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THE NEW 

INTERNATIONAL 

YEAR BOOK 



THE NEW 
INTERNATIONAL 

Year Book 



A COMPENDIUM OF 

THE WORLD'S PROGRESS 

FOR THE YEAR 

1941 



EDITOR 

CHARLES EARLE FUNK, Lrrx.D. 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 
RONALD STUART KAIN, MAMIE HARMON 




FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY 

NEW YORK AND LONDON 

1942 



FOREWORI 

Naturally, in this YEAR BOOK of the events of 1941, the consultant will immediately seek 
the effects of total war or the effects as each link toward total *'w was forged on the 
field of his particular interest. The story is here. In some few instances the war was but 
little more than a shadow by the end of the year; in others it had entirely replaced normal 
peace-time activities. "War," as stated editorially in Engineering News, "uses all the con- 
struction tools, materials, equipment, and supplies of peace. It uses them harder, consumes 
them, and destroys them." The emphasis might well be on "all supplies of peace . . . and 
destroys them," for, as the last war and all previous wars have shown, the salvage of all but 
human supplies when war is over is negligible. 

Almost every contributor to this YEAR BOOK, no matter how remote from warlike ac- 
tivities his topic might appear during ordinary years, found that "all out" war actually 
means all out that no one and no interest is exempt, that "war consumes all." So startling 
was that realization to many contributors after the events at Pearl Harbor brought the 
United States forcibly into active participation that they seemed to think that their readers 
might miss the significance. Their articles, each of course written after the close of the year, 
were introduced (in the copy) by a recital of the dastardly attack on Pearl Harbor and the 
effect from that latest blow on world progress. 

War is definitely the key-note in this volume. Its ugly head has obtruded even into such 
quiet realms as Photography, in many ways; into Literature, through the under-cover 
efforts in occupied countries to bolster national morale; into Religion, where it seeks to 
destroy faiths; even into such non-military pursuits, among many, as Dentistry and Psy- 
chiatry. By the time this record is printed, every resident of the country will have learned 
by the bitterest of lessons that, no matter how humble or exalted his station, he has been 
obliged in some degree to modify his ordinary habits. Certain articles of food can no longer 
be obtained; scarcity of rubber and of gasoline is curtailing reliance upon motor transporta- 
tion; building material, plumbing supplies, and even certain textiles are not available for 
private use. The paper upon which this book is printed is not as white as the publishers 
would like, because chlorine, used by paper-makers to bleach the pulp, is more imperatively 
required in the production of explosives. 

Ships, airplanes, and guns; trained men to use them and trained men to produce them 
these, in war-time, take precedence over all other wants or desires. 

If one were able to detach his mind from personal feeling and view the record objectively, 
it would be fascinating. A tremendous forest fire is nonetheless a grand spectacle, though it 
be devastating. So with the swift move of this cataclysmic war. Hitler's strategy a clasp of 
friendship with the right hand, a rapier-stab with the left was again employed successfully 
against Yugoslavia and, not so successfully, against Russia. By the end of the year, Japan 
had shown herself an apt pupil of the same maneuver, and with her perfidy War completed 
its encirclement of the northern hemisphere. Through the year the moves were those of a 
gigantic chess game pawns moved cautiously about, a misleading threat by bishop or 
knight, capture of an occasional minor or major piece, sudden swoop of queen or rook, 
elusive countermoves. But no move could be made advantageously except through the 
cooperation of whole nations supporting the pieces on the board. 

The record, then, includes not only the gains or losses of military forces and naval forces 
in the several campaigns, but also the more significant gains or losses of vast bodies of men 
far from the battle line without whose help battles could not be won. The internal histories 
of the countries at war, as well as those still at peace, their political developments through 
the year, their productions of food and other supplies, their achievements in the main- 
tenance of health, their discoveries of new resources, their persistence with that ephemeral 
thing called "morale" resulting* in part at l^,s, from continuance with sports, painting, 

" ' -*'* . --.4; 



FOREWORD 



theater, motion-pictures, literature, radio all are vital factors in the struggle; any one may 

determine ultimate success or failure. 

.. , - * 

, AS- with ^liel'Y^itBooita^tlie.^o^ics herein are alphabetically listed, each under logical 
key-Woi^^biit^^ r Jth<;c^icn : gai(ling cross-references. The editor and his staff have been 
confronted \vith a*moj*e aKhjGu&t&sfc than ever before to retain all the desirable features, 
authority ^and accuracy, for itfbteK *tiis YEAR BOOK has long been noted, but in addition to 
provide space for pi&ny new Federal agencies and for adequate treatment of the greatly 
expanded war itsclfe $tt<J of the many topics closely bearing upon the conduct of the war. 
Certain curtailments* nave been necessary. The editor begs the indulgence of contributors 
whose articles he has been obliged to condense. 

Dr. H. A. DeWeerd extends his masterly review of the War (now listed under WORLD 
WAR) to cover not only the campaigns in Europe and Africa, but also the involvement of 
Japan and the United States. For many years, the annual review on NAVAL PROGRESS has 
been ably offered by Captain C. H. McMorris and was to have been again prepared by him. 
Captain McMorris was stationed at Pearl Harbor on December 7th. Though he promptly 
wrote that he would be unable to fill the assignment, his letter did not reach the editor until 
the last day of the year. A more able successor than Mr. Allan Westcott would be difficult 
to find. The editor is especially grateful to him for his willingness to accept the post of a 
friend and on short notice to prepare an exceptionally comprehensive and complete review 
of this most important subject. Similarly, the editor is extremely grateful to Dr. Allan 
Nevins who, on equally short notice, lent his valuable and understanding assistance to the 
preparation of the article, UNITED STATES. 

So much of interest or value is offered in these pages that it may safely be said that one 
can scarcely open the book at random without finding some important fact to arrest the eye. 
Many new topics are included; many new contributors are presented. Among the latter 
may be named Prof. Alrik Gustafson, DANISH and SWEDISH LITERATURE; Dr. Einar Haugen, 
NORWEGIAN LITERATURE; A. W. Lehman, RADIO PROGRAMS; Bert Pierce, MOTOR VEHICLES, 
and Alfred Senn, Swiss LITERATURE. To each who is new to these pages, to those who 
again honor these pages, and to the hundreds of others who have gratuitously supplied 
countless items of fact without thought of recognition, the editor desires to acknowledge his 
indebtedness publicly. To the editors of newspapers throughout the country who have 
supplied material concerning their respective States, the editor also extends his appreciation. 

But above all, no fitting tribute can be paid to the members of the staff of this YEAR BOOK, 
especially to Mr. Kain, Miss Harmon, Mr. Vizetelly, and Mr. Whitmore. The editor can 
merely say that from the depths of his heart he appreciates the loyal cooperation, tireless 
energy, valuable suggestions, and willing spirit constantly displayed by each member even 
in the face of requirements that often seemed impossible of achievement. 

CHARLES EARLE FUNK 



VI 



EDITOR 
Charles Earle Funk, Litt.D. 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS 



Caswef/ Adams 

Sports Department, New York Herald Tribune 

ARTICLES ON SPOUTS 

Arthur J. A/fmeyer 

Chairman, Social Security Board 

SOCIAL SECURITY BOARD 

Hubert N. A/yea, Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of Chemistry, Princeton Uni- 
versity 

CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL; CHEMISTRY, PURE 

John F. W. Anderson, A.B. 

Research Editor, Boot and Shoe Recorder 

LEATHER, SHOE INDUSTRY 

Mary Anderson 

Directory Women's Bureau 
WOMEN'S BUREAU 

John B. Andrews, Ph D. 

Secretary, American Association for Labor Legis- 
lation; Editor, American Labor Legislation Re- 
view 

LABOR LEGISLATION 

P. N. Annand, B.S., M.A., Ph.D. 

Chief, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quar- 
antine 

ENTOMOLOGY, ECONOMIC 

Harry J. Ans/inger, li.B. 

Commissioner, Bureau of Narcotics 

NARCOTIC DRUGS CONTROL 

Moses Nelson Baker, Ph.B., C.E. 

Associate Editor, Engineering News and Engi- 
neering News-Record (Retired) 

SANITARY ENGINEERING AND MUNICIPAL SUBJECTS 

Howard Barnes 

Motion Picture Editor, New York Herald Tribune 

MOTION PICTURES 

A. D. Baffey 

Statistician, National Safety Council 
ACCIDENTS 

James V. Benneff, A.B., LL.B. 

Director, Bureau of Pnsons, U.S. Department of 
Justice 

PRISONS, PAROLE, AND CRIME 

Ju/es f. Bogen, B.S., A.M., Ph.D. 

Editor, The Journal of Commerce; Professor of 
Finance, New York University 

BANKS AND BANKING; BUSINESS REVIEW; FINAN- 
CIAL REVEEW; MARKETING; PUBLIC FINANCE, TAX- 
ATION 



O. A. Bonfempo, A.B., Ph.C. 

Contributing Staff, Modern Language Journal 

ITALIAN LITERATURE 

lymcrn J. Briggs, Ph.D., Sc.D., D.Eng., IL.D. 

Director, National Bureau of Standards, U.S. 
Department of Commerce 

NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS 

Ralph fiudd 

Former Transportation Commissioner; President, 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railway Company 

TRANSPORTATION DIVISION 

Vonnevar Bush 

Director, Office of Scientific Research and De- 
velopment 

SCDENTIFIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, OF- 
FICE OF 

Walter G. Campbell, A.B., LI.B. 

Commissioner of Food and Drugs 

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION 

Ralph W. Carey, A.B. 

New York Dramatic Correspondent, The Hart- 
ford Courant 



M. M. Chambers, Ph.D. 

Administrative Assistant, American Council on 
Education 

YOUTH MOVEMENT 

Arthur P. Chew 

Special Writer, Office of Information, U.S. De- 
partment of Agriculture 

AGRICULTURE, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF 

Philip Coon 

Assistant Editor 

Former Editor, The New York Sun 

H. Walton Cochron, M.D. 

Former Fellow in Surgery. Presbyterian Hospital 
in New York; Former Instructor in Surgery, Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons 

MEDICINE AND SURGERY 

Conwoy P. Coe, B.A., LL.B. 

Commissioner, U.S. Patent Office 

PATENT OFFICE 

Fred H. Co/via 

Editor Emeritus, American Machinist 

MACHINE BUILDING 

Wayne Coy 

Liaison Officer, Office for Emergency Manage- 
ment 

NATIONAL DEFENSE AND WAR AGENCDSS 



Contributors to the New International Year Book Confinued 



Wafson Davis 

Director, Science Service, Washington, D.C. 
PHYSICS 

William H. Davit 

Chairman, National War Labor Board 

NATIONAL, DEFENSE MEDIATION BOARD 

H. A. DeWeerd, Ph.D. 

Associate Professor of History, Denison Univer- 
sity; Editor, Military Affairs; Author, Great Sol- 
diers of the Two World Wars 

Newton B. Drury, B.I. 

Director, National Park Service 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

. C. Elting, B.S., A.M. 

Dairy Husbandman, Office of Experiment Sta- 
tions, U.S. Department of Agriculture 

DAIRYING; LIVESTOCK, POULTRY; WOOL 

C/orence B. Ferrer, A.B., AU>., F.R.C.P.(CJ 

Professor of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 
Director, Toronto Psychiatric Hospital; Editor, 
American Journal of Psychiatry 

PSYCHIATRY 

Samuel Feinberg 

Editorial Associate, Women's Wear Daily 

GARMENT INDUSTRY 

Abner H. Ferguson 

Administrator, Federal Housing Administration, 
Federal Loan Agency 

FEDERAL. HOUSING ADMINISTRATION 

W. W. Farrow, B.S.A., Ph.D. 

Associate Chief, Cooperative Research and Serv- 
ice Division, Farm Credit Administration 

AGRICULTURAL COOPERATION 

John D. Fifz-Gera/d, Ph.D., Utt.D. 

Professor of Romance Philology and Head of the 
Department of Spanish, University of Arizona 

SPANISH-AMERICAN LITERATURES; SPANISH LIT- 
ERATURE 

James Lawrence Fly 

Chairman, Defense Communications Board; 
Chairman, Federal Communications Commission 

DEFENSE COMMUNICATIONS BOARD 

Abe Fortes, A.B., LLB. 

Director, Division of Power, U.S. Department of 
die Interior 

POWER, DIVISION OF 

Ira N. Gabrie/son 

Director, Fish and Wildlife Service 

FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

Ai E. Of/more 

Commissioner, Public Works Administration 

PUBLIC WORKS ADMINISTRATION 

Martin Gumperf, M.D. 

Author, Trail-Blazers of Science; Health under 
Hitler; Dunant; First Papers 

GERMAN LITERATURE 

Alrik Gusfafson 

Professor of Scandinavian, University of Minne- 
sota 
DANISH LITERATURE; SWEDISH LITERATURE 

Moses Hados, Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of Greek and Latin, Colum- 
bia University 

PHILOLOGY. CLASSICAL 



Mamie Harmon, A.M. 

Associate Editor 

Associate Editor, The New Standard Year Book 

FAIRS, PHD^ANTHROPY; RELIEF; STATES 

Doug/as Haske//, A.B. 

Contributing Editor, The Architectural Record 

ARCHITECTURE 

Edward H. Haffon, M.D. 

Professor of Pathology and Bacteriology, North- 
western University Dental School; Past President 
and General Secretary, International Association 
for Dental Research 

DENTISTRY 

Einar Haugen, Ph.D. 

Professor of Scandinavian Languages, University 
of Wisconsin 

NORWEGIAN LITERATURE 

Charles B. Henderson, LLB., JL1.M. 

Chairman of the Board, Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation 

RECONSTRUCTION FINANCE CORPORATION 

Leon Henderson 

Administrator, Office of Price Administration 

PRICE ADMINISTRATION, OFFICE OF 

G. Ross Wenninger, fi.S. (E.E.) 

Editor, American Institute of Electrical Engi- 
neers 

ELECTRICAL TOPICS, RADIO; TELEGRAPHY, TE- 
LEPHONY; TELEVISION 

Lewis B. Hers/ley, A.B., B.S., B.Pd. 

Brigadier General, United States Army, Director, 
Selective Service System 

SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM 

Frank T. Hines, LL.D. 

Brigadier General, O.R.C., Administrator, Vet- 
erans' Administration 
VETERANS' ADMINISTRATION 

Thomas IV. Holland, Ph.D., LL.B. 

Administrator, Wage and Hour Division, U.S. 
Department of Labor 

WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION 

William A. Hooker, B.Sc., U.M., D.V.M. 

Office of Experiment Stations, U.S. Department 
of Agriculture 

VETERINARY MEDICINE 

William E. Hooper 

Former Financial Editor, Railway Age 
RAILWAYS 

J. Edgar Hoover, LL.B., LL.M., LL.D., Sc.D. 

Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

John R. Hosfeffer 

Assistant Editor, The Glass Industry 
GLASS 

AM Hrdlitka, M.D., Sc.D. 

Curator, Division of Physical Anthropology, U.S. 
National Museum 

ANTHROPOLOGY 

Chos. H. Hughes 

Former Technical Aide, United States Shipping 
Board; Author, Handbook of Ship Calculations 
and Construction 

BUILDING; SHDPBUILDING; SHIPPING 



viii 



Contributors to the New International Year Book Continued 



Howard O. Hunter 

Commissioner, Work Projects Administration, 
Federal Works Agency 

WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION 

Harold L. /ekes, A.B., J.D., 1L.O. 
U.S. Secretary of the Interior 

PETROLEUM COORDINATOR FOR NATIONAL DE- 
FENSE, OFFICE OF 

W. R. Johnson, B.C.S., lt.fi. 

Commissioner of Customs, U.S. Treasury De- 
partment 

CUSTOMS, BUREAU OF 

Chor/es Hubbard Judd, Ph.D., LL.D., Sc D. 

Emeritus Professor of Education, The University 
of Chicago 

EDUCATION 

Ronald Stuart JCain, A.M. 

Associate Editor 

Author, Europe: Versailles to Warsaw 

FOREIGN COUNTRIES, COLONIES, AND DEPENDEN- 
CIES POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY, COM- 
MUNISM, FASCISM, PAN AMERICANISM, ETC 

C/iarfes F. Kettering 

Chairman, National Inventors Council, U S De- 
partment of Commerce 

NATIONAL INVENTORS COUNCIL 

Fiorello H. LaGuardia 

Former Director, Office of Civilian Defense; 
Mayor, New York City 

CIVILIAN DEFENSE, OFFICE OF 

Maria Leach 

Assistant Editor 

MINERALS AND METALS, VITAL STATISTICS 

A. W Lehman 

Manager, The Cooperative Analysis of Broad- 
casting 

RADIO PROGRAMS 

William M. Leiserson, Ph D. 

Member, National Labor Relations Board 

LABOU CONDITIONS 

Katharine f. Lenroof, LL.D. 

Chief, Children's Bureau, U.S. Department of 

Labor 

CHILDREN'S RUREAU; JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

M. E. Lerner, A.B 

Editor, The Rubber Age 
RUBBER 

C. Sumner Lobingier, Ph.D., D.C.L., J.U.D., J.D. 

Former United States Judge in the Philippines 
and in China, Officer, Securities and Exchange 
Commission; Lecturer on Law, American Uni- 
versity, Washington, D.C. 
LAW 

James G. McDonald, LL.D., D.H.L., Lltt.D. 

Chairman, President's Advisory Committee on 
Political Refugees; Member, Board of Education 
of the City of New York; Former High Commis- 
sioner for Refugees (Jewish and other) Coming 
from Germany 

REFUGEES 

J. J. McEnfee 

Director, Civilian Conservation Corps, Federal 
Security Agency 

CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS 



V. Jerou/d McGi//, A.B., Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor, Hunter College, New York; 
A Book Editor, The Journal of Philosophy; An 
Editor, Philosophy and Phenomenological Re- 
search; Contributing Editor, Philosophical Ab- 
stracts 
PHDLOSOPHY 

Archibald Macleish 

Director, Office of Facts and Figures; Librarian 
of Congress 

FACTS AND FIGURES, OFFICE OF 

Pauf V. McNuff, LL.D., L.H.D. 

Administrator, Federal Security Agency; Direc- 
tor, Office of Defense Health and Welfare Serv- 
ices 

DEFENSE HEALTH AND WELFARE SERVICES 

Mabel F. Martin, Ph.D. 

Associate Professor of Psychology, Richmond Pro- 
fessional Institute, Richmond, Va.; Assistant Edi- 
tor, Webster's New International Dictionary, 2d 
Edition 

PSYCHOLOGY 

Glenn E. Matthew*, M.Sc., F.R.P.S., A.P.5.A. 

Technical Editor, Kodak Research Laboratories, 
Rochester, N.Y. 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

Leila Mechlin, A.M., D.F.A., F.R.S.A. 

Art Editor, The Evening and Sunday Star, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 
ART 

W. C. Mendenhaf/ 

Director, Geological Survey, U.S. Department of 
the Interior 

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

Harry B. Mitchell 

President, U S. Civil Service Commission 

CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION, U.S. 

Charles Sumner Morgan, B.S. 

Engineer, National Fire Protection Association 

FIRE PROTECTION 

Donald M. Nelson 

Former Executive Director, Supply Priorities 
and Allocations Board, Chairman, War Produc- 
tion Board 

SUPPLY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS BOARD 

Allan Nevins, LL.D., Liff.D. 

Professor of American History, Columbia Uni- 
versity 

UNITED STATES 

Catharine Oglesby 

President, Catharine Oglesby; Author, Business 
Opportunities for Women, Fashion Careers 
American Style, Modern Primitive Arts 
FASHION 

Florence . Parker 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of 
Labor 

CONSUMER COOPERATIVES 

Thomas Parran, M.D. 

Surgeon General, U.S. Public Health Service, 
Federal Security Agency 

PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, U.S. 

Francis Davenport Perkins 

Music Editor, The New York Herald Tribune 



Contributors to the New International Year Book Continued 



Mi/o Perkins 

Executive Director, Board of Economic Warfare 

ECONOMIC WARFARE, BOARD OF 

O/go M. Peterson 

Public Relations Assistant, American Library As- 
sociation 

LIBRARY PROGRESS 

Bert Pierce 

Automobile Editor, New York Herald Tribune 

MOTOR VEHICLES 

Warren Lee Pierson, A.B., ll.fi. 

President, Export-Import Bank of Washington 

EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF WASHINGTON 

fienfield Pressev, A.M. 

Professor of English, Dartmouth College 

LITERATURE, ENGLISH AND AMERICAN 

Byron Price, B.A. 

Director of Censorship 

CENSORSHIP, OFFICE OF 

Chariot McD. Puclcette 

Assistant to the Publisher, The New York Times 

NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES 

George Matthew Reed, Ph.D. 

Curator of Plant Pathology, Brooklyn Botanic 

Garden 

BOTANY 

Nelson A. Rockefeller 

Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs 

COORDINATOR OF INTER- AMERICAN AFFAIRS, OF- 
FICE OF THE 

D. Kenneth Rose 

National Director, Birth Control Federation of 
America, Inc. 

BIRTH CONTROL 

A. ft. Sayers 

Director, Bureau of Mines, U S. Department of 
the Interior 

MINES, BUREAU OF 

Daniel Sayre, M.S. 

Professor of Aeronautical Engineering, Princeton 
University 

AERONAUTICS 

Albert Schinz, Ph.D., L.H.D., Litt.D. 

Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages and 
Literature, University of Pennsylvania 

FRENCH LITERATURE 

Lemuel B. Schoffeld, A.M., LL.B. 

Special Assistant to the Attorney General in 
Charge of the Immigration and Naturalization 
Service, U.S. Department of Justice 

IMMIGRATION, EMIGRATION, AND NATURALIZA- 
TION 

Alfred Senn, A.B., Ph.D. 

Professor of Germanic Philology, University of 
Pennsylvania 

SWISS LITERATURE 

Thomas J. Shanfey 

Assistant Statistician, American Gas Association 

GAS INDUSTRY 

Henry M. Steece, B.S. (Agr.), AM. 

Senior Agronomist, Office of Experiment Sta- 
tions, U.S. Department of Agriculture 

AGRICULTURE; CROP PRODUCTION 



J. ft. Steelman 

Director of Conciliation, U.S. Department of 
Labor 

CONCILIATION SERVICE, U.S. 

Raymond B. Stevens 

Chairman, U.S. Tariff Commission 

TARIFF COMMLSSION, U.S. 

Nathan Straus 

Administrator, United States Housing Authority 

HOUSING AUTHORITY, U.S. 

Clifford Strock, M.E. 

Editor, Heating and Ventilating 

HEATING AND VENTILATING 

Arthur Sweetser, A.B., A.M., LL.D. 

Member, League of Nations Secretariat 

LEAGUE OF NATIONS, WORLD COURT 

Stiflman Taylor 

Associate Editor, Paper Trade Journal 

PAPER AND PULP 

Norman Thomas, B.A., Litt.D. 

National Chairman, Socialist Party; Author, 
America's Way Out, We Have a Future; co- 
author, Keep America Out of War 
SOCIALISM 

Oliver Samuel Tonfcs, Ph.D. 

Professor of Art, Vassar College 

ARCHAEOLOGY 

. E. ftussell Tratman 

Former Associate Editor, Engineering News- 
Record 

CIVIL ENGINEERING TOPICS 

Aaron t. Treadwell, Ph.D., Sc.D. 

Emeritus Professor of Zoology, Vassar College; 
Research Associate, American Museum of Nat- 
ural History, New York City 



Adriaon van der Veen 

Scriptwriter, Netherlands Information Bureau, 
Contributor, Netherlands and Netherlands In- 
dies literary magazines; Author 

DUTCH AND BELGIAN LITERATURE 

Henry E. Vizefelly 

Assistant Editor 

FOREIGN COLONIES AND DEPENDENCIES POLITI- 
CAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY 

Russell R. Waesche 

Rear Admiral, United States Coast Guard; Com- 
mandant, Coast Guard, Department of Treasury 

COAST GUARD 

Frank C. Walker, U.B., LL.D. 

Postmaster General 

POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT 

Everett S. Wallis 

Professor of Chemistry, Princeton University 

BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 

George A. IVatson 

Associate Editor, The National Underwriter 
INSURANCE 



Contributors to the New International Year Book Continued 

Allan Weifcoff, Ph.D. Aubrey William* 

Professor, Department of English and History, Administrator, National Youth Administration, 

U.S. Naval Academy Federal Security Agency 

NAVAL PROGRESS NATIONAL YOUTH ADMINISTRATION 

Dan H. Wheefer Mth M. Williams, Ph.D. 

Acting Director, Bituminous Coal Division, U.S. Chief, Cost of Living Division, U.S. Bureau of 

Department of the Interior Labor Statistics 

BITUMINOUS COAL DIVISION LIVING COSTS AND STANDARDS 

Walter White Frank J. Wilton 

Secretary, National Association for the Advance- Chief, Secret Service Division, U.S. Department 

ment of Colored People of the Treasury 

NEGROES SECRET SERVICE DIVISION 

LeRoy Whitman Doug/as G. Woo/f 

Editor, Army and Navy Journal Editor, Textile World 

MILITARY PROGRESS TEXTDLES 

John L Whitmore Richmond T. Zoch, A.M. 

Assistant Editor Airport Station, U.S. Weather Bureau 

NECROLOGY; SOCIETIES, UNIVERSITIES AND COL- ASTRONOMY; FLOODS; HURRICANES, METEOROL- 

LEGES OGY; SEISMOLOGY 



MAPS 

PAGE 

AERONAUTICS: 

New Pan American Airways Route to the Belgian Congo 5 

BOLIVIA : 

The Transcontinental Railway Project .... .70 

ICELAND: 

The Crucial North Atlantic Battleground ... . 270 

IRAN: 

Anglo-Soviet Zones of Occupation 289 

IRAQ: 

Strategic Objectives in the Middle East .... 291 

THAILAND : 

Territories Annexed from French Indo-China . 051 

UNITED STATES: 

American Outposts for Hemisphere Defense . 078 

WATEK WORKS: 

The Course of the Colorado River Aqueduct 720 

WORLD WAR: 

The Line-up of Allied and Axis Powers . . . 734 

Campaign in Italian East Africa ... m 730 

German and Italian Drives in Yugoslavia . . . 739 

The German Campaign in Greece .... . 740 

Battlegrounds of the Middle East . facing 740 

Russia's Outer Bastions Fall Before the Nazi Advance . 747 

America's Hawaiian Stronghold ... . 750 

Japanese Advance in British Malaya . . 752 

The Philippine Campaign in 1941 . . 753 

Southeastern Asia: Storm Center of the Far East . . facing 754 

THE PACIFIC AREA AND ITS NAVAL BASES End Papers 

CHARTS AND DIAGRAMS 

PAGE 

ARCHITECTURE: 

Plot Plan of the USHA Harbor Hills Housing Project near Los Angeles . . 30 

BANKS AND BANKING : 

Excess Reserves of Federal Reserve Banks ..... 54 

BUSINESS REVIEW: 

Producers' Machinery and Equipment . . . . .91 

Industrial Earnings and Tax Reserves ... .93 

CIVILIAN DEFENSE, OFFICE OF: 

Civilian Protection Organization for a Municipality . .134 

FASHION EVENTS: 

Necklines Waistlines Shoulders and Sleevelines Skirtlines 196-197 

FIRE PROTECTION: 

Annual Conflagration Map . t 208 

MACHINE BUILDING: 

Employment in Machine Tool Plants 343 

MARKETING: j 

Consumer Instalment Debt . . . . 350 

MILITARY PROGRESS: 

Enlisted Personnel of the United States Active Army 370 

Tactical Organization of the United States Army . 371 

UNITED STATES: 

Effect of Defense on Industry 676 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

FACING PAGE 

AERONAUTICS: 

Ail-Out Production of Airplane Parts ... .4 

Lockheed P-38 Consolidated B-24 Boeing B-17E Douglas B-19 5 

AQUEDUCTS: 

Pipe-Laying at the Salt Lake Aqueduct . 70 

A Section of the All- American Canal . . 70 

BOMBS: 

Methods of Dealing with Incendiary Bombs 71 

BRIDGES: 

The Navesink River Bridge, New Jersey .... 80 

East Approach to the George Washington Bridge, New York City 80 

DAMS: 

Construction on Shasta Dam . 81 

ELECTRIC LIGHT AND POWER: 

Blades for a New 50,000-kw Turbine 1 88 

FIRE PROTECTION : 

Firestone Fire at Fall River, Mass. 189 

A Typical American-Built Trailer Pumper 189 

GERM AMI : 

Blitzkrieg in Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Greece 240 

Hitler with Hess Hitler with Mussolini 241 

Renewal of the Anti-Comintern Pact . 241 

GREAT BRITAIN: 

The Atlantic Declaration II.M.S. Prince of Wales 248 

The House of Commons after German Air Raids, May 10 249 

Prime Minister Churchill Addressing the U.S. Congress 249 

ICELAND: 

A U.S. Marine Corps Camp British and American Soldiers 270 

U.S. Naval Vessels in the Harbor of Reykjavik 270 

ILLUMINATION: 

Fluorescent Lighting in Office and Factory . 271 

IRAN: 

Indian Riflemen Guarding the Vital Oil Pipelines 294 

IRAQ. 

A British Armored Car Unit in Iraq . . 294 

ITALIAN EAST AFRICA: 

Surrender of the Duke of Aosta . . . 295 

Return of Emperor Haile Selassie ... . 295 

JAPAN : 

Foreign Minister Matsuoka with Hitler in Berlin . 304 

Premier Eiki Tojo 304 

Japanese in French Indo-China . . 304 

LABOR CONDITIONS: 

Industry-Labor Conference . . . 305 

Captive Mine Dispute North American Aviation Strike Air Associates Bendix Strike . 305 

MACHINE BUILDING : 

Multiple Drill Rifling Bar Center Drive Lathe Spot- Welding Apparatus . 344 

MALAYA: 

Australians Landing in Singapore 345 

General Wavell on an Inspection Tour . 345 

MILITARY PROGRESS: 

United States M-3 Tanks in Production . 368 

Maneuvers Near Lillesville, N.C., and Fort Knox, Ky. 308-869 

U.S. Army Jeep and Reconnaissance Car. 308-369 

Machine Guns 105 mm. Shells Rapid Fire Anti-Aircraft Cannon . 309 

MOTION PICTURES: 

Walt Disney's "Dumbo" 380 

"Citizen Kane" "Here Comes Mr. Jordan" "How Green Was My Valley" . . 381 

xiii 



FACING PAGE 

MOTOR VEHICLES: 

Tanks Weapon Carriers Reconnaissance Cars Army Trucks . . . 384 

America's Largest Tank Arsenal 385 

A Spark Plug Division Producing Machine Guns . 385 

NAVAL PROGRESS: 

Convoy Duty . 404 

Japanese Midget Submarine ... . 404 

NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES: 

Volume One, Number One, of the Chicago Sun . . 405 

NEUTRALITY: 

Guns for United States Merchantmen . 405 

PHOTOGRAPHY: 

1000-kv X-Ray Unit Used to Check Flaws in Armaments . . .520 

The Great Fire of London, Dec. 29-30, 1940 .... 521 

Quick-Work Photography by the U.S. Army Air Corps . . 521 

RAPID TRANSIT: 

Chicago's Initial System of Subways . 562 

RED CROSS: 

Volunteers for the National War Effort . 563 

SHIPBUILDING: 

Launching the First Liberty Ship ... . . 588 

Diesel Engines for the U.S. Navy . . . 589 

The Keel of the S.S. Patrick Henry During Construction 589 

THEATER: 

Maurice Evans and Judith Anderson in "Macbeth" . 652 

. "Blithe Spirit" "Watch on the Rhine" "Lady in the Dark" 653 

UNITED STATES: 

Mobilization .... . 680 

The President Calls for a Declaration of War 681 

The Lend-Lease Act ... 681 

WORLD WAR: 

Battlegrounds of the Middle East . . . 740 

Parachute Troops in Crete . 741 

The Blitzkrieg Bogged in Russian Mud . . 748 

Scorched Earth in Russia . . 749 

Civilians Digging Anti-Tank Defenses before Moscow 749 

Destruction at Pearl Harbor, December 7 . 750-751 

Storm Center of the Far East ... . 754 

Gen. George C. Marshall Gen. Douglas MacArthur . 755 

Adm. Ernest J. King Adm. Harold R. Stark . . 755 



xiv 



THE NEW 

INTERNATIONAL 

YEAR BOOK 



SPECIAL FEATURES 

A thousand or more tides will be found in the YEAR BOOK, arranged alphabetically from AAA to 
Zoology, and numerous cross-references will direct the reader specifically to the subject he seeks. For con- 
venient reference, certain special features are listed below. For all other titles, see the main topic in its 
alphabetical position; as, "National Defense," see pages 391-2. 



PAGE 

Academicians 1, 225 

Accident Rates . . .2, 3, 721 

Agricultural Crops 12, 13, 264 

Air Forces 4 

Airplane Losses, World War . . 744 

Alien Populations . 189, 277 

Associations & Societies 597 

Atlantic Declaration, Text of . . .46-47 

Automobile Sales . . 383 

Baseball Scores .... 57 

Birth Rate in the U S 721 

Bombs 71, 72 

British Possessions 81 

Broadcasting Stations 553 

Building Construction 85 

Business Activity 90 

Cabinet Members 681 

Chanties 507 

Chronology . 124 

Churches 568 

Civilian Defense Chart 134 

Colleges & Universities 685 

Comets 46 

Cooperatives 149 

Crime 536 

Crops, U S. & World 12, 13, 264 

Death Rates 721 

Deaths of Important Persons . . . .406 

Debt, U.S. Public ..546 

Department Store Sales 92 

Diplomats 171 

Draft Classifications . .587 

Emigration 276 

Employment .318 

Events of 1940 124 

Explosives . 104 

Export Licenses 176 

Exports, US. .. .. . . .658 

Federal Expenditures .... . . . 546 

Film Awards .382 

Fire Losses . .208 

Foreign Exchange Rates .55 

Foreign Expenditures . 546 

Foreign Trade 658 

Foundations & Funds 508 

Fruit Crops 264 

Gases 72 

Gifts and Bequests 508 



PAGE 

Government Employees 135 

Highways of the Western Hemisphere . . . .571 

Holidays 262 

Horticultural Crops . 264 

Immigration 276 

Imports, U.S 658 

Income Tax Receipts 643 

Industrial Activity . . . 90 

Insect Pests 189 

Instalment Debts 350 

Inter- American Agreements 497 

Lend-Lease Recipients 329 

Liquor Production 333 

Mineral Production 92 

Motor Vehicle Fatalities 721 

Navies of the World 400 

Obituaries .406 

OPA Price Schedules 533 

Organizations 597 

Priorities .... 90, 537, 630 

Radio Popularity Programs . 554 

Retail Trade .92 

School Enrollments 583 

Stock Prices 201 

Strategic Materials 232, 372, 628 

Strikes in 1941 319 

Sulf a-Drugs 354 

Synthetics 104, 576 

Taxable Commodities . . 644 

Universities and Colleges 685 

U.S. Army Organization ... 369 

Vitamins 63 

Wages and Hours 316 

War Agencies, List of 392 

War Relief Activities 802 

Weapons 370 

Wholesale Trade 92 

World War 733 

African Campaigns 735, 749 

Balkan Campaign 736 

Chronology 124, 733 

Conquest of Crete 741 

Greek Campaign 740 

Naval Actions 742 

Pearl Harbor Attack 750 

Philippine Campaign 754 

Russian Campaigns 745 

Syrian Occupation 639,743 



xvi 



THE NEW 
INTERNATIONAL 

YEAR BOOK 
1941 



AAA. Agricultural Adjustment Administration. See 
AGRICULTURE, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF. 
ABYSSINIA (ETHIOPIA). See ETHIOPIA, ITALIAN EAST 
AKHICA under History, WORLD WAR under The Con- 
quest of Italian East Africa. 
ACADEMY, French. See FRENCH LITERATURE. 

ACADEMY OF ARTS, Royal. The Royal Academy of 
Arts, founded by King George III in 1768, is main- 
tained, through the public support of its Exhibi- 
tions, for the promotion of the Fine Arts: its main 
functions are the conduct of a free Art School of 
Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture; the holding 
of Exhibitions, free of charge to the exhibitors, or 
Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Drawing, and 
Engraving; and the distribution of charitable funds 
for the relief of distress among artists and their 
widows. It is also the chief center in Great Britain 
for the discussion of matters affecting the interests 
of the art and artists of the country, and for com- 
bined action toward the preservation or creation of 
important works of art. The Royal Academy carries 
on its work entirely by the services of its own 
Members and Staff, who are subject only to the 
approval of the Sovereign, and not responsible to 
or financially dependent on any Department of the 
State. Besides its free Art School it maintains a 
comprehensive Art Library and a permanent col- 
lection of works by Old Masters. 

The Membership consists of forty Academicians 
and thirty Associates, elected by ballot by the 
Members from among the most distinguished 
painters, sculptors, architects and engravers prac- 
ticing in the country. 

During 1941 the Royal Academy held its Sum- 
mer Exhibition as usual, from May 5 to August 9. 
During September it lent some Galleries for Ex- 
hibitions of the National Savings Committee ( Post- 
ers Competition) and the London Fire Service 
Artists' Committee; and in November the Royal 
Society of Portrait Painters held its annual ex- 
hibition in a part of the Galleries. During Decem- 
ber the Royal Academy, in collaboration with the 
other principal Art Societies of Great Britain, or- 
ganized a United Artists' Exhibition of works to be 
sold in aid of H.R.H. the Duke of Gloucester's Red 
Cross and St John Fund. The Officers of the Royal 
Academy for 1941 are as follows: President and 
Trustee, Sir Edwin L. Lutvens, K.C.I.E., P.R.A.; 
Keeper and Trustee, Sir Walter W. Russell, C.V.O., 
R.A.; Treasurer and Trustee, Sir Edwin Cooper, 
R.A.; Trustee, Sir William Reid Dick, K.C.V.O., 
R.A.; Secretary, W. R. M. Lamb, C.V.O., M.A. 

ACADEMY OF ARTS AND LETTERS, American. A society 
founded in 1904 by members of the National Insti- 



tute of Arts and Letters for the purpose of further- 
ing and representing the interests of literature, 
painting, sculpture, architecture, and music. Its 
membership is limited to 50 chairs, vacancies 
caused by death being filled by elections from the 
membership of the Institute. 

The membership of the Academy as of Nov., 
1941, consisted or the following in the order of 
their election: Bliss Perry, Abbott Lawrence Low- 
ell, Nicholas Murray Butler, Herbert Adams, Arch- 
er Milton Huntington, Newton Booth Tarkington, 
Charles Dana Gibson, Royal Cortissoz, Wilbur L. 
Cross, Hermon A. MacNeil, James Earle Fraser, 
Robert Frost, James Truslow Adams, William Lyon 
Phelps, Adolph Alexander Weinman, Walter Dam- 
rosch, Anna Hyatt Huntington, Paul Manship, Ce- 
cilia Beaux, Eugene O'Neill, Henry Dwight Sedg- 
wick, Walter Lippmann, M. A. de Wolfe Howe, 
Frank Jewett Mather, Jr., Stewart Edward White, 
Deems Taylor, Charles McLean Andrews, Van 
Wyck Brooks, Herbert Putnam, William Adams 
Delano, Charles Warren, Bernard Berenson, Chaun- 
cey Brewster Tinker, Albert Spalding, Sinclair 
Lewis, Stephen Vincent Benet, Willa Gather, Ellen 
Glasgow, Thornton Wilder, Ralph Adams Cram, 
Edna St. Vincent Millay, Carl Sandburg, Agnes 
Repplier, Charles Hopkmson, and Paul Philippe 
Cret. 

Throughout 1941 (with the exception of the 
summer months) a joint exhibition of the works of 
Childe H ass am, a member of the Academy who 
died in 1935, and of Edwin Austin Abbey, a mem- 
ber of the Academy who died in 1911 has been 
shown in the art gallery, and will continue indefi- 
nitely. The Abbey paintings were lent by Yale 
University. This gallery and the permanent mu- 
seum are open and free to the public from 1pm. 
to 5 p.m. weekdays and from 2 to 5 p.m. Sundays 
and holidays. 

Officers of the Academy elected in 1941 were: 
President, Walter Damrosch; Chancellor and Treas- 
urer, James Truslow Adams; Secretary, William 
Lyon Phelps; Directors: Stephen Vincent Benet, 
Van Wyck Brooks, William Aaams Delano, Charles 
Dana Gibson, Deems Taylor, and Chauncey Brew- 
ster Tinker. Administrative offices are at 633 West 
155th St., New York City. 

ACADEMY OF DESIGN, Notional. An organization of 
American artists, established in New York in 1825 
and incorporated in 1828 for the purpose of "culti- 
vation and extension of the arts of design." In 1906 
the Society of American Artists merged with the 
Academy. 

The Academy maintains annual Exhibitions of 
painting, sculpture, and engraving, to which all 



ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



ACCIDENTS 



artists may contribute, subject to jury. At these ex- 
hibitions various prizes are awarded. It conducts an 
Art School at which no tuition is charged. It also 
administers the Henry W. Ranger Fund for the 
purchase of paintings to be presented to various 
museums. Its membership is limited to professional 
painters, sculptors, workers in the graphic arts, and 
architects. 

The Academicians elected at the annual meeting 
in April, 1941, were: Painters Paul Sample, Luigi 
Lucioni, Alphaeus P. Cole, N. C. Wyeth, Junius 
Allen, Isabel Bishop, Dines Carlsen. Sculptors 
Charles L. Hmton, George Snowden. Architect 
Benjamin W. Morris. Graphic Arts Stow Wengen- 
roth. 

The Associates elected in March, 1941, were: 
Painters Peter Hurd, Ernest N. Townsend, Car- 
roll S. Tyson. Sculptors Richard Recchia. Archi- 
tect Charles D. Maginnis. Graphic Arts Grace 
Albee, J. J. Lankes, Rudolph Ruzicka. 

Elected officers are: Hobart Nichols, President, 
Edward McCartan, First Vice-President; John Tay- 
lor Arms, Second Vice-President; Charles C. Cur- 
ran, Corresponding Secretary; Gcorg Lober, Assist- 
ant Corresponding Secretary; Charles S. Chapman, 
Recording Secretary; Frederick Ballard Williams, 
Treasurer; Charles Keck, Assistant Treasurer. The 
Galleries and Executive Offices are located at 1083 
Fifth Avenue, New York. 

ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, National. The National Acad- 
emy of Sciences was incorporated by Act of Con- 
gress in 1863 for the purpose of investigating, ex- 
amining, experimenting, and reporting upon any 
subject of science or art whenever called upon by 
any department of the United States Government. 
Membership is by election, as described in the 
YEAR BOOK for 1940. 

At the Annual Meeting held in Washington, 
D.C., April 28, 29, and 30, 1941, 15 new members 
and three foreign associates were elected. The 
Henry Draper Medal was presented to Dr. Robert 
Williams Wood, of Johns Hopkins University, in 
recognition of his contributions to astronomical 
physics. 

At the Annual Meeting, the Academy established, 
under its charter, the organization for the National 
Science Fund for the promotion of human welfare 
through the advancement of science. The National 
Science Fund will receive from individuals or 
others, donations, bequests, grants or other gifts of 
money to be expended in such manner as in the 
judgment of the Board of Directors of the Fund 
will best promote human welfare through the ad- 
vancement of science. The Board of Directors con- 
sists of the President and Treasurer of the Acad- 
emy, the Chairman of the National Research Coun- 
cil, and the President of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science, during and by 
virtue of their office, together with additional mem- 
bers (both members and non-members of the Acad- 
emy) appointed by the Council of the National 
Academy of Sciences. The Fund will be operated 
exclusively for scientific, literary, or educational 
purposes and no part or the net earnings of the 
Fund shall inure to the benefit of any private indi- 
vidual, and no part of the activities shall consist in 
carrying on propaganda or otherwise attempting to 
influence legislation. The Board of Directors of the 
National Science Fund have an office at 515 Madi- 
son Avenue. New York City, to which should be 
addressed all inquiries concerning the Fund. 

The Autumn Meeting was held at the University 
of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, on October 13, 
14, and 15, 1941. Tlie Academy publishes an 



Annual Report, Biographical Memoirs of its de- 
ceased members, occasional scientific Memoirs, and 
monthly Proceedings. The officers of the Academy 
are: Frank B. Jewett, President; Isaiah Bowman, 
Vice President; L. J. Henderson, Foreign Secretary; 
F. E. Wright, Home Secretary; J. C. Hunsaker, 
Treasurer; and Paul Brockett, Executive Secretary. 
The Academy building is at 2101 Constitution Ave- 
nue, Washington, D.C. 

ACCIDENTS. The 1941 accident toll in the United 
States, according to National Safety Council esti- 
mates, amounted to 101,500 deaths, about 9,300,- 
000 persons injured and direct costs aggregating 
3% billion dollars. These totals represent increases 
of 2 to 5 per cent from 1940. The preliminary esti- 
mate of property destroyed or damaged by fire was 
$322,000,000, also 5 per cent above the comparable 
preliminary estimate for 1940. 

The trend of accidental deaths over the last dec- 
ade has been mixed. In 1931 the total was 97,261. 
In 1932 it reached the low of 89,031, but in 1934 
it was up to 100,977 and in 1936 to 110,052. These 
two high totals were in part due to the large num- 
ber of deaths from excessive heat. 

The following table shows the 1940 and 1941 
death totals for the four principal classes of acci- 
dents, together with the per cent increase in each 
class : 





1041 


1940 


Change 


Total . ... 


101,500 


96,885 * 


+ 5% 


Motor Vehicle 


. 40,000 


34.501 * 


+ 16% 


Public (not motor vehicle) 


14,500 


15,000 




Home . ... 


. 32,000 


33,000 


~~ ^/o 


Occupational 


18,000 


17,000 


+ 0% 



* The 1940 figures for total and motor vehicle are from the 
U S Census Bureau All others are National Safct\ Council 
estimates. The totals exclude duplication of occupational-motor 
vehicle deaths 

The 1941 accidental death rate per 100,000 pop- 
ulation was 76.2. Comparable rates are: 1940, 73.4; 

1930, 80.5; 1920, 71.3; 1910, 84.4. 

Heart disease, cancer, cerebral hemorrhage, and 
nephritis were the only causes of death exceeding 
accidents in 1940, according to U.S. Census Bureau 
data. Preliminary information indicates the same 
ranking for 1941. Among males, alone, accidents 
have for several years been either the second or 
third most important cause of death, being ex- 
ceeded by heart disease and, in some years, cancer. 
From age 3 to 25, both sexes, accidents caused 
more deaths than any disease in 1940. In 1939, 
among males they were first from age 3 to 38. 

The 1941 accidental deaths were distributed by 
age as follows: 0-4 years, 7,150; 5-14 years, 7,100; 
15-24 years, 14,250, 25-64 years, 45,350; 65 years 
and older, 27,650. The 1940 Census population 
figures by age are not yet available, but it is certain 
that the highest death rate per 100,000 population 
was for 65 years and older in the neighborhood 
of 310. In contrast, the rate for children 5 to 14 
years old was only about 32, or one-tenth as much. 
In most recent years the rate for elderly people has 
been rising steadily, while that for school children 
has been going down, although in 1941 there was a 
small reversal of this trend. 

Motor Vehicle Accidents. The 1941 motor vehicle 
accident death total of 40,000 represents an in- 
crease of 16 per cent from 1940. However, there 
were also 11 per cent more vehicle-miles driven in 
1941, and the death rate per 100,000,000 vehicle 
miles therefore, rose only 4 per cent to 12.6. Since 

1931, when the death rate was 17.0, there has been 
a 26 per cent reduction in the rate. 

In addition to the deaths, about 1,400,000 per- 



ACCIDENTS 



AERONAUTICS 



sons received nonfatal injuries in motor vehicle ac- 
cidents during 1941, or one out of each 95 persons 
in the United States. Wage loss, medical and insur- 
ance costs amounted to about $900,000,000; and 
property damage to approximately an equal amount 
a grand total of $1,800,000,000. 

The increase in motor vehicle deaths from 1940 
to 1941 came principally from rural accidents. 
These rose about 21 per cent to a total of 25,500, 
while deaths from accidents in towns and cities 
went up only 7 per cent to 14,500. Pedestrian 
deaths increased 11 per cent, to a total of 13,900. 
Nonpedestrian fatalities totalled 26,100 up 19 per 
cent from 1940. 

Increases in deaths were recorded for all age 
groups. There were 11 per cent more fatalities 
among children under 5 years in 1941 than in 1940. 
Deaths in this group numbered 1,300, compared to 
1,176 for die previous year. Deaths of school chil- 
dren, 5 to 14 years, rose 16 per cent, from 2,584 to 
3,000. This is one of the few increases that have 
interrupted the downward trend that started two 
decades ago. Deaths in the 15-24 age group went 
up 24 per cent from 6,846 to 8,500. In the 25-64 
age group fatalities numbered 20,900, or 15 per 
cent more than in 1940. For persons 65 years or 
older the death total rose 11 per cent from 5,651 to 
6,300. 

Public Accidents. Deaths from public (not motor 
vehicle) accidents decreased to 14,500 in 1941, 
from the 1940 total of 15,000 In 1931 these deaths 
numbered approximately 20,000. The ten-year de- 
crease amounted to 27 per cent. The 1941 nonfatal 
injury total was approximately 1,750,000. Wage 
losses, and medical and insurance expenses amount- 
ed to about $400,000,000 

Some types of fatal public accidents decreased in 
1941; others increased Deaths from burns dropped 
sharply, partly due to the 1940 total including the 
Natchez, Miss., dance hall disaster. Falls decreased 
about 1 per cent. Drownings rose 2 per cent; fire- 
arms accidents 9 per cent. Airline companies had 
four fatal accidents. Thirty-five passengers were 
killed in these accidents, the same number killed in 
the three 1940 accidents. Railroad passenger fatali- 
ties dropped to about 30, according to 11-month 
reports, but trespasser deaths rose 7 per cent to ap- 
proximately 2,300. 

Home Accidents. Deaths from home accidents de- 
creased from 33,000 in 1940 to 32,000 in 1941 In 
1931 home accident deaths totalled only 29,000. 
Nonfatal injuries in 1941 numbered about 4,700,- 
000. Wage losses, medical expense and insurance 
costs amounted to approximately $600,000,000. 
Most types of accidents shared in the decrease. 
Falls dropped 2 per cent, burns 4 per cent, absorp- 
tion of poisonous gas 9 per cent, and poisonings 11 
per cent. Firearms accidents, in contrast, increased 
12 per cent. 

Occupational Accidents. The 1941 death total for 
occupational accidents was 18,000, an increase of 
about 6 per cent from the 1940 total of 17,000. The 
1931 total was slightly lower 17,500. There were 
approximately 1,600,000 nonfatal injuries in 1941. 
Total wage loss, and medical and insurance ex- 
penses amounted to about $750,000,000. 

The only major disaster in 1941 was a ship and 
pier fire at Brooklyn, N.Y., in which 34 longshore- 
men and 2 repairmen lost their lives. 

The increase in occupational accidents was ac- 
companied by greater employment. According to 
the U.S. Department of Labor, manufacturing em- 
ployment increased 17 per cent over 1940, and to- 
tal nonagricultural employment went up 9 per cent. 
However* accident rate* based on man-hours 



worked, and covering both fatal and nonfatal in- 
juries, were higher in 1941. Plant safety contest re- 
ports show an increase of 8 to 20 per cent in the 
Frequency rate (injuries per million man-hours), 
but a substantial decline in the severity rate (days 
lost per thousand man-hours). 

See AERONAUTICS under Domestic Air Trans- 
port; INSURANCE; LABOR CONDITIONS under Health 
and Safety; RAILWAYS; VITAL STATISTICS. 

A. D. BATTEY. 

ADEN. See under ARABIA. 

ADULT EDUCATION. See EDUCATION; LIBRARY PROG- 
RESS. Compare topics listed under DEFENSE TRAIN- 
ING. 

ADVANCED STUDY, Institute for. An institution of 
higher learning founded in 1930 by Mr. Louis 
Bamberger and Mrs. Felix Fuld The Institute is 
different in character from any other American ed- 
ucational institution in that it is planned for stu- 
dents who wish to pursue advanced research be- 
yond the level of the doctor's degree. It has no 
tuition fee, no routine requirements, no examina- 
tions, and awards no degrees. The work is largely 
individual, though there are seminars and courses 
of lectures in some subjects. The Institute consists 
of three schools: mathematics, economics and poli- 
tics, and humanistic studies. It maintains also in 
cooperation with Princeton University the Gest 
Oriental Library on Chinese literature. Since Sep- 
tember, 1940, several members of the Economic 
and Financial Section of the League of Nations 
have been housed in Fuld Hall, where they carry 
on the regular work of their department of the 
League. 

The Institute for Advanced Study is supported 
entirely by an endowment which amounts to just 
over $8,000,000. In addition to the gifts made by 
the founders, the Rockefeller Foundation has con- 
tributed half the cost of the Gest Oriental Library, 
and the Carnegie Corporation and the Rockefeller 
Foundation have contributed funds which maintain 
a number of promising scholars. Located at Prince- 
ton, N.J., the Institute has the cooperation of 
Princeton University, which generously made 
available all its resourres in faculty, libraries, and 
other facilities for advanced work. In 1941-42 
there were 53 members working at the Institute 
and 32 scholars on the staff, in addition to the di- 
rector, Frank Aydelotte. Abraham Flexner is Di- 
rector Emeritus. Headquarters: Fuld Hall, Olden 
Lane, Princeton, N.J. 

ADVENT MOVEMENT. A religious movement which 
originated in America with William Miller (1782- 
1849), who believed in the imminent, personal sec- 
ond coming of Christ. There are six Adventist 
bodies in the United States, the largest being the 
Seventh-day Adventist Denomination, formally or- 
ganized in 1860, which observes Saturday as the 
Sabbath of the Scriptures. Headquarters, Takoma 
Park, Washington, D.C. For statistics, see RELIGIOUS 
ORGANIZATIONS. 

ADVERTISING. See FASHION EVENTS; LIQUOR PRO- 
DUCTION; NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES. 
ADVISORY COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL OF NATION- 
AL DEFENSE. See NATIONAL DEFENSE AND WAR 
AGENCIES; TRANSPORTATION DIVISION. 
AEGEAN ISLANDS, Italian. See ITALIAN AEGEAN Is- 

LANDS. 

AERONAUTICS. Military. By the end of 1941 there 
could be no further question of the controlling in> 



AERONAUTICS 



AERONAUTICS 



portance of air power in modern warfare. The Ger- 
man sweep through the Balkans, the dramatic cap- 
ture of Crete, the Japanese drives in the Philippines 
and Malaya added new lessons to those of the Pol- 
ish, Norwegian, and Western European campaigns 
in the effectiveness of a combination of air suprem- 
acy with strong surface forces. The 1941 successes 
of the British in Libya were largely controlled by 
the air strength they could bring to bear upon the 
Axis forces and supply lines. The attack upon Pearl 
Harbor and the sinking of at least three British and 
Japanese battleships in the first weeks of the Pacific 
War were a devastating proof of the vulnerability 
of capital ships to determined air attack. In Russia 
an unsuspected aerial strength of the defenders, 
and the Soviet strategy of dispersing their air bases 
in depth as well as width, prevented the Germans 
from ever achieving the extreme air supremacy they 
had exploited so successfully in earlier campaigns. 
Even so, concentrations of Nazi air power and tank 
forces played major roles in the sweep that almost 
reached Moscow and the ultimate extent of Russian 
counter-offensives seemed at the beginning of 1942 
to depend upon Russia's ability to maintain and 
increase its airpower. 

In any case, it was apparent from the programs 
of production announced by President Roosevelt 
after his conference with Prime Minister Churchill 
that the United Nations realized that ultimate vic- 
tory would require an overwhelming air supremacy 
in every theater of the war no matter how impor- 
tant land and sea forces might also prove in future 
campaigns. Within a few weeks after its entry into 
the war, the United States was rushing preparations 
to add the facilities of a large part of its automotive 
industry to the capacity of factories already work- 
ing on a program for the production of military air- 
craft which it had inaugurated in 1940 and ex- 
panded during 1941. Funds in vast quantities were 
already appropnated and more would certainly be 
available as needed. It seemed unlikely that any 
matter of executive jurisdiction, property rights, or 
labor privilege would be allowed to cause serious 
interference with the achievement of a goal of 60,- 
000 airplanes in 1942 and 125,000 aircraft in 1943. 

The relative strength of the air forces (combat 
units ) of the chief warring powers was estimated as 
follows in the New York Times, Dec. 14, 1941. See 
also MILITARY PROGRESS; NAVAL PROGRESS; WORLD 
WAR. 

WARRING AIR FORCES- 



Allies 


No. of Planes 


United States 


.. . 3,000-5,000 


Great Britain 


4,500-5,500 


Russia 


? 


China 


100-200 


Netherlands Indies . . 


500-600 


Axis 




Germany 


5,500-8,500 


Japan 


5,000' 


Italy 


1,500-3,000 


Hungary 


400-600 


Finland . 


200-300 


Bulgaria 


100-300 


Rumania 


500-700 



Corrected for known losses up to Dec 12. 

Two great questions did however remain. The 
first concerned the quality of American aircraft. 
The second was the problem of converting fac- 
tories, machine tools, and labor to the production of 
a new product within the limited time permitted 
under the production proposals. 

The comparative military excellence of aircraft 
is an extremely complicated subject and the an- 
swering of some published criticisms of American 



aircraft was a difficult task. Some American pursuit 
planes rushed to England or Africa had been found 
deficient in some respects. Some of these related to 
armament and armor and were promptly remedied 
in later production. Others had to do with the ne- 
cessity of meeting in American types greater re- 
quirements of fuel range than are needed in the 
specialized task of defending the British Isles. Still 
other complaints seem to have been caused largely 
by the lack of familiarity of British pilots with 
American engines and engine control systems and 
were withdrawn after such familiarity was acquired. 
American dive bombers and medium bomber air- 
craft were admittedly the equals of corresponding 
types in any other air force and long range heavy 
bombers as built by Boeing and Consolidated were 
almost universally admitted to be unrivalled else- 
where. With at least four new pursuit types in pro- 
duction or about to go into production which could 
fly faster than 400 m.p h. with full armor and arma- 
ment, American aircraft manufacturers were confi- 
dent as to the quality of their product. 

The nation's ability to meet the production 
schedule it had set for itself depended upon manv 
complex factors outside the aircraft industry such 
as the availability of aluminum, magnesium, and 
other critical metals; the ability of the nation to 
protect its coastal factories from attack or interrup- 
tion until inland units got into capacity manufac- 
ure; the organization of new supplies of such non- 
aeronautical items as machine guns and cannon; 
the effectiveness of thousands of sub-contractors 
and suppliers of accessory parts who share in the 
production of modern airplanes, engines, propellers, 
and instruments. 

The task of meeting a huge numerical quota was 
also heightened by the fact that the program set 
called for swiftly increasing proportions of units 
with a large gross weight and high unit horsepower 
requirements. Most encouraging, however, was the 
fact that production in 1941 plotted by months 
coincided almost perfectly with the chart set for 
production in that period. Starting with 630 units 
in January, the curve of actual production rose 
steeply to an output of approximately 2,400 in De- 
cember. Total output of the year was approximately 
three times the total production for 1940 and within 
a few per cent of that planned for 1941 Another 
favorable factor holding considerable promise of 
success of the 1942 program was the fact that the 
automobile industry had since 1940 been in inti- 
mate contact with aircraft problems, had made 
some substantial contributions to the 1941 effort, 
and was already geared for active aircraft produc- 
tion on a large scale during 1942 according to a 
plan in which automotive units were to feed sub- 
assemblies into new assembly factories being rushed 
toward completion at a number of mid-western 
cities. Biggest new task set by the program of Jan- 
uary, 1942, was to supplement this automotive par- 
ticipation with production in already existing auto- 
mobile factories converted to aircraft work. See 
MOTOR VEHICLES. 

World Air Transport. In a world so dominated by 
war, a surprising amount of international air trans- 
port activity continued throughout 1941. While all 
international air services moved unmistakably to- 
ward a state of becoming government instruments 
for the transport of passengers, mail, and express 
of importance to national military or political pro- 
grams, the operating status of most world airlines 
was little changed between the beginning of 1941 
and the entrance of the United States into the war. 

The Axis nations maintained at least skeleton 
services over a number of airlines in Europe. In 




Pliotos l>y cnurtrtii/ of the 



ALL-OUT PRODUCTION OF AIRPLANE PARTS 

Above: An Allison liquid-cooled engine in the "tear-down" department (left) where 
each unit is inspected after a test run, and in a cylinder machining operation (right) 

Below- The nose section of a medium bomber, built in an automobile 
factory, ready for shipment to the Glenn L. Martin Company for assembly. 





X X 



. 

4* 5 

' 



/'/rsA AhHoeiatwn and Wide World 
LOCKHEED P-38 "LIGHTNING" INTERCEPTOR PURSUIT 
CONSOLIDATED B-24 HEAVY LONG-RANGE BOMBER 

BOEING B-17E "FLYING FORTRESS" 
DOUGLAS B-19 ARMY BOMBER SHOWN WITH A CURTISS P-40 PURSUIT SHIP 



AERONAUTICS 



AERONAUTICS 



fact, even at the end of the year, transport planes 
of Germany, Italy, Spain, Great Britain, and the 
United States were continuing to meet in the air 
over Portugal, to which Pan American Airways was 
still operating the sole remaining commercial trans- 
port service oetween North America and Europe. 
The British, in addition to their service to Lisbon, 
kept up air connections between those parts of their 
Empire in Africa, India, and Australasia. Although 
forced steadily to yield to an American drive to 
eliminate them from the Western Hemisphere, Axis- 
owned Airlines and affiliates were, in November, 
still operating more than 30,000 miles of air routes 
in Latin America, and an Italian line was operating 
a service across the South Atlantic between Europe 
arid Brazil. 

Under the American flag, Pan American Airways 
in the first eleven months of 1941 carried out wide 
improvements of service on routes established prior 
to 1941 in Latin America, Alaska, across the North 
Atlantic, and across the Pacific to China and New 
Zealand In China the China National Airways, in 
which Pan American Airways is associated with the 
Chinese National Government, kept open a service 
between Hong Kong arid Chungking This formed 
the only link other than the Burma Road between 
the Chinese capital and the outside world Many 
thousands of miles were added during 1941 to the 
Pan American network The trans-Pacific route was 
extended to connect Manila and Singapoie on al- 
ternate weeks. Cooperating with United States 
Federal authorities, P.m American and its partner 
company, Pan American-Grace Airways, added 
some 15,000 miles of air routes to their lines in 
South America, largely at the expense of Axis- 
owned or Axis-dominated operators. 

Colombia nationalized the once German airline 
SCADTA Peru grounded the Lufthansa subsidiary 
in that country. Bolivia took over Lloyd Aereo 
Boliviano, another German subsidiary Ecuador 
cancelled permits for still a third German-con- 
trolled operation. In every instance Pan American, 
or Pan American Grace was promptly awarded 
operating privileges or at least management con- 
tracts. At the same time Brazil was permitting Pan 
American to extend its operations in her territories 
in such a way as to parallel and offer superior serv- 
ice along many routes originally established by 
German companies. 

In November, after extensive preparatory efforts, 
Pan American started service on a 12,000 mile air- 
line from Miami to Khartoum, Egypt, designed to 
facilitate delivery of American-built military air- 
craft to the Middle East Intermediate bases were 
located in Puerto Rico, Trinidad, Bra/il, Liberia, 
French Equatorial Afnca, and the Belgian Congo. 




Courtesy of The New York Times 



NEW PAN AMERICAN AIRWAYS ROUTE TO THE 
BELGIAN CONGO 



The operation included a clipper service between 
Miami and Africa, a trans-African landplane air- 
line, and an organization to ferry military aircraft 
over the entire route. The clipper planes crossing 
the South Atlantic from Natal, Brazil, landed at 
either Bathurst, Gambia, or Monrovia, Liberia, and 
continued on to Leopoldville, Belgian Congo, where 
they connected with the South African airway net- 
work. 

The outbreak of the war in the Pacific immedi- 
ately involved Pan American bases at Midway, 
Wake, Guam, Manila, and Hong Kong and thus 
caused the suspension of trans-Pacific service west 
of Hawaii and the final cutting of the Hong Kong- 
Chungking operation. Elsewhere, the entry of 
America into the war left Pan American operations 
unaffected for the time being. On the positive side, 
the prompt anti-Axis reactions throughout Latin 
America after the attack at Pearl Harbor promised 
an early termination of all European competition in 
that sphere. See countries under Transportation 
and History. 

Domestic Air Transport. The national defense pro- 
gram, the general high level of business activity, 
and a steadily widening acceptance of air travel 
combined, in 1941, to produce record volumes of all 
types of traffic for the seventeen operators of air- 
lines within the continental limits of the United 
States. Specifically, year-end estimates showed 
these carriers had, during 1941, transported 3,765,- 
000 passengers, 44,000,000 pounds of air mail, and 
18,200,000 pounds of express. These figures repre- 
sented an increase of almost 40 per cent in both 
passenger travel and in air-mail poundage and an 
almost 50 per cent increase in air express over 
figures for traffic carried during 1940. 

The establishment of traffic records better than 
those of previous years was an old story to the air- 
line industry which had witnessed an unbroken 
advance of travel and cargo volumes each year 
since 1934. There were big differences, however, 
between the way in which such new increments 
were handled in 1941 and the way they had been 
handled in previous years. Up to 1941 each oper- 
ator, in general, had increased the seating and cargo 
capacity of his airline fleet in step with the growth 
of public acceptance of his services. In 1941, how- 
ever, the requirements of America's military forces 
and the lend-lease program not only cut off the 
industry's supply of new planes but actually de- 
creased its planes-on-hand through emergency ap- 
peals for the diversion of all spare aircraft. 

As a result, the airline traffic records of 1941 
must be counted largely as triumphs of the airlines' 
operating and maintenance personnel in making 
each transport airplane available for substantially 
more service per year. Of far more permanent sig- 
nificance in the art of air transport than the mere 
traffic figures is the fact that with fewer units in 
service, the nation's air transport planes in 1941 
actually flew some 134,000,000 miles, a 32 per cent 
increase over the record of 1940. 

Despite the extra burden thus placed upon 
equipment and personnel, the airline safety record 
was not markedly discouraging. Although the do- 
mestic operators together suffered five fatal acci- 
dents during the year, the distance flown per fatal 
accident approximately 26,800,000 miles com- 
pared favorably with the average distance of ap- 
proximately 24,000,000 miles flown between fatal 
accidents in the preceding three-year period. 

Toward the end of the year the Office of Pro- 
duction Management (q.v.) announced the tenta- 
tive allocation of new aircraft which would permit 
the nation's airlines to acquire 112 new transport 



ASRONAUTIC* 

planes during 1942. Another 116 units were to be 
held in reserve for possible delivery in 1943. Of 
the 228 planes thus earmarked for airline service, 
156 were to be Douglas DC-3 transports identical 
with those now in service; 52 were to be Lockheed 
Lodestars similar to the Lockheed planes delivered 
in large quantities to the British for coastal patrol 
work; 20 were to be four-engmed DC-4 planes of 
larger capacity than any planes now in domestic 
airline service. The only absolutely new transport 
landplane in active development in the United 
States during 1941 was the four-engmed long-range 
Lockheed Constellation, of which three were au- 
thorized for delivery to TWA and the Pan Ameri- 
can Airways System. What effect America's actual 
war-time requirements would have on these tenta- 
tive allocations was, of course, not immediately 
apparent. See States under Transportation. 

Private Owner Aviation. The relationships between 
modern war and the development of flying as an 
activity for the individual are complex. In any area 
where actual aerial hostilities are ui progress, civil 
flying is necessarily curtailed or completely forbid- 
den, and civilian aircraft and flying facilities are 
impressed into military service. There has been, in 
fact, little or no private flying in Europe since Au- 
gust, 1939. Offsetting such deterrents to the current 
practice of individual flying in certain regions, the 
tremendous expansion of military air activities of- 
fers every expectation that a corresponding increase 
of peace-time flying will occur once hostilities are 
ended. Fliers, mechanics, and aeronautical special- 
ists are being trained by tens of thousands. Airports 
are being increased and enlarged. Great productive 
capacities for aircraft are being created. Air con- 
sciousness is being spread in every edition of every 
newspaper. 

In the United States, even after the attack on 
Pearl Harbor, no serious restrictions upon indi- 
vidual flying were deemed necessary beyond a sus- 
pension of Federal certificates for airmen and air- 
craft until the individual holders thereof could 
establish their unquestioned loyalty. In the vast 
majority of cases tins was a period of only a few 
days. Meanwhile the positive effects of the war 
upon individual flying were already making spec- 
tacular aviation statistics in this country. 

Prior to 1939 all private flying in the United 
States had been undertaken and financed entirely 
under individual initiative. Even under such cir- 
cumstances, American progress in this field led that 
of all other nations but there were still at the be- 
ginning of that year only 22,983 certificated pilots 
in the nation. Individuals paying their own ex- 
penses for flight training have increased through 
recent years until they now number about 36,000. 
In 1939 the Federal government began subsidizing 
flight training through the Civilian Pilot Training 
Program, administered in more than 500 colleges 
by the Civil Aeronautics Authority. By the end of 
1941 the total of pilots, both self trained and 
trained under the C.P.T.P., had reached a figure a 
few hundreds over an even 100,000. In addition, 
some 90,000 Americans had taken out student pilot 
permits and were in some stage of civilian flight 
training short of qualifying for their Private Pilot's 
Certificate. During 1941 alone the total of active 
pilots' certificates (not including student permits) 
had increased by more than 60 per cent from the 
63,113 listed at the end of 1940. 

As of Jan. 1, 1942, some 14,000 C.P.T.P. gradu- 
ates had enlisted in the Air Corps and in the air 
service of the Navy, and many more thousands 
were expected by the end of the 1942 school year. 
The program had also furnished approximately 



Q AtRONAUTICS 

2,800 civilian instructors for training centers oper- 
ated directly by or for the military services in the 
United States and Canada. Immediately after the 
entry of America into the war a movement was 
launched to enroll a large part of the nation's 
civilian pilots who could not enter the military serv- 
ices into a Civil Air Patrol to cooperate with Army 
and Navy authorities in maintaining an air watch 
above coastal regions or centers of key industrial 
importance. They were also to perform other use- 
ful duties within the capabilities of civilian air- 
craft. 

Meanwhile, this growth of civilian flying re- 
sulted in an increase of civilian aircraft from 
17,500 to 27,500 during the year. Figures on the 
year's production of an craft for domestic civil use 
are not yet available, but figures for the first half 
of 1941 indicated an increase of 65 per cent over 
the production in 1940, when 6,748 units were 
delivered. 

The great majority oi these planes (more than 
75 per cent) consisted oi two-place smgle-engmed 
landplanes of less than 100 horsepower. Almost 
all of them were of a t>pe of construction which 
differed so radically from that of combat aircraft 
that their production was considered no serious 
diversion from the military aircraft program, al- 
though the Air Corps had begun ordering several 
types of these small planes for courier service in 
the last months of the year. 

Active design progress was also achieved in the 
small plane field during 1941. A second plane, the 
"Skyfarer" took its place beside the "Ercoupe" as 
being absolutely incapable of spinning ana thus 
substantially safer for the inexperienced pilot than 
the orthodox airplane. Several new private-owner 
aircraft of plastic-bound moulded plywood were 
placed on the market. At least four substantial air- 
craft manufacturers were actively pushing the de- 
velopment of helicopters and autogiros The Nor- 
tlirop Corporation of California disclosed success- 
ful test-flights of a "flying wing" airplane from 
which fuselage and tail surfaces had been entirely 
eliminated. While all these aircraft had military 
potentialities and were being actnely studied by 
the military authorities, they were likewise of great 
potential importance to the future of private-owner 
aviation. 

As a result of regulations requiring the greatly 
increased use of radio in airport traffic control, low- 
priced radio equipment for the private flyer be- 
came far more widely available than in earlier 
years 

Airports. With all forms of aviation in the process 
of tremendous expansion, airports and other ground 
facilities were substantially extended during the 
year. With an emphasis on military aviation the 
airport program in the United States was naturally 
directed largely to the construction, enlargement 
or improvement of air fields needed for the direct 
use of military and naval forces, or so located to 
be potentially of strategic importance. However, 
projects involving terminals primarily for transport 
purposes were not neglected 

Most outstanding event of the year for American 
airport specialists was the opening of the Wash- 
ington National Airport in June. Built on soil 
largely dredged from the bottom of the Potomac 
River, the new field gave the nation's capital a con- 
venient airport larger than the airports serving 
New York, London, Paris, or Amsterdam. Berlin's 
great airport at Tempelhof is still the largest land- 
ing field serving a capital city, but the long paved 
runways and clear approaches of the new Wash- 
ington field easily make it the equal of Tempelhof 



AERONAUTICS 



AFGHANISTAN 



in aeronautical utility. The result of two and a half 
years' work by several Federal agencies operating 
cooperatively, the Washington Airport is equipped 
with a large and well-equipped passenger terminal, 
several big hangars, and systems for lighting and 
traffic control which are designed to serve as a 
model of advanced design for airports throughout 
America. 

During the year the WPA, PWA, NYA, and CCC 
continued the program of construction, enlarge- 
ment, or improvement of airports. For some eight 
years this has been a feature of Federal and work- 
relief agencies, and of great benefit to aviation. 
Expenditures during 194] for such projects in- 
volved something over $100,000,000. 

For their own direct use, the U.S. Air Corps and 
the Bureau of Aeronautics of the U.S. Navy de- 
veloped a number of permanent new fields. From 
the viewpoint of airport engineering the most out- 
standing were the great new naval aviation train- 
ing centers at Miami, and Jacksonville, Florida and 
at Corpus Chnsti, Texas. Military or naval air base 
projects of great strategic importance were those 
at Trinidad and Puerto Rico, Panama, Alaska, Ha- 
waii, and other Pacific Islands. The defense of 
Wake Island, where an important Naval airport 
project was well umler way at the time of attack 
by the Japanese in December, focused particular 
attention on this phase of American airport activity. 

A number of new airports of strategic value 
were built during the year in South American coun- 
tries, particularly Brazil. Many of these were fi- 
nanced largely with U.S. funds furnished for the 
purpose through American flag airlines. 

Within the United States, itself, still another air- 
port program was inaugurated Carried forward by 
the Civil Aeronautics Administration of the De- 
partment of Commerce, some 385 "defense land- 
ing areas" were designated for construction or im- 
provement at a cost of approximately $200,000,000. 
A special feature of this program was the provision 
that each project had first to be approved as of 
defense value by the Secretaries of War, Navy, 
and Commerce 

At the end of 1941, the nation's domestic air- 
ports numbered 2,453 compared with 2,331 in 
1940. They were divided as follows: 1,082 munici- 
pal; 901 commercial, 31 private, 78 Aimy; 39 
Navy; 40 miscellaneous government; 283 inter- 
mediate fields along Federally maintained airways. 
Improvement of airport facilities was reflected in 
the Federal designation of 64 of these airports as 
"Class 4" airports, adequate for any transport or 
military aircraft use as against only 23 so desig- 
nated in 1940. Those of small size and minimum 
facilities designated as "Class 1" dropped in num- 
ber from 1,641 to 1,501. 

See ELECTRICAL INDUSTRIES under Steel; HEAT- 
ING AND VENTILATING; LABOR CONDITIONS under 
Strikes; NATIONAL INCOME; PHOTOGRAPHY under 
Industrial Photography. 

Bibliography. A list follows of some of the books on 
aeronautical subjects published during 1941 (books for 
which no place of publication is cited were published in 
New York) . Juan Klein Serralles, Calculos de Perform- 
ance de las Avionetas (75 pp.) and Equilibria, Estdbilidad 
V Control de los Afroplanos (104 pp ), San Francisco; 
Glen N. Cox and F J. Germane, Fluid Mechanics; T 0. 
Gillmer and H. E. Nietsch, Simplified Theory of Flight; 
J. A. McMullen, Simplified Aerial Navigation by Dead 
Reckoning; L Ramsey, Navigation of Aircraft; Air- 
ports: Established Landing Fields and Seaplane Bases in 
the United States, 1941 Edition, Hackensack, N.J.; 
O. Fraaer, Famous American Flyers; P. H. Wilkinson, 
Aircraft Engines of the World; F. M. Cousins, Analytical 
Design of High Speed Internal Combustion Engines ; H. 8. 
Hicardo, The High-Speed Internal Combustion Engine; 
B. U. Light, Focus on Africa; Victor W. Page, ABO of 



Aviation; Bailey Wright, W. E. Dyer, Rex Martin, and a 
staff of aviation experts, Flight Construction ana Main- 
tenance, Chicago; J. P. Eames, Introduction to Aviation, 
O. E Patton, Aircraft Instruments; E Molloy, Instru- 
ments (Part 2) , "Plastes," Plastics in Industry; Staff of 
Battelle Memorial Institute, under the auspices of the 
National Research Council of the National Academy of 
Sciences, Prevention of the Failure of Metals under Re- 
peated Stress, J E. Younger, Aircraft Tubing Data, 
Bridgeport, Pa ; P. E. Kraght, Keeping Ahead of the 
Weather, C. M. Harlacher, Aircraft Propellers; A. Jor- 
danoff, Safety in Flight; Aircraft 1941, Hasbrouck 
Heights, NJ., Howard Mingos (Editor), The Aircraft 
Yearbook for 1941. 

DANIEL SAYRE. 

AFGHANISTAN. A kingdom in central Asia. Area, 
about 251,000 square miles; population, approxi- 
mately 10,000,000. Estimated populations of the 
chief towns: Kabul (capital), 80,000; Kandahar, 
60,000 (with suburbs); Herat, 50,000; Mazar- 
i-Sharif, 30,000. Persian Pashto, and Turki are the 
principal languages and Mohammedanism is the 
chief religion. Schools in 1941 included 130 pri- 
mary, 4 secondary, 13 military, 1 normal, 1 medical 
college, and a few technical, art, and commercial 
schools. 

Defense. One-eighth of the male population of 
each city and village must serve in the army for 
two years. There is also a regular army recruited 
by life-long enlistment. The normal peace strength 
of the army is 60,000 men, including the small air 
force of 100 men with some European-trained 
pilots. Numerous tribesmen armed with modem 
rifles are available for service in time of war. 

Production. Agriculture and stock raising are the 
chief occupations, the main products being cereals, 
fruits, vegetables, cotton, wool, hides and skins, 
and meat from the native fat-tailed sheep. The 
mineral resources include iron, copper, lead, gold, 
silver, lapis lazuli, coal, and petroleum. There are 
state-owned factories at Kabul, Kandahar, and else- 
where for the manufacture of anus, ammunition, 
boots, military clothing, furniture, matches, buttons, 
leather, soap, cotton goods, and wool products. 

Trade. India, the U.S S R , and Iran are the main 
trading countries, the chief exports being fruits, 
nuts, timber, spices, cotton carpets, wool, and skins 
(1,273,225 Persian lambskins, valued at $7,422,- 
501, were exported to the United States in 1940) 
The aggregate value of the transit and direct trade 
with India in the year ended Mar. 31, 1939, was 
46,400.000 rupees (rupee averaged $0.3328 in 
1939, $0.3659 in 1938). 

Communications. Afghanistan has no railwavs and 
practically no navigable rivers Four thousand miles 
of roads are suitable for motor transport in dry 
weather, but the bulk of merchandise is still car- 
ried by pack animals. An all-weather highway from 
Kabul to Peshawar, India, was under construction 
in 1941. It was announced on April 26, 1941, that 
Russian workers had completed a 500-mile motor 
highway from Stalmabad, Turkestan, to Khorog, on 
the Afghanistan border. There are telephones in 
most of the larger towns. The country has five wire- 
less stations including an installation at Kabul for 
world-wide communication. 

Government. Annual revenues of the state are 
estimated at 180,000,000 Afghanis (3.95 Afghanis 
equal 1 Indian rupee). The government is a con- 
stitutional monarchy, with legislative power vested 
in a parliament consisting of the King, a senate of 
45 members appointed by the King for life, and a 
national assembly of 109 elected members. Mo- 
hammed Zahir Shah succeeded to the throne Nov. 
8, 1933, upon the assassination of his father, Mo- 
hammed Nadir Shah. 

History. Afghanistan was drawn toward the vor- 
tex of the European War in 1941 as a result of the 



AfRICA 



8 



AGRICULTURAL COOPERATION 



German attack upon the Soviet Union, the Anglo- 
Russian occupation of Iran, and German efforts to 
use Afghan territory as a base for anti-British and 
anti-Soviet propaganda and intrigue. The young 
King was reported friendly to Britain, but German 
agents succeeded in obtaining key positions in 
technical and commercial fields. In August and 
September there was a considerable influx of Ger- 
man agents into Afghanistan from Iran to escape 
capture by the British and Russians. In July the 
British Minister at Kabul formally objected to Ger- 
man activities in the kingdom. Early in October, 
the British and Soviet Governments jointly de- 
manded the expulsion or internment of all German 
residents in Afghanistan. At the same time, British 
military preparations along the Indian frontier were 
intensified. On October 19 the Kabul radio an- 
nounced that the Government had decided to de- 
port all German and Italian nationals. At the end 
of the month 101 Germans and Italians reached 
Peshawar, India, on their way home under British 
safeguard. 

See GERMANY, INDIA, and IRAN, under History. 

AFRICA. A continent of the eastern hemisphere. 
Area, about 11,740,000 square miles (30,330,000 
square kilometers). Population (Jan. 1, 1938, esti- 
mate), 155,500,000. See the separate articles on its 
countries and territories, such as ALGERIA, EGYPT, 
ITALIAN EAST AFRICA, KENYA, MOROCCO, SOUTH 
AFRICA, UNION OF; TUNISIA. 

AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMINISTRATION (AAA). 
See AGRICULTURE, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF. 

AGRICULTURAL COOPERATION. Agricultural coopera- 
tive associations in the United States now consti- 
tute one of the most important groups of farmers' 
organizations. Altogether, there are more than 
15,000 farmer-owned and farmer-con trolled co- 
operative associations and mutual companies now 
operating in this country. Of this number, 10,600 
are engaged primarily in marketing farm products, 
purchasing farm supplies, or performing i elated 
services. Mutual irrigation companies number ap- 
proximately 2,500 and farmers' mutual fire in- 
surance companies number 1,900. In addition there 
are more than 600 rural electrification cooperatives 
and a larger number of farmer-owned telephone 
companies. 

On the basis of reported membership and pa- 
tronage data, it is estimated that more than 3 
million persons hold membership in these organi- 
zations and at least one-half million more patronize 
them without accepting the responsibilities of 
membership. Sales of farm products and farm sup- 
plies bv cooperatives now exceed 2 billion dollars 
annually with approximately 300 associations re- 
porting annual sales of more than a million dollars 
each and 35 or 40 associations reporting sales in 
excess of 10 million dollars each. However, no "still 
picture" of agricultural cooperation as it exists today 
can give a true conception of the farmers' business 
organizations. The above statistics, while impressive, 
do not tell the whole story. Behind the current pic- 
ture is the idea of a democratically controlled self- 
help institution as well as a pattern of cooperative 
evolution which has shaped present activities and 
which may be expected to influence the future. 

In each of the commodity fields and in each of 
the business service enterprises where farmers' co- 
operatives are operating, there have been a num- 
ber of distinct developments which have gained 
momentum in recent years. Over the field as a 
whole, these developments mark a rapid expansion 



into new kinds of cooperative business on the one 
hand and a development of new ways of conduct- 
ing business on the other hand. 

Among the new kinds of cooperative enterprises, 
the cooperative cotton gins head the list. About 
300, or more than half the total, have been organ- 
ized in the past 6 or 7 years, and there has been 
no let-up in the rate of organization or the growth 
of individual units in the past year. Another recent 
expansion in the South is in cooperative cottonseed- 
oil milling One of the newest associations is owned 
and operated by a federation of 32 cooperative 
gins. This association began crushing cottonseed 
about a year ago. 

Frozen food locker plants represent another dis- 
tinct development m which fanners' cooperatives 
have participated to no small degree. While a few 
of our present locker plants antedate the first World 
War, the 4,000 odd modern-tvpe locker plants 
which dot the United States today are almost en- 
tirely a product of the last 5 or 6 years. Of these, 
about 300 are farmer-owned and controlled. 

From the standpoint of rapid expansion, coopera- 
tive purchasing of farm supplies also shares the 
limelight. More than a thousand such associations 
have been organized during the past 10 years and 
a large majority of the 2,600 now in operation have 
been organized during the last two decades. With- 
in the past year or two, the purchasing groups have 
continued tneir advance into new types of business 
an advance which has carried them further to- 
ward the original source of supply through their 
manufacturing of fertilizer, feed, and other sup- 
plies and the refining and blending of petroleum 
products. 

Aside from the new types of business there has 
been during the past year, a distinct trend on the 
part of cooperatives toward expanding their ex- 
isting business from purely marketing or purchasing 
to include additional phases of both. This trend 
toward the undertaking of more functions has per- 
mitted increased savings to members and has 
worked to assure satisfactory quality of products 
handled. 

Two relatively new developments in marketing 
farm products have had a pronounced effect on co- 
operatives : ( 1 ) The auction method of selling and 
( 2 ) the increased use of motor trucks. 

Cooperative auctions have gained favor as the 
auction method of selling continues to grow 
throughout the United States. The first cooperative 
egg auction was organized in New Jersey in 1930. 
Now there are 29 of these country-point egg and 
poultry auctions operating in 11 States, all but two 
of which are producer-owned and controlled. 
Country fruit and vegetable auctions date back to 
1902 in Ohio, but most of the 68 now operating 
are of fairly recent origin and are concentrated for 
the most part in the five seaboard States from New 
Jersey to North Carolina. Almost half of these auc- 
tions are cooperative. Interest in wool auctions is 
developing m a number of western States. Live- 
stock auctions are found in all livestock areas, but 
are most numerous in the Corn Belt. 

Of all the modern-day developments which have 
affected agriculture, perhaps none has caused as 
many cooperative readjustments as has the growth 
and expansion of commercial trucking. This has 
been particularly true for many of the cooperatives 
handling livestock, dairy products, grain, and 
fruits and vegetables. The term "truck problem" 
has become commonplace in discussions of market- 
ing. There has been a tendency of late for coopera- 
tives to meet the problem head-on by recognizing 
the commercial truckers as a new and distinct type 



AGRICULTURE 



9 



AGRICULTURE 



of customer requiring certain services which the co- 
operatives in many States can adjust themselves to 
provide. 

The past 10 or 15 years in agricultural cooper- 
ation has been a period of consolidating gains. Co- 
operative leaders have turned their attention more 
and more toward bringing about improvements in 
the operation of existing cooperatives in order to 
put them on a more permanent foundation and in 
a position to do a better job for their farmer- 
members. Much less emphasis than formerly has 
been placed upon the formation of new associ- 
ations and the advancing of price through monop- 
oly control. This no doubt has been a sound pro- 
cedure. In the past, many cooperatives were formed 
by fanners because the margins taken by private 
handlers were excessively large. For example, the 
early successes of the coopeiative grain elevators 
and, more recently, of the cooperative petroleum 
associations weie due in large part to the wide 
operating margins that prevailed in these fields 
before the cooperatives were formed Generally 
speaking, the margins now have been reduced to a 
point where they approximate actual handling ex- 
penses under present conditions, and the coopera- 
tives realize that if other substantial reduction is 
to be made it must come as a result of increased 
efficiency in operation through improved handling 
methods, by the use of more modern equipment, 
or as a result of consolidation or reorganization of 
the piesent marketing machinery 

W. W. FETROW. 

AGRICULTURE. Amciican agriculture, nearmg the 
close of 1941 with the biggest \olume of food in 
the nation's history, shouldered new responsibili- 
ties consequent to enriy ol the United States into 
World War II Food in abundance for the United 
States and its allies, food in increasing volume of 
shipment o\crseas, had become a major need for 
vietoiy The new goals for 1942, leMsed in MOW 
of Pearl Harboi, according to Secretary of Agri- 
culture C R Wickard, called for the greatest pro- 
duction in the history of American agriculture and 
for putting e\cry acre of land, every hour of labor, 
and all faun machinery, fertilizer, and other sup- 
plies to the use which would best serve the war- 
time needs oi the nation Supporting the Food- 
for-Freedom campaign \\ere the continuing Gov- 
ernmental efforts at soil conseivation, economic 
security for low-income farmers, commodity loans 
to support prices near parity levels, farm credit on 
production and on mortgage debt, insurance of 
crops against natural hazards, purchase and distri- 
bution of foods to improve the nutrition and health 
of low-income people, and marketing of products 
under agreement between producers and proces- 
sors These forces were supplemented and strength- 
ened by the research of the State experiment sta- 
tions and Bureaus of the U.S. Department of Agri- 
culture and extension service activities (See AGRI- 
CULTURE, US. DEPARTMENT OF.) 

Farmers in 1941 had the best cash income in 
years, the total from marketing and Government 
payments being 11 8 billion v 9.1 billion in 1940. 
Production of many agricultural products was the 
largest on record acreages and yields of many 
important food and feed crops were larger than in 
1940, although cotton made a comparatively small 
crop. Aggregate supplies of food were the largest 
in nistory, and the supply of feed grains was the 
biggest in 20 years. Food consumption total and 
per capita was the largest on record. Prices re- 
ceived by farmers in 1941 averaged 22 per cent 
above 1940, advancing m response to record con- 



sumer buying power, increased commodity loans, 
and Government buying for domestic consump- 
tion and lend-lease export. Significant trends in- 
cluded a substantial improvement in the farm real 
estate market, with a movement toward fewer and 
bigger farms, further decline in the volume of farm 
mortgage debt and reduction in foreclosure sales, 
plentiful credit on good terms, a moderate decline 
in farm population, prospective tax increases, high- 
er costs for farm machinery, shortages of building 
materials and supplies, and wages to farm hands 
the highest in years. Exports of farm products had 
fallen to the lowest level in 74 years, but gradu- 
ally increased since April, when a large part of the 
Lend-Lease appropriation was earmarked for agri- 
cultural commodities. Competing imports exceeded 
the exports in value and complementary imports 
remained about the same size. Further details on 
these and other major factors and problems of agri- 
culture are set forth in the following paragraphs. 

See also the articles on the countries under Pro- 
duction and States under Agriculture, leading crops, 
as GORN, CorroN, TOBACCO, WHEA-I, AGRICUL- 
TURAL COOPERATION, AGRICULTURE, U.S DEPART- 
MENT OF, BUSINESS REVIEW under Commodity 
Prices, DAIRYING, ENTOMOLOGY, ECONOMIC, HORTI- 
CULTURE, LIVESTOCK, MARKETING under Raw Ma- 
terials, NATIONAL INCOME; POULTRY, TRADE, FOR- 
EIGN, UNITED STAIES under Legislation. 

Agricultural Situation. Farm Income, The cash farm 
income for 1941 was estimated by the U.S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture at about $11,771,000,000 
(1940, $9,097,000,000), which comprised $11,- 
lcS5,000,()00 (1940, $8,331,000,000) from market- 
ings and commodities under loan and $586,000,000 
(1940, $766,000,000) government payments. Total 
was about 500 million dollars more than in 1929 
and nearly 954 million above the average for the 
period 1924-29. A gross farm income ol about 
$14,000,000,000 (1940, $11,014,000,000) was in- 
dicated when the faim value of products retained 
for home consumption, $1,600,000,000 (1940, 
$1,229,000,000), and rental value of home were 
considered. Cash income from all crops, $4,794,- 
000,000 (1940, $3,510,000,000), included grains 
$1,334,000,000 (1940, $1,007,000,000), cotton and 
cottonseed $1,007,000,000 (1940, $646,000,000), 
tobacco $325,000,000 (1940, $241,000,000), veg- 
etables $752,000,000 (1940, $630,000,000), and 
fruits and nuts $607,000,000 ( 1940, $445,000,000), 
and from all livestock and livestock products 
$6,391,000,000 (1940, $4,822,000,000), including 
meat animals $3,335,000,000 (1940, $2,390,000,- 
000), dairy products $1,860,000,000 (1940, 
$1,527,000,000), poultry and eggs $1,012,000,000 
(1940, $754,000,000), and wool $143,000,000 
(1940, $110,000,000). 

Cotton and cottonseed yielded farmers over 
$1 billion, the first time since 1929. A marked in- 
crease in the size of the 1941 wheat crop, together 
with substantially higher prices, resulted in the 
largest income from wheat since 1929. Income from 
most other farm crops, particularly truck crops, 
soybeans, rice, and several of the fruit crops showed 
substantial increases in 1941 over 1940. Returns 
from livestock and livestock products were about 
25 per cent larger than in 1940, and the largest 
since 1929. Income from meat animals recorded the 
largest percentage increase over 1940, but the 
increase from poultry and eggs was nearly as large. 
Income from dairy products also was substantially 
larger than in 1940, the total exceeding the 1929 
figuie of $1,800,000,000. 

Farm Real Estate and Tenure. The national average 
of farm real estate values per acre during the year 



AGRICULTURE 



10 



AGRICULTURE 



ended Mar. 1, 1941, rose one point, reaching an 
index of average values per acre of 86 per cent of 
the 1912-14 level, compared with 85 in 1940, 84 
in 1939, and 85 in 1937 and 1938, and about 18 
per cent above the 1933 low of 73. The continuous 
cautious response of farm real estate values to im- 
proved price and income levels might be attributed 
to such considerations as number of farms avail- 
able for sale in many areas and uncertain price out- 
look for some of the major agricultural products. 
Largest gains in real estate values since 1933 were 
made in the East South Central, South Atlantic, and 
East North Central States. The smallest rises from 
the depression low were in the West North Central 
States where the index of value was 67 versus 64 
in 1933 and in New England States where the in- 
dex was 107 versus 104 in 1934 and 1935. 

Tabulations on farm land and people on the land, 
as reported in 1941 by the U.S. Bureau of Census 
from the 1940 census, totaled number of farms 
6,096,799 (1935, 6,812,350, 1930, 6,288,648); 
land in farms 1,060,852,374 acres (1935, 1,054,- 
515,111; 1930, 986,771,016 acres); average size 
of farms 174 acres (1935, 154.8, 1930, 156.9 
acres); farm population 30,475,206 ( 1930, 30,445,- 
350); total value of farm land and buildings $33,- 
642,000,000 (1930, $47,880,000,000); full owners 
3,084,138 (1935, 3,210,224; 1930, 2,911,644); 
part owners 615,039 ( 1935, 688,867; 1930, 656,- 
750); tenants 2,361,271 (1935, 2,865,155; 1930, 
2,664,365), and sharecroppers 541,291 (1935, 
716,256; 1930, 776,278). The percentage of ten- 
ancy rose from 25.6 m 1880 to 42.4 in 1930, declin- 
ing to 38.7 per cent in 1940 Of the total number 
of farms in 1940, 23 5 per cent were without milk 
<cows in 1939, 38 2 per cent without hogs and pigs, 
.and 15 2 per cent were without poultry. 

Land values and mortgage debts followed farm 
puces up in the inflation period. After prices came 
down, reported the U.S. Department of Agricul- 
tttire, these debts remained and were a heavy bur- 
den on farmers for years thereafter. The rapid ad- 
vance of farm returns per acre up to 1919 was fol- 
lowed by a slower advance in farm taxes and in- 
terest per acre and m farm mortgage debts. After 
prices turned down, taxes and interest and mort- 
gage debt continued to mount. In 1925, debt per 
acre was nearly three times the pre-war debt, and 
taxes and interest were 2.5 times pre-war. In the 
meantime, farm returns and farm values were fol- 
lowing a downward trend and were running around 
only 1 25 times pre-war. All through the 1920's 
taxes, interest, and mortgage debt were more than 
twice as heavy a burden, compared to farm returns, 
as in the pre-war period During the 1920's hun- 
dreds of thousands of farmers lost their farms 
through foreclosure and thousands of country banks 
failed. Debts and civic improvements which ap- 
peared easy to pay for in the flush of wartime in- 
flation proved to be a long and bitter burden. Not 
until the great depression of the 1930's and the 
efforts by local, State, and Federal Governments 
to lighten taxes on farmers and lo refinance or 
readjust farm debts did the tax and debt burden 
on fanners begin to be reduced. Even so, it still 
remained in 1941 relatively far heavier than before 
World War I. 

Prices. Local market prices received by farmers 
for agricultural commodities sold during 1941 aver- 
aged 122 per cent of the 1909-14 (pre-war) aver- 
age, compared with 98 in 1940, and the 1941 level 
was the highest since 1930 when the index was 126. 
Prices of farm commodities had regained most of 
the losses sustained during the last decade, although 
still not up to the level maintained in the late 



1920's. The all-commodity index reached its low- 
est point in 1941 at 103 in February and March: 
thereafter it rose steadily to 139 in September and 
October. A loss of five points in November was 
more than recovered in December when the index 
reached 143, highest since January, 1930. Improve- 
ment in prices was general for all commodity 
groups. Most groups experienced a wide range of 
prices, the widest being 70 points in cotton and 
cottonseed and the smallest range 29 points for 
fruit. The low points were in the first 3 months, 
and the high points largely in the last 3 months of 
1941. With production heavy in 1941, supplies of 
agricultural commodities were abundant and de- 
mand, both for domestic consumption and for ex- 
port, continued strong enough to support prices 
higher than in other years of large supply. 

Average prices received by producers Dec. 15, 
1941, based on reports to the U.S. Department of 
Agriculture, with preliminary seasonal average 
prices for crops in parentheses, were estimated for 
wheat $1.022 (956tf) per bu., corn 66.9tf (709), 
oats 45.2^ (38.7), barley 56.1tf (49.4), rye 



(53.1), flaxseed $1.78 ($1.725), soybeans $1.47 
($1.472), rice (rough) $1.439 ($1.185), potatoes 
827tf (695), sweet potatoes 86.6tf (92.6), apples 
$1.09 (90.34tf) per bu., tobacco 26.2tf (25.7) 
per lb., peanuts 4.79tf (4.58), cotton 16.23tf 
(16.10tf) per lb., and cottonseed $44.65 ($48.04), 
and hay $9.43 ($901) per ton. Beef cattle sold 
for $9 38 per 100 lb , hogs for $1021, veal calves 
$11.22, lambs $986, and sheep $5.15. Eggs 
brought 34 1 cents per doz , butter 33 9 cents per 
lb., and whole milk wholesaled at $2 66 per 100 
lb. Wool brought 37 1 cents per lb. and live chick- 
ens 15 8 cents Milk cows sold for $79 70 each, 
horses $67, and mules $86 90. The corn-hog ratio 
(number of bu. equal in value to 100 lb. of hogs) 
was 153 \eisus 10.3 m December, 1940, and 11.9 
the 1909-13 average The ratio of prices received 
to prices paid by fanners rose from 82 in December, 
1940, to 100 in December, 1941. 

Foreign Trade in Farm Products. Exports of agricul- 
tural products from the United States, exclusive of 
forest products, fell in value to $349,873,000 dur- 
ing 1940-41, about 53 per cent below the total of 
$737,640,000 during 1939-40. Farm exports were 
the lowest in 69 years, i.e., since 1871-72, repre- 
senting only 9 per cent of all exports, and for only 
the second time on record were exceeded in volume 
by imports of farm products similar to those grown 
in the United States. The ratio of imports to exports 
in 1940-41 was 179 as compared with an average 
of 69 for the 10 preceding years, which, moreover, 
was due almost entirely to decline in exports, for 
the volume of imports was approximately the same 
in 1940-41 as in the past decade. According to in- 
dexes of quantity, all major groups of these exports, 
except dairy products, were lower for 1940-41 than 
for 1939-40. Cotton exports, which accounted for 
over 70 per cent of the decline, were $67,567,000, 
81 percent below 1939-40; fruits, fruit preparations, 
and juices $27,715,000, -59 per cent; tobacco $39,- 
090,000, 40 per cent; grain and grain products 
$65,675,000, -21 per cent; feeds and fodders 
$1,676,000, -83 per cent; pork and lard $23,650,- 
000, -35 per cent; dairy products $31,777,000, a 
gain of 282 per cent; and other farm products $92,- 
723,000, a decrease of 23 per cent. The operation of 
the Lease-Lend program, which began in April and 
gained momentum in succeeding months, brought 
exports out of the severe decline that held from 
September, 1940, through January, 1941. In each 
of those months the export rate was about $240,- 
000,000 per year, but in June the rate rose to 



AGRICULTURE 



11 



AGRICULTURE 



$740,000,000, comparable with the 10-year average. 
The gain, however, based mainly on government 
expenditures, did not represent a normal resump- 
tion of commercial trade. The rising trend con- 
tinued into the first quarter of 1941-42 (July- 
September), which closed with exports of farm 
products 136 per cent higher in value than a year 
earlier. 

Farm products imported into the United States 
during 1940-41 were valued at $1,475,357,000, an 
advance of 19 per cent from 1939-40, which totaled 
$1,239,444,000 and compared with $1,536,695,000 
in 1936-37, and $614,000,000 in 1932-33, the low 
point of the depression. Supplementary (compet- 
itive) agricultural imports in 1940-41 totaled about 
$627,955,000, 10 per cent more than in 1939-40. 
The import situation was dominated by wool im- 
ports, valued at $117,565,000, 21 per cent over 
1939-40, to meet current consumption needs and 
to build up reserve supplies. Increases were shown 
by other commodities in this group, e g , hides and 
skins valued at $58,453,000 in 1940-41, +20 per 
cent; nuts and preparations $15,351,000, +10 per 
cent; cotton and hnters $14,239,000, +38 per cent; 
and molasses $17,818,000, +67 per cent Imports 
of sugar, tobacco, cattle, and feeds and fodders did 
not change much from 1939-40. Decreases were 
registered by several important commodities, as 
vegetable oils $44,092,000, -26 per cent, as well 
as by flaxseed 46 per cent, cheese 66 per cent, 
and canned beef -23 per cent. Complementary 
agricultural imports, made up largely (about 95 
per cent) of rubber, coffee, raw silk, wool for car- 
pets, bananas, cacao beans, tea, and spices, during 
1940-41 wcro 27 per cent above the 1939-40 level, 
the principal increases being in rubber, coffee, and 
cacao. Agricultural imports made up about 525 
per cent of all imports, $627,955,000 being supple- 
mentary items and $847,402,000 noncompetitive. 
Imports during the first quarter of 1941-42 were at 
levels far above that quarter of 1940-41. The total 
increase of $80,000,000 in all agricultural imports 
could be accounted for almost entirely by very 
large increases in value of rubber and wool im- 
ports and in imports of hides, molasses, cotton, 
bristles, and tea To offset these were the steep de- 
clines in imports of silk and of coffee in this quarter. 
Foreign trade in farm products was discussed in de- 
tail in the Report of the Sccrctan/ of Agriculture 
for 1941 (pp. 11-22, 29-31, 37-54) and in For- 
eign Crops and Markets 43 (1941), pp. 362-406 
(Sept. 30, 1941), pp 792-816 (Dec. 20, 1941) 
(both U.S. Dept. Agr.). 

Population. People living on farms in the United 
States on Jan. 1, 1941, according to U.S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture estimates, totaled 29,860,000, 
a decrease from 30,071,000 a year ago, attributable 
to a greater migration from farms than to farms. 
Wlnle the decrease was general in all parts of the 
country, the West South Central States, particularly 
Oklahoma and Texas, reported the largest loss, and 
the West North Central States also sustained a sub- 
stantial decline. Tabulation released in 1941 from 
the 1 940 census placed the total farm population at 
30,475,206 on Apr. 1, 1940, virtually no change 
from 30,445,350 in 1930 but definitely below the 
31,614,269 in 1920. Several sections, notably the 
Pacific Coast and certain Western States, showed 
some gains, while the largest decreases were in the 
Plains States of the central West. Declines in farm 
population in States hard hit by drought reflected 
the harsh conditions which led to some consolidation 
of farms and to some actual abandonment. Increase 
in part-time fanning was indicated by the increase 
of people living on farms near factory towns and 



large cities. That there were fewer children and 
more old people on farms than in 1930 was signifi- 
cant. 

Crop Production. Conditions for crop production 
during 1941 were unusually favorable; a primary 
factor was above-normal rainfall in the western half 
of the country where low rainfall had limited crop 
production during much of the 1930-39 period. 
Yields per acre, the U.S. Department of Agriculture 
reported, weie the highest on record, averaging 2 
per cent above yields made in 1940 and 21 per 
cent above the 1923-32 (predrought) average. 
Yields were at least fairly good in nearly all parts 
of the United States except in the western Gulf 
Coast region, in South Carolina, and in some 
smaller scattered areas Wheat seemed to be the 
only important crop to set a new high record of 
yield, while rice was about the onlv one to show 
below-average yield per acre The 1941 acre yields 
of corn, tobacco, potatoes, sugar beets, beans, and 
soybeans were exceeded only once or twice in the 
last 70 years, and yields of oats, barley, grain sor- 
ghums, rye, buckwheat, flaxseed, cotton, hay, and 
peanuts were at high levels attained only in un- 
usually favorable seasons. 

While the acreage planted or used for the 46 
principal field crops was about the same as in 1940, 
the area lost in 1941 from crop failure was the 
lowest in more than a decade About 337,798,000 
acres were left for harvest, 1 per cent more than the 
334,171,000 acres harvested in 1940, but still 7 per 
cent under the peak of 364 million acres harvested 
in 1932 which included 24 million more acres of 
corn and 14 million more of cotton than in 1941. In 
spite of the smaller acreage in corn and cotton, the 
exceptionally high level of yields per acre in 1941 
resulted in a near-record volume of crop production, 
about 11 per cent above the 1923-32 level. Aggre- 
gate production in 1940 was 8 per cent above the 
1923-32 level and in the highest year (1937) was 
12 6 per cent above. 

The 1941 harvest included small crops of cotton 
and tobacco, and slightly below average crops of 
potatoes and sweet potatoes, but large production 
of nearly all other groups. Total grain production 
was larger than in other seasons since 1920. New 
high production records were established for hay 
and forage as a group, for fruits, and for vegetables 
other than potatoes and sweet potatoes. Individual 
crops which surpassed previous production totals 
include barley, grain sorghums, sweet sorghum for 
forage, beans, sovbeans, oranges, peas, sweet corn, 
and tomatoes ( the 3 principal vegetables grown for 
canning), carrots, celery, and a few other vege- 
tables for fresh market. The corn crop was the 
largest since 1932 and the wheat crop the largest 
since the bumper crop of 1919. Rice production 
approached within 1 or 2 per cent of the record 
crop. The flaxseed crop was the largest since 1902 
and the second largest on record. Although the pea- 
nut crop was smaller than in 1940, it was larger 
than the crops of other years. The acreages and 
production of farm crops in the United States, as 
estimated by the U S. Department of Agriculture, 
and yields for cereals in foreign countries, as re- 
ported by the International Institute of Agriculture 
and other agencies are shown in the accompanying 
crop tables (pp. 13-14) and in the articles on in- 
dividual crops; as, CORN, WHEAT, ETC. 

Experiment Stations and Extension. Contributing to 
the steadily increasing efficiency of agricultural 
production, the experiment stations and extension 
services, centered as a rule at the agricultural col- 
leges, were meeting the challenge of defense needs 
and adjusting their well-developed programs to 



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AGRICULTURE 



13 



AGRICULTURE 



ACREAGE AND PRODUCTION OF FARM CROPS IN 

THE UNITED STATES IN 1940 AND 1941 

(Bushels except as otherwise indicated.) 







Acres 


Acre 




Crop 


Year 


Harvested 


Yield 


Production 


Corn 


1941 


80,089,000 


31 


2,672,541,000 




1940 


86,738,000 


284 


2,460,624,000 


Wheat 


1041 


55,831,000 


169 


945,937,000 




1940 


52,980,000 


153 


812,374,000 


Oats 


1941 


37,972,000 


310 


1,176,107,000 




1940 


35,393,000 


352 


1,246,050,000 


Barley 


1441 


14,049,000 


255 


358,709,000 




1040 


13,496,000 


230 


310,108,000 


Hve 


1041 


3,498,000 


12.9 


45,191,000 




1940 


3,210,000 


128 


41,149,000 


Buckwheat 


041 


339,000 


17.9 


6,070,000 




040 


389,000 


167 


6,493.000 


Flaxueed 


041 


3,202,000 


98 


31,485.000 




040 


3,180,000 


97 


30,886,000 


Rice 


041 


1,245,000 


434 


54,028.000 




440 


1,069,000 


509 


54,433.000 


Grain sorghum 


041 


8,903,000 


173 


153,968,000 




040 


10,325,000 


124 


127,894,000 


Cotton, lint 


041 


22,376,000 


23541 


10,976,000 * 




040 


23,861,000 


252 6 


12,566,000 2 


('ott(>I)heed 


941 






4,892, 000 




040 






5,595,000 ' 


Hay 


041 


71,843,0(10 


131' 


94, 107,000' 




1040 


71,80(1,000 


1 32 


94,541,000' 


Sweet soighum 


1041 


8,582.000 


1 75* 


1 5,040,000 




1940 


8,732,000 


1 48 J 


12,955,000 


Beans, 










dr\ edible 


1941 


2,08 "i, 000 


901 ' 


18,788,0004 




1940 


1 ,094 000 


890 i 


16,043,000 


Peas, di \ field 


1941 


284,000 


222 


6,315,000 




1040 


240,000 


143 


3,439,000 


Soybean-, foi 










bean* 


1041 


5,855,000 


182 


106,712,000 




1940 


4,770,000 


162 


77,374,000 


Cowprjis 










for ,>etis 


1941 


1,490.000 


55 


8,232,000 




1040 


1,445,000 


5 1 


7,373,000 


Peanuts 


1941 


1,9(4.000 


79-5 i 


1,558,085.0001 




1040 


2.040,000 


8r>li i 


1 ,749,705,000 1 


1'otatoes 


1041 


2,733.000 


1300 


357,783.000 




1940 


2,865,000 


Ki2 


378,103,000 


Sweet potatoes 


1941 


750,000 


834 


63,284,000 




1940 


664 000 


810 


53,811,000 


Toba< co 


1941 


1,350,000 


948 A 


1,279,872,0001 




1940 


1,408,000 


1,034 i 


1,455,802,0001 


Sugar beets 


1941 


757,000 


1.43' 


10,090.000 




1940 


9 Id. 000 


13 4 


12,292.000' 


Sugaicane 


1041 


29h,000 


189 


5.597.000 




1040 


270,000 


15 6 


4,218,000' 


Sugart nne 










for B\nip 


1041 


113,000 


162 6 ' 


18,374,000 * 




19*0 


102.000 


131 5* 


13,415,000 * 


Sorgo 8\ nip 


1041 


190,000 


61 36 


11,681.000* 




1040 


197,000 


572* 


11, 257,000' 


Maple svrup 


1941 


10,240,000 




2. 091, 000 B 




1940 


10,288,000 




2,680,000 " 


Muplc .sugar 


1941 


10,240,000" 


168 7 


480,000 i 




1940 


1 0,288,000 


2 14 7 


550,000 i 


Broom ( orn 


1041 


251,000 


372 i 


47,000' 




1040 


29o,()00 


29b i 


44,000 ' 


Hops* 


1041 


35,000 


l.lnO l 


40.380,000 




1940 


33,000 


1,282 i 


42,0bb,000 ' 



1 poiindn 2 halcb 'tons * 100-lb bags 'gallons 8 trees tapped 
7 total equivalent sugar per tree 

cope with the urgent demands of actual war. 
Problems of agriculture, the rural home, and rural 
life weie under intensive study at the State experi- 
ment stations of each State and territory in more 
than 8,370 active research projects. Financed from 
State and Federal funds, many of these projects 
were cooperative among groups of stations and 
with the U.S. Department of Agriculture and other 
agencies. 

Noteworthy achievements m the research of the 
stations during 1941 included new and better vari- 
eties of field crops, vegetables, and fruits; improved 
strains of livestock arid poultry, effective cultural 
and field practices and harvesting, storage, and 
handling methods insuring maximum crop yields 
and enhancing desirable market and technological 
qualities; better control methods aiding in the de- 
feat of insects, plant diseases, and weeds; definition 
of soil types and their values for cropping; better 
methods of conserving soils and their fertility; ap- 
propriate fertilizer formulas and suitable place- 



ments, and substitution of green manures for some 
of the costlier minerals and chemicals; the develop- 
ment and adaptation of mechanical farm equip- 
ment; greater efficiency in use of farm power and 
in use of electricity in farm operations and bringing 
modern facilities into farm nomes; more efficient 
production structures and better farm homes; irri- 
gation methods conducive to the best use of 
available water supplies; and profitable drainage 
practices. Home economics research resulted in 
more effective use of foods and higher dietary 
levels, benefiting national health and increased use 
of such commodities as vegetables, fruits, and dairy 
products. Benefits to both producer and user of 
textile fabrics came from studies of clothing fabrics. 
Studies of family income and consumption have had 
important bearings on agricultural planning. 

Economic research was featured by great ad- 
vances in agricultural planning broadened to in- 
clude economic and sociological as well as technical 
phases involving results obtained in farm manage- 
ment, marketing costs, taxation and tenure, and 
new types of investigation on alternative uses of 
land, diet, and health of more families, and much 
short-term or service research. Farmers were also 
aided by other phases of economic and social re- 
search on population problems, rural education, 
transportation facilities, and the rural family and its 
consumption needs in terms of food, clothing, and 
shelter. Accomplishments in the numerous investi- 
gations were published in station bulletins and re- 
ports, and in many technical journals and trade 
papers. Findings having major significance in the 
solution of current problems and representative 
of the wide range of subjects under study were re- 
viewed, along with pertinent statistical data, in 
Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 
1941 (U.S. Dept. Agr.). The experiment stations 
received from Federal grants $6,862,500 and from 
State and other supplementary sources $15,571,050, 
making a total of $22,433,550 available for their 
administration and research during the fiscal year 
1941. 

The work and accomplishments of nine special 
research laboratories, each dealing with a problem 
of significance in the region where located, estab- 
lished, 1935-39, under the provisions of Bankhead- 
Jones Act of June 29, 1935, and cooperative among 
Bureaus of the Department of Agriculture and the 
stations and supplementing their investigations, and 
progress made by four regional laboratories for re- 
search on new and extended uses for surplus farm 
commodities, were set forth in Report of the Chief 
of the Office of Experiment Stations, 1941 (U.S. 
Dept Agr.). 

The Extension Service increasingly concentrated 
all resources on the call for all-out defense. County 
agents were in every county of agricultural im- 
portance, home demonstration agents in nearly two- 
thirds of the counties, and 1,650 State subject-matter 
specialists were available to advise the agents. 
More than 700,000 volunteer local leaders were or- 
ganized and trained to help to plan and lead com- 
munity activities. Extension home-food production 
committees were established early in the year, and 
in nearly every State an expanded coordinated food 
production and preservation program was launched, 
largely by placing major emphasis on defense, 
nutrition, ana discussion phases of programs already 
established. Local mass educational programs for 
encouraging and helping farm people to produce 
the needed pork, dairy, and poultry products, to- 
matoes, and other foods were started. The service 
was making a major contribution in helping farm 
people meet urgent problems of defense and ad- 



AGRICULTURE 



14 



AGRICULTURE 



justments following such an emergency as they 
did in the first World War. 

Extension agents assumed the lead in most com- 
munities in conferences between fanners and manu- 
facturers, distributors, cooperative association lead- 
ers, and others to assure marketing distribution and 
processing facilities for increased production in each 
locality. Much of this and related food-for-defense 
information was earned to farm people through co- 
operative marketing and purchasing associations, 
including nearly a million farmer members, organ- 
ized or assisted by extension agents during the 
year. Through 1,140,000 members of organized 
home demonstration clubs, food-for-defense and 
increased-home-food-production needs and prac- 
tices reached farm women in every farm commu- 
nity. Home gardening, health and nutrition, and 
food production projects received major attention 
of the nearly 1,500,000 farm boys and girls in 4-H 
clubs. 

Of the grand total of $33,194,380 of funds al- 
lotted in 1940-41 for cooperative extension work in 
the United States and territories, $18,590,925 came 
from Federal grants, $6,707,118 from State and 
college funds, $6,806,873 from county appropria- 
tions, and $1,089,464 from farm organizations, etc. 

The extension agents intensified and enlarged 
established programs in better nutrition, improved 
food habits, and production and preservation of 
food for home needs. The most fundamental work 
extension home demonstration agents did in de- 
veloping better food habits was in training farm 
women to be local leaders. More than 110,000 farm 
women gave of their time and skill as local leaders 
in their communities m food and nutritional educa- 
tional work. Through these and other extension 
local leaders, about 1,700,000 rural homes were led 
to adopt improved food and other home-making 
practices, which in turn led to better farm living 
and a stronger nation. 

Major national contributions were made in or- 
ganizing and providing facts for and otherwise 
assisting groups of farm people in systematic group 
discussions largely on the present national emer- 
gency, issues facing democracy, and possible steps 
to meet the situation. Educational efforts in behalf 
of conservation, long-time land use planning, more 
efficient farming, better marketing of farm prod- 
ucts, low-cost home improvements, inexpensive 
clothing, and other farm and home problems were 
continued and related to present situations and de- 
fense needs. On the broad educational front, special 
assistance was given to Negro farmers by 504 Negro 
county and home demonstration agents, in addition 
to the work that white extension agents did with 
Negro farmers. 

Extension agents cooperated with other govern- 
mental agencies in assisting farmers in defense ac- 
quisition areas to become relocated or to find other 
employment. Aid was rendered to farmers in such 
defense areas in organizing to provide Army can- 
tonments with locally grown produce. Extension 
workers also devoted considerable time to explain- 
ing local application of provisions of the Agricultural 
Adjustment, Rural Electrification, Farm Credit, 
Surplus Marketing, and Farm Security Administra- 
tions; Soil Conservation Service; Tennessee Valley 
Authority; and other agencies and in helping farm- 
ers make best use of loans, conservation payments, 
and other services of these agencies in meeting 
local problems. 

World Relations of American Agriculture. The situa- 
tion of world agriculture in wartime had become 
clearer as the war in Europe entered its third year. 
Germany had extended her control from France to 



the Central Ukraine, the U.S.S.R. was resisting Ger- 
man aggression, and the United States was throw- 
ing its full economic power into a national defense 
program and aid to Britain and her allies, a task 
that became more difficult with the United States 
at war. Current world trade in agricultural prod- 
ucts, as viewed by the U.S. Department of Agricul- 
ture, bore little resemblance to the trade carried on 
before September, 1939. Food had become a criti- 
cal need of every nation at war; and in none of the 
warring or occupied countries were supplies of 
food or other agricultural products kept at pre-war 
levels. On the other hand, many nations still at 
peace were faced with curtailed export markets 
and record surpluses of certain crops. In import- 
ing countries there had been a change from pre-war 
patterns of consumption substitutions as well as 
actual curtailments; while in exporting countries, 
pressure of surpluses, together with new demands 
brought about by the war was causing a change in 
the patterns of production An outstanding de- 
velopment, from the viewpoint of United States 
farmers, was the passage of the Lend-Lcase Act, 
under which foods, munitions, and other supplies 
were made available to nations resisting aggression 
(refer above to Foreign Trade in Farm Products). 
The United States was seeking improved trade re- 
lations with the other American republics by co- 
operating in efforts to increase the output of agri- 
cultural products marketable in but non-competi- 
ti\e in the United States, and by participating in 
efforts to regulate trade in surplus and competitive 
erops. It also was providing technical and financial 
assistance to a number of countries in piograms to 
raise living standards through increased production 
of subsistence crops and greater agricultural ef- 
ficiency. These efforts were reviewed in Agriculture 
in the Americas (vol. 1, 1941), a monthly. Com- 
modities receiving special attention included rub- 
ber, quinine, cocoa, coffee, tapioca, rotenone, fibers, 
fats and oils, and fruits. 

