Theologische Vorleaungen appeared 
posthumously (1847-49), with biographical 
sketch. Consult Weber, Le syatHne dogmatique 
de Marheineke (Strassburg, 1867). 

MABIA CHBISTINA, krls-tS^nA (1806-78). 
Queen of Spain. She was a daughter of Francis 
I., King of the Two Sicilies, and was bom in 
Naples, April 27, 1806. In 1829 she became the 
fourth wife of Ferdinand VII. of Spain. In 1830 
Ferdinand restored the law by which, in default 
of male issue, the right of inheritance was given 
to females. In October of that year the Queen 
gave birth to a daughter, Isabella. The Spanish 
Liberals gladly embraced the cause of the Queen, 
rejoicing to see Ferdinand's brother, the reac- 
tionary Don Carlos (q.v.), further removed from 
the succession to the throne. Ferdinand died 
September 29, 1833, and by his testament his 
widow was appointed guardian of her children — 
the young Queen Isabella and the Infanta Louisa 
— and Regent until the Queen should attain the 
age of eighteen. A civil war at once broke 
out between the opposing parties known as Car- 
lists and Cristinos, but the Queen mother seemed 
indifferent to everything except the company 
of Don Fernando Mufioz, one of the royal body- 
guard, whom she made her chamberlain, and 
with whom she was united in December, 1833, 
in a morganatic marriage. Her practice as Regent 
was to adopt the course agreeable to the Minis- 
ter of the day, and thus her Government was 
despotic under one Ministry and liberal under an- 
other. She contrived, however, upon many oc- 
casions to embrace the proceedings of her more 
liberal or constitutional Ministers ; but when she 
sanctioned by her signature the law respecting 
the local liberties of the communes (see Ayunta- 
MiENTO), a popular commotion ensued and she 
was compelled to resign the regency (1840), be- 
ing succeeded by the Prime ^Minister Espartero. 
She retired to France, but continued to interfere 
in the affairs of Spain. After the fall of Espar- 
tero ( 1843) she returned to Madrid, and in Octo- 
ber, 1844, her marriage with Mufioz, who was 
now made Duke of Rianzares, was publicly solem- 
nized. Her participation in the schemes of Louis 
Philippe in the matter of t^e marriage of her 
daughters, in 1846, and the continued exercise of 
all her influence in a manner unfavorable to con- 
stitutional liberty, made her the object of great 
dislike to the whole Liberal Party in Spain. At 
length, in July, 1854, a revolution expelled her 
from the country, and she again took refuge in 
France. She returned to Spain in 1864, only to 
retire again in 1868. She died at Havre, August 
22, 1878. See Spain. 


MABIA CHBISTINA (1858-). A Queen 
of Spain. She was the daughter of Archduke 
Karl Ferdinand of Austria, and in 1879 married 
Alfonso XII. of Spain, to whom she bore a post- 
humous son in 1886, Alfonso XIII. She acted as 
Regent until Alfonso XIII. was declared of age. 
May 17, 1902, carrying on the Government with 
much ability and tact. 

MABIA DE' MEDICI, mkr^k d& mftM*-ch6 
(1573-1642). The second wife of Henry IV. of 
France. She was the daughter of Francis I., 
Grand Duke of Tuscany, and was bom at Flor- 
ence, April 26, 1573. She was married to Henry 
IV. in 1600, and in 1601 ^ave birth to a son, 
afterwards Louis XIII. The union did not 
prove happy. Maria, though beautiful, was 
an obstinate, ambitious, passionate, and dull- 
headed woman, and her quarrels with Henry 
over her favorites and the King's gallantries 
soon became the talk of Paris. Two Italians^ 
Leonora Galigai and her husband, Concini (see 
Ancbe ) , exercised a powerful influence over her 
mind, and encouraged her dislike to her husband, 
who on his part avoided her as much as possible. 
She was not publicly crowned as (Jueen until 
the day before Henry's assassination ( May, 1610) . 
For the next seven years she governed as Regent, 
but proved incapable as a ruler. After the 
murder of Concini, in 1617, Louis XIII. as- 
sumed royal power, aided by his favorite, the 
Duke de Luynes, who had put Concini out of the 
way. Maria was kept under surveillance in the 
castle at Blois. She escaped in 1619, and began 
a war against the King and Court, being allied 
with certain of the disappointed nobles. The con- 
flict was brief, and ended in the discomfiture of 
Maria. In 1621 the death of Luynes led to her 
return to Court. Maria hoped to win over 
Richelieu to her party, and he was created car- 
dinal and Minister of State, partly through, 
her influence. She soon found out, how- 
ever, that he had no mind to be ruled by 
her, whereupon she resolved to undermine his 
influence with the King. Her intrigues for this 
purpose in 1630 failed, and she was imprisoned 
in Compi^gne, whence she escaped to Brussels 
in 1631. She finally found her way to Eng- 
land to the Court of her son-in-law, Charles I., 
but was compelled to leave London in 1641, and 
her last years were spent in utter destitution. 
She died at Cologne on July 3, 1642. Maria 
de' Medici was a lover and patron of the 
fine arts, and Paris owes to her the Luxem- 
bourg Palace and other public works. Consult: 
Pardoe, Life and Times of Marie de* Medici 
(London, 1852) ; Zeller, Henry IV. et Marie de 
MHicis (Paris, 1877), and La minority de Louis. 
Xm,— Marie de MHicis et Sully, 1610-1612 
(ib., 1892) ; id.. La minority de Louis XIII. — 
Marie de M6dicis et Villeroy (ib., 1897) ; Freer, 
Henry IV. and Marie de' Medici (London, 1861). 
See Henry IV. ; France. 

gft'rd', Le, ou la Folle JouRNfiE. A five-act 
comedy by Beaumarchais, produced at the Coro^- 
die Frangaise in 1784. It forms the continu- 
ation of the Barhier de Seville, and represents 
the situations produced by Figaro's schemes to 
render ineffectual Almaviva's pursuit of Su- 
zanne, the barber's fiancee. The play is brilliant 
though unequal. It embodies in a Spanish set- 
ting an attack on the French nobility and magis- 

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tracy, and was considered by Louis XVI. too 
dangerous for public representation. 

ITAKTAGE FOBC^!, m&'r^&zh^ fOr's&^ Le 
(Fr., the forced marriage). A one-act prose 
comedy-ballet by Moliftre (1664). The old Sgana- 
relle, under promise of marriage to a young 
coquette, Dorimtoe, hesitates to fulfill his prom- 
ise and seeks advice without result from two 
philosopher friends, but is finally forced to con- 
sent by her brother Alcidas. The piece bore the 
name 'Pallet du roi," because Louis XIV. danced 
in it as a gypsy. 

KA^BIA GENS. A plebeian gens at Rome. 
It was never divided into families. Its most 
celebrated member was Caius Marius, conqueror 
of the Cimbri and Teutones. 

ICABIAGEKr m£'r^rg§r, Peteb (1827—). 
A Danish novelist, born at Nyborg. He became 
known through translations from the French and 
German, such as that of Flammarion's Inhabited 
Worlds. His original works are: Fra Hellas, 
Fern aniike ForioBllinger (1881) ; Den sidste La- 
mia, og andre aniike Foriosllinger (1884) ; Mag- 
thaveren paa Rhodos (1885) ; Sybaris, a drama; 
Dronningen af Kyrene, og andre antike Fortcel- 
linger (1801) ; and Et Bryllup i Katakombeme 
(1893). All of his stories relate to Greek and 
Roman subjects. 

MABIA n. DA GLOBIA, mk-r^k d& gW- 
T^k (1819-53). A Queen of Portugal. She was ir 
daughter of Dom Pedro I., Emperor of Brazil, 
and a granddaughter of King John VI., of Portu- 
gal. She succeeded to the Portuguese throne in 
1826 on the death of her grandfather, Dom Pedro 
renouncing his claim to the throne in her favor, 
and though only a child was promised in mar- 
riage to her uncle, Dom Miguel, who was to act 
as Regent. The latter, however, in 1828 usurped 
the throne. In 1832-33 Pom Pedro successfully 
attacked Dom Miguel by land and sea, and in 
1834 the usurper, yielding to the threats of Eng- 
land and France, submitted. Maria was estab- 
lished on the throne, and in 1835 she married the 
Duke Charles Augustus of Leuchtenberg, who 
died a few months later. The next year she mar- 
ried Duke Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha-Ko- 
hary. She was succeeded by her eldest son, 
Pedro V. 

(1703-68). Wife of King Louis XV. of France. 
She was the daughter of Stanislas Leszczynski, 
King of Poland, and was bom in Breslau before 
he came to the throne. Maria accompanied her 
father in his wretched wanderings after his ex- 
pulsion from Poland. He settled in Alsace in 
1719, after the death of Clharles XII. of Sweden, 
and there the Duke of Bourbon saw Maria, and 
arranged her marriage with Louis XV., who was 
seven years her junior. She lived in retirement, 
devoting herself to acts of piety and charity, and 
died at Versailles, survived by four daughters. 
Consult : d'Armaille, La reine Marie Leszczynska 
(Paris, 1870), and Des Reaux, Le roi Stanislas 
€t Marie Leszczynska (Paris, 1895). 

ICABLA. LOUISA (1751-1819). Daughter of 
Duke Philip of Parma, and wife of King Charles 
rV. of Spam (q.v.), whom she married in 1765, 
while he was still Infante. When he succeed- 
ed to the crown in 1788, she and her lover, 
Godoy, Duke of Alcudia, managed to secure 
practical control of the Government. After the 
revolution in 1808 which placed Ferdinand VIL 


on the throne of his father, she and her hus- 
band fled to France and appealed to Napoleon, 
who induced the young King to restore the crown 
to his father and then persuaded the latter to 
cede it to him ; whereupon he promptly bestowed 
it on his brother Joseph (q.v.). Maria spent the 
remainder of her life in exile at Marseilles and 
Nice and latterly at Rome, where she died. 

MABIA LOUISA (1782-1824). Queen of 
Etruria, daughter of Charles IV. of Spain (q.v.) 
and Maria Louisa of Parma (q.v.). She married 
Louis, eldest son of Duke Ferdinand of Parma. 
In 1801 her husband was invested by Napoleon 
with the Kingdom of Etruria (Tuscany), the 
consideration being that Parma should revert to 
France on the death of Ferdinand. When Louis 
died in 1803, her son, Charles Louis, succeed- 
ed to the Etrurian throne under her regency, 
but the kingdom was incorporated in 1807 in the 
French dominions. The Congress of Vienna in 
compensation gave the young prince Lucca, which 
his mother governed as Regent until he came of 
age, and in a subsequent treaty it was stipulated 
that Parma should revert to him on the death 
of the ex-Empress Maria Louisa. The Queen's 
memoirs were published under the title Mdmoires 
de la reine d*Etrurie (Paris, 1814). 

KABIA LOUISA (1791-1847). The second 
wife of the Emperor Napoleon I. She was 
bom December 12, 1791, the daughter of the 
Archduke Francis, afterwards the Emperor Fran- 
cis I. of Austria, and was married to Napoleon 
on April 2, 1810. The marriage seemed to give 
stability to the Bonaparte dynasty, and in some 
measure to afl'ord a prospect of peace to Europe. 
On March 20, 1811, she bore a son, who was 
called King of Rome. At the beginning of the 
campaign of 1813 Napoleon appointed her Regent 
in his absence, but under many limitations. On 
the abdication of Napoleon she was not permitted 
to follow her husband, but went with her son to 
SchOnbrunn, where she remained till, in 1816, 
she received the duchies of Parma, Piacenza, and 
Guastalla. In 1821 she contracted a morga- 
natic marriage with her chamberlain. Count von 
Neipperg, who died in 1829. In 1833 she entered 
into a secret marriage with (Ik>unt Bombelles, 
likewise her chamberlain. She died at Vienna, 
December 17, 1847. Consult: the works of Im- 
bert de Saint Amand, The Happy Days of the 
Empress Marie Louise (trans. New York, 1890- 
91 ) ; Marie Louise and the Decadence of the 
Empire (trans. New York, 1891) ; Marie Louise 
and the Invasion of 18J4 (trans. New York, 
1891); Marie Louise, the Island of Elba, and 
the Hundred Days (trans. New York, 1891); 
and Marie Louise et le Due de Reichstadt (Paris, 
1892). See Napoleon I. 

KABIA LOUISA, Order of. A Spanish 
order founded by CHiarles IV., in 1792, and be- 
stowed by the Queen on women of the old no- 
bility. The recipient is expected to devote her- 
self to charitable and pious works. The order 
has one class. 

TffAKTAMNE, ma'rl-Sm'n^. Wife of Herod 
the Great (q.v.). She belonged to the family of 
the Maccabees (q.v.), being the granddaughter 
of Hyrcanus II. Although she was deeply be- 
loved by her husband, he had her put to death 
in a fit of jealousy, and remorse for the act em- 
bittered the later years of his life. She is famed 
for her beauty as well as her tragic fate. 

Digitized by 



MATlTAirWE. The title of plays hy Alex- 
andre Hardy (1610), Tristan TErmite (1637), 
and Voltaire (1723), based on the story of Mari- 
amne, wife of Herod the Great. 

MART ANA. (1) In Shakespeare's Measure 
for Measure, the charming and womanly lover 
of Angelo. Tennyson's Mariana in the Moated 
Orange and Mariana in the South were based on 
her character. (2) In Knowles's The Wife, a 
gentle and faithful character married to Leo- 
nardo. She is the victim of a plot to make her 
appear guilty of infidelity with a coimtryman, 
who turns out to be her brother. 

MABIANA. The name given by Capt. John 
Mason to the land granted him by the Council for 
New England on March 9, 1621. The patent, 
which was the second granted by the Council, 
covered the lands lying between the Naimikeag 
(Salem) and Merrimac rivers, with the islands 
within three miles of the shore, and was included 
in the present territory of Massachusetts. 

MABIANA, mrr^a^nS, Juan (15361623). 
A distinguished Spanish historian and scholar, 
bom at Talavera. In 1554 he entered the Order 
of the Jesuits. His early studies in languages 
and theology were so brilliant that he was ap- 
pointed to teach in the schools of his Order, first 
at Rome (where the celebrated Bellarmine [q.v.] 
was one of his scholars) in 1561, afterwards in 
Sicily in 1565, and finally in Paris in 1569. 
After a residence there of seven years he settled 
at Toledo, where he resided till his death, at an 
extreme old age. His retirement, however, was 
passed in sus&ined literary activity. From an 
early period he devoted himself to writing a his- 
tory of Spain (1592-1605). The original of this 
history was Latin, the elegance and purity of 
which have secured for Mariana a place among 
the most distinguished of modern Latinists. 
Mariana himself published a Spanish translation, 
which still remains one of the classics of the 
language. Among his other productions are a 
scholia of the Bible and an edition of the works 
of Isidore of Seville. But the most celebrated of 
the works of Mariana is his well-known treatise, 
De Rege et Regis Institutione ( 1599), in which is 
raised the important question whether it is law- 
ful to overthrow and kill a tyrant. Mariana de- 
cides that it is right for every man to do so, even 
where the tyrant is not a usurper, but a lawful 
king, and esteems Jacques Clement (q.v.) equally 
with Brutus. This tyrannicide doctrine drew 
much odium upon the entire Order of Jesuits; 
but the same doctrines were taught in almost the 
same words by several of the Protestant contem- 
poraries of Mariana (consult Hallam. Introduc- 
tion to the Literature of Europe^ 6th ed., London, 
1855-56), while, on the other hand, Mariana's 
book was condemned by the general, Acquaviva. 
Mariana's views on other siibjects were broad- 
minded and liberal. 

MABIANA ISLANDS. See Ladrone Isl- 

MAB'IAN^A. A town and the county-seat 
of Lee County, Ark., 106 miles by rail east of 
Little Rock, on L'Anguille River, at the head of 
navigation, and on the Saint Louis, Iron Moun- 
tain and Southern Railroad (Map: Arkansas, E 
3). It carries on a considerable trade in cotton, 
and has cotton-gins, cottonseed-oil mills, lumber- 
mills, etc. The water-works are owned and oper- 


ated by the municipality. Population, in 1900, 
1707; m 1906 (local est.), 2600. 

MABIANNE, m&'r^&n^ on les Aventures 
DE LA CoMTESSB DE. . . . An unfinished ro- 
mance by Marivaux ( 1731-41 ) , to which a second 
part was added in 1755 by Madame Riccobini. 
The novel has been said to be the origin of Pa- 
mela. It is important as the first novel of analy- 
sis rather than of incident, and contains minute 
pictures of bourgeois and conventual life. 

MABIANNE (m&'ri-ftnO ISLANDS. See 
Ladbonb Islands. 

MAB'IA'NTTS SCCyXUS (1028-C.1082). An 
Irish chronicler, whose real name was Moelbrigte. 
He left his native land at the age of twenty-four, 
when he became a monk, and in 1056 entered 
the monastery at Cologne, where he remained 
for two years. He then went to Fulda for ten 
years, and became a recluse there in 1059 and at 
Mainz in 1069. His claim to remembrance rests 
upon a Chronicon Universale, extending from the 
birth of Christ to 1082, which contains extracts 
from Bede and other chroniclers, besides new ma- 
terial. The first printed edition was made at 
Basel in 1559, and others appeared in 1601, 1613, 
and 1726. 

MABIA OF AUSTBIA ( 1505-58) . A Queen 
of Hungary, a daughter of Philip the Fair of 
Burgundy and Joan of Castile, and sister of 
the Emperor Charles V. and Ferdinand I. of 
Hapsburg. She was bom at Brussels in 1505. 
She married Louis II. of Hungary in 1522, and 
became a widow in 1526, when her husband was 
overwhelmed by the Turks at Mohftcs. In 1530 
she was appointed Governor-General of the Neth- 
erlands by Charles V., succeeding Margaret of 
Austria. There she ruled ably and firmly. In 
general, she aided Charles in his foreign policy, 
often acted as mediator between him and Ferdi- 
nand, and resigned from her office in the Nether- 
lands upon the abdication of Charles (1555). 
She retired to Spain, and died at Cigales. Maria 
was a patron of arts and letters, and left a valu- 
able collection of manuscripts now in the Bur- 
gundian Library of Brussels. 

MABIA STUABT. A tragedy by Schiller, 
first undertaken about 1787, then abandoned, and 
resumed in 1799. It was printed and presented 
in 1800. It was based on a considerable study 
of the period by Schiller, but takes great license 
with historical facts. 

MABIA THEBESA, mkrl^k te-re^ek (1717- 
80). Queen of Hungary and Bohemia and Arch- 
duchess of Austria, and wife of the German Em- 
peror, Francis I. She was the daughter of the 
Emperor Charles VI. (q.v.), and was bom at 
Vienna, May 13, 1717. By the Pragmatic Sanc- 
tion (q.v.) her father sought to secure from the 
European powers her undisputed succession to 
the Hapsburg dominions. On February 12, 1736, 
she married Francis Stephen, Duke of Lorraine 
(soon after Grand Duke of Tuscany), and on 
the death of her father, October 20, 1740, she 
succeeded to the hereditary possessions of the 
House of Austria, which, in addition to the 
German, Hungarian, and Slavic lands, included 
Lombardy and the Belgian Netherlands. She 
found the monarchy exhausted, the finances em- 
barrassed, the people discontented, and the army 
weak: while Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Naples, 
and Sardinia, stirred up by France, put forward 
claims to portions of her dominions, chiefly 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




lounded on the extinction of the male line of 
tbe House of Hapsburg and in contravention 
of the Pragmatic Sanction. The War of the 
Austrian Succession (1740-48) ensued, in which 
England supported Austria. (See Succession 
Waks.) Frederick II. of Prussia soon made 
himself master of Silesia; Spain and Naples laid 
hands on the Austrian dominions in Italy; and 
tie French, Bavarians (whose ruler was elected 
Holy Roman Emperor as Charles VII. in 1742), 
and* Saxons overran the hereditary Austrian 
territories. The young Q\ieen was in the utmost 
danger of seeing her realms dismembered, hut 
was 8aved by thS chivalrous fidelity of the Hun- 
garians, the assistfince of Ekigland, and most 
of all by her own resolute spirit. Her eaemiei 
quarreled among themselv^; and the war of 
tbe Austrian Succession was terminated by the 
Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. Maria Theresa 
lost Silesia and date and the du<^es of 
Parma, PiaoeuEa, and Guastalki. In 1745 her 
husband (Francis I.) had been raised to the Im- 
perial throne of Gremiany on the death of Charles 
Vll. During the period of peace that followed 
she initiated great financial reforms; agriculture, 
manufactures, and commerce flourished, the na- 
tional revenues greatly increased, and the bur- 
dens of tbe peasantry were diminished. All this 
time she was strengthening her resources in an- 
ticipation of a renewal of the war with Freder- 
ick the Great. Her indomitable pride and her 
devout Catholicism would not permit her to re- 
linquish Silesia as long as she could fight for it. 
She found in Kaunitz (q.v.) a minister pos- 
sessed of the wisdom and energy requisite for the 
conduct of affairs, and in him she placed almost 
unlimited confidence. He effected the alliance 
with France which disturbed all existing inter- 
national arrangements (1756). In the Seven 
Years' War (q.v.) Maria Theresa and her allies 
^rell-nigh achieved the ruin of Frederick the 
Great; but the generalship of the indomitable 
Prufisian King, the incapacity of the generals 
of Louis XV., and Russia's abandonment of the 
cause of ^laria Theresa, enabled Frederick to 
emerge from the struggle with his dominions 
intact. The war reduced Austria to a state of 
p-eat exhaustion ; but when it was concluded, Ma- 
ria Theresa renewed her efforts to promote the na- 
tional prosperity, and made many important re- 
forms, ameliorating the condition of the peasan- 
try and mitigating the penal code. Her son 
Jc«eph (IT.) became Holy Roman Emperor on 
the death of her husband in 1765. Maria Theresa 
aswwiatcd him with herself in the government of 
her hereditary States, but in reality committed 
to him the charge only of military affairs. She 
joined with Russia and Prussia in the first parti- 
tion of Poland (1772), Galicia falling to her 
share. She also compelled the Porte to give up 
Bukowina to her (1777). The brief War of the 
Bavarian Succession (1778-79) ended in her ac- 
quisition of a district along the Inn (Innviertel) , 
but led to the formation of the Fiirstenbund or 
league of German Princes, which set bounds to 
the Austrian power in Germany. Maria Theresa 
died in Vienna. November 29, 1780. Throughout 
her reign she displayed a resolute and masculine 
character. Although a zealous Roman Catholic, 
■be maintained the rights of the Crown against 
the Cimrt of Rome, and endeavored to correct 
•ome of the worst abuses in the Church. She 
prohibited the presence of priests at the making 
\OL. xiil.— *• 

of wills, abolished the right of asylum in churohes 
and convents, and suppressed the Inquisition in 
Milan. Her son succeeded her as Joseph II. 

Consult: Ameth, Oeschichte Maria Theresias 
(10 vols., Vienna, 1863-79); Kern, "Die Refor- 
men der Kaiser in Maria Theresias," in Hisior- 
%8ohe8 Taschenhuoh, id. (Leipzig, 1809); Broghe, 
Frederick the Great and Maria Theresa, from 
unpublished dociunents, translated (London. 
1883) ; id., Marie Thdr^e, Imp6ratrice, 1744-^6 
(Paris, 1888) ; Villermont, Marie Th^^se, 1717- 
80 (Paris, 1895) ; Bright, Maria Theresa (Lon- 
don, 1897). Her correspondence has been edited 
by Kervyn de Lettenhove, Lettres in^dites de 
Marie Th6r^se et de Joseph II. y Royal Academy 
of Belgium, and by Ameth (Vienna, 1867-81). 

MABIA THEBESA, Order of. An Aus- 
trian order conferred exclusively for distin- 
guished conduct in war, founded in 1767. The 
monarch is the head of the order. Pensions rang- 
ing from 600 to 6000 florins are given to mem- 
bers. The distinction is very sparingly conferred. 



KABIAZEIiL, ma'r6-&-ts6l'. A village in the 
Crownland of Styria, Austria, 60 miles southwest 
of Vienna (Map: Austria, D 3). It is the great- 
est pilgrim resort of Austria-Hungary, being 
visited annually by about 200,000 people. The 
church containing the famous image of the Vir- 
gin was originally founded in 1363 and rebuilt 
in 1827. In the vicinity is a large iron foundry. 
Population, in 1900, 1499. 

MABIBOJOC, ma'r*-b6-H6k'. A town of Bo- 
hol, Philippines, situated on high ground on 
the southwestern coast, 7^! miles north of Tag- 
bilaran. It is an important road centre. Popu- 
lation, in 1903, 11,830. 

KABICOPA, ma'r^-ko'pA, or Coco-Mabicopa. 
A tribe of Yuman stock (q.v.), formerly living 
about the junction of the Gila and Colorado 
rivers, southwestern Arizona. About seventy 
years ago, on account of the hostility of the 
Yuma, they moved up the Gila and confederated 
with the Pima (q.v.), with whom they are now 
living upon the Gila River reservation. They de- 
pend upon agriculture by irrigation and formerly 
raised large crops, but both they and the Pima 
are now reduced to a condition of chronic starva- 
tion on account of the cutting oflf of their water 
supply by white settlers. They liye in houses of 
corn-stalks and straw woven upon a framework 
of poles, with storehouses and arbors surround- 
ing. Their women are superior potters, basket- 
makers, and weavers of native cotton. The men 
formerly wore only the G-string, while the women 
wound a strip of cotton cloth about the waist. 
The hair was worn flowing and cut across the 
forehead. At present they are practically civil- 
ized through missionary effort and have a high 
reputation for industry and general good quali- 
ties. They number about 350. A sample of 
their work is shown on the Plate of Indian 

k'mk'W de boor'b6N'. Queen of the French. 
See Amalie, Marie. 

MABIE ANTOINETTE, ftN'twft'net' (1755- 
93). Wife of Louis XVT. of France. She was 
the youngest daughter of Emperor Francis I. and 

Digitized by 





Maria Theresa, and was bom at Vienna, Novem- 
ber 2, 1755. At the age of fourteen she was 
betrothed to the French Dauphin, and in the fol- 
lowing year was married at Versailles. Her re- 
ception by her husband and the King, Louis XV., 
was flattering; but her naivete, unceremonious 
pleasantry, and detestation of rigid etiquette 
scandalized Versailles. Soon after the accession 
of Louis XVL (1774), libels were circulated by 
her enemies, chief among them being the Count 
of Provence, younger brother of the King, who 
subsequently ruled as Louis XVIII., accusing her 
of constant intrigues, not one of which has ever 
been proved. Her faults as a queen (and in that 
age, rapidly growing earnest, angry, and imbit- 
tered, they were fatal ones) were a certain levity 
of disposition, girlish love of pleasure, banquets, 
and fine dress, an aristocratic indifference to 
general opinion, and a lamentable incapacity to 
see the actual misery of France. She attempted 
to use her influence with Louis XVI. to shape 
the foreign policy of France in accordance with 
the interests of Austria, but her imconcealed 
pro-Austrian sympathies aroused dissatisfaction 
among the nation and gained her the unpleasant 
epithet of *the Austrian Woman' ( VAutrichienne) . 
The affair of the Diamond Necklace (q.v. ) , in 1785, 
hopelessly compromised her good name in the eyes 
of the public. Her influence on the internal politics 
of the country was not more fortunate. LomOnie 
de Brienne and Calonne were ministers of her 
choice, and she shared the opprobrium called 
down upon them for their reckless squandering 
of the national finances. She strongly opposed 
the summoning of the Notables (1787), and of 
the States-General (1789); and she had good 
reason to dread their convocation, for one of the 
very first things the Notables did was to declare 
the Queen the cause of the derangement of the 
finances. From the first hour of the Revolution 
she was an object of fanatical hatred to the mob 
of Paris, who regarded her as conspiring with 
her brother, Leopold II. of Austria, for the re- 
establishment of the absolute monarchy. In hours 
of crisis her resolute bearing spurred on the 
weak-willed Louis XVI. to spasmodic assertions 
of his authority without bringing him to take a 
decisive step in defense of his rights. After the 
removal of the royal family from Versailles to 
the Tuileries (October 6, 1789), she attempted 
on various occasions to conciliate the good will 
of the people, but failed before the vindictive 
enmity of the Parisian populace. Out of hatred 
of Mirabeau she could not be brought to accept 
the aid of the man who alone might have saved 
the monarchy from destruction. At last she re- 
solved on flight. Her husband long refused to 
abandon his country, but she could not go with- 
out him, and flnally the King consented. The 
flight took place on the night of June 20th, but 
the royal fugitives were recognized and turned 
back at Varennes. The flight to Varennes only 
served to conflrm the popular belief as to the 
Queen's intrigue with foreign powers, and, as 
a matter of fact, there is no doubt that Marie 
Antoinette had corresponded and continued to 
correspond with her brother relative to the in- 
vasion of France by an Austrian army for 
the purpose of rescuing the royal family. On 
June 20, 1792, a mob invaded the Tuileries, 
forced Louis XVI. to don a liberty cap, and 
heaped outrageous insults on the Queen as they 
filed past her throughout the greater part of the 

afternoon. On August 10th came the final storm- 
ing of the Tuileries. Marie Antoinette's guards 
were murdered at her chamber door, and the 
unhappy Queen was compelled to seek refuge 
with her husband in the hall of the (inven- 
tion, whence they were consigned on the 13 th 
as prisoners to the Temple. Louis XVI. was 
executed on January 21, 1793. Marie Antoi- 
nette was separated from her son July 3, 1793, 
and on August 1st was removed to the Concier- 
gerie. Twice while she was a prisoner in the 
Temple were unsuccessful attempts made to effect 
her escape. On October 14th she was brought be- 
fore the Revolutionary Tribunal, and charged 
with fomenting civil war and lending counsel to 
the foreign enemies of France. Testimony 
against her was given by the unspeakable H^bert^ 
who sought to blacken her personal character 
with trumped-up charges. She was foimd guilty 
of treason after a two days' trial, was condemned 
to death on October 16th, and was executed 
the same day. 

The tragic fate of Marie Antoinette has given 
rise to a voluminous literature, in which the 
Queen has been depicted as the victim, the sainted 
martyr, almost, of the Revolution. In reaction 
against this view, other writers have dealt with 
her character and with her rOle in French his- 
tory in a spirit of cruel analvsis that probably 
sins in its way as much as the exaggeration of 
the sentimentalists. 

BiBLiOGBAPHT. The memoirs of Madame de 
Campan, lady-in-waiting to the Queen, are im- 
portant. They were first published in France in 
1822, and have since appeared in numerous French 
and English editions. The latest edition in Eng- 
lish is entitled The Private Life of Marie An- 
toinettCy Queen of France and Navarre (New 
York, 1887). Much of the Queen's correspondence 
has been published bv Von Ameth, d'Hunolstein, 
De Reiset, and Geffroy. The memoirs of the 
Prince de Ligne and the Duke de Ohoiseul are of 
value. Consult, also : Bicknell, The Story of Marie 
Antoinette (New York, 1897) ; Jacob, "Ueber 
den politischen Einfluss der Kdnigin Marie An- 
toinette von Frankreich," in Historisches Ta- 
schenhuchy vol. ix. (Leipzig, 1838), with a list of 
authorities; Lenotre, La captivity et la mort de 
Marie Antoinette (Paris, 1897) ; Weber, La 
jeunesse de Marie Antoinette (ib., 1897) ; E. 
and J. de Goncourt, Histoire de Marie Antoinette 
(ib., 1858 and 1878) ; Brunier, Marie Antoinette 
(3 vols., Vienna, 1902-5). 

MABIE DE FBANCE, de fr^Ns (twelfth 
century?). The earliest French poet. She was 
bom in France. She dedicated her fables to 
a certain William, whom some have identified 
with William Longsword of Salisbury; and she 
alludes in her Fables to a king, sometimes iden- 
tified with Henry III. of England. If these 
hypotheses be correct, it would appear that 
she lived in England and in the early thirteenth 
century, but textual evidence points to an earlier 
date. She wrote Lata and a collection of animal 
fables, a so-called Ysopet. A poem of 2300 lines 
on Saint Patrick's purgatory { L'espugatoire 
Seint Patriz) she derived ifrom a Latin treatise 
by Henry of Saltrey, written before 1185. The 
Lais are fourteen narrative poems, ranging 
in length from 100 to 1200 verses. Of these 
the best known is the Ch&orefeuille, describ- 
ing an episode in the loves of Tristan and 
Iseult (Isolde) ; the finest is Eliduc. Noteworthy 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


also are Le roasignol, Lea deuw amants, Yoneo 
(a fairy tale of the bluebird) , and Lanval. These 
Marie got from Kymric sources. Marie says 
she translated her 103 fables from an English 
version by King Alfred {roi Alvrez), or, as two 
JdSS. read, "Kmg Henry." The English version 
from which she worked is lost; the Latin that 
stood behind it comprised nearly all the collec- 
tion of Romulus (ninth century), supplemented 
from the Jewish-Oriental fables preserved in the 
collection of Berachyah and Pisore Alphonse, and 
apparently also from early native sources. The 
poems of Marie de France are edited by Roque- 
fort (Paris, 1820), and better by Wamke in vol. 
iii. of Bibliotheoa Normannica, with an essay by 
R5hler (Halle, 1885). Consult: B^ier, "Les Lais 
de Marie de France/' in Revue dee Deux Mondes 
(Paris, 1891), and on the Ysopet, a chapter by 
Sudre in Petit de Julleville, Histoire de la langue 
et de la litt^ature frangaiae, vol. ii. (Paris, 
1896) ; also Wamke, Die Quellen dea Eaope der 
Marie de France (Halle, 1900). 

MASIE GATiANTE, g&'l&Nt^ An island in 
the West Indies, one of the Lesser Antilles. It 
belongs to France, and lies seventeen miles 
southeast of Guadeloupe, of which it is an 
administrative dependency (Map: West Indies, 
Q 4). It is nearly circular in shape; area, 68 
square miles. It consists of a limestone plateau, 
300 to 600 feet high, surroimded by steep rocky 
shores. The chief products are sugar, coffee, 
and cotton. The chief town is Grandbourg, on 
the southwest coast. The population in 1901 
was 15,181. Marie Galante is so called from 
the name of the ship commanded by Columbus 
when he discovered the island in 1493. 

ICABIENBAD, mA-rS'en-bJlt. One of the 
most famous watering places of Europe, situated 
near the western border of Bohemia, Austria, 
amidst pine-clad hills, at an altitude of nearly 
2100 feet, 47 miles by rail northwest of Pilsen 
(Map: Austria, C 2). It is a small town, with 
a fine Roman Catholic church (1844-50) in By- 
zantine style, a tasteful synagogue, a theatre, 
and a military 'curhaus.' Its fine promenading 
grounds are adorned with monuments. The 
springs do not differ essentially from those of 
Karlsbad except that they are cold. They range 
in temperature from 48** to 53° F. The prin- 
cipal springs are the saline Kreuzbrunnen and 
Ferdinandsbrunnen, used both for bathing and 
drinking. They yield large quantities of water 
for export. The Marienquelle is used only for 
bathing, and contains a large proportion of car- 
bonic acid. The chalybeate Ambrosius- and 
Karolinenbrunnen are used both for drinking and 
bathing. Besides the above-mentioned* springs 
there are at Marienbad baths of mud, pine cones, 
and gas, and a new hydropathic establishment. 
Considerable qiiantities of salt are exported. Al- 
though the springs of Marienbad enjoyed a local 
reputation long fcfore the nineteenth century, it 
was only in 1808 that the first bathing estab- 
lishment was opened, and the place assumed its 
present name. Population, in 1900, 4588, chiefly 

1CABIENBT7BO, mA-r§^en-bo5rK. An old 
town of Prussia, 30 miles south-southeast of Dan- 
zig, on the Nogat River ( Map : Prussia, HI). It 
is chiefly interesting because it was, for one and a 
half centuries, the seat of the grand masters of 
the Teutonic Order. These knights built the 


Marienburg Schloss, one of the largest and most 
strongly fortified buildings in Germany, and one 
of the most remarkable secular buildings of the 
Middle Ages. Marienburg remained in the hands 
of the knights till 1457, when it was taken by the 
Poles. The town has large wool-cleaning works, 
and manufactures of machinery. It trades in 
grain, wood, linen, and horses. Population, 1900, 
10,732; 1906, 13,095. Consult Bergau, Daa Or- 
denahaupthaua Marienburg in Pruaaia (Berlin, 

KABIENWEBDEB^ m&r^en-ver'ddr. The 
capital of a district in the Prussian Province of 
West Prussia, on a tributary of the Vistula, 
about forty-five miles south of Danzig (Map: 
Prussia, H 2) . It has a fourteenth-century cathe- 
dral and a castle built by the Teutonic Knights, 
the founders of the town, in 1233. The principal 
industries are susar-refining and the manufacture 
of cloth and machinery. 'Hiere is a considerable 
trade in fruit. Population, 1900, 9686; 1905, 

MABIE TH]£b£:SE (m&'r^ tA'r^s^) of Aus- 
TBIA ( 1638-83) . A wife of Louis XIV. of France, 
daughter of Philip IV. of Spain, born in Ma- 
drid. By the terms of the Peace of the Pyrenees 
(1659) she was married to Louis XIV. (1660). 
She lived very unhappily with Louis, but at 
length seemed to find comfort in religion. Con- 
sult Duclos, Mme, de la Valli^e et Marie Th6r^e 
(Paris, 1869). 

KABltTON, mft'rft-&'t6N', Paul (1862-). 
A French poet and critic, bom at Lyons. He 
early became associated with the Provencal move- 
ment in Southern France, and took a prominent 
part in that revival. His writings include : 8ou- 
venance (1884), a poem; La viole d* amour 
(1886) ; and, in poetry, Hellaa (1888) ; La terre 
provencale (1890); and Le livre de m^lancolie 

MAKIETTA, mft'rl-et'tA. A city and the 
county-seat of Cobb County, Ga., 20 miles north 
by west of Atlanta; on the Louisville and Nash- 
ville and the Western and Atlantic railroads 
(Map: Georgia, B 2). It has the Clarke Library 
of 5000 volumes. In the large National Cemetery 
here there are 10,279 graves, 2967 of unknown 
dead. Kenesaw Mountain (q.v.) is situated a 
short distance west. The city is the centre of a 
farming and stock-raising district, and has ex- 
tensive marble works and chair factories, besides 
miscellaneous manufactures. Marietta, first in- 
corporated in 1852, is governed, under a charter 
of 1885, by a mayor, elected biennially, and a city 
council, chosen at large. Population, 1900, 4446; 
1906 (local est.), 6000. 

MABIETTA. A city and the county-seat of 
Washington County, Ohio, 132 miles by rail 
southeast of Columbus; at the junction of the 
Ohio and the Muskingum rivers, the former 
being spanned by a bridge connecting with Wil- 
liamstown, W. Va. ; and on the Baltimore and 
Ohio, the Pennsylvania Company, and the Mari- 
etta, Columbus, and Ohio railroads (Map: Ohio, 
H 7). It is the seat of Marietta College (q.v.), 
with a library of 60,000 volumes, and has a city 
park, set apart in 1788, and the oldest church 
and the oldest building in the Northwest Terri- 
tory, the latter having been the office of the Ohio 
Land Ompany. In the cemetery are buried 
many Revolutionary soldiers. The city is in a 
petroleum, coal, and iron region, and has large 

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commercial interests througli its river trade; it 
manufacturea flour, lumber products, chairs, 
tables, and furniture, cars, tanned leather, car- 
Tiages and wagons, refined petroleum, boats, oil- 
^well tools, boilers, wooden bicycle rims, brick, 
liamess, glass, caskets, ete. The government is 
«,dmini8tered under the Ohio municipal code of 
1902 by a mayor, a unicameral council, a board 
of public safety, appointed by the mayor with 
the concurrence of two-thirds of the council, and 
a board of public service elected by the people. 
AH these officers are chosen for a term of two 
years. The city owns and operates the water- 
works and electric-light plant. Population, in 
18«0, 8273; in IftOO, 13,348. 

Marietta, the first settlement within the 
present limits of Ohio, was founded in 1788 by 
^ufus Putnam and a colony from New England 
under the authority of the 'Ohio Company* (q.v.) . 
It was named in honor of Marie Antoinette. In 
July, 1788, the Northwest Territory was formally 
organized here by Governor Arthur Saint Clair, 
^iennerhasset Island, twelve miles below, was 
the scene of various incidents in the *Burr Con- 
flpiracy.' Marietta was first incorporated, as a 
town, in 1800. In 1890 the village of Harmar, 
where, in 1785, Fort Harmar had been built, was 
annexed. Consult Hoar, Oration at the Celehra- 
tion of the Centennial of the Founding of the 
Jiorthvcest at Marietta (Washington, 1888). 

MABIETTA COLLEGE. A co-educational 
institution of learning at Marietta, Ohio, founded 
in 1835. It has a regular college course and also 
departments of art and music, and a preparatory 
•department. Marietta Academy. The courses are 
X)artially elective, and lead to the B.A., Ph.B., 
and B.L. degrees. Provision is made for grad- 
uate instruction and for summer courses. The 
library, of over 60,000 volumes, is especially 
strong in the history of the old Northwest Ter- 
ritory. In 1906-7 the college had a faculty of 27 
iustructors, and an attendance of 369, including 
'97 collegiate, 148 academic, and 121 music stu- 
dents. Its endowment was $265,000, its income 
$25,000, the value of its grounds and buildings 
$350,000, and the total value of the college prop- 
erty $600,000. 

KAlLIETTEy mk'x^'hVy Auguste Edouabd 
< 1821-81). A French Egyptologist, born at 
Boulogne-sur-Mer. He became in 1849 assist- 
ant in the Egjrptian museum at the Louvre. 
He was sent to Egypt to collect Coptic manu- 
scripts, but there bewime interested in the ruins 
of itemphis and in excavations. Aided finan- 
cially by the French Government and by the 
Duke de Luynes, he excavated, in 1851, the Sera- 
peum near the modern Sakkara and the tombs 
of the Apis bulls, finding thousands of inscrip- 
tions and statues, as well as many mummies of 
sacred bulls and cows, which went chiefly to 
Paris. In 1854 he returned to Paris and was 
made curator in the Egyptian Museum. In 1858 
lie went to Egj^pt and became director of the 
governmental excavations and curator of the 
monuments. Acting in this capacity, he cleared 
most of the ancient temples, the great Sphinx, 
the tombs at Sakkara, and other historic spots 
from sand and rubbish, and formed the Egyptian 
National Museum. In 1873 he received the bien- 
nial prize of 20,000 francs from the Institute of 
France. The Egvptian Government gave him 
the title of Bey, later that of Pasha. He died 
in 1881 and was buried in a huge stone sarcopha- 

gus standing before the museum. He produced^ 
with the aid of collaborators and draughtsmen, 
many books, among them: M^moire sur la mH-e 
(VApis (1856); Rcnseignementa eur lea 6J^ apis 
troiiv^s dans les soutcrraina du B^rap4um ( 1856) ; 
Choix de monumenta ct de deaaina, ddcouvcria ou 
ex^ciit^a pendant le d^hlayement du HH-ap^um de 
Memphia ( 1850) ; Le ti^ap^m de Memphiai 1857 
et seq.) ; Apercu de Vhiatoire d'Egypte (1867) ; 
Abpdoa (1870) ; Lea papyrua ^gyptiena du mua^ 
de Boulaq ( 1872-77 ) ; Denderah ( 1869-75 ) ; Mon^ 
menta divera (1872 et seq.); Deir-el-Bakari 
(1877) ; Kamak (1875) ; Voyage dana la Haute 
Egypte ( 1878) : Catalogue dea mon^umenta d'Aby- 
doa (1880); Lea Maatabaa de Vancien empire 
(1881 et seq). 

MABIOLIAKO, mE'r^-lya'nd. A to\*-n in the 
Province of Caserta, Italy, on the railway line 
Naples-Bajano, about 10 miles northeast of 
Naples (Map: Italy, J 7). It has a fine church 
and a large palace. It markets grain and wine. 
Population (commune), in 1901, 12,491. 

MABIOHAHO, ma'r^-nyrnd. See Meudo- 


MABIOOLD {Mary, in allusion to the Virgin 
Mary, gold). A name given to certain plants of 
the natural order Composit«, chiefly of the gen- 
era Calendula and Tagetes. The genus Calen- 
dula comprises about twenty annual and peren- 
nial herbs and shrubs, of which some of the 
former are found in the countries bordering on 
the Mediterranean, the latter chiefly in South 
Africa. Pot marigold {Calendula officinalis) is 
a common cultivated annual, native of Southern 
Europe, with an erect stem, 1 to 2 feet high, 
obovate lower leaves on long stalks, and large, 
deep yellow flowers. There are a number of 
varieties, some of which have double flowers. • 
The whole plant has a slight aromatic odor, and 
a bitter taste. The dried florets are often em- 
ployed to adulterate aafl'ron, and sometimes for 
coloring butter or cheese. They are also used 
in the preparation of soups. The plants are 
propagated by seeds sown in spring in ordinary 
garden soil in simny or half shady places. Later 
they are thinned to about one foot apart. The 
genus Tagetes consists of annual and perennial 
herba, natives of thb warmer parts of America. 
Aitliough Tagetes erecta, one of those most fre- 
quently cultivated, bears the name of African 
marigold, and Tagetes patula, another well- 
known annual, is called French marigold, both 
species are Mexican. Corn marigold is a chrys- , 
anthemum. Marsh mari^ld has no botanical 
affinity with the true marigolds. 

XABXKINA, mhT'lkeuk, See Mabmoset. 

KABIKA^ mA-re'nA, or Maliktzin, mft'- 
l^n-tsen'. A Mexican woman. She was bom in 
Goazacoalco, probably in the early years of the 
sixteenth century. She was of a noble family, 
but when a child was sold in slavery to the Ta- 
bascan Indians. Soon after Cort^ invaded Mexi- 
co she became his interpreter and his mistress. 
She constantly acted as intermediary between 
the Spanish and the natives, and thus became 
prominent in all the aflfairs of the Conquest. 
Their son, Don Martin Cortes, attained to con- 
siderable importance in Meidco. She was after- 
wards married to Juan de Jaramillo, and was 
living as late as 1550. 

MABIKDX7QUE, mE'r^n-dcJiJ^cft. One of the 
Philippine Islands, situated in the Visayan Sea» 

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19 miles south of the Isthmus of Tayabas. sep- 
arating North from South Luzon (Map: Philip- 
pine Islands, C 4.) It is roughly circular in 
shape, with a diameter of 20 miles and an area 
of 352 square miles. Its surface is hilly, with a 
maximum altitude near the centre of probably 
2500 feet. Tlie interior is forested, witii some 
fine grazing grounds. The principal occupations 
of the inhabitants are cattle-raising and the cul- 
tiration of rice and hemp. Copra is manufactured 
and exported. The population, in 1903. was 51,- 
674, almost entirely Tagdlog. Marinduque was a 
separate province until June 23, 1902, when the 
large island of Mindoro (q.v.) was annexed to it; 
it forms now a sub-province of the Province of 
Tayabas, Luzon. The capital is B6ac, a strongly 
fortified town near the nortliwestern coast, with 
a popuhition of 15,823. Marinduque is a port of 
call on the main line of conuuunication between 
Luzon and Mindanao. 

ITAKTNE, American Merchant. See United 
States, paragraph Shipping; Subsidies; Siiip- 


MABINE CITY. A city in Saint Clair 
County, Mich., 46 miles (direct) northeast of 
Detroit; on the Saint Clair River, and on the 
Rapid Railroad, a freight line <Map: Michigan, 
G6). It is a residential town and summer resort. 
Important industries are the manufacture of salt 
and beet sugar, and the building of wooden ves- 
sels for the Great Lakes. Pop., 1904, 3762. 

MABINE COBFS (OF., Fr. marin, from Lat. 
marinus, pertaining to the sea, from mare, sea; 
connected with Goth, marei, AS. mere, OHG, 
mart, Ger. Meer, Ir. muir, OChurch Slav, morye, 
Lith. mdres, sea; possibly connected with Gk. 
?P^i 6rya?, sea-depth). A body of soldiers en- 
listed for service in the navy, either on board 
ship or on shore at naval stations or elsewhere. 
Marines, as these soldiers are called in ther United 
States and British navies, are a relic of the days 
when ships were manned by soldiers as their 
fighting complememt. Instead of constituting the 
greater part of a ship's company, they now form 
ittoally less than 15 per cent, of it. 

At the present time marines are used in the 
United States Navy on board ship and to guard 
naval stations at home and in tne insular pos- 
•esions ; and wh«i on board ship they constitute 
a quickly available infantry force for service 
abroad. Sailors are also drilled as infantry and 
artillery, but as their chief duties are connected 
with the ship, when they are landed the fighting 
eflfciency of the ship is greatly reduced. 

A small number of sea soldiers were perma- 
nently kept on men-of-war even in very ancient 
times, the number varying from 15 to 50, 
according to the size of the vessel. When the 
heavy guns of ships had gradually caused the 
employment of soldiers as the fighting comple- 
ment of ships to be done away with, there ensued 
an interval in which there were no marines. 
In 1653 Admiral Blake embarked a number of 
tokiiers on his ship to act as riflemen in his 
aetimi against Van Tromp. The British marine 
corps was first established in 1664, but it was 
•everal times wholly or partly abolished. 

In the United States Navy the provision for 
the enlistment of marines antedat^ the actual 
fonnatioD of the regular establishment of the 
nsvy, being authorized in an act of Congress 
dtted November 10. 1775. This act. however, 
naily intended to provide for a naval establish- 

ment under the designation of marines, as the 
enlisted men and ottioers were required to be 
"good seamen, or so acquainted with maritime 
aHairs as to be able to serve to advantage by 
sea when required," The actual establishment of 
the corps dates from June 25, 1776, when a 
marine corps, consisting of 1 major (Samuel 
Nichols), 9 captains, 10 first lieutenante, and 7 
second lieutenants, was provided for and the 
officers appointed. After the close of the Revolu- 
tion the navy was practically abolished, and^ 
with other branches, the marine corps disap- 
peared. When the reorganization of the navy- 
took place, in 1798, the marine corps was again 
established, with an authorized. strength, officer* 
and men, of 881, commanded by a major. The- 
marine corps has been found especially useful 
where it is necessary to make landing parties an 
essential part of a naval movement. 

In 1899 the number of men and officers was 
greatly increased. In 1907 it consisted of 1 brig- 
adier-general and commandant, 8 colonels, ^ 
lieutenant-colonels, 21 majors, 81 captains, 85 
first lieutenants, 68 second lieutenants, and 600O 
enlisted men. Consult Collum, The History of the 
Marine Corps (New York, 1902). 

MABIKEB. A term in heraldry, applied to 
an animal whose lower extremity terminates in 
a tail like that of a fish. See Heraldry. 

reau in the Treasury Department of the United 
States, charged with the management of marine 
hospitals and relief stations for the cure of sick 
and disabled seamen of the American merchant 
marine. It has also under its supervision the 
national quarantine stations, the supervision of 
local qiiarantines, the investigation and 3uppre»> 
sion of epidemics and plagues, the collection and 
dissemination of mortality statistics and sani- 
tary information, the scientific investigation of 
sanitary problems, and the examination of immi- 
grants under the laws excluding those affeeted 
with contagious diseases. At present there are 
20 marine hospitals, a sanitarium for consump- 
tive seamen in New Mexico, and 115 relief sta- 
tions. The Marine Hospital Senice of the United 
States owes its origin to an act of Congress of 
July 16, 1798. For a long time the service con- 
sisted mainly of independent hospitals built as 
necessity arose and placed under ciiarge of a sur- 
geon appointed by the Secretary of the Treasury, 
lu 1871 the service was reorganized and placed 
under the charge of a supervising surgeon-genoraf 
with an office in Washington. In 1906 the staff 
consisted of a surgeon-general, 12 assistant sur- 
geons-general, 31 surgeons, 59 passed assistant 
surgeons, and 31 assistant surgeons, all com- 
missioned officers. There were l)esidos 188 act- 
ing assistant surgeons appointed by the Ser- 
retary of the Treasury. The marine hospitals are 
located on both the Atlantic and Pacific sea- 
boards, on the Gulf of ^Mexico, on the Great 
Lakes, in several of the larger river cities, 
and in Alaska, while relief stations exist in the 
new insular possessions. By an act of Congress 
of July I, 1902, the official title of the service 
was changed to the Public Health and Marine 
Hospital Service. Consult the annual reports 
and public addresses of the Surgeon-General. 

MABINE IKSUBANCE. The practice of 
marine insurance, at least on a purely commer- 
cial basis, antedates by centuries the applicatiott 

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of the insurance principle to other kinds of risks. 
Even in ancient times there was developed a 
system of quasi -insurance in the form of loans on 
bottomry by which risks were at least partially 
transferred. In the Middle Ages marine insur- 
ance on a commercial basis first appeared as 
early as the thirteenth century in Flanders and 
in Portugal. The oldest legal document relating 
to insurance which has come down to us consists 
of the ordinances issued by the magistrates of 
Barcelona in 1435 to r^ulate the business of 
marine insurance. Marine underwriting appears 
to have been introduced into England by the 
Lombards early in the sixteenth century. By 
the eighteenth century that country had obtained 
the leading position in the business, which she 
has since maintained. 

For many years marine underwriting in Eng- 
land was carried on exclusively by unassociated 
individuals and continued to be conducted on a 
strictly individual basis until late in the eigh- 
teenth century. The first step toward the regula- 
tion of marine underwriting by the Lloyds Asso- 
ciation (q.v.) was taken in 1779, when a printed 
form of policy was adopted, practically the 
same as the one still in use. In 1871 the Lloyds 
Association was incorporated by act of Parlia- 
ment, the articles of incorporation stating as 
the main objects of the organization the conduct 
of the business of marine insurance, the protec- 
tion of the interests of the members of the 
association, and the collection and publication of 
information in regard to shipping. It is for 
the accomplishment of the last-named purpose 
that the association has developed its remarkable 
system of agencies, whose intelligence and dis- 
patch in gathering and reporting shipping news 
are unequaled in any similar organization. 
Marine underwriting at Lloyds is still exclu- 
sively an individual transaction, though under 
the general supervision of the association. The 
method of transacting business is as follows : A 
merchant having a ship to insure sends through 
a broker a slip setting forth the characteristics 
of the risk he desires insured. Any underwriter 
who desires to assume a part of the risk places 
on the slip his initials and the amount he is 
willing to assume. No one underwriter assumes 
very large risks, a ship and cargo being usually 
imderwntten by a large number of individuals, 
each of whom carries from £100 to £500. The 
responsibility of each underwriter is limited to 
the amount for which he has subscribed. When 
the entire amount has been subscribed, the policy 
is made out and signed by those who have already 
put their initials on the slip. 

In the seventeenth century two insurance com- 
panies, the Royal Exchange and the London, were 
authorized to transact a marine business, while 
the privilege was denied to all other companies. 
These two companies appear to have done little 
marine underwriting. In 1824 the monopoly re- 
striction was removed, and since that time many 
companies have gone into the business. Even 
these companies, however, find it advantageous 
to work through Lloyds, each of them having a 
representative on the floor of that association. 

In America marine insurance was the first 
form to be written. In 1759 the first office was 
established, although a large amount of indi- 
vidual underwriting had previously been carried 
on. This office was opened in New York, and 
was known as the Old Insurance Office. The 


method of conducting business was by individual 
underwriting, after the manner of the English 

It was not until near the end of the eighteenth 
century that corporations took up the husiness 
of marine imderwriting. The first in the field 
were the Insurance Company of North America 
and the Insurance Company of the State of Penn- 
sylvania. Both were located in Philadelphia, 
and both began marine underwriting in 1794. 
The growth of the business was rapid and was 
greatly stimulated by the expansion of American 
shipping during the period of the Napoleonic 
wars in Europe. The companies rapidly ab- 
sorbed the entire business of the coimtry, and by 
the year 1825 individual imderwriting was prac- 
tically at an end in the United States. 

The period of the Civil War subjected the 
marine companies to a severe strain, and several 
of them succumbed. Since that time the condi- 
tion of marine underwriting has reflected the con- 
dition of the shipping industry of the country. 
The great growth of the business has been seen, 
not in the insurance of risks on the high seas, 
but in the insurance of risks on inland waters. 
The headquarters for the insurance of shipping 
on the lakes is Chicago. The business is espe- 
cially hazardous on account of the limited area 
over which the operations extend, and a conse- 
quent great fluctuation in loss-rate. 

The general principles on which marine in- 
surance is based are not difi'erent from those 
underlying other forms of insurance, but in 
practice the former presents a number of peculiar 

The Poucy. The common form of marine pol- 
icy is the 'voyage' policy, that is, a policy to be 
in force for a voyage from one specified port to 
another. Occasionally, however, a ship is in- 
sured imder a *time' policy, which is to be in 
force for a specified time, usually a year. The 
chief practical distinction between the two is 
that with a voyage policy there is always a war- 
ranty, express or implied, that the ship is sea- 
worthy at the beginning of the voyage, while with 
a time policy no such warranty is implied. 

An 'open' policy is one which provides that in 
case of total loss the amount of the indemnity 
shall be determined by ascertaining the amount 
of loss actually suffered. It is incumbent upon 
the insured to prove the value of the destroyed 
property. A 'valued* policy, on the other hand, 
provides that in case of total loss the amount 
stated in the policy shall be regarded as the 
value of the insured property and paid as in- 
demnity. Valued policies are more frequently 
issued on the ship, while the cargo is more com- 
monly covered by an open policy. The use of 
the valued policy has undoubtedly tended to in- 
crease the amount of over-insurance and delib- 
erate destruction of vessels. This practice is 
especially easy under the system of individual 
underwriting prevailing at Lloyds, since the un- 
derwriter frequently Knows little or nothing 
about the ship he is insuring beyond what is 
stated in the slip. 

Objects. The objects most commonly insured 
under a marine policy are ship, cargo, and 
freights. Sometimes other objects are covered, 
such as the expected profits of the voyage, or, 
more frequently, the liability for damages on ac- 
count of collision. The insurance of freight is 
an illustration of a peculiar feature of marine 

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insurance. In all other forms of insurance of 
property the amount of indemnity that can be 
recovered in case of loss is determined by the 
value of the property destroyed, damnum emer- 
gens. In marine insurance it is possible to 
insure an expected gain and to obtain indemnity 
if the occurrence of any of the events covered 
by the policy makes it impossible to realize the 
gain, lucrum cessans. 

Dangers. A marine policy covers a far greater 
number and variety of dangers than any other 
form of policy issued. Besides the more char- 
acteristic perils of the seas, such as wind and 
wave, fire, collision, stranding, jettison, and the 
like, the policy covers three distinct kinds of 
danger — ^war risks, including detention as well as 
capture or destruction; pirates, rovers, and 
thieves; and barratry, or illegal acts of captain 
or crew. As to the losses caused by the perils 
of the sea, they must be due to extraordinary 
action of wind and wave, or to some other un- 
usual cause. The losses caused by ordinary 
forces are known as wear and tear, and are not 
covered by the insurance. The distinction be- 
tween the two kinds of losses has been the sub- 
ject of much litigation, and the present condi- 
tion of the law of the subject is precise but 
complex. Modem policies cover some further 
kinds of loss, especially liability for damages on 
account of collision. 

Insubance After the Loss. Uncertainty as to 
the fate of a vessel may continue for an indefinite 
time after the loss has occurred. Insurance 
may be taken out on an overdue ship, and even 
though it should afterwards appear that the ves- 
sel had already suffered shipwreck at the time 
when the insurance was effected the indemnity 
could still be collected. The premium rate on 
an overdue ship indicates the judgment of the 
underwriters as to the probability that the vessel 
has already suffered disaster. 

Reinsurance. Individual underwriters enjoy 
to only a limited extent the advantages that come 
from the combination of a large number of risks 
in a group, and consequently single losses may 
involve a considerable share of their capital. They 
avoid this danger partly by underwriting only 
a small portion of the value of each ship they 
insure, and partly by resorting to reinsurance. 
As it is always possible to insure a ship as long 
as it is unknown whether she has suffered dis- 
aster or not, it is customary for those who have 
insurance in force on a vessel that is overdue to 
protect themselves by reinsuring her. They are 
naturally obliged to pay higher premiums than 
they themselves received. If this process of rein- 
surance is repeated several times, as is frequently 
the case, the effect is that a loss is distributed in 
small proportions over a large number of under- 

The Loss. Loss may be complete or partial. 
When it is complete the settlement between the 
insured and the underwriters is comparatively 
simple. On a valued policy an insurer becomes 
liable for the amount stated in the face of the 
policy. In the case of an open policy it is neces- 
sary for the insured to prove the value of the 
property destroyed or the amount of freight lost. 
Unl«8 otherwise airreed, the value of the ship is 
its value at the time of starting on the voyage 
with the value of the ship's stores included ; the 
value of the cargo is its invoice value with the 
addition of insurance premium and other 

charges; and the value of the freight is the 
amount the ship would have earned if she had 
reached her destination in safety. 

Abandonment. A peculiar feature of marine 
insurance is the practice of abandonment, when 
the insured surrenders or abandons to the under- 
writers the property covered by the policy and 
demands his entire indemnity. This right does 
not always exist, but arises only when the in- 
sured property has suffered so serious damage 
from perils covered by the policy that it amounts 
to 'constructive* total loss. With regard to the 
ship or the cargo there is held to be constructive 
total loss when the damage exceeds one-half the 
value of the vessel or cargo respectively, and 
when the vessel is captured by the enemy or de- 
tained by embargo. There is constructive total 
loss of cargo when it is so badly injured that it 
has to be sold at some other place than its orig- 
inal destination. There is constructive loss of 
freight when the ship is unable to complete her 
voyage, or the goods on which the freight is to 
be paid are so badly damaged that they cannot 
be carried to their original destination. 

When the conditions are such as to give a 
legal right to abandon, it is optional with the 
insured whether he will take advantage of the 
right or not. If he decides to do so he must give 
notice to the insurer within a reasonable time; 
and having once elected to abandon, it is im- 
possible for him to draw back. The effect of 
abandonment is to vest the title to the insured 
property in the underwriter and to convey to him 
all rights and claims on account of the ship and 

Average. When there is partial loss and the 
insured cannot or does not elect to abandon 
and receive the entire indemnity, it becomes 
necessary to ascertain the amount for which the 
insurer is liable. Such partial losses are known 
by the name of average, a term borrowed by 
marine insurance from general maritime law. It 
is frequently necessary to sacrifice some part of 
the ship or cargo in order to save the rest. It 
is obviously unjust to have the entire burden of 
loss imder such circumstances fall upon the party 
whose property is thus voluntarily destroyed or 
injured. Maritime law therefore prescribes the 
way in which such losses shall be apportioned 
or 'averaged' among all the interests at stake. 
The term average was later extended to include 
losses of all kinds. To distinguish those losses 
which are of such a nature that they ought to be 
apportioned among all the parties from those 
which ought to be borne entirely by the party 
whose property is damaged, the former kind of 
loss is called general average, the latter particu- 
lar average. In the case of the ship, the volun- 
tary cutting away of a mast to save the ship 
would be general average; the loss of a mast 
through the violence of the wind would be par- 
ticular average. There is general average on the 
cargo when a part of it is jettisoned, or thrown 
overboard to lighten the ship ; there is particular 
average when a part of it is damaged as the 
result of the action of forces which are included 
in the policy. So far as the insurance is con- 
cerned, it is the general rule that the insurer 
is liable for all general averages under all con- 
ditions, in the absence of fraud. His liability 
for particular average, however, is usually lim- 
ited in the policy. For certain kinds of com- 
modities the policy exempts the insurer from all 

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liability; for others, from liability for losses 
of less than 5 per cent., or sonie other speciiied 
proportion, unless the ship be stranded, while for 
all other commodities, anid for ship and freight. 
Liability does not attach unless the loi^s exceed 
3 per cent, or the ship be stranded. When sev- 
eral successive losses are experienced during the 
same voyage, the sum oi all the losses is the 
amount considered in determining whether the 
percentage of loss is high enough to render the 
underwriters liable. 

The measure of the liability of the insurer for 
particular average on the ship is the cost el 
repairs, including all extra expenses which they 
involve, with a deduction, usually of one-third, 
from the value of new material used in repairing 
the ship; in the case of freight it is the amount 
actually lost through the diminution in the 
weight of the cargo; and for the cargo it is that 
part of the invoice value of the damaged goods 
which remains after there has been subtracted 
from their total value such a proportion of the 
total value as the gross value of the damaged 
goods at the port of destination is of the gross 
value of similar goods in a sound condition. 

General Average. In the absence of insurance 
general average would be apportioned among all 
the owners of ship, cargo, and freight. Each 
party, including the one whose property was 
sacrificed, would make contribution in propor- 
tion to the value of the property he had at stake. 
In estimating that value the value of ship and 
cargo is usually taken at their actim.1 value when 
they I each their destination, while the value of 
the freight is ascertained by subtracting the 
wages of captain and crew from the gross 
amount received as freight. When the diflFerent 
parties are insured, general average is paid by 
the underwriters and not by the owners of the 
property. So far as general average is con- 
cerned, insurance is a transfer from owners to 
underwriters of liability for contributions to re- 
imburse those whose property has been sacrificed 
for the general good. 

*SuE AND Labor.' When loss or disaster 
threatens a ship or cargo, the master c^ the 
vessel is bound to do everjrthing in his power 
to avoid the danger or avert the loss. Whatever 
expense is incurred for that purpose the under- 
writers are responsible for, under the so-called 
'suing and laboring' clause, which reads as fol- 
lows: "In case of any loss or misfortune, it shall 
be lawful to the assured, their factors, servants 
and assigns, to sue, labor, and travel for, in, 
or about the defense, safeguard, and recovery 
of the said goods and merchandise, or ship, or 
any part thereof, without prejudice to this in- 
surance: to the charges whereof, we, the assur- 
ers, will contribute, each one according to the 
rate and quantity of the sum herein insured.'* 
While the clause says that the insured 'may* 
so sue and labor, it is the established rule of 
law that he is bound so to act. The general rule 
is that in case of damage or partial loss the 
insured is bound to act as a prudent man would 
act under the circumstances if he were unin- 

MABIKE BAM. See Ram, Marine. 


MABINETTB, mftr'I-n^t'. A city and the 
county-Heat of Marinette County, Wis/, 178 miles 
north of Milwaukee; on the C'iiicago and North- 


western, the Chicago, Milwaukee, and Saint Paul* 
and the Wisconsin and Michigan railroads ( Map: 
Wisconsin, F 3). It is situated at the mouth 
OI the Menominee River, on (ireen Bay, opposite 
Menominee, Mich., with whicli it is connected by 
bridges, and by steam and electric trams. Mari- . 
nette has a fine harbor, and carries on an ex- 
tensive lake commerce; and its good water power 
and proximity to valuable forests have developed 
its exteuHive lumber interests. It is, moreover, 
growing in favor aa a sumnjer resort. There 
are also large box factories, several establish- 
ments making various cedar products, pail and 
broom factories, paper and pulp mills, iron 
works, and manufactories of steam threshing 
machines and gas and traction engines. Settled 
about 1850, Marinette was incorporated in 1887. 
The governnipnt is administered under a general 
charter of 1898, which provides for a mayor, 
elected everv two venrs, and a unicameral coun- 
cil. Population, 1900, 16,195; 1905, 15,354. 

MABINI, mA-r^nd, Giambattista (15df- 
1625). An Italian poet, born at Naples, Octo- 
ber 18, 1569. He entered upon the study of 
jurisprudence, but lived so wildly that his father 
eventually banished him from home. He waa. 
received into the house of the chief admiral of 
Naples as a secretary, but the part that he played 
in connection with a certain abduction finally 
forced him to flee to Rome, There he prospered,, 
and before long ( 1003) he was able to undertake 
a journey to Venice to superintend the publica- 
tion of his verse. Attached to the household of 
Cardinal Aldobraadini, he traveled with him in 
Italy^ and, luider his auspices, came into contact 
with many men of letters of the time. He next 
won the favor of the ducal ruler of Turin, Charles 
Emmanuel I., but, being suspected of a quip upon 
the Duke, he was arrested, and upon his release 
went to Paris, where he succeeded in recommend- 
ing himself to the good graces of Maria de' Me- 
dici. He remained in France from 1615 to 1623, 
and then, returning to Italy, he was everywhere 
received with extraordinary honor. He died at 
Naples, March 25, 1625. Before his twentieth 
year, Marini had already gained considerable re- 
pute by his Canzone de* had. The first collection 
of his verse was that of Venice (1602-14). en- 
titled La lira, in which there is an obvious imita- 
tion of Ovid, Tibullus, Spanish writers* and 
earlier Italian poets. His most noted production 
is the Adone (Paris, 1623), a long poem in oc- 
taves, ostensibly on the loves of Venus and 
Adonis, but containing long digressions. WTiat 
most attracted attention in this work was its man- 
nerisms, the excess of imagery, and its over- 
wrought style. Marini is equally reprehensible 
for the notorious license and indecency of many of 
his writings. Cf. the ed. of the Adone of Florence, 
1886; the Galleria (Venice, 1619); his Lettere 
(Venice, 1647) ; M. Menghini. La vita e le opere 
di G. B. Marini (Rome, 1888). 

MABINO FAUEBO, m&-re^n6 f&lya^rd. A 
drama by Byron ( 1820) . It is the story of a tra- 
gedy of 1355, when the Doge Faliero, detected in 
a conspiracy to overthrow the Venetian Republic, 
was beheaded. 

MABHrONI, ma'r^-nS'n^, Hippoltte ( 1825- 
1904). A French inventor, born at Paris. He 
invented a rotary press which could print 40,000 
copies in an hour, and another which printed 
polychromes in six colors at the rate of 20,000 
an hour, as well as many other improvements in 

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priating. His rotary press was used by news- 
papers in all parts of the world. 

MABIO, ma^'r^A, Giuseppe, Marquis di Oan- 
dia ( 1810-83 ) . An Italian dramatic tenor singer, 
l»m at Cagliari, Sardinia. In 1830 be received 
bis eommission as officer in the Chasseurs 
bardes^ but abandoned his commission and fled 
to Paris, where he later secured the appointment 
of first tenor at the opera. At the same time 
lie adopted the name ilario. After two years* 
study at the conservatory he made his d^but in 
1838 m Robert le Diahle, and achieved the first 
of a long seriear of operatic triumphs. From 
1845 to 1850 he fulfilled an engagement in Rus- 
sia, and on his return appeared in London, and 
in 1854 he went to Ameriea. In his private life 
he WRS known for generosity to struggling artists. 
His repertoire embraced all the staged operas of 
Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti, and Verdi, In 1844 
he married the singer GrisL He died in Rome. 

KABION, mftr^-on or ma^ri-on. A town and 
the county-seat of Perry County, Ala., 26 miles 
northwest of Selma; on the Southern Railroad 
(Map: Alabama, B 3). It has the Judson Fe- 
nale Institute (Baptist), opened in 1839; Mar- 
ion Female Seminary, opened in 1836; Marion 
Military Institute; and the Lincoln Normal 
School for colored pupils (Congregational). An 
agricultural country surrounds the town. Pop- 
ulation, in 1900, 1698; in 1906 (local est), 2000. 

ICARIOK. A city and the eounty-seat of 
Wiiliamson County, 111., 114 miles southeast of 
Saittt Louis, Mo.; on the Illinois Central, the 
ChicagD and Eastern Illinois and the Coal Belt 
railroads (Map: Illinois, D 6). It has a trade in 
grain and live stock, and manufactures of flour, 
cigars, etc. In the vicinity are fine timber lands 
aaii deposits of coal, the raining of which con- 
stiliites the leading industry. Population, in 
ttOO, 2510; in 1906 (local cen.), 6790. 

ITAKTOy. A city and the county-seat of 
Grant County, Ind., on the Mississinewa River, 
68 miles northeast of Indianapolis ; on the Cleve- 
land, Cincinnati, Chicago and Saint Louis; the 
Pittsburg. Cincinnati, Chicago and Saint Louis; 
the Toledo, Saint Louis and Western, and the 
Chicago, Cincinnati, and Louisville railroads 
(Map: Indiana, D 2). Interurban electric lines 
connect the city with IndianapoHs and other 
cities and towns. It has a Federal building, a 
handsome court-house, a large normal college, and 
a $65,000 public library building. A National 
Soldiers' Home, which cost over $1,500,000, is 
three miles south of the city. Marion is the 
centre of a farming section and has good water 
power and a supply of natural gas. There are 
extensive nuinufactures, principally of window 
glass, fruit jars, bottles, bar iron, and bedsteads; 
also flouring, saw and planing, linseed oil, and 
pulp and paper mills; foundries, cornice and 
brick works, etc. The government is vested in a 
mayor, elected every two years, and a unicameral 
conneil. Blarion owes and operates its water- 
works and electric-light plant. Population, 1900, 
17,337; 1906 (local est.), 26,000. 

1CABI0K. A city and the county-seat of 
Ijnn County, Iowa, 5 miles northeast of Cedar 
Rapids; at the junction of divisions of the C'hi- 
cagD, \tilwankee and Saint Paul Railroad (Map: 
Iowa, F 2). It is situated in a fertile agricul- 
tarml country and is a healthful residential city, 
and has the county buildings, a public library, 

67 MABiaV. 

and a park in the centre of the city. There are 
large freight yards and repair shops of the Chi- 
(•ago, Milwaukee and Saint Paul Railroad; also 
flouring mills, cigar factories, a creamery, a broom 
factory, and two greenhouses. Marion was settled 
in 1839 and was incorporated in 1852. Popula- 
tion, in 1900, 4102: in 1905, 4112. 

