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Full text of "The New International Encyclopedia Volume X"

7 



THE NEW 
INTERNATIONAL 
ENCYCLOPAEDIA 

SECOND KD1TION 



VOLUMK X 



NEW YORK 

DODD, MEAD AND COMPANY 
1928 



Copyright, 1003, 11)04, 11)05, 11)00, 11)07, 1000, 1011, 1912, 101ft 
By DODO, MKAP AND 



(topyriffht, 1017, 10*!, 1022 
DODO, MKAP AND tJowi'ANY, IN<I. 

XII rtyhtt 



Printed in tho U. H. A. 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME X 
COLORED PLATES 

FACING PACJTC 

GREKNHOTTSE PLANTS ........................... 3-40 

GAMEBIBDS .................... . ........... 412 

MAPS 

GREECE .................................. 28R 

GKKKCK, Ancient ............................. 204 

GUAM .................................. 432 

GUIANA .................................. 45(> 

ENGRAVINGS 

GiACiHBH ................................. 4 

GLAOIKKH ................................. ft 

(rLADHTONK, WlU/UM EWAKT ........................ 8 



GOAT ANTKLOI'KH ............................. (JR 

GOKTIIK .................................. tS<> 

(Jou> MINING ............................... OK 

GOLD MINING ............... . ............... {){) 

(3()U)-MiNlN<J DltKDOK ........................... KXI 

(}()U)-MlNING DliKDOK, (VoHS S(HTtion .................... 101 

Goia)KNiU)i), etc ............................... 108 

Goi,* 1 ................................... 114 

GcmtKUH, I/KMM1NOH, AND MAftfttOTM ..................... 112 

GHANT, ULYHHRH S ............................. 12r>() 

ORAHHKH ................................. 1202 

GRKKK AKT ................................ ;W)0 

GHKirssK C 1 The IJroken Pitcher") ...................... (> 

GROUHH, etc ................................ 414 

KA PJOH ............................... 4f>8 

, NAVAL ............................... 494 

, NAVAI, ............................... 405 

OHPKItMH .............................. , f^2 

HAIH, FRANH ("Hille Boblw") ....................... 010 

HARK* AND PIICA ............................. 

HAKTFom>, Capitol .................... ........ 



IV 



KEY TO PRONUNCIATION 

For a full explanation of the various sounds indicated, s^e the KEY TO PRONUNCIATION in Vol. I 



as 



o 
oi 

55 
ou 
u 



in ale, fate. 

" senate, chaotic. 

' ' glare, care, and as e in there. 

" am, at. 

" arm, father. 

" ant, and final a in America, armada, etc. 

" final, regal, pleasant. 

all, faU. 

" eve. 

" elate, evade. 

" end, pet. 

" fern, her, and as i in sir, etc. 

:t agency, judgment. 

" ice f quiet. 

" quiescent. 

" ill, fit. 

4l old, sober. 

" obey, sobriety. 

" orb" nor. 

" odd, forest, not. 

" atom, carol. 

oil, boil. 

" food, fool, and as w in rude, rule. 

" house, mouse. 

use, mule. 

unite. 

cut, but. 

full, put, or as oo in foot. book. 

urn, bum. 

yet, yield. 

" Spanish Habana, C6rdoba, where it is like 
v but made with the lips alone. 



in chair, ^^^. 
" Spanish Almodoyar, pu^gada, where it is 
nearly like th in English then. 



ch as 

D " 

S" 

G 
H 

hw 



" German Landtag = ch in Ger. ach, etc. 
j in Spanish Jjjona, g in Spanish gila; like 

English h in hue, but stronger. 
wh in which. 
ch in German ich, Albrecht = g in German 

Arensberg, Mecklenburg, etc. 
n "in sinker, longer, 
ng " " sing, long. 

N " " French bon, Bourbon, and win the French 
Etampesj here it indicates nasalizing of 
the preceding vowel. 
sh " " shine, shut, 
th " " thrust, thin. 
TH " " then, this. 
zh " 2 in azure, and s in pleasure. 



An apostrophe ['] is sometimes used as in t&Vl 
(table), kSz^m (chasm), to indicate the elision of 
a vowel or its reduction to a mere murmur. 

For foreign sounds, the nearest English equiva- 
lent is generally used. In any case where a special 
symbol, as o, H, K, N, is used, those unfamiliar with 
the foreign sound indicated may substitute the Eng- 
lish sound ordinarily indicated by the letter. For 
a full description of all such sounds, see the article 
on PRONUNCIATION. 



A PARTIAL LIST OF THE LEADING ARTICLES IN VOLUME X 



GLACIAL PERIOD. 

Mr. David Hale Newland. 
GLACIER. 

Professor Henry Fielding Reid. 

Mr. David Hale Newland. 
GLADSTONE, W. E. 

Dr. Newton D. Mereness. 
GLAND. 

Dr. David Gilbert Yates. 

Dr. William Leland Stmvell. 
GLAND, COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF. 

Mr. C. William Beebe. 
GLANDERS. 

Dr. Edwin West Allen. 
GLASGOW. 

Mr. Edward Lathrop Engle; Professor 
J. Salwyn Schapiro; Mr. Irwin Sco- 
field Guernsey. 



Professor James Morton Paton: Mr. 
Moses Nelson Baker; Professor 
Charles Knapp: Mr. H. M. Brook- 
field; Dr. George Kriehn. 
GMVB. 

Mr. Herbert Treadwell Wade. 
Mr. Moses Nelson Baker. 
GLUCOSE. 

Dr. Edwin West Allen. 

, r , r XT . ^ , 
Mr. Moses Nelson Baker 

.Mr. Herbert Treadwell Wade, 
GNOSTICISM. 

Professor John Wmthrop Platner. 
Professor Imng F. Wood. 

TU- -n j. T 11 

n^iv 11 ^ i: 
r.rm ' Wllham Beebe ' 



AimrP 
GOETHE. _ 

Dr. Benjamin Willis Wells. 
Professor Lawrence McLouth. 



TUT- T,,- a -n Tir,4. rt 
Mr, Louis D. Huntoon. 

Mr. Clifford L Turner. 



Mr. C. William Beebe. 
GrORILLA 

Mr. C. William Beebe. 
GOSPEL. 

Professor Melanchthon W. Jacobus. 
GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE. 

Professor Arthur L. Frothingbam. 

Professor A. D. F. Hamlin. 
GOTHIC ART. 

Dr. George Kriehn. 
GOTHIC LANGUAGE. 

Professor John Lawrence Gerig. 
GOTHS. 

Professor Charles Knapp. 
GOUT. 

Dr. David Gilbert Yates. 
GOVERNMENT. 

Professor George W. Kirchwey. 
GOYA. . 

Dr. George Kriehn. 



GRACCHCS. 

Professor Charles Knapp. 
GRAFTING. 

Dr. Alfred Charles True. 

Dr. Edwin West Allen. 
lU.'AIX KLEVATOU. 

Mr. Churk-. SMuttix.-!-: Hill. 

3j r . Ht-rberc Treuchu-li Wii'it>. 
GRAMMAR. 

Professor John Lawrence Gerig. 
GRANT, T. S. 

Dr. Harrv A. Ciiabinx- 

Dr. Xtwton D. Momiess. 
GRAPE. 

Dr. Kh\in West Allen. 
GRAPHITE. 

Profes&or Heinrioli Ries. 
GRAPT'UITE. 

} r . David Hale Newland. 
GRASSES. 

~ " p r . Alfred Charles True; Dr. Edwin 
^>st Allen; Professor John Merle 
Coiilter. 
GRAVITATION. 

Professor Joseph Sweetman Ames. 
GREAT AMFRIC \N DESERT. 

} Ir . r) aTi(1 n a i e Newland. 

GREAT LAKES. 

Professor Robert M. Brown. 
Mr- Hepbert Treadwell Wade. 
GREECE 

Mr. c a Adams; Professor James 
Mor ' ton ?aton . Professor Clifford 
Herschel Moore; Professor Robert M. 
Brown; Mr. Oscar Phelps Austin; 
Dr. Clark Wissler; Professor Charles 
Knapp; Professor Dana C. Munro. 
GREEK ART 

Professor Janies Moiion Paton; Dr - 

Geor S e Kriehn; Professor Charles 
Knapp; Professor A. D. F. Hainlin. 

PPPT?TT 

GREEK 



Professor Charles Knapp. 



Professor Clifford Herschel Moore. 
Professor Charles Knapp. 
UTBSUTDKE. 
Professor Clifford Herschel Moore. 



/, OTB nr 
GREEK 



^ ^ 

GREEK PHILOSOPHY, 

Professor Evander Bradley McGilvary. 
GREEK RELIGION, 

Professor Charles Knapp. 
GREELEY, HORACE. 

Professor James Edward Winston. 
GREENLAND. 

Mr. Cyrus C. Adams. 

General A. W. Greely. 
GREGORY. 

Professor Irving F. Wood. 
GREYHOUND. 

Mr. C. William Beebe. 
GRIGNARD REACTION. 

Professor Martin A. Rosanoff, 



VI 

GRINDING, CRUSHING, AND PULVERIZING HABEAS CORPUS. 



MACHINERY. 

Mr. Louis D. Huntoon. 
ORISONS. 

Mr. Edward Lathrop Engle. 

Professor Dana Carleton Munro. 
GROTIUS, HUGO. 

Professor George W. Kirchwey. 
GROUSE. 

Mr. C. William Beebc. 
GROWTH. 

Professor Alplieus Spring Packard.* 

Mr. C. William Beebc. 
GROWTH (IN PLANTS). 

Professor John Merle Coulter. 
GUADALOUPE. 

Mr. Edward Lathrop Engle. 
GUAM. 

Mr. William Churchill. 
GUANO. 

Dr. Edwin West Allen. 
GUARD. 

Major LeRoy S. Lyon, U. S. A. 
GUARDIAN. 

Professor George W. Kirchwey. 
GUATEMALA. 

Professor Roscoe R. Hill. 

Mr. Joseph J. Krai. 
GUIANA. 

Mr. Edward Lathrop Engle. 

Professor Roscoe R. Hill. 
GUILD. 

Professor Alvin Saunders Jolmson. 
GUISE. 

Miss Grace A. Owen. 

Professor J. Salwyn Schapiro. 
GUIZOT, F. P. G. 

Miss Grace A. Owen. 

Professor J. Salwyn Schapiro. 
GULF STREAM. 

Mr. David Hale Newland. 
GUMS. 

Professor Herman T. Vulte. 
GUN COTTON. 

Professor Charles Edward Munroe. 
GUNNERY. 

Capt, Lewis Sayre Van Dusser, U. S. N, 
GUNPOWDER. 

Dr. Marcus Benjamin; Captain John 
W. Joyes; Professor Charles Edward 



Munroe. 
GUNS, NAVAL. 

Capt. Lewis Sayre Van Duzer, U. S. N. 
GUNSHOT WOUND. 

Dr. David Gilbert Yates. 
GUSTAVUS II. 

Miss Grace A. Owen. 

Profcsflor J. Salwyn Schapiro. 
GUTTA PERCHA. 

Mr. Herbert Treadwell Wade. 
GYMNASIA. 

Professor Paul Monroe. 

Professor Isaac Leon Kandel. 
GYMNASTICS. 

Dr. F. E. Leonard. 
GYMNOSPERMS. 

Professor John Merle Coulter. 
GYPSIES. 

Professor John Lawrence Gerig. 
GYPSUM. 

Professor Heinrich Ries. 
GYROSCOPE. 

Mr. Herbert Treadwell Wade. 

Professor Joseph Sweetman Ames. 



Professor George W. Kirchwey 
. 

Professor Nathaniel Schmidt. 
Prnfi'Hxor t harles Knapp. 

Mr. Joseph J. Krfil. 
Professor Charles b\ Marvin. 



HADES. 

HAGUE. 
HAIL. 

HAIR. 

Dr. David Gilbert Yates. 
HALRDRESSING. 

Mr. Russell Stur^is.* 

Mr. George Lchuid Hunter. 
HAITI. 

Mr. OyniH C. Adams; Mr. Joseph t! 
Krfli; Professor Robert M. Brown. 
HAJJ. 

Professor Nathaniel Schmidt. 
HALIFAX. 

Mr. James L. Goweu. 
HALO. 

Professor Charles l<\ Marvin. 
HALS. 

Dr. George Kriehn. 
HAMBURG. 

Mr. Edward Lathrop Runlet. 

ProfettHor Dana CarleioTi Mnnro. 
HAMILTON, ALEXANDER. 

Professor James HMward Winston. 
HAMMER. 

Professor "Frederick Remflcn Mutton. 
HAND. 

Dr. Albert Warren Kerns. 

Dr, David Gilbert Yates. 
HANDWRITING. 

Dr. Marshall D. Hwell, 

Professor Isaac Leon Kandel. 
HANNIBAL. 

Or. Georgo N. Olcott.* 

Professor CIiarloH Knapp. 
HANOVER. 

Professor Robert M. Urown. 

Mr. Joseph .J. Krfll. 
HANRKATId LKACiUK 

Professor Dana Oarle^>n Munro. 
riAPSTUTRG. 

I'rofessor Duna (Jarleton Munro. 
HARBOR. 



Mr. Frank (!. 

Mr. Charles RhaLtuok Hill. 
HARDY, THOMAS. 

Dr. Horatio S. Krans. 
HARTS. 

Mr. C. William Bcnibc. 
HARMONY. 

PvofeRsor Alfred Keniy. 
HARRISON, WTLLCAM TU^NRY. 

Dr. Newton D. Mer(nes8. 
HARTMANN, KARL R. K. 

Professor Evandor Bradl<y Mc(Jlvnry. 
HARVARD TTNIVJUKSITY. 

Mr. David Ueald. 

Dr. Robert Arro\vHinith. 
HARVEST AND ITAUVKflTING. 

Dr. Edwin West All<n. 
HAT. 

Mr. MORCH NelHoti Baker. 

Mr. George Loland Tluntor. 
HAVANA. 

Professor Eocoe B. Hill. 

Mr. Joseph J. Krai. 
* Deoeaaed. 



THE NEW 
INTEENATIONAL 
E NCYCLOP^E DIA 



GAClAIi (gla'shal) DRIFT. See 
DUEFT. 
GLACIAL PERIOD, PLEIS- 
TOCENE (plis't6-sen) PERIOD, 
or ICE AGE. A division of goo- 
logic time, comprising the earliest 
part of the Quaternary period. The term gains its 
significance from a remarkable episode in which 
abnormal conditions of climate were involved. In 
late Tertiary times there seems to have been a 
gradual lowering of temperatures throughout 
the north temperate zone, and this change pro- 
gressed steadily until at the opening of the 
Glacial period the climate was esncntially arc- 
tic. Within the continental areas enormous 
glaciers and ice sheets then formed, which ad- 
vanced southward, filling the river and lake 
basins, covering the mountains, and burying the 
lowlands beneuth a vast mer dc glace. One field 
of ice extended over Canada and the north- 
eastern part of tho United States. Its north- 
ern limits have not yet been defined, but on the 
east it reached the * Atlantic Ocean, and south- 
ward it advanced well into New Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania, and the States between the Ohio and 
MiHHonri rivers. New "England, New York, and 
the region of the Great Lakes were completely 
covered by tho ice sheet. In the \Vhite Moun- 
tain H tho rocks bear evidence of having been 
striated and polished almost to the summits 
of tliu highest elevations, and tho same phenom- 
ena have been recorded for the Adirondack^ and 
GatflkillB, showing that tho ice- in places was 
several thousand feet thick. The mountains of 
western North America were also the scenes of 
groat glacial activity, of which the snow fields 
of the present day are but wasted relics. Gla- 
ciers dcHCcmcled from the Rocky Mountains of 
Colorado and from the Sierra Nevadas of Cali- 
fornia far into the river valleys, while those of 
Alaska and British Columbia were so extensive 
as to form practically a single field. 

The change in temperature seems, to have been 
no leas marked in the Old than in the New 
World. An ice sheet covered jtjie whole of north- 
ern Europe; it filled up the .basin of the Baltic 
on its way from Scandinavia to the plains of 
north Germany, and it crossed tho North Sea 
to the Scottish Highlands, whence it moved 
northward and westward into the Atlantic. The 
whole of England north of the Thames, as well 
as Scotland and Ireland, was buried beneath the 
ice, which attained a thickness in some locali- 



ties of 5000 feet. On the Continent the sheet 
spread over Scandinavia, Denmark, Holland, 
and parts of Germany, Belgium, and Russia, and 
comprised an area of about 800,000 square 
miles, or several times larger than the Green- 
land ice cap. South of its limits there were 
smaller snow fields and glaciers in tho Car- 

?athians, Alps, Jura, Pyrenees, and the Central 
'lateau of France. The present Alpine glaciers 
are shrunken remnants of the field that covered 
Switzerland during this period. The high moun- 
tain systems of Asia also show evidence of hav- 
ing been glaciated. In the Southern Hemisphere 
the glaciers of Patagonia were once enlarged so 
as to extend across the peninsula to the Atlan- 
tic shores, and New Zealand was overrun by the 
ice; but it has not boon definitely established 
that the period of glaeitition here was contempo- 
raneous with that of the Northern Hemisphere.. 
Effects of Glaciation. The general configu- 
ration of continental lands hiis not changed ap- 
preciably since the opening of the Glacial pe- 
riod. The mountain systems had acquired their 
elevation before that time, and in a general way 
the drainage was directed towards the same 
channels that now carry the surface waters soti- 
ward. The ice exerted a powerful influence, 
however, upon minor land forms or typca of 
scenery. In its progress from north to south 
and from highland to lowland it pushed along 
the soil and disintegrated rock, tho accumu- 
lations of long periods of subae'rial decay, ami 
deposited them in great moraines, whiri. still 
give a peculiar aspect to the scenery of glaciated 
regions. At the same time the wand and atones 
incorporated in the mass of moving ice were 
efficient agents of erosion; rock surfacoH, wher- 
ever exposed, were smoothed and striated, promi- 
nences assumed a more rounded form, and tho 
valleys were widened and deepened. The rock 
striations show that the direction of flow was 
influenced by mountain ranges of considerable 
elevation, although small inequalities in tho 
surface caused no deviation. Most of the lakes 
in northern Europe and America had their ori- 
gin in this period. Lake basins were scooped 
out by erosion, and temporary lakes were formed 
by obstruction of valleys during the retreat of 
the ice sheet. One of the largest temporary 
basins, which has been surveyed by means of 
the old beach lines, extended from the northern 
parts of Minnesota and North Dakota far into 
Canada, and covered an area exceeding thnt of 



GLACIAL PERIOD 

all the Great Lakes combined. All lakes which 
are of preglacial origin show evidence of having 
been expanded during this period. The Great 
Lakes are bordered by a, succession of terraces, 
the highest of which stand nearly 500 feet above 
the present water level. The ice sheet for a 
time stretched across the St. Lawrence valley, 
turning the drainage of Lake Ontario into the 
Mohawk and Hudson; and Lake Michigan, ob- 
structed at its outlet, overflowed towards the 
southwest into the Illinois River. 

A further important result wrought during 
the Glacial period was the removal of the soil 
that had been derived in situ by weathering and 
the substitution of a covering of "drift" (q.v.). 
This glacial material was spread very unevenly 
over the land. In the Laurentian highlands of 
Canada, where the ice sheet formed, the surface 
is bare rock or at moat thinly covered with soil. 
Farther south the drift accumulated along linos 
marking the advance and retreat of the ico in 
great heaps of bowlders, gravel, sand, and clay. 
Such terminal moraines are strongly developed 
in New England, New York, Ohio, and the 
Northern States as far west as Kansas. A 
second portion of the transported material was 
distributed beneath the ice sheet as "bowlder 
clay" (see BODLDEB CLAY) or "till," in the form 
of a ground moraine. The bowlder clay is a com- 
pact, tenacious clay containing bowlders of vary- 
ing size and generally uiistratined, although 
traces of bedding arc sometimes present. It rests 
directly upon the rock, which is usually smooth 
and striated. The bowlder clay is distributed 
unevenly, gathering into smoothly arched ridges 
and mounds called "eskers" and "drumlina" 
(qq.v.), and at times thinning out so as to 
leave the rock formations exposed. 

The extraordinary changes of climate indi- 
cated by the Glacial period led to migrations of 
the fauna and flora inhabiting the Arctic and 
temperate zones. As the temperature fell, such 
animals as were unable to endure extreme cold 
worked southward, while some species found 
their way from the far north into regions from 
which they have long since disappeared; re- 
mains of the polar hear, reindeer, and Arctic 
fox occur in the glacial deposits of southern 
Europe. With the retreat of the ice the Arctic 
fauna and flora were able to adjust themselves 
to the changing conditions by withdrawing from 
southern latitudes or by ascending the elopes 
of mountains. The oscillation of the climate 
was" thus accompanied by a variation of the life 
forms in each particular region. 

Divisions of the Glacial Period. A detailed 
study of the glacial deposits shows that they 
were not laid down continuously or under uni- 
form conditions. On the other hand, the de- 
posits are frequently divided into sections by 
intercalated beds of peat, and by variations in 
the relative degree of "weathering which lead to 
the assumption that the ice advanced and re- 
treated more than once. The evidences as to the 
number and extent of such fluctuations have not, 
as yet, been correlated successfully for different 
regions, and there is still much difference of 
opinion on the subject. The glacial deposits 
of the interior of North America are divided, ac- 
cording to the more recent views of geologists, 
into four and possibly six stages, each of which 
represents a period of glacial advance, with in- 
tervals of ice recession between each member. 
The stages are not all present in any one 
place, and they probably denote widely variant 



2 GLACIAL PEKIOD 

periods of time, the earlier hising Mie longer. 
Beginning with the oldent, tUy tire: (1) ,Jcr- 
seyan, (2) Kansan, (U) Jllinoian, (4) Wiscon- 
sin. Tlui presence of two other stagtsrt tlu one 
(lowan) preceding and the other (Later Wis- 
consin) following the Wisconsin in advocated 
by dome authorities. 

Estimates of Time. The Glacial invasion 
was the last important geological event preced- 
ing the present epoch that exerted a wide iu- 
llueuce upon the physical features of the earth. 
Just how long tigo it occurred cannot be stated, 
but estimates based on different data seem to 
indicate that the ice retreated from the north- 
ern United States at least 25,000 years ago. 
The time diminishes, of course, with mere-using 
latitude and in Sweden it is calculated that the 
ice extended over the southern part an late JIH 
12,000 years ago. The duration of Uie entire 
period from the first advance of the iee eonld not 
have been much less than 500,000 yearn and 
may have been two or throe times that figure. 
It is certain that man oxistetl during the later 
stages. 

Causes of Glacial Climate. Various theories 
havo been proposed to aceount for the cold 
climate of the Glacial period. A Bufttaioiit eauso 
may be found in terrestrial changes, sueli, e.g., 
as would lead to a variation in the distribution 
of land and water. The formation of glaeierw 
is influenced by precipitation and tlmn by tlui 
proximity of warm waters to areas of cold land. 
It is conceivable that the polow may have been 
surrounded by a largo land area wliieli would 
exert a cooling effect upon the climate, and that 
the flow of ocean currents may have been HO di- 
rected as to increase precipitation, but muth a 
view is unsupported by geological evidence. A 
second theory, banod upon terrestrial elianges, 
ascribes tlio cold climate to a general ol oval ion 
of the land surface in the north temperate wmo, 
possibly accompanied by a diversion of tho (ME 
Stream acrona the present TwlhmnH of Cent nil 
America into the Pacific. Tina thwry failn in 
the same particular as tho firnfc ? i.e., 'there are 
no evidence** of such great vidHHitmliw. While 
either of these theories would acwount for the 
cold, 16 is also difficult to bring them into con- 
sonance with the view now commonly accepted 
by goologintfl, that tho. Glacial period wan marked 
by periodical variationn in the climate. Ono of 
the most ingenious explanations that have yet 
been proposed in baned upon the relative posi- 
tions of the earth and wun at distant periods of 
time. It is known that the eccentricity of th 
earth's orbit is mibjoct to secular variatioiifl. 
With a maximum of eccentricity the earth is 
14,000,000 miles nearer the* nun 'during perihe- 
lion than in aphelion, and the difference in tho 
amount of direct hoot rceQiwtt from tho, nun be- 
tween these positions IH about one-fifth. If now, 
by precession of the cquinoxon, winter in tlio 
Northern Hcminphore should occur when tho 
earth is in aphelion, the effect woxxld bo to 
lengthen this season by 22 <layn and to shorten 
tho summer by an equal period. This coinci- 
dence of maximum eccentricity with aphelion 
winter would perhaps nmult in the refrigera- 
tion of the climate in the Northern ITetmHphoro. 
This theory, dovelopM by Dr. James Croll, 
gained considerable 'tavor for a time, but like 
the other theories is not without* its defects 
The most serious objection to its application 
is that it apparently limits tho duration of 
the glacial stage to the processional period of 



GLACIEB 

21,000 years, altogether too brief for the results 
accomplished by the ice. More recently the 
trend of opinion has rather favored the influence 
of atmospheric agencies, such as those of the 
winds, the relative variations of moisture and of 
carbonic-acid gas in the air. No single explana- 
tion yet advanced seems to meet all the con- 
ditions of the problem, and it appears quite 
probable that the real cause of the Glacial 
period may lie in a concurrence of several differ- 
ent factors. 

Bibliography. Geikie, Great Tee Age and its 
Relation to the Antiquity of Man (New York, 

1895) ; Bonney, Jcc Work Present and Past (ib., 

1896) ; Herrmann, Glacialerscheinuugcn in dcr 
geofogischcn Vcryangcnheit (Hamburg, 1S96) ; 
Wright, Ice Age in North America (New York, 
1801 ) ; Dawson, Canadian Ice Age (ib., 1804) ; 
Lewis, Papers and Notes on the Glacial Ocology 
of tircat Britain and Ireland (London, 1894); 
Heim and Pcnck, On the District of the Ancient 
niwiertt of the Isar and Linth (ib., 188C) ; 
Lyell, <1<wlogiua1 Eoidcnces of the Antiquity of 
J/tfit (4th ed., ib., 1873); Croll, Climate and 
Time (Edinburgh, 1885); Penck and Brtickner, 
Die. Alpcn. in, FAssciUiltcr (Leipzig, 1901-09) ; 
Levereit, "Glacial Formations and Drainage Fea- 
tiuvH of the Erie and Ohio Basins," in United 
tftntes (hwlogical Surrey, Monograph XLI 

(Washington, 1902); Fairchild, '"Pleistocene 
Oology of New York State," in Bulletin of the 
(icolotj-ical Society of America, vol. xxiv (ib., 
1913). See GEOLOGY; GLACIER; PLEISTOCENE 
PKRIOD. 

GLACIEB, gla'sher or glfisl-er (Fr., from 
gltwv, Lat, glavicfi, ice). Many valleys of the 
Alps and of other high mountain ranges arc 
tilled with ice which extends from the snow 
Holds above to well below the tree line. This 
muss of ice IH called a glacier. The winter's 
wnow, falling on the lower part of the glacier, 
melts away tho following aummer and exposes 
the ice, which also melts to some extent, and 
which, if there were not Home Honrco of sup- 
lily, would entirely disappear. In the snow 
fields above, the annual snowfall is not all melted 
in summer, and there is an accumulation of 
snow. It is evident that in time the snow would 
grow indefinitely high if there were no means of 
relief. Tho necessary relief is found in the How 
of tho ice, which carries off the surplus snow- 
fall of tho snow fields, consolidated into ICG, 
to tho lower part of tho glacier. A glacier, 
therefore, has two distinct parts a reservoir, 
whero tho snow ifl collected, and a diasipator, 
whero the ice is melted. The lino separating 
these, two regions is usually called the wH><5 
lino. Wo arc thus led to tho following defini- 
tion: A glacier is a body of ice and snow 
formed in a region where the snowfall is greater 
than the waste, and flowing to a region where 
the waste is greater than the snowfall. 

Distribution. Whenever there is an annual 
snowfall greater than tho annual waste, glaciers 
must exist. We find them on all high moun- 
tains subject to moist winds, such as those on 
the western coast of North and South America, 
the Scandinavian mountains, the Alps, the Pyr- 
enees, tho Caucasus, the Himalayas, and the 
mountain chains to tho north, and the New Zea- 
land Alps. One glacier is known in Mexico, on 
Mount TKtaccihuatl, and a number in equatorial 
Africa, on Mount Kenia, on Mount Kilimanjaro, 
and on tho Ttuwenaori Range. In the Arctic re- 
gions (Vmnell Land, Greenland, Iceland, Jan 



I GLACIEB 

Mayen Land, Spitsbergen, and Franz Josef Land 
are more or leas covered with glacial ice; and 
the Antarctic lands are almoat entirely ice- 
covered. 

Classification. Glaciers may be divided into 
tlie following classes: 

1. Continental glaciers, or inland ice, such 
aa the great masses of ice that cover Green- 
land and the Antarctic Continent. 2. Plateau 
glaciers, or local ice caps, similar to conti- 
nental glaciers, but of comparatively small 
extent. Examples of this class are found in 
Norway, in Spitsbergen, and on the borders of 
Greenland. 3. Alpine glaciers, the more famil- 
iar forms, which occupy valleys. 4. Piedmont 
glaciers. This form occurs when Alpine gla- 
ciers debouch and spread out on a plain. The 
beat example is the jSJalaspina Glacier, at the 
foot of the St. Elias Alps in Alaska. 5. Hang- 
ing glaciers, which rest on shelves on the moun- 
tain side. They are usually small and steep. 
6. Debris glaciers (glaciers rcmanics of the 
French), formed not from snow, but from ice 
falling from a higher glacier. They are usually 
small and unimportant. 

Glaciers may be complete or incomplete. A 
complete glacier has a reservoir where the snow 
is accumulated and a dissipator where the ice 
is all melted; an incomplete glacier either has 
its ice supplied directly, as in class 0, or loses 
some of its ice at the lower end by breakage, as 
in glaciers which break off at a cliff, or those 
which reach the sea and form icebergs. 

Motion. If a glacier is in equilibrium i.e., 
neither growing larger nor smaller the ice 
annually flowing through any cross section of 
the glacier must exactly equal the total an- 
nual accumulation above and the waste below 
that section. As the accumulation above and 
the waste below a section through the neve" line 
is greater than for any other section, the flow, 
under uniform conditions, is the greatest there; 
and it is less and less through sections more and 
more, distant from the nev6 line, whether they 
are higher in the reservoir or lower in the 
disaipator. 

That the ice of glaciers is in motion down 
the valley has long been known, botli from the 
observation that large stones are carried down 
on the surface of the ice and from the general 
reasoning given above. It was not, however, 
until Agassiz and Forbes began their classical 
researches that any quantitative value of the 
motion of the ice was obtained. Since then 
many measurements have been made on various 
glaciers, and we now have a fair knowledge of 
this matter. It has been found that at any 
section the velocity of the ice is greatest at the 
centre and diminishes as wo approach the sides. 
When, however, a glacier has a sinuous course, 
the greatest velocity is not in the exact centre, 
but is displaced towards the convex side, so 
that tho line of maximum velocity is more sinu- 
ous than the glacier itself. The velocity di- 
minishes also from tho surface of the. ice towards 
the. bed of the glacier. The observations on 
which this statement rests are neither numerous 
nor satisfying; nevertheless, they are sufficient 
to establish the fact. It will appear that, as 
Forbes said, the flow of a glacier is very much 
like that of a river; if we consider a river which 
is flowing into a sandy region, where tho water 
is gradually lost by seepage, the analogy is 
fltUl more striking. In valley glaciers of fairly 
uniform slope the velocity is greatest at the 



GLACIER 

line and diminishes as we ascend or de- 
seeiid from there. This law is subject to many 
exceptions; if the valley contracts in descend- 
ing, there must he an increase in velocity; if 
the slope of the valley increases, this will also 
increase the velocity; in glaciers which reach 
the sea and break off in bergs the velocity 
increases as we approach the end, as a result of 
the lack of support in front. There is also a 
slight movement into the glacier in the reser- 
voir, which is greatest where the accumulation 
is greatest, and one towards the surface in the 
dissipator, which is greatest where the waste is 
greatest. As to actual values in velocities, we 
find that the Her de Glace has the greatest 
velocity of all glaciers in the Alps, its maximum 
amounting to 35 ^ inches a day. The greatest 
velocity of the Aletsch, the largest glacier of 
the Alps, is 20 inches a day. For other Alpine 
glaciers we find various velocities down to an 
inch or two a day, or even less for the smaller 
ones. Of larger glaciers, the Muir in Alaska has 
a velocity of about 7 feet, near where it reaches 
tidewater; and one of the larger ice streams of 
Greenland, the Upernivik, was found to have a 
velocity of 99 feet a day at one point near 
its end. 

Cause of Glacial Motion. Many theories 
have been advanced to explain why the ice of 
glaciers, which is apparently so very brittle, 
should flow like a plastic substance. There are 
two questions to be answered, viz., What is the 
force causing the ice to move, and what property 
of ice enables it to move as it docs ? There is a 
general unanimity at present in the belief that 
the weight of the ice itself is the only force 
causing the motion, but there is not BO much 
unanimity in answering the second question. 
Three explanations still hold their ground: First, 
according to Forbes and Rendu, the ice, in spite 
of the fact that it is very brittle to any rapid 
change of shape, is truly plastic to slow changes; 
just as shoemaker's wax will break under a 
sharp blow, but will allow a bullet by its own 
weight to sink slowly through it. This has 
been abundantly proved by the experiments of 
Pfaff, Andrews, Main, McConnoll, and Kidd. 
Experiments on single ice crystal show that the 
crystal is plastic in planes at right angles to the 
optic axis. This is the plastic or viscous theory. 

^ DISTRIBUTION OF VELOCITY IN 
SECTION AB 




CONTOUR i 
N^v LINE- 
BOUNDARY OF GLACIER 
STREAM 
MORAINES 



PLAN OF QLACIBB. 



Second, Tyndall considered ice to be devoid of 
true plasticity, but thought that in a glacier it 
is continually shattered and refrozen. He was 
led to this idea by the fact which Faraday dia* 



4 GLACIER 

covered, that two pieces of ice when brought 
into contact will freeze together. He showed by 
many experiments that ice could be crushed and 
forced through curved tubes and come out clear 
ice, the fragments having entirely coalesced. 
This is the fracture and regclation theory. 
Third, James Thomson discovered that the froez- 
ing point of ice is lowered .0075 C. from an in- 
crease of one atmosphere of pressures and ap- 
plied this fact to the explanation of glacial 
motion. He supposed that at any point where, 
by the movement of the ice, the pressure bo- 
comes a little greater than the average, the 
freezing point will be lowered and a small 
amount of ice molted; the procure being thus 
relieved, the ice will move slightly, and the 
pressure will be transferred to other points ; the 
water thus formed will be squeezed through 
crevices in the ice to other points whore the 
pressure is less, and will there freeze. A con- 
tinuation of this process will result in the gen- 
eral progression of the ice down its valley. 
This is the pressure and regulation theory. 

Crevasses. Although the ice of glaciers can 
suffer some distortion without breaking, if the 
rate of distortion is too great the, ice will crack 
and great crevasses form. Crevasses can be di- 
vided into distinct classes: Marginal crevasses, 
which occur on the sideH of glaciers and point 
upstream at an angle of about 4/5 ; they are the 
result of increasing velocity from the Hides to 
the centre of the glacier. Them must also bo a 
tendency to the formation of crevasses at the 
bottom of the glacier pointing upstream, but it 
is extremely probable that the weight of the 
ice is sufficient to prevent their forming except 
occasionally very near the end of the glacier. 
Transverse crevasses are formed when the slope 
of the bed increases. Longitudinal crevasses 
form near the end of the glacier, especially when 
the iee spreads out on a plain ; they are due to 
the pressure of the ice behind and are usually 
arranged radially. Irregular crevasses may bo 
formed as the result of some irregularity in the 
bed of the glacier. There is usually a very 
large crevasse, called the bcrgtt<:hru.n'd, at the 
upper margin of the reservoir; it is due to the 
more rapid motion of ice of the reservoir pulling 
it away from the ice clinging to the mountain 
slopes. In the dissipator the crevasses are in 
full view, but in the reservoir they are frequently 
covered with snow; this makes 'traveling above 
the snow line very dangerous, except for parties 
of several persons properly roped together. When 
crevasses first form they are more cracks, which 
afterward widen out as the result of the motion 
of the ice and the melting of their sides, until 
they sometimes are 50 or even 100 feet wide. 
They may be half a mile or more, in length, but 
the great depths which they arc supposed to 
reach are exaggerated; they arc rarely so much 
as 200 feet deep, and probably never as deep as 
300 feet. 

Moraines. The rocks and debris which fall 
upon the surface of the glacier and arc carried 
down by it, and the material pushed along under 
the ice, are called moraines. They cannot b 
seen in the reservoir, as they ar there covered 
by the snow, but they are very striking features 
of the dissipator. Lateral moraines are formed 
by the rocks falling from the mountains xipon 
the sides of the glacier. When two tributary 
glaciers unite to form a trunk glacier, two of the 
lateral moraines unite to form a medial moraine, 
which from a distance looks like a groat dark 



GLACIERS 




#: 



^?^ 
.; ..- ':,.,: ,':-.' '' V 



1. Forno Glacier, Switzerland. 

2. Sebree Island, Glacier Bay, Alaska, showing rook glaciated by Mulr Glacier when It waa larger. 



GLACIERS 




'"T""''' 1 - 



w /rw&8@ 
&*&&& 



;.,>tV*^\.v:^'v-V-y.'. - 




; ,- . ; ;^, , ^ 



FOR NO GLACIER 

1. Reservoir showing the ne'vo line, outcrop of the strata and crevasses. 

2. View showing moraines. 



line drawn upon the surface of the white ice 
marking out the direction of motion. The ice 
under the moraine, being protected from the air 
and sun, does not molt as rapidly as the unpro- 
tected ieo, and, therefore, is left by the general 
waste of the surface as a great ridge rising 
HometimeH TOO feet above the general level of 
the ice. licscruoir moraines, so called from their 
origin, are formed by material falling upon the 
reservoir, where it is covered by the snow and 
later brought to the surface of the dissipator 
by the motion of the ice and the melting. 
Moraines which can hardly be distinguished from 
reservoir moraines may sometimes be formed 
from the material plucked from a projecting 
point in the bed of tho glacier and carried along 
in tho body of the ice, to be exposed later at the 
surface by the melting. The material pushed 
along under the ice is called the ground moraine ; 
it is made up of d6bris fallen under the glacier 
at the sides or through crevasses or the berg- 
schrund, and material plucked from the bed of 
the glacier. 

