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Digitized by 




5. , , 
N b v - 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 




Volume VIII 





Digitized by 


Copyright, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1909, 1911, 1912,1915 
By Dodd, Mead and Company 

AU rights reserved 

Copyright, 1917, 1921, 1922 
By Dodd, Mead and Company, Inc. 

All rights reserved 

Printed in the U. S. A. 



Vail-Balloc Prus, Inc., Bimqbamton. N. Y. k 

J. F. Taplet Co.. Lono Island Citt. N. Y. 

Digitized by 


iv . ^o 5^ 5/gZ. 


Faczmo Paqi 

Europe, White Races 192 

Ferns 476 

Fishes, American Food 620 

Flavoring Plants 670 


Europe If 

Europe, Physical Map f 

_ J At the time of Charlemagne ( J '# 

EuROPE \ About 1500 \ : 

„ J At the time of Napoleon's Greatest Power, 1812 I / ^^4 

( After the Congress of Vienna, 1815 j / 7flfi 

Florida y ■'* 



Epiphytes J m 42 

EQUiDiB ./' -g 

Erechtheum /' 7< y 

Erosion / -- 2 

Eucalyptus / 212 

Everglades / ^ 

Falcons and Falconry / „~~ 

Faraday, Michael ./ - 22 

Field Artillery, United States Field Artillery at Practr 523 

Field Artillery, European Field Guns / K - 

Firs / 580 

Fire Engines, Motor Fire Engines / ™ 

Fire Engines, Motor Fire Engine and Hook a nA adder Truek ^o 

Fire Protection, Water Towers and Fire B<^ ^ 

Fire Protection, High Pressure Hose Com^™ 63 ^ 

Fishing Birds / ( ^q 

Flatfish and Flounders /• 700 

Fl ^ RENCE / 722 

** m /■ ; : : : 723 

J"™ 726 

f w>™» * 744 

Flycatchers, Typical ... * 

.Digitized by 



For a full explanation of the various sounds indicated, see the Key to Pronunciation in Vol. I. 

ft as in ale, fate. 

a " " senate, chaotic. 

ft " " glare, care, and as e in there. 

ft " " am, at. 

ft " " arm, father. 

a " " ant, and final a in America, armada, etc. 

a " " final, regal, pleasant. 

a « " all, fall. 

f " " eve. 

e " " elate, evade. 

ft " " end, pet. 

ft " " fern, her, and as * in sir, eta 

e " " agency, judgment. 

I " " ice ? quiet. 

i " " quiescent. 

I " " ill, fit. 

3 " " old, sober. 

ft " " obey, sobriety. 

6 " " orb. nor. 

6 " " oda, forest, not. 

© " " atom, carol. 

d " " oil, boil. 

ftft " " food, fool, and as u in rude, rule. 

ou " ** house, mouse. 

5 " " use, mule. 

d " " unite. 

« " " cut, but. 

X" " full, put, or as oo in foot, book. 
" " urn, Durn. 
y " " yet, yield. 

B " " Spanish Habana, CkSrdoba, where it is like 
English v but made with the lips alone. 

ch as in chair, cheese. 

d " " Spanish Almodovar, pulgada, where it is 

nearly like th in English then. 
g " " go, get. 

a " " German Landtag — ch in Ger. ach^ etc. 
h " j in Spanish Jijona, g in Spanish gila; like 

English h in hue, but stronger. 
hw " wh in which. 

k " ch in German ich, Albrecht = g in German 
Arensberg, Mecklenburg, etc. 
in sinker, longer. 
" sing, long. 

" French bon, Bourbon, and m in the French 
Etampes; here it indicates nasalizing of 
the preceding vowel, 
shine, shut, 
thrust, thin. 
«« " then, this. 
" z in azure, and * in pleasure. 







An apostrophe pj is sometimes used as in tft'b'l 
(table), k&z"m (chasm), to indicate the elision of 
a vowel or its reduction to a mere murmur. 

For foreign sounds, the nearest English equiva- 
lent is generally used. In any case where a special 
symbol, as a, h, k, n, is used, those unfamiliar with 
the foreign sound indicated may substitute the Eng- 
lish sound ordinarily indicated by the letter. For 
a full description of all such sounds, see the article 
on Pronunciation. 

Digitized by 




Professor John Merle Coulter. 

Professor Edward E. Nouree, 

Professor N. G. McCrea. 

Dr. Horatio S. Krans. 

Dr. Albert Warren Ferris. 

Dr. David Gilbert Yates. 

Dr. Charles Comfort Tiffany.* 

Dr. Arthur W. Jenks. 

Dr. David Gilbert Yates. 

Professor David Eugene Smith. 

Professor George W. Kirchwey. 

Professor Ephraim Emerton. 

Professor Irving F. Wood. 

Professor Nathaniel Schmidt. 

Dr. Clark Wissler. 

Dr. Horatio S. Krans. 

Professor George W. Kirchwey. 

Professor Martin A. Rosanoff. 

Mr. Russell Sturgis.* 

Dr. George Kriehn. 

Professor Martin A. Rosanoff. 

Professor Evander Bradley McGihary. 

Professor Nathaniel Schmidt. 

Professor Arthur L. Frothingham. 

Dr. George Kriehn. 

Professor John Lawrence Gerig. 

Professor John Lawrence Gerig. 

Dr. Edwin West Allen. 

Professor Alvan A. Tenney. 

Professor Charles Knapp. 

Mr. Cyrus C. Adams; Professor Robert 
M. Brown; Dr. Clark Wissler; Pro- 
fessor Charles Knapp; Professor 
Dana Carleton Munro; Professor J. 
Salwyn Schapiro; Mr. Irwin Scofield 
Guernsey; and others. 

Dr. Otis Tufton Mason.* 

Dr. Robert H. Lowie. 

Professor Isaac Leon Kandel. 


Dr. Roland M. Harper. 

Mr. George Gladden. 

Professor George W. Kirchwey. 

Professor Irving F. Wood. 

Professor Alpheus Spring Packard.* 

Mr. C. William Beebe. 

Professor Alvin Saunders Johnson. 

Mr. C. William Beebe. 

Professor George W. Kirchwey. 

Professor Nathaniel Schmidt. 

Dr. Marcus Benjamin. 

Professor Charles E. Munroe, 

Professor Alvin Saunders Johnson. 

Professor Edward Bradford Titchener. 

Professor Edward Bradford Titchener. 

Mr. C. William Beebe. 

Mr. C. William Beebe. 

Professor George W. Kirchwey. 

Dr. George Kriehn. 

Dr. David Gilbert Yates. 

Professor Nathaniel Schmidt. 

Professor Nathaniel Schmidt. 

Professor John Lawrence Gerig. 

Mr. Moses Nelson Baker. 

Profoisor Alvin Saunders Johnson. 

Dr. George Kriehn. 

Professor Henry Herbert Goddard. 

Dr. David Gilbert Yates. 

Professor Evander Bradley McGilvary. 

Mr. Patrick Gallagher. 



Professor Nathaniel Schmidt. 

Professor Edward Bradford Titchener. 

Professor Martin A. Rosanoff. 

Mr. C. William Beebe. 

Russell Sturgis.* 
George Leland Hunter. 


Digitized by 




Professor George W. Kirchwey . 

Dr. Edwin West Allen. 

Professor Charles A. Downer. 

Mr. H. C. dinger. 

Miss Juliet Stuart Poynte. 

Dr. Edwin West Allen. 

Professor Irving F. Wood. 

Professor John Merle Coulter. 


Professor John Merle Coulter. 
Mr. Gilbert Van Ingen. 


Professor George W. Kirchwey. 

Mr. Herbert Treadwell Wade. 

Professor John Merle Coulter. 


Professor Nathaniel Schmidt. 


Professor Dana Carleton Munro, and 


Dr. Edwin West Allen. 


Professor Evander Bradley McGilvary. 


Captain Louis Tracey Boiseau, U. S. A. 
Major LeRoy S. Lyon, U. S. A. 

field cooking. 

Major LeRoy S. Lyon, U. S. A. 

Mr. C. William Beebe. 

Dr. Horatio S. Krans. 

Dr. Edwin West Allen. 

Mr. William Churchill; Mr. Edward 
Lathrop EngU; Mr. Irwin Scofield 


Professor Frederick feemsen Hutton. 


Professor A. D. F. Hamlin. 

Dr. Roland P. Falkner. 

Professor Alvin Saunders Johnson. 


Professor Alvin Saunders Johnson. 
Professor Allan Herbert Willett. 

Mr. Herbert Treadwell Wade. 

Professor Charles B. Davenport; Mr. 
Ernest Ingersoll; Mr. C. William 

Dr. Edwin West Allen. 

Mr. C. William Beebe. 
Dr. George W. Field. 

Professor Charles B. Davenport; Dr. 
George W. Field; Mr. Oscar Phelps 
Austin; Mr. C. William Beebe. 


Professor George W. Kirchwey. 

Dr. Horatio S. Krans. 

Professor James Edward Winston. 

Dr. Alfred Charles True; Mr. Moses 
Nelson Baker; Dr. Edwin West Allen. 

Professor Lawrence A. McLouth. 


Mr. Frederic Augustus Lucas. 
Mr. C. William Beebe. 

Mr. Edward Lathrop Engle; Professor 
Charles Knapp; Professor Dana 
Carleton Munro. 

Dr. Roland M. Harper; Mr. Allen Leon 
Churchill; Professor Alvin Saunders 
Dr. Edwin West Allen. 


Professor John Merle Coulter. 

Professor Charles Knapp. 

Professor Alpheus Spring Packard.* 

Mr. C. William Beebe. 

Mr. C. William Beebe. 


Captain Louis Sayre Van Duzer, U. S. N. 


Professor A. V. W. Jackson. 
Dr. Robert H. Lowie. 


Professor Robert M. Brown; Honorable F0LK **ySIC. 

Oscar Phelps Austin; Mr. F. Vexler. f . H enry /. *inck. 


Professor John Lawrence Gerig. ' Dr c F La nffWO rthy; Dr. Alfred 

FIRDAUSI. Charles True; Dr. Edwin West Allen. 

Professor A. V. W. Jackson; Dr. Louis F00D PRESERVATION OF. 
H. Gray; Professor John Lawrence j^ Edwin West Allen. 

Gerig. FOOT. 

Dr. Albert Warren Ferris. 
Dr. David Gilbert Yates. 

Mr. C. William Beebe. 

Mr. Charles Andrus Taylor. 


Digitized by V^OOQlC 


Mr. Herbert Treadwell Wade. 

Professor Charles P. Warren. 

Mr. Herbert Treadwell Wade. 



EN'TEBFTIS (Neo-Lat., from Gk. 
tvrepov, enteron, intestine). Inflam- 
mation of the bowels, and especially 
of their muscular find serous coat, 
accompanied by pain, colic (q.v.)> 
and diarrhoea (q.v.), or dysentery 
(q.v.). Enteritis in children (see Cholera In- 
fantum) is often fatal. It attacks the entire 
digestive tract, generally being a gastroenteri- • 
tis. Abstinence from food, washing the colon 
with large enemata of water, and sterilization 
of drinking water are essential in the treat- 
ment of these cases. In adults enteritis is 
benefited by mild purgation, followed by opi- 
ates and fasting. If the colon is attacked, the 
term used is colitis, properly a subdivision of 
enteritis. Typhlitis is an inflammation of and 
about the caecum (q.v.), and appendicitis (see 
Vebmifobm Appendix) is an inflammation of the 
appendix. These are dangerous and frequently 
fatal. Rest, opiates, and poultices or ice may 
ameliorate some cases. Operation is generally 
necessary in appendicitis. In all cases the diag- 
nosis and treatment must be left to the physician. 
In the Lower Animals. Inflammation of the 
bowels, among the heavier breeds of horses, gen- 
erally results from some error of diet, such as 
a long fast, followed by a large, hastily devoured 
meal, indigestible or easily fermentable food, or 
large drafts of water at improper times. When 
thus produced, it is frequently preceded by 
stomach staggers or colifc affects chiefly the 
mucous coat of the large intestines, and often 
runs its course in from 8 to 12 hours. With 
increasing fever and restlessness, the pulse soon 
rises to 70 or upward, and in this respect* un- 
like colic, continues throughout considerably 
above the natural standard of 40 beats per 
minute. The pain is great, but the animal, 
instead of recklessly throwing himself about as 
in colic, arises and lies down cautiously. When 
standing, the horse frequently turns his head 
backward and looks at his flanks. Respira- 
tion is quickened, the bowels are torpid. Cold 
sweats, stupor, and occasionally delirium, pre- 
cede death. When connected with, or occurring 
as a sequel to, influenza, laminitis, and other 
complaints, the small intestines are as much 
affected as the large, and the peritoneal as well 
as the mucous coat of the bowels. This form is 
more common in the lighter breeds. When the 
patient is seen early, while the pulse is still 
clear and distinct and not above 60, and the 

legs and ears are warm, bloodletting is useful, as 
it relieves the overloaded vessels, and prevents 
that exudation of blood which speedily exudes 
into the interior of the bowels in cases of hemor- 
rhagic enteritis. This disease should be treated 
as follows: In a pint of oil, or an infusion of 
two drams of aloes in hot water, give a scruple' 
of calomel and an ounce of laudanum, and re- 
peat the calomel and laudanum every hour in 
gruel until the bowels are opened, or until five 
or six doses are jpven. Encourage the action of 
the bowels by using, every half hour, soap-and- 
water clysters, to which add laudanum so long 
as pain and straining continue. If the animal 
is nauseated and stupid, with a cold skin, weak, 
quick pulse, bleeding and reducing remedies are 
very injurious; and the only hope lies in fol- 
lowing up one dose of the calomel and aloes 
with small doses of laudanum and sweet spirit 
of nitre, or other stimulants, repeated every 40 
minutes. In all stages woolen cloths wrung out 
of hot water and applied to the belly encourage 
the action of the bowels and relieve the pain. 

Enteritis in cattle is produced by coarse, wet 
pasture, acrid or poisonous plants, bad water, 
and overdriving. The symptoms are fever and 
thirst, a quick but rather weak pulse, restless 
twitching up of the hind limbs, tenderness of 
the belly, torpidity of the bowels, and cessation 
of rumination. Calves generally die in three or 
four days, other cattle in a week or nine days. 
Bleed early, open the bowels with a pint of oil 
and a dram of calomel, which may be repeated 
in 8 or 10 hours if no effect is produced. Give, 
every hour, 15 drops of Fleming's tincture of 
aconite in water, until six or seven doses are 
given. Allow only sloppy and laxative food, 
such as molasses, gruel, or a thin bran mash; 
employ clysters and hot cloths to the belly and 
use two-ounce doses of laudanum if the pain is 
great. Enteritis in sheep mostly occurs in cold, 
exposed localities, and where flocks are subjected 
to great pri vatio ns or improper feeding. 

EN'TEROHEP'ATITIS. See Blackhead. 

ent-fu'rung ous dem sa-rl' or sa-ril' ( II Seraglio ) . 
An opera by Mozart (q.v.), first produced in 
Vienna, July 13, 1782; in the United States, 
Octob er, 1862 (New York). 

ENTH x MEHE (Gk. ivOv/iij/xa, enthym&ma, 
argument, from MvficiaBai, enthymeisthai, to 
ponder, from h, en, in + <to(i6s, thymos, mind). 
A term used by Aristotle to denote a syllogism 

Digitized by 



"from probabilities and signs"; now a technical 
name in logic for a syllogism with one of its 
premises or its conclusion unexpressed. For 
instance, "The steamship Rio Janeiro could not 
have been built in water-tight compartments, 
for it sank in 15 minutes" — the suppressed prem- 
ise being, "No steamship built in water-tight 
compartments sinks in 15 minutes." Almost all 
ordinary argumentation is conducted in enthy- 
memes. See Deduction ; Logic. 

ENTIBETY (from entire, OF., Fr. entier, It. 
intero, from Lat. integer, whole, from in, not 
+ tangere, to touch), Tenancy by. The form 
of joint estate which subsists between husband 
and wife. Like the ordinary joint estate, it 
arises upon a conveyance or devise to the two 
persons together who are to hold the premises, 
and, like that also, it is attended with the right 
of survivorship, as incident to the estate, the 
interest of the one dying first passing to the 
other and not to the heirs of the decedent. But 
the circumstance that the joint tenants are here 
husband and wife, and have therefore identical 
interests in the property, has differentiated the 
tenancy by entirety in some important respects 
from joint tenancy proper. The joint tenant 
may ordinarily convey his interest separately 
from his cotenants, thereby dissolving tne joint 
estate and destroying the right of survivorship. 
But this is not permitted in the case of a ten- 
ancy of the entirety; neither can the estate be 
partitioned during the existence of the marriage 
relation, though it is dissolved by a divorce and 
the parties thereupon converted into joint ten- 
ants or tenants in common, usually the latter. 

The estate is one which is much favored by 
the law, and it has accordingly been generally 
held that it is not affected bv statutes abolish- 
ing joint tenancies, or creating a presumption 
in favor of tenancies in common; nor yet by 
the more recent legislation known as the mar- 
ried women's acts, whereby a wife is rendered 
capable of holding and conveying real estate 
free from the control of her husband. But in 
a few States the contrary view has been taken, 
and in a few others the tenancy by entirety has 
never been recognized. In most of the United 
States, however, the estate still exists without 
material change in the characteristics which it 
had at the common law. See Husband and 
Wife, and the authorities there referred to. 

ENTOMB'MENT, The. A frequent subject 
of paintings, representing the burial of Christ. 
One of the most celebrated is that by Raphael, 
painted in 1507, for the church of San Fran- 
cesco, Perugia, and now in the Palazzo Borghese, 
Rome. The finest representation of the subject 
is by Titian in the Louvre (1523). It shows 
the body of Christ suspended in a cloth, borne 
to the sepulchre by Nicodemus and Joseph of 
Arimathea. St. John supports one arm, and 
to the left are the Virgin and the Magdalen. 
It is a consummate masterpiece, not only in 
technique (the composition, color, and chiaro- 
scuro being especially effective), but as a sublime 
and profound expression of religious feeling. 
Another example by Titian (1559) is now in 
the Madrid Gallery. Tintoretto also painted 
two masterly pictures on the subject— one in the 
Parma Gallery, the other in San Francesco 
della Vigna, Venice. Caravaggio's celebrated 
"Entombment" (see Cabavaggio for reproduc- 
tion) is in the Vatican Gallery. Other well- 
known representations of the subject are by the 
Italian masters Gaudenzio Ferrari (Turin), 


Annibale Carracci (Louvre), Garafalo (Palazzo 
Borghese, Rome), and the sculptor Donatello 
(South Kensington Museum, London); and by 
the Flemish painters Rogier van der Weyden 
(Uffizi, Florence), Quentin Matsys (Antwerp), 
and Van Dyck (Antwerp). 

ENTOMIS, en'to-mls. A genus of minute 
fossil ostracods with subovate or fabiform shell, 
the valves of which are characterized by a deep 
submedian vertical furrow extending to the 
hinge line. The genus ranges from the Ordo- 
vician to the Carboniferous period, but its re- 
mains are most profuse in the Devonian strata. 
The species Entomis serrato-striata composes 
certain beds of the Upper Devonian of middle 
Europe. See Ostbacoda. 

An organization for the investigation of the 
character and habits of insects, founded at 
Philadelphia in 1859, incorporated in 1862, and 
known until 1867 as the Entomological Society 
of Philadelphia. The results of its investiga- 
tions are published in its Proceedings and Trans- 
actions, beginning in 1861, and also in the 
Entomological News, the latter issued monthly 
with the cooperation of the entomological sec- 
tion of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia. It owns a valuable entomological 
collection and library. Membership in 1914 was 
about 140. 

EN'TOMOI/OGY (Neo-Lat. entomologia, 
from Gk. iprofiop, entomon, insect, from h, en, 
in + ™A*4> tom€, a cutting, from rifipeip, temnein, 
to cut + -koyia, -logia, account, from \cy*ip, 
legein, to say). That part of the science of 
zoology which treats of insects. See Insect. 

hro/top, entomon, insect + <ptkos, philos, dear, 
from <pi\elp, philem, to love). A plant whose 
pollen is carried from one flower to another by 
means of insects. A contrasting phrase is 
"anemophilous plant," meaning one whose 
pollen is carried about by the wind. See Pol- 

ENTOMOPHTHORALES, en'to-mof'tho-ra'- 
l£z (Neo-Lat., from Gk. Ipto/u>p* entomon, in- 
sect + <p$op&, phthora, destruction ) . A group 
of parasitic fungi fatal to insects, the common 
house fly often being destroyed by them. The 
spore in germination sends out a tube that pen- 
etrates the body of the insect, which finally be- 
comes filled with the mycelium of the fungus. 
The dead bodies of flies may be seen adhering to 
a windowpane of ten$ surrounded by a halo of 

ENTOMOSTBACA (Neo-Lat. nom. pi., 
from Gk. Jeprofiop, entomon, insect + foTpatcop, 
ostrakon, shell ) . One of the two subclasses of 
crustaceans (q.v.). Many of them are minute 
and exist in great numbers both in fresh and 
salt water, particularly in stagnant or nearly 
stagnant fresh water, affording to many kinds 
of fishes their principal food. They differ much 
in general form; the number of organs of loco- 
motion is also various — in some, few; in some, 
more than 100 — usually adapted for swimming 
only and attached to the posterior as well as to 
the anterior segments; but there never is a fin- 
like expansion of the tail, as in some of the 
malacostracous crustaceans. The body is divisi- 
ble into two parts, a head and a trunk, but the 
latter shows no differentiation into thorax and 
abdomen. The antennae are generally well de- 
veloped and are often used, especially the second 
pair, as organs of locomotion. Some of the En- 

Digitized by 



tomostraca have mouths fitted for mastication 
and some for suction. Not a few are parasitic. 
The heart has the form of a long vessel. The 
organs of respiration are in certain species 
attached to some of the organs of locomotion, 
in the form of hairs, often grouped into beards, 
combs, or tufts; or bladelike expansions of the 
anterior legs are subservient to the purpose of 
respiration; in others no special organs of res- 
piration are known to exist. Hie nervous sys- 
tem, like that of most arthropoda (q.v.), con- 
sists of a brain or supra-oesophageal ganglion 
and a more or less elongated double ventral cord 
connected with it by a commissure on each side 
of the oesophagus and provided with six or seven 
pairs of ganglia. In most entomostracans, how- 
ever, the nervous system is more concentrated, 
sometimes to such an extent that it consists 
of a single ganglionic mass, through which the 
oesophagus passes. The eves are of two distinct 
sorts; nearly all the species have a median un- 
paired eye, sometimes well developed and some- 
times greatly reduced. Many forms also have 
a pair of lateral eves, which are sometimes 
stalked. The name Entomostraca has been given 
to these creatures in consequence of most of the 
species having shells of many pieces, rather 
horny than calcareous, and very delicate, gener- 
ally almost membranous and transparent. In 
many the shell consists of two valves, including 
more or less of the body, capable of being com- 
pletely closed, but which, at the pleasure of the 
animal, can also be opened so as to permit the 
antenna and feet to be stretched out. 

The Entomostraca comprise many thousand 
species, which are readily grouped in four great 
orders, according to the arrangement and struc- 
ture of the shell and appendages: Phtllofoda; 
Ostbacoda; Copepoda; Cirbipkdia (qq.v.). 

ENTOPHYTE. See Eitoophyte. 

EN'TOZCA (Neo-Lat. nom. pi., from Gk. 
Ipt6*, entoa, within + £$op, z6on t animal), or 
Endopabasites. Parasitic animals living within 
the tissues or organs of other animals. The 
term "entozoa" or "enterozoa" was formerly ex- 
tensively used, especially for the internal para- 
sites of man. In recent years the name has 
fallen into disuse, because it did not include a 
natural assemblage of forms, but animals of 
several different types. The opposite term is 
"ectozoa" or "epizoa" — the former designating 
parasites resident upon or within the skin, and 
the latter the same with more particular refer- 
ence to crustaceous parasites of fishes. See Par- 
asite; Flatwobm; Tapewobm; Fluke; Guinea 
wobm; roundwobh; etc. 

ENTBECASTEAT7X, aN'tr'-ka'sto', Joseph 
Antoine Bbuni, Chevalieb d* (1739-03). A 
French navigator, born at Aix (Provence). He 
entered the navy at the age of 15 and three 
years later won the grade of ensign for valor 
displayed during the battle of Minorca (1756). 
In 1786 he became commander of the East 
India Station, and in 1787 he was appointed 
Governor of Mauritius and the Isle of Bourbon. 
He later explored New Caledonia (1791-92), 
where he was sent in search of the missing 
expedition of La Perouse, and discovered several 
groups of islands. He died at sea, off the north 
coast of New Guinea, July 20, 1793. His name 
is perpetuated in the Entrecasteaux Archipel- 
ago; Entrecasteaux Point, on the southwestern 
coast of Australia; and in Entrecasteaux 
Channel, between Tasmania and Bruni Island. 
Consult Voyage <T Entrecasteaux & la recherche 


de La Perouse (1808), and also Hulot's D'Entre- 
casteaux (Paris, 1894). 

ENTILE DOUBO E MINHO, aw'tre doA-ro 
a me'nyo ('between Douro and Minho'), or 
Minho. A province of Portugal, bounded by 
Spain, from which it is separated by the Minho 
on the north, the Portuguese Province of Traz- 
os-Montes on the east, the river Douro on the 
south, and the Atlantic on the west ( Map : Por- 
tugal, A 2). Area, 2808 square miles. The 
surface is broken and mountainous, with some 
snow-capped peaks in the eastern part. The 
numerous streams afford irrigation facilities, 
and the soil is well cultivated. For adminis- 
trative purposes the province is divided into 
the three districts of Vianna do Castello, Braga, 
and Porto (Oporto). It is the most densely 
populated province of Portugal. Pop., 1890, 
1,091,936; 1900, 1,170,361; 1911, 1,289,066. 

name preferred by the Portuguese for Entbe 
Doubo e Minho (q.v.), or Minho. 

ENTBEMONT, Comte d\ See L'Hopital. 

ENTBE BIOS, fin'tra re*6s ('between rivers'). 
A province of Argentina, bounded by the Prov- 
ince of Corrientes on the north, Uruguay River 
on the east, and the Parana on the south and 
west (Map: America, S., H 4). Area, 28,792 
square miles. The country is generally flat, well 
wooded, and well watered. Cattle raising and 
agriculture are the principal occupations of the 
inhabitants. The province is amply provided 
with transportation facilities through its rail- 
ways and navigable waterways. The chief ex- 
ports are animal products. Pop., 1892, 367,000; 
1912 (official estimate), 429,348. Capital, 
Paran a. 

ENTBESOL, Fr. pron. aw'tr'-sol' (Fr. entre, 
between -f- eol, ground). A low story be- 
tween two main stories of a building (gener- 
ally between the ground floor and the main 
story), or inserted in the upper portion of a 
high story, when certain rooms are of greater 
height than the others upon the same floor. It 
is sometimes called the mezzanine floor. See 

ENTBOCHITE. See Beads, St. Cuthbebt's. 

from Gk. irrpoirla, entropia, ivrpoir/i, entrop€ t 
introversion, from 4w f en, in -+- rph-civ, trepein, 
to turn). Inversion of the margin of the eyelid, 
consequent either on loss of substance ("cica- 
tricial entropion") or on spasmodic contraction 
of the orbicularis palpebrarum muscle which 
closes the eyelids (''spasmodic entropion"). 
The latter form occurs chiefly in old persons, 
in whom the skin of the eyelid is relaxed and 
the eyeball sunken. The symptoms are due to 
the irritation of the cornea by the eyelashes, 
which are inverted and rub against- it. (See 
Trichiasis.) Removal of the lashes may re- 
lieve temporarily, but unless the cause can be 
removed o pera tion is necessary. 

ENTBOFY. See Energetics; Thebmody- 


ENTBY. The entrance into a mine. The 
term usually refers to a level or sloping en- 
trance into a coal mine and is rarely used in 
connection with metal mines. 

ENTBY, Right of. In the common law, the 
right to consummate an inchoate or incomplete 
title to land by taking possession thereof. This 
right is in legal theory coextensive with the 
right of possession, but it carries with it the 
implication that such possession is wrongfully 

Digitized by 



withheld or, at least, that it has not been trans- 
ferred to and assumed by the person entitled. 

The right arises under three sets of circum- 
stances: (a) Where an estate has passed by 
descent, or a lease for years has been made to 
a person not in possession. In such case the 
common law requires the heir or the lessee to 
enter upon the land in order to invest himself 
completely with the estate to which he has thus 
become entitled. (6) When lands are unlaw- 
fully withheld under a claim of freehold, from 
a person entitled thereto, as by a disseisin or 
adverse possession. The rightful owner may at 
common law, by an actual reentry upon the 
lands, restore his title and thus prevent the 
adverse possession from ripening into a complete 
title. (<?) Where lands have been conveyed 
upon a condition and the condition has been 
broken. Here the estate remains unaffected 
until the grantor or his heir exercises his right 
of entry, whereupon the estate of the grantee 
is ipso facto determined and the grantor "is 
in of his old estate." 

The peculiar nature of the right of entry as a 
legal right appears from this enumeration of 
cases to which it is applicable. Though having 
to do with real estate, it is not itself an estate 
or interest in lands, nor, indeed, any species of 
property whatsoever, either corporeal or incor- 
poreal; and though it will usually descend to 
the heir of the person entitled to it, it is in 
most cases incapable of assignment or transfer 
either by deed or will. On the other hand, it is 
not a mere right of action, which could not, by 
any magic, be transmuted, like the right of 
entry, into a substantial estate. 

Originally a right of entry might be exercised 
by force, if necessary, but by an early English 
statute (5 Rich. II, st. 1, c 8) it was provided 
that this remedy must be pursued "in a peace- 
able and easy .manner, and not with force, or 
strong hand"; and since that date an entry, if 
opposed, can be made only by legal process. 
(See Forcible Entry.) The usual method pro- 
vided is a summary proceeding instituted by 
writ of entry, under which, if it be defended, 
the right to the possession of the property in 
dispute can be tried and legally determined. In 
some of the United States this procedure must 
be followed in every case, even where the entry 
of the claimant is not disputed, but in others 
the common-law remedy is still available where 
the entry can be made without force. A right 
of entry is extinguished by an open and notori- 
ous possession of the premises for the period 
prescribed by the Statute of Limitations, which 
in the United States is usually 20 years. See 
Adverse Possession; Condition; Descent 
Cast; Disseisin; Limitation. 

ENTRY, Writ op. An ancient form of ac- 
tion at common law for the recovery of the pos- 
session of land wrongfully withheld from the 
claimant. It belonged to the class of possessory, 
as distinguished from droitural, remedies, in the 
latter of which the right (droit) or title to the 
land was tried, and in the former the mere right 
of possession. But the feudal origin and char- 
acter of our land law made title or ownership of 
real property depend in most instances on the 
possession of the land, and accordingly the 
possessory remedies came gradually to super- 
sede those which were based upon a direct and 
exclusive assertion of ownership. There were 
many of these possessory remedies appropri- 
ate to various circumstances (of which the 


assize of novel disseisin and the assize of mort 
d? ancestor were in most general use) ; but the 
one which was available m all cases of wrong- 
ful ouster or dispossession, whether otherwise 
provided for or not, was the writ of entry. 
The efficacy of this proceeding was due to the 
fact that it gave effect to the right of entry, 
by the exercise of which one who was entitled 
to a freehold estate was enabled by the mere 
act of taking possession to reinvest himself 
with his rights therein. (See Entry, Right 
of.) In the course of time the proceeding by 
writ of entry became as intricate and compli- 
cated as the earlier remedies which it had dis- 
placed, and it was gradually abandoned in favor 
of the more summary action of ejectment. ( See 
Ejectment.) After having long fallen into dis- 
use, the writ of entry was, alone with the other 
ancient possessory remedies, abolished by Act of 
Parliament, in 3 and 4 Will. IV, c. 27, § 36. 
It survives in several of the United States, 
however, in a simplified form, and usually for 
special purposes only — as, in some of the New 
England States, as a means of enforcing a 
mortgage. See Assize; Foreclosure; Seisin. 
Consult the authorities referred to under Real 
Prop erty. 

ENTWISLE, Joseph (1767-1841). An Eng- 
lish Wesleyan Methodist clergyman, born in 
Manchester. In 1787, at the call of John 
Wesley, he entered the ministry; in 1812 he 
was elected president of the conference, and 
from 1834 to 1838 he served as governor of 
the Wesleyan Theological Institution. He wrote 
Memoirs of Rev. J. Patcson (1809) and An 
Essay on Secret Prayer as the Duty and Privi- 
lege of Christians (11th ed., 1861). Consult the 
Memo ir by his son ( Bristol, 1848 ; 4 later eds. ) . 

ENTWISTLE, ent'wls'l, James (1837-1910). 
An American naval officer, born at Pater son, 
N. J. He entered the engineer service of the navy 
in 1861, was in the Western Gulf squadron in 
the Civil War, was commissioned lieutenant 
commander in 1873, was promoted to be com- 
mander in 1888, served as inspector in different 
dockyards for construction of warships, joined 
the Asiatic squadron in 1895, and distinguished 
himself in the battle of Manila Bay, May 1, 
1898. In 1899 he became captain and rear ad- 
miral and was retired. 

ENURESIS. See Urine, Incontinence of. 

ENTTELOPE (OF. envoluper, enveloper, en- 
velopper, Ft. envelopper, to enwrap). A paper 
covering extensively employed for inclosing let- 
ters, circulars, pamphlets, and other mail mat- 
ter, and for an endless variety of other purposes. 
Envelopes began to be used in England and the 
United States in the decade from 1840 to 1850. 
In both countries their use for letter mail fol- 
lowed the introduction of cheap postage. At 
first the blank forms from which envelopes are 
made were cut by hand to a pattern and also 
gummed and folded by hand. The first practi- 
cable machine for making envelopes was pat- 
ented in England in 1844 by Warren De la Rue 
and Edwin Hill. In America the first patent 
was granted in 1849 to J. K. Park and C. S. 
Watson. The De la Rue machine was in many 
respects similar to the machines now in use, as 
described below; but instead of gumming and 
lifting the blank in practically one operation the 
blank was lifted by India-rubber fingers, then 
gummed by a separate arm. 

Envelopes are now made entirely by machin- 
ery, and their manufacture is a comparatively 

Digitized by 



simple process, involving one continuous oper- 
ation. They are cut out directly from a ream 
of paper, 600 at a time, or in larger numbers if 
the paper is thin. This is accomplished by a 
steam-driven die. (See Dibs and Die Sinking.) 
The blanks, thus cut, are automatically fed into 
the machine, where they are gummed, one by 
one, by the gum picker, which is fed with gum 
by means of rollers and applied to the margin 
of each blank. The blank is next carried on 
vo the folding box, where folders press down the 
four flaps, but do not fasten down the upper 
one. The envelope is now carried on by an end- 
less chain, and during its transit the loose 
flapper is. dried. The finished envelopes are 
deposited in bunches of 25 by the endless chain, 
and, after being banded with a narrow strip of 
paper, are ready for shipment. By this process 
from 5000 to 6000 envelopes per hour can be 
made by a single machine. 

During the closing years of the nineteenth 
century there was a remarkable development of 
labor-saving devices for office use. Among these 
inventions are various improvements on the or- 
dinary gummed envelope. In the so-called "win- 
dow envelope" the paper is either made trans- 
parent by wax or oil so as to render visible 
the address on the letter inclosed or an open- 
ing of appropriate size is covered by transparent 
paper with the same end in view. The position 
of the address on the letter as well as the size 
of the sheet and the manner of folding are so 
regulated as to bring it behind the opening, 
thus obviating the necessity for addressing the 
envelope, a time-consuming occupation. In an- 
other form of envelope a wire or thread is so 
attached to the inner edge of the envelope that 
by pulling it at either end the envelope is 
neatly torn open without the use of a knife. 
Then there are various devices for fastening 
together envelopes which are intended for in- 
closing second-class or unsealed mail or simply 
for filing purposes. Among these patented de- 
vices are numerous clasp fasteners, like those 
in which a thin, narrow strip of flexible metal 
is attached to the body of the envelope and, for 
fastening, passes through an eyelet in the flap 
and is bent over; or those in which a cord 
attached to one eyelet is wound around a 
second eyelet; or others where a paper tongue 
passes through a slit in a flap. An envelope 
for mailing third-class matter, like circular let- 
ters, so as to have the appearance of first-class 
mail, is made by leaving ungummed a portion of 
the flaps, so the contents may be inspected. Ex- 
pansive envelopes for filing purposes are made 
with fluted ends that fold over each other, so 
the envelope occupies but little space until it 
becomes well filled. At the end of 1909 there 
were 78 envelope manufacturing establishments, 
employing 5303 operatives. The value of their 
output was $13,453,522. 

E NVE LOPES. See Curve. 

ENVEB PASHA. Turkish War Minister. 
For biography see Supplement. 

ENVOI, aN'vwa', or ENVOY, en'voi. The 
concluding stanza of a ballade or of other con- 
ventional verse forms. See Ballade. 

ENVOY (OF. envoy, Fr. envoi, message, 
from envoyer, It. inviare, to send, from Lat. in, 
in + via, way; connected with Lat. vehere, to 
carry, Gk. Ix«**» eehein, to have, Skt. vah, Av. 
vaz, to carry, Goth, trigs, OHG. wee, Ger. Weg, 
AS. weg, Eng. way). In international law, « 
diplomatic agent of the second order, next in 


rank to an ambassador. An envoy stands to his 
sovereign just as an agent does to his principal, 
and his acts or promises are the sovereign's in 
a business sense, though not in a personal sense. 
It is said that this class of diplomatists was 
first introduced by Louis XI of France in the 
second half of the fifteenth century. The envoy 
is superior in rank to the charge d'affaires, 
whose credentials proceed from a minister of the 
state from which he is sent and are addressed 
to the minister of the state to which he is sent, 
or are a mere delegation from an ambassador 
or envov to conduct the affairs of the mission 
in his absence. The practice of the United States 
has interjected between the ambassador and the 
envoy a second class, called envoys extraordi- 
nary and ministers plenipotentiary, which, of 
course, throws the ordinary envoy into the third 
class. See Ambassador; Charge d'affaires; 
Consul; Diplomatic Agent; Embassy; Min- 

ENZINA, en-the'na, Juan del. See Encina. 

ENZINAS, en-the'nas, Francisco de, also 
called Dryander (1520-53). Author of a Span- 
ish translation of the New Testament. He was 
born at Burgos, studied in Louvain (1539-41), 
and then in Wittenberg, where he lodged in 
Melanchthon's house. Here he translated the 
New Testament from the Greek and presented a 
copy (printed at Antwerp, 1543) to Charles V. 
He was imprisoned in Brussels for his heretical 
views. After a little more than a year he 
escaped and returned to Wittenberg. Next to 
the translation of the New Testament, his most 
important work is a History of the State of the 
Netherlands and of the Religion of Spain, pub- 
lished first in Latin, and then reprinted: in 
French by Francois Duchesne (Geneva, 1558), 
and again republished by Campan under the 
title M6moires de Francesco de Enzinas {Dry- 
ander) (3 vols., Brussels, 1862-63). Consult 
title Menendez y Pelayo, Historia de los Hetero- 
doxos espafwles. In 1548 he was made professor 
of Greek at Cambridge by Cranmer. Accounts 
of his death vary, some claiming that he died of 
the pest at Strassburg in 1553, and others claim- 
ing that we lose track of him at Geneva in 1570. 
His brother, Jaime, was burned as a heretic in 
Home in 1546. 

EN'ZIO (c.1225-72). A king of Sardinia, a 
natural son of the German Emperor Frederick 
II. He fought by his father's side against the 
Lombards at the battle of Cortenuova, in 1237, 
and in the following year was married to Ade- 
lasia, widow of Ubaldo Visconti, and given the 
title of King of Torres and Gallura and later , 
that of King of Sardinia. In 1241, the command 
of the fleet having been intrusted to Enzio, he 
gained a splendid victory over the Genoese and 
captured 100 prelates on their way to a council 
at Rome. Enzio was afterward sent into Lom- 
bardy, which was for several years the scene 
of his chief exploits. In 1248 he besieged Parma, 
but was forced to retire. He then besieged Co- 
lonna, and in 1249 took the castle of Arola, but 
on May 26 of the same year he was taken 
prisoner at Fossalta by the troops of Bologna 
and consigned to perpetual imprisonment. His 
capture was a great blow to the cause of the 
Hohenstaufen. Enzio died March 14, 1272. 
His great talents as a warrior and poet, his sad 
lot, his beauty, and the fate of his family 
have received much sympathetic treatment in 
history and literature. Consult Blasius, Kdnig 
Enzio (Breslau, 1884), and Jordan, Les origines 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


de la domination angevine en Italie (Paris, 

ENZOOTIC, en-zd-dtlk (Gk. ir, en, in + ft**, 
z6on, animal). A disease which seems to be 
permanently established among the animals- of a 
certain locality. The term corresponds to "en- 
demic disease" in mankind. 

EN'ZYME (MGk. I^fuptof, enzymos, leavened, 
from Gk. iv, en, in + ftf/wj, zym€, leaven). A 
name applied to any one of a certain group of 
therm olabile catalytic agents that occur in 
plants and in animals, and have the power of 
hastening the transformation of various com- 
pounds when brought into contact with them. 
They were formerly called unorganized ferments, 
to distinguish them from yeasts and bacteria 
(organized ferments), which produce similar 
changes. The distinction has no value; for it 
has been shown that the action of the so- 
called* organized ferments is often due to en- 
zymes produced by them. Little is known of 
the chemistry of the enzymes; indeed, there is 
no available test of their presence except their 
action, and no way of establishing their purity. 
When prepared by any of the usual methods, 
they are certainly mixed with other substances. 
Some investigators maintain their protein na- 
ture, others hold that they are nonprotein, while 
still others would even place them among the 

Enzymes are produced in all kinds of plants. 
They may generally be obtained by crushing or 
grinding the plant tissue, extracting it for 24 
hours with several volumes of an appropriate 
solvent (water, salt solution, glycerin, weak 
alcohol, etc.), filtering and precipitating by the 
addition of an excess of alcohol or of a neutral 
salt. The substances thus obtained may be some- 
what purified by washing, redissolving, and sub- 
jecting to a process of dialysis. The plant cell 
has been spoken of as an arsenal of enzymes. 
Six have been identified in the cells of ripe 
banana, 11 in Penicellium camemberti, and 14 
in other molds. These probably represent only 
a fraction of the enzymes actually existing in 
these cells. 

The action of enzymes is probably a chemical 
one, the enzyme itself being so slowly decom- 
posed in the process (if it is affected at all) 
that it practically acts by its mere presence. 
The action differs according to the enzyme and 
the substance affected. Often it is one of 
hydrolysis; i.e., the substance acted upon takes 
up the elements of water and is at the same 
•time split up chemically. One class of enzymes, 
however, causes oxidation, and two enzymes are 
known which split up compounds without intro- 
ducing other atoms into their molecules. The 
following are examples of these changes: 

1. An hydrolysis effected by the enzyme in- 

GiHjAi + ao = c^iO, + aHuO, 

Cane Sugar Water Glucose Fructoee 

2. An oxidation effected by the enzyme 

2CeH4(OH), + Oi - 2H# + 2OH40* 

Hydroquinone Water Quinone 

3. A decomposition effected by the enzyme 
myrosin : 

CioHwNKSjO = CHsCNS + C«H u O. + KHS0 4 

Sinigrin Allyl sulpho- Gluoose Acid 

oyanate potassium 



Various other types of reactions are produced 
by enzymes. Catalase, of universal distribution 
in living cells, splits hydrogen peroxide into 
water and oxygen. Mutase, probably of general 
distribution in plants and animals, transforms 
two molecules of an aldehyde into a molecule 
each of the corresponding alcohol and acid. 

The rate of activity of enzymes is greatly 
modified by temperature, which shows two main 
effects. First, the rate is increased as the 
temperature rises, and this in a very regular 
way, 1.6 to 2.2 fold per 10° C. rise of temper- 
ature, beginning at 0° C. or a little above. The 
second effect is the destruction or the coagula- 
tion of the enzyme, and it becomes evident at 
40° C. or above, and rises rapidly as the temper- 
ature rises, giving almost instantaneous de- 
struction at 70° C.-8O C. for the various en- 
zymes. As a result of the two effects, there 
appears what has been called the optimum tem- 
perature for enzymic action. It is not a fixed 
point, but varies with the duration of the ex- 
periment, being lower the longer the duration, 
for in longer duration the destruction effect 
is more manifest. Colloidal metals, or hydro- 
sols of metals, as catalyzers, show a similar 
optimum, so this is not a distinct feature of 
enzymes. Enzymes are indifferent to the action 
of diffuse daylight, but are very readily de- 
stroyed by direct sunlight. It has been shown 
that the invisible ultra-violet rays cause more 
than 99 per cent of this destruction. 

Many substances are marked depressors of 
enzyme activity or actual destroyers of the en- 
zymes. Among these may be mentioned mer- 
curic chloride, hydrogen sulphide, hydrocyanic 
acid, formaldehyde, phenol, and excesses of acids 
or bases. Some of these have a very similar 
effect on the catalytic action of colloidal metals. 
Most reagents are far less destructive to en- 
zymes than they are to the living cell. This 
is especially true of chloroform, toluol, thymol, 
and others; consequently, by the addition of one 
of these, the growth of organisms in a digest- 
ing mixture can be prevented without seriously 
interfering with the action of the enzyme. For- 
maldehyde is said to be about equally destruc- 
tive to protoplasm and to enzymes. Both the 
plant and animal body produce thermolabile 
substances that are capable of stopping or 
greatly reducing the activity of enzymes. These 
have been termed antienzymes. Many sub- 
stances greatly accelerate the activity of en- 
zymes or are even necessary to permit any ac- 
tivity. This is true of traces of acids for most 
plant enzymes, sodium fluorid for cystase, va- 
rious salts for diastase, manganese salts for 
oxydases, and coenzyme for zymase. It is prob- 
ably hard to overestimate the physiological sig- 
nificance of these accelerators and depressors of 
enzyme activity for the organism. It is prob- 
able that these in large part determine the 
rate at which the processes occur in the organ- 
ism. They bring out of the arsenal of enzymes 
in the cells regulating activity that leads to 
the normal development of the organism. 

The marked similarity between enzymes and 
colloidal metals as catalysts is well known. 
This is a result of the colloidal nature of water 
solutions of enzymes, a fact that has been estab- 
lished by evidence from many directions. 

The origin of those enzymes which have been 
investigated seems to be indirect, substances 
called zymogens being produced by the active 
cells. TTie zymogens appear as minute granules 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


in the protoplasm which is about to form en- 
zymes, and under appropriate conditions are 
transformed into enzymes, disappearing as the 
enzymes increase. 

A few of the better-known enzymes, their dis- 
tribution, the substances they attack, and the 
chief products of their action are shown by the 
following table: 


was raised partly into land and partly into shal- 
low waters. This elevation took place slowly 
and occupied a long interval of time, so that 
when the Eocene • period opened the fauna and 
flora had assumed a decidedly modern aspect 
Among invertebrates the ammonites, which were 
characteristic of the Mesozoic era, declined in 
importances, while bivalves, such as the oyster, 

Diastase i.... 








R&ffinaae. . . . 

Meliaitaae . . . 




fihamnnno . . 

Gaultheraae. . 


Broraelin. . . . 

Trypsin*. . .. 



Pectinate. ... 


Alooholase . . . 
Lactolaae . . . 




All plants 

Composite), eta 

Many plants 

Many plants 

Many plants 



Several fungi 

Molds, yeasts 


Rosacea), Euphorbiaoecs, Fungi 


Madder plant 

Rhamnus infeetorius 

Wintergreen, etc 

Carioa papaya 


Germinating seeds > 

Carnivorous plants ) 

Oily seeds 

Various plants 

Acid fruits and various leaves. . 

Lac plants, etc 

Russula, beet, dahlia 

Acetic acid organism 

Lactic " " 



Substances attacked 







Lactose. . .. 
Trehalose. . 



Various gluoosides. 









Casein (?) 

Pectin, etc . . . 



Ethyl alcohol. 




Product of the action 

J Dextrin. 
Sugars (?) 

( Glucose, 
jr Fructose. 

| Alcohol, 

j Carbon dioxide, 

j Gluoose, 

\ Galactose. 

S Glucose, 
5 Glucose, 
I Glucose, 
1 Various subs. 
Glucose (see above). 

' Red pigment. 




Wintergreen oil. 


Peptones, etc 


Peptones, Amides. 

Peptones, Amino- 

i Glycerin. 
\ Fatty acids. 
Coagulates milk. 

{Peotic acid. 
Forms jelly. 
Oxidises it. 
Oxidises it. 
Acetic acid. 
Lactic acid. 
Alcohol and acid. 

* The total effect is probably due to the action of two ensymes. Diastase consists of amylase, which hydrolizes starch to 
dextrin, and dextrinase, which hydrolises dextrin to maltose. Zymase consists of symose, which transforms the sugar to 
lactic acid, and lactisidase, which transforms laotio acid to alcohol. Trypsin consists of protease, giving peptones, and erep- 
tase, producing amino acids. 

The enzymes whose names are italicized in the 
above table are described in special articles in 
this encyclopaedia. 

Ancient Type s. 

E'OBA / NTJS, Helius, also called Hessus 
(1488-1540). A German humanist. His name 
properly was Eoban Koch. He was born in 
Hesse, probably at Halgehausen. He led the 
wandering life of so many scholars of that 
period, teaching, lecturing, and writing in dif- 
ferent places. He identified himself with the 
Reformation and showed his humanistic sym- 
pathies by participating in the famous Epistola 
Ob8curorum Virorum, and his scholarship and 
poetical ability in his translations of Ecclesi- 
astes (1532) and the Psalms (Marburg, 1537), 
whence his epithet "the Hessian David." For 
his life, consult Krause (Gotha, 1879). 

E'OCENE EPOCH (from Gk. 4&, £&?, dawn 
-f- kclip6s, kaino8, new). A division of geologic 
time following the Cretaceous period and mark- 
ing the beginning of the Cenozoic era. At the 
end of the Cretaceous period great geographical 
changes occurred in both Europe and North 
America, by which the floor of the inland seas 

clam, and scallop, common at the present day 
were very numerous. Ganoid fishes became sub* 
ordinate to the teleosts, which included perch, 
herring, and sharks, and mammals predominated 
over reptiles. In rocks of this period have been 
found the remains of Hyracotherium, the earli- 
est-known ancestor of the horse. The vegetation 
included dicotyls, palms, and grasses belonging 
to genera living at the present time. Eocene 
rocks in the United States are found along a 
belt that extends parallel to the Atlantic coast 
from New Jersey to Florida, where they over- 
lie the Cretaceous unconformably and dip slightly 
towards the sea, disappearing beneath younger 
beds. They also occur in the Mississippi valley, 
in the Gulf States, and in California, Oregon, 
and Washington. There are numerous basins 
also in the Rocky Mountain region of Utah, 
Wyoming, Colorado, North Dakota, and New 
Mexico, which, unlike the preceding, were de- 
posited in fresh water. The most important 
of these basins are the Puerco, Wasatch, Green 
River, and Uinta. In the Uinta basin the de- 
posits are 6000 to 8000 feet thick. The follow- 
ing division of the Eocene is recognized by 
American geologists: Atlantic and Gulf States: 

Digitized by 



(a) Midway, (b) Lignitic, (c) Lower Claiborne, 
(d) Claiborne, (e) Jackson, (/) Vicksburg; 
Western States: (a) Fort Union, (5) Wasatch, 
(c) Wind River, (d) Bridger, (e) Uinta. The 
rocks of the Eocene include clays, sands, lime- 
stones, and sandstones, while among the eco- 
nomic minerals are marls in the Atlantic States, 
phosphate rock in Florida, petroleum in Cali- 
fornia, and brown coal in Washington. Consult 
"Correlative Papers — Eocene," United States 
Geological Survey Bulletin, No. 88 (Washing- 
ton, 1891 ) ; Report on "Eocene," Maryland 
Geological Survey Publications (Baltimore, 
1901 ) ; Chamberlin and Salisbury, Geology, vol. 
iii (New York, 1907). See Tebtiabt System; 
E'OHIP'PTrS. See Hyracothebium ; and 


EOLIAN HARP. See jEolian Habp. 

EOLIAN BOCKS. See JSolian Accumula- 

EOLIANS. See JSolians. 

EOLTPILE. See ^Eolipile. 

EOLITHIC. See Paleolithio Period. 

EON. See Mox. 

£ON, a'6N', Charles de Beaumont d' ( 1728- 
1810). A French diplomatist, commonly known 
as the Chevalier d'Eon, who owes his celebrity 
to doubts as to his sex. He was born at Ton- 
nerre, Burgundy, and practiced as an advocate 
in Paris. He published in 1753 some important 
works on history and political economy which 
attracted the attention of Louis XV, who sent 
him in 1755 on a diplomatic mission to Russia, 
where he assumed the dress of a woman, gained 
the favor of the Empress Elizabeth, and negoti- 
ated an advantageous treaty. After serving 
with the French army in Germany in 1759, he 
was made Minister Plenipotentiary to London 
(1763), and stood so high in favor with the 
King as to incur the jealousy of Madame de 
Pompadour, who brought about his dismissal. 
He was granted a large pension by the King in 
return for keeping diplomatic secrets and took 
up literary work. On his return to France 
(1777) the government, for reasons which have 
never been made known, required him to assume 
the female dress, which he wore for the remainder 
of his life. This fact gave rise to doubts as to 
his sex, which were not settled until his death. 
On the outbreak of the French Revolution he 
offered his services to the French nation, but 
they were declined, and he passed the rest of his 
days in poverty in England. The Chevalier 
d'Eon was the author of many historical and po- 
litical essays which were published under the 
title of Loisirs du Chevalier d'Eon (Amsterdam, 
1775). The Memoires attributed to him and 
edited by Gaillardet (Paris, 1836) are not gen- 
uine. Consult: Telfer, The Strange Career of the 
Chevalier d'Eon de Beaumont (London, 1885) ; 
Hoff, MerkwilrdAges Leben dee ehemaligen Ritters 
von Eon (Leipzig, 1870) ; Madame Cam pan, 
Memoires; Bachaumont, MSmoires; La Fortelle, 
Vie militaire, politique et priv^e de demoiselle 
C.G.L.A.A.T. Eon ou d'Eon (Paris, 1779). 

DE L'iTOILE, AW de la'twftl'. A religious 
fanatic of noble birth, who lived in Brittany in 
the twelfth century and claimed to be the final 
judge of mankind. He is said to have applied 
to himself the pronoun eum, in the familiar 
liturgical formula, per eum qui venturus est 
iudicmre vivos et mortuos, 'through Him who 

| EflTVttS 

will come to judge the quick and the dead/ 
whence his name, Eon. He opposed the hierarchy 
of the church, although he did not hesitate to 
construct a new one of his own, ordaining his 
followers as bishops and archbishops. His en- 
thusiastic adherents went forth to plunder and 
destroy churches and monasteries. In Eon him- 
self miraculous powers were believed to reside. 
He was publicly opposed at Nantes by the Cardi- 
nal Legate, Alberic, and Hugo, Archbishop of 
Rouen, wrote a book against him, Dogmatum 
Christiana Fidei. In 1148 he was seized, along 
with some of his leading adherents, and brought 
before a synod at Rheims for trial. He was 
adjudged insane and thus escaped execution, 
but he was imprisoned for the rest of his life, 
and some of his followers were burned at the 
stake. His sect soon died out. There is little 
ground for the commonly accepted opinion that 
Eon belonged to the Cathari. Consult H. C. Lea, 
History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, 
vol. i (New York, 1888), and Dollinger, Beitrdge 
zur Sektengeschiehte des Mittelalters, vol. i 
(Munich, 1890). 

EOS. See Auboba. 

EOSCOBPITJS, e'd-skoVpl-us (Neo-Lat., from 
Gk. •ijtas, €68, dawn + aKopirlos, skorpios, scor- 
pion). A fossil scorpion which is characterized 
by a slender form, parallel sides of the carapace, 
and slender hand and pincers. Four separate 
species have been found in the Carboniferous fos- 
sil locality at Mazon Creek, 111., celebrated for 
its nodules with plant and animal remains. See 

EOSIN. See Coal-Tab Colors. 

EOS'TRA. The Teutonic goddess of Spring, 
the name of whose festival, it is supposed, has 
been transferred to the Christian Easter (q.v.). 

EOTVOS, et'vesh, J6zsef, Baron (1813-71). 
A distinguished Hungarian statesman and author, 
who has left a lasting imprint upon both the 
literary and political life of his country. He 
was born at Buda, studied philosophy and 
jurisprudence at the University of that city, 
and when barely 20 entered upon an official 
career as vice notary at Pressburg, but soon 
abandoned it in favor of literary pursuits. He 
had already attracted some attention through 
a translation of Goethe's Gotz von Berlichingen 
(1830), two comedies, Kritikusok (The Critics) 
and Hdzasuldk (The Matrimonially Inclined), 
and a tragedy, Boszu (Revenge). After an ex- 
tended tour through Germany, France, England, 
Switzerland, and the Netherlands, he returned to 
his father's estate and there devoted himself to 
writing his famous novel Karthausi (The Car- 
thusian), which was at once hailed with delight 
by the public and critics alike (1842). About ' 
this time E5tv5s began to be prominent in poli- 
tics. When the Liberal party became divided, 
in 1844, into Municipalises and Centralists, he 
became, as member of the House of Magnates, 
one of the most earnest supporters of the latter 
party, and a frequent contributor to Kossuth's 
organ, the Pesti Hirlap, his stirring articles be- 
ing later collected in a volume under the title 
Reform (Leipzig, 1846). Quite in line with 
his active interesting public reforms is the 
theme of his second romance, A Falu Jegyzoje 
(The Village Notary), in which he painted the 
abuses growing out of the old system of public 
administration in Hungary, based upon county 
elections, and which enjoyed no less vogue than 
his earlier novel. It has been translated into 
German by Mailath, and into English by Otto 

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Wenckstern (1850). It was followed, in 1847- easy to calculate the dates of all the following 

48, by his Magyarorszdg 1514-ben (Hungary in lunar phases throughout the year. 

1514), an historical romance. To calculate the epact for any year, it is first 

Upon the formation of the national Hun- necessary to know the "golden number" (q.v.). 
garian ministry, after the revolution of March This is found by the following rule: Add 
15, 1848, EfltvOs was appointed Minister of. the date of the year, and divide by 19; the re- 
Public Instruction, but after the stormy scenes mainder is the golden number ; when the remain- 
of the following September resigned his office der is 0, the golden number is 19. Knowing 
and retired to Munich, where he lived for three the golden number, the epact can then be taken 
years, and where his literary labors bore im- from the following table. For instance, when 
portant fruit in the form of a philosophical the golden number is 13, the epact is 12 for 
work, in German and Hungarian, upon The In- years from 1700 to 1899, and 11 for the years 
fluence of the Ideas of the Nineteenth Century between 1900 and 2199: 
upon State and Society ( 1851-64) . He returned 
to Hungary in 1851, was made vice president 
of the Hungarian Academy in 1855 and presi- 
dent in 1866. In 1861 he reentered political life, 
founded in 1865 the Political Weekly (Politikai 
Hetilap), and in 1867 became once more Minis- 
ter of Public Instruction, an office which he 
filled until his death and which gave him the 
opportunity of introducing salutary reforms. 
His works were published in 1870 in 14 vols, 
and a new edition was undertaken in 1891. Con- 
sult: Schwicker, Qeschichte der ungarischen 
Litteratur (Leipzig, 1889) ; Kont, Qeschichte der 
ungarischen Litteratur ( ib., 1906 ) ; in Hun- 
garian, the life by Z. Ferencsi (1903). 

BttTVOS, Roland, Babon (1848- ). An EPAMINON'DAS (Lat., from Gk. 'Eira/wt- 

Hungarian scientist and statesman, born at v&vtat, or 'EirafAivtapdas) (c.4 18-362 B.C.). A 

Budapest. He obtained his scientific training Greek statesman and general. He was born at 

at the universities of Ktfnigsberg and Heidelberg Thebes, of an influential though not wealthy 

and was appointed a lecturer at Budapest in family. He spent his early life in study as a 

1871 and in 1873 professor of experimental pupil of the Pythagorean philosopher Lysis of 

physics there. In 1873 he became connected Tarentum, who, exiled from home, lived with the 

with the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, of father of Epaminondas. When the Theban de- 

which he was elected president in 1889. His mocracy was established, he came forward as 

investigations respecting gravitation and capil- one of its strongest supporters. He was a 

lary attraction were described by him in various member of the deputation sent by Thebes to the 

learned journals and made him well known in congress of Grecian states held at Sparta in 

scientific circles. He also became a life .member 371 B.c. and spoke on that occasion in defense 

of the Hungarian House of Magnates and in of the Theban policy of maintaining a united 

1895-96 held the difficult post of Minister of Bceotia. War was, in consequence, straightway 

Public Worship and Education. declared by Sparta. Epaminondas was ap- 

E'OZCCN (Neo-Lat., from 4«fc, its, dawn + pointed commander in chief of the Theban army, 
fyo*, z6on, animal). A supposed fossil organ- which consisted of about 6000 men. The Spar- 
ism found in the crystalline metamorphic lime- tans, though they had a much larger force, were 
stones of the Archean Laurentian series of the defeated at Leuctra in the early part of July, 
lower St. Lawrence valley. EozoOn occurs. 371 b.o.; the victory was due mainly to Epami- 
mostly in the form of concentric layers of the nondas' skillful handling of the hoplites, or heavy 
mineral serpentine, constituting concretionary infantry. (See Phalanx.) The supremacy of 
masses in the limestone and approximating in Sparta was now at an end. In 370 B.C. Epami- 
structure some of the hydroid corals, such as nondas and Pelopidas invaded the Peloponnesus 
Stromatopora. It was originally described by and attacked Sparta, which successfully defended 
Sir J. W. Dawson, as a gigantic foraminiferan, itself under the lead of Agesilaus (q.v.). Epam- 
and several papers in support of his contentions inondas, however, restored Messenia to its for- 
regarding the object were published by him. mer position as an independent state (369 B.C.) ; 
Other similar objects were afterward found in under his auspices, too, Megalopolis was founded 
rocks of equivalent age in Bavaria. The re- as the centre of the Arcadian Confederacy. In 
searches of M5bius and others have tended to 368 B.C. Epaminondas made a second expedition 
disprove the organic nature of Eozoon, and it is into the Peloponnesus and in 366 a third. In 
now generally considered to be nothing more 362 he undertook a fourth expedition, having 
than a mineral concretion or segregation. this time a coalition of Sparta and a number of 

E'PACT (Gk. braKTds, epaktos, added, inter- states opposed to him. He fought a great battle 
calated, from br&yeiv, epagein, to add, from at Mantinea (q.v.), in which the Thebans were 
M 9 epi 9 upon + &yw, agein, to lead) . A num- successful, but Epaminondas himself fell. Epami- 
ber varying for each year, employed in the nondas was one of the purest and noblest char- 
ecclesiastical calendar for fixing the dates of the acters in Grecian history. His life was written 
ecclesiastical new moons. These dates differ by Cornelius Nepos. Consult: the life by Cor- 
sometimes as much as three days from those of nelius Nepos (q.v.) ; Du Mesnil, "Ueber den 
the actual or "astronomical" new moons. Werth der Politik des Epaminondas," in His- 

Briefly stated, the epact for any year may be torische Zeitschrift (Berlin, 1863) ; Pom tow, 

defined as the number of days elapsed at the Das Leben des * Epaminondas (Berlin, 1870); 

beginning of the year since the preceding new Pflhlman, Grundriss der griechischen Qeschichte 

moon. The epact once known, it is therefore (4th ed., Munich, 1914). 

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EP'ABCH (Gk. ivapx°h eparchos, governor, 
from 4*1, epi, upon, over -f &PX$* *rch€, rule, 
from dpx^p, archein, to rule ) . In ancient Greece, 
the governor of a province, the commander of 
ships or of troops, etc. In Roman times the 
word was used in Greek provinces of Rome as 
the equivalent of prcefectus. (See Prefect.) 
The district governed by the eparch was called 
an eparchy. In modern Greece the eparchy is 
one of the parts of a nomarchy and is itself 
divided into demarchies. (See Nomabchy.) In 
Russia the term has an ecclesiastical use and 
denotes the diocese or archdiocese of a bishop 
or archbishop of the Greek church. 

EPATJLEMENT, $-pftl'ment (Fr., from 
epaule, shoulder, from Lat. spatula, blade, 
shoulder). A part of siege or covering works 
in military fortification. Siege batteries are 
usually shielded by epaulements built so as to 
form an obtuse angle with the main line of the 
battery, protecting guns and gunners from flank 
fire. Practically an epaulement is any screen 
used for the protection of troops. See Fortifi- 
cation; Siege and Siege Works. 

EP'ATJLET (Ft. Epaulette, dim. of epaule, 
shoulder). An ornamental shoulder badge of 
rank, formerly in very general use through- 
out the armies and navies of the world — 
a survival of the metal shoulder piece of 
medieval days. Epaulets were worn by com- 
missioned officers in the United States army as 
late as 1872, when they were replaced, in all 
uniforms save those of general officers, by shoul- 
der knots. At the present time in the United 
States army epaulets are worn only by general 
officers in dismounted full-dress uniform. In 
the British army they were worn up to 1855 by 
all ranks, the officers' epaulets being of gold 
and those of the rank and file of worsted. 
Epaulets are worn generally in the navies of all 
nations by commissioned officers as a part of the 
full-dress uniform. They are usually of gold 
bullion and bear the significant marks of the 
officer's rank. See Uniforms, Military and 

£p£E, a'pa', Charles Michel, Abbe de l' 
(1712-89). One of the founders of the system 
of instruction for the deaf and dumb. He was 
born at Versailles, France, Nov. 25, 1712. He 
became a priest and canon at Troyes, but even- 
tually, on account of his Jansenist opinions, was 
deprived of this appointment and went to live in 
retirement in Paris. About 1765 he began to 
occupy himself with the education of two deaf 
and dumb sisters, using a system of signs. His 
first attempt being crowned with success, he de- 
termined to devote his life to the subject. At 
his own expense he founded (1770) an institu- 
tion for the deaf and dumb, but his favorite 
wish, the foundation of such an institution at 
the public cost, was not fulfilled till after his 
death, which took place Dec. 23, 1789. He wrote 
a work entitled Institution des sourds et muets 
(2 vols., Paris, 1774), which afterward appeared 
in an improved form, under the title La veri- 
table, maniere d'instruire lea sourds et muets 
(Paris, 1784). 

EPEIBIDiE, 6p-I'rf-d§ (Neo-Lat. nom. pi., 
from Gk. ivi, epi, upon -f- tlpot , eiros, wool ; so 
called from their web). A family of spiders, the 
so-called orb weavers, which includes many of 
our commonest and most frequent spiders. See 

jenlk. In geology the slow crustal uplifts or 



subsidences which involve large tracts of con- 
tinental lands. As they are necessarily meas- 
ured from sea level, they may mean an actual 
change in the oceanic basins rather than a move- 
ment of the land surface. They differ from 
mountain-making processes (orogenic move- 
ments) in that they are unaccompanied by fold- 
ing of the strata, the evident result of lateral 
compressive strains. See Elevation; Subsi- 

EPERIES, a-pa're-es, Hung. EPEBJES, 
j£per-yesh (ML. Eperesinum, Slav. Preshov). 
The capital and an episcopal city of the County 
of S&ros, in Hungary, situated on the left bank 
of the Tarcza, about 190 miles northeast of 
Budapest (Map: Hungary, G 2). In 1887 it 
was totally destroyed by fire except its ancient 
walls and fortifications, but it has been largely 
rebuilt. Among the chief public buildings are 
the Gothic church of St. Nicholas, the Francis- 
can abbey, the bishop's palace, military barracks, 
the county building, chapter house, town hall, 
and theatre. Eperies is the seat of a Greek 
Catholic bishop and of a Boyal Court of Jus- 
tice. Its educational institutions include a 
Lutheran college, a royal Catholic gymnasium, 
a girls' school, a seminary, and a library of over 
30,000 volumes. There are manufactures of 
earthenware, linen cloth, and flannel, and a con- 
siderable trade in grain, wine, and cattle. In 
the vicinity are the royal salt works of Sovfir, 
the bathing resort, Czemlte, which belongs to 
Eperies, and the opal mines of VBrSsvagas, 6 
miles from Eperies and the only opal mines 
in Europe. From these mines was obtained one 
piece weighing 2940 carats, valued at about 
$750,000, and now preserved in the court mu- 
seum at Vienna. Eperies was colonized by 
Germans in the thirteenth century and was made 
a royal free city in 1374. The inhabitants, who 
became Protestants in the sixteenth century, 
suffered! bitter persecution, especially in the 
year 1687, when the Imperialist general Caraffa 
instituted the famous Bloody Tribunal for the 
trial of recusants. Eperies was celebrated for 
its schools in the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies. Pop., 1900, 14,447; 1910, 16,323. 

£PEBNAY, a/par'na'. The capital of an 
arrondissement in the Department of Marne, 
France, situated in the midst of the champagne 
district, on both banks of the Marne, 88 miles 
by rail from Paris (Map: Northern France, J 
3). The chief part of the town on the left 
bank is well built, with many fine villas in the 
suburbs. It manufactures earthenware from a 
clay obtained near by and called terre de Cham- 
pagne; also hosiery, refined sugar, hats, caps, 
and leather. The Eastern Railway maintains 
large workshops here. It has a brisk trade in 
bottles, corks, and wire, and is the chief centre 
of the champagne trade. Large storage cellars 
have been hollowed out of the chalk rock. Pop. 
(commune), 1901, 20,478; 1911, 21,811. Eper- 
nay is the ancient Sparnacum and the Roman 
Aquae Perennes. Francis I burned it in 1544 to 
defeat the attempt of Charles V to obtain pos- 
session of its wine stores. In 1592, during the 
wars of the League, it was captured by Henry 
IV, Marshal Biron being killed during the 

£PEBNON, apar'nox', Jean Louis de No- 
qabet, duc D* (1554-1642). A French courtier, 
originally called Caumont and LaNalette. In 
1573 he identified himself with the fortunes of 
Henry III, whose most influential favorite he 

Digitized by VrrOOQlC 

Kir HAH 

became, and who bestowed upon him wealth and 
titles, including the newly created Duchy of 
Epernon (1581) and the admiralty of France. 
He was originally a defender of absolute mon- 
archy, hostile towards any concession to the 
estates, and the foe most dreaded by the Catho- 
lic League. In 1587 he was appointed Governor 
of Normandy, but in 1588 the league persuaded 
the King to send him into exile at Loches. 
Despite this he remained faithful to the crown. 
In 1596 he was made Governor of Limousin by 
Henry IV, and in 1622 was transferred to 
Guienne. Meanwhile his political attitude had 
diametrically changed, and he had become the 
boldest exponent of the independence of the pro- 
vincial noblesse. He opposed the concentration 
policy of Richelieu, by whom he was finally ban- 
ished to Loches in 1641. In 1610 he had helped 
give the regency to Marie dV Medici. Consult 
the biography by Montbrison (Paris, 1874). 

ETHAH (Heb. tphah, Copt, otpi, from Copt. 
&pi, to measure, dpi, to count). A dry measure 
of the ancient Hebrews. It contained 10 omers 
or three seahs — about four English pecks. 

EPHAB / MONY (from Gk. bcl, epi, upon + 
apftovla, harmonia, harmony, from apfUfur, har- 
mozein, to fit). The state of the adapted plant, 
as manifested in the plant form. See Ecology. 

EFHE'BTJS (Lat., from Gk. fto/9of, from M, 
epi, upon -f- ^/3ij, hebe, youth, puberty). Among 
the ancient Greeks, a youth of the upper classes 
who has just attained manhood, which was com- 
monly reckoned to commence at the sixteenth 
year. In Athenian constitutional law it de- 
noted one who had attained his majority, but 
was not yet a full citizen, i.e., one who had 
begun his eighteenth, but had not attained his 
twentieth year. These ephebi entered upon their 
civic manhood by taking an oath of allegiance 
and devotion to the fatherland in the temple of 
Aglauros and for the next two years were 
trained in military exercises and employed in 
garrison and patrol duty. When this custom 
was introduced is not certain, but in a rudi- 
mentary form it is likely to have existed from 
the time of the Persian wars. In the latter part 
of the fourth century b.c, probably soon after 
the battle of Cheronea (338 B.C.), the institu- 
tion was put on a firmer basis, which is de- 
scribed by Aristotle in his work on the Constitu- 
tion of Athens (chap. xlii). At the head was a 
cosmetee (*ro0/iirn}i), elected by the Assembly; 
the ephebi of each tribe were under the direct 
supervision of a sophronistes (<rw<pportar^s) , who 
was elected by the people from three men over 
40 years of age, nominated by the fathers of the 
boys. The first year of the ephebus' training 
was given to instruction in gymnastics, the drill 
and weapons of heavy and light-armed infantry, 
and the management of the artillery engines. 
At the end of the year they received a shield, 
spear, and military cloak (see Chlamys) from 
the state and were assigned to garrison duty in 
Attica and police duty at the Assembly (see 
Ecclesia). After the fourth century the insti- 
tution underwent many changes, which are re- 
flected in the numerous inscriptions in praise of 
the ephebi and their officers, which may be found 
in the Corpus Inscriptionum Attioarum (vols, ii 
and iii). More and more the military side of 
the training sank into the background, and the 
compulsory character disappeared, so that it 
finally became a state system of education for 
the sons of the wealthy. Foreigners, too, were 
admitted. The ephebi nad their own gymnasia, 
Vol. VIII.— 2 


with baths and apparently libraries attached, 
and there was also a special gymnasium, the 
Diogeneion, for boys under 16 who were pre- 
paring to enter on the ephebic course. Full de- 
tails of this interesting institution, which was 
imitated in other Greek states, can be found in 
Dumont, L'Ephtbie attique (Paris, 1875); Gi- 
rard, in Daremberg and Saglio, Dictionnaire des 
antiquity (Paris, 1802) ; Dittenberger, De 
Ephebis Atticis (Gtittingen, 1863) ; Grasberger, 
Erziehung und Unterricht im klassischen Alter- 
turn, vol. iii (Wttrzburg, 1881); Girard, U Edu- 
cation athGnienne au Ye et IVe siecle avant J. C. 
(2d ed., Paris, 1891); Gilbert, The Constitu- 
tional Antiquities of Sparta and Athens (Eng. 
trans., London, 1895) ; Bryant, "Boyhood and 
Youth in the Days of Aristophanes," in Harvard 
Studies, vol. xviii, pp. 73-88 (1907): Walden, 
The Universities of Ancient Greece (New York, 

EPH'EDRA. A genus of gymnosperms in- 
cluding about 30 species of low straggling 
shrubs, with long, jointed, and fluted green 
stems, and minute scalelike leaves forming a 
sheath at each joint. The whole habit of the 
plant is suggestive of a shrubby Equisetum. 
The species grow in the arid regions about the 
Mediterranean and also in tropical to temperate 
Asia, North America, and South America. The 
stamens and ovules are borne in cones that arise 
from the joints of the stem, some of the cones 
bearing only stamens and others only ovules. 
Each cone consists of broad, overlapping mem- 
branaceous bracts. In some species the fruit is 
decorative. Being somewhat susceptible to frost, 
the members of this genus are little grown 
except where they are not likely to suffer from 
cold. They succeed best upon dry, sandy, and 
rocky slopes, and are easily propagated by seed, 
suckers, or layers. For illustration, see Gym- 

EPHEIPEBA (Neo-Lat., from Gk. 4<f4fupa 9 
daily, from M, epi, upon -f- ^pa, htmera, day), 
or Febbis Diabia. See Fever. 

EPH'EMEBTDA (Neo-Lat., from Lat. ephe- 
meris, Gk. ifa/upls, journal, from i^i/upos, eph€- 
meros, daily). An order of insects, allied to the 
dragon flies and noted for their very brief exist- 
ence as adults; hence they are often called day 
flies. See May Fly. 

EPHEM / EBIS (Lat., from Gk. itf^/Atplt, jour- 
nal). A name applied to astronomical alma- 
nacs, containing data for each day. It is mostly 
confined to astronomical tables giving the daily 
places of the sun, moon, planets, and fixed stars, 
together with other phenomena of the heavens. 
The most important works of the kind at present 
are published under governmental supervision. 
They include the French Connaissance des 
Temps, the English Nautical Almanac, the Ber- 
lin Astronomisches Jahrbuch, and the American 
Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. See Almanac. 

EPH'ESI'ACA (Lat., from Gk. 'Efae****, 
Ephfisiaka, relating to Ephesus, from "E<pecos t 
Ephesos, Ephesus), or Efhesian Tales. A 
Greek romance by Xenophon of Ephesus, re- 
lating the love story of Abrocomas and Anthia. 
In this tale is found the earliest source of the 
story of Romeo and Juliet. 


EPHESIANS, e-fe'zhanz, Epistle to the. 
One of the Epistles of the Apostle Paul. It is 
addressed, according to the common text, to the 
Christians at Ephesus, once the principal city 
of western Asia Minor. The question of it 

>r. The question of its 

Digitized by VjOOQLC 


authorship, however, is debated, necessitating 
a careful study of the material which it presents. 
A aiming, as a working hypothesis for such 
study, the claim of Paulinity involved in the 
Epistle's address (i. 1), the following facts 
would seem to be clear: 1. A generality of tone 
involving a larger circle of readers than anv 
one individual church. 2. The apparent lack 
of personal acquaintance on the part of the 
Apostle with the readers of the Epistle, which 
strongly militates against the theory of the com- 
mon text that the Epistle was written to the 
church of Ephesus, a church founded by Paul 
and his friends (Acts xviii. 19 ff.) and built 
up by him on his third missionary journey, 
when he had his headquarters at Ephesus for 
over two years (52-55 A.D.; cf Acts xix). The 
additional fact that the Epistle contains no 
personal greetings or salutations also tells 
strongly against the theory that it was addressed 
to the church at Ephesus. 3. A striking resem- 
blance in word and phrase to Colossians, lead- 
ing to the inference of a contemporaneous date 
with that of this Epistle. 4. An evident impris- 
onment on the part of the Apostle (iii. 1), and 
an imprisonment which, in its freedom to preach 
and its opportunity for service (vi. 18-20), shows 
resemblance to the lenient conditions of his 
Roman imprisonment, narrated in Acts and re- 
ferred to in the Epistles to the Colossians, Phi- 
lippians, and Philemon. 5. The theme (the 
ideal unity of the Church in Jesus Christ su- 
preme) appears to be a most natural develop- 
ment of the theme of Colossians (the exaltation 
of Jesus Christ as supreme), and a not unlikely 
outcome of the dominant thought of the Epistle 
to the Romans (the community between the 
Jewish and Gentile elements in the Church). 
These facts agree quite significantly with the 
Epistle's claim and render the assertion of its 
inconsistency with itself difficult of proof. Con- 
firmation of these facts is further rendered by 
the strong witness borne to the Epistle as a 
product of the Apostle by external evidence 
from the time of Marcion (140 A.D.) down. 

Over against all this there does not seem to 
be much force in the contention that the large 
element of catholicity in the Epistle would in- 
dicate a postapostolic date, since the catholicity 
which the Epistle presents becomes simply a 
consistent development of Paul's own ideas, 
reaching its climax in this encyclical message 
to the churches of a region which had been 
brought under the influence of his three years' 
work at Ephesus. It is of still less force to 
call attention to the peculiarities of word and 
phrase and general style in the Epistle, espe- 
cially as these peculiarities find to a large ex- 
tent their counterpart in the companion Epistle 
to the Colossians, which is admitted to be 

Accepting then the Pauline origin of the 
Epistle, it becomes a most interesting question 
how the title Ephesians came to be attached to 
it, in particular how "at Ephesus" came to be 
incorporated in the address (i. 1), there being 
no local Ephesian color in the Epistle and no 
salutations in it to members of the Ephesian 
church. The significance of this question is 
heightened by the fact that the documentary 
evidence is scarcely in favor of the phrase be- 
ing part of the original text. The early and 
more important manuscripts omit it, while not 
a few of the early fathers show they did not 
read it in their copies of the letter. On the 


other hand, the assigning of this Epistle to 
Ephesus is continuous and universal in the 
Church from the time of Irenseus (180 a.d.). 
How came this tradition if "at Ephesus" was 
lacking in the text from the beginning? The 
answer to this question seems to rest between 
two theories. The one assumes that Paul wrote 
the letter to a group of churches with which he 
was not personally acquainted, situated outside 
of Ephesus, the association of the Epistle with 
this city coming from the natural drift of the 
original manuscript to this metropolitan centre 
and its preservation there (Zahn), the name of 
the less-known church which it must have con- 
tained being finally removed for that of the 
larger one (Jttlicher). The other theory is that 
Paul wrote the letter to a group of churches of 
which Ephesus was the leading one, but all local 
references to which were laid aside because o* 
the general character of the letter ( A. Robert • 
son), phrases being substituted which wouJd 
agree with the fact that with the larger number 
of the group he was personally unacquainted. 
In ' this case the original manuscript would 
have had "at Ephesus ' in the text, since the 
letter went in the first instance to the parent 
church; but from the copy made for the other 
churches it would be omitted, Tychicus supply- 
ing the name of the locality as he brought the 
letter to it, coming finally to Laodicea, the 
last city of the circuit where his copy was left. 
This would explain Marcion's finding of our 
Epistle there without "at Ephesus" in the text 
and also the reference in Colossians (Col. iv. 
16, "When this epistle hath been read among 
you, cause that it be read also in the church 
of the Laodiceans; and that ye likewise read 
the epistle from Laodicea") to the letter which 
that church was to receive from Laodicea, which 
was the natural head of this Lycus-valley group. 
The similarity between Ephesians and Colos- 
sians referred to above is very close, as the most 
cursory reading will show. This extends 
not only to the doctrinal content, but even, in 
many instances, to words and phrases. Yet 
neither Epistle seems to have been actually a 
mere imitation of the other. The most satis- 
factory theory is that after Paul had written 
his special message to the church of Colossse 
(See Colossians, Epistle to the) he decided 
to send a somewhat similar, but more general 
and less personal, letter to the circle of churches 
in the Roman Province of Asia since all were 
in need of the same type of instruction and 
faced by the same disturbing problems. Tychi- 
cus, the bearer of the Colossian Epistle, was 
also the bearer of this circular letter. 

Bibliography. The literature on Ephesians 
is in most cases the same as that on Colossians 
and will be found listed at the close of the 
article on that Epistle. Consult also Hort, 
Prolegomena to Romans and Ephesians (Lon- 
don, 1895), and Lightfoot, "Destination of 
Epistle to Ephesians," in Biblical Essays (ib., 

EPH'ESTTS (Lat., from Gk. "E<f>€<ros t Ephesos). 
One of the 12 Ionic cities of Asia Minor. It 
was situated in Lydia, near the mouth of the 
river Ca^ster, on two hills, named Coressus 
and Prion, in the midst of an alluvial plain 
(Map: Greece, Ancient, E 3). Its origin is 
enveloped in myths, as is that of all the Ionic 
cities; but the reputed founder of the Greek 
city of Ephesus was Androcles, son of Codrus, 
the last King of Athens. The population wi 


Digitized by LjOOQlC 


by no means all Ionic, as appears from the 
fact that the Ephesians did not celebrate the 
great Ionic festival of the Apaturia (see Greek 
Festivals), nor were they divided into the 
four Ionic tribes. (Consult Hogarth, /onto 
and the East, pp. 45 ff., Oxford, 1909.) The 
presence of the great temple of Artemis (see 
Diana, Temple of) seems to have made it 
a sacred place from an early time, and its 
situation at the starting point of one of the 
great trade routes into the interior of Asia 
Minor led to its commercial prosperity. It suf- 
fered from the Cimmerian invasion, about 655 
B.c, and early submitted to the Lydians under 
Croesus and later to the Persians under Cyrus 
the Great. During the Gr&co-Persian wars we 
hear little of the city, and it played no promi- 
nent part during the Peloponnesian and later 
wars. After the time of Alexander the Great 
the prosperity of Ephesus seems to have greatly 
increased. The citv was strengthened and im- 
proved by LysimachuB and the kings of Perga- 
mon. The Romans made it the capital of the 
Province of Asia. Under the emperors it was 
the most prosperous trading city in western 
Asia Minor, though we hear of complaints that 
the right of asylum possessed by the temple of 
Artemis was abused. The Roman Governor of 
Asia proceeded first to Ephesus and took office 
there. The account of St. Paul's labors in 
Ephesus, lasting nearly three years, shows the 
prosperity of the place and the importance of 
the temple in promoting that prosperity, as well 
as the passionate devotion of the people to their 
great goddess (Acts xix). A vigorous Christian 
churcji was established in the city, and later 
the Apostle John and other prominent men of 
the apostolic age made their headquarters at 
Ephesus. The Bishop of this church was the 
first of the seven to whom the Apocalypse was 
addressed. The destruction of its great temple 
by the Goths in 263 a.d. gave it a blow from 
which it never recovered. In 431 it was the 
scene of the Third General Council of the Chris- 
tian Church. Its general history, while it was 
a city of the Byzantine Empire, was unimpor- 
tant, and before the days of Tamerlane it had 
almost completely perished. Certain cabalistic 
words or sayings said to have been inscribed on 
the base of the statue of Artemis were copied 
and carried about as charms. Hence to a large 
number of similar charms hung about the 
neck and repeated in a low tone to avert danger 
was given the name Ephesice litterw, or 'E<pt<ria 

Before 1863 little was known of the topog- 
raphy of Ephesus, though the remains of the 
stadium, theatre, so-called gymnasium, and a 
few other buildings and walls could be traced. 
Wood's excavations in search of the temple of 
Artemis, made for the British Museum, as- 
sisted in clearing up some of the uncertainties 
in the plan. (See, further, Diana, Temple of.) 
However, it was not till the Austrian Archeologi- 
cal Institute began its systematic explorations 
that any very definite information was obtained 
concerning the ancient city as a whole. Work 
was begun in 1896 and is not yet completed; 
indeed, the excavations have not been carried 
below the Imperial level. The great harbor is 
now known to date from the Hellenistic period 
(it had been thought to be Roman). A broad 
street leading from the harbor past the theatre 
(a structure dating from Christian times, 
which has been fully excavated) and terminating 


in a triumphal arch furnishes a starting point 
for the determination of the topography of the 
city. Other discoveries include two large mar- 
ket places — one Greek, the other Roman — sur- 
rounded by colonnades and rooms, a large num- 
ber of inscriptions, and many statues and reliefs, 
among them a bronze athlete, using the strigil, 
of remarkable beauty. Consult: Guhl, Ephesiaca 
(Berlin, 1842) ; Curtius, Ephesus (ib., 1874) ; 
Wood, Discoveries at Ephesus (London, 1877). 
For reports of the Austrian excavation, con- 
sult: Anzeiger der philosophisch-historischen 
Klasse der kaiserlich-koniglichen Akademie *der 
Wissensohaften in Wien (Vienna, 1897 et seq.) ; 
Jahreshefte des osterreichisohen archdologischen 
Instituts (ib., 1808 et seq.); Benndorf, Heber- 
dey, etc., Forsohungen in Ephesus, vol. i (ib., 
1906 ) ; "Ephesos," in Lttbker, Reallexikon des 
klassisohen^Altertums (8th ed., Leipzig, 1914). 
For excavations in the temple of Diana by D. C. 
Hogarth, see Diana, Temple of. 

EPHESUS, Councils of. Many councils 
were held at Ephesus, of which two deserve 
special mention: 1. The Third Ecumenical Coun- 
cil, which opened on June 22, 431. It was called 
by the Emperor Theodosius II at the request of 
the orthodox, represented by Cyril, Patriarch 
of Alexandria, and of Nestorius, Patriarch of 
Constantinople, whom Cyril accused of heresy 
because he taught that the two natures in Christ 
are not united in one personality; hence Mary 
was not the "Mother of God," but of Christ, the 
Man with whom God was joined. Nestorius 
requested that action upon the disputed doc- 
trine be deferred until the Syrian bishops, whose 
votes he hoped would decide the matter in his 
favor, should arrive. The opening of the council 
was delayed 16 days, but they did not come. 
On the very first day the matter was settled 
against Nestorius, and he was excommunicated 
and deposed. When the Syrian bishops finally 
arrived (June 26 or 27), they held a meeting, 
and protested against the action of the synod, 
excommunicated Cyril, and appealed to the Em- 
peror. But Nestorianism was doomed. The 
council was attended by about 200 bishops and 
closed on July 31. (See Nestorius.) 2. The 
other famous synod was convened in August, 
449, also by the Emperor Theodosius II. Under 
the lead of Dioscurus, Patriarch of Alexandria 
and successor to Cyril, it proceeded to secure 
the restoration of Eutyches, who taught one 
nature in Christ, viz., the divine, and who had 
been deposed therefor by the Synod of Con- 
stantinople in 448, and the confirmation of 
this doctrine, which was favored by the Alexan- 
drians. The council was marked by great dis- 
order and even violence. Soldiers were brought 
in, blood was shed, and Flavian of Constanti- 
nople was so maltreated that he soon died. But 
the Alexandrian doctrine was indorsed. The 
council is called the Robber Synod, and its de- 
cision was quickly reversed by the Ecumenical 
Council of Chalcedon (451). Consult Perry, 
The Second Synod of Ephesus (Dartford, 1881). 
fioA Eutvches 

EPH'IAI/TES (Let., from Gk. 'E^uIXt^). 
1. A son of Poseidon and Iphi media. See Alo- 
ADM. 2. The Malian who showed the Persians a 
mountain path by which they were enabled to' 
come up behind Leonidas and his band of Spar- 
tans at Thermopylae and destroy them. See 
Leonidas; Thermopylae. 

EPH'OD (Heb. ephod, vestment). The name 
of one of the garments worn by the high priest 

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(Ex. xxviii. 6-8), but worn also by temple serv- 
ants in general. Samuel wears one (1 Sam. ii. 
18), and also the 85 priests of Nob (1 Sam. 
xxii. 18 ) . Likewise David wears an ephod when 
dancing before the ark (2 Sam. vi. 14). It may 
be assumed that the ordinary ephod made of 
linen was less ornate than the one used by the 
high priest, which was made of costly material 
and of various colors — blue, purple, scarlet, and 
fine linen, interwoven with gold thread. It was 
held in place by two shoulder straps, attached 
to it behind and passing over the shoulders to 
the front. On the top of each of the shoulder 
pieces was an onyx stone on which the names 
of the 12 tribes were engraved, six on each stone. 
The ephod was worn over a blue frock, and on 
its front was the jeweled breastplate contain- 
ing the oracle pouch for the Urim and Thum- 
mim. Ephod is also used in the Bible for image. 
Gideon is said to have made himself an ephod 
of the golden rings taken from the Midianites 
and to have set it up in Ophrah (Judg. viii. 27). 
It was evidently an object of worship, and since 
1700 shekels were spent on it, it is natural to 
suppose that the ephod was the chief object in 
the sanctuary. Elsewhere, too, the ephod is 
spoken of in a manner to permit of no doubt 
that a part of the equipment of a sanctuary is 
meant. In Judg. xvii-xviii Micah provides for 
an ephod, and here and elsewhere the ephod is 
placed side by side with the teraphim (e.g., Hos. 
iii. 4), which were small images set up in one's 
household and used in divination. The ephod 
may therefore have been used in connection with 
the teraphim. 

To reconcile two such divergent uses of the 
same term various theories have been put for- 
ward. The most probable supposition is that 
the ephod was originally the covering of a 
divine image. This vestment of gold, silver, or 
fine cloth embroidered with precious metals, 
was the most valuable part of the idol,. and the 
name could therefore be applied to the image 
itself. In this garment, or shoulder cloth, there 
apparently was a pouch containing the oracle 
lots. It has been supposed that this vestment 
could be removed from the image and that the 
priest put it on when giving oracles. The name 
may then have been generalized and become the 
term for the garment worn by the priest when 
he came to the sanctuary to seek an oracle. 
Gressmann thinks that the linen ephod origi- 
nally belonged to Nabu-Nebo, who since earliest 
times was worshiped in Syria and of whom the 
linen garment, the tablets of destiny on the 
breast, and the divination are characteristic. 
Consult: Foote, "The Ephod," in Journal of 
Biblical Literature, vol. xxi (1902) ; Sellin, Das 
altisraelitische Ephod (Giessen, 1906); Gress- 
mann, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegen- 
wart (Stuttgart, 1910). 

EPHOB. See Ephobi. 

EPH'OBI (Lat., from Gk. fyopoi, ephoroi, 
overseers, from iwl, epi> upon, over -f- bpav, horan, 
to look). An order of magistrates at Sparta. 
Herodotus attributes their creation to Lycur- 
gus, and Aristotle to King Theopompus, while 
it seems clear that the Alexandrian chronolo- 
gists had a list which extended back to about 
757 B.C. As they appear in Spartan colonies 
of Thera and probably Tarentum, they must 
have early become an established part of the 
Spartan government. It is clear that they grad- 
ually took into their hands the real power, while 
the share of the kings in the government was 


lessened, especially as a result of the jealousy 
between the two royal houses. (See Spabta.) 
Their name seems to indicate that they were 
originally appointed to see that the discipline 
of the state was observed. The ephori were five 
in number; they were elected annually by and 
from all Spartans, and the decision of a major- 
ity was binding on the board. Every full citi- 
zen was eligible. During the fifth and fourth 
centuries B.C. the ephori are the governing body 
at Sparta; they convoke the Council of Elders 
and the Assembly, carry out decrees, receive 
ambassadors, determine the mobilization of the 
army, and during the war are kept informed of 
affairs in the field by secret dispatches, while 
two of the board always accompany the King 
in his campaigns. As presidents of the Council 
of Elders, they could bring even the kings to 
trial, and it is clear that their almost unlimited 
power during their short term caused much 
dissatisfaction to the more independent kings. 
The revolution of Cleomenes III temporarily 
destroyed their power, and, though after his over- 
throw in 221 B.c. the old forms were nominally 
restored, the ef>hori do not seem to have become 
again the ruling body. Even in Roman times 
the old name was retained by a board of five 
magistrates at Sparta, but we are not informed 
as to their duties. Consult: Dum, Die Ent- 
stehung und Entwickelung des spartanischen 
Ephorat8 (Innsbruck, 1878); Meyer, For- 
schungen zur alten Oeschiehte (Halle, 1892); 
Gilbert, The Constitutional Antiquities of Sparta 
and Athens (Eng. trans., London, 1895) ; Kucht- 
ner, Entstehung und ursprilngliche Bedeutung 
des spartanischen Ephorats (Munich, 1897); 
Szanto, article "Ephoroi," in Pauly-Wissowa, 
Real-Encyclopadie der classischen Altertumswis- 
senschaft, vol. v (Stuttgart, 1905). For a list 
of the ephors, consult Poralla, Prosopographie 
der Lakedaemonier bis auf die Zeit Alewanders 
des Oro8sen (Breslau, 1913). Consult, finally, 
the Greek histories of Grote, Holm, Busolt, and 
E. Meyer. 

EPH'OBTJS (Lat., from Gk. "E^opof) (c.400- 
c.330 B.C.). A Greek historian, a contemporary 
of Philip and Alexander. He was born at Cyme 
in iEolis and studied rhetoric under Isocrates, 
who, it is said, persuaded him to devote him- 
self to history instead of to oratory. His chief 
work was "I<rrop&u, a history of the Greeks and 
the barbarians from the return of the Heraclid© 
(see Dobians) to the siege of Perinthus by 
Philip of Macedon (340 B.C.), a period of 750 
years. The work, which was the first universal 
history attempted in Greece, consisted of 30 
books, each of which contained a compact por- 
tion of the history and was thus complete in 
itself. Though Ephorus* style was feeble and 
diffuse, he appears to have been a faithful nar- 
rator, and his work was highly valued on ac- 
count of the wealth and excellent arrangement 
of its material. It was the chief source of 
Diodorus Siculus (q.v.) and was commended by 
Polybius and Strabo. The few fragments were 
published in Muller's Historicorum Grcecorum 
Fragmcnta, vol. i (Paris, 1868) : this work con- 
tained also a discussion of the life and writings 
of Ephorus. Consult Kliigmann, De Ephoro 
Historico Grceco (Gottingen, 1860), and Bury, 
The Ancient Greek Historians (New York, 1909). 
Under Cbatippus will be found a reference to 
the fragments of a Greek historian, published in 
1908, in Oxyrhynchus Papyri, v. Walker, The 
Hellenica Omyrhynchia: Its Authorship and 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


Authenticity (Oxford, 1913), maintains that 
Ephorus was the author of this fragment. 
Walker's book gives the literature of the dis- 
cussion of the fragment. 

EPTTRAEUff, e'fra-em, or ETHBEM SY'- 
RUS, Ephbaim the Sybian (c.306-?378). The 
greatest of the Syrian church fathers, known as 
the Prophet of the Syrians. He was born at 
Nisibis, Mesopotamia, about 306. He was a 
pupil of Jacob, Bishop of Nisibis (died 338), 
became a teacher in the latter's school, and in 
325 accompanied him to the Council of Nicaea. 
In 363 Nisibis was ceded by the Emperor Jovian 
to the Persians, and Ephraim took up his abode 
at Edessa (Orfa) . He became a hermit and lived 
in a cave near the town. Towards the end of 
his life he is said to have visited Basil the Great 
at Cesarea in Cappadocia, who tried to make 
him a bishop, but he refused any higher office 
than the diaconate. He died at Edessa in 373 
or 378. His death is said to have been hastened 
by his efforts to relieve the sufferers from plague 
and famine then raring at his home. An ex- 
traordinary mass of fable and legend is con- 
tained in two recensions of an anonymous life 
of Ephraim. It is certain that he was a zealous 
upholder of orthodoxy and wrote and preached 
unceasingly against idolaters, "Chaldees," Jews, 
and all heretics. He was a voluminous writer 
and has left commentaries on nearly all the Old 
Testament in the Syriac or Peshitto version, 
as well as many homilies, and several hymns 
of much merit. His works exist partly in the 
original Syriac, partly in Greek, Latin, and 
Armenian translations. They were edited by 
the Assemani (Rome, 1732-46). There is also 
an edition of Opera Selecta by Overbeck (Ox- 
ford, 1865). Consult in English: Morris, Select 
Writings of Ephraim the Syrian (Oxford, 1847) ; 
Burgess, The Repentance of Nineveh and Select 
Metrical Hymns and Homilies (London, 1853); 
Harris, Fragments of Ephraim Syrus upon the 
Diatessaron (Cambridge, 1895) ; Hill, A Disser- 
tation on the Gospel Commentary of Ephraim 
the Syrian (London, 1896) ; Seebright, A Short 
History of Syriac Literature (London, 1894). 
There is a 'prose translation of several hymns 
and homilies, with an introduction by John 
Gwynn, in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2d 
series, vol. xiii (New York, 1898). 

EPHBAIM, e'fra-Im (Heb., fertile, fruitful 
tract). The name given, in Gen. xli. 50-52, to 
the younger son of Joseph by his wife Asenath. 
He is regarded as the eponymous ancestor of the 
tribe of Ephraim. The territories of the tribe 
in Palestine (q.v.) extended from the brook 
Kanah, where Manasseh began, southward, in- 
cluding the rich country spoken of as "Mount 
Ephraim" (Josh. xvi. 5 et seq.) (Map: Pales- 
tine, E 5). It is to be noted, however, that the 
Hebrews did not succeed in driving the Ca- 
naanites out of this district (v. 10), so that in 
all likelihood some mixture of Hebrews with 
Canaan i tea took place. The tribe was, perhaps, 
the most warlike in Israel. Joshua, the con- 
queror of the Holy Land, was an Ephraimite 
(Num. xiii. 8), and further proof of their war- 
like spirit appears in Ephraim's protests against 
Gideon (Judg. viii. 1) and Jephthah (Judg. xli. 
1-7) for not asking aid of them in their wars. 
Shiloh, at one time the seat of the tabernacle, 
was in Ephraim, and the prophet Samuel be- 
longed to the tribe (1 Sam. i. 1). Ephraim 
took part in the revolt of Saul's son, Ishbosheth 
(2 Sam. ii. 8-9), and later in the successful 



revolution of Jeroboam (1 Kings xii. 1-20*. 
After this revolt Ephraim is merged in the 
northern kingdom, jind of this kingdom it 
formed by far the if ost important part. 

The story told in Gen. xlviii. 15-19, of the 
preference which Jacob gave to Ephraim in 
blessing him before Manasseh, although the 
latter was the older son of Joseph, truthfully 
reflects this superior position which Ephraim 
occupied in the northern kingdom, and its gen- 
eral prominence in Hebrew history before the 
Exile. The tribal traditions furthermore in- 
dicate that at one time Manasseh, Ephraim, and 
Benjamin constituted a single tribe known as 
Joseph. Benjamin was the first to cut loose, 
and hence becomes, in tribal metaphor, the 
younger brother of Joseph. For a time Manas- 
seh and Ephraim remained together, and even 
in Solomon's days they still united for admin- 
istrative purposes, but at last Ephraim also cut 
loose and eventually outranked Manasseh. 

EPHRAIM (Gk. 'E<t>pal/<L, Ephraim). A town 
mentioned in John xi. 54, to which Jesus re- 
tired because of the hostility manifested by the 
Jewish authorities after his raising of Lazarus 
(Map: Palestine, C 4). The place is described 
as "near to the wilderness" (uncultivated pas- 
ture land) and is probably to be identified with 
the modern Et-Taiyibeh, about 4 miles northeast 
of Bethel, the modern Beitin. The Ephraim of 
2 Sam. xiii. 23 and of 2 Chron. xiii. 19, the 
Aphairema of 1 Mace. xi. 34, and the Ephraim 
of Josephus, Wars, iv. 9, all probably represent 
the same place. Practically nothing is known 
of it s his tory. 


EPHIiATA. A borough in Lancaster Co., 
Pa., 38 miles (direct) east by south of Harris- 
burg, on the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad 
(Map: Pennsylvania, J 7). It is a health re- 
sort and has manufactories of cigars, silk, un- 
derwear, and hosiery. The borough owns its 
water works and electric-light plant. Ephrata 
is noteworthy chiefly on account of having been 
formerly the seat of the mystic Order of the 
Solitary, a semimonastic order of Seventh-Day 
Dunkers. The community, which contained both 
men and women, was founded by Johann Con- 
rad Beissel (q.v.), in 1732. The members 
adopted a peculiar dress, somewhat resembling 
that of the Capuchins or White Friars, and the 
men wore long beards. Celibacy was looked 
upon as praiseworthy, but marriage was per- 
mitted. Property was held in common, although 
private ownership was not forbidden. Many of 
the members were well educated; Peter Miller, 
second prior of the monastery, translated 
the Declaration of Independence into seven lan- 
guages, at the request of Congress. A printing 
press was set up, and a number of works, in 
both English and German, some of them very 
beautifully made and now highly prized, were 
published. At the period of its greatest pros- 
perity the community contained nearly 300 per- 
sons, but about the time of the Revolution it 
began to decline, and few traces now remain. 
Pop., 1900, 2452; 1910, 3192. Consult Gibbons, 
Pennsylvania Dutch and Other Essays (Phila- 
delphia, 1872), and Sachse's exhaustive two- 
volume work, The German Sectarians of Penn- 
sylvania (ib., 1899-1900). 

EPHYDBA, efl-dra (Neo-Lat, from Gk. 
tyvdpos, ephydros, living on the water, from lwl> 
epiy upon -j- W«p, hyddr, water). A genus of 
small flies, of the family Ephydrida*, whose eggs 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


and larv« are eaten by American Indians. One 
species (Ephydra Mans) is cultivated by the na- 
tive Mexicans, as was the custom of their ancestors. 
Another species furnished food to the aborigines 
about Mans Lake, Cal. For full details, see Fly. 

EPIC CYCLE. The name given to a series 
of poems produced by various Greek poets of the 
Ionian school, between c.800 and 550 b.c. These 
productions were later combined with the Ho- 
meric poems into an epic cycle designed to give 
a complete survey of mythology from the mar- 
riage of Uranus and Gapa to the death of 
Ulysses; their writers were hence known as 
cyclic poets (q.v.). Among their works were 
the Cypria of Stasinus, forming an introduction 
to the Iliad, and the fiJthiopis and Iliu Persis 
of Arctinus, forming its continuation. The in- 
terval between the Iliad and the Odyssey was 
covered by the Nosti of Agias of Troezen, and 
the Odyssey was supplemented by the Telegonia 
of Eugammon of Gyrene. Of these and other 
works only the titles, authors' names, and some 
fragments have come down. The poems are 
chiefly of importance from the fact that the 
dramatists drew on them for their versions of 
the myths. They were later arranged for educa- 
tional purposes by the so-called cyclographs 
and illustrated by artists. A specimen of these 
collections, the famous Tabula Iliaca (q.v.), is 
in the Capitoline Museum at Rome. 

EP1CHAB/MUS (Lat., from Gk. 'Ewlxappott 
Epicharmos) (c.640-450 B.C.). The greatest of 
the Sicilian comic poets. He was born in Cos, 
but spent practically all his life in Sicily, mainly 
at Syracuse. Tradition says that he lived to be 
90 years of age and was greatly honored by the 
Syracusans. Epicharmus doubtless owed much 
to the Syracusan tyrants, Gelon and Hiero, who 
generously aided lyric and dramatic poets, that 
they might increase the brilliancy of their courts; 
it was probably under their patronage that he 
produced his comedies, the representative plays 
of the Sicilian or Dorian comedy. These num- 
bered 36 (according to some authorities 52) 
and roughly fall into two classes — mythological 
travesties and realistic scenes from common 
life — as the extant titles show. To the first 
belonged his Busiris, Cyclops, Hephaestus, Mar- 
riage of Hebe, and Prometheus; to the second, 
The Peasant, The Visitors at the Festival, etc. 
The second class introduced new themes, among 
them that of the parasite, closely allied to those 
of the mime (q.v.), which was also first de- 
veloped in Syracuse. Plato called Epicharmus 
master of the comic type, and Horace (Epistles, 
ii, 1, 58) preferred him to Plautus (q.v.). En- 
nius named after him his didactic poem on 
natural philosophy. While Athenian comedy 
was a local development, no doubt Epichar- 
mus' influence on Attic comedians of the fifth 
century was not without its effect. Yet the 
statement that Epicharmus was the inventor 
of comedy (due to an epigram, No. 17, of Theoc- 
ritus) can be true only in this: that Epichar- 
mus was one of the first to give comedy devel- 
oped and artistic form. He was famous for 
his philosophical utterances, and his comedies 
continued to be studied long by philosophers 
and grammarians; Apollodorus, of Athens, in 
the second century B.C., published an edition in 
10 books. The extant fragments are edited by 
Lorenz (Berlin, 1864) ; Kaibel, Comicorum 
Grcecorum Fragmenta, part i (Leipzig, 1899). 
Consult Ohrist-Schmid, Oeschichte der griechi- 
schen Litteratur, vol. i (5th ed., Munich, 1908). 


EPICCBNE, eyi-sen (Gk. Mkoivoi, epikoinos, 
of either gender, promiscuous), or The Silent 
Woman. A comedy by Jonson ( 1609 ) . .Morose, 
an old man who dislikes noise, is led to marry 
Epicoene, because of her reputation for silence, 
and in order to disinherit his fortune-hunting 
nephew, Dauphine. After the marriage Epicoene 
at once becomes a noisy shrew; and Morose, 
by promises of reward, secures his nephew's 
help in releasing himself from her. Thereupon 
Dauphine shows Epicoene to be a disguised boy, 
whom he had brought to his uncle to play him 
a trick. 

EPIC POETBY. A species of narrative 
poetry, dealing with an action or series of ac- 
tions and events of permanent interest and 
power. Its theme, however varied in its aspects 
and issues — and the epic manner favors multi- 
plicity here — must be, in the last analysis, single 
in its nature and must be developed in the region 
of the ideal. Acts of trifling importance are 
not for this reason excluded from epic poetry, 
which rather, in its endeavor to give a broad 
survey of human life, abounds in matters of 
everyday occurrence. But these should form, 
at the most, only a background for the eleva- 
tion and greatness of the rest and must, like 
them, be set forth in noble phrase. By the 
Greeks of the classical period it was, from one 
point of view, distinguished from lyric poetry 
by being recited or rather given in recitative 
instead of being sung, and from dramatic poetry 
by being simply narrated instead of acted. But 
there is a further difference, as they also saw. 
A lyric is the expression of sentiment and mood, 
while a drama deals primarily with the delinea- 
tion of character through external action. In 
either case the interest is wholly personal and 
lies in the portrayal of the character of the in- 
dividual. The course of events, which in the 
drama forms the plot, is the means whereby this 
portrayal is accomplished and gains its value 
from this fact, and not primarily from its own 
intrinsic interest. The web of the action is 
closely and compactly woven to show the devel- 
opment of character. The successive scenes 
have a direct and logical bearing upon the state- 
ment and solution of the problem; and thus 
episodes, which form an important feature of 
epic structure, are properly excluded from the 
drama. The epic poem, on the contrary, to 
quote the words of Dr. Butcher, "relates a great 
and complete action, which attaches itself to 
the fortunes of a people or to the destiny of 
mankind, and which sums up the life of a period. 
The story and the deeds of those who pass across 
its wide canvas are linked with the larger move- 
ment of which the men themselves are but a 
part. The particular action rests upon forces 
outside itself. The hero is swept into the tide 
of events. The hairbreadth escapes, the sur- 
prises, the marvelous incidents of epic story, 
only partly depend upon the spontaneous energy 
of the hero." In the poems universally recog- 
nized as epics the personages of the action, and 
the forces outside it, alluded to in the quota- 
tion above, are concretely presented through 
the poetical machinery of a double plot and two 
spheres of action with many points of contact — 
a human plot and a divine plot, complicated 
and resolved in the Iliad and the Odyssey* e.g., 
by the gods of mvthology on the one hand and by 
the Greek and Trojan heroes on the other. A 
like double plot is found in Vergil: and in Mil 
ton God and Satan and their opposing hosts 

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play their parts and determine the course of 
the human story of man's first disobedience. 
In Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered and in the 
Lusiad of CamoSns the, so to speak, celestial 
and terrestrial plots again coexist. Another 
mark of works universally accepted as epics, 
as implied in the quotation from Dr. Butcher, 
is their tendency to be social or national as 
opposed to individual, to sum up and express 
in essence an epoch and a nation — witness the 
great Greek and Roman epics— or an epoch and 
a great company of people with a solidarity of 
faith, thought, and sentiment, as in the case 
of Dante's Divina Commedia, which is the voice 
of mediaeval Catholicism, or of Spenser's Faerie 
Queene and Milton's Paradise Lost, which are 
the expressions respectively of the Renaissance 
in England and of the sterner Puritanism of a 
later day. The great types of character of the 
primitive epic are national rather than indi- 
vidual, and in the contemplation of them the 
nation recognizes with exultant pride its glo- 
rious achievements and ideals. Among the 
Greeks, e.g., this was the secret of the power 
exercised by the Iliad and the Odyssey, and for 
the French by the Chanson de Roland. Again, 
in the JSneid, in which the divine purpose that 
Rome should wield the empire of the world is 
carried out through human instruments, the 
Roman people itself is the real hero, as indeed 
Vergil's contemporaries must have seen when 
they called the poem Oesta Populi Romani. 

Kpic poems fall naturally into two divisions: 
(1) those which, like the Iliad, the Chanson de 
Roland, and the Mahabkarata, are the outcome 
of a period of spontaneous composition of epic 
songs; (2) those which, like the Mneid, the 
Oerusalemme liberata, and Paradise Lost, are 
the creation of highly cultivated and widely 
read minds, consciously using a long-established 
form and accepted models. The artistic ex- 
cellence of the Homeric poems, which stand at 
the beginning of historical Greek literature, 
necessarily presupposes an extended period of 
poetic production, during which the material, 
partly mythological, partly historical, of these 
long poems formed the subject of numerous 
shorter folk songs. In the Iliad, e.g., Achilles, 
to please his friend Patroclus, sings in his hut 
before Troy of the *\4a avtpvv; and, in the 
Odyssey, the blind minstrel Demodocus, at the 
court of Alcinotts, sings to the assembled com- 
pany at the hero's request a particular lay about 
the making of the wooden norse by means of 
which Troy was taken — a lay which, as the con- 
text clearly implies, belonged to a longer tale 
about Troy. Such epic, or epic-lyric, songs 
must have abounded and must have shown in- 
finite variation of incident and expression; for 
they were the products of a youthful and buoy- 
ant age, in which fancy, not the passion for 
scientific accuracy, was supreme. This is, in 
fact, characteristic of popular poetry every- 
where. It is markedly impersonal and national. 
All its elements — structure, metre, phrase, style 
— are common property, and every complete 
poem is equally a part of the general stock. It 
is never simply repeated, but at each recitation 
undergoes fresh changes. In Italy, in Servia, 
or in Russia a song of 8 or 10 lines will show 
endless variations, and in Finland, where the 
entire traditional poetry has one unvarying 
form, we find a perfect type of popular poetry. 
Each song, says Comparetti, "not only differs 
between singer and singer, but even the same 



singer never repeats it twice in exactly the same 
manner, often going so far as to bind together 
and give as one those songs which but recently 
he recited as separate and distinct." This last 
fact is especially noteworthy as bearing upon 
the way in which the epic song ultimately grew 
into the epos. In the Icelandic Poetic Edda 
the lays which preserve different parts of the 
earlier and grander form of the Valsung-Nibe- 
lung story show great diversity of treatment of 
a common legend. The material of these arid 
other lays, not now extant, was worked up into 
the prose Volsunga-Saga, the action of which, 
as of the lays, moves wholly in the sphere of 
the magical and supernatural and shows no 
trace of Christian influence. But when towards 
the end of the twelfth century this story, com- 
mon to all the Teutonic stock, finally takes place 
in south Germany as an epic poem, not only is 
the tale itself different at times in detail and 
incident, but the entire atmosphere and set- 
ting is changed. History has taken the place 
of myth. Brunhild is no longer a Valkyr, nor 
is Siegfried able to change his shape. Belief 
and manners are Catholic and mediceval in- 
stead of heathen and primitive. Early French 
epic poetry shows, perhaps, even more clearly 
the continuous change and growth of popular 
song. The Chansons de Oeste, as the name im- 
plies, deal with historical facts; but it is his- 
tory transformed and glorified by passion and 
imagination. If one examines the Chansons 
(whether, like the Roland, the Pelerinage de 
Charlemagne, the Roi Louis, they belong to the 
royal period, or, like Renaud de Montauoan and 
Girard de Roussillon, to the feudal), one dis- 
covers at once the same conditions that appear 
among the Teutons and the Finns — a mass of 
fluctuating poetic thought in a perpetual state 
of composition, decomposition, and recomposi- 
tion. This poetry developed araon^ the warrior 
class and those attached to its service, and there 
is no doubt that the songs contemporary with 
the events were often composed and chanted by 
the knights themselves. But they were especially 
composed and made familiar to all by the min- 
strels, the jongleurs (a.v.). In the endeavor to 
please by giving a touch of novelty to a favorite 
old poem, they would combine two or three 
songs, modify them to remove discrepancies, 
and amplify for the sake of poetical embellish- 
ment or more stirring description of incident. 
In this way there came into existence an im- 
mense body of epic material contained in short 
songs, which towards the middle of the eleventh 
century began to take the form of long epic 
poems. Finally, the composition of the Chan- 
sons de Oeste comes to an end in a period (from 
the end of the twelfth century to the middle of 
the fourteenth) which is analogous to that of 
the cyclic poets in Greece. The greatest of these 
epics, the Chanson de Roland, must be dated, in 
its earliest extant form, full three centuries 
after the defeat at Roncesvalles (c.778), upon 
which historical event it is based ; and it weaves 
into its story dim memories of the personages 
and events of later periods. Over 100 years 
later a redaction in rhyme instead of assonance 
appears, with a new ending of some 2000 lines; 
and of this version we have again a large num- 
ber of remaniements, or rehandlings. Moving 
and fine as is the poetry of the Roland, it still 
lacks something of the breadth and variety of 
the great narrative poems which may be said 
to constitute the norm of this literary genre. 