American agriculture in its world trade relations 
was affected by many factors and activities in other 
countries and regions, including wartime policies, 
controls, and trade agreements affecting agricul- 
tural trade, and objectives and problems of price 
control; world war, hemisphere trade, and the 
American farmer; western hemisphere trade in cot- 
ton, and world cacao production and trade; agri- 
culture's role in hemisphere defense; the Inter- 
American Coffee Agreement; agriculture in the Sao 
Paulo-Northern Parana region; agriculture in the 
Argentine trade agreement; the agricultural econ- 
omy of Colombia, Mexican vanilla production and 
trade; rationing and cotton control in the United 
Kingdom; food rationing in Germany; agriculture 
and food control in Switzerland; the Russo-German 
war and Soviet agriculture, and grain exports from 
the Soviet Union; agriculture ana agricultural poli- 
cies in British Malaya; regulation of rubber and 
tea; impact of war on the Japanese cotton-textile 
industry, the Japanese silk industry facing a new 
crisis, and Manchurian agriculture under Japanese 
control; agriculture in unoccupied China since 
1937; agriculture in French West Africa; and war- 
time aspects of Egyptian agricultural economy. 
These and other factors of significance have been 
treated in Foreign Agriculture (vol. 5, 1941), For- 
eign Crops and Markets (vols. 42 and 43, 1941), 
and Report of the Director of the Office of Foreign 
Agricultural Relations, 1941. (All U.S. Dept. Agri.) 
See the respective countries under Production. 

Bibliography. Books published in 1941 or lato in 1940 
which considered agricultural problems of current impor- 
tance included. M. E. Branom, The Agricultural Economy 



AGRICULTURE 



15 



AGRICULTURE 



of the American Bottoms in Madison and St. Olair Coun- 
ties, Illinois (St. Louis, Mo ) ; R L. Cohen, The Econom- 
ics of Agriculture (London, 1040); L. E. Oard and M. 
Henderson, Farm Poultry Production, Ed 8 (Danville, 
111, 1940), A L Demaree, The American Agricultural 
P/vvv, 1819-1800 (New York); A A Dowell and K 
Biorkn, Livestock Marketing (New York); J H. Gourley 
and F S Ilowlett, Modern Fruit Production (New York) ; 
A Grunovbky, Land Policy in Palestine (New York, 
1940) , R W Gregory, ed , Farm Crops and Soils Prob- 
lems in Production, Management and Conservation By 
O C. Aderhold, F. A. Coffman, L. W. Kephart, R. McKee, 
and others (Chicago, New York) ; W E. Grimes and E L. 
Holton, Modern Agriculture, based on "Essentials of the 
New Agriculture" by H J Waters Rev. ed (Boston, 
1940) , A. F. Gustafson, Soils and Soil Management (New 
York) , G llambidge, od , Hunger Signs in Crops, A 
Symposium (Washington, DC), C E. Kellogg, The Sous 
that Support Us; an Introduction to the Study of Soils 
and Their Use by Men (New York) , E J Kyle and E R. 
Alexander, Agriculture in the Southwest (New York, 
1940) , P II Land is, Rural Life in the Process (New 
York, 1940) , G R Merrill and others, American Cotton 
Handbook, A Practical Reference Book for the Entire 
Cotton Industry (New York, 1941) ; L J Norton, Financ- 
ing Agriculture Rev od. (Danville, 111, 1940); E D 
Sanderson, Leadership for Rural Life (New York. 1940) ; 
C T Schmidt, American Farmers in the World Crisis 
(Now York), G S Shepherd, Avnrultvral Price Analysis 
(Ames TOMII). H W Spiegel, Land Tenure Policies at 
Home and Abroad (Chapel Hill, NC), V D Wickizer 
and M K Bmnetl. The Jtice Econoinn of Monsoon Asia 
(Stanford University, Cnlif ) , E L Worlhn, Farm Sods, 
Their Management and Fertilization Ed 3 (New York) , 
Climate and Man Yearbook of Agriculture, 1941 (Wash- 
ington, DC), and Agricultural Statistics, 1941 (Wash- 
ington, DC). 

HENRY M STEECE 

AGRICULTURE, U.S. Department of. As part of the na- 
tional defense program the Department of Agricul- 
ture expanded some of its activities in 1941 and un- 
dertook many new ones In fact, defense involved 
almost every detail of the Department's work. Some 
of the tasks were: ( 1 ) Assisting agriculture to pro- 
vide adequate supplies of farm and forest products 
for domestic consumption and lend-leasc exports; 
( 2 ) aiding consumers to win better health through 
better nutiition, (3) collaborating with other Gov- 
ernment agencies in pro\ idmg critical and strategic 
raw materials, (4) developing substitutes for im- 
ports that the war reduces or cuts off, (5) finding 
new defense uses for fann and forest products; ( 6) 
assembling data useful in locating new defense in- 
dustries, (7) dealing with price relationships in the 
defense economy, (8) aiding defense agencies in 
locating, acquiring, and servicing new military es- 
tablishments, (9) assisting in plans for economic 
defense, and (10) promoting hemisphere solidarity. 
Food-for-Freedom Campaign. In a "food-for-free- 
dom" drive the Department announced a plan to 
support the prices of dairy products, hogs, chickens, 
and eggs up to Tune 30, 1943, and to cushion the 
possible shocks of the post-defense period. It sought 
to establish price-differentials that would favor the 
desired balance among dairy products Later, on 
the authontv of an amendment to an act that ex- 
tended the life of the Commodity Credit Corpora- 
tion, it undertook to support the prices of nogs, 
eggs, evaporated milk, dry skim milk, cheese, and 
chickens up to Dec. 31, 1942, at not less than 85 
per cent of parity to the extent that the funds avail- 
able allowed. In the fall the Department worked 
out goals for a record total output in 1942, got the 
help of State agencies in breaking down the goals 
to a State and county basis, and launched a farmer- 
pledge campaign. The goals took account of the ex- 
pected demand at home and abroad, the need for 
machinery, fertilizer, insecticides, container mate- 
rials, storage, and agricultural labor, the seasonal 
and biological problems involved in rapid crop ex- 
pansion, the availability of necessary credit, the nu- 
trition standards considered desirable for the Unit- 
ed States, and the need to divert excess staple ex- 
port acres to other uses. 



Lend-lease Buying. The agency responsible in the 
Department for carrying out the food buying part 
of the lend-lease program is the Surplus Marketing 
Administration. When the lend-lease bill was be- 
fore Congress, the implications for agriculture had 
to be considered. It became apparent that quick ac- 
tion would be necessary to lay the groundwork for 
operations under the measure. Several problems 
stood out. It was recognized that each buying oper- 
ation would need to be conducted with speed and 
efficiency, and with the least possible disturbance 
of normal marketing. How to carry on the purchas- 
ing of agricultural products so as to bring the great- 
est benefit to farmers was another problem. Also 
prominent was the fact that the anticipated export 
need for farm products would have to be taken care 
of in addition to rapidly increasing domestic de- 
mands. Since lend-lease money could not be made 
available in advance, the Surplus Marketing Ad- 
ministration made arrangements with the Commod- 
ity Credit Corporation for purchases of commodities 
needed under the lend-lease program The Corpo- 
ration allocated $90,000,000 for the purchase of 
reserve supplies of lend-lease materials for which 
the Corporation was to be reimbursed from lend- 
lease funds collected in payment for goods turned 
over for export. This arrangement paved the way 
for a flexible buying program. 

Promoting Better Nutrition. Better use of food for 
health calls for many-sided collaboration among the 
Department's specialists. It enlists especially the 
services of the Bureau of Home Economics, the Sur- 
plus Marketing Administration, and the Extension 
Scr\ice. Representatives of these agencies serve on 
planning committees of the national nutrition cam- 
paign. They help farm people to produce more 
meats, fruits, and vegetables for themselves. The 
Department's nutrition campaign deals with food 
requirements and uses, vitamin values, family 
spending, and the proper combination of foods in 
the diet. Getting national strength from food is a 
problem also in income distribution. Through relief 
distribution, the food stamp plan, school lunches, 
and low-cost milk programs, the Department brings 
food and needy people together. 

The AAA's Wartime Job. The Agricultural Adjust- 
ment Administration's job increased in wartime. It 
is not, howevei, a different job. It is the old job, 
with simply a change of emphasis among the pri- 
orities and an increase in the size of the undertak- 
ing. As the Government agency that aids the farm- 
ers in cooperative crop adjustments, the AAA seeks 
to assist the farmers in producing more of what the 
country needs and less of what it docs not need. 
Moreover, the commodity emphasis is not basically 
different from what it was before tlie war began. 
We still need more dairy and meat products m par- 
ticular and less wheat, cotton, tobacco, and other 
surplus crops. Change of pnoiity among AAA ob- 
jectives results from the fact that the war situation 
almost automatically boosts the farm income, and 
at the same time creates urgent new needs for par- 
ticular crops. The AAA's task is bigger because, in 
a changed crop balance, we need a record total 
farm production. 

Besides machinery developed during eight years 
of crop adjustment experience, the AAA has new 
price incentives made available by Congress. In the 
basic crops, for example, there is a higher level of 
loan rates coupled with higher penalties for excess 
marketing. There is power here to encourage a 
switch from overproduced to underproduced lines. 
In nonbasic crops Congress has authorized purchas- 
ing for lend-lease export, price supports, offers of 
protection to farmers against sudden price changes 



AGRICULTURE 



16 



AGRICULTURE 



in the post-defense period, and other incentives to 
increased production. The existence of a well-de- 
fined ever-normal granary enables the AAA to assist 
farmers in getting feedstuffs for livestock, dairy, and 
poultry production. Shaping its programs to fit the 
needs of the emergency, the AAA works with farm- 
ers through the U.S.D.A. agricultural defense 
boards, the farmer committee system, and Federal 
and State field workers. Along with its established 
objectives, die AAA program takes on a new and 
broader national meaning in which the prevention 
of surpluses, the conservation of resources, the 
maintenance of the Ever-Normal Granary, and the 
support of farm prices and farm incomes become 
parts of the greater purpose of national defense. 

Commodity Loan Facilities. Organized in the fall of 
1933 the Commodity Credit Corporation was origi- 
nally an independent agency, but is now part of the 
farm program machinery. Its total resources are two 
and three-quarter billion dollars. Its investment at 
the present time in loans and in commodities owned 
totals about one billion dollars. It has outstanding 
loans of nearly 400 million dollars in the hands of 
banks, cooperative associations, and other lending 
agencies. The remaining resources, when supple- 
mented by loan repayments and proceeds from sales 
of owned commodities next season, should suffice 
to make necessary loans on the 1942 crops. Losses 
of the corporation have been small compared with 
the benefits it has realized for farmers, but the de- 
fense emergency emphasizes the importance of re- 
ducing the expense as much as possible through 
close coordination of the loan program with acre- 
age adjustments and marketing controls 

Entomology in Defence Activities. In the Department 
of Agriculture the agency concerned with work on 
insects and plant pests is the Bureau of Entomology 
and Plant Quarantine. It has joined defense units 
and within the limit of its funds and authority is 
helping to meet the wide variety of needs associated 
with the defense program. See ENTOMOLOGY, ECO- 
NOMIC. 

Coordination of Federal and State Research. Farm 
conditions are changing so rapidly that farm re- 
search must change too. The agricultural experi- 
ment stations in the several States and in Alaska, 
Hawaii, and Puerto Rico are alive to this fact They 
are scrutinizing carefully their old and their new 
research projects, so as to give them maximum de- 
fense effectiveness. The emergency has necessi- 
tated some redirection of the work both as regards 
production needs and as regards adjustment to 
changed economic conditions. It appears on the 
whole, nevertheless, that the activities of the ex- 
periment stations, with some change of emphasis, 
fit in well with defense requirements. The Depart- 
ment's Office of Experiment Stations helps to co- 
ordinate the projects, under legislation which re- 
quires it to pass on proposed expenditures with 
Federal funds. See AGRICULTURE. 

Agricultural Chemistry and Engineering. Chemists 
and engineers in the Bureau of Agricultural Chem- 
istry and Engineering attack together a great va- 
riety of problems in farm production, in the pro- 
tection of crops from pests, in transportation and 
storage, in processing, and in the utilization of 
crops by industry and by the individual consumer. 
The results have important defense applications. 
Four new regional laboratories recently built and 
equipped, together with the laboratories previously 
established at Washington and at the various field 
stations, help to solve many urgent problems, as 
well as to carry on long-time research projects. 

Among the accomplishments of direct value in 
defense are contributions to the improvement of 



camouflage materials and methods, demonstrations 
of the usefulness of certain agricultural materials 
for direct war purposes, such as the making of 
smokeless powder and protective helmets for civil- 
ian defense workers, improvements in equipment 
used by fighting forces, and foods better adapted 
for use under exacting conditions of transportation 
and storage, such, for example, as dehydrated vege- 
tables. Other research results in this category con- 
tribute indirectlv to defense. Examples of this type 
are new methods and equipment that make certain 
farm products sources of good substitutes for im- 
ported materials now not readily obtainable; im- 
proved ways of turning out food products useful in 
maintaining a high standard of nutrition; better 
storage methods and structures for food products, 
more economical production and processing of fi- 
bers; procedures that save fuel oil in house heating; 
more efficient processing of turpentine and rosin, 
possible new sources of vegetable oils, and ways of 
increasing commercial production of soybean pro- 
tein as a substitute for other proteins. 

Animal Industry Research. Research in the Bureau 
of Animal Industry continues to furnish growers 
with facts that enable them to produce more live- 
stock at less cost and to overcome difficulties that 
formerly have caused loss and discouragement. 
There is space here for just one example. Investiga- 
tions with phenothiazine for combating internal 
parasites of livestock came to fruition near the end 
of 1940. The research work showed conclusively 
that this chemical was effective, in small therapeu- 
tic doses, for removing injurious and devitalizing 
internal parasites from cattle, sheep, and goats. 
Among such parasites were stomach worms, hook- 
worms, and nodular worms The same chemical was 
found to be the most effective remedy yet discov- 
ered for the removal, from horses and mules, of red, 
or palisade, worms and related roundworms, which 
are as injurious to eqmnes as hookworms are to hu- 
man beings The work of the Bureau's in\ estigators 
has been confirmed by workers elsewhere in the 
United States and abroad with indications that 
phenothiazine will become the most valuable treat- 
ment yet known for the removal of internal para- 
sites from domestic animals. 

Developments in Plant Science. In work done in the 
Bureau of Plant Industry many superior new strains 
and varieties of crop plants emerged from test plots 
and began to be useful under commercial growing 
conditions. Certain developments in this field bore 4 
closely on the defense efforts. The program to grow 
rubber in the Western Hemisphere got off to a good 
start The trend toward wider and more efficient 
use of grasses and legumes developed into a nation- 
wide movement. Work to improve the nutrition 
quality of our food plants had increased impor- 
tance In the South especially efforts were made to 
develop a wider range of adapted varieties of vege- 
tables. The Bankhead-Jones Vegetable Breeding 
Laboratory at Charleston, S.C., reported many val- 
uable developments. Wise use of our water re- 
sources in the West, and the effect on the nation's 
agriculture of bringing in large areas of new irri- 
gated farm lands, were plant-science problems with 
defense aspects. 

Rural Electrification. During the fiscal year 1941 
systems financed by the Rural Electrification Ad- 
ministration continued to advance the program of 
rural electrification as rapidly as permitted by the 
loan funds provided. On June 30, 1941, allotments 
totaled $369,027,621. Full development of the sys- 
tems for which these allotments have been made 
will provide electric services to approximately 
1,171,867 rural consumers and serve a population 



AGRICULTURE 



17 



ALABAMA 



in excess of five and a half millions. At the close 
of the fiscal year 732 of the 823 borrowing organi- 
zations had energized part or all of their lines and 
were serving 780,933 farm families and other rural 
users. This is in contrast to a total of 549,604 rural 
users on the same date in 1940; 268,000 in 1939; 
and 104,528 in 1938. 

The Form Security Program. All regular phases of 
the Farm Security Administration program have 
been enlisted in the interests of national defense, 
and several new FSA activities have been under- 
taken as a result of the defense program. Families 
aided by the FSA rehabilitation program have in- 
creased their production of foodstuffs, especially 
their production of milk, eggs, and meat. Farm Se- 
curity loans and supervision are currently serving 
to strengthen the morale and to improve the health 
and skill of more than 480,000 active standard bor- 
rowers. More than 900,000 borrowers have been 
assisted by the FSA since 1934. The progress of 
these economically distressed rural families toward 
recovery was revealed by a survey made at the end 
of the 1940 crop year. The average net annual in- 
come of borrower families had risen from $480 in 
the year before they had FSA aid to $650 in 1940, 
an increase of 35 per cent. Their average net worth 
had ascended 21 per cent from $871 to $1,051. 
Tins was a total gam of $75,289,838 in net income 
and of $79,702,251 in net worth 

The Emergency Forest Problem. It should be frankly 
recognized that defense production, as we have 
conducted it up to the present, will further cripple 
our forest resources and plant seeds of rural prob- 
lems This is not only unfortunate, it is unnecessary. 
Relatively simple methods of forest cutting and 
other practices if applied on a nation-wide scale 
could give us what we need from the forests for 
defense programs and at the same time build up 
the forest resources Studies made in the Forest 
Service indicate that an increased output of forest 
products can be obtained without excessively de- 
pleting our forest resources It is possible, in other 
words, to get adequate supplies of forest products 
both for defense and for civilian use by methods 
which at the same time will strengthen our forest 
resources for the long pull. The Forest Service is 
cooperating with State agencies and with private 
forest operators to advance this dual aim 

Farm Credit Policy. The Farm Credit Administra- 
tion is conducting a program to head off land boom 
dangers. It includes measures that will encourage 
farmers to build reserves for rainy days. The pro- 
gram emphasizes five primary credit objectives : ( 1 ) 
To make normal values a primary factor in all ap- 
praisals for farm real estate loans. This is the sound- 
est basis of appraisal in a situation like the one now 
confronting us. (2) To impress upon present bor- 
rowers the wisdom of making use of higher incomes 
now available for the repayment of existing debts. 
This will be a factor in preventing inflation. (3) 
To encourage farmers to build reserves out of high- 
er incomes today to bridge the period when incomes 
may not be so high, by offering inducements to 
borrowers to accumulate funds to meet future pay- 
ments. ( 4 ) To avoid fostering speculative increases 
in production, while giving careful consideration 
to the needs for extending credit for making neces- 
sary shifts and increases in production. ( 5 ) To en- 
courage the sound use of credit to foster a better 
balanced agriculture that yields a higher and a 
more secure standard of living to the family farm. 

Soil Conservation. As an important part of the con- 
servation program, the Departments Soil Conser- 
\ation Service is classifying farm and range land 
so that eventually we will be able to ascertain 



quickly the precise areas where, in case of emer- 
gency, we can expand or contract farm production 
most efficiently. As we learn the capabilities of our 
soil resources for varying uses, we can partially 
eliminate the chances for waste of manpower, fuel, 
seed, and equipment on inefficient areas. Similarly, 
we can dimmish the likelihood of ill-advised, indis- 
criminate plow-uns such as took place during and 
after the last World War. The facts about America's 
land resources are being assembled by the Soil 
Conservation Service on "land use capability" maps. 
With one of these maps, a fanner can determine 
almost at a glance which areas are best for inter- 
filled crops, where his poorest acres are located, 
and which land is best suited for grass and trees. 

Cooperative Land-Use Planning. Cooperative land 
use planning, or agricultural planning as it is now 
coming to be known, is a joint program of the De- 
partment of Agriculture and the State Land-Grant 
Colleges. It has spread in less than 3 years to 47 
States and to nearly two-thirds of our agricultural 
counties. Designed as a democratic means of unify- 
ing national, regional, and local farm interests and 
of coordinating public agricultural progiam, agri- 
cultural planning has developed rapidlv in the de- 
fense emergency. By democratic procedures, it pro- 
motes the full cooperation of farmers, agricultural 
experts, and administrators of farm programs in 
plans and policies to increase the contribution ot 
agriculture to the defense of democracy, and to 
promote rural well-being During the past year, 
State Agricultural Planning Committees have been 
active in 47 States, county and community agri- 
cultural planning committees have been at work in 
nearly 1,900 counties in these States More than 
10,000 community committees have participated in 
the program. The State and county committees in- 
clude farm men and women and reprcsentati\ es of 
Federal and State agencies, while the community 
committees are composed primarily of farm men 
and women. See AGRICULTURE 

ARTHUR P. CHKW 

AIR BASES. Sec ALASKA, ANTIGUA, BAHAMAS, BER- 
MUDA, BRAZIL, CANADA, COLOMBIA, COSTA RICA, 
CUBA, GREENLAND, ICELAND, IRAQ, JAMAICA, NEW- 
FOUNDLAND, PANAMA, SYRIA, TRINIDAD, and URU- 
GUAY, under History 

AIR BORNE INFANTRY BATTALION. See MILITARY 
PROGRESS 

AIR CONDITIONING. See HEATING AND VENTILAT- 
ING. 

AIR CORPS, AIR COUNCIL, AIR FORCE COMBAT COM- 
MAND. See MILITARY PROGRESS For the AIR CORPS 
FERRYING COMMAND, see also LEND-LEASE AD- 
MINISTRATION. 

AIRGRAPH SYSTEM See PHOTOGRAPHY under A/i/i- 
tary. 

AIRPLANES. See AERONAUTICS, WORLD WAR. 
AIRPORTS. See AERONAUTICS, TFLI-GRAPHY. 
AIR RAIDS. See AERONAUTICS, WORLD WAR; articles 
on the belligerent countries. For AIR RAID PRECAU- 
TIONS, see BOMBS; CIVILIAN DEFENSE, OFFICE OF; 
FIRE PROTECTION; RAPID TRANSIT, RED CROSS, com- 
pare BLACKOUTS. 

AIR TRANSPORT, AIRWAYS. See AERONAUTICS; DE- 
FENSE TRANSPORTATION, OFFICE OF. For statistics, 
see countries and States under Transportation. 

ALABAMA. An east south central State. Area: 51,609 
sq. mi., including 531 sq. mi. of inland water, but 
excluding Gulf of Mexico coastal waters, 560 sq. 
mi. Population: (1940 census) 2,832,961. The 
urban population comprises 30.2 per cent of the 
total (U.S. average, 56.5 per cent); non-white pop- 



ALABAMA 



18 



ALASKA 



ulation, 34.8 per cent (U.S. average, 10.2); elderly 
(65 years and over), 4.8 per cent. Alabama ranks 
28th among the States in area, 17th in population, 
and 20th in density, with an average of 55.5 per 
sq. mi. The capital is Montgomery with 78,084 in- 
habitants; largest city, Birmingham, 267,583. There 
are 67 counties and 14 cities of more than 10,000 
inhabitants (see article on POPULATION in 1940 
YEAR BOOK). For statistics on births, deaths, acci- 
dents, et cetera, see VITAL STATISTICS. 

Education. According to A. H. Collins, Superinten- 
dent of the Department of Education, there were 
686,767 pupils enrolled in the public schools of 
Alabama during the school year 1940-41, 496,973 
in elementary schools and 189,794 in secondary 
schools. Teacners numbered 19,393 and received an 
annual average salary of $719. Total expenditures 
for the year were $24,178,703. See UNIVERSITIES. 

Transportation. State highway mileage in 1939, 
including streets under State control, totaled 6,471, 
of which 6,271 miles were surfaced. Motor vehicles 
registered in 1940 (including trailers and motor- 
cycles) numbered 347,123; 273,114 were private 
and commercial automobiles, 3,892 busses, and 
62,847 trucks and tractor trucks. Gross motor-fuel 
consumption was 259,915,000 gallons. Net motor- 
fuel tax receipts were $15,535,000, the rate being 
six cents per gallon (Dec. 31, 1940). State motor- 
vehicle receipts (from registrations, licenses, fines, 
etc.) were $4,548,000 

Railways of all classes extended 5,052 miles 
(Dec. 31, 1939) 2.15 per cent of the total mileage 
in the United States. Class I steam railways (4,191 
miles) reported 20,195,532 tons of revenue freight 
originating in Alabama in 1940 and 14,788,360 tons 
terminating in Alabama. There are 34 airports and 
landing fields in the State (14 lighted fields) and 
one seaplane anchorage. On July 1, 1941, according 
to the Civil Aeronautics Authority, there were 153 
civil aircraft in the State and 935 commercial and 
private pilots (798 private). 

Agriculture. Acreage harvested in principal crops 
in 1941 totaled 7,502,500, as compared with 7,791,- 
500 acres in 1940. According to the latest census, 
there are 231,746 farms, valued at $408,782,488, 
averaging 82.6 acres each. Farm population num- 
bered 1,344,349 or 47.5 per cent of the total. Lead- 
ing crops with production were: Cotton lint, $64,- 
780,000, 790,000 bales; com, $38,933,000, 51,228,- 
000 bu.; cottonseed, $16,579,000, 352,000 tons; 
peanuts, $10,332,000, 252,000 lb.; hay, $9,369,000, 
3,643,000 tons; sweet potatoes, $7,050,000, 3,240,- 
000 bu. 

Manufacturing. According to the latest census 
(1939) the total value of manufactured products 
was $574,670,690 For details, see 1940 YEAR BOOK. 

Mineral Production. Leading mineral products in 
1940 included the following (with 1939 figures in 
parentheses): Pig iron, 3,476,072 net tons valued 
at $49,706,851 (3,043,602 net tons, $43,902,681); 
coal, 15,150,000 net tons (11,995,000 net tons, 
$27,708,000); coke, 4,727,378 net tons, $13,748,- 
837 (3,854,505 net tons, $10,917,559); iron ore, 
7,330,412 gross tons, $12,606,369 (5,985,208 net 
tons, $9,971,024); cement, 5,249,759 barrels, $7,617,- 
405 (5,042,921 barrels, $6,690,765). According to 
the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the total value of mineral 
production in 1939 was $52,124,382 or 1.23 per 
cent of the total value for the United States. (Dupli- 
cations are eliminated in State totals; e.g., iron ore 
is included, pig iron omitted. ) Alabama ranks 20th 
among the States in value of mineral products. 

Trade. According to the 1940 census there were 
1,943 wholesale establishments in Alabama, em- 
ploying 14,202 persons, reporting net sales for 



1939 of $415,688,000 and annual pay roll of $18,- 
910,000. There were 23,916 retail stores with 51,- 
830 employees, reporting sales of $435,973,000 and 
pay roll of $37,826,000. Service establishments 
numbered 9,001, employing 17,977 persons for 
$9,961,000 per year, and reporting a business vol- 
ume amounting to $31,361,000. The leading busi- 
ness center of the State is Birmingham which re- 
ported wholesale sales of $182,932,000, retail sales 
of $100,136,000, and $7,610,000 receipts for its 
service establishments. Montgomery reported sales 
of $56,851,000 wholesale and $30,930,000 retail, 
Mobile, $43,976,000 and $30,838,000 respectively. 

Social Security and Relief. In the calendar year 1940 
the total cost of assistance to needy persons in 
Alabama was $37,596,000. Under the Social Se- 
curity program, financed by Federal funds match- 
ing State grants, 20,068 elderly persons were re- 
ceiving (as of June, 1941) an average monthly 
old-age pension of $9.14 (U.S average pension, 
$21.08); 16,815 dependent children in 5,801 fami- 
lies received average monthly payments of $13.79 
per family (U.S. average, $3273); and 615 blind 
persons received $9.07 per month (U.S. average, 
$25.58). General relief cases, which are supported 
by State and local funds only, numbered 2,387 and 
received $8.95 per case (average payment for 41 
States, $22.68). 

The number of persons employed throughout the 
State in June, 1941, under the various Federal 
work programs was as follows (with total earnings 
for the month in parentheses ). CCC, 8,175 ($542,- 
000); NYA student work program, 3,529 ($31,- 
000), NYA out-of -school work program, 11,758 
($221,000); WPA, 32,037 ($1,535,000); other 
Federal emergency projects, 86 ($12,000); regular 
Federal construction projects, 16,306 ($2,191,000). 
The Farm Security Administration certified sub- 
sistence payments totaling $656,000 for the month 
to 7,471 cases. 

Legislature. The Legislature convenes quadren- 
nially until 1943 when biennial sessions will be 
introduced. (The last session was in 1939.) It is 
composed of 35 Senators (34 Democrats and one 
vacancy in 1941 ) and 106 Representatives ( 101 
Democrats and five vacancies). 

Finances. Total tax collections in Alabama for the 
fiscal year ending in September, 1940, were $55,- 
134,000. Total sales taxes amounted to $26,792,- 
000, including general sales, $7,756,000, motor 
fuel, $15,301,000. Taxes on specific businesses and 
occupations ran to $6,363,000, while general and 
selective property taxes came to $5,103,000. The 
net income taxes were $2,670,000. Cost payments 
for the operation of general government totaled 
$44,469,000 in 1939, the latest year available. 
( Revenues for the general government for that year 
were $65,781,000.) Cost of operation per capita 
was $15.81. Total gross debt outstanding in 1941 
was $69,730,000 as compared with $82,343,000 in 
1932. 

Officers and Judiciary. The Governor is Frank M. 
Dixon (Dem.), inaugurated in January, 1939, for 
a four-year term; Lieutenant Governor, Albert A. 
Carmichael, Secretary of State, John Brandon; At- 
torney General, Thomas S. Lawson; State Treas- 
urer, Chailes E. McCall; State Auditor, Howell 
Turner. Chief Justice of the Alabama Supreme 
Court is Lucien Gardner; there are five associate 
members elected by popular vote for six-year terms. 

See BIRTH CONTROL; PRISONS. 

ALAND ISLANDS. See FINLAND under History. 

ALASKA. An organized, noncontiguous Territory of 
the United States, situated in the far northwest of 



ALASKA 19 

the North American continent, including the Aleu- 
tian Islands. Area, 586,400 square miles, inclusive 
of inland waters. Population, 1940 (taken Oct. 1, 
1939) 72,524; 1930, 59,278. Whites (1939) num- 
bered 39,170; Indians and Eskimos, 32,458. Capi- 
tal, Juneau; population (1940) 5,729. Governor, 
Ernest Gruenmg. 

These population figures do not tell the whole 
story, however, according to Governor Gruening's 
annual report for the fiscal year 1941. The large 
scale defense program in Alaska brought a sudden 
influx of workers to the territory, which continued 
to the end of the year and swelled the total popula- 
tion to 80,000 people. 

Mineral Production. Plans for work in Alaska Dy 
the U.S. Geological Survey for 1941 included an 
intensive search for some of the strategic minerals 
urgently needed by the United States for the war 
program. Search for Alaskan sources of tin, nickel, 
chrome, mercury, tungsten, and antimony were 
pressed witn especial activity. 

The mineral output of Alaska was valued at $28,- 
470,000 in 1940 which compared with $25,296,000 
during the preceding year, and was greater than at 
ciny time since the first World War, according to 
the U.S. Geological Survey. The value of the gold 
produced in 1940 marked an all-time high. The 
following table shows the value of the mineral out- 
put of Alaska in 1940 and 1939: 



ALASKA 



Minerals 


1940 


19S9 


Gold 


$20,178,000 


$23,279,000 


Silver 


143,000 


138,000 


Copper 


13,800 


30,000 


Lend . 


84,000 


106,000 


Platinum metalb 


1,093,000 


997,000 


Tu\, metallic 


52,000 


37,300 


Coal 


095,000 


585,000 


Miscellaneous 


211,200 


123,700 


Total . 


. $28,470,000 


$25,296,000 



Fisheries and Furs. Products of the Alaska fisheries 
in 1940 decreased considerably, the total quantity 
being the smallest for any year since 1927. Two im- 
portant causes of the decline were light runs of sal- 
mon and herring m certain localities, which neces- 
sitated rigid curtailment of operations, and suspen- 
sion of operations by the Alaska whaling stations 
because of the low prices for whale oil. Halibut, 
clam, and shrimp products showed a gain both in 
quantity and value. Salmon products represented 
about 81 per cent in volume and about 91 per cent 
in value of the total fisheries output in Alaska in 
1940, as compared with 73 per cent in volume and 
91 per cent in value in 1939. In 1940, 25,199 per- 
sons were employed m the commercial fisheries of 
Alaska, a decrease of 5,373 from 1939. The total 
value of Alaska fishery products was $36,440,660, a 
decrease of $3,663,833 from the preceding year. 

At the Pribilof Islands 65,263 fur-seal skins were 
taken. The computation of the fur-seal herd as of 
Aug. 10, 1940, showed a total of 2,185,136 animals 
of all classes, an increase of 164,362 over the pre- 
vious year. Fur farming retained its place as an im- 
portant industry, with 217 licensed farmers last 
year. The Territorial experimental fur farm at Pe- 
tersburg became an important source of aid for the 
fur farmer. As in previous years, mink and blue and 
silver foxes were the main species propagated with 
the ranching of other fur bearers such as white fox, 
marten, land otter, beaver, and fitch being more or 
less in an experimental stage. The raising of marten 
and lynx was not entirely successful. Domestic pro- 
duction of muskrats and nutria is to be attempted. 

Last year 546,295 pelts were taken in the Terri- 
tory; the value of those shipped out totaled $1,944,- 
719. Muskrats, selling for an average price of $1.10 



35,366,848 
2,844,202 
20,951,797 
79,075 
4,003,9b9 


34,450,934 
2,565,414 
20,410,756 
65,749 
3,001,022 


915,914 
278,848 
641,042 
13,326 
342,947 



per pelt, yielded a total of $498,630; mink, $371,- 
467. 

Commerce of Alaska. Shipment values (as com- 
piled by the Collector of Customs) were: 

Years ended June SO, 
Alaska to United States 1940 1941 Decrease 

Canned salmon S20.740.427 $29,560,206 $180,131 

All other fish and fish 

products . . 5,626,421 4,890,638 735,783 

Total fish .. 
Fur skins 

Gold 

Silver . . 

All other products 

Grand total . $03,245,951 $61,153,874 $2,092,077 
United States to Alaska 43,827,202 

Agriculture and Colonization. Agricultural interests 
remained focused on the Matanuska Valley coloni- 
zation project. About 4,500 acres of fir and spruce 
forest were turned into fields of thriving crops of 
wheat, barley, oats, peas and oats, hay, potatoes, 
and numerous vegetables. The dairy industry in 
the valley expanded greatly. There were 133 oc- 
cupied and 8 unoccupied farms in the project. A 
number of the original 40-acre tracts were com- 
bined with others to make 80- or 120-acre farms. 
Additional land was cleared on the unoccupied 
tracts to make them more valuable for farming 
There was sufficient farming experience in the 
Matanuska Valley to prove agriculture a distinct 
success. 

Reindeer Service. Congress passed the Reindeer 
Act (1939) appropriating $795,000 to buy up all 
nonnative owned reindeer as a conservation and 
Eskimo-protection measure. In 1941 there were ap- 
proximately 205,000 reindeer in Alaska of which 
natives owned about 161,000 and the government 
44,000. These animals graze 56 ranges on the west 
coast between Kodiak Island and the Arctic rim 
east of Barrow, an area of 166,000 square miles 
There were 36 native reindeer associations in 1941, 
in which 3,190 Eskimos, Aleuts, and Indians owned 
stock. Over 14,000 people, including native fami- 
lies, were dependent upon reindeer as an essential 
source of food and clothing. 

Transportation and Communications. Records of the 
five regular steamship companies serving Alaska 
disclosed a considerable increase in travel to Alas- 
ka over previous years. Both passenger traffic and 
freight tonnage over the Alaska Railroad showed a 
noteworthy increase for the year due to the defense 
construction activities m Anchorage and Fairbanks. 
In addition to the usual funds for the Alaska Road 
Commission, $1,000,000 was made available by 
congressional appropriation for a road connecting 
the Anchorage road system with the Richardson 
Highway, thus connecting with the Fairbanks road 
system. Length of road to be built is 145 miles and 
estimated cost, $1,500,000. Work was well started 
on the new road from Palmer to the Richardson 
Highway with construction under way in various 
stages over a distance of 40 miles. The cost during 
the year was $991,967, of which $276,294 was for 
new work and $715,673 for maintenance and im- 
provement. Total expenditures during the fiscal 
year were $1,212,995. 

Today there are 155 commercial air fields in 
Alaska. Work completed during the fiscal year 1941 
by the Airways Engineering Division provided the 
Territory with an airways system from Nome to 
Ketchikan. Improvements during the fiscal year will 
expand the system to the Alaska Peninsula and the 
Aleutian Islands. 

Education. The University of Alaska in 1940-41 



ALBANIA 



20 



ALBANIA 



enrolled 250 resident and 60 nonresident students. 
The Territorial Board of Education, during 1940- 
41, operated 116 day schools, 5 special schools, and 
2 vocational boarding schools with a total enroll- 
ment of 6,900. Several factors have contributed to 
a steadily increasing enrollment in Native schools 
for the past six years. 

Events. Headlines in the story of Alaska for 1941 
were the vast naval and air base defense programs 
launched to strengthen the position of the United 
States in the Pacific, and the sudden strategic im- 
portance of Alaska to the United Nations with the 
entry of the United States into World War II. The 
Aleutian Islands are 800 miles nearer to Japan than 
Pearl Harbor; only 2,300 miles lie between Dutch 
Harbor and Yokohama. And it is no secret that 
Alaska's wealth of minerals and her annual output 
of 250,000 Ibs. of canned salmon arc prizes greatly 
coveted by Japan, to say nothing of the value a 
foothold on Alaskan soil would be for an offensive 
against the west coast 

Huge sums of money were appropriated and 
spent in 1941 to make Alaska impregnable. By 
June an initial $70,000,000 had been authorized 
The strong Naval air and submarine base at Dutch 
Harbor was commissioned Sept. 1, 1941. Huge in- 
land Army air bases at Fairbanks and Anchorage 
were almost completed by the end of the year, the 
one at Anchorage with a 1,000-bomber capacity. 
The Navy put a listening post on Kiska in the Aleu- 
tians, and additional flying fields for the Army were 
well under way at Yakutat on the Gulf of Alaska 
and at Metlakatla. Still other naval bases were be- 
ing built at Kodiak and Japonski Islands near Sitka. 
The airfield program included major airports on 
Annette Island near Ketchikan, at Boundary, Big 
Delta, West Ruby, Bethel, and Cordova. 

A program of tax reform was presented by the 
governor to the legislature in January, 1941, which 
proposed levying two new basic taxes, a corporate 
and personal income tax and a general property 
tax, and the repeal of more than 30 existing so- 
called "nuisance ' taxes. This proposal was designed 
to correlate the increased prosperitv of individuals 
in Alaska with the revenues needed for the better- 
ment of the Territory. But the old frontier psychol- 
ogy of "Get in, get rich, get out" prevailed, and the 
reforms were defeated by a small but active lobby 
representing the absentee gold-mining and cannery 
group. Also defeated were a bill to create a much- 
needed Department of Health, a bill to remedy the 
code for juvenile offenders, and a bill to appropriate 
$386,500 for new construction for the University of 
Alaska. The legislature cut the appropriation for 
the care of crippled children from $30,000 to $25,- 
000, and abolished the Alaska Planning Council, 
which was established in 1937, and had since 
brought to light important and pertinent facts about 
the absence of adequate taxation in the Territory. 

One constructive piece of legislation was the es- 
tablishment of a Territorial Department of Labor 
Jokers were inserted in the hope that the bill would 
be so bad that the Governor would have to veto it. 
These included a 10-year residence requirement for 
every employee of the Department, a 35-year age 
qualification for the Commissioner of Labor, and a 
salary for the Commissioner 28 per cent lower than 
that of all other Territorial officials Nevertheless 
the Department was organized in the hope that sub- 
sequent legislatures would do better by it. 

See ARCHAEOLOGY; GEOLOGICAL SURVEY; LABOR 
LEGISLATION. 

ALBANIA. A former Balkan kingdom on the east 
shore of the Adriatic Sea, occupied by Italian 



troops on Apr. 7, 1939, and proclaimed an Italian 
protectorate the following day. Excluding the dis- 
tricts of Kossovo and Ciamuria in Yugoslavia, an- 
nexed to Albania in 1941, the area was 10,629 
square miles and the estimated population 1,063,- 
000 on Dec. 31, 1939 (1,003,124 at the 1930 cen- 
sus). Capital, Tirana (pop. 30,806 in 1930); other 
chief towns, Scutari (Shkoder), 29,209; Koritsa 
(Korce), 22,787; Elbasan, 13,796; Durazzo (Dur- 
res), the chief port, 8,739. Most of the cities of 
southern and central Albania were badly damaged 
during the Italo-Greek war of 1940-41. 

Education and Religion. Primary education is nomi- 
nally compulsory, but illiteracy remains high. In 

1939 there were 663 state primary schools, with 
56,936 pupils; 19 intermediate schools, with 6,235 
pupils; and about 500 Albanian students in various 
foreign universities. The estimated religious division 
of the population was: Moslems, 688,280; Ortho- 
dox Christians, 210,313, Roman Catholics, 104,184 

Production. Albania's chief products are corn, 
tobacco, wool, timber, hides, dairy products, fish, 
olive oil, and petroleum (see 1939 YEAR BOOK for 
available production figures). The December, 1938, 
livestock census showed 391,175 cattle, 1,573,857 
sheep, 932,333 goats, 54,426 horses, 44,579 asses, 
and 10,391 mules Besides petroleum, with an out- 
put estimated at 1,659,000 bbl. in 1940, there are 
copper, chrome, and other mineral resources which 
Italy commenced to exploit in 1940 and 1941 
Flour, olive oil, and cheese are the principal manu- 
factures. 

Foreign Trade. Imports in 1938 totaled 22,397,890 
gold francs (1 franc equalled 6.25 Italian lire), of 
which 8,337,109 francs were from Italy, exports, 
9,749,959 francs (6,665,257 to Italy). Wool, hides 
and furs, cheese, cattle, eggs, and timber are the 
chief exports. 

Finance. Budget estimates for the fiscal year ended 
Mar. 31, 1940, balanced at 40,000,000 gold francs 
The public debt in 1938 was 68,200,000 gold 
francs, outstanding from a series of loans extended 
by Italy in return for political and economic con- 
cessions (see 1938 YEAR BOOK, p. 27). 

Transportation. The highway network extended 
1,759 miles in 1940 (750 miles suitable for motor 
traffic), but this was badly disrupted by war in 
1940-41. Italian air services connect Tirana and 
other Albanian cities with Rome and other points. 
Construction of a railway between Durazzo and 
Elbasan, the first line in Albania, was begun in 
May, 1940. 

Government. King Zog I, proclaimed King of Al- 
bania by an independent National Assembly Sept. 
1, 1928, was dethroned Apr 12, 1939, by an Italian- 
controlled Constituent Assembly, which abrogated 
the existing constitution. An Italian-sponsored gov- 
ernment then offered the Crown of Albania to 
King Victor Emmanuel of Italy. A personal union 
between the two kingdoms was thus effected Apr 
14, 1939. The following June 3 Victor Emmanuel 
issued a constitutional statute making the Albanian 
throne hereditary under his dynasty and vesting 
legislative, judicial, and executive powers in the 
King's hands. Legislative powers were delegated in 
part to an Albanian Fascist Corporative Council, 
based on a newly organized Albanian Fascist party, 
and executive and judicial powers to Albanian offi- 
cials acting under Italian guidance. Albanian re- 
mained the official language. A treaty signed the 
same date placed Albania's foreign relations in the 
hands of tne Rome Government (see YEAR BOOK 
for 1939, p. 22). 

History. The Italo-Greek war that began Oct. 28, 

1940 (see YEAR BOOK for 1940, p. 19) continued 



ALBERTA 



21 



ALGERIA 



on Albanian soil until the second week of April, 
1941. Then the success of the German attack upon 
Yugoslavia and Greece forced the withdrawal of 
the Greek armies. Yugoslav forces that attempted 
an invasion of Albania after the German attack 
upon Yugoslavia had made but slight progress 
when German victories ended this threat to the en- 
circled Italian armies (see WORLD WAR). Never- 
theless war-ravaged Albania continued to suffer 
from hunger, disease, and the underground strug- 
gle against the Italian overlords that followed the 
sanguinary Italo-Greek hostilities. 

Albanian nationalists in the main supported the 
Greeks in their war with Italy, hoping that an 
Anglo-Greek victory would permit the reestablish- 
ment of an independent Albania. When the Greeks 
indicated their intention of retaining the Albanian 
territories conquered from Italy, Albanian patri- 
archs living in exile in Balkan capitals appealed to 
Prime Minister Churchill in mid-February for a 
declaraton by the British Government in support 
of Albanian independence. London authorities is- 
sued no public statement on the issue but report- 
edly sought through diplomatic negotiation to re- 
strain Greek territorial aspirations. 

With the collapse of Yugoslavia and Greece, 
Italy extended Albania's frontiers to include the 
districts of Kossovo in Yugoslavia and Ciamuria 
(Tsamuna) in Greece. Both contained consider- 
able Albanian populations Beginning May 10, King 
Victor Emmanuel of Italy made his first visit to 
Albania since the Italian occupation. The King and 
Premier Shevkct Verlaci of Albania had a narrow 
escape from the bullets of an assassin near Tirana 
on May 17. Vasil Laci Mihailov, said to be a native 
of Ciamuria, was hanged for the crime. The pup- 
pet government at Tirana announced on June 28 
that Albania was at war with the Soviet Union. On 
July 31 it was officially announced in Rome that 
Albanian authorities had assumed control of the 
protectorate's affairs under a special agreement with 
Italy, the terms of which were not reported. 

Unrest and anti-Italian sentiment remained rife, 
however, and beginning in August Albanian tribes 
were reported to have joined in the an ti- Axis revolt 
sweeping through the occupied countries of Eu- 
rope. Assisted by Serbian Chetniks, Albanian guer- 
rillas harassed Italian garrisons in the mountains of 
central and northern Albania. Widespread sabotage 
of the oil pipeline, mines, and equipment valuable 
to the Italians was reported. 

Resignation of Premier Shevket Verlaci's Cabinet 
in favor of a new Ministry headed by Mustapha 
Merlika Kruja was announced in Tirana and Rome 
December 3. A pro-Italian, Kruja supported the 
Italian invasion of Albania and was subsequently 
appointed a Senator. 

See GREECE, and ITALY under History; WORLD 
WAR. 

ALBERTA. A prairie province of Canada. Area, 255,- 
285 square miles, including 6,485 square miles of 
fresh water. Population (1941 census, preliminary), 
788,398, compared with (1936 census), 772,782. 
Chief cities ( 1941 census figures) : Edmonton, cap- 
ital (92,404), Calgary (87,264), Lethbridge (14,- 
238), Medicine Hat (10,473), Red Deer (2,846), 
Drumheller (2,687), Wetaskiwin (2,285). Vital sta- 
tistics (1940): 17,329 living births, 6,198 deaths, 
and 8,778 marriages. Education (1938-39): 178,- 
757 students enrolled in schools and colleges. 

Production. The gross value of agricultural pro- 
duction for 1940 was $203,721,000 (including field 
crops $133,734,000, farm animals $38,947,000, 
dairy products $19,844,000, poultry products 



$5,385,000, fruits and vegetables $3,750,000). Field 
crop yields in 1940 were wheat (187,000,000 bu.), 
oats (103,000,000 bu.), barley (32,000,000 bu.), 
rye (3,000,000 bu.), potatoes (93,100 tons), hay 
(899,000 tons), grain hay (1,800,000 tons), sugar 
beets (334,000 tons). Livestock (1940): 1,366,000 
cattle (including 417,000 milk cows), 1,371,000 
swine, 883,000 sheep, 658,000 horses, and 7,697,- 
900 poultry. The 1940 wool clip amounted to 
4,001,000 Ib. Furs (1940-41): 2,601,424 pelts 
valued at $2,806,073 (3,977,118 pelts, $2,514,877 
in 1939-40 and 2,273,826 pelts, $1,345,129 in 
1938-39). Forestry products (1939) were valued 
at $3,268,000. 

Mineral production ( 1939 ) was valued at $30,- 
691,617 (see YEAR BOOK for 1940, p. 20). In 1940, 
crude oil production amounted to 8,494,500 bbl.; 
natural gas, 22,736,000 M cu. ft., coal, 6,202,936 
short tons. Manufacturing (1939): 961 factories, 12,- 
712 employees, $32,618,153 net value of products. 

Government. Finance (year ended Mar. 31, 1940): 
$24,410,040 for revenue and $21,922,189 for ex- 
penditure; net funded debt, $142,926,187. The 
executive power is vested nominally in the lieuten- 
ant governor but actually in the ministry, or cab- 
inet, of the legislature. Legislative power is vested 
in the legislative assembly of 57 members elected 
by direct vote of the people (36 Social Credit, 19 
Independent, and 2 other members were elected at 
the provincial general election of Mar. 21, 1940). 
Alberta is represented by 6 senators ( appointed for 
life) and 17 elected commoners in the Federal 
parliament at Ottawa. Lieutenant Governor, J. C. 
Bowen (appointed Mar. 20, 1937); Premier, Wil- 
liam Aberhart (Social Credit). 

History. On Sept. 2, 1941, the provincial govern- 
ment defaulted on a $2,250,000, 6 per cent bond 
issue, that fell due on September 1 but continued 
to offer to pay interest at one-half the coupon rate. 
A majority of the Supreme Court of Canada, on 
Dec. 2, 1941, decided that the Alberta Debt Ad- 
justment Act of 1937 as amended in subsequent 
years is unconstitutional and beyond the powers of 
the legislature of the province. The Alberta govern- 
ment announced on Dec. 16, 1941, that it would 
enter the life insurance business on Jan. 2, 1942, 
under the terms of the Insurance Act as amended 
at the last session of the legislature. Four types of 
insurance will be offered the 20-pay life, ordinary 
life, term insurance for 5 years, and insurance up to 
65 years. Two years ago the province entered the 
fire insurance business. See CANADA. 

ALCOHOL. See CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL. 
ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES, ALCOHOL TAX UNIT. See LlQ- 
UOR PRODUCTION. 

ALEXANDRETTA, Sanjak of. See SYRIA AND LEBANON. 
ALFALFA. See HAY. 

ALGERIA. A north African colony of France. Area, 
851,350 square miles, of which all except 222,206 
square miles are desert. Capital, Algiers (Alger). 
The estimated population (Dec. 31, 1938) was 
7,490,000. At the 1936 census there were 7,234,684 
inhabitants (6,592,033 in the Northern Territory 
and 642,651 in the Southern Territory), including 
987,252 Europeans (853,209 French citizens) and 
6,247,432 Moslem natives. On Julv 22, 1940, there 
were 20,000 Italians permanently established in 
Algeria. Chief cities (1936 populations): Algiers 
264,232; Oran, 200,671; Constantino, 113,777; 
Bona (B6ne), 86,332; Philippeville, 66,112; Sidi- 
bel-Abbes, 54,754. Education (1938): For non- 
Moslem education, there were 21,249 pupils in 120 
infant schools, 159,725 pupils in 1,224 primary 



ALGERIA 

schools, 9,386 pupils in 30 higher primary schools, 
14,306 pupils in 18 secondary schools, 484 students 
in 6 normal schools for teachers, and 2,248 students 
in the university at Algiers. For Moslem education, 
there were 77,022 students in 692 schools. 

Production. The main occupations of the people 
are agriculture and stock raising. In 1939 yields of 
important cereal crops (in metric tons) were: 
Wheat 1,160,000, barley 1,100,000, oats 220,000. 
Other important products ( 1938 production figures 
in metric tons unless otherwise stated) were: Olive 
oil 7,000 in 1940-41, potatoes 145,300, tobacco 
19,400, wool and mohair 7,400, wine 567,703,479 
U.S. gal. Dates, figs, bananas, and almonds grow 
abundantly. Livestock (1938): 181,000 horses, 
182,000 mules, 319,000 asses, 789,000 cattle, 
5,965,000 sheep, 2,737,000 goats, 170,000 camels, 
and 60,000 swine. Mineral production (1938), in 
metric tons (figures are for metal content of ore): 
iron ore 1,640,000, lead 4,400, pyrites 44,000, zinc 
ore 7,000, antimony ore 150 The output of phos- 
phate rock was 584,000 metric tons. 

Foreign Trade. In 1938, imports totaled 4,995,000 
francs; exports, 5,639,000 francs. Normally over 80 
per cent of Algeria's trade was with France. See 
TRADE, FOREIGN. 

finance. Budget estimates (1940): Revenue, 
2,526,128,968 francs; expenditure, 2,525,778,285 
francs. 

Transportation. In 1940 Algeria had about 2,734 
miles of railway line in operation, 43,239 miles of 
roads (see ROADS AND STREETS), and air services 
connecting Algiers with other North African cities 
and with Marseille, France. Construction of a trans- 
Saharan railway Unking the Algerian and Moroccan 
railway network with the Niger River in French 
West Africa was begun in 1941. In 1938 a total of 
3,956 vessels discharged 3,925,179 tons of mer- 
chandise in Algerian ports and 4,540 ships of 
7,920,844 tons cleared with 7,290,377 tons of Al- 
gerian produce. 

Government. Administration is centralized in the 
hands of a Governor-General appointed by the 
French Government. Previous to the collapse of 
the French Republic, the departments of Algiers, 
Oran, and Constantine in Northern Algeria were 
represented in the French Parliament by 10 dep- 
uties and 3 senators. Southern Algeria had a 
French military government. Under the Vichy 
regime, full executive and legislative powers for 
the colony were vested in the Governor-General, 
who was made responsible to Gen. Maxime Wey- 
gand, Vichy's Delegate-General in French Africa. 
In July, 1941, General Weygand replaced Admiral 
Jean Marie Abrial as Governor-General of Algeria, 
at the same time retaining his post as Delegate- 
General. 

History. Although Admiral Abrial in an interview 
on February 17, asserted that all factions in Algeria 
were solidly behind the Pe"tain Government in 
France, the colony was influenced by the tide of 
resistance to Vichy's policy of collaboration with 
Germany that swept France during 1941. In Jan- 
uary six persons were killed in a riot of French 
troops stationed at Maison Carree, Algeria. Execu- 
tions or imprisonments of de Gaullist spies and 
conspirators were reported from time to time. A 
breach between General Weygand and the Vichy 
Vice Premier, Admiral Darlan, over the issue of 
collaboration with the Reich was reported and on 
August 27 the French War Minister shifted the 
command of French troops in Algeria. See FRANCE 
under History. 

Charges were made in the United States (Nation, 
May 3, 1941 ) that thousands of Spanish and other 



22 ALUMINUM 

refugees were subjected to forced labor on the 
trans-Saharan railway project and to maltreatment 
by French officials. These charges were officially 
denied by the Governor-General's office in July. 

In line with the Vichy Government's program in 
France, the Governor-General's office in Algiers 
proceeded with the reorganization of the colony on 
a corporative basis. A decree of Apr. 7, 1941, called 
for the creation of an Organization Committee for 
each branch of industrial or commercial activity. 
The Committees were to assume full control and 
direction of all persons and companies in their 
respective occupational groups and to regulate 
production, distribution of raw materials and stocks, 
working conditions, etc. 

See FRANCE under History. 

ALIENS, ALIEN REGISTRATION. See IMMIGRATION; al- 
so, ENEMY ALIENS, FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVFSTIOA- 
TION. For alien assets in the United States, see FI- 
NANCIAL REVIEW. For the ALIEN ENEMY CONTROL 
UNIT and HEARING BOARDS, see ENEMY ALIENS. 
ALL-AMERICAN CANAL. See AQUEDUCTS. 

ALSACE-LORRAINE. The two border provinces an- 
nexed by Germanv after the Franco-Prussian War 
and returned to France bv the Versailles Treaty 
(June 29, 1919). They were rooocupied bv Ger- 
man troops in June, 1940, and reinoorporated in 
the Reich on or about Nov. 30, 1940. Area, 5,605 
square miles; population (1936 census), 1,915,627 
Lorraine was merged with the Saar district ( Saar- 
pfalz) to form the new German province of West- 
mark. See FRANCE under History. 

ALUMINUM. Aluminum is essential in the production 
of war materials. It is needed for naval construc- 
tion, for all aircraft construction, especially for 
fighter planes, because of its lightness, great 
strength and freedom from oxidation. It comprises 
half the weight of every airplane: at a rouch esti- 
mate, 13,000 Ib per fighter plane, 30,000 Ib. to a 
bomber. 

Aluminum was the first of the five critical ma- 
terials to be put under priority control by the OPM 
(February, 1941) Government rationing began in 
April with A-preference ratings given to defense 
orders. The nondefense industry was warned as 
early as March by the Director of Priorities to seek 
substitute materials. By April almost the entire sup- 
ply in the United States was going into military 
production. By mid- 1942 aluminum demands are 
expected to double when more and more huge air- 
craft manufacturing plants swing into the projected 
60,000-plane program. On Jan. 26, 1942, the entire 
supplv of United States aluminum was requisi- 
tioned for war contracts only, and at once, by Con-- 
servation Order. This bans its use for any civilian 
purposes whatever. 

The national defense program as earlv as 1940 
had increased aluminum production in the United 
States 26 per cent over 1939. Imports of crude 
aluminum increased 26 per cent and exports fell 
25 per cent. Production in 1941 increased 33 per 
cent over 1940 with 300,000 tons of aluminum 
plus 70,000 tons from secondary sources. The Alu- 
minum Company of America did the whole pro- 
duction job until 1940 when four new companies 
came into the field. The price fell from 20tf to 17tf 
a Ib. in 1940 and to 15? a Ib., September, 1941, 
where it remained to the end of the year. Early 
1942 will see the United States producing alumi- 
num at the rate of more than 450,000 tons per 
year. With eventual war needs figured at 800,000 
tons by the OPM, the nation*! production goal is 



AMBASSADORS AND MINISTERS 



23 



AMERICAN LEGION 



725,000 tons by the end of 1942 and a 750,000 
ton yearly rate by 1943. Canada sends the United 
States about 20,000 tons of aluminum every year 
but is expected to ship in 100,000 tons in 1942. 

Production of bauxite in the United States, ac- 
cording to the U.S. Bureau of Mines, totaled about 
899,500 long tons in 1941 compared with 438,913 
in 1940. Of this Arkansas contributed 92 per cent; 
the other 8 per cent came from Alabama, Georgia, 
and Virginia. Consumption of bauxite broke every 
record with about 1,700,000 tons against 1,072,000 
tons in 1940. Of this, 70 per cent went to the alumi- 
num industry, 16 per cent and 12 per cent to the 
chemical and abrasive industries respectively. 

The U.S. Bureau of Mines estimated that the 
United States had about 32,511,360 tons of bauxite 
jn reserve, not counting the wealth of bauxite at 
Surinam ( Dutch Guiana ) , where the United States 
established a military outpost, Nov. 24, 1941, to 
protect that invaluable and indispensable supply. 
Bauxite imports went up 75 per cent, January- 
September, 1941, according to the Bureau of the 
Census. Of these, 85 per cent were from Surinam; 
10 per cent from British Guiana and 5 per cent 
from the Netherlands Indies. No foreign trade sta- 
tistics later than September, 1941, will be pub- 
lished until after the war. 

To prevent United States dependence on other 
countiics for aluminum, however, the U.S. Bureau 
of Mines and Geological Survey began investiga- 
tions for new sources of supply and reported that 
aluminum can be gotten from deposits in the 
United States of alunite, kaolmite clay, shale, 
nepheline syenite, feldspar mica, Wyomingite, pro- 
philhte, kyanite, and also from coal ash in minute 
quantities. 

See CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL under Metals; ELEC- 
TRICAL INDUSTRIES; MINES, BUREAU OF; PRODUC- 
TION MANAGEMENT, OFFICE OF. 

AMBASSADORS AND MINISTERS. See DIPLOMATIC 
CORPS. 

AMERICAN COMMUNIST PARTY. See COMMUNISM. 
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR. See LABOR CON- 
DITIONS under Union Movements; NATIONAL LABOR 
RELATIONS BOARD. 
AMERICAN LABOR PARTY. See COMMUNISM. 

AMERICAN LEGION, The. An organization of World 
War veterans chartered by Congress in 1919. Its 
23d national convention was held in Milwaukee, 
Wis., Sept. 15 to 18, 1941. Color was supplied the 
convention by a 12-hour parade, Tuesday, Septem- 
ber 16, by 80,000 marchers before 1,000,000 spec- 
tators. The next convention will be in New Orleans, 
La., Sept. 21 to 25, 1942. 

The convention defined the national objective in 
these words: "Our present national objective is the 
defeat of Hitler and what he stands for, and all 
diverting controversies should be subordinated to 
the main objective. We appeal for unity on this na- 
tional objective." The convention also resolved: 
"We have confidence in and pledge our support to 
our Government, our President, our War Depart- 
ment, and our Navy Department." 

It called for: (1) Repeal of the neutrality act. 
(2) Removal of geographic limitation on the move- 
ment of American troops. (3) Indorsement of the 
foreign policy of the President and the Congress. 
(4 ) Upholding the traditional policy of freedom of 
the seas, and opposition to any appeasement to- 
ward the aggressor nations, Germany, Italy, and 
Japan. 

National Defense. The Milwaukee convention de- 
fined the basic elements of national defense to be: 



(a) The ability to apply any fraction or all of our 
manpower ana war industrial resources promptly 
and efficiently by universal military training and 
federal regulation of war supply agencies. ( b) The 
ability to carry war, when unavoidable, to our en- 
emy, and thus prevent him from bringing war to us. 
The national executive committee in Indianapo- 
lis, Nov. 6 and 7, 1941, recommended a five-point 
program for eliminating waste and confusion, in- 
creasing efficiency and accelerating the attainment 
of present national defense objectives, as follows: 

( 1 ) Immediate creation of a national defense agen- 
cy by the government, similar to the war industries 
board of the Great War, to be given full authority 
and responsibility for attaining the national defense 
objectives. (2) Placing into immediate effect of a 
temporary, equitable plan to utilize the manpower 
of the country in national defense. ( 3 ) Outlawing 
strikes in defense industry and making it a criminal 
offense in any way to obstruct defense production. 
(4) Drafting defense industry if selfish advantage 
is placed above the welfare of the nation. (5) Im- 
mediate stabilization of prices, wages, and rent. 

Major Legislative Program. The committee desig- 
nated the major national legislative program for 
1942 as ( 1 ) The national defense program in full, 
as adopted at the Milwaukee national convention; 

( 2 ) Those bills pertaining to the disabled veterans 
and to widows and orphans of the World War 
which have passed the House of Representatives 
and now are pending before the Senate finance 
committee. 

Defense Accomplishments. During 1941 The Amer- 
ican Legion with its 11,780 posts and more than 
1,105,000 members, practically went on a complete 
war basis to throw the full weight of its manpower, 
prestige, and influence into America's all-out na- 
tional defense effort. All its other activities were 
coordinated with this main program. Accomplish- 
ments included: Registration of 900,000 Legion- 
naires for national defense service; support of all 
defense legislation, including lend-lease bill and 
amendment of Selective Service Act to reduce age 
bracket; supplying innumerable leaders to defense 
posts of all kinds, ranging from President's cabinet 
down to local councils of defense and draft boards; 
establishing division of defense at national head- 
quarters; sending a Legion mission at its own ex- 
pense to Great Britain to study civilian defense 
functions in modern warfare; publishing first civil- 
ian defense handbooks outlining air raid warning 
and air raid precautionary services- enrolling and 
training tens of thousands of aerial observers; or- 
ganizing thousands of air raid warning posts; en- 
rolling and training thousands of air raid wardens; 
participating and scoring high in air raid warning 
tests conducted by the Army; sponsoring blackout 
tests in cities and towns; conducting large scale re- 
cruiting for the Navy; enrolling flying cadets for 
the Army and Navy; aiding in the organization of 
local "volunteer offices" everywhere to coordinate 
community resources for defense under the Office 
of Civilian Defense; suggesting the national alumi- 
num collection and vigorously participating in it; 
investing post, department, and national funds in 
defense bonds, and supporting bond buying; co- 
operating in the United Service Organization fund 
campaign; establishing blood banks; organizing 
"ham" networks of amateur radio operators for 
emergency service; launching a nation-wide pro- 
gram of physical education under the direction of 
Frank G. McCormick, athletic director of the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota, to toughen the national fiber 
for defense; cooperating with the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation against spies, saboteurs, and other dis- 



AMERICAN LITERATURE 



24 



ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN 



loyal elements; enrolling in State guards; sponsor- 
ing model defense legislation in aU States to curb 
any fifth column; extending its free rehabilitation 
services to all members of the present armed forces 
and their families in pressing any claims for com- 
pensation arising out of disabilities incurred in their 
present military or naval services; helping find em- 
ployment for draftees who have returned from mil- 
itary service. 

Americanism. In 1941 34 Boys' States were con- 
ducted in which 15,000 boys were trained in civic 
government, 400,000 boys under 17 again enrolled 
in junior baseball. Many thousands of students in 
46 States participated in the annual high school 
oratorical contest; 13,055 medals were awarded by 
Legion posts and Auxiliary units to public school 
pupils outstanding in scholarship and leadership 
qualities; 3,483 copies of the suggested course of 
study on flag education were distributed, and 
1,448,573 copies of the flag code. Nearly 3,000 Boy 
Scout troops were sponsored. A nation-wide effort 
was made to rid public schools of un-American text- 
books. 

Child Welfare. Thirty thousand volunteer workers 
carried on this activity. Incomplete reports showed 
the known total of $6,279,470 was expended in 
emergency financial aid to 629,993 needy children 
during the year, mostly for food, clothing, and 
medical treatments. Physical fitness of American 
childhood was adopted as the 1942 national defense 
objective of this activity 

Rehabilitation. A total of $2,603,747 in various 
contested government benefits was recovered with- 
out cost to the beneficiaries, by the Legion through 
its national rehabilitation service, for World War 
veterans and their dependents during the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1941. 

Membership. During 1941 the Legion reached a 
new high in membership. Dec. 31, 1941, there were 
1,107,075 members. The posts numbered 11,790, 
also a new high. The Auxiliary also enrolled its 
highest membership, 523,328 in 9,351 units. The 
Sons of The American Legion closed the year with 
53,892 members in 3,508 squadrons. The Forty and 
Eight membership climbed to a new peak with 45,- 
139 members in 750 voitures. The Eight and Forty 
pushed to a new high enrollment of 7,810 members 
in 284 salons 

National officers elected for 1941-42 were: Na- 
tional Commander, Lynn U. Stambaugh; Vice 
Commanders, W. C. "Tom" Sawyer; DeLacey Al- 
len; Charles E. Booth; V. M. Armstrong; and John 
F. Sullivan; National Chaplain, the Rev. Father 
Frederick J. Halloran, National Historian, Thomas 
M. Owen, Jr.; National Adjutant, Frank E. Samuel; 
National Treasurer, John R. Ruddick; National 
Judge Advocate, Ralph B. Gregg. National head- 
quarters are at 777 North Meridian Street, Indi- 
anapolis, Ind. Legislative, rehabilitation, and em- 
ployment director offices are maintained in the 
Legion-owned building at 1608 K Street, N.W., 
Washington, D.C. Editorial and advertising offices 
of The American Legion Magazine are at 1 Park 
Avenue, New York City. Editorial office of The 
National Legionnaire is at 777 North Meridian 
Street, Indianapolis, Ind. 

LYNN U. STAMBAUGH. 

AMERICAN LITERATURE. See LITERATURE, ENGLISH 
AND AMERICAN. 

AMERICAN SAMOA. See under SAMOA. 
AMERICAN SOCIALIST PARTY. See SOCIALISM. 
AMERIPOL. See CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL under Rub- 
ber. 
AMMONIA. See CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL. 



ANDORRA. A small republic in the Pyrenees between 
France and Spain, under the joint suzerainty of the 
French chief executive and the Spanish Bishop of 
Urgel. Area, 191 square miles: population, 5,231. 
Capital town, Andorra. The language spoken is 
Catalan. Sheep rearing is the main occupation of 
the people. There is a governing body called the 
council-general consisting of 24 members ( 12 elect- 
ed every 2 years ) elected for 4 years by male citi- 
zens of 25 years of age or older. The council-general 
nominates the First Syndic (President) and Second 
Syndic ( Vice-President ) . In a decree published 
Sept. 24, 1940, Marshal Henri Philippe P6tain, 
French Chief of State, assumed the title "co-prince 
of Andorra" formerly held by the President of the 
French Republic. In line with anti-democratic 
trends in France and Spain, universal suffrage was 
abolished in 1941 and electoral rights restricted to 
heads of families. 

ANGLICAN COMMUNION. See ENGLAND, CHURCH OF. 

ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN. A British-Egyptian con- 
dominium in northeast Africa. Area, 969,600 square 
miles; estimated population, 6,342,477 including 
53,625 non-natives. Chief towns: Khartoum, the 
capital (46,676 inhabitants), Omdurman (110,959), 
Khartoum North (107,720), Atbara (19,757), Port 
Sudan (18,554), and El Obeid (17,300). 

Production and Trade. Cotton (ginned) and gum 
arabic ( 80 per cent of world's supply ) are the prin- 
cipal export products. The chief grain crops are 
great millet ( the staple food of the Sudanese ) and 
bulrush millet. Other products: sesamum, cotton- 
seed, groundnuts, dates, doom-palm nuts, ivory, 
mahogany, ghee, shea nuts, salt, and gold Live- 
stock (1938): 2,700,000 cattle, 2,500,000 sheep, 
2,000,000 goats, 420,000 camels, 75,000 asses, and 
23,000 horses. Trade (1940): E3,695,776 (ex- 
cluding government stores) for imports (cotton 
piece goods E766,663, tea and coffee E591,- 
648); E5,204,000 for exports (cotton accounted 
for E2,690,000, gum arabic E680,969). The 
E(gyptian) averaged $5.0130 for 1940. 

Communications. At the end of 1940 there were 
14,240 miles of roads, 1,991 route miles (3.5 ft. 
gauge ) of railway, 2,325 route miles of river trans- 
port, 5,854 miles of telephone and telegraph routes, 
and 23 wireless stations. Shipping (1938): 746,591 
tons entered and cleared Port Sudan. 

Government. Finance. It was announced in Au- 
gust, 1941, that the financial returns for 1940-41 
would show a surplus of E29,461. Budget esti- 
mates (1941-42): 4,066,172 for revenue and 
E4,639,184 for expenditure. Some important fea- 
tures of the 1941-42 budget were the withdrawal 
of the Egyptian subsidy, and the extension of finan- 
cial assistance by the British government for the 
expanded Sudan Defense Force The governor- 
general is appointed by Egypt with the assent of 
Great Britain (Anglo-Egyptian Convention of 1899; 
reaffirmed by the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 ) . 
Ordinances, laws, and regulations are made by the 
governor-general in council. Governor-General, 
Lieut.-Gen. Sir Hubert Huddleston ( appointed Oct. 
16, 1940). 

History. The first months of 1941 witnessed the 
elimination of the Italian threat to Khartoum and 
the cotton-growing district along the Upper Nile 
that developed with the capture of Kassala and oth- 
er points in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan in 1940 (see 
YEAR BOOK for 1940, p. 25-26). On January 9 the 
British began an offensive that led to the recapture 
of Kassala on January 18, the expulsion of Italian 
troops from the Sudan, and the subsequent invasion 



ANGOLA 



25 



ANTHROPOLOGY 



and conquest of Italian East Africa (see WORLD 
WAR; ITALIAN EAST AFRICA under History). 

An epidemic of yellow fever that claimed some 
thousands of victims in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 
during the year led British authorities throughout 
East Africa to take precautions against the further 
spread of the disease. 

ANGOLA. A Portuguese colony in West Africa, south 
of the Belgian Congo. Area, 481,226 square miles; 
population (1936), 3,484,300, of whom 59,000 
were Europeans and 21,800 were half-castes. Chief 
towns: Nova Lisboa (Huambo), Loanda, Benguela, 
Mossamedes, Lobita, and Malange. 

Production and Trade. The chief crops (1938-39 
production figures, in metric tons) were maize 
(316,800), sugar (38,200), coffee (17,600); (19,- 
000 for 1939-40), wheat (6,400), palm oil (8,100, 
exported). Other crops included cacao, sisal, cotton, 
and tobacco. Mineral output (1940): 785,000 met- 
ric carats of diamonds and 25,000 metric tons of 
salt. There are deposits of copper and lignite. 
Trade (1938): 231,923,965 angolares for imports 
( textiles, foodstuffs, and coal were the main items ) ; 
338,541,274 angolares for exports (diamonds, maize, 
and coffee were the chief exports). The angolar 
averaged $0.443 for 1938; $0.0404, 1939; $0.0371, 
1940. Communications (1940): 2,080 route miles 
of railway, 22,990 miles of roads, 5,790 miles of 
telegraph lines, 259 miles of telephone lines, and 
19 wireless stations. 

Government. Budget (1940): 256,506,396 ango- 
lares. Public debt (June 30, 1937), 970,458,740 
angolares. Angola is divided into 5 provinces and 
14 administrative districts (decree of May, 1934). 
Governor General, Dr. Marques Mano (appointed 
Feb. 10, 1939). 

ANGUILLA. See under LEEWARD ISLANDS. 
ANHALT. See GERMANY under Area and Population. 
ANHWEI. See CHINA under Area and Population. 
ANIMALS, ANIMAL INDUSTRY. See FISH AND WILDLIFE 
SERVICE; LIVESTOCK; VETERINARY MEDICINE, ZOOL- 
OGY. For the BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY, see AGRI- 
CULTURE, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF. 
ANNAM. See FRENCH INDO-CHINA. 

ANTHROPOLOGY. Disease, Prehistoric, in America. The 

subject of disease among the American Indians and 
Eskimo before the advent of the Spaniards and oth- 
er Whites ( 1492 ), and that of the African Negro 
( 1510 ) , has in the course of time received much 
attention, without to this day being fully elucidated. 
There are three main sources of information in the 
line first, the writings of the old Spanish padres, 
and later those of the English and French mission- 
aries; second, the more exact observations and rec- 
ords of medical men who came into direct contact 
with the natives, and of special scientific observers; 
and third, the collections of prehistoric skeletal re- 
mains, some carrying marks of disease, accumulated 
in the course of time in various institutions. 

The evidence thus gathered is of unequal value. 
The padres and missionaries, while not seldom 
among the best educated of their time, had but a 
limited or no real knowledge of many of the dis- 
eases, were handicapped by the false notions of 
their times, and were unable to differentiate be- 
tween what had been native in these respects and 
what was introduced by the Whites or the Negro. 
The information gathered later by medical men and 
scientific observers was much more satisfactory in 
this regard, but these men came late, over three 
centuries after the discovery of America, when the 
natives were already much admixed and modified 



in many particulars; as a rule they did not know 
the language of the people they were reporting up- 
on, and of ten they had but a limited time for their 
observations. The skeletal materials, finally, until 
recently were insufficient in quantity, could only 
show diseases or injuries which affected the bone, 
and in many individual cases there could be no 
certainty as to whether or not a given skeleton was 
pre- White or later. 

It is plain that all generalizations concerning the 
subject of disease in pre-Columbian America must 
suffer from these defects and can never be fully 
true and satisfactory. There are nevertheless indi- 
vidual pathological conditions on which so much 
evidence is already on hand that a serious error re- 
garding them is improbable. They are the condi- 
tions that have left their indelible marks on the 
bones. The latest studies in this field are reported in 
"Diseases of and Artifacts on Skulls and Bones from 
Kodiak Island," Ales Hrdltfka, Smithson. Misc. 
CoU., 1941, vol. 101, No. 4, Publ. 3640, 14 pp., 
11 pi.; "The Antiquity of Congenital Syphilis," 
R. C. Holcomb, Bull Hist. Med., 1941, X, No. 2, 
pp. 148-177. 

The Primates. An event of outstanding importance 
of the current year, for all workers engaged in stud- 
ies on the Primates, has been the publication, by 
the Yale Medical Library, of an exhaustive analyti- 
cal Primate bibliography, Bibliografia primatologi- 
ca, by T. C. Ruch, with 16 assistants, (1935-41). 
The exemplary volume contains 4,630 entries. Its 
scope may best be appreciated from the headings 
of its principal subdivisions: Works on Knowledge 
of the Primates in the Ancient World and Middle 
Ages; Anatomy and Morphology of the Primates; 
Physiology, including Reproduction and Develop- 
ment; Psychobiology; Phylogeny; Primates in My- 
thology, Legends, Arts; Conservation. The only part 
of the field that is not fully covered, though there 
are various references to it, is Primate Pathology. 
The volume will be exceedingly useful to both An- 
thropology and Biology, and its excellent make-up 
harmonizes with the contents. 

Archeological Researches in the Soviet Republics. In 
harmony with its general scientific policies, the So- 
viet government is paying greater attention to ar- 
cheological researches year by year. These are di- 
rected in part to what may be called the classical 
or early historic, but largely also to prehistoric ar- 
cheology, and to the period of early man. Every 
summer scores of expeditions are sent out by such 
institutions as the Leningrad and Moscow Anthro- 
pological Museums, under the auspices of the Sovi- 
et National Academy of Sciences, to carry on care- 
ful excavations, some of which reach large dimen- 
sions. 

So far these expeditions have been directed main- 
ly to the southern European and Asiatic regions of 
the country, with parts of northwestern and south- 
eastern Siberia, but as personnel and interests de- 
velop they are to be extended to all parts of the 
Soviet territory where remains of ancient man or 
of early civilizations may be expected. 

One of the latest and most noteworthy explora- 
tions is being earned on at Samarkand, Uzbekistan, 
central Asia. In June a party of scientists working 
under the direction of the Uzbek branch of the So- 
viet Academy and the Alishir Nevayi Museum, 
opened the old tombs of Timur (Tamerlane), the 
great Mongol warrior and ruler (14th-15th cen- 
tury), of his grandson, Ulugh Beg, a famed astrono- 
mer, and of Kazy-Zade Rumi, a poet and scientist. 
The remains were found in fair condition and con- 
firmed the historical accounts of the men as to their 
stature and other matters; the skull of Timur, how- 



ANTHROPOLOGY 



26 



ANTIMONY 



ever, had been somewhat damaged by water. The 
talented Russian restorer, M. Gerasimov, attended 
the work and will endeavor, on the basis of an- 
thropometric measurements, morphological study, 
and the early accounts, to reproduce the features 
of the three men. The expedition also uncovered 
the Ulugh Beg astronomical observatory, which had 
been covered with dirt and sand by the Moham- 
medans on their advent to power. 

On the eve of the Nazi invasion of the country, 
the Ukrainian branch of the Soviet Academy of 
Sciences was organizing 30 archeological parties 
which were to excavate in different parts of the re- 
public, the majority had already begun their work 
when war began. The fate of these expeditions, and 
that of the scientifically highly valuable anthropo- 
logical and archeological Kiev, Odessa, and Khar- 
kov collections, is as yet unknown. 

Alaska. The principal Russian libraries, particu- 
larly those in Leningrad and Moscow, are rich in as 
yet unpublished materials relating to the Russian 
expeditions to and colonies in America. Two such 
documents of outstanding value to Amencan stu- 
dents of the Far Northwest have recently come to 
light in the Public Library of Leningrad. The first 
is the complete journal of Svcn Vaxel, Captain of 
the Russian Navy, who accompanied Vitus Bering 
on the 1741-2 expedition which discovered Alaska 
and some of the Aleutian Islands. The manuscript 
has now been published. It gives many details on 
the fateful journey, including notes on the first con- 
tacts with the native Alaskans. 

The second document, even more important for 
American-Siberian anthropology, is the journal of 
Dr. Merk, who accompanied the Billing's 1791-2 
expedition to the Bering Sea and surrounding re- 
gions. This journal, which had been believed lost, 
is said to contain highly valuable data on the Chuk- 
chi, Eskimo, and other natives of the region covered 
by the expedition. It was to be published in the 
June or July number of Sovietskaia Arktika. 

Trepanation, in America. The practice of trephining 
of skulls in life originated during neolithic times in 
the Old World, spread particularly over the central 
and western parts of Europe ana over portions of 
northern Africa, and was evidently brought to 
America, by way of Asia, during the latter part of 
that period. In America, while distributed from 
Alaska deep into western South America, it re- 
mained rare over the northern part of the continent, 
but reached its greatest development as well as fre- 
quency in the Andean regions of Peru and in parts 
of Bolivia. It was everywhere pre-Columbian, but 
has persisted in isolated spots in the Andes and in 
the Sierras of northern Mexico to recent times. 

The operation, large collections now show, was 
not in general of thaumaturgic nature as had been 
supposed, but surgical and curative, partly for 
wounds of the skull, partly in all probability for 
painful and other affections of the head and the 
brain. Subjects of both sexes, from mid-childhood 
to past middle age, though not in senility, were 
operated upon, as a rule successfully so far as the 
procedure was concerned, and in instances repeat- 
edly. No part of the vault proper was excluded 
from the operation; its size in traumatic cases de- 

nded on that of the lesion; and when there was 
3r of brain hernia the operators used gourd, 
or silver plaques, and possibly also animal 
bone, as stoppers. 

The instruments with which the operation was 
performed were in the main stone knives and drills, 
though in the Andes bronze knives were also em- 
ployed. The methods used for the operation were 
cutting, sawing, scraping, drilling, or a combination 



of some of these. If cautery was used it was not 
for trepanation. The native medicine-men, who 
were the surgeons, must have been acquainted with 
some narcotics ( datura, cocoa, and perhaps others ) 
with which to make the operation bearable; and 
also, empirically, with some antiseptics, which pre- 
vented infection. They had developed effective 
bandaging, and their operations in nearly all cases 
resulted in excellent healing. 

Large collections of old American trephined 
skulls are to be found especially in the Smithsonian 
Institution, in the Harvard Medical Museum, and 
in the American Museum of Natural History. 

ALES HRDLIKA. 

ANTIGUA. An island presidency of the British Lee- 
ward Islands. Area, 171 square miles, including its 
dependent islands (Barbuda and Redonda, 63 sq. 
mi.). Total population (1939), 35,527. Capital: St. 
John, 10,000 inhabitants. The chief products are 
sugar and cotton. Trade ( 1939 ) : 230,874 for im- 
ports and 220,460 for exports. Finance (1939): 
127,327 for revenue and 152,311 for expendi- 
ture; public debt, 94,493. Antigua, in addition to 
representation in the federal legislative council of 
the Leeward Islands, has a local government con- 
sisting of an executive council (presided over by 
the governor) and a legislative council (3 official, 
3 nominated, and 5 elected members ) of which an 
administrator is president. Administrator, H. Boon 
(appointed Apr. 2, 1940). 

History. On Dec. 20, 1940, the legislative council 
of Antigua approved the leasing to the United 
States for 99 years of sites for a seaplane base 
called for under the Anglo-American accord of 
Sept. 2, 1940, and delimited on Nov. 18, 1940 (see 
YEAR BOOK for 1940, p. 28). The formal treaty for 
the leasing of the base sites was signed in London 
Mar. 27, 1941, by the British and U.S. Govern- 
ments (see GREAT BRITAIN under History). The 
sites consisted of ( 1 ) approximately 430 acres on 
Crabbs Peninsula in Parham Harbor and, in addi- 
tion, Rat and Mouse Islands, and ( 2 ) approximate- 
ly 1% square miles of land along the shoreline of 
Judge's Bay. For text of treaty and lease, see The 
Department of State Bulletin, Mar. 29, 1941. Con- 
struction of the base, estimated to cost $2,920,000, 
was carried forward during the year. 

ANTIMONY. Antimony suddenly leaped in 1941 from 
the comparative obscurity of a "miscellaneous met- 
al" to a place among the sinews of war. Its prin- 
cipal use is for hardening lead for bullets and bat- 
tery plates and in the manufacture of babbitt metal 
for bearings. The first warning that the nation's 
supply might decrease came in 1939 with the out- 
break of war in Europe, Germany's confiscation of 
the output of central and southern European coun- 
tries, the continued decrease of deliveries from 
China resulting from Japanese occupation of east- 
ern China, and an increasing demand for it in 
United States industry. United States consumption, 
normally about 10,000 tons per year until 1939, 
jumped to some 17,000 tons in 1940. It was listed 
among the strategic raw materials by the Army and 
Navy Munitions Board (1940) and soon afterwards 
the Reconstruction Finance Corporation was au- 
thorized to acquire reserve stocks of metallic anti- 
mony. By April, 1941, the Metals Reserve Co. had 
received 6,796 tons of Chinese antimony and 250 
tons of domestic. Deliveries continued at the rate 
of 250 tons a month until the stockpile contracted 
for was completed. South China has been produc- 
ing two thirds of the world's antimony, but the 
hazards of transportation via the Burma road kept 



ANTISEMITISM 



shipments to the United States at a minimum. An- 
timony ore imports in 1941 came principally from 
Bolivia and Mexico, which have doubled their pro- 
duction. 1936-41, and now produce almost four 
fifths of all antimony, which is about 32,000 metric 
tons (pure metal) per year. Total 1941 imports 
amounted to 14,645 short tons, as compared with 
15,733 short tons in 1940. Mining experts of the 
U.S. Bureau of Mines discovered new deposits of 
antimony in 1941 which can become valuable in 
case of emergency. The price on domestic antimony 
remained at 14tf a Ib. (June, 1941 ), on Chinese an- 
timony at 16%tf a Ib. (June, 1941). See GEOLOGI- 
CAL SURVEY; MINES, BUREAU OF. 

ANTISEMITISM. See FASCISM; REFUGEES. 
ANTISEPTIC CLOTHING. See CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL 
under Textiles. 

ANTI-TRUST LAW. See LABOR CONDITIONS under 
UNION MOVEMENTS; RADIO. 

APPEASEMENT POLICIES. See UNITED STATES under 
Foreign Affairs; also BULGARIA, FRANCE, JAPAN, 
SWEDEN, THAILAND, UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST 
REPUBLICS, and YUGOSLAVIA under History. 
APPROPRIATIONS. See UNITED STATES, foreign coun- 
tries, and States. 
AQUARIUM. See ZOOLOGY. 

AQUEDUCTS. In the development of aqueducts for 
domestic or municipal water supply, a notable 
event of 1941 was the completion of the Colorado 
River aqueduct of the Metropolitan Water District 
of Southern California. ( For this and the New York 
City project, see WATER WORKS. ) To provide an 
adequate supply of water to the city and naval 
base at Key West, Florida, an 18-in. pipe-line 
134 miles long is to be built, the pipe being carried 
from the mainland for nearly 100 miles along the 
Key West highway. Of the total cost of the pipe- 
line, the Florida Keys Aqueduct Commission will 
pay $1,125,000, and the U.S. Navy Department 
will pay $2,200,000. 

At Boston, three shafts are to be sunk for the 
extension of the water-supply pressure tunnel from 
the Charles River to the existing Chestnut Hill 
reservoir. The river shaft will be 260 ft. deep, the 
intermediate shaft at Newton, 280 ft, and the shaft 
at the reservoir, 260 ft. At Toledo, Ohio, the new 
water supply from Lake Erie, eliminating a pol- 
luted supply from the Maumee River, was put in 
service December 1, 1941. It has a lake intake two 
miles from shore, two miles of 108-m. concrete 
pipe to a shore pumping station, nine miles of 78- 
m. steel pipe to a filter plant and high-service 
pumping station with a million-gallon elevated 
tank, thence seven miles of 72-, 60-, and 42-in. 
pipe to the city. At Muskegon Heights, Mich., a 
new intake line was built, 4,620 ft. long, consisting 
of 30-in. pipe laid in a trench dredged in the bed 
of Lake Michigan. Pipes 60 ft. long were welded 
into lengths of 120 ft., which were laid by a float- 
ing crane, the joints between the sections being 
made by divers. 

A number of aqueducts and canals are included 
in the irrigation works of the U.S. Bureau of Rec- 
lamation. In April, work began on the 40-mile 
Madera canal from the Fnant dam, in California, 
to the Chowchilla River. The Provo River irrigation 
project, in Utah, completed in July, includes a 47- 
mile aqueduct from the Deer Creek reservoir to 
Salt Lake City for a combined domestic and irriga- 
tion supply. On this line, two tunnels have been 
driven and a nine-mile section of pipe-line is un- 
der way. 

The 70-mile All-American Canal for irrigation 



27 ARABIA 

in the rich Imperial Valley, California, was com- 
pleted and opened for its entire length in June. 
It supersedes a smaller canal which had 60 miles 
of its length in Mexico. Water is taken from the 
Colorado River at the Imperial dam, and one of 
the four hydro-electric plants is already in opera- 
tion. The upper end of the canal has a bottom 
width of 160 feet, with 21 feet of water; its last 
section has a 60-ft. bottom and 12-ft. depth of 
water. By April, 1942, the canal will be supplying 
all water for the Imperial Valley. A desilting plant 
at the dam will remove coarse silt, but so far it 
has not been needed The fine silt in the water 
seals the canal from leakage where it is cut through 
a sand-hill region. A branch canal extends north- 
wards through the Coachella Valley, and the two 
together will irrigate about a million acres. 

An independent project is for a concrete-lined 
canal 170 miles long, from the Rio Grande at 
Zapata to Brownsville, Texas. It is to serve a dis- 
trict of 750,000 acres, partly under cultivation, but 
needing protection from droughts. 

Pipe-lines for the transportation of oil by pump- 
ing, which may well be classed as aqueducts, be- 
came of special importance in 1941, owing largely 
to war conditions under which long-distance lines 
were projected to supplement ship and railroad car- 
riage. In 1939 there were about 100,000 miles of 
pipe-lines. Construction reached 5,000 miles that 
year, and 6,500 miles in 1940, while 10,000 miles 
was predicted earlv in 1941. However, some of 
the larger projects had to be abandoned, owing to 
priority restrictions on the supply of steel. 

Among the longest lines projected were the fol- 
lowing: Texas to New York Harbor, 1,820 miles 
( 24-in. oil pipe-line and 20-in. pipe for gasoline ) ; 
Baton Rouge, La., to Greensboro, N.C., 1,260 
miles; Port St. Joseph, Fla., to Chattanooga, Term., 
450 miles, and from refineries at Marcus Hook, 
N.J., to Pittsburgh, Pa., 400 miles. Two impor- 
tant pipe-lines were built in 1941: (1) Portland, 
Maine, to Montreal, Canada, 240 miles of 12-in. 
pipe, with eight pumping stations. It was built in 
132 days and pumping was started in November. 
It enables tankers from South American ports to 
discharge oil at Portland and avoid the long trip 
around by the St. Lawrence to Montreal. (2) Fall 
River, Mass., to Waltham, Mass., 60 miles, with a 
branch to Worcester. It consists of a line of 6&-in. 
electrically welded pipe, with pumping at a pres- 
sure of 1,000 Ib. per square inch. Tankers dis- 
charge to storage tanks at Fall River, and the oil 
is pumped to groups of refineries at the two in- 
land cities. See illustrations facing page 70. 

E. E. RUSSELL TRATMAN. 

ARABIA. A large peninsula in southwestern Asia. 
Area, 1,000,000 square miles; population, said to 
be 10,000,000. For the various divisions of Arabia 
see below. Arab countries outside the Arabian pen- 
insula are presented in the separate articles on 
EGYPT, IRAQ, PALESTINE, SYRIA AND LEBANON, and 
TRANS- JORDAN. 

Aden. A British crown colony at the southern tip 
of Arabia, about 100 miles east of the Red Sea. 
Included in the colony is the island of Perim ( 5 sq. 
mi.; pop., 2,346) in the southern entrance to the 
Red Sea. Total area, 80 square miles; total popula- 
tion (1931), 48,338, excluding the military forces. 
Education ( 1939) : 75 schools and about 4,000 stu- 
dents. Aden has a fortified naval base, a free port, 
and is a fueling station for ships. Early in 1940 the 
port was made a contraband control port for ship- 
ping. The transit trade is important. Local products 
are salt, soap, cigarettes, ohows, and cured fish. 






28 



ARABIA 



Trade (1939): Rs68,566,887 for imports and Rs39,- 
095,919 for exports (rupee averaged $0.3328 for 
1939; $0.3016, 1940). During 1939 the merchant 
shipping that entered the port totaled 8,005,764 
tons (net). Finance (1939-40): Rs2,722,901 for 
revenue and Rsl, 964,583 for expenditure. Aden's 
government is administered by a governor, aided 
by an executive council of five members. Governor 
and Commander-in-Chief, Sir John Hathoni Hall 
(appointed Oct. 24, 1940). 

Aden Protectorate. The region in southern Arabia 
extending east, north, and west of the colony of 
Aden. Area, 112,000 square miles; estimated popu- 
lation, 600,000, mostly Arabs. It is divided into two 
parts: (1) Western Aden Protectorate, comprising 
19 sultanates of which the premier chief is the 
Sultan of Lahej. (2) Eastern Aden Protectorate, 
comprising the Hadhramaut (made up of the 
Qu'aiti State of Shihr and Mukalla, and the Kathiri 
State of Seiyun), the Mahn sultanate of Qishn and 
Socotra, the Wahidi sultanates of Bir'Ali and Bili- 
haf, and the sheikdoms of 'Irqa and Haura. The 
Sultan of Qishn and Socotra resides on the island of 
Socotra (1,400 sq. mi.; pop., 12,000), 150 miles 
from Cape Guardafin, Africa. Dates, gums, tobacco, 
and butter are the mam products. There are large 
numbers of sheep, cattle, and goats. The local rulers 
have protective treaty relations with Great Britain 
and manage their own affairs subject to general 
supervision by British officials who are under the 
control of the governor of Aden. 

Bahrein Islands. The chief islands of this state in 
the Persian Gulf are Bahrein, Muharraq, Nebi 
Saleh, and Sitra. Total area, 213 square miles, pop- 
ulation, 120,000, of whom 75 per cent belong to 
the Shia sect, and the remainder to the Sunnis. 
Capital, Manama (25,000 inhabitants) on the is- 
land of Bahrein, is joined to the town of Muharraq 
(25,000 inhabitants) by a causeway. Chief prod- 
ucts pearls, crude oil (972,000 metric tons in 
1940), boats, sailcloth, reed mats, and dates. Fine 
white donkeys are raised. Trade (1938-39): Rs27,- 
326,230 for imports and Rs20,843,990 for exports 
(excluding oil). The rupee averaged $0.3016 in 
1940; $0 3328, 1939, $0 3659, 1938. Ruler, Sheik 
Sir Hamid bin Isa al Khalifa (in treaty relations 
with Great Britain). 

Kuwait (Koweit). An Arab state south of Iraq. 
Area, 1,930 square miles; population, 50,000, ex- 
clusive of some Bedouins. Capital, Kuwait. Pearls, 
wool, dhows, and horses are exported Trade (1937- 
38): imports Rs5,477,488; exports Rs2,320,075 (ru- 
pee averaged $0.3659 for 1938; $0.3733 for 1937). 
Oil was discovered during 1938. Kuwait is in treaty 
relations with Great Britain, which is represented 
by a political agent. Ruler, Sheik Sir Ahmed ibn 
Jabir al Subah. 

Muscat and Oman. An independent sultanate in 
southeastern Arabia. Area, 82,000 square miles; es- 
timated population, 500,000, mainly Arabs, but 
there is a strong infusion of Negro blood near the 
coast. Chief towns: Muscat, the capital, 4,200 in- 
habitants; Matrah, 8,500. On the northern coast of 
the Gulf of Oman is the port of Gwadur which is a 
possession of the sultanate. Chief products: dates, 
pomegranates, limes, and dried fish. Camels are 
raised by the inland tribes. Trade (1938-39): im- 
ports Rs4,876,193; exports Rs3,331,939. Muscat is 
the only port of call for steamers. Pack animals are 
used for inland transport. There is a motor road 
connecting Muscat and Matrah and extending to 
Kalba. Roads suitable for motor vehicles join Hagar, 
Bpsher, and Qariyat with Matrah. A new treaty of 
friendship, commerce, and navigation was signed 
with Great Britain on Feb. 5, 1939. Sultan, Sir 



Saiyid Said bin Taimur (succeeded Feb. 10, 1932). 

Oman, Trucial. The Arab states (Abu Dhabi, Aj- 
man, Debai, Shargah, Ras al Khaimah, and Umm 
ul Qawain ) on the Persian Gulf. Area, 6,023 square 
miles; population, 75,000 to 85,000. Chief capital, 
Abu Dnabi. Pearls are the chief export from the 
coast ports. The rulers of the six states are in treaty 
relations with Great Britain, which is represented 
by a resident agent who is under the control of the 
British political resident at Bushire, Persia. 

Qatar. An Arabian sheikdom occupying a penin- 
sula in the Persian Gulf. Area, 8,500 square miles; 
population, 25,000. Capital, El Beda. Relations 
with Great Britian are regulated by the Treaty of 
Nov. 3, 1916. Sheik, Abdullah ibn Jasim al Thani 
(acceded in 1913). 

Saudi Arabia. An Arab state occupying the north- 
ern and central part of Arabia, formerly known as 
the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd. Penamg the in- 
troduction of a single constitution for the whole 
country, there are two systems of government one 
for Nejd and one for Hejaz Ruler, King Abdul 
Aziz ibn Abdur Rahman al Faisal al Saucl 

Nejd includes the Nafud and Dahna deserts and 
has an area of some 800,000 square miles. Popula- 
tion (estimated), 3,000,000. Chief towns- Riyadh 
(capital), Hufuf, Mubarraz, Shaqra, Anaiza, Burai- 
da, Hail, Jauf, Sakaka, and Hauta. Chief products: 
dates, wheat, barley, fruit, hides, wool, clarified 
butter, Arab cloaks, and petroleum ( 5,365,000 bbl. 
in 1940). Large numbers of camels, horses, don- 
keys, and sheep are raised. Trade: imports include 
piece goods, sugar, coffee, tea, nee, and motor ve- 
hicles, exports, except for petroleum, are very small. 
Nejd is governed in a patriarchal manner by the 
King whose eldest son (Emir Saud), the heir ap- 
parent, acts as Viceroy and Commander-in-Chief 
of the military forces 

Hejaz extends along the western coast from 
Trans-Jordan to Asir. Area, 150,000 square miles; 
population (estimated), 1,500,000. Chief towns: 
Mecca, the capital and holy city of Islam, 80,000 
inhabitants; Jiada, the seaport tor Mecca, 30,000; 
Medina, the site of Mohammed's tomb, 20,000; 
Yenbo, the seaport for Medina. Chief products: 
dates, butter, honey, fruit, wool, and hides. The an- 
nual pilgrimage of Moslems from abroad to Mecca 
and Medina is the chief source of income. Hejaz is 
governed under the constitution of Aug. 26, 1926, 
and later amendments. There is a council of minis- 
ters presided over by the King's second son, Emir 
Faisal, who is minister of foreign affairs, and Vice- 
roy during the King's absence. 

Asir, a province south of the Hejaz, was incorpo- 
rated in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia during 1933. 
Area, 14,000. Capital, Sabiya, 20,000 inhabitants. 

Yemen. An independent Arab kingdom in south- 
western Arabia. Area, 75,000 square miles; popu- 
lation, 3,500,000. Chief Towns: San'a (capital), 
25,000 inhabitants, Hodeida, 40,000, Taizz, Ibb, 
Yerim, Dhamar, Mocha, Loheiya. Chief products: 
coffee, barley, wheat, millet, and hides. Ruler, 
Imam Yahya b. Muhammed b. Hamid el Din. 

History. The British conquest of Italian East Afri- 
ca early in 1941 and the subsequent Allied military 
occupations of Iraq, Syria, and Iran isolated the 
Arabian peninsula from the spreading European 
conflict and revived British prestige in that region. 

The influential King Abdul Aziz ibn Saud of 
Saudi Arabia maintained a friendly attitude toward 
Great Britain, although he was understood to have 
pressed London to transfer the strategically im- 
portant Red Sea port of Aquaba from Trans- Jordan 
to his domains. Ion Saud in mid-May rejected ap- 
peals from Premier Rashid Ali al-Gailani of Iraq 



ARCHAEOLOGY 



29 



ARCHITECTURE 



for diplomatic or other support during the latter's 
short war with the British. According to the British, 
Ibn Saud denounced Rashid All's attack upon them 
as a violation of the Anglo-Iraq treaty of alliance. 
Following the statement by Foreign Secretary An- 
thony Eden that Britain would support the move- 
ment for Arab unity, the Saudi Arabian ruler was 
reported to have advised a meeting of tribal leaders 
at Taif in August that Arab interests demanded 
cooperation with Britain. He interned more than 
1,000 Italian and German refugees from Italian 
East Africa, and refused to allow the noted German 
political expert, Dr. Fritz Grobba, to remain as 
Minister to Mecca. 

ARCHAEOLOGY. In spite of the European War schol- 
ars were able to pursue their archaeological investi- 
gations in Central America during 1941 without 
interruption At Kammal Juyu, the site of a consid- 
erable Mayan city near Guatemala City, Dr. A. 
Ledyard Smith of the Carnegie Institution discov- 
ered further proof that a group of narrow, enclosed 
courts are, as previously suspected, such as were 
used for handball The evidence for this was the 
finding of two parrots' heads in stone which have 
been recognized elsewhere as typical of the ball 
courts of ancient cities in Central America. 

Also in Guatemala in Nebaj, Quiche, Dr. Mary 
Butler uncovered two interesting urn burials. One 
produced 28 large-sized urns and jars along with 
165 small vessels, mostly of excellent workmanship. 
The large vases usually contained bones while the 
others were closely grouped around, or over, an 
extended burial. The second find consisted of 22 
urns and 77 small vases set in the stone wall which 
enclosed the dirt platform. The material recovered 
from these two diggings proved to be of the same 
type as the Quiche type of the middle group of 
Mayan pottery which runs in the order of mono- 
chrome, polychrome, and plumbate. In some in- 
stances was noted a relationship with the Chama- 
Chipal area to the east, while others betrayed con- 
nections with the Zacualpa region lying to the 
southeast. 

At Tegucigalpa in Honduras, a half mile from the 
village of Corcuin, Province of Copan, a ruined 
Mayan city has been brought to light Near Mana- 
gua, in Nicaragua, F. E. Richardson, working for 
the Carnegie Institution, found in the lava made 
by the volcanic mud the imprints of the feet of two 
small people who seem to have been fleeing for 
safety to a nearby lake. Since this occurred at the 
time of an eruption which took place from two to 
five thousand years ago, these footprints are the 
earliest proofs we have of human beings in Central 
America. 

At Cerro de las Mesas on the Rio Blanca in 
southern Vera Cruz, Mexico, a joint expedition of 
the Smithsonian Institute and the National Geo- 
graphic Society sank deep trenches which have es- 
tablished the fact that the site began to be occu- 
pied a little after Tres Zapotes and continued to be 
inhabited up to a date much nearer historic times. 
Fifteen stelae and eight carved monuments were 
found at this place. One of these, four feet in 
height, is almost a replica of the Tuxtla statuette. 
More important than this however was the finding 
on the site of an offering of 782 jades. 

See ANTHROPOLOGY; CHEMISTRY, PURE. 

OLIVER SAMUEL TONKS. 

ARCHERY. Outstanding champions of archery in 
1941 were Miss Ree Dillinger of Summit, N.J., who 
shot a perfect score for her last end (six arrows) 
to take the national title by one lone point in the 



tournament held at Portland, Ore., and Larry 
Hughes of Los Angeles, who replaced Russ Hooger- 
hyde in the men's competition. 

Miss Ann Webber, winner of the Women's na- 
tional crown in 1940, lost several times to Miss Dill- 
inger, but did manage to defeat her opponent and 
win the metropolitan tournament by the margin of 
1,419 points to 1,290. Bill Sterner of Mount Vernon, 
N.Y., captured the men's metropolitan. 

ARCHITECTURE. War put a crimp in architecture 
on five of the six continents. Wholesale destruction 
in Russia included such famous structures as the 
industrial complex at Kharkov, in its way a sub- 
lime monument of early "hardboiled" functional- 
ism, and the great dam at Dnieprostoy. In England, 
a large building society with 300,000 mortgages 
spread everywhere had 7,000 of its houses slightly 
damaged, some 2,000 badly damaged but repair- 
able, and 480 demolished, by the end of 1940. 
Within certain industrial areas, however, damage 
as reported in the Commons on May 29, ran as high 
as 20 per cent of all dwellings demolished and "all 
others damaged or liable to damage before winter." 
Among belligerents fully engaged a representative 
opinion was given in Architects' Journal, (London) : 
"The severer the struggle, the longer the war, the 
more necessary is it to reconstruct as we go along. 
Otherwise there will come a point when we can go 
on no longer." 

The United States went over from a prewar 
boom, which carried building to its highest since 
1928 into rationing and virtual interdiction of 
purely private building ventures. (See CONSTRUC- 
TION INDUSTRY). Only in South American countries 
such as Brazil were there building booms not di- 
rectly related to war efforts. 

Industrial Building. Industrial building in the 
United States reached the record level of $1,181,- 
513,000 in the 37 Eastern States, nearly double the 
high of 1920. The typical factory plan remained 
one embracing acres under one roof and the typical 
location close to existing centers at fringes of large 
towns. Some examples were set of dispersion in lo- 
cation if not in plan, e.g the plant of North Ameri- 
can Aviation, Inc , at Grand Prairie, Tex., first 
wholly new airplane factory completed. (J. Lloyd 
Allen, John R. Kelley). The main shop, covering 
855,000 sq. ft., is windowless, with corrugated steel 
wall on a base of 5% ft. concrete (against splinters); 
is air-conditioned, lighted wholly by 7,000 fluores- 
cent bulbs, and prodigal of metal is roofed with 
corrugated-steel. Air defense is based on remote- 
ness of location, on permanent windowless black- 
out, baffles before openings, lightness of construc- 
tion to give way and localize damage, camouflaging 
of the flat roof (though subsidiary buildings have 
shapes harder to hide ) . All services, such as water, 
sewage, streets, had to be supplied to the town 
created by 11,000 new workers. It was here that 
Roscoe P. DeWitt, Richard J. Neutra, David R. 
Williams, devised quite attractive prefabricated 
housing which the winning crew in a race man- 
aged to erect in 57 mm. 58 sec., complete to pub- 
licity lady in bathtub. As elsewhere, prefabrication 
was done by the contractor at the site, mainly on 
jig tables set up in three huge circus tents. 

Other factories of architectural interest included: 
foundry for Aluminum Co. of America at New Ver- 
non, Cal. (Gordon B. Kauffman); parabolic lami- 
nated-arch signal depot, Lexington, Ky. (Wilson, 
Bell & Watkins). A few factories were still given 
pseudo-monumental, pseudo-streamlined "styung," 
e.g., the aircraft building for the River Rouge Plant 
of Ford Motor Co., by Giffels & Vallet, Inc. and L. 



ARCHITECTURE 



30 



ARCHITECTURE 



Rossetti. Conscious design did, however, turn three 
buildings for Johnson & Johnson near New Bruns- 
wick, NJ. (R. G. & W. M. Cory) into a splendid 
enhancement of the highway (U.S. 1). Compare 
topics listed under INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS. 

Defens* Housing. This was a field full of contro- 
versy and complex administration. Unhappily the 
agency with by far the most housing experience 
and local contacts had politically the lowest stand- 
ing The U.S. Housing Authority (q.v.); on the 
other hand, the Public Buildings Administration, 
well considered in Washington but entering a new 
field, had to learn through blunders. One of PBA's 
best architectural achievements was the 550-unit 
Puuloa Hall project for families of enlisted men on 
Oahu Island in Hawaii. PBA's largest was Linda 
Vista at San Diego (3,000 units), with an interest- 
ing mesa-top plan by S. E. Sanders ( shelter design 
by C. D. Persina, planning coordination by G. S. 
Underwood). Outstanding "outpost" architecture, 
besides that on Hawaii, was done for the Army by 
Carribean Architect-Engineer (Voorhees, Walker, 
Foley & Smith, architects, and Parsons, Klapp, 
Brinckerhoff & Douglas, engineers) at the base near 
Trinidad. Involving provision for a large popula- 
tion, military and civil, in the tropical zone, this 
problem was solved with grace and directness by 
studied use of native devices. 

With the passage of the Lanham Act (Oet , 1940) 
Government housing construction for defense was 
centralized under the Federal Works Agency, and 
thereafter some of the most progressive work archi- 
tecturally was done by the FWA Division of De- 
fense Housing Coordination through able practising 
architects. Especially praiseworthy was the designa- 
tion of a few units in some of the projects as 'ex- 
perimental" and released from the more rigid re- 
strictions. Outstanding projects of the Division were 
the small 85-unit project at Windsor Locks, Conn., 
noted for its careful neat small-house design ( Hugh 
Stubbins, Jr.), and the group housing on hillsides, 
with fine attention to orientation and access, by 
Gropius & Breuer at New Kensington, Pa., and at 
North Braddock, Pa., by James A. Mitchell and 
Dahlen K. Ritchey. A 400-unit project at Stamford, 
Conn., (B. Sumner Gruzen, Hugh A. Kelley, assoc. ) 
was based upon the new device of chevron arrange- 
ment of house-rows upon the "cul-de-sac" side- 
street pattern already established in advanced site- 



plannina practise; whereas Eliel & Eero Saarinen 
arranged their 477 units at Center Line, Mich., 
charmingly about a central green. 

Structural experiment under the Division was 
chiefly advanced at the Alexandria, Va., project by 
Kastner & Hibben ( along with numerous plan vari- 
ations) and included rammed-earth stabilized with 
cement. On the vast Mare Island Navy Yard devel- 
opment near San Francisco a new city of 20,000 
inhabitants FWA added a 977-unit contingent, 
brilliantly designed by W. W. Wurster for a pro- 
prietary wood-frame prefabrication system and 
making a very handsome picture against the hills 
and sea. 

The most spectacular new departure in w pre- 
fabrication" was Wallace NefFs small group of 
"bubble houses" twin domed mushrooms linked 
by a traditional service unit. Over an inflated semi- 
balloon, a "gunnite" cement shell was blown by air 
pressure; then a second shell added after a layer 
of insulation. These are at Falls Church, Va., under 
sponsorship of the Reconstruction Finance Corpo- 
ration (q.v.). More representative of the average 
effort were TVA's portable cottages ( Louis Grand- 
gent and Carol Towne) transportable on trucks in 
three slices to be bolted together. Pierce Founda- 
tion's "horizontal bearing" system depended on the 
use of the whole above-window wall as an extend- 
ed I-beam and on a single sheet of cane-fiber coat- 
ed both sides with asbestos-cement for combined 
protection and insulation; it was used with charm- 
ing landscaping and color effect by Jan Porel 
in housing for Glenn Martin workers near Balti- 
more. The demountability of prefabricated houses 
was made use of during the year to cart away some 
of the 650 units erected the previous year under 
PBA at Indian Head, Md., by competing prefabri- 
cators in a test of their claims. 

USHA architects produced an exceptionally fine 
project, as to site plan, design, and color, at Harbor 
Hills near Los Angeles (Reginald Johnson, ch. 
arch.; Donald B. Parkinson, Eugene Weston, Jr ; 
Lewis Eugene Wilson, A. C. Zimmerman, associ- 
ates, Clarence S. Stein, consult, arch.). The site con- 
sists of 102 acres, much of it in deep canyons. Be- 
cause of the hilly topography only a very limited 
area could be used economically The 52 buildings 
are on 27 acres of land (see diagram). Another 
striking USHA job is the project at Yesler Terrace, 



'j^ 1 \. , J 




Courtesy of Reginald D. Johnson, Associated Architects 

PLOT PLAN OF THE USHA HARBOR HILLS HOUSING PROJECT NEAR LOS ANGELES 



ARCHITECTURE 



31 



Seattle (J. Lister Holmes, Wm. J. Bain, John T. 
Tacobsen, Wm. Aitken, Geo. W. Stoddard), its long 
horizontal houserows, with their handsome exterior 
boarding and fresh detailing, looking quaintly over 
the shoulders of the business center down at the 
sea. Other USHA successes were at Bethlehem, Pa., 
by Antonin Raymond, and at "Westpark," Bremer- 
ton, Wash., an 840-unit Navy project by Floyd A. 
Naramore, Clyde Grainger, and Perry B. Johnson. 

Apartments. Manley Court at Summit, N.J., by 
McMurray & Schmidlin, and Country Gardens, Rye, 
N.Y., by Benson Eschenbach were superior exam- 
ples in the prevailingly favored "Colonial" mode. 
A large, ultra-modern set of apartments on a fine 
site at 240 Central Park South (actually finished 
1940; designed by Mayer & Whittlesey) was most 
skilfully grouped and gave New York its first large 
banks of balconies. Other apartments of contempo- 
rary design include Country Club Gardens, Den- 
ver (by Fisher, Fisher & Hubbell), and Governor 
Shepherd Apartments, Washington, D.C., by Jo- 
seph H. Abel. 

Houses. Architects were still divided into "tradi- 
tionalist" and "modernist" camps, depending chiefly 
on preferences in draping plans increasingly con- 
temporary. In a less controversial area something 
like a basic twentieth-century architecture seemed 
to be shaping up, in which the scholarship was 
evocative rather than literal and the "modernism" 
direct rather than forced (For representative recent 
examples compiled with the aid of AIA, see Archi- 
tectural Forum for April, with 81 houses regionally 
classified. ) 

Community Buildings. Economy and directness 
were increasingly essential in new defense school?; 
good precedents were furnished by such examples 
as the Consolidated School at College Station, Tex., 
designed by C. J. Finney and Ernest Langford on 
the basis of an exhaustive problem analysis by 
students of the Department of Architecture at Texas 
A. & M. College; and Garden Oaks elementary 
school at Houston, by Talbot Wilson & Irwin Mor- 
ris, with its original grouping and classroom plan- 
ning. A handsomely studied small school was the 
Grimes School at Burlington, la , by Holabird & 
Root; a monumental large one, the pie-shaped 
Cardinal Hayes High School in New York by Eg- 
gers & Higgms. Klemhaus Music Hall at Buffalo, 
( F. J. & W. A. Kidd, with Eliel Saarmen, assoc. ) 
finished earlier, was one of the truly distinguished 
buildings with "niceties of form and texture, of re- 
lationship and expression" of the sort which, de- 
clares Professor Hudnut, are now perforce becom- 
ing rare. Among hospitals were to be noted Bald- 
win House, Vassar College, Poughkcepsie, N.Y., by 
Faulkner & Kingsbury, with a neat three-pronged 
plan; Cairns Convalescent Center, Eleven-Mile Cor- 
ner, Arizona, by FSA architects. As a rarity among 
churches, the Church of Our Lady of the Lake, at 
Seattle, Wash , by Paul Thiry, took its departure 
from the Romanesque to arrive at an expression in 
brick along with some plywood and other strictly 
modern materials piously modest and simple, but 
withal decorative, in a manner illustrating the basic 
continuity of all fine building. The nave of die 
Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York was 
opened to expose the full 601 -ft. interior. 

Government Buildings. A new rash of temporary 
structures once more defaced the Capital; some of 
the Government offices went into buildings to be 
described under "Commercial." Among the better 
post offices, done in the Office of the Supervising 
Architect (PBA), with H. L. Cheney as consultant, 
was that at Peoria, 111., with an unusual, pleasing 
freedom, and the one at Gary, Ind., formal but 



contemporary. At Philadelphia the combined post 
office and courthouse building was somewhat fussy 
and fluty as to exterior, but sumptuously elegant 
within. 

Commercial. Federal Loan Agency, Washington, 
moved into an office building (A. R. Clas, arch.. 
Holabird & Root, assoc. arch. ) of that studied and 
elegant ultra-simplicity which is now as interna- 
tional among commercial and political capitals as 
the war itself. More commotion was created by the 
spirited Longfellow Building by Wm. Lescaze, with 
its appropnate, if stylistic, tier of balconies. It was 
rumored that Government offices would fill the new 
1,000-room Statler Hotel under construction (Hola- 
bird & Root, arch's; A. R. Clas, assoc. arch.) In 
general character an insurance headquarters such 
as United Benefit Life Bldg., Omaha (Tinsley, 
McBroom & Higgms ) is interchangeable with some 
of the post offices above, with the added feature of 
the most careful adjustment of complicated plan 
requirements. Small-town and suburban business 
blocks continued, by contrast, to be built as jum- 
bled aggregates of pasteboard fronts, so that a 
fluent, unified rendering, such as Connne Griffith 
Bldg. No. 2 at Beverly Hills ( Allen G. Siple) made 
a very superior impression. The outstanding store 
of the year was the highly sophisticated one de- 
signed by Raymond Loewy for Lord & Taylor on a 
suburban highway at Manhasset, L.I. (Starrett & 
Van Vleck). 

England. Building was nearly at a standstill in 
England, but much that was new appeared in pro- 
jected programs of reconstruction. In their "in- 
terim" reports the committees of the Royal Insti- 
tute of British Architects placed unprecedented 
emphasis upon the need for "a national plan to 
cover the whole country, with regional divisions," 
and powers "mainly ^constructive in character 
rather than restrictive." Highly advanced recon- 
struction plans for Coventry, Birmingham, and 
Bristol were being prepared by the new Ministry 
of Works and Buildings under Lord Reitli. At Cov- 
entry the city architect, E. F. Gibson, created a 
brilliantly improvised shopping center of demount- 
able materials such as corrugated sheets of asbes- 
tos. At Liverpool was exemplified, with equal bril- 
liance, the opposite approach the city architect, 
L. H. Keay, produced solidly built, one-story house- 
rows cleverly planned for later conversion into two- 
story dwellings. 

Germany. The ambitions of the State were fore- 
shadowed in the extensive treatment given by the 
architectural press to the problems of building in 
Africa, with examples garnered from as far South 
as the Cape. Meanwhile Dr. Ley, head of the La- 
bor Front, proposed prefabrication of house parts 
for storage and immediate erection in Germany 
after the war. 

Latin and South America In their urban architec- 
ture, by virtue of strong influence from modern 
Italy and occasionally from the French LeCor- 
busier, these countries produced buildings equalled 
only by the best in North America in breadth and 
unity of effect. In Colombia, the Nuevo Colegio 
de San Bartolome by Trujillo Gomez & Martinez 
Cardenas or the group of apartments Cite Restrepo 
by Cuellar, Serrano, Gomez, might be mentioned. 
The output of Argentina showed a wealth of ur- 
bane, precise, polished work, as in the bold design 
of the Argentine Automobile Club at Buenos Aires 
by Antonio U. Vilar, or in several apartment blocks 
the work of Miguel M. Ibarra, Vargas & Aranda, 
Alberto Prebisch, Raul le Monnier, and others. The 
architect Jorge Vivanco achieved a pair of "mini- 
mal" two-story city houses taking rank with the 



ARGENTINA 



32 



ARGENTINA 



best designs anywhere of the past two decades. 
Among private nouses, eclecticism was the vogue, 
with a strong demand for North American Colonial 
in the purest execution. 