Structure of the Ice. The origin of the 
glacial ice is the snow that falls in the reservoir. 
By thawing and freezing, this soon changes into 
a turbid ice filled with many air bubbles. Crys- 
tallisation startH from numerous centres, around 
which tho molecules of ice gradually rearrange 
themselves until the whole IIKIRS is made up of 
crystals of clear ice (though still containing 
many air bubbles) with their respective optical 
axes turned in various directions. The crystals 
at tins stago are about the size of peas and 
adjoin one another in MurfaocH which bear no 
relation to the geometric crystallines faces. JBy 
a process of reo.rystallization some of those crys- 
tals grow at the expense of their neighbors until 
finally many of them become 4 or 5 inches in 
diameter. During this process tho ice is moving 
down the valley, so that wo find the crystals 
of increasing age, and therefore increasing size, 
mixed in with smaller ones aa we go from the 
ne've fields down tho glacier. The sun's rays 
penetrating the ico for a short distance melt the 
ice along the junctions of the crystals, which 
can then readily be separated. The sun's rays 
ulao cause molting in the interior of the crystals 
at various points; the cavities thus formed are 
fiat dinks or wix-anglod stars; as the water 
occupies less space than the ice from which it 
was melted, each of those cavities contains a 
small vacuum which is more easily visible than 
the Hides of tho cavity. These cavities are known 
aa Tyndall'H figures, and always lie with their 




STRATIFICATION 

_, LINES OF FLOW 

XXmCtXTTTDINAL SECTION OF QLACIEB. 

flat sides at right angles to the optical axis of 
the crystal, whose direction may thus be easily 
determined. 

Stratification and Banded Structure. On 
the sides of crevasses in the reservoir tho layers 
of hardening snow, due to successive seasons, can 
be readily distinguished, and the outcrops of 
these strata can be followed for a short distance 
into the disaipator; but their appearance soon 



5 GLACIER 

changes, and the majority of observers claim 
that as the- ice becomes consolidated the marks 
of stratification are oM iterated. In the lower 
part of the diwsipator, where the ice is 
thoroughly consolidated, it id found to be com- 
posed of bands of bluer and whiter ice, the color 
being caused by the amount of the contained air 
bubbles. These bands, as described by Forbes 
and others, follow the general shape of the 
bowl of a spoon pointing downstream. Each 
tributary has its own system of bands, though 
but one system is usually found at the end of 
the glacier. They are prominent at the sides, 
near the end, and at the line of junction where 
two glaciers unite. Three explanations have 
been given of their origin. Agassiz considered 
them the modified form of stratification. Forbes 
looked upon them as surfaces where the princi- 
pal amount of differential motion took place. 
Tyndall thought they were caused by pressure 
and were analogous to the slaty cleavage of rock. 
Forbes's idea has been practically discarded, and 
glacialists are divided between the explanations 
of Agassiz and of Tyndall. 

Temperature. Theory and, so far as they 
go, observations indicate that the body of the 
glacier is at the temperature of melting ice. 

Variations. The relative sizes of the reser- 
voir and diasipiitor are determined by the con- 
dition that the accumulation in the first must 
equal the waste in the second. The accumula- 
tion depends upon the size of the reservoir and 
the snowfall, and the waste on the size of the 
dissipator and the rate of melting. The melting 
is due principally to direct radiation from the 
sun and to condensation of water vapor from the 
air; it will readilv be seen that in cold wet 
periods glaciers will advance, and in warm dry 
periods they will retreat. Glaciers are, there- 
fore, indicators of climatic variations. In the 
last 30 years much attention has been given to 
the study of the variations of glaciers. It has 
been discovered that in the Alps the glaciers 
have made no permanent change within the last 
300 years, but that they have grown larger and 
smaller in size, making a complete fluctuation 
on tho average once in 35 years. Records of the 
glaciers of Iceland and of Scandinavia show 
that in the seventeenth century they were much 
smaller than they are at present; early in the 
eighteenth century a general advance began 
which continued well into the nineteenth cen- 
tury, and was characterized by a very marked 
increase in the extent of the ice; since then 
there has been a small retreat. The same 
general order haa been followed in southeastern 
Alaska, though, the dates cannot be definitely 
determined. It is probable that the glaciers of 
other Arctic regions have experienced similar 
variations. With few exceptions, tho glaciers in 
all parts of the world are now in retreat. 

Work of Glaciers. The moraines are carried 
along by the glacier and deposited on the sides 
of its valley and at the end of the ice. Some 
rocks become embedded in the ice and act like 
graving tools in making long, straight scratches 
in the "bed rock, whose surface is also smoothed 
by finer material moved by the ice. A region 
which has been covered by a glacier usually 
shows smooth and rounded rock surfaces marked 
with parallel scratches; heaps of rocks, more or 
less angular, are dumped irregularly about, fre- 
quently forming small lakes. These rocks arc 
often of a different kind from the underlying 
country rock, showing that they have been trans- 



GLACIER BAY 

ported from a distance, and their angular or 
aubangular forms show that they have not been 
transported by water. They are called erratics. 
Among them some will have smoothed and 
scratched surfaces. It is by studying the dis- 
tribution of scratches, smoothed surfaces, and 
erratics, that geologists have been able to show 
the existence of a former ice age when large 
parts of Europe and of North America were 
covered by great sheets of ice. 

The power of glaciers to erode valleys or lake 
basins has been greatly discussed, without a con- 
clusion commanding general assent being reached. 
Leading geologists entertain diametrically oppo- 
site opinions on this subject. Fiords show the 
effects of ice erosion to a greater or less extent, 
although in most cases they were originally 
narrow stream valleys. The work of the ice 
has consisted in deepening the channels, particu- 
larly in the central part wliicli often is lower 
than the outlet. The mere wear or abrasive 
action of a glacier on its bd may be relatively 
slight; on the other hand the ice doubtless 
exerts a strong plucking force upon rocks, suffi- 
cient to tear away any fissured or loosened 
material. 

Bibliography. For general description and 
theoretical discussion of glaciers, consult : JShaler 
and Davis, Glaciers (Boston, 1881); Agassiz, 
Etudes sur les glaciers (Nenchfttel, 1840); 
Schmidt, "Erne ncue Glacial theorie," in /'ctfcr- 
mann'ft Alitthcilungev , vol. xliv (Gotha, 18i)8) ; 
Agassiz, Xouvelles etudes et experiences sur les 
glaciers actucls (Paris, 1847); id., Untcrsuoh- 
ungen ubcr die Gletschcr (Solotkurn, 1841); 
Heim, Handbuch dcr Oletschorkwide (Stuttgart, 
1885) ; Hendu, Theory of the (Naders of the 
8aooy, trans, by Wills (London, 1874) ; Forbes, 
Occasional Papers on the Theory of Glaciers 
(ib., 1859); Agassiz, Geological HkticJiM (Bos- 
ton, 1890); Gilbert, Glaciers and Glacialiun 
(Washington, 1910) ; Hohbs, Ghat-act eristics of 
Existing Glamors (New York, 1011),' Descrip- 
tions of individual localities may be found in 
Keid, Studies of the Jffuir Glacier, Alaska 
(Washington, 1802) ; id., "Glacier Bay and its 
Glaciers," in United Stales Oaologieal Survey 
Report (ib., 1805); Russell, (llaclcrs of North 
America (Boston, 1897) ; Tyndall, The Warners 
of the Alps (London, I860) ; Martin, Glacivrs 
and (/lactation in College Fiord, A laska ( Berlin, 
1913). See GEOLOGY. 

GLACIER BAY. A glacial fiord extending 
60 miles northward from Icy Strait, Alaska. 
Glacier Bay penetrates the St. Elias "Range, which 
discharges nine great glaciers into the liord, 
five having a sea front of 1 mile or more (Map: 
Alaska, M 6). The largest glacier, named for 
Professor Muir, is enormous in its proportions. 
It is over 200 feet high, 3 miles broad at the sea, 
and is equal in area to the State of Rhode 
Island. Innumerable icebergs discharge an- 
nually, and the bay is so ice-encmnbored, for 
years at a time, as to be dangerous for navi- 
gation. 

GLACIER BEAR. The small gray bear 
(Ursus emmonsi) of the St. Elias Alps, Alaska, 
See BBAR. 

GLACK'EN'S, WnxiAM J. (1874- ). 
An American portrait, landscape, and figure 
painter, born in Philadelphia. He studied in his 
native city and in Paris, where he was strongly- 
influenced by the great modern Frenchmen. His 
art developed through contact with the bcsb of 
his contemporaries and yet remained personal 



6 GLADDEN 

and original. In the field of illustration, which 
occupied his attention for some time after his 
return to America, his remarkable sense of 
character, expressed in drawing of masterly 
tjuality, soon placed him at the head of the pro- 
fusion. His painting wan even more important 
and brought him membership in the Nociety of 
American Artists ( 1005), and an aysoeiate mem- 
bership in the National Ae-mlem.v (li)OO) and 
in the Association of American Painters and 
Smlptors (U)ll). Among his awards wore a 
gold medal at the Pun- American Exposition at 
Buffalo (11)00) and another at the St. Louis 
Exposition (1004). Portraits, landscapes, and 
iigure compositions wore all handled SUCCCBB- 
fully by Mr. (llaekens. From the observation 
of the daily life of the American city, his in- 
terest turned to more specifically icsthetie, prob- 
lems. Among his best-known paintings are 
''May Day Party," the bent picture of its kind 
thus far "painted bv an American artist, and 
"Girls Hatliiiifr" (1011). 

GLADBACH, glUt'biio, or BERGISCH- 
GLADBACH, bor'g6sh-. A town of the Rhine 
Province, Prussia, 8 miles northeast of Cologne 
(Map: (lennany, B IJ). It has four large paper 
mills, employing 1200 hands; produces cigars, 
coco-fibre mats, lumber, dye wood, iron ore, ma- 
chinery and other iron products, po\vdor, and 
/ire brick. Pop., 1000, 11,435; 1010, 15,207. 

GLADBACH, or MttNCHEN"- (nn,m'Kcn) 
GIiADBACH. A manufacturing town of the, 
Prussian Rhine Province, 10 miles west of 
Dllsseldorf (Map: Germany, H 3). Among its 
many churches ia the Mfhiaterkirchc, a Hue old 
structure with a Gothic choir dating from the 
twelfth century, and an eighth-century crypt. 
There are throe monasteries, a. synagogue, and 
a teachers' seminary. (Hndlmch ia the centre 
of the cotton industry in the Rhine Province. 
There are establishments for the manufacture 
of silk and woolen goods, dye and print goods, 
and thread; also soap, shoes, chocolate, con- 
fectionery, wagons, brushes, paper, leather, fur- 
niture, machinery, hosiery, books, rope, hrit'kn, 
and meal. The number of persons employed in 
the factories is over 10,000. (Jladhach had itH 
origin in the Benedictine abbey founded origi- 
nally hi the eighth century, and abolished at tho 
beginning of the nineteenth. Pop,, 11)00, 58,03; 
11)10, 6M14, mostly Roman Catholics, 

GLAD'DEIT, WASHINGTON (1830-1018). An 
American Congregational clergyman and writer, 
born in Pottagrove, Pa. He prepared for college 
at the Owego (N. V.) Academy, and graduated 
at Williams College in 18f>f). He was pastor of 
Congregational churches in Brooklyn, N. Y., 
Morrisania, N. Y., North Adams, Mass., ami 
Springfield, Mnaa., from 1800 until 1882, when 
he removed to Columbus, Ohio, to become pastor 
of the First Congregational Church there* A 
nn editor, he wns connected with the. Tndapc.nf7.rn t 
from 1871 to 1875, and with the Runday Afttr- 
noon (Springfield, Mass.) from 1878 to 1H80. 
He. received the degree, of IX I), from Uoanoke 
Colleges Virginia, and that of LL.D. from the 
University of Wisconsin and Notre Dame CTni- 
veraity, Indiana, a Catholic infititution. His 
sermons and books show vigorous, direct, and 
practical thought, and a gift of graceful ex- 
pression. He put into practice hia frequently 
expressed convictions regarding the duties of 
citizenship by serving in tho city council of 
Columbus from 1900 to 1002. On Jan. 1, 1014, 
he retired from active work and became pastor 



GrLADHEIM ' 

emeritus. His bonks, sensible* and scholarly dis- 
ou8nious of social and civil reforms, and of the 
application of Christianity to everyday life, in- 
dude: Plain Tit wig kin im the Art o/ Living 
(1868); WorUngmcn and their Employers 
(1870): Rein tj a Christian (1870); The Chris- 
tian \Yaijf (1877); The Lord's Prayer (1880); 
The riirifttinn. League of Connactwut (1883); 
Thing* A'cin and Old (1884); The Young Men 
and the flint relics (188,")); Ipplicd Christianity 
(1887) ; Parish Problems (ISSS) ; Burning Ques- 
tions (1880); Who Wrote the fiille? ('iSOl); 
Santa Clans on a. Lark (1802) ; Tool ft <nirl the 
Man (1893) ; The Cosmopolis City Club (1803) ; 
The Church and the Kingdom (1804); Ruling 
Ideas of the Present Age (1805) ; Pectin Puzzling 
Bible Books (1807); Social Facts and Forces 
(1807) ; The Christian Pastor and the Working 
Clwirch (1808); How Much is Left of the OJd 
Doctrines (1800); Social Salvation (1002); 
Witnesses of the Light (1003), the W. B. Noble 
lectures at Harvard; Where DOCK the Rky Begirt? 
(1004) j The New Idolatry (1005) ; Christian ity 
and SociaJiftm (1000) ; The Church and Modern 
Life (1008); TJie Labor Question (1011); Pres- 
ent Day Theology (1033) ; Live and Learn 
(1014). Consult his Recollections (Boston, 
1000). 

G-LADHEIM, gladlieym (Tcol., bright abode). 
In Norse mythology, tlie dwelling place of Odin, 
the largest and noblest of edifices, Jn this home 
is Valhalla (the hall of heroes), radiant with 
gold, to which arc conducted all who fall in 
battle. The ceiling is formed of spears, the roof 
of shields, arid the benches are strewn with 
coats of mail. According to the Elder Edda it 
has .540 gate,s, through each of which 800 men 
can go abreast. 

GLADIATOR, glftdl-ii'tor (Lat., swordsman). 
One who in antiquity fought in the arena, at the 
amphitheatre in Koine, and in other cities, for 
the amusement of the public. The gladiators 
wore generally captives, or condemned criminal's, 
or, more often, slaves bought and trained for 
the purpose by masters (called la-niatas) who 
made this their business. The custom was bor- 
rowed by the- Romans from the Etruscans. It 
had its origin in the practice of- human sacri- 
fices, or that of taking at funerals the lives of 
captives or prisoners of war, in honor of heroes 
who had died in battle. 

After a time all great funerals of distin- 
guished men were sole ran iaed by human sacri- 
fices!, which took the form of combats, in which, 
to increase the interest of the spectators, the 
prisoners were required to kill one another; 
and as prisoners, and afterward other slaves, 
were kept for this purpose, they were trained to 
light with skill and courage, to make the spec- 
tacle more impressive. In time these shows, 
instead of being a funeral rite, became a com- 
mon amusement. The first gladiatorial combat 
we read of in lloman history was a contest of 
three pairs of gladiators, given by Marcus and 
I)evimufl Brutus, on the death or their father, 
in 264 B.O. Tn 217 B.C. the first Scipio Africanus 
diverted his army at New Carthage, with a 
gladiatorial exhibition. Tn 207 B.O. a show of 
22 pairs was given in the Forum. The exhibi- 
tion of gladiators rapidly became popular. 
Magistrates, ptiblic officers, and candidates gave 
shows to the people, which consisted chiefly of 
these encounters. The emperors exceeded all 
others in the extent and magnificence of these 
spectacles. Julius Cecsar gave a show of 320 



GLADIATOR 

pains; Titus gave u .show of gladiators, wild 
beasts, and sea fights for 100 days; Trajan gave 
a show of 123 days, in which 2000 men fought 
with one another or with wild beasts for the 
amusement of the Romans assembled in the Coli- 
Hcum. A vast number of slaves from all parts 
of the world were kept in Home, and trained for 
these exhibitions. Efforts were made to limit the; 
number of gladiators, and diminish the frequency 
of these shows. The Emperor Augustus forbade 
more than two shows in a year; he ordered also 
that no gladiatorial show should be given by a 
man with a property of less than half a million 
sesterces. But it was difficult to restrain what 
had become a pass ion, and men even had such 
contests for the amusement of their guests at 
ordinary feasts. More than once, especially under 
Spartacus, ClodhiR, and Milo, the gladiators 
menaced the peace of Romp. 

Those shows were announced by show bills and 
pictures. The gladiators were trained and sworn 
to filit to the death. Tf they showed cowardice, 
they were killed with tortures. They fought at 
first with wooden swords, and then with steel. 
When one of the combatants was disarmed, or 
upon the ground, the victor looked to the Em- 
peror, if present, or to the people, for further 
directions; if they completely concealed their 
thumbs, the defeated gladiator was spared; if 
they turned their thumbs downward, towards 
the defeated man, he was killed. (On this much- 
diwcussed subject, consult an important article 
by Pout, "Pollice Verso," in American Journal 
of Philology, xiii, New York, 1892.) A vic- 
torious gladiator was rewarded not only with a 
branch of palm, but in more substantial ways; 
sometimes, too, he received his freedom. Though 
the gladiators at first were slaves, freemen after- 
ward entered the profession. Senators and 
knights fought in the shows of Nero, and women 
in those of Oomitian. The Emperor Constantino 
prohibited the contests of gladiators, 325 A.D, ; 
but they could not at onop be abolished. Jn the 
reign of Honoring a monk, Telcraachus, went into 
the arena to stop the fight, but the people stoned 
him. Gladiatorial contests were finally abolished 
by Theodoric (500 A.D.). 

The kinds of gladiators most frequently men- 
tioned are the following: the retiarius t or not 
man (Lat. rctc, net), who wore only a short 
tunic, and had ns his weapon a net, attached to 
which was a rope, and a trident. He flung hi* 
not and, if successful in getting it over the head 
of his foe, easily dispatched him with his 
trident; if he failed in his cast, he drew in, if 
possible, the net witli the rope, and fled. His 
adversary pursued, and HO was called seen tor 
(Lat., follower). (For those two kinds of gladi- 
ators, consult Bulwer, Last Days of Pompeii, 
near the end.) The ftamnites fought with 
fSamnito weapons an oblong shield, short sword, 
plumed helmet. The Thraccs had a small shield 
and a sword or dagger curved somewhat like 
a scythe; they fought against the mirmillonvs, 
gladiators with Callic armor, who had a repre- 
sentation of a fish as a sort of crest on their 
helmets. The cssedani fought on chariots (Lat. 
csscdum, a Britiah war chariot). The gladiators 
who fought with wild beasts were known as 
li&atiarii (from Lat. Icstia, a beast, as marked 
by size or ferocity or both). The contest be- 
tween men and beasts in the amphitheatre was 
called vcnatio, a hunt. 

For an elaborate account of the gladiatorial 
combats, gladiators, etc., consult Fricdlander, 



GLADIATOR 8 

Darstellungen aus der SittengeschicJitc Roms 
(Stli ed., Leipzig, 1910), rol. ii, translated as vol. 
ii of Roman Life and Manners under the Early 
Empire, 4 vola. (New York, 1909). 

GLADIATOR, THE. A tragedy by Robert 
Montgomery Bird (1841), in which Edwin For- 
rest frequently took the part of Spartacus. 
GLADIATORS' WAR. See SPABTACUS. 
GLADFOLUS (Lat., diminutive of gladius, 
sword; so called from the form of the leaves). 
A geuus of plants of the family Iridaeeue, with a 
tubular perianth, the limb of which is divided 
into six unequal threadlike segments; the stig- 
mas are undivided; and the seeds are winged. 
The roots are bulbous; the leaves linear or 
sword-shaped. The Cape of Good Hope pro- 
duces the greater number of the known species, 
as also several allied forms once included in this 
genus. Most of the species have flowers of great 
beauty. Some of the improved varieties have 
spikes 2 to 3 feet long and are among the finest 
ornaments of flower borders and greenhouses. 
They are propagated either by seed or by offset 
cprras; and in the former way many new varie- 
ties have been produced. In the garden culture 
of gladiolus the conns are planted out in early 
spring, preferably in sandy loam soil. The 
flowers open in July and August, and the bloom- 
ing season can be prolonged by successive plant- 
ings in spring and early summer. In the fall 
the conns are dug and kept in a cold cellar over 
winter. Formerly southern Europe supplied the 
world with gladiolus, but the United States now 
supplies the groat bulk of the crop. The gladio- 
lus now has several societies devoted to its 
welfare. See Plate of TUTS FAAIILY. 

GLAD'STONE. A city in Delta Co., Mich., 
9 miles north of Escanaba, on the Minneapolis, 
St. Paul, and Sault Stc. Marie Railway, on the 
Escanaba River, and on Little Bay de Noequot, 
an inlet of G-roen Bay (Map: Michigan, Co). 
It has a shipping trade in coal and flour and lina 
a cooperage, machine shops, manufactories of 
veneers, guns, and sporting goods, and lumber 
mills. Under a revised charter of 1004, the 
government is vested in an annually elected 
mayor and a iiniuameral council. The city owna 
and operates its water works and electric-light 
plant. Pop., 1000, 3380; 1910, 4211. 

GLADSTONE, glftd'stun, HERIUGRT JOHN 
GLADSTONE, first VISCOUNT (1854- ). An 
English politician, youngest son of William 
Ewart Gladstone. He was born in London; was 
educated at Eton and at University College, Ox- 
ford; was lecturer on modern history at Koblo 
College from 1877 to 1880; and was private sec- 
retary to his father in 1880-81. JTe was a 
member of Parliament for Lcoda from 1880 
to 1885, and for Leeds, West, until 1000. 
From 1881 to 3885 he was Junior Lord of the 
Treasury, and he served also as Financial Hocre- 
tary to the War Office (1880), Under Home 
Secretary (1802-04), and First Commissioner 
of Works (181)4-05). He was chief Liberal 
whip from 1809 to December, 1006, and in 1005- 
] was Home Secretary in the Campbell-Banner- 
man ministry. In 1900 he was named the first 
Governor-Oeneral and High Commissioner of 
South Africa. He was made Viscount in 1910, 
also G. C. M. &., and in 1014 G. C. B. In Feb- 
ruary, 1014, lie resigned the governor-general- 
ship of South Africa (after a good deal of 
trouble over labor and racial difficulties). 

GLADSTONE, JOHN HAIL (1827-1002). A 
British physicist and chemist, born at Hackney, 



GLADSTONE 



London. He studied at University College, Lon- 
don, and graduated as Ph.D. from' the University 
of Giessen. He lectured at St. Thomas's Hospital 
in 1850-52 ; served on the lighthouse commission 
in 1858-61 and the War Olliee committee in 
18G4-GS; and was professor of chemistry at the 
Royal Institution in 1874-77. lie was one of 
the iirst investigators in the Held of physical 
chemistry, notably in the relation of optics and 
spectroscopy to chemistry. With his assistant, 
Alfred Tribe, he is responsible, for the copper- 
zinc couple. Actively interested in educational 
reform, he especially advocated changes in spell- 
ing. In 1853 bo was elected a fellow of the 
1 loyal Society, which awarded him tho Davy 
medal in 1807, and was iirst president of the 
Physical Society in 1874 and president of the 
Chemical Society in 1877 70. Besides a groat 
number of scientific papers lie "wrote books and 
pamphlets on Christian evidence .and apologetics, 
and also Michael Faradai/ (1872) ; Spelling AV- 
form (1878; 2cl od., 1H7) ; Object Tctioliing 
(1882). 

GLADSTONE, WILLIAM EWART (1800 Ofi). 
A Uritish statesman. He was born Dec., 20, 
1800, of Scottish parentage, in the city of Livor- 
pool, when* his father was JL wealthy merchant, 
a member of Parliament, and a baronet. Tn 18:21 
he was sent to tfton, and in JR28 ho entered 
Christ Church College, Oxford. Ilotli at. HI on 
and Oxford, Gladstone was distinguished for up- 
plication to hia studies, for his religions tenden- 
cies, his love of outdoor life, and his fondness 
for oratory and debate. lie was successively 
secretary and president of the, Oxford Debating 
XTnion, and in that society ho delivered a power- 
ful oration against the Reform Hill, which had 
be.en introduced into the. HOUKO. of Commons in 
18,'U. Fn that year ho. took a double iirst in 
classics and mathematics. 

Gladstone left Oxford in the spring of 1832, 
and after spending six months in Italy, entered 
Parliament as a member for Newark. Tho 
HOUHC of which he was a member was the Iirst 
to be seated under the Reform Hill, which ho 
had attacked while in college, lie naturally at- 
tached himself to the Tory opposition under Sir 
Robert Peel, and waited for that party to conic; 
into power to win advancement, lie' delivered 
his maiden speech on Juno 8, 1833, in vindication 
of his father from charges brought against him 
concerning his conduct towards the slaves on his 
plantation in Domorara. In tho Inst week of 
1834 Pool came into power, and in January, 
1835, ho appointed dlladstono a Junior Lord of 
the Treasury, and in the following mouth Under- 
secretary for the Colonies. Tho Parliament 
elected in February, however, had a Liberal ma- 
jority; on April 8 tho Tory government went 
out and Gladstone again became a private mem- 
ber, which he remained until 1841, when, on Sir 
Robert Peel's coming back into power, bo was 
appointed Vice President of tho Hoard of Trade 
and Master of the Mint. In May, 1843, he be- 
came President of the Board of Trade, and HO 
gained hia first seat in a cabinet. Both us Vice 
President and art President lie, took a loading 
share in tin 1 , work of reforming tho tariff, 
and thus got his lirwt lesson in finance. Already 
ho ga-vo unmistakable signs of gcuiuri iu this 
direction, both in the work of arranging 
schedules and in the defense of bin proposals 
ou the floor of the Hxnute in exposition and 
debate. For a moment he endangered his career 
by resigning his office through uncertainty an to 




1 



WILLIAM EWART GLADSTONE 

FROM A PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN IN 1896 



GLADSTONE j 

the wupport he should give an important govern- 
ment measure concerning an increased grant to 
Maynopth College, the Irish training school for 
Catholic priests. To Gladstone this seemed op- 
posed to the principles he had supported in a 
book on the relations of the church and state, 
published by him in 1830, in which he had stood 
for a single church establishment under the 
control of the state, of which it should be the 
conscience. Rather than run the risk of com- 
promising himself before his own conscience he 
resigned his office (Jan. 28, 1845) and became 
once more a private member of the House. 

Tu December, 1845, lie was appointed by Peel 
to the. olfiee, of Colonial Secretary. To accept 
this he. had to vacate his seat. This was the 
ono break in a parliamentary career extending 
over more than half a century. Gladstone now 
gave, Peel his assistance in formulating his free- 
trade measures which led to the repoal of the 
Corn Laws in 1840. In 1847 Gladstone re- 
flumod his scat in the House as Tory member for 
Oxford. In 1850 Peel died, and the first period 
in Gladstone's career, the period of apprentice- 
ship to this groat master, was terminated. 

Tho. new period extending from 1850 to 1868 
may bo called Gladstone's period of independent 
political reform. In 1852 he first came into con- 
flict with his great rival, Disraeli, whose budget 
in tli at year he completely annihilated, thus 
bringing about the fall of the Derby ministry 
(December 17). In 1853 he presented his own 
first budget as Chancellor of the Exchequer in 
Aberdeen's coalition cabinet, and scored the 
first great personal triumph of hia career. This 
budget was a masterpiece of equable and efficient 
taxation. It increased the revenues of the state 
and placed the burden of the impositions where 
they could bent be supported. His plans, how- 
over, ewpecially in the matter of the income tax, 
which lie was proposing by gradual steps to 
abolish completely, were somewhat interfered 
with by the intervention of the Crimean War, 
which demanded a new budget with increased 
taxation. In this budget Gladstone insisted that 
all the funds needed for the prosecution of the 
war should be raised by taxation, and not by the 
negotiation of loans. *The conduct of the war, 
however, hurt this prestige, of the Aberdeen gov- 
ernment, and on Jan, 20, 1855, tho ministry 
resigned. But Gladstone was the "inevitable" 
Chancellor for any administration, and he ac- 
cepted the wanie office in Lord Palmcrston'B 
cabinet, resigning it, however, at the end of 
three weeks. Ho remained out of office for three 
years, during which time he published his 
ASffrfrfwtf on Homer (1858) and undertook a 
xnitwion to the Ionian Inlands, where a strong 
agitation was being carried on for the cessation 
of British rule and annexation to Greece. In 
1859 he returned to tho Exchequer in tho cabi- 
net of Lord Palmcirflton, and in 1800 and 1801 he 
issued budgets that were marvels of financial 
Btatefcmuuwhip, He had now allied himself com- 
pletely with Bright and Cobdcn, the latter of 
whom ho had heartily supported in his attempt 
to negotiate a commercial treaty with France. 
Thitt was accomplished in January, 1860. By 
MB maHturly tactics Gladstone won a complete 
victory over the House of Lords in 1801 after 
it had defeated his measure for the abolition of 
tho tax on paper in the previous year. This 
was a great victory for popular education and 
the fro press, and from that time dates the era 
of cheap newspapers for the people in England. 



GLADSTONE 

In July, 1865, Gladstone was defeated for 
Parliament at Oxford, but returned' from South 
Lancashire. Lord Russell (q.v.) became head 
of the ministry and made Gladstone Chancellor 
of the Exchequer and leader in the House of 
Commons. In 1806 Lord Russell brought for- 
ward his first bill for the extension of suffrage 
and the redistribution of seats in the House of 
Commons. The support of this measure marks 
the beginning of Gladstone's adhesion to the 
Liberal party, towards which he had long been 
tending. His acceptance of office under Palmer- 
ston while still professing Tory principles was 
the first step in this direction. His defeat by 
his Oxford constituents because of his Liberal 
a filiations and tendencies strengthened his 
resolution to make his abandonment of Toryism 
definite. As for the bill itself, Disraeli ' and 
others united to defeat it, and the Liberal gov- 
ernment was forced to resign (June 19). Lord 
Derby and Disraeli on their accession to power 
introduced another reform bill even more radical 
than that of Gladstone, who gave the new 
measure his hearty support, helping to carry it 
through in 1867. 

In December, 1867, Gladstone succeeded Lord 
Russell as leader of the Liberal party. In this 
capacity he vigorously assailed the Conservative 
ministry, which after Feb. 26, 1868, was headed 
by Disraeli. In November the ministry ap- 
pealed to the country on the question of the 
disestablishment of the Irish church, which had 
been made by Gladstone a party issue, and in 
the new Parliament the Liberals gained an over- 
whelming majority. On Dec. 4, 1868, Glad- 
stone became Prime Minister and started in at 
once on a campaign of reform in Irish affairs. 
The disestablishment of the Irish church was 
effected in July, 1869, after a bitter struggle in 
tho House of Lords. The next thing he essayed 
was to reform tlie Irish land system. This bill, 
though moderate in character, was nevertheless 
a step forward in the direction of giving the 
tenants more rights and keeping them from 
being crushed at pleasure by their landlords. 
This bill was carried in 1870. He also sought 
to establish an Irish National University that 
would satisfy the just demands of the Catholics 
of Ireland. This measure was defeated and he 
resigned (March, 1873). Disraeli refused to 
form a ministry, so Gladstone was forced to re- 
sume oflice. for a time, though his strength was 
insufficient to carry any important reform meas- 
ure. In January, 1874, he called for a dissolu- 
tion in order to increase, if he could, the strength 
of his party in the House by a general election. 
The election brought defeat instead, and Disraeli 
returned to power. Gladstone, wearied with the 
weight of affairs, resigned (1875) his leader- 
ship and retired from official life. 

The news of tho Bulgarian horrors (1876) 
brought Gladstone ouce more into public life. 
By his speeches and pamphlets he aroused public 
feeling to the highest pitch of excitement, and 
throughout the Russo-Turkish War he denounced 
the pro-Ottoman policy of Lord Beaconsfield, 
acting once more as the leador of his party. 
On the issue of the Russo-Turkish War the 
Liberals carried the country in 1880, and Glad- 
stone, elected from Midlothian, on April 23 be- 
came Prime Minister. Gladstone now resumed 
his position,, at the head of the Liberal party. 
He started in at once to continue the work of 
his first ministry. He introduced a second Irish 
Land Bill, which was thrown out of the House 



GLADSTONE 

of Lords. Ireland began to grow impatient and 
the Nationalist leaders iu Parliament restive. 
The Home Rule movement took a now lease of 
life under Parnell, Dillon, and others, but as yet 
Gladstone had nothing iu common with tlic4r 
cause. His ministry lost prestige in the con- 
duct of affairs both in Ireland -and u!>road. 
TUe assassination (18S2) in Phrcnix Park, Dub- 
lin, of the Chief Secretary for Ireland, Lord 
Frederick Cavendish, and his undersecretary, 
Burke, followed by repressive legislation 011 the 
part of the government, alienated the Irish mem- 
bers in Parliament. The defeat of Majuba Hill 
(1881), and the generous terms of peace con- 
ceded the Boers, aroused public dissatisfaction. 
The failure to relieve Khartum, and the tragic 
death of General Gordon (18S5), were fatal 
blows to the ministry. On June 8, 18S5, Glad- 
stone resigned and was succeeded by Lord 
Salisbury. The elections of November showed a 
slight preponderance of Conservatives and Par- 
nellites over Liberals. To gain the support of 
the latter, Gladstone announced his adhesion 
to Home Rule; the Conservative government 
\vas overthrown, and on Feb. 1, 1880, Gladstone 
succeeded to the premiership for the third time. 
In April a Home Rule bill was brought into Par- 
liament. (See HOME RULE.) Tlio measure met 
with opposition from all sides. The Irish mem- 
bers objected to the clause which deprived Ire- 
land of representatives to the Imperial Parlia- 
ment. A serious defection occurred in the 
Liberal ranks, Lord Hartington and Mr. Gosclien 
refusing to support the government, and being 
supported in their action by John Bright and 
Joseph Chamberlain. On June 7 the bill failed 
to pass a second reading, 03 Liberal votes luting 
cast against it. Parliament was dissolved on 
June 26, but the elections remitted in the de- 
cisive defeat of the Liberal party, and on July 
20 the ministry resigned. The elections of 1802 
showed a majority of 40 for Homo Rule, and on 
August 15 began Gladstone's fourth and lust 
ministry. In 1803 a new and amended bill was 
brought before the House, and Gladstone, making 
the last great official fight of his life, trium- 
phantly carried it. The House of Lords, how- 
ever, threw out the measure (Heptombe.r 8), and 
the last stage of Gladstone's life work ended iu 
apparent failure. Weary of the tumults of 
parliamentary life, he laid down liifl oflleo on 
March 3, 1894, being succeeded by his colleague 
Lord Rosebcry. 

The last participation of Gladstone in public 
affairs was in connection with the Armenian 
massacres in 1806. He addressed meetings 
throughout the country and aroused public feel- 
ing, as lie had done in 1876 over the Bulgarian 
atrocities. In 1808, on the 19th of May, bo died 
in the eighty-ninth year of his life. He lies 
buried in the statesmen's corner of Westminster 
Abbey. 

Gladstone was the greatest of the long line of 
Victorian political leaders and prime minsters. 
His only rival was Disraeli; but he had moral 
qualities which Disraeli lacked, and those more 
than made up for the superior brilliancy of the 
other, who looked with some contempt on Glad- 
stone's principles and seriousness. Gladstone has 
been called an opportunist, and it is true that ho 
more than once changed his position and wont 
over to those against whom he had fought pre- 
viously j but for any one who has studied Glad- 
stone's career carefully these changes were not 
without a law of their own in Gladstone's intol- 



:o GLADSTONE 

lectual development. Each change boro a rela- 
tion to a previous change, and viewing bis career 
in the large we perceive a steady, gradual, and 
consistent progress. This is more than c.tin be 
said of Disraeli, who, reversing his position quite 
as completely as Gladstone, did it to nerve, hid 
own private ambitions. Gladstone cured too 
little for power, refused office, too often, and in- 
curred the anger of his constituents too readily 
by disregarding their wishes in matters of for- 
eign and domestic policy, for it to be thought 
that he would ever have sacrificed bis convictions 
to insure hiw own success. It was against his in- 
clinations that he had entered public life, in the 
first place. If once in the battle he atuyitd there, 
it was from a sense of duty character! ut ic of hirt 
moral seriousness. He always preferred bia 
leisure, and more than once he withdrew from 
public atl'airs only to reeutur the arena at the 
iirsfc recall. 

Little has been said of CUadstono/s literary 
labors, which were enormous. He, was a scholar 
of the old type, caring only for literature and 
nothing for natural science. Many of his ideas 
were antiquated, for in literature ho always re- 
mained the Tory, whatever ho became, in* poli- 
tics; that is to say, ho believed in the principle 
of authority. To him the Bible, wa always the 
word of God and the law of Moses the law of 
Moses, while Homer was a real man describing 
real historic events. Still it IH well to remember 
that Gladstone stood for ati attitude, towards tho 
classics and the Scriptures which IB associated 
with the high influence these works of antiquity 
have had for the race's civilization. There i 
something to be said for Gladatone's conserva- 
tism, perhaps even as against his radicalism iu 
politics. 

As to what Gladstone accomplished with hi 
reforms in politics, it is too oarly to pass a 
complete judgment. It i as a reformer in 
finance and us u do fonder of the liberties of all 
IIIHHCH of tho l<3ngJiHh t pooplo that he stands 
forth most strikingly in history. Kro trade, 
equal taxation, popular education, manhood Hiif- 
fnigo these aro tho great causes with whoso 
beneficial results ha IB idcntilied to Inn greatest 
glory. It is in his foreign policy that he waw 
weakest. Domestic questions intoruBtod him al- 
most to tho exclusion of foreign, rn.atto.rH, ex- 
cepting when a race or a nation was miiloring 
from oppression or tyranny. The wrongdoings 
of tho Turks in particular called forth his denun- 
ciation, and he was uhvayH preaching, as it wore, 
a holy war against the Moslem. Tie. cxmtributocl 
to the independence and union of Italy by bin 
letter about the political crimes of tho rulors of 
the Two Sicilies. Mention has been made of IHH 
efforts on behalf of Bulgaria and tho ArmeniunH. 
On tho other hand, becnuae ho cared nothing for 
foreign policies as wuch or for Kngliind'H na- 
tional prestige, lie uumrrod the opprobrium of 
the people through what appeared to bo bin 
neglect of Gordon at Khartum, hia submission 
to the Boers in South Africa, hia willingness to 
submit to arbitration with the United States, 
and other mutters in all of which he was content 
if ho could avoid war and maintain an honorable* 
peace. "Personally Gladstone won a man full 
of charm and grace iu his early years and full 
of dignity and grandeur in his old ago. Justin 
McCarthy Hpoke well when he Haid that tho 
IIouHC of Commons was no longer tho tiaum place 
without him. 