MABION. A cit^' and the county -seat of 
Marion County, Kan., 104 miles by rail southwest 
of Topeka; on the Cottonwood River, and on the 
Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific, and the Atchi- 
son, Topeka, and Santa Fe railroads (T^Iap: Kan- 
sas, F 3). It has considerable trade as a centre 
of a fanning and stock-raising region, and some 
manufactures, principally of flour. Population, 
in 1900, 1824; in 1905, 1802. 

T/ULRIOTK, A city and the county-seat of 
Marion County, Ohio. 45 miles north of Colum- 
bus; on the Hocking Valley, the Cleveland, Cin- 
cinnati, Chicago and Saint Louis, the Pennsyl- 
vania, and the Erie railroads (Map: Ohio, D 4). 
There are a public library, a normal school, the 
Sawyer Sanitarium, and a Y. M. C. A. building. 
Marion is the centre of a farming district, and 
has lime works, malleable iron works, silk-mills, 
a piano factory, and manufactories of engines, 
steam shovels, agricultural machines, etc. Pop- 
ulation, 1900, 11,862; 1906 (local est.), 17,000. 

MAJUON. A city and the county -scat of 
Marion County, S. C, 103 miles east of Cohun- 
bia, on the Atlantic Coast Line and the Raleigh 
and Charleston railroads (Map: South Carolina, 
E 2). It is in a fertile region interested chiefly 
in cotton and tobacco growing, and has cotton 
and cottonseed-oil mills, a foundry, lumber mills, 
etc. There is a public library. Population, in 
1890, 1640; in 1900, 1831. 

HULRIOK, A town and the county-seat of 
Smyth County, Va., 107 miles west by south of 
Roanoke; on the Norfolk and Western Railroad, 
at the terminus of the Marion and Rye Valley 
Railway (Map: Virginia, C 5). It is the seat 
of the Southwestern State Hospital for the In- 
sane, accommodating about four hundred inmates, 
and of the Marion Female College (Lutheran). 
The principal industries are wood-working, mill- 
ing, mining, and stone-quarrying. Settled in 
18.32, Marion was first incorporated in 1J^71. The 
town has its own water supply, obtained by tlie 
gravity system from springs which are about 
three miles distant. Population, in 1890, 1651; 
in 1900, 2045; in 1906 (local est.), 3000. 

MABJOTSTy Francis (1732-96). An American 
soldier. He was bom at Winyah, near (George- 
town, S. C. in which neighborhood his grand- 
father, a Huguenot refugee, had settled soon 
after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, in 
1685. In 1759 he removed to Pond Blufl", near 
Eutaw. In 1775 he represented Saint John's 
Parish, Berkeley County, in the Provincial Con- 
gress, which axlopted the Bill of Rights, and 
voted to raise forces after the battle of I^xing- 
ton. He was commissioned a captain in Colonel 
Moultrie's regiment, June 2l8t, and took part 
in the occupation of Fort Johnson, which caused 
the flight of the royal Governor, Lord William 
Campbell. After his promotion to major, in 
1776, he was stationed at the unfinished Fort 
Sullivan (afterwards called Fort Moultrie), in 
Charleston Harbor. He showed great coolness 
during Sir Peter Parker's bombardment, June 28y 

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1776, and was made lieutenant-colonel in the 
regular service. For a time he was in command 
of Fort Moultrie, and then took part in the un- 
successful attack of D'Estaing and Lincoln on 
Savannah in 1779. When the British captured 
Charleston in 1780 and began to overrun the 
State^ Marion fled to North Carolina, where he 
met General Gates, who received him coldly. Soon 
he was asked to command four companies of ir- 
re^lar cavalry, which had been raised around 
Williamsburg, S. C, and in August, 1780, (Gov- 
ernor Rutledge gave him a commission as briga- 
dier-general of State troops. After the defeat 
of Gates at Camden and of Sumter at Fishing 
Creek, this was for a time the only American 
force of any strength in the , State. The men 
furnished their own equipment and came and 
went almost at will, as it was necessary to pro- 
tect their families from the Tories and to plant 
their crops. 

The first important action was on August 2, 
1780, at Nelson's Ferry, where two companies of 
British re^lars were routed and 160 Conti- 
nental soldiers taken at Camden were recap- 
tured. Marion's men caused much trouble to 
Comwallis by intercepting communications, cap- 
turing foraging and scouting parties, and intimi- 
dating the Tories. Major Wemyss and Colonel 
Tarleton were especially instructed to take him. 
For a time Marion was forced to retreat toward 
North Carolina, but in 1781 he established him- 
self at the conftuence of Lynch's Creek and the 
Pedee River, in a swampy forest known as Snow's 
Island. He took Fort Watson in conjunction 
with Col. Henry Lee, captured Fort Motte and 
Georgetown, fought at Quinby's Bridge and Park- 
er's Ferry, and at Eutaw Springs. The force 
was not disbanded until after the British evac- 
uation, in December, 1782. Marion was elected 
to the General Assembly in 1782, and was pub- 
licly thanked bv that body in 1783. As he had 
been impoverished by the war, the sinecure of 
commandant of Fort Johnson was created for 
him. After his marriage to a wealthy woman, 
Mary Videau, he represented Saint John's in 
the State Senate and in the Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1790. Consult: Simms, Life of Fran- 
cie Marion (1844), and Tarleton, History of the 
Campaigns of 1780-1781 (Dublin, 1787). 

MABION* DBLOBME, m&'r^ON^ de-l^rm^ 
A drama by Victor Hugo (1831), based on thef 
life of the notorious courtesan of that name. 
She appears in De Vigny*8 Cinq-Mars and in Bul- 
wer's Richelieu, 

MABIOKETTE (Fr. marionnette, diminutive 
of Marion, diminutive of Marie, Mary, denoting 
originally a little figure of the Virgin Mary). A 
small, jointed ficrure, representing a character in 
the miniature drama of a puppet theatre. See 

KABIOTTE, mA'r^5t', Edme (c. 1620-84). A 
distinguished French natural philosopher. He 
was bom in Burgundy, and was the prior of 
Saint Martin-sous-Beaune, near Dijon. He was 
active in developing experimental research in 
France and was one of the first members of the 
Academic des Sciences, founded in 1666. He 
repeated Pascal's experiments on gravitation, 
and detected some peculiarities which had es- 
caped that philosopher; confirmed Galileo's 
theorv of motion; enriched hydraulics with a 
multitude of discoveries; and finally made a 
thorough investigation into the subject of the 

conduction of water, and calculated the strength 
necessary for pipes under different circumstances. 
His collected works were published at Leyden 
in 1717 and at The Hague (2 vols., 4to) in 1740. 
His Traits du mouvement des eauw was pub- 
lished at Paris in 1686. Mariotte's name is 
associated with the law of gases discovered four- 
teen years previously by Robert Boyle, this law 
being always known in France as Mariotte's law. 
It is in substance that the volume of a gas varies 
inversely as the pressure it is under. 

ICABIOTTE'S LAW, often referred to as 
*the law of Bovle and Mariotte.' See Boyle's 
Law; Gases, General Pbopebties of. 

MAB'IPCnSA (Sp., butter fiy). A local name 
in California for the opah (q.v.). 

MABIPOSA OBOVE. A tract of land four 
square miles in extent in Mariposa County, Cal., 
containing two groves of the Sequoia gigantea, 
consisting of about 465 fine specimens. The largest 
of the trees, the 'Grizzly Giant,' has a circum- 
ference of 04 feet, and its main limb, at a height 
of 200 feet, is 6% feet in diameter. The rSad 
between the groves passes through an opening 
9% feet wide, cut through the heart of one of the 
trees. The tallest tree is 272 feet high, and a 
number exceed 260 feet. The tract is reserved 
as a State park. 

KABIPCySANy or Yokijt. A linguistic stock 
or family of North American Indians, formerly 
located in southern California, about Tulare 
Lake, and extending as far north as the junction 
of the Fresno with the San Joaquin. Twenty- 
four sub-trib€« are mentioned by Powell. Every 
village consisted of a single row of wedge-shaped 
huts of tule, with an awning of brush stretched 
along the front. These houses were used for 
sleeping purposes only. The mountainous con- 
dition of the country was naturally productive of 
a series of isolated areas, in which each camp 
with its separate captain and medicine-man re- 
sided. It is noteworthy that the braves took no 
scalps in war, differing herein from most Indii^i 
tribes. The main sources of their food supply- 
were fishing, himting, and gathering acorns. Their 
weapons were sinew-backed bows and excellent 
arrows. There are no more delicate and beauti- 
ful baskets made anywhere than in the villages 
which constitute at once the Yokut tribe and the 
Mariposan stock, and specimens are to be seen 
in every fine collection. These Indians are espe- 
cially interesting to the ethnologist, since they 
preserve ancient industries and social customs 
which antedate even the coming of the Ute tribes 
into their area. Fish-weirs, fishing booths, fish- 
traps, tule boats are survivals of ancient life. 
Consult: Powers, Contributions to North Ameri- 
can Ethnology, vol. iii. (Washington. 1877) ; 
Powell, Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of 
Ethnology (ib., 1891). 

MABIQUIKA, mtt'rA-k§'ni. A town of Lu- 
zon, Philippines, in the Province of Rizal (Map: 
Luzon, F 8). It is situated eight miles north- 
east of Manila, at the intersection of several im- 
portant roads, and has manufactures of shoes and 
other leather work. In the neighborhood are the 
medicinal iron springs of Chorillo. Population, 
in 1903, 8187. 

MABIS, mU'rTs, Jakob (1837—). A Dutch 
painter, bom at The Hague. He studied in Ant- 
werp under De Keyser and Van Lerius, and then 
in Paris, and became a pupil of Hubert (1866). 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

MABIS. 60 


His works include: ''The Seaweed-Gatherers/' 
**View in Holland," "On the Beach," and "Sou- 
venir of Dordrecht." 

MA'BISTS (Neo-Lat. M arista, from Lat. 
Maria, Mary). A name applied to two religious 
congregations in the Roman Catholic Church. 
The Swiety of Fathers of Mary was founded at 
Lyons in 1816 for missionary work, and con- 
firmed by Gregory XVI. in 1836. Its first for- 
eign mission was in the islands of the Pacific. 
It was introduced into Australia, at Sydney, in 
1845. Almost simultaneously with this society, 
another of Brothers of Mary was founded in 1817 
by Abb6 Chaminade at Marseilles, which did 
much for Christian education in the south of 
France and extended its work to England and 
ber colonies, and to the foreign mission stations, 
where they haver frequently worked in concert 
with the Fathers of Mary. They entered the 
United States in 1849, and have now 76 members 
there, with four houses and a college in the 
Catholic University at Washington. In all they 
number about 6500 members. 

KABITIME LAW (Lat. maritimus, relating 
to the sea, from Lat. mare, sea) . In its broadest 
sense, that system of law, both public and pri- 
vate, which relates to commerce and navigation 
upon the high seas or other navigable waters. 
The sources of the law of the sea as now applied 
in England and the United States are more an- 
cient and perhaps more complex than those of 
any other branch of English law. Some of its 
doctrines, as the law of general average, are 
traceable to the Rhodian laws, dating as early 
as B.C. 900, from which they were adopted into 
the civil law, and by it transmitted to modem 
Europe. Many of them may be attributed to 
customs established by the revival of trade in the 
countries bordering the Mediterranean and in 
Southwestern Europe in the thirteenth and four- 
teenth centuries. During this period the com- 
mercial States and cities began the compilation 
of the usages and customs of sea commerce and 
the judgments of the various maritime courts. 
The earliest of these is the Consolato del mare 
(q.v.). A later compilation, having even greater 
influence upon English law, was the laws of 
OUron. (See OiisoN.) The laws of Wisby, 
being a compilation of mercantile customs and 
usages adopted by a congress of merchants at 
Wisby in the island of Gotland in the Baltic 
Sea, about 1288, which became the basis of the 
ordinances of the Hanseatic League, were also 
of great influence in the development of the 
modem laws of the sea; as were also those ordi- 
nances themselves, and French marine ordinance, 
promulgated by Louis XIV. in 1681, by which 
the whole law of shipping, navigation, marine 
insurance, bottomry, etc., was collected and sys- 
tematized. The local ordinances of Barcelona, 
Florence. Amsterdam, Antwerp, Co^nhagen, and 
KOnigsberg were also not without influence. 

The earliest Eng]ish compilation of maritime 
law appears to have been the Black Book of the 
Admiralty, supposed to have been published 
during the reign of Edward III., but later addi- 
tions weref made. It was based substantially upon 
the laws of 016ron. England never passed general 
maritime ordinances, but the maritime law 
drawn from the sources here indicated has been 
embodied in a series of decisions of the courts 
of admiralty jurisdiction, which, with the de- 
cisions of our own Federal courts rendered since 

the American Revolution, constitute the maritime 
law of the United States. See the article Ad- 
miralty Law; and, for the historical develop- 
ment of public maritime law, see Intebnational 
Law and the titles belonging to that subject. 

Maritime law is administered in England by 
the courts of admiralty; in the United States 
by the Federal courts, which, by the United 
States Constitution, have jurisdiction over all 
causes in admiralty. This jurisdiction of the 
Federal courts is not, however, exclusive, and a 
suitor may seek his remedy at common law in the 
State courts wherever the common law is com- 
petent to give a remedy. In England maritime 
causes are said to be those which directly affect 
commerce or navigation upon waters in which 
the tide ebbs and flows. In the United States, 
where the conditions are different, maritime 
causes are deemed to be those directly affecting 
commerce upon navigable waters which in them- 
selves or by means of other waterways form a 
continuous highway to foreign countries. Hence 
the fact that commerce in a given case is car- 
ried on only upon waters within a single State 
does not necessarily affect jurisdiction of the 
Federal courts ; and jurisdiction is not dependent 
upon the power of Congress to regulate commerce. 
Maritime jurisdiction therefore depends upon the 
subject matter and not the parties, hence a Unit- 
ed States court may take jurisdiction over a 
maritime cause arising in a foreign vessel be- 
tween foreigners. The exercise of jurisdiction 
over foreigners is, however, purely discretionary, 
and may be refused; and it is a general prin- 
ciple that a maritime court will not take juris- 
diction over a ship of war of a friendly foreign 

Liability for torts is recognized and enforced 
by the maritime law. Maritime torts include all 
wrongful acts or direct injuries arising in con- 
nection with commerce and navigation occurring 
upon the seas or other navigable waters, includ- 
ing negligence and the wrongful taking of prop- 
erty. The maritime law, however, regards only 
actual damages, and allows no recovery for 
merely nominal damages. The test for deter- 
mining whether a tort is of a maritime nature is 
the locality where the tortious act is consum- 
mated or takes effect. Thus an injury to a 
bridge or wharf by a ship, inasmuch as the in- 
jury is effected upon land, is not within the juris- 
diction of the admiralty court, but an injury to a 
ship by a draw-bridge is a maritime tort, of 
which the admiralty court has jurisdiction. The 
maritime, like the. common law, does not recog- 
nize a right of recovery for wrongful death, but 
a statute may confer the right, which will then 
be recognized in admiralty in accordance with 
the settled principle that both the Federal courts 
of admiralty and of equity will provide a remedy 
for new substantive rights created by State 
statute. See Collisions of Vessels; Bounty; 

The maritime law recognizes and enforces con- 
tracts by awarding damages or enforcing liens 
which it recognizes as created on the basis of 
contract. In general the essential elements of 
a contract are the same under the maritime as 
at the common law. The maritime law differs 
from the common law only in the method by 
which it may enforce the contract and in attach- 
ing to the various classes of contracts certain 
legal incidents peculiar to each class. A contract 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


is deemed to be of a maritime nature so as to be 
within the jurisdiction of an admiralty court 
when in its essence it is purely maritime, relat- 
ing to commerce and navigation upon navigable 
waters as already defined, as contracts for the bet- 
terment of a vessel in aid of navigation or for the 
sustenance and relief of those engaged in conduct- 
ing commercial operations at sea. Thus a con- 
tract of partnership in a vessel is not a mari- 
time contract, neither is a contract to build a 
vessel, nor b a preliminary agreement leading to 
a maritime contract, as a contract to procure 
marine insurance, within the jurisdiction of the 
admiralty court. For a fuller discussion of the 
various forms of maritime contracts and their 
incidents, see such special articles as Bottomby 
Bond; Respondentia; Chabter-Pabty ; Af- 
freightment; Mabinb Insubancb; Salvage; 


The jurisdiction of maritime oourts also ex- 
tends to all prize causes growing out of captures 
of vessels, of ships of war or privateers, made 
upon navigable water, or started there^ althou^ 
consimimated on land. In England the law of 
prize is administered in a separate department 
of the Admiralty Court, as distinguished from 
the instance court in admiralty, fii the United 
States no distinction is made between prize and 
other admiralty causes, all being within the 
jurisdiction of the District Courts of the United 
States. By act of Congress captures made upon 
inland waters of the United iStates are deemed 
not to be prizes^ and consequently are not within 
the admiralty jurisdiction of the United States 
courts. See Pbize; Intebnational Law. 

The adjustment of the rights of tiie parties to 
a marine venture in accordance with the prin- 
ciples of 'general average' is also an important 
function of maritime courts, and the doctrines of 
general average are among the most important of 
the maritime law. (See paragraph on Average, 
in Mabine Insubancb.) The English admiralty 
courts received jurisdiction over crimes com- 
mitted on the high seas outside the marine league 
Similar jurisdiction is conferred on the United 
States District Courts, except over crimes pim- 
ishable by death, which are imder the jurisdic- 
tion of the Circuit Courts. 

The peculiarities of maritime law and the 
character of the jurisdiction exercised by mari- 
time courts is best illustrated by the law relat- 
ing to maritime liens, which are enforced by 
proceedings in rem. See In Rem; Lien. 

A maritime contract may give rise to a mari- 
time lien when made for the benefit or assistance 
of a marine venture, and when made on the 
credit of the vessel rather than on the credit of 
the owner or charterer. There is a presumption 
that all contracts for necessary supplies and re- 
pairs to a vessel are made on the credit of the 
owner if in a home port, but upon the credit of 
the vessel if in a foreign port. The seamen and 
subordinate officers, but not the master of the 
ship, have a lien upon the ship for wages due. 
The marine carriers also have a lien for freight 
and demurrage. 

Analogous to the contract lien, although strict- 
ly not based on contract, is the lien which any 
party to a marine venture who has made a gen- 
eral average sacrifice has upon vessel or cargo, 
or both, to secure contribution in general average. 
Maritime liens may also decide ex delicto for all 
wrongs or injuries caused by the ship, or by col- 


lision, or by failure of the ship as a common oar- 
rier to carry or deliver goods safely. 

It is a general principle of the maritime law 
that the master has the power, when necessity 
arises and he is unable to communicate with the 
owners, to sell both ship and cargo and confer 
a valid title on the purchaser to sell free of liens^ 
which then attach to the proceeds. Lienors do 
not share pro rata in the subject of the liens, but 
have priority according to their importance as 
contributing to the safety or preservation of the 
property. Thus, as between different voyages, 
liens have priority in the inverse order of their 
creation. In the same voyage the order of pri- 
ority is as follows: (1) Costs of litigation; (2> 
salvage; (3) salary of seamen, cost of supplies 
and repairs, bottomry and respondentia, pilotage 
and. towage. 

The procedure of maritime law is extremely 
simple, never having been characterized by oom- 
plex and technical rules, as was the procedure^ 
at common law. The most distinguishing charac- 
teristic is the power of the plaintiff to make the- 
proceeding purely one in rem, that is, one di- 
rected solely toward the property which the plain- 
tiff wishes to subject to the maritime lien which 
he claims. The procedure, however, may be at 
the plaintiflfs option one in pursuance of which 
a personal judgment may be recovered against 
the defendant; or, in the absence of rules of 
court to the contrary, it may be both in rem and 
in personam. The proceeding in admiralty is 
begun by filing a libel (q.v.). Upon filing of the- 
libel the court issues its writ or mesne process, 
which is executed by the marshal or correspond- 
ing officer by attaching the res, if the proceeding 
is in rem, or by citing the respondent to appear 
and answer, if the proceeding is in personam^ 
The respondent is then required to file his answer, 
or he may file exceptions, which correspond to 
the demurrer in an action at law. The issues 
raised are laid before a judge without a jury, 
or, as is more usually done, tiie testimony in the 
case is taken before a commissioner or correspond- 
ing officer, who reports it to the judge. The judge 
does not usually assess damages, but refers that 
question to a commissioner by an interlocutory 
judgment; and upon the commissioner's report 
renders a final juagment fixing the rights of the 
parties. See Admibalty Law ; Coubts ; Cabbteb, 
Common ; Masteb ; etc. ; and consult the authori- 
ties referred to under such titles. Consult, also, 
Abbott, Law of Merchant Ships and Beamen, 
(14th ed., London, 1901); Pritchard, Digest of 
Admiralty and Maritime Law (3d ed., London, 
1887); Hughes, Handbook Admiralty Law (St. 
Paul, 1901 ) ; Parsons. Treatise on the Law of 
Shipping (Boston, 1869). 

skaya Ohlast). An eastern province of Siberia. It 
extends from the Arctic Ocean, where it reaches 
as far west as Tchaun Bay, to the northern boun- 
dary of Korea. Its western boundary runs alon;;^ 
the Stanovoi Mountains to about longitude 130* 
E., then southeast and south to the Amur (which 
traverses the province in a northeasterly direc- 
tion ) , then along the Usuri, which forma part of 
the boundary of Manchuria, and finally south- 
west to the Korean border, along the eastern 
frontier of Manchuria to Korea (Map: Asia, O 
3). Its area, including Kamtchatka (q.v.) an* 
tne islands (Karagin, Commander, etc.), is 715,- 
920 square miles. The northern portion, forming- 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


"the northeastern extremity of Asia, is a mountain-* 
ous peninsula, exceeding 8000 feet in elevation in 
-the northern part and watered by the Anadyr and 
many other rivers. Its coasts are deeply in- 
•dented and present a number of promontories 
toward Bering Strait and Bering Bea — promon- 
-tories that range from 1000 to 2000 feet in 
height. The central part of the province is a 
narrow strip of land along the Sea of Okhotsk, 
-^CQupied by the fitanovoi Mountains and inter- 
sected by numerous short streams. 

The southern part is somewhat lower west of 
the Amur^ while the portion east of that river is 
occupied to some extent by the moimtainous dis- 
trict of Sikhota Alin, rising above 5000 feet in 
its highest peaks. The flora of the northern part 
is extremely poor, consisting only of some 
lichens, mosses, and dwarf trees. The lower 
mountain slopes of the central portion of the 
province and the deep river valleys are thickly 
wooded. The same is true of the mountains in 
the southern part, where the lowlands are cov- 
ered with thick grass, and some plants peculiar 
to warmer regions, such as the wild vine, are 
iound. Northern Siberia has long been famois 
ior its rich fauna, but many species, such as 
-the blue fox, the black sable, the sea-otter, the 
sea-lion, the sea-cow, and the whale, have either 
entirely disappeared or are rapidly approaching 
extinction. The fauna of the southern region is 
Temarkable for its variety, including such differ- 
ent species as the tiger and the bear. The rivers 
in this part of the country are exceedingly rich 
in fish, and it is along their banks that the 
population of the province is concentrated. The 
northern part of the province is inhabited chief- 
ly by the Tchuktches, who are engaged in fish- 
ing on the coast, and in reindeer breeding and 
hunting in the interior. Besides the Tcduktohes 
there are found some Koryaks on the coast. 
The central part of the province is inhabited only 
"by a few Tunguses. 

The climate presents great variety, owing to 
the large extent of the region, but even in the 
south it is very severe. The temperature at 
Vladivostok, at the southern end of the province, 
averages only 39.5 o F., while at Nikolayevsk, at 
the mouth of the Amur, it is below the freezing 
point. The summers in the southern part are 
extremely wet, and inundations are frequent. 

Agriculture is confined by natural conditions 
to the southern portion of the province and is 
progressing very slowly. Hunting and fishing are 
still the chief occupations. Some gold is pro- 
duced along the Amur. Inunigration has made 
some progress of late, owing no doubt to the 
Trans-Siberian Railway. Manv Little Russian 
peasants and Cossacks from the Don territory 
and Orenburg have been transported to the prov- 
ince bv the (Jovemment. Roads are very scarce, 
but a branch of the Trans-Siberian line traverses 
the province from Khabarovsk to Vladivostok 
for a distance of 409 miles. Nikolskoye, 69 miles 
north of Vladivostok, is the eastern U-rminal of 
the Manchurian branch of the Trans-Siberian line. 
The population in 1897 was 223,336, including 
a.hout 45,000 natives, more than 23,000 Koreans, 
and over 29,000 Chinese. The Russians constitute 
over one-half of the entire population. The orig- 
inal Russian population is organized on a mili- 
tary basis, and are known as Cossacks. The 
capital of the province is Khabarovsk (q.v.), but 
.the most important town is Vladivostok (q.v.). 


MABEDZA, mA-r^tsA (Lat. Hehrm). The 
principal river of European Turkey (Map: Tur- 
key in £urope, F 4). It rises in the Balkans, 
flows southeast through the Province of Eastern 
Rumelia past the town of Philippopolis, and con- 
tinues in that direction ns fnr as Adrianople, 
where it bends south and falls into the ^^gean 
Sea near its northeast corner. It is 300 miles 
in length, and is navigable for small boats to 
Adrianople, about 100 miles from its mouth. 

MABTCTFOL, ma'r6-^5(5'p6l-y\ The capital of 
a district of the same name in the Government 
of Ekaterinoslav, Russia, situated on the northern 
shore of the Sea of Azov, 63 miles west of Tagan- 
rog (Map: Russia, G 5). It has two gymnasia, 
a theatre, and a custom house. Soap and leather 
are its chief manufactures; it carries on a con- 
siderable trade in grain. Its harbor is visited 
annually by over 1300 coasting and about 100 
sea-going vessels. Mariupol was founded in 
1779 by Greek emigrants from the Crimea. Pop- 
ulation, in 1897, 31,600, chiefly Greeks and Jews. 

MA^KEITS, Gaiub (c. 156-86 b.g.). A Roman 
general, bom of an obscure family, at the village 
of Cereatse, near Arpinum, about b.c. 156. In the 
Numantine War (b.c. 134-133) he served with 
great distinction under the younger Soipio Afri- 
canuB. In B.C. 119 he was elected tribune of the 
plebs, and vigorously opposed the nobles, by whom 
he was intensely hated. He acquired political 
influence by his marriage \vith Julia, aunt of 
Julius Ctesar. In B.C. 114 he went to Spain as 
propraetor, and cleared the country ot the robbers 
who infested it. He accompanied Q. Coecilius 
Metellue to Africa in B.C. 109, was elected consul 
two years after, and intrusted with the conduct 
of the Jugurthine War, which he brought to a 
successful clof^e in the beginning of B.C. 106. 
Marius sent Sulla, then his queestor, to receive 
Jugurtha, and this laid the foundation of future 
personal enmity. The military success of Marius 
had now made him the most conspicuous oflicor 
in the Roman army, while he had aroused enthu- 
siastic admiration among his soldiers. Meanwhile 
an immense horde of Gimbri, Teutones, and other 
northern barbarians had burst into Gaul, and re- 
peatedly defeated the Roman forces with great 
slaughter. Marius was again called to the con- 
sulate for the year b.c. 104, and for the third, 
fourth, and fifth times in B.C. 103-101, for it was 
felt that he alone could save the Republic. The 
war against the Teutones in Transalpine Gaul 
occupied him for more than two years; but he 
finally annihilated them in a battle of two days* 
duration at Aquae Sexti», now Aix, in Provence, 
where 200,000 — according to others, 100,000 — 
Teutones were slain. After this he assumed the 
chief command in the north of Italy against the 
Cimbri (q.v.), whom he also overthrew on the 
Raudian Fields with a like destruction (B.C. 101). 
The people of Rome knew no bounds to their joy. 
Mnrius was declared the savior of the State, the 
third rounder of Rome, and his name was men- 
tioned along with those of the gods at banquets. 
He was made consul for the sixth time in B.C. 100. 
When Sulla, as consul, was intrusted with the 
conduct of the Mithridatic War, Marius, who 
had long manifested an insane jealousy of his 
patrician rival, and was himself an aspirant for 
the command of the war, attempted to deprive him 
of the command, and a civil war began (b.c. 88). 
By procuring a new organization of the Roman 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


tribes, through passage of a law to distribute the 
Italian allies among all the tribes, Marius se- 
cured an election to the command of the war. 
Sulla fled to his army at Nola, refused to resign 
the command, and marched on Rome. Marius 
was soon forced to flee, and after enduring the 
greatest hardships, and making numerous hair- 
breadth escapes, he reached Africa, where he 
remained until a rising of his friends took 
place under Cinna. He then hurried back to 
Italy, in the absence of Sulla, and, along with 
Cinna, marched against Rome, which was obliged 
to yield. Marius was delirious in his revenge 
upon the aristocracy; a band of 4000 slaves is 
said to have carried on the work of murder for 
five days and nights. Marius and Cinna were 
elected consuls together for the year B.C. 86. 
Marius was, however, already in his seventy- 
first year, and died after he had held the office 
seventeen days. 

Unlettered, arrogant, and rude of manner, 
Marius did not possess the qualifications requisite 
for maintaining influence in times of peace. The 
effect of his personal presence is illustrated by 
the scene when, during his flight to Southern 
Italy, a barbarian entered his room with drawn 
sword to assassinate him. When Marius called 
out in the darkness, "Man, durst thou murder 
C. Marius?" the intruder dropped his sword in 
terror and fled. See Beesly, Marius and Sulla 
(New York, 1878). . 

KABTCJS, Mercatob (T-449?). An ecclesias- 
tical writer of the earlier half of the fifth cen- 
tury, born in Africa. He was living in Rome, 
418, and ten years afterwards in Constantinople, 
but authorities differ as to whether he was priest 
or layman. He is known to have been a iriend 
and defender of Augustine, a denouncer of the 
Pelagian and Nestor ian doctrine. His determined 
opposition to the promulgators of these heresies 
bore fruit in their expulsion from Constantinople. 
He made Latin translations of Nestorius, Theo- 
dosius of Mopsuestia, Cyril of Alexandria, Pro- 
clus, Theodoret, and other Greeks which are in- 
valuable to students of Church history. These, 
together with his own controversial writings, 
were twice published in Paris with different 
editors, 1673 and 1684. 

KABIVAUXy m&'r^'vy, Pierre Carlet de 
Chamblain de (1688-1763). A French dram- 
atist important in the development of French 
comedy, and a novelist, epocn-making in the 
evolution of French fiction. He was bom in 
Paris, February 4, 1688; his father was a 
Norman, director of the Mint at Riom in Au- 
vergne, where and at Limoges Marivaux passed 
his youth. His literary taste developed early. At 
eighteen he had written a play, Le p^e prudent 
et Equitable (published 1712), and between 1713 
and 1715 he produced three romances. Effete aur- 
prenants de la sympathies La voiture emhowrhie, 
and Le Don Quichote modeme, all wholly out of 
key with his later work. Then, falling under 
the influence of the parodist La Motte, he under- 
took to travesty Homer and F6nelon, but turned 
from this ignoble task to the production of essays 
in the vein of the Spectator for the journal Le 
Mercure ( 1717) . These showed keenness, but also 
preciosity. The year 1720 marks a turning point 
in Marivaux's genius and fortune. He lost his 
considerable wealth in the Mississippi scheme, 
became dependent on his pen, wrote a poor 
tragedy, Annihah and a good comedy, Arlequin 

72 MABK. 

poli par Vamour, and started the Spectaieur 
Francois, a weekly "Spectator," that might have 
succeeded if his unmethodical habits had allowed 
it to appear regularly. For the next twenty 
years he support^ himself as a playwright, suc- 
ceeding in comedy at the Italian Theatre and 
failing in tragedy at the Th^fttre Francais. The 
more noteworthy of his thirty plays are: Les 
surprises de Vamour (1722); Le triompke de 
Plutus (1728) ; Le jeu de Vamour et du hasanl 
(1730) ; Le legs (1736) ; and Les fausses confix 
dences (1737). He founded two other unsuc- 
cessful journals, and in 1731 began the publica- 
tion of a novel, Marianne, which he left incom- 
plete at its eleventh part in 1742. Madame 
Ricciboni finished it. In 1735 he began I/e 
paysan parvenu, which also remained a torso. 
Yet these are his most important works. In 1736 
he was elected to the Academy. Late in life he 
received a pension from Helv^tius (q.v.) and an- 
other from Madame de Pompadour (q.v.). He 
died February 12, 1763. Marivaux shows him- 
self in his dramas and in his fiction interested 
primarily in the analysis and display of human 
feeling. He drew in both his novels pictures of 
contemporary society and of Parisian street life 
that remained uneaualed for a century in their 
impressionistic realism, but his delight is in 
verbal surprise — a somewhat affected style known 
in French literature as marivaudage. Marivaiix^s 
Worfc^are in 10 vols. (Paris, 1827-30). There is 
a modem edition of the plays by Foumier and 
also of Marianne. Consult: Savoll^, Marivaua 
inconnu (Paris, 1880) ; Fleury, Marivauw et le 
marivaudage (ib., 1881) ; Gossot, Marivaux mo- 
raliste (ib., 1881) ; Larroumet, Marivaux^ sa vie 
et ses ceuvres (ib., 1894) ; and Deschamps, Mari- 
vauw (ib., 1897). 

MABJOBAM ( OF. marjolaine, margelyne, Fr. 
marjolaine, It. majorana, maggiorana, from ML. 
majoranca, from Lat. amaracus, amaracum, from 
Gk. afidpoKoc, amarakos, kfidpoKov, amarakon, mar- 
joram, probably connected with Heb. mdraq, 
to purify; influenced by popular etymology with 
Lat. major, greater). Origanum. A genus of 
annual, perennial, and shrubby plants of the nat- 
ural order Labiatse, natives chiefly of the East, 
and of the Mediterranean region. Some of the 
species abound in a yellow essential oil, marjo- 
ram oil or oil of origanum, which is obtained by 
distillation. The common marjoram {Origanum 
vulgare), which has become naturalized in the 
United States^ is a perennial plant, one foot high 
with ovate leaves, and roundish, panicled crowned 
heads of purple flowers, with large bracts. It is 
used, as are also other species, as a seasoning in 
cookery, and is said to be stimulant and tonic. 
Sweet marjoram {Origanum majorana) is an an- 
nual plant, a native of Greece and the East, with 
ovate grayish-green leaves, wrinkled bracts, and 
small white flowers. Its uses are similar to 
those of the common marjoram, being commonly 
used for garnishing. 

MABJOBIBANKS, m^rch^Snks, Edwabd, 
second Baron Tweedmouth. See Twkedmodth. 

MABK, mftrk (Ger., border, march). A Ger- 
man geographical term, signifying primarily the 
mark of a country's limits (the march), and 
hence applied as a designation of the border 
countries or districts of the German Empire, con- 
quered from neighboring nations. Prussia began 
its existence as the north mark, erected against 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

JMLAJuL* id 

the inyasion of the Wends, while Austria arose 
from the east mark, erected against the Hun- 
garians. The governor intrusted with the charge 
of one of these border districts was called mark- 
graf, or margrave (q.v.). There has been a long 
dispute among scholars as to the original mean- 
ing of mark. On this dispute, consult: Fustel de 
Coulanges, Histoire des institutions poUtique» de 
Vancienne France (Paris, 1875-90) ; Maurer, Ge- 
sehii^te der Markenverfassung in Deutschland 
(Erlangen, 1856). 

MARK (AS. marc, Qer, Mark; perhaps iden- 
tical originally with mark, token, boundary). 
Originally the term appears to have been used to 
designate a unit of weight, most commonly of 
gold or silver. It was about equal to eight 
ounces, but it varied from country to country. 
In 1524 the Cologne mark was made the standard 
weight for gold and silver throughout the Holy 
Roman Empire, but the standard was never 
properly enforced. In Anglo-Saxon times the 
term mark was used to designate a money of 
account, consisting of 100 pennies — in the twelfth 
century, 160 pennies. In 1663 a silver mark 
was issued in Scotland which was valued at 13s. 
Id. English money. In the nineteenth century 
the mark was a common small coin among the 
German States, varying considerably in the dif- 
ferent parts of Germany. In 1873 the gold mark 
of 100 pfennige was adopted as the monetary 
imit of the German Empire. It represents .3082 
grammes of gold (900 fine) and is valued at 
$0.23821 in American money. 

M AKK (Lat. Marcus, Gk. MdpKot, Markos), 
or JoHN^ with the surname Mask (Acts xii. 
12). The writer of the second Gospel. The in- 
cidental notices in the New Testament give the 
following facts: Mark was the son of a certain 
Mary, a householder of Jerusalem, at whose 
home the early Christians held meetings in the 
days of persecution (Acts xii. 1-12). He was a 
cousin of Barnabas (CIJol. iv. 10), hence, possibly, 
in case the relationship was on the fathers' side, 
of Levitical descent. An old tradition says that 
he had his thumbs cut off so as to be unfit for 
the priesthood. Peter calls him his 'son* ( I. Pet. 
V. 13), which means probably that he was con- 
verted to dlhristianity under Peter's ministry in 
Jerusalem. He came to Antioch from Jerusalem 
with Barnabas and Paul (Acts xii. 25), and ac- 
companied them as an assistant on their first 
missionary journey (Acts xiii. 6). But he left 
them at Perga and returned to Jerusalem (Acts 
xiii. 13; cf. xv. 37-39). Again at Antioch he ac- 
companied Barnabas to Cyprus, Paul being un- 
willing to take him with him on the second 
ioumey (Acts xv. 37-40). This was about a.d. 50. 
We hear nothing more of him until the time 
of Paul's first Roman captivity (c.60 a.d), 
when we learn (Col. iv. 10; Philem. 24) that 
he was then in Rome, reconciled to Paul and 
esteemed by him, and was about to visit Asia 
Minor. He may hav^ come to Rome with Peter, 
who mentions him (I. Pet. v. 13) as with him in 
the city. The proposed journey to Asia was 
probably undertaken, as he was in the East when 
Paul wrote from Rome (c.65) to Timothy at 
Ephesus (?), asking him to bring Mark with 
him (11. Tim. iv. 11). At Rome, according to 
early tradition, he wrote his Gospel, not alto- 
gether as his own work, but as containing the 
substance of Peter's preaching. Another tradi- 


tion makes him the organizer and first Bishop of 
the Alexandrian Church. In the nature of the 
case^ such traditions are difficult of proof. Con- 
sult the commentaries on Mark^ especially that 
of Swete; Zahn, Einleiiung in das Neue Testa- 
ment, vol. ii. (Leipzig, 1900). See Mabk, Gos- 
pel or. 

MABK, Gospel op. The second of the New 
Testament (]k>spels. Its first verse opens with a 

ghrase (*The beginning of the Grospel of Jesus 
hrist") that is evidently intended to be a cap- 
tion for the narrative which follows. Unlike 
Matthew, whose tendency is to a topical treat- 
ment of his material, and Luke, who gives himself 
to rhetorical enrichment, Mark arranges his nar- 
rative simply and in an order which shows itself 
to be, generally speaking, the normal chrono- 
logical order of the Gospel events. There is first 
the preliminary history reciting the ministry of 
John the Baptist and the entrance of Jesus upon 
His work, through the symbolic act of the bap- 
tism and the personal experience of the tempta- 
tion (i. 2-13). There then follows the main 
portion of the narrative, which gives, first, 
Jesus' popular work in Galilee (i. 14-vii. 23) 
and His similar work in the region north of Gali- 
lee (vii. 24-viii. 26), and then breaks in upon 
this northern work with a presentation of it in 
the light rather of a work of instruction, chiefly 
to His disciples, than a work of construction 
among the people (viii. 27-ix. 29). This new 
character of Jesus' work is carried on into what 
may be generally considered His journey toward 
Jerusalem ( ix. 30-x. 52 ) . The event that marks 
this chan^ is the disciples' confession of* Jesus' 
Messiahship given in the neighborhood of Caesarea 
Philippi, which was followed by Jesus' first 
clear declaration of His coming death (viii. 27- 
ix. 1). This is evidently considered by the 
Evangelist as the turning point in Jesus' work, 
leading Him to a change in its character and 
method. Chaps, xi.-xiii. are given to the final 
work in Jerusalem, which Mark, in common 
with the other Evangelists, presents as a work 
in which Jesus' Messianic claims are openly 
laid before the nation's religious leaders. The 
narrative closes, as in all the Crospels, with the 
Passion and Resurrection (xiv.-xvi.). 

It is generally admitted that verses 9-20 of 
the last chapter (xvi.) are a later addition to the 
Gospel, the original ending having been lost. 
Just how much further the narrative went and 
whether it included, as Luke alone can be pos- 
sibly said to do, an account of the Ascension 
can only be conjectured. 

In comparison with the other Synoptists Mark 
is quite distinctly the shortest Gospel, consider- 
able portions of the history appearing in Mat- 
thew and Luke being absent from Mark — such as 
the Nativity, the Sermon on the Mount, and that 
part of Luke which is devoted apparently to a 
story of Jesus' last joumeyings to the Holy 
City; and yet where Mark gives the narrative 
in common with the other two, he gives it with 
a fullness of graphic detail which the others do 
not possess. It is also characteristic of Mark that, 
though he has an account of the parables by the 
Sea of Galilee, he does not give the discourses of 
Jesus in a measure equal to that of Matthew 
and Luke. In the opinion of most critics this 
indicates that Mark had not access to, or, at 
least, did not make use of the Logia collection of 
Matthew. See Matthew, Gospel op. 

Digitized by 


liABK 74 

It is plain that this Gospel was written by a 
Jewish Christian — not because of any Jewish 
cast of the Gospel, as in the case of Matthew, for 
such a cast it does not possess — but because (a) 
of the author's familiarity with Jewish things 
and his ready ability in explaining them (cf. 
ii. 18; vii. 3 sqq.j xii. 18; xiv. 12; xv. 6, 42), 
and (b) because of his acquaintance with the 
Aramaic language, which he frequently trans- 
lates (cf. iii. 17; v. 41; vii. 11, 34; ix. 43; x. 46; 
xiv. 36; XV. 22, 34). On the other hand, it is 
clear that the readers were Gentile Christians — 
not simply because they were unacquainted with 
Palestinian customs and speech, for so to a cer- 
tain extent were the Jewish readers of Matthew, 
but because this ignorance seems to be not only 
very much more extensive on the part of Mark's 
readers, but also to be surrounded by a very gen- 
eral Latin atmosphere, as though the readers 
not merely needed the above interpretations and 
explanations, but needed them cast in this mold 
(cf. V. 9; vi. 27, 37; vii. 4; xii. 42; xv. 16, 39). 
As to the place of the Gospel's origin there is 
nothing definite to be gathered from the con- 
tents, though perhaps it is more likely to have 
been writtc^ outside of Palestine than within it. 
The Latin atmosphere would most easily be 
thrown around the narrative in a Latin country. 
As to date, it is universally admitted that what- 
ever may be the year of its composition, it gives 
every evidence of being the earliest of all the 
Gospels. In fact, a comparison of Mark's order 
of narrative with that of Matthew and Luke 
shows that Mark's order was that which Matthew 
and Luke had before them when they wrote. If, 
therefore, there is any likelihood that either of 
these latter were written prior to the destruction of 
Jerusalem, it becomes almost necessary to place 
Mark before that event. See Matthew, Gospel 
OF; Luke, Gospel of. 

In all of this there is nothing that would make 
impossible an authorship by Mark ; but such an 
origin would seem almost necessitated by the 
elear testimony of patristic evidence. This evi- 
dence, in brief, ascribes the authorship of the 
Gospel to Mark, and to Mark as in some way 
connected in the writing with Peter. The varia- 
tion in the evidence is at the latter point. Some 
of the Fathers, as Jerome and Origen, make the 
relation that of an amanuensis; others, as Euse- 
bius, that of a reporter; others again, as Clem- 
■ent of Alexandria, Justin Martyr, and Irenseus, 
that simply of a disciple recalling his Master's 
words. The most explicit testimony, and that 
which seems to bear upon its face the strongest 

?roof of credibility, is the testimony from 
^apias, who describes Mark as the interpreter 
of Peter's preaching, and Mark's Gospel as his 
conscientious reproduction of what Peter's dis- 
courses contained. This testimony of Papias 
would agree with the original Greek character 
of the Gospel's composition; for, according to 
this testimony, the service which Mark rendered 
to Peter was evidently that of interpreting his 
Aramaic discourses into the Greek which his 
audiences could understand. It would further 
agree with the fresh and vi\nd style of the Gos- 
pel's narrative; since such immediate contact 
with Peter's reminiscences as Mark must have 
had would give the stamp of an eye-witness to all 
his record. And it would yet further agree with 
a certain Petrine element which seems to be 
present at frequent points throughout the Gospel ; 


since, however, Mark may have reconstructed 
these discourses of Peter's, he is not likely to 
have lost out of them altogether the personal 
element they must have contained. 

Accordingly, the general verdict of criticism is 
that the second canonical Gospel is from the 
hand of Mark, reproducing Peter's personal 
knowledge of and participation in the Gospel 
events. At the same time this verdict attaches 
only to the substance of the Gospel; since there 
are evidences which seem to show that Mark's 
production has undergone editing to bring it to 
its present form, while there are clear traces of 
documentary sources in the latter part of the 
Gospel which, if belonging to Mark's original 
work, show him to have gone outside of Peter 
for a considerable amount of his material. 

Naturally in proportion as Mark's Gospel is 
the reproduction of Peter's preaching, so far mo^t 
its purpose be a homiletic rather than a purely 
historical one. This purpose may be described 
as the evidencing of Jesus' Messiahship through 
the acts and deeds of His earthly life. As a 
matter of fact, this evangelistic element is promi- 
nent throughout the narrative and is due, not 
merely to the spirit of Jesus' own ministry, but 
also to the method of the general apostolic mis- 
sion, which was not so much to tell the story of 
Jesus' life, as rather to testify to the impres- 
sion which Jesus Himself had made upon their 
spiritual experience. 

Bibliography. Besides the usual New Testa- 
ment Introductions, the introductory portions of 
the more recent commentaries on Mark, and 
the special Synoptic works referred to in the lit- 
erature attached to the article on the Gospel of 
Matthew, consult: Badham, Saint Mark's /«- 
dehtedneas to Baint Matthew (London, 1897) ; 
Titius, Das Verhdltniss der Herrenworte in 
Markus Evangelium zu den Logia dee Matthaus, 
in "Theologische Studien" (Gottingen, 1897) ; 
Hadom, Die Entstehung des Markusevangelium 
(Gtttersloh, 1898) ; Blass, Philologie der Evan- 
gelien (Eng. trans., London, 1898) ; Chajea, Mar- 
ku8 Studien (Berlin. 1899) ; Du Buiason, Origin 
of the Gospel of Saint Mark (Oxford, 1896) ; 
Abbott, The Oorreotions of Mark (London, 1901 ) . 

MABK, Edwabd Latjbenb (1847 — ). An 
American zoologist, born at Hamlet, N. Y. He 
graduated at the University of Michigan in 1871^ 
and in 1872-73 acted as assistant astronomer on 
the United States Northern Boundary Survey. 
He then studied zoology in Europe under Leuck- 
art, Haeckel, and others, and obtained a degree in 
lieipzig. In 1877 he was appointed instructor at 
Harvard College, in 1883 assistant professor of 
zo(ilog3', and in 1885 Hersey professor of anatomy. 
In 1903 he became director of the Bermuda Bio- 
logical Station for Research. His publications 
include: Maturation, Fecundation, and Segmen- 
tation in Limax Campestris (1881) ; Simple Eyes 
in Arthropods ( 1887 ) ; Trichinw in Swine ( 1889 ) ; 
Studies on Lepidostcus (1890). Consult, Parker 
ed., Mark Anniversary Volume ( New York, 1904 ) . 

MABK ANTONY. See Antonius, Mab- 

ketf from Lat. mercatus, traffic, market, from 
mercari, to trade, from merw, merchandise, from 
merere, to earn, deserve; connected with Gk. 
iWpot, meros, share) . A market may be defined 
as an assemblage of people for buying and flellii)^ 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


goods. The tenn is applied at the present time 
more particularly to certain public places or 
buildings where goods are offered for purchase 
and sale. In a broader sense^ it is the country, 
city, or locality, where goods are bought and 
sold, as the foreign market, domestic market. 
New York market, etc. Markets have existed 
from the time when men first began to diversify 
their products. They were the meeting places 
for barter aad exchange, and during the Middle 
Ages were a 8o«rce of considerable revenue to the 
State. The State authorized them, made laws 
for their control, and collected certain tolls. In 
Europe to-day nearly every town and in America 
nearly all the large cities have one or more 
market places. These may be simply open public 
squares in some centrally located district, or they 
may be a commodious, substantial building, fitted 
up with stalls, booths, and containing cold stor- 
age rooms for the preservation of quickly perish- 
able goods. Modem stores and shops are the 
outgrowths of the early markets and have de- 
veloped in comparatively recent times. 

Owing to local productions, to transit facili- 
ties, or to some other favorable circumstances, 
many cities have developed special markets, as 
for example the Liverpool wheat market, Buffalo 
live-stock market, New Orleans cotton market, 
Leipzig book and for market, etc. The manner 
of marketing has changed greatly in modem 
times. Much of the produce formerly sold in 
bulk is now marketed in small attractive pack- 
ages ready for family use. ^lany firms have ouilt 
up a lucrative business by buying commodities 
in bulk and repacking them in smaller, more 
convenient and attractive packages. 

The development of the cold storage system, in- 
cluding the use of refrigerator cars for goods in 
transit, has in recent years profoundly affected 
the methods of marketing perishable products 
and indefinitely prolonged the season during 
which many kinds of agricultural products may 
be found on sale, even in the markets of regions 
remote from the place of original shipment. Con- 
sult United States Department of Agriculture, 
Farmers' Bulletin 62, Marketing Farm Produce 
(Washington, 1897). 

KABXBT OVEBT (Fr. ouvert, open). In 
the English law, certain 'open' or public markets, 
where the law protects a purchaser in his title 
to any goods which he may buy in good faith, 
even though the tradesman did not own or have 
a right to sell them. The law originated in an 
old Saxon custom which prohibited the sale ni 
anything above the value erf twenty pence, except 
in open market and in the presence of witnesses. 
The theor\' was that lost or stolen goods would 
probably be identified in a public market by the 
owner, before the tradesman or original thief 
could dispose of them. This custom became the 
law of England after the Conquest, and was 
modified to inc^lude goods of any value, and by 
dispensing with the necessity of witnesses. It 
is applied to every kind of personal property 
except horses. By subsequent statutes the law 
was further modified so that at present if stolen 
goods are sold in open market, the title revests 
in the owner upon the conviction of the thief. 
Only certain ancient markets have this character, 
ontaide of London, where every public shop is a 
market overt and every day i« market day. This 
law never existed in the United States. See 

Vol, XIII.— 6. 


IffARKET VALUE. The value of an artwle 
as established bv public sales of such property 
in a particular locality. At times this value is 
proved by regular market quotations. It is also 
proved by persons familiar with the price at 
which such property sells regularly in tiie 
market. If the market price is abnormally en- 
hanced or depressed at the time and place for 
delivery of any goods, by wrongful combinations 
or by an illegal monopoly, other evidence than 
the market sales may be resorted to for the pur- 
pose of showing the fair value of the propertv in 
question. Consult the authorities referred to 
under Tobt; Damages; Cbiminai. Law. 

I, Sir Albebt Hastinos (1841 
— ). An admiral of the English Royal Navy, 
bom at Bagn^res. After his education in the 
Royal Navy Academy at Southsea, be entered the 
navy and served in China, taking an active part 
in the fall of Peking. He rose to lieutenant 
(1862), conmiander (1872), captain (1876), 
rear-admiral (1892-94), and admiral (1903). 
He commanded the Alert in the Arctic expedi- 
tion of 1875-70, when he reared the Union Jack 
in the most northern point reached up to that 
time (830 20' 26"). He explored Davis Strait, 
Lancaster Sound, Nova Zembia, and Hudson Bay. 
Among his publications are: The Cruusc of 
the Rosario (1873); The Great Frozen Sea 
(1877); Northward Ho! (1878); The Life of 
John Davis (he NatHgator (1882); A Polar 
Reconnaissance (1880); and Life of Sir John 
Franklin (1890). 

MABKHAM, Sir Clements Robert (1830 
— ). An English geographer and author, bom at 
Stillingflcet. He was educated at Westminster, 
and in 1844 entered the navy. In 1850 he was 
made lieutenant, and in 1851 accompanied the ex- 
pedition sent to search for Sir Jolm Franklin. 
He accompanied the British expedition against 
Abyssinia in 1867-68, entered the geographical 
department of the India Office, was editor of the 
Oeographical Magazine ^ secretary of the Hakluyt 
Society in 1858-87, and later secretary and then 
president of the Royal Geographical Society, from 
which he retired in 1905. He published: Frank- 
lin's Footsteps (1852); Travels in Peru and 
India (1862) ; A History of the Abyssinian Ex- 
pedition (1869); Major James Rennell and the 
Rise of Modem English Geography ( 1895 ) ; Rich- 
ard Hakluyt: His Life and Work^ with a Short 
Account of the Aims and Achievements of the 
Hakluyt Society (1896) ; Memoir of Archbishop 
Markham (1906); Richard III. (1906). 

XABXHAM, Edwin (1852—). An Ameri- 
can poet, bom in Oregon City, Ore. When five 
years old he was taken to live in California and 
struggled for an education there while engaged 
in general farm work. He began to write verse 
for the California papers at an early age, be^ 
came a teacher, and rose to be principal and 
school superintendent. In 1899 he removed to 
Brooklyn, N. Y., and subsequently to Staten Isl- 
and. His best-known poem is The Man toith the 
Hoe, published in book form with other verses 
in 1899. His other books include Lincoln and 
Other Poems (1901) and Field Folk: Interpreta^ 
tions of Millet (1901). 

MARKHAM, Gervase (c.1568-1637). An 
English author, bom at Gotham, Nottingham- 
shire. He served as a soldier in the Low Coun- 
tries, and attained a captaincy in the English 

Digitized by 


76 MABL. 

army. Well versed in the classical and modern 
languages, he took up literature as a means of 
livelihood and prepared numerous volumes for 
the press. He wrote largely on topics connected 
with sport, and is also known for some indifferent 
poetry. A few works attributed to him were 
certamly written by others, but those regarded 
as ^nume include : The Moat Honorable Tragedie 
of Sir Richard Grinvile (1595); The Poem of 
Poems (1595) ; Cavelarice, or the English Horse- 
man (1607) ; and Hunger's Prevention (1621). 

MABKHATff, William (c.1635-1704). An 
American Colonial Governor, born in England. 
He was a cousin of William Penn, and was sent 
to America as Deputy Governor of Pennsylvania 
after the grant in 1681. On his arrival at New 
York, BrockhoUs, acting Governor in the absence 
of Andros, surrendered his authority over Penn's 
grant and gave him a letter to the local authori- 
ties. Proceeding to Pennsylvania, Markham 
called a council August 3, 1681, and almost 
immediately began a controversy with Lord Balti- 
more about the Maryland boundary. He chose 
the present site of Philadelphia for the great city 
to be built, instead of that of Upland (Chester), 
which was Penn's choice. When Penn arrived in 
1682, Markham went to England to represent the 
colony in the boundanr dispute, and when Penn 
returned was made Secretary of the Province 
and the Territories (the lower counties on the 
Delaware). He was Deputy Governor of the Ter- 
ritories in 1691, and was Lieutenant-Governor for 
Governor Fletcher of New York (1693 to 1695), 
the Crown having revoked the grant miide to 
Penn and assumed control. He was continued in 
officer until 1699 by Penn, who in 1695 had again 
secured possession, and during this time the new 
Constitution was passed. Many charges, such as 
conniving at piracy and using courts to protect 
fraud, were made against him. Penn was not al- 
together satisfied with his course, but ordered 
him to be appointed Register-General of Wills in 

MAKKHOB. See Goat. 

lLAItKIN(}-NT7T. The fruit of Semecarpus 
Anacardium, a large tree of the natural order 
Anacardiacese, a native of the mountains of India. 
It has oblong leaves and terminal panicles of 
flowers. The fruit is a heart-shaped, black nut, 
seated on a large swollen receptacle, which, 
when ripe, is roasted and eaten, although when 
raw it is astringent and acrid. Between the 
two coats of the nut-shell is a black, acrid juice, 
much in use for marking cotton cloths, a mixture 
of quicklime and water being applied to prevent 
it from running, and to brighten the color. It is 
also used as an external application in rheu- 

MABKIBGH, mftr^^rK (Fr. Sainte-Mane- 
auw-Mines), A town of Upper Alsace, Germany, 
situated about forty miles southwest of Strass- 
burg. It is an important manufacturing centre 
for cotton and woolen goods, the industry hav- 
ing been introduced there about the middle of the 
eighteenth century. In the Middle Ages the town 
was famous for its silver rainen, which liave 
since been abandoned. Cotton weaving was be- 
gun here in 1755. Population, in 1905, 12,336, 
about one-half Protestants. 

ULARKrLAND, Jeremiah (1693-1776). An 
English classical scholar and text critic. He 
was bom at Childwall, England, and was ed- 

ucated at London and Cambridge. His works 
included a number of emendations of the text 
of Lysias and of Euripides; an edition of the 
difficult Silvw of SUtius (1728; 1824), which 
is considered a masterpiece of acute criticism; 
and Remarks on the Epistles of Cicero to Brutus 
(1745), in which he tried to prove them spurious. 
His attacks on the authenticity of the Ciceronian 
orations Pro Domo Sua, Post Reditum in Sena- 
tUf Ad QuiriteSy and the De Haruspicum Respon- 
sis, in which he was afterwards followed by F. A. 
Wolf, started a famous and long-standing con- 
troversy. Consult Wolf, Litterarische AntUekten 
(Berlin, 1817-20). 

MABKS, Henbt Stact (1829-98). An Eng- 
lish genre painter, bom in London. He studied 
at the schools of the Royal Academy, London, 
and under Picot in Paris. In 1853 he began to 
exhibit at the Academy, and was elected a Royal 
Academician in 1878. His works are often of a 
humorous nature, and he painted many scenes 
from Shakespeare. "Saint Francis Preaching 
to the Birds'^ (1870) is one of his most charac- 
teristic paintings. He was very fond of intro- 
ducing birds into his works, and painted them 
with particular care. His paintings in water 
color are also notable. 

MABK TWAIN. The nom-de-plume of S. 
L. Clemens. 

ICABli (OF. marie, merle, Fr. mame, OHG. 
mergily Ger. Mergel, from' ML. margila, diminu- 
tive of Lat. marga, marl, from Gall, marga, 
Bret, marg, marl, Gk. d^iXof, argilos, white 
clay). A somewhat indefinite term applied in 
different localities to widely different materials. 
In a general sense it means essentially a natu- 
rally occurring mixture of calcium carbonate and 
clay with more or less sand, which usually falls 
to pieces on exposure to the air. Although prob- 
ably the greater nimiber of the marls of the 
United States conform to this definition, and 
depend for their ain'icultural value on their lime 
content, there are quite extensive deposits of the 
Cretaceous marls, known as greensand (espe- 
cially in New Jersey), which contain variable 
but usually small amounts of lime and con- 
siderable amounts of potash (mainly silicate) 
and phosphoric acid. The name is also some- 
times applied to friable clays, or mixtures of 
clay and sand, in which there is almost no trace 
of lime. Marl beds are widely distributed in the 
United States and have been exploited to a con- 
siderable extent in New Jersey, Maryland, Vir- 
ginia, Kentucky, North Carolina, and South 
Carolina. The marls of these deposits generally 
belong to three classes and occur in geological 
formations which are found, as a rule, one above 
the other in immediate succession. The upper 
layer, blue or shale marl (Neocene), generally 
found at or near the surface, consists chiefly of 
sea mud with partially decomposed shells and 
bones. Its value depends mainly upon its con- 
tent of carbonate of lime (40-50 per cent.), al- 
though it contains in addition small percentages 
of potash (.25 to 4.75 per cent.) and phosphoric 
acid (trace to 1.75 per cent.). This class pre- 
dominates in Maryland, Virginia, and North 
Carolina, and has been used to a considerable 
extent with good results on worn-out or nat- 
urally infertile soils. The second class. Eocene 
or chalky marl, is commonly a coarse, friable 
chalk, consisting of comminuted shells and corals. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


of a light yellowish or grayish color to white, 
sometimes compacted into a solid limestone. Its 
content of lime is greater (50-95 per cent.) than 
that of the shell marl and the percentage of pot- 
ash and phosphoric acid is smaller. In the 
lower layer occur the Cretaceous marls (green- 
sand), which vary considerably in chemical com- 
position and agricultural value. Their fertilizing 
value is determined largely by their content of 
potash (3.5 to 7 per cent.) and phosphoric acid 
( I to 4 per cent. ) , although man v are calcareous 
(1.25 to 9 per cent, of lime). These marls have 
long been used with beneficial results by New Jer- 
sey farmers, although the benefit is more marked 
in case of marls rich in phosphoric acid and lime 
than in case of pure greensand containing a hi^ 
|«rcentage of potash, probably because the potash 
IS in the form of an insoluble silicate (glau- 
oonite) and is very slowly available to plants. 

Marl is both a direct and an indirect fertilizer, 
improving both the chemical and physical condi- 
tkms of soils, correcting acidity, unlocking in- 
soluble plsmt food, and promoting nitrification. 
It is very lasting in effect and has been used 
from ancient times for restoring worn-out lands 
to fertility or for improving naturally infertile 
soils. But because lime (q.v.) is quicker in 
action and of greater eflficiency it has been used 
in many cases instead of marl, although some 
kinds of marl are extremely useful on certain 
soils. On account of its bulkiness and the large 
amounts which must be applied in order to secure 
beneficial results, marl can be used profitably 
only in close proximity to the deposits. Booth, 
in a report of the State geologist of Delaware, 
reeonunends 60 to 190 bushels per acre as the 
proper amount to be applied on poor light soils, 
100 to 290 bushels on clay soils, while 290 to 500 
bushels may be used with advantage on soils of 
good quali^ abundantly supplied with humus. 
The addition of quicklime to marl (30 to 40 bush- 
els of lime to 300 to 400 bushels of marl) has 
been found to guicken the action of the marl. 
It is generally advisable to let marl lie exposed 
to tiie air some time before it is incorporated 
with the soil, thus destroying any poisonous 
compounds which may be present. 

CoDsult: IRuffin, Calcareous Manures; Ullmann, 
Kalk %tnd Mergel; State Geological reports of 
Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, New Jersey, 
Xorth Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia; 
Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station Re- 
port, 1889. 

KABL. See Calcite. 

XABIiBOBOy mJlrl^tir-6. A city, including 
several villages in Middlesex County, Mass., 32 
miles west of Boston, on the Boston and Maine 
and the New York, New Haven and Hartford 
railroads (Map: Massachusetts, D 3). Among 
the features of Marlboro are a handsome city 
ball, public library, high school building, and a 
soldiers* monument. There are extensive boot 
and shoe, box, automobile, and carriage factories, 
electrical machine and lamp works, and manu- 
factories of shoe-making machinerv. The govern- 
ment is vested in a mayor, annually elected, a bi- 
cameral council, and administrative departments. 
The members of the license department are ap- 
pointed by the mayor; of the police, fire, and 
•treet departments, by the mayor with the con- 
sent of the council; while the members of the 
water, health, and poor departments are elected 
by the council. Population, in 1890, 13,806 ; in 


1900, 13,600; in 1906, 14,703. Settled in 1656, 
Marlboro was incorporated as a town in 1660, 
and was chartered as a city in 1890. In 1676, 
during King Philip's War, it was almost wholly 
destroyed by the Indians. Out of the parts of the 
original township, Westborough was formed in 
1717, Southborough in 1727, and Hudson in 1866. 
Consult Hudson, History of the Town of Marl- 
boro, Massachusetts (Boston, 1862). 

MABLBOBOUGH, mftrl^be-rO. An old and 
interesting town in Wiltshire, England, pleas- 
antly situated in the valley of the Kennet, 75 
miles west-southwest of London (Map: England, 
E 6). The chief edifice is the 'college,' a hand- 
some building occupying the site of the old castle. 
As early as the days of Richard Coeur-de-Lion 
there was a castle at Marlborough ; and a Parlia- 
ment, whose enactments were called the 'Statutes 
of Marlbridge,' was held there in the reign of 
Henry III. The town corporation dates from 
1200. It owns remunerative real estate and a 
water supply, and maintains an isolation hospital 
and sewage farm. Population, in 1891, 3012; in 

1901. 3046. 

MABLBOBOUGH. The northeastern dis- 
trict of South Island, New Zealand. Area, 2,792,- 
500 acres, a minor portion of which is suitable 
for agricultural purposes; 1,680,000 have been 
taken for grazing purposes (Map: New Zealand, 
D 2). Coal, gold, and copper are found in the 
district. Population, in 1906, 14,308. 

ICABLBOBOITGHy John Churchill, first 
Duke of (1650-1722). A celebrated English gen- 
eral! He was bom probably June 24, 1650, at 
Ashe in the Parish of Musbury, Devonshire, the 
second son of Sir Winston Churchill, a politician 
and historian, and a stanch supporter of the 
Stuarts. John Churchill was educated at Saint 
Paul's School, but early in life entered the army. ' 
He saw some service at Tangier against the 
Moors, and from 1672 to 1677 he bore arms on 
the Continent against the Netherlands, serving 
part of the time under the great Turenne. A 
new era in the history of war was then beginning. 
Artillery and musketry had displaced entirely 
the old pikeman, and rapidity of movement hence- 
forth decided campaigns. In 1674 Louis XIV. 
made Churchill a colonel of his regiment, and in 
1678 he was made colonel of foot in the English 
service. Though there was no question of Church- 
ill's ability, still the rapidity of his promotion 
was due also to the fact that some time between 
1665 and 1668 his sister Arabella had become the 
mistress of the Duke of York. About 1676 
Churchill fell in love with Sarah Jennings ( q.v. ) , 
who was a lady-in-waiting of Princess Anne 
(later Queen Anne), and noted for her imperious- 
ness and her beauty. Throughout life she was the 
one person to whom Churchill was faithful; 
otherwise he was ever ready to betray if it 
suited his interests. The couple were married 
early in 1678, and thus Churchill gained the 
favor of Princess Anne, who was under the 
complete domination of her dictatorial attend- 
ant. In the following years he was occasion- 
ally employed in diplomatic missions to Hol- 
land, but usually he was in attendance on 
the Duke of York. In 1682 he w^as created a 
baron. When in 1685 the Duke of York as- 
cended the throne as James II. Churchill be- 
came still more prominent. He commanded a 
body of troops to suppress the rebellion of the 

Digitized by 






Duke of Idknuuouth (q.v.); and his coolness pre- 
Tented a serious disaster to the royal troops at 
Sedgemoor (q.v.). Churchill was strongly at- 
tached to the £ii^liflh Church, and hifi eulogists 
have maiataiAed wat he would not have betrayed 
it under any eircumstanoes. This may be doubted, 
but he certainly did not desert the cause of the 
Church when he noticed the current ot public 
opinion turning more and more against King 
James. The result was that he withdrew gradu- 
ally from participation in the acts of this reign, 
and, though still affecting loyalty to the King, he 
began negotiations with Wiuiam of Orange, and 
when the latter landed in England in 1688, 
Churchill was one of the first to go over to him 
■ with his troops- During the early pirt of the 
reign of William III. he was in high favor; in 
1689 was made Earl of Marlborough, and dis- 
tinguished himself greatly during the invasion 
of Ireland, but lost all favor when he was sus- 
pected, and justly so, of preparing to betray Wil- 
liam III. and aid James II. to recover the 
throne, of which he had helped to deprive him. 
Nevertheless, on the commencement of the War of 
the Spanish Succession in 1701 Marlborough was 
intrusted by William III. with the command of 
the British army in the Netherlands. On March 
8, 1702, however, the King died. 

With the accession of Anne began the great 
epoch of Marlborough's life. Through his wife 
he controlled the (^leen, while the son of the 
powerful minister Godolphin (q.v.) had in 16^ 
married his daughter. Thus he had a fairly free 
hand to carry out his great military exploits, 
though the Allies, Dutch and Germans, often 
caus^ difficulties. The troops of the Emperor Leo- 
pold I. were commanded by the great Prinee 
Eugene <q.v.). Marlborough, who had been 
elected also Captain-Oeneral of the Dutch forces, 
took command in May, 1702, and in December 
iras created Duke of Marlborough. He had un- 
4fer him about 10,000 English troops, 20,000 
Dutch troops, and as many mercenaries, chiefly 
Germans. He was opposed by a French army of 
aeventy-five thousand men. The great danger to 
the Allies was that the French would control the 
Rhiae Valley, and thus completely isolate Aus- 
tria. In order to prevent this, Marlborough, who 
had been oonductmg a series of brilliant opera- 
tions in the Low Coimtries, in the summer of 
1704 made a rapid march to Bavaria, and there 
joined Prince Eugene. His march was not so 
marvelous a performance as has sometimes been 
claimed, but it enabled the Allies to meet the 
French on equal terms at Blenheim (q.v.) on 
August 13, 1704. The battle was decided when 
Marlborough, by a skillful use of his cavalry, 
broke throu^ the French centre, and the enemy 
retired in great confusion. In this series of 
operations, instead of the old method of detailed 
operations and sieges, tlie two great leaders had 
concentrated all their forces in the important 
territory, and there by one decisive victory had 
won the w^hole campaign. Not the whole credit 
of the successes of the Allies is due to Marl- 
borough, a full half belonging to Eujjene. For 
this victory great honors and pecuniary rewards 
were bestowed on ^larlborough, and he was made 
JL Prince of the Empire (Austria). (See Blen- 
heim House.) He won other important victories 
during the war, as when he compelled the French 
under Villeroi to evacuate the wliolo of Flanders 
by his victory at Ramillies on May 23, ITOO, 

and, together with Eugene, defeated Vend6nie 
at Oudenarde on July 11, 1708. By this last 
victory aad the capture of Lille the road to 
Paris was opened, but Marlborough had no longer 
a free hand. His wife had had several quar- 
rels with Abdc, and the Qaeen was ridding her- 
self of the complete asoendency of the Duchess. 
Moreover, England was suffering from the bur- 
dens imposed by the long struggle, and the Tories, 
who opposed the war, were coming into power. 
On September 11, 1700, Marlborough and Eugene 
won a doubtful victory at Malpiaquet, but it was 
the last great battle of the English general. The 
same year the Duchess was dismissed by Anne, a 
Tory Ministry assumed office, and in 1711 Marl- 
borough was relieved of his command. His 
enemies accused him of having embezded the 
public money, and for a time he was deprived of 
his offices, though the charge was not pressed. 
In his last years he was without influence or 
friends, being, in spite of his victories, unpopu- 
lar on account of his avarice, (jodolphin had 
died and most of the great lords were his ene- 
mies. Upon the accession of George I. in 1714 
he was made Captain-General and master of 
the ordnance, but took little part in public af- 
fairs. He died June 16, 1722, leaving a large 

Marlborough has often been severely treated by 
historians. He was unquestionably unscrupulous 
and avaricious. On the other hand, it was a time 
when this was true of nearly all public men, re- 
gardless of party, and Marlborough has received 
more blame simply because he was more promi- 
nent. His military abilities, however, have never 
been questioned. Unlike his two great suc- 
cessors, Frederick the Great and Napoleon, he 
was never entirely unhampered. He was al- 
ways compelled to have regard for the wishes of 
his allies and the political situation in England. 
But he was the first since classic times to im- 
press upon generals the need of rapidity of move- 
ment and the execution of campaigns as a whole. 
Moreover, he had the ability, which only the 
greatest commanders have, to amalgamate the 
different elements of his army, to become the 
hero of his soldiers. His campaigns always 
showed a grasp of the proportion of things. He 
never frittered his strength away on details, but 
waited for the decisive battle. Among generals, 
he is one of the ^'ery few who never lost a bat- 
tle, and never failed in a campaign. 

Consult: Murray. Letters and Dispatches <jf 
John, Duke of Marlborough, from 1702 to 1712 
(5 vols., London, 1845) ; id.. Private Correspond- 
ence of the Duke and Duchess of Marlborough (2 
vols., London, 1838) ; id.. Letters of the Duchess 
of Marlborough (London, 1875). The most com- 
plete life is that of Coxe, Memoirs of the Duke of 
Marlborough (3 vols., London, 1847-4S), but it 
is too partial to Marlborough. A bitter attack on 
Marlborough is in Macaulay's History; while an 
impartial character-study is to be found in 
Saintsbury, Marlborough (London, 1879). For 
the military history of ^Marlborough, and an 
estimate of him as a general, consult : Dodge, Gus- 
tarus Adolphus and the Der-^lopment of the Art 
of War (Boston and New York, 1895) ; Fortescue, 
^•Marlborough," in From Cromwell to Wellington 
(Ix)ndon, 1809) ; Alison, Military Life of the 
Duke of Marlborough (London, 1879) ; also gen- 
eral histories like Green, History of the English 
People (New York, 1879). 

Digitized by 



the south side of Pall Mall, London, erected in 
1710 by Sir Christopher Wren for the first 
Dolce of Marlfoorongh. It was bought by the 
Govemcot in 1S17. In it Prineess Charlotte 
aad her hnsband, Prinee Leopold, and subse- 
qncBtly the Queen Dowager Adelaide, lired. In 
1863 it became the prop er ty and city residence 
of the Prinee id Wales. 