Russia. In Russia the ever hearty, ever unpredict- 
able fantasy of the Slavic temperament showed the 
possibility of escape from that correct polished re- 
strained anonymity which threatened to engulf the 
modern effort elsewhere. In locks on the Yaouza at 
Moscow, G. P. Golz achieved a riotous freedom 
with classical elements including caryatids and 
the like as decoration, occasionally throwing in a 
straight little Doric temple not unlike those of the 
early American classical revival. A review of the 
work of Prof. N. A. Trotski (deceased) showed 
the characteristic swing since 1918: beginning with 
a thoroughly "expressionist" project for the Soviet 
Palace of Labor (1922), going to absolutist mod- 
ern in the district Soviet offices "Kirov" in Lenin- 
grad and a factory there, then again to the colossal, 
heavily studded, diamond-rusticated facade of the 
Leningrad Marine Academy (with whole project- 
ing bays treated as pilasters supporting the char- 
acteristic heroic groups in naturalistic sculpture 
against the skyline) then classical at Kuibyshev 
in the House of Culture ( of the style family of the 
New York Metropolitan Museum) and again colos- 
sal and pseudo-classical in the Palace of the Soviets 
at Leningrad. 

Other Countries. Swiss architecture included the 
new lecture building for the University of Basle 
by Dr. Roland Rohn, a design both sweeping in 
plan and refined in detail, and two very distin- 
guished Catholic churches, one at Dornach by 
H. Baur, the other at Schonenwerd by Fritz Metz- 
ger, both in the general tradition of Karl Moser's 
other famous modern church at Basle. Denmark's 
high tradition was carried on in a group of row 
houses at Copenhagen by Kay Fisker, C. F. Moller, 
Eric Jensen, an Old People's Home (very striking 
and direct) by Arling Langkilde & Martin Jensen, 
and an Orthopedic Hospital at Aarhus (ch. arch. 
P. A. Poulsen ) elegantly simple. Japanese architec- 
ture was most comprehensible to Europeans at its 
most Japanese; in this character it was well-nigh 
unbeatable as design; but a kind of jackdaw eclec- 
ticism made Japan the greatest repository since 
America's Gilded Age of serenely unconscious ar- 
chitectural humor. 

See BUILDING, CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY. 

DOUGLAS HASKELL. 

ARGENTINA. A federal republic of South America, 
consisting of 14 provinces, 10 territories, and the 
federal district, which includes the capital, Buenos 
Aires. 

Area and Population. Land area, 1,079,965 square 
miles. Estimated population, Jan. 1, 1941, 13,318,- 
320 (7,885,237 at 1914 census). Estimated popula- 
tions of chief cities on Jan. 1, 1940, were: Buenos 
Aires, 2,364,263; Rosario, 514,613; Avellaneda, 
230,775 (1938); C6rdoba, 273,852; La Plata, 190,- 
577 (1938); Tucuman, 146,577; Santa Fe, 144,- 
587; Bahia Blanca, 115,148 (1938); Mendoza, 
110,180; Mar del Plata, 62,415 (1938). The popu- 
lation is almost entirely of European ( chiefly Span- 
ish and Italian) extraction. In 1939 there were 
88,806 marriages, 296,912 births, 141,267 deaths, 
18,603 immigrants, and 13,932 emigrants. 

Defense. As of Nov. 1, 1940, Argentina had 
49,705 men in active military service, including 
conscripts; an additional 2,023 in the military and 
naval air forces, with about 200 planes; a trained 
army reserve of 282,503 men; and a naval force of 
2 old battleships (recently modernized), 3 cruis- 



ers, 4 old coast defense vessels, 16 destroyers, 3 
submarines, 15 patrol vessels, and various auxiliary 
craft, all manned by about 11,500 men. The Ger- 
man military mission was discharged in 1940. In 
1941 there were two U.S. naval officers on the staff 
of the Naval War College and seven U.S. air 
officers advising the government on aviation mat- 
ters. See History. 

Education and Religion. Illiteracy fell from 22 per 
cent of the voting population in 1930 to an esti- 
mated 16 per cent in 1939 (less than 2 per cent in 
the federal district). School statistics for 1939: 
Primary, 13,693 schools, 1,977,357 pupils; sec- 
ondary, normal and special, 679 schools, 123,143 
pupils; universities, six institutions with about 28,- 
000 students. The Roman Catholic Church is sup- 
ported by the state; all other faiths enjoy freedom 
of conscience. 

Production. Agriculture, stock raising, and manu- 
facturing are the principle occupations. Agricul- 
tural and pastoral products usually account for 
more than 90 per cent of all exports. Estimated 
yields of the chief crops ( in metric tons ) : Wheat 
7,505,000 in 1940-41; corn, 11,028,000 in 1939- 
40; linseed, 1,567,000 in 1940-41; ginned cotton, 
80,000 in 1940-41; cane sugar, 540,374 in 1940; 
tobacco, 18,593 in 1939-40; grapes, 10,919,976 
kilograms in 1940. Livestock slaughtered in "frig- 
orificos" in 1940 included 4,069,710 cattle, 5,481,- 
050 sheep and 897,579 swine. Petroleum produc- 
tion in 1940 was 20,846,000 bbl., giving Argentina 
tenth rank among world producers. Small quantities 
of tungsten, lead, zinc, copper, gold, silver, and 
coal are mined. As of Dec. 31, 1938, there were 
10,344 industrial establishments, with 29,001 em- 
ployees and 212,841 workmen; during 1938 they 
produced goods valued at 2,416,776,400 pesos. In 
order of value of output, the leading manufacturing 
industries in 1939 were meat packing, textiles, 
electricity, flour milling, sugar refining. 

Foreign Trade. Exclusive of specie, imports in 
1940 totaled 1,498,757,000 pesos (1,338,332,000 
in 1939) and exports 1,427,933,000 pesos (1,573,- 
173,000 in 1939), on the basis of "real" values. 
Leading 1940 imports were fuels and lubricants, 
textiles, machinery and vehicles, iron manufactures, 
chemicals, foodstuffs. Values of the chief exports 
were (in pesos): Wheat, 284,169,758; chilled and 
frozen beef, 187,224,070; unwashed wool, 120,- 
292,191; linseed, 119,165,833; cattle hides, 101,- 
101,711; corn, 85,278,017; washed wool, 56,229,- 
310. The United States furnished 29.1 per cent of 
the 1940 imports (17.2 in 1939); United Kingdom, 
19.8 (19.9); Brazil, 7.8 (6.5). Of the 1940 exports, 
the United Kingdom took 36.4 per cent (35.9 in 
1939); United States, 17.5 (12.0); Brazil, 5.3 
(4.3). See TRADE, FOREIGN. 

Finance. Budget estimates for 1941 placed receipts 
at 821,900,000 and expenditures at 1,082,000,000 
pesos (854,320,000 and 1,062,343,500, respective- 
ly, in 1940). Actual governmental collections in 
1940 were 982,881,000 pesos. The aggregate public 
debt of the national, provincial, and municipal gov- 
ernments rose from 6,486,230,000 paper pesos as 
of June 30, 1938, to 7,623,268,000 on June 30, 
1940. On the latter date the debt was distributed 
as follows: National, 5,291,382,000; provinces, 
1,584,408,000; municipalities, 848,745,000. Of the 
total debt, 5,670,270,000 pesos represented internal 
and 1,952.998,000 external obligations. The free 
market exchange rate of the paper peso was $0.2309 
in 1939, $0.2288 in 1940. 

Transportation. The railway mileage in 1941 was 
26,184, of which 59 per cent was British-owned 
and 30 per cent state-owned. Gross operating re- 



ARGENTINA 



33 



ARGENTINA 



ceipts of all privately-operated lines declined from 
413,110,000 pesos in 1936 to 360,000,000 in 1940. 
The net receipts of 26,000,000 pesos in 1940 barely 
sufficed to cover about one-third of loan interest re- 
quirements. For highways, see ROADS AND STREETS. 
In 1940 the nine domestic and foreign commercial 
air lines operating in Argentina flew 1,556,772 kilo- 
meters and carried 40,690 passengers, 77,059 kilo- 
grams of mail, and 62,272 kilograms of express. 
New schedules inaugurated by Pan American- 
Grace Airways in April, 1941, reduced the round- 
trip time between the United States and Argentina 
to one week. Net registered tonnage of ships enter- 
ing Argentine ports fell from 9,453,000 in 1939 to 
6,690,000 in 1940. For Argentine-Bolivian railway 
accords, see BOLIVIA. 

Government. The Constitution of 1853 vests execu- 
tive power in a president chosen for a six-year term 
by 376 electors representing the provinces and the 
federal district. The National Congress consists of 
a Senate of 30 members elected for nine years by 
the provincial legislatures and a Chamber of Depu- 
ties of 158 members elected for four years by uni- 
versal male suffrage One-third of the Senate retires 
every three years and one-half of the Chamber 
every two years. The governors of the provinces, 
elected by local suffiage, exercise extensive powers 
independently of the federal government By the 
elections of 1940 (see YKAR BOOK for 1940, p 37), 
the Radicals gamed control of the Chamber of Dep- 
uties. President Roberto M Ortiz, who assumed of- 
fice Feb 20, 1938, developed a chronic illness and 
on July 3, 1940, designated Vice-President Ram6n 
S. Castillo as Acting President. 

HISTORY 

The extension and intensification of the World 
War during 1941 had severe repercussions in Ar- 
gentina It produced an acute economic crisis, ag- 
gravated political and ideological controversies, and 
aroused growing opposition to the government's 
policy of strict neutrality. 

Political Events. Early in 1941 there was a widen- 
ing of the breach between Acting President Castillo, 
leader of the conservative Government coalition, 
and the Radical party, which controlled the Cham- 
ber of Deputies. Charging that Government candi- 
dates had won through fraud and manipulation, the 
Radicals demanded annulment of provincial elec- 
tions held in Santa Fe and Mendoza on Dec. 15, 
1940, and Jan. 5, 1941. Acting President Castillo 
side-stepped this demand. However his Finance 
Minister, Fedenco Pmedo, made a deal with the 
Radicals whereby new elections would be held in 
both provinces in return for Radical legislative sup- 
port of Pmedo's program for meeting Argentina's 
economic crisis (for program, see YEAR BOOK for 
1940, pp. 37-38). When the Acting President re- 
pudiated this arrangement, Pmedo resigned (Jan- 
uary 14). The Radicals retaliated by refusing to act 
on any legislation submitted by the Government. 

Orfiz Return Sought. A week later Foreign Minis- 
ter Julio A. Roca, a leading advocate of inter-Amer- 
ican cooperation and mutual defense, resigned be- 
cause of lack of confidence in Acting President 
Castillo. The two vacant Cabinet posts were filled 
by Dr. Enrique Ruiz Guinazu (Foreign Affairs) 
and Dr. Carlos Alberto Acevedo (Finance). But 
the political crisis continued, with the ailing Presi- 
dent Ortiz taking a more active role in opposition 
to Castillo's policies. Although elected by the con- 
servative coalition, Ortiz had won the support of 
the Radicals and other pro-democratic forces by his 
fight against electoral fraud and corruption. There 
was a growing demand that Ortiz resume his Presi- 



dential functions, but this was stilled on April 17 
when a Senate committee appointed to investigate 
his health reported that almost total blindness pre- 
vented the President from assuming office. 

Castillo Sfrengf/tens Hit Hold. This report strength- 
ened Acting President Castillo's position. On April 
25 he announced that in view of the Radicals' leg- 
islative boycott he would govern temporarily by 
decree. Public opinion, once predominantly favor- 
able to the Radicals, was being alienated by the 
legislative deadlock. Consequently the Radicals on 
May 6 were forced to end their boycott and an- 
nounce that they would support all measures tend- 
ing to solve Argentina's economic, social, and de- 
fense problems. 

Nevertheless the sessions of the 78th Congress, 
which opened on May 28, were marked by con- 
tinual bickering between the Acting President and 
Congress, particularly over the issue of German ac- 
tivities in Argentina. When Congress recessed on 
October 1 only a small part of the legislation ur- 
gently demanded by Castillo had been adopted. 
Congress approved the purchase of 16 Italian mer- 
chant ships and the allocation of $127,000,000 for 
defense. But it failed to pass bills authorizing the 
1941 budget, a public works program, purchase by 
die state of unsold farm surpluses, and the floating 
of a dollar loan in the United States. 

Buenos Aires Council Oiiso/ved. By withholding ac- 
tion on these measures, Congress hoped to force 
the convocation of an extraordinary session, which 
would give it an opportunity to check Government 
manipulation of elections scheduled to be held in 
Buenos Aires and two other provinces during De- 
cember. Acting President Castillo, however, refused 
to call a special session. Instead he dealt the op- 
position a serious blow on October 10 when his 
Cabinet voted to supplant the elected Municipal 
Council of Buenos Aires with a board of 21 Gov- 
ernment appointees. 

Charges of racketeering and corruption had been 
made against certain members of the Municipal 
Council. Nevertheless, the press and pro-democratic 
parties and organizations attacked the Government's 
move as an unconstitutional blow at the democratic 
system. The Council, ousted from City Hall by the 
police, declared the dissolution order illegal and 
continued to meet regularly in other places. The 
Radical party, hinting at the approach of civil war, 
denounced the Acting President's action as an at- 
tempt to maintain himself in power "by arbitrari- 
ness." On October 25 the Radicals announced that 
they would seek to impeach Castillo for exceeding 
his constitutional authority, while the Municipal 
Council decided to carry its case to the Supreme 
Court. 

Provincial Election*. The Radical attack upon the 
Acting President received a serious setback as a re- 
sult of Government victories in provincial elections 
held in Catamarca (Castillo's home province) on 
November 23, in San Juan on November 30, and 
in the province of Buenos Aires on December 7. 
These elections tipped the national balance of po- 
litical power in favor of the National Democratic 
party and indicated the probable victory of its can- 
didate in the 1943 Presidential election. Catamarca 
gave the National Democrats 12,326 votes against 
6,694 for the Radicals. In Buenos Aires Province, 
the Castillo Administration's candidate for Gover- 
nor won by 293,604 votes to 193,284 for the Radi- 
cal candidate. The defeated Opposition charged 
that the Buenos Aires election was won by means 
of "shameful" electoral frauds and demanded its an- 
nulment. The Radicals were prevented from press- 
ing their charges by the declaration of a state of 



ARGENTINA 



84 



ARQtNTINA 



siege on December 16, under which all constitu- 
tional guarantees were suspended. 

Th. Anti-Nazi Drive. The suspicion with which 
democratic elements viewed the Castillo Adminis- 
tration had been deepened by its apathy toward 
German and pro-Nazi activities. These assumed a 
more violently anti-democratic character after the 
German victories in the Balkans during April and 
May. There was an alarming anti-democratic dem- 
onstration by the semi-militarized Nationalist Youth 
Alliance in Buenos Aires on May Day. Numerous 
other incidents indicated that Buenos Aires was the 
center of German fifth-column activities through- 
out South America, and that native Fascist and pro- 
Nazi elements were receiving active support and 
encouragement from Berlin. 

Repeated charges that army officers were impli- 
cated in anti-democratic and pro-totalitarian activi- 
ties led the Chamber of Deputies on June 11 to 
pass a resolution, 73 to 16, asking the Government 
to disclose what steps had been taken to curb fifth- 
column activities. The reply made by the Minister 
of Interior on June 18 was deemed unsatisfactory. 
The following day the Chamber voted 95 to 1 for 
the establishment of a special committee with full 
powers to investigate subversive activities. Headed 
by Deputy Raul Damonte Taborda (Radical) and 
including representatives of the other recognized 
political parties, the committee launched a vigor- 
ous probe similar to that made by the Dies Com- 
mittee in the United States. It conducted raids 
upon offices and headquarters of German and Ar- 
gentine pro-Nazi organizations that uncovered im- 
portant evidence. Beginning August 29, the com- 
mittee published its findings in a series of reports 
that caused a profound revulsion of Argentine 
opinion against Germany and pro-Nazi movements 
in Argentina. 

fnvesfigofffig Commiffee's Report. On the basis of 
evidence submitted in its reports, the investigating 
committee charged that the German Nazi party 
continued to operate in Argentina although it had 
been dissolved by Presidential decree on June 15, 
1939; that the party was organized on military lines, 
with "cells" widely distributed over the country; 
and that the German Embassy guided and helped 
to finance its activities. The committee reported 
that disbursements by the German Embassy rose 
from $37,720 during the normal year ended June 
30, 1939, to $1,435,920 in 1940-41. Of $120,000 
worth of bearer checks, cashable without endorse- 
ment, issued by the Embassy during the last week 
of June, 1941, $24,000 was traced to the pro-Ger- 
man newspaper Pampero. 

The committee further charged that German 
schools in Argentina were controlled by the Ger- 
man Embassy; that the teachers were sent from 
Germany and required to take the oath of obedi- 
ence and loyalty to Adolf Hitler; and that the text- 
books were received from the Reich and distributed 
by the Embassy. The schools were said to follow 
regulations issued m Berlin rather than those es- 
tablished by Argentine law. These revelations were 
buttressed by findings of a secret inquiry into Nazi 
activities carried on by the Senate, which was con- 
trolled by the government parties, as well as by 
the exposure of plots and conspiracies against the 
republic by pro-Nazi army officers and organiza- 
tions. Public opinion, aroused by these develop- 
ments, forced the reluctant Government to take 
more active measures in defense of democratic in- 
stitutions. 

Pro-Nazi Conspiracies. Late in July the police in 
Parana, capital of Entre Rios province, broke up a 
plot by a "nationalist" organization to overthrow 



the provincial and national governments by a sud- 
den coup. The ensuing investigation produced evi- 
dence of a German military organization working 
in close cooperation with the local "nationalists. 
Anns and munition caches were discovered. Evi- 
dence uncovered in Parana led to the discovery of 
similar German military organizations in the prov- 
ince of C6rdoba, collaborating with Argentine "na- 
tionalist" factions in anti-democratic plots and prop- 
aganda. 

The Minister of Interior on August 2 banned all 
activities in Buenos Aires of the Superior Council of 
Argentine Nationalism, led by the retired Gen. Ba- 
tista Molina. The next day the Government ordered 
the dissolution of the Nationalist Youth Alliance, 
also headed by General Molina, sis a totalitarian 
military organization. General Molina's activities led 
the Federal Attorney General to rule on August 5 
that he must stand trial for sedition before a civil 
court. 

On September 23 loyal troops frustrated a plot 
by pro-Nazi air force officers to overthrow the re- 
public. The army seized military airdromes in Pa- 
rana and C6rdoba, center of die conspiracy, and 
later extended its precautions to other parts of the 
country. A number of air force officers were arrest- 
ed. On September 25 Gen Angel Maria Zuloaga, 
chief of the military air arm, was removed from his 
post. He was later confined to quarters for four 
months for making public his letter of resignation. 
In October the War Ministry effected a sweeping 
reorganization of the officer personnel of the air 
force. Radical Deputies charged that the military 
conspiracy represented a "Nazi attempt to seize 
control of the Argentine Government through Quis- 
lings," and accused Acting President Castillo of 
"joining in the plotting." Castillo, m turn, attributed 
the plot to Radicals, Nationalists, and others. 

Enforcement of "Neutrality." Anti-Axis elements, 
mobilized by the powerful pro-Ally Accion Argen- 
tina movement, were stirred by these developments. 
They demanded revision of the Government's strict 
neutrality policy in favor of Britain and her Allies, 
and for stronger action against anti-democratic 
forces at home. Accion Argentina arranged for dem- 
onstrations of unprecedented size in Buenos Aires 
and 5,000 other places on November 29 to promote 
"the triumph of democracy, both inside and out- 
side Argentina." Twenty-four hours before the 
meetings were to be held, Acting President Castillo 
ordered their cancellation on the ground that the 
Government could not tolerate public protests 
against its neutrality policy. The ban was enforced 
everywhere except in Entre Rios Province, where 
the Radical Governor, Enrique Mihura, openly de- 
fied the Government's orders. 

With the exception of Pampero, the press unani- 
mously condemned the Acting President's policy. 
Nevertheless police broke up demonstrations favor- 
ing the United States after that republic became 
involved in the war. On December 13 a decree was 
issued declaring Argentina neutral toward Germany 
and Italy but giving the United States the privi- 
leged status of nonbelligerency. On December 15 
Castillo announced his determination to curb pro- 
Axis propaganda and on the following day he de- 
clared a state of siege, ostensibly for this purpose. 
However the first application of the order was the 
cancellation on December 17 of an Accion Argen- 
tina mass meeting called to "pay homage to Presi- 
dent Roosevelt" and to affirm Argentine adherence 
to the democratic cause. The press, which was over- 
whelmingly democratic, was forbidden to print any- 
thing affecting the neutrality of the nation, depre- 
cating "the government, political regime, head of 



ARGENTINA 



85 



ARGENTINA 



state or officials" of any belligerent nation, or that 
would disturb friendly relations with other coun- 
tries. 

Friction with Germany. The German Ambassador to 
Argentina, Baron Edmund von Thermann, became 
the target of persistent criticism after agents of the 
Chamber's investigating committee on July 24 
seized a wireless sending set of German make that 
was being sent secretly from Buenos Aires to Peru 
under cover of diplomatic immunity. Other inci- 
dents followed, particularly the flight to Brazil of 
the Embassy's press chief, Gottfried Sandstede, re- 
puted head of the Gestapo in Argentina, to escape 
trial on charges of misusing public funds and form- 
ing an illegal organization. 

On September 15 the Chamber of Deputies ap- 
proved, 78 to 1, a resolution asking the Govern- 
ment to dissolve German social, charitable, and la- 
bor organizations as illegal fronts for the German 
Nazi party. The resolution also asked the Govern- 
ment to deport the leaders of these organizations 
and to deprive the German Chamber of Commerce 
of its legal registration. It further declared that the 
German Ambassador had "exceeded the functions 
of his office and abused his diplomatic privilege." 

The German Ambassador protested strongly 
against the "insults" addressed to him during the 
debate in the Chamber, and the German press be- 
gan an anti- Argentine campaign. On September 21 
Acting President Castillo announced that his ad- 
ministration "dissociates itself from statements made 
in the Chamber of Deputies." Rejecting Congres- 
sional and other pressure for the dismissal of the 
German Ambassador, he declared on September 25 
that the conduct of international affairs was the ex- 
clusive responsibility of the Executive. The Foreign 
Office sought to induce Berlin to withdraw Baron 
von Thermann voluntarily, but without success. 

Defense Preparations. While continuing to discount 
the danger from the Axis powers, the Government 
in October obtained the approval of Congress for a 
five-year rearmament plan to cost 712,000,000 pesos 
for the navy and 646,000,000 pesos for the army. 
The War Minister announced November 27 that 
the standing army would be raised to 250,000 men. 

The Government followed up actively the initia- 
tive taken in December, 1940, when Argentina and 
Uruguay invited neighboring republics to join them 
in strengthening defense facilities in the River Plate 
region. Military delegations from Brazil, Chile, Uru- 
guay, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, and the United 
States attended the Argentine independence anni- 
versary celebration in Buenos Aires on July 9, and 
staff talks on continental defense problems were re- 
ported. Talk of an Argentine-Brazihan-Chilean mil- 
itary alliance against overseas aggression followed 
the visits of the Argentine War Minister, Gen. Juan 
N. Tonazzi, to Rio de Janeiro in August and to 
Santiago in September. 

Relations with United States. The negotiations with 
Brazil and Chile apparently had other objectives in 
addition to continental defense. It was indicated 
that the Argentine Government wanted to prevent 
an unrestrained rearmament race among the ABC 
powers, and also to lessen the need for the establish- 
ment of United States bases in South America. Anti- 
United States elements showed apprehension at the 
decision of Brazil and Uruguay to accept United 
States funds for the construction of naval and air 
bases, which would be placed at the disposal of 
the United States in certain circumstances. On June 
27 the Argentine Government rejected the Uru- 
guayan proposal that any American power at war 
with a non-American power should be treated as a 
nonbelligerent. 



While displaying its traditional hostility to the 
spread of United States influence in South America, 
the Argentine Government was nevertheless drawn 
into more friendly relationship with Washington. 
This trend was due partly to Argentina's growing 
economic dependence upon the United States and 
partly to the predominantly pro-democratic senti- 
ments of the Argentine people. The United States 
in 1941 displaced Great Britain as Argentina's best 
customer and chief source of finished goods. In Oc- 
tober the Argentine Foreign Minister stated that 
Washington had earmarked $70,000,000. or 295,- 
000,000 pesos, for Argentina's use under lease-lend 
facilities. On November 27 an Argentine military 
mission sailed for the United States to purchase 
armaments. 

Early in September the Argentine Government 
accepted an Anglo-American trade deal providing 
for the disposal of farm surpluses to the Allies and 
barring future sales of strategic war materials to the 
Axis powers. On November 27 it undertook to sell 
to the United States all of Argentina's tungsten pro- 
duction up to 3,000 short tons yearly for three years. 
The Argentine Congress in July ratified the impor- 
tant conventions signed at the Havana Conference 
of American Foreign Ministers in 1940. Later there 
was an exchange of visits by official delegations rep- 
resenting the Argentine Chamber of Deputies and 
the U.S. House of Representatives. 

Reciprocal Trade Treaty. The Roosevelt Administra- 
tion's eagerness to win Argentine friendship was 
indicated by the partial relaxation of the ban on 
imports of Argentine beef on April 1, and by the 
conclusion on October 14 of a reciprocal trade 
agreement that aroused vigorous protests from the 
farming and ranching sections of the United States. 
In Argentina the treaty had important political con- 
sequences favorable to the United States. Under 
the treaty, Argentina obtained U.S. tariff reduc- 
tions on flaxseed, canned corned beef, etc., and a 
pledge not to raise duties on other export products. 
The concessions, or bindings of duties, covered 84 
items which accounted for 75 per cent of Argentine 
sales to the United States in 1940. In return Argen- 
tina granted tariff reductions or bindings of duties 
on 127 items imported from the United States, ac- 
counting for 30 per cent of U.S. sales in 1940. 

Other Foreign Relations. Continuing its program of 
developing closer economic and political relations 
with neighboring republics, Argentina concluded 
new trade deals with Brazil on January 29 and 
April 9. On November 21 the first step toward 
elimination of mutual Argentine-Brazilian customs 
barriers was taken, when their Foreign Ministers 
signed a treaty in Buenos Aires granting free entry 
to the products of new industries in either country. 

Argentina participated in the Regional Economic 
Conference of the Rio de la Plata (Q.v. ) in Monte- 
video beginning January 27. On February 10 rep- 
resentatives of Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay 
met in Buenos Aires and signed five agreements. 
One, signed by all three countries, provided for 
regularization of their joint navigation, irrigation, 
and other rights in the waters of the Pilcomayo 
River. Argentina and Bolivia signed two accords 
regulating and encouraging tourist travel and ex- 
tending Argentine financial aid for the construction 
of a railway and exploitation of petroleum deposits 
in Bolivia (see BOLIVIA under History for details). 
Two agreements signed by Argentina and Paraguay 
provided for dredging and marking the channel of 
the Paraguay River, and for the establishment of a 
foreign exchange stabilization fund in Paraguay 
with Argentine aid. 

A conference of highway engineers from Argen- 



ARIZONA 



36 



ARIZONA 



tina, Bolivia, Chile, and Peru, meeting in Buenos 
Aires in May, fixed the definitive routes of the Pan 
American Highway through those countries pre- 
liminary to the conclusion of diplomatic conven- 
tions for their coordinated development. The Ar- 
gentine-Chilean controversy over conflicting claims 
to Antarctic territories was amicably settled by a 
preliminary agreement signed by representatives of 
the two governments in Santiago, Chile, March 26. 

Early in the year the Argentine Government ex- 
tended a 160,000,000-peso credit to Spain for the 
purchase of surplus Argentine wheat, cotton, and 
meat. Ambassadors replacing Ministers were ex- 
changed with Bolivia and Japan. 

See BOLIVIA, BRAZIL, CANADA, and CHILE, under 
History; ARCHITECTURE; CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL; 
DAIRYING; LEND-LEASE ADMINISTRATION; LIVE- 
STOCK; Music; NAVAL PROGRESS; PAN AMERICAN- 
ISM; REGIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE Rio DE LA 
PLATA; TUNGSTEN; WOOL. 

ARIZONA. A mountain State. Area: 113,909 sq. mi.; 
including 329 sq. mi. of inland water. Population: 
( 1940 census) 499,261. The urban population com- 
prises 34.8 per cent of the total ( U.S. average, 56.5 
per cent); non-white population. 14.4 per cent 
(U.S. average, 10.2); elderly (65 years and over), 
4.8 per cent. Arizona ranks 5th among the States 
in area, 43d in population, and 44th in density, 
with an average or 4 4 persons per square mile 
The largest city and capital is Phoenix with 65,414 
inhabitants. There are 14 counties and two cities 
of more than 10,000 inhabitants (see article on 
POPULATION in 1940 YEAR BOOK). For statistics on 
births, deaths, accidents, et cetera, see VITAL STA- 
TISTICS. 

Education. According to the latest Biennial Survey 
of Education, there were 110,056 pupils enrolled 
in the State School System during the school year 
1937-38. Of this total, 89,708 were enrolled in kin- 
dergartens and elementary schools and 20,348 in 
secondary schools. The instructional staff compnsed 
3,364 persons, who received an annual salary of 
$1,535 (U.S. average. $1,374); 802 or 25.5 per 
cent were men. Expenditures for all public schools 
in 1937-38 were $9,773,856, making a total cost 
per capita of $23.33 (U.S. average: $17.15). For 
higher education, see under Arizona in the table 
of UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES. 

Transportation. State highway mileage in 1939, in- 
cluding streets under State control, totaled 3,614, 
of which 2,902 miles were surfaced. Motor vehicles 
registered in 1940 (including trailers and motor- 
cycles) numbered 143,451, 112,945 were private 
and commercial automobiles, 350 busses, and 25,- 
108 trucks and tractor trucks. Gross motor-fuel con- 
sumption was 113,435,000 gal. Net motor-fuel tax 
receipts were $4,769,000, the rate being five cents 
per gallon (Dec. 31, 1940). State motor-vehicle 
receipts (from registrations, licenses, fines, etc.) 
were $1,225,000. 

Railways of all classes extended 2,234 miles 
(Dec. 31, 1939) .95 per cent of the total mileage 
in the United States. Class I steam railways (906 
miles) reported 2,619,457 tons of revenue freight 
originating in Alabama in 1940 and 5,622,933 tons 
terminating in Arizona. There are 44 airports and 
landing fields in the State (15 lighted fields). On 
July 1, 1941, according to the Civil Aeronautics 
Authority, there were 131 civil aircraft in the State 
and 588 commercial and private pilots (517 pri- 
vate). 

Agriculture. Acreage harvested in principal 
in 1941 totaled 770,100, as compared with 676,1 
acres in 1940. According to the latest census, i 



are 18,468 farms, valued at $153,676,675, averag- 
ing 1,388.9 acres each. Farm population numbered 
115,349 or 23.1 per cent of the total. Leading crops 
with production were: Cotton lint, $18,067,000, 
203,000 bales; commercial truck crops, $11,756,- 
000; hay, $6,807,000, 603,000 tons. 

Manufacturing. According to the 1939 Census of 
Manufactures, there were 332 manufacturing es- 
tablishments in Arizona, employing 6,096 wage 
earners who received wages of $7,162,639 for the 
year. Total value of products was $97,529,481; 
value added by manufacture, $32,041,290. 

Mineral Production. According to preliminary re- 
ports of the U.S. Bureau of Mines, Arizona con- 
tinued as the largest copper-producing State in 
1941, and its output (665,500,000 Ib. valued at 
$77,863,500) was greater than that in any year 
since 1929, which saw a record production of 830,- 
628,411 Ib. The 1941 figure was 18 per cent over 
1940 (562,338,000 Ib. valued at $63,544,194). 
Other leading minerals are gold, 315,000 fine oz. 
valued at $11,025,000 in 1941 (294,807 fine oz., 
$10,318,245, in 1940) and silver, 7,551,000 fine 
oz., $5,369,600 (7,075,215 fine oz., $5,031,264) 
Total value of mineral production in 1939 was $75,- 
056,965, or 1.77 per cent of the United States total, 
giving Arizona 15th place among the States in 
value of mineral products 

Trade. According to the 1940 census there were 
607 wholesale establishments in Arizona, employ- 
ing 3,854 persons, reporting net sales for 1939 of 
$96,528,000 and annual pay roll of $5,623,000 
There were 6,242 retail stores with 16,577 employ- 
ees, reporting sales of $162,003,000 and pay roll 
of $17,119,000 Service establishments numbered 
1,819, employing 3,283 persons for $3,185,000 per 
year, and reporting a business volume amounting 
to $10,880,000. The leading business center of the 
State is Plioemx which reported wholesale sales of 
$49,519,000, retail sales of $47,922,000 Tucson 
reported sales of $12,750,000 wholesale and $23,- 
646 retail. 

Social Security and Relief. In the calendar year 1940 
the total cost of assistance to needy persons in 
Arizona was $12,470,000. Under the Social Secu- 
rity program, financed by Federal funds matching 
State grants, 8,863 elderly persons were receiving 
(as of June, 1941) an average monthly old-age 
pension of $28.24 (U.S. average pension, $21 08); 
6,563 dependent children in 2,471 families received 
average monthly payment of $32.83 per family 
(U.S. average, $32.58), and 404 blind persons re- 
ceived $27.40 per month (U.S. average $2558). 
General relief cases, which are supported by State 
and local funds only, numbered 2,799 and received 
$16.56 per case (average payment for 41 States, 
$22.68). 

The number of persons employed throughout the 
State in June, 1941, under the various Federal 
work programs was as follows (with total earnings 
for the month in parentheses) : CCC, 4,626 ( $306,- 
000); NYA student work program, 1,842 ($12,- 
000); NYA out-of -school work program, 1,778 
($33,000); WPA, 5,608 ($438,000); other Federal 
emergency projects, 34 ($3,000); regular Federal 
construction projects, 2,005 ($256,000). The Farm 
Security Administration certified subsistence pay- 
ments totaling $26,000 for the month to 1,338 
cases. 

Legislation. The Legislature convenes in regular 
session on Monday after the first Tuesday of Janu- 
ary in odd years. It is composed of 19 Senators and 
52 Representatives, all of whom were Democrats 
in 1941. 

The 1941 Legislature adjourned Mar. 17, 1941, 



ARIZONA 



37 



ARKANSAS 



after a 64-day session during which 135 measures 
were passed out of 517 introduced. Ten were ve- 
toed by the governor leaving 125 new laws for the 
statute books; 37 carried the emergency clause, 
thus being exempted from the referendum provi- 
sions of the Constitution and taking effect immedi- 
ately upon approval by the governor. The follow- 
ing is a brief summary of the Acts considered to be 
of chief importance, according to Director Mulford 
Winsor of the State Department of Library and 
Archives at Phoenix. 

Chap. 5. Permits counties and municipalities to acquire 
and operate airports, or to execute contracts for the opera- 
tion of publicly owned airports by other agencies, whether 
within or without the corporate limits Chap 9. Repeals 
prior law requiring a prisoner in the State prison to serve 
full minimum sentence before being eligible to apply for 
purole Chap 24 Defines different grades of eggs, and re- 
quires egg producer to have eggs inspected and stamped 
before stile Chap 31. Enabling act, permitting formation of 
sanitary districts outside of incorporated cities and towns 
for sewage disposal and related purposes. Chap 82 In- 
creases maximum amount of old age assistance to any one 
recipient to forty dollars per month Former mnximum, 
thirty dollars ( 1 hafi 33 Sets up examining and regulatory 
hoard for nstrnpiiths Formerly under hoard of medical ex- 
aminers (Referendum petition filed against this act, hence, 
operation suspended pending general election in Novem- 
ber, 1942 ) (."Imp 43 Enabling act for the formation of 
soil conservation districts Chap 44 Sets up five-member 
citizen board for administration of State hospital for in- 
sane Formerly under boaid of directors of Stote institu- 
tions Chtip 57 Places regulation of child placement and 
child welfare agencies and institutions (primarily neg- 
lected nnd dependent children) under State department of 
social security and welfare No prior regulation. Chap. 65. 
Abolishes board of directors of State institutions Institu- 
tions placed under control of governor, and purchasing 
agent created for centrali/ed purchasing of supplies for all 
State institutions Chap 80 Sets up complete new juvenile 
tiide foi handling of neglected, dependent, and delinquent 
juveniles Principally court procedure. Prior law repealed. 
Chap 81 Completely revises existing law relating to agri- 
cultural and vegetable sped Regulation and inspection 
Chap JOS Creates new State department of health, gov- 
erning administration of all State public health activities. 
Formerly under State board of health New board consists 
of five iiti/en members, five-year staggered terms Makes 
superintendent of public health full time job, five year 
term Chap JOS Provides for taxation of fuels other than 
gasoline used to piopel motor vehicles on highways. Tax 
collected from consumer Chap 112 Creates examining 
and regulatory board for chiropodists. Chap 124 Com- 
plete revision of unemployment compensation law. (See 
also FIRE PROTECTION ) 

The legislature appropriated during the regular 
session a total of $6,996,341 61 for operation of 
the State government during the ensuing biennium 
and for deficiencies in current operations. This sum 
does not include a number of continuing appropria- 
tions set up by law, which must be raised each 
year without further action by the legislature. Of 
the total sum, $6,806,058.56 is contained in the 
general appropriation Act. Twenty-five other meas- 
ures became law, appropriating $190,283.05. Two 
of the latter were for expenses of the legislative 
session, totaling $99,621. As usual, many relief bills 
were introduced, asking for payment of claims 
against the State for which funds were not other- 
wise available. Nine were passed, appropriating 
$11,191.98. 

Finances. Total tax collections in Arizona for the 
fiscal year ending in June, 1940, were $20,194,000. 
Total sales taxes amounted to $10,018,000, includ- 
ing general sales, $4,010,000, and motor fuel, 
$4,610,000. Taxes on specific businesses and occu- 
pations ran to $483,000, while general and selective 
property taxes came to $4,739,000. The net income 
taxes were $1,363,000. Cost payments for the op- 
eration of general government totaled $16,806,000 
in 1939, the latest year available. (Revenues for 
the general government for that year were $21,- 
398,000.) Cost of operation per capita was $34.23. 
Total gross debt outstanding in 1941 was $2,830,- 
000 as compared with $3,708,000 in 1932. 



Officers and Judiciary. The Governor is Sidney P. 
Osborn (Dem.), inaugurated in January, 1941, for 
a two-year term; Secretary of State, Harry M. 
Moore; Attorney General, Joseph W. Conway; State 
Treasurer, Joseph Hunt; State Auditor, Ana Froh- 
miller. Chief Justice of the Arizona Supreme Court 
is Alfred C. Lockwood, there are two associate 
members elected by popular vote for six-year terms. 

ARKANSAS. A west south central State. Area: 53,102 
sa. mi., including 377 sq. mi. of inland water. Pop- 
ulation: ( 1940 census) 1,949,387. The urban popu- 
lation comprises 22.2 per cent of the total (U.S. 
average, 56.5 per cent); nonwhite population, 24.8 
per cent (U.S. average, 10.2); elderly (65 years 
and over), 5.4 per cent. Arkansas ranks 26th among 
the States in area, 24th in population, and 29th in 
density, with an average of 37 persons per square 
mile. The largest city and capital is Little Rock 
with 88,039 inhabitants. There are 75 counties and 
nine cities of more than 10,000 inhabitants (see ar- 
ticle on POPULATION in 1940 YEAH BOOK). For sta- 
tistics on births, deaths, accidents, et cetera, see VI- 
TAL STATISTICS. 

Education. According to Ralph B Jones, Commis- 
sioner of Education, there were 472,014 pupils en- 
rolled in the public schools of Arkansas during the 
school year 1939-40, 398,246 in elementary schools 
and 73,768 in secondary schools. Teachers num- 
bered 13,173 and received an annual average sal- 
ary of $574. Total expenditures for the year were 
$14,023,914. For higher education, see Arkansas in 
table of UNIVERSITIES. 

Transportation. State highway mileage in 1939, in- 
cluding streets under State control, totaled 9,173, 
of which 8,460 miles were surfaced. Motor vehicles 
registered in 1940 (including trailers and motor- 
cycles) numbered 261,997; 190,589 were private 
and commercial automobiles, 430 busses, and 66,- 
158 trucks and tractor trucks. Gross motor-fuel con- 
sumption was 191,421,000 gallons. Net motor-fuel 
tax receipts were $11,412,000, the rate being six 
and one-half cents per gallon (Dec 31, 1940). 
State motor-vehicle receipts (from registrations, li- 
censes, fines, etc. ) were $3,399,000. 

Railways of all classes extended 4,527 miles 
(Dec. 31, 1939) 1.93 per cent of the total mileage 
in the United States. Class I steam railways (2,961 
miles) reported 8,438,975 tons of revenue freight 
originating in Arkansas in 1940 and 5,492,291 tons 
terminating in Arkansas. There are 24 airports and 
landing fields in the State ( 7 lighted fields ) and one 
seaplane anchorage. On July 1, 1941, according to 
the Civil Aeronautics Authority, there were 175 
civil aircraft in the State and 924 commercial and 
private pilots (824 private). 

Agriculture. Acreage harvested in principal crops 
in 1941 totaled 6,618,000, as compared with 6,555,- 
000 acres in 1940. According to the latest census, 
there are 216,674 farms, valued at $456,848,156, 
averaging 83.5 acres each. Farm population num- 
bered 1,113,662 or 57.1 per cent of the total. Lead- 
ing crops with production were: Cotton lint, $118,- 
490,000, 1,445,000 bales; cottonseed, $30,719,000, 
644,000 tons; corn, $30,609,000, 40,812,000 bu.; 
hay, $16,311,000, 1,648,000 tons; rice, $12,476,000, 
11,342,000 bu. 

Manufacturing. According to the 1939 Census of 
Manufactures, there were 1,178 manufacturing es- 
tablishments in Arkansas, employing 36,254 wage 
earners who received $24,577,234 in wages for the 
year. Total value of products was $160,166,984; 
value added by manufacture, $67,390,149. 

Mineral Production. The chief mineral product is 
petroleum, of which 25,583,000 bbl. were produced 



ARKANSAS 



38 



ARKANSAS 



in 1940 (preliminary figures) as compared with 21,- 
238,000 bbl. valued at $16,790,000 in 1939. Total 
value of mineral production in 1939, according to 
the U.S. Bureau of Mines, was $29,507,194, seven- 
tenths per cent of the total value for the United 
States. See GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Trad*. According to the 1940 census there were 
1,785 wholesale establishments in Arkansas, em- 
ploying 7,890 persons, reporting net sales for 1939 
of $248,916,000 and annual pay roll of $9,643,000. 
There were 20,328 retail stores with 32,581 em- 
ployees, reporting sales of $298,301,000 and pay 
roll of $23,775,000. Service establishments num- 
bered 6,696, employing 9,762 persons for $5,933,- 
000 per year, and reporting a business volume 
amounting to $22,672,000. The leading business 
center of the State is Little Rock which reported 
wholesale sales of $73,500,000, retail sales of $41,- 
063,000, and $4,267,000 receipts for its service es- 
tablishments. Fort Smith reported sales of $24,772,- 
000 wholesale and $15,755,000 retail. 

Social Security and Relief. In the calendar year 1940 
the total cost of assistance to needy persons in Ar- 
kansas was $29,840,000. Under the Social Security 
program, financed by Federal funds matching State 
grants, 26,046 elderly persons were receiving (as 
of June, 1941 ) an average monthly old-age pension 
of $7.69 (U.S. average pension, $21.08); 16,486 
dependent children in 6,462 families received aver- 
age monthly payments of $13.50 per family (U.S. 
average, $32.58); and 1,142 blind persons received 
$9.09 per month (U.S. average, $2558). General 
relief cases, which are supported by State and local 
funds only, numbered 3,463 and received $4.60 per 
case (average payment for 41 States, $22.68). 

The number of persons employed throughout the 
State in June, 1941, under the various Federal work 
programs was as follows (with total earnings for 
the month in parentheses): CCC, 9,392 ($622,- 
000); NYA student work program, 1,377 ($9,000); 
NYA out-of -school work program, 7,996 ($115,- 
000); WPA, 29,757 ($1,329,000); regular Federal 
Construction projects, 2,788 ($231,000). The Farm 
Security Administration certified subsistence pay- 
ments totaling $17,000 for the month to 692 cases. 

Uaislotion. The General Assembly convenes in 
regular session on the second Monday of January in 
odd years. It is composed of 35 Senators ( all Demo- 
crats in 1941) and 100 Representatives (99 Demo- 
crats and one Republican ) . The following summary 
of 1941 legislation is condensed from a report of 
the Arkansas Gazette. 

The 1941 Legislature tried to solve its revenue 
problem by strengthening existing tax laws rather 
than levying new taxes. As a result no new tax was 
adopted, but two existing levies were revised to 
broaden their scope. These were the Strickland cor- 
poration income tax, estimated to bring in $300,000 
to $500,000 in new revenue, and the Administra- 
tion's gross receipts tax which, on July 1, will re- 
place the retail sales tax without increasing the two 
per cent rate. Under the gross receipts tax law, 
every retail merchant in the State must obtain a 
permit (without cost) to do business and will be 
allowed to either absorb the tax himself or pass it 
on to the consumer. The Strickland tax was the 
most controversial. The bill was killed twice and 
passed on its third appearance by the exact three- 
fourths majority required, It eliminated the exemp- 
tion of $1,500 and a graduated tax up to five per 
cent on all corporation income over $25,000 in 
place of the previous flat two per cent tax. Divi- 
dends from State and national banks are taxable 
but banks themselves are exempt. 

The Assembly codified the liquor, cigarette, and 



motor fuel tax laws. It replaced the inheritance tax 
with an estate tax that exempts small incomes and 
is designed to attract wealthy persons to Arkansas. 
The ferry tax was repealed and several license fees 
affecting farmers were reduced. Liquor dealers 
were given die right to sell native wines without 
having to purchase a special wine retailers license. 
To aid counties, a law was passed providing for 
appointment of delinquent personal property tax 
collectors. The gasoline 6.5 cents a gallon tax was 
applied to substitute fuels. Collection of severance 
taxes was tightened. The State was required to 
maintain highway continuations through all cities 
and towns, and the Highway Commission was per- 
mitted to let road construction contracts on a basis 
of need instead of sectional parity. 

The schools were second on Governor Adkins* 
legislative "must" list and as a result the General 
Assembly treated them kindly. Teachers' salaries, 
which have been among the lowest in the nation, 
were given a boost with the Rozzell bill setting up 
State aid toward establishment of minimum salaries. 
The amount of State aid, however, was below ex- 
pectations of proponents only about $300,000 a 
year instead of the $600,000 sought. The Adminis- 
tration's school program was further carried out by 
reorganizing the State Board of Education; sub- 
stituting for the Textbook Commission professional 
selection committees with local choosing of texts 
from multiple lists; reestablishing the county school 
supervision system; providing for annual teacher 
examinations by the chief county school officer. 
Revenue was provided to permit rural schools to 
operate full 8-month terms this school year. 

Administration-sponsored legislation reorganized 
12 State boards, commissions, and departments and 
abolished three existing commissions. The State vo- 
cational trade school in Little Rock and the Depart- 
ment of Aeronautics were created. A merit system 
was established for the Welfare Department to con- 
form to Federal requirements. 

The free-spending Legislature turned down less 
than half a dozen bills submitted by the Budget 
Committee and finally wound up with a total of 
$62,249,300 appropriated for operation of the State 
government and $136,330,557 tor refunding of the 
highway debt. The model 1939 land policy act, 
which functioned on a single-cylinder basis during 
the past two years without an appropriation and 
without an effective land title law, was expected to 
operate on all four as a result of benefiting legisla- 
tion passed; a chief appraiser and four assistants 
were provided for. Legislation affecting counties 
largely involved financial matters. 

A trend toward legislative regulation of business 
and professional life started in Arkansas four years 
ago and was still strong this year with 34 measures 
subject to this classification. Included are items of 
price fixing, taxation, supervision, licensing, and 
confiscation. The dairy measure would improve 
quality of products by guarding their production. 
The optometry bill would restrict "cut-rate" com- 
petition. Prices would be fixed on native wines and 
barber work. The itinerant merchant measure is in- 
tended to keep out of the State many independent 
truckers. Few of the bills drew opposition, though 
critics charged that one result would be to increase 
living costs and drive out competition. 

The Steel unemployment compensation bill was 
the most important enactment in the field of social 
security; it insures employers of a merit-rating sys- 
tem beginning in April, 1942. Retirement benefits 
were extended to several groups; assignment, sale 
or pledge of pension funds for any purpose was 
prohibited. 



ARMAMENTS 



39 



ACT 



By legislation, the State joined the Interstate Oil 
Compact and a compact with Louisiana and Texas 
to promote the sale of rice. 

The Pilkinton preferential primary law put back 
into effect the double primary election system with 
a two-year limitation. A "Litte Hatch Act" would 
prohibit State employees from contributing, even 
voluntarily, to any State campaign fund. The one- 
dollar penalty for delinquent poll tax assessments 
was abolished, and invalids were permitted to vote 
by absentee ballot. The procedure for filing initia- 
tive and referendum petitions was revised. 

Efforts to revise the marriage laws almost came 
to naught despite a last-minute plea by Governor 
Adkins. The minimum marriage age of males was 
increased from 16 to 18 and of females from 14 to 
16. Issuance of marriage licenses was prevented to 
persons intoxicated or under the influence of nar- 
cotics. Defeated were measures to require physical 
examinations and waiting periods before licensing. 
A new grounds of divorce was added insanity es- 
tablished by three years' hospitalization. 

From start to finish refunding was the number 
one topic of legislative discussion. In addition to 
highway bond financing were measures affecting 
refunding in counties, cities, and school districts. 

The Legislature had one ear cocked for measures 
to tie in with the national defense program. It 
passed bills designed to curb sabotage, subversive 
activities and un-American organizations. It enacted 
to aid selective service trainees and gave schools a 
patriotic holiday, Armistice Day. 

Finances. Total tax collections in Arkansas for the 
fiscal year ending in June, 1940, were $34,111,000 
(partial report for 1941: $31,767,000). Total sales 
taxes in 1941 amounted to $22,086,000, including 
general sales, $6,152,000, motor fuel, $11,968,000. 
Taxes on specific businesses and occupations (1940) 
ran to $1,520,000, general and selective property 
taxes, $3,282,000, and unemployment compensation 
(1941), $3,416,000. The net income taxes in 1941 
were $961,000. Cost payments for the operation of 
general government totaled $23,006,000 in 1939, 
the latest year available. ( Revenues for the general 
government for that year were $41,063,000 ) Cost 
of operation per capita was $11.88. Total gross debt 
outstanding in 1941 was $149,413,000, as com- 
pared with $164,626,000 in 1932. 

Officers and Judiciary. The Governor is Homer M. 
Adkins (Dem.), inaugurated in January, 1941, for 
a two-year term; Lieutenant Governor, Robert 
Bailey, Secretary of State, C G. Hall; Attorney 
General, Jack Holt, State Auditor, J. Oscar Hum- 
phreys; State Comptroller, Murray B. McLeod. 
Chief Justice of die Arkansas Supreme Court is 
Griffin Smith; there are six associate members 
elected by popular vote for eight-year terms. 

See FLOODS; PRISONS. 

ARMAMENTS. See the topics listed under NATIONAL 
DEFENSE. 

ARMENIAN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC. See UNION OF 
SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS under Area and Popu- 
lation. 

ARMISTICES. See WORLD WAR; ECUADOR, FRANCE, 
GREECE, IRAN, IRAQ, SYRIA, and YUGOSLAVIA, under 
History. 

ARMORED FORCE. See MILITARY PROGRESS. 
ARMY, U.S. See MILITARY PROGRESS and the topics 
there listed. 
ARSENALS. See MOTOR VEHICLES. 

ART. All activity in the field of art was speeded up 
in 1941. The art museums, to which the National 
Gallery of Art at Washington was an all-important 



addition, expanded their facilities for display as 
well as their collections and serviceability to the 

Eublic. More exhibitions were held than ever be- 
>re, both of the works of old masters and of con- 
temporary American artists, especial stress being 
placed on those of the latter under forty years of 
age. More commissions were given by the Federal 
Government for mural paintings and sculpture to 
decorate public buildings than in any previous year, 
and more emphasis was placed on wide-spread 
productivity national output. During National Art 
Week, November 17-24, instituted for the second 
year by the President of the United States, exhibi- 
tions, over 1,000 in number, were held in every 
State of the Union under State and Federal aus- 
pices. The art market thrived and higher prices 
were brought for works of art sold at auction than 
for many years. The number of artists engaging 
professionally in print-making, sculpture, and paint- 
ing showed considerable increase, despite economic 
conditions generally prevailing, and the art schools 
from coast to coast were overcrowded both winter 
and summer. The War which might have been ex- 
pected to have a detrimental effect, to the contrary 
bestirred additional interest through exhibitions by 
those participating in warfare or held to raise re- 
lief funds. Perhaps, however, the most striking re- 
sult of our country's isolation because of the World 
War was the more intimate relationship established 
through interchange of exhibitions between the 
United States and the South and Central American 
Republics. 

The National Gallery of Art. The National Gallery 
of Art at Washington was formally dedicated and 
opened on the evening of Mar. 17, 1941. The Chief 
Justice of the Supreme Court presided at the cere- 
monies; the President of the United States made 
the dedicatory address; other speakers were Paul 
Mellon representing his father, the late Andrew W. 
Mellon, founder and donor, and Samuel H. Kress, 
also donor. Over eight thousand invited guests were 
in attendance; many from out-of-town, as well as 
those prominent in art, official, and diplomatic life 
at the National Capital. There was music by the 
Marine Band's Symphony Orchestra, and the two 
garden courts were decorated by more than five 
hundred blossoming acacias from the conserva- 
tories of Joseph E. Widener, one of the trustees, 
and well known collector. 

Never before did a National Gallery of Art 
come into existence so well stocked and endowed. 
In the Mellon Collection there were 126 paintings 
covering all the great European Schools from the 
13th to the 19tn centuries, besides some early 
American paintings and 26 works in sculpture from 
the Italian Renaissance. The Kress Collection, lim- 
ited to the art of Italy, comprised 375 paintings 
and 18 works in sculpture, dating from the late 
13th to the early 18th centuries, and representing 
the Italian Schools as in no other museum in Amer- 
ica and few abroad. Before the opening, Mr. Kress 
added 43 additional paintings and 22 pieces of 
sculpture to the gift collection, as indefinite loans. 
Also prior to the opening a superb collection of 
300 prints from the earliest days of print-making to 
today was received from Miss Ellen T. Bullard and 
three anonymous donors, a selection of which was 
immediately placed on view, as was a group of 
early American portraits lent by Mr. and Mrs. 
Chester Dale. 

Other important gifts and loans followed in 
quick succession. Advice to a Young Artist, a paint- 
ing by Daumier, was presented by Duncan Phillips, 
and a portrait of Don Bartolome" Surega, by Goya, 
came as a gift from Mr. and Mrs. P. H. B. Freling- 



AKT 



40 



AKT 



huysen in memory of Mr. and Mrs. H. O. Have- 
meyer to whom it had belonged. Among the indefi- 
nite loans were: Whistler's White Girl, Andalusian, 
and a marine, The Sea, as well as two paintings by 
Degas and two by Renoir, all from the Whittemore 
Collection; from the Chester Dale Collection, 25 
paintings by the leading French artists of the 19th 
century David to Cezanne; and from Mr. and 
Mrs. Copley Amory the famous portrait of The 
Copley Family by Copley himself . 

The galleries in which the paintings and a ma- 
jority of the sculptures are exhibited are on the 
main floor opening from the two spacious halls, 100 
feet long by 21 feet wide, which extend east and 
west from the great rotunda to the garden courts 
at either end. The arrangement is chronological 
and by countries, and, although the Mellon and 
Kress Collections are given separate galleries, the 
historical sequence is unbroken. Great care has 
been taken to provide appropriate backgrounds for 
the paintings. Thus the early Italian paintings are 
seen on plaster walls and those of a later period 
against damask. The Dutch and Flemish paintings 
hang on oak panels; the 18th century English, 
French, and American on wood panels painted, as 
was the custom of their time. The floors are dark 
oak; the lighting from above, well modulated. 

On the ground floor are the administrative offices, 
auditorium, library, work and storage rooms, cafe- 
teria, etc. Here also are a number of adjustable 
galleries in which from time to time exhibitions of 
the works of living artists may be shown, as well 
as study collections. The first showing in these gal- 
leries was of water colors acquired by the Section 
of Fine Arts, Public Building Administration, for 
placement in U.S. Marine Hospitals; followed 
shortly by an exhibition of the "Art of Australia," 
sent to this country by the Australian Common- 
wealth under die sponsorship of the Carnegie Cor- 
poration of New York. The National Gallery of Art 
is administered by a specially appointed board of 
trustees under the Smithsonian Institution, with 
major administrative costs met by Congressional 
appropriation. David K. E. Bruce is President of 
the Board of Trustees; Donald D. Sheperd, Secre- 
tary and Treasurer; Harry A. McBride, Adminis- 
trator; David E. Finley, Director, Macgill James, 
Assistant Director; John Walker, Head Curator, 
and Charles Seymour, Jr., Curator of Sculptor. 

The attendance during the first three months ex- 
ceeded one million. 

FecUral Patronage From June 1 to Dec. 31, 1941, 
the Section of Fine Arts, Public Buildings Admin- 
istration, Federal Works Agency, of which Edward 
Bruce is Chief, held thirty competitions for mural 
paintings and sculpture to decorate new Federal 
buildings not only in Washington but throughout 
the United States, These were all anonymous and 
judged by advisory juries composed of artists of 
nigh professional standing. The payment for these 
paintings and works of sculpture was on the basis 
of 1 per cent of building cost. The more important 
paintings therefore were for the buildings of great- 
est size and cost, among which are the new War 
Department Building in Washington, D. C., and 
the Los Angeles, Calif., Terminal Annex Post Of- 
fice. 

While these great buildings give opportunity for 
decorative composition on an imposing scale which 
are particularly rewarding to the artists, the Section 
of Fine Arts places great importance on the less 
sizeable projects which take art under government 
patronage to small communities in every section of 
the country. During the year no less than 240 com- 
missions for mural paintings and sculpture were 



completed, with 268 still in process. The total num- 
ber of mural paintings and sculpture completed, 
under these auspices since Oct. 16, 1934, when the 
Section of Fine Arts was set up is 1,044, and the 
number of cities in which these may now be found 
is 894. 

The WPA, under Holger Cahill, in cooperation 
with States, cities, and towns which have shared 
costs, has earned on an extensive work for the ad- 
vancement of art and artists, conducting art cen- 
ters, exhibitions, classes, and buying indigent art- 
ists' works. It has also added to the excellent "In- 
dex of American Design," and has undertaken the 
organization and conduct of "National Art Week" 
during which through numerous exhibitions all 
over the country, a high pressure campaign for 
the sale of works by local artists was put on in the 
hope of creating a stable market. The slogan was 
"A Work of Art for Every American Home," but 
nothing was said of merit. Thomas J. Watson was 
appointed National Chairman of National Art 
Week and Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt served as Hon- 
orary Chairman. The dates were November 17 to 
24. 

Art and War. Art seems to have been accelerated 
rather than slowed down by war. This acceleration 
has shown itself in exhibitions by "Soldier Artists," 
as that officially opened in New York in May, and 
by exhibitions of masterpieces set forth for the 
purpose of raising funds for relief. 

A collection of paintings, "Britain at War," by 
British artists, which was assembled under dis- 
tinguished supervision in London, opened in this 
country in the Museum of Modern Art, New York, 
with the British Ambassador, Lord Halifax, in at- 
tendance and speaking Smaller exhibitions of con- 
temporary British art were also shown in the Brit- 
ish-American Art Center, New York, and the Phil- 
lips Memorial Gallery, Washington, D.C. 

One hundred and six paintings by British artists, 
serving as firemen, all depicting fires set by German 
bombs, which were selected by a group of experts 
in cooperation with the Director of the National 
Gallery of London, were shown first in the National 
Gallery of Art, Washington, then in New York, 
and later in Canada. The attendance at this exhi- 
bition in Washington was 150,000. 

The American Academy of Arts and Letters and 
the National Institute of Arts and Letters, New 
York, appropriated $5,000 for the purchase of 
paintings by British artists serving in the war, to be 
brought to this country and resold, in oider that 
more works might, in like manner, be brought 
overseas. The number of paintings purchased was 
35. If not all sold within reasonable time those 
remaining will be distributed to American Muse- 
ums. 

Among the notable exhibitions held for relief 
purposes were the following, all in New York City: 
Early American Paintings, for Bundles for Britain, 
twenty-five paintings by El Gieco from private col- 
lections, for Greek Relief, eighty paintings by 
Renoir, public and private loans, commemorating 
the centenary of the artist's birth, for the benefit of 
the Free French. Mention should also be made of 
the sale of contemporary works of American art, 
held at the Ritz Tower Hotel, for the benefit of 
Chinese war orphans. 

The comprehensive exhibition of "Australian 
Art" sent to this country by the Commonwealth of 
Australia, under semi-official auspices, and the ex- 
hibition of American paintings by contemporary 
artists sent to and shown in Cape Town, South 
Africa, may both be regarded as tokens of inter- 
national good-will in a world torn by hate. 



ART 



The American Academy in Rome, being closed, 
and travel abroad impossible, competitions for 
prize awards open to painters unmarried men 
under thirty were conducted in 1941, in lieu of 
fellowships. Preliminary competitions were held in 
six different sections of the United States and final 
awards made upon the basis of competing regional 
winners. 

By the end of 1941 the painters began having 
difficulty in securing certain desired pigments; the 
etchers in obtaining copper plates, and the sculp- 
tors in buying bronze metal 

Latin America. Sponsored by the Coordinator of 
Cultural Relations between the American Repub- 
lics, a collection of 300 paintings (200 oils and 100 
water colors) was assembled by the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art, the 
Whitney Museum, and the Brooklyn Museum, 
working in cooperation. Three groups of approxi- 
mately 100 paintings each were arranged and sent 
out on tours to cities of Central and South America. 
The first group began its tour at Buenos Aires; the 
second, a little later, at Mexico City, and the third, 
later still, at Santiago, Chili. Collectively, the three 
visited most of the important Latin American cities 
and were everywhere enthusiastically and cordially 
received. 

In addition to these government sponsored 
groups, an exhibition of "Contemporary Paintings 
of the Western Hemisphere," assembled by the 
International Business Machines Corporation, was 
sent out early in May to visit sixteen National Mu- 
seums and Departments of Fine Arts in practically 
the same territory. This opened in Rio de Janeiro 
in June; it comprised 93 paintings and 150 prints, 
and was sent, free of expense, to the places that 
showed them. Almost all of the exhibits included 
therein had been purchased of the artists by the 
I.B.M. Corporation. 

At the Nation's Capital the Pan American Union 
has rendered excellent service by showing in its 
handsome building a succession of exhibitions of 
the Arts and Crafts of Latin American Countries. 
Among those of special note were prints from Uru- 
guay, craft work from Mexico, a rare and extensive 
collection of hand- wrought silver from South Amer- 
ican countries, and 200 water colors of ancient 
Peruvian Arts by a distinguished archeologist, Dr. 
Constantino Malinovsky. 

Other exhibitions of contemporary Latin Ameri- 
can art were brought to Washington through diplo- 
matic channels. The works of two South American 
sculptors were shown, one in the Pan American 
Union, the other in the Corcoran Gallery of Art; 
the former, by Marino Nunez del Prado of Bolivia, 
the latter by Maria Martins, wife of the Brazilian 
Ambassador. 

Under Governmental auspices and appropriation, 
there has been an interchange of students and schol- 
ars between the United States and Latin American 
countries. But perhaps the best "ambassadors of 
good-will" have been artists of the United States 
and the Republics to our south, who, traveling in- 
dependently and practising their art, have been 
most successful in breaking down prejudice and 
creating neighborly cordiality. 

Art Museums. A new Art Museum was opened in 
Santa Barbara, California, on June 5, 1941, with an 
exhibition entitled "Painting Today and Yesterday," 
consisting of 140 works by American artists. The 
building was the old Post Office, purchased from 
the Federal Government by the County of Santa 
Barbara, and reconstructed. Two stories high, it has 
six galleries, a sculpture court, music room, audi- 
torium, kitchen, as well as offices and work rooms. 



41 ART 

The sculpture court and several of the galleries 
were given by individuals. At the opening $50,000 
for administrative purposes was pledged by charter 
patrons and valuable bequests were assured. 

On November 1 the Philadelphia Museum of Art 
opened twenty new galleries in which paintings 
from the J. G. Johnson collection were placed on 
view. This famous collection comprises over 1,200 
works from the 12th to the 19th centuries. 

An important gift received by the Philadelphia 
Museum during 1941 was a suite of furniture de- 
signed by Robert Adam, about 1766, for Sir Law- 
rence Dundas of Moor Park, Hereford, England. 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 
redecorated and rehung, in chronological order, a 
large number of its picture galleries, exercising se- 
lective choice with regard to works placed on dis- 
play in order to uphold high standards and prevent 
overcrowding. In the autumn this Museum also es- 
tablished a Junior Museum, setting aside five rooms 
on its first floor for this purpose, wherein under 
trained supervision special exhibitions, programs, 
art work, etc. are made available to approximately 
one thousand young visitors a day. 

From Thomas J. Watson, a trustee, the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art received as a gift an exten- 
sive broadcasting system to be used principally for 
educational work within the Museum but capable 
of tuning in with outside. So extensive is this sys- 
tem that its installation will take nearly a year. 

On the death of George Blumenthal, June 26, 
1941, the one million dollar fund, which during his 
Presidency he had given the Metropolitan Museum 
under certain restrictions, became available for the 
purchase of works of art He had also bequeathed 
to the Museum his home in New York City and all 
of his art properties, dated earlier than 1720, cer- 
tain pieces excepted, which were left for life to his 
wife. 

Among other important acquisitions made by the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art this year were a wain- 
scoted study from the palace of Frederigo da 
Montefelto, Duke of Urbmo, which was nand- 
somely installed; and the furnishings of the Samuel 
Verplanck drawing room, given by descendants and 
installed in appropriate setting in the American 
Wing. 

The Cloisters branch of the Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art received from John D. Rockefeller, 
Jr. a 15th century doorway for the tapestry room 
and a small limestone statue of Mary Magdalene. 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Brooklyn 
Museum, and the Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, as well as the Cleveland Museum abolished 
pay days this year under the conviction that every- 
thing should be done to keep up interest in cultural 
things during the blackout in Europe. The Cleve- 
land Museum also announced two evening openings 
each week. 

A "Provisional Exhibition Gallery" was estab- 
lished by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, toward 
the close of the year. In this gallery will be dis- 
played contemporary works by living artists ac- 
quired by the Museum "on trial," ana which will 
not be considered a part of the permanent collec- 
tion until sufficient time has passed to prove their 
worth. In December this museum placed on per- 
manent view a collection of 18th century American 
Arts, given by Mr. and Mrs. Maxim Karolik of 
Newport, R.I., consisting of 250 objects furniture, 
textiles, glass, silver, pottery, paintings, prints, and 
drawings fine in design and workmanship, assem- 
bled on a purely esthetic basis during a consider- 
able period by the donors in close cooperation with 
the Museum's representatives. 



AKT 



42 



The J. B. Speed Memorial Museum, Louisville, 
Ky., received from Dr. Preston Pope Satterwhite, 
formerly of that city, a collection of art objects 
from the Gothic Period to the 18th century, and 
handsomely installed it in two large galleries set 
aside for its permanent display. 

The M. H. De Young Memonal Museum, San 
Francisco, acquired and set up in adjacent Golden 
Gate Park a Spanish Monastery purchased and 
brought to this country by William Randolph 
Hearst in whose collection, dispersed in 1941, it 
was included. 

An Art Gallery and School, costing $250,000, to- 
gether with a collection of 100 contemporary Eng- 
lish and American paintings and funds for opera- 
tion, were given to Palm Beach, Florida, by Mr. 
and Mrs. Ralph H. Norton, of Chicago. Included 
in the gift were sculptures by Paul Manship 
replicas of his Acteon and Diana placed on either 
side of the entrance, and a panel m relief on the 
facade. 

The William Rockhill Nelson and Atkins Muse- 
um, of Kansas City, Mo., added six new galleries 
in April, greatly increasing its display space. 

As a bequest from James M. Hamilton, architect 
of Cleveland, the Art School and Museum of Ft. 
Wayne, Ind., received $150,000 and an art collec- 
tion which he had assembled. 

The Rochester Memorial Art Gallery was given, 
by R. T. Miller, Jr., $25,000, part of which, it was 
stipulated, should be used for the acquisition of 
American furniture of the Classical Revival Period 
and the remainder for American paintings. 

The Philbrook Art Museum, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 
opened a new auditorium and a glassed-in terrace 
in October, both the gift of the museum donors, 
Mr. and Mrs. Waite Phillips who donated $50,000 
to meet the cost. 

A building to be devoted to Art, Music, and the 
Drama was erected at a cost of $300,000 for the 
use of the Department of Art of the University of 
Georgia, at Athens, Ga. 

In 1941 a small art museum, sponsored by the 
Boise Art Association, was built at Boise, Idaho. 
It is 108 ft. by 36 ft., simple but dignified in de- 
sign, and built of native sandstone quarried by 
WPA workers. 

Flint, Mich., in 1941, opened an art museum 
with an exhibition entitled "Art Marches On," 
made up of objects from public and private collec- 
tions showing the development of art through the 
centuries. 

The Mulvane Art Museum and also the Art De- 
partment of Washburn College, Topeka, Kansas, 
were taken over by the city to be henceforth sup- 
ported from municipal funds as city institutions. 

The little gallery of Early Christian and Medie- 
val Art, whicn at Dumbarton Oaks, on Georgetown 
Heights, Washington, D.C., houses the Bliss Collec- 
tion, now owned and administered by Harvard Uni- 
versity, has been opened freely to the public, as 
well as the Research Library in connection there- 
with. 

Acquisition!. Among the most important acquisi- 
tions made by art museums in 1941 are the foflow- 
ing: A painting by Rubens, illustrating a dramatic 
scene from Herodotus, 80" by 121" in dimensions, 
recently owned by the Earl of Harewood, acquired 
by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; Madonna and 
Child and also Beggar Boy, by Murillo, and Re- 
turning from Work, by Jules Breton, the Carnegie 
Institute. Pittsburgh; Les Demoiselles de Village, 
by Courbet, and Portrait of James Tissot, by Degas, 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art; Portrait of Artist's 
Brother, by Vigne6 Le Brun, and Christ and Worn- 



an of Samaria, by Veronese, the latter formerly in 
the Duke of Marlborough's collection, Blenheim 
Castle, acquired by the St. Louis City Museum; 
The Infanta Mar gar eta, by Velasquez, and Lady 
with Red Flowers, by Barthel Bruyn, Elder, the 
San Diego Museum; Les Trois Paniers, by Derain, 
the Cincinnati Museum; and Portrait of a Lady, 
thought to be Condesa de Gondomar, by Goya, ob- 
tained by the Detroit Art Institute. 

Art SaUs. Taking into consideration the War, the 
consequent heavy increase in taxation, and the un- 
certainty of the future, it was surprising to learn, 
July 1, through the report issued by the Parke- 
Bernet Galleries, N.Y., America's largest Art Auc- 
tion House, that receipts for the season, from Oct. 
1, 1940 to June 30, 1941, were 54 per cent higher 
than for the same period of the preceding year, 
and, m fact, the highest for any Art and Book 
Auction House in the United States since 1929. 
The total amount was $3,606,381.75. Also it was 
stated that many of the collections brought between 
25 and 40 per cent more than the auctioneers' ad- 
vance estimate. The attendance was large at these 
sales ( 140,000 ) , among them were representatives 
of foreign museums, collectors, dealers, as well as, 
happily, a good many small buyers. The Plaza Art 
Auction House in New York reported sales cover- 
ing the same period amounting to $1,178,789 
20 per cent higher than in the previous year. This 
upward tilt is explained by the statement that in 
times of critical international relations people com- 
monly desire to invest money in personal property 
of permanent international value. 

Some of the best known private collections in 
this country were dispersed in New York in 1941. 
Among them were those of Mrs. Henry Walters, 
Ralph Pulitzer, J. Horace Harding, Paul D. Crav- 
ath, Mrs. Walter P. Chrysler, Arthur Curtis James, 
and B. F. Tones. 

The William Randolph Hearst collection of 15,- 
000 art objects, assemoled during 50 years, and 
long stored m warehouses, was offered for sale 
"over the counter" in two large New York depart- 
ment stores Gimbels and Saks the former giving 
a whole floor to it. Every piece was priced and 
plainly labeled, the range being from several dol- 
lars for a Staffordshire plate to more than $100,000 
for a Spanish Monastery. The Clarence Mackay 
collection was also offered for sale at Gimbels, as 
was that of Warner S. McColl, the latter consisting 
of 18th Century French and English masters. 

The famous Stotesbury Collection, made up 
chiefly of works by the great British School, also 
came into the market. First shown and offered m a 
New York dealer's gallery, arid afterwards sent out 
as a sales collection to the Pacific coast, where it 
was shown in two of the largest of the western art 
museums. 

Of the collections sold at auction in New York 
by the Parke-Bernet Galleries, that of Mrs. Henry 
Walters brought the greatest amount, $646,684, in- 
cluding, however, not only works of art but library. 
The collection of Mrs. B. F. Jones, Jr., the next in 
total value, realized $463,520 for 112 paintings. 
The paintings and art property from the J. Horace 
Harding estate sold for $183,152. At the Arthur 
Curtis lames sale 40 paintings fetched $44,305. 

The highest price paid for a single painting was 
$39,000 given at the Jones' sale for Hoppner's por- 
trait of Miss Frances Beresford. Next nighest was 
$34,000, for a portrait of a child, Victor Guye, 
Nephew of J. Nicholas Guye, by Goya, which was 
included in the Harding collection. In the Jones' 
collection a portrait by Romney of Capt. Wm. 
Kirkpatrick brought $31,000, Hobbema's View in 



ART 



43 



AKT 



Westphalia, $30,000, Rt. Hon. Wm. Pitt by Gains- 
borough $26,000, and Little Artist by Romney 
$25,000. In the Harding collection Reynolds' por- 
trait of Mrs. Freeman, Jr. brought $15,000. Gains- 
borough's portrait of Mrs. Fitzherbert $11,000, and 
Pastoral Landscape, by the same artist, $13,000. 
Other top prices for the year were: $16,500 for Le 
Moulin and Le Cours d'Eau, by Boucher; $12,500 
for a portrait by Romney of Lady Prescott and Her 
Three Children; $12,500 for Blind Mans Buff, by 
Fragonard; $12,000 for Mrs. Scott Moncrieff, by 
Raeburn; $9,750 for Portrait of Child in Blue, by 
Renoir; $12,000 for a marble bust of Voltaire, 
by Houdon, and $12,500 for a small terra cotta 
Nymph ana Satyr, by Clodion. 

Selling in London was reported, even during the 
blitzkrieg, as surprisingly good, especially for paint- 
ings by the masters of the British School. The Na- 
tional Art Collections Fund made several purchases 
of exceptionally fine works for British museums 
which would seem to indicate and induce confi- 
dence in eventual restoration of peace. 

Exhibitions. Exhibitions increased in number and 
importance in 1941 and were of many kinds. The 
Art Museums of this country have long since ac- 
cepted the transient exhibition as essential to in- 
terest and many of those organized under such 
auspices were of great educational value. 

Within this category during 1941 were "Coptic 
Art," held in the Brooklyn Museum; "Portraiture 
Through Forty-five Centuries," sot forth by the 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; "The Italian Ba- 
roque," shown in the Palace of the Legion of Hon- 
or, San Francisco; "The Art of the Third ( French ) 
Republic," assembled and displayed first in the 
Worcester Art Museum and later in San Francisco. 
The Art Institute of Chicago not only showed an 
impressive exhibition of paintings, prints, and draw- 
ings by Goya, made up of loans from museums and 
private collections in the United States and Canada, 
but also during the course of the exhibition held a 
seminar at which five scholars gave learned dis- 
courses on Goya's art. An exhibition of "Spanish 
Painting from the Twelfth Century to Goya" was 
held in the Toledo Art Museum, assembled by Jose 
Gudiol, formerly director of the Episcopal Museum 
at Vich, Spain. 

Two important exhibitions of "refugee" paintings 
were on circuit in the United States in 1941. One 
of these consisted of French paintings which had 
been sent to Argentina as a gesture of good will by 
the Daladier Government and forwarded from 
there to San Francisco with the permission of the 
Government at Vichy. This consisted of 180 paint- 
ings of the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, from the 
Louvre, Petit Palais, Carnavalet, and provincial 
museums as well as private collections. After being 
shown in San Francisco, with an attendance of over 
105,000, the collection was divided and about half 
was sent to the Metropolitan Museum, N.Y., where 
more works by artists of the same school, lent by 
American collectors, were added. The other half 
went to the Los Angeles Museum for the summer. 

The second "refugee" collection on circuit, con- 
sisted of 38 works from three of the greatest art 
museums in the world the Louvre, Paris; Na- 
tional Gallery, London; and the Rijks Museum, Am- 
sterdam, which had been lent to the two World's 
Fairs on our east and west coasts in 1938 and 
1939 and could not safely be returned because of 
the war. This collection, organized by Dr. Valenti- 
ner, director of the Detroit Institute of Art, after 
visiting 11 cities, from Massachusetts to California, 
with a final showing in Detroit, was placed in stor- 
age for the duration of the war, 



The interest evidenced in the works of painters 
of the past did not seem to interfere with or dis- 
count that in Modern Art. For example, the Picasso 
Exhibition, organized by the Museum of Modern 
Art, New York, and the Art Institute of Chicago, 
after visiting eight cities and coming to a close in 
Minneapolis, was found to have been viewed by 
370,000 persons. In March the Museum in Los 
Angeles^put on an exhibition "From Cezanne to 
Picasso," which in part covered the same ground 
Meanwhile "The Rouault Exhibition," which origi- 
nated in Boston, late in 1940, then went to toe 
Phillips Gallery, Washington, to San Francisco and 
back to New York, attracted almost as much atten- 
tion. 

In the Virginia Museum, Richmond, from mid- 
January to March, the collection of modern paint- 
ings, sculpture, and drawings, assembled by Walter 
J. Chrysler, an ardent exponent of this school, was 
shown, for the first time. The purpose of this dis- 
play, as stated by Thomas C. Colt, Director of the 
Museum, was "to provoke dissension, discussion 
and revaluation," all of which it was said to have 
accomplished. Following the exhibition in Rich- 
mond the collection was displayed in the Philadel- 
phia Museum. 

A novel, engaging, and very serviceable exhibi- 
tion was that entitled "The China Trade and Its 
Influence," shown during the summer in the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art. This consisted of paintings, 
sculpture, prints, textiles, porcelains, lacquer, etc., 
and illustrated the impact of Eastern culture on the 
art of the West. 

While much emphasis was placed on the art, 
past and present, of other countries, that of Ameri- 
ca today was by no means forgotten. In fact it was 
especially brought to attention by innumerable ex- 
hibitions in every conceivable place that works of 
art could be shown. First in importance came the 
regular exhibitions of the artists' professional or- 
ganizations, such as the Pennsylvania Academy of 
the Fine Arts, National Academy, New York, the 
various water-color clubs and societies, etc , as 
well as institutions like the Corcoran Gallery of 
Art, the Whitney Museum, and the Art Institute of 
Chicago. In all of these annual exhibitions young 
artists were especially favored. The Whitney Mu- 
seum, toward the latter part of the year, held an 
exhibition which consisted solely of works by 
"Young American Artists Under Forty." The Carne- 
gie Institute in place of its International Exhibition, 
impossible because of world conditions, set forth in 
October an exhibition illustrating "New Directions 
in American Art" which consisted of 302 paintings 
by as many artists selected from 5,000 submitted 
fiom all parts of the country. 

At an open air exhibition held in San Francisco, 
in which 500 contemporary artists were represented 
by 1,000 works, many sales were reported. Other 
open air exhibitions were held with success by 
local artists in Washington, D.C., and in New York. 

A large exhibition of sculpture by Carl Milles, 
formerly of Sweden, now of Bloomfield Hills, Mich- 
igan, was first shown in Baltimore, then in New 
York and elsewhere, attracting much attention. 

For a decade, annual exhibitions of Ceramics 
have been held in the Syracuse Art Museum. This 
year this museum, in cooperation with the Inter- 
national Business Machines Corporation, organized 
and sponsored the "First Exhibition of Ceramics of 
the Western Hemisphere," in which were shown 
works from all parts of the United States, Latin 
American countries, Canada, and little Iceland. 
Over one thousand dollars was distributed in prizes; 
all the exhibits from Latin America were pur- 



ART 



44 



AKT 



chased, and arrangements made for the circulation 
of the entire collection among American museums. 

Twenty-five water-color drawings by William 
Blake to illustrate Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, late- 
ly discovered in England, were exhibited for the 
first time anywhere at Knoedler's in New York 
(prior to reproduction by the Limited Editions 
Club ) , for the benefit of two British relief organiza- 
tions. 

Painting. The impetus given mural painting 
through commissions awarded by the Government 
for Federal buildings continued to bear fruit as 
well as to focus attention on this branch of art. 
Some imposing commissions were given privately 
as well. On May 28, 1941, a great painting nearly 
100 feet long by 25 feet high, commemorating the 
first World War, was unveiled in the Worcester 
Municipal Auditorium, Worcester, Mass. It was the 
work of Leon Kroll, assisted by Claude Domoe and 
Nicholas Carone, and represented the Dream of 
Life set in Idyllic Landscape. 

Of great artistic importance are the murals by 
Ezra Winter in the Jefferson Memorial Reading 
Room, Library of Congress Annex, dedicated on 
"Bill of Rights Day." These murals, which were 
commissioned by the U.S. Congress in 1939, illus- 
trate quotations from Jefferson's writings concern- 
ing democracy and life in the new republic. 

Barry Faulkner, a former Fellow of the American 
Academy at Rome, was commissioned by the trus- 
tees of the Edwin A Abbey Memorial Trust Fund 
to paint four mural panels illustrating State history 
for the State Capitol of New Hampshire. This was 
the first award made under this fund Jose Maria 
Sert, Spanish painter, was commissioned to com- 
plete a series of murals in the mam hall of Rocke- 
feller Center, New York, and also to replace those 
destroyed in Vich Cathedral, near Barcelona, Spain. 
Diego Rivera, who was obliged to flee Mexico to 
escape the bullets of assassins in 1940, was recalled 
by the Mexican Government in 1941 to paint a 
3,600 square foot mural in the National Palace An 
interesting and successful experiment in the paint- 
ing of murals on wall paper was tried by Hildreth 
Meiere and a group of associates when decorations 
of this order were desired for the Navy Y.M.C.A. 
at Norfolk, Virginia. 

A surrealistic portrayal of the Story of Boston by 
John G. Wolcott was unveiled in the lobby of the 
Park Square Building of that city during the sum- 
mer of 1941. 

The Popular Prize in the Corcoran Gallery of 
Art's Biennial Exhibition was voted to a Portrait of 
John La Farge, by Luigi Lucioni 

The American Water Color Society and the New 
York Water Color Club merged in 1941 after hold- 
ing their regular Annual Exhibitions. 

American Negro Artists held a 5th Annual Exhi- 
bition of members' works sponsored by Dillard 
University, New Orleans, April 17-May 10 

Prints. Four large and valuable collections of 
prints were given to public institutions in this coun- 
try in 1941: (1) The collection of 300 given to the 
National Gallery at Washington by Miss Ellen T. 
Bullard and three anonymous donors illustrating, 
by fine examples, print-making from the earliest 
day of the art to the end of the 19th century. (2) 
The still larger collection assembled by Albert H. 
Higrins (formerly President of the Chase National 
Bank) and given by him to the Public Library of 
Boston, on which special emphasis is placed upon 
the work of the 20th century print-makers, some of 
whom are represented by their complete output. 
With this collection went several thousands of 
]oooks on prints. (3) A selection of 228 prints from 



the notable collection assembled by the late Felix 
M. Warburg, given by his widow and children to 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art on the seventieth 
anniversary of his birth. (4) A collection of nearly 
2,000 fine prints from the 16th to the 20th century, 
given to the Huntington Library, California, by a 
member of "The Friends of the Library." 

An extraordinarily fine private collection, that of 
Herbert Greer French, a trustee of the Cincinnati 
Institute of Fine Arts and Curator of Prints of the 
Cincinnati Art Museum, consisting of 236 examples 
from the 15th through the 18th centuries, was 
shown in the Cincinnati Museum in October. 

An exceptionally fine exhibition of prints by Cal- 
lot was held in the Grolier Club, New York; and at 
the Art Institute of Chicago an exhibition of prints 
of the 14th and 15th centuries, illustrating "The 
First One Hundred Years of Print-Making," was 
set forth. 

A collection of 200 prints by Currier & Ives, 
146 of which were of race horses and 10 of "The 
American Fireman and his Life," was given to the 
United States Museum by Miss A. S Colgate. 

Yale University gave to the John Heron Institute 
a set of twelve dry points of Yale buildings by 
Samuel Chamberlain. 

The International Business Machines Corpora- 
tion, through its president, Thomas J. Watson, pur- 
chased for exhibition purposes a collection of 101 
prints assembled by John Taylor Anns, Chairman 
oi: the National Committee on Engraving, illustrat- 
ing, at its best, "American Print-Making Through 
300 Years " 

The National Committee on Engraving was very 
active in 1941 assembling and circulating exhibi- 
tions and arranging the interchange of exhibitions 
of prints between the United States and Latin 
America. The Committee also sponsored an exhibi- 
tion of prints by British artists in service. 

The interest in prints seemed to be more wide- 
spread than before, print exhibitions were in great 
demand; more prints were produced and more were 
sold. One hundred fifty prints were purchased from 
the Society of American Etchers' Annual Exhibition 
during the first two weeks it was open. Print socie- 
ties apparently flourished and their number was in- 
creased. Located in all parts of the United States, 
these societies do much to encourage print-making 
and, through the issuance of prints to lay members, 
induce collecting. Among the societies issuing prints 
by contemporary print-makers for distribution were 
The Society of American Etchers, the Chicago So- 
ciety of Etchers, California Print-Makers, American 
College Society of Print Collectors, Prairie Print- 
Makers, Southern Print-Makers, Wood Block So- 
ciety, and Friends of Contemporary Prints. An ad- 
dition to this list was the Miniature Print Society, 
formed in 1941, with headquarters in Kansas City, 
which distributes not one but three prints a year to 
its members. 

The Division of Fine Arts, Library of Congress, 
steadily added, through purchase from the Pennell 
Fund, to the collection of prints by contemporary 
print-makers. The number of such purchases was 
approximately 450. The Library of Congress re- 
ceived from Cadwallader Washbum, distinguished 
etcher, a collection comprising 101 of his own fine 
dry points. 

Sculpture. Toward the close of 1941, through a 
series of three competitions, Rudolph Evans, sculp- 
tor, was awarded the commission for the statue of 
Thomas Jefferson to be placed in die rotunda of 
the new Jefferson Memorial at Washington, D.C. 
This monumental building, designed by the late 
John Russell Pope, was completed in November, 



AKT 



45 



ASIA 



1941, and will be dedicated early in 1942, but the 
statue will not, it is thought, be ready for placement 
before the 200th anniversary of Jefferson's birth, 
Apr. 13, 1943. It will be in bronze, 18 feet in 
height, and shows Jefferson at about the age of 60, 
standing with head erect, arms dropped at his 
sides, holding in his left hand a folded manuscript. 
His dress is that of the period with the traditional 
fur-trimmed overcoat. The types followed are those 
of the Houdon portrait bust and the Sully painting, 
both of which were done from life. Evans is a 
Washingtonian by birth, but has long maintained 
a studio in New York. He is represented in the 
Luxembourg Museum, Pans, the Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art, and numerous other public and private 
collections. 

As an outcome of the International Exhibition of 
Sculpture, held under the auspices of the Phila- 
delphia Museum in the summer of 1940, five sculp- 
tors in 1941 were awarded commissions for sculp- 
ture to be placed in Fairmount Park by the Fair- 
mount Park Art Association. Four of these, Harry 
Rosin, Henry Kreis, Edwin F. Frye, and Wheeler 
Williams were selected to create groups or figures 
to form the second unit of the Ellen Phillips Samuel 
Memorial on East River Drive, and the fifth, Paul 
Manship, to design and model a memorial to Penn- 
sylvania aviators who died in World War I. 

A huge granite frog, weighing 1,800 Ibs., carved 
by Cornelia Van A. Chapm, set on a pedestal de- 
signed by Paul Cret, was acquired through public 
subscription by the Philadelphia Print Club and 
permanently placed in Rittcnhousc Square adjacent 
to the Club's headquarters 

Henry Warnecke was commissioned by the Class 
of 1940, Pennsvh ania State College, to carve a lion 
(from Indiana limestone) for the campus, the carv- 
ing to be done when and where the students could 
watch its progress 

A site for an equestrian statue of General Long- 
street was ceremoniously dedicated at Gettysburg, 
and announcement was made that Paul Manship 
would be the sculptor 

A full length statue of Huey Long, by Charles 
Keck, was placed in the Capitol of the United 
States as representing an outstanding citizen of the 
State of Louisiana. 

Comparatn ely few commissions for monumental 
sculpture were given in 1941, other than those 
awarded through competitions by the Section of 
Fine Arts, Public Buildings Administration, at 
Washington. That the sculptors themselves were 
eager and active was manifested by the fact that 
for one of these competitions for large sculptural 
groups to be placed on either side of the main en- 
trance of the new War Department building, four 
hundred models were submitted by sculptors from 
all parts of the country. 

The Society of Medalists, in its twelfth year, as 
usual distributed two medals to its constituent mem- 
bership, one by Joseph Renier, the other by Irwm 
Springweiler. 

A ' Medal of the Month Club" for boys and girls 
of school age was founded. As its name signifies, 
each member received a medal a month. The first 
of these was by Brenda Putnam and showed, in 
low relief, a portrait of Amelia Earhart. 

Several notable exhibitions of sculpture were 
held during the year; possibly first in importance 
that of the works of living American sculptors, held 
at the Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, in February. 
An outdoor sculpture exhibition was held by the 
Sculptor's Guild, in New York, as usual, but in 
Greenwich Village, instead of, as heretofore, in the 
heart of the business district. This comprised 100 



works by 65 sculptors. Demonstrations were given 
to create interest and inform the public. A success- 
ful outdoor sculpture exhibition was held under the 
auspices of the Art Alliance in Rittenhouse T 
Philadelphia. A noteworthy exhibition of i 
in terra cotta, especially purposed for garden < 
ration, was held in New York City. Owing to the 
shortage of metal required for armament, etc.. many 
sculptors in 1941 turned to other media than bronze 
for expression. 

Civic Virtue, by Frederick MacMonnies, was re- 
moved from City Hall Square, Manhattan, where 
it had never found favor, and set up opposite 
Queensborough Hall in Kew Gardens to the great 
satisfaction of those especially concerned. 

The second collection of early Romanesque and 
Gothic sculpture assembled by the late George Grey 
Barnard was placed on sale in May, 1941, in the 
"Little Cloisters" which he himself had built, the 
purpose being to finance the erection of the Rain- 
bow Arch, Monument to Peace which he considered 
the consummation of his life's work The collection 
comprised 260 items, priced from $10 to $175,000. 

Tne carving oi colossal portrait heads of Wash- 
ington, Jefferson, Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt 
in high relief on the rocky heights of Mt. Rushmore, 
Nortn Dakota, was halted when nearing comple- 
tion, by the death, on March 6, of the sculptor, 
Gutzon Borglum. They will be completed, it was 
announced, by his son, who for some time had been 
working with him. 

See ACADEMY OK ARTS, ROYAL; ACADEMY OF DE- 
SIGN, NATIONAL; ACADEMY OF ARTS AND LETTERS, 
ARCHAEOLOGY. 

LEILA MECHLIN. 

ARTISTS. See ACADEMY OF ARTS AND LETTERS; ACAD- 
EMY OF DESIGN, ART; Music; RADIO PROGRAMS. 
ARUBA. See CURASAO. 

ASBESTOS. The Province of Quebec continued to 
produce almost all of Canada's asbestos in 1941, 
and with only two exceptions all the asbestos mines 
and mills in the pro\ nice were going at full speed 
throughout the year Because of war conditions in 
both hemispheres Canada found herself minus her 
accustomed European markets and with Far East- 
ern markets rapidly vanishing. Yet the rising de- 
mand for asbestos in the United States was enough 
to meet these losses The United States war pro- 
gram called for ever increasing amounts of asbestos 
for brake bands and clutch facings for all kinds 
of motor transport equipment. The United States 
imported from Canada 50 per cent more asbestos 
than in 1940, when the figure was 225,856 short 
tons imported, including blue fiber and mill and 
short fibers. Canada's 1940 total production figure 
was 345,581 tons. 

According to the U.S. Minerals Year Book, 19,- 
174 short tons of asbestos were produced in die 
United States in 1940. Domestic production was 
centered chiefly in the extensive deposits of slip 
fiber near Hyde Park, Vermont. Small quantities 
also were mined in Arizona, Georgia, Maryland, 
and North Carolina Prices remained constant 
throughout 1941, but a 10 per cent increase was 
slated to go into effect as of Jan. 1, 1942. 

ASCENSION ISLAND. See BRITISH EMPIRE. 
ASHANTI. See GOLD COAST. 

ASHMORE AND CARTIER ISLANDS. See AUSTRALIA un- 
der Overseas Territories. 

ASIA. Excluding the Asiatic part of the Soviet Un- 
ion, the continent has an area of about 10,345,000 



46 



ATLANTIC DECLARATION 



square miles and a population estimated at 1,134,- 
500,000 on Dec. 31, 1938. See the separate articles 
on ARABIA, CHINA, INDIA, JAPAN, M ANCHOUKUO, 
and the other Asiatic States and territories; also 
ANTHROPOLOGY, ARCHAEOLOGY, ETC. 

ASIR. See ARABIA under Saudi Arabia. 

ASSEMBLIES OF GOD, General Council of the. A reli- 
gious organization incorporated in Arkansas in 1914 
by a group of independent pastors interested in a 
distinctively evangelistic type of mission work. 
Headquarters, 336 W. Pacific Street, Springfield, 
Mo. For statistics, see RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS. 

ASSOCIATED PRESS. See NEWSPAPERS AND MAGA- 
ZINES. 
ASSOCIATIONS. See SOCIETIES AND ASSOCIATIONS. 

ASTRONOMY. The largest group of sunspots since 
January, 1940, crossed the sun's disk between 
Sept. 10 and 23, 1941. The group was a com- 
plex stream of spots some 150,000 miles in length. 
At central meridian passage on September 16 8 
G.M.T., the center of the group passed within 4 
degrees of the center of the sun's disk. Thus the 
earth was in a favorable position to be affected by 
a corpuscular stream that might be shot out from 
this disturbed region within a day or two of Sep- 
tember 16 Statistical data of sunspots and mag- 
netic storms show that out of every 10 sunspot 
groups of great size seven groups are associated 
near the time of their central meridian passage 
with a magnetic storm, the mean position of the 
group at the time of the commencement of the 
storm being about one day past the central me- 
ridian. In the present case a brilliant eruption was 
observed at Greenwich on September 17 at 8|4 
hours. About 20 hours later a magnetic disturbance 
began. This storm was one of the most intense in 
the present solar cycle. The maximum sunspot fre- 
quency occurred in 1937-38. This sunspot was ac- 
companied by very brilliant auroral displays over 
most of the United States. See PHOTOGRAPHY under 
Applied and Scientific. 

Jones has announced a new determination of 
the solar parallax. In 1930-31 Eros came within 
16,200,000 miles of the earth. No equally favorable 
approach will occur for a long time to come and 
the planet was extensively observed. In recent years 
two or three tiny asteroids have been discovered 
which at times come much nearer to the earth than 
Eros but it is doubtful whether they will be more 
valuable for the determination of the solar parallax. 
To begin with, these very near approaches depend 
upon an even closer coincidence of the time of 
passage of the earth arid the planet through the 
right point on their orbits so that they will be 
very rare. Just because the approach is so close the 
planet stays near the earth for only a few days, 
while Eros can be followed for months. Finally the 
smaller bodies are so faint that even when close 
they can be photographed only with powerful in- 
struments, while Eros under such circumstances 
is of about the same apparent magnitude as the 
stars which are used as reference points on the 
photographs and good images can be obtained 
with short exposures. 

The general discussion of the observations of 
Eros in 1931 was placed by general agreement in 
the hand of H. Spencer Jones, Astronomer Royal, 
at Greenwich, who had proved his skill, thorough- 
ness, and good judgment in handling masses of ob- 
servations in several important investigations. The 
first announcement of the result was made to the 



Royal Astronomical Society in June, ten years after 
the observations were completed. For this appar- 
ently long delay the war has at most a minor re- 
sponsibility. The main reason is the great extent 
and laboriousness of the calculations. The solar 
parallax as determined by Jones is between 8.793" 
and 8.787", and gives the mean distance of the 
sun as 93,010,000 miles. 

Comets during 1941. Comet 1941 (a) Friend was 
discovered January 17 by Clarence L. Friend at 
Escondido, Calif., and reached maximum bright- 
ness on February 15. Comet 1941 (b) was periodic 
Encke. The return of this comet was first observed 
by Van Biesbroeck on January 19 on plates exposed 
on the 24-inch reflector at Yerkes Observatory. Its 
position was within 3 feet of that predicted by 
A. C. D. Crommelin. This is the 40th reapparition 
of this comet which was discovered by Mechan in 
1786 in France. Comet 1941 (c) Paraskevopoulos 
was a new comet first observed by him at Bloem- 
fontein, South Africa, on January 23. It was also 
independently discovered by several others. It was 
visible to the naked eye to observers in the south- 
ern hemisphere. Observers in the southern hemi- 
sphere could see two naked-eye comets simultane- 
ously, Cunningham's and this one ( For an account 
of Cunningham's comet see the 1940 YEAR BOOK. ) 
Comet 1941 (d) was Comet Schwachmann-Wach- 
mann 1925 II, and was first observed April 30 by 
Van Biesbroeck at McDonald Observatory at Fort 
Davis, Texas. Comet 1941 (e) Van Gent was first 
observed May 27 at the Johannesburg Observatory 
in South Africa. It reached naked eye visibility at 
the end of June. Comet 1941 (f ) Du Toit-Neujmm 
was first observed July 18 at Bloemfontein, South 
Africa, by Du Toit, and was also noticed by Neuj- 
min at Simeis, Crimea, as well as Van Biesbroeck 
at the Yerkes Observatory and the Belgian astrono- 
mer Delporte at Uccle near Brussels. Delporte's 
dispatch was relayed to Harvard through the inter- 
national clearing house for astronomical informa- 
tion at Copenhagen, which continues to function 
despite the war. Comet 1941 (g) Neujmin was 
first observed by Neujmin at Simeis, Crimea on 
September 9. See CHEMISTRY, PURE. 

RICHMOND T. ZOCH. 

ATHLETICS. See TRACK AND FIELD. 

ATLANTIC, Battle of the. See NAVAL PROGRESS; 

WORLD WAR. 

ATLANTIC DECLARATION. The following statement, 
signed by the President of the United States and 
the Prime Minister of Great Britain during their 
conference in the North Atlantic off the coast of 
Newfoundland early in August, was released to the 
press by the White House on Aug. 14, 1941 : 

The President and the Prime Minister have had several 
conferences. They have considered the dangers to world 
civilization arising from the policies of military domina- 
tion by conquest upon which the Hitlerite Government of 
Germany and other Governments associated therewith 
have embarked, and have made clear the stress which 
their countries are respectively taking for their safety in 
the face of these dangers. 

They have agreed upon the following joint declaration 

The President of the United States of America and the 
Prime Minister, Mr Churchill, representing His Majesty's 
Government in the United Kingdom, being met together, 
deem it right to make known certain common principles in 
the national policies of their respective countries on which 
they base their hopes for a better future for the world. 

First, their countries seek no aggrandizement, territorial 
or other; 

Second, they desire to see no territorial changes that do 
not accord with the freely expressed wishes of the peoples 
concerned ; 

Third, they respect the right of all peoples to choose the 
form of government under which they will live; and they 
wish to see sovereign rights and self-government restored 
to those who have Been forcibly deprived of them; 



AUCTIONS 



47 



AUSTRALIA 



Fourth, they will endeavor, with due respect for their 
existing obligations, to further the enjoyment by all States, 
great or small, victor or vanquished, of access, on equnl 
terms, to the trade and to the raw materials of the world 
which are needed for their economic prosperity; 

Fifth, they desire to bring about the fullest collaboration 
between all nations in the economic field with the object 
of securing, for all, improved labor standards, economic 
advancement, and social security, 

Sixth, after the final destruction of the. Nazi tyranny, 
they hope to see established a peace which will afford to 
all nations the means of dwelling in safety within their 
own boundaries, and which will afford assurance that all 
the men in all the lands may live out their lives in freedom 
from fear and want ; 

Seventh, such a peace should enable all men to traverse 
the high seas and oceans without hindrance; 

Eighth, they believe that all of the nations of the world, 
for realistic as well an spiritual reasons, must come tn the 
abandonment of the use of force Smce no future peace 
can be maintained if land, sea. or air armaments continue 
to be employed by nations which threaten, or may threat- 
en, aggression outside of their frontiers, they believe, 
ponding the establishment of a wider and permanent sys- 
tem of general security, that the disarmament of such na- 
tions is essential They will likewise aid and encourage all 
other practicable measures which will lighten for peace- 
loving peoples the crushing burden of armaments 

FKANKLIN D ROOSEVELT 
WINSTON 8 CHURCHILL 

See GREAT BRITAIN and NETHERLANDS INDIES, 
under History-, UNITED STATES under The Presi- 
dent, WORLD WAR. 

AUCTIONS. See ART under Art Sales For AUCTION 
SELLING, see AGRICULTURAL COOPERATION. 

AUSTRALIA. A self-governing dominion of the Brit- 
ish Commonwealth of Nations Capital, Canberra. 
Area and Population. The area of the six States 
and two Territories, the census population of June 
30, 1933, and the estimated population on Dec. 31, 
1940, exclusive of aboriginals, are shown in the ac- 
companying table 

AREA AND POPULATION OF AUSTRALIA 



States and 


Area in 


Population 


Territories 


nq mil 


June SO, 1933 


Dec 31,1940 


New South Wales . 


30^,433 


2,(.00,847 


2,789,123 


Victoria 


87,884 


1,820,201 


1,918,774 


Queensland 


070,500 


947,534 


1,029,613 


South Australia 


380,070 


580,949 


598,091 


Western Australia . 


, 975,920 


438,852 


468,311 


Tasmania 


20,215 


227,599 


243,057 


Northern Territory 


523,620 


4,850 


8,852 


Aust. Capital Ten- 


Q39 


8,947 


12,868 


Totals .. 


2,974,581 


6,629,839 


7,068,689 



The estimated population increase for the year 
1940 was 71,363, of 13,400 represented net immi- 
gration and 57,963 the excess of births over deaths. 
At a census of aboriginals, taken on June 30, 1939, 
it was disclosed that there were 51,557 full-blood 
and 25,712 half-caste aboriginals in Australia. Vital 
statistics (1940): 126,347 births, 68,384 deaths, 
and 77,887 marriages. Estimated populations of 
the chief cities, all of them State capitals, on Dec. 
31, 1939, were: Sydney, N.S.W., 1,302,890; Mel- 
bourne, Victoria, 1,046,750, Brisbane, Queensland, 
326,000; Adelaide, South Australia, 322,990; Perth, 
Western Australia, 224,800; Hobart, Tasmania, 
65,450. Canberra, the Federal Capital, had 10,420 
inhabitants. Newcastle, N.S.W., had 104,485 in- 
habitants at the 1933 census. 

Overseas Territories. The overseas territories under 
the Commonwealth's political control are shown 
in the table at the top of next column. 

Education and Religion. Elementary education is 
free and compulsory. Less than 4 per cent of the 
adult population is illiterate. In 1938 there were 
10,029 State schools and 934,990 students en- 
rolled; 1,867 private schools and 249,497 students 
enrolled; 6 State universities and 12,126 students 
attending lectures, exclusive of 495 students in 
music conservatoriums. The 72 free kindergartens 



AUSTRALIAN OVERSEAS TERRITORIES 

Territory (Capital) Sq mi. Population 

Australian Antarctic Territory * 

New Guinea. Territory of (Lae) . . 93,000 633,821 * 

Papua, Territory of (Port Moresby) . . 90,540 338,822 / 

Nauru a 8 3,492 * 

Norfolk Island 13 983* 

The Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands, situated in 
the Indian Ocean off the northwest coast of Australia, wan 
placed under the authority of the Commonwealth of Australia 
by Imperial Order in Council of Julv 23, 1931 *The Aus- 
tralian Antarctic Territory includes all the islands and territory, 
except Adelie Land, situated south of 60 S latitude, and be- 
tween 160 E lonjntude and 45 E longitude "Mandated to 
Australia by the League of Nations in 1920 The Territory of 
New Guinea includes the Bismarck Archipelago (19,200 sq. 
mi ), North East New Guinea, also called "The Mainland" (89,- 
700 sq. mi.), and Solomon Islands (4.100 sq mi) 'Includes 
Europeans, Asiatics, and natives enumerated on June 30, 1939, 
but does not include natives in unexplored areas Formerly 
called British New Guinea / June 30, 1940. Mandated to 
the British Empire by the League of Nations and administered 
under a joint agreement made by Australia, Great Britain, and 
New Zealand * Apr. 1, 1939. < June 30, 1939. 

had a total average attendance of 3,376 in 1939. 
Religious affiliations at the 1933 census were: 
Church of England, 2,565,118; Roman Catholic, 
1,161,455; Presbyterian, 713.229; Methodist, 684,- 
022; Catholic (undefined), 127,542. 

Production. The total area under crops for 1938- 
39 was 23,509,034 acres and the vields therefrom 
were 155,368,621 bu of wheat, 15,554,735 bu. of 
oats, 3,321,161 tons of hay, 7,056,642 bu. of maize, 
and 823,086 tons of cane sugar (928,621 tons in 
1939-40). Preliminary figures for 1940-41 place 
the output of wheat at 83,848,000 bu. from 12,- 
338,200 acres (210,283,681 bu. from 13,283,425 
acres in 1939-40) Livestock in 1939 included 
119,305,190 sheep, 13,091,175 cattle, 1,697,845 
horses, and 1,453,653 swine. The wool clip for 
1940-41 was estimated at 1,090 million Ib. greasy 
( 1,128,140,867 Ib greasy in 1939-40). Butter pro- 
duced in 1939-40 amounted to 477,150,130 Ib.; 
cheese, 69,692,505 Ib.; bacon and ham, 74,453,963 
Ib. for 1938-39. 

In 1940 the production of gold (1,643,999 fine 
oz. ) was valued at 17,492,025. The value of all 
minerals produced in 1939 was 36,838,814, in- 
cluding gold 16,002,472, coal (black and brown) 
9,019,540, other minerals 11,816,802. Pig-iron 
production for the year ended June 30, 1939, was 
1,104,605 tons. Production figures of copper, lead, 
silver, tin, and zinc ( later than 1938 ) ana pig iron 
(later than 1938-39) are not available for publica- 
tion because of wartime restrictions. Manufacturing 
statistics for 1939-40 (preliminary): 27,000 estab- 
lishments, 588,000 employees (including working 
proprietors), 115,000,000 for wages, 550,000,- 
000 the value of output, and 220,000,000 the 
value added during production. See table in YEAH 
BOOK for 1940, p. 48, for total value of Australian 
production, and Dy industries, for the years ended 
June 30, 1937, 1938, and 1939. 

Foreign Trade. For the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1941 (in British currency values), merchandise 
imports were valued at 108,780,000 (115,- 
675,505 for 1939-40) and merchandise exports at 
107,445,000 ( 1 18,762,122 ) . The principal 
1940_4i exports (in Australian currency values) 
were wool (39,646,000), wheat and flour 
(16,675,000), meats (15,818,000). butter 
(11,973,000), sugar (4,692,000), skins and 
hides (4,105,000), and dried fruits (2,495- 
000). Statistics of mineral exports are not avail- 
able. 

Finance. For the 1940-41 fiscal year the receipts 
and expenditures of the Consolidated Revenue 
Fund were estimated to balance at approximately 
A150>47Q>738. Defense expenditures for 1940- 



AUSTRALIA 43 

41 totaled A169,857,000, of which A101,211,- 
000 came from loan, A65,074,000 from revenue, 
and A3,572,000 from trust fund. Budget esti- 
mates (1941-42): A324,965,000 for revenue 
( A163,227,000 on basis of existing taxation, 
A22,000,000 from new taxation, A2,229,000 
from cash balance on hand at July 31, 1941 
A137,509,000 to be raised from loans); A324,- 
965,000 for expenditure (including A221,485,- 
000 for war expenditure). The Commonwealth 
public debt on Mar. 31, 1941, totaled 485,790,- 
137 ( 435,327,180 on June 30, 1940); total pub- 
He debt of the States, 916,910,215 ( 905,027,- 
064). The A (Australian pound) averaged 
$3.5338 for 1939; $3.0516 (free) and $3.2280 
(official) for 1940; British pound averaged $3.8300 
(free) and $4.0350 (official), 1940. 

Transportation. Federal and State railways in op- 
eration, June 30, 1940, totaled 27,251 miles; private 
(general traffic) lines, 721 miles. Gross earnings of 
the government lines amounted to 46,588,136; 
operating expenses, 36,368,089. Highways ex- 
tended over 488,749 miles. Registrations of motor 
vehicles, Mar. 31, 1941, totaled 905,271. In the 
Northern Territory a new highway (600 miles long, 
costing 500,000) was completed during Decem- 
ber, 1940. This new road joins Birdum (the south- 
ern terminal of the railway from Port Darwin on 
the northern coast of Australia) with Alice Springs 
(the northern terminal of the railway from Port 
Augusta, South Australia). During the year ended 
June 30, 1940, civil air lines carried out 175,737 
flights, covered 12,822,751 miles, and carried 142,- 
797 passengers, 1,770,738 Ib. of freight, and 416,- 
996 Ib. of mail. There were 1,282,787 radiobroad- 
cast listeners' licenses in force on Mar. 31, 1941. 
Shipping (1938-39): 3,814 ships aggregating 13,- 
545,712 tons entered and cleared the ports. 

Government. Executive power is vested in the 
King, who acts through a governor-general and 
a ministry responsible to the Federal Parliament. 
There is a Senate of 36 members (6 from each 
State), elected for 6 years and renewed by half 
every 3 years, and a House of Representatives of 
74 members apportioned among the States on a 
population basis and elected for 3 years. Governor- 
General, Brig. Gen. Alexander Gore Arkwright, 
Baron Gowrie, who assumed office Jan. 22, 1936. 
Prime Minister at the beginning of 1941, Robert 
Gordon Menzies (United Australia party), who 
headed a coalition government representing the 
United Australia and United Country parties, 
formed Oct. 27, 1940. For changes in 1941, see 
below. 

HISTORY 

War Effort. Further Allied setbacks in the Balkans, 
Crete and Libya, German successes against Russia, 
and Japanese intervention on the side of the Axis 
spurred Australia to an intensified war effort dur- 
ing 1941. The 17,236 Australian troops sent with 
British contingents to Greece and Crete suffered 
5,951 casualties (2,275 in Greece and 3,676 in 
Crete.) Total Australian casualties in Libya, 
Greece, Crete, Syria, and Palestine up to Nov. 14, 
1941, were 12,950 ( 1,571 killed or died of wounds, 
4,663 wounded, 3,663 missing, and 3,035 prison- 
ers). Activities of German, and later Japanese, 
raiders in the South Pacific also brought the war 
close to Australia. 

Army Mechanized. In January the War Cabinet de- 
cided to mechanize both the Australian Imperial 
Force and the Home Defense Force, at a cost of 
several million pounds. Immediately after the ar- 
rival of a large Australian contingent at Singapore 



AUSTRALIA 



in February for the defense of British Malaya, the 
War Cabinet extended the compulsory militia 
training period from 70 to 90 days. Modifying the 
original Empire air scheme, the Government in 
mid-May authorized the organization of Australian 
airmen serving with the R.A.F. overseas into sepa- 
rate units with their own ground staffs. At the end 
of July, one-quarter of the entire Home Defense 
Force was called up for full-time duty until the 
end of the war. 

As of August 10, 600,000 Australians were re- 
ported under arms or ready for immediate mobili- 
zation. The Australian Imperial Force for service 
overseas numbered 200,000. Another 228,000 were 
in the militia and Home Defense Force. There 
were an additional 61,000 men in the Royal Aus- 
tralian Air Force and 20,000 in the Royal Austral- 
ian Navy. In August it was decided to organize a 
women's army for home defense to release more 
men for the overseas force and for work in muni- 
tions factories. Enrollment of 15,600 youths be- 
tween 16 and 18 years of age in the Air Cadet 
Training Corps was begun soon afterward. The Air 
Minister announced August 18 that by the middle 
of 1942 23 Australian Air Force squadrons would 
be serving overseas. When Japan entered the war 
in December, the entire defense program was ex- 
panded. Immediate effects were the mobilization of 
the home defense forces and militia for the dura- 
tion and the inclusion of fathers of up to four chil- 
dren in the draft. 

Munition* Production. Meanwhile some 170,000 
workers in munitions industries were pouring foith 
an increasing flow of war equipment and supplies 
for Empire and Allied forces in Malaya and the 
Middle East. A huge naval graving dock in Syd- 
ney, larger than that at Singapore, was rushed to- 
ward completion. The warplane industry, starting 
from scratch in 1940, had produced 1,000 planes 
by mid-September, 1941, and output for 1942 was 
expected to be doubled. Early in September the 
first Australian -built bombing plane a Beaufort 
was tested. The first locally-built light cruiser tanks 
for the armored division were delivered in Septem- 
ber. Mass production of Bren machine guns began 
in January and of anti-tank guns in June. Anti-air- 
craft gims, rifles and small arms, ammunition, 
bombs, mines, and field guns were also in produc- 
tion before the end of 1941. Australian shipyards 
in July were at work on 50 naval vessels and 60 
freighters. 

Besides outfitting its own forces, Australia was 
called upon by the Empire Supply Council at Del- 
hi, India, for 1,000,000 pairs of army boots and 
60,000,000 pieces of textiles and clothing Danger 
of a Japanese blockade led the Government in 
March to begin storing emergency stocks of essen- 
tial supplies sufficient for three months, and to re- 
duce still further the basic gasoline ration. 

The cost of the defense program ( see FINANCE ) 
soared to 20,000,000 monthly by August, 1941, 
exceeding the monthly average on which the 
225,000,000 domestic war budget for 1941-42 
was based. War expenditure for 1941 was greater 
than that for the whole of World War I. 

Economic Trends. As in many other raw-material 
exporting countries, the war stimulated the devel- 
opment of local manufacturing industries while 
curtailing the normal foreign markets for agricul- 
tural and pastoral products. Industrial unemploy- 
ment in May, 1941, fell to 5.3 per cent, the lowest 
since the trade unions began Keeping records in 
1911. Despite the shortage of workers and rising 
living costs, the Commonwealth arbitration court 
on February 7 unanimously refused to increase the 



AUSTRALIA 



49 



AUSTRALIA 



basic wage rate established in 1937. On June 18 
Prime Minister Menzies forbade further strikes and 
lockouts in defense industries, but the enabling 
legislation was shelved at the insistence of the 
Labor Opposition. The problem of obtaining in- 
creased manpower for war production was trans- 
ferred to the Labor party when it gained control 
of the Government in October. 

In the first quarter of the year, a drought re- 
duced the wheat crop and necessitated distribution 
of 1,000,000 for the relief of wheat farmers. But 
surpluses of foodstuffs continued to accumulate, 
due to the lack of shipping. The Government con- 
tinued to support prices of wheat, and in July un- 
dertook to buy the entire export surplus of quality 
meat. It urgea the domestic consumption or more 
lamb, apples, pears, dairy products, etc., and with 
British financial aid undertook to acquire and store 
reserve food stocks. In the same month imports 
from non-sterling countries were reduced to 50 per 
cent of the pre-war level. 

Political Events. The narrow margin by which the 
Government coalition retained control of both 
houses of Parliament in the election of Sept. 21, 
1940 (see YEAR BOOK for 1940, p. 49 f.) led to 
its downfall in 1941. Labor gams in the 1940 gen- 
eral election were followed by victories in two 
States early in 1941. The Labor Government of 
William Forgan Smith was returned to office for a 
fourth consecutive term in Queensland on March 
30. In New South Wales a reunited Labor party 
regained control of the State government from the 
United Australia-Country party coalition on May 
11, after nine years in opposition. The new Labor 
Premier, William John McKell, excluded his ex- 
tremist rival, ex-Premier J. T. Lang, from his 
government and pledged full support of the Com- 
monwealth's war effort. The Labontes were not so 
successful in South Australia's election of March 
30. Premier Thomas Playford's Liberal-Country 
party coalition was returned to office with in- 
creased strength. Tasmania's Labor Government, 
in office since 1934, was reelected for another five- 
year term on December 13. 

The reverses suffered by Australian troops in 
Greece during April and May shook Prime Minis- 
ter Menzies' Commonwealth Government. Its col- 
lapse was averted by a Government victory in the 
Roothby (South Australia) by-election of May 24. 
Menzies then renewed his ofler to Labor of half 
the Cabinet posts if the party would join in a na- 
tional government like that in London. The Labor 
leader, John Curtm, again rejected the offer, hold- 
ing that it would stifle essential criticism. 

With the approval of Parliament, the Prime Min- 
ister on June 26 increased his Cabinet from 12 to 
19 members to speed the war effort. But there was 
criticism of his leadership within as well as with- 
out the ranks of the Government parties. This came 
to a head in August over his proposal to return to 
London to represent Australia in Imperial war 
councils. The Cabinet unanimously supported the 
proposal, but Labor and some Government sup- 
porters held that if Menzies went to London it 
should be as a member of the Cabinet and not as 
Prime Minister. 

Mnzf>f Resigns. This issue and the unstable posi- 
tion of the Government led to Prime Minister Men- 
zies' resignation on August 28. He was succeeded 
by Arthur William Fadden, Commonwealth Treas- 
urer and leader of the Country party, who had 
served as Acting Prime Minister during Menzies' 
absence in London early in the year. Fadden re- 
tained the same Cabinet, with Menzies serving as 
Minister of Defense Coordination. It was decided 



to send Sir Earle Page, Minister of Commerce, to 
London as Australia's special representative. 