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The conclusions as to the genesis of epic poetry 
to which we are thus far led are strengthened by 
a study of the Sanskrit MaMbhdrata. There 
was a like warrior class, the Kshatriyas, proud 
of its valorous deeds and delighting in their 
celebration in song; and there is no reason to 
doubt that, in India as in Greece, Iceland, Ger- 
many, and France, popular poetry flourished in 
the form of short epic lays. 

That the poems which are sometimes called 
the epics of growth were formed out of earlier 
kleine Lieder is now universally accepted. What 
is still a warmly disputed point is the mode in 
which the combination was finally effected. Was 
the epos a mere compilation of these shorter 
lays, more or less ingeniously fitted together, 
with the help, perhaps, of some new connecting 
links, but still with such preservation of the 
original masses that the modern scholar with 
his critical acumen can discern the junctures? 
Or, was the entire material so fused in the mind 
of some one great poet as to come forth a homo- 
geneous and organically related whole? In 1795 
F. A. Wolf published his famous Prolegomena to 
Homer, in which he argued at length for the 
view that "Pisi stratus was the first who had the 
Homeric poems committed to writing and 
brought into that order in which we now read 
them." Karl Lachmann, in two papers read to 
the Berlin Academy in 1837 and 1841, maintained 
that the Iliad was made of 16 independent lays, 
with various enlargements and interpolations, 
all finally reduced to order by Pisistratus. Since 
that time the Homeric question has been, much 
discussed, and widely divergent theories, differ- 
ing both in principle and in detail, have been put 
forth by scholars who deny the unity of the Iliad 
and the Odyssey. Mr. Walter Leaf, e.g., in his 
Companion to the Iliad (1892), holds that, to 
an original Wrath of Achilles (about 3400 lines 
in length), there were added in different ages 
extensive expansions and interpolations, as well 
as short passages by. which the transitions from 
one piece to another of different age were man- 
aged; and he presents a tentative scheme of the 
lines belonging to each of the five strata that he 
postulates. In regard to the Nibelungenlied, M. 
Lichtenberger, a sane critic, believes that some 
nameless redactor put together the ancient lays 
after they had been adapted to the manners of 
an age of chivalry; and M. Gaston Paris is in- 
clined to call the poet of the Chanson de Roland 
an arrangeur rather than an auteur. 

An important contribution to the subject of 
epic poetry in general, as well as to the charac- 
ter of a particular epic poem was Signore Com- 
paretti's study of the Finnish Kalevala. Out of 
the entire body of the traditional poems of the 
Finns, by a process of selection and arrangement 
and by the insertion of short transitional matter, 
Dr. Lttnnrot constructed a perfect epos; though 
the popular singers, the laulajat, not only knew 
no such poem, but were unable to imagine one. 
Jn the edition of 1849 there are 50 cantos and 
22,800 lines. Here, if anywhere, we have the 
genesis of an epic in accordance with the Wolf- 
ian and Lachmannian theory. LSnnrot, it is 
true, did not merely stitch together such defi- 
nitely shaped songs as those into which Lach- 
mann resolved the Nibelungenlied and the Iliad. 
At times he divided the runes, recombined their 
parts, and chose out of the innumerable variants 
those best fitted for his purpose. But in doing 
this without adding anything essential of his 
own, he adopted a procedure, not of the poet, 


but of the scholar — the heir of the ages, famil- 
iar with the Homeric question and with the 
theory of the epos. Comparetti argues at length 
that, to suppose a Greek of the time of Pisistra- 
tus, a jongleur, or even the Indian Vyasa, capable 
of working in this way, is to commit a mere 
anachronism; that the Kalevala has in no sense 
that unity which is apparent in the Iliad and 
the Odyssey, in the Chanson de Roland, and even 
in the Nibelungenlied; and, finally, that "a long 
poem, created by the people, does not exist, can- 
not exist; epic popular songs, such as could 
be put together into a true poem, have never 
been seen, and are not likely to be seen among 
any people. Every long poem, without excep- 
tion, anonymous or not, is the work of an in- 
dividual — is a work of art." 

Epic poetry has not been produced by all 
races nor by all nations. Thus, among the Ser- 
vians, Russians, and Siberian Tatars, we find 
epic or epic-lyric songs; but they are never 
welded together into an epos. The same is true 
of the Celts, who, in both the branches of the 
race, the Gadhelic and the Cymric, developed an 
abundance of epic material, especially in the two 
great cycles of tradition, the Fingalian or Ossi- 
anic and the Arthurian. The Anglo-Saxon Beo- 
wulf is finely epic in substance, but has scarcely 
the range and complexity of a great epos. Spain, 
too, had her truly heroic figure — the Cid, the 
Roland of his country. But the ballads and the 
poem that sing his praises were never worked up 
into a great national epic. 

It remains to consider briefly the epics of the 
second class. Like those of the first, these may 
deal with the traditions, mythical or historical, 
of the nation ; but they are m every way the cre- 
ation of an individual mind, from which they 
receive their atmosphere and color. They stand, 
therefore, in sharp contrast with the wholly im- 
personal work of Homer, e.g., in Greece, and the 
poets of the Nibelungenlied and Chtdrun in Ger-* 
many, and of the Mahdbharata and R&m&yana 
in India — poems which are the natural outcome 
of a fermentation Spique, as M. Gaston Paris 
calls it, and of which it may be truly said that 
the song dominates • the singer rather than the 
singer the song. Epics of this personal charac- 
ter belong to no special period in the history of 
a people, and their number is still increasing. 
It must suffice to mention a few of these. In 
India the renaissance of literary activity -in the 
fifth and sixth centuries A.D. produced those epics 
which, as being the work of a single poet {Kavi) , 
are called Mah&kavya, or great poems — a name 
already applied to their model, the R&m&yana, 
as being composed by VfllmTki. In Greece, in the 
centuries immediately following the composition 
of the Iliad and the Odyssey, the so-called cyclic 
poets further developed and unified the Trojan 
cycle of legends. In the Alexandrian period the 
Argonautioa of Apollonius Rhodius may be 
noted; and in our own era, between the fourth 
and sixth centuries, Nonnus and Mus&us have 
some claim to distinction. At Rome national 
epic poetry was early cultivated by Navius and 
Ennius and comes to its most perfect form in 
the Augustan age, in the JEneid of Vergil, un- 
doubtedly one of the great epics of the world. 
Later we find the Pharsalia of Lucan, the Punioa 
of Silius Italicus, the Thebais and Achilleis of 
Statius. In Persia, Firdausi, drawing upon good 
historical sources, composed the Shah-Namah, 
or 'Book of Kings' — a complete history of Persia, 
which was at once hailed with enthusiasm as the 

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national epic Among the great epics of mod- 
ern times must certainly be reckoned the Lusiad 
of Camoens, the Orlando Furioso of Ariosto, and 
the Oerusalemtne Uberata of Tasso, the Faerie 
Queene of Spenser, the Paradise Lost of Milton, 
and the Messias of Klopstock. 

The epic has been written also in burlesque 
form, as e.g., in the Batrachomyomachia, or 
'Battle of the Frogs and Mice/ The animal epic 
should also be mentioned, best represented by 
Reineke Fuohs. 

Bibliography. Butcher, Aristotle's Theory of 
Poetry and Fine Art (2d ed., London, 1898) ; 
Steinthal, "Das Epos," in Zeitsohrift fUr Volker- 
psychologie, vol. v (Berlin, 1868) ] Krohn, Die 
Entstehung der evnheitlichen Epen (ib., 1888) ; 
Boissier, "Theories nouvelles du poeme epique," 
in Revue des Deuw Mondes, vol. lxvii (Paris, 
1867) ; Chassang and Marcon, Les chefs d'ceuvre 
tpiques de tons les peuples. Notices ei Analyses 
(ib., 1879); Sainte-Beuve, Etude sur Vergile 
(ib., 1857), one of the great books on Vergil 
and valuable for light thrown on the nature of 
epic poetry; Gubernatis, Storia della poesia epioa 
(Milan, 1883); Hopkins, Great Epic of India 
(New York, 1901); Pizzi, V Epopea persiana 
(Florence, 1888) ; Darmesteter, Les origines de 
la poisie per sane (Paris, 1887); Volckmann, 
Oeschichte und Kritik der Wolfschen Prolego- 
mena (Leipzig, 1874) ; Lang, Homer and the 
Epic (London, 1893) ; Ker, Epic and Romance 
(New York, 1897); Woodberry, Great Writers, 
"Virgil" and "Milton" (ib., 1907); Grimm, 
"Ueber das finnische Epos," in Zeitsohrift fur 
die Wissenschaft der Sprache, vol. i (Berlin, 
1846) ; Comparetti, The Traditional Poetry of 
the Finns (London, 1898) ; Lichtenberger, Le 
poeme et la ligende des Nibelungen (Paris, 
1891); Grimm, Die deutsche Heldensage (3d 
ed., Gutersloh, 1889) ; Golther, Studien zur ger- 
manischen Sagengesohichte. I. Der Valkyr jen- 
mythus. II. Ueber das Verhdltnis der nordi- 
schen und deutschen Form der Nibelungensage 
(Munich, 1888) ; Mtillenhoff, Beowulf: Unter- 
suchungen uber das angels&chsische Epos und 
die dlteste Geschiohte der germanischen Seevblr 
ker (Berlin, 1889); Ten Brink, ^'B€owulf : Un- 
tersuchungen," in Quellen und Forschungen zur 
Sprach- und Oulturgeschichte der germanischen 
Volker, No. 62 (Strassburg, 1888) ; D'Arbois de 
Jubainville, Oours de litterature celtique (Paris, 
1883-99); Tobler, "Ueber das volkstumliche 
Epos der Franzosen," in Zeitschrift fUr Volker- 
psychologic, vol. iv (Berlin, 1867) ; Nyrop, Sto- 
ria delV epopea francese nel medio evo (trans, 
from the Danish, Turin, 1886) ; Paris, Histoire 
pottique de Charlemagne (Paris, 1865) ; id., La 
litterature frangaise au moyen Age (2d ed., ib., 
1890) ; Gautier, Les epopies francaises (2d ed., 
ib., 1874-94) ; Pio Rajna, Le origini delV epopea 
francese nel medio evo (Florence, 1884), re- 
viewed by Paris in Romania, vol. xiii (Paris, 
1884) ; Petit de Julleville, Histoire de la 
langue et de la litterature francaise, vol. i 
( ib., 1896 ) ; Kurth, Histoire pottique des 
Merovingiens (ib., 1893) ; Heyse, "Ueber italie- 
nische Volkspoesie ," in Zeitschrift fur Vdlkerpsy- 
chologie, vol. i (Berlin, 1864) ; Pio Rajna, La 
rotta di Roncisvalle nella letteratura cavalle- 
resca italiana (Bologna, 1871) ; id., Le fonti delV 
Orlando Furioso (Florence, 1876) ; Mila y Fon- 
tanals, De la poesia heroico-popular castellana 
(Barcelona. 1874) ; Comte de Puymaigre, Les 
vieux auteurs castillans (2d ed., Paris, 1890) ; 
Dozy, Recherohes sur VtwstoWe et la litterature 



de VEspagne pendant le moyen dge (3d ed., Ley- 
den, 1887); Saint-Marc Girardin, "De l'epopee 
chrgtienne depuis les premiers temps jusqu'a 
Klopstock," in Revue des Deuw Mondes, vols, ii, 
iii, iv (Paris, 1849-50) ; Paris, Le roman de 
Renard (ib., 1895) ; W. M. Dixon, English Epic 
and Heroic Poetry (New York, 1912). 

EP'ICTETUS (Gk. 'EtUttitos, EpicMus, The 
Acquired: a nickname) (c.50-?). A celebrated 
Stoic philosopher, born at Hierapolis in Phrygia. 
He was at first the slave of Epaphroditus, a 
freedman of Nero, at Rome. He was afterward 
manumitted and devoted himself to the Stoic 
philosophy. Domitian hated him on account of 
his principles and banished him, along with sev- 
eral other philosophers, from Rome (90 A.D.). 
Epictetus settled at Nicopolis in Epirus, near 
Actium. Under the pressure of the times in 
which he lived his serious moral views received 
a character rather of self-denial than of energy. 
His pupil, Arrian, collected the maxims of Epic- 
tetus in the work entitled Encheiridion (Hand- 
book) and in eight books of commentaries, four 
of which are lost. (See Abbianus.) The pecu- 
liar excellence of the writings of Epictetus is 
simple and noble earnestness. The real heartfelt 
love of good and hatred of evil, which are often 
thought to be exclusively Christian feelings, 
manifest themselves very finely and beautifully 
in the philosophy of Epictetus, yet there is no 
evidence that he knew anything of Christianity. 
There are several good editions of the works of 
Epictetus, the most complete of which is that of 
Schenkl (Leipzig, 1898). Consult translations 
by Mrs. Elizabeth Carter (London, 1758), Hig- 
ginson (2 vols., Boston, 1890), and Long (Lon- 
don, 1848, 1877, 1892, 1897). Consult: Melcher, 
De Sermone Epicteteo (Halle, 1906); Arnold, 
Roman Stoicism (Cambridge, 1911) ; Ritter and 
Preller, Historia Philosophic Qrwcce (9th ed., 
Gotha, 1913). 

EPICUBE'ANISM. The name applied, often 
very loosely, to the system of philosophy based 
more or less on the teachings of Epicurus (q.v.). 
The philosopher himself, although the majority 
of his writings referred to natural philosophy, 
was not, properly speaking, a physicist. He 
studied nature with a moral rather than with a 
scientific design. According to him, the great 
evil that afflicted men — the incubus on human 
happiness — was fear: fear of the gods and fear 
of death. To get rid of these two fears was the 
ultimate aim of all his speculations on nature. 

He regarded the universe as corporeal, as infi- 
nite in extent, and as eternal in duration. He 
recognized two kinds of existence — that of bodies, 
and that of vacuum or space. Of his bodies, 
some are compounds, and some are atoms or in- 
divisible elements, out of which the compounds 
are formed. The world as we now see it is pro- 
duced by the collision and whirling together of 
these atoms, which possess only the attributes 
of shape, size, and weight. Of these atoms there 
is an infinite number, varying in size and shape, 
but of equal specific gravity. These atoms natu- 
rally fall downward in the empty space, but the 
direction they take is not absolutely uniform. 
Hence come clashes between them, and combi- 
nations which result in the universe as we know 
it. But beyond our known world Epicurus held 
that there are innumerable others. He also held 
the doctrine of perception by images (Gk. 
ff&uXa, eidOla), which are incessantly streaming 
off from the surface of all bodies, and which are 
necessary to bring man into relation with the 

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world without. In like manner he believed that 
sounding bodies threw off emanations by which 
human beings were brought into sympathy with 
them, and that perception by smell took place 
in the same way. In psychology Epicurus was 
a decided materialist, holding, for various 
reasons, that the soul is a bodily substance, com- 
posed of subtle particles, disseminated through 
the whole frame, and having a great resemblance 
to spirit or breath with a mixture of heat. It 
is interesting to note that Epicurus, following 
Empedocles (q.v.), anticipated the modern doc- 
trine of natural selection in maintaining that 
natural causes gave rise to various differences 
in organic forms, but only those able to sup- 
port themselves and to propagate their species 
have survived. Epicurus did not deny that there 
are gods; but he strenuously maintained that, 
as "happy and imperishable beings," they could 
have nothing to do with the affairs of the uni- 
verse or of men. This Epicurean theology is 
admirably expressed in the closing lines of Ten- 
nyson's The Lotus Eaters. 

Epicurus next proceeds to deal with the fear 
of death. Having proved in his psychology that 
the dissolution of the body involves that of the 
soul, he argues that the most terrible of all 
evils, death, is nothing to us, since when we 
are, death is not; and when death is, we are 
not. It is nothing, then, to the dead or the 
living; for to the one class it is not near, and 
the other class are no longer in existence. The 
insight shown by this remark has not been 
sufficiently appreciated. 

The ethical side of Epicurus' system may be 
noticed in a few words. He held that pleasure 
was the chief good, and it is from a misappre- 
hension of the meaning of this word as used by 
Epicurus that the term "Epicurean" came to 
signify one who indulged his sensual appetites 
without stint or measure. At the same time it 
is easy to see that the use of the word "pleasure" 
was prone to produce the mischievous results 
with which the later Epicureanism was charged. 
The whole question of ethics, then, comes to a 
calculation and balancing of pleasure and pains; 
in other words, the cardinal virtue is prudence. 
Epicurus rests justice on the same prudential 
basis as temperance. Denying any abstract and 
eternal right and wrong, he affirms that injus- 
tice is an evil because it exposes the individual 
to disquietude from other men; justice is a vir- 
tue because it secures him from this disquietude. 
The duties of friendship and good-fellowship are 
inculcated on the same grounds of security to 
the individual. Epicurus is distinguished from 
his contemporaries by the fact that he taught 
the doctrine of the freedom of the will. 

Among the Romans the system of Epicurus 
was adopted by many prominent men. Horace, 
Atticus, and Pliny the Younger were Epicu- 
reans; and the splendid poem of Lucretius is 
the finest literary expression that Epicureanism 
has achieved. In modern times Epicureanism 
was resuscitated in France by Pierre Gassendi, 
who published an account of Epicurus' life and 
a defense of his character in 1647. Many emi- 
nent Frenchmen have professed his principles; 
among others, Moltere, Saint-Evremond, the 
Comte de Gramont, the Due de la Rochefoucauld, 
Rousseau, Fontenelle, and Voltaire. Consult: 
Lange, History of Materialism (Eng. trans., 
Boston, 1886) ; Asener, Epicurea (Leipzig, 
1887) ; Watson, Hedonistic Theories (Glasgow, 
1895) ; Wallace, Epicureanism (London, 1880) ; 



Trezza, Epicuro e VEpicureismo (Florence, 1877) ; 
Zeller, Philosophy of the Stoics, Epicureans, and 
Skeptics (Eng. trans., London, 1870; 2d ed., 
1880); Kreibig, Epicurus (Vienna, 1886); Geo- 
deckemeyer, Epicurus' Verhdltnis zu Demokrit 
in der Naturphilosophie (Strassburg, 1897); 
Gizycki, Ueber das Leben und die Moralphiloso- 
phie des Epicurus (Halle, 1879) ; Gomperz, Her- 
culanische Studien (Leipzig, 1865-66) ; Cassel, 
Epikur der PhUosoph (Berlin, 1892); Guyan, 
La Morale d y Epicure (3d ed., Paris, 1886) ; 
Joyau, Epicure (ib., 1910) ; Taylor, Epicurus 
(London, 1911); Santayana, Three Philosophi- 
cal Poets (Cambridge, Mass., 1910); Pater, 
Marius the Epicurean (2 vols., New York, 1913), 
presents in the form of a story the philosophical 
attitude of Epicureanism; and the histories of 
philosophy by Schwegler, Ueberweg, Windel- 
band, and others. See Epicurus; Hedonism. 

EnCITBUS (Lat., from Gk. 'Ewlicovpos, Epi- 
kouros) (c.342-270 B.C.). An illustrious Greek 
philosopher. He was born probably in the island 
of Samos, in December, 342, or January, 341, 
B.C., six or seven years after the death of Plato. 
His father, Neocles, is said to have been a school- 
master, and his mother, Cherestrate, to have 
practiced arts of magic. In his boyhood he 
heard Pamphilus and Nausiphanes lecture on 
philosophy, but did not claim to be a pupil of 
either. At the age of 18 Epicurus repaired to 
Athens to present himself before the members 
of his demos and to be duly confirmed as an 
Athenian citizen. His stay at Athens on this 
occasion was not long; when he rejoined his 
father's family, however, it was not at Samos, 
but at Colophon, whither Neocles had repaired 
upon being dispossessed of his home at Samos. 
In his thirtieth year Epicurus was settled at 
Mitylene, and there he first won recognition as 
a philosopher; at Lampsacus two or three years 
later he became the head of a school. But 
Athens was the place where philosophers could 
expect to get their best hearing, and thither 
Epicurus returned about 306 B.C. Here he 
bought a garden which he used as the seat of 
his school, from this circumstance his fol- 
lowers were called the "philosophers of the 
garden." Although women as well as men fre- 
quented the garden, and although among these 
women were many of the hetcercc (q.v.), the life 
of the brotherhood was not marked by sexual 
excesses, popular scandal to the contrary not- 
withstanding. The calumnies which the Stoics 
circulated concerning the school are undeserv- 
ing of notice. The success of Epicurus as a 
teacher was signal; great numbers flocked to 
his school from all parts of Greece and from 
Asia Minor, most of whom became warmly at- 
tached to their master as well as to his doc- 
trines, for Epicurus seems to have been charac- 
terized not less by amiability and benevolence 
than by force of intellect. He died 270 B.C., in 
the seventy-second year of his age. 

Epicurus was a most voluminous writer. Ac- 
cording to Diogenes LaSrtius he left 300 vol- 
umes. Among others he had written 37 books 
on natural philosophy, a treatise on atoms and 
the void, one on love, one on choices and avoid- 
ances, another on the chief good, four essays 
on lives, one on sight, one on touch, another on 
images, another on justice and the other vir- 
tues, etc. From ali these works there have 
come down to us three letters and a number of 
detached sentences or sayings, preserved by 
Diogenes La§rtius in his life of the philosopher. 
Digitized by VjiOOvl 



Outside of these the principal sources of our 
knowledge of the doctrines of Epicurus are 
Cicero, Seneca, Plutarch, and, above all, Lucre- 
tius, whose great poem, De Rerum Natura, con- 
tains substantially the Epicurean philosophy. 
To these must be added a large number of 
papyri found at Herculaneum about the middle 
of the eighteenth century. These contain frag- 
ments from Epicurus and many writings of 
Epicureans, especially of Philodemus. But 
unfortunately the manuscripts are in a deplor- 
able condition. See Epicureanism. 

EFTCY'CLE (Lat. epicyclus, Gk. MkvkXqs, 
epikyklos, epicycle, from M 9 epi, upon -f- kvk\oi, 
kyklo8, circle). The earlier astronomers assumed 
that all the motions of heavenly bodies take 
place in circles, and that all the heavenly bodies 
move round the earth, which remains at rest 
in the centre. The observed phenomena of the 
heavens, however, were soon seen to stand in 
glaring inconsistency with these assumptions. 
For the sun and moon, which manifestly do not 
always move with the same velocity, the eccen- 
tric circle (q.v.) was imagined. The case of 
the planets, whose motions were seen to be some- 
times direct, sometimes retrograde, and some- 
times altogether arrested, offered still greater 
difficulties; to get over which, the idea of epi- 
cycles was hit upon. According to this hypoth- 
esis, while a planet was moving in a small circle, 
the centre of that small circle was itself describ- 
ing a larger circle about the earth. This larger 
circle was called the deferent (q.v.), and the 
smaller, which was borne upon it, was called 
the epicycle. In this way the motions of the 
planets about the earth were conceived to be 
something like what the motion of the moon 
about the sun actually is. By assuming proper 
proportions between the radii of the deferent 
circle and the epicycle, and between the veloci- 
ties of the two motions, it was found possible 
to account for the motions of the planets. 

EPICY'CLOID (Gk. M, epi, upon -f- ictiekos, 
kyklos, circle -f- eZ&oj, eidos t form). If a circle 
moves on the outside of the circumference of 
another circle, every point in the circumference 
of the first circle describes an epicycloid. This 
curve first appeared in a work of Duress ( 1525) , 
but the name is due to Roemer (1672). It has 
many remarkable properties and is also in- 
teresting from a practical point of view. The 
teeth of cogwheels must, as shown by Desargues, 
have an epicycloidal form, in order that fric- 
tion may be minimum. The term formerly in- 
cluded the curve described when the moving 
circle was on the inside of the other, but this 
"inner epicycloid" is now called the "hypocy- 
cloid." For the equation of this curve and ref- 
erences to its history, see Cycloid; and for a 
more extensive bibliography, consult the Interme'- 
diaire des MathS maticiens (Paris, 1898, 1899). 

EPTDAM'NTJS. See Dubazzo. 

EP1DATTBUS (Lat., from Gk. 'En-toavpoj, 
Epidauro8). A maritime town of ancient 
Greece, on the Saronic Gulf, in the northeast 
part of Argolis, situated on a small promontory, 
in lat. 37° 38' N., long. 23° 10' E. (Map: Greece, 
Ancient, C 3). The early history of Epidaurus 
is involved in myth, but numerous religious 
connections with Attica lend probability to the 
legend of an original Ionian population. Later, 
it was a Dorian city, closely connected with 
Argos, though not subject to that city. The 
greatest prosperity of Epidaurus seems to have 
been in the early period, when it was a mem- 



ber of the Calaurian Amphictyony and ranked 
as a naval power; at that time it controlled, 
it is said, iEgina and colonized Cos, Calydnus, 
and Nisyrus. Its power afterward declined, and 
during the historical period it owed its im- 
portance chiefly to the proximity of the cele- 
brated sanctuary of ^Esculapius, which attracted 
?atients from all parts of the Greek world, 
he site of this temple was a plain sur- 
rounded by mountains, about 8 miles west of 
the town, still called Hieron (the sanctuary). 
Epidaurus (modern Greek, Epidavro) is now a 
small village, with scarcely 100 inhabitants, em- 
ployed for the most part in raising vegetables 
for the Athenian market. The plain surround- 
ing the village is productive and highly culti- 
vated. Here, in January, 1822, a congress from 
all parts of Greece assembled, and promulgated 
the constitution, known as the Constitution of 
Epidaurus. The site of the sacred precinct was 
excavated, from 1881 on, by the Greek Archaeo- 
logical Society, under the direction of M. Kawa- 
dias. Conspicuous among the ruins is the 
Tholos, a circular structure of large diameter, 
which excited the warm admiration of the 
ancients. The theatre of Epidaurus is one of 
the best preserved and the most beautiful of 
ancient theatres. In the sacred precinct were 
found two colonnades, a temple of ^Esculapius, 
baths, gymnasium, and a hospital. Numerous 
inscriptions, too, were found, of great value 
with respect to the cult of yEsculapius, Con- 
sult: Gardner, New Chapters in Greek History 
(London, 1892); Diehl, Excursions in Greece 
(ib., 1893). The detailed descriptions may 
be found in the Hp<tKTiK& of the Greek Archaeo- 
logical Society, particularly for 1881-84 and 
1889; 'tofatutpU 'ApxaioXcyiJcifr (1883, 1885); 
Kawadias, Les fouilles d'Epidaure (Athens, 
1893) ; Defrasse and Lechat, Epidaure (Paris, 
1895), magnificently illustrated with conjectural 
restorations of the principal buildings; Kawa- 
dias, TA Upbw rov 'AricXriiriov h 'Ewtdavpu) kclI ^ 
Bep&ireia ruy &<r6ev<ap (Athens, 1900) . For a plan % 
consult Baedeker, Handbook to Greece (4th Eng. 
ed., Leipzig, 1909). 

EPIDEMIC (Lat. epidemus, Gk. Mfoifioi, 
among the people, from M, epi, upon -f- tf}fios t 
demos > people). A name applied to diseases 
which appear at intervals and spread over a 
certain area, or traverse a large section of the 
world and attack a large number of people. An 
epidemic disease may become endemic (q.v.) 
and remain permanently in a locality. Cholera 
is epidemic in certain parts of Europe, at inter- 
vals subsiding and disappearing, while it re- 
mains endemic in India. Probably all diseases 
which are epidemic in various parts of the world 
are endemic in certain localities, and the epi- 
demics are brought by * travelers from these 
localities, or follow commerce under favoring 
conditions, such as debility dependent upon ex- 
posure to miasms after inundations, swarming 
and migration of insects which carry contagion, 
e.g., mosquitoes carrying germs of yellow fever 
or of malaria. Drainage and paving of streets 
result in checking and eradicating an epidemic 
of malaria in a town. Opening the pavements 
and tunneling the streets afford harbors in damp 
spots and puddles for mosquitoes, which propa- 
gate rapidly, become infected with the Plasmo- 
dium of malaria, and transmit the microorgan- 
ism to human beings; and thus an epidemic of 
malaria is started. Epidemics of typhoid fever 
are almost invariably traced to one or a few 

Digitized by VjOOQLC 


cases of the disease, from whose excrement drink- 
ing water has become polluted. Epidemics are 
due, primarily, to dissemination of bacterial 
germs, though in some diseases of the contagious 
class (such as scarlet fever and smallpox) the 
causative germs have not yet been isolated. 
They must be checked, therefore, by bacteriologi- 
cal precautions. It is difficult to explain the 
cause of certain cycles in which epidemics ap- 
pear to move, regularly recurring in certain 
localities; but in all cases precautions should 
be taken to quarantine people entering a port 
from an infected country, and clothing and all 
merchandise should be disinfected. Serum ther- 
apy (q.v.) promises a protection against many 
epidemic diseases, notably typhoid fever, as 
well as treatment during disease. 

Epidemics of nervous diseases have appeared 
at times in the history of the world: as of 
chorea (q.v.) or of dancing mania. Under the 
leadership of a person afflicted with paranoia 
(q.v.), many people of unstable mental equilib- 
rium have been dominated by suggestion (q.v.), 
and the results have been crusades, persecution 
of "witches," epidemics of suicides, etc. Con- 
sult Hecker, Epidemics of the Middle Ages, trans, 
by Babington (London, 1840), and Creighton, 
The History of Epidemics in Great Britain 
(2 vols., Cambridge, 1891-94). See Climate ; 
Contagion; Infection; Cholera; Typhoid 
Fever; Influenza. 

GITIS. See Meningitis. 

EP1DEN1>RUlff (Neo-Lat., from Gk. M, 
epi, upon -f- Mrtpow, dendron, tree). A genus of 
strong-growing, long-stemmed epiphytal orchids, 
of which nearly 600 species have been found in 
Central America alone. Though some of the 
species produce showy blossoms, the majority 
have flowers of rather unattractive appearance, 
various shades of greenish purple being common. 
The group is of special interest, however, from 
its increasing popularity in hybridizing with the 
gaudier, weaker, short-stemmed, and more diffi- 
cultly cultivated members of other genera, e.g., 
Cattleya and Lcelia. The operation is of fairly 
easy performance and often results in vigorous 
plants, long stems, graceful racemes, and attrac- 
tive flowers. 

SPIDER/HIS (Lat. from Gk. ivtdtp/Us, upper 
skin, from M, epi, upon + &ppa, derma, skin). 
The cuticle, or scarf skin, a semitransparent 
membrane, containing neither vessels nor nerves, 
and everywhere forming an external covering 
to the derma, or true skin. It consists of two 
distinct layers, viz., the mucous layer, which lies 
immediately upon the corium, and the horny 
layer, which forms the outermost surface of the 
body. The mucous layer (the rete mucosum, or 
rete Malpighi) is of a whitish or slightly brown 
tint (in the negro dark gray or black), and is 
composed of rounded or cuboidal cells, distended 
with fluid, and likewise containing minute gran- 
ules, which diminish in number in the more 
external cells. The horny layer forms the ex- 
ternal semitransparent part of the epidermis, 
which in the white races is colorless, and is com- 
posed almost wholly of uniform cells aggluti- 
nated and flattened. The color of the epidermis 
differs in different persons and in different parts 
of the body. It is deepest around the nipple, 
especially in women during pregnancy and after 
they have borne children. A more or less dark 
pigment is often deposited in persons who are 
exposed to the sun, in the face, neck, back of 



the hands, etc. These tints are not produced by 
special pigment cells, but are seated in the com- 
mon cells of the mucous layer, round whose nu- 
clei granular pigment is deposited. In the negro, 
and the other colored races it is also only the 
epidermis which is colored. Morbid coloration of 
the epidermis (freckles, moles, etc.) is produced 
in the same way as the color of the negro's skin. 
Numerous instances of partially or entirely 
white negroes and of black Europeans, not as a 
consequence of change of climate, but as an ab- 
normal condition of the skin, are on record. 

The thickness of the epidermis varies ex- 
tremely. While upon the cheeks, brow, and eye- 
lids it varies from ^ to -^ of a line (a line 
being A^ of an inch ) , on the palm of the hand it 
ranges from % to y 2 a line, and on the sole of 
the foot sometimes even exceeds a line. In some 
parts of the body the horny layer is thicker than 
the mucous; in others the mucous is the thicker 
of the two. As the chief use of the epidermis is 
that of affording protection to the soft and 
tender subjacent part, it attains its greatest 
thickness on those portions of the body (the 
palm of the hand and the sole of the foot) 
which are most exposed to pressure and friction. 
The hair and nails belong to the integumentary 
system, as well as horns in lower animals, and 
are modifications of epidermis. See Integument. 

EPIDERMIS. A special superficial layer 
covering the whole body in higher plants. Among 
the lowest plants there is no distinct epidermis, 
a fact related to their simple structure and also 
to the conditions in which they grow. The epi- 
dermis becomes established, as a definite layer of 
a special character and with special functions, 
in land plants exposed to the air. Such a layer 
is a very efficient protection against the exces- 
sive loss of water. See Babk; Cortex; Mor- 
phology of Plants. 

EP'IDHV YKITIS. Inflammation of the epi- 
didymis, a complexly convoluted tube lying upon 
the posterior surface of the testicle, and convey- 
ing the seminal fluid from it to the vas deferens, 
the proper ejaculatory duct. Epididymitis in 
the acute form arises commonly from gonorrhoea 
or, more rarely, from injury. The chronic forms 
are tubercular or syphilitic. Sterility in the 
male is a frequent consequence of gonorrheal 
epididymitis. The acute form of the affection 
is very painful and lasts from one to three 
weeks, with symptoms of swelling, pain, and 
exquisite. tenderness. Treatment consists of rest 
in bed, support for the affected part, application 
of soothing lotions, such as lead and opium 
wash, or ointments containing ichthyol, or poul- 
tices. Internally saline purgatives, sedatives for 
the pain, and specific remedies addressed to the 
particular form of the disease under treatment 
are indicated. 

EPIDOTE (from Gk. M, epi, upon -f fords, 
dotos, given, from 9Mvat, didonai, to give). A 
name given to a group of basic ortnosilicate 
minerals that include zoisite, epidote, piedmon- 
tite, and allanite. The mineral epidote proper 
is an aluminium-iron-calcium silicate that crys- 
tallizes in the monoclinic system, has a vitreous 
lustre, and is commonly some shade of pistachio 
green in color, sometimes shading to brown or 
nearly black. It is also found massive, fibrous, 
and granular, and is common in crystalline 
rocks. Its distribution is world wide, but fine 
crystals, which may be cut as gems, occur in 
Norway, Siberia, the Tirol, and in the United 
States in Haddam, Conn., Chester Co., Pa,, at 

Digitized by 



various places* in North Carolina, in the Lake 
Superior region, and in Pike's Peak region, Colo. 

EP'IGJCA. See Abbutus, Trailing. 

EP'IGASTBITJM (Neo-Lat., from Gk. ivi- 
yairrptot, epigastrios, over the stomach, from M, 
epi, Upon + yaffrhp, gaeter, stomach ) . The part 
of the abdomen (q.v.) which chiefly corresponds 
to the situation of the stomach, extending from 
the sternum towards the navel, or umbilicus 
(q.v.). It is called, in popular language, "the 
pit of the stomach/' See Abdomen. 

The type of germination in which the cotyle- 
dons remain below the surface of the soil. 

EP'IGEN'ESIS (Neo-Lat., from Gk. iwt, epi, 
upon + yivtevs, genesti, production, from yiyvt- 
a$ai, gignetthai, to be produced). A special or 
technical name for the modern conception of 
the growth and development of the animal 
organism from the undifferentiated mass of 
protoplasm constituting the egg. The word is 
the equivalent of the word "evolution" and is 
opposed to the preformation views of writers 
before the time of Harvey, Wolff, and Von Baer, 
and to somewhat similar views advocated at the 
present day by Weismann. The older writers, 
as Bonnet and Haller, used the word "evolu- 
tion" in the sense that we now employ the term 
"preformation," or the embottement theory. 
See Preformation. 

The doctrine of phenomenon of epigenesis is 
the result of the scientific study of the embry- 
ology of animals of all grades from the sponge 
to man. Before the rise of modern embryology 
the ablest, most sagacious biologists and philoso- 
phers were evolutionists, i.e., preformationists. 
They knew or recognized only the external signs 
of the process of development. They witnessed 
the embryo becoming an adult animal, as a bud 
develops into a blossom. They knew nothing 
of the nature of the egg cell, how it became 
fertilized, subdivided, and how by the multiplica- 
tion of cells tissues were formed and the different 
organs of the embryo became developed. They 
saw the butterfly emerge from the chrysalis, the 
latter from the caterpillar, and they conceived 
that the preformed germ of the butterfly and 
chrysalis and caterpillar existed,, in miniature, 
in the egg laid by the butterfly. Hence they 
believed that animals in general were a series of 
cases or wrappings, germ folded within germ, 
and that the process of birth was a throwing off 
of these wrappings — a process of evolution. 

This ignorance was partially dispelled by Har- 
vey (1661), who maintained that every living 
being arose from an egg (Omne vivum em 
ovo). But the founder of embryology was 
Kaspar F. Wolff, who published his famous 
Theoria Generations in 1759. He was the first 
to study the embryology of a vertebrate animal 
— the barnyard fowl. By means of actual ob- 
servation of the embryo chick he endeavored to 
expose the fallacy of the doctrine of preforma- 
tion, to show that the animal was not fully 
formed in the germ, but that all development 
proceeded by new formation, or "epigenesis." 
He maintained that the embryo consisted of un- 
organized organic matter, which only gradually 
became perfected in the course of its develop- 
ment, and that Nature really was able to pro- 
duce an organism from an undifferentiated ma- 
terial, simply by her inherent forces. Wolff 
failed to convince his contemporaries, because 
he could bring only isolated observations and 
these doubtful of interpretation, and because 



he was ahead of his time, naturalists then at- 
taching more importance to abstract reasoning 
than to observation. 

The next embryologist to lend, by his observa- 
tions, support to the views of Wolff was Von 
Baer in 1829, and after his time the cell theory 
was formulated, and the epoch-making works 
of the later embryologists, J. Mttller, Rathke, K61- 
liker, Remak, Bischoff, E. Van Beneden, Kovalev- 
sky, the Hertwig brothers, Weismann (in his 
earlier works), and many others, gradually built 
up the modern science of embryology (q.v.) and 
entirely dispelled the old-time preformation views. 

Bibliography. O. Hertwig, The Biological 
Problem of To-Day : Preformation or Epigeneaist 
(Eng. trans., New York, 1894). Also the works 
of Haeckel, Nftgeli, Strasburger, H. de Vries, 
His, Roux, Driesch, H. Spencer, Whitman, Wil- 
son, and other authorities under Embryology. 

EPIGLOTTIS. See Larynx. 

EPIGKONI (Lat., from Gk. ivlyovos, epigonos, 
descendant, from M, epi, upon, after -f y&vos, 
gonos, offspring, from yiyvwBai, gignesthai, to 
become). In Greek legend, a name applied to 
the descendants of the seven chiefs who attacked 
Thebes in the war between Eteocles (q.v.) and 
Polynices. After the disastrous defeat of this 
expedition and death of all the leaders except 
Adrastus, a second war was undertaken by tne 
children of the fallen chiefs, and this is known 
as the "war of the Epigoni." It seems that the 
story was told in two forms in the early epic, 
for two lists of names are preserved, agreeing 
only in six out of eight or nine heroes. The 
result is said to have been the capture and 
destruction of Thebes, the death or flight of 
King Laodamas, son of Eteocles, and the estab- 
lishment of Thersander, son of Polynices, on the 
throne. In literary history the term "epigoni" is 
sometimes applied to scholars who limit them- 
selves to unfolding the ideas of the great masters 
of a previous age. See Seven Against. Thebes. 

EPIGRAM (Lat. epigramma, Gk. Mypapfia, 
epigramma, inscription, from M, epi, upon -+- 
yp&ttpa, gramma, writing, from yp&<t>uv, graphein, 
to write). The epigrams of the early Greeks 
were simply inscriptions on tombs, statues, and 
monuments, written in verse, and marked by 
brevity and simplicity of style, but having noth- 
ing in common with what now passes under the 
name. It was among the Romans that the 
epigram first assumed a satirical character. 
The great masters were Catullus and Martial. 
In modern times an epigram is understood to be 
either a very short poem, generally from two to 
eight lines, containing a witty or ingenious 
thought expressed in pointed phraseology, and 
in general reserving the essence of the wit until 
the close; or a pithy and pointed saying ex- 
pressed in prose. Epigrams flourished in the 
period following the revival of learning. John 
Heywood wrote 600, and almost every Eliza- 
bethan versifier tried his hand at them. Later, 
Pope became the great master. Among the 
French Clement Marot was one of the first to 
write epigrams. He was afterward excelled by 
Boileau, Voltaire, and Piron. Epigrams in Ger- 
man are for the most part happily expressed 
moral proverbs, but the Xenien of Schiller and 
Goethe contain not a few sharp and biting verses 
of a satirical character. In English the art of 
epigram, after having been practiced by Byron 
and Moore, fell into disuse, until revived by 
William Watson in his Epigrams of Art, Life, 
and Uature (Liverpool, 1884). Consult: Booth, 

Digitized by 



Epigrams, Ancient and Modern (2d ed., Lon- 
don, 1865) ; Dodd, Epigrammatists of Mediaeval 
and Modem Times (2d ed., ib., 1875) ; Adams, 
Book of Epig ram s (ib., 1890). 

EPIGKBAPHY. See Inscriptions. 

EPIGYNY, 6-pIjl-nI (from Gk. ivl, epi 9 upon 
+ 7^, 9ynt* woman). In flowers, a condition 
in which the sepals, petals, and stamens seem 
to arise from the summit of the ovary. In 
epigynous flowers the ovary appears just below 
the "flower," and is often said to be "inferior." 
Contrasting terms are hypogyny (q.v.) and 
perigyny. See Flower. 

EPIIiEP'SY (Lat. epilepsia, Gk. brikrpl/la, epi- 
lepsia, epilepsy, from iiriXafip&ptiv, epilambanein, 
to seize upon, from brl, epi, upon + \afipdmv, 
lambanein, to seize) . A form of disorder, known 
also as morbus sacer, morbus eomitialis, "great 
disease," grand mal, and, more commonly, 
"the falling sickness." It is characterized by 
sudden insensibility, generally with convulsive 
movements of the voluntary muscles, and oc- 
casionally arrest of the breathing, owing to 
spasm of the muscles of respiration and tem- 
porary closure of the glottis. (See Larynx.) 
Owing to the striking character of the convul- 
sion of epilepsy it was, in ancient times, sup- 
posed to be due to the influence of the gods 
or of evil spirits and was therefore called by 
the Romans "sacred disease." There are four 
varieties of this condition: (1) grand mal; (2) 
petit mal; (3) psychic epilepsy; (4) Jackso- 
nian epilepsy. 

In the ordinary form, or grand mal, the 
patient is seized with insensibility, often so 
complete and sudden as to lead to serious bodily 
injuries; in the most aggravated cases he has 
no premonitory sensations whatever, but falls 
down without any attempt to save himself, and 
usually with a wild inarticulate cry, immediately 
after which the face is violently distorted, the 
head drawn towards one or other shoulder, and 
the whole body convulsed. These convulsions 
follow in rapid succession for a few minutes, and 
are attended by foaming at the mouth and by 
great lividity, or, in some cases, pallor, which, 
with the regular spasmodic movements of the 
lips, nostrils, and eyes, almost invariably lead 
the bystanders to an exaggerated idea of the im- 
mediate danger of the fit. The immediate danger 
is, in reality, not great, excepting that the sud- 
den attack may lead to an injurious or fatal 
fall; the tongue, however, may be bitten, or the 
patient may be so placed as to injure himself 
seriously by the repeated and unconscious move- 
ments of his body, or he may suffocate himself 
by accidentally falling with his face in water, 
or otherwise closing up the mouth and nostrils, 
or by dragging upon a tightened neckcloth. Care 
should always be taken to avoid these accidents 
by keeping the epileptic as much as possible 
within view of persons acquainted with his con- 
dition and able to give such assistance as may 
be required, and the patient himself should 
avoid places in which a fall would be dangerous. 
Any attempt to rouse the patient by violent 
stimuli, or by administering medicines hastily 
recommended, is almost certain to do more harm 
than good. The patient should, if possible, be 
placed on a mattress or other soft place near 
the ground; his clothing loosened round the 
chest, the head a little raised, and a free circula- 
tion of air maintained. The ordinary course of 
the fit (which may last from 5 to 20 minutes 
altogether) is as follows: the convulsions 


gradually diminish in intensity, and the patient 
passes into a state of deep but motionless stupor, 
with dilated pupils, and sometimes, but not 
always, with snoring or noisy breathing; the 
foaming at the mouth ceases, the color gradually 
returns, and this state leads to recovery through 
a more or less protracted but apparently natural 
sleep, the patient, on awakening, feeling fatigued 
or tender in the muscles which have been con- 
vulsed. The sensations which precede the fit — 
the aura epileptica — resemble a current of cold 
air passing over the body and proceed from the 
extremities towards the head. In some cases 
the aura consists of noise in the ears, or a black 
cloud appearing above the head, or a feeling of 
nausea or faintness, or loss of breath. In some, 
the premonitory symptoms allow of time enough 
for the patient to lie or sit down and thus 
avoid falling. In most cases a peculiar inspira- 
tory noise or a moan or scream is emitted, 
called the epileptic cry, as the fit begins. Not 
infrequently there is no aura or unusual sensa- 
tion of any kind, preceding the fit. A tight 
bandage placed suddenly upon the limb in which 
the aura begins may cut short the fit, or even 
prevent it altogether. 

In petit mal the loss of consciousness lasts 
two or three seconds, and the patient does not 
fall, but simply suspends operations, stares 
fixedly before him, gasps, and resumes conscious- 
ness, generally without knowing that he has 
experienced the attack. No treatment is neces- 
sary during the attack. 

In psychic epilepsy there are the usual 
premonitory conditions noticed. After a period 
of despondency, irritability, restlessness, dread, 
giddiness, or, in some patients, intense elation, 
in others an exhibition of voracious appetite, 
instead of a fit the patient experiences a sudden 
attack of laughing, weeping, or shouting, with 
extravagant gesture and maniacal appearance, 
and even in some examples with uncontrollable 
homicidal impulse devoid of motive. This is the 
"psychic equivalent." 

In Jack8onian epilepsy there is no loss of con- 
sciousness; the spasmodic movements are con- 
fined to a limited area or to one extremity. It 
is generally due to tumor of, or pressure upon, 
the brain in the motor area which controls the 
part convulsed; it may be due to abscess of the 
brain, injury, or meningitis. 

The ultimate danger of the disease has little 
relation to the severity of the individual fits, 
except in the modified sense explained above; the 
frequency of the attacks being apparently much 
more apt than their character to influence the 
duration of life. Indeed, although epileptics 
may survive several severe paroxysms at distant 
intervals and recover in the end completely, it 
rarely happens that very frequently repeated 
attacks, especially of the petit mal, are un- 
attended by some permanent depreciation of 
the powers of mind or body. The most frequent 
of the more serious consequences is insanity 
(q.v.). Sometimes the development of epileptic 
insanity is attended by palsy, and other indica- 
tions of structural disorder of the brain; in 
other instances no such consequences occur, and 
the brain after death may be found to have 
very little tangible disease, or only such disease 
as is found in numerous other cases of func- 
tional derangement. Very often there is loss of 
memory. Yet history furnishes several examples 
of epileptics who were men of unusual mental 
ability and intellectuality, as, e.g., Julius Cesar, 

Digitized by 



Petrarch, Peter the Great, Mohammed, and 
Napoleon. Disorders of the digestion are also 
not uncommon, and there is frequently a want of 
tone or vigor in all the bodily functions, which 
communicates an habitual expression of languor 
and reserve to the epileptic. 

In some case' of grand mal the patient has a 
succession of fits, one after another, without re- 
gaining consciousness for several hours. This is 
termed status epilepticus, and is a grave condi- 
tion, as the patient may die in it. After an at- 
tack of grand or petit mal a patient may experi- 
ence a condition of reduced consciousness, during 
which he wanders off for a day or a week, enter- 
ing shops, talking with people, eating in restau- 
rants, and otherwise acting as if conscious; on 
awakening he forgets entirely all that has hap- 
pened. Or there may be a postparoxysmal 
psychic manifestation in which the patient is 
excited and homicidal. 

Masked epilepsy, or epilepsia larvata, is the 
term given to a condition succeeding a minor 
attack of epilepsy, in which there are random 
remarks made and automatic acts performed by 
the stupid and dazed patient. Growers states 
that imperfect loss of consciousness with auto- 
matic action constitutes the minor seizures in 
some cases, without any initial epileptic stage. 
He considers epilepsy as a disease of the gray 
matter of the brain, most frequently of the 
cortex, which results in an impairment of the 
resistance of the nerve cells to the liberation of 
energy. A sudden and violent liberation of 
nerve force results in derangement of function 
and impairment of consciousness. Certain cases 
undoubtedly depend upon organic disease, as 
tumors or injuries to the brain and its mem- 
branes, more especially near the surface. Local 
sources of irritation in other parts of the body 
have acted as reflex exciting causes of epilepsy, 
and cases are recorded in which the disease has 
been cured by the amputation of a finger or the 
division of a nerve. The treatment of epilepsy 
should consist of alleviation of conditions and 
depends upon the variety of the disease. Iron, 
zinc, nitrate of silver, borax, digitalis, antipy- 
rine, the bromides, and many other drugs have 
been used. Bromides control the fits, while they 
are used, in almost all cases, but are not cura- 
tive, and their effect is deteriorating and de- 
plorable. Attention to the digestive tract and 
prevention of fermentation therein, out-of-door 
life, proper food, and baths have resulted in re- 
covery in many cases. Recovery may be looked 
for in 8 or 10 per cent of cases. Any treatment 
must be prolonged at least two years. Marriages 
of epileptics should be absolutely forbidden. It 
is estimated that epilepsy claims 1 in 500 of 
the population in the United States. No race is 
free from it. Fully 75 per cent of cases begin 
before the sixteenth year. 

Medico-Legal Importance of Epilepsy. At- 
tacks of psychic epilepsy are of vast medico-legal 
importance. Epilepsy is common among the 
criminal class, and the lower type of epileptic is 
cunning, deceitful, treacherous, and bold. Bevan 
Lewis calls attention to the fact that leading 
ideals, delusional or otherwise, prevailing in the 
preparoxysmal stage, are likely to become opera- 
tive in conditions of postepileptic automatism 
and during psychic equivalents. It is a hard 
task to decide whether an epileptic is accountable 
and should be punished for crimes committed 
during a psychical manifestation, equivalent or 
postepileptic. The epileptic will perform auto- 


matically complex acts that have the very ap- 
pearance of deliberate volition. The discovery 
of motive in an interparoxysmal complaint or 
threat is not proof of the responsibility of the 
patient for crime committed during the attack. 

A just disposal will be made of these criminals 
and of the malingerers for whom their legal ad- 
vocates enter a plea of transient insanity due to 
epilepsy, when they are promptly confined in a 
hospital under the eye of a competent alienist, 
that their interparoxysmal mental state may be 
studied, and the preparoxysmal and postparoxys- 
mal stages of subsequent attacks may be ob- 
served. Study of the intervallic period will 
generally prove barren of result; rarely will it 
afford evidence of a mind governed by delusions. 
Study of the conditions immediately antecedent 
and subsequent to the attacks will give evidence 
as to the presence of genuine automatism, of 
uncontrollable impulse, or of blind fury operat- 
ing during reductions in consciousness. 

Epilepsy in the Lower Animals. Some of 
the lower animals are subject to epileptic fits. 
The disease is common in dogs, cats, and highly 
bred pigs. The creatures writhe with involun- 
tary spasms and are for the time without sight 
or hearing. Sometimes the muscles of the throat 
are so involved that fatal suffocation occurs. 
The attack is generally preceded by dullness and 
lasts from 10 to 30 minutes. It is generally 
traceable to torpidity or irregularity of the 
bowels, worms, debility, or plethora. In dogs it 
is a frequent sequel to distemper. In cattle it 
usually occurs in connection with the engorge- 
ment of the first or third stomach; they throw 
themselves violently about, bellowing loudly, but 
seldom die. It is rare in horses. The treat- 
ment consists in freely opening the bowels, re- 
moving worms if any are present, with bleeding 
and spare diet if the patient's condition is 
high, and generous feeding and tonics where it 
is low. The best preventives are carefully regu- 
lated diet, an occasional laxative, with a course 
of tonics, and especially of arsenic. Good re- 
sults may be obtained in the treatment of cattle 
by giving four drams of bromide of potash three 
times daily. 

Consult : Gowers, Diseases of the Nervous Sys- 
tem (London, 1904) and The Borderland of 
Epilepsy (ib., 1907); Spratling, Epilepsy and 
its Treatment (Philadelphia, 1904); Turner, A 
Study of the Idiopathic Disease (London, 1907). 

EPILEPTIC COI/ONY. An establishment 
that differs from an asylum or a hospital for 
epileptic patients, in that it consists not of one 
building or a group of buildings in which the 
patients are kept for treatment, but of a large 
farm, in which groups of epileptics live in cot- 
tages or in many segregated buildings, and spend 
their time in gardens, out of doors, or in work- 
shops, schoolhouses, gymnasia, amusement build- 
ings, and chapels, hospitals, and libraries. The 
greatest improvement in previously hopeless 
cases and tne largest proportion of cures are 
secured in the colony system, with little drug- 
ging and with natural and hygienic conditions of 
life. The first epileptic colony, that of Bethel, 
at Bielefeld, in the Prussian Province of West- 
phalia, was established with four patients. The 
celebrated pastor, Friederich von-Bodelschwingh, 
first took charge of it in 1872. It has been 
marvelously successful. With its officers, physi- 
cians, nurses, and employees, and over 1600 
epileptics, the colony contains over 3600 persons. 

The patients are about equally divided in nui 

Digitized by VrrOOQlC 


ber between the sexes. About 8 per cent are 
cured; about 21 per cent are discharged im- 
proved; about 21 per cent leave unimproved; 
about 20 per cent die. About 61 per cent of the 
cured are under 18 years of age. Only 47 out of 
over 5000 patients have been turned over to 
insane asylums. 

Several other colonies have been established in 
Germany; there is one in Zurich, Switzerland; 
one in Holland; and one was established at 
La Force, near Lyons, France, by John Bost, a 
clergyman. At Chalfont St. Peter, England, a 
farm of 135 acres was purchased in 1893 by 
the National Society for the Employment of 
Epileptics, and the first building was opened 
for patients in August, 1894. There are six 
houses, with accommodations for 66 men, 24 
women, 24 girls, and 24 boys. England's second 
colony for epileptics was established at War- 
ford, near Alderley, Cheshire, in 1900, upon an 
estate of 400 acres. Detached buildings capable 
of holding 24 inmates have been erected. 

The Craig Colony of New York, at Sonyea, the 
most extensive in the United States, was opened 
Feb. 1, 1896, starting with 1900 acres of well- 
cultivated fields, orchards, and market gardens, 
with about 30 buildings already thereon; resi- 
dences, barns, and shops, the latter used in 
broom making, canning fruits and vegetables, 
etc. On the grounds are building-stone quarries, 
brick-clay deposits, and many acres of standing 
timber. A saw mill and a flour mill stand on a 
stream, which divides the tract of land into 
halves. The property formerly was the site of 
a settlement of thrifty Shakers. It is the larg- 
est in use for this purpose in the world, and is 
ideal in situation and facilities. An athletic 
field has been built where the patients engage 
in bicycling, tennis, baseball, and track sports. 
There is a military company of boys and young 
men, with a band of about 20 pieces. Instruc- 
tion is given in reading, writing, letter com- 
position, language, arithmetic, drawing, kinder- 
garten work, clay modeling, and basket weav- 
ing. There is also a class in manual training. 
A training school for nurses was started in 
May, 1912. The census, Sept. 30, 1912, was as fol- 
lows: 745 males, 673 females, total 1418. Dur- 
ing the previous fiscal year 130 males and 97 
females were admitted; 146 males and 83 fe- 
males were discharged, transferred, or died; 4 
recovered. Only chronic cases are taken. The 
per capita cost of maintenance has decreased 
with the increase of population. With an aver- 
age daily attendance of 1433 in 1911-12, the 
annual per capita cost was $212.92. The total 
cost of maintenance was $305,261.17, which was 
reduced by home production of canned goods, 
hay, grain, fodder, vegetables, and other prod- 
ucts to $272,615.35, and the net per capita 
cost was $175.79. 

The New Jersey State Village for Epileptics, 
founded 1898 at Skillman, has an area of 779 
acres. The Massachusetts Hospital for Epileptics, 
a colony, was opened in 1898 at Monson (P. O. 
Palmer) and comprises 658 acres, of which 203 
are tilled. It sheltered 900 patients in 1912. 
A private corporation, known as the Pennsyl- 
vania Epileptic Hospital and Colony Farm, 
established in 1898 a colony of 30 patients at 
Oakbourne, on a farm of 110 acres. There is 
also a colony for the feeble minded and epileptic 
at Spring City, with a population of 600 
(males). Texas established a colony for epilep- 
tics near Abilene in 1904. 


Several other States have established farm 
colonies for epileptics. Michigan has a Home 
for feeble minded and epileptics at Lapeer, 
sheltering 306 persons. The Indiana Village for 
Epileptics is situated at Newcastle, and has a 
capacity of 116. The Virginia State Epileptic 
Colony houses 100 patients, all males. 

EPTLO / BIUM (Neo-Lat., from Gk. M, epi, 
upon + Xo/96s, lobos, lobe, pod). A genus of 
plants of the family Onagracese. The species 
are herbaceous perennials, natives of temperate 
and cold countries, and very widely diffused in 
both the Northern and the Southern Hemi- 
spheres. The fireweed (EpUobium angusti folium) 
is frequently planted in gardens and shrubberies 
on account of its numerous and beautiful rose- 
colored flowers. It is called fireweed, from its 
very early and common occurrence in tracts that 
have been recently burned over. It is found in 
very northern regions. The pith, when dried, 
yields a quantity of sugar to boiling water, and 
is used in Kamchatka for making a kind of ale. 
Epilobium hireutwn, a European species fre- 
quently cultivated as an ornamental, has escaped 
and become established in many parts of the 
United States. It has showy magenta-colored 
petals and is very attractive. 

EPILOGUE (Lat. epilogue, Gk. hrCkoyot, con- 
clusion, from ivikiyiiv, epilegein, to say in addi- 
tion, from M, epi, upon -|- X^yetv, legein, to say). 
In oratory, the summing up or conclusion of a 
discourse; in a drama, the short speech in prose 
or verse which frequently, in former times, was 
subjoined to plays, especially to comedies. 

EPIMENIDES, epl-meVI-dez (Lat., from Gk. 
'EirtpcWdqf). A Greek priest of Crete, said to 
have come to Athens about 600 b.c, and to have 
purified the city from the guilt contracted by 
putting to death the adherents of Cylon (q.v.). 
The personality of Epimenides early became 
hidden under a mass of legend, as in the case 
of other prophets of new religious revelations 
in the seventh and sixth centuries B.C., when the 
Orphic movement (see Orpheus) was at its 
height, and to him was attached the common 
folk tale of a prolonged sleep. To him are 
attributed the lines cited by St. Paul (Titus i. 
12) : "The Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, 
idle gluttons." He is also said to have written 
a poem on the voyage of the Argonauts, to have 
composed numerous oracles, and to have written 
prose works on purificatory rites. Consult: 
Schultess, De Epimenide Cretensi (Gdttingen, 
1877) ; Loescheke, Die Enneakrunoe-Episode bei 
Pausanias (Dorpat, 1883) ; Toepfer, Attische 
Oenealogie (Berlin, 1889) ; Kern, De Orphei, 
Epimenidis, Phereeydis Theogoniis (ib., 1888) ; 
Diels, Epimenides von Kreta ( Sitzungsberichte 
der Berliner Akademie, 1891); Rohde, Psyche 
(Freiburg, 1890-94) ; Demoulin, Epimenide de 
Crite (Brussels, 1901); Diels, Die Fragmente 
der Vorsokratiker, 2d ed. (2 vols., Berlin, 


EPIMETHEUS (Lat, from Gk. 'Eiripiyfefr, 
afterthought). The son of Iapetus and Clymene, 
brother o? Prometheus and husband of Pandora, 
by whom he was father of Pyrrha, the wife of 
Deucalion. See Prometheus. 

&PINAL, a'pft'nal'. The capital of the De- 
partment of Vosges, France, situated at the 
western base of the Vosges Mountains, 1070 feet 
above sea level, on both banks of the Moselle, 
264 miles by rail east-southeast of Paris (Map: 
Northern France, M 4). It is a well-built, 
handsome town, with clean and regular streets. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


a number of public squares, a hospital, a college, 
and a library containing 30,000 valuable old 
volumes and 218 manuscripts. The depart- 
mental museum contains several collections of 
antiquities and a fine picture gallery. Among 
the chief buildings are the parish church, an 
antique Gothic structure; the barracks, and the 
residence of the prefect of the department. Its 
fort forms, with Belfort, Dijon, and Besancon, a 
line along the Moselle. This modern fortress, 
constructed since 1870, is considered one of the 
most important defensive works of France. 
There are ruins of an old castle and of ramparts 
of the thirteenth century. A monument com- 
memorates the victims of the war of 1870-71, 
when the Germans occupied the town after a 
brief battle. The manufactured products of 
Epinal include cotton fabrics, print goods, em- 
broidery, hats, starch, needles, wrought iron, 
pottery, cutlery, paper, and leather, and the 
town has some trade in grain, wine, and timber. 
Pop. (commune), 1901, 28,080; 1911, 30,042. 

£PINAL GLOSSABY. A glossary of Anglo- 
Saxon and Old Saxon, ascribed to the end of the 
seventh century, and so called because preserved 
at Epinal, France. A facsimile has been pub- 
lished by Sweet (London, 1883). 

EP1NASTY (from Gk. btL, epi, upon + 
racrSs, naatos, closely packed, from v&caetv, nos- 
«etn, to press close). In plants, the more rapid 
growth of a dorsiventral organ upon its upper 
side, causing the organ to bend downward or 
to be pressed close to the earth. This may be 
brought about by various external causes, or 
by unknown internal causes. See Growth; 

ftPINAY, a'pS'nfi', Louise Flobbnce Petbo- 


(1726-83). The friend of noted literary men, 
among them Diderot, LVAlembert, and Holbach, 
her relations with Rousseau and F. M. Grimm 
were more intimate still. After a formal sepa- 
ration from her husband, she retired to her 
Chateau de la Chevrette, in the valley of Mont- 
morency, where she played hostess to some of 
the most famous men of her day, especially to 
Rousseau, who spent a year (1756-57) in one 
of the outlying cottages-— since famous as the 
"Hermitage." There, with the help of Diderot, 
she conducted acceptably Grimm's famous Cor- 
respondence with European Courts. She wrote 
Les conversations d'Emilie (1774), a comple- 
ment to Rousseau's Emile, designed for the edu- 
cation of her granddaughter, later crowned by 
the Academy, and Memoires et oorrespondance 
(3 vols., 1818), which were translated in London 
by J. H. Freese (1899). Consult: Perey et 
Maugras, La jeunesse de Madame cVEpinay 
(Paris, 1882), and Les demieres anne'es de 
Madame d'Epinay (ib., 1883) ; H. Beaune, Scenes 
de la vie privte au XVII Ie siede: Madame 
oVEpinay et ses amis (Memoires de l'Acadeniie 
de Lyon, 1903). 

EP TOR^ KIS. See jEpyobnis. 

EPSIFHA/NITJB (Lat., from Gk. ^Ewupapios, 
Epiphanios), Saint (c.3 15-403). A Christian 
bishop and writer. He was born of Jewish par- 
ents m Besanduke, a village near Eleutheropolis, 
Judea, about 315. He may have been educated 
among the Egyptian hermits. On his return 
home at the age of 20 he established a monas- 
tery and became its head. He was ordained a 
priest and rose to the rank of Bishop of Con- 
stants (formerly Salamis) in Cyprus, and con- 
Vol. VTTL— 3 



tinued in that office from 367 till his death, in 
403. His monastic zeal covered the island with 
monasteries and his polemical talents were con- 
spicuously manifested against Origen (q.v.). 
Among his writings the most important are the 
Ancoratus, a polemic against Origen; the Ana- 
cephalceosis, summaries of theology and ritual; 
and the Panarion, or catalogue of all heresies 
(80 in number). As an historian Epiphanius 
was credulous and one-sided. His life is in 
Jerome's De Viris Illustrious. His works are 
in Migne, Patrol. Qrceca, xli-xliii, and have also 
been edited by Dindorf (Leipzig, 1859-62). The 
Panarion is separately edited by F. Oehler (Ber- 
lin, 1859-61) ; the Ancoratus and Anacephalao- 
sis are in German translation in the Kempten 
library of the Fathers. Consult Lipsius, Zur 
Quellenkritik des Epiphanius (Vienna, 1865). 

EPIPH'AITX' (Lat. epiphania, from Gk. ivi- 
<f>&pcia, epiphaneia, appearance, from ivifartt, 
epiphanes, evident, from 4wt<t>air€ir, epiphainein, 
to appear, from M t epi, upon -|- <}>alv€iv y phainein, 
to be evident, Skt. bhan, to shine, Olr. ban, 
white). A festival held on the 6th of January 
by the Roman Catholic, Eastern, and Anglican 
churches in commemoration of the manifesta- 
tion of Christ. Three different events are in- 
cluded in this celebration. As early as the 
third century at least it was observed as the 
commemoration of the baptism of Christ and 
His revelation to the world as the Son of God. 
This seems to have been the original use of 
the feast. Later, in the East it was also taken 
to commemorate the manifestation of divine 
power in Christ's first miracle at Cana in 
Galilee. In the Western church the adoration 
of the Magi was principally put forward, the 
baptism being specially mentioned in the serv- 
ice for the octave, and the miracle of Cana on 
the succeeding Sunday. In the fourth century 
the birth of Christ was also connected with it 
by some writers. In both East and West the 
Epiphany has always been a festival of the 
highest rank, and in the Eastern church the 
privilege still remains of dispensation from 
abstinence should the day fall on a Friday, 
which in the Roman Catholic church is now 
confined to Christmas. Many special observ- 
ances are or have been connected with the day, 
which, under the name of Twelfth Day, Twelfth 
Night, was a time of special merrymaking in 
England and closed the Christmas festivities. 
By provision of the Council of Nic«a the date 
of Easter for the year (then computed at Alex- 
andria) was, and still is in the Roman Catholic 
church, solemnly announced to the faithful on 
this day. In many places the blessing of water 
(frequently in rivers), and in some of houses, 
takes place on this day. Sovereigns commonly 
offered gold, frankincense, and myrrh at the 
altar — a custom which was still maintained at 
the French court in the fourteenth century, and 
which the King of England observes to this day 
in the Chapel Royal, St. James's. Dramatic 
representations of the events commemorated took 
place in churches during mass; some remains 
of these, performed in private houses, still 
linger in South Germany and Tirol. For other 
popular observances, see Befana; Bean Kino's 
Festival. For English popular customs, see 
Chambers, Book of Days (London, 1863-64). 
For the history of the festival, see Kellner, 
Hertologie (Freiburg, 1906). 

EPTPHE'GUS. See Cancer Root. 

EPIPHYSIS. See Pineal Body. 

Digitized by 



EP / IPHYTE (Neo-Lat., from Gk. M, epi 9 
upon + <pvr6* f phyton, plant, from 4>veiv, phyein, 
to produce). A plant which is mechanically, 
but not physiologically, attached to another 
plant. Such a plant derives its food chiefly 
from the air, getting, no parasitic nutrition 
from the plant on which it grows, and hence 
it is often called an air plant. Epiphytes are 
peculiarly characteristic of the tropical ever- 
green forests. Certain families, particularly 
ferns, orchids, and bromelias, are rich in epi- 
phytio forms, and many tree trunks in the tropics 
are covered with a luxuriant growth of vegeta- 
tion; even the, leaves are sometimes clothed 
with lichens. In the temperate and cold regions 
of the globe epiphytes are for the most part 
restricted to lower forms of plant life .that are 
able to endure cold or drought without injury, 
especially mosses, lichens, liverworts, and some 
forms of algee. 

The adaptations of tropical epiphytes are 
among the most striking of the plant kingdom. 
There are all degrees of epiphytism, as there are 
of parasitism, and Schimper has named the va- 
rious types as follows: "Protoe'piphytes" are 
but little different from soil plants; in fact, 
they represent soil plants that are often found 
growing on trees. "Hemiepiphytes" are plants 
which are at first true epiphytes, but which 
later send down soil roots and become soil 
plants (like some species of Ficus). "Nest 
epiphytes" are those which gather humus and 
water in various ways. "Cistern epiphytes," of 
which the bromelias are the type, are the most 
complete epiphytes of all, the roots being merely 
holdfast organs, so that all absorption is through 
the leaves. Many forms, especially the orchids, 
have well-developed storage organs, consisting 
of the swollen stems. Indeed, not alone in these 
storage organs, but also in the thick skins and 
in the stomatal adaptations, do epiphytes re- 
semble xerophytes (q.v.) in structure. The il- 
lustrations on the Plate of Orchids give a good 
idea of the character of epiphytic growths. In 
each case a branch has become the home of a 
varied growth without in any way contributing 
to the food of these plants or suffering from 
their presence. See Orchid. 

EPFBUS (Lat., from Gk. ffireipoj, Gpeiros, 
mainland). 1. The ancient name of the north- 
westernmost division of Greece. It was bounded 
on the east by Thessaly, on the south by the 
Ambracian Gulf and JEtolia, on the west by the 
Ionian Sea, and on the north by Illyria and 
Macedonia. On the eastern border was the 
mountain range called Pindus (q.v.). The chief 
town was Dodona (q.v.), situated in the only 
fruitful and well-watered plain, called Hellopia 
(now Janina). The rivers Acheron, Oropus, 
Aracthus, and others rise mostly in the Pindus 
Range and flow through rocky valleys. An- 
ciently Epirus was celebrated for its cattle 
and horses and for its breed of Molossian dogs. 
The region was inhabited by a number of 
tribes, generally believed by the Greeks not to 
be of pure Hellenic blood. The Greeks first 
came in contact with the chief coast tribes, the 
Thesprotians on the south and the Chaonians on 
the north. The third great tribe, the Molos- 
sians, in the interior, seem to have been but 
little touched by Greek influence before 400 b.c. 
About the beginning of the third century B.C., 
however, their King, Pyrrhus (q.v.), one of the 
most powerful princes of his time, succeeded in 
uniting Epirus under his rule. After his death 


a revolution occurred, which was followed 
about 230 b.c. by the formation of a league, 
which lasted until 168 b.c. Epirus was thence- 
forth for a time ruled by an elective officer, 
chosen by an assembly of all the Epirotes, held 
at a town called Passarion. In 168 the Ro- 
mans, having conquered Macedonia by defeat- 
ing King Perseus, ravaged Epirus, which had 
joined Perseus, destroyed its 70 towns, and 
united it to their empire. From the close of 
the fourth century a.d. Epirus formed part of 
the Byzantine Empire until 1£04, when one of 
the Comneni (see Comnenus) made himself in- 
dependent. His dynasty ruled the country until 
1318. After this, confusion and disorder filled 
the land until it was seized by the Turks in 
1430. For a time it was in the power of Scan- 
derbeg (q.v.), King of Albania, but later it fell 
again into the hands of the Turks. The region 
has been peopled largely since the fourteenth 
century by Albanians. (See Albania.) It now 
forms part of the Turkish Vilayet of Janina. 
The district east of the river Arta was ceded 
to Greece in 1881. Consult: Leake, Travels in 
Northern Greece (London, 1835) ; Philippson, 
Thessalien und Epirus (Berlin, 1897) ; Nilsson, 
Studien eur Geschichte der Men Epirus (Wurz- 
burg, 1909). 

2. An administrative province of Greece, 
formed out of the northwest section of terri- 
tory acquired by that country after the Balkan 
campaigns of 1912-13. Pop. (est.), 650,000. 
It is bordered on the north by Albania and on 
the east by the provinces of Macedonia and 
Thessaly (Map: Greece, B 2). The Gulf of 
Arta and the Ionian Sea form its southern and 
western boundaries respectively. Its capital is 
Janina, with a population of about 25,000. The 
chief products of the province consist of tobacco, 
wheat, and olives. Asphalt deposits are known 
between the town of Praga and the river Arta. 

EPISCOPAC Y. Se e Bishop; Obdebs, Holy. 

EPISCOPAL CHURCH. The body legally 
known as the Protestant Episcopal Church in 
the United States of America: the legitimate 
and lineal descendant in that country of the 
Church of England. It dates as a separate 
American ecclesiastical body from 1789, in 
which year it adopted its constitution, in the 
same city and in the same hall which had wit- 
nessed the framing of the Constitution of the 
United States of America two years before. 

The elements from which this organization 
grew were the Church of England parishes 
which had existed in the Colonies from the 
settlement of the country down to the War of 
the Revolution. These had all been under the 
nominal jurisdiction of the Bishop of London, 
who, however, never visited them and furnished 
them with no adequate disciplinary oversight. 
They had, in consequence, grown up without 
much knowledge of each other and with some- 
what different ecclesiastical traditions. In the 
South generally the English church was in a 
measure established by the government. In 
Virginia this was so from the beginning; in 
Maryland it became so at an early period, 
though at first, under Lord Baltimore, there had 
been complete religious toleration; in the Car- 
olinas and Georgia there was a precedence and 
leadership which came from the countenance and 
assistance of the mother church in England. 
Gaining strength from these conditions, the 
Episcopal churches of the Southern Colonies re- 
lied not so much on their inner principles as 

Digitized by 




1. JONOPUS. species. 

2. FROM RIoHTTOLEFT: above, Phllodendron cannlfollum; beneath, Codoranthe Oevoall; above (tree-Ilka) Flcut 

•pedes; Vrleaea: beneath, Anthurlum species; Rhipsalis, two species. 

(After Sen im per.) 

Digitized by 



on their outward privileges. Discipline became 
very lax, and the temper was Erastian. The 
distinctive ecclesiastical and theological notes 
of Anglicanism were not emphasised. The 
Colonial churches of Virginia, Maryland, and 
South Carolina came up to the General Conven- 
tions of 1785 and 1789 with a somewhat languid 
zeal and a disposition to minimize rather than 
enlarge and strengthen the essential and special 
features of episcopal government. 

In New England and the Middle States the 
tone and temper were different. There was not 
even a quasi-establishment of the English church 
in either. In Massachusetts it had come in 
as it were at the point of the bayonet An- 
dros, the first royal Governor of the Colony, 
brought it with him into a community which 
both disliked and dreaded it— disliked what was 
considered its lax discipline and dreaded the 
ecclesiastical tyranny from which the colonists 
had suffered in the mother country and from 
which they had escaped in coming to America. 
In the midst of a community thus minded, the 
English church assumed a rigid attitude, both 
defensive of its rights and somewhat denuncia- 
tory in its criticism of its despisers. The 
churchmanship of its adherents was high and 
dry, and their political creed was Toryism. 
Very generally Northern churchmen took the 
side of the English government in the Revolu- 
tion, in contrast with the attitude of the South- 
ern churchmen, which was largely patriotic. 

In Connecticut the English church was not 
introduced from without, but came into exist- 
ence by a spontaneous movement from within. 
In 1722 the Rev. Timothy Cutler, rector of 
Yale College, and Mr. Daniel Brown, his as- 
sistant instructor, together with two noted 
Congregational clergymen, Rev. Samuel John- 
son and Rev. James Wetmore, left the Congre- 
gational ministry, went abroad, and were or- 
dained in London. The conspicuous position of 
these men drew universal attention to their 
act, which gave rise to a spontaneous movement 
in the Qolony towards the Episcopal regimen. 
The church thus produced was very strong in 
its attachment to its doctrinal and practical 
system. Not so much, as m Massachusetts, 
from hatred of dissenters, but rather out of 
deep love for their own system and sincere con- 
viction of its obligation, Connecticut church- 
men became the most conservative of all the 
elements which entered into the national body. 
In the remaining portion of New England, as 
at Portsmouth ana Claremont in New Hamp- 
shire, at Portland and Gardiner in Maine, and 
at Narragansett, Newport, Bristol, and Provi- 
dence in Rhode Island, there were a few 
churches, but, owing to the ravages of the war, 
there were in all New England outside of Con- 
necticut only six Episcopal ministers at the 
close of the Revolution. The few remaining 
effective parishes were not of a rigorous type 
and were generally characterised by a sense of 
the propriety of worship in the use of the 
liturgy rather than by a hearty zeal for the 
principles and purposes of an episcopal gov- 

In the Middle States there were other differ- 
ences. The English church was introduced into 
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Dela- 
ware about the same time, but in different ways. 
In New York it found a footing in 1664, when 
the English wrested New Amsterdam from the 
Dutch, but it was not until 1693, under an 

Act of Assembly procured by Governor Fletcher* 
that it began to grow and became a quasi- 
establishment. Its temper was kindly towards 
the Dutch church, which it supplanted as the 
ruling ecclesiastical influence, but it was stanch 
in its advocacy of Episcopal principles. In 
New Jersey the first traces of the church are 
found in 1700. But it was in 1702 that two 
agents of the London Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, Keith and 
Talbot, visited the Colony, where as yet no 
Episcopal church existed. They were very 
earnest and energetic, and the corner stone of 
St. Mary's Church at Burlington was laid in 
1703. The church from this time was widely 
disseminated through the province and main- 
tained a character of steadfast adherence to the 
traditions of the Church of England. In Penn- 
sylvania the English church was not introduced 
by foreign officials, as in New York, nor by 
foreign missionaries as in New Jersey, but arose 
from a demand of the inhabitants themselves, 
holding an analogous position to that of Con- 
necticut in relation to Massachusetts and Rhode 
Island. The charter granted to William Penn* 
sole proprietor of Pennsylvania and Dela- 
ware, stipulated that "on the petitions of 20 
persons, a preacher or preachers might be sent 
out for their instruction and should be per- 
mitted to reside in the Province without any 
denials or molestation whatever." According 
to this proviso the first church building, the 

frecursor of Christ Church, was erected in 
hUadelphia in 1685, and George Keith, a se- 
oeder from the Quakers, became the first travel- 
ing missionary of the S. P. G. in 1702. But 
before Keith's coming, in the latter part of 
1701, the society, in answer to a lawful petition 
of sufficient citizens, according to the charter, 
had sent the first settled missionary, Rev. Evan 
Evans, a strenuous man who, before Keith's ar- 
rival, had baptized over 500 adults and children 
of Quaker families, thus making evident a legiti- 
mate demand for the Episcopal church. 

The movement to' constitute one Episcopal 
church Jor the whole United States began on 
May 11, 1784, at New Brunswick, N. J. Clergy- 
men from New York, New Jersey, and Pennsyl- 
vania had gathered there by appointment in the 
interests of the Corporation for the Relief of 
the Widows and Orphans of the Clergy. But 
their minds were charged with larger interests 
than the resuscitation of this benevolent cor- 
poration. They began at once to discuss the 
principles of a national ecclesiastical union. A 
committee of correspondence was appointed "for 
the purpose of forming a continental representa- 
tion of the Episcopal church and for the better 
management of the concerns of said church." 
It was resolved also to call a meeting, as gen- 
erally representative as possible of the clergy 
and laity of the different States, in the city of 
New York, on October 6 of the same year. 

Eight States were represented at this meet- 
ing, but some of the delegates had not been 
regularly appointed, and those who were had 
only received authority to propose and delib- 
erate. The convention, however, signed a dec- 
laration of "Fundamental Principles of an Ec- 
clesiastical Constitution," and appointed Sep- 
tember 27 of the following year (1785) as the 
date of a general convention to discuss their 
proposals, which advocated "one general Epis- 
copal church for the United States, to be con- 
stitutionally governed by representatives, cleri- 

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cal and lay, from the church in each State." 
It was further resolved "That this church em- 
body the doctrine and adopt the liturgy of the 
English church, so far as consistent with the 
changed political condition," and "That bishops 
be recognized as ex officio members of the Gen- 
eral Convention, and that the concurrence of 
clergy and laity be essential for the validity of 
all measures." 

This was a bold anticipation of a > future 
which was uncertain at the time of its formu- 
lation. The clergy of Connecticut had elected 
the Rev. Samuel Seabury as their first Bishop, 
and he had already made an attempt to secure 
consecration from the Church of England, which 
had failed through political obstacles which 
stood in the way of free action on the part of 
an established church. In the event, after wait- 
ing 16 months, he proceeded to Scotland and 
there (on Nov. 14, 1784) was finally consecrated 
by three bishops of the Scottish Episcopal 
church, who were not hampered by any con- 
nection with the state. Thus was ended the 
anomalous condition which had so hampered 
the Colonial churches, by obliging their candi- 
dates for ordination to take the long and peril- 
ous sea voyage in order to receive the episcopal 
laying on of hands. 

The first authorised General Convention was 
held in Christ Church, Philadelphia, Sept. 27, 
1785. After it had been called, the churches in 
the separate States had met in convention, or- 
ganized their dioceses, and appointed their dele- 
gates. Bishop Seabury was invited to attend, 
but his dissent from several of the fundamental 
principles kept him away, and with him all the 
delegates from New England absented them- 
selves. However, of the 13 States, seven (in- 
cluding all the Middle and Southern States, 
except Georgia) were represented by 16 clergy- 
men and 24 laymen. The fundamental prin- 
ciples formulated in 1784 were adopted with 
some slight modifications. In accordance with 
them, the "General Ecclesiastical Constitution 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church in America" 
was completed, which was to be presented to 
the churches in the various dioceses and ratified 
by the General Convention in 1789. It contained 
the general provisions already expressed and 
was firm in its maintenance of lay represen- 
tation in the legislature of the church. The 
committee which drafted the constitution was 
empowered to make necessary liturgical altera- 
tions in the Prayer Book and to prepare a 
plan for obtaining the consecration of more 
bishops. The Convention then adjourned, to 
await the reply of the English bishops, and to 
meet again in Philadelphia, June 20, 1786. The 
answer of the English bishops, which arrived in 
May, indicated that they would gladly comply 
with the request to consecrate bishops for 
America, could they be assured of the doctrinal 
and disciplinary soundness of the constitution 
and liturgy of the Protestant Episcopal church. 
A reply was sent, acknowledging the reasonable- 
ness of hesitation on their part and furnishing 
copies of the ecclesiastical constitution and the 
Proposed Book, as evidences of the soundness of 
the American church in doctrine, discipline, and 
worship. The English bishops expressed dis- 
satisfaction with the liturgical changes of the 
Proposed Book, insisting only on the restoration 
of the Apostles' Creed in its integrity, yet urg- 
ing a retention of the Nicene and Athanasian 
creeds, even if the use of them were merely 


optional. Before an answer to this could be 
sent, another communication came from the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, inclosing the Act of 
Parliament authorizing the consecration of 
bishops for America and announcing that only 
three bishops would be consecrated. 

The Convention of 1785, already twice ad- 
journed, met again at Wilmington, Del., Oct. 
10, 1786, and consented to restore the Apostles' 
Creed in its integrity, introduced the Nicene 
Creed into optional use, but declined even to 
insert the Athanasian Creed. Other changes 
of legislation, not very essential, commended 
by the English bishops, had either been already 
accomplished or were now conceded. It was 
found that three bishops had already been 
elected by their respective diocesan conventions 
—Dr. Samuel Provoost of New York, Dr. Wil- 
liam White of Pennsylvania, and Dr. David 
Griffith of Virginia. Their testimonials were 
signed by the Convention, and two of them, 
Drs. White and Provoost, were consecrated 
in the chapel of Lambeth Palace on Feb. 4, 

The General Convention of 1789 met in Phila- 
delphia, to ratify the constitution, establish the 
Prayer Book, and enact necessary canons. It 
was of the utmost importance that there should 
be unity of the Episcopal church throughout 
the length and breadth of the land. The times 
were more favorable than before for this con- 
summation. The national spirit had been at- 
tuned to unity by the ratification of the con- 
stitution and the election and inauguration of 
Washington three months earlier. The ecclesi- 
astical spirit had been so far modified since 
1785, by correspondence and consideration, that 
the Convention at once formally affirmed the 
validity of Bishop Seabury's consecration and 
enacted 10 canons, which showed increased and 
marked respect for the episcopal office. They 
adopted the constitution with such alterations 
as allowed representation of a church by cleri- 
cal members only and provided for a separate 
House of Bishops when there three 
of that order. 

On August 8 the Convention took a recess, 
during which Bishop Seabury and the New 
England churches concluded, in view of its ac- 
tion, to join it; and when it reassembled, on 
September 30, it represented the whole church 
in all its orders* A Prayer Book was adopted 
— not the Proposed Book, which had cost so 
much labor, but a simple adjustment of the 
English Prayer Book to American conditions, 
with certain verbal omissions and rubrical 
emendations, which, however, left it essentially 
the same book. (See Pbayeb Book, Common.) 
The Communion Office, in accordance with the 
wishes of Bishop Seabury, was perfected by 
closer adherence to the Scottish, and therefore 
to the Eastern, liturgies. The Convention ad- 
journed October 16, leaving the Protestant 
Episcopal church fully organized. 

For 20 years its energy seemed to have been 
exhausted by its organization. It was un- 
popular, as being identified with the English 
church. It was not alert in action. Its wor- 
ship was regarded as formal, its discipline as 
lax. The 20 clergymen and 16 laymen of the 
Convention of 1789 were increased by only five 
clerical and four lay representatives in 1811: 
and only once in those 22 years were there 
as many as five bishops at any General Con- 

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From the latter date, however, the chureh 
took a vigorous start, whose impulse has been 
felt ever since. It was due chiefly to three 
men — Bishops Hobart of New York, Griswold 
of New England, and Channing Moore of Vir- 
ginia — who reconstructed the church in their 
dioceses, both in number and in character. The 
leaven spread more widely still. In 1817 some 
of the Western States were organized into dio- 
ceses, and in 1820 the church is reported as 
organized, though not supplied with bishops, .in 
all the original States. The pioneer Bishop of 
the West was Philander Chase, consecrated in 
1819. Two dioceses, Ohio and Illinois, of which 
he was successively Bishop, and two colleges, 
Kenyon and Jubilee, founded by him, are his 
monuments. John Stark Ravenscroft, conse- 
crated Bishop of North Carolina in 1823, did 
a similar work in the wilder regions of the 
South, and in seven years changed a diocese of 
four churches into one of 28. 

By the time of Bishop White's death, in 1836, 
two great changes had begun to be apparent, 
which were to characterize the next period. One 
was the crystallization of party spirit, which 
was destined to give rise to heated controver- 
sies. On the one side stood the old Evangeli- 
cal party, represented by such distinguished 
men as Bishops Burgess, Eastburn, Chase, Lee, 
Alonzo Potter, Mllvaine, Bedell, and Stevens; 
by Richard Newton and Alexander H. Vinton 
and Francis L. Hawks; by Dr. Sparrow of the 
Virginian Seminary, its most learned theologian, 
and Stephen H. T?y n & * or years its recognized 
leader. The opposite school, to whose growth 
a great impetus was given by the Oxford move- 
ment across the sea (though the earlier bishops, 
Seabury and Hobart and Ravenscroft, are to be 
classed with it), emphasized the objective, the 
institutional side of religion — a tendency es- 
pecially natural in a country where the church 
was left to vindicate and sustain itself without 
aid or countenance from the state. While for 
time, by a sort of tacit compact, the 

foreign missionary work was left to the Evan- 
gelicals, the home field was cultivated rather 
by the High Churchmen. The General Theolog- 
ical Seminary (founded in New York in 1817 
and molded by Bishop Hobart's influence) in- 
clined its pupils to the views of the latter. 
Otey and Kemper in the West acted on their 
principles; Breck and Adams founded their 
associate mission at Nashotah on them. Bishop 
George Washington Doane of New Jersey, than 
whom no one in his day was more instrumental 
in shaping the history of the church, was the 
most commanding representative of this school, 
as Bishop Whittingham of Maryland was its 
most learned counselor. 

The other distinctive feature of the central 
period of the nineteenth century was the expan- 
sion of the church beyond the narrow limits 
which had at first confined it. The General 
Convention of 1836 elected the first missionary 
Bishop so called— Jackson Kemper, who became 
the apostle of the northwestern territory lying 
east of the Rocky Mountains, founding and fos- 
tering the church in Missouri, Indiana, Iowa, 
and Minnesota. Such vast and unexplored re- 
gions were confined to the charge of single 
bishops that one of them used playfully to 
style himself Bishop of All-outdoors; but their 
labors were so earnest and continuous that it 
was only a logical consequence of them when, 
in 1859, the General Convention made the epis- 


copate coextensive with the boundaries of the 
United States. 

The history of the Episcopal church at the 
time of the Civil War is of special importance 
because of its bearing on both national and 
religious reunion after peace had been restored. 
To the influence which it had acquired by the 
abstinence of its clergy from political strife, the 
delay of the actual conflict was largely due; 
and a strikingly fraternal spirit prevailed in 
its councils throughout even the height of the 
bitter struggle. When the General Convention 
met in New York in 1862, seats were assigned 
to the Southern bishops and deputies, and their 
names were called as usual. The latter had 
considered themselves forced to outward eccle- 
siastical separation, but declared that, "though 
now found within different political boundaries, 
the chureh remains substantially one." By the 
time that the next General Convention met 
peace had been declared; and so tactfully were 
the delicate questions of the moment handled 
that complete reunion was effected with the 
least possible friction. The whole attitude of 
the church gained public respect and confidence, 
and the manner in which it led the way in 
reunion was of undoubted service to the work 
of national reconstruction. 

After the reunion of churchmen as citizens 
had been thus happily accomplished, they were 
for a while divided in spirit by fierce theological 
controversies. A determined attempt was made 
to suppress the outward developments of what 
is known as ritualism, especially in the Gen- 
eral Conventions of 1868, 1871, and 1874. The 
opposing parties valued or condemned these 
external manifestations, not for their own sake, 
but because of the doctrines they were sup- 
posed to symbolize, which were held by their 
opponents to be practically those of the Roman 
Catholic church. In spite of the eloquent argu- 
ments of the leader of the High Church forces, 
the distinguished warden of Racine College, 
James De Koven, a canon which marks the 
height of the movement in favor of repression 
was passed in 1874, limiting the ritual which 
might be employed in the celebration of the 
Holy Communion; but it remained practically 
a dead letter until its repeal in 1904. The ques- 
tion of baptismal regeneration was also pro- 
ductive of heated debate; in 1871, 48 out of 
53 bishops issued a declaration that in their 
opinion "the word regenerate in the offices for 
the ministration of baptism of infants is not 
there so used as to determine that a moral 
change in the subject of baptism is wrought 
in the sacrament." This failed, however, to 
satisfy the extreme Low Churchmen, a number 
of whom withdrew in 1873, under the leadership 
of Dr. Cummins, then Assistant Bishop of Ken- 
tucky, and constituted the Reformed Episcopal 
church (q.v.). 

Partly through the withdrawal of these ag- 
gressive elements, and partly through the gen- 
eral drift of opinion in the church, the old 
Evangelical party, as a party, has had less and 
less influence in late years. The High Church 
party, on the other hand, has grown continu- 
ously both in numbers and influence; and what 
were advanced ritualistic practices a genera- 
tion ago are now placidlv accepted by the most 
moderate churchmen. At the same time the 
Broad Church school, which was an outcome of 
the movement of Maurice and Kingsley and 
Stanley in England, has attained a large and 

Digitized by 



increasing share of power. The two older par- 
ties agreed in their insisting on the importance 
of dogmatic belief, differing only as to which 
particular set of dogmas were to be empha- 
sized. The new one stands for individual free- 
dom of both thought and action and looks 
doubtfully upon claims to absolute authority, 
whether in church or Bible. In its conception 
of applied Christianity it is largely humani- 
tarian and is forward to provide for the tem- 
poral as well as the spiritual needs of men. 

By this growing latitude of belief on the one 
hand, and by its connection with the historic 
past and its dignified liturgical form of wor- 
ship on the other, the Episcopal chureh has in 
recent years appealed so strongly to numbers 
of educated men and women as to make nat- 
ural its consideration of itself as a possible 
centre and rallying point for the reunion of 
the widely varying forms of Protestant Chris- 
tianity in America. This movement really be- 
gan with the memorial presented to the House 
of Bishops in 1853 by Dr. Muhlenberg, a man 
far in advance of his generation in many par- 
ticulars, which looked to "some ecclesiastical 
system broader and more comprehensive . . . 
providing for as much freedom in opinion, 
discipline, and worship as is compatible with 
the essential faith and order of the Gospel." 
This spirit of conciliation found definite ex- 
pression in the declaration of the House of 
Bishops in 1886, which was confirmed, with 
some minor changes, by the Lambeth Confer- 
ence two years later. It set forth as an ir- 
reducible minimum, "as inherent parts of the 
sacred deposit, and therefore as essential to 
the restoration of unity among the divided 
branches of Christendom: (1) the Holy Scrip- 
tures of the Old and New Testament as the 
revealed word of God; (2) the Nicene Creed 
as the sufficient statement of the Christian 
faith; (3) the two sacraments — baptism and 
the supper of the Lord — ministered with un- 
failing use of Christ's words of institution and 
of the elements ordained by Him; (4) the 
historic episcopate locally adapted in the meth- 
ods of its administration to the varying needs 
of the nations and peoples called of God into 
the unity of His Church." This is the "Chi- 
cago-Lambeth quadrilateral." 

The general position of the Episcopal church 
is explicitly declared in the preface to the 
Prayer Book, which states that "this Church 
is far from intending to depart from the Church 
of England in any essential point of doctrine, 
discipline, or worship." Its organization in 
spiritual matters is substantially the same as 
that of the mother church, with which it main- 
tains close relations, made more effective by the 
participation of American bishops in the Lam- 
beth conferences, held approximately every 10 
years. (See Anglican Communion; Lambeth 
Conference.) Its constitution, of which a re- 
vision, together with a revised body of canons, 
was adopted in 1004, is in many particulars 
analogous to that of the nation, except that the 
powers of its executive head are strictly limited 
and hardly more than nominal. He is called 
the Presiding Bishop, and is the senior Bishop 
in order of consecration. A movement in favor 
of facilitating the government of the church 
culminated in 1904, when constitutional provi- 
sion was made for a division of the country 
into strictly organized provinces, with a metro- 
politan see at the head of each, and when eight 


judicial "departments" for Courts of Review 
were established by canon. 

In legislative matters, for purposes affecting 
the whole church, the General Convention is 
supreme. The body, which meets triennially 
in different places, is composed of two houses, 
the House of Bishops, consisting of all bishops 
of the United States and foreign missionary 
bishops, and the House of Clerical and Lay 
Deputies, composed of four clergymen and four 
laymen elected from each diocese; missionary 
jurisdictions are represented in the House of 
Deputies by one clergyman and one lay delegate. 
Legislation, to be effective, must be passed by a 
concurrence of both houses and, in the lower 
house, of both orders. At the General Conven- 
tion held in New York City in October, 1913, 
provision was made for the further organization 
under a provincial system according to which 
the dioceses and missionary jurisdictions in the 
United States and its colonies are grouped in 
eight provinces, each to have certain functions 
as to organization, holding of conventions, and 
legislation, but in subordination to the general 
organization. Each diocese holds its own an- 
nual convention, composed in most instances of 
the clergy canonically resident within it, and 
of lay delegates for each parish, sitting as one 
house and presided over by the Bishop. The 
General Convention can make no alteration in 
the constitution or the Prayer Book until it 
has been laid over for three years, officially 
signified to every diocese, and passed again at 
the subsequent Convention. The diocesan con- 
ventions legislate for the internal affairs of 
each diocese, in harmony with the general 
canons. Each diocese has also a standing com- 
mittee, composed of both clergy and laity, which 
has various administrative functions, and in the 
case of a vacancy in the see acts as the "ec- 
clesiastical authority" of the diocese; the elec- 
tion of new bishops must be confirmed by a 
majority as well of the standing committees as 
of the other bishops of the whole church. 

In 1914 there were 67 dioceses and 21 mis- 
sionary districts (which may be described as 
embryo dioceses) in the United States and its 
colonies; also one missionary district in Africa, 
one in Cuba, one in Mexico, three in China, and 
two in Japan, besides two bishoprics, not strictly 
forming a part of the Episcopal church, in 
Brazil and Haiti. There were also nine organ- 
ized chaplaincies on the continent of Europe, 
which minister primarily to Americans. The 
organized parishes and missions in the United 
States, including Alaska, Honolulu, the Phil- 
ippine Islands, and Porto Rico, in 1914 num- 
bered 8326, and the clergy 6715, including 
116 diocesan, coadjutor, and missionary bishops. 
There were 1,004,217 communicants, 51,267 
Sunday-school teachers, and 460,091 Sunday- 
school scholars. During the year 69,639 persons 
were baptized and 55,771 confirmed. The total 
contributions for the year amounted to $19,- 

As the church has expanded, many new agen- 
cies have arisen to foster and extend its exuber- 
ant life. Chief among these are 18 sister- 
hoods (q.v.) in which women are bound together 
for work and devotion, three religious orders 
for men, and the revived order of Deaconesses 
(q.v.) ; the Domestic and Foreign Missionary 
Society, to which every baptized member of the 
church is considered ipso facto to belong; the 
Brotherhood of St. Andrew (q.v.), which enlists 

Digitized by 




the active work of laymen, and the church 
clubs, also for laymen, of which there are 24; 
the Daughters of the King (<}.v.), for women; 
the Church Temperance Society (q.v.) ; the 
Parochial Missions Society, and the American 
Church Sunday School Institute. Church hospi- 
tals, begun by Dr. Muhlenberg with St. Luke's 
in New York and followed by the Episcopal 
Hospital in Philadelphia, have exemplified the 
humanitarian side of religion; while schools 
under religious influence, which owe their in- 
ception to the same far-seeing founder, have 
multiplied throughout the country. Colleges 
such as those at Hartford, Geneva, Racine, 
Sewanee, Gambier, and South Bethlehem, pro- 
vide for higher education. Schools for the train- 
ing of clergy are maintained in New York City 
(established 1817) ; Theological Seminary, Fair- 
fax Co., Va. (1823); Gambier, Ohio (1828); 
Nashotah, Wis. (1842); Middletown, Conn.; 
Philadelphia, Pa., ( 1857 ) ; Sewanee, Tenn. 
(1857); Faribault, Minn. (1858); Geneva, 
N. Y.; Cambridge, Mass. (1867); Denver, Colo. 
(1871); Syracuse, N. Y. (1876); Topeka, 
Kans.; Chicago, 111 (1885); San Mateo, Cal. 
(1894); Petersburg, Va. (1884), and Wash- 
ington, D. C. (1801), for colored students; and 
Tokio, Japan, The principal organs of the 
church in the press are The Churchman (New 
York), The Living Church (Milwaukee), and 
The American Catholic (San Francisco). Other 
church publications are The Pariah "Visitor 
(New York), The Spirit of Missions (New 
York), The Church Militant (Boston), and St. 
Andrew's Cross (Boston). 

Bibliography. Perry, History of the Ameri- 
can Episcopal Church, 1587-1883, with mono- 
graphs (2 vols., Boston, 1885) ; id., A Half 
Century of Legislation, journals of General Con- 
vention, 1786-1835, with historical notes and 
documents (3 vols., Milwaukee, 1874) ; Coleman, 
The Church in America (New York, 1895) ; 
Tiffany, History %/ the Protestant Episcopal 
Church (ib., 1895) ; McConnell, History of the 
American Episcopal Church (ib., 1890); An- 
derson, History of the Church of England in 
the Colonies (3 vols., 2d ed., London, 1856); 
White, Memoirs of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in America (3d ed., New York. 1880) ; 
Digest of the Records of the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel, 1101-1892 (London, 
1893 ) ; Perry, Historical Collections Relating 
to the American Episcopal Church (4 vols., 
covering Virginia, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, 
Maryland, and Delaware, Hartford, 1870) ; 
Hawks, Contributions to the Ecclesiastical His- 
tory of the United States of America (2 vols., 
covering Virginia and Maryland, New York, 
1836-39) ; Beardsley, History of the Episcopal 
Church in Connecticut from 1635 to 1865 (4 
vols., Boston, 1883) ; Burgess, Pages from the 
Ecclesiastical History of New England (ib., 
1862); Wilson (ed.), Centennial History of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese 
of New York (New York, 1886) ; Cross, The 
Anglican Episcopate and the American Colonies 
(ib., 1902) ; Addison, The Episcopalians (ib., 
1904) ; Seabury, Memoir of Bishop Seabury 
(ib.. 1908). 

fob med Episcopal Church. 

institution for the education of Episcopal 
clergymen, situated at Cambridge, Mass. It 
waa founded in 1867 by Benjamin Tyler Reed. 


The school offers courses leading to the degree 
of B.D., which is conferred on students holding 
bachelor's degrees. The principal buildings in- 
clude the chapel, the deanery, the library, and 
Reed, Burnham, Lawrence, and Winthrop halls. 
The students in 1914 numbered 56. The school 
is affiliated with Harvard University. 

EP'ISCCPrOTS (Neo-Lat., from Lat. episco- 
pus, Gk. iwtaicovos) episkopos, bishop; a transla- 
tion of his Dutch name, Bisschop, Bishop), 
Simon (1583-1643). A Dutch theologian, after 
the death of Arminius the head of the Arminian 
party. He was born in Amsterdam, studied at 
Leyden, took his degree of MA. in 1606, and 
was ordained pastor of the village of Bleyswyck 
near Rotterdam, in 1610. In the following year 
the States-General, with the intention of putting 
an end to the agitations created by the con- 
troversies between the Gomarists, or Calvinistic 
party, and the Arminians, or Remonstrants, 
ordered a conference to be held in their presence 
at The Hague between six ministers of each 
party. Episcopius was one of the six charged 
with the advocacy of Arminianism and highly 
distinguished himself by his good temper, 
ability, and learning. In 1612 the curators of 
the University of Leyden appointed him pro- 
fessor of theology in the place of Gomarus, who 
had gone to Zeeland; this enraged the leaders 
of the orthodox party, who unscrupulously ac- 
cused him of Socinianism. This was one factor in 
the calling of the Synod of Dort (qiv.), 1618-19. 
Episcopius was present, along with several other 
Arminians; but the Calvin i 8 ts, who were in an 
overwhelming majority, would not allow him to 
speak. He was expelled from the church and 
banished from the country. Episcopius betook 
himself first to Antwerp and afterward to Rouen 
and Paris, but in 1626 returned to Rotterdam. 
In 1634 he was made professor of divinity in 
the newly established seminary of the Remon- 
strants in Amsterdam. His works were pub- 
lished in Amsterdam (1650-65). The chief are 
the Confessio Remonstrant ium (1621) and the 
Apologia pro Confessions (1629). Consult Cal- 
der, Memoirs of Simon Episcopius (London, 
1838). See Gomabus; Arminius. 

EPISTATES, e-pls'ta-tez (Lat., from Gk. <hn- 
eraTfi% commander, president, from 4<t>i*T<ur0ai, 
ephistasthai, to preside, from ivl, epi } upon, over 
4- lardvai, histanai, to stand). In general, the 
title in ancient Greece of any officer in charge of 
certain functions, but in particular the title of 
the presiding officer of the two great Athenian 
councils, the Ecclesia and the Senate of Five 
Hundred. (See Boule.) The Senate was di- 
vided into 10 bodies, representing the 10 tribes, 
of 50 members each, and each body of 50 acted 
in turn as a committee of both councils for a 
period of from 35 to 39 days. The members of 
this committee were called Prytanes, and every 
day there was chosen from among their number 
a single member, called the Epistates of the 
Prytanes, or briefly the Epistates, to act as chief 
presiding officer for that day. 

EPISTAXIS (Neo-Lat, corrupted from Gk. 
iwiffraytiAi, epistagmos, nose-bleed, from iiriaTd- 
far, epistazein, to bleed at the nose, from ivi, 
epi, upon -+- *t&I;cw, stazein, to drip). Hem- 
orrhage from the nose, a symptom of various 
conditions. It occurs in some people frequently 
after heavy work or exertion causing the heart 
to beat violently, or during paroxysms of cough- 
ing, as in whooping cough. It may be a pre- 
monitory symptom of typhoid fever, or it may be 

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a symptom of disease of the heart or kidneys in 
which the blood vessels are diseased, or during 
purpura or hemophilia (q.v.). Menstruation 
sometimes manifests itself, vicariously, as a 
nosebleed. It is caused by picking the nose, 
whereby small ulcerations are produced. If it 
does not stop through spontaneous clotting in 
the nostril or after pressure of the wing of the 
nostril against the septum, it may be necessary 
to have a physician look into the nostril, find the 
bleeding point, and apply cotton alone or mois- 
tened with adrenalin or tannin or alum to it. 
In serious cases the nostril must be plugged in 
front and behind in the throat. In haemophilia, 
a disease in which the blood loses its plasticity 
or clotting power, nosebleed may be fatal. See 

EPIS'TEMOI/OGY (from Gk. brurr/ifiri, epis- 
temt, knowledge, from MeraaOai, epistasthai, to 
know + -\oyia, -logia, account, from X*yeii», 
legein, to say). A technical term, probably 
originated by Ferrier, and used in philosophy to 
designate that branch of inquiry which deals 
with the origin, validity, and limits of our 
knowledge. Before we can arrange and classify 
scientifically the knowledge we have attained, 
it is necessary, so some have claimed, to have at 
least a theory to account for our possession of 
it and to guarantee its value. Epistemology is 
often differentiated from psychology by its deal- 
ing with the validity of knowledge rather than 
with the analysis of the knowing mind (struc- 
tural psychology), or with the development of 
cognition (genetic psychology), or with the part 
the knowledge plays in life (functional psychol- 
ogy). In recent literature, especially in prag- 
matic circles, epistemology is used in a dyslo- 
gistic sense as applied only to those theories 
of knowledge which regard knowledge as a thing 
to be considered in a different way from other 
subjects of inquiry and which therefore repudi- 
ate in this study the methods in vogue in the 
natural sciences. Such a theory was Kant's, 
who maintained that there are a priori (q.v.) 
percepts and concepts, that a careful listing 
and examination of these are prerequisite to any 
acceptable metaphysics, and that there can be 
genuine knowledge, as distinct from disconnected 
sensations, only when these a priori percepts 
and concepts have played their part in con- 
structing the object known. 

But there is no very good reason to confine 
the term "epistemology" to just one type of 
dealing with knowledge. Whether a philosopher 
regards knowledge as having a transcendental 
origin or a biological origin, whether he treats 
knowledge as a thing unique or as an instrument 
of adjustment when difficulties are met in ex- 
perience, he has a theory of knowledge or an 
epistemology. Consult, for the Kantian epis- 
temology, the works referred to under Kant. 
For more recent views, consult: Dewey, Studies 
in Logical Theory (Chicago, 1903) ; The In- 
fluence of Darwin on Philosophy (New York, 
1910); James, Pragmatism (ib., 1907); The 
Meaning of Truth (ib., 1909) ; Essays in Radical 
Empiricism (ib., 1912) ; Bergson, Creative 
Evolution (Eng. trans., ib., 1911); Marvin, in 
The New Realism (ib., 1912). See Knowledge, 
Theory of; Instbumentalism ; Pragmatism. 

EPISTLE (AS. epistol, OF. epistle, epistre, 
Fr. 6pttre, Lat. epistola, from Gk. ivurroX'fi, epis- 
toU, letter, from hrtsriWetv, epistellein, to send, 
from M, epi, upon + ariWetw, stellein, to send ) . 
Properly, a letter; used specially for a letter 


intended for publication, or which, having been 
published, belongs to literature. The 21 books 
of the New Testament immediately following 
the Book of Acts are called the Epistles, having 
been originally letters or cast in epistolary 
form. The first 13, traditionally assigned to St. 
Paul, used to be called the Apostle. The two 
epistles to Timothy and that to Titus are called 
the pastoral Epistles because they treat of the 
duties of a pastor. The general or catholic 
Epistles are those of Peter, James, John, and 
Jude. For discussion of the authorship, date, 
and other questions connected with these books, 
see the articles on the separate books. 

The lesson in the liturgy which precedes the 
gospel for the day is called the epistle, because 
generally taken from the New Testament Epis- 
tles; in the Middle Ages, because most of them 
were taken from St. Paul, it was frequently 
called the apostle. In the earlier ages it was 
customary to read two lessons, one from the 
prophets and one from the Epistles, on feast 
days. In the modern Roman missal many of the 
epistles are taken from the Old Testament; on 
a few days two lessons are still read in this 
place, on Ember Saturday six, of which the first 
five are from the Old Testament. St. Jerome 
is said by the mediaeval liturgical writers to 
have made the selection of the epistles and 
gospels at the request of Pope Damasus. The 
epistle was formerly read or sung from the 
ambo (q.v.) ; about the end of the Middle Ages 
it became customary to recite it facing the 
altar. Being addressed to the faithful, it is 
read at the south side of the altar, which in 
medieval symbolism typifies the quarter of light, 
while the gospel, preached to the heathen, is 
read towards the north, the quarter of darkness 
and evil. Down to the eighth century the lector, 
or reader, was charged with the recitation of 
the epistle; then it was attributed to the sub- 
deacon, not at first as a function of his office, 
but as a concession. # 

EPISTLES, Spurious. See Apocrypha. 

left side of the altar or communion table, look- 
ing from it, at which in the church service the 
epistle of the day is read. It is of lesser dis- 
tinction than the right, or gospel, side and is 
occupied by the clergymen of lower ecclesiastical 
rank. In early churches, when in the choir 
there was an ambo (q.v.) on each side — one for 
the epistles, the other for the gospels — the term 
was applied to the choir also. 

EPISTLES OF HORACE. A series of poems 
by Horace, in the form of letters to individuals, 
published between 20 and 12 B.C. They are a 
continuation of the Satires, but differ from the 
latter in their more tolerant and philosophical 
atmosphere, in their better taste, and in literary 
form. They are arranged in two books, and are 
in hexameter verse. The Epistula, ad Pisones is 
a famous piece of criticism, better known as the 
Ars Poetica (q.v.). 

(Lat., Letters of Obscure Men). The title of a 
collection of satirical letters which appeared at 
Hagenau in 1515. professing to be issued by the 
Aldine Press at Venice. It purported to be the 
composition of certain ecclesiastics and pro- 
fessors in Cologne and other places in Rhenish 
Germany. The letters were directed against the 
scholastics and monks and helped in no small 
degree to bring about the Reformation. The con- 
troversy of Reuchlin (q.v.) with the baptized 

Digitized by 



Jew Pfefferkorn concerning the destruction of 
the Talmudic books gave the first occasion to 
the Epistolce, and probably their title was sug- 
gested by the letters to himself from distin- 
guished men which Reuchlin published, under the 
title Virorum Epistolce Clarorum ad Reuchlinum 
Phorcensem (1514), to show that his position in 
this controversy was approved by the learned. 
The Epistolce Obscurorum were addressed to 
Ortuinus Gratius in Deventer, who had made 
himself odious to the liberal minds of the time 
by his arrogant pretension, his determined hos- 
tility to the spirit of the age, and his lax mo- 
rality. On the first appearance of the work it 
was ascribed to Reuchlin, afterward to Reuchlin, 
Erasmus, and Hutten. The first part contained 
41 letters, a number which was increased in 
subsequent editions. It was probably mainly the 
composition of the distinguished humanist Cro- 
tus Rubianus, who originated the idea. In the 
composition of the second part (1519) Ulrich 
von Hutten had much share, but others partici- 
pated, including Crotus. The Epistolce were 
placed in the catalogue of forbidden books by a 
papal bull. The classical edition is that by 
Backing, Supplementum Ulrici Hutteni Operum, 
vols, vi, vii (Leipzig, 1864-70). There is a 
German translation by Binder (Stuttgart, 1876). 
Consult: Strauss, Ulrich von Hutten (6th ed., 
Leipzig, 1895), of which there is an English 
translation (London, 1874) ; Pattison, Essays 
(Oxford, 1889) ; Brecht, Die Verfasser der Epis- 
tolce Obscurorum Virorum (Strassburg, 1904). 

term for the clergyman (answering to the sub- 
deacon in the Roman mass) who, in accordance 
with the twenty-fourth canon of 1603, assists 
the celebrant in the administration of Holy 
Communion. The name is derived from the fact 
that his principal duty is to read the epistle. 
See Gospbleb. 

EPISTROPHE. See Chloboplast. 

from Pontus). Four books of letters, written 
by Ovid from his place of exile on the Black 
Sea. In them the poet bitterly complains of his 
dreary life and his separation from his family 
and appeals frantically to his friends at Rome to 
intercede for him with the Emperor. As were 
the Tristia, which preceded them, the letters are 
in the elegiac measure (see Distich; Elegy), 
but give the names of the persons addressed. 

EP'ISTYIilUM or EPISTYLE (Lat., from 
Gk. twtartXior, epistyUon, from M, epi, upon + 
ffrGXos, stylos, column). A beam of stone or 
sometimes of wood, which rests upon the capitals 
of columns or pillars and spans the space be- 
tween them. It is synonymous with the more 
customary term "architrave" ( q.v. ) . See Column. 

BPTTAPH (Lat. epitaphium, epitaphius, 
from Gk. iwtrd<fnos t epitaphios, funeral, from M, 
epi, upon + T^or, taphos, tomb: supply X670f, 
logos, word, utterance). Properly a brief com- 
memorative inscription on a tomb or other 
monument over a grave. The oldest inscriptions 
of this kind are inscriptions on ancient Egyptian 
sarcophagi. These epitaphs all contain simply 
a statement of the name, family, and condition 
of the deceased, with a prayer to some deity, 
generally Osiris or Anubis. The earliest Greek 
epitaphs are from the island of Thera and date 
from a time as early at least as the seventh 
century b.o. They contain simply the name of 
the deceased. The earliest Athenian epitaphs 
are also very short, containing hardly more than 



the name of the deceased, together with that of 
the deceased's father, and are often written in 
verse, generally in an elegiac distich. The Greek 
epitaphs from later times are often of consider- 
able length and are very various in character; 
they are frequently, also, in the form of the 
epigram. Roman epitaphs were much more 
meagre than the later Greek epitaphs. On the 
Roman urns are the letters D. M. or D. M. S. 
{Diis Manibus or Diis Manibua Sacrum), fol- 
lowed by particulars with regard to the deceased, 
his age, name, and office, and the name and re- 
lationship of the person who has had the urn 
made. The letters D. M. frequently occur in 
Christian epitaphs found in the Catacombs. A 
not uncommon feature of the Roman inscription 
is the strong adjuration addressed to the 
passers-by not to disturb the tomb, and a griev- 
ous curse for the man who should violate this 
injunction. They contain often, also, an ad- 
monition to the passer-by to stop and read the 
record on the tomb. Latin remained till very 
recent times the usual language for epitaphs in 
England, at least in the case of famous men 
and women. 