KAB^IH. A city and the county-seat of 
Falls Comity, Tex., 26 miles sontheast of Waco; 
on the Houston and Texas Central and the Inter- 
mtional and Great Northern railroads (Map: 
Texas, F 4). It is in a noted cotton-growing 
district and carries on an important trade in 
cotton, grain, and lire stock. Among tlie rndiw- 
trial plants are several cotton-gins, a cotton 
eompress, and a large c^ttonseed-oil mill. As a 
heslth resort, Marlin has considerable reptrtation, 
deriyed from its hot artesian well, 3360 feet 
deep, tiie waters of which have a temperature of 
1470 F. and possess valuable medieinal proper- 
ties. There are fine hotels and sanatoriums, a 
coort-house, an opera house, and a new school 
boiWing coeting $25,000. Population, in 1»00, 
3092; in 1904 (local est.), 4000. 

KAUJN. A godwit (<i,t.). 

KABLIVO 8PIXB (from marline, from 
Datch marUjn, from marren, to bind, Goth. 
fMrzjan, OHG. marrjan, dialectic Ger. merren, 
to retard, hinder, Eng. mar + lijn, Eng. lit%e), 
or Maruxe Spike. A pointed iron instrument, 
used by sailors in knotting, splicing, serving, etc. 
It is generally eight to twelve inches long, about 
an inch in diameter at the head and tapering to 
a point at the other end. It« chief use is' in 
aeptnting the strands of rope or in opening out 
a knot which is janmied so tightly that it cannot 
be QBtied otherwise. In marling and in serving 
it is need aa a heaver .to haul the tarns taut. A 
large wooden instrument of the same general 
sh^ie is termed a /td. See the article KiforriNG 


MAKLTB'BFIMM, The New Enghind nane 
for the boatswain bird ( q.v. ) . 

HABO^TT, E., the psemdonym of Extoknie 
John (1825-87). A popular German novelist, 
bom Decenrfier 5, 1825, at Arn^^t, where ahe 
died, ^une 22, 1887. Her father was a portrait 
painter; her patroness was the Princess of 
Scfawarzbnri^^-Sondershausen, who sent her to 
Vienna to study mvBic. She beeaine deaf, lived 
for eieven years at Court, and then, withdrawing 
to Amstadt, b^;aa there her novelistie eareer. 
a* gwolf ApottH (1866); Goldelse (1868); 
Dot GdletiMtiw def alien Mamsell ( 1868) ; TMir- 
wfer Brvihlmmgen (1869); Reichsgriffin Gisela 
(1876); HeidepriwKiS9ehen (1872); Die tfweite 
i^s (1874) ; and other novels are familiar in 
Englirii translatione. 

XABXOW, or G«EAT Mablow. A nraniei- 
ptl borough in Buckinghamshire, Eii^and, on 
the north bank of the Thames, 31 miles west of 
London (Map: England, F 5). It is a pic- 
turesque fishing resort. Here Shelley wrote 
tbe BevoU of Islmm. It has manufactures of 
silk, lace, and paper. Population (urban dis- 
trict), in 1901, 4526. 

KASIiOW. In Goldsmith's Bht Stoops to 
CoMfMcr, a nMB oi great modesty with virtuous 
women of station and verj» free ^vith women of 
another class. He mistakes Hardcastle's house 


for an inn, and makes love to Misa Hardcastle, 
supposing her to he the barmaid. 

MABLOWSy mdr'ld, Christofheb (1564- 
93). A great English dramatist, the most im- 
portant of Shakespeare's predecessors, and in 
some sense his master. He was bom at (IJanter- 
bury, probably in February, 1564, and edncaterf 
at the King's School there and at Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1585. 
Here he made a thorough acquaintance with the 
Latin classics, and translated Gvid's Am^yres into 
English verse. His life after leaving Cambridge 
is hard to trace in detail. It seems to have been 
spent chiefly in London and to have been char- 
acterized by a revolt against conventional moral- 
ity and established religion which makes its 
close in a drunken brawl at the age of twenty nine 
an unhappily fitting climax. His reputation for 
heresy and irreligion (possibly grounded origi- 
nally on his association with his old Cambridger 
tutor, Francis Kett, who was burned as a heretic 
at Norwich in 1589) had caused a warrant for 
his arrest to be issued a few days before he thn« 
passed beyond the jurisidietion of the Privy 
Council. It is pleasanter to dwell on his inter- 
course with the chief men of letters in his time, 
including Kyd, Nash, GJreene, Chapman, Ral- 
eijfh, and probably Shakespeare. Wnatever his 
life may have been, there can be no question of 
the magnificence of his genius and the far-reach- 
ing influence which he had npon the development 
of the English drama. 

Not only did he establish the iambic pentam- 
eter as the recognized vehicle for serious drama, 
but he made it something more than it had 
been in various experiments since Oorbodno 
(1562). The metre became a Uving thing in 
his hand; by skillful variation of pause and 
accent, by the swift and saKK>tii carrying along of 
the thought from line to line, it grew to be that 
blank verse which Milton perfected into one of 
the glories of Elfish poetry. But bis work was 
wider than this. Dropping the knitation oi 
Seneca which had been trying to natnralifle itoeli 
in England, he struck out boldly to create Eng- 
lish tragedy by the laws of his own genius. The 
prologue to Tmmhmriaine eontaine what is really 
a manifesto, not only proausing to lead his audi- 
ence away 

From Jigging: veins of rhjmlng roother-wits 

by his blank verse, but proclaiming a doctrine of 
unity far more healthful than the classical tradi- 
tion which was endeavoring to impose itself upon 
England — the unity which comes from centring 
the action about one great passkm, one mighty 
character. Great as was the age, stupendous aa 
were its flights beyond what had been thought 
the nttermost Ihnits of the possible, Marlowe is 
able to keep up with them, to find for them the 
*high astounding terms* which lend his tragedies 
such snblimity. In humor hie was deficient; hiH 
touch is no* always snre, and in his search 
for effect he sometimes overleaps himself and 
falls into bathos; hut as a daring pioneer he 
won, and now more than ever, since Lamb and 
Hazfitt restored him to his place, keeps a rank 
among the very highest. It is hard to set limits 
to what he might have been had his life been 
prolonged ; but after all his achievement is ample 
u that li^ made Shakespeare possible. After 
Tamhvrlaine ( ?1687; printed 1590), comes prob- 
ably the first dramatic rendering of the Faust 

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l^nd in Doctor Faustua (?1589; printed 
1^4) ; The Jew of M<Hta, specially noteworthy 
for its relation to the Merchant of Venice 
(?1589; printed 1633); his most successful at- 
tempt at English historical drama, Edvoard II. 
(?1592; printed 1694). The probable sources 
of Marlowe's important plays may be indi- 
cated here. In his Tamhurlaine he seems to 
have relied mainly on Fortescue's translation 
(1571) of Pedro Mexias's Spanish life of 
Timur (1543), supplemented by hints from 
the Vita Magni Tamerlanis of Perondino 
(1551). Doctor Faustua was based on a story 
familiar enough in the Middle Ages, and used in 
a variant form by Calderon in El Magico Prodi- 
SfioBo; its earliest literary form appeared at 
Frankfort in 1587. For Edward II,, like Shake- 
speare, he makes free use of the chronicles of 
Stowe and Holinshed. In other works he collabo- 
rated with Nash, and possibly with Shakespeare, 
a share in at least the second and third parts of 
Henry VI. being plausibly attributed to him. 
Of his non-dramatic work the most impor- 
tant things are his imfinished paraphrase of 
the Hero and Leander of Museeus, and tne famous 
lyric, "CJome live with me and be my love." Con- 
sult his WorkSy ed. by Dyce (3 vols., London, 
1850) ; by Bullen (3 vols., Boston, 1885) ; four 
plays, ed. by Ellis, with an introduction by Sy- 
monds, in the "Mermaid Series" (London, 1887) ; 
also Symonds, Shakespeare's Predecessors (ib., 
1884) ; Ward, History of English Dramatic Lit- 
'Crature (2d ed., ib., 1899) ; Lewis, Christopher 
Marlowe (ib., 1891) ; Verity, Marlowe*s Influence 
on Shakespeare (ib., 1886) ; Fischer, Zur Charac- 
teristik der Dramen Marlowes (Munich, 1889). 

MABLOWE, Julia (1870~). An American 
actress, bom near Keswick, England, August 17, 
1870, her real name being Sarah Frances Frost. 
She came with her parents to this country when 
five years old. Her later childhood was passed 
in Cincinnati, where at the age of twelve she 
began her dramatic experiences in a juvenile 
opera company. Four years afterwards she be- 
gan seriously to study for the stage and in 1887 
she appeared in New York, but it was in Boston, 
in December, 1888, that she won, as Parthenia in 
Ingomar, an assured place as a star. She is an 
actress of unusual personal charm, and soon be- 
came a popular favorite in a variety of rdles, 
especially as Viola in Twelfth Night and as Rosa- 
lind in As You Like It. In 1894 she was married 
to Robert Taber, with whom for a time she 
played, but they separated, and in 1899 were 
divorced. Among Miss Marlowe's successes may 
be mentioned her Highland Mary in For Bonnie 
Prince Charlie (1897); Barbara Frietchie in 
Clyde Fitch's play of that name (1899); and 
Charlotte Durand in the dramatization of Cable's 
Cavalier (1902); Colinette (1903); Queen Fia- 
metta, and When Knighthood was in Flmcer 
( 1904). In 1905 and 1906 she played with E. H. 
Sot hern in Romeo and Juliet, Much Ado About 
Sothing, Hamlet, The Taming of the Shrew, and 
The Merchant of Venice; in 1907, Salome. In the 
hitter year she played with Mr. Sothern in Eng- 
hmd. Consult: McKay and Wingate, Famous 
American Actors of To Day (New York, 1896); 
Strang, Famous Actresses of the Day in America 
(Boston, 1899). 

MAB/MADUKE, John Sappinoton (1833- 
87). An American soldier, bom near Arrow 
Rock, Mo. He studied for two years at Yale 


and for one at Harvard, graduated at West Point 
in 1867, and saw service in the West, participat- 
ing in the Utah expedition. On April 17, 1861 , 
he entered the Confederate Army as first lieu- 
tenant, though almost immediately promoted to 
be lieutenant-colonel. In 1862 as colonel of an 
Arkansas regiment he bore the guiding colors 
at Shiloh and captured the first prisoners. He 
was seriously wounded on the second day, and 
while recovering was recommended for promotion 
to brigadier-general. During 1863 he was in 
Missouri and defeated the Federal forces at 
Tavlor's Creek. He commanded the cavalry at 
Price's defense of Little Rock and here fought a 
duel, killing Gen. L. M. Walker. The next year 
he was promoted to be major-general and led 
one of the three columns in General Price's Mis- 
souri raid, was taken a prisoner of war, and was 
held until after the close of hostilities. He then 
engaged in the commission and insurance busi- 
ness for several years, was editor of several 
papers in 1871-74, and was secretary of the 
Board of Agriculture in 1874. From 1875 to 
1880 he was a railroad commissioner. In 1884 
he was elected Governor of Missouri and died in 

MABMANDE, mftr'm^d^ The capital of 
an arrondissement in the Department of Lot-et- 
Garonne, France, 40 miles southeast of Bordeaux, 
on the Garonne River ( Map : France, S., E 4 ) . Its 
only interesting feature is the parish church, a 
thirteenth-century Gothic edifice. Marmande is 
situated in a region extensively engaged in agri- 
culture and the cultivation of the vine. Popula- 
tion, in 1901, 9873. 

mAbMABOS-SZIGET, mftr'md-rdsh sVg^t. 
or MAbamaros-Sziqet. A town of Northeastern 
Hungary, capital of the County of Mftrmaros. 
It is beautifully situated on the Theiss and at the 
base of the wooded Carpathians, 225 miles east- 
northeast of Budapest. It has important salt 
mines worked from ancient times and still giving 
a large output. There are also steam sawmills 
and trade in lumber. Population, in 1890, 14,- 
768; in 1900, 17,446. 

MABMTEB» m&r'myA^ Xavieb (1809-92). A 
French author, bom in Pontarlier. He trav- 
eled extensively in Switzerland, Holland, and 
Germany. In 1836 he was attached to the scien- 
tific voyage of the Recherche to the Arctic Sea, 
at which time he acquired a knowledge of the 
Danish, Swedish, and Finnish languages. On 
his return in 1839 he was made professor of for- 
eign literature at Rennes, and two years later 
received a sinecure under the Minister. of Pub- 
lic Instruction. In 1842-49 he was again travel- 
ing, everywhere studying languages, idioms, and 
literature. His numerous works include narra- 
tives of his journeys and translations from the 
(3rerman and Scandinavian, such as Histoire de 
la litt&rature en Danemark et en Sukde (1839) ; 
Du Rhin au Nil (1846) ; Voyage pittoresque en 
Allemagne (1858-69); Cimarosa (1867); and 
Contesrusses (1889). Consult the Life by Esti- 
gnard (1893). 

KABMION. A metrical romance by Sir 
Walter Scott (1808). Lord Marmion, a messen- 
ger from Henry VIII. to James IV. of Scotland, 
was conducted on part of his journey by a 
palmer, who proved to be De Wilton, supposed 
to have been killed by Marmion. The latter 
is killed in the battle of Flodden Field, after 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




which De Wilton recovered his betrothed. Lady 

MAB^MION, Shackeblet (1603-39). An 
English dramatist, educated at Wadham College, 
Oxford, where he graduated B.A. in 1622 and 
M.A. in 1624. After trying his fortune in the 
Low Countries, he settled in London. There he 
became associated with Ben Jonson, Heywood, 
and other literary men. He accompanied Sir 
John Suckling on the showy expedition to Scot- 
land ( 1638) . Falling ill at York, he was brought 
back to London to die. Marmion made a verse 
paraphrase of the Cupid and Psyche of Apuleius 
(1637), which was greatly admired by his con- 
temporaries. It was reprinted by S. W. Singer 
in 1820. For the Court, Marmion wrote several 
comedies, which are still interesting. They com- 
prise Holland's Leaguer (performed 1632) ; A 
Fine Companion (printed 1633) ; The Antiquary 
(performed 1636) . Consult his Dramatic Works, 
ed. by Maidment and Logan (Edinburgh, 1875). 

ICABMOL, mftr-mOK, Jos£ (c.1818-71). A 
South American poet and patriot, bom at 
Buenos Ayres. As Deputy and Senator for his 
native province, he took so firm a :»tand for the 
rights of the people that he was banished by 
Rosas. After the overthrow of the dictator 
Marmol was again Senator for Buenos Ayres 
and had charge of the National Library until he 
lost his eyesight. In 1856 he published Pere- 
grino and Armonias, then two plays, El cru- 
zado (1860) and El poeta (1862), and La Ama- 
lia (1866), an historical romance of the period 
of Rosas's control of Buenos Ayres. After 
his death some of his poems and dramas were 
collected and published in Paris under the title 
Obras porticos y dramdticas de Jos6 Marmol 

ICABMONTy mar'mON', Auouste FRfiD^Rio 
Louis Viesse de, Duke of Ragusa (1774-1852). 
A marshal of France, bom July 20, 1774, at 
Chfttillon - sur - Seine. He entered the French 
Army in 1791 and was rapidly promoted. He 
met Bonaparte at Toulon, served with distinction 
in the Italian campaign, particularly at Lodi 
and Castiglione, and later accompanied Bona- 
parte to Egypt, where he became brigadier-gen- 
eral. On returning to France Marmont sup- 
ported Napoleon in the coup d'etat of the 
eighteenth Brumaire, and afterwards continued 
in active military service. After the battle of 
Marengo (1800) ne was made a general of divi- 
sion. In 1801 he was inspector-general-in-chief 
of artillery, and in 1805 he was made command- 
ant of the army in Holland. His services in 
defending the Ragusan territory against the 
Russians and Montenegrins in 1806-07 won him 
his title of Duke of Ragusa. After the battle of 
Wagram (1809) he was intrusted with the pur- 
suit of the «iemy, and after the battle of Znaim 
he was made a marshal. He was thereafter for 
eighteen months Governor of the Illyrian prov- 
inces, and in 1811 succeeded Mass^na in the chief 
command in the Peninsula, where he assumed the 
offensive, and kept Wellington in check for fifteen 
months, but was eventually defeated in the battle 
of Salamanca (July 22, 1812). A wound com- 
pelled him to retire to France. In 1813 he fought 
at the battles of Ltitzen, Bautzen, and Dresden. 
He maintained the contest with great spirit in 
France in the beginning of 1814; and it was not 
until further resistance was hopeless that he con- 

cluded a truce with Prince Schwarzenberg, which 
was followed by the abdication of Napoleon. The 
Bourbons at first loaded Marmont with honors 
and distinction. On the return of Napoleon from 
Elba Marmont was excluded from the general 
amnesty, and he fled to Aix-la-Chapelle. After 
the second Restoration he spent much of his 
time in agricultural pursuits, till the Revolution 
of 1830, when^ at the head of a body of troops, 
he attempted in vain to put down the insurrec- 
tion, and finally retreating with 6000 Swiss, and 
a few battalions that had continued faithful to 
Charles X., conducted him across the frontier. 
From that time he resided chiefly in Vienna. He 
died in Venice, March 2, 1852. He was the 
last survivor of the marshals of the first French 
Empire. His M6moires (9 vols., 1856-57) are 
valuable for the history of his time. He was also 
the author of Voyage en Hongrie (1837) and 
Esprit des institutions mUitaires (1845). 

MABMONTEI^ m&r'mCN'ti6K, Antoine Fran- 
cois (1816-98). A French pianist, born at Cler- 
mont-Ferrand, Puy-de-D<)me. He studied in 1828- 
32 at the Paris Conservatory, where he returned 
to teach in 1836, and in 1848 succeeded his 
former master, Zimmermann, as pianoforte pro- 
fessor. He published three books of piano 
studies, besides sonatas, nocturnes, serenades, 
minuets, reveries, and mazurkas, and his literary 
productions are: Art classique et moderne du 
piano (1876) ; Elements d'esihStique musicale et 
consid^ations sur le beau dans les arts (1884) ; 
and Histoire du piano et de ses origines (1885). 

MABlCONTEXi, Jean FBANgois (1723-99). 
A French dramatist, novelist, and critic, bom at 
Bort, July 11, 1723, best known for two series of 
Contes moraux (1761-86), and the moralizing 
novels Bilisaire ( 1767 ) and Les Incas ( 1777 ) . He 
studied for the Church, but was attracted to let- 
ters by the patronage of Voltaire, went to Paris 
(1745), became a journalist, and won some suc- 
cess by his tragedies: Denys le tyran (1748) 
and Aristom^e (1749). In 1753 a sinecure 
office attached him to the Court at Versailles. 
During 1758 and 1759 he edited the Mervure. 
He was imprisoned ten days in the Bastille for 
political satire in 1760, was elected to the Acad- 
emy in 1763, and made its permanent secretary in 
1783. His numerous contributions to the Ency- 
clopMie{see Didebot) were collected as El6mentH 
de litt6rature in 1787. He wrote also M^oires 
and a treatise on French versification (1763). 
MarmontePs Works were edited by himself in 17 
volumes, to which 14 were subsequently added. 
They were reSdited by Villeneuve (Paris, 1819- 
20). The Mimoires are best edited by Tourneux 
(Paris, 1891). There was an English transla- 
tion in 1904. Consult Sainte-Beuve, Causeries 
du lundi, vol. iv. (Paris, 1857-62). 

MABMOBA, mllr'md-r&. Sea of (anciently 
Pkopontis ) . A small sea between European and 
Asiatic Turkey, communicating with the ^gean 
Sea by the Strait of the Dardanelles (anciently 
Hellespont) y and with the Black Sea by the Strait 
of Constantinople (anciently Bosporus) (Map: 
Turkey in Europe, G 4). It is of an oval form, 
140 miles in length by 45 miles in breadth, and 
the eastern shore is indented by the two large 
gulfs of Ismid and Tnjir Liman (Mudania) . Tlie 
depth is generally over 600 feet, and in some 
places reaches over 4000. There is a current run- 
ning through it from the Black Sea to the ^gean. 

Digitized by 





Its navigation is not difficult and it is a great 
avenue of commerce. It contains many islands, 
of which the largest is Marmora or Marmara, 
famous for its marble quarries. 

MABKOSET (OF. marmoset, marmomet, Fr. 
marmouset, puppet, from ML. marmoretumy 
marble figure, from Lat. marmor, Gk. /idp/ui^t, 
marmaroa, marble, from fMapfudpeiv, marmairein, 
to sparkle). One of the small and pretty Ameri- 
can monkeys of the family Hapalide. These lit- 
tle creatures are distinguished from all other 
American monkeys by several features besides 
their diminutive size, long hind legs, long fur, 
and penciled ears. Their dentition is like that 
of the Old World monkeys in that it comprises 
only 32 teeth, without the four 'wisdom* molars 
possessed by the Cebid«. (See Monkey.) Their 
thumbs are not opposable, their nails are in the 
form of claws, and their tails (which are long 
and bushy) are not prehensile. These and other 
characters place them at the foot of the scale 
of the monkeys, and next to the lemurs. They 
are arboreal in habits and climb about in small 
parties in search of fruit and insects, much as 
squirrels do; and thev habitually produce two or 
three young at a birth instead of one, as is usual 
with higher monkeys. Two genera are estab- 
lished, one the typical marmosets or 'ouistitis' 
(Hapale), and the other the silky marmosets or 
'tamarins* (Midas). Of the former, the com- 
mon ouistiti {Hapale jacchus) of Brazil is a 
familiar pet throughout 
tropical America, and is 
often brought to the United 
States or taken to Europe, 
but rarely survives even the 
first northern winter. It 19 
not larger than a half-grown 
kitten, and is usually black- 
ish, with the back and thighs 
banded with gray, and two great tufts of hair 
on the ears pure white; the tail is ringed with 
black and gray. Several other species and va- 
rieties are known, some of which are varicolored, 
and others pure white. The smallest, and one 
of the most widely distributed, is only seven 
inches long. 

The tamarins or marmosets of the genus Mida» 
differ in dentition and also in the absence of 
tufts on the ears, and the rings of color on the 
tail. Like the others, they are common pets in 
South and Central America, and some kinds 
stray as far north as Central Mexico. Several 
species are well known, especially the negro 
tamarin (Midas ursiilus) of the lower Amazon 
Valley; the queer little pinchft {Midas (Edipus) 
of the Isthmus, which has a great growth of 
white hair on the head; and the silky marmoset, 
or *marikina* (Midas rosalia), which is clothed 
in long silky hair of a golden hue; this hair 
forms a long mane on the head and neck, giving 
the name 'lion monkey* to some varieties. This 
species is often seen in menageries, and is a 
common pet in its own country. Consult authori- 
ties mentioned under Monkey; especially Bates, 
A Naturalist on the River Amazon (London, 
1892). See Plate of Amebican Monkeys. 

XABKOT (Fr. marmotte^ from It. marmotta, 
marmontana, from Rumanian murmont, from 
OHG. murmunto, Ger. Mnrmcl. from ML. mus 
montanus, mountain mouse, mannot). A genus 
of rodents (Arctomys) of the ground squirrel 


family. Thej resemble squirrels in their denti- 
tion, although in their form and habits they more 
resemble rata and mice. The animal to which the 
term (now little used) was first applied was the 
common species {Arctomys alpinus) of the moun- 
tains of Europe. It is about the size of a rabbit, 
giayish yellow, brown toward the head. It feeds 
on roots, leaves, insects, and the like, is gregari- 
ous, and often lives in large societies. It digs 
large burrows with several chambers and two 
entrances, generally on the slopes of the moun- 
tains, where the marmots may be seen sporting 
and basking in the sunshine during the fine 
weather of summer. They spend the winter in 
their burrows, in one chamber of which is a store 
of dried grass ; but the greater part of the winter 
is passed in torpidity. The alpine marmot is 
easily tamed. These features and habits are 
characteristic of the group. A half dozen other 
species occur in Europe, Asia, and North Amer- 
ica. The best known American species are the 
woodchuck and its larger relative of the Rocky 
Mountains. See Whistleb; Woodchuck. 

MABMOTJSETS, mar'm^'zft' (Fr., little 
men). A name given in contempt to the coun- 
cilors of Charles V. and Charles VI. of France 
(q.v.). They were for the most part members of 
the lesser nobility or of tlie citizen class and 
were despised by his uncles, who governed the 
kingdom during the minority of Charles. 

KABNSy mam (Lat. Matrona). A river of 
France, the principal tributary of the Seine 
(Map: France, N., J 3). It rises in the Plateau 
of Langres, flows first northwest, then westward, 
with many windings through the departments of 
Haute-Marne, Mame, Aisne, and Seine-et-Mame, 
passes Chaumont, Saint-Dizier, ChAlons, £ per nay, 
and Meaux, and joins the Seine at Charenton, 
about four miles above Paris. Its length is 325 
miles, and it is navigable for 226 miles to Saint- 
Dizier. It is a rather rapid stream, supplying 
power to a number of mills. Its large traffic has 
been extended by means of canals, of which the 
most important' is the Mame-Rhine Canal, which 
extends 195 miles from Vitry to Strassburg, pass- 
ing through several tunnels. 

MABNE. An inland department in the north- 
east of France, part of the old Province of 
Champagne, extending southward from the fron- 
tier department of Ardennes ( Map : France, N., J 
4). Area, 3108 square miles. The department 
is traversed by the Marne River. The soil is 
very fertile in the south, but chalky and arid in 
the north ; on this dry and chalky soil, however, 
the best grapes for champagne wine are grown, 
especially in the neighborhood of Eperuay and 
Avize and between the Marne and the Vesle. 
Cotton, metal, and woolen manufactures are 
largely carried on. Capital, Chalons. Popula- 
tion, in 1896, 439,577; in 1906, 434,157. 

MARNE, Haute. A department of France. 
See Haute-Mabne. 

KAB^KIAN EPOCH. The name applied to 
the second Iron Age. or culture stage of Europe. 
It is so called from the Department of Mame, 
in Xortheastem France; also termed La T^ne 
Period, from a station of that name in Switzer- 
land. It lasted until the first century B.c^ in 
France, Bohemia, and England, and until the 
tenth century a.d. in Scandinavia. It cone- 
snonda with the late Celtic of English archapolo- 
irists. The Marnian or La Tdne culture probably 

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eame to WeBtem Eurqpe through Greece and 

I, m&r^iilks, Phiup van, Baron 
Sainte-Aldegonde (153S-98). A Flemish states- 
man and writer, bom at Brussels. He studied 
theology at Geneva and returned to his native 
country a devoted adherent of the Reformed re- 
ligion and a sworn foe of the Spanish Government 
and the Inquisition. Upon the appointment of 
the Duke of Alva to the governorship of the 
Netherlands (1567) Marnix sought refuge in 
Germany. He shared in the labors of William of 
Oranger, who, in 1572, sent him as his repre- 
sentative to the first meeting of the Estates of 
Holland at Dordrecht. After a year's captiv- 
ity in the hands of the Spaniards he entered 
upon an active diplomatic career as representa- 
tive of the Protestant provinces at Paris and 
London, and in 1578 at the Diet of Worms. He 
took a prominent part in the formation of the 
Union of Utrescht. (See Nbtheblawds. ) In 1583 
he became burgomaster of Antwerp, and, after 
a siege of over a year, was forced to surrender 
the city to Alexander of Parma (1586). There- 
after he took little share in political life. His 
writings in prose and verse form a part of the 
classic literature of the Netherlands. Of these 
the most important are: De roomsehe hpen- 
korf, a satire; an excellent translation of the 
Paahns, and Wilhelmus van Vas^ouwe, which has 
become one of the national h^ns of the Nether- 
lands. His works were published at Brussels in 
seven volumes (1865-57). CJonstdt Juste, Vie de 
Mamix de Sainte-Aldegonde (Brussels, 1858). 

KABHO^ rafii^nd, Ebnst (1844-83). A Ger- 
man explorer of Western Africa. He was bom at 
Vienna, and in 1866 went to Abyssinia. Three 
years later he traveled to Khartum, then south 
to Fadasi, and in 1871 and 1872 explored the 
upper course of the White Nile. In 1874 he 
joined Gordon, who in 1878 put him in command 
of the District of Cklabat, where he did much to 
!^pre!» the slave trade. He died in Khartum. 
He wrote Reisen im Qebiet des weissen und 
hlauen Nil ( 1874) , and Reise m der MgypHacken 
Aequatorialprovine and in Kordofan in den Jah- 
ten 7874-76 (1878). 

KABOCCO. m&rdk'd. See Morocco. 

KABOCHSm, mATA-kfet't^ Carlo, Baron 
(1805-68). A French sculptor. He was bom 
at Turin, studied imder Basio, in Paris, 
and resided at Rome from 1822-30. In 1827 he 
received a medal at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts for 
his "^irl Playing with a Dog." His first im- 
portant work was a statue of Emmanuel Phili- 
bert of Savoy at Turin, which he presented to 
his native city, in recognition of which service 
he was made a baron. He subsequently returned 
to Paris. The most important of his works at 
Paris include: "Battle of Jemappes," a relief 
upon the Arc de Triomphe de l^ioile; a monu- 
ment to Bellini in P^re-la-C^aise Cemetery ; and 
tiie high altar of the Church of the Madeleine. 
He received the Legion of Honor in 1839. In 
consequence of the revolution of 1848 he emi- 
grated to England. At the Great Exhibition of 
1851 he exhibited a colossal equestrian statue of 
Kichard Cceur de L.ion, which was placed at the 
entrance to the Crystal Palace and was cast in 
bronze by national subscription. His other 
▼orks in England include: An equestrian statue 
^ the Queen and of Wellington, for Glasgow ; a 

88 MAB0KITB8. 

portrait bust of Prince Albert; a statue of 
Lord Clyde, in Saint James Park, and that of 
Thackeray in Westminster Abbey. He was made 
an Academician in 1866. He died, near Paris, 
January 4, 1868. 

KABOKI; mU'rd-ne' (Dutch Marowijne), A 
river forming the boundary between Dutch and 
French Guisfna (Map: South America, D 2). 
It rises in the Tumuc Humac Mountains on the 
frontier of Brazil, and flows northward through 
a densely forested region, falling in a number of 
cascades over the successive escarpments of the 
terraced plateau. It enters the Atlantic after a 
course of 425 miles. Below the last cascade, 46 
miles from its mouth, it is a wide, deep, and 
beautiful stream, connected with the estuary of 
the Surinam by the navigable Cottica Creek 
running parallel with the coast. 

MAB^ONITES. A Christian sect of Syria, of 
very ancient origin. The most probable ac- 
count represents them as descendants of a 
remnant of the Monothelite sect (see MoNO- 
thelitism) who, in the early part of the eighth 
century, settled on the slopes of the Lebanon, 
their chief seats being around the monastery 
of Maron, a saint of the fourth century, 
whose life is found in Theodoret's Religious His- 
tories (iii. p. 1222). The emigrants are said to 
have elected as their chief and patriarch a monk 
of the same name, with the title of Patriarch of 
Antioch, and, throughout the political vicissi- 
tudes of the succeeding centuries, to have main- 
tained themselves in a certain independence 
among the Moslem conquerors. In the twelfth 
century, on the establishment of the Latin King- 
dom of Jerusalem, the Maronites abandoned 
their distinctive monothelite opinions, and rec- 
ognized the authority of the Boman Church. In 
1445 they entered into a formal act of union with 
Rome. In 1584 a college was founded in Rome by 
Gregory XIII. for the education of the Maronite 
clergy; and in 1736 they formally subscribed to 
the decrees of the Conncil of Trent. Neverthe- 
less, although united with Rome^ they are per- 
mitted to retain their distinctive national rites 
and usages. They administer communion in 
both kinds; they use the ancient Syriac lan- 
guage in their liturgy; their clergy, if married 
before ordination, are permitted to retain their 
wives; and they have many festivals and saints 
not recognized in the Roman calendar. The 
Maronites at present are about 125,000 in num- 
ber. Their patriarch is still styled Patriarch of 
Antioch, and resides in the Convent of Kanobin, 
in the heart of the Lebanon. He is chosen by the 
bishops subject to the approval of Rome, and 
always bears the name Butrus (Peter). Every 
tenth year he reports the state of his patriarchate 
to the Pope. Under him are 14 bishops, to 
whom are subject the oflRciating clergy of the 
smaller districts. The revenues of all orders of 
ecclesiastics, however, are very narrow, and the 
inferior clergy live in great measure by the 
labor of their hands. Very many convents for 
both sexes are spread over the country, contain- 
ing, on the whole, from 20,000 to 25,000 members, 
who all wear a distinctive costume, but follow tho 
rule of Saint Anthony. The chief seat of the 
Maronites is the district called Kesrowan, on the 
western declivity of Mount Lebanon; but they 
are to be found scattered over the whole territory 
of the Lebanon, and in all the towns and larger 
villaces toward the north in the direction of 

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Aleppo, and southward as far as Nazareth. Their 
political constitution is a kind of military re- 
public, regulated for the roost part by ancient 
usages and by unwritten, but well-recognized 
laws. Like the Arabs of Syria, they have a po- 
litical hierarchy, partly hereditary, partly elec- 
tive. The chief administration is vested in four 
superior sheiks, who possess a sort of patriar- 
chal authority, and under these are subordinate 
chiefs, with whom, as in the feudal system, the 
people hold a military tenure. They are bitter 
enemies of their neighbors, the Druses ( q.v. ) . In- 
tellectually and morally they are on a low plane. 
Their chief occupations are cattle-raising and silk 
culture. Consult: Socin, Palaatina und Syrien 
(Leipzig, 1880) ; Bliss, "Essays on the Sects of 
Syria and Palestine — the Maronites," in the 
Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement 
(London, 1892) ; Koehler, Die katholische Kirche 
der Morgenldnder (Darmstadt, 1886). 

MABOON (Fr. marron, chestnut, chestnut- 
colored, from It. marron€y chestnut ) . A subdued 
crimson color, not so yellow as chestnut (mar- 
ron), from which the name is probably de- 
rived, nor so brilliant as magenta. 

MABOONS (Fr. marrony apocopated, from 
aimarronf Sp. cimarron, fugitive, from dma, 
mountain-top, twig, from Lat. cyma, Gk. xvfia, 
kymat sprout, from ickip^ kyein, to conceive). 
A name given in Jamaica and Dutch Guiana to 
runaway negro slaves. The term was first ap- 
plied to those slaves who ran away and took 
refuge in the uplands when their Spanish mas- 
ters were driven out by the British after the lat- 
ter conquered Jamaica, in 1655. For one hun- 
dred and forty years they maintained a constant 
warfare with the British colonists; but in 1795 
they were subdued, and a portion of them re- 
moved to Nova Scotia, where they gave so much 
trouble that most of them were transported to 
Sierra Leone. The Maroons of Dutch Guiana 
still form a number of small independent com- 
munities practicing various pagan rites, some 
of which can be traced to analogous African 
ceremonies. They are now known more common- 
ly as Bush negroes. 

ICABOSy m6^rdsh. The principal river of 
Eastern Hungary. It rises in the mountains of 
Eastern Transylvania, and flows westward, 
emptying into the Theiss at Szegedin, after a 
course of 643 miles (Map: Hungary, G 3). It is 
navigable about two-thirds of its length to Karls- 
burg, but its navigation is impeded by the great 
irregularity of its volume. 

MABOS-VAsABHELY, va'shftr h§l y'. A 
royal free town and capital of the County of 
Maros-Torda in Transylvania, Hungary, situ- 
ated on the river Maros, 60 miles east-southeast 
of Klausenburg (Map: Hungary, J 3). It has a 
castle which is now used for barracks, and con- 
nected with which is a fifteenth-century Gothic 
church; a palace with a fine library of over 
60,000 volumes (including a manuscript of Taci- 
tus), and a natural history collection; a techni- 
cal school, two gymnasia, and an industrial 
museum. The industries of the town include the 
manufacture of sugar, spirits, tobacco, beer, 
trimmed lumber, and the refinincf of petroleum. 
Population, in 1890, 15,264; in 1900, 19,091. 

XABOT, m&'ry, Clement (1495-1544). A 
French poet, bom at Cahors. In youth he studied 

law at Paris, but early abandoned this for litera- 
ture. He soon won the passing favor of Francis 
I. and the enduring patronage of Margaret of 
Navarre. He accompanied Francis in the cam- 
paigns of 1520 and 1625 and was wounded at 
Pa via. Taken prisoner, but soon released, he re- 
turned to France, was suspected of Protestantism, 
and, in spite of a strong denial, imprisoned first 
in Paris, then less rigorously at Chartres. He 
was freed by the King in 1627, but soon reimpris- 
oned on another charge. Again released, he suc- 
ceeded his father as royal valet de chambre and in 
1632 published a volume of verses, the Adolescence 
Cl&mentine, followed by a second volume in 1533. 
He now fell once more under suspicion of heresy, 
fled to Margaret's (Dourt in 1534, and thence to 
Italy. Hence he returned to Lyons in 1536 and 
enjoyed seven years of court favor, terminated 
by his translation of Psalms i.-l. (1541), which 
was condemned by the Sorbonne. It was com- 
pleted by Beza and is still used in French Protes- 
tant churches. Marot fled to Geneva (1543), 
quarreled with Calvin, and went to Turin, where 
he died. The best of Marot's poetry is his lighter 
work, fables, epistles, epigrams, songs. Ma- 
irot's Works were frequently collected (1538, 
1644, etc.), best by Jannet (4 vols., 1863-72), 
and by Pifteau (4 vols., 1884). An elaborate 
edition by Guifi'rey in six volumes is not yet com- 
pleted (vol. iii. 1881). There is a Life by Douen 
(Paris, 1878-79), and a study with a good bib- 
liography by Bourciez in Petit de JuUeville, His- 
toire de la langue et de la littirature frangaise, 
vol. iii. (ib., 1898). 

KABCXZIA. A Roman lady of the tenth cen- 
tury who played an important part in the political 
history of the times. She was the daughter of 
the infamous Theodora (q.v.) and Theophylact, 
'Consul and Senator of the Romans.' Her first 
husband was Alberic (q.v.) ; after his death she 
married Guido of Tuscany; and after the death 
of the latter, Hugo, King of Italy. By the power 
of her family and by her marital alliances she 
had entire control of Rome for some years. She 
deposed Pope John X. in 928, and in the follow- 
ing year he was either strangled or starved to 
death. A little later she bestowed the Papacy 
upon her son John XI., who by popular rumor 
was supposed to be the offspring of her guilty love 
with Pope Sergius III. She styled herself 'Sena- 
trix* of all the Romans, and 'Patricia.* Soon 
after her third marriage Marozia and her hus- 
band were thrown into prison in 932 by her son 
Alberic II. (q.v.). Her husband escaped, but 
nothing is known of her fate. Consult Gregoro- 
vius, History of the City of Rome in the Middle 
Ages, translated by Hamilton (London, 1894- 

MABPLOT. A meddling, good-natured busy- 
body in the Busybody (q.v.). 

KABPLOT, OB THE Second Part of the Busy- 
body. A comedy by Susanna Centlivre (q.v.). 
It was performed at the Drury Lane Theatre De- 
cember 10, 1710, and afterwards altered by Henry 
Woodward and called The Marplot of Lisbon. 
This character reappears in 1826 as Paul Pry in 
the comedy by John Poole, and resembles Sir 
Martin Marall in Dryden's successful comedy, 
founded on Lord Newcastle's Marplot, a transla- 
tion of Moli^re's L^Etourdi. 

MABPUBOy mttr'pSSrK, Fbiedrich Whjielm 
(1718-95). A German writer on music, bom at 

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Seehausen in Prussian Saxony. Little is known 
of his early life, but in 1746 he was secretary 
to General von Rothenburg at Paris, where he 
met Rameau, Voltaire, and D'Alembert. From 
there he went to Hamburg, and in 1763 was 
made director of the Government lottery in Ber- 
lin. He composed six clavier sonatas, organ 
pieces, and sacred and secular songs. He is, how- 
ever, better known as a writer on music, his 
most noteworthy works being: Ahhandlung von 
der Fuge (1753-54), a standard work; Ha/ndhuch 
heim OeneralbMs und der Composition (1755- 
58) ; Anleitung zum Clavierapielen (1755) ; and 
Anleitung zur Musik iiberhaupt und zur Sing- 
kunat insbesondere (1763), which are of inter- 
est at the present time. 

KABQITAND, mftr-kand^ Henbt Gubdon 
( 1819-1902) . An American capitalist and philan- 
thropist, bom in New York City. He prepared for 
college, but went into business as agent of his 
brother, Frederick Marquand ( 1799-1882) , a New 
York jeweler and a benefactor of Union Theo- 
logical Seminary and Yale Divinity School. This 
post the younger brother held for twenty years, 
after Frederick's retirement in 1839. Afterwards 
he became prominent in Wall Street, especially in 
connection with railroad enterprises. Among his 
benefactions, mention should be made of a chapel 
and gymnasium presented to Princeton Univer- 
sity, of a pavilion to Bellevue Hospital, and of 
contributions of paintings and other beautiful 
objects to the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 

MABQUABDT, mftr^vftrt, Joachim (1812- 
82). A German historian, bom at Danzig. He 
studied at Berlin and at Leipzig, and in 1859 was 
appointed director of the Gymnasium at Gotha, 
where he remained until his death. His chief 
work was his continuation of W. A. Becker's 
Handhuch der rdmischen AltertUmer (1849-67). 
To the second edition ( 1871-82) , in which he was 
assisted by Theodor Mommsen, he contributed 
Romische StaatavenoiUtung, vols, iv.-vi. (1873- 
78, 1881-85) ; and Das Privatlehen der Rlkner^ 
vol. viL (1879-82; 2d ed. 1886). 

MABQXTB (Fr., seizure), Letters of. Com- 
missions issued by a belligerent State to vessels 
owned and manned by private persons authorizing 
them to carry on hostilities at sea against the 
other belligerent. The usage originated in the 
practice of issuing letters of license to go across 
the boundary {mark or march) and make re- 
prisals. See Privateering. 

ICABOITESAS (mttr-k&'s&s) ISLANDS^ or 
KEXTDASA (m&n-d&'ny&) ISLANDS (Fr. les 
Marquises). A groxi^ of islands in Polynesia, 
in about latitude 10© S., and longitude 140© W. 
Area, 494 square miles (Map: World, Western 
Hemisphere, K 7 ) . The most important members 
of the group are Nukahiva ( 183 square miles) , and 
Hiva-oa (153 square miles). With the excep- 
tion of a few atolls, the islands are mountainous, 
falling abruptly into the sea on all sides, and 
reaching in Hiva-oa an altitude of 4158 feet. The 
summits are bare, and only the narrow valleys, 
terminating in small bays, and filled with luxuri- 
ant vegetation, are inhabited. The climate is 
hot and generally humid, though for six months 
in the year there is very little rainfall. The 
chief product, like that of Polynesia in general, 
is copra ; oranges are also produced. The Marque- 
sans form an interesting ^up of the Polynesian 
race, of which they are physically among the 


best representatives. They are very tall, with 
sub-dolichocephalic head-form. In language they 
are closely related to the Hawaiians, and some 
hold that the Hawaiian Islands were peopled 
from the Marquesas. The Marquesans themselves 
seem to have received their human inhabitants 
from the Society and Friendly Islands. Among 
Marquesan things worthy of note are the carved 
and ornamented axes and oars, the figures on 
which recall somewhat the 'writing* of the Easter 
Islanders; feather diadems; cocoanut slings; 
carved paddle-shaped clubs, etc. Their food con- 
sists very largely of breadfruit. The Marque- 
sans appear to have been warlike, and traces of 
cannibalism lingered long among them. The stone 
terraces of Waiko are of interest in connection 
with similar remains elsewhere in Polynesia. 
The inhabitants are steadily decreasing in num- 
bers. In the early part of the nineteenth cen- 
tury the population was estimated at 20,900; in 
1876 it was 5240, and in 1900 4300. The Mar- 
quesans are all civilized and Christians; there 
are very few Europeans in the islands. The 
group is administered by native chiefs subject to 
the French Resident at Hiva-oa. The southern 
group of the Marquesas was discovered in 1595 
by Mendafia de Neyra, a Spanish navigator; the 
northern group was discovered in 1791 by an 
American, Ingraham, who gave it the name of 
Washington Islands. They were left very much 
to themselves until 1842, when they were an- 
nexed by France, Consult Vincendon, Ilea Mar^ 
quiaea (Paris, 1843). 

MAB'QXTBTBY (Fr. marqueterie, from mar- 
queter, to inlay, from marque, mark; connected 
with AS. mearo, Eng., Icel. mark). The art of 
inlaying wood with wood of other colors or with 
other materials^ as metal, ivory, shell, etc. See 
BouLLE, Andr£ Charles; Inlaying; Mosaic. 

MABQUETTE, mttr-ket^ A city and the 
county-seat of Marquette County, Mich., 155 
miles by rail west of Sault Sainte Marie; on 
Iron Bay, an inlet of Lake Superior, and on the 
Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic, and the Mar- 
quette and Southeastern railroads (Map: Michi- 
gan, B 2). The city, noted for its charming 
scenery, clear and cool atmosphere, and fine 
buildings and streets, is popular as a summer 
resort, and is the principal shipping point for the 
mineral wealth, mainlv iron, of the region. It 
has a fine harbor and regular steamship com- 
munication with important lake ports, and its 
ore docks, well equipped with the latest devices 
for handling traffic, are among the largest in the 
world. There are blast furnaces, a large brown- 
stone quarry, iron works, foundries, and machine 
shops; carriage, sash, door, and blind factories; 
lumber and flouring mills, a wood alcohol plant, 
etc. Among the notable structures are the United 
States (lovernment building, city hall, new court- 
house, Northern Normal School, new manual 
training and high school, opera house, Peter 
White Public Library, Protestant Episcopal and 
Roman Catholic cathedrals, and the Upper Penin- 
sula State Prison and House of Correction. 
Presque Isle, a headland of 400 acres north of 
Marquette, was presented to the city by the 
Federal Government and has been converted into 
an attractive park. The water- works and electric- 
light plant are owned by the municipality. Mar- 
quette, named in honor of P&re Marquette, the 
French missionary explorer, was settled in 1846, 

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when the rich deposits of iron ore began to be ex- 
ploited. The first dock was completed in 1834 
and a railroad to the mines three years later. 
The city's subsequent prosperity has been marked. 
Population, in 1900, 10,068; in 1904, 10,665. 

MABQUBTTB^ Jacques (1637-75). A 
French misskmary aad explorer in America. He 
was bom at Laon, in France. When serenteen 
he entered the Jesuit Order, and in 1666 was 
sent as a missionary to Canada. There his 
superiors sent him to the country of the Upper 
Lakes, and in 1668 he founded the Mission of 
Sault Sainte Marie. In 1673 Marquette, who 
was then in charge of the newly founded mission 
at Mackinaw, was instructed to accompany Louis 
Joliet <m his expedition, sent by the Governor, 
Coimt Frontenac, to find the Mississippi. Seven 
men, in two birch canoes, set out on May 17th. 
They went to Green Bay, up the Fox River, the 
rapids of which they passed by portage, and then 
on to its source, where guides were olSained from 
an Indian village. They crossed to the Wisconsia 
and floated down that stream for a week. On 
June 17th they entered the Mississippi, on the 
waters of which another week was passed before 
they reached a village of Illinois Indians. They 
passed the junction of the Mississippi and Mis- 
souri rivers, and at the mouth of the Arkansas 
found Indian villages, whose occupants received 
them with great kindness and no little curiosity. 
The voyagers continued southward to latitude 
SO'', then, fearing lest they should be made 
prisoners by the Spaniards, they started on the 
return trip. On reaching the Illinois River they 
ascended it, and are supposed to have made 
the portage from the head of this stream to 
Lake Michigan, at or near the site of .Chi- 
cago. After an absence of four months, and 
a voyage in canoes of 2550 miles, they again 
made Green Bay, in the latter part of Septem- 
ber. In October (1674) Marquette obtainea per- 
mission from his superior to found a mission 
among the Illinois Indians. With ten canoes be 
went to Green Bay, made a difficult portage 
through the forest to Lake Michigan, and fol- 
lowed the west shore of the lake to the Chicago 
River, where the party built a hut and passed 
the winter, as Marquette had become so en- 
feebled by illness that it was impossible for 
him to proceed farther. In March he was able 
to resume the journey. The party crossed the 
portage to the Illinois River, and were most 
hospitably received at the Indian town of Kas- 
kaskia. Marquette's condition was so serious 
that his party was forced to turn homeward. 
They reached Lake Michigan and followed the 
eastern shore toward Michilimackinac. Mar- 
quette did not live to reach his post, dying on 
May 18, 1675, near a small stream, a little south 
of that which now bears his name. He was 
buried in the wilderness, but in 1676 the bones 
were exhumed by a party of Ottawa converts and 
carried to the mission of Saint Ignace, north of 
Mackinaw, where they were interred beneath 
the floor of the chapel. Marquette was a man of 
singular sweetness and serenity of disposition, 
and his influence over the Indians was great and 
beneficent. For a detailed account of his voyages 
consult: Parkman, Discovery of the Great We^ 
(Boston. 1869) ; Shea, Duteovery and Explora- 
tion of the Mississippi Valley (New York, 1852) ; 
id.. Early Voyapes Up and Down the MisMssippi 
(New York, 1862), containing translations from 


the original narratives, which will be found in 
full in The Jesuit Relations (QeveUnd, 1896 
sqq.); also Tkwaites, Father Mmrquette (New 
York, 1902). 

MABQXTEZ, m&r^kfts, Leonardo (c.l820-f). 
A Mexican general. He served against the United 
States in the Mexican War, and was a prominent 
supporter of Santa Anna in the revolutionary 
movement of 1849. After the fall of that dictator 
Marquei espoused the cause of Miramon and 
Zuloaga against Juares. In 1862 he took up 
the cause of the French, and rendered important 
service to the establishment of the power of 
Maximilian, by whom he was placed at the head 
of the regular army, and was, in 1864, given the 
mission to Constantinople. He returned in 1866, 
and a year later, when the French witbifa-ew, he 
undertook to organize a native army to support 
the Empire. He joined Maximilian at Quer^taro, 
but broke through the besiegers and made his 
way to Mexico City for the purpose of organizang 
a force to relieve the Emperor. Finding thb 
impossible, he conceived the plan of setting up 
an independent government of his own in the 
Southern States, with Puebla as its capital. He 
was defeated before he could reach that city and 
returned to Mexico, where he was besieged by Gen- 
eral Diaz. The eity was captured, Jime21, 1867, 
and Marquez, after remaining in conoealment for 
several months, made his way to Vera Cruz, and 
that to Havana. He was expressly excluded from 
the amnesty of 1870. As a soldier aad politician 
his motives were less marred by personal ambition 
than those of most of the leaders of Mexican 
affairs. He was fanatical and cold-blooded in his 
disregard of human life, receiving the nickname 
of 'The Tiger of Tacubaya" for the wholesale 
executions which followed one of his guerrilla 
victories in 1859. For an account of Marquez's 
military career consult Bancroft, "History of 
Mexico," vols. v. and vi., in his History of the 
Pacific States (San Francisco, 1882-90). 

MABQinS^ mUr^wIs, or ]ICAKQXr£8S (OF. 
markiSj marquis, Fr. marquis, from ML. war- 
chensis, prefect of a frontier town, from marcha, 
marca, from OHG. m^rka, boundary, march). 
The degree of nobility whidi in the peerage of 
England ranks next to duke. Marquises were 
originally commanders on the borders or fron- 
tiers of countries, or on the seacoast, which 
they were bound to protect; the GJerman equiva- 
lent is Markgraf. The first English marquis in 
the modern sense was Robert de Vere, Earl of 
Oxford, who was created Marquis of Dublin by 
Richard II. in 1385. The oldest existing marquis- 
ate is that of Winchester, created by Edward 
VI. in 1551. See !Mabk. 

KABBADI, mft-rn'd^, Gtovai^nt (1852—). 
An Italian poet, born at Leghorn. He was edu- 
cated at the University of Pisa and afterward* 
studied at Florence. He is a disciple of Car- 
ducci, a writer of force and charm, and a word 
painter of more than usual excellence. His 
works are: Cansoni modeme (1878) ; Fantamc 
marine (1881); Cansoni e fantasie (1883); 
Ricordi lirici (1884) ; Poesie (1887) : ^ttort canti 
(1891); and Ballate modeme (1895). 


MABMAaK (OF., Fr. mariage, from ML. 
maritaticum, marriage, from maritus, husband, 
from masy male, husband). A consortinc or 
imion of man and woman which is sanctioned 

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KrAifttTAr>y . 



by the community. The sanction may be moral, 
religious, or legal. This definition is broader 
than that of k^l usage, which makes marriage 
only a legal form or the status eoa*respoiiding 
thereto ; tmd it is not so broad as Westermarck's 
definition, '^a more or leas durable connection 
between male and female, lasting beyond the 
mere act of propagation till after the birth of 
the offspring. Properly speaking, the mating 
of animals is not marriage, and in no community 
of human beings is sexual union regarded as mar- 
riage imtil it is socially sanctioned in some way. 
On the other hand^ communities which can 
hardly be said to have a positive law not infre- 
quently atta^ the deepest significance to cus- 
tomary and religious sanctions applied to sexual 
relations. There has been, however, an unbroken 
continuity of hiBtorical forms, some of which 
have fallen short of marriage in any true soise, 
some of which have fallen short of marriage in a 
l^al sense, while others, emerging as civil mar- 
riage, have dropped the earlier religious sanc- 
tions. A complete understanding of marriage as 
a socaal institution, therefore, can be arrived at 
only through a survey of its historical evolu- 

Such a survey shows us that the consortings of 
males with females among animals and among 
men have not been restricted to the simple mat- 
ing of one individual with one ol the opposite 
sex which becomes the basis of monogamy. There 
hsve been unions of one woman with two or more 
men (polyandry) and of one man with two or 
more women (polygyny), and such arrangements 
have been socially approved. It reveals also 
interesting restrictions, which have had a dis- 
tinct evolution of their own, marking off groups 
or classes that might not intermarry from tho«e 
that mi^t. Finally, it discloses the origin and 
development of the social sanctions themselves, 
whereby natural mating becomes the social in- 
stitution, marriage. 

Disttngnished ethnologists have maintained 
that relatively permanent sexual unions have 
slowly developed out of an original promiscuity. 
There is, however, no satisfactory evidence that 
a state of true promiscuity ever existed among 
human beings, and the hypothesis Is rendered in- 
herently improbable by our knowledge that 
among the lower animals a distinct progress to- 
ward true pairing is observed as we ascend the 
scale from the lower to the higher vertebrata. 
It must be admitted that there are few life-long 
unions of one male with one female in any 
animal species, even among the birds, whose ten- 
dencies toward an exclusive mating have been 
the subject of some exaggeration. As a rule in 
the animal kingdom within the reproductive 
period of life the female, no less than the male, 
consorts at one time or another with more than 
ODe individual of the other sex, and among the 
relatively numerous gregarious animals many 
females commonly associate with one male. 

(^ief among the facts which suggested the 
hypothesis of a primitive promiscuity is the 
widespread custom among uncivilized men of 
tracing names and descent through the mother 
instead of the father. It has been shown that 
the civilized races also, including the peoples 
of Aryan culture, in all probahility passed 
throuf^ this matronymic stage. Furthermore, 
an all-sufficient explanation of descent in the 
female line is found in the general instability of 

pairing arrangements snaong primitive men. If 
a mother with her infant remains with her own 
kindred, or returns to thouy she naturally keeps, 
and her child takes, her clan name; and her 
brethren or other near clansn^en become the 
child's natural protectors. 

It seems probable that from the first sexual 
mating among human beings has t^ided toward 
monogamie unions, but that permanency has been 
of slow growth. Among the lowest savages, such 
as the Australians, the Bushmen, the Fuegians, 
the forest hordes of Brazil, and the Innuit, a 
mating of one man with one woman for an 
indefinite, but usually not long period, is the 
common arrangeinent. Sometimes, as in Aus- 
tralian tribes, it is complicated by a system of 
relationships more nominal than real, such that 
each man in a given class or group is theoretic- 
ally the husbax^ of each woman in some other 
class or group, and in like manner each woman 
in the latter class is theoretically the wife of 
each man in the former. These nominal unions 
probably do not point to a primitive promis- 
cuity, but rather to an early limitation of the 
range of choice in the selection of consorts; 
that is to say, each woman of a certain class 
is a possible mate for any man of some other 

Nevertheless, in tribes somewhat more ad- 
vanced but usually dwelling in extreme poverty, 
various forms of polyandry, or the union of 
one woman with two or more men, or of a group 
of women to a group of men, is found in many 
parts of the worH, and imdoubtedly prevailed 
widely in the past. In Tibetan polyandry, so 
called, the husbands are brothers. In Nair pol- 
yandry, or the form which prevails among the 
Nairs of India, the husbands of a woman may 
originally have been strangers to one another. 
Csesar speaks of a polyandry like the Tibetan as 
practiced among the Britons. In the Hawaiian 
IbImmIs before they were invaded by whites, a 
common form was the so-called Punaluan family, 
in which a number of brothers cohabited with a 
group of sisters, each man consorting with each 
woman, and each woman with each man. The 
men were not own brothers of their waves, but 
Lewis H. Morgan, from evidence which he 
brought together in his work on Sffstems of Con- 
tmnguinitp and Afjinity^ drew the conclusion that 
Punaluan polyandry had survived from what he 
called a '(Consanguine Family* formed by the mat- 
ing of near kindred, such as own brothers and 
sisters and cousins. A conservative explanation 
of the known facts seems to be that primitive 
hordes, except perhaps in the most favorable en- 
vironments, were small, as are the hordes of 
the lowest savages to-day, and were therefore 
composed of near kindred commonly marrying in 
and in. Under such circumstances the cohabit- 
ing group may often have been a consanguine 
family in Morgan's sense of the term, a Pimaluan 
family, or a family like that created by the 
Tibetan polyandry. Yet probably from the first 
a temporary consorting of one man with one 
woman was the more frequent arrangement. A 
horde thus marrying in and in is called endog- 
amous. Two ways in which a group becomes 
cxoffamoua (taking consorts from other groups) 
are known. Where neighboring hordes, or 
groups of kindred, live on friendly terms with 
one another, often participating in common fes- 
tivities or religious observances, men frequently 

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leave their own kindred and go to dwell with 
women in another group. They become in such 
cases in many particulars subject to the male 
kindred of their wives. This arrangement has 
been called Beenah marriage, the name given 
to it in Ceylon where it was first carefully ob- 
served. Where neighboring groups live on bad 
terms with one another, frequently engaging in 
war, captured women may be appropriated by 
their captors. That wife capture has been a 
custom in every part of the world is admitted by 
all ethnologists, and there is a general agree- 
ment that the not less widespread custom of wife 
purchase may have grown out of wife capture. 
It is not, however, by any means certain that 
these methods, creative of the marriage relation 
which Robertson-Smith, in his work on Kinship 
and Marriage in Early Arabia, has called Baal 
marriage, to distinguish it from Beenah mar- 
riage, have been a more important cause of ex- 
ogamy than the voluntary going of the men of 
one group to the women of another. The 
theories which seek to explain exogamy primarily 
by an avoidance of close interbreeding do not 
very well agree with the facts as thus far 
known. The practice of offering women to actual 
or potential foes as an act of propitiation prob- 
ably played a large part in the origin of ex- 
ogam ic custom. The strict rule of exogamy is 
found only where the clan or gens (see Gens) 
is well developed, and it there is a rule of the 
clan as such, rather than of the horde or tribe. 
Where tribes are constituted of clans the clan 
is exogamous, and the tribe as a rule is endoga- 
mous. That is to say, men may not marry their 
clanswomen, but usually marry women of an- 
other clan within the same tribe. 

The forms of sexual relationship thus far 
mentioned, let us now recall, are not necessarily 
marriages. Any one of them may exist in a com- 
munity where the only legal union of man and 
woman, and the only one sanctioned by religion 
and public opinion, is monogamy. Any one of them 
becomes marriage through social sanction. There 
can be little doubt that religious sanctions consti- 
tuting marriage are older than the legal. Very 
suggestive studies of the origins of the religious 
sanctions have been made by Ernest Crawley, 
The Mystic Rose: A Study of Primitive Mar- 
riage, To the savage with his belief in imitative 
and sympathetic magic many things appear dan- 
gerous, and he avoids them, making them taboo. 
Crawley finds that in savage communities the 
sexes are usually taboo to one another until by 
some ceremony of magic the taboo is broken. The 
initiation ceremonies, whereby boys and girls at 
puberty are admitted to certain sexual mysteries, 
are of this nature. They partially break the 
sexual taboo. The marriage ceremony is the 
complete and final breaking. Usually whatever 
is taboo may safely be touched — in the case of 
a food it may be eaten — if first it has been 
approached in some exceedingly careful way, or 
partaken of in a ho\pcEopathic portion, whereby 
an immunity is established. Conformably to this 
idea the sexual taboo is broken by such harmless 
approaches as the joining of hands or the partak- 
ing of a meal together. Some of the most fre- 
quent incidents of marriage ceremony are thus 
seen to have had their origin in that savage 
magic whicli was the first great system of social 
sanctions, long antedating those which were de- 
veloped into positive law. 



HiSTOBiOAL Development. The law of mar- 
riage in all Christian countries is derived from 
the canon law, i.e. the law established by the 
Christian Church in the Middle Ages. The 
canon law drew many of its rules regarding 
marriage from the Roman civil law, and it 
was influenced, to some extent, by Teutonic ideas ; 
but in many respects its marriage law was 
novel. In nearly all Christian countries the 
canonical rules have been seriously modified 
during the last four hundred years. The changes 
which began with the Protestant Reformation 
were at first worked out by the Protestant 
churches and embodied in Protestant ecclesias- 
tical law; but a tendency to regulate marriage 
by civil legislation appeared in the sixteenth 
century, and at the present day, even in those 
countries which have adhered most closely to 
the rules of the canon law, marriage is governed 
by the ordinary civil law. 

Roman Civil Law. Marriage could be estab- 
lished only between Roman citizens, or between 
Romans and such foreigners as had by treaty 
the right of intermarrying with Romans {ius 
connubii ) . Originally, no intermarriage was pos- 
sible between the gentiles or patricians and the 
plebeians; and after intermarriage between the 
orders had been legalized (b.c. 445), gentiles 
continued to marry, in most cases, within their 
own order, and often within their own gens. 
The marriage of near blood-relations, however, 
was forbidden; originally, those related in the 
sixth degree (e.g. children of first cousins) were 
not allowed to intermarry. In the third century 
B.C. marriage was permitted between persons re- 
lated in the fourth degree (e.g. first cousins). 
The legislation of the Empire varied: at one 
time (a.d. 49) a man was allowed to marry his 
brother's daughter, but in the fourth century this 
was made a capital offense, and in the fifth cen- 
tury the marriage of first cousins was again for a 
time prohibited. The relations established by adop- 
tion (q.v.) were treated as equivalent to rela- 
tions of blood-kinship. Affinity was a bar in 
the direct line only, until the end of the third 
century, when marriage with a sister-in-law (the 
brother's widow or his divorced wife, and the de- 
ceased or divorced wife's sister) was prohibited. 
Justinian, under the influence of the Christian 
Church, forbade marriage between godparents and 
godchildren on the ground that baptism estab- 
lished a spiritual kinship. Under the same in- 
fluence the Theodosian Code had already pro- 
hibited marriage between Christians and Jews. 

In the older civil law there were three modes 
of establishing marital power {manus). For the 
patricians there was a religious ceremony, con- 
farrcatio; for the plebeians there was fictitious 
purchase, coemptio, and also prescription, usua. 
The acquisition of marital power by prescription 
implied that the man and the woman were living 
together without any preceding oonfarreatio or 
coemptio; and it is probable that such a union 
was not originally regarded as a marriage until 
the man had acquired marital power; but at 
an early period this informal union was treated 
as marriage, even though the prescription was 
annually interrupted and never became complete. 
This marriage consensu, i.e. by agreement, was 
usually accompanied by religious observan^, 
such as the taking of auspices, by a banquet. 

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and by the ceremonial taking of the -wife to the 
husband's house, but none of these things was 
necessary: consensus, non ooncubitus, facit 
nupticis. The consensual marriage supplanted all 
other forms except the oonfarreaiio, which was 
occasionally used in some of the old families until 
the empire became Christian. The consensual 
marriage was a 'free marriage' in two senses: it 
gave the husband no power over the person or 
property of his wife, and it was dissoluble at the 
will of either party. See Divorce. 

Marriage could be established when both par- 
ties had reached the age of puberty, which was 
fixed at the completed fourteenth year for 
males, at the completed twelfth for females. 
Betrothal (q.v.), sponsaliay could take place at 
any time after the completed seventh year. When 
the parties, or either of them, were under pater- 
nal authority, no betrothal or marriage was valid 
without the paternal authorization. 

The remarriage of widows was regarded in the 
older Roman ethics as improper, but it was 
never legally prohibited. In the later Imperial 
law it was prohibited for ten months, unless 
within that period a child had been bom. In 
the later Imperial law, certain property disadvan- 
tages were attached to second marriages, both as 
regarded husbands and wives ; but the object was 
not to penalize second marriages, but to secure 
the interests of the children oif the previous 

Early German Law. The usual form of mar- 
riage among the Scandinavians, the Crermans 
proper, and the Anglo-Saxons was wife-purchase. 
The girl was bought from her father or guardian, 
and delivered bv the father or guardian to the 
buyer. Abduction of a girl without payment 
seems to have been regarded as a mode of mar- 
riage, but the husband did not obtain marital 
authority {mundium) until he had paid the cus- 
tomary compensation to the father or guardian. 
In the earliest written laws the price paid is 
beginning to be regarded as something that be- 
longs to the woman, not to the father or guard- 
ian ; it is dos or dower in the later English sense 
— i.e. a provision for widowhood — and instead of 
paying it over to the father or guardian, the 
bridegroom gives security for its payment on his 
death to his widow. In the earliest written laws 
also the purchase marriage consists of two sepa- 
rate transactions: (1) the agreement between 
the bridegroom and the bride's father or guard- 
ian, in which each formally binds himself to 
perform his part of the contract, and (2) the 
delivery of the bride, together with the payment 
of the price or the giving of seicurity for its 
payment to the widow. As the formal contract of 
the old German law consisted in the giving of 
symbolic pledges, wadia, the first of these trans- 
actions was a wadiaiio (Anglo-Saxon, hewed- 
dung)^ while the second was a 'giving* (Anglo- 
Saxon, gifta). The %oadiaiio was more than a 
betrothal, it was an inchoate marriage. It pro- 
duced some of the legal results of marriage, while 
other results attached to the giving, and others 
again to cohabitation. In the later develop- 
ment of the Grerman law the wadiatio was de- 
scribed as Verlohung or promising, and consisted 
in the exchange of promises between bridegroom 
and bride, and the giving became the Trauung 
or intrusting. Verlohung^ however, in the Ger- 
man view, was always something more than a 
Roman betrothal, and the Grerman view was not 


without influence upon the development of the 
canon law. 

Roman Canon Law. The Roman Catholic 
Church considers marriage as a sacrament which 
conveys divine grace to the recipients for the 
purpose of enabling them to perform well the 
duties of the conjugal state. This aspect has 
nothing to do with the validity of the marriage 
as a civil contract; nor does the Church by this 
teaching deny that valid marriages are contracted 
outside its communion. But, considered as a 
sacrament of the Catholic Church, it cannot be 
received by an unbaptized person, or properly by 
any one who is in a state of mortal sin. By the 
general view of theologians, since the consent 
of the parties is considered the essential part of 
the sacrament, they are themselves held to be 
the 'ministers* of it: the priest simply adds the 
Church's f)enediction. Since marriage was con- 
sidered a sacrament, it was early asserted that 
as such its regulation fell within the exclusive 
jurisdiction of the Church. The claim was recog- 
nized; and in the exercise of its jurisdiction the 
Church developed a uniform law of marria^ for 
all Western Christendom. It did not claim to 
regulate the property relations of husband and 
wife, but it regulated the establishment and de- 
termined the validity of marriages. The prin- 
cipal inference which the Church drew from the 
sacramental theory was that marriage was indis- 
soluble. The Church courts could declare that 
an existing union was not a valid marriage, i.e. 
they could declare a marriage null, on account of 
circumstances antecedent to or simultaneous with 
its establishment ; and they could grant a separa- 
tion from bed and board on account of circum- 
stances that had arisen since the marriage; but 
they could not dissolve a marriage validly estab- 
lished by reason of any occurrences subsequent to 
its establishment. See Divorce. 

There were numerous grounds on which a 
marriage could be set aside or annulled, called 
dividing or destructive impediments {impedi- 
menta dirimentia) , such as a previous marriage, 
a previous vow of celibacy, a difference of re- 
ligion, impotence, etc. To the dividing impedi- 
ments belonged also relationship within the for- 
bidden degrees. The wide range of this impedi- 
ment was perhaps the most peculiar feature of 
the canon law. The Church not only forbade 
marriage by reason of consanguinity and the legal 
aflfinity established by marriage; it attached the 
same result to the spiritual relationship estab- 
lished by participation in the sacraments of bap- 
tism and of confirmation, and to the illegitimate 
affinity established by unlawful concuhitus; and 
it carried prohibitions based on affinity to the 
same degree as those based on blood-kinship. 
Before 1215 the impediments of consanguinity 
and affinity extended to the seventh degree 
(which, by civil computation, might be the four- 
teenth degree, for in tracing collateral relation- 
ship the canonists reckoned only up to the com- 
mon ancestor and not down again) ; and mar- 
riage was forbidden not only with affines, but 
with their a/fines {affinitds secundi, tertii gra- 
dus) ; but at the fourth Lateran Council In- 
nocent III. abolished the latter rule, and limited 
the prohibition based on consanguinity and affin- 
ity to the fourth degree (e.g. third cousins). 
From all these impediments of relationship, 
except those between ascendants and descendants 
and brother and sister, dispensation might be 

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granted, as also from a tow of celibacy, a dif- 
ference of religion, and lack of age. Lack of age, 
moreover, and lack of consent, were curable 
defects. In most cases, therefore, these dividing 
impediments did not render the marriages void, 
but oidy voidable. The hardships logicaily re- 
sulting from the annulm^it of marriage were 
lessened By the doctrine of the 'putative mar- 
riage.' Where one of the parties to the invalid 
marriage was unaware of the impediment, that 
party, and also any children bom of the union, 
were entitled to all the rights which would have 
been theirs if the marriage had been valid. In 
particular, the children were legitimate. This 
doctrine, however, reached over into a field 
which, even in the Middle Ages, was regarded as 
secular. The Church could say what was and 
what was not a marriage, but it could not regu- 
late all the civil results of marriage, nor all the 
civil results of its annulment. See Divorce. 

Other impediments were known as impeding* 
or 'prohibitive.' To this class belonged, for ex- 
ample, a pre-contract de future (i.e. a previous 
betrothal to another person) ; also the non-ob- 
servance of ecclesiastical rules regarding banns. 
Disregard of such impediments subjected the 
offen&r to penalties, but did not invalidate the 

It should be noted, however, that the Church's 
view of betrothal changed in the twelfth century. 
In the early Middle Ages the Church was strongly 
influenced by the German idea that betrothal 
was an inchoate marriage. In the twelfth cen- 
tury it went back to the Roman view that an 
agreement de futuro was a thing wholly distinct 
from marriage. Nevertheless some concessions 
were still made to German ideas. It was ad- 
mitted that an agreement to marry in future and 
subsequent concubituM constituted marriage. 
Moreover, marriages not consummated were 
treated somewhat differently from those which 
had been consummated: they were annulled vnth 
more freedom. 

On the whole, the canonical marriage was the 
consensual marriage of tne Roman law, made 
indissoluble. The ages of consent were the same, 
fourteen and twelve. It was customary to pub- 
lish banns, to exchange troth-plight at the church 
door, and to have the marriage consecrated by 
the priest inside of the church, but none of these 
things was necessary. The sacrament of mar- 
riage was one which the parties could administer 
to each other, and the clandestine unconsecrated 
marriage was completely valid. The consent of 
parents to the marriages of their children, which 
was required by the Roman law, was not re- 
quired by the Church, not even in the case of 
minors. The law was changed, after the Reforma- 
tion, by the C^wincil of Trent. The decrees of 
that council required that marriage should be 
celebrated by the priest of the parish in the 
presence of two witnesses. These decrees, how- 
ever, were not put in force in all Catholic coun- 
tries (it is affirmed that they were not intro- 
duced into the American possessions of Spain), 
and where the Tridentine laws are not in force, 
the Catholic Church continues to recognize the 
secret and unconsecrated marriage. 