The new Prune Minister's term was short, how- 
ever. When Parliament convened to debate the 
budget for 1941-42, the Labor leader, Curtin, ob- 
jected to provisions for compulsory loans, taxation 
on incomes as low as 150, and "illiberal" treat- 
ment of soldiers' dependents. In the vote on his 
motion of censure, two Independent members of 
the House of Representatives switched to the Op- 
position and the Fadden Government was defeated 
by three votes (October 3). 

The Labor Cabinet. The Governor-General then 
called upon Curtin to form a new Government. 
Although dependent for a majority in the House 
upon the two Independent votes that had defeated 
Fadden, Curtin accepted. A party caucus elected 
the members of the Cabinet, announced October 6 
as follows: Prime Minister and Defense Coordina- 
tion, John Curtin; Deputy Prime Minister and 
Army, Francis Michael Forde, Treasurer, Joseph 
Benedict Chifley; Attorney General and External 
Affairs, Herbert Vere Evatt; Supply and Develop- 
ment, John Albert Beasley; Interior, Joseph S. Col- 
hngs, Navy and Munitions, Norman J. O. Makin, 
Social Services and Health, Edward J. Holloway; 
Trade and Customs and Vice President of the Ex- 
ecutive Council, Richard V. Keane; Air and Civil 
Aviation, Arthur S. Drakeford; Commerce, William 
J. Scully; Postmaster General and Information, 
William P. Ashley; Labor and National Service, 
Edward J. Ward; Repatriation and War Service 
Homes, Charles W. Frost; War Organization and 
Industrial Research, John J. Dedman; Home Se- 
curity, Hubert P. Lazzarim; External Territories, 
James M. Fraser; Transport, George Lawson; Air- 
craft Production, Donald Cameron. Prime Minis- 
ter Curtin and Ministers Forde, Chifley, Evatt, 
Beasley, Makin and Drakeford were named mem- 
bers of the War Cabinet. 

The composition of the Cabinet gave all of the 
key positions to men of moderate views. Prime 
Minister Curtin announced that he would follow 
a cautious policy internally, speed up Australia's 
organization for war, and give full support and 
cooperation to the Empire war effort. He retained 
Sir Earle Page as special representative in London 
and all other diplomatic appointments of the pre- 
vious governments. Labor's conservative policy was 
indicated by the expulsion of Representative Mau- 
rice M. Blackburn from the party for speaking at 
a pro-Communist gathering in August On Septem- 
ber 21, the federal executive of the Labor party 
voted to expel all members who joined or asso- 
ciated with Communist-front organizations 

On October 1 a joint meeting of the United Aus- 
tralia and Country parties elected Fadden as lead- 
er of the Opposition. The Curtin Government 
successfully floated a 100,000,000 war conversion 
loan in November. On November 28 it pegged 
house rents at the rates in effect Aug. 31, 1939. 

Empire Re-lotions. Australia's growing insecurity, 
its immense contribution to the Empire's war ef- 
fort, and the defeats suffered by Australian troops 
in Greece and Crete due to lack of effective air 
and other support all contributed to the Common- 
wealth's demand for a larger voice in the direction 
of Empire war policies. The British Government 
welcomed Prime Minister Menzies on his visit to 
London and to the Middle East war fronts during 
the first months of the year. It approved the deci- 
sion of the Australian Cabinet to send one of its 
members to London as its permanent spokesman in 
Empire war councils. To mollify Australia over the 
reverses in Greece and North Africa, the British on 



AUSTRALIA 



April 23 named Lieut. Gen. Sir Thomas Blarney, 
Australian commander in the Middle East, as sec- 
ond in command to the British commander in chief 
in that region. The Australian War Council, meet- 
ing on June 13, received formal assurance from the 
British Government that Australian troops in the 
Middle East henceforth would receive the strong- 
est possible air support. 

The dispatch of large Australian forces to defend 
Singapore and British Malaya against a threatened 
Japanese attack increased Australian political in- 
terest in that area. In August the Minister of 
Interior and Information, H. S. Foil, visited Singa- 
pore with a party of Australian editors. He dis- 
cussed the question of political representation at 
Singapore by an Australian High Commissioner 
and expansion of the activities there of the Austral- 
ian Department of Information. On August 20 
Prime Minister Menzies told Parliament that "Aus- 
tralia regards Singapore and Malaya as outposts of 
her defenses." 

Joint Australian and New Zealand war plans and 
preparations were carried beyond the coordination 
of war production, arranged in 1940. Staff talks be- 
tween Australian and New Zealand military and 
naval chiefs were held in Melbourne in March. In 
June the Commonwealth Government agreed to 
provide war supplies and materials to New Zea- 
land on the same basis as to the Australian States. 

War with Japan. There was steady deterioration 
of Australian relations with Japan, despite the ar- 
rival in Canberra on March 19 of the first Japanese 
Minister to Australia. Official spokesmen issued re- 
peated warnings to Tokyo that Australia would re- 
sist Japanese expansion to the south. On February 
25 Acting Prime Minister Fadden declared that 
"the further south certain people move, the further 
north Australia will move." To hamper Japanese 
activities in Australian waters, the government on 
February 20 declared the Melville and Buchanan 
islands off the northwest coast of Northern Terri- 
tory as aboriginal reserves from which all outsiders 
were barred. 

With the Japanese advance in French Indo- 
China, Australia on July 28 blocked all bank cred- 
its belonging to Japanese subjects and joined in the 
British-Dutch-United States economic blockade of 
Japan. Severance of trade relations was followed 
by the evacuation of virtually all the Japanese in 
Australia. In mid-October Australia saw new cause 
for alarm in the extension of a Japanese airline 
from Palau Island to Portuguese Timor, only 450 
miles from Darwin. 

Following the surprise Japanese attacks of De- 
cember 7-8 on Anglo-American bases in the Pacific 
and Malaya, the Governor General of Australia on 
December 9 declared the Commonwealth at war 
with Japan as from 5 p.m. of December 8. On De- 
cember 16 Parliament approved the Government's 
war declarations on Japan, Finland, Hungary, and 
Rumania. The Government immediately redoubled 
preparations to resist a large-scale attack upon 
Australia, as well as raids by carrier-based aircraft. 
Plans were made for immediate expansion of war- 
plane and other military production. 

With the Allied reverses in Malaya, the Austral- 
ian Government asked Britain to strengthen its 
Far Eastern air forces. It sought a full alliance with 
Russia and turned toward still closer relations with 
the United States in search of military assistance. 
At the same time the press and the Government 
demanded that the British Government place 
greater emphasis upon the protection of Singapore 
and that the war in the Pacific should not be 
viewed as a side issue to the war in Europe. These 



50 AUSTRIA 

views were forcibly impressed upon Prime Minis- 
ter Churchill and President Roosevelt during their 
conferences in Washington late in December. It 
was announced on December 30 that Prime Minis- 
ter Curtin had received concrete assurances of mil- 
itary support from Churchill. Meanwhile an 
assertion by Curtin that Australia sought an agree- 
ment making the United States the keystone of a 
Pacific defense program aroused protests from ex- 
Prime Minister W. M. Hughes and others, who ac- 
cused Curtin of seeking to weaken Australia's ties 
with Britain. This he emphatically denied. 

fte/affons with America. On October 20 Prime Min- 
ister Curtin announced the completion of negotia- 
tions for a united front in the Pacific by Britain, 
the United States, China, the Netherlands Indies, 
Australia, and New Zealand. As early as January 14, 
an official New Zealand source stated that Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand had an understanding with 
the United States covering future Japanese efforts 
to expand in the South Pacific. The negotiations 
with Washington for still closer cooperation were 
continued by the Australian Minister, by Prime 
Minister Menzies during his visit to the United 
States in May, and by Sir Earle Page, who stopped 
in Washington en route to London in October. An 
Australian economic mission was sent to Washing- 
ton to discuss tariff and shipping problems, the dis- 
posal of Australian surpluses, and lend-lease aid 
Ratifications of a treaty for the peaceful settlement 
of American-Australian disputes were exchanged 
August 13. United States flotillas on training cruises 
visited Sydney in March and Brisbane in August 
Opening a direct radiotelegraphic communications 
system between Australia and the United States on 
December 25, President Roosevelt declared that he 
and Prime Minister Churchill considered Austral- 
ia's safety "as a definite essential in every plan of 
defense and in every rjlan of offensive action 
against our common foes. ' A few days later it was 
indicated that American naval and air units would 
use Australia as an operational base. 

Aid to Russia. The Australian Government on May 
14 announced that it would appoint a Minister to 
China "as further recognition of the fact that Aus- 
tralia possesses vital interests in the Pacific." Prime 
Minister Menzies strongly endorsed the British 
Government's declaration of support for Russia 
against Germany (June 24) and the Cabinet ap- 
proved in advance the Anglo-Russian alliance of 
mid-July. To facilitate Allied and American ship- 
ments of supplies to Russia, the Canberra authori- 
ties in October ordered the shipment of locomo- 
tives and freight cars from Australia's overbur- 
dened railway system for use on the Trans-Iranian 
Railway. 

See BRITISH MALAYA, GREAT BRITAIN, and JA- 
PAN, under History; BIRTH CONTROL; CUSTOMS, 
BUREAU OF; LABOR CONDITIONS under Employ- 
ment and Strikes; NAVAL PROGRESS; RAPID TRANS- 
IT; SOCIALISM; WOOL; WORLD WAR. 

AUSTRALIAN ANTARCTIC TERRITORY, AUSTRALIAN CAP I- 
TAL TERRITORY. See AUSTRALIA. 

AUSTRIA. A former independent state of central Eu- 
rope, annexed by Germany on Mar. 13, 1938, and 
divided on Apr. 1, 1940, into seven administrative 
units of the German Reich. Area, 34,055 square 
miles; population at census of May 17, 1939, 
6,972,269, divided into administrative districts 
(gaue) as follows: Vienna, 1,929,976; Lower 
Danube, 1,697,976; Upper Danube, 1,034,871; 
Styria, 1,116,407; Carinthia, 449,713; Salzburg, 



AUSTRIA 



51 



AZORES 



257,228; Tirol and Vorarlberg, 486,400. Vienna, 
the former capital, had 1,918,462 inhabitants at 
the 1939 census; Graz, 210,175; Linz, 131,423. 

Roman Catholics comprised 90.57 per cent of 
the population at the 1934 census; Protestants, 
4.38 per cent; Tews, 2.83 per cent (191,481). The 
1939 census showed 94,270 racial Jews. There 
were 4,721 public schools with 657,000 pupils in 
1940. In 1936 the three Austrian universities (Vi- 
enna, Graz, and Innsbruck) had 14,027 students, 
and two technical high schools 2,514. Agriculture, 
manufacturing, mining, and lumbering are the 
mam occupations ( see YEAR BOOK for 1939, p. 57 
for pre-annexation statistics). Formerly a favorite 
haunt of tourists, Austria has suffered since 1938 
through the virtual exclusion of non-German tour- 
ists. In 1939 there were 3,685 miles of railway 
line and 42,120 miles of automobile roads. 

Government. Upon the annexation of Austria, 
Chancellor Hitler appointed Josef Buerckel as 
Procurator for the Liquidation of Austria and 
Reich Commissar for the Reunion of Austria with 
Germany. Austria was subdivided into seven dis- 
tricts (Gaue), each under a National Socialist re- 
sponsible to Heir Buerckel in Vienna, who in turn 
was directly responsible to Chancellor Hitler. Ef- 
fective Apr. 1, 1940, this system was reorganized. 
The Nazi leader in each district was given the 
title Gauleiter (district leader) and Procurator, 
combining party and state functions, and became 
directly responsible to Hitler. Hen* Buerckel's pow- 
ers were restricted to those of Gauleiter and Pro- 
curator for Vienna On Aug. 7, 1940, Buerckel was 
succeeded in Vienna by Baldur von Schirach, for- 
mer head of the Hitler Youth. 

History. Strict censorship veiled developments in 
Austria during 1941 from the outside world. Berlin 
confirmed mass deportations of Jews from Vienna 
to Poland in January. The Vatican on January 31 
reported the expulsion of Benedictine monks from 
their monastery at Bregenz on the ground of hostil- 
ity to the Nazi regime. Refugees from all Austrian 
classes reaching Istanbul in March reported wide- 
spread poverty and discontent m Austria, with no 
effective outlet for anti-Nazi sentiment. With Adolf 
Hitler as the chief speaker, indoor and outdoor 
demonstrations were held in Vienna on March 13 
to celebrate the third anniversary of the German 
annexation. Hitler promised important social and 
economic gains after the victorious conclusion of 
the war. Dr. Kurt Schuschnigg, Chancellor of Aus- 
tria who was deposed and imprisoned upon the 
German occupation in 1938, was being held in a 
special prison in Munich, Germany, according to 
a first cousin of the Chancellor who arrived in 
New York late in May. This contrasted with a Ber- 
lin report of March 14 that Schuschnigg was living 
unmolested in a Bavarian retreat. Archduke Robert 
of Habsburg, second son of Emperor Charles of 
Austria, declared in London on November 13 that 
all former political parties in Austria had "united 
to fight the German oppressor" and that sabotage 
in Austrian munitions factories was increasing. 

Formation of a Free Austrian National Council 
with headquarters in Toronto and a representative 
in Washington was announced September 27. It 
was headed by Dr. Hans Rott, who claimed to be 
the oldest free member of Schuschnigg's Cabinet 
and therefore entitled to act as "FederalPresident" 
until the Council could "take over the rights and 
duties of the legal Austiian constitutional institu- 
tions." Early in April Count Ferdinand Czernin 
organized an anti-Nazi "Austrian Action" move- 
ment in the United States through which Austrians 
in the Western Hemisphere could combat German 



Nazi fifth column activities and work for the libera- 
tion of Austria. 

AUTOGIRO. See ENTOMOLOGY, ECONOMIC. 

AUTOMOBILE RACING. With international speeding 
confined to tanks and jeeps, the main automobile 
racing affair of the year was once again the annual 
500-mile race at Indianapolis on Memorial Day, 
when for the second time in history two drivers 
split the winning purse. This came about when 
Floyd Davis's car, in the ruck at the 200-mile 
mark, was taken over by relief driver Mauri Rose, 
who had been forced out of the grind miles back. 
Rose drove magnificently and wound up in front, 
and he and Davis had their names enscribed on 
the trophy, carved the winning money, and the 
glory . For a time the race seemed to be Wilbur 
Shaw's for the third time in succession and the 
fourth in five years, but the little man from In- 
dianapolis whistled into the wall on the 151st lap 
and, unhurt, was thrown out of the race with his 
car a wreck. Rose took over Davis's engine 323 
miles from home and finished in front of Rex Mays, 
with third money going to Ted Horn and fourth 
to Ralph Hepburn. Of the thirty-three starters, 
twelve finished the grind, the last until the war is 
over, according to official announcement late in 
December. 

Rex Mays, the heavy-footed Californian, won 
the National championship on points, mainly be- 
cause of the division of honors at Indianapolis, and 
his 825 points there. Ralph Hepburn finished in 
second slot for points, with Cliff Bergere and Floyd 
Davis following. 

AUTOMOBILES. See MOTOR VEHICLES. 
AUXILIARY FIREMEN. See FmE PROTECTION. 
AVIATION. See AERONAUTICS. For AVIATION GASO- 
LINE, see PETROLEUM. 

AZERBAIJAN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC. See UNION 
OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS under Area and 
Population. 

AZORES. A group of nine islands in the Atlantic 
Ocean about 800 miles west of Portugal, of which 
the islands are administratively a part, and some 
2,100 miles from New York. Area, 922 square 
miles; population (1930 census), 253,935. The 
largest island. Sao Miguel, measuring 41 miles 
long and 9 miles wide, contains more than one-half 
of the population. Capital and chief seaport, Ponta 
Delgada (pop. 18,022) on Sao Miguel. The other 
islands are Corvo, Fayal, Flores, Graciosa, Pico, 
Santa Maria, Sao Jorge, and Terceiro ( second larg- 
est). Angra (pop. 10,642) on Terceiro and Horta 
(pop. 7,643) on Fayal are the other leading cities. 
Horta is a seaplane base on Pan American Airways' 
transatlantic route from New York to Lisbon, and 
is one of the world's principal cable stations. Agri- 
culture, dairying, and needlework are the chief oc- 
cupations. The principal crops are corn, hothouse 
pineapples, sugar beets, wheat, tobacco, and fruits. 
Imports come mainly from Portugal. In normal 
times, pineapples are exported to northern Europe 
and embroidery to the United States. 

History. The strategic importance of the Azores in 
the expanding Allied-Axis struggle for control of 
the Atlantic was emphasized in 1941. President 
Roosevelt on May 2T stated that German control 
of the islands would threaten the security of the 
Western Hemisphere. The Portuguese Government 
sent successive contingents of troops to reinforce 
die islands' garrison. Early in August President 



BACTERIOPHAGE 



52 



BANKS AND BANKING 



Carmona made an official visit. See PORTUGAL un- 
der History. 

BACTERIOPHAGE. See BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY. 
BADEN. See GERMANY under Area and Population. 

BADMINTON. David Freeman of Pasadena, Calif., re- 
mained the nation's No. 1 badminton player in 
1941, for the third successive year. He won the 
men's national singles, and shared in the doubles 
championship. Thelma Kingsbury of Oakland, 
Calif., three times holder of the English champion- 
ship, took over the women's singles title, defeating 
last year's titleholder, Evelyn Boldnck, in the finaL 
Eastern singles champions were Carl W. Love- 
day of the Montclair A.C. in the men's and, re- 
taining her title, Mary Hagen in the women's. 
Spencer Davis of Princeton University captured the 
Eastern intercollegiate title. 

BAHAMAS. A British West Indian crown colony con- 
sisting of 20 inhabited and several uninhabited is- 
lands and rocks. Land area, 4,404 square miles; 
population (1939 estimate), 68,903. Chief islands: 
Abaco, Ackhns, Andros, Bimini, Cat Island, Crook- 
ed Island, Eleuthera, Exuma, Grand Bahama, Ina- 
gua, Long Island, Mayaguana, New Providence, 
Rum Cay, and San Salvador (or Wathngs). Capital, 
Nassau ( on New Providence ) . Education ( 1939 ) : 
primary and secondary schools had 16,502 students 
enrolled. 

Production and Trade. Sponge, shell (tortoise and 
conch), cascarilla bark, pine timber, salt, tomatoes, 
sisal, and crawfish are the chief products. The tour- 
ist trade is important. Trade (1940): 1,284,417 
for imports ( 1,094,170 in 1939) and 229,140 
for exports and reexports (180,281 in 1939) 
Sponge exports declined to 13,986 in 1940 from 
69,813 in 1939. Shipping (1939): 1,438 vessels 
aggregating 2,354,424 tons entered the ports 

Government. Finance (1940 estimates)- 404,- 
192 for revenue and 441,557 for expenditure. 
Public debt, Dec. 31, 1939, 195,923. Executive 
power rests with a governor, assisted by an execu- 
tive council. The legislature consists of a legislative 
council (9 nominated members) and a house of 
assembly (29 elected members). Governor and 
Commander-m-Chief, Duke of Windsor (assumed 
office, Aug. 17, 1940). 

History. Abraham Bay and an adjacent part of 
Mayaguana Island, leased to the United States for 
a seaplane base in 1940 ( see YEAR BOOK for 1940, 
p. 57), was found to be unsuitable after further 
survey. The U.S government then selected a new 
site near Georgetown on Exuma Island. A bill au- 
thorizing establishment of a U.S. naval-air base 
there was passed by the house of assembly at Nas- 
sau, Sept. 23, 1941. In the autumn of 1941 the gov- 
ernment banned sponge fishing within the colony's 
territorial waters until the end of 1943. 

BAHREIN ISLANDS. See under ARABIA. 

BAKER ISLAND. An island in the mid-Pacific (0 13' 
N. and 176 31' W.), owned by the United States. 
It lies athwart the main steamship lanes and Pan 
American Airways' route from Honolulu to New 
Zealand and Australia. The island was unoccupied 
for a number of years until 1936 when the US. 
Department of the Interior established an aerologi- 
cal station (see YEAR BOOK for 1936, p. 79). 

BALEARIC ISLANDS. See SPAIN under Area and Popu- 
lation. 

BALI. See NETHERLANDS INDIES under Area and 
Population. 



BALKAN ENTENTE. A bloc of Balkan states Greece, 
Rumania, Turkey, and Yugoslavia which by the 
treaty of Feb. 9, 1934, mutually guaranteed their 
frontiers against aggression by any other Balkan 
country. The alliance was nullified by the establish- 
ment of German control over Rumania, Yugoslavia, 
and Greece in 1940-41. For the history of the Bal- 
kan Entente, see YEAJR BOOKS for 1934 to 1940 in- 
clusive, under that title. 

BALKAN STATES. The countries of the peninsula 
south of the Danube, and bounded by the Adriatic, 
Aegean, and Black Seas. See ALBANIA, BULGARIA, 
GREECE, RUMANIA, TURKEY, YUGOSLAVIA. 

BANGKA. See NETHERLANDS INDIES under Area and 
Population. 

BANG'S DISEASE. See VETERINARY MEDICINE. 
BANK ROBBERIES. See FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTI- 
GATION. 

BANKRUPTCY AND RECEIVERSHIP. See BUSINESS RE- 
VIEW; RAILWAYS. 

BANKS AND BANKING. The deposits of banks in the 
United States rose to new high record levels dur- 
ing 1941 as a result of large-scale purchases of 
new Government obligations and a considerable in- 
crease in commercial and industrial loans As Gov- 
ernment expenditures rose by leaps and bounds 
because of the ever-expanding national defense 
program and lease-lend requirements, the Treasury 
found it necessary to obtain an increasing propor- 
tion of these funas through the sale of new obliga- 
tions. Because of limited purchases of these securi- 
ties by ultimate investors, the banks were called 
upon to absorb a large percentage of the increase 
in the national debt During the first half of the 
year, purchases occurred chiefly in New York City, 
out in the latter months, as the excess reserves of 
big city banks dwindled, most of the purchases oc- 
curred outside of the New York City banks. See 
also PUBLIC FINANCE 

Banking developments during 1941 differed from 
those of the preceding years because of the virtual 
cessation of the inflow of gold. The war in Europe 
checked gold shipments to the United States, so 
that shipments for the year aggregated only $929,- 
574,000 as compared with $4,744,472,000 during 
1940. As British gold reserves were ranidly ex- 
hausted, gold receipts here consisted chiefly of new 
Canadian production and modest receipts from Lat- 
in America. 

Commercial banks favored intermediate and 
shorter-term issues in their purchases of Govern- 
ment securities, hesitating to incur the risk of a 
later rise in interest rates and consequent decline 
in long-term bond prices. The following table 
shows the distribution of maturities of Treasury se- 
curities held by 5,799 commercial banks which ac- 
counted for the bulk of commercial bank invest- 
ments in Government bonds: 

PUBLIC MARKETABLE TREASURY SECURITIES 
HELD BY COMMERCIAL BANKS 

Due or Callable Amount Held 

Within 1 year ... * 3,127,000,000 

1 to 5 veare . . 8,284,000,000 

6 to 10 years . . 4.476,000,000 

10 to 15 years 2,810,000,000 

16 to 20 years . 565,000,000 

Over 20 years 478,000,000 

FHA debentures 6,000,000 

Total . .. . $19,744,000,000 

The rise in bank loans was pronounced. Between 
June 29, 1940, and Sept. 24, 1941, total loans of 
all commercial banks in the United States increased 



BANKS AND BANKING 



53 



BANKS AND BANKING 



from $17,400,000,000 to $21,300,000,000, the 
sharpest increase in bank loans reported since the 
twenties. The rise reflected chiefly two separate 
influences. First, numerous industries receiving ar- 
mament orders or sub-contracts borrowed money in 
order to finance large-scale operations. Secondly, a 
number of consumer goods industries incurred bank 
loans to finance a larger volume of sales and in- 
creased inventories reflecting the rush to buy be- 
fore priority and other restrictions affected them 
Heavy retail sales of automobiles financed by 
banks contributed to the rise in the loan total 
Needless to say, with the outbreak of war, loans 
to consumer goods industries and to consumers 
were certain to decline, but a larger volume of 
defense lines loomed 

The principal assets and liabilities of insured 
commercial banks on June 30, 1941, and compa- 
rable earlier dates, were as follows: 
PRINCIPAL ASSETS AND LIABILITIES OF INSURED 
COMMERCIAL BANKS 
[In thousand* of dollars] 



June 89, 
1940 



Dec SI, 
1940 



June SO, 
1941 



Reserve with Federal 
Reserve Banks . . 

Other balances with 
banki 

U 8 Govt. obligations, 
direct & fully guar- 
anteed 

Other securities 

Loans, discounts, and 
overdrafts (mcl redis- 
counts) 

Demand deposits (of in- 
dividuals, partner- 
ships, and corpoia- 
tions) 

Time deposits (of indi- 
viduals, partnerships, 
and corporations) 

Total deposits 

Total liabilities and cap- 
ital account 



13,750,656 13,991,733 12,958,527 
7,556,291 8,216,151 8,308,583 



15,900,885 
6,920,404 



17,063,870 
7,099,402 



19,370,714 
6,907,899 



17,014,372 18,397,472 19.913.16Q 



28.899,054 32,400,488 34,330,943 



14,779,568 
58,425,391 



15,002,076 
f>3,4KU70 



15,207,488 
65,61(>,648 



65.589,180 70710,525 72,984,112 



The changes in loans, investments, and deposits 
of reporting member banks of the Federal Reserve 
System, month by month during 1941, are shown 
in the following table: 

LOANS, INVESTMENTS, AND DEPOSITS OF REPORTING MEMBER BANKS IN 101 LEADING CITIES 
[Monthly data are averages of weekly figures In millions of dollars] 



The rise in bank deposits, the first factor raising 
legal reserve requirements, resulted from the heavy 
purchases of Government bonds by the banks and 
the increase in bank loans, already mentioned 
above. The rise of money in circulation reflected 
greatly increased employment, higher wages, hoard- 
ing by aliens fearful of registration requirements, 
and some domestic hoarding typical of all war pe- 
riods. Federal Reserve notes in circulation at the 
end of the year aggregated $8,192,000,000, which 
compared with $5,930,000,000 a year before. The 
increase in legal reserve requirements was ordered 
by the Board of Governors after overcoming resist- 
ance from the Treasury, which saw no need for the 
action and feared it might interfere with the market 
for new issues of Government securities sold to fi- 
nance the deficit. Soon after the higher reserve re- 
quirements went into effect, however, it became ap- 
parent that the action was very untimely With the 
outbreak of the war, the Federal Reserve banks 
bought $60,000,000 of Government bonds to steady 
the market, and halted further purchases only when 
it became clear that no panic liquidation would fol- 
low and Treasury obligations rallied from initial de- 
clines of 1 to 2 points These purchases of Gov- 
ernment bonds by the Reserve banks offset the 
November 1 rise in reserve requirements, neutraliz- 
ing such action in part. 

Since it was certain that the banks would be re- 
quired to purchase billions of dollars of new Gov- 
ernment securities annually during the period of 
the war, credit policies to further this end had to 
be formulated. The major features of a wartime 
credit policy were generally recognized as being. 
( 1 ) Provision of a plentiful supply of excess re- 
serves to the banks, through reduction in legal re- 
serve requirements or open market purchases of 
Government bonds by the Federal Reserve banks 
if required, to assure a ready market for new is- 
sues of Treasury securities not taken by ultimate 
investors. (2) Offerings to the banks of relatively 
low rate obligations of short or intermediate term, 
to avoid adding greatly to holdings of long term 
securities involving a greatei risk of price deprecia- 
tion. (3) The taking of all measures necessary to 
keep the Government bond market on an even 





Commercial 
industrial, 
and 


, Loans to 
bi ol ers 
and 


Other loans 

f l 
purchase 


All 


U. S Government 


Demand 


agricultural dealers in 


or carrying 


other 


obligations 


Other 


deposits 


Month 


loans 


securities 


of securities 


loans 


Direct 


Guaranteed 


securities 


adjusted 


January 


5,051 


471 


460 


3,313 


9,941 


2,748 


3,677 


22,767 


February 


5,186 


440 


458 


3,324 


10,379 


2,759 


3,770 


23,092 


March 


5,374 


503 


455 


3,366 


10,638 


2,761 


3,796 


23,324 


April 


5,506 


482 


450 


3,411 


10,733 


2,895 


3,793 


23,515 


May 


5,621 


479 


446 


3,483 


10,752 


3,072 


3,711 


24,010 


June 


5,772 


483 


447 


3,560 


11,219 


3,034 


3,652 


23,969 


July 


5,975 


496 


445 


3,585 


11.274 


3,216 


3,569 


24,211 


AiiRiiHt 


6,140 


453 


438 


3,621 


11,266 


3,312 


3,703 


24,343 


Sept ember 


6,321 


536 


437 


3,643 


11,148 


3,319 


3.7C7 


24.404 


October 


6,625 


521 


432 


3,674 


11,127 


3,330 


3,759 


24,391 


November . . 


6,610 


642 


431 


3,694 


11,742 


2,925 


3,677 


24,168 


December 31 


6,728 


637 


422 


3,683 


12,085 


2,964 


3,666 


23,650 



Credit Control Policy. Excess reserves of member 
banks of the Federal Reserve System dropped from 
more than $6,800,000,000 in January to $3,085,- 
000,000 at the end of the year. Several factors 
combined to reduce surplus reserves to the lowest 
level reached since late in 1938. These included 
the expansion of required reserves due to the sharp 
rise in deposits, the rapid increase of currency in 
circulation, ana the action of the Board of Gov- 
ernors of die Federal Reserve System in raising to 
the maximum levels allowed by law the legal re- 
serve requirements of member banks, effective No- 
vember 1. (See the diagram on page 54.) 



keel, through open market purchases and other- 
wise, in order to facilitate Treasury financing. 

Short-term interest rates firmed sharply late in 
the year as excess reserves declined. The Federal 
Reserve authorities favored this rise in Treasury 
bill and related short-term rates in the money mar- 
ket, on the ground that this would encourage the 
banks to build up holdings of such assets which 
they could dispose of whenever necessary in order 
to strengthen their reserve position. Such a cushion 
of short-term assets, it was felt, would make less 
likely sales of lonff-tenn Government bonds by the 
banks, if they wish to add to their cash position. 



BANKS AND BANKING 



54 



BANKS AND BANKING 




1935 

Federal Reserve Bulletin 



1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 

EXCESS RESERVES OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS 



1941 



Fluctuations in member bank excess reserves 
during 1941 were as follows: 

EXCESS RESERVES OF MEMBER BANKS 
[Million dollars] 



January 31 
February 29 
March 30 . 
April 30 


.... 6,832 
. .. 6,422 
. .. 6,304 
6 883 


July 31 
August 31 
September 30 
October 31 


... 5,193 
6,017 
. . . 5,116 
5,001 


May 31 


5,831 


November 30 


.. 3,611 


June 29 


. . 6,351 


December 31 . 


. . . 3,085 



Changes in open-market interest rates, which 
closely reflected the decline in excess reserves 
shown above, were as follows during the year: 





Prims 


Prim* 








commercial 


bankers' 


Stock 


U.S. 




paper, 


accept- 


exchange 


treasury 




4 to 


ances 


call loan 


8-month 




months 


90 day 8 


renewals 


bills 


1941 Jan. . 


.56 


.44 


100 




Feb... 


.56 


.44 


1.00 


.034 


Mar.. 


.56 


.44 


1.00 


.089 


April. 


.66 


.44 


1.00 


.092 


May . 


.56 


.44 


100 


.082 


June 


.56 


.44 


100 


.089 


July.. 


.50 


.44 


100 


.097 


Aug. . 


.50 


.44 


100 


.108 


Sept.. 


.50 


.44 


100 


.055 


Oct... 


.60 


.44 


100 


.049 


Nov. 


.60 


.44 


100 


.242 


Dec. 


.56 


44 


100 


.298 



Federal Reserve Banks. The chief change in the 
condition statements of the Federal Reserve banks 
for the year was the rise in the volume of currency 
in circulation. Government security holdings 
showed a change only in the final weeks of the 
year, when bonds were bought following the out- 
break of war, but there was a shift from short- 
term to long-term holdings based on the thesis that 
the chief objective of credit control under prevail- 
ing conditions must be the stabilization of prices 
of long-term Treasury obligations, and hence that 
more of these securities should be held. 



Changes in assets of the twelve Federal Reserve 
banks in 1941 appear in table at foot of page. 

Gold Movements. Gold played a smaller role in 
domestic and international finance than at any 
time for a century or more No country based its 
internal credit policies upon the inflow or outflow 
of yellow metaf. Even in the United States, where 
credit conditions had been influenced during recent 
years by heavy gold imports which expanded ex- 
cess reserves, other factors were far more impor- 
tant during 1941 in changing the total of reserve 
balances. In international finance, the enactment 
of the lease-lend law by the U.S. Congress in 
March made American supplies and war materials 
available to nations resisting aggression without 
cash payment. Thus, gold played only to a limited 
extent its major role in international finance of re- 
cent years to provide dollars to pay for a surplus 
of purchases from the United States. Gold imports 
into the United States in November, 1941, the last 
month for which reports were published before 
the war ended the issuance of such statistics, were 
$50,374,000 ($330,107,000 in November, 1940). 
Total imports for the first eleven months of 1941 
were $929,574,000. 

World Banking and Monetary Developments. The war 
gave rise to inflationary banking developments in 
most countries of the world. In the belligerent na- 
tions, heavy Government deficits compelled gov- 
ernments to borrow from the banks, while intensive 
economic activity and rising commodity prices ex- 
panded currency circulation. In the occupied coun- 
tries of Europe, the huge costs of the armies of 
occupation were covered in large part by the is- 
suance of new notes by the central banks, produc- 
ing a currency inflation of the old fashioned type 
that made control over prices more and more diffi- 
cult, despite drastic direct controls and rationing 
France, paying an occupation bill of 400,000,000 



PRINCIPAL ASSETS AND LIABILITIES OF ALL FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS 
[In millions of dollars] 



1941 Gold certificates 
End of on hand and due Bills dis- 
Month from U S Treasury counted 
January 19,905 2 


Government 
bonds 
1,280 


Government 
notes 
900 


Federal 
reserve notes 
5,884 


Mnnber 
bank depomts 
13,930 


US 
Treasury 
deposits 
688 


February. . . 


20,020 


3 


1,280 


900 


6,022 


14,203 


343 


March ... 


20,102 


3 


1,359 


820 


6,143 


13,371 


1,180 


April 


20 193 


2 


1 359 


820 


6 282 






May . . 


20317 


4 


1 359 


820 


ft fif)3 


1Q7OA 






20313 


2 


1 359 


820 


6 724 


is ntn 


QfiA 


July 


20303 


5 


1 359 


820 


6 857 


1 o'i CK 


OTT 


August 


20,299 


11 


1,359 


820 




12794 


906 


September 


20,446 


11 


1,359 


820 


7',234 


13,227 


423 


October 


20,557 
20,553 
20,490 


6 
6 
3 


1,402 
1,402 
1,462 


777 
777 
777 


7,432 
7,669 
8,192 


12,580 
13,140 
12,450 


987 
429 
867 




December 31 





BANKS AND BANKING 



55 



BAPTISTS 



francs daily, suffered a particularly severe currency 
inflation. 

The volume of currency outstanding in a num- 
ber of countries, at the latest date reported, with 
comparisons, was as follows: 



expected to enter Latin America, it was apparent, 
chiefly through governmental, rather than through 
private, channels. 

Foreign Exchange. Abnormal world financial con- 
ditions produced a further drying up of foreign 



CENTRAL BANK NOTE CIRCULATION 



Country 


Date 
. . . Dec. 31, '41 


Note Circulation 
761,700,000 


Outstanding at end of 1940 
616 900,000 




Aug. 28, '41 


244,099,000,000 francs 


218,383,000,000 francs 




Nov 22, '41 


16,645,000,000 reichsmaiks 


15,419,000,000 reichsmarks 




Nov. '41 


1,281,000,000 pesos 


1,224,000,000 pesos 




. . . . Nov. '41 


68,009,000 pesos 


62,327,000 pesos 


Chile 


Oct. '41 


1,242,000,000 pesos 


1,149,000,000 pesos 


Australia .... 


Oct. '41 


73,614,000 


08 119,000 


Canada 


Dec. '41 


$495,956,000 


$359,949,000 



While Great Britain and other nations fighting 
Germany received aid under the lease-lend law, 
payments due on commitments incurred before this 
law was enacted in March, 1941, and remittances 
to South American and other neutral countries re- 
duced their gold and foreign exchange resources 



exchange trading. Except for several Latin Ameri- 
can countries, exchanges were under full official 
control, and dealings here were further hampered 
by the existence of foreign funds control. Changes 
reported in the major foreign exchange rates dur- 
ing 1941 were as follows: 



FOREIGN EXCHANGE RATES, 1941 
[Average of noon buying rates for cable transfers in New York. In cents per unit of foreign currency] 



Umtfd Kingdom 


Italy 


Germany 


Sweden 


(Spain 


Switzerland 


Australia 


Canada 


Month (free pound) 


(lira) 


(reichsmark) 


(krona) 


(peseta) 


(franc) 


(pound free) 


(dollar free) 


January . . 403 42 


5 0432 


39979 


23826 


9130 


23220 


321 50 


84801 


februaiy 


402 1)7 


60422 


39 909 


23829 


9.130 


23217 


321 11 


83687 


March .... 


403 19 


50452 


39 UGO 


23824 


9.130 


23210 


32130 


84.981 


April 


40248 


5 0475 


39 962 


23825 


9.130 


23201 


32070 


87 651 


May 


403 10 


50805 


39968 


23839 


9.130 


23203 


321.19 


87421 


June 


403 16 


62621 


39.970 


23.836 


9.130 


23200 


32125 


88 183 


July 


403 23 












321.31 


88271 


August 


403 18 








] [ 




32128 


88961 


September . 


40327 






. . . 


. 




321 33 


89 134 


October 


403 29 








. 




321.37 


88.781 


Novembei 


40342 












321.43 


88604 


December . . . 


40350 












321.50 


87395 




British India 


Hong Kong 


China 


Japan 


Argentina 


Brazd 


Chile 


Mexico 


Month 


(rupee) 


(dollar) 


(yuan) 


(yen) 


(peiio, export) 


(milreis free) 


(peso, export) 


(peso) 


January 


30 148 


23 048 


5391 


23 439 




60560 


4.0000 


20504 


Februar\ 


30 140 


24 142 


5424 


23 439 




60604 


4.0000 


20524 


March 


30 139 


24421 


5358 


23 439 


23 704 


50599 


4.0000 


20529 


April 30 129 


24393 


5.190 


23 439 


23704 


60600 


40000 


20538 


May 30 129 


24285 


5 255 


23439 


23704 


60600 


40000 


20537 


June 30 129 


24372 


5336 


23439 


23.704 


50598 




20533 


July . 30 128 


24524 


5243 


23439 


23704 


50616 




20542 


August 30 130 


25 110 






23704 


50646 


a 


20638 


September 30 137 


25094 






23704 


50616 




20542 


October . 30 151 


25 088 






23.704 


50803 




20.507 


November . 30 151 


25088 






23704 


5.0896 


t m 


20544 


Dot ember 




.... 




23.704 


6.1331 




20.560 



further. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation 
(q.v. ) undertook m July, 1941, to advance $425,- 
000,000 to the British Government as needed on 
American securities owned by that Government 
having a market value of $205,000,000 at the tune, 
and on direct investments m this country with an 
estimated value of $495,000,000. It was made clear 
that this loan did not preclude sales of British 
holdings from time to time as occasion warranted, 
however. The largest sale of British holdings in the 
United States occurred in March, when about 90 
per cent of the stock of the American Viscose Com- 
pany was distributed publicly at a price to net the 
British Treasury more than $36,000,000. 

Latin American countries were benefited finan- 
cially by increased exports to the United States 
and by the higher prices received for these exports. 
In addition, financial aid was provided Mexico and 
several other nations through currency stabilization 
credits, highway loans, etc. The State Department 
adopted a more passive policy with regard to the 
protection of private American investments in Lat- 
in America, as shown by its agreement with Mex- 
ico for the appointment of appraisers to value the 
property of American oil companies expropriated 
in that country. Previously, the State Department 
had been insisting upon 'prompt and adequate" 
compensation tor these properties, originally seized 
by Mexico in March, 1938. American capital was 



See EXPORT-IMPORT BANK; FINANCIAL REVIEW; 
PUBLIC FINANCE. 

JULES I. BOGEN. 

BAPTISTS. A religious group, probably evolved from 
the Anabaptist movement of the 16th century, 
which adopted the principle that immersion is es- 
sential to valid baptism. The first Baptist churches 
were established in Amsterdam in 1608, in London 
in 1611, and in America, probably at Providence, 
R.I., in 1639. There are 21 denominations in the 
United States which use the name Baptist, the larg- 
est of which are treated below. 

Northern Baptist Convention. This body of the Bap- 
tist denomination, according to the Year Book of 
the Northern Baptist Convention, was composed in 
1941 of 36 conventions in 33 States, the District of 
Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The thirty-fourth an- 
nual meeting of the Northern Baptist Convention 
was held in Wichita, Kan., May 20-25, 1941. Its 
general theme was "The Sufficient Christ for a 
Suffering World." The officers elected for 1941-42 
were: President, the Rev. William A. Elliott, D.D., 
Ottawa, Kans.; First Vice-President, Gov. H. E. 
Stassen, St. Paul, Minn.; Second Vice-President, 
Mrs. Frank C. Wigginton, Carnegie, Pa.; Corre- 
sponding Secretary, the Rev. Joseph C. Hagen, 
D.D., Summit, N.J.; Recording Secretary, the Rev. 
Clarence M. Gallup, D.D., New York, N.Y.; and 



BAPTISTS 



56 



BARBADOS 



Treasurer, Harold J. Manson, Brooklyn, N.Y. The 
leading denominational papers were: Baptist Ob- 
server (Indianapolis); Baptist Record (Fella, la.); 
Missions (New York); Watchman-Examiner (New 
York); and U.S. Baptist (Washington, D.C.). 

The foreign mission field of the Northern Baptist 
Convention included Assam, Burma, South India, 
Bengal-Onssa, South China, East China, West Chi- 
na, Japan, Belgian Congo, and the Philippine Is- 
lands. The work of the Convention covers domestic, 
city, and foreign missions; higher education, social 
service, Sunday schools, and pensions for clergy. 

The total membership of the Northern Baptist 
Convention for 1940-41 was 1,561,289, distributed 
among 7,503 churches, mostly above the Mason and 
Dixon Line. The total amount of funds received 
and expended by the churches and their agencies, 
as of Apr. 30, 1941, was $15,513,609 for church 
operating expenses and $3,422,227 for missions, 
education, and philanthropy. 

Headquarters of the General Council, the execu- 
tive body to which is entrusted the work of the 
Convention between annual meetings, are at 152 
Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. The next annual 
meeting of the Convention will be held in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, May 26-31, 1942. 

Southern Baptist Convention. This body of the Bap- 
tist denomination was formed in 1845, when South- 
ern Baptists withdrew from the national organiza- 
tion on account of the slavery issue and also for the 
better administration of the work of the Conven- 
tion. Since that tune it has functioned, not as a 
new denomination, but as a separate organization 
for the purpose of directing missionary, educational, 
and general denominational work in the white 
Baptist churches of the Southern and Southwestern 
States. According to the official Handbook for 1941 
the Southern Baptist Convention comprised 18 
State conventions. 

The annual session of the Southern Baptist Con- 
vention was held in Birmingham, Ala., May 1418, 
1941. The various boards and agencies of the Con- 
vention showed decided gains in receipts for the 
year. The director of the Work of Promotion in the 
Executive Committee^ Dr. J. E. Dillard. led an "Ev- 
ery Member Canvass" during the week of Novem- 
ber 23 to December 6, 1941, with the objective of 
securing weekly subscriptions totaling $45,000,000. 

The officers elected for 1941, 1942 were: The 
Rev. W. W. Hamilton, D.D., LL.D., of New Or- 
leans, La., President; Rev. Edward Davis Solomon, 
D.D., of Florida and Rev. Charles Alfred Jones of 
South Carolina, Vice-Presidents; the Rev. Hight C. 
Moore, D.D., Litt.D., of Nashville, Tenn., and 
Mr. J. Henry Burnett of Macon, Ga., Recording 
Secretaries; and the Rev. Austin Crouch, D.D., of 
Nashville, Tenn., Executive Secretary, and the Rev. 
J. E. Dillard, D.D., of Nashville, Tenn., Secretary 
of Promotion. Headquarters are at 161 Eighth Ave- 
nue, North, Nashville, Tenn. 

The statistics for 1941 were as follows: 



Churches (congregations) . . . 

Ordained ministers 

Church members 

Sunday Schools 

Enrolled in Sunday Schools 

Enrolled in Baptist Training Unions 

Enrolled in Missionary Unions 

Value of church property 

Gifts to local work of churches 

Gifts to missions & benevolences 

Total contributions 

Schools and colleges fostered 

Students enrolled regular session 

School property 

Endowment funds 

Property of 18 Children's Homes 

Property of 20 hospitals 



25,259 

23,040 

5,104,327 

24,222 

3,590,374 

919,689 

758,151 

$221,974,479 

$33,571,412 

$6,787,626 

$40,359,038 

65 

26,684 

$46,279,717 

$29,630,845 

$6,808,361 

$14,279,730 



National Baptist Convention of America. With 32 
States out of the 48 in the United States repre- 
sented, the National Baptist Convention of America 
held its Sixty-First Annual Session with the Baptist 
churches of Shreveport, La., Sept. 10-14, 1941. 
The Theme of the Convention was "The Christians' 
Defense In A Changing World." Meeting jointly 
with the parent body was the Women's Auxiliary 
and the Laymen's League. 

Emphasis was once more put upon Christian edu- 
cation as conducted in denominational schools un- 
der the auspices of the various State conventions 
who are a part of the National Baptist Convention 
of America. The four schools supported by the 
Convention are Lynchburg Theological Seminary 
and College at Lynchburg, Va.; Guadalupe College 
at Seguin, Tex.; Georgia Baptist College at Macon, 
Ga.; and the Florida Normal and Industrial College 
at St. Augustine, Fla. These schools were given in- 
creased financial support. Funds were raised for 
the membership of this Convention in the Baptist 
World's Alliance. The Convention also authorized 
a contribution of its quota of membership in the 
Committee on Army and Navy Chaplains, head- 
quartered in the Woodward Building in Washing- 
ton, D.C. The Evangelical Board and the Statisti- 
cian of the National Baptist Convention of America, 
in their reports, showed an increase in membership 
of more than 56,000, which, according to the Stat- 
istician, brings the numerical strength to past the 
2,007,000 mark. A committee of five was named to 
submit plans for the erecting of the buildings on the 
160 acres of land donated to the Convention in 
Dexter, N.M., to be used as an orphanage, for a 
home for aged ministers, and a home for widows. 
Resolutions were adopted culling upon industry and 
the Federal Government to discontinue discrimina- 
tion against the Negro in all lines of work and 
endeavor and urged that the Negro be given con- 
sideration and an opportunity in the various 
branches of Army, Navy, and in the Air Corps. 

The Convention voted to accept the invitation of 
Boston, Mass., and adjourned to meet in that city 
Sept. 9-13, 1942. Rev. G. L. Prince, D.D., was 
elected President, Rev. C. P. Madison, D.D., Secre- 
tary, and Rev. A. A. Lucas, Treasurer. Denomina- 
tional headquarters are at 523 Second Avenue, 
North, Nashville, Tennessee. 

BARBADOS. An insular colony of the British West 
Indies. Area, 166 square miles; population (Jan. 1, 
1940), 195,548. Vital statistics (1939): 5,497 births 
and 3,381 deaths. Education (1939): 138 schools 
of all kinds and 23,063 pupils (average attendance). 

Production and Trad*. Chief products sugar ( 97,- 
315 tons in 1940), cotton, rum, and molasses. The 
British government agreed to purchase all export- 
able sugar during 1940. Four rum distilleries and 
108 sugar works were in operation on the island. 
Natural gas deposits have been found. The fishing 
industry employs about 300 boats and 1,600 peo- 
ple during the flying-fish season. Trade (1939): 
2,445,753 for imports and 2,028,991 for ex- 
ports (sugar 1,278,295, molasses 575.358). 
Shipping (1939) : 2,871,577 tons entered and cleared 
the port of Bridgetown. Air services are operated 
by Royal Dutch Air Lines ( Barbados-Trinidad-Cu- 
racao) and British West Indies Airways (Barbados- 
Tobago-Trinidad). Roads (1940): 538 miles. 

Govtrnment. Finance: (1940-41 estimates) rev- 
enue 573,597, expenditure 653,967; (1939-40 
actual) revenue 611,831, expenditure 627,- 
773. Public debt (Mar. 31, 1940), 449,170. The 
executive branch of the government is headed by a 
governor, aided by an executive council of 9 mem- 



BARBUDA 



57 



BASKETBALL 



members. There is a house of assembly of 24 mem- 
bers elected every 2 years by the people. Governor 
and Commander-in-Chief, Sir Henry Grattan Bushe 
(appointed July 1, 1941; assumed office Oct. 23, 
1941). 

BARBUDA. See LEEWARD ISLANDS. 

BARLEY. The barley crop of the United States in 
1941 was estimated by the U.S. Department of Ag- 
riculture at 358,709,000 bu., nearly 16 per cent 
more than the 310,108,000 bu. grown in 1940 and 
about 59 per cent above the 1930-39 average and 
was harvested from 14,049,000 acres versus 13,496,- 
000 acres in 1940. Increased acreages and better 
than average yields resulted in large production, 
which surpassed the previous record of 320,351,000 
bu. in 1928. In 1941, the acre yield averaged 25.5 
bu. and in 1940, 23 bu. The 1941 production of 
leading barley States was for Nebraska 48,832,000 
bu., Minnesota 44,604,000 bu., North Dakota 43,- 
675,000, South Dakota 38,610,000, Kansas 26,120,- 
000, and California 25,529,000 bu. The seasonal 
average price per bu. (preliminary) received by 
farmers was 49.4tf and the estimated value of pro- 
duction was $177,070,000 in 1941 compared to 
39.7tf and $122,974,000 in 1940. See Crop Produc- 
tion Table under AGRICULTURE. 

BASEBALL. Brooklyn was baseball in 1941. Never in 
the history of the pastime had a team taken such a 
strangle-hold on the national fancy as the Brooklyn 
Dodgers, managed by loud Leo Durocher, with 
louder Larry McPhail as president, and sparked by 
such players as Whitlow Wyatt, Joe Medwick, 
Dolph Camilh, Peewee Reese, Dixie Walker, Pete 
Reiser, Freddy Fitzsimmons, Hugh Casey, and Kir- 
by Higbe. The nation watched with apathy as the 
New York Yankees, dethroned in 1940, romped 
home to the pennant early in September, out 
watched enthralled as the Dodgers tangled with 
the St Louis Cardinals right down to the closing 
days of the race. The Yankees trampled on the 
Dodgers in the World Series, winning four games 
to one, but the fact that Brooklyn had won a pen- 
nant after twenty-one years of futility was the event 
of the year and the excellence of the Yankees was 
lost on the people. 

Brooklyn started as co-favorite with the Cincin- 
nati Reds, winners in 1939 and 1940, and world's 
champions in 1940, with St. Louis third choice. 
But the champions never hit the ball and Paul Der- 
ringer and Bucky Walters, their ace pitchers, had 
a dull year. Brooklyn's veterans, added to during 
mid-season by Billy Herman, great second baseman 
from Chicago, were always in the fight, and so 
were the youthful Cardinals. Brooklyn's experience 
finally won out, but had nothing left when it faced 
the Yankees in the World Series. 

The Dodgers were tired and the Yankees had 
rested on their laurels for almost a month, and the 
Yanks won the first game, lost the second, won the 
third, and the fourth on a remarkable play, and 
then the fifth. The fourth game is historic, because 
the Yankees went into the ninth inning at Ebbets 
Field trailing 2 to 4, and won out 6 to 4, when 
Mickey Owen, Dodger catcher, dropped a third 
strike, which would have meant the third out, and 
let Tommy Henrich reach first base. Then Di Mag- 
gio and Keller and Dickey and the other Yankees 
pounded Hugh Casey and won the game, as the 
reason of Dodger rooters tottered. Owen was made 
the "goat" of the series, for if he had caught the 
ball the game would have been over and the Dodg- 
ers would have been even with the Yankees, two 
games each. 



The Yankees, who bowed to the Detroit Tigers 
in 1940, started the campaign slowly and it wasn't 
until mid- June that they started to move. At that 
time they were seven games back of the highly 
favored Cleveland Indians, who were under the 
management of Roger Peckinpaugh and led by 
Bobby Feller, the world's best pitcher. Then Toe 
Di Maggio started to hit and he liit safely in fifty- 
six straight games, far exceeding the modern record 
of forty-one, set by George Sisler in 1922, and the 
ancient record of forty-four made by legendary 
Willie Keeler in 1897. While Di Maggio hit safely 
game after game, he received even more notice than 
the Dodgers, and when he was ultimately stifled 
in a night game in Cleveland, the Yankees were far 
in front and were never headed, as the entire squad 
took the hint from the great center fielder. 

Because of this remarkable successive hitting 
streak and his magnificent fielding through the sea- 
son, Di Maggio was voted the most valuable player 
in the American League at the end of the campaign, 
although there were many votes for Ted Williams 
of the Boston Red Sox, who hit an incredible .406 
for the 1941 season This was the first tune since 
Bill Terry batted .401 in 1930 that a major leaguer 
has bettered .400, and the first time in the Ameri- 
can League since 1923 when Harry Heilmann of 
Detroit batted .403. Camilh won the most valu- 
able award in the National League for his fine field- 
ing at first base for the Dodgers and his timely hit- 
ting in the clutches Wyatt and Higbe, only twenty- 
game winners in the league, were close up in the 
balloting. Pete Reiser, rookie center fielder, won 
the National League batting crown with .343. 

Bobby Feller, who was called to service in the 
Navy late m the year, won twenty-five games for 
the disappointing Indians, and Thornton Lee, of the 
Chicago White Sox, equalled the twenty-two vic- 
tories chalked up by Wyatt and Higbe for the 
Dodgers. There were two important managerial 
changes after the World Series, when Bill Terry 
of the New York Giants was sent to a front office 
job and Mel Ott, the right fielder, signed as man- 
ager. And the Indians dismissed Peckinpaugh to 
the anonymity of a front office post and elevated 
twenty-four year old Lou Boudreau, crack infielder, 
to the badgered position as manager. 

In the minor leagues, Columbus took the Ameri- 
can Association pennant and beat out the Montreal 
club, International League winner, in the playoffs. 
Newark's Bears had won the International League 
regular race, but had been beaten by Montreal in 
the Governors Cup competition Seattle won the 
Pacific Coast League play, and the Dixie Series fell 
to Nashville, Southern Association winner Dallas 
won in the Texas League, while Wilkes-Barre won 
the Eastern League pennant The Acipco team of 
Birmingham, Ala., won the National Amateur Fed- 
eration title. 

At the year's end league magnates were con- 
cerned over the future of the game, with many 
players being taken into the Army and the Navy, 
ana the minor leagues in particular worried over 
their very existence. A majority of major leaguers 
were married, and thus further from being called to 
service. See RADIO PROGRAMS 

CASWELL ADAMS. 

BASKETBALL. This court snort continued its merry 
way in 1941, breaking all records in the matter of 
attracting customers, and setting up two new cham- 
pions the teams of Long Island University and 
the University of Wisconsin. 

L.I.U. concluded its brilliant campaign by com- 
ing from behind to whip Ohio University in the 



BASUTOLAND 



58 



BELGIAN CONGO 



final of the national invitation tournament at Madi- 
son Square Garden in New York City before a rec- 
ord crowd of 18,377 citizens. This tournament, in 
which Ohio U.'s Frank Baumholtz was voted out- 
standing player, attracted 70,826 persons and the 
regular Garden card drew 247,023 fanatics through 
the winter. 

Wisconsin, having taken the Big Ten champion- 
ship after finishing next to last the year previous, 
went on to beat Washington State, Pacific Coast 
champion, in the N.C.A.A. final at Kansas City, 
succeeding Indiana to the bauble. This N.C.A.A. 
toumey was best in history in point of crowds and 
gate receipts, drawing 45,000 and $32,000 in five 
nights of play. 

Other achievements of note were Dartmouth's 
fourth consecutive championship in the Eastern 
League; Duke's ascension to the Southern Confer- 
ence tournament throne after eliminating North 
Carolina, the team with the best season record, in 
the first round; Tennessee's conquest of Kentucky 
in the Southeastern Conference playoff; the un- 
beaten surge of Arkansas in the Southwestern Con- 
ference; and Wyoming's dethroning of Colorado 
University in the Rocky Mountain Conference. The 
National A.A.U. title went to the Hollywood Twen- 
tieth Century quintet, while the Ohrbach A.A. won 
the Metropolitan honors for the third successive 
year. The Little Rock Flyers won women's honors, 
and among professional teams the Detroit Eagles 
were considered best. 

BASUTOLAND. See BRITISH EMPIRE. 
BAUXITE. See ALUMINUM; CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL 
under Metals. 

BAVARIA. See GERMANY under Area and Popula- 
tion. 

BECHUANALAND. See BRITISH EMPIRE. 
BEE CULTURE. See ENTOMOLOGY, ECONOMIC. 
BEETLES. See ENTOMOLOGY, ECONOMIC. 
BEETS. See SUGAR. 

BELGIAN CONGO. A Belgian colony in central Africa. 
Area, 902,082 square miles; population (Jan. 1, 
1940), 10,328,400 natives (mainly of Bantu and 
Sudanese origin) and 27,791 whites (19,608 Bel- 
gians). Chief towns: Lopoldville (capital), Matadi, 
Elisabethville, Jadotville, Stanleyville, Coquilhat- 
ville, and Boma. Kiswahili is the language of the 
natives but Bengala and Kigwana are used com- 
mercially on the Upper Congo, and Kikongo is in 
use near the coast. Fetishism is the dominant reli- 
gion of the natives but Christian mission work was 
being carried on. On Jan. 1, 1940, there were 518 
mission centers and 3,831 missionaries (3,068 Cath- 
olic and 763 Protestant). Education (1940): 5,187 
schools and 252,804 students. 

Production and Trade. The chief agricultural prod- 
ucts (with 1939 production, in metric tons) were 
palm oil (89,847), palm nuts (86,691), cotton (42,- 
037), coffee (23,000 for 1939-40), copal (12,715), 
cacao, rubber, sugar, cottonseed (89,000, 1939-40), 
groundnuts, maize, bananas, fiber, timber, rice, and 
tobacco. Ivory produced in 1939 amounted to 64 
tons. Mineral production included copper ( 122,649 
met. tons, 1939), diamonds (10,900,000 met. car- 
ats, 1940), gold (494,642 fine oz., 1939), silver 
(2,085,000 fine oz., 1939), tin (7,600 long tons, 
1940), cobalt, uranium, radium, and iron. Cattle 
raising is profitable in the districts free from tsetse 
flies. Trade (1940 estimated): U.S. $40,000,000 
for imports and U.S. $60,000,000 for exports. In 
1940, imports from the U.S.A. were valued at 
$3,961,987 ($2,481,584 in 1939); exports to the 
U.S.A., $24,809,021 ($1,582,073). 



Communication*. The river Congo and its tribu- 
taries form an important means of transportation to 
the interior. On Jan. 1, 1940, there were 47,641 
miles of roadways, 3,106 miles of railway, 4,209 
miles of telegraph line, 29 wireless stations, 4,000 
miles of telephone line, and 1,381 river steamers 
and barges aggregating 219,490 tons. The interior 
airplane services extend over 4,757 route miles. 
L6opoldville is a terminus of Pan American Air- 
ways' commercial transport service (inaugurated 
during 1941 ) from New York and Baltimore, in the 
United States, to Africa by way of the northern 
coast of South America, a distance of 9,000 miles. 

Government. Finance (1940 estimates): revenue 
747,208,000 francs; expenditure 779,825,500 francs. 
The public debt on Dec. 31, 1939, totaled 5,841,- 
941,679 francs. The administration is under the 
control of the Belgian minister for the colonies, 
aided by a colonial council of which he is the presi- 
dent. The Belgian government in exile at London 
is represented in the colony by a governor general 
( aided by a vice governor general, state inspectors, 
and six provincial commissioners ). Governor Gen- 
eral, Pierre Ryckmans (appointed September, 
1934). 

Ruanda-Urundi, Territory of. Two districts man- 
dated to Belgium by the League of Nations. Area, 
20,152 square miles; population (Jan. 1, 1940), 
3,775,335, all natives except for 1,404 Europeans. 
Education (Jan. 1, 1940): 3,215 schools and 230,- 
474 pupils. Capital, Usumbura. Cattle raising is an 
important industry. The chief products are maize, 
cotton, potatoes, groundnuts, tin, and gold. Trade 
(1939): 55,040,979 francs for imports and 83,- 
854,738 francs for exports. Finance (1940 esti- 
mates): 51,052,500 francs for revenue and 49,- 
514,600 francs for expenditure (Congolese franc 
equaled $00226). Public debt (Dec. 31, 1939): 
135,000,000 francs. The territory was united (Aug. 
21, 1925), for administrative purposes, with the 
Belgian Congo and placed under the direction of a 
vice-governor. 

History. Remaining loyal to the Belgian Govern- 
ment-in-Exile in London, the Belgian Congo dur- 
ing 1941 played an increasing part in the mobiliza- 
tion of African manpower and resources for the 
struggle with the Axis. Some 30,000 native troops 
under Belgian officers assisted the successful British 
drive into Ethiopia during the first half of the year 
( see WORLD WAR ) . At the end of the campaign, in 
which they lost 500 officers and men, the troops re- 
turned to the Belgian Congo. A force of 100,000 
men was then trained to meet a prospective Ger- 
man drive into Africa. Modern arms and equipment 
for this army were sought in the United States. In 
October a U.S. military mission arrived in Leopold- 
ville. The Capetown Clipper of Pan American Air- 
ways completed its first round trip between New 
York City and Lopoldville. Belgian Congo, on 
Dec. 17, 1941. The total mileage for the journey, 
which started at New York City on Dec. 6, 1941, 
was 18,290. 

The Belgian and British Governments on Janu- 
ary 21 signed important economic and financial 
agreements covering the Belgian Congo. The finan- 
cial accord pegged the Congolese franc at about 
176.625 francs to 1^ sterling, and provided for the 
transfer of the Congo's gold production and foreign 
exchange to the Bank of England for payment in 
sterling, etc. Under the economic accord, the Brit- 
ish Government undertook to purchase the follow- 
ing minimum quantities of Belgian Congo exports 
during the period Sept. 1, 1940, to Aug. 31, 1941: 
Copper, 126,000 metric tons; cotton, 20,000 long 
tons; copal, 7,000 long tons; peanuts, 2,500 long 



BELGIAN LITERATURE 

tons; palm kernels, 15,000 long tons; palm oil, all 
supplies available for export of a certain standard. 
The Belgian Congo was to maintain existing import 
and export controls, the latter through a Ecensing 
system for blockade purposes. 
See CUSTOMS, BUREAU OF. 



BELGIAN LITERATURE. See DUTCH AND BELGIAN LIT- 
ERATURE. 

BELGIUM. A kingdom of Western Europe, occupied 
by German military forces in May, 1940. Capital, 
Brussels. King, Leopold III, who was crowned Feb. 
23, 1934. 

Area and Population. The districts of Eupen, Mai- 
med y, and Moresnet, ceded to Belgium under the 
Versailles Treaty, were reannexed to Germany on 
May 19, 1940, leaving Belgium with an area of 
11,393 square miles and a census population of 
8,294,674 on Dec. 31, 1940 (8,386,553, estimated, 
on Dec. 31, 1938). The people are of two distinct 
races, the Flemings, of Germanic stock, and the 
Walloons, of Latin origin. Estimated populations 
of the chief cities on Dec. 31, 1938: Brussels and 
suburbs, 912,774; Antwerp, 273,317, Ghent, 162,- 
858; Liege, 162,229 Births in 1940 numbered 110,- 
323 (124,421 in 1939), deaths, 125,083 (109,365 
in 1939). 

Education and Religion. Primary, infant, and adult 
elementary schools on Dec. 31, 1938, numbered 
13,438 with 1,222,164 pupils There were 273 sec- 
ondary schools of all kinds with 86,279 students, 
and four universities ( at Brussels, Louvain, Ghent, 
and Liege) with 10,775 students The majority of 
Belgians professing a religious faith are Roman 
Catholics. The official languages are French and 
Flemish. 

Production. Manufacturing, mining, intensive ag- 
riculture, and commerce have enabled Belgium to 
support one of the densest populations of Europe 
(712 per square mile in 1938). Estimated produc- 
tion of the chief crops in 1939 was (in metric 
tons): Wheat, 349,000; barley, 51,100; rye, 349,- 
400; oats, 724,200; potatoes, 3,323,200; beet sugar, 
240,500 (1939-40); tobacco, 5,300; linseed, 25,- 
100; flax, 46,700. Livestock as of Jan. 1, 1939: 
1,689,680 cattle, 264,650 horses, 960,372 swine. 
Mineral and metallurgical production in 1940, with 
1939 figures in parentheses, was (in metric tons): 
Coal, 25,596,000 (29,846,900); pig iron and ferro- 
alloys, 1,788,000 (3,068,200); steel ingots and 
castings, 1,896,000 estimated (3,111,000). Out- 
put of briquets in 1939 was 1,525,190 metric tons; 
coke, 5,176,650; wrought steel, except semi-finished, 
2,202,420. Among Belgium's principal manufac- 
turing industries are glass, paper, cardboard, ce- 
ment, cotton yarn, rayon, metal products, alcoholic 
beverages, furniture, etc. As a result of the German 
occupation and the cutting off of overseas trade, 
Belgium's productive system was extensively mod- 
ified. 

Foreign Trade. In 1939 imports of the Belgian- 
Luxemburg customs union totaled 19,690,000,000 
Belgian paper francs; exports, 21,670,000,000. 
(One Belgian paper franc was equivalent to 
$0.0337 in 1939. ) Following the German conquest, 
trade was restricted to continental European coun- 
tries, particularly those under German control. In 
the spring of 1941 Belgian clearing agreements 
were in effect as follows (dates of agreements in 

Earentheses ) : Germany (July 10, 1940), Ncther- 
mds (Aug. 2, 1940), Italy and Albania (Sept. 24, 
1940), Bohemia-Moravia (Oct. 1, 1940), Switzer- 
land (Oct. 7, 1940), Sweden (Oct. 14, 1940), 
Yugoslavia (Nov. 13, 1940), Bulgaria (Dec. 9, 



59 BELGIUM 



1940), Norway (Dec. 30, 1940), Hungary (Jan. 6, 
1941), Denmark (Jan. 29, 1941), Government- 
General of Poland (Jan. 29, 1941), France (Feb. 4, 
1941), and Rumania (Mar. 8, 1941). All these 
agreements provided for the clearing of trade pay- 
ments through accounts, kept in reichsmarks, at 
the respective central banks and the German Clear- 
ing Office in Berlin. The various currencies were 
converted at the official rates of exchange in Ber- 
lin. Also see History. 

Finance. The 1940 budget estimates anticipated 
total receipts of 12,350,000,000 francs and expend- 
itures of 20,000,000,000, including 8,000,000,000 
francs for defense. Following the German conquest, 
new taxes were imposed and new loans issued to 
offset dwindling income and the heavy cost of the 
German army of occupation (estimated at about 
$302,000,000 annually). The public debt rose 
from 59,318,300,000 francs (domestic, 40,317,- 
600,000; foreign, 19,000,700,000) on Dec. 31, 
1939, to 74,393,000,000 francs on Dec. 31, 1940. 
During 1940 the internal short-term debt increased 
11,296,000,000 francs and the internal funded debt 
882,000,000 francs. The unit of currency for for- 
eign exchange transactions was the belga, equal to 
five francs. After the German occupation the offi- 
cial exchange rate of the belga was fixed at 1 
belga equals 0.40 reichsmarks (in U.S. currency, 
$0.16). 

Transportation. Previous to the German invasion, 
Belgium had 7,068 miles of railway line, 20,244 
miles of highways, an extensive network of rivers 
arid canals which earned about one-fourth of the 
total merchandise traffic, 8,313 miles of air routes 
in Europe and Africa (August, 1939), and a mer- 
chant fleet of 88 ships totaling 353,997 gross tons. 
In 1939, 9,524 vessels of 19,389,516 tons entered 
the port of Antwerp. 

During the 18-day German blitzkrieg of May 10- 
28, 1940, all communications were Disorganized, 
some 6,000 miles of highway and virtually the en- 
tire railway network were disrupted, and more than 
100 railway stations and 1,425 bridges and tunnels 
were destroyed. It was indicated that much of this 
damage had been repaired by 1941. However the 
transportation system continued to suffer from Brit- 
ish air attacks on communication centers. 

Government. The Constitution of 1831, as 
amended in 1921, vested executive power in the 
King, acting through a Ministry responsible to 
Parliament. See YEAR BOOK for 1940, p. 63, for 
the governmental system existing at the time of 
the German invasion. When the Belgian army ca- 
pitulated at the order of King Leopold III on May 
27, 1940, the Belgian Government in Paris repudi- 
ated the King's action and assumed the right, 
granted by the Constitution, to exercise the King's 
powers while he remained a prisoner of war. The 
Belgian Government-in-Exile was transferred to 
London from Vichy, France, in October, 1940, 
after 10 of the 14 Ministers had resigned. 

The composition of the Government at the be- 
ginning of 1941, was: Premier, Hubert Pierlot 
(Catholic); Foreign Affairs, Paul Spaak (Social- 
ist); Finance and National Defense, Camille Gutt 
(non-party); Colonies and Justice, Albert de Vlee- 
schouwer (Catholic). On May 20, 1940, Gen. 
Baron Alexander von Falkenhausen was named 
German military administrator of Belgium and the 
Netherlands. German military governors replaced 
the Belgian provincial governors, but the central 
administrative functions in Brussels were retained 
by the permanent chiefs of the Belgian governmen- 
tal departments. For developments in 1941, see 
History. 



BFIG/UM 

HISTORY 

Uopold Refects New Order. The German military 
occupation of Belgium continued through 1941, 
intensifying the economic sufferings and political 
difficulties that followed the invasion of May, 1940 
(see YEAR BOOK for 1940, p. 66-67). King Leo- 
pold III remained a prisoner of war in his castle 
at Laeken near Brussels. He was reported to have 
rejected repeated German offers to restore him to 
power if he would rule under German direction. 
Appeals by the former Socialist Cabinet Minister, 
Henri de Man, the pro-Nazi Rexist leader, L6on 
Degrelle, and others favoring collaboration with 
Benin failed to budge the King. 

There were unconfirmed reports that Leopold 
visited Hitler at Berchtesgaden early in the year 
to appeal for food for starving Belgians and for 
the release of Belgian war prisoners, also that he 
attempted to escape to England during the sum- 
mer. At any rate the Kings stubborn refusal to 
accept Hitler's New Order heartened the Belgian 
people in their struggle for independence and was 
reported to have caused a steady decline in the 
influence of the pro-German "collaborationists." 
The charges of treason, defeatism and fascism lev- 
eled against Leopold following his surrender to 
the Germans in 1940 were emphatically repudi- 
ated. Consult Emile Cammaerts, The Prisoner at 
Laeken (London, 1941). The German radio on 
December 6 announced that Leopold had married 
Mile. Mary Lelia Baels, daughter of a former Bel- 
gian Cabinet Minister, on September 11. Leopold's 
first wife, Queen Astnd, was killed in an automo- 
bile accident in 1935. 

Government-in-Exile. Meanwhile the Belgian Gov- 
ernment-in-Exile at London on June 12, 1941, 
joined the other Allied Governments in a formal 
pledge to "continue the struggle against German 
or Italian aggression until victory has been won" 
and "mutually assist each other ... to the utmost 
of their respective capacities." It also endorsed the 
inter- Allied resolutions of September 24 (see 
GREAT BRITAIN under History). 

In December, 1940, all Belgian subjects between 
19 and 38 years of age residing in tree countries 
were called to the colors. Those responding were 
trained during 1941 in Canada, Great Britain, and 
the Belgian Congo. The Belgian Congo ( q.v. ) sent 
a military force to aid the British Imperial forces 
in the conquest of Italian East Africa and placed 
its great economic resources at the disposal of the 
Allied cause. In September the Belgian Informa- 
tion Bureau in New York reported that the free 
Belgian forces comprised an army of 100,000 in 
the Congo, another army in Britain, and nearly 
200 pilots in the R.A.F. The Belgian merchant ma- 
rine, reduced 40 per cent by enemy action, was 
helping to keep Britain supplied. 

In April the Minister of War and Finance, Ca- 
mille Gutt, went to the United States in connection 
with a suit brought by the Government-in-Exile 
against Vichy Government of France to recover 
$260,000,000 in gold sent to Paris for safe keeping 
at the time of the German invasion. The gold was 
subsequently taken to Dakar, French West Africa, 
and then turned over by the French to the Ger- 
mans. The new Minister of Colonies, M. C. Camus, 
was killed during an air raid on London in May. 
On August 7 Foreign Minister Paul-Henri Spaak 
of Belgium reached an agreement with the Soviet 
Ambassador in London for the resumption of diplo- 
matic relations, which had been severed by the 
Soviet Government earlier in the year. 

On September 11 the Government-in-Exile is- 
sued an official account of Belgium's involvement 



60 BELGIUM 

and part in the war. The document revealed that 
German plans to attack Belgium and seize its air 
fields first became known on Jan. 10, 1940, through 
papers seized from two German staff officers whose 
plane crashed on Belgian soil. The Belgian Gov- 
ernment, it was stated, informed the British, 
French, and Dutch authorities, but refused all 
suggestions that it compromise its neutrality by 
permitting British and French troops to occupy 
defense positions on Belgian soil. The Belgian 
leaders took the view that "preventive interven- 
tion by France and Britain was just what the Ger- 
mans secretly were hoping for. ' 

According to German-censored figures published 
in Brussels August 28, Belgian losses during the 
18-day battle accompanying the German conquest 
in May, 1940, numbered 10,000 civilians and 7,500 
soldiers killed; 18,583 soldiers were wounded and 
about 200,000 taken prisoner. Of the latter, 70,000 
were said to be still in confinement. The report 
declared most of the 1,500,000 Belgian citizens 
who took refuge in France in May, 1940, had been 
repatriated. Another 25,000 remained in Great 
Britain and about 5,000 in French Morocco, Portu- 
gal, and the United States. 

German Rule in Belgium. Unable to win the Bel- 
gian people over to collaboration with the Reich, 
the German administration resorted to increasingly 
harsh measures to curb their growing hostility, pas- 
sive resistance, and active sabotage. Early in the 
year the Belgian provincial and municipal coun- 
cils, described as "the last stronghold of the old 
Sohtician spirit," were dissolved A companion 
ecree of March 7 provided for the removal of all 
burgomasters, aldermen, and officials over 60 years 
of age, effective June 30 This measure, according 
to the pro-Nazi Journal de Charleroi, "immobilized 
those men who are the strongest enemies of the 
New Order." Having dissolved all non-Nazi po- 
litical parties, the Germans in June forced the 
pro-Nazi groups to merge in two official parlies, 
the Rex for the Walloon districts and the so-called 
"Verdmasos" for Flanders. 

Bruise/* Mayor Arresfed. When Dr. G. J Vande- 
meulebroeck, Burgomaster of Brussels, refused to 
resign under the 60-year-age-limit decree, and 
posted a proclamation attacking the illegality of 
the German administration, he was arrested along 
with the Brussels police commissioner and the pro- 
prietor of the printing office that published the 
manifesto. The City of Brussels also was punished 
by a fine of 5,000,000 Belgian francs (about $200,- 
000), levied on the individual citizens. A pro-Nazi 
Flemist nationalist, Dr. H. Elias, was appointed 
in Dr. Vandemeulebroeck's place. The same pro- 
cedure was followed in many other cities. A Ger- 
man-appointed Minister of Interior was given 
broad powers of appointment and dismissal over 
the municipal schools, the police, the gendarmerie, 
aldermen, mayors, county commissioners, and gov- 
ernors of the provinces. 

Economic Hardships. The economic consequences 
of the German occupation were equally galling to 
the Belgians. Throughout the year the average ra- 
tion in Belgium was reported to be approximately 
one-third that prevailing in Germany or Great 
Britain. Reports from Belgium and from the Gov- 
ernment-in-Exile in London all indicated serious 
effects upon the national health from persistent 
under-nourishment. Despite these starvation ra- 
tions, Belgium was obliged to provide the occupy- 
ing German army with rations equal to those in 
Germany, and in addition to pav costs of occupa- 
tion. The shipment to the Reich of the country's 
raw materials and other stores, reduced industrial 



BELGIUM 



61 



BERMUDA 



operations to one-third the normal level. The food 
shortage and general unemployment enabled the 
Germans to obtain thousands of Belgian workers 
for German war industries. Many of those sent to 
the Ruhr and other industrial districts of Western 
and Northern Germany were killed or injured by 
British air raids. At the same time several hun- 
dreds of thousands of Germans and many commer- 
cial firms from the Rhineland were reported to 
have taken refuge in Belgium from the R.A.F. 
bombings. 

Belgian Resistance. The systematic exploitation of 
all sources of wealth and materials by the Germans 
( see also FOREIGN TRADE above ) was accompanied 
by further drastic measures against the Jews and 
all other anti-Nazi groups. The United Press re- 
ported from Brussels on January 20 that more than 
40,000 Jews had been rounded up in Antwerp and 
Flanders, and that many of them were sent to con- 
centration camps. All Masonic lodges and affiliated 
institutions were dissolved and their properties 
confiscated under a decree of August 26 

These developments contributed to the mounting 
violence of Belgian resistance to the occupation. 
A German soldier was shot to death in Laeken 
Park, Brussels, May 24. Hundreds of male residents 
of the suburb were arrested in reprisal. German 
military courts carried out a growing number of 
executions for espionage and sabotage. On July 21, 
Belgian's independence day, there were numerous 
anti-German demonstrations in Brussels and other 
cities, and Rexists and Flemish separatists were in 
some cases beaten. The Germans rounded up hun- 
dreds of demonstrators. 

Arrests and executions increased during the lat- 
ter part of the year. Several Belgian families were 
doomed for sheltering British fliers who crashed 
on Belgian soil. In Brussels alone, the Germans re- 
ported 12 death sentences for espionage and other 
anti-German activity up to September 19. Twenty- 
five inhabitants of the town of Tournai were seized 
as hostages following the assassination on Septem- 
ber 17 of two German police officers and the Bel- 
gian Rexist leader of that district. The German 
military commander announced September 22 that 
a minimum of five Belgian political prisoners would 
be shot each time a member of the German police 
or army was killed by Belgians unless the killers 
were immediately discovered Decrees of Septem- 
ber 23 imposed the death penalty on any Belgian 
"committing political crimes of violence against 
individuals wno cooperate in loyal fashion with 
the occupation authorities," and provided severe 
prison sentences for those boycotting or threaten- 
ing harm to pro-Nazis or passive collaborators with 
the "new order." 

These measures merely fanned the spirit of re- 
volt. In mid-August Belgian labor conscripts, work- 
ing on a German airdrome near Brussels, seized 
several hundred German rifles, half a dozen ma- 
chine guns, many rounds of ammunition, and 
scores of hand grenades during a daring raid. Forty 
anti-Nazi newspapers were being published se- 
cretly in October, according to Belgian sources. 
Among them was a namesake of La Libre Belgique, 
famous underground patriot publication of the first 
World War. The German authorities on Decem- 
ber 4 dissolved the Belgian National Legion of 
War Veterans and court-martialed 61 of its lead- 
ers for anti-German conspiracy. 

Pursuing their efforts to create hostility between 
Walloons and Flemings, the Germans in July or- 
dered the introduction of Flemish as a language of 
instruction in all faculties of the University of 
Brussels. Later 18 Flemish instructors were ap- 



pointed to the staff, including three known for 
their pro-German activities during the first World 
War. When the university authorities objected to 
the three appointments, the university was forced 
to close early in December and ten of its officials 
were arrested. The Belgian Government in London 
on December 23 reported that sabotage had caused 
the temporary closing of coal mines in the Liege 
district, and that the jails were over-crowded with 
Belgians charged with anti-German activity. 

See GREAT BRITAIN under History; LABOR CON- 
DITIONS under Employment, etc.; LEND-LEASE AD- 
MINISTRATION. 

BENDIX STRIKE. See LABOR CONDITIONS under 

Strikes. 

BENEFACTIONS, BEQUESTS. See PHILANTHROPY. 

BERMUDA. An insular British colony, 677 miles 
southeast of New York. Included in its area are 
some 360 islands, of which 20 are inhabited. Area, 
19.3 square miles, civil population (1939 estimate), 
31,661 (12,172 white and 19,489 colored). Chief 
towns: Hamilton, the capital, 3,259 inhabitants; St. 
George. Vital statistics ( 1939) : 23 02 per 1,000 for 
births and 10.1 per 1,000 for deaths. The islands 
form an important base for the British Navy. During 
1940 sites for air and naval bases were leased to the 
United States ( see below under History ) . 

Production and Trade. Most of the 1,400 acres of 
land under cultivation bear from two to three crops 
a year. The chief products are onions, potatoes, lily 
bulbs, cut flowers, and green \ egetables Arrowroot 
and bananas are grown. A total of 25,521 tour- 
ists visited Bermuda during 1940 Trade (1939): 
1,751,536 for imports and ,115,656 for exports. 
The chief sources of 1940 imports were the United 
States (599,626), Canada (355,729), and Great 
Britain (334,168). Bermuda is linked to New 
York by air service and is a port of call on the New 
York to Lisbon transatlantic air service. Shipping 
(1940): 3,128 vessels aggregating 13,304,639 tons 
entered and cleared the ports of St. George's and 
Hamilton ( the large increase over former years was 
caused by the establishment of a convoy base in 
Bermuda during May of 1940). 

Government. Budget estimates (1941): 419,965 
for revenue and 372,349 for expenditure. Ordi- 
nary revenue and expenditure for 1940 amounted 
to 394,035 and 411,811, respectively. A 200,- 
000 loan without interest was voted to Great Brit- 
ain by the house of assembly. Bermuda has a rep- 
resentative form of government and laws are en- 
acted by a legislature consisting of the governor 
(aided by an executive council of 4 official and 3 
unofficial members), the legislative council (3 offi- 
cial and 6 nominated unofficial members), and an 
elected house of assembly of 36 members. Gover- 
nor, Viscount Knollys ( appointed Aug. 27, 1941 ) . 

History. The development of Bermuda into a ma- 
jor operations base for United States warships, sea- 
planes, and landplanes, with garrison protection, 
made rapid progress during 1941. The base sites 
announced in Washington Nov. 18, 1940 (see YEAR 
BOOK for 1940, p. 71), were modified somewhat. 
On January 22 the governor informed the house of 
assembly that Morgan's and Tucker's Islands in 
Great Sound would be leased to the United States 
as a flying-boat base Subsequently about 74 acres 
of mainland in the King's Point sector across a 
narrow channel from Tucker's Island was obtained 
in exchange for the south shore of St. George's Is- 
land. 

These areas in the Great Sound, or western, end 
of the islands were commissioned as a U.S. naval 



BERMUDA 



62 



BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 



base on March 1. The American flag was raised 
over Tucker's Island and construction work was 
begun with a ceremony attended by Bennudian 
and U.S. officials. The area of the naval base site 
totaled 112.78 acres, including Tucker's and Mor- 
gan's Islands (39.06 acres) and King's Point (73.72 
acres). King's Point was set aside for marine bar- 
racks and equipment, while seaplane facilities were 
installed on the two islands. Facilities for servicing 
cruisers, destroyers, aircraft carriers, and subma- 
rines also were planned. The cost of all these naval 
installations was estimated at $11,250,000. On July 
1, 1941, the U.S. naval air base, called "Kindley 
Field," was formally commissioned. 

Development of the U.S. army base in the Castle 
Harbor sector at the eastern end of the islands pro- 
gressed at the same time. It included 266.24 acres 
on St. David's Island, designed for barracks, hos- 
pital, and general military facilities; 62 acres on 
Long Bird Island, providing airport facilities for 
both landplanes and seaplanes; and 60.24 acres on 
Cooper's, Nonsuch, and other small islands, for 
ammunition storage and other purposes. 

The Anglo-American treaty covering the leasing 
of Bermuda and other bases was signed in London 
on Mar. 27, 1941, after negotiations in which a 
delegation representing the Bermuda government 
participated. The same day a secret session of the 
Bermuda assembly approved "the sacrifices in- 
volved" as a contribution to the Empire war effort. 
In a message to the British colonial secretary in 
London, the assembly recognized "that the terms of 
the agreement may bring grave changes in the eco- 
nomic and political ana social life of this ancient 
and loyal colony." 

Under special provisions of the Bermuda lease 
(see The Department of State Bulletin, Mar. 29, 
1941, for text), the U.S. government: (1) agreed 
not to close the channels from Ferry Point Bridge 
to St. George's Harbor or from St. George's Harbor 
through Stocks Harbor to Tucker's Town without 
providing equally adequate navigation facilities; (2) 
acquired the right to install undersea and other de- 
fense devices in the entrance to Castle Harbor, but 
undertook not to close the channel through Castle 
Roads to the sea; (3) was authorized to build a 
causeway between Tucker's Island and King's Point 
without interfering with vessels navigating the 
channel; (4) obtained permission to fill in areas in 
the vicinity of Morgan s and Tucker's Islands and 
King's Point; (5) agreed not to interrupt highway 
communication between Hamilton Parish and St. 
George's Island, or to provide alternative facilities; 
(6) agreed not to use motor vehicles outside the 
leased areas without the permission of the Bermuda 
government, except in time of war or "other emer- 
gency." The house of assembly on April 30, passed 
a law authorizing the use of automobiles for work 
on the bases until the end of 1942, under condi- 
tions to be prescribed by the governor. 

The heavy influx of American soldiers, sailors, 
marines, and construction workers into Bermuda 
caused an acute housing shortage, a rise in the cost 
of living, and some manifestations of discontent 
among the native laboring class. On June 6 the as- 
sembly unanimously agreed to the message from 
the governor recommending that up to 200 skilled 
and unskilled workers be brought into Bermuda 
from Barbados to fill urgent labor needs. 

The resignation of Lieut. Gen. Sir Denis Bernard 
as governor was announced on Aug. 11, 1941. This 
was in accordance with the decision of the United 
Kingdom government that "in the present circum- 
stances it is preferable that the governor of Ber- 
muda should be a civilian." See ZOOLOGY. 



BESSARABIA. See RUMANIA and UNION OF SOVIET 
SOCIALIST REPUBLICS under History. 
BETATRON. See PHYSICS. 

BILLIARDS. A really exciting chapter was added to 
the history of this ancient sport in 1941 by Willie 
Hoppe, fifty-three year old master who astounded 
his doctors as well as his foes by retaining the 
world's three-cushion championship in Chicago. 
A week before the tournament began in January, 
Hoppe was challenged by Jake Schaefer and while 
far ahead of Schaefer was stricken with pneumonia 
and great doubt was expressed about his playing 
again for months. Schaefer refused to accept the 
title by default, and after a sixteen-day postpone- 
ment of his games Hoppe hopped from his hospital 
bed and appeared at the table. 

Despite die loss of ten pounds, the magic in his 
cue was still there and ne won thirteen straight 
games before veteran Wclker Cochran stopped 
him. But no one else was equal to the task and 
Hoppe swept the table. In successive tournaments 
in 1940 and 1941 he had won thirty-three straight 
matches and thirty-six of thirty-seven. 

Sharing the year's cue honors with Hoppe was 
Erwin Rudolph, of Cleveland, who captured the 
world's pocket billiard championship for the fourth 
time in his career in play at Philadelphia in No- 
vember. Rudolph finished in a first place tie with 
Irving Crane and Willie Mosconi, but won the 
round-robin playoff in a decisive struggle against 
Crane. 

BILLITON. See NETHERLANDS INDIES under Area and 
Population. 

BILL OF RIGHTS. See FAIRS, EXPOSITIONS, AND CELE- 
BRATIONS. 

BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY. The pace of publication of 
important experimental data in the field of biologi- 
cal chemistry has greatly slackened during the past 
year. Because of the war much of the time and 
effort of our best investigators has been spent on 
projects backed by the Federal Government, and 
for obvious reasons the results of these researches 
have not been published. Some very important de- 
velopments, however, have been made and the 
results of these experiments have been released 
Especially is this true in the field of therapeutics 

Sulfa-drugs. To the long list of sulfanilamide 
drugs two new ones have been added sulfadiazine 
and sulfaguanidine. ( See MEDICINE AND SURGERY. ) 

In the two preceding YEAR BOOKS, this writer 
reported on the discovery of two germ-killing chem- 
icals of an entirely different nature, gramicidin and 
penicillin. Reports of the use of these two sub- 
stances on human patients were not then available, 
but during 1941 many papers were published de- 
scribing their remarkable properties. (See MEDICINE 
AND SURGERY.) 

Other Germicides. An even more potent germicide, 
bacteriophage, has been reported. This substance 
has been known for years and last year this re- 
viewer reported its isolation in crystalline form by 
Dr. Northrop. During 1941 clinical experiments 
indicate that it is especially effective in staphylococ- 
cemia (blood poisoning). The death rate in this 
series of cases was reduced from the usual 100 per 
cent to 67 per cent. When blood poisoning is in its 
first stage 80 per cent success was achieved with 
injections of this potent germicide. Work at Colum- 
bia also indicates a success of at least 45 per cent. 
Another agent of this croup of polypeptides, tyrocf- 
dine, has been reported. Its properties at the present 
time are less known, however. 



BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 



63 



BIOLOGICAL CMIMOTftY 



Vitamins. Publication of data on the isolation of 
new vitamins greatly slackened during 1941. Ex- 
perimental studies on their chemical and physio- 
logical properties, structure, and synthesis, how- 
ever, continue at a rapid pace. Especially is this 
true of bio tin. In the laboratory of Dr. du Vigneaud, 
Department of Biochemistry, Cornell University 
Medical College, investigators have made important 
observations on the structure of this vitamin. Oxi- 
dation studies reveal that this molecule is so con- 
stituted as to yield adipic acid. This fact indicates 
that biotin contains the side chain, CH 2 CH S CH 2 - 
CH,COOH, attached to one of the ring carbon 
atoms. Eliminating consideration of four membered 
rings, on this basis, we are led to structures indi- 
cating a fused thiophene ring fastened to urea with 
the side chain at position "a." With this formula as 
a model Dr. du Vigneaud has already reported a 
resynthesis of biotin from one of its degradation 
products. 

Many important physiological studies on panto- 
thenic acid have been made. It has been reported 
that a deficiency of pantothenic acid in the diet 
causes a retardation of tumor growth in mammals 
suffering from this affliction. Unfortunately, how- 
ever, such a deficient diet causes such severe inter- 
ference in the host's nutrition that the procedure 
offers no practical application in adjunct tumor 
therapy. The distribution of pantothenic acid in 
products of natural origin has been more thoroughly 
investigated. Dr. Folkers of Merck and Company 
has reported on new methods for its synthesis, and 
also on methods of synthesis of closely allied com- 
pounds and derivatives. 

Much work has been done on the physiological 
properties of the antigray-hair vitamin, para-ammo 
benzoic acid. It has been definitely shown that this 
compound inhibits the antibacterial action of sulfa- 
drugs. It has no effect, however, on antibodies in 
fresh defibnnated blood. To explain this fact it has 
been suggested that p-aminobenzoic acid is a neces- 
sary factor in the metabolism of various organisms. 
Recent evidence shows that not only is this true for 
bacteria but that it also plays an important role in 
autotrophic and heterotrophic plants. Also worthy of 
note is the confirmed observation that p-amino- 
benzoic acid is present in yeast. This would suggest, 
as pointed out oy Woods, that this compound is a 
substance which acts as a co-enzyme in a phase of 
bacterial metabolism and is therefore an essential 
growth-substance for bacteria. Woods also sug- 
gests that the sulfa-drugs because of their struc- 
tural similarity are able to substitute for the latter 
in the enzyme action and thus interfere with nor- 
mal metabolism. Difficulties have been encountered 
in repeating Ansbacher's experiments on the gray- 
ing of hair in rats. Dr. Emerson reports that he has 
been unable to obtain any evidence that p-amino- 
benzoic acid will either cure, or prevent, graying of 
rats. In his experience animals deficient in panto- 
thenic acid invariably show marked graying before 
the expiration of the time necessary for the p- 
aminobenzoic acid to take effect. This would seem 
to place the cause on a pantothenic acid deficiency. 

Certain other interesting observations on the 
chemistry of the vitamins nave been reported. If 
foxes are allowed to over-indulge in a diet of raw 
fish they develop a disease identical with the alco- 
holic disease (Wermckes disease) caused in man 
by lack of vitamin B v This fact indicates that in 
raw fish there is a substance which destroys the 
thiamin. These results have also been confirmed 
in the chick. The additional observation has been 
made that this condition can be reproduced after 
recovery from a previous attack. It has also been 



noted that the inactivation of B r can occur within 
the feed mixture itself. The level of inactivation de- 
pends upon the length of time that the fish is in 
contact with the feed mixture. 

Interesting results in the field of experimental 
tuberculosis have been obtained. It has been found 
that daily injections of crystalline vitamin C into 
tuberculous guinea pigs raises the tissue levels of 
ascorbic acid. This treatment increases the toler- 
ance to repeated large doses of tuberculin and to 
retard the progress of tuberculosis. Fibrosis is more 
prevalent and caseation less marked in animals that 
received the vitamin. Continued administration of 
tuberculin and ascobic acid give better results than 
the use of either alone. More favorable results are 
obtained m the chronic form than m the acute modi- 
fication of the diseases. 

Vitamin B x is now being used to make insulin- 
shock treatment for mental disease safer and more 
effective. By far the most dangerous complication 
which may occur in giving insulin shock treatment 
is when the patient goes into a state of "protracted 
shock" and rails to come out until damage to the 
brain has occurred. Study of such cases reveals that 
this condition occurs only after the medulla ob- 
longata has been involved. In cases of patients who 
show a special tendency to this kind of shock 
vitamin Bj will prevent it, if given regularly. The 
period of unconsciousness is also shortened. 

Dr. Scudi has developed a method of stabilizing 
vitamin B fl . He has observed that it forms a stable 
boron complex which does not cause the vitamin 
to lose its activity. Dr. Patek and Dr. Post report 
that a diet of cheese and vitamins of the B complex 
will cure cirrhosis of the liver, a hitherto fatal con- 
dition once known as "drunkard's liver." Vitamin A 
has been found to be of importance in the cure of 
tuberculosis. Intensive B t and C therapy causes 
spectacular healing of multiple bed sores. It has 
been observed that prolonged deficiency in ribo- 
flavin leads to neurologic abnormalities. Riboflavin 
has also been found to substantially protect rats 
against liver cancers especially when fed with 
casein Nicotinic acid decreases the peristaltic ac- 
tion of the stomach and intestines. This is counter- 
acted by mositol. Thus these two factors of the B 
complex are directly concerned with gastro-intesti- 
nal mobility and a proper balance is essential. The 
latest addition to the long list of substances that can 
cause trouble for patients with allergies is synthetic 
vitamin C. A new process has been developed by 
Merck and Co. of Rahway, N.J. for the preparation 
of vitamin B B . It has also been reported that the 
amount of this vitamin can be determined accu- 
rately by a new colorimetric method. 

Steroids. Activity in the field of the steroids still 
continues. Many results, however, because of their 
bearing on national defense are not available for 
publication at this time. Of those researches results 
of which have been released the following may be 
noted. In the research laboratories of Squibb & 
Co. a new phytosterol, campesterol, has been iso- 
lated from rapeseed oil, soya-bean oil, and wheat- 
germ oil. The analysis indicates a C^H^O molecule. 
It has not been found in cottonseed oil nor in tall 
oil. From the chromic acid oxidation products it 
can be inferred that campesterol is an isomer of 
22, 23 dihydrobrassicastcrol, which differs only in 
the optical configuration on C^. It forms a char- 
acteristic i-methyl ether. 

The year witnessed the publication of results 
from the Frick Chemical laboratories of Princeton 
University which show that when modem theories 
of optical activity are applied to steroids a relation- 
ship between optical rotatory power and constitu- 



BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 



64 



BIRTH CONTROL 



tion can be established. Thus a novel method of 
calculating the optical rotatory power of steroids 
has been developed and has proved to be a power- 
ful tool and aid in structure determination. 

Much work has been published on oestrogenic 
activity and molecular structure. Experiments show 
that in the field of synthetic substitutes hexoestrol 
and diethyl stilboesterol are very important drugs. 
They are highly active oestrogens when adminis- 
tered either crafty or hypodermically. They promise 
to be a true innovation in therapy. Hundreds of cases 
with menopausal symptoms have been treated and 
results seem entirely comparable with natural 
oestrogenic hormones. Nausea and vomiting can 
be relieved when given orally by an enteric coat- 
ing. Stilboesterol in the form of a cream has been 
found to be markedly effective in the treatment of 
pruritus vulvae. It has also greatly aided patients 
suffering with engorgements of the breasts, gonor- 
rheal vulvovagimtis in children, chronic arthritis, 
lack of mammary development, etc. Certain harm- 
ful effects with stilboesterol, however, have been 
reported. When continually injected into mammals, 
hyperphasia of the adrenal and pituitary glands 
results. No effect is found however on the pancreas 
or liver. It also tends to cause serous or milk ex- 
cretion, Records show also that in some cases es- 
pecially in mice continued use elicits mammary 
carcinoma. In dogs continual use also produces 
neutrophilia and anemia. 

Cancer Research. Certain results in the field of 
cancer research should be noted. Dr. Lawrence at 
the University of California has used with success 
artificially radioactive compounds in the treatment 
of various forms of cancer. Striking results have 
been reported in cases of lymph osarcoma. Also 
from the same laboratories there comes most en- 
couraging results on the use of the cyclotron. Many 
startling cures have been produced by neutronic 
bombardment. Dr. Rhoads from the Memorial Hos- 
pital in New York City has found that a dye called 
butter yellow produces cancer in the livers of rats. 
If, however, tnese animals be fed a diet of casein 
and riboflavin a protection follows, and cancer 
does not develop. From Mt. Sinai Hospital Dr. 
Lewisohn reports that the very malignant growth 
of transplanted breast cancers in mice can be 
stopped by pantothenic acid, yeast extract, and 
riboflavin. 

Further work on the carcinogenic activity of 
certain organic compounds has been reported. It 
is now known that both dibenzanthracene and 
methyl cholanthrene will produce intestinal car- 
cinoma following oral administration. New com- 
pounds have been found which will produce can- 
cer. Thus, Dr. Lewisohn and W. E. Bachmann 
report that 5-n-propyl-9-10-dimethyl-l, 2-benzan- 
thracene, 4-methyl cnolanthrene and 5-methyl chol- 
anthrene are carcinogenic. Two glycine compounds 
3-methyl cholanthrene-meso-a, 0-endo-succmoyl- 
glycine and the corresponding 1, 2, 5, 6-dibenzan- 
tnracene derivatives have been reported by these 
workers as carcinogenic agents with latent periods 
approximately the same as their respective hydro- 
carbons. 

Miscellaneous Discoveries. In concluding this re- 
view, certain special discoveries should be men- 
tioned: Dr. Northrop of the Rockefeller Institute 
has purified diphtheria antitoxin and obtained it in 
crystalline form. Diphtheria toxin forms a precipi- 
tate when mixed in certain proportions with serum 
from a horse which has been immunized against 
the toxin. This precipitate is a compound of the 
toxin and antitoxin. Separation of the antitoxin 
from this complex has been achieved and the crys- 



talline product is strictly homogeneous in every test. 

In the field of the amino acids Dr. Lucas has 
found that a method can be developed for the 
quantitative removal of cystine from keratin hy- 
drolvzates. Cuprous oxide is the specific reagent 
used. The synthesis of polypeptides bearing long 
aliphatic chains has been announced. Surface film 
studies have been carried out. The stearoyl and 
palmitoyl derivatives of diglycylglycine have been 
prepared. 

Starch has been separated into its two constitu- 
ents a-amylose and j8-amylose. In this work the 
preferential adsorption of ^-amylose on cotton was 
taken advantage of. Preliminary experiments in Dr. 
Pacsu's laboratory show that both a and 0-amyloses 
possess identical specific rotations. So far the only 
chemical difference exists in the complete absence 
of phosphorus in 0-amylose and the presence of the 
element in a-amylose. By means of a solution in 
pyridine, Dr. Pacsu and his coworkers have been 
able to prepare certain starch derivatives. These 
compounds so obtained are thermoplastic, yielding 
clear, glass-like substances which promise to be of 
importance to those interested in plastics, resins, 
etc. 

Upsetting previous ideas of how the body uses 
iodine, an element known to be essential to health, 
Dr. Asher S. Chapman, of the Mayo Clinic, has 
discovered that the body can use this element even 
when the thyroid gland has been removed. Thy- 
roxine, the powerful hormone produced by the 
thyroid glana, contains iodine and it has generally 
been thought that the effects of iodine on the body 
and the body's need for it wore determined by this 
gland Animals whose thyroid glands had been 
removed, Dr. Chapman found, lost more weight, 
utilized their food more poorly, drank more water 
and had a significantly lower basal metabolic rate 
when kept on diets very low in iodine than when 
given adequate amounts of iodine. The body, it 
appears, from these studies, not only can use iodine 
when there is no thyroid gland to turn it into thy- 
roxine for stimulating various body processes, but 
even may make a compound like thyroxine in tis- 
sues other than the thyroid gland. 

A cure for athlete's foot of great promise has 
been announced by Dr. Francis, medical director 
retired of the U.S. Public Health Service. It con- 
sists of three parts phenol to one part camphor. 

Prevention of influenza epidemics may be pos- 
sible by spraying propylene glycol into the air of 
schools, barracks, etc. Dr. Zeflah of the University 
of Pennsylvania has found that such a mist protects 
mice. 

The introduction of the pellet method by Dr. 
Parkes has made possible a much more efficient 
administration of many of the crystalline hormones. 
Studies have been made of the rates of absorption 
of these compounds. The rate decreases rapidly 
with time. The pellets become invested with a thin 
non-adherent tissue capsule. Oestrone and oes- 
tradiol show relatively very slow absorption. Their 
esters and testoterone propionate are absorbed even 
more slowly. 

See CHEMISTRY, PURE. 

EVERETT S. WALLIS. 

BIOTIN. See BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY under Vitamins. 
BIRDS. See FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE; ZOOLOGY. 

BIRTH CONTROL. Birth control centers and services 
continued to show a steady growth in the United 
States in 1941. At the close of the year there were 
746 centers in the country as opposed to 606 in 
1940, all medically directed; with 176 in hospitals, 



BIRTH CONTROL 65 

252 in public health departments, and 318 extra- 
mural. Of the total number, 331 were supported 
wholly or in part by public funds, which included 
those under health departments or in hospitals. 

The number of physicians listed with the Birth 
Control Federation as willing to advise patients 
referred to them for contraceptive advice grew to 
almost 3,000. In both centers and referral services, 
the majority of patients are indigent or in very low- 
income brackets. A new pamphlet by Drs. Rob- 
ert L. Dickinson and Woodbridge E. Morris, 
"Techniques of Conception Control," was mailed 
to 53,900 physicians, public health officers, and 
medical students during the year. Alabama an- 
nounced in January, 1941, that contraceptive ad- 
vice had been included in the services or its State 
Health Department, joining North Carolina and 
South Carolina in providing child-spacing informa- 
tion under Health Department direction. 

New State groups were organized in two more 
States, bringing the total number of State Leagues 
affiliated with the Birth Control Federation to 34 
at the close of 1941. During the year a number of 
State organizations adopted the name "Planned 
Parenthood." This followed the precedent of the 
British organization which, in 1939, changed its 
name from "National Birth Control Association" 
to "Family Planning Association," as more indica- 
ti\c of its objectives. The Federation took part, as 
a sponsoring organization, in the Conference on 
Tomorrow's Children held at Nashville, Tenn., 
and at Harvard Summer School, Boston, Mass. 
As a kindred group it participated in the National 
Conference of Social Work. Nineteen affiliated 
State Leagues were members of and took part in 
State Conferences of Social Work during the year. 

In only two States, Connecticut and Massachu- 
setts, have court decisions halted clinic service to 
the under-privileged. A bill which would have 
made it legal for physicians to advise patients on 
contraceptive methods where medical indications 
existed was introduced in the Legislature of the 
State of Connecticut, and passed the House by a 
vote of 164 to 64, but was defeated in the Senate 
by 23 to 9. Dr. Wilder Tileston, Clinical Professor 
of Medicine at Yale University Medical School, 
applied to the Superior Court of New Haven 
County for a declaratory judgment as to his right 
to advise contraceptives in the cases of three 
women whose physical condition would make 
pregnancy hazardous or fatal. The case was re- 
ferred to the State Supreme Court, where it was 
pending at the close of the year. Dr. Tileston's 
action was taken in an attempt to secure from the 
courts of the State a measure of medical freedom. 

In Massachusetts a special poll of a large num- 
ber of voters, sponsored by the Massachusetts 
Mothers' Health Council in 1940, had shown that 
82 per cent of those voting were in favor of giving 
physicians the right to prescribe contraceptives 
when pregnancy was con train dicated. An initia- 
tive petition of 45,000 names was sent to the Legis- 
lature in 1941 presented in the form of a bill 
which proposed to amend the existing prohibitive 
statutes, (H. 2,035). The question as to whether a 
religious issue was involved in the bill was referred 
by the Legislature to the State Supreme Court, 
which ruled on May 19, by unanimous vote, that 
no religious issue was involved. The Legislature 
voted on the bill on June 4th. It was defeated by 
133 to 77 in the House, and 18 to 16 in the Senate. 
An additional 5,000 signatures on the initiative 
petition were secured and it will go to the voters 
in 1942. 

The Federal Trade Commission continued to 



BOTH CONTROL 

prosecute manufacturers of contraceptives who 
were using the mails to sell their products by 
making false therapeutic claims in regard to their 
effectiveness or lack of possible injury to users. 

The Federation in 1941 raised $274,538 in gifts. 
Contributions to the organization are deductible 
from Federal Income taxes. The program for 1941 
had, as its major objectives, the inclusion of contra- 
ception in public health services in six States, 
expanding and broadening of medical education, 
building up the referral hst of doctors to whom 
women in rural areas or those without clinical 
services can be sent, and general public informa- 
tion and education. 

Australia. Birth control clinics continued their 
work. Vital statistics showed a sharp increase in 
the number of marriages with a slight consequent 
rise in the birth rate. 

England. Centers continued to operate, some in 
the provinces having had extraordinary escapes 
from bombing attacks. The headquarters of the 
Family Planning Association were moved from 
London to Bournemouth. 

France. The drastic regulations against birth con- 
trol and abortion were reinforced in 1941, but the 
birth rate was further reduced, in part due to the 
retention by Germany of over 1,500,000 prisoners 
of war. 

Germany. Efforts to raise birth and marriage rates 
continued and illegitimate births were stimulated 
and encouraged. Legal restriction of the distribu- 
tion of contraceptives failed to prevent their sales, 
which were said to be in large volume. 

India. Progress in organization of birth control 
work and centers went on under an organizer of 
the British Family Planning Association It was 
announced that such work was most necessary in 
view of the fact that India's population in 1940 
had risen to 400 million, an increase of 18 per 
cent in 10 years. 

Japan. Rigorous suppression of all birth control 
activities was ordered as part of the government 
policy to force a higher birth rate by official de- 
cree. Though the birth rate did not increase ma- 
terially, infant mortality rates rose and malnutri- 
tion was prevalent. 

New Zealand. The Family Planning Association 
continued work, and resolutions asking for a course 
in contraceptive technique at the only medical 
school in New Zealand were passed at many meet- 
ings. 

Norway. All birth control centers were closed by 
the Germans following their occupation of the 
country. 

Sweden. The Society for Sexual Enlightenment 
continued work through the year and the Stock- 
holm clinic advised many women. Owing to the 
war, the work of the Royal Population Commission 
was temporarily suspended. 

Puerto Rico. There was a steady increase in con- 
traceptive services under direction of the Asoci- 
acion pro Salud Maternal e Infantil and other 
health agencies. The Interdepartmental Commit- 
tee appointed by President Roosevelt to survey the 
island reported that over-population was its great- 
est problem and that "birth control should be a 
major function of the Insular Department of Health 
as the key to the entire health situation in Puerto 
Rico " 

Europe. Because of war conditions and of Ger- 
many's occupation of so much of the continent 
little news on birth control work was obtainable 
during the year, but constant and relentless pres- 
sure on the conquered areas, food-rationing, and 
requisition of supplies by Germany resulted in 



BIKTHS, BtKTH KATES 66 

lowered birth rates a form of birth control which 
is dysgenic in the extreme. 

D. KENNETH ROSE. 

BIRTHS, BIRTH RATES. See BIRTH CONTROL; SCHOOLS; 
VITAL STATISTICS; major countries under Popula- 
tion. 
BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO. See AUSTRALIA. 

BITUMINOUS COAL DIVISION. This Division of the De- 
partment of the Interior administers the Bituminous 
Coal Act of 1937, which became effective on Apr. 
26, 1937. Under this law, the Division has estab- 
lished minimum prices at the mine and marketing 
rules and regulations for the sale of bituminous 
coal by producers and their sales representatives 
as a means of stabilizing coal markets. This regu- 
latory structure was designed to prevent further 
continuation of the destructive price cutting which 
had existed within the industry for more than a 
decade and to restore interstate commerce in coal 
to a fair competitive basis. 

Participation in the market regulatory program 
is voluntary under the Coal Act. A producer may 
choose whether or not he becomes a member of 
the Bituminous Coal Code promulgated under this 
law. As a Code Member, he is subject to minimum 
and maximum prices and marketing regulations 
established by the Division. If a producer does not 
join the Code, he may continue to sell his coal at 
any prices he chooses, but his sales are subject to 
a 19^ per cent tax imposed by the law. Approxi- 
mately 15,500 producers, or about 96 per cent of 
the nation's total, lw\e become Code Members. 
These Code Members produce practically all of the 
commercial coal mined in the United States. 

Minimum prices became effective on Oct. 1, 

1940, and the Division is authorized by the Coal 
Act to establish maximum prices when necessary to 
protect the coal consuming public. In September, 

1941, it opened a proceeding to ascertain whether 
maximum prices are necessary, and if so, what the 
rates should be. The proceeding had not been com- 
pleted by die end of the year. 

The minimum price schedules were established 
after extensive puolic hearings, in which consum- 
ers and consuming interests as well as producers 
and producing and other interests were given an 
opportunity to participate. The schedules show the 
minimum price for the shipment to particular 
freight destinations of each kind, quality, and si/e 
of coal produced by each of the 15,500 Code Mem- 
bers' mines. A single mine often produces numerous 
different sizes and grades of coal, and the schedules 
cover minimum prices for shipments of these to the 
approximately 30,000 freight destinations in the 
United States and Canada which receive bitu- 
minous coal. The minima for the first year of mar- 
ket regulation averaged $2.01 per ton at the mine 
for the nation However, the actual market prices 
at which producers sold their coal during this 
period averaged $2.13 per ton at the mine. 

The Division is constantly adjusting its schedules 
so that they will appropriately reflect changes in the 
coal producing industry and its markets and main- 
tain a sound regulatory structure. Compliance mat- 
ters also present a Division function no less signifi- 
cant than the original job of establishing minimum 
prices. Hearings are held on complaints alleging 
violations, and where it is found appropriate, penal- 
ties are imposed as provided by law. Penalties in- 
clude the issuance of cease and desist orders; the 
revocation of Code Memberships which subject 
producers' sales to the 19^ per cent tax; the sus- 
pension or revocation of distributors' registrations. 

The coal industry itself bears a large snare of the 



BOHEMIA AND MORAVIA 

responsibility for administering the Coal Act. The 
industry acts through the Bituminous Coal Produc- 
ers' Boards for each of the 22 districts throughout 
the country which represent the industry in matters 
arising before the Division and otherwise aid in 
carrying out the purposes of the Coal Act. All of the 
members of each board, except the one representing 
mine employees, are elected by the producers. 

Consumers' interests are represented in proceed- 
ings before the Division by the Office of the Bitu- 
minous Coal Consumers' Counsel, an agency en- 
tirely independent from the Division. 

The Bituminous Coal Act originally was admin- 
istered by the National Bituminous Coal Commis- 
sion, an independent agency comprised of seven 
commissioners. Under the Reorganization Act of 
1939, the Commission was abolished and its powers 
and functions were transferred to Secretary of the 
Interior Harold L. Ickes for administration by such 
agency as he might determine. See CONSUMERS' 
COOPERATIVES. 

DAN H. WHEELER. 

BLACKLIST, U.S. See COLOMBIA, COSTA RICA, CUBA, 
GUATEMALA, under History; COORDINATOR OF IN- 
TER-AMERICAN AFFAIRS, OFFICE OF; FASCISM, FI- 
NANCIAL REVIEW under Foreign Funds Control, 
PAN AMERICANISM; UNITED STATES under Latin 
America. 

BLACKOUTS. See ARCHITECTURE; ILLUMINATION, 
PHOTOGRAPHY under Military Photography For 
BLACKOUT PAINTS, see CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL. 
BLIND AND HANDICAPPED, Aid to the. See CHILDREN'S 
BUREAU; SOCIAL SECURITY BOARD. 
BLITZKRIEG. See WORLD WAR; MILITARY PROGRESS 
BLOCKADE. See WORLD WAR; SHIPPING; and the 
countries affected, as BELGIUM, DENMARX, EIHK, 
FINLAND, FRANCE (and colonies), GERMANY, 
GREAT BRITAIN, GREECE, NETHERLANDS, NORWAY, 
RUMANIA, SPAIN, SWEDEN, SWITZERLAND, TURKEY. 
BLOOD POISONING. See BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY un- 
der Other Germicides. 

BOBSLEDDING. The combination of Paul Dupree and 
Tuffield Latour dominated the bobsledding game 
in 1941, when this Saranac Lake, N.Y., duo made 
successful defenses of the National A.A.U. and 
North American two-man titles and also added the 
Adirondack Association crown for good measure. 
Francis Tyler's sled, with E. H. Varno, Pat Martin, 
and William D'Amico riding with him, won the 
National A A.U. four-man title, while the Republic 
Miners, composed of William Linney, John Kerr, 
William Stacavich, and Angus Clain, won the 
North American. The National junior four-man 
went to Charles Keough, Patrick Buckley, Harold 
Murphy, and Bob McKilhp, while the junior two- 
man honors were taken by Wightman Washbond 
and Adrian Aubin. 

BOHEMIA AND MORAVIA. Two former provinces of 
Czechoslovakia, which after being shorn of their 
Sudeten districts by the Munich Accord of Sept. 
29, 1938, were occupied by German troops on Mar. 
15, 1939, and proclaimed a Protectorate of the 
Reich the following day. Capital, Prague. 

Area and Population. The Protectorate has an area 
of 19,058 square miles (Bohemia, 12,525; Moravia, 
6,533) and a population estimated at 6,804,875 on 
Jan. 1, 1939 (Bohemia, 4,472,353; Moravia, 2,332 - 
522). The inhabitants are Czechs except for a small 
German minority. The chief cities, with their 1937 
populations, are: Praha (Prague), 962,200; Bmo 
(Brunn), 291,800; Moravska Ostrava, 178,099 in 
1935; Plzen (Pilsen), 124,353 in 1935. 



BOHEMIA AND MORAVIA 



Production, etc. See YEAR BOOK for 1939, p. 181- 
182 for statistical data on Czechoslovakia before 
the partition. Little statistical information on Bo- 
hemia and Moravia has since become available. 
Agriculture, manufacturing, forestry, and com- 
merce are the principal occupations. Cereals, corn, 
potatoes, beet sugar, tobacco, and flax are the chief 
crops. Leading industrial products: Arms, rayon 
and other textiles, wood pulp, cement, shoes, glass, 
leather goods, iron and steel products, and innum- 
erable others. Western Bohemia is one of the lead- 
ing industrial areas of Europe. The Protectorate is 
an important source of coal, iron ore, salt, zinc, and 
antimony. 

Finance. The budget for the autonomous admin- 
istration of the Protectorate in 1939 was: Receipts, 
4,638,000,000 crowns; expenditures, 4,902,000,000 
crowns (1 reichsmark equalled 10 crowns). An 
annual assessment of 2,000,000,000 crowns was 
levied on the Protectorate by the Reich in 1939; 
according to a Berlin dispatcn of Jan. 2, 1941, this 
sum was virtually doubled in a new German-Czech 
agreement concluded at that time 

Government. The Berlin Cabinet's decree of Mar. 
16, 1939, establishing the Protectorate, stated that 
Bohemia and Moravia "belonged henceforth to the 
territory of the Great German Reich." Germany 
assumed direct control of defense, foreign affairs, 
communications, transportation, customs, and cur- 
rency, but declared the Protectorate autonomous 
in other matters, with its own organs and officials. 
However the decree provided that the Protecto- 
rate's prerogatives were to be exercised "in accord- 
ance with the political, military and economic im- 
portance of the Reich." The head of the Czech 
Government was required "to have the confidence 
of the Fuehrer and Reich Chancellor for the dis- 
charge of his duties." The German Chancellor 
appoints a "Reich Protector in Bohemia and Mo- 
ravia," who as Hitler's representative and as dele- 
gate of the Reich Government "has the task of 
seeing that the lines of policy laid down by the 
Fuehrer ... are observed." The Protector was 
empowered to dismiss all members of the Protec- 
torate's government, reject its measures, and pre- 
vent the promulgation of its laws, decrees and 
orders as well as the execution of administrative 
measures and judicial decisions. The decree gave 
the Reich Government blanket authority to 'pro- 
mulgate orders applicable to the Protectorate in 
so far as the common interest demands it." 

All German inhabitants of the Protectorate are 
German nationals and Reich citizens, subject to 
German jurisdiction and to "the regulations for 
the protection of German blood and German 
honor." Other inhabitants were declared "nationals 
of the Protectorate." Chancellor Hitler on Mar. 18, 
1939, appointed Baron Constantin von Neurath, 
former German Foreign Minister, as Reich Protec- 
tor, with headquarters at Prague. Karl Hermann 
Frank, a leader of the Sudeten German agitation 
against the Czechoslovak Republic before the Mu- 
nich Accord, was appointed State Secretary of the 
Protectorate, with control over both German and 
Czech police. Dr. Emil Hacha, elected President 
of the Czechoslovak Republic by the National As- 
sembly Nov. 30, 1938, and signer of the capitula- 
tion agreement of Mar. 15, 1939, remained in office 
as President of the Protectorate. The government 
of the Protectorate, as reconstructed Apr. 27, 1939, 
was headed by Gen. Ing. Alois Elias. Over and 
above the rule of the Reich Protector and the 
puppet government of the Protectorate was the 
rule of the German secret police and military com- 



07 BOHEMIA AND MORAVIA 

Measures placed in effect during 1939 and 1940 
under the decree of Mar. 16, 1939, completed the 
transformation of Bohemia and Moravia into an 
authoritarian state completely subservient to Berlin 
and serving as a political and economic appendage 
of the Reich. A customs and monetary union with 
Germany was established Oct. 1, 1940, with the 
reichsmark replacing the Czech crown as legal 
currency. The National Unity party (Czech), a 
rival Czech Fascist party known as the Vlajka, and 
the National Socialist party (a branch of the Ger- 
man Nazi party) were the only legal political 
groups permitted. All were under close German 
supervision. See below for developments in 1941. 