In modern as in ancient times, the epitaph has 
been made a literary form, as, e.g., by Ben 
Jonson and Pope. Dr. Samuel Johnson wrote 
an essay on epitaphs; so, too, did William 
Wordsworth. For Greek epitaphs, consult: 
KaibeTs Epigrammata Orceoa ex Lapidibus Col- 
lecta (Berlin, 1878); Reinach, TraiU d'epi- 
graphic grecque (Paris, 1885) ; Preger, Inscrip- 
tiones Grwoce Metricce em Scriptoribus prceter 
Anthologiam Collectce (Leipzig, 1891); Corpus 
Inscriptionum Attioarum (Berlin, 1878-82). 
For Latin epitaphs: Corpus Inscriptionum Lati- 
narum (ib., 1863 et seq.) ; Blicheler and Riese, 
Anthologia Latina, vol. ii (Leipzig, 1869-70), es- 
pecially the second part, Carmina Epigraphica 
Latina (ib., 1895-97), interestingly reviewed by 
Abbott, in American Journal of Philology, vol. 
xix (New York, 1898) ; Tolman, A Study of the 
Sepulchral Inscriptions in Bucheler's Carmina 
Epigraphica Latina (Chicago, 1910) ; Clara L. 
Thompson, Tadium Vitce in Roman Sepulchral 
Inscriptions (St. Louis, 1911); Armstrong, Au- 
tobiographic Elements in Latin Inscriptions 
(New York, 1910) ; Cholodniak, Carmina Se- 
pulcralia Latina (St. Petersburg, 1897). For 
modern epitaphs, consult: Kippax, Churchyard 
Literature: A Choice Collection of American Epi- 
taphs (Chicago, 1876) ; Andrews, Curious Epi- 
taphs (London, 1883). See Epiobam; Anthol- 
ogy; Simon ides (of Ceos). 

EP'ITHALAICITXM (Lat., from Gk. twi$a\d- 
fitos, epithalamios, nuptial, from iwl, *pi, upon, 
at -f- IdXapof, thalamos, bridal chamber: supply 
tifipot, hymnos, hymn). Among the ancient 
Greeks and Romans a marriage song sung by a 
chorus of maidens, or of youths and maidens, 
before the chamber of a newly married couple. 
It was sung ordinarily on the evening of the 
marriage day; but there was also a waking 
song. Closely connected with the epithalamium 
is the hymeneal song (vfUvaios), which was sung 
either at the wedding banquet or during the 
marriage procession to the new home. As a 
general term, the hymeneal includes the epitha- 
lamium. Among the Greeks the epithalamia and 
hymeneals of Sappho were prized above all 
others; but Alcman, Anacreon, S tee i chorus, 
Pindar, and others also composed such marriage 
hymns. The eighteenth Idyl of Theocritus is an 
epithalamium on the marriage of Menelaus and 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


Helen. At Rome, in the first century b.c., the 
Alexandrine school of poets practiced epithala- 
mia after Greek models. Three by Catullus are 
extant (Nob. 61, 62, and 64), in which the Greek 
form is greatly modified. The epithalamium 
gradually became a laudatory poem on the occa- 
sion of a wedding; in this form it was cultivated 
in the Imperial period, by Statius, Ausonius, 
Sidonius Apollinaris, and Claudianus. A col- 
lection of Latin epithalamia, with an introduc- 
tory essay, is to be found in Wernsdorf, Poetce 
Latince Minorea, vol. iv (Helmstedt, 1789). In 
modern times epithalamia have been written in 
Latin, Italian, and French; in English epitha- 
lamia were composed by Spenser, Ben Jon son, 
Donne, Quarles, and Tennyson (at the close of 
In Memoriam) . 

EPirHALAMTCTM. A poem by Edmund 
Spenser, written to celebrate his marriage to 
Elizabeth Bo vie (June 11, 1594). 

EPTTHE'LIO'MA (Neo-Lat., from Gk. M, 
epi, upon + *fM» thele, nipple, from Oav, than, 
to suckle). A variety of cancer, which attacks 
surfaces covered with epithelium or epidermis. 
See T umob. 

EP'ITHE1,r01£ (Neo-Lat., from Gk. iwl, epi, 
upon + OvM* thtile, nipple) . A tissue widely dis- 
tributed in the animal body. Its main function 


I. Squamous Epithelium, (a) Simple Squa- 
mous Epithelium. — This is not abundant in the 
human body. It lines the air spaces of the 
lungs, the membranous labyrinth of the ear, 


Magnified 250 times : a, squamous cell; 6, nucleus. 

may be said to be that of acting as a covering 
for various surfaces, both external and internal, 
and as the active structural elements of those 
organs of the body 
which are known as 
glands. Thus, as the 
outer layer of the 
skin, epitnelium cov- 
ers the entire body 
and forms the hair, 
nails, sweat glands, 
etc. It covers all 
the mucous mem- 
branes, thus lining 
the entire respira- 
tory tract, the gen- 
ito-urinary tract, 
and the alimentary 
canal. It forms the 
essential elements of 
the true glands, such 
as the liver, pan- 

FlO. 2. SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM creag and 8U b maX il- 

lary. Epithelium 
may be classified as 
follows: 1. Squa- 
mous: (a) simple, (b) stratified. II. Columnar: 
(a) simple, (b) stratified. III. Modified: (a) 
ciliated, (b) goblet, (c) pigmented. IV. Spe- 
cial: (a) glandular, (b) neuro-epithelium. 


Magnified 250 times: a, sil- 
vered outlines of cell; 6, nucleus. 



Magnified 300 times: a, superficial layer of cells; b, in- 
termediate layer of cells; c ( deep layer of cells; d, fibrous 

and occurs in a few other places. It consists 
of a single layer of flat cells, presenting the 
appearance of a mosaic when seen from the flat 
surface. (6) Stratified Squamous Epithelium. 
— Here the cells are laid down in several layers, 
only the surface cells being flat, the deeper lay- 
ers irregular or cuboidal in shape, the inner- 
most layer resting on a distinct membrane, the 
membrana propria. Sometimes the cells of the 
middle layers are united by minute spines and 
are known as prickle cells. The main locations 
of this form of epithelium are the skin and all 
its openings — the oesophagus, larynx, pharynx, 
ureter, bladder, pelvis of the kidney, the entire 
female urethra, and the terminal portion of 
the male urethra. 

II. Columnar Epithelium. (a) Simple. — 
This consists of a single layer of columnar cells 
placed side by side, their bases resting on a thin 
membrane, the membrana propria, or basement 
membrane. Epithelium of this type lines the 
entire alimentary tract, the ducts of glands, and 
their alveoli, and portions of the male urethra. 
(&) Stratified Columnar Epithelium. — Only the 
surface cells are trulv columnar, the deeper 
layers being made up of cells irregular in shape. 


Magnified 300 times: a, layer of columnar epithelial cells; 
6, striated hem of epithelial cells; c, mucous cell. 

It is not widely distributed, examples being 
found in the vas deferens and in the nasal fossa?. 
III. Modified Epithelium. (a) Ciliated.— 
These cells have minute, hairlike projections 
from their free surfaces, known as cilia. These 
cilia possess a vibratory motion, always acting 
in the same direction and thus determining flow 

Digitized by 



of currents. They occur only on columnar epi- 
thelium, either of the simple or stratified type. 
Ciliated epithelium lines the cavity of the 
uterus, the oviducts, the lacrymal ducts, the 



Fig. 5. ciuatbd kfithjclium or tbackka. 

Magnified 300 times: a, ciliated cells; 6, goblet or muofn 
cells; c, germinal cells; d, basement membrane. 

Eustachian tubes, and parts of the tympanic 
cavity, nasal fossae, larynx, trachea, bronchi, 
and vas deferens. These minute cilia exert a 
considerable power. Thus, in the respiratory 
tract they seem to keep the tubes free from any 
minute particles of foreign substance which may 
have entered them. (6) Goblet. — This is a form 
of cell occurring in columnar epithelium in 
which the contents 
of the cell are trans- 
ferred into a trans- 
parent substance 
known as mucus, 
which is finally dis- 
charged upon the 
free surface of the 
membrane, (o) Pig- 
mented. — In this 
form of epithelium 
Fig. 6. dissociated goblst m- the cells contain 
THBLiuii from djtbstinb. . granules usually of 
Magnified 4fi0 times: o, nu- a brown or black 
deus^ 6, remains of protoplasm ^^ and Jmown M 

pigment. Such cells 
are found in the retina and in the skin, especially 
of the darker races. 

IV. Specialized Epithelium, (a) Glandular 
Epithelium. — This name is applied to those 
forms of epithelium which make up the various 
glands of the body. Such epithelium presents 
wide ranges of variations for different glands. 
(6) N euro- Epithelium. — This is a specializa- 
tion of epithelium for the purpose of forming 
terminations for nerve fibres. Many of these 
terminations in certain organs are extremely 
complex— e.g., the rods and cones of the retina, 
the hair cells of Corti's organ, and the taste 
buds. Consult Bailey and Miller, Textbook of 
Histology (New York, 1913), and Sturling, 
Princ iples of Human Physiology (London, 1912). 

EPTTHEM (Gk. MOti/acl, epithima, cover, 
from M, epi, upon + Oriiia, th&na, box, from rt- 
etpat, tithenai, to place). In plants, the internal 
tissue of a hydathode; a gland that excretes 
water. See Htdathode. 

EPITOME, 6-pItfd-m$ (Lat., from Gk. iwirofi^j, 
from M, epi, upon + ro^, tome*, a cutting, from 
ripvetv, temnein, to cut) . A condensation of the 
work of an author or of an encyclopaedia or the 
like. Condensations were frequently made by 
mediaeval scholars, and the practice is not rare 
in later times; witness the condensed version of 
Richardson's interminable novel Clarissa Har- 
lowe, that of the French encyclopaedia Larousse t 
and the Epitome (1906) in one volume of the 
monumental Dictionary of National Biography. 

EP'XZO'A. See Entozoa. 

EPIZOOTIC, fip'I-zo-otflk (Gk. hrt, epi, upon 
4- f^c, soon, animal). A disease which is car- 
ried from one place to another by means of in- 
fection, and which occurs as a more or less seri- 
ous outbreak of limited duration. Epizootic in 
veterinary medicine corresponds to the term "epi- 
demic" in human medicine. See Influenza in 

E PLTTBIBUS TTNUM (Lat., one out of 
many ) . The national motto of the United States, 
proposed by Franklin, Adams, and Jefferson, the 
committee appointed by Congress on July 4, 
1776, to prepare designs for a seal. 

EP'OCH, 6p / 6k or S'pok (ML. epocha, Gk. 
iwox't, epochs, epoch, pause). In astronomy, one 
of the elements (q.v.) of a planet's orbit. It is 
necessary that these elements should include a 
statement of the date when the planet passed 
through perihelion, or its point of nearest ap- 
proach to the sun. That date, with the hour 
and exact fraction of an hour, is called the 
epoch. It may also be an arbitrary fixed date — 
generally the beginning of a century or half 
century — to which all the elements are referred. 
The heliocentric (q.v.) longitude is then given 
for this instant, and this is frequently referred 
to as the epoch; more properly, it is the longi- 
tude of the epoch. See also Chronology. 

EPOCH, in Geology. See Geology. 

EP'ODE (Lat. epodus, from Gk. 6r?5os, ep6* 
dos, epode, from M, epi, upon, in addition to 
4- $&l, Ode, song, from deifotv, aeidein, to sing). 
A name given by grammarians to any poem in 
which the metrical unit is a distich, consisting 
of a long verse and a shorter verse, especially 
when an iambic trimeter is followed by an iam- 
bic dimeter, as in Horace's Epodes 1-10. Epodes 
of this sort had been written by Archilochus 
(q.v.) and Stesichorus (q.v.). In the distich 
here used the second verse of such couplet is a 
sort of metrical refrain. Horace called these 
poems Iambi, partly by reason of their metre, 
partly because in them he reproduced the cen- 
sorious spirit of the poems of Archilochus, 
themselves largely in iambic verse. Consult 
Sellar, Horace and the Elegiac Poets, 118-131 
(Oxford, 1912). In Greek choral poetry the 
term is also applied to an ode which follows a 
strophe and an antistrophe, or a series of 
strophes and antistrophes, and so forms the 
third or after part, so to say, in the series. 

EPOMEO, a'po-ma'd (Lat. Epomeus, Epo~ 
peus). A volcanic mountain, rising to 2588 feet, 
16 miles southwest of Naples, on the island of 
Ischia (Map: Italy, B 11). It is also called 
Mount San Nicola, from the hermitage of San 
Nicola, hewn in the rock just below the summit, 
which commands on the west a panoramic view 
of the sea; on the north, of the distant snow- 
capped peaks of the Abruzzi, of the Bay of 
Gaeta, and of the coast from Mount Circeo to 
Cape Miseno; on the east, of Vesuvius and 
of the Bay of Naples and its beautiful shore 
from the island of Procida to the island of 
Capri. On account of the eruptions of the 
volcano the island was deserted by most of the 
inhabitants in 474 B.C. The last of numerous 
recorded eruptions occurred in 1302; it left a 
stream of lava that is still plainly noticeable 
where it is crossed by the road near the town 
of Ischia. A large mass from Mount Epomeo 
was displaced by the earthquake of July 28, 
1883. Mythology pictured the giant Typhosus 
(Vergil, A2neid, ix, 716), after being transfixed 

Digitized by VjOOQLC 


by the thunderbolt of Jupiter, aa buried beneath 
Mount Epomeo and by his struggles causing its 


EPONA, ep'6-na (Lat. Epona). A goddess of 
stables and of horses, asses, and mules, wor- 
shiped first in ancient Gaul, and later, by the 
first century a.d., in Rome (Juvenal, viii, 157). 
She was believed to secure for the animals 
named above their food, and to protect them, 
not only against accidents, but against the ma- 
lign beings that, it was thought, cast spells over 
stables by night. Inscriptions in her honor 
have been found in Gaul, Germany, the Danube 
country, and in Rome (in the latter city chiefly 
on the site of the barracks occupied by re- 
cruits from the Batavi). Consult Wissowa, 
Religion und Kultus der Romer (2d ed., Munich, 

EPON'YJttuS (ix&wpo't epOnymos, an ad- 
jective of various meanings, but for the purposes 
of this article definable as "giving one's name to 
something or someone," from M, upon, and Srofia, 
name). A term applied to the archon (q.v.) 
or to the ephor (see Ephori) who gave his 
name to the year. The Greek tribes and cities 
commonly traced their origin to some eponymous 
hero; so the 10 tribes established at Athens by 
Clisthenes were each named after some national 

EP'OBE'DIA. See Ivbea. 

EPOS. See Epic Poetry. 

EP'PING. A town of Essex Co., England, 
at the north end of Epping Forest, 17 miles 
north-northeast of London (Map: England, G 
5). It is noted for its cream, butter, sausages, 
and pork, large quantities of which are sent to 
London. Pop., 1901, 3800; 1911, 4253. Epping 
Forest is a part of Waltham Forest, which 
covered all Essex and extended almost to Lon- 
don. It is now limited to a comparatively small 
area in the southwest part of the county. Here 
for many centuries a fair was held under the 
enormous Fairlop oak, no longer existent, and 
a stag was yearly turned out in the forest on 
Easter Monday to be hunted by the general 
public. In 1882, 5600 acres of Epping Forest 
were bought by the Corporation of London and 
declared free to the public in perpetuity. 


EP / SOM. A market town on the margin of 
the Banstead Downs in Surrey, England, 14 
miles south-southwest of London (Map: Eng- 
land, F 5). The famed sulphate of magnesia 
springs of Epsom gave their name to the Epsom 
salts formerly manufactured from them. The 
Royal Medical College erected on the Downs 
provides education for about 170 boys, the sons 
of medical men, and affords a home to indigent 
members of the profession and their widows. 
The electric-light and water supply are owned 
by the corporation. Pop., 1901, 10,900; 1911, 
19,156. On the Downs, 1% miles south of the 
town, the famous Epsom horse races are held 
yearly. They are said to have been held here 
in the reign of James I. See Horse Racing. 

EP'SOMITE. A natural hydrous magnesium 
sulphate corresponding in composition to Epsom 
salt (q.v.). It is usually found in white botry- 
oidal masses and delicately fibrous crusts and is 
characterized by its bitter saline taste. 

EPSOM SALT. A hydrous magnesium sul- 
phate found native as the mineral kieserite and 
as epsomite, also in mineral waters. The kieser- 
ite is found in the Stassfurt salt beds, and the 


epsomite occurs in the gypsum quarries of Mont- 
martre, France, in Spain, in Chile, and in the 
limestone caves of Indiana, Kentucky, and Ten- 
nessee, and especially in the Mammoth Cave, 
Kentucky. It was originally obtained from the 
waters of the mineral spring in Epsom, England, 
and subsequently was made by decomposing 
dolomite with sulphuric acid; but the principal 
source of the commercial salt is now the Stass- 
furt salt mines in Saxony, where the crude min- 
eral is separated, from the accompanying mag- 
nesium and sodium chlorides by dissolving out 
these two salts with water, which leaves the 
magnesium sulphate as a fine powder that may 
be purified by crystallization from water. Epsom 
salt is used in medicine as a cathartic; it is also 
employed for agricultural purposes, in the proc- 
ess of warp-sizing cotton, and for dyeing with 
aniline colors. 

EPSTEIN, Jacob (1880- ). An English 
sculptor. He was born in New York, of Russian- 
Polish parentage, studied under Rodin in Paris, 
and later took up his residence in London. His 
first important work was 18 symbolical nude 
figures for the facade of the new building of the 
British Medical Association on the Strand 
(1907-08), placed 50 feet above the ground and 
representing "Hygeia," "Chemical Research," 
"Maternity," "Youth," etc. By reason of their 
excessive realism they excited the animosity of 
the press and various religious bodies, but they 
found able defenders in Herbert Gladstone and 
Sir Martin Conway. Epstein's tomb of Oscar 
Wilde in Pere Lachaise Cemetery, Paris, was 
erected in 1909. Later he executed the decora- 
tion of Church Square, facing the government 
buildings, at Pretoria, Transvaal. His art is 
exceedingly modern and represents a revolt 
against mere prettiness in imitation of the 

EP / WOBTH LEAGUE. An organization of 
the young people of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, formed in 1889 at Cleveland, Ohio, by 
the combination of five voung people's organiza- 
tions at that time existing. The purpose of the 
league is the promotion of intelligent and vital 
piety among the voung people of the church. It 
conducts classes in Bible study, missions, social 
service, and personal evangelism. Institutes are 
held annually, in which trained specialists give 
instruction in the different forms of Christian 
work. The league also supplements the work 
of the denomination in its various mission 
fields. The league exists in both the Northern 
and Southern branches of the Methodist Episco- 
pal denomination and also in the Methodist 
church of Canada. In the latter it was or- 
ganized in 1890. The Junior Ep worth League 
is an organization of the baptized children over 
the age of 10 years. The admission of children 
not baptized is also permitted. Plans for the 
Junior League include a graded outline for the 
social life and activities coordinating the work 
of the boys' and girls' clubs, and a graded 
course of study covering a practical method of 
bringing the Bible in touch with the everyday 
life of children. Courses in Church history, gov- 
ernment, doctrines, and benevolences are also 
included. The membership of the senior branch 
in the Methodist Episcopal church North in 
1913 was 593,465, and of the junior branch 
218,509. In the Methodist Episcopal church 
South there were, in 1913, 3846 chapters of the 
league, with 133,797 members. The headquar- 
ters of the Northern League are in Chicago, and 

Digitized by 



its organ is the Epworth Herald. The organ 
of the Southern branch is the Epworth Bra, pub- 
lished monthly at Nashville, Tenn. Consult: 
Bacon and Northrop, Young People's Societies 
(New York, 1900); The Methodist Year Book; 
Dan B. Brummett, Epworth League Methods 
(ib., 1906). 

EQTJAI/ITT. A vague terra of varying sig- 
nification in the recent history of social and 
political speculation. In its primary sense it 
denotes the equal worthiness of all human be- 
ings, and calls for such an arrangement of the 
structure of society as to insure to all an equal 
degree of the essential advantages of life. It is 
in this sense that it was employed by Rousseau 
in his famous declaration that it was the func- 
tion of the state to maintain liberty and equal- 
ity among its subjects {Contrat Social, ii, 11), 
and in the assertion of the American Declaration 
of Independence of the "self-evident" truth that 
all men are created equal. It was this kind of 
equality thai, under the influence of Rousseau, 
the French Revolution aimed to realize, and 
the ideal to which it points has been the in- 
spiration of more than one movement for the 
emancipation of humanity. How much the 
steady march of the democratic movement of the 
last century and the spread of popular govern- 
ment owe to this humanitarian sentiment for 
equality can only be imagined. It is in this 
extreme and sentimental form, also, that the 
doctrine has incurred the hostile criticism of 
hard-headed and unsympathetic writers such as 
Mr. Justice Stephen {Liberty, Equality, and 
Fraternity) and Sir Henry Maine {Popular 
Government). The influence of the doctrine in 
the communistic and socialistic movements of 
the day will be described in connection with 
those topics. 

The term "equality" is somewhat more defi- 
nitely employed in a secondary sense to denote 
one of the two great aims of the modern demo- 
cratic movement in society and politics. One 
of these aims is individual liberty, and the other 
is such a measure of equality as is compatible 
with a rational liberty. The reconciliation of 
these two conflicting aims is the great task of 
government, and it is through this process of 
reconciliation that the^ conception of equality 
has been brought within the sphere of practical 
discussion. As a political programme, then, it 
includes the following definite aims: first, equal- 
ity of political status; second, equality of civil 
rights; and third, equality of opportunity. The 
first of these is secured by the widest possible 
extension of the principle of popular govern- 
ment; the second by the abolition of privilege, 
whether based on wealth, on birth, or on pub- 
lic service; the third by breaking down the 
artificial barriers of caste, affording to all an 
equal enjoyment of public utilities and the 
advantages of a common education. Equality 
of political rights and equality before the law 
have been measurably attained in some favored 
lands, but industrial equality is still far to 

This principle of human equality is a purely 
modern conception and had its origin in the 
Christian conception of the equality of all men 
before God. It derived its impulse, as a social 
and political principle, mainly from the passion- 
ate writings of Jean Jacques Rousseau. See De- 
mocracy; Liberty of the Individual. Consult 
the authorities referred to under such titles as 
Democracy; Political Science, etc. 




EQUATION (Lat. cequatio, from cequare, to 
equalize, from wquus, equal). In algebra, an 
equality which exists only for particular values 
of certain letters representing the unknown 
quantities is called an equation. These particu- 
lar values are called the roots of the equation, 
and the determination of these roots is called 
the solution of the equation. Thus, 2x + 3 = 9 
is an equation, because the equality is true only 
for a particular value of the unknown quantity 
x, viz., for x = 3. The expression 2 + 5 = 7 ex- 
presses an equality, but it is not an equation as 
the word is technically used in mathematics. 
Expressions like (a + x)* = a* + 2ax ^f- «* are 
true for all values of the letters and are called 
identities to distinguish them from those equal- 
ities which are, in the stricter use of the term, 
known as equations. If an algebraic function 
f{x) equals zero, and is arranged according to 
the descending, integral, positive powers of x, 
it has the form /(«) = a&n + a,«*-*+ .... 
-f* a D -i « + a n =0. Such an equation is called a 
complete equation of the nth degree with one 
unknown quantity ; e.g., a^x* + a^x -f- a, = is 
a complete equation of the second degree, while 
a&* + <h = is an incomplete equation of the 
second degree. The letters o«, a*, . . . . an-i, a n 
stand for known quantities, and in the theory 
of equations, so called, they stand for real quan- 
tities. They are all coefficients of powers of 
x f except the absolute term, a n , which may be 
considered the coefficient of x*. In case a„, a„ 
.... a are all expressed as numbers, the equa- 
tion is said to be numerical; otherwise it is 
known as literal. 

Equations may be classified as to the number 
of tneir unknown quantities. Those already 
mentioned involve a single unknown, but x* -j- 
xy + y* = and xy = 1 involve two unknowns. 
There is no theoretical limit to the number of 
unknown quantities. Equations may also be 
classified as to degree, this being determined by 
the value of * in the complete equation already 
given. Thus, 

a* x -f* a\ = 
ao& + oix-r- <h=*0 
ao3J-r-«i£ 1 4-aax + a» = 
a*x i + aiX* + atz* + a« x + a* =* 
are equations respectively of the first degree 
(simple or linear equation), of the second de- 
gree (quadratic equation), of the third degree 
(cubic equation), and of the fourth degree 
(quartic or biquadratic equation). 

If two or more equations are satisfied by the 
same value of the unknown quantities, they are 
said to be simultaneous, as in the case of x* + V 
= 7, x + y* = 11, where x = 2, y = 3 ; but 
x* -+- y = 7 and Zx* + 3y = 9 are not simulta- 
neous; they are inconsistent, there being no val- 
ues of x and y that will satisfy both; and 
w* + y = 7 and 3x* + 3t/ = 21 are said to be 
identical, each being derivable from the other. 
In case there is not a sufficient number of rela- 
tions given to enable the roots of an equation 
to be determined, exactly or approximately, the 
equation is said to be indeterminate: e.g., in the 
equation <r + 2y = 10, any of the following pairs 
of values satisfies the equation: (0, 5), (1, 4.5), 
(2,4), (3, 3.5),.... (10, 0), (11,-0.5),.... 
In general, n linear equations, each containing 
n + 1 or more unknown quantities, are indeter- 
minate. Thus, 2a? + 3t/ + z — 10, 3* + 2y -f z = 
8, give rise to the simple equation — m + y = 2, 

Digitized by 



which is indeterminate. Equation* may alto be 
classified as rational, irrational, integral, or 
fractional, according as the two members* when 
like terms are united, are composed of ex- 
pressions which are rational, irrational (or 
partly so), integral, or fractional (or partly so), 
respectively, with respect to the unknown quan- 
tities; e.g.: 

3a? + VTf = is a rational integral equation, 
6 + ] y/x = is an irrational integral equation, 

2 i 

- + Vl4 = is a rational fractional equation, 

(a?-f-3)-J = 5 is &n irrational fractional equa- 

Algebra is chiefly concerned with the solution 
of equations, and definite methods have been de- 
vised for determining the roots of algebraic 
equations of the first, second, third, and fourth 
degrees. Equations of the first degree are 
solved by applying the common axioms: if 
equals are added to equals, the results are 
equal; if equals are subtracted from equals, the 
results are equal; and the corresponding axioms 
of multiplication and division. Equations of 
the second degree may be solved by reducing 
the quadratic function to the product of two 
linear factors, thus making the solution of the 
quadratic equation depend upon that of two 
linear equations. 
Thus, x* -f P» + <1 = reduces to ^ 

(x + \ + 1 Vp^iq) (* + £ -i Vp^ip) -0, 


* + ?* lVp»-4^ = 0,andx = -|*lVp*-4g. 

Similarly the solution of the cubic equation is 
made to depend upon that of the quadratic equa- 
tion, and that of the biquadratic equation upon 
that of the cubic equation. These formulas, 
however, when applied to numerical equations, 
often involve operations upon complex numbers 
not readily performed and hence are of little 
value in such cases; e.g., in applying the gen- 
eral formula for the roots of the cubic equation, 
the cube root of a complex number is often re- 
quired, in which case the methods of trigonom- 
etry are employed. The real roots of numerical 
equations of any degree may be calculated ap- 
proximately by the methods of Newton, La- 
grange, and Horner, the last being a rediscovery 
of an old Chinese method and being the one 
generally preferred. 

Equations of the first degree were familiar to 
the Egyptians in the time of Ahmes (q.v.), 
since a papyrus transcribed by him contains an 
equation in the following form: Mass (hau), its 
%, its %, its #, its whole, gives 37; i.e., 

The ancient Greeks knew little of linear equa- 
tions except through proportion, but they treated 
in geometric form many quadratic and cubic 
equations. (See Cube.) Diophantus (c.275 a.d.), 
however, distinguished the coefficients {tXtjOoi) 
of the unknown quantity, gave the equation a 
symbolic form, classified equations, and gave 
definite rules for reducing them to their sim- 
plest forms. His work was chiefly concerned 
with indeterminate systems of equations, and 
his method of treatment is known as Diophan- 
tine analysis (q.v.). 

The Egyptian mathematicians were acquainted 
with problems which we would solve by quad- 


ratios. The Petrie papyrus (published in 1807) 
and the Berlin papyrus (No. 6619) both con- 
tain such problems. One pair of equations, 
expressed in modern form, is as follows: 

a* 4- y» = 100 

x:y = 1:%. 

The Greeks of the time of Euclid could solve 
a quadratic equation geometrically, and Dio- 
phantus could ao so with some approach to the 
symbolic methods. 

The Chinese likewise solved quadratic equa- 
tions geometrically, and Sun Tse (third cen- 
tury), like Diophantus, developed a method of 
solving linear indeterminate equations. The 
Hindus advanced the knowledge of the Greeks. 
Bhaskara (twelfth century) used only one type 
of quadratic equation, ax* + ox + c = 0, con- 
sidered both signs of the square root, and dis- 
tinguished the surd values, while the Greeks 
accepted only positive integers. The Arabs 
improved the methods of their predecessors. 
They developed quite an elaborate system of 
symbolism. The equations of Al Kalsadi (fif- 
teenth century) are models of brevity, and this 
plan for solving linear equations, a modified. 
Hindu method, was what was later known as 
the regula falsi. See False Position. 

The Europeans of the Middle Ages, made little 
advance in the solving of equations until the 
discovery by Ferro, Tartaglia, and Cardan (six- 
teenth century) of the general solution of the 
cubic equation. The solution of the biquadratic 
equation soon followed, and the general quintic 
was attacked. But, although much was done to 
advance the general theory of the equation by 
Vandermonde, Euler, Lagrange, B6zout, Waring, 
Malfatti, and others, it was not until the begin- 
ning of the nineteenth century that equations of 
a degree higher than the fourth received satis- 
factory treatment. Ruffini and Abel were the 
first to demonstrate that the solution, by alge- 
braic methods, of a general equation of a degree 
higher than the fourth is impossible, and to 
direct investigation into new channels. Mathe- 
maticians now sought to classify equations 
which could be solved algebraically and to dis- 
cover higher methods for those which could 
not. Gauss solved the cyclotomic group, Abel 
the group known as the Abelian equations, and 
Galois stated the necessary and sufficient condi- 
tion for the algebraic solubility of any equation 
as follows: If the degree of an irreducible equa- 
tion is a prime number, the equation is soluble 
by radicals alone, provided the roots of this 
equation can be expressed rationally in terms of 
any two of them. As to higher methods, 
Tschirnhausen, Bring, and Hermite have shown 
that the general equation of the fifth degree 
can be put in the form t* — * — A = 0; Her- 
mite and Kronecker solved the equation of the 
fifth degree by elliptic functions and Klein 
has given the simplest solution by transcen- 
dental functions. 

A few of the more important properties of 
equations are: 1. If r is a root of the equation 
f(x) = 0, then x — r is a factor of f(x) ; e.g., 
2 being a root of x* -f 2a> — 8 = 0, then x — 2 
is a factor of X* -f- 2a? — 8. 

2. If f(x) is divisible by x — r, r is a root of 
f(x) = 0; e.g., in (x - 2) («■ + x + 1) = 0, 
x — 2 is a factor, hence x — 2 = satisfies the 
equation, and x = 2. 

3. Every equation of the nth degree has n 
roots and no more (the fundamental theorem of 

Digitized by 



equations due to Harriot, or, in its complete 
form, to iyAlembert) : e^., «* — 1 = has four 
roots, a = 1, — 1, i, — i, and no more. 

4. The coefficients of an equation are func- 
tions of its roots. Thus, in 

a^ + aur*- 1 + at3*- 2 + . . . . an = 0, 

if n, r t r D are the roots, then 

ai = - (n + r t + . . . . + rn), ai = rirt + rin + 
. . . . + rn-i r n , a« = — (n f t r 8 + n r» r 4 + . . . . -f 

fn-2rn-i r n ) .... On » *fc n fi .... r n . 

5. The number of positive roots of f (w) =0 
does not exceed the number of changes of signs 
in /(«). (Descartes's rule of signs.) For in- 
stance, in a? 4 — 3ap* — 2a>* + # — 1 = there 
are 3 changes of signs, hence there can be no 
more than 3 positive roots. 

6. The special functions associated with the 
roots of an equation which serve to distinguish 
the nature of these roots are called discrimi- 
nants; e.g., the general form of the roots of the 
quadratic equation, a? -f- V® + q = 0, may be 
taken as 




J Vp* - 4q. 

The expression 

is the discriminant, for, if 4g > p*, the roots are 
complex; if 4g = p s , the roots are real and 
equal; if 4q < p*, the roots are real and un- 
equal; and if p* — 4g is a perfect square, the 
roots are rational. Similarly the discriminant 
of the cubic »■ + Zhx + 9 = is 

0«-t- 4fa. 
The discriminants of equations of higher degree 
are fully explained in works on the theory of 

A differential equation is an equation involv- 
ing differential coefficients (see Calculus > ; e.g., 

d& dx 
from which it is required to find the relation be- 
tween y and w. The theory of the solution of 
such equations is an extension of the integral 
calculus and is a branch of study of the highest 

For the general theory of equations, consult: 
Dickson, Introduction to the Theory of Alge- 
braio Equations (New York, 1903) ; Burnside 
and Panton, Theory of Equations (4th ed., 
London, 1899-1901), the appendix to which 
contains valuable historical material; Petersen, 
Thtorie des Equations algSbriques (trans, by 
Laurent, Paris, 1897) ; Salmon, Lessons Intro- 
ductory to Modern Higher Algebra (Dublin, 
1859, and subsequent eds.) ; Serret, Cours oVal- 
gebre supe'rieure (3d ed., Paris, 1866) ; Jordan, 
TraitS des substitutions et des equations algS- 
briques (ib., 1870). An extensive work, cover- 
ing both history and method, is Matthiessen, 
Orundxuge der antiken und modernen Algebra 
der litteralen Oleiohungen (Leipzig, 1896). 

EQUATION, Annual. One of the most 
conspicuous of the subordinate fluctuations in 
the moon's motion, due to the action of the sun. 
It consists in an alternate increase and decrease 
in the moon's longitude, corresponding with the 
earth's situation in its annual orbit, i.e., to its 
angular distance from perihelion, and there- 
fore it has a year instead of a month, or aliquot 
part of a month, for its period. See Lunab 

EQUATION, Chemical. See Ghemistbt. 

EQUATION, Pkbsonal. A very important 
factor in astronomical or other scientific obser- 
vations. Two observers, each of admitted skill, 
often differ in their record of the same event 
— as the passage of a star before the wires of 
a transit instrument — bv a quantity nearly the 
same for all observations by those persons. 
This quantity is their relative personal equa- 
tion. Each observer habitually notes the time 
too early or too late, by a small and nearly uni- 
form portion of a second. This quantity is his 
absolute personal equation. Machines have been 
invented for determining the amount of per- 
sonal equation by reproducing artificially the 
kind of observation usually affected with this 
form of error in actual work on the sky. The 
so-called Repsold apparatus is a mechanical de- 
vice which so changes the condition of observa- 
tion with a transit instrument or meridian 
circle that the personal equation is removed 
altogether, and its quantitative evaluation is 
rendered unnecessary. 

EQUATION OF LIGHT. In astronomical 
observations, the ray of light by which we see 
any celestial body is not that which it emits at 
the moment we look at it, but which it did emit 
some time before, viz., the time occupied by 
light in traversing the space which separates 
us from the celestial body. The quantity of 
time so required for the passage of light from 
the sun to the earth is the so-called light equa- 
tion. It amounts to about 8 minutes, 20 

of finding the time when, if a sum of money is 
paid all at once by a debtor, instead of several 
debts payable by him at different times, no 
loss will be sustained by either the debtor or 
creditor. The common rule is: Multiply each 
debt by its term of credit, and divide the 
sum of the products by the sum of the debts. 
The quotient will be the average term of credit. 
This added to the date from which the credits 
were reckoned will give the average time of 
payments; e.g., to find the average time of pay- 
ing $200 due April 1, $200 due May 11, and 
$400 due June 30: $200 + 40 X $200 -f- 90 X 
$400 = $44,200; $44,200 -r- $800 = 55. April 
1 + 55 days = May 26, the equated time. This 
method is incorrect, except for equal debts, be- 
cause it takes no account of the balance of inter- 
est and discount. It is, however, sufficiently 
accurate for ordinary use. 

used by astronomers in connection with the 
planets' orbital motions. The anomaly (q.v.) of 
a planet does not increase uniformly after peri- 
helion passage, because, according to Kepler's 
law, a line joining the planet with the sun 
sweeps over equal areas (not equal angles) in 
equal times. The angle by which the true 
anomaly exceeds the mean anomaly is called the 
equation of the centre. 

difference between the actual position of the 
equinoxes (q.v.) and the position calculated 
on the assumption that their motion is uniform. 
See Precession. 

EQUATION OF TIME. The amount which 
must be added to the apparent time to obtain 
the mean time; in other words, the mean time 
of apparent or true noon. The sun's motion 
in the ecliptic is not uniform. This want of 
uniformity would of itself be sufficient to cause 

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an irregularity in the intervals of time between 
successive returns of the sun to the meridian, 
day after day; but besides this want of uni- 
formity in the sun's apparent motion in the 
ecliptic, there is another cause of inequality in 
the time of his coming to the meridian, the 
obliquity of the ecliptic to the equinoctial. 
These two independent causes conjointly pro- 
duce the inequality in the time of his appear- 
ance on the meridian, the correction for which 
is the equation of time. The equation of time 
varies from day to day and is to be found tabu- 
lated in astronomical almanacs, such as the 
Nautical Almanac, under the heading "Sun be- 
fore clock", or "Sun after clock." It is zero 
at four different times in the year, when 
the mean and unequal motions exactly agree — 
viz., about April 15, June 15, August 31, and 
December 24; on account of leap year, these 
dates may vary by a day. From December 24 
to April 15 and from June 15 to August 31, 
the equation of time is positive, i.e., the sun 
is slow or "after the clock," the maximum 
amounts being 14 minutes, 28 seconds on Febru- 
ary 11, and 6 minutes, 17 seconds on July 26; 
during the remaining portions of the year the 
equation of time is negative, and the sun is 
fast, or "before the clock," the maximum 
amounts being 3 minutes, 40 seconds on May 
14, and 16 minutes, 21 seconds on November 3. 

EQUATOR, Celestial (ML. (Equator, equal- 
izer, from Lat. &quare, to equalize) . The great 
circle which would be cut out on the sky by 
extending the plane of the earth's equator. 

EQUATOR, Terrestrial. The great circle on 
the earth's surface, halfway between the poles, 
which divides the earth into the Northern and 
Southern hemispheres. 

E'QUATCRIAL (from ML. aquator, equal- 
izer). A term applied in astronomy to a method 
of mounting astronomical telescopes, by which a 
celestial body may be observed at any point of 
its diurnal course. It consists of a telescope 
fastened to a graduated circle, called the dec- 
lination circle, whose axis is attached at 
right angles to that of another graduated circle 
called the hour circle and is wholly supported 
by it. The hour-circle axis, which is called the 
principal axis of the instrument, 'turns on fixed 
supports; it is pointed to the pole of the 
heavens, and the hour circle is of course parallel 
to the equinoctial. This combination of axes 
gives us a universal joint, thus enabling us to 
point the tube at any star in the sky; and 
with the pair of circles we can measure and 
record the exact position in the sky of the 
star under observation. On account of one axis 
being pointed at the pole, about which all the 
stars revolve in their diurnal course, it becomes 
possible to follow their motions by rotating the 
telescope about this one axis only, and this 
rotation can be effected easily and conveniently 
with clockwork,. See Telescope. 

E'QUES'TRIAN ORDER (Lat. ordo eques- 
ter), or EQTJITES (Lat., horsemen, knights, 
from eqtius, horse). Originally the cavalry of 
the Roman army. Romulus, it is said, selected 
from the three principal Roman tribes a cav- 
alry bodyguard of 300, called celeres. By the 
constitution of Servius Tullius 18 centuries (see 
Comitia) of equites were created. (See Rome, 
History of Rome during the Earliest or Regal 
Period.) The number was afterward gradually 
increased to 1800, who were partly of patrician 
and partly of plebeian rank and were required 


to possess a certain amount of property (400,- 
000 sestertii, about $17,000). Each of these 
equites received a horse from the state and an- 
other for his groom, together with an allotment 
for the keep of the horses; such horsemen were 
known as equites equo publico, horsemen or 
knights with a state horse; but about 403 B.C. 
a new body of equites began to make their 
appearance, composed of wealthy citizens who 
furnished a horse at their own expense (equites 
equo privato). The equites were reviewed by 
the censors (see Censor); equites who failed 
to meet the tests of physique and character 
were dropped from the rolls. Until 123 B.C., 
the equites were exclusively a military body ; but 
in that year Caius Gracchus carried a measure 
by which all the judices (jurors) had to be 
selected from them. Now, for the first time, 
they became a distinct order or class in the 
state, nonmilitary in character, and were called 
ordo equester. Sulla deprived them of this 
privilege; but their power did not then decrease, 
as the farming of the public revenues appears to 
have fallen into their hands. (See Publicani.) 
They became the money aristocracy of Rome. 
To the title of Senatus populusque Rom anus 
was added et ordo equester. As their insignia, 
the equites wore a gold ring and the angusti- 
clavus (the tunic with two narrow crimson 
stripes down the front). From the time of 
Augustus the ordo equester became again mili- 
tary in character. 

From these equites the higher officers of the 
army were chosen. To fit him for high com- 
mand, each eques was required to pass through 
a definite sequence of offices, known as the 
equestris cursus honorum. From the equites, 
too, certain magistrates were chosen. Hence 
admission to the equites constituted, in effect, 
an introduction to public life. Consult Egbert, 
Introduction to the Study of Latin Inscriptions 
(New York, *896). On the equites in general, 
consult article "Equites" in Smith, A Diction- 
ary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (3d ed., 
London, 1890) ; Greenidge, A History of Rome, 
vol. i (ib., 1905) ; the article "Equites Romani," 
in Pauly-Wissowa, ReaUEncyolopddie der clas- 
sischen Altertumswissenschaft, vol. vi (Stutt- 
gart, 1909). , 

EQUESTRIAN STATUE. The representa- 
tion in sculpture of a person on horseback. 
Equestrian statues were not commonly erected 
in Greece, but in Rome they were often awarded 
as a high honor to military commanders and 
persons of distinction, and latterly were, for 
the most part, restricted to the emperors, the 
most famous in existence being that of the 
Emperor Marcus Aurelius, which now stands in 
the piazza of the Capitol at Rome. It is the 
only ancient equestrian statue in bronze that 
has been preserved. They were not erected 
during the Middle Ages, except at the close of 
the epoch when stone equestrian statues of St. 
George and St. Martin were carved, especially 
in France. From the same period are the three 
remarkable Delia Scala monuments at Verona. 
The first bronze equestrian statue of the Ren- 
aissance, and therefore of modern art, was 
that of Gattemelata by Donatello at Padua, 
and the finest that of Bartolommeo Colleoni 
by Verrocchio in Venice — probably the grandest 
equestrian statue in existence. Characteristic 
examples of equestrian statues during the ba- 
roque period are : "The Great Elector" by Andreas 
Schliiter in Berlin, Louis XI by Petitot in 

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1. AFRICAN WILD-A88 (Equus aslnus). 

8. TRUE. OR MOUNTAIN ZEBRA (Equus zebra). 

8. KIANG, OR A8IATIC WILD-A88 (Equus hsmlonua). 

4. QUAQGA (Equus quagga); extinct. 


6. BURCHELL'S ZEBRA (Equus Burchelll). 

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Versailles, Peter the Great by Falconet in St. 
Petersburg. During the nineteenth century 
bronze equestrian statues were indefinitely mul- 
tiplied to such an extent that few important 
cities in Europe or America are without one 
or more examples. According to statistics 
gathered in 1913 there are about 630 in the 
world, 80 of which are in the United States. 
Paris leads with 25, including the statue of 
Joan of Arc by Fremiet, Lafavette by Paul 
Bartlett, and Washington by f)aniel Chester 
French and Potter. Berlin "has 14, including 
Frederick the Great (for illustration see the 
Plate with article Rauch) by Christian Rauch 
— one of the very finest of modern times — and 
William I by Reinhold Begas. Other prominent 
European examples are: Maximilian I by Thor- 
valdsen at Munich; the four equestrian statues 
of the Maria Theresa monument by Zumbusch; 
and Alexander III by Troubetskoy at St. Peters- 
burg. Among the finest recent examples in 
England are Hugh Lupus by G. F. Watts 
(Chester) and the Duke of Wellington (in St. 
Paul's Cathedral) by Alfred Stevens. 

The first equestrian statue in the United 
States was that of General Jackson in Washing- 
ton, designed and cast by Clarke Mills in 1853 
(replicas in Nashville and New Orleans); the 
second was the well-known "Washington" by 
H. K. Brown in New York — still one of the 
most notable in the country. There is an espe- 
cially large number at Washington (12 in 1913), 
including General Thomas by J. Q. A. Ward, 
General McClellan by MacMonnies, and General 
Sheridan by Gutzon Borglum; an equal number 
in Philadelphia, particularly in connection with 
the Richard Smith Memorial, Fairmount Park. 
Boston also possesses several good examples, in- 
cluding those of Washington by Thomas Ball, 
Colonel Shaw • by Saint-Gaudens, and General 
Hooker by D. C. French and E. C. Potter; Chi- 
cago also has good examples. Among other 
notable equestrian statues in the United States 
are those of General Sherman by Saint-Gaudens 
in New York, General Slocum by MacMonnies 
in Brooklyn, N. Y., Robert E. Lee by Mercier in 
Richmond, Va., and the Volunteer Monument 
by Douglas Tilden in San Francisco. Some of 
the battlefields of the Civil War, particularly 
Gettysburg, have been transformed, into parks 
and contain a number of equestrian statues. 
Consult Quimby, The Equestrian Monuments of 
the World (New York, 1903). 

E'QUIAN'GULAB (from Lat. wquus, equal 
+ angulus, angle ) . A figure ' is said to be 
equiangular if all of its angles are equal, as is 
the case with the angles of a square or a regu- 
lar polygon. Triangles which are mutually 
equiangular are called similar; but other mutu- 
ally equiangular polygons are not similar unless 
their corresponding sides are proportional. (See 
Similarity.) A polyhedron is equiangular when 
all its polyhedral angles are equal, as is the 
case with the angles of a cube. A spiral (q.v.) 
is called equiangular when the angle included 
between any radius vector and the tangent at 
its extremity is the same in all cases. This is 
the characteristic property of the logarithmic 

EQTTHXaS (Neo-Lat. nom. pi., from equus, 
horse), or Soudungula. The horses, a family 
of hoofed mammals of the suborder Peris- 
sodactyla, containing only a small number of 
species, which so nearly resemble each other 
that most zoologists agree in referring them to 
Vol. VIII.— 4 


one genus, Equus, though some have put the 
asses in the separate genus A sinus. They are 
distinguished from other quadrupeds by the con- 
centration of the foot and toes, or the extraor- 
dinary development of the middle toe, which 
thus carries the whole weight and is incased in 
a bootlike hoof. There are, however, two small 
protuberances ("splint" bones) on each side of 
both the metacarpal and metatarsal, or "cannon" 
bones, which represent the former existence of 
other toes. The Equidse have six incisors in 
each jaw, and six molars on each side in each 
jaw ; the males have also two small canine teeth 
in the upper jaw, sometimes in both jaws, which 
are almost always wanting in the females. The 
molars of the Equidse have square crowns, and 
are marked by the laminae of enamel with ridges 
forming four crescents. The wearing down of 
these develops different patterns at different 
ages, by the examination of which, in the in- 
cisors, a person may determine with consider- 
able accuracy the age of a horse. (See Plate 
illustrating this under Horse.) There is a wide 
space between the canine teeth and the molars. 
The stomach of the Equidee is simple, but the 
intestines are long, and the caecum extremely 
large; the digestive organs thus exhibiting an ad- 
aptation, very different from those of the rumi- 
nants, to the same kind of not easily assimilated 
food. Another distinctive peculiarity of the 
Equidse is that the females have two teats situ- 
ated on the pubes, between the thighs. The 
Equidae are now found in a truly wild state only 
in Asia and Africa. Fossil remains exist in the 
newer geological formations in great abundance 
in many parts of both the Old World and the 
New; and the whole evolutionary history of the 
Equidae has been admirably worked out. (See 
Horse, Fossil.) The horse and the ass are 
by far the most important species of this 
family. The quagga is extinct. The zebra 
seems incapable of useful domestication. Some 
attempts have been made, however, to cross 
zebras with horses in the hope that the hybrid 
might be able to withstand the attacks of the 
tsetse fly (q.v.) in South Africa; but though 
the hybrids are easily obtained and seem hardy, 
they cannot survive the bites of that terrible 
scourge. See Ass; Horse; Mule; Quagga; 

E'QUHiIB'BrUM, Mechanical (Lat. (Equi- 
librium, level position, from cequus, equal -f- 
libra, balance). The condition of a body or of a 
system of bodies when there is no change in 
its motion; i.e., there is no acceleration of any 
kind, either of translation or of rotation. The 
mathematical conditions are, therefore, that 
the resultant force in any direction is zero, and 
that the resultant moment of the forces around 
any axis is zero. Equilibrium is called stable, 
unstable, or neutral, depending upon the conse- 
quence of giving the body or system of bodies a 
small impulse; if the change which results from 
this impulse is decreased by the forces called 
into action by the motion, the equilibrium is 
stable; if it increases, the equilibrium is un- 
stable; if it remains unchanged, it is neutral. 
Thus, a body suspended at rest by a string is in 
stable equilibrium; a knife balanced on its point 
is in unstable equilibrium; a sphere lying on a 
smooth horizontal table is in neutral equilibrium. 
The use of the word "equilibrium" is extended 
also so as to include the condition of no ap- 
parent change in many other cases. A liquid 
is in equilibrium with its vapor if there is no 

Digitized by 



longer any apparent evaporation or condensa- 
tion. Thermal equilibrium is the condition 
when there is no longer any change in tem- 
perature. See Mechanics. 

E'QXmnn/TIPLB. See Multiple. 

EQUINE ANTELOPE. A book name for 
either the roan or the sable antelope (qq.v.). 
See Blaubok, and Plate of Antelopes. 

EQUIN1A. See Glanders. 

EQUINOCTIAL (Lat. aquinoctialis, from 
cequinoctium, equinox, from aquus, equal + now, 
night). The celestial equator. (See Equator, 
Celestial.) The equinoctial points are those 
in which the equinoctial and the ecliptic inter- 
sect. See Ecliptic. 

least 300 years past, whenever a severe storm 
occurs on the Atlantic coast of North America 
or Great Britain at the season of the equinox, 
either autumnal or vernal, it has been spoken 
of as "the equinoctial storm" or gale, and there 
has sprung up a popular belief that such a 
severe storm is due at or near the date of the 
equinox. The fact is, however, that the stormy 
season of the year over the North Atlantic be- 
gins with August and continues with increasing 
severity until March or April, and there is no 
special day or period more likely than another 
to be stormy. Of course numerous severe storms 
are recorded near these dates, such as those of 
Sept. 20, 1676; Oct. 20, 1770; Sept. 23, 1815; 
Oct. 2, 1841; Oct. 7, 1849, and Sept. 8, 1869, 
all of them along the American coast; but it 
will be noticed that these dates have no close 
connection with the equinoctial date — September 
22 — and there are not more than a dozen such 
in the course of 200 years. The equinoctial 
storm is therefore simply a name given to the 
heaviest storm that happens to occur within 
a few weeks of the date of the equinox. For 
statistical details, consult: Quarterly Journal 
Royal Meteorological Society (London, 1884) ; 
United States Monthly Weather Review (Wash- 
ington, 1891-1914); Loom is, Treatise on Me- 
teorology (New York, 1871, last ed. 1883). 

E'QUTNOX'ES. Sometimes the equinoctial 
points (see Equinoctial) are called the equi- 
noxes. More commonly, by the equinoxes are 
meant the times when the sun passes those 
points, viz., March 21 and September 22, the 
former being called the vernal or spring equi- 
nox, and the latter the autumnal. When the 
sun is in the equinoxes, the days and nights 
are of equal length all over the world. At the 
vernal equinox the sun is passing from south 
to north, and in the Northern Hemisphere the 
days are lengthening; at the autumnal, he is 
passing from north to south, and the days are 
shortening. As the earth moves more rapidly 
when near the sun, or in winter, the sun's ap- 
parent motion is not uniform, and it happens 
that he takes longer to pass from the vernal to 
the autumnal equinox than from the latter to 
the former. The equinoctial points are not sta- 
tionary, on account of precession (q.v.). See 

E'QUIPOI/LENT (Lat. (equipollent, from 
csquus, equal + pollere, to have power). A term 
which, applied to lines, signifies equal in length 
and parallel in direction. There is a special 
geometry of such lines called the geometry of 
equipollence. This term was used in algebra 
by Chuquet (1484) to designate equivalent ex- 

See Equisbtum. 


EQTJISETUM (Neo-Lat., from Lat. equis<2~ 
turn, equisatis, equiseta, from equus, horse -f- 
sceta, bristle), Horse-Tail Rush, or Scouring 
Rush. The only living genus of the order Equi- 
setales. This order is one of the great divisions 
of the Pteridophytes, the most conspicuous of the 
other orders being the ferns (Filicales) and the 
club mosses ( Lycopodiales ) . The genus Equi- 
setum is represented in the living flora by about 
25 species, which are the lingering remnants of 
an extensive display that was a conspicuous 
feature of the flora of the Carboniferous and 
Mesozoic. The living forms are mostly small 
and inconspicuous, but they are very character- 
istic in appearance. The stem is slender and 
conspicuously jointed, the joints separating 
easily; it is also grooved and fluted by small 
longitudinal ridges, and there is such an abun- 
dant deposit of silica in the epidermis that the 
plants feel rough. At each joint there is a 
sheath of minute leaves, the individual leaves 
sometimes being indicated only by minute teeth. 
Since these leaves contain no chlorophyll and 
evidently do not function as foliage leaves, the 
chlorophyll work is carried on by the green 
stem, which is either simple or profusely 

One of the distinguishing features of the 
group is that they have distinct, spore-bearing 
leaves (sporophylls), and that these are ar- 
ranged so as to form a conelike cluster, or 
strobilus. Each sporophyll in the strobilus con- 
sists of a stalklike portion bearing a peltate 
expansion. Beneath this shieldlike expansion 
hang the spore cases (sporangia), usually rang- 
ing from 5 to 10 in number. The spores pro- 
duced are all alike, so that the group is not 
one of those in which heterospory (q.v.) occurs 
at present, although it is suspected that some of 
the ancient members of the group were heterospo- 
rous. The spores have a very interesting struc- 
ture. In addition to the two coats common to 
spores, there is a third outer one consisting 
of two intersecting spiral bands which are at- 
tached to the spore only at their point of inter- 
section. On drying, the spiral bands loosen and 
become uncoiled, and when (moistened they close 
again around the spore. By means of these 
movements they serve to hook together the 
spores, and in this way the close proximity of 
germinating spores is secured. The significance 
of this proximity lies in the fact that the sex- 
ual plants (gametophytes) which the spores 
produce are unisexual — i.e., one plant produces 
the male organs (antheridia), and another pro- 
duces the female organs (archegonia), a condi- 
tion called dioecism (q.v.). 

Fossil Forms. Fossil remains of Equisetales 
are found abundantly throughout the Paleozoic 
and Mesozoic of all countries. During the Paleo- 
zoic, in both the Devonian and Carboniferous, there 
occurred a great plexus of Equisetum-Wke forms, 
the whole assemblage being known in general as 
the Calamites. These forms are known mostly 
from pith casts, and all of them show the 
peculiar habit of Equisetum, with its jointed 
and fluted stem and whorled leaves. Among 
this plexus of forms the ancestors of Equisetum 
occur. An interesting feature of many of the 
Paleozoic Equisetales is that the leaves were 
large and functional, so that the Equisetums of 
to-day represent forms whose leaves have lost 
their ordinary function. There are also numer- 
ous detached cones (strobili) belonging to the 
Equisetales. Many of the Paleozoic forms were 

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huge trees, sometimes reaching a height of at 
least 100 feet, the Calamites thus representing 
a conspicuous feature of the forest vegetation 
of the Paleozoic. During the Mesozoic the 
order was also well represented by forms inter- 
mediate between the Paleozoic Calamites and the 
modern Equisetum. For illustration, see Plate 
of Ptebidophytes. Consult: Solms-Laubach, 
Fossil Botany (Oxford, 1891) ; Zittel, Schimper> 
and Barrois, "Traite de paleontologie," part ii, 
Pal4ophytologie (Paris, Munich, and Leipzig, 
1891); Scott, Studies in Fossil Botany (Lon- 
don, 1909). 

EQT7ITABLE ASSETS. Property of a 
debtor or decedent which cannot be reached by 
legal process, but which will be applied by 
'equity to the payment of debts. Originally only 
property held by the debtor or his personal 
representative by a legal title was applicable to 
this purpose, and in the earliest period of our 
legal history the rights of creditors were con- 
fined to the personal property so held. Sub- 
sequently a testator might, bv charging his real 
estate with the payment of his debts, or by 
directing his executor to sell his lands for that 
purpose, render such property liable in equity 
to the claims of his creditors. This did not 
have the effect of merging them in his general 
assets and of subjecting them to legal process; 
but it made them equitable assets, subject to 
the order of the Court of Chancery. This dis- 
tinction has now been swept away in England 
and in the United States by statute. See Dece- 

The expression "equitable assets" is now ap- 
plied to any equitable property rights of a 
debtor which can be reached by creditors only 
by a proceeding in equity. Most equitable in- 
terests — though there are some important excep- 
tions—have been subjected by statute to the 
claims of creditors; but it is manifest that such 
an interest — as the rights of a beneficiary of a 
trust, e.g. — cannot be reached by the ordinary 
legal process of an execution or attachment. 
The creditor has resort, therefore, to a proceed- 
ing in equity known as a "creditor's bill." In a 
few American jurisdictions a statutory process 
has been devised for enforcing creditors' rights 
against either or both forms of property with- 
out distinction. See Assets; Equity; Equi- 
table Estate. 

of the beneficial interest in property, real or 
personal, or of a claim or demand, the legal title 
to which remains vested in the transferror. It 
is effected by any transaction, as a defective 
legal assignment or even a mere agreement, 
whereby the owner of such property seeks to 
assign his interest therein to another, and it 
may operate even to vest in another the sub- 
stantial control over property which is not 
assignable under the technical rules of the com- 
mon law. The equitable mortgage (q.v.) is an 
illustration of the former, and the transfer of 
a right of action is a characteristic example of 
the Tatter. 

A formal deed is necessary to the creation or 
legal transfer of an interest in land, and in the 
absence of a bill of sale a delivery of a chattel 
is requisite to vest the title thereto in the 
transferee; but the courts of equity will pro- 
tect the interests of such a grantee who has 
parted with a valuable consideration in reliance 
upon it, even where the strict legal formalities 
have been omitted. This it does by compelling 


the execution of a valid conveyance or by vest- 
ing in the grantee the rights of an owner. In 
the same way the attempted transfer of property 
not at the time in existence, or not yet acr 
quired by the vendor or mortgagor, is regarded 
in equity as a valid assignment of the trans- 
ferror's future interest therein, which becomes 
complete upon his subsequent acquisition of the 
title. See Estoppel. 

Equity will also interfere to protect the as- 
signee of a chose in action (q.v.) and permit 
him to prosecute the action for his own benefit, 
but in the name of his assignor, who at common 
law was still considered the owner of the claim 
and the rightful party in interest. This awk- 
ward device for securing the assignability of 
rights of action is still employed in many o! the 
United States, though it has in others been 
rendered unnecessary by statutory provisions . 
rendering such rights freely assignable at law. 

An equitable assignee takes the assigned prop- 
erty as it is, subject to all claims, set-offs, or 
liens, whether legal or equitable, to which it is 
subject at the time of the transfer. See Equity; 
Equitable Estate. 

EQUITABLE DEFENSE. A defense in an 
action or legal proceeding which is cognizable *by 
a court of equity, as distinguished from a court 
of law. Thus, in an action on a promissory note, 
the defense of want of consideration is a legal 
defense, as tending to relieve the maker thereof 
from his liability on the contract; but the de- 
fense of fraud, being an allegation of extraneous 
matter, did not affect the legal liability, but was 
an equitable defense and involved an appeal to 

Xity jurisdiction. Under the old practice, by 
ch the limits of common-law and equity 
jurisdiction were strictly defined, equitable de- 
fenses were not available in a court of common 
law. As early as 1854 in England it was enacted 
that such defenses might in many cases be 
pleaded in a court of common law, and such 
pleading did not debar the defendant from 
afterward applying for appropriate relief to a 
court of equity. The same permission is given 
by the codes and procedure acts in most of the 
American States. With very few exceptions, 
what were formerly eouitable defenses may 
now be put forward, botn in the United States 
and in England, in the same action and simul- 
taneously with strictly legal defenses. See 
Equity; Pbocedubb. 

EQUITABLE EASEMENT. A right to con- 
trol or restrict another, by injunction or other 
equitable process, in the lawful use of his land. 
This right arises under a variety of circum- 
stances, but usually where the owner of a par- 
cel of land enters into a restrictive covenant as 
to his use thereof with a neighbor — as that he 
will not build within a certain distance of the 
street line; that he will not maintain a stable, 
a tavern, or other objectionable occupation 
thereon. Such a covenant is enforceable at law 
against the maker of it; but as no burden can 
be imposed upon land by covenant, and as such 
a restriction cannot, however created, be recog- 
nized as a legal easement, it becomes inoperative 
as soon as the land is conveved away by the 
covenantor, to a stranger. If, however, the cove* 
nantor bound his heirs and assigns, as well as 
himself, to the performance of the agreement, 
the courts of equity will restrain a violation of 
it, not only by the covenantor himself, but by 
his heir, his devisee, or grantee without consider- 
ation, and by any assign who takes the land 

Digitized by 



with knowledge of the covenant. As in the 
United States the recording of a deed is con- 
structive notice of its contents to all subsequent 
purchasers of the property, this equity jurisdic- 
tion creates in this class of cases a right analo- 
gous to that known as an easement at law. 
The phrase "restricted land" and "restrictive 
covenants," in common use in connection with 
city and suburban property, have reference to 
the existence of such equitable easements. 

Though the exercise of this jurisdiction is 
closely limited to agreements which are of a re- 
strictive character and which impose no active 
duty upon the owner of the land affected, it has 
in recent years been greatly expanded so as to 
include cases in which there was in fact no cove- 
nant, but only a general, but perfectly clear and 
definite, understanding among the various owners 
of a tract of land as to the uses to which it 
should be devoted. Accordingly, if land is sub- 
divided and sold in parcels in accordance with a 
general scheme or plan, all who buy with notice 
of the restrictions contained in such plan are 
bound thereby. See Covenant; Easement; 
Equity; Restrictive Covenant. 

EQUITABLE ESTATE. An interest in prop- 
erty of such a nature that its enforcement and 
protection are within the jurisdiction of the 
courts of equity and not of common law: the 
right to the beneficial use and enjoyment of 
property without the legal estate. It is only 
by a considerable extension of the technical 
meaning of the term "estate" and by analogy 
that it can be applied to a right of this charac- 
ter. In the primary classification of legal rights 
as rights in rem and rights in 'personam — i.e., 
rights in a definite object ( in rem certam ) avail- 
able against the whole world, and rights avail- 
able against a particular individual only — 
property rights form by far the largest, if not 
the most important, body of rights of the former 
class. A freehold estate in lands, e.g., is not, 
like a claim founded upon contract, a right 
against a certain, definite person, but involves 
the assertion of an exclusive title and right of 
possession against any and everybody who may 
choose to dispute it. Such rights as these are 
fully recognized and protected by the courts of 
common law, by putting the rightful claimant in 
possession of the property and by defending such 
possession against all comers, and they are thus 
appropriately described as legal estates. 

The corresponding equitable right, on the other 
hand, is not, in our" legal system, a right in rem, 
but only in ' personam. The beneficiary of the 
right cannot claim the possession of the prop- 
erty to which it relates, and a trespass upon it 
is not an injury to him, but to the trustee or 
other person in whom the right in rem, the legal 
title, is vested. The remedy of the beneficiary 
is confined to the latter, in personam, whose 
administration of such legal estate he is entitled 
to supervise and control. Clearly such a right 
as this lacks the character of property, or of an 
estate, in the strict sense of those terms. But 
the expressions "equitable estate" and "equita- 
ble property" have been found too convenient to 
be dismissed on technical grounds and must now 
be regarded as permanent additions to our legal 
nomenclature; in addition to which, the recent 
fusion of law and equity jurisdiction in England 
and many of the United States has tended to 
make the distinction between legal and equitable 
interests less important. 

The origin of equitable estates is to be found 


in the ancient practice of conveying lands to tho 
use of a person other than the grantee, which 
prevailed in England in the fifteenth and six- 
teenth centuries. By the Statute of Uses, en- 
acted in the twenty-seventh year of Henry VIII 
(1535), this practice, which had become so 
general as to involve most of the lands in the 
kingdom, was much curtailed, and the system of 
trusts, as we know them, established. These 
constitute at the present time by far the greater 
part of the class of interests known as equitable 
estates. Rights of an analogous character arise 
under a great variety of circumstances. When- 
ever one person has the legal title to property, 
real or personal, and another is entitled by the 
aid of equity to compel the conveyance of the 
property to himself or its administration for* 
his benefit, the latter has an equitable estate 

Such a right arises in every case where an 
unexecuted agreement exists for the conveyance 
or mortgaging of land, or where an attempt to 
make such a conveyance or mortgage fails 
through the defective execution of the instru- 
ment of assignment. The right to the specific 
performance of the contract in the one case, and 
to compel the due execution of the instruments 
in the other, whereby the legal title to the 
property shall be transferred to the beneficiary, 
constitutes his equitable estate therein. Similar 
in character is tne right known as the equity of 
redemption, whereby a mortgagor is enabled, af- 
ter the forfeiture of his mortgage, to redeem the 
mortgaged land or goods from the mortgagee. 
The legal title having, by the forfeiture, become 
completely vested in the latter, the right of 
redemption preserved by equity to the mortgagor 
may properly be regarded as a form of equitable 
estate. The large class of interests of tins char- 
acter known specifically as constructive trusts 
will be described under the title Tbust. See 
also Equitable Easement; Equity; Uses. 

on property, either real or personal, without 
transferring the title thereto to the person in- 
tended to be secured. It is of the essence of the 
mortgage proper in the common-law system that 
the legal title to the property mortgaged shall 
pass to the creditor and remain in him until 
pavment or foreclosure. But the equity tribu- 
nals have given the effect of a mortgage to a 
variety of transactions in which no property is 
actually transferred, but where it is the inten- 
tion of the parties that it shall be pledged or 
subjected to a lien in favor of the creditor, in 
order to secure the payment of his claim. 

The most striking example of the equitable 
mortgage is the lien upon land created by the 
deposit of title deeds to secure a loan or other 
obligation. This is in common use in England 
and occurs occasionally in a few of the United 
States. Evervwhere, however, a mortgage deed 
which, through defective execution, fails to take 
effect in the manner intended, is treated as creat- 
ing an equitable mortgage, and the same effect 
is given to any written agreement for a mort- 
gage intended to have a present effect. An oral 
agreement to subject land to a mortgage lien is 
only prevented from producing a similar result 
by the Statute of Frauds, which renders void all 
agreements concerning lands which are not com- 
mitted to writing; but under some circumstances 
effect is given by courts of equity even to these. 

Similar to mortgages arising out of mere writ- 
ten agreements, as distinguished from convey- 

Digitized by 





anees, is the familiar security known as the 
mortgage on after-acquired property, as upon a 
fluctuating stock of goods in a store, upon ma- 
chinery to be added to the equipment of a mill 
or factory, upon the future rolling stock of a 
railroad, etc. The familiar rule that no one can 
grant that which he does not have deprives such 
mortgages of any common-law validity beyond 
the property actually possessed at the time of 
the transaction. As to the property described 
in them which is afterward acquired by the 
mortgagor, the description operates only as an 
agreement to subject it to the lien as and when 
it becomes the property of the mortgagor. There 
is considerable diversity of judicial opinion as 
to the effect of such a mortgage; but the pre- 
vailing view, which obtains in England and in 
most of the United States, is that it creates an 
equitable mortgage on the after-acquired prop- 
erty valid as against the mortgagor, his neirs 
ana creditors, and against purchasers with no- 
tice or without consideration. In New York a 
curious intermediate doctrine has been worked 
out by the courts, the property being protected 
against purchasers with notice, and such as ac- 
quire the property without consideration, but 
not against the claims of attaching creditors. 
Railroad mortgages on after-acquired property, 
whether real or personal, are, by reason of their 
exceptional character, universally held to be 
valid, even in jurisdictions in which such mort- 
gages, as between private individuals, are not 
generally recognized. 

As already indicated, in all cases of equitable 
mortgage the legal title to the property remains « 
in the mortgagor, as well as the right of posses- 
sion, the interest of the mortgagee being a mere 
lien which is enforceable only in equity and 
which is not protected by any common-law proc- 
ess. But as such a mortgage has, in general, 
priority over the claims of creditors of the mort- 
gagor, as well as over the rights of subsequent 
purchasers and mortgagees, with notice, and as 
the recording of such an instrument under the 
recording acts in the United States gives con- 
structive notice to all intending purchasers and 
lienors, it furnishes adequate security to credi- 
tors intended to be protected thereby. Strictly 
speaking, the remedy by foreclosure, which is 
the usual and proper process for the enforcement 
of a legal, or ordinary, mortgage, is not appro- 
priate to a mortgage of this type. It is enforced 
by a bill in equity praying for the sale of the 
property under the authority of the court and 
for the payment of the mortgage debt out of the 
proceeds. As this process does not differ mate- 
rially from the modern statutory proceeding em- 
ployed in New York and some other States to 
foreclose a legal mortgage, the term "fore- 
closure" is, in such jurisdictions, also applied to 
it. See Equitable Estate; Foreclosure; 
Mortgage; and the authorities cited under the 
last of these titles. 

EQTJITES, ek'wl-tez. See Equestrian Order. 

EQTTITY (Lat. ctquitas, fairness, equality, 
from cequus, fair, equal). In law, a term some- 
times used as synonymous with natural justice, 
as distinguished from the fixed and technical 
rules of law. In its technical sense the term 
signifies the system of jurisprudence originated 
and applied by the English Court of Chancery, 
and in the United States applied by various 
courts exercising a similar jurisdiction. 

Equity jurisprudence, as a whole, comprises 
many unrelated rules and doctrines which, how- 

ever, present a certain homogeneity due to three 
important factors common to their development, 
as follows: (1) their common source; (2) the 
kind of relief afforded, the court of chancery 
acting in personam, as distinguished from the 
courts of common law, which act in rem; (3) 
the object of, or rather the occasion for, the 
system. This occasion was the necessity of 
mitigating the rigor of the common-law system 
by preventing the inequitable application of 
rules of law and by affording a remedy when 
there was no remedy at law, or when the legal 
remedy, if any, was inadequate. The rights 
recognized, and corresponding remedies pro- 
vided, by the English court of common law were 
early restricted to those obtainable by a limited 
number of forms of action of a fixed character. 
See Common Law; Law; Pleading. 

Even in cases where there was a remedy at 
common law it was frequently inadequate, owing 
to the fact that the common-law courts could 
award only the recovery of a sum' of money or 
of specific real or personal property. They were 
powerless to prevent a threatened injury or to 
compel a defendant to perform a legal duty. 
Another source of difficulty was the fact that 
all actions at law were necessarily two-sided 
controversies, in which the judgment rendered 
must be either for a plaintiff or a defendant. 
The law courts were without the machinery for 
the settlement of a controversy in which several 
parties with distinct interests were involved. 
The Chancellor (Keeper of the King's Con- 
science), as administrator of justice upon con- 
scientious grounds, and invested with the King's 
prerogative to issue orders or decrees directing 
the doing of an act, possessed all the requisite 
power to remedy these defects of the common 
law. The Chancellor could and did command 
things, other than the payment of money, to be 
done. He could summon before him all the 
parties to a controversy, however numerous, and 
in a single proceeding determine and adjust the 
rights of all. It is upon these simple but 
fundamental distinctions that the differences 
between the law and equity systems are based. 
While the discretion of the Chancellor was 
originally as wide as his sense of justice, the 
principles of equity jurisprudence early took on 
definite form, and were embodied in decisions 
which have substantially the same force as 
precedents as the decisions of the courts of com- 
mon law. These principles are now for the 
most part fixed, and can only be changed by 
legislative action. For further discussion of the 
development of equity jurisdiction, see Chan- 

From the very nature of equity jurispru- 
dence it follows that the jurisdiction of courts 
of equity is as extensive and as diverse as that 
of the courts of law whose remedies it was the 
aim of equity to supplement. It also follows 
from the supplementary character of equity 
that, as a prerequisite to the exercise of its 
jurisdiction, there should be no adequate remedy 
at law, which may result from the fact either 
that the legal remedy, because of its nature, 
cannot effect complete justice or that there is a 
right which courts of equity recognize and for 
which they will grant relief, but for which there 
is no legal remedy of any kind. 

The jurisdiction of equity may be classified 
with reference to the jurisdiction of courts of 
law as (a) concurrent, (6) supplementary or 
auxiliary, (c) exclusive. Jurisdiction is said to 

Digitized by 



be concurrent where courts both of law and 
equity have jurisdiction over the subject matter 
but the exercise of jurisdiction by one court ex- 
cludes the exercise of jurisdiction by the other. 
Thus, in case of breach of contract, the injured 
party may seek to recover damages at law, or, 
in a proper case, he may seek specific perform- 
ance of the contract in equity, the choice of one 
remedy excluding resort to the other. Jurisdic- 
tion is supplemental when it affords a remedy 
in addition to, but not exclusive of, a legal 
remedy. Thus, the right of the mortgagor to 
redeem in equity and the jurisdiction of equity 
over legal waste are examples of supplemental 
jurisdiction. Jurisdiction is exclusive when 
equity affords relief in cases where there is no 
corresponding legal remedy; or, stated in dif- 
ferent terms, when equity recognizes and pro- 
tects a right which is not recognized at law, 
as in case of trusts, equitable easements, and 
equitable waste. 

A comprehensive view of equity can best be 
obtained by an examination of the various forms 
of relief afforded by the court of chancery. These 
forms of relief may be roughly classified as (a) 
preventive and (o) remedial. 

Courts of equity most frequently exercise their 
jurisdiction to prevent threatened injuries to 
property or analogous interests by means of an 
injunctive decree or order commanding the de- 
fendant to refrain from committing the threat- 
ened injury, or commanding him to do some act 
which would prevent the injury. The most com- 
mon forms in which preventive jurisdiction is 
exercised are (1) bills to restrain the commis- 
sion of tort, (2) bills of peace, (3) bills of 
interpleader, and (4) bills quia timet—in all of 
which the common ground for exercising juris- 
diction is the prevention of threatened injury 
to the plaintiff, for whom there is no adequate 
legal remedy. 

(1) Bill to Restrain the Commission of a 
Tort. — As a general rule, equity will restrain 
the commission of any tort which would result 
in injury to property and for which legal 
damages would not be an adequate remedy. In- 
adequacy may exist either because the damage 
is irreparable — i.e., the property could not be 
repaired or replaced by the sum received as 
damages, as, e.g., injuries to growing trees, or 
to a work of art, or to one's business; or the 
inadequacy may arise from the fact that the 
defendant (in equity) threatens to repeat a tort 
so frequently that tne plaintiff will be compelled 
to resort repeatedly to a court of law to recover 
damages, in which case equity will restrain the 
commission of the tort. Thus, equity will re- 
strain the defendant from trespassing repeatedly 
on the plaintiff's land, although legal damages 
for a single trespass would be adequate. Upon 
the principle of preventing irreparable injury to 
a property interest, equity will enjoin the publi- 
cation of a trade secret belonging to the plain- 
tiff, or of a private letter written by him. 

Equity will not restrain a libel or slander, or 
the commission of a crime as such, though the 
mere fact that a threatened injury to property 
is also a crime will not prevent the exercise of 
equity jurisdiction. This self-limitation of 

i'urisdiction is somewhat arbitrary, and in Eng- 
and and in most States courts of equity now 
have statutory jurisdiction to restrain the publi- 
cation of trade libels. 

(2) Bill of Peace. — The object of bills of peace 
is to relieve the plaintiff from the burden of 


litigating a multiplicity of suits, either in law 
or equity. Thus, when one is compelled to bring 
or defend numerous actions at law or in equity 
in order to establish his right, a court of equity 
may issue an injunction restraining all the 
separate actions, and compelling the parties to 
try them all in equity in a single proceeding; 
or it may enjoin all the actions at law but a 
single one, and upon its conclusion adjust the 
rights of all parties in accordance with the 
result so obtained. The same relief may be 
obtained by the several plaintiffs or defendants 
in numerous actions at law or in equity who may 
unite in asking it. 

(3) Bill of Interpleader.— The object of the 
bill of interpleader is to release the plaintiff 
from the demands of several parties all claiming 
of him payment of the same debt or performance 
of the same obligation* He is in the position 
of a stakeholder who is willing to pay over a 
sum of money to the proper party, but is unable 
to determine who is the proper party. Thus, 
payment is demanded of A (the maker of a 
promissory note) by both B and 0, who claim 
to be owners of the note. Upon A's offering to 
pay the money into court and disclaiming any 
interest therein, equity will enjoin B and C 
from proceeding against A, and compel them to 
litigate the question of ownership of the note in 
equity. See Interpleader. 

(4) Bill Quia Timet. — The object of the bill 
quia timet is to compel the surrender and can- 
cellation of an instrument upon which, although 
invalid, the holder might at some future time 
found an action at law or in equity against the 
plaintiff. The relief is granted upon the theory 
that through lapse of time the plaintiff might 
lose the evidence of the invalidity of the instru- 
ment and thus be subjected to an action after 
his defense to it is lost. This form of equity 
jurisdiction is clearly related to bills to remove 
cloud on title. See Quia Timet. 

Jurisdiction in which the relief is remedial is 
characterized by various forms of relief which 
seek, not to prevent threatened injuries, but 
rather to provide remedies for past wrongs 
more complete than the legal remedy, if any, or 
seek to confer upon the plaintiff rights not 
recognized at law. Owing to the diverse char- 
acter of these various forms of jurisdiction, it 
is impossible to classify them m a scientific 
manner. They may, however, be roughly 
grouped as follows: 

I. Jurisdiction affecting contracts and analo- 
gous rights. II. Jurisdiction affecting title or 
other interests in real property. III. Jurisdic- 
tion in aid of actions at law. 

I. Jurisdiction Affecting Contracts and Analo- 
gous Rights may be again roughly classified as 
follows: (1) specific performance of contract; 
(2) reformation and rescission of contracts and 
deeds; (3) marshaling; (4) subrogation; (5) 
creditor's bills; (6) bills for an account; (7) 
bills to compel contribution. Of these it may 
be observed that in each case the relief granted 
may, and frequently does, affect incidentally title 
or other property interests. In each case* how- 
ever, the basis of equitable action is the protec- 
tion or enforcement of a contract or analogous 

(1) Specific Performance of Contract will be 
compelled by equity when legal damages for 
the breach of contract would be inadequate. 
And, given a case when equity would compel 
performance of a contract by one party to it, it 

Digitized by 



will — upon the so-called doctrine of mutuality — 
compel performance by the other, although his 
performance consists merely in the payment of 
a sum of money. Equity will not, however, com- 
pel performance of contract of a purely personal 
nature, as a contract to marry or to form a 
partnership; nor will it compel performance of 
contracts which would require the active super- 
vision of the court over the performance, as a 
building contract. 

(2) Reformation and Rescission. — Equity ex- 
ercises its jurisdiction generally over contracts 
and deeds to make them conform to the inten- 
tion of the parties. Whenever a term of a 
written contract is incorporated in ot omitted 
from it by mistake, equity will compel a refor- 
mation, or, more properly, a reexecution of the 
contract in accordance with the intention of the 
parties. Where a contract is tainted with fraud, 
or there is a mistake preventing a meeting of 
the minds of the parties, a court of equity will 
declare the contract rescinded, and compel its 
cancellation by the parties to it. (See Fraud; 
Contract.) Upon similar principles, equKy 
will sometimes compel the execution of new 
documents to replace lost documents which ate 
necessary to support a claim of title. See 
Reformation; Rescission. 

(3) Marshaling in equity is rather a general 
doctrine or rule of procedure than a specific form 
of relief. Briefly stated, the doctrine is that he 
who has two funds available to satisfy his de- 
mand shall not by his election to resort to one 
fund deprive another of his security who has 
only one of the two funds to satisfy his demand. 
Thus, in the case of suretyship, if one of the 
two sureties holds collateral security for his 
contract of suretyship, although both, on pay- 
ment of the principal debt, are entitled to the 
security of the creditor's obligation, equity will 
compel the first to resort to his collateral 
security in order not to deprive the other of the 
benefit of the creditor's security. See Marshal- 
ing; Suretyship. 

(4) Subrogation is also an equitable doctrine 
rather than a specific form of relief, and not 
one of universal application. In certain cases 
equity will, for the purpose of working out 
justice, treat one who has paid the debt of 
another as an assignee of the debt or claim, in 
which case he is said to be subrogated to the 
other's rights in such debt or claim. Thus, one 
who has loaned money to a corporation under 
an ultra vires contract, for the purpose of pay- 
ing lawful debts of the corporation, may m 
equity be subrogated to the claims of those 
creditors whose claims are so paid, in order to 
avoid the injustice of denying him a recovery of 
the money loaned on the ground of the in- 
validity of the agreement. See Subrogation. 

(5) Creditor's Bills are available to compel 
the reconveyance of property conveyed by a 
judgment debtor in fraud of his creditors or to 
subject to the creditors' process property — such 
as the debtor's interest in a trust estate — which 
is not subject to attachment or execution at 
common law. 

(6) Account. — Equity will, in a proper case, 
compel a defendant to state an account to the 
plaintiff and then compel payment of the amount 
so found to be due. (See Account.) This re- 
lief may be obtained on the ground that the 
defendant is a trustee or fiduciary, who is 
peculiarly the subject of equity jurisdiction, or 
that the account is too involved and complicated 



to be properly dealt with by a court of law. 
This form of relief is to be distinguished from 
the now obsolete action of account at common 

(7) Contribution. — Equity will, in a proper 
case, when one of several parties having a joint 
obligation has paid the obligation, compel the 
others to contribute pro rata to the payment. 
This doctrine is most frequently applied among 
cosureties, but has a more extensive application ; 
and in some eases is applied among parties who 
at law have not incurred a joint obligation, but 
who on equitable principles are treated as though 
their undertaking were joint. 

IL Jurisdiction Affecting Titles or other In- 
terests in Property may be classified as follows : 
(1) bills to remove cloud on title; (2) parti- 
tion; (8) bills to foreclose or redeem a mort- 
gage; (4) bills to enforce liens; (5) jurisdiction 
over uses and trusts. 

(1) BUI to Remove Cloud on Title. — Equity 
exercises its jurisdiction to compel the cancella- 
tion of any invalid document or record which, 
because of its apparent validity, creates a cloud, 
or apparent defect, in the title of the plaintiff. 
This form of relief is analogous to that granted 
upon bills quia timet. Strictly, however, the 
relief granted is not for the purpose of prevent- 
ing a future attack Upon the plaintiffs title, but 
for the purpose of aiding the plaintiff to secure 
a present marketable title to his real estate. 

(2) Partition. — Equity early took jurisdiction 
to compel a partition of real estate held by joint 
tenants or tenants in common on the petition 
of any of them. It might accomplish this result 
by a division of the land among the several 
tenants by means of mutual conveyances, or by 
directing a sale of the land and a division of 
the proceeds. 

(3) Bill to Foreclose or Redeem a Mortgage. 
— This was one of the early forms of supple- 
mentary jurisdiction and is a typical example of 
the growth and development of the equity sys- 
tem. See Equity op Redemption. 

(4) Bill to Enforce a Lien. — At common law 
the various forms of lien gave the lien holder the 
right only to retain possession of the property 
which was subject to the lien. He could make 
no use of it, nor could he dispose of it in order 
to satisfy his claim. Eauity exercised its juris- 
diction to enforce such liens by judicial sale of 
the property, unless the defendant before the 
decree paid the amount due upon the lien. 
Equity also recognizes and enforces as liens mere 
agreements for a lien or mortgage which fall 
short of creating a common-law lien. See 
Equitable Mortgage. 

(6) Jurisdiction over Uses and Trusts. — Al- 
though this form of jurisdiction is in many ways 
analogous to the jurisdiction of equity over con- 
tract rights, its basis is the obligation which 
equity imposes on the trustee to hold the legal 
title of property for the benefit of another. For 
the purpose of effecting this result, equity com- 
pels the trustee to do any requisite act. It may 
compel him to convey the trust property or to 
account for its proceeds. It regards the interest 
of the beneficiary as analogous to a property 
interest at law and as subject to analogous rules 
of devolution. See Equitable Estate; Trust. 
III. Jurisdiction in Aid of Actions at Law. — 
In two classes of cases equity came to the assist- 
ance of parties to actions at* law. The assistance 
was rendered by means of- (1) bills of discovery 
and (2) bills to perpetuate testimony. 

Digitized by GOOgle 


(1) Bill of Discovery. — It often happened that 
a party to an action at law was unable (either 
because of the rules of evidence or because of 
his inability to secure evidence in advance of a 
trial) properly to prepare his case for trial or 
to prove his case at the trial. Equity came to 
his aid by compelling the defendant, in a proper 
case, to "make discovery" of the matter relevant 
to the trial at law. The effect was to compel 
the defendant to give to the plaintiff ( in equity) 
the information which he sought, and to supply 
him with "admissions" made by the defendant, 
which could be used as evidence in the trial at 
law. See Evidence. 

(2) Bill to Perpetuate Testimony. — Equity 
early exercised its jurisdiction to take the testi- 
mony of witnesses to be used on the trial of an 
action at law. It might do this either on the 
ground that the witness was aged or infirm, and 
that his testimony might not be obtainable when 
it should be required for the trial at law, or be- 
cause the plaintiff in equity, being a prospective 
defendant at law, feared that the plaintiff would 
postpone the action at law until the evidence 
was lost. This form of relief is analogous to 
bills quia timet, but is remedial rather than 

Owing to the changes in rules of evidence 
and the various statutory forms of commission 
to take testimony, both bills of discovery and 
bills to perpetuate testimony are now generally 
obsolete, though they are still occasionally em- 

In the development of equity jurisprudence, 
certain maxims adopted by courts of chancery 
have played a considerable part. Frequent ref- 
erence to these in the opinions of equity judges, 
as apparent rules of decision, has perhaps given 
them undue importance. Properly they are not 
fixed rules of general application, but rather apt 
phrases which are indicative merely of general 
guiding principles having many special applica- 
tions and exceptions. The scope of this article 
will not permit their extended examination, and 
it will be sufficient to enumerate some of the 
more familiar maxims. Thus: 

He who seeks equity must do equity. 

He who comes into equity must come with 
clean hands. 

Equity aids the diligent, not the slothful. 

Equity follows the law (indicating that when- 
ever legal rules are applicable equity will follow 
them — e.g., the Statute of Limitations). 

Where equities are equal the legal title will 

A proceeding in equity is not begun bv writ 
as in a common-law action, but by petition, or 
bill, praying that a subpoena issue to the defend- 
ant compelling him to answer. The final relief 
granted by the court is embodied in an order or 
decree. The court of equity may grant any 
appropriate interlocutory relief. Consult: the 
commentaries of Blackstone and Kent; the au- 
thorities referred to under Jubispbudence; and 
such special treatises as Pomeroy, Treatise on 
Equity Jurisprudence as Administered in the 
United States (3d ed., San Francisco, 1905); 
Bispham, Principles of Equity (7th ed., New 
York, 1905) ; Bigelow, Elements of Equity (Bos- 
ton, 1899) ; White and Tudor, Leading Cases in 
Equity (7th ed., London, 1897); Kelke, An 
Epitome of Leading Cases in Equity (London, 

EQUITY, Coubts of. See Chancebt. 




or interest which the mortgagor retains in mort- 
gaged property. In strict legal theory, the ex- 
pression has reference only to the right of the 
mortgagor to compel the redemption of the mort- 
gaged property after forfeiture and after the 
title of the mortgagee has become absolute at 
law; but in practice the term is employed by 
lawyers as well as in popular speech to denote 
the residuum of interest left in the mortgagor 
after the making of the mortgage. 

The legal effect of mortgaging property, 
whether real or personal, is to vest a defeasible 
title in the mortgagee, which, upon default of 
payment, becomes an absolute title at law. The 
common-law tribunals maintained the legal effect 
of the transaction with rigorous consistency, re- 
quiring the mortgagor to perform the condition 
of payment, upon which the conveyance had been 
made, to the letter. If he made his payment at 
the time and place specified, his title revived and 
the property became his again without a recon- 
veyance. If he made default in payment on the 
"law day," the forfeiture was absolute and he 
was still liable to pay the debt in addition to 
losing the property. It was one of the earliest 
and greatest triumphs of the equity system to 
preserve to the unfortunate debtor the right to 
redeem his property, notwithstanding his de- 
fault, by the subsequent payment of the debt 
with interest. 

This innovation, which destroyed the legal ef- 
fect of the forfeiture which had been incurred, 
was stoutly resisted by the common lawyers of 
the time, Sir Matthew Hale, when Chief Justice, 
declaring from the bench that by the growth of 
such equities the heart of the common law was 
eaten out. But the justice and humanity of the 
relief thus extended to the debtor were too ob- 
vious to permit a return to the system of for- 
feitures, and it soon became a recognized head 
of equity jurisdiction. Under this salutary sys- 
tem the mortgage has, both in law and equity, 
come to be considered merely a superior sort of 
lien, the mortgagor's equity of redemption rep- 
resenting for most purposes the real and sub- 
stantial ownership of the mortgaged property. 
As such it may be conveyed, encumbered, or de- 
vised by the mortgagor; or it may be trans- 
mitted by descent to his heirs. It is liable for 
the debts of the mortgagor, like the rest of his 
property, and is, in the United States, subject 
to dower and curtesy. 

Being thus an alienable estate, an interest in 
it may be acquired by any one to whom any 
estate or interest therein is granted, as a tenant 
for years, a subsequent mortgagee or other in- 
cumbrancer, the grantee of an easement, etc., as 
well as the heirs, devisees, and assignees of the 
mortgagor. Any person having such an interest 
has an equal right to redeem with the mort- 
gagor himself. The mortgagee is not precluded 
from becoming the owner of the equity of re- 
demption or of any interest therein by a pur- 
chase in pood faith from any person having the 
right. The usual effect of such a conveyance 
to the mortgagee is to extinguish the equity and 
convert his defeasible title into an absolute 
title, though this result may be avoided if the 
intention of the parties or the interests of jus- 
tice require that the equity be kept alive. 

Originally the equitable right of redemption 
was unlimited in point of time, and this is still 
the case so long as the relation of mortgagor and 
mortgagee continues, unless it be cut off by the 
process known as foreclosure (q.v.), instituted 

Digitized by 



by a bill in equity. This process (known in 
some States as a "strict foreclosure," to distin- 
guish it from the statutory proceeding for the 
sale of the mortgaged premises, to which the 
name of foreclosure has also come to be applied) 
has the effect of extinguishing the right or equity 
of redemption and of converting the mortgagee's 
conditional estate into an absolute one. Other 
than some process of foreclosure, there is, as 
is said above, no way in which the right of 
redemption can be abridged so long as the rela- 
tion of mortgagor and mortgagee continues. But 
if this relation is terminated by the mortgagee's 
adverse occupation of the land, without any 
recognition of the mortgage, for the statutory 
period of limitation, the equity of redemption 
may also be cut off by lapse of time. This 
period is usually 20 years, but in some jurisdic- 
tions a shorter period of limitation of 10 or 12 
years is provided by statute for extinguishing 
an equity of redemption by the adverse posses- 
sion of the mortgagee. In the absence of statutes 
of limitation the equity tribunals have in some 
cases refused to recognize the right to redeem 
where the mortgagor or other party claiming 
the right had neglected for an unreasonable time 
to exercise it. 

Popularly the expression "equity of redemp- 
tion" is often employed to denote the value of 
mortgaged property over and above the amount 
of the mortgage debt with the interest that may 
be due thereon. See Chancery; Equity; For- 
feiture; Mortgage; Redemption; and consult 
the authorities referred to under the article on 

EQUITY PLEADING. That part of the 
procedure of courts of equity, or chancery, 
wherein the claims of the several parties to a 
controversy entertained byymch a court are set 
forth and defined. The equity system of plead- 
ing is derived in part from that of the courts 
of common law but in much greater measure 
from that of the ecclesiastical courts, which, in 
their turn, derived it from the civil law system 
of Western Europe. This was due in part to 
the fact that the early chancellors in England 
were ecclesiastics trained in the canon law, 
which was itself based on the civil law, and 
were ignorant of the common law and its pro- 
cedure, but more to the nature of the remedies 
afforded in the equity courts and to the prin- 
ciples on which it exercised its peculiar juris- 
diction. Thus as the appeal to chancery was 
based on the inadequacy of the justice afforded 
by the ordinary (common law) tribunals, it 
naturally took on the form of a humble peti- 
tion addressed to the king, praying for the re- 
lief elsewhere denied. In the common law 
courts, on the other hand, the pleading by which 
the suit was instituted was a simple declaration 
setting forth the grievances which the plaintiff 
alleged against the defendant and a demand of 
the particular redress which the ordinary juris- 
diction afforded. In the course of time, how- 
ever, the pleading in the equity courtB has be- 
come even more closely assimilated to that of 
€he common law and has, accordingly, departed 
more and more from that of the ecclesiastical 
law. Moreover in modern times the equity sys- 
tem of pleading, like that of common law plead- 
ing, has been greatly simplified, so that it con- 
sists at present of three "regular" pleadings,-~ 
the petition of the complainant, known as the 
bill, the answer of the defendant, and the repli- 
cation of the complainant. The earlier formal 


pleadings subsequent to the replication, as the 
rejoinder of the defendant, etc., have been merged 
in the three regular pleadings. Besides the regu- 
lar pleadings, demurrers and pleas are also ad- 
mitted in equity pleading. These were borrowed 
from the common law and retain essentially 
their common law functions. (See Demurrer; 
Plea.) The scope and flexibility of equity juris- 
diction has given rise to a form of defense in 
chancery which is not possible in common law 
procedure, namely a counterattack by the de- 
fendant against the complainant, instituted by 
a cross bill. A familiar instance of this pro- 
cedure is where a wife sues for a restitution of 
conjugal rights. The husband may set up, by 
way of defense, that she has been guilty of 
adultery, but he may also avail himself of the 
same fact as the ground of a cross action for 
divorce. In this way the whole issue can be 
tried in one and the same proceeding and the 
rights of the parties completely determined. See 
Bill; Cross Bill; Pleading; Procedure. 

E'QTJIV'AIiENT (from Lat. cequivalere, to 
have equal value, from cequus, equal -f- valere, to 
have power ) . A term used in geometry, to signify 
equality of area or volume. Thus, two triangles 
are said to be equivalent, or equal in area, or 
simply equal, if tney have equal bases and equal 
altitudes. But if they are also similar in shape, 
they are said to be congruent, or identically 
equal. In algebra, two equations are said to be 
equivalent when the roots of each equation com- 
pletely satisfy the other equation ; e.g., if the same 
quantity is added to or subtracted from the 
two members of an equation, the result is an 
equivalent equation, since any root of A = B is 
also a root of A * C — B «*■ C, and any root of 
A iC = BiCis also a root of A = B. But, 
while 0* = 2o? and x = 2 are equations each of 
which is directly derivable from the other, they 
are not equivalent equations, for m = is a root 
of the first equation, but not of the second. 

EQTJTTLEUS, e^wc^-us (Lat. a colt). A 
small northern constellation, lying almost on 
the equator, and surrounded by Pegasus, Aqua- 
rius, and Delphinus. Its chief objects of interest 
are the remarkable double star, 8 Equulei, and 
the triple system, e Equulei. The former has 
a parallax of 0.07", corresponding to a distance 
of 46 light years, and is one of the most rapid 
binaries known, its period being 5.7 years. 

E1LA. See Chronology. 

ERAN'> ERA/NIAN. See Iran, Iranian. 

plied in American political history to the period 
1817 to 1824, during which there was virtually 
only one party — the Democratic-Republican — in 
the United States. That party, however, was 
broken up into personal factions. At the close 
of the War of 1812 the Federalist party had 
passed almost entirely out of existence, and in 
1821 President Monroe was reelected by an 
electoral vote of 231 out of 232. The discussions 
over the tariff and internal improvements, how- 
ever, soon caused new political alignments, and 
brought the "Era of Good Feeling" to a close. 
Different dates are given for the period by 
different writers on American history, some of 
whom restrict it to the second administration 
of Monroe. 

3RARD, a'rftr', Sebastien (1752-1831). A 
famous French piano and harp maker, born at 
Strassburg. He went to Paris, where the Duchess 
of Villeroy became his patron, and in her house 

Digitized by VjOOQLC 

he made the first piano ever manufactured in 
France. He became famous and with his brother 
established a large factory in Paris and a branch 
in London. Thenceforward devoting his life to 
the development of his favorite instrument, the 
pianoforte, he brought it to a perfection before 
unknown, his most famous invention being the 
repetition action, first applied in 1821. For the 
harp he invented the double-action mechanism. 
He died near Paris. 

ERAS, a'ras, Wolfgang (1843-02). A Ger- 
man economist, born at Schttnfeld and educated 
at Leipzig, Jena, and Berlin. He was general 
secretary to the Rhenish- Westphalian Industrial 
Association from 1866 to 1870, in 1871 was ap- 
pointed recorder of the Chamber of Commerce 
in Breslau, and in 1886 held the same position 
in the Textile Manufacturers' Association of 
Silesia. He was editor of the Jahrbuch fUr 
Yolktwirtachaft in 1868-69. The following is 
a list of his more important publications: Der 
Wahrungsstreit (1883) ; Einriohtungen fitr die 
Binnenschiffahrt an deutschen und hollUndischen 
HandeUplatzent (1886) ; Unser Handel mit den 
Balkanlandem (1891). 

ERASED (from Lat. erasus, p.p. of evader e y 
to erase, from e, out + radere, to scrape) and 
Eradicated. Terms in heraldry denoting that 
an object is plucked or torn off and showing a 
ragged edge; as opposed to coupe" or coupy, cut, 
which shows a smooth edge. A tree plucked up 
by the roots is said to be eradicated. See Her- 

ER'ASISTRAffUS (Lat., from Gk. 'EpaaL 
cTparos). One of the most famous physicians 
and anatomists of ancient times. He was born 
at Iulis in the island of Ceos, the son of 
Cleombrotus and Cretoxene. He became the 
pupil of Metrodorus and Theophrastus and 
through Metrodorus was influenced by the views 
of Chrysippus. He traveled much and about 
294 B.c. was body physician at the court of 
Seleucus Nicator, King of Syria. At a later 
time he resided at Samoa, but, giving up prac- 
tice, devoted himself to the study of the theory 
of anatomy at Alexandria. He was the rival of 
Herophilus. Erasistratus was the first to dis- 
tinguish between the sensory nerves and the 
motor nerves and to trace both sets of nerves 
back to the substance of the brain. He also ap- 
proached to the right view of the circulation of 
the blood in that he explained the origin of both 
the veins and the arteries as being in the heart. 
He held the strange view, however, that normally 
the arteries held only air, and that, when they 
were filled with blood, disease followed. He 
wrote many works on medicine and anatomy, 
of which we have a few fragments, preserved 
especially by Galen, and the titles of some 14 
or 15. There was a sect of physicians who called 
themselves, from the name of their master, 
Erasistrateans. Consult: Hieronymus, Erasis- 
trati et Eraaistrateorum Historia (Jena, 1790) ; 
Susemihl, Oeschichte der griechischen Litteratur, 
vol. i (Leipzig, 1892) ; Fuchs, "De Erasistrato 
Capita Selecta," in Hermes, vol. xxix (Berlin, 
1894), and in Rheinisches Museum, vol. Hi 
(Frankfurt a. M., 1897). See Medicine. 

ERASMUS, e-raz'mns, Desiderius (c.1466- 
1636 ) . One of the greatest scholars of the Re- 
naissance and Reformation period. He was born 
at Rotterdam, October 28, probably in the year 
1466. The materials for the history of his life 
are scanty and doubtful, being taken almost en- 
tirely from his own writings. In spite of the 


obvious purpose of most of these materials to 
explain or to conceal matters of personal 
experience, they have been generally accepted by 
biographers as historical, and thus a kind of 
Erasmian legend has taken form, only partially 
cleared up by the labors of recent critical 

The fame of Erasmus rests upon his work as 
the chief interpreter to the peoples of northern 
Europe of the great intellectual movement of 
the fifteenth century. The circumstances of his 
uneventful Hfe are of interest only as they illus- 
trate this great service. He was, on his own 
statement, an illegitimate child, but was ten- 
derly cared for by his parents until their death, 
when he was about 14 years old. They gave him 
the best attainable education at the famous 
school of Deventer and left him a little property 
—sufficient, he says, if it had been husbanded, 
to pay his way at a university. His guardians, 
however, took the more natural and safe course 
of placing him first at a school of the Brothers 
of the Common Life at Bois-le-Duc, where he 
spent, "or rather wasted," about three years, 
and then in the Augustinian monastery of 
Canons Regular at Steyn, near Gouda. Here he 
spent 10 years. He took priest's orders in 1492, 
but left the monastery, never to return, in 1492 
or 1493. For a short time, in 1495 or 1496, he 
was at Paris. Then he began his career as an 
independent scholar, living by his pen. and the 
favors it brought him, and continued this life 
till his death. With frequent intervals of wan- 
dering, he resided at Paris, Louvain, in England, 
at Basel, and Freiburg im Breisgau; for three 
years he was in Italy (1606-09). His chief 
attachments were in England and Basel. He 
was on terms of a certain intimacy with John 
Colet, founder of SL Paul's School; Thomas 
Linacre, founder of tie London College of Physi- 
cians; William Grocyn, teacher of Greek at 
Oxford; and Thomas More, the great Chancel- 
lor. For a time he held a readership in Greek 
at Cambridge. His serious purpose to devote 
himself to the revival of "Theology, the Queen of 
Sciences," dates from his first acquaintance with 
these men in the last years of the century. 
Archbishop Warham, of Canterbury, gave him 
a substantial and permanent income. In Basel 
he was the intimate of a circle of reforming 
scholars who gathered about the famous pub- 
lisher John Froben. In Italy he was for a time 
a member of the "familia" of the Venetian pub- 
Usher Aldus Manutius. His correspondence, in- 
cluding more than 1500 letters, shows him in 
relations with over 500 persons, many of them 
of the highest station. 

Down to the year 1517, when the Lutheran 
revolt began, the work of Erasmus was largely 
in criticism of the existing Roman Catholic 
church system and of the scholastic method in 
philosophy by which it was defended. In his 
Enchiridion Militis Christians (The Manual or 
Dagger of the Christian Soldier, 1523) he lays 
down in didactic form the useiessness of forms 
in religion, as compared to the spirit of sincere 
apostolic piety. In his Adagia (1508), a col : 
lection of passages from classic authors, he adds 
to purely philological interpretation a running 
commentary of moral reflection which gave to 
this work an immediate and permanent success. 
In the Colloquia (1524), a series of dialogues 
on a variety of topics, there runs all through 
the same vein of serious comment on the vices 
and folUes of priests, monks, philosophers, 

Digitized by 




miracle and relic mongers, and ail the other 
formal shams of the time. Even in the En- 
comium Morim (The Praise of Folly, 1509), per- 
haps the most biting, as it was doubtless the 
most popular, of his satirical writings, a fair 
examination detects throughout a serious under- 
tone of protest. Still more important was 
Erasmus* great contribution to critical scholar- 
ship in his edition of the Greek New Testament, 
with a Latin translation, in 1516. Though not 
the first to conceive the plan of such an under- 
taking, Erasmus was first in the field, and might 
well reply to criticism of certain defects, that 
while others were carping he had done the work, 
and was quite content if only his service might 
point the way to other scholars. 

With 1517 begins a distinctly new period in 
Erasmus' life. The Reformation, under Luther's 
vehement leadership, seemed at first to be only 
the practical application of ideas which he had 
always proclaimed. Hitherto he had been the 
critic, admired and dreaded; henceforth he was 
to be rather an apologist, not really trusted by 
either side, yet throwing his weight, unwillingly, 
now into one, now into the other scale. Person- 
ally he always refused to take sides. He re- 
mained a Catholic and always so declared 
himself, though he associated much with the Re- 
formers, among whom he counted many of his 
friends. He continued his assaults on the evils 
and errors of the clerical powers, as in the 
Colloquial but to be called a Lutheran drove 
him to fury. In the course of the Lutheran 
controversy Erasmus was drawn out especially 
by Ulrich von Hutten, once his most ardent ad- 
mirer and follower, but now so disappointed and 
irritated by his hesitancy that he could not re- 
strain himself. In his Expostulate he charged 
Erasmus openly with concealing his real opin- 
ions for fear of consequences, and Erasmus re- 
plied in his Spongia Adversus Aspergines Hut- 
teni (1523), declaring his respect for the Holy 
See, while at the same time he admits that he 
had opposed many of its extravagances. Urged 
on both sides to write something that would be 
decisive as to his theological position, he replied 
with the treatise De Libero Arbitrio (1524). In 
this he inveighs against Luther, who replied 
with the polemical treatise De Servo Arbitrio 
contra Servum Des. Erasmum, Stung by Luther's 
invective, Erasmus answered in his Hyperas- 
pistes Diatribe contra Servum Arbitrium Lutheri, 
in which he complains of the violence and bitter- 
ness of Luther's attack in a manner no less 
violent and bitter. 

Erasmus is often thought of as chiefly a pre- 
cursor of the Reformation. And yet, in the 
sense in which the term is used of men like 
Luther and Calvin, he never was a reformer at 
all. Upon ignorance and superstition he waged 
unrelenting war; but it was in the spirit of the 
humanist, not of the theologian, ana the witty 
mockery of a Lucian was far more to his taste 
than the religious fervor of a St. Augustine. 
He was the incarnation of cool, critical common 
sense, with an unshaken faith in the necessity 
and efficacy, alike in the secular and ecclesiasti- 
cal sphere, of liberal studies and freedom of 
thought. It seemed to him inevitable that in- 
crease of knowledge would of itself bring about 
a peaceful reform of abuses in the church. He 
had, too, the scholar's dislike of extreme views, 
which made it difficult for him to side definitely 
with either party, and the scholar's conserva- 
tism, which, with all its openness to new ideas, 


is yet loath to give up forms consecrated by the 
life of the past, if in any way new vigor can be 
breathed into them. In fact, he never really 
understood the forces that were at work in the 
religious struggle; and in his letters, speaking 
of his own participation in it, deplores the 
metamorphosis of the worshiper of the Muses 
into a gladiator. But in the fields of Human- 
ism he was easily the foremost man of his age. 
The range of his reading in the classics, both 
Latin and Greek, was extraordinarily wide, and 
he was scarcely less familiar with the most 

{prominent of the Latin and Greek fathers. He 
oved travel, and, being by nature a keen and 
thoughtful observer, of social temper and viva- 
cious conversation, had acquired a varied knowl- 
edge of men and manners in the frequent changes 
of residence, made for the sake of more favorable 
opportunities of work and study. A mind so 
well stored and possessed of so gay and nimble 
a fancy might be expected to show remarkable 
powers of productivity, and in fact Erasmus did 
compose some of his happiest and most charac- 
teristic things in an exceedingly short space of 
time. The Encomium Morice, e.g., was sketched 
during his journey from Italy, and written out 
from his notes in seven days during his stay in 
Sir Thomas Morels house in London. Still, 
splendid as was his equipment, the amount and 
range of his intellectual activity are little short 
of the marvelous. For he was by no means a 
genius, and his scholarly labors were accom- 
plished only by unremitting industry. No one 
did more than he to restore ancient letters. He 
published editions of the works of Aristotle and 
Demosthenes, and translations of several of the 
plays of Euripides, of the greater part of Lucian, 
and of the M or alia of Plutarch. He edited, 
either in whole or in part, among other Latin 
authors, Terence, Cicero, and Livy, and, in ad- 
dition, a long series of patristic writers. In 
1506, in the preface to an edition of Lorenzo 
Valla's Annotations to the New Testament, he 
maintained that a correct translation of the 
Bible could be made only by a trained philolo- 
gist, and that there was need of a critical 
revision of the original Greek text and of a new 
translation. Subsequently he decided to under- 
take this work himself; and in a letter toColet, 
dated May, 1512, he says that he has already 
collated tne New Testament with the ancient 
Greek manuscripts and annotated it in more 
than 1000 places. At the same time he was 
actively engaged upon a new edition, in nine 
folio volumes, of St. Jerome. Froben, whose 
press at Basel became for a while, through the 
editorial cooperation of Erasmus, the most im- 
portant in Europe, has left us a vivid account 
of his incessant work, study, and writing, in 
and about the printing house, when these two 
works were approaching completion. "In the 
midst of all, visitors of rank would make no 
scruple of calling on him and interrupting him 
about some trifle or other; one would try to 
wheedle him out of an epigram, another to gain 
immortality by a letter. And how did he, the 
most easy, good-natured man in the world, act 
on these occasions? Did he refuse? Did he 
manifest impatience? He was fully occupied in 
writing — break off his employments he could 
not. Yet write he did, at odd moments, as he 
went to and from mass, anvthing to oblige." 
The medium of all his work was Latin. He 
refused the position of public reader at Louvain 
because of his imperfect mastery of Dutch, 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 


though it was his native tongue. Of French he 
had some slight command, of English and Italian 
none. But Latin was still the colloquial lan- 
guage of scholars and the regular medium of 
formal communication. In the hands of Eras- 
mus it has all the vitality of a living language, 
though far from classical in its standards, with 
a vocabulary drawn from many different 
sources, and a style wholly modern and indi- 
vidual, the charm of which is the expression of 
the man's own character. 

The best guide to the writings of Erasmus is 
the Bibliotheca Erasmiana, edited by the Uni- 
versity Library of Ghent (1893). Under the 
same editorship a still more complete Bibliotheca 
Erasmiana, in 16mo form, has been appearing in 
parts since 1897. There are editions of the 
complete works by Beatus Rhenanus (9 vols., 
Basel, 1540) and J. Le Clerc (10 vols., fol., 
Amsterdam, 1703>06). Erasmus himself col- 
lected many of his letters for publication, and in 
the years following his death several incomplete 
editions appeared. The more important later 
editions are those of Merula ( Leyden, 1607 ) , the 
"London Edition" of 1642 (in 2 vols., fol.), and 
vol. iii of Le Clerc. Consult the text of his let- 
ters (Oxford, vol. i, 1906; vol. 2, 1910). Epistles 
from his Earliest Letters to his 51st Year have 
been published in an English translation by F. 
M. Nichols (2 vols., London, 1901-04). At- 
tempts to fix the very uncertain chronology of 
Erasmus' life have been made by Richter, Eras- 
mus-Studien (Dresden, 1891); Reich, Untersu- 
chungen, etc. (Treves, 1896) ; and Nichols, as 
above. For the life of Erasmus, consult: Knight 
(Cambridge, 1726); Durand de Laur (Paris, 
1872) ; Drummond (London, 1873) ; Froude, 
Lectures (ib., 1894) and Life and Letters (New 
York, 1912); Emerton (New York, 1899); Pen- 
nington (London, 1901); Capey (ib., 1902); 
Allen, Age of Erasmus (Oxford, 1914). 

ERAS'MTJS, Saint. A Syrian bishop of the 
third century, who is said to have suffered mar- 
tyrdom at Formiae (ancient form of Mola di 
GaSta) in Campania, during the reign of Dio- 
cletian. In 842, when the Saracens took this 
city, his body was transferred to Cajeta. June 2 
is dedicated to him by the Roman Catholic 

ERASTIANS. Properly, the adherents of 
the doctrines laid down by Erastus (q.v.) in his 
book on excommunication. As commonly used, 
however, particularly in England, the term is 
applied to those who would entirely subordinate 
church government to the authority of the state, 
or maintain the authority of the civil magis- 
trate over the conscience, and subject all ec- 
clesiastical bodies to his control, both in doctrine 
and discipline. In the Westminster Assembly 
(1643-49) views similar to those of Erastus 
were advocated by the lawyers Selden, Saint- 
John, and Whitelocke, and the clergymen Light- 
foot and Coleman. During the conflict in the 
Church of Scotland which resulted in the seces- 
sion of the Free church (1833-34) the term 
"Erastian" was applied as a reproach to all who 
held that the church had no power to nullify 
by law the operation of lay patronage, but was 
indignantly rejected by them. Consult Cunning- 
ham, Historical Theology, vol. ii (Edinburgh, 
1862), and Henson, English Religion in the 
Seventeenth Century (London, 1903). 

EBASTTTS (Lat., from Gk. ipacrSs, lovely.; a 
translation of his German name, Lieber or Lieb- 



ler), Thomas (1524-83). A Swiss physician 
and theologian. He was born in the Canton of 
Aargau, Sept. 7, 1524. He studied theology at 
Basel (1540-44) and adopted the doctrines of 
Zwingli. In 1544 he went to Italy and studied 
medicine at Padua and Bologna. After nine 
years he returned to his own country and became 
physician to the Count of Henneberg. He ac- 
quired a great reputation as a physician. In 
1558 he went, by invitation, to the court of the 
Elector Palatine and became first physician 
and Privy Councilor and professor of medicine 
at the University of Heidelberg. In 1580 he 
accepted a similar appointment at Basel and in 
1583 undertook also the professorship of ethics. 
He died at Basel, Dec. 31, 1583. Before his 
death he established a foundation for the edu- 
cation of poor students in medicine, which was 
long known as the Erastian Foundation. As a 
physician Erastus opposed the astrology and 
magic of Paracelsus and his school and held that 
experimental investigation is the true road to 
knowledge. He approved of prosecutions for 
witchcraft. A collected edition of his medical 
works appeared at Zurich in 1595. He is now 
remembered, however, chiefly for his theological 
writings. In 1564 he had taken part in the 
conference at Maulbronn between theologians 
from the Palatinate and Wittenberg and had 
contended for the Zwinglian doctrine of the 
Lord's Supper. In defense of this view he pub- 
lished his Vom Verstand der Wort Christi, "Das 
ist mevn Leib," in 1565. His great work is the 
Explicatio Oravissimw Questionis utrum Ex- 
communioatio Mandato Nitatur Divino an Ex- 
co guttata Sit ab Hominibus. In this book 
Erastus maintains that, while the church may 
decide who are its members, it should do so 
upon doctrinal grounds alone, and not exclude 
for vice or immorality; and that in no case 
should the church inflict punishment, to do 
which properly belongs to the civil magistrate 
alone. He denies the right of excommunication 
altogether and compares a pastor to a profes- 
sor of any science, who can merely instruct his 
students. The theory known in England as 
Erastian is not directly expressed in this book. 
The work was written in 1568, but notpublished 
until six years after Erastus' death. He had ex- 
pressed similar views, however, during his life- 
time in a controversy at Heidelberg with certain 
refugees from the Netherlands, and particularly 
one Caspar Olevianus, of Treves, who were 
zealous for censures and excommunications and 
stirred up in the Palatinate what Erastus called 
a febris excommunicatoria. He was opposed at 
that time by Dathenus and Beza. Consult Lee, 
The Theses of Erastus Touching Excommunica- 
tion (Edinburgh, 1844), and Bonnard, Thomas 
Eraste et la discipline eccUsiastique (Lausanne. 