Protestant Ecclesiastical Law. The Prot- 
estant churches of the Continent rejected the 
sacramental theory of marriage. They ro^mrded 
divorce (q.v.) as admissible. Luther revived the 
theory that betrothal (q.v.) was an inchoate 

marriage, and this view was dominant until tha 
eighteenth century. Early in that century, how- 
ever, Bohmer, a distinguished writer on Protest- 
ant ecclesiastical law, retntrodueed the Roman 
distinctions. In order to suppress secret mar- 
riages the Protestant churches demanded the 
coaaent of parents, or the presoiee of witnesses, 
or an ecclesiastical ceremony, or all these things. 
So long, however, as secret betrothal followed by 
cancubitus was r^iarded as a legal marriage, re- 
quirements of publicity of marriage were in- 
effective. Bdhmer insisted that such a marriage 
was only a 'natural marriage,' and that the 
benediction of the Church was necessary to its 
legal validity. The ecclesiastical marriage, be 
held, was the only perfect marriage. Bdhmer's 
ideas were generally accepted; but in cases 
where cotteuMu^ had occurred after a promise 
of marriage, it was usual not only to compel the 
man to go through the religious ceremony, but 
to 'supply' his assent when 1^ refused to give it. 
The impediments to marriage based on con- 
sanguinity and affinity were greatly reduced. 
Consanguinity was treated as a bar only within 
the third or fourth degree (civil computation), 
affinity only in the direct line. Spiritual kin- 
ship was not recognized. There was manifested 
also a tendency to treat fraud as a ground for an- 
nulling marriage, provided it was made clear that 
but for the fraud the marriage would not have 
been contracted. Some of these changes were 
made by civil legislation, but until the nineteenth 
century legislation was for the most part guided 
by ecclesiastical opinioiL 

MooEBN Continental Lbgislation. Even in 
Catholic countries marriage is governed at the 
present time by civil legislation. The most im- 
portant innovation of the nineteenth century is 
the civil marriage. In the eighteenth centuiy 
publicity of marriage, establiuied in Catholic 
countries by the Tridentine decrees, was secured in 
Protestant States in the same way, i.e. by compul- 
sory religious marriage. In some States it was 
demanded that the rites of the established Church 
be observed; but exceptions were generally made 
in favor of the adherents of other confessions or 
of no confession, first, by permitting marriage 
to be celebrated according to the forms of any 
recognised confession, and finally by establishing 
civil marriage, i.e. marriage before a civil offi- 
cer. The civil marriage is regularly preceded 
by notices, posted or otherwise published in the 
domicile of each of the parties, and the civil 
officer does not proceed to the marriage until he 
is satisfied that all the requirements of the law 
have been observed. At the outset, the civil 
marriage was usually 'facultative,' i.e. the parties 
could choose between civil and religious marriage, 
or the religious marriage was made compulsory 
only upon members of the State Church. Such 
a facultative civil marriage exists to-day in 
Austria, Spain, and Portugal. In a larger num- 
ber of Continental States, however, civil mar- 
riage is obligatory. The parties may add a re- 
ligious ceremony, but the religious marriage has 
no legal effect. This system obtains in France, 
Holland, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. 

The age of consent has generally been raised 
(to eighteen and fifteen in France, to twenty -one 
and sixteen in Germany), but not in Spain.' The 
consent of parents or guardians is required for 
the marriage of minors, and in many legislations 
the consent of parents is required even after 




majority. In some of these legislations, the only 
result attached to parental opposition after ma- 
jority is to delay the marriage. In Germany, if 
the opposition of the parents appears unreason- 
able, the necessary consent can be given by the 
court. The Roman rule forbidding remarriage 
of a woman within the ten months following the 
dissolution of the previous marriage is generally 
retained in modem legislations. The hindrances 
based on consanguinity and affinity vary con- 
siderably in different States. In Germany con- 
sanguinity is a bar only in the direct line 
and between brothers and sisters ; affinity is a bar 
only in the direct line. In France uncle and 
niece, aunt and nephew, and brother-in-law and 
sister-in-law are forbidden to intermarry, but 
dispensation may be granted by the head of the 
State. Even in the more conservative Catholic 
countries there is a tendency to limit the impedi- 
ments of consanguinity and affinity. In Spain 
marriages within the fourth degree are pro- 
hibited, but for non-Catholics the fourth degree 
is computed civilly, so that the restriction 
reaches no further than to first cousins. As 
regards lack of consent, the doctrines of the 
canon law are generally followed in the modem 
civil legislations. Fraud per ae does not gener- 
ally invalidate a marriage, but in the German 
Code fraud by which consent has been induced 
has this ^ect. 

Engijsh Common Law, and Acts of Parlia- 
ment. That the general ecclesiastical law of 
Western Christendom prevailed ia the British 
Islands until the Reformation, and that it contin- 
ued to prevail after the Reformation until changed 
by Parliamentary enactments, was not seriously 
<mestioned by the courts until 1843. In that year 
the House of Lords decided, in Queen vs, Millis 
(10 Clark and Finelly, 534), that, even before 
the Reformation, there was a special ecclesiastical 
law of England and Ireland, which was not in 
all points identical with the Roman canon law; 
that, in particular, the Roman doctrine that 
parties could contract a valid marriage by 
consent alone had never been a rule of English 
ecclesiastical law; that, on the contrary, the 
assistance and benediction of a priest had always 
been essential to a perfect marriage in England 
and Ireland. This decision denied, accordingly, 
that the form of marriage which is still known in 
the United States as the 'common-law marriage* 
had ever been a perfect marriage at English 
common law. The correctness of this decision 
(which was rendered by a divided court) has 
been widely questioned, and further historical in- 
vestigation has strengthened the opposite opinion 
(see Pollock and Maitland, History of English 
Law, II., 372, and Maitland, Canon Law in 
England), The opposite theory has always been 
held by the courts of the United States, and the 
decision in Queen vs, Millis has not been accepted 
by the courts of Canada. 

The marriage of which the validity was denied 
in (^een vs, Millis was an Irish marriage. As 
far as England was concerned, the question had 
been settled by the acts 26 Geo. II., c. 33 (Lord 
Hardwicke's Act) and 4 Geo. IV., 76, which re- 
quired a church marriage preceded by the publi- 
cation of banns, except when a special license 
was secured, and which declared any other form 
of marriage invalid. Church marriage meant 
marriage according to the forms of the Estab- 
lished Church, and from 1753 to 1836 no exceptions 
Vol. Xlll.-fl. 


were made except in the cases of (Quakers and 
Jews. Lord Russell's Act, 6 and 7 William IV., 
c. 85, supplemented by Acts 1 Vict., c. 22, and 
10 and 20 Vict., c. 119, furnished a choice be- 
tween marriage according to the forms of the 
Established (jhurch, marriage according to the 
forms of other registered confessions, and civil 
marriage before a registrar. Lord Hardwicke's 
act fuAher demanded the assent of parents or 
guardians to the marriage of minors, and the 
fact that it did not operate outside England led 
to the numerous *Gretna Green' marriages. At 
present, under later acts of Parliament, the same 
election between various forms of marriage is 
given in Scotland and in Ireland as in England — 
an election between religious marriage accord- 
ing to the rites of any recognized confession and 
civil marriage. In Ireland the marriage by 
consent without ecclesiastical or civil ceremony 
has been abolished by the decision in Queen vs, 
Millis; in Scotland this formless marriage still 
exists, as it still exists in the great majority 
of the commonwealths of the United States. All 
that is necessary to establish the marriage is the 
consent or agreement in presenti, i.e. an agree- 
ment of marriage as distinct from an agreement 
to marry at some future time. 

With the requirement of public marriage in 
England and Ireland, the canonical rule that an 
agreement to marry followed by oonouhitus is 
marriage has been abrogated. In Scotland the 
rule is maintained. In the United States there 
is a conflict of authorities. Even at the canon 
law the rule was based on a presumption that 
consent in presenti had intervened, but this pre- 
sumption was not rebuttable. Some of the Ameri- 
can courts treat the presumption as rebuttable ; a 
few decline to recognize the rule. Of course 
neither in Scotland nor in the United States will 
a relation which was originally meretricious be 
transformed into marriage by a promise to marry ; 
nor was any such result recognized by the Cath- 
olic CJhurch. In accordance with the common rules, 
the common-law ages of consent are fourteen and 
twelve. If either party, by reason of idiocy, im- 
becility, or insanity, does not comprehend the na- 
ture and effect of the marriage contract, there is 
no marriage ; but if the lack of comprehension is 
due to intoxication, the marriage is not void, but 
only voidable. Mistake, as at canon law, must be 
of such a character that there was really no con- 
sent. As regards fraud, the English courts follow 
the Roman ecclesiastical rule, that fraud per se is 
not a ground for annulling a marriage. As Sir P. 
H. Jeune said (in Moss vs. Moss, 1897, P. D. 
268), where marriage is said to be annulled for 
fraud, it is really annulled because of the absence 
of consent. The American courts, however, are 
inclined to admit that a marriage may be an- 
nulled by fraud, and they are especially inclined 
to admit such an annulment if the marriage 
has not been consummated. 

In England, as elsewhere, the Reformation 
brought about a considerable reduction in the 
prohibitions of marriage based on relationship. 
Statutes of Henry VIIL, repealed in part by a 
statute of Edward VI. and wholly repealed by a 
statute of Philip and Mary, were partially re- 
vived in the first year of Elizabeth's reign; and 
the provision that survived simply stated that 
"no prohibition, God's law except, shall trouble 
or impeach any marriage outside the Levitical 
degrees." This was interpreted by the eoclesias- 

Digitized by 



tical courts to mean that consanguinity and 
afi^ity were impediments to marriage as far as 
the third degree of civil computation. Under 
this rule a man might not marry his aunt or his 
niece or the daughter of his deceased wife's 
sister, but might marry his first cousin. Rela- 
tionship by the half blood was put on the same 
footing as that by the full blood, and illegitimate 
consan&;uinity was treated as equivalent to legiti- 
mate blood-relationship. On the other hand, the 
illegitimate or natural affinity of the canon law, 
which was affirmed in 28 Henry VIII., c.7, is held 
to have disappeared from English law with the 
repeal of that statute. The courts regarded mar- 
riages within the forbidden degree as voidable 
rather than void, but such marriages were de- 
clared void by Act of 5 and 6 William IV. 
(1835). Repeated efforts to legalize marriage 
with the deceased wife's sister have thus far 
failed in England, although in all the British 
colonies the prohibitions based on collateral affin- 
ity have been removed. 

As to proof of marriage, the common law ad- 
mits any evidence of matrimonial consent. Where 
a formal marriage, religious or civil, has taken 
place, it is presumed, until the contrary is shown, 
that the parties were able to marry, that their 
consent was complete and free, and that all 
necessary forms were observed. If no formal 
marriage has taken place, or none is proved, the 
fact that the parties have lived together as hus- 
band and wife, have acknowledged themselves, or 
have been g«ierally reputed, to be husband and 
wife, raises a presumption of marriage. This 
presumption, however, is invalidated if it can 
be shown that the relation was illicit in its 

It is a peculiar feature of the English common 
law that it gives an action for damages for breach 
of contract to marry. See Breach. 

Foreign Marriages. The question whether and 
under what conditions a court of law will recog- 
nize as marriage a imion established in another 
jurisdiction is a question of conflict of laws 
(q.v.). The general rule, all over the civilized 
world, is that if the forms required where the 
marriage was established have been observed, the 
marriage will be recognized as formally perfect 
everywhere. The capacity of parties to marry 
is determined, according to the prevailing Euro- 
pean theory, by the law of their domicile, and 
the English courts now follow this rule. In some 
of the European States, however, capacity to 
marry is determined by the law of the country of 
which the person is a citizen or subject, whether 
he or she be domiciled there or elsewhere. In 
the United States the courts follow the older 
English decisions, according to which the capacity 
of the parties to marry, as well as the sufficiency 
of the forms obsen^ed, is determined by the law 
of the State in which the marriage takes place: 
so that citizens of any State can escape the re- 
strictions imposed by their own State by simply 
crossing the State line. 

Statlttory Rules in the United States. 
Lord Hardwicke's act did not apply to the colo- 
nies, and never became a part of the common law 
of the United States. In nearly all of the United 
States, however, statutes have been enacted pro- 
viding for a ceremonial marriage, and in most 
cases requiring also a license to marry granted 
by the properly constituted officer, usually the 
clerk of the municipality where the marriage 


is solemnized or the officer having supervision 
over vital statistics. 

The marriage ceremony is usually required to 
be performed in the presence of two or more 
witnesses, by a priest or clergyman of some 
church, or by certain enumerated civil officers, 
such as judges of courts of record, justices of the 
peace, police justices, mayors, aldermen of 
cities, and county clerks. Various penalties are 
imposed for failure to comply with the provisions 
of the statute, and in some States intentional vio- 
lation of the law is made a criminal offense. In 
most States, in the absence of a positive provision 
of the statute that marriages not complying with 
the requirements of the statute shall be void, 
the statute is deemed to be directory only, and 
not in any manner to affect the validity of the so- 
called common-law marriage. This is substan- 
tially the law in all of the States, except Cali- 
fornia, Iflinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, 
Massachusetts, North Carolina, Vermont, Wash- 
ington, and West Virginia, in all of which it is 
held that the common-law marriage has been 
abolished by statute. But in some of these 
States, notably Massachusetts, Washington, and 
West Virginia, there are validating statutes pro- 
viding that mere irregularities when an attempt 
is made in good faith to comply with the statute 
shall not affect the validity of the marriage. 

A statute of New York, passed in 1901, re- 
quires a non-ceremonial marriage to be evidenced 
by a written agreement to be entered into in the 
presence of two witnesses and acknowledged in 
the same manner as conveyances of real estate. 
It is probable that this statute does away with 
common-law marriage in New York. 

In many of the United States the age at which 
an infant may consent to marry has been raised 
by statute to sixteen and in some of the States to 
eighteen years. These statutes do not, however, 
change the common-law rule that such marriagpes 
are not void, but voidable only at the option of 
the infant or of his parent or guardian. See 
Infant; Parent and Child; Morganatic Mar- 
riage. In Minnesota epileptics and feeble-minded 
persons are not allowed to marry, and several 
States have somewhat similar statutes. 

Bibliography. On the history of marriage as 
an institution, consult: Westermarck, The His- 
tory of Human Marriage (3d ed., London, 1902) ; 
Letourneau, L*^volution du mariage et de l€t 
famille (Paris, 1888; trans.. The Evolution of 
Marriage and of the Family, New York, 1891) ; 
Howard, A History of Matrimonial Institutions 
(Chicago and London, 1904) ; Bryce, Marriage 
and Divorce (Oxford, 1905). These are general 
works. The original studies which have developed 
the scientific theory of the subject are: Mor^n, 
The League of the Iroquois (Rochester, 1849; 
reprinted. New York, 1901), the first work to 
direct scientific attention to the character of 
marital and kinship systems among uncivilized 
men; id., Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity 
of the Human Family (Washington, 1871) ; id.. 
Ancient Society (London and New York, 1877) ; 
Bachofen, Das Mutterrecht (Stuttgart, 1861); 
Maine, A.ncient Law (London, 1861) ; Early Jjaxo 
and Custom (London, 1883; New York, 1886) ; 
McLennan, Primitive Marriage (London. 1865), 
reprinted in Studies in Ancient Historif (London, 
1876) ; The Patriarchal Theory (London, 1885) ; 
Studies in Ancient History: Second Series (Lon- 
don, 1896) ; Galton, Hereditary Genius (London, 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




1869), containing a study of the effects of close 
interbreeding; Darwin, The Descent of Man 
(London and New York, 1871); Dargun, Mutter- 
reeht und Raubehe und ihre Keste im germa- 
nischen Recht und Leben ( Breslau, 1883) ; Smith, 
Kmahip and MarricLge in Early Arabia (London, 
1885) ; Spencer and Gillen, The Native Tribes 
of Central Australia (London, 1899) ; Crawley, 
The Mystic Rose: A Study of Primitive Marriage 
(London, 1902). For the Roman law, Rossbach, 
Homische Ehe (Stuttgart, 1863) ; Karlowa, Rd- 
wische Ehe und Manus (Bonn, 1868). For the 
old Crerman law, Sohm, Die Eheschliessung 
(Weimar, 1875) ; Trauung und Verlobung (Wei- 
mar, 1876), Zur Trauungsfrage (Heilbronn, 
1879) ; Friedberg, Verlobung und Trauung 
(Leipzig, 1876) ; the works on German legal 
history by Brunner (Leipzig, 1892) ; Schro- 
der (2d ed., Leipzig, 1889) ; and Heusler, Insti- 
tutionen des deutschen Privatrechts (Leipzig, 
1886). For the ecclesiastical law. Catholic and 
Protestant, Freisen, Oeschichte des kanonischen 
Eherechts (2d ed., Paderborn, 1892) ; Binder, 
Katholisches Eherecht (4th ed., Freiburg-im- 
Breisgau, 1891) ; Esmein, Le mariage en droit 
eanonique (Paris, 1891) ; Schnitzer, Katholisches 
Eherecht (Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1898) ; and 
works on Kirchenrecht by Friedberg (4th ed., 
Leipzig, 1S95) ; Schulte (Giessen, 1886) ; and 
Richter (8th ed., Leipzig, 1886). For English 
ecclesiastical law. Burn, Ecclesiastical Law (9th 
ed., London, 1842) ; VhiWimore, Ecclesiastical Law 
of the Church of England (2d ed., London, 1895). 
For modem civil marriage, Gneist, Die burger- 
liche Ehe^chliessung (Berlin, 1869) ; Glasson, 
Mariage civil (2d ed., Paris, 1880). Compara- 
tive legislation, Lehr, Le mariaoe dans les prin- 
cipaux pays ( Paris, 1899 ) . See also : Howard, His- 
tory of Matrimonial Institutions^ chiefly in Eng- 
land atid the J7m<ed£f/a<es( 3 vols., Chicago, 1904) ; 
Bryce, Marriage and Divorce (Oxford, 1905). 

Consult: Domestic Relations; Husband and 
Wife ; Parent and Chiu) ; Doweb ; Curtesy ; etc. 

series of six paintings by Hogarth (1744) in the 
National Gallery, London, intended as designs 
for a series of engravings, as which they are 
most widely known. They show the results of 
t fashionable marriage between the son of an 
earl and the daughter of a rich London alder- 
man, in subjects as follow: I. The Marriage 
Contract; II. After the Marriage (see illustra- 
tion under Hogarth) ; III. Visit to the Quack 
Doctor; IV. The Countess's Dressing Room; V. 
The Duel and Death of the Earl ; VI. Death of 
the 0>unte8s. 

If ATIR X t iu WOMAN*. A woman who con- 
tracts a marriage thereby changes her legal 
rtatns as to her personal rights, her contractual 
rights, her property rights, her rights before the 
criminal law, and in some cases her political 
rights. So complete is this change at the com- 
n»n law that she has been spoken of as becom- 
ing a legal nonentity. Generally speaking, she is 
after marriage, at the common law, in a less 
ftTorable position in all these respects than be- 
fore, except possibly at the criminal law, where 
the presumption of her husband's coercion in case 
of criminal acta done in his presence makes her 
irresponsible for such acts, except in case of the 
nwre serious crimes. Her personal property in 
possession and her chattels real, generally speak- 

ing, become her husband's or can be disposed of 
by him; in her real property he has an estate 
for their joint lives, and may have an estate 
during his own life. ( See Curtesy. ) Her rights 
in his property during their joint lives are prac- 
tically limited to her right to the necessaries of 
life, and the control over his real property that 
arises from her dower rights which enable her as 
a matter of law to refuse to release her dower 
right. (See Dower.) In fact this right is of 
little avail, as the husband's position generally 
enables him practically to coerce her into com- 
pliance with his wishes in this respect. 

By the fact of her marriage she loses her ca- 
pacity to enter into any contract except the re- 
lease of dower (which can only be done jointly 
with the husband) and for the necessaries of life, 
whether living with her husband or apart from 
him, except as concerns her separate estate. Her 
capacity cannot be increased by any act or repre- 
sentation of her own, nor can any implied prom- 
ise be raised against her, nor any liability be 
imposed by estoppel. Even for torts against her 
person she is forced to seek damages through her 
nusband. The hardship of these disabilities of 
the common law, and of the merger of the wife's 
property in the husband's estate, caused the 
courts of equity to give certain equitable reme- 
dies against the husband in order to protect her 
and her children in the enjoyment of at least a 
portion of her property, and to neglect some of 
the legal formalities in giving effect to agree- 
ments to create a separate estate for the wife, 
and to protect her by- establishing the doctrine 
that the use of the separate estate must be for 
its use or her benefit, and that its income could 
not be anticipated. 

Modem legislation has, however, largely re- 
moved these disabilities. There is a mass of 
heterogeneous legislation, so local and various in 
its provisions as not to admit of any except the 
most general classification. The first tendency 
of this legislation was to free the wife and her 
property from the husband's control; but there 
has been in the United States a subsequent tend- 
ency to impose upon them a joint liability for 
sucn obligations as naturally arise from the 
marriage relation. In most of the States the 
wife is practically free from common law disa- 
bilities. In England, the legislation on this sub- 
ject has, of course, had more unity than that of 
the various States of this country, but it is not 
based upon any general and definite plan. The 
disabilities of the wife have not been removed to 
such an extent as generally in the United States. 
The subject is practically governed in England 
by the Married Women's Property Act of 1882 
(45 and 46 Vict., c. 75), as supplemented by the 
law of 1893 (6Q and 67 Vict, c. 63). See Ca- 
pacity; Curtesy; Husband and Wife; Dower; 
Separate Estate; etc. Consult the local stat- 
utes for special matters, and also the authorities 
referred to under Husband and Wiee. 

MARRIOTT, John (1780-1825). An Eng- 
lish poet. He was the son of Robert Marriott, 
rector of Cotesbach Church in T^icestershire, and 
was educated at Rugby and at Christ Church, 
Oxford (B.A. 1802; M.A. 1806). He left Oxford 
in 1804 to become tutor to GJeor^e Henrv-, Lord 
Scott (d. 1808), elder brother of the fifth Duke 
of Buccleuch. While livincr at Dalkeith (1804- 
08) he made the intimate acquaintance of Sir 
Walter Scott. Ordained priest in 1805, he re- 

Digitized by 



ceived* from the Buccleuch family the rectory of 
Church Lawford in Warwickshire. Though he 
retained this benefice till his death, he resided 
mostly in Devonshire, serving in various curacies. 
To the third edition of Scott's Minstrelsy he con- 
tributed three poems. Marriott's best known 
poem is '^Marriage is Like a Devonshire Lane" 
(in Joanna Baillie's CoUection of Poems, 1823). 
He also wrote several popular hymns, as **Thou 
whose Almighty Word/* 

MABBOW (AS. mearg, mearh, OHG. mwrag, 
marg, Ger. Mark; connected with Welsh mer, 
Com. maru, OChurch Slav. tnozgH, Av. mazga, 
Skt. majjan, marrow, from majj, Lat. mergere, 
to dip). A substance filling the cells and cavi- 
ties of the bones of mammals. There are two varie- 
ties, which are known as red marrow and yellow 
marrow. In some of the short bones, as the 
bodies of the vertebrae and the sternum, the mar- 
row has a reddish color, and is found on analysis 
to contain 75 per cent, of water, the remainder 
consisting of albuminous and fibrinous matter 
with salts and a trace of oil. In the long bones 
of a healthy adult mammal, the marrow occurs as 
a yellow, oily fiuid, contained in vesicles like 
those of common fat, which are imbedded in the 
interspaces of the medullary membrane, which is 
a highly vascular membrane lining the interior 
of the bones. This marrow consists of 96 per 
cent, of oil and 4 of water connective tissue, and 
vessels. The oily matter of the marrow is com- 
posed of the same materials as common fat, with 
the oleine (or fluid portion) in ^eater abund- 
ance. Beinff of low specific gravity, it is well 
suited to fill the cavities of the bones and forms 
an advantageous substitute for the bony matter 
which preceded it in the young animal. Prepara- 
tions of red bone-marrow are in the market, for 
internal administration. They are useful in 
ansemia, with other reconstructives. 

memorable struggles in the religious historv of 
Scotland. It took its name from a book entitled 
the Marrow of Modem Divinity, published at Ox- 
ford in 1646. The authorship of the book has been 
attributed, though probably incorrectly, to Edward 
Fisher. The high *evangelicar character of this 
work, and especially its doctrine of the free grace 
of Ood in the redemption of sinners, had made it 
a great favorite with certain of the ministers of 
the Church of Scotland, and in 1718 an edition 
was published in Edinburgh by the Rev. James 
Hog of Camock, followed in 1719 by an explana- 
tory pamphlet. A committee appointed by the 
General Assembly of the same year, after an ex- 
amination, drew up a report which was presented 
to the Assembly of 1720, and the result was the 
formal condemnation of the doctrines of the 
M arrow f a prohibition to teach or preach them 
for the future, and an exhortation to the people 
of Scotland not to read them. This act of the 
Assembly was immediately brought by Thomas 
Boston before the Presbytery of Selkirk, who 
laid it before the Synod of Merse and Teviotdale. 
The 'evangelical' ministers in the Church, few in 
number, but supported by a very considerable 
amount of popular sympathy, resolved to pre- 
sent a representation to the next General Assem- 
bly (1721), complaining of the late act, and vin- 
dictating the 'truths' which it condemned. A 
commission of the Assembly of 1721 was ap- 
pointed to deal with the ministers, and a series 
of questions was put to them, to which answers 


were drawn up by Ebenezer Erskine and Gabriel 
Wilscm. These replies did not prove satisfactory; 
and the *Marrow-men' were called before the bar 
of the Assembly (1722) and solemnly rebuked. 
The matter was then quietly dropped, but it 
really occasioned the secession of 1734. See Bos- 
ton, Thomas, and Ebskine, Ebenezeb. 

MAB'BXJCI'NI. An ancient peoole in Cen- 
tral Italy, on a narrow tract of land along the 
right bank of the river Atemus, now the Pescara. 
Their territory extended from the Apennines to 
the Adriatic; between the Vestini on the north- 
west and the Frentani on the southeast, and be- 
tween the Pseligni on the southwest and the Adri- 
atic on the northeast. They were an independent 
nation, said to be descended from the Sabines, 
and generally were in alliance with their neigh- 
bors, the Marsi and Pseligni. They entered into 
alliance with the Romans in B.C. 304, but rebelled 
at the beginning of the Social War. Their only 
place of importance was Teate, now (Thieti, on the 
right bank of the Aternus. 

MABBYAT, mfir'ri-fit, Flohsnge (1837-09). 
An English autiioress, daughter of Captain Mar- 
ryat. She was bom at Brighton, July 9, 1837, edu- 
cated at home, and began writing at twelve. She 
was twice married, first to Col. Ross Church, of 
the Madras Staff Corps, and second to Col. Francis 
Lean, of the Royal Light Infantry. She died in 
London, October 27, 1899. As a writer she first 
ffained public attention by Love'a Conflict ( 1865) . 
Miss Marryat was also known as a lecturer, an 
operatic singer, and a comedienne. In collabora- 
tion with Sir C. L. Young she wrote Miss Chester^ 
a three-act drama, and in 1881 she acted the 
principal comedy rOle in her own play. Her 
World. Among her works, which number over 
seventy, are: My Own Child; My Sister the 
Actress; **€hup,** Sketches of Anglo-Indian Life 
and Character; Petronel; The Qirls of Fever- 
sham ; Nelly Brooke ; No Intentions ; SyhiVs Friend 
and How She Found Him; Mad Dumaresq; Open 
Sesame; Her Word Against a Lie; Facing the 
Footlights; The Life and Letters of Captain 
Marryat. In her later years she had an interest 
in spiritualism, and among her writings dealing 
with this subject are The Risen Dead and There 
Is No Death. 

MABBYAT, Fbedebick (1792-1848). An 
English sailor and novelist, bom in London, July 
10, 1792. On leaving school he entered the navy 
as midshipman. In 1812 he attained his lieu- 
tenancy. In 1814 he was fighting on the Ameri- 
can coast. His health gave way and he went 
home. He was made commander in 1815. In 
1820 he was in the sloop Beaver on the Saint 
Helena station. After an able service he re- 
signed in 1830. During his naval career Marryat 
saved at great personal risk more than a dozen 
lives. He was rewarded on this score and elected 
a fellow of the Royal Society in 1819, mainly 
because he had adapted Popham's signal system 
to the mercantile marine. He was also* decorated 
by the King of France for "services rendered to 
science and navigation." Marryat wrote easily 
and made money quickly, but he was somewhat 
lavish, and toward 1844, was in straitened cir- 
cumstances. Upon the Admiralty's refusal to let 
him reenter the service he burst a blood veaael, 
and six months later, when almost well, he was 
mortally shocked by hearing that his son Freder- 
ick had been lost in the Avenger. He died An- 

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* fl, JLS48y at Langham. Among his numerous 
tales are the avow^ly autobiographical Frank 
Mildmay (1829); then Peter Simple (1834); 
Mr, Midshipman Easy (1836); The Phantom 
Bhip (1839) ; Poor Jack (1840) ; and The Priva- 
ieer*8 Man (1846). In fun and humor Marryat 
is the Dickens of the sea. Consult: Life and 
Letters, by his daughter, Florence Marryat (Lon- 
don, 1872) ; and Life, by Hannay (ib., 1889). 

MABS (Lat., also Mavors, or Marspiter, like 
Jupiter, 6k *Afnis, ArSs, of unknown derivation). 
With the ancient Greeks and Romans the god 
of war and tumult of battle. The Qreek and 
Roman conceptions differ radically. 

Greek. Ares, though prominent in the poets, 
plays no large part in Greek cult or myth. It is true 
that a somewhat long list can be compiled of tem- 
ples of the god, but he did not fill a large place, in 
religious thought, and at but few localities was 
his worship important. At Thebes and Athens 
he seems to have been more prominent than in 
most communities. At Thebes he was said to 
have been father of the dragon who guarded his 
sacred spring and was slain by Cadmus, who in 
the final reconciliation wedded Harmonia, daugh- 
ter of Ares and Aphrodite, who here, as often in 
Greek legend, appears as his recognized consort. 
The connection of Aphrodite with Hephaestus, and 
her adultery with Ares, though told in the 
Odyssey, was not everywhere canonical, and 
seems to have received its chief prominence at a 
late period. At Athens there was a celebrated 
temple with a statue by Alcamenes, and a legend 
which connected him with the founding of the court 
of the Areopagus (or Mars' Hill) . He was said to 
have killed a son of Poseidon for an outrage on 
his daughter, and to have been tried by the 
twelve gods and acquitted on the hill, which 
henceforth bore his name. Cults in Thessaly 
and at Argos, Tegea, and Sparta are also men- 
tioned. In legend Ares is commonly the son of 
Zeus and Hera, whose quarrelsome disposition 
he inherits. His sister in Homer is Eris, his 
sons Deimos (Terror) and Phohos (Fright), who 
so with him into battle. He is always greedy 
for war, battle, and bloodshed. The tumult of 
battle is his delight, and in later poets, as 
Sophocles, he appears as the sender of pesti- 
lence and destruction. He was certainly associ- 
ated in the minds of the Greeks with Thrace, and 
there is much probability in the view that his 
worship was derived from Thracian tribes or 
their kindred. In the earlier art, especially on 
vases. Ares is often bearded and regularly in the 
full armor of a Greek soldier. In the fifth cen- 
tury and later this equipment disappears, and 
the god is often represented clad in the chlamys 
or nude, though usually with his attributes of 
shield and spear. Amons the most celebrated 
statues are the standing "Ares Borghese" ( some- 
times called Achilles) in the Louvre, which goes 
back to a fifth-century work, and the seated 
"Ares Ludovisi" in Rome, which seems to be 
copied from a statue of Scopas, though the Erotes 
are probably the addition of the Hellenistic 

Roman. Mars was an ancient Italian deity and 
seems everywhere to have been the god of war. 
At Rome his worship is among the most ancient 
and important. His temple and oldest altar 
stood in the Campus Martins, and another fa- 
mous temple just outside the Porta Capena on the 
south of the city. At each lustrum at the close 

of the census, when the com^tia oenturiata, or 
Roman citizens as an arm^, gathered in the 
Campus Martins, the gathermg was purified by 
leading around it the souvetaurilia (boar, ram, 
and bull), an offering sacred to Mars, which was 
afterwards sacrificed, and* similar ceremonies are 
found in connection with other purifications as 
of the city, villages, and even single farms. The 
sacred emblems of Mars were the spear and 
shield, said to have fallen from heaven, which 
were preserved in the Re^a, and carried by the 
Salii, priests of the god, m their festivals. The 
chief festivals of Mars were in the months of 
March (Martins, from the god) and October, 
which are clearly connected with the opening 
and close of the campaigning season. 

MABS. The first of the superior planets. Its 
mean distance from the sun is 141.4 million miles 
or nearly ) times that of the earth ; its periodic 
time, 686.9 days; its diameter, 4230 miles; vol- 
ume ^7^ that of the earth; density, 0.71, earth's 
being unity. When it is nearest to the earth 
(i.e. in favorable opposition) its apparent angu- 
lar diameter is 25", but when farthest away (i.e. 
in conjunction) its diameter is not more tlum 
4". The axis of rotation is inclined 24* 60' to 
the plane of the orbit and therefore the planet 
presents phenomena of seasons similar to the 
earth's. The diurnal rotation period of Mars 
is known very accurately from observations of 
surface markings to be 24 hours 37 minutes 22.67 
seconds. The planet shines with a red light and 
is a brilliant object in the heavens at midnight 
when near opposition. Mars has two satellites, 
discovered by Hall in 1877. They are very small, 
and visible with powerful telescopes only. The 
inner satellite, Phobos, revolves around the planet 
in 7 hours 39 minutes, which is less than one- 
third of the Martian day. Consequently, Phobos 
will rise in the west and set in the east, ite real 
motion more than counterbalancing the apparent 
diurnal motion of Mars on ite axis. The outer 
satellite is called Deimos. 

Beginning with the telescopic researches by 
Sir William Herschel, Mars has possessed special 
interest owing to the indication of the existence 
upon its surface of physical conditions not unlike 
those of the earth. The Martian seasons have 
already been mentioned. The 'canal system* of 
Mars, suggested by SchiaparelU in 1877, has 

§iven rise te a careful study of the planet, ren- 
ered possible by the construction of our great 
modem telescopes. Many things seem to indi- 
cate that Mars is enveloped in an atmosphere 
with physical properties similar to those of the 
earth's atmosphere. According to observations 
by Lowell, at Flagstaff, Ariz., carried on for 
six months, this atmosphere would appear to 
be of remarkable clearness. Two white patehes, 
in the neighborhood of the poles, are very con- 
spicuous and so brilliant that they, in the proper 
light of the sun, have been seen sparkling like 
stars. They are generally explained as accumu- 
lations of snow and ice, and this view is sup- 
ported by the fact that they change with the Mar- 
tian seasons. 

A mixture of orange patches and gray-green 
markings is seen extending over more than half 
the surface of the planet in a central zone, al- 
most parallel to the equator. The orange patches 
are assumed to be land. This assumption is 
based upon the similar appearance that the great 
deserts of the earth would present under the 

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same conditions. Also permanent markings on 
these patches have been observed. The gray- 
green markings were at first explained to be seas 
and Sir William Uugeins discovered water in the 
atmosphere of MarsTbut the recent observations 
of Douglass in Arizona (1894) and Barnard at 
the Lick Observatory (1896) seem to disprove 
the aqueous character of the *seas.' In 1894 
Lowell and Pickering discovered, a month after 
the Martian vernal equinox, a dark belt con- 
nected with the south polar cap, which was ex- 
plained by them as a gathering of water resulting 
from the melting of the cap by the summer heat. 
A similar appearance has been observed around 
the north polar cap. 

Of all the markings that have been observed on 
the surface of Mars^ the *canals* have created the 
most interest. Since their first observation at 
the very favorable opposition of the planet in 
1877, they have been studied carefully at later 
favorable oppositions. They have been described 
by observers as faint lines, becoming finer and 
straighter at closer observation, fofiowing the 
course of great circles, and distributed like 
a network over the surface of the planet. Several 
appear to pass through the same point, at which 
round spots, called iakes,* are seen. Various 
theories have been advanced for the explanation 
of this "canal system." They were first taken to 
be waterways, and the change in their appearance 
was explained as due to the Martian seasons. 
Pickering considered them to be tracts of land 
rather than waterways. Lowell advanced the 
view that these "canals" and "lakes" constituted 
a system of irrigation, carried out by the inhabit- 
ants of Mars for the purpose of leading the water 
obtained from the melting snow of the polar 
regions over the surface of the planet. It has been 
urged that the appearance of the canal system 
may be nothing but an optical illusion, but Lowell 
in 1905 obtained photographs which seem to settle 
decisively the Question of the reality of the canals. 
Consult:* Lowell, Mara and Its Canals (New York, 
1906). See Planets; Solab System. 

MABS, PoBUM OF. A name for the Forum of 
Augustus (q.v.). 

MABSy mftrs, Anne FBANgoiSE Htppoltte 
BouTET, Mademoiselle (1779-1847). A famous 
French actress. She was bom in Paris. Her 
father was the actor Jacques Monvel ; her mother 
was an actress, Mile. Mars-Boutet. At an early 
age she appeared at the Com^mie Francaise in 
personations of ingenuous childhood, but it was 
not till she had reached her twenty-fourth year 
that her first great success was obtained in VdbhS 
de V^p^e, in the part of the deaf and dumb girl. 
From that time forward, through a period of 
nearly forty years, she acted through the whole 
range of dramatic art with a fullness of talent 
that never failed to present with delicacy, power, 
and good taste each new character in which she 
appeared. Her last appearance was in 1841 as 
C^limftne in Le misanthrope and as Araminther 
in Les femmes savant es^ She died in Paris, 
on March 20, 1847. Consult, though they are of 
doubtful value, the Mimoires de Mademoiselle 
Mars (Paris, 1849), and the Confidences de 
Mademoiselle Mars (ib., 1855), published by 
Roger de Beauvoir. 

MABSAIiA, mttr-salft. A city in the Prov- 
ince of Trapani, Sicily, famous for Marsala wine 
that is manufactured here by building up and 

strengthening the wines of Sicily (Map: Italy^ 
G 10). Marsala is the w^estemmost city of the 
island and is 102 miles by rail southwest of 
Palermo. It is modern in appearance and the 
cathedral is the only building of special interest. 
Marsala has a gynmasium, a technical school, 
an agricultural school, a city library, and a 
theatre. The exports are wine, salt, grain, and 
oiL Population (commune), in 1881, 40,342; in 
1901, 57,567. It is on the site of the ancient 

(Dutch marshanker, scad, apparently from mars, 
peddler's pack, or mas, crowd + hank, bank; so 
called because the fish appears in shoals). Old 
or local names of the menhaden (q.v.). Compare 



mdr'sh&l f6n be'bgr-stin, Adolf, Freiherr von 
(1842 — ). A German statesman and diplomat, 
bom in Karlsruhe, and educated at Heidelber;g^ 
and Freiburg. He entered the judicial service 
of Baden, and from 1875 to 1883 was a mem- 
ber of the Upper House of its Parliament. 
In the Imperial Diet, from 1878 to 1881, he 
allied himself with the Grerman Conserva- 
tives. In Baden he made a strong effort to 
unify Protestant opposition to the Ultramonta- 
nists ; and his activity in the Empire was largely 
in paving the way for social reforms. After 
four years as Secretary of State for Foreign Af- 
fairs, an office in which he devoted himself espe- 
cially to commercial treaties, he was named 
Prussian Minister of State in 1894. Upon his 
retirement in 1897 he was sent as Ambassador 
to Constantinople. 

MABSCHNEB, mftrsh^nSr, Heinbich (1795- 
1861). A German composer, bom at Zittau, in 
Saxony. In 1813 he entered the University of 
Leipzig to study law, but soon abandoned it in 
favor of music. He met Beethoven in 1817, through 
the medium of his patron, the Count von Amad^, 
and in 1823 shared with Weber the directorship 
of the German and Italian operas at Dresden. 
He succeeded Weber as kapellmeister of the Leip- 
zig Theater, and produced on its stage his popu- 
lar opera Der Templer und die Jiidin (1829), 
which made him famous throughout Germany. 
Heinrich IV, und D'Auhigne had appeared in 1819 
(produced by Weber in 1820), and Der Vampyr 
( regarded as his best work ) in 1828. His composi- 
tions also include a great number of songs, 
pianoforte pieces, part songs, and choruses, and 
considerable chamber music. Other operas, not 
mentioned above, are: Hans Eeiling (1833), a 
remarkable work; Der Babu (1837) ; Adolph von 
Nassau ( 1843) ; Hjame der Mngerkonig ( 1863) , 
reproduced in 1883 as Konig Hjame und das 
Tyrfingschwert, He was kapellmeister to the 
King of Hanover (1831-59). His music belongs 
to the romantic school of Weber, whom he great- 
ly resembled in style, although in a way his 
ideals leaned toward the style of Wagner. His 
operas had a great vogue in Germany, and still 
remain in the repertoire of most of the pro- 
vincial theatres. He died in Hanover. 

UABSDEN, m^rz^den, Samuel (1764*1838). 
An English missionary. He was bom at Hors- 
forth, near Leeds, July 28, 1764; educated at the 
free grammar school at Hull, and began life as a 
tradesman at Leeds. He joined the Methodists, 
but, desiring to obtain a collegiate education. 

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entered the English Church; studied at Saint 
John's College, Cambridge, and was ordained ii^ 
1793, and in 1794 sailed as chaplain to the penal 
colony at Paramatta, near Sydney, Australia. 
Beceiving a grant of land and 13 convicts to till 
it as part payment for his services, he made it 
the model farm in New South Wales, and devoted 
the profits from it to the support of schools and 
missions. A mutinous spirit showing itself 
among the convicts, Marsden sailed for England 
( 1807 ) , mainly for the purpose of obtaining per- 
mission for the friends of tne convicts to accom- 
pany them to the penal colony. This was re- 
fused, but his proposal that the convicts should 
be taught trades was well received. Having had 
some intercourse with the Maoris of New Zea- 
land, and found them to be superior to the Aus- 
tralian natives, he endeavored, while in England, 
to obtain funds for the formation of a mis- 
sion among them, and missionaries to accompany 
him. Two laymen, William Hall and John King, 
oonsented to go as pioneers, and accompanied 
Marsden to Australia, August, 1809. They were 
soon followed by Thomas Kendall. He employed 
these teachers in laying the foundations of a 
Christian civilization, frequently visited them, 
and in hb fourth visit took with him the Rev. 
Henry Williams, who afterwards became bishop 
of a Maori district. He procured reinforcements 
for the mission from the English and Wesleyan 
churches, induced the natives to adopt a fixed 
form of government, provided for the preparation 
of a grammar and dictionary of the Maori lan- 
guage, and lived to see the people Christianize^. 
He died at Windsor, May 12, 1838. Consult his 
Life by J. B. Marsden (London, 1859). 

MABSDEK, William (1754-1836). An Eng- 
lish Orientalist, bom in Dublin. In 1770 he was 
appointed to the civil service of the East India 
Ownpany at Bencoolen, Sumatra, became secre- 
tary to the Government, and acquired a thorough 
knowledge of the Malay language. Returning 
to England in 1779 with a pension, he devoted 
himself to literature, and published a History of 
Sumatra (1783). In 1807 he retired to private 
life and study, in 1812 published his Orammar 
ond Dictionary of the Malay Language, and in 
1817 a translation of Marco Polo. In 1834 he 
presented to the British Museum his collection of 
3447 Oriental coins, and in 1835 his library of 
Oriental books and manuscripts to King's CJol- 
lege. He published also A Orammar of the 
Malayan Language (1812) and Numiamata 
Orientalia (1823). 

KASSETLLAISE, mftr's&'y&z'. The hymn 
of the French Revolution and anthem of freedom 
in all European movements of liberation since. 
In April, 1792, when a column of volunteers was 
about to leave Strassburg, the Mayor of the city, 
Biedrich, gave a banquet on the occasion and 
asked an officer of artillery named Rouget de 
Lisle to compose a song in their honor. Rouget 
wrote the words during the night, adapting the 
mnsic probably from the Oratorio Esther, by 
Jean ^ptiste Lucien Orison, and calling it the 
Chant de guerre de I'armSe du Rhin. On the 
following day it was sung with rapturous en- 
thusiasm, and instead of 600 volunteers, 1000 
inarched out of Strassburg. The whole Army of 
the North soon took up the song. In Paris the 
*ong was unknown till the Marseilles battalion 
bv'tra^t it to the city and sang it at the storming 
^ the Taileries. It was received with trans- 

ports by the Parisians, who — ignorant of its 
real authorship — named it Hymne dea Ma/raeiU 
lais, which name it has ever since borne. The 
last and most pathetic strophe, the stance dea 
enfants, was no£ written by Kouget de Lisle, but 
was added later. 

The following is the first stanza, with refrain, 
approved in 1887 by a commission appointed by 
the French Minister of War to determine the 
exact form of the song: 

Aliens enfants de la patrie, 

Le Jour de orloire est arrlvfi I 
Centre nous de la tyrannie 

L'6tendard sanglant est lev6 (bis) 
Entendez-vous dans ces campagnes 

Mu^r ces f^roces soldats? 
Ils^ennent Jusque dans nos bras 

Egorger nos flls, nos cempagnee. 

See Rouget de Lisle. 

MABSEILLEy mftr'si'y', Folquet de. See 


MABSEHiLES, m&r-salz" (Fr. MAR- 
SEILLE, mar'sft'y'). The principal seaport of 
France, the second city of the Republic in point 
of population; capital of the Department of 
Bouches-du-Rh6ne, and an important military 
and naval station. It is on the eastern shore of 
an inlet of the Gulf of Lyons, 25 miles east of the 
principal mouth of the Rhone, and 516 miles by 
rail southeast of Paris; latitude 43° 17' N., longi- 
tude 5 o 23' E. ( Map : France, S.,.K 6 ) . Its location 
is picturesque, the ground rising on all sides in an 
amphitheatre of wood-crowned hills 1200 to 1800 
feet high, which terminate in a steep promontory 
a few miles south of the city. The immediate 
surroundings were formerly arid, but since the 
completion of the canal bringing the waters of 
the Durance to the city the adjoining district has 
been irrigated and is now covered with gardens. 

Few European cities have shown such rapid 
modem development. A century ago the town 
was a cluster of narrow, crooked streets grouped 
around the cove which formed the old harbor. 
Several large avenues now traverse this old por- 
tion, while practically the whole city is laid out 
with broad and straight streets, and generally 
presents a modern aspect. The city is dominated 
Dv the hill of Notre Dame de la Garde, which 
rises to a height of 480 feet on the southwest, be- 
tween the town and the shore. This hill is en- 
circled on the water side by a picturesque road, 
the Chemin de la Corniche, which leads south- 
ward along the shore of the gulf. There is 
a citadel on a promontory guarding the nar- 
row entrance to the old harbor, which as a 
land-locked cove reaches into the heart of the 
city. The harbor is also defended by the forti- 
fied islands of Ratonneau and Pom^gue, and the 
Chateau d'lf, the latter a former State prison 
immortalized by Dumas in his Monte Cristo. 
Two principal avenues crossing at right angles 
divide the city into four quarters. One is the 
Rue Gannehi^e, the principal business street, 
which begins at the head of the old harbor, and 
is continued eastward as the Boulevard Made- 
leine, The other, running north and south, is the 
Rue de Rome, which terminates at the obelisk in 
the Place Castellane, whence it is prolonged as 
the Prado, the principal boulevard of Marseilles. 
This is a magnificent avenue with two double 
rows of trees, which runs two miles south and 
southwestward, terminating on the seashore at 
Borely Park. 

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Marseilles has few architectural monuments, 
and no interesting remains of ancient times. It 
is an episcopal see and its most prominent build- 
ing is the new cathedral, which faces the south- 
ern basin of the new harbor. It is built of Flor- 
ence green stone in the Byzantine style mixed 
with Romanesque and classic elements, and is 
surmounted by five domes. Another church 
worthy of notice is that of Notre Dame de la 
Garde, built (1863-64) on the hill of that name 
south of the old harbor. Its belfry, surmounted 
by a colossal statue of the Virgin, towers nearly 
600 feet above the level of the sea, and aflfords a 
splendid view of the city and the surrounding 
country. Among secular buildings should b« 
mentioned the Palais de Longchamp, a magnifi- 
cent Renaissance building containing various 
museums, the Palais de Justice, and the Ex- 
change. The educational institutions of the city 
include a school of medicine and pharmacy and a 
faculty of sciences, which form part of the Uni- 
versity of Aix-Marseilles, a School of Engineer- 
ing, a School of Navigation, an independent Law 
School, two lyc^s, two seminaries, a commercial 
high school, a school of fine arts, a conservatory 
of music, an astronomical observatory, botanical 
and zoological gardens, a biological laboratory, 
museums of art, archaeology, and natural history, 
and a municipal library of 112,000 volumes. Be- 
sides these there are a number of scientific and 
literary societies. The water supply is derived 
from the River Durance through the Canal de 
Marseille, which delivers water at the rate of 
9000 liters per second, sufficient both for the use 
of the city and for the irrigation of the surround- 
ing country. An extensive system of drainage 
works was completed in 1898, bv which the sew- 
age is carried miles to sea, leaving the waters of 
the harbor uncontaminated. The principal in- 
dustry of Marseilles is the manufacture of soap, 
which gives employment in the town and vicinity 
to over 15,000 persons in 90 factories, whose 
products amount to 300,000,000 lbs. annually, or 
half the quantity produced by the whole of 
France. Next in importance are sugar refineries, 
producing 100,000 tons annually, oil factories, 
flour-mills, tanneries, lead, tin, and copper plants, 
petroleum refineries, and the manufacture of can- 
dles, macaroni, and tiles and brick. It also has 
iron ship-building and naval equipment yards. 
The great development of Marseilles, however, is 
due chiefly to its commerce, which was greatly 
enhanced by the opening of the Suez Canal. The 
new harbor, begun in 1844, consists of a series of 
basins stretching northward from the entrance of 
the old harbor. An auxiliary harbor has been 
constructed in the channel between the two 
islets of Pom^gue and Ratonneau lying off the 
promontory south of the city. Here are estab- 
lished the quarantine and the marine hospital. 
There are altogether 12 miles of quays, accom- 
modating 2500 vessels at one time. In 1902 the 
Chamber of Commerce voted 91,400,000 francs 
for building a ship canal between the harbor and 
the mouth of the Rhone, and a canal is also 
projected between the Rhone and the Loire, thus 
bringing Marseilles into connection with North- 
ern France. In 1903 the number of ships which 
entered and cleared was 17,352 with a ton- 
nage of 14,512,740, of which only one-half was 
French. The value in 1904 of imports and 
exports combined was 2,061,000,000 francs. The 
principal exports are cotton and woolen goods. 

ribbons, silks, sugar, grain, oil, soap, fruits, 
wine, candles, and bricks; the chief importa 
were cattle, oil seeds, coffee, raw cotton and ailk, 
hides, and grain. The trade is chiefly with the 
Mediterranean countries. The United States is 
represented by a consul. 

The population of Marseilles in 1906 was 517,- 
498. An idea of the growth of the city may be 
gained from the following fisrures: 1789, 100,000; 
1851, 195,185; 1891, 403,749; 1901, 491,161; in 
1906, 517,498. The increase has been due, at 
least in late years, wholly to immigration, as 
the death-rate is higher than the birth-rate. 
There were in 1900 98,835 foreigners, of whom 
91,536 were Italians. The districts around the 
wharves are frequented by people of all nationali- 
ties, and the busy, cosmopolitan air of the city 
is in marked contrast with the rest of Provence. 

Marseilles is popularly supposed to have bc«n 
foimded by Greeks from Phocsea, in Asia Minor, 
but archseological discoveries have established 
the fact that a Phcenician colony preceded the 
Greek settlement of about B.C. 600. The Greek 
colony, called Massilia, soon supplanted the Phce- 
nician, and became a flourishing commercial cen- 
tre, a free city, and the mother city of a number 
of other Greek colonies. It allied itself with 
Rome during the Punic wars, at which time it 
was at the zenith of its power. Its schools were 
preferred to those of Athens for the education of 
Roman youths. During the civil wars it took 
the side of Marius and later of Pompey. Csesar 
attacked it in B.C. 49 and deprived it of its pow- 
er^ and privileges, and from that time its de- 
cadence began, though it still remained for a 
long time an intellectual centre. In the Middle 
Ages it retained to a large degree its inde- 
pendence. It was flnally subject to the counts of 
Provence, and with Provence it was united with 
the French Crown in 1481. In 1660 Louis XIV. 
deprived the city of its privileges. Consult: 
Boudin, Hiatoire de Marseille (Paris, 1852) ; 
Sooi4t4 de statistique de Marseille (Marseilles, 
1837 et seq.) ; Teissier, Histoire du commerce de 
Marseille, 1855-7 ^ (Marseilles, 1887). 

MABSH,. Anne Caloweix (c.1798-1874). An 
English author, bom at Lindley Wood, Stafford- 
shire. She wrote many novels, of which Two Old 
Men's Tales (1846), Emilia Wyndham (1846), 
and Norman's Bridge (1847) are thought to be 
the best. Most of her works were written anony- 
mously, and it is not certain how many are 
rightly attributed to her. Her best work is of 
delicate conception, but lacks power. Several 
of the stories have been republished in the United 

MABSH, Geobge Pebkins (1801-82). An 
American diplomatist and philologist. He was 
born at Woodstock, Vt. ; graduated at Dartmouth 
College in 1820; studied law, and in 1835 was 
elected to the Supreme Executive Council of the 
State. From 1843 to 1849 he was a member of 
Congress, and in the latter year resigned to 
become Minister Resident at Constantinople. In 
1852 he was charged with a special mission to 
Greece, and having traveled extensively in Europe 
returned to the United States in 1854. Between 
1857 and 1859 he served as railroad commissioner 
for Vermont, and from 1861 until his death, was 
first United States Minister to the Kingdom of 
Italy. His publications include: The Camels Bis 
Organization, Babits^ and Uses, Considered with 
Reference to Bis Introduction into the United 

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XAB8H. 99 

Bt^tes (1856); Lectures on the English Lan^ 
fuage (1861) ; The Origin and History of the 
English Language (1862) ; and Man and Nature 
(1864; enlarged in 1874 as The Earth as Modi- 
tied by Human Action), 

KABSH, Herbert (1757-1839). Bishop of 
P^Urborough. He was bom in Faversham, 
Kept ; was graduated at Saint John's College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1779, and studied theology at Leipzig 
and Giottingen. He was appointed Lady Mar- 
garet professor of divinity at Cambridge in 1807, 
Bishop of Llandaff in 1816, and Bishop of 
Peterborough in 1819. Opposing the allegorical 
sj^tems of interpretation of the Fathers and the 
Middle Ages, he insisted that Scripture has but 
one sense, and was one of the first to introduce 
(jerman methods of research into English bibli- 
cal scholarship. His publications include: a 
translation of Michaelis's Introduction to the New 
Testament ( 1792-1801) ; Authenticity of the Five 
Books of Moses (1792) ; The National Religion 
the Foundation of National Education (1813) ; 
Lectures on the Criticism and Interpretation of 
the Bible (1828) ; Lectures on the Authenticity 
end Credibility of the New Testament ( 1822-23) ; 
and On the Authority of the Old Testament 

XABSH, James (1794-1842). A theologian 
and critic, bom in Hartford, Vt. Marsh was 
graduated at Dartmouth (1817) and at the 
Andover Theological Seminary (1822). He was 
ordained to the Congregational ministry (1824) 
and for the next two years taught languages at 
Hampton-Sidn^ College, Va., beginning there his 
translation of Herder's Spirit of Hebt^ Poetry, 
completed in 1833, a work of value in the de- 
Telopment of American criticism. In 1826 he 
was made president of the University of Ver- 
mont, a post which he resigned (1833) for the 
professorship of philosophy. His edition of Cole- 
ridfpe's Aids to Reflection, with its preliminary 
«*ayj gave him considerable repute. 

IfAKSH, Othniel Chables (1831-99). An 
American zo5logist and paleontologist. He waa 
bom in Lockport, N. Y., graduated at Yale Col- 
lege, and studied in Germany. Upon his return 
to the United States he was appointed professor 
of paleontology and curator of the geological mu- 
semn at Yale, and held these positions imtil his 
death. Professor Marsh accomplished a great 
amomit of valuable scientific work in the discov- 
ery and description of new fossil vertebrates from 
the geological formations of the Western States 
and Territories. In carrying out his investiga- 
tions he organized many exploring expeditions at 
his own expense, and directed others which were 
equipped by the United States Geological Sur- 
Wy. More than 400 new fossil species of verte- 
biates were described by Professor Marsh, among 
tbem such interesting types as the Dinocerata 
(huge tapir-like animals). Pterodactyls (flying 
lizards), and Odontomithes (toothed birds). His 
disforeries of the fossil ancestors of the horse 
inarked an epoch in evolutionary science and 
ha?e been frequently emi>loyed as an illustration 
of the prindple of evolution. The more extended 
*nd genera] articles by Professor Marsh were 
incorporated in the Reports and Monographs of 
the United States (geological Survey. He served 
•8 president of the American Association for the 
AdTaneement of Science in 1878, and of the Na- 
iiooa] Academj of Sciences from 1883 to 1895. 


The Geological Society of London, of which he 
was a fellow, bestowed upon him the first Bigsby 
medal in 1877. He also received the Cuvier prise 
of the French Academy of Sciences. His valu- 
able collection of fossil vertebrates was left to 
Yale University. 

MABSH, Stlvesteb (1803-84). An Ameri- 
can merchant and promoter, bom at Campton, 
N. H. In 1833 he removed to Chicago, ana set 
up as a butcher. He was the originator of the 
meat-packing industry and invented many of 
the appliances now used in that business. Later 
he entered the grain business and invented the 
dried meal process. During a visit to his old 
home in 1852 he conceived the idea of a railroad 
to the top of Mount Washington, and insisted 
upon the feasibility of the plan, and persisted 
until in 1868 he obtained a charter for the con- 
struction of the road, but because of the Civil 
War was unable to begin work until 1866. 

MABSBLAL (OF. mareschal, marescal, Fr. 
mar6chaly from ML. mareschalcus, carescalcus, 
from OHG. marahsccUh, groom, master of the 
horse, marshal, from mara/i, AS. mearh, Ir.» 
GaeL marc, Gk. fiApKat, markas, horse + soalh,. 
Ger. Schalky Goth, skalks, AS. scealc, obsolete 
Eng. shalk, servant). A term in English history, 
originally meaning a groom or manager of the 
horse, tnough eventually the King's marshal 
became one of the great officers of the household 
of the Norman and Plantagenet kings, being 
conjointly with the constable (q.v.) a judge in 
the ouricB martiales, or courts of chivalry, and 
enjoying equal rank with the CHiancellor. The 
constable's functions were virtually abolished in 
the time of Henry VIII., and the marshal be- 
came thenceforth the sole judge in (juestions of 
honor and arms. The earl marshal is president 
of the English (Ik>llege of Heralds, and appoints 
the kings-at-arms, heralds, and pursuivants. The 
dignity of marshal existed formerly in Scotland, 
where a different orthography was adopted, and 
the office of marischal became hereditary in the 
fourteenth century in the family of Keith. In 
France the highest military officer is called a 
marshal, a dignity which originated early in the 
thirteenth century. There was at first only one 
mar^chal de France, and there were but two till 
the time of Francis I. Their number afterwards 
became unlimited. Originally the marshal was 
the esquire of the King, and commanded the van- 
guard in war; in later times the command be- 
came supreme, and the rank of the highest mili- 
tary importance. From the title of this class of 
general officers the Germans have borrowed their 
Feldmarschall, and the English the title of field- 
marshal, a dignity bestowed on commanders dis- 
tinguished either by elevated rank or superior 
talents. The title marshal in the United States 
is used: (1) to denote the ministerial officer of 
the United States courts, there being, with sev- 
eral exceptions, one appointed for each judicial 
district. The exceptions are the few instances 
where one marshal is required to perform the 
duties of two districts. The duties of this officer 
resemble those of a sheriff in the State courts; 
he opens and closes the sessions of the district 
and circuit courts, serves warrants, and executes 
throughout the district all lawful precepts di- 
rected to him. Marshals are also appointed for 
Porto Rico, Alaska, and Hawaii. (2) In many 
States of the South and West the marshal is the 

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town or village police officer, and is to be dis- 
tinguished from the officers of the county called 
sheriffs, and from the officers of the justices' 
courts called constables. Besides their functions 
in connection with the courts, the United States 
marshals discharge duties in connection with the 
administration of the internal revenue service, 
public lands, the mail service, etc. They are ap- 
pointed by the President with the advice and con- 
sent of the Senate for a term of four years. 

MABSBLA.LING (of assets, securities, liens). 
The act of directing the application or dis- 
tribution of assets, securities, liens, etc., so 
that the rights of creditors, lienors, and others 
having rights in the same fund or funds or other 
property are protected according to the equities 
of the different parties in interest. The princi- 
ple upon which this is done is the equitable rule 
that a party who is entitled to satisfaction or 
security out. of one or more of several funds or 
properties which must be looked to by others 
for their satisfaction or security shall not be 
allowed to elect to satisfy or secure himself so 
as to exclude another who is entitled to resort to 
only one of the funds, when the first party can 
otherwise sufficiently protect himself. This rule 
is applied where A has a mortgage on two pieces 
of property, one of which is also subject to a 
subordinate mortgage to another party. In that 
case A, in the event of foreclosure, will be com- 
pelled to first exhaust that parcel of land which 
IS otherwise unincumbered m order that the se- 
curity of the other party may not be entirely 
destroyed; or A may be allowed to foreclose the 
doubly incumbered piece upon condition that he 
subrogate the other party to his rights in the 
other piece. The more common applications of 
the rule are to foreclosures, the settlement of 
decedents* estates, and the distribution of assets 
of insolvents or bankrupts. Consult the authori- 
ties referred to under Equity. 

the science of arranging several coats of arms 
on the same escutcheon. See Hebaldrt. 

ICAB^HALL. A city and the county-seat of 
Clark County, 111., 18 miles west by south of 
Terre Haute, Ind.; on the Vandalia Line and the 
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago, and Saint Louis 
railroads (Map: Illinois, £ 4). It has some 
trade and manufactures of flour, lumber, woolen 
goods, condensed milk, etc., and is in an oil and 
an agricultural and stock-raising district. Popu- 
lation, 1890, 1900; 1900, 2077; 1906 (local est.), 

MABSHALL. A city and the county-seat of 
Calhoun County, Mich., 108 miles by rail west of 
Detroit; on the Kalamazoo River, and on the 
Michigan Central Railroad (Map: Michigan, E 
6). It has the grounds of the County Agricul- 
tural Society, and a fine high school building, 
county courthouse, and jail. The city is the cen- 
tre of a rich farming section, and manufactures 
steel castings, hot-air furnaces, school and church 
furniture, carriages and wagons, bathtubs, wind- 
mills, electrical appliances, farming implements, 
medicines, flour, breakfast food, etc. There are 
also marble and granite works, and roundhouses 
of the Michigan Central Railroad. Marshall owns 
and operates the water-works and electric-light 
plants, both of which are run by water-power, on 
a profitable basis. Population, in 1900, 4370; in 
1904, 4361. 

MABSTTALL. A city and the coimty-seat of 
Lyon County, Minn., 165 miles west by south of 
Saint Paul; on the Redwood River, and on the 
Great Northern and the Chicago and Northwest- 
ern railroads (Map: Minnesota, B 6). It has a 
public library; and among the prominent build- 
ings are the public schools, county courthouse, 
and county jail. An important trade is carried 
on, and there are several grain elevators, a flour 
mill, and a creamery. Population, in 1890, 1203 ; 
in 1900, 2088; in 1905, 2243. 

MABSHALL. A city and the county-seat of 
Saline County, Mo., 84 miles east of Kansas 
City; on the Chicago and Alton and the Missouri 
Pacific railroads (Map: Missouri, C 2). It is 
the seat of Missouri Valley College ( Cumberland 
Presbyterian ) , founded in 1889, and has a Roman 
Catholic academy, and a handsome court-house 
($75,000). A State institution for the feeble 
minded and epileptics is (1906) being erected* 
Marshall is near deposits of coal, salt, and build- 
ing stone, and carries on an important trade, and 
manufactures flour, creamery products, lumber, 
brick and tile, carriages and wagons, and canned 
goods. Population, 1900, 5086; 1906 (local est.), 

MABSHALL. A city and the county-seat of 
Harrison County, Texas, 42 miles west of Shreve- 
port, La.; on the Texas and Pacific and the 
Texas Southern railroads (Map: Texas, G 3). 
It is the seat of Wiley University (Methodist 
Episcopal) and Bishop College (Baptist) for 
negroes, and has a fine court-house and opera 
house. The city is in a fertile agricultural region 
adapted particularly for fruit and vegetable cul- 
tivation, and the vicinity possesses valuable oak 
and pine forests. Among the industrial enter- 
. prises are a foundry and machine shops, cotton 
compress, saw and planing mills, ice factory, 
carriage works, railroad shops of the Texas and 
Pacific, car-wheel works, etc. The water-works 
are owned and operated by the municipality. 
Population, in 1890, 7207; in 1900, 7855. 

MABSHALL, Alfred (1B42—). An English 
economist, born in London. From the Merchant 
Taylors* School he passed to Saint John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he graduated with distinc- 
tion and was appointed fellow of his colleppe 
(1865), and lecturer in moral science (1868). 
In 1877 he became principal of University Col- 
lege, Bristol, and in 1883-84 lecturer and fellow 
of Balliol College, Oxford. In 1884 he was elected 
to the chair of political economy at Cambridge 
University. In 1891 he was appointed a mem- 
ber of the Royal Commission of Labor. In 
collaboration with his wife he published (1879) 
Economics of Industry, His Principles of Econo- 
mics (1890) won for him the position of one of 
the foremost of English economists. In this work 
he seeks to present and reconcile the essential 
doctrines of both classical and modem economics. 
He published also: Present Position of Economics 
(1886) ; Elements of Economics (1891) ; and a 
long list of articles in scientific and popular 

MABSHALL, Abthub Milnes (1852-93). 
An English naturalist, bom at Birmingham. He 
received his B.A. degree from the London Uni- 
versity at the age of eighteen and then went to 
Cambridge, where he graduated in 1874. In the 
following year he was sent by that university to 
its zoological station at Naples. Upon his re- 
turn, he began the study of medieme, and in 

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1879 became professor of zoology at Owens Col- 
lege, Manchester. He was made a fellow of the 
Royal Society in 1885, a councilor of the same in 
1801-92, and presided over a section of the Brit- 
ish Association in 1892^ but he was particularly 
distinguished as a teacher and organizer. He 
started the biological classes at Victoria Univer- 
sity, and contributed much to scientific knowl- 
edge of embryology in his technical publications, 
which include papers for the Quarterly Journal 
of Microscopical Science, and separate memoirs 
upon The Segmental Value of the Cranial Nerves 
(1882); The Frog (1882; 7th ed. 1900); and 
Vertebrate Embryology (1893). He lost his life 
in the Alps. His Biological Essays and Ad- 
dresses were collected and published posthumous- 
ly in 1894^ as well as his memoir upon The Dar- 
tcinian Theory. 

MABSHATiIi, Ekma (1832-99). An English 
novelist, bom near Cromer, in Norfolk, England, 
the youngest daughter of Simon Martin, a Nor- 
wich banker. She was educated in a private 
school at Norwich. In 1854 she married Hugh 
Graham Marshall, and thereafter lived an im- 
cventful life at Wells, Exeter, Gloucester, and 
Bristol. She died at Clifton, May 4, 1899. Be- 
ginning with Edith Presoott ( 1863 ) , she produced 
during her long career more than a hundred vol- 
umes of tales, mostly for the young. Especially 
popular were those in which appeared well-known 
historical characters, as Sir Philip Sidney and Sir 
Thomas Browne. Among her latest novels were : 
In Colston's Days, a Story of Old Bristol ( 1883) ; 
The Tower an the Cliff (1886) ; Penshurst Castle, 
in the Time of Sir Philip Sidney (1893) ; In the 
Choir of Westminster Abb^ in the Time of 
Henry Purcell (1897) ; and Under the Dome of 
Saint Paul's in the Time of Christopher Wren 
(1898). She also wrote verse. 

MABSHALL, Francis Albebt (1840-89). 
An English playwright, bom in London, Novem- 
ber, 1840. He was educated at Harrow and stud- 
ied at Exeter (College, Oxford, but left without a 
degree. He became a clerk in the audit office 
of Somerset House, and began writing for news- 
papers and periodicals. In 1868 he resigned his 
poet and subsequently joined the staff of the Lon- 
don Figaro as dramatic critic. He was already 
known for his comedies and farces: Mad as a 
Hatter (1863) ; Corrupt Practices (1870), which 
were followed by Q, E, D., or All a Mistake 
(1871) ; FaUe Shame (1872) ; BHghton (1874) ; 
Lola (1881), a comic opera; and several others. 
For Henry Irving he made a version of Werner 
(1887). He was general editor of the Henry 
Irving Edition of Shakespeare (1888-90), and 
had earlier published A Study of Hamlet (1875) 
and Henry Irving, Actor and Manager ( 1883) . 

ICABSHALL, Humphrey (1756-1841). An 
American politician, cousin 6f CJhief Justice John 
Marshall, bom in Westmoreland County, Va. He 
received very little schooling, entered the Conti- 
nental Army during the Revolution, and attained 
the rank of captain. Before the close of the war 
he removed to Kentucky, and he settled in 1780 
near Lexington, where he studied law and was 
admitted to the bar. In 1787 he was a delegate 
to the convention held at Danville to consider the 
question of separating Kentucky from Virginia, 
and strongly opposed that project. He soon be- 
came known as one of the strongest Federalist 
leaders in the Kentucky region. In 1788 he was 

a delegate to the Virginia convention that ratified 
the Ck)nstitution. He had an inborn dislike for 
Wilkinson, whom he seems to have suspected 
from the first, and for a decade or more occupied 
the position of a sort of Vatch-dog* of Federal 
interests in Kentucky and was active in oppos- 
ing and exposing the numerous Spanish intrigues, 
and plans for attacking the Spanish or French at 
New Orleans. He opposed the plan of (5eorge 
Rogers Clark for an expedition against the Span- 
iards in 1793> declaring it was a part of the 
scheme of Genet (q.v.), and would only have 
the effect of embroiling the country with a 
friendly Power. From 1795 to 1801 he was a 
United States Senator from Kentucky. His let- 
ters to the Western World signed *Observer,' in 
which he clearly pointed out the existence of the 
Burr conspiracy ( q.v. ) , led to Federal action and 
the thwarting of Burr's plans of empire. While 
a member of the State Legislature in 1809 he 
fought a duel with Henry Clay in which both 
were woimded. He published a History of Ken- 
tucky (1812; enlarged, 1824), which is in re- 
ality a curious and partisan piece of autobiog- 
raphy, but contains much of value in regard to 
early politics in the West. 

MABSHALL, Humphrey (1812-72). An 
American soldier and politician, born at Frank- 
fort, Ky. He graduated at West Point in 1832, 
but resigned from the army the next year. He 
studied Taw and practiced in Louisville, where he 
took much interest in the State militia. At the 
outbreak of the Mexican War he entered as col- 
onel of a Kentucky cavalry regiment and led the 
charge at Buena Vista. He was a member of the 
United States House of Representatives in 1849 
and was reelected in 1851, but resigned in 1852 
and accepted the post of Commissioner to China. 
He retired in 1854, and the next year again en- 
tered the House of Representatives, on the 
American ticket, and served until 1859. At the 
beginning of the Civil War he entered the Con- 
federate Army as brigadier-general and com- 
manded in eastern Kentucky. He resigned from 
the army to practice law in Richmond, but was 
elected one of Kentucky's representatives in the 
Confederate Congress, and was afterwards re- 
elected. After the war he resumed the practice 
of law in Louisville. 

MATISHALL, Humphrey (1722-1801). An 
American botanist, born in West Bradford ( Mar- 
shallton), Pa. He learned the trade of a stone- 
mason, but about 1748 turned to farming, and 
began to cultivate his scientific tastes, which he 
had ample means of gratifying through the ac- 
quisition of property in 1767, and six years after- 
wards he was mstrumental in the formation of 
the botanic gardens at Marshallton. He held 
several local offices, was made a member of the 
American Philosophical Society (1786), and 
published Arboretum Americanwn ( 1785) , a cata- 
logue of the trees and shrubs of America, which 
was translated inte French. 