HISTORY 

The German attack upon Russia on June 22 
and the revived hope for an Allied victory that 
grew out of the stubborn Russian resistance caused 
the smouldering hatred of the Czechs in Bohemia 
and Moravia to break out in intensified sabotage 
and sporadic revolts. The Germans responded with 
wholesale executions and other savage reprisals 
that ended Berlin's last hope of winning Czech 
collaboration with Hitler's "new order" in Europe. 

Nazi Policy Fails. Czech collaboration became in- 
creasingly important to the Germans as the strain 
of the war increased British bombing of Western 
Germany forced the Reich to depend increasingly 
upon the war industries and electric power of 
Bohemia and Moravia. Some hundreds of thou- 
sands of women and children were evacuated to 
the Czech districts from the bombed areas of 
Western Germany. Grain stores were similarly 
transferred. Due to Bohemia-Moravia's strategic 
position, its railways and other communications 
were of vital importance to the movement and 
supply of German armies in Eastern Europe. More- 
over the 150,000 or more German troops in occu- 
pation of the country were needed on the Reich's 
expanding battle fronts. The Nazis also made use 
of the alleged "normal conditions in the Protecto- 
rate" in their propaganda among other nations on 
behalf of the "new order" in Europe. 

For these reasons the Germans during the first 
half of 1941 continued their use of combined per- 
suasion and force to win Czech acquiescence to 
permanent German rule (see YEAR BOOK for 1940, 
p. 77 f.). They sought to impress the Czechs with 
the economic and other advantages of the "new 
order." At the same time the Czechs were warned 
that their collaboration would no longer be wel- 
come if it was withheld until after the final German 
victory over Britain. 

Meanwhile the Nazis waged ruthless warfare 
against all individuals and groups seeking to pre- 
serve Czech nationalism. On Jan. 9, 1941, ex- 
President Eduard BeneS of Czechoslovakia, Jan 
Masaryk, son of the founder of the republic, and 
47 other Czech patriots were deprived of their 
citizenship and estates. Most of these men were 
in exile in London and elsewhere About the same 
time all Jews living in Czechoslovakia were re- 
quired to turn in their jewels and security holdings 
to a public purchasing agency. The persecution of 
Catholic priests, intellectuals, and of government 
officials of the Protectorate suspected of loyalty to 
the republic was increased. 

Nazi methods of force and persuasion, coupled 
with growing economic hardship, only served to 
deepen Czech hostility. A steady stream of Czechs 
fled to the Allied countries to enter the Czech mili- 
tary forces. Mass boycotting of German-sponsored 
events continued. The illegal Czech patriot news- 
paper V Boj circulated secretly and the BBC 



BOHEMIA AND MORAVIA 



68 



BOLIVIA 



broadcasts were widely listened to despite hun- 
dreds of arrests. Sabotage and the slowdown were 
practised regularly in factories. There was wide- 
spread violation of rationing and other decrees. 

Spread of Disorders. After Hitler's attack upon 
Russia, the Czechs' underground warfare against 
their German rulers became much more violent. 
Explosions and fires of mysterious origin occurred 
in many munitions factories, oil refineries, and 
other vital war industries. Late in September an 
explosion wrecked the Lutin (Moravia) chemical 
plant, killing 95 persons, mostly Germans. The 
Skoda arms factory was badly damaged by fire. 
Strikes spread notwithstanding the arrest and exe- 
cution or some of the leaders. Railway tracks were 
torn up, and telegraph and telephone lines and 
electric cables cut. 

To check this spreading revolt, Berlin on Sep- 
tember 27 announced the "temporary" replacement 
of Baron von Neurutli as Reich Protector for Bo- 
hemia and Moravia by Remhard Heydnch, right- 
hand man of Hemnch Himmler, chief of the Ger- 
man secret police (Gestapo). Heydrich immediately 
declared a state of emergency over six important 
districts of the Protectorate including Prague. On 
the same day Gen Alois Elias, Premier of the 
puppet Czech Government in the Protectorate, and 
many other Czech officials and leaders were^ ar- 
rested for "preparation to commit treason." A 
German court-martial on September 29 ordered 
the immediate execution of 24 Czech leaders, in- 
cluding three former generals, accused of plotting 
an early revolt. 

For weeks thereafter the German police con- 
tinued to round up Czech patriots ana other sus- 
pects, including many influential members of die 
Protectorate Government, while summary courts 
working at top speed condemned scores to death. 
Berlin announced the execution of 58 Czechs on 
September 30, 39 (including 2 more generals and 
11 other officers of the former Czechoslovak army) 
on October 1, 18 on October 2 (including Otakar 
Klapka, Mayor of Prague). Day after day German 
firing squads added new names to the long list of 
Czech martyrs. By December 1, 414 executions 
had been announced by official German sources. 
Anti-German sources placed the number of Czechs 
slain during Heydrich *s brief rule at between 2,000 
and 4,000. As of December 1 Heydrich ended the 
state of civil emergency in four of the six affected 
districts. Restrictions imposed in Prague and Briinn 
remained in effect. 

General EhaS was among those condemned to 
death, but won a reprieve through confessing his 
partial guilt, according to official German dis- 
patches These sources announced that the Ger- 
mans had uncovered a widespread secret society 
engaged in "liquidating" German sympathizers and 
helping Czech patriots escape abroad. The society 
was said to have had the assistance of many Czech 
officials of the Protectorate Government who os- 
tensibly were cooperating with the Germans It 
included many former army officers, civil servants, 
municipal officials, and others from all ranks of 
life. 

The blood purge was accompanied by an exten- 
sion of the state of emergency to new districts, the 
confiscation of all radios in certain towns and dis- 
tricts, the closing of more Czech schools and the 
arrest of teachers, and on October 13 the dissolu- 
tion of the historic Czech Sokols (athletic socie- 
ties) and their affiliated organizations. 

See CZECHOSLOVAKIA and GERMANY under His- 
tory; LABOR CONDITIONS under Union Movements 
ana Wages; SLOVAKIA. 



BOLIVIA. A republic of South America. Sucre is 
die seat of the Supreme Court and nominally the 
capital, but La Paz, the largest city, is the actual 
seat of the government. 

Area and Population. Taking into account the 
Chaco boundary settlement of 1938 (see YEAH 
BOOK, 1938, p. 131 f.), Bolivia has an area esti- 
mated at 537,792 square miles. The population on 
Dec. 31, 1939, was estimated at 3,457,000, divided 
racially as follows: White, 13.08 per cent; mestizo 
(mixed), 27.51; Indian, 52.34; others, 7.07. For- 
eigners in Bolivia in 1940 included about 5,000 
Germans and German-Bolivians, 475 citizens of the 
United States, and about 500 British. Estimated 
1936 populations of the chief cities were. La Paz, 
200,000 (250,000 in 1940); Cochabamba, 52,323, 
Oruro, 44,826; Potosi, 35,900; Santa Cruz, 31,300; 
Sucre, 27,508. Spanish is the language of the edu- 
cated classes. The Indians speak mainly Quechua 
and Aymara. 

Education and Religion. The illiteracy rate, which 
was 83.5 per cent for that part of the population 
seven years and over in 1900, remains high. The 
school enrollment in 1936 was: Elementary, 73,- 
854; secondary, 5,522; special schools, 4,615; uni- 
versities, 1,482. New schools opened during 1940- 
41 included 97 rural schools, a national vocational 
school at La Paz, a rural normal school at Porta- 
chuela, the School Center of Rural Cooperation at 
Sapoc6, the Indian Education Center at Huacha- 
cafla, and experimental schools in La Paz and the 
departmental capitals. Roman Catholicism is rec- 
ognized as the State religion. Public exercise of 
other forms of worship is guaranteed. 

Defense. Military training is compulsory. As of 
Jan. 1, 1941, the active army numbered 9,600; 
trained reserves, 82,187, active air force, 160 The 
1941 defense appropriations totaled 145,000,000 
bolivianos. Also see History below. 

Production. Mining is the most important indus- 
try, although agriculture and stock raising support 
the bulk of the population. Mineral products ac- 
counted for over 95 per cent of all exports in 1940, 
with tin of outstanding importance Mineral ex- 
ports in 1940 in fine metric tons, with the value 
in pounds sterling in parentheses, were- Tin, 38,- 
531 (9,934,905); wolfram, 2,510 (692,512), 
antimony, 11,753 ( 488,183), silver, ]75 (441,- 
130); copper, 6,660 (348,829); zinc, 12,197 
( 352,360), lead, 11,663 ( 284,134); gold, 366 
fine kilograms (87,108). Crude petroleum pro- 
duction in 1940 was approximately 110,000 bbl., 
while imports were 38,867 metric tons (see 7/t.v- 
lonj). The principal crops are wheat, quinoa, corn, 
rice, barlev, sugarcane, cotton, coca leaves, to- 
bacco, and coffee. Alcohol and beverages, food- 
stuffs, textiles, and clothing are the chief manu- 
factures. 

Foreign Trade. Imports in 1940 were valued at 
5,700,000 (in pounds sterling of 13.33 bolivianos 
of 18 pence per pound) against 4,848,358 in 
1939; exports, 12,877,211 (8,687,008 in 
1939). See Production for chief export items. In 
1940 tin exports were 39.4 per cent greater in 
volume than in 1939, while in value they exceeded 
by 12.8 per cent the value of all 1939 exports. 
Textiles, wheat, flour, sugar, live animals, and ma- 
chinery were the leading imports. In 1939 the 
United States supplied 22.7 per cent of all imports 
by value, Peru 21.8 per cent, Argentina and Ger- 
many 12.4 per cent each. Great Britain took 64.4 
per cent of the exports (mostly tin ore for refin- 
ing), Belgium 16.8 per cent, the United States 9.1 
per cent. 

Finance. Budget receipts in 1940 totaled 599,- 



BOLIVIA 



BOLIVIA 



767,515 bolivianos (516,496,067 in 1939). Ex- 
penditures were estimated at 505,000,000 boli- 
vianos (about 455,266,000 in 1939). The 1941 
budget estimates balanced at 727,000,000 bolivia- 
nos. The public debt on June 30, 1941, was di- 
vided as follows: Foreign, 60,816,923 bolivianos 
and 2,979; internal, 447,046,545 bolivianos and 
785,048; floating, 2,913,244 bolivianos. Service 
payments on the debt were 32,105,887 bolivianos 
for the year ended June 30, 1941. 

The boliviano was linked to the pound sterling 
at the rate of 140 per pound from June 1938 until 
May 10, 1940, when it was pegged to the dollar 
at 40 to 1. This "controlled" rate was changed to 
46 bolivianos to the dollar on June 21, J941. Av- 
erage exchange rates of the boliviano in 1940 were: 
Controlled market, $00256 ($0.0309 in ]939); 
compensation market, $0.0186 (Mar. 15-Dec 31); 
curb market, $0.0176 ($00220 for July-Dec., 
1939). The note issue increased from 37,856,000 
bolivianos in December, 1931, to 863,095,000 in 
December, 1940 

Transportation. Bolivia in 1941 had 1,402 miles of 
railway line in operation, about 10,200 miles of 
highways, and air lines connecting the principal 
cities with the inter-American airways network 
Early in 1941 some 4,600 soldiers were detailed 
to help in road construction and repair. In J940 
the two air systems (Lloyd Aereo Boliviano and 
Pan American-Grace Airways) carried 17,275 pas- 
sengers and 2,509 metric tons of freight, mail and 
express on 3,451 separate flights. For the progress 
made in developing the railway network of eastern 
Bolivia and the expropriation of the Lloyd Aereo 
Boliviano, see below tinder Hi&toty. 

Government. The 1938 Constitution (see YEAR 
BOOK for 1938, p. 96) vested executive power 
jointly in the President and his cabinet and legis- 
lative power in a Congress of two Chambers. The 
President is elected for four years by direct suffrage 
and may not succeed himself The Senate has 27 
members (3 from each department), one-third 
elected every two years for six-year terms The 
Chamber of Deputies has 103 members elected 
directly for four years and renewed by halves 
every two years. The suffrage is restricted to male 
Bolivians of 20 years or over who can read and 
write and who are inscribed in the Civic Register. 
President in 1941, Gen Enrique Pefiaranda del 
Castillo, who assumed office Apr. 15, 1940 For 
results of the 1940 Congressional elections, see 
YEAR BOOK for 1940, p. 79. 

HISTORY 

Nazi Influence Curbed. The year 1941 brought 
what appeared to be decisive victory to the dem- 
ocratic forces struggling against totalitarian influ- 
ences in Bolivia. The battle between the United 
States and Germany for Bolivia's support had 

?ained in intensity during 1940 (see preceding 
EAR BOOK). In 1941 it moved rapidly toward a 
climax. German victories in the Balkans in April 
and May powerfully reinforced Nazi propaganda. 
The United States countered with its blacklist of 
individuals and firms in Bolivia aiding the Axis, 
and with the withdrawal of agencies for United 
States goods from Germans and pro-Nazis. On 
May 21 the government-owned Metals Reserve 
Company of the United States followed up its 
1940 contract for the purchase of Bolivian tin by 
contracting to buy the entire Bolivian production 
of tungsten for three years at the price of $21 per 
short ton. A higher Japanese bid was rejected by 
the Bolivian Government. 

Oil Issue Reconsidered. Harassed by extreme in- 



flation and other acute economic difficulties, the 
Penaranda Government applied to the U.S. Export- 
Import Bank for a large credit to finance railway 
construction and other public works. It also sought 
to interest private United States capital in the 
development of Bolivian agriculture and industries. 
However the State Department at Washington in- 
dicated that no substantial financial aid would be 
forthcoming until the Bolivian Government com- 
pensated the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey 
for oil properties expropriated by Bolivia in 1937 
(see YEAR BOOK for 1937). 

The Penaranda Government then sought Con- 
gressional approval for a financial settlement with 
Standard Oil that would not involve repudiation 
of the decree nationalizing the oil properties. The 
Senate on March 27 approved the Government's 
policy. In the subsequent debate in the Chamber, 
Deputies hostile to the United States revived old 
charges of tax evasion and treasonable activities 
during the Chaco War against Bolivian represen- 
tatives of Standard Oil. A popular agitation against 
compensating the oil company, in part Oerman 
inspired, led the Government in April to call out 
troops in La Paz. On April 29 criminal indictments 
were issued against oil company representatives to 
determine the truth of the charges against them. 

German Air Network Seized. Without awaiting the 
result of this investigation, the Government pro- 
ceeded with its program of United States-Bolivian 
collaboration. On May 15 it decreed the expropri- 
ation of the German-controlled Lloyd Aereo Bolivia- 
no, with its 3,200-nule network of air lines and 
an exclusive franchise for air services within Bo- 
livia. The L.A.B. routes were turned over to Pan 
American-Grace Airways for operation. 

Nazi Plot Foiled. Following pi ess warnings that 
Nazi-Fascist elements were preparing a revolt, the 
Minister of Interior reported that Nazi agents were 
engaged in subversive activities in the provinces 
On the evening of June 11 the Cabinet unexpect- 
edly resigned to permit the President to select new 
aides to deal with the crisis. On June 14 the Ger- 
man Minister in La Paz, Ernst Wendler, asked the 
Bolivian Foreign Minister to define his Govern- 
ment's attitude with regard to President Roose- 
velt's warning of May 27 that the Axis planned 
military aggression against the Western Hemis- 
phere. The Bolivian reply was not made public. 
But Bolivia's alignment with the United States was 
made clear on July 4 when the Government ap- 
proved Uruguay's suggestion that any American 
nation becoming involved in the European War 
should not be treated as a belligerent. 

The Government on July 19 frustrated a plot 
for a military coup designed to align Bolivia with 
the Axis. That night a nation-wide state of siege 
was proclaimed. The German Minister was de- 
clared persona non grata for allegedly directing 
the subversive activities. A round-up of German 
agents and pro-Nazi conspirators was begun and 
four newspapers, including two on the United 
States blacklist, were temporarily suspended. Sev- 
eral high-ranking officers of the Cochabamba and 
Santa Cruz garrisons were arrested. A revolt of 
4,000 Indians in the Department of Cochabamba, 
apparently instigated by pro-Nazi elements as a 
mass protest against the Government's action, was 
quickly suppressed. 

On July 24 the President ordered the discharge 
and dismissal of Major Elias Belmonte, Bolivian 
military attache in Berlin, on a charge of treason 
Simultaneously the Government made public a 
letter, dated Berlin, June 9, from Major Belmonte 
to the German Minister in La Paz, which ended: 



BOLIVIA 



70 



BOUVIA 



My friends in the WilhelnutraBse informed me that from 
your reports the situation is ripe for revolt. I think, how- 
ever, July is the most favorable for action I will fly to 
Brazil upon your advice and take Oochabamba and Santa 
Cruz, where I have good friends I expect, however, your 
last advice to fly to Bolivia ready to commence our work, 
first in Bolivia and then in every Latin-American country 
now under Yankee influence. 

This letter, the Government stated, was inter- 
cepted and submitted to it by the "intelligence 
service of a power fighting against Germany." The 
letter was branded a forgery by Major Belmonte 
and the German Government. When the Bolivian 
Congress convened August 6, the Government sub- 
mitted documentary and other evidence of the 
Nazi plot in secret sessions. As a result the Senate 
on August 16 voted unanimous support of the 
Government's policy in expelling the German Min- 
ister. The Chamber of Deputies on August 12 ap- 
pointed a committee of eight to conduct an inves- 
tigation of the Government's charges. Votes on 
related issues taken during September showed 
about 65 per cent of the Deputies in favor of the 
Government's foreign policy 

The Cabinet was reorganized on October 1, the 
most important change being the appointment of 
a civilian as Minister of Interior for the first time 
since the 1936 coup d'etat. The new Minister im- 
mediately announced the termination of the state 
of siege declared July 19. Congress had rejected 
a Government request for its extension. 

Friction with Reich. Germany retaliated against the 
ousting of its Minister in La Paz and the arrest of 
several German consular and other agents by de- 
taining the Bolivian charge" d'affaires in Berlin and 
arresting a number of Bolivians in German-occu- 
pied countries. This aroused much resentment in 
Bolivia. There were threats of retaliatory action 
against some 5,000 German residents and their 
properties The United States and Bolivia's neigh- 
bor republics gave prompt assurances of their firm 
support in the event of complications with Ger- 
many over the incident Berlin then dropped the 
issue by releasing the Bolivians held in Europe. 

Closer U.S.-Bolivian Ties. These developments 
helped to speed Bolivian-United States collabora- 
tion. The Bolivian Government on September 4 
engaged a U.S. military aviation mission for three 
years. It reached La Paz November 26. The con- 
tract of the Italian military mission was cancelled, 
effective December 31. On August 1 the State De- 
partment at Washington undertook to send eco- 
nomic experts to Bolivia to assist in framing a 
comprehensive program for the development of 
highways, agriculture, and mining. This economic 
mission, headed by Merwin L Bohan, began its 
duties in La Paz on December 17. 



Meanwhile on December 6 the United States 
signed a lease-lend agreement with Bolivia under 
which the La Paz Government obtained funds for 
highway construction and for the development of 
agriculture, mining, and livestock raising. The 
amount was not made public, but was unofficially 
reported at from $10,000,000 to $15,000,000. This 
disappointed many Bolivians who hoped that the 
United States would finance the construction of 
die long-desired Cochabamba-Santa Cruz railway, 
the cost of which was placed at $33,000,000 to 
$40,000,000. Earlier in 1941 U.S. Army engineers 
completed a survey of the railway project and re- 
ported that a modern highway roughly paralleling 
the route could be constructed for $8,000,000. It 
was indicated that this alternative would be 
adopted. 

On December 8, the day after Japan attacked 
the United States, the Bolivian Foreign Minister 
condemned the Japanese aggression and gave. 
Washington assuiances that Bolivia would fulfill 
its obligations of continental solidarity. On Decem- 
ber 10 President Penaranda issued a decree signed 
by the entire Cabinet declaring Bolivian solidarity 
with the United States and with all American 
countries at war with Japan. The decree stated 
tli at Bolivia would not consider as belligerent any 
American country at war in defense of its rights. 
It froze Japanese credits in Bolivia and placed 
Axis nationals under strict supervision. On Decem- 
ber 11 German and Italian funds in Bolivia were 
frozen. 

Other Foreign Relations. Bolivia made additional 
political, economic and cultural accords with the 
neighboring republics during 1941. The provisional 
Argentine-Bolivian agreement of Apr. 2, 1940 (see 
YEAR BOOK for 1940, p. 80) was confirmed in a 
final accord signed Feb. 10, 1941. In it Argentina 
undertook to lend Bolivia funds for construction of 
the first 65 miles ( Yacuiba to Villa Montes ) of the 
projected railway line from the Argentine frontier 
to Santa Cruz The Argentine Government also 
agreed to lend Bolivia not more than 2,000,000 
pesos for the exploitation of new wells in the San- 
andita oil zone, and to construct an oil pipeline 
from the Bolivian wells at Bermejo to Oran or some 
other point on the North Central Argentine Rail- 
way. Two other Argentine-Bolivian agreements 
signed the same date facilitated mutual tourist 
travel and fixed their common boundary along part 
of the Pilcomayo River. An Argentine-Bolivian- 
Paraguayan accord covered joint utilization of the 
Pilcomayo. Five Bolivian-Uruguayan agreements 
on closer economic and cultural collaboration were 
signed February 7 as an immediate result of the 




Courtesy of Bolivia Maya me 



THE TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILWAY PROJECT 








TTi& .T* W^l^'r^'itf 

:^-;f%i 



C7 . Bureau of Reclamation 
PIPE-LAYING AT THE SALT LAKE AQUEDUCT, UTAH 

A SECTION OF THE 70-MILE ALL-AMERICAN CANAL IN IMPERIAL VALLEY, CALIFORNIA 

(See AQUEDUCTS) 




A fine spray of water applied with carrier tanks and pressure sprays 
This accelerates the burning of the bomb and prevents the fire from spreading 



V 





jmt-& < 



A sandbag carried before the face and dropped entire on the bomb- 
The heat will burn through the burlap, releasing the sand which will then run onto and around the bomb 





\ 



OEM Photos by Palmer 

A stirrup pump operated by three or, in emergency, two men: 
One pumps water from a bucket, another holds the nozzle, while a third replenishes the water supply. 

METHODS OF DEALING WITH INCENDIARY BOMBS 



BOLIVIA 



71 



BOMBS 



Regional Conference of the Rio de la Plata (q.v.) 
at Montevideo. 

Economic ties with Brazil were tightened with 
the opening at the end of July of the first section of 
the Corumbd-Santa Cruz Railway, constructed 
with Brazilian funds under the convention of Feb. 
25, 1938. Construction of other sections of the line 
progressed. On Jan. 3, 1941, the Bolivian-Brazilian 
Mixed Commission provided for in the 1938 con- 
vention commenced its study of the industrial 
possibilities of petroleum deposits in the eastern 
foothills of the Bolivian Andes between the Para- 
peti and Grande rivers. 

The Chilean Foreign Minister visited La Paz 
during January and on January 16 signed a Bo- 
livian-Chilean nonaggression pact. Other accords 
concluded at the same time called for establish- 
ment of a mixed commission to draw up a new 
economic convention, and for the exchange of stu- 
dents and professors with each government pro- 
viding 10 scholarships annually 

Economic Developments. Higher prices and ex- 
panded markets for Bolivia's mineral exports in 
1941 encouraged the Government to make a new 
effort to stabilize die currency and check rampant 
inflation. A decree of June 21 established a single 
exchange rate of 46 bolivianos to the U.S. dollar 
(185.15 to the pound sterling), as against the rate 
of 120 bolivianos to the pound fixed Sept. 8, 1939, 
and die preceding rate of 80 to the pound. The 
Central Bank and commercial banks were subse- 
quently required to revalue their gold and foreign 
exchange holdings at the official exchange rate. The 
"profit" of 183,583,000 bolivianos accruing to the 
Central Bank was used m part to redeem two short- 
term foreign loans (119,501,000 bolivianos) and 
25,486,000 bolivianos of internal loans, and in part 
for exchange stabilization ( 38,000,000 ) and for ad- 
ministrative expenses. 

The rapid rise in the cost of living continued, 
creating further political difficulties. The prices of 
domestic wheat, cotton and barley were raised 40 
to 45 per cent in June to keep farm prices in line 
with other costs. Further price fixing and control 
regulations were issued July 24. A decree of Au- 
gust 22 authorized salary increases for industrial 
and commercial employees ranging 5 to 30 per 
cent higher than those in effect July 1, 1940. To 
prevent further dislocation of the economic system, 
all exports except those especially authorized by 
the Minister of Finance were banned on August 19. 

A bill to increase wages of all public and private 
employees 20 to 40 per cent was held up in the 
Senate in October after passing the Chamber. 
When railway workers direatened a nation-wide 
strike to force passage of the measure, the Govern- 
ment on October 17 called them to the colors and 
ordered the army to operate the lines if necessary. 
Declaring this measure unconstitutional, street-car, 
bus and printing trades workers in La Paz struck 
to enforce the wage demands. The walkout was 
ended October 26 when the Government agreed to 
a 20 per cent wage increase for those groups on 
strike. The sympathy strikes were ended soon after- 
ward. On Octooer 31 the Chamber approved the 
Government's handling of the strike, 55 to 22. The 
next day a new Cabinet was sworn in which in- 
cluded the first civilian Minister of Interior since 
1936. 

The Bolivian oil monopoly was declared in Feb- 
ruary to require a loan of at least 30,000,000 bo- 
livianos to place it on a stable financial basis. On 
March 31 it was authorized to borrow 25,000,000. 
However the board of directors resigned because 
of criticism of the gasoline shortage and higher 



gasoline prices in the plateau region. A new board 
was appointed by the Government. 

See ARGENTINA, BRAZIL, and CHILE under His- 
tory, CUSTOMS, BUREAU OF; LEND-LEASE ADMIN- 
ISTRATION; PAN AMERICANISM; PAN AMERICAN 
UNION; REGIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE Rio DE LA 
PLATA; TELEPHONY. 

BOMBARDMENT. Compare Am RAIDS. For BOMBARD- 
MENT INSURANCE, sec INSURANCE. 

BOMBS. There arc three types: high explosive, in- 
cendiary, and gas bombs. 

High explosives are projected from a gun by a pro- 
pellant of cellulose tri-mtrate (nitrocellulose ) . Cord- 
ite, used extensively by the- English, contains a 
mixture of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine. In the 
shell itself there are three compartments. In the 
nose of the shell is a readily cxploshe material, a 
detonator, such as mercury fulminate, lead azid or, 
lately, pentaerythntol tetramtrate This use of mer- 
cury in detonators places it on the strategic list. 
The preparation of pentaerydintol tetramtrate re- 
quires formaldehyde; in fact, the chief chemical 
bottleneck this year came from a lack of high pres- 
sure equipment for preparing formaldehyde and 
ammonia for these explosives. The detonator is 
carefully protected against accidental explosion: 
there is a pin to be pulled out before the shell is 
fired, and some shells have a slug which is swung 
to one side by die centrifugal force of the shell as 
it twists its way out of the gun. Next, in die shell, 
is a booster usually trinitro-methyl mtramine (tetryl). 
Any timing device such as a slow-burning fuse, is 
located here. The remainder, and bulk of the shell 
contains a high explosive (H.E.) charge, commonly 
picric acid, TNT ( tri-nitro-toluene ) , or a mixture 
of one of these with ammonium nitrate. A 50:50 or 
20 80 mixture of TNT: ammonium nitrate called 
amitol is widely used since it is much cheaper than 
TNT alone. The high explosive bombs are of two 
sorts. ( 1 ) Fragmentation shells, weighing about 30 
Ib each and containing 4.5 Ib. of TNT shatter into 
more than a thousand pieces the instant they strike 
the ground. (2) Demolition and armor piercing 
bombs, weighing 100 to 4,000 Ib., are equipped 
with a time fuse so that they explode about Mo,oooth 
of a second after they hit the ground, giving time 
to penetrate before exploding. 

Incendiaries have been used to dislodge the enemy 
since ancient times. The Assyrians were acquainted 
with liquid fire. Greek fire, probably a mixture of 
petroleum and quicklime, kept die invader from 
Constantinople for a diousand years, and thereby 
preserved Creek culture. The high explosives in- 
vented at the end of the past century were so su- 
perior, that the use of liquid fire ceased, but today 
the airplane has brought back incendiaries as a 
major weapon. The following chemicals are used in 
incendiary bombs. 

(1) Oil bombs, often containing sodium. These 
are large 250 Ib. bombs for shipyards and docks. 
The oil is often mixed with aluminum stearate soap, 
to form a jelly, called solid oil. The sodium reacts 
with water to evolve hydrogen, and the whole 
catches fire spontaneously. 

(2) Phosphorus. These may contain solidified phos- 
phorus or white phosphorus dissolved in a solvent 
and confined between sheets of pyroxylin ( cellulose 
nitrate); the phosphorus ignites upon contact with 
the air. Phosphorus bombs were reported to be 
successful in setting fire to the paper-straw houses 
in Chungking; but since the flame is relatively cool, 
it does not normally ignite wood. However, ten 
thousand such "visiting cards" scattered from a 



BOMBS 



72 



BOTANY 



CHEMICAL WARFARE GASES 



Physiological Chemical Warfare Common or Chemical 
Classification Strnce Symbol Name and Formula 


Odor in Air 


Phytical Properties 


Lacrymators 
(Tear gas) 


CN 
CNS 
CA 


Chloracetophenone 
CH-CO-CHiCl 
CN+PS + 
Chloroform 
Brombenzyl cyanide 
CeHi-CH-BrCN 


ripe fruit or floor 
polish 
fly paper; sweetish 

sour fruit 


non-persistent solid 
moderately persistent liquid 
persistent liquid 


Sternutators 
(Sneeze gases) . . 


DA 
DM 
CDA 


Diphenyl chlorareine 
(C 6 H>) AsCl 
Adamsite; diphenyl- 
amme chlorarsine 
Diphenyl cyanarsine 
(CeH) AsCN 


shoe polish 
odorless 
bitter almonds 


non-persistent solid 
ditto 
ditto 


Lung Irritants 
(Choking gases) .... 


Cl 

CG 
PS 


Chlorine, Clj 

Phosgene; COClj 
Chloropicrm, 
CClsNOt 


pungent 

musty-hay 
sweetish, fly 
paper 


non-persistent gas 

ditto 
moderately persistent liquid 


Vesicants 
(Blister gases) 


HS 

M 1 

ED 


Mustard 
(C,H4Cl)i8 
Lewisite 
CHClCHAsClt 

Ethyldichlorareme 


garlic; horse-radish 
geraniums 
fruit; biting 


persistent liquid 
ditto 
moderately persistent liquid 


Other gases 




Hydrogen sulfide, HS 
Arsine, AeH 


rotton eggs 
odorless 


non-persistent gas 
ditto 



single airplane over wheat fields and forests could 
start many fires. 

(3) Thermif, used chiefly in 1917-18. The thermit 
bomb is a steel shell filled with black iron hammer 
scale, from the ingots hammered in the forges, and 
granulated aluminum. The reaction 3Fe,O 4 + 8A1 
-> 9Fe + 4A1 2 O 8 is highly exothermic; the tempera- 
ture rises to 3,000 C., at which temperature the 
molten iron melts through brick and cement. Since 
the mixture furnishes its own oxygen, it cannot be 
extinguished by smothering. In fact the entire bomb 
burns in about one minute, so it is handled like an 
ordinary fire. 

(4) Magnesium, with a thermit core. The shell is of 
Dowmetal (German, electron) containing 86 per 
cent Mg, 13 per cent Al, and the remainder Cu. A 
detonator ignites black powder; this ignites the 
thermit core, which in turn ignites the Dowmetal 
shell. Since magnesium catches fire at its melting 
point, 651 C., and since the temperature of the 
burning alloy is 1,300, the ordinary 2.2 Ib. ( 1 kilo- 
gram) bomb melts to a pool of alloy within two 
minutes. Some of the molten magnesium also vapor- 
izes (B P. 1,100 C ) and burns as a gas. These mag- 
nesium bombs were used in the devastating raids 
on London in December, 1940. The Italians used 
them effectively in 1936 against Ethiopia, throwing 
them like hand grenades. Russia used them in Fin- 
land, mounting them in a rack of 36 bombs, which 
were scattered upon landing. They were dubbed 
"Molotov breadbaskets." 

Unlike thermit, magnesium burns with oxygen 
in the air. But it reacts so vigorously with water, 
Mg + H a O - MgO + H^ liberating hydrogen which 
in turn explodes, that a stream of water cannot 
safely be directed against it. It also reacts with CO a 
and N,, so that it cannot be "smothered" with a 
snuffer. The snuffers are used, in England, to hide 
the light from the burning bomb. Wet sand, asbes- 
tos, talc, and other materials containing water 
physically or chemically bound are similarly dan- 
gerous. Dry sand is useful in confining the burning, 
but does not extinguish the bomb. G-l, a graphite- 
hydrocarbon mixture marketed by Dow-Pyrene this 
spring is the only truly effective extinguisher for 
these bombs; it is sold in kegs of 40 and 250 Ib. for 
factories working with magnesium, sodium, and 
similarly dangerous materials. Common household 
protection against a magnesium bomb is to direct a 



fine spray, not a stream, of water against the burn- 
ing pool of magnesium; by this device the bomb is 
made to burn more fiercely, and is consumed in 
two minutes; undisturbed it would continue to burn 
for fifteen minutes Stirrup pumps, used extensively 
in England, require three operators: one to refill the 
bucket from which the pump draws its water, an- 
other to work the pump, and a third to creep up to 
the burning metal and spray it. It is dangerous to 
approach the bomb during the first minute and a 
half after it ignites, since the Germans put an ex- 
plosive charge in some of their magnesium bombs. 
See FIRE PROTECTION 

Gas bombs contain one or more dangerous gases. 
Some of the more commonly used gases and their 
charactei istics are tabulated above The common 
civilian gas mask gives complete and total protec- 
tion against all of these poisonous gases, with the 
exception of the vesicants. 

HUBERT N ALYEA. 

BONAIRE ISLAND. See CURASAO. 
BOND PRICES. See FINANCIAL REVIEW. 
BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION. See POWER, 
DIVISION OF. 

BONUS, Cost-of-Living. See LABOR CONDITIONS under 
Wages. 

BOOKS. See LITERATURE, ENGLISH AND AMERICAN, 
the articles on foreign literatures, as FRENCH LIT- 
ERATURE; the bibliographies under the various top- 
ics; LIBRARY PROGRESS. For MICROFILMING OF 
BOOKS, see PHOTOGRAPHY under Applied and 
Scientific. 

BOOTLEGGING. See LIQUOR PRODUCTION 
BORDER PATROL. See IMMIGRATION. 
BORNEO. See BRITISH MALAYA; NETHERLANDS IN- 
DIES under Area and Population. 
BOSTON. See AQUEDUCTS; PORTS AND HARBORS; 
RAPID TRANSIT; WATER WORKS. For BOSTON TRAN- 
SCRIPT, see NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES. 

BOTANY. Polyploidy in Plants. There are various meth- 
ods for inducing polyploidy heat, X-rays, colchi- 
cine, and other substances. Blakeslee (Amer. Nat.) 
has described the effect of induced polyploidy in 
plants. In his work, colchicine was the principal 
reagent employed. The polyploid plants showed in- 
crease in the size of the flower, increase in the size 
of the pollen grains, changes in the shape of the 



BOTANY 



73 



BOTANY 



CHEMICAL WARFARE GASES CONTINUED 



Physical Effect 



First Aid Treatment 



Casualty at once Wash with 10% sodium bicarbonate in alcohol, wash e>es with boric acid. 

ditto 
ditto 



e>e and skin irritation 
violent eye irritation 
like CNS 



Headache, vomiting, sneezing 
ditto 
ditto 



Casualty in 10 minutes Sniff Cl from bleaching powder bottle 

ditto 
ditto 



burns upper reBpiratory tract 

burns lower respiratory tract 
vomiting, tears 



Casualty at once Keep quiel and warm, no aitihcial rebpimtiun, muff eth>l alcohol 

Casually may be deluded Keep ven quiet and varm Give heivrt stimulants, or oxygen. 
CasualU 1-4 hours Keep quiet and waun Give light stimulants. 



blisters after 12 hours 



Wash immediately with warm \vater, soap, antigat* ointment or bleach 



blisters like HS, but immediately Ca&ualty in 1 hour Keep waim and quiet Wash immediately with warm water or soap 

solution 
burns respiratory tract Casualty in half houi Treat a.s M 1 Remove to hospital 



headache, loss of consciousness 
ditto 



Casualty after several houiH Keep vcr> still Gi\e vuu m sweetened tea (iet medical care. 

ditto 



capsule of Datura, and in the forms of the fruits 
of various Cucurbits. One of the most striking ef- 
fects is changing sterile hybrids into feitilc ones 
Emsweller und Ruttle ( Amer. Nat. ) have discussed 
the value of induced polyploidy in floriculture. Two 
principal advantages are great increase m the size 
of flowers and increased fertility, resulting in abun- 
dant seed production. Many distinct types of new 
varieties of ornamental plants have originated in 
this way. Clausen (Amcr Nat ) has reviewed the 
occurrence of polyploidy in the genus Nicotiana, 
pointing out its value in connection with the tobacco 
crop. Newcomer ( Jour Hered. ) induced tetraploids 
in Cosmos, studying the various types of new plants 
which originated. Naphthalene-acetic acid was effec- 
tive in producing polyploids in the bean (Derman, 
Jour. Hered.). Irradiation with doses of X-rays in- 
duced many types of mutations in field beans ( Cen- 
ter and Brown, Jour. Hered.). The application of 
sulfanilamide to the bean and the onion resulted in 
the production of polyploid cells, as well as various 
types of nuclear changes (Traub, Jour. Hered.). 

Genetics. A study of earhness of flowering in the 
sweet pea was made by Little and Kanto (Jour 
Hered.). The early flowering type suddenly ap- 
peared several decades ago and made possible new 
varieties of this plant of horticultural value. These 
authors found that the lateness of flowering of the 
original type was dominant to earhness of flower- 
ing. Bamford (Jour. Hered.) has reported on the 
complex chromosome number of Gladiolus and 
pointed out the relation of the chromosomes to the 
successful hybridization of different types. Several 
species of Gladiolus are involved in the origin of 
horticultural varieties. A detailed analysis of the 
inheritance of seed-coat colors in the common bean 
(Phaseolus vulgaris) was made by Prakken (Ge- 
netica). 

Prakken found that seven different factors were 
involved in the production of the various types of 
seed-coat color. Singleton ( Amer. Nat. ) relates the 
history of hybrid vigor and its utilization in sweet- 
corn breeding. Various factors are evidently in- 
volved in bringing about the increased yield when 
distinct strains are crossed. However, no final ex- 
planation of the cause of hybrid vigor has been 
found. Hatcher ( Ann. Bot. ) studied the effect of the 
removal of flowers on the manifestation of hybrid 
vigor in tomatoes, and concluded that some specific 



effect of hybndity leads to the greater vigor of 
growth in the hybrids. 

The inheritance of disease resistance has been 
further investigated. Reed (Amer. Jour. Bot.) has 
reported results in the inheritance of resistance to 
smut in oat hybrids. In some of the hybrids a single 
factor for resistance was found, while in other 
crosses two, or even three, distinct factors were in- 
voh ed. The factors for resistance to different physi- 
ologic races of the parasite were inherited inde- 
pendently. Stanford and Bnggs (Jour. Agr. Res.) 
have made further studies on the resistance to 
powdery mildew in barley crosses. They record the 
occun encc of two additional factors, a total of 
seven now being recognized for mildew resistance 
in v anous varieties of barley. Zaumcyer and Harter 
( Jour. Agr. Res. ) have investigated the mhentance 
of resistance to six physiologic races of rust in bean 
hybrids. In some of the races resistance seems to be 
due to a single factor. In some of the hybrids re- 
sistance appears to be dominant and in others, in- 
completely so. 

Mycology and Plant Pathology. In recent years sex- 
uality in the higher fungi has attracted the atten- 
tion of a large number of investigators. The diploid 
condition arises at various points in the life history 
of the different fungi. Nuclear fusion may follow 
soon after cell fusion, or be delayed for a long 
period m development. Buller ( Bot. Rev. ) has re- 
viewed very fully the literature on the diploid cell 
and diploidization process in plants and animals, 
with special reference to the higher fungi. The 
value of the fungi for genetic analysis has been em- 
phasized by Lindegren ( Iowa State Col. Jour. Sci. ) . 
Many of the fungi can be grown in culture and 
mature progeny obtained in two to three weeks. 
The cultures may be kept for many months and 
studied in every stage of development. They can 
be replanted and grown under different environal 
conditions. Further, in the fungi it is usually the 
haploid generation that is studied, and genetic data 
may be obtained in which there is no obscuring 
effect of dominance and recessiveness such as may 
be found in the diploid generation. The extensive 
data obtained by a large number of workers is an 
indication of the value of this type of material for 
genetic experiments. Keitt and Langford (Amer. 
Jour. Bot.) have investigated the causal organism 
of apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) from the point 



BOTANY 



74 



BOXING 



of view of genetics. They have studied the cultural 
characteristics of different strains and isolated cul- 
tures from the perfect stage and followed out, in 
part, the genetic behavior. The authors emphasize 
that many investigators of genetic problems re- 
lating to plant disease resistance have placed the 
major emphasis on the host. However, the parasite 
and host are of coordinate importance in determin- 
ing die disease reaction. Kunkel ( Amer. Jour. Bot. ) 
has found that the yellows disease of periwinkle 
plants, due to a virus, could be cured by treatment 
at 38 to 42 C. for 2 weeks. If the diseased plants 
were placed in a water bath, a temperature of 40 to 
45 for a few hours was sufficient. The cured plants 
were reinoculated and cured repeatedly. 

An excellent summary of the history of plant 
pathology has been written by E. C. Large (Henry 
Holt & Co.). The story of the discovery of copper 
compounds and their modern application, the kill- 
ing of parasites with heat, and other procedures, 
are presented. Interesting comments are made on 
the background of political, economic, and social 
effects, as well as on the men who made the dis- 
coveries. See ENTOMOLOGY, ECONOMIC. 

Taxonomy. Goodspeed has written an interesting 
account of his exploration in South America, Plant 
Hunters in the Andes (Farrar & Rinehart, Inc.). 
Several expeditions were made, the primary pur- 
pose of which was the collection of species of 
Nicotiana in order to trace out the history of this 
genus, to which the tobacco belongs. Fernald ( Con- 
trib. Gray Herbarium, Harvard Univ.) has con- 
tinued his survey of the flora of Virginia. In his re- 
cent publication he has described his explorations, 
and emphasizes the great additions to a knowledge 
of Virginia plants due to a century of botanical 
work. Cutler and Anderson (Ann. Mo. Bot. Card.) 
have reviewed the genus Tripsacum, describing 
seven species. This genus is important since some 
species, at least, can be hybridized with maize. 

Physiology. Studies continue to be made on the 
role of various chemical elements in the growth of 
plants. Many of the maladies of plants may be 
traced to the absence of traces of ooron, copper, 
and other elements. A very good summary of the 
effects of these deficiencies, illustrated by colored 
plates, has been prepared by a group of authors 
under the title of 'Hunger Signs in Crops" (Amer. 
Soc. Agron. ) . Allard and Garner ( Jour. Agr. Res. ) 
have studied the reaction of plants to variable 
ratios of light and darkness. The phenomenon of 
photoperiooism shows increased complexity as a re- 
sult of further investigation of the factors involved. 
Arthur and Harvill (Contrib. Boyce Thompson 
Inst.) determined the influence of low temperature 
and light on the flowering in Digitalis purpurea. A 
preliminary period of cold treatment brought about 
a rapid flowering when the plants were returned to 
a long day and higher temperature. Guthrie ( Con- 
trib. Boyce Thompson Inst.) found that the rest 
period of peach buds could be broken by sprays of 
various compounds, including a-nitronaphthalene. 
He also found that yeast extracts were effective in 
breaking the rest period of the buds of the pear. 
Van Overbeek, Conklin, and Blakeslee (Amer. Jour. 
Bot. ) attempted to bring about parthenogenesis by 
the chemical stimulation of the young ovule, using 
a large number of chemicals on polyploid strains or 
Melandrium dioicum and Datura stramonium, with 
no specific results in the production of haploids. 
However, interesting data on the mechanism of the 
development of fruit, seed, and embryo, were se- 
cured. The same authors ( Science ) report on a pre- 
liminary study on the growth and development of 
very young embryos of Datura and discovered that 



some materials in coconut milk were essential. 
Hitherto, no one has been successful in growing 
very young embryos of plants, although mature or 
nearly mature embryos may readily DC grown in 
culture. 

Botanical History. A short history of botany has 
been written by H. S. Reed (Chronica Botanica 
Co. ) . While the history of taxonomic botany is pre- 
sented, great emphasis is placed upon other aspects, 
such as physiology ( including photosynthesis, plant 
nutrition, the role of mineral elements ) , geography, 
cytology, mycology, and plant pathology. 

GEORGE M. REED. 

BOULDER CANYON PROJECT. See POWER, DIVISION OF. 
BOUNDARY DISPUTES. See ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, 
COSTA RICA, ECUADOR, FINLAND, HUNGARY, PERU, 
RUMANIA, THAILAND, YUGOSLAVIA, under History. 

BOWLING. This sport continued to grow in 1941 
and casual bowlers were unable to get an alley 
upon which to perform, despite the Federal report 
that there was $729,000,000 worth of bowling 
equipment in alleys, balls, etc. at the end of the 
year. During the period the receipts of bowling and 
billiard establishments ran to $87,450,000, mostly 
from bowling, and three and a half times as much 
as the baseball total take. Alleys all over the coun- 
try were on a twenty-four hour basis, with bowlers 
using them every chance they got. - 

The forty-first American Bowling Congress, at 
St. Paul, Minn., ran for fifty-five days and nights 
and was witnessed by more than 150,000 specta- 
tors, a record. There were twenty-five single totals 
of better than 700, and 1,952 of better than 600. 
And there were outstanding achievements when 
William Haar of Chicago rolled 300, the ninth 
perfect game in A.B C. history and William Caskey 
of Canton, O., rolled 299, the tenth such ever 
bowled in an A.B.C. event and the second in five- 
man competition. 

Fred Ruff, of Belleville, 111., won the singles title 
with 745, and was ninth in the all-events. Harry 
Kelly, of South Bend, Ind., won the all-events witn 
2,013 and team honors were taken by the Vogel 
Brothers five of Forest Park, 111., with a total of 
3,065 pins toppled. The doubles fell to Ray Far- 
ness and William Lee of Madison, Wis., when Far- 
ness hit 767, highest of die tournament and fifth 
highest in history. The doubles total was 1,346. 

Mrs Nancy Huff won the singles at the Wom- 
en's International Bowling Congress at Milwaukee 
when the Los Angeles kegler rolled 662. The all- 
events went to Mrs. Sally Twyford of Aurora, 111., 
with 1,799, and the doubles to Miss Mary Jane 
Hogan and Mrs. Jo Pittenger of Los Angeles with 
1,155. The Rovick team of Chicago took five-wom- 
an honors with 2,662. 

BOXING. Joe Louis once again completely domi- 
nated the fistic scene in 1941, defending the heavy- 
weight championship, acquired in June 1937 from 
Jimmy Braddock, seven times, as many as Jack 
Dempsey and Jack Johnson defended in seven 
years of clutching the bauble. The great Negro, 
who late in the year was classified in 1-A but was 
not called to Army duty before the end of the year, 
first put away Red Burman in New York in Janu- 
ary and the next month pulverized Gus Dorazio in 
Philadelphia. March was devoted to letting pon- 
derous Abe Simon go into the thirteenth round in 
Detroit, and April saw Louis in St. Louis finally 
stopping awkward Tony Musto. In May he went to 
Washington, D.C., where he stopped Buddy Baer, 
younger brother of the former champion, in seven 



BOXING 



75 BRAZIL 



rounds, after Buddy had knocked Louis out of the 
ring in the first, and lost on a technicality. Al- 
though thoroughly unconscious on his feet, the offi- 
cial ruling was that Baer had lost by disqualifica- 
tion when his manager, Ancil Hoffman, refused to 
leave the ring, yelling that Louis had hit Baer after 
the bell to end the seventh. 

In June Louis was put against stylish Billy Conn, 
who abdicated his light-heavyweight championship 
to get the lucrative bout, which drew $451,753, 
and who was greatly outweighed, 174 to 199% 
Conn almost had the Negro out in the twelfth, only 
to succumb to body blows from earlier rounds and 
thunderous head punches in the thirteenth. Conn's 
showing prompted the belief that Louis was slip- 
ping, ana that the next man to face him, given 
adequate poundage, would whip him and end an 
era. The next man was Lou Nova, late in Septem- 
ber, after the tired champion had had a deserved 
rest. Nova was stopped in the final second of the 
sixth round, and the experts recorded that Louis 
was better than ever. The chance that Louis might 
finally be beaten in this nineteenth defense of the 
title drew 56,549 customers to New York's Polo 
Grounds, and a gross gate of $583,771, but the 
challenger never was in the running 

The light-heavyweight division was finally cleared 
and the year 1941 ended with Gus Lesnevich, a 
plodding, unexciting veteran from New Jersey, in 
command of the purple. Agreement between the 
warring New York State Athletic Commission and 
the National Boxing Association came about in 
May. The N.B.A. had voted Lesnevich champion 
when he defeated Anton Christoforidis, but New 
York still called the spot vacated by Conn vacant. 
Then Lesnevich and New York's challenger, Tami 
Mauriello, met in New York and Mauriello was 
beaten on a split decision. Then even the New 
York commissioners declared Lesnevich champion. 
Late in the year Lesnevich again trounced the 
youngster. 

The middleweight class was thoroughly muddled 
through the year by weight the habit of young 
men of adding to their avoirdupois as they grow 
older. Billy Soose, a Penn. State graduate, con- 
quered Ken Overlin for the title, as recognized in 
New York, early in the year on a highly disputed 
decision Meanwhile Tony Zale, a Chicagoan, had 
taken the N B.A. version from Al Hostak, the Se- 
attle puncher. Soose then was beaten in an over- 
the-weight match by Georgie Abrams, stable mate 
of Overlin, and immediately decided to abandon 
the throne because of weight difficulty and cam- 
paign as a light-heavyweight in the future. Overlin 
also reported into the heavier ranks, as did Hostak, 
and late in November Zale and Abrams fought in 
New York for the undisputed title, with Zale a 
stylish winner over the Virginian. 

Two amazing upsets occurred in the welter- 
weight ranks. The first came in January when 
Fritzie Zivic knocked out the great Henry Arm- 
strong, once holder of three titles, to cement the 
tide taken on points late in 1940. Zivic was con- 
sidered a fine fighter and after he belabored Al 
Davis, and fought a thrilling draw with Lew Jen- 
kins he was surprisingly outpointed in fifteen 
rounds in Newark in August by Freddie (Red) 
Cochrane, who had been beaten twenty-two times 
in other bouts. Cochrane later whipped Jenkins 
when that Texan was ill, and Zivic was later beaten 
by young Ray Robinson, a Negro boy who came 
flashing out of Harlem inside the year to take his 
place as one of the best fighters in the business. 
Cochrane meanwhile enlisted in the Navy. Zivic 
was held to a draw at the close of the year by 



Young Kid McCoy, another newcomer, but had a 
date to meet Robinson again early in the new year, 
with the winner to get a shot at Cochrane. 

Sammy Angott wound up the year undisputed 
lightweight champion when this N.B.A. champion 
whipped Jenkins, New York choice, a few days 
before Christmas. Angott won easily in one of the 
dullest fights on record. In the featherweight ranks, 
Pittsburgh Jackie Wilson was recognized in N.B.A. 
ranks because of two triumphs over Richie Lemos, 
while the New York solons called Chalky Wright 
purple wearer. Lou Salica was universally recog- 
nized bantamweight boss, although beaten twice 
in the Philippines by Kui Kong Young and Rush 
Dalma. Little Dado held sway in the unpopular 
flyweight division despite late defeats at the hands 
of Young, a clever Chinese. See NEGROES. 

Amateur. Amateur boxing fell off in interest 
among the participants and among the spectators 
The lack of Olympic or International competition 
was mainly responsible for this as well as the ap- 
parent decline of amateur sports since the start of 
the war, and the rise of professional sports. Sports 
analysts were at a loss to explain this phenomenon, 
which also existed during the first World War, 
when paid performers were much more attended 
than the amateurs. The University of Idaho took 
the National Collegiate A.A. team title, with three 
individual winners, and Syracuse dominated in the 
East with five individual winners in the Eastern 
Inter-Collegiate competition. The surprise of the 
National A.A.U. championships came when three 
Massachusetts boxers, two from Lowell, accounted 
for titles. 

CASWELL ADAMS. 

BRAZIL. A republic of South America, comprising 
20 States, the Federal District, and one Territory. 
Capital, Rio de Janeiro. 

Area and Population. Area, 3,285,318 square 
miles; population, estimated at 45,002,176 in 1940 
(30,635,605 at 1920 census). Immigrants in 1940 
numbered 33,285 (Portuguese, 13,123; North 
Americans, 4,337; Argentinians, 3,516; Germans, 
1,783; Japanese, 1,471). United States citizens re- 
siding in Brazil Jan. 1, 1941, numbered 4,240. 
There are strong infusions of Negro and Indian 
blood in the northern States. Estimated populations 
of the chief cities: Rio de Janeiro, 1,896,998; Sao 
Paulo, 1,322,643; Recife (Pernambuco), 529,863; 
Sao Salvador (Bahia), 510,102; Porto Alegre, 368,- 
352; Belem (Para), 309,238. Portuguese is the offi- 
cial and principal language, but Italian and Ger- 
man are widely used. 

Defense. Military training is compulsory for all 
males from 21 to 45 years of age, the first year in 
the ranks and the rest in the reserve. The active 
army on Jan. 1, 1941, numbered 81,111 officers and 
men. Trained reserves totaled 290,818, including 
32,500 State troops. The army and navy air arms 
were merged early in 1941 to form an air force of 
over 100 planes and 3,500 officers and men. The 
navy consists of 2 battleships and 3 cruisers, all 
laid down in 1907 but extensively refitted; 16 de- 
stroyers and torpedo boats, 3 river monitors, 4 sub- 
marines, and 6 minelayers. Brazil has the only 
yards in Latin America capable of building war- 
ships (at Rio de Janeiro). A United States naval 
mission instructs the navy. In 1938 Brazil con- 
tracted for a U.S. military mission; under a new 
agreement signed Jan. 17, 1941, its personnel was 
expanded to provide both military and military 
aviation instructors. 

Education and Religion. About 70 per cent of the 
adult population are illiterate. There are approxi- 



BHAZIL 



76 



BRAZIL 



mately 2,670,000 pupils enrolled in 36,661 pri- 
mary schools. In 1936 there were about 450 high 
schools, 383 domestic schools, 328 normal schools, 
874 special schools and 248 superior schools. There 
is a national university in Rio de Janeiro and three 
private universities in Porto Alegre, Bello Hori- 
zonte and Curityba. Roman Catholicism is the pre- 
dominant religion. 

Production. Agriculture, stock-raising, and manu- 
facturing are the principal occupations. Brazil ranks 
first in coffee production, second in cacao, third in 
sugar and tobacco, and fourth in cotton. Coffee ac- 
counted for 32.1 per cent of the value of all exports 
in 1940 and raw cotton for 16.9 per cent (39.8 and 
20.7, respectively, in 1939). Coffee production in 
1940 was estimated at 20,850,000 bags (132 Ib. 
each), of which 12,097,584 bags were shipped 
overseas and 2,816,063 bags were destroyed. Bra- 
zil's 1940-41 export quota under the inter- Ameri- 
can coffee agreement was 9,300,000 bags. Yields of 
other leading crops were: Cotton, 2,199,000 bales 
in 1940-41; sugar, 1,272,405 short tons (esti- 
mated) in 1940-41. 

Livestock in 1941: 41,872,874 cattle, 23,521,666 
swine, 5,850,801 goats, 6,709,310 horses, 4,118,- 
073 asses and mules. In 1940 99,993 metric tons of 
fresh meats and 47,908 metric tons of canned meats 
were exported. 

Mineral production for 1940 (in metric tons) 
was: Pig iron, 185,300; steel ingots and castings, 
141,000; rolled steel, 135,300; coal, 1,336,300; 
cement, 743,634, manganese, 217,342 (exports). 
The 1940 gold output was 140,000 oz.; diamonds, 
about 20,000 carats. Salt, chrome, monazite and 
various other minerals are produced. The forests 
yield rubber (exports, 11,835 metric tons in 1940); 
carnauba wax (exports, 8,653 metric tons in 1940), 
oil seeds, and hardwoods. The leading manufactur- 
ing industries are cotton weaving, sugar refining, 
flour milling, meat packing and the fabrication of 
machinery, paper, textile products, tobacco prod- 
ucts. There were more than 60,000 industrial estab- 
lishments in 1941, powered from 1,200 electric 
plants with a capacity of more than 1,100,000 kw. 

Foreign Trade. Imports in 1940 totaled 4,966,518,- 
000 milreis (5,615,519,000 in 1939); exports, 
4,964,149,000 (4,983,632,000) Leading exports 
in 1940 were (in milreis): Coffee, 1,595,229,000; 
raw cotton, 837,955,000; fresh meats, 244,336,000; 
hides and skins, 221,759,000, canned meats, 220,- 
768,000; cacao, 191,759,000; carnauba wax, 169,- 
411,000, castor oil seed, 119,745,000. Imports, in 
order of value, were machinery and apparatus, 
wheat, iron and steel products, automobiles, coal 
and coke, chemicals, other vehicles, gasoline, raw 
iron and steel. The United States supplied 51.9 per 
cent of the 1940 imports (33.6 in 1939); Argentina, 
10.8 (8.4); Great Britain, 9.4 (9.3). Of the ex- 
ports, the United States took 42.3 per cent in 1940 
(36.2 in 1939); Great Britain, 17.3 (9.6); Argen- 
tina, 7.2 (5.5). 

Finance. The original budget estimates for 1941 
placed receipts at 4,124,546,000 milreis (ordinary, 
3,637,043,000; extraordinary, 451,503,000) and ex- 
penditures at 4,881,197,000 milreis. 

Service on the foreign debt was partially re- 
sumed Apr. 1, 1940. This debt was substantially 
reduced during 1940 to the following totals as of 
Jan. 1, 1941: 334,185,845 U.S. dollars, 152,816,- 
724 pounds sterling, 229,185,500 gold francs, 518,- 
217,337 French paper francs, and 6,493,100 Dutch 
florins. The internal funded debt on Jan. 1, 1940, 
was 5,081,189,000 milreis; floating debt, 2,541,- 
095,000 milreis. U.S. Export-Import Bank loans to 
Brazil outstanding Mar. 31, 1941, totaled $13,545,- 



000. Commitments for additional credits of $51,- 
392,000 were outstanding. Average exchange rates 
of the milreis in 1940 were (in U.S. currency): 
Official, $0.06061 ($0.05942 in 1939); free market, 
$005053, special free market, $0.04831; curb, 
$0.04668 ($0.04802 in 1939). 

Transportation. Brazil in 1940 had 21,242 miles 
of railway line, 129,057 miles of highways, and 
domestic and foreign air services connecting most 
of the principal cities. New air routes were estab- 
lished during 1940 and 1941, while some old routes 
were extended. The Italian LATI system continued 
the weekly service from Rome to Natal, Brazil, be- 

un in 1940. In 1941 the German-controlled Con- 
or Syndicate opened the Terezina-Fortaleza and 
other new lines over relatively uninhabited regions 
(see History). The 1940 traffic statistics for all 
commercial air lines in Brazil were: Flights, 7,900, 
passengers, 70,734; mileage, 4,337,300. A total of 
5,244 ships of 16,431,469 registered tons entered 
Brazilian ports in 1940 as against 6,782 ships of 
27,993,941 tons m 1939. 

Government. The Constitution of Nov. 10, 1937, 
provided for the i eorganization of Brazil along the 
lines of a corporative state ( see YEAR BOOK, 1937, 
p. 102). Actually President Getuho Vargas con- 
tinued to rule as a personal dictator. He became 
provisional President Nov. 3, 1930, after leading a 
successful military revolt. Under the Constitution of 
July 16, 1934, he was elected constitutional Presi- 
dent the following day for a four-year term. The 
1937 Constitution extended his term for six years 
from 1938. The principal members of his cabinet 
in 1941 were: Foreign Affairs, Oswaldo Aranha, 
Interior and Justice, Francisco Campos; Navy, 
Adm. Aristides Guilhem; War, Gen. Enrico G. 
Dutra; Finance, Arthur de Souza Costa. 

HISTORY 

The eleventh year of the Vargas regime passed 
without any marked change in the President s per- 
sonal dictatorship. Again no step was taken toward 
establishing the governmental organs provided for 
m the 1937 constitution Nevertheless Vargas's rule 
appeared to be willingly accepted by most Bra- 
zilians There was little evidence of anti-govern- 
ment political agitation, except for such minor in- 
cidents as the arrest of 30 alleged Communists in 
Sao Paulo on March 31. Meanwhile the President 
pressed forward with his nationalistically inspired 
economic and social reform program. In the inter- 
national field, his Government moved into closer 
political, military and economic alignment with the 
United States. 

Collaboration with United States. The spread of the 
European War made Brazil increasingly dependent 
upon the United States for defense against a pos- 
sible German attack from Africa, for armaments 
and other manufactures not available in Brazil, for 
markets for Brazil's surplus products, arid for cap- 
ital for the development of Brazilian industries 
The United States filled all of these needs, in vary- 
ing degrees, and in return obtained the use of 
Brazilian air and naval bases and Brazilian aid 
short of war when the United States entered the 
world conflict. 

The Brazilian Government's shift from the strict 
neutrality of preceding years was reflected in Jan- 
uary in a curb placed on anti-United States gibes 
in pro-Axis press organs. The United States in Feb- 
ruary supported a Brazilian protest to Great Britain 
over the British seizure of the French ship Men- 
doza on January 18 off the Brazilian coast within 
the 300-mile inter-American safety zone. In April 
President Vargas's favorite daughter, Alzira, and 



BRAZIL 



77 



BRAZIL 



her husband, Commander Ernani do Amoral Peixo- 
to, Governor of the State of Rio de Janeiro, arrived 
in the United States on a goodwill mission. On 
June 28 Foreign Minister Aranha announced Bra- 
zil's acceptance of Uruguay's proposal not to regard 
as a belligerent any American nation at war with a 
non-American nation. 

Brazil went beyond Pan American obligations to 
support the foreign policy of the United States on 
July 26 when the Foreign Minister stated that his 
Government would approve U.S. action to prevent 
the Azores and other Atlantic islands of Portugal 
from falling into Axis hands. (The visit of an im- 
portant Portuguese mission to Brazil in August 
was followed by reports of a Portuguese-United 
States-Brazilian agreement under which Portugal 
would place her Atlantic islands under Brazil's 
protection, with United States support, in the 
event of an Axis attack upon Portugal.) President 
Vargas pledged his countrv to a policy of firm de- 
fense of Pan American solidarity against "any ag- 
gression from whatever source" in a speech on the 
119th anniversary of Brazil's independence (Sep- 
tember 7). The tone of this speech contrasted 
notably with the President's address of June 11, 
1940, in which he denounced the "sterile demagogy 
of political democracy" and tacitly approved Axis 
aggressions. 

Economic and Military Accords. In line with the 
foregoing diplomatic trend, Brazil and the United 
States concluded a series of significant economic 
and military agreements. On February 8 a Brazilian 
decree made the export of all strategic raw materi- 
als to non-American countries subject to govern- 
ment license. The United States obtained the ex- 
clusive right to purchase Brazil's surplus strategic 
raw materials up to specified maximum amounts for 
two years through notes exchanged May 14, 1941. 
The agreement, which went into effect June 13, ap- 
plied to bauxite, beryl ore, chromite, ferro-nickel, 
industrial diamonds, manganese ore, mica, quartz 
crystals, rubber, titanium, and zirconium. These 
moves cut off valuable shipments of Brazilian ma- 
terials going directly to the Axis powers or through 
Japan to Germany. 

The United States reciprocated on July 9 when 
the Office of Production Management gave priority 
ratings to contracts placed in the United States for 
the construction of the $45,000,000 steel mill under 
construction at Velta Redonda, State of Rio de 
Janeiro. The mill was to be partly financed by a 
$20,000,000 loan granted by the Export-Import 
Bank in 1940 (see preceding YEAR BOOK). 

Early in the year Brazil sent a military mission to 
the United States to seek other aid in Brazilian re- 
armament. In May Vice Adm. Jos6 Machado de 
Castro e Silva, Chief of the Naval General Staff, 
joined other Latin American naval chiefs in a tour 
of U.S. naval establishments. The Brazilian Navy 
Dept. announced May 21 that construction of a 
new naval base at Natal would begin as soon as 
possible, and on June 15 a Brazilian Embassy offi- 
cial in Washington stated that U.S. credits for the 
construction of air bases in eastern Brazil were 
under negotiation. Both the naval and air bases 
were provided for in an agreement signed in Wash- 
ington October 1 making large U.S. lend-lease 
credits of unspecified amount available to Brazil. 
The United States was to receive Brazilian raw ma- 
terials in exchange for the loan. It was understood 
that these bases were to be under Brazilian control 
but available for the use of United States forces in 
the event of a war emergency. The lend-lease loan 
followed credits totaling $88,397,000 advanced to 
Brazil by the Export-Import Bank of Washington 



during the period from 1938 until June 1, 1941. 

Early in July Washington announced that U.S. 
airmen were using Brazilian airports in flying mili- 
tary planes from the United States to British forces 
in Africa. On July 26 President Vargas authonzed 
Pan American Airways to construct or improve air- 
fields at eight cities strategically situated along the 
Brazilian coast from the Amazon River to Sao Sal- 
vador. At the same time Pan American Airways 
was authorized to operate airhnes from Rio de 
Janeiro to Asunci6n, Paraguay, and from Rio to 
Goirna via Bello Honzonte and Patos. 

In a speech to army officers on November 10, 
President Vargas more openly espoused "frank 
continental solidarity" and declared that Brazil was 
aligned both politically and militarily with the 
American democracies. Carrying this policy into 
effect, Brazil cooperated with the United States in 
the military measures taken November 24 to pro- 
tect Surinam (q.v. ) against Axis infiltration and 
sabotage. Immediately afterward it strengthened 
its garrisons along the Atlantic coast from Surinam 
to below the hump of eastern Brazil 

Following the Japanese attack upon the United 
States, President Vargas called his Cabinet in ses- 
sion December 8. It unanimously declared Brazil's 
"solidarity with the United States, in line with . . . 
continental obligations." Axis funds in Brazil were 
frozen December 9. This meant that United States 
warships and aircraft were permitted to use Bra- 
zilian ports and airfields. Axis funds were frozen 
on December 9, and on December 13 pro- Axis 
newspapers and news agencies were placed under 
a special censorship or suspended 

Policy Toward Axit. Earlier in the year, Brazil took 
other steps designed to curb Axis activities and in- 
fluence. A decree of January 7 suppressing all for- 
eign-language publications in Brazil, effective in 
six months, affected mainly pro-Axis publishing 
enterprises. Forced to close, or change to the Por- 
tuguese language, were 37 publications in German, 
9 in Italian, 8 in Japanese, and 5 in English. The 
drive acainst Nazi propaganda among the Germans 
of southern Brazil continued. In October a pro- 
Nazi newspaper was closed and a sports group 
broken up for violating the nationalization laws. 
The Government in May refused permission to Air 
France, now under German control, to resume its 
air services between Rio de Janeiro and Santiago, 
Chile, via Buenos Aires. In June the Navy con- 
tracted to buy the Air France seaplane base at 
Natal. 

For making an un sanctioned 7-hour flight from 
Pernambuco on March 27, the Italian Aviation Co. 
(Ala Litoria) was fined $1,000 and warned that 
repetition of the offense would mean expulsion of 
the company from Brazil. The Government refused 
a request by the same company for maps of the 
Brazilian coast and airports over which its trans- 
atlantic planes flew, and also turned down the com- 
pany's petition for the stationing of a mother ship 
near Fernando Noronha Island on the transatlantic 
route. With a view to forestalling a possible Axis 
move, the Government on March 3 ordered Bra- 
zilian troops to occupy the barren island of Trini- 
dad, a potentially important mid-ocean air base 
over 500 miles east of the city of Victoria. 

Charges that the German Nazi organization in 
the State of Rio Grande do Sul was plotting to an- 
nex that area to the Reich were made by the State's 
Secretary of Education, Dr. Coelho de Souza, in 
Rio de Janeiro on November 12. When the United 
States entered the war, Brazilian forces in the 
German-populated districts of the southern States 
were strengthened. On December 30 it was an- 



BRAZIL 



78 



BRIDGES 



nounced that a number of persons were killed in a 
clash between Rio Grande do Sul police and or- 
ganized Nazis. The clash accompanied raids in 
numerous towns upon headquarters of underground 
German organizations, many of which were found 
to have secreted arms. 

In December, also, the Brazilian Government 
took over 25 Axis merchant ships in Brazilian ports, 
agreeing to pay compensation after the war. It also 
permitted North American oil companies to with- 
hold gasoline from the German-controlled Condor 
air system in Brazil and the Italian transatlantic 
Lati line. This forced both systems to suspend op- 
erations. 

Relations with Neighbor*. Brazil continued its policy 
of developing closer political and economic rela- 
tions with the adjoining republics of South America. 
Two important commercial conventions were signed 
with Argentina on April 9. In June President Var- 
gas approved another $1,500,000 appropriation for 
construction of the Corumba-Santa Cruz railway in 
Bolivia that will link Santos, Brazil, with Santa 
Cruz and eventually with La Paz and Arica, Chile. 
The President entered Bolivian territory in July to 
inspect this joint Bolivian-Brazilian enterprise, 
while making an extensive tour of Brazil's interior 
and frontier regions. 

From Corumba, the President flew on July 31 to 
Asunci6n, Paraguay. There he signed a treaty pro- 
viding for the construction at Brazil's expense of a 
branch railway connecting Campo Grande (on the 
Brazilian trunk line from Santos to Puerta Esperanga 
on the Upper Paraguay River) with Concepci6n 
in Paraguay (see map on p. 70). The railway 
treaty was one of 10 conventions for closer com- 
mercial and cultural relations drawn up during a 
visit of the Paraguayan Foreign Minister to Rio de 
Janeiro in June. The other conventions provided 
for a free port for Paraguayan imports and exports 
at Santos, the exemption of local trade between 
border towns from import duties, regulation and 
development of navigation on the Upper Paraguay 
River, establishment of a mixed commission to pre- 
pare a treaty of commerce and navigation, the 
granting of reciprocal credits by the Brazilian and 
Paraguayan Central Banks to foster trade, the ex- 
change of economic and administrative experts, etc. 

Beginning in mid-November, Foreign Minister 
Aranha made a tour of three South American cap- 
itals Buenos Aires, Santiago, and Montevidc 
for conferences believed related to the problem of 
continental defense. For further details, see ARGEN- 
TINA, BOLIVIA, PARAGUAY, and URUGUAY under 
History. Exchange of the first Ministers between 
Brazil and Canada occurred early in 1941. 

Internal Legislation. Among internal measures of 
a nationalistic character placed in operation during 
1941 was the decree-law of April 19 regulating the 
organization and protection of the family. It con- 
tained many new provisions encouraging marriage 
and large families. A decree of April 14 established 
a National Sports Council to encourage and control 
sports. Another decree of April 9 provided that 
only banks of deposit whose entire capital was 
owned by Brazilian citizens might operate in Brazil, 
effective July 1, 1941. This was modified in Sep- 
tember to permit banks of deposit owned by na- 
tionals of any American country to continue in 
operation. The local labor courts provided for in 
the decree of Dec. 12, 1940, went into operation 
May 1, 1941. Further regulations for the encourage- 
ment of agricultural resettlement were issued Feb. 
9, 1941. An autonomous Merchant Marine Com- 
mission to supervise and control all river, lake, and 
maritime navigation in Brazil was authorized March 



7. On March 19 the Government suspended the 
granting of temporary visas to foreigners wishing to 
enter Brazil, except for citizens of American coun- 
tries and others with adequate means of support. 

Economic Conditions. Due largely to increased 
trade with the United States and other American 
countries, Brazil remained fairly prosperous in 1941 
despite the loss of important export markets in Eu- 
rope. The Government on February 15 announced 
that it would finance coffee surpluses for 1941, 
1942 and 1943. During the year it placed in oper- 
ation an experimental plant for the manufacture of 
plastics and various by-products from surplus cof- 
fee. It was hoped this would avert the necessity of 
burning the annual surplus to maintain prices. 

Price rises in foodstuffs and other materials led 
the President on May 5 to prohibit further in- 
creases under pain of heavy jail sentences. A gaso- 
line and fuel oil shortage led in July and August 
to conservation measures. The worst floods ever 
recorded in the State of Rio Grande do Sul inflicted 
great damage to crops and property. The entire 
business district in Porto Alegre was inundated. 

See ARGENTINA, BOLIVIA, CANADA, PARAGUAY, 
and SPAIN under History; CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL; 
COFFEE; LEND-LEASE ADMINISTRATION; Music, 
NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES; UNITED STATES un- 
der Latin America. 

BREMEN, State of. See GERMANY under Area and 
Population. 

BRETHREN, German Baptist (Dunkers or Dunkards). A re- 
ligious organization founded in Schwarzenau, Ger- 
many, in 1708 by a group of Pietists and established 
in Germantown, Pa., in 1719 under the leadership 
of Peter Becker. There are four denominations of 
Brethren in the United States, the largest and oldest 
group being the Church of the Brethren, or Con- 
servative Dunkers, with headquarters at Elgin, 111. 
For statistics, see RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS. 

BRIDGES. Awards in 1941 for "the most beautiful 
steel bridges" built in 1940 included: (1) for 
bridges costing more than $1,000,000, the Susque- 
hanna River highway bridge at Havre de Grace, 
Md., with two 456-ft. arch spans and several deck 
truss spans, 7,618 ft. in all; (2) for bridges over 
$250,000, the Pennsylvania Turnpike bridge over 
Dunning Creek, with plate girder spans of 96 
and 48 It; (3) for bridges less than $250,000, the 
suspension span of 360 ft. over Klamath River, 
California; (4) for movable bridges, the double- 
leaf bascule of 98 ft. over Navesmk River, New 

Tolls on the Ohio River bridge at Ashland, Ky., 
having retired the $904,000 bonds, it was made a 
free bridge in August. A proposed Mississippi River 
bridge at Memphis was deferred by the steel pri- 
ority situation. Two interesting projects combine 
bridges with long embankments or causeways: (1) 
to connect Corpus Christi, Texas, with Padre Is- 
land, in the bay; (2) to complete and extend the 
Davis and Gandy concrete trestles and causeways 
in the Tampa Bay area, Florida, and to build 10 
miles farther south a new 10^>-mile combination of 
causeway, bridge, and tunnel. 

In the highway system of the United States, 
about 2,500 bridges are reported inadequate for 
modern loads and traffic. Some of these were dis- 
closed by failure under army equipment during 
maneuvers. Since bridge destruction in war seri- 
ously hampers advancing troops, military engineers 
have to provide for rapid restoration of passage, 
either by independent structures or utilizing the 



BRIDGES 

wreckage. For such work the U.S. Engineer Corps 
has developed portable pontoon and girder bridges 
and also a portable cableway span, with trolleys 
for transporting heavy equipment across streams. 

Steel Bridges. An event of 1941 was the opening, 
in November, of the new 950-ft. steel arch "Rain- 
bow Bridge" at Niagara Falls, replacing the 840-ft. 
steel arch wrecked by ice in 1938. Two arch ribs 
carry columns supporting the deck or floor, which 
is level with the crown of the arch. This floor has 
two 21-ft. roadways, with 4-ft. separating strip, and 
a 10-ft. walk on the side facing the Falls. With 
concrete arch approaches the total length of bridge 
is 1,450 ft. 

A steel arch of 540 ft span carries a four-lane 
road across the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal 
at St. Georges, Del., at 135 ft. above the water. It 
is a high-level bridge, 4,140 ft long, and takes the 
place of a low-level vertical-lift drawbridge which 
was wrecked by a ship in 1939. Next to this ranks 
a 264-ft. steel arch highway bridge over the Mera- 
mec River near St. Louis, Mo The arch trusses ex- 
tend beyond the piers to form two flanking spans of 
192 ft. In both these bridges, the floor is level with 
the ends of the arches. A smaller arch bridge car- 
ries a road over the Eagle River, near Red Cliff, 
Colo 

The Pit River double-deck cantilever bridge, in 
California, to be completed in 1942, carries the 
double-track line of the Southern Pacific Railway 
on the lower deck, and a 40-ft. concrete roadway 
on the upper deck. As parts of the railway and road 
will be submerged in the reservoir behind the great 
Shasta Dam, it was necessary to rebuild them out- 
side the limits of the reservoir. The main cantilever 
span of 630 ft. extends bevond its piers to form two 
anchor-arm spans of 497 f t , and at each end there 
are three truss spans of 282 ft , making a total 
length of 3,500 ft. The two main piers, 360 ft. high, 
will be submerged to within 25 ft from the top. 
Similar conditions at the Crand Coulee Dam, on 
the Columbia River, led the Great Northern Ry to 
build a bridge having a center span of 608 ft. and 
two side spans of 266 ft., each composed of a 114- 
ft. cantilever arm from the main span and a 152-ft 
truss extending to the abutment 

The Kentucky River highway bridge being built 
at Clay's Ferrv, Ky., will be the highest in the 
State, 240 ft abo\ e the water. Its main feature* is a 
truss 1,100 ft long, continuous over three spans of 
320, 448, and 320 ft. The longest plate-girder span 
ever built is a 271-ft. span in the east viaduct ap- 
proach to the Main Ave. bridge at Cleveland, Ohio. 
These long girders are 12 ft. deep at the ends and 
16 ft. at the middle. 

In a 4-mile high-speed highway approach to the 
east end of the Brooklyn-Battery tunnel, at New 
York, is the Gowanus Viaduct, carrying two 34-ft. 
three-lane roadways, with a 4-ft. separating strip. 
Steel two-post towers or bents support girders con- 
tinuous over three spans, but the towers are only 
34 ft. wide at top, the 72-ft. cross girders for the 
deck being cantilevered out on each side. A steel 
viaduct on the New York, Chicago & St. Louis 
Railroad at Conneaut, Ohio, built in 1901, was 
strengthened for heavier engines and train loads by 
placing new riveted girders and welding additional 
vertical members on the columns, with additional 
bracing between the columns. The viaduct is 1,320 
ft. long, with alternate spans of 60 and 30 ft. 

Suspension Bridges. The wrecking of the 2,800-ft. 
span of the Tacoma Narrows bridge by a windstorm 
on Nov. 7, 1940, has led to extended studies of sus- 
pension bridge design in relation to aerial forces. 
In turn, these studies have led to the development 



79 BRIDGES 

of two new types of suspension bridges, in both of 
which the cable and stiffening truss on each side of 
the bridge form the chords or a truss, with the sus- 
penders as the web members. 

That the Tacoma Bridge was well designed and 
well built, but that the influence of aerodynamic 
forces on so large a bridge was not realized, was 
the decision of the official investigation. As the 
bridge was exceptionally narrow and flexible, it was 
unstable aerodynamically at relatively low wind 
velocities. The floor was blown away, and the ca- 
bles and steel towers were too badly damaged to be 
used in any reconstruction. After considering sev- 
eral tentative designs for a new bridge ( including a 
cantilever bridge with 1,600-ft. main span), the de- 
cision was for a suspension bridge of the original 
span, 2,800 ft , but with towers 498 ft. high, in- 
stead of 443 ft., and with its heavy four-lane road- 
way 180 ft. above the water, instead of 198 ft. in 
the original bridge. 

Strengthening the Ohio River suspension bridge 
at Steubcnville, Ohio (built in 1904), to carry 
heavier modern loading, was accomplished in 1941 
without interrupting traffic. This work included 
new cable anchorages, suspender cables, stiffening 
trusses, and floor framing, as well as reinforcement 
of the steel towers. Special cable anchorages were 
required for a 550-ft. suspension bridge in Austral- 
ia, as they were in a soft clay stratum At one end 
the anchorages were concrete boxes 46 x 30 ft and 
18 ft. deep, buried in the clay; at the other end, the 
cables were anchored to the end of the steel via- 
duct approach and to a pier sunk in the clay. A 
suspension bridge over the Rio Grande River at 
Mercedes, Texas, was wrecked by a flood on Octo- 
ber 27. 

Movable Bridges. A bascule bridge of exceptional 
size and weight is the 245-ft. double-leaf structure 
now being built at Chicago to cross the Chicago 
River at State St Its width will include two four- 
lane 41-ft. separated roadways and two 13-ft. side- 
walks. Special foundations were required, as the 
State Street rapid-transit subway is directly under 
the bridge Concrete piers on each side of the tun- 
nel were sunk to rock at 110 ft. below water level, 
and upon these were placed massive steel trusses 
which span above the tunnel and carry the trunnion 
bearings of the movable leaves 

A cable-operated vertical-lift drawbridge of 350 
ft. span, riding between towers 200 ft. high, carries 
the new Main Street bridge over the St. John's 
River at Jacksonville, Florida, giving 135 ft. clear- 
ance for navigation. The total length of bridge is 
2,060 ft. A single-track vertical-lift drawbridge 245 
ft. long, carrying the Kansas City Southern Railway 
over the Neches River at Beaumont, Texas, was 
opened to traffic in November. A double-deck verti- 
cal-lift span of 224 ft. carries a new bridge over the 
navigation channel of the Piscataqua River at Ports- 
mouth, N.H. On its steel towers, 208 ft. high, are 
the cable drums, with electric motors of 100 h.p. 
The upper deck has a 30-ft. concrete roadway, 
while tiie lower deck carries a single-track line of 
the Boston & Maine Railroad. The bridge in all is 
2,800 ft. long. In the highway bridge being built 
across Sinepuxent Bay at Ocean City, Md., the 70- 
ft. navigation channel is crossed by a double-leaf 
bascule span of the rolling-lift type, 94 ft. long. 
Concrete spans for the approaches give a total 
length of 2,295 ft. to this bridge, which is to be 
completed by the summer of 1942. The replace- 
ment of a low-level bridge with draw span, over 
the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, by a high- 
level bridge which requires no such span, has been 
mentioned already. 



MIDGES 



80 



BRITISH EMPIRE 



The longest double-leaf bascule bridge ever 
built, 336 ft, crossing the canal approach to the 
locks at Sault Sainte Marie, Mich., met with an 
accident on October 7. When the two leaves or 
halves are lowered for railway traffic they are 
locked together mechanically to form a single truss 
span. But in some unexplained way this connection 
failed, so that as the locomotive of a southbound 
train reached the middle of the bridge the north 
leaf dropped, hinging on its bearings. The engine 
went down and two men were drowned. After the 
train had been removed, both leaves were raised 
October 8, and the canal was reopened for naviga- 
tion on October 10. A little later the bridge was re- 
paired and put in service so that railway traffic was 
resumed. 

Concrete Bridges. Of the numerous concrete bridges 
built in 1941, most were for highways and many 
for grade separation projects, the latter including 
separation of intersecting highways as well as inter- 
sections of highways with railways. Architectural 
treatment is usually a feature of these concrete 
highway bridges, since attractive appearance is 
highly desirable in bridges which are continually in 
view of the traveling public. Many grade-separa- 
tion bridges are of complicated design in providing 
connections between the highways at the upper and 
lower levels. A striking example (completed in 
1940) is the east approach to the George Washing- 
ton Bridge over the Hudson River at New York. As 
shown in the accompanying view, it consists of a 
series of concrete arch viaducts connecting with 
streets at different levels and in different directions. 

An outstanding concrete bridge of 1941 is that 
carrying the Missouri Pacific- Railway across the 
Morganza floodway, near Lottie, La. Its length of 
3^ miles is composed of 600 spans of T-beam type, 
31 ft. 3 in. between centers of piers, which are of 
open design and 27 ft high. A concrete arch bridge 
of 492 ft. span has been built at Berne, Switzer- 
land, to carry a four-track railway in the recon- 
structed approach to the main passenger station 

Timber Bridget. Timber is used extensively for 
bridges and trestles of the smaller class, both high- 
way and railway, but occasionally for larger struc- 
tures. An example of the latter is a high trestle on a 
forest railway in Washington, having a length of 
1,130 ft., with its track 235 ft. above the water. 
The stream is spanned by a timber arch of 120 ft. 
span and 60 ft. height, supporting the trestle above 
it. All the timbers were creosoted, and were cut 
and bored in advance, so as to be put together with 
a minimum of carpenter work For timber highway 
bridges and trestles, extensive use is being made of 
a floor construction in which a concrete slab is 
bonded to or made an integral part of the solid 
timber deck upon which it is laid. 

Foreign Bridges. A few foreign bridges have been 
noted above, but in Europe the war has in- 
volved the damage and destruction of innumerable 
bridges. This in turn has led to much ingenious 
work to restore communications rapidly by emer- 
gency methods A report, contrary to rumor, is that 
little damage has been done to the numerous 
Thames River bridges at London. A combined 
highway and railway bridge is proposed to cross 
the Danube at Harsova, Rumania, about midway 
between the bridge at Chernavoda and Galatz, 
near the mouth of the river. Obviously, this must 
be a post-war project. War destruction of many 
railway bridges over large rivers in Europe sug- 
gests tiie temporary use of car ferries when traffic 
can be resumed. 

See FOUNDATIONS. 

E. E. RUSSELL TRATMAN. 



BRIDGES CASE. See COMMUNISM; LAW under Other 

Causes CeUbr6s- t UNITED STATES. 

BRITISH CAMEROONS. See CAMEROONS, BRITISH. 

BRITISH COLUMBIA. A Canadian province on the 
Pacific coast. Area, 366,255 square miles, includ- 
ing 6,976 square miles of fresh water. Population 
(1941 census), 809,203, compared with (1931 
census) 694,263. Chief cities (1941 census fig- 
ures): Victoria, capital (42,907), Vancouver 
(271,597), New Westminster (21,602), Trail 
(9,132), North Vancouver (8,844), Prince Rupert 
(6,656), Nanaimo (6,583), Kamloops (5,847), 
Nelson (5,758), Vernon (5,099), Kelowna 
(5,047), Port Alberni (4,547). Vital statistics 
(1940): 13,763 living births, 8,291 deaths, 9,624 
marriages. Education (1938-39): 173,981 students 
enrolled in schools and colleges. 

Production. The 1940 gross value of agricultural 
production was $47,019,000 (field crops $14,421,- 
000, dairy products $11,245,000, fruit and vege- 
tables $10,045,000, farm animals $5,553,000, poul- 
try products $5,031,000). Wheat (1,999,000 bu ), 
oats (5,912,000 bu.), potatoes (122,000 tons), 
turnips, etc. (61,600 tons), hay (490,000 tons), 
fodder corn (71,000 tons), gram hay (116,000 
tons) were the main field crops. Apple crop 
(1940): 1,790,000 bbl. worth $4,296,000. Live- 
stock (1940): 327,200 cattle, 174,000 sheep, 85,- 
100 swine, 4,819,600 poultry Fur output 
(193&-39): 251,258 pelts valued at $1,116,968 
Value of forestry products (1939): $56,140,000. 
Fisheries catch (1940): 295,345 tons worth (as 
marketed) $21,710,000 (salmon $13,757,100, her- 
ring $4,426,400, halibut $1,571,000, pilchards 
$632,400). In 1941 approximately 2,245,700 cases 
of salmon were packed. Mineral output (1940) 
was valued at $75,352,750 (gold, 617,011 fine 
oz. valued at $23,250,019, coal, 1,620,894 tons). 
Manufacturing (1939). 1,710 factories, 42,554 
employees, $103,263,293 net value of products. 

Government. Finance (year ended Mar. 31, 
1940): $36,417,312 for revenue and $33,037,276 
for expenditure, net funded debt, $150,991,508. 
The executive power is vested in a lieutenant gov- 
ernor who is advised by a ministry of the legisla- 
tive assembly, the latter consisting of 48 members 
elected for a five-year term by adult suffrage (21 
Liberals, 14 Cooperative Common wealth Feder- 
atiomsts, 12 Conservatives, and 1 Labonte were 
elected at the provincial general election of 
Oct. 21, 1941). Six senators (appointed for life) 
and 16 elected commoners represent British Co- 
lumbia in the Federal parliament at Ottawa. Lieu- 
tenant Governor, W C Woodward; Premier, John 
Hart (Liberal) who succeeded T. D Pattullo as 
leader of the Liberal party on Dec. 2, 1941 

History. Premier John Hart announced on 
Dec. 10, 1941, that a coalition government of Lib- 
erals and Conservatives had been formed. The 
cabinet consisting of 5 Liberals and 3 Conserva- 
tives was sworn in the same day. In the absence of 
the Premier from the capital, R. L. Maitland, the 
Conservative leader, would be acting Premier 
Harold Winch, the leader of the Cooperative Com- 
monwealth Federation, stated on Dec. 5, 1941, 
that his party would not join a coalition. See 
CANADA. 

BRITISH EAST AFRICA. See KENYA, NYASALAND, TAN- 
GANYIKA TERRITORY, UGANDA, ZANZIBAR. 

BRITISH EMPIRE. The world's largest empire, com- 
prising an area of 13,353,952 square miles and a 
population of about 500,775,000. It consists of: 






Jftf >* v 



-^ f, 




L. 



A NEW BRIDGE A NEW APPROACH 



(1) Navesmk River Bridge in New Jersey, popularly called the Oceanic Bridge, 
prize winner for the "most beautiful" movable bridge The bridge is shown (2) 
with double leaves open and (3) closed (4) The east approach to the George 
Washington Bridge, New York City, a striking example of complicated design in 
providing connections between the highways at the upper and lower levels 
See BRIDGES, ROADS AND STREETS 



7 

/ 



J/ 




CONSTRUCTION ON SHASTA DAM 

The U S Bureau of Reclamation is building the second largest 
dam m the world across the Sacramento River in California 
Begun in 1940, the Shasta Dam will provide flood protection, 
irrigation, navigation, power, and other benefits. See DAMS 

1 River tunnel and spillway section 

2 Cableway head tower, 460 feet high 

3 An air view from above the tower 

4 Close-up of concrete construction 



BRITISH EMPIRE 



1. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
northern Ireland. See GREAT BRITAIN; IRELAND, 
NORTHERN. 

2. Self-governing Dominions AUSTRALIA, CAN- 
ADA, NEWFOUNDLAND ( temporarily administered by 
a Governor in Commission, responsible to the 
Crown through the British Secretary for Dominion 
Affairs), NEW ZEALAND, UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA. 

3. EIRE, (IRELAND), a sovereign, independent 
state, associated for certain purposes with the 
United Kingdom and the self-governing dominions, 
which are sometimes referred to collectively as the 
British Commonwealth of Nations. 

4. INDIA and BURMA. 

5. Self-governing colonies CEYLON and SOUTH- 
ERN RHODESIA. 

6 Crown colonies and protectorates ADEN, BA- 
HAMAS, BARBADOS, BASUTOLAND, BECHUANALAND, 
BERMUDA, BRITISH GUIANA, BRITISH HONDURAS, 
BRITISH SOLOMON ISLANDS, BRITISH SOMALILAND, 
CYPRUS, DOMINICA, FALKLAND ISLANDS, FIJI, GAM- 
BIA, GILBERT AND ELLICE ISLANDS, GIBRALTAR, 
GOLD COAST, GRENADA, HONG KONG, JAMAICA, 
KENYA, LEEWARD ISLANDS, MALTA, MAURITIUS, 
NIGERIA, NORTHERN RHODESIA, NYASALAND, ST. 
HELENA, ST. LUCIA, ST. VINCENT, SEYCHELLES, 
SIERRA LEONE, STRAITS SETTLEMENTS, SWAZILAND, 
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO, UGANDA, ZANZIBAR. 

7. Protectorates of a special nature BRITISH 
NORTH BORNEO, BRUNEI, FEDERATED MALAY STATES, 
SARAWAK, UNFEDERATED MALAY STATES. 

8. Mandates held by the United Kingdom 
BRITISH CAMEROONS, PALESTINE, TANGANYIKA TER- 
RITORY, TRANS-JORDAN, TOGOLAND (British sphere). 

9. Mandates held by Dominions NAURU (Aus- 
tralia), NEW GUINEA (Australia), SOUTH- WEST 
AFRICA (Union of South Africa), WESTERN SAMO\ 
(New Zealand) 

10 Dependencies of Dominions LABRADOR 
( Newfoundland ) ; ASHMORE AND CARTIER ISLANDS, 
PAPUA, NORFOLK ISLAND, AUSTRALIAN ANIAHCTIC 
TERRITORY (Australia), UNION ISLANDS or TOKELAU 
and Ross DEPENDENCY ( New Zealand ) . 

11. Territories held under condominium ANGLO- 
EGYPTIAN SUDAN (United Kingdom and Egypt), 
NEW HEBRIDES (United Kingdom and France), 
CANTON and ENDERBUUY ISLANDS (United King- 
dom and United States). 

See the separate articles covering most of the 
above territories except those included in the ac- 
companying table. New Guinea, Papua, Nauru 
and Norfolk Island are dealt with under AUSTRALIA; 
British North Borneo, Brunei, Federated Malay 
States, Sarawak, Straits Settlements and Unfed- 
erated Malay States under BRITISH MALAYA, Union 
Islands under NEW ZEALAND; and Dominica, Gre- 
nada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent under WINDWARD 
ISLANDS. 



Country (Capital) 


S(J 171 I 


Population 


Location 


Basutoland (Maseru) 


11,710 


502,311" 


S Africa 


Bechuanaland (Maf eking' 1 ) 


275,000 


205,750" 


S. Africa 


Gilbert & Ellice Is. (Ocean 








IB ) 


210 


35,000* 


Oceania 


Mauritius' 1 (Port Louis) 


807 


415,492* 


Indian Oc 


St. Helena* (Jamestown) 


81 


4,033' 


S Atlantic 


Seychelles (Victoria) 


156 


31,480' 


Indian Oc 


Solomon Islands (Tulagi) 


11,458 


94, 060 


Oceania 


Swaziland (Mbabane) 


6,704 


156,715- 


S Africa 


Tonga' (Nukualofa) 


385 


33,785/ 


Oceania 



1936 census The total for Basutoland is exclusive of 101,- 
273 absentee natives working in the Union of South Africa at 
the time of the census 6 In Cape Province. c 1938 estimate. 
* Includes dependent islands (87 sq mi ; pop., 11,744). < In- 
cludes the dependent island of Ascension (34 sq mi , pop., 159) ; 
the islands of Tristan da Cunha, Cough, Nightingale, and In- 
uccessible became dependencies of St. Helena on Jan 12, 1938 
1 1938 census. ' Also known as Friendly Islands. 



81 BRITISH GUIANA 

BRITISH GUIANA. A British colony in northern South 
America. Area, 89,480 square miles; population 
(1939 estimate), 341,237, of whom 144,350 were 
East Indian immigrants. Vital statistics (1939): 
9,599 births and 6,728 deaths. Capital, Georgetown, 
68,818 inhabitants. 

Production and Trade. The area under cultivation 
in 1939 totaled 172,410 acres, the principal crops 
being sugar (189,245 tons), rice (40,388 tons), 
coconuts, coffee, cacao, rubber, citrus fruits, plan- 
tains, fibers, and maize Extending over an area of 
78,000 sq. miles, the forests produce such timbers 
as the greenheart, mora, wallaba, morabukea, ka- 
keralli, and purple heart Minerals (with 1939 
export figures): diamonds (33,351 carats), gold 
(38,473 oz ), bauxite (the ore of aluminum, 476,- 
013 tons). Livestock (1939): 133,351 cattle, 
31,895 sheep, 27,248 swine, 11,346 goats, 7,628 
donkeys, and 2,808 horses Trade (1940) $14,337,- 
242 ($10,724,671 in 1939) for imports, owing to 
the need for keeping certain mineral exports secret, 
export figures for 1940 are not a\ tillable (exports 
were valued at $14,505,552 in 1939) Chief im- 
ports flour, cotton goods, clothing, and sulphate 
of iron. Sugar ($8,134,239), bauxite ($2,889,368), 
and gold ($1,060,616) were the mam exports in 
1939. Shipping (1939): 3,317 ships totaling 1,901,- 
636 tons entered and cleared 

Communications. In 1940 there were 79 miles of 
railway, 450 miles of n\er navigation, 39 miles of 
canals, 571 miles of roads suitable for motor trans- 
port, and 514 miles of trails Georgetown was a 
port of call in Pan American Airways' weekly 
service from Miami, Fla , to Paramaribo, Cayenne, 
and Para. 

Government. Finance (1941 estimates). $6,670,- 
000 for revenue and $7,101,000 for expenditure. 
In 1940 revenue exceeded expenditure by $200,- 
000 The funded public debt on Dec 31, 1939, 
was ,L 4,438 ,430. The British Guiana (Constitu- 
tion) Orders in Council of 1938 and 1935 provide 
for the goxernmerit of the colony, arid for a legis- 
lative council of 30 members (the governor as 
president, 2 ex-officio, 8 nominated official, 5 nomi- 
nated unofficial, and 14 elected) which is to be 
dissolved every fixe years, unless previously dis- 
solved, and a general election held A governor, 
aided by an executne council, heads the executive 
and administrative branch of the government Gov- 
ernor, Sir Gordon Lethem (succeeded Sir Wilfrid 
Jackson, August, 1941). 

History. The arrangements made in 1940 for the 
establishment of United States reconnaissance air 
bases in British Guiana (see YEAR BOOK for 1940, 
p. 89) were formalized in the Anglo-American 
treaty signed in London Mar. 27, 1941 (see GREAT 
BRITAIN under History). Under a lease incorpo- 
rated in the treaty, the colonial government set 
aside 2^ square miles of land on the east bank of 
the Demerara River 25 miles from its mouth for 
development as a U.S. landplane base. Another 
tract of 1,400 acres at the mouth of the Essequibo 
River was leased for 99 years as a seaplane base. 
The U.S. government undertook not to obstruct 
navigation on the Demerara and Essequibo Rivers, 
and to allow the colonial government to quarry 
stone for public works from the leased areas. Work 
was begun immediately on the seaplane base, esti- 
mated to cost $1,800,000. 

Proposals for constitutional reform, approved 
by the British Secretary of State for the Colonies, 
were laid before the legislative council during 
July, 1941, by the governor. Under the new pro- 
posals the legislative council would consist of 21 
unofficial members and 3 ex-officio members of the 



BRITISH HONDURAS 



82 



BRITISH MALAYA 



government; another proposal was that member- 
ship in the executive council be not restricted to 
members of the legislative council. Additional re- 
serve powers for the governor were specified. Rec- 
ommendations for a wider extension of the fran- 
chise were referred for examination to a franchise 
commission. 

United States troops arrived, on July 21, 1941, 
to garrison the two bases leased from Great Britain. 
The U.S. air base was named Atkinson Field. 

BRITISH HONDURAS. A British colony in Central 
America. Area, 8,508 square miles; population 
(Jan. 1, 1940 estimate), 58,759. Vital statistics for 
1939 (rate per 1,000): 35.4 births, 18.5 deaths. 
Capital, Belize, 16,687 inhabitants in 1931. Edu- 
cation (1939): 11,597 students enrolled in primary 
and secondary schools. 

Production and Trade. Mahogany, chicle, bananas, 
grapefruit, cedar logs, coconuts, and copra were 
the main products. Forest products represent about 
80 per cent of the exports by value Trade ( 1940) : 
$2,760,940 for imports and $3,039,505 for exports 
(mahogany, chicle, and bananas were the princi- 
pal items of export. Shipping (1940): 13,659 tons 
of freight brought in and 50,466 tons taken out. 
A twice-weekly air service for mails, passengers, 
and express was in operation to and from San 
Pedro Sula, Honduras 

Government. Finance (1939): $1,967,662 for 
revenue and $1,967,842 for expenditure; public 
debt (Dec. 31, 1939), $3,109,364 The control of 
the government is in the hands of a governor, 
aided by an executive council. There is a legis- 
lative council consisting of the governor as presi- 
dent, 5 official and 8 unofficial members (2 nomi- 
nated and 6 elected) Governor and Commander- 
in-Chicf, J. A Hunter (appointed Nov. 18, 1939) 

BRITISH MALAYA. The British possessions and de- 
pendencies in Malava, with their areas, latest pop- 
ulations, and capitals, are shown in the accompany- 
ing table. 

Division (Capital) 8q mi Population 
British North Borneo (Sandakan) 29,500 299,000 
Brunei (Brunei) . . . 2,220 37,808 
Federated Malay States (Kuala Lum- 
pur) . 27.MO 1,180,313* 
NCRTI Sembilan (Seremban) 2,680 90,369 
Pahans (Pekan) 13,880 217,121 
Perak (Taiping) 7,980 973,6X8 
Selangor (Kuala Lumpur) 3,160 688,185 
Sarawak (Kuching) .50,000 f.00,000 
Straits Settlements (Singapore) l,35fl 1,400, 120* 
Labuan (Victoria) 35 8,872 
Malacca (Malacca) 640 232,159 
Penang * (George Town) 390 411,836 
Singapore (Singapore) 291 763,263 
Unfederated Malay States 22,276 1,918,831 / 
Johore (Johore Bahru) 7,600 778,990 
Kedah (Alor Star) 3,660 484.933 
Kelantan (Kota Bharu) 6,760 393,983 
Perils (Hangar) 316 66,382 
Trengganu (Kuala Trengganu) 6,060 204,643 

Estimate of 1938 * Estimate of June 30, 1940 Includes 
the Binding* * Includes Province Welleslev (280 sq mi ; pop 
168,318; chief town Butterworth Includes Christmas Island 
(60 sq mi ; pop 1.306) and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (9 sq mi , 
pop 1,142). / Estimate of June 30, 1939 

The combined population of the Federated 
Malay States, Straits Settlements, and the Unfed- 
erated Malay States at the end of 1939 was 5,444,- 
833, including 2,332,058 Chinese, 2,259,331 Ma- 
lays, 744,283 Indians, 30,319 Europeans (includ- 
ing the military which was later increased), and 
19,046 Eurasians. Chief cities: Singapore, 750,805 
inhabitants in 1939; George Town, 149,408 
(1936); Kuala Lumpur, 138,425; Johore Bahru, 
97,634; Ipoh, 64,343 (1937); Malacca, 44,180 



(1939); Taiping, 38,719; Seremban, 27,839; 
Klang, 27,948; Alor Star, 25,000; Kuching, 25,000; 
Kuala Trengganu, 14,000; Sandakan, 13,826; 
Brunei, 12,000. 

Production. The chief products in 1940 were rub- 
ber (603,600 long tons, including that of Brunei, 
Sarawak, and British North Borneo ) , tin ( domesti- 
cally mined, 84,750 long tons shipped), copra, 
rice, palm oil, iron, tea, and pineapples. Other 
products sugar, areca nuts, timber, resin, phos- 
phate, manganese, bauxite, scheelite, wolframite, 
and amang ore. During December, 1940, the area 
of tapped rubber trees was 1,632,136 acres; the 
area under rice, the main food crop, 793,340 acres 

Trade. Federated Malay States, Straits Settle- 
ments, and Unfcderated Malay States (1940): 
S$830,255,000 for imports and S$l,128,l 69,000 for 
exports. During 1939 some 766,000 tons of liquid 
fuel and 488,852 tons of gasoline and benzine 
were imported Of these amounts, 224,754 tons of 
liquid fuel and 356,736 tons of gasoline and ben- 
zine were reexportcd. Exports of Malayan produce 
to the United States during 1940 were valued at 
S $59 1,93 1,000, an increase of 84 per cent over 
1939. Imports from the United States in 1940 
totaled S$38,037,000, an increase of 107.8 per cent 
over 1939. Gross exports of rubber in 1940, in- 
cluding reexports of 234,319 long tons from near- 
by countries, amounted to 772,767 long tons valued 
at S$629,598,000 (an advance of 68 per cent by 
value o\er 1939). Total expoits (1940) of tin, in- 
cluding reexports, amounted to 130,935 long tons. 
Figures of trade not included in the above totals 
were: British North Borneo (1940, imports 
S$9,978,419 and exports S$20,270,502), Brunei 
( 1939, imports S$3,256,768 and exports S$7,858,- 
878), Sarawak (1939, imports S$26,173,420 and 
exports S$34,379,748). 

Communications. An air service between Singa- 
pore and San Francisco, by way of Manila, was 
inaugurated by Pan Arneiican Airways on May 10, 
1941. Air services to African destinations ending 
at Durban were resumed during 1941 on the basis 
of one trip per week in each direction. There are 
air services between Singapore and the Near East, 
Singapore and Sydney, Australia, and air-mail fa- 
cilities to Manila, Philippine Islands, on alternate 
weeks to connect with Pan American Airways. 
Roads (1940): 7,873 miles. 

Finance. Federated Malay States ( 1941 estimates, 
excluding war taxation and expenditure): S$77,- 
500,000 ( S$97,000,000 in 1940) for revenue and 
S$72,000,000 (S$82,000,000) for expenditure 
Straits Settlements budget (1941): S$46,294,000 
for revenue and S$57,292,000 for expenditure. Un- 
federated Malay States ( actual 1939-40 for Kedah, 
and Peru's; actual 1939 for Johore, Kelantan, and 
Trengganu): S$32,741,564 for revenue and S$36,- 
273,936 for expenditure. British North Borneo, 
Brunei, and Sarawak (actual 1939 figures): S$9,- 
608,752 for revenue and S$7,324,443 for expendi- 
ture. The average annual exchange value for the 
Straits dollar (S$) was $0.5174 for 1939; $0.4698, 
1940. 

Government. The Governor of the Straits Settle- 
ments also serves as High Commissioner for the 
Federated and Unfederated Malay States and 
Brunei and as Agent for British North Borneo and 
Sarawak. The Straits Settlements constitute a crown 
colony; it is administered by the Governor with the 
aid of executive and legislative councils. The other 
Malay States are all protectorates with different de- 
grees of British control. British Residents advise the 
rulers of each of the Federated and Unfederated 
Malay States. The Federated Malay States have, in 



BRITISH MALAYA 



addition, a Federal Council and their policy in 
Federal matters is coordinated by the High Com- 
missioner through the Federal Secretary. British 
North Borneo is administered by the British North 
Borneo Company under a royal charter. The Sultan 
of Brunei in 1906 agreed to place the administra- 
tion in the hands of a British Resident. Sarawak has 
a British hereditary ruler or rajah, Sir Charles 
Vyner Brooke, but a Special Commissioner repre- 
sents the Governor of the Straits Settlements. Gov- 
ernor at Singapore in 1941, Sir Shenton Thomas 
(appointed in 1934). 

History. Feverish preparations for the defense of 
British Malaya against a threatened Japanese at- 
tack were carried forward throughout 1941. The 
Governor and High Commissioner at Singapore re- 
peatedly issued warnings that the war might soon 
spread to Malaya. Reinforcements were sent to 
the Malay Peninsula from Australia, India and 
Great Britain along with military planes and equip- 
ment from the United States Recruiting of Malays 
was speeded up. Training for civilian defense pro- 
ceeded simultaneously with the strengthening of 
military defenses. Extensive mine fields were laid to 
guard the sea approaches to the Peninsula. Large 
sections of the eastern coastline, particularly the 
entrances to the chief Malay rivers emptying into 
the China Sea, weie placed under military control. 
The progressive restriction of Japanese commercial 
and economic activities resulted in the virtual 
elimination of mining, trading, and banking inter- 
ests worth millions of dollars. 

The Japanese threat led to the coordination of 
British, Dutch, and United States defense prepara- 
tions in the East Indies. Early in April conferences 
were held in Manila between Air Chief Marshal 
Sir Robert Brooke-Popham, commander-in-chief of 
British forces throughout eastern Asia; Admiral 
Thomas C Wart, commander of the U.S. Asiatic 
fleet; Major Gen. Douglas MacArthur, the Philip- 
pine Commonwealth's military adviser; Major Gen. 
George Grunert, commander of the American forces 
in the Philippines; and Foreign Minister E. N van 
Kleffens of the Netherlands. Military and naval 
chiefs of the Dutch East Indies and Australia par- 
ticipated in later conferences Plans for joint Brit- 
ish-Dutch defense of their East Indian possessions 
were completed although no formal mutual defense 
accord was announced. 

Under the stress of the war, Singapore, long the 
commercial center of Southeastern Asia, assumed 
growing importance as the chief defense bastion 
and political center of British colonies and Domin- 
ions throughout that region. The British Govern- 
ment established its Far Eastern military head- 
quarters there in 1940, and in 1941 established 
branches of the Ministry of Information and the 
Ministry of Economic Warfare. Australia during 
1941 sent permanent diplomatic and commercial 
representatives to Singapore. Conferences of British 
and Dominion diplomats and officials throughout 
the Far East were held there. Recognition of the 
development of Singapore as the British sub-capital 
for the Far East was seen in the dispatch of Alfred 
Duff Cooper to that city by the British Government 
in October. He was sent to devise new machinery 
for the coordination of Empire defense. 

In line with^this trend toward modernization of 
British Malaya's political machinery was the decree 
issued by the White Rajah of Sarawak, Sir Charles 
Vyner Brooke, on September 24, establishing what 
was described as a constitutional monarchy for 
Sarawak. On April 7 Sir Charles had announced 
the establishment of a legislative council and pro- 
nounced his brother, Bertram, heir to the throne. 



83 BRITISH WEST INDIES 

Imposition of an income tax in the Straits Settle- 
ments for the duration of the war, the issuance of 
new war loans by the Straits Settlements and the 
Federated Malay States, and the spread of labor 
difficulties on rubber estates and tin mines were 
other developments of the year. 

Precautionary defense measures were undertaken 
on Nov. 29, 1941, when troops throughout Malaya 
were ordered to their stations and guards and pa- 
trols with full war equipment were assigned at im- 
portant points. On Dec. 1, 1941, Sir Shenton 
Thomas declared a state of emergency and issued a 
proclamation ordering up military, naval, and air 
force volunteers for active duty throughout Malaya. 
War with Japan commenced on Dec. 8, 1941, a 
brief official announcement from Singapore stating 
that the Japanese had landed in North Malaya and 
that "the enemy are being engaged " A report of 
Dec. 17, 1941, said that a Japanese force had in- 
vaded the rich Miri oil fields of Sarawak on the 
northwest coast of Sarawak, but had found that the 
oil refinery as well as the installations of both the 
Miri and Seria oil fields had been completely de- 
stroyed by British troops. A report from Singapore, 
dated Jan. 1, 1942, announced that British troops 
had withdrawn from Sarawak and had joined the 
Netherlands forces in Western Borneo. See AUS- 
TRALIA, GREAT BRITAIN, and JAPAN under History; 
TIN; WORLD WAR. 

BRITISH NEW GUINEA. Same as Papua. See AUS- 
TRALIA under Overseas Territories. 
BRITISH NORTH BORNEO. See BRITISH MALAYA. 
BRITISH SOLOMON ISLANDS PROTECTORATE. See BRIT- 
ISH EMPIRE. 



BRITISH SOMALILAND. A British protectorate in East 
Africa, bounded north by the Gulf of Aden and 
south by Ethiopia and Italian Somaliland. It was 
captured by the Italians during August of 1940 
and recaptured by British Imperial Forces during 
March of 1941. Area, 68,000 square miles; popula- 
tion (1938 estimate), 350,000, including 2,700 
nonnatives. Chief towns: Beibera (capital), Har- 
geisa, Burao, Zeila, Erigavo 

Production and Trade. Livestock raising was the 
main occupation of the people. In 1936 the pro- 
tectorate had 2,500,000 sheep, 2,000,000 goats, 
1,500,000 camels, 30,000 cattle, 2,000 donkeys, 
and 1,000 horses The agricultural crops include 
maize, barley, sorghum, and wheat. Trade ( 1938) : 
728,050 for imports and 207,548 for exports. 
Cotton piece goods, nee, dates, and sugar were the 
main imports. The chief exports were sheep, goats, 
skins, myrrh, and frankincense. Shipping ( 1938 ) : 
158,673 tons cleared. 

Government. Finance (1938): 206,074 for rev- 
enue and 227,341 for expenditure. Free grant- 
m-aidfrom British government (1938), 30,000. 
Previous to the Italian occupation in August of 
1940 the protectorate was administered by a gov- 
ernor (with headquarters at Sheikh). Governor 
and Commander-in-Chief, V. G. Glenday (ap- 
pointed Mar. 2, 1939). 

For the military campaign by which the British 
recaptured the protectorate in 1941, see WORLD 
WAR; ITALIAN EAST AFRICA under History. 

BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA. See SOUTH AFRICA, UNION OF. 
BRITISH WEST AFRICA. See CAMEROONS, BRITISH; 
Gambia under BRITISH EMPIRE, GOLD COAST; NI- 
GERIA; SIERRA LEONE 

BRITISH WEST INDIES. The colonial possessions of 
Gieat Britain in the West Indies, consisting of 



BROADCASTING STATIONS 



84 



BUILDING 



three main groups of islands: (1) Bahamas, (2) 
Jamaica and adjacent islands, and ( 3 ) other is- 
lands scattered throughout the Lesser Antilles 
(Leeward Islands, Windward Islands, Barbados, 
Trinidad, and Tobago). Bermuda, British Guiana, 
and British Honduras (qq.v.) are excluded. The 
area and population of the British West Indies, 
by main island groups, are shown in the accom- 
panying table. The inhabitants are for the most 
part Negroes. 



Island group (Capital) 


Sq mt 


Pop (19S9) 


Bahamas (Nassau) 
Barbados (Bridgetown) 


4,404 
IftG 


69,603 
195,548 


Jamaica & dependencies (Kingston) 


4,720 


1,185,920 


Jamaica (Kingston) 


4,4M 


1, 173,646* 


Turks & Caicos Is (Grand Turk) 


166 


5,SW 


Cayman Islands (Georgetown) 
Leeward Islands b (St John) 


104 
423 


6.976 
93,130 


Trinidad & Tobago (Port of Spain) 
Windward Islands * (St George's) 


1,980 
820 


473,455 
208,162 


Totals 


12,513 


2,286,118 



1938 estimate ''The island of Dominica (304 sq. mi.; 
51,959 inhabitants in 1939) was transferred from the Leeward 
Islands to the Windward Islands. Jan 1, 1940. 

Agriculture is the mam occupation in virtually 
all of the islands, the chief crops being sugar (ex- 
ports estimated at 502,086 tons for 1939-40), ca- 
cao, coconuts, cotton, citrus fruit, vegetables, and 
( in Jamaica ) bananas. The tourist business, manu- 
facturing for local consumption, and ( in Trinidad ) 
the production of petroleum and asphalt are the 
other leading sources of income There is no uni- 
fied governmental system, the island groups listed 
above constitute separate colonies, each with a 
governor appointed by the Crown and with vary- 
ing degrees of popular representation in their legis- 
lative bodies. See the separate article on each col- 
ony and its mam subdivisions. 

History. It was announced in the British parlia- 
ment in London, on Apr. 2, 1941, that the schemes 
alreadv approved under the Colonial Development 
and Welfare Act in respect of the British West 
Indies included road construction and the develop- 
ment of the fishing industry in Antigua, a tick 
eradication campaign in the Virgin Islands, an ex- 
pedition to Indo-China to investigate banana dis- 
eases on behalf of Jamaica, and witchbroom dis- 
ease investigation in Trinidad. As a result of a 
conference of the representatives of the British 
West Indian governments, held in Kingston, Ja- 
maica, during August, lists were published prohib- 
iting the importation of luxury goods, and setting 
up quotas for necessities. 

BROADCASTING STATIONS. See RADIO, RADIO PRO- 
GRAMS. 

BROOKINGS INSTITUTION. An organization devoted 
to public service through research and training in 
the social sciences. Established in Washington, 
D.C., in 1927, it maintains as operating units the 
Institute of Economics, the Institute for Govern- 
ment Research, and a division of training in which 
only those who have had at least two years of 
graduate work are accepted as research fellows. 
In carrying out its purpose to aid constructively 
in the development of sound national policies 
without regard to the special interests of any group, 
the Institution conducted during 1940 several in- 
vestigations, some of which dealt with problems of 
the defense emergency. The resulting studies were 
published under the following titles: Nazi Europe 
and World Trade, by Cleona Lewis; Congressional 
Apportionment, by Laurence E. Schmeckebier; 
Government of Montgomery County, Maryland-, 
Air Mail Payment and the Government, by F. A. 



Spencer; The Presidents and Civil Disorder, by 
Bennett M. Rich; Government in Relation to Agri- 
culture, by Edwin G. Nourse; Fundamental Eco- 
nomic Issues in National Defense, by Harold G. 
Moulton; Effects of the Defense Program on Prices, 
Wages and Profits, by Jacobstem and Moulton; A 
Short War Through American Industrial Superi- 
ority, by Louis Marlio. 

The Institution is supported from endowment 
funds and annual grants from philanthropic foun- 
dations. The officers of the board of trustees for 
1941-42 were: Chairman, Dwight F. Davis; vice 
chairman, Dean G. Acheson; president, Harold G. 
Moulton; treasurer, Henry P. Seidemann; and sec- 
retary, Elizabeth H. Wilson. Headquarters are at 
722 Jackson Place, Washington, D.C. 

BROOKLYN-BATTERY TUNNEL. See TUNNELS. 

BROOKLYN INSTITUTE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. One 

of America's oldest and largest institutions for in- 
formal education, located in Brooklyn, N.Y. Its 
public actiMties are conducted at four centers: The 
Institute at the Academy of Music, the Central 
Museum, the Children's Museum, and the Botanic- 
Garden. Founded in 1824, the Institute was in- 
corporated in its present form in 1890. Total mem- 
bership is about 6,000 and is open to everyone. 