Gladstone contributed article*? on literary and 



GLAGOLITSA 

political topics to the Quarterly Review and 
other magazines. Most of these were published 
under the title, Gleanings from Past Years (8 
vols., 1879-90). 

In 1839 Gladstone married Catherine, the 
older daughter of Sir Stephen Richard Glynne, 
of Ha warden Castle. She died on June 14, 
1000. Four sons and four daughters were 
born, of whom the eldest, William Henry Glad- 
stone, died in 1891, after sitting in Parliament 
from 1865 to 1885; Stephen Edward Gladstone 
is rector of JIawarden; the youngest son, Her- 
bert John (q.v.), became member of Parliament 
in 1880. The youngest daughter, Helen, was for 
n few years vice principal of Newnham College, 
( 'tunbridge. 

Bibliography. Morley, Life of William 
Kinirl Gladstone (3 vols., London, 1903; new 
id., 1911), is a masterly work. Consult also: 
Archer, William Ewart Gladstone and his Con- 
temporaries (ib., 1883) ; Russell, Biography of 
\V. K. Gladstone (ib., 1891) ; Leech, W. E. Glad- 
tttMiv: fjifc 'in Speeches and Public Letters (ib., 
IMW) ; Kobbina, Early Public Life of Mr. Glad- 
atone, (ib., 1894) ; McCarthy, The titory of Glad- 
stone's Life (ib., 1897) ; Brycc, Gladstone: His 
(Htaractaristics as Man and Statesman (New 
York, 1898) ; Williamson, W. E. Gladstone, 
8 talesman and Scholar (London, 1898); Paul, 
ThG Life of W. K. Gladstone (ib., 1901) ; Smith, 
;!/,// Memory of Gladstone (New York, 1905) -, 
Slio.eT, From Poet to Premier (ib., 1909) ; Evers- 
ley, (ifadfif'fmo and Ireland (London, 1912). 

'GLAGOLITSA, girig^-iit'sa. One of the old 

Slavic alphabets, which contains characters ar- 
ranged iiL the same order as in the Kirillitsa 
or Cyrillic (q.v.) alphabet. The shape as well 
as the numerical value of its letters is different 
from that of the Kirillitsa. The name is not 
derived from the fourth letter of the alphabet, 
<fla</ol, but it in HO called since it is a collection 
of Hjiii /taunt, tolling signw (from OChurch Slay. 
glayolati, to apeak), Kirillitsa is chronologi- 
cally an earlier name, but there are good reasons 
to believe that it was the original name of what 
in now known as Glagolitsa. JagiS upholds the 
very plausible theory that Cyril invented Glago- 
litsa. Taylor (A.ro7iiv fttr slainische Philologie, 
vol. v, Leipzig, 1881) and Jagid derive it from 
the. curriivo (Jreok (not uncials) of the eighth 
and ninth centuries. Only the following can be 
Het down as positive facts: Glagolitsa began 
to spread not later than Kirillitsa, among 
both the southern and the western Slavs. 
Then it wont out of use completely in the south; 
in the West it was also superseded by the Ro- 
man alphabet in Bohemia; while in Croatia and 
Dulmatia it long maintained its existence with 
difliculty, and Pope Leo XIII shortly before 
his death sanctioned the publication of ecclesias- 
tical books in Glngolitsa characters. The Bul- 
garian dnctUB of the Glagolitsa is round, while 
the Croatian is more angular. The earliest 
Qlagolitic manuscript extant belongs to the 
deventh century. It in in the collection of 
Count Clotx, published at Vienna by Copitar in 
1830 and known as Glagolitsa Olossianus. On 
account of the difficulty of reading, the Glago- 
litic monuments are usually printed transliter- 
ated in the, Cyrillic alphabet. Consult: Taylor, 
The Alphabet, vol. ii (1899) ; the various papers 
by Jagitf enumerated in his Festschrift (Berlin, 
1908) ; LoHkien, "Zur glagolitischen Schrift," in 
Arohiv filr alaviache Philologie (ib., 1905), and 
his Grammatik der altbulgarischen Sprache 
VOL. X.-2 



1 1 GL AIZE 

(Heidelberg, 1909) ; Murko, Gesvhichte der 
alteren sudslavischen Litteraturen (Leipzig, 
1908) ; Geitler, Die albanesischen und slavischen 
Schriften (Vienna, 1883, with facsimiles). 

GLAIS-BIZOIN, gla'bS'zwiiN', ALEXANDRE 
(1800-77). A French legislator, born at Quin- 
tin (Cotes-du-Nord). After participating in the 
opposition to the government of the Restoration, 
he was elected deputy from Loudeac in 1831, 
served in that capacity for 17 years, and in 1S4S 
became a member of the Moderate Republican 
party in the Constituent Assembly. He was in 
the Corps Legislatif from 1863 to 1870, and 
then was appointed a member of the provisional 
government. In May, 1871, he \\as arrested and 
imprisoned for a short time during the reign 
of the Commune. His Dictature de cinq mois 
(1872) discusses the national defense during 
the Franco-German War. 

GLAISHEB, gla'sher, JAMES (1809-1903). 
An English meteorologist and aSronaut, born 
in London. In 1850 he established the Meteoro- 
logical Society, serving for many years as its 
secretary, and in 1806 was one of the founders 
of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain. 
He is remembered especially for the balloon an- 
consions which he made between 1862 and 1866 
in the interest of science. During his seventh 
ascension, Sept. 5, 1862, he and his pilot Cox- 
well attained an unprecedented height for a 
balloon carrying passengers. The best recent 
recomputations put the height he then attained 
at 8500-8700 meters, or 27,887-28,543 feet an 
altitude that has been only slightly exceeded by 
modern aeronauts (9155 meters, or 30,025 feet, 
by Berson on Dec. 4, 1894) provided with arti- 
ficial supplies of oxygen for overcoming the 
rarity of the atmosphere at these great heights. 
He held many important positions and published 
numerous books and papers on various topics 
connected with the mathematical sciences. His 
best-known work is Travels in the Air (1800). 
For a critical discussion of his famous high as- 
cension of September, 1862, consult Wissen- 
schaftliche Luftfahrtcn by Assmann and Ber- 
son (3 vols., Brunswick, 1899-1900). 

GLATSHEB, JAMES WITITBREAD LEE (1848- 
). An English mathematician, born in 
Lewisham, Kent, a son of the preceding. He 
was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, of 
which he became a fellow in 1871, was tutor in 
1883-93, and lecturer in 1871-1901. He became 
editor of the Messenger of Mathematics in 1871 
and of the Quarterly Journal of Pure and Ap- 
plied Mathematics in 1 878, was a prominent mem- 
ber of several English mathematical and astro- 
nomical societies, and wrote, in their Proceed- 
ings and elsewhere, many papers on pure mathe- 
matics, especially on the theory of numbers. 

GLAIZE, gliiz, AUGUSTB (1807-93). A 
French historical and genre painter and lithog- 
rapher, born at Montpellier. He studied paint- 
ing and lithography in Paris as the pupil of 
Eugene and Achille Dev^ria. After a few early 
works, such as "Dante Writing his 'Divine 
Comedy' " (1847) , he turned his attention to the 
representation of abstract ideas in philosophy 
and ethics. His most important canvases in this 
manner are "The Drama of Human Folly" 
(1872; Arras Museum); "The Pillory" (Mar- 
seilles Museum ) j "What One Sees at Twenty" 
(Montpellier Museum). His work displays pow- 
erful color effects and abundant invention. He 
.further executed several frescoes in the churches 
of Saint-Sulpicc, Saint-Eustache, and others. 



GLAJOHS 12 

His son, PIEBBE PAUL JEAN (1842- ), was 
born in Paris and was a pupil of his father 
and of Gerome. His best-known painting is 
"Fugitives from Athens' 3 (Amiens Museum), 
which, like all his work, is graceful and effective 
in design. 

GLAMMIS (glams or glands) CASTLE. The 
imaginary scene of the murder of Duncan in 
Shakespeare's Macbeth. It is an ancient castle., 
the seat of the Earl of Strathmore, near Strath- 
more, Scotland, and is a fine example of the 
Scottish baronial castles. 

GLAMOB'GANSHIRE (Welsh Owlad Mor- 
gaii, Morgaiwg). The southernmost county of 
Wales, bounded on the north by the County of 
Brecon, on the cast by Monmouth, on the south 
and southwest by tho Bristol Channel, and on 
the west by the 'County of Carmarthen (Map: 
Wales, C 5). The county is remarkable for its 
coal beds and its great iron industry. It alno 
produces a Considerable amount of grain, aa well 
as large numbers of cattle, sheep, horses, and 
hogs. The chief towns are Cardiff, the capital, 
Merthyr-Tydvil, and Swansea. Area, SOD square 
miles. Pop., 1901, 859,931; 1911, 1,120,910. 

GLAMORGAN TBEATY. A compact made 
with the Irish Roman Catholics by the Earl of 
Glamorgan on Aug. 25, 1045. By it Charles J 
was to receive military aid, and Roman Catholi- 
cism was promised a more formal recognition by 
the government. 

GLANCE (Eng. equivalent of Ger. Glans, 
glitter, used in the same sense). A name, for- 
merly applied to minerals which have a lustre 
similar to that of metals. The following are 
some of the more important of these minerals: 
antimony ff lance, which is tho mineral stilmite, 
or^iantimony trisulphide; bismuth glance, which 
is bismulhinite, or bismuth trisulphide; copper 
glance, which is chalcocite, or cuprous sulphide; 
glance blende, which is albwulite, or manga- 
nese sulphide; glance coal, which is anthracite, 
or hard coal; glance cobalt, which is applied 
both to cobaltite, or cobalt sulpharsenide, and to 
amaltite, or cobalt diarscnide; gold glance, which 
is sylvanite, or gold and silver tellurule; lead 
glance, which is galena, or lead sulphide; and 
silver glance, which is argcntitc, or Hi Ivor sul- 
phide. The name glance wood has been applied 
to an exceedingly hard variety "of wood that is 
found in the tropics and is ued for making 
tools, 

GLANCE COAX. A popular term for any 
hard lustrous variety of coal, but usually apply- 
ing to anthracite. 

GLAND (Lat. glans, acorn) . A term applied 
to a secreting organ. Glands are divided by 
anatomists into two great classes, viz., true 
secreting glands and ductless glands. Tho first 
class constitute special organs which arc des- 
tined for the production of the chief secretions; 
as, e.g., the lachrymal, mammary, and salivary 
glands, the liver, pancreas, and kidneys; while 
the suprarenal capsules, the spleen, the thymus, 
and the thyroid belong to the second class. 

Secreting Glands. A secreting gland con- 
sists of an aggregation of follicles (small tubes 
or sacs) , all of which open into a common duct, 
by which the glandular product is discharged. 
The follicles are lined with epithelial cells, 1 ' 
placed upon a hyaline basement membrane, which 
in turn is surrounded by a network of capilla- 
ries. These furnish the blood from which is 
elaborated the secretion by the cell substance 
or protoplasm of the epithelia, according to one 



GLAND 



theory. Some assert that the accretion is com- 
posed of transformed cell substance. The secre- 
tion of a gland is cither mucous (like saliva), 
serous (like tears), sebaceous (like the oil of 
the skin), or albuminous. The secretions of the 
testiclo and ovary (not properly termed glands) 
are notable for containing living cells, the sperm- 
atozoa and the ova respectively. The simplest 
form of gland is the inversion of the surface of 
a secreting membrane into follicles, which dis- 
charge their contents upon it by separate mouths. 
Of this we have examples in the gastric glands 
and follicles of Lieberkillm, described under Dr- 
OKSTIOX, ORGANS OF. Secreting glands are divided 
into: (1) tubular, consisting of cylindrical tubes, 
single or branching; and (2) sacailar, composed 
of numerous saca arranged about a short tube 
which joins other similar tubes. The sacs are 
en lied arini, nud Hueh glands are also called jwr- 
inose (Lat. racc-mHfti a bunch of grapes). To 
understand the structure of a complex gland like 
the liver or kidney, it must be followed from 
the simplest form in which it is known to occur 
through its various degreea of evolution. In 
this way the liver may be, traced, from the low- 
est molluBca (where it exists as simple, follicles, 
lodged in the walls of the stomach, mid pouring 
their product into its cavity by separate orifices) 
up to man, in whom it is a highly complex or- 
gan; and similarly in the early fwtal state of 
the higher animals, the liver und other secreting 
organs more or loss resemble the persistent ntato' 
of those parts in animals lower in the mile,. 
In the same way the mammary gland, which is 
a structure of considerable complexity in tho 
higher animals, presents a very simple arrange- 
ment in the lowest type of this cliis*, tho orni- 
thorhynchus, being merely n cluster of ca-eal 
follicles, each of which discharges its content** 
by its own orifice. Sometimes a gland has sev- 
eral ducts (as, e.g., tho lachrymal tflatid), but 
as a general rulo the most important glands have, 
only a single canal, formed by the union of the 
individual ducts, which conveys the product of 
tho secreting action of the whole mans. 

Ductless Glands, (Hands of tho second class 
resemble those of the first dans in external con- 
formation and in the possession, of a wolid 
parcnchymatous t'wHiio, but difltor from thorn in 
the absence of a duot or opening for tho removal 
of the products of secretion; and indued, except 
in tho case of the thymim, no material resembling 
a traerctad product is yielded by any of them. Tn 
all of them the tisHuo mainly consists of cell* 
and nuclei, with a groat abundance of blood 
vessels. They furnish necessary material to tho 
body in Home yet unancertainod way. Jf they 
arc removed by operation, or abpcnt from birth, 
or atrophied during life, the result is a condi* 
tion of disease. 

Tho thyroid (weight, 30-40 grams) is a very 
vascular gland, lying on tho front and side* of 
the larynx, composed of connective tissue and 
follicle containing a viacid colloid substance, 
tho product of tho cells* It is a storage gland 
containing chemically large amounts of iodine 
combinations. Thyroid secretions havo trophic 
functions with special reference to tho norvotin 
system. Absence of tho thyroid gland in child- 
hood is characteristic of cretinism (q.v.). Atro- 
phy of the gland in adults causes myxcftdonwi 
(q.v.). Hypertrophy of the thyroid causen 
Basedow's disease (q.v.)- After thyroidectomy 
there is diminished albumen and fat metabolism 
and lessened assimilation of sugar. 



ilaftl7 , GLASTD i 

The purathyioifls are smaller glands, closely 
connected with the thyroid anatomically, but 
having different functions. r lhe parathyroids 
may be thought of as a neiiromuscular balance 
wheel, or control. They have antitoxic functions 
also. If they are removed, tetany results. 
When the thyroid is absent, its functions may 
bo replaced by administering the thyroid gland 
from sheep or the extract of it. Cretinism is so 
treated and cured universally. 

The pituitary body, or hypophysis, is a gland 
of five grams' weight at the base of the brain. 
It is composed of two portions, seeming to have 
different functions not yet determined. In some 
way they preside over the nutrition, especially 
of the skeleton. Hypertrophy of this gland is 
associated with acromegaly (q.v.). 

The tJiyntus gland lies in the neck of the in- 
fant and behind the sternum. At birth it weighs 
14 grama, at 14 years 27 grams, and then grad- 
ually atrophies. It is supposed to regulate 
nutrition and control blood pressure. Hyper- 
trophy of the thymus has been given as the 
3HUHC of sudden death in infants. In status 
thymico-lywpliaticnfs tho heart and arteries are 
/ery weak, the patient anwinic und generally 
sluggish. The condition pmlisposes to tubercu- 
losis, and more than half of biich subjects are 
Found to die early of infectious diseases. 

The suprarenal glandrt weigh about four 
jjranis and lie above the kidneys. Thuy consist 
>f medullary and cortical substance, the latter 
bhe most important. The internal secretion of 
I.IIOBO glands is essential to life. Th<'ir function 
IB to control pigmentation of the skin, to arrest 
bhe action of poisons found in the body, and to 
govern the vaHomotor system regulating blood 
prcHHurc. An extract of the glands occurs as a 
definite chemical Hiibstanco in the form, of 
whito crystals. Thin extract administered to 
man or other animals produces constriction of 
the, blood vessels. 

Addition's disease (q.v.) is a condition in which 
there ifl destruction of the adrenals with deep 
aronzlng of the skin and groat weakness. Ad- 
:nini storing adrenalin continuously will relieve it. 

Mention should be made of tho carotid, sacral, 
%nd abdominal -aortic paraganglion, etc., though 
their function is unknown. Consult: Luciani, 
tfuman> Physiology (1013); Sajous, The In- 
turna-l Hcerct-ions (Oth od., Phila<lolphia, 1914); 
Wm. H. ThoniHon, Cflimcal Medicine ( 101-1 ) . The 
fatcrnal Naarctory Orr/ans, by Biedl (1013), con- 
bains a voluminous bibliography. See SUPRA- 
RKNAL CAI'HULKS. 

The no-called lymphatic glands belong to a 
iiiforcnt class of structures and will be described 
in the article under LYMPHATIC. They are not 
[rlandn, but nutritive organs. 800 BAUTUOLIN*S 
liiANus; BRITNNER'H GLANDH; COWPEB'S GLANDS; 
BRKAST; LIVKB? VANCIHUR; KIDNEY; TIIYUOID 

INLAND, COMI'ABATIVK ANATOMY OP. ^ Consult: 

rjray, Anatomy, Descriptive, and Applied (Phila- 
ilolp'hia, 3010) ; Iloitamann, Atlas der descrip- 
tive, n, Awitomnc des Mcn-whcn (Leipzig, 1002); 
iftwborn, Notes on> Normal Histology (New 
Vork. 1001); Htoohr and Lewia, A Text-Book 
of Histology (Philadelphia, 1013) .; Cunningham, 
Tetrlbook of Anatomy (New York, 1013). 

GLAKP. In plants, a singlo cell or group of 
colls OHpccially adapted to form and secrete some 
BubntanccH. Glandular collrt are usually distin- 
guifihod from others by the granular character 
of their protoplasm, especially when in the active 
state. Qlanda may bo superficial or internal. 



J GLAND 

Superficial glands may consist of a few cells or 
even a single cell, in which case they are often 
raised upon stalks and constitute the so-called 
glandular hairs, as upon the leaves of geraniums 
and primroses; they may have the form of disks 
upon short stalks, in which case the structure 
is known as a glandular scale: they may be 
groups of epidermal cells covering cushions of 
tissue, as in the so-called nectary (q.T.) in many 
flowers: they may be flush with the surface, 
pouring their secretion into gland-lined pits or 
depressions which may be narrow and deep or 
even branched canals, as in the nectar glands of 
some lily flowers. Internal glands in their sim- 
plest form consist of cells in which the secretion 
is formed and retained until released by the rup- 
ture or crushing of the tissues, as in the gland 
cells of capers. Not uncommonly the gland cells 
are destroyed by the plant itself, in which case 
the freed secretion occupies their place, as in 
the oil glands of the orange and lemon rind; in 
other cases they line an internal spherical or 
tubular reservoir, into which the secretion is 
poured, as in the resin tubes of pines (see 
figure). 

Regarding the process of secretion nothing is 
definitely known. The secretion in most cases is 
formed by the protoplasm and within the cell 
wall ; in others it may be developed at the sur- 
face, the materials for it being secreted by the 
protoplasm. In superficial glands the secretion 
is sometimes pushed through the cell wall as 
far as the cuticle, which it cannot penetrate, 
but which it lifts into a blister, e.g., the volatile 
oils secreted by many leaves. 

Glands are named for the most prominent ma- 
terial which they secrete, as water, lime, nectar, 
oil, and resin glands. 




GLAND OF O&ANQB BIND. 

The gland cells form a globular mass, secrete an essential 
oil, and finally become disorganized, leaving the oil free 
in the space they formerly occupied. The contents of the 
cells are not shown. 

GLANT), COWPABATIVE ANATOMY OF. Neither 
a definition nor a classification of glands has 
yet been agreed on by comparative anatomists. 
Since the word itself ofl'era no clow to its real 
moaning, wo must attempt to define it from 
universally accepted examples. Among these 
may bo mentioned salivary glands, lachrymal 
glands, sweat glunda, and poiHon glands. All 
of these are organs which produce some partic- 
ular substance from the blood with which they 
are supplied; furthermore, this substance is not 
cellular nor living, but is a mere chemical prod- 
uct. These facts give us a clew to pur defini- 
tion, and we may say that a gland is any cell 
or group of cells whose function is the produc- 
tion of a chemical substance, usually fluid, pe* 



GLAND 14 

culiar to itself. Such a definition will not in- 
clude all those organs to which the name "gland'' 
is given, but it will include all to which it ought 
to be applied. As an example of the incorrect 
use of the term, we may refer to "reproductive" 
or "genital" gland, as applied to the testis or 
ovary. These organs are not in any true sense 
glands, for they do not produce any chemical 
substance peculiar to themselves, but are sim- 
ply the portions of the body where those cells 
are formed from which the next generation 
arises. So also the use of "gland" in connection 
with the suprarenal capsule, the pituitary body, 
and the pineal body is incorrect and confusing. 

Various classifications for glands have been 
proposed based on their structure, whether uni- 
cellular or multicellular, simple or branched, 
etc.; but it is perhaps as natural and certainly 
as convenient to arrange them according to their 
function. Thus we may class those which open 
on the surface of the body and are developed 
in the skin as tegumcntary glands; those con- 
nected with the process of digestion as digestive 
glands; those connected with the blood system 
as vascular glands; those associated with the 
respiration as respiratory glands; and those 
connected with the reproductive organs as re- 
productive glands. The tegumentary glands 
may well be grouped according to their struc- 
ture, as unicellular and multicellular glands, 
and the same classification is often applied to 
all glands. 

Unicellular glands are everywhere abundant 
in invertebrates, but in vertebrates they aro 
confined almost entirely to the lower forms. 
Multicellular glands are to be regarded aa ag- 
gregations of unicellular glands in one region. 
Soon the multicellular gland differentiates into 
a secretory and an efferent part, or duct. Mul- 
ticellular glands with ducts aro tubular or 
acinous. Globular glands also occur in the 
epidermis of Amphibia. The tubular glands 
may be simple, branched, or anastomosing. Tu- 
bular glands first occur in the Amphibia in a 
few cases, but they are very abundant as sweat 
glands in mammals. Acinous glands first appear 
in birds as uropygial glands, where they occur 
on the rudimentary tail and produce the oil for 
oiling tlie feathers. Among mammals acinous 
glands are highly developed and are of two 
kinds, viz., sebaceous glands and milk glands. 
The sebaceous glands open on the rim of the 
eyelid and on other special parts of the body, 
in intimate relation with hairs. In addition 
to oiling the hair, these glands probably have 
a sexual function in mammals, since their secre- 
tion has a decided odor. 

Milk glands, characteristic of the mammalia, 
have probably a common ancestry with sebaceous 
glands, or they may even consist, indeed, of a 
group of highly specialized sebaceous glands. 
The glands of Echidna occur in the mammary 
pocket. Into this pocket the immature hatched 
young are placed, and there they arc nourished 
"by a secreted substance which is not like the 
milk of other mammals. The glands are in con- 
nection with hair follicles. Among marsupials 
there is a larger number of mammary pockets; 
but these pockets have lost their protective 
function, which latter function is assumed by 
the marsupium. In Ornithodelphia the nutritive 
function is subserved by the secretions of sweat 
glands. The region of the integument, at which 
the glands open, is usually modified for the pur- 
nose of transmitting to the young the secretion 



GLANDERS 



of the glands. There are llireo types of those 
openings. The athelous type is found only in 
the lowest mammals: here the glands open dif- 
fusely on the surface without a true nipple. In 
the second type the glanda open at the buse of 
an elevated crater, and in the, third the region 
of their opening is elevated to the apex of a 
cone. To the second type belong the glands of 
the carnivores and ungulates, and to the third 
class belong those of marsupials and primates. 
The number of these glands varies in dilTcrcmt 
kinds of animals and with the number of young 
produced in a litter. In man two is the normal 
number, but in a number of cases supernumer- 
ary nipples have been recorded both for males 
and females. Such cases are atavistic and point 
back to the condition which existed in nian's 
ancestor. 

The liver and pancreas are recognized as tho 
largest of tho digestive glands, to which group 
also belong the salivary glands, gastric glands, 
and intestinal glands. The poison glands of 
snakes, aa modified salivary glands, also belong 
hero. Of vascular glands tho kidneys are de- 
cidedly tho most important, while respiratory 
glands include the arytcnoid and traclioal. Of 
reproductive glands we find a great variety 
among both invertebrates and vertebrates, suc.h 
as the yolk and shell glands, and hi mammals 
the Oowpor's and prostate glands. 

Any attempt to classify glands according to 
the substances they produce is unsatisfactory. 
Thus, if we attempt to separate secreting from 
excreting glands, wo find that, while the kid- 
neys clearly belong in the latter class, the liver 
belongs to both, though chiefly secretory, and 
sebaceous glands are also dillicult to classify. 
Perhaps the moat obscure organs of tint* claHs 
arc the so-called "ductless" glands, Iho flpleen, 
thyroid, and thymiiH. They seem to produce 
some subwtaiice of great importance to the well- 
being of tho body; but what it is, and how it 
affects the organ i am, aro still involved in difli- 
culticH. However, as they are all closely asso- 
ciated with tho blood system, they may well bo 
called vascular glands. 

GLANDERS (from flland, from Lot. glnnx, 
acorn). A virulent contagious ditieatw duo. to 
the action of a specific, microbe, tho ftuvttluft 
mallei. Tho microbe was discovered in 1H82 by 
Loeffler and Schttt/. It iw a short, rather stubby 
rod, with rounded ondw. It stains irregularly, 
occurs singly, in pairs, or in long stringy and 
grows readily in tho ordinary culture media. AH 
a result of natural contagion, glanders is al- 
most entirely confined to tho horse, ass, and 
mule. Cattle enjoy an immunity from it, and 
sheep and pigs arc highly resistant to natural 
contagion. Dogs, cats, and wild carnivora may 
become infected by eating tho meat of glander- 
ous hornet). Glanders haw boon known Hinco fcho 
time of the classic Latin and Orock writers as 
one of tho moat dreaded horse, diseases. Its dis- 
tribution is practically universal, though it ifl 
said not to occur in Australia. 

Olandors appears wider several forms with 
different symptoms. Tho acuto and chronic 
forms of glanders are universally rooogniml. 
The acute form begins with a high fever. The 
coat is staring, and thcro are frequent chills. 
The mucous surfaces are roddrnied or some- 
times yellowish, purulent ulcers appearing on 
those of tho nose. These* iilcors rapidly increase 
in size and depth. Painful Bwollmgn' </ceur on 
various parts of the body, especially in the 



G&ANDEBS 15 

neighborhood of the lymphatics. In many cases 
the joints of the legs are affected by acute in- 
flammation. Death generally occurs in from 8 
to 30 days. Chronic glanders occurs in the skin 
form known as farcy, and as true glanders af- 
fecting the lungK and other internal organs. In 
farcy the symptoms begins by the formation of 
nodulcH under the akin, known as farcy but- 
tons. The surrounding tissues are broken down, 
and running ulcers are thus formed. After a 
variable period these ulcers heal. The disease 
broaku out again, however, in the same or other 
locations. The farcy buttons occur most fre- 
quently on the neck, shoulders, and inside the 
thighs. 

During the progress of ordinary chronic 
glanders the lungs are affected by glanderous 
pneumonia. A lobular V-shaped pneumonia, oc- 
curring at the various foci of infection, is char- 
acteristic of glanders. Tubercles of sizes vary- 
ing from that of a millet seed to that of an egg 
are formed in the lungs, liver, spleen, and oc- 
catuonally in the kidneys. The tissue of these 
tubercles breaks down, leaving cavities filled 
with pun, some of which, in long-standing cases, 
may ultimately heal. 

The symptoms of chronic glanders which are 
most relied upon by practicing veterinarians for 
diagnostic purposes arc nodular swelling of the 
stibmaxillary glands, a dry cough after exercise, 
farcy buttons on the skin, and a persistent 
purulent discharge from the nose. 

The spread of the disease is due chiefly to the 
discharges from the nose and from farcy sores. 
The virus from thene sources may contaminate 
ha mew, vehicles, fences, stables, water supply, 
etc., through which other animals are readily 
infected. 

Nearly all the tonics and curative agents 
known to veterinary medicine have been used 
in the treatment of glanders, but without result. 
Medical treatment is of no avail. Spontaneous 
recovery takes place in rare instances. When 
the chief symptoms are those of farcy, apparent 
recovery takes place at intervals, followed by 
renewed outbreaks of the disease. The nasal 
symptoms may also cease and later recur. In 
chronic cases the disease may persist for sev- 
eral yeurw before death occurs. 

(jlamlered animals should be shot and buried 
or burned. Such procedure is required by law 
in nearly all countries. Stables and all articles 
with which glamlercd horses have come in con- 
tact should be disinfected. 

For the detection of cases of glanders the 
symptoms already mentioned are not always suf- 
ficient. In latent cases recourse is had to sev- 
eral other means, including injections of mallein. 
This substance is prepared from the glanders 
bacillus and contains the glanders toxin, but 
not the living bacilli. An injection of this sub- 
stance into healthy horses causes no reaction. In 
glanderous horses it produces an elevation of 
temperature, swelling of the submaxillary 
glands, and trembling, which subsides after a 
few hours. A rise in body temperature of 2 F. 
ufter a mallein injection is considered good evi- 
dence of the presence of glanders. Some investi- 
gators Have reported quite striking curative 
efforts from the continued use of large doses of 
mallein. Several reliable methods of serum 
diagnosis are now available for use, including 
the serum agglutination and precipitation re- 
actions and the complement fixation test. The 
complement fixation test is considered to be the 



GLANDS 

most satisfactory single method of diagnosing 
glanders. 

Glanders in Man, otherwise called EQUINIA. 
Man may acquire the disease by accidental in- 
oculation from the horse, though several cases 
have been recorded in which glanders has been 
transmitted from one human being to another. 
The symptoms of acute glanders in man are: 
weakness, chills, muscular and articular pains, 
the appearance of nodules with swelling and 
redness, rise of temperature, and suppuration. 
A single ulcer may cause great swelling of 
the whole hand and arm, with a'dema, enlarged 
glands in armpits, and subsequent ulcers and 
pustules upon the swollen surface. A discharge 
from the nasal cavities appears, watery and 
viscid at first, afterward purulent and very of- 
fensive. The nose becomes swollen and painful, 
and perforations of the cartilage occur. The 
mouth becomes dry, dark red, and thickly 
coated; constipation is followed by diarrhoea; 
intense nervousness or delirium may follow; 
albumin appears in the urine. Emaciation and 
prostration are followed by death in the fourth 
week, in fatal cases. Besides the acute form 
just described, there is also a chronic form of 
glanders in man, but this occurs very rarely. 
Consult: J. Law, Text-Book of Veterinary Medi- 
cine, vol. iv (Ithaca, 1905-11) ; Hutyra and 
Marek, Special Pathology and TJierapeutics of 
the Diseases of Domestic Animals, vol. i (New 
York, 1913) ; E. W. Hoave, A System of Veteri- 
nary Medicine, vol. i (ib., 1913) ; Mohler and 
Eichhorn, "The Diagnosis of Glanders by Com- 
plement Fixation," United States Department of 
Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry Bul- 
letin 136 (1911) ; id., "Various Methods for the 
Diagnosis of (rlanders," United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Indus- 
try Circular 101 (1012). 

GLANDKNTA (Neo-Lat., from Lat. glans. 
acorn). A genus of large pulmonate mollusks, 
or land shells, of the shell-bearing slug family 
Testacellidte. It includes about 125 species, 
whose shells are somewhat fusiform in shape, 
smooth, polished, and beautifully colored and 
marked. They creep about among the herbage 
and on bushes and are voracious feeders upon 
other smaller snails and all sorts of animal mat- 
ter. Most of them belong to the American trop- 
ics, but one, at leant, is European. Several 
species enter the southern border of the United 
States, of which the best known is the rose- 
tinted extremely variable Olandina truncata f 
which is illustrated on the Colored Plate of 
NORTH AMERICAN SNAILS, accompanying the 
article SNAIL. 

G-LANDS, DISEASES OF THE. The lymphatic 
glands are subject to enlargement from acute 
inflammation and abscess, usually in consequence 
of irritation of the part from which their 
lymphatics spring, as in the case of scarlet 
fever and diphtheria (qq.v.) , in which the glands 
of the throat are affected; or in the case of 
gonorrhoea (q,v.), in which the glands of the 
groins are affected; in bubonic plague, in which 
the glands of the groins, armpits, or neck, etc., 
may be involved. The treatment of such ab- 
scesses is purely surgical. A much more trouble- 
some affection of the glands is the slow, 
comparatively painless, at first dense, solid 
swelling which they undergo in scrofula (q.v.), 
which tends very slowly, if at all, to suppura- 
tion and sometimes remains for years. In 
By phil IB (q.v.) and cancer there are also en- 



GLANEUSES 16 

largements of the lymphatic glands. Scrofulous 
or tubercular diseases of the nieaenteric glands 
in children constitute tabes mesenteriva. (See. 
MESENTERY.) The larger glands, as the liver, 
kidney, pancreas, spleen, thyroid, thymua, testi- 
cle, and even the pituitary gland (qq.v.) have 
all their special diseases. 

Glandular frrer is a dipease of childhood, 
probably of infei'tioiu origin, and characterized 
by a sudden onset, moderate fovor, and swelling 
ot the glands of the neck, and sometimes those of 
the axilla and groin. The disease is not danger- 
ous, but complications, the most serious of which 
is nephritis, may lend gravity to the case. Isola- 
tion, mild purgation, rest, and symptomatic 
remedies are indicated in the treatment. 

GLAND TREATMENT. Sec SECRETIONS, 
TNTEB.VAL. 

GLA1TEUSES, gla'nez', LES (Fr., The Glean- 
ers). A celebrated painting by Jean Francois 
Millet (1857) in the Louvre, representing a 
field in which three women are picking up the 
forgotten stalks, while the laborers are seen 
with loaded wagons in the background. The 
picture is remarkable for its effects of light and 
is considered one of Millet's beat works. JPor 
illustration, see MILLET, JEAN FRANCOIS. 

G-LAlT'VUiIi. The putative author of the 
first classical textl>ook of the English common 
law. This work, A Treatise on the Lairs and 
Customs of England (Tractatus dc Lcgibits ot 
Consuetudinib'tis Anglia*), appears from inter- 
nal evidence to have been composed towards the 
close of the twelfth century and in the. last years 
of the reign of Henry IJ. The Glanvill whose 
name it bears is doubtless the celebrated Rannlpli 
de Glanvill, Chief Justiciar and Prime Minis- 
ter of Henry, one of the conspicuous jftgurcs of 
that stormy period of English history. 1-To came 
of a Suffolk family of position, was sheriff of 
Yorkshire from 11G3 to 1170, and in 1174, 
when sheriff of Lancashire, led the forces of the 
King against the invading Scots and won a 
great victory. Thereafter his place was at the 
right hand of the King as trusted adviser, am- 
bassador, prime minister, and justiciur. He, died 
at Acre in 1200, to which place he had gone with 
Richard I on his crusade to the Holy Land. 

But there is no trustworthy evidence that 
Runulph de Glanvill wrote the law book at- 
tributed to him. It is more likely to have been 
the work of some learned clerk nt his court, 
perhaps of his secretary and kinsman, Hubert 
Walter, and that the title of the work is a dedi- 
cation rather than an attribution. But there 
can be no doubt that it represents the law of 
Glanvill's time and is a correct picture of the 
legal system which he was engaged in shaping. 
1 'hough the writer must have had some knowl- 
edge of the canon law, his work is English both 
in matter and arrangement. That is to say, it 
in not " institutional" and scientific in form, 
but empirical and practical. It sets forth the 
procedure of the King's Court, the Curia Regis, 
the various pleas which it wfll entertain, the 
several classes of wrongs which it will remedy, 
and the plea appropriate to each, and so con- 
siders the substantive law, both civil ancl crimi- 
nal, after the usual common-law method, from 
the standpoint of procedure. It immediately 
took high rank as a legal authority and re- 
tained its unquestioned supremacy until super- 
seded, 60 or 70 years later, by Bracton's groat 
work. In the meantime many editions, as we 
should call them, by various annotators, ap- 



GLAPTHOHNE 

peured, and many of these manuscripts are still 
in existence. A Scottish version, known as tlu 
Rcgiani Atajestatcm, long passed as an original 
treatise. 

Glanvill was first printed in the year 15f>4 nt 
the instance of Sir W. Stanford, a judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas. It was early trans- 
lated into French, and an English version by 
Beaines appeared in 1812. A new edition of 
Bcomcs's translation has recently appeared un- 
der the careful editorship of Prof. Joseph II. 
Beale, Jr. (Washington, 1900). 

GLANVILL, JOHEPEI (lo'SO-SO). An Eng- 
lish divine, born at Plymouth. He graduated 
at JRxctcr College, Oxford, in 1055, took the de- 
gree of M.A. at Lincoln College in 1058, and 
became chaplain to Francis Itous, provost of 
Eton. After the, Restoration he conformed, and 
in 3000 became rector at Wimbish, Kssex, by 
appointment of his brother, a prominent Lon- 
don merchant. He. became a friend of Henry 
More, but was not himself a Platonist, and WIIH 
one of the early fellows of the Royal Society . 
His first and bent-known work, The. Vanity of 
Dogmatising (1001), an attack on the scholas- 
ticism of the Oxford school, anticipates 1 1 nine's 
theory of causation and foreshadows the elec- 
tric telegraph in the words: "to confer at the 
distance of the Indies by sympathetic^ contriv- 
ances may be us natural to future times an to 
us is a literary correspondence." It contain* 
the story of the "Scholar Gypsy" from which 
Matthew Arnold obtained the basis for hit* poem. 
Olanvill was appointed rector of the Abbey 
Church at Bath in 1000, and chaplain in ordi- 
nary to Charles FT in 1072. During the "Popish 
Plot" excitement he wrote a spirited attack on 
the nonconformist sects, The Kcalom and Im- 
partial l*rotc.stant (published in 1(J81). Among 
his voluminous works, written in a rather 
rhetorical stylo, are: Lust Orwntalitt (1002), a 
defense of M ore's doctrine of the pree"xistemie 
of souls; Nti'psifi Ncicnlifira: or ti<vnfc*t Igno- 
rance the Wat/ to NH.wwc (1005; reprinted 1885), 
a revision of his iirst work, in which, us in 
WiUnMtpkiral CfoHHiriera lions Touching Witdws 
<md Witchcraft (1000) and MmMttcimniM Trium- 
pJiatus (1081), he collected evidence on super- 
stitions and conducted psychical research; Plus 
Ultra, or the Progress 'and AitoMUuwnuwt of 
Knowledge flinw tlw Out/** of Aristotle (1(108), 
a defense of the, lloyal {Society; The Ways of 
Happiness (1070); An Mann's t Invitation to 
the Lor $8 Ruppcr (1073); JStMaytt on Mr carat 
Important ffubjwto (1070), containing his re- 
markable "Anti-Vanatick Thuologie and Kre 
Philosophy," in continuation of Bacon's Noio 
Atlantis; An Mssay Concerning ['reaching 
(1078). 