MARSHALL, John (1755-1835). The most 
famous of American juriste, for thirty-four years 
Chief Justice of the United States Supreme 
Court. He was bom September 24, 1755, in 
Fauquier County, Va.; studied under a private 
tutor; then attended an academy in Westmore- 
land County, and studied law until the outbreak 
of the Revolution, when he entered the army as 
a volunteer. He soon rose to the rank of first lieu- 

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tenant, and by 1777 was a captain. His first 
fight was near Norfolk; he afterwards served 
in the New Jersey campaign, was at Valley 
Forge during the memoraole winter of 1777-78, 
and participated in the battles of Brandywine, 
Germantown, and Monmouth, and in the capture 
of Stony Point. During most of 1780, while with- 
out a command, he attended the law lectures 
delivered by the famous Chancellor George 
Wythe at William and Mary College. The fol- 
lowing year he was admitted to the bar of Fau- 
quier County, where he practiced for two years. 
In 1782 he was elected to a seat in the Virginia 
Legislature and soon became a member of the 
Executive Council. In the meantime he had 
removed to Richmond. In 1784 he was again 
elected to represent Fauquier County in the 
Legislature. In 1787 he was chosen to represent 
Henrico, the county in which he had lately taken 
up his residence, and in the following year was 
a delegate to the State convention which was 
called to ratify the Federal Constitution. The 
distinction of securing the adoption of the Con- 
stitution by Virginia belongs to Marshall and 
Madison perhaps more than to any others. 
Marshall's refutations of Patrick Henry's argu- 
ments against adoption were particularly effect- 
ive. In the meantime his law practice was rap- 
idly increasing, and he declined a reflection to 
the Leg^islature in 1792 in order to devote his 
whole time to his growing practice, but in 1796 
he was again persuaded to stand for reflection 
and was successful. It was about this time that 
Marshall appeared before the Supreme Court 
in the famous case of Ware vs. Hilton, in which 
the validity of the Virginia Sequestration Act 
was involved, and his able argument added great- 
ly to his growing reputation. He declined to 
accept the post of Attorney-General or the French 
mission tendered him by President Washington, 
but finally consented to go to Paris in 1797 with 
C. C. Pinckney and Eloridge Gerry to induce 
the Directory to remove the restrictions which it 
had laid on American commerce. Although the 
negotiations proved fruitless, Marshall's conduct 
seems to have been more satisfactory to the Gov- 
ernment than that of either of his colleagues. In 
1798 he declined to accept a seat on the bench of 
the United States Supreme Court as the successor 
of James Wilson, but in the same year at the 
solicitation of Washington became a candidate for 
Congress and was elected, although his constitu- 
ency was decidedly Anti-Federalist in politics. 
In Confess he supported the Administration in 
particular and Federalist measures generally, al- 
though he voted for the repeal of the notorious 
Alien and Sedition Acts. His most notable effort 
in Congress was a speech in support of the con- 
duct of the* President in surrendering Jonathan 
Robbins, the murderer of a man on a British 
frigate, who had escaped to the United States 
and had been delivered up to the British Got- 
emment by the President. Marshal! showed 
conclusively that the surrender of Bobbins was 
clearly within the President's constitutional 
power. In May, 1800, he was asked by President 
Adams to take the office of Secretary of War, 
but declined. However, he was induced to ac- 
cept the position of Secretary of State, which 
he held for a short time. On January 31, 1801, 
he was commissioned Chief Justice of the United 
States Supreme Court. The accession of Mar- 
shall to the bench of the United States Su- 

preme Court as Chief Justice marks a turn- 
ing point in his life and an epoch in the 
legal and constitutional history of the United 
States. For thirty-four years he dominated 
the court by his great learning and master- 
ful power of analysis and clearness of state- 
ment. Perhaps no judge ever excelled him in 
the capacity to hold a legal proposition before 
the eyes of others in such various forms and 
colors. He resolved every argument by the most 
subtle analysis into its ultimate principles, and 
then applied them to the decision of the case in 
question. His service on the bench, which con- 
tinued imtil his death, was effective and conspicu- 
ous not only in securing for the court the recog- 
nition and profound respect for which hitherto 
there had been no especial occasion, but also in 
so expounding the Constitution as to make clear 
for the first time the nature of the National Gov- 
ernment and to forecast the lines along which, im 
actual development as well as in judicial inter- 
pretation, the nation was to proceed. In the 
Eeriod of Marshall's predominance the court up- 
eld the Federalist tneories, as in the nationad 
bank case of McCulloch vs. Maryland, and gave 
a clear definition of the relations of the State 
and National governments. On the subject of 
the constitutional prohibition against the impair- 
ment of contracts, noteworthy opinions were pre- 
sented, culminating in the famous Dartmouth 
College Case, the exact accuracy of which has 
more recently been (juestioned. Particularly in 
the field of constitutional law the work of Mar- 
shall forms the greatest contribution to Ameri- 
can jurisprudence made by any judge, and his 
interpretations of the Constitution have long 
been recognized as an important and permanent 
feature of American public law. He died on 
July 6, 1835, in his eightieth year, at Philadel- 
phia, whither he had gone for medical treatment. 
Aside from his judicial labors Marshall, at the 
request of Bushrod Washington, a nephew of 
George Washington, wrote a Life of George 
Washington (6 vols., 1804-07; 2d ed., 2 vols., 
1832). Consult: Magruder, t/o/tn Mars^o/I (Bos- 
ton, 1885); Dillon, John Marshall 2 vols. (Chi- 
cago, 1903) ; Flanders, Life of John Marshall 
(Philadelphia, 1905); and a chapter, **Consti- 
tutional Development in the United States, as 
influenced by Chief Justice Marshall," in Cooley, 
Constitutional History of the United States 
(New York, 1889). 

lEABSHAIil/^ Oesamus Holmes (1813-84t). 
An American historical writer. He was bom at 
Franklin, Conn., graduated at Union College in 
1831, studied law, spending some time at Yale, 
and entered into active practice. His interest in 
literary and historical subjects was early mani- 
fested. He was one of the founders of the Buf- 
falo Female Academy and of the Buffalo Histori- 
cal Society, and for many years was chancellor 
of the University of Buffalo.' His historical writ- 
inpfs concern chieflv the relations of the Iroquois 
with French and English and are of considerable 
value. A volume was collected after his death 
entitled Historical Writings of Orsamus H, Mar* 
shall Relating to the Early History of the West 

MARSHALL, Stephen (c. 1594-1 655). A 
Presbyterian leader. He was bom at Godman- 
chester, Huntingdonshire, England, graduated B. A. 
at Cambridge (1618), entered the ministry and 
joined the ranks of the non-conformists. £ie was 

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an eloquent man, considered in some quarters 
the greatest preacher of the day, but not learned 
or original. Beginning with the advocacy of a 
reform of the Church of England, while retaining 
episcopacy and litur^, he ended with the de 
jure divino Presbyterian theory. He was one of 
the leaders of the Westminster Assembly (1643 
sqq.). Marshall published many sermons. One 
treatise, A Defense of Infant Baptism (1646), 
may be mentioned. He was also one of the joint 
authors of a pamphlet published at London 
( 1641 ) , called An Answer to a Booke [by J. Hall, 
Bishop of Norwich] entituled An Eumhie Remon- 
strance. In which the originall of Liturgy [and] 
Episcopacy is Discussed, And Quceres Propound- 
ed Concerning Both. Written by Sm^ctymnuus. 

MABSHALI^ William Oaldeb (1813-94). A 
Scotch sculptor. He was bom at Edinburgh, 
March 18, 1813. He studied sculpture at the 
Trustees' Academy, Edinburgh, and at London, 
under Chantry and Bailey. In the schools of the 
Royal Academy he won a gold medal and traveling 
scholarship, and from 1836 to 1838 continued his 
studies in Rome. From the time of his return 
to London (1839) he contributed to almost every 
annual art exhibition. His work was chiefly 
idealistic statuary, and among his productions 
of this class are: **The Creation of Adam" 
(1842); "Christ Blessing Little Children" 
(1844) ; "Paul and Virginia" (1845) ; "Sabrina" 
(1846), perhaps the most popular of all his fig- 
ures; *The First Whisper of Love;" and "The 
Dancing Girl Reposing." In historical figures 
he modeled the bronze statue of Sir Robert Peel 
at Manchester; one of Dr. Jenner; and in the 
Westminster Palace, busts of Chaucer, Lord 
Clarendon, and Lord Somers. In decoration, he 
was extensively engaged in the ornamentation of 
the new Houses of Parliament and the Welling- 
ton Chapel in Saint Paul's Cathedral. He was 
also the designer of the Wellington monument. 
The style of all his productions is marked by sim- 
plicity and refinement, and the conception of his 
statuettes is delicate and poetical. He died at 
London, June 16, 1894. 

MABSHALIi ISLANDS. An archipelago in 
Micronesia, situated east of the Caroline Islands 
and belonging to Grcrmany (Map: Australasia, J 
2). It consists of two parallel chains of atolls, 
the Ratak chain in the east and the Ralik in the 
west, with an aggregate area of 158 square miles. 
The islands are low and the soil very poor, sup- 
porting a scanty flora, in which the cocoanut and 
the breadfruit tree predominate. Copra is the 
only export, and amounts to over 20()0 tons an- 
nually. The population of the whole archipelago 
is about 15,000, of whom less than a hundred are 
Europeans (66 Germans in 1905). The islands 
are administered by an imperial Commissioner 
residing on the island of Jaluit. 

KAB^HAIXTOWN. A city and the coun- 
ty-seat of Marshall County, Iowa, 58 miles north- 
east of Des Moines; on the Chicago Great West- 
em, the Iowa Central, and the Chicago and 
Northwestern railroads (Map: Iowa, E 2). It is 
the seat of the Iowa State Soldiers* Home, with 
800 inmates, and has a public library. Among its 
industrial establishments are extensive meat- 
packing plants, glucose factories, flour-mills, 
grain elevators, foundries and machine shops, 
canning and bottling works, and carriage and 
furniture factories. Settled in 1860, Marshall- 

town was incorporated as a town in 1863 and re* 
ceived a charter as a city of the second class in 
1868. The government is administered under a 
general State law of 1898 which provides for a 
mayor* elected biennally, and a imicameral coun- 
cil that elects the water-works committee. The 
school board is chosen by popular vote. The city 
owns and operates the water-works and electric- 
light plant. Population, in 1890, 8914; in 1900, 
11,544; in 1905, 12,045. 

MAB^HALSEA. A former prison in South- 
wark, London, connected with a court of the 
same name. It was abolished in 1849. 

MABSH-CALD^WELL, Mrs. Anne (1791- 
1874). An English novelist, daughter of James 
Caldwell, of Linley Wood, Staffordshire. In 1817 
she married Arthur Cuthbert Marsh, of East- 
bury Lodge, Hertfordshire. Encouraged by Har- 
riet Martineau, she published Two Old Men's 
Tales (1834). In the course of a few years 
she took rank among the popular novelists of 
her time. She published anonymously, and a 
complete list of her novels has never been made. 
Fifteen volumes appeared in the Parlour Library 
( 1857 ) . They depict mostly the manners of the 
upper middle class and the lower aristocracy. 
Emilia Wyndham (1846) seems to be one of the 


MABSH^IELD. A citv in Wood County, 
Wis., 185 miles northwest of Milwaukee; on the 
Chicago and Northwestern, the Wisconsin Cen- 
tral, and the Chicago, Saint Paul, Minneapolis 
and Omaha railroads (Map: Wisconsin, C 4). It 
has a public library and a hospital. Marshfleld 
has extensive manufactures of lumber, including 
staves, headings, barrels, and furniture, also 
beds, springs, mattresses, veneer, etc. Dairying 
has assumed a position of great importance in 
recent vears. There is also some trade in grain 
and live stock. Population, in 1890, 3450; in 
1900, 5240; in 1905, 6035. 

MABSH GAS. See Methane. 

10JEU3H HAKE, or BABBIT. A hare (Le- 
pus palustris) of the lowlands along the South- 
ern Atlantic seaboard, which is sligjhtly larger 
than the cottontail, measuring 18 inches, and 
differs in its nearly bare feet and more scanty 
pelage. It frequents bog'ory lands, and readily 
takes to the water. 

MABSH HAWK, or Harbteb. A bird of 
prey {Circus cyaneus of Europe, or Circus Hud- 
sonius of North America) which haimts marshy 
places. The adult male is light bluish gray, 
the tail is barred with 6 to 8 bands, and the tips 
of the wings are blackish. The female is dusky 
or rusty brown, streaked about the head. Both 
sexes may be easily recognized by the broad white 
patch on the rump. Though long-winged and 
capable of strong flight, it is habitually slow in 
its movements, sweeping back and forth over low 
meadows, river margins, and wet ground gen- 
erally, in search of the small game to be fotind 
in such places, keeping near the groimd, and 
dropping suddenly upon its prey — ^more often a 
frog or a mouse than anything else. Only rarely 
does it seize a bird or disturb poultry; and its 
services are of great value to the agriculturists, 
and should be encouraged. It was classed as 
'ignoble' in falconry. These hawks nest upon the 
ground in some marsh, and lay four or flve nearly 

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globular, dirty- white eggs. Consult: Fisher, 
Hawks and Owls of the United States (Wash- 
ington, 1893) ; Coues, Birds of the Northwest 
(Washington, 1874), and standard authorities. 
See Plate of Eagles and Hawks. 

MABSH HEN, or Mud Hen. A gunner's 
name for various rails, coots, and gallinules 

IIABSH-MALLOW. A name applied to Ah 
thcea officinalis^ native of Great Britain and nat- 
uralized in the United States, in both of which 
countries it grows in meadows and marshes, par- 
ticularly near the seacoast. The whole plant. 


which is a woody herb, abounds in mucilage, ( 
cially in the root, confections made from it be- 
ing known as pdtes de guimauve. The leaves 
and tender twigs are used for food in some re- 
gions during seasons of scarcity. The hollyhock 
(AlthcBa rosea) is an allied species. See Holly- 
hock; ALTHiBA. 

MABSH^MAN, Joshua ( 1768-1837 ) . An Eng- 
lish missionary. He was bom at Westbury Leigh, 
Wiltshire, and was sent in 1799 by the Baptist 
Missionary Society to India to join William Carey 
(q.v.) and his colleagues. They established their 
mission at Serampore, a Danish colony, 16 miles 
above Calcutta, and to supplement the scanty 
funds sent out by the society, schools were opened 
for both European and native children. This 
course did not meet the approval of the society, 
and in 1826 Marshman returned to England to try 
to effect a settlement of the differences. He failed 
in his object, and the matter ended in a separa- 
tion of the Serampore mission from the society. 
He returned to Serampore in 1829 and died there, 
December 5, 1837. In addition to his special mis- 
sionary duties. Dr. Marshman gave himself with 
great zeal to the study of the Bengalee, San- 
skrit, and Chinese languages, which he mastered. 
He published: A Dissertation on the Charac- 
ters and Sounds of the Chinese Language 
(1809); The Works of Confucius, Containing 
the Original Text with a Translation (1809); 
Clavis Sinica (1814) ; Elements of Chinese 
Orammar, with a Preliminary Dissertation on 
the Characters and Colloquial Medium of the 
Chinese (1814). He also prepared the first com- 
plete Chinese version of the Bible. He assisted 
Dr. Carey in preparing a Sanskrit grammar and 
a Bengalee and English dictionary, and the Bible 

in Telugu. Consult: J. C. Marshman, Life a/nd 
Times of the Serampur Missionaries (London, 
1869) ; Carey, Marshman and Ward, an abridg- 
ment of the above (ib., 1864). 

MABSH-MABIGOLD, Caltha. A genus of 
plants of the natural order Ranunculaces. 
Caltha palustris is a very common American 
plant, with kidney-shaped, shining leaves, and 
large yellow flowers, a principal ornament of 
wet meadows and the sides of streams in spring. 

MAB8H-MARIOOLD {C&ltha paluBtris). 

It partakes of the acridity common to the order ; 
but the flower-buds, preserved in vinegar and 
salt, are said to be a good substitute for capiers. 
The plant is used before flowering as a pot herb 
in many places. 


MABSH-BOSEMABY. A name given to 
several species of Statice, members of the natural 
order Plumbaginaceae. Statice Limomum, a per- 
ennial plant, grows in salt marshes along the sea- 
shore of Southern and Western Europe, and Stat- 
ice Caroliniana is an American plant, growing in 
similar localities on the American coast. Marsh - 
rosemary has a tuft of spatulate oblong, bristly 
pointed, one-ribbed leaves, developing in August 
a much-branched, panicled scape, from one to two 
feet high, bearing numerous small lavender-col- 
ored flowers. 

MABSH'S TEST. See Absexic. 

MABSH TBEPOIIi. A plant widely dis- 
tributed in northern latitudes. See Buck Bean. 

MABSH-WBEN. A wren that inhabits 
reedy marshes. In the United States and Canada 
two species are more or less numerous wherever 
such marshes occur. The most familiar one 
along the Atlantic Coast is the long-billed marsh- 
wren {Tclmatodyies palustris), while the short 
billed {Cistothorus stellaris) is more numerous 
in the interior of the country. Both are brown- 
ish above and light-colored below, with little to 
distinguish them besides the marked difference 
in the length of the bill; but the long-billed is 
the larger. Both species are migratory, and are 
notorious for their excited activity, mice-like man- 

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ners, and rippling prattling song. They con- 
struct large globular nests, suspended among the 
reeds, woven of grass-blades and entered by a 
little hole in the side. As often happens among 
other wrens (q.v.), many more nests will be 
built each season than there are pairs in the lo- 
cality, some of which may be utilized as sleeping- 
places by tiie cock birds. The nests of the two 
species are much alike, but the eggs are very 
distinct, those of the long-billed being dark 
chocolate in color, while Siose of the short- 
billed are pure white, 

MAB03I. An ancient tribe of Central Italy, 
inhabiting the district around Lake Fucinus 
{loigo di Celano, now drained). Their origin, 
like that of other Italian tribes, is involved in 
obscurity and fiction. They were probably of 
Sabine origin, but spoke a dialect akin to the 
Latin. They are worthy of notice chiefly on ac- 
count of their warlike spirit. The Marsians were 
at one time allies of the Romans, but in B.C. 308 
they revolted and joined the Samnites. After 
being subdued they again (b.o. 301) shook off the 
alliance of Rome, but were beaten in the field, 
and lost several of their fortresses. From this 
time they continued the firm allies of Rome, con- 
tributing by their valor to her triumphs until the 
Italians were aroused in B.C. 91 to demand a re- 
dress of their wrongs and a share in the privi- 
leges of Roman citizens. A war ensued, generally 
known as the Social War, but frequently called 
the Marsic War, because the Marsi were promi- 
nent among the malcontents. Their leader was 
Pompeedius Silo. Though they were often de- 
feated, the perseverance of the allies gained 
the object for which they had taken up arms 
in B.C. 87. The Marsians, inhabiting a moun- 
tainous district, were temperate in their habits, 
but brave, and unyielding. So marked was their 
valor that there was a proverbial saying recorded 
by Appian, "that Rome had achieved no triumph 
over the Aiarsi, or without the Marsi." The an- 
cient Marsi were represented as enchanters, able 
to tame serpents and to heal their bites ; and it is 
worthy of note that the jugglers who now amuse 
the people by handling serpents are natives of 
the region in the vicinity of Lago di Celano. 
Their only important town was Marruvium ( San 
Benedetto), the ruins of which are still visible. 
Consult : Bugge, Italische L<mdet Ktmde ( Chris- 
tiania, 1878). 

MABSICE; m&r'slk^, Mabtin Piebbe Joseph 
(1848—). A Belgian violinist and teacher, bom 
at Jupille, near Li^ge. His earliest professional 
instruction was at the D6sir6-Heynberg Conser- 
vatory at Li^ge. His musical precocity was such 
that at twelve years of age he was organist of 
the Lidge Cathedral. At seventeen years of age 
he became a pupil of Leonard at the Brussels 
Conservatory, and a year later entered the Paris 
Conservatory, where he studied under Massart, 
and won the first prize for violin-playing. He 
completed his student course under Joachim at 
Berlin, and in 1873 made a very successful d^but 
at the 'Concerts populaires.* He became a mem- 
ber of the faculty of the Paris Conservatory in 
1892, succeeding Massart as professor of violin. 
His compositions are almost entirely for the 
violin, and are very popular on the French con- 
cert platform. In 1896-96 he toured the United 
States, and confirmed the reputation that had 
preceded him. 

MABSIGLI, mar-sg^y^ Luioi (c.1330-94). 
An Italian humanist. He was bom at Florence 
and there entered an Augustinian convent, San 
Spirito. He studied theology at Paris, on the 
advice of Petrarch, who wished him to become 
a Christian champion against the Averrhoists. 
San Spirito under Marsigli became a society for 
classical study and discussion; among its mem- 
bers was Coluccio Salutatio. Marsigli was em- 
ployed in several diplomatic errands by the city 
of Florence. His manuscript comments on Pe- 
trarch's poems were preserved at the Laurentian 

HABSIGLI, mttr-8€^y*, Luioi Febdinando, 
Count (1658-1730). An Italian soldier and schol- 
ar, l>om at Bologna. He served as a common sol- 
dier in the Austrian army, and obtained the rank 
of general. But after the fall of Altbreisach 
( 1703) , where he was second in command, he was 
degraded by court-martial, and was never en- 
tirely reinstated, though generally considered in- 
nocent. After this event, Marsigli devoted him- 
self to scientific explorations, and founded the 
Institute of Science and Arts at Bologna (1714). 
In connection with it he established a press for 
printing its reports. His works include: Oaser- 
vazione intomo al Bosforo tracio ( 1681 ) ; 8tor%a 
del mare (1711); DaniibitM Pawnonico-Myaioua 
(1726); and Stato militare delV imperio otto- 
mono (1732). 

MABSIGLia, m&r-se^yA. See Mabsilius. 

MABSn/nrS, or MABSIGI^IO, of Padua 
(C.1280-C.1343). A Christian polemic. He was 
bom in Padua, and studied medicine there. Later 
he taught philosophy at Paris and became rector 
of the university in 1312. There between 1324 
and 1326 he produced, in conjunction with John 
of Jandun, the treatise on jurisprudence which 
gives him his lasting fame, the Defensor Pacta, 
an arraignment of the 'usurpations,' as he terms 
them, of the Roman pontiff. The way to peace, 
he maintains, is for the spiritual power to give up 
its claim to rule the temporal power. He argues 
for a Virtual separation of Church and State, 
and pleads in singularly modern language for 
religious liberty. He denies the right of the 
Church to punish heresy. His book was printed 
and published at Basel (1622). The anonymous 
editor was probably the printer Valentinus Cu- 
rius, tiiough some think he was Huldreich 
Zwingli. It was translated by William Marshall 
(London, 1553). 

MABSIPOBBANCnn, mftr'sIp-d-brfto'kM. 
A class of fish-like animals, the lampreys, with a 
cartilaginous skeleton and the skull imperfectly 
developed. See Cyclostomi. 

MABSIVAir, mar's^-van'. A to\m of Asia 
Minor in the Vilayet of Sivas, situated among 
gardens and vineyards 66 miles south of the 
Black Sea (Map: Turkey in Asia F 2) . It is the 
seat of Anatolia College, also of a Protestant 
theological seminary, as well as Jesuit and Ar- 
menian schools. In the neighborhood are a sil- 
ver mine and hot mineral springs. It is a pros- 
perous town with a population of about 16,000. 

MABS-LA-TOUB, mars'lft-tSSr'. A village 
of France, in the department of Meurthe-et- 
Moselle, 12 miles from Metz, on the route be- 
tween that city and Verdun. It is noted for the 
bloody battle which took place there between the 

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French and Germans, August 16, 1870, better 
known as the battle of Vionville (q.v.). 

MAB'STON, John (1676?-1634). An Eng- 
lish dramatist, belonging to the Marstons of 
Shropshire. He was born probably at Coventry, 
about 1575. In 1594 he graduated B.A. from 
Brasenose College, Oxford, and very soon, it 
would seem, studied law. Turning to literature, 
he published in 1598 The Metamorphosis of Pyg- 
malion's Image; and Certain Satires, and The 
Scourge of Villanie: three Books of Satires. The 
first, Pygmalion's Image, is an amatory poem, 
written, the author asserted, to bring into dis- 
repute the whole species. The satires, some of 
which are devoted to a quarrel between Marston 
and Joseph Hall, are coarse and brutal. On 
the other hand, they are vigorous and perspicu- 
ous. Most famous are the lines in which Marston 
dedicates himself to everlasting oblivion. The 
earliest trace of Marston as a playwright is in 
Henslowe's Diary (September 28, 1599). His 
extant tragedies comprise: Antonio and Mellida 
and Antonio's Revenge (1602) ; The Malcontent 
(1604) ; Sophonisha (1606) ; and The Insatiate 
Countess (1613). His comedies comprise: The 
Dutch Courtezan (1605); The Faion (1606); 
and What You Will (1607). As he often col- 
laborated, his hand is also discernible in several 
other plays. In conjunction with Chapman and 
Jonson, he wrote Eastward Ho (1605); on ac- 
count of certain offensive passages he and Chap- 
man were sent to prison, where Jonson volun- 
tarily joined them. Before this, Marston and 
Jonson had quarreled, but they were now recon- 
ciled. The comedies are lively and entertaining. 
The tragedies contain many blood-curdling pas- 
sages, but they are ill-constructed. The Sest is 
The Insatiate Countess, in the making of which 
William Barksted may have had a hand. In mid- 
dle life, Marston left the stage and entered the 
Church. From 1616 to 1631, he held the living 
of Christchurch, in Hampshire. He died in 
London, June 25, 1634. Consult Works, ed. by 
Bullen (3 vols., London, 1887). 

MABSTON, John Westland (1819-90). An 
English dramatic poet, born in Lincolnshire. He 
studied law, but left that profession for litera- 
ture. He published Oerald and Other Poems 
(1842), besides some novels and short stories, 
and was long a contributor to the AtheruBum. 
His principal literary activity, however, was in 
the field of dramatic literature. Among his 
numerous plays are: The Patrician's Daughter 
(1841), a tragedy; Strathmore (1849); Ann 
Blake (1852); A Hard Struggle (1858); The 
Favorite of Fortune (1866) ; A Hero of Roma/nce 
(1867) ; and Life for Life (1869). 

MABSTON, Phujp Boubke (1850-87). An 
English poet, bom in London. From early child- 
hood he suffered a partial loss of sight which 
ultimately became complete blindness. Besides 
vision he lost friends, relatives, and pecuniary 
means ; the whole serving to develop in his verse 
a vein of unvaried sac&ess. His sonnets and 
lyrics are highly esteemed for technical excel- 
lence. It is generally believed that he was the 
subject of Mrs. Craik*s Philip, My King. He 
published three volumes of poetry: Song Tide 
and Other Poems (1871) ; All in All (1875) ; and 
Wind Voices (1883). There were posthumously 

Sublished a collection of stories, edited by W. 
harp and called For a Song's Sake and Other 

Stories (1887); and, in verse, Garden Beoretm 
(1887) and A Last Harvest (1891), both edited 
by Mrs. Louise C. Moulton. 

MABSTON MOOB. A plain in Yorkshire. 
England, where, July 2, 1644, the Royalist army, 
under Prince Rupert, was beaten by the Parlia- 
mentary forces, English and Scotch, under Fair- 
fax, the Earl of Manchester, and the Earl of 
Leven. The approach of Rupert forced Fair- 
fax to abandon the siege of York, and he 
took up his position on Marston Moor, witli 
about 25,000 men. Rupert, with about the 
same number, came up with him on the after- 
noon of July 2d; and in the evening, at the 
head of the Royalist right, he made a fierce 
charge upon the Parliamentary left, which broke 
and fled in disorder. The Parliamentary centre 
had likewise been broken by the infantry of the 
Royalist centre and had suffered heavily ; but while 
the Royalists were dispersed in search of plunder 
or in pursuit of the enemy, Cromwell's famous 
'Ironsides' brigade, with the Scotch regiments, 
commanded by David Leslie, and some others, 
rallied, charged the Royalists vigorously, and 
remained masters of the field, capturing 1500 
prisoners and all the Royalist artillery. The 
killed and wounded on each side numbered about 
2000. Thi£ victory resulted in the occupation of 
York and the control of the whole North of Eng- 
land by the Parliamentary forces. 

MABSTBAKD, mAr'str&n, Vilhelm Nikolai 
(1810-73). A Danish genre painter, bom in 
Copenhagen. Here he studied at the Academy, 
and under Eckersberg, but at an early stage 
worked independently, and won success with such 
subjects as a "Sleigh Drive by Torchlight" 
( 1829) , and a "Musical Party" ( 1834) , of special 
interest as containing numerous portraits from 
the musical world. In 1836 he went to Rome, 
where he joined the circle that centred about 
Thorwaldsen and where, with others, he painted 
an "Episode in the October Festival at Rome" 
( 1840, Thorwaldsen Museum, Copenhagen ) . After 
visiting Florence, he passed a year in Munich 
and returned home in 1841. Prominent among 
his productions during the next decade were a 
"Scene from Danish Peasant Life" (after Hol- 
berg), and "Childbed Room" (1846), both in 
the Copenhagen Gallery; and "Pothouse Politi- 
cians" (1852, Hamburg Gallery), besides other 
episodes and characters from the plays of Hol- 
berg. On a trip through Sweden he sketched 
hundreds of studies, embodied afterwards in "A 
Sunday in Dalecarlia" (1853, Copenhagen Gal- 
lery). Later on he treated also nistorical sub- 
jects successfully: witness his mural paintings in 
the mortuary chapel of Christian IV. at Roes- 
kilde, and "Foimdation of Copenhagen Univer- 
sity," in the Aula of that building. His mas- 
terly illustrations \jo Don Quiaaote constitute part 
of his most meritorious work. He was appointed 
professor at the Copenhagen Academy in 1848 
and was its director from 1853 to 1857 and 
again from 1863 to the time of his death. 

MABSTJPLAX FBOG (from Lat. marsu- 
pium, from Gk. ftapa-liriop, marsipion, diminu- 
tive of ftdfxriirot, marsipos, ftdpfftiriroi, marsippos, 
fxdfxnnros, marsypos, pouch). A tree-frog of the 
South American genus Nototrema, which is pecu- 
liar among the Hylidae, in that the female has 
a pouch on her back for the reception of the 
eggs. This pouch forms two blind sacs made by 

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ialolding of the skin, whkh extend forward over 
the back; but in one species the opening is 
longitudinal. The eggs are few in number and 
of large ai^e, with much food-yolk, for in most 
species the embryos remain in the pouch until 
they are fully matured. How the eggs get into 
the pouch is not known, but Gadow thinks it 
most likely that they are placed there by the 
help of the male immediate]^ after fertilization. 
Five or six species of these small, brightly colored 
frogs have been described from the tropical for- 
ests of Venezuela and the Upper Amazon. Ck)n- 
sult Gadow, Amphibia and Reptiles (London, 

MAB'SUPIAOJLA.. The marsupials form one 
of the great subdivisions of the class Mammalia, 
and are of special interest because of their an- 
cestral history and relationships, and their re- 
markable geographical distribution. Although 
ranked as an order, Marsupialia is coexten- 
sive with the subclass Metatneria (q.v.). Its 
principal characters are as follows: the brain 
IS small, with the surface-folding absent or very 
simple, the corpus callosimi rudimentary, and 
the cerebellum completely exposed. Epipubic 
bones are present in both sexes, and there are 
other important skeletal characters, prominently 
a tendency to the separation of bones ankylosed 
in the higher Eutheria. The mammary glands are 
provided with long teats, and are usiuiUy in- 
closed in a marsupiimi or pouch, which serves to 
protect the helpless voung. The imperfection or 
absence of the pouch is foimd only among the 
Koalas who grow and suckle on the mother's 
teat after post-natal removal; the young being 
protected only by the hair of the mother's abdo- 
men. The young when bom are verv minute and 
undeveloped. They are not nierely imperfect foetr 
uses, but 'actual lan^e,' inasmuch as t^ey are pro- 
vided with a special sucking mouth, in adapta- 
tion to their needs, which is later replaced by a 
true mouth. The young when bom are transferred 
by the lips of the mother to the pouch, where 
they are placed upon a teat to which the tempo- 
rary sucking mouth clings ; and, as they are un- 
able to suck, the milk is injected into them 
by the action of special muscles of the mammary 
gland. (See Gland.) The organs of reproduc- 
tion are peculiar to the group, which is often 
called Didelphia* in reference to their character. 
The oviducts never unite to form a uterus and 
the vagina is always double, at least in part; 
the testes hang suspended in front of the penis 
and the glans of the latter is often bifurcate. The 
anus and urino-genital opening are surrounded 
by a common sphincter muscle. It was formerly 
supposed that no allanteic placenta was present 
in the group, but it is now known to exist in 
some bandicoots (Perameles) . The egg is minute, 
as in other Eutheria, but incompletely divides 
at first. 

In dentition and habite as great a variety 
exists among the marsupials as in all the^rest 
of the mammals together, for carnivorous, herbiv- 
orous, insectivorous, and omnivorous forms are 
all well known. In distribution, one family, the 
DidelphyidfiB (opossums), is peculiar to the 
American continent, where it is spread from New 
York State to Patagonia; only one of the 24 
species, however, occurs north of Mexico. All the 
other marsupials (except one) are confined to the 
Anstralasian region, where they completely domi- 
nate all other mammals, and form the most char- 
Vol. XIU.-S. 

acteristic feature of the fauna. Their surrival 
and prosperity in Australia is doubtless due to 
the entire absence there of destructive carnivores, 
except the dingo, of doubtful antiquity ; and they 
have bec(mie diversified within their limited cir- 
cumstances in the same way as have the larger 
company of mammals all over the world, to en- 
able them to utilize all possible advanteges. The 
fact of marsupials existing in Anoerica, and 
especially in the Neotropical region, has excited 
much speculation as to how they came there, so 
remote from Australia. Greological researches 
show that during the Mezozoic Age marsupials 
inhabited Europe and North America, but none 
of that period have been found in Australian 
rocks. These oldest ancestors of the race appear 
to have been mainly of the polyprotodont type, 
little differentiated from the diprotodonts, how- 
ever; and either this differentiation occurred very 
long ago (in Jurassic or Creteceous times) or 
the latter is a condition which has arisen, as 
Beddard suggeste, independently in both Sonth 
America and Australia. At any rate, before the 
Tertiary Age was finished pouched marsupials 
disappeared from the Northern Hemisphere and 
survived only in Australasia and South America. 
The hypothesis of a former land connection be- 
tween Australia and Patagonia is no longer re- 
garded as tenable; but it is interesting to know 
that a diprotodont (see Opossum-Rat) existe in 

The relationships of marsupials have become 
much better understood than formerly. The 
name Metatheria was originally given with the 
idea that this group was intermediate between 
the Prototheria (monotremes) and higher Eu- 
theria, and in a sense this is true, but the former 
belief that it represente a stage of development 
from the Prototneria to the monodelphic mam- 
mals is not now accepted. The distinctions be- 
tween the marsupials and the Monotremata are 
fnndamentel, and there is no evidence of the 
derivation of the two branches from any common 
source. On the contrary, as Beddard concludes 
in a learned review of the subject, the great spe- 
cialization of the structure of the marsupials 
(including evidence of degeneration), and their 
age, point to the fact that they are the descend- 
ants of an early form of eutherian mammal, since 
the time when the stock had acquired diphydonty 
and the allantoic placenta. See the article Mam- 

Classification. Rather less than 160 species 
are known, but they exhibit a most extraordinary 
variety of size, form, and color. The classification 
of the marsupials is based primarily upon the 
dentition, although the characters of the feet 
have been given much weight recently. There 
are two principal groups, the Polyprotodontiaf 
which have numerous small, subequal incisor 
teeth, and the Diprodontia, which have not more 
than six incisors in each jaw and usually have 
only two in the lower jaw. The former includes 
the opossums, Tasmanian wolf and 'devil,' the 
dasyures, bandicoots, and the like, while in the 
latter are the wombats, phalangers, koala, and 
kangaroos. Descriptive articles will be found 
under each of these terms and the related words. 

BiBLiOGRAPnT. In addition to stendard works 
and books descriptive of Australia, consult the 
great folio volumes, with magnificent colored 
plates, of J. Gould, entitled Monograph of the 
Macropodidce (London, 1841), and Mammals of 

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Australia (London, 1863) ; Kreft, Mammals of 
Attatralia, folio, large plates (Sydney, 1871); 
Waterhouse, Mammalia, vol. i. (London, 1848) ; 
Thomas, Catalogue of Maraupialia and Monotre- 
mata in the British Museum (London, 1888) ; 
Parker and Haswell, Text-Book of Zoology (Lon- 
don and New York, 1897) ; Beddard, Mammalia 
(London and New York, 1902). 

ICABSUPIAL MOLE (notoryctes typhlops). 
A small burrowing marsupial of central Southern 
Australia. The marsupial mole is in no way 
connected with the European mole, but neverthe- 
less has acquired many similar habits — afford- 
ing a valuable lesson in parallelism in develop- 
ment. Consult Beddard, Mammalia (London 
and New York, 1902). 

MAB^USy DoMiTius (c.54 B.C.-C.4 B.C.). A 
Roman poet of the Augustan Age. He seems to 
have been a friend of Mscenas (Martial viii. 
66, 21), but is not mentioned by Horace. His 
works include: Cicuta, a collection of epigrams; 
De Urhanitate, a treatise on the use of wit in 
oratory, which is quoted by Quintilian; Am^ 
eonis, an epic; and erotic el^es and fables. He 
is frequently mentioned by Martial (iv. 29, 7; 
vii. 29, 7 ) , who praises the wit and severity of his 
satire. The few fragments of his works that 
remain may be found in Btthrens, Fragmenta 
Poetarum Romanorum (1886). Consult also: 
Weichert, Poetarum Latinorum Reliquiw ( 1830 ) . 

MAB^YAS (Lat., from Gk. Ma/Nrt^r). One 
of the Sileni of Asia Minor, and therefore at once 
a spirit of the water and of music, especially of 
the flute, which was associated with the worship 
of the great goddess Cybele, as whose devoted 
servant Marsyas appears in the Phrygian legend. 
Thus he is called the son of Hyagnis, to whom 
was attributed sometimes the invention of the 
flute, and a teacher of Olympus, to whom the 
development of the art was assigned. Under 
Greek and especially Attic influence other fea- 
tures were added to the legend. Athena, so ran the 
story, had invented the flutes, but, observing the 
reflection of her distorted face, threw them from 
her. They were found by the Silenus, or satyr, 
Marsyas, who became so skillful that he ven- 
tured to challenge the god of the cithara, Apollo, 
to a musical contest. Here two veTsions follow. 
According to one, King Midas as judge gave 
the decision to Marsyas, whereupon Apollo be- 
stowed on the umpire asses' ears for his poor 
judgment. In the other version the muses were 
the arbiters, and gave the decision to Apollo, as 
his instrument allowed him to add song. In both 
versions the god hung his presumptuous rival to 
a tree and flayed him alive, or caused him to be 
flayed by a Scythian slave. At Celsente in Phrygia 
Marsyas was worshiped at the cavern whence 
flows the tributary of the Maeander that bears his 
name, and here also was shown his skin, which 
had been hung up in warning by the victorious 
god. Marsyas was a favorite figure in art. The 
Athenian sculptor Myron made a famous group 
of Athena and Marsyas, of which the latter figure 
seems reproduced in a marble statue in the 
Lateran. Another celebrated group is represented 
by the statues of Marsyas hung from the tree, and 
the celebrated Florentine figure of the Scythian 
whetting his knife; of the other figures of this 
group no certain copies have been identified. The 
competition was also represented on the base of 
the statues of Leto, Apollo, and Artemis at Man- 

tinea, by Praxiteles, and of this composition 
three of the four slabs are now in the Museum a^ 
MABTEIjy Chables. See Chables Mabtei^ 
MAKTEIiy mar't^^ Louis Joseph (1813-92). 
A French politician, bom at Saint-Omer. He 
studied law, entered politics, and was elected to 
the Legislative Assembly of 1849. He was a mem- 
ber of the Corps L^gislatif in 1863 and 1869 ; in 
1871 was elected to the National Assembly, and 
was vice-president of the Chamber. In 1875 he 
was elected life member of the Senate; in 1876-77 
he became Minister of Justice and Public In- 
struction, and in 1879-80 he was president of the 

Garbtkt.t.k, Countess de (c.l850— ). A French 
author, bom at the Chateau of Ko^tsal (Morbi- 
han), and better known by her pen name. Gyp. 
She was the great-grandniece of Mirabeau, and 
married the Comte Martel de Janville in 1869. 
She created the essentially Parisian characters 
Petit Bob, Loulou, and Paulette, types of a more 
or less risque society, which she describes in 
witty dialogue, and with piquant satire. Her 
novels include: Petit Boh (1882) ; La vertu de 
la haronne (1882) ; Autour du mariage (1883) ; 
Elle et lui (1885); Le plus heureuw de tons 
(1885) ; Autour du divorce (1886) ; Sac d papier 
(1886); Pot«r ne pas^ Vitref (1887); Pauvre9 
petit' femmes (1888); Mademoiselle Loulou 
(1888) ; Bob au salon (1888) ; Oh6! les psycho- 
logues (1889); Mademoiselle Eve (1889), suc- 
cessfully dramatized. 

MABTELf), m^r'te-W (Fr., hammered). In 
music, a direction for bow instruments, indicat- 
ing that notes so marked are to be played with a 
clean, decided stroke. When the term is used in 
piano music it means that the keys are to be 
struck heavily and firmly. 

MABTELTiO TOWER. A round masonry 
tower designed to form part of a system of coast 
defense. The original Martello tower was situ- 
ated in the Gulf of San Fiorenzo, Corsica, and 
was named after its inventor.. In 1794 two 
British war ships unsuccessfully attacked it, 
with loss to themselves ; this single experience, it 
is said, leading afterwards to the adoption of 
Martello towers by the English. They were 
erected along the more exposed parts of the 
south coast and the south and southeastern 
coasts of Ireland. They were determined on 
and built hurriedly during the Napoleonic wars, 
owing to fear of a French invasion. They are 
about 40 feet high, solidly built, and situated on 
or near the beach. The walls are five and one- 
half feet thick and were supposed to be bomb- 
proof; the base formed the magazine, the gar- 
rison occupied the two upper rooms, and the 
swivel heavy gun and its accompanying how- 
itzers were placed on the roof. They were a 
great expense to the nation, and have always been 
regarded as worthless. They are now dismantled 
and, except in the few instances where they 
are utilized by the Coast Guard, abandoned. 

MABTEN (Fr. martre, marte, from ML. 
martus, marturis^ mardarus^ mardalus, mar- 
darius, from OHG. mardar, €rer. Marder, from 
OHG. mart, AS. mearpy marten; probably con- 
nected with Lith. martis, bride). Either of two 
species of fur-bearing animals of the genus Mus- 

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tela, which also contains the sables. The body 
is elongated and supple, as in weasels, the legs 
short, and the toes separate, with sharp, long 
claws. The nose is grooved and the ears are 
shorter and broader than in weasels, and the 
tail is bushy. The martens exhibit great agility 
and gracefulness in their movements and are very 
expert in climbing trees, among which they gen- 
erally live, furnishing a lofty hollow in a decay- 
ing trunk with a bed of leaves. Here the young 
are brought forth in litters of six to eight early 
each spring; but in a mountainous country all 
will make dens, sometimes in crevices of rocks. 

The term marten is somewhat indefinite, but is 
most applied in America to the animal which 
is the nearest analogue to the Old World 
sable (q.v.), and hence is frequently called the 
American sable or pine marten: technically it is 
Mustela Americana, This species, which for 250 
years has supplied the most valuable of the 
American furs gathered from its tribe, originally 
had a range wherever forests grew from New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania to Labrador and Hudson 
Bay, and from Colorado and central California to 
the barren grounds of the Arctic coast; and it 
was so plentiful that periodically it overflowed 
eertain districts and spread in hordes, scat- 
tering far and wide in search of food. On the 
other hand, periods of astonishing scarcity of 
martens occur every eight or ten years, no cause 
for which is known. The incessant trapping 
which goes on in the wilderness seems to have 
little effect upon them, but this species every- 
where rapidly fades away before the approach of 
civilization. They keep mostly to the trees, and 
hence like the denser parts of the forest, but 
they constantly descend to the ground for food, 
especially in winter, when they regularly hunt 
for hares and grouse of all kinds, trailing them 
with nose to the track like hounds. Their broad 
feet enable them to move rapidly, even over soft 
snow. They also hunt persistently for squirrels, 
chase them in the trees and on the ground, and 
enter their nests. To this diet is added whatever 
mice and birds and small fare comes their way. 

Martens have little to fear from native foes; 
the much larger fisher is said to kill them occa- 
sionally, and it is not improbable that the great 
homed owl now and then manages to pounce on 
one, but very few of the carnivores care to taste 
tiieir flesh unless driven to it by extreme hunger. 
They are trapped from November until toward 
March, when their coat begins to become ragged 
and dull in hue, and with the approach of the 
rutting season they are no longer attracted by the 
baits offered by trappers. This species averages 
about 18 inches in length of head and body, plus 
seven to eight inches of tail. Its highly variable 
tints may be described as rich brown, somewhat 
lighter below. The winter fur is full and soft, 
an inch and a half deep, and has sparsely scat- 
tered through it coarse black hairs which the 
furrier pulls out. The tail has longer hairs, but 
is lees bushy than that of the fisher. The dis- 
tinction between this animal and either the Euro- 
pean pine marten or the Asiatic sable is not 
visible to an inexperienced eye, and it is only 
recently that naturalists have agreed to regard 
them as specifically distinct. 

A much larger American species, unlike any- 
thing in the Old World, is Pennant's marten 
{Mustela Pewnanti), the 'pekan' of French-Cana- 
dian trappers and commonly known to Ameri- 

cans as the 'black cat' or 'fisher,' the latter an 
erroneous name, since the animal never catches 
fish. It is the largest of its race, and is described 
under Fisheb. For illustration of the pine marten 
fcee Plate of Fub-Beabing Animals. Two other 
species are natives of Northern Europe, namely, 
the now rare and restricted pine or sweet marten 
(Mtiatela martea) and the more common beech 
or stone marten {Mustela foina), which is not 
now regarded as an inhabitant of Great Britain. 
The habits of both are substantially the same as 
have been described above, and they differ mainly 
in the pine marten having (like the American 
form) a yellowish throat and chest, while that 
of the beech marten is white. Consult Coues, 
Fur-Bearing Animals (Washington, 1877). 

MABTi:NE, mAr'tAn', Edmond (1664-1739). 
A Roman Catholic scholar. He was born at 
Saint- Jean-de-LOne, near Dijon; became a Bene- 
dictine monk at eighteen, and joined the famous 
Congregation of Saint Maur. He spent his life in 
the service of learning, searching the libraries 
of Grermanv, France, and the Netherlands, the 
fruits of tne search appearing in many works, 
notably in the new edition of the Oallia Christ- 
iana (14 vols., 1715-56) ; Commentarius in Regu- 
lam 8ancti Patris Benedicti (1690); Thesaurus 
Novus Anecdotorum (1717); Veterum Scrip- 
torum et Monumentorum Historicorum Dogmati- 
corum et Moralium Amplissima Collect to (1724- 

MABTENSy mftr'tens, Fbiedbigh Fbommhold 
VON (1846—). A Russian writer on interna- 
tional law, bom at Pemau, in Livonia. He 
studied law at the universities of Saint Peters- 
burg, Vienna, Heidelberg, and Leipzig. In 1868 
he became an official of the Ministry for Foreign 
Affairs and thereafter continued to be an active 
and influential figure in matters of foreign diplo- 
macy. He took part in the Brussels conference 
for the codification of martial law. In 1884 and 
1887 he was a member of the Red Cross confer- 
ences. In 1889 he represented Russia at the 
Brussels conference for commerce and maritime 
law. He was intrusted with the office of arbi- 
trator between England and France in the New 
Zealand question in 1891, and two years after- 
wards he was a delegate to the Hague conference 
on arbitration. In 1905 he was legal adviser 
to the Russian peace plenipotentiaries at Ports- 
mouth. He published: Recueil de trait4s et con- 
ventions conclus par la Russie avec les puissances 
4trangdres (1874-95), and La Russie et VAngle- 
terre dans VAsie Centrale (1879). He is fa- 
mous for his work International Law (1882). 

MABTENS, Geobg Fbiedbich von (1756- 
1821). A German publicist and diplomat, bom 
at Hamburg. He studied at the universities of 
G5ttingen, Ratisbon, and Vienna. From 1783 
to 1789 he was professor of law at Gottingen. 
In 1808 he entered into the Westphalian civil 
service as Counselor of State. After the restora- 
tion, he was made. Privy Coimcilor by the King 
of Hanover. Martens's chief literary work is 
Recueil des trait4s (1817-36), but he acquired 
special fame by his Precis du droit des gens mo- 
demes de I* Europe (1821-64). 

MAB^ENSEN, Hans Lassen (1808-84). A 
Danish theologian and bishop. He was bom at 
Flensburg, Schleswig, August 19, 1808; studied 
theology at the University of Copenhaipen ; and 
in 1840 became professor at the university, first 

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in philosophy, and afterwards in theology. In 
1845 he was appointed preacher to the Danish 
Court, and in 1854 elevated to the bishopric of 
Iceland, the highest dignity of the Danish 
Church. In this position, by his eminent scholar- 
ship, his catholic spirit, and his tireless activity, 
he exerted a powerful and beneficent influence. 
He died in Copenhagen, February 3, 1884. His 
^orks include: Mester Eckart (1840), an essay 
•on the mysticism of the Middle Ages ; an Outline 
of a System of Ethics ( 1841 ) ; Christian Dog- 
matica (1849; Eng. trans. 1866); a System of 
Christian Ethics (1872; Eng. trans. 1873-82); 
Jakob Bdhme (1882); an autobiography (Ger. 
trans., Aus meinem Lehen, 1883-84). Consult 
also his correspondence with Domer, Brief- 
wechsel mit L. A. Domer (1887). 

MAB^THAy Ger. pron. mfir'ti. An opera in 
four acts by Flotow, with words by Friedrich 
Riese, produced at Vienna in 1847. The music 
is light and the opera has won wide popularity. 
Among the arias is The Last Rose of Summer.* 

MAB^HA AND MA^Y, of Bethany. 
Two sisters named in the Grospels of Luke and 
John as special friends of Jesus. At their home 
in Bethany, on the Mount of Olives, near Jerusa- 
lem, Jesus found a welcome on His visits to 
Jerusalem. Martha appears to have been the 
elder, though Mary was the more appreciative of 
Jesus' teaching (cf. Luke x. 38-42). The re- 
gard in which Jesus held the sisters was extended 
:to their brother Lazarus (q.v.), at whose death 
Jesus came to Bethany to comfort the sisters, 
not only by the raising of the dead one, but by 
teaching concerning immortal life, which Martha, 
however, found hard to grasp (John xi.). A few 
'days before the crucifixion Jesus was a guest at 
:a meal in the home of Simon of Bethany, a leper, 
:at which Martha assisted, and which Mary made 
the occasion of anointing Jesus with the contents 
of a box of most precious ointment — a symbol of 
her regard graciously accepted by Jesus (Matt, 
xxvi. 6-13; Mark xiv. 3-9; John xii. 1-8). The 
attempts to identify this anointing with that 
referred to in Luke vii. 36-50 cannot be pro- 
nounced successful. Nothing more is known of 
the sisters. Mediaeval legend confounded Mary 
with Mary Magdalene, and asserted that she la- 
bored and died in Southern France. 

MABTHA'S VEKTEYABD. An island off 
the southern coast of Massachusetts, of which 
State it forms, with one or two minor islets, the 
eoimty of Dukes (Map: Massachusetts, F 5). 
It is 20 miles long and 1 miles in greatest width, 
and is separated from the mainland by Vineyard 
Sound, 4 to 6 miles wide. The island is rather 
level, and to a large extent covered with low for- 
ests presenting a remarkable variety of flora. 
The southern coast has shallow lagoons and sand 
bars, while on the north side the coast consists of 
bluffs about 30 feet high, and to the west termi- 
nates in the bold headland Gay Head, 200 feet 
high, and surmounted by a lighthouse. The 
island is a much frequented summer resort, and 
is noted for its large annual camp meetings. The 
principal town and the county seat is Edgartown. 
The population in 1890 was 4369, and in 1900 
4561. The island was discovered and named by 
Bartholomew (3osnold in 1602. Its Indian in- 
habitants were all converted to Christianity, and 
were loyal to the whites during King Philip's 
War. During the Revolution the island was 
plundered by the British. 

MABTI, m&r't^, Jos£ Julian (1853-95). A 
Cuban patriot, born in Havana. As a youth he 
worked in the quarries, but he was afterwards 
able to go to Spain, where he studied law. The 
independence of Cuba had been his dream for 
many vears, and he was twice imprisoned for his 
radical views on the subject. He was professor 
of literature and philosophy in the University of 
Guatemala for a tune, and represented the Argen- 
tine Republic, Uruguay, and Paraguay as consul 
in New York City. There he published La Patria^ 
a journal devoted to Cuban mterests. His writ- 
ings include a translation of Helen Jack- 
son's Ramona (1888). At the end of the year 
1894, Marti, with some friends from the United 
States, armed and manned three vessels and 
sailed for Cuba, but they were captured at Fer- 
nandina, Fla. On another expedition in 1895, he 
succeeded in landing at Cabonico, and marched 
inland with Gromez. Marti himself had in- 
tended to return abroad, but the army was at- 
tacked by the Spaniards at Dos Rios, and he was 

MABTIAL, m&r^shal (Mabcus Vauexius 
Mabtiaus). The first of Roman epif^am- 
matists. He was bom at Bilbilis, in Spain, March 
1, A.D. 38-42; Uie exact year is in doubt. In 64 
he came to Rome, where he resided till 98, when 
he returned to his native town. Here he found 
many good friends and patrons, and a highly 
cultivated lady named Marcella made him a 
present of a small estate, where he passed in re- 
pose the following years until his death, which 
occurred not later than a.d. 104. While at Rome 
Martial became famous as a wit and poet« and re- 
ceived the patronagre of the emperors Titus and 
Domitian. He lived in a sort of precarious af- 
fluence in a mansion in the city, and in Nomen- 
tum, a suburban villa, to both of which he makes 
frequent reference. From Rome his reputation 
rapidly extended to the provinces; and even in 
Britain his Epigrammata, which, divided into 
fourteen books, now form his extant works, were 
familiarly read. These books, which were ar- 
ranged by himself for publication, were written 
in the following order : The first eleven, including 
the Liber de SpectamUis, were composed at Rome, 
with the exception of the third, which was writ- 
ten during a tour in Gallia Togata; the twelfth 
was written at Bilbilis, and the thirteenth and 
fourteenth at Rome, under Domitian. The last 
two, entitled Xenia and Apophoreta, describe^ln 
distichs the various kinds of souvenirs presented 
by the Romans to each other on holidays. To the 
other books we are also indebted for much of our 
knowledge of the manners and customs which pre' 
vailed under the Empire from Nero to Trajan. 
His works have also a great litcrarv value, 
as embodying the first specimens of what we now 
understand by epigram — ^not a mere inscrip- 
tion, but a poem of two or more lines, con- 
taining the terms of an antithesis, which ends 
with a witty or ingenious turn of thought. The 
wonderful inventiveness and facility displayed by 
Martial in this species of composition have al- 
ways received the highest admiration, only quali- 
fied by his disgusting grossness. The best edition 
of Martial is that of Friedliinder (2 vols., Leip- 
zig, 1886) ; a handy text edition is that of Gil- 
bert (Leipzig, 1886). He has never found an 
adequate translator, but a collection of transla- 
tions in prose and verse will be found in Bohn's 
"Classical Library." See Epigiam. 

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ICABTL/LL LAW (Lat. martialis, pertaining 
to war or Mars, from Mara, the god of war) . The 
exercise of exceptional governing power by mili- 
tary authorities in cases where the ordinary law 
is superseded by the control of military forces. 
It is not a written law, but arises out of a neces- 
sity, either (a) in case of the invasion of a 
foreign country by belligerents, or (b) where by 
the force of internal dissension or conflict the 
regular civil authority of a country is partly or 
wholly overcome, and the proclamation of martial 
law is necessitated by the exigency of the occa- 

Martial law includes imder its sway all persons 
— ^whether civil or military. In its administra- 
tion the forms of military law are adhered to as 
far as practicable. In the Civil War the Govern- 
ment of the United States declared martial law 
to be the immediate and direct effect and con- 
sequence of occupation or conquest, and that it 
was simply military authority exercised in ac- 
cordance with the laws and usages of war. When 
a place, district, or country is occupied by an 
enemy, civil and criminal law continues to take 
its usual course unless stopped by order of the 
occupying military power; but the functions of 
the nbstile government, legislative, executive, or 
administrative, cease, or continue only with the 
sanction or participation of the occupier. Under 
martial law cases which come withm the *rules 
and articles of war,' or the jurisdiction conferred 
by statute on courts-martial, are tried by the 
latter, otherwise by military commission. It was 
the judgment of the Supreme Court of the United 
States ear p. MUligan (4 Wall 2, 127), that 
when the civil courts are open and in *the 
unobstructed exercise of their jurisdiction/ 
a military tribtmal is without the necessary 
jurisdiction to try civilians. Martial law is 
not retrospective. An offender cannot be 
tried for an offense committed before martial 
law is proclaimed. Martial law may continue 
in a conquered country until a civil govern- 
ment can be established or restored. Acts done 
under martial law have no immediate consti- 
tutional or legislative authorization, but ema- 
nate directly from the military power. But where 
the civil authority exists the Constitution is im- 
perative (Art. vi. sec. 2) that it shall be para- 
mount. tFnder the constitutional system of the 
United States, it is held by the Supreme Court 
that a State Legislature may proclaim the exist- 
ence of martial law when demanded by the public 
safety. The power of the Federal Government to 
make such proclamation is a restricted one, im- 
plied from the clause in the Constitution ( Art. i. 
sec. 9, sub. 2), providing that only in cases of 
rebellion or invasion, where necessary for the 
general welfare, shall the writ of habeas corpus 
be superseded. For further information as to the 
suspension of the privilege of habeas corpus in 
time of martial law, see Habeas Corpus. Com- 
pare MnjTABT Law^ from which martial law 
must be distinguished. 

KAJt'TTA^NlTS CAVEJ/UL See Capella, 
Martiantjs Mmicus Felix. 

MABTIGVAC, mttr't^'nyftk', Jean Baptiste 
Algat, Vicomte de (1776-1832). A French poli- 
tician and administrator, born at Bordeaux. His 
devotion to the Bourbons and his services to the 
Duchess d'AngonlGme during the Hundred Days 
won him the post of Procurator-General of Li- 

moges in 1819. Two years after, he was elected a 
Deputy; made himself prominent by his elo- 
quence and his gradual abandonment of his 
extreme Bourbon sentiments; and, in 1828, be- 
came Secretary of the Interior and actual head of 
the Ministry. Here his policy was checked by a 
combination of the Right and the Left. He re- 
tired in August, 1829, and signed the address of 
the Two Hundred and Twenty-One; but after the 
revolution of July boldly defended Charles X. He 
wrote an Essai historique sur la rivolution d'Es- 
pagne et aur Vintervention de 1823 ( 1832) . Con- 
sult Daudet, Le minist^e Martignao 
(Paris, 1875). 

MABTIGNT, mttr'tft'ny^, or MABTINACH 

(Lat. Octodurum) , Three united villages in the 
Canton of Valais, Switzerland, situated on the 
left slope of the Rhone Valley, about twenty-four 
miles south from the east end of Lake Geneva 
(Map: Switzerland, B 2). The two noted routes, 
one to the Vale of Chamonix by the T^te Noire 
or the Col de Balme, and another to the Great ' 
Saint Bernard, branch off here. Martigny is on 
the Simplon road into Italy, and is a great resort 
for tourists. Population, in 1900, 4292. 

MABTIN (from Martin, Fr. Martin, from 
ML. Martinus, Martin, from Lat. Mars, the god 
of war). A swallow; in the United States, one 
of the large purple swallows of the ^nus Progne. 
Several of the South American species are famil- 
iar birds in Argentina, one species {Progne ta- 
pera) breeding only in the clay structures of an 
oven-bird. The common purple martin {Progne 
subis) is widely distributed in North America, 
ranging in summer as far north as Newfoundland 
and the Saskatchewan, and wintering in Central 
and South America. The martin is eight inches 
long and sixteen across the wings. The male is 
shining blue-black, while the female i» bluish- 
black above and brownish -gray beneath. The 
nest was primitively made in hollows of old trees, 
but in all settled parts of the country the birds 
now occupy bird-houses set upon ^les for 
their accommodation, and they have distributed 
themselves accordingly, not frequenting farms or 
villages where bird-houses are not erected for 
them. In occupying these houses they must with- 
stand the competition of bluebirds, wrens, Eng- 
lish sparrows, and, worst of all, of white-bellied 
swallows. The growing scarcity of the bird in 
New England is attributed mainly to the usurpa- 
tions of the last-named species, which arrives in 
the spring somewhat earlier than the martin, 
and, having got possession of the quarters, can- 
not easily be dislodged. These various influences 
make the distribution of the species more and 
more local, and are lessening its numbers in 
the Northeastern States. In the South they are 
more numerous and familiar, and they are every- 
where regarded with affection. The eggs are 
pure white. The food and habits of the martin 
are like those of other swallows (q.v.). 

In Europe the black swift is sometimes called 
*black martin,* and in France the name *martin* 
is applied to the kingfisher ; but the French colo- 
nists in the Orient call the grakles of the genus 
Acridotheres 'martins.' In the United States 
the bank-swallow (q.v.) is sometimes called 
*sand-inartin,' and the kingbird is occasionally 
called *bee-martin.* Such uses of the word, how- 
ever, are confusing, and it is desirable that the 
name martin should be confined at least to the 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




swallows, and in America to those of the genus 
Progne. See Plate of Swallows. 

MARTIN. The name of five popes, the second 
and third of whom are more properly known as 
Marinus I. and II., though since the thirteenth 
century the two names have commonly been con- 
founded in the lists. Mabtin I., Saint, Pope 
649-655. He was a martyr to his firm stand 
against monothelitism, which he caused to be 
condemned in the first Lateran Council. (See 
Lateran Councils.) In consequence he was 
seized by the Greek Emperor Constans II., who 
attempted to depose him and carried him off 
to the Crimea, where he died a prisoner. — Mab- 
tin II., Pope 882-884. Before his election to 
fill the vacancy caused by the violent death of 
John VIII., he had been Bishop of Cere, and 
chosen by three popes to represent them as legate 
in the delicate negotiations with the East, in 
which capacity he was present at the fourth coun- 
cil of Constantinople in 869. As Pope he had 
close relations with the English King Alfred, to 
whom he sent a relic of the cross. — ^Martin III., 
Pope 942-946. A Roman by birth and a man of 
hign repute for learning and piety, though his 
pontificate fell in the unhappy period of the 
domination of the Italian noble factions. — ^Mab- 
tin IV., Pope 1281-85, Simon de Brion. A 
Frenchman by birth, he became canon of Tours, 
was made cardinal by Urban FV. in 1261, and 
was several times legate in France. He was 
elected Pope by the influence of the French party 
in the Sacred College, aided by the presence at 
Viterbo (where the conclave was held) of Charles 
of Anjou, whom he afterwards constantly sup- 
ported, especially in his efforts to retain pos- 
session of Sicily. — Mabtin V., Pope 1417-31, 
Ottone Colonna. He was bom in Rome in 1368. 
He was named cardinal in 1406 by Innocent VII., 
and in 1410 appointed to adjudicate the appeal of 
Huss, against whom he decided. By his election 
to the Papacy at Constance the great schism 
( see Schism, Westebn ) was finally extinguished. 
He presided in all the subsequent sessions of the 
council ; and when the Fathers separated without 
discussing urgent questions of reform, he was 
finally persuaded to call another council, origi- 
nally at Pavia, then, from fear of the plague, at 
Siena, and when it was about to meet at Basel, 
he designated the zealous reformer Cardinal Ce- 
sarini as its president. Martin himself, how- 
ever, died just before the assembling of the 

MABTIN, mar't^n, Eduabd (1809-75). A 
German obstetrician. He was born at Heidel- 
berg; studied medicine there, at Jena, Gottin- 
gen, and Berlin; and, in 1837, became professor 
of gynaecology at Jena, and in 1858 at Berlin. 
Martin was one of the first to operate on diseased 
ovaries. He wrote: Lehrhuch der Oehurtshilfe 
fur Hehammen (1854 and often) ; HandatUxs der 
Oytuikologie (1862; 2d ed. 1878) ; and Die Net- 
gungen und Beugungen der Gebdrmutter (1866; 
2d ed. 1870). 

MABTIN, Ebnst (1841 — ). A German 
scholar in Romance and Germanic philology. He 
was bom at Jena, a son of Eduard Martin; 
studied at Jena, Berlin, and Bonn, and was 
made professor at Strassburg in 1877, after hav- 
ing taught in the universities of Freiburg and 
Prague. He wrote a very valuable Mitielhoch- 
deutsche Grammatik (186*5; 12th ed. 1896) ; Eso- 

amen critique des manuscrits du roman de 
Renard (1872), followed by two editions of Rey- 
naert (1872), and Roman de Renart (1882-87), 
and by Neue Fragmente der Oediohte von den Vo9 
Reinaerde (1889); Elsdsaiache Litteraturdenk- 
maler des IJ^ien his llien Jahrhunderts (1878- 
87) ; Worterhuch der elsdssischen Mundart 
(1897) ; and an edition of Parcival und Tiiurel 

MABTIN, mar'tiN', Ftux (1804-86). A 
French-Canadian Jesuit, bom at Auray in Brit- 
tany. In 1842 he was sent to Canada to assist 
in reestablishing Jesuit missions there. He found- 
ed Saint Mary's College in Montreal ; collected ma- 
terial for the history of Canada, and published 
and edited many works throwing light on the 
old Canadian Jesuit missions, among which are 
the following : Manuel du phlerin de Notre Dame 
de Bon Secours (Montreal, 1848); Relation dee 
Jesuitea (1850), an enlarged edition of O'Cal- 
laghan's work; Mission du Canada, relations in^ 
dites (1861) ; De Montcalm en Canada (1867) ; 
and Le R. P. Isaac Jogues (1873). He assisted 
Carayon in a series of volumes on the Jesuit mis- 

MABTnr, Fban^ois Xavieb (c.I762-1846). 
An American jurist and historian. He was bom 
in Marseilles, France, and when about eighteen 
years of age engaged in business at Martinique. 
He failed and went to New Berne, N. C, about 
1783. He learned the printer's trade, and soon 
had an office of his own. Under the patronage 
of ex-Governor Abner Nash he began the study of 
law. In 1792 he compiled by request of the 
General Assembly the British statutes which 
were in force in North Carolina at the time of 
the Revolution. In 1794 he compiled the private 
acts of the Assembly, and in 1803 extended 
Judge Iredell's revision from 1789. Meanwhile 
he had translated and published Pothier on 
Obligations, setting the type himself. In 1806-07 
he represented the borough of New Berne in the 
Assembly. In 1809 President Madison appoint- 
ed him judge of the Territory of Mississippi, 
and the next year he was transferred to tne 
Territory of Orleans. When the State of Louisi- 
ana was admitted to the Union, he became the 
first Attorney-General, in 1813. In 1816 he was 
appointed to the Supreme 0)urt and served 
thirty-one years. During the latter part of this 
time he was senior or presiding judge. At the 
time of his appointment the law in force in the 
State was a mixture of Spanish and French 
statutes and decisions, into which the writ of 
habeas corpus and the system of procedure in 
criminal cases according to the common law 
had been introduced. Judge Martin's services 
in welding into a homogeneous whole this mass 
of contradictory statutes and principles gave him 
the title, *Father of the jurisprudence of Louisi- 
ana.' During the last ten years of his life he 
was practically blind, but continued to do full 
work on the bench until superseded by the judges 
appointed under the new Constitution in 1845. 
In addition to his judicial labors, he published 
two volumes of Reports of the Superior Courte 
of Orleans, from 1809 to 1812 (1811 and 1813) ; 
eighteen volumes of Reports of the Supreme 
Court of Louisiana (1813-30) : a History of Lou- 
isiana (1827) : and a History of North Carolina 
(1829), though this was completed before he left 
that State in 1809. 

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lIAB/TOTy Gbegobt (M582). A translator 
of the Bible, bom at Maxfield in Sussex, England. 
He was educated at Saint John's College, Oxford 
(B.A. 1561, M.A. 1565), where he was distin- 
guished as a Hebraist and Grecian. After leav- 
ing the university, he became tutor to Philip 
Howard, afterward Earl Arundel. A stanch 
Catholic, he encouraged the Howards to remain 
true to their faith. Unable to conform to the 
Established Church, he fled to Douai in Flanders 
(1570), where he taught Hebrew in the English 
College, then just established. In 1577 he was 
sent to help organize the English Colfege at 
Rome. In 1578 the college at Douai was moved 
to Eheims. There Martin snent the rest of his 
life in the translation of the Bible. He died 
October 28, 1582. The famous Douai Bible, 
though since revised, is still the standard among 
English Catholics. It was made from the Latin, 
collated with the Greek and the Hebrew versions. 
The New Testament appeared at Rheilns in 1582. 
The Old Testament was not published till 1609- 
10. The whole was revised by Bishop Challoner 
in 1740-50. Though Martin's version was severely 
criticised by English Protestants, it was freely 
used for the authorized Protestant version made 
under King James. 

KABTIH, m&r'UN^ Henm (1810-83). An 
eminent French historian, bom at Saint Quen- 
tin, February 20, 1810. Educated for the prac- 
tice of law, he soon abandoned law for litera- 
ture. At first he wrote historical romances 
and poetry, but later, with Paul Lacroix, he 
began the task of compiling a history of France, 
to be made up of extracts from different authors. 
One volume only was published, when La- 
croix abandoned it^ but Martin resolved to 
go on. The first volume appeared in 1833, 
and the undertaking was completed in 1836. 
Meanwhile he set to work on a history of his 
own, the first edition of which appeared in the 
years 1833-36, in fifteen volumes. The third and 
enlarged edition appeared between 1837 and 
1854, in nineteen volumes. In 1844 the Academy 
of Inscriptions gave Martin a prize of 9000 
francs; in 1851 he received the Gobert Prize, and 
in 1869 was awarded the great prize of 20,000 
francs by the Institute. After the fall of the 
Second Empire he was elected to the National 
Assembly, and in 1876 he was elected Senator. 
In 1878 he became a member of the French Acad- 
emy. As an historian Martin belongs to the 
school of Thierry. His Histoire de France, 
which comes down to the year 1789, was later 
continued into the nineteenth century by the 
Histoire de France modeme (2d ed., Paris, 
1878-85). He was the author of numerous other 
literary and historical works, but his great fame 
rests on the Histoire de France. Consult : Hano- 
taux, Henri Martin (Paris, 1885) ; Jules Simon, 
Mignety Michelet, Henri Martin (ib., 1889); 
Mulot, Souvenirs intimes (ib., 1885). 

MAB^TIK, Henbt Austin (1824-84). An 
American surgeon, born in London and educated 
at the Harvard Medical School. He served as 
surgeon in the Union Army and was promoted to 
lieutCTiant-colonel and medical director. In his 
practice in Boston, after the war, he made 
himself well known by introducing the Beau- 
gency virus (1870), the use of the rubber band- 
age (1877), and tracheotomy without tubes 

MABTIN, Henbt Newell (1848-96). An 
American biologist, bom in Newry, Ireland. He 
was educated at University College, London, and 
at Christ College, Cambrid|?e, where he became 
fellow; and in 1876 was chosen professor of bi- 
ology at Johns Hopkins and director of the 
biological laboratory. Martin there carried out 
some valuable experiments on respiration in gen- 
eral and especially on the beating of the heart 
of a mammal after death. He edited Studies 
from the Biological Laboratory of Johns Hop- 
kins, and the Journal of Physiology; assisted 
Huxley in his Practical Biology (1876), and 
Moale in a Handbook of Vertebrate Dissection 
(1881-84); and wrote, apart from the papers 
above mentioned on respiration, Observations in 
Regard to the Supposed Suction-Pump Action of 
the Mammalian Heart ( 1887 ) . 

MARTIN, Homes D. (1836-97). An Ameri- 
can landscape painter. He was bom at Albany, 
N. Y., October 28, 1836, and became a pupil of 
William Hart^ at Albany, a landscape painter of 
the Hudson River School. In 1875 he was elect- 
ed a member of the National Academy, and in 
1878 he became one of the founders of the Society 
of American Artists. He spent several years in 
France, at Villerville and Honfieur. He died in 
Saint Paul, Minn., February 12, 1897. His in- 
terpretation of nature is always poetical; his 
work was at first careful in detail, but later 
it became far bolder in style. His composi- 
tion shows a keen comprehension of form, owing 
to the careful studies that he made from nature. 
His color is subdued, often expressed in tones of 
mellow browns, with subtle qualities of reflected 
light and shade. His brush work is firm and 
broad, and his paintings express large spaces, 
both in sky and land. Among his iSst-known 
works are: "Lake George;" "Westchester Hills;" 
"A Mountain Brook ;'^ "Trouville at Night;" 
"Normandy Trees;" "Autumn on the Susque- 
hanna;" "An Old Church in Normandy;" "View 
on the Seine," "Sand Dunes, Lake Ontario," and 
"Mounts Madison and Jefferson," — all in the 
Metropolitan Museum, New York; and "Head- 
waters of the Hudson." The Century Club of 
New York possesses his "Adirondacks" (1876); 
"High Tide at Villerville," and "Lighthouse at 
Honfleur." Consult Caffin, American Masters of 
Painting (New York, 1902) ; Isham, History of 
American Painting (ib., 1906). 

MAKTnr, John (1789-1854). An English 
historical and landscape painter. He was bom 
at Haydon, near Hexham, July 19, 1789. The 
only art instruction that he received was from 
a china painter at Newcastle. In 1806 he moved 
to London, at first practising china painting. He 
exhibited his first picture, "Sadak in Search of 
the Waters of Oblivion," at the Royal Academy, 
in 1812; "Adam's First Sight of Eve" (1813), 
and "Clytie" (1814). In 1816 "Joshua Com- 
manding the Sun to Stand Still" gained for him 
a premium of £100 at the British Institute. His 
best known wor^, "Belshazzar's Feast," appeared 
in 1821 ; then followed the "Destruction of Hercu- 
laneum" (1822) ; "Seventh Plague" (1823) ; the 
"Creation" (1824); "Fall of Nineveh" (1828); 
"Eve of the Deluge" (1840); and many other 
biblical subjects, besides a number of water-color 
views of the valley of the Thames and other 
rivers. He died in the Isle of Man, February 
17, 1854. Martin was much criticised for his 
deficiencies in drawing and color, but he had a 

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fertile invention and pronounced originality. His 
best work is his illustrations to Milton. 

MABTIN, J06IAH (1737-86). An English 
Colonial Governor, bom probably in the West 
Indies. He entered the British army in 1756, 
was promoted to be major in 1761, and later be- 
came lieutenant-colonel. He sold his commission 
in 1769, and in 1771 was appointed Governor of 
North Carolina to succeed William Tryon, who 
was transferred to New York. At first his frank* 
ness and honesty favorably impressed the people, 
but his stubbornness and his high opinion of the 
royal prerogative and of his own importance 
soon caused opposition. He attempted to pre- 
vent the colony from sending delegates to the 
Continental Congress of 1774, but a Provincial 
Congress met and elected delegates in defiance of 
his protest. This seems to have been the first 
legislative body in America to meet without 
royal authority. After the battle of Lexington 
be was practically a prisoner in the palace at 
Newbem. Martin fled to Wilmington and then to 
Fort Johnston, on the Cape Fear River. On July 
18, 1775, he took refuge in the Britisb sloop- 
of-war Cruiser and attempted to administer the 
government from there until the next year. He 
accompanied the British fleet to Charleston in 
1776, and was with Comwallis in 1780-81. After- 
wards he went to New York and from there to 

KABTIN, mar't^n, Karl (1851—). A Ger- 
man geologist, bom in Oldenburg. He studied at 
Gdttingen, where, in 1874, he became assistant in 
the geological museum; and after a year's teach- 
ing at Wismar in ^lecklenburg was chosen pro- 
fessor of geology at Leyden. In 1878 he was 
appointed director of the geological museum of 
liyden; and in 1882 became a member of the 
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. He 
wrote, besides contributions to periodicals on the 
geology of the Netherlands and of the East In- 
dies : Niederliindiache und nordwestdeuische <S'edi- 
meniarpeschiebe (1878); Tertwrschichten auf 
Java (1879-80); Reisen in den Molukken^ in 
Amhotiy den Uliasaemy Seran und Burn (1894), 
and, with Becker, Geology of the Philippine Isl- 
ands (1001). 