The Institute at the Academy of Music presents 
an adult education program annually of conceits, 
lectures, forums in every major field of the arts and 
sciences Approximate attendance at these events 
for the season 1940-41 was 210,000. The Insti- 
tute's Museums possess collections in art, ethnol- 
ogy, and natural science. On Tune 25, 1941, the 
Art and Photography Classes formerly conducted 
at the Institute at the Academy of Music were 
transferred to the Brooklyn Museum to form the 
new Art School of the Brooklyn Museum Attend- 
ance at both Museums for the year 1941 totaled 
820,243 The Institute's Botanic Garden comprises 
more than 50 acres and plant houses containing 
tropical and sub-tropical species. Botanic Garden 
attendance for the year 1941 totaled 1,753,381 

In 1941 the permanent funds of the Institute 
amounted to $4,324,206.01 and the funds to meet 
current expenses, to $845,845.93. Under a general 
reorganization plan adopted in April, 1938, James 
G. McDonald was named president of the Insti- 
tute, and Edward C. Blum became Chairman of 
the Board of Trustees. Juhus Bloom is associate 
director of the Institute at the Academy of Music; 
Laurance P. Roberts, director of the Museums; 
Mrs. William Lloyd Garrison, 3d, curator-in-chief 
of the Children's Museum; C Stuart Gager, di- 
rector of the Botanic Garden. Executive offices are 
located in the Academy of Music, 30 Lafayette 
Avenue, Brooklyn. 

BROWDER, Earl. See COMMUNISM. 
BRUNEI. See BRITISH MALAYA 
BRUNSWICK. See GERMANY under Area and Popula- 
tion. 

BUDGET. See PUBLIC FINANCE, the countries under 
Finance. For BUDGET MESSAGE, see UNITED STATES 
under Foreign Affairs. 

BUILDING. The building industry in 1941 accord- 
ing to the Supply Priorities and Allocations Board, 
(SPAB), a Federal agency, reached $11,000,000,- 
000 exclusive of repairs and remodeling. In a dras- 
tic move to conserve critical defense materials the 
SPAB on October 9th ruled that no new public or 
private construction projects can be started unless 
they are essential for defense or the health and 



BUILDING 



85 



BUILDING 



safety of the people. This ruling gave Priority Di- 
vision of the Office of Production Management 
practically veto power over public projects voted 
oy Congress, as rivers and harbors, ship canals, 
highway construction, and power developments. 
Construction workers in many communities will 
be effected; an estimate for 1941 indicates that 
defense construction will account for 44 per cent 
of all buildings, whereas in 1942 it is estimated to 
rise to more than 75 per cent. In some defense 
districts, standardized manufacturing and assem- 
bling procedures were followed on dwelling units. 
Wood was largely used, but occasionally welded 
steel and concrete were employed To save defense 
materials, substitutes were considered; as, for in- 
stance, instead of glass, a plastic film Such a film 
was used in London to replace glass broken in 
air raids. 

The number of new houses reported by the 
Federal Housing Administration (qv.), started in 
the first ten months of 1941, substantially exceeded 
the total number constructed under FHA inspection 
in all of 1940. For the first nine months of 1941 
construction of industrial type buildings, as re- 
ported by Engineering News-Record, reached the 
record total of $1,517,645,000 with government 
owned privately operated plants accounting for 
$1,117,483,000 of the volume, and privately owned 
privately operated plants making up the balance, 
$400,162,000. Seven-eighths of the privately oper- 
ated industrial expansion during the first nine 
months of 1941 was concentrated in three key de- 
fense industries process (chemical) industries, 
machine and machined part plants, and aircraft and 
aircraft engine factories. 

Military airports, air bases, hangars, and airport 
facilities, from figures compiled by Engineering 
News-Record totaled $254,210,000 for ten months 
of 1941; shipyard, shipway and dry dock construc- 
tion under the Naval and Lend-Lease programs 
amounted to $199,629,000, and other military con- 
struction, such as docks, piers, underground maga- 
zines, recreational facilities, etc., reached $78,213,- 
000. These three classes of Federal work brought 
direct defense expenditures in the unclassified con- 
struction field to $532,052,000 for the year to No- 
\ember 1st 

The Statistical and Research Division of the 
F. W. Dodge Corp., New York, prepared the fol- 
lowing table on value of total construction con- 
tracts in 37 eastern cities Actual values are given 
for 1940, and estimated for 1941 and 1942. The 
figures in the estimates are based on the regular 
factual construction contract coverage of the F. W. 
Dodge Corp.; they are in conformity with but not 
directly comparable to the large over-all estimates 



of the U.S. Dept. of Commerce, the Office of Pro- 
duction Management, and other governmental 
agencies. 

Restrictions placed upon non-defense and pri- 
vate construction were reflected in a smaller vol- 
ume of building permits during November. The 
total declined sharply from October to the lowest 
level since February, 1940, while falling below the 
corresponding 1940 figure for the second succes- 
sive month. November permit valuations for 215 
cities of the United States amounted to $92,339,- 
054, according to Dun & Bradstreet, Inc., New 
York. This was 26 per cent under October with 
$124,745,508, and 9.9 per cent below November, 
1940, with $102,539,657. 



Geographical 
Divisions 
New England 
Middle At'tic 
South At'tic 
East Central 
South Central . 
West Central 
Mountain 
Pacific 

Total US. . . 
New Y'k City . 
O'side N Y.C. . 


Eleven 


M o ntha . 
1940 
$79,660,330 
314,517,337 
158.434,893 
275,635,713 
124,112,215 
65,353,592 
30,358,155 
201,042,459 


Change 
P. Ct. 
+20.2 
-160 
- 4.2 
+ 16.0 
+182 
+134 
+ 112 
+41 1 


1941 
$95,727,249 
264,176,343 
151,807,678 
319,614,949 
146,709,057 
74,085,254 
33,743,441 
283,609,138 


$1,369,473,109 
$146,451,627 
$1,223,021,482 


$1,249,114,694 
$207,516,720 
$1,041,597,974 


+ 96 
-294 

+17.4 



The cumulative turnover of building permits for 
the 215 cities for the eleven months of the year 
continued at a peak for eleven years, totaling 
$1,369,473,109. This represented an increase of 
96 per cent over the $1,249,114,694 for the cor- 
responding 1940 period. New York dropped 29.4 
per cent under 1940 with the sum of $146,451,627, 
while the balance of the country, with $1,223,021,- 
482, for the eleven months, showed a year-to-year 
gam of 17.4 per cent. (See table above.) 



Eleven Months . 




1941 


1940 


New York, N.Y 


$146,451,627 


$207,516,720 


Los Angeles, Cal ..... 


, . . 81,916,470 


68,450,116 


Detroit, Mich 


72,294,344 


68,409,020 


San Diego, Cal. . 


49,858,350 


13,009,975 


Chicago, 111 ... 


. . 47,101,787 


37,956,249 


Washington, D C 


43,368,995 


38,580,420 


San Francisco, Cal. 


36,392,637 


29,452,861 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


32,704,930 


27,898,040 


Baltimore, Md 


32,270,736 


29,820,549 


Seattle, Wash 


26,685,505 


12,939,055 


Cleveland, Ohio 


24,995,000 


20,627,500 


Cincinnati, Ohio . . 


23,249,117 


20,023,590 


New Orleans, La. 
Houston, Tex 


20,167,802 
18,172f,521 


6,307,813 
21,098,210 


St Louis, Mo. 


16,641,941 


12,657,518 


Oakland, Cal 


14,982,637 


14,699,101 


Denver, Colo 


14,438,047 


12,099,088 


Hartford, Conn 


14,332,369 


8,478,485 


Portland, Ore 


14,293,320 


9,696,115 


Memphis, Tenn 


14,276,009 


8.176,856 



VALUE OF TOTAL CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS 37 EASTERN STATES 





1940 Act. 


* 1941 Estimate 


1949 Estimate 


Classification 


Millions 


Millions 


% 


Millions 


% Change 




Dollars 


Dollars 


Change 
From '40 


f 
Dollars 


from 1941 
Est. 


Commeroial Buildings . . . 


318 


490 


+ 54 


330 


-33 


Manufacturing Buildings 


442 


1,175 


+166 


1,175 





Educational Buildings ... 


147 


145 


- 1 


90 


-38 


Hospital & Institutional . . 


94 


100 


+ 6 


75 


-25 


Public Buildings 


80 


85 


+ 6 


15 


-82 


Religious Buildings 


46 


55 


+ 20 


15 


-73 


Social & Recreational . . 


63 


80 


+ 27 


50 


-37 


Misc. Non-Residential 


104 


250 


+ 140 


110 


-56 


TOTAL NON-RESIDENTIAL 


1,294 


2,380 


+ 84 


1,860 


-22 


Apartments, Hotels A Dorms . 


331 


255 


- 23 


100 


-61 


1 A 2 Family Houses . . . 


. . 1,155 


1,625 


+ 41 


1,075 


-34 


Other Shelter 


111 


160 


+ 44 


50 


-69 


TOTAL RMBIDDNTIAL 


1,597 


2,040 


+ 28 


1,225 


-40 


TOTAL BUILDING 


2,891 


4,420 


+ 53 


3,085 


-30 


TOTAL PUB. WORKS A UTILITIES 


1,112 


1,710 


+ 54 


1,100 


-36 


TOTAL CONSTRUCTION 


4,003 


6,130 


+ 63 


4,185 


-32 



* Baaed on 10 months data. 



BULGARIA 



86 



BULGARIA 



A regional tabulation for the first eleven months 
of 1941 and 1940 shows all divisions with larger 
totals than last year, with the exception of the 
Middle Atlantic and South Atlantic. 

Of the twenty leading cities, permit valuations 
of which are given above, only New York and 
Houston failed to show improvement over a year 
ago for the eleven months. San Diego and New 
Orleans reported a more than three fold rise for 
the period. 

See ARCHITECTURE; BUSINESS REVIEW; CON- 
STRUCTION INDUSTRY; FEDERAL HOUSING ADMINIS- 
TRATION; FOUNDATIONS; HOUSING AUTHORITY, U.S.; 
SUPPLY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS BOARD. 

CHAS. H. HUGHES. 

BULGARIA. A Balkan monarchy. Capital, Sofia. King 
in 1941, Boris III, who succeeded to the throne 
Oct. 3, 1918. 

Area and Population. Excluding areas annexed 
from Greece and Yugoslavia in 1941, but including 
2,982 square miles of Southern Dobruja, with a 
population of 378,344, annexed from Rumania on 
Sept. 7, 1940, Bulgaria has an area of 42,797 
square miles and a population estimated at 6,720,- 
000. Estimated population of Sofia ( with suburbs ) 
in 1937: 350,000; of other cities in 1936: Plovdiv 
(Philippopolis), 125,000; Varna, 75,000; Ruse 
(Ruschuk), 51,000; Burgas, 30,000. 

National Defense. The military restrictions im- 
posed upon Bulgaria by the Treaty of Neuilly in 
1919 were removed July 31, 1938. As of Novem- 
ber, 1940, there were an estimated 350,000 men 
under arms, not including the air force of 3,200 
men, and 320,000 trained reserves. The defense 
force was relatively weak in modern armaments, 
but this deficiency was being made up rapidly with 
German aid. 

Education and Religion. At the 1934 census 20.4 
per cent of the males and 42.8 per cent of the 
females were illiterate. Schools of all classes num- 
bered 7,782, with 1,086,849 students, in 1937-38 
(including 5,335 elementary schools with 659,633 
pupils). The American College of Sofia was the 
only one of the six American colleges in the Near 
East that remained open throughout 1941. It had 
about 500 students. The 1934 census showed 
5,128,890 members of the Orthodox Church of 
Bulgaria, 821,298 Moslems, 48,398 Jews, 45,704 
Roman Catholics, 23,476 Armenian-Gregorians, and 
8,371 Protestants. 

Production. About four-fifths of the population 
live by agriculture and fishing. Production of 
cereals in 1940 was estimated at 3,400,000 metric 
tons (3,560,000 in 1939); leaf tobacco, 40,000 
tons; rose oil, 1,600 kilograms, cotton, about 14,- 
000 tons; beet sugar, 30,000 tons; raw silk, 19,200 
tons (1939). Other production was (in metric 
tons): Lignite, 2,004,000 in 1940, coal, 145,000 in 
1938; cement, 194,000 in 1938; salt, 77,000 in 
1938. 

Foreign Trade. A law of June 1, 1940, established 
a Foreign Trade Administration to organize and 
control imports and exports. Including bullion, 
specie and the exchange premium, imports in 1940 
totaled 7,028,400,000 leva (5,197,200,000 in 1939); 
exports, 7,018,800,000 leva (6,064,800,000). Ger- 
many supplied 69.6 per cent of the 1940 imports 
(65.5 in 1939) and purchased 59.2 per cent of the 
exports (67.8 in 1939). The leading exports in 
1939 were (in 1,000 leva): Tobacco, 2,486,411; 
fruit, 1,114,103; eggs, 512,062; wheat, 442,505; 
hides, 168,588; wine. 125,514. 

Finance. In 1940 budget receipts and expenditures, 
including the separate railways budget but exclud- 



ing extraordinary credits, amounted to 11,821,612,- 
000 and 11,422,064,000 leva, respectively, com- 
pared with 10,216,921,000 and 9,868,715,000 leva 
in 1939. Budget estimates for 1941, excluding the 
railways budget, were: Receipts, 10,160,600,000 
leva; expenditures, 10,095,922,000. The internal 
public debt rose from 8,805,000,000 leva on June 
30, 1939, to 14,335,000,000 leva on May 31, 1940, 
while the external debt declined from 12,946,- 
000,000 to 12,612 000,000 leva during the same 
period. The official exchange rate was 84 leva to 
$1.00 in U.S. currency or 1 lev equals $0.0119. 

Transportation. In 1940 Bulgaria had about 2,130 
miles of railway lines, all state-owned; 19,605 miles 
of roads; and airlines connecting with the principal 
European cities. Railway traffic statistics for 1940 
were: Passengers, 12,500,000, freight, 6,400,000 
metric tons; receipts, 1,875,000,000 leva. New rail- 
way lines of considerable strategic value were un- 
der construction in 1941, notably the last link in a 
new direct route between Sofia and the Bluc-k Sea 
port of Burgas. Freight handled at the Danube and 
Black Sea ports of Bulgaria in 1939 was estimated 
at 990,000 metric tons. 

Government. The Constitution of 1879 remained 
suspended from the Georgiev coup d'etat of May 
19, 1934, through 1941. All political parties were 
dissolved in 1934 and the formation of new ones 
was prohibited King Boris ruled as virtual dictator 
after overthrowing Premier Georgiev's dictatorship 
on Jan. 22, 1935. The parliaments elected in March, 
1938, and in December, 1939-January, 1940, were 
deprived of practically all legislative powers. The 
former political parties were not permitted to pre- 
sent candidates or otherwise participate in the elec- 
toral campaigns. Deputies were elected on a per- 
sonal basis and government manipulation of the 
electoral machinery produced pro-government ma- 
jorities (of 140 out ot 160 members of the Sobranye 
in the latter elections). Premier in 1941, Bogdan 
Philov (appointed Feb. 15, 1940), heading a cabi- 
net composed mostly of independents 

HISTOHY 

Bulgaria Joins the Axis. The many-sided diplomatic 
and economic struggle to determine Bulgaria's 
alignment in the World War ended with a com- 
plete German victory on Mar 1, 1941. Ignoring 
British, Soviet, Turkish, and Greek efforts to keep 
Bulgaria neutral, Premier Philov signed the Axis 
pact of Sept 27, 1940, at a ceremony in Vienna 
attended by Reichsfuehrcr Hitler. Earlier the same 
day, German troops crossed the Rumanian frontier 
and commenced the military occupation of Bulgaria 
with the assent of the Sofia authorities. On March 2 
the government majority in the Sobranye ratified 
the government's signature of the Axis pact over 
the vigorous protests of the pro-Soviet opposition 
minority. 

Bulgaria thus formally accepted its role as a 
German satellite, yielding to mingled threats of in- 
vasion, promises of territorial compensation, and 
economic pressure. It undertook to give any Axis 
country military and economic assistance if attacked 
by a previously nonbelligerent power. It placed 
its territory, airfields, communications systems, and 
other facilities at the disposal of the German war 
machine for the subsequent successful attack upon 
Yugoslavia and Greece. Finally the Bulgarian Gov- 
ernment accepted German guidance in reorganizing 
the Bulgarian economic system as part of Hitler's 
"new order" in Europe. 

Preparations for Occupation. King Boris's decision 
to take Bulgaria into the Axis apparently was 
reached during the latter part of 1040. But his 



BULGARIA 



course was not revealed until Germany had com- 
pleted the necessary military and diplomatic prepa- 
rations to prevent a violent reaction within Bulgaria 
or on the part of neighboring anti-Nazi countries. 
Accompanied by the German Minister in Sofia, 
Premier Philov visited Vienna "for his health" im- 
mediately after issuing a New Year's Day remind- 
er to the Bulgarian people that "God helps him who 
helps himself." On January 2 government officials 
in Sofia announced that Bulgaria would be forced 
to permit German forces to cross its territory if 
such a demand were made by Berlin. 

Following his return to Sofia, Premier Philov on 
January 12 said that Bulgaria might be forced into 
the war if German pressure grew stronger, but that 
in the meantime it would remain strictly neutral, 
rejecting Communist, Nazi, and Fascist doctrines 
alike. Moscow on the same day took occasion to 
deny that it had been asked for or given its consent 
to German troop movements into Bulgaria. Mem- 
bers of the Philov Cabinet subsequently intensified 
their indirect campaign to prepare the nation for an 
alliance with Germany. The Agrarian and Com- 
munist minority, on the other hand, waged an ac- 
tive propaganda struggle to align Bulgaria with the 
Soviet Union through a mutual assistance pact. 

The resignation of the pro-Nazi Minister of Ag- 
riculture, Ivan Bagriariov, on February 4 was mis- 
takenly construed as a setback to German policy. 
But in a radio broadcast of February 9, the British 
Prime Minister announced that "a considerable 
German army and air force is being built up in 
Rumania and its forward tentacles have already 
penetrated Bulgaria with, we must suppose, the 
acquiescence of the Bulgarian Go\ermnent" As- 
serting that German ground personnel "numbering 
thousands" were occupying Bulgarian airfields, he 
reminded Bulgaria of the dismemberment that fol- 
lowed its disregard of British warnings not to enter 
the first World War. 

Sofia authorities formally denied Prime Minister 
Churchill's charges They asserted that the only 
Germans in Bulgaria were a few officers and men 
who had long been training the Bulgarian army to 
use equipment obtained from the Reich. However 
foreign correspondents in Sofia and other parts of 
the country testified to the steady infiltration of 
German military technicians and soldiers disguised 
as tourists and business men On February 13 the 
Bulgarian Foreign Office admitted that Germany 
was ready to march an army through Bulgaria to 
the Greek frontier in order to end the war between 
Greece and Italy. The Government began to arrest 
some of the anti-Nazi opposition leaders. 

Treaty with Turkey. Another bar to Bulgaria's mili- 
tary collaboration with the Reich was removed on 
February 17 when Bulgaria and Turkey signed a 
declaration of friendship and nonaggression. The 
two governments also agreed "to maintain and fur- 
ther develop mutual confidence in their friendly 
relations," to develop mutual commerce, and to dis- 
courage recriminations by the Bulgarian and Turk- 
ish press. This declaration temporarily relieved 
Bulgarian fears that Turkey would carry out its 
1940 threat to enter the war if German troops 
crossed Bulgaria to attack Greece. 

The Turkish Foreign Minister on February 23 
repudiated this interpretation of the Turkish-Bul- 
garian accord. But on February 20 the Sofia Gov- 
ernment mobilized workers in the railway and other 
essential services, and the same day German enci- 
neers started to erect pontoon bridges across the 
Danube from Rumania. Two days later German 
General Staff officers began to arrive in Sofia in 
civilian attire. The British Legation on February 24 



87 BULGARIA 

destroyed its confidential records, while the Bul- 
garian Government ordered nation-wide blackouts. 
Three days later the British Minister, George Ren- 
del, threatened that Bulgaria would become "a the- 
ater of war" if he was forced to withdraw from 
Sofia. 

German Troops Enfer. However Bulgaria's decision 
was made. At dawn on March 1 German bombers 
roared over Sofia and landed troops at various air- 
ports, while armored columns crossed the Danube 
pontoon bndges from Rumania and sped south- 
ward to take up positions along the Greek and 
Turkish frontiers. By March 3 the German forces 
had taken over control of all strategic points 
throughout the country, while Bulgarian troops 
were being mobilized to cope with a possible Turk- 
ish attack. A wildly cheering government majority 
in the Sobranye on March 2 authorized a "tempo- 
rary" German military occupation of Bulgarian mil- 
itary bases. Premier Philov declared that the pres- 
ence of German troops had not changed Bulgaria's 
policy of peace, and that her friendship treaties 
with neighboring states remained unaffected Re- 
peated acts of sabotage and of hostility toward the 
Germans indicated that the country was by no 
means unanimous in approving the occupation. 

The Foreign Reaction. The Turkish Government did 
not carry out its threat to break with Bulgaria and 
enter the conflict on the British side. The Soviet 
Government expressed its disapproval of Bulgaria's 
course in a note of March 3. The note asserted that 
Bulgaria's policy would extend the sphere of the 
war and involve Bulgaria in the conflict, and that 
consequently Moscow could not support Sofia in 
the application of its pro-Nazi policy 

President Roosevelt on March 3 'froze" Bulga- 
iian credits in the United States. On March 4 Bul- 
garia broke off diplomatic relations with the exiled 
governments of Poland, Belgium, -and the Nether- 
lands, whose diplomatic representatives had re- 
mained at their posts in Sofia. The British Govern- 
ment on March 5 severed diplomatic relations with 
Bulgaria, pointing out that Bulgaria's agreement 
with Germany facilitated "the German aim ... to 
menace and, if necessary, attack Great Britain's 
ally, Greece." The British Minister left Sofia with 
a warning that Bulgaria might suffer like Italy for 
its capitulation to the Reich. He narrowly escaped 
death when time bombs exploded in luggage ac- 
companying the British mission upon its arrival in 
Istanbul on March 11. Two members of the lega- 
tion staff were mortally wounded and others seri- 
ously injured. The Turkish police expressed the con- 
viction that the bombs were planted in the luggage 
in Sofia by the IMRO, Macedonian terrorist or- 
ganization, whose members were said to be in Ger- 
man pay. 

Bulgaria's Role in War. Following the launching of 
the German attack upon Yugoslavia and Greece 
from Bulgarian soil, the British and Yugoslav air 
forces carried out several raids on Bulgarian centers. 
Sofia was bombed by the R A.F on the nights of 
April 6 and 13. Bulgarian forces took no part in the 
fighting in Yugoslavia and Greece, according to a 
statement by Premier Philov on April 8. However 
on April 15 Bulgaria broke off diplomatic relations 
with Yugoslavia in view of "unprovoked" Serb air 
attacks upon Bulgarian soil. On April 19 Sofia an- 
nounced that Bulgarian troops were completing the 
occupation of Greek and Yugoslav Macedonia, con- 
quered by the German armed forces. Later it was 
announced that Bulgarian forces had replaced Ger- 
man troops in occupation of the Greek territories of 
Western Thrace, trie districts of Fiorina and Kas- 
toria, and the islands of Samothrace and Thasos. 



BULGARIA 



88 



BURMA 



In all these territories a policy of denationalization 
and Bulgarization was introduced, which provoked 
bloody revolts and deep hatred among Greeks and 
Macedonian Serbs. There were charges of large- 
scale Bulgarian atrocities (see GREECE and YUGO- 
SLAVIA under History ) , which were denied in Sofia. 

Dispute with Italy. The Bulgarians resented the 
Italian occupation of the Macedonian towns of 
Tetovo, Gostivar, and Krushevo in territory prom- 
ised to Bulgaria by Germany. After King Boris 
visited Bercntesgaden to discuss this issue with 
Hitler, the Italians were reported to have withdrawn 
from the three towns. Delimitation of the new Al- 
banian-Bulgarian frontier was agreed upon by Pre- 
mier Philov and Foreign Minister Popov during 
conferences in Rome with Mussolini and other Ital- 
ian officials on July 21-23. The Bulgarian repre- 
sentatives failed to win Italian consent to Bulgaria's 
annexation of Salonika, and this issue was put off 
until the end of the war. 

Nonbelligerency Versus Russia. As a result of terri- 
torial gams achieved through German military tri- 
umphs, Bulgaria gained access to the Aegean Sea, 
controlled the mouth of the Danube, and acquired 
substantial new economic resources. Hitler demand- 
ed payment for these services in the form of Bul- 
garian participation in the German attack upon 
Russia, beginning June 22. King Boris and his Gov- 
ernment, knowing the strongly pro-Russian sym- 
pathies of the mass of Bulgarians, refused to take 
the risk. 

The pressure from Berlin for Bulgarian assistance 
in Russia grew severe in September. Bulgaria gave 
way to the extent of mobilizing its forces and co- 
operating with the Reich in far-reaching military 
preparations On September 11 Moscow accused 
Bulgaria of serving as a base for German-Italian 
land, sea, and air attacks upon the Soviet Union. 
Sofia not onlv rejected the Soviet protest, but pro- 
ceeded to ask Turkey for permission to move 13 
small "Bulgarian" warships from the Aegean into 
the Black Sea The Turks rejected the request. 
These vessels were reported to have been trans- 
ferred to the Bulgarian flag by Italy. 

Toward the end of September Soviet-Bulgarian 
relations neared the breaking point, while Germany 
threatened complete occupation of the kingdom 
unless Bulgaria entered the war with Russia. Yet 
the Bulgarian Minister of Interior declared Septem- 
ber 24 that the Go\ ernmcnt did not intend to enter 
the war. This assurance was repeated by the Presi- 
dent of the National Assembly on October 26 
Meanwhile Premier Philov on October 15-18 visit- 
ed Budapest, where plans were laid for further Bul- 
garian and Hungarian territorial gains at Rumania's 
expense and for joint resistance to Rumania's re- 
visionist ambitions. At the same time the Sofia au- 
thorities joined willingly in German preparations 
for future invasion of Turkey from bases in Bul- 
garia. 

War with Britain and United States. The Bulgarian 
Government on November 25 renewed its adher- 
ence to the Axis Tripartite Pact for another five 
years In accordance with the pact, it followed Ger- 
many, Italy, and Japan into war with the United 
States and Great Britain (December 13). Accord- 
ing to the American Minister in Sofia, this action 
was forced upon Bulgaria by Germany and was 
popular with neither the people nor Government 
officials. 

Internal Unrest. The Government's stubborn avoid- 
ance of war with Russia was attributed to success- 
ful an ti- Axis risings in Serbia and to widespread 
disorders provoked by pro-Soviet elements in Bul- 
garia. The internal disorders developed soon after 



the onset of the Russo-German conflict. Despite 
numerous executions and harsh prison sentences, 
anti-Government propaganda, espionage, sabotage, 
and terrorism gained rapid momentum. On Octo- 
ber 3 King Boris amnestied 300 political prisoners 
in an effort to check the disorders, but without suc- 
cess. 

The growing food shortage and other economic 
suffering contributed to the mounting discontent 
and violence. The export of grain was forbidden 
August 30. On October 10 bread rationing was in- 
troduced in Sofia and Philippopohs. 

See GERMANY, GREAT BRITAIN, UNION OF SOVIET 
SOCIALIST REPUBLICS, and YUGOSLAVIA under His- 
tory; FASCISM; WORLD WAR. 

BUND, German-American. See FASCISM 

BUREAUS, Federal. See under the descriptive word of 

each title, as CUSTOMS, BUREAU OF. 

BURMA. A British dependency. Total area, 261,610 
square miles comprising Burma proper, with Chin 
Hills and Kachm Hills Tracts (192,158 sq. mi ), 
Shan States (62,335 sq mi.), and unadmmistered 
territory (7,117 sq. mi.). Total population (Dec. 
31, 1937, estimate), 15,797,000 compared with 
(1931 census) 14,667,146 (84.3 per cent Bud- 
dhists). Chief cities (1931 populations): Rangoon 
(capital), 400,415, Mandalay, 147,932; Moulmcin, 
65,506 Education (1938-39). 8,039 recognized 
schools and colleges (611,938 students) and 19,- 
020 unrecognized schools (213,295 students) 

Production and Trade. The main agricultural prod- 
ucts aie rice (405,490,000 bit of rough rice in 
191041 ), sesamurn, maize, jewar (Indian millet), 
eotton ( 17,300 met. tons, 1940-41 ), beans, ground- 
nuts (182,900 met. tons, 1938-39), and rubber 
(9,600 met tons, 1940). Teak output from the for- 
est reserves in 1937-38 totaled 283,857 tons. Min- 
eral production (in metric tons) petroleum (1,1 16,- 
000 for 1940), tin (4,500, 1938), lead (78,600, 
1939), zinc (55,800, 1938), tungsten (3,529, 1938), 
siher (192 1, 1939), gold, antimony, copper, rubies, 
and jadestone. Trade (1940): Rs270,350,000 for 
imports and Rs531, 120,000 for exports (rupee av- 
eraged $03328 for 1939, $0.3016, 1940) 

Communications. Railways (1939-40): 2,266 route 
miles (meter gauge); 4,001,000 tons of freight and 
18,920,308 passengers were carried. The Burma 
Road, from the railhead at Lashio to the Chinese 
border, was China's chief avenue for foreign sup- 
plies As a means of supplementing this important 
route, a railway (financed by the British govern- 
ment) was under construction in Burma from Lashio 
to the Chinese frontier where it would link up witb 
the Chinese railway being built fiom Kunming, 
capita^ of Yunnan. Roads (1940). 12,138 miles 
Burma's great river, the Irrawaddy, and its navi- 
gable tributaries provide an important means of 
transport for commerce 

Government. Finance (1940-41 estimates): Rsl60,- 
306,000 for revenue and Rs 164,660,000 for expend- 
iture. Burma was separated from India on Apr. 1, 
1937, and has its own constitution and government 
Executive power is vested in a go\ em or ( appointed 
by the Crown ) who is advised by a council of min- 
isters of not more than 10 members. The governor 
has control over foreign affairs Under the consti- 
tution the domestic affairs of Burma are adminis- 
tered by a Burman ministry, responsible to a Bur- 
man legislature consisting of a senate of 36 
members (18 elected by the house of representa- 
tives and 18 appointed by the governor) and a 
house of representatives of 132 members elected 
on a wide franchise, including women. Large areas 



BURMA 



BUSINESS REVIEW 



in the northern and eastern hill districts were ex- 
cluded from the legislature's control and placed un- 
der the jurisdiction of the governor. On Mar. 31, 
1941, Burma's new national flag a blue ensign 
bearing Burma's emblem, a peacock on a golden 
ground was hoisted. Governor, Sir Reginald Dor- 
man-Smith ( succeeded Sir Archibald Cochrane dur- 
ing May of 1941); Premier, U Maung Saw. 

History. Sir Archibald Cochrane, the governor, on 
Feb. 19, 1941, told both houses of the legislature 
that Burma was an integral and active part of the 
British Empire's Far Eastern defense organization 
under the command of Air Chief Marshal Sir Robert 
Brooke-Popham, the commander-in-chief in the Far 
East with headquarters in Singapore. The British 
government provided funds for the extension of the 
Burma Railway to the Chinese frontier (see above 
under Communications). On June 18, 1941, notes 
between the British and Chinese governments on 
the delimitation of the Burmese-Chinese border 
were exchanged at Chungking, China. One note de- 
fines in detail the frontier line between Burma and 
the Chinese province of Yunnan, the other defines 
the area on the Burmese side in which Burma 
agrees to permit Chinese participation up to 49 per 
cent in mining enterprises that may be undertaken 
by British concerns. On June 28, 1941, the draft 
Indo-Burmcse Immigration Agreement was initialed 
in Rangoon (see Indian Information. Sept. 1, 1941; 
p. 212). 

Japan's occupation of southern French Indo- 
China and the consequent threat to Burma and the 
Burma Road caused the authorities to increase mil- 
itary equipment of all kinds, to build airfields, bring 
in Royal Air Force contingents, and to arrange for 
reinforcements from Malaya, India, and the Near 
East The military authorities announced on Aug. 
2, 1941, that Burma was prepared for both offen- 
sive and defensive action based on the chain of air- 
dromes that were completed along Burma's borders 
with Thailand, French Indo-Chma, and China. The 
transit duty of 1 per cent on United States lease- 
lend goods sent through Burma to China was abol- 
ished on Sept. 3, 1941 Great Britain's offer of com- 
pensation for loss of the transit-duty revenue was 
rejected by the Burmese government. Four promi- 
nent Burmese political leaders were arrested on 
Oct. 14, 1941, charged with violating war and de- 
fense regulations. 

The Burmese Premier, U Maung Saw, who heads 
a coalition government representative of all politi- 
cal parties, left for London by airplane on Sept. 22, 
1941, to discuss with British officials Burma's part 
in the war effort of the Empire. A pledge that the 
British government would help Burma attain do- 
minion status after the war, was announced by L. 
S. Amery, the British Secretary for Burma, on Nov. 
4, 1941. In New York City on Nov. 13, 1941, U 
Maung Saw expressed disappointment at his failure 
to achieve dominion status for his country in the 
British Commonwealth of Nations. He said he 
would visit Canada, New Zealand, and Australia 
before returning home. 

The war was brought to the territory of Burma 
when Japan declared war against the United States 
and Great Britain on Dec. 7, 1941. Japanese air- 
craft engaged in bombing the airports in various 
parts of Burma In the first Japanese air raid on 
Rangoon, the capital, on Dec. 23, 1941, the number 
of casualties was 600. Of 80 Japanese bombers and 
pursuit aircraft which appeared over Rangoon on 
Dec. 26, 1941, and bombed the Aladon Airfield, 26 
were shot down by a squadron of the American 
Volunteer Group of airmen attached to the Chinese 
Army. It was reported on Dec. 27, 1941, that Gen. 



T. J. Hutton, chief of staff of Britain's India com- 
mand, had been appointed to head the military 
forces in Burma, with responsibility for the defense 
of Burma resting with Gen. Sir Archibald P. Wavell, 
the commander-in-chief for India. See WORLD WAR. 

BURMA ROAD. See BURMA, CHINA, FRENCH INDO- 
CHINA, and JAPAN under History. 
BUSES. See MOTOR VEHICLES; RAPID TRANSIT. 

BUSINESS REVIEW. The national defense and lease- 
lend programs dominated business conditions in the 
United States during 1941. While the year wit- 
nessed the establishment of a new high record in 
the volume of production and trade, more and 
more restrictions were imposed to divert productive 
capacity from civilian to war needs. However, 
many consumer goods industries sold more goods 
than they ever did before, for the restrictions did 
not become truly effective until very late in the 
year. 

The index of industrial production of the Board 
of Goxernors of the Federal Reserve System rose 
almost without interruption through the year, from 
140 in January to 168 in December. The abnormal 
conditions in industry produced by the war were 
illustrated by the fact that the Federal Reserve 
Board found it necessary to revise its index during 
the year because automobile and other manufac- 
turing plants were no longer turning out the prod- 
ucts for which they were built. Man-hours worked 
were substituted, therefore, for units of product 
turned out. Through such revision, the inaex was 
made more truly representative of the economy of 
a nation at war 

The year largely marked a period of transition 
from a peacetime to a war economy. The most 
drastic restrictions on civilian goods production 
were imposed only after the outbreak of war in 
December, except in such industries as silk manu- 
facturing where supplies of raw materials had been 
cut off earlier due to the breaking off of economic 
relations with Japan. It then became apparent that 
consumer goods plants would have to be converted 
wholesale to the production of war materials as 
contractors and sub-contractors. The course of busi- 
ness activity during 1941, and comparisons with 
previous years, was reflected in the adjusted index 
of industrial production of the Federal Reserve 
Board as follows: 

INDEX OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 

FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD * 
Adjusted for seasonal variations, monthly averaqe 19S5-S9 =*= 100 



Months 


1936 


1937 


JM8 


19S9 


1940 


1941 


January 


94 


110 


85 


101 


122 


140 


February 


92 


118 


84 


101 


11G 


144 


March 


93 


120 


84 


101 


113 


147 


April 


08 


120 


82 


98 


112 


144 


May 


100 


121 


81 


98 


110 


154 


June 


103 


119 


81 


103 


122 


159 


Julv 


104 


120 


80 


105 


122 


160 


August 


100 


119 


90 


105 


124 


160 


September 


108 


115 


93 


114 


127 


161 


October 


110 


107 


90 


121 


130 


163 


November 


113 


96 


100 


124 


134 


166 


December 


116 


87 


101 


125 


139 


168 


Annual Indices 


(unadjusted) 


1922 73 


1927 


95 


1932 


58 


1937 


113 


1923 88 


1928 


99 


1933 


69 


1938 


89 


1924 82 


192Q 


110 


1934 


75 


1939 


108 


1925 90 


1930 


91 


1935 


87 


1940 


123 


1926 90 


1931 


75 


1936 


103 


1941 


156 



* Revwed 

National defense expenditures, which amounted 
to $569,000,000 in January, rose above $1,800,000,- 
000 for December. It was not surprising, therefore, 
that durable goods industries, the chief recipients 
of armament orders, gained much more rapidly 



BUSINESS REVIEW 



90 



BUSINESS RfVIEW 



than non-durable goods manufactures. This may be 
seen from the following comparison of durable and 
non-durable goods manufactures, as reflected in 
indices compiled by the Board of Governors of the 
Federal Reserve System: 

DURABLE AND NON-DURABLE MANUFACTURES 

FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD 
Adjusted for seasonal variation 19S6-S9 100 



Months 
January 
February 
March 


Dur 
1940 
134 
124 
. ... 118 


able 

1941 
171 
176 
180 
180 
190 
195 
199 
199 
203 
207 
209 
214 
194 


Non-durable 

1940 1941 
113 123 
110 126 
107 128 
107 131 
110 135 
114 139 
113 138 
112 139 
112 137 
117 138 
120 143 
124 142 
113 135 


April . . 
Mav 
June 
July . 
August 
September 
October 
November 
December 
Year . . . 


. 116 
. 123 
. 133 
136 
143 
. 151 
... 155 
... 157 
104 
. 138 



The course of industrial activity may be traced 
in the table at foot of page, including railroad car 
loadings and other basic indices: 

Restrictions Under the Defense Program. Business 
was conducted to an increasing extent under re- 
strictions imposed in the interests of the defense 
program and economic stability during the emer- 
gency. Virtually every industry was affected di- 
rectly or indirectly by these restrictions The most 
important of them were concerned with priorities 
and price controls 

The Division of Priorities of the Office of Produc- 
tion Management (qv. ) issued general regulations 
requiring all sellers to recognize preference ratings 
accorded holders of defense contracts and others. 
These preference ratings varied from A A and 
A-la, the highest ratings, to A-10 M-orders were 
issued at various times during the year, beginning 
with M-l relating to aluminum, issued on March 
22. These M-orders regulated the distribution of 
individual commodities into defense and essential 
civilian channels. P or blanket preference orders 
were given particular industries to enable the com- 
panies in the industry to obtain supplies of strategic 
materials in preference to other buyers. In addition, 
individual preference certificates were given hold- 
ers of defense contracts. L-ordcrs limited produc- 
tion of specified types of consumer goods, such as 
automobiles, electrical refrigerators, and vacuum 
cleaners. E-orders coveied the distribution of scarce 
equipment, namely machine and cutting tools. 

It was found that so manv preference ratings and 
certificates were issued that they called for larger 
supplies of some scarce materials than were avail- 
able Late in the year, therefore, it was decided to 
shift the control system gradually from a preference 

INDICES OF ACTIVITY 



to an allocations or rationing basis. An important 
step in that direction was the inauguration of the 
Production Requirement Plan in December. Under 
this plan, manufacturers of defense and strategic 
civilian goods filled out Form PD-25A, estimating 
their scarce materials requirements for the coming 
quarter and stating the inventories on hand. Know- 
ing total demands for various purposes, the Priori- 
ties Division of OPM could compare them with 
available supplies and thus assign preference rat- 
ings to each manufacturer. At the same time, a 
revised list of scarce materials subject to this plan 
was issued as Materials List No. 1. Steel and other 
individual strategic materials were placed under 
separate full-fledged allocation plans. 

With the outbreak of war, resort to rationing was 
accelerated. The sale of rubber tires and tubes was 
halted entirely, since it became doubtful that crude 
rubber could be imported from the Indies. Limited 
supplies on hand were rationed very strictly to 
essential civilian users Passenger automobile sales 
at retail also were subjected to very strict rationing 
immediately after the war began. 

Business men were also made subject to a length- 
ening list of price regulations issued by the Office of 
Price Administration (q.v. ). These orders set ceil- 
ings, or maximum prices at which sales could be 
made. Where they were found unsatisfactory, ceil- 
ings were revised. Thus, following a rise in the 
market quotation of raw cotton due to legislation 
requiring Government loans of 85 per cent of parity 
to farmers on basic crops, the ceiling on cotton 
goods prices was made dependent upon the quota- 
tion of the raw material, goods quotations rising or 
falling by a stated amount for each fluctuation of 
one-half cent a pound in raw cotton up or down. 

Most business concerns found it necessary to ap- 
point one or more employes to specialize in the 
adjustment of their operations to priority and price 
rulings. 

New Construction. Rapidly expanding employment, 
rising wages, and record industrial activities stimu- 
lated both residential and industrial construction. 
Private building activity was supplemented by a 
defense housing program launched by several Gov- 
ernment agencies concerned with residential con- 
struction, as well as by extensive building of mili- 
tary installations and cantonments. A total of about 
650,000 new nonfarm housing units were con- 
structed during the year, which compared with 
540,000 units in 1940 and 509,000 in 1929. 

Full Government control over building activity 
was established by the order of the Supply Priori- 
ties and Allocations Board (qv.) of Oct. 9, 1941, 
restricting nondefense construction to projects es- 
sential for the health and safety of the civilian pop- 
ulation. With the nation at war, this restriction was 
IN CHIEF INDUSTRIES 



Freight car 
Years loadings 
1936 107 


Iron 
and steel 
114 


Bituminous 
coal 
110 


Construction 
55 


Automobiles 
114 


Manufactured 
Food Products 
98 


1937 Ill 
1938 89 
1939 . 101 
1940. . 109 


123 
68 
114 
147 


112 
88 
99 
114 


59 
64 
72 
81 


121 
67 
94 
116 


103 
101 
108 
114 


1941 .... 130 


18 


6 


12 


6 


12 


4 


14 


12 


U 


27 


Months 1940 1941 


1940 


1941 


1940 


19A1 


1940 


1941 


1940 


1941 


1940 


1941 


January . . Ill 122 


151 


179 


119 


117 


75 


103 


113 


134 


111 


117 


February . . 105 124 


124 


179 


104 


114 


63 


99 


111 


143 


113 


120 


March 100 126 


107 


184 


109 


149 


62 


94 


111 


142 


112 


121 


April . . . 


103 112 


106 


181 


120 


22 


64 


103 


107 


124 


111 


123 


May 


106 135 


126 


184 


120 


149 


64 


101 


109 


152 


111 


123 


June . 


111 139 


152 


184 


116 


153 


74 


117 


113 


161 


115 


127 


July 


110 138 


159 


185 


121 


146 


85 


139 


101 


168 


110 


126 


August . . 


112 139 


163 


185 


121 


147 


90 


152 


121 


141 


114 


132 


September 


112 130 


169 


192 


119 


139 


93 


161 


121 


134 


110 


129 


October . ... 110 127 


172 


191 


98 


127 


95 


145 


125 


146 


118 


131 


November . . . . 116 ttft 135 fi 


I 171 


191 


112 


125 


111 


138 


125 


142 


117 


140 


December 119 137 


174 


196 


115 


124 


115 


133 


125 


122 


121 


139 



BUSINESS REVIEW 



91 



BUSINESS REVIEW 



being interpreted more and more strictly at the end 
of the year. Military and naval construction in 1941 
was four times the 1940 level, and fifteen times 
that of 1939. See CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY. 

Iron and Steel. The iron and steel industry, despite 
strenuous efforts, did not quite attain full capacity 
production. Output aggregated approximately 83,- 
000,000 tons, out of total capacity of about 84,000,- 
000 tons. Minor coke and scrap shortages had much 
to do with preventing the industry from operating 
at or somewhat above its full rated capacity. With 
armaments taking, directly and indirectly, at least 
35,000,000 tons of steel, the industry had large 
backlogs of unfilled orders at all times. With the 
outbreak of war, furthermore, the controversy over 
whether or not large increases in its productive 
capacity should be constructed ended. It was appar- 
ent that the steel, machinery, and skilled labor re- 
quired could not be spared from other require- 
ments. 

An 11 per cent wage increase went into effect 
in the spring, to prevent a threatened strike. While 
the OPA barred price increases, the high level of 
production kept profits at a relatively high level. 
See IRON AND STEEL. 

Automobiles. The automobile manufacturing in- 
dustry was the subject of bitter debate early in the 
year The manufacturers, OPM officials, and many 
persons in the Government favored keeping up 
production of cais as long as possible, on the 
ground that it wa* futile to halt operations and 
throw hundreds of thousands of people out of work 
at a time when facilities weie not on hand to pro- 
duce armaments A number of labor leaders agreed 
with tins viewpoint Some heads of the C.l.O , 
however, sponsored the "Reuthcr plan" for convert- 
ing automobile factories wholesale to armament 
production, under joint management with labor 
unions. When the war broke out, advocates of the 
Keuther plan charged that their earlier contentions 
had been upheld, and revn ed demands that organ- 
ized labor be given full participation in the conduct 
of the automobile industry. 

Motor vehicles were turned out in near-record 
volume, despite OPM action placing limitations on 
the numbei produced in the last half of the yeai. 
Automobile and truck production in the United 
States aggregated 4,820,000 units during 1941, as 
eompared with 4,469,354 vehicles in 1940. Pi ices 
were advanced moderately. The majority of the 
companies in the industry took on contracts for 

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 
1. 2 




04 



02 



the manufacture of armaments. General Motors 
alone was actively engaged, by the end of the year, 
in the manufacture of aircraft engines, parts for 
bombers, shells, machine guns, Diesel engines, and 
naval gun housings, and nad completed plans for 
the manufacture of heavy tanks, its contracts ex- 
ceeding $1,500,000,000. With the complete cessa- 
tion of automobile production ordered for the end 
of January, 1942, however, the defense contracts 
held by the corporation were almost tripled within 
a few weeks after the turn of the year. In common 
with other automobile manufacturers, General 
Motors then found it necessary to convert all plants 
to war orders as far as possible (see MOTOR VE- 
HICLES). Machinery output lagged behind demand 
(see diagram). 

Other Industries. Textile industries operated at vir- 
tual capacity throughout the year. Like other in- 
dustries producing both for the armed forces and 
consumers, output was limited only by the equip- 
ment on hand. Production in a number of consumer 
goods industries compared with the previous year 
as follows ( see also separate articles on various in- 
dustries ) : 

PRODUCTION IN LEADING INDUSTRIES 



Industry 


1940 


1941 


Flour milling,* (1,000 bbl ) 


111,316 


114,759 


Cotton Textiles* 






Cotton used, (1,000 bales) . . . 


8,038 


10,583 P 


Spindle Activity, (million spindle 






hours) 


98,183 


121,800 


Petroleum Refining, output c 






Gasoline, (1,000 bbl ) ... . 


611,359 


680,000 E 


Fuel Oil, (1,000 bbl ) 


316,218 


345,000 B 


Tire Production,*' (1,000 units) 


59,353 


66,163 


Paint Sales,* ($1,000) . . 


396,023 


533,596 


Shoes/ 






Production, (1,000 pairs) . . . 


398,706 


492,754 


Tobacco Production ' 






Cigarettes, (bilhont>) 


1807 


2064 


Manufactured Tobacco (million 






Ib) 


3066 


304.7 B 


Furniture Production,' value, 






($1,000) 


450,000 


740,000 


Motion Pictures,' cost of produc- 






tion ($1,000) .... 


160,000 


215,600 


Numbei of features 


530 


*568 


Radio, Net SaleK,* (1,000 seta) 


11, MM) 


13,800 


Value, ($1,000) 


400,000 


520,000 



1940 1941 

From Swvey of Current Business 

PRODUCERS' MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT 



Russell-Pearsull, b U $ Bureau of Census, c U S Bureau 
of Mines, * Rubber Manufactuiers Association, U.S De- 
partment of Commerce, / Tanners Council, o U.S. Treasury, 
collections report, * Seidman & Seidman-Furmture Industry, 
t Film Daily Yearbook, * Radio Today. 

** Preliminary, * 22 Foreign made, E Estimated. 

Minerals. Metals were in urgent demand through- 
out the year, as a result of the war. Virtually all 
metals were placed under drastic priority restric- 
tions, and supplies were steadily curtailed for non- 
essential civilian uses. While price ceilings were in 
effect, arrangements were made to stimulate pro- 
duction by granting higher prices to marginal pro- 
ducers. A plan to pay nigh premiums for increases 
in output went into effect shortly after the turn of 
the year. With the outbreak of war in the Far East, 
tin supplies were endangered. Imports of strategic 
metals were increased by heavy government pur- 
chases abroad. ( For list, see STRATEGIC AND CRITI- 
CAL MATERIALS.) 

Demand for petroleum advanced steadily through 
1941 to new high record levels. Industrial consump- 
tion of fuel oil was greatly expanded by the arma- 
ment program. The Government financed a pro- 
gram to triple the output of 100 octane gasoline to 
assure adequate supplies of this fuel for the Army 
and Navy air forces. A shortage of gasoline was 
feared in the Northeastern states when a number 
of tankers were turned over to Great Britain in the 
middle of the year, but many of these vessels were 
turned back as British shipping losses declined 
sharply during the latter half yeai. 



BUSINESS REVIEW 



92 



BUSINESS REVIEW 



INDICES OF MINERAL PRODUCTION 



Bituminous Coal 


Anthracite Coal 


Crude Petroleum Iron Ore 


Zinc 


Lead 


Copper 


Months 


1940 


1941 


1940 


1941 


1940 


1941 


1940 


1941 


1940 


1941 


1940 


1941 


1940 


1941 


January . . 


119 


117 


114 


98 


116 


114 


132 


187 


119 


125 


114 


116 


147 


148 


February 


104 


114 


80 


102 


118 


113 


142 


189 


180 


126 


116 


116 


141 


153 


March 


109 


149 


86 


102 


120 


112 


151 


191 


124 


125 


117 


118 


141 


148 


April 


120 


22 


86 


71 


118 


113 


149 


199 


123 


133 


116 


119 


144 


152 


May . 


120 


149 


84 


80 


110 


114 


152 


195 


119 


127 


119 


115 


141 


159 


June 


lib 


153 


116 


126 


116 


120 


155 


198 


118 


136 


117 


117 


143 


155 


July 


121 


146 


133 


137 


114 


119 


159 


205 


129 


125 


115 


114 


142 


156 


August . 


121 


147 


116 


162 


108 


119 


159 


202 


125 


131 


114 


116 


139 


155 


September 


119 


139 


108 


127 


114 


124 


155 


192 


131 


135 


112 


120 


137 


154 


October 


98 


127 


94 


116 


115 


128 


167 


181 


131 


134 


117 


119 


141 


151 


November 


112 


125 


97 


97 


115 


132 


183 


200 


134 


131 


113 


127 


143 


152 


December 


115 


124 


108 


88 


114 


131 


178 


199 


135 


134 


116 


122 


145 


154 


Year . 


115 


12G 


101 


109 


116 


120 


155 


195 


126 


130 


110 


118 


142 


153 



Indices of domestic minerals production com- 
puted by the Board of Governors of the Federal 
Reserve System are compared in the above table 
with those of 1940 

Wholesale and Retail Trade. The volume of trade 
reflected the rise in the national income to recoid 
levels under the stimulus given by the defense pro- 
gram. Unemployment dwindled rapidly through the 
year, wages rose, and farm income and profits also 
expanded. Monthly income payments as compiled 
by the Department of Commerce compared as fol- 
lows month by month in 1940 and 1941. 
MONTHLY INCOME PAYMENTS 
[Million Dollars] 



Months 


1940 


1041 


Months 


1940 


l'J41 


January 


6,093 


0,695 


July . 


0,103 


7,474 


February 


5,f>04 


0,370 


August 


5,787 


7.277 


March 


5,987 


(, 977 


Sfptcmhoi 


4h7 


8.0>4 


April 
May 


5,905 
5,089 


d!952 
0.848 


Oct-oixn 
November 


0\812 
0,302 


8,2:>5 
7,800 


June 


0,288 


7,090 


Dec ember 


7,5^4 


8,<>00 








Year 


74,640 


89,428 



The dollar volume of trade was also affected by 
the rise in the price level. Department store sales 
for the yeai were 16 per cent higher than in 1940 
The Federal Reserve Board's indices of department 
store sales and inventories compared as follows, 
with those of the previous year: 

INDICES OF MONTHLY DEPARTMENT STOKE 

SALES AND STOCKS 
\192S-S6 100, adjusted for seasonal variation] 



1940 


1941 


Months 


Sales 


Stock* 


Sales 


Stocks 


January 


92 


G8 


101 


71 


February 


90 


71 


103 


73 


March 


80 


70 


103 


74 


April 


89 


69 


104 


74 


May 


89 


68 


105 


74 


June 


91 


67 


104 


77 


July . 


92 


68 


115 


82 


Augunt 


98 


69 


134 


87 


September 


97 


70 


110 


92 


October 


94 


71 


105 


97 


November 


100 


72 


116 


95 


December . 


101 


71 


111 


92 


Year. . 


94 


69 


110 


83 



A wave of forward buying developed in retail 
trade in the late summer, which produced a sharp 
bulge in sales at that tune. The cutting off of silk 
imports from Japan, which served to remind con- 
sumers that imported products might become un- 
available for the period of the war, precipitated 
stocking of goods by consumers. The effect was espe- 

E pronounced in sugar and other imported 
icts. Towards the end of the year, priorities 
i to affect the course of retail sales to an in- 
creasing extent, various goods becoming available 
only in limited supply. Restrictions on supplies, as 
well as rising taxes which curtailed buying power 
of the higher income groups of the population, 
clouded the outlook for trade at the close of the 
year, particularly in luxury lines and in communi- 
ties where there was little defense industry. 



Commodity Prices. Commodity prices advanced 
during 1941 as a result of the record volume of de- 
mand and restrictions upon supply produced by the 
war. The Office of Price Administration set ceilings 
upon an expanding list of commodity prices, and 
doubtless succeeded in slowing up the use in the 
price level to a large extent. However, political 
pressure from the farm bloc- in Congiess accelerated 
the rise in agricultural prices, Congress passing a 
law requiring that the Commodity Credit Corpora- 
tion lend growers 85 per tent of parity on basic- 
crops. Opposition from fanners was also chiefly re- 
sponsible for the failure of Congress to enact the 
Emergency Price Control bill, which was pending 
in the national legislature during the latter months 
of the year 

Wide differences of opinion over price control 
policy developed during the year There was gen- 
eral agreement about the need for some price 
legislation, since it was apparent that wartime con- 
ditions would prevent a free price system from per- 
foiiniiig its normal function of distributing supplies 
of goods economically. The Government was going 
to purchase whatever it needed for national de- 
fense and lease-lend, and if it competed with pri- 
vate buyers prices would be bid up sharply, lead- 
ing to a spiral of inflation and raising the cost of 
armament correspondingly Bernard M. Baruch, on 
the basis of the fiist World War experience, urged 
upon Congress an over-all freezing of commodity 
prices, rents, and wages as of a fixed date, with 
provision for modifications as required by circum- 
stances Lato in the year, Canada undertook an 
over-all price and wage freezing with at least ini- 
tial success. On the other hand, organized labor 
WHOLESALE PRICE MOVEMENT 
[1986 - 100] 





Combined 


Farm 


Other Corn- 


Years 


Index 


Products 


Foods ; 


modifies 


1929 


953 


1049 


999 


91 6 


1930 


80.4 


883 


905 


852 


1931 


730 


64.8 


746 


750 


1932 


048 


482 


610 


702 


1933 


059 


514 


605 


712 


1934 


749 


653 


70.5 


78.4 


1935 


800 


788 


837 


77.9 


1930 


808 


809 


821 


796 


1937 


863 


864 


855 


853 


1938 


786 


685 


736 


817 


1939 


77 1 


653 


70.4 


81.3 


1940 


786 


677 


71.3 


830 


1941 


87.3 


824 


827 


890 


Combined index 


Farm products only 


Month* 


1940 


1941 


1940 


1941 


January 


79.4 


808 


69 1 


716 


February 


787 


806 


687 


70.3 


March 


784 


815 


679 


71.6 


April 
May 


786 
784 


832 
849 


694 
679 


744 
764 


June 


775 


871 


66.2 


821 


July 


777 


888 


665 


85.8 


August 


774 


903 


656 


874 


September 


780 


91 8 


662 


91 


October 


787 


924 


664 


900 


November 


796 


92.5 


68.2 


906 


December 


800 


936 


697 


94.7 


Year... 


78.6 


87.3 


677 


82.4 



BUSINESS REVIEW 



BUSINESS REVIEW 



was very hostile to any suggestion to freeze wage 
levels, while other groups favored special treatment 
for their own prices. Price Administrator Leon 
Henderson favored a policy of selective and flexible 
price control, in the belief that the advance in the 
general price level could thus be retarded and 
made more gradual, while certain prices would be 
allowed to rise because of increased costs, the 
need for stimulating production for war needs, etc 
The Secretary of Agriculture wanted higher prices 
for many farm products to increase output. 

The index or wholesale prices of the Bureau of 
Labor Statistics fluctuated during 1941 as shown 
in the table at the foot of page 92. 

Prices of major commodities at wholesale com- 
pared as follows at the end of December with quo- 
tations a year earlier: 

MAJOR WHOLESALE COMMODITY PRICES 
[End of December] 



Commodity 


1940 


1941 


Wheat #2, K C , bu 


$0 86^ 


f 1 27^ 


Corn |3, yellow, Chi , bu 


64 


80 


Flour, bbl 


505 


670 


Pork loins, Ib 


.15 


20 


Butter, extra, Ib 


33 J^ 


34% 


ERRS, firsts, doz. 


25 


34 


Potatoes, white, bag 


1 10 


210 


Canned peaches, doz , factory 


1.30 


187*i 


Sugar, Cuban raw, Ib * 


.0291 


.035 


Coffee, Santos, Ib.*... . 


075 


13^g 


Cocoa, Accra, Ib * 


O. r >32 


095 


Cotton. Gulveston, Ib. 


097 


1706 


Print cloths, yard * 


05% 


08317 


Wool, territory, Boston, Ib * 


108 


1 17 


Silk, raw. Ib * 


. 257 


308 


Rayon, viscose, Ih 


53 


55 


Pig iron, Valley, ton * 


. 2400 


2400 


Steel bars, Pittsburgh, 100 Ib * 


2.15 


215 


Copper, Ib * 


.12 


.12 


Zinc, E St Louis, Ib 


.07 # 


08^ 


Lead, Ib * 


0555 


.059 


Sulphuric acid, ton 


1650 


16 50 


Soda, caustic, 100 Ib 


200 


200 


Southern pine, K C , 1,000 ft . 


. . 32 86 


4050 


Turpentine, gal .... 


. . 44 


80^ 


Linseed oil, Ib 


.09 


.111 


Coal, bituminous, ton, Clearfield 


2 05 


270 


Coal, anthracite, ton 


625 


675 


Petroleum, crude, K-O, bbl * 


1 02 


1 17 


Bunker oil, C , bbl. 


125 


145 


Rubber, Ib.* 


20^ 


2'2 V 


Hides, heavy native, Chi., Ib 




15H 



Source Journal of Commerce, quotations for New York City 
unless otherwise indicated 

* Voluntary and OPA ceilings imposed during 1941. 

Retail prices, as usual, followed the course of 
wholesale prices, but lagged behind them. Whereas 
the wholesale price index of the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics rose by over 16 per cent during the year, 
the Bureau's cost of living index advanced by 10 
per cent. Far wider advances were registered in 
prices of many luxury and semi-luxury goods than 
in the staples included in the index. 

Retail price indices compiled by the National 
Industrial Conference Board fluctuated as follows 
during 1941, with comparisons with the year be- 
fore: 

INDICES OF RETAIL PRICES 
\192S - 100] 



Fuel and 


Total 


Cost 


Food* 


Clothing 


Light 


of Living 


Months 


1940 


1941 


1940 


1941 


1940 


1941 


1940 


1941 


Jan. 


763 


787 


730 


730 


858 


864 


846 


860 


Feb. 


778 


788 


732 


73 1 


860 


864 


85 1 


86 1 


Mar 


76.9 


792 


732 


732 


858 


864 


848 


863 


Apr 


774 


81 


73.2 


733 


854 


854 


850 


869 


May 


781 


822 


731 


736 


84 1 


864 


85.2 


874 


June 


791 


855 


731 


736 


842 


867 


855 


885 


July 


784 


862 


731 


738 


845 


878 


854 


889 


Aug. 


774 


87.3 


730 


745 


848 


886 


85 1 


89.4 


Sept. 


78.2 


894 


731 


769 


853 


894 


856 


908 


Oct. 


774 


907 


731 


783 


859 


900 


855 


920 


Nov. 


772 


922 


73 1 


796 


863 


902 


855 


929 


Dec 


78.2 


926 


730 


801 


865 


00.3 


858 


934 


Year 


77.7 


85.3 


73.1 


75.2 


854 


88.0 


85.3 


891 



Industrial Earnings. Expansion of sales volume in- 
creased profits sharply in most industries early in 
the year. Despite the imposition of many price 
ceilings by the Office of Price Administration, the 
larger volume of business reduced unit costs and so 
expanded total profits. Sharp tax increases, how- 
ever, began to take their toll. By and large, profits 
for the first quarter of the year represented the 
peak, and higher taxes thereafter flattened out the 

Erofits curve The accompanying chart illustrates 
ow higher taxes became the limiting factor on 
profits during the year. However, corporate earn- 
ings as a whole did register a material rise over 
the 1940 level. 

MILLIONS OF DOLLARS 
500 



400 



300 




1939 1940 1941 

Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System 

INDUSTRIAL EARNINGS AND TAX RESERVES 
(122 large corporations) 

Industries whose sales were not expanded sub- 
stantially by the defense program, directly or indi- 
rectly, were adversely affected by the rise in taxes. 
The public utilities were conspicuous in this group, 
and leading companies in this industry suffered 
declines in income. A number of consumer goods 
industries were affected similarly, several of the 
tobacco companies reporting smaller net earnings 
after taxes than in the preceding year. The rail- 
roads, on the other hand, were in an especially 
favorable position because they were not as hard 
hit by higher taxes as other groups, and showed 
sharply increased earnings despite the substantial 
wage increase that went into effect during the last 
four months of the year (see RAILWAYS). 

Commercial Failures. The high level of business 
and rising prices tended to keep the number of 
commercial failures at moderate levels. The num- 
ber of failures and the liabilities involved com- 
pared as follows with the preceding year: 

COMMERCIAL FAILURES BY DIVISIONS OF 
INDUSTRY 



Current Liabilities 


Number 


(thousands of dollars) 


Industry 


1940 


1941 


1940 


1941 


Manuf and Mining 


2,455 


1,974 


66,799 


51,243 


Wholesale Trade . 


1,316 


1,045 


20,405 


18,581 


Retail Trade 


8,495 


7,589 


58,115 


48,934 


Construction . 


7f0 


701 


13,311 


10,671 


Commercial Services. 


593 


539 


8,054 


6,675 


Total 


13,619 


11,848 


166,684 


136,104 


Dun & Bradstreet. 



Revised tenet, bMad on U.S. Department of Labor on 
1036-89 - 100 baiia. 



Litigation retarded progress on the reorganiza- 
tion of the many railroad systems that are in bank- 
ruptcy and equity receivership. (See RAILWAYS.) 
Integration and simplification of public utility hold- 
ing company systems was hampered by the severe 
decline in market quotations of public utility stocks, 
which made it progressively more difficult for hold- 
ing companies to dispose of their holdings of oper- 
ating company securities in order to raise the cash 



BUSINESS REVIEW 



94 



CALIFORNIA 



required to redeem their own senior securities, 
bonds, and preferred stocks With the outbreak of 
war, it was believed more likely that the Securities 
& Exchange Commission would refrain from press- 
ing for immediate action to dissolve holding com- 
pany system which failed to meet its standards for 
geographical integration and for simplification of 
intercorporate and capital structures. 

World Business Trends. War and preparations for 
war dominated business conditions on every con- 
tinent. Throughout occupied Europe and in the 
Axis countries, living standards deteriorated as pro- 
ductive facilities were turned to producing arma- 
ments and synthetic substitutes for strategic ma- 
terials formerly imported, regardless of cost or 
operating efficiency. Wholesale malnutrition and 
starvation were reported in particular from the 
countries which had resisted Germany, and were 
looted in consequence. The "New Order" failed 
to include a plan for the economic rehabilitation of 
occupied territory. The war in Russia produced 
property damage on an unexampled stage, in view 
of the "scorched earth" policy that was applied 
before retreat. 

The British dominions and colonies accelerated 
the shift in their economies to a war basis, includ- 
ing the establishment of new armament plants and 
the training of large numbers of men for the armed 
forces. In Latin America, the production of mate- 
rials required by the United States and the British 
empire was expanded, and higher prices were real- 
ized for such exports On the other hand, difficulty 
was encountered in disposing of many commodities 
normally sold to continental Europe. The extent to 
which increased exports to the United States offset 
the loss of continental European markets may be 
seen from the fact that Latin American exports to 
this country were about $400,000,000 greater in 
1941 than in 1939. This was equal to almost 80 
per cent of all Latin American exports to continen- 
tal European countries in the latter year. Further- 
more, all exports to the United States were paid for 
in cash, whereas exports to Germany and several 
other European countries had been subject to clear- 
ing agreements that compelled exporting countries 
to take in return a limited variety of German goods. 

Wartime restrictions on supplies and expansion 
of currency in circulation raised commodity pric-es 
in most countries. This in turn led to increasingly 
drastic restrictions upon prices and rationing of 
goods, not only in belligerent nations but also in 
many neutral countries as well As in the first World 
War period, a gradual world-wide inflation of com- 
modity prices was in evidence. 

The war also tended to stimulate industrializa- 
tion in a number of more backward regions. Arma- 
ment industries were established in Australia, India, 
and other outlying parts of the British empire. New 
manufacturing industries were set up in Argentina, 
Brazil, and other Latin American countries to pro- 
vide manufactured goods formerly obtained in Eu- 
rope, and even to take the place of supplies pre- 
viously purchased in the United States but not 
available because of defense priorities. In fact, the 
question of whether Latin American requirements 
should be given a position of priority along with 
war and essential civilian needs, to retain Latin 
American goodwill, received a good deal of atten- 
tion from United States Government officials and 
those concerned with foreign trade. 

A review of the agricultural situation is to be 
found under AGRICULTURE and of labor under LA- 
BOR CONDITIONS. See the States under Manufactur- 
ing and Trade and the countries under Production; 
BANKS AND BANKING; CONSUMERS' COOPERATIVES; 



FINANCIAL REVIEW; MARKETING; TRADE, FOREIGN; 
also, the separate articles on branches of industry, 
as AERONAUTICS; ELECTRICAL INDUSTRIES; GAR- 
MENT INDUSTRY; INSURANCE; RAILWAYS. 

JULES I. BOGEN. 

BUTADIENE. See CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL under 

Rubber. 

BUTTER AND BUTTERFAT. See DAIRYING. 

BYELO RUSSIAN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC. Same as 

WHITE RUSSIAN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC. 

CAA. Civil Aeronautics Authority. See AERONAU- 
TICS. 

CABINET, U.S. See UNITED STATES under Adminis- 
tration. 

CADMIUM. Cadmium, a by-product of the zinc 
smelting industry, is used for electroplating and 
glass manufacture, for plating bearings, as a rust- 
resisting plating on iron, as an alloy in copper wire, 
and in plates for locomotive fireboxes and fire ex- 
tinguishers. There was a huge increase in the de- 
mand for cadmium in 1941 to fill defense and 
military orders. War requirements call for cadmium 
for submarine batteries, for plating bolts and nuts 
for aircraft, and plating wire cloth and shoe nails. 
It was put under export-license control by the 
Proclamation of March 4, 1941. 

Production of primary metallic cadmium in- 
creased about 15 per cent in 1941 to 6,840,000 Ib. 
as compared with 5,921,488 Ib in 1940. Total im- 
ports were 147,378 Ib. up to September, 1941, of 
which 136,280 Ib. came from Canada and 11,098 
from the United Kingdom. The only cadmium im- 
ports in 1940 were 27,491 Ib., which came from 
Belgium before the German invasion. The price 
rose from 80tf to 90tf a Ib. in March, 1941, and 
remained there throughout the year. 

CAFELITE. See CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL under Plas- 
tics. 

CALIFORNIA. A Pacific State. Area: 158,693 sq. mi., 
including 1,890 sq. mi. of inland water, but exclud- 
ing Pacific coastal waters, 69 sq. mi. Population: 
(1940 census) 6,907,387 The urban population 
comprises 71.0 per cent of the total (U S. average 
56.5 per cent); non-white population, 4.5 per cent 
(U.S. average, 102); elderly (65 years and over) 
7.9 per cent. California ranks second among the 
States in area, fifth in population, and 27th in den- 
sity, with an average of 44 1 persons per sq. mi. The 
capital is Sacramento with 105,958 inhabitants; 
largest city, Los Angeles, 1,504,277. There are 58 
counties and 59 cities of more than 10,000 inhabit- 
ants (see article on POPULATION in 1940 YEAR 
BOOK). For statistics on births, deaths, accidents, 
et cetera, see VITAL STATISTICS 

Education. According to Walter E. Morgan, Assist- 
ant Superintendent of Public Instruction, there were 
1,765,998 pupils (includes junior college grades) 
enrolled in the public schools of California during 
the school year 1939-40, 768,156 in elementary 
schools and 846,393 in secondary schools. Teachers 
numbered (1937-38) 46,959 and received an an- 
nual average salary of $1,783 (elementary school); 
$2,360 (high school). Total expenditures for the 
year (1939-40) were $196,537,467. For higher 
education, see California under UNIVERSITIES. 

Transportation. State highway mileage in 1939, in- 
cluding streets under State control, totaled 13,653, 
of which 13,273 miles were surfaced. Motor ve- 
hicles registered in 1940 (including trailers and 
motorcycles) numbered 2,810,566; 2,453,958 were 



CALIFORNIA 



95 



CALIFORNIA 



private and commercial automobiles, and 319,701 
trucks and tractor trucks. Gross motor-fuel con- 
sumption was 1,948,880,000. Net motor-fuel tax 
receipts were $51,978,000, the rate being three 
cents per gallon (Dec. 31, 1940). State motor-ve- 
hicle receipts (from registrations, licenses, fines, 
etc.) were $27,914,000. 

Railways of all classes extended 7,975 miles ( Dec. 
31, 1939) 2.961 per cent of the total mileage in the 
United States. Class I steam railways (2,961 miles) 
reported 25,399,647 tons of revenue freight origi- 
nating in California in 1940 and 23,157,315 tons 
terminating in California. There are 182 airports 
and landing fields in the State (52 lighted fields) 
and nine seaplane bases and anchorages. On July 1, 
1941, according to the Civil Aeronautics Authority, 
there were 2,262 civil aircraft in the State and 9,9(55 
airline transport, commercial, and private pilots 
(7,857 private). 

Agriculture. Acreage harvested in principal crops 
in 1941 totaled 5,832,000, as compared with 5,934,- 
000 acres in 1940. According to the latest census, 
there are 132,658 farms, valued at $2,166,452,648, 
averaging 230 1 acres each. Farm population num- 
bered 670,516 or 9 7 per cent of die total. Leading 
crops with production were: Commercial truck 
crops, $98,862,000, oranges, $87,546,000, 49,284,- 
000 boxes (estimated); hay, $55,667,000, 4,846,- 
000 tons, grapes, $53,411,000, 2,411,000 tons, cot- 
ton lint, $35,234,000, 446,000 bales, dry brans, 
$26,119,000, 5,139,000 bags, lemons, $24,057,000, 
14,580,000 boxes, peaches, $23,642,000, 22,252,- 
000 bu ; barley, $18,381,000, 25,529,000 bu ; po- 
tatoes, $14,247,000, 20,951,000 bu , walnuts, $13,- 
409,000, 53,000 tons, dried primes, $12,558,000, 
182,000 tons, wheat, $12,006,000, 11,656,000 bu., 
cottonseed, $10,403,000, 199,000 tons; nee, $9,639,- 
000, 9,180,000 bu, apricots, $9,430,000, 205,000 
tons; pears, $9,013,000, 9,292,000 bu ; ohves, 
$6,622,000, 43,000 tons, flaxseed, $6,338,000, 
3,267,000 bu, giam sorghums, $6,107,000, 7,020,- 
000 bu. 

Manufacturing. According to the latest census (for 
the year 1939) the total value of manufactured 
products was $2,985,028,494. For details, see 1940 
YEAR BOOK. 

Mineral Production. California ranks third among 
the States in value of mineral production Leading 
products are: Petroleum, 223,881,000 barrels (pre- 
liminary figure for 1940) as compared with 224,- 
354,000 barrels valued at $229,000,000 in 1939; 
natural gas, 348,361,000 M cubic feet valued at 
$91,572,000 (1939); gold, 1,411,800 fine ounces 
valued at $49,413,000 in 1941 (1,455,671 fine 
ounces, $50,948,485 in 1940); natural gasoline, 
607,237,000 gallons, $35,454,000 (1939); cement, 
13,813,362 barrels, $17,296,522 in 1940 (11,293,- 
989 barrels, $15,889,395, in 1939); clay products 
other than pottery and refractories, $8,304,038 
(1939); sand and gravel, 18,913,301 short tons, 
$8,988,894 ( 1940). The total value of mineral pro- 
duction in 1939, according to the U.S. Bureau of 
Mines, was $467,612,196 or 11 04 per cent of the 
total United States value. See GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

Trade. According to the 1940 census there were 
14,414 wholesale establishments in California, em- 
ploying 138,278 persons, reporting net sales for 
1939 of $3,840,129,000 and annual pay roll of 
$226,304,000. There were 112,428 retail stores with 
327,627 employees, reporting sales of $3,187,809,- 
000 and pay roll of $383,155,000. Service estab- 
lishments numbered 51,223 employing 94,602 per- 
sons for $107,247,000 per year, and reporting a 
business volume amounting to $328,141,000. The 
leading business center of the State is Los Angeles 



which reported wholesale sales of $1,285,265,000, 
retail sales of $782,842,000, and $112,999,000 re- 
ceipts for its service establishments. San Francisco 
reported sales of $1,377,614,000 wholesale and 
$383,554,000 retail. 

Social Security and Relief. In the calendar year 1940 
the total cost of assistance to needy persons in Cali- 
fornia was $198,982,000. Under the Social Security 
program, financed by Federal funds matching State 
grants, 156,329 elderly persons were receiving (as 
of June, 1941 ) an average monthly old-age pension 
of $37.80 (U.S. average pension, $21.08); 37,815 
dependent children in 15,864 families received av- 
erage monthly payments of $47.78 per family ( U.S. 
average, $32.73); and 7,290 blind persons received 
$48.13 per month (U.S. average, $25.58). General 
relief cases, which are supported by State and local 
funds only, numbered 33,340 and received $21.61 
per case (average payment for 41 States, $22.68). 

The number of persons employed throughout the 
State in June, 1941, under the various Federal work 
programs was as follows (with total earnings for the 
month in parentheses): CCC, 4,761 ($315,000); 
NYA student work program, 19,137 ($187,000); 
NYA out-of -school work program, 12,370 ($318,- 
000); WPA, 56,867 ($4,284,000), other Federal 
emergency projects, 165 ( $26,000); regular Federal 
construction projects, 63,231 ($10,349,000). The 
Farm Security Administration certified subsistence 
payments totaling $85,000 for the month to 5,008 
cases. 

Legislation. The Legislature convenes in regular 
session on the first Monday after January first in odd 
>ears It is composed of 40 Senators ( 16 Democrats 
arid 24 Republicans in 1941 ) and 80 Representa- 
ti\ es ( 42 Democrats and 38 Republicans ) . The 54th 
session adjourned, June 16, without appropriating 
a cent for unemployment relief for tne next two 
years. It was the longest session in history, except 
for that of 1939, and more than' 4,000 bills were 
introduced The following summary of its activities 
is condensed from The Sacramento Bcc, June 17, 
1941: 

The bitter deadlock over demands for abolition of the 
State Relief Administration continued unbroken when sine 
die adjournment finally was reached at midnight, sixty 
hours after the specified time for winding up the session's 
business The relief load will fall bach on the county gov- 
ernments, without any state money to ease the burden 
The anti-SBA contingent, headed by Sen John Phillips, 
Republican leader of the movement to shift relief man- 
agement to the 58 counties, made good on thoir ultimatum 
that no dole money would be voted unless liquidation of 
the SRA was assured Democratic Governor Olson, who 
contends some central State ngencv should supervise re- 
lief, was just as adamant in declaring that, if state direc- 
tion of the dole program were eliminated, he would refuse 
to sign any bill turning over large appropriations to the 
counties for relief payments to emplojable unemployed 
His minorities in both houses supported him Neither Bido 
could win and the session ended in a round of recrimina- 
tion in which each camp blamed the other for the result 

One of the final acts of the assembly was to sustain 
Governor Olson's veto of the Cntleiulon proposal which 
would have permitted distressed building and loan con- 
cerns to reorganize under court-nppio\od plans without 
the consent of the state building and loan commissioner 

The national defense drive afleeted the course of 1941 
legislation and produced, directly or indirectly, many of 
the more significant enactments Reorganization of the 
state council of defense fnlln in that category as do vari- 
ous measures to augment stole military facilities and pro- 
tection of governmental and private preparedness opera- 
tions from babotage, espionage, and the activities of sub- 
versive groups The Dillworth anti-spy bill is a case in 
point Its avowed purpose is the protection of U 8 Navy 
operations and secrets from possible foreign espionage 
agents in the California fishing fleet The Slater Anti- 
sabotage Act undertakes to safeguard defense production 
industrial plants The Tenney bill calls for the registration 
of subversive organizations. The Gordon-Rich-Hays hot 
cargo bill, on which the governor's veto was overridden, 
prohibits secondary boycotts on services, factories, and 
commodities during the period of the national emergency. 



CALIFORNIA 



96 



CANADA 



Aside from the relief issue and the labor-capital squab- 
ble over the hot cargo bill, Governor Olson appears to 
have come out of the session in better shape than he had 
any reason to anticipate with majorities against him in 
both houses. Senate-Assembly disagreements over appro- 
priations finally gave him a budget which, exclusive of 
the unemployment dole question, was cut only $1,700,000 
below his January recommendations Governor Olson's rec- 
ommendation that the State tax structure be left unchanged 
until the treasury general fund deficit has been wiped out 
also was accepted. The senate sustained his veto of the 
Ward bill, attempting to cut personal income tax rates 
in the high brackets. Many of Olson's pet proposals on 
other subjects failed, however. 

Outstanding among other proposals passed this year 
are Applying the 1939 anti-loan shark regulations and 
overall limitations on charges to the field of industrial loan 
companies, reapportionment of California's assembly and 
congressional districts in line with the 1940 census, the 
proposed constitutional amendment reorganizing the State 
board of forestry as a policy agency with fixed terms, the 
constitutional amendment proposal for annual, sixty -day 
legislative sessions and annual budgets , a merger of the 
State immigration and housing division with the State 
public health department, strengthening the power of law 
enforcement authorities in the destruction of seized gam- 
bling paraphernalia, creating a new State authority 
charged with the handling of juvenile delinquency prob- 
lems; prohibiting the sending of umnstrueted delegates 
from California to the political party national comentions; 
legislation to bring California's laws on old age pensions 
and the other categorical aids, as well a<. the employment 
service, in line with national government regulations to 
prevent threatened loss of $45,000,000 in Federal aid 
money; millions of dollars in special appropriations, in- 
cluding funds for beach ero.sion control and increases in 
the State home guard 

Blocked or beaten outright during the session were many 
important proposals in the maws of legislation offered last 
January. Public ownership revenue bond legislation to 
finance local communities and districts in distributing 
cheap electric power from the Central Valleys Project's 
Shasta Dam was battled by the Power Trust from start 
to finish and defeated So was legislation to regulate pro- 
fessional lobbyists and require public statements of money 
they spend m Sarramento in connection with lawmaking 
matters 

At the end of the year, a special war session of 
the Legislature was still in progress, though in re- 
cess until January 12, 1942. Pending were two im- 
portant measures already passed by the Senate, the 
California Defense Equipment Act (so-called "little 
lend-lease" act) and a measure to provide $1,000,- 
000 for the fire-fighting forces of the State Division 
of Forestry. The former was designed to provide a 
fund from which any city, county, district, or other 
public agency might borrow to finance needed 
equipment for protection of lives and property; as 
voted by the Senate, it carried an appropriation of 
$5,000,000. Passed and already signed was a law 
permitting cities and counties to make emergency 
expenditures of their own for defense purposes 

Finances. Total tax collections in California for 
the fiscal year ending in June, 1941, were $368,- 
687,000 (1940: $330,848,000). Total sales taxes 
amounted to $175,984,000, including general sales, 
$110,372,000, motor fuel, $54,365,000, alcoholic 
beverage, $11,247,000. Taxes on specific businesses 
ran to $23,715,000, general and selective property, 
$16,030,000, inheritance, estate, and gift, $11,939,- 
000, betting, $3,844,000, and unemployment com- 
pensation, $80,199,000. The net income taxes were 
$43,275,000. Cost payments for the operation of 
general government totaled $293,753,000 in 1939, 
3ie latest year available. ( Revenues for the general 
government for that year were $372,070,000. ) Cost 
of operation per capita was $43.53. Total gross debt 
outstanding in 1941 was $319,818,000, as compared 
with $147,179,000 in 1932. 

Officers and Judiciary. The Governor is Culbert L. 
Olson ( Dem. ) , inaugurated in January, 1939, for a 
four-year term; Lieutenant Governor, Ellis E. Pat- 
terson; Secretary of State, Paul Peek; Attorney 
General, Earl Warren; State Treasurer, Charles G. 
Johnson; State Controller, Harry B. Riley; Director 
of Finance, George Killion. Chief Justice of the 



California Supreme Court is Phil S. Gibson; there 
are six associate members elected by popular vote 
for 12-year terms. 

See AQUEDUCTS; ENEMY ALIENS; FASHION EVENTS; 
FLOODS; PRISONS, PAROLE, AND CRIME; TUNNELS; 
WATERWORKS AND WATER PURIFICATION. 

CAMBODIA. See FRENCH INDO-CHINA. 

CAMEROONS, British. A territory in West Africa, 
mandated to Great Britain by the League of Na- 
tions. Area, 34,081 square miles. Population (1939), 
838,637. Chief products palm oil, cacao, rubber, 
bananas. Trade (1939): 225,907 for imports 
and 424,871 for exports. Finance (1939): 109,- 
264 for revenue and 183,912 for expenditure. 
Shipping ( 1939 ) : 510,690 tons entered and cleared 
the ports of Victoria and Tiko. The territory is at- 
tached to various provinces of Nigeria. Adminis- 
trator, die Governor of Nigeria. 

CAMEROUN, French. A territory in western Africa, 
part of the former German protectorate of 
Kamerun, mandated to France by the League of 
Nations in 1922. Area, 162,934 square miles. Pop- 
ulation (Jan. 1, 1939), 2,609,000 Capital, Yaounde 
(20,000 inhabitants). Chief products groundnuts, 
maize, palm oil, cacao, gold, diamonds, hides, tim- 
ber, and ivory. Livestock (1939): 900,000 oxen, 
25,000 asses. Communications: 3,105 miles of 
roads, 314 miles of railways. Trade (1938): 215,- 
212,000 francs for imports and 251,959,000 francs 
for exports. Budget (1938): 139,439,747 francs for 
revenue and 118,328,574 francs for expenditure 
(franc averaged $0.0288 for 1938). 

History. The territory aligned itself with the 
"Free French" movement late in August of 1940. 
It was announced on Jan 21, 1941, that the British 
government had concluded an economic agreement 
with General de Gaulle's Council of Defense in 
which Great Britain undertook to purchase most of 
the coffee and bananas, and all the cacao, palm 
kernels and oil, groundnuts, and bemseed from the 
French Camcroun 

CAMPS, U.S. Army. See MILITARY PROGRESS and the 
topics there referred to. 

CANADA. A Dominion of the British Common weal tli 
of Nations, comprising nine provinces and two 
territories. (See separate articles on the provinces 
and territories. ) Capital, Ottawa. 

Area and Population. The land area, and the cen- 
sus populations of June 1, 1931, and June 1, 1941, 
are shown by provinces and territories in the ac- 
companying table. 

AREA AND POPULATION OK CANADA 



Provinces and 


Land area, 


Population 


territories 


sq miles 


1931 


1941" 


Prince Edward Island 


2,184 


88,038 


93,919 


Nova Scotia 


20,743 


512,846 


573,190 


New Brunswick 


27,473 


408,219 


453,377 


Quebec 


523,534 


2,874,774 


3,319,640 


Ontario . 


. 363,282 


3,431,683 


3,756,632 


Manitoba 


219,723 


700,139 


722,447 


Saskatchewan 


237,975 


921,785 


887,747 


Alberta 


248,800 


731,605 


788,393 


British Columbia 


. 359,279 


694,263 


809,203 


Yukon Territory 


205,346 


4,230 


4,687 


Northwest Territories 


. 1,258,217 


9,204 


10,661 


Total . 


3,466,556 


10,376,786 


11,419,896 


Preliminary. 



Of the white population in 1931, 5,381,071 were 
of British origin (English, 2,741,419; Scottish, 
1,346,350; Irish, 1,230,808; other, 62,494) and 
2,927,990 of French origin. 



CANADA 



97 



CANADA 



In 1931, 4,804,728 inhabitants resided in rural 
districts and 5,572,058 in urban communities. Pop- 
ulations of the chief cities in 1941 (preliminary), 
with final 1931 figures in parentheses, were: Mont- 
real, without suburbs, 882,398 (818,577); Toronto, 
656,930 (631,207); Vancouver, 271,597 (246,- 
593); Winnipeg, 217,994 (218,785); Hamilton, 
163,768 (155,547); Ottawa, 149,881 (126,872); 
Quebec, 147,002 (130,594); Windsor, 103,961 
(98,179), Edmonton, 92,404 (79,197); Calgary, 
87,264 (83,761); London, 77,043 (71,148), Hali- 
fax, 69,326 (59,275); Verdun, 65,927 (60,745), 
Regina, 57,389 (53,209); Saint John, 50,084 
(47,514), Saskatoon, 42,320 (43,291); Victoria, 
41,787 (39,082). 

Immigration declined from 16,994 arrivals in 
1939 to 11,324 in 1940. In the latter total were 
4,990 Canadians returned from permanent resi- 
dence in the United States. During the year ended 
Time 30, 1940, 8,948 persons moved permanently 
from the United States to Canada and 15,183 from 
Canada to the United States. Living births in Can- 
add in 1940 numbered 243,835 (21.4 per 1,000); 
deaths, 110,648 (9.7 per 1,000), marriages, 123,- 
282 (108 per 1,000) The birth rate ranged from 
an average of 25 8 per 1,000 in Quebec to 17.7 in 
British Columbia 

Education and Religion At the 1931 census, 957 
per cent of all persons over 10 years could read 
and write Of 2,519,114 pupils enrolled in educa- 
tional institutions in 1938-39, 2,265,061 were in 
provmcially controlled schools, 111,281 in privately 
controlled schools, 18,752 in Dominion Indian 
schools, and 124,020 in universities and colleges 
(48,205 m courses of university standard). 

The principal religious gioups in Canada at the 
1931 census were Roman Catholics, including 
186,654 Greek Catholics, 4,285,388, United Church 
(Methodists, Cnngregationahsts, and Presbyteri- 
ans), 2,017,375, Anglicans, 1,635,615, Presbyteri- 
ans (not included in United Church), 870,728, 
Baptists, 443,341, Lutherans, 394,194; Jewish, 
115,614. Of the 2,927,990 Canadians of French 
origin in 1931, 2,849,096 were Roman Catholics. 

Production The estimated gross value of pro- 
duction in 1939 was $5,821,781,248 and the esti- 
mated net value $3,223,956,573. Of the net value, 
manufactures accounted for 47.49 per cent, agri- 
cultural products 26 24 per cent, mining 12.2, for- 
estry 8 43, construction 5 7, and electric power 
4.65. Of the working population, more than 30 per 
cent were engaged in agriculture, nearly 15 per 
cent in manufacturing, 8.9 per cent in the chief 
service industries, and 8.7 per cent in retail trade. 
The estimated money national income was $4,784,- 
000,000 (preliminary) for 1940 compared with 
$4,409,000,000 for 1939 and $2,795,000,000 for 
1933. 

Agriculture. The gross value of agricultural pro- 
duction in 1940 was $1,235,714,000, of which field 
crops accounted for $651,228,000; dairy products, 
$240,940,000; farm animals, $194,913,000; poultry 
products, $61,816,000; fruits and vegetables, $57,- 
358,000; and tobacco, $10,373,000. Net value of 
agricultural production was $886,094,000. The 
acreage and production of the principal field crops 
in 1940 and 1941 (estimated; are shown in the 
accompanying table. 

The estimated 1941 production of root and fod- 
der crops, with final 1940 figures in parentheses, 
was: Potatoes 39,124,000 cwt. (42,300,000); tur- 
nips, etc., 34,482,000 cwt. (39,016,000); hay and 
clover 12,245,000 tons (14,070,000); alfalfa 
2,487,000 tons (2,588,000); fodder corn 4,659,000 
tons (4,155,000); grain hay 1,416,000 tons (1,916,- 



CANADIAN FIELD CROPS, 1940 AND 1941 



Area 


Production 




1940 


1941 


1940 


1941* 


1941 ab 




1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


value 


Crops 


acres 


acres 


bu 


bu 


1 1,000 


Wheat 


28,720 


22,362 


551,390 


299,401 


$156,250 


Oat* . 


12,297 


13,841 


380,520 


346,154 


132,460 


Barley 


4,341 


5,549 


104,256 


116,659 


49,519 


llye 


1,035 


1,078 


13,994 


12,956 


5,547 


Peas 


82 


97 


1,355 


1,587 


3,362 


Beans 


97 


102 


1,477 


1,715 


3,138 


Buckwheat 


326 


277 


6,692 


5,569 


3,666 


Mixed grams 


1,220 


1,329 


43,133 


41,505 


21,617 


Flaxseed 


397 


958 


3,189 


6,412 


7,988 


Com for 












husking 


186 


300 


6,956 


12,036 


8,599 



Preliminary b Gross farm value. 

000), sugar beets 711,700 tons (825,100). The 
value of all field crops in Canada in 1941 was esti- 
mated on Jan. 21, 1942, at $647,850,000 ($676,- 
682,000 in 1940). Livestock estimates for June 1, 
1941, were: Swine, 5,994,000, sheep, 3,550,000; 
cattle, 8,907,000; horses, 2,881,000 The wool clip 
m 1940 was 18,127,000 lb.; butter production, 363,- 
341,000 lb.; cheese, 143,123,400 lb 

Manufacturing. The gross value of industrial pro- 
duction in 1939 was $3,474,783,528 and the net 
value $1,531,051,901. Of the gross value, nonfer- 
rous metal smelting and refining accounted for 
$262,602,495; primary textiles, $209,369,551; pulp 
and paper, $208,152,295; slaughtering and meat 
packing, $185,196,133, butter and cheese, $122,- 
561,771, automobiles, $107,463,351, petroleum 
products, $104,578,517; flour and feed products, 
$101,776,429, sawmill products, $100,132,597. In 
1938 manufacturing establishments numbered 
25,200 with 642,016 employees earning salaries 
arid wages of $705,668,589. The output of central 
electric stations increased from 14,968 million 
kilowatt-hours m the first half of 1940 to 15,732 
million in the first half of 1941. Production of steel 
ingots and castings in 1941 was 2,411,887 tons 
(2,014,172 in 1940), pig iron, 1,365,334 tons 
(1,168,894 in 1940). 

Mining. The value of mineral production rose 
from $474,602,059 in 1939 to the record level of 
$529,179,434 in 1940. The gold output was 5,322,- 
857 fine oz valued at $204,929,995; copper, nickel, 
lead, and zinc, $155,839,877; coal, 17,551,326 tons 
valued at $54,638,476, asbestos, fluorspar, graphite, 
magnesitic-dolomite, mica, sulphur, $18,204,176; 
natural gas, 35,954,000 M cu. ft., worth $12,877,- 
515, cement, 7,559,648 bbl., $11,775,345, sand 
and gravel, 30,758,961 tons, $11,664,614; silver, 
23,815,715 fine oz., $9,109,273. The Government 
withheld details of production and trade in min- 
erals of vital importance in war industries 

The estimated value of production in 1941 was 
$533,941,000, divided as follows: Metals, $393,- 
269,000; fuels, $83,363,000; nonmetallic minerals, 
other than fuels, $31,616,000; structural materials, 
$45,693,000. Gold production was 5,322,247 fine 
oz. valued at $204,906,000; silver, 20,437,196 fine 
oz. valued at $7,813,000. 

Forest Products. The capital investment in forest 
operations in 1939 was estimated at $198,000,000; 
employees, 277,240; payroll, $79,000,000; value of 
manufactured material cut in Canadian forests, 
$157,747,000 (including pulpwood, $58,303,000; 
logs and bolts, $55,685,000; firewood, $33,058,- 
000). 

Fisheries. The value of the 1940 fish catch was 
$45,118,000, of which British Columbia contrib- 
uted $21,710,000. In order of value, the principal 
fish caught were salmon, lobster, herring, cod, 
sardines, and halibut. 

Furs. Production of raw furs for the season ended 



CANADA 



in June, 1940, was valued at $16,456,000 ($14,- 
287,000 in 1938-39). About 35 per cent of the 
total production came from animals on fur farms. 
Pelts taken numbered 9,536,000 in 1939-40 and 
6,492,000 in 1938-39 

Foreign Trade. Canada's total foreign trade in- 
creased from Canadian $1,686,977,247 in 1939 to 
$2,275,168,311 in 1940, Excluding gold, imports 
in 1940 were $1,081,950,719 and exports $1,193,- 
217,592. Exports by loading groups were: Wood, 
wood products and paper, $348,006,396; agricul- 
tural and vegetable products, $218,263,811; non- 
ferrous metals and products, $194,711,984; animals 
and animal products, $164,723,794; iron and its 
products, $127,666,846 The United States sup- 
plied about 68.8 per cent of all 1940 imports (66.2 
in 1939) and took 38 per cent of the exports (41 
in 1939); the United Kingdom supplied 14.9 per 
cent in 1940 ( 15 2 in 1939 ) and took 43 per cent 
(36 in 1939). See TKADE, FOREIGN. 

Finance. Budget operations of the Dominion Gov- 
ernment for the years 1937-38 to 1941-42 are 
shown in the accompanying table. 

DOMINION FINANCES 
[Thousands of Canadian dollars] 







Ordinal y 


Total 


Surplus ( +) 


Years ended 


Total 


expendi- 


expendi- 


or 


March 31 


revenues 


tures 


tures 


deficit ( -) 


1937-38 


$510,693 


$414,801 


$534,408 


-$17,715 


1938-39 . 


502,171 


413,032 


553,0(53 


-50,892 


1939-40 . 


562,093 


398,323 


580,794 


-118,700 


1940-41 


871,571 


303,0fi 1 


1,260,627 


-395,056 


1941-42 * 


1,400,000 


417, 103 


1,768,000" 


-3b8,000 e 



a Excluding about $300,000,000 required to finance wai trade. 
fc Estimates e Minimum, excluding additional income from un- 
employment insurance and trust funds and expenditures needed 
to finance *ar trade 

Total expenditures of $1,266,627,000 in 1940-41 
accounted for 28 per cent of the estimated national 
income of $4,784,000,000 in the calendar year 
1940; war expenditures were $792,000,000 or 17 
per cent of the national income. The estimated 
minimum total expenditures of $1,768,000,000 in 
194142 represented 32 per cent of the estimated 
national income of $5,400,000,000 in 1941, with 
war costs absorbing 25 per cent. The Finance 
Minister estimated the cost of Provincial and mu- 
nicipal governments during 1941-42 at $575,000,- 
000. The combined Dominion, Provincial, and mu- 
nicipal expenditures were estimated at 40 to 50 
per cent of the total 1941 national income. 

The gross public debt of the Dominion on Dec. 
31, 1940, was $3,959,236,382 and the net debt 
$3,271,259,647 ($3,152,559,314 on Dec. 31, 1939). 
Average free market exchange rate of the Canadian 
dollar was $0.8514 in 1940 ($0.9602 in 1939); 
official rate, $0.9091 in 1940. 

Shipping. The merchant marine in 1940 numbered 
8,396 vessels of 1,292,692 tons. During the year the 
tonnage of sea-going vessels entering Canadian 
ports was 33,523,965; of vessels in coast-wise 
trade, 44,361,232; of vessels in inland (Great 
Lakes, etc ) international trade, 13,142,431. The 
leading ports, with the registered tonnages of all 
shipping entered during the fiscal year 1940 were: 
Vancouver, 11,016,512; Halifax, 8,186,598; Mont- 
real, 8,001,024; Victoria, 6,516,243; Quebec, 
3,522,236; Port Arthur, 3,453,778; Toronto, 3,053,- 
020. During 1940, 23,646 Canadian ships of 
18,513,994 registered tons and 3,194 American 
ships of 4,056,089 tons passed through Canadian 
canals. 

Railways, etc. Steam railways in 1940 operated 
42,637 miles of line. Carloadings of revenue-earn- 
ing freight were 2,812,587 in 1940, the highest 
since 1930. In 1939 the steam railways carried 



98 CANADA 

20,482,296 passengers and 84,631,122 tons of 
freight; earnings were $367,179,095 and expendi- 
tures $304,373,285. The highway mileage on Jan. 
1, 1940, was 497,707. The last link of the Trans- 
Canada Highway was completed in 1941. Air 
traffic statistics for 1940 were: Mileage flown, 
11,966,790, revenue passengers, 137,690; freight, 
16,686,214 lb.; mail, 2,737,122 Ib. 

Government. Executive power is exercised in the 
King's name by the Governor-General of Canada, 
acting through a responsible ministry. Legislative 
power rests in a parliament of two houses a Sen- 
ate of 96 members appointed for life by the 
Governor-General on advice of the Cabinet and a 
House of Commons of 245 members elected for five 
years (unless the government is sooner dissolved) 
by popular male and female suffrage. The nine 
Provinces enjoy a large measure of local autonomy, 
there being a separate parliament and administra- 
tion for each. A lieutenant-governor appointed by 
the Go vernor-General-m -Council heads each pro- 
vincial executive. Governor-General in 1941, the 
Earl of Athlone (installed June 21, 1940). 

The Liberal Government sworn in Oct. 23, 1 935, 
was constituted as follows on Jan. 1, 1941: Prime 
Minister, President of the Privy Council, Secretary 
of State for External Affairs, William Lyon 
Mackenzie King; Minister without Portfolio, Raoul 
Dandurand; Mines and Resources, Thomas Alex- 
ander Crerar; Justice and Attorney General, Ernest 
Lapointe; Public Works and Transport, Pierre J. A 
Cardin; National Defense, James L. Ralston; Pen- 
sions and National Health, Ian Alistair Mackenzie; 
Associate Minister of National Defense and Air 
Minister, Charles Gavan Power; Finance, James L. 
Ilsley; Fisheries, Joseph Enoil Michaud; Munitions 
and Supply, Clarence Decatur Howe, Agriculture 
and National War Service, James Garficld Gar- 
diner; Labor, Norman A McLarty; Trade and 
Commerce, James Angus MacKinnon, Secretary of 
State, Pierre Francois Casgrain; Postmaster Gen- 
eral, William P. Mulock; National Revenue, Colin 
W. G. Gibson, Minister of National Defense for 
Navy, Angus Lewis Macdonald. 

HISTORY 

War Contribution. Canada made a steadily increas- 
ing contribution to the Empire's war effort during 
1941, as training camps and war industries es- 
tablished during 1939 and 1940 began to nroduce 
trained military, naval, and air personnel and equip- 
ment for their use in growing numbers and quanti- 
ties. A succession of convoys took heavy reinforce- 
ments to the Canadian forces already in Britain as 
well as large contingents of Empire airmen and 
units of Allied troops trained in Canada. The great- 
est loss sustained by these convoys from enemy 
action at sea was the sinking of a ship with 75 
members of a Canadian military unit, announced 
May 5. A Canadian force arrived at Hong Kong 
November 15 and formed part of the garrison that 
surrendered to the Japanese in December. 

As of November 5, more than 110,000 Canadian 
troops, including a tank brigade, were serving over- 
seas, in addition to about 25 air squadrons trained 
in Canada under the Empire air scheme. Overseas 
and home units of the Canadian Air Force totaled 
90,000 men. The Canadian Navy increased from 
13 ships and a personnel of 1,774 in 1939 to 250 
ships with 22,000 officers and men in the middle of 
1941. As of Jan. 1, 1941, it comprised 12 destroyers, 
39 minesweepers, 54 corvettes, and various aux- 
iliary craft. Over 20,000 workers at 60 shipyards 
were engaged in the production of naval and mer- 
chant ships. The first Dominion-made heavy in- 



CANADA 



CANADA 



fantry tank rolled out of shops in Montreal on 
May 22. Production of cruiser tanks got under way 
late in June. By the beginning of August 25,000 
workers in newly constructed airplane factories 
were turning out 40 planes per week. In October 
it was reported that the Canadian war industries 
were producing complete equipment for an infantry 
division every six weeks, and output was steadily 
rising. 

The cost of this program (see Finance) was met 
by the assumption of taxes three times greater than 
before the war, and by loans and war savings cer- 
tificates aggregating over $1,500,000,000 up to 
October 31. Canada was paying her own war costs, 
including maintenance of Canadian troops (but 
not air units) overseas In addition, large amounts 
of munitions and supplies were being "lease lent" 
to Britain. Of supplies valued at $1,155,000,000 
sent to the mother country up to Aug 31, 1941, 
Canada advanced $905,000,000 

Conscription Issue. Despite the extent of the burden 
assumed, public opinion during the year reflected 
the growing conviction that a much greater war 
contribution was necessary if the Allied cause was 
to triumph. On Fcbruarv 2 the Prime Minister an- 
nounced plans for doubling the army overseas, the 
Empire Air Training Plan, and the Canadian Navy. 
The campaign for volunteers for overseas service 
was pushed with vigor It brought 105,773 volun- 
tary enlistments during the six months ended Oct. 
31, 1941 (army, 59,502; air force, 35,108; navy, 
11,163). In September a further gieat expansion of 
the Common wealth Air Training Plan was an- 
nounced. 

These measures failed to check the growing de- 
mand for compulsory conscription for overseas 
service. The Government temporized by improving 
the system of compulsory military service for home 
defense, introduced Oct 9, 1940 Under this system 
men between 21 and 23 years of age were called up 
for 30 days training in the Non -Permanent Active 
Militia. In March, 1941, the system was revised to 
provide for four months' training for every able- 
bodied man reaching the ago of 21 On April 26 
the Minister of National Defense announced that 
the first group of four-month draftees would be re- 
tained "indefinitely" in service upon completion of 
their training. An order of August 5 required all 
men called up for training under the compulsory 
conscription act to remain in service for the dura- 
tion of the war. Eaily in July the Dominion Gov- 
ernment barred men eligible for military duty from 
the civil service. 

Critics of the Government were not satisfied 
with this, however, and when Parliament reas- 
sembled early in November Opposition leaders 
joined in demanding "all-out" participation in the 
world struggle through imposition of compulsory 
overseas as well as home service. Prime Minister 
Mackenzie King on November 12 stated that he 
would not support conscription for overseas service 
without consulting the voters. A plebiscite on the 
issue was forecast for 1942. 

French Canada's Attitude. The Government's reluc- 
tance to extend conscription to include overseas 
service was based upon the demonstrated success 
of its voluntary-service policy in enlisting full 
French Canadian support for the war, whereas the 
imposition of overseas conscription in 1917 had 
provoked large-scale rioting in Quebec Province. 
Neither the policy of the Vichy Government in 
France nor the German attack upon Russia swerved 
French Canada from its official and unofficial sup- 
port of the Allied cause during 1941. Provincial 
and Roman Catholic authorities in Quebec partici- 



pated in a gesture of loyalty to the British Crown 
on February 9 when prayers for victory were said 
in all churches. Cardinal Villeneuve, Archbishop 
of Quebec, repeatedly urged support of the Do- 
minion's war effort, and in the campaign for over- 
seas volunteers Quebec contributed one-seventh of 
the total recruits a showing better than that of 
some English-speaking provinces. But an unofficial 
poll of public opinion late in December showed 
majority sentiment in Quebec still opposed con- 
scription. 

Other Political Issues. The Government was also 
under attack from the Opposition groups for the 
alleged inadequacy of the output of war industries, 
for its leniency in dealing with some labor obstruc- 
tion of the war effort, and for half-way rationing 
and other economic control measures. Formation of 
a National Union Government to spur the war effort 
was urged by the Opposition and a substantial sec- 
tion of the press early in the year. 

The Government flatly rejected this proposal, 
and effectively disposed of the major criticisms 
launched against it by new legislation and measures. 
At the opening of the Parliamentary session on 
February 14, the Prime Minister moved to restrict 
business in the House of Commons to consideration 
of war problems. On June 11 a new Minister was 
added to the Cabinet to take over the National War 
Services portfolio from James Gardiner, who re- 
tained the Ministry of Agriculture. The new Min- 
ister of National War Services, Joseph T. Thorson, 
was charged with the reorganization and super- 
vision of the Dominion information, radio broad- 
casting, moving picture, and tourist services. 

The death at the end of November of Minister 
of Justice Lapointe was a distinct loss both to the 
nation and to the Government. As recognized 
leader of the French Canadians, he had whole- 
heartedly supported Canada's war policy and thus 
contributed to the unity of the French- and English- 
speaking sections. His post as Minister of Justice 
and Attorney General was filled on December 10 
by Louis S. St Laurent, former president of the 
Canadian Bar Association. A further reshuffling of 
the Cabinet took place December 15. Pierre F. 
Casgram resigned as Secretary of State to become a 
judge of the Quebec Supreme Court Labor Min- 
ister McLarty became Secretary of State and 
Humphrey Mitchell, head of the National War 
Labor Board, succeeded to the Labor portfolio. 

Anti-Strike Measures. Stricter government control 
was established over many phases of the national 
economy to speed war production. Increasing pres- 
sure was brought upon both labor and management 
to accept the decisions of the federal conciliation 
boards in labor disputes. The National Steel Car 
Corporation's plant in Hamilton, Ont , was taken 
over by the Government on April 29 when the com- 
pany refused to follow a conciliation board's order 
to reinstate a discharged employee who was presi- 
dent of the local unit of the Steel Workers Organ- 
izing Committee. On May 2 the Minister of Labor 
stated that the Government would permit neither 
employers nor employees to clog the stream of war 
materials flowing from the factories. 

Several strikes in munitions plants in July were 
ended when the Government threatened to prose- 
cute the strikers. A slow-down movement among 
coal miners in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick led 
the Government to declare coal mines "essential 
services" under the Defense of Canada Regulations. 
This made leaders of the slow-down agitation liable 
to prosecution. At the same time the Government 
undertook to prevent wage and other labor disputes 
by raising minimum wage rates for employees work- 



CANADA 



100 



CANADA 



ing on Government contracts to offset the rising cost 
of living, and by amending the Industrial Disputes 
Investigation Act to make conciliation boards more 
impartial. The compulsory unemployment insur- 
ance scheme, adopted in 1940, went into effect 
July 1, 1941. 

An Order in Council of September 16 outlawed 
all strikes in war industries, including defense con- 
struction jobs, except when a majority of the em- 
ployees voted in favor of a walk-out after a con- 
ciliation board had submitted its findings. Due to 
these and other measures, the Government was able 
to announce October 2 that there was not a single 
strike in any Canadian war industry. 

Priorities and Price-Wage Control. The economic 
controls introduced in 1940 (see preceding YI-AH 
BOOK) were rapidly extended during 1941 until at 
the end of August two Orders in Council were is- 
sued making all goods and services" subject to 
government regulation. One order made the 1 War- 
time Prices and Trade Board the supreme authority 
in the field of price control. The other placed the 
Wartime Industries Control Board in complete 
charge of the supply and allocation of commodities 
and materials essential to the war effort 

Acting through these two coordinated boards, 
the Government rapidly expanded the production 
of war supplies at the expense of normal consumers' 
goods, while taking steps to curb inflationary tend- 
encies set in motion by the war boom. Passenger 
automobile output for 1942 was restricted to less 
than half the 1940 production. On October 11 in- 
stallment buying and borrowing was severely re- 
stricted. On October 18 Prime Minister Mackenzie 
King announced that effective November 17 
later changed to December 1 "no person may sell 
any goods or supply any services at a price or rate 
higher than the maximum price or rate charged by 
him for such goods or services during the four 
weeks from September 15 to October 11 of the 
present year." The Government thus took the 
revolutionary step of stabilizing both prices and 
wages (with the exception of a few industries) at 
the existing rates. 

The cost of living had up to that time risen 
approximately 13.8 per cent over the level pre- 
vailing at the outbreak of the war. To compensate 
for further possible rises in living costs, the Gov- 
ernment on October 25 granted a compulsory "cost 
of living" bonus to wage-earners earning $25 or 
more per week at the rate of 25 cents per week for 
every 1 per cent rise in the cost of living. Labor 
leaders criticized this program as nullifying their 
collective bargaining rights, but the Government 
took the position that there was no other way to 
avoid the evils of inflation 

New Form Subsidies. Farmers and fishermen were 
exempted from the wage-stabilization order. The 
Government in October decided that additional 
heavy farm subsidies were required to stimulate 
production of bacon, butter, etc., for shipment to 
Britain Wheat production of the Western provinces 
was curtailed through a new wheat subsidy policy 
announced March 12. Calling for a reduction of 
about 35 per cent in wheat acreage, the Dominion 
Government established a limit of 230,000,000 bu. 
on the quantity of wheat it would purchase under 
the wheat price stabilization program. It undertook 
to pay fanners for converting wheat acreage into 
coarse grains, grass, or clover. The Government then 
had a 575,000,000 bu. carry-over from the large 1940 
crop, representing a financial obligation of some 
$400,000,000. This situation was relieved by a pur- 
chase of 120,000,000 bu. of wheat futures in May 
by the British Food Ministry from the Canadian 



Wheat Board, and by a short 1941 crop. In August 
Britain contracted for 600,000,000 Ib. of bacon and 
ham for the year beginning Nov. 1, 1941. 

Constitutional Reform. Representatives of the Do- 
minion and Provincial Governments met in Ottawa 
on January J4 to consider the recommendations for 
reorganization of Dominion -Provincial financial re- 
lationships submitted in May, J940, by the Com- 
mission on Dominion-Provincial Relations (see 
YEAR BOOK for 1940, p. lilt.) The Premiers of 
Ontario, British Columbia, and Alberta flatly op- 
posed these recommendations, while the Premiers 
of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Prince Edward 
Island faxored them. The heads of the other three 
Provinces Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova 
Scotia were willing to discuss the issue but were 
otherwise noncommittal. As a result, Prime Minis- 
ter Mackenzie King on January 15 postponed fur- 
ther discussion of the question until the Provinces 
could achieve closer unity of opinion 

An important contribution to this issue was made 
by the Supreme Court of Canada in ruling on 
December 2 that the Alberta Debt Adjustment Act 
of 1937 exceeded the constitutional powers of the 
Provincial Legislature 

Empire Relations The importance attached to 
Canadian-British relations was indicated by Prime 
Minister Churchill's appointment on February 8 of 
one of his Cabinet Ministers, Malcolm MacDonald, 
as the new British High Commissioner to Canada 
Prime Minister Mackenzie King flew to England on 
August 20 for peisonal conferences with Prime 
Minister Churchill on war problems In London he 
cxpiessed opposition to the formation of an Im- 
perial War Cabinet, holding that "important de- 
cisions should be made by the government as a 
whole." He declared that "a perfect, continuous 
conference of Cabinets (British and Dominion) 
now exists and there has ne\er been a time when 
relations were closer between the (Empire) goxcrn- 
ments " Reviewing Canadian troops in England on 
August 24, the Pumc Minister was booed by many 
soldiers, who were said to hold him responsible 
for their non-participation in the Middle Eastern 
campaigns and for the lack of conscription in 
Canada for o\erseas service, lie returned to Ot- 
tawa by air on September 7 

Within a few hours after the surprise Japanese 
attack upon British and United States bases m the 
Pacific and Far East, the Cabinet declared that a 
state of war existed between Canada and Japan 
Measures were taken immediately to strengthen the 
defenses of the westein coast. When Prime Minister 
Churchill and his staff arrived in Washington later 
in December, Prime Minister Mackenzie King was 
invited to the White House to join in the planning 
of the United Nations' war effort Arriving there 
December 26, he was reported to have insisted on 
separate representation for Canada on anv agency 
created to direct arid coordinate war activities. The 
British, on the other hand, wanted the British Em- 
pire to act as a unit. 

Notwithstanding this reported difference of opin- 
ion, Prime Minister Churchill received an unre- 
strained welcome and assurances of full support 
when he arrived in Ottawa December 29 to confer 
with the War Cabinet and thank the Dominion for 
its "magnificent aid" to the mother country. On 
December 30 he spurred Canada to greater effort 
by a fighting speech before Parliament. Early in 
1942 he returned to the United States. One re- 
ported result of his visit was the writing off by 
Canada of loans of $1,500,000,000 advanced to 
Britain during the preceding two years. 

Collaboration with United States. In his Ottawa 



CANADA 



101 



CANADA 



speech, Prime Minister Churchill emphasized Can- 
ada's role in forging closer links between Britain 
and the United States. The successive measures 
through which the United States moved toward 
closer collaboration with Britain in the war against 
the Axis ( see GREAT BRITAIN under History ) were 
paralleled by the rapid extension of Canadian- 
American cooperation. 

Joinf Defense Board. The Permanent Joint Board on 
Defense established in 1940 (sec preceding YEAH 
BOOK, p. 112) continued its work. On April 17 it 
announced completion of plans for joint Canadian- 
American military and naval defense of both the 
Eastern and Western coasts of Canada and the 
United States. As part of tins piogram, the Cana- 
dian Government during the summer of 1941 
constructed a chain of seven airports between 
Edmonton (Alberta) and White Horse (Yukon 
Territory). Made available to U.S military and 
commercial planes, thev provided an interior route 
between United States and Alaskan air bases With 
respect to the United States leases on defense bases 
in Newfoundland (q v ), Prime Minister Maoken/ie 
King informed the House of Commons at Ottawa 
on March 27 that a supplementary protocol to the 
Anglo-American lease agreement, signed bv Can- 
ada, proxided that Canadian interests in the de- 
fense of Newfoundland would be fully respected. 

Sf. Lawrence Waterway. A new agreement on the 
long projected joint Canadian- American St. Law- 
rence ship canal and water power project was 
signed in Ottawa March 19. In an exchange of 
notes, President Roosevelt and Prime Minister 
Macken/ic King cloclaied the project essential for 
the long-range defense needs of both countries, 
especially through the development of the Great 
Lakes shipbuilding industry and of the industrial 
regions adjoining the Gicat Lakes-St. Lawrence 
system The treaty was submitted to the U.S. 
Senate, where it was still awaiting ratification at 
the year's end On Mauh 24 Washington an- 
nounced that Canada and the United States had 
agreed to reinterpret the Rusli-Bagot Agreement of 
1817 in order to permit the construction of war- 
ships and facilitate the training of U S naval crews 
on the Gieat Lakes 

Defense Production Accords. An agiecment of far- 
reaching significance was concluded by President 
Roosevelt and Prime Minister Mackenzie King at 
Hyde Park, N Y % on Apul 20 The pact embodied 
the principle that "each country should provide the 
other with the defense articles that it is best able 
to produce, and above all, produce quickly, and 
that production programs should be coordinated to 
this end." The United States agreed to purchase 
during the ensuing year between $200,000,000 and 
$300,000,000 worth of Canadian defense products, 
including "certain kinds of munitions, strategic ma- 
terials, aluminum, and ships, which are urgently re- 
quired by the United States for its own purposes " 
This had the effect of permitting Canada to con- 
tinue its large defense pui chases in the United 
States without further endangering its financial 
structure. The United States also agreed that Britain 
might obtain Icnd-lease products in the United 
States to be used by Canada in the manufacture 
of equipment and munitions for British aid. 

This agreement extended into the economic field 
the work of the Joint Defense Board in the military 
field. It was carried into effect through the Joint 
Materials Coordinating Committee appointed May 14 
(coordinating the utilization of primary materials) 
and the Joint Economic Committees established 
June 17 (ccnenng the field of general economic 
relations). These Committees met repeatedly dur- 



ing the remainder of the year. They studied not 
only the more efficient ana coordinated utilization 
of the combined resources of the two countries, but 
also the problem of reducing "postwar economic 
dislocation consequent upon the changes which the 
economy in each country is presently undergoing." 

On recommendation of the Joint Economic Com- 
mittees, the appointment of still other agencies 
the Joint War Production Committees was an- 
nounced by President Roosevelt and Prime Minister 
Mackenzie King after another conference at Hyde 
Park on November 1-2. These committees were 
established for the specific purpose of "most effec- 
tively coordinating capacities of the two countries 
for the production of defense materiel." While ar- 
ranging for each country to provide the defense 
articles which it was best^ able to produce "for the 
common defense effort," the new committees 
sought to minimize maladjustments in the post- 
defense period. 

A statement of war production policy for the 
United States and Canada, drawn up by the Joint 
War Production Committees, was published De- 
cember 23. It called for maximum war production 
in both countries in the shortest possible time, em- 
phasis on speed and volume of output rather than 
monetary cost, maximum use of labor, raw ma- 
terials, and facilities in each country, integration of 
Canadian-American production and resources in a 
common program; production by each country of 
those articles that would result in maximum joint 
output of war goods in the minimum time, alloca- 
tion of scarce raw materials and goods, on the same 
basis, to carry out the joint program of war pro- 
duction, and the suspension or elimination during 
the war of all legislative and administrative barriers 
impeding the free flow of necessary munitions and 
war supplies between the two countries. This policy 
received the full approval of President Roosevelt 
and of the Canadian War Cabinet 

Sf Pierre-Mique/on /nue. A minor difference arose 
between the State Depaitment at Washington and 
the Canadian Go\crnmcnt as a result of the occu- 
pation of St. Pierre and Miquelnn (q.v. ) by Free 
French na\ al forces in December Apparently on 
the presumption that Canadian officials had some 
prexious knowledge or part in the Free French 
coup, the U S. Government asked the Canadian 
authorities what steps they were prepared to take 
to restore the status quo of the islands (see FRANCE 
under History ) . Negotiations for a settlement of the 
issue were in progress at the year's end. 

Trail Smelter Decision. The Trail Smelter Arbitral Tri- 
bunal on Mar. 11, 1941, rendered its final decision 
in the controversy arising from damage caused in 
northern Stevens County, State of Washington, by 
fumes discharged from the smelter at Trail, Bntisn 
Columbia. The tribunal allowed no further damages 
or costs, holding that the record failed to establish 
injury to crops, trees, etc., between Oct. 1, 1937, 
and Oct. 1, 1940. However it prescribed measures 
for the control of the smelter fumes to avoid possi- 
ble future damage. 