CKtiANVTLLE, BARTHOLOMEW DE. See BAB- 



(H^AP'THOBOTI, HijNmr. An English dram- 
atist, of whose life nothing is known except that 
lie was a friend of Cotton and Lovelace and an 
adherent of the court, and wrote most between 
the years 1089 and 1G43. His works consist of: 
Albw tus WallcnsMn (1639), an historical 
drama; Argalus and Parthvnia (1639), a drama- 
tisation in verso of a part of Ridney's Arcadia; 
The Hollander ( 3 040 ) ; Wit w, a Constable ( 1 040 ) ; 
and The Ladies' Privilege (1640). Other plays 
have been credited to him; Bullon and Fleay 
both reprint The Lady Mother as his work, nnd 
Penciling attributes it to him. ire wrote a 
volume of Poems (1639) and a poem called 



GLAREANUS ] 

Whitehall (1643). His works may be char- 
acterized as indifferent and feeble, with occa- 
sional bursts of beauty. Consult the memoir in 
the collected edition of his Plays and Poems 
(London, 1874); an essay in Retrospectice Itc- 
view, vol. x (ib., 1824) ; and Ward, English 
Dramatic Literature, vol. iii (ib., 1899). 

GLAREANtrS, gla'ra-ii'niis, HENJJICUS ( 1488- 
1363). A Swiss humanist and musical theorist, 
whose name was Hcinrich Loriti. He was born 
at Mollis, Canton of Glarus (whence his name). 
He studied music under Cochlilus at Cologne, 
where he also gave considerable attention to 
philosophy and theology. At the age of 24 he 
became poet laureate to Emperor Maximilian 1. 
He taught mathematics at Basel from 1515 to 
1517, when his friend Erasmus is said to have 
secured for him an appointment to the chair of 
philosophy ut Paris. At first a defender of 
Itouchlin and a follower of the Reformation, he 
is believed subsequently to have changed his 
views and to have removed to Basel, accepting 
a professorship at the university in that city 
bout 1520, whence he afterward removed to 
Freiburg. Biographical details concerning him 
are somewhat meagre and unreliable; more is 
known of his work. One of his principal publi- 
cations is entitled Isagoge In Musicen Ucnrici 
(Jlwrwtw, etc. (1516), the first work published 
by him, and treating of solmization, the inter- 
vals, tones, and modes. His Dodckachordo'ti 
(1547) is still of great value to the historian 
and student of music, inasmuch as here for tho 
first time the theory is enunciated that there 
should be 12, instead of 8, church modes, cor- 
responding to those of ancient Greece. The 
work is divided into three parts and is fur- 
nished with numerous examples from the works 
of Ockenheim, ffosquin de Prds, and other fa- 
mous composers of the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies. Consult (). F. Fritzsche, Ifcnricus Ola- 
reanuff (Fniuenfeld, 181)0). 

GLARUS, glii/nis. A canton of Switzerland, 
bounded by the Canton of St. Gall on the north 
and east, Grisons on the south, and Uri and 
Schwyz on the west (Map: Switzerland, D 1). 
Area, 267 square miles. The centre is taken up 
by a valley open on the north and inclosed on 
the east, south, and west by snow-capped moun- 
tains, most of them exceeding 10,000 feet in 
height. Tho chief river is the Liuth, ilowing 
into tho Wallensoc. Agriculture is of second- 
ary importance, domestic products not sufficing 
to meet the home demand. The chief manu- 
factured products are cotton, woolen, and silk 
goods, and beer. The canton ia well provided 
with transportation facilities and carries on a 
considerable trade in textiles. 

The form of government is thoroughly demo- 
cratic. The people exercise their legislative 
power directly, assembling for that purpose once 
a year in the Landcsgemeindc. Tho executive 
power is vested in a council of seven members 
elected by the Landesgemeinde for three years. 
The rural communities arc administered by com- 
munal councils. Pop., 1000, 32,349 ; 1910, 33,316. 
Tho inhabitants are mostly Protestant and speak 
German. Capital, Glarus (q.v.). 

GLARUS. The capital of the Swiss canton 
of the same name, situated on the Linth, 43 
miles by rail from Zurich (Map: Switzerland, 
D 1). The chief buildings are the Gothic 
church, used in common by Roman Catholics and 
Protestants, and the government buildings, con- 
taining a natural history museum and an art 



7 GLASER 

collection. The town is lighted by gas and elec- 
tricity, and has water works. There are cotton- 
printing mills, bleacherit-s, cigar factories, and 
breweries. The commerce is of considerable im- 
portance. Pop., including the suburbs, 1900, 
4940; 1910, 4877, mostly German-speaking 
Protestants. 

GLAS, JOHN (1093-1773). Founder of the 
Glassites, or Samlemauiuns. He was born at 
Auchterniuchty, Fifeshire, Scotland. He stud- 
ied at St. Andrews and Edinburgh, entered the 
ministry, and became a popular preacher. In 
his Testimony of the King of Martyrs (1727) 
lie maintained that all national establishments 
of religion and all interference of the civil au- 
thority in religious affairs are inconsistent with 
the true nature of the Church of Christ and 
was thus probably the first to assert the volun- 
tary principle in Scotland. For advocating such 
views he was first suspended and later deposed 
from the ministry (1730), He then formed an 
independent congregation in Dundee and in 
1733 removed to Perth, where he built his first 
church. He was here joined by Robert San de- 
man, who married his daughter and became the 
better-known leader of his followers in England 
and America. He died at Perth, Nov. 2, 1773. 
Notwithstanding some intellectual eccentricities, 
Glas was a man of strong character and sound 
scholar ship. His works were published at Edin- 
burgh in 1761 and at Perth in 1782-83. The 
thirteenth edition of his Christian Songs ap- 
peared at Perth in 1847. See SANDEMAN, ROB- 



GLASENAPP, gl-l'zc-ni\p, KAHL FBIEDRICII 
(1 847-1915). A German philologist and writer 
on music. He was born at Riga, studied com- * 
parativc philology at Dorpat, and in 1875 be- 
came professor of German literature at Riga. 
His principal work, Jtichard Wagners Leocn und 
IVirkcn, is the most comprehensive biography 
of the master. Tho first volume appeared in 
1S70, the last (sixth) not until 1913. Two 
other important works are Wagncr-fjeasicon 
(1883) and Wagncr-ftnc-ydopiidiG (1891). Be- 
ginning with their foundation he was a fre- 
quent contributor to the Bai/reuther Blatter. 
He also published some of Wagner's correspond- 
ence and wrote a life of Siegfried Wagner ( 1906) . 

GLASER, gla'zer, ADOLF (1829- ). A 
German author, born at Wiesbaden. For more 
than 22 years (1856-78) he continuously con- 
ducted Wester mann? s iniuttrierto Monatshefte 
and he again was associated with that publica- 
tion after 1882. His first success was the novel 
Schlitsswang (2d ed., 1879), which was followed 
by a series of historical novels, wuch as Savon- 
arola (1883) and Wuljliilde (1885). His prin- 
cipal dramas are also chiefly historic: as Galileo 
Qalilei* (1861). He is favorably known as a 
translator of Dutch novels. His collected works 
were published in 12 volumes, 1880-92. 

GLASER, EUUARD (1855-1908). An Aus- 
trian explorer, born at Deutsch-Rust, Bohemia. 
He studied physics, geology, and astronomy at 
Vienna and Prague, and afterward devoted him- 
self to the study of Oriental languages, visiting 
Egypt and Tunis. In 1882 he observed a total 
eclipse of the sun at Sohag, Upper Egypt, and 
subsequently he made a trip to southern Arabia 
(Yemen, especially Jauf and M&rib). In 1885 
and thereafter he again made several tours 
through Arabia, and collected nearly 2000 manu- 
scripts and numerous archncological specimens, 
chiefly of tho eriy of M&rib, the capital 



OLASER 18 

of the ancient Saboean kingdom; most of these 
are in the Imperial Library, Vienna. Glaser's 
researches on the topography of Arabia, and on 
the epigraphy and dialects of the southern por- 
tion of the peninsula, are highly important. Be- 
sides contributions to scientific periodicals he 
wrote: Mitteilungcn uber einige aits mciner 
Sammlung stammcnde sabaische InschHften 
(1886); Skisze der Gesohichte und Geographic 
Arabiens von den altesten Zeiten Us sum Propfo 
cten Muhammad (1889 et seq.) ; Die Abessinier 
in Arabien und Afrika (1895). 

GLASEB, glii'zer, JULIUS ANTON (originally 
JOSUA) (1831-85). An Austrian jurist and 
statesman. He was born at Postelberg, Bohe- 
mia, of Jewish parents, and was educated at 
Vienna and Zurich. In 1856 he was appointed 
professor in the University of Vienna. In 1871 
he. was elected to the Diet of Lower Austria, and 
from 1873 to 1879 he was a member of the Aus- 
trian Reichsrat. In 1871-79 he was Minister of 
Justice in the Auersperg cabinet, and subse- 
quently was procurator general at the Court 
of Cassation, Vienna. He was one of the forts- 
most jurists of his day, and aided greatly in 
the reformation of criminal jurisprudence in 
Austria. His principal publications are: Das 
englische-schottische Strafverfahren (1850); 
Die Fragstellung im Schipurgerichtsvcrfahren 
(1863) ; Zur Juryfrage (1864; republished with 
the preceding work in 1879, under the title 
Sohwurgeriohtliohe Erorterungw) ; Anklagc, 
Wahrspruch und Rechtsuiittel im englischcn 
Sohwurgeriohtsverfahren ( 1806 ) ; Gesainmclte 
Jcleinere 8chriften uber Strafrccht, Civil- und 
Strafprosesa (2d ed., 1883); Sammlung straf- 
reohtlicher Entscheiditngen des k. k. Obcrsten 
Oeriohtshofs (3 vols., 1872). Consult the sketch 
by Unger (Vienna, 1888). 

GLASEB, OTTO C(irAKLES) (1880- ). 
An American zoologist. He was born at Wies- 
baden, Germany, and graduated in 1900 from 
Johns Hopkins University, where he recurved his 
doctorate in philosophy in 1904, Ho was an 
assistant in the United States Bureau of Fish- 
eries and the North Carolina Geological Survey 
(1901-02), marine biologist of the Gulf Biolog- 
ical station (1903), demonstrator at the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons, Baltimore (1901- 
03), and 'taught biology at Woods Hole, Mast*., 
in 1905-07, and at the University of Michigan 
after 1905, becoming assistant professor in 1908. 
His researches comprise investigations on the be- 
havior of the white rat, behavior pf the Ophvura, 
oyster culture, origin and physiology of nema- 
tocysts, cytology and embryology of ffascio- 
laria, and developmental energetics. 

GLASGOW, gWgfl or glas1c6. A royal and 
parliamentary burgh, the industrial and mari- 
time metropolis and the largest city of Scot- 
land; after London and Birmingham, the largest 
city in the United Kingdom (Map: Scotland D 
4). It is situated on the river Clyde, in the 
lower ward of Lanarkshire, and occupies chiefly 
the north side of the river, but has large and 
populous suburbs on the south side. The river is 
crossed by several bridges. Two of granite and 
one of iron are much admired- for their light 
and graceful architecture. Two are suspension 
bridges and three are railway bridges. Below 
the bridges, ferryboats ply at all hours. 

Glasgow is built for the most part on level 
ground, but in -the north and northwest districts 
there are considerable elevations. Owing to the 
great number of factories and mills of all kinds, 



GLASGOW 



the city has a somewhat dingy and smoky as- 
pect; in other respects it has many attractions. 
The houses facing the river stand well back, 
leaving spacious thoroughfares on each aide 
which afford full and noble views of the bridges, 
of several handsome street ranges und public 
buildings, and of the harbor with its funnels 
and forests of masts. Host of the loading 
streets run from east to west, parallel with 
the river, and almost all the streets, except 
in the oldest parts of the city, arc laid in 
straight lines. The houses arc generally lofty, 
and built of freestone, the floors of ouch tenement 
being usually occupied by separate, families, en- 
tering by a common stair. In the fashionable 
quarters elegant residences prevail. The city 
may he divided into the eastern and western sec- 
tions, separated by Itachannn fStreet; the, former 
contains all that there is of antiquarian interest 
and many of the modern public buildings, while 
the latter is the more, modern uml fashionable 
quarter. The principal business streets are 
Argyll, running parallel to the river; Buchanan, 
running at right angles; and Hauc.hieluill, the 
main thoroughfare to the west-end residential 
section. George Square, the centre of the. city, 
is adorned with an 80-foot tinted column sur- 
mounted by a statue of Sir Walter Scott, eques- 
trian statues of Queen Victoria and the Prince 
Consort, and statues of Sir John Moore, James 
Watt, Sir Robert Peel, William Pitt, Thomas 
Campbell, Robert Burna, David Livingstone, 
Lord Clyde (Sir Colin ( 'ampbell ) , and Oliui- 
stone. About this square are clustered BO me* of 
the most notable buildings in tho city, such as 
the municipal buildings (in Vene.tian Renais- 
sance wtyle, opened in 1889), Merchants 1 UOUHO, 
Bank of Scotland, and the (tanoral Post (Mice. 
Among other public buildings are tho lloyal 
Exchange in Queen Street, in tho Corinthian 
style, in front of which stands a colossal eques- 
trian statue of the Duke of Wellington; tli 
magnificent buildings of the university, e.ree.twl 
in Early English atyle on flilmoru Hill and 
opened in 1870; tho Institute of Fine Arts and 
the Corporation Art Gallery, both in Kuxic.hiehall 
Street (the art gallery and muftcum aro now 
housed in Kolvingrove Park). Tins cathedral, 
dedicated in 1107 and completed about the. mid- 
dle of the fifteenth century, was designed in tho 
form of a cross, Imt the transepts worn novur 
completed. It ia Karly Knglwh in style, and is 
particularly noted -for its beautifully propor- 
tioned and elaborately decorated crypt. The 
principal cemetery ia th<> Necropolis, 'on a hill 
in tho northern part of the city; here, i a con- 
spicuous Doric column erected ( 182-1) in memory 
of John Knox. 

Glasgow owes its industrial and commorc'.ial 
importance to its advantageous situation in tho 
midst of a district abounding in coal and iron. 
Much of its prosperity in duo also to itn pcwitum 
near the mouth of the Clyde and the POHSOH- 
sion of a splendid harbor (20(1 acres). Over 
$40,000,000 has been expended in tho widening 
and deepening of the river, which is now uavi* 
gable by vessels drawing 20 feet of wator. Ta 
1912 the total not tonnage entered and cleared, 
excluding coastwise vessels, was 5,220,000. In 
1900 imports and exports of mwrchandiuo were 
valued at $68,309,527 and $00,006,810 respec- 
tively; in 1910, $70,777,317 and $143,001,057; 
in 1912, $82,506,000 and $162,817,725, The chief 
articles of export are woolen, cotton, and linen 
goods, machinery, millwork, and metal manu- 



GLASGOW i 

factures, coal, paper, chemicals, and whisky. 
The imports include largely raw products, such 
as wheat, corn, ftour, sugar, wool, metal (espe- 
cially iron) ores, timber, tobacco, and petroleum. 
The city is the chief centre of the shipbuilding 
industry of the world; the building of all kinds 
of machinery is next in importance, followed by 
cotton spinning and weaving. Calico printing, 
dyeing, and distilling and brewing should be men- 
tioned. The famous St. Rollox Chemical Works, 
one of the largest of its kind in the world, has a 
chimney stack 435 feet high, a conspicuous land- 
murk of the city. Loch Katrine, 42 miles distant 
and 364 feet above sea level, furnishes the water 
supply of Glasgow. 

The government of the city is administered 
by a corporation consisting of 77 members, in- 
cluding the lord provost and 14 bailies. See 
paragraph on Local Government under GREAT 
BRITAIN. 

Glasgow has led in the work of municipal 
reform in Great Britain. Its various improve- 
ments and great undertakings have been carried 
out by the corporation, which, under an act of 
Varlinment, constituted itself in each case as a 
"trust," such as the Improvement Trust, the 
Police Trust, the Market Trust, the Navigation 
Triwt, etc. For the purposes of practical work, 
the various trusts, i.e., the corporation in its 
Heveral capacities, elect subcommittees, which 
have immediate supervision of the respective 
departments of city administration. Thus, the 
Sanitary Department, or Board of Health, is 
under the supervision of a corporation com- 
mittee with subcommittees on cleansing and 
hospitalrt. It is administered by a chief in- 
upec.tor, aHHiflted l>y some 150 inspectors, the 
work of each being highly specialized. The 
thorough organization, of the Board of Health 
and the numerous other improvements of the city 
were necessitated by the extreme density of the 
population, and the consequent high rate of 
mortality among the working people. In 1865, 
the. year marking the beginnings of the various 
puhl'ic undertakings, the density of the popula- 
tion was very great 1000 per acre in certain 
districts. The average mortality in 1864 was 
;!2,S per thousand, and as high 'as 38.64 for a 
HericH of preceding years. The Improvement 
Trurtt, in cutting wide streets as well as in lay- 
ing out new ones, in demolishing old buildings 
and (treating vacant apace, and in a good many 
other ways, helped to disperse tho population 
over a wider area. In 1891 the boundaries of 
the city we.ro extended; before extension, the 
average density was 92.5 to the acre, and after 
extension 55.5; in 1901, about 60 to the acre; 
in 1011, 62. Still, at the present day, a vast 
number of families occupy single-room dwellings 
(in 1011 there were 32,606 one-room dwellings 
and 75,530 two-room, out of a total of 163,- 
057). The death rate has fallen to about 20. 
The birth rate averages about 33. 

In addition to its work of prevention of 
disease, the Sanitary Department pays due at- 
tention to combating prevailing disease. Its two 
great municipal hospitals not only are models 
in appointment, but are built in a very attrac- 
tive manner. Special buildings are provided 
for infectious diseases. The sanitary wash- 
houses arc used for disinfecting the belongings of 
families whose members are afflicted with con- 
tagious diseases, the families themselves being 
entertained at the cost of the city in its "house 
of reception" while their homes go through the 



5 GLASGOW 

process of disinfection and whitewashing. The 
Cleansing Department probably contributes as 
much to the health of Glasgow as the Sanitary 
Department. In addition to the usual sweeping 
and sprinkling of public streets, this department 
attends to the cleansing of private courtyards 
and passageways, the owners being assessed a 
slight tax to cover the expense. The street 
sweeping is done by machines at night. The 
litter swept up by men and boys during the 
day is deposited in covered iron bins, located 
under the surface of the streets at short inter- 
vals. There are three principal "dispatch sta- 
tions," together with a number of minor ones, 
at which the city garbage undergoes a treatment 
which converts the greater part of it into 
manure. The city owns a number of farms for 
the utilization of that part of the refuse which 
cannot be marketed. To avoid contamination 
of the waters of the Clyde, the city's sewage is 
treated chemically in a special sewage plant, 
where it is made to precipitate all its solid in- 
grediants, which are then made into "cakes 13 by 
powerful presses, and passed automatically into 
freight cars standing on the tracks below. Most 
of the cakes are utilized at the city's farm for 
raising fodder for the horses employed in the 
Cleansing and Street Railway departments. The 
water remaining after the precipitation of the 
solid ingredients is filtered, and passed entirely 
pure into the Clyde. All of these improvements, 
though originally involving a considerable out- 
lay of capital, nave more than paid for them- 
selves. 

The Glasgow police consists mostly of High- 
landers, who are universally praised for their 
intelligence and efficiency. The police courts 
constitute a part of the police department. 
Justice is administered by tbe Lord Provost and 
the bailies. Half of the expense of the depart- 
ment is met by the general government. 

The city possesses considerable and profitable 
real estate. There are sonic two dozen munici- 
pal tenements, which, though superior to the 
private houses of the same class, are built 
largely in undesirable localities, and thus utilize 
land which could not be disposed of otherwise. 

The Glasgow municipal lodging houses are 
models in their line, and a boon to the poor. 
Although the charge is only seven to nine cents 
per night, they yield a revenue above all ex- 
penses, including interest. In 1896 the munici- 
pal family home was opened to accommodate 
families of widows or widowers who arc obliged 
to be away from their children during the day. 
It contains all the necessary accommodations, in- 
cluding playrooms, playgrounds, and a nursery. 
There arc nurses to take care of the children 
while their parents are at work. The charges 
are: for mother with one child, 76 cents per 
week; mother with two children, 92 cents. 
Board : breakfast, five cents ; dinner, eight cents ; 
tea, six cents. The public baths comprise five 
large establishments containing swimming pools, 
and accommodating on the average 1500 people 
per day. The public washhouses are fitted out 
with steam boiling apparatus, centrifugal ma- 
chine driers, hot-air apartments, steam-operated 
roller mangles, etc. The charge for their use 
is four cents per hour. 

The public lighting is done by the city. After 
having taken over the gas plant, the city went 
on improving it, at the same time reducing 
the coat of gas to consumers. Between 1869 and 
1891 the population increased less than 30 per 



GLASGOW 20 

cent, and the consumption of gas increased 170 
per cent. From $1.14 per 1000 feet in 1869, 
the price has gradually been reduced to 60 
cents, without diminishing the net profits. In 
1893 the city opened a large electric plant which 
has proved a great success, and lights not only 
streets and public buildings, but also private 
courts and stairways. 

The water supply is under the management of 
the Board of Water Commissioners. In I860 a 
new supply of water was introduced from Tjoch 
Katrine by means of a large reservoir covering 
an area of 86 % neves, at a distance of 7 
miles from the city and 300 feet above ita gen- 
eral level. Subsequently the water supply was 
greatly augmented in part by raising the level of 
Loch Katrine 5 feet. With a steadily diminish- 
ing water rate the city lias bocn able to meet 
not only all the expenses, including interest, 
but also to accumulate a sinking fund. 

In 1804 the city took over the street-car 
system; by the terms of the original contract it 
did not have to pay for the plant, but received 
from the company a total sum of $225,000 in 
rental money, and exacted another mim known 
as the renewal fund to keep the system in re- 
pair. Since then a now set of commodious cars 
has been introduced, certain extensions have 
been made, and tlio horse-car service has boon 
replaced by a modern clcctric-trat'tion Hyatcm, 
all completed by the summer of 1001. After 
carrying out all of the improvement** and charg- 
ing the low rate of one cent for Hhort rides 
and two cents for long ones, and after having 
reduced the hours of its employees from 14 
(under the rule of the company) to 10, and ad- 
vanced their wages, the city not only has man- 
aged to pay all expenses, including depreciation 
and interest on capital, but lays aside, annually 
about $300,000 in the sinking- and general rcttcrvu 
fund. 

Glasgow possesses a system of municipal mar- 
kets, used, however, for wholesale transactions 
only. All slaughtering is done in the municipal 
abattoirs, yielding an income to the city. Under 
the name of the Clyde Navigation frmt, the 
city operates the harbor ferries, and holds a 
monopoly of all harbor services. The Mitchell 
Library, with 175,000 volumes, though founded 
by private persons, servos tho purposes of a 
public library, and receives n grant from tho 
city. In addition, tho city has several minor 
libraries. 

The schools arc managed very successfully by 
the Glasgow School Board, as may bo seen from 
the increasing attendance in public schools and 
the diminishing numbers in private onoa. A 
system of fees divides the schools into three 
distinct classes, each aiming to furnish the same 
kind of education, but serving to separate the 
children of the rich from those of the poor. 
There are a number of technical schools, gov- 
erned by a board of trustees, on which the Glas- 
gow University is also represented. In addition 
to the University (see GLASGOW UNMCBHITY), 
there are the Glasgow and West of Scotland 
Technical College, St. Mungo's College, Ander- 
Hon ( College, St. Margaret's College for Women, 
and tho United Free Church College. The sec- 
ondary schools include the High School, Glasgow 
and Kolvinsido academies, and the Hutcheaou 
Trust schools. There are numerous hospitals and 
disponfuirfrs, and three large, excellently ap- 
pointed general infirmaries. Glasgow ha a num- 
ber of theatres and large concert halls. The 



GLASGOW 



Royal Botanic (i ardent* near the Western Infirm- 
ary, with their large conservatories and fine col- 
lections of exotic and other plants, form a favor- 
ite resort for the citizens. Other large parks 
include tho Glasgow Green (140 acres) on the 
Clyde, Kelvingrove Park, in the west end, 
Queen's Park ('130 acres) on tho south side, tuul 
Alexandra Purk (120 acres). Ghwgow is the 
seat of a United States consul. 

The population of Glasgow in 1801 was 77,- 
385; in 1821, 147,043; in 1801, 305,603; in 1881, 
511,415; 1801, 565,830. The city limits wore, ex- 
tended in 1891, the population brooming (58,108. 
In 1001 Glasgow had 761,742 inhabitants, and 
the area of tho city WHS 12,501 ticren; in 15)11, 
784,400 inhtibitantH, the urea being 12,fi(M) acren. 
r jne 1001 population of the. 1011 area was 775,- 
504, BO that in the decade the. incrcaHC on the 
wmie area wan 8002; tho natural increase i 
calculated at 91,540, showing a' loss by migra- 
tion of 82,038. Of Glasgow's area, 12,490 acres 
are reckoned as of LanarkHhire and 179 acrew 
Renfrewshire. There arc important suburbs, 
including tho conterminous burgh H of (lovan 
(1303 acres, pop., 89,005) and Fartick (OB 
aart'ft, pop., 00,849), and, in Duwlwrloiiyhire, the, 
burgh of Clydobank (1330 acres, pop., 37 T 548). 

Glasgow tracer its boginningH in tradition to 
the little wooden church which St. Kentigorn, 
apostle to the Scots, built on tho hanks of the 
Molcndivar about fJOO A..D. Nothing IK known of 
the town for more than five hundred yearn, till 
David, Prince of Cumbria, tlio future King 
David f, in 1110, retfotablwhtxl the see, of Glas- 
gow and rebuilt its church. Between 1175 and 
1178 Glasgow was made, a burgh, subject to its 
bishop, whom* bailie and provontH adaunirttored 
its aflTairs. In 1300 Wallace defeated the I<3ug- 
liah there, and five years later he wan alno be- 
trayed to the English tliero. In 1450 it was 
made a regality; in 1011 it gained by charter 
tho right of electing its mngtatrntoH, and in 
1030 became a free royal burgh. Us unive.rHity, 
modeled <>n that of Bologna, was founded by a 
papal bull in 1451. In the. ftcventeenth century 
tho town wa a stronghold of \Vhigginm and the 
Keformed religion. The great commercial growth 
of Gluwgow dates from the, union with ICutflaml 
in 1707. Enjoying equal freedom of trades with 
English ports, it quickly obtained a large sharo 
of the American trade, for which itn position 
on the wont coant fitted it especially. GlaHgow 
became the chief emporium of tho tobacco trade, 
and its Virginian merchants formed a local 
aristocracy remarkable for wealth and cHutinc* 
tion. This trade was at length paralysed by the 
American war; bnt fwgar cultivation in the 
Went Indies and the introduction of cotton man- 
ufacture opened up new patlitt to wealth. It wa 
here that Watt invented his nteam engine. To- 
day it is the centre of huge shipbuilding yarda 
and numerous* branches of the iron imluritry. 

Bibliography, fthaw, Munivi'fxtl Oowrnwent 
in Great Britain (New York, 1805); Lamiby, 
Tho Government of tlw Oity of tf/ewjyow (Phila- 
delphia, 1900 )j Bell and Paton, (llattgwo: Its 
Municipal Organisation aw4 A dmintet ration 
(Glasgow, 1890); Nicol, Vital, floofel, and tiro* 
nomio fltattetius of the Oity of (Hatiffow 18M~Ht> 
(il>., 1885); also for 1885-91 (il>., 1801 )s Kyre, 
'The TTSstory of the Ancient Woo of Glasgow, 
560-1500 A.D.," in Journal of the firittoh Arellano* 
logical Association (London, 1900) ; Macgeorge, 
Old Olasgoic (3d ed. } Glasgow, 1888); Mac- 
gregor, History of Glasgow (ib., 1881 ) 5 Howo, 



GLASGOW 

A Britisli Citi/: Tlic Beginnings of Democracy 
(New York, 1007); Marwick,' Early Glasgow 
(Glasgow, 3011) ; Primrose, Mediaeval Glasgow 
(ib., 1913). 

GLASGOW. A city and the county scat of 
Barren Co., Ky., al>out 100 miles (direct) south 
of Louisville, on the Louisville and Nashville 
Railroad (Map: Kentucky, EC). It has the 
Liberty Female College. The city is in the oil 
region of the State; carries on a considerable 
trade in lumber, cattle, mules, and livestock; 
and its industrial establishments include lumber 
mills, large tobacco warehouses, handle factories, 
furniture and tobacco factories, etc. Pop., 1900, 
2010; 1010, 231G. 

GLASGOW, ELLEN ANDERSON GHOLSON 
(1874- ). An American novelist, especially 
interesting in her studies of Southern scene's 
and people, and not least in her pictures of the 
change in the South from the old order to the 
new. She was born at Richmond, Va., and 
was educated privately. Her works include: The 
Descendant (1807) ; Phases of an Inferior Planet 
(1898); The Voice of the People (1000-02); 
The Freeman and Other Poems (1902) ; The 
Battlc-Oround (1902); The Deliverance (1004); 
The Wheel of Life (1900) ; Ancient Law (1908) ; 
The Romance of a Plain Man (1009); The 
Miller of Old Church (1011); Virginia (1013). 

GLASGOW TTNIVEBSITY. One oE the 
great seats of learning in Scotland. It was 
founded in 1451 by Uishop Turnbull, its founda- 
tion being ratified by ii papal bull of Nicholas 
V. In 14GO Jamtirt, first Lord Hamilton, be- 
queathed a tenement and four acres of ground 
to the KcgentH of the "J'flNlagogimn," or college 
of arts, and the university was further endowed 
by Queen Mary, as well as by her won, James VI 
of Scotland, better known aw Jtimea I of Eng- 
land, who issued a now charter to the institu- 
tion. The chief prosperity of the university, 
however, dates from the middle of the nine- 
teenth century. In 1804 the university build- 
ings and adjacent lands were sold, and splendid 
new buildings were erected on a site overlook- 
ing the Kelvin River, at a cost of about 470,- 
000. These, were opened in 1870 and have been 
extensively added to since 1892. By acts of 
Parliament, in 1858 and 1880, the university 
has boon entirely reorganized and is now a 
corporation consisting of a chancellor, rector, 
dean of faculties, principal, professors, and stu- 
dents. The university court consists of the rec- 
tor, the principal, this Lord Provost of Glasgow, 
and various anscHHors, representing both city and 
university. The body administers the property 
of the institution, appoints and regulates pro- 
fessors, and acts as court of appeal from the 
senate, which consists of the principal and pro- 
foHSors, and regulates teaching and discipline. 
The general council, consisting of various ex 
ofncio members and all masters and doctors, 
meets twice a year to revise the business of the 
university. It elects the chancellor, four ansess- 
rs to the court, and, with the general council 
of Aberdeen University, returns one member to 
Parliament. The chancellor in 1914 was the 
Earl of Kosebery. There is also a students' 
representative council. The chancellor holds 
office for life; the rector, generally some man 
distinguished in politics or letters, is chosen 
triennially by the students. The duties of the 
latter are wholly honorary. The students re- 
tain many of the customs and rights of medie- 
val universities,* of which the election of the 



21 GLASPELL 

rector is one. They are still divided into four 
"nations'* Glottiana (Lanarkshire), Trans- 
forthana (Scotland north of the Forth), Roth- 
seiana (Bute, Renfrew; and Ayr), and Lou- 
doniana fall others). In 1013 the number of 
students was 2770, including some 700 women. 
Women were first admitted in 1893 and Queen 
Margaret College was then handed over to the 
university by its trustees for their use. In 1913 
the instructors numbered 164. In 1914 the 
rector was the Right Hon. A. Birrell, M.P. 
President Poincare 1 was chosen rector for 1915 
by the student body. 

The university grants degrees in arts, science, 
medicine and surgery, divinity, and law. It has 
a library of 210,000 volumes* an observatory, a 
botanical garden, besides many special collec- 
tions of books, apparatus, and the great Hun- 
terian collection of coins, medals, and anatomical 
preparations. An important feature of the uni- 
versity is the number of scholarships, exhibi- 
tions, and fellowships in its gift, among which 
the Snell exhibitions are the oldest and richest. 

The University of Glasgow is rich in the 
number of distinguished graduates and teachers. 
Among them may be mentioned Bishop William 
Elphinstone, Jofm Major, John Spottiswoode, 
Andrew Melville, James Melville, Robert Boyd, 
of Trochrigg, John Cameron, Zachary Boyd, 
Robert Baillie, James Dalrymple, first Viscount 
Stair, Gilbert Burnet (Bishop of Salisbury), 
John Douglas (Bishop of Salisbury), Dr. Robert 
Simson, Francis Hutcheson, Dr. William Hun- 
ter, Dr. James Moor, Adam Smith, Dr. Thomas 
Reid, Dr. William Cullen, Dr. Joseph Black, Dr. 
Matthew Baillie, Prof. John Miller, Thomas 
Thomson, Francis Jeffrey, J. G. Lockbart, Sir 
William Hamilton, Archbishop Tait, Prof. R. 
C. Jebb, Lord Kelvin, and Sir Joseph Lister. 
T1w four hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the 
foundation of Glasgow University was celebrated 
in 1001, and in the various publications of that 
celebration is to be found much valuable infor- 
mation regarding the institution. Consult also: 
Stewart, The University of Glasr/ow (Glasgow, 
1891); Coutts, A History of the University of 
Glasgow from its Foundation in Iffi to 1909 
(ib., 1909); and the Glasgow University Cal- 
endar. 

GLASH'AN", JOHN CADBNHEAD (1844- ). 
A Canadian educator and mathematician. He 
was born at Bllon, Aberdeen shire, Scotland, and 
was brought by his parents to Upper Canada 
(Ontario) when nine years old. He was edu- 
cated at the public schools, at the provincial 
normal school, and at Toronto University. In 
18C4 he became a teacher in the Provincial 
Model School, Toronto, and in 1871 and 1870 
respectively was appointed inspector of schools 
for Middlesex County and for the city of Ot- 
tawa, continuing in the latter office until 1910. 
In 1805 he was made a member of the board of 
civil-service examiners. In 1902 he was elected 
a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. He 
contributed articles on mathematical subjects to 
various journals and devoted special attention 
to the history of mathematics. He is the author 
of an arithmetic for public schools, an ad- 
vanced arithmetic for high schools, and also, 
with G. A. Wentworth and J. A. McLellan, of 
Algebraic Analysis (1889). 

GiLAS'PELL, SUSAN (IMfes. GEORGE CHAM 
COOK) (1882- ). An American author, born 
at Davenport, Iowa. She graduated from Drake 
University and also studied at the University 



GLASS 

of Chicago. For a time she w,as State House 
and legislative reporter for the News and the 
Capital, daily newspapers of Des Homes, Iowa. 
She married George Cram Gek in 1013. Be- 
sides her contributions to magazines, who is 
author of The Wory of the Conquered (1909) 
The Tisioning (1911), and Lifted Masks (1912) 
novels that are intensely emotional and dis- 
tinguished by their vivid realism and imagina- 
tive power. 

GKLASS (from AS. gim, Icel., OHG. glas, Uer, 
Glas; connected with Icel. gler, AS. glccr, amber, 
and ultimately with Eng. glare). The use of 
glass came to the West from the East, and for 
that reason there is a diversity of names among 
the Indo-European nations. In Greek the usual 
word is ffaXos, hyalos, of which the etymology ia 
uncertain. In Latin the word is wit-nun, winch 
also means icoad, used for its blue dye. a fact 
which suggests that the earliest glass known 
to the Romans was in the form of blue beads. 
Among the northern peoples the original name 
of the amber (OHG. glas) was transferred to 
the new material and has given rine to the 
English glass. The French (verre) and most 
of the other Romance languages have kept tho 
Latin name. 

The ^ manufacture of glass was known to the 
Egyptians at a very early date. Tombs of the 
fourth and fifth dynasties (c.4000 B.CJ.) show 
glass blowers at work, and glazed pottery in the 
form of beads occurs in prehistoric times, though 
true gloat* first appears later in tho form of 
opaque "paste" and finally as transparent glasw. 
The oldest example of dark-blue glass is a pen- 
dant found at Naqada, which sccma to date from 
the seventh dynasty, though no other Hpccimens 
of this manufacture are known before the eight- 
eenth dynasty. A wall painting of the eleventh 
dynasty, at 'Beni Hassan, is commonly inter- 
preted as representing accurately the processes 
of glass blowing, but Dr. Flinders Petrie. believes 
that some metallurgical process is depicted in 
which reeds tipped with lumps of clay were used. 
The fullest information about the procures and 
materials used by the Egyptians is furnished 
by the discovery of the glassworks at Tell el- 
Amarna, belonging to tho eighteenth dynasty. 
Here were found fritting pans in which the first 
melting of the substances took place and also 
many imperfectly fused frits. The ingredients 
usod were silica, lime, alkalies, and copper car- 
bonate; but the exact proportions needed to se- 
cure a given color do not seem to have been 
known, and the exact tint produced must have 
been largely a matter of chance. They did 
know, however, that river sand, from the pres- 
ence of iron, gave a green tinge, and to avoid 
this used crushed quartz pebbles. After the 
mixture had been fused until the colors began 
to appear, it was formed into cakes of paste 
and these were again heated until the proper 
tint was reached. These cakes were fused in 
crucibles and allowed to cool in them, so that 
the impurities rose to the surface or settled at 
the bottom. The crucibles- were then broken 
away, and the impure glass at the top and 
bottom chipped off, leaving a lump of glass, 
which was then broken up and softened so that 
it could be rolled into thick rods. Those rods 
were then drawn out into 'slender rods or hollow 
tubGR or rolled into flat strips, and these rods 
or ribbons were used by the glassmaker to pro- 
duce beads, vnses, or inlaid work. It is notice- 
able that, in the view of Dr. Petrie, the vases 



22 



GLASS 



from this site were not blown, but were formed 
by coating a core of sand with melted glass, 
and pressing out the foot and lip by hand, 
while the decoration was produced by rolling 
in threads of colored glass, (Commit Potrio, 
Tell cl- Amarna, London, 1894.) Vigorous ex- 
ception, however, has been taken to this view 
by other scholars, who hold that the facts on 
which Dr. Petrie based his view are entirely 
compatible with the belief that the vases were 
blown. Tn general, glass was used for the manu- 
facture of small objects, and especially for the 
imitation of precious stones, in which the later 
workmen attained extraordinary skill. Cutting 
and engraving were also early practiced. Apart 
from thene independent usea of glatJH, it was 
very largely employed for inlaying, while an 
enamel or glaze on clay, stone, or wood was a 
favorite form of decoration from early times. 
A very lurgo proportion of tho scarabttti, 'amulets, 
and small ornaments found in Egypt or ex- 
ported to foreign parts are of vuriouH earths 
covered with a vitreous glaze, producing the 
ware incorrectly termed u Egyptian porcelain." 
However empirical the methods of the Egyp- 
tians, there can be no doubt of the technical 
skill attained by them, and even in Roman times 
the Alexandrian glasaworkorfl maintained their 
preeminence. It was not till the Hellenistic pe- 
riod that value Rooms to have boon not on clear 
ghiHH, for, though clear glass was known earlier, 
it is certain that Egyptian tatite valued only the 
highly colored varieties. 