EB'ATO (Lat., from Gk. 'Eparri). One of the 
nine Muses, daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne. 
She presided over amatory and nuptial poetry. 
See Muses. 

ERATOSTHENES (Lat., from Gk. 'Eparo- 
c6iinit) (c.275-195 B.C.). An eminent Greek as- 
tronomer and geometer. Eratosthenes was born 
at Cyrene; for a time he enjoyed the teaching 
of Lysanias and Callimachus and then went to 
Athens, where he heard the Stoic Ariston of 
Chios and the Academic Arcesilaus. Ptolemy 
III Euergetes recalled him to Alexandria and 
about 240 B.C. installed him as Callimachu8 , suc- 
cessor in the office of librarian. At the age of 

Digitized by 



80 or upward, having become totally blind, he 
died of voluntary starvation. Eratosthenes' in- 
terests covered an enormous range. He wrote a 
commentary to Plato's Timwus and also com- 
posed popular philosophical dialogues; in liter- 
ary history he produced a great work, On the 
Old Comedy, in at least 12 books. This dealt 
with the theatre on its physical side and treated 
the works of the chief comic poets, discussing 
the authorship and date of plays, matters of 
text, language, and subject matter. His chron- 
ological researches also were important; he 
tried to fix the dates of the main events, in 
literature as in politics, from the time of the 
fall of Troy. In the field of pure mathematics 
he wrote on the doubling of the sphere and on 
a method of distinguishing prime and composite 
numbers. His astronomical views he set forth in 
part in the poems Hermes , Erigone, and prob- 
ably Anterinys. The extant work Katasterismoi 
{Karaarepteftot), in which an account is given of 
the constellations in their relations to the popu- 
lar mythology, is only a summary of a work by 
Eratosthenes which was apparently entitled The 
Catalogues, and in its present form has been 
worked over to follow the order of the Phosno- 
mena of Aratus. 

It was, however, by his attempt to measure the 
size of the earth and by his geographical studies 
that Eratosthenes won most renown. He en- 
deavored to determine the obliquity of the ecliptic 
by measuring the distance between the tropics; 
this he found to be 47° 42' 39", which gave 23° 
61' 19.6" for the obliquity of the ecliptic. Con- 
sidering the means of observation available and 
the state of knowledge at the time, the degree of 
error in his result — a trifle more than 23' — is re- 
markably small. To measure the circumference 
of the earth he adopted the means employed 
at the present day. He found that the distance 
between Syene and Alexandria was one-fiftieth 
of a great circle, about 7° 13', and on this basis 
computed the circumference of the earth to be 
260,000 stadia; but, since we do not know the 
length of tne stadium Eratosthenes used as his 
unit, we cannot determine the degree of error 
in his result. His greatest scientific publication 
was probably his Geography (IWypa^ucd), in 
three books, the first scientific treatise on the 
subject; it gave the history of the science and 
embodied the results of his own investigations. 
He knew, e.g., that the earth was round. In his 
researches Eratosthenes was greatly assisted by 
his patron, Ptolemy Euergetes, and he had the 
resources of the Alexandrian Library at his com- 
mand. He was undoubtedly first among the 
Alexandrians for great and wide learning, 
although in the special fields of poetry and 
philosophy others surpassed him. The extant 
fragments of his writings are collected and dis- 
cussed in the following works: Bernhardy, Era- 
tosthenica (Berlin, 1822); Stiehle, "Zu den 
Fragmenten des Eratosthenes," in Philologus, 
supplementary vol. ii (Gottingen, 1863); Ber- 
ger, Die geographischen Fragmente des Era- 
tosthenes (Leipzig, 1880) ; Hiller, Eratosthenis 
Carminum Reliquice (ib., 1872) ; Maass, "Era- 
toethenica," in Philoloaische Untersuchungen, 
vol. vi, ed. by Kiessling and Wilamowitz- 
MSllendorff (Berlin, 1883) ; Robert, Eratosthe- 
nis Catasterismorum Reliquiae (ib., 1878) ; Oli- 
vieri, "Pseudo-Eratosthenis Ca taster ismi," in 
Mythographi Orceci, iii (Leipzig, 1897) ; Su- 
semihl, Qeschichte der griechischen Litteratur in 
der Alewandrinerteit, vol. i (ib., 1892) ; Christ- 


Schmid, Qeschichte der griechischen Litteratur, 
vol. ii (6th ed., Munich, 1911). See Astronomy; 
Chronology; Geography, History of Geography. 

EBB, erp, Wilhelm Hetnrich (1840- ). 
A German neuropathologist. He was born at 
Winnweiler, Bavaria, and was educated at 
Heidelberg, Erlangen, and Munich. After oc- 
cupying the chair of special pathology and 
therapy at Leipzig, from 1880 to 1883, he was 
appointed to the same department at Heidel- 
berg, where he also was made clinical director. 
He was well known as a specialist on electro- 
therapy and neuropathology. He published the 
following works: Handbuch der Krankheiten der 
peripheren cerebro-spinalen N erven (2d ed., 
1870) ; Handbuch der Krankheiten des Rucken- 
marks und des verlangerten Marks (2d ed., 
1878); Handbuch der Elektrotherapie (2d ed., 
1886; Eng. trans, by L. Putzel, 1883); Ueber 
die neuere Entuncklung der Nervenpathologie 
1880) ; Dystrophia Muscularis Progressiva 
(1891); Oesammelte Abhandlungen (1910). 

EB'BEN, Henry (1832-1909). An American 
naval officer, born in New York City. He grad- 
uated at the United States Naval Academy in 
1854, was employed in deep-sea sounding in the 
Atlantic in 1855, and in 1856-59 served in the 
China station as a lieutenant on board the 
frigate Mississippi. During the Civil War he 
was with Farragut in the Gulf squadron, with 
Foote on the Mississippi River, and with Du- 
pont in the attack on Charleston, and the 
blockade of the Mexican coast. He was com- 
mander of the New York Navy Yard in 1891-92 
and of the European squadron in 1893-94. In 
1894 he attained the rank of rear admiral and 
in the same year was retired from the service, 
but voluntarily returned to service in the Span- 
ish-American War. 

EBBEN, eVben, Earl jAROiifR ( 181 1-70 ) . A 
Czech scholar and poet. He was born at Mile- 
tin and was educated at Prague. He took a 
prominent part in the Czech movement of 1848, 
in 1850 became secretary of the Prague Mu- 
seum, and town archivist in the following year. 
His chief historical publication is entitled Re- 
gesta Diplomatica nee non Epistolaria Bohemia 
et Moravia (1855). It was continued byTSmler 
(1882-92). He was a gifted lyric poet, among 
his original verses being the collection of bal- 
lads entitled Kytice (A Bouquet; latest ed., 
1890). His collection of Czech folk songs 
(3 vols., 1842-45, subsequently enlarged) was 
followed by another of popular melodies (1844- 
47 and 1860) and the publication of 100 Slavic 
folk tales (1863-65), which brought him a 
reputation comparable to that of the brothers 
Grimm. He also compiled a judicial termi- 
nology in Czech and published editions of sev- 
eral Czech authors, including the vernacular 
works of John Huss. Consult Novak, Cechische 
Litteratur der Qegenwart (Leipzig, 1907). 

EB'BIUM (Neo-Lat., from Ytterby in Swe- 
den). A metallic element discovered by Mo- 
sander in 1843. It is one of the constituents 
of the mineral gadolinite, which is found in 
Ytterby, Sweden. Erbium (symbol Er, atomic 
weight 167.7) is similar to the elements yttrium 
and ytterbium, with which it is found, and 
forms a series of rose-colored salts that give an 
acid reaction with litmus, but have a sweet 
astringent taste. Among the inorganic salts 
of erbium may be mentioned the sulphate, 
Er, ( S0 4 ) , + 8H a O ; the nitrate, Er ( NO, ) , + 
5H*0; and the very soluble double sulphates of 

Digitized by VrrOOQlC 


erbium with potassium, Er,(80 4 ), . K,SO« -f 
4H,0, and with ammonium, Er,(SO«), . (NH«),S0 4 
-|- 4H,0. The oxide of erbium, Er,0„ is obtained 
in the form of a pink powder. 

BBBT, erpt, Wilhklm (1876- ). A Ger- 
man biblical scholar, born in Berlin and edu- 
cated at the universities of Halle, Greifswald, 
and Leipzig, and at the preachers' seminary in 
Wittenberg. He taught in several girls' schools 
and held pastorates, but is better known for his 
excellent works on Hebrew religion and related 
subjects. He wrote: Die Purimsage in der 
Bibel (1000) ; Jeremia und seine Zeit (1902) ; 
Bicherstellung des Monotheismus (1903); Is- 
rael und Juda (1903); Die Urgesehichte der 
Bibel (1904) ; Die Hebraer (1906) ; EUa, Elisa, 
Jona (1907); Handbuch zum Aten Testament 
(1909); Kirchengeschichte (5th ed., 1913); 
Das Markusevangelium (1911) ; Von Jerusalem 
nach Rom (1912); Gesohiohte der Religion in 
der Alien Welt (1913). 

ER'CELDOTJNE, Thomas of. See Thomas 
the Rhymes. 

EBCILLA Y ZttttlGA, ar-thS'lya e thW- 
ay A -g&, Alonso de (1533-94). A Spanish epic 
poet, who enjoys the distinction of having writ- 
ten the first work of Kterarv merit known to 
have been composed upon either American con- 
tinent. He was born in Madrid, became page 
to Philip II, and accompanied the latter to Eng- 
land on the occasion of his nuptials with Queen 
Mary. Thence Ercilla sailed for America with 
the army dispatched to quell the insurrection of 
the Araucanians in Chile. Here the brave re- 
sistance of the natives in the unequal struggle 
inspired Ercilla with the idea of using the sub- 
ject for an epic poem. An unfounded suspicion 
of his having plotted an insurrection ruined 
his career, and he was tried, condemned, and 
had actually ascended the scaffold, when his 
sentence was commuted to exile at Callao. He 
returned to Europe in 1562, and, after giving 
to Philip an account of his services, he set out 
for Austria to find his sister, who was dame 
d'honneur to the Empress, and whose hand was 
being sought in marriage. He wandered through 
France, Italy, Germany, Bohemia, and Hun- 
gary, and returned in 1564 via Switzerland and 
the Languedoc. In 1571 the King gave him the 
habit of the Order of Santiago, and he was 
dubbed Knight on November 30, the anniversary 
of the bloody battle of Millarapu6, which his 
valor had been largely instrumental in winning. 
For a while he held the office of chamberlain to 
the Emperor Rudolph II, but in 1577 he re- 
turned to Madrid, where, after a period of royal 
favor lasting until 1588, he fell into disfavor 
and died in poverty and obscurity. The first 
15 cantos of his epic, La Araucana, written in 
the ottava rima, appeared in 1569; the con- 
tinuations, 37 cantos in all, were published in 
1578 and 1589. In 1590 appeared a new edi- 
tion augmented by two cantos. A convenient 
edition is in the BibUoteca de autores espafioles, 
vol. xvii. A continuation, of little value, was 
written by Diego de Santisteban y Osorio (Sala- 
manca, 1697). Consult A. Royer, Etude lit- 
teraire sur V Araucana oVEroilla (Dijon, 1879), 
and A. Bello, Obras completes (vol. vi, Santiago 
de Chile, 1883). Consult also the facsimile of 
the princeps edition (parts i, ii), made by 
Archer M. Huntington (New York, 1902-03). 

ERCKMANN-CHATRIAN, erk'man-sha'- 
tre'&N'. The name employed to indicate the 


joint, authorship of Emile Ehckmann (1822- 
99) and Alexandre Chatrian (1826-90), 
whose combined work affords one of the most 
remarkable instances of modern collaboration. 
Erckmann was born in Pfalzburg (in Lorraine), 
Chatrian at Soldatenthal (in the same dis- 
trict). Both were, therefore, of that border 
territory annexed to Germany in 1871. in which 
is laid the scene of most of their works. Erck- 
mann had successfully studied law in Paris, 
and Chatrian for a time had been an instructor 
in the college at Pfalzburg, when they began 
the publication, in the D6mocrate du khin, of 
a series of feuilletons. The story "L'lllustre 
docteur Matheus" (1859), originally published 
in the Revue Nouvelle, was their first success. 
This they followed up with a long and widely 
read series, of which the Histoire d'un oonsorit 
de ISIS (1864; 20th ed., 1869; Eng. trans., 
1909) is the best-known volume. L'Ami 
Fritz (1864) and Waterloo (15th ed., 1865; 
Eng. trans., 1905), a sequel to the Consent, 
should also be mentioned. As dramatists, 
Erckmann and Chatrian appeared in two 
productions of much merit, Le juif polonais 
(1869) and L'Ami Fritz (1876), the latter de- 
rived from their book of that name. The former 
is familiar in England and America through its 
adaptation (1871) by Leopold Lewis as The 
Bells, the Mathias of which was one of the most 
skillful impersonations in the repertoire of Sir 
Henry Irving. The stories are marked by 
humor, clever characterization, and convincing 
details of local color, and also by their democ- 
racy, patriotism, and antimilitarism. The lit- 
erary partnership was finally dissolved. Erck- 
mann's independent work is of less importance. 
An edition by Pfau, of German translations of 
the chief joint works, appeared at Stuttgart in 
1882 (9 vols.). Their joint work also includes: 
Histoires et eontes fantastiques (1849) ; Madame 
Therese (1863; 13th ed., 1869; Eng. trans., 
1910); Le Blocus (1867); Histoire d'un pay- 
san (4 vols., 1868-70) ; L'Histoire du plebi- 
scite (1872); Le Orandpere Lebigue (1880). 

TTRTrfJSLYI, ft/dal-yS, Janos (1814-68). An 
Hungarian poet and folklorist, born at Kapos. 
He published a number of works fairly well 
known in his native country, in 1848 was ap- 
pointed director of the national theatre at Pest, 
and in 1849 became professor of philosophy at 
Sarospatak. He is remembered for a collection 
of the popular songs and legends of Hungary, 
Nepdalok es monddk (3 vols., 1846-48), which 
is an important addition to the folklore of 
Europe. His collection of Hungarian proverbs 
(Pest, 1851) is noteworthy, containing over 
7000 hitherto unknown examples. Some of his 
smaller works were translated into German 
under the titles Bahnen und Palmen (1886) and 
Studien (1890). 

EEDMANN, grt'man, Benno (1851- ). 
A German philosopher, born at Guhrau, Prus- 
sian Silesia, the son of Johann Eduard Erd- 
mann. He was made professor successively at 
Kiel (1877), at Breslau (1884), at Halle 
(1890), at Bonn (1898), and at Berlin (1909). 
His works, devoted principally to the Kantian 
philosophy, include the following: Kants Kri- 
tizismus ( 1878 ) ; Nachtrage zu Kants Kritik 
der reinen Vemunft ( 1881 ) ; Reflewionen Kants 
zur kritischen Philosophic (1882-84); Logik 
(1892 ff.) ; Psychol ogische Untersuchungen Uber 
das Lesen auf experimentaler Grundlage (1898) ; 

Digitized by 




Immanuel Kant (1904); Wissenschaftliche 
Hypothesen Uber Leib und Seele (1008). 

EBDMANN, David (1821-1905). A German 
Protestant theologian. He was born at Gttste- 
biese, Province of Brandenburg, and was edu- 
cated at Berlin, where in 1850 he became as- 
sistant preacher in the cathedral. In 1856 
he became professor of theology at KfSnigsberg, 
and in 1864 was appointed Superintendent- 
General of Silesia at Breslau. His appoint- 
ment as Superior Consistorial Counselor fol- 
lowed in 1889. He retired in 1900. Erdmann 
wrote: Lieben und Leiden der ersten Christen 
( 1854) ; Die Reformation und ihre Mdrtvrer 
in It alien (1855) ; a commentary on the Epistle 
of James (1881) ; Luther und die Hohenzollem 
(2d ed., 1884); "Samuel," in Lange's Bibel- 
tcerk (1873). Consult Eberlein, Aus einem 
reichen Leben: Blatter der Erinnerung an David 
Erdmann (Berlin, 1907). 

EBDMANN, Johann Eduabd (1805-02). A 
German philosopher, born at Wolmar, Livonia. 
He studied theology at Dorpat, attended the lec- 
tures of Schleiermacher and Hegel at Berlin, 
and was then pastor in his native town (1829- 
32). In 1834 he became privatdocent in phi- 
losophy at Berlin, and in 1836 he was appointed 
professor of philosophy at Halle. His many 
writings on philosophical subjects show his sym- 
pathy with Hegel's ideas, and he was one of his 
prominent disciples. As a teacher and lec- 
turer, he was extremely popular. His most im- 
portant work is his Orundriss der Oesehichte 
der Philosophic (1866; Eng. trans., 1892), 
which is still in the later editions a most use- 
ful book. Among his other numerous works 
may be mentioned: Orundriss der Psychologic 
(1840; Orundriss der Logik und Metophysik 
(1841); Psycholpgische Brief e (1851). 

EBDMANN, Otto Lnrafi ( 1804-69 ) . A Ger- 
man chemist, born in Dresden. He studied at 
the Academy of Medicine and Surgery in Dres- 
den, then devoted himself to chemistry, and, 
after several years of theoretical study and in- 
dustrial work, became in 1827 professor of in- 
dustrial chemistry at the University of Leipzig, 
from which he had graduated with the degree 
of Ph.D. in 1824. Among his valuable contri- 
butions to chemistry, his atomic-weight deter- 
minations, his investigations of the properties of 
nickel, and his researches on illuminating gas 
and a number of dyestuffs deserve mention. 
He wrote: Orundriss der Warenkunde (1833; 
12th ed., 1895) ; Ueber das Studium der Ohemie 
(1861), which has been translated into several 
European languages; etc. He was the founder, 
and for several years editor, of the Journal filr 
technische und b'konomische Chemie and later 
edited the Journal fur praktische Chemie. 

(1848-1905). A German musician. He was 
born at Nuremberg, and from 1863 to 1869 
studied at the conservatories of Leipzig and 
Dresden. After conducting the court orchestra 
at Sondershausen from 1871 to 1880, he was in 
1882 appointed director of the Imperial Musi- 
cal Society at Moscow and professor in the 
Conservatory there. As the founder of the 
Students' Orchestral Society at the latter in- 
stitution (1885), he contributed greatly to the 
development of a genuine musical spirit among 
its pupils. He was leader of the Philharmonic 
3ociety at Bremen from 1889 to 1895. He sub- 
sequently became conductor of the Symphony 

Concerts at St. Petersburg for a short time and 
was in 1896 appointed leader of the court or* 
chqetra at Munich. His works include: Prin- 
eessin Ilse ( 1 870 ) ; Schneewittohe* ( 1873 ) ; 
Traumkonig und sein IAeb, forest legends for 
soli, chorus, and orchestra. 

EBDMANNSDOBFFEB, Bebnhabd (1833- 
1901). A German historian. He was born at 
Altenburg and, after studying at Jena and 
Berlin, went to Italy for the purpose of carry- 
ing on philological and historical investigations. 
He was appointed assistant professor of history 
at the University of Berlin in 1869 and subse- 
quently held full professorships at Greifswald, 
Breslau, and Heidelberg, where he succeeded 
Treitschke. Among his principal works may be 
mentioned: De Commeroio quod inter Venetos 
et OermanicB Civitates Mvo Medio Jnteroessit 
( 1858 ) ; Deutsche Oesehichte vom wesifiUischen 
Frieden bis turn Regierungsantritt Friedrichs 
des Orossen (1888 et seq.). He edited the 
"Politischen Verhandlungen" (5 vols., 1864- 
83), in the Urkunden und AktenstUcke vur 
Oesehichte des KurfUrsten Friedrich Wilhelm 
von Bran denburg. 

E2K/EBTJ8 (Lat., from Gk. tpefiot, erebos, dark- 
ness). A term used by the ancient Greeks and 
Romans specially to denote the darkness of the 
lower world, and hence employed to denote the 
lower world itself. From Erebus Hercules 
brought Cerberus; to it the souls of the de- 
parted went. In the mythographers Erebus 
is called a son of Chaos, and father of jEther 
and Hemera (Day). 

EREBUS AND TERROR. Two volcanoes 
in South Victoria Land (q.v.). Mount Erebus 
is 12,370 feet high, and was active when the 
two were discovered by Sir J. C. Ross in 1841. 
A party from Shackleton's expedition ascended 
the volcano during March, 1908, and found 
proofs sufficient to show that Erebus possesses 
still considerable volcanic activity. Mount 
Terror, situated about 30 miles farther east and 
nearer the coast, is about 10,900 feet high and 
is PTobably extinct. The volcanoes received their 
names from the two vessels used by Ross in his 

E'REC AND E / NID. A metrical romance by 
Chrestien de Troyes, recounting the fortunes of 
an Arthurian knight who marries the niece of 
a vanquished enemy, sinks into the slothful 
enjoyment of the pleasures of love, is quickened 
to renewed action by the reproaches of his vas- 
sals, and, with his wife, goes forth to seek 
knightly adventures. 

ERECH, S'rek (Assyrian Uruk, Gk. *Opxoy, 
Orchog, Heb. Brek). A city in ancient Baby- 
lonia. Its site is at the modern village of 
Warka, where large mounds and numerous ruins 
testify to its extent in former times. Excava- 
tions on the spot have furnished a few docu- 
ments from the time of Gudea of Lagash, and 
TJr Engur and Dungi of Ur; of Singashid, when 
Erech was the capital of the State of Amnana; 
and of Mardukapaliddin (721-710 B.C.). The 
German excavations in 1913 threw light upon 
the Seleucid and Arsacid periods, but less at- 
tention seems to have been paid to the lower 
strata. The city is frequently referred to in 
Assyrian and Babylonian literature. Its foun- 
dation is ascribed to Marduk, but its most 
famous shrine was the Temple of Nana. This 
goddess was carried into Elaraitish captivity 
for 1635 years but brought back by Asurbanipal 

Digitized by 



e.640 B.C. Erech is the scene of many impor* 
tant myths. Recent discoveries showed that 
there were at least two important dynasties 
reigning there. (See Babylonia.) Its situa- 
tion rendered it comparatively secure against 
invasions, and its commercial prosperity is in- 
dicated in many contract tablets. It seems to 
have flourished into the Parthian period. Con- 
pult Loftus, Travels and Researches in Chaldea 
ind Susiana, with an Account of Excavations 
* t Warka (London, 1857), and Ed. Meyer, Ge- 
icfachte des Altertums (3d ed., Berlin, 1913). 

EB'ECHTHETJM (Lat., from Gk. 'fylx**'* 
Erechtheion, (temple) belonging to Erechtheus). 
A temple on the Acropolis of Athens, northwest 
of the Parthenon, in which were combined the 
sanctuaries of Athena Polias and Erechtheus 
(q.v.). It also contained several other wonders, 
such as the "salt sea" of Poseidon and the 
mark of his trident, made by Poseidon when 
he created the horse in his contest with Athena 
for the possession of Attica, while near by was 
the sacred olive of Athena, and apparently the 
tomb of Cecrops. To make surer the preserva- 
tion of these sacred tokens, the building, though 
of great beauty, departs widely from the ordi- 
nary type of Greek temple. It consists of a 
quadrangular main building, 74 feet by 37, with 
porticoes on three sides. The level of the 
east and south sides is about 9 feet higher than 
that of the west and north sides. At the east 
the portico extends across the entire front of 
the temple, and its roof is supported by six 
Ionic columns. The north and south porticos 
are at the west end of the building. That on 
the south is the Porch of the Maidens, so called 
from the six female statues, somewhat larger 
than life, which support the roof. (See Carya- 
tides.) The north porch is on a lower level 
than the east or south and also contains Ionic 
columns, arranged like the statues, four in 
front and one on each side. There seem to have 
been no pediment sculptures, but above the 
architrave was a frieze of dark marble, deco- 
rated with reliefs of white marble. Of these 
figures only fragments have been preserved. 
The west front had a gable supported by four 
columns, resting on a somewhat high wall, in 
which is a low door. During the Roman period 
these columns were replaced by engaged col- 
umns between which were windows. The in- 
terior arrangements are still a matter of much 
dispute, due partly to the differences in level, 
and partly to alterations made when the build- 
ing was transformed into a Byzantine church. 
It seems clear that the shrine of Athena Polias, 
with the sacred wooden image, was in the east 
end, and the Erechtheum proper in the west. 
The building was begun, probably, about 421 
B.C. (some say 437 B.C.) ; inscriptions show 
that it was nearly complete in 409 B.C. It 
seems to have suffered from fire in 406 B.C., 
and was probably still unfinished in 395 B.C. 
The Greeks have lately restored the building, 
as far as was possible, from the pieces lying 
around; for a photograph of the restored struc- 
ture, consult the work by Bates cited below, 
page 318. From a careful study recently de- 
voted to the temple it has been demonstrated 
that the eastern part of the cella was lighted 
by two windows, one on each side of the door. 
Consult Fowler, Papers of the American School 
at Athens, vol. i (Boston, 1885), for a descrip- 
tion of the building in 1883, with bibliography; 
also Baumeister, Denkmaler des klassischen Ah 


tertums, fl.v. Erechtheion (Munich, 1885) ; Fra- 
zer, Pausanius, vol. ii (2d ed., London, 1913); 
Stevens, American Journal of Archceology, vol. x 
(1906); Harrison and Verrall, Mythology and 
Monuments of Ancient Athens (London, 1890); 
E. A. Gardner, Ancient Athens (New York, 
1902); D'Ooge, The Acropolis of Athens (ib., 
1908); Baedeker, Greece (4th Eng. ed., Leip- 
zig, 1909) ; Weller, Athens and its Monuments 
(New York, 1913). For an original treatment 
of the Erechtheum, consult Elderkin, Problems 
in Periclean Buildings (Princeton, 1912). 

(Lat., from Gk. 'EptxOwh 'EpixOSviot, Erichtho- 
nios). A character in Greek mythology. Erech- 
theus is called, in the Wad, son of the earth 
and was reared by Athena in her temple on 
the Acropolis, where the Athenians worshiped 
him. Later writers told a similar story of 
Erichthonius. He was son of Hephaestus and 
Gaea (the earth), and was placed by Athena in 
a chest with a serpent (perhaps rather the child 
was in whole or in part in the form of a 
serpent). The daughters of Cecrops, to whom 
the chest was given, disobeyed the command 
of the goddess and raised the lid, when they 
were either destroyed by the serpent or in 
sudden madness at sight of it threw themselves 
from the rocks of the Acropolis. This form of 
the legend made Erechtheus son or grandson of 
Erichthonius and told of his sacrifice of his 
daughter to save Athens from the attack of 
Eumolpus (q.v.). It is to be noted that while 
the later poets and mythologists distinguish 
Erichthonius and Erechtheus, the early epic 
and the cult know only the latter, who is clearly 
an Athenian god of agriculture, who was wor- 
shiped with the goddess Athena in a joint 
temple, called the Erechtheum (q.v.), on the 
Acropolis. Later legend reduced him to a hero 
and connected him with Poseidon, or told of 
him as the promoter of the worship of Athena. 

Powell, "Erichthonius and the Three Daugh- 
ters of Cecrops," in Cornell Studies in Classical 
Philology (1906), regarded Erechtheus, Erich- 
thonius, Poseidon, and Cecrops as all alike 
representatives of the sacred serpent of Athena; 
with the cult represented by them Athena at 
first had to struggle, but later she conquered 
it and fused it with her own. Consult also 
Farnell, Cults of the Greek States, vol. i (Ox- 
ford, 1896), and Frazer, Pausanias, vol. ii (2d 
ed., London, 1913). 

EBEGLI, a-ra'gle* (ancient Heracleia Pon- 
tica). A seaport town of Asiatic Turkey, in 
the Vilayet of Kastamuni, situated on the Black 
Sea about 128 miles east of Constantinople 
(Map: Turkey in Asia, B 2). Its harbor, which 
is known by the name of Zoungundalk, is the 
outlet for the coal mined in the neighborhood. 
The coal fields of this region are the only ones 
developed in Turkey. About 750,000 tons are 
extracted annually. The mines are owned 
chiefly by French capitalists. The population 
is estimated at about 6300. 

EBEMITA, Johannes. See Cassiantjs. 

EBEMIT VON GATTTING, a're-met' f6n 
gou'tlng. See Hallberq-Broich, Theodor M. H. 

EBETBIA (Lat., from Gk. 'Epirpta). A city 
on the west coast of Euboea, south of Chalcis, 
of which it was in early times a powerful rival. 
It helped the Asiatic Greeks of Ionia in their 
revolt against the Persians (498 b.c.) ; hence it 
was destroyed by the Persians in 490. It was, 
however, soon rebuilt, though it was not prom- 

Digitized by 


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uj O 

I I 

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Digitized by 


Digitized by 



inent in later history, except for a short time 
during the struggle between Athens and Philip 
of Macedon. It was the seat of the school of 
philosophy established by Menedemus, a disciple 
of Plato. The American School at Athens con- 
ducted excavations on this site (1890-95), re- 
sulting in the discovery of the theatre and 
some neighboring buildings, and further in- 
vestigations are being carried on by the Greek 
Archaeological Society, which have brought to 
light an early temple and many lesser remains 
of t£e pre-Persian time. The site is occupied by 
a village called Nea Parsa. Consult Papers of 
the American School at Athens, vol. vi. See 
Greece, History, Ancient History, 

ERFORDIA. See Erfubt. 

ERFTXRT, er'furt (OHG. Erpisford, Erpes- 
furt, Lat. Erfordia, ford of Erpe, its legendary 
founder). A town of the Prussian Province of 
Saxony, 14 miles west of Weimar (Map: Prussia, 
D 3). It is the capital of the government dis- 
trict of Erfurt (area, 1364 square miles; pop., 
1910, 530,775. Erfurt is situated on the Gera, 
which traverses the town in three arms. An im- 
portant fortress until 1873, Erfurt retains only 
portions of the citadels of Petersberg and Cy- 
riaxburg. The town, which has an ancient 
aspect, is irregularly built, and many of its 
streets are narrow and bordered with old-fash- 
ioned houses. The most noteworthy church of 
Erfurt is the cathedral (Beatw Maries Virginis), 
occupying the site of an old edifice dating from 
the twelfth century and constructed mainly dur- 
ing the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth cen- 
turies. It is one of the finest churches in Ger- 
many. Its foundation is of enormous propor- 
tions, and its interior is ornamented with fine 
reliefs, paintings, stained glass, and carved choir 
stalls. The nave was rebuilt in the thirteenth 
century in the Gothic style. The chancel dates 
from 1349 to 1372. The twin towers date from 
the thirteenth century and contain 10 bells, in- 
cluding the Maria Gloriosa, which bears the 
date 1497 and weighs over 13 tons. Adjoining 
the cathedral is the great fourteenth-century 
church of St. Severus, with three pointed towers, 
altar reliefs, and statues. The cathedral and 
St. Severus occupy an eminence known as the 
Domberg and form an impressive mass, ap- 
proached by a flight of 48 stone steps. The 
two churches are Roman Catholic. There are 
several other medieval churches, now Evangel- 
ical; among them are the Reglerkirche, in 
Romanesque style, which has a twelfth-century 
tower and was restored in 1859; the twelfth- 
century Predigerkirche; and the Gothic Bar- 
fusserkirche, which has interesting fourteenth- 
century monuments. Of the numerous monas- 
teries of Erfurt only two have survived, of 
which that of St. Augustine, famous as the 
residence of Luther, now serves as an orphanage, 
while the other is used as a school for girls. 
Among the secular buildings the most promi- 
nent are the Rathaus, erected in 1869-75 and 
adorned with frescoes; the courthouse, the cen- 
tral railway station, and the government build- 
ings occupied in 1808 by Napoleon during his 
famous sojourn here. 

The city is administered by a chief burgo- 
master, a burgomaster, a board of magistrates 
of 15 members, and a municipal council of 48 
members. It owns its water works, a pawn- 
shop, and an abattoir. The street railways are 
run by electricity. There was formerly a uni- 
versity, established in 1378, but discontinued in 
Vol. VIII.— 5 



1816. The most prominent educational insti- 
tutions now are the gymnasium originally 
founded in 1561, a real gymnasium, a real- 
schule, a teachers' seminary, and several art 
and technical schools. There should also be 
mentioned the royal library, with over 60,000 
volumes and 7700 manuscripts, the municipal 
theatre, and the museum of Thuringian antiq- 
uities and costumes. The chief industries of 
Erfurt are the manufacture of ladies' cloaks, 
shoes, iron products, woolen, cotton, and linen 
goods, machines, arms, and cigars. Another 
important industry is the culture of flowers 
and vegetables, of which Erfurt exports large 
quantities. The commerce is of some magni- 
tude, and there are several important financial 
institutions. Pop., 1875, 48,025; 1890, 72,360; 
1900, 85,202; 1910, 111,463, of whom about 
seven-eighths are Protestants. The commune has 
an area of about 17 square miles. 

Erfurt traces its origin to a mythical founder, 
Erpe, of the sixth century. St. Boniface es- 
tablished a bishopric at Erfurt in 741, but it 
reverted to Mainz in 755. Charlemagne made 
it a staple town in 805. Though ruled by gov- 
ernors appointed by the archbishops of Mainz, 
who claimed sovereignty because of royal charter 
rights, Erfurt possessed extensive municipal 
rights till 1664, and in the fifteenth century, 
when it belonged to the Hanseatic League, was 
exceedingly prosperous, enjoying freedom of 
trade throughout the Empire and ruling over 
a considerable district, acquired either by force 
or purchase. From 1483 to 1648 Erfurt belonged 
to Saxony. After Westphalia it was given back 
to Mainz and remained in her possession until 
1802. In 1802 it came to Prussia and in 1806 
passed to France. At Erfurt, in 1808, Napoleon 
played the conqueror for several months, there 
being present Alexander of Russia and a host 
of German princes. In 1814 the town was re- 
covered by Prussia. In 1850 Erfurt was the 
seat of the Union Parliament. (See Germany.) 
In 1902 the hundredth anniversary of Erfurt's 
incorporation with Prussia was celebrated. Con- 
sult: Tettau, Erfurt in seiner Vergangenheit 
und Oegenwart (Erfurt, 1880); Rffll, "Erfurt," 
in EuropiUsche Wanderbilder (Zurich, 1888); 
Beyer, Oeschichte der Stadt Erfurt (Erfurt, 

ERG, erg (abbreviated from the Gk. tpyow, 
ergon, work; connected with Av. varaz, to do, 
Goth. wa4rkjan, AS. wyrcean, OHG. toirkan, 
Ger. wirken, Eng. work). The unit of work or 
energy on the C. G. S. system (q.v.). It is the 
work done when a force of one dyne acts through, 
or is overcome through, a distance of one centi- 
meter. It is also tiie energy of two grams mov- 
ing with a unit speed. (See Energetics.) 
Since it is so small a unit, a multiple of it, 
viz., 10 T ergs, the so-called "joule," is used more 
generally. See Mechanical Units; Mechan- 
ics; Calobimetbt. 

ER'GASTE / RIA. See Laubion. 

ERGOT, SVgot (Fr. ergot, argot, spur, ex- 
tremity of a dead branch). A name given to 
the peculiar, hard, purplish-black bodies that 
sometimes replace the grain in the head of rye 
or other grasses. These ergots are the result 
of the development of the fungus Claviceps pur- 
purea and other species within the ovaries of 
the grasses. The sclerotia, as the hard bodies 
are called, are usually solid, are white within, 
and when fresh have a peculiar waxy or 
oily appearance and a heavy characteristic 

Digitized by vjOOv IC 


odor. Those produced on rye and some other 
grasses may be many times larger than the 
seed which they replace, attaining a length 
of an inch or more; but in wheat and in 
some of the smaller grasses they are smaller 
than the seed and may not be noticed until 
crushed, when they are recognized by their odor. 
The fungus origin of ergot has been more or 
less understood since 1838, but its true cause 
and the life history of the organism were un- 
known until Tulasne published the results of 
his investigations in 1853. If a grain of ergot 
be placed in suitable conditions of moisture 
and temperature, it will soon send out a num- 
ber of small stalks, each surmounted by small 
globular heads which contain a multitude of 
spores. In nature these are produced from ergot 
sown with the grain, or from that which has 
fallen to the ground where it wintered, the 
spores maturing about the time the grass is in 
flower. The ripened spores are blown about by 
the wind, and some find lodgment upon the 
styles of the grass. Here they germinate and 
find their way into the ovary of the flower, 
where they develop an abundant mycelium and 
put out many short branches, each of which 
produces a single conidium. At the same time 
a sweet, milky juice is secreted, called honey- 
dew, in which the conidia float about until 
carried away by insects 
visiting the flower for this 
sweet substance. When 
taken to another flower, 
the conidia germinate and 
set up a new infection sim- 
ilar to that already de- 
scribed. During all this 
time the fungus within the 
flowers continues to grow 
and forms a dense mass 
of hyphae, completely ob- 
literating the seed whose 
place it occupies. Later, 
the formation of conidia 
ceases, and the fully grown 
mycelium is transformed 
into a sclerotium, the 
dark-colored ergot, which, 
when mature, falls to the 
ground or is harvested 
with the grain. 

Ergot is a powerful em- 
menagogue, ecbolic, and 
hemostatic, and is poison- 
ous to human beings and 
higher animals, and occu- 
pies an important place in 
medicine. For this pur- 
pose the ergot of rye is 
preferred, the principal 
supplies coming from Ger- 
many, Russia, and Spain. 
In some regions where er- 
got is abundant its pres- 
ence in grain often makes flour injurious unless 
the grain be thoroughly screened before grind- 
ing. The most conspicuous constituent of er- 
got is a heavy, nondrying, inflammable fixed 
oil, soluble in ether, which is present to the 
extent of 30 per cent or more. This is now con- 
sidered as inert. There is also about 7 per cent 
of resin, which is of no medicinal value. It 
is claimed that two alkaloids have been isolated 
— ecbolin or cornutin 0.16 per cent, and ergotin 
0.12 per cent — and that the active principles 


Represented by the two 
black 1 

are contained in these compounds, the former 
being much the more powerful. Dragendorflf 
and Podwissotzky discredit the active proper- 
ties of ecbolin and ergotin, believing them to be 
formed by chemical action and heat and not 
occurring in the ergot normally. They have 
found 4.5 per cent of sclerotic acid and 2 to 
3 per cent of scleromucin in ergot, which they 
claim to be the principal active constituents. 
Sclerotic acid is an amorphous, yellowish-brown, 
inodorous, and tasteless substance, soluble in 
water, while scleromucin is darker and insoluble 
in water after once being dried. Another active 
principle is sclererythrin, which is present in 
small quantities. According to Robert (Lehr- 
buch der Toxikologie filr Thierarzte, 1890), the 
active constituents of ergot are cornutin (an 
alkaloid), sphacelus acid, and ergotic acid. The 
uterine contraction is due to the cornutin, while 
the poisonous properties of ergot, which often 
result in gangrene, are due to the sphacelic 
acid. The ergotic acid is a glucoside which 
has narcotic properties and diminishes and 
finally stops reflex excitability. Ergot is usually 
administered as a fluid extract of ergotin, 
which is made in various, ways, as a wine 
of ergot, etc., and, as already stated, when used 
in considerable quantities is poisonous. See 



ER'GOTISM. A disease of cattle, horses, and 
sheep caused by eating toxic quantities of er- 
got on grasses (q.v.). The effects are impaired 
general vitality and circulation of the blood, 
which latter, usually in the legs, may stop en- 
tirely and be followed by swellings below the 
knee or hock, with perhaps subsequent death of, 
or gangrene in, the part. Less typical symptoms 
of a constitutional nature are indigestion, ner- 
vousness, dementia, stupor, coma, or twitching 
and paralysis of the voluntary muscles, begin- 
ning with the tongue and extending to other 
parts. Epidemics of ergotism have occurred in 
Europe, following cold, damp seasons, in which 
meteorological conditions favor the propagation 
of ergot. In such outbreaks not alone are do- 
mestic animals affected, but the ill-fed poor of 
cities have also suffered severely from eating 
bread made from infected grain. It has to be 
differentiated from mycotic . stomatitis. 

Treatment consists in a change of food, local 
antiseptics, tannin internally to neutralize the 
unabsorbed alkaloids of the ergot, and castor 
oil. Chloral hydrate may be given internally 
and hot water applied locally to dilate the blood 

EB1C. The name of several kings of Sweden 
and Denmark, before and after the union of the 
two kingdoms in 1397. — Several Erics, mainly 
of legendary fame, are said to have ruled in 
Sweden before St. Eric, who is accordingly 
styled the ninth. Eric the Victorious, who died 
about 995, was the last heathen king and is 
styled the seventh Eric. — St. Eric (c.l 150-60) 
Christianised upper Sweden and built a number 
of churches and monasteries. He undertook a 
crusade against the Finns, which resulted in the 
long and intimate connection between the two 
countries. Eric also compiled an excellent code 
of laws known as St. Eric's Lag, which granted 
to women the right of inheritance of one-third 
and certain privileges within their households. 
— Eric X (1210-16), grandson of St. Eric, is 
the first King mentioned as being crowned. For 
a time he had been an exile in Denmark. — 

Digitized by vnOOQIC 

BBIC 6l 

The most important events in the reign of Ebic 
XI (1222-50) were his enforced exile for five 
years; the successes achieved against the Finns; 
the imposition of celibacy on the clergy at the 
Synod of Skenninge in 1248, and the invasion 
of Russia, which was checked by Alexander 
Nevski. Under this King Birger Jarl, of the 
family of Folkungar, rose to be the virtual ruler 
in the state, and after the death of Eric the 
royal crown was placed upon Birger's son 

In Denmark Ebio I (1095-1163) won the name 
of the "always good" by his excellent rule and 
character. — In the twelfth century Ewe Emun 
(1134-37) waged continual war against his 
piratical neighbors, whom he sought to Chris- 
tianize. — Ebio the Lamb, a King of mild and 
gentle character, crippled the power and resources 
of the crown by his easy-going policy. He abdi- 
cated and retired to a cloister, where he died 
in 1147.— The three Erics (Ebic VT, VTI, and 
VIII) who occupied the throne with only the 
intermission of a few years, from 1241 to 1310, 
are associated with one of the most disastrous 
periods of Danish history. Long minorities, the 
practice of dismembering the crown lands in 
favor of younger branches of the royal house, 
and a futile struggle between the ecclesiastical 
power and the state, weakened the crown to 
the last degree. Eric VI Plogpennig (1241- 
60), and Eric VII Glipping (1259-86), were 
both assassinated, the former at the instigation 
of a brother, and the latter in revenge for a 
private injury. Eric VIII (1286-1319), the 
last of the name before the union of Kalmar, 
died childless, and was succeeded by his am- 
bitious brother Christopher, who lost his powers 
and prerogatives one hy one, and was finally 
forced to flee from Denmark. Margaret, daugh- 
ter of Waldemar IV of Denmark, by marriage 
with Hako, King of Norway, united the coun- 
tries, and through her wise rule in those coun- 
tries was enabled to secure the crown of Sweden 
also. By the union of Kalmar, in 1397, her 
nephew, Ebic of Pomerania, was recognized as 
her successor. On the death of Margaret, in 
1412, Eric therefore became King of the triple 
kingdom of Scandinavia. His reckless disre- 

Sard of treaties and oaths, his neglect of his 
uties, and his misdirected ambition, led to 
dissensions and maladministration. In conse- 
quence, in 1430, the Danes renounced their alle- 
giance, and in the next year Sweden did the 
same. Denmark chose Christopher of Bavaria 
in his stead; but Scandinavia, for many years 
afterward, was a scene of intestine wars and 
dissensions, as a result of Eric's misrule. Eric 
fled to Gothland and for 10 years led the life 
of a pirate. He had married Philippa, daughter 
of Henry IV of England, a noble-spirited woman, 
whom it is said he treated cruelly. He died in 

Ebic XIV, the last of the name who ruled in 
Sweden, was one of the weakest and most un- 
fortunate of the Erics. He succeeded his father, 
Gustavus Vasa, in 1560. The kingdom was in 
an excellent condition as the result of the wise 
rule of his father. Eric was well educated, and 
a number of useful reforms were introduced in 
his reign. He made the first attempt to es- 
tablish a supreme court and invited the op- 
pressed Protestants to his land, many Hugue- 
nots accepting his offer. On the other hand, his 
fickleness and constant suspicion of others not 
only alienated the affections of his subjects, but 


prevented the growth of a strong government. 
Elizabeth of England and Mary of Scotland 
were more than once the objects of his matri- 
monial schemes. Finally, he married his mis- 
tress, a Swedish peasant girl, who exercised 
great influence over him, especially during his 
attacks of insanity. The nobility at last re- 
belled, and the estates in 1568 deposed Eric and 
chose his brother John &s King. Eric suffered 
the most rigorous confinement, and the frequent 
conspiracies to free him only made his lot the 
harder. To remove all danger, John caused his 
brother to be poisoned in 1577. See Denmark; 

ER'ICA'CEiE (Neo-Lat., from Gk. iptUn, 
ereiki, iplicri, erike, heath ) . A family of dicotyle- 
donous plants, the heath family, which con- 
sists chiefly of small shrubs, but which contains 
some trees. The leaves are alternate, opposite, 
or in whorls, entire, destitute of stipules, often 
small, in some genera mostly evergreen and 
rigid. The flowers are sometimes solitary in 
the axils of the leaves, sometimes grouped in 
different kinds of inflorescence, and are often 
of great beauty. The calyx is four or five parted, 
and the corolla, which is often bell-shaped, has 
four or five lobes. The stamens are as many 
or twice as many as the corolla lobes, and the 
anthers in most genera open by small pores at 
the summit. The ovary is four to five celled, 
and one to many seeded. The fruit is a cap- 
sule or a berry. About 60 genera and 1400 
species are known, of which the greater number 
are natives of South Africa, which particularly 
abounds in species of the genus Erica and its 
allies, the true heaths. Some of them are also 
found at the utmost limits of northern vegeta- 
tion. They are rare within the tropics and occur 
only at considerable elevations. Few species are 
found in Australia. Many of the Ericaceae are 
social plants, and a single species sometimes 
covers a great tract, in which it constitutes the 
principal vegetation. This is most strikingly 
exemplified in the heaths of Europe and the 
north of Asia. 

The family contains many well-known forms 
in North America, as the wintergreens (Pyrola 
and Oaultheria), the curious Indian pipe {Mon- 
otropa), trailing arbutus (Epigcea), bearberry 
(Arctostaphylos), huckleberries (Qaylussacia) , 
blueberries and cranberries (V actinium) , rhodo- 
dendrons and azaleas {Rhododendron), moun- 
tain laurel (Kalmia), etc. See Azalea. 

EBICHSEN, eVIk-sen, Sib John Ebic (1818- 
96). An English surgeon, born in Copenhagen. 
He received his medical education at the Uni- 
versity College, London, and in Paris, and in 
1844 became lecturer on anatomy and physiology 
at Westminster Hospital. In 1848 he became 
assistant surgeon, and in 1850 surgeon in charge 
of the University College Hospital, serving also 
as professor of surgery from 1850 to 1866, and 
Holme professor of clinical surgery from 1866 
to 1875. He was president of the Royal College 
of Surgeons in 1880, was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Society in 1876, and was created a baronet 
in 1895. He is best known for his textbook on 
the Science and Art of Surgery (1st ed„ 1853), 
which was translated into German, Italian, and 
Spanish, and is still considered one of the stan 
dard textbooks of surgery in the greater part 
of the world . 

EBIGHT (eVlKt), Loch. A lake in the 
northwestern part of Perthshire and south of 
Inverness-shire, Scotland, in a wild, uninhabited 

Digitized by VjiOOvlL 


district, amid the Grampian Mountains (Map: 
Scotland, D 3). It is 14 miles long by 1^4 to 
1% miles broad and its surface is 1153 feet 
above sea level. Its banks rise steeply from 
the water's edge. It empties into Loch Rannoch, 
and its waters ultimately reach the Tay. The 
lake is noted for salmon and trout. In a cave 
at the south end Prince Charles found safe con- 
cealment in 1740, after the battle of Culloden. 

EB'ICHTHCKNIUS (Lat., from Gk. 'Epix*6- 
vws). 1. The son of Dardanus and Batea, father 
of Tros, and ancestor of ^Eneas. 2. The son 
of Hephaestus, identified with Erechtheus (q.v.). 

EB1CSON, Leif. A probably historic person- 
age whose adventures are described in the Ice- 
landic sagas. He was the son of the Norseman 
Eric the Red and about 1000 A.D. discovered 
a land to the west, which he called Vinland 
(Vineland). The site of 'the early settlement 
has been variously placed along the Atlantic 
seaboard — on Labrador, on Newfoundland, and 
on the mainland farther south.* Consult The 
English Rediscovery and Colonization of Amer- 
ica ( London, 1801). 

ERICSSON, John (1803-89). A distin- 
guished engineer. He was born in the Parish 
of Fernebo, Vermland, Sweden, July 31, 1803. 
After serving for some time as an officer of 
engineers in the Swedish army, he removed in 
1820 to England and continued to occupy him- 
self with inventions, chiefly improvements in 
steam machinery. While in England Ericsson 
patented a new form of screw propeller, and it 
was largely through his efforts that the screw 
came to be generally adopted for navigation. 
The Admiralty and British naval engineers did 
not become interested in Ericsson's work; but 
his ideas were appreciated by F. B. Ogden, 
United States Consul at Liverpool, who placed, 
at his disposal funds to construct a small ocean 
steamer, which was subsequently sent across the 
Atlantic. Mr. Ogden and Capt. Robert F. Stock- 
ton, U. S. N., induced the engineer to come to 
the United States, and he received the orders 
for the construction of two steamships. He 
arrived at New York in 1839, and two years 
afterward was employed in constructing the 
U. S. S. Princeton, which was the first war 
steamship to have its propelling machinery 
below the water line and to use the screw pro- 
peller. Ericsson soon became known for the 
great number and novelty of his inventions, 
among which, in addition to the screw pro- 
peller, were a steam boiler with artificial drafts 
which did away with smokestacks and effected 
an important saving in fuel; a steam fire en- 
gine; the caloric engine; a sliding telescopic 
chimney ; machinery to check the recoil of heavy 
guns; an instrument for measuring distance 
at sea; the hydrostatic gauge for measuring 
the volume of fluids under pressure; a meter to 
measure the amount of water passing through 
pipes; an alarm barometer; a pyrometer to 
measure temperature, from the freezing of water 
to the melting of iron ; a lead to take soundings 
without rounding the vessel to the wind; and 
various modifications of the caloric engine in 
which the expansive force of hot air was used 
as a source of power. In the Civil War he 
designed and built the monitors for the United 
8tates Navy. The first one was built in a little 
more than three months and (March 9, 1862) 
defeated and disabled the Confederate ironclad 
Merrimac. In his later years he attempted to 
perfect the solar engine, for which heat is ob- 

tained from the rays of the sun collected by a 
huge funnel lined with a reflecting surface. He 
died in New York, March 8, 1889. In 1890 the 
body of Ericsson was removed to Sweden, being 
conveyed by the United States cruiser Baltimore, 
and in 1893 the State of New York erected a 
monument to him on the Battery, New York 
City. This was replaced by another in 1901. 
Consult Church's Life of Ericsson (New York, 

ERICSSON, Nils (1802-70). A Swedish en- 
gineer. He was born in Stockholm and was the 
eldest brother of John Ericsson, who built the 
Monitor, the first successful ironclad in the 
United States navy. In 1850 he was appointed 
colonel of the Naval Engineering Corps, and 
in 1858 became director of government rail- 
road construction, in which capacity he probably 
contributed more than any other man to the 
development of the present railroad system of 
Sweden. As a hydraulic engineer, he constructed 
the docks at Stockholm, the great canal unit- 
ing Lake Saima with the Gulf of Finland, and 
the new sluices of the Trollhattan Canal. 

ERIC THE RED (c.950-1000). The colo- 
nizer of Greenland. He was a native of Nor- 
way and fled from the country under a charge 
of homicide, settling on the west coast of Ice- 
land. Another murder forced him (c.980) to 
flee to an island in the west which had been 
discovered more than a century before, but not 
settled. In 985 Eric returned to Norway and 
secured colonists for .the new land, which he 
called Greenland. He became the leading man 
of the colony and called his chief town Gardar. 
His son, Leif Ericson (q.v.), introduced Chris- 
tianity and is supposed to have landed on the 
New England coast about the year 1000. Eric 
has by some been credited with the discovery of 
America. In the eleventh century Greenland 
became tributary to Norway. After flourishing 
for about four centuries the settlement sud- 
denly disappeared from history, all communica- 
tions, commercial and otherwise, being myste- 
riously broken off. It is sometimes supposed 
that all of the people were carried off by the 
black death in the fourteenth century. Consult 
Nansen, In Northern Mists (2 vols., New York, 

ERIDANT7S, 6-rId'a-nus (Gk. Epttawot, Erida- 
nus, a river god, son of Oceanus and Tethys). 
An ancient southern constellation, mentioned 
by Eudoxus in the fourth century B.c. It lies 
immediately south of Taurus and extends more 
than halfway to the south pole. Its principal 
star, a Eridani, or Achernar, is of the first 
magnitude, o, Eridani, a star of magnitude 
4.5, has a faint and distant double satellite, 
and was first recognized as a triple system by 
Herschel in 1783; it is remarkable also for its 
large proper motion. 

ERIDANTJS. See Electrides; Po. 

E'RIE. A city and the county seat of Neosho 
Co., Kans., 120 miles south-southwest of Kan- 
sas City, on the Missouri, Kansas, and Texas, 
and the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe rail- 
roads (Map: Kansas, G 7). It is in the valley 
of the Neosho, the centre of a fertile agricul- 
tural region, and has a large oil refinery, an ice 
factory, a mineral-water plant, grain elevators, 
and feed mills. There are natural-gas and oil 
wells in the vicinity. The water works and elec- 
tric-light plant are owned by the city. Pop., 
1900, 1111; 1910, 1300. 

ERIE. A manufacturing city, port of entry. 

Digitized by CjOOQLC 




and the county seat of Erie Co., Pa,, on Lake 
Brie, 88 miles by rail southwest of Buffalo, N. 
Y., and 05 miles northeast of Cleveland, Ohio 
(Map: Pennsylvania, A 1). The city's sup- 
plies of natural gas and its proximity to the 
bituminous coal and coke districts of the State 
greatly enhance its commercial and industrial 
importance. The only lake port in Pennsyl- 
vania, Erie has an excellent harbor, protected 
by a peninsula 6 miles lon£ and 1 mile wide, 
called Presque Isle. It receives a large part of 
the shipping of the Great Lakes and is also 
important as a railroad centre, being on the 
Bessemer and Lake Erie, the Lake Shore and 
Michigan Southern, the New York, Chicago, 
and St. Louis, the Pennsylvania, and other rail- 
roads. Its lake freight commerce carries prod- 
ucts valued at more than $150,000,000, in 3000 
American t and foreign vessels annually, while 
its railroad freight tonnage is equivalent to 
200,000 loaded cars. Besides the trade in coal 
and iron ores, there are extensive fisheries and 
a heavy commerce in grain, package freight, 
and agricultural products. 

Erie's manufactures are considerable and 
varied. They give employment to about 15,000 
men and represent an invested capital of $36,- 
694,500. The annual output is valued at more 
than $30,000,000. The principal industrial es- 
tablishments include engine and boiler works, 
blast furnaces, electrical-cars and machinery 
factories, iron, brass, and aluminium foundries, 
machine and tool shops, malleable- iron works, 
refineries, chemical works, tanneries, horseshoe 
and hardware plants, paper, flour, silk, and 
woolen mills, and manufactories of bicycles and 
automobiles, pianos and organs, beer, cigars, 
tobacco, medicines, etc. The city has many 
beautiful parks, a public library, three general 
hospitals, a sanitarium, eight homes for chil- 
dren and aged persons, a Federal building, a 
courthouse, a city hall, St. Benedict and Villa 
Maria academies, two cathedrals, St. John 
Kan ty College, and a State soldiers' and sailors' 
home, whose park near the harbor entrance is 
the site of the old French and Indian War 
frontier blockhouse fort, where Gen. Anthony 
Wayne died in 1796. Erie, under a charter of 
1913, is governed by a municipal commission of 
the mayor and four commissioners. These, with 
the city controller, are elected by popular vote 
on a nonpartisan ticket. Other officials are 
chosen by the commission, excepting the board 
of municipal waterworks, which is appointed by 
the judges of the county court of common pleas. 
Legislative initiative by 100 qualified voters 
ana referendum by petition of 20 per cent of 
the electors are provided. The school affairs 
are managed by a board of nine directors, elected 
by popular vote. The city's receipts in 1914 
were $1,100,000, while its payments amounted 
to about $1,337,000, the principal items of ex- 
pense being $490,000 for schools, $115,000 for 
the fire department, and $100,000 for the police. 
The water works, valued at $3,520,000, and hav- 
ing a pumping capacity of 44,000,000 gallons 
daily, are owned by the municipality and oper- 
ated at a yearly expense of $120,000. The as- 
sessed property valuation of the city in 1913 
was $48,513,000. 

On the site of Erie stood the old French fort, 
Presque Isle, built in 1753. In 1760 the Eng- 
lish took possession of it, and on June 22, 1763, 
during Pontiac's War, a large force of Indians 
compelled the garrison to surrender. Erie was 

the headquarters of Commodore Perry in the 
War of 1812, and the two flagships, the Law- 
rence and the Niagara, with which he defeated 
the British in the naval battle of Lake Erie, 
off Put-in-Bay, were built and equipped here. 
The town was laid out and settled in 1795 by 
families from New England and was chartered 
as a city in 1851. Pop., 1900, 52,733; 1910, 
66,525, including 14,943 of foreign birth and 340 
negroes; 1914 (U. S. est.), 72,401; 1920, 93,372. 

ERIE. An Iroquoian tribe, formerly holding 
the east and southeast shores of the lake of 
that name, in the present States of New York, 
Pennsylvania, and Ohio. They were nearly de- 
stroyed by the Iroquois about 1656, in a short 
but fierce war of conquest, those who survived 
being incorporated witn the Senecas. The name 
is said to signify a wildcat. 

ERIE, Battle of Lake. A famous naval en- 
gagement in the War of 1812, between Great 
Britain and the United States, fought in Put- 
in-Bay, near the western end of Lake Erie, on 
Sept. 10, 1813. The American fleet, which had 
been hastily built at Presque Isle (now Erie), 
Pa., consisted of 3 brigs, 5 schooners, and a 
sloop, with a total of 54 guns, throwing a broad- 
side of 936 pounds, and 490 officers and men. 
The British had 2 ships of war, 2 brigs, a 
schooner, and a sloop, mounting 63 guns, throw- 
ing a broadside of 459 pounds, and carrying 
about 460 officers and men. The American guns, 
though of heavier calibre, were of shorter range 
than those of the British. The American com- 
mander was Oliver Hazard Perry, then rank- 
ing as master commandant; the British com- 
mander was Robert H. Barclay, who had served 
under Nelson at Trafalgar. During the first 
part of the battle the English concentrated their 
fire on Perry's flagship, the Lawrence, which was 
soon so completely disabled that Perry left her 
in command of Lieutenant Yamall and shifted 
his flag to the Niagara, under a heavy flre. The 
action now became general, and after a stub- 
born contest Perry forced Barclay's flagship, the 
Detroit, and three other vessels to surrender. The 
remaining two attempted to escape, but were soon 
overtaken and captured. Perry at once sent his 
famous dispatch to General Harrison: "We have 
met the enemy, and they are ours — two ships, 
two brigs, one schooner, and one sloop." The 
battle lasted three hours and fifteen minutes, 
and during this time the Americans lost 123 in 
killed and wounded; the British, 135. This vic- 
tory gave the Americans almost undisputed con- 
trol of the upper lakes, and not only removed 
all danger of invasion in that quarter, but vir- 
tually insured the recapture of Detroit and the 
conquest of Upper Canada by the American army 
under General Harrison. Cfold medals were con- 
ferred by Congress upon Perry and Master Com- 
mandant Elliott, and minor rewards upon the 
other officers and men. In 1858 the remains of 
the officers killed were buried on Put-in-Bay 
Island. There has been much discussion among 
naval historians in regard to the relative 
strength of the two fleets and the precise amount 
of credit to be awarded to Perry. See Pageants 
and Celebrations for account of Centennial 
Celebration. Consult: Roosevelt's Naval War of 
1812 (New York. 1882) ; Spears, The History of 
Our Navy (ib., 1899) ; Maclay, History of the 
Navy (ib., 1894-1901); Mills, Oliver Hazard 
Perry and the Battle of Lake Erie (Detroit, 

ERIE, Lake. The most southern of the chain 

Digitized by C00gk 


of five great lakes drained by the 81 Lawrence 
River (Slap: United States, Eastern Part, K 2). 
It lies between Lakes Huron and Ontario, re- 
ceiving waters from the former through the St. 
Clair River, Lake St. Clair, and the Detroit River 
on the west, and discharging its waters into 
the latter through the Niagara River on the 
east, at the rate of 215,000 cubic feet per second. 
Lake Erie has a length of about 250 miles, in 
a northeast and southwest direction, and a 
maximum breadth of 57 miles. Its surface, 
which has an area of 0600 square miles, is 573 
feet above the level of the sea and 326 feet above 
Lake Ontario; its mean depth is about 100 feet, 
and the greatest depth recorded is 210 feet. It 
is the shallowest of the Great Lakes. Lake 
Erie is bounded on the north by the Canadian 
Province of Ontario, on the east and south by 
New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio, and on the 
northwest by Michigan, the boundary between 
the United States and Canada traversing it. 
Besides receiving the drainage from Lakes Su- 
perior, Michigan, and Huron, it has a limited 
river system of its own, receiving among others 
the Grand from the north, the Maumee from 
the west, and the Sandusky and Cuyahoga from 
the south. The chief islands belonging to the 
United States are West Sister, Rattlesnake, 
Green, Put-in-Bay, Bass, and Kelly. Those be- 
longing to Canada are Middle Sister, East Sis- 
ter, The Chickens, Middle, and Pellee. 

Navigation on Lake Erie is rendered some- 
what difficult, its comparative shallowness mak- 
ing it liable to a heavy ground swell. Naviga- 
tion is suspended wholly or in part during the 
winter season on account of the ice. Lake Erie 
is connected with Lake Ontario by the Welland 
Canal, around Niagara Falls, with the Hudson 
River by the Erie Canal, and with the Ohio 
River by the Miami and Erie and Ohio and 
Erie canals. Several large cities and important 
ports are situated on Lake Erie, chief of which 
are Buffalo, Erie, Cleveland, Sandusky, and 
Toledo; and Detroit, on the Detroit River, may 
be added to this list. The growth of these cities 
—of Cleveland, Detroit, and Buffalo — has been 
remarkable. The commercial importance of 
Lake Erie has had rapid increase, as it forms 
a link in the waterway from the West to the 
East, over which a great grain and iron move- 
ment takes place. Numerous large freight 
steamers and magnificently equipped passenger 
steamers ply upon its waters. Lake Erie was 
an important theatre of naval warfare in the 
War of 1812. See Ebie, Battle of Lake; 
Great Lakes. 

EBIE CANAL. An artificial waterway 
across the State of New York, extending from 
Buffalo to Albany, connecting the Great Lakes 
with the Hudson River. This canal, second in 
length only to the great canal of China among 
the artificial waterways of the world, played a 
most important part in the commercial develop- 
ment of the State of New York, and probably 
more than any other influence contributed to the 
establishment of New York City as the great 
port and commercial centre of the eastern coast 
of the United States. In 1784 Christopher Coles 
made a survey of the Mohawk valley and sub- 
mitted plans to the New York Legislature for 
the connection of the Hudson River and Lake 
Ontario by an artificial waterway. Another 
survey was made in 1791 by the direction of the 
Legislature through the efforts of Governor 
George Clinton, and in 1792 the Western Inland 


Canal Company was chartered. By the end of 
1796 this corporation had built 6 miles of canal 
at Little Falls to facilitate the use of the upper 
Mohawk River, and this waterway was navigable 
by vessels of 16 tons. In 1816 Governor Tomp- 
kins urged that the canal be built by the State, 
and a canal commission, with De Witt Clinton 
at the head, was appointed. On April 15 the 
Legislature authorized the construction of a 
canal, and on July 4 ground was broken at 
Rome. In October, 1819, a section of the canal 
from Rome to Utica was open for navigation, 
and in the following year Seneca Lake was 
reached. On Oct. 26, 1825, the first canal boat, 
Seneca Chief, left Buffalo for New York, and 
navigation from the Great Lakes to tidewater 
was established. The actual cost of the canal 
was $7,143,789, but by 1836 it had turned into 
the State treasury more than its cost. 

The Erie Canal, as built, was 352 miles in 
length, with 9 miles of adjuncts, and, considering 
the time of its construction, was marked by 
excellent and efficient engineering. It imme- 
diately became a source of direct profit to the 
State, as well as an economic asset of high im- 
portance. From 1817 to 1882, when tolls were 
abolished, the gross revenues of the Erie Canal 
were $121,461,871, while the cost of operation 
and maintenance amounted to $29,270,301, show- 
ing a profit of $92,191,570. The cost of con- 
struction and enlargement in the same period 
aggregated $49,591,853; so a profit of $42,599,- 
718 was shown. The ratio of operation and 
maintenance to revenues was 24 per cent. In 
1825 the tolls amounted to $566,112, and from 
the time of its completion the tonnage of freight 
carried annually soon increased to over 1,000,000 
tons, and by 1836 1,301,000 tons were carried. 
The charge for transportation from Buffalo to 
Albany, which had been $22 in 1824, fell to $4 
per ton in 1835. The original Erie Canal 
floated boats of 80 feet in length, 15 feet in 
width, and 3%-foot draft, with a maximum bur- 
den of 75 tons; but soon increased capacity was 
demanded, and in 1835 the enlargement of the 
canal was authorized. From this time on, poli- 
tics played an even greater part in the opera- 
tion and maintenance of the canal. The canal 
ring was born (see New York, History) and the 
vast expenditures for maintenance and enlarge- 
ment led to great corruption and waste. In 
1831 the Mohawk and Hudson Railroad opened 
its line, the era of steam transportation was 
inaugurated, and 10 years later Albany and 
Buffalo were connected by rail; but no effect 
on the business of the canal was felt between 
1838 and 1847. In 1848 the State constitution 
was revised, and from that time on in numerous 
amendments the question of the canal was 
more or less before the people. Canal enlarge- 
ment by 1849 had made passage for vessels of 
100 tons burden, and by 1853 vessels of 200 tons 
could be accommodated. At this period con- 
stant efforts were in progress to effect further 
enlargement of the canal, which by 1862 was 
virtually completed. The canal was 70 feet wide 
at the surface, 62 feet wide at the bottom, 7 
feet in depth, and accommodated vessels of 
6-foot draft and 240 tons, capable of a load of 
8000 bushels of wheat, as compared with 1000 
bushels at the primitive stage and 2500 bushels 
from 1830 to 1850. Naturally the cost of 
maintenance and operation increased with the 
enlargement and with the inefficiency resulting 
from political control. In 1867 the land trans- 

Digitized by 




port at ion lines began to benefit from increased 
commercial activity in much greater ratio than 
the canal, and after the consolidation of the 
New York Central and Hudson River railroads, 
in 1869, the advantages of the canal for long 
hauls were beginning to be lost. The railroads 
assumed an attitude of opposition to the canal 
and political influence was wielded against im- 
provements and enlargement, with the result that 
the Erie Canal began to be neglected, and a 
lamentable lack of foresight was shown. The 
canal ring, by this time, had become a public 
scandal of serious dimensions, and in 1875 it 
was broken up through the efforts of Gov. Sam- 
uel J. Tilden (q.v.). Although the tolls were 
lowered after the financial crisis of 1873 and 
were abolished in 1882, the decline of the canal 
business set in and from about 1880 became phe- 
nomenal. With the abolition of tolls came in- 
creased neglect, and in no way was the Erie 
Canal kept abreast of the times, or received the 
intelligent care and interest such as at this time 
were given to European canals. Little or noth- 
ing was done in the way *of improvement until 
1895, when an expenditure of $9,000,000 was au- 
thorized providing for the deepening of the 
canal to 9 feet. This amount was entirely in- 
adequate, and the improvement effected was 
slight, so that after considerable agitation, in 
1903, the enlargement of the canal was sub- 
mitted to the people and its increase in size to 
accommodate 1000-ton barges was duly voted. 
This opened a new chapter, both in the engi- 
neering and economics of the matter, which will 
be found discussed under New York State 
Barge Canal. Consult: Hepburn, Artificial 
Waterways and Commercial Development, with 
history of the Erie Canal (New York, 1909); 
annual reports of the Superintendent of Public 
Works of the State of New York; and various 
reports of canal commissions and committees. 

ERIE SHALE. A name given to the wes- 
terly extension into Ohio of the Upper Portage 
and Chemung rocks of New York. It overlies 
the Huron shale, the latter being the storehouse 
of petroleum. See Devonian System. 

ERIGENA, £-rIj'e-na, Johannes Scotus. A 
famous mediaeval philosopher, who was born 
probablv of Scot parentage in Ireland (whence 
Scotus, Scot, and Erigena, Irish -born) within the 
first two decades of the ninth century. Very 
little is known regarding his history. He was 
called to France by Charles the Bald, who in- 
trusted to him the translation of the writings 
ascribed to Dionysius the Areopagite (q.v.), his 
publication of which, without prior submission 
to the censorship of Rome, brought him into 
conflict with Pope Nicholas I; but evidently 
Charles stood by him, since he remained at the 
French court till the death of the King in 877. 
Nothing is known of Erigena's history after 
that date. His philosophic opinions were those 
of a Neoplatonist rather than of a scholastic. 
He held that God is the essential ground of all 
things, from whom all things emanate, and into 
whom they return again. Nature he regarded as 
of four distinct sorts: first, the creative and un- 
created; second, the creative and created; third, 
the noncreative and created; fourth, the non- 
creative and noncreated. The first is God the 
Creator; the second is the world of ideas exist- 
ing in God's mind and giving rise to the world 
of space and time, which is the third; while the 
fourth is God again as the final goal and consum- 
mation of aU development. The church doctrine 


of creation out of nothing he completely changes 
by making "nothing" mean reality in so far as 
unknown. God eternally creates the world out 
of Himself, the Unknown. In logic he was a 
realist; creation of individual things seems to 
be nothing but logical subordination of the par- 
ticular to the universal. As can be seen from 
this short account of his views, he was not an 
authoritarian, but insisted that "authority orig- 
inates in reason, not reason in authority. All 
authority which is not confirmed by true reason 
seems to be weak," whereas reason "does not 
need to be corroborated by the seal of any au- 
thority." Erigena took active part in the the- 
ological polemic of his day, maintaining the 
spiritual presence in the Eucharist, and denying 
Gottschalk's twofold predestination, i.e., both 
to salvation and to damnation, and admitting 
only the former. Erigena's main work, his De 
Division* Natural, was condemned by the Pro- 
vincial Council of Paris in 1210 and ordered 
by Honorius III in 1225 to be burned. It was 
first printed in Oxford, 1681. De Divina Pr<e- 
destinatione was printed first in Paris, 1650. 
His complete extant works were edited by Floss 
and published in Migne's Patrologice Cursus 
Completus (Paris, 1853). Consult: the histories 
of mediaeval philosophy by Haureau, StOckl, 
Kaulich, Picavet; Christlieb, Leben und Lehre 
des Johannes Scotus Erigena (Gotha, 1860) ; 
Huber, Johannes Scotus Erigena ( Munich, 1861 ) ; 
Buchwald, Der Logosbegriff des Johannes Scotus 
Erigena (Leipzig, 1884) ; Wotschke, Fichte und 
Erigena (Halle, 1896) ; Kaulich, Qeschichte der 
scholastischen Philosophic (Prague, 1863); 
Poole, Mediaeval Thought (London, 1884) and 
Erigena (ib., 1896) ; Gardner, Studies in John 
the Scot (ib., 1900) ; Rand, "Johannes Scolus," 
in Quellen und Untersuohungen zur lateinischen 
Philologie des Mittelalters (Miinchen, 1906) ; 
Whittaker, Apollonius of Tyana and Other 
Essays (London, 1906). 

ERIGERON, G-rfj'd-rdn (Lat., from Gk. 
-Ijpiyipvp, erigeron, the plant groundsel, from %pi t 
eri, early, + yiptaw, gerdn, old) . A genus of plants 
of the family Composite. It has a powerful 
odor, which is said to keep away fleas, and the 
name "fleabane" is sometimes given to the plant. 
Erigeron philadelphicus, with pale-purple ray 
and a fetid smell, and Erigeron canadensis', with 
inconspicuous rays, are valued in the United 
States as diuretics. The latter species is now 
widely diffused throughout the world. The prin- 
cipal constituent of the oil which is distilled 
from these species* is terpene. The oil is a strong 
haemostatic, irritant, and stimulant, and is valu- 
able in cases of uterine hemorrhage, diarrhoea, 
and dysentery. 

E'RIN (Olr. Heriu, Eriu, gen. sg. Erenn, 
dat. sg. Erinn 9 appearing in Gk. as 'lovepvia, 
Ivernia, and in Lat. as Hiberio or Hibemia; cf. 
Welsh Yioerddon, MBret. Tuerdon; perhaps ul- 
timately connected with Skt. plvan, fat, rich, 
Gk. Ui{F)epla, Pi(v)eria, name of a district in 
Greece). The ancient name now employed po- 
etically for Ireland (q.v.). 

ERIN GO BBAGH, J>rfiH (Olr., Ireland for- 
ever). The old war cry of the Irish. 

EBI2PNA (Lat., from Gk. "Hpiwa). A Greek 
poetess of uncertain date. On the basis of a 
statement in Suidas she has generally been re- 
garded as a contemporary and friend of Sappho, 
but Reitzenstein in Epigramm und Skolion 
(Giessen, 1893) has shown it to be probable that 
Suidas's statement is du$ to the fact tha^ 

Digitized by 



Erinna wrote songs which were imitations of 
those of Sappho. Her most probable date is 
the early Alexandrian period. Among her poems 
the most famous was "The Distaff" ('HXairdrif, 
ElakaU), in 300 hexameters. The fragments 
of her works are edited by Bergk, Poetce Lyrioi 
Greed, iii (Leipzig, 1900 et seq.). Consult 
Christ-Schmid, Oeschiohte der griechischen Lit- 
tetvtur, vol. i (5th ed., Munich, 1908). 

EBINYES, e-rtnl-ez. See Eumknides. 

E'BIOBOT'BYA. See Loquat. 

E'BIODEITDBON (Neo-Lat., from Gk. Ipior, 
erion, wool -f Mvdpop, dendron, tree). A genus 
of trees of the family Malvaceae, or Bombacacea 
according to Engler, natives of tropical coun- 
tries. The thick, woody seed capsules contain a 
kind of fibre which resembles cotton, from which 
the trees are called silk cotton. Eriodendron 
anfractuoaum, found in the East Indies, Africa, 
and also South America, is a tree which reaches 
a height of 130 feet or more. The African 
variety or species is called rimi and bentang. 
Park mentions it by the latter name. Barth 
says it is generally to be seen growing near the 
principal gate of large towns in Haussa. Its 
wood, soft and spongy, is chiefly used for mak- 
ing canoes. The roundish seeds, of the size of 
peas, are eaten in Celebes. The trees of this 
genus have palmate leaves and large, beautiful 
flowers. On account of its shortness, elasticity, 
and brittleness, the fibre- cannot be spun like 
cotton. It is, however, valuable in various ways 
in upholstery and is used for making floss. The 
principal supplies come from Java, although the 
tree is common throughout nearly all tropical 
regions. In Java it is known as kapok. The 
silky, and lustrous fibre of Eriodendron samauma 
is used in Brazil for stuffing pillows and has 
been made into many articles. It is said to be 
a good substitute for beaver in the manufacture 
of felt hats. Very similar to Eriodendron are 
the species of Bombaw, a related genus. Bom- 
baa: ceiba, or Ceiba pentandra, and Ceiba mun- 
guba are Brazilian trees of large size. Ceiba 
malabarica is an East Indian species, the fibre 
of which is reddish; hence the tree is called the 
red silk-cotton tree. The fibre of these three 
species is used only for stuffing pillows. It is 
said that all of them would make good paper. 
Valuable bast fibres used in making ropes are 
found in the bark of all species. 

E'BIOPH'OBUM. See Cotton Gbass. 

EBIPHY1*E (Lat., from Gk. 'Epi^iJXi?). In 
Greek mythology, sister of Adrastus, wife of 
Amphiaraus, and mother of Alcmoon. When 
Polynices, son of (Ed i pus, resolved to wage war 
against his brother Eteocles and so to gain con- 
trol of Thebes, he bribed Eriphyle with the neck- 
lace of Harmonia to persuade Amphiaraus to 
take part in the expedition. Amphiaraus, who 
knew that he would die on the expedition, en- 
joined his sons to kill their mother Eriphyle as 
soon as they heard of his death. For the execu- 
tion of this command see AxcMiEON. 

E'RIS (Lat., from Gk. "Epit). In Greek 
mythology, the sister of Ares, in the Iliad, and 
daughter of Nyx (night), in Hesiod. Eris, or 
"strife," is represented by Homer as at first 
insignificant, but growing until her head touches 
the heavens. According to the late poets it 
was Eris who at the marriage festival of Peleus 
and Thetis flung on the table the golden apple 
inscribed "To the fairest," for which Hera, 
Athena, and Aphrodite contended, and which 
thus brought about the Trojan War. (See 


Paris.) The Latin writers give Eris the name 
of Discordia (q.v.). Hesiod knew another and 
very different Eris, who. spurred men on to 
honorable rivalry. 

EB1TH (AS. 2Erre-Hy\>e, Old Haven). A 
town of Kent, England, on the south bank of the 
Thames, 14 miles east by south of London 
(Map: London, E 11). It is a favorite subur- 
ban residence and a popular starting point for 
yacht races. In the neighboring marshes are 
large powder factories. The town owns its 
electric-light and tramway system and operates 
them at a profit ; it also owns its sewage-disposal 
plant, a steadily growing group of workmen's 
dwellings, and in 1900 opened a central store. 
Pop., 1001, 25,300; 1911, 27,755. 

EBITBE'A, It. pron. a're-trft'a, or EBYTH- 
HJEA . An Italian colony in northeast Africa, 
lying between the Red Sea on the northeast and 
Abyssinia on the southwest, and between Anglo- 
Egyptian Sudan on the northwest and French 
Somaliland on the southeast, and embracing the 
northern part of the Abyssinian highlands 
(Map: Africa, H 3). The coast is about 650 
miles long and occupies about one-fourth of the 
west coast of the Red Sea. The southern por- 
tion is a comparatively narrow strip of territory 
extending inland about 50 miles. The northern 
section, north of Annesley Bay, extends inland 
about 200 miles at its greatest width. The 
colonial territory includes the islands Massawa, 
Dahlak, and Hauakil in the Red Sea. The total 
area is approximately 60,000 square miles. 
Generally speaking, Eritrea consists, first, of 
the narrow coast territory, which is of coral 
formation; next, a "subalpine" region with an 
average elevation of about 2500 feet; and then 
of a plateau 7000 feet high, broken by arid 
valleys. These highlands are the most healthful 
and habitable section of the country and the 
most susceptible of cultivation, while the sea 
region is altogether arid and ill capable of sup- 
porting life, whether fauna or flora. In this 
latter district the only rains are in winter. The 
climate of Eritrea is equatorial, the temperature 
at Massawa on the Red Sea having an annual 
average of nearly 90° P. and often rising to 
120° F. in the shade. The exports embrace pre- 
cious metals, animal products, especially hides, 
mother-of-pearl, pearls, coffee, and ivory. The 
imports include cotton goods, durra, cattle, 
wood, wine, and flour. The total value of the 
imports in 1912 was $3,637,000, for use in the 
colony, and about $1,000,000 of transit trade; 
exports, $1,750,000. The imports and exports 
are almost exclusively at Massawa. There is a 
considerable transit trade with Abyssinia and 
Sudan. There entered and cleared, in 1912, 1408 
vessels registering 204,400 tons. The only rail- 
road is 75 miles long, connecting Massawa with 
Asmara, an interior town, the seat of govern- 
ment. This railway was constructed chiefly for 
military purposes. Additional lines of about 75 
miles are under construction, connecting Asmara 
with other points in the interior. There are 
about 900 miles of telegraph lines. The seat of 
colonial government is at Asmara. The chief 
town is Massawa (q.v.), with a population of 
7800 in 1912, the real business centre of the 
colony and the natural port for Abyssinia. The 
colony demands annually about $1,250,000 from 
the national budget. A special army corps of 
about 4500 men, mostly natives, is stationed 
here. The population numbers 275.000 natives 
and 4000 Europeans. The natives are of the 
Digitized by VjOOQlC 


Arab race and chiefly nomadic^ The Afar or 
Danakil tribes inhabit the southern part. The 
Eritrean frontier was determined by treaties in 
1900 and 1002, involving Italy, Abyssinia, and 
Great Britain. The foundation of this Italian 
colony began with the purchase in 1870 by an 
Italian steamship company of Assab as a. coal- 
ing station, and it was later made an Italian 
colony. Subsequently treaties were made with 
the native rulers of other adjacent areas, and 
they were in 1890 united by royal decree under 
the title of Colony of Eritrea. 

History. Italy, with the consent of Great 
Britain, obtained a footing in the district of 
Assab Bay in 1881 and in the next year formed 
a colony there. In 1885 it occupied the ports of 
Bailul and Massawa and their contiguous dis- 
tricts, and declared its protectorate over the 
coast from Has Kasar to Beheta Bay. A con- 
test with Abyssinia arose in consequence, and 
the Italian troops were finally forced back upon 
Massawa in 1887. In 1888 and 1889, however, 
the Italians regained their position and extended 
their dominion.. After the Italians had with 
difficulty become possessed, of Tigre* and other 
sections, their army was disastrously defeated 
east of Adowa, on March 1, 1896, by the Abys- 
sinians, to whom was surrendered as a result, 
under the Treaty of Oct. 26, 1896, all the region 
south of the Aforeb, Belesa, and Muna rivers. 
In 1897 Kassala was given up to the Anglo- 
Egyptians. Up to 1898 Eritrea was a purely 
military department. The Abyssinian success in 
the war with Italy led her to set up a civil gov- 
ernment. By three boundary conventions in 
1900, 1902, and 1908 the boundary was finally 
fixed at approximately 60 kilometers inland. 
Signor F. Martini (1898-1906) put Eritrea on 
a sound commercial and financial basis, which 
continues to exist to-day. Consult Ostini, La 
nostra espansione coloniale e V Eritrea (Rome, 

EBIVAN, eVl-van' (Pers. Revan). A forti- 
fied city of Russian Armenia, capital of the 
Transcaucasian government of Envan (q.v.), 
situated at an elevation of over 3000 feet on the 
Zanga, an affluent of the Arars, 172 miles south- 
southwest of Tiflis. It is divided into several 
parts and is commanded by a fortress situated 
on a hill (Map: Russia, F 6). The surrounding 
country has numerous gardens, but it is ex- 
tremely unhealthful in the summer. Erivan 
contains five mosques and an Armenian theolog- 
ical seminary. Of interest is the palace of the 
former Persian viceroys. Leather, pottery, and 
cotton goods are the chief manufactures. The 
neighborhood of the city is rich in minerals. 
The town is an important military station on 
account of its position near the frontier. Under 
the rule of the Persians and the Turks, to whom 
the city belonged alternately, Erivan was of 
great military importance and was strongly for- 
tified. It was attacked during the Russo-Persian 
War by the Russians under General Paskevitch 
(hence his surname Erivanski), and by the 
Peace of Turkmantchai (Feb. 22, 1828) was for- 
mally ceded to Russia. Pop., 1911, 32,505. 

EilVAN. A government in the southern 
part of Transcaucasia, Russia, bordering on Per- 
sia and Asiatic Turkey on the south and covering 
an area of 10,725 square miles (Map: Russia, 
F 6). It is a mountainous country, traversed 
by chains belonging to the Little Caucasus sys- 
tem. There are also isolated peaks, among which 
Alaghez and Ararat (on the border) are the 


highest. The government belongs chiefly to the 
basin of the Aras, which forms the boundary hue 
between Russia and Persia. The largest lake 
of Caucasia, Goktcha, is situated in the Govern- 
ment of Erivan. The climate varies with the 
elevation of the surface, but is, on the whole, 
unpleasant. The forest area is very limited, and 
salt is practically the only mineral exploited. 
The lower portions of the countrv and espe- 
cially the river valleys are devoted to agricul- 
ture, while in the mountainous regions live* 
stock breeding is the chief pursuit. Besides 
cereals there are raised large quantities of south* 
ern fruit and some cotton. Some leather and 
cotton goods are manufactured. Lake Goktcha 
has extensive fisheries. The trade is important 
and carried on mostly by Armenians and Tatars. 
Pop., 1912, 971,290, consisting principally of Ar- 
menians and Tatars, but including also Kurds, 
Russians, Greeks, and Jews. Capital, Erivan 

EBJISH DA0H, Cr'jfeh' da©/ (anciently. 
Lat. Argons). An extinct volcano in Asia 
Minor, situated in the Vilayet of Angora, south 
of Kaisarieh. It has an altitude of over 13,000 
feet, and its latest eruption took place in the 
fourth century. 

ERE, erk, Ludwig Christian (1807-83). A 
German musician. He was born at Wetzlar and 
was a pupil of A. Andre 1 at Offenbach. He was 
appointed conductor of liturgical singing in the 
Domkirche at Berlin and founded the Erk Mfin- 
nergesangverein in 1843 and the Erk Gesang- 
verein in 1852. As a teacher he trained many 
excellent singers, and as a conductor he greatly 
increased the appreciation of good music among 
the masses. His popular song books for schools 
include the following: Singvdgelein (1896); 
IAederkranz ( 1839 et seq. ) ; Deutacher Lieder- 
schatz (5th ed., 1893); and Turnerliederbuch. 
His valuable library and many of his unpub- 
lished manuscripts were acquired by the Konig- 
liche Hochschule fur Musik at Berlin. A large 
number of these manuscripts, containing hun- 
dreds of liturgical and folk songs, consisting of 
original compositions and historical collections, 
were subsequently published by Magnus Btihme. 

ERLACH, ar'lak', Oer. pron. er'laa. A well- 
known Swiss family, distinguished in the history 
of Bern. — Walter von Erlach took his name 
from the village of Erlach near the lake of 
Brienz. He lived in the twelfth century. — Ru- 
dolph von Erlach ( ?-1360) fought in the bat- 
tle of Laupen (1339). An equestrian statue of 
him stands in the city of Bern. His descendant, 


played a distinguished part in the Thirty Years' 
War as a commander on the Protestant side. 
Bernhard of Weimar appointed him, in 1638, 
commandant at Breisach. On the death of 
Bernhard, in 1639, he entered the French serv. 
ice. He took a prominent part in the battle ol 
Lens under Conde 1 and died a marshal of France, 
—Jean Louis (1595-1650) was a descendant ol 
another branch of the family. He fought against 
Germany (1648) and was made a marshal ot 
France in 1650. Several other members of this 
family afterward achieved distinction as soldiers. 
Those best known are: Hiebontmus von Eblach 
(1667-1748), in the French and then in the 
Austrian service, and Karl Ludwig von Er- 
lach (1746-98), who served in the French 
armv and then in the Swiss. 

EIrLANGEN, erfang-en. A Bavarian town 
on the Regnitz, about 15 miles north-northwest 

Digitized by 



of Nuremberg (Map: Germany, D 4). It con- 
sists of the irregularly built old town and the 
modern handsome new town. The latter was 
founded in 1686, and assigned by the Margrave 
Christian Ernst of Brandenburg-Bayreuth to the 
Protestant refugees who were compelled to flee 
from France on the revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes. From that time many new branches of 
industry have been introduced into the town. It 
has a modern sewerage system and owns water 
and gas works and a slaughterhouse. Chief 
among its educational institutions are a nurses' 
school, the university, built on the site of an 
old castle (see Erlangen, University of), and 
the gymnasium, founded in 1745. The prin- 
cipal manufactures are cotton and woolen 
goods, wood, glass, tin foil, writing paper, paper 
boxes, electrical instruments, brushes, metal 
ware, flour and meal, horn and ivory ware, and 
gloves. Its breweries are also of importance. 
Pop., 1900, 22,953; 1910, 24,874. For a period 
of two centuries and a half after the Reforma- 
tion Erlangen belonged to the margraves of 
Bayreuth. In 1791 it became Prussian and in 
1810 Bavarian. 

ERLANGEN, University of. A German uni- 
versity founded in 1742 at Bayreuth, whence 
it was moved to Erlangen in the following year, 
and replaced a Ritterakademie established in 
1699. The patronage of the margraves of Bay- 
reuth, particularly that of Alexander (1769- 
92 ) , resulted in the refounding of the institution 
on a much broader basis, under the title it now 
bears, the Friedrich-Alexander University. It 
shared the fortunes of the margraviate in the 
revolutionary and Napoleonic wars and passed 
successively into the hands of Prussia, France, 
and finally Bavaria, between 1791 and 1810. 
About the time of the last transfer the University 
of Altdorf was united with it, and from that 
time till about the year 1880 it passed through 
the usual history of small German universi- 
ties, distinguished for its strongly Lutheran ten- 
dencies. Since that time, however, it has en- 
joyed great prosperity. New buildings have been 
added, and the number of its students has more 
than doubled, there being in 1913 an enrollment 
of 1360. The library contains 254,000 bound vol- 
umes, some 300,000 pamphlets and dissertations, 
and 2400 manuscripts. Consult: Engelhardt, 
Die Univereitat Erlangen, 1748-184S; Kolde, Die 
Universitdt Erlangen unter dem Hause Wittels- 
bach, 1810^1910 (Erlangen, 1910); Minerva 
(Strassburg, 1890 et seq.). 

ERLANGER, erf&ng-er, Abraham Lin- 
coln (1860- ). An American theatrical 
manager, born at Buffalo, N. Y., and educated 
in the Cleveland (Ohio) public schools. He be- 
came a member of a number of theatrical firms 
and possessed interests in various other amuse- 
ment companies and corporations. His firms, as 
part of the so-called "Theatre Trust," gained 
control of leading theatres in the United States. 
The Shubert Brothers' interests were incorpo- 
rated with his in 1907, but were subsequently 

ERLANGER, er'lftN-zhft', Camille (1863- 
). A French composer, born in Paris. Iu 
1880 he entered the Paris Conservatory, where 
his teachers were Mathias (piano), Bazille and 
Delibes (composition) He won the Prix de 
Rome in 1888 with the cantata Velttda. This 
was followed by a number of orchestral works, 
and in 1894 his dramatic legend Saint Julien 
V Hospitalier attracted considerable attention. 


His first opera' was Kermaria ( 1897 ) , the suc- 
cess of which was completely eclipsed by he 
juif polonais (1900). After that he wrote he 
file de I'ttoile (1904), Aphroditt (1906), Han- 
nele (1908), 'Noil (1911; produced at Chicago 
in 1913), ha Sorciere (1912), and Gioconda 
(1914). He also wrote an impressive Requiem 
and a symphonic poem, Maitre et serviteur. 

EBLANGEB, Joseph (1874- ). An 
American physiologist. He was born at San 
Francisco, Cal., and was educated at the Uni- 
versity of California (B.S., 1895) and at Johns 
Hopkins University (M.D., 1899). Subse- 
quently he was resident house officer in Johns 
Hopkins Hospital, and fellow in pathology, as- 
sistant instructor, associate, and associate pro- 
fessor in physiology (1899-1906) at the uni- 
versity. He filled a professorship in physiology 
at the University of Wisconsin from 1906 to 
1910, when he took up the same duties at Wash- 
ington University. 

ERLAU, fir^ou, or Eoer. The capital and an 
episcopal city of the County of Heves, Hungary, 
about 80 miles northeast of Budapest (Map: 
Hungary, G 3). The streets are narrow and ill 
kept, but some of its public buildings are very 
beautiful. Among these are the large cathedral 
(1831-37) in the Italian style; the archbishop's 
palace, with a valuable library; a lyceum built 
by Count Eszterhfizy in 1765-85, with a lofty 
observatory, a library, a town hall, and theatre. 
There is also a beautiful minaret, the remains 
of a mosque. It has seven monasteries, the chief 
being that of the Cistercians. It has two Cath- 
olic theological institutions, a library of 50,000 
volumes, an English girls' school, a gymnasium, 
and a teachers' seminary. The industries 
and commerce of Erlau are important. Pro- 
duction of the red Erlauer wine, which is fa- 
mous as the best in Hungary, is the main in- 
dustry. Near Erlau, on a spur of the Alraagy 
Mountains, are the ruins of a castle. In the 
grounds is the tomb of Dob6, who defended the 
town against the Turks in 1552. A bishopric 
was founded here in the eleventh century by St. 
Stephen. In 1241 the place was destroyed by 
the Tatars, but was soon rebuilt. It was held 
by the Turks from 1596 to 1687. Pop., 1900, 
25,893; 1910, 28,052. 

ERLKtiNIG, erKke-nlK (Ger., from Dan. 
ellerkonge, elver-konge, elf -king). The name 
given in popular German mythology to a mis- 
chievous spirit that deludes men and children 
by weird rather than playful seduction. The 
word is properly Elfenkonig; its present form 
is due to Herder's confusing of Elver- or Eller, 
the plural of the Danish word elv, with elle, 
meaning in German Erie, the alder tree. The 
myth came from Scandinavia through Herder's 
(q.v.) Voices of the Peoples, which gives a 
translation of the Danish Erlking*8 Daughter. 
It passed into universal (literature through 
Goethe's ballad Der Erlkbnig. 

ERLON, Jean Baptists Droubt, Count d\ 
See Drouet. 

EBMAN, grtnan, (Johann Peter) Adolf 
(1854- ). A German Egyptologist, born in 
Berlin, Oct. 31, 1854. His father, Georg Adolf 
Erman, and his grandfather, Paul Erman, were 
both professors of physics in the University of 
Berlin. Adolf Erman was educated at Leipzig 
and Berlin, and in 1883 was appointed associate 
profeftftor of Egyptology in the latter university. 
In 1885 he became director of the Egyptian de- 
Digitized by Google 


partment of the Royal Museum at Berlin and 
in 1892 was advanced to the full professorship. 
Erman's most valuable services to Egyptology 
lie in the department of Egyptian grammar, and 
it is due to his labors that this study has been 
placed upon a truly scientific basis. Among his 
works which have had a most important influ- 
ence upon the development of modern Egyptology 
are: Die Pluralbildung des Aegyptischen (1878) ; 
Neuagyptiscke Grammatik (1880); Die Sprache 
des Papyrus Westoar (1889) ; Die M&rchen des 
Papyrus Westcar (1890); Alt&gyptische Oram- 
matik (1894; Eng. trans, by Breasted, London, 
1894) ; Oespraoh eines LebensmUden mit seiner 
Seele (1896) -, Die Flewion des Sgyptischen Ver- 
bums (1900); Zauberspr&che fur Mutter und 
Kind ( 1901 ) ; Aegyptische Religion ( 1909 ) ; 
Aegyptische Grammatik (1911). Erman's Aegyp- 
ten und aegyptisches Leben im Altertum (1885), 
translated into English by Tirard under the title 
Life in Ancient Egypt (London and New York, 
1894) , is the best popular work upon the subject 
in existence. 

EBMAN, Geobg Adolf (1806-77). A Ger- 
man physicist, the son of Paul Erman. He was 
for a number of years professor of physical sci- 
ence in the University of Berlin. In 1828-30 he 
toured the world for the purpose of making mag- 
netic determinations at different points of the 
globe. Upon the facts thus ascertained by Er- 
man as a foundation, Gauss built his theory of 
terrestrial magnetism. Erman published Reise 
um die Erde duroh Nordasien und die beiden 
Oceane (1833-48) and other important works. 

EBMAN, Paul (1764-1851). A German 
physicist, born in Berlin. When the University 
of Berlin was founded (1810), he was chosen 

Srofessor of physics and held the office until his 
eath. He made important discoveries in elec- 
tricity, magnetism, optics, and physiology, and 
wrote valuable works on these subjects. From 
1810 to 1814 he was secretary of the class of 
physics and mathematics in the Academy of 

EBMEULND. See Ermland. 

EBMENONVILLE, ar'm'-noN'vel'. A vil- 
lage in the Department of Oise, France, 34 miles 
northeast of Paris. Pop. (commune), 1901, 
498; 1911, 520. It is the site of the chateau 
and beautiful grounds of the Girardin estate, 
the property of Prince Radziwill, and celebrated 
as the residence and burial place of Rousseau in 
1778. The remains of the philosopher were 
transferred to the Pantheon in 1794, whence they 
were secretly removed after the Restoration, and 
are said now to rest in their original tomb on 
an island in the park. Ermenonville was also 
the residence of Gabrielle d'Estrees, mistress of 
Henry IV. 

EBMBNT. See Hebmonthis. 

ERMINE, grfmln (OF. ermine, hermine, 
MHG., Ger. Eermelin, dim. of OHG. harmo, AS. 
hearmo, weasel, Lith. szermu, weasel; explained 
by popular etymology as mus Armenius, Ar- 
menian mouse). The name, in Europe, of the 
greater weasel, or stoat, in its white winter 
dress, when the fur is most highly prized. The 
term has no popular use in America as a name 
for the animal, but is applied wholly to the 
fur. The pelts come to market from British 
America, Lapland, northern Russia, and Siberia, 
and are used not only for ladies' winter gar- 
ments, but for the robes of kings and nobles, 
and for their crowns and coronets. Ermine has 
thus obtained a distinct recognition in heraldry, 


where the arrangement of black points repre- 
sents the ornamental disposition of the black- 
tipped tails, which, in making up ermine fur, 
are inserted in a regular manner, so that their 
rich black shall contrast with the pure white of 
the rest of the fur. This came to be a matter 
for royal regulation in England from the time 
of Edward III, various ranks of officers being 
designated by the way the ermine tails were 
arranged. S>ee Weasel, and Plate of Fub- 
Beabing Animals. 

ERMINE and EBMINOIS. Terms for furs 
used in heraldry (q. v. ) . 

ERMINE MOTH (so called from its mark- 
ings). An English collector's name for sundry 
white moths marked with black spots, mostly 

ERMINE STREET. One of the four great 
Roman roads of England, leading north from 
London to Lincoln, where it was met by the 
Fosse, and York, with an extension to Scotland. 
The lower portion of the road, through Epping 
and Hainault forests, did not exist until after 
Roman times. 

EBMLAND, ermlant, or EBMELAND, 
gr'me-lant. A diocese in East Prussia, now in 
the District of Konigsberg. After Prussia had 
been occupied for Christianity by the Teutonic 
Order (after 1230), the papal legates divided 
it into four bishoprics, of which Ermland was 
one. When Riga was confirmed by Alexander IV 
in 1255 as the metropolitan see of those regions, 
Ermland was virtually self-governing by virtue 
of its political independence and was finally 
acknowledged to be exempt from its jurisdiction; 
nor could the later archbishops of Gnesen suc- 
ceed in bringing it under their power. Even 
the pallium and the archbishop's cross were 
conceded to its prelates by Benedict XIV in 
1742. The early bishops of Ermland were 
sovereigns in their own districts and, as such, 
princes of the Empire from 1354, under a certain 
feudal relation to the grand master of the Teu- 
tonic Knights, and from the Peace of Thorn 
(1466) to the King of Poland. When the latter, 
however, wished to nominate to the bishopric, as 
in the rest of his dominions, the chapter vindi- 
cated its rights under the earlier concordat of 
a free election. The most distinguished bishops 
were JEne&s Sylvius Piccolomini, afterward Pope 
Pius II ( 1457-58) , and Stanislaus Hosias ( 1551- 
79 ) , who held his subjects to their allegiance to 
the Catholic church when the Reformation spread 
through all the surrounding territory. From 
1525 to 1772 the diocese shared the political 
fortunes of Poland and in the partition of the 
latter year was assigned to Prussia. The bish- 
opric of Ermland still remains in Prussia, with 
its seat at Braunsberg. Consult Zeitschrift 
f&r Oeschichte und Alterthumskunde Ermlands 
(7 vols., Braunsberg, 1858 et seq.), and Hipler, 
Analeeta warmiensia (ib., 1872). 

EBN, or EBNE (AS. earn, ONorthum., 
OHG. am, eagle; connected with Gk. Spris, ornis, 
bird). The sea eagle. The word is rarely heard 
now except in poetry, though occasionally used 
in ornithology as a designation of a group dif- 
fering from true eagles in having naked tarsi 
and in other minor features. See Eagle. 

EBNANI, er-na'n£. An opera by Verdi 
(q.v.), first produced in Venice, March 9, 1844; 
in the United States, November, 1847 (New 

ERNE, Srn. A river and lake in the south- 
west of Ulster Province, Ireland (Map: Ire- 

Digitized by GOOgle 



land, D 2). The river rises in Lough Gowna, 
runs north, merging in Lough Oughter, in Cavan 
County, and after a reach of 10 miles in Upper 
Lough Erne in Fermanagh County then passes 
Enniskillen on another reach, whence it is navi- 
gable for vessels of 12 feet draft to its outlet, 
and after flowing through Lower Lough Erne 
finally empties into Donegal Bay near Bally- 
shannon. It has a total course of 60 miles. 
Lough Erne, one of the finest in the kingdom, 
is the most attractive feature of Fermanagh 
County, which it bisects. It extends 40 miles 
from southeast to northwest and consists of 
two lakes, the upper and lower, joined by a 
narrower part 10 miles long, with Enniskillen 
midway between the two lakes. The upper lough 
is 12 by 4 miles in extent, 10 to 75 feet deep, 
151 feet above sea level, and has 90 green 
hilly islets. The lower lough is 20 by 7% miles 
in extent, 100 to 266 feet deep, 148 feet above 
the sea, and has 100 similar islets. Salmon, 
trout, pike, bream, and eels abound. The scenery 
is singularly varied and beautiful, with the 
added attractions of interesting archaeological 
features. Devenish, one of the largest of the 
islands, contains the ruins of an abbey and a 
round tower, one of the most perfect specimens 
in Ireland. Consult Devenish, Lough Erne: Its 
Histories, Antiquities, and Traditions (Dublin, 

EBNESTI, er-nes't£, Johann August (1707- 
81). A German classical scholar. He was born 
at Tennstadt in Thuringia and studied at 
Schulpforta, Wittenberg, and Leipzig. After 
having been appointed rector of the Thomas 
school in Leipzig in 1734, he turned his atten- 
tion chiefly to classical literature. In 1742 he 
became professor extraordinarius in the Univer- 
sity of Leipzig, in 1756 professor of rhetoric, 
and in 1759 professor of theology. Ernesti's 
wide training in philology enabled him to in- 
augurate a new era in biblical interpretation, 
and he established a school of New Testament 
exegesis, based on sounder principles of gram- 
matical and historical interpretation than had 
prevailed, through his work Institutio Interpre- 
tis Novi Testament* (1761; 5th ed. by C. F. 
Ammon, 1809), translated by Moses Stuart un- 
der the title Elements of Interpretation (An- 
dover, 1822; 4th ed., 1842). Other theological 
works are his AntirMuratorius (1755) and Opus- 
cula Theologica (1792). As classical philologist, 
he edited Xenophon's Memorabilia, Aristophanes' 
Clouds, Homer, Callimachus, Polybius, Tacitus, 
and Suetonius, but his greatest classical work 
was his edition of Cicero (6 vols., Leipzig, 1737- 
39) ; this contained the Clavis Ciceroniana, an 
excellent dictionary of Cicero's phraseology, 
with a conspectus of the Roman laws mentioned 
by Cicero. Consult: Ernesti, Memoria J. A, 
Ernesti ( 1781 ) ; Van Voorst, Oratio de J. A. 
Ernesti (1804) ; Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 
vol. vi (Leipzig, 1878) ; Sandys, A History of 
Classical Scholarship, vol. iii (Cambridge, 1908). 

ERNST, ernst (1441-86). Elector of Saxony 
from 1464 to 1486. He was the eldest son of the 
Elector Frederick the Mild. At the age of 14 
he and his brother Albert were kidnapped (the 
famous Prinzenraub) by a revengeful knight, 
but were speedily recovered. In 1464 he» suc- 
ceeded his father as Elector, but ruled jointly 
with his brother Albert till 1485. In that year 
they divided their paternal possessions, each 
assuming full sovereignty over his part. Ernst 
ruled his territory well and increased it by pur- 


chase and conquest. The electoral dynasty re- 
mained with the Ernestine or elder branch till 
1547, wlen it was transferred to the younger or 
Albertine line. Ernst died at Colditz in 1486. 
Descended from Ernst are the present houses of 
Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Meiningen, 
and Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. 

ERNST (1554-1612). Duke of Bavaria and 
Elector of Cologne, a son of Albert V of Bavaria. 
Educated by the Jesuits, his entire life was de- 
voted to extending the counter-reformation in 
the five bishoprics, in each of which he became 
Bishop— Freising (1566), Hildesheim (1573), 
Cologne (1583, after his defeat of Gebhard), 
Liege (1581), and Monster (1584). He took 
an active part in the religious and political con- 
tests of the period and vigorously opposed the 
Protestant Leagues. 

ERNST I, called the Pious (1601-75). Duke 
of Saxe-Gotha and Altenburg and founder of the 
house of Gotha. He was the son of John Duke 
of Weimar, a member of the Ernestine line. He 
fought in the Thirty Years' War under Gustavus 
Adolphus and his own younger brother, the 
famous Bernhard of Weimar, and distinguished 
himself in the battles of Nuremberg, Ltttzen, 
and Nttrdlingen. He signed the Peace of Prague 
in 1635 and thenceforth devoted himself to the 
administration of his possessions. By his wise 
and frugal management he raised his country 
from the economic and moral degradation into 
which it had sunk during the long war. He fos- 
tered industry and commerce, founded many 
schools and academies, and furthered the spread 
of religious instruction. He was one of the 
most enlightened princes of Germany, and his 
fame spread to Egypt and Abyssinia. Of his 
sons, Frederick, the eldest, continued the line of 
Gotha, while Bernhard founded the house of 
Meiningen, Ernst that of Hildburghausen, and 
Johann Ernst that of Saalfeld. The line of 
Frederick of Gotha became extinct in 1825 with 
the death of Frederick IV; in 1826 the heirs of 
Ernst of Hildburghausen received Saxe-Alten- 
burg, and those of Johann Ernst of Saalfeld, 
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Consult Philipp, Er- 
nestus the Pious (London, 1740), and Beck, 
Ernst der Fromme (Weimar, 1865). 

ERNST n (1745-1804). Duke of Saxe- 
Gotha and Altenburg. He was the second son of 
Duke Frederick III and of Luise Dorothea of 
Meiningen. Upon the death of his father ( 1772) 
he at once entered upon a thorough reform of 
the government. Of a noble and charitable dis- 
position, he gave large sums to charity. He 
refused the considerable sums offered by his 
kinsman King George III of England for levies 
to be employed against the American Colonies. 
He was a liberal patron of all the sciences and 
was the first to institute a measurement of an 
arc of the meridian in Germany. He established 
the astronomical observatory near Gotha and 
wrote anonymously astronomical works, includ- 
ing A8tronomische Tafeln (1799). Consult the 
biography by Beck (Gotha, 1854). 

ERNST I (1784-1844). Duke of Saxe-Co- 
burg and Gotha. He succeeded his father in 
1806. He fought against Napoleon in the War 
of 1806 and lost his dominions in consequence, 
but recovered them by the Peace of Tilsit ( 1807 ) . 
He was forced to join the Confederation of the 
Rhine, but after the battle of Leipzig ranged 
himself on the side of the Allies, and was re- 
warded at the Congress of Vienna with the 
Principality of Lichtenberg, which he sold to 

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Prussia for 2,000,000 ihalers in 1834. In 1826 
Gotha came into his hands through failure of 
the reigning line* He left two sons— his succes- 
sor Ernst II (q.v.) and Albert, Prince Consort 
of England. Consult Beck, Gcschichte des go- 
thaischen Landes (Gotha, 1868). 

BBNST H, Augustus Chables John Leo- 
pold Alexander Edward (1818-93). Duke of 
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, son of Ernst I, and brother 
of Albert, Prince Consort of England. He was 
born at Coburg. After studying at Bonn and 
traveling extensively in Europe he entered the 
Saxon army. In 1844 he succeeded his father 
as Duke. Ernst enjoyed immense popularity 
owing to his habit of mingling with the people 
in their pleasures, and this, together with timely 
concessions, saved his territory from revolution 
in 1848 and 1849. In the war against Denmark 
he won, as commander of a German corps, the 
battle of Eckernftfrde. He favored a united Ger- 
many, but looked to Austria as the leader in the 
movement and bitterly opposed Bismarck. Dur- 
ing the years of reaction (1849-62) he was almost 
the only German prince to remain liberal. In 
the war between Austria and Prussia in 1866 
he, however, sided with the latter, and he took 
part in the Franco-Prussian War. At his death, 
without heirs, in 1893, the duchy passed to 
Prince Alfred, son of Queen Victoria. Ernst was 
an excellent musician, and some of his operas, 
among them Santa Chiara (1854), Casilda 
(1855), and Diana von Solanges (1858), were 
notably successful in Germany. Under the title 
of Aus mevnem Leben und aus meiner Zeit ( 1887- 
89) he published memoirs of intense interest; 
Eng. trans., Memoirs of Ernst II y Duke of Baxe- 
Coburg-Ootha (London, 1888-90). Consult: 
Ohorn, Berzog Ernst II (Leipzig, 1894) ; Tem- 
pletey, Q. Freytag und Herzog Ernst von Coburg 
im Brief voechsel 185S bis 189S (ib., 1904) ; Beck, 
Ernst II als Pfleger und Beschutzer der Wissen- 
schaft und Kunst (Gotha, 1854). 

ERNST, Adolf. See Stebn, Adolf. 

EBNST, Harold Clabenoe (1856-1922). 
An American bacteriologist, born at Cincinnati, 
Ohio. He graduated from Harvard in 1876 and 
from the Harvard Medical School four years 
later. There he served as demonstrator, in- 
structor, and assistant professor between 1885 
and 1895, and in 1895 he became professor of 
bacteriology. He was president of the Boston 
Society of Medical Sciences from 1898 to 1908 
and of the Association of American Pathologists 
and Bacteriologists in 1908-09. Besides editing 
the Journal of Medical Research after 1896 and 
contributing scientific and medical articles to 
other periodicals, he is author of Infectiousness 
of Milk (1896); Infection and Immunity 
(1898); Animal Experimentation (1902); Mod- 
ern Theories of Bacterial Immunity (1902). 

EBNST, Heinbich Wilhelm (1814-65). An 
eminent Austrian violinist, born in Brunn, Mo- 
ravia. In the Vienna Conservatory he studied 
under Bonm, Seyfried, and Mayseder. He 
aroused great enthusiasm at his first appearance 
in 1830 and from 1832 until 1850 spent most of 
his time in concert tours in Europe and Eng- 
land. His performances were characterized by 
brilliancy, vigor, and beauty of tone. Ernst's 
compositions have generally a bravura character 
and include works for the violin and orchestra, 
quartets, etc. His EUgie is still a favorite 
work with violinists. Consult A. Heller, Hein~ 
rich Wilhelm Ernst im Urteile seiner Zeitgenos' 
sen (Brunn, 1904). 

71 BBOS 

EBNST, Oswald Herbert (1842- ). An 
American soldier. He was born near Cincinnati, 
Ohio, studied for two years at Harvard, and 
then entered West Point, where he graduated 
in 1864. He served as assistant engineer of the 
Army of the Tennessee during the Atlanta cam- 
paign; was astronomer on the United States 
commission to observe the solar eclipse of De- 
cember, 1870, in Spain ; was instructor in mili- 
tary engineering, signaling, and telegraphing at 
West Point from 1871 to 1878, and had charge 
(1878-86) of the improvements of Western riv- 
ers and (1886-89) of harbor improvements in 
Texas. He was superintendents of public build- 
ings and grounds in Washington, D. C, from 
1889 to 1893, was superintendent of the United 
States Military Academy from 1893 to 1898, be- 
came lieutenant colonel of engineers in 1895 and 
brigadier general of volunteers in 1898, and dur- 
ing the Spanish War went to Porto Rico and 
commanded the troops in the affair of Coamo 
(Aug. 9, 1898), receiving the brevet of colonel. 
He was inspector general of Cuba in 1899, a 
member of the original Isthmian Canal Com- 
mission in 1899, 1901, and 1905, and a director 
of the Panama Railroad. He retired in 1906, 
but remained a member of the International 
Commission on waters adjacent to boundary 
lines between Canada and the United States. 
He wrote a Manual of Practical Military Engi- 
neering (1873) and a Report (1904) on the 
tunnels under the Chicago River. 

EBNST AUGUST (1771-1851). King of 
Hanover. He was born at Kew, the fifth son of 
George III. He pursued his studies at Got- 
tingen from 1786 to 1791 and, entering the Han- 
overian army, fought against France (1793-95). 
In 1799 he was created Duke of Cumberland in 
England and became a leader of the High Tories. 
In 1807 he became grand master of the Orange 
lodges. On the death of William IV, in 1837, 
Ernst August as the next male heir succeeded 
to the throne of Hanover. His reactionary prin- 
ciples made him hated in England, but ne was 
very popular among his Hanoverian subjects. 
Consult Wilkinson, Reminiscences of King Ernst 
of Hanover (London, 1886), and Morse Stephens, 
in the Dictionary of National Biography. 

EBNST KASTMTR, ka'se-mer (1573-1632). 
Count of Nassau-Dietz, a nephew of William 
of Orange, born in Dillenburg. He entered the 
Dutch army in 1594 and after fighting in nearly 
all the campaigns of Maurice of Orange (whom 
he succeeded as stadholder of Groningen and 
Drenthe in 1625) was made a field marshal. 
In 1620 he became Governor-General of Fries- 
land and in 1625 of Groningen and Drenthe. In 
1621 he fought anew against the Spaniards, con- 
quered Bergen op Zoom and Steenbergen (1622), 
and fell at Roermonde, June 5, 1632. 

EBNST LUDWIG, IoWvIk (1868- ). 
Grand Duke of Hesse, born at Darmstadt, a son 
of the Grand Duke Ludwig IV (1837-92), whom 
he succeeded in 1892. In 1896 he was made 
lieutenant general. In 1894 he married Prin- 
cess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. He 
divorced her in 1901 — she married Prince Cyril 
of Russia in 1905 — and in 1905 the Duke mar- 
ried Princess Eleonore of Solms-Hohensolms- 
Lich, who bore him two sons, George in 1906 
and Ludwig in 1908. In 1909 the Duke's play 
Bonifatius was produced at Darmstadt in the 
Court Theatre. 