MABTIN, KoNRAD (1812-79). A German 
Catholic theologian. Bishop of Paderbom. He 
was born at Geismar; studied at Halle. Munich, 
and WUrzburg; took orders in 1836; and taught 
in Cologne and Bonn. He was appointed to the 
see of Paderbom in 1856, and showed great dili- 
gence in advancing Catholic educational and 
charitable institutions. Martin was a member of 
the Vatican Council of 1870; urged the dogma 
of infallibility; and publicly def?nded it. His 
opposition to the Government at the begin- 
ning of the Kulturkampf (q.v.) was so 
violent that he was imprisoned for a year, 
and in 1875 fled to Belgium, where he died. He 
wrote various Catholic manuals : Drei Getcissens- 
fragen Uher die Maigesetze (1874); Drei Jahre 
au8 meinem Lehen (1877; 3d ed. 1878); and 
Blieke ins Jenseits (1878). Consult the biog- 
raphy by Stamm (Paderbom, 1892). 

MAB/TTNy Lady. See Favcit, Helen. 

MABTIN, mftr'tftN', Louis AiMt ( 1786-1847) . 
A French writer, bom in Paris. In 1815 he was 
appointed secretary of the Chamber of Deputies, 
and not long afterwards became professor of lit- 
erature and ethics in the Ecole Polytechnique. In 

1831 he became keeper of the library of Sainte 
Genevid^. He published Lettres 6 Sophie »ur 
le physique, la ehivUe^ ei Vhieioire natureUe 
(1810), in prose and verae. His moat valuable 
work was Education des families (1834), con- 
tending that to improve mankind women must be 
educated so that they may be able to rear men of 
virtue. He waa the disciple and friend of Ber- 
nardin de Saint-Pierre, wbose widow he married. 
]CABTI]r,nftr^t^,Luis(1846~). A Spanish 
Jesuit, twenty- fourth general of t^ Order. He was 
bom in Meigar, near Burgos, entered the Society 
of Jesus when eighteen, studied at Poyanne in 
France, where he entered the priesthood, and in 
1877 became rector of the University of Sala- 
manca, where he made a national reputation as> 
a theologian. In 1891, he became assistant of the 
Order in Spain, and in 1892, after the death of 
Anderiedy, and on his recommendation, Martin 
was chosen general, removing to the official head- 
quarters at Piesole. 

ICABTIN, Luther (1744-1826). An Ameri- 
can lawyer and political leader, bom in New 
Brunswick, N. J. He graduated at Princeton in. 
1762; taught school in Queenstown, Md.; studied 
law; was admitted to the bar in 1771 1 and prac- 
ticed in both Maryland and Virginia. In 1774 
he was a member of the Annapolis convention 
that protested against the arbitrary acts of the 
Crown, and throughout the Revolution he con- 
tinued acti\'e on the Patriot side. In 1778 he 
was appointed Attorney-General of Maryland. He 
was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 
1787 at Philadelphia; steadfastly contended there 
against the establishment of a strong national gov- 
ernment; finally left the convention altogether; 
and subsequently strongly opposed the ratitication. 
of the Constitution by Maryland. By his opposi- 
tion to the Constitution he earned the sobriquet 
of The Federal Bull Dog.' In 1804 he defended 
Judge Chase (qv.) in the impeachment proceed- 
ings before the United States Senate, and in 1907 
was counsel for Aairon Burr (q.v.). From 1814 
to 1816 he was Chief Justice oif the Court of Oyer 
and Terminer in Baltimore, and in 1818 was 
again made Attorney-General. He was stricken 
with paralysis in 1820, and, largely owing to 

gjverty, lived thereafter at the home of Aaron 
urr in New York. He published A Defence of 
Captain Cresap; Genuine Information DelivevyeA 
to the Legislature of the State of Maryland Relrn^ 
tive to the Proceedings of the General Convem- 
tion Lately Held at Philadelphia (1788); and 
Modem Gratitude (1801-02). Consult Goddard, 
Luther Martin, the Federal Bull-Dog (Baltinaore, 

MABTIKy Robert Montoomebt (c. 1803-68). 
An English statistician, born in Ireland. In 1820- 
30 he traveled in Ceylon, Africa, and India, antl 
in 1834 published his valuable History of the 
British Colonies. He prepared for the press the 
papers of the Duke of Wellington, and in 1840 
founded the Colonial Magazine, which for two 
years he edited. His further works include: 
Political, Commercial, and Financial Condition 
of the Anglo-Eastern Empire (1832) ; History of 
the Antiquities of Eastern India (1838) ; and This 
Statistics of the British Colonies (1839). 

KABTnr, Sir Theodoee (1816—). An Eni^- 
lish author. He was bora in Edinburgh, and was 
educated at the high school and university of 
that city. In 1846 he became a ParlianoditaTy 

Digitized by 





solicitor in London. Among his earliest Itteranr 
v^entnres was the volume of Bon Oaultier^s Ballads 
(1855; 13th ed. 1877), written in collaboration 
with Prof. W. E. Aytoun. In 1858 he began 
his series of admirable translations with Poems 
and Ballads of Goethe (again assisted by Pro- 
fessor Aytoun). Faust appeared in 1865. Mar- 
tinis other versions are Danish dramas from 
Hertz and Oehlenschlilger (1854-57), the Odes 
of Horace (1860), Catullus (1861), the Vita 
\uova (1862), Faust (1865-86), Heine's Poems 
and Ballads (1878), and 8iw Books of VergU^s 
^neid (1896). The Horaoe renderings, in 1882 
extended to include the entire works, are gen- 
erally c<Miceded to be the best yet made of that 
poet. They are supplemented by a booklet in 
the Ancient Classics for English Readers. His 
further works include The Life of W. E. Aytoun 
(1867) ; The Life of the Prince Consort (1874- 
80) ; The Life of Lord Lgndhurst {2d ed., 1884) ; 
Helena Faucit, Lady Martin ( 1901 ) ; and Ma- 
donna Pia and other plays. In 1881 Martin was 
elected rector of Saint Andrews University. He 
was knighted in 1880. For Lady Martin, see 
the article Faucit, Helen. 

KABTIN, Thomas Moweb (1838—). An 
English painter, bom in London and a student 
there at the South Kensington Art School. He 
went to Canada in 1862, and settled at Toronto. 
He was influential in founding the Royal Cana- 
dian Academy and the Ontario School of Art, of 
which he became director in 1877. His pictures 
include **Th€ Untamed Wilderness," which was 
especially executed for Queen Victoria and hangs 
in Windsor Palace. 

KABTINy William Alexander Pabbons 
(1827—). An American missionary and educa- 
tor, bom at Livonia, Ind. He was educated at 
the Indiana State University and entered the 
Presbyterian Seminary at New Albany, Ind. 
(nowMcCormick, Chicago). He was professor 
of classics at the Anderson Collegiate Institute 
for a year (1849-50), and then went to Ningpo, 
China, as missionary (1850-60). He founded the 
Presbyterian mission at Peking (1863), and re- 
mained in charge until he was appointed pro- 
fessor of international law at the Tung-wOn Col- 
lege of Peking (1868) and its president in 1869. 
In this capacity he translated a number of works 
on international law for the Chinese Govern- 
ment, such as the Guide diplomatique (1874) ; 
and two text-books on physics, which were espe- 
cially reprinted for the Emperor. He was sent 
abroad in 1880 by the Chinese Government to in- 
vestigate the educational systems in foreign coun- 
tries. In 1885 he received the honorable title of 
mandarin of the third rank, and in the same 
year was made the first president of the Oriental 
Society of Peking. From the presidency of the 
Peking College he resigned in 1898. In 1902-5 he 
was president of the new viceregal univer- 
sity in Wuchang. His writings include: The 
Chinese: Their Education, Philosophy ^ and Let- 
trrs (1881) ; Evidences of Christianity (1855, in 
Chinese); The Three Principles (1856); Reli- 
gious Allegories (1857) ; A Cycle of Cathay; or 
China South and North (2d ed., 1897) ; The 
Lore of Cathay; or the Tntellect of China ( 1901) ; 
and The Siege in Peking (1900). 

XABTIVACH, mttr't^nllG. The name of 
three united villages in Switzerland. See Mab- 

MABTIKA FBANCA, mftr-t^nA fi^^. A 
city in the Province of Lecce, Italy, situated on 
a hill 17 miles north-northeast of Taranto (Map: 
Italy, M 7 ) . It is a comparatively modem town. 
Population of commune, in 1901, 25,007. 

Charles Dickens, which appeared in 20 monthly 
parts in 1843 and 1844. The story shows the vice 
of selfishness in various forms and the resulting 
evils in the Chuzzlewit family. Martin's ad- 
ventures in the United States gave great offense 
to Americans. Some of Dickens's most inimitable 
creations are found in it, among them Mr. Peck- 
sniff and Mrs. Gamp. 

MABTIH DE MOUSSY, mftr'tftw' de moo's*', 
Jean Antoine Vicrcm (1810-69). A French 
physician and traveler, bom at Moussy le Vieux. 
He studied medicine in Paris, and practiced in 
the military hospitals. In 1841 he went to 
Montevideo, South America, and in the nine 
years* siege of that place (1843-52) was director 
of the medical service to the French and Italian 
forces. After the downfall of Rosas, the dictator 
of Argentina, in 1852, he was employed by the 
Government of President Urquiza to prepare a 
geographical description of that republic. In 
the execution of this task he spent four years in 
constant travel. The results of his labors are 
embodied in his work in three volumes, entitled 
Description g^ographique et statistique de la 
confederation Argentine (1860-64), which, with 
the atlas accompanying it, is of the highest au- 
thority. He presented to the city of Monte- 
video a well-equipped meteorological observatory. 

MABTINEAU^ m&r^tl-n5, Hasbiet (1802- 
76). An English writer, sister of James Mar- 
tineau, bom at Norwich, England, June 12, 1802; 
educated mostly at home. She early became a 
convert to Unitarianism. Miss Martineau began 
writing when a girl, contributing her first article 
in 1821 to the Monthly Repository, the Unitarian 
organ. In 1829 the house in which had been 
placed the small fortunes of the family failed, 
and Miss Martineau tumed to literature for sup- 
port. Her health had been precarious from girl- 
hood, and she now frequently broke down. For 
rest she visited America (1834-35) and Venice 
( 1839) . By 1845 she had passed from Unitarian- 
ism to agnosticism. In 1845-46 she settled near 
Ambleside by the English Lakes, where she lived 
till her death, June 27, 1876. Miss Martineau 
published thirty-six distinct works, comprising 
tales, novels, and essays on history, politics, eco- 
nomics, and philosophy, and contributed exten- 
sively to periodicals. In the Daily News alone 
appeared more than 1600 articles. She gained 
her first success with Illustrations of Political 
Economy (1832-34) Bind Illustrations of Ta^cation 
(1834), in which she sought to popularize cur- 
rent theories through fiction. Among her other 
works are: Society in America (1837) ; Western 
Travel (1838); Deerbrook, a readable novel 
(1839); The Playfellmc, good children's stories 
(1841) ; Life in the Sick Room, autobiographical 
(1843) ; Letters on Mesmerism (1845) ; Eastei-n 
Life, Past and Present, in which she avowed her 
religious opinions (1848); History of England 
During the Thirty Years* Peace, a weighty piece 
of \%Titing (1849) ; Letters on the Laws of Man's 
Nature and Development, written in conjimction 
with H. G. Atkinson (1851) ; The Philosophy of 
Comte, a condensation of the Philosophic post- 

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iive (1853); and Biographical Sketches (1860). 
Though little of Miss Martineau's work has 
survived as a permanent literary possession, 
it was of great value to her generation. She 
was a popularizer of the advanced thinking of 
her day. Consult her Autobiography with Memo- 
rials, ed. by Chapman (London, 1877), and 
Miller, Harriet Martineau (London, 1884). 

HABTIKEAXr, James (1805-1900). An Eng- 
lish Unitarian divine, brother of the preceding. 
He was bom at Norwich, April 21, 1805. He was 
educated for the ministry at Manchester College 
(Unitarian), which was then located at York, 
and was graduated in 1827. He spent one year 
teaching in Bristol and then, October 26. 1828, 
he was ordained to the Presbjrterian ministry in 
Dublin. He resigned his pastorate in Dublin be- 
cause he objected to receiving State aid in the 
Regium Donum, though it would have increased 
his salary by £100. From Dublin he went to 
Liverpool, where he was settled over Paradise 
Street Chapel, and eked out his income by taking 
pupils. Here he attracted considerable attention 
by engaging, along with J. H. Thom and Henry 
Giles, in a controversy against some clergymen 
of the Church of England on the subject of Uni- 
tarianism. Soon afterwards Martineau was elect- 
ed professor of mental and moral philosophy at 
Manchester New College, and continued to lec- 
ture in the college when it was removed to Lon- 
don in 1853, though he also retained his pulpit 
in Liverpool for four years. In 1857 he took 
up his residence in London. The next year he 
added to his work the task of sharing the pulpit 
of Little Portland Street Chapel with J. J. Tav- 
lor, then principal of the college. Upon the death 
of Mr. Taylor in 1868, he became principal of the 
college and filled the chapel pulpit alone for four 
years, when the strain compelled him to give 
it up. He is the author of The Rationale of Re- 
ligious Inquiry (1836); also Unitarianism De- 
fended (in collaboration with Thom and Giles, 
1839), the lectures delivered in the controversy 
referred to above; Endeavors After the Chris- 
tian Life (2 vols., 1843-47) ; Miscellanies 
(1852) ; Studies of Christianity (1868) ; Essays, 
Philosophical and Theological (1866-67); Re- 
ligion as Affected by Modem Materialism 
(1874); Hours of Thought on Sacred Things 
(1876-79) ; Study of Spinoza (1882) ; Types of 
Ethical Theory (1885); Study of Religion 
(1888) ; and The Seat of Authority in Religion 
( 1890) . He received honorary degrees from Har- 
vard, Leyden, Edinburgh, Oxford, and Dublin. He 
died January 11, 1900. In philosophy he was 
an intuitionist, maintaining that men have a 
power of conscience, which, without aid from 
experience, can ascertain the higher of two con- 
flicting motives. In theology he was, as already 
seen, a prominent Unitarian ; but his greatest im- 
portance will probably remain in his ethical 
work. Consult: Drummond, Life and Letters of 
James Martineau (London, 1902) ; Sidgwick, 
Lectures on the Ethics of Oreen, Spencer^ and 
Martineau (ib., 1902) ; A. W. Jackson, James 
Martineau: A Biography and Study (Boston, 

MABTINELLA, mftr't^nSnA (It., crane). 
A famous bell which in the old days of Florence 
used to announce the declaration of war. It is 
always spoken of in connection with the carroccio, 
a famous car of great size, drawn by two beauti- 
ful o.\en, which accompanied the citizens to the 

field of battle. For a month after war waa de- 
clared, the martinella rang incessantly, and when 
at last the army moved out, the bell was placed 
on the carroccio inside a wooden tower, and 
guided the troops by its sound. 

MABTINELLI, mar't^-n^ll^, Sebastiano 
(1848—). An Italian Roman Catholic prelate. 
He was bom near Lucca, in the seminary of 
which town he received his theological educa- 
tion. He entered the Augustinian Order in 1863, 
was ordained priest in 1871, and was elected 
prior general of the Order in 1889 and again in 
1895. On the recall to Rtwoe of Cardinal Satolli, 
the first Apostolic Delegate to the United States, 
he was appointed to succeed him, and at the same 
time was raised to the episcopate as titular 
Archbishop of Ephesus. His wise and states- 
manlike conduct of many difficult questions 
brought before him during his term as delegate 
was generally recognized. In 1902, having al- 
ready been made a cardinal, he was recalled. 

MABTINET, mftr'td'nA'. A French military 
officer and disciplinarian, of whom little is known 
save from a few lines in Voltaire's Siicle de Louis 
XIV, and his general reputation as a rigorous 
disciplinarian. He was an early advocate of the 
bayonet (1669) and proposed the change from 
column to line in battle formation. He 
greatly assisted in the passage of the Rhine hj 
Louis XIV., in 1672, and also contributed much 
to the success of the campaign in the Nether- 
lands by the use of a portable pontoon. The 
derivation of the English noun 'martinet' from 
his name is not proved. 

MABTINET, Achille Louis (1806-77). A 
French engraver. He was born in Paris, and was 
a pupil of the painter Heim and of Forster, the 
engraver. Most of his important plates were 
after the old masters, as Raphael's various Ma- 
donnas and Murillo's "Nativity;" but he also 
engraved the works of more recent painters. 
Among them were "The Last Moments of Count 
Egmont," after Gallait; "Charles I. Mocked by 
CromwelPs Soldiers," and ''Mary in the Desert,** 
after Delaroche; and "Tintoretto by the Couch 
of His Daughter," after Cogniet. He died in 

MABTINEZ, mftr-tS'nez. A town and the 
county-seat of Contra Costa County, Cal., 36 
miles northeast of San Francisco; on the Straits 
of Carquinez, and Suisun Bay, and on the 
Southern Pacific Railroad (Map: California, 
5). It is an important shipping point for grain, 
grapes and pears, has copper smelting works and 
oil refinery, and manufactures fertilizers, acids, 
etc. There is a library of 5000 volumes, main- 
tained by the Brothers of the Christian Schools. 
Population, 1900, 1380; 1906 (local est.), 2000. 

MABTINEZ, mar-te'nAth, Enbioo (c.l570- 
1632). A Mexican engineer, bom, according to 
different biographers, either in Holland, Grcrmany, 
or Spain. He probably received his engineering 
education in Spain, was appointed roval coemog- 
rapher, and went to Mexico as an interpreter of 
the Inquisition. In 1607 he took charge of 
the construction of the canal which was to drain 
the valley of Mexico, a work which he completed 
in less than a year. This canal soon proved in- 
adequate, however, and Martinez was eventually 
commissioned to deepen the cut, but died while 
the work was still under way. He wrote: Reper- 
lorio dc los tinnpos c historia natural de Nueva 

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Espaiia (Mexico, 1606) ; Discurao sohre la magna 
conjunci6n de los planetaa Jiipiter y Saiumo 
acaecida en 24 Diciembre 1603 en Sagitario 
(Mexico, 1604) ; and a Tratado de trigonometria, 

MABTIHEZ CAMPOS, mar-t^n&th k&m'pds, 
Absenio (1834-1900). A Spanish general and 
statesman, bom at Sc^via, December 14, 1834. 
He served on General CVDonneirs staff in the 
campaign of Morocco, 1859, was with Prim dur- 
ing Spain's brief participation in Mexican affairs 
in 1861, and joined the army in Cuba in 1869, 
remaining until 1872. On the abdication of King 
Amadeus (q.v.), in 1873, he refused adherence 
to the new order, and his unconcealed enmity to 
the Republic led to his arrest and imprisonment 
as a conspirator. On December 29, 1874, at 
Murivedro, in conjunction with General Jovellar, 
he proclaimed the son of the deposed Queen 
Isabella, Alfonso XII., King of Spain. The army 
followed his lead, a ministerial r^;ency under 
CiLnovas del Castillo was formed, and in January, 
1875, the youthful Alfonso was established in 
Madrid and the monarchy was restored. Mar- 
tinez Campos brought the civil war to a success- 
ful issue by the defeat of the Carlists at Pefia de 
Plata ( 1876) , and was rewarded by the gift of the 
highest rank in the army. In the same year he 
was sent to Cuba to conduct the military opera- 
tions against the insurgents. The central insur- 
gent committee submitl^ in 1878, and, the insur- 
rection being at an end, Martinez Campos returned 
to Spain and became the advocate of a just and 
liberal policy toward the colony. CAnovas del 
Castillo resigned March 7, 1879, and Martinez 
Campos headed a new Ministry, but was unable 
to hold power for many months. Upon his re- 
turn to office, however, Cftnovas carried out the 
main features of the General's Cuban programme. 
In 1881 Martinez Campos made a coalition with 
the Liberal leader Sagasta (q.v.), which lasted 
until 1884, and was Minister of War under him. 
In 1886, in 1891, and in 1899 he was president 
of the Senate. In 1893, as Governor of Cata- 
lonia, he found it necessary to suppress anarchist 
riots in Barcelona, occasioned by the new 
taxes of the Government, and unsuccessful at- 
tempts were made to assassinate him and his 
family. He was sent to Cuba as Captain-General 
upon the outbreak of a new insurrection in 1895, 
in the hope that he would repeat his former suc- 
cess as a pacificator; but ne was recalled in 
January, 1896, and thereafter took part as a 
Moderate Liberal in the endeavor to bring about 
a reorganization of Spanish affairs and a restora- 
tion of prosperity. He died September 23, 1900. 

MABTINEZ DE LA BOSA, d& 1& r5^sA, 
Francisco (1789-1862). A Spanish statesman 
and man of letters. He was born in Granada, 
March 10, 1789; studied law at the University of 
Granada, and was appointed lecturer on ethics 
there when less than twenty years old. The 
French had just invaded Spain, and he en- 
tered enthusiastically into the national move- 
ment. He was employed by the Junta of 
Granada to procure arms and supplies at 
Gibraltar, and he afterwards went to England 
on the same errand. There, in 1811, his first 
poem, Zaragozay was published. Gn his return 
to Spain, he produced, at (^diz, a tragedy called 
La viuda de PadWa, which was successful, and 
was followed by a comedy, Lo que puede un em- 
pleo, satirizing political life. In 1813 he was 

returned to the Cortes from Granada, and at once 
took a high position as an orator. He was a 
supporter of the Constitution of 1812, on the 
abolition of which, in 1814, Martinez was sen- 
tenced to imprisonment for ten years. Released 
by the insurrection of 1820, he was for a short 
time head of the Ministry, but resigned and took 
up his residence in Paris. Between 1827 and 
1837 he published a collection of his Ohrcis liter- 
arias in five volumes. In 1830 he was permitted 
to return to Spain, and began to write an his- 
torical novel. Dona Isabel de 8olis. In March, 
1834, he became the head of a Liberal Ministrv, 
and was the author of the royal statute of 1834 
which created a constitutional government and 
took away the ancient privileges of the provinces. 
Martinez de la Rosa became more and more un- 
popular, and in 1835 he resigned. On the fall of 
Queen Maria Christina in 1840 he went to Paris, 
and resumed the composition of Espiritu del 
aiglo, a work dealing with the French Revolu- 
tion, which had been begun in 1835. Upon 
the fall of Espartero he entered in May, 1844, 
the Narvaez Cabinet, and was from 1847 
to 1851 Ambassador to Paris. He died at Madrid, 
February 7, 1862. (Ik)nsult Godard, Martinez de 
la Rosa (Paris, 1862). 

MABTINEZ DE BOZAS, d& r^sfts, Juan 
(1769-1813). A Chilean patriot, bom at Men- 
doza, Argentine Republic. He was educated at 
the University of Cordoba, and for many years 
was intendant of the city of Concepci6n. He was 
a man of advanced ideas, and his Republican sen- 
timents were a dominant influence throughout 
South Chile. When Carrasco was Captain-Gten- 
eral, Rozas was his secretary ( 1808) , and in this 
capacity put into practice many reforms. On the 
outbreak of the Revolution he was made a mem- 
ber of the Junta (1810), where his popularity 
was unbounded; but later the Revolutionists 
quarreled among themselves and Rozas was de- 
feated and banished. 

MABTINIy mar-te'n*, Giambattista (Padbe 
Mabtini) (1706-84). An Italian composer and 
writer on music. He was born at Bologna and 
studied the elements of music under his father 
and Padre Predieri, and counterpoint under An- 
tonio Riccieri. In 1729 he entered a Franciscan 
monastery, after having served as choir-master 
at the Church of San Francesco, Bologna, since 
1725. He wrote t\yo of the most learned treatises 
on music of the eighteenth century — Storia della 
musica and Saggio di oontrappunto. Many of 
his compositions ar^ in manuscript at Vienna 
and Bologna. His fame as a teacher of composi- 
tion was very great. He was a firm adherent of 
the Roman school of composition, and wrote a 
considerable number of works in that style. He 
died in Bologna. 

MABTINI, SiMONE, wrongly called Simonb 
Memmi (1284-1344). The chief painter of the 
early Sienese school. Of his life we know that 
he was born in Siena, and that he painted 
frescoes in the churches and public buildings 
of Siena, Assisi, Naples, and Orvieto. In 
1339 he was called by Benedict XII. to the 
Papal Court at Avignon, where he worked with 
his brother Donato in the decoration of the 
Papal palace. He died at Avignon in 1344. 
With the exception of a few portraits, his sub- 
jects were drawn from Bible stories and legends 
of the saints and of the early Church. His 

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work is arranged with a view to decorative effect 
and is charming in finish and coloring, bat the 
faces have the old conventional expression of 
mouth and eyes and lack the character of Giotto. 

In Siena his important work is a large wall 
painting in the Palazzo Pubblico, the Madonna, 
surrounded by saints and angels (1315). On the 
wall opposite this painting is an equestrian por- 
trait of a Sienese captain at arms. Guidoriccio 
Fogliano. An altarpiece which was formerly in the 
Siena Cathedral, "The Annunciation" (1333), 
was painted by Simone in collaboration with 
Leppo Memmi, and is now in the Uffizi Gallery 
at Florence. In the Chapel of Saint Martin at 
Assisi are ten pictures of the legends of the 
saints. In Naples at the Church of San Lorenzo 
is a fresco, "Saint Louis of Toulouse Crowning 
His Brother Robert" (1324), painted when the 
church was completed by King Robert I. At 
Avignon there are fragments of his work in the 
Papal palace, and in the Chapei of Saint John 
there are frescoes illustrative of the life of that 
saint. His other works include: "The Way to 
Golgotha" (1333), in the Louvre; "Christ Bless- 
ing,** in the Vatican; and "Christ Returning to 
His Parents,** in the Royal Institution, Liverpool. 
Consult: Crowe and Cavalcaselle, History of 
Painting in Italy (London, 1864) ; Berenson, 
Central Italian Painters of the Renaissance (New 
York, 1897). 

MABTINIQTJE, mfir't^'n^k^ An island and 
French colony of the Lesser Antilles, situated 
between latitudes 14** 23' and 14° 62' N., and on 
the meridian of 61 ** W., between Dominica on the 
north and Saint Lucia on the south (Map: An- 
tilles, G 4). Area, 381 square miles. Population, 
in 1901, 207,011, reduced to 182,024 in 1905, 
as the result of the destructive eruptions of Mont 
(Montague) Pel^ on May 8th and August 30th, 
1902. The island is in greater part of volcanic 
origin, the loftier elevations (Mont Pel6e, in the 
northwest, now about 4900 feet in elevation; the 
Pi tons du Carbet, 3960 feet; the Vauclin, in the 
south), being all of lava or agglomerate masses, 
whose age dates back to some portion of the Ter- 
tiary period. Isolated patches of limestone, of 
Miocene and Pliocene age, occur in the east and in 
the south (near Trinity, the Marin, etc.), and 
there is also a detached bordering of recent coral 
structures. Much of the interior surface is a com- 
paratively recent alluvium, formed from the dis- 
integration of tli« prehistoric lavas. The relief of 
the land is essentially mountainous, the momes 
and pitons rising with marked abruptness, and 
forming the landscape that is so distinctive of 
most of the inner (volcanic) islands of the Lesser 
Antilles. Between these are valleys of beauti- 
fully flowing contour and deeply incised cafion- 
like troughs. The culminating point of the 
island is Mont Pel6e, whose height has increased 
by nearly or fully 700 feet since May, 1902. 

A large part of the island, somewhat over a 
third, is under cultivation. The principal crop 
is the sugar cane, but a superior grade of cacao 
has been raised with success and profit; coffee 
and tobacco are grown in some parts. Where not 
under cultivation the island is still largely cov- 
ered with woodland, and a forest of strictly 
tropical luxuriance is found in scattered spots. 
The higher animal life is not very abundant, and 
its characteristics are largely South American, 
marked with the deficiencies that belong to in- 
sularity. Of the seemingly native animals, the 

opossum, which has been known in the island 
for upward of two hundred years, is the most 
notable. Of the birds, the most abundant or 
common species is probably the Martinique black- 
bird. Of the dreaded fer^ie-lance serpent, which 
was at one time very abundant, but few individ- 
uals remain to-day, the animal having been all 
but exterminated by the introduced mungoos. 

The interior of the island is crossed by well 
constructed highroads, but there are as yet no 
railroads, excepting a few that are used in pri- 
vate transport on the cane plantations. The 
climate is on the whole salubrious, and the heat 
is measurably tempered, especially on the east- 
em side, by fne steadily blowing trade-winds, the 
temperature only exceptionally rising above 92* 
to 94* F. The humidity is, however, high. July 
and August are ordinarily the rainy months, and 
February, March, and April the months of least 
rainfall. The annual precipitation is from 85 to 
95 inches. Earthquakes are of frequent occur- 
rence. That of 1839, which destroyed a large 
part of Fort-de-France, was particularly de- 
structive. The only historically recorded vol- 
canic eruptions before the year 1902 were those 
of 1762 and August, 1851, both of Mont Pel6e. 
See Pel£e, Mont. 

Of the population, much the greater part con- 
sists of the colored races, especially the negroes 
and mulattoes; hardly a vestige, except in mix- 
ture, remains of the ancient Carib Indians. The 
capital of the island is Fort-de- France, with a 
population (in 1901) of 22,164. Other impor- 
tant towns* are Lamentin, Sainte-Marie, Trinity, 
Frangois, Robert, Gros Morne, Saint-Joseph, and 
Corbet, with populations ranging from 6000 to 
nearly 11,000. Saint-Pierre, of which nothing 
but ruins now remain, was, up to the time of its 
destruction, the largest and most important settle- 
ment on the island. 

The colony is under a Governor (appointed by 
the Home Government of France) and a Grcneral 
Council, and there are elective municipal coun- 
cils. It is represented in the Government of 
France by one Senator and two members in the 
Chamber of Deputies. In 1900 the imports 
amounted to 24,929,348 francs, and the exports 
to 27,160,890 francs; in 1905 the imports were 
14,759,000 francs, and the exports 18,069,000 
francs. About one-half of the imports and nine- 
tenths of the exports represent commerce with 
France. Martinique was discovered by Columbus, 
who subsequently landed near Carbet, on June 
15, 1502. in 1635 a fort was erected by the 
Frenchman D'Esnembuc on the site of the 
later Saint-Pierre. The English took the island 
repeatedly from the Frencli, holding it for the 
last time' during tlie Napoleonic wars. Slavery 
was abolished by decree of April 27, 1848. The 
Empress Josephine was born at Trois-llets. 

Bibliography. Daney, Eistoire de la Marti- 
nique depuia la colonisation jusqu'en 1815 (Fort 
Royal, 1846) ; Key, Etude sur la colonie de la 
Martinique (Paris, 1881) ; Aube, La Martinique, 
son present et son avenir (Paris, 1882) ; Monet, 
La Martinique (Paris, 1882) ; Heilprin, Mont 
PeUe and the Tragedy of Martinique (Philadel- 
phia, 1903) ; Dumoret, Au pays du sucre (Paris, 
1901) ; Landes, Notice sur la Martinique (Paris, 
1900) ; Russell. "Volcanic Eruptions on Marti- 
nique and Saint Vincent," in Xational Geographic 
Maqazine, vol. xiii., contains bibliography ( Wash- 
ington, 1902). 

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VEBSY. A better religious dispute of the Eliza- 
bethan period. It was occasioned by the anooy- 
moQs publication, 1588-89, of a number of bit- 
terly personal tracts directed against what the 
writer conceived to be abuses in Church and 
State, and against certain bishops in particular. 
The publisher and chief instigator was John 
Penry (q.v.), or Ap-Henry, a Puritan preacher, 
abetted by Sir Richard Knightley of Northamp- 
tonshire, Job Throckmorton of Warwickshire, and 
others. The tracts were printed on a rude and 
peripatetic press, at Kingston-on-Thames, Cov- 
entrj, ManAester, etc., and provoked in reply 
a greater number of abusive books and pam- 

ghlets. Martin's broad satires were disapproved 
y devout Puritans, but undoubtedly they were 
powerful factors in furthering the Puritan cause. 
&reat efforts were made to discover and appre- 
hend the authors. Penry was executed in 1593. 
Henry Barrow, one of his assistants, to whom the 
chief responsibility for the tracts has sometimes 
been attributed, also suffered death in the same 
year. The tracts have been reprinted by Arber 
in the English Scholar'a Lihrary (London, 1878 
sqq. ) . Consult : Maskell, A History of the Mar- 
tin Marprelaie Controversy (London, 1845) ; 
Arber, Introductory Sketch to the Martin Mar- 
prelate Controversy (London, 1879) ; Dexter, 
Congregationalism of the Last 300 Years as Been 
in its Literature (New York, 1880). 

MAB^TINKAS. A festival celebrated on 
Saint Martin's Day, November 1 1th. Luther was 
born oo the eve of the festival, and therefore re- 
ceived the saint's name. 

VLARrriN OF TOTJBS, mdr (c.316-e.400). 
Bishop of Tours and patron saint of France. He 
was bom at Sabaria, Pannonta, of heathen 
parents, about 316. He was educated at Pavia, 
and at the desire of his father, who was a mili- 
tary tribune, entered the army at an early age 
inder Constantine the Great. The virtues of his 
life as a soldier are the theme of more than one 
interesting legend. On obtaining his discharge 
froB military service (336), Martin beeame a 
disciple of Hilary (q.v.), Bishop of Poitiers. He 
retunied to his native Pannonia, and converted 
his mother to Christianity, but he himself en- 
dured raiich persecution from the Arian party, 
who were at that time dcMBinant; and in eonse- 
qiienee ol the firmness of his profession of ortho- 
doxy, he is the first who, without suffering death 
for the truths has been honored in the Latin 
Church as a confessor of the faith. On his return 
to Gaul, about 360, he founded a convent of monks 
Bear Poitiers, where he himself led a life of 
great austerity and seclusion; but in 371 he was 
drawn by force from his retreat, and ordained 
Bishop of Tours. The fame of his sanctity and 
his repute as a worker of miracles, attracted 
<?rowds of visitants from all parts of Gaul; and 
in order to avoid the distraction of their impor- 
tunity, he established a monastery near Tours, 
in which he resided. He died at Cand€ (Can- 
deum) about 400. In the Roman Catholic 
Church the festival of his birth is celebrated on 
November 11th. Consult his Life^ by Cazenove 
(London, 1883) ; Chamard, Saint Martin et son 
monast^re (Poitiers, 1873). 

KAJtTINSBXrBO. A town and the county- 
s«ftt of Berkeley County, W. Va., 74 miles west of 
Washington, D. C; on the Baltimore and Ohio 

and the Cumberland Valley railroads (Map: 
West Virginia, F 2). Its most prominent struc- 
ture is the United States court-house and post- 
office, which cost about $100,000. The industrial 
intereste are represented by railroad repair 
shojps, woolen and hosiery mills, clothing fac- 
tories, distilleries, lime works, slate and lime- 
stone quarries, wagon shops, and planing mills. 
The surrounding region is a great fruit section. 
The mimicipali^ is governed by a mayor, elected 
every two years, and a unicameral council. It 
owns and operates the water-works. Martins- 
bnrg was founded and incorporated as a town in 
1778. Population, in 1890, 7226; in 1900, 7564. 

liAB^TIH^ FEBBY. A city in Belmont 
County, Ohio, on the Ohio River, nearly opposite 
Wheeling, W. Va., and on the Baltimore and Ohio, 
the Wheeling and Lake Erie, and the Pennsyl- 
vania railroads (Map: Ohio, J 6). It is in a 
bituminous coal, iron, and limestone region, and 
has extensive manufactures of iron, steel, tin, 
glass, machinerr, beaters, shovels, stoves, boxes, 
and barrels. Walnut Grove Cemetery is interest- 
ing as the burial place of persons prominent in 
the history of the settlement of the Ohio Valley. 
Settled about 1769, Martin's Ferry was incor- 
porated as a village in 1865. It is ^off^rtkeA 
under the Ohio municipal code, which provides 
for a mayor, elected biennially, and a nmcamera) 
council. The water-works and electric-light plant 
are owned and operated by the municipality. 
Populatiwi, in 1900, 7760; in 1906 (local est.), 

MA&^IKSVIIiLE. A city and the county- 
seat of Morgan County, Ind., on the White River, 
30 miles southwest of Indianapolis; on the Van- 
dalia^ and the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and 
Saint Loms railroads (Map: Indiana, C 3). It 
is widely noted for its artesian mineral wells, 
which have been found valuable in the treatment 
of rheumatism and kidney disorders, and it has 
several large sanatoriums. The industries are 
represented by foundries and machine shops, and 
flour and lumber mills. Population, 1900, 4038; 
1905 (local een.), 5130. 


skrib-le'r&s (Neo-I^t., Martin Scribbler). An 
extensive satire on the abuses of learning, ar- 
ranged from miscellaneous contributions by Pope> 
Swift, and Arbuthnot. Of these Miscellanies, 
Arbuthnot furnished the principal part. The 
work was never completed. See Abbuthnot, JoHif . 

ICAUTITE, a form of hematite (q.v.) pseudo- 
raorphous after noagnotite. 

MABTIlTQy mftr^tsT-^, Kabl Fbiedbich Phi- 
LIPF VON (1794-1868). A distinguished Ger- 
man traveler and naturalist, bom and educated 
at Erlangen. He went to Brazil as a member of 
a scientific expedition sent out by the Austrian 
and Bavarian governments, and by his researches 
in that country acquired a reputation second only 
to that of Humboldt. He was specially intrusted 
with the botanical department, but his researches 
extended to ethnography, statistics, geography, 
and natural science in general; and his works, 
published after his return, exhibited a poet's 
love M nature and great powers of description. 
He was professor of botany and director of the 
Botanic Garden at Munich. His works are: 
Reise nach BrasiHen (1824-31); Nova Genera 
et Species Plantarum (1824-32); and leones 

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Plantarum Cryptogamicarum (1828-34). He also 
published a most valuable monograph on palms, 
Historia Naturalis Palmarum (1823-63); Die 
Pflanzen und Thiere des tropischcn Amerika 
(1831) ; and Das Naturell, die Krankheiten, das 
Arzttum und die Heilmittel der Urhewohner Bra- 
siliens (1843). 

MABTLET (probably for *marlet, *merl€t, 
from OF. merlette, merlotte, diminutive of merle, 
blackbird, from Lat. merula, blackbird). In 
heraldry ( q.v. ) , a martin without legs or beak. 

IIIABTOS. A town of Southern Spain, in the 
province of Ja6n, situated among the mountains 
15 miles southwest of Ja6n. It is built on the 
slope of a steep hill, surmounted by a ruined 
castle, has mineral baths and exports excellent 
olive oil, produced in the surrounding district. 
Population, in 1900, 16,682. 

MABTYN, mar'tin, Henry (1781-1812). An 
English missionary. He was bom at Truro, Corn- 
wall, England, February 18, 1781, of humble 
origin. In 1797 he entered Saint John's CJol- 
lege, Cambridge, and in 1802 was chosen fellow 
of his college. After receiving ordination in 
1803 he served as curate to the Rev. Charles 
Simeon (q.v.). In 1805 he sailed for India as 
chaplain in the East India Company's service, 
and reached Calcutta in May, 1806; in Sep- 
tember he received his appointment to Dinapore, 
and soon conducted worship among the na- 
tives in their own language and established 
schools for their instruction. In 1809 he was 
stationed at Cawnpore. While here he trans- 
lated the New Testament into Hindustani and 
Persian, the Psalms into Persian, and the Prayer- 
Book into Hindustani. His unremitting labor 
and the severity of the climate affected his 
health, and having perfected himself in the Per- 
sian language, he decided to extend his labors 
to that country, and took up his residence at 
Shiraz, where he revised, with the aid of learned 
natives, his Persian and Arabic translation of 
the New Testament and held discussions with the 
native scholars, many of whom were greatly 
impressed. In view of the effect of his frequent 
discussions, and of his being engaged in a trans- 
lation of the New Testament into Persian, the 
preceptor of all the mollahs wrote an Arabic de- 
fense of Mohammedanism. To this Martyn re- 
plied in Persian. Ill health again compelling him 
to change his plans, he decided to return to Eng- 
land, and in September, 1812, set out overland 
for Constantinople. At Tokat in Asia Minor 
his utter prostration compelled him to stop, and 
he died there, October 16, 1812. A monument 
was erected at Tokat in 1856. Besides the trans- 
lations mentioned he was the author of Contro- 
versial Tracts on Christianity and Mohammeda/nr 
ism (1824) ; Journals and Letters (1837). Con- 
sult his lAfey by G. Smith (London, 1892). 

MABTYN^ William Carlos (1843—). An 
American author and clergyman, bom in New 
York City, and educated at the Union Theological 
Seminary (1869). His first charge was in Saint 
Louis, and afterwards he held pastorates at Ports- 
mouth, N. H., New York City (1876-90), Newark, 
and Chicago (1892-94). He became director of 
the Abbey Press in 1897. His writings include: 
Life of John Milton (1865); Life of Martin 
Luther (1865); History of English Puritans 
(1866); History of the Huguenots (1867); 
The Dutch Reformation (1867) ; History of the 

Pilgrim Fathers (1867); Wendell Phillips, the 
Agitator (1891), for the "American Reformers 
Series,** of which he was editor; for the same 
series, William E. Dodge, the Merchant (1892), 
and John B. Oough (1894) ; and Christian Citi- 
zenship (1896). 

MABTYNIA (Neo-Lat, named in honor of 
John Martyn, an English botanist of the eigh- 
teenth century) . A genus of eight or ten species. 
of unpleasant smelling, low, branching annual or 
thick-stemmed perennial plants with tuberous 
roots, belonging to the order Bignoniacee, mostly 
natives of warm countries. By some botanists 
this genus is referred to the order Pedaliaceie, 
while others make it the type of the order Mar- 
tyniace». The leaves are simple, rounded; flow- 
ers large, bell-shaped, and somewhat two-lipped ; 
very similar to catalpa flowers, borne in racemes ; 
the fruit is a pod with a long incurved beak ; 
when ripe it splits into two-hooked horns, open- 


ing at the apex. The seeds are numerous, blacky 
with a thick, wrinkled coat. Martynia probosci- 
dea, unicorn plant, which grows on the banks of 
the Mississippi, in southern Illinois, and south- 
westward, is cultivated in gardens for its fruit, 
which, when the pods are young, is used for mak- 
ing pickles. The leaves of this species are heart- 
shaped, oblique, entire, the upper alternative; 
corolla dull white or purple, or spotted with yel- 
low and purple; endocarp of the fruit crested on 
one side, long-beaked. Martynia fragrans, from 
New Mexico, has violet-purple flowers, with a 
rather pleasant odor, somewhat like that of 

MABTYB (AS., Lat. martyr, from Gk. /idif^ 
TVS, martys, fiAprvp, martyr, witness; connected 
with Lat. memor, mindful, Skt. smar, to remem- 
ber). The name given in ecclesiastical history 
to those who, by submitting to death rather thaii 
abandon their faith, bore the witness of their 
blood to its superhuman origin, though the title 
was not strictly confined to these, but usually 
extended to those who were condemned to torture, 
to hard labor in the mines, or to banishment. On 
the other hand, it was not attributed to those 
who sought death by self -denunciation or by 
public breaking of the statues of the gods. The 
common teaching of the Fathers was that martyr- 
dom, hence called the 'baptism of blood,' sup- 
plied the place of the ordinary baptism where 
there was no opportunity to receive the sacra- 

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ment. The maiiyTs were specially venerated by 
their fellow-Christians. As it was held that 
their superabundant merit might, in the eyes of 
the Church, compensate for the weakness of less 
perfect brethren, a practice arose by which mar- 
tyrs awaiting death gave to those sinners who 
were undergoing public penance letters of com- 
mendation to their bishop in order that their 
course of penance might be shortened. (See In- 
dulgence. ) The death of a martyr was reported 
to the bishop of the place, who decided whether 
he was entitled to the name; this early form of 
canonization made him a martyr vindioaius. By 
the beginning of the twelfth century, the decision 
was becoming more generally, and since Urban 
VIII. (1636) has been absolutely, reserved to the 
Pone. The martyrs, who were the earliest saints 
to be honored by a special anniversary commem- 
oration, have in later times received a spe- 
cial precedence in liturgical rank — ^their names ia 
the litany of the saints, for example, coming im- 
mediately after those of the Apostles. In the 
old Roman calendar there was a common feast 
of all the martyrs, of which Gregory III., when 
in 731 he transferred it to November Ist, wid- 
ened the reference to include all saints. The 
number of the martyrs of the early ages was 
undoubtedly great, although Gibbon and others 
have attempted to minimize it. Ruinart among 
older scholars and Cardinal Wiseman in modem 
times have given strong evidence in confirmation 
of the large numbers. The Roman martyrology 
alone contains 14,000 names. 

MABTYB^ Peter. A writer on early Ameri- 
can history. See Peteb Mabttb. 

MABTYEOI/OOY (ML. martyrologium, 
MGk. fULpTvpok&yioWj from Gk. fidprvp^ martyr, 
martyr -f -^/a, -logta, account, from Xtyeiv^ 
legein, to say). A calendar of martyrs (q.v.), 
and sometimes of other saints, arranged in the 
order of months and days. It early became usual 
to write on diptychs or folding tablets the names 
of Christians, living or dead, who were to be 
especially commemorated in the celebration of 
the Eucharist. Thus were inscribed particularly 
the names of martyrs whose anniversaries were 
honored. These, which were at first only lists of 
names, were gradually expanded, and by com- 
bining the records of various churches complete 
martyrologies were made. The oldest extant 
mar^rology is probably a Syrian one of the 
year 412 (see below), though the so-called Mar- 
tyrologium Hieronymianum may be almost con- 
temporary with it, at least in part. This has 
been ascribed to Saint Jerome, possibly because 
he translated and commented upon the work of 
Eusebius, De Martyribus PaUeatince. An old Ro- 
man martyrology was known to Bede and to a 
contemporary French monk, Usnard, whose work 
forms the basis of the later Western martyrolo- 
gies, as officially published in Rome by Baronius 
in 1584, and in revised editions by direction of 
various popes (by Pius IX. in 1873). Consult: 
Wright, An Ancient Syrian Martyrology (Lon- 
don, 1866) ; Lfimmer, De Martyrologio Romano, 
Parergon Historico-criticum (Regensburg, 1878). 

KABTYBS, mftr't^r', Les. A prose work by 
Chateaubriand (1809). It is the story of two 
Christian lovers at the end of the third century, 
during Diocletian's persecutions. After long 
separation and many adventures they meet in the 
Roman arena, where they are devoured by wild 

beasts. The work is artificial in style, but con- 
tains vivid reconstructions of the ancient world 
and passages of great beauty. 

MABJTLld, m&rS^mch, Mabko (1450-1524). 
A Croatian poet and scholar, bom at Spalato. He 
studied at Padua and entered a monastery in 
Spalato. His works in Latin deal with politics, 
theology, and history; the best known was De 
Institutione Bene Vivendi (1511), which passed 
through many editions. Much more important 
are his poems in the vernacular, which, although 
didactic, mark him as the first Croatian author, 
and one of the greatest names of the literature 
of Ragusa. Thej were republished at Agram 
(1869), with a biographical sketch of Maruli6. 

MABTJTS, mA-r55ts' (Skt., probably the shin- 
ing ones). In Hindu mythology, the gods of the 
storm and the wind. They play a prominent part 
in the Rig- Veda, especially as allies or associates 
of Indra (q.v.). Tne hymns addressed to them, 
as they crash through the forests, make the 
mountains ^uake, or sweep the plain, accom- 
panied by lightning, dust, and rain, are among 
the most spirited in the Veda. They have been 
translated by Max MQller, Sacred Books of the 
East, vol. xxxii. (Oxford, 1891). In post-Vedic 
times Marut is used in the singular, meaning 
wind or the god of the wind. Consult: Mac- 
donell, Vedio Mythology (Strassburg, 1897); 
Wilkins, Hindu Mythology (London, 1900). 

MABVEL, Ik. The pseudonym of Donald G. 

MAB^VELL, Andrew (1621-78). An English 
poet and politician, bom March 31, 1621, at 
Winestead, Yorkshire; attended the grammar 
school at Hull, of which his father became mas- 
ter; graduated B.A. at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge (1638) ; traveled on the Continent (1642- 
46) ; returned to England about 1650; was em- 
ployed by Oliver Cromwell as tutor to his ward, 
VVilliam Button; became assistant secretary to 
Milton (1657) ; and was elected to Parliament 
from Hull (1660). Without fortune or infiuence, 
possessing no commanding talent as a speaker, 
he maintained a character for integrity so gen- 
uine and high that his constituency felt itself 
honored by his conduct, and allowed him to the 
end of his life 'a handsome pension.' Charles II. 
made many but fruitless efforts to win him over 
to the Court party. Marvell died August 18, 
1678. His satires in verse and in prose relate 
mostly to matters of temporary interest in 
Church and State. Of another class, however, 
are several choice pieces of verse, as, The Garden, 
Horatian in tone; A Drop of Dew, in which is 
anticipated the Neo-Platonism of Wordsworth; 
the Bermudas; a group of short lyrics, as The 
Mower to the Olow-Worms, and the Mower's 
Song; and the splendid patriotic ode on Crom- 
loelVs Return from Ireland, Consult Complete 
Works, ed. by Grossart (London, 1872-75); 
Poems and Satires, ed. bv Aitken (Ix)ndon, 
1892 ) ; Birrell, Andrew Marvell ( New York, 1905 ) . 

MABVEIf OP FEBXT, p«-r55'. A garden 
plant. See Jalap. 

MABVELOTJS BOY^ The. A title given to 
Thomas Chatterton. 

MABWABy mftr'wSr. A native State of 
India. See Jodhpub. 

MABX, marks, Adolf Bebnhabd (1795-1866). 
A German writer on musical subjects, bom at 

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Halle. He studied law and practiced it for a 
short time, but soon devoted himself exclusively 
to music and became editor of the Berlin Allge- 
meine Mueikaliache Zeitung. In 1830 he was 
made professor of music at tlie Berlin Uni- 
versity, and in 1832 obtained the post of musi- 
cal director at the university. His works in- 
clude: Die Lehre von der musikalUchen Kom- 
position (1837-45); Allgemeine Musiklehre 
(1839; 10th ed. 1884) ; Ludtoig van Beethoven: 
Leben und Schaffen (1859; 4th ed. 1884) ; Gluck 
und die Oper ( 1862) ; and Daa Ideal und die 0^ 
genwart (1867). 

•yAKX, Kasl (1818-83). A famous socialist, 
usually regarded as the founder of the modem 
school of socialism, bom of Jewish parents at 
Treves, Germany, May 6, 1818, and educated 
at the universities of Bonn and Berlin. In 
1842 he became editor of the Rheiniaehe Zeitung 
fiir PoHtik, Handel und Gexcerht, a Liberal 
organ. Shortly before the suppression of the 
paper, in 1843, Marx withdrew from the editorial 
force and removed to Paris, where be assisted in 
editing the Deutaeh-Froneomsche JahrbUeher. 
Marx went to Brussels in 1845, where he was 
associated with Engels and organized the German 
Workingmen's Association, which later was con- 
nected with the Communistenbund, for which he 
wrote, with Engels, the famous communistie 
manifesto, which has been regarded as the classic 
exposition of the communistic movement. The 
manifesto charges bourgeois society with having 
destroyed the feudal ties which boimd man to 
his natural superiors and with having left no 
other nexus between man and man than *cash 
payment.* It has brought about a condition in 
which the productive forces do not further the 
development of bourgeois property, but through 
commercial crises actually endanger its very 
existence. Under these conditions the wages of 
workmen tend to the bare minimum necessary for 
existence and propagation. As the disagreeable- 
ness of the work increases the pay decreases. The 
aim of the communists is the formation of the 
proletariat into a class; the conquest of political 
power and the overthrow of the present bour- 
geois supremacy. Communism forbids no man 
to appropriate the products of his labor, but it 
does deprive him of the power to control the 
labor of others by virtue of such appropriation. 
To secure these ends the following measures are 
advocated as generally applicable in civilized 
lands: (I) Abolition of property in land and 
the application of all rents to public purposes; 
(2) a progressive income tax; (3) abolition of 
all rights of inheritance; (4) confiscation of all 
property of emigrants and rebels; (5) centraliza- 
tion of credit in the hands of the State by means 
of a national bank with State capital and an 
exclusive monopoly; (6) nationalization of 
means of communication and transportation ; ( 7 ) 
extension of productive enterprises by the State, 
the reclamation of waste land and general im- 
provement of the soil; (8) compulsory labor with 
establishment of industrial armies especially for 
agriculture ; ( 9 ) combination of agriculture with 
manufacturing, the elimination of distinction be- 
tween town and country by more even distribu- 
tion of the population; (10) free education in 
public schools and abolition of child labor in 
factories. In 1847 Marx wrote a reply to Proud- 
hon's Philosophie de la misdre under the title 
Mis&re de la philosophie. 

In 1848 Marx returned to Cologne and started 
the Neue Rheinisohe Zeitung, but because of his 
revolutionary activity be was ordered to leave 
Germany in May, 1849. He went to Paris, but 
later in the year was forced to leave that city 
and moved to London, which waa henceforth his 
home. He became a newspaper correspondent, 
writing for the ^ew York Tribune, Putnam*8 
MontlUy, and other papers, a number of his 
articles subsequently being published in pam- 
phlet form. Among these are '*Der 18te Bru- 
maire des Louis Bonaparte" (1852) ; *^he Life 
of Palmerston" (1850); ""Palmerston and Po- 
land" (1853). The results of his studies of 
English conditions and economic works are first 
seen in his Kritik der politischen Oekoncmie, 
which appeared in 1869 (translated into English 
1004), and contained the essenee of the principles 
elaborated in his subeequent work, Dm Kapttal. 

In 1864 Marx at last found the opportunity of 
realizing a plan he had long contemplated: that 
of organizing the laborers of the civilized world 
into a great association. On September 28 there 
was a great meeting in Saint Martin's Hall, to 
which Marx outlined his scheme of an "Interna- 
tional Workingmen's Association" (q.v.). Dur- 
ing these years Marx was also greatly interested 
in the developments in Germany, and assisted 
Liebknecht and his associates in establishing the 
Social Democratic Labor Party in 1869. In 1867 
appeared the first volume of Das Kapital (Eng- 
lish translation, 4th edition, from the 3d German 
edition, London, 1891). The second volume was 
completed by Engels and published in 1885; the 
third in 1895. The style is heavy, and the analy- 
sis so detailed that it is hard to follow. The 
fimdamental ideas are, however, simple when 
once the terminology is mastered. Marx seeks 
to discover the economic law that governs so- 
ciety. Modem social development is made pos- 
sible only by capital; it has reached its highest 
point and must necessarily be followed by an- 
other system. Modem capitalism exploits the 
laborer by getting possession of the 'surplus 
value' of nis services, i.e. the amount produced 
by him over and above the amount of his wages, 
which are regulated by the iron law' and tend 
therefore to a minimum. The basis of the ex- 
change value of a community » the amount of 
labor expended on it. In the long run this means 
the average amount of labor expended under aver- 
age conditions. But modem labor requires eapitaL 
Marx traces the historic developmoit of capital 
and shows the tendency for the instruments of 
labor to concentrate in fewer and fewer hands. 
Thus arises the capitalistic class. Meantime de- 
velops also a class who have only their labor 
to sell, tlie proletariat. The first is the consum- 
ing, the second the producing claas. The growth 
of capitalism reduces the number of capitalists 
and increases the poverty and misery of the work- 
ing classes, but also serves to bring them to self- 
consciousness. The proletariat will finally or- 
ganize and the means of production will be seized 
and managed for the good of all. Marx out- 
lined no ideal future condition. He tried to 
show what he believed to be the course of his- 
torical development and sought to bring about 
the next step, the organization of all laborers for 
their common good. Marx died in London, 
March 14, 1883. For a convenient digest of Das 
Kapital, consult Aveling, The Student's Mara 
(London, 1892). See Communibm; Socialmm; 

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MEN's Association. 

HA^Y (Gk. UfHdfjL, Mariam, Map/a, Maria, 
from Heb. Miry am, of uncertain etymology). The 
Mother of Jesus. Apart from wnat is contained 
in the narratives of Jesus' birth and childhood 
(Matt, i.-ii.; Luke i.-ii.), very little is told of 
Mary in the New Testament. If the genealogy 
in Luke iii. 23-38 is intended to be that of Mary 
(which is doubtful), she was descended from 
David. She was also related to the priestly 
family to which Elisabeth, mother of John the 
Baptist, belonged (see Luke i. 5, 36). After 
her betrothal to Joseph, a carpenter of Nazareth 
in Galilee, but before her marriage, she was in- 
formed in an angelic vision that she would 
through miraculous conception give birth to a son 
who should reign on the Davidic throne and be 
called the Son of the Highest (Luke i. 26-38). 
The marriage to Joseph took place. Jesus, her 
firstborn son, was bom at Bethlehem, whither she 
had gone with Joseph in consequence of a census 
decreed by Augustus (Luke ii. 1-6). Compelled 
to flee into E|^t with the infant Jesus, Joseph 
and Mary returned to Nazareth after the death of 
Herod the Great (Matt. ii. 13-23). Here some 
have believed that other children, Jesus' brothers 
and sisters (cf. Mark vi. 3; Matt. xiii. 55), were 
bom; though the belief in her perpetual virginity 
has been a part of traditional theology from the 
earliest times. Soon after Jesus began His pub- 
lic ministry the family — Joseph was apparently 
dead — moved to Capemaimi (John ii. 12; ci. 
Matt. iv. 13, ix. 1). To what extent Mary ac- 
companied Jesus on His journeys we do not 
know. That she did not fully comprehend the 
mission of her son is evident from John ii. 4, if 
not from Mark iii. 31-35 (cf. Luke ii. 48-49). She 
witnessed the crucifixion and was then intrusted 
by Jesus to the care of John, the beloved disciple, 
who gave her a place in his home (John xix. 25- 
27 ) . The last notice of Mary in the New Testa- 
ment is in Acts i. 14, where she is mentioned 
as one of the company of disciples who were 
accustomed to meet in the upper room in Jeru- 
salem soon after the Resurrection. 

No more than this is told of her in the New 
Testament; but the tradition of the Christian 
Church added considerably to it. There grew up 
a literature, partly apocryphal (see Apocrypha) , 
dealing with her infancy and childhood, with her 
espousal to Joseph, and with the birth and in- 
fancy of Jesus, and with her death and assump- 
tion into heaven. The more her position in the 
scheme of redemption was meditated upon, the 
more important did she appear. The frequent 
controversies as to the nature of her Son bore 
upon her own personality and history; thus the 
Council of Ephesus (431) really summed up its 
doctrine against Nestorius in calling Mary the 
*mother of God' {BeorSicos), Festivals celebrated 
in her honor increased in number; among the 
older ones, some of which date back to the fifth 
century, are the Purification, February 2; An- 
nunciation. March 25; Assumption, August 15; 
Nativity, September 8; and Conception, Decem- 
ber 8. The devotion to her not simply as an 
historical memory, but as a living power, owing 
to the prevailing force of her intercession with 
her Son, became so marked in course of time that 
it was one of the things against which the re 
formers of the sixteenth century strongly pro- 
tested. It continued to develop, however, in the 
Vou XHL— 9. 

Roman Catholic Church, and found expression, 
among many other ways, in the defimtion in 
1854 of her conception as immaculate, or 
free from the taint of original sin; and the 
prayer in which her intercession is invoked (see 
Ave Mabia) became second only to the Lord's 
Prayer in frequency of use. Many of the shrines 
erected in her honor, at places supposed to have 
been consecrated by apparitions of her presence, 
have become among the most celebrated pilgrim- 
age places. On this aspect of the devotion see 
the articles LouRDES; EiNSiEOELN; and consult 
Northcote, Celebrated Sanctuaries of the Mor 
donna (London, 1868) ; Rudniki, Die heriihmtea' 
ten Wallfahrtsorte der Erde (Paderborn, 1891). 
For the subject in general, consult the immense 
collection of documents in Bourass^, Sumna 
Aurea de Laudihu8 Beates Marice Virginia (13 
vols., Paris, 1866 et seq.) ; Schaff, Creeds of 
Christendom (New York, 1890) ; Kurz, Mari- 
ologie (Regensburg, 1881) ; Lehner, Die Marien- 
verehrung in den ersten Jahrhunderten (2d ed., 
Stuttgart, 1886) ; Jameson, Legends of the Ma- 
donna (London, 1852) ; Northcote, Maty in the 
Oospels (ib., 1885) ; Newman, Development of 
Christian Doctrine (ib., 1845). 

On the narratives of the infancy of Jesus in 
the (]rospels, consult Resch, "Das Kindheitsevan- 
gelium," in (xebhardt and Hamack, Teate und 
Untersuchungen (Leipzig, 1897) ; Ramsay, Was 
Jesus Bom in Bethlehem? (London, 1898). See 


(Ik>NCEPnoN; RosABT; Madonna. 

MABY, OF Bethany. See Mabtha and Mabt, 
OF Bethany. 

KABY I. (1516-58). Queen of England from 
1563 to 1558. Mary was bom at Greenwich, 
February 18, 1516, and ultimately was the only 
surviving child of Henry VIII. by Catharine of 
Araffon. Her education was carefully and se- 
verely planned, and she learned to converse 
readily in Latin, French, and Spanish, and knew 
Italian. When two years of age she was betrothed 
to the Dauphin of France, afterwards to her 
cousin, Charles V., and finally a treaty was 
signed providing for her marriage to either Fran- 
cis I. or his second son, Henry. Numerous other 
proposals were made, but they were rendered 
futile by the rapid changes in England's for- 
eign relations, or by Mary's refusal of a Protest- 
ant, until in the end her accession as Queen left 
her at liberty to choose her own consort. She 
was twice in danger, owing to her religious con- 
victions, during the period of the divorce of her 
mother and during the reign of her brother, Ed- 
ward VI. (q.v.). She was a loving child and re- 
fused to abandon her mother's cause when Henry 
VIII. divorced Catharine. In the end she was per- 
suaded by her friends with the greatest difficulty 
to submit to Henry's demands and sign a renim- 
ciation of the Pope's authority and her own 
legitimacy. As a result of her compliance she 
was received into half favor and given a place in 
the succession to the crown. During Edward's 
reign she held uncompromisingly Sq the old 
faith, at the cost of much annoyance and the 
danger of actual persecution. In 1553 she suc- 
ceeded to the crown, her popularity greatly in- 
creased by the attempt of the detested North- 
umberland to displace her with Lady Jane Grey 

Mary began her reign firmly resolved to sweep 

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away the religious innovationB of her father and 
brother. She proceeded throughout in a legal 
manner and never failed to secure the consent 
of Parliament to her acts, though during the 
Tudor period Parliament very imperfectly repre- 
sented the sentiments of the English people. The 
mass was restored without opposition in 1553, 
and the authority of the Pope reestablished 
somewhat tardily and reluctantly in 1654. Mary 
could not persuade the Parliament to restore the 
Church lands, but she gave back such property 
as was still in the possession of the Crown. This 
was a greater proof of her sincerity than of her 
statesmanship, for it impoverished her resources 
and led to subsequent disasters which touched 
English pride. Even more disastrous was her 
marriage in 1654 with Philip, son of Charles V., 
which was so unpopular that on its proposal a 
formidable rebellion broke out under the leader- 
ship of Wyatt to depose Mary and put Elizabeth 
on the throne. Philip, who was eleven years 
younger than Mary, was an uncompromising 
Catholic. He was extremely unpopular, and re- 
paid Mary's boundless devotion with coldness and 
neglect. To please him, the Queen joined in a 
War against France, with the result that Calais, 
the last remnant of the English conquests during 
the Hundred Years' War, was lost in 1558. It 
was no disaster of any consequence to England, 
but to Mary and her subjects it seemed irrepara- 
ble. In addition to her husband's neglect, the 
loss of Calais, and her own ill health, Mary's last 
days were darkened by the religious persecutions 
which filled the latter part of her reign, in which 
nearly three hundred persons were burnt for their 
faith and for which she received the name of 
'Bloody Mary.' It should not be forgotten that 
she adopted these measures with reluctance, as 
a last resort, and that her predecessors and suc- 
cessors were guilty of like practices. She died 
without issue, November 17, 1568. Consult: 
Lingard, History of England (6th ed., London, 
1854-65) ; Froude, History of England (new ed., 
London, 1893) ; Strickland, Lives of the Queens 
of England (Boston, 1860). 

MABY n. (1662-94). Queen of Great Brit- 
ain. She was bom at Saint James's Palace, 
April 30, 1662, the eldest daughter of James II. 
and Anne Hyde, who was a daughter of the Earl 
of Clarendon. At the age of fifteen she was mar- 
ried to William, Prince of Orange. She joined her 
husband in England early in 1689 after the flight 
of her father. In the same year Parliament de- 
clared the crown of England vacant by the abdi- 
cation of James, and conferred it upon William 
(III.) and Mary. She died of smallpox Decem- 
ber 28, 1694. Consult: Burnet, Essay Upon the 
Life of Queen Mary (London, 1695) ; Doebner 
(ed.). Memoirs and Letters of Mary II, , Queen 
of England (Leipzig, 1886) . See William III. 

MABY, Apocalypse op the Vibgin. See 
Apocbtpha, section on New Testament. 

MABY, Nativity of the Vibgin. See Apoo- 
BYPHA, section on New Testament. 

MABYBOBOUGH, mfl'rl-btir'd. A seaport 
municipality of March County, Queensland, Aus- 
tralia, at the mouth of the Mary River on Hervey 
Bay, 180 miles north of Brisbane, with which 
it has railroad and steam communication (Map: 
Queensland, H 8). It is the port of a rich coal, 
gold, and copper mining and agricultural region; 

has sugar mills and refineries, iron foundries, 
breweries, tanyards, shipbuilding industries, ac- 
tive fisheries, and a considerable export trade in 
timber, sugar, and minerals. The river is crossed 
at Maryborough by a concrete bridge ; the commo- 
dious wharves are available to vessels of 17 Mi 
feet draught. Population, in 1891, 9700; in 1901, 

MABYBOBOTJGH. A municipality of Tal- 
bot County, Victoria, Australia, 112 miles north 
of Melbourne by rail. It has agricultural and 
important quartz and alluvial gold mining in- 
dustries. Population of Marylwrough district 

MABYLAND, mfir^-land. One of the thir- 
teen original States of the American Union. It 
occupies a middle position on the Atlantic Coast 
between Pennsylvania and Virginia, being in- 
cluded between the parallels of 37"* 53' and 39** 
43' 26" north latitude and 75*» 4' and 79' 33' 
west longitude. It is bounded on the north by 
Pennsylvania, the boundary being Mason and 
Dixon's line, and by Delaware; on the east by 
Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean; on the south 
and west by Virginia. It is separated from the 
last-named States by the Potomac River, which 
is the boundary from its source in a small moun- 
tain stream, to its mouth in a broad estuary 
entering the Chesapeake Bay. The outline of the 
State is extremely irregular, as the southern 
boundary is mainly a winding river and the 
western part of the State is a long fragment 
lying between this river and Mason and Dixon's 
line, while, in addition to this, Chesapeake Bay 
divides the region into two parts. The extreme 
length of the northern boundary is 215 miles, 
with a further extension of 35 miles where the 
State stretches eastward south of the Delaware 
to the ocean. The extreme breadth from north 
to south, near the eastern shore of the Chcsa^ 
peake, is 128 miles. The total area is 13,327 
square miles, of which 3386 square miles are water. 

ToPOGBAPHT. The surface of Maryland shows 
great diversity. It is usually divided, for purposes 
of classification, into three regions: the coastal 
plain, the Piedmont plateau, and the Appalachian 
region. All are drained by the rivers flowing 
into the Chesapeake, excepting the northwest 
comer, which drains toward the Ohio, a narrow 
strip draining directly into the Atlantic, and a 
fragment at the extreme northeast, draining into 
Christian Creek and the Delaware. 

The coastal plain embraces that part of Mary- 
land lying to the east of a line passing from 
Washington to Baltimore, Havre de Grace, and 
Wilmington. It includes more than half the land 
area of the State, and is divided by Chesapeake 
Bay into what is commonly called the 'eastern 
shore* and the 'western shore* or Southern 
Maryland. The 'eastern shore* is low and level; 
only in the north does it reach 100 feet, and most 
of it is less than 25 feet above the sea. The 
'western shore' is higher, and rises to 300 feet 
near the District of Columbia and again near 
Baltimore. Chesapeake Bay has many islands, 
and the entire Atlantic Coast is made up of a 
long, reef-like, sandy island, inclosing the Chin- 
coieague and Assateague bays. The eastern shore 
is drained by the Pocomoke, Nanticoke, Chop- 
tank, and Chester rivers, and by some insignifi- 
cant streams. The western shore is drained in 

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the most part by the Potomac, the Pattizent, the 
Patapsco, and the Gunpowder. 

The most conspicuous feature of the Atlantic 
Plain of Maryland is Chesapeake Bay, which 
has about two-thirds of its 200 miles of length 
within the State. It is from 10 to 40 miles wide 
and its numerous estuaries cut the plain in every 
direction and reach to the eastern edge of the 
Piedmont Plateau. The bay is navigable for the 
largest ships, and its numerous arms furnish a 
large number of fine harbors. The large area of 
sheltered, shallow, inland water gives an excel- 
lent fishing ground and an opportunity for oyster 
gathering and oyster culture scarcely equaled 
elsewhere in the world. 

The Piedmont Plateau extends from the edge 
of the Atlantic Plain to the Catoctin Mountain, 
the first range of the Appalachian system. This 
region is about 65 miles wide at the north and 
40 miles wide at the south. Most of the surface 
is broken and hilly, ascending with complicated 
drainage systems to Parr's Ridge in Carroll 
Coimty. Between Parr's Ridge and the Catoctin 
Mountain is the comparatively level Frederick 
Valley, drained by the Monocacy River, flowing 
southward into the Potomac. Near the mouth of 
the Monocacy, the Sugar Loaf Mountain (1281 
feet) rises abruptly from the plain. From the 
Catoctin Mountain to the western boundary of 
the State, the Appalachian region spreads a sue- 
eession of valleys, separated by nearly parallel 
northeast and southwest mountain ranges, and 
all draining into the Potomac. The Blue Ridge, 
2400 feet high at Quirauk, near the Pennsylvania 
line, crosses the State to Weverton on the Poto- 
mac, and is the eastern limit of the Great or 
Hagerstown Valley. This valley is bounded on 
the west by the North Mountain, between which 
and Cumberland is the Alleghany Ridge, a com- 
plex chain of long, narrow, very level mountain 
ridges, separated by narrow valleys, beginning 
at an elevation of about 500 feet at the Potomac. 
Just west of Cumberland rises Dan*s Mountain 
(2882 feet). To the west of it is the Alleghany 
Plateau, giving the elevation of 2000 feet or 
more to all of Maryland to the west, except the 
immediate valleys of the Potomac, Savage, and 
Youghiogheny rivers. Much of the plateau is 
above 2500 feet, and the highest mountains, the 
Savage and its extension, the Backbone Mountain, 
exceed 3000 feet in elevation. 

For Floba and Fauna, see those topics imder 
United States. 

Climatb and Soil. The climate of Maryland 
is one of transition in which the northern frozen 
winter gives way to the open southern win- 
ter. The extreme temperatures of more northern 
locations are occasionally met with, but the 
periods of cold are of less duration and the num- 
ber of freezing days and the amount of snowfall 
are less. An extreme winter temperature of 26^ 
below zero has been recorded at Sunnyside in the 
Alleghany Plateau and a summer temperature of 
109** F. near dhimberland. Changes of tempera- 
ture are frequent, and there is a great daily 
range. In north central Maryland the average 
temperature for January is 30** ; that for July 
75^. The average annual temperature for the 
State is between 63** and 54**. The average dates 
for first and last killing frosts in the plateau are 
October 1st and April 15th; on the Marine 

Islands the growing season is a month longer, 
extending from April 1st to October 15th. 

The average rainfall for the State is 43 
inches, of which 11.5 to 12 fall in spring and in 
summer and 9.5 to 10 in the fall and in winter. 
The effects of elevation and slope are clearly 
shown in the distribution of the rainfall. The 
western slope of the Alleghany Plateau receives 
53 inches; the eastern slope of Parr's Ridge 
over 45 ; the inclosed valleys between Cumberland 
and Hagerstown and small sections at the ex- 
treme east and southwest of the State receive 
between 30 and 35. The Atlantic Plain in 
the main receives from 42 to 48 inches. The 
snowfall averages 25.4 inches for the State, 
16.6 for the southern and 43.4 for the west- 
em districts. The number of days of precipi- 
tation on the coast is 130, in the mountains 140. 
The relative humidity varies from 80 in the sea 
islands to 65 at the extreme west. The climate 
is everywhere suitable to tree growth; hard 
woods, especially oak and hickory, predominate. 
The warm moist climate and light soil of 
the eastern shore cause that district to be the 
home of many southern plants not found else- 
where in the same latitude. 