Phoenicia. Tyro and Riclon were celebrated 
for their glasn, and Pliny (7/taf. Nat., 36, 100) 
locates the invention of glass at the mouth of 
tho river Bolus in Syria. THs story in that 
the crew of a ship laden with nitro landed at 
this point, and wluni preparing to cook their 
food found no stones on which to rest the kettle. 
They therefore lined lumps of nitro from the 
ship, and as those, wore f lined with the fine wand 
a stream of liquid gliisw flowed out. OlaHH wan 
certainly known long before the Plurnicianft 
manufactured it, and tho heat of nn ordinary 
fire would be quite intnifltaient to fuse, glaflH; 
but the fact remains that tho. river IJoluH was 
always an inexhaustible mine for ancient gluss- 
workerfl, ami modern travelers still describe the 
white Bauds heaped on each side of the stream. 
Tho glass factories of Tyre and Sidon were 
among the most noted of ancient times and re- 
mained conspicuous under the Roman emperors. 
Sidon is credited with tho invention of mirrora. 
She certainly produced the boat in the world in 
her time and knew the value of manganese in 
making glass clear. Tho artisan* of this city 
used the blowpipe, the lathe, the graver, and 
the casting plate with splendid results. In the 
view of some scholars, the Phrcnie.ianH did little 
more than carry on the processes learned by 
them from the Egyptians; they were not groat 
artists, but skillful fabricators and traders, 
and, as a result, their glasw is found throughout 
the Mediterranean. Other scholars, however, 
attaching great weight to Pliny's account, re- 
gard Syria as the birthplace of glatwmaking and 
think that the Egyptians derived thuir knowl- 
edge of it from Syria; they believe that thus 
we can adeqxiately explain the fact that the glass 
industry, when first it meets UH in Mgypt, in 
fully developed, The date of any singles piece 
is usually hard to determine, nor is it of great 
importance, as there are but slight variations 
in style at different periods arid little advance 



GLASS 1 

in technical skill. Indeed, it is often impossible 
to say whether a specimen is of Phrenician or 
Egyptian manufacture. 

Assyria and" Babylonia. Though glass is 
scarcely found in the Mesppotamian ruins, 
glazed or enameled bricks, statuettes, and small 
objects are numerous Transparent glass was 
also known, and a tine example is the bowl of 
transparent green, now in the British Museum, 
hearing the name of King Sargoii (722 B.C.). 
This bowl is not blown, but turned and cut from 
a lump of cool glass. It seems probable that this 
and other objects of transparent glass are im- 
portations from Phoenicia. 

Persia. The use of enameled bricks for wall 
decorations was continued by the Persian kings, 
and the Louvre contains parts of the friezes rep- 
resenting lions and the royal guard which 
adorned the palace of Xerxes at Persepolis. The 
beautiful enamels of Persia are famous, and her 
delicate, lacelike porcelain, filled with transpar- 
ent glass, is celebrated as Gambroon ware. In 
the Paris Biblioth&quc is the famous cup of 
Khosru I, King of Persia (532 A.D.), a shallow 
bowl of crystal with the monarch's figure in re- 
lief in the central medallion, encircled with 
disks of red and white alternating with green, 
the whole glass ornamented in relief and bound 
with gold. 

China and India. The Chinese claim that 
glass and even lenses were known and manufac- 
tured by them as far back as 2000 B.C., but the 
claim is most improbable, and it is not likely 
that the art was introduced before the Christian 
era. Modern Chinese glassworks imitate agate 
and other stones beautifully. All their glass is 
made from pulverized quartz, as in Japan and 
India. The Hindus, Siamese, and Chinese have 
from time immemorial placed lumps of glass on 
the high parts of their buildings to avert light- 
ning. Indian enamclers have been celebrated 
from ancient times, but they work with simplest 
processes. ' The mosaic industry of Agra origi- 
nated in the Taj Mahal, for which Italian artists 
were imported. Glass has never been used for 
windows in the Far East, except rarely in pal- 
aces, and to the present day oiled paper is the 
usual glazing throughcmt China, the palace win- 
dows being generally filled with mother-of-pearl 
or tortoise shell. 

Greece. Homer does not mention glass (un- 
less the word Kiiapos, kyanos, denotes a blue- 
glass paste, such as decorated the alabaster 
fritiswr found at Tiryns), but excavations have 
shown that beads and such small objects were 
known in Greece during the Mycenaean period, 
though no fragments of glass vessels have been 
discovered. It seems probable that these objects 
were imported, as there is no trace of the manu- 
facture of glass on Greek soil, even in much 
later times. The excellence of the Greek cera- 
mic ware made glass of less importance. Even 
the word tfaXoj is not used in the sense of 
glass before Aristophanes (425 B.C.), and then 
it refers to vessels used at the Persian court. 
In later time undoubtedly Greek artistic train- 
ing exercised a powerful influence upon the 
glassmakers, some of whom bore Greek names, 
"but the industry never became Hellenic, and 
Egypt, especially Alexandria, and Syria re- 
mained until Roman times the chief sources for 
fine glass. 

Borne. In Italy glass first appears at the 
very beginning of the iron age, in the cemeteries 
of the villanova (q.v.) type, naturally in the 



3 GLASS 

form of beads and other paste ornaments. Glass 
bowls and bottles, however, are found in Etrus- 
can tombs, and with the extension of the Roman 
power the use of glass increased enormously. 
Not only was glass imported from the old seats 
of this industry, but the manufacture was intro- 
duced into Italy, and thence into the provinces 
of Gaul, Spain, "and Germany. Here, as in Italy, 
glass and iron had been introduced together, but 
only ornaments, beads, amulets, etc., were pur- 
chased from traders. Under the favorable con- 
ditions the industry flourished greatly, and glass 
became so cheap that ordinary cups or platters 
were sold in Strabo's time for a farthing. On 
the other hand, the expensive and beautiful ves- 
sels, according to Pliny, had almost .driven out 
the use of gold and silver. The absence of fine 
porcelain led to a much more extensive use of 
glass than in modern times; and by Christian 
times glass was used even for windowpanes. It 
was used, too, in pavements and in thin plates 
as a coating for walls. Glass was used in many 
colors, and the skill of the ancient artists pro- 
duced works not surpassed or even equaled in 
later times. In variety of shapes and in some 
points of technique the Venetians surpassed the 
ancient Romans ; the special merit of the ancient 
workmen is in the beauty of the coloring and 
the skill with which the various threads or lay- 
ers are combined, producing the effect of onyx 
and agate. The glass was blown, cast, pressed, 
ground, and cut. It was used for drinking cups, 
flasks, bowls, and other vessels, for mosaics, 
small ornaments of various kinds, and espe- 
cially for imitations of precious stones, which in 
many cases were finely engraved as intaglios or 
cameos. Two methods of decorating are of 
special beauty. In one the workman blew the 
glass in two layers the inner 'of a dark color, 
usually blue, and the outer of white. The outer 
layer was then cut away on the wheel, leaving 
the design in white relief on the dark back- 
ground, as in a cameo (q.v.). The most famous 
example of this technique is the Portland Vase 
(q.v.) in the British Museum, though another 
fine specimen is in Naples, and fragments are 
very common. The second method is repre- 
sented by but few specimens, all apparently egg- 
shaped cups without a foot. The vessel is in- 
closed in a network of rings of glass which are 
attached only by slender filaments to the sur- 
face of the cup. They seem to have been pro- 
duced by cutting away the outer surface of the 
original vessel an exceedingly delicate and 
tedious process, though some authorities hold 
that the outer network has been applied while 
soft and worked out with the forceps. Consult 
especially FrOhner, La verr&rie antique (Le 
Pecq, 1879), an account of the Oharcot collec- 
tion, with a full historical introduction and 
numerous fine colored plates. More popular is 
Wallace-Dunlop, History of Glass in the Old 
"World (London, 1883). A very elaborate work 
is Kisa, Das Glas im Altertwme (3 vols., Leip- 
zig, 1912), dealing with the origin of glass- 
making, glass in Egypt, Phoenicia, Syria, Greece, 
Rome, and its provinces, etc. 

Byzantium. Constantine, on transplanting 
his capital to Byzantium ( 330 A.D.), selected the 
best artisans in glass and not only gave them 
studios in a quarter of the city called "glass- 
making quarter," but caused them, to be exempt 
from the tax levied by previous emperors. Ac- 
cordingly glassmakers flocked from fallen Rome, 
carrying the fame and the skill of the Imperial 



GLASS 24 

city to the East, and Byzantium supplied all 
Europe with vcrre de luxe until the rise of 
Venice. Factories were reestablished in Greece 1 , 
Macedonia, Phoenicia, and Alexandria, and after 
the Arab conquest they continued to be the 
sole sources of artistic glass through the Middle 
Ages. The early Byzantines followed cbissic 
models, often badly, but later a Byzantine school 
arose which prevailed throughout Europe until 
the thirteenth century. Mosaic art, under the 
impetus of Christianity, was developed to its 
greatest glory for mural decoration, as the 
Byzantines believed and demonstrated that 
''mosaic is the only painting for eternity." Their 
world-renowned specinieus at Ravenna (440 A.D.) 
are superior to those of the Romans. In the 
famous St. Sophia are mosaics made in the sixth 
century. On the lower walls these mosaics arc 
of marble, and of glass cubea or tesserae on the 
upper walls and ceiling. Those and its colored 
windows caused Justinian, its builder, to say, 
*'I have surpassed thee, Solomon." The church 
of the Transfiguration, Mount Sinai, is adorned 
with precious Byzantine mosaics of the seventh 
and eighth centuries. The Byzantine churches 
were usually lighted by a series of small win- 
dows around the base of the dome. Some of the 
original plates of cast glass still remain at St. 
Sophia. Colored window glass is not mentioned 
till towards the end of the eighth century. A 
common method of inserting it, which is still 
practiced in the East, was to perforate slabs of 
marble, or even the plaster, in patterned open- 
ings and place the glass in theae. 

One of the terms of peace at the beginning of 
the eighth century between Caliph Wai id and 
Justinian II was that the latter should furnish 
a quantity of mosaic for his mosque at Damas- 
cus. A aeries of Byzantine mosaics extends 
from Conatantine to Charlemagne. So late aa 
the eleventh century, Pope Victor IH went to 
Constantinople for workers in mosaic. Imita- 
tion stones were also made wonder fully well 
there. The blue cup at Monssa (000 A.D.), *> 
inches in diameter, said to be made of a single 
sapphire; the celebrated emerald table captured 
at Toledo in the fourteenth century, long be- 
lieved to be cut from a single emerald, inlaid 
with gold and precious etoneB, and valued at 
100,000 dinars; and the famous Wuero Catino 
of Genoa, a shallow dish which jjatwed as one 
of the most sacred relics of Christendom, the 
veritable "Sangraal," the ransom of a captive 
king, and supposed to be cut from an emerald 
until pronounced green glass, in 1701, by a 
French chemist were all from Byxantine fac- 
tories. The precious sacrament cups of glass, 
used in the church service, were theirs. They 
made the glass medallions circulated as test 
weights for money throughout the large eutatea 
of the Fatimite princes, which have been mis- 
taken for coins. These were abolished in 888, 
but Venice continued to make glasw weights iu 
1279, as the old Greeks had done. From 
Hyaantine centres the CruHaders brought "back 
into Europe the manufacture of glass, and it is 
probably from this source that Venice received its 
early impulse and first lessons in glttnsmaking. 

Venice. Refugees in Venice made glass as 
early as the fifth century, the abundance of ex- 
cellent nand and alkaline sea plants facilitating 
the industry. St. Mark's, built in 1150, gave an 
impetus to mosaic work on tli spot, and the 
taking of Constantinople (1204) drove many 
Greek workmen to the asylum of Venice with 



GLASS 



Byzantine secrets. The interior walls of this 
cfmreh are, entirely covered with glass mosaics, 
representing the principal events of biblical his- 
tory. The work on these mosaics extended over 
a period of 250 years. The wonderful color cilect 
and beauty o these mosaics have been eloquently 
described ' by Riuskin. With the; rise, of the 
Italian painters, mural painting took the place 
of mosaics for wall decoration, and no mosaics 
of importance were made after the fifteenth cen- 
tury. But in the meantime the Venetians had 
turned their attention to the production of orna- 
mental glass and guarded the secrets of its pro- 
duction \\ith the moat jealous care. Tn 1275 the 
Council of Venice prohibited the exportation of 
glass materials. Tlie fear of fire abolished the 
furnace**, in 12J)1, from Venice proper to the 
outlying island of Murano, where the artists 
formed a small republic and have flourished ever 
since. The, fame of Venetian glassmukers led 
other countries to tempt them away, but the 
Council of Ten jealously guarded the secrets of 
Venetian wealth. No stranger could leuru the 
art. Any workman carrying his skill to another 
country was followed and ordered back. If he 
refused to eome, his relatives wore imprisoned. 
Tf he persisted, an emissary was dispatched to 
kill him. A wandering glaaanuikcr called Paoli 
was tracked to Normandy, where, ho was stubbed 
with a dagger on which was written "Traitor." 
"But the Venetian police had no power in Murano, 
and that inland hud itn own codes and mag- 
istrates. Nobles ga-ve their daughters in mar- 
riage to glasaworkers, and the children were 
counted of tlio nobility. The shops of Murano 
formed, in 1405, a magnificent street a mile 
long, where every conceivable object was fash- 
ioned. The furnaces were Htnall, a few work- 
men about each, which explains the diversity of 
cleHigu and the Bcarcity of pure glasu, such as 
only long fusion in large furnaces can produce; 
but nowhere in the world could the precious 
products of Munnio be matched. The vases and 
cAipa were, royal prawnta to every sovereign. 
Their dishoB 'displaced gold. Many of their 
waifB were in patterns like madrepore coral. 
Their mil It! flora was a starry mosaic of white 
threads combined in a blue, ground. A favorite 
Htyle imitated the pulp of an orange. Vitro de 
tritui ware WJIH made of twisted rods of opaqtu* 
wliito in clear glaas, and moat delicate of all 
wan their hitticolli, a laceliko network in ex- 
quiHite designs. They .also secured wonderful 
ell'eclH in mosaic, imitation gems, and caiueoa. 
All of thews were, Him ply repetitions or exten- 
sions of wonders done ages before by the Ko- 
mans, Greeks, and Egyptians, which had since 
become lost arts, twid all the lightness and 
wealth of color of ancient glasn were, exquisitely 
copied in an endless variety of fantastic for tun. 
Kishe,s, lions, dragons, etc'., wore made to an- 
aiimo grotesque cffccta with the colors of dif- 
ferent wines. They blended two sheet* of color 
into one. They invented avonturine and far 
surpassed thoir matitcrs iu reticulated glass. 
About 1IJOO, Murano artiste conceived of 'cover- 
ing plateH of glaaa with an amalgam of tin 
and mercury* and their mirrors became proverbi- 
ally fine. Marco Polo prompted them to manu- 
facture beads for African trade. These beads be- 
came very popular, and enormous numbers of 
them were niado, so thai, now, wherever tlw trade 
of thCi'Middle Ages penetrated, they may still be 
found. These beautiful beada contract strangely 
with the vulgar and glittering productions that 



GLASS 

are now made for the similar purpose of trade 
with African and Indian tribes. In the early 
fifteenth centuiy Panfilo Castaldi, a Venetian 
engrosser of deeds, made movable glass types 
and printed from them, and tradition says that 
John Faust, his friend, visited his scriptorium. 
Modern spectacles were invented by Salvino 
d'Armati, of Florence, according to the state- 
ment on his tombstone (1317). At the be- 
ginning of the seventeenth century there were 
300 glasshouses in Murano, but at the com- 
mencement of the nineteenth century all were 
gone except a small mosaic factory. The art, 
however, was not allowed to die out entirely, 
but was cherished by a few workmen, one of 
whom, Radi, undertook the work of restoring 
some of the mosaics at St. Mark's. Salviati, an 
Italian lawyer, assisted in the Radi enterprise, 
and with the aid of English capital two sets 
of workshops have been established where an- 
cient methods and objects such as mosaics are 
skillfully copied, and new and beautiful work is 
also done. The Venetians excel in glass novel- 
ties, such as mirrors, beads, tableware, bric-a- 
brac, and aventurine. Their glass is very soft 
so that it can be spun, woven, or otherwise 
fashioned into the daintiest designs. In the 
production of a single piece, it is said, the glass 
may be reheated 50 times. 

France. The factories of Poitiers were active 
during the Roman and Frankish periods, sur- 
vived the Norman invasion, and were left as a 
legacy to the gentlemen workers of the Middle 
Ages. Ruins of glass vases abound in the Poi- 
tiers territory, and such town names as Vieiile, 
Verrieres, Voirie, Verrines, come from their 
glassworks. The ancient cemeteries of Poitiers 
and La Vendee yield a rich harvest of glass, 
and fully 20,000 vases have been found at Terre- 
Noire, Bordeaux. The Imperial factory of Fron- 
tincennes, at Forfit-Eu, cradle of all the later 
Norman glassworks, is supposed to have been 
founded in the second century and is surely the 
oldest in the world. The beautiful Roman glass 
seen in the museums of France is thought to be 
of native manufacture. The Merovingian orna- 
ments have a peculiar dynastic mark in the thin 
gold-threads dividing differently colored layers. 
In 677 many Greek workmen were called to 
France. Normandy was the first country to 
give privileges to glassworkers. In the tenth 
and eleventh centuries four noble families re- 
ceived the special prerogatives of glassworkers, 
and these were confirmed by successive kings 
until the eighteenth century. Factories in other 
parts of France were established by gentlemen 
from Normandy, and the Crusaders brought back 
many improvements in glassworking. Charles V 
gave all glassmakers exemption from taxes, and 
later kings extended this privilege as well as per- 
mitting noblemen alone to labor at this art. In 
1338 Humbert, Dauphin of Viennois, granted a 
portion of the forest of Chamborant to a glass- 
maker to establish factories there, provided he 
should furnish him 3000 pieces annually. M. 
Jaquin, in 1656, invented the imitation pearls 
which are made by lining the beads with fish 
scales, instead of the old quicksilver lining, 
copying the uneven shapes of pearls in perfect 
mimicry, of all shades. Glass painting was first 
developed, if not invented, by the French, the 
earlier artisans being content with mosaic. 
Painted glass windows are said to have origi- 
nated in the school of Limoges, about 800, where 
a Venetian colony was planted. In all the old 



15 GLASS 

French churches the glassmaker's art was con- 
spicuous. The windows of Saint-Denis (rebuilt 
for the sixth time in 1108) are pronounced the 
oldest mosaic pictures in France. In 1665 Col- 
bert tempted away 18 Venetian workmen, with 
their secrets, and founded a mirror factory in 
Paris, which in 1603 was enlarged and trans- 
ferred to Saint-Gobain, whore the manufacture 
still continues ou a grand scale. About thin time 
Thevart rediscovered the casting of plate glass, 
making plates 84 by 50 inches. All previous* 
plate glass had been produced by bio icing and 
was therefore limited in size. "For over 100 
years cast plate glass was to be obtained only 
from these makers. In 17-iO a factory for French 
cylindrical window glass was established, with 
German workmen, at Saint-Quirin, which he- 
came the parent of the modern French, Belgian, 
and English plate-glass works. In 1823 D'Ar- 
tiques established the world-renowned "crystal- 
lerie de Baccarat." 

Germany. Roman glass has been found in 
abundance along the Rhine, a fact which indi- 
cates the early cUite of local manufactures. The 
Frankish jewels wore of Teutonic origin. In the 
ninth century, probably, the Germans taught 
glassmaking to the northern nations. The 
bishops of early Germany specially encouraged 
glassmaking to dispel 'pagan idleness with 
Christian industry. The inhabitants of Teg- 
ernsee, Bavaria, have lately held a festival in 
honor of the invention of glass painting, which, 
they claim, datea from the windows of the abbey 
in that town, made in 999. For a long time 
painted glass and frescoes were the onljr library 
oi ? the people. Lehmann, of Prague, reinvented 
the casting of glass in molds in the seventeenth 
cemtury. In 1609 cut glass was first made by 
him, and it soon outrivaled Italian glass. Cut 
glass had been made by the ancients, but the 

' art had probably been lost. Bnati, a glaas- 
rnaker of Murano, worked three years in a Bo- 
hemian glasshouse, as a porter, to learn its 
secret, and returned in 1739 to obtain a patent 
for Bohemian cut glass. Henry Schwanhard, in 
1670, invented the etching of glass with hydro- 
fluoric acid. The Electoral glassworks, near 
Potsdam, established in the eighteenth century, 
became famous for their gold ruby, invented by 
Kunckel (1679) . Mirror making was introduced 
from France in the eighteenth contury. 

England. Great difference of opinion pre- 
vails regarding the origin of glassmaking in 
Great Britain, some claiming that it was estab- 
lished before the Roman Conquest, and others 
as late as the sixteenth century. French work- 
men, in C99, wore brought over to glaze St. 
Peter's, York. Benedict estciblished French 
glassmakers at Wearmouth, 675, for the build- 
ing of his church; but for centuries glassmak- 
ing languished in Britain. Henry IIT had but 
one glass drinking cup, which he specially prized. 
France taught England the secrets of glasRmak- 
ing. The oldest painted windows in England 
are those of 1174 in the choir of Canterbury 
Cathedral, wliich are as French as those in 
Saint-Denis. As late as the sixteenth century 
oiled linen was the usual window material, and 
a century later the royal palaces of Scotland had 
only the upper rooms glazed. Jn 1677 the Duk< 
of Buckingham brought glassmakers from Mu- 
rano to Lambeth to manufacture crystal vases, 

looking-glasses, and coach windows. The revo- 
cation of the Edict of Nantes (1685) sent many 
gjassmakers to England, and the manufacture 



OLASS 26 

speedily improTed. Early in the seventeenth 
century the greatest of modern glass inventions 
was achieved in England, the making of lead 
flint, producing brilliant glass, which was im- 
possible for earlier makers. The famous plate- 
glass works of Ravenhead were established in 
1771. Towards the close of the nineteenth cen- 
tury the art of making glass mosaics was re- 
vived in England, largely through the efforts of 
Sir W. B, Richmond. 

United States. Prior to the European colo- 
nists the only glass known in America was the 
"obsidian" volcanic glass. In 1608 some glass- 
makers were among the artisans brought to 
Jamestown, Va., but the craze for tobacco in- 
terfered with their industry. In 1621 several 
Italian glassworkers were imported to manu- 
facture beads for the Indians. In 1639 a glass- 
house was erected at Salem, Mass., and William 
Penn alludes to a Quaker glasshouse in 1683. A 
glassmaker, Jan Smeedes, received an allotment 
of land on Manhattan Island, and the business 
which he carried on gave the name "Glassmak- 
ers* Street" to the present South William Street 
of New York. In 1754 a Dutch gentleman, Bam- 
ber, built glassworks in Brooklyn, N. Y., and the 
first bottle blown by him, bearing the name and 
date, is in the collection of the Long Island His- 
torical Society, Brooklyn. Glassboro, N. J., was 
founded by a colony of German glassmakers, 
who moved there in 1775. In 1787 the Massa- 
chusetts Legislature gave to a Boston glass com- 
pany the exclusive right to make glass in the 
State for 15 years. This is said to have been 
the first successful glass factory in the United 
States. Pittsburgh, Pa., first made glass in 
1706, and is still a most important glassmak- 
ing centre. At the very beginning coal was used 
instead of the traditional wood fuel. This, with 
the abundance of excellent sand in the adjoin- 
ing rivers, gave the industry a phenomenal de- 
velopment there, which has been increased by 
the substitution of gas and oil fuel. In 1827 
pressed glass was invented by a carpenter of 
Sandwich, Mass. With the discovery of a 
cheaper and better fuel, in the form of natural 
gas, the centre of glassmaking moved west of 
the Alleghanies, where it still remains. As 
natural gas failed, petroleum was substituted 
and proved an excellent fuel. By the close of 
1880 the census shows that the glass industry 
of the United States had been brought to a 



GLASS 

very extensive and prosperous condition. There 
were then 211 factories, employing 24,177 men, 
sending out an annual product worth $21,154,- 
571. In 1890 the number of factories had in- 
creased to 294, and the product to $41,051,004, 
and in 1909 there wore 303 establishments and 
the product was $92,095,203. Within recent 
years artistic glassware of great beauty has been 
produced in the United States, notable examples 
of which are the stained-glass windows and 
mosaics of leading makers and such as La 
Farge and Tiffany and the famous "Favrille" 
glass of the Tirfany Company of New York. 
The United States still imports more glass than 
she exports, the exports being largely that pecul- 
iar product of Yankee ingenuity, pressed glass. 

VALUE OF GLASS AND GLASSWARE IMPORTED 
INTO AND EXPORTED FROM THE UNITED 
STATES 



FISCAL YEAH 


IMPOUTS 
Total value 


KXPORTH 

ToLul value 


1914 


$8,191,133 


$3,720,023 


1913 


G,r>37,29 


4,103,042 


1912 


(>,210,t)2, r > 


;MM,I53 


1911 


(i.SSl.SOl 


3,24(1,391 


1910 


0.553.7U4 


2,805,401 


1900 


8,037,081 


1,930,119 


1890 


7,411,343 


882,077 


isso 


5,221,511 


749,800 


1870 


4,157,043 


530,054 









Chemical and Physical Properties. Chemi- 
cally any vitrous compound in culled tfhi.ss, but 
commercially glass is a fused mixture of two 
or more metallic silicates, and in often named 
from the predominant base, a "soda ghina," 
"potash glass," "lime glass," and "lead glaHH." 
The essential ingredients tire wilica and alkali. 
Flint glass is a mixture of the silicates of lead 
and potassium; Bolicmian glass, of tho silicates 
of potassium and calcium; plate or sheet glass, 
of the silicates of calcium and sodium; bottle 
glass is a mixture of the silicates of sodium, 
aluminium, and calcium; Venetian glass, of HO- 
diuni, potassium, and calcium. Hodium, potaa- 
flium, calcium, and load are tlu fc banoH that form 
almost all glasses. To obtain the Hiiica, sand 
is now generally used river or sea sand sullie- 
ing for cheap grades in spite of the impurities, 
but for fine qualities tho Band is quarried. 
American sand is pronounced by experts superior 
to English and French. The prineipal deposits 



GLASS INDUSTRY OF THE UNITED STATES, 1869 TO 1909 
(From Thirteenth Untied States Census of Manufacture*) 







NTJ 


MBER OE A.MOU 


NT 




GLABSMAKHfG 


1909 


1899 


1889 


1879 


1860 


Number of establishments 


363 


355 


294 


1(>9 


154 


Persona engaged in the industry 


72.573 


55,256 


* 


* 


# 


Proprietors and firm members 


87 


170 


* 


* 


* 


Salaried employees.. 1 1 , ^ , ,, 


3575 


2268 


* 


* 


* 




68911 


52818 


44892 


24,177 


15,307 


Primary horse power .T '. 


123,132 


52.943 


28,241 


5,072 


1,857 


Capital. . 


$129,288.384 


$61,423,903 


$40,960,850 


$18,804,500 


1 13*820,142 


Expenses . 


85,374,185 


50,196 736 


36,527,203 






Services 


44 293,215 


29,877 086 


22,118 522 


9,144,100 


7,580,110 


Salaries 


4,993,591 


2,792,376 








Wages 


39,299,624 


27,084,710 


* 


# 


* 


Materials 


32,119,499 


16,731,009 


12,140,985 


8,028,021 


0,804,305 




8,961 471 


3,588 641 


2 267,696 






Value of products 


92,095,203 


56,539 712 


41,051,004 


21,154,571 


18,407,507 


Value added by manufacture (value of 
pToduote leflw cost of materials) ,,,.,, , 


59,975,704 


39,808,703 


28,910,019 


13,125,950 


12,003, Hi) 















* Comparable figures not availably 



GLASS a 

In 1801 the first regenerative glass furnace 
was introduced into Germany by its inventor, 
Siemens, and this type of furnace is in wide 
use in Europe and America. In these furnaces 




EBQENERATITB OPEN-POT FURNACE, 

the gas is generally produced from coal outside 
of the furnace*, mixed with the air, on the princi- 
ple of the Bunsen burner. En the United States 
natural gas, and later on petroleum, have been 
largely used as a- fuel. Instead of melting pots 
there is a tank, constructed from pot clay, cov- 
ering the whole area of the furnace, and divided 
by floating partitions into compartments. The 
melting compartment at the rear receives the 
raw material through the doors. As this melts, 
it flows into the refining compartment, where a 
higher temperature purifies it till it flows under 
the second partition into the gathering compart- 
ment, and there a lower temperature thickens it 
for the blower. A recent improvement dispenses 
with the flouting partitions by the use of float- 
ing vewsels, which gather the molten glass at the 
lowest depths in the tank and raise it to the 
surface to be completely refined in a special com- 
partment, whence, as it sinks in perfect fusion 
(the best glass being the heaviest), it can only 
flow into the working-out compartment. The 
depth of the floaters is usually one-fourth the 
depth of the tank. These tank furnaces may be 
worked continuously, with no change in tem- 
perature and no discoloration from smoke and 
on a colossal scale. 

Improvements in the methods of glass manu- 
facture have all been in the direction of substi- 
tuting gaseous for solid fuel. Even in pot 
furnaces gas is preferred, and for a tank fur- 
nace it is indispensable. Natural gas is the 
ideal fuel, but is very limited in its* occurrence, 
and when it cannot be obtained gas is manu- 
factured from other fuel. Its advantages arc 
its freedom from ashes and other dirt, and the 
ease with which the flame may be applied and 
controlled. 

A commercial classification of glass and of 
the principal types of furnaces producing it may 
be given as follows: 1. Polished plate embraces 
all glass cast upon a smooth table, rolled to the 
required thickness with a roller, annealed, and 
then ground and polished. Under this head 
comes thin plate, a recently developed process. 
2. Rough plate includes all glass cast as above, 
but not ground and polished. The principal 
varieties arc rilled plate, colored cathedral, 
rough plate, iwre glass, heavy rough plate, for 



g GLASS 

skylights. 3. Window glass embraces all glass 
blown in cylinders and afterward cut and flat- 
tened out and polished while hot. Chiefly used 
for pictures and mirrors. 4. Croim glass is 
glass blown in spherical form and flattened to a. 
disk shape by centrifugal motion of blowpipe. 
A little is now made for decorative purposes. 
5. Green glass. All the common kinda of glaria, 
and not necessarily green in color. Used in 
manufacture of bottles, fruit jars, etc. C. Lime 
flint includes the finer kinds of bottle glass, cer- 
tain lines of pressed tableware, and many novel- 
ties. 7. Lead flint embraces all the finest prod- 
ucts of glassmaking, such as cut glass, fine table- 
ware, artificial gems, and optical glass. 

The principal furnaces are: (1) open-pot fur- 
naces for bottles and window glass; (2) open- 
pot furnaces for plate glass; (3) covered-pot 
furnaces for flint glass; (4) day tanks, which 
are practically open-pot furnaces, gas-fired, and 
with a single tank or pot; (5) regenerative 
continuous tank furnaces for window glass; (6) 
regenerative continuous tank furnaces for bot- 
tles; (7) recuperative continuous tank furnaces 
for bottles. 

Manipulation. The curious viscosity as- 
sumed by molten glass has already been referred 
to. While in this condition it may be gathered 
up in a soft mass on the end of a stick, and, 
if the stick be a tube, the lump may be dis- 
tended, by blowing through the tube, into a hol- 
low sphere. The form of this sphere or bulb 
may be modified by manipulating the pipe, and 
if a second iron he attached by a seal of glass 
to tlio other side of the bulb, it may be drawn 
out into a tube. If the bulb be opened by re- 
moving it from the blowing iron, and then, after 
attaching it at its opposite side to another iron, 
be trundled rapidly like a mop, the opening 
will expand, by centrifugal force, into a disk. 
These are the processes which, infinitely diver- 
sified and complicated by the skill of the work- 
men and the nature of the product, constitute 
the art of the glass blower. Every melting fur- 
nace has several working furnaces called "glory 
holes, 1 ' where the glassworker reheats tiis work. 
These are small blast furnaces, each affording 
several openings into the flames. 

There are three general methods of shaping 
glass by blowing, pressing, and casting. 

Window-Glass making in recent years has 
been revolutionized by the use of machinery. 
Formerly window glass required the most mus- 
cular and skillful workmen, but this has been 
changed somewhat by modern methods. The 
older method, however, is fundamental and pre- 
sents many points of interest. Here the "mon- 
key pots" are filled with the mixed "batch, 11 anil 
when this is melted a second charge is shoveled 
in, followed, as soon as it flows, by a third and 
a small amount of "cullet" (broken glass), which 
fills the pots. Sixteen hours are consumed in 
the entire melting, and the master melter care- 
fully watches his "monkeys," forcing the fur- 
naces to their highest heat. As soon as the 
signs appear indicating that the molten glass or 
"metal" is ready to work, the heat is lowered 
to thicken the glass for the blowers. Each man 
is trained to one small part of the whole 
process and does nothing else. The gatherer 
holds a mask before his face, by a plug grasped 
between his teeth, to screen him from the glare 
of the furnace, and starts tho "journey" of the 
jrlaaH by dipping the blowpipe into the pot sev- 
c-ml time*, dexterously forming on itn and an 



GLASS 5 

oval mass of the white, hot, gummy "metal," 
which weighs from 20 to 40 pounds, according 
to the thickness and size of the sheet to be made. 
Revolving the ball in the glaring pot, he com- 
pletes its symmetry and consistency and then 
turns it in an iron mold till it takes a perfect 
pear shape. This finishes the gatherer's work, 
and he hands the fiery sphere to the blower, 
who is the master workman of the establishment. 
He takes the pipe from the gatherer's hand and 
blows a huge bubble of air into it, then another 
and another, swelling the solid sphere into a 
great decanter, with its thinnest part hardening 
next the pipe, as one end of the cylinder which 
is to be evolved from the soft thick mass at- 
tached to it. Now he takes his stand on the 
long narrow platform which leads to his fur- 
nace door over a deep pit, swinging the glowing 
bulb like a giant pendulum into the depths 
below, persuading it to elongate with frequent 
puffs at the most effective moments. Now and' 
then, as it cools into hardness, he rests his 
pipe on a prop and softens the end in the fur- 
nace, or he may toss the cylinder above him 
until it settles into a workable condition. Thus 
he blows and swings, and, heating from time to 
time the molten mass, he works it till it grows 
as long as himself and becomes a round-topped 
cylinder. When this has cooled considerably, 
he holds the end in the furnace, blows strongly 
into it, and, covering the mouthpiece with his 
thumb, an explosive report is heard. The im- 
prisoned air, lieated expansively, has burst an 
opening through the soft extremity. Revolving 
the end rapidly in the furnace, the blower en- 
larges the hole by centrifugal force, till it is as 
large as the diameter of the cylinder. Then he 
cools it in a pit to a cherry red, and his part is 
done. An assistant carries it off and detaches 
it from the blowpipe by encircling the neck with 
a thread of hot glass and then touching the 
line with a cold iron. The cylinder is then 
cracked lengthwise by a diamond or by passing 
a red-hot iron inside it. Next the flattenor 
takes it First he warms the split cylinder, 
then places it on the stone before him, a fire- 
clay table, which revolves within an oven. The 
curved sheet opens in the heat like an uneven 
sheet of paper, and he smooths it by a wooden 
block. The stone carries it then to the cooling 
oven, whence it is lifted on an immense fork 
into a car at the mouth of the "leer," or anneal- 
ing tunnel, and there it is tempered for service. 
To-day these huge cylinders are made by a 
drawing machine, by means of which cylinders 
of large size are formed by drawing the material 
from, the bath. There are numerous variations 
of this process and special machines for which 
many patents have been secured since the be- 
ginning of the present century. 

Crown Glass, once the favorite for window- 
panes, has now shrunk into small importance and 
is made for ornamental work only. Though 
much more brilliant, the plates are small and of 
tapering thickness. The same molten material 
as that used for sheet glass is gathered in a 
smaller globe on the end of a blowpipe and rolled 
into a cone on a stone table, or "marvel*." The 
workman blows it then into a sphere and flattens 
the underside of it, keeping in the centre the 
"bullion point," or thick apex of the original 
cone. While he rests the pipe on a horizontal 
support, another workman with a "punty," or 
solid iron rod, attaches a small cup of warm 
glass to the bullion point, and the blower de- 



o GLASS 

taches his pipe by touching the neck of the 
flattened globe with a cold iron and quickly 
striking it. The jmnt.v man carries it off with a 
small hole where it left the blowpipe, and, heat- 
ing it in the furnace and revolving it, the open- 
ing enlarges wider and wider until it becomes 
the "crown," which named it, and at last whirls 
out into a Hat disk, or "table." This is kept in- 
cessantly turning till it cools enough to be laid 
on a support, where it is clipped by shears from 
the rod and sent to the annealing oven. The 
diameter of such a plate varies from a few 
inches, like those made in colored glass for fancy 
windows, to 6 feet But the square panes cut 
from it are always small, as the round lump 
in the centre, the "bullion point, 1 ' or "bull's- 
eye," must be omitted, though these arc some- 
times used for decorative purposes. 

Plate Glass has the same composition as 
sheet and crown glass, but is melted in vast open 
vessels (sometimes holding 2% tons) resting 
upon frames behind lire-clay doors. After the 
long fusion is perfect, the door is thrown open, 
and the tank is seized by an immense fork 
mounted on a truck, and carried bodily to the 
casting table., where it is hoisted by a crane and 
poured over the metal bed, which has a very 
smooth, highly polished surface. A heavy roller 
passes over it, spreading the glass out in a uni- 
form thickness determined by the height of the 
strips on cithor aide of the table. Instantly it 
is rolled into the annealing oven for a tempi ring 
of several days. It cornea out in the form of 
rough plate. To be polished it is fastened by 
plaster of Paris to a largo rotary platform which 
revolves so that the entire surface in covered 
at each rotation by the disks of grinding ma- 
chines which rub it with sand, then with emery, 
and last with rouge, iirst on one side, then on 
the other, till 40 per cent of its thickness is 
removed, and it remains a whining sheet from % 
to % of an inch thick. "Rolled plate" is cant 
upon an engraved table, which gives the im- 
pressions of fluted linos or fancy patterns in a 
translucent body of glass adapted to panels and 
partitions. 