B'BOS. See Cupid. 

BBOS (Lat., from Gk. "Mpm* Cupid). A 

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planetoid (^.v.) discovered by Witt, of Berlin, 
in 1898. It is remarkable on account of the fact 
that it approaches the earth much nearer than 
any other known body in the heavens except our 
own moon and possibly certain comets, its dis- 
tance at opposition being less than 15,000,000 
miles. On account of its proximity to the earth, 
Eros is favorably situated for the determination 
of the solar parallax (q.v.). During the opposi- 
tion of 1900 an international campaign of ob- 
servation was undertaken for the purpose of de- 
termining this important constant. Nearly 300 
photographs of Eros were secured, which were 
reduced by Hinks, and the value 8.7966" was 
obtained. Eros has been found to vary in bright- 
ness. In explanation it has been suggested that 
the planetoid is really double, consisting of two 
bodies revolving almost in contact with a period 
of between five and six hours. 

ERCSION (Lat. erosio, from erodere, to 
gnaw, from e, out -f- rodere, to gnaw ) , or 
Denudation. The process by which the surface 
forms of the earth are sculptured and worn 
down. The present features of the earth's sur- 
face, while they have the appearance of great 
stability, in reality represent a single stage of 
development that has been determined by the 
cooperation of various geological agencies work- 
ing through long periods of time. Some of these 
agencies contribute to the erosion or denudation 
of the land, carving out valleys in plateaus, 
wearing down mountains, dissecting plains, and 

gmeraily .lowering the level to that of the sea. 
ivers are most active in this process. The 
surface waters supplied by rain and by melting 
of snow wash the soil and disintegrated rock 
materials down the slopes of the land into the 
valleys, where the detritus is carried along by 
the streams and deposited in their channels or 
borne to the sea. The solid particles suspended 
in water exert an abrasive action on the sides 
and floor of river channels, thus tending to widen 
and deepen them. A large amount of material 
is also held in solution and transported in this 
manner to the sea. The rate at which rivers 
carry on the destructive work varies in particu- 
lar regions with the climate, slope of land, and 
character of rocks. Rainfall, sunshine, and frost, 
and the chemical action of the atmosphere by 
means of its carbonic-acid gas, ammonia, and 
nitrous gases, greatly facilitate the breaking 
down of rocks, which is a preliminary step to 
their erosion and transport. The burden carried 
by the streams of the United States has been 
estimated by Dole and Stabler to be equivalent 
to 350,000,000 cubic yards of rock a year, suffi- 
cient to lower the whole area one inch in 760 
years. The Po is said to remove one foot of 
rock from its basin in 730 years. This wasting 
or destruction work of rivers, when continued 
through long periods of time, must produce great 
changes. Glaciers, like rivers, are denuding and 
transporting agents. The weight of the thick 
masses of ice gives them great erosive power, 
which is further increased by the rocks carried 
along the bottom of their beds. At present the 
occurrence of glaciers in the warmer zones is 
limited to regions of high elevation, but in past 
ages it is known that they occupied great con- 
tinental areas. The Rocky Mountains, the Sierra 
Nevadas, a large part of the northern United 
States, and nearly the whole of Canada were 
once the seat of ice sheets which have pro- 
foundly modified the surface features. Another 
important denuding force is the sea, particu- 


larly in the upper portion, where the water is 
kept in motion by waves, tides, and currents. 
Wave action breaks down cliffs and gives to the 
coast lines of continents a constantly changing 
form. Tides carry seaward the sediment brought 
down by rivers to their mouths. 

The immediate effect of erosion is to produce 
a variety of contour on land surfaces. The 
forms or types of scenery exhibited in any one 
locality depend upon the combination of factors 
at work and the material exposed to their action. 
A level land area composed of rocks unequally 
resistant to abrasion must in time be carved 
into a series of hills and valleys, the position 
of which will depend upon the relative disposi- 
tion of the harder and softer materials. In the 
process of land sculpturing it is also necessary 
to consider the predominant erosive agencies, 
which will vary in different regions and in dif- 
ferent climates. Arid districts, like the Bad 
Lands of South Dakota and the plateaus of 
Arizona, have peculiar types of scenery that can- 
not be found in countries having a heavier rain- 
fall. The general tendency of erosion is to re- 
duce the level of continents to that of the sea 
(base level). This destructive process is off- 
set in a measure by movements of the earth's 
crust which repair what has been lost by super- 
ficial waste. The amount of material removed 
from the land is represented by an equivalent 
accumulation beneath the sea, and by upheaval 
this accumulation may be raised above water level. 
The activity of the two processes, antagonistic 
in their effect, is illustrated by the areas of 
stratified rocks, such as sandstones, shales, lime- 
stones, which form by far the larger portion of 
the surface of continents. Consult : Geikie, Text- 
Book of Geology (London, 1903) ; Davis, Physi- 
cal Geography (Boston, 1900) ; Gilbert, "Geol- 
ogy of the Henry Mountains/' United States 
Geological Survey Reports (Washington, 1877) ; 
Chamberlin and Salisbury, Geology, vol. i (New 
York, 1909). See Physiography; Geology; 
Mountain; Shore; Continent; etc. 

£BOS / TBATUS. See Herostratus. 

EROT'OMA'NIA (Neo-Lat., from Gk. ipwro- 
fmrla, love-mania, from fym, erds, love -f ftawla, 
mania, madness). An unfortunate term applied 
to a class of patients suffering from paranoia 
(q.v.), in whom the morbid ideation centres 
around some real or imaginary object of platonic 
love. These patients are generally hypochondri- 
acal and religious as well as erotic and have 
various expansive ideas. 

ERPE'NITJS (1584-1624). The Latin form 
of the name of Thomas van Erpe, one of the 
earliest and most eminent of European Oriental- 
ists. He was born at Gorkum, in Holland, Sept. 
11, 1584. At an early age he was sent to Ley- 
den, where he directed his attention to theology 
and to the study of Oriental languages. Having 
completed his course, he traveled through Eng- 
land, France, Italy, and Germany, and returned 
to Holland in 1612. In 1613 he became professor 
of Oriental languages at Leyden. The professor- 
ship of Hebrew not being vacant at this time, a 
second Hebrew chair was founded expressly for 
him in 1619. Soon after this he was appointed 
Oriental interpreter to the government. Towards 
the close of his life tempting offers of honors 
and distinction came pouring in upon him from 
all parts of Europe; but he was never pre- 
vailed upon to leave his native country, where 
he died Nov. 13, 1624. His works are": Gram- 
matica Arabica Quinque Libris Methodice Em- 

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2 r 
o z 








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plicata (1613); Rudimenta Lingua Arabics 
(1620); Hist or ia Saracenioa Auctore Qeorgio 
Elmacino (1625); Proverbiorum Arabicorum 
Centuries Duw (1614); Locmani Bapieniis Fa- 
bulw (1615). 

EBBANTIA (Lat., wandering, from errare, 
to wander). A group of polychsetous annelids, 
characterized by their active manner of life. 
See Annulata. 

EBBABD, ar'rar', Chables (1606-89). A 
French painter and architect, born at Nantes. 
He studied under his father, Charles Errard the 
Elder (1570-C.1635), an historical and portrait 
painter, and in Rome, where many of the early 
years of his life were spent. Upon iris return 
to France ( 1643) he was employed by Louis XIV 
to decorate the Louvre, Tuileries, and other pal- 
aces. The paintings of Errard have all been 
destroyed, excepting an allegorical painting in 
the Museum of Reims. The best-known exam- 
ple of his architecture is the church of the 
Assumption in Paris (1676). He also illus- 
trated the ParalUle de V architecture ancienne et 
moderne (1666), written in collaboration with 
M. de Chambray, and designed numerous antiaue 
ornaments and vases. But, as painter, archi- 
tect, and draftsman, his style was heavy and 
lacking in character, his chief claim to remem- 
brance being that he was one of the 12 original 
members of the Academie de Peinture et de 
Sculpture, in 1648, and was prominently instru- 
mental in the establishment of the French 
Academy at Rome, of which he was the first 
director (1666). 

EBBAT1CS. See Rouldeb, Ebbatic. 

EBBEBA, er-ra'ra, Albebto (1842- ). 
An Italian political economist, born in Venice 
and educated at Padua. He held professorships 
of political economy and statistics at the tech- 
nical schools of Venice, Milan, and Naples, and 
at the University of Naples. Among his pub- 
lished works, several of which are of permanent 
value, are: Storia e statistica delle industrie 
venete (1870) ; Storio dell 9 economia politico, net 
secoli XVII e XVIII negli stati delta republica 
Veneta (1877); Demografia (1892); Lezionidi 
economia politica ( 1892 ) . 

ER'RETT, Isaac (1820-88). A clergyman 
of the Disciples of Christ, born in New York 
City. He began to preach in 1840 and for many 
years was secretary or president of several of 
the missionary societies of his church. From 
1866 he was editor of the Christian Standard 
(Cincinnati). He died in Cincinnati, Dec. 19, 
1888. His books include: Walks about Jerusalem 
(1872); Talks to Bereans (1875); Evenings 
with the Bible (1884-87). For his life, consult 
Lamar (Cincinnati, 1894). 

ERRHINES, er'rfnz (Gk. fyptror, errhinon, 
errhine, from to, en, in + fits, rhis, nose), or 
Stebnutatobies. Medicines formerly adminis- 
tered locally to produce sneezing and discharge 
from the nostrils, in catarrh. Common snuff 
and other vegetable irritants are so used. 

ERROR (Lat. error, from errare, to wander). 
In observations of every kind errors are un- 
avoidable. As in astronomy and other exact 
sciences correctness in the result of instrumental 
measurements is of the first consequence, it is 
the constant care of the observer to detect and 
make allowances for errors. The three princi- 
pal sources from which errors may arise are: 
1. External or incidental causes, such as fluctu- 
ations of weather, which disturb the amount of 
refraction ; changes of temperature, affecting the 


form and position of instruments, etc. 2. Errors 
of observation, being such as arise from inex- 
pertness, defective vision, slowness in seizing 
the exact instant of an occurrence, atmospheric 
indistinctness, etc.; and such errors as arise 
from slips in clamping and momentary derange- 
ments t>f the instrument. 3. Instrumental de- 
fects, owing to errors in workmanship, and such 
as arise from the instrument not being properly 
placed ("errors of adjustment"). The first two 
classes of errors, so far as they cannot be re- 
duced to known laws, alter the results of ob- 
servations to their full extent; but being acci- 
dental, they necessarily sometimes diminish and 
sometimes increase them. Hence, by taking 
numerous observations under various circum- 
stances, and by taking the mean,, or average, of 
the results obtained, these errors may be made 
to counterbalance one another partially, and to 
that extent they may be rendered harmless. 
With regard to the third class, it is the peculi- 
arity of astronomical and physical observations 
to be the ultimate means of detection of all 
defects of workmanship and adjustment of in- 
struments, which by their minuteness elude 
every other mode of detection, and such errors, 
when found out, can almost invariably be re- 
moved. It may be mentioned, however, that 
the method of subduing errors of the first two 
classes by the law of average is not applicable 
in all cases. In certain cases recourse must be 
had to a system of reduction or calculation, 
known as the method of least squares. See 
Least Squabes, Method of. 

ERROR, Wbit of. A common-law process 
for redressing erroneous judgments, which has 
been superseded to a great extent in England, 
as well as in most of the United States, by the 
process of appeal. A court possessing the power 
to grant this writ is sometimes called a court 
of error. In some of our States the court of 
last resort, whose judgments are not subject to 
revision by another tribunal, is known as the 
supreme court of errors. See Coubt. 

The procedure under a writ of error is some- 
what similar to that in an original action, the 
defeated party therein becoming the "plaintiff 
in error," and the successful party the "de- 
fendant in error." The writ recites, in a general 
way, the cause of the defeated party's complaint, 
while the assignments of error specify the par- 
ticular mistakes* of law alleged to have been 
made by the lower court. These specifications 
are denied by the defendant in error, and thus 
an issue of law is raised for the court of error, 
the decision of which results either in an affirm- 
ance or reversal of the judgment of the lower 
court. Apart from the difference in the pro- 
cedure employed, a writ of error differs from 
an appeal in that it brings up for review only 
alleged errors of law committed by the trial 
court, whereas an appeal takes up the whole 
case for reconsideration by the higher court and 
may therefore involve the reexamination of the 

?uestions of fact determined in the court below, 
n the United States the writ of error is the 
appropriate process for carrying a case from the 
highest appellate court of a State to the Su- 
preme Court of the United States. See Appeal; 
Pbocedube; Pleading. 

ERSCH, ersh, Johann Samuel (1766-1828).. 
The founder of modern German bibliography, 
born at Grossglogau, Silesia. At Halle, whither 
he was sent to study theology in 1785, he de- 
voted himself also to historical investigations, 

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After several years of editorial work in Jena, 
Gdttingen, and Hamburg, during which time he 
held the chair of philosophy, then that of geog- 
raphy and statistics at Halle, he commenced, with 
Gruber, in 1818 the publication at Leipzig of 
the Allgemeine Encyklopddie der Wissenschaften 
und Kiinste, a work of immense value. His 
Handbuch der deutschen Litteratur seit der Mitte 
des achtzehnten Jahrhunderts bis auf die neueste 
Zeit (1812-14) is excellent for its time. 

EBSE, ers. A name given to Irish Gaelic and 
also applied by the Lowlanders in Scotland to 
the people of the Highlands, as will be seen in 
the thirteenth-century laws of the Bretts and 
Scots (q.v.). Erse is an early Scottish variant 
of the word "Irish" (OEng. Iriso or ONorse 
Ir8kr), for which the native name is Gaelic 
Though the word is now nearly obsolete, it is 
still used by some writers as the ordinary desig- 
nation of Irish alone. 

EBSKINE, ers'kln, David Stewabt, eleventh 
Earl of Buchan (1742-1829). A Scottish 
author and antiquarian. He was educated at 
the University of Glasgow, after having received 
instruction in mathematics from Colin Mac- 
laurin. In 1780 he founded the Society of Scot- 
tish Antiquaries. His agitation effected a reform 
in the election of Scottish representative peers. 
He wrote: An Account of the Life, Writings, 
and Inventions of Napier of Merchiston (with 
Dr. Walter Minto, 1787); Essays on the Lives 
of Fletcher of Saltoun and the Poet Thomson 
(1792) ; Anonymous and Fugitive Essays (1812). 

EBSKINE, Ebenezkb (1680-1754). A Scot- 
tish theologian, the founder of the Secession 
church in Scotland. He was the son of the Rev. 
Henry Er9kine, minister of Chirnside in Ber- 
wickshire, and was born at Dryburgh, Berwick- 
shire, June 22, 1680. He studied at Edinburgh, 
and, after acting for some time as tutor and 
chaplain in the family of the Earl of Rothes, 
he was licensed to preach the gospel by the pres- 
bytery of Kirkcaldy in 1703. In the same year 
he was appointed minister of Portmoak in the 
shire of Kinross. In 1731 he was transferred to 
Stirling, after having discharged the pastoral 
office in Portmoak for 28 years. Previous to 
this event, however, the religious peculiarities 
of Erskine had brought him into unpleasant re- 
lations with some of his brethren, by his defense 
of the Marrow of Modern Divinity, a book re- 
garded as not strictly Calvinistic. Later he 
protested against the assumption of authority 
by the synod in the matter of assigning ministers 
and, along with three other clergymen, was de- 
posed in 1733. (See Pbesbytebianism. ) He 
was shortly after joined by his brother Ralph 
and several other ministers. They now virtually 
formed a distinct sect, but they still continued 
to occupy their parish churches. The synod in 
1734 restored them to their legal connection 
with the church, but Erskine would not accept 
its action. In 1736 Erskine and his friends for- 
mally seceded, but still it was not till 1740 that 
they were ejected from their churches. Shortly 
after this, a quarrel broke out among the se- 
ceders in regard to the propriety of taking the 
civic oath required of burgesses of Edinburgh, 
Glasgow, and Perth. The result was a division 
of the sect into two bodies, the Burghers and 
• Antiburghers. Erskine was the leader of the 
Burghers. He died in Stirling, June 2, 1764. 
His Works were published in 1785 and his Life 
and Diary in 1840, at Edinburgh. Consult his 
life by J. Ker (London, 1881). 

EBSKINE, John (of Dun) (1509-91). A 
Scottish reformer, of a noble family, which lost 
several members at Flodden Field. He was 
educated at King's College, Aberdeen, and then 
abroad, after accidentally killing a priest. He 
brought the study of Greek into Scotland and 
was one of the first followers of Knox, his 
signature being affixed to the first covenant of 
the Scottish reformers. He was one of the 
commissioners sent to France to attend the 
marriage of Queen Mary and acted as mediator 
between Knox and the Queen in their famous 
quarrel. In 1578 he helped compile The Second 
Book of Discipline. 

EBSKINE, John, eighteenth Lord Ebskine 
and eleventh Earl of Mar (1675-1732). A 
Scottish politician. He was born at Alloa and 
in 1705 became Secretary for Scotland. He 
was a commissioner for the Union and in 1713 
English Secretary of State. He became one of 
the principal leaders of the Jacobite party, and 
in 1715 was commander in chief of the Pre- 
tender's forces in Scotland. He had to retreat 
after the battle of Sheriffmuir, on Nov. 13, 1715, 
and accompanied the Pretender to Saint-Ger- 
main, where he engaged in all sorts of in- 
trigues, and severed his connection with the 
Stuarts in 1724. He was unscrupulous and 
corrupt, and utterly devoid of principle in 
politics; but he is said to have been a man of 
ability and to have suggested several important 
municipal improvements for Edinburgh. 

EBSKINE, John (of Carnock, and after- 
ward of Cardross) (1695-1768). An eminent 
Scottish jurist and professor of Scots law in 
the University of Edinburgh. He was the son 
of the Hon. John Erskine, of Carnock. John 
Erskine, the father, was a man of importance 
in his day, not only on account of the family 
to which he belonged, which even then had been 
prolific in historical characters, but in conse- 
quence of his personal qualities and the posi- 
tions which he held. Having been forced to 
quit Scotland from his attachment to the Pres- 
byterian religion, he retired to Holland and be- 
came an officer in the service of the Prince of 
Orange. At the Revolution he accompanied 
William to England, and as a reward for his 
services was appointed Lieutenant Governor of 
Stirling Castle and lieutenant colonel of a regi- 
ment of foot. John Erskine, the younger, born 
1695, became a member of the Faculty of Advo- 
cates in 1719, but did not succeed as a practi- 
tioner of the law. On the death of Alexander 
Bain, in 1737, Erskine was nominated to suc- 
ceed him in the chair of Scots law, an office 
the duties of which he performed with great 
reputation for 28 years. In 1754 he published 
bis well-known Principles of the Law of Scot- 
land, which, like the Commentaries of Black- 
stone in England and America, became the 
favorite textbook * for many successive genera- 
tions of law students. On his retirement from 
the professorship in 1765, Erskine occupied him- 
self in preparing his more important work, The 
Institutes of the Lawn of Scotland, but it was 
not published till 1773, five years after his 
death. As a legal writer, Erskine is inferior 
to none of the Scottish jurists, with the single 
exception of Lord Stair, who had the benefit of 
the more learned and wider judicial training of 
earlier lawyers who were educated in a con- 
tinental school. But of all those departments 
which constitute the law of Scotland, as de- 
veloped by the usages and forms of society in 

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the country itself, there is at the present day 
no clearer, sounder, or more trustworthy expos- 
itor than Erskine. 

ERSKINE, John (1721-1803). A Scottish 
theologian, son of John Erskine, of Carnock; 
he was born in Edinburgh, June 2, 1721, studied 
at the University of Edinburgh, and in 1743 was 
licensed to preach by the presbytery of Dun- 
blane. In the following year he was ordained 
minister of Kirkintillocn, near Glasgow, where 
he remained until 1753, when he was presented 
to the parish of Culross in the presbytery of 
Dunfermline. In 1758 he was transferred to 
New Greyfriars Church, Edinburgh, and in 1767 
he was promoted to the collegiate charge of Old 
Greyfriars, where he had for his colleague Dr. 
Robertson. In the General Assembly of the 
Church of Scotland he was for many years the 
leader of the popular or evangelical party. He 
died in Edinburgh, Jan. 19, 1803. Erskine's 
writings are exceedingly numerous. They con- 
sist mostly of sermons and theological pam- 
phlets, and exhibit a superior degree of ability. 
For his life, consult Wellwood (Edinburgh, 

BBSKINE, John (1746-1817). A Scottish 
lawyer. He was born in England and was a 
brother of Thomas, Lord Erskine. He was a 
Whig in politics and was appointed Lord Advo- 
cate of Scotland in 1783 and again in 1806. His 
fame rests chiefly on his wit and eloquence as an 
advocate at the Scottish bar. 

BBSKINE, John (1879- ). An Ameri- 
can university professor of English, born in 
New York City. He graduated from Columbia 
University in 1900 (A.M., 1901; Ph.D., 1903), 
where he became associate professor of English 
in 1909. He had previously Berved as instruc- 
tor in English (1903-06) and associate pro- 
fessor (1906-09) at Amherst College. Besides 
numerous magazine contributions in prose and 
verse, he published: The Elizabethan Lyrio 
(1903); Selections from The Faerie Queene 
(1905); Actceon and Other Poems (1907); 
heading American Novelists (1910); Written 
English, with Helen Erskine (1910; rev. ed., 
1913) ; Selections from the Idylls of the King 
(1912); The Kinds of Poetry (1913); Poems 
of Wordsworth, Shelley, and Keats, with W. P. 
Trent (1914); and he contributed to the sec- 
ond edition of the New International En- 

BBSKINE, Ralph (1685-1752). A Scottish 
clergyman. He was born at Monilaws in North- 
umberland, studied at the University of Edin- 
burgh, was licensed to preach in 1709, and be- 
came pastor at Dunfermline, in 1711, of the 
United Free Church in Queen Anne Street. He 
sympathized with the sentiments of his brother, 
Ebenezer Erskine (q.v.), who founded the Scot- 
tish Secession church, and in 1737 formally 
withdrew from the Church of Scotland. Like 
his brother, he was a most popular preacher. 
His Gospel Sonnets (1732; 25th ed., 1795) 
show Watts's influence and his poem Smoking 
Spiritualized is a quaint conceit. Consult his 
Life a nd D iary (Edinburgh, 1842) by Fraser. 

BBSKINE. Thomas, Lord (1750-1823). An 
eminent English advocate. He was born in 
Edinburgh, Jan. 21, 1750, the youngest son of 
Henry David, the tenth Earl of Buchan. His 
early education was meagre, though he attended 
classes at St. Andrews University during 1762 
and 1763. At the age of 14 he entered the navy 
as midshipman and served for several years in 
Vol. VUL— 6 


the West Indies. Returning to England soon 
after the death of his father, he gave up the 
navy for the army. 

Although he had been promoted to a lieu- 
tenancy, he was led by a chance conversation 
with Lord Mansfield to make a second change 
in his profession — to give up the army for the 
bar. He sold his commission in 1775, entered 
Lincoln's Inn, became a student in the chambers 
of Buller (afterward Mr. Justice Buller), 
matriculated as a gentleman commoner in Trin- 
ity College, Cambridge, and was called to the 
bar in 1778. During this period of study he 
was very poor; and he declares that he was 
spurred to the eloquence which gained for him 
instant fame, in his first case, by the thought 
that his children were plucking at his gown, 
crying to him that now was the time to get 
them bread. Not only did his remarkable ad- 
dress "entrance the judges and the audience," 
but it brought him many retainers and opened 
to him a lucrative practice. In 1779 he re- 
ceived from Admiral Keppel, whose acquittal 
upon court-martial he had secured, a £1000 fee. 
Five years later his annual income had increased 
to £3000, and it is said that he made while at 
the bar £150,000. He was not a great lawyer, 
but his unfailing courtesy, good humor, high 
spirits, and great eloquence placed him at the 
head of the English bar. His most remarkable 
successes as an advocate were gained in a scries 
of litigations connected with the law of libel and 
treason. His defense of the dean of St. Asaph 
led to the passing of Fox's Libel Act in 1792, 
which affirmed the doctrine for which Erskine 
had contended, that the question whether a 
particular publication is libelous or not is for 
the jury and not for the court. By his success- 
ful defense of Walker, Hardy, Home Tooke, 
and others, he exploded the theory of construc- 
tive treason upon which the prosecutions of 
these persons were based, and rendered invalu- 
able service to the cause of personal liberty. 
In all these cases, as well as in his defense of 
Paine on the occasion of the publication of 
The Rights of Man, he displayed great moral 
courage and a lofty conception of professional 

Erskine entered Parliament in 1783, but his 
career both in the House of Commons and in 
the House of Lords was in striking contrast 
with that at the bar. His maiden speech was a 
failure owing to his fear of Pitt. On other 
occasions he actually broke down, and he was 
never able to address Parliament with the elo- 
quence and power which characterized his fo- 
rensic efforts. In 1806 he was made Lord Chan- 
cellor and elevated to a peerage with the title 
of Baron Erskine of Restormel. His reputa- 
tion was not enhanced by his labors in this 
office, and after his retirement from the chan- 
cellorship, when the Whigs went out of office 
in 1807, he sank into comparative insignificance 
and poverty. Dying in 1823, he left his second 
wife and young child in straitened circum- 
stances. Consult Campbell, Lives of the Chan- 
cellors (London, 1868), and High, Speeches of 
Lord Erskine (Chicago, 1876). 

EBSKINE, Thomas, of Linlathen (1788- 
1870). A Scottish writer on theology. He was 
born at Edinburgh, studied law at Edinburgh 
University, and practiced from 1810 until 1816, 
when he devoted himself to literary work. His 
theological views, particularly on "universal 
restoration" and the Atonement, were not or- 

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thodox; but his earnestness won them favor, 
and John McLeod Campbell (q.v.) and Fred- 
eric Denison Maurice (q.v.) were much indebted 
to them. The public advocacy of them led to 
Campbells expulsion from the Kirk in 1831. 
Erskine's principal writings are: Remarks on 
the Internal Evidence of tfce Truth of Revealed 
Religion (1820; 10th ed., 1878); The Uncon- 
ditional Freeness of the Gospel (1828; new 
ed., 1873); The Doctrine of Election (1837; 
2d ed., 1878) ; Spiritual Order and Other Papers 
(1871). His works were translated into French, 
and he had many friends in France. Consult 
his Letters (1877), ed. by William Hanna, 
with contributions by Principal J. C. Shairp 
and Dean Stanley. 

EBTJLI. Se e Hebuli. 

ERUPTIVE BOCKS. See Igneous Rocks. 

stln'bao. The name of two German architects, 
father and son, born in Steinbach, and suc- 
cessively occupied in the construction of a new 
facade for the cathedral of Strassburg between 
1277 and 1339. Neither the dates of birth and 
death nor the precise work accomplished by 
either can be accurately stated; but the greater 
part of the facade was probably completed by 
1339. The great northwest spire was not built 
till a century later. The name Erwin von Stein- 
bach, by which both are generally known, was 
not used before the seventeenth century. In 
1845 a memorial monument was erected at 

EBXLEBEN, £rks1a-ben, Johann Christian 
(1744-77). A German physician and naturalist. 
He was born at Quedlinburg and was a son of 
the highly gifted Dorothea Christine Erxleben, 
the first woman who obtained the degree of 
M.D. in Germany. He was educated at Gtft- 
tingen, where he occupied the chair of natural 
philosophy from 1771 until his death. His 
principal works are the textbooks Anfangs- 
grUnde der Naturgeschdchte (4th ed., 1791) and 
Anfangsgrunde der Naturlehre (8th ed., 1794). 

EBTCFNA (Lat., relating to Eryx, from 
Erym, Gk. "Epu& a mountain in Sicily). A 
name of Aphrodite, derived from that of Mount 

EBTMANTHTJS (Lat., from Gk. 'Eptpar~ 
$o$, Erymantho8) . The ancient name of a 
mountain chain in the extreme northwest corner 
of Arcadia, now called Olonos. The highest 
peak is 7300 feet. A small river, also called an- 
ciently Erymanthus (at present Douana), rises 
in the mountains and eventually joins the Al- 
pheus on the borders of Elis. This region was 
the scene of the famous struggle of Hercules 
with the Erymanthian boar. Being ordered to 
bring the animal to Mycen© alive, Hercules 
chased it into the deep snow and, having thus 
tired it out, caught it in a noose. 

EBYNGO, 6-rln'gd (Lat. eryngion, erynge, 
Gk. iipi/yyiov, eryngion, llpirryr), eryngG, eryngo), 
Eryngium. A genus of umbelliferous plants, 
which have simple umbels, resembling the heads 
of some composite flowers. The species number 
about 150 and are mostly natives of the warmer 
temperate parts of the world, with alternate 
simple or divided leaves, which have marginal 
spines. One species, the sea eryngo or sea holly 
{Eryngium maritimum) , which is common in 
the British Isles and is frequent on sandy sea- 
shores, is a very stiff, rigid, and glaucous plant. 
Eryngium campestre has also been found in Eng- 
land and Ireland, but is very rare. Its root 


was formerly much employed in some parts of 
Europe as a tonic. The root of Eryngium mari- 
timum is used in the same way, possesses the 
same properties, and is sweet and aromatic. It 
is sold in a candied state and was formerly re- 
puted to be a stimulant, restorative, and aphro- 
disiac. Eryngo root has also been used as an 
aperient and diuretic. Linnaeus recommends the 
blanched shoots of Eryngium maritimum as a 
substitute for asparagus. Eryngium fcetidum, 
a native'of the warm parts of America, is called 
fitweed in the West Indies, a decoction of it 
being much used as a remedy in hysterical 
cases. Eryngium yuccifolium f a native of low, 
wet places in North and South America, is 
called rattlesnake master and button snakeroot. 
The root is said to be diaphoretic and expecto- 
rant and has a spurious reputation as a cure for 
the bite of a rattlesnake. A number of species 
are cultivated as ornamentals on account of 
their curious habit of growth and the steel-blue 
color of their stems and bracts. 

ERTON (Neo-Lat., from Gk. iptvv, pres. 
part, of ipfetv, eryein, to draw out). A fossil 
macruran crustacean found in the Mesozoic 
rocks of Europe. The quadrate carapace is thin 
and flat, with deeply denticulate lateral mar- 
gins, a straight or dented front margin, and a 
broadly truncated posterior margin. The tho- 
racic legs are slender and bear pincers, the first 
pair being much longer than the others. The 
abdomen is shorter than the carapace, and the 
caudal swimming plates are small. About six 
species are known, ranging from the Liassic of 
England, through the Jurassic, into the Lower 
Cretaceous of Silesia. The best-known species 
is Eryon propinquus, with a body 5 inches long, 
of which finely preserved specimens have been 
found in the Jurassic lithographic limestones of 
Solenhofen, Bavaria. Eryon has a modern ally 
in the blind genus Willemcesia, which inhabits 
the deepest portions of the ocean. For illus- 
tration, see Plate of Crustacea, Fossil. 

EBYSICHTHON, er'l-slk'thdn (Lat., from 
Gk. 'Epvalxte*, earth render). Son of the 
Thessalian King Triopas, punished by Demeter 
with unappeasable hunger because he cut down 
trees in a grove sacred -to the goddess. He 
finally devoured his own limbs and died. His 
daughter Mnestra, who had received from Posei- 
don the gift of transforming herself into differ- 
ent shapes, was repeatedly sold by her father 
under the forms of a bird, a cow, and a horse, 
and each time returned to him. 

EBYS1MTJM (Lat., from Gk. ipfotfiov, erysir 
mon y hedge mustard). A genus of plants «f the 
family Crucifer©, with four-sided seed pods. 
Erysimum cheiranthoides, wormseed mustard, a 
branching annual, about 18 inches high, with 
small yellow flowers, is found in many parts of 
Europe and also in North America. It is not 
uncommon in waste places and cultivated 
grounds in the British Isles, but may perhaps 
have been originally introduced for its medicinal 
use. Its seeds were formerly much employed 
as an anthelmintic, from which it has the name 
of wormseed. It is also called treacle mus- 
tard, because it was employed as an ingredient 
in the famous Venice treacle. Erysimum per- 
foliatum, or Conrynqia orientalis, hare's -ear 
mustard, is cultivated in Japan for the fixed 
oils contained in its seed. This plant has been 
introduced into parts of Canada and the United 
States, where it threatens to become a trouble- 
some weed. Some of the plants formerly re- 

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ferred to as Erysimum are now included in other 
genera, as Sisymbrium and Alliaria (q.v.). 

BBTSIFOSLAS (Lai., from Gk. ipwrlwtkas, 
from Ipvffi-, erysi-y variant of ipvBp6$, erythroa, 
red, Lat. ruber, rufus, Eng. red, Ger. rot, Ir. ruod, 
OChurch Slav. rtdrt, Skt. rudhira, red + WXXiy, 
pelU, skin, Lat. pellis, Eng. fell, Ger. FeM, Lith. 
pUve, skin), or Saint Anthony's Fibs. An 
inflammatory disease of the skin and subcutane- 
ous tissues, attended by diffused redness and 
swelling of the part affected, and in the end 
either by desquamation or by vesication of the 
cuticle, or scarf skin, in the milder forms, and 
by suppuration of the deeper parts in the 
severer varieties of the disease . (phlegmonous 
erysipelas). Erysipelas affects, in a large pro- 
portion of instances, the face and head; it is 
apt to be attended with a high fever and often 
with delirium and meningitis. Severe or phleg- 
monous erysipelas is apt to be succeeded by 
protracted and exhausting suppurations, and 
sometimes by diseases of the bones or inflamma- 
tions of the internal organs. Erysipelas is 
frequently an epidemic disease in surgical hos- 
pitals, especially on the field of battle. (See 
Epidemic.) It is dangerously infectious. The 
treatment is supportive — tonics, such as iron, 
strychnine, and quinine; antiseptic dressings, 
and occasionally incisions in deep erysipelas 
with tension or suppuration. Specific vaccines 
have proved valuable aids in the cure. The 
Streptococcus erysipelatis, identical with Strep- 
tococcus pyogenes, is the causative germ. The 
presence of the bacteria in the subcutaneous 
tissues causes redness of the overlying skin and 
more or less infiltration of the tissues with 
serum, or> with serum and pus. See Ichthtol; 
Anthony, Saint, Fire of. 

EBTSIPHA'CRffl. The family of mildews. 
See Mildew. 

BBTTHB / MA (Neo-Lat., from Gk. iptByfux, 
redness, from ipvOabttr, erythainein, to redden, 
from tpv$p6s, erythros, red). A term which has 
been loosely applied to many different diseases. 
In its correct usage it denotes not a disease, 
but a symptom, viz., a local congestion (or 
hyperamia) accompanied with superficial red- 
ness, which disappears under slight pressure. 
(Whitehouse.) Simple erythema consists of 
patches of rose, scarlet, or deep-purplish red, 
in spots, rings, or irregular patterns, or in 
areas with faint margins. There are heat and 
tingling, rarely tenderness. Heat, cold, fric- 
tion, and pressure, bites and stings, irritant 
substances and chemicals, comprise the external 
causes; while rheumatism, drugs, toxin pro- 
duced during fever or indigestion, and reflex 
nerve action are the principal internal causes. 
In inflammatory erythema there is an exudation, 
with elevation of the red surface and sometimes 
an extravasation of blood. (See Chilblain; 
Frostbite.) There may be papules, vesicles, or 
irregular markings, nodules or blood blisters 
{erythema emidativum multiforme, Hebra). 
There may be fever, gastric symptoms, coated 
tongue, followed by pain and swelling about the 
joints, especially in the lower extremities, with 
the formation of nodes along the shins and tops 
(dorsa) of the feet; this constituting erythema 
nodosum. Erythema venenatum is a form due 
to exposure to poisonous plants. Erythema 
solare is another term for sunburn. Regulation 
of digestion, diuretics, alkaline solutions, oil 
inunctions, and protective powders or ichthyol 
are useful in the treatment in conjunction with 



the removal of the immediate cause, where this 
can be d etermined. 

EBYTH1A. One of the Hesperides (q.v.). 

EBY THB JE'A. See Centaury. 

EBYTHBiBA. See Eritrea. 

EB'YTHBiE'AN SEA (Lat. Mare Eryth- 
rteum, Gk. ii ipvdpa ddXacca, the red sea). In 
ancient geography, a name applied to an expanse 
of the Indian Ocean r including the Arabian Sea 
and Persian Gulf. Later geographers restricted 
the name to t he Arabian Sea. 

EBTTHBITE. A hydrous arsenate of co- 
balt occurring in monoclinic prisms, in drusy, 
incrustating forms and in earthy pink crusts 
upon other cobalt minerals. It is usually crim- 
son red to peach red in color, from whence it 
derives the common name of cobalt bloom. 
Erythrite occurs in Saxony, Baden, Norway, and 
in Pennsylvania, Nevada, and California. It 
has recently been found at Cobalt, Canada. 

EBTTHBCKNIUM (Neo-Lat., from Gk. ipv- 
0p6rior, erythronion, the name of some plant, 
from ipv$p6s, erythros, red), Dog's-Tooth Vio- 
let, or Adder'S-Tongue. A genus of bulbous- 
rooted plants of the family Liliacee, found in 
the light, rich soil of cool, moist, but not densely 
shaded woods of the north temperate zone, Nine 
species with numerous well-marked varieties are 
indigenous in British Columbia, Washington, 
and Oregon; one in the Rocky Mountains from 
Colorado to California; four in eastern .North 
America, and four in the Old World. In early 
spring two radical leaves, often handsomely 
mottled, appear; between them is a naked scape 
bearing one or several flowers with more or less 
reflexed petals, whose colors range in some 
species through various shades of yellow to 
white, in others from greenish to lavender and 
reddish tints. Erythronium grandiflorum (for 
illustration, see Plate of California Flora 
and Plate of Monocotyledons), one of the Pa- 
cific coast species, has umnottled leaves, pro- 
duces 1-5 very bright yellow flowers on each 
scape, Erythronium americanum, of which 
there are several varieties, is the commonest 
species east of the Mississippi. (For illustra- 
tion, see Plate of LiUACEiE.) The name "ad- 
der's-tongue" is also applied to the fern 
Ophioglo8sum v ulgatu m. 

EBYTH / BOPHYIiL (from Gk. 4pv$p6s, ery- 
thros, red -+" 0tfXXor, phyllon, leaf). A name 
formerly applied to the red pigments appearing 
in leaves in autumn. See Anthocyan; Color 
in Plants. 

EB YTHBO SIN. See Coal-Tar Colors. 


EHYX (Lat., from Gk. "Epi/£). An ancient 
city and mountain in the western part of Sicily. 
The mountain is now known as Monte San Giii- 
liano. The summit was occupied by a famous 
shrine of Venus Erycina. During the first 
Punic War it was held by Hamilcar Barca. 

EBZBEBG, ertsSberK. See Eisenerz. 

The capital of the vilayet of the same name in 
Turkish Armenia, situated on a plain 6000 feet 
above the sea level (Map: Turkey in Asia, D 2). 
There are a number of mosques, baths, and 
mausoleums. Its fortifications have been re- 
newed since 1864. Erzerum is famous for its 
copper and iron ware as well as for its shawls 
and carpets. ^The industries, however, have de- 
clined considerably on account of emigration 
and the turbulent state of the country. Its 
commerce, which was mostly with Persia, has 

Digitized by 



diminished since the completion of the Trans- 
Caucasian Railway, over which route the trade 
between Persia and Europe is mainly carried. 
The population is variously estimated at from 
43,000 to 80,000, half of whom are Turks, the 
rest being Armenians, Persians, and Greeks. It 
is the seat of several consular representatives. 

Erzerum is an ancient town. Its Armenian 
name was Garin Khalakh. Near it stood the 
old Syro- Armenian town of Arsen. When the 
Seljuks captured this place, the inhabitants 
fled to a fortress at Erzerum, which the Seljuks 
accordingly called Arsen-er-Rum, i.e., Arsen of 
the Romans (or Byzantines), whence the modern 
Erzerum. In 1201 it fell into the hands of the 
Seljuks; of the Mongols in 1242; and finally, 
in 1517, into those of the Turks. In the War 
of 1828-29, between the Turks and the Rus- 
sians, the taking of Erzerum by the latter de- 
cided the campaign in Asia. Erzerum was an 
important military centre during the War of 
1877-78 and held out against the Russians, who 
were allowed to occupy it at the close of the 
war. In October, 1878, it was "returned to the 

EBZGEBIBGE, erts'ge-ber'ge (Ger., Ore 
Mountains). A mountain range of Europe, ex- 
tending along the boundary line between Sax- 
ony and Bohemia (Map: Germany, E 3). It 
stretches southwest and northeast for a dis- 
tance. of about 100 miles, from the Elster Moun- 
tains on the southwest to the Elbsandstein 
Mountains on the northeast. It has a breadth 
of about 25 miles and rises abruptly on the 
south side, while the north side slopes gradually 
and contains many well-cultivated and fertile 
valleys. The highest peak, the Keilberg, is 
4060 feet high, while the average elevation is 
about 2500 feet. The Elbe receives the drainage 
from both sides of the watershed — on the south 
through the Eger, and on the north chiefly 
through the Mulde. The range is crossed by 
numerous passes and railway lines. The forests 
are very extensive and the climate is somewhat 
rigorous. The summer air is, however, invigo- 
rating, and many resorts, such as Kipsdorf and 
Barenfels, are found among the mountains. 
The main central mass is gneiss, with mica 
schist on the northern slope, but with some 
crops of eruptive rocks. The mineral deposits 
from which the range takes its name are of 
great importance. Silver was found in the 
Erzgebirge as early as the twelfth century, and 
lead, copper, tin, iron, nickel, and cobalt have 
been mined for a long time. Large deposits of 
coal are also found, and the industrial impor- 
tance of Saxony and Bohemia is due to a large 
extent to the mineral wealth of the Erzgebirge. 

ERZINGAN, eVzIng-an. The capital of a 
sanjak in the Vilayet of Erzerum, Asiatic Tur- 
key, on the Sivas-Erzerum road, 86 miles south- 
east of Erzerum (Map: Turkey in Asia, D 2). 
It is 3900 feet above sea level, on the western 
fringe of a fertile plain watered by the western 
Euphrates. It is an important garrison town, 
and its chief features are the modern govern- 
ment buildings, extensive barracks, and mili- 
tary hospital. There are also a fine mosque, a 
good bazaar, an Armenian teachers , seminary, 
and Armenian schools for juveniles. With 
the exception of the main thoroughfare, the 
streets are narrow and dirty. There are manu- 
factures of silk, cotton, canvas, and copper 
ware, and in the vicinity are government tan- 
neries and clothing factories. Agriculture is 


well developed, cereals and fruit being largely 
grown on tne surrounding plains. The Arsinga 
of mediaeval times, it was a place of importance 
as early as the fourth century. There are now, 
however, few traces of its antiquities. It was 
almost totally destroyed by an earthquake in 
1784. Pop., about 18,000, of whom about one- 
half are Mohammedans and the rest Armenian 

E'SABHAIKDON (Assyr. Asur-ah-iddina, 
Abut has given a brother). A King of As- 
syria who succeeded his father, Sennacherib, 
and reigned 681-668 B.C. He bad been placed 
over Babylonia during his father's lifetime and 
by a special .decree had been declared heir to 
the throne. In consequence perhaps of this 
favoritism shown to a son who was not the 
eldest, Sennacherib was murdered by two of 
his sons, Sharezer and Adarmalik (2 Kings 
xix. 36-37). The Babylonian chronicle, how- 
ever, makes mention of only one son as the 
assassin. Proclaiming himself Governor of 
Babylonia, Esarhaddon set out in hot haste to 
avenge his father's death. The war, which is 
noted in the Babylonian chronicle as an inter- 
regnum, lasted less than a year, and at the 
end of that time Esarhaddon was able to de- 
clare himself King of Assyria. His reign was 
full of military campaigns. He conducted suc- 
cessful operations against the Chaldseans. In 
the west Sidon was captured and razed to the 
ground. Tyre he tried to take, but failed. His 
most important enterprise was an attack upon 
Egypt In two campaigns (673 and 670 b.c.) 
Egypt was taken and reorganized under As- 
syrian rule. It was Esarhaddon's misfortune 
that during his time began the series of at- 
tacks from the north which finally ended in the 
fall of Assyria, but he did all he could to check 
them. In 668 Egypt rebelled, and he set out 
to chastise the rebels, but died on the way. He 
showed a great predilection for Babylon, and, 
granting the people as much independence as 
was consistent with the recognition of Assyrian 
supremacy, he planned the rebuilding of the city, 
which had been destroyed by Sennacherib in 689, 
and restored it to its former glory. By his 
wish Samas-sum-ukin was made Governor of 
Babylonia and Asurbanipal King of Assyria. 
Despite his numerous wars, he found time for 
elaborate building enterprises. He is regarded 
as one of the noblest of the Assyrian Kings. 
See Assybia. 

ESAU (Heb. Esau, hairy). According to 
Gen. xxv. 24 ft*., the elder son of Isaac and 
twin brother of Jacob. The rivalry of the two 
brothers began when they were still in the womb 
( Gen. xxv. 22 ) . When Esau grew up, he became 
a "man of the field," as opposed to Jacob, who 
"dwelt in tents" (Gen. xxv. 27). As the elder 
son, he was entitled to precedence over Jacob, 
but sold his birthright to his brother (Gen. xxv. 
29, 34). In spite of this he attempted to secure 
Isaac's dying blessing, which pertained to the 
birthright; but Jacob circumvented him, and 
Esau received only a secondary blessing (Gen. 
xxxvii. 1-40). Esau, now greatly enraged, re- 
solved to kill his brother, and Jacob fled to 
escape him ( Gen. xxxvii. 41, 45 ) ; but on Jacob's 
return from sojourning with Laban, 20 years 
after, Esau became reconciled to him (Gen. 
xxxiii. 1-15), and the two brothers later buried 
their father together (Gen. xxxv. 29). 

This narrative is regarded by many scholars 
as reflecting the history of the Edomites, repre- 

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tented by Esau, and the Israelites, represented 
by Jacob. This is indeed suggested by the oracle: 
"Two nations are in thy womb, and two peoples 
shall part from thy bowels; and the one people 
shall be stronger than the other people, and the 
elder shall serve the younger" (Gen. xxv. 23). 
As a nation, Edom was older than Israel, hav- 
ing had a succession of kings before there was 
a union of the tribes and a kingdom in Israel 
(Gen. xxzvi. 31 ft.). But Edom was conquered 
by David and continued for some time to be 
subject to the dynasty he founded. The story re- 
veals a certain admiration for the qualities of the 
kindred people, but also an unmistakable pride 
in the cleverness with which a richer blessing, 
i.e., greater prosperity and power, was won by 
Israel. There is no explicit or implied criticism 
of Jacob's cunning and deceit; it was the mani- 
fest destiny of Israel to become the ruler, and 
Edom would have to be satisfied with its lot. 
Israel had been foreordained to enjoy the lux- 
uries of its rich land and to hold power over 
the older nation; let Edom hunt for a living 
among its mountains; but let both peoples be 
mindful of their common origin. In the judg- 
ment of many interpreters to-day, neither the 
poetic oracles nor the prose story can have 
been written before the reign of David, or after 
the reestablishment of Edomitish independence. 
Those who follow the current system of Penta- 
teuchal analysis assume that in the narrative 
two versions— one Judtean, the other Ephraim- 
itish — have been interwoven, and that the former 
shows more sympathy with Edom and a veiled 
criticism of the northern kingdom, Israel. But 
the analysis has been seriously questioned by 
independent scholars (see Pentateuch), and 
there seems to be no clear sign of any such crit- 
icism. There is nothing that necessitates a 
later date than the time of Solomon. See 
Edom, and consult Schmidt, Messages of the 
Poets (New York, 1911), and Gunkel, Genesis 
(3d ed., Gtittingen, 1912). 

E8BJERG, eVbyerg. A seaport of Denmark, 
situated on the North Sea, opposite the island of 
Fan8, and 35 miles west of Kolding (Map: Den- 
mark, B 3). The town has considerable manu- 
facturing and fishing and is an export centre for 
dairy products, bacon, beef, and cattle. It has 
steamship traffic with England and is the ter- 
minus or a submarine cable to Calais. Pop., 
1890, 4111; 1901, 13,355; 1911, 18,208. 

ESCALANTE, asTca-lttn'ta, Juan (?-1519). 
A Spanish soldier and explorer. He went to 
Mexico with Hernan Cortes, by whom he was 
appointed high constable of Villa Rica de Vera 
Cruz, founded by Cortes ,at the place where he 
landed. At the order of his chief Escalante de- 
stroyed the Spanish fleet of 10 vessels and 
remained on guard at the new settlement with 
150 men while Cortes marched to the interior. 
Because of the assassination of two of his men 
by hostile tribes Escalante with 50 of his men 
and several thousand Indian allies attacked the 
offending natives, but, though the Spaniards 
won the batle, he and seven of his men were 

ECKCALA'TOB. A form of mechanical ele- 
vator for passengers or freight, in which the 
lift is in a direction inclined from the vertical. 
It resembles an endless band conveyor and is 
made up of slats or narrow platforms hinged 
to each other and carried by a pair of chains 
borne on revolving drums — one at the upper 
level and the other at the lower. The pas- 



senger steps upon the moving band of slats 
or treads at the bottom, moving horizontally 
as upon a moving sidewalk (see Traveling 
Sidewalk) ; but in a few feet thereafter the 
incline begins, and each slat or tread remaining 
horizontal forms a tread as of a stairway, mov- 
ing upward along the incline. At the top the 
treads pass into horizontal motion, close to- 
gether, and the passenger steps off upon the 
stationary surface at the end or side or both. 
Hand rails permit the passenger to steady his 
body as the treads ascend. The passenger can 
ascend the flight of treads as a stairway and 
thus hasten his transit. See Elevator. 

ESCALLOP. See Scallop. 

ESCAI/OP, or Escallop (OF. escalope, from 
MDutch schelpe, shell, dialectic Ger. Schelfe, 
husk, Eng. scalp), or Shell. A symbol used in 
heraldry to signify that the bearer has made 
many long voyages by sea. As an emblem of pil- 
grimage, it was commonly given to those who 
had been to the Crusades, and it came to be 
regarded as indicating either that the bearer or 
his ancestor had been a crusader. The escalop 
shell was the emblem of St. James; hence all 
those who made the pilgrimage to his shrine 
at Cbmpostela were entitled to bear the escalop 
shells. See Heraldry. 

ESCANABA, esTca-na/ba. A city and the 
county seat of Delta Co., Mich., 73 miles south 
of Marquette, on the Chicago and Northwestern, 
tne Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Sault Sainte 
Marie, and the Escanaba and Lake Superior 
railroads, and on Little Bay de Noquette, an 
inlet of Qreen Bay, Lake Michigan ( Map : Michi- 
gan, C 3). Situated on a picturesque promon- 
tory and having excellent facilities for trout 
Ashing and boating, Escanaba is a popular sum- 
mer resort. It has a good harbor with a front- 
age of 8 miles, has regular steamboat connection 
with a number of lake ports, and is one of the 
most important shipping points for the Lake 
Superior iron region. There are eight iron-ore 
docks, handling more than 4,000,000 tons annu- 
ally, and large merchandise docks, the trade in 
coal, fish, and lumber being extensive. The 
city contains railroad repair shops, an ore-crush- 
ing plant, furniture, flooring, and wooden- ware 
factories, and a tie-preserving plant. Note- 
worthy features include the public library, hos- 
pital, high school, city hall, county jail, and 
courthouse. Escanaba was settled in 1863, 
incorporated as a village in 1883, and first 
chartered as" a city in the same year. Pop., 
1900, 9549; 1910, 13,194; 1914 (U. S. est.), 
14,747; 1920, 13,103. 

ESCAPE (OF. escaper, eschaper, Fr. e"chapper, 
It. seappare, to escape; probably from ML. ex 
capa, out of a cloak or cape, from Lat. ex, out, 
and ML. capa, cape). In its broadest sense, the 
unauthorized liberation of a person from law- 
ful custody, in any manner or for any time, how- 
ever short. If the liberation is accomplished by 
the prisoner himself with force, it is called 
prison breaking, or prison breach; if it is effected 
by others with force, it is called rescue. An 
escape by the prisoner himself, if with force, 
is a felony, and, if without force, a misde- 
meanor, punishable by fine or imprisonment. 
Under modern statutes a prisoner who has 
made his escape and been recaptured loses 
the commutation of his sentence which he may 
have earned by previous good conduct, A person 
who aids a criminal in escaping, or in attempt- 
ing to escape, is guilty, as a rule, of the same 

Digitized by 



grade of crime and liable to the same punish- 
ment ae the prisoner who escapes. This prin- 
ciple applies also to officers who voluntarily 
permit an escape. If the officer is negligent, 
simply, he is guilty of a misdemeanor. When 
a person is imprisoned under a final judgment 
in a civil action, his escape renders the sheriff, 
or officer having him in custody, liable to the 
plaintiff. Consult the authorities referred to 
under Criminal Law. 

ESCAPE / MENT. That part of the machinery 
of a watch or clock by which the onward revolv- 
ing motion produced by the moving power, 
whether weights or spring, is restrained by the 
time-measuring element, such as the pendulum 
or balance wheel. The latter allows one tooth 
of the last wheel in the train of gears to 
escape or pass the pallets of the escapement at 
each swing or oscillation. See Clock; Watch. 
ESCAPE WARRANT. A warrant author- 
ized by English statutes of 1702 and 1706 for 
the better preventing of escapes from the Queen's 
Bench and Fleet prisons. At present it is em- 
ployed but rarely. A new warrant is not 
necessary for the rearrest of an escaped pris- 
oner; but the person from whose custody he 
escapes may pursue and retake him, and may, 
after notice of his errand and refusal of ad- 
mittance, break open doors or windows in order 
to effect the recapture. 

ESCARP, or SCABP (Fr. escarpe, It. scarpa, 
from Fr. escarper, It. scarpare, to cut steep). 
The side or slope of the ditch next to the para- 
pet. When the ditch of a permanent fortifica- 
tion is dry, the escarp is usually faced with 
mason work, to render it difficult of ascent; and 
behind this facing, technically known as revet- 
ment (q.v.), there are often casemates (q.v.) 
for defense. See Fortification. 
ESCATIT, a'sky. The French name for the 
river Scheldt (q.v.). 

ESCHAR, es'kar (OF. escare, Lat. eschara, 
Gk. i<rx&P* t eschara, scab). A slough or portion 
of dead or disorganized tissue. The name is 
commonly applied to artificial sloughs produced 
by the application of caustics (q.v.). 

ESCHATOLOGY, eVkd-tftl'6-jI (from Gk. *<r- 
Xotoj, eschatos, last + -X07/0, -logia, account, 
from \4y€iv, legein, to say). The doctrine con- 
cerning man's existence after death, the future 
of nations, and the final condition of the world. 
Even on the lower stages of religious develop- 
ment speculation upon the things to come is 
not wholly limited to the fate of the individual. 
The shifting fortunes of war and the varying 
success in obtaining supplies give rise to anxious 
or hopeful thoughts of what may befall the 
tribe. Devastating floods, fires, cyclones, earth- 
quakes, or volcanic eruptions, and terror-inspir- 
ing eclipses of the heavenly bodies suggest the 
possibility of a destruction of the world. But 
the higher forms of eschatological thought pre- 
suppose a more complex social organism and a 
closer observation of natural phenomena. It is 
especially myths of astrological origin that fur- 
nish material for highly developed eschatologies, 
and oppression by nations aspiring to world 
empire that supplies the impulse. Hope of de- 
liverance from galling political servitude springs 
from a proud and outraged national conscious- 
ness, kept alive by the memory of past greatness, 
and dreams of empire are born of the example 
set by mighty conquerors and rulers holding 
nations in subjection. Only prolonged observa- 


tion of the movements of the planets and the 
sun's course through the signs of the zodiac can 
render possible the thought of a reoccurrence at 
the end of the present period of the events con- 
nected with the world's origin, and a renovation 
of the world after its destruction. Along the 
different lines of eschatological speculation there 
is, therefore, a general development reflecting 
the growth of man's intellectual and moral per- 
ceptions, his larger social experience, and his 
expanding knowledge of nature. The outward 
forms, however, vary according to the character 
of the environment and the peculiar genius of 
each people, and are also influenced by the rela- 
tive value accorded to the individual and to the 
nation or the world. It is seldom that an es- 
chatological idea is found in any people that is 
without a parallel among other nations, but it is 
equally rare that the same idea occurs in exactly 
identical form in different systems of religious 

Belief in a survival of the spirit or double, 
conceived as a material substance, in connection 
with the dead body as its local habitation as 
long as food and drink are furnished, gives little 
opportunity for the imagination. As, with the 
advance of civilization, the great cosmic forces 
come into prominence as objects of worship, and 
the departed spirits are brought into connection 
with them, the life beyond grows richer; and as 
the peculiar tribal customs establish a standard 
of right and the effects of conformity are ob- 
served, the spirits themselves are made subject 
to the same laws of retribution, and a judgment 
after death is introduced. Through this two- 
fold development the future life may thus be 
spiritualized and assume a moral character, as 
in ancient Egypt. But it is also possible for the 
old conception of a shadowy existence in the 
grave or a subterranean realm to retain its hold 
in the main, while a way out of it into larger 
life, with moral distinctions, is found in the 
thought of a restoration and reanimation of the 
old body, thus insuring personal identity, as in 
Persia and Judaea. Or the spirit may be con- 
ceived of as entering immediately upon death 
into another body, to live again and die and be- 
come reincarnated in ever new forms, . as in 
India. This doctrine of metempsychosis renders 
it possible to introduce into the future life the 
nicest moral adjustments, implying at once pun- 
ishments and rewards for conduct in a previous 
stage of existence and the possibility of rising 
or sinking in the scale of being according to 
present conduct. In spite of the perfect justice 
thus regarded as being administered on every 
stage of being, this never-ending series of births 
and deaths may come to appear as an evil, if 
the present life seems such, and deliverance may 
then be Bought from the infinite wheel of ex- 
istence in Nirvana. Still another possibility 
presents itself, when the functions of the mind 
are considered as indicating a purely spiritual 
essence independent of the body, having no be- 
ginning and no end, as in Greece. This abstract 
conception of immortality may be made the 
philosophical basis of a nope for a more con- 
cretely conceived personal life after death. For 
further details of this phase of eschatology, see 

The ideas held by different nations as to the 
future of the human race and the world are only 
imperfectly known to us. It would, of course, 
be quite wrong to suppose that such notions have 
been cherished only where we are fortunate 

Digitized by vnOOQIC 


enough to have testimony as to their existence, 
or that they have held a place in the life of na- 
tions proportionate to their prominence in such 
literary remains or other accounts as we may 
possess. But certain inferences can be drawn 
from the type of eschatological thought that 
comes to view. When the belief in a coming 
destruction of the world by a fire or a flood is 
found among uncivilized tribes in the Pacific, or 
American aborigines, it is not likely that it 
originated in astronomical speculation, but 
rather that it was engendered by some terrify- 
ing experience of the past. Though the medium 
through which the accounts have come makes 
them Bomewhat doubtful, it is not impossible 
that the Spaniards found in Central America 
the belief in the coming of a white concmeror. 
If so, the history of the great American civiliza- 
tions had prepared men for the possibility of 
the overthrow even of an ancient kingdom, and 
this apprehension had been fused with the vague 
rumor of white men who had once settled in the 
New World. The notion of four great periods 
of the world, each lasting hundreds of years and 
ending in a universal conflagration, also pre- 
supposes a longer historic development. The 
remarkable stability of the Chinese Empire and 
the practical disposition of its people preclude 
the development of a flourishing eschatology. 
On the other hand, the brooding genius of India 
cares little for political independence and is too 
deeply impressed with the infinite to have its 
attention absorbed by possible catastrophic 
changes in the world. There are no last things 
to claim enthusiastic interest in a pantheistic 
philosophy that sees in every form of life a 
manifestation of the divine. But the infinite 
stretches of divine sway are divided into periods; 
and these kalpaa, or epochs, give an eschatolog- 
ical perspective. In the main, however, it is the 
future of the individual only that occupies the 
mind of Brahmin and Buddhist alike. Quite 
different was the attitude of the ancient Ira- 
nians. Those who adopted the teachings of 
Zarathustra seem early to have developed the 
simple notion of a coming destruction of the 
world by fire into the idea of a great moral 
ordeal. As an individual may prove the truth 
of his religion by undergoing an ordeal of fire, 
so at the end of the world the worshipers of the 
lord Mazda will be distinguished from all others 
by successfully enduring the ordeal of molten 
metal, and the good will then be recompensed. 
This conception is found in the Gathas, the 
earliest part of the Aveetan literature. It is not 
certain that the idea of a resurrection from the 
dead goes back to the period represented by the 
Gathas. But Herodotus seems to have heard of 
such a Persian conception in the .fifth century 
b.c, and Theopompus, the historian of Philip of 
Macedonia, described it as a Mazdayasnian doc- 
trine in the fourth century b.c, in a work of 
which excerpts have been preserved by Diogenes 
LaSrtius and Mneaa of Gaza. Whether the 
resurrection was already at that time connected 
with the coming of the Saoshyant is uncertain. 
In the later Avesta it is distinctly the work 
of the Saoshyant to raise the dead. A final 
revelation of character, a brief period of punish- 
ment in a hell, and an ultimate restoration of 
all to blessedness, are here assumed. Charac- 
teristic of Mazdaism is the idea of a gradual 
evolution towards a rational and moral end, and 
of the preparation for this end by the work of 
the faithful. The world is conceived as lasting 


12,000 years. The appearance of Zarathustra 
falls at the beginning of the last quarter, and at 
each of the following millenniums one of the 
three sons of Zarathustra is born, the last of 
these being Astvatereta, the "restorer of the 
bodies," or Saoshyant, "the savior." This savior 
has no political character. After the final con- 
quest of the serpent, Azi Dahaka, the reign of 
immortality begins. During the period in which 
the native religion was suppressed and gradually 
crowded out of its home by Islam, the hope of 
the persecuted turned to the future, as the apo- 
calyptic sketches in the Pahlavi literature show, 
and the return of the old King Kai Khosru was 
ardently desired. The Homeric poems and 
Hesiod show how the Greek mind occupied itself 
with the soul's future in the Elysian fields or 
the darker realms of Hades. Through the 
Orphic and Eleusinian cults this thought was 
deepened, and the Christian doctrines of heaven 
(q.v.) and hell (q.v.) are largely due to Greek 
speculation. That the future of nations and 
the world also played an important role in Greek 
thought is evident from the prophecies of the 
Sibyls. For while the original Sibylline Oracles 
have not been preserved, the references to them 
by Heraclitus and Plato reveal their character, 
and this is also indicated by the imitations in 
our present Sibylline Oracles. The same source 
betrays the eschatological thought of the Ro- 
mans. Some details of Vergil's description of 
the golden age may indeed have been borrowed 
from our Pseudo-sibyl, herself reminiscent of 
Isaiah ; but it is quite likely that the conception 
itself goes back to a genuine Roman origin. An 
eschatological mood dominates the epoch ushered 
in by Alexander's conquests, and Graco-Roman 
thought is fused with Oriental speculation in 
the outlook upon the world's future as in other 
respects. In a similar manner the Scandinavian 
idea of a destruction of the earth by fire and its 
subsequent renovation under higher heavens, to 
be peopled by the descendants of Lif and Lif- 
traser, as set forth in Voluspa, no doubt reflects 
a primitive Germanic conception. Even the twi- 
light of the gods may have belonged to the origi- 
nal myth. But the picture has unquestionably 
been retouched by Christian hands. 

Among the Semitic nations none has probably 
contributed more largely to the common stock 
of later eschatological material than the people 
of ancient Babylonia. Their creation myth and 
astrology, based on careful observations of the 
celestial bodies, furnished events to be expected 
and foretold when times and seasons might be 
looked for. Nevertheless, such of their literary 
remains as have been discovered and examined 
do not permit us to determine what the Baby- 
lonians themselves thought of the world's fu- 
ture. It is among peoples to some extent 
dependent upon their civilization that we find 
the Marduk-Tiamat myth transferred from the 
beginning to the end of the world, and the mil- 
lennial periods of the world's course elaborated. 
In early Israel the "Day of Yahwe" was a day 
of battle deciding the fortunes of a people. If 
the masses looked forward to it as a day of 
deliverance and victory, men like Amos and 
Hosea, Isaiah and Micah, Zephaniah and Jere- 
miah, feared that, the moral conditions being 
what they were, the advance of Assyria would 
bring destruction, complete or well-nigh com- 
plete, to Israel and Judah. They were prophets 
of doom. To one of the greatest among them, 
Jeremiah, this solemn forecast of coming judg- 

Digitized by 



ment was the criterion of true prophethood. In 
later times the books containing their oracles 
were interpolated with prophecies of coming 
prosperity, which neither reflect their moral 
attitude nor are in harmony with their historic 
circumstances. But they are themselves signifi- 
cant signs of the expansion of eschatological 
hopes. The establishment of the Acluemenian 
Empire aroused among the Jews expectations 
of a return from Babylon, the restoration of 
the temple, and improved social conditions, as 
Isa. xl-xlviii indicates. During the numerous 
insurrections that marked the beginning of the 
reign of Darius Hystaspis, Haggai and Zecha- 
riah fanned the hopes of Judsean independence 
under a descendant of the old Davidic house, 
the present Governor of Judsea, Zerubbabel 
(q.v.) ; and Jer. xxx-xxxi apparently shows 
that this hope still lived after the death of 
Zerubbabel and found new nourishment in the 
great conflict between Persia and Greece. Alex- 
ander's phenomenal career, widening the hori- 
zons of men, inspired in Judaea, as elsewhere, 
serious thoughts concerning the destiny of na- 
tions. But the strongest impulses to eschato- 
logical speculation were furnished by the re- 
ligious persecution under Antiochus IV Epiph- 
anes and the Maccabean revolt. The Book 
of Daniel, written 165 B.C., voices the hope that 
the kingdom of the world will be given to the 
saints of the Most High, i.e., the Jewish people. 
Its celestial representative, probably Michael, 
after the destruction of the beast representing 
the Greek kingdom, comes with the clouds and 
receives the empire of the world. There is no 
Messiah in this apocalypse. The first distinct 
appearance of this deliverer and king is in the 
Psalms of Solomon, written soon after the con- 
quest of Palestine by Pompey, in 63 b.c. (See 
Messiah. ) During the century that lay between 
the Maccabean uprising and the final loss of 
independence to die Romans, the eschatological 
hopes centred upon the Asmonsean princes, by 
whom the conquest of the world was expected, 
as many a psalm in the Psalter testifies. The 
longing for a descendant of the Davidic line 
who would break the Roman yoke, establish the 
empire of the Jews, and rule as a righteous king 
over the subject nations, grew strong enough in 
the first century of our era to cause the rebel- 
lion that in 70 a.d. led to the destruction of 
Jerusalem. When Jesus proclaimed the coming 
of the kingdom of heaven, it is natural therefore 
that, in spite of His disavowal, He should be 
understood by some to be a claimant to the 
kingship of the Jews. Attracted by His wonder- 
ful personality, from love of Him and faith in 
the prophetic word, His disciples were filled with 
the conviction that He would return as the 
Messiah upon the clouds of heaven. Apocalyptic 
writings, such as Fourth Ezra (see Esdbas, 
Books of), Enoch xxxvii-lxxi (see Enoch, 
Books of), and the Jewish originals utilized and 
expanded in Matt, xxiv (Mark xiii, Luke xxi) 
and the Revelation of John, show that even in 
circles where the hopes of the future did not 
attach themselves to the personality of Jesus, 
the Messianic idea grew more and more tran- 
scendent. It is not probable, however, that the 
final judgment and the raising of the dead were 
ever conceived by an adherent of the Jewish 
faith as functions of the Messiah. While on 
many points the eschatological ideas of the early 
Church were far from being fixed, it seems to 
have been quite generally believed that the end 


of the world was approaching; that it would be 
heralded by angelic trumpet blasts and ushered 
in by the descent of Jesus as the Messiah from 
heaven to establish His kingdom; that the liv- 
ing saints would then be translated and the 
dead in Christ raised to reign with Him for 
1000 years; and that after the final conflict 
with evil the last judgment would be held, the 
present world would be destroyed by fire, and 
there would be a new heaven and a new earth 
in which righteousness should dwell. As Chris- 
tianity spread, through missionary activity or 
military conquests, the Kingdom of God was 
identified with the Church, the doctrine of the 
millennium was largely abandoned, and eschatol- 
ogy occupied itself chiefly with the future of 
the individual in heaven, purgatory, or hell. 
The great creeds of Christendom, however, af- 
firmed the belief in a return of the Son of God 
to judge the quick and the dead, and a resur- 
rection of the just and the unjust. There does 
not seem to be sufficient documentary evidence 
to support the general assumption that about 
the year 1000 a.d. there was a widespread belief 
in the impending end of the world. But the 
famous hymn, 

Diea ir», dies ilia 
8olvet 8»clum in favilla, 
Teste David cum Sibylla, 

leaves no doubt either as to the eschatological 
mood of medieval Christianity or as regards 
the source whence it was nourished. And of 
this there is testimony in the numerous apoca- 
lypses that grew up. It is natural that the 
biblical language concerning the millennium in 
Rev. xx and tne destruction of the world by 
fire in 2 Peter should have occupied many minds. 
The more radical religious movement of the 
Renaissance period was strongly impregnated 
with eschatological thought. In the Baptist and 
anti-Trinitarian churches ardent expectations of 
the establishment of the kingdom of heaven 
on earth went hand in hand with the rejection 
of sacramental magic, devil, and hell, and prac- 
tical attempts at founding a new social order, 
with hopes for the ultimate restoration of all 
souls after a period of unconscious sleep or 
limited punishment In the great Lutheran, 
Anglican, and Reformed churches, the rejection 
of the doctrine of a purgatory and of the inter- 
cession of the Virgin and the saints fixed man's 
destiny irrevocably at death, and therefore 
tended to render the closing scenes of judgment 
and resurrection of less practical importance, to 
eliminate the premillennial coming of Christ, 
and to make the millennium the result of a long- 
continued development of Christian life. By an 
allegorical method of interpretation the natural 
import of biblical language was lost and scrip- 
tural support found for the new outlook upon 
the future. Since the days of the French Revo- 
lution and the career of Napoleon there have 
l)een repeated outbursts of eschatological en- 
thusiasm. Where the reaction against allegori- 
cal interpretation has not led to the adoption 
of a historico-critical method, the belief that all 
biblical prophecies will be fulfilled has en- 
gendered an ingenious system of exegesis by 
which the things expected by the Jews of the 
Maccabean period or the early Christians to 
occur in their own lifetime are transferred to 
the interpreter's own immediate future, some 
starting point for the new cycle of fulfillments 
being arbitrarily chosen. Thus, an independent 
eschatological speculation not unlike that of old 

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may flourish under cover of biblical authority, 
and keep alive the expectation of impending 
judgment upon sin and fundamental changes in 
man's life and the interpretation of history in 
the light of eternal purposes. 

Islam adopted from Judaism and Christianity 
the doctrines of a coming judgment, a resurrec- 
tion of the dead, and everlasting punishments 
and rewards. Later contact with Persian 
thought greatly enriched its eschatology. Es- 
pecially important was the thought of a rein- 
carnation of some great representative in the 
past of Allah or His prophets. Again and again 
the world of Islam has been stirred by the 
expectation of some Imam or Mahdi to reveal^ 
more fully the truth or to lead the faithful into 
a better social condition on earth. Iran and 
Africa have been most fertile in such movements. 

In modern Judaism the return of Israel to its 
land, the coming of the Messiah, the resurrec- 
tion of the dead, and everlasting retribution are 
still expected bv the orthodox, while liberals 
look upon Israeli mission as connected with the 
regeneration of the human race, and hope for 
an immortal life independent of the resuscitation 
of the body. 

The criterion of exact science is its capacity to 
predict future things. In this lies to a large 
extent the convincing force of astronomical the- 
ories through which our modern estimate of the 
universe has been chiefly formed. A science 
that unfailingly foretells future events furnishes 
a new eschatology by suggesting that the earth's 
life is but an episode in tne never-beginning and 
never-ending course of nature, and that, barring 
accidents, this planet must one day end its sepa- 
rate existence in the arms of its celestial parent, 
the sun. History, in its widest sense, teaches 
that the future of the human race must grow 
out of its present life, and that the conditions 
of humanity, whatever new revolutions may 
come, are not to be affected by cataclysmic 
changes wrought from without, but by forces 
already operating within. By observation of 
present tendencies it seems to many thinkers 
possible to predict that warfare will cease ; that 
arbitration will take its place as a means of 
settling international differences; that compe- 
tition and monopoly, with the extremes of wealth 
and poverty to which they give rise, will yield 
to public administration of industry and com- 
merce for the public good, or some form of co- 
operation involving a more equitable distribution 
of the bounties of nature and the products of 
common toil; that ignorance will be reduced by 
universal education fitting each individual for 
the highest service he can render to society; that 
disease and criminality will be stamped out by 
preventive and remedial measures ; that the con- 
flict between rival sects and religions will end 
in a fellowship no longer based upon creed or 
cultic performance, but upon a common interest 
in the pursuit of truth and righteousness; and 
that thus the chief blessings associated with the 
millennium will come, not through a radical 
change in man's nature wrought by supernat- 
ural power, but by a gradual amelioration of 
the race. Eschatological speculation of this 
character, already seen in Plato's Republic and 
Thomas More's Utopia, has taken a strong hold 
upon the present generation. In the effort to 
realize the eschatological dreams of human so- 
ciety as it ought to be by strengthening the 
movements of thought and life that tend in the 
right direction, compensation is found by many 


for the silence of science concerning a survival 
of the individual, while they are ready to wel- 
come any light that may be shed upon the 
mystery of death. See Heaven; Hell; Im- 
mortality; Intermediate State; Judgment, 
Final; Millennium. 

Bibliography. An extensive bibliography of 
the older literature by Ezra Abbot may be found 
in Alger, A Critical History of the Doctrine of 
a Future Life (New York, 1871). Consult the 
works on biblical theology, such as Oehler, 
Schultz, Dillman, Stade, Marti, Henry Preserved 
Smith (1914), for the Old Testament; Baur, 
Schmidt, Oosterzee, Meyer, Weiss, Beyschlag, 
Wendt, Immer, Holtzmann, for the New; Lu- 
thardt, Die Lehre von den letzten Dingen (Leip- 
zig, 1861); Stade, Die alttestamentlichen Vor- 
8tellungen vom Zu&tande nack dem Tode (ib., 
1877); Newman Smyth (trans.), Dorner on the 
Future State (New York, 1883) ; Jeremias, Die 
babylonisch-assyrischen Vorstellungcn vom Leben 
nach dem Tode (Leipzig, 1887) ; Schwally, Dew 
Leben nach dem Tode (Giessen, 1892) ; Toy, Ju- 
daism and Christianity (Boston, 1892) ; Kabisch, 
Eschatologie des Paulus (Gflttingen, 1893) ; 
Salmond, The Christian Doctrine of Immortality 
(Edinburgh, 1897); Smend, Alttestamentliche 
Religionsgeschichte (Freiburg, 1893) ; Marti, 
Oeschichte der israelitischen Religion (Strass- 
burg, 1897 ) ; Charles, Critical History of the 
Doctrine of a Future Life (London, 1899) ; Beet, 
Last Things (ib., 1897); Russell, The Parousia 
(ib., .1887); S. Davidson, Doctrine of Last 
Things (ib., 1900) ; Sttderblom, La vie future 
d'aprds le mazdtisme a la lumiere des croyances 
pareilles dans les autres religions (Paris, 1901) ; 
BOklen, Die Verwandtschaft der jildisch-christ- 
lichen mit der parsischen Esohatologie (Gttttin- 
gen, 1902) ; Gressmann, Ursprung der israeU 
itisch-jUdischen Eschatologie (ib., 1905) ; Guy, 
Le mUlenarisme dans ses origines et son de'vel- 
oppement (Paris, 1904) ; Bousset, Religion des 
Judentums (2d ed., Berlin, 1906); Mills, 
A vesta Eschatology (Chicago, 1908) ; Sharman, 
Teaching of Jesus about the Future (ib., 1909) ; 
Dobechlitz, Eschatology of the Gospels (Lon- 
don, 1910) ; MacCulloch, Early Christian Vi- 
sions of the Other World (Edinburgh, 1912); 
Jastrow, Hebrew and Babylonian Traditions 
(New York, 1914) ; Eduard Norden, /Eneis buch 
VI (Leipzig, 1903). 

ESCHEAT (Fr. echoir, from Lat. cadere, to 
fall out or happen ) . An incident of feudal tenure 
of real property, whereby the course of descent 
from the tenant is obstructed, and the property 
falls back or reverts to the immediate lord of 
whom the fee is held. In the common-law 
system there is, in theory at least, no such thing 
as absolute ownership of real property. The 
most extensive estate which one can have, the 
fee simple, is regarded as a derivative or sub- 
ordinate estate, held of a superior landlord, to 
whom in certain eventualities it will return. 
The fact that in process of time most, if not all, 
intermediate or mesne lords have been elimi- 
nated, and that lands are now held in subordina- 
tion only to the state, or, in England, to the 
crown, does not vitally affect this principle. 
The claim of the state to take lands by escheat 
is still based upon the theory of a superior lord- 
ship or proprietorship, and the holder of land 
in fee simple is still properly described as a 
tenant. In order to complete the title acquired 
by escheat, it is necessary that the superior 
lord shall perform some act, such as entering 

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and taking possession of the land or bringing 
an action at law for its recovery. The principle 
upon which he thus recovers the property is 
that, since none but those who are of the blood 
of the person last seised can inherit, and there 
are no persons of that blood in being and capa- 
ble of inheriting, the land must result back to 
the lord of the fee, of whom it is held. 

According to the law of England, escheat was 
either propter defectum sanguinis — i.e., because 
there were no heirs of the deceased tenant — or 
propter delictum tenentis — i.e., because the blood 
of the tenant was attainted or corrupted, so that 
those who were related to him as heirs could 
not inherit. Such corruption of blood occurred 
when the tenant was convicted of treason or 
felony. The rule applied to all felonies and 
frequently produced much hardship. This form 
of escheat was peculiar to English law. It is 
to be carefully distinguished from forfeiture of 
lands to the crown for treason or felony, which 
has prevailed in other countries besides England. 
When this latter penalty was enforced for 
the crime of treason, the offender forfeited all 
his lands absolutely to the crown; when it was 
enforced for any other felony, the forfeiture to 
the crown was of all the offender's estates for 
life absolutely, and of all his estates in fee 
simple for a year and a day, after which they 
escheated to his immediate lord. (See Fob- 
feitube.) In English law escheat as a result 
of conviction of crime is now abrogated; and 
all forfeiture for crime, except in cases of out- 
lawry, is abolished. (Statute 33 and 34 Vict., 
c. 23.) It is provided by the Constitution of 
the United States that "Congress shall have 
power to declare the punishment of treason; but 
no attainder of treason shall work corruption of 
blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the 
person attainted." (Art. iii, § 3.) This indicates 
the policy which has molded the laws of the va- 
rious States, so that escheat as the result of 
crime is practically unknown in this country. 

Though the feudal system of land tenure ex- 
isted only in its later and mitigated form in the 
United States, and though it has been expressly 
declared to be abolished in some of the States, 
it continues in many important respects to gov- 
ern the real-property law and its incidents. By 
virtue of statutory provisions, generally found 
in the State constitutions, the title to the prop- 
erty of one who dies without heirs is still trans- 
ferred to the State in which it is situated, and 
this transfer is still denominated an escheat. 
It is the general rule that a proceeding known 
as "inquest of office" must be instituted, and an 
office found in behalf of the State, in order to 
vest in it the title to a decedent's realty. But 
this is not required in some of the States. See 
Estate; Fee; Real Property; Tenure; and 
the authorities there referred to. 

ESCHENBACH, eWen-bao, Wolfram von. 
See Wolfram von Eschenbach. 

ESCHENBTJBG, eWen-booTK, Johann Jo- 
achim (1743-1820). A Gorman literary critic 
and translator, born at Hamburg and educated 
at Leipzig and GiJttingen. He became tutor in 
1767, professor in 1777, and director in 1814 of 
the Collegium Carolinum in Brunswick. Be- 
sides publishing German translations of English 
writers, notably the first complete German trans- 
lation of Shakespeare's plays, Shakespeares thea- 
tralische Werke (13 vols., 1775-82), he wrote, 
among many, the hymns "Dir trau' ich, Gott, 
und wanke nicht" and "Ich will dich noch im 


Tod erheben," and was author of: Handbuch dor 
klassisohen Litteratur, AUertumskunde und 
Mythologie (1783; 8th ed., 1837); Enttcurf 
einer Theorie und Litteratur der svhbnen Uede- 
kUnste (1783; 5th ed., 1836); Bcispielsamm- 
lung zur Theorie und Litteratur der schonen 
Wissenschaften (8 vols., 1788-95); Lehrbuch 
der Wissensohaftskunde (1792; 3d ed., 1809); 
Denkmaler altdeutscher Dichtkunst (1799). 

ESCHENMAYEB, esh'en-ml-€r, Karl Au- 
gust vox ( 1768-1852) . A German metaphysician. 
He was born at Neuenburg, and was professor of 

Sractical philosophy at the University of Ttt- 
ingen from 1818 to 1836. He studied and taught 
^philosophy from the standpoint of Schilling 
(q.v.), his mystical tendency expressing itself 
in the assertion that one must advance beyond 
philosophy into nonphilosophy, a realm where 
not "speculation, but faith," holds sway. He took 
a deep interest in animal magnetism. 'His feel- 
ings found expression in violent polemics against 
the theories of Hegel and Strauss and in fanci- 
ful dreams of the spirit world. Among his 
writings are: Die Philosophic in ihrem Ueber- 
gange zur NichtphUosophie (1803) ; Psychologie 
(1817); System der Moralphilosophie (1818); 
Iieligionsphilosophie (1818-24); Mysterien des 
innern Lebcns (1830); Qrundriss der Natur- 
philosophie (1832); Betrachtungen Uber den 
physischen Weltbau (1852). 

ESCHER, esh'er, Johann Heinrich Alfred 
(1819-82). A Swiss statesman, born at Zurich. 
He studied law in his native town and at Bonn, 
Berlin, and Paris. In 1844 he was elected mem- 
ber of the Grand Council of the Canton. Even 
at that early period his sentiments were decidedly 
liberal. In January, 1845, together with six 
others, who shared his opinions, he published the 
famous summons to the popular assembly in 
Unterstrass, demanding the expulsion of the 
Jesuits. He was elected to the Council of the 
Interior in 1845 and to the Council of Educa- 
tion in 1846. The reorganization of the schools 
in the Canton of Zurich was his chief work, and 
he succeeded in introducing modern methods into 
the system of secondary education. In Decem- 
ber, 1847, he became President of the Grand 
Council, and the following year he was sent as 
a deputy to the Federal Diet. In December of 
the same year he became President of the newly 
elected Cantonal Administrative Council. His 
energies were directed to the promotion of edu- 
cation, but he also furthered railway enterprise 
and banking institutions in Switzerland. He 
was President of the National Council in 1849, 
Vice President of the Confederation in 1856-57 
and 1861-62, and became subsequently several 
times President. He died Dec. 6, 1882, at 
Zurich, where a bronze statue has been raised to 
his memory. Consult Scherr, Alfred Escher 

ESCHEBICH, esh'er-lK, Karl Leopold 
(1871- ). A German entomologist, born in 
Schwandorf and educated at Munich, Wurzburg, 
Leipzig, and Heidelberg. From medicine he 
turned to zoology and traveled in Tunis (1892), 
Central Asia Minor (1895), Algeria (1898, 
1902), Abyssinia (1906), Ceylon (1910), and 
North America (1911). In 1901-06 he was 
privatdocent at Strassburg, and in 1907 be- 
came professor in the Forestry Academy at 
Tharandt. He wrote: System der Lepismatiden 
(1905); Die Ameise (1906): Ferienreise naeh 
Erythrea (1908); Die Termiten oder weissen 
Ameisen (1909) and Termitenleben auf VeyUn 

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(1910), singularly interesting and valuable 
studies; Die angewandte Entomologie in der 
Vereinigten St oat en (1913); Die Forstinsekten 
Mitteleuropaa, vol. i (1913). 

ESCHEB VON DEB LINTH, esh'er fdn der 
tot, Hans Konrad (1767-1823). A Swiss 
statesman, born at Zurich. After study at GKJt- 
tingen (1786-88) and extensive travel, he was 
a member of the Legislative Assembly of the 
Helvetian Republic in 1798-1802. In 1798-1801 
he edited the Schvoeizerischer Republikaner. In 
1802 he withdrew from politics, and from 1807 
to its completion in 1822, as president of the 
board of inspection, directed the improvement 
of the Linth, the upper course of the Limmat, 
by means of a canal. A large tract of land was 
thus reclaimed to useful purposes. Escher was 
regarded as a benefactor of the commonwealth, 
and the surname Von der Linth was officially 
granted to his family in 1823. Consult the 
biogr aphy (Zurich, 1852) by Hottinger. 

ESCHBICHT, esh'rfKt, Daniel Fbedebik 
(1798-1863). A Danish physiologist and zoolo- 
gist. He was born at Copenhagen, studied medi- 
cine there, and after practicing as a physician 
for three years, took a supplementary course in 
physiology and comparative anatomy in Germany 
and France. He was professor at Copenhagen 
from 1836 until his death, when his valuable col- 
lection was acquired by the Zoological Museum. 
His investigations covered an extensive field. 
Among his principal publications are Haand- 
bog i Phy&iologie (new ed., 1851) and Folke- 
lige Foredrag (1855-59). 

ESCHSCHOLTZ, esh'shdlts, Johann Fwed- 
bich (1793-1831). A Russian naturalist and 
traveler. He was born at Dorpat, where he 
studied medicine. In 1815 he made a tour of 
the world with Otto von Kotzebue and Adelbert 
von Chamisso, collecting a great number of zo- 
ological specimens and making important scien- 
tific investigations. The results of this voyage 
were published in Kotzebue's Entdeckungsreise 
in die SUdsee und Beringstrasse (1821), to 
which Eschscholtz contributed a number of 
valuable articles. After his return in 1819 he 
was appointed extraordinary professor of anat- 
omy in Dorpat, and in 1823 he again accom- 
panied Kotzebue on a voyage around the world. 
The extensive collection acquired during these 
tours was presented by Eschscholtz to the Uni- 
versity of Dorpat in 1826. He later published 
a catalogue of the 2400 animals of this collec- 
tion in vol. ii of Kotzebue's Neue Reise um die 
Welt (1830). A botanical species, Esoh- 
seholtzia, was named in his honor by Chamisso, 
and Eschscholtz Bay, an inlet of Kotzebue 
Sound, on the coast of Alaska, perpetuates his 
achievements as an explorer. His principal 
work is the Zoologischer Atlas, enthaltend Ab- 
bildungen und Beschreibung neuer Tierarten (5 
parts, 1829-33). 

ESCHSCHOLTZIA, esh-shftltsl-a (Neo-Lat., 
named in honor of J. F. Eschscholtz, a Rus- 
sian naturalist and traveler) . A genus of plants 
of the family Papaveraceae. Eschscholtzia cali- 
f arnica, the California poppy, and other species, 
natives of California and Arizona, have now be- 
come very common in our flower gardens, mak- 
ing a showy appearance with their large deep- 
yellow flowers. This plant has a remarkable 
calyx, which, much resembling in its form the 
extinguisher of a candle, separates from the 
dilated apex of the flower stalk and is lifted and 
thrown off by the expanding flower. For illus- 


tration, see Plate of California Flora, and 
Plate of Poppy and Pepper Tree. 

ESCHWEGE, esh'va-ge (mediaeval Eskeneweg, 
Eschinyoanch) . A town of the Prussian Prov- 
ince of Hesse-Nassau, situated in a fertile valley 
of the Werra, 25 miles east-southeast of Cassel 
(Map: Prussia, D 3). It consists of an old 
and a new town, on the left and right banks of 
the river respectively, and a suburb on an island 
connected with the mainland by two stone 
bridges. The castle, erected about 1386, is now oc- 
cupied by the district court. The so-called Black 
Tower is all that remains of the convent founded 
by Charlemagne. Eschwege is an important in- 
dustrial centre. It has large tanneries, manu- 
factures of woolen, cotton, and linen goods, hair- 
cloth, soap, cigars, brushes, shoes, and machines. 
It has large slaughterhouses and does a large 
business in pork and sausage. Pop., 1900, 11,- 
117; 1910, 12,542. 

ESCHWETLEB, SshMler. A town of the 
Prussian Rhine Province, on the Inde, about 
8 miles northeast of Aix-la-Chapelle (Map: 
Prussia, B 3 ) . It is the centre of a rich mining 
district, its coal mines being noted for their 
great depth and superior quality of product. 
Cadmium, zinc, copper, and lead are also mined, 
as they have been from the days of the Romans. 
The manufactures comprise boiler plate, iron 
pipe, wire, tin plate, wheels, boilers, machinery, 
miscellaneous articles of iron, copper, zinc, and 
lead, confections, belting and leather goods, 
bricks, malt and beer. Pop., 1900, 21,895; 1910, 

ESCLOT, Bernat. See Desclot. 

ESCOBAR Y MEHDOZA, asTco-BaV e men- 
dO'tha, Antonio (1589-1669). A Spanish Jesuit 
and casuist, born at Valladolid. He was ac- 
cused of founding the doctrine that the moral 
value of actions lies in the nature of the inten- 
tion ; in other words, that purity of purpose may 
be justification for actions contrary to the moral 
code and contrary to human laws. His casuistry 
was severely criticized in the Provincial Let- 
ters of Pascal, and his doctrines were disap- 
proved by many Catholics and gently censured 
by the authorities at Rome. Under the witty 
ridicule of such French writers as La Fontaine, 
Boileau, and Moliere the name of IJscobar, a 
priest of exemplary life, was used for coining 
the word escobarderie, a synonym for extreme 
laxity in moral principle. Among his writings 
are Liber Theologiw Moralis (London, 1646) and 
Summula Casuum ConscienticB (Pamplona, 

ESCOBEDO, aslco-ua'Do, Mariano (1827- 
1902). A Mexican soldier, born at Dos Arroyos, 
Nuevo Leon. He was originally a muleteer, 
took part in the Mexican War, became promi- 
nent in the "War of the Reform," was in 1859 
appointed a colonel by Juarez, and contributed 
largely to the success of the Republican cause. 
Upon the establishment* in Mexico of the ill- 
fated Empire of Maximilian, he withdrew to 
San Antonio, Tex., organized a republican force 
made up of Mexican refugees, ex-Confederate 
soldiers, and negroes, and in 1865 captured the 
garrison of Monterey. In 1867 he utterly de- 
feated Miramon at San Jacinto and was ap- 
pointed commander in chief of the republican 
armies, with rank of general of division. On 
May 15 of that year he took Quer^taro and cap- 
tured the Emperor Maximilian. In 1875-76 
he supported President Lerdo de Tejada against 

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the revolution under General Diaz, served Lerdo 
as Minister of War, escaped to New York, and 
was afterward active in conspiracy against the 
Diaz government, but in 1882 accepted the office 
of president of the supreme military court of 
justice. He retired in 1884. 

ESCOIQUIZ, eVkd-fc-keth', Juan ( 1762-1820). 
A Spanish churchman, politician, and author, 
born in Navarra or at Bermeo in Biscaya — 
accounts vary. He became the instructor of the 
future King Ferdinand VII and gained an as- 
cendancy over his pupil that lasted for many 
years. After the abdication of Charles IV 
(1808) Escoiquiz was made Counselor of State; 
he accompanied Ferdinand to Bayonne and saw 
him fall into the trap so skillfully set by Napo- 
leon (1808). During the devastating War of 
the Peninsula he remained in France. Upon the 
return of the King to power he was made Min- 
ister, but soon fell into disgrace, and afterward 
was exiled to Ronda, where he died. He wrote 
Idea sencilla de las razones que motivaron el 
viaje del rey Fernando VII a Bayona (1814), 
which is an important historical document; and 
a translation of Young's Night Thought* ( 1797 ) 
and of Paradise Lost (1813). 

ESCOLAB' (Sp. scholar). A mackerel-like 
fish (Ruvettu pretiosus) of tropical parts of the 
Atlantic in deep water, and well known in the 
Mediterranean, where it is called by the Italians 
roveto or ruvetto. It is not much valued in 
Europe, but is highly regarded in the Antilles, 
and especially in Cuba, where the fishermen 
make a business of catching it between the dis- 
appearance of the spear fish and the coming of 
the red snappers. Its extreme oiliness and its 
rough skin have caused it to be called oilfish and 
scourfish along the Gulf coast. The term "es- 
colar" is applied by ichthyologists to the whole 
family (Gemvplida?) which this fish represents. 

ESCORIAL, Span. pron. es-ko-rl-al' (Sp., 
from escoria, slag, from Lat. scoria, Gk. aicatpla, 
skdria, slag). A celebrated building in Spain 
(El real monasterio de San Lorenzo del Es- 
corial), comprising a monastery, church, col- 
lege, tomb, and palace. During the battle of 
San Quentin, won by the Spaniards on St. Law- 
rence's Day (Aug. 10), 1567, a church dedicated 
to that saint was destroyed. In fulfillment of 
a vow of gratitude to St. Lawrence for the vic- 
tory, Philip II built the Escorial on a bleak 
height of that name, 2700 feet above the sea, 
about 27 miles northwest of Madrid, and dedi- 
cated it to St. Lawrence. Begun by the archi- 
tect Juan Bautista, of Toledo, in 1563, and 
completed in 1584 by Juan de Herrera, his 
pupil, it is not only the largest building in 
Spain, but also the most notable monument of 
the Griego-Romano style in Spain. Externally 
without artistic merit except for the fine dome 
of the church and the picturesque grouping with 
it of the six towers which vary the silhouette 
of the whole, it is remarkable for the ingenuity 
of its vast plan and the grand scale of the 
church. The Escorial occupies a rectangle of 
750 by 580 feet, with a projecting wing on the 
rear or east side of about 175 by 120 feet, and 
comprises 13 courts, producing a fancied resem- 
blance to the gridiron of St. Lawrence. The 
church, which dominates the entire design, fronts 
on a central court, entered from the west by 
the main portal, which is opened only to admit 
the King on his first visit, and a second time 
to receive his body for burial. The church is 
a noble design, 340 feet long by 234 wide, cover- 


ing an area of 70,000 square feet, and crowned 
by a central dome 70 feet in diameter and 320 
feet high externally. The interior of the church 
is of dark marble; previous to the destructive 
occupation by the French in 1808 it was rich 
in works of art. Its chief treasure is a life- 
size crucifix of ivory by Benvenuto Cellini (q.v.). 
From a small room in the adjoining palace 
wing Philip II, when sick and dying, was ac- 
customed to listen to the celebration of the mass 
through a grated window opening into the chan- 
cel. Below the high altar of the church is the 
Pantheon, or royal tomb, an octagonal chamber 
with niches containing black sarcophagi in which 
rest the bodies of all the kings of Spain since 
the Emperor Charles V, with the exception of 
Philip V and Ferdinand VI. The palace of the 
Escorial was formerly rich in treasures of paint- 
ing and contained works of Raphael, Rubens, 
Velasquez, Titian, and Tintoretto. The library, 
which was under the care of the monks of St. 
Jerome (driven out by the French), comprised 
30,000 volumes and 4500 manuscripts, concerned 
mostly with Arabic literature. The Augustin- 
ian monks have been in charge of the convent- 
ual buildings since 1885. The Escorial has suf- 
fered many vicissitudes; fire in 1667, plunder- 
ings by the French in 1808 and 1813, and se- 
vere injury by fire from lightning in 1872 have 
necessitated extensive repairs. 

Bibliography. Los Santos, Descripcidn del 
real monasterio de San Lorenzo del Escorial 
(Madrid, 1657); A. Rotondo, Historia artistica 
. . . del monasterio de San Lorenzo (Madrid, 
1856-61); A. F. Calvert, The Escorial: A 
Historical and Descriptive Account, etc., with 
278 illustrations (London and New York, 
1907). The emotional effect produced by the 
building is well described in C. Qui net, Vacances 
en Espagne (PariB, 1846) ; and John Hay, Cos- 
tilian Days (New York, 1875). 

ES'CORT (Fr. escorts, It. soorta, guide, from 
scorgere, to guide, from Lat. ex, out + corrigere. 
to correct, from con, together -f regere, to di- 
rect). In the United States army ceremonial 
escorts are of two kinds — escorts of honor and 
funeral escorts. Escorts of honor are picked 
bodies of troops, detailed to receive and escort 
personages of high rank, civil or military. The 
troops assigned for this dutv may be composed 
of cavalry, artillery, or infantry, but are in- 
variably selected for their soldierly appearance 
and superior discipline. An officer is also de- 
tailed to attend the personage escorted and bear 
communications from him to the commander of 
the escort. The strength and character of such 
escort is largely determined by the status of 
the personage escorted. Funeral escorts are 
bodies of troops in numbers appropriate to the 
rank and grade of the deceased, detailed to at- 
tend and escort the funeral cortege, as may 
be ordered. The United States Army Regula- 
tions (1913) order that for the funeral escort 
of the Secretary of War, or general of the army, 
a regiment of infantry, a squadron of cavalry, 
and one battalion of field artillery form the 
detail; for the Assistant Secretary of War or 
the lieutenant general, a regiment of infantry, 
a squadron of cavalry, and a battery of field 
artillery; for a major general, a regiment of 
infantry, two troops of cavalry, and a battery 
of field artillery; for a brigadier general, a reg- 
iment of infantry, a troop of cavalry, and a 
platoon of field artillery; for a colonel, a regi- 
ment; a lieutenant colonel or major, a battalion 

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or squadron; a captain, one company; a sub- 
altern, a platoon; a noncommissioned staff offi- 
cer, 16 men under a sergeant; a sergeant, 14 men 
under a sergeant; a corporal, 12 men under a 
corporal; a private, 8 men under a corporal; 
an enlisted man of field artillery, one section. 
The coffin is carried on a caisson, as a rule. 
Six pallbearers are selected from the grade of 
the deceased, as far as practicable. The above 
are escorts of ceremony. Escorts, in the sense 
of bodies of troops used as guards or protecting 
forces, are also employed with armies in the 
field; e.g., the infantry or cavalry escort of 
field artillery, escorts and guards for the sup- 
ply trains in rear of an army, escorts and guards 
for a "convoy of prisoners," etc. Such escorts 
vary in strength from a few men to entire or- 
ganizations and are often composed of two 
arms, usually cavalry and infantry. 

ESCOSTTBA, Ss'kd-soTJ'ra, Patricio db la 
(1807-78). A Spanish statesman and author, 
born in Madrid. Early imbued with the revo- 
lutionary spirit rampant in the Spain of his 
day, Escosura was obliged to leave nis country 
and study abroad. Upon his return he took to 
literature and published two successful novels, 
somewhat in the manner of Walter Scott — El 
conde de Gandespina (1832) and Ni rey f ** 
roque (1835). Banished for his Carlist sym- 
pathies, he afterward became Undersecretary of 
State, Minister of the Interior, and Ambassa- 
dor to Germany (1872). In 1876 he was elected 
a member of the Spanish Royal Academy. His 
most important works are: E studios histdricos 
sobre las costumbres espafiolas (Madrid, 1851) ; 
Eistoria constitutional de Inglaterra (1850); 
La Espana artistica y monumental (1842-50) ; 
several plays, such as La oorte del Buen-Retiro 
(1837); Las mocedades de Hernan Gortte 
(1846); B&rbara Blomberg; Don Jaime el 
Conquistador; Roger de Flor (Barcelona, 1861, 
two tomes in one quarto volume, illustrated). 

ESCBIBANO, es'kre-bft'nft. See Halfbeak. 

ESCBIBED CURVE (from Lat. e, out + 
scribere, to write, draw). A curve externally 
tangent to the sides of a polygon; e.g., an es- 
cribed circle of a triangle is tangent to one 


side and to the other two produced. The bisec- 
tors of the interior and exterior angles of a 
triangle intersect by threes in four points, of 
which the exterior ones are the centres of the 
escribed circles 3f the triangle. For example, 


O is the centre of an escribed circle of the tri- 
angle ABC in the preceding figure. 

ES'CBOW (AF. escrowe, OF. escroue, escroe, 
bond, Fr. tcrou, entry in a jail book, from 
MDutch schroode, AS. screade, shred, slip of 
paper, Eng. screed). A sealed instrument, 
placed in the hands of a third person to be kept 
by him until certain conditions are satisfied, 
and then to be delivered over to the obligee or 
grantee. While in the hands of the third per- 
son, awaiting fulfillment of the prescribed con- 
ditions, the instrument is not a perfect deed 
and does not operate as an obligation or a con- 
veyance. As a rule, it takes effect from the 
second delivery. Hence, if it is a deed of prop- 
erty, the ownership passes from the grantor to 
the grantee as of the date of such delivery. But 
an exception to this rule is made when justice 
requires, or when necessary to protect the rights 
of persons who are not parties to the transac- 
tion. For example, if the grantor becomes men- 
tally or legally incapacitated between the de- 
livery to the third person and the delivery bv 
the latter to the grantee, the deed will take ef- 
fect as of the date of its first delivery, in order 
that it may be rendered valid. This is accom- 
plished by the legal fiction of "relation." In 
order to uphold the deed, the act of final de- 
livery is viewed as having been done at the time 
of the conditional delivery — as relating back 
to that date. See Deed ; Delivery. 

ES / CUAQE. See Scutagb. 

ESCUEBZO. See Ferreiro. 

ESCUINTLA, as-ken'tla. A town and capital 
of the department of the same name, Guatemala, 
30 miles southwest of the city of Guatemala 
(Map: Central America, B 3). It is the centre 
of a district growing sugar cane, coffee, and 
cacao, and has considerable transit trade owing 
to its situation on the railroad from Guatemala 
to the port San Jos6. Escuintla is a noted 
resort, frequented by great numbers of persons 
for its baths. Pop., 1910 (est), 14,000. 

ESCTJXA'PIANS. A Catholic order, histor- 
ically connected with the work of Joseph Cala- 
sanctius (1556-1648). He was born in Aragon, 
was ordained a priest in 1583, went to Rome 
in 1592, and became interested in the education 
of poor and neglected children. Pope Clement 
VIII sustained his efforts, and in 1602 he laid 
the foundations of an order, the Piarists, de- 
voted to this work. In 1614 the Esculapians 
were founded in Rome and have given them- 
selves to education. In 1905 they had 2137 
members and directed 150 colleges. In Cuba 
they have a college at Guanabocoa. In 1889 
another order, the Pious Workers of St. Joseph 
Calasanctius, was founded at Vienna, for edu- 
cation and works of charity, especially among 


ESCXJBIAL. See Escobial. 

ESCUTCHEON (formerly scutcheon, from 
OF. escusson, Fr. icusson, from OF. cscu t escut, 
Fr. ecu, shield, from Lat. scutum, shield). A 
term in heraldry (q.v.), synonymous with shield. 
An escutcheon of pretense, or inescutcheon, is 
a small shield placed in the centre of the larger 
one and covering a portion of the charges on the 
latter, in which a man carries the arms of his 
wife when she is the heiress of her family. It 
is said to be carried surtout, or over all. Some- 
times also a shield over all is given as a reward 
of honor. 

ESDBAELON, es'dra-yion or es-dra'6-lon 

Digitized by 



(Gk. 'EfftpjXur, Esdrelon, the Greek form of 
the Hebrew word rendered as Jezreel in the 
English Bible, meaning "God has sown"). The 
greatest plain in Palestine, separating the moun- 
tain ranges of Galilee from those of Samaria, 
watered by the Kishon (Map: Palestine, C 2). 
It may be described as a triangle, having for 
its base the high hills — of which Mount Gilboa 
is the most important — forming the watershed 
between the Jordan and the Kishon, extending 
north and south from Nazareth* to Jenin, a dis- 
tance of about 15 miles. The northern boundary 
is the hills of Galilee westward from Nazareth 
about 12 miles to a point where the Kishon 
breaks through in a narrow pass leading to the 
seacoast and Acco. On the southwest is the 
Carmel range, extending from the sea to Jenin, 
about 20 miles. The plain was allotted to Issa- 
char in the division among the tribes (Josh, 
xix. 17-23). It is of great fertility and has 
been of much importance in the annals of Pales- 
tine. Armies and caravans from all directions 
must pass through it, and, owing to its level 
character, it naturally became the field on which 
were fought the decisive battles for the posses- 
sion or defense of Palestine and Syria. It was 
the scene of the triumph of Barak over Sisera 
(Judg. iv) and of Gideon over the Midianites 
(Judg. vii) , as well as of the final defeat of Saul 
by the Philistines (1 Sam. xxxi) and of Josiah 
by Pharaoh Necho of Egypt (2 Kings xxiii. 
29-30). The great contest between Elijah and 
the prophets of Baal is said to have taken place 
on its western border (1 Kings xviii. 17 et seq.). 
It was through the plain that Jehu came riding 
to Jezreel (2 Kings ix. 16 et seq.). The armies 
of Assyria and Egypt met there repeatedly, and 
in modern times the plain has figured in the 
wars of Napoleon. It has been supposed that 
this plain is referred to in Revelation as the 
battlefield par excellence, where "the kings of 
the earth and of the whole world" were to gather 
for the battle of the great day of God (Rev. 
xvi. 14, 16) ; but it is possible that "the place 
called in Hebrew Har-Magedon" is named after 
some chthonic divinity originally belonging to 
the mythical lore of Babylonia. Consult George 
Adam Smith, Historical Geography of the Holy 
Land (New York, 1895). See Armageddon. 

ESDBAS (Gk. "Eotyas, Ezra), Books of. In 
the Latin Vulgate there are four books of Es- 
dras. Two of these correspond to the canonical 
books of Ezra and Nehemiah; two are not re- 
garded as canonical. As the last of them con- 
tains two chapters prefaced to the Apocalypse 
of Ezra and two chapters added at the end, it 
has been proposed to designate these as the 
fifth and sixth books of Esdras. The present 
confusion in regard to the titles of these books 
arises from the different order in the Greek 
version. A desirable uniformity may perhaps 
be brought about most easily by adhering to 
the nomenclature of the Vulgate, but using 
V Esdras for chaps, i and ii, and VI Esdras for 
chaps, xv and xvi of the Latin. The books would 
then be: 

I Esdras, the Greek translation of the Hebrew 
and Aramaic canonical Book of Ezra substan- 
tially in the form it has in our Masoretic text. 
This is supposed by some scholars to be the 
original Greek version. Others maintain that, 
as in the case of the Book of Daniel, Theodo- 
tion's version was substituted for the earlier 
translation, and that I Esdras is the work of 
this translator living in the second century a.d. 


Whether this be so or not, it is significant that 
in the Greek manuscripts I Esdras appears as 
the first part of Esdras B. 

II Esdras, the Greek translation of the canon- 
ical Book of Nehemiah substantially in the form 
it has in our Masoretic text. In the Greek 
manuscripts it appears as the second part of 
Esdras B, and as to its origin the same opinions 
are held as in the case of I Esdras. 

III Esdras, a Greek translation of the books 
of Ezra and Nehemiah. Because of the marked 
difference in the order of the chapters in some 
parte, the additional story of Darius and the 
Three Pages, and some other peculiarities, this 
has been regarded as a later and independent 
rendering, of less value than I and II Esdras. 
But many eminent scholars look upon it as 
the oldest of our Greek versions, and consider 
its order as more likely to have been the origi- 
nal one, the story of Darius and the Pages as 
an interpolation, and the fact that this version 
was given the first place as Esdras A in the 
manuscripts as important. In early English 
Bibles the designation used by the Vulgate was 
followed; the Geneva Bible of 1560 followed the 
Greek and called it the First Book of Esdras, 
and that has often been done since then. It 
has its disadvantages, however, and the usage 
of Jerome may be adhered to without any agree- 
ment with his views as to its later date and 
inferior character being implied. On III Es- 
dras, consult especially: Howorth, in Proceed- 
ing$ of the Society of Biblical Archaeology 
(1901-02); Torrey, Ezra Studies (Chicago, 
1910) ; Cook, in Charles, The Apocrypha and 
Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament (2 vols., 
Oxford, 1913). 

IV Esdras, an apocalypse ascribed to Ezra. 
It is extant in Latin, Syriac, Ethiopic, two 
Arabic, Armenian, and fragments of Saidic and 
Georgian versions. The Greek translation from 
which these were made has not been found. 
Yet all recent investigators are agreed that even 
this Greek text cannot have been the original, 
but that the author, or authors, wrote either in 
Hebrew or Aramaic, and probably in Hebrew. 
There is every reason to believe that a Salathiel 
apocalypse has been used by the author who 
writes in the name of Ezra. The opening state- 
ment "I, Salathiel, who am also Ezra' 1 (iii. 1) 
is most naturally explained as coming from a 
compiler, who particularly in iii-x used the 
Salathiel apocalypse, written, as iii. 1 shows, -in 
the thirtieth year of the downfall of the city, 
or in 100 a.d. As the eagle vision (chaps, xi, 
xii) can scarcely be earlier than the time of 
Domitian, and chaps, xiii, xiv clearly come from 
the same author as the vision of the eagle, the 
present work probably goes back to two sources 
united at the beginning of the second century 
A.D. This work has sometimes been called the 
Second Book of Esdras. Consult especially: 
Hilgenfeld, Messias Judoeorum (Leipzig, 1869) ; 
Volkmar, Das vierte Buch Ezra (Tubingen, 
1863) ; Violet, Die Esra-Apokalypse (Leipzig, 
1910) ; Kabisch, Das vierte Buch Esra (Gtft- 
tingen, 1889) ; Gunkel, Das vierte Buch Esra 
(Tubingen, 1900); Box, The Ezra-Apocalypse 
(London, 1912) ; Szdkely, Bibliotheca Apocrypha 
(Freiburg, 1913). 

V Esdras, chaps, i and ii of the Latin IV 
Esdras, a Christian addition which treats of 
the rejection of the Jewish people by God and 
His choice of Gentile Christians. It is some- 
times called II Esdras in Latin manuscripts. 

Digitized by VjOO<?IC 


VI Esdras, chaps, xv and xvi of the Latin 

IV Esdras, a Jewish addition containing chiefly 
invectives against sinners with predictions of 
wars and disasters. It is sometimes called 

V Esdras in Latin manuscripts. Consult the 
editions of Hilgenfeld and Volkmar. See 

ESEBINE. See Calabab Bean; Alkaloids. 

ESH'EB, William Baliol Bbett, first Vis- 
count (1816-99). An English jurist. He was 
educated at Westminster and at Caius College, 
Cambridge, and was called to the bar in 1840. 
He sat in Parliament during 1866-68 and then 
became Solicitor-General, but was in the same 
year appointed a justice of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas. He was a lord justice of appeal 
from 1876 to 1883 and then became Master of 
the Rolls. He was knighted in 1868, and raised 
to the peerage in 1897, at- the time of his re- 
tiring from the bench. His judgments as Mas- 
ter of the Rolls are highly esteemed and con- 
stitute a valuable contribution to the develop- 
ment of equity jurisdiction. 

ESK. The name of a small Scottish river of 
Dumfriesshire, formed by the confluence of the 
Black Esk and White Esk, which rise on the 
borders of Selkirkshire, near Ettrick Pen. It 
runs 35 miles south and forms for a mile the 
boundary between Scotland and England (Map: 
Scotland, E 4). For the last 8 miles it runs 
south-southwest through Cumberland, England, 
ending in the Solway Firth. It flows through 
some charming scenery, past Langholm, Canobie, 
and Longton. The upper part of its valley is 
called Eskdale Muir. 

eiscir, ridge). The name given in Ireland to 
large heaps of gravel that were accumulated 
during the Pleistocene period. They are iden- 
tical with the ftsar of Sweden and resemble 
kames ( q.v. ) , but are longer and follow a wind- 
ing course. The gravel is often heaped into 
narrow ridges 40 to 80 feet in height and from 
1 to 20 miles in length. Similar winding ridges 
of gravel and sand are found in northern North 
America, where they are often associated with 
broad level-topped deposits of sands and gravels 
closely resembling river deltas. This associa- 
tion and their peculiar structure and configura- 
tion have led to the belief that eskers are de- 
posits formed by streams which flowed beneath 
the ice sheets of the Glacial period. In general 
the eskers follow the direction in which the con- 
tinental glacier moved. 

ESKTLSTUNA, esTdls-toTTna (Swed., Eskil's 
town). A city of Sweden, situated on both 
sides of the Eskilstunaa, over 60 miles west of 
Stockholm (Map: Sweden, F 7). The town, 
divided into old and new sections by the river, 
is regularly built in the new quarter, and is 
famed for its iron and steel manufactures, es- 
pecially the gun factory on an island in the 
river. The town manufactures fine cutlery. 
There is regular communication with Stockholm 
by steamship as well as by rail. Pop., 1900, 
13,663; 1912, 28,485. Eskilstuna is named after 
St. Eskil, the English apostle of Christianity in 
Sttdermanland, who is supposed to have been 
buried here after his martyrdom. 

ES'KTMO. A race confined to the Arctic re- 
gions of America and the extreme northeastern 
part of Asia. The name means "raw-fish eat- 
ers" and was applied to them by their Algon- 
quin Indian neighbors living south of them. 
The American Eskimo call themselves Innuit, 

i.e., men; their congeners in Asia giving them- 
selves the name Yuit or Yu-kouk, other forms 
of the same word. The Eskimo have been so 
absolutely secluded in their habitat that an- 
thropologists have had great trouble in dealing 
with the question of their origin. Dr. H. Rink, 
who made a life study of Greenland and its 
people and is the greatest authority on them, 
held that most Eskimo weapons and implements 
are of American origin; he advanced the theory 
that, even though the Eskimos originally may 
have come from Asia, they developed as a race 
in the interior of Alaska, whence they finally 
migrated northward and spread out along the 
coasts of the ice sea. He said that their speech 
is closely connected with the primitive dialects 
of America, while their legends and customs 
resemble, or at least suggest, those of the 
Indians. Later the researches of Dall, Olivier, 
Nordquist, Krause, and others led to the con- 
clusion that the Eskimo were derived directly 
from peoples of the Asiatic polar regions, some 
of whom came to America across the narrow 
Bering Strait. Within recent years the investi- 
gations of Hrdlicka, Boas, and others have borne 
out the early view of Rink, since anatomically 
as well as culturally the Eskimo seem to have 
gprung from the same stock as the Indians. 