Maryland has a variety of soils corresponding 
with the geological formations. The more re- 
cent formations of the Atlantic Plain have light, 
sandy and loamy soils, unsuited to grass, but 
especially adapted to vegetables, truck-farming, 
small fruits, and peaches. The region of meta- 
morphic rocks and the limestone and shale val- 
leys of the west are of heavier, often clay, soils, 
usually very fertile and adapted to wheat, maize, 
grass, and clover. On the western slope of the 
Blue Ridge Mountains, the Cambrian (Harper's) 
shale, crossing the State from Harper's Ferry 
northeastward, produces a strip of sandy, shaly 
soil with exceptional adaptation to peaches, 
which are here a highly specialized crop. Sim- 
ilar shaly soils are on the flanks of all the ranges, 
and the valley floors are usually limestone. 

Geologt. Maryland presents a great variety 
of geologic formations, owing to the fact that 
the various outcrops which run in broad bands 
parallel with the Atlantic coast are here so nar- 
row that the whole series is encompassed by the 
State, from the coastal plain formation to the 
western coal fields, while farther south they 
widen out so that even the State of North Caro- 
lina does not include them all. The entire por- 
tion of the State east of Chesapeake Bay and a 
strip from 5 to 20 miles wide along its west- 
em shore are covered with the recent unindurated 
coastal plain formation, consisting of Tertiary 
sands and clays east of the bay, and chiefly Cre- 
taceous, with some Eocene deposits, on the west- 
ern shore. West of this follows the Archaean 
belt of the Piedmont Plain. It is here about 50 
miles broad, occupying the whole central part 
of the State, but in early Mesozoic time this 
Archaean land was divided into two parts by a 
narrow arm of the sea running southwestward 
from the present mouth of the Hudson, and 
whose bed is now filled with a deep layer of 
Triassic red sandstone occupying the Frederick 
Valley. The narrow western part of the State 
is traversed by the various outcrops brought to 
the surface by the Appalachian upheaval and 
subsequent denudation. They are chiefly Devo- 
nian and Silurian strata, more or less tilted and 

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covered in the extreme west by the carboniferous 
formation. In addition to these there are intni- 
sions of eruptive rocks nmning in a chain of dikes 
east of the Blue Ridge. During the Eocene and 
Pleistocene periods the eastern part of the State 
was subjected to repeated changes of level, 
whose net result was the formation of a system 
of river valleys and their partial submergence into 
Chesapeake Bay and its branching estuaries. 

Mineral Resouikces. The most valuable min- 
eral resource of Maryland is coal, which is the 
best quality of bituminous and occurs in three 
areas known respectively as the Cumberland, 
Georgia Creek, and Frostburg *basins.' One bed, 
the *Big Vein,* is U feet thick, with others of 
less value below it. The area of the fields ii 
more than 500 square miles. The output in 1906 
was 4,950,000 tons, valued at $5,950,000, giving 
Maryland the thirteenth rank among the States. 
Useful minerals are most numerous in the crys- 
talline rocks of the Piedmont region. Here are 
many fine building stones, and there are found 
also, but mostly in unprofitable (quantities, ores 
of copper, gold, chrome, lead, zinc, and iron, 
besides flint, feldspar, kaolin, and mica. The 
absence of large cities has limited the quarry 
imdustry to the region near the head of Chesa- 
peake Bay. Of building stone for commercial use 
the State's output was $1,409,055 in 1905. Fine 
granite quarried near Port Deposit and Balti- 
more, and marble from the vicinity of Baltimore 
have been used for the Government buildings at 
Washington and for important structures in New 
York and Philadelphia. Valuable clays are 
widely distributed, Baltimore County alone pos- 
sessing clays suitable for building-brick, fire- 
brick, pottery, stoneware, terra-cotta, sewer pipe, 
and paint. Natural cement is an important 
article of manufacture. The clay output is small, 
but the value of clay products is high, owing to 
the pottery and other ciay manufactures of Balti- 
more, and the fire-bricks of the coal region, which 
are reported to be the best in the coumtry. Pot- 
able waters of excellent quality abound; springs 
are numerous, and there are some mineral springs 
©f local repute. 

Fisheries. This industry has declined greatly 
since 1891, the value of the catch in 1897 amount- 
ing to $3,617,306, as compared with $6,460,759 in 
1891. The State ranked sixth in 1904 with a 
catch valued at $3,336,560. More persons are en- 
gaged in the industry than in any other State, 
the number in 1904 being 30,337. The oyster 
catch amounted to almost 75 per cent, of the en- 
tire product, though both New York and Virginia 
exceeded Maryland in the quantity and value of 
the oyster catch. The rivers flowing into Chesa- 
peake Bay contribute largely to the fisheries prod- 
ucts, particularly shad. The other more impor- 
tant varieties taken are crabs, alewives, striped 
bass, and white perch. 

AoBicuLTURE. There is 81.9 per cent, of the 
land area of the State included in farms, and of 
this 68 per cent, is improved. The acreage of 
farm land increased 11.6 per cent, during the 
last half of the century, and there was a still 
greater increase in area of improved land. Dur- 
ing the same period the number of farms more 
than doubled, while the average size decreased 
nearly one-half— the average in 1900 being 112.4 
acres. The farms operated by owners amount to 
66.4 per cent, of the total number. The propor- 

tion of rented farms is increasing, particularly 
the farms rented on the share method, which 
amounted to 24.8 per cent, of all farms in 1900. 
Only 12.7 per cent, of the farms are operated by 
colored farmers, while the proportion of renters 
among these is much larger than among the 
whites, and the average size of the farms is much 
smaller among the former than among the latter. 

The area devoted to cereals in 1906 was con- 
siderably larger than it was in 1900, when it was 
larger than in 1890. Com and wheat usually 
have almost equal areas devoted to them, but in 
1906 the wheat acreage was very much larger. 
As compared with 1850 the product of wheat was 
about double in amount, while the increase of 
com was only a little less pronounced. Frederick 
County, in Piedmont region, is the largest pro- 
ducer of these cereals. The area devoted to oats in 
1906 was only 32 per cent, of that in 1890. Other 
cereals raised in small amounts are rye, buck- 
wheat, and barley. The acreage of rye in 1906 was 
19,704. Hay and forage crops rank next to corn 
and wheat, both in the area devoted to them and 
the value of the product. A much smaller acreage 
is devoted to tobacco, but its large per acre value 
makes it one of the important crops of the State. 

The lighter soils throughout the eastern part 
of the State are largely devoted to the raising 
of vegetables and fruits. In 1900 the value of the 
vege&ble products, including potatoes, sweet 
potatoes, and onions, amount^ to 15.2 per cent, 
of the gross farm income. Maryland annually 
cans about 40 per cent, of the tomato pack of the 
United States and takes a high rank in the can- 
ning of sweet com. The region south and east of 
Baltimore is noted for its peach orchards. In 
1900 the peach trees numbered over 4,000,000 
and constituted 60 per cent, of all fruit trees, 
although there was a large decrease as compared 
with the number in 1890. There was a large in- 
crease during the decade 1890-1900 in all other 
varieties of fruit trees. In 1900 17,516 acres 
were devoted to small fruits, of which about 
four-fifths were strawberries. Floriculture is 
extensively developed in the vicinity of Balti- 
more. Gardening and fruit-raising have given 
rise to the extensive use of fertilizers. The in- 
creasing demands of the growing centres of pop- 
ulation have given rise to a large dairy indus- 
try, and the number of dairy cows increased 
from 86,856 in 1850 to 147,284 in 1900. The 
greater intensiveness of cultivation and increased 
use of machinery have necessitated more work 
horses, and the number of these nearly doubled 
in the period mentioned. The following compar- 
ative tables give the more important crops and 
the number of domestic animals for the years 
1900 and 1906 (figures for crops given in acres) : 





H«7 and forafe 


PototoM (Iridi) 


Dairy oowa 

Other neat cattle 


Mules and 
Sheep .... 
Bwine .... 














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MANirFACTXTBES. Manufacturing is of much 
importance, and has played an important part 
from the first settlement of the State. In 1850 
5.2 per cent, of the population were engaged as 
wage-earners in that industry. In 1900 the per 
cent, of the population thus engaged was d.l. 
The census of 1900 showed 9879 establishments 
with 108,325 Wage-earners and products valued at 
$242,552,990. Of these establishments 3827, with 
93,038 wage-earners and products valued at $210,- 
795,624, were of the class included in the census 
of 1905, when their number was 3852, the num- 
ber of wage-earners, 94,174, and the value of prod- 
ucts, $243,375,996. The urban manufactures of 
the State are confined mainly to the city of Balti- 
more, the prominence of the manufacturing in- 
dustry in tne State being due largely to the com- 
mercial advantages of that city. The industry 
ranking first in value of products is the manufac- 
ture of men's clothing. This industry and the 
manufacture of shirts and men's furnishing 
goods is credited almost entirely to Baltimore. 
The largest and most important group of manu- 
factures draws extensively from the agricultural 
products of the State. The canning and preserv- 
ing of fruits and vegetables increased in value of 
products during the decade 1890-1900, 66.7 per 
cent., but decreased 9.3 per cent, from 1900 to 
1905. California alone exceeds Maryland in this 
industry. The tobacco manufactures are also 
increasing, the growth, however, being confined 
to the manufacture of chewing and smoking to- 
bacco and snuff. The canning of oysters gives 
employment to many hands. The slaughtering 
and meat-packing industry made considerable 
gains from 1900 to 1905. The flour and grist 
milling industry and the manufacture of textiles 
are long established industries. 

Another group of industries is of note — iron 
manufactures. The iron ore was at first secured 
from the State mines, but when the Lake Superior 
region was developed the grade of ore was so 
much higher than the Maryland product that it 
rendered the latter unprofitable and greatly re- 
duced the extent of &e dependent industries. 
More recently ore has been imported from Cuba, 
and the industry has revived. Fuel is secured 
from the mines of Pennsylvania and West Vir- 
ginia. The value of the iron and steel product 
mcreased 204.6 per cent, from 1890 to 1900, and 
40 per cent, from 1900 to 1905. There are now 
extensive shipments of steel rails to foreign 
markets. The production of pig-iron in 1906 
amounted to 386,709 long tons, an increase of 45 
per cent, over that of 1900. The revival of the 
mdustry is reflected in foundry and machine-shop 
industries. The same is true of shipbuilding. 
During the colonial period and the first half 
of the nineteenth century this industry was 
very prominent. The "Baltimore clippers*' were 
world famous and were instrumental in greatly 
extending the State's commerce. When iron 
and steel were substituted for wood in ship- 
building, the industry declined. Since the recent 
revival vessels have been constructed for the 
United States Navy. A less important group of 
manufactures derives its raw materials from 
the forest resources of the State and adjoining 
regions. Almost all the merchantable timber 
has been cut away in the region east of the 
Blue Ridge, and the pine and much of the hard 
wood have been cut from the western part of the 
State. The entire wooded area is estimated at 

44 per cent, of the land area. The most signifi- 
cant gain during the decade 1890-1900 was in 
the production of paper and wood pulp. A large 
increase was also made in the value of the lum- 
ber and timber products, planing-mill products, 
and furniture. The values of lumber and timber 
products, of paper and wood-pulp, and of furni- 
ture showed small increases from 1900 to 190S, 
but planing-mill products decreased somewhat. 

The extensive cultivation of fruits and vege- 
tables in Maryland has made a large demand 
for fertilizers, and the manufacture of this prod- 
wet is one of the principal industries. The tabte 
on the following page covers the fourteen 
leading industries of the State for the years 
1900 and 1905. 

Tbanspobtation and Commebce. Maryland is 
well supplied with transportation facilities, both 
natural and artificial. The Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad was one of the first lines operated in 
the United States. Other important lines are 
the Northern Central, the Maryland, Delaware 
and Virginia, the Baltimore, Chesapeake and 
Atlantic, the Western Maryland, the Maryland 
and Pennsylvania, the Baltimore and Annapolis 
Short Line, and the Annapolis, Washington and 
Baltimore. The total mileage on January 1, 1907, 
was 1415 miles. The Delaware and Chesapeake 
Canal connects the head of Chesapeake Bay with 
the Delaware River. Chesapeake Bay eives ex- 
cellent facilities for water transportation, and 
the Potomac River is navigable to Washington. 
The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, once a great 
highway of commerce, still carries some coal. 
Baltimore is the chief commerical centre of the 

Banking. The first bank in the State was the 
Bank of Maryland, chartered in 1790. In the 
early thirties there were half a dozen banks in 
Baltimore which suffered with all the other 
banks of the country from the money panic of 
1837. Six or seven banks failed, among them the 
Bank of Maryland, seriously affecting the com- 
mercial interests of the State. In 1850 there 
were 27 banks, with a capital of $9,310,407. In 
1906 there were 91 national banks, with capital 
of $17,344,500; surplus of $9,437,445; cash, $6,- 
225,000; loans, $74,468,350; and deposits of $66,- 
783,025. There were also 49 State banks with 
capital of $1,604,000, surplus $603,000, cash on 
hand $398,000, loans $8,129,000, and deposits 
$13,756,000; and 15 savings banks, with 161,458 
depositors and deposits to the amount of $70,677,- 
000. There were also 5 loan and trust companies 
and 4 private banks. 

Finances. The State of Maryland led in the 
movement for internal improvements beginning 
in the early twenties, and the first public debt of 
the State was created in order to acquire 5000 
shares of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. In 
1836 an issue of bonds to the amount of $8,000,- 
000 was authorized to be invested in various im- 
provements, mainly canals and the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad; and by 1839 the public debt 
amounted to more than $16,000,000. A financial 
collapse resulted when in 1840 the State stopped 
payments of interest. Very heaN-y taxes were im- 
posed in 1841, which it was almost impossible to 
collect; and a repudiation of the State debts 
was threatened. Finally in 1844 the arrears of 
interest were funded, and on January 1, 1H48, 
payment of interest on the State debt was re- 
siuned. During the Civil War a considerable 

Digitized by 






Total for adeoted induitriet tor State.. 

InoreaM, 1900 to 1906. 
Per cent, of increase .. 

Per cent, of total of all manufocturtug indmtiiee in State . 

Canning and preaerying 

Cars and general shop construction and repairs by 

Clothing, men*a 


Cotton goods. 

Fertilisers „ 

Floor and grist mill products 

Foundry and machine shop pTodocta 


Iron and steel 

Liquors, malt. 

Lumber and timber products 

Lumber, planing mill products, including sash, doors, i 

Paper and wood pulp 

Printing and publishing 



Slaughtering and meat paddng, wholesale 

Tinware, and coppersmithing and sheet iron working . 
Tobacco, cigars and cigarettes 





Number of 




77 ■ 






































































Value of prod« 

nets, including 

custcHn work 

and repairing 





debt was incurred for defense, bounties, etc., but 
it has been paid off, and the debt now consists 
almost entirely of bonds sold to defray the cost 
of new public buildings. 

The debt in September, 1906, amounted to 
$6,167,926, of which $5,329,725 was secured bv 
interest-paying bonds and cash with sinking fund, 
leaving a net debt of $838,201. The receipts for 
the fiscal year ending September 30, 1906, were 
$4,529,460, mainly from licenses, taxes on prop- 
erty, and taxes on -corporations. The disburse- 
ments were $4,516,829, of which 25 per cent, was 
for school purposes. 

Population. The popidation of the State in- 
creased from 319,728 m 1790 to 583,034 in 1850; 
from 780,894 in 1870 to 1,042,390 in 1890; and 
to 1,188,044 in 1900. The rank of the State has 
decreased during every census period, being 6 in 
1790, 15 in 1860, and 26 in 1900. The foreign 
born population in 1900 was only 93,934, nearly 
half of whom were Germans. The n^ro popula- 
tion for the same year was 235,064. The increase 
in the white population during the decade ending 
in 1900 was 15.2 per cent., as against an increase 
of 9 per cent, for the negro population. The 
density per square mile in 1900 was 120.5. The 
federal estimate of population in 1905 was 1,260,- 
869. In 1900 there were five places having a 
population exceeding 8000, aggregating 46.9 per 
cent, of the total population. These cities were 
Baltimore, 508,957; Cumberland, 17,128; Hagers- 
to\Mi, 13,591; Frederick, 9296; and .AjmapoUs, 

8525. Authoritative estimates of their popula- 
tion in 1905 were: Baltimore, 646,000; Cum- 
berland, 23,500; Hagerstown, 17,000; Frederick, 
9900; Annapolis, 9000. 

Relioiobt. The Roman Catholic and the Meth- 
odist churches far surpass all others in number 
of Church communicants. Of the other denomi- 
nations the strongest are the Protestant Episco- 
pal, Lutheran, Baptist, and Presbyterian. 

Education. The per cent, of illiteracy for 
the native whites (4.1) is the lowest, and for the 
negroes (35.1) next to the lowest of any State 
which has a large negro population. The Gov- 
ernor, ihe principal of the State Normal School, 
the State Superintendent (an office established 
in 1900), and four persons appointed by the 
Grovernor, constitute the State Board of Educa- 
tion. The Governor and Senate appoint a board 
of school commissioners in each county, who 
serve six years. These commissioners appoint 
for each district a board of school trustees of 
three persons. In 1905-6 the average length 
of the school year for the State was 192 days, 
which was exceeded by very few other States. 
The State law requires that the term continue 
ten months when possible. In 1906 the number 
of children between five and twenty years of age 
was 370,892, of whom 227,614 were enrolled in 
the public schools, and 142,993 were in average 
attendance. The total number of colored pupils 
was 44,691, of whom 24,067 were in average at- 
tendance. In 1906 there were 907 male and 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




4337 female teachers, 781 of the total numbet 
of teachers being colored. The average yearly 
salary in the counties was only $314, but in Bal- 
timore city it was more than double that sum. 
A law of 1902 introduced the pension system for 
soch teachers as have reached the age of sixty, 
and have devoted twenty-five years to the ser- 
vice of the State schools. Professional training 
is given to teachers at the State Normal Schools 
at Baltimore and Frostburg, and at Washington 

Johns Hopkins University (q.v.) at Balti- 
more, opened in 1876, is distinguished for the 
hi^ rank of its graduate and medical schools. 
Its attendance is drai^-n from all parts of the 
country, and it has gained a wide reputation 
for its original and research work. There 
are five other regular medical schools and a 
homceopathic one in the city, three law schools, 
three dental schools, two theological schools, and 
one ol pharmacy. An excellent Woman's College, 
under the patronage of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, was opened in Baltimore in 1886. Samt 
John's College (chartered 1784) at Annapolis is a* 
non-sectarian institution taking the place of 
King William's School ( founded in 1696). Wash- 
ington College at Chestertown (chartered 1782) is 
the oldest institution of collegiate character in 
the State. Western Maryland College at West- 
minister ( founded 1867 ) is an important institu- 
tion under the care of the Methodist Protestant 
Church. The Agricultural College is in Prince 
(jeorge County. Prominent among Roman Cath- 
olic institutions are Saint Mary's Theological 
Seminary, in Baltimore (founded 1791), Mount 
Saint Mary's College at Emmitsburg, and Loyola 
College at Baltimore. The Jacob Tome Institute, 
one of the most richly endowed secondary schools 
in the world, is at Port Deposit. 

Chautablb and Penal Institutions. Ac- 
cording to a law of 1900, there is a Board of 
State Aid and Charities, appointed by the Gov- 
ernor and Senate. This board receives all appli- 
cations for State aid and recommends to the 
l^slature that certain grants should be made, 
and in what amounts. In 1905-6 about 102 
institutions and organizations applied for aid, 
87 of which were favorably recommended by the 
board. These included 29 hospitals, of which the 
State Insane Asylums at Sykesville and at Spring 
Grove received the largest contributions; 10 re- 
formatories, 3 of which were semi-State institu- 
tions, located at or near Baltimore, and one, the 
Home of Reformation for CJolored Children, lo- 
cated near Cheltenham, was a State institution; 
7 orphan asylums and 18 "homes" for the friend- 
less, infants, etc., including the Maryland Line 
Confederate Soldiers' Home near Pikesville, the 
bnildings of which are owned by the State; and 
a number of schools, including the State asylums, 
the training school for feeble-minded children 
oear Owings Mills, the State School for the 
Deaf and Dumb at Frederick, and the semi- 
State institutions at Baltimore, namely, School 
for the Blind, and School for Colored Blind and 
Deaf. The two last-named institutions do not 
weeive aid from Baltimore, but most of the 
State-aided institutions are endowed and receive 
local aid also. The endowed Johns Hopkins Hos- 
pital at Baltimore is probably the most widely 
known institution of the kind in the United 
^tes. The Sheppard and Enoch Pratt Hospital 
for Mental and Nervous Diseases, located near 

Baltimore, is also worthy of note. The Staia 
penitentiary is in Baltimore. The convicts are 
generally employed under contract, the majority 
of them being engaged in the manufacture of 
boots and shoes. Prisoners confined in jails do 
not, as a rule, have employment. About half 
the prison population are negroes. 

Government. The present Constitution was 
adopted in September, 1867. Amendments must 
be proposed by three-fifths of each House of the 
Legislature and ratified by a majority vote of the 
people. Once in every twenty years the people 
must vote on the question of holding a conven- 
tion to revise the Constitution. Voters must have 
resided in the State one year, and in the legisla- 
tive districts of Baltimore city or in the county 
six months. The capital is Annapolis (q.v.). 

Legislative. The Legislature^ which meets 
on the first Wednesday of January of the even 
years, consists of a Senate and House of Dele- 
gates. The Senators, 27 in number, one from 
each county, and one from each of the four legis- 
lative districts of Baltimore, are elected for four 
years, one-half retiring biennially. The Dele- 
gates, 101 in number, are elected for two years 
by counties, the number of members being de- 
termined by the census. Members of the Legis- 
lature are paid $6 per day during the sessions, 
besides mileage. No minister or preacher of the 
Gospel or of any religious creed or denomination 
is eligible to the Legislature. Regular sessions 
are limited to ninety days, special sessions to 
thirty days. A majority vote of all the members 
elected to each House is required to pass any bill. 
The power of impeachment rests with the House, 
the trial of impeachment with the Senate. 

Executive. The Governor is elected for four 
years, has a salary of $4500 per annum, and ap- 
points all State officers with the consent of the 
Senate. In case of the vacancy of the (Governor- 
ship the Legislature elects a man to that posi- 
tion, or if the Legislature be not in session the 
president of the Senate and Speaker of the House 
are respectively in the line of succession to that 
position. The Governor has a veto over any bill 
or any item of an appropriation bill, but this 
veto is overcome by a three-fifths vote of the 
members elected to each House. 

JuDiciABT. The Court of Appeals, composed 
of the chief judges of the first seven circuits and 
a judge specially elected in Baltimore, has ap- 
pellate iurisdiction only. The State is divided 
into eight judicial circuits, the city of Balti- 
more constituting the eighth. In each circuit, 
except the eighth, a chief judge and two asso- 
ciate judges are elected; and in each county a 
Circuit Court is held, having original jurisdic- 
tion, both civil and criminal, and appellate juris- 
diction of the judgments of justices of the peace. 
In Baltimore city there are nine judges, wno as- 
sign themselves to the several courts, usually sit- 
ting separately. All the above judges are elected 
by the people for a term of fifteen years. The 
orphans* courts with probate jurisdiction are 
composed of three men in each county, elected 
for a term of four years. The Governor and Sen- 
ate appoint justices of the peace, and the county 
commissioners appoint constables for a term of 
two years. Each county elects a clerk for the 
Circuit Court, and a Register of Wills, and the 
State elects a clerk for the Court of Appeals. 

Local Govebnhent. The General Assembly 

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may organize new counties or alter the bound- 
aries of old ones, but not without a majority con- 
sent of the parts concerned. County commis- 
sioners are elected as prescribed by law ; the term, 
however, cannot exceed six years. A sheriflf and 
a surveyor are also elected for each county. Cor- 
oners, elisors, and notaries public are appointed 
for each county. 

Other Constitutional or Statutory Provi- 
sions. General elections are held biennially, on 
the Tuesday after the first Monday in November. 
The legal rate of interest is 6 per cent. A married 
woman may acquire, hold, and manage property 
independently of her husband, and dispose of the 
same as if single. Her husband must join her, 
however, in the execution of any deed. Debtors 
are protected in the possession of property to the 
value of $500. 

History. In 1632 Cecilius Calvert, second 
Lord Baltimore, received from Charles I. a char- 
ter conferring on him the possession of the ter- 
ritory now forming the States of Maryland and 
Delaware. The grant had been obtained by 
George Calvert, first Lord Baltimore, the father 
of Cecil, but he died before the charter was is- 
sued. It was the intention of the lord proprietor 
to found a feudal State in Maryland (named in 
honor of Charles's Queen, Henrietta Maria), and 
to that end he was invested with sovereign pow- 
ers, subject only to the recognition of the King 
as lord paramount by the payment of a yearly 
tribute of two Indian arrows. One of the chief 
causes that led to the settlement of Maryland 
was the desire of Lord Baltimore, a Catholic, to 
found a colony where his fellow-believers might 
profess their religion openly without incurring 
the penalties to which they were subjected in 
England. Other denominations, however, in the 
proprietor's scheme, were to be on an equal foot- 
ing with the Catholics, and of the twenty gentle- 
men and two or three hundred commoners who 
arrived at Point Comfort, Va., in February, 1634, 
under the leadership of Leonard Calvert, it is 
probable that more than half were Protestants. 
On the 25th of March mass was celebrated on 
Saint Clement's Island in the Potomac^ and 
shortly after the site of the city of Saint Mary's 
was traced on land bought from the Yaocomico 
Indians, near the banks of the river. 

In his use of the vast powers granted him by 
the King, Baltimore was as moderate as in the 
expression of his religious views, and he made 
no attempt to establish anything like an absolute 
government. By the terms of the charter, laws 
for the province could be made by the Proprietor 
only, with the consent of the freemen or their 
deputies, and on January 26, 1635, the first as- 
sembly of freemen met at Saint Mary's. The 
right of initiating laws, claimed both by the 
Assembly and by the Proprietor, was conceaed in 
1638 to the people, Baltimore reserving to him- 
self the mere veto power. The first 'statutes of 
the province* were passed in 1638 and 1639. 
With the Indians friendly relations were estab- 
lished. The worst enemy of Lord Baltimore's 
colony was William Claiborne (q.v.), a Vir- 
ginian^ who had established a trading post on 
Kent Island in Chesapeake Bay in 1631. He 
refused to recognize the authority of Lord Balti- 
more, and in 1638 his settlement was captured by 
Leonard Calvert during Claiborne's absence in 
England. In 1643 a company of Puritans^ ex- 

cluded from Virginia for non-confonmty, settled 
at Providence, now Annapolis, and put them- 
selves in opposition to the Government. Hie 
outbreak of the Civil War in England enabled 
Baltimore's enemies to carry their opposition to 
a great length. In 1645 Captain Richard Ingle> 
acting ostensibly in the name of Parliament, seized 
Saint Mary's. Claiborne also returned from Eng- 
land, regained possession of Kent Island, and 
the Governor attempted in vain to dispossesa 
him. For nearly two years Ingle held the prov- 
ince under his sway until Governor Leonard Cal- 
vert returned from Virginia with a military 
force and recovered possession. As early as 163S 
the molestation of Protestants had been pun- 
ished. In 1640 an act was passed at the desire 
of the Proprietor guaranteeing freedom of wor- 
ship to all followers of Jesus Christ. The Puri- 
tans continuing to be turbulent, their settlement 
by way of conciliation was in 1660 erected into a 
separate county, named Anne Arundel, and as 
other Puritans arrived from England, Charles 
County was shortly afterwards organized for their 
benefit. Their niunbers increased to such an extent 
that they soon had a majority in the Assembly. In. 
1652 commissioners from England visited Mary- 
land, among whom were Claiborne and Bennett, 
the Puritan leader of Anne Arundel County. The 
authority of the English Commonwealth was 
completely established in the colony, and Kent 
Island was given up to Claiborne. A commis- 
sion for the government of the colony was or- 
ganized with Captain William Fuller at its 
head. The Puritans made use of their ascend- 
ency to repeal the Toleration Act of 1649 and to 
enact penal laws against the Catholics. A severe 
conflict ensued. Providence was attacked March 
25, 1655, by the proprietary party; but the as- 
sault was repulsed, the whole invading force 
being either killed or taken prisoners. In 1654 
Lord Baltimore made a vain attempt to regain 
possession of the province, but succeeded only in 
defeating a scheme for uniting Maryland to Vir- 
ginia. Three years later his title was recognized 
by the Protector and in 1658 the proprietary gov- 
ernment was restored. The period before the Revo- 
lution of 1688 was marked by an important treaty 
with the Susquehanna Indians (1661) and some 
difficulties with William Penn concerning the 
boundary line between the two provinces in the 
Delaware country. Upon the deposition of James 
II., the incompetency of the Governor, the failure 
to proclaim the new monarchs, and preposterous 
rumors of a Popish plot stirred up the people 
and an Association of the Protestant Freemen 
headed by Captain John Coode seized the prov- 
ince in the name of William and Mary. The 
Legislature laid before the King a list of com- 
plaints against the government of Lord Balti- 
more, and in August, 1691, the Proprietor was 
deprived of his political privileges, though his 
property rights were left intact. In 1715, how- 
ever, the province was restored to the fifth 
Lord Baltimore, a Protestant. At the begin- 
ning of the eighteenth century tobacco was the 
staple product. Commerce and manufactures 
were greatly restricted by the Navigation Acts. 
There were very few towns, Baltimore being 
founded as late as 1729, Frederick in 1745, 
and Georgetown in 1751. Prosperity was wide- 
ly diffused, and the standard of living, owing 
to the abundance of game and fish, high. All 

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sects were tolerated, except the Catholics, who 
were denied the suffrage and forbidden to wor- 
ship in public. The Anglican Church was es- 
tablished in 1602. Four years later a free high 
school was opened at Annapolis. The question of 
the northern boundary, which after 1730 threat- 
ened to bring on war with Pennsylvania, was 
settled by the drawing of the famous Mason and 
Dixon's line (1763-67). 

Maryland took an active part in the wars re- 
sulting in the extinction of the French domina- 
tion upon this continent, and in the last and 
most important of these its western border suf- 
fered severely from Indian attacks owing to the 
obstinacy of the Legislature in refusing to vote 
means for defense. The colony was also among 
the first to oppose the aggressions of the British 
Government, which led to the War of the Revolu- 
tion. The Stamp Act was received with great in- 
dignation and the imposition of duties on tea was 
responded to by the burning of a tea ship ( 1774) . 
In the same year a popular convention began to 
direct the revolutionary movement. It gradually 
assumed charge of the government. A bill of 
rights and a constitution were adopted in No- 
vember, 1776, and the legislature assembled 
at Annapolis, February 6, 1777. Maryland took 
a most efficient and honorable part in the Revo- 
lutionary War, though it did not join the Con- 
federation till 1781, owing to her claim that the 
western lands should belong to the Union. In 
1783 Congress met at Annapolis, and here, on 
December 23d after the conclusion of peace, 
Washington resigned his commission as general - 
in-chief. The Federal Constitution was adopted 
in the Maryland convention April 28, 1788, 
by a vote of 63 to 11. Maryland suffered con- 
siderably in the War of 1812. (See United 
States.) The beginning of the war was marked 
by a fierce riot against a Federalist newspaper of 
Baltimore, in which a number of people were 
killed. Havre de Grace and other villages were 
burned by the English fleet in 1813, Baltimore 
was unsuccessfully attacked by a British army, 
and Fort McHenry was bombarded in Septem- 
ber, 1814. An elaborate system of internal im- 
provements was initiated in 1828, when the 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad were begun. In 1844 the first 
line of electric telegraph in the United States 
was run from Baltimore to Washington. The 
position of Maryland in the Civil War was pe- 
culiar. As a slave-holding State her sympathies 
were naturally to a great extent with the South ; 
but her proximity to Pennsylvania made her 
truly a Border State. Many of her people fa- 
vored secession, a large number entered the Con- 
federate Army, and in the first days of the war 
the passage of Union troops through Baltimore 
was opposed, several Massachusetts soldiers be- 
ing killed on April 19, 1861 ; but the strength of 
the Union party, added to the efforts of the 
(jovemor, served to keep the State from seceding. 
Later, bitter feelings were aroused by the policy 
of the General Grovemment in establishing mili- 
tary rule and suspending the habeas corpus in a 
large part of the State. The adherence of Mary- 
land to the Union was extremely important in 
that it saved Washington from falling into the 
power of the Confederates. 

Railroad development was facilitated by a 
lystem of State and county aid. For many years 

the claims of the State against the Baltimort and 
Ohio Railroad for the recovery of the subsidy 
granted the company in 1836 were fought in the 
courts without definite result. The Qiesapeaka 
and Ohio Canal was constructed as far as Cum- 
berland and was profitable for some years, but 
diversion of traffic and danger from storms made 
it bankrupt. In 1865 the educatioDal ifystem» 
antiquated and inefficient, was reformed. The 
present system of county boards was begun in 
1868. The prevalence of corruption in city elec- 
tions led to a revision of the election laws in 
1889, and the adoption of the Australian ballot 
in 1890. In 1896 the bi-partisan system of elec- 
tion boards was fully recognized. 

The Constitution of 1776 was often amended, 
especially in 1802, when the property qualifica- 
tion for the suffrage was abolished, and in 1837 
the election of the Governor was given to the peo- 
ple. New constitutions were adopted in 1»51, 
1864, and 1867, the second of which abolished 
slavery. Its electoral vote has been as follows: 
1796, Adams 7, Jefferson 4; 1800, Adams 6, Jef- 
ferson 5; 1804, Pinckney 2, Jefferson 9; 1808, 
Pinckney 2, Madison 9; 1812, Clinton 5, Madison 
6; 1816, Monroe 8; 1820, Monroe 11; 1824, Jack- 
son 7, Adams 3, Crawford 1; 1828, Adams 6, 
Jackson 6; 1832, Clay 6, Jackson 3. It went 
Whig from 1836 to 1848, Democratic in 1852, 
American Party (Know-Nothing) in 1856, and 
Democratic in 1860. In 1864 it voted for Lin- 
coln, but from 1868 to 1892 was Democratic. In 
1896, 1900 and 1904 it went Republican. The 
following is a list of the Governors of the State : 


Leonard Calvert 1634-47 

Thomas Greene 1647-4© 

WiUlamStone 1649-64 

Oommlseionera.. 1654-6ft 

Josias Fendall 1668-60 

Philip Calvert. 1660-61 

Charles Calvert (became Lord Baltimore 1676) 1661-76 

Ceciliaa Calvert 1676 

Thomas Notley 1676-7» 

Charles, third Lord Baltimore 1679-84 

Benedict Leonard Calvert and Council 1684-88 

William Joeeph (President of CouncU) 168S-8» 

Proteetant AModators 1689-90 

Nehemiah Blakistone and Committee 1690-92 


Sir Lionel Copley 169a-«l 

Sir Edward Andros 1693-94 

Francis Nicholson 1694-99 

Nathaniel Blakistone 1699-1702 

Thomas Tench (President of Council) 1702-04 

John Seymour 1704-09 

Edward Lloyd (President of Council) 1709-14 

John Hart 1714-15 


John Hart 1715-20 

Charles Calvert 1720-27 

Benedict Leonard Calvert 1727-31 

Samuel Orfe 1731-32 

Charles, flfth Lord Baltimore 1732-88 

Samuel Og:l© 1733-42 

Thomas Bladen 1742-47 

Samuel Ogle 1747-62 

BanJamlnTasker. 1762-68 

Horatio Sharpe 1753-69 

Robert Eden 1769-7S 

The Convention and Council of Safety 1776-77 


Thomas Johnson 1777-79 

Thomas Sim Lee 1779-82 

William Paca 1782-86 

William Smallwood 1786-88 

John E.Howard 1788-91 

George Plater 1791-92 

Thomas Sim Lee 1792-94 

John H. Stone 1794-97 

John Henry Democratic-Republican 1797-98 

Benjamin Ogle Federalist 1798-1801 

John F. Mercer Democratic-Republican. 1801-OS 

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Bobeit Bowie Democratic-Bepubllcan 180S-06 

fiobert Wright. •• «• 1806-09 

Bdward Lloyd •• •• 18U»-U 

Bobert Bowie •• « 1811-ia 

lievln Winder. Federallat. 1812-15 

Charles Ridgely •• 1816-18 

Charlee Goldsboroaffh " 1818-19 

Bamuel Sprigg Democratic-Republican 1819-22 

Samuel Stevens, Jr... *' " 1822-26 

Joseph Kent. " " 1826-28 

Daniel Martin Anti-Jackson. 1828-29 

Thomas K. Carroll Jackson Democrat. 1829-30 

Daniel Martin. Anti-Jackson 1890-81 

George Howard Whig 1831-88 

James Thomas " 1833-86 

Thomas W. Veazej " 1835-88 

William Grayson Democrat 1838-a 

Francis Thomas. " 1841-44 

Thomas G. Pratt. Whig 1844r^7 

Philip F. Thomas Democrat. 1847-60 

EnocD L. Lowe «• 1860-63 

Thomas W. Llgon " 1853-68 

Thomas H. Hicks American 1858-e? 

August W. Bradford Unionist 1862-66 

Thomas Swann Unionist, later Democrat 1866-66 

Oden Bowie Democrat. 1868-72 

William P. Whyte •• 1872-74 

James B. Qroome " 1874-78 

John L. Carroll " 187G-80 

Wmiam T. Hamilton " 1880-84 

Bobert M. McLane " 1884-86 

Henry Lloyd •• 1885-88 

Ellhu E. Jackson " 1888-92 

Frank Brown " 1892-96 

Lloyd Lowndes Republican 1896-1900 

John W. Smith Democrat 1900-04 

Edwin Warfleld " 1904r. 

BiBLioGBAPHY. Maryland Geological Survey 
Reports. History. Bozman, History of Mary- 
land, 1633-60 (Baltimore, 1837). The most ex- 
tensive history is Scharf, History of Maryland 
from the Earliest Period (Baltimore, 1870); 
Browne, Maryland, the History of a Palati- 
nate, "American Commonwealth Series" (Boston, 
1884) ; Gambrill, Studies in the Civil, Social, 
and Ecclesiastical History of Early Maryland 
(New York, 1893) ; Thomas, Chronicles of Colo- 
nial Maryland (Baltimore, 1900); Mereness, 
Maryland as a Proprietary Province (New York, 
1901); McMahon, History of Maryland to 1776 
(Baltimore, 1831); Hall, Lords Baltimore (Bal- 
timore, 1903); Gambrill, School History of 
Maryland (Baltimore, 1903) ; McSheny, History 
of Maryland (Baltimore, 1904) ; Hall, The Lords 
Baltimore and the Maryland Palatinate (Balti- 
more, 1905 ) ; Riley, History of the General As- 
sembly of Maryland, 1635 1904 ( Baltimore, 1905 ) . 
The Johns Hopkins Studies in Historical and 
Political Science contain many useful mono- 
graphs. The Colonial Archives are being pub- 
lished under the care of the Maryland Historical 
Society; Steiner, Institutions and Civil Govern- 
ment of Maryland (Boston, 1899). 


An association founded in 1844 for the purpose 
of collecting and arranging material relating to 
the history of Maryland. It now owns the 
Athenaeum Building, on Saratoga Street, Baltl 
more, in which it has gathered a priceless collec- 
tion of manuscripts, documentary records, books, 
and pamphlets. There are also three galleries 
of historic curios, portraits, and valuable paint- 
ings. The society has done great service in 
rescuing, editing, and printing historical data. 
Its series of Fund Publications (37 in number) 
contains many valuable reprints and monographs. 
American warbler (Geothlypis trichas), common 
in summer throughout the continent. It is 
about 5*^ inches long, olive-green above and 
bright yellow below, with a conspicuous broad 

black band or 'mask* across the forehead (of the 
male), which includes the bill, extends back to 
a point on each side of the neck, and is bordered 
above by a white line; the female has only a 
dull white line above the eye. These warblers 
spend their time near the ground and make their 


nests there, usually beside a stream; and they 
utter a short, questioning song as characteristic 
as it is pretty. Several closely allied species, as 
the Kentuckv warbler (q.v.), mourning, Con- 
necticut, and McGillivray's warblers, belong to 
this genus, and visit the United States, while 
several others are found only in Mexico and Cen- 
tral America. 

ICABYLEBONE^ maM-l^bOn', commonly 
ma'ril-bAn or mftr'-i-btin. A metropolitan and 
Parliamentary borough of London, in the north- 
western part of the city. It is regularly laid 
out, with many handsome streets, and here are 
situated Regent's Park, the gardens of the Zoolog- 
ical and Botanic societies, the Clolosseum, Middle- 
sex and other hospitals. University College, and 
the terminal stations of the Midland, Great West- 
ern, and Great Northern railroads. Population, 
in 1891, 144,083; in 1901, 133,329. 

MABY MAGDALENE, mftg^dA-lSn, or m&g^- 
u&-Ie^n4, or Mabt of Magdala. A woman men- 
tioned in the Gospels as a follower of Jesus 
and, with others, a contributor to His sup- 
port (Luke viii. 2-3). Her home was doubt- 
less at Magdala (<j.v.). She had been cured of 
demoniacal possession by Jesus and was among 
His most devoted friends. With the like-minded 
women she was a witness of the crucifixion 
(Matt, xxvii. 55, 56; Mark xv. 40-41; Luke 
xxiii. 48-49) and of the entombment of Jesus 
(Matt, xxvii. 61 and parallels). The same com- 
pany came to the tomb on the Sunday morning 
following the crucifixion, and, finding it open and 
empty, ran back to the city to inform the disciples 
(Matt, xxviii. 1-10 and parallels). But Mary 
appears to have soon returned alone to the tomb, 
and to her the risen Jesus first appeared (John 
XX. 1-18; Mark xvi. 9). Her joy on hearing and 
seeing Him again was excessive, but Jesus would 
not permit her to touch Him, to show her that 
the relation between them was now entirely 
different from what it had been. Nothing more 
is told of her in the New Testament. The very 
common identification of her with the 'woman 
who was a sinner' (Luke vii. 36-50) rests on no 
sure foundation. This idea, the ruling one in art 
and literature, with its accompany inof concep- 
tion of the word 'Magdalene,* has therefore no 
basis in fact. A late legend represented her as 
ending her days in Southern France. Consult 
Mrs. Jameson, Sacred and Legendary Art, vol. ii. 
(London, 1866) ; Life of St, Mary Magdelene, 
trans, from the Italian (2d ed., Boston, 1906). 

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HABY OF BTJB'OTnroY (1467-82). Daugh- 
ter and heiress of Charles the Bold, Duke of 
Burgundy and sovereign of the Netherlands, 
bom at Brussels. On the death of Charles ( 1477 ) , 
Louis XI. of France advanced various claims to 
the territories over which that prince had ruled. 
To defend herself Mary married Maximilian of 
Austria, with whom she lived happily for five 
years, dying from a fall from her horse. She 
was a woman of great beauty, intelligence, and 
amiability. Through her the Netherlands came 
into the possession of the House of Hapsburg, 
passing subsequently through her son Philip the 
Fair to her grandson Charles V. (q.v.). 

ICABY OF GUISE, gwSz (1515-60). Queen 
of Scotland. She was the daughter of Claude, 
Duke of Guise, and Antoinette de Bourbon, and 
is also known as Mary of Lorraine. At the age 
of nineteen she was married to Louis d'Orl^ans, 
Duke of Longueville, who died in 1537. In 1638 
she married James V. of Scotland, who died in 
1542, soon after the announcement to him of the 
birth of a daughter, Mary, afterwards Queen of 
Scots. !Mary of Guise was Regent of Scotland 
for a short period, and showed herself an enemy 
of the party led by Arran and an opponent of 
the Reformed religion. She caused her daughter 
to be sent to France and plighted to the fu- 
ture Francis II., the marriage taking place in 

1672). A French educator in Canada, born at 
Tours. Her name was Marie Guyard, but she 
was married in her eighteenth year to M. Martin. 
She was left a widow with an infant son before 
she was twenty. She then ^ve herself almost 
entirely to religious work. Finally she claimed 
to havcf entered into a mystical marriage with the 
Christ, and entered the Ursuline convent at 
Tours. In 1639 she was chosen superior of the 
convent of Ursulines established at Quebec by 
Madame de la Peltrie (q.v.) . Though a mystic and 
a dreamer, she showed |preat executive abilitv and 
managed the convent with success until her death. 
She was tall and stately, and impressed all with 
the strength of her personality. Many of the 
letters she wrote back to France were collected 
and published posthumously under the title 
Lettres de la v6n4rahle m^e Marie de Vlncama- 
ium (Paris, 1681). There is also an autobiog- 
raphy prepared by direction of her superiors. 
Consult also Martin (her son) yLaviedela vSrU- 
Table mdre Marie de VIncamation (Paris, 1677) ; 
Charlevoix, Vie (Paris, 1724) ; and the Life by 
Casgrain, published in his collected works, vol. 
iii. (Montreal, 1886). . 

HABYPOBT. A seaport and bathing resort 
in Cumberland, England, at the mouth of the 
Ellen, 25 miles southwest of Carlisle (Map: 
England. C 2). Shipbuilding and its kindred 
branches are carried on extensively, and there are 
iron foundries, saw-mills, flour-mills, tanneries, 
breweries, etc. A large quantity of coal and coke 
is shipped, especially to Ireland. The town owns 
gas and water works, a slaughter house, and 
markets, and maintains an isolation hospital. 
Maryport was the seat of a Roman camp and 
ia rich in antiquities. It was called Ellenfoot 
until 1750, when it received its present name, 
owing to the fact that Mary, Queen of Scots, 
landed here in her flight from Scotland. Pop- 
ulation, in 1891, 12,400; in 1901, 11,900. 

KABYSTITABT (1542-87). Queen of Scot- 
land from 1542 to 1567. She was bom December 
7, or 8, 1542, at Linlithgow Palace, the daughter 
of James V. of Scotland by Mary of Guise. Her 
father died within a week of her birth, and she 
was proclaimed Queen. The English began nego- 
tiations for her betrothal to Prince Edward (later 
Edward VI. ) , but, though they declared war to 
enforce their demands, they were unable to do so. 
After the Scots were defeated at Pinkie Cleugh, 
the yoimg Queen was sent for greater security to 
an island in the Lake of Monteith. Meanwhile 
negotiations were opened with France for her 
marriage to the Dauphin ( later Francis II. ) , and 
tnese were satisfactorily concluded on July 7, 
1548, whereupon Mary was sent to France. At 
the French Court Mary received a good education, 
and showed considerable intelligence. On April 
24, 1558, her marriage to the Dauphin took 
place, and, contrary to the public agreements, she 
bound herself secretly, that, if she died childless, 
her Scottish realm and her right of succession to 
the English throne, as great-granddaughter of 
Henry VII., should pass to France. In 1569 
her husband ascended the French throne, and 
during his reign of over a year Mary exerted 
supreme influence. But the death of Francis II., 
on December 5, 1560, destro^red all her plans. 
Catharine de' Medici was hostile to her; and bo, 
on August 15, 1561, after considerable negotia- 
tion with the great Protestant lords of Scot- 
land, she left France forever. 

Her government began auspiciously, and even 
the religious situation caused at first little diffi- 
culty. Protestantism had received the sanction 
of the Scottish Parliament, and Mary did not 
oppose this settlement, stipulating merely for 
liberty to use her own religion. Moreover, she 
surrounded herself with Protestant advisers, 
her chief minister being her natural brother, 
James Stuart, an able and ambitious statesman, 
whom she soon created Earl of Mar, and a little 
later Earl of Murray (q.v.). Her chief difficulties 
were to come to an amicable agreement with 
Elizabeth concerning the succession to the Eng- 
lish throne. The English Queen, however, was 
suspicious of Mary, and the question of whom 
the latter would marry complicated matters fur- 
ther, Elizabeth fearing that an alliance of the 
Scottish Queen with a powerful foreign prince, 
like Don Carlos of Spain, would endanger her 
throne. Contrary to the advice of all, Mary, on 
July 29, 1565, married her cousin, Henry Stuart, 
Lord Damley, who had some claims to both the 
Scottish and English thrones. The marriage was 
not a love match, but chiefly due to the fact that 
Darnley had considerable influence with the 
English Catholics, who would thus aid Mary in 
any plans she might have to obtain the English 
throne. On the other hand, the marriage alien- 
ated the powerful Protestant lords of Scotland, 
notably Murray, who rose in rebellion, and it 
made Elizabeth more suspicious than ever. The 
insurrection of the Protestant lords was sup- 
pressed, but Mary's eyes were soon opened to 
the mistake of her marriage with the utterly 
worthless Damley. She was disgusted by his 
debauchery and alarmed by his arrogance and 
ambition, which went so far as to prompt him 
to demand that the crown should be secured to 
him for life, and that if the Queen died without 
issue it should descend to his heir. Ascribing 
Mary's reluctance to accede to these demands to 

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the influence of her confidential adviser, David 
Rizzio, an Italian of great ability, but generally 
hated as a foreigner and a Roman Catholic, 
Damley conspired with the Protestant nobles to 
murder him and seize the government. It was 
stipulated that Protestantism should remain the 
recognized religion. On March 9, 1566, Rizzio 
was dragged from Mary's supper-room and assas- 
sinated. Mary dissembled her indignation at her 
husband's treachery, succeeded in detaching him 
from the conspirators, and persuaded him not only 
to escape with her from their power by a mid- 
night flight to Dunbar, but also to issue a procla- 
mation in which he denied all complicity in their 
designs. Two of the chief conspirators, Ruthven 
and Morton, fled to England, while Murray and 
the Queen became reconciled. On June 19, 1566, 
Mary gave birth to a son (later James VI. of 
Scotland and James I. of England) ; but soon 
afterwards she quarreled more than ever with 
Damley, and the latter thought of leaving the 
country. Meanwhile the Queen showed more and 
more favor to James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, 
a needy and profligate noble. About January 9, 
1567, Damley fell ill. Mary brought him to 
Edinburgh, and he was lodged in a small man- 
sion. Here on February 9th the Queen visited 
him, but left him about 10 o'clock in the even- 
ing. Early the next morning the house in which 
Damley slept was blown up, and his lifeless body 
was found in a neighboring garden. Bothwell 
was undoubtedly the murderer, and it is a matter 
of controversy whether or not Mary was privy to 
the deed. A mock trial was held, and Bothwell 
was acquitted. On April 19th he carried the 
Queen to Dunbar, probably with her full consent. 
He divorced his young wife, Catherine Gordon, 
whom he had married little more than a year 
before, and on May 15, 1567 — only three months 
after her husband's murder — ^Mary became Both- 
well's wife. 

This last indiscretion of Mary arrayed all her 
nobles in arms a^inst her. She was able to 
lead an armv against them, but it melted away 
without striking a blow at Carberry Hill, June 
15, 1667. She had to abandon Bothwell and sur- 
render herself to the confederated lords, who led 
her to Edinburgh, and from there to Lochleven. 
At the latter place she was compelled on July 24, 

1567, to sign an act of abdication in favor of her 
son. Escaping from her island prison May 2, 

1568, Mary found herself in a few days at the 
head of a small army, but this was defeated 
on May 13th by the Regent Murray at Langside, 
near Glasgow. Four days afterwards, in spite of 
the entreaties of her best friends, Mary crossed 
the Solway, and threw herself on the protection 
of Queen Elizabeth, only to flnd herself a prisoner 
for life. 

Mary was flrst taken to Carlisle, but on July 
13, 1568, she was removed to Bolton. Elizabeth 
demanded that there should be an inquiry into 
Darnley's murder. Mary seems to have held out 
at this time hopes of marriage to the Duke of 
Norfolk, and there were several attempts to 
bring about a rising among the Catholics in 
England and Scotland in her favor. As a 
result Norfolk was executed, as being implicated, 
on Tower Hill, June 2, 1572. Undoubtedly 
Elizabeth would have been glad to be rid oif 
her dangerous prisoner, but could not on ac- 
count of her relations with Spain and France at 
the time. Mary was moved from place to place. 

until in April, 1585, she was placed under the 
care of Sir Amyas Paulet> and here all oppor- 
tunity was given her to become entangled in the 
conspiracy of Antony Babington (q.v.) against 
Elizabeth. For this she was brought to trial, 
and though she denied all complicity, she was 
found guilty, and beheaded on February 8, 1587, 
at Fotheringay Castle. She met her fate with 
great composure and dignity. 

Mary was reputed to be the most beautiful 
woman of her time. Her whole life was dra- 
matic, and hence it has never ceased to interest 
poets and historians. She was a woman of great 
ability and varied accomplishments. Her prose 
writings have been collected by Prince Alexander 
Labanoff, in his Reaieil dea lettrea de Marie 
Stuart, Setting aside the twelve sonnets which 
she is said to have written to Bothwell, and 
which survive only in a French version of an 
English translation, no more than six pieces of 
her poetry are now known. The best is the poem 
of eleven stauEas on the death of her flrst hus- 
band, Francis II. The longest is a Meditation, 
All are in French, except one sonnet, which is in 

The difi'erent collections of English, French, and 
Spanish State papers contain much material. 
Consult: Froude, History of Englnnd (London, 
1881); Robertson, History of Scotland During 
the Reigns of Queen Mary and King James 
VI . (2 vols., ib., 1759); Mignet, Histoire de 
Marie Stuart (2 vols., Paris, 1851) ; Strickland, 
Life of Maryy Queen of Scots (2 vols., London, 
1873); Bresslau, "Die Kassettenbriefe der 
KOnigin Maria Stuart," in Historisches Taschen- 
buchf 6th series, vol. i. (Leipzig, 1882) ; Hender- 
son, The Casket Letters and Mary, Queen of Scots 
(Edinburgh, 1889); id., Mary, Queen of Scots: 
Her Environment and Tragedy (New York, 
1905) ; Bell, Life of Mary, Queen of Scots (2 vols., 
London, 1890) ; Cowan, Mary, Queen of Scots, 
and Who Wrote the Casket Letters? (ib., 1901 ) ; 
Lang, The Mystery of Mary Stuart (ib., 1904) ; 
MacCunn, Mary Stuart (New York, 1906). 

MAJtY SXTMMEB. The pseudonym of the 
French author Marie Filon Foucaux (q.v.). 

MA^YSVILLE. A city and the county-seat 
of Yuba County, Cal., 62 miles by rail north of 
Sacramento ; at the junction of the Yuba and the 
Feather rivers; and oii the Southern Pacific 
Railroad (Map: California, D 3). It is the 
seat of the College of Notre Dame (Roman Catho- 
lic), and has a public library which occupies a 
flne building, a handsome court-house and city 
hall; also three parks and two bridges. The 
city is in an agricultural and mining region, and 
is the centre of large grain, fruit, and live 
stock interests. There are flour and woolen mills, 
fruit drying and canning works, a winery, an 
iron foundry, and olive oil and cigar factories. 
The government, under a charter of 1876, is ad- 
ministered by a mayor, elected biennially, and a 
unicameral council, elected at large, though repre- 
senting the citv wards. Population, in 1890, 
3991 ; in 1900, 3497. 

Marysville, built on the site of a trading post 
called New Mecklenburg, was founded in 1849 
by Charles Covilland, a Frencliman, and was 
called Yubaville until 1850, when it received its 
present name. In 1861 Marvsville was chartered 
as a city; in 1852 it had 4500 inhabitants, and 
in 1855 8000; and in 1860, when it began to de- 

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dine, it had become the third city in size in the 

MABYSVUiLI. A city and the counj^-seat 
of Marshall County, Kan., 113 miles by rail west 
of Saint Joseph, Mo. ; on the Bie Blue River, and 
on the Saint Joseph and Grand Island and the 
Union Pacific railroads (Map: Kansas, F 2). 
It has good water power, and there are manufac- 
. tures of flour, machinery, cigars, etc. Popu- 
lation, in 1890, 1913; in 1900, 2006; in 1905, 

MABYSVILLE. A village and the county- 
seat of Union County, Ohio, 28 miles northwest 
of Columbus; on Mill Creek, and on the Toledo 
and Ohio Central, and the Cleveland, Cincinnati, 
Chicago and Saint Louis railroads (Map: Ohio, 
D 5 ) . It is surrounded by a farming country and 
ffreat sheep section, and has considerable manu- 
factures. There are a public school library and 
a subscription library maintained by the Library 
and Reading Room Association. Population, in 
1900, 3048; in 1906 (local cen.), 4448. 

MA^YVILLE. A city and the county-seat of 
Nodaway County, Mo., 46 miles north of Saint 
Joseph; on the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy 
and the Wabash railroads (Map: Missouri, B 
1). It has a State Normal School. Among the 
industrial establishments are flour and feed 
mills, a garment factory, brick and tile works, a 
grain elevator, foundry, carria^ works, and lum- 
ber mill. A large trade in grain, cattle, and hogs 
is carried on. Population, in 1900, 4677 ; in 1906 
(local cen.), 5164. 

MABYVILLE. A village and the county- 
seat of Blount County, Tenn., 16 miles south of 
Knoxville; on the Southern Railroad (Map: 
Tennessee, H. 5). It is surrounded by a farming 
country, and has flour, woolen, and planing 
mills, stove foundry, and coffin factory. The vil- 
lage possesses a fine court-house, and is the seat 
of Maryville College (Presbyterian), which was 
founded here in 1819, Maryville having been set- 
tled as early as 1796. Population, in 1890, 
1686; in 1900, over 2000; in 1906 (local est.), 

MABZLAX8, mftr^zl-alz, Fr. pron. m&r'z^'&r, 
Th^ophile Julius Henbt (1850—). An Eng- 
lish poet and composer, born in Brussels. His 
father was a Frenchman; his mother, a York- 
shire woman. He passed his boyhood in Brussels 
and in Switzerland. In 1870 he obtained a posi- 
tion in the musical department of the British Mu- 
seum, and was subsequently employed to cata- 
logue the Neo-Hellenic and Provencal books. In 
1872 he published for private circulation a pas- 
toral called the Passionate D<yu>sahella, repub- 
lished the next year in A Gallery of Pigeons, and 
Other Poem». The volume, showing some pre- 
Raphaelite influence, contains poems of striking 
beauty. Afterwards he composed, with their 
music, many delightful songs. His ballads in Old 
English style have been especially popular in 
England and elsewhere. In 1882 appeared Old 
Bongsi Arranged with Accompaniments, 

XASACCIO, m&-s}lt'ch6, properly Tommaso 
GuiDi (1401-28). A Florentine painter of the 
early Renaissance. He was bom at Castello 
San Giovanni, in the Val d'Amo, on December 
21, 1401. His slovenly and disorderly habits 
gained for him the nickname of Masaccio. From 
his youth he showed an extraordinary natural 

ability, which when developed by continual study 
and the training of Donati»llo, Brunetleechi, and 
especially Ghiberti, made possible for him an 
excellence in style and execution previously unat- 
tained by the painters of Italy. He entered the 
guild of the Speziali in 1421 and was enrolled in 
the guild of the Painters in 1424. He worked in 
Pisa and Florence, and in 1420 produced the 
frescoes in San Clemente, Rome. The return of 
the Medici from exile in 1420 made it profltable 
for him to take up his work again in Florence. 
The next eight years were spent in painting 
frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel, Florence, upon 
which our knowledge of his art and style is 
based. Of the series in the chapel Masaccio 
painted seven, viz.: "The Expulsion from Para- 
dise," **The Tribute Money," "The ResusciUtion 
of the King's Son" (flnished by Filippino Lippi), 
"Saint Peter *in Cathedra,* " "Saint Peter Bap- 
tizing," "Peter Almsgiving," and "Peter and 
John Healing the Sick." 

The art of Masaccio, while showing the influence 
of the religious idealist Angelico, and continuing 
the intellectual and humanistic traditions of 
Giotto and Gaddi, was essentially individual. 
He was preeminently indebted to Ghiberti for the 
stimuhis that really determined his artistic char- 
acter. Ghiberti had successfully worked out in 
pictorial relief many of the 'problems toward 
whose solution the fourteenth-century masters 
had been groping. The solution of these problems 
in values, perspective, and movement Masaccio 
instinctively transferred to painting — a process, 
unconscious, perhaps, that made possible the art 
of Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael, and 
marks an era in the history of the world's paint- 
ing. In these paintings the master has been 
able, through the elimmation of irrelevant de- 
tail and a portrayal of the signiflcant, to present 
for the flrst time artistic reality. The chapel 
thus decorated formed a veritable school where 
the master naturalists of Florence drew much 
of their inspiration. Masaccio painted a fresco 
of the "Trinity" in Santa Maria Novella, Flor- 
ence, and an altar-piece for the Church of the 
Carmine in Pisa, part of which is now in the 
Berlin Museum^ which also possesses the "Con- 
flnement of a Florentine Lady" attributed to 
him. To avoid flnancial troubles, it is supposed, 
the painter left Florence for Rome in 1427, where 
he disappeared. The only record of his end was 
the lecend on Masaccio's tax record of 1428, 
"Dicesi h morto in Roma." 

BiBUOORAPHT. Vasari, Vite, ed. Milanesi 
(Florence, 1878; Eng. trans, by Blashfleld and 
Hopkins; New York, 1896) ; Crowe and Caval- 
caselle. History of Painting in Italy (London, 
1866) ; Enudtzon, Masaccio og den florentinske 
malerkonst (Copenhagen, 1875) ; Delaborde, Les 
omvres et la mani^e de Masaccio (Paris, 1876) ; 
Woltmann, in Dohme, Kunst und KUnstler 
Italiens (Leipzig, 1877); Schmarsow, Masaccio- 
8tudien{Cei8Bely 1895), the most complete modern 
treatise. For reproductions of the Brancacci 
frescoes, see the publications of the Arundel So- 
ciety, Tdth text by Layard (London, 1868). 

MASAI, mH'sI. A mixed Ethiopian-Negro 
people in British East Africa, east of Lake Vic- 
toria, belonging to the Niam-Niam or Zandeh 
group. They are divided into the nomad Masai 
or II Oikob, and the settled Masai or Wa Kwafl, 
the latter having been forced to become agricul- 
turists, both on account of the plague which 

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destroyed their immense herds of cattle, and the 
intertribal warfare that drove them into the ter- 
ritory of non-Masai tribes. The II Oikob, or 
Treemen,* are typical Masai and are of magnifi- 
cent physique, not one of the warrior class being 
under six feet in height. Their complexion is 
chocolate, their hair frizzly, and their eyes slight- 
ly oblique. The pure blooded tribes have good 
features, and, barring their color, would pass for 
Europeans, while among other tribes the coarse 
negro features are observed. Each tribe is no- 
madic within certain well-marked boundaries 
and the subdivisions are named from their geo- 
graphical location. Their villages, set in a circle 
in which the cattle are herded, consist of huts 
of bent boughs plastered with cow dung, with 
flat roofs. JEncircling the village is a strong 
homa or thorn fence. They practice no arts, 
their weapons and utensils being procured by 
barter or from a subject tribe called Andorobbo 
living among them. The country is elevated 
and the climate temperate, so that the Masai 
wear more clothing than the tribes in the warmer 
parts of Africa. The women adorn themselves 
with a profusion of strings of beads and circlets 
of iron and brass. They wear the rudiments of a 
dress consisting of a small apron in front and a 
larger at the back. The men have an upper 
garment of tanned skin, a length of cloth fas- 
tened at the neck and hanging down the back, 
armlets of ivory or horn, ornaments of slender 
iron chain, and a waist cloth. The hair is 
gathered into a sort of chignon which hangs be- 
low the shoulder blades. The ear lobes are 
enormously distended by ornament. 

The Masai are divided into a number of clans, 
the symbol of which the warriors paint on their 
shields. The people are divided into married 
men, living in the villages, and warriors, living 
in the camps. The latter youths are set apart 
by the rite of circumcision on reaching puberty, 
occupy separate quarters, and are attended by 
the unmarried women. A diet of meat and milk 
is allowed them, but only one of these must be 
eaten at a time, and between the periods a 
purgative treatment is required. Before going on 
their raids they gorge themselves with blood and 
meat. The warrior's costume consists of an 
oval headdress of ostrich feathers encircling the 
face, a shoulder cape of vulture feathers, a belt 
and anklets of colobus monkey skin. Their 
weapons are a long-bladed assagai, a short sword 
and club, and an oval shield of buffalo hide. 
After serving his time the warrior settles down 
to married life, and then varies his flesh diet with 
vegetable food purchased from agricultural 
tribes. The Masai are dignified, self-contained, 
and intellectually capable. They practice no 
form of burial, the bodies of the dead being cast 
out to be devoured by hyenas. Prayers and of- 
ferings of grass dipped in cream are made to a 
superior deity ; grass is also an off'ering to ward 
off evil. They believe in witchcraft and maintain 
shamans. Consult Thomson, Through Masai 
Land (London, 1885) ; Hollis, The Masai; Their 
Language and Folklore (Oxford, 1905). 

BCASAHPO. A treaty port of Korea, on the 
south coast, west of Fusan. It was opened to 
foreign commerce on May 1, 1890. Population, 
1901, 16,808, of whom 317 were foreigners 
(Japanese, 2G1; October, 1906, 3354). 

MASANIELLO, ma'sft-ny6l16, properly ToM- 
KASO Anielio (c.1623-47). A fisherman of 

Amalfi, leader of the revolt which took place in 
Naples in 1647 against the Spanish Viceroy, the 
Duke of Arcos. The people had been exasperated 
by oppression, and great excitement had been pro- 
duced by a new tnx laid upon fruit, the chief 
sustenance of the poor. Masaniello himself was 
indignant at the rude treatment which his wife 
had received when she was detected in the at- 
tempt to smuggle a little flour. On July 7, 
1647, the custom-house officers were assaulted 
in the market place by the infuriated people, 
Masaniello was chosen captain, and the houses 
of the tax farmers were sacked. The Grovemor 
fled to the castle, and Masaniello became mas- 
ter of the city, dispensing justice and punishing 
severely all attempts at brigandage. On July 
13th, in the Church of the Carmelites, the Vice- 
roy agreed to restore the ancient rights of the 
Neapolitans and to remove the oppressive taxes. 
The events of the week unbalanced Masaniello's 
mind ; he became savage, cruel, and irresponsible. 
The people lost faith in him because of his com- 
promise with the Viceroy; his lieutenants were 
seduced by the Government, and he himself was 
arrested, and on July 16th four hired assassins 
murdered the fisherman in prison. Auber used 
the story of his life in La muette de Portici. 
Consult Saavedra, Insureccidn de Napoli en 16^1 
(Madnd, 1849). 

MASAYA, m&-sa'y&. A town of Nicaragua, 
15 miles southeast of Managua, and 10 miles 
from the north shore of Lake Nicaragua, near 
the volcano of Masaya — a broad, low mountain, 
about 3000 feet high (Map: Central America, 
D 5) . The town stands in the centre of a fertile 
tobacco-growing district, and is connected by 
railway with Granada and Managua. Popula- 
tion, 18,000, largely native Indians. 

MASBATE, mfis-ba'tA. One of the Philip- 
pine Islands, forming with Burias, Ticao, and 
a few smaller neighboring islands, a separate 
province. It is situated nearly in the centre of 
the archipelago about 30 miles south of the 
southeastern end of Luzon (Map: Philippine 
Islands, D 4) . It is of elongated shape, measur- 
ing 82 miles from northwest to southeast, with 
an average width of 15 miles; from the north- 
western coast a triangular peninsula extends 24 
miles southwestward, at right angles to the main 
body, and forming the large Bay or Bight of 
Asid. The area of the mainland is 1236 square 
miles, and of the province 1569 square miles. 
Of the dependent islands, two are of considerable 
size, namely Burias, 197, and Ticao, 121 square 
miles, both lying between Masbate and Luzon. 
Though apparently nowhere rising over 2000 or 
2500 feet in elevation, the island is very moun- 
tainous; a principal chain sending out a number 
of spurs extends in a semi-circle from the north- 
west to the southeastern end. Owing to the shape 
of the island and its mountain range, the rivers 
are all very short. There are extensive forests in 
the interior. The climate is subject to frequent 
and sudden changes. 

The principal occupation of the inhabitants 
is lumbering and the extraction of forest prod- 
ucts. Before the Spanish- American War cattle- 
raising was also very important, but in the 
last few years great havoc has been made by 
the rinderpest. Fishery is also carried on to a 
great extent, but agriculture is in a backward 
state. The principal manufactures are sugar 

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Backs and palm mats, the latter being noted for 
their excellent workmanship and durability of 
colors. The commerce is considerable, as Masbate 
lies not only opposite the Strait of San Bernar- 
dino, one of the two main eastern entrances to 
the archipelago, but also in the direct route from 
Manila to Samar and Leyte. There are several 
excellent land-locked harbors. The population of 
the whole Province of Masbate was, in 1903, 43,- 
675, of whom 10,183 live in Ticao, and 1627 in 
Burias. The tribe of the Visayans constitutes 
nearly 93 per cent, of the population ; there are 
also 2205 Blcols and 583 Tagaloga. The capital 
is Masbate, situated on the northern coast; it is 
a port of entry with a good harbor, a post-office, 
and a population of 4018. 

Perfect peace prevailed throughout the island 
before the end of the year 1900, and the inhabi- 
tants showed great eagerness to have civil gov- 
ernment established, which was done on March 
18, 1901. 

ICASCAOKI^ mA-skft'ny^ Pietbo (1863—). 
An Italian composer. He was bom at Leghorn, 
of humble parentage, and his father (who was a 
baker) planned for him a career as a lawyer. 
Unknown to his father, the boy began to study 
music with Soffredini, and subsequently his uncle 
furnished him with the means to continue his 
studies. He was an especially apt pupil in com- 
position, and in 1879 wrote a symphony in C 
minor. A cantata. La Filanda ( 1881 ) , and a set- 
ting to Schiller's An die Freude ( 1881 ) , both met 
with considerable success. It was an admirer of 
La Filanda^ a rich Italian nobleman, who came 
forward and furnished the composer with the 
means to continue his studies at the Milan Con- 
servatory, where he worked for a little while, 
under Ponchielli and Saladino, but suddenly broke 
off his studies to make a tour with an operatic 
troupe. For a few years he made a preca- 
rious livelihood by teaching, until one day he 
read of the Milan publisher Sonzogno*s announce- 
ment that he would give three prizes for the 
three best one-act operas to be performed in 
Rome. He immediately set to work, and taking 
the libretto furnished by two of his friends, Sig- 
nori Targioni-Tozzetti and Menasci, for his text, 
he submitted their joint effort in the form of the 
since famous Oavalleria RuMicana (1890)', a 
story based on a Sicilian tale by Giovanni Verga. 
Mascagni was awarded first prize, and the tre- 
mendous success which greeted the public presen- 
tation of his work raised him from utter obscur- 
ity to the height of fame. Taking advantage of 
his success, he hurriedly and prematurely pre- 
sented L*Amico Fritz (1891), the text of which 
was based upon the popular Erckmann-Chatrian 
story; but, like / Rantzau (1892), it met with 
indifferent success. His subsequent works met 
with varying degrees of favor, none of them ap- 
proaching his first work, either in popularity or 
sustained merit. His entire career was so over- 
shadowed by the extraordinary success of his first 
opera that critical opinion everywhere is divided 
as to whether his later works have received their 
just deserts. The libretto of Cavalleria Ruati- 
cana undoubtedly contributed much to the opera's 
success, but the music also is of a high order. 
In 1895-1903 he was director of the Rossini 
Conservatory at Pesaro. He made several tours 
in European countries, and in 1902 was per- 
suaded to make a tour of America; but his ig- 
norance of conditions in the New World, together 

with the bad management of the tour, consider- 
ably limited the success he was justified in ex- 
pecting. His works are representative of the 
modem Italian school. They include: Ouglielmo 
RatcUlf (1895); Zanetio (1896); Iris (1898); 
Le Maschers (1901); Arnica (1904). 

MASCARA, mAs-ka'rii, Fr, pron. m&s'ki'rA'. 
The capital of an arrondissement and a fortified 
town in the Province of Oran, Algeria, 45 miles 
southeast of Oran, on the slope of the Atlas 
Mountains. Mascara stands on the site of a 
Roman colony and is inclosed by walls two 
miles in length. In 1832 it became the residence 
of Abd-el-Kader, who was born in the neighbor- 
hood. It was burned by the French in 1835, 
afterwards regained by Abd-el-Kader, and fin- 
ally taken by the French in 1841, since when 
it has developed into an important trading centre. 
Population, in 1901, 20,992. 

The collective name given to the islands of Re- 
union, Mauritius (qq.v.), and Rodriguez, situated 
east of Madagascar. 

MASCABTTiLE, m&'sk&'r^F. A type of valet 
distinguished for effrontery, intrigue, and im- 
pudence, immortalized by Molidre in L*^tourdi, 
Lea pr^cieuses ridicules, and Le d^pit amoureuao. 

MASOAJtON, m&'skA'rON^ Jules (1634- 
1703). A French prelate and Court preacher. 
He was bom at Marseilles. He was intended for 
the law, but preferred the Church, and entered 
the Congregation of the Oratory. He began 
preaching in 1663, and soon attracted attention, 
and wherever he went in the provincial towns — 
as Angers, Saumur, Marseilles, and Nantes — 
large audiences, representing various classes, and 
even the learned, thronged U> hear him. In 1666 
he was called to the Court, where his reputation 
continued to increase. He gained and held 
the favor of King Louis XIV. notwithstanding 
his unsparing denunciation of fashionable and 
even royal sins. He was made Bishop of Tulle 
in 1671, and was transferred thence in 1679 to 
Agen; but still continued to preach before the 
Court. The most famous of his orations was 
that on Marshal Turenne. Other orations which 
have been much admired are those on Chancellor 
Siguier, Queen Henrietta of England, and the 
Duke of Beaufort. A collection of his sermons 
and orations, edited by Father Borde, a member 
of his congregation, was published in 1740. His 
sermons may also be found in a collection of 
funeral orations by Bossuet, Fl^chier, and Mas- 
caron (Paris, 1734). CEuvrea de Mascaron ap- 
peared in Paris in 1828. 