Green Glass, or Bottle Glass, is the coarsest 
form, made from roughest materials, and is tbo 
simplest branch of gUiHuwork. From the time 
of the early F]ianiciaim until 1880 tbe proccuB 
of manufacturing glass article* had been prac- 
tically the same. The operative would dip the 
glass out by a rod or a blowpipe or by a ladle. 
The article, in the case of a bottle, waH then 
blown by hand, the pipe was broken olf from 
the bottle, and the neck was finished by hand. 
The glass articles in the Museum of Art in New 
York taken from the Egyptian tomlm wore all 
made in this way, and, though a great, number 
of people had tried to introduce machinery, no 
improvement had been Buccessful up to about 
1880. Before the days of bottle machines the 
bottle blower would gather the molten glass on 
his blowpipe, in the quantity desired for Ills 
bottle, or jar, or demijohn, pulr a bubble into it, 
drop the inflated lump into an iron mold, which 
\vi\ti closed together over it by a small boy, and 
blow the glass into its permanent shape with the 
lettering or trade-mark which was cut in the 
mold. The jagged mouth was then rounded in 
the "glory hole," and the bottle went to the 
"leer." liottle molds are, made of brass or iron 
and must be maintained at nearly a red heat 
while being used. The simplest form ta of two 
sides hinged together at the base, and the famil* 



GLASS , 

iar ridges running up each side of a glass buttle 
are formed where the two sides of the mold shut 
together. Sometimes the mold 19 in three pieces, 
one for the body and two for the neck, in which 
case the ridges are only on the neck; this is 
usually the case with wine bottlos. 

Formerly the blowing of bottles was done 
wholly by the breath; but recently blowing ma- 
chines have been successfully operated and have 
revolutionized the industry. The manufacture 
of glass articles roughly may be divided into 
two classes wide-mouth articles such as fruit 
jars or milk jars, and narrow-mouth bottles 
such as beer bottles, champagne bottles, or 
druggist bottles. The first attempt at an auto- 
matic bottle machine was made by an English- 
man named Ashleigh. Ashleigh invented a ma- 
chine to make a narrow-mouth bottle, for which 
he obtained several patents and was all but 
successful in practice. He, however, failed be- 
cause he could get only one bottle out of about 
50 that was marketable, owing to the imper- 
fection of the necks. Following along the lines 
of progress towards the realization of a prac- 
tical machine, the next invention that was of 
any great importance was made by John I. 
Arbogast. Arbogast conceived the idea of press- 
ing a blank of molten or plastic glass, forming 
the neck in the pressing operation, then placing 
the blank in a secondary mold which had the 
required shape, and turning on a jet of com- 
pressed air which blew the bottle to the proper 
shape. This was only applicable to wide-mouth 
ware and of course was only semiautomatic. A 
man gathered the glass in the same manner as 
has been done for 3000 years and dropped it into 
the mold. It was then pressed down and blown 
as described above. To-day practically every 
wide-mouth bottle is made in this manner, ex- 
cept those that are made on the automatic ma- 
chine, which will be described later. 

The next important step in the progress of 
the glass industry was made by Michael J. 
Owens, financed by the Libby Glass Company, of 
Toledo, Ohio. The Libby Glass Company spent, 
it is reported, $500,000 before they made a bottle 
commercially. After Owens had made use of 
the vacuum for forming his blanks, he dis- 
covered that the only way to make perfect 
bottles was always to have a fresh surface of 
glass that was at a white heat. To accomplish 
this result it was necessary to have the melting 
part of the furnace revolving. The glass is 
melted in the usual way in a Siemen's furnace 
and then run into a revolving pot, which is about 
20 feet in diameter and has a portion about 
3 feet wide always projecting out from under 
the cap or covering of the revolving pot opposite 
to where the glass enters from the furnace. 
With this revolving mechanism the result de- 
sired was accomplished, and there is always a 
fresh surface of hot glass into which the gather- 
ing mold can be dipped. The capital required to 
build the automatic machine is very large. Two 
Owens machines are run in a battery on one 
furnace, and the outlay for a furnace and two 
machines has been estimated at not far from 
$100,000. 

The Owens method consists in forming the 
blank by having the blank mold suspended over 
the surface of the glass and lowered until it 
projects into the glass for about an inch. The 
vacuum is then turned on, and the hollow re- 
ceptacle is filled with glass by the aid of the 
vacuum, and the ring is formed. The arm ia 



i GLASS 

then raised, and a knife cuts off the glass from 
the glass in the tank, thus forming a perfect 
blank. The machine, which revolves, is a suc- 
cession of molds, 12 to 16 being on each ma- 
chine. After the blank is formed as described 
above, the machine revolves one round; the two 
parts of the blank mold are opened, the neck 
part still being closed. The finishing mold is 
then closed up on the suspended blank, com- 
pressed air is turned on, and the finished bottle 
is blown, and after the machine revolves to the 
point of delivery, both the next mold and the 
finishing mold are opened in one movement, and 
the finished bottle drops out. It then slides 
down a chute and is pushed into the leer by an 
automatic arrangement. The leers are made 
automatic, so that the only hand operation that 
is necessary on the machine is the oiling and 
care of the machine and the sorting and packing 
of the glass articles. The great advantage of 
this invention is that either narrow-mouth or 
wide-mouth bottles can be made, and one bottle 
is made absolutely the same size as the other, 
as the gathering device always gathers the same 
amount of glass, which is absolutely impossible 
in the hand operation. 

The saving on this Owens automatic machine 
is enormous. In the old method of working 
three men and three boys work together to make 
li) gross of boor bottles or 10 or 12 gross of 
fruit jars, while the machine will turn out, in 
the case of the former, 110 gross a day, in the 
case of tho latter about 90 gross a day. It is 
easy to see that there is a saving of about 50 
hands. This means, in dollars and cents, a sav- 
ing of $125 to $150 a day. There were in use 
in 1014 in the United States 60 or 70 of these 
machines, and it was probable that within five 
years there would be very few blown-glass ar- 
ticles made in the United States. 

Flint Glass broadly includes all the myriad 
forms of glass except windowpanes and dark 
bottles. The lead, which the true flint glass 
alone contains, gives it a characteristic bril- 
liancy and weight. Flint glass is the choicest 
material for table and cut ware, for optical 
glass, and for the best blown and pressed ware 
that fills the household. An extra proportion of 
lead makes it "strass," from which artificial 
gems are made. The u lime flint" has a lighter 
weight and a lustre approaching "lead flint," 
but it does not equal its royal superior. From 
this the ordinary utensils are made. 

A flint-glass establishment is the most fas- 
cinating of glasshouses, as it generally includes 
blowing, molding, and pressing. A wineglass is 
made from a glowing bulb as large as a peach. 
A breath swells it into a hollow sphere the size 
of the bowl. The gatherer attaches a small knob 
of soft glass and draws it out into the stem and 
on the end of this presses a bell-shaped ha ic>, 
previously hardened, which is flattened out into 
a stable foundation. Shears cut free the top of 
the bowl, and the furnace rounds the edge, this 
operation now being done either by a special 
blowpipe flame or by an electrically heated wire. 
In fact, machinery may be employed to cut off, 
round, and polish the edges automatically. So, 
from three pieces, the ordinary wineglasses and 
similar-shaped vessels are made. 

The costlier kind of table glass has the e*,em 
drawn out of the original sphere, and the base, 
blown separately like a tiny disk of crown glass, 
is united by its heat to the upper part. All 
the best "hollow ware" is blown either in the 



GLASS 34 

weave into cloth or to fashion into fancy 
plumage. It has been found possible to weave 
glass into fabrics, sometimes with a warp of 
silk, and to shape it into collars, neckties, 
brushes, lamp wicks, etc. M. Dubus Bonnet, 
of Lille, France, invented a process of spin- 
ning and weaving glass into cloth. The warp 
is composed of silk, forming the groundwork, 
on which the pattern in glass appears, as ef- 
fected by the weft. The requisite flexibility of 
glass thread for manufacturing purposes is due 
to its extreme fineness, as not less than from 
50 to 60 of the original strands form one thread. 
This fashion had but a short vogue, and the fine 
particles likely to be separated from the fibres 
were likely to have an unwholesome effect on 
those inhaling them. Mineral wool is made from 
the slag-glass refuse of iron smelting, being 
blown into fine shreds by a blast, to fill walla 
and floors with a fireproof and rat-proof pad- 
ding, and for other unique services, as well as in 
chemical laboratories. Reanmr's porcelain is an 
opaque and porcelain-like glass, which has been 
"devitrificd" by great heat and gradual cooling, 
becoming marvelously tough. Soluble glass is 
a highly alkaline solution of minerals composing 
glass, which is applied to textures in theatres 
and elsewhere to render them fireproof. Fire 
touching them melts the invisible minerals into 
a glaze which excludes air and prevents com- 
bustion. M. de la Bastie introduced into Eu- 
rope transmuted glass, which had not been an- 
nealed, but which, by retaining some of the 
internal conditions of strain, was tougher than 
cast iron. The process, however, did not secure 
commercial success. jUaltcaWe glass^ is one of 
the legends descending from the ancients which 
may be some day verified. Sue ENAMEL. 

Bibliography. Among the authorities on 
glass are: for the history of the art, Gaudy, 
Romance of Glass Making (London, 1808) ; for 
the scientific side, Powell, Chance, and Harris, 
The Principles of Glass Making (ib., 1883); 
Hovestadt, Jena Glass and Us Scientific In- 
dustrial Appliances (New York, 1002) ; and 
Kosenhain, Glass Manufacture (ib., 1912) ; Aus- 
tin, report on glass in Twelfth Census of the 
United States (Washington, 1902); and volumes 
on manufactures in later issues of United States 
census. Consult also: Dillon, (Jlass (London, 
1007) ; Duthio, Decorative Glass Processes (New 
York, 1008); Bate, English Table Qlass (ib., 
1013] l ; Nelson, Ancient Painted Glass in JSurope 
(ib., 1913) ; Saint and Arnold, Stained Glass of 
the Middle Ages in England and France (Lon- 
don, 1013) ; Bushnell, Storied Windows (New 
York, 1014). 

GLASS, CASTER (1858- ). An American 
legislator, born at Lynchburg, Va. He was edu- 
cated in public and private schools of his native 
town, learned the printing trade, and worked 
eight years in the mechanical department of a 
printing office. He became proprietor of the 
Daily News and the Daily A dvance, morning and 
evening papers of Lynchburg. From 1809 to 
1003 he was a member of the Virginia Senate 
and in 1901 a member of the State Constitu- 
tional Convention. Beginning in 1002, he served 
in tho United States Hoxwe of Representatives. 
He was sponsor in the House for the banking 
bill (see BANK, BANKING), known popularly as 
the Owen-Glass Bill, enacted into law in 1912. 

GLASS, MONT AGUE (MAUSDEW) (1877- ). 
An American story-writer. He waa born at 
Manchester, England, was educated at the Col- 



GLASSE 



lege of the City of New York and at Now York 
University, and entered thu practice of law. 
After 1000 lie became known as contributor to 
Munsey's, MeClurc'u, Harper's Weekly, the Sat- 
urday Evening I'ost, and other magazines. Ho 
is known principally us author of I'otdfth and 
/'erlmutter (1010) .a collection of iimiHiially di- 
verting stories of the Jewish wholesale clothing 
trade in New York City. AH dramatized, it had 
a long run (1913-14). Other books by this 
author are Ale and JUairruss (1911); Elkan 
L'ltuliner, American (1012); Object: Matrimony 
(1012). 

Q-LASS, SOLUBLE. See WATER GLASS. 

CKLASSBREETNER, ghWbren'er, ADOLF (1810-- 
76). A German humorous and satirical writer, 
born in Berlin. From 1831 to 1833 he wart 
editor of the Berlin periodical Don Quixote, 
which in the latter year was suppressed by the 
ministry. He first became known through his 
series, Berlin -wie cs ist und trinkt (33 parts, 
1832-50), which originated the Berlin local typo 
of popular humor, much imitated by others. 
His best work is the comic epic Keitcr Reinvkr. 
FucJis (1840; often reprinted). From 1858 until 
his death he edited the Berliner Alontaga^ost. 

G-LASSCHOBD, gLislcOrd'. A miiHictil in- 
strument, with keys like a pianoforte, but with 
bars of glass instead of stringa of wire. Jt was 
invented in Paris in 1785 by a Or man called 
Beyer. The name "glauaclinrd" WUH given to the 
instrument by Franklin. When the glaHschonl 
was completed it WHS exhibited publicly in Parin 
and performed on by the inventor: but it never 
was received with favor by the inwtrument 
makers, so that no more were ever made. See 
HABMONICA. Consult K. F. Pohi, Kw (Jcsvhichte 
dcr (* lash arm oniJta (Vienna, 1802). 

GLASS CLOTH. See CLASS I'APEB. 

GLASS CRAB. A larval form of certain 
macrurous decapoda (q.v.). They were formerly 
ranked as a separate group of cruntacoanri. They 
are remarkable for tho transparency of their 
bodies, whence their name. They have, little 
resemblance to crabs. The head is represented 
by a large oval plate, bearing eyes mounted on 
very long stalks; a second plate, tho breadth 
of which much exceeds its length, roprmmtrt the 
thorax and bears the, foot, moat of which art* 
long, and HOUIG of them, as in other cniHta- 
ceans, bifid, with one branch much longer than 
the other. The abdomen is small. Tho.He crea- 
tures have no special organs of respiration, but 
tho blood is aerated through the general surface, 
of tho body. They arc found in tropical and 
subtropical seas; and so transparent are they 
that when floating on the surface* of the water 
they would not be perceived but for the beautiful 
bluo of their eyes. 

GLASSE, glas, HANNAH. The author of The 
Art of Cookery (1747). "Mm alamo, Cary 
Street," is mentioned among the flulmmbo.vs to 
the first edition, which was published anony- 
mously, and in tho foxirth edition (1770) in an 
advertisement of "Hannah CHawse, Habit Maker 
to H. R. H. tho Princess of Wales, in Tavistoak 
Street, Covent Garden." Practically nothing 
else is known of her. The Art of UookwH Mwfa 
Ma/in and Itiasy IB ascribed to Dr. .John 11111 hi 
Boswell'8 Johnson) but this w improbable. Mrs, 
Glaase. wrote The Comploat Cttmftwti<mur 
(c.1770) and The 8erwin.l' Dirwtory* or llumv- 
ftccper 9 * Companion (1770). The fainouH direc- 
tion, "First catch yoiir hare," although often 
to The Art of Cookery, is not to bo 



GLASS EYE 

found there. She says, "Take jour hare when 
it is cased." 

GLASS EYE. The wall-eyed pike (Stizoste- 
dion citreuw). See PIKE PERCH. 

GLASSITES, glas'Jts. See SANDEMAJNIANS. 

GLASSON, gla'sON', EBNEST D&BIB* (1830- 
1907 J . A .French jurist, born at Noyon. He was 
educated at Strassburg, was admitted to the bar 
in 1800, and, after teaching a year at Strass- 
burg, went to Nancy in 1865 as a member of the 
new legal faculty. In 1867 he became an in- 
structor in the University of Paris and in 180U 
dean of the faculty of law. He did much to 
popularize the study of comparative legislation. 
His works include: Du consentement des 6poux 
au mariage (1866) ; Elements du- droit frangais 
dans sea rapports avcc le droit naturel et 
Veconomie politique (2d ed., 1884) ; Le mariage 
civil et le divorce (1870); Uistoire du droit et 
drs institutions de VAngleterre (1881-83), which 
received a prize from the Institute; Le code 
civil et Id question ouvricre (1SS6); Histoire 
du droit ct des institutions de la France (1887- 
90). Glansou was legal editor of La Grande 
Encyclopedic and was elected to the Aeademie 
<loB Sciences Morales et Politiques in 1882. Con- 
sult Girodou's sketch in La Grande Encyclopedie 
(Paris, 1885-1003). 

GLASS PAPER, or CLOTH. An abrasive sur- 
face made by powdering glass more or less finely 
and sprinkling it over paper or calico still wet 
with a coat ef thin glue; the powdered glass ad- 
heres as it dries. Glass paper is very extensively 
employed as a means for polishing metal and 
woodwork and is sold in sheets. 

GLASSTOBT. A borough in Allegheny Co., 
Pa., 10 miles south of Pittsburgh, on the Pitts- 
burgh and Lake Erie Railroad, and on the Mo- 
nom/ahcla River (Map: Pennsylvania, B 7). The 
surrounding region abounds in coal, and there 
are manufactories of axes and tools, steel hoops, 
foundry products, spikes and rivets, glass, etc. 
Pop., 1910, C540. 

GLASS SAND. A sand used in the manu- 
facture of glass. It is obtained from quartzdtes 
and sandstones by crushing them to the desired 
fineness, or from deposits of sand. If the latter 
is employed, it is sometimes put through a wash- 
ing process to remove impurities, such aa clay, 
mica, or iron grains. Silica is the chief con- 
stituent of glass sand, and impurities such as 
iron oxide, alumina, titanium oxide, lime, and 
magnesia should be present in but small 
amounts, aa shown by the analyses given here- 
with. Some persons believe the injurious effects 
of alumina and magnesia are overestimated. 



35 



GLAST03STBTJBY 











TV 


(JONUTTTUlUUek 










SiOa 


99.95 


97.50 


99.46 


97.705 


AlaOi 


.30 


1.50 


.48 


.755 


FeaOa 




.50 




.15 


cao;., ....:..:... 


.13 




.06 


.955 


MgO 


tr. 


.50 




.442 













I, sand, Ottawa, I1L; II, crushed sandstone, Maasillon, 
Ohio; III, crushed Cambrian quartzite, Cheshire, Mass.; 
IV, Tertiary sand, Hanover, NT. J. 

The grains of glass sand may be either rounded 
or angular, but approximate uniformity of grain 
is desirable and should range between 30 and 
120 mesh. If larger than 30 mesh, the sand is 
difficult to fuse; if finer than 120 mesh, it is 
said to "burn out" in, the batch. Following are 
sieve tests of several: 



Ottawa, 111. 

Gray's Sum- 
mit, Mo. 



Sample 



Finest grain 
Coarsest grain 

I Crude 

( Finished 



il 



1009 



92% 

1% 

M% 

25% 



Glass sand is obtained from a number of dif- 
ferent geological formations, ranging from Cam- 
brian to Pleistocene. The Pleistocene and most 
of the Cretaceous and Tertiary deposits are 
sand, but the Cambrian to Carboniferous ones 
are sandstone or quartzite and have to be crushed 
before use. Pennsylvania and Illinois are the 
most important producing States. The glass 
sand produced in the United States in 1912 
amounted to 1,465,386 short tons, valued at 
$1,430,471. Consult: Ries, Economic Geology 
(3d ed., New York, 1010) contains also many 
references; Merrill, Non-Metallic Minerals (ib., 
1010) ; United Mates Geological Survey, Mineral 
Resources for 1Q09 many analyses. 

GLASS SNAIL. A very small, almost trans- 
parent snail of the genus Titrina, species of 
which are common in the northerly United 
States. These glassy snails are remarkably 
hardy in reference to cold and consequently are 
found higher up on mountains than most snails 
are able to live. 

GLASS SNAKE. See BLINDWOEM. 

GLAS^OireXTRY, glaVn-bSr-I or gliis'tun- 
bCr-I. A market town and municipal borough 
in Somersetshire, England, situated on a penin- 
sula formed by a winding of the river Brue, 25 
miles southwest of Bath (Map: England, D 5). 
It has some manufactures, an export trade, and 
in the vicinity are chalybeate springs which 
formerly attracted health seekers. Pop., 1891, 
4119; 1001, 4016; 1911, 4250; the area of the 
municipal borough is 5019 acres. Its chief ma- 
terial interest lies in the ruins of its splendid 
abbey founded in the twelfth century. Of this 
magnificent pile, which covered 60 ' acres, the 
only remains are parts of the abbey church, with 
the roofless chapels of St. Joseph and of St. 
Mary, and the Abbot's Kitchen, a square, mas- 
sive, and strongly buttressed structure, all 
especially important as specimens of early and 
transitional architecture, and the abbey barn 
and the porter's lodge. A causeway across Sedge- 
moor and many of the houses of the town are 
built from the materials of the abbey, which 
became a common and prolific quarry for the 
neighborhood. Other buildings and places of 
interest are the George Inn, a pilgrims' hostelry 
of the fifteenth century ; the two parish churches, 
the Tribunal, Wearyall Hill, and the Tor, 500 
feet high, from which a fine view is obtained. 
Two miles to the southwest lies Sharpham Park, 
where Fielding the novelist was born. 

Glastonbury has prehistoric remains of a lake 
village of considerable extent. At Glastonbury 
is said to have been situated the first English 
Christian church, a little wattled building 
erected by Joseph of Arimathea, the leader of the 
12 Apostles sent hy St. Philip to Christianize 
Britain. Tradition states that Joseph estab- 
lished himself here, owing to his pilgrim's staff, 
which he planted on Wearyall Hill while he 
rested, taking root. From it sprang the cele- 
brated "Glastonbury thorn," the Qratasgus pro- 



000, which, according to popular superstition, 
blossomed every Christmas Day. It was fanati- 
cally destroyed by a Puritan during the Croin- 
wellian period, but grafts exist which maintain 
the traditional blossoming. The traditional site 
of the original tree is marked by a stone, in- 
scribed I. A. A. D. XXXI. Joseph was suc- 
ceeded, a century later, by two missionaries who 
established a fraternity of anchorites, which the 
famous St. Patrick organized under monastic 
rule three centuries later. Although joined to 
the land by St. Michael's Tor, the peninsula 
was first known by the Celtic name Ynysvitrin 

(isle of the glassy water) and later as Ynys yr 
Afalon (isle of Avalon, or of Apples). It is the 
Avalonian burial place of King Arthur and 
Queen Guinevere. The modern name is a corrup- 
tion of Gloestyngabyrig. A legend relates that 
in the long quest of a lost sow a Glacsting wns 
led to an apple tree by the old church, where, 
pleased with the place, lie and his family settled; 
hence Glastyngabyrig (city of the G testings). 

In the eighth century the Saxon King Ine 
built and endowed a monastery, which suffered 
during the Danish invasions, but wns restored 
and added to by another famous prolate, St. 
Dunstan, a native of Glastonbury and a pupil 
of the institution, who became abbot in 046. 
During the tumultuous period of the Norman 
Conquest, Glastonbury remained unmolested. 
Prom 1120 to 1172 the old buildings wore re- 
placed by much finer ones, which were scarcely 
completed when they, with the wicker church, 
were destroyed by fire on May 25, 1184. Henry 
II immediately ordered a larger abbey and 
church of superb proportions and architecture to 
be built, which were finished about a century 
after his death. The length of the church was 
528 feet. During the foundation excavations 
the supposed grave of King Arthur was dis- 
covered. In 1539, on the refusal of Abbot Whi- 
ting to surrender Glastonbury and its treasures, 
Henry VIII suppressed and dismantled the ab- 
bey and hanged the abbot on the Tor. His body 
was quartered, and his head fixed on the abbey 
gate. He was canonized by the Roman Catholic 
church in 1800. The famous old abbey clock is 
preserved in Wells Cathedral. In 1000 the site 
of the abbey and the remaining building* 4 \vero 
transferred to the Church of England. Consult : 
Hearne, History and Antiquities of Olastonlury 
(Oxford, 1722) ; Wakefieid, The Avalonian Uw'do 
(Glastonbury, 1839) ; Willis, Architectural His- 
tory of Glastonbury Abbey (London, 1800) ; 
Gasquet, Tlie Last Allot of (Jlastonbury (ib., 
1908) ; Henry VIII and the English Monasteries 
(ib., 1906); Holmes, WeUs and Qlastonlunj 
(Now York, 1909) ; Grcswell, Tho Early History 
of Qlastonlury Abbey (Taunton, England, 1909). 

GKLASTONBT7RY. A town in Hartford Co., 
Conn., 7 miles southeast of Hartford, with which 
it has steamboat connection, on the Connecticut 
Kiver (Map: Connecticut, E 3). It is an agri- 
cultural region, producing tobacco and fruit, 
and has manufactories of soap, woolen goods, 
paper, and silverware. Pop., 1900, 4200; 1910, 
4796. 

GLASTON*BTJBY THORN. See GLASTON- 
BTJBY, ENGLAND. 

GLATICKNTT, gla't&'nyS', AUFBED, or ALBERT 
(1839-73). A French poet, born at Lillebonnc 
(Seine-Inferieure), son of a carpenter. While 
still very young, he wrote his first play, and at 
17 joined a troupe of strolling actors and wan- 
dered with them over northern France and into 



6 GLAUBER'S SALT 

Belgium. He wrote constantly, with all the 
faults and failings of an improvisator. He was 
one of the "Parnassiens" (q.v.). His works in- 
clude: Les vignes folles (1857) ; Les flcckcs d'or 
(1864) ; Oillcs ct pasquim (1872) ; Lv testament 
de rillustrc Brteacicr (1873) . He. was made the 
subject of a- tragedy (1906) by Catulle M endes. 
Consult Mendes, Lcgcnde dii Pamassc Con tern- 
poraine (Brussels, 1S84). 

G-LATZ, glilts ( Bohemian Kladsko). The cap- 
ital of a circle and a fortified town in the Prus- 
sian Province of Silesia, situated on the Neiswe, 
among the Sudetic Mountains, 58 miles south- 
west of Breshiu (Map: Germany, G 3). It is 
commanded by an old citadel, and tbe right bank 
of the stream is protected by a strong fort, the 
Schiiferberg, both fortifications dating from 
1745. The old ramparts have been demolished, 
and fine promenades and streets laid out on their 
sites. Ohitz has an old parish church, with the 
graves of seven Silesian counts, a now llatliaus, 
a municipal theatre, and a Gymnasium, origi- 
nally a Jesuit college founded in 1507. The 
manufactures consist principally of iron prod- 
ucts, machinery, furniture, spirits, cigars, shoes, 
pottery, brushes, lumber, and bricks, (jlatz is 
believed to have been founded by the Bohemians 
in the tenth century. Pop., 1000, 14,920; 1910, 
17,095. 

GLAUBER, glou'ber, JAN, enlled POLYDOR 
(1040-1726). A Dutch landscape puinler and 
etcher. He was born at Utrecht and \vtis a pupil 
of Berchem and Vilemberg at Haarlem, then of 
Picard in Paris (1671), and for two years of 
A. van der Kabel at Lyons. Having gone to 
Rome, he was much influenced there by Gaspard 
Pouswin, worked afterward in Padua and Venice, 
and in 1680 went to Hamburg, residing there 
and in Copenhagen until 1085, when he came to 
The Hague and settled in Amsterdam, living in 
the house of Oeravd do Lairesse, who often 
painted the figures in his landscapes. These are 
kindred in conception and coloring to those o 
G. Pnussiu, and are to lie found in tlic Louvre, 
Munich Pinakothek, and most of the principal 
galleries of ICurope. Of his etchings, the beat 
are a series of. 12 plates, two after Poussin, and 
six otheru published under the title "La grando 
Chartreuse." 

GLAUBER, JOIIAWN RUDOLF (1004-08). A 
German chemist and physician, born at Karl- 
stadt in Fran coma. No details regarding bis 
life are known except that he resided for a long 
time at Salzburg, then at Kitssingen, thoa at 
Frankfort-oil -thc-Main, then at Cologne, whence 
he removed to Amsterdam in 1048. A com- 
plete edition of his works, in seven volunieH, 
appeared at Amsterdam in 1001. An 



translation by Parke, in one* large folio volume*,, 
was published iu London iu 1080. (jlatiber im- 



proved many industrial processes an<l 

the medicinal propertieB of numeroiiH 

His name at tlui present day IH chiefly known for 

his diHCovory of hydnited Hodium nulpliate, which 

lie termed sal mirabilv and regarded UH a tiniver- 

fiul medicine and a cnirc for all (UtH 

CHBMISTBY; (3LAtntKR\s WALT. 

GLAUBER'S SALT. Sodium 
NfiiaSOt -f lOHaO. It i found native ILK 
lite or sal mirabite at various pla<ten in 
tria, Italy, and Spain, and in the United Htat<M 
in large quantities at Great Salt Lake, Utah. 
It is also a constituent of mineral wate.ni and 
exists in small quantities in the blood and other 
animal lluidfl. It was originally prepared by 



GLAtrCHATT 

J. R. Glauber in 1C58, by treating sodium chloride 
(common salt) with sulphuric acid. Anhydrous 
sodium sulphate ("salt cake'') is obtained as an 
intermediate product in the manufacture of soda 
ash. Glauber's salt is a white crystalline com- 
pound, with a bitter saline taste. When ex- 
posed to the air, its crystals effloresce, losing 
most of their water in crystallization and turn- 
ing into a white powder. Its chief use is as a 
purgative in medicine, and as such it is largely 
used in veterinary practice; but it is also largely 
employed in the production of certain kinds of 
glass and in fixing lead mordants in dyeing and 
printing. See SODA. 

GLATTCHATT, glou'Kou. A manufacturing 
town in Saxony, Germany, situated on the Mulde, 
8 miles north-northeast of Zwickau (Map: 
Germany, E 3). It contains two old churches, 
dating from the twelfth and the sixteenth cen- 
tury respectively; two castles of the counts of 
Schonberg; and a new Rathaus. Among its 
numerous educational institutions the most 
prominent is the school of weaving, with a good 
collection of old textiles; also a technical col- 
lege. Glauchau is one of the centres of the 
German textile industry, producing principally 
woolen and half-woolen goods. It has 24 dye 
establishments ; there are also manufactured ma- 
chinery, vehicles, paper, timber, and brick. 
Glauchau is the birthplace of the famous miner- 
alogist Georg Agricola. It is the scat of an 
American consul. Pop., 1000, 25,077; 1910, 
25,155. 

GLATJCOTCA (Lat., from Gk. yXatKupa, opac- 
ity of the crystalline lens, from yXavicds, glauJtos, 
bluish green; so called from the appearance of 
the eye in this disease). A disease of the eye, 
characterized by increased intraocular tension. 
In addition to primary and secondary glaucoma, 
a congenital glaucoma is described. According 
to the rapidity of onset and the severity of the 
disease, primary glaucoma is divided into in- 
flammatory or congestive, and noninflammatory 
or simple. The inflammatory type may be acute 
or chronic. The cause of glaucoma is unknown. 
The disease has been observed chiefly in old per- 
sons, particularly in women, and usually in- 
volves the eyes successively. Jews seem pre- 
disposed to it. Heredity, gouty and rheumatic 
diatheses, cardiac and arterial disease, and 
chronic constipation seem to exert an influence. 
Persons with hyperopia (see SIGHT, DEFECTS OF) 
are often afflicted with glaucoma; those with 
myopic eyes, very rarely. Various forms of ex- 
citement, eye strain, improper use of atropine, 
and other causes of venous congestion of the 
eyes arc mentioned as exciting factors. The 
essential feature of the disease is the increase of 
pressure within the eye, the present view being 
that there is undue retention of fluids within the 
eye. Acute inflammatory glaucoma may begin 
with a prodromal stage, in which sight is some- 
what obscured by oedema of the cornea, with 
some dilatation of the pupil and increased ten- 
sion in the eyeball. A number of these attacks, 
each followed by increased presbyopia (see 
SIGHT, DEFECTS OF), are succeeded by the stage 
of active glaucoma. This is marked by sudden 
failure of vision, with great pain in the eye, and 
headache. There are marked increase of tension, 
cloudiness and insensibility of the cornea; the 
pupil is oval, fixedly dilated, and often greenish; 
the iris is dull and changed in color. The con- 
junctiva is congested, including the space around 
the cornea. The interior of the eye is cloudy. 



37 



GLATTCtrg 



Recovery takes place with practically a persist- 
ence of all these appearances in a slight degree, 
and from time to time other attacks occur, the 
eye being left in worse condition after each. 
Finally the stage of absolute glaucoma is 
reached blindness, increase of the changes in 
appearance noted in the early attacks, increased 
tension, and in some cases pain at intervals. 
Degeneration of the eyeball may follow. Cases 
of unusual severity, resulting in blindness within 
a few hours, are known as glaucoma fulminans. 
Chronic inflammatory glaucoma differs from the 
acute only in the mildness of its initial symp- 
toms and the slowness of its course, the final 
result being the same. Simple glaucoma is a 
very slowly progressing type, with no active 
symptoms of inflammation, simply the increased 
tension and gradual failure of vision. Secondary 
glaucoma is an increase of tension, with other 
symptoms of glaucoma, secondary to other dis- 
ease of the eye or to injury. Congenital glau- 
coma usually affects both eyes, leading to blind- 
ness. In tfie treatment of glaucoma atropine 
must never be employed. Eserine and piloear- 
pine, locally, may give some relief. Iridectomy, 
an excision of part of the iris, is the most 
effectual treatment. Sclerotoiny, an incision 
through the sclcra or white of the eye, is some- 
times employed in its place, but this procedure 
lias been superseded by trephining, which opera- 
tion consists in removing a small section of the 
eyeball at the junction of the cornea and sclera 
and excising a portion of the iris. Consult T. 
Henderson, Glaucoma (New York, 1910), and R. 
H. Elliot, Trephining in the Treatment of Glau- 
coma (ib., 1913). 

GIATTCONITE, gla'kd-nlt (from Gk* iKavris, 
ylaukos, bluish green), or GBEEN EARTH. An 
iron potassium hydrous silicate. It is found 
either amorphous in cavities of rocks or in a 
loosely granular condition. In color it is of 
various shades of green and is found in "Russia, 
in Belgium, and in various localities in New Jer- 
sey and Mississippi in the United States. 

GLATJCOFHAXTE, gla'kO-phan (from Gk. 
7\oi//c6s, glaukos, bluish green + $a.lvew, phai- 
ncin, to appear). A mineral belonging to the 
amphibole group and crystallizing in the mono- 
clinic system. It is a silicate of sodium, alumin- 
ium, iron, and magnesium. The mineral has a 
vitreous to poarly lustre and is found in various 
shades of blue. It is a constituent of various 
crystalline schists, gneisses, and other rocks. It 
occurs associated with diallage, epidote, mica, 
garnet, etc., at various points along the Alps in 
Switzerland, and in Italy; while in the United 
States it is found on the coast ranges of Cali- 
fornia. According to Dana, it has been noted 
as a secondary product due to the alteration of 
diallage by a procews of "glaucophanization." 

GLATT'CTJS (Lat., from Gk. T\avKos, Qlaukos}. 
A Lycian prince, who, along with Sarpedon, as- 
sisted Priam in the Trojan War. He was the 
son of Hippolochus and grandson of Bellerophon 
and was mythical progenitor of the kings of 
Lycia. When Glaucua and Diomedes met in 
battle, they discovered that their houses were 
joined in hereditary friendship, whereupon they 
exchanged weapons, Glaucus giving his golden 
armor for the bronsse of Diomedes (Iliad, vi). 
r J1ie incident became proverbial for an unequal 
exchange. Later writers say that Glaucus was 
afterward slain by Ajax; but his body was 
carried back to Lycia, as that of his brother 
had boon. 



GLATTCTTS 38 

GLATJCTTS, An artist of Chios, said to have 
invented the art of soldering iron. His most 
famous work was a silver vase resting on an iron 
base, curiously decorated and wrought in his 
new technique; the vase was dedicated about 
605 B.C. by Alyattes II of Lydia to Apollo at 
Delphi. Consult the article "Glaucus, 40," in 
Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Eneyclopadie dcr c,lansi- 
schen Altertumsioissenschaft, vol. vii (Stuttgart, 
1912). 

GLATJCTJS. Son of Minos, King of Crete, and 
Pasiphae. On one occasion when a child, while 
playing at ball or, according to another account, 
chasing a mouse, lie fell into a pot of honey and 
was smothered. His father, after a long and 
vain search, consulted the oracle and was told 
that the person who could suggest the aptest 
comparison for one of his own cows, which had 
the power of assuming every day three colors, 
would restore his son alive. Polyidus, the seer 
of Argos, who likened the animal to the mul- 
berry and the bramble, was ordered by Minos to 
find the child and restore it to life. Polyidus 
found the body of the child, but the latter in- 
junction he was unable to perform, and he was 
therefore sentenced to be entombed alive with 
the corpse. Seeing in the tomb a serpent bring 
back to life its dead companion by laying upon 
it the leaves of a certain herb, Polyidus con- 
ceived the idea of treating the dead boy in the 
same way. The process proved SUCCORS ful. Then 
Minos ordered the seer to teach the child the art 
of prophecy. This also Polyidus did, but imme- 
diately deprived him again of all remembrance 
of his instruction. Consult: Hock, Krcta (G<"t- 
tingen, 1829); Reseller, Xektar und Ambrosia 
(Leipzig, 1883) ; Giidechens, in Reseller's Lexi- 
lon, vol. i (Leipzig, 1884 ct seq.). 

GLATTCTJS. The hero of Bulwer's novel The 
Last Days of Pompeii. 

GLATJCTTS PONTIUS. According to the leg- 
end, a fisherman of Anthodon. Through the in- 
fluence of a magic herb he was changed into a sea 
god and gifted with unerring prophecy. He is 
found especially in connection with Nercus and 
his train and was worshiped not only at An- 
thedon but on many islands and coasts, as at 
Delos, Naxos, Corinth. He was especially hon- 
ored by sailors and fishermen and is often repre- 
sented in art as wearing a fish basket on his 
head. In the legends he appears as prophesying 
to the Argonauts, or as builder and pilot of the 
Argo (consult Ovid, Met., xiii, 904), and his 
unrequited loves for Seylla and Ariadne were 
frequent themes among the later poeta (e.g., of a 
aatyric play by .flSschylus, q.v.). Consult Giklc- 
chens,- Qlaukos der Meergott (Giittingen, 18(50), 
and his article on "Glaukos," in Roscher'a Lem- 
?;on, vol. i (Leipzig, 1884 et seq.). 