Though the evidence as to the origin of the 
Eskimo is not complete, there is at least good 
reason for the theory that within a compara- 
tively recent period they developed their in- 
dividuality either on the north Atlantic coast 
of North America or in the vicinity of Hudson 
Bay, from whence thev spread into Greenland 
and Alaska, the Aleutian Islands, and parts of 
Siberia. They must have reached Greenland 
before the Norwegian colonies of Osterbygd and 
Vesterbygd were established, for Eric the Red 
and others found in both these districts the 
ruins of human habitations, fragments of boats, 
and stone implements, which they thought must 
have belonged to a feeble folk whom they there- 
fore called Skrellings (weaklings). Nansen and 
others believe that at this period the Green- 
land Eskimo were living north of 68° N., where 
seals and whales abound, and that they did not 
make their permanent settlements in South 
Greenland until after they had destroyed the 
Norwegian colonies there in the fourteenth 

The regions inhabited by the Eskimo extend 
from Bering Strait over the northern coast of 
America and its groups of Arctic islands to the 
east coast of Greenland. With a habitat spread- 
ing over 3000 miles, the Eskimo have a wider 
geographical range than any other aborigines. 
In spite, however, of the great distances, which 
have divided the various groups from one another 
for probably more than 1000 years, the race has 
preserved the most striking uniformity in lan- 
guage, habits, and mode of life, excepting in so 
far as certain tribes have been influenced by 
contact with the white men. The insignificant 
differences of language among these isolated 
groups have been often remarked. Common to 
all are the same stem words, the same affixes. 
The chief characteristic of the language is that 
it is highly polysynthetic, single words of com- 
plex structure expressing ideas that in English 
would fill out whole sentences. Mr. Hugh Lee, 
who learned the language among the Smith 
Sound natives of north Greenland, says that 
he had little difficulty in communicating with 
the Eskimo of Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska. 

Digitized by 



A similar condition has been observed among 
the Eskimo of Labrador, the Arctic archipelago, 
and Greenland, though dialectic differences exist 
between the various groups and villages. How- 
ever, the Aleutians are so far removed as to 
make their speech unintelligible to the main- 
Land natives. 

The uniformity of language is not so great, 
however, as to preclude the linguistic classifica- 
tion of the Eskimo. In the first place, we have 
two distinct divisions, the Aleutians and the 
Eskimo proper. The former is a small compact 
group and may be treated as a unit; the latter, 
on the other hand, is a widely distributed people 
with manv cultural subdivisions. According to 
culture these seem to fall in the following 
divisions : 

1. The Greenland Eskimo. Occupying the 
lower part of Greenland and in two groups, 
those of the east coast, now extinct, and those 
of the west coast, who have become civilized. 

2. The Central Eskimo. Including those of 
Smith Sound in north Greenland, made famous 
by Peary; those of eastern and northern Baffin 
Land ; those of western Hudson Bay ; on Boothia 
Felix; and the now extinct people of South- 
ampton Island. 

3. The Eskimo of Labrador. Extending alon& 
the coast from near Newfoundland to Hudson 
Bay and including a few settlements on the 
southern shore of Baffin Land. 

4. The Eskimo of Banks Land. Including 
those on Victoria Island and Coronation Gulf, 
recently visiW by Stefansson. 

5. The Mackenzie River Eskimo. Those at 
the mouth of the Mackenzie and along the coast 
between Cape Bathurst and Herschel Island. 

6. The Alaskan Eskimo. All those in Alaska 
except the Aleutians. 

7. The Siberian Eskimo. 

Our knowledge of divisions four, five, and six 
is still rather vague, so that the above grouping 
must be considered tentative. For the other 
groups, however, we have sufficient data to make 
the classification definite. 

No satisfactory estimate of the number of 
living Eskimo can be made. According to the 
census of 1910 the Aleutians numbered 1451 
and the Alaskan Eskimo 12,636. The Green- 
land Eskimo are estimated at 10,000, and it 
is unlikely that all the others will total 9000. 
See Alaska. 

The Eskimo are between 62 and 64 inches in 
height, with broad, round faces and high cheek 
bones. They are well built, usually fat, and 
many of the men have remarkable muscular 
development; the eyes are narrow, the hair is 
straight and jet black, the beard is very thin 
and often entirely wanting. The skin is light 
brown or dark brown. They are a short-lived 
people, rarely attaining an age much beyond 
60 years. In Greenland and Alaska they have 
mixed with the whites until there is a very 
large percentage of mixed bloods. Note should 
also be taken of the peculiar "blond" or "white" 
group discovered by Stefansson. near Corona- 
tion Gulf. (See White Eskimos.) All the 
groups, excepting those which have long had 
intercourse with the white race, may be classed 
in point of development with the prehistoric 
races of the age of ground -stone tools, though 
the Smith Sound natives, long before they met 
the whites, obtained iron from the Cape York 
meteorites, with which they tipped their weap- 
ons. This tribe, and indeed all the Greenland 



Eskimo, have no wood except such fragments of 
driftwood from Siberia as they have picked up 
on the shore and such pieces as they have ob- 
tained from white men. 

The sustenance of the Eskimo is chiefly de- 
rived from the capture of seals and cetaceous 
animals, the pursuit of which has kept them in- 
habitants of the seashore. The seal is their 
staple winter food and their most valuable re- 
source, supplying them with dog food, clothing, 
boats, tents, harpoon lines, light, and heat. The 
walrus, narwhal, whale, bear, and to a smaller 
extent the deer, fox, and hare, also afford 
important supplies. Thousands of birds are 
stored for winter use. In summer caribou are 
hunted, the skins of which furnish the clothing 
for the next winter. 

The men are constantly employed in hunting 
or in the manufacture and care of their hunt- 
ing contrivances, among which is the kayak, in 
which they chase their sea prey. The kayak is 
a swift and seaworthy canoe, made of skin, en- 
tirely decked over except for the round hole in 
the middle in which its one occupant sits. It 
is propelled by a double-bladed paddle. The 
oomiak (umiak)', or woman's boat, also built 
of skin, but open, is large enough to carry sev- 
eral passengers and also freight. It is paddled 
by women. The harpoon is a remarkably ingen- 
ious implement whose barb detaches itself from 
the handle when the animal is hit and, being 
attached to a float or drag, prevents the escape 
of the game. The dog sledge is common every- 
where except among the Eskimo of southwestern 
Greenland. In regions where iron is obtainable 
from the white men, iron runners are now 
largely substituted for those of ivory or whale- 
bone, formerly used. Eskimo dogs are admi- 
rably adapted for sledge work. 

The dwellings are always of two kinds — tents 
for summer and houses or huts for winter use. 
The tents, or tupiks, are made of sealskin; the 
igloos, or winter houses, are far more varied in 
structure among the different groups. They 
are usually built of stones, chinked and covered 
with moss and banked up with snow. The en- 
trance is a long passage high enough to admit 
a man crawling upon hands and knees. In some 
places — e.g., in northern Alaska — huts are half 
underground. Manv of the western and Lab- 
rador Eskimo build their houses chiefly of 
wood. Some of the winter houses of the East 
Greenland natives shelter 40 to 60 persons. The 
temporary winter houses, built during journeys, 
are made of blocks of snow, piled in a shape 
somewhat like that of a beehive. This is also 
the permanent winter house of the Central and 
Banks Land divisions. The dress for men and 
women consists of boots, trousers, and a jacket 
with a hood, which can be drawn up to cover 
the head. Women nursing children carry their 
infants in hoods. The boots of the women are 
higher than those of the men, and indeed among 
the Smith Sound Eskimo extend to the thighs. 
Except where trade is carried on with the 
whites, the clothing is entirely of furs and the 
skins of birds, and may be considered perfect 
for the conditions under which it is worn. 

In the relations between the sexes there is 
much laxity, but where missionary influences 
prevail the marital relations are of the con- 
ventional civilized type, and the sexual morality 
of many natives is of a high order. There is 
much that is admirable in these simple-minded 
people. They are honorable with regard to 

Digitized by 



property, children and the aged and infirm are 
well cared for, and generosity and hospitality 
are characteristic traits. Most of the products 
of the hunt are common property. The Eskimo 
are naturally cheerful, merry, and light-hearted, 
fond of song and music and with some skill in 
its production, though among tribes not in close 
contact with white men the only musical in- 
strument is a kind of small tambourine made 
of membrane stretched over an oval bone frame. 
They are friendly to strangers, and warfare is 
almost unknown among them. Many are adepts 
in making carvings of walrus ivory, the Alaska 
natives excelling in the ornamentation and finish 
of these products. Those natives who are not 
under missionary influence have the vaguest re- 
ligious ideas. They believe in invisible powers 
or demons which rule over the riches of the sea, 
and a special function of the angekoks, or 
shamans, is to propitiate these mysterious 

Bibliography. H. Rink, Tales and Tradi- 
tions of the Eskimo (London, 1875) ; id., Danish 
Greenland (ib., 1887); id., The Eskimo Tribes 
(ib., 1887) ; Josephine Diebitsch Peary, My 
Arctic Journal (New York, 1893) ; Nansen, 
Eskimo Life (London, 1894) ; R. E. Peary, 
Northward over the Great Ice, vol. i, appendix 
ii; f. Boas, "The Central Eskimo,' 1 Siwth An- 
nual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, pp. 
399-660; Murdock, "The Point Barrow Eskimo," 
Ninth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnol- 
ogy (1886-87); Nelson, "The Eskimo about 
Bering Strait," Eighteenth Annual Report of 
the Bureau of Ethnology, part i (1896-97) ; W. 
Thalbitzer, A Phonetical Study of the Eskimo 
Language (Copenhagen, 1904) ; V. Stefansson, 
My Life w ith the Eskimo (1913). 

ESKIMO DOG. See Sledge Dog. 

ESKE-SHEHB, es'ke-she'h'r. A town and 
railway junction in the Kutai Sanjak, Brusa, 
Asiatic Turkey, on the Pursak Su, 164 miles 
west of Angora by rail (Map: Turkey in Asia, 
B 2). It is noted for its warm mineral springs 
and valuable meerschaum mines. It is the 
ancient Dorylteum. Pop., 20,000, of which one- 
third are Christians and the rest Mohammedans. 

ESKI-SHEHR. The ancient section of the 
town of Malatia (q.v.) in Asia Minor. 

ESKI-ZAGBA, eVkft za'gra (Turkish name, 
meaning Old Zagra; Bulg. Stara-Zagora) . A 
town of Eastern Rumelia, Bulgaria, capital of 
the Department of Stara-Zagora, situated at 
the southern base of the Balkans, 45 miles south 
of Tirnova (Map: Turkey in Europe, E 3). In 
the neighborhood are numerous gardens, and 
rose oil is one of the chief products of the town. 
There are also a number of mineral springs. 
Eski-Zagra is advantageously located at the 
junction of the chief passes in the central Balkan 
Range. In July, 1877, a battle was fought near 
Eski-Zagrd between the Russians under General 
Gurko and the Turks under Suleiman Pasha, 
as a result of which the Russian forces were 
thrown back. Pop., 1887, 16,039; 1910, 22,003; 
composed chiefly of Bulgarians, Turks, and Jews. 

ES / LA. A river of Spain, 150 miles long, 
rising at the base of the Pefia TJrbina, one of 
the highest peaks of the Cantabrian Mountains, 
and flowing in a general southerly direction 
through the provinces of Leon and Zamora to 
its confluence with the Duero, about 20 miles 
below the city of Zamora (Map: Spain, C 2). 

ESLAVA, a-ala'va, Miguel Htlabion (1807- 
78). A Spanish composer and theorist. He 
Vol. VIII.— 1 



was born at Burlada, near Pamplona. In 1828 
he became maestro in Ossufia Cathedral, where 
he also took holy orders. In 1832 he was ap- 
pointed to the same position at Seville, and in 
1844 he became court maestro to Queen Isa- 
bella at Madrid. His principal works are the 
three operas El solitario (1841), Las treguas 
de Tolemaida (1842), and Pietro el crudele 
(1843) ; the valuable collections Museo orgdnico 
espaHol and Lira sacro-hispana ( 1869 ) ; about 
150 masses, motets, and psalms, and a brief 
history of the church music of Spain. 

ESLAVA, SebastUn de (1714-89). A 
Spanish soldier, born in Navarra, and one of 
the cadets with whom the Real Academia Militar 
of Barcelona was founded. Having served with 
distinction in the wars of Philip V, he was ap- 
pointed in 1738 lieutenant general, and in 1740 
Viceroy of New Granada (tne present Republic 
of Colombia). He re fortified the fort of Carta- 
gena, which in 1741 he brilliantly defended 
against a strong English force under Admiral 
Sir Edward Vernon. He served as Viceroy until 
1748. On his return to Spain he was advanced 
to the grade of captain general and in 1750 was 
made Governor of Andalusia (a highly coveted 
post at that time). The same year he was ap- 
pointed director of the Spanish infantry (a 
post he held for four years). Then, in 1754, 
he became Secretary of State for War. On the 
accession of Charles III to the throne Eslava 
retired to private life, living in Madrid till his 

ESMANN, eVman, Gustav (1860-1904). A 
Danish author and journalist, born and edu- 
cated at Copenhagen. He studied law, but 
abandoned it for literature, his first production 
being the two tales published in the volume 
Gammel Gceld (1885). His plays, which are 
frequently performed in Denmark, Norway, and 
Sweden, are superficially effective, but lacking 
in dramatic characterization. Among them may 
be mentioned: / Stiftelsen (1886) ; / Provinsen 
(1890); Den kcere Familie (1892); Magdalene 
(1893); Den store Masker ade (1895); Vandre- 
falken (1898); Det gamle Hjem (1899); Alex- 
ander den Store (with Sven Lange) ; Sangerim- 
den (1901). 

ESMARCH, eVmarK, Johannes Fbiedbicr 
August von (1823-1908). A German surgeon, 
born at T5nning, Schleswig-Holstein. He studied 
medicine at Kiel and Gttttingen, and in the 
Danish War of 1848 served as lieutenant, as 
assistant surgeon, as chief physician of the citi- 
zens 1 hospital at Flensburg, and lastly as adju- 
tant of Dr. Stromeyer. He became professor 
and director of the hospital at Kiel ip 1857, and 
during the Schleswig-Holstein War (1864) he 
was eminent in hospital work, and during the 
Franco-German War (1870-71) he was physi- 
cian general and consulting surgeon to the army. 
In 1871 he returned to Kiel as professor of 
surgery. His second wife was the Princess Hen- 
riette of Schleswig-Holstein. He was for many 
years the greatest authority on gunshot wounds. 
He originated valuable improvements in barrack 
hospitals, ambulances, etc., and was the inventor 
of the bloodless method of operating on the ex- 
tremities, which consists of applying a bandage 
firmly to the extremity from its distal point 
upward, thus pressing the blood out of the limb 
before applying the tourniquet. In this way 
danger from venous congestion after constrict- 
ing the limb is avoided. This method was in- 
vented by Esmarch independently and in 



ranee of similar suggestions by Grandesso Sil- 
vestri of Vicenza. Among his medical works 
are: Ueber Reaektionen nach Schusswunden 
(1851); Beitrage zur praktischen Chirurgie 
(1853-60); Ueber chronische Oelenkentsiindun- 
gen ( 1867 ) ; Ueber den Kampf der Humanitat 
gegen die Schreoken des Krieges (1869; 2d ed. f 
1899) ; Der erste Verband auf dem Schlacht- 
felde (3d ed., 1899); Verbandplatz und Feldla- 
zarett (1871); Ueber kunstliche Blutleere bei 
Operationen (1873); Handbuch der kriegschi- 
rurgischen Techmk (1877 and several subsequent 
editions) ; Die erste HUfe bei plotzlichen Un- 
glucksf alien: Evn Leitfaden fur Samariter- 
schulen (17th ed., 1901). 

ESMABCH, Kabl (1824-87). A German 
jurist, born at Sonderburg and educated at Kiel, 
Bonn, Heidelberg, and Berlin. In 1855 he be- 
came professor of Roman law at Cracow and 
two years later at Prague, where he remained 
until his death. Besides a number of epic 
poems, published under the name Karl von Alsen, 
he wrote the well-known legal work entitled 
Romische RechtsgescMchte (2d ed., 1877-80). 

ESttENABD, es'm&'naV, Joseph Alphonbb 
(1769-1811). A French publicist and poet, born 
at Pel is sane (Bouches du Rhone). After travel- 
ing extensively he settled in Paris and became 
coeditor of La Quotidienne (1797) and Le Mer- 
oure de France (1798). During the Consulate 
he was sent as secretary to the Admiral Villaret- 
Joyeuse, Governor of Martinique, and afterward 
was Consul to the island of St. Thomas (1804). 
A year later he published his poem La naviga- 
tion (1805), which had its inspiration many 
years before in his early travels in America. He 
was received into the Academy in 1810 and 
shortly after incurred the displeasure of Napo- 
leon by a satirical article on Russia in Le Jour- 
nal de VEmpvre, for which he was obliged to 
leave France. 

ESMERALDA, eVma-ral'da. The sweetheart 
of Quasimodo, in Victor Hugo's Notre Dame de 

ESMEBAI/DAN. A linguistic stock of South 
American Indians once occupying the entire 
course • of Esmeraldas River in northwestern 
Ecuador. Consult Rivet, in L'Annee linguis- 
tique (1908-10), and Seler, Qes. Abh. z. amer. 
Sprach- u. Altertumsk., vol. i, pp. 49-64 (Berlin, 

ESMERALDAS, es'ma-ral'das. A port of 
Ecuador and capital of the province of the same 
name, situated at the mouth of the Esmeraldas 
River on the Pacific Ocean (Map: Brazil, 
A3). The surrounding region produces tagua 
(see Ivory, Vegetable), tobacco, and cacao. 
The manufacture of cigars is the chief industry. 
Tagua, rubber, sugar, and cattle are the prin- 
cipal exports. The name was given by the Span- 
iards from the emeralds discovered in the vicin- 
ity. Pop., about 3000. 

ESMOND, Beatrix. A cousin of Henry Es- 
mond, in Thackeray's novel of that name; a 
beautiful, vain, ambitious woman who also ap- 
pears in The Virginians as Madame de Bernstein. 

ESMOND, Henry V. (1869-1922). An Eng- 
lish dramatist and actor, whose real name is 
Jack, born at Hampton Court, England, and 
educated by tutors. In 1885 he went on the 
stage, but after 1896 devoted himself chiefly to 
writing. His best-known plays are: One Sum- 
mer's Day (1897) ; Qrierson's Way (1897) ; The 
Wilderness (1901); When toe Were Twenty-one 
(1901); The Sentimentalist (1902); My Lady 



Virtue (1902); Billy's Little Love Affair 
(1903); A Young Man's Fancy (1912). Con- 
sult William Winter, The Wallet of Time (2 
vols., New York, 1913). 

ESNAMBUC, eVnaN'buk', Pierre Belain d' 
(1585-1636). 4- French navigator and founder 
of the French settlements in the West Indies. 
He was born at Allouville, and as commander 
of a vessel in the Caribbean took possession of 
the island of St. Christopher for the purpose 
of colonization. A plan suggested by him to 
the governments of France and England, whereby 
the island was to be divided between the 
two countries, was approved, and in 1626 D'Es- 
nambuc transported more than 500 immigrants 
to the new possession. Between the years 1627 
and 1636 he established settlements on Mar- 
tinique and other islands of the Caribbean. The 
town and fort of St. Pierre, completely destroyed 
by a volcanic eruption, May 8, 1902, were 
founded by him. 

BS'NE (Egyptian Sn6t, Coptic Sn&). An 
Egyptian town on the left bank of the Nile 
(lat. 25° 15' N., long. 32° 8' E.), about halfway 
between Erment and El Kab (Map: Egypt, 
C 2). By the Greeks it was called Latopolis, 
from the fish latos which was revered there. 
Esne was a place of considerable importance, 
especially in Koman times. The temple, dedi- 
cated to the god Knum, was probably 'built 
under the Ptolemies on the site of an older 
structure. The great portico of 24 columns con- 
tains many inscriptions of Roman emperors. 
One of these bears the name of Decius (250 aj>.) 
in hieroglyphics. Near Esne is the ancient con- 
vent of Ammonius, said to have been founded 
by the Empress Helena in honor of the martyrs 
who perished here in the persecution under 
Diocletian. Near here Coptic buildings have 
been discovered. Consult: Champollion, Notices 
descriptives (Paris, 1844) ; Mariette, Monu- 
ments of Upper Egypt (London, 1877); Lane- 
Poole, Egypt (ib., 1881). 

ESOP. See JEsop. 

ESOPHAGUS. See (Esophagus. 

ESO'PUS WAR. An intermittent conflict 
between the Indians and the Dutch settlers at 
Esopus (now Kingston) in Ulster Co., N. Y., 
which began in the summer of 1658. Some In- 
dians employed as field hands by the Dutch, 
while drunk and boisterous, were fired upon by 
the farmers. This gave rise to a series of bloody 
reprisals on the part of the savages, the most 
serious of which was the destruction of the 
village of Wiltwyck ( the Dutch equivalent for • 
the Indian Esopus), when 40 women and children 
were carried off as prisoners and 21 men were 
killed. Governor Stuyvesant of New Nether- 
land, in retaliation, immediately sent up a force 
which punished the Indians. In May, 1664, a 
treaty of friendship was concluded. 

ES'OTEBIC (Gk. Arwre/uicfa, es6terikos\ inner, 
from iav, e«<5, within). A word used at first by 
the ancient Greeks of those initiated into the 
Mysteries, but later applied in ancient as in mod- 
ern times to mark a distinction supposed to 
exist between certain classes of the writings or 
discourses of Aristotle (q.v.). The esoteric 
works, designed for the disciples, were thought 
to be less popular, either in style or in treat- 
ment, and to contain more technical doctrines, 
than the exoteric works, which were designed 
for the public. The word esoteric is not used 
by Aristotle himself, and it is doubtful if his 
use of the word exoteric implies this distinc- 

Digitized by 



ticm; he may be referring merely to "popular 
treatises." Grote understands the word exoteric, 
as used by Aristotle, to refer to the dialectic 
method, as opposed to the nonexoteric (eso- 
teric), or didactic, method. The term was also 
applied to the special teachings of Pythagoras. 
Consult Christ-Schmid, Oeachichte der Orie- 
chiachen Litterotur, i, 673 (5th ed., Munich, 1908). 

ESPALIEB, es-pal'yer (Fr„ fruit wall, It., 
apolliera, from Lat. spatula, broad piece, blade). 
A system of training fruit trees or vines on a 
wall. The trees are generally grown as cordons 
(q.v.). The branches are fastened to a trellis 
which is supported by the wall. Trees which 
are trained on a trellis opposite an espalier, 
usually with a path between, are called con- 

ESPALIEB PLANT. A plant which cannot 
grow erect without outside mechanical support; 
hence a prostrate or procumbent plant. See 

ESPABSETTE. See Sainfoin. 

ESPABTEBO, a'sp&r-ta'ro, Baldomebo ( 1792- 
1879). A Spanish general and statesman. He 
was born Feb. 27, 1792, at Granatula in La Man- 
cha and was educated at the University of Alma- 
gro. Upon the outbreak of the war against 
Napoleon he joined the patriot forces and fought 
until 1814, going the next year to South Amer- 
ica. There he served with the Spanish forces 
throughout the War of Liberation waged by the 
South American colonies. He returned in 1824 
to Spain and took a prominent part in the civil 
conflicts which followed the death of Ferdinand 
VII and the accession of Isabella II. He rose to 
be lieutenant general, and twice, as commander 
in chief, saved Madrid from the Car list forces — 
once in August, 1836, and again in September, 
1837. In 1836, too, he twice forced the Carlists 
to raise the siege of Bilbao. In 1839, by 
making with Maroto the famous convenio de 
Vergara (whereby the titles and ranks for 
nearly 1000 Carlist officers were recognized), 
he practically ended the war and drove Don 
Carlos from Spain — a service for which he was 
made Duke of Victoria and Duke of Morella 
and grandee of Spain, after having been created 
Count of Luchana for his bravery at Bilbao 
and Luchana. He now became practically mili- 
tary dictator of Spain, allied with the Progress- 
ist party, and in 1841, after the Queen Mother 
Maria Christina was forced to resign the re- 
gency, he was appointed by the Cortes in her 
place. His government was marked by energy 
and ability; but in 1843 a combination of parties 
naturally inimical to each other, the Bepubli- 
cans and Moderates, overthrew his government 
and drove him into exile. He spent four years 
in England and in 1848 returned to Spain, 
living quietly at Logrofio till 1854, when an 
insurrection of the people compelled the Queen 
Mother to leave the kingdom. Espartero, sup- 
ported by the Progressists, and General O'Donnell, 
supported by the Conservatives, now conducted 
a coalition government for two years; but the 
Progressists lost their hold in that time, and 
Espartero gave way (July, 1856) to O'Donnell. 
After 1856 Espartero refused to be active in 
politics, and in 1857 he resigned his dignity 
as senator. After the revolution of 1868, which 
resulted in the expulsion of Queen Isabella, 
he gave his full adhesion to the provisional 
government, though he took no part in its pro- 
ceedings. In 1870 he declined to become a candi- 
date for the throne of Spain. King Amadeo 



made him Prince of Vergara. In 1875 he ad- 
hered to King Alfonso. Consult Florez, Espar- 
tero, Historia de su vida militar y poUtica 
(Madrid, 1843-44), and Mariana, La regencia 
de Baldotnero Espartero (ib., 1870). See Spain. 

ESPABTO. A grass (Stipa tenacissima) ex- 
tensively employed in the manufacture of paper 
in Great Britain. Esparto is grown in northern 
Africa, Spain, and adjacent countries, from 
whence it is shipped for paper stock. A part 
of the esparto paper stock is derived from 
Lygeum spar Hum, a grass of the Mediterranean 

ESTER, Eugbn Johann Chkistoph (1742- 
1810). A German naturalist, born at Wunsiedel. 
He was appointed professor of natural history 
at Erlangen in 1782 and director of the cabinet 
of natural history there in 1806. His works 
on butterflies, Die europaischen BchmetterHnge 
(new ed., 1829-39) and Die ausldndischen 
BchmetterHnge (new ed., 1830) are notable. 

ESPEBANTO, a'spa-ran'to. The most popu- 
lar among the proposed auxiliary international 
languages. It has been indorsed by such men as 
Berthelot in France, Sir William Ramsey in 
England, Ostwald in Germany, and the philolo- 
gist Schuchardt in Austria. It has been intro- 
duced in many schools as a free elective, and the 
Chamber of Commerce in London has put it on 
its list of examinations for candidates wishing 
to apply for positions. It was invented by a 
Russian physician, Zamenhof, whose first publi- 
cation on the subject, in 1887, was signed "Dr. 
Esperanto" (Hopeful). The directing principle 
is to make use of everything that is common to 
the civilized languages and drop what is special 
to any one of them. In pronunciation, the Eng- 
lish w and th, the Frencn u, the Spanish j and 
n, are dropped; different sounds represented 
by the same letter are distinguished, e.g., g 
is always guttural (good), while § is used in 
words like gem; and so for other letters; thus, 
the strict phonetic spelling is possible: one 
sound, one letter. The principle of internation- 
alism is specially obvious in the vocabulary: 
words common to all civilized languages are 
chosen first; then those common to all but one 
language are adopted; then in all but two, and 
so forth. But when there is no one inter- 
national word, a selection is usually made, 
though somewhat at random, between Romance 
and German words. It may be noted that Slavic 
roots are less numerous than those of the above 
languages. A system of about 30 prefixes and 
suffixes, also borrowed from living languages, 
renders easy the task of memorizing. Instead 
of having one word for good and one for bad, 
Esperanto says good and not-good (bona, mal- 
bona), which is not always true; the infix in 
marks the feminine; patro, father, patrino, 
mother; this principle applies in nouns, adjec- 
tives, adverbs, verbs, etc. Again, instead of two 
words like cut and knife, Esperanto will say cut 
and cutter (tranci, trancilo). The grammar has 
16 rules without exceptions. The ending o 
always represents a noun, a an adjective, e an 
adverb, j the plural, i the infinitive of a verb, 
as the present tense, is the past, os the future, 
u the imperative, us the conditional, etc. Pos- 
sessive adjectives are formed by adding the 
adjectival a to the personal pronouns, mi, I, 
mia, my; the same for ordinal adjectives, tri, 
three, tria, third. For interrogation vu is placed 
before an affirmation. 

The adaptability and flexibility of Esperanto 

Digitized by 



have been illustrated by translations of scien- 
tific, philosophical, and literary works. There 
are Esperanto clubs in nearly all large cities. 
Consult O'Connor, Esperanto Complete Text- 
Book (New York). Following is a specimen of 
Esperanto, with the English translation: 

Esperanto Text: Simpla, fleksebla, belsona, 
vera internacia en siaj elementoj, la lingvo Es- 
peranto prezentas al la mondo civilizita la solan 
veran solvon de lingvo internacia; car, tre 
facile por homoj nemulte instruitoj, Esperanto 
estas komprenata sen peno de la personoj bone 

"Simple, flexible, well sounding, truly interna- 
tional in its elements, the language Esperanto 
presents to the civilized world the only true 
solution of the international language; for, verv 
easy for people not much learned, Esperanto is 
understood without trouble by well-educated 

There is little doubt that the present 
spread of Esperanto would have been much 
greater, had it not been for the creation of 
new letters by its author. This is the first 
international language to make such an attempt, 
with the result that many sympathetic news- 
papers and other publications, not^ possessing 
the special characters like 6\ 'g, /», f, i, and 4, 
did not find it possible to print without great 
difficulty extracts and articles in Esperanto. 
Besides philologists, whose objections to an in- 
ternational language are more or less well- 
known, others have found fault with many of 
the essential principles of the language. Thus, 
the principle of internationally of roots is not 
strictly followed; the accusative case is consid- 
ered by some unnecessary; while speakers of the 
Romance languages object to the use of -a to 
indicate adjectives and -o to indicate nouns, as 
confusing to them. Many also object to the use 
of the feminine form of the definite article (la) 
of the Romance languages instead of the simpler 
English the. While the verb is in general good, 
there is no doubt that the noun could be im- 
proved upon. The Germanic words, which are 
usually poorly selected, could either be omitted 
or reduced to the common Germanic form. Fi- 
nally, the mixture of languages, it is main- 
tained, renders it difficult for one to acquire the 

But in spite of these objections and many 
others that could be adduced, Esperanto has 
well served its purpose. Even if it is doomed 
to die, as many believe, it has shown the possi- 
bility and the necessity of a means of interna- 
tional communication if for no other means 
than those of business. Excess of enthusiasm, 
such as the translation of Shakespeare into Es- 
peranto, has often provoked the gibes of the 
opposition. Of the many publications issued 
during recent years which treat of Esperanto, it 
will suffice to note the following: Ivy Kellerman, 
A Complete Grammar of Esperanto (New York, 
1910) ; Bullen, Lessons in Esperanto (ib., 1908) ; 
Rhodes, English- Esperanto Dictionary (ib., 1908), 
which is based upon the Fundamento of Dr. 
Zamenhof, as well as the literature in Esperanto 
and the national Esperanto dictionaries bearing 
the "aprobo" of Zamenhof; Zamenhof, Die Welt- 
sprache "Esperanto" ; vollstandiges Lehrbuch, 
trans, into German by Trompeter (Nuremberg, 
1891); id., Wdrterbuch dcr internationalen Es- 
peranto- Sprache (ib., 1891); Meray, La langue 
Internationale auxiliaire "Esperanto" et la litte*- 
rature scientifique (Paris, 1902) ; Brugmann and 

Leskien, Zur Kritik der kunstlichen Weltspra- 
chen (2d ed., Strassburg, 1907) ; Underhill, Es- 
peranto and its Availability for Scientific Writ- 
ings ( Denver, 1908 ) ; and the periodical The 
British Esperantist. See Inter national Lan- 

ESPERSON, a'spar-son', Pietbo (1833- 
). An Italian jurist, born at Sassari, Sar- 
dinia. He studied at the university there, and 
was instructor in law in the university from 1860 
to 1865. In the latter year he was appointed 
professor of international law at the University 
of Pavia. His works include: Rapporti giuridici 
tra i belligeranti e i neutrali (1865) ; La ques- 
tions Anglo-Americano deV "Alabama" discussa 
seoondo i principii del diritto internazionale 
(1869); Oiurisdizione internazionale maritima 
(1877); VAngleterre et les capitulations dans 
Vile de Chypre au point de vue du droit inter- 
national (1879) ; Le legge sulla naturalizzastione 
in Italia ( 1886) ; De 9 dritti di autore suite opera 
delV ingegno ne* rapport o internazionali (1899). 

ESPINAI/. A town of Colombia, in the 
Department of Tolima, 70 miles southwest of 
Bogota. It has tobacco and pottery industries. 
Pop., 10,000. 

BSPINAL (Sp., thorny), or CHANAR. See 

ESPINAS, a'spS'na', Victor Alfred (1844- 
1922). A French philosopher and sociologist, 
born at Saint-Florentin. In 1893 he became pro- 
fessor of social economy at the Sorbonne, Paris, 
and in 1904 professor of the history of the 
doctrines of economics. He wrote: Les socUt4s 
animates (1877); Histoire des doctrines ico- 
nomiques (1893); La philosophic sociale du 
XVI Heme siecle et la Revolution (1898); La 
troisieme phase et la dissolution du merchan- 
tilisme (1902). He translated, with Th. Ribot, 
Spencer's Principles of Psychology (1874). 

ESPINASSE, annas'. See L'Espinasse. 

ESPINASSE, Esprit Charles Marie (1815- 
59). A French general, born at Castelnaudary. 
He was made a general and aid-de-carap to Louis 
Napoleon after the coup d'6tat of Dec. 2, 1851, 
in recognition of his service in invading the 
National Assembly at night and seizing the 
quaestors. During the Crimean War he fought 
at the taking of the Malakoff. As Minister of 
the Interior from February to June, 1858, he 
presented to the French Legislature the famous 
Loi de surety generate. He then became sen- 
ator. He was killed at Magenta. 

ESPINEL, a'spS'nal', Vicente MartInez 
(1551-1624). A Spanish poet, novelist, and 
musician, born at Ronda, Andalusia. After 
studying at the University of Salamanca, from 
which he was expelled in 1572, he served as a 
soldier in Italy and Flanders and upon his re- 
turn to Spain, about 1584, prepared to enter the 
church, taking orders in 1587 and becoming chap- 
lain of Ronda in 1591. For absenting himself 
from his living without permission he lost his 
cure. Later he was made choirmaster of Plasen- 
cia. He revived a form of poetry known as 
d4cimas — stanzas of 10 octosyllabic verses — 
which came thereafter to be called espinelas. 
He was credited by his contemporaries (inter 
alios Lope de Vega) with having added a fifth 
string to the guitar. This is now disputed on 
evidence tending to prove that at earlier dates 
there were guitars with five, and even with six, 
strings. His most important work is a ro- 
mance, ReHaciones de la vida del escudero Marcos 
de Obregon (1618), which is largely an auto- 
Digitized by CrrOOQlC 


biography with embellishments. For many 
years Lesage was accused of having ruthlessly 
pillaged Marcos de Obregdn for his Oil Bias. 
The matter has been thoroughly cleared up, and 
it is shown that Lesage's total borrowings from 
French and Italian sources, as well as from this 
and other Spanish sources, represent only about 
one-fifth of the bulk of Oil Bias. Espinel also 
wrote a ^translation of Horace and lyrical poems, 
Diver sas rimas de Vicente Espinel (1591). He 
left in manuscript many poems which have re- 
mained inedited because of their licentiousness. 
Consult Pedro Salva y Mallen, Catdlogo de la 
biblioteca de Salvd (Valencia, 1872), for some 
previously unpublished poems. Consult also J. 
P6rez de Guzman's edition of Marcos de Obregdn 
(Barcelona, 1881) with introduction, and Leo 
Claretie, Lesage romancier (Paris, 1890). 

ESPINOSA, a'sp^-nd'sa, Gaspab de ( T1484- 
1537). A Spanish lawyer and soldier, born at 
Medina del Campo. In 1514 he accompanied 
Pedrarias Davila to America and became chief 
justice of the colony at Darien. He was judge 
of the tribunal which condemned to death Bal- 
boa, Davila's predecessor as Governor, but re- 
fused to pass sentence upon the famous explorer 
until ordered to do so by the Governor. He 
abandoned his judicial position and was the 
leader of several expeditions against the Indians, 
whom he treated with great cruelty. In 1518 
he founded Panama and several years later re- 
turned to Spain, where he was rewarded by 
the Emperor Charles V and was appointed a 
crown officer in Santo Domingo. He returned 
to Panama, and when Pizarro fitted out his 
second Peruvian expedition became one of his 
financial backers. He tried also to bring about 
an understanding between Almagro and Pizarro, 
but died in Cuzco without fulfilling his desire. 

ESPIBITO SANTO, a-spS're-tu siiNtu 
(Portug.). A maritime state of Brazil, bounded 
by the state of Bahia on the north, the Atlantic 
Ocean on the east, the state of Rio de Janeiro 
on the south, and Minas Geraes on the west 
(Map: Brazil, N, J 7). Its area is 17,310 
square miles. The Sierra dos Aimores marks the 
western border. The coast is generally swampy, 
but to the south there are precipitous cliffs. 
The interior is generally mountainous, with ele- 
vations reaching 7000 feet. The main river is 
the navigable Rio Doce, which divides the state 
into two equal parts. All the streams are 'well 
supplied with fish. There is but one good har- 
bor, that of Espirito Santo. The tropical cli- 
mate is tempered by the proximity of the sea, 
the mountains, and the extensive forests. 

The soil is very fertile. Sugar cane and coffee 
are chiefly grown, cotton and rice receiving some 
attention. There is one cotton mill in the state. 
The principal export is coffee, which is all 
shipped from Victoria (q.v.), the capital and 
practically the only port. The forests furnish 
costly woods and rare drugs. There are wild 
stretches of land, lying for the most part in 
the north, little explored as yet, and inhabited 
by Indians. Fishing is a leading occupation. 
Deposits of marble and lime have been found, 
but there is no mining. Stock raising is neg- 
lected. Espirito Santo has four representatives 
in the national Chamber of Deputies. There are 
in the state about 50 miles of railway. 

Pop., 1890, 135,997; 1900, 209,783; 1913, 
430,000. There are several German settlements. 
Though the state is liberal in its supply of 
funds for public schools, the percentage of chil- 


dren receiving instruction is low, and the inhabi- 
tants have little education. The shores of 
Espirito Santo were first visited by the Portu- 
guese in 1535. 

ESPOTJS'AL (OF. espousailles, Fr. 4pou- 
sailles, from Lat. sponsalia, betrothal, pi. of 
sponsaliSf bridal, from sponsa, bride, from spon- 
dere t to pledge). A ceremony of betrothal pre- 
paratory to marriage. 1. Among the Jews the 
first advances suggesting betrothal or engagement 
were generally on the part of the young man's 
parents (Gen. xxxiv. 6, 24) ; sometimes, however, 
the young man himself suggested the union 
(Judg. xiv. 2). The proposition was accom- 
panied by the giving of gifts, and, when both 
parties agreed, the groom's parents gave a 
dowry to the bride's family. Originally this 
was the property of the family, but later it be- 
came the property of the bride to provide for 
her future in case of forced divorce or the death 
of her husband. From the time of betrothal 
any breach of chastity on the part of the bride 
meant death, and in general the same rules ap- 
plied as if the marriage had already been cele- 
brated. There was no definite period after be- 
trothal when the marriage took place. In later 
times the right of choosing was given to the 
individuals concerned in the marriage, but even 
then the form of betrothal was still binding. 2. 
In the early Christian Church also a ceremony 
of espousal preceded marriage. The prelimi- 
naries consisted in a mutual agreement between 
the parties that the marriage should take place 
within a limited time, confirmed by certain 
donations as the earnest of marriage, and at- 
tested by a sufficient number of witnesses. The 
free consent of parties contracting marriage was 
required by the old Roman law and by the Code 
of Justinian. The gifts bestowed were publicly 
recorded. The dowry settled on the bride was 
stipulated in public instruments under hand 
and seal. The ring was given at the betrothal 
rather than at the actual marriage. The use of 
the marriage ring dates from very early times, 
and its recognized place was then as now on the 
woman's fourth finger. The witnesses present, 
friends of both parties, were usually 10 in num- 
ber. The espousal, as incorporated with the 
wedding rite, is plainly traceable in the usage of 
the Roman, Anglican, and other churches of the 
present day. Consult Mielziner, The Jewish Law 
of Marriage and Divorce (Cincinnati, 1884). 

ESPRIT DES LOIS, a'spre^ da lwa. See 

ESPRITS FORTS, A'spre' f6r (Fr., bold spir- 
its). The name assumed by the French school 
of writers termed freethinkers (q.v.) in England 
and including Voltaire, Diderot* HelvStius, 
D'Alembert, and their contemporaries. While 
the English freethinkers aimed at securing 
merely freedom of religious speculation, and 
did not seek the violent substitution of a system 
based upon their own views for the existing 
order, the French esprits forts held a distinctly 
aggressive position outside of all religious con- 
fessions, vigorously opposed the despotism of 
church as well as of state, and were propagan- 
dists of the most radical sort. Skeptical of the 
value of human feeling as a guide, they desired 
the authority of pure reason alone to be recog- 
nized and the supremacy of the intellect to be 
everywhere acknowledged. Their influence was 
extensivelv felt, and many of the doctrines which 
they inculcated bore both good and evil fruit in 
the following century. 

Digitized by 



ESPBONCEDA T LABA, as'pr6n-tha'Da 
6 lii'ra, Jos6 Ignacio Javieb Obiol Encabna- 
ci6n de (1808-42). A Spanish poet, born at, 
or near, Almendralejo, Estremadura. At 14, 
Espronceda was already noted for his verses 
and had joined a secret society ; and shortly there- 
after he was sent to the Franciscan convent at 
Guadalajara for five years of seclusion as a 
revolutionist. He fought in Paris in the revolu- 
tion of 1830 and afterward in the struggle for 
Polish liberty. Taking advantage of the am- 
nesty of 1833, he returned to Spain, obtained a 
commission in the Queen's Guards, was sent to 
The Hague in 1840 as Secretary of Legation, 
and in 1842 was elected deputy from Almeria; 
but he was frequently in political and official 
disfavor, for his republican spirit kept him in- 
volved in plots, only ceasing with his early 
death. Espronceda is called the Spanish Byron, 
and he has also been compared to Victor Hugo, 
but has neither his force nor originality. He 
stood for the ardent, eager, revolutionary young 
Spain of his day, and his odes reflect that spirit. 
No lyric poet of his country has surpassed him 
in these. While in seclusion at Guadalajara, he 
began his epic poem El Pelayo. Later he wrote 
a part of another narrative poem, El diablo 
mundo (1841), dealing with the Faust legend; 
a novel, Don Sancho Saldana (1834); and a 
fantastic romance, El estudiante de Salamanca, 
a variation of the Don Juan legend. A com- 
plete edition of his works, Obras poHicas y 
escritos en prosa, was prepared in 1884 by his 
daughter, Dofia Blanca de Espronceda de Esco- 
sura, with much material hitherto unedited. 
The second volume has not been published. Con- 
sult also: E. Rodriguez Soils, Espronceda: su 
tiempo, su vida, y sus obras (Madrid, 1883); 
the excellent works by Philip H. Churchman, 
"Espronceda's Blanca de Borbon" and "More 
Inedita," in the Revue Hispanique, vol. xvii, 
pp. 549-777 (1907), "An Espronceda Bibliogra- 
phy," in the Revue Hispanique, vol. xviii, pp. 
741-773 (1007), and "Byron and Espronceda," 
in the Revue Hispanique, vol. xx, pp. 1-210 
(1909); A. Bonilla y San Martin, "El Pensa- 
miento de EBpronceda," in the E span a Moderna, 
vol. ccxxxiv, pp. 69-101 (1908) ; J. Fitzmaurice- 
Kelly, in the Modern Language Review, vol. iv, 
pp. 20-39 (1908) ; J. Cascales y Miifioz, "Apun- 
tes y materiales para la biograffa de Espron- 
ceda," in the Revue Hispanique, vol. xxiii, pp. 
1-108 (1910). 

ESTY, James Pollabd (1785-1860). An 
American meteorologist, the founder of modern 
physical or theoretical meteorology. He was 
born in Westmoreland Co., Pa., graduated in 
1808 at the Transylvania University, Lexington, 
Ky., studied law at Xenia, Ohio, and was prin- 
cipal of the academy at Cumberland, Md., from 
1812 to 1817. He then became professor of 
languages in the classical department of the 
Franklin Institute of Philadelphia, where he re- 
mained until about 1853, when he resigned in 
order to devote himself wholly to meteorological 
lectures and investigations. His memoir of 1836 
on the theory of Rtorms gained for him the 
Magellanic prize. In 1840 he visited England 
and France and discussed his theories in person 
before the British Association and the French 
Academy of Sciences. Espy's convection theory 
was based on sound physical principles, but his 
ideas on the mechanics of storms are not borne 
out by observed facts. Redfield supported the 
now generally accepted rotary theory of the 


mechanism sometimes set in action by convec- 
tion. In 1841 Espy returned and published his 
Philosophy of Storms. In 1842 the United States 
Congress appointed him meteorologist to the- 
War Department, where he established a service 
of daily weather observations, compiled daily 
weather maps, traced the progress and develop- 
ment of storms, and submitted, in October, 1843, 
a first annual report containing a great body of 
facts. He was subsequently appointed meteorolo- 
gist to the Navy Department. In 1852 he was 
ordered by Congress to continue his researches 
in connection with the Smithsonian Institution, 
which had already undertaken the collection of 
meteorological data. To Espy are due the stim- 
ulus and the knowledge that made the present 
United States Weather Bureau a possibility. 
An appreciative sketch will be found in Apple- 
ton's Popular Science Monthly for April, 1889. 
Consult also Monthly Weather Review, vol. xxxv 
(Washington, 1907). 

ESQTJTLACHE, fi'skG-la'cha, Don Fbancisco 
de Bobja Y Abag6n, PbIncipe de (c.1581-1658) ; 
known also as Fbancisco de Bobja y Acevedo. 
A Spanish poet, born in Madrid. He was Viceroy 
of Peru from 1614 until 1621, and the remainder 
of his life was spent at the court of Madrid. 
He is the author of the sacred poem La pasidn 
de Nuestro Sehor (1638); an epic poem in 
honor of the conquest of Naples, Ndpolcs re- 
cuperada (Saragossa, 1651) ; and a translation 
of Thomas a Kempis (Brussels, 1661). Several 
editions of his poems have been published under 
the title Obras en verso (1639-48, 1654-63). 
Selections of his works are to be found in the 
Biblioteca de Autorcs EspaHoles, vols, xvi, xxix, 
xlii, and lxi. 

ES'QTJILINE HILL (Lat. Esquilinus Mons). 
The highest of the seven hills of Rome (246 
feet), standing between the Viminal and the 
Cselian and east of the Palatine. It has two 
spurs, Mons Oppius and Mons Cispius, on the 
former of which stands the church of San Pietro 
in Vincoli, on the latter Santa Maria Maggiore. 
Its unsanitary condition in early times was 
remedied under Augustus by Maecenas, who 
buried a whole section under a layer of fresh 
earth 25 feet deep and laid out on it the pleas- 
ure grounds known as the Gardens of Maecenas 
(q.v.). The Esquiline under the Empire became 
a fashionable residence section. On it stood the 
houses of Vergil, Horace, Maecenas, and Proper- 
tius, and also the baths of Titus. Nero's Golden 
House covered much of the Esquiline. Many 
ruins of ancient edifices have been uncovered, 
but at once destroyed, in the course of modern 
building operations, and the district now forms 
an entirely new quarter of the city. Consult 
Platner, The Topography and Monuments of An- 
cient Rome (2d ed., New York, 1911). 

ESQTJTLINTTS MONS. See Esquiline Hill. 

ESQUIMALT, es-kwf'malt. A naval and 
military station near Victoria, B. C, Canada, 
on Vancouver Island and the Strait of San Juan 
de Fuca (Map: British Columbia, D 5), and on 
'the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway. The in- 
dustries include a salmon cannery, shipbuilding, 
a limekiln, oyster beds, a barrel factory, and a 
tile and sewer-pipe factory. Esquimalt has an 
excellent harbor and was for a time the head- 
quarters of the British Pacific squadron; it also 
has a navy yard, graving dock, barracks, arsenal, 
meteorological station, and hospital. Tt is con- 
nected with Victoria by an electric railway. It 
has strong fortifications, manned by Canadian 

Digitized by 



troops, the British garrison haying been with- 
drawn in 1906. In 1910 the dry dock was trans- 
ferred by the British Admiralty to the Canadian 
government. Four warships were stationed 
here, also a school of coast-defense artillery. 
Pop., 1914, about 250, exclusive of military and 
naval forces. 

ESQUIMAUX. See Eskimo. 

ESQUIBE (OF. escuyer, Sp. scudero, It. scu- 
diero, ML. scutarius, shield bearer, from Lat. 
scutum, shield). In chivalry, the shield bearer 
or armor bearer of the knight to whom he was 
an apprentice while learning the use of arms. 
(See Chtvalby.) The title is at present given, 
in England and in some parts of the United 
States, to all persons supposed to be in easy 
circumstances, excluding manual laborers and 
small shopkeepers. Although the title of es- 
quire is now used with little discrimination, the 
following seem to be those whose claim to it 
stands on the ground either of legal right or 
of long-established courtesy:* esquires by birth — 
(1) all the untitled sons of noblemen; (2) the 
eldest sons of knights and baronets; (3) the 
sons of the younger sons of dukes and mar- 
quises, and their eldest sons. There are also 
esquires by profession, whose rank does not 
descend to their children; and esquires by office, 
e.g., justices of the peace, who enjoy the title 
only during their tenure of office. The creation 
of esquires by letters patent or investiture long 
ago ce ased. 

ESQUIBOL, a'skfi'rdl', Jean Etietoe Dom- 
inique (1772-1840). A celebrated French 
alienist, born at Toulouse. He served in the 
military lazaretto at Narbonne in 1794, ob- 
tained his degree of M.D. in 1805, and was ap- 
pointed physician to the SalpStrtere at Paris in 
1811. After 1817 he delivered clinical lectures 
on the diseases affecting the mind and their 
cures; in 1818 he secured the appointment of 
a commission, of which he became a member, 
for the remedy of abuses in insane asylums; in 
1823 he became inspector general of the Uni- 
versity, and in 1825 first physician to the 
Maison des Alienes. He was at the same time 
principal physician of the private insane asylum 
at Charenton, which he had organized. During 
the July revolution he lost all his public offices 
and withdrew into private life. By his humane 
treatment of the insane he often effected cures. 
His writings embrace all the questions connected 
with the treatment of insanity. Esquirol paid 
great attention to the construction of suitable 
buildings for the insane; and most of the modern 
insane asylums in France, such as those of 
Rouen and Montpellier, have been built accord- 
ing to his directions. His most important works 
are Des illusions chez les ali&nH (1832; Eng. 
trans, by Liddell, 1833) and Des maladies 
men tales conside're'es sous les rapports medical, 
kygi&n ique, et me'dico-le'gal (1838). 

ESQTJTBOS, a'skS'rds', Alphonse Henri 
(1812-76). A French poet, romancer, radical 

Politician, and anti-Catholic agitator, born in 
'aris. He was imprisoned and confined for his 
Evangile du peuple (1840) and exiled for his 
political activity after Napoleon's coup d'Stat 
(1851). He was one of the few legislators who 
dared to vote against the war with Germany 
(1870). He held office under the Government 
of National Defense (1870), was suspended by 
Gambetta, elected deputy in 1871, and senator 
in 1876, as dSmocrate-socialiste. His political 
works are: Paris, ou les sciences, les institu- 



tions, et les masurs au XI Xe steels (1847); 
Histoire des Montagnards (1847) ; L'Angleterre 
et la vie anglaise (1859-70) ; La NSerktnde et 
la vie hollandaise (1859). In English he pub- 
lished Religious Life in England (1867). His 
poetry appeared under the titles Les hirondelles 
(1834); Chants d'un prisomUer (1841). To 
fiction he contributed Le magicien (1837) and 
Charlotte Corday (1840). Socialistically ethi- 
cal are La vie future au point de vue socialists 
(1857) and La morale univer sells (1859). 

ESQTJTVEL, a'ske-veT, Juan de (c.1470- 
c.1519). A Spanish soldier. In 1502 he accom- 
panied the expedition of Ovando, who was ap- 
pointed to succeed Bobadilla as Governor of 
Hispaniola. He was sent by Ovando in 1504 to 
subjugate the Indians of the Province of Higuey, 
then led in revolt by the cacique Cotabanama. 
In 1509 he was dispatched by Diego Columbus 
to conquer the island of Jamaica and establish 
a colony there. He soon accomplished the sub- 
mission of the Indians and founded the town of 
Sevilla Nueva. During his few years of rule 
the colony, through his wisdom and moderation, 
attained to great prosperity. 

ESS, e's, Van. The name of two Benedictine 
monks, cousins, distinguished as Roman Catho- 
lics of the Liberal school. — The elder, Kabl 
van Ess (1770-1824), was born at Warburg, 
Westphalia, Sept. 25, 1770. He entered the 
Benedictine monastery of Huysburg, near Hal- 
berstadt, in 1788, became prior of the cloister in 
1801, and episcopal commissary in 1811. He 
died Oct. 22, 1824. With his cousin he pre- 
pared a German translation of the Bible and 
made a revision of the Osnabrttck song book. 
He advocated the use of the German language in 
the liturgy. — Johann Heinrich van Ess, better 
known by his romantic name of Leandeb (1772- 
1847), was born at Warburg, Feb. 15, 1772. 
He was educated at the Dominican gymnasium 
of Warburg, and joined the Benedictine monas- 
tery of Marienmunster at Paderborn in 1790. 
He was ordained priest in 1796, was pastor at 
Schwalenburg till 1812, and professor of the- 
ology in the Marburg Seminary until 1822. He 
then retired to private life and devoted himself 
to the translation of the Bible and the circula- 
tion of the Scriptures in the vernacular. His 
work was disapproved by the Catholic authori- 
ties, and he defended himself in several publica- 
tions. He was for a time connected with the 
Catholic Bible Society of Regensburg, then was 
agent of the British Bible Society. In 1807 
he published a German translation of the New 
Testament, the circulation of which was for- 
bidden by the Pope. It is the version now 
circulated by the Wtirttemberg Bible Society 
among Roman Catholics. His translation of 
the entire Bible was completed in 1840. He also 
prepared editions of the Septuagint and the Vul- 
gate and the Greek New Testament. He died at 
Affolderbach, in the Odenwald, Oct. 13, 1847. 
Van Ess possessed a valuable library, which was 
purchased after his death for the Union Theo- 
logical Seminarv of New York. 

ESSAAD EXTENDI, eVsad €f-fen'de\ Mo- 
hammed (1790-1848). A Turkish historian, born 
in Constantinople in 1790. He was surnamed 
Sahaf-Zadeh, 'son of the bookbinder,' from his 
father's occupation. He was historiographer of 
the Ottoman Empire, superintendent of the offi- 
cial journal of the Empire, and Ambassador to 
Persia. A portion of one of his works has been 
translated into French and edited by Caussin de 

gitized by 



Perceval under the title Precis hisiorique de la 
destruction du corps dee Janissaires (Paris, 
1833) . 

ESSAD TOPTANI, es'sad tdp-ta'n$, Pasha 
( c. 1863-1 920 ). An Albanian soldier and na- 
tional leader, a member of the Toptani family of 
Tirana, near Durazzo. He was trained for the 
army, served in the garrisons of Macedonia and 
Anatolia, and finally commanded the gendarmerie 
at Constantinople. For his services in the war 
against Greece in 1897 he was granted the title 
of Pasha. Although he killed the agent who had 
been directed by Sultan Abdul Ham id to murder 
his brother, Ghani Toptani, his influence was so 
great that Abdul Hamid dared not punish him. 
Instead, he was transferred to Janina, where 
he commanded the local gendarmerie and was 
even raised to the rank of general. Out of 
hatred for Abdul Hamid, Essad joined the Young 
Turk movement in 1908, marched with the Salo- 
niki troops to vindicate the constitution, and 
was head of the deputation that bore the news 
of his deposition to Abdul Hamid. During the 
Balkan War, Essad participated in the defense 
of Scutari against the Montenegrins in 1912; 
and when the Powers declared in favor of the 
autonomy of Albania, he raised the Albanian 
flag over his troops. Shortly after this inci- 
dent the Turkish commander, Hassan Riza Pasha, 
was murdered, thus leaving Essad in full com- 
mand at Scutari. In 1913 he was a member 
of the provisional Albanian government, and in 
1914 be was appointed Minister of War and 
of the Interior. While on a visit to Italy and 
Austria in 1914, he was honored with the cross 
of the Order of the Crown of Italy and the grand 
cross of the Order of Francis Joseph. 

ES'SAY. Unlike other literary forms, as the 
epic, the novel, and the drama, the essay was 
the invention of an individual, not the climax of 
a long process of growth and development. It 
sprang complete from the pen of Montaigne in 
the sixteenth century; and Montaigne still re- 
mains the most illustrious of essayists. Pas- 
sages in classical literature may be cited which 
bear a certain relation to this form, and Bacon 
called the epistles of Seneca "essays," but none 
of these writings were in any real sense related 
ancestrally to the modern essay. As contrasted, 
e.g., with the novel, the essay according to 
Montaigne is' brief and structurally free in form 
or formless. The name originally chosen for it 
suggests certain characteristics which distin- 
guish it now as clearly as they did in the day 
of its origin. As the word "essay" — from the 
French essai, experiment; the Latin, exagium, 
a weighing, from ewigere, to examine — indi- 
cates, this form was a new literary experiment; 
it approached its theme tentatively rather than 
in the manner of sustained argument and final 
exposition; it was a sally into, rather than a 
complete conquest of, the chosen subject. In 
Montaigne's hands it was chatty, informal, in- 
timately personal, rambling, familiar, presup- 
posing a single friendly listener. It was, too, 
the flower of ripe culture and experience; it left 
behind it a sense of overflow, as from deep 
springs of humane wisdom. Such was the fa- 
miliar essay as practiced by Montaigne, and 
such substantially, in both form and manner, it 
remains to-day, at least in one of its two de- 

France was late in producing successors to 
Montaigne. The second practitioner of this 
literary form was an Englishman, Francis 


Bacon, after Montaigne perhaps the greatest of 
essayists. His essays first appeared in 1597, 
17 years after the appearance of the Essais of 
the great Frenchman. In Bacon the character- 
istics of the new literary genre are substantially 
the same as in Montaigne; his essays are brief 
and formless and informal — pithy jottings drawn 
about a topic as steel fragments about a magnet; 
without unity, the end forgetting the beginning ; 
confidential and intimate, though with a grave 
confidence and a stately intimacy; suggestive 
beyond anything in modern literature, yet with- 
out pretext of organic structure or the orderly 
conduct of thought to a logical conclusion. If 
Bacon's essays lack the grace, abandon, flow, and 
perfect ease of their predecessors, they still con- 
form essentially to the Montaigne type. 

After Bacon the seventeenth century saw little 
or nothing of the true essay. The form was 
often approached, though rarely achieved, in 
tracts, news-letters, pamphlets, and the like. 
In 1600, however, William Corn wal lis published 
papers which, however negligible from the liter- 
ary point of view, were still in kind essays, and 
in 1668 Abraham Cowley, beloved of Charles 
Lamb, put forth Several Discourses by Way of 
Essays which are truly akin to the essays of 
Montaigne. In the year just named also ap- 
peared Dryden's Essay on Dramatic Poesy, 
which, in dialogue though it be, may be taken 
as typical of a kind of writing different enough 
from the essays of the first French and English 
practitioners of the art, and yet retaining traits 
in common with them. Dryden's Essay is longer 
than the pioneers in this genre were wont to' 
make theirs. In place of formlessness there is 
careful and logical structure, while the con- 
fidential manner that engaged, flattered, and 
held the attention of the reader gives place to 
the literary tone and deportment proper to an 
academic forum. On the other hand, Dryden's 
Essay is brief as compared with dissertation or 
treatise; it absolves itself from the duty of full 
and exhaustive demonstration; and, however 
carefully and logically composed, it insists upon 
maintaining a modest, unpretentious, and ten- 
tative air. Thus, early in its history, the word 
"essay" was accepted — and still is — as referring 
ambiguously and indifferently either to the fa- 
mil iar^ essay as practiced by Montaigne and 
those in his tradition — the brief, formless, per- 
sonal, intimate essay; or to the longer, more 
logical, less personal, and more formal type, of 
which Dryden's Essay on Dramatic Poesy is rep- 
resentative. After Dryden there is little to de- 
tain the student of the essay until he reaches 
the opening years of the eighteenth century, a 
period voluminous in this kind of literature. In 
the first decade of that century Addison and 
Steele began to offer a world that has never yet 
tired of them their delightful papers, ingratiat- 
ingly confidential, familiar but well bred, and 
full of pleasantness and humor. In this light, 
debonair, and graceful form the essays of the 
Tatler and the Spectator gathered up the float- 
ing talk and gossip of society, the clubs, and the 
coffeehouses ; moralized the material ; and offered 
it again to the public fresher and more enter- 
taining than at first, and a most wholesome and 
grateful literary diet for the classes to whom 
it appealed. Of the unnumbered essays of the 
time — some 200 periodicals chiefly composed of 
essays are said to have sprung up — compara- 
tively few survived. Conspicuous among these 
are many essays of Swift, which live with a 

Digitized by 



vitality that time will hardly sap, and are 
published afresh for each succeeding generation. 
After the Tatlcr and the Spectator^ however, 
the essay tended to become heavily moral and 
dully didactic. But the second half of the 
eighteenth century was to introduce one worthy 
successor to the Spectator writers in Oliver 
Goldsmith, whose miscellanies offer many charm- 
ing essays, essentially of the familiar type. 
Contemporary with Goldsmith was Dr. Johnson, 
who in the Rambler and elsewhere wrote heavy- 
handed imitations of the successes of an earlier 
generation. By the end of the eighteenth cen- 
tury the essay was practically dead. 

In the early nineteenth century came Charles 
Lamb to breathe a new life into the form and to 
win for himself a place as a prince of essayists, 
in some respects quite unsurpassed in the his- 
tory of the art. He tossed aside the pomposity 
and the complacent grandiosity of Dr. Johnson, 
and therewith every shred of classical stiffness 
that may have clung about Addison, and stood 
forth a familiar essayist par excellence; free 
to be his whimsical self; culling from the Eng- 
lish literature of the preclassical period what- 
ever in diction, phrase, or imagery struck him as' 
quaint, piquant, and racy; formless in his writ- 
ings as he chose to be, yet binding, as by some 
invisible chain of mood or sentiment, seemingly 
rambling essays into a satisfying unity and har- 
mony. Once more in his work the essay justifies 
itself as for certain types of mind an incom- 
parable vehicle of self-expression. While Lamb 
was writing, essays with a distinctive charm and 
flavor were coming from the pen of a lesser 
literary light, Leigh Hunt. 

With, the first quarter of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, there came, too, a remarkable development 
of the formal essay, literary and other. The 
Edinburgh Review, Blackwood's, and Eraser's 
assembled, a notable group of essayists. At this 
time, Hazlitt, Jeffrey, and De Quincey were 
active, and in 1825 Macaulay published his 
earliest essay, "Milton." Then, too, began to 
appear the masterly essays of Carlyle. With 
these men and others the formal essay reached 
its full bloom, becoming more varied and elabo- 
rate than ever before— critical, controversial, 
contentious, philosophical, or scientific, and yet 
retaining such distinctive traits of the form as 
comparative brevity, a tentative and suggestive, 
rather than a complete and final, aim, and an 
air more freely personal, whimsical, and idiosyn- 
cratic than would have become more extended 
and pretentious works. The growing vogue of 
periodical literature at this time insured the 
essayist a wide hearing and opened a market 
for him; and the essay forthwith became in- 
creasingly a favorite form for independent 
thinkers who desired to offer experimentally 
new theories or to present some observation in 
art, literature, history, or science, dealing thus 
at first cursorily and suggestively with data to 
be embodied later, perhaps, in bulky tomes of 
sustained logic and masses of ordered facts — 
witness Spencer's Synthetic Philosophy or Dar- 
win's Origin of Species. From the days of 
Charles Lamb to the present, English literature 
has never lacked distinguished practitioners of 
the art of essay writing in its two branches of 
the familiar and the formal essay, as the names 
of Arnold, Pater, Lang, Stevenson, Dobson, 
Gosse, Saintsbury, and Arthur Christopher Ben- 
ton variously and sufficiently attest. 

American writers, as essayists, hold an honor- 



able place, with the mellow and genial essays of 
Washington Irving initiating the familiar, and 
those of Poe early representing the more formal, 
type. To Emerson's genius the form was pre- 
cisely suited, and he produced a body of writing 
in this kind highly distinguished by originality, 
richness of thought, and a serene and lofty tern- 

f>er. Lowell blended the two types in work 
ikely long to prove informing and, thanks to 
the robust and attractive personality that is a 
part of it, delightful. And so, on to this day 
of William Dean Howells, George Edward Wood- 
berry, and Paul Elmer More, the essay stands 
a substantial asset to the credit of American 

In the country of its origin the essay was, as 
has been said, long a well-nigh unpracticed form. 
Certain writings of Voltaire, of Diderot, and of 
others might pass on the whole as essays, 
Voltaire, indeed, making free of the word in 
entitling his Easai sur les moeurs; but Voltaire 
surely would not have claimed, nor would Locke 
in the case of his Essay Concerning Human Un- 
derstanding, that the work in question had any- 
thing in common with the essay proper save in 
its tentative and experimental nature. There 
appeared, however, about the middle of the nine- 
teenth century, a great French essayist who pro- 
duced through a prolific literary career an im- 
posing array of essays of prime quality. The 
reference is of course to Sainte-Beuve. This ac- 
complished writer knew how to blend the ap- 
pealing personal note of the intimate essay 
with a wealth of ordered thought and a scholar's 
store of precise knowledge, which, together with 
a wonderful literary faculty, resulted in his 
splendid series of studies and portraits, warmed 
as if by the spirit of life itself, and of the 
most varied and alluring interest. From Sainte- 
Beuve's day, uncounted French essayists, many 
of them artists, scholars, and thinkers, and 
some of them ail three in one, have brought 
forth unceasingly works in this kind which are 
part of the literary glory of France and a 
perennial delight to readers the world over. 
The tradition of the French essay was ably up- 
held to the end of the last century and beyond 
by such men as Gautier, Brunetiere, Anatole 
France, Jules Lemaftre, and Emile Faguet. 

STANDING. A famous philosophical work by 
John Locke (1690). 

poem by Alexander Pope (1711), laying down 
the canons of poetic taste and verse structure. 
The poem abounds in passages which have be- 
come familiar quotations. 

ESSAY ON MAN, An. A noted philosophi- 
cal and deistic poem by Alexander Pope, in four 
parts, which appeared from 1732 to 1734, in- 
spired by the metaphysical vagaries of Boling- 

ES'SAYS AND BEVTEWS. The title of a 
volume of essays published in 1860, by six 
clergymen and one layman of the Church of 
England — Dr. Frederick Temple, Dr. Rowland 
Williams, Prof. Baden Powell, H. B. Wilson, 
Mark Pattison, Prof. B. Jowett, and C. W. 
Goodwin. The book, which was severely cen- 
sured for heterodox views by nearly all the 
bishops and many of the clergy, was condemned 
by convocation in 1864. The ecclesiastical 
courts sentenced Dr. Williams and Mr. Wilson 
to suspension for one year; but on appeal the 
sentence was reversed by the Privy Council 

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ESSBO zoo 

The most remarkable among the works put forth 
in opposition were the Aids to Faith, edited by 
Bishop Thomson, and Replies to Essays and 
Reviews, edited by Bishop Wilberforce. 

ES'SEG. See Esz£k. 

ESSEN, eVsen. A town in the Prussian Rhine 
Province, situated between the Ruhr and the 
Emscher, 20 miles northeast of Dusseldorf 
(Map : Prussia, B 3) . The town is substantially 
built, with clean, well-laid-out streets. The 
cathedral, founded in 873, is one of the oldest 
churches in Germany. Its treasury contains 
some valuable works of art. Among modern 
secular buildings are the Gothic Rathaus, in 
front of which stands a statue of Alfred Krupp, 
the new courthouse, and the Municipal Theatre. 
The town's affairs are administered by a mu- 
nicipal council of 36 and an executive board of 
eight members. It has a modern sewage system, 
an excellent water supply, municipal gas works, 
and an abattoir. Its educational institutions 
include a gymnasium, a high school for girls, 
several mechanical and industrial schools, a 
school of mines, and a royal agricultural school. 
Situated in the centre of one of the richest coal 
and iron regions of Germany, Essen has excel- 
lent facilities for an extensive iron industry. 
First among the industrial establishments are 
the famous Krupp steel and iron works, which 
employ more than 43,000 men. There are also 
a number of smelters, boiler works, manufac- 
tories of walking sticks, dyestuffs, bricks, and 
liqueurs. In 1911 the chambers of commerce 
of Essen and Mulheim-Oberhausen were united 
in a single body with headquarters at Essen. 
Essen has good railway facilities and an electric 
street railway. It is the seat of a United States 
consular agency. The borough of Ruttenschied 
was taken into the city limits in 1905, and the 
commune Huttrop in 1908. Pop., 1900, 118,863; 
1910, 294,653. Although the industrial activity 
of Essen is only of recent growth, the town 
itself is very old, tracing its origin to the 
famous Benedictine nunnery of the same name, 
founded in 873 a J). In the tenth century it was 
given municipal privileges by the Abbess 
Hagona. It was taken by the Spanish and the 
Dutch in the seventeenth century, and was an- 
nexed to Prussia in 1813. Consult Kellen, Die 
Industriestadt Essen in Wort und Bild (Essen, 
1902), and Zweigert, Die Verwaltung der Stadt 
Essen im 19. Jahrhundert (Essen, 1902). 

ESSEN, Hans Henrik, Count (1755-1824). 
A Swedish statesman, born at Kaias, West 
Gotland. He was educated in the State Uni- 
versity at Upsala, then entered the army, be- 
coming a cornet at 18, and accompanied Gus- 
tavus III in his travels and campaigns. He 
became Governor of Stockholm in 1795, and 
Governor-General of Swedish Pomerania and 
Rugen in 1800, and in 1807, as commander of 
the Pomeranian army, distinguished himself 
by his defense of Stralsund against the French. 
Upon the revolution of 1809 he received the 
title of count and a place in the Council of 
State. In 1810 he was sent as Ambassador to 
Paris by Charles XIII, and his negotiations with 
Napoleon's ministers restored Pomerania to 
Sweden. He was promoted field marshal in 
1811; was sent against Norway (1813) and 
was Governor of that country (1814-16) after 
its union with Sweden, and in 1817 became 
Governor-General of Sk&ne, an old province 
in southern Sweden. Consult the biography 
(MalmO, 1855) by Wieselgren. 


ES'SENCE (Lat. essentia, existence, from 
esse, to be). In logic, that which is included in 
the logical definition (q.v.) and is opposed to 
accidents. But as definitions are based upon 
classifications into genus and species, and as 
there is no single absolute objective classifica- 
tion, but all our classifications are controlled 
by some prevailing interest, which selects 
what is relevant to its purpose, it follows 
that what is essence according to one classifi- 
cation is accident according . to another. The 
essential in logic as in life is what a particular 
purpose demands. In metaphysics essence is 
sometimes used as equivalent to substance (q.v.). 
In theology, Athanasius and other Greek writ- 
ers distinguish ova la, ousia (essence or sub- 
stance) , denoting what is common to the Father, 
Son, and Holy Spirit, from fatoraffit, hypostasis 
(person), denoting what is individual, distinc- 
tive, and peculiar to each person. 

pe-te' grftN (Fr., essence of small grain). A 
perfume obtained by the distillation of small, 
unripe oranges, about the size of a cherry. 

ES'SENCES. See Spirits. 

ESSENES, es-seW. A Jewish brotherhood, 
whose origin can be traced back to the second 
century B.C., and which ceaBed to exist in the 
second century a.d. They first appear in history 
during the early period of the Maccabaean up- 
rising and were doubtless an expression of the 
general tendency towards religious separatism 
characteristic of that time. The derivation of 
the name is doubtful. Its source may perhaps 
lie in the Aramic h*s$, through the plural abso- 
lute Jt*sen, or the emphatic h*sayy& (pious) 
which would correspond to the two Greek names 
most largely used to designate the order, 'E<r<njvol, 
Essenoi, and 'Eaaaioi, Essaioi. As an organiza- 
tion it was confined to Palestine, having its 
chief, if not its only, settlements on the shores 
of the Dead Sea, though it represented tenden- 
cies of thought and life which were generally 
prevalent in that time and consequently mani- 
fested themselves in many regions, especially 
where Judaism was present. Many of the order 
resided in the villages and even in the larger 
towns and cities of Palestine, which was not 
inconsistent with their principles, though se- 
clusion was more congenial to their manner of 

Information regarding the order is meagre, 
being practically confined to that received from 
the elder Pliny, Josephus, and Philo, who alone 
speak of the Essenes from personal knowledge. 
No mention is made of them in the Bible or in 
Rabbinical literature. From these sources we 
learn that their most distinctive features were 
the strictness of their organization, their intense 
regard for ceremonial purity, including hyper- 
Sabbatarianism, and their practice of the com- 
munity of goods. A probation of one year was 
required before the novice could be admitted to 
the lustrations, and a further probation of 
two years before he could obtain entrance to 
the common meal and take the oath of full 
membership. This oath demanded absolute obe- 
dience and secrecy, and when broken was pun- 
ished by an expulsion that, because of the con- 
tinuance of the binding requirement that no 
food should be taken which was ceremonially 
unclean, was equivalent to death by starvation. 
As regards their ceremonial purity, the special 
points of insistence were abstinence from sexual 
intercourse, — though there were some, constitut- 

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ing, according to Joseph us (Wmrs, II, viii, 13), 
a different order within the society who married 
— innumerable washings, scrupulous bodily 
cleanliness, the avoidance of contact with lower 
orders in the brotherhood, the exclusive wearing 
of white raiment, and particularly the peculiar 
ceremonial requirements of their common meal, 
to which none but full members of the order 
were admitted, the food of which was specially 
prepared by their priests, and the whole conduct 
of which partook of the nature of a sacrificial 
feast. As communists, all possessions and all 
rewards of labor were held in common and dis- 
tributed according to need. The chief employ- 
ment of the brotherhood was agriculture, though 
handicrafts of all kinds were carried on — the 
only prohibition being trading, as leading to 
covetousness, and the manufacture of weapons 
and instruments which might injure men, as 
being against their fundamental principle of 
peace, though some members of the order were 
found among the leaders and the fanatic fol- 
lowers in the Jewish War. As a society they 
were the first in history to condemn slavery, in 
practice as well as in theory, as violating the 
brotherhood of man. 

The order had its chief roots in Judaism, its 
struggle after ceremonial purity showing it to 
be a refinement of Pharisaism. At the same 
time it had elements so strongly at variance 
with Judaism in general, and Pharisaism in 
particular, as to suggest influences foreign to 
Palestine. These elements were especially the 
rejection of animal sacrifices, by which its mem- 
bers were excluded from the temple worship; 
the peculiar attention to the sun, which was 
considered as representing the divine bright- 
ness, the members praying towards it at its ris- 
ing and avoiding all uncovering of themselves 
before it; and especially the view entertained 
regarding the origin, present state, and future 
destiny of the soul, which was held to be pre- 
exi stent, being entrapped in the body as in a 
prison and having before it, as a reward of 
righteousness, a blessed paradise in the farthest 
west, and, as a penalty of iniquity, a dark and 
gloomy cavern full of unending punishments. 
As to what these foreign influences were, there 
is considerable discussion, in which perhaps no 
conclusions can be reached beyond the general 
one that they were Oriental, rather than Greek, 
gathering around an essential dualism whose 
influence can be traced in other peculiarities of 
the order's belief and custom. This is con- 
firmed by the fact that Oriental influences were 
prevalent in the West from the third century 
B.C. to the third century A.D., within which time 
Essenism flourished. 

It is an interesting question as to how much 
Christianity owed to Essenism. It would seem 
that there was room for definite contact between 
John the Baptist and this brotherhood. His time 
of preparation was spent in the wilderness near 
the Dead Sea; his preaching of righteousness 
towards God, and justice towards one's fellowraen, 
was in agreement with the propaganda of Es- 
senism; while his insistence on baptism was in 
accord with the Essen ic emphasis on lustra- 
tions. But the Baptist was much more of an 
ascetic than an Essene would have needed to be, 
and had a Messianic outlook, which does not 
seem to have entered into the Essenic belief. 
Doubtless the fundamental teachings of Essen- 
ism — love to God, to virtue, and to fellowmen 
— which also existed in Judaism outside Essenic 

circles, had vital agreement with the precepts of 
Christianity; so that from this element in Ju- 
daism in general Christianity may have taken 
many of its earlier converts, while it is more 
than probable that Christianity's world-wide 
development of these common ideals did as 
much as anything to prepare Essenism for its 
final disappearance as a distinctive organization. 

Bibliography. A large literature has been 
produced on this subject. Among the later 
books, consult: Lightfoot, "Excursus," in Com- 
mentary on Colossians and Philemon (3d ed., 
London, 1879) ; Schdrer, Oeschichte des JU- 
dischen Voltes zur Zeit Jesu (3d ed., 3 vols., 
Leipzig, 1898-1901); Friedlander, Die Reli- 
gio'sen Bewegungen Innerhalb des Judenthums 
im Zeitalter Jesu (Berlin, 1905); Bousset, Re- 
ligion des Judentums (2te Ann., Berlin, 1906) ; 
Pfleiderer, Primitive Christianity (Eng. trans., 
New York, 1906) ; Fairweather, The Back- 
ground of the Gospels (ib:, 1908). Also the 
article by MofTatt, in Eneycl. of Religion and 
Ethics (New York, 1912), which quotes at 
length the original sources. See Jewish Sects 
and its bibliography. 


ESSENTTTKI, or Essentukskata. A water- 
ing resort in the Territory of Terek, in the 
Northern Caucasus, Russia, about 10 miles 
northwest of Pyatigorsk (Map: Russia, F 6). 
It is situated at an altitude of about 2000 feet 
and is much frequented during the summer 
months because of its cold alkaline springs. 
Pop. (est), 8000. 

ESSEQTJTBO, es'se-ke^bo (native name Dis- 
sequebe)* The largest river of British Guiana, 
rising about 1° north of the equator on the 
north slope of the Akarai Mountains, which 
separate its valley from that of the Amazon 
River (Map: Guiana, F 3). It flows in a 
northerly direction, emptying into the Atlantic 
west of Georgetown, after a course of over 600 
miles. At its mouth, an estuary about 20 miles 
wide is formed, containing numerous islets. Its 
course is very tortuous and interrupted by 
numerous cataracts, while its mouth is closed 
by bars which can be passed by deep-draft ves- 
sels only during high tide. It is navigated 
for a considerable distance, and even heavy 
vessels can ascend for a distance of about 40 
miles from its mouth. Its chief tributaries are 
the Rupununi, Potaro, and the Cuyuni-Mazaruni, 
all from the west. On the banks are forests of 
locust tree, iron wood, ebony, greenheart, and 
other fine timber trees. The region adjoining 
the river was the subject of conflicting claims 
between the British and Venezuelan govern- 
ments, which led to the Arbitration Treaty of 
Feb. 2, 1897. The award was made Oct. 3, 
1899. See Venezuela, History. 

ESS'ES, Collar of. A collar composed of a 
series of the letter S. See SS, Collar of. 

ES'SEX (AS. East-Seaxe, East Saxons). A 
maritime county in southeastern England, 
bounded on the north by Cambridge and Suffolk, 
on the east by the North Sea, on the west by the 
County of London and Hertford, and divided 
from Kent on the south by the Thames estuary 
(Map: England, G 5). It has 85 miles of coast 
line, and an area of 1530.5 square miles. On the 
coast the surface is low-lying and marshy, but 
from the centre to the north is undulating and 
well wooded. The chief rivers are the Lea, 
Roding, Roach, Blackwater, and Colne. Chalk, 
brick, clay, and sea salt are the chief mineral 

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products. Wheat of excellent quality and bar- 
ley are largely grown, and stock is* raised for 
market purposes. About four-fifths of the area 
of the county is under cultivation. There are 
extensive manufactures of chemicals, railroad 
machinery and agricultural implements, powder, 
lime, silks, etc., and valuable brewing, fishing, 
and oyster industries. Capital, Chelmsford. 
Pop. (with associated county borough), 1901, 
1,083,998; 1911, 1,350,881. 

Essex figured prominently in early English 
history. At the time of Caesar's invasion it was 
inhabited by the Trinobantes, of whose advanced 
civilization much numismatic evidence remains. 
The Romans thoroughly colonized the country, 
as is shown by relics dug up at Colchester, as 
well as by tne Roman military road which 
crosses the country. When the Roman power 
declined the Saxons made Essex the object 
of their raids, finally overrunning the land 
and incorporating it with the domain of the 
Count of the Saxon Shore. After the with- 
drawal of the Romans, it was occupied by the 
East Saxons, whence its name, and became a 
member of the Saxon heptarchy. The East 
Saxons continued to be ruled by a separate 
dynasty until about 823, when they were ab- 
sorbed by the West Saxons, which became the 
ruling power in England. During the struggles 
of Alfred the Great with the Danes, Essex was 
the scene of many fierce conflicts, till, by the 
Peace of Wedmore ( 879 a.d. ) , it was recognized 
by Alfred as part of the Danish territory of 
Guthrum. Later the Danes were driven out by 
Alfred's son, Edward the Elder. In 1045 Essex 
became part of the earldom of Harold, but 
at the time of the Norman Conquest it haft 

gassed into the domain of the family of Swene. 
beginning with the Norman kings, and continu- 
ing to the present time, it has constituted an 
earldom of the crown, and has passed through 
several family histories. 

ES'SEX. A town and railway junction of 
Essex County, Ontario, Canada, 15 miles south- 
east of Windsor, on the Michigan Central Rail- 
road (Map: Ontario, B 9). It has electric rail- 
way connection with Kingsville, Windsor, and 
Leamington. The manufacturing industries in- 
clude flour and planing mills, a canning factory, 
and brick and tile works. Natural gas is found 
in the vicinity. Pop., 1901, 1391; 1911, 1353. 

ESSEX. A town in Middlesex Co., Conn., 31 
miles (direct) southeast of Hartford, on the 
Connecticut River, and on the New York, New 
Haven and Hartford Railroad (Map: Connecti- 
cut, F 4). The town contains a public library. 
It has a large piano factory and a bit factory. 
Pop., 1900, 2530; 1910, 2745. 

ESSEX. A town in Chittenden Co., Vt., 12 
miles northeast of Burlington, on the Central 
Vermont Railroad (Map: Vermont, B 3). It 
contains the Essex Classical Institute. The 
town . is situated in a purely agricultural and 
dairying region. Pop., 1900, 2203; 1910, 2714. 

ESSEX, Abtiiub Capel, first Earl of (in 
the Capel line) (1632-83). An English states- 
man. Charles II sent him to Denmark in 1659 
as Ambassador in order to be rid of his oppo- 
sition at home; but his conduct while there so 
pleased the King that upon his return in 1671 
he was made Privy Councilor and in 1672 Lord 
Lieutenant of Ireland. He gave that country a 
remarkably efficient, liberal, and honest govern- 
ment until 1677 when, owing to the intrigues 
of his enemies, he was recalled. He joined the 

country party in England under the leadership 
of Halifax and in 1679 was Commissioner of the 
Treasury. In the following year he became a 
member of Shaftesbury's party which urged the 
exclusion of James from succession to the 
throne. Although he did not approve of the 
extreme measures of this faction he was arrested 
and imprisoned in 1683 in the Tower, where he 
was shortly afterward found with his throat 
cut. Consult his Letters with an account of his 
life (London, 1770; 2d ed., 1783), and Selections 
from the Correspondence of Arthur Capel (Lon- 
don, 1913). 

ESSEX, Robebt Deverkux, second Eabl of 
(1567-1601). An English court favorite and 
statesman. He was born at Netherwood, Here- 
fordshire. Entering Trinity College, Cambridge, 
in 1579, he was given the degree of M.A. in 1581, 
and three years afterward his guardian, Lord 
Burghley, introduced him at court, where he 
became a favorite of Elizabeth. Accompanying 
his stepfather, the Earl of Leicester, to Holland, 
he distinguished himself at the battle of Zut- 
phen. After the death of Leicester, Essex con- 
tinued to rise in the favor of Elizabeth, who 
loaded him with honors. She gave him command 
of the forces sent in 1591 to assist Henry IV of 
France against the Spaniards; and five years 
afterward she appointed him joint commander 
with Lord Howard in the expedition against 
Spain. Though Essex displayed exceptional 
courage at the taking of Cadiz* the expedition 
was fruitless, so that on his return he had to 
defend himself against various accusations. In 
1597, however, he was made Earl Marshal of 
England, and when Burghley died, Essex suc- 
ceeded him as Chancellor of Cambridge. At the 
outbreak of the rebellion in 159fr' he went to 
Ireland as Lord Lieutenant; but his government 
was ill-advised and ineffective, and after a few 
trivial undertakings he concluded with the rebels 
a truce for which he was regarded at court with 
grave misgivings. Contrary to the Queen's ex- 
press commands, he hastened back to London 
to confront his enemies, and without changing 
tiis tfavel-stained garments he forcibly effected 
an interview with the Queen in her bedchamber. 
She received him kindly; but in June, 1600, he 
was brought to trial before a special court con- 
sisting of the principal officers of state and the 
judges, on charges of contempt and disobedi- 
ence, and sentenced to dismissal from all offices 
of state and to imprisonment in his own house 
during the Queen's pleasure. Through the in- 
tercession of Francis Bacon his liberty was soon 
restored. But when he foolishly tried to excite 
an insurrection in London to compel Elizabeth 
to remove his enemies from the council, he was 
imprisoned, tried, and condemned to death. 
Elizabeth delayed signing the warrant for his 
execution in the hope that he would implore 
her pardon. He was beheaded Feb. 25, 1601, 
after defending himself with pride and dignity. 
Consult : Bacon, Declaration of the Practises and 
Treasons . . . Committed by Robert, Late Earl 
of Essex (London, 1601); Spedding, Bacon, i 
(ib., 1881), chief authority, should be read with 
the following: Abbott, Bacon and Essex (ib., 
1877), more favorable than Spedding; Bar- 
row, "Earl of Essex," in his Memoirs of the 
"Naval Worthies of Queen Elizabeth's Reign, pp. 
333-376 (ib., 1845) ; Birch, Memoirs of the 
Reign of Queen Elizabeth (ib., 1754); Bruce, 
Correspondence of King James VI of Scotland 
with Sir Robert Cecil, etc. (Westminster, 1861) ; 

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Lohmann, Essew-Trauerspiel (Leipzig, 1856) ; 
Croxall, Memoirs of the Unhappy Favorite (Lon- 
don, 1729) ; Wotton, Characters of Robert 
Devereuw . . . and George Villiers, etc. (Lee 
Priory, 1814) ; Cooper, At hence Gantabrigienses 
(2 vols., Cambridge, 1858), for his writings. 

ESSEX, Robert Devereux, third Earl of 
(1591-1646). An English general and politi- 
cian. He was the son of Robert Devereux, 
second Earl of Essex, and in 1604 regained pos- 
session of his father's titles, which had been at- 
tainted in 1601. He was educated at Eton and 
Merton College, Oxford, and after the accession 
of James I was one of the companions of the 
Prince of Wales, afterward Charles I. In 1606 
he was married to Frances Howard, daughter 
of the Duke of Suffolk, but the marriage was 
a loveless one, and was annulled in 1613. A 
second marriage was equally unfortunate. In 
1621 he saw some service in the Palatinate, and 
two years later was vice admiral in a naval ex- 
pedition against Cadiz. In 1626 he refused pay- 
ment of the forced loan and joined the parlia- 
mentary opposition to Charles I, and remained 
faithful to the cause of popular government in 
spite of the many favors heaped upon him by 
the King, who hoped to win him over to his 
side. In 1639 he was lieutenant general in the 
army sent against the Scottish Covenanters. 
Three years later, after the open breach between 
Parliament and the King, he was made com- 
mander of the parliamentary forces. He fought 
the indecisive batile of Edgehill in 1642, captured 
Reading in the following year, and relieved 
Gloucester, which was besieged by Charles I. 
On his march from Gloucester to London he was 
intercepted by the royal army and fought the 
first battle of Newbury. In 1644 he invaded 
Cornwall, but met with ill success, and, owing, 
it is said, to his unwillingness to fight against 
the King in person, the greater part of his army 
was forced to capitulate at Lostwithiel. Before 
this he had become embroiled with the House 
of Commons, because of the appointment of 
other generals to independent commands in the 
parliamentary army, and in 1645 he took ad- 
vantage of the passing of the Self-denying Ordi- 
nance to resign his commisssion. 

ESSEX, The. A United States frigate of 860 
tons, in service during the War of 1812 under 
the command of David Porter. Farragut was 
a midshipman on the ship on her first expedi- 
tion. She captured the Alert in 1812, and after 
operations in the Pacific surrendered to the 
Phosbe and Cherub in Valparaiso harbor on 
March 28, 1814, 

ESSEX, Thomas Cromwell, Earl of. See 
Cromwell, Thomas. 

ESSEX, Walter Devereux, first Earl of (in 
the Devereux line) (1541-76). An English ad- 
venturer. He assisted in suppressing the north- 
ern rebellion under the earls of Northumberland 
and Westmoreland and in 1572 was made a 
knight of the Garter and Earl of Essex. In the 
following year Queen Elisabeth accepted his 
offer to subdue and colonize the Province of 
Ulster in Ireland. After landing in that country 
his forces were diminished by sickness, death, 
and desertion to about 200 men, and he was 
obliged to confine his efforts to petty raids — 
burning the corn stacks and fields of the O'Neill 
clan. In 1574 he captured by treachery Sir 
Brian MacPhelim, leader of the O'Neills, and 
executed him, his wife, and his brother at Dub- 
lin. He also massacred several hundred fol- 

lowers, chiefly women and children, of Sorley 
Boy McDonnell on the Isle of Rathlin. He was 
recalled in 1575, but returned to Ireland in the 
following year as Earl Marshal. 

ESSEX HOG. See Hog and Plate of Hoos. 

ESSEX JUNCTION. A village in Chitten- 
den Co., Vt., 8 miles east of Burlington, on the 
Central Vermont Railroad (Map: Vermont, B 
3). The village contains a United States gov- 
ernment post and Fort Ethan Allen. It is sit- 
uated in a rich farming region and has a corn- 
canning factory, brickyards, grain and lumber 
mills, and a butter factory. The water works 
are owned by the municipality. Pop., 1900, 
1141; 1910, 1245. 

ESSEX JUNTO. A term used for the first 
time by a Colonial governor of Massachusetts 
to designate a body of men from Essex County, 
who had arrayed themselves against his policy. 
It was next employed by Governor Hancock in 
1781, against the chief supporters of James 
Bowdoin, nominated for Governor as the repre- 
sentative of the traditional, as opposed to the 
popular, politics of the day. The term entered 
national politics about 1798, as applied oppro- 
briously to the Federalist leaders in Massachu- 
setts, who opposed Adams and his policy towards 
France. Among these were Timothy Pickering, 
Theophilus Parsons, Fisher Ames, George Cabot, 
Stephen Higginson, and the Lowells, mostly Es- 
sex County men. Adams charged that they were 
allied with England, but the combination seems 
not to have had any -treasonable intent. Later 
these same men were prominent in opposition 
to the Embargo and to the War of 1812, were 
party chiefs of the extreme Federalists, and 
were prime movers of the measures which cul- 
minated in the Hartford Convention (q.v.), so 
that the name became a synonym for New Eng- 
land Federalism. Consult Lodge, Life and Let- 
ters of George Cabot (Boston, 1878). 

ESSEX SKULL. See Man, Ancient Types. 

ESSEPOFF, eVse-pof, Annette (1851- ). 
A Russian pianist, born in St. Petersburg. She 
was one of LeschetHzky's most brilliant pupils. 
She made her debut in St. Petersburg in 1874; 
then entered upon artistic travels which brought 
her in 1876 to the United States, where her 
playing was greatly admired. In 1880 she mar- 
ried Leschetitzky, but they were divorced. From 
1893 to 1908 she was professor of pianoforte at 
the St. Petersburg Conservatory. 

ESS'LING, or ESSIiINGEN. A village in 
Lower Austria, 7 miles east of Vienna. Between 
it and the village of Aspern a bloody battle was 
fought between the French and the Austrians 
on May 21-22, 1809. This engagement is gen- 
erally known as the battle of Aspern and Ess- 
ling. See Aspebn. 

ESSLINGEN, esllng-en. A town in the 
Kingdom of Wiirttemberg, Germany, situated on 
the Neckar, in the centre of a fertile district, 
7 miles east-southeast of Stuttgart (Map: Ger- 
many, C 4). The river is here crossed by a 
bridge constructed in the thirteenth century 
and restored in 1838. Esslingen consists of 
several suburbs, and of the inner town, which 
is partly surrounded by walls, dating from 1216. 
Three of its churches are worthy of notice: the 
Liebfrauenkirche, a handsome Gothic structure 
of the fifteenth century; the church of St. Diony- 
sius, a basilica in the transition style, founded 
in the eleventh century; and that of St. Paul, 
in the early Gothic style, dating from 1268. In 
addition may be mentioned the old and the new 

Digitized by VrrOOQlC 




Rathaus and the castle of Perfried. The in- 
dustries include the largest machine works in 
Wttrttemberg (employing 2200 men), large rail- 
way shops, the manufacture of gold, silver, and 
plated ware, worsted, lithographed work, gloves, 
lacquer ware, gelatin, and buttons; it has also 
cotton mills and beer breweries. Esslingen is 
famous for its sparkling Neckar wine known as 
Esslingen champagne. Pop., 1900, 27,197 ; 1910, 
32,364. Esslingen was founded in the eighth 
century, and originally belonged to the Duchy of 
Swabia. In 1209 it was made a free Imperial 
city. The Swabian League was formed at Ess- 
lingen in 1488. In 1802 the town came into the 
possession of Wtirttemberg. 

ES'SON, William (1838-1916). A British 
mathematician, educated at the Inverness Royal 
Academy and at St. John's College, Oxford 
(M.A.). From 1860 to 1897 he was a fellow 
of Merton College, where he served as bur- 
sar, and he was also fellow of New College. He 
was deputy Savilian professor at Oxford Uni- 
versity from 1894 to 1897, and thereafter full 
professor. Elected a fellow of the Royal Society, 
he published in the society's Transactions "The 
Laws of Connection between the Conditions of 
Chemical Chance and its Amounts" (1864, 1866, 
and 1895) and "Variations with Temperature 
of Rate of Chemical Change" (1912). 

ES'SONITE. See Gabnet. 

ESSONNES, es'siiN'. A town in the Depart- 
ment of Seine-et-Oise, France, a suburban mu- 
nicipality 1 mile southwest of Corbeil, and 19 
miles southeast of Paris (Map: France, N., 
J 3). It has iron foundries, machinery, linen, 
and notable paper factories. Pop. (commune), 
1901, 9374; 1911, 9348. 

ESTABLISHMENTS, Ecclesiastical. 
Those religious bodies which in various coun- 
tries have definite legal relations to the state, 
involving special privileges and duties. The 
origin of such a connection usually dates back 
to a period when the inhabitants of the country 
were practically unanimous in their religious 
views. When a sovereign was moved to take 
definite steps in support of religion, it could 
naturally be only of that type of religion which 
was to him and his subjects the normal and rec- 
ognized type. In some cases, notably that of 
England, the idea grew up with the country and 
antedates any possibility of formal legislation. 
In England the term "by law established" first 
occurs in the canons of convocation in 1604, 
but the relation itself was far earlier. (See 
England, Chubch of.) When, at the Reforma- 
tion, the bulk of the population of any country 
transferred its allegiance from one religion to 
another, the privileges of an establishment 
were usually transferred in the same manner. 
The case of Ireland was peculiar; the connec- 
tion of the Protestant church of that country 
with the Church of England allowed it to main- 
tain its position as a privileged body, though 
in a hopeless minority, until the Disestablish- 
ment Act of 1870 was passed by Mr. Gladstone. 
The connection between church and state may 
operate in various ways — by the sovereign as- 
suming to nominate the chief ministers of the 
religious body (see Gallican Church; Con- 
cordat) ; by taxation on the part of the state, 
or indirectly with its sanction, for the support 
of the clergy and of public worship; by a regu- 
lation of the uses of property devoted to re- 
ligious purposes and of the procedure and ritual 
of the church; by the maintenance of ecclesias- 

tical courts for the enforcement of canonical 
laws; by the provision of a system of education 
under ecclesiastical supervision; and in some 
cases by the prohibition of dissenting worship. 
(See Toleration; Nonconformists.) In Prot- 
estant countries the sovereign is usually con- 
sidered the head of the established church; 
Queen Victoria used punctiliously to mark her 
sense of the requirements of this position by 
always attending the services of the Presby- 
terian church in Scotland and of the Anglican 
in England. Thus, also, in Russia, the Czar 
practically occupies a similar position. The 
restrictions upon ecclesiastical freedom insepa- 
rable from such a position have caused many 
devoted churchmen to feel that the advantages 
were more than outweighed by the drawbacks; 
and thus in England such men have been found, 
in the last 50 years, in the ranks of the advo- 
cates of disestablishment. The movement there 
has, however, been chiefly supported by Non- 
conformists of a political type, who maintain 
the view that the modern free state has no right 
to discriminate in lawful things between various 
classes of its subjects. The agitation became 
strong about 1870-80. England, Russia, Greece, 
Sweden, Norway, Prussia, and some other Ger- 
man states have established churches. ( See Civil 
Church Law, American.) For the details of 
the subject applying to various countries, see 
the articles on those countries. 

ESTAING, es-t&N', Charles Hector, Count 
d* (1729-94). A French admiral. After serving 
in India under Lally-Tollendal and suffering im- 
prisonment at the hands of the English, he en- 
tered the royal navy and was made lieutenant 
general in 1763 and vice admiral in 1777. In 
1778 he commanded the fleet sent to aid the 
United States against Great Britain, bringing 
with him Gerard, the first French Ambassador 
to the United States. He planned with the 
American generals a combined land and naval 
attack on Newport and forced the British to 
burn a number Of vessels in the harbor. Ad- 
miral Howe came, with an English fleet, to re- 
lieve Newport, and D'Estaing put to sea to 
engage him. A sudden storm separated the 
fleets, and D'Estaing put into Boston to repair 
his shattered ships. In November he sailed to 
the West Indies, where he captured St. Vincent 
and Grenada. With 22 ships he cooperated 
Oct. 9, 1779, in the unsuccessful attack on Sa- 
vannah and was himself wounded. The follow- 
ing year he returned to France and was in com- 
mand of the French and Spanish fleet before 
Cadiz when the treaty of peace was signed in 
1783. He was in favor of the principles of the 
French Revolution in their more moderate form, 
and was elected to the Assembly of Notables in 
1787. In 1789 he commanded the National 
Guard. In 1792 the Legislative Assembly chose 
him admiral. In 1793 he bore testimony in 
favor of Marie Antoinette, but without deserting 
his constitutional principles. The following 
year, in spite of his work for the Revolution, he 
was charged as a noble, tried, condemned, and 
executed, April 28, 1794. He wrote some poetry, 
a work on the colonies, and a tragedy, Lea 
Thermopyles (1789). 

ESTAMPES, a'taNi/, or ETAMPES, Anne 
db P188KLEU, Duchbsse d' ( 1508-C.1585) . A 
mistress of Francis I of France. She was maid 
of honor to his mother, Louise of Savoy, and 
the King fell in love with her upon his return 
from Spain in 1526. In 1536 she entered into 

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a formal marriage with Jean de Brosse and was 
created Duchess of Estampes. She is said to 
have been beautiful, witty, and highly educated, 
and to have exercised great influence over the 
King. She had a rival in Diane de Poitiers 
(q.v.), mistress of the Dauphin Henry, who suc- 
ceeded to the throne in 1547. Political parties 
centred about the persons of the two women 
till the accession of Henry in 1547, when the 
Duchess was banished to her estates, became a 
Protestant, and lent important services to the 
Huguenot cause. Consult Paulin Paris, Etudes 
sur Frangois Ier (Paris, 1885). 

ESTATE (OF. estat, Fr. Mat, from Lat. 
status, state, condition, from stare, 6k. lardwai, 
histanai, Skt sth&, to stand). The technical 
term of the common law for property interests 
in land. Land is not, in our legal system, like 
goods and chattels, capable of absolute owner- 
ship by a subject. Tne feudal system, under 
whose influence our law of real property was 
developed, vested the ultimate ownership of all 
land in the King, all private owners being 
deemed to be merely tenants, holding their lands 
in subordination to the paramount rights of 
the crown. The interest of such a tenant was 
described as his estate in the land, i.e., his 
status with reference to it; and this estate, how- 
ever complete and unqualified it might be, was 
always regarded as something less than abso- 
lute ownership, and as leaving a reversionary 
interest in the superior lord, some portion of 
the ownership undisposed of by him. The term 
"estate" was originally applied only to those 
interests in land technically known as freeholds, 
which were classified as real property; but it 
has in course of time been extended by analogy 
to include other interests, such as leaseholds, 
the interests of mortgagees, and certain credi- 
tors' rights in land, all of which are in our law 
classified as personal property. All of these 
interests have this element in common, that 
they exist in subordination to a paramount 
or underlying title, in which they may ulti- 
mately be absorbed, and which no act of the 
"tenant" or temporary owner can effect. This 
is not true, however, of most forms of personal 
property, as goods, etc. These are held by the 
owner absolutely, free from any superior pro- 
prietorship or lordship, and accordingly his own- 
ership cannot be described as a tenancy or an 
estate. Hence the expression "personal estate," 
sometimes employed by analogy with "real es- 
tate," is, strictly speaking, inaccurately used as 
a substitute for "personal property." 

The primary classification of estates, follow- 
ing the line of cleavage above indicated, is into 
estates of freehold and estates not of freehold. 
In the former are included the three great forms 
of freehold tenure — the fee simple, fee tail, and 
life estates, the two former of which are further 
described as estates of inheritance, and the last 
as an estate not of inheritance. Estates not 
of freehold are more commonly described simply 
as tenancies — as tenancies for years (leasehold 
estates), tenancies at will, and tenancies at 
sufferance — the term "estate" not being usually 
applied to the last two of these. Intermediate 
between the leasehold estate and the tenancy at 
will there has been developed a new form of 
tenure known as an estate or tenancy from 
year to year, which, though usually classified 
with the latter, shares many of the characteris- 
tics of both. All of these forms of estate will 
be described under their appropriate titles. 

The most striking fact in connection with this 
classification of estates is its definiteness and 
rigidity. The several varieties of estates are 
sharply differentiated from one another. Each 
class has its characteristic features or incidents 
which mark it off distinctly from every other 
class, and every tenure or holding of land must 
conform to one or another of them. There are 
no intermediate estates, nor can the qualities 
of one be attached at will to another. No one 
can create a freehold which is not either a fee 
simple, a fee tail, or a life estate, and no one 
can create a fee simple which has the limited 
heritability of a fee tail, nor an inheritable life 
estate, nor a leasehold estate which shall descend 
to the heir instead of passing to the executor 
or administrator of the owner upon his death. 
Neither is it possible to attach novel incidents 
to an estate, nor, usually, to deprive it of those 
which belong to it. Thus, in a devise or con- 
veyance of land to A and his heirs, a proviso 
that it shall be inalienable, or that the inheri- 
tance shall be confined to male heirs, will be 
disregarded as incompatible with the nature of 
a fee simple; and, there being no intermediate 
estate such as the one described, i.e., an inheri- 
table estate which is inalienable or in which 
the inheritance is limited to males, the devise 
is treated as an ordinary fee simple with the 
usual incidents of such an estate. 

Apparent exceptions to this rule are afforded 
by the fee-tail estate, in which inheritance is 
confined to the issue of the tenant, and may be 
still further limited to his male or his female 
issue, etc., and by the tenancy from year to 
year. But these are themselves ancient forms 
of tenure, and not mere variations of the fee 
simple and the tenancy at will from which they 
were respectively derived, and have long since 
crystallized into forms as definite and invariable 
as those of the older estates. While the inci- 
dents of these time-honored forms of landhold- 
ing have sustained great changes through legis- 
lation and the process of judicial decision, no 
new forms or varieties of estate have come into 
existence for upward of two and one-half cen- 
turies, and no additions to the list seem likely 
to be made in the near future. The sporadic 
revival of the ancient qualified or limited fee 
will be referred to in connection with the fee 
simple (q.v.). For the employment of the terra 
"estate" in connection with equitable interests 
in land, see Equitable Estate. See also Real 
Property; Tenure; and the authorities there 
referred to. 

ESTATE. In a political sense, a distinct class 
or order in society. The three estates under the 
feudal system were the nobles, the clergy, and 
the commons. The feudal theory was that the 
basis of all power was property in land, and the 
clergy held their position in the feudal order by 
virtue of their landed proprietorship. As the 
lay rulers grew stronger, the temporal authority 
of the clergy declined, until at the present time 
they form a corporation rather than a class. 
The history of the later Middle Ages is a record 
of the rise of the third estate. They were the 
representatives of the merchant class, the bour- 
geoisie. They first arose to prominence in the 
free cities of Italy and of the Hanseatic League. 
In Spain and England, especially, the absolute 
power of the crown was the product of the 
alliance of the King and the third estate against 
the nobles. Before the Unioi* (1707) the term 
"Estates of the Realm" was used in Scotland 

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as equivalent to Parliament. The Legislative 
Assembly of Holland was also known as the 
States General. The States General of France, 
composed of the three estates, was first con- 
vened at the beginning of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. The last meeting previous to the Revolu- 
tion of 1789 was in 1614-15. At the outbreak 
of the Revolution the summoning of this body 
was resorted to when all other expedients failed. 
The old established custom was to vote by 
orders, but as the third estate (tiers-etat) would 
thus have been outvoted in the new Assembly, 
its members determined to introduce the new 
principle of voting individually. In this they 
succeeded, and, with their success and the or- 
ganization of the National Assembly, the French 
Revolution may be said to have begun. The 
term "fourth estate" is often applied to the 
press. Its first use in that sense is attributed 
by Carlyle to Edmund Burke, who pointed to 
the reporters' gallery in the House as con- 
taining a fourth estate more powerful than the 
other three. 

ESTATE, Separate. See Separate Estate. 

ESTATE DUTY. See Death Duties. 

ESTE, es'ta (Lat. Mate). A city of Padua, 
north Italy, 19 miles southwest of Padua (Map: 
Italy, C 2). The ancient house of Este (q.v.) 
held control of it from 961 to 1288, followed in 
turn by the Carrara, Scaliger, and Visconti 
families. Here are the ruins of the ancestral 
castle. In the city museum are Roman inscrip- 
tions, in the Euganeo Prelstorico Museum is an 
important collection of antiquities. The manu* 
factures are ironware and earthenware and cord- 
age. Pop. (commune), 1901, 10,962; 1911, 
11,704. Consult Nuvolato, Storia d'Este (Este, 

ESTE, eVta, House of. One of the oldest and 
most illustrious families of Italy. It owed its 
origin to one of the pettv princes who governed 
Tuscany in the times of tne Carolingians, and 
who were in all probability of Lombard extrac- 
tion. — The first whose figure is more than a 
mere shadow is Adalbert, or Oberto, Marquis 
of Este, one of the Italian nobles who offered 
the crown of Italy to Otho of Saxony. He is 
afterward styled Comes Sacri Palatii and ap- 
pears to have been one of the greatest personages 
in the realm; he married a daughter of Otno, 
and died about 972 a.d. His family divided at 
an early period into two branches, the German 
and the Italian. The former was, founded by Welf 
or Guelfo IV, who received the investiture of 
the Duchy of Bavaria from the Emperor Henry 
IV in 1070; the latter by his brother Fulco I 
(1060-1135). The houses of Brunswick and 
Hanover, and consequently the present sover- 
eigns of Great Britain, also called Este-Guelphs, 
are descended from the German branch. (See 
Brunswick, House of.) In the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries the history of the Italian 
family, as heads of the Guelph party, is In- 
terwoven with the destinies of the other ruling 
families and small republics of northern Italy. 
During this period they gained permanent pos- 
session of Ferrara and the March of Anoona 
(1276) and afterward of Modena and Reggio 
(1288-90). They were widely celebrated as pa- 
trons of art and literature. One of the most 
illustrious was Azzo VII (1205-64), who en- 
couraged Provencal troubadours to settle at his 
court at Ferrara and also founded schools in 
that city. — Alfonso I (1486-1534) was equally 
distinguished as a soldier and a statesman and 

was celebrated by all the poets of his time, par- 
ticularly by Ariosto. His second wife was 
Lucrezia Borgia (q.v.). His quarrel with the 
Popes Julius II, Leo X, and Clement VII was 
unfortunate, as an interdict was laid upon him 
for his adherence to the League of Cambrai, and 
his papal fiefs were declared forfeited. After 
the capture of Rome, in 1527, the Duke was 
restored to his former possessions by Charles 
V. — His successor, Ercole II (1508-59), mar- 
ried Renata, daughter of Louis XII of France, 
and attached himself to Charles V. He and his 
brother, a dignitary of the Catholic church, were 
also liberal patrons of art and sciences; the 
latter erected the magnificent Villa d* Este at 
Tivoli. — Alfonso II (died 1597) was fonder of 
luxury and splendor than of art and literature. 
He it was who persecuted the poet Tasso. He 
was also an unsuccessful aspirant for the Polish 
crown. — ALFONSO IV, who lived in the latter 
half of the seventeenth century, was a lover of 
the fine arts, and founded the Este Gallery of 
Paintings at Modena. His daughter, Mary of 
Modena, married James II of England. — Ri- 
naldo (1655-1737), by his marriage with the 
daughter of the Duke of Brunswick-Lttneburg, 
united the German and Italian houses, separated 
since 1070. Like his predecessors he was a 
faithful ally of "Austria, although his son took 
the part of Spain against Maria Theresa. The 
male line of the house of Este in Italy became 
extinct on the death of his grandson, Ercole III, 
in 1803, his possessions having been previously 
seized by the French invaders and annexed to 
the Cisalpine Republic. His only daughter mar- 
ried the Archduke Ferdinand of Austria and 
founded the Austrian house of Este which lasted 
till 1875. Their eldest son, Francis IV, cousin 
of the Emperor Francis, was placed on the 
throne of Modena by the Congress of Vienna, 
1814, and on his mother's death obtained the 
duchies of Massa and Carrara. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son, Francis V, in 1846. The 
family of Este was pro-Austrian in sympathy, 
the result of which proved fatal. In 1859 
Charles V was forced to resign his territories 
to Victor Emmanuel. He died in retirement 
in 1875, the last representative of the Este 
family, the title passing to the Archduke Fran- 
cis Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne. A 
History of the House of Este was published 
anonymously in London in 1681. Consult also: 
Symonds, The Renaissance in Italy (London, 
1875-86) ; Browning, Guelfs and Ohibellines 
(ib., 1893) ; Sismondi, Italian Republics (Eng. 
trans., ib., 1832); Ciscato, Storia d'Este 
dalle origini al 1889 (Este, 1890) ; Campori 
and Solerti, Luigi, Lucrezia e Leonora cT Este 
(Turin, 1888) ; Solerti, Ferrara e la corte 
estense (Castello, 1891) ; Muratori, Belle anti- 
chitd estensi ed italiane (3 vols., Modena, 1717) ; 
Gardner, Princes and Poets of Ferrara (London, 
1904) ; Noyes, The Story of Ferrara (ib., 1904) ; 
Litta, Famiglie Celebri Italiane (Milan, 1808). 
EST^BANEZ CALDER6N, as-ta'Ba-nath 
kal'da-r6n', Don SerafIn (1799-1867). A 
Spanish poet and novelist. He was born in 
Malaga, studied law at the University of Gra- 
nada, and in 1822 was made professor of poetry 
and rhetoric there. In 1830 he went to Madrid, 
where he published anonymously his only vol- 
ume of poems under the title El solitario 
(1831). He also wrote several articles on An- 
dalusian manners for the Cartas Espanolae, the 

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only literary journal at that period in Spain. 
In 1834, during the first Carlist War, he was 
appointed auditor general of the Legitimatist 
army in the north. In 1836 he was appointed 
Jefe-Politico of Logrofio, but an accident 
obliged him to return to Madrid, where he de- 
voted himself to collecting manuscripts of the 
old national literature, to be the basis of a great 
critical edition of the Canoioneros and Roman- 
ceros. In 1838 he was appointed Jefe-Politico 
of Seville. He served repeatedly as deputy and 
from 1856 was a member of the Council of 
State. Est£banez Calderon wrote also a fine 
novel, Cristianos y Moriscos (1838). His Es- 
cenas andaluzas (1847) are a series of lively' 
sketches of Andalusian life and form a trust- 
worthy account of customs that have largely 
disappeared. At his death he left a work on 
the Expedicione8 y aventuras de los Espaiioles 
en Africa. The Spanish government purchased 
his valuable library. Consult Canovas del Cas- 
tillo, El 8olitario y su tiempo, etc. (2 vols., 
Madrid, 1883). 

ESTELLA, a-stfilya. A town in the Province 
of Navarre, Spain, situated on the Rfo Ega, 
about 20 miles southwest of Pamplona (Map: 
Spain, D 1). It has a picturesque situation 
and one of considerable military importance, is 
well built, with fine streets and squares, and 
contains several interesting churches. The town 
is surrounded by a fertile region and is a place 
of some trade and manufactures. Pop., 1900, 
5766; 1910, 5658. Estella is a town of great 
antiquity, perhaps the ancient Gebala. It played 
a prominent part in the Carlist uprisings. In 
1835 the Carlists took possession of the town, 
and here in 1839 occurred the execution by the 
Carlist leader Maroto of five brother generals. 
During 1873-76 Estella was the main strong- 
hold of Don Carlos and was the scene of several 
conflicts. Its surrender in February, 1876, oc- 
casioned a complete downfall of the Pretender's 

ESTEPA, ft-sta'pa. A town in the Province 
of Seville, Spain, situated in a hilly region, about 
60 miles east of the city of Seville (Map: Spain, 
C 4). It has broad and level streets and is de- 
fended by an old Moorish castle. The parish 
church of Santa Maria la Mayor is an imposing 
structure in Gothic style with three naves. The 
chief industries are agriculture and stock rais- 
ing, and the manufacture of oil, soap, etc. There 
are jasper quarries in the vicinity. Pop., 1900, 
8773; 1910, 8234. Estepa is identified with the 
ancient Astapa, which became celebrated in the 
Second Punic War. After an heroic resistance 
against the Roman besiegers its inhabitants 
chose death by fire rather than surrender. The 
Romans subsequently colonized the place. In 
1240 it was recovered from the Moors by Ferdi- 
nand in. 