MASCABT, mft'skar', ELEUTHfeRE Elie Nico- 
las (1837—). A French physicist, bom at Qua- 
rouble, Nord. He was educated at the Ecole 
Normale Sup^rieure. He succeeded Regnault 
at the Collie de France, becoming professor 
in that institution in 1872. In 1878 he was 
made director of the Government Central Meteor- 
ological Bureau and he has also been a member 
of the International Bureau of Weights and 
Measures. He was elected a member of the Acad- 
emy of Sciences in 1884, taking the place of Jamin, 
and has been honored with the various decora- 
tions of the Legion of Honor, being made a com- 
mander in 1889. Mascart has conducted a num- 
ber of important investigations of the ultra-violet 
rays and of atmospheric electricity. He is the 
author of EUmenta de m^canique (1866) ; TraitS 

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d*^lectrioit4 atatique (1876); Lecons aw ViUo- 
tricitS et le magn4tiame, in collaboration with 
Joubert (1882) ; volume ii. of M^thodea de me- 
aures et applicationa (1888); and Traits d'op- 
tique (1889). 

MASOLE, mfts^'l (OF. mascle, macle, Fr. 
made, from Lat. macula, spot) . A heraldic bear- 
ing, in the form of a lozenge pierced in tiie cen- 
tre. See Hebaldbt. 

MASCOTTTEN (from Maahkodainaug, little 
prairie people). An Algonquian people of the 
Illinois Kiver concerning whom there has been 
much controversy. From a misinterpretation of 
their Algonquian name they were known to the 
Hurons, and hence to the French, as the 'Fire 
Nation* {Nation du Feu). Much of the confu- 
sion in relation to the name arises from the fact 
that it was apparently used in a ^;eneral as well 
as a specific sense and applied without warrant 
to more than one Algonquian band of the Illinois 
and Wabash prairies. According to the tradi- 
tions of the Ojibwa and Ottawa they drove the 
Mascouten from the neighborhood of what is now 
Mackinaw, and forced them to retire to the 
southern end of Lake Michigan. The earliest 
French missionaries heard of them as a strong 
tribe living in southern Michigan, with whom 
the Neutrals and Ottawa were constantly at war. 
About 1676 the French explorers found them in 
aouthem Wisconsin in close alliance with the 
Miami and Kickapoo. In 1712 they joined the 
Foxes and Kickapoo against the French, but suf- 
iered terrible reverses, losing 150 in a single 
encounter. In the same year the Potawatomi 
and other Northern tribes made a concerted de- 
scent upon the Mascouten and Foxes and killed 
or took captive one thousand of them, pursuing 
the survivors as far as Detroit. The power of 
the Foxes was completely broken by this war 
with the French and their allies, and the Mas- 
couten were so far reduced that in 1736 they 
were said to number but 60 warriors, living then 
with the Kickapoo in southern Wisconsin. In 
1765 they are again mentioned with the Kicka- 
poo, this time near the Wabash River. They are 
last definitely mentioned in 1779, living upon 
the Wabash River in alliance with the Kickapoo 
and Piankishaw. The 'Prairie band' of Potawa- 
tomi, now residing in Kansas, is known to the 
tribe at large under the same name of Maah- 

MASCOV, m&8^6f, Johann Jakob (1689- 
1761). A German publicist and historian, bom 
at Danzig. He studied theology and law 
at the University of Leipzig, where he was 
afterwards appointed professor of law and 
history. Of his publications, the following 
are considered of great merit: Principia Juria 
Puhlici Imperii Romano-Qermanici (1729; 6th 
ed. 1769), which for a lonfs time remained a 
model text-book in many universities; and Ge- 
achichte der Deutachen hia zum Ah gang der mero- 
vHngiachen Konige (1726-37), a very valuable 
volume for the early history of Prussia. 

MAS-D'AZIL, m&^dA'z^K An archseological 
grotto in the Department of Ariftge, France, 
yielding relics especially of the latest Paleolithic 
period. Regnault discovered in the grotto of 
Massat in the same region forms similar to those 
found by Piette. Consult Mortillet, Le prdhiato- 
rique (Paris, 1901). 

MA8EBES, mA'zftr^, Fbancis (1731-1824). 
An English mathematician, born in London of a 
French family. He was educated at Clare Col- 
lege, Cambridge, obtained a fellowship and w^as 
admitted to the bar. This led to his being 
appointed Attorney-General for Canada, and he 
lived in Quebec until 1773. He publishcKl: Prin- 
ciplea of the Doctrine of Life Annuitiea; Scrip- 
torea Logarithmici (1791-1807) ; Scriptorea Optici 
(1823) ; besides Select Tracta on Civil Wars in 
the Reign of Charlea /. (1815). 

MASH^AM, Abigail, Lady (1670-1734). A 
friend and confidante of Queen Anne of England. 
8lie was born in London, the daughter of Francis 
Hill, a merchant, and his wife Mary Jennings, an 
aunt of the Duchess of Marlborough, by whose 
influence she was appointed a lady of the bed- 
chamber to Princess Anne. She became the con- 
fidante of the Princess, and, after the latter be- 
came Queen, did all she could to destroy the 
Marlborough influence at Court. In 1707 she 
was married to Samuel Masham, a gentleman of 
the bedchamber to Prince Oeorge of Denmark. 
This marriage brought about an open rupture 
with the Marlboroughs. The intrigues of Mrs. 
Masham finally resulted in the ovei^row of the 
Whigs, the elevation of Harley to power, and 
the dismissal of the Duke of Marlborough. Mrs. 
Masham was engaged in plots to bring back the 
Stuarts; and she seems always to have used her 
position for her pecuniary advantage. Her hus- 
band was raised to the peerage in 1712. Lady 
Masham adhered to Bolingbroke in the quarrel 
between him and Oxford. After the death of 
Queen Anne in 1714 she lived in retirement. See 

MASHONALAND, mA-8h(/n&-lftnd. A pro«r- 
ince of Southern Rhodesia (see Rhodesia), 
South Africa, between Matabeleland and the 
Zambezi River (Map: Africa, H 6). It con- 
sists mainly of a fertile, savanna-covered pla- 
teau, 3000 to 5000 feet above the sea, intersected 
by several affluents of the Zambezi and the Sabi. 
The climate is healthful to Europeans. Gold 
has been found in considerable quantities, and 
settlements have arisen in several places. The 
white population in 1904 numbered 4917; the 
number of natives was 391,736; foreign colored 
(including Asiatics), 592. A railroad from 
Beira on the coast to Salisbury, the capital of 
Southern Rhodesia, was completed in 1899, and 
another from Salisbury to Buluwayo in Matabe- 
leland, in 1902; in April, 1904, the trunk line 
reached the Victoria Falls, where it is carried 
over the Zambezi by the highest bridge in the 
world (opened September, 1905). In 1889 Ma- 
shonalana was acquired by the British South 
Africa Company, and in 1893 the company's 
possession was secured through a successful war 
with the Matabeles. 

The ruins of Southern Mashonaland, of which 
the best-kIlo^\^l are those of the Zimbabwe group, 
are numerous. Along the gold-bearing reefs are 
thousands of excavations into the quartz veins 
as well as many hundred ancient ruins, temples, 
fortresses, and the like. The early history of 
this region was not known by the Mashonas who 
were living here at the time of the advent of 
the Europeans. The announcement of the find- 
ing of the ruins by the traveler Carl Mauch in 
1871 attracted much attention, and in 1891 Theo- 
dore Bent surv'eyed and described the ruins of 

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Zimbabwe. He found one portion to be elliptical 
with a round tower and to cover a considerable 
area of a gentle rise; below this in the valley 
lay a mass of ruins ; while another structure, ap- 
parently a fort, crowned a bold, rocky hill. The 
walls are constructed of small, squared blocks of 
rough-face granite, laid dry, and occasionally 
having ornamental courses in herring-bone or 
chevron pattern. The walls are very thick, in 
some places standing over thirty feet, and the 
coursing and broken joints show fair skill in 
masonry. The elliptical ruin has several gate- 
ways, the interior is broken by walls into a 
labyrinth, and in a central space are an altar and 
two remarkable round towers, the latter built 
solid. Monoliths of rou^, unhewn blocks of 
granite, set in the OTOund, occur in these ruins, 
and in some cases tne monoliths are set upright 
on the top of the wall. The hill fort consists of 
carving walls built among gigantic granite bould- 
ers, forming a maze above a cliff 90 feet high, 
and is flanked on the accessible side by a wall 
36 feet high and 13 feet thick at the top. Around 
the rude altar in the temple ruins were found 
phallic emblems^ birds, and decorated bowls 
carved from soapstone. Remains of gold smelt- 
ing furnaces with crucibles and pottery blow- 
pipes, and stone ingot molds, were discovered, and 
glass beads, celadon pottery, Persian pottery, and 
Arabic glass occurred in the ruins. Spearheads 
and arrowheads, battle-axes, bells, chisels, spades, 
and other tools were taken out. The ruins may 
be ascribed to the pre-Mohammedan Arabs, prob- 
ably of the Sabseo-Himyaritic period, so that 
there is good reason for locating the Land of 
Ophir in this region. 

The Mashonas are a Bantu negro people, whom 
the Matabeles have driven to live in hill forts 
overlooking their fields. They are peaceful agri- 
culturists, raising com, sweet potatoes, rice, to- 
bacco, and Indian hemp. They have herds of cat- 
tle and goats, and a common occupation is hunt- 
ing for gold. The Mashonas are of chocolate 
brown color, above the average height, slender in 
build, and the young women have good figures 
and are graceful. The men wear bracelets of 
buffalo hide, necklaces of bone and claws of 
gazelle hoofs, and aprons of leather interwoven 
with beads of iron and brass. Their headdress 
is of feathers and their coiffure is elaborate. The 
two front teeth are filed to a V-shape. The wom- 
en shave their heads, but young girls string beads 
on their hair. They wear aprons, and their bodies 
are decorated with raised tattooing. The warriors 
carry three assagais, a club, shield and battle-axe. 
The bow and arrow are also used. They are skill- 
ful iron smelters and workers, using the double 
bellows and working out implements and weapons 
with stone tools. They also make pottery, wooden 
dishes, and bark cloth. They smoke and snuff 
tobacco and use the narcotic hemp to excess. 
Travelers remark on their fondness for heat; 
many are disfigured from scorching caused by 
sleeping too near the great fires. Their musical 
instruments are the AJfrican harp, jewsharp, and 
drum. Consult: Bent, The Ruined Cities of Ma- 
tkonaland (l^ndon, 1893); Knight-Bruce, Mem- 
ories of Ma^honaland (London. 1895); With 
Rhodes in Mashonaland, translated by Dr. Waal 
(Cape Town, 1896) ; Hall and Neal, The Ancient 
Ruins of Rhodesia (London, 1902) ; Hall, Great 
Zimbabwe ( London, 1905 ) . See Matabeleland. 
Vol. XIIL— 10. 

HASINIS'SA (c.239-148 B.G.). King of thd 
Massylians, in Numidia. He was educated at 
Carthage, and in B.c. 213 induced his father to 
form a league with the Carthaginians, with whom 
he fought against Syphax, King of the Massas- 
sylians, the ally of the Romans. He then passed 
over into Spain at the head of a troop of Numid- 
ian cavalry, and displayed great zeal and valor 
in the war against Rome. But the victory of 
the Romans at Silpia in B.C. 206, and (so the 
story goes) the action of the Carthaginians in 
giving Sophonisba, the beautiful daughter of 
Hasdrubal (son of Gisco), who had been prom- 
ised him in marriage, as wife to his old rival 
Syphax, led Masinissa to enter into an alliance 
with the Romans. The Carthaginians incited 
Syphax to make war upon him. Defeated and 
stripped of his sovereignty, which he had just 
inherited from his father, he was compelled to 
seek refuge on the coast of Syrtis, where he brave- 
ly defended himself until the arrival of Scipio 
in B.G. 204, when he identified his cause with that 
of the Romans. He defeated Syphax, overran his 
country, captured his capital, and took prisoner 
his Queen, Sophonisba, whom Masinissa still 
loved. Scipio, who feared the influence of the 
Carthaginian princess, demanded her surrender 
as a captive of war, and Masinissa, to spare her 
the shame, gave her poison to drink. In the de- 
cisive battle of Zama, which followed the arrival 
of Hannibal in Africa (b.c. 202), he made a 
brilliant charge at the head of his Numidian 
horse, drove the cavalry of Hannibal from the 
field, and was the first to turn the tide of battle 
against the Carthaginians. For this service he 
received the kingdom of Syphax in the following 
year. He now profited by the leisure which peace 
afforded him, devoting his attention to the or- 
ganization of his government and to the civilizing 
of his semi-barbarous subjects. But his lust 
of conquest was never satiated. He made con- 
tinuous inroads into the territory of Carthage, 
and his depredations finally drove the Cartha- 
ginians to war (B.C. 150), an event which the 
Romans seized on as a welcome pretext for in- 
tervening and utterly crushing their ancient 

HASK (Fr. masque, from Sp. mdscara, from 
Ar. maskharaty buffoon, mask, from sakhara, to 
ridicule). A disji^uise or covering of the face, 
worn either to aid in the simulation of some 
character or for other purposes, as in the rites of 
savage people for the frightening away of demons 
or even protecting the faces of the dead. The 
use of masks in the drama originated perhaps in 
the harvest festivities of the most ancient Greek 
peasantry, appearing subsequently to have been 
associated witn the representation of Satyrs, Si- 
lenus, and Bacchus in the orgies of Bacchus. In 
Greek tragedy, which was an outgrowth from 
these, masks were used from the first, and in 
comedy at least at a later day. Regular types 
of masks were developed for the different char- 
acters in tragedy and comedy, expressive of fixed 
emotions. They were often provided with metal- 
lic mouthpieces for the purpose of increasing the 
power of the voice, as was made necessary by the 
great size and openness of the ancient theatres. 
Their use indeed was adapted both to the vastness 
of the buildings and to a formal style of dramntic 
representation in which the ideal prevailed over 
any reality of individual impersonation. In the 
modern theatre the use of masks, coming down 

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through the mimes and pantomimes of the Ro- 
mans and the early Italian oommedia deWarte 
('comedy of masks'), has been chiefly confined 
to that class of entertainments in which the 
very names of the characters, like Pantaloon 
and Harlequin (q.v.)> have been derived from 
Italy. The use of masks at costume-balls also 
originated in Italy, when the domino, or half- 
mask, worn by ladies, became especially popular. 

The name death-masks is given to masks, usu- 
ally of plaster, made after death. In the prepara- 
tion of these masks the face of the dead body is 
usually covered with oil, and plaster of Paris 
is then applied. After the plaster has hardened 
it is removed, being prevented by the oil from 
adhering too closely to the skin. Into the mold 
thus formed fresh plaster is poured, and the re- 
sulting cast is the death-mask. Such masks are 
of the utmost value as exact resemblances of the 
faces from which they are taken, although the 
change of contour caused by death necessarily 
impairs to some extent their value. Similar 
masks are occasionally made from living men. 
Here, however, the mobile expression is fre- 
quently of necessity sacrificed, so that it is in 
general true that the more expressive the living 
face, the fainter is the likeness, while a set and 
determined face gives, as a rule, a clear and 
accurate mask. The use of death-masks is both 
ancient and widespread. The Romans made them 
of wax, while among the Egyptians and in 
the ruins of Hissarlik masks of thin gold plate 
have been found, and among the American 
Indians occasional specimens have been discov- 

Among certain groups of savages, masks play 
an important r6le in their ceremonials. They 
are sometimes constructed to imitate living 
forms, as of animals, but more often to portray 
mythological characters. As a consequence the 
imagination of the maker is allowed a certain 
freedom, and the result is seen in the grotesque 
productions which are familiar from the ethno- 
logical collections of our museums. They are 
most commonly employed in shamanistic rites 
and in dances of a religious and more or less 
secret character. Their use is perhaps most 
prominent in North America, particularly among 
the tribes on the North Pacific Coast, and in the 
islands of the South Seas, notably in the Me- 
lanesian group. Consult: Altmann, Die Masken 
dcs Schauspielers (3d ed., Berlin, 1896) ; Sand, 
Masques et houffons (Paris, 1860) ; Ficoroni, 
De Larvis 8c€nici» et Figuris Comicis (Rome, 
1754) ; id., Le maschere sceniche e le figure 
comiche d'antichi Romani (Rome, 1736) ; Benn- 
dorf, Antike Gesichtshelme und Sepulcralmasken 
(Vienna, 1878) ; Dall, Masks, Lahrets, and Cer- 
tain Aboriginal Customs (Washington, 1885) ; 
Frobenius, Die Masken und Oeheimhiinde Afrikas 
(Halle, 1898) ; Hutton, Portraits in Plaster 
(New York, 1894). 

MASK. In architecture and decoration, the 
face of a human being or animal, convention- 
alized in character: sometimes called a mascaron 
(French). The Greeks and Romans copied the 
tragic and comic masks of their actors in sculp- 
ture and painting for decorative purposes, and 
similar designs, but with exaggerated grotesque- 
ness, were popular with the late Renaissance ar- 
tists, especially of the Baroque period, for the 
keystones of doorways and other prominent posi- 
tions. See Gabgoyle; Antefix. 

TWASK. A kind of dramatic entertainments 

See Masque. 

MASQAT, m&skllt^ A town of Arabia. See 

MASKED PIG. An extraordinanr breed of 
domestic swine, cultivated in Japan. It is blacky 
has a short head, broad forehead and muzzle^ 
great ears, and deeply furrowed skin; and thick 
folds of skin, which are harder than the other 
parts, resembling the plates on the Indian rhi- 
noceros, hang about the shoulders and rump. 

MAS^KEGON (Swamp People). A wander- 
ing Algonquian people, an offshoot of the Ojibwa^ 
scattered over the immense swamp region of 
British America, stretching from Lake Winning 
to Hudson Bay, including the basins of the Nel- 
son and Severn rivers. In former times they 
lived entirely by hunting and fishing, to which 
those upon reservations now add lumbering and 
a little farming. As they are officially classed 
with the Cree and Ojibwa, no reliable estimate 
of their population can be given, but they may 
number from 1500 to 2000. 

MAS^KELL^ William (c.1814-90). An Eng- 
lish theologian, bom at Bath. From Universi^ 
College, Oxford, he graduated B.A. in 1836, and 
the next year took holy orders. In 1842 he be- 
came rector of Corscombe in Dorsetshire, where 
he began his researches in Church history, par- 
ticularly in the Anglican ritual. He produced 
at this period the Ancient Liturgy of the Church 
of England (1844) ; History of the Martin Mar- 
prelate Contrgversy (1845); and Monumenta 
Ritualia EcdesicB Anglican^ (1846). These 
works placed him among the most able exponents 
of High Church doctrines. Resigning Corscombe^ 
he became Vicar of Saint Mary Church near 
Torquay, and domestic chaplain to the Bishop of 
Exeter (1847). His earlier investigations were 
now followed by Holy Baptism (1848) ; An En- 
quiry into the Doctrine of the Church of England 
upon Absolution (1849) ; and a volume of doc- 
trinal sermons. He took an active part in the 
Gorham controversy (q.v.) ; and when Gorham 
won his case in the Privy Council, Maskell went 
over to the Church of Rome ( 1850 ) . To the Privy 
Council he had addressed two memorable letters 
on the Present Position of the High Church Party 
(1850). Maskell never took orders in the 
Church of Rome. His later life was passed in 
the west of England, where he resumed his 
learned researches, publishing, among several 
works, Protestant Ritualists (1872) and Ivories 
Ancient and Mediwval (1875). He died at Pen- 
zance, April 12, 1890. 

MASKELYNE, mfts'ke-lln, Nevil (1732- 
1811). An English astronomer, bom in London. 
He was educated at Westminster and at Cam- 
bridge ; carried out numerous investigations char- 
acterized by extreme accuracy of work, and be- 
came in 1765 royal astronomer and director of 
the observatory at Greenwich. He founded The 
Nautical Almanac in 1767, and published The 
British Mariner's Guide (1763); Astronomical 
Observations (1765) ; and other works. 

gonkin, great pickerel, from mas, great -f fct- 
nongCj Chippeway dialect kenozha, kinoje, pick- 
erel, from kenose, long). The great pike {Lucius 
masquinongy, or Esox nobilior) of the lakes of 
the Northern United States and Western Canada, 

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from the Ohio River northward. This magnifi- 
cent fish, the largest of its family, and the most 
to be feared as a predatory force in American 
fresh waters, has the general form of a pike (q.v.), 
a length of from four to eight feet, and often a 
weight exceeding 100 pounds. It is swift, strong, 
and fierce, and a high prize for the angler. Its 
characteristics are its dark gray color, the sides 
in the typical form (confined to the Great Lakes) 
with blackish spots of varying size on a grayish 
silvery ground; the fins are spotted with black; 
and the opercle and lower parts of the cheeks 
are scaleless. See Colored Plate of American 
Gaub Fishes^ accompanying article Tbout. 

MASKWELL. In Congreve's Double-Dealer, 
the cunning and hypocritical scoundrel from 
whose character the play is named. 

dA pa'nd-kaiti, properly Tommaso di Cbisto- 
FA>-DO DI FiNi (1383-1447). A Florentine paint- 
er of the early Renaissance. He was born at 
Panicale di Valdese. As a youth he became an 
assistant to Lrorenzo Ghiberti, who was at that 
time engaged in making the first set of bronze 
doors for the Baptistery of Florence. The actual 
rendering in relief of the pictorial composi- 
tion of Ghiberti gave to Masolino a certain mas- 
tery of imagery and surety of technique that 
determined the character of his art method. 
Gherardo da Stamina, a Florentine painter of 
whom little is known, gave him his first instruc- 
tion in painting. It is possible that Vasari, in 
his biography, may have confounded Masolino 
with Masaccio or Maso di Cristoforo Bracci — the 
names of all of these contemporaries being cor- 
ruptions of Tommaso. The arguments are not 
sufficiently convincing to withdraw from Maso- 
lino the paintings hitherto assigned to him in 
the Brancacci Chapel, Florence, upon which his 
fame is chiefly founded. These frescoes were un- 
dertaken shortly after his admission into the 
guild of the Physicians and Apothecaries in 
1423, and received his continued attention until 
his departure for Hungary in 1426, where he 
flourisned under the patronage of Filippo Scolari. 
In 1428 he was at work in the Church of Castig- 
lione di Olona representing incidents in the life 
of the Virgin, Saint Stephen, and Saint Law- 
rence. The Nativity of the series is especially 
interesting, bearing the inscription, "Masolinus 
de Florentia pinxit." In the baptistery of the 
church he frescoed scenes from the life of John 
the Baptist. In these Castiglione works there is 
exhibited the same naturalistic, almost human- 
istic tendency that characterized the Brancacci 
frescoes. Dr.' Burckhardt has attributed to Maso- 
lino the frescoes in one of the chapels of the Church 
of San Clemente, Rome. Masolino died at Flor- 
ence in October, 1447. His work at the best was 
that of an experimenter — one dissatisfied with ex- 
isting methods and groping after a more advanced 
technique. In his extreme eagerness to hold the 
mirror to nature he emphasized the unit at the 
expense of the whole — his excessive study of de- 
tail overshadowed breadth and homogeneity, ele- 
ments dependent upon rational composition. 

MA^OV. A city and the county-seat of Ing- 
ham Coimty, Mich., 12 miles south by east of 
Lansing; on the Michigan Central Railroad 
(Map: Michi^n, E 6). It is in a region en- 
^gea principally in farming, stock-raising, dairy- 
mg, and fruit-growing, and has flour mills, fruit 

evaporator, a foundry and machine shop, buggy 
factory, etc. The court-house here ranks with the 
finest county buildings in the State. There are 
municipal water-works and electric-light plant. 
Mason was settled in 1838, incorporated as a vil- 
lage in 1865, and chartered as a city in 1875. 
Pop., in 1890, 1875; in 1900, 1828; in 1904, 1955. 

MASONy Alfred Edward Woodley (1865 — ). 
English novelist and politician, born at Dulwich 
and educated at Oxford. In January, 1906, he 
was elected to Parliament for Coventry as a 
Liberal. He gained popularity as a novelist 
with stories including: A Romance of Waatdale 
(1895); The Courtship of Uorrice Buckler 
(1896); The Philanderers (1897); Miranda of 
the Balcony (1899); The Four Feathers (1902); 
The Truants (1904); Running Water (1907). 

MASON, Charles (1730-87). An English 
astronomer. He was long employed as an assist- 
ant at the Greenwich Observatory and was sent 
with Jeremiah Dixon to the Cape of Good Hope 
in 1761 to observe the transit of Venus. In 1763 
they were employed by the proprietors of Mary- 
land and Pennsylvania to survey the boundary 
line between their respective possessions. The 
boundary fixed by them has since been known as 
"Mason and Dixon's line" ( q.v. ) . They also fixed 
"the precise measure of a degree of latitude in 
America." The particulars of this work are re- 
corded in vol. Iviii. of the Royal Society's Trans- 
actions, Mason and Dixon returned to England 
in the autumn of 1768. In the following year 
Mason went to Cavan, Ireland, to observe the 
transit of Venus, his report of which appeared 
in the Philosophical Transactions for 1770. He 
was also employed by the Bureau of Longitudes 
to verify the lunar tables of Tobias Mayer; these 
were published after his death under the title 
of Mayer^s Lunar Tables Improved by Charles 
Mason (London, 1787). His private journal, 
field notes, etc., were found among a pile of waste 
paper in the cellar of the Government house at 
Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1860, and an account of 
their contents was published by Porter C. Bliss 
in the Historical Magazine for July, 1861. 

MASON, Ebenezer Porter (1819-40). An 
American astronomer, born in Washington, Conn. 
He graduated from Yale in 1839, and in 1840 pub- 
lished Observations on Nebulw. His Life and 
Writings were published by Prof. Denison Olm- 
sted in 1842. 

MASON, Edward Gay (1839-98). An Ameri- 
can lawyer and historian, bom in Bridgeport, 
Conn. He graduated from Yale in 1860, studied 
law in Chicago, and became a member of the firm 
of Mattocks and Mason, and later of that of 
Mason Brothers. He published many pamphlets, 
which were collected in two volumes, entitled 
Early Chicago and Illinois ( 1890 ) , and Chapters 
from Illinois History (1901). 

MASON, Francis (1799-1874). An Ameri- 
can missionary and Orientalist. He was born 
at York, England, came to the United States in 
1818, entered Newton Theological Seminary in 
1827, and in 1830 was sent as a missionary to 
Burma. His labors were chiefly among the 
Karens. Into two dialects of their language he 
translated the Bible and other religious books, 
and a seminary for the training of preachers and 
teachers was conducted by him. He published, 
in 1852, Tenasserim, or the Fauna, Flora, Min- 
erals, and Nations of British Burma and Pegu, 

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a second edition of which appeared under the 
title Burma: Its People and Natural Produc- 
tions (1860). He also published a grammar, 
chrestomathy, and vocabulary of Pali, besides 
translations from the Burman, Pali, and San- 
skrit; Life of Ko-Thah'ByUy the Karen Apostle; 
A. Memoir of Mrs, Helen M. Mason (1847); a 
Memoir of 8a\i Quala (1850) ; The Story of a 
Workingman's Life, loith Sketches of Travel 

MASON, George (1725-92). An American 
political leader of the Revolutionary period, bom 
in Stafford (now Fairfax) County, Va. He was 
an intimate friend and neighbor of Washington, 
was a member of the Ohio Company, and as early 
as 1759 was a member of the Virginia Assembly. 
He was a leader of the opposition in Virginia to 
the Stamp Act, and in 1769 drafted the non-im- 
portation resolutions, which were presented by 
Washington and adopted by the Assembly. At a 
popular meeting of the citizens, held July 18, 
1774, he offered twenty-four resolutions on the 
issues between Great Britain and the Clolonies, 
in which were outlined both the non-intercourse 
policy with Great Britain and the scheme of a 
general inter-colonial Congress. These resolu- 
tions were sanctioned by the Virginia Convention in 
August, and were reaffirmed by the Continental 
Congress in October of the same year. Mason 
served on the Virj?inia Committee of Safety, and 
occupied a seat in the Virginia Constitutional 
Convention of 1776. In the latter capacity he 
earned distinction as the author of the well- 
known Bill of Rights which constitutes so notable 
a part of the Virginia Constitution of 1776, and 
which was probably the most complete as well as 
the most advanced statement of the rights of man 
that had then appeared. In 1777 the Legislature, 
of which he was still a member, elected him to 
the Continental Congress; but he declined to 
serve and remained an active and inttuential 
member of the Legislature for many years. In 
1787 he became a member of the Constitutional 
Convention at Philadelphia, and took an active 
part in the debates on the Constitution. He spoke 
against the provision for the continuance of the 
slave trade and disapproved of the instrument as 
a whole. He refused to sign it, and, with Pat- 
rick Henry in the Virginia Ratification Conven- 
tion, threw his influence against ratification and 
proposed twenty alterations, some of which were 
afterwards adopted. He was chosen as one of 
the first United States Senators from Virginia, 
but declined to serve. His death occurred Octo- 
ber 7, 1792, at *Gunston Hall,* and his statue, 
with those of other distinguished Virginians, 
stands in front of the State Capitol at Richmond. 
Consult Rowland, Life of Oeorge Mason (New 
York, 1892). 

MASON, George Hemino (1818-72). An 
English painter, bom in Straffordshire. Mason 
first studied medicine, but afterwards went to 
Rome, where he earned a living painting por- 
traits. He returned to England in 1858. The 
remainder of his life was spent between Straf- 
fordshire and Ijondon. Mason*s pictures repre- 
sent English or Roman subjects; the best of 
them are: "Ploughing in the Campagna" (1857), 
"Dancing Girls" (1868), and "Harvest Moon" 
(1872). His color is notably rich and pleasing. 

MASON, James Murray (1798-1871). An 
American lawyer and legislator, best known as 

one of the representatives of the Confederate 
Government in Europe during the Civil War. He 
was bom on Mason's Island, Fairfax County, 
Va.; graduated at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1818, and practiced law for some time 
at Winchester, Va. He soon became prominent 
in politics, and was a member of the Virginia 
House of Delegates from 1826 to 1832, of the Vir- 
ginia Clonstitutional Convention of 1829, of the . 
national House of Representatives from 1837 to 
1839, and of the United States Senate from 1847 
to 1861, when he resigned to take part in the 
secession movement. In Congress he was con- 
spicuous as an upholder of slavery and as an 
ardent advocate of the principle of 'States' rights,' 
and in 1850 he drafted and introduced the famous 
Fugitive Slave Law, which formed part of the 
comprombe measures of that year. For ten 
years he was chairman of the Senate (Dommittee 
on Foreign Affairs. Late in 1861 he was ap- 
pointed commissioner of the Confederate Gov- 
ernment to England, and on October 12 started 
from Charleston, S. C, with John Slidell, the 
Confederate commissioner to France; but after 
touching at Havana he and Slidell were seized 
on board the British steamer Trent, by Captain 
Wilkes of the United States ship San Jacinto, 
and were confined at Fort Warren, Boston, until 
January 2, 1862, when the United States Gov- 
ernment, yielding to the demand of England, 
ordered their release. Their seizure caused 
great excitement on both sides of the At- 
lantic and threatened to bring on a war between 
the United States and Great Britain. (See 
IteNT Affair, The.) After his release Mason 
proceeded to London, where he endeavored to win 
over the British Crovemment, and the British 
people as well, to the side of the Confederacy, 
but he was never received oflScially by the min- 
isters, and in September, 1863, his commission 
was withdrawn. He, however, remained in Eu- 
rope, spending his time principally in Paris and 
London and vainly attempting to induce France 
and England to intervene actively on the side 
of the Confederacy. Immediately after the war 
he returned to America. Fearing arrest at the 
hands of the Federal <jk>vemment, he lived in 
Canada imtil 1868, when he removed to Virginia 
and thereafter until his death lived near Win- 

MASON*, Jeremiah (1768-1848). An Ameri- 
can lawyer and legislator. He was bom in 
Lebanon, Conn., graduated at Yale in 1788, was 
admitted to the bar in 1791, and began the prac- 
tice of his profession at Westmoreland, N. H. 
He removed to Walpole, N. H., in 1794, and in 
1797 to Portsmouth, which was his home for the 
next thirty-five years. He was soon recognized 
as the head of his profession, in a State whose 
bar was unequaled in this country, and which 
could number among its members Ezekiel and 
Daniel Webster, and Jeremiah Smith. He was 
appointed Attorney-General of the State in 1802, 
and was elected to the United States Senate in 
1813. He became one of the foremost debaters 
in that body, his speech delivered in 1814, on 
the Embargo, being especially powerful; but in 
1817 he resigned his seat to continue the prac- 
tice of his profession. He afterwards served for 
a number of terms in the New Hampshire Legis- 
lature, where his service had little connection 
with politics, but was given largely to reviainsr 

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and codifying the State laws. In 1832 he re- 
moved to Boston, where, until his age compelled 
him to retire, he maintained the high reputa- 
tion which he had previously won. 

MASON, John (1586-1635). The foimder of 
New Hampshire. He was bom at Lynn Regis, 
'Norfolk, England; served in 1610 in the navy; 
in 1616 went to Newfoundland as Governor of 
the colony, and in 1620 published a description 
of the coimtry, to which he added a map in 1626. 
He explored the New England coasts in 1617; in 
1622 obtained a grant of a region called Mari- 
ana, now the northeastern part of Massachu- 
setts; in the same year, in connection with Sir 
Ferdinando Gorges, procured a patent for the 
Province of Maine; and in 1623 sent a colony to 
the Piscataqua River. In 1629 he obtained a pat- 
ent for the New Hampshire colony, and with 
Gorges took one also for Laconia, a region inclu- 
ding Lake Champlain. He held various honorable 
editions in England, in 1635 being a judge in 
ampshire and receiving in the same year the 
appointment of vice-admiral of New England. 
His rights in New Hampshire were sold in 1691 
to Governor Samuel Allen. He died in London in 
December, 1635, and was buried in Westminster 
Abbey. Consult Tuttle, Memoir of Captain John 
Mason, the Founder of Vew Hampshire, in an 
illustrated edition of Mason's tract on Newfound- 
land, published for the Prince Society (Boston, 

MASONy John (1600-72). An American co- 
lonial commander. He was bom in England; 
served imder Sir Thomas Fairfax in the Nether- 
lands; emigrated in 1630 to Dorchester, Mass.; 
in 1633 obtained a military command at Boston, 
and in 1635 aided in founding Windsor, Conn. 
In 1637 he was placed in command of a small 
force of English and Indians sent against the 
Pequots (q.v.). After the destruction of that 
tribe Mason removed to Saybrook, at the request 
of the inhabitants, for the defense of the colony, 
and in 1659 removed to Norwich. He was a 
major of the colonial forces for thirty years. 
Deputy Governor of Connecticut in 1660-70, and 
chief judge of the colonial court from 1642 to 
1668. He prepared, at the request of the Gen- 
eral Court of Connecticut, a Brief History of the 
Pequot War, which was incorporated by Increase 
Mather in his Relation of Trouble by the India/ns 
(Boston, 1677, republished with introduction by 
the Rev. Thomas Price, Boston, 1736). Consult 
Ellis, "Life of John Mason of Connecticut," in 
Sparks, Library of American Biography, vol. xiii. 

MASON, John Young (1799-1869). An 
American politician, bom at Greensville, Sussex 
County, Va. He was educated at the University 
of North Carolina, and in 1819 was admitted to 
the bar. After presiding over Federal and State 
Courts and serving for a number of terms in the 
Virginia Assembly, he was a member of Congress 
from 1831 until 1837, and was judge of the 
United States District Court for Virginia from 
1837 until 1844, when President Tyler made him 
Secretary of the Navy. He entered the Cabinet 
of President Polk as Attorney-General, but was 
soon returned to the Navy Department. In 1863 
President Pierce made him Minister to France, 
where he remained imtil his death. On October 
10, 1854, he met Buchanan and Soul6, the min- 
isters of the United States to England and Spain, 

respectively, in a conference at Ostend, and in 
conjunction with them issued the famous Ostend 
Manifesto (q.v.). 

MASON^ Lowell (1792-1872). An American 
music teacher, bom in Medfield, Mass. When only 
sixteen he directed a church choir at Medfield 
and upon his removal to Savannah continued his 
interest in musical affairs. In 1827 he returned 
to Boston, where he became president of the 
Handel and Haydn Society and strongly advo- 
cated the Pestalozzi system of teaching. He 
founded the Boston Academy of Music (1832), 
and in 1837 went to Germany to study musical 
pedagogic methods. The University of the City 
of New York gave him the degree of doctor of 
music (1855). He is remembered chiefly for his 
numerous hynm-tunes, which are still in general 
use throughout the coimtry, and his collections of 
songs, Boston Handel arid Haydn Collection of 
Church Music ( 1822 ) ; Juvenile Psalmist 
(1829) ; Lyra Sacra (1837) ; TJie Sabbath Hymn- 
and Tune-Book (with E. A. Park and Austin 
Phelps, 1859); The Psaltery (1845); Carmina 
Sacra (1841) ; and New Carmina Sacra (1852). 

MASON*, Otis Tufton (1838—). An Ameri- 
can ethnologist, bom at Eastport, Me. He grad- 
uated in 1861 at the Columbian University, Wash- 
ington, D. C. ; was principal of the preparatory 
school of the university (1862-84) ; and in 1884 
became curator of ethnology in the United States 
National Museum. Mason founded the Anthropo- 
logical Society of Washington; was anthropo- 
logical editor of the American yaturaliat and of 
the Standard Dictionary ; and wrote, Summaries 
of Progress in Anthropology, contributions to a 
history of primitive American industries, and 
Indian Basketry (2 vols., 1904). 

MASON, William (1724-97). An English 
divine and poet, bom probably at Kingston-upon- 
Hull. He was educated at Cambridge, and in 
1749 became a fellow of Pembroke College. He 
was ap|)ointed rector of Aston in Yorkshire, and 
chaplain to the Earl of Holdemess in 1754. The 
next year he visited Germany, and in 1757 was 
appointed chaplain in ordinary to the King. Sub- 
sequently he was for more than thirty years pre- 
ceptor and canon residentiary of the cathedral at 
York. Among his writings are Muswus (1747), 
a monody to the memory of Pope; Isis (1748), 
a monologue denouncing the Jacobitism of Ox- 
ford; and the dramatic poems Elfrida (1752) 
and Caractacus ( 1759) . He also wrote a number 
of odes in imitation of his friend Gray, of whom 
he published a Life in 1774. The*^ first book 
of The English Garden appeared in 1772, and 
in 1782 he published a Critical and Historical 
Essay on Cathedral Music. His collected works 
were issued in 1811. A tablet to his memory 
was erected in the Poets* Comer of Westminster 
Abbey. Consult Chalmers, English Poets, xviii. 
(London, 1810). 

MASON*, William (1829—). An American 
musician, born in Boston. After having studied 
music in Europe with Hauptmann, Moscheles, 
Richter, Dreyscnock, and Ldszt, he appeared as 
a pianist in Prague, Frankfort, Weimar, and 
I^ndon, and upon his return to the United 
States made several successful tours. In 1855 
he settled in New York, and founded there the 
Mason and Thomas recitals of chamber music, 
which were continued until 1868. After 1855 
he devoted himself almost entirely to teaching 

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and composing. His works include numerous 
compositions, mostly for the pianoforte, but he 
is best known for his text-books: A Method for 
the Pianoforte (1867), System for Beginner a 
(1871), both in collaboration with £. S. Hoad- 
ley; Touch and Technic (1878) ; and his interest- 
ing Memories of a Musical Life (1901). 

MASON, William Pitt ( 1853— ) . An Ameri- 
can chemist, bom in New York City. He grad- 
uated at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 
(1874 and 1877); and returned there as pro- 
fessor of chemistry, after studying medicine at 
Union University and bacteriology at the Pasteur 
Institute in Pans. His works include: Examina- 
tion of Potable Water (1890); Water Supply 
(1896) ; Notes on Qualitative Analysis (1896) ; 
and Examination of Water (1899). 

dary line between the States of Maryland and 
Pennsylvania, as run by two distinguished Eng- 
lish surveyors, Charles Mason and Jeremiah 
Dixon, during the years 1763-67, and popu- 
larly accepted prior to the Civil War a^ the 
dividing line between the free States and the 
slave States. Tlie line was the result of a dis- 
pute between the States of Maryland and Penn- 
sylvania over tlieir respective boundaries as de- 
scribed in their charters. The chief contro- 
versy turned upon the meaning of the phrases 
^he beginning of the 40°' and 'the beginning of 
the 43° of N. Lat.* employed in the description 
of the Pennsylvania boimdary. The quarrel, in 
which Lord Baltimore and Penn soon engaged, 
continued for more than eighty years; was the 
cause of endless trouble between individuals, and 
occupied the attention of the proprietors of both 
provinces, the Lords of Trade and Plantations, 
the High Court of Chancery, and the Frivy 
Councils of three kings. No compromise was 
reached during the life of Penn, but, after his 
death, his sons succeeded in obtaining from 
Charles, Lord Baltimore, in 1732, an agree- 
ment by which the boundary line was to be 
drawn by commissioners representing both par- 
ties to the controversy. Baltimore at once came 
over with his commissioners, but was unable to 
get the Pennsylvania proprietors to take action. 
The unsettled condition of the boundary, there- 
fore, continued and with it increasing disturb- 
ances in the disputed territory. The Governor 
of Maryland then laid the matter before the Pro- 
prietai^r and the King, and invoked their inter- 
vention for the settlement of the dispute. By an 
order in Council the King commanded both sides 
to keep the peace and instructed the Proprie- 
taries to grant no lands in the disputed territory 
until the boundary could be adjusted. Pending 
a decision of the question by the English Court 
of Chancery, to which the matter was submitted 
in 1735, both parties agreed upon a provisional 
boundary. A decision was finally reached in 
1750 by the Chancellor, Lord Hardwicke, which, 
with the agreement of 1732, served as the basis 
of a compromise between the proprietors in 1760. 
Commissioners representing both sides were ap- 
pointed, and the eastern boundary was deter- 
mined. To run the east and west line, as well 
aa other parts unsettled. Mason and Dixon were 
appointed in 1763, and at once entered upon 
their task. By the year 1767 they had carried 
the line over the mountains to a point 244 miles 
from the Delaware River. Farther advance was 

stopped by the Indians, but the line was subse- 
quently completed by others. The boundary waa 
marked by mile-stones, every fifth one having 
tne arms of Baltimore engraved on one side and 
those of Penn on the other. Its exact latitude is 
39° 43' 26.3" North. A resurvey of the line was 
made in 1849, and in 1900 another resurvey was 
authorized by the States of Pennsylvania and 
Maryland, the work being placed imder the direc- 
tion of the commission consisting of the Superin- 
tendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic 
Survey, the Secretary of Internal Affairs of 
Pennsylvania, and the Director of the Greological 
Survey of Maryland. Consult: Browne, Mary- 
land, the History of a Palatinate (Boston, 
1884) ; Donaldson, The Public Domain (3d ed., 
Washington, 1884) ; and Hinsdale, The Old 
Nonhu)est (Boston, 1899). 

MASON BEE. A bee of the sub-family 
Osmiinffi of the family Megachilidse ; especially in 
the United States one of the genus Osmia, and in 
Europe one of the genus Chalicodoma. The name 
is derived from the manner in which these bees 
construct small earthen cells, sometimes mixed 
with sand, pebbles, and wood-scrapings, glued 
together so firmly that they are smooth inside. 
Ten to twenty of the cells are usually found to- 
gether, and each one contains a store of honey 
and pollen for the larvs, only one of which is 
found in each of the cells. These bees show a 
high order of intelligence in the manner in which 
they adapt themselves to circumstances, and this 
accounts for the very great diversity seen in 
the situations in which the cells are placed. 
Ceratosmia lignivora is a true wood-borer. Cer- 
tain species excavate the pith of brambles, 
alternately widening and contracting the bur- 
row to correspond with the proposed cells and 
the intervals between them. Others use the hol- 
lows of reeds and straws; two European species 
utilize the eupty shells of several species of 
Helix, compactly filling each shell with their 
cells, which are placed in different relative posi- 
tions according to the exigencies of the case, and 
then carefully closing the entrance with |>ellets 
of clay, sticks, and pebbles; others again plaster 
their cells thickly upon the under side of a flat 
stone which is slightlv raised from the ground; 
and still another species places its cells in com- 
paratively unprotected situations at the roots of 
grass. The Clhalicodomas make very perfect 
mason work in the walls of their cells. 

The food stored up in the cells is com]>osed of 
a mixture of honey and pollen. Reaumur and 
Fabre experimented with the young bees to find 
whether they were able to oveTcome additional 
difficulties in making their way out of the cell. 
When the mouth of the cell is covered with earth 
and pith or brown paper put in contact with the 
covering of the cells, the bees make their way 
out without any great apparent difficulty, but 
when some space intervenes between the mouth 
of the cell and the new barrier, the bees are 
unable to gain their freedom. The Osmiinte are 
of comparatively small size, and are usually of 
dark metallic colors. The eggs are white, oblong, 
and about the size and shape of a caraway seed. 
They hatch in about eight days. Development of 
the larvse is rapid; they spin delicate coooonA 
and winter as pupse. 

Consult: Fabre, Insect LifCy translated from 
the French (London, 1901) ; Howard, Standard 

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^a/t*raZ History, vol. ii. (Boston, 1884) ; How- 
ard, The Insect Book (New York, 1901). See 
Plate of Wild Bees. 

MASON CITY. A city and the county-seat 
of Cerro Gordo County, Iowa, 72 miles northeast 
of Fort Dodge, on the Chicago Great Western, 
the Iowa Central, the Chicago, Milwaukee and 
Saint Paul, the Northwestern Line, and other 
railroads (Map: Iowa, D 1). The city has a 
public library, a fine court-house, and a city park, 
and is the seat of the National Memorial Uni- 
Yersity, and of an Odd Fellows' Orphans* Home. 
Its population is increasing rapidly, and it enjoys 
considerable industrial and commercial activity. 
There are important agricultural, grain, and live- 
stock interests, and a wholesale trade in gro- 
ceries, fruits, etc.; also sandstone quarries, ce- 
ment, brick, and tile works, flour mills, lime works, 
sash and door factories, and foundries. Mason 
City, settled about 1855, is governed under a 
charter of 1870, which provides for a mayor, 
elected every two years, and a unicameral coun- 
cil. The city owns and operates the water-works. 
Population, 1900, 6746; 1905, 8357. 

MA^ONBY. The art of construction in 
stone. The earliest existing examples are among 
the most magnificent specimens of the art. No 
nation has excelled the ancient Egyptians in 
stonework, whether we consider the size of the 
materials, or the unequaled exactness with which 
they are fitted together. The Egyptians did not 
use mortar in their important structures, such 
as the Pyramids, the joints being all carefully 
polished and fitted. CJycIopean or polygonal ma- 
sonry, of which remains exist in many parts of 
Greece and Italy, as well as Asia Minor, also ex- 
hibits stones of great size and with carefully ad- 
justed joints. The walls of Mycenae are among 
the earliest examples. These are built with huge 
irregular blocks, the spaces between being filled 
up with smaller stones. The Italian specimens 
are usually more carefully executed; the stones 
are not squared, but they are all carefully fitted 
together. In some cases, the beds or horizontal 
joints are made level, and the upright joints left 
unsquared. No mortar is used in cyclopean ma- 

The masonry of the Greeks and Komans very 
closely resembled that of the present day: 
Ruhhie-tcork {opus incertum), in which the 
stones are not regularly coursed; coursed work, 
where the joints are all level, and the stones of 
equal height; ashlar, resembling the latter, but 
built with larger stones all carefully dressed on 
the joints. Many of the Roman buildings in the 
East were constructed with blocks of enormous 
size, as at Baalbek (q.v.), where some of the 
stones are 60 feet in length. 

Modem stone masonry is classified according 
to ( 1 ) the degree of finish of the face of the 
stones, into quarry faced, pitch faced, and 
dressed; according to (2) whether the horizontal 
courses or layers are of the same thickness at 
similar heights, into range, broken range, and 
random masonry; according to (3) the care exer- 
cised in dressing the beds, into ashlar, squared 
stone, and rubble masonry. (1) Quarry faced 
masonry is that in which the faces of the stones 
are left as they come from the quarry ; it is used 
ehiefly for massive structures such as bridge 
piers," retaining walls, dams, and arch bridges. 
Pitch faced masonry is that in which the face of 

the stones is roughly dressed so as to make the 
front of the horizontal joint a straight line; it 
is used for work where a rugged appearance is 
desired without the extreme roughness of quarry 
faced masonry. Dressed masonry, as the name 
indicates, is that in which the face of the stones 
is dressed to a more or less smooth plane surface ; 
it is employed chiefly in building construction 
and for the finishing courses of engineering 
works. Range masonry is that in which the hori- 
zontal joints are continuous throughout, or, 
stated in other words, in which each course is 
of the same thickness throughout. Broken range 
masonry is that in which the horizontal joints 
are not continuous throughout, but in which the 
masonry is not laid in courses at all. Ashlar 
masonry is cut stone masonry in which the joint 
faces are so truly cut that the distance between 
the general planes of the contiguous surface of 
the stones is % inch or less. Ashlar masonry 
may be subdivided into range ashlar, broken 
range ashlar, random ashlar, quarry faced ashlar, 
pitch faced ashlar or dressed ashlar, and also 
into combinations of these sub-classes, as, for ex- 
ample, quarry faced range ashlar. Squared stone 
masonry is that in which the stones are roughly 
dressed and roughly squared on their joint faces ; 
when the distance between the general planes of 
the contiguous surfaces of the stones is ^ inch 


or more, the masonry belongs to this class. In 
practice the distinction between ashlar masonry 
and squared stone masonry is not well defined. 
Rubble masonry is that composed of unsquared 
stone, and may be laid with or without an at- 
tempt to approximate regular courses. Several 
of the above types are illustrated in the article 


Some of the other current definitions of stone 
masonry work are as follows: Face, the front 
surface of a wall; back, the inside surface; 
facing, the stones which form the face of a wall; 
backing, the stones which form the back of a 
wall; batter, the slope of the surface of a wall; 
course, a horizontal layer of stone in a wall; 
joints, the mortar lying between the stones (usu- 
ally the horizontal joints are called beds or 
bed joints, while the vertical joints are called 
builds or simply joints) ; coping, a course of stone 
on the top of the wall to protect it; pointing, a 
better quality of mortar put in the face of the 
joints to help them to resist weathering; bond, 
the arrangement of stone in adjacent courses; 
stretcher, a stone whose erreatest dimension lies 
parallel to the wall ; header, a stone whose great- 
est dimension lies perpendicular to the wall; 
quoin, a comer stone: doxcels, straight bars of 
iron which enter a hole in the upper side of one 
stone and also a hole in the lower side of the 
stone above ; cramps, bars of iron having the ends 

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bent to right angles with the body, the bent ends 
of which enter holes in the upper surfaces of 
adjacent stones. 

Ashlar masonry is used for works in which 
great strength and stability are required. The 
stones for ashlar masonry usually have a length 
of from three to five times the depth, and a 
breadth of from one and a half to two times 
the depth. The thickness of the mortar joints 
in the very best class of ashlar masonry for 
building purposes is about % inch; for railway 
and bridge masonry about ^ inch to Va inch. 
The stones are laid so that the vertical joints of 
one course come approximately over the middle 
of the stones below, or, technically, the stones 
*break joints.* The arrangement of headers and 
stretchers varies; the strongest arrangement is 
where a header and a stretcher are used alter- 
nately. Dowels and cramps are used where ex- 
ceptional strength is required. Pointing is done 
by scraping out the mortar to a depth of at least 
% inch from the face of each joint and filling the 
void with a high-quality mortar thoroughly 
rammed, and sometimes finishing the exposed* 
edge with a bead. Ashlar masonry is usually 
backed with rubble masonry, the backing being 
built simultaneously with the facing. Squared 
stone masonry is built like ashlar masonry ex- 
cept that dressed stones are not used and range 
work is seldom employed ; the backing and point- 
ing are the same as for ashlar masonry. 

Rubble masonry is employed for backing ash- 
lar, and squared stone masonry is used for small- 
sized abutments, culverts, small building founda- 
tion walls, etc. The stones are prepared for laying 
by simply knocking off the wealc corners and loose 
pieces. All interstices are filled with s^lall 
pieces of stone and mortar, and the mortar joints 
are made thick enough to prevent adjacent stones 
from touching. Very often rubble masonry is 
laid without mortar, and is then called dry rubble 
masonry. The strength of stone masonry varies 
with the strength of the stone, the size of the 
blocks, the accuracy of the dressing of the joint 
faces, the proportion of headers to stretchers, and 
the kind and quality of the mortar used. Prof. 
I. O. Baker, in A Treatise on Masonry Construc- 
tion (New York, 1900), gives the following as a 
safe load per square foot on different kinds 
of stone masonry: Rubble, 10 to 15 tons; 
squared stone, 15 to 20 tons; limestone ashlar, 
20 to 25 tons; granite ashlar, 30 tons. In cer- 
tain classes of stone masonry, such as arch 
bridges and lighthouses, the stones are cut to 
exact dimensions and to special forms. In light- 
house construction these special forms are some- 
times quite intricate. (See Lighthouse.) In 
building masonry arches a framework of timber 
whose top surface is floored over on a curve cor- 
responding exactly to the curve of the arch is 
used on which to set the wedge-shaped stones of 
the arch ring. See Centring, and illustrations 
in article Building. 

Bbick Masonby. With due allowance made 
for the difference of the material and the dif- 
ference in the dimensions of the blocks used, 
brick masonry corresponds very closely to dressed 
dimension stone range ashlar masonry. The 
bond used is varied considerably, but is usually 
either the English bond or the Flemish bond. In 
the English b^d the courses are alternately head- 
ers and stretchers, and in the Flemish bond the 
brick in each course are alternately headers and 

stretchers. (For further description and illuB- 
trations of brick masonry, see Building.) The 
mortar used in brickwork may be either lime 
mortar or cement mortar, the former being most 
used in ordinary building work. Practice varies 
in the amount of pressure allowed upon brick 
masonry, but it should carry safely a load of 20 
tons per square foot when laid in lime mortar. 
Brick masonry is chiefly used in building con- 
struction and in lining tunnels and constructing^ 
sewers. Compared with stone masonrj', brick 
masonry is not so strong as ashlar mason r>', but 
it costs less, while it is stronger than rubble 
masonry, but costs more;* it resists fire better 
and is at least eaually as durable against ordi- 
nary weathering as best stone masonry. 

CoNCBETE Masonry. Concrete masonry may 
consist of molded blocks of concrete laid like 
ashlar or squared stone masonrj' or of monolithic 
masses of concrete deposited or constructed m 
situ. In the first class of work the plastic con- 
crete (see Concrete) is rammed into suitable 
molds and allowed to harden, and then the hard- 
ened blocks are laid in the structure just aa 
similar blocks of natural stone would be laid. 
In the second class of work the plastic concrete 
is deposited directly in the position it is to oc- 
cupy in the finished structure, molds being used 
to confine the material to particular forms and 
positions when necessary. Concrete masonry is 
extensively used for nearly all the purposes for 
which brick and stone are now employed. For 
a comprehensive treatise on masonry work, con- 
sult: Baker, Treatise on Masonry Construction 
(New York, 1900) ; Patton, A Practical Treatise 
on Foundations (New York, 1900). See Build- 
ing; Buildino-Stone ; Brick; Cement; Con- 
crete; Mortar; Quarry; Stone Cutting and 
Dressing; and Stone, Artificial. 

MASONS, Free. A secret fraternal organiza- 
tion of worldwide celebrity, and one credited by 
enthusiastic writers with great antiquity. The 
Order, however, is now conceded to have been 
instituted about the early part of the eighteenth 
century — the pretenbions put forth to a date 
coeval with the building of the Temple at Jerusa- 
lem, with King Solomon as the first grand 
master, being considered by those who have thor- 
oughly investigated the subject as not worthy of 
credit. The attempt also made to establish a 
connection between the fraternity and many of 
the secret cults and organizations, such nf> the 
Eleusinian mysteries, the Pythagoreans, the Rosi- 
crucians and others, in the early stages of 
its existence, has also failed, the utmost ac- 
complished in that direction being the detec- 
tion of a certain similarity between the symbols 
and ceremonies of these older institutions and 
the system of ritual and rule observed by 
the Masonic Order — circumambulation, the use 
of aprons, the forty-seventh problem of Eu- 
clid, etc. Another consideration which tends 
to discredit any connection between these older 
associations and the Freemasons is the fact that 
the conception of Masonry implies a cosmopol- 
itan brotherhood, which would have been impos- 
sible of realization in the earlier ages of the 
world's history. The more rational and the gen- 
erally accepted theory regarding the origin of the 
society of Freemasons is, that it is the successor 
of the buflding associations of the Middle Ages 
of which the Steinmetzen or stonemasons of Ger- 
many were a representative. The term Free- 

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mason has also been a puzzle to philologists, some 
claiming that it is Norman French — Fr^e Magon 
(brother mason) — while others maintain the 
second part of the title to have been derived from 
the German word Metzen, having the same sig- 
nification. These early building societies, the 
precursors of the Masons, are fo\md to have 
been grouped in the eleventh and twelfth cen- 
turies for the most part around the Benedictine 
monasteries, the abbots being the architects who 
employed the masons on ecclesiastical buildings 
and repairs. The development of architectural 
taste and the acquisition of greater wealth by tbe 
Church led to the erection of buildings on a 
larger and more imposing scale, requiring the 
association of craftsmen in the various branches 
of construction for longer periods together. This 
led to the formation of societies known as the 
Bauhutien, so called from the wooden booths, 
where, during the continuance of the work on any 
particular building, the craftsmen kept their 
tools, took their meals, and held their meetings. 
By the latter part of the thirteenth century these 
societies had increased so in number that a gen- 
eral association of the BauhUtien was formed in 
Germany, governed by one code of craft laws, 
acknowledging one set of secret signs and cere- 
monies, and working imder one central authority, 
the Haupthutte of Strassburg. That there is a 
certain connection admitted tetween this organi- 
zation and the Masonic fraternity may be in- 
ferred from the fact that the trade customs and 
symbolic forms of the Bauhiitten have been de- 
scribed by Masonic writers in Europe and Amer- 
ica. ( See Fort, Early History and Antiquities of 
Freemasonry y Philadelphia, 1887). The require- 
ment most rigidly enforced from the earliest 
period was secrecy, which was enjoined in the 
most solemn manner, both journeymen and ap- 

Srentices being sworn, before initiation, on the 
»ible. Square and Compasses, to preserve invio- 
late the secrets of the brotherhood. Membership 
was at this early period confined strictly to the 
operative class, who were supposed to preserve the 
old secrets of Gothic Masonry, but later, in the 
seventeenth century, it no longer was deemed 
necessary to restrict membership to craftsmen 
alone, and, the bars being lowered, gentlemen be- 
came eligible. The Haupthutte went out of 
existence in 1731. 

From the Continent of Europe England derived 
much of her lodge organization. The earlier 
English associations of operative builders were 
first called Freemasons in the fourteenth and fif- 
teenth centuries, because of the freedom granted 
them to carry on their occupation. From 1607 
to 1618 Inigo Jones, under the patronage of Lord 
Pembroke, was actively engaged in Masonic work, 
but the civil wars and the agitation caused by 
the Reformation so materially broke up the 
Masonic connection that it was not until 1663 
that definite steps were taken to put the 
fraternity on a permanent basis. A general as- 
sembly of Masons was held in London in that 
year, new rules were formulated and statutes 
enacted, and a formal resolution was passed that 
Masonic privileges should be no longer confined to 
the operative Masons. Professional and literary 
men, those learned in astrology, or alchemy, as 
well RS theoretic geometricians and architects, 
now identified themselves with the fraternity. 
This class of membership at first was honorary, 
whence the term Free and 'Accepted' Masons. 

The historic period of Freemasonry begins with 
the formation of what is known as the premier 
Masonic Grand Lodge of the world in London, 
England, in 1717. This is generally styled the 
'revival' of Freemasonry. Prior to that time a 
Masonic lodge was composed of "any number of 
brethren assembled at any place for the perform- 
ance of work, and, when so assembled, were au- 
thorized to receive into the Order brothers and 
fellows, and to practice the rites of Masonry. 
The Ancient Charges were the only standard for 
the regulation of their conduct. The master of 
the lodge was elected pro tempore y and his au- 
thority terminated with the dissolution of the 
meeting over which he had presided, imless the 
lodge was permanently established at any par- 
ticular place." Such lodges are known in Ma- 
sonic history as time immemorial lodges. On 
June 24, 1717, four of the old lodges then ex- 
isting in London constituted themselves into a 
Grand Lodge, the first Masonic Grand Lodge ever 
organized, and elected Anthony Sayer their first 
grand master. George Payne succeeded Sayer 
as grand master in 1718, and Dr. John Tlie- 
ophilus Desaguliers followed in 1719. In 1720 
George Pa3rne was again grand master, and 
in that year compiled for tJe first time a set 
of 'General Regulations,' which were subsequently 
revised by Dr. Desaguliers and Rev. James An- 
derson, a Scotch Presbyterian minister, and were 
first published in 1723, under the title of "The 
Charges of a Freemason, extracted from the 
ancient records of lodges beyond the sea and of 
those in England, Scotland and Ireland, for the 
use of lodges in London." After 1717 new lodges 
could be created only under a warrant from the 
Grand Lodge. In 1724 the Grand Lodge of Eng- 
land came into conflict with a time immemorial 
lodge at York, claiming to have originated at an 
assembly of Masons in 926. This led to the 
formation in 1725, by the old Lodge of York, of 
the 'Grand Lodge of All England.' The Grand 
Lodge of all England, however, appears to have 
maintained friendly relations with the London 
Grand Lodge. In 1751 nine lodges owing alle- 
giance to the Grand Lodge of England seceded 
from that body on the ground that the Grand 
Lodge suffered subordinate lodges of its jurisdic- 
tion to depart from the ancient landmarks of 
Freemasonry, and organized a 'Grand Lodge of 
England, according fi> old Institutions.' They 
styled themselves 'Ancients,' and called the mem- 
bers of the Grand Lodge of England *Modem8.' 
In 1756 Laurence Dermott, the leader of the 
seceders, published the "Ahiman Rezon," or Book 
of Constitutions, which he copied from the con- 
stitutions of the original or 'Modern* Grand 
Lodge, and addressed it to 'The Ancient York 
Masons in England.' The Grand Lodge of All 
England, at York, died in 1792. There then ex- 
isted in England but two Grand Lodges, the 
'Ancients' and the 'Modems.* After neffotiations 
extending over a number of years, finally, in 
1813, through the efforts of the Duke of Sussex, 
grand master of the 'Moderns,' and his distin- 
guished brother, the Duke of Kent, grand master 
of the 'Ancients,' a permanent union was estab- 
lished under the title of the 'United Grand Lodge 
of Ancient Freemasons of England,' by which the 
fraternity has since been known. Freemasonry 
has always been favorably considered in England. 
In 1799, when an act of Parliament was passed 
directed against seditious societies, an exception 

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was made in favor of Masonic lodges, which were 
credited with meeting solely for benevolent pur- 
poses. Jews were admitted to membership on 
the same footing as other religious denomina- 
tions. The growth and progress of the fraternity 
has been so marked that there are now in tho 
Grand Lodge of England more than 2000 lodges, 
a Grand Lodge, sixty provincial Grand Lodges, 
a Grand Lodge of Mark Masters, a Supreme 
Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, a Great 
Priory of Knights Templars, and a Supreme 
Council of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite. 
A few years after the revival a Committee on 
Charity was formed and since then Masonic 
schools have been foimded for boys and girls and 
institutions for the aged and infirm. 

In Scotland the early history of the Masons 
differed in no essential respect from that of 
other trade crafts. In 1698-99 the statutes and 
ordinances of the Order to be observed "by all 
Master Masons as set down by William Shaw, 
Master of Work to His Majesty, and general war- 
dent of the craft" (see Lyon, History of Free- 
masonry in Scotland), were published. These 
ordinances, however, are largely concerned with 
trade relations. The system of degrees was not 
developed, but a *pass-word' was adopted. In 
1736 a final effort, set on foot fifteen years be- 
fore by Desaguliers, the organizer of the English 
Masonic movement, to consolidate the various 
lodges into a representative body, was successful, 
and on November 30, 1736, the first general as- 
sembly of symbolical Masons was held and a 
Grand Lodge for Scotland formed. The repre- 
sentative of the family of Saint Clair, which was 
patron of the Masonic Lodge, was elected first 
grand master; provincial grand masters were 
appointed, a general adhesion of Scotch lodges 
to the new organization was effected, and Saint 
Andrew's Day was substituted for the day of 
Saint John the Baptist, the f^te day in England. 
Freemasonrj' was introduced into Ireland in 1730, 
when the first lodge was opened at Dublin. The 
English system and ritual were adopted, but, 
owing to the fact that the religion of the country 
is so largely Roman Catholic, Masonry has 
not made a very marked progress. At the close 
of the nineteenth century its representation con- 
sisted of one Grand Lodge and about 350 lodges. 

The first Masonic lodge in France, according 
to Clavel and other well-authenticated authori- 
ties, was established at Dunkirk on October 13, 
1721, and was styled *L'Amiti6 et Fraternity.' 
The second was organized by Lord Derwentwater 
in Paris in 1725. It was at first largely patron- 
ized by the nobility, but its purpose does not seem 
to have been of an elevated character, and this, 
supplemented by the vigorous opposition of the 
Catholic Church, tended to invest the institution 
of Masonry with a very unstable character. In 
1736 a Grand Lodge was formed, and in 1766 
a now Grnnde-Loge Rationale of France was cre- 
ated (subsequently altered in title to the Grand 
Orient ) , and a representative system adopted un- 
der which the various lodges were brought into a 
degree of subordination to the central and au- 
thoritative body. Considerable hostility, how- 
ever, was manifested toward the new organiza- 
tion by the original Grand Lodge, and there was, 
besides, a conflict between the rituals in use. the 
Grand Orient following the Scottish rite, while 
the original Grand Lodge had adopted a wildly 
superstitious form, fathered by the impostor 

Cagliostro. The Revolution practically suspended 
both organizations, which subsequently were re- 
vived and in 1799 became united in one national 
organization. Hardly had this union been effect- 
ed when another entering wedge was inserted by 
the introduction of two new systems of ritual, 
one the Scottish Philosophical Rite, including 
the luminous ring and the white and black eagle, 
and the other the Ancient and Accepted Scottish 
Rite of thirty-three degrees. Finally, in 1804, a 
union was again effected between the Grand 
Orient and the Supreme Council, but since that 
period the cause of Freemasonry in France has 
not been as progressive as in other European 
countries. At the close of the nineteenth cen- 
tury the number of lodges in existence was only 
about 350. The Grand Orient has ceased to re- 
quire belief in a personal God as a test of mem- 
bership. The introduction of Freemasonry into 
other European countries, notably Spain, Hol- 
land, Italy, Austria, Germany, and Russia, took 
place between 1725 and 1750, but with varying 
results. In Russia the Masonic lodges have been 
suppressed, while in Austria-Hungary they mere- 
ly preserve an existence, owing to the ban of 
the Church being placed on them. 

The introduction of Masonry into America was 
under the deputation to Daniel Coxe of New- 
Jersey, from the Grand Lodge of England, dated 
June 5, 1730, which appointed him provincial 
grand master for Pennsylvania, New York, and 
New Jersey, *for the space of two years.' While 
(Soxe does not seem to have been active in estab- 
lishing lodges in his territory, reliable evidence 
that Saint John's Lodge was founded in Phila- 
delphia in the latter part of 1730 or early in 
1731 is foimd in a letter written by Henry 
Bell, dated November 17, 1764, in which he 
speaks of a charter being granted bv Daniel 
Coxe to a number of Philadelphians. The exist- 
ence of the lodge in 1731 is further proved by the 
account books of Benjamin Franklin, who sold 
stationeiT to and did printing for Saint John's 
Lodge. The entries bear dates in 1731. Another 
corroborative proof is found in a ledger of the 
lodge discovered in 1884, which is called *Liber 
B.' Its entries begin with June 24, 1731, and 
consist of amounts paid into the lodge by mem- 
bers. Franklin was made a Mason in January, 
1731. In 1733 the Grand Lodge of England 
granted a deputation to Major Henry Price of 
Boston, as 'Provincial Grand Master of Free 
and Accepted Masons in New England.' On 
July 30, 1733, a warrant was granted to form 
Saint John's Lodge in Boston, Mass. From this 
beginning, Freemasonry spread throughout the 
colonies. There also existed a large number of 
military and traveling lodges, usually attached 
to regiments or battalions of the British Army, 
and formed under warrants from the Grand 
Lodges of England, Scotland, and Ireland. 

When the War of the Revolution came to a 
successful close the American lodges so created 
withdrew their allegiance to the parent lodges 
in England and Scotland and created Grand 
Lodges in several of the States, and the Order 
thus became deeply rooted in American soil, 
where it has continued to grow without inter- 
ruption other than what is known as the great 
anti-Masonic movement, which began in 1826 and 
continued for about ten years, during which 
period the membership was reduced to a very 
small number. (See Anti-Masons; Mobgan, 

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William.) The Order is also prospering in 
British America, while in the republics of ^uth 
America, where the Catholic religion is in the 
Bscendeot, the same influences operate to its 
hindrance as in the European countries where 
Church influence is powerfuL 

A system of what is known as Freemasonry 
exists among the colored people in America, 
which, while admitted to be regular, is not recog- 
nized by white members of the Order, or their 
grand and subordinate lodges in this country, 
although receiving full reco^ition as to the 
regularity of their organization from some of 
the foreign Grand Lodges. The parent lodge was 
opened in Boston, March 6, 1776, through the 
exertions of Prince Hall, known in the archives 
of the Order as the father of Freemasonry among 
colored men. There were fifteen charter mem- 
bers and the lodge was known as African Lodge. 
It received a warrant from the Grand Lodge of 
England in 1784 and was organized as African 
Lodge No. 429 in 1787, with the rank of a 
Provincial Grand Lodge and Prince Hall as pro- 
vincial grand master. This lodge became dor- 
mant after the death of the charter members, 
was subsequently revived, but failed to receive 
recognition from the Grand Lodge of England. 
The African Grand Lodge of Boston, now Ibiown 
as Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, 
was organized in 1808, and there are at the 
present time in the United States twenty-eight 
colored Grand Lodges, and one in Ontario, Can- 
ada. These are distributed as follows: Ala- 
bama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Con- 
necticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Flor- 
ida, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Indiana, Kansas, 
Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, 
Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, North 
Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, 
Rhode Island, South Carolina, Texas, and West 
Virginia. There also exist among the negroes 
bodies of the higher degrees of Masonry, viz. 
Chapters of the Royal Arch, Councils of Royal 
and Select Masters^ Commanderies of Knights 
Templars, subordinate bodies of the Ancient Ac- 
cepted Scottish Rite, and others. The total num- 
ber of colored Free Masons in the United States 
in 1907 was about 160,000. 

Concerning the rites, ceremonies, and princi- 
ples of Freemasonry it should be said that the 
underlying principle is a belief in a Supreme 
Being and the immortality of the soul. Next to 
that is the recognition of fraternal obligations 
among members of the Order. The duties of a 
Mason are always to be held subordinate to 
his duty to his God, to his country, and to his 
fellowmen, a faet not generally credited outside 
the fraternity, and ignorance of which has led 
to much of the opposition it has encountered, 
on account of its being a secret institution. It 
differs from other secret and beneficial societies 
in the matter of its beneficiary features, for there 
is no obligation expressed in the order of pro- 
cedure set forth as part of its fixed policy* The 
measure of relief to be extended to fellow 
members in distress and the participation in any 
work of chariW are matters implied rather than 
commanded. Some of the lodges voluntarily cre- 
ate funds for charitable purposes, but this is a 
matter which rests with the particular lodge, 
which is independent in any line of action it 
adopts not antagonistic to the objects or prin- 
ciples of the Order. As a rule, the dispensing of 

relief is entirely governed by circumstances, and 
is not circumscribed by conditions of membership 
in any particular lodge. A sojourning or visit- 
ing Mason, in any locality where he may be tem- 
porarily staying, if in distress, has a claim on 
his brother Masons, in accordance with the spirit 
and teaching of the Masonic fraternity. A system 
of benevolence has been adopted in many of the 
American jurisdictions which is characteristic of 
the fraternity. It is the establishment in diflfer- 
ent jurisdictions of Masonic homes and infirma- 
ries for the needy and distressed of the Order. 
The first of these homes was established in 1867 
at Louisville, Ky., as the *Masonic Widows and 
Orphans Home and Infirmary.' Other institu- 
tions have been founded in Philadelphia, Chicago, 
Saint Louis, Nashville, Springfield, Ohio, Wich- 
ita, Kan., Waterford, Conn., Burlington, N. J., 
Richmond, Va., and in Michigan, Texas, and 
California. Funds have been es^blished in many 
other jurisdictions either to found homes or to 
provide a systematic administration of charity. 
The homes are, like the English institutions, 
largely supported by voluntary contributions, but 
in some States a per capita tax is levied upon 
each Master Mason within the jurisdiction. 

The teachings of Freemasonry are symbolical, 
ceremonial, and allegorical. Rites, almost with- 
out number, were formed by degree-makers dur- 
ing the past one hundred and fifty years, but 
most of them had but a short existence. There 
are now ten Masonic rites or systems in use 
throughout the world, all having