GLAUCTJS POTWTEtTS. A son of Sisyphus 
(q.v,) by Merope, and the father of Bellerophon 
(q.v.) . According to the legend ho was destroyed 
by his own mares, the most common form of the 
story being that he was torn to pieces by them 
(Vergil, Georgics, iii, 207). Accounts differ 
about the place of his violent death and also con- 
cerning the immediate occasion of it. Some- 
times it is represented as having happened at 
Tolcus, at the funeral games of Pelias, but usu- 
ally the scene is laid at Potniro, near Thebes. 
He is most frequently represented as having 
offended Aphrodite by having kept bis marcs 
from breeding; but other versions of the myth 
are that he had fed them on human flesh to 
make them more spirited, or that they had been 



GLAZTJNOV 



suffered to drink at u sacred well in Boeotia, or 
that they had eaten the herb hippomunes. He 
was the "subject of a lost tragedy of .-Eschylus 
(q.v.). In Corinth this legend IH confused with 
that of ("ilnucus Pontius (sec above), and the 
stimo stories niv told of both. Fn fact, it is 
very probable that the, Corinthian (iluucuH is 
only a local variation of the commonl;} wor- 
shiped divinity. Some mythologists (comparing 
the Greek phrase V\O,VKTI OaXaa-ffd, 4 the Hashing 
soa') nee in <lauous Potnieus the quiet glen mi ng 
sea, whose calm surface* is destroyed by the 
violent risings of the waves, the wild horses of 
Glaucus Pontius. 

GLAZE. See POTTERY. 

GLAZE'BROOE:, RICHARD TETLEY (1854- 
). An English physicist. He wan born at 
West Derby, Liverpool, Sept. 18, 1854, and was 
educated at Liverpool College and Trinity Col- 
lego, Cambridge,' where he graduated with honors 
in 1876 and was made a fellow in the following 
year and in 1805 senior bursar. In 1880 ho wan 
appointed demonstrator in physios at the Caven- 
dish Laboratory and 10 yearn later was made 
assistant director. Ho was also university lec- 
turer in mathematics t Cambridge and in 1808 
and 1SOO was principal of University College, 
Liverpool. Ju the hitter year he was made di- 
rector of the National Physical Laboratory, a 
position ho has since held. In lf)0(i he waa 
elected president of the institute of Klectrical 
Engineers. Dr. (Jlazchrook received the degree 
of D.Wc. from Victoria College and Heidelberg 
and was elected a fellow of the lloyal Society. 
In 10 10 he was made Companion of the Bath. 
Among his more important researches are- those 
dealing with tho absolute resistance of the 
British Association unit and the specific resist- 
ance of mercury, a dynamical treatment of the 
theory of double refraction, a verification of 
Fraud's theory of double refraction in a biaxial 
crystal, and other investigations dealing mainly 
with optics and electricity. He is the author, 
with W. N. Shaw, of an excellent Text-Rook of 
J'ravticnl Wn/fitcn (18S4) and of a Twit-Hook of 
Physical Opties ( 1882) ; Lairs and Properties of 
Matter (18ft. 11 .); (Uwb-Maseirdl and Modern 
Physics (18!W) ; MM trinity and Maqwtium 
(1903); Iletit and Light (2 vols., 1010); I/eat: 
An Klnncntwy Textbook, (1011). 

GLAZIER, gliYzhSr, WILLARD (WoRCMSTEK) 
(1841-1005). An American soldier, author, and 
explorer, lie wan born at Fowler, N. Y., was 
educated at Oouverneiir Seminary and at the 
Albany Normal School. In 1861 he enlisted in 
the Second New York Cavalry. In 18(W he was 
taken prisoner by the Confederates in Virginia 
and confined in Libby Prison, Richmond, and at 
Columbia, S. C. His escape to the Union linen 
was the subject of his first book, Capture., Prison- 
Pm and Kseape (18flB), of which more than 
'100,000 copies were sold. He also wrote: Three 
Years in the Ffldwal Cavalry (1870) ; llwocit of 
Three. Years (1878); Pe.GttUaritie.ft of American 
Citictt (1873); /)wm the (Irettt Kiver (1887); 
llcadwutcrit of the Mississippi (1802) ; 0<xwn to 
Ocean on Uorsebaab (180(1). The belief that he 
discovered the source of the Mississippi i with- 
out foundation; the body of water (above Lake 
Itaska) which he called the source has been 
named Lake Glazier. Consult his life by Owens, 
tiioord and Pen (Philadelphia, 1880), and Nar- 
rower, Captain (Hazier and his Lake (New York, 
1880). 

GLAZTJ1TOV, gWrtSff-nflf', AL&XANOKK (1866- 



GLEANERS 

). A Russian composer. He was born at 
St. Petersburg and studied first at the Poly- 
technic Institute. Conscious of his gift for 
music, and with the advice of many musical 
friends and teachers in sympathy with his aims, 
he determined to devote himself entirely to 
music. His most important tuacher was Rimsky- 
Korsakoff, who was friend as well as teacher. 
His first symphony was produced when he was 
but 16 years of age, and the second three years 
later, under the auspices of Liszt at Weimar. 
Paris accorded him a most enthusiastic recep- 
tion when in 1889 he visited there and conducted 
in person his second symphony and many minor 
compositions. He visited London afterward and 
conducted his fourth symphony at a concert of 
the London Philharmonic Society. In 1896-97, 
together with Liadoff and Rimsky-Korsakoff, he 
conducted the national Russian symphony con- 
certs at St. Petersburg. In 1S99 lie became 
professor of instrumentation at the St. Peters- 
burg Conservatory and was its director in 1909- 
12. He belongs to the school of Tschaikowsky 
in the national sense and, like him, ia occasion- 
ally prodigal in brilliant orchestral effects. Not 
only is he perhaps the most prolific, but also 
one of the most talented, of modern Russian 
masters. Together with Rimsky-Korsakoff he 
completed and orchestrated Borodin's opera 
Prince Igor. His principal works are seven 
symphonies (in E, Fftm, D, Eb, Bb, Cm, F) ; 
five suites; four concert overtures; two sere- 
nades; two symphonic poems; a violin concerto 
in Am; numerous smaller works for orchestra 
(rhapsodies, fantasies, dances) ; four cantatas 
for soli, chorus, and orchestra; several ballets; 
and much chamber music of unusual merit. 
Consult A. W. Ossowski, Alexander Glasiinoff: 
His Life and WorJts (St. Petersburg, 1907, in 
Russian). 

GLEAHTEBS, THE. See GLANEUSES. 

GLEA'SON, FREDERICK GRANT (1848-1903). 
An American composer, born at Middleton, Conn. 
He was a pupil of Dudley Buck and in 1869 
went to Germany, where he studied in the Leip- 
zig Conservatory and later in Berlin and Lon- 
don. In 1875 he returned to the United States, 
becoming church organist in Hartford and New 
"Britain, Conn., and, in 1877, teacher in the Her- 
ahey School of Music, Chicago. Mr. Gleason was 
elected a fellow of the American College of Mu- 
sicians, president of the Chicago Musical Society, 
and president general of the American Patriotic 
Musical League. He composed two grand operas, 
Qtlw Visconti and Monteauma; a symphonic 
poem JSdris; several cantatas; some chamber 
music; and numerous songs and instrumental 
pieces. 

GLE'BA (Lat. ? clod). Among the Gastero- 
inyceteB (q.v.) the fructification, as, e.g., the 
puffballs, is differentiated into an outer zone, 
called the poridium, and an inner mass of tissue, 
called the gleba. It is the gleba which incloses 
the spore-bearing cells. The variations in the 
development of peridium and gleba distinguish 
the five orders of Gasteromycetes. See BASIDIO- 

MYOETES. 

GLEBE (Lat. gleba, clod). The land pos- 
sessed as part of an ecclesiastical benefice or 
from which the revenues of the benefice arise. 
The assignment of glebe lands was formerly held 
to be of such absolute necessity that without 
them no church could be regularly consecrated. 
The fee simple of the glebe is held by the law of 
England to be in abeyance; i.e., it in only "in 



39 



GLEE 



the remembrance, expectation, and intendmeni 
of the law"; but after induction, the freehold 
of the glebe is in the parson, and he possesses 
most of the powers of a proprietor, with the ex- 
ception of the power of alienation. Previous to 
the Reformation the clergy possessed certain 
powers of alienation at common law; and if a 
bishop, with the assent of his chapter, or an 
abbot, with the assent of his convent, or the 
like, alienated glebe lands, the deed would not 
have been void, because the fee simple was in the 
holder of the benefice for the time being; but by 
1 Eliz., c. 19, and 13 Eliz., c. 10, it was provided 
that all gifts, grants, feoffments, conveyances, 
or other estates made of glebe lands should be 
utterly void and of none effect. Neither could 
the incumbent exchange the lands or any portion 
of them without the authority of an act of Par- 
liament. This restriction was done away by 55 
Geo. ITI, c. 147, for enabling spiritual persons to 
exchange parsonage or glebe houses or glebo 
lands for others of greater value or more con- 
veniently situated for their residence and occu- 
pation. By 5 and 6 Viet., c. 54, it is now pro- 
vided that the commissioners appointed to carry 
into effect the commutation of tithes shall have 
power to ascertain and define the boundaries of 
the glebe lands of any benefice, and also power, 
with consent of the ordinary and patron, to ex- 
change the glebe lands for other lands within 
the same or any adjoining parish, or otherwise 
conveniently situated. 

In Scotland, as in England, a glebe forms, as 
a general rule, a portion of every ecclesiastical 
benefice of the Established church and is thus 
an addition to the stipend and sometimes a very 
important one. As in England, the alienation 
of glebe lands by the incumbent of the parish 
has from a very early period been forbidden. 
(Stat. 1572, c. 48.) Consult Phillimore, Ec- 
clesiastical Lairs of the Church of England (2d 
ed., London, 1895). 

GLEBE LAND. See CHURCH RATES. 

GLEBE. A bird. See KITE. 

GLEDITSCH, gla'dlch, JOHANN GOTTLIEB 
(1714-86). A German botanist and writer on 
forestry, born and educated at Leipzig. After 
lecturing on botany and materia medica at 
Frankfort on the Oder for four years, he was 
appointed professor of botany at Berlin and 
director of the Botanical Garden in that city. 
It was, however, in his capacity as professor of 
forestry at the Berlin academy devoted to that 
science that he exercised that permanent in- 
fluence which induced Linnaeus to name the 
genus Gleditsia, the honey locust, after him. 
His chief publication is Sytttematische Einlei- 
timg in die neuere aus ihren eigentHmliohen 
physical isch-okonwnischen Grunden Jiergeleitete 
Forfttwisscnschaft (2 vols., 1774-75). 

GLEDIT'SIA. See HONEY LOCUST. 

GLEE (AS. gligg, music, Icel. gig, merri- 
ment). The English name of a vocal composi- 
tion for three or more voices, without instru- 
mental accompaniment, and in one or more 
movements. The style of music of the glee is 
peculiar to England and quite different from the. 
part songs of Germany or the older madrigal 
(q.v.), being more extended and laying emphasis 
on variety rather than unity. The first glees 
were written by Arne and Boyce about the 
middle of the eighteenth century. The groat 
composer of glees was S. Webbe, who died in 
London in 1816. This form flourished par- 
ticularly in the period from 1750 to 1825. In 



GLEET 40 

1787 the "Glee Club" was founded in London, 
which cultivated glees with great zeal until it 
was dissolved in 1857. 

GLEET. See GONOBBHCEA. 

GKLEICHENBERG, gliE/en-bSrK. A water- 
ing place of Styria, Austria, 1020 feet above 
sea level, in a charming, picturesque valley sur- 
rounded on three sides by mountains, about 40 
miles southeast of Graz, near the Hungarian 
frontier (Map: Austria, E 3). It is well 
known for its nonchalybeate saline alkali 
springs, which are much frequented by sufferers 
from pulmonary complaints. Large quantities 
of the water are exported. There are several 
beautiful chateaux and many villas of the Aus- 
trian nobility in the vicinity. Resident popu- 
lation, about' 1500. 

GLEICHEN'-BTTSSWUBlVt, gllK'en-rus'vurm, 
LUDWIG, BABON VON (1836-1001). A German 
landscape painter and etcher. He was born at 
Castle Grcifenstein in Bavaria, and studied 
under Max Schmidt and Hagen at the School 
of Art in Weimar. Given to realistic treatment 
from the first, with broad, decided brushwork 
and excellent handling of light, his style of 
painting afterward approached closely that of 
the Impressionists, as may be seen respectively 
from "An Idyl" (1885), in the National Gallery, 
Berlin, and an "Evening Landscape" (1802), in 
the Weimar Museum. Both these galleries have 
also collections of his water colors. His etchings 
are among the best produced in Germany during 
the later nineteenth century. Tie was a grand- 
son of Schiller. Consult the monograph by 
Freuzel and Lehr (Vienna, 1002). 

GLEIG-, gleg, GEORGE (1753-1840). A Scot- 
tish divine, Bishop of Brechin, and primus of 
the Episcopal church of Scotland. Ho was born 
on a farm at Boghall, Kincardineslure, was edu- 
cated at King's College, Aberdeen, was ordained 
in the Scottish Episcopal church in 1773, and 
took charge of a congregation at Pittcnweem, 
Fifoshire, removing thence to Stirling in 1787. 
Ho contributed to the Monthly Itwicw, the 
Gentleman's Magazine, and other pxiblications, 
and wrote for the third edition of the Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica, of which, after the death of 
Colin Macfarquhar, proprietor and editor, in 
1793, he edited the last six volumes, and in 
1801 a supplement. He was twice elected Bishop 
of Dunkeld, but Bishop Skinner, the primus of 
the Scottish church, whom Gleig had criticized in 
the Gentleman's Alagassine, prevented his taking 
office. In 1808, having acceded to the tests 
imposed by Bishop Skinner, he was chosen suc- 
cessor' to Bishop Strohan, of Brechin. His 
efforts towards securing a strict adherence to 
the English liturgy, with the single exception 
of the communion, were eminently successful. 
In 1816, when elected primus of the Church of 
Scotland, he tried to extend the reforms begun 
in his own episcopate and to cement the alliance 
with the English church. He was not alto- 
gether successful, for his persistent interference 
in diocesan elections alienated some of his 
strongest supporters. He resigned the primacy 
in 1837. Ho published several volumes of ser- 
mons, no Life and Writings of William fto&erf- 
son (1812), and Directions for the Study of 
Theology (1837); and edited Stackhouse's His- 
tory of the 3iUe (1817). Consult Walker, 
Life of the Right Reverend John Q-leig, Bishop 
of Brechin (Edinburgh, 1878). 

GLEIG, GEOEGE ROBERT (1796-1888). A 
Scottish writer, born at Stirling, son of the 



GLENCOE 



preceding. In 1812, while a student at Oxford, 
he joined a regiment on its way to London and 
served in the Peninsular campaign. During 
the American War of 1812-14 ho participated 
in the movement against the city of Washington 
and was severely wounded in the battle of 
Bladensburg. In' 1821 ho published an account 
of the Campaigns of tJtc British Ann}/ at Wash- 
ington and New Orleans. After the war ho re- 
turned to Oxford, entered holy orders, and was 
presented to the living of Ivy Cliurc.1i, Kent. 
In 1825 he published The tiiihaltcrn, an enter- 
taining and well-written novel founded on his 
experience in the Peninsular War. In 1834 lie 
became chaplain of Chelsea Hospital and in 
1844 chaplain general of the forces. Having 
devised a scheme for the education of soldiers, 
in 1846 he was appointed iiiHpector general of 
military schools. Gleig contributed to 7' 7 rawrX 
Black wood's, the fldinbnrt/h, and the Quarterly; 
and wrote a great variety of biographical, his- 
torical, and religious books. Tlie most interent,- 
ing i his Life of the ZM/.-rr of \\'ct liny ton 
(1802). His Life of ll'ffmw Hauling* (1S-41) 
was the text for Macaulay'tt fisxai/ on ]\'ttrrcn 
Hastings. 

GLEIM, glim, Jon ANN WiunciiM Limwra 
(1719-1803). A German poet whom the glories 
of Frederick Il's struggli- in the Seven Years 1 
War inspired to write the 1(5 vigorous and 
thrilling Licdcr MUM prcusftiwhru (jrvnadurs 
(1758). lie waft called ^'Father Gleim" because 
he assisted many of the younger poets. Gleim 
was born at -ErniHleben, near Halheriatadt, and 
was the most prominent of the early political 
song writers of Germany. Tlift otticr HOIIOH, 
fables, romances, classical and mcdiicyal imita- 
tions, are, with few exception H, as unimportant 
as his didactic epic IFalladnt in Oriental garb 
(1774), being at their best feebly pretty and 
at their worst very dull, lie died at Halber- 
stadt. Gleim's Works are in Heven volumes 
(1811-13). For his life, connult Klirttt (Ual- 
berstadt, 1811). 

GLEIWITZ, gll'vlts. A town in the. south - 
eastern part of the PniHtuan Province of Silcnia, 
Hituated on the, Klodnitz and the Klodnitft 
Canal, 100 milen by rail Houthcant of Breulau 
(Map: Germany, H 3). It has an old Catholics 
church. A Gymnasium, a mechanical school, an 
ironworking Hchool, and a mtiHeum are, among 
its institutions. It has a royal foundry and 
hearths; manufactures machinery, boilern, wire*, 
agricultural machinery, paper, glaHB, oil, lum- 
ber, chemicals, cabinetwork, and piping. <<lei- 
witz dates from the twelfth century. Pop., 
1900, 02,362; 1010, 06,010, nicwtly lloman 
Catholics. 

GLElTAIt'VON'. Lady Caroline Lamb's firHt 
novel, published anonymously in Louden in 
3816. Its caricature of Byron, with whom thcj 
author had had a short love a/Tair and a quarrel, 
soon mado the book famous. Tt waB reprinted 
in 1805. 

GKLENCOE, glfcn-kty. A deep, precipitoiw val- 
ley, in northern Argyllshire, Scotland. It ex- 
tends southward from Loch Leven, IB about 
8 miles in length, and in divided into an upper 
and a lower valley. It is fainoiw for the wild- 
ness and sublimity of itn wumory and for the 
itwsaacro of Glencoe, The Highlanders, faith- 
ful to the Stuart dynanty, were promined full 
pardon if on or before Dec. 31, 1m) I, they mih- 
mitted to the rule of William III and Mary. 
The surrender of Mac Ian, chief of the Mac- 



GLESTCOE 

donalds of Gloncoe, was delayed by bad weather 
until January 7. The sheriff at Inveraray, 
yielding to his entreaties, accepted his oath on 
that day, but at Edinburgh the clerks refused 
to receive it. With these circumstances un- 
known to the King, Mac lan's enemies, headed 
by Sir John Dalrymple, Master of Stair, ob- 
tained a royal warrant for their extirpation. 
Under the guise of friends, 120 men, mostly 
Campbells and hereditary foemen, led by Cap- 
tain Campbell of Glenlyon, accepted the hospi- 
tality of the Macdonalds for 12 days, then 
treacherously attacked them at five o'clock in 
the morning of Feb. 13, 1692. Thirty-eight 
persons, including children and women, were 
slain. About 300 men and women escaped in a 
violent storm, but many perished from cold 
and hunger in the snow of the mountain gorges. 
Consult: Macaulay, History of England (3 vols., 
New York, IflOS) ; Charles Leslie, The Massacre 
of Glencoc, Being a Reprint of a Contemporary 
Account, cd. by E. Goldsmid (Edinburgh, 
1885) ; George Gilfillan, The Massacre of Glen- 
coe and the Campbells of Glenlyon (Stirling, 
1913). 

GLENCOE. A city and the county seat of 
McLeod Co., Minn., 51 miles west-southwest of 
Minneapolis, on the Chicago, Milwaukee, and 
St. Paul Railroad, and on Buffalo Creek (Map: 
Minnesota, C 6). It is surrounded by a farm- 
ing and dairying region, and has grain elevators, 
/lour mills, a foundry, machine shops, a cream- 
ery, etc. Stevens Seminary is located here. The 
water works arc owned by the city. Pop., 1900, 
1780; 1910, 1728. 

GLENCOE, OB TUB FALL OP THE MCDONALDS. 
A drama by Sir Thomas Taifourd, produced in 
1840 by Macready. 

GLEN'COBSE, LORD. See INGLIS, JOHN, LOBD 
GLENOORSE. 

GLEN" COVE. An unincorporated village in 
Nassau Co., N. Y., 28 miles northeast of Brook- 
lyn, on the Long Island Railroad and on an inlet 
of Long Island Sound (Map: New York, B 3). 
It is the seat of a Friends' Academy and has 
three fine piiblic school buildings and a public 
library. It has manufactories of leather belting, 
but is essentially a residential place. It was 
settled in 1668. Pop., 1914 (local eKt.), 7500. 

GLEN'DALE. A city in Los Angeles Co., 
Cal., 7 mi lea north of Los Angeles, on the Pa- 
cific Electric and the San Pedro, Los Angeles, 
and Salt Lake railroad*. It contains a branch 
of the Battle Creek Sanitarium, a Carnegie li- 
brary, and a fine high-school building. The city 
is situated in a rich fruit-growing country, pro- 
ducing chiefly orangca and olives. The electric- 
light plant is owneu by tiie municipality. Pop., 
1910, 2746; 1020, 13,536. 

GLENDALE, BATTLE OF. See FBAZIEB'S 
FARM, BATTLE OF. 

GLEWDIVE. A city and the county seat of 
DawHon Co., Mont., 78 miles by rail northeast 
of Miles City, on the Yellowstone Kiver, and on 
the Northern Pacific Railroad (Map: Montana, 
M 2). The city contains three hospitals and a 
poor farm. It has railroad repair shops, and 
carries on an important trade in live stock and 
wool. Extensive deposits of lignite are found 
in the adjacent region. The water works and 
electric-light plant are owned by the city. Pop., 
1910, 2428. 

GLENDOWER, glen-doW or dou'Sr, Owrasr 
( 71359- U416) . A Welsh chief, claiming descent 
from Llewellyn and prominent as an opponent 



^i GLENGARRY 

of the English during the reign of Henry IV. He 
was the last to claim the title of independent 
Prince of Wales. At first he was a follower of 
Henry of Lancaster, who succeeded Richard II 
in 1390, but local troubles forced him into op- 
position. The Welsh were strongly attached to 
Richard II and, moved by rumors that Richard 
was still alive, rose in * revolt against Henry 
(1400). Glendowcr led this movement and was 
at first very successful. The King ordered his 
subjugation and granted his estates to the Earl 
of Somerset. Though Glendower's forces were 
inferior in number to those of his adversaries, 
he was sometimes victorious, chiefly through sur- 
prise, ambushes, and the like. Often, however, 
he was defeated and forced to retire to the hills. 
In 1402 he drew Lord Grey into an ambush and 
took him prisoner. A few weeks later Sir Ed- 
mund Mortimer, the uncle of the Earl of March, 
was captured bv Glendower, after a battle won 
by the latter. I 1 reason seems to have been falsely 
imputed to Mortimer as the cause of his defeat; 
but Henry IV's suspicions and Glendower's kind- 
ness soon made the treason sufficiently real, for 
Mortimer married one of Glen dower's' daughters 
and conspired with him against the English 
King. At this time Glendower styled himself 
openly Prince of Wales. In July/ 1404, Glen- 
dower entered into a treaty with Charles VI of 
France against the English. Little came of it, 
for in the following year Glendower sustained 
severe reverses. For two or three years more 
his fortunes were somewhat in the ascendant, 
and then they sank to the ordinary level of the 
petty warfare of a barbarous mountain chief. 
On Feb. 24, 1416, Glendower was still alive, but 
nothing is known about him after that date. 
Hio successes show that he had about the high- 
est talents of his class, and he had their faults 
also. The popular idea of him is to be found in 
Shakespeare's King Henry IV. From the first 
he has been a kind of mythical hero, and the 
lapse of centuries does not clear up the exact 
facts of his history. He was the last champion 
of Welsh independence which the English kings 
had been steadily stamping out for nearly a 
century and a half. Consult: Pennant, Tour 
in Wales (London, 1778) ; Pauli's GcschicJitc 
von England (Hamburg, 1854-58); Wylie, His- 
tory of Henry /T, 139 [-1W (London, 1880-D8) ; 
Bradley, Oicen Glyndicr: The Last Struggle for 
Welsh Independence (New York, 1001). 

GLENEiLG 7 . A shallow river, 200 miles long, 
rising in the southwestern part of Victoria 
(Map: Victoria, A 5). It crosses the boundary 
into South Australia and enters Discovery Bay. 
a bight of the Indian Ocean, between Cape North- 
umberland on the west and Cape Bridgewatcr 
on the east. In the rainy season it is subject 
to heavy floods. 

GLENELG-, LORD. See GBANT, CHABLES. 

GLENGARRY. A beautiful valley or glen 
in West Inverness-shire, Scotland, about 8 miles 
southwest of Fort Augustus (Map: Scotland, D 
3). It takes its name from the Garry Kiver, 
which takes a winding course through it for 
some 19 miles. This valley was the home of the 
Macdonnells from the beginning of the sixteenth 
century linti! the death of the last of the ac- 
knowledged chief's family in the early part of 
the nineteenth century. ' Scott is said to have 
taken the last chief of this family, Col. Alex- 
ander Kanaldson Macdonell, as his model for 
Fergus Maclvor in Waverley. The Glengarry 
cap was named from this valley. 



GLENN ^ 

GLENN, JOHN MABK (1858- ). An 
American sociologist. He was horn at Balti- 
more, Md., and was educated at Washington and 
Lee University (M.A., 1879), Johns Hopkins 
University, and the University of Maryland 
(LL.B., 1882). From 1898 to 1907 he was a 
member (president, 1004-07) of the supervisors 
of city charities of Baltimore. In ID 07 ho he- 
came director of the Russell Sage Foundation of 
$10,000,000 to be used to improve social and 
living conditions. He was a vice president of 
the American Statistical Association in 1909-10. 

GLEN'NON, JOHN JOSEPH (18G2- ). An 
American Roman Catholic prelate, born at Kin- 
negad, County Westmeath, Ireland. He studied 
at St. Mary's College, Mullingar, graduated from 
All Hallows College, Dublin, in 18S3, and was 
ordained a priest in 1884. He served as an as- 
sistant pastor of St. Patrick's Church at Kan- 
sas City in 1884-87 and as pastor of the cathe- 
dral of that city under Bishop Hogan; was 
vicar-general of the diocese in 1802-94 and ad- 
ministrator of the diocese in 1894-95; became 
Coadjutor Bishop of Kansas City and Bishop 
of Pinara in 1896; and Coadjutor Archbishop 
of St. Louis in 1903, and later in the same year 
Archbishop. In 1914 the city of Drogheda, Ire- 
land, presented Archbishop Glennon with the 
freedom of the city. 

GLEN RIDGE. A borough in Essex Co., 
N. J., 4 miles from Newark, on the Delaware, 
Lackawanna, and Western and the Erie rail- 
roads (Map: New York City (Greater New 
York), A 4). It is a purely residential com- 
munity and contains the Mountainside Hospital 
and a public library. The water works are 
owned by the borough. Pop., 1900, 1960; 1910, 
3260. 

GLENBOY'. A narrow, rocky glen of In- 
verness-shire, Scotland, through which flows the 
Roy. After a course of about 15 miles this 
stream joins the Spean at Keppoch. The glen 
is remarkable for three terraces running round 
it, everywhere Irorizontal and parallel to each 
other, and known as the "parallel roads of Glen- 
roy." The highest is about 1150 feet above sea 
level. The second is 80 feet lower; the third 
lies about 855 feet above sea level and may be 
traced round the mountain of the glen into the 
valley of the Spean. The subject of much scien- 
tific study and discussion, they are now con- 
ceded to be ancient shore lines of a glacial lake, 
which halted for a while at the three levels in 
the process of the return to a normal drainage. 

GLENS FALLS. A city in Warren Co., 
N. Y., 40 miles (direct) north of Troy, on the 
Hudson River, the Charaplain Canal, and on the 
Delaware and Hudson Railroad (Map: New 
York, G 4). It derives its name from the falls 
in the Hudson, which supply exceptional power 
for manufacturing; and the island below the 
falls is associated with Cooper's Last of the 
Mohicans. The region abounds in points of in- 
terest connected with the French and Indian 
and the Revolutionary wars. There are large 
quarries of limestone, extensive lime works, 
Portland-cement works, a number of saw and 
planing mills, brickworks, and manufactories 
of paper, shirts, collars, shirt waists, etc. The 
city has the Crandall Free Library, St. Mary's 
and Grlens Falls academies, a home for aged 
women, the Parks and Glens Falls hospitals, 
Crandall Park, and a great iron bridge over the 
falls. The city owns and operates its water 
works, Glens Falls was settled in 1763, incor- 



2 GLIBDON 

porated as a village in 1837, and reineorporated 
as a city in 1908. In 1804 it was almost com- 
pletely destroyed by tire and again in 1884 wart 
visited with a similar disaster, which necessi- 
tated the rebuilding of the southern part of the 
citv. Pop., 1900, 12,613; 1910, 15,243; 1914 
(U. S. eat.), 10,362; 11)20, 10,038. 

GLEN / WOOIX A city and the county seat of 
Mills Co., Eowa, 20 miles south by east of Coun- 
cil Bluffs, on the, Chicago, Burlington, and 
Quincy Railroad (Map: Iowa, B .'}) It is tlio 
seat of the State Institution for Feeble-Minded 
Children and contains a public library and fine 
city park. The city, besides being the centre 
of 'important corn and live-stock interests, is in 
a highly productive fruit-growing country and 
has a large cunning factory and granite works. 
The water works are owned by the municipality. 
Pop., 1000, I5040; 1910, 4052. 

GLE1TWOOD SPBINGS. A city and the 
county seat of Garfield Co., Colo., 120 miles 
(direct) southwest of Denver, on the Colorado 
Midland, and the Denver and Rio (i ramie rail- 
roads and on the (*rand River (Map: Colorado, 
B 2). It is in a esittle-raising, coal-mining, 
fruit-growing, and a general farming region and 
is widely known as a health resort. Among its 
attractions arc numerous hot springs, vapor 
caves, an open-air swimming pool whieh affords 
bathing in winter and in summer, and superb 
mountain scenery. Pop., 11)00, 1850; 1!)10, 
2010. 

GLEVTJM. See GLOUCESTER, ENGLAND. 

GLEYRE, glitr, CHARLES (1800-74). A 
French historical painter. JIc wa born at 
Chcvilly, Canton Vaud, Switzerland, was brought 
up at Lyons, and studied four yearn with .1 lev- 
sent in Paris. Later he studied the old mas- 
ters in Italy and traveled extensively in the 
Orient, sketching land and people after ' nature. 
ITis first work at the Salon appeared in 1840, 
but he did not obtain marked success until in 
1843 ho exhibited u Evening," also called "Lost 
Illusions," now in the Louvre. Among his 
other works are the "Departure of the Apostles" 
(1845), in the church at Montargis; "Pentecost," 
in Rte. Marguerite, Paris; the "Kxccution of 
Major Dave" and the "Romans Passing under the 
Yoke, of the Helvetians," in the Lausanne. Mu- 
seum; ''Pentiums Pursued by Micnadw" and the. 
"Charmer," in the Basel Museum. Gleyre's gen- 
ius was refined and sensitive, and his works 
were executed with conscientiousness and nin- 
ccrity ; but they are not exempt from the drynesrt 
and coldness of the academic style. Ho opened 
an important studio in Paris, and among his 
pupils were many men afterward well known 
in the world of art. Gle/vro died sudde.nly, May 
5, 1874, while visiting the. Alsace- Lorraine Ex- 
hibition at the Palais Bourbon. Jh'or h'w biog- 
raphy, consult: Clement (Paris, 1878) ; Ber* 
thoud (Lausanne, 1880) ; Mantss, in (jascttn tins 
&eaM$-Arts (.Paris, 1875) ; Cook, Art a-nd Ar- 
tiftt* of our Time, vol. i (New York, 1888). 

GLICHEZABE, TIiciNHioir Dim, Sec 

BICII DEK OUCIIKXABK. 

GLnXDOKT, GJHX>RGE TloniNB (1800-57). An 
English archaeologist, TCgyptologiHt, and ethnol- 
ogist, born in Devonshire. When very young, ho 
was taken to Egypt by his father, who 'was 
a merchant residing at Alexandria and aluo 
United States Oonsxil. During (Hidden ' long 
residence in Egypt, in the coxirse of which no 
served for some time as United fltatoH Vice Con- 
sul, he devoted much time to the study of Kgyp- 



GKLIJjlRE 

tian antiquities. Later he came to America 
and lectured on this subject in Boston, New 
York, and Philadelphia. His lectures did much 
to attract popular interest to Egyptology and 
its results. At the time of his death in Panama 
he was agent for the Honduras Intcroceanic Rail- 
way. He wrote: A Memoir on the Cotton of 
Egypt (1841) ; An Appeal to the Antiquaries of 
Europe on the Destruction of the. Monuments 
of Egypt (1841) ; Discourses on Egyptian Archcc- 
ology (1841); Ancient Egypt (1850; new ed., 
1853); Types of Mankind, written in conjunc- 
tion with Dr. J. C. Nott and containing contri- 
butions from Agassiz, Dr. Samuel G. Morton, 
and others (1854); Indigenous Races of the 
Earth, also written in conjunction with Dr. 
Nott and containing contributions from Alfred 
Mtiury, librarian of the French Institute; Fran- 
cis Pulsssky, the Hungarian ethnologist; and 
Professor Meigs, of Philadelphia (1857). 

GLIERE, glfc-ar 7 , REINHOLD MOEITZOVITCH 
(1875- ). A Russian composer, born at 
KidF. He studied at the Conservatory of Mos- 
cow under Taneieff and Tppolitoff-Tvanoff from 
1894 to 1900. His striking inventive power and 
conciseness of expression soon gained him gen- 
eral recognition both in Europe and in Amer- 
ica. With marked predilection he cultivates the 
purely instrumental forms. His compositions 
include two symphonies, in E fltit and C minor; 
three string sextets; and two string quartets. 

GLINKA, gten'ka, FEODOR NIKOLA^VITCH 
(1780-1880). A Russian, soldier and man of 
letters. Ho was born at Smolensk and was edu- 
cated for the army. In 1803 he became an of- 
ficer and in 1805 fought at Austerlitz. At the 
close of the campaign he left the service and 
devoted himself to study and travel about Rus- 
sia. Upon the invasion of the French in 1812 
ho retmtered the Russian army and remained in 
active service until the end of the campaign in 
1814. When Count Milarodovitcb became mili- 
tary governor of St. Petersburg, Glinka was ap- 
pointed colonel under his command. In 1826, 
on account of his alleged connection with a po- 
litical conspiracy, he was banished to Petroza- 
vodwk. After some time he was pardoned, again 
took up his residence at St. Petersburg, and be- 
came Councilor of State. He wrote: Letters of 
a Russian Officer in the Campaigns of 1805-06 
(1815-10; 2d ed., 1870) ; a poetical translation 
of the Psalms, of the Prophets, and of the Book 
of Job; Reminiscences of the Year 1812; a poem, 
"Karoliyii"; and several other things full of 
mysticism, which possessed his mind after 1853. 
'GLINKA, MIKHAIL ITANOVITCTI (1804-57). 
A celebrated Russian composer of the early mod- 
ern school. He was born at Novospaskoi, near 
Smolensk, of aristocratic parents, and conse- 
quently received the education of a young noble 
of the period. His earlier musical teachers were 
Bfthm (violin), Carl Mayer (theory and piano- 
forte), and later Field; subsequently he spent 
four years in Italy, ostensibly for his health, 
but practically completing his musical educa- 
tion. After studying for a little while with 
IDehn, of Berlin (*1834), he was led to attempt 
composition, the result being the first Russian 
national opera, A Life for the Czar (1836), 
which received its first performance at St. 
Petersburg. While the musical treatment of the 
opera on the whole is Italian to a degree, it is 
occasionally very Russian in its coloring, which, 
together with its purely Russian plot and the 
employment of Russian folk songs, has earned 
VOL. X. 4 



43 



GLISSON 



for its composer the reputation of being the 
pioneer of the modern Russian school and the 
forerunner of the famous national composer 
Tschaikowsky. His success gained for him the 
appointment of Imperial chapclmastcr and 
conductor of the opera at St. Petersburg. The 
second opera, first presented at St. Petersburg 
in 1842, was arranged from a poem of the Rus- 
sian poet Pushkin and was entitled Rusalnn 
and Ludmilla. In character it is very similar 
to the first one and was almost as great a 
popular success. In 1844 he visited Paris and 
gave a scries of orchestral concerts. From 1845 
to 1847 he lived in Spain and wrote two over- 
tures on Spanish national themes, Jota A.ragonr 
esa and Troche en Madrid. His other works in- 
clude compositions for the pianoforte, on which 
instrument he was a brilliant performer, sym- 
phonies, orchestral suites, and numerous songs 
and romances, the latter clearly indicating the 
influence of Field. He died at "Berlin, while on 
a visit to his old teacher, Dehn. Consult: Cui, 
La musique en Russie (Paris, 1880) ; N. Fin- 
deisen, J/. /. GHnka (St. Petersburg, 1898, in 
Russian) ; A. Pongin, fissai Jiistorique sur la 
musique en Rttssie (Paris, 1904). 

GLINKA, SEBOEEVITOH NIKOLAI (1775- 
LS47). A Russian author, brother of Feodor 
Glinka. He was born in the Government of Smo- 
lensk and lived principally at Moscow, where he 
devoted himself to literary work and founded 
the anti-French periodical Rusufcy Vestnik (the 
Russian Courier). His contributions to juvenile 
literature include Russian History for Young 
People (3d ed., 1824) and Reading for Children 
(1821). Glinka was a very prolific author; 
he is said to have written more than 50 works. 
During the last 20 years of his life he was a 
censor at Moscow. Owing chiefly to his ex- 
aggerated chauvinism, Glinka is now entirely 
neglected. His Notes on 1S12, however, still 
retains some historical interest. 

GLIOTYEA, gll-6'ma (Neo-Lat., from Gk. y\ta, 
glia, glue). A tumor arising from the delicate 
connective tissue which holds together the nerve 
substance, either of the brain or of other parts, 
and which has a gummy or glutinous consist- 
ency. Its usual seat is the brain, spinal cord, 
or orbit. See TUMOR. 

GLIS'AN", RODNBT (1827-1890). An Ameri- 
can physician. He was bom at Linganore, Md., 
and graduated at the University of Maryland 
in 1849. After practicing a few months in 
Baltimore, he was appointed an assistant sur- 
geon in the United States army and served 
in that capacity from 1850 to 1861. In the 
latter year he entered practice in San Fran- 
cisco and ultimately settled at Portland, Oreg. 
His publications include the following: Journal 
of Army Life (1874)"; Teat-Book of Modern 
Midwifery (1881); Two Years in Europe 
(1887). 