Latin American Relations. The year witnessed a no- 
table extension of Canadian contacts with the Latin 
American republics. Ottawa's decision of December, 
1940, to exchange diplomatic representatives with 
Argentina and Brazil was carried into effect early 
in 1941. In September it was announced that diplo- 
matic and commercial relations would be estab- 
lished between Canada and Chile. Beginning in 
August, a Canadian trade mission headed by Min- 
ister of Trade and Commerce J. A. MacKinnon 
made a good- will tour through Ecuador, Peru, 
Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Trinidad, and Puerto Rico 



CANADA 



100 



CANADA 



ing on Government contracts to offset the rising cost 
of living, and by amending the Industrial Disputes 
Investigation Act to make conciliation boards more 
impartial. The compulsory unemployment insur- 
ance scheme, adopted m 1940, went into effect 
July 1, 1941. 

An Order in Council of September 16 outlawed 
all strikes in war industries, including defense con- 
struction jobs, except when a majority of the em- 
ployees voted in favor of a walk-out after a con- 
ciliation board had submitted its findings Due to 
these and other measures, the Government was able 
to announce October 2 that there was not a single 
strike in any Canadian war industry. 

Priorities and Price-Wage Control. The economic 
controls introduced in 1940 (see preceding YEAH 
BOOK) were rapidly extended during 1941 until at 
the end of August two Orders in Council were is- 
sued making "all goods and services" subject to 
government regulation. One order made the War- 
time Prices ana Trade Board the supreme authority 
in the field of price control. The other placed the 
Wartime Industries Control Board in complete 
charge of the supply and allocation of commodities 
and materials essential to the war effort 

Acting through these two coordinated boards, 
the Government rapidly expanded the production 
of war supplies at the expense of normal consumers' 
goods, while taking steps to curb inflationary tend- 
encies set in motion by the war boom. Passenger 
automobile output for 1942 was restricted to less 
than half the 1940 production On October 11 in- 
stallment buying and borrowing was severely re- 
stricted. On October 18 Prime Minister Mackenzie 
King announced that effective November 17 
later changed to December 1 "no person may sell 
any goods or supply any services at a price or rate 
higher than the maximum price or rate charged by 
him for such goods or services during the four 
weeks from September 15 to October 11 of the 
present year." The Government thus took the 
revolutionary step of stabilizing both prices and 
wages (with the exception of a few industries) at 
the existing rates. 

The cost of living had up to that time risen 
approximately 13.8 per cent over the level pre- 
vailing at the outbreak of the war. To compensate 
for further possible rises in living costs, the Gov- 
ernment on October 25 granted a compulsory "cost 
of living" bonus to wage-earners earning $25 or 
more per week at the rate of 25 cents per week for 
every 1 per cent rise in the cost of living. Labor 
leaders criticized this program as nullifying their 
collective bargaining rights, but the Government 
took the position that there was no other way to 
avoid the evils of inflation 

New Farm Subsidies. Farmers and fishermen were 
exempted from the wage-stabilization order. The 
Government in October decided that additional 
heavy farm subsidies were required to stimulate 
production of bacon, butter, etc , for shipment to 
Britain. Wheat production of the Western provinces 
was curtailed through a new wheat subsidy policy 
announced March 12. Calling for a reduction of 
about 35 per cent in wheat acreage, the Dominion 
Government established a limit of 230,000,000 bu 
on the quantity of wheat it would purchase under 
the wheat price stabilization program. It undertook 
to pay farmers for converting wheat acreage into 
coarse grains, grass, or clover. The Government then 
had a 575,000,000 bu. carry-over from the large 1940 
crop, representing a financial obligation of some 
$400,000,000. This situation was relieved by a pur- 
chase of 120,000,000 bu. of wheat futures in May 
by the British Food Ministry from the Canadian 



Wheat Board, and by a short 1941 crop. In August 
Britain contracted for 600,000,000 Ib. of bacon and 
ham for the year beginning Nov. 1, 1941. 

Constitutional Reform. Representatives of the Do- 
minion and Provincial Governments met in Ottawa 
on January 14 to consider the recommendations for 
reorganization of Dominion -Provincial financial re- 
lationships submitted in May, 1940, by the Com- 
mission on Dominion-Provincial Relations (see 
YEAR BOOK for 1940, p lllf ) The Premiers oi 
Ontario, British Columbia, and Alberta flatly op- 
posed these recommendations, while the Premiers 
of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Prince Edward 
Island favored them. The heads of the other three 
Provinces Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova 
Scotia were willing to discuss the issue but were 
otherwise noncommittal. As a result, Prime Minis- 
ter Mackenzie King on January 15 postponed fur- 
ther discussion of the question until the Provinces 
could achieve closer unity of opinion 

An important contribution to this issue was made 
by the Supreme Court of Canada in ruling on 
December 2 that the Alberta Debt Adjustment Act 
of 1937 exceeded the constitutional powers of the 
Pro\ mcial Legislature 

Empire Relations. The importance attached to 
Canadian-British relations was indicated by Prime 
Minister Churchill's appointment on February 8 of 
one of his Cabinet Ministers, Malcolm Mac Donald, 
as the new British High Commissioner to Canada. 
Prime Minister Mackenzie King flew to England on 
August 20 for personal conferences with Prime 
Minister Churchill on wai problems In London he 
expressed opposition to the formation of an Im- 
perial War Cabinet, holding that "important de- 
cisions should be made by the government as a 
whole." He declared that "a perfect, continuous 
conference of Cabinets (British and Dominion) 
now exists and there has ne\er been a tune when 
relations were closer between the (Empire) govern- 
ments " Reviewing Canadian troops in England on 
August 24, the Prime Minister was booed by many 
soldiers, who were said to hold him responsible 
for their non -participation in the Middle Eastern 
campaigns and for the lack of conscription in 
Canada for o\crseas service He returned to Ot- 
tawa by air on September 7 

Within a few hours after the surprise Japanese 1 
attack upon British and United States bases in the 
Pacific and Far East, the Cabinet declared that a 
state of war existed between Canada and Japan 
Measuies were taken immediately to strengthen the 
defenses of the western coast. When Prime Minister 
Churchill and his staff ai rived in Washington later 
in December, Prime Minister Mackenzie King was 
invited to the White House to join in the planning 
of the United Nations' war effort Arriving there 
December 26, he was reported to have insisted on 
separate representation for Canada on any agency 
created to direct and coordinate war activities. The 
British, on the other hand, wanted the British Em- 
pire to act as a unit. 

Notwithstanding tins reported difference of opin- 
ion, Prime Minister Churchill received an unre- 
strained welcome and assurances of full support 
when he arrived in Ottawa December 29 to confer 
with the War Cabinet and thank the Dominion for 
its "magnificent aid" to the mother country. On 
December 30 he spurred Canada to greater effort 
by a fighting speech before Parliament. Early in 
1942 he returned to the United States. One re- 
ported result of his visit was the writing off by 
Canada of loans of $1,500,000,000 advanced to 
Britain during the preceding two years. 

Collaboration with United States. In his Ottawa 



CANADA 



101 



CANADA 



speech, Prime Minister Churchill emphasized Can- 
ada's role in forging closer links between Britain 
and the United States. The successive measures 
through which the United States moved toward 
closer collaboration with Britain in the war against 
the Axis (see GREAT BRITAIN under History) were 
paralleled by the rapid extension of Canadian- 
American cooperation. 

Joinf Defense Board. The Permanent Joint Board on 
Defense established in 1940 (see preceding YEAR 
BOOK, p. 112) continued its work On April 17 it 
announced completion of plans for joint Canadian- 
American military and naval defense of both the 
Eastern arid Western coasts of Canada and the 
United States As part of this piogram, the Cana- 
dian Government during the summer of 1941 
constructed a chain of seven airports between 
Edmonton (Alberta) and White Hoise (Yukon 
Territory). Made available to U.S military and 
commercial planes, thev provided an interior route 
between United States and Alaskan air bases With 
respect to the United States leases on defense bases 
in Newfoundland (q v.), Prime Minister Mackenzie 
King informed the House of Commons at Ottawa 
on March 27 that a supplementary protocol to the 
Anglo-American lease agreement, signed bv Can- 
ada, pro\ided that Canadian interests in the de- 
fense of Newfoundland would be fully respected. 

Sf. Lawrence Waterway. A new agreement on the 
long projected joint Canadian-American St Law- 
rence ship canal and water power project was 
signed in Ottawa March 19 In an exchange of 
notes, President Roose\ clt and Prime Minister 
Mackenzie King declared the project essential for 
the long-iange defense needs of both countries, 
especially through the development of the Great 
Lakes shipbuilding industry and of the industrial 
legions adjoining the Gieat Lakcs-St Lawrence 
system The treaty was submitted to the U.S. 
Senate, where it v\as still awaiting ratification at 
the year's end On Maich 24 Washington an- 
nounced that Canada and the United States had 
agreed to reinterpret the Kush-Bagot Agreement of 
1817 in order to permit the construction of war- 
ships and facilitate the training of U.S. naval crews 
on the Great Lakes. 

Defense Production Accords. An agreement of far- 
reaching significance was concluded by President 
Roosevelt and Prime Minister Mackenzie King at 
Hyde Park, N Y , on Apul 20 The pact embodied 
the principle that "each country should provide the 
other with the defense articles that it is best able 
to produce, and alxnc all, produce quickly, and 
that production programs should be coordinated to 
this end." The United States agreed to purchase 
during the ensuing year between $200,000,000 and 
$300,000,000 worth of Canadian defense products, 
including "certain kinds of munitions, strategic ma- 
terials, aluminum, and ships, which are urgently re- 
quired by the United States for its own purposes " 
This had the effect of permitting Canada to con- 
tinue its large defense pui chases in the United 
States without further endangering its financial 
structure. The United States also agreed that Britain 
might obtain Icnd-lease products in the United 
States to be used by Canada in the manufacture 
of equipment and munitions for British aid. 

This agi cement extended into the economic field 
the work of the Joint Defense Board in the military 
field. It was earned into effect through the Joint 
Materials Coordinating Committee appointed May 14 
(coordinating the utilization of primary materials) 
and the Joint Economic Committees established 
June 17 (covering the field of general economic 
relations). These Committees met repeatedly dur- 



ing the remainder of the year. They studied not 
only the more efficient and coordinated utilization 
of the combined resources of the two countries, but 
also the problem of reducing "postwar economic 
dislocation consequent upon the changes which the 
economy in each country is presently undergoing." 

On recommendation of the Joint Economic Com- 
mittees, the appointment of still other agencies 
the Joint War Production Committees was an- 
nounced by President Roosevelt and Prime Minister 
Mackenzie King after another conference at Hyde 
Park on November 1-2. These committees were 
established for the specific purpose of "most effec- 
tively coordinating capacities of the two countries 
for the production of defense mat&iel." While ar- 
ranging for each country to provide the defense 
articles which it was best able to produce "for the 
common defense effort," the new committees 
sought to minimize maladjustments in the post- 
defense period. 

A statement of war production policy for the 
United States and Canada, drawn up by the Joint 
War Production Committees, was published De- 
cember 23. It called for maximum war production 
in both countries in the shortest possible time, em- 
phasis on speed and volume of output rather than 
monetary cost; maximum use of labor, raw ma- 
terials, and facilities in each country, integration of 
Canadian- American production and resources in a 
common program, production by each country of 
those articles that would result in maximum joint 
output of war goods in the minimum time; alloca- 
tion of scarce raw materials and goods, on the same 
basis, to carry out the joint program of war pro- 
duction; and the suspension or elimination during 
the war of all legislative and administrative barriers 
impeding the free flow of necessary munitions and 
war supplies between the two countries. This policy 
received the full approval of President Roosevelt 
and of the Canadian War Cabinet 

Sf. Pierre-Miqoe/on /ssue. A minor difference arose 
between the State Department at Washington and 
the Canadian Coxernnient as a result of the occu- 
pation of St Pierre and Miquclon (q.v.) by Free 
French na\al forces in December Apparently on 
the presumption that Canadian officials had some 
previous knowledge or part in the Free French 
coup, the U S. Government asked the Canadian 
authorities what steps they were prepared to take 
to restore the status quo of the islands (see FRANCE 
under Histoi y ) . Negotiations for a settlement of the 
issue were in progress at the year's end. 

Trail Smelter Decision. The Trail Smelter Arbitral Tri- 
bunal on Mar. 11, 1941, rendered its final decision 
in the controversy arising from damage caused in 
northern Stevens County, State of Washington, bv 
fumes discharged from the smelter at Trail, British 
Columbia. The tribunal allowed no further damages 
or costs, holding that the record failed to establish 
injury to crops, trees, etc., between Oct 1, 1937, 
and Oct. 1, 1940 However it prescribed measures 
for the control of the smelter fumes to avoid possi- 
ble future damage. 

Latin American Relations. The year witnessed a no- 
table extension of Canadian contacts with the Latin 
American republics Ottawa's decision of December, 
1940, to exchange diplomatic representatives with 
Argentina and Brazil was carried into effect early 
in 1941. In September it was announced that diplo- 
matic and commercial relations would be estab- 
lished between Canada and Chile. Beginning in 
August, a Canadian trade mission headed by Min- 
ister of Trade and Commerce J. A. MacKinnon 
made a good-will tour through Ecuador, Peru, 
Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Trinidad, and Puerto Rico 



CANADA 



102 



CARNEGIE ENDOWMENTS 



to promote the sale of Canadian manufactures. 
Trade agreements were concluded with Ecuador 
and Venezuela. 

See CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL; DAIRYING; GREAT 
BRITAIN under History; LABOR CONDITIONS; LIVE- 
STOCK; Music; NAVAL PROGRESS; NEWSPAPERS AND 
MAGAZINES; PORTS AND HARBORS; ROMAN CATHO- 
LIC CHURCH; SOCIALISM; UNITED STATES under 
Canada; WATER WORKS. 

CANADA, The United Church of. The designation ap- 
plied to the single body formed by the union in 
1925 of the Congregational, Methodist, and Presby- 
terian churches in Canada; the Methodist churches 
of Newfoundland and Bermuda are also included. 
Foreign mission work is carried on in Japan, Korea. 
China, India, Trinidad, and Angola (West Central 
Africa ) . In 1940 there were in Canada, Newfound- 
land, and Bermuda 7,239 preaching places (includ- 
ing home missions ) in 2,785 pastoral charges, 716,- 
064 communicant members, and 1,756,634 persons 
under pastoral care. A total amount of $11,547,037 
was raised for all purposes. At the Ninth General 
Council held in Winnipeg, Man., in September, 
1940, the Rev. Aubrey S. Tuttlc, M.A., D.D., was 
chosen moderator for the ensuing bienmum. Rev. 
Gordon A. Sisco, M.A., D.D , is general secretary. 
Headquarters: 421 Wesley Building, Toronto, Ont. 

CANADIAN LITERATURE. See FRENCH LITERATURE. 
CANALS. See AQUEDUCTS, PANAMA CANAL ZONE; 
PANAMA CANAL; SUEZ CANAL; WATERWAYS, IN- 
LAND. 

CANARY ISLANDS. An archipelago off the coast of 
Rio de Oro in northwest Africa. Administratively 
they form two provinces of Spain, and are named 
after their respective capitals: (1) Las Palmas 
( comprising the islands of Gran Canaria, Lanzarotc, 
Fuerteventura, and the islets of Alegranza, Roque 
del Este, Roque del Oeste, Graciosa, Montana 
Clara, and Lobos), area, 1,279 square miles; popu- 
lation (1939), 286,154; capital, Las Palmas (83,- 
553 inhabitants) on Gran Canaria. (2) Santa Cruz 
de Tenerife (comprising the islands of Tenerife, 
Palma, Gomera, and Hierro), area, 1,528 square 
miles; population (1939), 350,647; capital, Santa 
Cruz de Tenerife (66,429 inhabitants). Las Palmas 
is an important shipping and tourist center. Coffee- 
growing is the principal industry. Corn, millet, 
sugar cane, manioc, fruits, vegetables, tobacco, cot- 
ton, indigo, and castor oil are other products. 

Construction of a large military base at Las 
Palmas was initiated late in 1940. In his address of 
May 27, 1941, President Roosevelt mentioned the 
Canary Islands as one of the Atlantic island groups 
which, under German control, would provide 
"springboards" for aggression upon the Western 
Hemisphere. An air line connected Grand Canary 
with Madrid, Spain. 

CANCER. See BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY; MEDICINE 
AND SURGERY under Advances in Surgery; PUBLIC 
HEALTH SERVICE; SOCIETIES under Control of Can- 
cer. 

CANTON ISLAND. An atoll of the Phoenix group in 
the central Pacific which with Enderbury Island of 
the same group is under the joint control of Great 
Britain and the United States (Anglo-U.S.A. Pact 
of Aug. 10, 1938 and Notes of Apr. 6, 1939). Can- 
ton is 29 miles in circumference and has a land 
mass of from 50 to 600 vards wide which encloses 
a lagoon of 9 miles in diameter. Enderbury is 2.5 
miles long and 1 mile wide. Canton is a port of call 



on Pan American Airways' transpacific air service 
from Honolulu to Auckland, New Zealand, which 
commenced on July 12, 1940. Besides a complete 
seaplane base, the facilities installed at Canton after 
it was occupied in 1938 included a 24-room hotel 
and other conveniences for passengers. A land- 
plane runway was under construction in 1941. 
These facilities were shelled by Japanese warships 
in December, 1941, but damage was reported to 
be slight. Sec WORLD WAR. 

CAPE MATAPAN, Battle of. See NAVAL PROGRESS; 
WORLD WAR. 

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. See SOUTH AFRICA, UNION OF 
under Area and Population. 

CAPE VERDE ISLANDS. A dependency of Portugal, 
320 miles west of Cape Verde, French West Africa. 
The islands comprise the Barlavento (windward) 
group (Sao Vicente, Santo Antao, Sao Nicolau, 
Santa Luzia, Sal, Boavista, Branco, and Raso) and 
the Sotavento (leeward) group (Santiago, Maio, 
Fogo, Brava, Rei, and Rombo). Total area, 1,557 
square miles; population (Jan. 1, 1938, est. ), 165,- 
000 including 6,318 Europeans. Capital, Praia (on 
Santiago), 6,188 inhabitants. Porte Giande, in Sao 
Vicente, is an important fueling station on snipping 
lines from Europe to South America and Africa. In 
1938, 4,433 vessels of 4,240,115 tons entered the 
ports of the islands. The chief products are sisal, 
castor oil, mustard, coffee, oranges, maize, tobacco, 
salt, brandy, and hides. Trade (1938): imports, 
107,089,584 cscudos; exports, 117,754,489 escudos. 
Budget (1939): 19,452,000 escudos (escudo aver- 
aged $0.0404 for 1939; $0443 for 1938). During 
1938 some 4,488 ships aggregating 4,246,395 tons 
cleared the ports Governor, Maj. A G. de Fi- 
gueiredo. 

History. In his speech of May 27, 1941, President 
Roosevelt mentioned the Cape Vcrdc Islands as one 
of the strategic Atlantic bases which, under Ger- 
man control, might be used as a "springboard" for 
aggression upon the Western Hemisphere. 

CAPITAL MOVEMENTS. See FINANCIAL REVIEW. 
CAPTIVE MINES. See LABOR CONDITIONS under 
Strikes, CHRONOLOGY under November. 
CARBON. See CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL; PHYSICS un- 
der Isotopes. 

CARIBBEAN, Inter-American Union of the. See INTER- 
AMERICAN UNION OF THE CARIBBEAN. 

CARNEGIE ENDOWMENTS. Carnegie Corporation of New 
York. Established by Andrew Carnegie in 1911, this 
corporation was formed for the advancement and 
diffusion of knowledge and understanding among 
the people of the United States and the British 
Dominions and Colonies. Its total endowment is ap- 
proximately $135,000,000, of which $10,000,000 is 
applicable in the British Dominions and Colonies. 
The annual report of the president. Frederick P. 
Keppel, showed that during the fiscal year 1940-41 
the sum of $2,706,834 was appropriated. 

The trustees of the corporation as of Dec. 1, 
1941, were: Thomas S. Arbuthnot, W. Randolph 
Burgess, Vannevar Bush, Nicholas Murray Butler, 
Samuel Harden Church, Henry James, Walter A. 
Jessup, Nicholas Kelley, Russell Leffingwell, Mar- 
garet Carnegie Miller, Frederick Osborn, Arthur W. 
Page, and Elihu Root, Jr. Officers of administration 
were: Walter A. Jessup, president; Robert M. Les- 
ter, secretary; and Robertson D. Ward, treasurer. 
Office: 522 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Found- 
ed by Andrew Carnegie in 1910 and operated as 
an unincorporated association until 1929 when it 



CARNEGIE ENDOWMENTS 



103 



CENSORSHIP 



was chartered under the laws of the State of New 
York. The endowment consists of a trust fund of 
$10,000,000, "the revenue of which," in the words 
of the donor to his original Trustees, "is to be ad- 
ministered by you to hasten the abolition of inter- 
national war, the foulest blot upon our civiliza- 
tion." The work of the Endowment is carried on in 
three Divisions: (1) Division of Intercourse and 
Education; (2) Division of International Law; (3) 
Division of Economics and History. For the current 
work of the Divisions, see YEAR BOOK for 1940. 

A special library containing 65,000 volumes on 
all aspects of public international relations is main- 
tained in Washington. During the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1941, the Endowment's income amounted 
to $573,296, which included a grant of $100,000 
from the Carnegie Corporation or New York. Dur- 
ing this period, the Endowment expended $549,- 
370. The officers are: President, Nicholas Murray 
Butler; Vice-President, John W. Davis; Secretary, 
George A. Finch, Treasurer, Leon Fraser; Assistant 
Treasurer, Roland S. Moms. Administrative offices 
are at 700 Jackson Place, Washington, D.C. Divi- 
sional offices are at 405 W. 117 St., New York City. 

Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teach- 
ing, The. A foundation established in 1905 by An- 
drew Carnegie, who gave an endowment of $10,- 
000,000 for paying retiring allowances and widows 

Eensions in the United States, Canada, and New- 
3iindland and for various other purposes in the 
field of higher education. Incorporated by Act of 
Congress in 1906, the Foundation received a fur- 
ther gift of $5,000,000 from Mr. Carnegie and ap- 
propriations totaling $13,250,000 for endowment 
and reserves from Carnegie Corporation of New 
York. On June 30, 1941, its resources amounted to 
$21,056,682. In 1940-41, it disbursed $1,929,443 
for allowances and pensions It awards no scholar- 
ships or aids of any kind The Foundation's Annual 
Reports deal with many phases of higher education. 
In 1941 its principal studies concerned education at 
the graduate level. Dr. Walter A. Jessup is presi- 
dent, and Howard J. Savage, secretary and treas- 
urer, with offices at 522 Fifth Avenue, New York 
City. 

Carnegie Hero Fund. A Fund established in 1904 
by Andrew Carnegie to help those who have risked 
their lives to an extraordinary degree to save hu- 
man life or to aid dependents of rescuers who have 
lost their lives in the performance of their acts. The 
original endowment was $5,000,000; the amount 
expended to Oct 31, 1941, was $6,153,373 11. Dr. 
Thomas S Arbuthnot is President and Mr. C. B. 
Ebersol is Assistant Secretary and Manager of the 
Fund, the address of which is 2307 Oliver Building, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Carnegie Institute, located in Schenley Park, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa , founded and endowed by Andrew Car- 
negie in 1896, comprises the Department of Fine 
Arts, the Carnegie Museum, and the Carnegie Mu- 
sic Hall. For activities, see YEAR BOOK for 1940. 
See also ARTS. Thirty-six prominent citizens of 
Pittsburgh constitute the Board of Trustees. The 
officers are as follows: Samuel Harden Church, 
President; William Frew, Vice-President; Augustus 
K. Oliver, Secretary; Richard K. Mellon, Treasurer. 
See CHEMISTRY, PURE under Substances. 

Carnegie Institution of Washington. An organization 
founded in 1902 by Andrew Carnegie "to encour- 
age in the broadest and most liberal manner investi- 
gation, research, and discovery, and the application 
of knowledge to the improvement of mankind." In- 
come on investments for the year 1941 amounted 
approximately to $1,300,000. For activities, see 
YEAR BOOK for 1940. 



W. Cameron Forbes is Chairman of the Board 
of Trustees of the Institution, and Vannevar Bush 
is President. Other Trustees are: Thomas Barbour, 
James F. Bell, Robert Woods Bliss, Lindsay Brad- 
ford, Frederic A. Delano, Homer L. Ferguson, Wal- 
ter S. Gifford, Herbert Hoover, Walter A. Jessup, 
Frank B. Jewett, Alfred L. Loomis, Roswell Miller, 
Henry S Morgan, Seeley G. Mudd, Stewart Paton, 
John J. Pershing, Ehhu Root, Jr., Henry R. Shepley, 
Richard P. Strong, Charles P. Taft, James W. Wads- 
worth, Frederic C. Walcott, and Lewis H. Weed. 
Headquarters: Sixteenth and P Streets, N.W., 
Washington, D.C. 

CAROLINE ISLANDS. See JAPANESE PACIFIC ISLANDS. 
CASTELROSSO ISLAND. See ITALIAN AEGEAN ISLANDS. 
CATHOLICS. See ROMAN CATHOLIC CHUHCH. 
CATTLE. See DAIRYING; LIVESTOCK; VETERINARY 
MEDICINE; and the countries under Production. 
CAUSES CEL&BRES. See LAW; CHRONOLOGY; PRISONS. 
CAYMAN ISLANDS. See under JAMAICA. 
CCC. Civilian Conservation Corps (q.v.); or, some- 
times, Commodity Credit Corporation. 
CELEBES. See NETHERLANDS INDIES under Area and 
Population. 

CELEBRATIONS. See FAIRS, EXPOSITIONS, AND CELE- 
BRATIONS. 

CENSORSHIP. See COMMUNICATIONS; DANISH LIT- 
ERATURE; DUTCH AND BELGIAN LITERATURE; 
FRENCH LITERATURE; NEWSPAPERS AND MAGA- 
ZINES; NORWEGIAN LITERATURE; RADIO; RADIO 
PROGRAMS; ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH; TELEG- 
RAPHY; also the article which follows. 

CENSORSHIP, Office of. The Office of Censorship was 
established by President Roosevelt on Dec. 19, 
1941, to prevent vital information from reaching 
the enemy throughout the War The President or- 
dered immediate censorship of. communications by 
mail, cable, radio, and anv other means of transmis- 
sion between the United States and any foreign 
country. 

Byron Price, Executive News Editor of the Asso- 
ciated Press, was appointed Director of Censorship. 
In announcing his selection, President Roosevelt 
said: "All Americans abhor censorship, just as they 
abhor war. But the experience of this and of all 
other nations has demonstrated that some degree of 
censorship is essential in war time, and we are at 
war. The important thing now is that such forms of 
censorship as are necessary shall be administered 
effectively and in harmony with the best interests 
of our free institutions." 

In addition to the censorship of communications 
passing across the borders of the United States, the 
President asked newspapers and radio stations to 
"abstain voluntarily from the dissemination of de- 
tailed information of certain kinds, such as reports 
of the movements of vessels and troops." From both 
press and radio there came immediate expressions 
of willingness to cooperate in this voluntary pro- 
gram. 

Censorship of mail to and from the United States 
was placed in immediate charge of Lt. Col. W. P. 
Cornerman with the expectation that as many as 
10,000 civilian employees might be needed for that 
purpose before the end of the war. Censorship of 
cables was put under the supervision of Capt. H. K. 
Fenn, U.S. Navy. John H. Sorrells, Executive Editor 
of the Scripps-Howard Newspapers, was appointed 
Assistant Director in charge of the voluntary press 
censorship. John H. Ryan, of Toledo, Ohio, Vice- 
President and General Manager of the Fort Indus- 
try Company, owners of a group of radio stations, 
became Assistant Director in charge of radio. 



CENTRAL AMERICA 



104 



CHEMISTRY 



To advise the Director on policy and the coordi- 
nation of censorship, the President established a 
Censorship Policy Board, headed by the Postmaster 
General and including the Vice-President and five 
other high Government officials. See NEWSPAPERS 
AND MAGAZINES 

BYRON PRICE. 

CENTRAL AMERICA. See BRITISH HONDURAS, COSTA 
RICA, GUATEMALA, HONDURAS, NICARAGUA, PANA- 
MA, and SALVADOR, EL. 

CEREALS. See AGRICULTURE; CORN, WHEAT, OATS, 
ETC. 

CEYLON. A British self -governing colony, south of 
India. Area, 25,332 square miles, population ( 1939 
estimate), 5,922,000. Vital statistics (1939): 212,- 
112 births, 128,611 deaths, and 28,947 (exclusive 
of Muslim) marriages. Buddhism and Hinduism are 
the chief religions. Chief cities: Colombo, the capi- 
tal, 310,000 inhabitants (1936), Jaffna, 47,700; 
Kandy, 40,100; Galle, 38,000. Education (1939). 
5,733 schools and 820,160 students in attendance. 

Production and Trade. The chief agricultural prod- 
ucts (figures in metric tons) are tea (103,400 ex- 
ported in 1939), rubber (90,000, 1940), copra 
(155,000, 1939), nee (300,000, 1938-39), coir, 
cinnamon, cacao, tobacco, and citronella. Livestock 
(1939): 1,665,282 cattle, 246,650 goats, 55,936 
sheep, 35,744 swine, and 1,252 horses. Mineral pro- 
duction: plumbago (22,396 tons, exported, in 1939), 
ilmenite, and monazite. In the many small-gem 
quarries, sapphires, rubies, moonstones, and cat's- 
eyes are found. Trade (1940): Rs282,500,000 for 
imports (ncc, cottons, coal and coke, refined sugar, 
and manures were the chief items ) ; Rs387,000,000 
for exports, of which coconut products accounted 
for Rs23,050,701 (rupee averaged $03016 for 
1940). 

Communications. In 1939 there were 951 route 
miles of railway open to traffic. Shipping ( 1939 ) 
11,073,522 tons entered and 10,944,819 tons cleared 
the ports. At the end of 1940 Ceylon had 18,660 
miles of roads. 

Government. Budget estimates (year ended Sept. 
30, 1941): Rsll7,900,000 for revenue and Rsl27,- 
364,895 for expenditure. Net public debt (Sept. 
30, 1939), Rs224,151,625. The administration is 
headed by a governor who is assisted by a state 
council of 61 members (50 elected on a territorial 
basis, 8 nominated unofficial, and 3 officers of state). 
This state council, which deals with administrative 
as well as legislative matters, is divided into 7 ex- 
ecutive committees in charge of various subjects, 
and the chairmen of these committees are ministers 
for the subject concerned. Governor, Sir Andrew 
Caldecott ( appointed Jan. 19, 1937). 

Maldive Archipelago. A dependency of Ceylon 
Area, 115 square miles; population (1931 census), 
over 79,000 Moslems. Capital, Male. 

History. A rural development scheme was in op- 
eration in nine Ceylon villages which were selected 
as Rural Service Centers of the Dept. of Commerce 
and Industries In these centers investigations were 
made into literacy, indebtedness, ownership of 
land, employment, income, number of livestock, 
poultry, etc., in order to furnish the information 
required for the work of rural development (Crown 
Colonist, Apr., 1941, p. 185; London). 

An Indo-Ceylon Conference, arranged with a 
view to the regulation of Indian immigration and 
the political rights of Indians in Ceylon, failed to 
come to a successful solution. During August of 
1941 over 1,200 men were employed on Ceylon's 
hydroelectric power scheme near Watawala. A dam 



at Norton Bridge and a 52%-mile transmission line 
to Colombo were under construction (ibid., Aug., 
1941; p. 368-371). 

CHACO. See PARAGUAY under Area and Population. 

CHAD. See FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA 

CHAHAR. See CHINA under Area and Population. 

CHAIN STORES. See TAXATION. 

CHANNEL ISLANDS. See GHKAT BRITAIN under Area 

and Population 

CHARITIES. See PHILANTHROPY. 

CHEESE. See DAIRYING. 

CHEKIANG. See CHINA under Area and Population. 

CHEMICAL WARFARE. See BOMBS. 

CHEMISTRY. See articles on BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY; 

CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL; CHEMISTRY, PURE. 

CHEMISTRY, Industrial. This is a war report, devoted 
exclusively to the incredible expansion of a chemi- 
cal industry meeting the demands of a nation at 
war. 

Alcohol. Twenty million bushels of corn have been 
set aside by the Government for conversion into al- 
cohol for smokeless powders. Beverage plants have 
been diverted to industrial alcohol. 

Carbon. During the war of 1914-18, gas-mask car- 
bon was manufactured from coconut shells. This 
year a million-dollar plant was erected at Fostona, 
Ohio, by National Carbon, and ten million dollars 
was appropriated by the Government to make acti- 
vated charcoal from sawdust by a new American 
process. 

Chlorine. Production increased in 1940 to 605,000 
tons contrasted with 120,000 in 1939 Chlorine in 
war tune is required to make neoprcne, ethylene 
glycol (prestone), ammonium picrate explores, 
inethacrylatc plastics, antimagnetic cable insulation, 
medicmals, and war gases. A million cubic leet of 
chlorine per day, now consumed in the manufac- 
ture of trtraethyl-lead, will be made available to 
war-time industries from the $2,500,000 hydro- 
chloric acid plant of the Ethyl Gasoline Corpora- 
tion, at Baton Rouge, m the spring of 1942 Two 
other new sources of chlorine were claimed, treat- 
ment of waste-gas mtrosyl chloride from the manu- 
facture of mtiates, using sulfuryl monochlondc as 
catalyst, and a process by Hixori and Tenncy in- 
volving reaction between sulfur trioxide and salt to 
give sodium sulfate and chlorine 

Explosives and Intermediates. The Government has 
increased appiopnations to the synthetic ammonia 
plants reported in the 1940 YI-AH BOOK; also it au- 
thorized an eleven million dollar plant by Dow-DPC 
at Freeport, Texas, near their magnesium plant. 
Seventy million dollars has been assigned for the 
mamifactuie of a secret explosive. 

Synthetic glycewl prepared bv the hydrogenoly- 
tic process (1938 YI-.AH BOOK, p. 142) is impure, 
and its isolation difficult. A new method, crystalliza- 
tion from solvents, yields glycerol of high purity 
The Battelle Memorial Institute obtained glycerol 
from petroleum gases, without high temperature 
chlonnation. 

The production of loluene from petroleum by 
either ( 1 ) extraction from cracked gasoline or ( 2 ) 
cyclization of hydrocarbons, at Houston, or in the 
new $13,000,000 Baytown toluene plant, or at other 
refineries being planned, can boost production of 
TNT to above 500,000 tons. Seventy per cent of 
our toluene is now made this way, and only 30 per 
cent from coal tar. The hydroforming process for 
toluene is discussed under fuels. The TNT plants 
at Johet, 111., and at Weldon Springs, Mo., are now 
in operation. Extraction using the Edeleanu process 
was employed, during the last war, on Rumanian 



CHEMISTRY 



105 



CHEMISTRY 



crudes, which may contain as high as 35 per cent 
toluene. The extraction is accomplished with liquid 
sulfur dioxide at -20 C. The extract contains 
about 60 per cent toluene, which can be mono- 
nitrated and subsequently separated from the resid- 
ual hydrocarbons by distillation. 

A forty-seven-million dollar smokeless-powder 
plant is being built by duPont in Alabama; it can 
utilize cut staple cotton as well as hnters 

Under- water explosives proving most successful 
in the present war are not TNT (trotyl) but a mix- 
ture of high bnsance pentaerythritol tctranitrate 
(pentrit) or trimethylene timitramine (hexagon) 
with 30-40 per cent TNT. 

Fats and Oils. The Government is embarking on a 
farm program to produce ten billion pounds of fats 
and oils during 1942-43. Armour's neofat for coat- 
ings expanded an additional thirty million pounds. 
Deodorized fat production is above one and a half 
billion pounds. The soybean crop in 1941 was 111,- 
000,000 bushels 

New piocesses include the hulling of cottonseed 
by steam explosion; hcxane extraction of rolled and 
cooked cottonseed meats, yielding oils comparable 
with pressing methods, a continuous solvent extrac- 
tion of soybean oil, capacity 440 tons daily, by the 
Hansa-Muhle process; and a Government process 
for extracting 99 per cent tung oil without regnnd- 
ing. There is a possibility of recovering seven mil- 
lion pounds of wax from sugar-cane "mud": a ton 
of cane vields two pounds of a hard wax, M P. 
174 F., for polishes, coatings, and mold products. 

Fuels Lowry described \aluable calculations for 
predicting the coke and by-products from blast fur- 
naces and coke ovens In Birmingham, England, 
success was reported on treating coal with coal-tar 
oils at their boiling points (up to 400 C ). The 
products were useful as binding agents in briquets, 
for colloidal fuels, and to modify the properties of 
coals and coal tar 

Petroleum production throughout the world was 
estimated at 2,149,000,000 barrels, of tins, 63 per 
cent came from the United States. A commentary 
on the rapid pace of tins industry is reflected in the 
fact that neai ly one-third of the refining equipment 
in the United States is less than four years old 

Aviation fuel, 100-octane, is being produced in 
about twenty plants A $7,750,000 expansion pro- 
gram for 100-oc'tane fuel was begun at Point Breeze 
near Philadelphia, by Atlantic Refining. Airplane 
ceilings, steadily being elevated, are now working 
on the 40,000 foot level. Di-isopropyl formal blend- 
ed with aviation fuel aids vaporization at high alti- 
tudes. 

The Diesel business doubled in 1941. In England, 
the admixture of up to 20 per cent high-temperature 
creosote Diesel fuel with gasoline for automobiles 
was found suitable for all but starting conditions 

Standard Oil of New Jersey announced that the 
fluid cracking process would hereafter be used in 
all of its New Jersey refineries Three large plants 
at Bay way (Standard of New Jersey), at Baton 
Rouge (Standard of Louisiana), and at Baytown, 
Texas (Humble Oil) are built The fluid catalyst 
process differs from the intermittent catalytic crack- 
ing which had to stop periodically to burn out ac- 
cumulated carbon from the catalyst. In the fluid 
process the catalyst flows, like a liquid, to a crack- 
ing zone and then into a separate cleansing zone. 

Most recent addition to petroleum catalysis is 
the hydro-forming process placed in operation at 
Texas Gity by Pan American. It reforms 7,500 bar- 
rels of 45 octane with a 80 per cent yield of 80 
ASTM octane. Although it involves the use of hy- 
drogen, the process is actually a dehydrogenation 



and cyclization. The pre-hcated 40-45 octane and 
heavy naphtha is mixed with hydrogen and sent in- 
to catalytic chambers at high pressure. The hydro- 
forming catalyst causes a ring closure to occur 
along with dehydrogenation, so that the product 
contains only a small quantity of aliphatic unsatu- 
ratcs, and is unusually stable. Either straight run or 
cracked gasoline may be reformed. Changing oper- 
ations produces aviation fuel, or upwards of 80 
per cent aromatics, it is another source of military 
toluene. The Texas City hydroforming plant could 
produce 5,000,000 gallons of toluene, one-quarter 
of the country's total 1939 toluene production. 
Construction was carried out by the M. W. Kellogg 
Company. 

It was found that soybean lecithin used in 1 
to 10 pounds per 42,000 gallons of gasoline in- 
hibits the sludging of leaded gasoline and the cor- 
rosion of tanks during the storage DuPont devel- 
oped a metal deactivator, N.N'-disalicyhdene-l:2- 
diaminopropane, to increase the storage stability of 
petroleum distillates. 

Metals. The use of metal powders for bearings and 
gears expanded to 5,000 tons this year Westing- 
house spent two million dollars on Hipersil, an im- 
proved magnetic material for transformer cores 

Aluminum is available to Axis and Allied pow- 
eis alike, but production is limited by enormous 
consumption of electrical energy. Most important 
announcement this year is the new Kalunite process 
which claims to produce aluminum at 11. 865tf a lb., 
as against the market price of 15^ (September, 
1941). Alunite, a potassium-aluminum ore, is used; 
there are fourteen million tons of ore available, four 
million in Utah where the process is to produce over 
two hundred tons of aluminum oxide daily The 
almnte is treated with dilute sulfunc acid, to form 
potash alum This is autoclaved to form a basic 
alum, which upon further calcining breaks into 
alumina and potassium sulf ate.. After removing the 
latter by leaching, the alumina is treated by the 
usual electrolytic process 

Aluminum production includes an additional 
170,000 tons by ALCOA and 130,000 tons by other 
companies at Massena, NY. (75,000 tons), at 
Tacoma, Wash, (15,000 tons), and at Malvern, 
Ark., (80,000 tons). The latter will have special 
facilities for washing out the silica in the low-grade 
bauxite, never befoie considered commercrallv 
workable. 

Magnesium production will swell to 200,000 tons 
in plants now under construction. German produc- 
tion in 1940 was about 20,000 tons. Magnesium 
will be prepared by three processes: (1) electroly- 
sis of the molten chloride by the Dow process; (2) 
electrolysis by a special European process; ( 3 ) the 
Ilansgirg process. Raw material for the Dow proc- 
ess is (a) Midland brines (9,000 tons of magne- 
sium); (b) MgCl, in potash mines at Austin, Tex. 
( 12,000 tons); (c) Louisiana dolomites, by Mathie- 
son Alkali (18,000 tons), and (d) Ohio dolomites 
and inagnesjtcs (18,000 tons). The European elec- 
trolytic process will be applied to Nevada magne- 
site (56,000 tons) The Hansgirg process is ex- 
pected to produce 33,000 tons 

This Hansgirg process, which has aroused con- 
siderable interest because of the troubles encoun- 
tered in perfecting the process abroad, got off to a 
bad stiu t. Three serious explosions, resulting in 
casualties, occuned during its installation by the 
Perrnanente Coiporation in California in the fall of 
1941. The process operating in Austria for some 
years forces the reaction MgO 4- C - Mg -f CO to 
the right in a three-phase electric 1 oven at 2,000 C. 
Sudden chilling to 200 with fifty times its volume 



CHEMISTRY 



106 



CHEMISTRY 



of H a , precipitates the Mg as a dust containing 
some MgO and C. Distillation in vacuo yields a 
metal powder which is collected under a hydrocar- 
bon oil, where it is melted and cast into ingots. Im- 
provements were made in recent plants in Ger- 
many, Wales, and Chosen. At Palo Alto, a 9,000 
kilovolt-ampere furnace will have a 15,000 ton ca- 
pacity, which will be expanded to 33,000 tons if 
successful. In place of hydrogen, natural gas will 
be used; this will later be passed to the adjacent 
Permanentc cement mill as fuel. Chief difficulties 
are in handling the hydrogen and highly inflamma- 
ble magnesium vapor; and in heat transfer problems 
in the vacuum distillation of the magnesium pow- 
der. A ton of metal requires 22,000 kilowatt-hours 
of electricity. 

Despite the low content of magnesium in i>ea- 
water, there are 4,500,000 tons of it in each cubic 
mile. The Dow Company, sole producer in the 
United States until 1940, commenced production 
in 1927. The engineering problems arc consider- 
able, when it is recalled that 800 tons of sea-water 
must be treated for each ton of metal produced In 
the process, oyster shells are calcined to give the 
oxide, which is dissolved to give milk of lime The 
lime, as a sludge, is fed into launders where it sot- 
ties through incoming sea-water, and precipitates 
the magnesium as hydroxide The magnesium hy- 
droxide slurry is caked out on vacuum filters and 
mixed with crude hydrochloric acid to form a mag- 
nesium chloride solution. The salt is dried in ovens 
50 feet in diameter and 50 feet high. The crystals 
formed in the oven are fed to electrolytic cells 
where dehydration is completed, and during elec- 
trolysis the metal floats, is skimmed off, and poured 
into 24" x 4" x 4" ingot molds. A pound of magne- 
sium requires nine kw-hr. The chlorine which is 
given off is blown to the hydrochloric acid plant 
where it reacts with natural gas to form HCl and 
CO. The chlorine from the magnesium cells is sup- 
plemented by chlorine from neighboring caustic 
soda units. The sea-water, with 80 per cent of its 
magnesium extracted, is sent to the bromine-from- 
sea-water plant 

Carlo Adamoli, of Italy has patented a method in 
which common magnesium ores, (talc, dolomite, 
magnesite) are treated with HF; the magnesium 
fluoride is heated with a reducing agent, which dis- 
tills off magnesium. The HF is regenerated. 

Electrolytic manganese may become a reality fol- 
lowing successful Government operation of a 25- 
ton test muffled hearth type furnace at Boulder City. 
After roasting low-grade domestic ores, 98 per cent 
of the manganese can be extracted. 

Paints for Blackouts. There was an intensified re- 
search for new luminous paints for war-time pur- 
poses. Luminous screens for hospitals and telephone 
switchboards; luminous valves and switches for 
chemical plants; fluorescent pigments on aeroplane 
dials illuminated by a small argon lamp invisible to 
the enemy, tapes to illuminate cars; luminous cloth- 
ing and hose for pedestrians; fluorescent wall- 
papers and plastics; fluorescent carpets for theaters; 
all of these are war-time uses for this material. 

In 1897, Lenard paved the way for luminescent 
paints. Luminescence is caused by the presence of 
a definite coordinated group of atoms, called phos- 
phores, within the crystal lattice, in much the same 
way that color is associated with chromophors. 
Foreign bodies, called activators, are loosely em- 
bedded in the crystal centers of the lattice; this 
causes distortion of the lattice and results in lumi- 
nescence. The structure of these centers is not un- 
derstood, although it is known that grinding the 
powders destroys their luminescence. 



Luminescent pigments are classified according to 
their purity. ( 1 ) Pure luminescent pigments are 
salts of the rare earths, uranium salts, molybdates, 
tungstates, and platinum. These fluoresce (glow 
during excitation), but do not phosphoresce (after- 
glow). (2) Impure luminous paints contain traces 
of metallic activators added to zinc sulfide or to 
sulfides of the alkaline earths. Other materials used 
are the oxides and carbonates of the alkaline earths: 
halides of aluminum and of the alkaline earths; and 
calcium tungstate. Extreme purity is imperative: 
000006 gram of copper in a gram of zinc sulfide 
causes the latter to have an intense green after- 
glow. On the other hand, 0.000006 g of iron in 
one g. of CaBiS lummophore diminishes its glow to 
one-third 

Balmam's luimnophore is produced by melting 
0002 g. of Bi with 1 g. of calcium sulfide in a flux 
of sodium sulfate, calcium fluoride, and sodium 
tetraborate at 950 C for 16 minutes. Fluorides 
gi\e long after-glow but are difficult to powder 
since the grinding destroys the luminescence. Con- 
ditions of cooling the melt affect color and intensity 
of luminescence 

The principal paint vehicle is dammar gum; plas- 
tics, plasticized with butyl phthalate, have also 
been employed Chlorinated rubber is a good ve- 
hicle for weathering paints Oil vehicles are unsatis- 
factory, particularly for strontium sulfide, although 
zinc sulfide lummophores may be used with zinc 
naphthenate as drier and dispersing agent. Nitro- 
cellulose lacquers tend to gel 

The pigment must be dispersed without grinding 
Suspending agents such as zinc or aluminum or- 
ganic salts arc useful, e g zinc naphthenate has 
been used up to 8 per cent The pH must be kept 
well above se\en since weathering moves it into 
the acid zone where the alkaline earths tend to re- 
act with the acid vehicle Accordingly, borate and 
phosphate buffers are often added. A priming coat 
of lacquers, or nonchalking titanium dioxide paint, 
is used, but a top coat is unfavorable, since it con- 
fines sulfur compounds released from the lummo- 
phore. 

Due to the high purity required, costs of typical 
grades are $2 an ounce 

Phosphorus. A fourth electric furnace is planned 
at Monsanto, Tenn., and a new phosphate plant, at 
Trenton, Michigan. International Minerals and 
Chemicals Corporation is building phosphate rock 
plants in Florida and in Tennessee. 

Plastics. More than 123,000 tons of plastics in 
1941 indicates the rapid expansion of this indus- 
try. Three-quarters of all the plastics duPont pro- 
duces came from its laboratories in the past four 
years. 

Plant expansions included a Plexiglas sheet plant, 
by Rohm and Haas on the west coast; a $400,000 
expansion to 10,000 tons capacity of the Durex 
plant at North Tonawanda, N.Y.; the first exclu- 
sively cellophane film plant west of the Mississippi, 
in Iowa; Hercules entering the plastics field with 
the purchase of the John D. Lewis phenolic gum 
and alkyl resin plant at Taunton, Mass ; a million 
dollar synthetic phenol plant by General Electric 
at Pittsfield being planned, and a new phenol- 
formaldehyde Monsanto Resmox Plant at Spring- 
field, Mass. The most exciting new plastic news is 
that production will shortly begin on Cafelite, the 
plastic from coffee, at Sao Paulo, Brazil. The plant 
is equipped to handle 5,000,000 bags of coffee. 
Another plastic is being made from cottonseed hulls 
by Leahy at the University of Tennessee; southern 
spinning mills are already using 350,000 sheaves 
made of this highly elastic plastic. 



CHEMISTRY 



107 



CHEMISTRY 



Elastometers such as Vinylite became increasing- 
ly important. Urea-melamine plastics appeared as 
insulators of heat and sound. Uses for the metha- 
crylates continued to expand: portable fluorescent 
lights, molded electric plugs, transparent pumps for 
acids, safetyguards for coilwinding machines; sev- 
enty applications in automobiles, including 500,000 
protective reflectors on automobiles in California. 
War-time uses include plastic bomber noses of lami- 
nated mahogany or methacrylate, radios, nonterri- 
fying gas masks, ventilators, aileron pulleys, instru- 
ment panels, knobs, self-sealing gas tanks, the 
bodies of bomb fuses, mortar tail-fins, and incendi- 
aries made of cellulose nitrates containing phos- 
phorus. The British spray cellulose acetate over 
glass to keep parts from flying during an air-raid. 
Methacryhc resins are used for navigators hatches, 
gun-turrets, plastic girders, airplane dope coatings, 
and coatings to prevent sea-water corrosion of 

E lanes m the tropics Polished styrene glasses are 
eing pressed for servicemen. Henry Ford com- 
pleted the first all-plastic automobile in August. 
Still only in the experimental stage, it weighs two 
thousand pounds compared with three thousand 
pounds for steel. 

Improved techniques appeared for injection 
molding of low temperature thermosetting plastics 

Investigations of plastics by Baker at the Bell 
Telephone Laboratories showed that rapid cooling 
gives a disorderly state, making the plastic soft and 
flexible; whereas slow cooling gives parallel fibers 
making it hard, but brittle. The plastics in the fu- 
ture may be tempered, like steel, to impart the de- 
sired properties from proper orientation of the 
fibers. 

Plastic Ion-exchangers. Meyers of the Resinous 
Products Company described the use of Amberlite 
resins as ion-exch angers They may be used in soft- 
ening water; for partial or complete removal of 
salts from water, and from biological media; for the 
recovery of traces of copper, gold, and other metals 
from dilute solutions; and for removing iron and 
objectionable acids from industrial waters. Unlike 
the zeolite process, the resinous ion-exchangers may 
be used m strongly acidic or basic solutions, and in 
hot solutions They can produce high quality water 
comparing favorably with distilled water. Kynta, 
an active resin suspended in diatom aceous earth, 
appeared for purifying sugar. 

Plastic Wearing Apparel. Celluloid shirt collars 
made their appearance in 1868; and in 1890 Spit- 
teler discovered casein for making buttons and 
buckles. Next came Bakclite Today there are four 
major types of plastics used in wearing apparel 
( 1 ) Thermosetting plastics include casein, molded 
and cast phcnohcs, and urea-formaldehyde. These 
are for buttons, costume jewelry, and transparent 
and colored shoe-heels. (2) Rigid thermoplastics 
are featured in color, such as cellulose esters, meth- 
acrylates, polystyrene, vinyl compounds, and rub- 
ber hydrochloride These include cellulose acetate 
necklaces and bracelets, cellulose acetobutryate 
football helmets, and polymerized methacrylate and 
styrene for crystal-clear jewelry, brush handles, and 
so forth. (3) Flexible thermoplastics, colorful and 
elastic are of greatest importance in apparel. This 
includes regenerated cellulose in raincoats; rubber 
hydrochloride in raincoats and bags; vinylidene 
chloride extruded for belts, suspenders, and hats; 
and polyvinyl ester resins for fabrics. (4) Synthetic 
fibers include synthetic wool, lanital, or arofac from 
casein; soybean fiber as an aldehyde condensation; 
vinyon, and nylon. Vinyon ester plastics are flexible 
for water-proofing. They consist of copolymers of 
vinyl acetate and chloride in the proportion! 1:8 by 



weight. Vinyl polymers with molecular weight of 
about 15,000 become semi-rigid; they are suitable 
for packagings and stiff-front shirts. Molecular 
weight polymers of 22,000 are flexible and resilient, 
and the fabrics made from them can be cut ana 
sewed like any textile; also they can be heat-sealed. 
It is used for making transparent slippers, water- 
proof aprons, trimmings for handbags, suspenders, 
shoes with a permanent shine, shower curtains, and 
so forth. Vinyon fibers and yarn extruded from an 
acetone solution are being made into ladies hose 
and bathing suits. 

Refractories from Sea-water. Refractories from 
Pennsylvania dolomites are being manufactured by 
a new plant at Cape May Point, New Jersey; ca- 
pacity 40,000 tons. The Chesny process which made 
England self-sufficient in magnesile refractories, is 
employed By this reaction, dolomite limes are re- 
placed by the magnesium in sea-water. The diffi- 
culty encountered is to produce crystalline, readily 
filterable magnesium hydroxide. 

Rubber. By the close of the year, the synthetic 
rubber production was greatly stimulated through 
the acquisition, by Japan, of approximately one- 
third of the Far East rubber supply. Production of 
neoprene, butadiene, and polysutfide rubbers have 
been as follows: in 1939. 1,750, none, and 500 tons 
lespectively; in 1941: 9,000, 4,000, and 1,400 tons; 
in 1942, estimated, 20,000, 80,000, and 6,000 tons 
respectively. 

Six American companies are in production of 
copolymers of butadiene with styrene or acrylic 
acid derivatives. New plants include a 5,000-ton 
Shell Oil Plant at Houston; a DPC-Carbon and 
Carbide $3,500,000 plant at Charleston, W.Va.; a 
$2,200,000 Monsanto Plant at Galveston, Texas; 
four plants of $1,250,000 each, capable of expan- 
sion to 30,000 tons a year at Gooayear, Goodrich, 
and Firestone at Akron, and U.S. Rubber at Nauga- 
tuck, Conn.; a $15,000,000 Standard Oil plant at 
Baton Rouge; and a plant to produce Amenpol at 
Baton Rouge. The government intends to expand 
synthetic rubber capacity to 400,000 tons, with an 
appropriation of nearly half a billion dollars 

Amcripol is a typical butadiene rubbei : like nat- 
ural rubber in hardness, workability, elongation re- 
sistance to acids and alkalies, resistance to benzene 
and carbon tctrachloridc, although swelling in ace- 
tone; better than natural rubber in resistance to 
oxidation by driers and to abrasion in the presence 
of oils, resistant to heat and to aging; but not as 
satisfactory as natural rubber as regards elasticity, 
tear resistance, and stiffening in sub-free/ing weath- 
er. Amcripol production expanded to 18 tons a day 

The Government approved a $25,000,000 project 
to plant guayule, a natural shrub containing 23 per 
cent rubber, in the southwest 

A million pounds of neoprene was allocated to 
250 companies. A 10,000-ton neoprene plant at 
Louisville for military heavy-duty ncoprene-tread 
tires will shortly be completed, as the Deepwater 
facilities will rise 9,000 tons. Hercules is expanding 
its Parlin chlorinated-rubber for tents, tarpaulins, 
flamed-proofed mihtarv fabrics and insulation. Neo- 
prene is used in flexible bearings, gaskets, sealing 
tape for gasketing marine seams, Par-grip boots, 
hot-water washers, etc. Because of its gas-retaining 
and sunlight-resisting properties it has completely 
replaced rubber-balloon fabrics. Neoprene FR was 
announced as resistant to oil and sub-zero tempera- 
tures, down to 70 below zero; this is a property 
not possessed by other synthetic rubbers. 

Thiokol, first manufactured in 1930, boosted out- 
put to 3,000 tons at Midland, Mich ; and double 
this is planned for 1042. 



CHEMISTRY 



108 



CHEMISTRY 



Miscellaneous rubber news includes the use of 
chlorinated rubber as paint film, rubber hydro- 
chloride films for food packages and raincoats; Ko- 
roseal anodes for hydrogen peroxide manufacture; 
rubber electrodepositions for tread to army tanks 
and supports, latex-foamed mattresses for air-raid 
shelters; a rubber compound by Firestone which 
eliminates cracking of tread and side walls; an in- 
jection molding machine for rubber articles which 
vulcanize only after injection into the die, and pow- 
ders for innei tubes to cut auto static from 7,000 
\olts to below 1,200 \olts Acetylene black used in 
place of carbon black increases the conductivity ol 
rubber a million times and discharges static, such 
rubber is suitable for aviation suits to keep pilots 
warm at high altitudes by passing electricit> 
through the suit. (Sec also RUBBER ) 

Strategic Materials. In tile Pacific the United States 
has much strategic material at stake Tin came from 
Singapore and the Netherlands Indies Manganese 
from Brazil, Cuba, and South Africa will have to be 
stepped up. Two-thirds of the chromium supply 
came from the Philippine Islands and New Cale- 
donia; Africa, Turkey, and Cuba will have to be 
called in. The closing of the Burma Road will cut 
off our tungsten supply; South America is now in- 
creasing its output, arid domestic molybdenum can 
partly be substituted From Madagascar and Ceylon 
come high-grade graphite. It can be replaced, how- 
ever, by deposits in Alabama, Texas, and Pennsyl- 
vania. Ninety per cent of our mica comes from In- 
dia, and the splitting of it requires trained labor 
It will be a herculean task to find a substitute for 
Manila fibers N met) -eight per cent of our rubber 
supply, 600,000 tons, came from the Orient Re- 
claiming, winch normally accounts for 30 per cent 
of our yearly supply, will have to be stepped up, 
as will also the cultivation of natural rubber plants 
and synthetic production. Palm oil comes from the 
Indies for tin plating, tanning agents from the Far 
East These and many more of our chemical ma- 
terials will be cut off, and substitutes for them 
must be provided The Bureau of Mines (qv ) m 
1941 carried out a careful exploration for strategic 
materials. 

Textiles. Self antiseptic clothing, described by 
James of the University of Maryland, has been used 
in all-leather hat bands, 15,'000,000 mattresses, 
2,000,000 pairs of canvas shoes, and 4,000,000,000 
sheets and pillow cases. 

Fire retardants for textiles, using ammonium sul- 
famates, will be expanded by the sulfamic acid 
plant commenced in May, 1941, by the duPont 
Company at Grasselh, N J. Sulfamic acid was a 
laboratory curiosity until three years ago when 
duPont began tonnage production It is also a tan- 
ning and dyestuff intermediate 

Latex by the U.S Rubber Company has been 
used in its new Kolok process for riveting fibers to- 
gether without decreasing their flexibility. Several 
million ladies silk hosiery have already been treated. 
The process, which adds as much as 18 per cent 
latex to the fabric, doubles the life of the hosiery. 

Nylon, a laboratory curiosity in 1938, today nur- 
tures a full-scale industry employing several thou- 
sand workers Nylon is a generic name which re- 
fers not only to textile fibers but also to a large 
group of chemicals For instance, nylon monofil is 
used in brush bristles, racket strings and fishing 
leaders, for insulation on wire, for molding powders 
for self lubricating bearings, and for leather-like 
materials. No limit to its versatility is yet in sight. 
The basic materials for nylon are manufactured at 
Belle, W.Va. Yarn and nylon flake are produced at 
Seaford, Pel, and Martinsville, Va. The latter be- 



gan production in November and will be in full 
operation by the summer of 1942. Nylon monofils 
are produced at Arlington, N J. Nylon capacity will 
have expanded 25 per cent to 10,000 tons by the 
end of 1942 In addition to hosiery, 400 mills use 
nylon yarn for purposes ranging from wrist- watch 
straps to parachutes. A parachute consumes 75 
square yards of nylon or silk. Nylon magnetic wire 
insulation reduces the size of motors 15 per cent. 
Nylon and rayon is being substituted for the special 
silk paper for money and Government bonds. 

More than 70,000,000 yards of proxylin-coatcd 
textiles are produced annually in tins country. In 
London, to replace glass windows smashed during 
an raids, cotton mesh is drawn through a cellulose 
acetate solution containing 20-30 per cent plas- 
tici/er. 

Rayon is being standardized by the British textile 
industry. The United States Government exhibited 
moderately sheer mesh cotton stockings During the 
war, manufacturers will be knitting rayon and cot- 
ton into tops and feet of nylon hosiery to affect a 
saving of the latter. 

Sartfn, a thermoplastic made by Firestone from 
Dow materials, was exhibited in the fall of 1941 
It may be extruded in strands woven like cloth in 
any wea\ e or color, chiefly for upholstery but also 
for table tops, airplane partitions, and room inte- 
riors It is water-proof, chemically resistant, and re- 
sembles rattan 01 reed It does not crack or split 

A British fmn is making a textile fabric from .S<Y/- 
icced Formerly 400,000 tons of sea-weed each ye.u 
was gathered in the Hebrides, arid it abounds on 
the west coasts of Ireland and Scotland Non-metal- 
lic algmates made from the algmic acid in the sea- 
weed can be extruded as in the viscose process Tlit- 
fiber is nonflammable, if soaked in gasoline and the 
gasoline burned away, the fabric is unaltered It 
has high luster, good strength, and dyes well, but 
large scale production is not yet perfected 

Ford described a t>oy piotvin fiber spra>ed with 
rubber for automobile upholstery padding A panel 
of the resin-impregnated fiber weighs half that of 
steel and does not dent 

Vinyl impregnations of fabric, as in the late\ 
process, have been applied in aqueous dispersions 
up to 50 per cent for oil-resisting artificial leather, 
automobile hoods, and bookcloth. 

Artificial wool from milk has reached the United 
States (1938 YEAR BOOK). Marvlo, a milk casein 
fabric woven from Aralac fiber was exhibited in 
October. A million pounds of Aralac has been used 
to replace rabbit's hail in the hat industry The 
fiber blends with rayon and wool, and dresses of it 
will appear in the spring of 1942, according to the 
National Dairy Products Corporation which has a 
factory operating at Taftsx ille, Conn , with a 5,000,- 
000-pound production capacity Aralac is more ex- 
pensive than rayon and cotton, but less expensive 
than wool. 

Wool consists of long fibrous molecules linked 
occasionally by cvstem S-S linkages. If these link- 
ages are broken by reduction and alkylation with 
alkyl monohalides, its solubility in alkalies is much 
higher. Upon replacing the S-S cross-linkages with 
alkyl groups by reduction followed by alkalation of 
dihalides, the solubility in alkalies is considerably 
reduced This process offers great promise in im- 
proving the properties of wool. 

The use of molecular models has become an in- 
strument of research. Hirschf elder-Fischer atomic 
models, united with ordinary dress snap-fasteners 
were used by Taylor and Becker to construct mod- 
els of long fibers. Models of alpha-keratin, the nat- 
ural wool protein, is of a folded molecule; this may 



CHEMISTRY 



109 



CHEMISTRY 



be set in the stretched beta-keratin form by steam- 
ing. This is the process involved in the "permanent 
wave" and the ' trousers crease", as is common ob- 
servation, this gradually reverts to its normal folded 
alpha-keratin structure. Muscle fiber, or myosm, is 
capable of similar extension and contraction. By 
construction of other models Taylor and Rosenblum 
were able to predict the co\ enng power of certain 
detergents. 

Fuoss of the General Electric predicts that the 
high polymer plastics and textiles of the future will 
be designed with predetermined electrical and me- 
chanical properties, just as the metallurgist now 
designs specific alloys. The motion of the molecules 
under an applied electrical field can be controlled 
by altering the size and length of the side-chains 
along the long fiber molecule. Plasticizcrs or heat 
reduce the resistance of the molecules to motion 

Clark in England reported treating linen gill net 
twine with chlorinated pale crepe rubber Also, the 
British Government issued instructions for rot- 
proofing various textiles and lor increasing their re- 
sistance to fire, water, and mildew 

X-Rays in Defense. There is an interesting tabula- 
tion of the uses of X-ray analysis in English de- 
fense industries in the News Edition, Industrial 
and Engineering Chemistry, page 1150. 

Africa exported 904,942 pounds of pyrethrum 
for insect sprays to the United States French West 
Africa is using native phosphate rock as fcrtih/er 
Tanganyika and Nyasaland will establish tung-oil 
stations 

The Argentine Chemical Socirtv, membership 950, 
held its filth meeting this year New plants were 
started to manufacture precipitated chalk, acetic 
acid, tartanc acid, caustic soda, carbon disulfide, 
copper sulfato, zinc, and hydrogen peroxide by the 
electrolysis of ammonium sulfate 

Brazilian chemical industry is rapidly expanding, 
linseed oil, cellulose, and steel in Rio Grande do 
Sul, ethanol, dry ice, perfumes, cosmetics, mate-lies, 
natural asphalt, and soap in Sao Paulo, macauba oil, 
aluminum, and cement in Minus Genus; cocoamit 
oil in Bia; rubber and timbo insecticide powder 
(1,200,000 pounds in 1941 ) in Para; arid cellulose 
inclustJics in Santa Catnrina The Klabin and Iiinaox 
Company which already controls the production of 
nitric arid sulfunc acid, ceramics, cardboard, and 
rayon, is constructing a $5,000,000 plant to produce 
70 per cent of Brazil's pulp needs from natn e pine 
The Go\ eminent is sponsoring the blending of 15- 
20 per cent ethanol in motor fuels, a $5,000,000 
Solvay plant, and development of the aluminum, 
iron, manganese, tungsten, and nickel deposits Sta- 
tistics for the 23,437,674 pounds of oil exports aie 
given in the Dec. 10, 1941, News Edition of Indus- 
tried and Engineering Chemistry. Oiticica oil is re- 
garded as the latest of Brazil's important export 
products. Cottonseed production in 1940 was 60 per 
cent of world production. For the important coffee 
plastic, see abo\e under Plastics. 

British Isles Hundreds of firms registered under 
the Essential Works Order to unify the chemical 
war effort. The dyestuffs industry is well situated. 
The essential drugs have been formulated. New 
symbols for use on diagrams of chemical plants 
were publicized bv the British Standards Institu- 
tion. Unification of the plastics industry has not yet 
been enforced. Substances formerly obtained from 
the continent but now supplied domestically or 
from the United States include pyrites, phosphates, 
calcium carbide, and potash. Scarce items include 
chlorates, dichromates, yellow prussiate, and potas- 
sium compounds. Coal tar derivatives and salts for 
alkali products have always been plentiful. 



The Canadian chemical industry has expanded 
to meet war needs. By August, Government appro- 
priations of $120,000,000 had placed in production 
23 war-time chemical plants employing 11,000 
workers and producing 12 war-time chemicals and 
8 explosives. New war-time industries are manufac- 
turing optical glass, toluene, xylene and other light 
oils in Nova Scotia, carbon disulfide for rayon and 
cellophane in Ontario, zinc chloride, cerium at 
Shawimgan Falls, sulfunc acid from pyrites in Que- 
bec, ammonium chloride and sodium sulfite in Ham- 
ilton, and nylon from intermediates. Canada still 
depends on the United States for formaldehyde 
(2,351,000 pounds, in 1940), for ethvlene glycol 
for explosives and antifreeze, and for dyestuffs; al- 
so, $100,000 each of acetone and glycerol for ex- 
plosives since the beginning of the war. Sixteen new 
plants manufactured crude cod li\er oil in the ma- 
rine provinces wheic five refining plants produced 
266,427 imperial gallons in 1940 Previously, Cana- 
da had imported 80 per cent of its 300,000 gallon 
oil requirement 

Central America is now buying from the United 
States. Cuban ore shipments doubled in value to 
$4,325,582 for the first half of 1941; of this, manga- 
nese ore doubled to $2,801,133. Imports in 1940 
included $11,600 in dyes to Costa Rica; $20,000 in 
insecticides and boiler compounds, for sugar cen- 
trals, to the Dominican Republic, $23,468 in explo- 
sives to Guatemala, also hydrochloric acid as a 
banana-wash, and $90,000 in toilet preparations to 
the Honduras and $305,000 to Panama Mexico has 
agreed not to ship strategic war materials outside of 
the western hemisphere New plants in Central 
America include perfumes in Panama, sodium and 
magnesium compounds, Pharmaceuticals, and bonc- 
fertilizer in Mexico, molasses fermentation products 
m Jamaica, sulfur in Costa Rica, and a rubber fab- 
rication plant in Guatemala. 

Chile reported a number of government spon- 
sored plants, coke ovens, a glass factory in the 
south, nickel and chromium plating, development 
of iron ore deposits and an electric furnace plant 
at Mariposa, iron mines at Prinvine of Coule, a 
sulfur mine (3,600 tons yearly) in Anca, zinc oxide 
from imported ores, a button factory, a fruit-drying 
plant because of die lack of tin, several projects for 
aluminum from aluminum sulfate in North Chile, 
and potassium nitiate and sulfate plants, near Pinta- 
dos. A forty million Chilean dollar loan provides 
water power at lluilo-Hiulo for a special rotating 
steel furnace, 86 per cent of the iron is imported 
Fertilizers are plentiful, excepting potash, a plant 
at Tarapaca is to produce 30,000 tons yearly. A 
joint Chilean combine purchased fifteen million pe- 
sos worth of phannaceuticals this year from the 
United States To offset the huge quantities of cop- 
per, iodine (622 tons in 1940), and nitrates shipped 
each year to the United States, Chile passed a law 
requiring an importation of 20 per cent of the value 
of the exports. 

North China has only an alkali products industry; 
Central China, controlled by Japanese, is supplying 
ammonium sulfate fertilizer, Shanghai ana else- 
where have over 30 biological laboratories; and at 
Hong Kong alkali and hydrochloric acid factories 
were started 

Danish plans call for a combined new gas works 
and nitrogen plant in Northern Jutland to furnish 
calcium nitrate fertilizer 

Eire was unable to secure superphosphates from 
North America, and pyrites from Spam, for ferti- 
lizers. Production of industrial alcohol is only one- 
tenth normal as a growing use of potatoes for food 
and fodder has closed four of the five Irish plants. 



CHEMISTRY 



110 



CHEMISTRY 



Germany now regulates the Alsatian potash mines. 
Iodine restrictions were removed in December, 
1940, so apparently an adequate supply is again 
available. Germany's new oraer would make Con- 
tinental Europe chemically self-sufficient, and regu- 
lated by syndicates. Electric current would be lo- 
cated in Scandinavia to provide fertilizers for 
France, Spain, and the Balkans. France would pro- 
duce aluminum from its bauxite deposits. Spain 
would supply pyrites. Yugoslavia would develop an 
electrochemical industry based on water power. 
Switzerland would retain its chemical industry, and 
supply water power. Rumania would develop petro- 
leum by-products. Italy would contribute mercury, 
sulfur, electrochemicals, and inorganic and organic 
industries. 

Hungary has substituted sunflower oil for im- 
ported cocoa butter, and sheep tallow for imported 
fats, in therapeutics. The Magyarovar viscose fac- 
tory has enlarged to 40,000 pairs of hose annually; 
a second textile null is planned. Bauxite output was 
up five-fold above 1938. 

India expanded its chemical industry to meet 
shrinkage of imports. New plants include: two in 
Kathiawar to manufacture alkali and chlorine prod- 
ucts, imported formerly from Japan and now from 
Great Britain; half a dozen paper plants; two sul- 
furic acid plants, in Potlad and Baroda, capacity 
1V tons of sulfur per day respectively; formalde- 
hyde to replace a 50 ton annual import; a 180 ton 
ammonium chlorate, and a 3,600 ton glacial acetic 
acid plant. A new 600 ton capacity chromatc plant 
at Mysore will supply dyeing and tanning industries. 
Chemical and drug production has accelerated. In- 
creases were also recorded in sulfuric acid, am- 
monium sulfatc, and aviation gasoline from India 
and Burman crudes. Iron production was up to 
1,835,000 tons in 1940. 

The normal five-billion pound jute crop was cut 
to one-third, although India shipped a billion sand 
bags and three million yards of jute to Great Britain 
for tarpaulins and canvas. Jute rayon clothing was 
in all probability being used in the French and 
German armies. 

Italy installed new plants for recovering phenol 
from ammonia waters of coke ovens, for distilling 
coal tar, for compressing methane, and for produc- 
ing methanol, by Vetrocoke's; more potassium de- 
rivatives and alumina from Rome leucites, the en- 
larging of the sodium chloride plant, and a new 
electrolytic alkali and chlorine plant at Torre Vis- 
cosa; a new calcium carbide factory, 600,000 quin- 
tal capacity; a coke factory by the new Cokapuama 
Company with a connecting nitrogen factory hav- 
ing a capacity of a million quintals of fertilizer; 
plants to produce 7,000 tons of oil from bituminous 
shale, by the Societa Fnulana; a magnesium indus- 
try at Bolzano, developed in the past two years. 
Anticipated exhaustion of the Istria and Pugli baux- 
ites has led to consideration of leucite from Naples 
and alunite from Rome. The oxide is extracted at 
Venice, electrolyzed in Mori and Bolzano and fab- 
ricated elsewhere. Lead chambers in 146 com- 
panies in 1939 produced two million tons of sul- 
furic acid; and some 33 contact plants produced 
500,000 tons. 

Japan published sketchy news. As the Manchukuo 
five-year plan came to an end, electric power con- 
sumption rose from 28,000,000 kilowatt-hours in 
1933 to 500,000,000 kw-hrs, 1940. Ammonium sul- 
fate rose from 29,000 tons in 1933 to 548,000 tons 
in 1941. Japan has apparently not yet exploited 
the vast Manchurian timber resources for rayon 
and paper pulp. Coal shortage was the greatest 
deterrent to chemical progress. Fertilizer production 



was insufficient, with ammonium sulf ate production 
30 per cent below 1936-37. The Mitsui Chemical 
Company will use the Fischer-Tropsch process for 
gasoline from coal; and gasoline blended with 
power alcohol or ether was available. A new plant 
at Asahigawa will boost benzene output. Magne- 
sium ore from Tashichiao, one of the largest depos- 
its in the world, is chlorinated, and the magnesium 
recovered by electrolysis; commercial production 
began in 1936. Expansion of the pyrite mines kept 
sulfuric acid high; the ratio of lead chamber to 
vanadium catalyst plants was 7:3, although the 
chamber process is declining. All carbon disulfide 

Elants are probably close, to make sulfur available 
:>r war industries. Silk piling was a major problem 
upon which two million families depended. Japan's 
meager dyestuffs industry was undoubtedly halted 
by war efforts. Vast as her domination of the textile 
field has been, most of the chemical industries in 
Japan are still in their infancy; and an enormous 
production program, such as is planned in the 
United States, cannot be achieved by Japan. 

Netherlands Indies plans 45,000 tons of ammonium 
sulfate fertilizer from petroleum gases by the end 
of 1942; soap and volcanic sulfur industries are 
also being encouraged. 

New Zealand is to make silicosuperphosphate fer- 
tilizer from serpentine, 100,000 tons a year. A low 
temperature carbonization plant at Rotowaro treat- 
ed 413,845 gal. of tar and oil 

Palestine doubled its potash and bromine produc- 
tion in 1941; and many pharmaceuticals and pure 
chemicals are manufactured within the country. 
Ninety thousand citrus fruit wrapped in diphcnyl 
impregnated paper (YEAR BOOK, 1939, p. 128) 
showed a spoilage loss of 0.37 per cent compared 
with 9 6 per cent for unwrapped fruit. 

Peru has a potential fish-oil vitamin industry, ac- 
cording to a U.S. Government survey. Domestic 
production of sulfuric acid cut imports Mussala, a 
Chilean firm, is manufacturing pure chemicals and 
copper insecticides for agriculture 

Spain was able to export only one-quarter its 
peace-time quota of pyrites. Production in the first 
half of 1941 was 239,211 tons, most of which was 
sent to England; in return, Spain received 500 tons 
of soap. Cyanamid replaced ammonium sulfatc in 
the Spanish rice region. Prohibition on United 
States serums and vaccines remained. 

Swedish chemical industry continued to grow at a 
rapid pace: acetone for smokeless powder, dye- 
stuffs, medicinals; a new cyanamid plant at Stock- 
vik, capacity 40,000 tons; tanning materials; a 20,- 
000 ton sulfuric acid plant to increase facilities for 
fermenting wood pulp to power alcohol; methanol 
and acetic acid in a new charcoal plant in northern 
Sweden; five new sulfite-alcohol plants with a 
4,500,000 gal. capacity of 95 per cent alcohol, to 
supplement the 1,830,000 gal. capacity of present 
expanded plants. 

Switzerland rationed its soap production, with 
Russian fats and oils curtailed. 

Thailand projected plants for wood distillation, 
explosives, hydroelectric power, and the electrolysis 
of brine. 

In Venezuela a National Price Board, formed in 
December, 1941, controls alkalies, alcohol, calcium 
carbide, dyes, insecticides, medicinals, and fertiliz- 
ers. Coal tar and medicinal imports have increased 
five-fold from the United States as European mar- 
kets were closed. 

See AGRICULTURE, U.S. DEPARTMENT or under 
Agricultural Chemistry; PHOTOGRAPHY; articles on 
products, as BOMBS, RUBBER. 

HUBERT N. ALYEA. 



CMMUSTRY 



111 



CHEMISTRY 



CHEMISTRY, Pure. Defense research by our scientific 
leaders remains a military secret; and for tins reason 
the report on pure chemistry is curtailed and the 
section on wartime industrial chemistry expanded. 

Apparatus. Industry is providing the chemist with 
analytical machines complex in construction but 
simple to operate. The RCA electron microscope 
was announced in the 1940 YEAR BOOK, (p. 117). 
This year a polarograph, or dropping mercury elec- 
trode, for qualitative and quantitative analysis of 
solutions, which Heyrovsky developed over the past 
decade, has been marketed by Leeds and Northrup, 
and by the American Instrument Company. It costs 
about $1,000 Hippie of Westmghouse exhibited, at 
the Chemical Exposition in December, 1941, a 
mobile mass spectrograph costing several thousand 
dollars. In this machine the components of a sample 
of petroleum gas, for instance, can be separated 
according to their weights, or masses, with accura- 
cies up to 1 part m 100,000. 

Kapitza, in Moscow, has described a new liquid 
air apparatus which operates at 5 atmospheres pres- 
sure instead of the 200 atmospheres required by the 
Linde machine. Greater efficiency in dissipating 
energy is achieved by having the expanding gas 
drive a turbine. Low-temperature fractionation of 
petroleum hydrocarbons and blast furnace gases in 
the Kapitza machine w.is rumored. 

Archeology. Documents charred, such as by in- 
cendiary bombings, can be deciphered, according 
to Taylor and Walls, by alternate treatment and 
drying with solutions of 25 per cent chloral hydrate 
in alcohol, and finally a similar solution containing, 
in addition, 10 per cent gl vet Tine A mass of chloral 
hydrate crystals appeals on the surface and may be 
photographed 

Astronomy Lyttleton and Hoyle postulated that 
the stars sweep up hydrogen and its compounds 
from interstellar space; this provides them with 
enormous stellar energy, resulting from the trans- 
mutation of hydrogen to helium ( 1939 YEAH BOOK, 
p. 122). 

An outstanding problem in astronomical spectros- 
copy may be solved Edlen has identified many of 
the forbidden lines in the sun's corona as due to 
highly ionized iron, calcium, and nickel, corre- 
sponding to meteontic materials. The theory asso- 
ciates the prominent green line with Fe +13 , and 
postulates lomzation potentials of 400 volts. Such 
large potentials could be achieved only if the corona 
were millions of degrees hot. Menzel assumes these 
high temperatures exist near the surface, in accord- 
ance with Edlen's theory; and he believes that the 
sudden expansion in gases emerging from the sun 
produces rapid cooling and a fall of temperature to 
the 10,000 usiially accepted for the sun's surface. 

Wildt, who previously showed that Jupiter and 
Saturn are surrounded by clouds of ammonia, with 
some methane, postulated clouds of solidified form- 
aldehyde, or polyoxymethylene, around Venus. It 
was apparently photosynthesized from carbon diox- 
ide and water vapor. 

King ^ is thought to have discovered thulium in 
the sun's atmosphere. 

Awards. The American Institute awarded its 
Medal to W. M. Stanley "for crystallizing the virus 
of tobacco mosaic." L. F. Fieser was the first Amer- 
ican to win the $1,000 Judd Cancer award. Two 
brothers will receive the 1942 Chandler Medal for 
work on vitamin B, (R. R. Williams) and on pan- 
thothenic acid and the vitamin B complex (R. J. 
Williams). The latter is also the 1941 recipient of 
the Mead Johnson and Company $1,000 vitamin B 
complex award. Chemical and Metallurgical En- 
gineering awarded its annual medal to the Dow 



Chemical Company for its plant to recover magne- 
sium from seawater. The Davy Medal was awarded 
to H. D. Dakin for biochemical and metabolism 
studies. The 1941 Eh Lilly Company Award in Bio- 
logical Chemistry went to D. Rittenberg for his 
study of isotopes as tracers. Fritz Hofman has re- 
ceived the Goethe Medal in recognition of his re- 
search on synthetic rubber. The Nichols Medalist 
for 1942 will be D. A. Maclnnes, in recognition of 
his work on electrolytes. Harlow Shapley received 
the Pius XI Medal in Astronomy, one of the most 
distinguished of scientific honors The Perkm medal 
was presented to Thomas Midgley, discoverer of 
tetra-ethyl lead anti-knock, and of Freon refriger- 
ant. The Rumford Medal went to V. K. Zworykin 
for his researches upon photocells, television, and 
the electron microscope. 

Cyclotron. Research at the University of California 
continued under Lawrence. There are now about 
forty cyclotrons in existence, twenty-four of them 
having been built by scientists trained in his labora- 
tory. He has attained 96 MEV carbon particles, and 
anticipates six-fold better results with the giant 
3,700-ton cyclotron now under construction 

Medical research with the cyclotrons at Califor- 
nia now include neutrons for cancer 61 out of 129 
patients saved from certain death; radio-phosphorus 
now being shipped to Peru for blood diseases; 
radio-iodine for tumors and enlarged thyroid glands, 
and radio-strontium, more accessible than radio- 
calcium, for bone-cancer. 

In plant studies radio-rubidium has proved more 
useful than radio-potassium since half-lives of 19 
days and 12 hours respectively make the former 
more generally useful Radio-carbon was produced 
in relatively large quantities early this year. Form- 
aldehyde is supposed to be the intermediate prod- 
uct in photosynthesis, but assimilation of radio- 
carbon in the plant produced "not formaldehyde but 
a yet unidentified compound as the true intermedi- 
ate. 

For other sub-atomic research, and a description 
of the Kerst betatron see PHYSICS. 

Electron Microscope (sec also PHYSICS). American 
Cyanamid showed that, contrary to belief, precipi- 
tated chalk and magnesium oxide, used as pigments 
in paper, are crystalline; and that these substances, 
and also zinc oxide and alumina smoke, were useful 
as particle size standards for micrograph studies. 

Extensive use of this instrument in many fields 
may be expected: in the investigation of dusts and 
smokes, of photographic grains for improving films, 
of synthetic and natural fibers, of evaporated metal 
films Zworykin reports a new technique for ob- 
taining micrographs of the surface of metals with- 
out preparing transparent specimens, and of sub- 
microscopic biological materials. Micrographs of the 
influenza germ were obtained. 

Unfortunately the specimens used in the electron 
microscope must be resistent to vacuum and to the 
heat generated by the electron beam. These criteria 
eliminate many organic crystals, and some biologi- 
cal materials. 

Houston and Bradner reported a two-stage mag- 
netic lens electron microscope with increased re- 
solving power. 

Isotopes. Improved methods for the thermal diffu- 
sion method (1938 YEAR BOOK, p. 135) for sepa- 
rating isotopes were reported. Watson applied it 
effectively for slightly increasing the heavy-carbon 
content of methane, for biological studies. Brewer 
patented a column provided with baffles properly 
spaced to induce advantageous convection currents. 

Monomoleculor Films. Langmuir has extended his 
film technique of detecting viruses. On the slide ( a ) 



CHEMOTHERAPY 



112 



CHILDREN'S BUREAU 



47 layers of barium stearate are built up, followed 
by (b) thorium nitrate (c) a specific reagent and 
(d) the toxin, virus, or poison to be detected. If 
the suspected substance is present, the layers will 
change the intensity of sodium light under which 
the mm is examined 

A number of anti-glare glasses have been patent- 
ed. In the General Electric Company glass is coat- 
ed, by evaporation in vacuo, with a %oo>ooo inch 
layer of magnesium fluoride. The RCA laboratories 
etch with 0.5 per cent HF solution, which produces 
a calcium fluoride layer, and increases the trans- 
missivity of the window glass to 99 per cent. The 
film withstands moderate heat and washing with 
water and alcohol Land has produced a new 
Polaroid, known as Type H, from polyvmyl alcohol 
The plastic is extended to align the fibers, and then 
exposed to an iodine solution The resultant sheet is 
three times more transparent than the earlier polar- 
izing sheets. 

Harkins reports the anomalous behavior of mono- 
molecular layers of three higher alcohols, which, 
while freezing from the liquid state, decreased in 
viscosity just before solidifying 

Substances. Mayer at Columbia demonstrated 
mathematically the probability of a second rare 
earth group of elements beyond Uranium. 

The Carnegie Institution Geophysical Laboratory 
has been simulating conditions within the earth by 
fusing silicates under steam in an electric furnace at 
several hundred atmospheres pressure. Deposition 
of minerals from the vapor state formed large crys- 
tals of sillimamte and of clear quartz. 

Hassis and McCready have accomplished the first 
synthesis of starch from glucose. Glucose was com- 
bined with phosphoric acid to form phosphorylated 
glucose; this was decomposed by the enzyme phos- 
phorylase into phosphoric acid and starch 

Research Institute. Researches for 1940-41 at the 
Mellon Institute and at the Armour Research Foun- 
dation are reported in The Journal of Industrial and 
Engineering Chemistry, News Edition, Volume 19, 
on pages 391 and 1,465 respectively 

The Armour Research Foundation, now in its 
fifth year, placed 16 new laboratories in service. 
Research was continued on industrial problems and 
on seven fundamental researches including diffrac- 
tion, high-pressure, and high-speed studies 

Research for Defense. The National Defense Re- 
search Council (NDRC) created by presidential 
order in June, 1940, spent $10,000,000 in 1941 on 
defense research, directed by James Conant About 
a hundred scientists in universities and seven hun- 
dred in industrial laboratories were placed on de- 
fense projects. One hundred and fifty physicists 
were transplanted to the MIT radiation laboratory 
for a highly confidential research project 

Government control of chemical industry was put 
under the direction of E. R. Weidlein of the Mellon 
Institute with three assistants for production, indus- 
trial relations, and priorities. Experts under him 
control ( 1 ) coal-tar, ( 2 ) cotton and oils, ( 3 ) sol- 
vents and plastics, (4) explosives and nitrogen, (5) 
inorganic chemicals, and (6) petroleum. 

See ASTRONOMY; PHYSICS. 

HUBERT N. ALYLA. 

CHEMOTHERAPY. See MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 

CHESS. With international chess pretty much on the 
sidelines, all activity in 1941 was concentrated in 
domestic circles, wherein Samuel Reshevsky of New 
York retained his title against a challenge by Israel 
Horowitz. Reshevsky later competed in the New 
York State championship at Colgate University, and 



there Reuben Fine took honors. The match between 
Fine and Reshevsky was drawn. Fine then success- 
fully defended his open championship of the United 
States Federation at St. Louis, where Herman 
Sterner of Los Angeles was runner-up. The lone 
failure chalked against Fine was a loss to Albert 
Pinkus, Manhattan Chess Club champion, m the 
deciding match of the Metropolitan Chess League, 
which was topped by the Marshall Chess Club. 

Except for the Soviet championship, regained by 
Mikhail Botwinnik of Moscow, there was not much 
play outside of the United States. Gideon Stahlberg 
of Sweden won the international competition in 
Argentina, with Moische Najdorf of Poland second. 
Dr. Alexander Alekhine, world's champion, is liv- 
ing in Lisbon. 

In college circles, Yale repeated in the II Y.P D. 
Chess League and Brooklyn College repeated in the 
Eastern League. Among the women, Miss N May 
Karff, of Boston, won the Hazel Allen Trophy and 
later defeated the national champion, Mrs. Donald 
Belcher, five to one, for the title 

CHETNIKS. Sec YUGOSLAVIA under History 
CHICAGO. See FASHION EVEN-IS, PLANNING, RAPID 
TRANSIT, SKWI-HAGE AND SEWAGI: TREATMENT, 
WATER WORKS AND WATER PURIFICATION For 
CHICAGO SUN, see NFWSPAPI-HS AND MAGAZINES 
CHILD-GUIDANCE CLINICS. See JUVFNILE DELIN- 
QUENCY 

CHILD LABOR. See CHILDREN'S BUREAU; L\BOR CON- 
DITIONS; LABOR LKJISLATION 
CHILD PSYCHOLOGY. See PSYCHOLOGY 

CHILDREN'S BUREAU The obiectives of the Children's 
Bureau of the U S Department of Labor, during 
the past year, as summarized bv the Chief of the 
Bureau in the annual report of the Secretary of 
Labor, have been threefold- To support, promote, 
and develop in every possible way the fullest meas- 
ure of protection for the health and well-being of 
children wherever they may live and however im- 
mediately or remotely they mav be at present af- 
fected by defense activities; to help to cushion the 
impact upon child life of dislocations and strains 
associated with defense effort, and to insure the 
protection of children in areas of potential danger 
from overt attack, through adequate advance plan- 
ning This program has been carried on in conjunc- 
tion with the regular functions of tlie Children's 
Bureau (see YKAR BOOK for 1940) 

In addition to studies carried over from the pre- 
vious year, research w;is conducted during 1941 on 
the following subjects- Maternal and child-health 
facilities in 654 cities, home-delivery services con- 
ducted by 15 medical schools in 11 States; the 
health, welfare, and employment status of the chil- 
dren of agricultural laborers in a Texas comniunitv, 
leading causes of death among children under 20 
years of age; employment conditions among chil- 
dren under 18 out of school in three cities; regula- 
tion of minors in public performances; child labor 
in Alaska; public services for children in St Louis, 
Mo ; community resources for mentally retarded 
children; administrative provisions of laws relating 
to State training schools; and children in defense 
communities. 

The Division of Health Services, the Child Wel- 
fare Division, and the Industrial Division are each 
charged with administration of a specific program. 
In the Division of Health Services are combined the 
former Maternal and Child Health Division and 
the former Crippled Children's Division. The Di- 
rector of the former Maternal and Child Health 
Division is Director of the new division, which also 



CHILDREN'S BUREAU 



113 



CHILDREN'S BUREAU 



has an Assistant Director for Maternal and Child 
Health and an Assistant Director for Crippled Chil- 
dren. 

Maternal and child-health services, services for 
crippled children, and child-welfare services were 
in operation in all the States, the District of Co- 
lumbia, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico through- 
out 1941. The full amounts authorized by Congress 
for grants to the States for these services under the 
Social Security Act as amended in 1939 were ap- 
propriated for the first time in 1941: For maternal 
and child-health services, $5,820,000; for services 
for crippled children, $3,870,000, for child-welfare 
services, $1,510,000. 

State maternal and child-health programs show 
extension in 1941 of established services such as 
prenatal and child-health conferences, postgraduate 
professional education for staff members and for 
practicing physicians and dentists, and nutrition 
service, together with the provision of a limited 
amount of medical and hospital care for mothers 
at delivery and for sick children and of clinical case 
consultation by obstetricians or pediatricians 

Health services given under the supervision of 
State health departments during the year ended 
June 30, 1941, included the following: For mothers 
464,989 medical visits and 768,082 nursing visits 
for antepartum care, 20,940 visits for delivery nurs- 
ing service, and 39,655 medical examinations and 
499,638 nursing visits for postpartum care; for in- 
fants 508,831 visits for medical service and 1,490,- 
861 visits for nursing service; for preschool children 
581,094 medical visits and 1,323,108 nursing 
visits; and for school children 1,713,398 medic-al 
examinations and 1,619,981 nursing visits Twcnt>- 
five States had programs for improx ing the care of 
premature infants. 

Infant and maternal mortality rates continued to 
fall in 1940. There were 47 deaths of infants under 
1 year of age per 1,000 live births in 1940 and 38 
maternal deaths per 10,000 live births. The cor- 
responding figures for 1939 were 48 and 40, and 
for 1935, the year in which the Social Security Act 
was enacted, they were 56 and 58, respectively 
The 1940 figures are the lowest ever recorded in 
the United States and indicate that work for im- 
provement in these fields is being successfully car- 
ried forward. 

Significant progress was made in extending and 
improving services for crippled children during 
1941. Diagnostic clinic services were further ex- 
tended, especially in rural areas, and admission re- 
quirements were simplified. Improved procedures 
were developed for meeting the needs of children 
with poliomyelitis during epidemics and the after- 
care period. Ten States encountered epidemics of 
poliomyelitis during 1941, and approximately $200,- 
000 from Federal funds was allotted to States on 
the basis of special need during poliomyelitis epi- 
demics. The Children's Bureau nursing consultants 
assisted the States involved in obtaining the serv- 
ices of qualified orthopedic nurses. Methods of lo- 
cating crippled children were improved with the 
result that the number listed on die registers rose 
from 266,460 in June, 1940, to 307,478 in June, 
1941. 

Child-welfare programs in all States have been 
substantially influenced by the expansion of serv- 
ices and the additional leadership made possible 
through Federal funds, and in many States im- 
proved legislative standards have been enacted. On 
May 31, 1941, nearly 49,000 children in 50 States 
and Territories were receiving case-work services 
from child-welfare workers paid in whole or in part 
from Federal funds. The corresponding figure in 



1940 was 41,000 for 45 States and Territories. Be- 
cause of serious problems developing in defense 
areas, provision was made in the 1942 plans of 35 
States for children's workers in 73 such areas whose 
salaries would be paid in whole or in part from 
Federal funds The Committee on Case Recording 
in Public Child Welfare Agencies in Rural Areas 
completed its work during trie year. 

The constitutionality of the Fair Labor Standards 
Act of 1938, of which the Children's Bureau ad- 
ministers the provisions relating to child labor, was 
upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court, Feb. 3, 1941 
(see LABOR LEGISLATION). In the fiscal year 1941 
cooperative arrangements were completed under 
which State employment and age certificates is- 
sued by Louisiana and Nevada are accepted as 
proof of age under the act. This brings to 47 the 
number of jurisdictions in the cooperating group. 
Plans for the issuance of age certificates in Alaska 
were pending at the end of the year In four States, 
Federal certificates are issued with the cooperation 
and assistance of State and local officials. 

The purpose of making age certificates available 
is to prevent violations by giving employers a means 
of being certain that they are not employing chil- 
dren under the legal age. In addition, inspections 
are made by Bureau representatives to enforce the 
provisions of the act, and legal proceedings are in- 
stituted against the establishments persisting in 
violation. The educational effect of this enforce- 
ment program carries far beyond the number of es- 
tablishments actually visited 

Investigations into the hazards for young work- 
ers in the logging and sawmilhng industries and 
occupations imolving operation of power-driven 
woodworking machines were made during the year, 
and hazardous-occupations orders No. 4 and No. 5 
were issued by the Chief of the Children's Bureau 
making the employment of minors in these occupa- 
tions subject to an 18-year minimum age, effective 
Aug 1, 1941. During the latter part of 1941 the 
hazards of the shipbuilding and ship-repairing in- 
dustry were being investigated 

Two States, New Jersey and Florida, established 
a 16-year age minimum for employment in factories 
at any time and in any occupation during school 
hours, and materially strengthened their child- 
labor laws in various other respects This brings the 
total number of States with a basic 16-year age 
minimum for employment to 14. 

Preliminary figures from the 1940 census made 
available during the year show that the number of 
working children 14 to 17 years of age, inclusive, 
and particularly those 14 and 15 years of age, de- 
creased considerably during the decade 1930-40, in 
spite of a slight increase in the total population of 
those ages. Nevertheless, there were 255,336 chil- 
dren 14 and 15 years of age and 1,047,316 minors 
16 and 17 years listed as in the labor force in April, 
1940. An upswing in the employment of minors be- 
gan to be evident in 1940 and was accelerated in 

1941 with the rapid increase in employment as- 
sociated with the vast defense program. According 
to reports from 21 States where employment certifi- 
cates are issued on request for 16- and 17-year-old 
minors the number of such certificates issued in 
1939 was 8,000, in 1940 it increased to 15,000; and 
in the first half of 1941, 20,000 certificates were 
issued, an increase of 282 per cent over the number 
for the first half of 1940. Even the 14- and 15-year- 
old children were leaving school for work in in- 
creasing numbers in 1941, in States where the law 
still allows them to do so. In 29 States and the 
District of Columbia, where the minimum age for 
employment during school hours remained un- 



CMftDftfN'S BUREAU 



114 



CHILE 



changed in both years, 2,355 first regular employ- 
ment certificates were issued for 14- and 15-year- 
old boys and girls in the first half of 1941 compared 
with 1,236 in the first half of 1940, an increase of 
nearly 100 per cent. 

The increase in employment of children under 
16, although not yet large in numbers, indicates a 
tendency toward a breakdown in child-labor and 
educational standards that may easily become seri- 
ous. Pressure toward the lowering of child-labor 
and school-attendance laws is already evident in 
bills introduced in a number of State legislatures. 
The Children's Bureau is increasingly concerning 
itself with measures that will prevent a widespread 
breakdown in standards and that will make the 
impact of defense employment as light as possible 
on young people whose growth and education are 
still incomplete. 

Aspects of the defense program in which the 
Children's Bureau has recognized its special re- 
sponsibility because of their bearing on maternal 
and child health and welfare include the nutrition 
program, protection of children and mothers in de- 
fense areas, the problem of providing day care for 
children of employed mothers, and the care and 
supervision of European children coming to the 
United States from war zones. 

The Chief of the Children's Bureau serves as 
child- welfare consultant to the Director of Defense 
Health and Welfare Services ( q.v. ) and the Bureau 
maintains liaison officers with the Division of Rec- 
reation in the Federal Security Agency ( q v. ) and 
the Office of Civilian Defense The Associate Chief 
of the Bureau visited England in February, as a 
member of a civil-defense mission under the aus- 
pices of the Department of War, to studv the pro- 
visions for the health and welfare of the civilian 
population with special reference to children. The 
report of this study is being printed under the title, 
"Civil Defense Measures for the Protection of Chil- 
dren." The Children's Bureau also took an active 
part in the planning and program of the National 
Nutrition Conference for Defense, held in Wash- 
ington, May 26-28. 

Day care for children whose mothers are being 
drawn into employment as a result of the defense 
program emerged as a pressing problem during the 
year. The Children's Bureau called a conference 
which met in Washington, July 31 and August 1, 
to consider all aspects of the question. The confer- 
ence adopted a statement of principles and recom- 
mended a plan for continuing committees. In Octo- 
ber consideration of the entire problem was placed 
on a more permanent basis through the appoint- 
ment of an advisory committee on day care of chil- 
dren to work with the Children's Bureau. In addi- 
tion, a Joint Planning Board on the Day Care of 
Children has been formed by the Children's Bu- 
reau, U.S. Department of Labor, the Office of Edu- 
cation, Federal Security Agency, and the Work 
Projects Administration, Federal Works Agency. 

In defense areas where the normal population 
has been doubled or redoubled acute problems of 
child health and welfare are created by the lack of 
suitable housing for families with children, the in- 
adequacy of hospital and school facilities, and the 
shortage of physicians, public-health nurses, and 
social workers trained in child welfare. In accord- 
ance with a plan worked out in cooperation with 
the Office of Civilian Defense ( q.v. ) opportunities 
for volunteer workers to participate in child health 
and welfare work under the direction of profession- 
al workers are to be provided on a large scale. A 
manual for volunteers on child care contains sug- 
gestions for a basic course and shorter specialized 



courses for volunteers, and lists many kinds of work 
that can be undertaken by volunteers. 

In connection with the care of European children 
seeking refuge in the United States, the Children's 
Bureau designated 184 child-caring agencies in 40 
States to cooperate with the UnitedStates Commit- 
tee for the Care of European Children for service 
in placement and supervision of the children. The 
names of 7,034 chilolren were on the central regis- 
ter of European children maintained by the Chil- 
dren's Bureau, as of Nov. 30, 1941; of these, 1,068 
children were the responsibility of the United States 
Committee for the Care of European Children. 

Cooperation with other American Republics in- 
creased in importance during the year, with the 
decision to hold the Eighth Pan American Child 
Congress in Washington, D.C., May 2-9, 1942, and 
the appointment of the Chief of the Children's Bu- 
reau as chairman of the organizing committee. The 
Children's Bureau assigned a pediatrician and a 
social worker to assist the National Children's Bu- 
reau of Brazil, a social worker to the American 
International Institute for the Protection of Child- 
hood ( with headquarters in Uruguay ) , and a tech- 
nical consultant on children's services to the Minis- 
try of Health of Paraguay. The program for 1942 
also provided for a number of specialists from the 
other American Republics to visit the United States 
for a period of in-service observation and field study 
under the auspices of the Children's Bureau. 

A list of publications in these and other fields re- 
lating to children may be obtained from the Bu- 
reau. See JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

KATHARINE F. LENHOOT. 

CHILD WELFARE. See AMEIUCAN LKGION, CHILDREN'S 
BUREAU; JUVENILE DELINQUENCY, PHILANTHROPY, 
SOCIAL SECURITY BOARD. 

CHILE. A South American republic. Capital, San- 
tiago 

Area and Population. Area, 286,396 square miles, 
population, 5,000,782 at 1940 census (4,287,445 
in 1930). Of 105,463 aliens residing m Chile in 
1930, 23,439 were Spaniards, 11,070 Italians, and 
10,861 Germans. United States citizens numbered 
1,281 on Jan. 1, 1941 Chileans are predominantly 
of European (chiefly Spanish) origin but there is 
a considerable Indian strain in the lower classes. 
Estimated populations of the chief cities in 1939 
were: Santiago, 829,830; Valparaiso, 263,228, Con- 
cepci6n, 77,589; Antofagasta, 53,591, Vina del 
Mar, 49,488; Iquique, 46,458, Talca, 45,020, Chil- 
ian, 39,511. 

Defense. Under the compulsory military service 
system, all youths of 20 are called to the colors, 
mostly for nine months, and then serve in the re- 
serve until 45 As of Jan. 1, 1941, the active army 
numbered 40,915 (including some 20,000 regulars) 
and trained reserves 212,000, active air force, 
1,912 men, with over 100 airplanes. The navy com- 
prises 1 battleship, 3 cruisers, 8 large destroyers, 9 
submarines, and various auxiliary vessels, manned 
by about 8,000 men in all. A United States military 
aviation mission was engaged in 1940. Defense ap- 
propriations increased from 448,916,000 pesos in 
1939 to 621,898,000 (estimate) in the 1941 budget, 
exclusive of the special appropriation of 4,000,- 
000,000 pesos authorized in 1941 (see History). 

Education and Religion. Elementary education is 
compulsory, but about 25 per cent of all adults re- 
main illiterate. In 1940 there were estimated to be 
900,000 children of school age, of whom 583,664 
were enrolled in public schools and 90,595 in 834 
private schools. Of the private schools, 657 received 



CHILE 



115 



CHILE 



state aid. The five universities had 6,448 students 
in 1939. Roman Catholicism is professed by the 
great majority of Chileans, but the Church was dis- 
established in 1925. 

Production. At the 1930 census, 37.8 per cent of 
the working population was engaged in agriculture 
and 22.1 per cent in industry and mining. Yields of 
the chief crops in 1939-40 were (in metric tons): 
Wheat, 870,613; barley, 76,364; oats, 84,382, rye, 
8,000; corn, 63,446 (in 1938-39). Exports of other 
leading farm and ranch products in 1940 were ( in 
metric tons): Beans, 34,623; lentils, 14,145; dried 
peas, 11,754; wool, 10,995, fresh and frozen meals, 
17,359; hides, 3,213, hemp fiber, 4,108. Lumber 
production in 1939-40 was 23,800,000 board inches 
(30,400,000 in 1939). 

The 1940 mineral output (in metric tons) was: 
Copper, 352,010, nitrate, 1,428,379, iron, 1,748,- 
418; coal, 1,937,438, iodine, 1,294. Gold produc- 
tion was about 10,663 kilograms, silver, 47,139 
kilograms. Average number of workers in the min- 
ing industry in 1940, 63,181, in lumbering, 14,611 
in 1939-40. The index of industrial production 
(1927-29 100) increased from 1405 in 1936 to 
167.2 in 1940. In the latter year the output of 
cement was 9,061,000 bags (of 935 Ib ); coke, 
96,500 metric tons, knitting wool, 411 metric tons; 
cloth, 3,957,000 meters, refined sugar, 123,958 met- 
ric tons; beer, 78,028,000 liters; gas, 93,699,000 
cu meters; electric powers, 569,806,000 kilowatt- 
hours. Wages paid to workmen in 1940 totaled 
2,455,500,000 pesos (2,018,900,000 in 1939) 

Foreign Trade. Merchandise imports in 1940 were 
505,900,000 pesos of sixpence gold (equivalent to 
$0.2061) against 410,400,000 in 1939, exports, 679,- 
500,000 gold pesos in 1940 against 660,500,000 in 
1939. Imports of gold and specie were 1,205,300 
gold pesos m 1940 (307,100 in 1939), exports, 17,- 
246,200 in 1940 (10,909,000 in 1939). Minerals 
accounted for 83 per cent of the 1940 exports. 
Chief export items were (in 1,000 gold pesos): 
Copper bars, 380,838; nitrate, 128,161; gold and 
silver ores and concentiates, 30,651; wool, 23,362; 
gold in bars, 17,172; iron ores, 14,698, iodine, 12,- 
843, beans, 12,156 Leading imports (in 1,000 gold 
pesos): Textiles, 81,798, chemicals, 70,258, metals 
and pioducts, 61,185, industrial machinery, 56,615; 
transportation equipment, 52,986; coal and fuels, 
45,252. The United States in 1940 supplied 47.9 
per cent of all Chilean imports by value (31 1 in 
1939), United Kingdom, 10.4 (8.3); Germany, 3.5 
(22.7). Of the 1940 exports, the United States 
took 58.3 per cent (30.5 in 1939); United King- 
dom, 5.8 (123), Germany, 0.0 (8.4). 

Finance. Actual ordinary revenues for 1940 were 
2,051,560,000 pesos (1,792,524,000 in 1939); ex- 
penditures, 2,201,821,000 (1,777,383,000 in 1939). 
The deficit of 150,261,000 pesos in 1940 was re- 
duced to 120,180,000 pesos by subtracting the ac- 
cumulated surplus of 30,081,000 pesos carried over 
from preceding budgets. The internal debt of the 
national government was 2,554,296,000 paper pesos 
on Dec. 31, 1940 (2,274,225,000 on Dec. 31, 1939) 
and the external debt was equivalent to $345,489,- 
146 ($353,941,973 on Dec. 31, 1939), of whicn 
$196,027,430 was held in the United States. In- 
terest payments on the external debt averaged 
2.0925 per cent in 1939, 1,525 per cent in 1940, 
and 1.539 per cent in 1941. The peso of sixpence 
gold ( $0.2061 ) is used only in foreign trade trans- 
actions. Exchange values of the paper peso in 1940 
were (1939 rates in parentheses) : Official, $0.05163 
($0.05163); export draft, $0.04 ($0.04); curb, 
$0.03027 ($0.03080): free, $0.03221 ($0.03222). 

Transportation. At the beginning of 1941, Chile 



had about 5,450 miles of railway line in operation 
and 277 miles under construction. Construction of 
six additional lines was authorized Nov. 27, 1940. 
State railways in operation in 1940 extended 2,933 
miles; operating income for the year was 520,000,- 
000 pesos. Passengers on all lines in 1940 numbered 
20,920,800; freight transported, 1,894,771,900 ton- 
kilometers. For highways, see ROADS AND STREETS. 
Chilean national airlines in 1940 carried 2,574 
passengers and 15,614 kilos of freight. In April, 
1941, Pan American-Grace Airways inaugurated a 
three-day service between the United States and 
Santiago. The Chilean merchant marine on June 
30, 1939, comprised 106 ships of 176,289 tons. 

Government. The Constitution of Oct. 18, 1925, 
vested executive powers in a President, elected by 
popular vote for six years and ineligible to succeed 
himself, and legislative powers in a popularly 
elected Congress consisting of a Senate of 45 mem- 
bers serving for eight years and a Chamber of 
Deputies of 146 members serving four years Pedro 
Aguirre Ccrda ( Radical ) was elected President by 
a Popular Front coalition on Oct 25, 1938, and 
assumed office Dec. 24, 1938. His cabinet repre- 
sented a coalition of the Radical, Socialist, arid 
Democratic parties. It had the support of the Com- 
munist party in Congress. 

HISTORY 

Political Trends. President Pedro Aguirre Cerda's 
Popular Front Government during the first half of 
1941 was handicapped by the continuance of strife 
between the Socialist and Communist parties and 
also within the Radical party (see YEAR BOOK for 
1940, p 129-130, for background) The Socialists 
and Communists were in growing competition for 
the control of Chile's labor unions, and clashed 
over the issue of Chile's foreign policy. Led by 
Minister of Development Oscar Schnake, the So- 
cialists supported the democratic cause in general 
and Washington's policies of inter-American col- 
laboration in particular. The Communists de- 
nounced "Yankee imperialism" more violently than 
Hitlensm, espoused Stalin's policy of pro-Axis 
neutrality, and charged Minister Schnake with 
"selling out" Chile in return for U.S. loans and 
trade concessions. The Socialists in turn attacked 
the Communists as "traitors" to Chile and betray- 
ers of the working classes 

The Popular Front was shattered temporarily 
when the Socialists refused to cooperate further 
with the Communists and withdrew (Jan. 7, 1941). 
While the Socialists sought to form a new Leftist 
Front without the Communists, the other Popular 
Front parties Radicals, Radical Socialists, and 
Democrats formed a bloc for mutual support in 
the March Congressional elections Meanwhile, 
with Socialist support, Congress on January 22 ap- 
proved an amended version of the bill outlawing 
the Communist party, introduced by the opposi- 
tion Conservative-Liberal bloc in December, 1940. 
However President Aguirre Cerda on February 21 
vetoed the measure as undemocratic. The three 
Socialist members of the Cabinet then offered their 
resignations on the eve of the elections, but the 
President refused to accept them. 

The Elections. The Congressional elections, held 
on March 2, resulted in die victory of the Leftist 
parties, who wrested control of both the Chamber 
of Deputies and Senate from the opposition. The 
conservative bloc retained 62 seats in the Chamber 
(Conservatives, 32; Liberals. 22; Agrarians, 3; 
Falangists, 3; Popular Socialist Vanguard, 2 as 
compared with the 85 seats won by the Leftists 
(Radicals, 44; Communists, 15; Socialists, 15; 



CHILE 



116 



CHILE 



Democrats, 9; Dissident Socialists and others, 2). 
In the Senate the Rightist parties held 21 seats 
to 24 for the Leftists; the party line-up was: 
Conservatives, 11; Liberals, 8; Agrarians, 1; Inde- 
pendent, 1; Radicals, 13, Socialists, 5; Communists, 
4; Democrats, 2. 

The Communists made the greatest gains, elect- 
ing 17 Deputies and 4 Senators as against 7 Depu- 
ties and 1 Senator in the previous Congress. They 
displaced the Socialists as the fourth largest politi- 
cal party, measured by representation in Congress. 
On the other hand, the pro-Fascist Popular Social- 
ist Vanguard, which joined the conservative coali- 
tion, retained only two seats in the Chamber. In 
the municipal elections of April 6 the conservative 
bloc did better, winning control of a slight ma- 
jority of the new councils. 

The electoral victory provoked further factional- 
ism within the Leftist bloc in Congress The So- 
cialists, holding the balance of power between Left 
and Right in both houses, used it to pi ess their 
fight with the Communists. Thev voted with the 
opposition on measures adversely affecting the 
Communists but supported the Go\ eminent on 
other issues. This caused friction between Radicals 
and Socialists. 

Radical Party Split. Beginning in April a serums 
split developed within the Radical party The 
Radical Minister of Interior, Arruro Olavarria, sus- 
pended the Communist organ El Siglo for attack- 
ing the governments of Spam and the United 
States. At the same tune he closed the ultra- 
conservative newspaper Impartial for violent criti- 
cism of the Chilean Government. He also ordered 
the deportation of three Spanish refugees con- 
nected with EJ Siglo. President Aguirre Cerda and 
the five other Radical Cabinet Ministers approved 
Minister Olavarria's action, but the party's execu- 
tive committee declared it a violation of paity 
principles arid demanded the resignation of all 
Radical Ministers. When President Aguirre Cerda 
refused to accept the resignations, the executive* 
committee on April 29 expelled all six Cabinet 
Ministers from the party. This schism was healed 
during the party convention of May 1622 Five 
of the Ministers agreed to adhere to party prin- 
ciples and were readmitted to membership, but 
Oiavarria held to his position 

His refusal to resign from the Cabinet led the 
Radical executive committee once more to demand 
the resignation of the five Radical Ministers Pres- 
ident Aguirre Cerda refused to give way under 
pressure. He accepted the resignations on June 10 
and the next day appointed five new Ministers of 
independent views. The Radical executive com- 
mittee, fearful of losing further influence, then 
agreed to accept the President's decisions regard- 
ing Cabinet membership. On June 24 the Radicals 
signed a working agreement with the Socialists 
from which the Communists were excluded The 
Socialist campaign for elimination of the Com- 
munists from the Popular Front appeared well on 
the road to success when the outbreak of the 
German-Russian war (June 22) and the subse- 
quent reversal of the Communist party line paved 
tine way for the reestablishment of cooperation 
among all of the Popular Front parties. 

Popular Front Reformed. With Socialist coopera- 
tion, the Government parties on Julv 24 and 30 re- 
jected opposition motions to expel the Communist 
Deputies and Senators elected March 2. However 
the Socialists announced that they would intro- 
duce a constitutional amendment barring repre- 
sentation in Congress to Chilean parties owing al- 
legiance to foreign entities such as the Third Inter- 



national and the German National Socialist partv. 
Meanwhile the Communists had ceased their at- 
tacks upon "Yankee imperialism" and espoused 
the Socialist policy of aid to the democracies and 
support of Washington's hemisphere defense pro- 
gram. This led the Socialists and Communists to 
compose their differences m a political accord 
reached early in September. 

A further obstacle to Popular Front unity was 
removed September 16 with the resignation of 
Minister of Interior Olavarria. His withdrawal 
made possible the return of the Radicals to the 
Cabinet in a reorganization effected October 6. 
As the new Minister of Interior, a post correspond- 
ing to that of Premier in other countries, the Presi- 
dent appointed Dr. Leonardo Guzman, a strongly 
anti-Nazi and pro-democratic former Minister of 
Education Three other Radicals were given posts 
in the new Cabinet 

The new unity of the Popular Front was re- 
flected in steps taken during October to coordinate 
the action of the Leftist parties behind the Presi- 
dent's program and against alleged Rightist con- 
spiracies to recapture power This was followed 
by the unexpected retirement of President Agniire 
Cerda on November 10 Stating that ill health 
made it impossible for him to carry on his duties, 
he turned over the Presidential powers to Geron- 
uno Mendez, leader of the Radical party, after first 
appointing Mendez Minister of Interior to give him 
Cabinet rank 

President's Death. The Rightist parties vigorously 
attacked the Acting President and the manner of 
his appointment. However Mendez was supported 
by the armed forees and by all four Leftist parties. 
The death of President Aguirre Ceida on Novem- 
ber 25 (sec NECKOLOT.Y) plunged Chile into a 
heated election campaign, as the selection of his 
successor was set for Feb 2, 1942 The Socialist 
party on December J5 nominated Minister of De- 
velopment Sehnake for President. The Radicals 
selected Juan Antonio Rios as their candidate. Ex- 
President Carlos Ibuiicz, who was expected to re- 
ceive strong Rightist support, announced his inde- 
pendent candidacy The complete line-up in the 
Presidential raee was still incomplete at the end of 
the year 

Vanguardist Plot. The reborn unity of the Popular 
Front was in part due to recurrent threats from 
anti-democratic groups. Members of the pro-Nazi 
Popular Socialist Vanguard attacked the Radical 
convention in Santiago on May 16, killing one 
delegate and wounding four others The police 
later arrested 32 Vanguardists on charges of plot- 
ting a second coup against the Government (see 
YEAR BOOK for 1938 for previous attempt). Since 
the Vanguardist leader, Jorge Gonzalez von 
Marecs, was a Deputy and immune to arrest, thr 
Minister of Interior on May 24 placed him in an 
insane asylum for observation, but he was released 
on order of the Court of Appeals 

At this time a new threat to the Government ap- 
peared in the return to Chile of former President 
Carlos Ibanez, who headed tbe virtual dictatorship 
of 1927-31 and fled the country in 1939 following 
an abortive revolt against the Aguirre Cerda Gov- 
ernment. 