ESTEPONA, a'sta-pCna. A maritime town 
in the Province of Malaga, Spain, on the Medi- 
terranean, about 25 miles northeast of Gibraltar 
(Map: Spain, C 4). It is laid out with gen- 
erally wide but sloping streets, and has a parish 
church, dating from 1474, which is in ruins. 
The town is in a fertile region, producing grain, 
wine, fruits, and vegetables, and has consider- 
able coasting trade, though the harbor lacks 
shipping facilities. There are also fisheries and 
fish-curing interests, and manufactures of 
liquors, leather, rope, corks, brick, and tile. A 
lighthouse stands on the Punta de la Doncella, 
near by. Population, 1900, 9397; 1910, 9613. 
Vol. VIII.— 8 

ESTEBHAZY, or EsztebhXzy, eVtifr-hft-at. 
The name of an ancient noble Hungarian family 
which possesses immense domains in Hungary 
and traces its descent from Paul Estoras, a 
mythical descendant of Attila, baptized in the 
tenth century. Two branches of the family, 
Zerhazy and Illyeshazy, appear as early as 
1238. The latter line became extinct in 
1838. The titles of baron, count, and prince 
were conferred in turn upon members of the 
family. The first Ester hazy to become cele- 
brated was Nicholas (1582-1645), Palatine of 
flungary, an ardent supporter of the Counter 
Reformation. Later members of the family are* 
Paul IV (1035-1713), Prince Esterhazy of 
Galanta. As Austrian field marshal, he dis- 
tinguished himself in the wars against the 
Turks, especially at St. Gotthard in 1664, 
Vienna in 1683, and Buda in 1686. He was 
made Palatine of Hungary in 1681, and had a 
share in the overthrowing of Tttktflyi (q.v.) \ 
and the consolidation of . the Hapsburg power 
in Hungary. He died a prince of the Empire. 
— Nicholas Joseph (1714-90), Prince Ester- 
hazy of Galanta, Count of Forchtenstein, grand- 
son of Paul IV, was Privy Councilor, field 
marshal, and several times Ambassador. He 
fought bravely in Silesia during the Seven 
Years' War. He was a patron of the arts and 
sciences and established a famous orchestra at 
Eisenstadt, among whose members were Pleyel 
and Haydn.— Nicholas IV (1765-1833), Prince 
Esterhazy of Galanta, grandson of Nicholas 
Joseph, traveled widely in his youth; then 
entered the army, rose to the rank of general, 
and became prominent in diplomatic affairs. 
Possessed of an inherited love for the arts, he 
spent an immense fortune on his collections of 
pictures and engravings, now at the Museum 
of Vienna. In 1809 Nicholas refused Napoleon's 
offer of the crown of Hungary. Haydn found 
in him a most generous patron. — Paul An- 
ton (1786-1866), Prince Esterhazy of Galanta, 
son of Nicholas TV, was Austrian Ambassador 
at Dresden in 1800, at Rome in 1814, and at 
London from 1815 to 1842. He was Minister 
in the Hungarian cabinet of 1848. In 1849 
he retired from public life, but was present as 
Austrian Ambassador at the coronation of 
Alexander II at Moscow in 1856. Another 
prominent member of the family was Moritz, 
Count Esterhftzy (1807-90), diplomat and 
statesman. Consult Count Janos Esterhazy, 
Description of the Esterhdzy Family (Budapest, 


ESTERS (arbitrary variant of ether), or 
Ethereal Salts, sometimes inaptly spoken of 
as "compound ethers." A class of carbon com- 
pounds formed by the union of acids and al- 
cohols. Thus, when ordinary alcohol and strong 
hydrochloric acid are mixed together and 
heated, they combine according to the following 

CAOH + HC1 = CH.C1 + H.0 
Ethyl alcohol Hydroohlorio Ethyl chloride Water 
acid (an ester) 

By analogous reactions the ester called ethyl 
nitrate may be obtained from ordinary alcohol 
and nitric acid; the ester called ethyl acetate, 
from ordinary alcohol and acetic acid, etc. 

Another method of preparing esters, often 
used in the case of organic acids, is to employ 
not the acid itself, but its chloride. Thus, 

Digitized by 





ethyl acetic ester (ethyl acetate) may be pre- 
pared by the action of ordinary alcohol upon 
acetyl chloride, CH,COCl, which is the chloride 
of acetic acid. The reaction is as follows: 

CH.COC1 + C.H.OH = CH,COCX^H. + HC1 
Acetyl Aloohol Ethyl aoetio Hydrochloric 

chloride ester acid 

Still another important method of making 
esters consists in causing the silver salts of 
acids to react with halogen (usually iodine) 
derivatives of hydrocarbons. Thus, ethyl acetic 
ester may be prepared from silver acetate and 
' ethyl iodide (the latter itself made from ethyl 
alcohol ) , according to the following equation : 

CH.COOAg + C S H 6 I = CH.COOCH, + Agl 
Silver acetate Ethyl Ethyl aoetio Silver 

iodide ester iodide 

The esters of organic acids, such as ethyl acetic 
ester, are, as a rule, colorless, pleasant-smelling, 
more or loss volatile liquids. Some occur ready 
f formed in the vegetable world, imparting their 
odor to fruits and flowers. Artificially pre- 
pared esters, therefore, serve to flavor candy, 
pastry, and perfumes, and are sold under the 
names of pear oil, apple oil, pineapple oil, etc. 
Other esters occur ready formed, both in the 
vegetable and in the animal worlds, and are 
known as oils and fats (qq.v.). 

By the action of water esters are broken up 
into their components (i.e., into alcohols and 
acids) — a reaction which is greatly furthered 
by the presence of acids. Thus, ethyl acetic 
ester is broken up into ordinary acetic acid 
and ethyl alcohol according to the following 
equation : 

CH,COOC 2 H ft + H,0 = CH.COOH + C s H.OH 
Ethyl acetio Water Aoetio acid Ethyl 

ester aloohol 

Alkalies have the same effect on esters, but 
much more pronounced. Thus, potassium hy- 
droxide (caustic potash) decomposes ethyl 
acetic ester as follows: 


Esterification and Saponification. The con- 
version of an acid into an ester is termed ester- 
ification. The decomposition of an ester into 
its constituents is sometimes termed saponifica- 
tion (the reason for using this term is stated 
in the article Fats). When the saponification 
of an ester is effected by water alone, or with 
the aid of acids, but not of metallic hydroxides, 
the ester is said to be "hydrolyzed." 

The processes of esterification and saponifica- 
tion have furnished a qpnsiderable portion of 
the material upon which certain very important 
theories of modern chemistry have been tested 
and verified. The theories themselves are ex- 
plained in some detail in the article Reaction, 
Chemical. A brief account of their bearing on 
the processes of esterification and saponification 
may, however, not be out of place in the present 

It was stated above that ethvl acetic ester 
may be formed by the action of ethyl alcohol 
upon acetic acid. This reaction takes place 
according to the following equation: 

C 2 H.OH + CH a COOH = CH a COOC 2 H, + H 3 
Ethyl Acetio acid Ethyl aoetio Water 

aloohol ester 

The reaction evidently involves the simultane- 
ous formation of water and of ethyl acetic ester. 

On the other hand, it was also stated above that 
water decomposes ethyl acetic ester into its 
components. Therefore, even while the ester is 
being formed from its components, it is broken 
up again by the action of the water formed 
along with it. In other words, two opposite re- 
actions take place simultaneously, one being a 
process of esterification, the other a process of 
saponification. If the two processes took place 
with equal rapidity from the very beginning, 
neither could evidently make any progress; so 
that, whether we should mix alcohol and acetic 
acid, or water and ethyl acetic ester, no change 
at all would ensue. In reality, however, this is 
not the case, one of the reasons being as fol- 
lows: All chemical reactions take place ac- 
cording to the law of mass action. By this 
law, the rapidity with which two given sub- 
stances react with each other at a given 
temperature is proportional to the amounts of 
those substances contained in unit volume. The 
greater the amounts present, the more rapid 
the reaction. When alcohol and acetic acid are 
mixed together, a reaction starts in with con- 
siderable rapidity. During the reaction both 
substances gradually disappear as such. Their 
amounts present in every unit of volume, there- 
fore, gradually diminish, and hence the reaction 
(i.e., the esterification) becomes gradually 
slower and slower. On the other hand, since the 
reaction produces ester and water, the amounts 
of these gradually increase, and hence the re- 
action between them (i.e., the saponification) 
gradually becomes more and more rapid. The 
velocities with which the two opposite reactions 
take place, therefore, tend to become equal, and 
when this "equilibrium" is finally reached the 
composition of the mixture ceases to change. 
Not that all reaction has then entirely ceased. 
Both of the opposite reactions undoubtedly con- 
tinue to take place as before. Only for every 
amount esterified, an exactly equivalent amount 
is now saponified, and hence no change can be 
observed* In other words, a "dynamic" (not 
a "static") equilibrium is established in the 
mixture, which is now composed of four sub- 
stances — acid, alcohol, ester, and water. This 
equilibrium can be reached in two ways: (1) 
by starting with a mixture of alcohol and 
acid, or (2) by starting with a mixture of 
ester and water. Thus, when 46 grams of 
alcohol are mixed with 60 grams of acetic acid 
(46 and 60 are the relative reacting weights of 
alcohol and acetic acid), a process of esterifica- 
tion ensues, and continues until the composi- 
tion of the mixture becomes as follows: 15% 
grams of alcohol, 20 grams of acetic acid, 58% 
grams of ethyl acetic ester, and 12 grams of 
water. In this mixture no further change can 
take place. But a mixture of precisely the 
same composition is finally obtained if, to start 
with, 88 grams of ethyl acetic ester and 18 
grams of water (88 and 18 are the relative re- 
acting weights of the ester and of water) have 
been allowed to react upon each other. 

All this holds good, of course, only in case 
none of the products of the reaction is elimi- 
nated. For if, e.g., we were to remove the water 
produced by the esterification, the counteracting 
process (i.e., the saponification) could not take 
place, and hence the esterification would proceed 
unchecked until all the alcohol and acid had 
combined. As a matter of fact, this is the case 
when some dehydrating agent (such as sul- 
phuric acid, zinc chloride, etc.) is added to a 

Digitized by 





mixture of alcohol and acid, the ester iftcation 
being then practically complete. 

The saponifying action of bases has long been 
comparatively well understood, at least in a 
formal, mathematically descriptive way; it is 
explained by the law of mass action already 
mentioned in this sketch, with the aid of the 
theory of electrolytic dissociation. (See Disso- 
ciation.) The saponifying action of a base is 
due to its electro-negative hydroxyl ions (OH). 
Since, according to the law of mass action, the 
rapidity of any reaction in general depends on 
the amounts of the active substances contained 
in unit volume, the rapidity of a saponification 
must depend on the amount of ester and on 
the amount of the hydroxyl ions present in 
every unit of volume. The stronger the base 
the greater the number of hydroxyl ions in its 
solution, and hence the greater its saponifying 
power. If the base is weak (like ammonium 
hydroxide), its small number of hydroxyl ions 
is still further (and very considerably) dimin- 
ished by the presence of one of its salts; hence 
the presence of such salts has a retarding effect 
on the process of saponification, especially in 
case the base is weak. Further, since a salt 
necessarily forms during the saponification (see, 
e.g., the equation representing, above, the sapon- 
ification of ethyl acetic ester by caustic potash), 
the rate of saponification must be diminished 
not only by the disappearance of the ester and 
base as such, but also by the formation of the 
salt and free alcohol, the products of the re- 
action. The mathematical application of these 
principles leads to a method of calculating the 
rapidity with which a saponification may take 
place, if the amounts of ester and base and 
the strength of the latter are given. The re- 
sults thus obtained on a purely theoretical basis 
have, in a large number of cases, been verified 
by actual experiment, and the agreement of 
the theoretical and experimental figures has 
been found good throughout. 

The hastening (see Catalysis) of esterifica- 
tion and of ester hydrolysis by acids has been 
the subject of numerous investigations; but 
its mechanism is not yet clearly understood. 
The "stronger" a given acid is found to be when 
examined with regard to its power of conduct- 
ing the electric current in aqueous solution, 
the greater is also found to be its catalytic 
effect upon the formation and hydrolysis of 
esters. From this it has been concluded that 
it is not the acid as a whole, but its free hydro- 
gen ions that hasten the reaction. But nothing is 
positively known as to how hydrogen ions can 
hasten a reaction. Furthermore, the interven- 
tion of other factors is indicated by the fact 
that the observed reaction velocity is by no 
means directly proportional to the number of 
hydrogen ions present. 

The phenomena of so-called "direct esteri fixa- 
tion" (i.e., esterification as it takes place be- 
tween an organic acid and an alcohol in the 
absence of a strong foreign catalyzing acid) 
have been closely investigated by Rosanoff with 
several collaborators. Here, too, the reaction is 
catalyzed, but the catalytic agent is the esteri- 
fying acid itself; the absence of a foreign 
catalyzer simplifies the problem and permits 
of gaining deeper insight into the mechanism 
of fiie reaction. The acid principally employed 
in these studies was benzoic acid, which was 
esterified with ethyl alcohol, the reacting mix- 

ture being dissolved in acetone and kept for 
definite periods of time, in sealed tubelets, at 
the temperature of boiling aniline (183° C). 
The results have shown that under these condi- 
tions three molecules take part in the reaction: 
two of the acid and one of alcohol. Previous 
to these investigations it was generally believed 
that the reaction proper takes place between 
one molecule of alcohol and one molecule of acid, 
as would be indicated by the ordinary chemical 
equation : 

C.H.COOH + C,H 6 OH = C.H.COOCH. + H 2 
Bensoio acid Ethyl alcohol Ethyl bensoio Water 

The true equation is: 

2C.H.COOH + C 3 H,OH = C.H.COOCaH. + H a O 
+ C,H 6 COOH 

The "catalyzing" part of the acid thus takes 
part in the reaction as well as the "esterifying" 
part, as is shown by the fact that the two parts 
obey the law of mass action equally well. (See 
Catalysis.) Moreover, Rosanoff and his col- 
laborators have succeeded in showing that the 
three reacting molecules first form one triple 
molecule, which subsequently breaks down with 
formation of single molecules of ester, water, 
and acid (the three substances shown to the 
right of the eouality sign in the last equation 
above). But the same triple molecule can also 
be formed by the union of single molecules of 
ester, water, and acid, and it can also break 
down into two molecules of acid and one mole- 
cule of alcohol (the substances formulated to 
the left of the equality sign in the true equa- 
tion of the process). Accordingly the reaction 
takes place in two stages: in the first the 
triple molecule is formed, in the second it is 
decomposed; and it is reversible because the 
intermediate triple molecule can both be formed 
from, and decomposed into, the two sets of 
single molecules involved, so that the same 
state of equilibrium must ultimately be pro- 
duced whether we start with two molecules of 
benzoic acid and one of alcohol, or with single 
molecules of ester, water, and acid. 

All the known facts in the case, which space 
does not permit of discussing in the present 
article, point to the following formula as rep- 
resenting the structure of the intermediate 
triple molecule: 






The dotted lines here denote half valencies, 
whose rupture constitutes the last stage of the 
reaction (i.e., the stage* following the formation 
of the complex molecule itself). However, this 
structural formula, while interesting as a faith- 
ful summary of a variety of facto, is never- 
theless hypothetical, as such formulae must re- 
main in the present state of chemical science. 

ESTES, Dana (1840-1909). An American 
publisher, born at Gorham, Me., and educated 
in the public schools. He worked several years 
as a clerk, and served in the Federal army in 
the Civil War until disabled by wounds. He 
became a member of the publishing firm of 

Digitized by 



Degen, Estes & Co., subsequently was with 
Lee and Shepard, and in 1872 became a part- 
ner in the house of Estes and Lauriat. This 
latter firm was succeeded in 1898 by Dana 
Estes & Co. As a traveler, Estes was the first 
American to explore the Nile country to Uganda, 
and the Congo Free State. He also organized 
and was first secretary of the International 
Copyright Association. He compiled Chimes for 
Childhood (1868) and Spectrum Analysis Ex- 
plained (1872) and edited Half -Hour Recrea- 
tions in Popular Science (1874; 2d ed., 1879). 

ESTEVAN, eVtA-van. A town in Assiniboia 
District, Saskatchewan, Canada, on the Souris 
River, and on the Canadian Pacific Railway, 
145 miles southeast (direct) of Moosejaw and 
about 295 miles southwest (direct) of Winnipeg 
(Map: Saskatchewan, H 8). Among the manu- 
facturing industries are lumber and brick yards 
and flour mills. There are grain elevators and 
implement-distributing warehouses, and a gov- 
ernment coal-testing plant. The town is an im- 
portant shipping centre for coal and brick. 
There is a municipal electric-light plant. Pop., 
1901, 181; 1911, 1981; 1914 (local est.), 4000. 

ESTHEB, eVter (Heb. Ester; cf. Babylonian 
Ishtar, and late Bab. Estrd), or Hadassah 
(Heb., myrtle). A biblical character who has 
given her name to the Book of Esther, which 
forms part of the collection of the Old Testa- 
ment. According to this book, Esther is a 
Jewess of the tribe of Benjamin. She is rep- 
resented as the daughter of Abihail, orphaned 
in early life, and brought up by her cousin 
Mordecai (Esther ii. 7, 15) in Susa, the Persian 
capital (ii. 5). When the King of Persia, 
Ahasuerus (Xerxes, 485-465 B.C.), angered at 
the refusal of his Queen, Vashti, to unveil 
herself publicly at a banquet, desired a new 
queen (i-ii. 4), Esther was brought to the palace 
and was chosen in Vashti's place (ii. 8-20). 
As Queen, she accomplished that for which she 
has since been famous — the deliverance of her 
nation from the cruelty of Haman, the King's 
vizier, and also brought about the overthrow 
of Haman himself (Hi— ix) . In commemoration 
of this deliverance the Jews celebrate the Feast 
of Purim. See Pubim. 

There are several difficulties involved in sup- 
posing Esther to have actually been the Queen 
of Xerxes. Herodotus mentions Amestris as the 
only Queen of Xerxes, and what we know of her 
does not at all agree with the story of Esther. 
Moreover, the Persian kings chose their wives 
from the principal Persian families or from the 
daughters of foreign potentates. Hence it has 
been supposed that Esther was in reality merely 
the favorite of the King's harem. But even this 
is unlikely; and many scholars now hold that 
she is an entirely mythical character, identical 
with Ishtar, the Babylonian goddess. See 
Esther, Book of. 

ESTHEB. 1. A drama by Racine, written at 
the suggestion of Madame de Maintenon, and 
founded on the life of the Old Testament person- 
age of the same name. It was written for the 
pupils of Saint-Cyr, and was performed by them 
before Louis XIV in 1689. 2. An oratorio, the 
words by Humphreys, based on Racine's play, 
and the music by Handel. Its first performance 
took place in 1720. 

ESTHEB, Book or. One of the very latest of 
the canonical books of the Old Testament, be- 
longing to the third division of the collection 
known as the pagiographa. It contains the 



story of the deliverance of the Jews of Persia 
from a destruction planned for them by Haman, 
the Grand Vizier of Ahasuerus (Xerxes, 485-465 
B.c. ) . The heroine of the book is a Jewess whose 
original name is Hadassah, but who appears as 
Esther. The scene is laid at the court of Aha- 
suerus, in Susa. The King, who has deposed his 
Queen, Vashti, for refusing to obey his orders 
that she show her beauty to the revelers at the 
King's banquet, gives direction to seek for a 
beautiful woman to take Vashti's place. Esther, 
a Jewess, is selected as the fairest of maidens 
and meets with the favor of the King. She is 
the cousin of Mordecai, a Jew of the tribe of 
Benjamin, by whom she has been brought up; 
but shortly after Esther's elevation a great 
disaster threatens her people through the refusal 
of Mordecai to pay homage to Haman, the Grand 
Vizier, and who is a descendant of Agag, King 
of Amalek (1 Sam. xv). Haman in great anger 
proceeds to Ahasuerus and, accusing all the 
Jewish subjects of disloyalty, offers to put 10,000 
talents of silver into the royal treasury as the 
proceeds of the permission to pillage tne Jews. 
The King consents and issues an edict for the 
extermination of the Jews and the confiscation 
of their property. At this moment Esther, 
urged on by Mordecai, intervenes. Uninvited, 
she enters the presence of the King to intercede 
on behalf of her people. The King receives 
her graciously and accepts her invitation to dine 
with her on two consecutive nights. On the 
night preceding the second banquet, at which 
Esther intended to make known her request, the 
King learns from the royal archives of the 
services rendered by Mordecai in discovering a 
conspiracy against Ahasuerus' life, for which 
he had never been rewarded. Haman, too, comes 
to the banquet, and the King, having in mind 
Mordecai, asks Haman what should be done with 
the man whom the King delighteth to honor. 
Haman replies, and endures the humility of 
himself leading Mordecai in triumph through 
the streets. At the second banquet Esther dis- 
closes her nationality and exposes the designs 
of Haman, who is seized and ordered to be 
executed on a gallows which he had prepared for 
Mordecai. The latter is raised to the vacant 
post of honor, and the Jews are given permission 
to defend themselves against the carrying out 
of the order for their extermination, which, in 
accordance with the customs of the Medes and 
Persians, could not be revoked. A great dread 
falls upon the people, and on the day set for the 
extermination of the Jews the latter slay 500 
men in Susa, and 75,000 of their enemies in 
the Persian Empire. Esther then makes a 
further request that the Jews be permitted to 
slay their enemies in Susa the following day, 
and this is granted, 300 more being killed on 
the 14th of Adar. In commemoration of the 
deliverance the Feast of Purim was instituted. 
The Book of Esther, as is now generally recog- 
nized by scholars, is a romance, which may, how- 
ever, contain an historical kernel, being based 
on some persecution endured by the Jews of 
Susa. Mordecai and Haman, as descendants of 
Benjamin and Agag, typify the old feud between 
Hebrews and Amalekites. It is also probable 
that a Babylonian legend or myth has guided 
the author of the book in some of the situations 
of the dramatic tale. Mordecai is a derivative 
of Marduk, the chief god of Babylonia; Esther 
is a form of the Babylonian goddess Ishtar; 
while Haman and Vashti are names analogous 

Digitized by 




to those borne by Elamitic deities. The story 
thus represents the conflict between Babylonian 
and Elamitic gods. The Feast of Purim also 
presents analogies to the Babylonian New Year's 

The language of the book, as well as the cir- 
cumstance that the Persian Empire is treated as 
a thing of the past, favor a late date for the 
composition. It was probably written in the 
second century b.o. The Greek translation was 
introduced in Egypt in the fourth year of 
Ptolemy and Cleopatra, probably 114 b.c; and as 
its purpose was to urge the Egyptian Jews to 
observe the Purim festival, the book is not likely 
to have been written long before this date. It 
seems to have been written originally as a plea 
for the general observance of a festival which 
appears at one time to have been limited to the 
Jews of Babylonia and Persia. See Pubim. % 

Consult, besides the commentaries on the Book 
of Esther by Wildeboer (Freiburg, 1898), Sieg- 
fried (Gttttingen, 1901), Paton (New York, 
1908), the introductions to the Old Testament 
(see Exegesis), and the articles of Toy, "Esther 
as a Babylonian Goddess," in The New World, 
vol. vi (Boston, 1897) ; Zimmern, in ZeiUohrift 
fUr Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, vol. x (Gies- 
sen, 1891) ; Jensen, in Wiener ZeiUohrift fUr die 
Kunde dee Morgenlandes, vol. vi (Vienna, 1892) ; 
Erbt, Die Purimsage in der Bibel (Berlin, 1900) ; 
Paul Haupt, in Beitr&ge zur Aseyriologie (Leip- 
zig, 1906), and in American Journal of Semitic 
Lang uages and Literatures (Chicago, 1908). 

BSTHEB, Dkutebocanonical Fragments in 
Book of. In the Greek translations of the Book 
of Esther there are seven somewhat extensive 
passages not found in the Hebrew text. They 
are regarded bytmany Roman Catholic scholars 
as parts of the original text which were removed 
from the Hebrew, perhaps in order that the name 
of God — used in these passages, but not in the 
rest of the book — might not be dishonored 
when the roll was read during the rather secular 
festival of Purim. Most Protestant scholars 
regard them as interpolations, intended to sup- 
plement and amplify the story, which 'became 
a favorite with the Jews. The late Greek origin 
of these additions seems to be indicated by such 
a detail as the representation of Haman as a 
Macedonian who attempted to transfer the 
sovereignty from the Persians to the Mace- 
donians, and by the contradictions between them 
and the Hebrew text. These additions, which 
are therefore supposed to be the work of Hellen- 
istic writers, were all put by Jerome, in his 
Latin translation of the Bible, at the end of 
the book, together with notes to show where 
other additions to the Hebrew occur in the 
Greek. This relegation of the additions to an 
appendix was unfortunate, as it obscured the re- 
lation to the chapters in which they were origi- 
nally inserted. In English versions they are 
embodied in the Apocrypha under the title "The 
Rest of the Chapters of the Book of Esther." 
They consist of (1) Mordecai's dream and the 
conspiracy of the two eunuchs (precedes Esther 
i. 1); (2) the King's edict commanding the 
destruction of the Jews (follows iii. 13) ; (3) 
Mordecai's exhortation of Esther (follows iv. 
8) ; (4) prayer of Mordecai and nrayer of 
Esther (follows iv. 17); (5) Esthers appear- 
ance before the King (amplification of v. 1, 2) ; 
(6) the King's second edict, in favor of the 
Jews (follows viii. 12); (7) interpretation of 
Mordecai's dream (follows x. 3). They are 

supposed by many scholars to have been written 
in the first century B.c. In the Aramaic para- 
phrases of Esther, of which there are two, known 
as the first and second Targums to Esther, 
there are similar embellishments, independent 
of the Greek additions. See Deutebocanonical 
Books. Consult: Bissell, The Apocrypha of 
the Old Testament (New York, 1880); Fuller, 
in Wace, The Apocrypha (ib., 1888) ; Kaulen, 
Einleitung in das Alte Testament (4th ed., Leip- 
zig, 1912); Scholz, Kommentar tiber das Buch 
Esther mit seinen Zusdtzen (Wtlrzburg, 1892) ; 
Comely, Intro duetto in V. T. Libros Macros, ii, 
1 (Paris, 1897); Ryssel, in Kautzsch, Die Apo- 
kryphen und Pseudepigraphen des Alt en tes- 
taments (Tubingen, 1900) ; Andre, Les Apo- 
kryphes de VAncxen Testament (Florence, 1903) ; 
Jahn, Das Buch Esther nach der Beptuaginta 
hergestellt (Leiden, 1901); Streane, The Book 
of Esther (New York, 1907) ; Paton, The Book 
of Esther (ib., 1908) ; Gregg, in Charles, The 
Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testa- 
ment (Oxford, 1913). 

ESTHER, Queen. An Indian Chieftainess. 
See Montoub. 

ESTHE^BIA (Neo-Lat., anagram of St. 
Theresa). A bivalve phyllopod crustacean of 
the order Branchiopeda, found in a fossil state 
in deposits of fresh and brackish water origin, 
from the Devonian to the Pleistocene. The ani- 
mal is not well segmented and is able to with- 
draw itself wholly within its shell. (For its 
anatomical characters, see the articles on Crus- 
tacea and Phyllopoda.) The shell varies in 
size from % to 1 inch in length and is of 
rounded, flattened form, with moderately promi- 
nent beaks near the hinge line. In texture it 
is thin and membranaceous, and the surface is 
usually marked by concentric folds or imbricat- 
ing ridges between which are trellised or anas- 
tomosing lines. This latter character serves to 
distinguish Estheria -shells from the shells of 
small pelecypods such as Posidonomya. One 
species (Estheria membranaoea) is found in the 
Old Red Sandstone of the British Devonian, in 
equivalent beds of Germany, and in the contem- 
poraneous formations of the Oneonta-Catskill 
group of New York State. About 24 living 
species of Estheria, and about an equal number 
of fossil species, are known from widely dis- 
tributed regions. Allied genera are Limnadia 
and Limnetis, each represented by a few species, 
and the fossil genus Leaia, found in the Car- 
boniferous and Permian formations, which differs 
from Estheria in the presence of diagonal ridges 
that run from the umbones to the ventral mar- 
gins of the shell. 

Consult: Jones, "A Monograph of the Fossil 
Estheria," Monographs of the Palosontographical 
Society (London, 1862); ''On Fossil Estheria? 
and their Distribution, ,, Quarterly Journal of 
the Geological Society of London, vol. xix 
(ib., 1863). See also Crustacea; Phyllopoda; 
and, for il l ustra tion, see Plate of Phyllopoda. 

ESTHEBVUjUS, eVter-vfl. A city and the 
county seat of Emmet Co., Iowa, about 140 
miles (direct) northwest of Des Moines, on the 
Des Moines River, and on the Chicago, Rock Is- 
land and Pacific and the Minneapolis and St. 
Louis railroads (Map: Iowa, CI). The city 
contains a Carnegie library and a fine high- 
school building. It is situated in an agricultural 
and stock-raising district and has prain eleva- 
tors, flouring mills, railroad machine shops, 
creameries, a tub factory, cement-products 'works, 

Digitized by VjiUUVIL 




musical instrument and cigar factories/ etc. 
The wholesale interests are considerable. The 
water works and electric-light plant are owned 
by the municipality. Pop., 1900, 3237; 1910, 

ESTHONIA (Esthonian Esti-ma, Est h land). 
A province of the old Russian Empire which be- 
came an independent state on Feb. 2, 1920. Be- 
sides the old province of Esthonia it includes the 
northern part of Livonia, the islands of Moon 
Sound, and a small part of the government of 
Petrograd. The estimated area is about 20,000 
square miles, and the population 1,600,000, of 
which more than 90 per cent are Esthonian. 
•The language is Esthonian, but German and 
Russian are generally spoken and understood. 
A great majority of the people are Lutherans. 
Elementary education is compulsory. The Uni- 
versity of Dorpat is now under Esthonian 
auspices. Reval is the chief seaport and capital. 

.Tlie chief occupation of the people is agri- 
culture. In 1919 a movement was begun to 
divide up the large estates. The chief crops are 
rye, oats, barley, and potatoes. In 1920 the yield 
of potatoes was 21,232,605 bushels, oats 5,319,- 
471, winter rye, 3,788,955, and barley 2,514,555. 
In the same year there were 155,489 horses, 
414,955 cattle, 497,838 sheep, and 244,912 pigs. 
The live stock decreased largely during the war. 

The chief industries are textiles, shipbuilding, 
metal works, mining, and chemicals. During 
and after the war (1914-18) the industries al- 
most came to a standstill largely because of 
inability to get raw materials. Before the war 
50,000 people were employed in industry, but 
after it less than one-fifth that number. 

In 1920 the exports amounted to $17,544,278 
and the imports to $19,931,218. The chief ex- 
ports were flax, paper, spirits, and timber. The 
chief imports were coal, fertilizers, fish, salt, 
and petroleum. The budget expenditures pro- 
posed for 1922 were 5,500,000,000 marks. After 
the war the finances were in a deplorable state. 
The Esthonian mark greatly depreciated. 

The form of government was provided by the 
constitution which went into effect Dec. 20, 1920. 
The executive power is vested in a state head 
and a ministry chosen by the assembly, and the 
legislative power in an assembly of 100 members 
elected for three years by universal, direct, equal 
and secret suffrage, on the basis of proportional 

History. After the Russian Revolution in 
1917, Esthonia claimed its independence. It was 
recognized by Great Britain on Feb. 4, 1018. Sub- 
sequently other nations recognized it. France and 
the United States refused to do so on the grounds 
that it was a part of the old Russian Empire. 
The Bolsheviks recognized its independence on 
Feb. 2, 1920. See Russia and Volume XXIV. 

ESTHS. See Esthonia. 

ESTEEKNE, ft'tyeV. See Stephaotjs. 


ES'TIVATION. See Hibernation and Es- 

ESTLANDEB, estland-er, Carl Gustap 
(1834-1910). A Finnish writer on art history. 
He was appointed professor of aesthetics at the 
University of Helsingfors in 1868. He founded 
and became editor of the Finland Revieio in 1876 
and wrote a number of valuable works which 
have contributed to the industrial and artistic 
progress of his country. Among his works are: 
The History of the Plastic Arts from the Middle 
of the Eighteenth Century until our oxen Time 

(1867) ; The Development Past and Future of 
the Art and Industry of Finland (1871) ; Rich- 
ard Coeur de Lion in History and Poetry ( 1858) ; 
The Robin Hood Ballads (1889) ; and some re- 
searches into the romance of Tristan, in French 

ESTOC (OF., from OHG., MHG. stoc, Ger. 
Stock, Eng. stock). A small dagger worn at the 
girdle and called in Elizabethan times a "tuckle." 

ESTOLLE, es-toil or es-tw&l' (OF., star), or 
Stab. A bearing in heraldry. It differs from 
the mullet (q.v.) in having six waved rays, the 
mullet consisting of five plain ones. 

ESTON. A town in the North Riding of 
Yorkshire, England, about 4 miles east-southeast 
of Middlesbrough. Its chief industry is the 
manufacture of steel rails. Pop., 1901, 11,200; 
1911, 12,026. 

•ESTOPPEL (from estop, from OF. estoper, 
estouper, Fr. itouper y from ML. stoppare, Lat. 
stuppare, stupare, to stuff with tow, cram, from 
stuppa, 8tupa, Gk. vrfawn, styppG, trrtfm;, stypG, 
oakum). A legal impediment or bar which pre- 
cludes a person from alleging or denying a fact 
because of his previous conduct. Estoppels are 
divided into three classes, which will be con- 
sidered separately t 

1. By Becord. This class includes not only 
the formal and final judgment in a judicial 
proceeding, but the pleadings of the parties and 
all other papers or orders which go to make up 
the record of the case. If any mistake has been 
made in the record, the party injuriously af- 
fected by it must obtain relief by an application 
to the court to correct it or by an appeal to a 
higher court. When the record is allowed to 
stand, it is conclusive evidence of its truth. If 
the judgment is one in rem, # i.e., if it is an 
adjudication as to the status of a person or 
thing, it is conclusive against the whole world. 
Every one is estopped from setting up the truth 
at variance with the judgment. If A is duly 
adjudged a bankrupt, no one is allowed, while 
such judgment stands, to dispute his condition 
of bankruptcy. If the' judgment is in personam 
as a judgment for a sum of money, it is con- 
clusive upon the parties, but not upon strangers. 

2. By Deed. Where a person has entered 
into a solemn engagement by deed, i.e., by 
written instrument under seal, he is not allowed, 
while the deed remains unimpeached, to deny the 
truth of any assertion which he has made 
therein. If the grantor of land recites in his 
deed that he is the owner of it, he will be pre- 
cluded from showing that he was not. 

3. In Pais, or by Conduct. At present, this 
is by far the most extensive of the three classes 
of estoppel, although in Lord Coke's time it was 
limited to estates in land acquired by livery of 
seisin, by entry, by acceptance of rent, and by 
acceptance of an estate. 

Estoppels by record and estoppels by deed are 
often spoken of as "odious," because, being of a 
technical character, they operate harshly at 
times. Estoppels in pais do not rest upon con- 
siderations of general policy, such as have led 
to the establishment of the other classes, but 
upon the doctrine that where one by his conduct 
causes another to believe the existence of a 
certain sfate of things, and induces him to act 
on that belief so as to alter his previous 
position, the former is precluded from averring, 
as against the latter, that a different state of 
things existed at the time in question. These 
estoppels are treated with favor by the courts, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




and their scone is increasing constantly. They 
are known also as "equitable estoppels" and 
have their foundation in fraud. But while the 
conduct which produces an estoppel in pais is 
generally fraudulent, it is not always nor neces- 
sarily of that character. An example is afforded 
by one who withdraws from a partnership. He 
must give notice of his withdrawal or he will 
be estopped from showing that he has ceased to 
be a member as against one who has become 
creditor of the firm upon the assumption that he 
was still a member. Nor will it be any defense 
that his former partner agreed to give the 
proper notice of dissolution. It is his duty to 
be active in the matter; to see that such notice 
is given as will in the ordinary course of busi- 
ness protect third persons from trusting the 
firm on the assumption that he is still a partner. 

The modern American doctrine of title by 
estoppel has more in common with the estoppel 
in pais than with that by deed. It arises where 
an interest in land is purported to be conveyed 
by deed and the deed contains a covenant of war- 
ranty or equivalent covenant of title. Such a 
deed, though made by one having no estate to 
convey, vests the title by anticipation in the 
grantee, which becomes a valid and effectual title 
if at any time thereafter the land should come to 
the grantor, no further conveyance being neces- 
sary to divest the title of the grantor or to con- 
firm that of the grantee. (See Feoffment; 
Warranty.) Consult: Blackstone, Commenta- 
ries (London, 1886) ; Bigelow, Treatise on the 
Law of Estoppel (5th ed., Boston, 1890) ; Ewart, 
An Exposition of the Principles of Estoppel by 
' Misrepresentation (Toronto, 1900).; Black, Trea- 
tise on the Law of Judgments including the 
Doctrine of Res Ad judicata (2 ed* St. Paul, 

STANT, Paul Henri Benjamin, Baron d' 
(1852- ). A French publicist, born in La 
Fleehe, Sarthe. He was a grandnephew of Ben- 
jamin Constant and was educated at the Lyeee 
Louis-le-Grand, Paris, and at the School of Ori- 
ental Languages. He entered the diplomatic serv- 
ice, was secretary of the commission for the 
delimitation of Montenegro, and later was 
charge d'affaires in Montenegro, and, after service 
in Tunis, at The Hague and (1890-95) in 
London. He was a deputy from Sarthe in 1895- 
1904 and then was elected senator. An ardent 
advocate of international peace, he was a mem- 
ber of The Hague conferences and of The Hague 
Qourt, and did much to calm and check angry 
feeling between France and Germany. He re- 
ceived the Nobel prize for peace in 1909. He 
wrote for French, English, ana American reviews; 
published a volume on modern Greece and trans- 
lations from modern Greek drama; reports of 
The Hague conferences; papers for the Inter- 
parliamentary Union and the Universal Races 
conference; a volume on aviation; Les congre- 
gations riligieuses chez les Arabes ( 1887 ) ; La 
politique francaise en Tunisie (1891, winning 
the Prix Therouanne) ; and Les Etats XJnis 
d'AmSrique (1913), based on his visits to the 
United States in 1902, 1907, 1911, and (for the 
Champlain Celebration) in 1912. 

ESTCVER (OF. estover, estouvier, need, 
necessity, from estorer, estuvoi, to furnish ) . An 
ancient term of the common law, used originally 
of any necessary supplies to which a person was 
entitled out of the estate of another, but now 
limited to the right of a tenant to take neces- 

sary firewood and wood for repairs from the de- 
mised premises. In the former sense it was once 
employed to describe the alimony, or sustenance, 
to which a woman divorced from her husband 
a mensa et thoro was entitled. In the latter 
sense it is by English writers more frequently 
known by the Anglo-Saxon term bote, as house 
bote, a right of wood for fuel and the repair 
of the house; plow bote, wood for plows and 
carts; and hay bote, wood for repairing hedges 
and fences. The right of estover is an incident 
of the usual forms of subordinate tenancy — for 
life, for years, from year to year, and at will — 
and is fully recognized in the United States as 
well as in England. See Landlord and Tenant; 
and cf. Waste. 

ESTRADA, es-tra'Da, La. A town in the 
Province of Pontevedra, Spain, 15 miles south 
by east of Santiago de Com pot tela on the Rio 
Ulla. It is situated in a populous mountain 
region and is engaged in farming and stock 
raising, lumbering, and the manufacture of 
woolen and linen goods. There are mineral 
springs here. Pop., 1900 (commune), 26,838; 
1910, 27,898. 

ESTRADA CABRERA, as-tra'oa ka-bra'ra, 
Manuel ( 1857- ). A Central American pol- 
itician, and a president of Guatemala, born at 
Quesaltenango. After completing his studies in 
philosophy and law, he devoted himself to legal 
practice, rising to be a district judge, and a jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court; and in 1885 he 
actively entered politics as a representative in 
the National Assembly. In 1892 he was ap- 
pointed Secretary of State; in February, 1898, 
upon the assassination of President Barrios, he 
became acting executive; in September of that 
year he was elected President; and he was re- 
elected for the term 1905-11. He consistently 
advocated important measures for the progress 
of the country: the putting of the currency on a 
sound basis; the aiding of public works, espe- 
cially in agricultural and industrial lines; the 
expansion of the budget for public instruction; 
in short, anything that would aid the cultural 
development of the country. Despite all this, 
he gained bitter enemies, and several attempts 
were made on his life. In March, 1911, he was 
again reelected for the term 1911-17. 

BSTRADES, es'trftd', Godefboi, Comte d' 
(1007-86). A French soldier, born at Agfcn. 
He was a page of Louis XIII, went on a mission 
to Holland in 1646, became colonel of infantry, 
and marechal de camp m 1647. In 1661 he was 
made Ambassador Extraordinary to England, 
and conducted the negotiations on the cession 
of Dunkirk to the French. He was Ambassador 
to Holland in 1646-68, and then in the cam- 
paign that followed received the baton of mar- 
shal (1675) for gallantry at Wesel, Maestricht, 
and Liege. He represented his country in the 
congress that arranged the Peace of Nymwegen 
(1678). Lettres, m4moires et negotiations (9 
vols., Paris, 1758; and a supplementary vol. in 
London, 1763) were published posthumously. 
Consult Philippe Lauzun, Le MarSchal d*Es- 
trades (Agen, 1896). 

ESTRAY' (OF. estrayer, estraier, to stray, 
from estree, stree, Prov. estrade, street, from Lat. 
strata, street, from stemere, to strew; according 
to another etymology from ML. ewtravagari, to 
wander beyond, from Lat. extra, beyond + va- 
gari, to wander). Any animal, the subject of 
property and not ferce natures, or wild, which is 
found without apparent owner at large in a pub- 
Digitized by dOOQlC 


lie place or on the land of any one not the owner. 
If trespassing on private land, an estray may, in 
England and generally in the United States, be 
impounded at the cost of the owner reclaiming it, 
and in some jurisdictions may be distrained 
damage feasant. In England, if found within 
the limits of the royal demesnes or of a manor 
where it does not belong, an estray becomes sub- 
ject to the lordship of the King or lord of the 
manor, who acquires a qualified property therein. 
This right of property becomes absolute if the 
animal be not reclaimed by the owner within 
a year and a day after due proclamation made 
by the lord of the manor. This doctrine is a 
peculiar exception to the general rule of law, 
which protects the title of the loser of goods 
until his claim becomes barred by the Statute 
of Limitations. It does not obtain in the United 
States, where the status of estrays and the 
rights of their owners are for the onost part 
regulated by statute. In some States the finder 
of a strayed animal may, after a reasonable 
time and due advertisement, sell it at public 
or private sale and pass a good title to the 
purchaser. The proceeds of the sale, after pay- 
ing the reasonable charges of the vendor, are 
usually paid into the treasury of the town, 
county, or State. Consult Burn, Justice of the 
Peace and Parish Officer (30th ed., London, 
1869), and Scriven, Treatise on Copyhold, Cus- 
tomary Freehold, etc. (ib.). 

ESTREA1Y (OP. estret, estrait, Fr. extrait, 
extract, from OF. estravre, Fr. extraire, to draw 
out, from Lat. extrahere, to draw out, from em, 
out -f trahere, to draw) . In English law, a true 
extract, copy, or note of some original writing 
or record, and specially of fines or amercements, 
as entered in the rolls of a court, to be levied 
by bailiffs or other officers. When applied to a 
recognizance (q.v.), it signifies that the recog- 
nizance itself is estreated, or taken out from 
among the other records, and Bent to the ex- 
chequer for enforcement. If the condition of a 
recognizance be broken, the recognizance is for- 
feited; and on its being estreated the parties 
become debtors to the crown for the sums in 
which they are bound. Under the present prac- 
tice in England the King's Remembrancer issues 
process for the enforcement of estreats, subject 
to the supervisory power of the Song's Bench 
Division of the High Court of Justice. 

ESTB£ES, a'stra', Gabbtelle d' (c.1573-99). 
The favorite of Henry IV of France. She was 
the daughter of Marquis Antoine d'Estrees, Gov- 
ernor of the Isle de France. In her father's 
absence she received Henry IV at her father's 
castle at Cceuvres in 1590 and inspired him with 
a violent passion. To avoid scandal, her father 
forced her to marry M. d'Amerval de Liancourt, 
but Henry had the marriage dissolved and sum- 
moned her to court. She bore Henry several 
children and was created by him Marchioness 
of Monceaux and Duchess of Beaufort. Her 
amiable and sweet disposition endeared her to 
all. She was shown every mark of favor by the 
King, was given many rich presents, a splendid 
domain, and a great income. So great was his 
infatuation that he stood ready to divorce his 
wife Marguerite de Valois and to marry Gabri- 
elle, and it was only her sudden death in 1599 
that prevented the step. Consult Desclozeaux, 
QabHelle d'Estrtes (Paris, 1889), and Loiseleur, 
Questions historiques du XVHe siecle. 

ESTRELLA DE SEVTLLA, a-stralya da sa- 
ve^lya, La. A comedy by Lope de Vega, abound- 



ing in strong situations, and considered by many 
to be Lope's masterpiece. 

ESTREMADURA, eVtra-ma-doT^ra. A prov- 
ince of Portugal bounded by Beira on the north, 
by Alemtejo on the east and south, and by the 
Atlantic Ocean on the west (Map: Portugal, A 
3). Area, 6711 square miles. The surface is 
generally mountainous except in the south. The 
chief river is the Tagus, which divides the prov- 
ince into two parts. The climate is temperate 
and healthful; earthquakes occasionally occur. 
There are extensive forests, and the soil in cer- 
tain sections yields good crops of grain and 
fruit. The population is sparse, and the prov- 
ince is in a generally backward condition. For 
administrative purposes Estremadura is divided 
into the three districts of Lisbon, Leiria, and 
Santarem. Pop., 1890, 1,083,290; 1900, 1,231,- 
418; 1911, 1,438,726. 

ESTREMADURA, es'tra-ma-DoT/ra. An old 
province of Spain, situated in the southwestern 
part of the country, and bounded on the north 
by Leon, on the south bv Andalusia, on the west 
by Portugal, and on the east by New Castile 
( Map : Spain, B 3 ) . It is divided into the two 
provinces of Badajoz and Caceres. Area, 16,162 
square miles. Although a continuation of the 
high table-land of New Castile, Estremadura 
diners somewhat in the formation of its surface. 
Its northern part is occupied by the lofty and 
well-wooded Sierra de Gredos and Sierra de Gata. 
The Sierra de Guadalupe forms the watershed 
between the Tagus and Guadiana, the chief rivers 
of Estremadura. It is less elevated and has a 
sandy soil. South of the Guadiana the country 
becomes more sterile and contains little agricul- ' 
tural land. But even in the fertile portion 
of Upper Estremadura agriculture is in a state 
of neglect, more attention being paid to the 
breeding of domestic animals. Estremefio pork, 
bacon, and hams vie in celebrity and flavor 
with those of Westphalia, Copper, lead, silver, 
and coal are found, but are only slightly ex- 
ploited. The chief articles of commerce are 
animal products, which are largely smuggled 
into Portugal. Pop., 1887, 821,300; 1897, 853,- 
438; 1900, 882,410; 1910, 990,990. The inhab- 
itants are poor and illiterate and from want of 
roads are isolated from the rest of Spain. They 
make excellent soldiers, however, having pro- 
duced a series of conquistadores and generals, 
e.g., Cortes and Pizarro, to mention only the • 
two who were most celebrated. 

ESTREMOZ, 6s'tra-m6s / . A town in the Prov- 
ince of Alemtejo, Portugal, situated about 32 
miles by rail northeast of Evora (Map: Portu- 
gal, B 3). It is built at an altitude of over 
1500 feet and is defended by two half -ruined 
forts. Estremoz is famous for its earthenware 
of porous clay, which is in use all over the penin- 
sula. In the neighborhood is quarried marble 
of different colors, and the town exports fine 
wool. Pop., 1890, 7107; 1900, 7857. 

ESTBEPE / MENT (OF. estrepement, from es- 
treper, to waste, from Lat. extirpare, to uproot, 
from ex, out -f- stirps, trunk of a tree). 1. 
Waste or spoliation of lands, committed by a 
tenant for life or years. Used in this sense/the 
term has become obsolete, having been sup- 
planted by the term "waste" (q.v.). 2. An an- 
cient writ or process of the common law insti- 
tuted to restrain or prevent the commission of 
waste. With the development of the jurisdic- 
tion of courts of equity in the prevention of 
waste, the common-law remedy has become 

Digitlzedby O 




obsolete. In Pennsylvania, where there are no 
courts of equity, the writ of estrepement is still 
in us e fo r the purpose of preventing waste. 

ESTRUP, Jacob Bbonnum (1825-1913). A 
Danish statesman, born at Sorts. He took his 
seat in the Landsthing in 1864, was leader of the 
Agrarians, and active in the revision of the con* 
stitution in 1866. As Minister of the Interior 
in 1865-69, he furthered the railway service of 
the kingdom. In 1875 he became President of 
the Council and Minister of Finance. He was 
continually involved in difficulties with the 
Folkething, which disapproved the conservative 
policy of strengthening the defenses of Copen- 
hagen. Estrup made use of the royal power of 
issuing provisional acts, even finance acts after 
1877, and from 1885 to 1894 carried on the 
government by a provisional budget. His res- 
ignation in 1894 marked the transfer of power 
from the crown and the Landsthing to the 
Folkething. He opposed the sale of the Danish 
West Indies in 1902, but afterward had little 
influence except with a small part of the Right; 
and in 1908 his opposition to the electoral and 
tax refor ms was unsuccessful. 

ESTUARY (from Lat. cestuarium, estuary, 
from cestus, tide). The widened channel at the 
mouth of a river, in which there is marked tidal 
action. An estuary is usually formed by sub- 
mergence or "drowning" of the river valley, 
which then is subjected to the erosive action of 
tides and waves. The channels of estuaries are 
generally shoal and are obstructed by shifting 
bars. During the flow of the tide the sand and 
mud brought down by the river is carried up 
the estuary and partially deposited, while a 
portion is borne down again by the ebb. This 
continual oscillation of sediment is evidenced by 
the turbiditv of the waters. In many estuaries 
the tides rise very rapidly, advancing against 
the river current in the form of a huge wave, 
a phenomenon commonly called "bore" (q.v.). 
Good examples of estuaries are found at the 
mouth of the Delaware, St. Lawrence, La Plata; 
the Thames and Severn in England; the Elbe 
in Germany; and the Gironde in France. See 

ESZ&K, eVak (Ger. Easeg, Croat. Osjek). 
A royal free city of Croatia-Slavonia, Kingdom 
of Hungary, the chief industrial and commercial 
centre of Slavonia, capital of the County of Viro- 
vitica (Map: Hungary, F 4). It is situated on 
the Drave, which is navigable to the Danube. The 
city consists of the fortress, the upper town, the 
lower town, and the new town. Its chief public 
edifices are the residence of the commandant of 
the fort, the town hall, the county building, a 
Capuchin and a Franciscan monastery, and the 
casino with theatre. It has a gymnasium and 
two teachers' colleges. The manufactures in- 
clude notably flour, leather, silk goods, and glass- 
ware. It has a large river trade in grain, meat, 
wood, oak, staves, fruit, honey. EsaSk was the 
Mursa or Mursia of the Romans. During the 
Hungarian revolution the town was at first held 
by Count Batthyanyi, but shortly capitulated 
to the Austrian general, Baron Trebersberg. 
Population, mostly Germans, 1900, 24,930; 
1910 31 388. 

ESZTERGOM, eVter-gom, or GRAN, gran 
(Hung. Esztergom, Lat. Strigonium). A royal 
free town of Hungary and capital of the county 
of the same name, on the right bank of the 
Danube, 25 miles northwest of Budapest (Map: 
Hungary, F 3). It consists of the town proper, 

the archiepiscopal or "water" town, and two sub- 
urbs; and is the seat of the Prince Primate of 
Hungary and an archbishop. The most striking 
building is the large cathedral (1821-56), in 
the Italian Renaissance style, with an imposing 
dome like that of St. Peter's in Rome. The 
church is 348 feet long, and is the most beauti- 
ful in the kingdom. The centre is arched over 
by a dome 230 feet high, supported by 24 pillars. 
The interior is adorned with fine paintings, 
monuments, and chapels, and contains a fine 
organ by Moser. There are also the church of 
St. Anne, the old and the new archiepiscopal 
palaces of the Primate; the seminary for priests, 
the museum, gymnasium, Catholic girls' school, 
the county building, and the town hall. The 
cathedral has a library of 113,000 volumes and 
many valuable manuscripts. The suburbs are 
attractively laid out, and have handsome resi- 
dences. Agriculture is the chief industry, and 
wine the principal article of commerce. Iron- 
ware and bricks are manufactured. Several 
warm saline and sulphur springs afford medici- 
nal baths. Pop., 1900, 17,909; 1910, 17,881. 
Esztergom, which is one of the oldest towns of 
Hungary, was the residence of the Hungarian 
Prince Gejza; and here was born his son, St. 
Stephen, first King of Hungary, who was con- 
verted to Christianity in 1000, and established 
the see of Esztergom in 1001. The town was a 
great commercial centre, but was destroyed by 
the Tatars in 1241 and never regained its for- 
mer importance. Between 1543 and 1683 it was 
held by the Turks. 

ESZTBRHAZT. See EstebhXzy. 

ETA, a'ta. See AEta. 

3TAMPES, a'tawp' (Lat. Stampce). The 
capital of an arrondissement in the Department 
of Seine-et-Oise, France, 32 miles south-south- 
west of Paris (Map: France, N., H 4). It con- 
tains a number of churches dating from the 
twelfth and sixteenth centuries, ' the ruins of a 
mediaeval castle, and an old town hall. It has 
a college, manufactures woolen fabrics, leather, 
machinery, and embroidery, and carries on a 
considerable trade in grain and garden produce. 
Pop. (commune), 1901, 9001; 1911, 9454. 

£TA1£PES, Anne de Plsseleu, Duchesse d'. 

&TANG DE BEBBE, a'ta*' de bar. A salt 
lagoon, or elang, on the south coast of France, 
situated in the Department of Bouches-du-Rhone, 
and communicating with the Mediterranean 
through the Gulf de Foz by a narrow channel, 
called the Passe des Marti gues. It covers an 
area of about 80 square miles, and its depth 
varies from 10 to 30 feet. It has important salt 
works and is of strategic value. 

ETA W AH, g-ta'wa. The capital of the dis- 
trict of the same name in the United Provinces, 
British India, on the left bank of the Jumna, 
70 miles below Agra (Map: India, D 3). It 
is picturesquely situated in a well-wooded dis- 
trict and has some fine streets, a handsome pub- 
lic square, and remains of the Jama Mas j id 
(great mosque), several ghats, or flights of 
stairs, down to the river for sacred ablution, a 
great mound, and a ruined fort. It has small 
manufactures of cotton cloth. It carries on an 
important trade in ghi, grain, cotton, and oil- 
seed, and owes its prosperity chiefly to its posi- 
tion at the junction of the two roads which lead 
to Agra from Cawnpore and Kalpi. Pop., 1901, 
42,570; 1911,45,350. 

Digitized by 



ETCHEMTN, Fr. pron. aeh'maN'. See Male- 


ETCHING (from etch, from Dutch etsen, 
from Ger. atzen, to etch, from MHG. etzen, OHG. 
ezzen, to give to eat, from eawn, Ger. essen, Goth, 
t fan, AS. etan, Eng. eat; connected with Ir. ith, 
OChurch Slav, yami, I eat, Lat. edere, Gk. Jfarlcu, 
edesthai, Skt, ad, to eat). The art and the proc- 
ess of engraving by means of acid which eats 
lines in the surface. Etching may be on glass, 
in which case the line is hard and invariable, 
and this process is used chiefly by artists who 
seek character drawing or book illustration in 
which but little light and shade is desired. It 
may be done on zinc, which is thought to give a 
peculiarly rich "color" — i.e., a black and white 
effect of unusual brilliancy — and for this pur- 
pose it is preferred by some modern etchers of 
landscape subjects. Etchings are known to have 
been made by Albert Dtlrer and others on if on, 
and in modern times on steel, but by far the 
greater number of plates etched for printing 
are of copper. 

In order that the acid may attack only the 
parts desired, something which resists the action 
of the acid must be spread over the plate at the 
beginning. This is called the ground; it is usu- 
ally varnish of some kind, laid on in a coat 
thick enough to guarantee its uniformity, so 
that no small openings will allow a little of the 
acid to pass through and permit a dot or small 
blur on the surface. Many special grounds have 
been used, and one recommended by Hamerton is 
made of wax, gum mastic, and asphaltum. It is 
customary then to smoke the surface of this 
ground, but this is unessential, as its purpose is 
merely to aid the etcher bv allowing him to see 
his lines as he cuts them, by the contrast of the 
brilliant metal against the dead black ground of 
the smoked varnish. The tool bv which the lines 
are drawn may be anything with a reasonably 
sharp point. J. M. W. Turner used a prong of 
an old steel fork, which he claimed was as good 
a tool as anv. By far the most usual form of 
etching needle, however, is a steel bar weighing 
from one to three ounces, of which the point is 
made sharp ; sometimes both ends are sharpened 
to points of different fineness. It is to be 
noted, however, that the needle does not cut the 
metal at all, but merely scratches through the 
surface of the varnish so as to expose the metal. 

The drawing once made in this manner, the 
plate is plunged into the acid bath, usually made 
with nitric acid, diluted by about its own 
volume of water. The action of this acid is very 
rapid; it eats the copper away on either side of 
the line drawn through the ground by the 
needle, and even hollows out the metal below the 
surface, leaving sharp, thin edges which break 
down with great facility. To prevent this and 
to keep the lines of the width desired, what is 
called the Dutch mordant was introduced about 
1870 and strongly advocated by Hamerton and 
others. This mordant is composed of chlorate of 
potash 20 grams, hydrochloric acid 100 grams, 
water 180 grams. The universal testimony of 
practitioners is that the bath should be large and 
deep and contain a considerable quantity of the 
mordant. Before the plate is put into the 
mordant it should be brushed with a feather or 
something of the kind, to clear away from the 
lines little scraps of the varnish which may have 
collected there. When it has been laid in the 
bath, it must still be watched, as bubbles arise 
that must be removed by a feather or similar 


means, because they may prevent the free access 
of the acid to the metal. If, now, it is desired 
to have a line bitten much deeper than others, 
it must be exposed for a greater length of time 
to the acid. For this purpose the process of 
stopping out is employed. The plate is with- 
drawn from the bath and washed. Varnish is 
then applied with a brush, filling up ("stop- 
ping") those lines which have been bitten suffi- 
ciently deep, while the others are once more 
exposed to the acid. In this way a single plate 
may be withdrawn several times, more and more 
of the lines stopped out, and those that remain 
bitten more deeply. It may also be necessary 
to rebite the whole plate, as when it is thought, 
or found on actual trial, that the plate is feeble 
in effect. For this purpose it is necessary to 
clean the plate thoroughly and then to put the 
resistant ground on the plate afresh. This must 
be done with great care, so as not to fill up the 
lines already cut by the etching, and then care- 
ful examination must be made to see that those 
thin and shallow lines which have received some 
part of the ground are cleaned before the re- 
varnished plate is put into the acid bath. Small 
parts of the plate may, however, be rebitten by 
the simple means of covering the rest of the 
plate completely with the ground. 

It is not to be forgotten that the dry-point 
(q^.v.) process affords a perfectly ready means of 
reinforcing the etching without the use of acid. 
The bur, which is thought to make the special 
charm of dry point, is not essential, because it 
can be scraped away with a burnisher so that 
the lines cut or deepened by the dry point may 
produce an effect exactly similar to the etched 
line, and a plate may have been worked all 
over with the dry point while yet the impressions 
taken from it do not betray the fact. 

When plates are to be finished entirely with 
etching, or with etching and dry point together, 
the attention of the artist will be strongly fixed 
upon the necessity of deepening and strengthen- 
ing certain parts of his composition. It is for 
this purpose that stopping out and rebiting and 
dry-point work are used. When, however, the 
line engraver uses etching merely as a first 
preparation for his work, as to lay in the main 
masses and leading lines of the composition, this 
etching is usually slight and thin, and as the 
lines are not intended to show in any published 
prints, but only in proofs taken for the engraver's 
use, they may be all of uniform and very slight 
depth and breadth. The use of etching as a 
part only of the complete design, the rest being 
done by the burin, leads to the singularly 
puzzling style of art which is best seen in the 
famous plates of Charles Meryon (died 1868) — 
plates wnich are usually classed as etchings, but 
where there are strong evidences of burin work. 
The recent engravings of the Chaloographie du 
Louvre, reproducing important modern paint- 
ings, and such celebrated and admired work as 
that of Ferdinand Gaillard (died 1887), are in- 
stances of work in which the tolerably well- 
practiced collector can hardly say how much 
burin work appears. 

History. Although etching for purposes of 
printing appeared in the later fifteenth century, 
and was practiced by Dttrer and others in the 
sixteenth, it did not attain great importance 
until the seventeenth. The chief of etchers, so 
ranked by almost universal admission of those 
modern artists who have given attention to the 
matter, is Rembrandt (q.v.). This position he 

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gains not only by superior skill in the techni- 
cal! ties of the art, but even more by the great- 
ness of his design — a design which is, neverthe- 
less, adapted to the medium employed. Among 
other Dutch painters distinguished in etching 
were Adriaen van Ostade, Jacob Ruysdael, and 
Paul Potter. Among Flemish masters Van 
Dyck excelled especially in portrait heads. In 
the German school Wenceslas Hollar is one of 
the greatest masters in etching of the simplest 
form, with lines of nearly uniform thickness and 
laid in the simplest manner. Among French 
masters of the seventeenth century Claude Lor- 
rain etched masterly landscapes, which had a 
wide influence upon the art, and Jacques Callot 
excelled especially in genre subjects. Etching 
declined from the eighteenth century, and in 
the early nineteenth its chief use was as an aid 
to engraving. About the middle of the century 
the revival began. Societies of artists for the 
publication of etchings were formed in the prin- 
cipal European cities, and an important activity 
developed, especially in France and in England. 
The two greatest etchers of the nineteenth cen- 
tury were probably Charles Me"ryon, whose ro- 
mantic rendition of architectural subjects never 
loses its charm, and J. A. M. Whistler, an 
American of French training, long resident in 
London. His work is perhaps as important for 
the nineteenth century as was Rembrandt's in 
the seventeenth, and as a master of line he is 
said even to equal the latter. In Great Britain 
Sir Francis Seymour Haden, who confined him- 
self to landscapes, and Alphonse Legros, a 
Frenchman, exercised a wide influence. Other 
important etchers are Sir Charles Holroyd, 
William Strang, D. Y. Cameron, Frank Bran- 
gwyn, and Muirhead Bone, an artist of great 
power and originality. The number of prac- 
ticing etchers in France is much larger than in 
England. It includes such names as Maxinie 
Lalanne, Jules Jacquemart (died 1880), Adolphe 
Appian, Charles Francois Daubigny, Paul Raj on, 
Felix Bracquemond, Martial (Adolphe Martial 
Potemont), and Paul Helleu; besides many of 
the prominent painters like Millet, Jacques, Tis- 
sot, Besnard, and Raffaelli. In France especially 
etching was much used in the later nineteenth 
century for purposes of reproduction, by Fla- 
meng and others. Among important modern 
Belgian etchers was Rops; among Dutch, (Jong- 
kind and Storm van's Gravesande. The art also 
flourishes in Germany and Austria. 

In the United States etching has a compara- 
tively recent development. Little was done be- 
fore the foundation in 1877 of the New York 
Etching Club, which was followed by similar 
societies in Cincinnati and Philadelphia in 1880 
and in Boston in 1881. A number of the prin- 
cipal painters practiced also as etchers. Owing 
to the flooding of the market with cheap prints, 
the interest waned about 1802; but good work 
continued to be produced, and during the pres- 
ent century there has been a marked revival. 
Instruction in etching is offered in the principal 
art schools of the country. The etchers of the 
Middle West are grouped about the Chicago So- 
ciety of Etchers. Among the most prominent 
American etchers are Joseph Pennell, Charles A. 
Piatt, Mrs. Mary Nimmo Moran, Otto Bacher, 
Herman A. Webster, Ernest P. Roth, Stephen 
Parrish, and Cadwallader Washburn. 

Bibliography. The works of P, G. Hamerton, 
himself a practical etcher, were of great influence 
in promoting the art in England; especially his 

E tc?Ung and Etchers (London, 1868), repub- 
lished with photogravure illustrations of great 
merit (ib., 1880), and in a cheaper edition (ib., 
1875). Consult also: Lalanne, TraiU de la 
gravure a Veau forte (Paris, 1866) ; Hamerton, 
Etcher' 8 Handbook (London, 1881); Haden, 
About Etching (ib., 1881); Koehler, Etching: 
An Outline of its Processes and History (New 
York, 1886) ; Hitchcock, Etching in America (ib., 
1886) ; Herkomer, Etching and Mezzotint En- 
graving (ib., 1892); Ltitzow, Die vervielfdltigen 
Kunste der Oegenwart, vol. iii, Die Radierung 
(Vienna, 1893); Wedmore, Etching in England 
(New York, 1895) ; Singer and Strang, Etching, 
Engraving, and Other Methods of Printing Pic- 
tures (ib., 1897); Holme, Modem Etching and 
Engraving (London, 1002) ; Roller, Die Technik 
der Radierkunst (Vienna, 1903); Singer, Der 
Kupferstich (Bielefeld, 1904) ; Struck, Die 
Kunst des Radierens (Berlin, 1908) ; Preissig, 
Zur Technik der farbigen Radierung und des 
Farben-Kupferstichs (Leipzig, 1909) ; Wedmore, 
Etchings (London, 1911). The subject is also 
treated, sometimes at length, in the general 
treatises cited in the bibliography of Engraving. 
See Soft-Gkound Etching. 

ETCHMIADZIN, ech'me-ad-zeii'. A famous 
Armenian monastery, situated in the District of 
Etchmiadzin in the Transcaucasian Province of 
Erivan, 12 miles west of Erivan, adjacent to the 
village of Vagarshapat (Va^harshapad). It con- 
sists of a number of buildings, divided into 
three parts, each surrounded by a strong brick 
wall, which gives them the appearance of 
fortresses. The church of Shoghakath, whose 
foundation is attributed to St. Gregory, is a 
cruciform edifice, with a Byzantine cupola and 
mural decorations in Persian style. Other note- 
worthy churches are those of St. Ripsime and 
St. Gaine. Besides the churches there are at- 
tached to the monastery a theological academy, 
a printing press, and a library with valuable 
Armenian manuscripts. 

The monastery has been the seat of the 
Armenian Primate since 1441, and is now also 
the seat of the Armenian Holy Synod organized 
since the Russian occupation. The site of Vagar- 
shapat was occupied by the famous town of 
Etchmiadzin, founded, according to local tradi- 
tion, by King Eruand I in the sixth century b.c. 
It was fortified by King Vagharsh in the second 
century a.d. and became the capital of a prov- 
ince. The monastery was founded in the sixth 
century; the church of Shoghakath, however, 
dates from the fourth century. In 1827, during 
the Russo-Persian War, the monastery was 
occupied by the Russians, and by the Treaty of 
Turkmantchai (1828) it was formally ceded to 

ETE'OCLES and POLTNI'CES (Lat., from 
Gk. 'EreoKXiff, of true fame, from irefa, eteos, true 
+ -ifXiyj, -ktes, from *X&s, fame; UokweUris, of 
much strife, from iroXtfj, polys, much -f- *«*m, 
neikos, strife). Sons of (Edipus (q.v.) and 
Jocaste. Cursed bv their father for unnlial con- 
duct, they quarreled over the inheritance, and 
Eteocles drove Polynices from Thebes. Accord- 
ing to one version they agreed to reign in alter- 
nate years, but at the end of the first year Ete- 
ocles refused to resign his power. Polynices, re- 
solved on revenge, fled to tne court of Adrastus, 
King of Argos, whose daughter he married, and 
whom he induced to join him in a war against 
Thebes. The war that followed is known as that 
of the "Seven against Thebes" and played a 

Digitized by 



part in the early Greek epic second only to that 
played by the Siege of Troy. The names of the 
"Seven" were Adrastus, Amphiaraus, Tydeus, 
Parthenopsus, Capaneus, Polynices, and either 
Mecisteus or Hippomedon. In the battle before 
Thebes the brothers met and killed each other. 
Eteocles was buried with honor, but Polynice8 , 
body was left unburied until the last rites were 
performed by his sister Antigone (q.v.). The 
story forms the basis of The Seven against 
Thebes by iEschylus and of the Phcenissw by 
Euripides. It is also noticed in the (Edipus at 
Colonus of Sophocles and in the Suppliants of 
Euripides. Consult Bethe, Thebanische Helden- 
lieder (Leipzig, 1891). See also Amphiabaus; 

ETEB/NAL CITY, The. A term applied to 
Rome, which was known even in antiquity as 
Roma Immortalis. Also the title of a novel by 
Hall Caine ( 1901 ) . Consult F. G. Moore, "On 
Urbs ceterna and Urbs sacra" in Transactions 
American Philosophical Association, vol. xxv 


ETERNITY, Cape. See Cape Etebnity. 

ETESIAN (MS'zhan) WINDS (Gk. iHictos, 
eUsios, annual, from trot, etos, year, Lat. vetus, 
old, Skt. vatsara, year). The north and north- 
east winds that prevail in southern Europe in 
the summer season, apparently due principally 
to an indraft towards the heated portion of the 
African Sahara. They extend across the Medi- 
terranean towards North Africa and are strong- 
est in July and August. 

&TEX, a'teW, Antoine ( 1808-88 ) . A French 
sculptor and painter, born in Paris. He studied 
painting under Ingres, sculpture under Dupaty 
and Pradier, and architecture under Duban. 
After exhibiting in 1839 the remarkable group 
"Cain and his Race Cursed by God" (now in 
Lyons), which excels his later works in boldness 
and simplicity, he received the order for the two 
groups of "Peace" and "Resistance" on the Arc 
de PEtoile. Though his versatility led him into 
other lines of art, he gained celebrity only as a 
sculptor. His works, which are in the classical 
style of David's school, are bold and startling 
in composition, but lacking in harmony, exag- 
gerated in action. The best-known paintings are 
"Eurydice," which was in the Luxembourg 
Gallery, and "The Glory of the United States," 
in the City Hall, New York. The most noted 
of his funeral monuments is that of the painter 
Gericault in the cemetery of Pere-Lachaise; 
Paris, which in 1841 brought him- the cross of 
the Legion of Honor. He wrote: La Grece 
tragique (1847), with 44 etched plates; Cours 
iUmentaire de dessin (1855-69), with 50 litho- 
graphed plates; and various notices on painters 
for reviews 

ETHANE, Sth'ftn (from ether), C a H«. A 
gaseous compound of carbon and hydrogen, simi- 
lar to marsh gas. It is one of the constituents 
of the natural gas rising from the earth in 
petroleum districts. Like marsh gas, it is color- 
less and odorless, and insoluble in water. It is 
found dissolved in crude petroleum. It burns 
with a pale flame, having greater luminosity, 
however, than the marsh-gas flame, owing mainly 
to the fact that ethane contains a greater per- 
centage of carbon than marsh gas. Ethane can 
be more readily liquefied than marsh gas. A 
mixture of ethane and air is highly explosive, 
especially if the amount of air present is just 
sufficient to burn up all of the organic gas. By 


gradually substituting chlorine, bromine, or 
iodine for the hydrogen of ethane, the so-called 
halogen derivatives of this hydrocarbon may be 
obtained. One of these — viz., ethyl iodide 
(C»HiI) — is used for the preparation of pure 
ethane, according to the following reaction: 

C 2 HJ + 2H = C a H« + HI 
Ethyl iodide Nasoent Ethane Hydriodio 
hydrogen acid 

Another method of preparing ethane consists in 
causing metallic sodium to act upon methyl 
iodide, the products being ethane and sodium 

ETHfi, h'te (Kabl) Hermann (1844- ). 
A German Orientalist, born in Stralsund, grand- 
son of the Pomeranian poet Karl Lappe. He 
was educated at the universities of Greifswald 
and Leipzig and became in 1867 privatdocent of 
Arabic, Turkish, and Persian at Munich. In 
1872 he went to Oxford University to catalogue 
various Oriental manuscripts in the Bodleian 
Library (first volume published in 1889); and 
in 1875 he was called to University College, 
Aberystwyth, Wales, as professor of German and 
Oriental languages. He catalogued Persian 
manuscripts in the India office library (vol. i, 
1903), edited a critical text of Ferdausi's 
Yusuf and Zalikha ( 1908) , and wrote on Persian 
literature and related topics for the Athenceum, 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and the Strass- 
burg Orundriss der iranischen Philologie. 

ETB/ELBALD, or 42THELBALD (t-757). 
King of the Mercians (716-757), a son of Alweo. 
He succeeded Ceolred in 716, and in 731 was 
acknowledged as overlord by all the kings and 
peoples of southern and central England as far 
as the Humber. He ravaged Northumbria in 740 
and waged a successful war against the Welsh in 
743, but was defeated by Cuthred, the West 
Saxon King, at the battle of Bur ford in 752. 
He was probably killed by his own guards. 

ETHEL B ALT), or -ffiTHELBALD (?-860). 
A king of the West Saxons. He was the son 
of Ethelwulf (q.v.) and a brother of Alfred the 
Great. He is said by Asser to have formed a 
conspiracy to seize his father's throne in 856 
and to have dispossessed him of Wessex. After 
Ethelwulf s death (858) Ethelbald married his 
young stepmother, Judith. His reign was peace- 
ful and uneventful. Consult Oman, England be' 
fore the Norman Conquest (New York, 1910). 

616) . King of Kent from 560 to 616. After the 
death of Ceawlin, King of the West Saxons, in 
593, Ethelbert established his supremacy over all 
the English south of the Humber and was ac- 
knowledged as Bretwalda. Ethelbert married 
Bertha, daughter of Charibert, King of the 
Franks, who was a Christian, and who stipulated 
that his daughter should be allowed to practice 
her own religion. The conversion of Ethelbert 
was effected by St. Augustine (q.v.) in 597. 
After his conversion and baptism he founded the 
bishopric of Rochester, and in concert with his 
nephew, Saeberht, King of Essex, who also had 
been converted, erected the church of St. Paul 
in London. He died Feb. 24, 616. Ethelbert is 
also known as the author of the first written 
Saxon laws. Consult: Haddan and Stubbs, 
Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents Relating 
to Great Britain and Ireland, vol. iii (Oxford, 
1871) ; Oman, .England before the Norman Con- 
quest (New York, 1910); Hodgkin, History of 
England to the Norman Conquest (ib., 1906). 

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King of Wessex and of Kent. He was the third 
son of Ethelwulf, King of the West Saxons, and 
about 855 became Underking of Kent, succeeding 
to the throne of Wessex in 860. During Ethel- 
bert's reign the southern coasts of England were 
ravaged by the Danes and by pirates from Gaul, 
Winchester being sacked by the former. 

ETHELFLEDA, «th'el-fle*da, or A'ETHEL- 
FLA'ED, ftth'el-flad (T-aj>. 917). The eldest 
daughter of Alfred the Great, called the Lady 
of the Mercians. She married Ethelred, Earl of 
Mercia, about 880, and the two exercised almost 
royal power in their territories. They conducted 
various expeditions against the Norwegians and 
other pagans who threatened their realms. After 
the death of her husband in 911, or 912, she sent 
an expedition against the Welsh in 916 and 
captured Derby (917) and Leicester (918) from 
the Danes. Consult Green, Conquest of England 
(New York, 1884). 

ETH'ELBED, or <STHELBED, I (T-871). 
A king of the West Saxons and of the men of 
Kent. He succeeded his brother Ethelbert in 
866. His reign was greatly disturbed by the 
invasions of the Northmen, who now began to 
found kingdoms instead of making merely pirati- 
cal forays. Many indecisive battles were fought 
by Ethelred, aided by his brother Alfred the 
Great (q.v.). 

ETHELRED, or -ffiTHELRED, H (c.968- 
1016). King of the English from 978 to 1016, 
known as the Unready. He was the son of 
Edgar and Elfrida, In the beginning of his 
reign he showed himself by no means slothful 
or incapable, the surname "Unready" referring 
to his lack of rede, or counsel. His reign was 
marked by almost continuous warfare with the 
Northmen. In 980 the Danes began to plunder 
the coasts; in 991 they forced Ethelred to pur- 
chase peace, and in 994, aided by Olaf, King of 
Norway, they laid siege to London. The city 
was saved, however, through the valor of its 
inhabitants. The Danes then attacked the south- 
ern coasts, but they were hindered by the de- 
fection of Olaf, who embraced Christianity and 
became Ethelred's ally. In the last three years 
of the tenth century the Danes ravaged Kent, 
Sussex, and Wessex. In 1000 the Anglo-Saxon 
King invaded Normandy and was disastrously 
defeated; but he made a treaty with Duke 
Richard II and married his sister Emma. In 
the spring he concluded a treaty with the Danes; 
but, on the pretext that they were plotting 
treachery, he ordered, in 1002, the murder of 
all the Danes in England on the same day — 
November 13. Among the victims was probably 
Gunhild, sister of Sweyn, King of Denmark. 
Sweyn was swift in his revenge, and for four 
years his army ravaged in England almost at 
pleasure. In 1007 Ethelred bought peace for a 
large sum of money. In 1009 he collected a 
large fleet, but it was almost wholly destroyed 
by a storm; the Danes renewed their ravages, 
and the English suffered many defeats, until 
another peace was purchased for money in 1012. 
The next year Sweyn, with the largest fleet he 
had ever collected, sailed up the fiumber and 
marched towards London ; but he met with such 
strong resistance that he gave up the plan of 
attacking the city and turned off to Bath, where 
he was proclaimed King of England by the 
people, wno were weary of Ethelred's incompe- 
tency and exactions. London soon acknowledged 
Sweyn, and Ethelred fled to Normandy. Sweyn 



died in the spring of 1014, and Ethelred was re- 
called on promising to rule better in the future. 
In the same year he defeated Canute (q.v.), son 
of Sweyn, but in 1015 Canute returned from 
Denmark, ravaged a large territory, and was 
about to attack London when Ethelred died. 
Ethelred married Emma, daughter of Richard 
the Fearless of Normandy; their oldest son was 
Edward the Confessor. Consult: Freeman, The 
Norman Conquest, vol. i (New York, 1873) ; 
Hodgkin, History of England to the Norman 
Conquest (ib., 1906) ; Oman, England before 
the Norman Conquest (ib., 1910). 

ETH'E LRB'DA, Saint, or -ffiTHEL- 
THBYTH (c.600-679). A princess of East 
Anglia, canonized for her saintly virtue. She 
was born at Exning, or Oxning, Suffolk, the 
daughter of Anna, King of East Anglia. She 
was twice married, but each time refused to 
consider the marriage as more than nominal. 
She finally became a nun and abbess of Ely, 
where she died June 23, 679. Her name was 
popularly abbreviated or corrupted into St. 

858). King of the West Saxons and of the 
men of Kent. He was the son of Egbert (q.v.), 
whom he succeeded about 839. During his reign 
the Danes repeatedly attacked the coasts of 
Wessex and Kent, but Ethelwulf left the defense 
usually to his officers. In 855 Ethelwulf made a 
journey to Rome, where he remained about a 
year. On his homeward journey he married 
Judith, daughter of Charles the Bald of France. 
On arriving in England he found that his son 
Ethelbald (q.v.) had usurped the throne of 
Wessex. Ethelwulf made no attempt to recover 
the crown, but remained content with the king- 
ship of Kent which his son left to him. The 
youngest of his five children was Alfred the 
Gre at (q. v.). 

ETHER (Lat. orther, Gk. aWjp, aither, ,.upper 
air, from aWetr, aithein, to glow, Skt. idh, to 
kindle). It may be regarded as proved that the 
sensation light is due to wave motion, and that 
all the thermal effects attributed to "radiation" 
are due to the absorption of waves. A train of 
waves is the advance into a medium of a peri- 
odic disturbance; and therefore a medium is 
required for the waves which produce luminous 
and thermal effects. This medium is called the 
"luminiferous ether," or, more simply, "the 
ether." The medium which was imagined by 
Faraday as a necessary part of his theory of 
electric and magnetic actions has also been iden- 
tified by Maxwell with the ether. The fact that 
the ether is distinct from ordinary matter as 
known to us is shown by the transmission of 
radiation through interstellar space and through 
vacua, as well as by the magnitude of the 
velocity of such waves — 3 X 10 M centimeters, or 
about 186,000 miles, per second — which is greater 
than would be possible with any matter of 

Properties comparable with ordinary matter, 
he ether has inertia, because time is required 
for the propagation of waves; but there is no 
evidence that it has weight. In fact, the passage 
of radiation through all bodies, to a greater or 
less degree, proves that the ether is a medium 
permeating all space, and that portions of ordi- 
nary matter, i.e., molecules and atoms, are im- 
mersed in it, as particles of dust float in the 
air, or small solid particles exist in water. The 
lengths of ether waves may be measured by 
suitable means (see Light); and those that 

Digitized by VrrOOQlC 




appeal to physical instruments are found to vary 
from many miles to less than two-millionths of 
a millimeter. If waves as short as these last 
are propagated in a medium, it shows that the 
structure of that medium must be extremely 
minute, its portions — if there are any-^being 
much smaller than the smallest wave length 
known; otherwise waves as short as these could 
not he produced. Nothing of the actual struc- 
ture of the ether is known; but from analogy 
with matter its "elasticity" and "density" are 
spoken of, simply meaning those properties of 
restitution and inertia by virtue of which waves 
may be transmitted. These waves are trans- 
verse, meaning that, whatever the disturbance is, 
it is perpendicular to the direction of propaga- 
tion. This shows that the ether must have 
properties analogous to the material properties 
of an elastic jelly, because the only form of 
matter which can carry transverse waves is one 
with rigidity. It should be observed that some 
forms of matter behave like solids for sudden 
forces, but like fluids for slow ones; thus, shoe- 
maker's wax is brittle for quick blows, but a 
piece of lead put on top of the wax will in the 
course of time pass through, the wax flowing 
around it. 

Waves in the ether are produced by electric 
oscillations, and they are emitted also by all 
forms and conditions of matter (see Radiation) ; 
and the statement that these waves have identi- 
cal properties— except as to wave number — is 
the so-called "electromagnetic theory" of light. 
The phenomena of radiation and absorption prove 
that if a minute portion of matter — an electron 
— is vibrating extremely rapidly, it produces 
waves in the ether. This establishes the fact 
that there is some connection between ether and 
ordinary matter in this case. Whether a large 
piece of matter moving with motion of transla- 
tion drags the ether with it, or simply allows 
the ejher to pass through it — like wind through 
a tree — is still to a certain extent an open ques- 
tion. There is, however, no decisive experimental 
fact in favor of the idea that the ether is 
dragged along, .except in the experiments of 
Mich el son and Morley to be referred to later. 
The accepted theory is that the ether is not 
affected by the passage of matter through it un- 
less the matter is electrically charged. 

It has been shown by Fizeau and by Michelson 
and Morley that a beam of light is accelerated 
by its passage through a current of water mov- 
ing in the direction of the beam and retarded by 
an opposing current. This can be explained on 
the hypothesis of Fresnel that, in addition to the 
free ether which exists equally everywhere, there 
is in any transparent body an amount of ether 
n* — 1 times that of the free ether occupying 
the same volume, n being the index of refraction, 
and that this extra amount of ether is attached 
to the body and moves with it. On this hy- 
pothesis the density of the ether in the body is 
therefore n* times that of the ether in free space, 
meaning by density that property of the medium 
which measures its inertia. On the other hand, 
Lorenz has explained the observed facts on a 
simple theory of a stationary ether. 

TTie phenomena of stellar aberration (q.v.) 
seem to prove that the ether near the earth 
must be independent of the earth's motion, or 
at least that there should not be produced in it 
what is called in hydrodynamics "rotational" 
motion. On the other hand, Michelson and 
Morley have shown that the ether near the sur- 

face of the earth moves with at least very nearly 
the velocity of the earth, assuming that their 
apparatus is not affected by the motion. Lodge, 
however, has performed most careful experiments 
from which he concludes that the velocity of 
light between two steel plates moving together 
in their own planes an inch apart is not altered 
by an appreciable quantity. It is extremely diffi- 
cult to reconcile these experimental results; and 
there are many others, equally confusing. Fitz- 
gerald and Lorenz have shown that, in order to 
explain them, it is necessary to assume that the 
dimensions of solids change as they move through 
the ether. 

It is thus seen that, in order to connect the 
phenomena of mechanics, light, and electricity, 
the assumption of the existence of the ether has 
been made. Upon this is based the modern 
mathematical theory of physics; and, combining 
this with the hypothesis of Fitzgerald and Lo- 
renz referred to above, a system of equations 
has been deduced which is, on the whole, in 
wonderful agreement with observed facts. It 
should be noted, however, that within recent 
years a school of mathematicians, headed by 
A. Einstein, has shown that starting with a 
few hypotheses — not themselves based upon ex- 
periments—it is possible to deduce the same, or 
equivalent, equations which are in accord with 
actual observations. This theory of "relativity," 
as it is called, does not postulate the existence 
of the ether. 

The fundamental differences between the two 
points of view of nature lies in this: the classi- 
cal authorities explain phenomena in terms of 
ideas which are connected with our senses and 
with our ordinary conception of matter; the 
followers of Einstein, on the other hand, have 
developed equations which are founded upon 
purely mathematical postulates. 

Bibliography. The subject of the ether is one 
that presents many difficulties; and while much 
has been written in this connection, it is not al- 
ways in a shape to be of assistance to the aver- 
age reader. Consult, however: Larmor, JEth&r 
and Matter (London, 1901); Lodge, "Aberra- 
tion Problems," in Philosophical Transact ions 
(ib., 1892-93); id., in Philosophical Transac- 
tions (ib., 1897); Larmor, "Dynamical Theory 
of the Electric and Luminiferous Ether," in 
Philosophical Transactions (ib., 1894, 1898); 
Michelson and Morley, in Philosophical Maga- 
zine, vol. xxiv (ib., 1887) ; Lorenz, Versuch einer 
Theorie der elektrischen und optischen Erschei- 
nungen in bewegten Korpern (Leyden, 1873) ; 
Wien, Referat, 70. Versammlung dcutscher Na- 
turforscher und Aerzte in Dusseldorf ( Diisseldorf , 
1898); Mie, Molekule, Atome, Weltdther (Leip- 
zig, 1904) ; Ames, The Constitution of Matter, 
(Boston, 1913). For papers on relativity, con- 
sult papers by Einstein in Annalen der Physik, 
(1904-14). See Energetics. 

ETHEB, or more properly Di-Ethyl-Etheb, 
(CHgJaO, also called "sulphuric ether." A sub- 
stance composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxy- 
gen. At ordinary temperatures it is liquid; if 
chemically pure, it boils somewhere between 
34.4° and 35.0° C. (93.9° and 95.0° F.), and 
its specific gravity at 0° C. is 0.736. The critical 
temperature and pressure of ether may be found 
under Critical Point. Ether is sparingly solu- 
ble in water, but mixes in all proportions with 
alcohol, chloroform, acetone, carbon disulphide, 
and other organic liquids. It is an excellent 
solvent for fats, oils, resins, many alkaloids, 

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and certain organic salts, including mercuric 
chloride (corrosive sublimate) and the chlorides 
of iron and copper. The collodion used in 
photography is a solution of certain nitrates 
of cellulose in a mixture of alcohol and ether. 
Ether is also used in the preparation of fats and 
in determining the amount of fat in samples 
submitted for analysis (see Fats) ; it is likewise 
employed for removing grease spots, Its vapors 
are extremely inflammable, and therefore it 
should under no circumstances be used in the 
neighborhood of artificial lights. It is very vola- 
tile and has a characteristic pleasant odor and 
a burning sweetish taste. Ether is made on a 
large scale by the action of strong sulphuric acid 
on ordinary alcohol. The chemical transforma- 
tion takes place in two steps: first ethyl-hydro- 
gen sulphate, CJJjHS0 4 , is formed: 

H,S0 4 + CH.OH = H,0 + C,H § HS0 4 

Sulphuric Alcohol Water Ethyl-hydrogen 

acid sulphate 

Ethyl-hydrogen sulphate is then converted into 
ether by the further action of alcohol, according 
to the following chemical equation: 

C.H.HSO, + CH.OH = (C,He) t O + H^O, 
Ethyl-hydrogen Alcohol . Ether 




Sulphuric acid is evidently regenerated in this 
transformation, and therefore the addition of 
acid for the production of a new quantity of 
ether would seem unnecessary, and ether might 
be said ' to be manufactured by a continuous 
process, a given quantity of sulphuric acid being 
capable of transforming an indefinite amount of 
alcohol. In reality, however, the acid must be 
rejected after the operation has been carried on 
for a certain length of time, owing to the forma- 
tion of water and sulphurous acid during the 
process. The distillation is carried out in ap- 
propriate apparatus, the distilling reservoir 
being kept at a temperature of 140° to 150° C. 
At higher temperatures much ethylene gas is pro- 
duced, and also, the higher the temperature, the 
greater the proportion of alcohol altogether car- 
bonized by the sulphuric acid. The crude ether 
obtained at first contains more or less alcohol 
and sulphurous acid. It is purified by shaking 
with a solution of lime in water, the water tak- 
ing up the alcohol, while the lime combines with 
the acid impurity. The ether is then dried with 
anhydrous calcium chloride and redistilled. By 
the use of metallic sodium, or perhaps prefer- 
ably of phosphorus pentoxide, ether may be 
rendered absolutely free from water; sodium 
frees it also from alcohol. Chemically ether is 
a rather indifferent compound ; with certain sub- 
stances, however, it reacts very energetically; 
thus, if brought into contact with chlorine, it 
is rapidly decomposed with formation of alde- 
hyde, chloral, hydrochloric acid, etc., the ether 
often taking fire during the reaction. 

The ether used for surgical purposes contains 
a small amount of water and alcohol ; its Specific 
gravity varies between 0.725 and 0.728. The 
preparation known as Hoffmann's anodyne is 
composed mainly of ether and alcohol. In medi- 
cine ether is sometimes used as a local anaes- 
thetic, producing intense cold when evaporated; 
if injected subcutaneously, it rapidly acts as 
a stimulant on the heart and respiration, and is 
therefore highly valuable in fainting. In Amer- 
ica it is esteemed a safer general anaesthetic than 
chloroform and is therefore extensively used in 
surgery. Its action is similar to that of chloro- 

form, the highest functions of the organism being 
affected first, the lowest last (law of dissolu- 
tion). The stage of stimulation, however, lasts 
considerably longer than in chloroform anaesthe- 
sia. The administration of ether is somewhat 
more difficult than that of chloroform, and it is 
liable to have an irritating effect on the kidneys 
and to increase bronchitis in patients suffering 
from it. Within recent years the practice has 
been introduced of using a certain amount of 
laughing gas immediately before inducing com- 
plete anaesthesia by means of ether. In this 
manner certain disagreeable after effects of ether 
anaesthesia may be completely abolished. To 
make the administration of ether safer and less 
disagreeable various expedients have been prac- 
ticed. . The quantity necessary for a given anaes- 
thesia can be materially reduced by giving a 
preliminary hypodermic injection of morphine, 
or morphine and scopolomine. The nauseating 
effects of the drug are sometimes lessened by 
flavoring it with oil of orange or other pleasant- 
smelling aromatic oil. Another, method, more 
favored* by European than American surgeons, 
is transfusing ether, largely diluted with nor- 
mal saline solution, directly into the veins. It 
has also been injected into the muscles. The 
latest expedient to be tried in this country is 
the oil and ether rectal method, by which the 
anaesthetic, mixed with olive oil, is given as a 
high enema into the lower bowel. Intratracheal 
insufflation, in which small quantities of ether 
are sprayed directly into the trachea, is a diffi- 
cult but useful method. (See Anaesthetic.) On 
the other hand, the after effects of ether are 
said not to appear at all, if the anaesthetic is 
only thoroughly freed from its usual impurities. 
Ether is the earliest-known anaesthetic and was 
extensively used in Europe before the introduc- 
tion of chloroform. It was discovered probably 
as far back as the thirteenth century. For a 
long time it was supposed to contain sulphur, 
and hence the name "sulphuric ether" was applied 
to it. Its true composition was established by 
Saussure (1807) and by Gay-Lussac (1815). 
Later Williamson explained its formation and 
chemical constitution. Since the middle of the 
nineteenth century it has, unfortunately, been 
used in Ireland and elsewhere as an intoxicant. 
The effects are somewhat similar to those of 
opium: digestion is impaired, the heart becomes 
irregular, and gradually nervous exhaustion and 
general weakness are produced; the weakness 
of the body is followed by weakness of the will, 
hallu cina tions, and mental confusion. 

ETHEREAL SAL TS. S ee Esters. 

ETH'EREGE, or ETHRYGG, George. An 
English classical scholar, born in Oxfordshire. 
He was educated at Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, where he was professor of Greek from 
1547 to 1550 and from 1554 to 1559. He also 
received the title of bachelor of medicine and 
was licensed to practice, and this profession 
he followed after the loss of his professorship, 
due to his Catholic sympathies, soon after the 
accession of Elizabeth. He was the author of 
a translation of certain of the works of Justin 
Martyr, a Greek poem on the deeds of Henry 
VIII, and a volume of Latin poems; and he set 
to music the Psalms of David, in the original 
Heb rew. 

ETHEREGE, Sir George (T16.35-c.1691). 
An English dramatist, born in Oxfordshire. 
There is some reason to suppose that he spent 
a short time at Cambridge and traveled subse- 

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quently on ihe Continent, where he acquired a 
gentleman's knowledge of French. His first 
comedy, The Comical Revenge, or Love in a Tub, 
was produced in 1664, with remarkable success, 
and gained its author the patronage of the 
court. In 1667 came She Would if she Could, 
which also achieved success and was followed 
in 1676 by Etherege's last play, The Man of 
Mode, or Sir Fopling Flutter. The play owed 
its favorable reception, in the main, to the fact 
that its characters were faithfully drawn from 
well-known men of the time. Etherege was one 
of the best-known libertines of the day and a 
boon companion of the notorious Sir Charles 
Sedley. After receiving knighthood he was 
given a diplomatic charge on the Continent, 
and in 1685 was English representative at 
Regensburg, where he aroused intense dissatis- 
faction by his licentious conduct. He died in 
Paris. Editions of his plays appeared in 1704, 
1715, and 1735. His works were edited, with 
an introduction, by Verity (1888). Consult an 
essay by Gosse in Seventeenth Century Studies 
(London, 1895) and Cambridge History of Eng- 
lish Literature (New York, 1907-13). 

ETH'EBIDGE, John Wesley ( 1804-66) . An 
English Wesleyan Methodist clergyman and 
scholar, born on the Isle of Wight. Entering 
the ministry in 1827, he occupied Brighton and 
Cornwall circuits, and for several years was 
pastor of a church at Boulogne, France. He 
became a noted Hebrew and Syriac scholar. 
His works include: The Apostolic Ministry and 
the Question of its Restoration Considered 
(1836) ; Misericordia, or Contemplations of the 
Mercy of God (1842) ; Horce Aramaicce (1843) ; 
The Syrian Churches: Their Early History, 
Liturgies, and Literature (1846); The Apos- 
tolical Acts and Epistles from the Peschitto, or 
Ancient Syriac, to whioh are Added the Re- 
maining Epistles and Book of Revelation from 
a Later Syriae Text (1849); Jerusalem and 
Tiberias; Sora and Cordova: A Survey of the 
Religious and Scholastic Learning of the Jews 
(1856); The Life of Thomas Coke, D.C.L. 
(I860); The Tar gums of Onkelos and Jonathan 
ben Uzziel on the Pentateuch; with the Frag- 
ments of the Jerusalem Targum (2 vols., 1862, 
1863) ; The Life of the Rev. Adam Clarke 
( 1858 ) . Consult the Memoir by Thornley Smith 
(London, 1871). 

ETHEBIDGE, Robert (1819-1903). An 
English paleontologist, born at Ross, Hereford- 
shire. In 1850 he was appointed curator of 
the museum of the Bristol Philosophical Insti- 
tution. He became assistant paleontologist in 
1857 and paleontologist in 1863 of the Geologi- 
cal Survey. From 1881 to 1891 he was as- 
sistant keeper in geology of» the British Mu- 
seum, and from 1865 to his death he was an 
assistant editor of the Geological Magazine. 
He became a fellow of the Royal Society in 
1871 and served as president of the Geological 
Society in 1881-82. Besides publishing several 
important essays and a Catalogue of Fossils in 
the Museum of Practical Geology, with Huxley 
(1865), and revising the second, edition of part 
ii of Phillip's Manual of Geology (1887), he 
prepared an elaborate catalogue of the Fossils 
of the British Islands, Stratigraphically and 
Zoologically Arranged, of which only vol. i was 
published (1888). 

ETHERS. An important class of carbon 
compounds related to the alcohols (q.v.). Their 
relation to the alcohols is analogous to the rela- 

tion of the metallic oxides (like K,0) to the 
metallic hydroxides (like KOH). Thus, while 
the composition of ordinary ether (the liquid 
used for anaesthesia during surgical operations) 
is represented by the formula (C,H 6 ) a O, the 
composition of ordinary alcohol is CjHgOH. 
While, therefore, an alcohol may be defined as 
a hydroxide of a hydrocarbon radicle (like 
methyl, CH 8 , or ethyl, CsHs), an ether may be 
defined as an owide of such radicles. The close 
relationship existing between ethers and alco- 
hols is shown by the readiness with which the 
former may be prepared from the latter. Thus, 
ordinary ether is usually made by the action 
of sulphuric acid upon alcohol. (See Ether.) 
Another method by which ethers may be pre- 
pared is very ingenious and serves to demon- 
strate clearly their chemical constitution. It 
consists in treating a halogen derivative of a 
hydrocarbon, such as ethyl chloride, ethyl bro- 
mide, or ethyl iodide, with the sodium com- 
pound of an alcohol. Ethyl iodide is repre- 
sented by the formula CaHJ; sodium alcoholate, 
by the formula NaOCaH». Since sodium (Na) 
has a great affinity for iodine (I), the iodide 
and the alcoholate will, on being mixed, readily 
enter into chemical reaction, by virtue of which 
a transformation will take place that can be 
represented only by the following scheme, which 
leaves no doubt as to the constitution of the 
ether molecule: 

C,HJ + NaOC,H. = Nal -f C,H $ . Q . C.H, 
Ethyl iodide Sodium Sodium Diethyl ether 

alooholate iodide 

Ethers are usually subdivided into simple and 
mixed. The two hydrocarbon radicles in a sim- 
ple ether are identical; in a mixed ether they 
are different. Thus, ordinary ether is a simple 
ether, its formula being (C,H«) a O. On the con- 
trary, methyl-ethyl ether, represented by the 
formula CHs.O.C^Hs, is a mixed ether. Mixed 
ethers may be prepared by the same methods as 
simple ethers. Thus, methy Methyl ether may be 
obtained either by treating a mixture of methyl 
alcohol (wood alcohol) and ordinary (ethyl) 
alcohol with sulphuric acid, or, preferably, by 
treating sodium methylate (NaOCH,) with 
ethyl iodide (CAI). 

The ethers are, as a rule, very stable com- 
pounds, not readily affected either by dilute 
alkalies or acids. Most of them are light, vola- 
tile, inflammable liauids, insoluble in water, but 
readily soluble in tne alcohols. The most typi- 
cal and useful compound of the class is ordinary 
ether. The chemical constitution of the ethers 
was first elucidated by Williamson in 1855. 

The term compound ethers is sometimes ap- 
plied to another class of compounds, which are, 
however, at present usually termed esters, or 
ethereal salts. See Esters. 

cieties for Ethical Culture. 

ETHICS (Gk. rd 40ik&, ta Mhika, or ^ 4&k4, 
hi ethike*, ethical science, from fyot, ethos, cus- 
tom, habit). The science of morality. The 
term ^ethics" is frequently used in popular speech 
as the synonym of morality or of a particular 
moral code current in some circle or profes- 
sion, as when we speak of medical ethics. But 
it is preferable to confine the term "ethics" to 
the description of a theory of morality. Moral- 
ity is an art; i.e., it is a way of living and of 
doing. Ethics is the attempt scientifically to 
understand this way of living and acting. In 

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the definition given above the subject matter 
of ethics is stated to be morality. It is im- 
portant to notice that ethics does not presume 
to construct morality out of whole cloth. Like 
any other science, it deals with actual phenom- 
ena that exist before the science comes into 
being. If there were no such thing as morality 
in the world, if men had not a consciousness of 
obligation, did not feel the attractive power of 
moral ideals, and did not find satisfaction in 
the realization of these ideals, there would be 
no ethics, any more than there would be min- 
eralogy in a nonmineral world. But since mo- 
rality is as indubitable a fact as crystalliza- 
tion, it piques curiosity to the comprehension 
of it. Among the questions that arise are the 
following: What is morality? Is it explicable 
as a result of evolution? When thoroughly un- 
derstood in its fundamental features and in its 
historical development, is it seen to be a reason: 
able fact, or is it a prejudice to be outgrown 
or an infantile way of behaving, to be put away 
with many other childish things, when once we 
arrive at the age of discretion ? If it is some- 
thing of permanent value, is there any way in 
which its value may be enhanced? , 

It is necessary to be on our guard when we 
come to ask what morality is. The question is 
often confused with that other question, What 
ought morality to be? This latter question, 
however, cannot be answered till the former is 
answered, any more than the question what 
ought a healthy man to be can be answered till 
we know what actual health really is. The 
morality of a certain man, or of a certain peo- 
ple, or of a certain time, is itself amenable to 
a higher standard of morality only in the sense 
that actual empirical healthfulness is amenable 
to a higher standard, idealized from experienced 
health. But what is that standard? Here we 
come to a point concerning which there is a 
fundamental difference of opinion. Some say the 
standard is God's will (theological volunta- 
rism) ; some that it is pure reason (rational- 
ism) ; some that it is pleasure, either of the 
individual or of a community of individuals 
(hedonism, egoistic and universalistic ) ; some 
that it is perfect biological adaptation to the 
environment (biologism) ; some that it is per- 
fection, variously defined, of the individual or 
of the race (perfectionism, the ethics .of self- 
realization ) . In view of this difference of opin- 
ion, it seems impossible to answer offhand the 
question what morality ought to be. But the 
question what morality is and has been is more 
hopeful. Although the moral consciousness is 
anything but simple, still it is open to study 
and description. 

In the first place, the form or type of moral 
consciousness we are best acquainted with is 
one that is capable of appreciating an antago- 
nism between two or more motives. If there 
were never a competing desire standing out 
against the course eventually adopted, or, to 
use the language of religious experience, if 
there were no temptations, there would be no 
morality such as we know. This feature will 
be discussed below. 

The second characteristic of mature moral 
consciousness is that without the capacity for 
self-consciousness it could not exist. The mo- 
tives in the moral consciousness are not merely 
desires for this and that object, but desires 
which may be considered by the agent as in- 
dicating his own character. The significance^ of 
Vol. VIII.— 9 

this feature of morality can be brought out 
better by comparing the consciousness of a 
presumably n on moral being with that of a moral 
being. A cat may desire a warm berth on a 
bed and may be averse to the slapping that 
comes to her when caught on the bed. But, so 
far as we know, while the cat has desires and 
aversions, she does not think of herself as a 
being whose conduct can be discriminated from 
that of other beings. Her attention is turned 
upon the things she wants; it is not directed 
upon herself as wanting these things. Though 
she has a distinctive nature, for herself this 
nature is not an object of contemplation, as 
man's own nature becomes for him at times a 
character reflected upon. 

A third characteristic of moral consciousness 
is that the idea of self as doing or being Jias 
an emotional and motive value. It attracts or 
repels. Not only does the moral agent have at 
times the idea of himself as doing this thing 
or not doing it, but he likes or dislikes himself 
when he thinks of himself as doing or not doing 
some particular thing. Such an idea of self 
which attracts the agent to realize it in act is 
called an ideal self. 

The definition of a moral agent as an agent 
with an ideal self as an end which excites de- 
sire, and enters into competition with other 
ends, leaves out of account the social nature 
of morality, the fourth characteristic to be 
mentioned. The ideal, to be ethical, must be a 
social ideal. That is, the idea of self which is 
the end of action is in morality and immorality 
the idea of a self in essential relation to other- 
selves. Man, as Aristotle wisely observed, is 
by nature a social animal, and human morality 
is social to the core. Whether any other morality ,. 
is possible is not here in question. In all prob- 
ability self -consciousness develops only as a 
reflection -from the consciousness that others 
have of us. Our attention is directed to our- 
selves only after we have observed others 
paying attention to us. And the self we thus 
reflect upon takes its emotional coloring and 
motive value from the attitude our fellows 
take towards us. Because^ then, the moral agent 
is a self-conscious being in a social environ- 
ment, morality is social; and when we say that 
it is social, we say that it is not a matter of 
the individual's arbitrary construction. He 
does not choose his ideal entirely at his good 
pleasure. He finds a general ideal in the so- 
ciety into which he is born and in which he is 
reared, and this ideal forms at least the point 
of departure for his own mature ideal.. There 
are certain things expected of a member of 
society, and this expectation forms a nucleus 
around which the individual ethical develop- 
ment proceeds. The moral man does not break 
away completely from these traditions. The 
moral man is one who is "centred in the sphere 
of common duties." 

Another feature of morality needing mention ' 
is that these common duties have in most cases 
a real or assumed reference to the welfare of 
the community. The obvious reason- for the con- 
demnation of murder, adultery, rape, theft, ly- 
ing, cowardice, auc} intemperance, to mention 
some of the most prominent objects of moral 
judgment, is that these acts are injurious to 
society. The murderer, the adulterer, the rav- 
isher, the thief, the liar, the coward, and the 
intemperate are common enemies, and the dis- 
approval they receive is, at least in part, the 

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natural reaction of society against its foes. 
That in great measure morality is action really 
or supposedly conducive to social welfare, and 
immorality is action really or supposedly con- 
ducive to social degeneration, is proved by the 
fact that actions once regarded as ethically 
indifferent come to be regarded as moral or im- 
moral when the general opinion comes to re- 
gard them as socially beneficial or injurious. 
The gradual change in the moral status of 
slavery, of concubinage, of general sexual laxity 
in men, of the duel and the vendetta, is histori- 
cally traceable to growing insight into the social 
consequences of these practices. The process of 
the moralization of formerly ethically indiffer- 
ent acts is observable in our own day. In many 
places lynching is morally justified by the com- 
munity at large. The mob law exercised on 
some dastardly criminal is considered moral 
because it not only "serves him right," but also 
is supposed to protect society against future 
outrages. But when it is seen that such protec- 
tion does not protect, but tends to undermine 
the very foundation of law and thus render so- 
ciety insecure, a sentiment grows that lynching 
is morally wrong. The sentiment lags behind 
the insight, but it follows it, even though at 
some distance. Not only is it true that ob- 
viously injurious actions are morally condemned, 
but supposedly injurious actions are likewise 
condemned. It is thus patent that real or 
presumed relation to social welfare is a con- 
stituent element in morality. It should be re- 
marked here that nothing has been said of the 
size of the community with whose welfare 
morality is bound up. In primitive communi- 
ties moral obligation has no reference to any- 
thing outside of the family, the clan, or the 
tribe. Even at the present day many a man 
who would not think of swindling a neighbor 
may have no scruples when it comes to taking 
advantage of a foreigner, especially if the for- 
eigner be of a nationality utterly alien to his 
own. But the community within which moral 
relations are recognized need not be in any sense 
one of blood relationship. It may be one of 
trade or calling, or it may be some quite arti- 
ficial fraternity. All this goes to show that 
actual morality is not catholic and cosmopoli- 
tan, but is apt to be cliquish and clannish, and 
the size of the community involved is deter- 
mined by various causes. But these facts do 
not make against the statement that moral 
consciousness, wherever found, is the conscious- 
ness of social import, or of an ideal self who 
takes delight in and works for the welfare of 
some fellow beings organized together in some 

We have as yet left out of account what prob- 
ably many would regard as the most distinctive 
feature of morality — the consciousness of ob- 
ligation. Thus, it is alleged, however erratic 
from our point of view modes of conduct ap- 
proved in foreign lands and in past ages may 
be, some definite course of conduct has always 
been regarded as binding. The fact of the ob- 
ligation of some act or another, it is asserted, 
is, and has always been, recognized by every 
human being. There is the form of imperative- 
ness, so the contention runs, in all human con- 
sciousness; this constitutes the framework of 
morality. The content, the matter, of morality 
varies indefinitely; the form is immutable. 
Some such thought as this controlled the mind 
of Socrateb in his attempt to disprove the doc- 

trine of relativity (q.v.), as applied by the 
Sophists (q.v.) to the ethical life. Plato hy- 
postatized this immutable essence of morality 
into the eternal supreme "form of the good," 
the authoritative pontiff, as it were, within a 
hierarchy of ideal essences. Aristotle, doing 
justice to another type of moral experience, 
found morality to consist in certain obligations 
imposed by the desire to secure certain ends. 
Christian theology, following St. Paul, construes 
it as God's law of righteousness — "that which 
may be known of God" and "is manifest even 
in the Gentiles, for God manifested it unto 
them" (Rom. i). "For when the Gentiles, 
which have not the law, do by nature the things 
contained in the law, these having not the law 
are a law unto themselves; which shew the 
work of the law written in their hearts, their 
conscience also bearing witness, and their 
.thoughts the meanwhile accusing or else ex- 
cusing one another" (Rom. ii. 14, 15). Ethical 
intuitionism (q.v.) takes its cue from tradi- 
tional theology, and finds a "faculty" of con- 
science in every man; a faculty which may 
become atrophied in those who stiff-neckedly 
refuse to give it play, but which is an always 
present element in the original equipment of 
faculties possessed by every man. Ethical ra- 
tionalists (see Rationalism), of whom Kant 
is the great protagonist, ascribe to pure reason 
an invariable mandatory activity, which oper- 
ates in every rational being to the production 
of a recognized obligation to do certain things 
and to leave certain things undone, just be- 
cause this doing and this leaving undone is 
pure reasonableness. In Kant this demand of 
pure reason is formulated in the principle, "Act 
only on that maxim whereby thou canst at the 
same time will that it should become a uni- 
versal law." This he calls the "one categorical 
imperative." This "law contains no conditions 
restricting it," it "is objectively necessary in 
itself without reference to any purpose." It 
has its seat and origin completely a priori 

(q.v.) in the reason, and that, moreover, in 
the commonest reason just as truly as in that 
which is in the highest degree speculative; "it 
is just the purity of" its "origin that makes" 
it "worthy to serve as our supreme practical 
principle." "There is no genuine supreme prin- 
ciple of morality but" this which rests "simply 
on pure reason, independent of all experience." 
Hedonism (q.v.) roots the universal, unvarying 
form of morality in the desire of every sentient 
being to secure pleasure. In what is called the 
psychological form of hedonism the view is held 
that "on the occasion of every act he exercises, 
every human being is led to pursue that line of 
conduct which, according to his view of the 
case, taken by him at the moment, will be in 
the highest degree contributory to his own 
greatest happiness." (Bentham.) In the ethi- 
cal form of hedonism it is conceded that "men 
often, from infirmity of character, make their 
election for the nearer good, though they know 
it to be the less valuable; and this no lesa 
when the choice is between two bodily pleasures 
than when it is between bodily and mental. " 
But while men thus do choose the less valuable 
pleasure, "it may be questioned whether any 
one who has remained equally susceptible to 
both classes of pleasure ever knowingly and 
calmly preferred the lower." Happiness is 
"the rational purpose of human life and action." 

(J. S. Mill.) The happiness which reason 

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prescribes as the proper end of life may be 
conceived as one's own happiness (egoistic ethi- 
cal hedonism), or it may be the happiness of 
all sentient creatures (universalistic ethical 
hedonism), or it may be something intermediate. 
But however narrowly or broadly conceived, 
reason is said to demand an effort to secure it 
and thus to impose an obligation. Perfection- 
ists claim that what is demanded is not happi- 
ness, but the full, harmonious development of 
one's nature and of the nature of one's fellows, 
until we all attain unto the stature of the 
perfect man. Certain evolutionists consider the 
supreme end which imposes obligation to consist 
in improvement of "the social tissue." (Leslie 
Stephen.) In all these views it will be seen 
there is an insistence upon the fact that ob- 
ligatoriness is an essential mark of morality. 
Though they differ widely as to the source of 
obligation, they all agree that coextensive with 
morality is the phenomenon of obligation. 

On the other hand, we find some writers who 
maintain that obligation is only an accident 
of morality. Herbert Spencer, in his Data of 
Ethics, comes to the "conclusion, which will be 
to most very startling, that the sense of duty 
or moral obligation is transitory and will di- 
minish as fast as moralization increases." "With 
complete adaptation to the social state, that 
element in the moral consciousness which is 
expressed by the word 'obligation' will disap- 
pear. The higher actions, required for the har- 
monious carrying on of life, will be as much 
matters of course as are these lower actions 
which the simple desires prompt. In their 
proper times and places and proportions the 
moral sentiments will guide men just as spon- 
taneously and adequately as now do the sen- 
sations." Among tne poets this view is by no 
means rare. 

These two opposing interpretations of moral- 
ity — the one that regards the consciousness of 
obligation as indispensable to morality, and 
the one that regards it as a transitory feature 
which will be outlived — are each in part true 
and in part false. The facts warrant us in 
saying that it is not necessary to the morality 
of an act that the agent should regard it as 
obligatory. " Many actions which, except upon 
some preconceived theory, no one would hesi- 
tate to pronounce moral, are spontaneous or 
habitual. A cup of cold water, even when not 
given "in the name of *a disciple," or of the 
giver's or the recipient's "pleasure," or of "the 
greatest happiness of the greatest number," or 
of "the social tissue," or of somebody's "per- 
fection," or of "the moral sense," or of "a uni- 
versal law of Nature," may yet change hands in 
an unquestionably moral act. What is required 
to make the gift moral is that it should be 
made by one who is capable of the consciousness 
of obligation, and that it should not be regarded 
by him as a contravention of moral obligation. 
Not necessarily the presence of the conscious- 
ness of moral obligation in each moral act, nor 
even the absence of the consciousness of dis- 
loyalty to a moral obligation, but the suscep- 
tibility of the agent to a feeling of obligation, 
is a universal feature of moral conduct. While 
susceptibility to obligation marks the moral 
agent as distinguished from the nonmoral doer 
of acts, a moral act as distinguished from an 
immoral act may be performed against a felt 
obligation. The uneasy consciousness of dis- 
loyalty to a traditionally recognized moral ob- 

ligation is compatible with morality, provided 
the agent has come to recognize an obligation 
superior to the traditional; for his habitual 
reverence for the old law and the knowledge 
that he is drawing on himself the opprobrium 
of its adherents may fill him with vague mis- 
givings at the very time when his conduct is 
prompted by fealty to the new order. He acts 
against the feeling, while acting in harmony 
with the knowledge, of moral obligation. Such 
action, instead of being immoral, or even non- 
moral, is a supreme instance of moral heroism. 
But when the path of duty has been worn 
smooth by habit, the wayfarer thereon is none 
the less moral because for the most part he for- 
gets the manner of path he is treading. In the 
soldier who has been through severe discipline 
habituated to obedience, the sense of coercive- 
ness has disappeared. The soldier may no 
longer be explicitly conscious that some other 

Serson exacts of him a certain mode of be- 
avior. In general, he may no longer exact this 
of himself. It has become his nature to do this, 
and that is all there is to it. But often, again, 
that is not all. There come times when his 
nature does not prompt him without hesitation. 
Then the question arises, "What ought I to do?" 
This need not mean, "What must I do to escape 
the guardhouse?" There may no longer be a 
consciousness of subordination to some external 
authority, in the sense of some person or some 
organization that actually demands compliance 
with certain rules. And yet there is not the 
sense of license to do anything one may like. 
Something still ought to be done, and something 
ought not to be done. If, however, habit should 
have altogether become blind second nature, if 
the agent should have outlived the ability to 
think in terms of obligation, his action would 
have lost that one distinguishing mark which 
differentiates morality from what appears to be 
the nonbenevolent cooperative beneficence of 
ants. If morality is to be a term having any 
specific meaning, it must be saved from applica- 
tion to a condition of affairs in which an idea of 
obligation is never present any more than are 
"the evils of starvation at a time when a healthy 
appetite is being satisfied by a meal." (Spencer.) 
Our conclusion, therefore, is that acts not recog- 
nized as obligatory may "be moral if performed 
by beings capable, on due occasion, of recogniz- 
ing them as obligatory. 

But what is the consciousness of obligation? 
In how many forms does the consciousness of 
obligation appear? What gives rise to these 
various forms?* How does moral obligation 
differ from other obligations? All these ques- 
tions demand answer in a systematic ethical 

Let us answer the first question by saying 
that no single definition can be given of obliga- 
tion. Rather is it true that there are at least 
two quite different types of the consciousness of 
obligation, each of which must be described in 
its own way. Following Kant, we may call these 
two types the categorical and the hypothetical. 
In the latter case a person is conscious that he 
ought to do a thing if he wants to secure a cer- 
tain end; in the other he judges that he ought 
to do a thing, without being able to assign any 
end, as the necessary means of obtaining which 
the action is obligatory. 

Taking up first the consciousness of condi- 
tional obligation, which is called the hypotheti- 
cal imperative, we find that the experience in 

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which it appears can be described as follows: 
"I want a certain result; and a certain act is 
indispensable if I am to secure that result. 
Therefore in so far as I am motived by the 
desire and directed by my judgment I must 
in consistency perform the act." The fact that 
when a certain desire and a certain judgment 
respecting the means of satisfying this desire 
are present in experience a certain act is felt 
to be required for consistency's sake, is the fact 
of hypothetical or teleological obligation. When 
I experience that requirement in my conscious- 
ness, I say that I ought to do that act. Man as 
desiring and as not securing a certain object is 
man at odds with his environment. Man as de- 
siring and yet as not doing what he knows to be 
necessary to secure a certain object is man at 
odds with himself. He is inconsistent. His ac- 
tion does not comport with his desire, and be- 
cause he knows that there is this incompatibility 
his action does not comport with his knowledge. 
It is unintelligent and irrational. The irration- 
ality of the act is concrete and not abstract. It 
consists in incongruousness with a known definite 
situation. Vary the situation, and the demand of 
reason or the obligation varies likewise. The 
obligation is contingent, because reason itself 
alone cannot create it. But given a desire and a 
knowledge of some means to gratify it, there 
always is in a thinking being, just so far as he 
reflects, the consciousness of the incompatibility 
between the existence of the desire and a failure 
to perform the act known to be a necessary 
means of satisfying the desire. In case there are 
two desires, and the necessary measures to be 
taken to appease them cannot both be taken, 
there arises a conflict of obligation. This con- 
flict is adjusted only when one desire has be- 
come a preference. Then its corresponding ob- 
ligation overrides the other. "Practical reason" 
is just the acquiescence in the ascendancy of 
this desire, and the decision in favor of that 
conduct which this desire imposes. Often the 
part played by "reason" in the conflict of obliga- 
tions is different, for it often happens that the 
relative strength of a desire is modified by 
knowledge of the results that follow its gratifi- 
cation. The gaining of this knowledge introduces 
a new situation, and the desiderative attitude 
taken towards the foreseen consequences modi- 
fies the previous desire, strengthening, diminish- 
ing, or counteracting it as the case may be. 
The former object may still appeal, but its 
appeal is overborne, In such a case we are said 
to do what we reasonably ought to do. The 
teleological obligation is, then, the control of 
present conduct by an idea of a future good as 
opposed to the solicitation of some more im- 
mediate good. 

But there are obligations which are categori- 
cal. Often we do not say to ourselves, "Do this 
because you want that," but merely, "Do this." 
There arises in consciousness a command saying 
"Thou shalt" or "Thou shalt not," and often 
this commandment is recognized as having right- 
ful authority. How does this command arise? 

To some extent, without question, it arises by 
reason of an economical tendency to abbrevia- 
tion, characteristic of all mental processes. We 
begin by saying to ourselves, "Do this because 
you want that," and we end by saying shortly, 
"Do this." And not only may we fail to give a 
reason, but, as often happens in other reasoned 
processes, we may come to forget that we have 
had a reason. Then the command appears as 

self-evidently reasonable. That this process 
actually takes place cannot be denied. But it is 
perhaps not the strongest influence at work in 
producing categorical imperatives. For this we 
must perhaps look to another principle well 
recognized in psychology, though not often ap- 
plied to explain the consciousness of uncon- 
ditional obligation. 

The principle in its simplest form appears in 
hypnotism (q.v.)* It is well known that a hyp- 
notic subject feels constrained to follow almost 
all the commands of his hypnotizer. Ordinarily 
he unhesitatingly obeys, and does not question 
the latter's right to issue orders. He may be- 
gin to do something else, but feels a restraining 
force. If he stops short of full performance, he 
will say to himself, as one of Ochorowicz's 
patients is recorded to have said, "I have some- 
thing* yet to do." (Ochorowicz, Mental Sugges- 
tion, Eng. trans., p. 63, New York, 1891.) This 
susceptibility to the word of command is not 
peculiar to hypnosis. We all know how strong 
is often the impulsion to do what a man with 
"strong personality" orders us to do. We say 
he has "personal magnetism" and can make 
everybody do what he wants. We are also com- 
ing to say sometimes that he hypnotizes us. 

Now, if we reflect that there are certain com- 
mands that have been issued to us from our in- 
fancy up, by those who in our childhood imposed 
themselves upon our will; if we remember that 
every time we were caught disobeying them we 
were made to feel the inexorable resolution in all 
our friends to hold us up to the law laid down ; 
if we consider how our countertendencies were 
sternly checked while the "suggestive" force of 
the command was allowed free swing — can we 
wonder that, in presence of such a constant, 
uninterrupted imposition of commands upon us, 
even the most stubborn of us have come to feel, 
when we fail to live up to those laws, as the 
hypnotic subject above alluded to felt — that we 
"have something yet to do" ? Gradually the very 
thought of acts contrary to these commands 
calls up in our consciousness the momentous 
words "Thou shalt not," and the long habit of 
acknowledging their authority accords them., 
when thus revived, the same recognition of 
rightful claim over us as they had when enforced 
by parent and teacher and preacher and exacting 
neighbor. The outer law of man becomes now 
the inner law of "conscience," and under the in- 
fluence of current conceptions may be referred 
to some daimon, as by Socrates, or to some 
ministering angel, or to God's voice in man's 
soul. All these explanations are but attempts 
to explain the fact, easily explicable by psycho- 
logical laws, that "when Duty whispers low 
Thou must,'" Duty is only a reverberating 
echo of old commands indefatigably inculcated 
on us by all the personal agencies that have 
taken part in our moral Education. Reason 
may have no part to play in this process. The 
most absurd commands may be imposed and be 
loyally accepted as unconditionally binding, as 
the history of morals shows. 

But a time comes in the history of some indi- 
viduals when the spell of the word of command 
is broken. They begin to ask, "Why must I be 
moral?" They challenge the authority of ar- 
bitrary demands and seek a reason for the 
moral law. This is a critical moment, big with 
possibilities of progress or downfall. In default 
of wide experience a man may at such a juncture 
devote himself to what he calls pleasure seeking. 

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M , however, it can be shown him that the law 
did not enter that offense might abound, but, in 
large measure, that invaluable human ends 
might be realized, the desire he may naturally 
have for these ends may turn into conditional, 
teleological imperatives the obligations hereto- 
fore blindly accepted but now questioned. Open- 
eyed submission may take the place of the blind 
hypnotic control, now spurned; and "in the con- 
fidence of reason" he may come to yield himself 
a loyal subject to the law as a law of liberty. 
Categorical morality, the morality of code, gives 
place to reasonable morality, a moral of insight 
into values. Law as a rule-of-thumb gives place 
to law as an intelligent principle of conduct. 

When the change takes place, it must be ex- 
pected that the contents of the law will not re- 
main wholly unchanged. Of the many exactions 
made in the name of morality, it would be 
strange if some are not found useless or even 
mischievous. In the nature of the case this 
discovery can never in its completeness be the 
work of any one man or age. The problem is 
too complex, and the complexity is increased 
by a constant shifting of values. (Nietzsche's 
Umicertung.) A teleological morality is that 
system of conduct that most completely meets 
human needs and realizes human aspirations. 
As needs and aspirations vary, so teleological 
morality must vary. Thus, the partial solution 
of the moral problem of one age means a change 
in the terms of the problem for the next; for 
every partial solution creates a new situation 
giving a new outlook, and the exact attitude of 
new beings to a new situation with a new out-' 
look can never be foretold by human prophecy. 
This, however, is no reason for despair ; for only 
those who look forward with ecstasy to stagna- 
tion could wish to have the problem of morality 
definitely solved with one flash of insight. But 
while the problem is never solved definitely, it is 
progressively solved. Modifying Hegel's famous 
dictum, we may say, Die Sittengeachichte ist das 
Sittengericht (the history of morals is the judg- 
ment of morals). But whatever may be the 
form which the solution takes at any particular 
time, this form is now imposed categorically 
upon the young and immature, so that what is 
teleologically obligatory for the man of insight 
becomes categorically obligatory for the unso- 

We thus see that moral obligation can be 
described in terms of neither the categorical 
form alone nor of the hypothetical form alone, 
but these two forms of obligation represent 
different stages of morality. Teleological ethics 
and duty ethics each leaves, therefore, out of 
account a large part of the moral phenomena. 
The rival schools ought to join hands in recog- 
nizing that each is true to certain facts of the 
moral life, while neglecting others upon which 
its rival has concentrated its attention. But it 
is not enough to know that morality tends to 
become teleological, as men become more in- 
telligent. Men have desired to know what end 
it comes to recognize as imposing the obligation 
to be moral. Is there any single object the 
desire for which is supreme in all human beings 
who know what they are about? 

Hedonism (q.v.) attempts to furnish an an- 
swer to the question. It maintains that we 
ought to be moral, i.e., to do the acts and have 
the dispositions ordinarily described as moral, 
because we desire to obtain the greatest amount 
of pleasure possible or the least possible amount 

of pain, whether the pleasure and pain be the 
agent's or some one else's, and because morality 
is the course which we must pursue in order to 
obtain this end, which for brevity we shall call 
the hedonic end. For the hedonist moral actions 
are obligatory because the plan of human lives, 
as involving the pursuit of a maximum of 
pleasure or a minimum of pain, imposes this 
obligation as a means to the realization of the 
hedonic. plan. But questions arise now as to 
the hedonic plan on which morality as an 
obligation is said to rest. Is this plan an actual 
plan in all rational human lives? If not, are 
those who do not adopt it exempt from morality? 
If they are not exempt, is this because they 
ought to adopt the hedonic • plan? If' they 
ought to adopt it, what imposes this obligation ? 
On these points hedonists differ, and it cannot 
be said that any answers given are satisfactory. 
Bentham and others maintain that the hedonic 
end is the actual end of every human being, and 
for this reason it ought so to be. This doctrine 
is called psychological hedonism. But Sidgwick 
(q.v.)» another hedonist, says with point that if 
an end is an actual end of conduct in every case, 
there is no propriety in saying that it ought to 
be; and that the hedonic plan is not the actual 
plan of all, or even of most, human lives. Most 
persons pursue such ends as the acquisition of 
wealth, of knowledge, of reputation ; they do not 
seek pleasure pure and simple. Nor is it true 
that they seek wealth, knowledge, and reputation 
merely because they regard these as means to 
future pleasure, any more than the normal man 
eats merely or predominantly for the sake of 
the pleasure that comes from the stimulation 
of his palate by food or from a full stomach. 
The ordinary man eats his three meals a day, 
for the most part, either because he is hungry 
or because he has a three-meal habit; it is true 
that the expectation of pleasure from his meal 
often has a part to play in the matter; but 
careful introspection will perhaps show that it 
is not often a very influential factor in deter- 
mining his eating. 

Most of the things we do are not done, then, 
for the sake of the pleasure we expect to get 
from the doing. If, now, it is the hedonic plan 
that imposes moral obligation, what about the 
large number of persons to whom the hedonic 
end is not a supreme end? Are they exempt 
from moral obligation? It would be a rash 
hedonist who should say Yes, in face of the 
fact that these very persons who do not pursue 
a hedonic end yet admit moral obligation. Many 
hedonists, therefore, prefer to say that the pur- 
suit of pleasure is not always, but always ought 
to be, the supreme end of life. This doctrine is 
called ethical hedonism. But if it ought to be, 
what imposes the obligation? The answer given 
by ethical hedonists is that the obligation is 
self-evident: every reasonable man will upon 
reflection recognize that pleasure is the only end 
worth striving for. But unfortunately such a 
statement is not true; too many intelligent per- 
sons who have understood clearly the terms of 
the proposition have denied it point-blank; and 
a proposition denied by an expert may indeed be 
true, but it is not self-evident. How, then, prove 
that every one ought to pursue pleasure? What 
plan of life is there that can impose such an ob- 
ligation ? To this question several answers have 
been given. Just one answer need be cited here. 
Some say that reason requires that one should 
pursue pleasure. Thus, Sidgwick in the last 

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analysis makes reason dictate to rational beings 
the pursuit "of the greatest amount of happiness 
as a whole." This doctrine is thus at the bottom 
very much like Kant's (q.v.) categorical im- 
perative; appealing to reason as the court of 
last resort, it differs from Kant's only in its 
view of what reason demands. The objection to 
this view is, as we have observed, that many 
rational creatures do not recognize the ration- 
ality of the end which Sidgwick thinks pre- 
scribed by "the dictates of reason." And there 
has as yet been no method of argument devised 
to convince these dissenters that they are wrong. 
Many persons seem to think that the glory of 
God reasonably overrides every consideration for 
"the greatest amount of happiness as a whole," 
while at least some persons think that they are 
reasonable in pursuing their own private happi- 
ness as the supreme end. And yet Sidgwick 
admits that if anything is reasonable it is ob- 
jectively valid, and those who cannot recognize 
its validity are wrong and can be proved to be 

Kant maintained that the supreme end of 
morality is the cultivation of the good will, and 
for Kant the good will is the will directed to- 
wards the realization of a kingdom of ends in 
which each member is treated as an end in 
himself and not as a means to some other end. 
Reason demands acting on the maxim that the 
agent can wish to have become a universal 
principle for all moral agents. Such maxims 
can, he thinks, be discovered by finding out 
whether a rule if carried out universally will be 
capable of indefinite continuance. The rule of 
permitting suicide, eg., is not moral because, 
if universalized, it would result in race annihila- 
tion, which in its turn would put a stop to the 
continuance of suicide. Hence .suicide as a moral 
principle is self -stultifying, is morally suicidal! 
But Kant was a bachelor, and no doubt thought 
his celibacy moral. If, however, he had applied 
his method to the question of the morality of 
celibacy, he would have discovered that celibacy 
would by this reasoning be as immoral as sui- 
cide, leading, when universalized, to a condition 
in which celibacy would be impossible. His 
principle is artificial and fantastic. 

The fact seems to be that no amount of argu* 
merit will bring about a consensus as to the 
reasonable chief end or summum bonum of all 
men, because the answer depends upon the na- 
ture of the man who gives it. The fact of the 
dependence of aim on desire is evidenced in the 
changes that take place year by year, sometimes 
week by week, in the growing boy. His desires 
change, and with the change there is a corre- 
sponding change in his chief end. Values are 
thus determined by the relative strength and 
persistence of the desires. There could be a 
common chief end for all men only if there were 
a common chief desire in all men. Historically 
there has been no such thing, but there has been 
an approximation to a chief desire common to 
all the members of some single community, and 
it is to such phenomena that we must look for 
the source of moral obligation. However human 
communities come to be, there is every reason to 
believe that a common morality came gradually 
into existence only within an already existent 
community, even though that community were 
only a small family. Within such a community, 
with common associations and common attach- 
ments, the welfare of the community can well 
be the object of common desire, and in small 

and seemingly primitive communities which we 
have an opportunity to know from direct ob- 
servation, the welfare of the community is 
usually the object of the most persistent de- 
sires. This can perhaps be in part, i.e., nega- 
tively, accounted for by natural selection. Those 
communities whose members do not subordinate 
all other objects to the welfare of society cannot 
hold together. But this is only a partial ex- 
planation. Other factors make positively for 
the same result. Mutual affection is one of 
these factors; imitativeness is another. We all 
know well how the child gets his enthusiasms 
from his elders and from his mates. Seeing 
what they value above all things, he comes to 
set the same supreme value upon this same 
thing. And this tendency is fostered by the 
elders in their training of the young. The 
family, the clan, the tribe, is glorified in song 
and story, and no pains are spared to engender 
in the young the spirit of loyalty. In this way 
every normal child within the community comes 
to have a predominant desire shared with all his 
fellows. Many evolutionist writers seek to ex- 
plain such social traits as mutual affection, 
imitativeness, loyalty, as themselves results of 
natural selection. The ten ability of this ex- 
planation is open to question, but into the 
problems of the limits to which explanation of 
sociological phenomena by natural selection can 
safely be carried we cannot go here. At any 
rate, among human beings there is normally a 
desire for social welfare, and the realization of 
this desire involves obligations. Experience 
teaches what actions are necessary to render the 
realization possible.. These actions become obli- 
gatory with the acceptance of the end, and 
because the end is not questioned the obligations 
it imposes come to be regarded as absolutely un- 

But experience is not the only agency at work 
in suggesting means for the accomplishment of 
the common social end. Superstition plays its 
part. Many means are supposed to be necessary 
which are really not necessary. How this comes 
to be is intelligible only in the concrete case. 
Dreams, hallucinations, accidents of all sorts, 
are regarded as having value in suggesting 
proper means to strengthen the community. 
Thus experience showed that cowardice was fatal 
to tribal welfare; but it was also thought that 
"meet adoration to the household gods" was as 
necessary as bravery. Whatever in any way 
came to be regarded as a necessary means to se- 
cure the public welfare came to be uncondition- 
ally demanded; and thus, as we have seen, arose 
categorical imperatives. But their rationally 
binding character on the individual depended 
entirely upon his acceptance of the general scale 
of values current in his community. In primi- 
tive times this acceptance must have been all 
but inevitable. Liberty of private opinion is a 
modern luxury, and when private opinion is not 
tolerated the individual either accepts the 
general estimate or is killed or banished. 

It should be noticed that in the above ex- 
planation of the ethical solidarity of a primitive 
community, it is not implied that tribal morals 
are forced upon every member of the tribe 
against his will. In the large number of cases 
the obligations imposed are cheerfully accepted. 
There is no thought of revolt. The individual 
may even feel that his observance of the tribal 
regulations is of his own undetermined will. But 
freedom of choice is not incompatible with an 

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explanation of the causes of choice. The ques- 
tion is not what views the individual has of the 
origin of his ethical unanimity with his fellows. 
His views on the subject, as well as his views 
about the origin of his tribe from some totem 
animal, may be absolutely false. The question 
is, what view a careful scientific investigation 
of the facts, sociological, anthropological, and 
psychological, renders probable or satisfactory 
as a working hypothesis ; and all that is claimed 
for the above explanation is that it seems to do 
justice to all the facts, and is the only explana- 
tion as yet given that does this justice. 

The explanation thus given of the moral una- 
nimity within a tribe explains also such limited 
measure of moral unanimity as we actually find 
between tribes. When actual experience of social 
injury resulting from some course of action is 
the chief cause of the social condemnation of 
such act, it may very well be that communities 
widely separated have the same experience. Such 
consensus of moral judgment as is found actu- 
ally to exist among different communities is 
thus largely to be accounted for by similar 
experiences under similar circumstances. Such 
consentient judgments as are not thus accounted 
for may perhaps be explained by common tradi- 
tion from some common source, or, in some 
cases, by accidental coincidences. Such differ- 
ences as are found to exist may be accounted for 
by differences of circumstances, of superstition, 
intelligence, or by other considerations. Thus, 
scarcity of food in* communities where men are 
the food getters may make polyandry socially 
advantageous, while in other communities, where 
different conditions prevail, polygyny may not 
be recognized as prejudicial to the interests of 
the community. Differences in moral views due 
to differences in superstition and in intelligence 
are too numerous and too well recognized to. need 
more than passing remark. > 

With the growth of freedom of the individual 
to think for himself, there inevitably comes 
about a change in the moral conditions. Indi- 
vidual freedom is often gained at the expense of 
the integrity of the tribe, or of the state into 
which the tribe has grown or merged. At such 
times, with the removal of the cause that makes 
for unanimity of ethical judgment, morality 
takes on a personal rather than a social charac- 
ter. The morally right is no longer so much 
what is socially advantageous as what is to the 
advantage of the individual agent. This de- 
socialization of morality is a marked feature of 
the later ethics of the Greek decadence, and to a 
large extent of the ethics of the revolutionary 
eighteenth century. And this change of the 
moral centre of gravity from the community to 
the individual continues until a new social in- 
tegration takes place. During such a period of 
transition from one form of social morality to 
another, many superstitions disappear; perhaps 
some new ones take their place. Some are modi- 
fied instead of totally disappearing. This change 
in superstition profoundly modifies the character 
of morality, which tends to dissociate itself from 
superstition and to depend more largely upon 
intelligence, but not necessarily upon tne intelli- 
gence of the individual moral agent. His in- 
sight, if it is superior to that of his fellows, 
tends somewhat to modify current moral views; 
but normally this change is slow. Not only in- 
sight, but emotion, plays the part of cause in 
such change. A man of strong affections may 
succeed in arousing the feelings and modifying 

the desires of his fellows, and this affections! 
change may ultimately result in marked altera- 
tion of social morality. Of course it must not 
be thought that the action of intelligence and of 
emotion can ever be completely separated. All 
that can be said is that either intelligence or 
emotion may vary largely without equal varia- 
tion in the other, and this noncoincidence of 
variation makes it possible to distinguish with 
some precision changes in morality that are 
mainly due to change in knowledge from changes 
in morality that are largely due to change in 
feeling. Thus the ethics of modern warfare 
differs from that of earlier times more, perhaps, 
by reason of a growing cosmopolitan sympathy 
than by reason of insight into the uselessness, 
even the harmfulness, of wanton outrage com- 
mitted against an enemy. But in this case 
growth of insight has also undoubtedly played 
a part. On the other hand, such change as has 
taken place, at least in America, in the moral 
attitude towards the marriage of a widower with 
his deceased wife's sister, is due rather to grow- 
ing knowledge of the harmlessness of such a 
union than to any increase of sympathy or to 
other emotions, although even here emotion may 
have something to do with the .change. 

We are now perhaps in a position to define 
morality. The definition is long and cumber- 
some; but this is due to the fact that the thing 
defined is, as we have seen, very complex in 
character. The definition will run somewhat 
as follows: Moral conduct is the voluntary 
action of a self-conscious person, in so far as 
that action is amenable to a standard of obliga- 
tion imposed on him by social influences or by a 
comprehensive plan of life that draws its ma- 
terials from society. In moral conduct the plan 
of life is always first adopted by the agent from 
the community in which he is reared, whether 
family, clan, tribe, or religious organization; 
but it may afterward be more or less modified by 
his intelligence, emotions, and personal experi- 
ence. Let it be remarked, by the way, that, 
apart from the use of the word "moral" as an 
epithet applicable to all phenomena thus defined, 
it is also frequently used to denote only those 
actions that conform to the obligation mentioned 
in the definition. In the former sense the an- 
tonym of "moral" is "nonmoral"; in the latter 
it is "immoral." 

We are now able to understand how the con- 
duct of moral idiots, i.e., beings without any 
community of obligation with other men, stands 
related to morality. These persons seem never 
to have adopted from their social environment 
a general plan of life. This failure is largely 
due to defect of instincts. They never seem to 
care for the valuation set by society upon dif- 
ferent human ends. They seem to choose from 
the outset selfish ends. They seem, in a word, 
to be nonmoral rather than moral. And this 
exemption from morality is not always due to 
lack of intelligence; it may be due to abnor- 
mality in emotional endowment; and in many 
cases there seems to be no remedy at hand. 
But there are other persons to whom the above 
description does not apply, and yet who, on 
superficial examination, appear to be moral 
imbeciles. These persons have adopted a general 
plan of life from their social environment. But 
the environment may be exceptional ; i.e., it may 
widely diverge from the general character of 
other social environments of the same time and 
in the same region. These moral agents are 

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insensible to the ordinary moral ideas of the 
time, because these ideas are incompatible with 
ideas they have long held. Perhaps the in- 
sensibility has become chronic; perhaps it is 
still remediable. Only experiment can determine. 
These persons are not moral idiots, i.e., not non- 
moral. They are moral unfortunates ; they may 
not even be seriously immoral in the sense of 
coming far short of meeting such moral obliga- 
tions as they have come to recognize. Still 
other persons have begun life with the normal 
ideals, but for one reason or another they have 
not lived up to these ideals, and have gone so 
far as to give up the ideals entirely. All these 
differences must be taken into consideration' when 
one is asking whether a particular departure 
from ordinarily recognized morality means im- 
morality or nonmorality. It is immorality only 
when the moral obligation, practically ignored, 
is still recognized as binding. 

But this leads to other questions. Of two dif- 
ferent moral standards, can one be said to 
be more moral than the other? Is there a 
standard for testing the relative excellence of 
actual moral standards? Is the actually ex- 
istent morality subject to evaluation by com- 
parison with a morality which ought to be? If 
so, what is this standard? How is it ascer- 
tained? What imposes it as a standard upon 
actual morality? These questions have often 
been thought to be absolutely unanswerable by 
any science of ethics, for it has been said that 
science describes, but does not prescribe; that a 
science of ethics, in the sense of a systematic 
presentation of actual moral judgments, can in- 
deed be constructed, but not a science which 
shall criticize actual morality and suggest im- 
provements. Such a statement as to the limi- 
tations of science is inadequate. It is perfectly 
true that no science directly prescribes. The 
science of geometry does not prescribe surveying, 
nor does the science of electricity prescribe elec- 
tric lighting. What a science can do is to de- 
scribe the conditions which must be met before 
a given aim can be attained; and among several 
means to the attainment of an end, it can point 
out that which involves the least effort or that 
which is the best under given circumstances. 
Every so-called practical science is a more or 
less systematic knowledge of the conditions 
which must be met before a certain result can 
be obtained; but it cannot be accurately said 
to prescribe the result. The result is prescribed 
by some need and the means to its attainment 
is described by the science. Now, ethics is a 
practical science. It makes no absolute pre- 
scriptions. All it does is to study the facts of 
the moral life, and as a result it may be more 
or less able to describe the conditions that must 
be fulfilled before any accepted end of the moral 
life can be realized. This study does reveal 
many imperfections in actual morality, but these 
imperfections which we now have to mend are 
imperfections of means and not of ultimate end. 
This discussion will enable us to answer the 
questions placed at the beginning of the para- 
graph. Of two moral standards, in the sense 
of moral rules prescribed for the attainment of 
a certain accepted moral end, one may be more 
moral than another, in the sense of being better 
adapted to attain the moral end. The standard 
by which two such differing moral standards may 
be tested is that of conduciveness to the moral 
end. The existing morality, in so far as it 
consists of such rules, may easily be defective, 

and a more adequate knowledge of all the perti- 
nent facts may result in the discovery of a 
morality that ought to replace the actual mo- 
rality. This discovery is the business of science; 
the acceptance of the obligation to forsake ac- 
tually observed rules and to adopt the newly 
discovered rules of action is the work of the 
moral agent as a person with a supreme plan 
reasonably pursued. Thus; it appears that while 
ethics is concerned with the morality that is,* it 
may also discover conditions formerly unknown; 
and this discovery may react on the morality 
that is, making it more like what it ought to be; 
i.e., it may make moral action more commensu- 
rate with the moral end. 

Scientific ethics might conceivably do even 
more. Supposing for the present that actual 
moralities have had no single ultimate end 
consciously arrived at, but different ends set 
up in different communities and at different 
times, ethics might also discover how it came 
about that there was thus a multiplicity of 
ends, and it might even discover that there was 
a way of harmonizing these various ends. It 
might be able to describe an end which, if 
realized, would include the realization of all, 
or of the larger number, of these historical ends. 
But here, again, a science could not as a science 
prescribe this inclusive end. Unless the end, as 
inclusive, appealed to men, ethics could not 
force it on them. It would occupy a position 
similar to the science of telegraphy. When it 
was discovered that it was possible to send a 
message over long distances with great rapidity, 
this bit of scientific knowledge did not prescribe 
to men the adoption of the means of transmis- 
sion. It was only human needs that imposed 
the obligation to adopt telegraphy. This in- 
ability of science to impose new ends constitutes 
part of the tragedy of scientific inventions. 
Many a man has devoted his life to making 
possible the attainment of a new end, only to 
find when bis labors were done that the end was 
not desired by mankind at large. 

Now, as a matter of fact, it can be said that 
ethics has discovered a multiplicity of ends 
among men. As we have seen, sometimes it is 
social welfare, sometimes it is individual wel- 
fare, that men make their supreme end. Again, 
both social and individual welfare are very dif- 
ferently conceived in different times and places. 
Sometimes social welfare is thought to consist 
in military strength; sometimes in economic 
conditions; sometimes in artistic productive- 
ness, and so forth. So also individual welfare 
is sometimes thought to consist in the possession 
of abundance of means of sensual enjoyment, or 
in physical prowess, or in intellectual power, or 
in social prestige, or in religious zeal, or what 
not. With regard to all these various ends, 
ethics can discover or attempt to discover, with 
the help of other sciences, whether when attained 
they have given permanent satisfaction ; whether 
rather the attainment of many of these ends has 
not, as a rule, brought in its train misery which 
could have been avoided had the ends not been 
sought; whether such disappointment was due 
to accidental circumstances, or whether, human 
nature and human environment being what they 
are, such disappointment was inevitable ; whether, 
if the latter alternative be true, any other end 
could have been pursued with reasonable chances 
of better success. But suppose all these ques- 
tions answered and an end discovered which 
promises, when attained, to give satisfaction* 

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Even thai it would be only the desire of men 
for such an end that could impose upon them 
the obligation to adopt the course of action 
necessary to attain it. Again, suppose such an 
end were a social end, and could not be realized 
within the lifetime of any now living, but could 
be attained in, say, 500 years. Whether the 
pursuit of that end would be undertaken or not 
would depend upon the relative strength of the 
desire for that future consummation and the 
desire for other objects that would necessarily be 
sacrificed in order to work for that consummation. 

There is, however, another question that must 
be answered here: Is there no difference between 
what is actually desired and what is really de- 
sirable? Take the last case supposed. Granting 
that mankind at large did, when such an end 
was presented to it, reject it as too remote and 
too quixotically altruistic, and did set about to 
realize some other end, could it not be said that, 
in spite of the fact that the end is not desired, 
it is desirable? Or shall we have to say, with 
J. S. Mill, that "the sole evidence it is possible 
to produce that anything is desirable is that 
people actually desire it"? In answer it must 
be said that desired and desirable are different 
conceptions; that people often actually do desire 
what is undesirable; so that Mill's statement 
cannot be accepted as it stands. But there is a 
profound truth which the statement perhaps at- 
tempts, but fails to express. The statement 
must be amended. Nothing is desirable that is 
not desired, or would not be desired if adequately 
known. Thus, I may desire a certain fruit I 
see for the first time. Its color is tempting, its 
whole appearance makes a strong appeal to me 
to pluck it and eat it. But in spite of this the 
fruit may not be desirable. It may be deadly, 
or it may be extremely sour or astringent; or it 
may have a nauseating smell, which as yet I 
have not perceived. It would be desirable if I 
knew all about it and still desired it. It is a 
common experience that things eagerly desired 
are found afterward to be undesirable, and are 
then judged to have been undesirable all the 
time we were longing and striving for them. 
Thus, the measure of desirability is not the 
strength of the actual desire which persons have, 
but the desire they would have if they only knew 
the real bearing of these desires upon other 
things they are interested in. 

Among the things that should be adequately 
known are the character and tendency of our 
future desires. A blind man may have no desire 
for fine paintings in his room. But if he knew 
that within a few years his blindness would be 
cured, and that then he would crave beautiful 
objects of sight, the knowledge would tend to 
make him now desire to have the pictures. 
Now, apply this answer to the supposed case 
that called forth the question. The welfare of 
society 600 years hence would have no value to 
men who were not genuinely unselfish, i.e., who 
desired only their own pleasures. But men do 
actually desire other things than pleasure, even 
when they know that these things cannot 
possibly bring them pleasure in the future. Many 
a disbeliever in immortality has earnestly de- 
sired and worked for some end which he knew 
could not be accomplished until long after his 
death. It is true that he would not have so 
worked for it if he had not at the time taken 
pleasure in the end; but he did not work for 
the sake of a future pleasure to come from a 
future realization of his plan. If the welfare 

of humanity 500 years hence, when the idea of 
that welfare is clearly presented to now living 
, men with all its bearings upon all their desires, 
did not arouse a desire to realize it, that welfare 
would not be desirable for these men. This 
difference thus described between the desired and 
the desirable also holds good between the pre- 
ferred and the preferable. The preferable for 
any man is what he would prefer if he actually 
had all the information that was necessary for 
an intelligent preference. So also, finally, the 
supreme end, or summum bonum, for any man 
is that end which is for him preferable to any 
other. The nature of all his desires in their 
true interrelation and in their relation to the 
actual world in which he lives, determines the 
summum bonum, but he may not know what 
that summum bonum is, because he may not 
understand thoroughly either the world in its 
relations to the system of his desires, or the 
interrelation of his desires. In the sense that 
a science of ethics may, conceivably at least, 
throw light upon these questions, it may dis- 
cover the summum bonum; but it cannot impose 
upon any man a summum bonum which is 
irrespective of his actual nature as a being with 
quite definite desires. 

If the question is now asked whether ethicists 
have as yet come to any agreement as to the 
nature of the summum bonum, the answer must 
be No. However, the following description of 
the summum bonum is given, because it seems 
to do justice to all the determining factors of 
the problem. The summum bonum of any moral 
man is not any one single object. It is rather 
a progression of objects. The summum bonum 
is a serial system of ends which are, each in its 
turn, the most desirable ends capable of pursuit. 
An element in its desirability is that it shall fix 
favorable conditions for further pursuit of 
further desirable ends as well as give pleasure 
in the ends already attained. Again, because 
the normal man is a social man and thus in- 
terested in seeing at least some of his fellows 
obtain what is desirable for them, there is found 
among the ends included in the summum bonum 
the welfare of these fellowmen. By welfare is 
meant the progressive realization of the pro- 
gressive summum bonum of each of these fellow- 
men. Now, the fact that the summum bonum 
of «ach normal man includes within itself the 
welfare of some other men constitutes a com- 
munity of welfare. The question how many 
persons shall be included in the community of 
welfare is determined partly by objective con- 
ditions and partly by the actual reach of the 
benevolent emotions: by objective conditions, 
because no matter what may be my affectional 
attitude towards another man, it may be the 
case that unless he has his welfare he will be an 
impediment to my obtaining my welfare; by the 
actual reach of the benevolent emotions, as is 
proved by history, which shows that as men have 
become larger-hearted, the community of in- 
terests is snared in by a larger number of in- 
dividuals. It must be borne in mind that the 
summum bonum thus described is not imposed 
upon any individual by any obligation. Unless 
an individual is so constituted that he finds such 
an end the most desirable of all ends, it is not 
his summum bonum. All that has been at- 
tempted is to describe in very general terms an 
end that it is believed will be found to be most 
desirable by normal human beings. Abnormal 
human beings, who have no liking for their kind. 

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or who are rabidly monomaniacal, or who in 
some other essential features vary from the 
kindly race of men, are not taken into account.. 
Their aumma bona are radically different, and 
because this is so there is apparently no possi- 
bility of welfare for them consistent with wel- 
fare for normal men. They are not included 
directly in the community of human interests. 
All that can be demanded for them is so much 
of welfare as is consistent with the welfare of 
mankind in general. 

But though ethics as a science cannot impose 
an end on man, man individually and collectively 
can impose ends upon man to a certain extent. 
It is a fact, as we have already seen, that what 
a person shall desire is to a large extent deter- 
mined by what other persons desire. A com- 
munity or an individual with a definite concep- 
tion of a supreme end can do much to influence 
a child or even an adult to desire that same end; 
and this makes moral training possible. Moral 
training and the teaching of ethical science are 
two quite distinct operations, although they may, 
and often do, go hand in hand. Moral training 
consists in an attempt to habituate a person to 
actions and dispositions such as are desired by 
the trainer. It is the process of initiating a 
person into a communion of ends with another 
person or with a group of persons. Ethical 
teaching is the process of bringing a person to 
see and understand the facts of the moral life. 
The former is an attempt to develop apprecia- 
tions, the latter to develop insight. An ap- 
preciation without insight is blind; insight 
without appreciation is ineffective. 

Moral training, however, is a fact in the moral 
life, and as such the investigation of it has a 
place in ethics as a science of the moral life. 
Ethics studies the facts of moral training and 
discovers whether the method adopted secures 
in the 'most effective way the end desired. It 
may ascertain, e.g., the fact that an actual 
particular kind of punishment is evil; that 
is, that instead of preventing crime it aggravates 
and multiplies it. Ethics may discover that 
other methods would avert these evil conse- 
quences and produce advantageous results, and 
it may discover the best means to the securing 
of these ends. All this is a matter of descrip- 
tive science, not in the least directly prescrip- 
tive. The beneficial ends are prescribed to men 
by their desire; the means are discovered by 
experience and experiment. A study of moral 
training shows that it is a very complex affair, 
and into its complexities we cannot here enter. 
Example and precept, admonition and chastise- 
ment, reward and "pious fraud," threats, actual 
infliction of pain, appeals to nascent desires and 
aversions, are all employed more or less fre- 
quently. All these instruments of moral train- 
ing have their characteristic effect, and these 
must be experimentally ascertained. And again, 
not only moral training, but vengeance, is a 
phenomenon of the moral life. It aims at the 
infliction of pain on an offender to appease by 
his suffering the suffering of his victim or of the 
sympathizers of his victim. It has its charac- 
teristic results. These are studied by ethics. 
The results of this study may, as a fact do, 
secure general condemnation of such vengeful 
punishment; but this, again, is because the out- 
come of a vengeful policy is undesirable. 

But there is a limit to what ethics as a science 
can do in securing acceptance of a common end. 
As we have seen, all that science can accom- 

plish in this respect is to set forth different ends, 
the means to their attainment, and the conse- 
quences that would come from their attainment. 
Now, the fact is that different persons react 
differently to these proposed ends. Some want 
one realized, and some want another. Conse- 
quences that to some are revolting are desired by 
others. In such a case no amount of knowledge 
can decide the issue. We have here a conflict 
of ultimate ideals, and such a conflict can be 
decided only as all conflicts between unsympa- 
thetic interests are decided, viz., by struggle and 
the eventual victory of one over the other. In 
such a struggle argument does not play the de- 
cisive rOle. The appeal is to another tribunal, 
the tribunal of force. The force employed is not 
necessarily physical, although often it culmi- 
nates in that. In a stable society the conflict is 
usually carried on by the use of such instru- 
mentalities as persuasion, praise, and blame. 
Persuasion as opposed to argument is the proc- 
ess of arousing desires which shall supplant 
previous desires. Our desiderative natures are 
not something static, something we inherit and 
keep without change. Our desires are more or 
less pliable. We are liable to conversion, i.e., 
to a change in the whole bent of our longings. 
A powerful personality can incalculably modify 
the sentiments of a community. Thus, a 
struggle between antagonistic ideals is often a 
test of personal strength between its adherents, 
and more especially between the leaders. The 
cause that secures a magnetic leader has won 
half the battle. In persuasion praise and blame 
are employed. The desire for the approval of 
some outstanding personality is a mighty force 
in securing the adoption of a new ideal. The 
fear of such a man's blame will bring the 
vacillating into the fold. Once in, the followers 
become habituated to the new ideal and inculcate 
it upon their children. In this way, radiating 
from some one central person, a new ideal may 
sweep a nation or a continent. Of course, the 
social and the economic conditions must be ripe 
for the exercise of this personal influence, but 
in the last resort it is the personal influence 
that wins the battle. The moral ideals con- 
nected with the great historical religions secured 
their footing by such a process. Buddhism, 
Christianity, and Mohammedanism, as moral 
ideals, owe their ascendancy in large measure to 
the magnetism of their founders. Their spread 
was a personal victory. 

But often resort is had to physical force. This 
is clearly instanced in the great change that 
took place when the practice of blood feud was 
replaced by the now current dispensation of 
justice by the state. In England, when the 
central government first took the control of 
criminal law into its hands, public sentiment 
was against the usurpation. The clan system 
had been in vogue for countless generations, and 
what thus had the sanction of immemorial 
usage was naturally regarded as just and moral. 
The encroachments of the crown were resented 
as unwarranted interference, and a struggle was 
precipitated. It was the physical strength of 
the crown as compared with the growing weak- 
ness of the clan that gave victory to the prin- 
ciple of state control. The will of the physically 
stronger formed the basis of the newer justice. 
In the course of time the sentiments of the com- 
munity became adjusted to the new order of 
things, ideas of what was right came to be 
molded upon the practice which thus came to 

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prevail, and what a short time before was fought 
as an intolerable infringement is now regarded 
by most people as a self -evidencing right. The 
might of the state brought about the right of 
governmental penal control. The course of his- 
tory is full of instances where victory in war 
established new moral ideals among the con- 
quered. Even the moral ideals of many of the 
great religions have used physical force in their 
propaganda. Mohammedanism and Christianity 
have spread into many places by the agency of 
the sword; when established by might, time 
brought prescription, and subsequent genera- 
tions accept loyally what their ancestors fought. 

It is a great mistake to suppose that morality 
is a matter of pure intelligence. It is an ex- 
ceedingly complex interest, and in the making of 
it all sorts of factors have played their part. 
For this reason moral history can never be pre- 
dicted. European moral ideals owe their present 
existence to numerous battles that once hung in 
the balance, to economic changes unforeseen, to 
personal leaders whose advent was unheralded. 
Might — the might of personality, the might of 
economic conditions, the might of legions and 
battalions — has established the ideals which are 
now current and are regarded by their devotees 
as the expression of eternal right. 

Few would perhaps question that such might 
has been instrumental in establishing ideals, but 
a distinction would be urged between the validity 
and the establishment of an ideal. Validity, it 
is often argued, is something that has its roots 
in the ultimate nature of reality, while the 
establishment of an ideal is a mere matter of 
history and subject to changing historical con- 
ditions. But such a distinction overlooks the 
fact that an ideal is in its very nature an appeal 
to inclination, to preferences, to loyalty. And 
the character of the persons to whom the ap- 
peal is made is integral to the constitution of 
the ideal as ideal. And character is not some- 
thing that is immutable, but is subject to his- 
torical influences, so that the essence of an ideal 
as ideal is relative to the historical factors that 
determine character. The validity of an ideal is 
just its acceptance as an ideal, and its accept- 
ance is its establishment where accepted. The 
only question, then, as to the validity of an ideal 
is its generality, i.e., the number of persons 
whom it engages in its service, and its durability, 
i.e., the length of time during which it succeeds 
in securing and keeping the loyalty of adherents.* 

This view of the relativity of ideals to his- 
torical conditions is often objected to on the 
ground that it is dangerous in practice. It 
tends, so it is urged, to take away from the 
moral ideal the stamp of finality, without which 
it could not pass current. It deprives it of the 
categorical authoritative character without 
which it could not maintain itself against per- 
sonal inclination. The objection would hold 
good if morality were something independent of 
human interests, if the moral life were life in 
accordance with some standard not based on 
human desires and human satisfaction. The 
argument, in other words, begs the whole ques- 
tion. Those who hold to the relativity of 
morality necessarily must regard as humanly 
moral only what is humanly valuable, and a 
value does not lose its value for any one because 
it is recognized as what he with his particular 
emotional equipment holds dear. The dynamic 
of values is given to them by the very appeal 
they make to our interests, and so long as these 

interests obtain the values remain values* Ideals 
would lose their grip on men who believe in the 
relativity of ideals only when these men also 
lose* their interest in these ideals* So long as 
interests continue, the ideals that are con- 
structed out of them will attract and control. 
And when interests die out, the allegation of the 
independence of an ideal will not bring them to 
life. The vigor of an ideal is fed, not by a 
theory of its origin, but by the experience of the 
effects of its operation or by the authority of 
those who impose it. 

The possibility of the evolution of morality out 
of nonmoral conditions was Borne years ago 
seriously contested on metaphysical and theolog- 
ical grounds. The theological grounds do not 
concern us. The metaphysical grounds of objec- 
tion are invalid. The strongest argument of the 
opponents of evohitionistic ethics is based on the 
necessity of self-consciousness for morality and 
on the alleged impossibility of the evolution of 
self-consciousness. The fallacy of this argu- 
ment has been often pointed out. The "timeless- 
ness" of self-consciousness does not consist in the 
fact that the self has not a place in time as an 
event, but in the fact that the objects of that 
self's knowledge are not confined to the sensa- 
tions of the present moment. The assertion 
that a consciousness in time cannot know time is 
an unfounded dogmatic dictum, and yet only on 
the supposition that this statement is true can 
it be maintained that consciousness and self- 
consciousness are in their nature incapable of 
explanation by evolution. The exact course 
taken in the evolution of morality from the non- 
moral is still an open question ; but the truth of 
the statement that morality is an evolved prod- 
uct stands or falls with the general truth of the 
evolution of man from the nonmoral animals. 

The only other question that can be discussed 
here is that of free will in its bearing on moral- 
ity. Can there be moral, responsibility if the 
will is determined, i.e., if the volitions of man 
are events which find their complete causal 
explanations in previous events? In the light 
of what has been said it must be maintained 
that, unless human volitions were determined, 
responsibility would be impossible. Ethical re- 
sponsibility is primarily the liability of a person 
to answer for his conduct before the bar of pub- 
lic opinion, whether that opinion be expressed in 
custom, religion, or law. A man commits an 
act and is held responsible. This means that he 
is subject to the demand of his fellows to prove 
that his act is in accord with the generally 
accepted plan of life, or that his variant plan is 
the right plan. Given an accepted plan, in- 
telligent experience can determine the relation 
of an act to the realization of that plan. A 
reasonable person who adopts that plan may 
be constantly called upon to justify the means 
he takes to realize that end. Condemnation of 
an act in such a case means that it is recognized 
as not conducive to that end and that it is dis- 
liked as having that tendency. Approval meanB 
that it is recognized as conducive to that end and 
is liked as having that tendency. Or again, in- 
stead of raising a question of meanB to an end, 
there may be a question about the end. We have 
seen that, though the actual supreme end pursued 
is not imposed by reason, yet knowledge of the 
bearing of the attained end upon actual desires 
may lead to change of ends. Moral responsi- 
bility may mean the liability of a person to 
justify his supreme end, i.e., to show that it is 

Digitized by ' 

ow that it is 





desirable as well as desired. Approval or con- 
demnation of the end is a recognition of its de- 
sirableness or undesirableness, and the resulting 
affectional tone. It of course carries with ft ap- 
proval or disapproval of the meanB leading up to 
it. In ordinary life the supreme end is unre- 
flectively pursued, and the means to it taken for 
granted as presented in some moral code. The 
only function of conscience in such cases is the 
approval or disapproval of an act as conforming 
to the moral code. In any case the whole ac- 
tivity of conscience is useless unless the judg- 
ments and feelings involved determine future 
conduct. Not only so, but also the past conduct 
judged, if conceived as wholly or in part the 
pure chance product of some blind arbitrary 
agent called "will," is not a means to any end, 
and therefore neither approvable nor condemnable 
as such. Now, free will, either in the sense of a 
liberty of indifference or a liberty of alternative 
choice, in so far as it is undetermined, is pure 
chance, as is conceded by Professor James, one 
of the most prominent supporters of indeter- 
minism. Responsibility does not therefore pre- 
suppose indeterminism of the will, but it does 
presuppose that the will can be determined 
either by the knowledge of the conduciveness of 
a means to an end, or by the knowledge of the 
adaptedness of an end to satisfy a desire. A 
person who can by rational means be brought to 
see the inadequacy of his acts to the supreme 
moral end, or the inadequacy of his supreme 
moral end to his whole nature as a being with 
definite needs, is responsible; i.e., in case his acts 
or his ends are undesirable, he can be convinced 
of their undesirability and be led to condemn 
them. In other words, he has a conscience. 
When society holds a man responsible, it brings 
pressure to bear upon him to bring him or to 
keep him in accord with the socially recognized 
plan of life. Responsibility is, then, a means 
employed to maintain an organized society. 

But we sometimes speak of a person as holding 
himself responsible. This happens when a person 
treats himself as subject to self-condemnation 
and self-approval. The social restraints and re- 
quirements are then not regarded as imposed 
by others, but rather as accepted loyally by 
himself, and in the light of this fealty freely 
given he judges his individual acts as self- 
justified or self -condemned. To hold oneself re- 
sponsible is thus the attitude of a man who has 
risen to the level of freedom in social service. 
See Determinism; Free Will; Custom. 

Bibliography. For the history of ethics, con- 
sult: Ziegler, Oeschichte der Ethik (Bonn, 1881- 
86) ; Kostlin, Oeschichte der Ethik, vol. i (Tu- 
bingen, 1887 ) ; Jodl, Oeschichte der Ethik in der 
neuern Philosophic (Stuttgart, 1882-89) ; Sidg- 
wick, History of Ethics (5th ed., London, 1902) ; 
Albee, History of English Utilitarianism (ib., 
1902). For ethical theories, Aristotle, Nico- 
machean Ethics, trans, by Peters (ib., 1881) 
and by Welldon (ib., 1897); Plato, Republic, 
trans, by Davies and Vaughn (ib., 1881) and 
by Jowett (3d ed., ib., 1893) ; Hobbes, Human 
Nature (1650), Leviathan (1651), De Corpore 
Politico (1650); Spinoza, Ethics, trans, by 
White (London, 1883); Selby-Bigge, British 
Moralists: Being Selections from Writers Prin- 
cipally of the Eighteenth Century (Oxford, 
1897) ; Hume, Treatise of Human Nature (1739- 
40) and Enquiry Concerning the Principles of 
Morals (1751); Kant, Critique on Practical 
Reason, and other Works on the Theory of 

Ethics, trans, by Abbott (5th ed., London, 
1896) ; Benthani, Introduction to the Principles 
of Morals and Legislation (1789), and Deontol- 
ogy , or the Science of Morality; Hegel, Philoso- 
phy of Mind, trans, by Wallace (Oxford, 1894) ; 
Philosophy of Rights, trans, by Dyde (London, 
1896); Sidgwick, The Methods of Ethics (5th 
ed., ib., 1893); Bradley, Ethical Studies (ib., 
1876) ; Spencer, Principles of Ethics (ib., 
1879-93), which includes the celebrated Data of 
Ethics; Stephen, The Science of Ethics (ib., 
1882); Green, Prolegomena to Ethics (Oxford, 
1883 ) ; Alexander, Moral Order and Progress 
(London, 1899); Paulsen, System of Ethics 
(Eng. trans., New York, 1899) ; Wundt, Ethics 
(Eng. trans., London, 1897-1901); Martineau, 
Types of Ethical Theory (3d ed., Oxford, 1898) ; 
HtJffding, Ethik (Ger. trans., Leipzig, 1901); 
Caird, The Critical Philosophy of Kant, vol. ii 
(Glasgow, 1889) ; Simmel, Einleitung in die Me~ 
ralwissenschaft (Berlin* 1892-93); Seth, A 
Study of Ethical Principles (6th ed., Edinburgh, 
1902); Ehrenfels, System der Werttheorie 
(Leipzig, 1897-98); Sutherland, Origin and 
Orowth of the Moral Instinct (London, 1898) ; 
Mezes, Ethics, Descriptive and Explanatory 
(New York, 1901) ; Taylor, The Problem of Con- 
duct (London, 1901); Palmer, The Nature of 
Goodness (Boston, 1903) ; Lipps, Die Ethischen 
Qrundfragen ( Hamburg, 1905 ) ; Westermarck, 
Origin and Development of Moral Ideas (Lon- 
don, 1906-08) ; Hobhouse, Morals in Evolution 
(New York, 1906) ; Perry, The Moral Economy 
(ib., 1909); Dewey and Tufts, Ethics (ib., 
1908); Wright, S elf- Realization : an Outline of 
Ethics (ib., 1913) ; Santayana, The Life of 
Reason, vol. ii: Reason in Society (ib., 1905); 
Dickinson, The Meaning of Oood: A Dialogue 
(ib., 1900) ; Levy-Bruhl, Le Moral et la Science 
des Mceurs (Paris, 1907); Moore, Principia 
Ethioa (Cambridge, 1003) ; Rashdall, The Theory 
of Good and Evil (Oxford, 1907); Rickaby, 
Moral Philosophy; or Ethics and Natural Law 
(London, 1908) ; Royce, The Philosophy of 
Loyalty (New York, 1908) ; Sorley, Recent Ten- 
dencies in Ethics (Edinburgh, 1904). The In- 
ternational Journal of Ethics is devoted to 
articles on ethics and correlated subjects. 

E'THICPIA (Gk. Atotovla, Aithiopia). The 
name given by the Greeks to a country south of 
Egypt variously conceived as including only 
Nubia (/Ethiopia JEgypti), or Nubia, Sennar, 
Kordofan, and Abyssinia, or a region extending 
indefinitely east and west from the upper Nile, 
but applied after the fall of Meroe* more par- 
ticularly to Abyssinia. The vagueness of the 
term is largely due to the significance attached 
to it by the Greeks, who seem to have derived 
it from aXBetv, aithein, to burn, and &tf/, dps, face, 
and explained it as the country of sunburnt 
faces. Some scholars regard AWloves as an 
original Greek designation of the negroes. 
Others prefer to look upon it as an attempt by 
Greek folk etymology to extract a suitable sense 
from an unintelligible native name. It has been 
plausibly suggested by Glaser that this name 
may have been Atyubyan, incense gatherers, 
from tayib, pi. atyub, aromatics, and that this 
was the equivalent of Habashat, the Egyptian 
Hbst, the modern Habesh, or Abyssinia. In 
common use the name is given to the West 
African peoples of Nubia and Abyssinia (Ithio- 
piavian). Deniker {Races of Man, London, 
1900) applies it to the third of his 29 human 
races, including Bejas and Gallas modified by 

Digitized by ' 

las m 




Arab blood among the Somalia, Abyssinians* 
etc., and by negro blood among the Zandeh and 
Fulbe. Keane (Ethnology, Cambridge, 1896), 
while relegating the Ethiopians to their proper 
place in the Hamitic section of the Caucasus 
division of man, names the generalised negro 
Homo /Ethiopians. At least since the middle 
of the second millennium B.C. Eretria and the 
Somali coast were not unknown to the Egyp- 
tians. Through the expeditions of Queen Hat- 
shepset (c.1500 B.C.) down the Red Sea to Punt, 
the lands on both sides of Bab el Mandeb be- 
came more familiar than the territory on the 
upper Nile. Punt was looked upon as the land 
of the gods; while the products brought from 
there caused many a marvelous tale to be told 
1 of that country. That the people of Punt were 
not negroes, but belonged to the Mediterranean 
race, is quite evident from the pictorial repre- 
sentations. From accounts of them the Greeks 
may have derived their earliest notions of the 
men who lived in the farthest south. _Jn the 
Homeric poems (Odyssey, i, 23 et seq.; Iliad, 
i, 423, xxiii, 206) the Ethiopians are represented 
as dwelling at the utmost limits of the earth 
and enjoying personal intercourse with the gods. 
This ideal picture is regarded by some scholars, 
not as an echo of the popular Egyptian con- 
ception of Punt or "the divine land," but as 
a reflection of the admiration felt in priestly 
circles in Egypt for the theocratic regime in- 
troduced by the Ammon priesthood in Napata 
during the Twenty-second Dynasty (960-774 
B.c). In Hesiod the term seems to be used 
vaguely of a territory south of Egypt and 
Libya. Herodotus (iii, 114) describes the 
Ethiopians as iULKp6pu>t y long-lived, and regards 
their country as extending to the Southern 
Sea. This apparently implies that he includes 
Abyssinia, Eretria, and Somaliland. Later Greek 
writers use the term sometimes as a designation 
of Nubia, sometimes in a much wider sense. 
Historically there are three distinct kingdoms 
known as Ethiopia; — those of Napata, Merofe, 
and Aksum. There is no definite evidence that 
either of these included at any time all the terri- 
tory between the southern border of Egypt and 
Bab el Mandeb. Only the Kingdom of Aksum 
seems to have claimed the name Ethiopia; in 
the case of the others it was apparently a Greek 
and Roman designation solely. 

Kingdom of Napata, For a description of 
that part of the Nile valley which was ruled 
from Napata, see Nubia, and for the city itself, 
see Barkal and Napata. Already in predynas- 
tic times a certain civilization seems to have 
existed in Nubia. Heisner has recently dis- 
covered that the culture of Nagada and Abydos 
(see Egypt) extended a considerable distance 
beyond the First Cataract. The Egyptians of 
the Old Empire had relations with their south- 
ern neighbors. From the forests of Nubia 
(Knst) they obtained a large proportion of 
their timber, and the city of Yeb (Elephantine) 
derived its name from the ivory which found 
its way to this place from the interior of Africa. 
King Unas (c.3290-3260 B.C.) employed war- 
riors belonging to six Nubian tribes in his war 
upon the Bedouins. The early pictorial repre- 
sentations of Nubian archers do not suggest that 
they were negroes. A regular conquest of the 
country south of Syene (see Assuan) ap- 
parently was not undertaken until the Twelfth 
Dynasty (c.2522-2323). The most powerful 
Nubian people at this time was Kash or Kosh, 

the Hebrew Gush (q-v.). The ethnic relations 
of this people cannot be determined with cer- 
tainty. But it is probable that the stock was 
originally Hamitic, though in course of time 
it absorbed various Negritic tribes. Kosh is 
first found on a stele of Sesostris I. Sesostris 
III established his frontier north of the Second 
Cataract, and built for its protection two forts 
at Semneh and Kummeh on opposite side6 of 
the river. Whether the Hyksos kings ever held 
possession of this territory is doubtful. At 
any rate, it had to be reorganized by Aahmes 
(1576-53), the founder of the Eighteenth Dy- 
nasty, and his successors. Napata probably had 
been the capital of the independent kingdom, 
since it was made the residence of the viceroy, 
entitled "Prince of Kosh," who governed the 
new Egyptian province. In the time of Ramses 
II (1310^-1244) there may have been an unsuc- 
cessful rebellion. The high priest of Ammon- 
R6 in Thebes, Herihor, in the beginning of the 
eleventh century, proclaimed himBelf "King of 
Upper and Lower Egypt " This his successors 
in the pontificate were not able to do, but seem 
to have recognized the Tanitic Dynasty. But 
a branch of the family established itself at 
Napata, probably at the end of that dynasty 
(c.1000). In the Twenty-second Dynasty (960- 
774) these kings threatened the border of 
Egypt. One of them, Pianchi I, who seems to 
have reigned in Napata after 777, availed him- 
self of the weakness of Egypt at the end of the 
reign of Uasarken III (c.762-756) to make an 
invasion of Egypt. He defeated 20 petty rulers 
and made a treaty with Tefnacht of Sais in 
756 B.c. After his death (746) Kashta (c.746- 
734) and Pianchi II (c.734-715) were appar- 
ently not capable of maintaining any control 
of Egypt. But the grandson of Pianchi I, Sha- 
baka (715-703), united all Egypt with Ethiopia 
under one crown. Whether this King is iden- 
tical with So, the ally of Hosea of Israel, is 
still doubtful. His successor, Shabataka (703- 
691), was dethroned by Taharka (691-664). In 
his time Esarhaddon of Assyria invaded Egypt 
in 673 and again in 670, when Memphis was 
taken. On a stele found at Zenjirli in northern 
Syria Esarhaddon's triumph over Taharka is 
represented. Taharka was driven back into 
Ethiopia. Tandamane, or Tanuat Ammon (664- 
663), tried in vain to reconquer Egypt, where, 
on the decline of the Assyrian power, Psam- 
metichus I (663-610) made himself ruler. Dur- 
ing the reign of this Egyptian King, Herodotus 
states, a large number of dissatisfied soldiers 
emigrated into Ethiopia. The place where they 
settled cannot be determined with certainty, 
though it has been suggested that the island 
of Meroe* may have received many of them, and 
their number (240,000) has, no doubt, been 
exaggerated by Herodotus (ii, 30). An in- 
vasion of Ethiopia was probably made by 
Psammetichus II (594-588), referred to in the 
Greek inscriptions of Abu Simbel. From the 
native inscriptions which are now being de- 
ciphered it may be inferred that Tandamane 
continued to reign in Napata until 650. Later 
monarchs were Asperta (c.630-600), Panchirer 
(600-560), Harsiotf (560-525), and Nastasen 
(525-600). The stele of Harsiotf shows that 
this King conquered several provinces south of 
Meroe" and built many temples. Cambyses in- 
vaded the country in 524; but the stele of Nas- 
tasen tells of his destroying CJambyses* fleet. 
The capital was moved to Meroe, but Napata 

Digitized by 





continued to be an important religious centre. 
Many temples have been discovered by recent 
explorers in the territory of' this kingdom. See 

Kingdom of Meroe. On the capital of the 
new kingdom that gradually arose in the south, 
see Mebo£, and for a description of territories 
that at one time or another formed a part of 
it, see Sennas and Kobdofan. The Achaeme- 
nian monarchs received tribute from kings who 
seem to have made Meroe* their capital. Some 
of these kings seem to have been of the old line. 
It is possible that Nastasen's successors made 
conquests in northwestern Abyssinia. While the 
theocratic constitution described bv Greek writ- 
ers no doubt had developed already in Napata, 
the subordination of the King to the priesthood 
seems to point to a new regime, in which the 
King was a mere tool in the hands of the clergy. 
While the suzerainty of the Ptolemies seems 
to have been recognized for religious reasons, 
King Ergamenes, by putting to death the priests 
who had demanded that he should abdicate in 
the time of Ptolemy IV Philopator (221-204), 
paved the way for independence. Ptolemy V 
Epiphanes (204-181) was able to resist his at- 
tack upon Egypt, but not to prevent his asser- 
tion of sovereignty in Ethiopia. Queen Candace 
seems to have extended her power in the north, 
and 25 provinces are said to nave been tributary 
to her. But her invasion of Egypt was success- 
fully resisted by Cains Petronius in 24 b.c. 
Napata, that had been rebuilt, was destroyed 
by thej Romans. Another Queen Candace is men- 
tioned in Acts viii. The name of Candace has been 
found on a pyramid at Meroe*. But gradually 
Mero6 itself fell into ruins. To guard against 
invasion by the Blemmyans, a people akin to 
the Bugaitie, the modern Beja, Diocletian moved 
the Nobatae, negro tribes of the same stock as 
the population of Kordofan, from the oasis of 
Khargeh into the Nile valley. In the sixth cen- 
tury a.d. the Christian Kingdom of Dongola 
(q^v.) was founded. See Nubia. 

Kingdom of Aksum. The mountain region 
of Abyssinia was probably inhabited in very 
early times by Semites as well as by Hamites. 
Whether the original home of the former 
was in Africa or in Arabia (see Semites), 
the overflow of population would naturally 
set in the direction of this Alpine country. 
As the native name shows, the Semitic Ethio- 
pians were still in the nomadic state when 
they entered this territory, priding themselves 
on being "wanderers" roaming freely wherever 
they liked. (See Geez.) There were evidently 
successive waves of immigration. If the Egyp- 
tian Hbst is of Semitic origin, as can scarcely 
be doubted, there were apparently kinsmen of 
the Yemenites in Eretria and on the Somali 
coast c.1500 B.o. Sabsean inscriptions found in 
Yeha, the ancient Awa, may be as old as the 
seventh century B.o. Names of places such as 
Aiwa, Daro, Sant, Harar, Hasak, and Awa are 
manifestly of South Arabian origin and seem to 
indicate a trade route between Yemen and Meroe* 
lined with Semitic settlements long before the 
Christian era. As long as the Ptolemies domi- 
nated the Erythrean coast from Adulis, Bere- 
nice, and Arsinoe, a strong Abyssinian kingdom 
could not well develop. But in the reign of 
Augustus, when the Romans suffered serious 
reverses in Arabia and were occupied in Africa 
with Queen Candace, while the Arsacid conquests 
in eastern Arabia forced the Yemenite states 

to seek compensation for their losses elsewhere, 
the Semitic element in Ethiopia seems to have 
been reen forced, and the Kingdom of Aksum 
founded. The Periplus Maris Erythrcei, possi- 
bly written by Basiles between 66 and 67 A.D., 
refers to a king of Aksum by the name of 
Zoscales, who controlled the coast from Masso- 
wah to Bab el Mandeb and was a friend of 
Greek culture. It is possible that some of the 
gold coins with Greek legends that have been 
preserved should be assigned to the second and 
third centuries A.D. Ten kings are known 
through these coins, viz., Aphilas, Bachasa, Ger- 
sem, Uzas, Nezana, or Aizana, Ulzeba, Azael, 
Uchsas, and Esbaal, or Aieb. Those that have 
the mark of the cross are clearly from the fourth 
and following centuries, but those without such 
a mark are probably earlier. On a marble 
throne in Adulis, Cosmas Indicopleustes in 545 
A.D. found and copied an inscription commemo- 
rating the power of a great bing whose name is 
not given. He has been supposed by some schol- 
ars to be the founder of the Aksumite kingdom, 
but it is more probable that he reigned at the 
end of the third century a,d. He possessed a 
part of southwest Arabia and fought with the 
Kasa (Cush) and the Buga (Beja). The Tdfa 
i$nj that he mentions as his subjects are prob- 
ably the Agazi or Geez tribes. King Aizana 
is known to have reigned in the year 356 A.D. 
A trilingual inscription (Greek, Sabsean, and, 
Geez) belongs to his pagan period; an inscrip- 
tion in Geez comes from his Christian period. 
For in his time Frumentius (q.v.) preached 
Christianity in the country. The political re- 
lations that had long existed between Aksum 
and Rome were such as to favor his mission. 
Ela Amida, his successor, who reigned before 
378, still held control of parts of Yemen. One 
of the two Ruppell inscriptions written in the 
peculiar vocalized writing of the Geez (see 
Ethiopic Writing) probably belongs to his 
reign. In 378 Aksum was reduced to its Afri- 
can territory. The names of some kings of the 
next century may be represented on the coins. 
Only a few can be deciphered with any degree 
of certainty on the copper coins, viz., Mehigsen, 
King of Aksum ; Hatasu, King of Aksum ; King 
Elaats; and King Zwasan. In 525 aj>. Elesbaha, 
King of Aksum, with the aid of the Sabiean and 
Hadramautian rulers, made an end to the Himya- 
rite Kingdom of Dhu Nuwas, and Ethiopia again 
controlled Arabian territory. Before the end of 
the century, however, the Aksumites were driven 
back to Africa and never again extended their 
conquests to Arabia. In the seventh century 
Abraha gave refuge to the followers of Moham- 
med; and in 687 there was war between Aksum 
and Nubia. According to a letter addressed 
by a king of Aksum to a king of Nubia in the 
time of the Patriarch Philotheus of Alexandria 
(986-1002), preserved in a fourteenth-century 
Life of the Patriarchs and in the Ethiopic 
Synawar, a woman who reigned over the Beni 
el Hamuna had recently invaded the country, 
burned churches and monasteries, and driven 
him from place to place. Marianus Victor 
(1552) speaks of this woman as the founder 
of the Zague Dynasty and as having married a 
ruler of the Province of Bugna. Later legends 
made of her a Jewess. She was probably a 
queen of the reigning family who married a 
prince of the Beni el Baguna, a name afterward 
corrupted into Beni el Zague. Eleven kings of 
the so-called Zague Dynasty reigned until 1270. 

Digitized by 





The most famous of these is Lalibula (c.1200 
aj>.). In 1270 Yekuno Amlak restored the old 
line. Yekuno Amlak removed his residence to 
Tegalet in Shoa, but Aksum still remained the 
city where the kings were crowned. His suc- 
cessor was Wedem Raad (1291-1314). Amda 
Sion (1314-44) was a powerful king who 
fought bravely with his Muslim neighbors. 
Saifa Arad (1344-72) carried on a successful 
war in Upper Egypt against the Sultan on be- 
half of the Patriarch of Alexandria. His suc- 
cessors were Wedem Asfare (1372-82), and his 
brother, Dawit I (1382-1411), Teodoros I (1411- 
15), Yishak (1415-30), Andrias (1430), Takla 
Haryam (1430-54). Zara Yakob (1434r-68) 
was a brave warrior and an able administrator. 
He was followed by Baeda Maryam (1468-78) 
and Eskander, or Alexander (1478-95), in whose 
time Cavilham visited the country. Amda Sion 
II (1495) and Naod (1495-1508) were of less 
importance. But Dawit II, called Lebna Den- 
gel, in his battles with Adal showed himself to 
be a good soldier. Asnaf Sagad (1540-59) con- 
quered Ahmed Granje, King of Adal, but in his 
reign the Gallas invaded the country. After 
the reign of Minas (1559-63) Sarsa Dengel 
came upon the throne ( 1563-97 ) . This monarch 
destroyed Adal and fought successfully with 
the Gallas. In the time of his successors, Ya- 
kob (1597-1603, 1604-07), Za Dengel (1603- 
04), Susneus (1607-32), and Fasiladas (1632- 
67), religious difficulties occupied much atten- 
tion. The power of the following kings was 
greatly limited by the Galla chiefs that ruled 
in many districts. They were: Johannes (1667- 
82), Jasus I (1682-1706), Takla Haimanot I 
(1706-08), Theophilus (1708-11), Justus (1711- 
16), Dawit III (1716-21), Bakafa (1721-30), 
Jasus II (1730-55), Joas (1755-69), Johannes 
n (1769), Takla Haimanot II (1769-77). On 
the more recent history see Abyssinia. 

Ethlopic Language. The earliest monu- 
ments of Semitic speech in Ethiopia are the in- 
scriptions found at Yeha. These are written 
in the consonantal Sabsean script. But while 
the presence of the article an appended to the 
noun and a final m to show indetermination is 
a sign of close affinity to the Sabsean, both syn- 
tax and vocabulary indicate that the writers 
used the lesana Geez, the language of Semitic 
Ethiopia, possibly as early as the seventh cen- 
tury B.C. The bilingual inscription (Greek and 
Ethiopic) exhibits essentially the same speech. 
So far as the language is concerned, there is 
not much difference between it and the Ruppell 
inscriptions which are written in the syllabic 
script characteristic of Ethiopic manuscripts. 
These Aksum monuments present the same type 
of language as the literary documents. Geez 
probably continued to be spoken by the common . 
people until the Zague Dvnasty came into power. 
From that time the Amharic probably began to 
gain upon the classical tongue. Yekuno Amlak, 
in 1270, made the former the official language, 
and Geez henceforth became the language of 
books and of the church, and as such had a sec- 
ond flourishing period. In its general structure 
and vocabulary Geez is closer to the Sabsean 
than to classical Arabic, but in some respects it 
has features that are younger than the latter. 
Thus the case endings have disappeared ; the old 
passive is lost; aspirated dentals are changed 
into sibilants. Geez appears to have dropped 
the article some time before our era. As a sub- 
stitute anticipating suffixes are used as in Ara- 

maic, and also demonstrative pronouns. Of a 
dual there are only a few remnants. The verb 
has a simple stem, a causative formed by a pre- 
fixed a, a second causative in as, a reflexive in 
ta, another in an, and a third in tan, and a 
causative reflexive in ast, each of these permit- 
ting five vowel changes to indicate shades of 
meaning. The indicative and the subjunctive 
of the imperfect are strictly distinguished. The 
vocabulary has been greatly enlarged by Ha- 
mitic words. There are also some Greek and 
Aramaic loan words. Geez is to-day represented 
by two dialects, Tigre and Tigrai, or Tigrina. 
The latter is spoken in Tigre and has been much 
influenced by the Amharic ; the former is spoken 
in the districts north and northwest of Tigre 
and shows greater similarity to the old Geez. 
Amharic has developed many peculiarities not 
found in any other Semitic language, but char- 
acteristic of the Hamitic languages. 

Ethiopic Literature. Reference has already 
been made to the early inscriptions. On the 
translation of the Bible, see under Bible, the 
section on Versions. The Ethiopic Old Testa- 
ment contains, in addition to the canonical 
books, also the Apocrypha (except the Books of 
Maccabees ) , and a number of works, such as the 
Book of Enoch, the Ascension of Isaiah, the 
Book of Jubilees, and the Apocalypse of Ezra. 
These additions have all been published; but 
many of the canonical books are extant only in 
manuscripts. Several apocryphal books are also 
appended to the New Testament, among them a 
Synodos, which includes canons of councils, an 
exposition of the Nicene Creed, apostolic consti- 
tutions, and other matter. The remaining litera- 
ture is mainly theological, and includes transla- 
tions of Greek fathers, liturgies, lives of saints, 
monastic rules, hymns, and the like. A so- 
called Antiphonary contains a musical notation. 
The Savasev are very imperfect studies of the 
language. Catalogues of the principal collec- 
tions have been published. 

Consult: Erman, Aegypten und aegyptisches 
Leben im Alterthum (Tubingen, 1885) ; W. M. 
Mtiller, Asien und Europa nach altagyptischen 
Denkm&lem (Leipzig, 1893) ; Maspero, Histoire 
ancienne des peuples de VOrient classique (Paris, 
1895-99); Breasted, History of Egypt (New 
York, 1909) ; id., Temples of Lower Nubia (Chi- 
cago, 1906) ; id., Monuments of Sudanese Nubia 
(ib., 1908) ; Reisner, Firth, Smith, and Jones, 
in The Archaeological Survey of Nubia (London, 
1907-10) ; Reports of the Cowe Expedition by 
Maclver, Woolley, Mileham, Griffith (ib., 1909 
et seq. ) ; Ward, Our Sudan : Its Pyramids and 
Progress (ib., 1905) ; Budge, The Egyptian Su- 
dan (ib., 1907); Ludolf, Historia JEthiopica 
(Frankfort, 1681); Tellez, Historia general 
de Ethiopia (Coimbra, 1660) ; D' Almeida, 
Historia de Ethiopia alta (ib., 1660) ; Bosset, 
"Etudes sur lTiistoire d'Ethiopie," in Journal 
Asiatique (Paris, 1881); Dillmann, Ueber die 
Anfange des awumitischen Reiches (Berlin, 
1879) ; Perruchon, "Notes pour l'histoire d'Ethi- 
opie," in Revue Semitique (Paris, 1893) ; Glaser, 
Die Abyssinier in Arabien und Afrika (Munich, 
1895) ; Bent, The Sacred City of the Ethiopians 
(London, 1893) ; Bruce, Travels in Abyssinia 
(Edinburgh, 1768-73) : Hoskins, Travels in 
Ethiopia (London, 1835); Dillmann, Orammatik 
der fithiopischen Sprache (Leipzig, 1859; 2d ed., 
by Bezold, 1899) : Pretorius, Die amharische 
Sprache (Halle, 1879); id., Orammatik der ti- 
grina Sprache (1871) ; Schrieber, Manuel 4e fa 

Digitized by 





langue tigrai (Vienna, 1887) ; Goldschmidt, 
Bibliotheca JBthiopica (Leipzig, 1892); Fuma- 
galli, Bibliografla Etiopica (Milano, 1893); 
Rossini, «'n Rendiconti delV academia dei Lincei 
(Rome, 1899); Beccari, Documents inediti per 
la etoria d'Etiopia (Rome, 1903); Littmann, 
Die deut8che Aksum-Expedition (Berlin, 1913). 

E'THICPIAN CHURCH. See Abyssinian 

ETHZCPIANISH. The name given to a 
movement in South Africa which under the 
guise of religious teaching preaches the over- 
throw of white domination, or "Africa for the 
Africans/' It was started about 24 years 
ago by two native ministers who seceded from 
the Wesleyan body and started the Church of 
Ethiopia, exclusively for blackB. One of the 
two, named Dwane, visited the United States 
and obtained for his organization the recognition 
of the powerful African Methodist Episcopal 
church, the affiliation being confirmed when 
Bishop Turner visited Africa in 1898 and or- 
dained a large number of Kafir ministers. 
Dwane subsequently approached the Archbishop 
of Capetown, seeking some kind of affiliation 
with the Anglican church, and from this grew an 
obscure recognition of what is called the Order 
of Ethiopia. To counteract this schism the 
African Methodist Episcopal church in America 
sent out Dr. Levi Coppin, of Philadelphia, as 
Bishop of its South African branch, which 
has become firmly established and is absorbing 
the native converts of the English Methodist 
missions. In addition the Transvaal mines, in 
bringing together thousands of native laborers 
from every part of Africa south of the Zambesi, 
have served to further the sentiment of a com- 
munity of interest among the Kafir population. 
The Herero uprising of 1904 and the Zulu out- 
break of 1906 in Natal are supposed to have 
been influenced by Ethiopian agitators. Since 
that time, however, little or nothing has been 
heard from this movement. 


ETHIOPIAN BEGION. In zoogeography, 
Africa south of the Sahara, and including Mada- 
gascar, i.e., the Paleotropical Region (q.v.). 
See Distribution of Animals. 

E'THIO'PIC. See Ethiopia; Ethiopic Lan- 
guage; Ethiopic Literatubb; Ethiopic Writ- 


ETHIOPIC WBITING. The language of the 
Semitic Ethiopians, the lesana Oeez (see Geez), 
was at first written in the same characters that 
were used by the Minseans and Sabceans. The 
origin of this South Arabian system of writing 
is still obscure. While some epigraphists re- 
gard it as a modification of the Phoenician al- 
phabet, others are inclined to ascribe to it an 
independent origin. ( See Alphabet ; Min^ans. ) 
The earliest Ethiopic inscriptions are written 
bou8trophedon, i.e., as the ox plows — one line 
running from right to left, the next from left 
to right. Later the direction from left to right 
prevailed, as in the Greek. Probably in the 
fourth century the Sabamn alphabet was modi- 
fied by the introduction of a peculiar method 
of vowel notation. The various long or short 
vowel sounds were indicated by a lengthening or 
shortening of certain strokes or the addition of 
a stroke, a hook, or a circle. The signs thus 
became designations of syllables, and by 182 
characters it was possible to express clearly the 

pronunciation of each word. It has been sup- 
posed by some scholars that this was an imita- 
tion of the Syriac vowel system. But the date 
of the Riippell inscriptions renders it more prob- 
ble that the changes were suggested by mis- 
sionaries familiar with the Indian brahma lipi 
or karo8hthi alphabets. Consult Dillmann, 
Orammatik der Athiopischen Sprache (2d ed., 
by Bezold, Leipzig, 1899). 

ETHIOPS (Lat, from Gk. Atflio^, Aithiops, 
Ethiopian; so called from the color), or iETHI- 
OPS. A term applied by alchemists to certain 
black oxides ana sulphides that were used in 
medicine. Martial ethiops, or black oxide, a 
ferrous and ferric oxide prepared by keeping 
iron filings under water, was used as a tonic. 
Mineral ethiops, mercuric sulphide with an ex- 
cess of sulphur, was made by mixing together 
equal parts of mercury and sulphur in a stone- 
ware mortar and was used as a vermifuge and 
alterative. Ethiops per se was made by agitat- 
ing mercury with access to the air. Vegetable 
ethiops, the plant bladder wrack heated in a 
closed vessel until it became black, was used as 
a remedy for scrofula and similar diseases. 

ETH r MOID BONE (Gk. Wfioctdfo, Mhmoeidts, 
like a sieve, from ij$fi6s f €thmo8> sieve, from 
4$0eur, ethein, to sift -f elSos, eidos, form). One 
of the eight bones which collectively form the 
cavity of the cranium. It is of a somewhat 
cubical form and is situated between the two 
orbits of the eyes, at the root of the nose. Its 
upper surface is perforated by a number of 
small openings (whence its name), through 
which the filaments of the olfactory nerve pass 
downward from the interior of the skull to the 
upper part of the nose. It consists of two 
lateral masses, attached on each side of a ver- 
tical central plate, or lamella, which articulates 
with the vomer and with the central fibro- 
cartilage, and thus assists in forming the sep- 
tum or partition between the two nostrils. 
Each of the lateral masses is made up of two 
scrolls (turbinates) and is so planned as to 
give in a small space a very large amount of 
surface, on which the filaments of the olfactory 
nerve are spread. See Nose; Smell. 

BTH'NIC PSYCHOI/OaY. See Psychology, 

ETHNOGKRAPHY (from Gk. ftfws, ethnos, 
people + -ypa<t>la, -graphia, description, from 7pd- 
4*iv, graphein, to write). That branch of an- 
thropology which is concerned with the system- 
atic description of races and peoples. See 
Et hnolo gy. 

ETHNOI/OOY (from Gk. I0ws, ethnos, people 
-f- -Xoyla, -logia, account, from \iy9ur, legein, to 
say). Though formerly ethnology and ethnog- 
raphy were two distinct sciences, the present 
tendency in America is to use "ethnology" as 
including all studies of living races, thus making 
it one of the three main branches of anthro- 
pology. "Ethnography" appears in literature 
at the beginning of the last century as synony- 
mous with a description of nations or peoples. 
"Ethnology" seems to have first appeared in the 
title of the Society of Ethnology of Paris in 
1839, where it was used to include all studies of 
living races. Both terms became current in 
France, England, and Germany, where a distinc- 
tion was finally made, "ethnography" being used 
to designate the systematic descriptions of the 
various groups of nonhistorical peoples, "eth- 
nology" the synthetic and analytic uses of the 
data so acquired to determine the classification 

Digitized by 





of peoples, the causes leading to changes of 
culture, etc. According to this use of the two 
terms, the physical or anatomical characters as 
employed in the classification of races fell within 
the domain of ethnology, as also classification 
by languages. However, the specialized nature 
and complexity of problems arising from the 
study of man's physical characters soon brought 
about a differentiation which ultimately led to 
the recognition of physical anthropology as a 
distinct science. In recent years for similar 
reasons the study of languages has been recog- 
nized as equally distinct. (See Anthropology.) 
Hence American anthropologists now use the 
term "ethnology" as the collective name for all 
studies of living nonhistorical peoples exclusive 
of language and anatomy. Yet these distinc- 
tions are not absolute, for all are but the sub- 
divisions of one science, anthropology. 

The ethnology of a tribe should include full 
descriptive date upon the following: 

1. Habitat. Location, movements, geographi- 
cal environment, and history. 

2. Material Culture. Food, shelter, trans- 
portation, dress, manufactures* and industrial 

3. Art. Graphic art, decorations of all kinds, 
symbolic interpretation of designs, religious 

4. Social and Political Organization. Mar- 
riage customs, social groups, division of labor, 
property, government, regulation of health, edu- 
cation, social ideals, war, games and amuse- 
ments, burial customs. 

5. Religion and Ceremonies, Religious con- 
cepts, ideas of the world, assumed supernatural 
relations, shamanistic practices, enumeration 
and description of all ceremonies, songs (danc- 
ing and music). 

6. Mythology. Recorded folk tales and 

To this should be added a general compara- 
tive statement showing the relation of the tribal 
culture to the cultures of its neighbors and 
such conclusions as the data warrant on the 
origin and historic development of the most 
important traits. 

Certain general problems are the particular 
concern of ethnologists, though all such are 
likely to transcend the strict bounds of ethnol- 
ogy and become truly anthropological prob- 
lems; among these are the significance of clan 
and other family systems, the existence or 
nonexistence of important mental differences 
among the various divisions of mankind, the 
relation of culture to environment, and the 
manner in which cultures evolve. See An- 
thropology; Man, Science or. Consult: E. B. 
Tylor, Primitive Culture (2 vols., New York, 
1891) ; F. Ratzel, History of Mankind (3 vols., 
ib., 1904) ; J. Deniker, The Races of Man 
(London, 1900);. A. H. Keane, Ethnology (2d 
ed., New York, 1906) and Man Past and Pres- 
ent (ib., 1900) ; F. Boas, The Mind of Primi- 
tive Man (ib., 1911); for an extensive bibliog- 
raphy, see W. I. Thomas, Source Book for Social 
Origins (Chicago, 1909). See the paragraphs 
Ethnotogy under the names of countries. 

ETHNOLOGY, Bureau of American. See 
Smithsonian Institution. 

ETHOI/OGY. See Bionomics. 

ETH'YL (from eth-er -f -y0> CaH». A radi- 
cal, or group of atoms, often found in chemical 
compounds of carbon, but incapable of inde- 
pendent existence. See Chemistbt (section on 
Vol. VIII.— 10 

the History of Chemistry) and Carbon Com- 

ETHTLAM1NE (from ethyl + -amine, 
from aw-monia -f- -ine), QHaNHa- An organic 
base produced when a monohalogen substitution 
product of the hydrocarbon ethane is heated with 
a solution of ammonia in alcohol. The most con- 
venient method of preparing ethylamine consists 
in gently warming propion-aimde (dHsCONH^, 
the amide of propionic acid) with bromine and 
an excess of caustic potash, the transformation 
taking place in two steps, according to the fol- 
lowing chemical equations: 

1. CH.CONHa + Br, + KOH = 


C^CONHBr + KBr + H 2 

2. CACONHBr + 3KOH = 

CH^NH, + KBr + K t CO, + H 3 

Ethylamine is a colorless, inflammable liquid 
boiling at 18.7°. It resembles ordinary am- 
monia in odor and in other properties, combines 
with acids to form crystalline salts, and forms 
double salts with the chlorides of gold, plati- 
num, etc. When treated with nitrous acid, 
it is changed to alcohol; and when warmed with 
chloroform and caustic potash, it is converted 
into ethyl isocyanide (a carbylamine having the 
formula C,H B NC), which may be readily recog- 
nized by its extremely disagreeable odor. See 
also Amines. 

ETH'YLENE (from ethyl -f -ene), or Ole- 
fiant Gas, C 2 H«. A gaseous compound of car- 
bon and hydrogen having a peculiar sweetish 
odor. It is colorless and but sparingly soluble 
in water. In the presence of "platinum black" 
(finely divided platinum), it combines with 
hydrogen to form the hydrocarbon ethane. 
Ethylene is formed in the dry distillation of 
coal and is therefore one of the constituents of 
ordinary illuminating gas, to whose flame it 
imparts considerable luminosity. It is prepared 
in chemical laboratories by heating a mixture 
of strong alcohol and concentrated sulphuric 
acid, the alcohol being thus broken up into 
water and ethylene. Senderens showed, in 1910, 
that the yield of ethylene is materially increased 
if some aluminium sulphate is added to the 
sulphuric acid. 

Ethylene is one of those carbon compounds 
that are capable of combining directly with the 
halogens, forming "additive products"; thus, 
with bromine it forms the compound CaH«Br 3 . 
It is therefore classed with the so-called un- 
saturated compounds, of which it is the sim- 
plest representative. It similarly combines 
with hydrobromic acid (especially in the pres- 
ence of aluminium bromide), forming ethyl 
bromide, C a H»Br, and with hydriodic acid, form- 
ing ethyl iodide, C*HJ. See Dutch Liquid. 

Liq uid. 

ETHYL NITRATE. See Nitbous Ether. 

&TIENNE, a'tyen'. See Stephanus. 

&TIENNE, Charles Guillaume (1778- 
1845). A French playwright and journalist, 
born near Saint-Dizier, Haute Marne, France. 
During the Revolution he held several munic- 
ipal offices. As secretary to Hugues Bernard 
Maret, Due de Bassana, he participated in Na- 
poleon's campaigns in Italy, Germany, Poland* 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 




and Austria. His comedy Lea deum gendret 
(1810) gained his election to the Academy in 
1811, but it was also the subject of a bitter 
controversy, for Etienne was charged with 
plagiarism. He was editor in chief of the 
Journal de VEmpire. His works include: Le 
reve (1799); Histoire du tht&tre frangais (4 
vols., 1802), with Alphonse Dieudonne* Mar- 
tainville; La jeune femme (1804); Brueys et 
Palaprat (1807); Cendrillon (1810); L'lntri- 
gante (1812); Joconde (1814). 

&TIENNE DXT MONT, A'tyeV du mOw, 
Saint (Fr., St. Stephen of the Mount). One 
of the most beautiful churches of old Paris, 
founded in 1220 and rebuilt from 1517, but not 
completed till 1626. It has a beautiful carved 
bridgelike choir screen in stone (end of six- 
teenth century), a feature which is unique in 
Paris. The church contains the shrine of St. 
Genevieve, dating from the thirteenth century, 
and is the burial place of Pascal and Racine. 

ET'IOLATION (from Fr. 6tioler, to blanch, 
OF., estioler, from esteule, stubble, from Lat. 
stipula, straw ) . The change in appearance and 
structure of the plant caused by growth in ab- 
sence of light. Chlorophyll is lacking in etio- 
lated dicotyls and monocotyl6, and its absence 
makes the yellow pigment carotin (q.v.) (for- 
merly called etiolin) evident. The structural 
modifications are of much more significance and 
are marked by elongation of internodes and 
petioles, reduction in size and differentiation of 
the leaf blade, and by lack of development of me- 
chanical tissue. The elongation of the internode 
more commonly occutb in dicotyls and that of 
the petiole in monocotyls; hence the two types 
are termed respectively dicotyledonous and mono- 
cotyledonous. Red light, free from blue or 
violet rayB, produces all the etiolation effects 
except lack of chlorophyll. It is seen, then, 
that the more refrangible portion of the spec- 
trum is the important portion, in determining 
growth and structural modifications in plants. 
Etiolation is not limited to monocotyls and 
dicotyls, but appears in gymnosperms, ferns, 
mosses, algae, and fungi. 

ETIOLIN (from Fr. ttioler, to blanch). A 
name formerly given to the carotin (q.v.) ap- 
pearing in etiolated plant structures. 

ETIQUETTE, etl-ket (OF. estiquette, eti- 
quette, Fr. etiquette, from OHG. stehhan, Ger. 
stecken, to stick). Originally etiquette signi- 
fied a slip of paper — ticket, label — affixed to a 
bag or other object to indicate its contents. 
The word came to possess the secondary mean- 
ing which we now attach to it — of "prescribed 
routine," or the various decorums observed in 
the intercourse of life, more particularly on 
state occasions — seemingly from the old custom 
of delivering such tickets, instructing each per- 
son who was to share in a ceremony as to the 
part he or she was expected to play in it. The 
cards on which the order of the dances is set 
forth at balls and evening parties are of this 
nature. The word is much used in certain 
professions the members of which are in honor 
bound to observe particular unwritten codes of 
conduct upholding the dignity of their respec- 
tive callings. Thus, we have "medical eti- 
quette," "legal etiquette," etc. 

ETIQUETTE, a'tA'kSt', Madame. The popu- 
lar name applied to the Duchess de Noailles from 
her rigid application of formalities as mistress 
of ceremonies at Marie Antoinette's court. 

ET1VE, eVlv. A sea loch in the north of 
Argyllshire, Scotland, running inland from the 
Firth of Lome (Map: Scotland, C 3). The 
river Awe, the outlet of Loch Awe, and the 
small river Etive flow into it. The loch abounds 
in salmon. The scenery around the upper half 
of the loch is mountainous and romantic. The 
ruins of Ardchattan Priory and of Dunstaffnage 
Castle add to its interest. • 

ETXAB, Cabit. See Bbosboll, Johan Cabl 


ETNA,' or MONGIBELLO, mon'je-bellA 
(Lat. JEtna). The largest active volcano in 
Europe. It is an isolated mountain on the east- 
ern coast of Sicily near the city of Catania. 
It is cut off from the surrounding mountains 
on the north by the valley of the Alcantara and 
on the south and southwest by the valley of the 
Si men to. Its eastern side rises directly from 
the Mediterranean, which here has a depth of 
5000 to 6000 feet. The base of the volcano 
measures about 90 miles in circumference. The 
ascent, gradual at first, leads with increasing 
slope to the summit, about 10,758 feet above the 
sea. The general appearance of Etna is that of 
a massive lava cone, whose regularity of out- 
line is broken by fissures and by numerous 
subsidiary cones. Of the latter there are more 
than 200 located at irregular intervals on the 
mountain sides, some reaching a height of 700 
feet. The cone occupied by the present princi- 
pal crater rests upon a terrace which marks 
the site of an ancient larger cone that was 
probably destroyed by an explosion. On the 
eastern slope is a vast amphitheatre called the 
Val del Bove, with precipitous sides nearly 
3000 feet high, which was once the centre of 
eruption and which affords a remarkable view 
of the volcano's structure and its development 
during the repeated eruptions. The summit of 
Etna, except where covered with snow, presents 
a dreary waste of dark lava, scoriae, and ashes. 
Lower down there is a stretch of woodland 
with pine, oak, beech, and poplar. A varying 
breadth of from 2 to 11 miles of cultivated re- 
gion surrounds its base, producing grain, oil, 
wine, fruit, and aromatic herbs. Snow persists 
throughout the year in the fissures of the sum- 
mits, and on the exposed portions for about 
eight months. An observatory and «a house for 
the convenience of travelers have been erected 
on the terrace just beneath the crater. 

The eruptions of Etna are on a grander scale 
than those of Vesuvius, but they are not of so 
frequent occurrence. There are records of 11 
eruptions previous to the Christian era, the first 
occurring in 476 or 477 B.C. The most remark- 
able in later times are the following: the erup- 
tion of 1169 A.D., when Catania and 15,000 of 
its inhabitants were destroyed; that of 1527, 
when two villages were buried and many human 
beings perished; that of 1669, when the flow of 
lava .was directed again towards Catania and is 
said to have killed 20,000 people; and the erup- 
tion of 1693, when a still larger number of 
people are said to have been destroyed. A 
violent eruption took place in 1852, and im- 
mense quantities of volcanic dust fell over the 
adjacent country. Great torrents of lava also 
issued from two new fissures on the eastern 
flank, one of which was nearly 2 miles in length. 
The next outbreak, in 1864-65, was of trifling 
importance. That of May, 1879, was much more 
violent, the clouds of smoke and showers of 
ashes being followed by the ejection of a stream 

Digitized by 





of lava which desolated a large tract of highly 
cultivated land. Eruptions occurred in 1886 
and 1892 and a violent outbreak in 1911, when 
a stream of lava, one-third of a mile wide, flowed 
down the northeastern slope towards the Al- 
cantara valley. The last eruption was accom- 
panied by the formation of several new crater- 
lets. See Sicily. 

ET^NA. A borough in Allegheny Co., Pa., on 
the Allegheny River, opposite Pittsburgh, and 
on the Baltimore and Ohio and the Pennsyl- 
vania railroads (Map: Pennsylvania, B 6). It 
is a flourishing industrial centre and has roll- 
ing mills, furnaces, steel mills, galvanized-pipe 
works, and other manufactures. The water 
works and electric-light plant are owned by the 
borough. Pop., 1900, 5384; 1910, 5830. 

ETON. A town in Buckinghamshire, Eng- 
land, in the parliamentary borough of Wind- 
sor, on the left bank of the Thames, 42 miles 
south-southeast of Buckingham and 22 miles 
west of London (Map: London, El). It lies 
opposite Windsor in Berkshire, with which it is 
connected by a bridge over the Thames. Eton 
chiefly consists of one long, well-paved street, 
is lighted by electricity, and has a modernized 
sewerage system. It derives its importance 
from the ancient and famous Eton College 
(q^v.). Pop., 1901, 3301, 1911, 3192. 

ETON COLLEGE. One of the oldest and 
most famous public schools in England. It was 
founded in 1440 by Henry VI as "The College 
of the Blessed Mary of Eton beside Windsor.*' 
The establishment was constituted for a prov- 
ost, 10 priests, 4 clerks, 6 choristers, 25 poor 
grammar scholars, a master, and 25 poor infirm 
men, and was provided for out of the royal 
demesne lands and the estates of certain alien 
priories. The whole plan was modeled on that 
of Winchester and contemplated a connection 
between Eton and King's College (q.v.), Cam- 
bridge, such as existed between Winchester and 
New College, Oxford. In 1441 a supplementary 
charter was granted to the new foundation, and 
the college buildings were begun, but were not 
entirely finished until 1523. The first head 
master of the school, later one of its most mu- 
nificent benefactors, was Bishop Waynflete (q.v.) . 
The college has had a long and honorable his- 
tory. Its roll of worthies comprises many great 
names, especially during the eighteenth century. 
It includes Sir Robert Walpole, Robert Harley 
(Earl of Oxford), Henry St. John (Viscount 
Bolingbroke) , the elder Pitt, Lord North, 
Charles James Fox, Horace Walpole, the Duke 
of Wellington, the poets Gray and Shelley, and 
Gladstone. The increasing value of the estates 
of the college, together with additional gifts, 
has made it very wealthy. By the Public 
Schools Act of 1868 the original foundation was 
greatly modified. The governing body now con- 
sists of a provost and 10 fellows, nominated by 
an electorate, which includes such bodies as 
Oxford and Cambridge universities. There are 
a number of scholarships besides those on the 
regular foundation, and the plan of connecting 
Eton with King's College was so far carried 
out that a number of scholarships at the Cam- 
bridge college are exclusively for Eton men. 
There are 72 scholars on the foundation. The 
total number of pupils in the college in 1913 
was 1019; the nonscholars, a class admitted 
very early in the history of the institution, are 
known as "oppidans," who may, and in a very 
few cases do, live out of the college. There are 

two schools, an upper for the older boys and a 
lower for the younger, managed by a head mas- 
ter and an assistant, or lower master. The 
teaching force is large. Here, as at most Eng- 
lish public schools, the education is largely 
classical, though here, as elsewhere, natural sci- 
ence, mathematics, history, the modern lan- 
guages, and the like made places for them- 
selves in the last half of the nineteenth century. 
An army class provides special preparation for 
those who are intending to take the army ex- 
aminations. The buildings, which are very 
beautiful, consist of two groups, of which the 
older, containing the chapel, hall, and library, 
the apartments of the provost, master, and fel- 
lows, incloses two quadrangles. The boys' library 
and sleeping apartments form the new buildings 
attached to the northern side of the older group. 
(Consult Gray, Ode on a Distant Prospect of 
Eton College.) For worthies of Eton, consult 
Creasy, Eminent Etonians (London, 1848), a 
series of brief biographies of its principal mem- 
bers, with a sketch of the college. For general 
history of the school, consult Sir H. Maxwell- 
Lyte, History of Eton College (London, 1904), 
and Cust, History of Eton College, 1U0-1898 
(ib., 1899). See also Montem Custom. 

ETOROFTJ, A-tyro-foTJ, or ITTJRTJP, s'toTf- 
roT>p / . The largest of the Kurile Islands, belong- 
ing to Japan, situated between the islands of 
Kunashiri and Urupp and crossed by the me- 
ridian 148° E. Area, about 1500 square miles. 
It is of volcanic origin and contains an active 
volcano. Pop., about 1350. 

ETOSA LAKE. See Kunene. 

£T0TJRDI, a'tSo-rW, L' (Fr., The Unmindful 
One). A five-act comedy by Moliere, produced at 
Lyons in 1653. 

£TRETAT,&'tre-ta'. A fashionable watering- 
place in the Department of Seine-Inferieure, 
France, on the English Channel, 18 miles north- 
east of Havre (Map: Franee, N., F 3). It is 
picturesquely situated at the foot of high cliffs, 
has a fine beach, casino, and bathing establish- 
ment, a Romanesque church, several hotels, and 
numerous attractive summer cottages. It is a 
favorite resort for literary men and artists. 
Pop. (commune), 1901, 1944; 1911, 1973. 

ETRTFRIA. The people called bv themselves 
the Rasena, by ancient writers Tyrrheni and 
Tusci, and in modern times Etruscans, are 
among the mysteries of history. Though scat- 
tered at one time over a larger part of Italy, the 
centre of their power was in the region bordered 
on the north by the valley of the Arno, on 
the east and south by the Apennines and the 
Tiber. This was Etruria proper. There were 
also two other regions colonized by the Etrus- 
cans — the valley of the Po in the north and the 
plains of Campania in the south. They formed 
the most advanced civilization in central Italy 
before the dominion of Rome. 

Origin and History. Critics do not agree as 
to the origin of the Etruscans. One school 
makes them come by land across the Rhsetian 
Alps, with their earliest settlement in the north 
and inland. A second school believes them to 
have come by sea. Herodotus believed them to 
be Lydians. Some modern writers connect them 
with the Pelasgians or Hittites. They certainly 
appear to have come from Asia Minor. Their 
own legends place the beginning .of their power 
in Italy in 1044 B.C. The discoveries in the 
necropolises of Etruria would place the rudest 

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of the early tombs at a period only slightly sub- 
sequent to this date. For several centuries the 
tribe remained stationary and retired, probably 
in the region of Monte Amiata and the Cimin- 
ian forest, though there may have been other 
centres as well. Between the eighth and sixth 
centuries B.C. the tribe embarked on a career 
of conquest among the earlier nations of central 
Italy. The earliest cities to be subdued were 
those along the seaboard, such as Tarquinii and 
Caere, and only quite late did inland cities like 
Perusia and Arretium fall into their hands. 
The Etruscans in many cases appear to have 
found among the conquered a more advanced 
civilization, but their superior organization and 
vigor made them conquerors. They formed 
probably the governing class, an aristocratic 
oligarchy. For a time there were three separate 
Etruscan confederacies, each composed of 12 
cities or states. The southern confederacy 
(Etruria Campaniana) included Capua and 
Nola; the northern (Etruria Circumpadana) 
Felsina, Mantua, Ravenna, and Hadria. The 
central confederacy alone counts in history as 
important and included many more important 
cities than the necessary 12: Tarquinii, Caere, 
Veii, Vulci, Volsinii, Falerii, Nepete, Sutrium, 
Populonia, Russellse, Clusium, Vetulonia, Vola- 
terrae, Perusia, Cortona, Arretium were the 
largest, and the 12 confederates are probably to 
be found among them, the list varying at dif- 
ferent times. Each separate state was governed 
by magistrates annually elected, with the titles 
of Lucumo (Lauchme), Porsena (Purtevana), 
and Marunuch, chosen from the ranks of the 
hereditary priestly nobles. In times of war a 
single supreme chief was chosen — like Porsena 
of Clusium — and his bodyguard consisted of 12 
lictors, one from each city, as symbols of his 
authority. This is another point of resemblance 
with the Hittites, whose confederacy was simi- 
larly organized. The laws, both religious and 
civil, were embodied from early times in a 
triple series of books (libri discipline?) , the first 
being the libri haruspicini, treating of divina- 
tion by sacrifice ; the second, the libri fulgurates, 
on divination by lightning; the third, the libri 
rituales, of more general import, treating of the 
founding and consecrating of cities and build- 
ings, of the organization of the people, of the 
army, and the state in times of peace and war. 
Etruria was noted as a hotbed of superstition 
and profligacy even after her downfall. 

The Etruscans are closely connected with the 
earliest history of Rome, According to an an- 
cient tradition they formed the third con- 
stituent tribe of Rome, the Luceres; but this is 
no longer accepted by most authorities. It 
seems more likely that the tradition of the Tar- 
quin kings represents an Etruscan conquest of 
Latium and Campania at some time before 600 
B.C. After the expulsioh of the Tarquins the 
Etruscans sought to reestablish them by force 
under the leadership of the Porsena of Clusium 
( ?509 B.C.). At this time the Etruscan cities 
were great commercial centres ; those situated at 
a little distance from the seaboard had their 
special ports: Caere had Pyrgi, Vetulonia had 
Telamon, Tarquinii had Graviscee. Their on- 
ward march in companies was shown by their 
attack on the Greeks of Curaae in 523 b.c. The 
keen rivalry for commercial mastery then pend- 
ing between the waning Phoenicians and the 
Greeks led Carthage to seek an alliance with the 
Etruscans, whose fleet must have been powerful 

and in control of local commerce. The terms 
of this treaty gave Corsica to the Etruscans and 
Sardinia to the Carthaginians. At this time 
the inland conquests of the Etruscans were sub- 
stantially completed. Their first great defeat 
came in 474, when Hiero of Syracuse punished 
them for assisting the Athenians by practically 
annihilating their sea power. Between this time 
and the final destruction of their independence 
by Rome, at the battle of the Vadimonian Lake 
in 283 b.c, were two centuries of steady political 
decay, marked by their defeat by the Gauls, who 
overran Etruria Circumpadana; by the Urn- 
brians, who attacked on the east; by the Sam- 
nites, who subjugated Etruria Campaniana, and 
by the Romans, whose progressive stages of con- 
quest were marked by the capture of Veii in 
396 b.c. after 10 years' siege, and by that of 
Falerii. But the practical nature of the Etrus- 
cans seems to have shown itself by the easy 
fashion in which they turned their downfall into 
a further opportunity for a life of ease and 
luxury without responsibility. But they felt 
the influence of the far higher civilization of 
Rome. Certainly up to the time of the Gracchi 
Rome could not compare in magnificence or 
wealth with any of the greater Etruscan cities. 

Customs and Religion. Judging from the 
monuments, the Etruscans were a short and 
thickset people, with heavy features, much given 
to good living, games, and amusements. Danc- 
ing, music, and the theatre flourished; festivals 
were frequent and sumptuous. There was great 
love of pomp and ceremony and of rich costumes. 
The Roman use of the toga picta and palmata 
and of the corona Etrusca in the triumph, the 
lictors, the system of slavery and clientship, the 
love of theatrical and amphitheatrical shows, 
the organization into tribes, the system of divi- 
nation, and many other important customs and 
beliefs were derived by the Romans from Etruria. 
The Etruscan pantheon, as we know it, is a late 
piece of patchwork. The supreme trinity was 
Tinia (Jupiter), Uni (Juno), and Menrfa (Min- 
erva). Other principal deities were Set h la us 
( Vulcan ) , Turan ( Venus ) , Phuphlans ( BacchuB ) , 
and Turms (Mercury). Mantus was the ruler 
of -Hades with his consort Mania, assisted by 
Charun and the Furiae. These Dii oonaentes 
had above them a series of nameless deities, 
inexorable as fate, probably the original Chtho* 
nian divinities before Greek influence began. 

Language. The obscurity of Etruscan history 
is due largely to the absence of any literature 
and to the present inability to decipher the 
known inscriptions. The Etruscan language is 
still a mystery. The alphabet is clear. It con- 
tains 19 letters, derived from a Graeco-Chalcidian 
prototype, which was first adopted along the 
southern seaboard. But critics have not yet even 
determined to what family the language belongs; 
the two principal theories are that it is Aryan 
or Semitic. Although about 6000 inscriptions 
have been found, they are nearly all ( four-fifths ) 
sepulchral and so short and largely composed of 
proper names that only about 200 other words 
have been detected. Only 15 inscriptions are 
bilingual, and these are of little use. The 
longest inscription, on the Perugia Cippus, con- 
tains 46 lines. A great deal is expected from 
the study of the recently discovered linen 
mummy cloths at Agrara, containing over 200 
lines of an Etruscan book. It was recognized 
in 1891 by Professor Krall, of Vienna. In such 
progress as has been made the stages have been 

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marked by Lepsius' study of the alphabet, by 
Corssen's first attempt at laying a scientific 
basis for linguistic study (Die Sprache der 
Etruaker, Leipzig, 1874), and by the subsequent 
studies of Pauli and Deecke, who hold opposite 
theories. A few facts are known. The Etruscan 
language expresses relationship both by separate 
words and by suffixes; it possesses gender and 
enclitics ; it does not distinguish accusative from 
nominative case; but has genitive (-s) and 
dative (-si or -thi) as well as plural (-r or -1). 
Archaeology and Art. — Architecture. — It is 
through archaeological excavation that nearly 
everything known about the Etruscans has been 
discovered. More is known of Etruscan engineer- 
ing than of architecture. The cities were care- 
fully laid out on a quadrangular plan, with well- 
fortified citadels and walls; the walls were 
strengthened by towers and double gates. The 
Etruscans themselves used tufa and other stones 
squared and laid in horizontal courses, but there 
is some dispute whether the polygonal and 
irregular cyclopean masonry of some cities in 
Etruria was built by them or another and earlier 
race, perhaps the Pelasgians (q.v.). The city 
of Marzabotto, in the Province of Bologna, iB 
the best instance of an Etruscan colony, laid out 
in regular streets, with pavements, sidewalks, 
and drainage. The Servian wall in Rome is of 
Etruscan construction. On the other hand, 
Russellse, Cosa, Vetulonia, Veii, and other cities 
are built in the polygonal style. Almost nothing 
of Etruscan temple architecture remains. From 
Vitruvius, and the descriptions of the temple of 
Jupiter Capitolinus in Rome, from remains at 
Alatri, Satricum, Segni, Norba, and Falerii, it 
is evident that the Etruscans, Latins, Volscians, 
and other tribes adopted their temple from the 
early Greeks, taking as form the early temple 
in antia (not peristyle), with very deep portico. 
The usual material was a wooden core, covered 
with terra cotta, for columns, entablature, 
gables, etc., while the cella walls were of brick 
or stone. Hence their easy destruction by fire 
and disintegration. Nearly all the remains con- 
sist of the terra-cotta ornaments, such as ante- 
fixes ( see Antefix ) , sculptured friezes, and gablo 
statuary. Marble sculpture, on account of its 
weight, could never be used in connection with 
these light wooden structures, but terra-cotta 
sculpture was carried to great perfection between 
the fifth and third centuries, as is shown by the 
remains at Satricum, Falerii, and Luni, which 
are unique in plastic history and in some cases 
purely Greek in style. The order employed was 
a modification of the Doric, called the Tuscan, 
the proportions of which, owing to the influence 
of the material, were much lighter; they can 
best be studied in Vitruvius and in early Roman 
examples copied from Etruscan buildings. In 
their tombs the Etruscans showed as much 
genius as the Greeks. Throughout Etruria there 
are large and early domical and vaulted tombs 
for great chiefs, which remind one of the tombs 
ot the Homeric heroes and of the Lydian Aly- 
attes. Such are those at Veii, Vetulonia, Vulii, 
Clusium, discovered full of antiquities, mostly 
imported from the East. These all date from the 
eighth, seventh, and sixth centuries. To another 
class, and certainly to the Etruscans themselves, 
belong the flat-roofed tombs imitated from the 
house, of which fine series exist at Caere and 
Perugia, dating between the sixth and third 
centuries b.c. These were often painted like the 
Egyptian tombs, with frescoes, from which we 

gain our principal knowledge, not only of Egyp* 
tian funeral rites, but of their beliefs and daily 
life. No remains of royal palaces or of public 
buildings have come to light, so that there is 
but a meagre remnant of Etruscan architecture. 

Sculpture. — It is different with sculpture. In 
character Etruscan sculpture lacks beauty of 
style, poetry, and imagination. It is essentially 
utilitarian and material. Stone, bronze, and 
terra cotta were used at a very early date. It 
is either in the tombs, as at Vetulonia, or above 
them that the early stone sculptures are found, 
in the form of statues or steles carved in relief 
to mark the site. During this early stage (sev- 
enth to sixth century), when Oriental influence 
dominated, there was a peculiar mixture of real- 
ism and archaic style, as* shown in the great 
terra-cotta sarcophagi at the British Museum, 
the Louvre, and the Papa Giulio Museum in 
Rome, in which the husband and wife are repre- 
sented in life-size figures reclining on the funeral 
couch in conversation, while scenes in low relief 
are carved on the faces of the sarcophagus. 
Later, marble came into use for sarcophagi. 
Sometimes it was painted, as in the wonderful 
sarcophagus at Florence of the Hellenic period 
(fourth century) ; but when the burial after 
incineration became the rule the small carved 
ash urns were produced in thousands. The 
largest collections are in the Vatican, at Perugia, 
Florence, Gorneto, etc. Their scenes are very 
instructive as to Etruscan mythology, but they 
show a great and growing dependence on Greek 
thought. Bronze sculpture was an Etruscan 
specialty. Even the Greeks recognized this fact 
and imported the Etruscan works. This was the 
case not only with statues, like the Mars of 
Todi and the Orator of Florence, with busts like 
the Brutus in the Capitol, and with statuettes 
innumerable, but with articles of furniture and 
decoration, such as candelabra, jewel cases, the 
famous cistcB, and mirrors. The Ficoroni cista, 
with its exquisite engraved scenes, belongs to a 
class not found elsewhere in the artistic world. 
Many of the mirrors also are beautifully en- 
graved with figured scenes. 

Minor Arts. — The Etruscan tombs, beginning 
in the eighth century, are filled with a wealth of 
objects unparalleled except in Egypt, and ex- 
cavations do not seem to exhaust their riches. 
Their contents, however, do not illustrate merely 
Etruscan, but ancient Oriental and Greek, art as 
well, especially in the cities of maritime and 
southern Etruria. This is the case especially 
with gold jewelry (q.v.) and vase painting. It 
is now quite certain that a large part of what 
has generally been called Etruscan jewelry came 
to Etruria from Greece, and the great majority 
of Attic and other Greek vases have been re- 
covered in this way. The tombs of Orvieto 
(Falerii) are especially rich in Greek vases, 
many of them Bigned. It is easy «to distinguish 
the native Etruscan ware; not so easy the 
jewelry. Of the jewelry, arms, and armor there 
were two classes — that for use and that made 
as a votive offering and for burial. The latter 
class was extremely fragile and light. The 
Etruscan women were famous for the amount 
and richness of their jewelry wreaths and coro- 
nets, pins, earrings, necklaces, fibulas, breast- 
plates, armlets, bracelets, and rings. The great 
use of jewelry, while commencing as early as the 
seventh century, seems not to have reached its 
climax until the fourth century. The Vatican 
has a great deal of the early jewelry. The 

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Metropolitan Museum in New York has a fair 
collection of the middle and later periods. But 
by far the greatest in number and variety of 
the objects found are the earthenware vases. 
There is one class essentially Etruscan, with its 
centre of manufacture at Chiusi (Clusium) ; it 
is the black ware with raised ornamentation 
called buoohero nero. There is the greatest and 
most fantastic variety in form and figured orna- 
ment in this class when compared to the sober 
and limited shapes of painted vases of the Greek 
class. The Etruscans had tried imitating Egyp- 
tian and Phoenician ware, but, with the importa- 
tion of Corinthian painted vases in the seventh 
and sixth centuries and of Attic and other vases 
in the succeeding period, Greek mastery became 
supreme. The imitation is rarely perfect enough 
to deceive, but it is even closer than Phoenician 
imitations. One finds Etruscan echoes of all the 
Greek periods and schools of vase painting down 
to the third century, including imitation of the 
schools of southern Italy. In all their work the 
Etruscans seem to have followed simply com- 
mercial instincts and love of luxury. They had 
no artistic feeling. Whatever realism occasion- 
ally gives interest to their sculpture is due to 
the same regard for beliefs concerning the future 
life as are found in Egypt. The Etruscans held 
the pre-Hellenic attitude towards art as ex- 
planatory, decorative, and useful, not serving a 
higher purpose, or for its own sake as beautiful. 
Therefore they missed, in their imitations, the 
true spirit of Greek art. It is certain that 
Greek artists occasionally worked for and with 
them. Demaratus, the father of Tarquin, is 
said to have been a Greek artist from Corinth. 
Some of the paintings at Caere and Corneto must 
be by a Greek hand; also some of the terra-cotta 
temple sculptures. The artistic influence of 
Etruria upon Rome was paramount from the 
time of the Tarquins to the rise of Greek in- 
fluence in the third century B.C. Even after that 
time it still lingers in the sarcophagus reliefs 
and statuary. 

In two other branches the Etruscans produced 
imitative works of no higher order — scarabs, 
gems, and coins. The imitation of Egyptian and 
Phoenician cut gems began at an early date, but 
the material (paste, bone, etc.) was cheap and 
the workmanship poor. During the fifth cen-