German Nazi Activities. Suspicion of Nazi activities 
among the Germans of southern Chile (see preced- 
ing YEAR BOOK) was increased by developments 
ui Argentina and Bolivia (qq.v. ) and by a confei- 
ence of the German Ambassadors to Argentina, 
Bolivia, Chile and Peru held in Santiago in March. 
The Bolivian Government's action to prevent a 
pro-Nazi coup in July led Chilean authorities to 



CHILE 



117 



CHINA 



take precautionary measures and to investigate 
German Nazi activities more closely. Early in 
August a number of arms caches were seized in 
the vicinity of Puerto Montt and five leaders of the 
Landesgruppe, a so-called German sports organiza- 
tion, were arrested for their connection with a 
"militarized organization." During the first half of 
September the investigation unearthed evidence 
of additional Nazi organizations among German 
citizens in Chile that seemed designed for sub- 
\ ersive action. Arrests of more than a score of ad- 
ditional Germans as leaders of these units followed 
However the investigation was interrupted at the 
end of September when the Chilean Supreme 
Court ordered the unconditional release of 13 Ger- 
mans arrested in Santiago and taken to Valdivia to 
face charges of sub\ersi\e activities 

Meanwhile the Government on September 5 
introduced a bill in Congress outlawing associ- 
ations "inspired by foreign goxernments or politi- 
cal parties or in any way contrary to the established 
democratic regime, even if the associations are 
composed to a certain extent of Chileans " 

Other Internal Affair*. Internal and external dan- 
gers led Congress late in the year to appro\e a 
Go\ eminent bill for the expenditure of 4,000,000,- 
000 pesos for national defense 

The world crisis continued to affect the Chilean 
economy adversely through lack of shipping and 
of export markets for non -defense materials, and 
thiough inability to obtain manuiactured articles 
in the customary quantities abroad. In July Con- 
gress empowered the President to prohibit the ex- 
port of all merchandise oi Chilean or foreign manu- 
facture. The* rise in the cost of living led the Gov- 
ernment to increase salaries of municipal em- 
ployees by from 14 to 71 per cent on June 25. In 
May there was a serious strike of street railway 
workers which threatened to tic up all public 
utility services The shipping shortage, reflected 
in a growing scarcity of foodstuffs in nonagncul- 
tural northern Chile 1 , led the Government on 
I une 26 to commandeer cargo space on ships en- 
gaged in coastal trade In September the Go\ em- 
inent expropriated 350 miles of British-owned rail- 
way lines in the province of Tarapaca 

The Reconstruction Corporation and Develop- 
ment Corporation established in 1939 for earth- 
quake rehabilitation and economic development 
purposes (see YEAR BOOKS for 1939 and 1940) 
continued their operations in 1941 The President's 
message to Congress of May 21, 1941, surveyed 
their accomplishments up to that time ( see Bulletin 
of Pan American Union, October, 1941, p. 602, for 
abstract of his remarks) Early in 1941 funds al- 
lotted for the redemption or amorti/ation of the 
foreign debt by the decree of Jan. 31, 1935, were 
temporarily diverted and placed at the disposal of 
the Development and Reconstruction Corporations 
The Development Corporation on Aug. 1, 1941, 
obtained authorization from the Export-Import 
Bank of Washington for an additional credit of 
$5,000,000 to be used for the purchase of II S. 
agricultural and industrial products. Up to Aug 15, 
1941, the Corporation had utilized only $3,485,335 
of the $17,000,000 credit previously advanced by 
the Export-Import Bank. 

Foreign Relations. Although President Aguirre 
Cerda repeatedly emphasized that Chile's policy 
of strict neutrality remained unchanged, there was 
a noticeable trend toward closer collaboration with 
the United States during the last half of 1941. 
This was due to rapidly growing economic and 
financial relations with the United States, the reve- 
lations concerning Nazi activities in Chile and 



neighboring republics, the shift in the Communist 
party line, and mounting evidence that the United 
States would enter the war against the Axis. In 
connection with Chilean negotiations for a United 
States "lease lend" armament loan, pro-Nazi Depu- 
ties in October charged in Congress that Wash- 
ington was attempting to obtain air and naval 
bases in Chile in return for the loan. This was 
denied by Foreign Minister Juan B. Rossetti. 

Immediately after Japan attacked the United 
States the Chilean Cabinet unanimously decided 
to issue a decree declaring non-belligerent the 
United States and other American nations which 
had entered the conflict. The decree declared 
Chile's support of the United States and stated 
that Chile would fulfill all obligations relating to 
continental defense. The navy began a patrol of 
the entire coast of Chile, convoying both domestic 
and foreign merchant ships On December 10 
Foreign Minister Rossetti announced an agreement 
with Argentina to fortify the Strait of Magellan 
The German-controlled Condor air line was forced 
to suspend its service into Chile December 15 
through inability to get gasoline and other supplies. 
The Government asked Congress for special powers 
to control oil, metals, imported fuels, and other- 
wise to adjust Chile's economy to war conditions 

Chile took the initiative among the American 
republics by sei/ing on February 15, three Danish 
ships tied up at Talcahuano since the German oc- 
cupation of Denmark Two other Danish ships 
were later requisitioned and in July they were 
placed in service between Chile, the United States 
and intermediate points, under the management 
of a Chilean shipping company. The Government 
announced that ample compensation would be 
paid the owners and the ships returned at the end 
of the war However the Minister of National De- 
fense in July rejected a bill of $631,000 from the 
owners for occupation of the ships to June 30. 

Chile cooperated actively in the development of 
closer political and economic relations among the 
American republics Early in 1941 the Minister of 
Foreign Affairs visited La Paz and Lima and con- 
cluded a number of political, cultural and eco- 
nomic accords. (See BOLIVIA under Htetory for 
accords reached in La Pa7 January 16 ) Three 
Chilean-Peruvian accords were initialed in Lima 
February 7 Two of them coordinated defense 
policies and plans, provided for peaceful settle- 
ment of mutual disputes, and encouraged cultural 
exchange. The third established the bases for a 
new commercial trcatv A number of important 
agreements were concluded with Aigentina (see 
ARGENTINA under Histoiy). 

See BOLIVIA, CANADA, PERU, under History; 
CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL, COMMUNISM, CUSTOMS, 
BUREAU oi<, LABOR CONDITIONS, LEND-LEASE AD- 
MINISTRATION, SOCIALISM 

CHINA. A republic of eastern Asia. Provisional capi- 
tal, Chungking. Nanking, the former capital, was 
captured by the Japanese in December, 1937, and 
Hankow, to which most of the Chinese Ministries 
were then transferred, fell in October, 1938. 

Area and Population Including the nominal de- 
pendencies of Sinkiang (Chinese Turkestan), 
Outer Mongolia (see MONGOLIA), and Tibet 
(q.v.). over which the Central Government exer- 
cised little or no actual control, and the former 
Chinese Provinces incorporated in the Japanese 
protectorate of Manchoukuo (q.v. ), China nas an 
area estimated by the Ministry of the Interior in 
1937 at 4,516,934 square miles and a total popula- 
tion of 466,785,856. Official 1937 estimates of the 



CHINA 



118 



CHINA 



Sq miles 
51,902 

107,705 
39,791 
61,275 

173,600 
66,693 
59,377 
91,595 
80,190 
74,297 

145,968 
77,301 
41,830 

109,413 
84,007 

83,940 
69,297 

124.256 

1 Oh, 143 

625,946 

58,662 

69.216 

72,353 

143,475 

705,053 

125,220 

166,529 

469,416 

269,187 

123,572 



Population 
23,265,368 

2,035,957 
21,230,749 
11,755,625 

3,822,344 
34,289,848 
28,644,737 
28,293,735 
25,541,635 

3,054,306 

6,705,445 
15,820,406 
36,469,328 

7,666,641 
13,385,218 

32,385,215 
9,043,207 

16,465,303 
1,023,143 
2,077,669 

11,601,026 

38,029,294 

7,717,881 

968,187 

4,360,020 

2,083,693 

52,963.269 
3,722,011 
1,196,054 

11,994,549 



area and population by Provinces are shown in the 
accompanying table. 

AREA AND POPULATION OF CHINA 

Province (Capital ) 
Anhwei (Anking) . . 

Chahar 6 (Wanchuan, Knlpjan, Chang- 

chiskow) 

Chekiang (Hanghsien, Hangchow) . . 
Fukien (Minhou, Foochow) 
Heilungkiang c (Lungkiang, Tsiteihar) 
Homan (Kaifeng) . . . 

Hopei (Panting since June 1, 1935) . 

Hunan (Changsha) 

Hupeh (Wuchang) 

Jehol (Chengteh) .... 

Kansu (Kaolan, Lanchow) . . 
Kiangsi (Nanchang) .... 
Kiangsu (Chinkiang) 
Kirm (Tungki, Kinn) . . 
Kwangei (Yungning, Nanmng) 
Kwangtung (Fanyu, Canton, Kwang- 

chow) 

Kwoichow (Kweiyang) 
Liaonmg (Schenyang, Mukden, Feng- 

tien) 

Ningsia 6 (Ningsia) 
Outer Mongolia 4 * (Kulun, Urga ) 
Shansi (Taivllan) 
Shantung (Tainan) 
Shensi (Changan, Sian) 
Sikang (Kangtmg) . 
Sinkiang* (Tihwa, Ummtchi) 
Suiyan* (Kwaisui, Kweihua) 
Srechwan (Chengtu) . 
Tibet * (Lhasa) .. 
Tsmghai (Sinmg) . 
Yunnan (Kunming, Ytinnanfu) 

Where more than one name is given for the respective 
capitals in paientheses, they represent, the official name, postal 
map name, and popular or ancient name, in the order given 
6 Chahar, Ningsia, and Siuvuan Provinces, together with part of 
Jehol, form the geographical legion known as Inner Mongolia. 
The Provinces of Heilungkiaug, Kirm, and Liaonmg constitute 
the geographical region known as Manchuria, which on Feb 18, 
1932, was proclaimed the free State of Manrhoukuo Jehol 
Province was incorporated in Manchoukuo in 1933. * De- 
pendencies. The Mongol name for Urga has been changed to 
Ulan Bator Khoto 

As no census has been taken in modern times, 
the above figures are merely rough estimates. In- 
cluding the nominal dependencies, the area is 
roughly equal to that of the United States and 
Mexico combined, while the population is approxi- 
mately one-fourth of the world's total. In addition 
there were estimated to be 7,828,888 Chinese re- 
siding abroad in 1936. The Japanese civilian pop- 
ulation of China on Jan. 1, 1940, was 345,700, an 
increase of 300 per cent since July, 1937. The 
estimated population of Shanghai and its environs 
in 1936 was 3,489,998 including 1,450,685 persons 
in the Foreign Settlements, Peiping, capital of 
China until 1928, 1,556,364, Tientsin, 1,292,025; 
Nanking, 1,019,948, Tsmgtao, 514,709. Estimated 
populations of the other chief cities in 1931 were: 
Canton, 861,024; Hankow (including Wuchang 
and Hanyang), 777,993; Chungking, 635,000; 
Wenchow, 631,276, Changsha, 606,972; Hang- 
chow, 606,930; Weihaiwei, 390,337; Foochow, 
322,725; Soochow, 260,000; Amoy, 234,159, Nmg- 
po, 218,774; Wanhsien, 201,937; Chinkiang, 199,- 
776. 

Education and Religion. Between 25 and 50 per 
cent of the population were estimated to be literate 
in 1937, compared with an estimated 15 per cent 
in 1912. In 1935 there were 16,000,000 children 
in primary schools, of whom 12,383,479 were in 
259,095 regular schools and the rest in one-year 
primary schools. Enrollment in secondary schools 
was over 600,000 in 1941-42, in the 115 universi- 
ties, over 45,000. Between the outbreak of war in 
1937 and October, 1939, 17 universities and col- 
leges moved from Japanese-occupied areas to 
Yunnan, Kweichow, and Kwangsi provinces, 17 to 
Hunan and Szechwan, and 5 to Shensi and Kansu. 



Several new technical and normal colleges were 
founded during this period by the Chungking 
Government. 

With the exception of Christians and Moham- 
medans, most Chinese practise and profess all 
three indigenous or adopted religions Confucian- 
ism, Buddhism, and Taoism. The Mohammedans 
are estimated at about 20,000,000 In 1934 there 
were 2,623,560 native Roman Catholics and 123 
Catholic missions, with a staff of 16,241. The Prot- 
estant churches, with 1,130 mission stations and 
488,539 communicants in 1932, had 19 colleges, 
267 middle schools, and 37,714 students in 1934. 
The number of Christian missionaries in China 
declined from nearly 6,000 in 1937 to about 3,600 
on June 30, 1941. 

Production. Previous to the outbreak of Chino- 
Tapanese hostilities in 1937, China was the world's 
leading producer of rice, soybeans, tea, kaoliang, 
sweet potatoes, millet, and vegetable oils; it ranked 
second in the output of raw silk and wheat; third 
in cotton, and was an important producer of corn, 
tobacco, fruits and vegetables, and cane sugar, as 
well as the leading exporter of eggs and tung oil 
Estimated production oi rough rice in 194041 
was 2,440,000,000 bu , wheat in 1941, 19,440,000 
metric tons (pielimmary); cotton m 1940, 2,250,- 
000 bales of 500 Ib. ( compared with an average of 
3,000,000 bales previous to 1937), flue-cured to- 
bacco in 1940, 140,000,000 Ib.; rape-seed in 1940, 
3,014,460 metric tons, raw silk in 1940, 107,430 
picul bales (of 132M Ib.). Production of other 
crops, in metric tons, was: Bailey, 6,371,400 in 
1937; oats, 852,500 in 1937; corn, 6,130,100 in 
1936, sesamum, 865,000 in 1936, peanuts, 2,631,- 
100 in 1936; soybeans, 5,911,000 in 1936. Tea pro- 
duction is estimated at 300,000 to 500,000 metric 
tons annually. The wool and mohair clip for China 
and Manchoukuo was about 55,000 metric tons in 
1938. 

China is normally one of the world's principal 
producers of antimony, tin, tungsten, and man- 
ganese. The estimated mineral output of all China, 
excluding Manchoukuo, in 1940 was (in metric 
tons except as stated): Coal, 17,828,711, antimony, 
7,418, tin ingots and slabs, 23,361; tungsten ore, 
11,580; white alum, 21,000, arsenic, 1,200, coke, 
50,430; copper ore, 1,100, gold, 377,000 fine oz.; 
gypsum, 75,000, iron ore, 551,000, pig iron, 107,- 
000, lead ore, 1,800, crude petroleum, 440,000 
U S. gal., potash, 3,317, quicksilver, 118, rock salt, 
926,716, refined salt, 18,837; soda, 1,927; sulphur, 
3,600. China's rapidly expanding manufacturing 
industries (see YfcAii BOOK, 1937, p. 152) were 
disrupted by the war, but during 1937-41 1,354 
factories (with a minimum of $10,000 capital and 
30 workers) were established in West China. 

Foreign Trade. Excluding bullion, net imports in 
1940 were 2,027,143,048 yuan (Chinese standard 
dollars); net exports, 1,970,120,647 yuan. Lead- 
ing 1940 exports, in millions of yuan, were: Tex- 
tile fibers, 341.8; animal products, 322.3; metals 
and minerals, 140.7; piece goods, 116.1, tea, 104.6; 
oils, tallow and wax, 100.9. The chief imports were 
raw cotton, yarn and thread, metals and ores, 
chemicals, machinery, cotton piece goods, coal and 
coke, dyes and paints. The chief sources of imports 
were ("in 1,000 yuan): Japan, 466,289; United 
States, 435,486, India 175,275; Hong Kong, 146,- 
972; Netherlands Indies, 107,504. The distribu- 
tion of exports was (in 1,000 yuan) : To the United 
States, 565,669; Hong Kong, 367,502; Great Brit- 
ain, 196,798; Japan, 126,408; India, 89,903; Singa- 
pore, 64,865. For trade with United States in 1941, 
see TRADE, FOREIGN. 



CHINA 



119 



CHINA 



Finance. The Nationalist Government at Chung- 
king estimated expenditures for 1939 at 2,850,000,- 
000 yuan, or three times the 1936 budget. Actual 
budgetary receipts were variously reported at from 
200,000,000 to 1,200,000,000 yuan. The 1940 ex- 
penditures were estimated at about 3,500,000,000 
yuan. Revenues of the Japanese-sponsored Nan- 
king regime were estimated at about 500,000,000 
yuan in 1940. 

The indebtedness of the Chungking Government 
on June 30, 1939, was stated to be 8,100,000,000 
yuan (domestic, 5,600,000,000; external, 2,500,- 
000,000). War loans floated by Chungking from 
July 1, 1937, to June 30, 1940, totaled 3,430,000,- 
000 yuan, 100,000 customs gold units, 100,000,000 
U.S. dollars, and 20,000,000 sterling. Extension 
of a 300,000,000-yen reconstruction loan to the 
Nanking Government was announced by the Jap- 
anese Government June 29, 1941. 

The circulation of Chinese (Chungking) legal- 
tender notes rose from 1,444,900,000 yuan in June, 

1937, to 3,962,000,000 yuan on June 30, 1940, 
according to the Central Bank of China Bulletin. 
As of Dec. 31, 1940, circulation of legal-tender 
notes was unofficially estimated at 4,000,000,000 
to 8,000,000,000 yuan, of provincial bank notes, 
500,000,000 yuan, notes of Chinese commercial 
banks, 200,000,000 vuan, notes of the "Communist 
Border Government" in northwest China, 50,000,- 
000 yuan. In addition, there was the "wei-wah" 
or "transfer money" used in Shanghai in connection 
with the "blocked" accounts of Chinese modem 
and native banks, the "customs gold unit" adopted 
in 1930 to protect Chinese customs impoit re\c- 
nues from currency depreciation, and Hong Kong 
currency which circulated extensively in South 
and Central China The average nominal exchange 
rate in U S currency of the Chungking Govern- 
ment's legal-tender yuan in Shanghai was $0.2136 
in 1938, $01188 in 1939, $00600 in 1940, and 
$0.0524 in July, 1941. 

The Japanese-sponsored note issues in "occupied 
China" increased from 52,900,000 yen in July, 

1938, to 1,450,800,000 yen (estimates) on Dec. 31, 
1940. On the latter date, these issues were dis- 
tributed approximately as follows (in millions of 
yen): Federal Kescivc Bank of China, 715.0, 
Meng Chiang Bank, Ltd , 94 4; Hua Hsmg Com- 
mercial Bank, 3 3, Central Reserve Bank of China, 
38.1; military scrip \en, 6000 

Transportation. As of Aug 1, 1939, 4,546 miles of 
China's railways were reported to be in Japanese- 
occupied territory and about 2,285 miles in 
Chinese-held territory. Operations of some of these 
lines were suspended or restricted to military 
traffic during 1939-41, but construction of new 
lines continued in both regions. The most impor- 
tant lines under construction in Chinese-held ter- 
ritory were the Yunnan-Burma and Yunnan- 
Szechwan railways. Sections of these lines in the 
vicinity of Kunming were completed during 
1940-41 with rails torn up from the severed 
Yunnan-French Indo-China Railway. The Kwangsi- 
Kweichow line was scheduled for completion in 
October, 1941. 

In the occupied regions of North China, Japa- 
nese military engineers completed the 150-kilo- 
nicter Luan-Tungkwanchen (Tailo) line and the 
200-kilometer Shihkiachwang-Tehchow line. On 
Mar. 20, 1941, the Japanese-controlled North 
China Transportation Co., holding a transportation 
monopoly in North China, was operating railway 
passenger cars over 5,900 kilometers of line (an 
increase of 430 kilometers over the preceding 
year). Its motor-bus lines extended 14,000 kilo- 



meters, an increase of 5,000 kilometers during the 
preceding year, and its inland navigation service 
about 3,750 kilometers. In all China there weie 
estimated to be over 61,430 miles of highways in 
1940. Road construction proceeded at a rapid rate 
in 1941. In North China about 2,000 kilometers of 
highway were built or repaired during 1941. 
Despite Japanese air attacks the Burma Road (see 
History) functioned continuously in 1941; during 
the six months ending in mid-April, 1941, 16,196 
trucks completed the trip from Lashio near the 
Burma frontier to Kunming. 

Japanese air-transport routes in China on Dec. 
31, 1940, extended 8,300 kilometers, the principal 
lines being Shanghai-Pciping, Shanghai-Tsingtao- 
Dairen, Shanghai-Canton, Tsmgtao-Kaifeng-Tai- 
yuan, Peipmg-Kalgan, Peiping- Japan, Shanghai- 
Japan, Canton-Japan, Canton-Bangkok. Under the 
Chungking Government's auspices, the China Na- 
tional Aviation Corp. ( Chmo- American ) operated 
routes between Hong Kong, Chungking, and Kun- 
ming. There was an airline from Chungking to 
Calcutta, India, via Lashio, Burma, and a Chung- 
king-Moscow line operated in collaboration with 
the Soviet Government. 

Shipping. At the end of 1940, ocean-going ship- 
ping entering Shanghai was about one-fourth of 
the 1937 level, coastal tonnage about one-third, 
and tonnage operating on inland water routes from 
Shanghai about one-fifth. Commercial traffic on the 
Yangtze remained a monopoly of Japanese inter- 
ests. During 1940 a total of 91,891 vessels aggre- 
gating 25,675,594 tons entered Chinese ports from 
and cleared for abroad; 10,671 vessels of 13,736,- 
469 tons were Japanese and 1,894 ships of 4,437,- 
605 tons British. 

Government. The Organic Law of Oct. 4, 1928, 
revised on Dec. 29, 1931, and Dec. 27, 1932, 
\ ested the supreme governing powers of the Chi- 
nese Nationalist Go\ eminent in the National 
Congress of the Kuoinintang (Nationalist party), 
acting through the Central Executive Committee, 
the Central Supervisory Committee, and the 
Central Political Council. Executive control, how- 
ever, centered mainly in the hands of Gen. Chiang 
Kai-shek, commander-in-chief of the Nationalist 
armies After the outbreak of hostilities with Japan 
in 1937, a Supreme National Defense Council, 
headed by Chiang Kai-shek, assumed direction of 
all political and military affairs. It included the 
heads of all party, political and military organs 
together with other members nominated by the 
chairman and approved by the Council. 

Establishment of a centralized, democratic, rep- 
resentative government, following a period of "po- 
litical tutelage" by the Kuommtang, is an official 
objective of the party. Five minority parties in ex- 
istence in 1941 were as a rule accorded consider- 
able freedom of speech and assembly Their leaders 
were members of the People's Political Council, 
an advisory governmental body serving as the fore- 
runner of the promised parliament In April, 1940, 
the People's Political Council approved a final re- 
vised draft of a new Constitution for submission 
to a National Assembly. Pending adoption of the 
new Constitution, governmental functions were 
carried on by appointive committees (see YEAH 
BOOK for 1932 for description of committee sys- 
tem). 

The chairman of the State Council and nominal 
head of the government in 1941 was Lin Sen. The 
chairmen of the five yuan (committees) of the 
government were: Executive, Gen. Chiang Kai- 
shek, assisted by Dr. H. H. Kung as vice-chairman; 
Legislative, Sun Fo; Judicial, Chu Cheng; Exam- 



CHINA 



120 



CHINA 



ination, Tai Chi-tao; Control, Yu Yu-jen. Under the 
chairman of the Executive Yuan were eight minis- 
tries, headed as follows: Interior, Chow Chung- 
yueh, Foreign Affairs, Dr Wang Chung-hui (re- 
placed by Quo Tai-chi Apr. 3, 1941); Military 
Affairs, Gen. Ho Ymg-chm; Finance, Dr. H. H. 
Kung; National Economy, Dr. Wang Wen-hao; 
Communications, Chang Chiangau; Education, 
Chen Li-fu, Agriculture and Forestry, Gen. Chen 
Chi-tang. Attached to the Executive Yuan are three 
subordinate Commissions, supervising Mongolian 
and Tibetan Affairs, Overseas Chinese Affairs, and 
Famine Relief. 

Leaders of the five minority parties in 1941 
were: Communists, Mao Tse-tung; National So- 
cialists, Carson Chang; Young China, Tseng Chi; 
Social Democrats, Yang Kan-tao; Third Party, 
Chang Pai-chuen. 

HISTORY 

Progress of War. Repeated Japanese offensives 
during 1941 failed to end the military stalemate 
that developed in the Chino- Japanese War toward 
the end of 1938. The battle lines existing Jan. 1, 
1941, remained relatively unchanged on Decem- 
ber 31. With surprising regularity the gains regis- 
tered by successive Japanese drives were wiped 
out by powerful Chinese counter-attacks. At the 
year's end the prospect of a decisive Japanese vic- 
tory on the Chinese military front seemed farther 
off than ever. 

The first Japanese offensive of 1941 got under 
way on January 23 against Chinese forces holding 
a 150-mile section of the Peipmg-Hankow railway. 
The Japanese at first reported sensational gains 
and the "annihilation" of 100,000 Chinese troops, 
but by the middle of February the invaders were 
driven back on their original bases with heavy 



South China Campaigns. Renewing their efforts to 
cut Chinese supply routes in South China, a Japa- 
nese force landed at Bias Bay near Hong Kong on 
February 4 and marched on Waichow, 65 miles 
northeast of Hong Kong. At Shayuchung and 
Tamshui they destroyed large stores of tungsten 
ore and tung oil destined for the United States and 
Russia as well as imported stocks of gasoline, tires, 
and tobacco. Failing in the effort to capture Wai- 
chow, the Japanese retained their hold on Tamshui 
and the Bias Bay base. Beginning March 3 they 
carried out a similar operation along the coast west 
of Canton, landing troops at six points including 
Pakhoi, a foreign treaty port. Large non-military 
supplies, consisting mostly of goods for export to 
the United States, were seized or destroyed Ef- 
forts by Japanese troops to drive inland from the 
captured ports met stubborn resistance and on 
March 9 the Japanese announced the evacuation of 
their forces. 

Toward the end of March the Japanese made 
new landings along the Kwangtung coast, occupy- 
ing Kongpeng, Swabue and other points in a new 
drive against Free China's foreign trade. In mid- 
April these points were evacuated to permit simi- 
lar operations along the coasts of Chekiang and 
Fukien provinces. Niiigpo, Wenchow, Taichow, 
and Foochow were occupied along with large 
areas in the interior. Chinese counter-offensives 
then drove the Japanese back to their bases on the 
coast. Wenchow was recaptured early in May and 
in September Foochow was evacuated Meanwhile 
the invaders made sporadic raids on other Chinese- 
held ports and bombed towns in the interior. The 
naval blockade of the coast also was tightened and 
the supplies entering China by the south coast 
materially reduced. 



Fighting in Interior. Fighting of more or less in- 
tensity continued on other sectors of the far-flung 
front. In March heavy but indecisive fighting was 
reported near Ichang in the Yangtze valley and 
in North Kiangsi Province, where a Japanese of- 
fensive from Nanchanc was halted. Early in May 
the Japanese launched an offensive against large 
Chinese forces in the Han river valley between 
Hankow and Ichang, but again failed to register 
important gains. At the same time the Nipponese 
began another attempt to drive the Chinese from 
southwestern Shansi. They achieved some costly 
successes against troops under Gen. Wei Li-huang 
in the Chungtiao Mountains and won control of 
important crossings of the Yellow River. However 
the drive was halted in June by guerrilla attacks 
upon the Japanese lines of communication and the 
invaders were unable to follow up their initial ad- 
vantage. 

Changsha Captured. With their offensives every- 
where bogged down, the Japanese in mid-summer 
again opened unofficial peace negotiations with 
the Chungking Government. Gen. Chiang Kai- 
shek, in line with his improved military position, 
rejected the Japanese terms and reportedly raised 
his own demands to include indemnities After a 
summer lull, marked by minor Japanese "mopping 
up" operations and Chinese guerrilla warfare, the 
invaders in September made another attempt to 
capture Changsha and open the Hankow-Canton 
railway by simultaneous drives along the railwav 
southward from Yochow on the Yangtze and north- 
ward from Canton. The offensive from Canton 
soon petered out, but the drive from Yochow 
resulted in the capture of Changsha on Septem- 
ber 28. The Japanese column was driven out al- 
most immediately by a Chinese counter-offensive 
On October 1 the Japanese announced that their 
forces at Changsha had been ordered to withdraw 
to the vicinity of Yochow. Both sides suffered 
heavy casualties in this campaign Missionaries re- 
ported that before evacuating Changsha the Japa- 
nese engaged in an orgy of looting, murder, and 
rape. 

To relieve pressure on Changsha, Gen Chiang 
Kai-shek on September 27 began a drive to recap- 
ture Ichang, the city at the mouth of the Yangt/e 
gorges captured by the Japanese in 1940. The 
Chinese fought their way into Ichang on October 7 
and held possession of most of it lor three days, 
but withdrew under severe poisonous gas and 
bombing attacks from Japanese planes which killed 
many civilians. While the fighting raged at Ichang, 
Japanese forces in Northern Honan crossed the 
Yellow River and on October 4 captured Cheng- 
chow, the important junction on the Pciping- 
llankow and Lung-Hai railways that the Chinese 
had saved by dynamiting the dikes of the Yellow 
River in 1938. Under pressure from surrounding 
Chinese forces, the Japanese withdrew from the 
Chengchow district at the end of October after 
destroying Chinese army bases there. Another 
powerful Japanese offensive toward Changsha got 
under way at the end of December. 

Air Raids Continued. Throughout most of the year 
the Japanese air force intensified its destructive 
bombing raids upon the cities of unoccupied 
China. The raids on Chungking were renewed be- 
ginning March 18 and the capital was raided 
heavily almost daily until the autumn mists ob- 
scured the target in October. A new tactic of send- 
ing bombers over in relays kept Chungking resi- 
dents in shelters for long hours at a time. Two 
cases of mass suffocation in air-raid shelters were 
reported, with more than 700 civilians dying in one 



CHINA 



121 



CHINA 



incident and 400 in another. The arrival in China 
during the year of numerous American air instruc- 
tors and an increasing inflow of American planes 
offered the Chinese hope of combating the Japa- 
nese air raids in 1942. 

Military Situation at Year's End. Chinese war cas- 
ualties up to the autumn of 1941 were estimated 
by neutral experts at some 2,100,000 dead and 
wounded as against Japanese estimates of 3,800,- 
000 dead. But despite these losses, War Minister 
Ho Ying-chm in November stated that China had 
6,000,000 soldiers plentifully supplied with small 
arms and ammunition, of whom 4,000,000 were at 
the front. An increasing flow of heavy arms and 
munitions was reaching the Chinese forces from 
the United States via the Burma Road. China's 
growing military strength was reflected in General 
Chiangs declaration on September 18, the tenth 
anniversary of the Japanese attack on Manchuria, 
that the recovery of Manchuria was one of his 
Government's war aims 

Other developments greatly strengthening Chi- 
ang's hand were the growing tension between Ja- 
pan and the anti-Axis powers, America's entrance 
into the war, and the increasing financial, eco- 
nomic, and military aid extended to Chungking by 
the United States and Great Britain. On the other 
hand, the Japanese advance into French Indo- 
China and Thailand (q.v. ) increased the danger 
that Japan would cut the Burma Road and thus 
isolate China from all outside sources of supply. 
Shipments of war material from the Soviet Union 
across Sinkiang diminished after the outbreak of 
the Russo-German conflict on June 22 and were 
stopped altogether in October Moreover the eco- 
nomic strain upon the Chinese deepened percep- 
tibly. Most serious of all was the breach between 
the Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist party, 
which repeatedly threatened to impair the united 
front against Japan. 

Kuomintang-Communiit Split Friction between Chi- 
ang Kai-shek's Government and the Communists 
was intensified when War Minister Ho Ying-chm 
in October, 1940, ordered the Communist Fourth 
Route Army to move north of the Yellow River 
from its guerrilla bases on both sides of the Yangtze. 
He accused the Fourth Army of not staying within 
its assigned area, expanding its forces without per- 
mission, disobeying orders of the Central Govern- 
ment, and attacking non-Communist Chungking 
troops. Beginning Jan 6, 1941, Chungking forces 
attacked and cut up a Fourth Route Army detach- 
ment of some 10,000 men near the town of Maolm 
south of the Yangtze. According to the Communists, 
the detachment was treacherously entrapped while 
marching to cross the Yangtze in obedience to the 
War Minister's order 

Gen. Ku Chu-tung, Chungking's district com- 
mander who ordered the attack, charged that the 
Fourth Army had "lengthily prepared for revolt." 
The National Military Council cited him for sup- 
pressing "rebels" and on January 17 ordered the 
dissolution of the Fourth Route Army, which still 
comprised some 90,000 troops north of the Yangtze. 
The Chinese Communist party defied this order. It 
reconstituted its Central Revolutionary Military 
Committee at Yen an in northern Shansi, disbanded 
in 1937 as part of the Kuomintang-Communist 
united front agreement against Japan. The new 
committee issued a manifesto setting forth 12 con- 
ditions as the price of its further cooperation with 
the Chungking Government. Among its demands 
were revocation of the order disbanding the Fourth 
Route Army, release of prisoners and arms cap- 
tured at Maolin, compensation for families of the 



Communist soldiers killed and wounded, punish- 
ment of those responsible for the attack, immediate 
release of political prisoners held by the Chungking 
Government, and abolition of the Kuomintang dic- 
tatorship. 

Ignoring these demands, the Chungking authori- 
ties ordered some 200,000 troops under Gen. Tang 
En-po to surround and capture the Fourth Army 
units north of the Yangtze The Communists sent 
reinforcements from their Eighth Route Army in 
Shantung to aid the Fourth Army. When a large- 
scale civil war seemed imminent, the Japanese on 
January 23 suddenly launched their offensive 
against General Tang's troops guarding the Peip- 
mg-Hankow railway in southern Honan. The attack 
was thrown back by the Chungking troops after 
severe fighting with the aid of the Fourth Army, 
which attacked the Japanese rear. This action re- 
laxed the Kuomintang-Cornmumst tension and led 
Chiang Kai-shek to open negotiations with the 
Yenan Committee. 

However, when the second People's Political 
Council met in Chungking, March 1-10, the seven 
Communist delegates boycotted the sessions. Ad- 
dressing the Council on March 6, Chiang Kai-shek 
rejected most of the demands made by the Yenan 
Committee. He said there could be only one 
"source of command" and that the Government 
would not recognize "anomalous political organiza- 
tions." However he said he intended to democratize 
the political system and had no intention of waging 
war on the Communists The Communists were 
given one representative on the standing committee 
established by the People's Political Council March 
10. The Communist-Kuommtang breach remained 
unhealed, however, and only the objections of some 
Chungking generals prevented War Minister Ho 
Ying-chm from launching a general offensive in 
April against the Eighth Route Army and the Com- 
munist-ruled Border Region in Kansu and Shensi 

The Japanese strove to widen the Kuomintang- 
Communist breach. Their offensive of May-June 
in Shansi was directed exclusively against troops 
of the Chungking Government. Despite their politi- 
cal differences, the Communist armies in Shansi, 
Hopei, and Suiyuan were reported to have lent in- 
valuable aid to the Chungking forces by attacking 
the Japanese lines of communication. In July, how- 
ever, the National Military Council at Chungking 
again charged the Communists with attacking its 
troops in Shansi and Shantung. In the same month 
Communist sources admitted that units of the 
Fourth Route Army were still operating and organ- 
izing in the region south of the Yangtze from which 
they were ordered to withdraw by the Central 
Government Nevertheless, friction between the 
Kuomintang-Communist factions appeared to de- 
crease during the remainder of the year, partly be- 
cause of the outbreak of the Russo-German war and 
the new line adopted by the Communist Interna- 
tional. See COMMUNISM. 

Chungking's Other Problems. The Communist- 
Kuomintang breach was accompanied during 1941 
by the extensive curtailment by Kuomintang offi- 
cials of the democratic rights that prevailed in Free 
China during the first years of the struggle with 
Japan. Other factors contributing to this illiberal 
trend were growing financial and economic hard- 
ships, the spread of inflation, food hoarding and 
profiteering, the activities of "a not altogether 
negligible fringe of 'Quislings' and traitors," to 
quote Madame Sun Yat-sen; and other strains 
arising from the war. The censorship was tightened. 
Hundreds of liberals and Communists were ar- 
rested and scores executed, often without trial. 



CHINA 



122 



CHINA 



In his speech opening the 10-day session of the 
Kuomintang Central Executive Committee on March 
25. Chiang Kai-shek declared "the economic diffi- 
culties are now 70 per cent and the military diffi- 
culties 30 per cent of the war problems now facing 
the nation." To deal with these problems the com- 
mittee approved the creation of the new Ministries 
of Food, Trade, and Social Welfare, and adopted a 
three-year program for wartime reconstruction. 
Government monopolies were established over salt, 
sugar, tobacco, and wine. The collection of land 
taxes, under provincial control since 1928, was re- 
turned to the Central Government. The budget for 
mass education was increased and autonomy in 
local matters extended to Mongols, Tibetans, and 
other border minority groups. At the same time 
Foreign Minister Wang Chung-hui was replaced by 
Dr. Quo Tai-chi, Chinese Ambassador to London. 
The new Minister of Social Welfare assumed 
supervision of the fast-growing industrial coopera- 
tive movement. It undertook to bring other popular 
organizations, including farm and labor groups, un- 
der its control. In June the National Financial Con- 
ference increased land taxes five to 15 fold and 
revived the ancient system of collecting land taxes 
in kind in order to feed the army and the State 
civilian employees. 

Foreign Relations. On January 23 President 
Roosevelt sent Lauchlm Currie, one of his admin- 
istrative assistants, to Chungking to study China's 
economic situation with a view to the employment 
of the $50,000,000 credit granted China by the U.S. 
Treasury Nov. 30, 1940. Following Currie's return 
to Washington, an agreement for monetary cooper- 
ation between the United States and China was 
signed in Washington April 25. It provided for 
establishment by China of a dollar-yuan stabiliza- 
tion fund consisting in part of dollars acquired from 
the United States and of $20,000,000 U.S. con- 
tributed by Chinese Government banks. At the 
same time it was announced that China had en- 
tered into a similar stabilization accord with the 
British Treasury, which contributed 5,000,000 
toward the pound-yuan stabilization fund in addi- 
tion to the 5,000,000 fund established in 1939. 
Both funds were to be managed by a five-man 
board of three Chinese, one American, and one 
Briton. 

On May 27 Chungking announced that the 
United States had agreed to supply lend-lease aid 
valued at nearly $100,000,000 in the form of air- 
planes, trucks, guns, shells, power plants, steel, and 
other equipment Secretary of State Hull followed 
this on May 31 with a note to the Chinese Foreign 
Minister stating that the U.S. Government "expects 
when conditions of peace again prevail to move 
rapidly, by process of orderly negotiations and 
agreement with the Chinese Government, toward 
rehnquishment of the last of certain rights of a 
special character which this country, together with 
other countries, has long possessed in China by 
virtue of agreements providing for extraterritorial 
jurisdiction and related practices." 

On recommendation of President Roosevelt, 
Chiang Kai-shek late in June appointed Owen 
Lattimore, American authority on the Far East, as 
special political adviser to the Chungking Gov- 
ernment. The $50,000,000 U.S. stabilization credit 
to China was extended for another year on July 2. 
In mid- July three American highway transportation 
experts arrived in Chungking via the Burma Road 
and submitted recommendations which proved ef- 
fective in expanding and speeding up the traffic in 
military supplies over that highway. On August 16, 
Washington announced that 16 American public 



health experts and sanitary engineers would be sent 
to China on lend-lease funds to fight disease among 
250,000 Chinese workmen constructing a railway 
paralleling the Burma Road. Ten days later Presi- 
dent Roosevelt announced the appointment of a 
military mission headed by Brig. Gen. John 
Magruder to arrange for increased lend-lease aid 
and to assist and advise the Chinese Army. 

By November important American lend-lease aid 
was reaching die Chungking Government. One 
hundred U.S. army pilots were instructing Chi- 
nese airmen in China and a number of Chinese air 
cadets were being trained in the United States. 

The aid received from America was duplicated, 
on a smaller scale, by the British measures in sup- 
port of China. On July 14, the British promised to 
negotiate for the abandonment of extraterritorial 
rights in China when peace was obtained. On 
July 28, London joined the United States in freez- 
ing all Chinese assets in British territories at the 
request of the Chungking Government, thus help- 
ing to stabilize the yuan. A British military mission 
was sent to Chungking. 

The Chungking regime opened diplomatic rela- 
tions with Canada and Australia through an ex- 
change of Ministers, and joined in the political and 
military conferences that led to the formation of a 
united front by the United States, Britain, China, 
the Netherlands Indies, Australia, New Zealand, 
and Canada against further Japanese aggression. 

War with the Axis. During the critical American- 
Japanese negotiations in Washington in November, 
Chiang Kai-shek was reported to have warned 
President Roosevelt that any cessation of American 
aid to China would promote a Chungking peace 
agreement with Tokyo. The American response 
was seen in the arrival in South China m Decem- 
ber of an all- American air unit, under the Chinese 
flag, for the defense of the Burma Road against 
Japanese bombing attacks. After Japan's surprise 
attacks upon the United States ana Britain, the 
Chungking Government on December 9 formally 
declared war on Germany, Italy, and Japan. Plans 
for joint military cooperation of the anti-Axis powers 
in the Far East were formulated at a conference 
between Chiang Kai-shek, Geri. Sir Archibald P. 
Wavell of Britain, and Major Gen. George H. Brett 
of the U.S. Army Air Corps, held in Chungking at 
the end of December. At the same time T. V. 
Soong, Chinese Ambassador to Washington was ap- 
pointed Foreign Minister to facilitate China's col- 
laboration with the Anglo-American front 

On July 1 Chungking was thrown more definitely 
into the anti-Axis camp when Japan announced 
that Germany, Italy, Slovakia, Rumania, and Croatia 
had recognized Wang Ching-wei's puppet govern- 
ment in Nanking. Spain and Bulgaria also were re- 
ported to have extended recognition. The Chung- 
king authorities immediately broke off diplomatic 
relations with the Axis powers and forced their 
news agencies to suspend activity in Free China. 

The Nanking Regim*. Despite recognition by the 
Axis countries, Wang Ching-wei made no important 
progress during 1941 in stabilizing his Japanese- 
controlled administration. In May he was reported 
to have threatened to resign unless the Japanese 
transferred their control of commerce and finance 
in the Yangtze valley to his government, provided 
his army of 140,000 with arms and munitions, and 
obtained Axis recognition. In the latter part of 
June Wang Ching-wei visited Japan as the guest 
of Emperor Hirohito. He pledged his collaboration 
with Japan and the European Axis powers in con- 
structing a "new world order," and agreed upon a 
specific program of cooperation with Japan. In re- 



CHIOJUNff 



123 



CHROMIUM 



turn, Japan agreed to extend his government a loan 
of 300,000,000 yen to equip and maintain the 
Nanking army. 

In November the Japanese turned over to Wang's 
government the properties and interests of third 
powers in and around Nanking which had been un- 
der Tokyo's control since 1937. Meanwhile foreign 
observers reported difficulties within the Nanking 
regime, which caused Wang to reshuffle his Cab- 
inet in August. Desertions of Wang's troops to 
Chungking were reported from time to time. 
Chungking claimed on September 15 that 30,000 
of Wang's soldiers had mutinied in Honan, killed 
their Japanese officers, and switched their alle- 
giance to Chiang Kai-shek. On the other hand, 
some Chungking officers and troops were reported 
to have gone over to Wang. 

Fate of Shanghai. The position of the International 
Settlement at Shanghai became increasingly diffi- 
cult. On February 1 the Chinese municipality and 
the Council of the International Settlement signed 
an agreement for policing the western border areas 
within and adjoining the Settlement. A meeting of 
Settlement's taxpayers on April 17 changed the 
membership of the Municipal Council to include 
three Americans, three Britons, three Japanese, four 
Chinese, one German, one Swiss, and one Nether- 
lander. 

Nevertheless hostility, marked by frequent ter- 
roristic outbreaks, continued to mark the relations 
between Chinese and Japanese, and between Jap- 
anese and foreigners (especially the British and 
Americans). Agents of the Chungking and Nanking 
regimes waged underground war upon each other. 
There were bombing outrages in Chungking- and 
Nanking-controlled banks in April. The soaring 
cost of living and an acute shortage of food and 
fuel caused repeated strikes and riots among native 
workers. Several thousand unemployed German 
Nazi lefugees flocked to Shanghai from all parts of 
the anti-Axis world, adding to racial tensions. Late 
in July the development of economic warfare be- 
tween Japan and the Anglo-American-Dutch terri- 
tories proved a further blow to Shanghai's dwin- 
dling foreign trade and spurred Japanese army offi- 
cers to demand the seizure of the entire Interna- 
tional Settlement. The withdrawal of the American 
marines from Shanghai late in November enabled 
Japanese troops to occupy the Settlement area 
without difficulty coincident with the attack upon 
Pearl Harbor. In doing so they sank a British gun- 
boat and captured the American gunboat Wake. 

See AUSTRALIA, GREAT BRITAIN, JAPAN, and 
MONGOLIA, under History; UNITED STATES under 
Foreign Affairs; CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL; COM- 
MUNISM; FAIRS, EXPOSITIONS, and CELEBRATIONS; 
FASCISM; FASHION EVENTS; LEND-LEASE ADMINIS- 
TRATION; REFUGEES; TUNGSTEN; WORLD WAR. 

CHLORINE. See CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL; PAPER AND 

PULP. 

CHOSEN. See KOREA. 

CHRISTIAN CHURCHES. See DISCIPLES OF CHRIST. 

CHRISTIAN REFORMED CHURCH. See REFORMED 

CHURCH, RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS. 

CHRISTIAN SCIENCE. A system of metaphysical or 
spiritual healing, discovered by Mrs. Mary Baker 
Eddy in 1866 and set forth in her textbook of the 
Movement, Science and Health with Key to the 
Scriptures, first published in 1875. The first church 
was established by Mrs. Eddy in Boston in 1879. 
In 1892 it was reorganized as a voluntary religious 
association, known as The First Church of Christ, 
Scientist, in Boston, but called more frequently by 



its adherents "The Mother Church." The total num- 
ber of recognized branches of The Mother Church 
in the United States reported for the fiscal year 
ending May 31, 1940, was 2,190, and 74 college 
and university organizations. Total branches for the 
world 2,863. 

The affairs of The Mother Church are adminis- 
tered by a board of directors which supervises the 
work of the board of education, board of lecture- 
ship, and committee on publication. The board of 
education instructs and authorizes students to teach 
Christian Science. The board of lectureship con- 
sists of 22 members who are engaged in delivering 
free lectures on Christian Science. 

The Christian Science Publishing Society, whose 
affairs are administered by a board of trustees ac- 
cording to the Manual of the church, issues the 
daily paper of the organization, Ttie Christian Sci- 
ence Monitor. Other periodicals include The Chris- 
tian Science Journal, Christian Science Sentinel, 
Christian Science Quarterly, and four editions of 
The Herald of Christian Science in the German, 
French, Dutch, and Scandinavian languages, each 
with the English translation opposite, and in Braille. 

John Randall Dunn is president of The Mother 
Church for the year 1941-42. Headquarters are at 
107 Falmouth Street, Boston, Mass. See GERMANY 
under History. 

CHROME, CHROMITE. See CHROMIUM. 

CHROMIUM. The second World War took the "stain- 
less" out of steel, as the demand for chromium con- 
tinued to increase in 1941. Rising steel production 
made devouring demands on this vital alloying met- 
al in 1940, and it was put under export-license con- 
trol by government order late in that year. Early in 
1941 it was known that other alloy steels would 
have to be substituted for stainless steels wherever 
possible, and "stainless" was removed from many 
specifications. 

Germany had access in 1941 to all the chrome 
ore produced in Yugoslavia and Greece, or about 
10 per cent of the world's supply. Turkey, which 
produces about J7 per cent of the world's total, 
continued to fend off with success Germany's bully- 
ing negotiations for her output, and continued to 
fulfill her export contracts to Great Britain and the 
United States. Russia, who produces 15 per cent of 
the world's chrome ore, exported none in 1940 or 
'41. 

The United States formerly depended almost en- 
tirely on the outside world for its chromium supply 
Africa, India, New Caledonia, the Philippines, and 
Cuba together produce about 55 per cent of all 
chrome ores in the world. United States domestic 
production has always been very small in compari- 
son. Only about 3,000 long tons per year (from 
California and Oregon ) were the measure of Unit- 
ed States output up to and including 1940. 

Chromium is used to toughen steel and there- 
fore is among the basic metals vital to war pro- 
duction. It goes into the linings of gun barrels and 
armor plate for tanks, airplanes, and ships. Huge 
amounts also are taken for die equipment used in 
industries essential to war, namely the chemical 
and petroleum industries. United States consump- 
tion of chromium, which was 800,000 tons in 1941, 
was estimated to become at least 900,000 tons in 
1942. 

None could possibly be available for nonessen- 
tial uses. In July, 1941, the OPM put chromium un- 
der full priority control to conserve all available 
stocks for use in the defense program. In Novem- 
ber, control over deliveries was intensified; the 



CHRONOLOGY 



124 



CHRONOLOGY 



manufacture and delivery of chrome steel was pro- 
hibited except under preference ratings of A- 10 or 
higher. Chrome plate was prohibited for use on 
automobiles after December 15. In December all 
manufacturers of ferrochromium agreed to return 
to the specifications of 20 years ago, which made 
possible the use of lower grade ores. Engineering 
steels having a maximum of 3 per cent chromium 
only were affected by the change. No chromium or 
stainless steel could go to civilian uses except for 
electrical conduction and refrigeration, and these 
were ordered cut 50 per cent beginning January, 
1942, and 75 per cent in February. A complete al- 
locations system for chromium was put into effect 
by the WPB in February, 1942, specifying that no 
chromium whatever could be melted without au- 
thorization by the Director of Industrial Operations. 

The difficulties and increasing hazards of ship- 
ping, the cessation of imports from certain sources, 
added to apprehension that all foreign supplies 
might become unavailable, plus the ever increasing 
demand, stimulated Unitea States production m 
1941 to an unprecedented 12,000 long tons (3,000 
in 1940). The Pilliken mine m California was the 
largest producer, but altogether 25 operations in 
California and Oregon were busy through the year. 
New deposits were discovered in Montana, Wash- 
ington, Alaska, and Wyoming, which were re- 
ported suitable for refractory and chemical uses. 

In spite of all obstacles, however, imports during 
the first nine months of 1941 amounted to 660,936 
long tons compared with 657,689 for all of 1940. 
The increase was due to purchases from Cuba, Af- 
rica, and the Philippine Islands, but some amounts 
also arrived from Turkey and New Caledonia As 
early as July, 1941, all ores from the Transvaal and 
India were sold out beyond the end of 1941. The 
Metals Reserve Company was the principal buyer. 
The nation's stockpile, December, 1941, was 400,- 
000 tons. And all imports of chromium were han- 
dled by the MRC after December 28 See GtoLoo- 
ICAL SURVEY; MINES, BUHEAU OF. 

CHRONOLOGY. The following chronology lists the 
more important happenings of the year 1941 ac- 
cording to the dates of occurrence. In most cases, 
these events are treated in detail under their re- 
spective headings. To such articles, particularly 
those on leading countries, such as UNITED STATES, 
GREAT BRITAIN, and the article WORLD WAR, the 
reader is referred for additional information. For a 
list of prominent persons who died during the past 
year, reference should be made to the article NE- 
CROLOGY. 

JANUARY 

1 R A F launched a series of bombing raids on Bre- 
men and other war production centers 

Neutral Eire was bombed, Tn*h Government protested 
to Germany, January .i 

ASCAP music went off the air, following failure to 
agree with National Association of Broadcasters 

2 New constitution of Panama wen1 into effect 

3 Shipbuilding program called for 200 U S merchant 
vessels 

4 Government of French Indo-China wns made au- 
tonomous 

5 British captured Bardia, Libya, and 25,000 Italians 
after a 20 -day siege 

Amy Johnson, serving as a pilot in the Air Transport 
Auxiliary, bailed out from an R A P. plane and was 
drowned 

6 President Roosevelt asked "all-out aid" for the de- 
mocracies in his message to the new 77th Congress 

7 Office of Production Management was established by 
executive order to supervise defense output, William 8. 
Knudsen, industnnlist, and Sidney Hillman, labor loader, 
were given equal powers 

8 The Greeks opened an offensive in Albania, captur- 
ing Klisura on January 10 

President's budget envisaged expenditures of $17,485,- 
528,049 in fiscal 1942, including $10,811,000.000 for de- 
fense. 



U.S Navy was reorganized into Pacific, Atlantic, and 
Asiatic fleets with Adm. Husband E. Kimmel us coni- 
mander-in-chief 

9 Harry L. Hopkins arrived in London as personal 
envoy of President Roosevelt. 

10 Renewed Soviet-Gorman trade treaty provided in- 
creased supplies of raw materials for Germany and estab- 
lished Polish Baltic frontier 

Axis bombers, launching Mediterranean attacks, dam- 
aged the British aircraft carrier Illuatrtoutt, a cruiser, and 
a destroyer 

The Lend-Lease bill was introduced in Congress, to pro- 
vide supplies to an> country whose defense is deemed 
necessary to tliut of the United States 

11 Germany decreed the death penalty for profiteering 
in wartime 

13 In Italian army shake up Gen TJgo Oavallero re- 
placed Gen TJbaldo Soddu as commander in Albania 

14 Two were killed in New York City in a dramatic 
Fifth Avenue hold-up and gumhase by the Esposito broth- 
ers (convicted May 1) 

15 Halle Selassie returned to Ethiopia to join British 
offensive against Italians 

Mayor Fiorello H. La Guard la held the first New York 
Citv Defense Council meeting 

18 Thai flag was raised o\cr Cambodia 

Joseph P. Kennedy, retiring ambassador to Britain, op 
posed surrender of Congressional authority in lend-lease 
bill, urged peace 

19 Axis made mass an attacks on Malta 

20 President Roosevelt was inaugurated for the fir't 
presidential third term in 17 S histoi\ 

Gorinany reported secret meeting between Hitler and 
Mussolini. 

British invaded Eritrea 

21 Assassination of German armv major in Buchan^i 
precipitated a conflict between pxtionnst faction of J?u- 
manian Iron Guard and Premier Ion Antonoscu; tbou 
sands killed in four-dav fighting 

Japan offered to mediate conflict between French Indo- 
China and Thailand , Vichy accepted the following Ai\\ 

22 British captured Tobruk , 14,000 Italians cap- 
tured 

A wave of big defense imlustr> strikes began in United 
States with stoppage in Alhs Chalmeis 

Supreme Court Justice James Clark McReynolds re- 
tired (effective February 1) 

23 Col Charles A Lindbergh, in <ommittee hearings 
on Lend-Lease Bill, advocated a negotiated peuce, said aid 
to Britain would oulj prolong \\ar 

24 Marshal Henri Petain designated a National Coun- 
cil of 188 members in France, named committee to unify 
political parties (Januar\ 29) 

New British Ambassador to Washington, Vuscount Hali- 
fax, arrived on the battleship Kuiff Geotge Y and was met 
in person by President Roosevelt. 

25 Premier Antonescu restored order in Rumania with 
aid of German troops, Vice Premier Horia Slma ariested 
as leader of outbreak, 7,000 subsequently ariested 

26 Wendell I*. Willkie armed in "London for an un 
official ten-day visit, on his leturn, he advocated more aid 
for Britain 

Gen Francisco Franco put Spanish railroads undei 
government control 

27 Italian Foreign Minister, Count Ciano, was sent 
to active duty on the front 

Hungarian Foreign Minister, Count Czaky, died 

28 Free French forces, advancing into Libya, defeated 
the Italians at Murzak and captured Gatrun (January 
30). 

Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau reported 
that British dollar resources in the United States were ex- 
hausted 

29 Greek dictator, Gen John Metaxas, died, succeeded 
by Alexander Korizis. 

50 Hitler on the 8th anniversarv of the founding of 
the Third Reich prophesied victory in 1941, warned th.it 
ships carrying aid to Britain would be sunk 

British captured Dcrna in Libyan campaign 

An armistice between French Indo-China and Thailand 
was signed at Saigon, peace conference opened in Tokyo 
February 7 

War Department rejected the lowest bid on a U S con- 
tract, submitted by Ford Motor Company, because it re 
fused to accept labor provisions. 

FEBRUARY 

1 British captured Agordat in Eritrea 

President Anastasla Somoza pledged Nicaragua to co- 
operation with the United States 

8 Cuban army and navy chiefs who rebelled against 
civil rule were ousted, President Fulgenclo Batista as- 
sumed (ommand 

British captured Cirene, Libya. 

U S Supreme Court upheld the Wage and Hour law 

Guy S. Swope was appointed Governor of Puerto Rico 

4 Italian Fascist party underwent a shake-up; 83 offi- 
cials affected 

5 Belgian Government attached funds of the Bank of 



CHRONOLOGY 



125 



CHRONOLOGY 



France in New York to make pood $260,000,000 of its 
gold delivered by France to the Germans 

British captured Bengasi, last important stronghold 
of Eastern Libya (abandoned it eight weeks later). 

8 U 8. House panned Lend-Lease Bill, 2GO-165. 

Malcolm MacDonald was appointed British High Com- 
missioner to Canada 

9 Adm. Jean Darlan became Vice Premier and Foreign 
Minister of France, Hucceedmg Pierre Flan din. 

British navy shelled Genoa 

10 British severed diplomatic relations with Rumania 

U 8 Senate confirmed nomination of John G. Winant 
as ambassador to Great Britain 

11 Italy notified foreign diplomats not to leave Rome 
without permission 

Dies Committee was extended for 15 months 

12 General Franco conferred with Mussolini and 
(February l.'J) with P6tain, agreement on food and sup 
plies for Spain reported 

Economic treaties affecting Argentina, Bolivia, and 
Paraguay implemented the agreements reached at the 
River Plate Conference. 

Gen Gregory K. Zhukov was appointed Chief of the 
General Staff of the Russian Army 

13 -Yugoslav Premier and Foreign Minister were sum 
moned to Berlin. 

14 Adm Klchlsaburo Nomura presented his creden 
tials as new Japanese Ambassador to the United States 

15 British dro\e the Italians from Kurmuk, lust 
stronghold in Anglo-Egyptian {Sudan. 

16 Hurricane in Portugal and northern Spain cost 
hundreds of lives 

17 Bulgaria and Turkey signed a non-aggression pact 

Earl Browder lost his appeal to the Supreme Court 
against his four-year sentence for passport fiaud (Robert 
Minor serves as urting head of U S Communist Party 
\\hile Browder IN in prison ) 

18 Japan offered to act as mediator to end war, Brit- 
ain declined, February 21 

19 Nomura stated that there would bo war between 
Japan and the United States only if the United Slutes he 
gaii it 

Bill was signed increasing United States national debt 
limit to $05,000,000,000 

ASCAP accepted a consent decree settling the U S. Gov- 
ernment's unti trust suits against it 

Costa Rica and Panama settle border dispute 

21 Maxim Lit vino v was expelled from the Central 
Committee of the Soviet Communist party 

22 Nazi stuff officers moved into Sofia, Bulgaria 

23 United Press reported that 1C current strikes were 
holding up $(>0,000,00() of U S defense orders 

No'.el Prize winner, Sir Frederick Banting, was lost 
in a military an plane crash in Newfoundland 

24 OPAi invoked the first mandatory industry-wide 
priorities, affecting aluminum and machine tools 

25 Brazil banned foreign-language newspapers und 
instituted export licenses 

26 Successful two month drive into Italian Somaliland 
culminated in British capture of the capital, Mogadiscio, 
all Italians driven out by March 7 

Ainsteulam was subjected to martial law by the Germans 
as a result of riots and disorders; 15,000, 000-guilder fine 
imposed March 2 

USSR and Rumania signed a trade agreement 

CIO went on strike at Bethlehem Steel, OPM peace 
formula, accepted after 39 hours, was acclaimed by C 1 () 
us its greatest victory in history 

27 Rep William D. Byron of Maryland and six others 
were killed in ciash of an Eastern Airliner near Atlanta, 
Ga 

28 Anglo-Turkish pact was reaffirmed after Ankara 
conference with British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden, 
Chief of Staff Sir John Dill, and Ambassador to Moscow 
Sir Stafford Cripps. 

The Churchill Government received a unanimous vote 
of confidence in the House of Commons 

Alfonso XIII, exiled ex-king of Spam, died in Rome 

MARCH 

1 Bulgaria became the seventh adherent to the Axis 
tripartite pact, Nazis occupied strategic Bulgarian bases 

U S Senate approved an investigation of defense con- 
tracts 

Gen. Shunroku Hata became Japanese commander-in- 
ch lef in China 

2 Turkey closed the Dardanelles except to ships hav- 
ing permits 

Leftist parties prevailed in Chilean Congressional elec- 
tions 

3 German troops occupying Bulgaria reached Greek 
frontier , U S S R condemned yielding to Axis ; United 
States froze Bulgarian credits 

4 German special mission arrived in Turkey 

5 Britain severed diplomatic relations with Bulgaria 
as the German war machine poured through. 

Greece rejected German demand that she make peace 
with Italy, Eden and Dill, in Athens, promised full aid 
from Britain 



6 Ex-King Carol escaped with Magda Lupescu from 
Spain to Portugal, obtained permission to reside in Chile, 
March 25. 

United States requested closing of Italian consulates in 
Newark and Detroit as counter to Italian closure of U S 
consulates 

7 Mexico pledged aid to any American nation defend- 
ing itself. 

Britain refused to let the Red Cross carry food through 
the blockade to unoccupied France. 

8 Senate passed the Lend Lease bill, 60-31 (signed 
March 11). Vichy Government drafted labor for agn 
culture 

10 Twelve firemen were killed, 20 hurt, in burning 
theater in Brockton, Mass 

11 French Indo-Chma ceded disputed areas (approx- 
imately 25,000 square miles) to Thailand under Japanese 
mediation, peace treaty signed at Tokyo, May 9, with 
Japanese guaranty of new borders 

12 USSR and Thailand established diplomatic re 
latioris Plebiscite in Rumania endorsed Antonescu'B re- 
gime 

16 Britain announced drafting of girls 20 and 21 
and men of 41 to 45 for wur industries, recaptured 
Berbera, British Somaliland 

Sabotaged rails caused a wreck on the Pennsylvania 
Railroad near Baden, Pa , killing four and injuring 50 

17 National Gallery of Art was dedicated in Washing 
ton, D C 

79 A National Defense Mediation Board was created 
to act in labor disputes m defense industries, Clarence 
A Dykstra, chairman 

United States and Canada signed an agreement for 
development of the St Lawrence Seaway und pover 
proiect 

Nationalist members of the Urugua\an Cabinet re- 
signed 

20 Belgrade rumored British landings in Greece 
(news censored by British until April 6) 

21 Three Yugoslav Cabinet members resigned in op 
position to proposed pact with AMS, anti-Nazi rallies 
followed 

Jarubtib, last Italian post in Cyienaica, was captured 

President Manuel Quezon appointed an Emergency 
Board as Philippine Commonwealth assumed full respon- 
sibility for defense 

22 Operation of Grand Coulee Dam began, two >ears 
uhead of schedule 

24 A Turkish-Soviet communique promised neutrality 
in case either country should be att acted 

Violence accompanied new CIO strike at Bethlehem 
Steel, strike ended March 28 

Japanese Foreign Minister Tosuke Mat su oka conferred 
with Stalin, went to Berlin, March 27, and Rome, April 1 

25 Yugoslav Government signed piotocol adhering to 
Axis, dissension spread, United States froze Yugoslav 
credits 

Germany extended war zone to within three miles of 
Greenland, including Iceland 

A score of A F L workers were iniuied in effort to break 
CIO strike at International Harvester Co. in Chicago, 
strike submitted to NDMB, March 30 

Marshal Bodolfo Oraziani retired from Italian com- 
mand in Lih\u 

26 Martial law was proclaimed in Syria, following 
Arab uprising 

Cheren, Kritroa, surrendered to British 

27 Anti Nazi coup under Gen Dusan Simovich over- 
threw Yugoslav regency and put young King Peter II 
on the throne. Premier Cvetkovich, Prince Paul, and tin- 
Foreign Minister arrested , new Government prepaicd foi 
war with Germany, Britain pledging aid 

$7,000,000,000 appropriation for lond-lease aid was 
signed 

28 In Battle of Cape Matapan, off Greece, Italy lost 
three cruisers and two destrojers, battleship also crippled 

30 United Stales seized Axis ship* in United Stales 
ports, alleging sabotage, 28 were Italian, 2 Gorman, and 
36 Danish 

31 C 1 O contract with soft-coal operators expired , 
400,000 stopped work, four killed in Harlan disorders 
(April 2). 

APRIL 

1 Asmara, Eritrea, cupitulated to the British 

United States Mexican agreement provided for recipro- 
cal use of air fields 

2 C I O called a strike in the River Rouge plant of 
the Ford Motor Co, affecting 85,000 workers, the com- 
pany closed the plant after noting in which 150 were 
injured, the strike ended (April 11) when the Ford com- 
pany entered its first agreement with a union 

Italian efforts to mediate German-Yugoslav dispute 
collapsed 

3 A pro-Nazi coup in Iraq established Bashid All Al- 
Gailani as Premier. 

Croat leader, Vladimir Matchek, joined Simovich Gov- 
ernment in Yugoslavia. 

Count Paul TelekL Hungarian Premier, committed sui- 
cide, succeeded by Ladislaus de Bardossy. 



CHRONOLOGY 



126 



CHRONOLOGY 



British evacuated Bengasi. 

United States requested recall of Italian naval attach^, 
Adm. Alberto Lais, connected with Axis ship sabotage in 
United Status ports 

5 Yugoslavia, and Russia signed a nonaggression 
pact 

Colombia and Venezuela defined frontier after 100- 
year dispute 

6 German Army crossed Greece's Bulgarian frontier 
at 5 15 am and launched a large-scale attack on Yugo- 
slavia and Greece, Germany and Italy declared war on 
Yugoslavia ; Rumania mobilized ; R A F. bombed German 
troops at Sofia and Hungarian points 

Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia, yielded to British 

NDMB ended 75-day Alhs-Chahners strike with agree- 
ment to negotiate wage increases. 

7 Yugoslav troops attacked and occupied Scutari, 
Albania 

Britain and Greece broke off diplomatic relations with 
Hungary 

British income tax was raised to 50 per cent. 

8 Germany occupied Thrace without resistance. 

Mexico expropriated 12 Axis ships. 

Axis recaptured Derna, Libya 

Britain, Netherlands, and the United States conferred 
in Manila on Pacific defense 

9 United States negotiated an agreement for the pro- 
tection of Greenland through the Danish Minister to 
Washington (repudiated by the German-controlled Danish 
Government, April 12) 

Salonika fell to the Germans, trapping the Greek East- 
ern Army 

British announced capture of tbe Red Sea port, Mas- 
saua. 

United States 35,000 ton battleship North Carolina was 
commissioned in the Brooklyn Navy Yard, first of its 
class completed in 18 years 

10 A presidential proclamation modified tbe Red Sea 
combat zone, opening urea to American shipping 

11 Office of Price Administration and Civilian Supply 
(OP ACS) was set up under Leon Henderson to recom- 
mend United States price control measures 

lit Axis recaptured Bardia 

Russia protested Hungarian troop movements into 
Yugoslavia. 

13 Japan and USSR signed a five-year neutrality 
pact, including a declaration regarding frontiers of Man- 
choukuo. 

Germans claimed Belgrade; laid siege to Tobruk 

14 United States steel industry granted wage increases 
of ten cents an hour to avert strikes. 

Attempted Sing Sing prison break caused 3 deaths 

15 Bulgaria severed diplomatic relations with Yugo- 
slavia 

Germany and Italy recognized the puppet state of 
Croatia 

16 London underwent the worst air raid of the war 
(followed bv similar attack on April 19) 

OPACS froze United States steel prices at levels pre- 
vailing in the first quarter of 1941 

17 Yugoslav army surrendered 

United States auto industry agreed to reduco produc- 
tion 20 per cent, effective August 1 

Joseph M Schenck, Chairman of the Board of Twenti- 
eth Century-Fox, was found guilty of income tax eva- 
sion 

18 In Ontario, 28 Nazis broke from a prison camp, 
16 reported captured and three dead, April 20 

Greek Premier Korizis died suddenly, Kostas Kotzias 
succeeded 

19 British landed a force at Basra, Iraq 

20 Germany claimed Olympus and Larissa ; British- 
Greek forces retreated 

Serious forest fires spread in 11 eastei n States, 78,000 
acres burned over in New Jersey 

21 Roosevelt appeal and formula for settlement of 
soft-coal strike was accepted by northern operators, re- 
jected by southern ; strike, turned over to NDMB, was 
bottled (April 28) when southern operators agreed to a 
dollar a day wage increase and negotiation of a new 
agreement 

United States-Canadian agreement provided for ex- 
change of war supplies 

British battleships shelled Tripoli 

Two Red Cross relief ships to Greece weie declared 
missing 

22 Main Greek Army of Epirus surrendered to Ital- 
ians at 9 30 p m 

American reinforcements landed in the Philippines. 

23 British and Greek troops made a last stand 3ust 
north of Athens, King George II and the government fled 
to Crete; Greece severed diplomatic relations with Bul- 
garia, following invasion bv latter 

Lindbergh addressed a New York rally of the America 
First Committee, opposing war 

24 Germans captured Pass of Thermopylae by envelop- 
ing attack. 

25 President Roosevelt announced that the U.S Navy 
would patrol the seas as far out as was necessary to pre- 
vent aggression; compared Lindbergh, in his press con- 



ference, to a Civil War copperhead (Lindbergh, as a re- 
sult, resigned his commission in the U.S. Army). 

26 All-India Congress modified demand for immediate 
independence 

27 Nazis occupied Athens at 10 a m after a three- 
week Balkan campaign, harassed British attempting to 
evacuate Greece 

28 Greek credits in the United States were frozen 

Gen Isaias Medina was elected President of Venezuela. 

30 Secretary of the Navy Frank Knoz revealed that 
"quite a batch" of navy fliers wore being sent to Britain 
for observation purposes. 

MAT 

1 U.S Defense Savings Bonds and Stamps were put 
on sale. 

U S Maritime Commission diverted 50 oil tankers to 
Britain 

Britain announced that 80 per cent of the B.E P in 
Greece (estimated at 60,000 men) was safely withdrawn; 
heavy equipment lost 

2 Fighting broke out 111 Iraq between British and 
German-supported Iraqi troops; British airport at Hab- 
baniyah attacked 

U.S. Army sent pilots to Britain to serve as observers 
in all types of planes. 

3 FCC by a 5-to-2 vote ordered NBC to divest itself 
of one of its two networks and limited network contracts 
to avoid monopoly. 

4 British bombed Baghdad airport and other bases 

6 Joseph Stalin became Soviet Premier, replacing 
Vyacheslav M. Molotov who kept the office of Foreign 
Commissar 

Anti-Nazi refugee editor, Dr. Heinrlch Simon, was 
murdered in Washington, D C 

Halle Selassie returned to Addis Ababa 

8 Ten Latin American naval chiefs began tour of 
United States naval establishments as guests of Navy 
Dept 

9 RAF attacked Germany with 400 planes; Ger- 
many retaliated the following night, scoring hits on West- 
minster Abbey, the House of Commons, the British Mu- 
seum, and five hospitals 

JO Rudolf Hess, third-ranking German leader, flew 
to Scotland alone in a Messerschmitt 110, bailed out, and 
was captured 

British admitted loss of 6,000,000 tons of shipping dur- 
ing war 

11 M B S and A S C A P signed agreement contract 

14 Germany proclaimed northern part of the Red 
Sea a zone of military operations. 

Restoration of the monarchy was proclaimed in Croatia , 
crown was offered to Italian Prince, December 18 

lf> P6tain announced a new program of collaboration 
with Germany ; President Roosevelt appealed to the French 
people against collaboration 

French ships in American harbors, including the 
Normandie, were taken into protective custody. 

British Foreign Secretary Eden warned that German 
planes were using bases in Svria 

Bolivia expropriated a German air lino 

16 Iceland severed union with Denmark 

Russia and Iraq established diplomatic relations 

(ieneral Motors granted a ten cent.s-an-hour wage in- 
crease to avoid strikes, C I.O waived closed shop 

17 FBI held 40 in national round-up of unregistered 
aliens 

One-day anthracite strike won wage increase of 7V$ to 
10 per cent. 

German planes bombed British in Iraq. 

18 French High Commissioner, Gen. Henri Fernand 
Dentz, announced Syria would resist the British 

United States celebrated "1 am an American Day." 

10 British advancing on Baghdad captured Euphrates 
bridge 

20 Germany launched an attack on Crete with para- 
chutists. 

Duke of Aosta, Italian Viceroy, surrendered in Ethiopia 
with 3H.OOO men 

Three hundred twelve survivors from the Egyptian 
steamer Zamzam (sunk by a German warship in April) 
landed in France; 140 Americans were on board 

Chile arrested 22 members of the (Nazi) Popular So- 
cialist Vanguard. 

Diving naval plane decapitated a woman in Alabama; 
two fliers sentenced to one and two years imprisonment 
each 

Office of Civilian Defense was established under Mayor 
LaOuardla of New York 

21 American freighter Robin Moor was sunk by a 
German submarine in the south Atlantic; 85 survivors 
picked up after 13 days and 11 others after 19 days in 
mid -ocean 

Germany requested that foreign diplomats be withdrawn 
from Paris 

22 R A F withdrew from Crete because of Inability 
to protect airports. 

23 King George n fled from Crete to Egypt. 

24 British battle cruiser Hood was sunk by the Bis- 
marck in Denmark Strait with lost of 1,800 or more men. 



127 



CHRONOLOGY 



Emir Abdul Ulah, Regent of Iraq, returned tinder 
British protection to set up a new government. 

King victor Emmanuel and Albanian Premier Bheuket 
Verlaci were shot at in Albania by a Greek 

26 Farm bill was signed approving crop loans up to 
86 per cent of parity. 

27 President Boosevelt proclaimed unlimited national 
emergency. 

German battleship Bismarck was destroyed after a 
1,750-mile chase by British ships and planes. 

British admitted loss of two cruisers and four destroy- 
ers with other ships damaged off Crete 

United States agreed on lend-lease aid to China 

28 Germans captured Canea, capital of Crete 

29 Germans captured Candia and Ruda Bay, Crete 

Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes warned of a 
gasoline shortage in the east, he was named Petroleum 
Coordinator for National Defense, May 81. 

U.S. immigration officials arrested Dr Kurt H. Bieth, 
former German minister to Austria, in round-up of aliens 
violating immigration laws 

Philippines curbed exports to Japan 

SO Premier Bashid All fled to Iran, British reached 
outskirts of Baghdad 

New Jersey closed the German American Bund camp 
"Nordland" charging violation of law. 

31 British-Iraqi armistice ended rebellion, restoring 
pro-British regent 

Waterfront fire in Jersey City, N J., caused $25,000,000 
loss. 

JUNE 

1 British abandoned Crete after 12-day defense, 
evacuated 17,000, lost 15,000 in killed, wounded, missing, 
and captured 

Rationing of all clothing was inaugurated in Great 
Britain 

2 Hitler and Mussolini conferred at Brenner Pass 

Mandatory priorities lull -was signed 

Vichy adopted new anti-semitic legislation 

4 Former German Kaiser died at Doom 

British occupied Mosul oil fields 

Egypt severed relations with S>na; Cabinet fell 

6 The Ship Seizure hill was signed; authorized requisi- 
tioning of foreign merchant ships idle in TT S ports 

A.F.L ousted three Oommunist-controlled teachers' un- 
ions. 

7 Axis attacked Alexandria naval base for the second 
time. 

Whirlaway won the Bolmont stakes, becoming the fifth 
horse to take the "triple crown " 

8 British and Free French forces invaded Syria at 
2am; Ptam asked French in the Near East to resist. 

U. S. War Department took over the North Ameri- 
can Aviation Co at Inglewood, Calif , whore a striking 
C I.O local jeopardized the defense program, control 
was returned to owners (July 2) after mediation 

Mayor LaGuardia ordered formation of an Air Raid 
Warden Service of 60,000 in New York City. 

10 Charles Workman, murderer of Dutch Schultz in 
1935, was sentenced to life imprisonment 

11 First lend-lease report showed allocations of 
$4,277,412,879, actual shipments of $75,202,425, in 90 
days 

Japan's trade negotiations 
ended in deadlock 

Bolivian Cabinet leRigned in connection with Nazi re- 
volt plot. 

12 Justice Harlan Fiake Stone was nominated to suc- 
ceed Charles Evans Hughes, retiring as U.S Chief Jus- 
tice, Sen. James Francis Byrnes and Atty Gen Robert 
H. Jackson were nominated as associate justices 

14 All Axis assets in the United States were frozen, 
Italy and Germany retaliated the following day. 

in Croatia signed Axis protocol. 

16 United States ordered all German consulates closed, 
charging improper activities by officials (Axis closed 
U S consulates and American Express offices on June 19 ) 

R A.F. opened a series of heavy attacks on German 
bases 

17 German nationals were prohibited from leaving the 
United States 

Australia outlawed strikes in war industries 

18 Turkey and Germany signed a ten -year friendship 
pact. 

German ultimatum to Russia was rumored 

Britain began to recruit a Civilian Technical Corps in 
United States 

Plan to arm American freighters was revealed. 

Joe Louis successfully defended the world's heavyweight 
championship for the 18th time, knocking out Billy Conn 
in the 13th 

19 OPM put rubber under priorities control 

20 Petroleum products were put under the United 
States export licensing system. 

Ford-C.I contract granted all union demands. 

United States submarine 0-9 sank 24 miles east of 
Portsmouth, N.H.; 88 lost. 

Finland mobilized 



with Netherlands Indies 



21 Damascus fell to British and Free French troops. 

William H. DaviB became chairman of NDMB 

22 Germany invaded Russia on a 2, 000-mile front 
proclamation and declaration of war were read by Paul 
Joseph Goebbels and Joachim von Blbbentrop at 5 :20 a.m. 
Italy declared war on Russia, Slovakia severed diplomatic 
relations , Rumanians entered Bessarabia. 

Pat Harrison, president pro torn of the U.S Senate, 
died 

23 Italians were barred from leaving United States, 
Italy retaliated, June 24. 

24 United States pledged aid to Russia, releasing 
frozen credits of $40,000,000 

Lithuanian revolt aided Germans to capture Kaunas, 
Lithuanian capital, from Russians 

25 Turkey and Sweden proclaimed neutrality in Russo- 
CJerman war. 

26 Finland proclaimed a defensive war against Russia 

27 Hungary declared war on Russia; Denmark sev- 
ered diplomatic relations with USSR 

British military mission arrived in Moscow 

The world's largest bombing plane, the B-19, made its 
first test flight on the Pacific Coast 

28 Albania announced a state of war with Russia 

Congress sent to the White House the largest single 
appropriations bill in history, $1(),.'J84, 82 1,624 for the 
Army 

29 Nazis claimed to have reached the Minsk area 

Executive order authorized drafting of 900,000 more 
men up to June 30, 1942 

Lord Beaverbrook became British Minister of Supply. 

Jan Ignace Paderewski died 

SO "Vichy severed diplomatic relations with Russia 

Russians admitted loss of Lwow 

Congress passed six supply bills, bringing appropriations 
for fiscal 1942 to $33, 310,870,190 

President Roosevelt dedicated Hyde Park Library 

JULY 

1 Axis countries recognized Japanese-sponsored Wang 
Ohing-wei regime in China, Chungking Government sev- 
ered relations, July 2 

Gen Sir Archibald Percival Wavell, British Comman- 
der-m-Chief in the Middle East, was replaced by Gen Sir 
Claude Eyre Auchinleck; Wavell was assigned to India 

Second United States draft registration was held for 
750,000 who had reached age of 21 

5 Stalin called on Russian people for a "scorched 
earth" policy 

Finland invaded Russian territory 

Tadmur in central Syria fell to British and Free French 
after a 13 -day siege 

Denmark requested evacuation of U.S consulates 

Warden Lewis E. Lawes of Sing Sing prison resigned 

4 Italian commander m Ethiopia, Gen Pietro Gazzero, 
surrendered; surrender of nine other Italian Generals 
was announced July G 

6 Border fighting broke out between Peru and Ecua- 
dor, truce agreed on, July 26. 

6 Germans claimed Minsk 

7 United States naval forces occupied Iceland at in- 
vitation of Icelandic Government to forestall German oc 
cupation U.S Army units landed, September 37 

8 Richard Whitney, former president of N Y. Stock 
Exchange, was paroled after serving 3 years and 3 months 
for grand larceny. 

9 Vichy authorized Gen. Henri Dentz to ask for an 
armistice in Syria; fighting ended July 12, armistice 
signed July 14 

Willkie lunched with the President, supported Iceland 
occupation 

Trading on N Y. Stock Exchange exceeded one million 
shares for second consecutive day 

R A.F. reported 24-hour-a-day offensives on Continent 

10 A speech by isolationist Sen Burton K. Wheeler 
was cancelled in Atlanta, Ga , after officials refused use 
of municipal auditorium 

11 United States issued a blacklist of AxiH-connected 
firms in Latin America; their United States assets wore 
frozen, July 17. 

William J. Donovan became Coordinator of Defense In- 
formation 

Friedrich Ernst Auhagen, organizer of American Fel- 
lowship Forum, was convicted as a German agent; sen- 
tence was eight months to two years. 

12 Britain and Russia signed a mutual-assistance 
agreement at Moscow, each agreed not to conclude a sepa- 
rate peace 

14 Churchill claimed air equality with Germany. 

16 Joe Di Maggio, Yankee baseball star, scored a hit 
in his 56th consecutive game 

17 Russians announced Germans had reached the 
Smolensk area; political commissars were restored in the 
Red Army 

Harry Hopkins, lend-loase supervisor, attended a Brit- 
ish Cabinet meeting 

Gen George 0. Marshall revealed United States financ- 
ing of air facilities in Brazil. 

Lindbergh wrote to President Roosevelt, asking an 
apology from Secretary Ickes for accusations against him. 



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18 Japanese premier, Prince Fnmlmaro Konoye, re- 
formed Oabinet; Axis alliance reaffirmed, July 19 

19 Great Britain formally launched the "V for Vic- 
tory" drive among captured peoples 

Bolivia proclaimed a state of siege and rounded up 
pro-Nazi elements, German Minister was declared persona 
non grata 

21 President requested retention of selectees beyond 
one year in special message to Congress. 

OCD started a drive to collect scrap aluminum 

Stalin became commander-in-chief of Red Army. 

22 Moscow was attacked by air. 

Typhoon rendered thousands homeless in Japan 

23 France accepted Japanese demands for military 
control over French Indo-Chma, agreement signed Julv 
26 gave Japan K air bases and 5 garrison posts. Japanese 
occupied Gam Ranh naval base, July 29. 

Germany admitted Moscow drive was slowed 

Four United States newspaper executives defied sub- 
poena to appear for an FCC investigation 

24 A F L building unions entered no-strike agreement 
with OPM for duration of emergency. 

25 United States ended its appeasement policy in the 
Far East, freezing Japanese assets 

26 Britain froze Japanese assets and prepared to de- 
nounce commercial agreements, Japan froze American, 
British, and Philippine assets 

OPM froze stocks of raw silk and OPACS fixed prices, 
with Japanese supply cut off 

Philippine forces were put under United States com- 
mand for the duration of the emergency, Gen Douglas 
MacArthur was put in command 

A Soviet military mission arrived in the United States 

Marx Dormoy, Socialist leader, WHS killed at Vichy by 
a time bomb 

28 Netherlands Indies suspended oil agreement with 
Japan and empowered Army to invoke ernergencv la\\s, 
Indies, Australia, and New Zealand froze Japanese assets 

Finland severed relations with Great Britain 

Secretary Knox reported that the U S Navy used a 
depth bomb off Greenland in self-defense only 

Chungking, constant air-raid victim, was bombed for 
eight hours 

29 Russians counter-attacked 

Churchill declared in the House of Commons that the 
United States wus advancing "to the very verge of war " 

Secretary of War Stimson apologized to Senator 
Wheeler for charge of circularizing soldiers to resist mili- 
tary training 

SO United States protested Japanese bombing of United 
States gunboat Tutuila at Chungking; Japan apologi/ed 
and offeied repayment 

United States recognized Czech Government-m-Exile 

Polish Government-in-Exile signed an agreement of co- 
operation with Russia 

Hopkins conferred with Stalin in Moscow on United 
States aid to Russia 

President Roosevelt requested power to curb prices and 
rents 

Son Tom Connally of Texas became chairman of Senate 
Foreign Relations Committee 

Britain warned Iran on the number of Germans there 

81 Economic Defense Board was created under Vice- 
President Wallace to strengthen international economic 
relations for defense 

Switzerland celebrated its G50th anniversary 

AUGUST 

1 United States exports of crude oil and aviation fuel 
to Japan ceased 

Enoch L (Nucky) Johnson, New Jersey politician, was 
sentenced to ten years and $20,000 fine for income tax 
evasion 

2 United States and Russia exchanged notes providing 
United States supply of war materials 

Processing of raw silk was banned in nondefense in- 
dustries. 

3 Gasoline curfew was imposed at midnight in 17 
Eastern States, closing filling stations from 7pm to 
7 n m 

4 Thai troops rushed to border where Japanese massed. 

Japanese shipping to United States was suspended 

6 Germans captured Smolensk 

United States and Britain warned Japan against oc 
cupying Thailand; second warning, August 13 

Germans claimed 895,000 prisoners in Russian cam- 
paign, Russians (August 8) put German losses at 1,500,- 
000 versus 600,000 for Russians 

7 Bruno Mussolini, 11 Duce's son, was killed while 
testing a new bomber 

Germans intensified Ukraine drive 

8 Russian planes raided Berlin 

9 OPM placed steel under complete priorities control 
effective September 1, 11,000,000-ton deficit for year fore- 
cast 

10 Crash of ferry plane to Britain cost 22 lives, two 
others, August 14 and September 1, brought ferry plane 
casualties to 54 

Warden of Oklahoma State Prison, two prisoners, and a 
guard were killed in attempted prison break by four 



Pro-Nazi leaders were arrested in Chile. Germany re- 
taliated, September 18. 

11 Executive order established control over installment 
buying to combat inflation; effective September 1. 

Japan was put on economic war footing under national 
mobilization act, shipping went under state control, Au- 
gust 20 

12 Britain and Russia pledged uid to Turkey if at- 
tacked by a European power. 

U S. House voted extension of draft to two-and-one-half 
years by one-vote margin, 203202 , bill wus signed Au- 
gust 18 

Marshal P6tain in a broadcast assumed complete au- 
thority and pledged collaboration with Nazis 

Germans claimed successful push to Black Sea, sur- 
rounding Odessa 

14 President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill, 
after a secret meeting at sea, issued an 8 point statement 
of peace aims, called "The Atlantic Charter" 

Germany admitted that air assaults had brought civilians 
into the front lines. 

Japanese Vice Premier, Baron Kilchiro Hiranuma, was 
wounded m attempted assassination 

Cuba expelled last German consul 

Leon Henderson called Rep. Martin Dies "not a re 
sponsible member of Congress " 

15 OPACS ordered 10 per cent reduction in gasoline 
delivered to retailers m Eastern States. 

16 Japan closed borders of Manchoukuo to foreigners 

Russia obtained JC10, 000,000 credit from Britain in new 
trade agreement 

17 Britain and Russia issued second warning to Iran 
to eliminate German "tourists " 

Nazis captured Nikolaev, naval base on Black Sea 

Amen can -owned freighter Seni>a of Panamanian registry 
was torpedoed 300 miles southwest of Iceland, 24 of 27 
crew members lost including one American. (Sinking -was 
announced, September 9 ) 

18 Russians abandoned Kingisepp, 70 miles from Len- 
ingrad 

Havana bombings injured 12. 

United States announced plane ferry service to Near 
East via West Africa 

Fire on Brooklyn (NY) pier destroyed the freiphtei 
Panuco, :il known dead 

19 United States protested detention of Americans 
wishing to leave Japan, gradual repatriation agreed on, 
August 2.1 

U.S. War Department announced that draftees 28 uiid 
over would be released, all to be released after 14 to 18 
months of service unless situation deteriorated 

Sen Harry F. Byrd called defense production "ap- 
pallingly ineffective", Roosevelt denial followed, Au- 
gust 22 

21 A Nazi colonel was stabbed in Paris subway, not 
ing broke out, followed by mass arrests German decree 
instituted execution of hostages for new criminal acts, the 
number executed corresponding to the gravity of the crime 

Dnieper Dam was reported destroyed in effort to check 
Germans, admitted by Russia, August 29 

August-November passenger auto production in United 
States was ordered cut 26 6 per cent 

22 Argentina arrested 86 Germans leading Nazi pene 
tration 

United States oil executives claimed gasoline stocks were 
ample 

Russians yielded Nikopol, barricaded streets of Lenin- 
grad. 

23 U S Navy Department took over Federal Ship- 
building and Dry Dock Co., Kearny, N J., after 18-day 
strike of 17,000 C.I.O workers holding up defense orders, 
company had requested the action, August 11, refusing to 
discharge employees for failure to pay union dues 

Petain instituted special military courts empowered to 
impose death sentence in drive against opposition, 11 
executed in first week 

Duke of Kent arrived in United States for informal 
visit 

24 Churchill pledged British aid to United States in 
case of war with Japan 

Construction of oil pipeline from Baton Rouge to Greens- 
boro, N C , was authorized , dropped when SPAB refused 
to allot necessary steel, September 9 

25 British and Russian troops advanced into Iran nt 
five points to prevent German coup, Turkey denounced 
attack 

Paris was patrolled by 20,000 German soldiers follow- 
ing new demonstrations and two tram wrecks 

Rexford Guy Tugwell confirmed as Governor of Puerto 
Rico; Solicitor General Biddle named Attorney General 

26 Russians admitted loss of Novgorod 

United States announced military mission to China un- 
der Gen. John Magruder. 

Russia warned Japan against interfering with her trade 
with United States 

27 Iranian Cabinet resigned; new Government formed 
under All Furanghi issued orders to cease fire, August 28 

French ex-Premier Pierre Laval and pro-German editor 
Marcel Deat wore seriously wounded at Versailles by 21- 



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year-old Paul Oollette, de Gaullist sympathizer. (His sen- 
tence was commuted to life imprisonment, October 8 ) 

28 Supply Priorities and Allocations Board was cre- 
ated under Vice-President Wallace for broad supervision 
of defense program 

Japanese Ambassador Adm. Klchlsaburo Nomura initi- 
ated direct conversations with President Boosevelt, deliver- 
ing conciliatory letter from Prince Konoye. 

American republics agreed to take over Axis ships im- 
mobilized in their ports. 

Arthur William Fadden succeeded B. G. Henries as 
Australian Prime Minister 

29 Hitler and Mussolini concluded a five-day con 
forence on the Eastern Front 

Varian M. Fry, head of American Aid Center at Mar- 
seilles, was arrested as anti-Nazi 

JarvlB Catoe, 36-year-old Negro, admitted assault and 
murder of six women in Washington, D C , series of 
(rimes had caused investigation and shake-up in police 
department 

30 Finns recaptured Viborg 

Germany claimed 60 vessels lost by Russia in effort to 
>\ acuate Tallinn 

Brazil stopped publication of 37 foreign newspapers 

31 Petaln constituted the French Legion a new gov- 
einment party. 

SEPTEMBEB 

2 Gasoline retail dealers of the Eastern States at 
Philadelphia meeting challenged existence of shortage 

J J. J. Pelley, president of railroad association, re- 
ported idle tank cars could relieve gas shortage, 11 oil 
companies agreed to use cars, September 5 

4 United States destroyer Oreer en route to Iceland 
with mail was attacked by submarine but not damaged, 
counter-attacked with depth charges President Boosevelt 
the next day ordered the United States fleet to 'eliminate" 
the attacking submarine 

First United States tanker with oil for Russia reached 
Vladivostok 

OPM formed Division of Contract Distribution under 
Flo\d H Odium to bring small business into defense effort 

"5 Sleel tieafarer, Hying the American flag, AN as bombed 
and sunk in the Gulf of Suez, no lives lost 

Nazis shelled Leningrad 

7 Representative Dies accused Henderson and four 
subordinates in OPACS of Communist sjmpathies 

Heaviest raid on Berlin was made by British 

Mrs Sara Delano Boosevelt, mother of the President, 
died 

8 Britain temporarily occupied Spit/bergeri to destrov 
coal mines useful to Germans 

Germany admitted attack on Greet 

9 Iran accepted British-Russian armistice terms, clos 
ing Axis legations and surrendering Nazis 

United States and Britain agreed to regulate trade com 
petition during the war 

Pennsylvania anthracite miners struck against increased 
union dues, 10,000 affected 

Secretary of the Treasury Morgenthau warned United 
States of imminent inflation. 

Sen Gerald P. Nye charged a small group of motion- 
picture producers with war propaganda, motion-picture 
interests retained Wendell L. Willkle as counsel 

10 Trade union opposition to Vidkun Quisling brought 
martial law in Oslo, followed by a violent demonstration 
m Trondheim (September 12), mass arrests, and strict 
censorship 

The Pope received Roosevelt's personal envoy, Myron 
C. Taylor. 

11 Boosevelt ordered U S Na\y to shoot on sight 
against raiders in defensive waters, Secretary of State 
Hull in his next press conference refused to delimit "de- 
fensive waters " 

U S Maritime Commission freighter Montana of Pana- 
manian registry was sunk off Iceland, crew rescued 

Special Senate investigating committee reported no oil 
shortage existed. 

Lindbergh asserted that "the British, the Jewish, and 
the Roosevelt Administration groups" were leading Amer- 
ica toward war; speech was widely attacked for racial 
bias. 

Guatemala extended presidential term of Gen Jorge 
Ublco to Mar. 15, 1949. 

Russia accused Bulgaria of acting as a base for Axis 
attack, Bulgaria rejected protest, September 16 

Belgian King Leopold married a commoner, Mile Marie 
HI"*" Baels, daughter of ex-Cabinet minister (marriage 
was kept secret until December 7) 

12 Japan created a new General Defense Headquar- 
ters under Gen. Otozo Yamada, directly responsible to 
Emperor 

U.S Army bombers completed secret formation flight 
over new routes from Honolulu to the Philippines 

Anthracite coal prices were fixed 

13 British reported loss of eight ships in convoj 

14 Wing of R.A.F. arrived in Russia. 

Series of time bombs exploded in telephone exchange at 
Zngreb, Croatia; 50 executed September 19 

IS Lend-lease report showed only one tenth of funds 



voted had been transferred abroad in materials and serv- 
ices 

Argentine Deputies censured German Ambassador Baron 
Edmund von Thermann for abusing diplomatic privileges 

Lord Beaverbrook was appointed to head British eco- 
nomic mission to Russia 

16 Independence of Syria was proclaimed, with Sheik 
Taj Bddin el Hassan! as President. 

Shah of Iran abdicated; succeeded by his 21 -year-old 
son Prince Mohammed Blza Pahlevi. 

Russians repulsed attempted German landing on Baltic 
Island of Oesel , second attempt failed the next day also 

17 Japanese launched oflensive in northern Hunan 
Province 

Germans reported new drive into Crimea. 

Two Germans and one Rexist were slain in Tournai, 
Belgium, 25 hostages held 

Secretary Knox stated that United States warships were 
on convoy dutv 

10 Na/.is occupied Kie\, capital of Ukraine; captured 
Poltav a 

German demarche demanded Bulgarian entry into war 

American-owned freighter P\nk Star of Panamanian 
registry was sunk 255 miles southwest of Iceland, 12 
missing of crew of 36 

20 Largest United States tax bill in history was signed 
($3,553,400,000) , exemption lowered to $750 for single 
persons 

Bulgaria declared a state of emergency 

21 Petain broadcast an appeal for order to prevent 
execution of hostages 

22 King George U arrived in London to create Greek 
Qovernment-m-Exile 

23 Argentine Government occupied all air bases to 
forestall sedition in Air Corps, Commander of Aviation, 
Gen Angel Maria Zuloaga, was removed, September 25 

Kight Mexuan workers were killed in front of the 
President A Vila Camacho's home in demonstration against 
treatment in munition factories 

24 At 1 nter-Allied Conference in London, 11 govern- 
ments adhered to the Atlantic Charter, postwar rehabih 
tation was planned under Sir Frederick Lelth-Boss. 

NDMB settled 12-day shipping strike, 2b ships were 
affected, three having been taken over by the govern- 
ment, September 18 

Na-tis thrust into Crimea 

25 Berlin reported street fighting at Leningrad, Rus- 
sia admitted the enemy vuis at the gates 

Italy reoccupied demihturi/ed /,one in Croatia to quell 
Serb opposition 

Repeal of Neutrality Act was introduced in Senate 

The Brooklyn Dodgers clinched the National League 
pennant, lost World Series to Yankees, October fi 

The Duke and Duchess of Windsor visited Washington 

20 Nazis, balked on J'erekop Isthmus, attempted para- 
thute operations in Cnmeu 

27 -State of emergency v\?is pioclaimcd in Bohemia 
and Moravia. Rein hard Heydrich, Hlmmler aide, suc- 
ceeded Von Neurath as Reich protector, former Premier 
Gen Alois Ellas was arrested (September 28) for treason 

Germans bombed guerrillas in Yugoslavia, destroying 
town of U/ice 

American-owned tnnker J C White v\as torpedoed and 
sunk in the south Atlantic 

United States launched 14 merchant ships in Libert} 
Fleet Dav celebration 

28 Marion Miley, golf star, vuis murdered IE a rob- 
bery at Lexington, Ky , country club, ex-convict Tom C. 
Penney confessed, October 12 

29 Three-power conference opened in Moscow , United 
States delegation was headed by W. Averell Harrlman, 
Minister to London (United States and Britain agreed to 
supply wai materials in return for raw materials ) 

Mass arrests in Bulgaria followed disorders 

Deportation of pro-Communist CIO leader Harry B. 
Bridges was recommended b> examining judge in Sun 
Francisco 

30 President Boosevelt stated that Soviet constitution 
guaranteed religious freedom 

OCTOBER 

1 Japanese withdrew from Ch.ingsha (occupied Sep- 
tember 27), Chinese claimed smashing victory 

Italy rationed bread to seven ounces daily. 

United States signed lend lease agreement with Brazil 

Ten per cent United States "luxury tax" went into 
effect, preceded by a buying splurge 

2 --Japan launched drive into Hunan Province, cap- 
tured Cherigchow, October 6 

S Hitler, returning from the front, announced that 
"Russia is already broken." 

Mayor of Prague and several officials were put to death , 
Czech executions totaled 141 

John Curtln, Labor leader, succeeded Fadden as Prime 
Minister of Australia. 

Aluminum Company of America was cleared of 1937 
monopoly charge 

Greek refugees reported wholesale executions, later re- 
ports told of looting and starvation. 



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7 British-German plan for exchange of prisoners was 
cancelled. 

U.S. Office of Facts and Figures was created. 

8 Russians lost Orel, claimed recapture, October 14 

George Sylvester Viereck, pro-German publicist in 
United States, was arrested for withholding information 
on his propaganda activities 

9 Bicaxdo Adolfo de la Guardio, pro-U.S. Minister of 
Government, became President of Panama in a bloodless 
coup. 

Turkey signed a new trade treaty with Germany 

SPAB prohibited new construction requiring critical 
materials 

10 Germans claimed Taganrog, ending battle for the 
Sea of Azov. (Russia admitted withdrawal, Oct. 23 ) 

Plan for rehabilitating men rejected by the U.S Army 
wan announced 

11 -U S. Navy disposed of a German radio station in 
Greenland 

A $14,000,000 fire at Fall River, Mass , destroyed quan- 
tities of crude rubber and other defense materials 

14 Argentina and U S signed a reciprocal tnide 
pact 

Russians evacuated Vyazma 

16 Germans captured Odessa after two-month siepe 

American-owned freighter Bold Venture was sunk 500 
miles south of Iceland 

Central Pattern and Foundry Co of Chicago was 
penalized by OPM for diverting aluminum from defense, 
aluminum operations were forbidden until Mar. 81, 1942 

17 Japanese Cabinet resigned on issue of agreement 
with U.S New Cabinet was formed by Gen Hideki Tojo 
(Oct 18) with Shigenori Togo as Foreign Minister 

American merchant ships in Asiatic waters were ordered 
to put in at friendly ports because of Japanese crisis 

U S destroyer Kearney was torpedoed and crippled 
350 miles southwest of Iceland, 11 missing and 10 injured 

U S House voted to amend Neutrality Act 

18 Canada imposed ceilings on prices, ordered cost 
of living bonuses, Oct 25 

19 Afghanistan consented to eject Axis nationals 

Freighter Lehiffh, flying American flag, was sunk in the 
South Atlantic 

20 Stato of siege was proclaimed in Moscow, Govern- 
ment arrived at Kuibvshev to establish temporary capital. 

Nazi commander at French seaport of Nantes was assas- 
sinated , 15,000,000 francs reward offered for killers, 50 
hostages executed in retaliation the following day 

21 German major was killed at Bordeaux bv four 
youths who escaped; curfew was imposed and 100 hos- 
tages were seized (50 put to death, Oct 24) 

Mexico and Great Britain resumed diyjlomatic relations 

Germans captured Stalino, Donets industrial center 

Willkie and other Republican leaders called for repeal 
of Neutrality Act 

22 Rumania denounced Vienna Pact with Hungary, 
re claiming Transylvania 

23 Gasoline restrictions were ended after British npree 
to return 25 tankers 

British Labor members of Parliament demanded nuli- 
tarv action to aid Russia 

Mrs Florence Maybrlck, center of famous 1889 murder 
trial, died a recluse in Connecticut 

U S Maritime Commission was rebuked for revealing 
that supplies to Russia go through Boston 

24 Arthur H Starnes set a record for free fall at 
Chicago, dropping 5V6 miles before opening his parachute 

Italian Foreign Minister Count Ciano visited Hitler at 
headquarters. 

Germans captured Kharkov, industrial center of 
Ukraine 

25 Mussolini reorganized Fascist guilds 

26 CIO strike in "captive" coal mines called out 
53,000 after three appeals from Pres Roosevelt, John L. 
Lewis halted the strike setting a now deadline for Novem- 
ber 15. 

27 Pres Roosevelt in a radio address said, "The 
shooting has started " 

Three largest U.S tobacco companies were convicted 
of price fixing and monopolv, violating Sherman Act 

28 New lend-lease bill for $5,985,000,000 was signed; 
Edward B. Stettinius, Jr., received full authority as ad- 
ministrator. 

29 U.S. Navy tanker Salinn* was torpedoed in North 
Atlantic but reached port with no casualties. 

Germans cracked Russian defense on Perekop Isthmus 

SO U S destroyer Reuben James was torpedoed and 
sunk on convoy duty west of Iceland, 2 known dead, 45 
rescued; 98 missing 

Northwestern Airlines plane crabbed near Fargo, N D , 
killing 14, American Airlines transport crashed near St. 
Thomas, Ont , 20 hours later, killing 20. 

Secretary of War was ordered to take over the Bendix, 
N J , plant of Air Associates, Inc , after company refused 
to restore all strikers 

Supply of pianos to Russia was given priority over 
IT S Army 

31 It was announced that Gen Gustavo Marie Game- 
lin, Edouard Daladler, and L6on Blum, would be tried 
at Riom, France, Jan 15, 1942, for war responsibility 



Eighty thousand guerrillas wore reported fighting Axis 
forces in Yugoslavia. 

NOVEMBER 

8 Germany declined to pay compensation for the Robin 
Moor 

4 Mayor FloreUo H. LaGuardla was reelected mayor 
of New York City, defeating District Attorney William 
O'Dwyer by 183,841. 

5 Loss of 17 American technicians en route to Britain 
was announced. 

6 A United States cruiser captured an Axis ship dis- 
guised as an American merchant ship in the Atlantic 

United States extended $1,000,000,000 in lend-lease 
funds to Russia, Maxim Litvinoff was appointed Soviet 
Ambassador to Washington 

George E. Browne and Willie Bioff, Chicago labor rack- 
eteers, were found guilty of extorting $1,200,000 from 
the motion picture industry (sentenced to 10 and 8 years 
each with $10,000 fines) 

7 New York City assigned 250 additional police to 
stamp out TIarlem crime wave 

Senate passed Neutrality Act amendment, 50 to 37 

8 Hitler ordered the German Navy not to shoot when 
they see Americans but to defend themselves when at- 
tacked 

Two American soldiers killed a natne fisherman in a 
cafe brawl in Iceland 

Heavy RAF raids during storms cost the British 37 
bombers within 24 hours 

B Train wreck near Dunkirk, Ohio, cost 9 lives, 65 
injured 

10 Churchill declared that Britain would join the 
United States in case of war with Japan "within the 
hour " 

NDMB voted 9 to 2 against the demands- of the United 
Mine Workers for the closed shop in captive coal mines 

11 C L O members of NDMB resigned 

12 Finland rejected a United States warning of No- 
vember 3 to stop fighting Russia 

1tt House passed Neutrality Act Amendment, 2 12- 1 94, 
following a letter from Roosevelt pledging action against 
defense sliikos 

14 Special Japanese En\oy Saburo Kurusu armed 
in the United States to submit "last proposals " 

President Roosevelt announced that all American ma- 
rines would be withdrawn from China 

British airplane carrier Aik Royal was torpedoed and 
sunk about 25 miles oust of Gibraltar 

President Roosevelt warned United Mine Workers that 
neither the government nor Congress would order a closed 
shop 

17 Neutrality Act amendments were signed permitting 
the arming of American rnei chant vessels and shipping to 
belligerent ports 

United Mine Workers struck in "captive" coal mines, 
as negotiations terminated without agreement on union 
shop issue; C.I convention voted support 

18 British Eighth Army under Lieut Gen Sir Alan 
Gordon Cunningham attacked on a 1 '50 mile front in Af- 
rica and penetrated 50 miles into Libya 

Retirement of British Chief of the Imperial General 
Staff, Gen Sir John G. Dill, was announced, effective 
Christmas Day, to be succeeded by Lieul Gen Sir Alan 
Brooke, Commander of the Home Forces 

Pans announced arrest of several terrorists in the 
Nantes and Bordeaux assassinations, a leader of the band, 
Gilbert Andre" Brulstein, was still at large 

19 United States and Mexico signed an agreement to 
negotiate oil claims, oil companies rejected proposal, No- 
vember 21 (Ratified by U S Senate, December 29 ) 

John L. Lewis rejected an appeal from President Roose- 
velt on the captive mines dispute, fist fights between Lewis 
and Murray factions occurred at the C.T O Convention 

War Department forced change in management of Air 
Associates, Inc., as prelude to returning the Bondix plant 
to the owners 

20 Gen Maxim Weygand "retired" as Vichy Delegate 
General in Africa, post abolished 

21 Philip Murray, reelected president of the CIO, 
charged that corporation executives "virtually infested" 
the defense agencies to get profitable contracts 

22 John L. Lewis accepted arbitration in captive 
mines strike 

24 United States established troops in Surinam by 
agreement with the Netherlands Government-in-exile and 
Brazil, extended lend-leaso aid to the Free French; and 
revoked export licenses to French North Africa, Spain, 
and Tangier 

The Supreme Court invalidated California's anti-migrant 
law 

25 Anti-Comintern Pact of 1936 was renewed in Ber- 
lin; 13 nations signed 

William O Bullitt was appointed special United States 
representative in the Near East 

26 U S Secretary of State transmitted to Japan a 
document setting forth basic principles of United States 
proposed a multilateral nonaggression pact in the Pacific 

House defeated Gore bill for "over-all" control of rents, 
prices, and wages, 218 to 63. 



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A.F.L. and O.I.O. opposed strike bans in defense indus- 
tries. 

27 Italians surrendered Gondar, last Ethiopian out- 
post, after 7V& months of defense. 

28 House passed 224 to 161 a measure setting up a 
five-man board to control prices during the emergency 

20 Japanese Premier Tojo stated that Japan must 
purge Amencan and British exploitation of Asiatic peoples, 
Roosevelt cut short his holiday to return to Washington 

House Military Affairs Committee ordered investigation 
of "defense brokers" profiteering on government contracts 

Russians recaptured Rostov (lost November 22) and 
attacked in the Ukraine 

DECEMBER 

1 Japanese Foreign Minister Shlgenori Togo rejected 
American proposals for a Pacific settlement as "fantastic " 

Petaln and Ooerlng met at St Florentine to expand 
collaboration policy on an "acts, not words" basis 

In Minneapolis 18 were convicted of a plot to create 
insubordination in the armed forces, including three lead- 
ers of the Socialist Workers party 

A general railway strike was averted by basic pay rises 
of 9V6 and 10 cents an hour 

President Roosevelt formally asked Japan for an 
explanation of recent moves into Indo-Ohina; Japanese 
reply (December 6) blamed China for troop concentra 
tions and claimed movements were within her treaty with 
Vichy. 

First squadron of warships in Britain's new Far East 
Fleet arrived in Singapore, led by the new battleship, 
Prince of Wales 

Churchill asked authority to raise age for compulsory 
military service from 41 to 51 and to require women for 
the uniformed services. 

Sixty persons were arrested in Italy in an alleged plot 
to kill Mussolini and overthrow the Fascist regime 

3 House passed, 252-136, a drastic anti -strike meas- 
ure 

Russians evacuated Hango naval base with Finns claim- 
ing to have sunk numerous vessels 

6 President Roosevelt sent a personal message to 
Emperor Hlrohito on the Pacific conversations. 

Russians launched broad counter-offensive 

Great Britain declared war on Finland, Rumania, and 
Hungary when no reply was received to an ultimatum 
demanding cessation of hostilities against Russia 

United States seized Finnish ships in American ports 

7 Japan launched an uir and naval attack on Pearl 
Harbor at Honolulu at 1 05 p in Sunday, E ST (Decem- 
ber 7, 7.85 am, Hawaii time), bombed Guam, Wake Is- 
land, Davao, P I , Malaya, and Hong Kong; sank an 
American transport carrying lumber and a freighter in the 
Pacific 

Japan delivered a flat rejection of United States pro- 
posals for peace in the Pacific at 2 35 p m 

President Roosevelt put the Army and Navy on a 
war footing and summoned the Cabinet, FBI ordered a 
nation-wide roundup of Japanese nationals 

Japan declared war on the United States at 4 p m 
(6 a.m , December 8, Tokyo time) 

Netherlands East Indies and Canada declared war on 
Japan 

A three-man arbitration board under John R. Steelman 
reversed NDMB and granted the closed shop in the cap- 
tive mines 

8 -Japanese bombed Singapore, Penang, and Philippine 
points, attempted landings in northern Malaya, invaded 
Thailand, which capitulated, captured 200 US Marines 
in North China, occupied the International Settlement at 
Shanghai, seizing the United States gunboat Wake and 
sinking a British gunboat. 

Great Britain declared war on Japan 

Congress voted to declare war on Japan with only one 
dissenting vote (Miss Jeanette Rankin of Montana) S3 
minutes after the President requested it in a 6^ minute 
address to joint session at 12 30 p m 

Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, 
the Dominican Republic, the Netherlands, the Free French, 
Costa Rica, and Panama declared war on Japan 

Mexico, Colombia, Belgium, and Egypt severed diplo- 
matic relations with Japan 

President Roosevelt accused Germany of instigating the 
Japanese attack m order to hamper lend-lease aid to Brit- 
ain; pledged continuing of aid 100 per cent 

Germany admitted drive on Moscow was halted until 
after the winter 

Lindbergh, America First Committee, and other isola- 
tionist groups pledged support in war 

Two formations of Japanese planes were reported over 
the San Francisco area at night 

9 Japanese bombed Nichols Field near Manila ; gained 
two footholds m Northern Malaya, capturing the Kota 
Bharu air base (December 10) ; sank British battleship 
Prince of Wai eg and battle cruiser Repulse off Malaya, 
with loss of 595 men including Adm. Sir Tom 8. V. Phil- 
lips. 

Australia, the Union of South Africa, and New Zealand 
declared war on Japan; China declared war on Japan, 
Germany, and Italy. 



Congressional debate brought sharp criticism of the 
Navy for being caught asleep 

President Roosevelt in a fireside chat conceded "a seri- 
ous set-back m Hawaii" and warned that "we must be 
set to face a long war." 

10 U 8 Army reported a heavy Japanese attack on 
the island of Luzon in the Philippines, claimed direct hits 
on three Japanese transports. Filipino constabulary re- 
ported two Japanese landings. There were repeated attacks 
on Wake and Midway Islands. 

Attorney General Francis Blddle announced that 2,803 
enemy aliens had been arrested in roundup. 

Britain announced that United States would maintain 
Eritrea as a supply base; title to remain with Britain. 

Siege of Tobruk, temporarily broken on November 27, 
was finally lifted 

Cuba declared war against Japan 

11 Germany and Italy declared war on the United 
States; Italy, Germany, and Japan agreed to conduct a 
joint war and not to sign a separate peace. 

United States declared war on Germany and Italy 

Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and the 
Dominican Republic declared war on Germany and Italy, 
Muvico severed diplomatic relations 

Poland declared war on Japan 

Congress, without debate, eliminated the prohibitions 
against an A E F. , term of enlistment and induction in 
the armed forces was extended to six months after the end 
of hostilities 

A Japanese landing was repulsed in the Lmgayen area 
in the Philippines 

12 Haiti, Panama, and Honduras declared war on 
Germany and Italy 

Rumania declared war on the United States 

Japanese occupied Kowloon; Chinese attacked all along 
the Kwangtung front Guam fell to Japanese Japanese 
landed at Legaspi m southern Luzon 

United States seized 14 French vessels in United States 
ports, including the Normandie 

A Brooklyn court imposed penalties up to 22 years on 
14 found guilty as German spies; 19 others had pleaded 
guilty 

The Red Cross opened a drive for $50,000,000. 

San Francisco was blacked out for two hours and 40 
minutes 

18 Japanese landing forces at four points on Luzon 
were checked , Clark and Nichols Fields near Manila were 
bombed; Netherlands Indies claimed the sinking of four 
Japanese transports off Thailand 

El Salvador declared war on Germany 

Hungary declared war on the United Stutes; Bulgaria 
declared war on the United States and the United King- 
dom 

The United States took over the Swedish liner Kungs- 
holm at New York City under the ripht of angary 

Lltvlnov called Japan the "common enemy" but an- 
nounced that Russia would concentrate on Hitler. 

Nazi Commander in Chief in France, Gen. Otto von 
Stuelpnagel, announced that 100 "Jews, Communists, 
and anarchists" would be executed for attacks on German 
soldiers (Vichy government protested, December 14). 

14 Japanese began an offensive against Hong Kong 
after refusal of the Colony to surrender. 

15 Maui and Johnston Island were bombarded in sec- 
ond Japanese attack on Hawaiian Islands 

Congress voted $10,077,077,005 emergency appropria- 
tion for the armed forces 

Secretary of the Navy Knox reported on a personal 
investigation (December 11) at Pearl Harbor, listed 1 
United States battleship, 3 destroyers, 1 minelayer, and 1 
training ship destroyed, battleship Oklahoma capsized, loss 
of 2,397 men The President appointed a five-man board 
to investigate the Pearl Harbor disaster 

The A.F L Executive Council adopted a no strike policy 
in war industries and extended a peace oflVr to the CIO; 
CIO staged a "Defend America" rally in Madison Square 
Garden, NY 

16 US Commander in Chief of the Pacific Fleet, 
Adm Husband E. Kimmel, was replaced by Rear Adm 
Chester W. Nimitz; War Department replaced Lieut Gen 
Walter 0. Short, Commander of the Hawaiian Depart- 
ment, and Maj Gen Frederick L. Martin, Commander 
of the Army Air Forces in Hawaii 

Japanese were driven back at Vigan, P.I. 

17 Congress conferred wide emergency powers on the 
President. 

President Roosevelt summoned a labor-management con- 
ference to adopt a policy on defense stoppages 

Japanese landed in Borneo, British retired after de- 
stroying oil property in Sarawak and Brunei. 

OP A rationed rubber, decreasing civilian consumption 
almost 80 per cent 

Moscow recaptured Kalinin, claiming destruction of 8th 
German Army Corps 

US Navy announced 11,308 enlistments in the first 
eight days of war 

18 United States reached an agreement with French 
governor of Martinique preserving the island's neutral 
status 

Netherlands and Australian troops occupied Portuguese 



CHRONOlOCy 



132 



CIVILIAN CONSERVATION COUPS 



Timor to forestall its use as a Japanese base, Portugal 
demanded withdrawal, December 19. 

British smashed Nazi line m 1 tiazala area, Libya; 
captured Derna. 

Iloilo, P.I., was heavily bombed. 

FBI arrested Laura Ingalls, woman aviator, as an un- 
registered German agent. 

19 Tokyo reported landing on Hong Kong at 6 55 
am after a week of siege, captured Penang after with- 
drawal of British garrison 

Congress voted draft for all men 20 to 44, providing 
7,000,000 effectives 

A British royal proclamation set January 10 for regis- 
tration of all women 20 to 31 under the National Serv- 
ice Act 

Ten thousand Federal employees were transferred from 
Washington because of space shortage 

20 Japanese landed at Davao, P.I ; attacked two 
United States tankers just off the California coast (six 
were lost on the Emidw). 

Adm. Ernest J. King was named Commander in Chief 
of the US Fleet 

DSC was awarded to Capt Colin P. Kelly, A\ ho 
crashed in his bomber after destroying the Japanese battle- 
ship Haruna, and to 12 others 

littler appealed to German people to give \\urrn clothing 
for the soldiers on the Russian front. 

Japanese completed the conquest of Keduh Province, 
Malaya 

21 Hitler personally assumed supreme command of 
the German Army after ousting Gen Field Marshal 
Walther von Braucnitsch ; three other commanders on the 
Russian front were reported out von Bock, von Bund- 
Btedt, and von Leeb. 

U 8 Army sighted 80 enemy transports off Lmga>en, 
110 miles northwest of Manila, heavy Japanese force 
landed on Lmgayen Gulf. 

22 Churchill arrived in Washington for a war con- 
ference; held a joint press conference with the President, 
December 23 

The President's 24-man Industry-Labor Conference re- 
ported a deadlock, Boosevelt promulgated a peace formula 
(December 23) ignoring the deadlocked issue of the closed 
shop and announcing plans for a War Labor Board 

Wake Island surrendered after a heroic 14-day defense 
by 378 U S. Marines under Maj. James Patrick 8. Deve- 
reaux, having accounted for a Japanese cruiser, 3 de- 
stroyers, and at least a dozen planes. 
British evacuated Penang 

23 United States, Britain, and China set up an ABC 
Military Council at Chungking meeting of military leaders. 
U.S Army reported 28,363 enlistments since Decem- 
ber 7. 

British withdrew to defensive position along Kriun 
River in Kelantan Province, Malaya. 

Japanese landed at Antimonan, 135 miles southeast of 
Manila 

24 Japanese made another landing on Luzon at 
Mauban, 50 miles south of Manila, 40 transports sighted, 
heavy fighting reported in Lingayen battle 

A Free French naval force under Vice Adm Emile 
Muselier took over St Pierre and Miquelon without firing 
a shot, United States condemned seizure (December 25) 
while populace voted 98 per cent for the Free French in 
a plebiscite 

Netherlands reported liquidation of attack on Miri in 
Sarawak 

British captured Bengazi 

Baguio near Manila was evacuated as Japanese ad- 
vanced. 

26 British announced fall of Hong Kong after 11-cluy 
siege 

Japanese forces reached Bmalonnn and Tuguegarao 
on Luzon 

26 Churchill addressed a joint session of U S Con- 
gress, asserting faith in victory 

OP A prohibited average motorist from buying new tires 
after Jan. 5, 1942 

Kuching, capital of British Sarawak, fell 1o Japanese 
Lieut Gen. Sir Henry Pownall succeeded Air Chief 
Marshal Sir Robert Brooke-Popham as British Comman- 
der in Chief in the Far East 

27 Manila, although declared an open city (Decernbei 
26) and undefended, was bombed for 3 hours and 17 
minutes with serious damage 

British raided Norwegian coast with small units 
28 Second day's bombing of Manila caused great 
damage; Japanese bombed Medan in Sumatra and landed 
parachute troops at the air base 

British Foreign Minister Eden reached an agreement 
in Moscow on conduct of the war after two weeks of con 
ferences. 

President Boosevelt in a meftsnge to the Filipino peo- 
ple pledged that their freedom will be redeemed and their 
independence established and protected. 

29 Churchill arrived m Canada for war conferences, 
addressed Parliament m Ottaw