GLISSptf, glis'son, FRANCIS (1597-1077). 
An English physiologist, born at Rampisham, 
Dorsetshire, and educated at Cambridge and 
Oxford. He became professor of physics at 
the former university in 1636 and retained that 
position until his death. In 1G39 he also re- 
ceived an appointment as lecturer on anatomy 
at the College of Physicians, London, of which 
he was president from 1667 to 1669. He was 
one of the founders of the Royal Society. His 
investigations on the morbid anatomy of rickets, 
as treated in his famous work entitled Do 
Raohitide, sive morbo puerili qui vulgo The 



GLISSON 44 

Rickets dicitur, Tractatus (1650), is especially 
notable. His work on the liver and its diseases, 
entitled Anatomia Hepatis (1654), is also im- 
portant, the term "Glisson's capsule," now a 
part of medical phraseology, perpetuating the 
name of its author. 

GLIS'SON, OLIVES S. (1809-90). An Ameri- 
can naval oHicer, born in Ohio. He entered the 
navy as a midshipman in 1826, commanded the 
schooner Itcefcr during the Mexican War, and 
accompanied Commodore Perry to Japan in 
1853-55. In the Civil War he commanded suc- 
cessively the Mount Tcrnon and the Mohican, 
and in the attacks of December, 1864, and Jan- 
uary, 1865, on Fort Fisher (q.v.), commanded 
the third division of the fleet. He was pro- 
mpted commodore in July, 1866, and rear ad- 
miral in June, 1870, and on Jan. 18, 1871, was 
retired from the service. 

G-LOAa, glOg, PATON JAMES (1823-1000). A 
Scottish clergyman. He was born at Perth and 
was educated at the academy in that city and 
at the universities of Edinburgh and St. An- 
drews. In 1848 he was appointed minister at 
Dunning and remained there until 18(50, when 
he accepted a call to the ministry of Blantyre. 
He was minister of Galashiels from ]871 to 
1892, when he removed to Edinburgh. He was 
moderator of the General Assembly in 1880. 
Besides several translations from the German 
of works on the New Testament by Lcchler, 
Huthor, Lunemann, and Meyer, he published the 
following works : Assurance of Salvation, (1853; 
2d ed., 1869); Excgetical Studies (1884); In- 
troduction to the Johannine Writings (1801); 
Subjects and Modes of Baptism (1801); The 
Life of flam* John (1802). Consult the biog- 
raphy by his wife (London, 1008). 

GLOBE. A city and the county seat of Gila 
Co., Ariz., 82 miles (direct) north of Tucson, 
on the Arizona Eastern "Railroad (Map: Ari- 
zona, E 4). Noteworthy features are tho 
Roosevelt Reservoir, costing more than $8,000,- 
000, and the Old Dominion Library. Tho mining 
and smelting of copper is the chiof industry, 
and there are also silver and gold mines. Globe 
owns its water- works system. It was firat 
settled in 1873. Pop., 1000, 1405; 1010, 7083. 

GLOBE (from Lat. glolus, ball). A term 
used to denote any round or spherical body 
(see SPHERE) and often used to signify tho 
earth. "Globes," or "the globes," generally 
means a pair of artificial globes used as a part 
of schoolroom apparatus. These are usually 
hollow spheres of cardboard, coated with a 
composition of whiting, glue, and oil, upon, 
which paper bearing certain delineations is laid. 
Globes are either celestial or terrestrial. On 
the celestial globe the stars are represented in 
positions corresponding to their actual situation 
in the sky. If the celestial globe is oriented 
(i.e., set in position) correctly, a line drawn 
from its centre to any star marked on its sur- 
face will, if produced to the sky, pass through 
the actual star. On the terrestrial globe the 
distribution of land and water and their sub- 
divisions, together with important places, are 
laid down in positions corresponding to those 
which they actually occupy on tho surface of 
the earth. Terrestrial globes came into wide 
use as soon as the idea of the sphericity of the 
earth became prevalent. They afford a gener- 
alized representation of the earth which is 
very convenient, although, the equatorial diam- 
eter exceeds the polar by -j-J-y of its length and 



GLOBE 



the difference is not appreciable to the eje in 
the sizes of globes usually constructed. Tho 
usual mode of making giohea is as follows: A 
ball of wood or iron is used u.s a tnutrix, and 
a layer of damped paper is carefully and closely 
placed upon this, without paste, ami oilier lasers 
are successively pastud over thu first one. 
Ordinary cardboard ia thus produced, but in- 
stead of being flat, as usual, it forms a spherical 
shell. When sufficiently thick, this is cut into 
two hemispheres, tho section being made in tho 
line of the intended equator. Tho hemispheres 
are then taken off the matrix and again glued 
together on an axis, and the whiting composi- 
tion laid on, the outside of which is smoothed 
and finished to shape in a lathe. Tho workman 
has to lay on this composition evenly enough 
to balance the globe, in order that it may rest 
at whatever point it is turned. The smooth 
surface is now marked with the lines of latitude 
mid longitude and is covered with the paper on 
which the required geographical or astronomical 
delineations aro engraved. In order to adapt 
the plane surface of the paper to the curvature 
of the sphere, it is printed in pieces, small 
circles for the Arctic and Antarctic regions, and 
the rest in lens-shaped gores, usually six in 
number. Great care is required in laying on 
these curved pieces, so that their edges shall 
meet exactly without overlapping. The surface 
is then colored and strongly varnislied, and 
the globe mounted in its frame and stand. It 
was formerly impossible to represent tho roltaf 
of the earth on globes, because elevations on 
the surface of the earth arc insignificant when 
compared to the terrestrial diamotor. In recent 
years, however, patches of color, technically 
known as layers, and contour linos have been 
adopted to show altitudes. 

Globes of India rubber and gutta-percha have 
also been made, others of thin paper, to bo in- 
Hated and suspended in a schoolroom. RmbosHexl 
globes show, in. exaggerated relief, tho eleva- 
tions and depressions of tho eartirs surface. 
Compound globes, including tho celestial and 
terrestrial, liavc been made with an outer glaHfl 
sphere for tho celestial, and an orrery (<|.v.) 
mechanism to show tho varying relative posi- 
tions of the sun and moon, etc. As schoolroom 
apparatus, globes aro used for illustrating tho 
form and motion of the earth, tho position 
and apparent motion of tho fixed stars, and for 
the mechanical solution of a number of problems 
in geography and practical astronomy. For 
this purpose each globe, is suspended in a brasB 
ring of somewhat greater diameter, by me.anH 
of two pins exactly opposite* to each other, 
those pins forming tho extremities of tho axis 
round which it revolves, or tho. north and Month 
poles. This brass circle in then lot into a 
horizontal ring of wood, supported on a aland. 
The globes in common UHO in schools ar< from 
1 to 4 feot in diameter* Tho oldest to.rrostrial 
globe of any importance (though probably not 
tho first) is that of Italiaim. ft was constructed 
in Nuremberg and bears tho dato of 141)2. One 
of the earliest globes constructed after tho 
discovery of America ifi that in the New York 
Public Library (1506-07), Consult V. Fioritil'n 
"Lo sfere, cotjmografk'hcj o spee.iahnento U Hfero 
terrcstri," in Bolhttino Mia, Roriotd (]<Mflr<ifi<\a 
Ifaliana,, vols. xxx-xjcxi (Rome, 1803-04)'. 

CKLOBE, THE. A famous Klixabetlmn theatre, 
where most of tho plays of Nhakenpeare, fon- 
son, Beaumont, Fletcher, Chapman, 



GLOBE AMARANTH 

and Ford were first produced. It was erected 
in Bankside, by the Burbage brothers, in 1599, 
and was built chiefly from the material of their 
earlier theatre in Shoreditch. Its hexagonal 
outer wall inclosed a circular pit, flanked by 
three galleries, the pit being open to the sky, 
while the galleries were roofed with thatch, 
which caught fire in 1613, during a representa- 
tion of Henry Till, and caused the destruc- 
tion of the building. It was soon rebuilt, but 
was destroyed in 1644 by the Puritans, and a 
brewery now occupies its site. Consult C. W. 
Wallace, Three London Theatres of Shakespeare's 
Time (Lincoln, Neb., 1909). 

GLOBE AMABAWTH. See AMARANTH. 

GLOBE^ISH. A marine fish of the family 
Tetraodontidce and order Plectognathi (q.v.), 
remarkable for its power of inflation. Those 
fishes possess a large, ventral, bladder-like ex- 
pansion of the oesophagus, which may be filled 
with water or air so suddenly that the body 
assumes at once a spherical form. The skin is 
stretched to its utmost extent and becomes firm. 
The scales are mostly reduced to spines em- 
bedded in the skin, and these spines now stand 
upright and form an important protective cov- 
ering. This power of swelling suddenly must 
be regarded as an adaptation for defense, since 
the distended fish can hardly be grasped with 
impunity by the mouth of any predacious ani- 
mal. The fishes of this group are chiefly tropi- 
cal, and some species are as large as a football, 
or larger, and used as food. Two or three 
species occur along the eastern coast of the 
United States, of which one (Hphcroidrs turgi- 
dus) is very abundant, especially along the 
rocky shores of southern New England and 
Long Island, where it is known as swelldoodle, 
puller, egg fish, and bellows fish. It is often 
caught with a hook, and hundreds, usually 
small, tire taken with every haul of a seine. 
When lifted from the water, it immediately 
inflates its body by means of short, jerking 
inspirations of air, and if dropped on the 
ground will bound about like a rubber ball; or 
if thrown in the water will bob about for some 
time at the surface, with little control over its 
movements and relieving itself with difficulty 
of its inflation. It forms a very amusing tenant 
of a salt-water aquarium. A well-known globe- 
fish of the Nilo is the fahaka (Tetrodpn 
fahaka). A large edible West Indian species 
(Larjoucphalun l(vmgatiifi) is better known as 
rabbit fish. See Plate of PLECTOGNATH FISHES. 

GLOBEFLOWER (TrolMus). A genus of 
plants of the family Kanunculacioo?, with a 
calyx of yellow sepals and a corolla of small 
and linear petals. There are several species, 
natives of the colder parts of the Northern 
Hemisphere. The common globeflower, the 
lucken gowan of the Scotch (Trollius europceus), 
a native of Great Britain, is sometimes culti- 
vated in flower gardens. The globelike appear- 
ance of the flower suggests the. name. The 
spreading globeflowcr, Trollius la&us, occurs in 
deep swamps from Connecticut to Michigan and 
also in the "Rocky Mountains. 

GLOBIGERINA, gl6-b! j'e'r-r'na, ( Neo-Lat., 
from Lat. ff loins, ball + gercre, to carry). A 
gonus of multilocukr perforate foraminifera, 
with minute shells of glassy, calcareous tex- 
ture and globular form. They are exceedingly 
abundant in many portions of the ocean bottom, 
where they form the greater proportion of the 
"globigerina ooze." Specimens referred to the 



45 



GLOBULINS 



genus Globigerina have been found in the Lower 
Cambrian rocks of the Province of New Bruns- 
wick, Canada. Their next appearance is in 
Triassic rocks. But they do not attain promi- 
nence till Tertiary time, when they became 
quite as abundant as they are at present. See 

FORAMINIFEKA; OOZE ; OCEAN DEPOSITS. 

GLO'BIN". See GLOBULINS. 
^ GLCXBOID (from Lat. glofats, ball + Gk. 
ciSos, citlos, form). A spheroidal mass of a 
double phosphate of calcium and magnesium 
found in aleurone grains. It is supposed to be 
a by-product of the formation of the crystalloid 
in those bodies. See ALEUBONE. 

GLOBULINS (from f/lolule, from Lat. glolui- 
lus, dim. of glolns, ball). Natural proteins, 
which with albumins constitute the principal 
nitrogenous component of animal and plant 
tissues. Globulins of different origin possess 
some individual differences in physical and 
chemical properties, but also some points of 
similarity which permit the grouping of them 
into one, class. The principal points of simi- 
larity are the following: they all possess the 
properties of very weak acids; as such, in a 
free state, they are insoluble in water. They 
enter into loose combination with neutral salts, 
and in that form they are, soluble in water. 
However, the addition to a solution of globulin 
of an excess of the salt again causes its pre- 
cipitation. Heating of an aqueous solution of 
every animal globulin, and some vegetable glob- 
ulins, causes their coagulation. Globulins differ 
from albumins, not only by differences in solu- 
bility and in precipitability, but also by their 
chemical 'composition. On decomposition of 
globulins among other ami no acids was found 
glycocoll. This amino acid is not obtained on 
decomposition of albumins. 

Preparation of Globulins. They are pre- 
pared from natural sources by extraction with 
salt solutions. As a rule, the* solution contains 
also albumins and other proteins. The globulins 
are obtained from this solution in solid state 
by means of precipitating agents. These may be 
cither very weak acids or neutral salts. They 
may also be precipitated by dialysing the solu- 
tion and completely removing the neutral salts. 
A process analogous to this consists in diluting 
a salt solution of globulin with a large volume 
of water. Some of the principal animal globu- 
lins are: 

1. Serum globulin, which occurs in the blood 
plasma, serum, lymph, transudates, and exu- 
datcs, and in the white and red cells. 

2. Fibrinogen is also found in the blood plasma 
and plays an important part in the clotting of 
blood. In this process it is converted by the 
action of fibrin ferment or thrombin into fibrin. 

3. Myosin constitutes the principal mass of 
tho soluble proteins of the dead muscle. In the 
live muscle it is present as myosinogen, which 
is converted by the action of a specific enzyme, 
the myosin ferment* into myosin. 

4. CryBtallin is the globulin which is found 
in the lens of the eye. 

5. Laotoglolulin, together with casein and 
lactalbumin, occurs in milk plasma. 

The vegetable globulins differ from those of 
animal origin by their solubilities and by their 
behavior towards neutral salts. For instance, 
magnesium sulphate is a general precipitant 
for animal, but not for plant, globulins. Half 
saturation with ammonium sulphate precipi- 
tates nearly all animal, but does not precipitate 



GKLOBTO ETSTEBICTJS 46 

a large number of vegetable, globulins. Fur- 
ther, vegetable globulins differ from animal in 
the behavior of their aqueous solutions towards 
heat; whereas the former are only imperfectly 
coagulated by heat, the latter coagulate com- 
pletely. A particularly interesting property of 
the vegetable globulin' is itw capacity to form 
crystalline compounds. Finally animal and 
vegetable globulins differ in the proportion of 
their individual components. When decom- 
posed by heating with strong mineral acids, 
the vegetable globulins yield a higher proportion 
of aspartic and particularly of glutaminic acids. 
The following are the principal vegetable 
globulins : 



GLOM3VEEN 



GLOBULINS: OBTAINED FROM SEEDS OF: 

f Pea, Pisum sativum, 

j Vetch, Vicia sativa. 
( Lentil, JSn-um tens. 

Vignin Cow pea,, Viona sinensis. 

GJycinin. Soy bean, Qlycine hinpida. 

f Kidney bean, Phaseotus vulgaris* 
\ Adzuki bean, Phaseoliut radiatua. 
[ Lima bean, Phast'olus lunatus. 

Lupines, Lupin us. 
f Horse bean, Vicia faixi. 
i Pea, Pisum sntwmn. 
(Lentil, Ermun lens. 
Hazelnut, Corylus arettena. 
Almond, Primus aniuudalus. 
Peach, PrunuK pcrsica. 
Pluni, Prunwt aomctttica. 
Apricot, PrunuH armeniaca. 
European walnut, Jut/Inns regia. 

Juglansin. American black walnut, Juglans nigra. 

American butternut, Juglana tinerea. 
Excelsin, crj'stalline Brazil nut, Berth olleiia cxcetea. 

Edeatin Horapseed, Cannabis sativa. 

Avonalin Oat, A eena wtiva. 

Castanin European chestnut, Costarica mdQaria. 

Maysin .... _ ... Maize, Zea, maya. 

} Potato, 



Conglutin 

Vioilin 

Corylin 



GLO'BTJS HYSTERICtTS (Lat., hysterical 
ball ) , or BALL IN THE TUBOAT. See HYBTEBIA. 

GLOCKENSPIEL, gl$k'en-&pel (Ger., bell 
play) . A musical instrument originally consittt- 
ing of bells fastened to an iron 
rod and rising above one another 
in the form of a pyramid. The 
bells were struck by means of a 
hammer with a metal head. Later 
the glockenspiel was constructed 
in the shape of a lyre, within 
which metal bars, instead, of bell a, 
were fastened. The bars yield a 
fuller tone than the. bells. The. in- 
strument is now also constructed 
so that metal bars are arranged 
within a box. Tn this form tbo 
glockenspiel is used in the mod- 
ern opera orchestra and has a 
range from b 1 to d 8 . The music is 
written an octave lower than it 
sounds. Wagner employs the 
glockenspiel in the magic fire 
scene in Die Walk&rc. 

GIiOCKtfER, glok'nSr, or 
GBOSSGLOCKSTBR, gros - g!6k'- 
ner. One of the highest peaks of 
aARLnroHMB- the Austrian Alps, commanding a 
GLOCKBNSPIBL, famous view, situated on tho 
boundary between Tirol, Oarinthia, 
and Upper Austria (Map: Austria, 03). Its 
altitude is 12,344 feet. 

GKLOGATJ, glO'gou, or GROSSGKLOGATJ. 
The capital of a district and a .second-class 
fortress in the Prussian Province of Silesia, 
situated on the left bank of the Oder, 60 miles 




northwest of Breslau (Map: Germany, F .'?). 
The town is fortified on three wides and con- 
nected by a wooden bridge with a fortified in- 
land in the Oder. The more prominent Imildingri 
of Glogau are the old castle, the (Gothic cathe- 
dral on an island in the Oder, the RathaviH, 
with a high tower, and the post office. <ln#au 
has a prominent geographical institute, a mu- 
nicipal theatre, two Gymnasia, u war college. 
and is an infantry, artillery, and cavalry .sta- 
tion. Castings, machinery, boilers, suj;ar, stuvdi, 
dextrin, furniture, and hats are manufactured. 
It is an important wool market. The railway 
shops are extensive, and there is some trade in 
wine. Pop., 1900, 22,147; 1910, 24,524. Glogau 
was an important fortified place as early ata tho 
beginning of the eleventh century and became 
in the thirteenth century the capital of the 
Principality of Glogau. At tho end of tho, fif- 
teenth century the town, together with tho 
principality, fell into the hands of Bohemia. 
During the Thirty Years' War, CJLoguii wan up- 
tured repeatedly by the? Swedes and the Imperial 
troops, and in 1741 it was taken by storm hy 
the Prussians and strongly fortified. 

GLOG-ATT, GUBTAV (1844-05). A (tarman 
philosopher, born at Laukisdiken, East Prussia, 
and educated at Berlin. Tn 1882 he. was up- 
pointed professor at the Polytuchntaul IiiHtituio 
at Zurich, in 1883 professor extraordinary at 
Halle, and in 1S84 profoHsor of philosophy at 
Kiel. In 1895 he entered upon a tour through 
Greece, where he mot his death in an accident. 
Glogjui regards philosophy as a acionc,o embody- 
ing the reaultn of all achievements and thus 
represents it as a natural growth, inseparably 
from evolution in its widest sense. Hcsidcs his 
principal work, Abrisn dcr philotMphiwhnH 
GmmdwixscnMnafteu (18HO-88), he published: 
Kiel und Wcwn dcr hiimatriatischt'ii. /tildunfl 
(1881); (frit-nd-ntts (far /ty/r/ioto/yfo (1881); />/< 
Ideal o dcr NtMsialdcinokraUQ itwl (fir, Auff/alM 
<lcs KcitaUcnt (1SJ)2); Die. lltniptlchrcn. <fw 
Logik 11 ml Wiftwnftchaftftlc.hw (1894); and /> 
Vorstadiuni iind die Anffhn/c dw Wtilonoithir, 
ed. by Siebeck (]89(>). 

GLOGGNITZ, glog'nltH. A Hinall market 
town of Lower Austria, Kiiuaied on Hut 
Sehwarza, at 'the northern base of the Scunner- 
ing Alps, 45 miles south -south west of Vienna 
(Map: Austria, D ;*). The building of the 
railway from here to Mfira7.nHchla#, a distance 
of 85 miles, was an extraordinary fwrt of moun- 
tain engineering. The lino was constructed in 
1848-54 at ti coat of about $10,000,000. (Jlogg- 
nitz has a picturcKquc casih 1 situated on a hilt. 
Until 1803 it was a Benedictine abbey, but after- 
ward became a private residence. To the south- 
west lies the interesting castle of Wartcnstoin. 
The town hns cotton and woolen mills, cabinei.- 
works, stone <niarri<s, and mgn<sia factories. 
Tn tho 8ch warm valley near by is the 
paper factory of Schlojj;nifihl. I*op. ( 



GLOMEBTJLE, ^irmi^r-fil (from Lat. 
ball of yarn). A llowe.r cluster (inflorescence) 
which is merely a cyme (q.v.), in which I he 
llowera are crowded so close together as to form 
a Rovt of head, as HO.CII in H<mic, species of dog- 
wood. See iNKiamcBdKNOifi. 

G-LOM / ICE]Sr. Tlio largest river of Norway, 
issuing from Lake Auranndfljtt, at th< town of 
Ko'raas, at an altitude of about 2,'tOO f<wt (Man: 
Norway, DO). Tt flows in a gunaral Honthe.rly 
direction past the fortress of Kongsvingor, omp- 



OLONOItf 

tying into the Skager Rack at Fredrikstad, after 
a course of 350 miles. Its most important afflu- 
ent is the Vormen. The Glommen forms a num- 
ber of lakes and several waterfalls, which 
greatly detract from its usefulness as a naviga- 
ble waterway. Boats ascend to the last water- 
fall, about 10 miles from the mouth of the 
river, and above this fall the river is navigable 
for about 20 miles. 

GLONOIN, glon'6-In. See NITBOGLYCEBIX. 

GLO'BIA TN EXCEL'SIS (Lat., Glory be 
to God on high). The first words and the title 
of one of the oldest Christian doxologies, East- 
ern in origin and in use for more than 1500 
years. In the English church and American 
churches it forms part of the communion office 
and is a substitute for the Gloria Patri after 
the Psalter. See DOXOLOGY. 

GLO'RIAITA. The "Faerie Queene" in Spen- 
ser's famous poem of that name, for whose 
honor the various combats against vice are un- 
dertaken, and who is Prince Arthur's fated 
bride. She shadows forth Queen Elizabeth in 
her capacity of sovereign. 

GLO'BIA PA'TRI (Lat., Glory be to the 
Father). The minor doxology in the Christian 
Church. It is used after the selections from 
the Psalter and at the end of the anthems. 

GLORIETTA, BATTLE OF. One of the most 
important battles fought in the West during 
the American Civil War. The Union forces, 
composed of the First Colorado Volunteers 
and some New Mexico Regulars, under Colonel 
Slough, met the Confederates under Major 
Pyron at Apache Caflon, near Santa Fe, on 
March 22, 1802. The battle was indecisive, both 
sides withdrawing from the field. On March 28, 
however, the two forces met again at the same 
place. The Federal command, by previously 
destroying the ammunition, baggage, and provi- 
sions of the Confederates, completely routed 
them, and they were compelled to fall back on 
their base at Santa Fe. The North lost 71 killed 
and wounded and the South 96. In Southern re- 
ports this battle is called Glorietta, In Northern 
reports Apache Cafion. It practically put an end 
to the only serious attempt the Confederates 
made to invade the West. Consult Battles and 
Leaders of the Civil War, ed. by Johnson and 
Buel (New York, 1887-88). 

GLOBIOTJS VIBGENT, or SAINT MARY TUB 
GLORIOUS. An order of knighthood, founded 
early in the thirteenth century, and approved 
by Pope Urban IV in 1262. This institution 
was ecclesiastical as well as military, and its 
objects were the protection of widows and or- 
phans and the furtherance of the peace of Italy 
by the suppression of the strife between Guelphs 
and Ghibcllines. The badge was a red cross 
surmounted by two stars, and the costume a 
white mantle. The members were not obliged 
to take the vow of celibacy or live in monas- 
teries; consequently they were called Gaudenti 
(or Joyful) and this is the name by which 
they are best known. The order was suppressed 
towards the end of the sixteenth century. The 
Order of St. Mary the Glorious, at Rome, was 
sanctioned by Paul V in 1618. Its object was 
to suppress the Barbary corsairs who infested 
the Mediterranean. To make the order effec- 
tive, the Pope gave the knights command of his 
galleys and set apart the town and harbor of 
Civitavecchia for their use. Consult Ashmole, 
History of the Most Nolle Order of the Garter 
(London, 1715). 



47 



GLOSSITIS 



GLOBY, IN METEOROLOGY. See HALO. 
GLOSS (from Lat. glossa, gloss, Gk. 
gldssa, tongue). A brief note or explanation 
written upon the margin or between the lines of 
a manuscript by some reader. In subsequent 
copyings such glosses often became incorporated 
as a part of the text. The object was generally 
to explain some verbal difficulty. From an 
early period these difficulties were the object of 
attention, and the writers who devoted them- 
selves to their elucidation were called glossa- 
toreff, and their works glossaria. The principal 
Greek glossatorcs are Hesychius of Alexandria 
(fourth century), Photius (q.v.), Zonaras 
(twelfth century), Suidas I q.v.), and Favori- 
nus, a Benedictine (died 1537). Their works 
are lexicons of difficult words. Most of the 
rabbinical writers did the same work for the 
Hebrew text of the Old Testament. The chief 
glossatores of the Latin Vulgate are the cele- 
brated Walafrid Strabo (q.v.), in the ninth 
century, author of the Glossa Orduiaria, and 
Anselm of Laon, author of the Glossa Inter- 
lineariSf who continued Walafrid's work in the 
twelfth century. Their work was the great 
storehouse of mediaeval exegesis. It was printed 
with the Latin text in an edition of the Vulgate 
in 1480. In Roman and canon law the practice 
of introducing glosses was of early origin and 
probably was in imitation of the biblical glosses. 
Among jurists the gloss was not purely verbal, 
but had to dp with the true interpretation of 
the law, and in some cases it was held to be of 
equal authority with the text itself. From the 
position which it occupied in the manuscript, 
being generally written between the lines of the 
text, it was called glossa interlinear is. The 
gloss of the Roman law ,is written in very pure 
Latin, that of the canon law in the Latinity of 
the mediaeval schools. The first collection of 
glosses to the canon law was made by Johannes 
Semeca (Teutonicus) in 1212. It accompanied 
the Dccretum Gratiani and was printed in con- 
nection with it (Lyons, 1584). Other divisions 
for the Corpus Juris Canonic I also had glosses, 
and they are given in the edition mentioned 
above. The term is also used in textual criti- 
cism of the Bible for brief readings suspected 
to be added to the original text for explanatory 
purposes, written first on the margin and later 
incorporated into the text. 

GLOSSARY. See DICTIONARY. 

GLOSSITIS (Neo-Lat., from Gk. 7\cr(ra, 
glSssa, tongue) . A term used in designating in- 
flammatory diseases of the tongue. Glossitis su- 
pcrficialis simplea occurs with groat frequency 
in febrile and digestive disorders accompanied 
by "coated tongue" or "strawberry tongue." 
Chronic superficial glossitis occurs often in hy- 
pochondriacs, especially in women; the tongue 
burns, is painful, especially during eating or 
speaking, and is dotted with red spots and 
white nodules. It may last for years, with 
intermissions of weeks or months. Treatment 
with nitrate of silver or lactic acid ia palliative. 
A similar condition (Leucoplakia luccalis), also 
known as psoriasis or ichthyosis of the tongue, 
or smoker's patches, may result from syphilis, 
the irritation of roughened teeth, excessive 
smoking, and indigestion. The disease tends to 
become malignant. Hairy tongue is a rare 
glossitis in which, surrounding a smooth, yellow, 
brown, or black area, the papillae are smaller 
and resemble bristles. "The treatment consists 
in scraping and the application of antiseptics. 



GLOSSOP A 

In "geographical tongue" bright red plaques ap- 
pear, slightly elevated and circumscribed by a 
gray marginal zone. The forms of the maps 
change frequently. The trouble generally dis- 
appears \vithout treatment. Acute papular 
glossitis ia extremely rare. In acute diffuse 
glossitis, or abscess of the tongue, the latter 
becomes enormously swollen, and the chief dan- 
gers of the attack 'are suffocation from swelling 
of the parts about the hyoid bone, closure 
thereby of the glottis (see LAEYXX), and gen- 
eral infection. The only effective treatment is 
to make deep incisions "into the inflamed part. 
With a straight bistoury several incisions are 
made lengthwise sufficiently deep to evacuate 
the pus. A good deal of blood will usually fol- 
low, but if care has been taken not to injure 
the lingual arteiy or its branches (see TONGUE), 
there is no real danger from this cause. Glos- 
sitis is also caused by mercury during mercu- 
rial stomatitis, by syphilis, tuberculosis, and 
aetinomycosis. 

G-LOS'SOP. A market town and municipal 
borough in Derbyshire, England, 13 miles east- 
southeast of Manchester (Map: England, E 3). 
The town consists of Old Town ( Glossop proper ) , 
Howard Town (Glossop Dale), and Mill Town. 
It is situated on rising ground above the deep 
Dinting valley, where a 2000-foot railway bridge 
spans it. It is the chief seat of the cotton manu- 
facture of Derbyshire, and has woolen, cotton, 
and paper mills, dye works, print fields, and 
iron foundries. The parish church of All Saints, 
Victoria Hall with a public library, the gram- 
mar school, mechanics' institute, and the town 
hall and market house are the principal build- 
ings. The town maintains a public park, a hos- 
pital, and public batlua. Melandra as tic, the 
site of a Roman camp, is near. Pop. ( borough ) , 
1901, 21,526; 1011, 21,688. 

CKLOSSOPTERIS (Neo-Lat,, from Gk. y\<r<ra, 
gWssa, tongue + irrepLs, pteris, fern). A fossil 
fern of the family Tomiopteridoc, which is an 
important index fossil of certain Pcnniau- 
Triassic beds of India, Australia, South Africa, 
and South America, known as the Gondwana 
series. This fern has thick leaves of liuguate 
form, with entire margin, median rib, and anas- 
tomosing veins. 

GLOSTER, or G-LOTTOESTEB, gloVter, 
EAUL OP. The father of Edgar and of the bas- 
tard Edmund, in Shakespeare's King how. lie 
is deceived and betrayed by his illegitimate 1 son, 
blinded by Cornwall, and guided through the 
country and saved from, springing over Dover 
Cliff by the heir, whom he had unjustly disowned. 
The story is taken from Sidney's Arcadia. 

GLOTTIS. See LABYNX. 

GLOUCESTER, gl6s't5r (AS. (tltowceaster, 
fair city, Lat. Qleoum, Claudia). An inland 
port, city, and county borough, the county town 
of Gloucestershire, England, on the left bank 
of the Severn, 33 miles northeast of Bristol 
(Map: England, D 6). The city is built on a 
slight declivity, sloping to the Severn, and is 
sheltered by the surrounding Cotttwolds and 
Malvern Hills. The modern portion is in the 
neighborhood of the public park and spa, which 
contains the chalybeate spring,' discovered in 
1814. The four main streets, named after their 
orientation, are wide, and built on the ancient 
Roman ground plan, meeting at right angles in 
the centre of the town, where the former town 
hall, the historic Tolsey, stands at the inter- 
section, on the site of the old Roman Capitol. 



8 GLOUCESTER 

Other buildings and objects of interest are the 
picturesque deanery, formerly the old priory 
lodge; the New Inn, a pilgrim's hostelry, built 
in lf>40; the episcopal palace; the. now guildhall; 
and many quaintly gabled timbered houses. A 
CTOSS marks the spot where Bishop Hooper was 
burned. The principal building in Gloucester is 
the cathedral, the foundation of which dates 
from the eleventh century. Formerly a Bene- 
dictine abbey, skillful alterations and additions 
evolved from the Norman body a fine building 
in various styles of Gothic, which in 1541, after 
the suppression of monasteries, was convert**! 
into a cathedral by Henry VIII. The chief ex- 
ternal ornament is the stately central tower, 225 
feet high, with its beautiful tracery and pinna- 
cles. It contains the "Great Peter" bell, weigh- 
ing over three tons. The cathedral was restored 
between 1873 and 1890 and in 1897. Gloucester 
has three endowed ancient schools, in addition 
to several modern schools. It has an important 
municipal record; it received special charters 
from several monarchy and in 1483 was incor- 
porated by Richard HI, who made it a county 
in itself. It is governed by a mayor, 10 aldor- 
nien, and 30 councilors. It owns its markets, 
water works, cemetery, public baths, technical 
schools, public library, electric-lighting supply, 
and dust-destructor works. It has manufuc!- 
tures of railway cars, engines, agricultural im- 
plements, and cutlery. There are boat and ship 
building yards, foundries, Hour and saw mills, 
and chemical, rope, match, marble, and slate 
works. Bell founding and cloth and pin manu- 
factures were once important industries which 
no longer exist. A ship canal, 17 miles long, 
communicating with the estuary of the Severn 
below Sharpness Point, gives access to the. spa- 
cious docks. The famous bore or tidal wave of 
the Severn attains its greatest height just be- 
fore reaching Gloucester. Considerable com- 
merce is carried on with the, Baltic and other 
foreign ports; corn, timber, wines, and spirits 
are imported; iron and coal, bricks, pottery, 
milt, malt, and agricultural products are ex- 
ported. Gloucester is the seat of an American 
consul. Pop., 1801, 41,303; 1901, 47,955; 191 K 
5(),0, 4 55; area, 2318 acros. 

Gloucester was an important Saxon town, 
styled by Ucde. "one of the noblest cities in the 
land." It sulFeml greatly during the period of 
the Danish incursions. It was a favorite resi- 
dence of the Norman kings and WIIH the seat 
of eight parliaments. Gloucester afforded a 
rc.fugo and support to Queen Matilda in her 
contest with Stephen, and Henry HF, who "loved 
Gloucester better than London," wan crowned In 
tho abbey, hi 104.'t Gloucester HuecutHHfulIy re- 
sisted the royal army under Charles T until 
relieved by Itasex, and at tho Restoration its 
forti flcationn were dismantled for thin "malig- 
nity.' 1 Robert of Gloucester, the metrical his- 
torian, Whitcficld, and Whoatstone arc among 
Gloucester's celebrities. Consult: l^osbroke, 
Original- //httorjf of the tiily of 
(London, 1S19) Masse, Tlw Oathwlml 
of aiovmtpr (Ib., 1HOH); Victoria Iliuton/ of 
the Counties of Mnytatut, vol. ii (ib., 1007)* 

GKLOTTCESTEIt. A city in MHHW Co., Mas**,, 
including th villages of AmuH(|Um, Hay Viwv, 
East Gloucester, Freshwater (love, Laiiertville, 
Magnolia, JRiverdale, and West Glotwenter, ite 
miles northeast of Bonton, on MaHwieluwelte 
Bay, on Cape Ann, and on the Uoston and Malm* 
Railroad (Map: Massachusetts K 2). It !M a 




a: 
o 

LU 

X 

o 



to 

UJ 

O 

2 

a 



GLOUCESTER 

popular resort for summer residents, artists, 
and tourists, and has the Gilbert Hospital, Home 
for Aged Fishermen, Huntress Home, Magnolia, 
public, and Sawyer free libraries, and Stage 
Fort, Marine, and other parks. The city is the 
seat of the largest fishery interests in the United 
States, over 5000 men being engaged in the cod 
and mackerel fisheries. There is a large, ac- 
cessible, and safe harbor, and salt, coal, and 
lumber are extensively imported. Besides the 
fisheries and the quarrying of granite, the prin- 
cipal industries are shipbuilding, drop forging, 
brass founding, and the manufacture of fish 
glue, anchors, machinery, oil clothing, dresses, 
hardware, hosiery, shoes, nets and twine, sails, 
and cigars. In 1623 a company from Dorchester, 
England, settled at Gloucester, but three years 
later a portion of the settlers removed to N'aum- 
keag (Salem). The permanent settlement dates 
from about 1C33, and a town charter was 
granted in 1042. It was not until the begin- 
ning of the eighteenth century that Gloucester 
became especially prominent for its fisheries and 
its shipbuilding industries. Many privateers 
were sent out during the Revolution and the 
War of 1812, and the town waa unsuccessfully 
attacked by the English in 1775. Near by is 
the large sunken rock called Norman's Woe, 
rendered famous by Longfellow's ''The Wreck 
of the Hesperus." Gloucester was incorporated 
as a city in 1873 and adopted the commission 
form of government in 1908. The city owns and 
operates its water works. Pop., 1900, 20,121; 
1010, 24,398; 1020, 22,947. Consult J. JL Babson, 
History of Gloucester (Gloucester, 1800, hupp. 
1870), and J. R. Pringle, History of the Town 
and City of Gloucester, Ifl23-190& (ib., n. d.). 

GLOUCESTER, DUKES AND EAKLS OF. 
ROBEBT, first Earl of Gloucester (?-1147), 
was a natural son of King Henry I and the 
huwband of Mabel of Gloucester. As the cham- 
pion of the cause of his sister Matilda, he won 
the famous battle of Lincoln (1141) over 
Stephen of Blois. RICHABD DE CLARE (1222-02), 
seventh Earl, was active on the side of the 
barons under Henry III, quarreled with Simon 
de Montfort in 1239, but had made up with him 
in 1201. GILBERT, eighth Earl, surnamed the 
"Red" (1243-95), was one of the principal lead- 
ers of the barons in their conflict with Henry 
III, but afterward joined the royal cause, and 
was Regent during the absence of Edward I. 
GILBERT, ninth Earl ( ?-1314), a son of the pre- 
ceding and of the daughter of Edward I, was 
leader of the advance guard at the battle of 
Bannockburn, in which he fell. The line soon 
afterward became extinct, but was renewed in 
THOMAS OOF WOODSTOCK, Earl of Buckingham 
(1355-97), the youngest son of Edward III, 
who was made Duke of Gloucester by his uncle, 
Richard II, in 1385, and who later acquired an 
extraordinary political influence and dominated 
the affairs of England. Among the later con- 
spicuous representatives of the title were 
HUMPHREY, Duke of Gloucester, the youngest 
son of Henry IV (1391-1447), who was Pro- 
tector during the minority of Henry VI; RICH- 
ARD, brother of King Edward IV, and King of 
England as Richard III ; WILLIAM HENRY ( 1734- 
1805), a brother of George III; and WILLIAM 
PBEDERICK (1776-1854), a son of the preceding. 
Consult Vickers, Humphrey ', Duke of Gloucester 
(London, 1907). 

GLOUCESTER CITY. A city in Camden 
Co., "N. J., 1 mile south of Camden, on the Dela- 



49 



GLOVE 



ware River, opposite Philadelphia, with \vhich 
it is connected by ferry, and on the Atlantic 
City and the Pennsylvania railroads (Map: 
New Jersey, 13 4 ) . It has manufactures of in- 
candescent gas burners, Smyrna rugs, woolen 
yarns, boats, drills, paper, etc. Settled in 1677, 
Gloucester City was incorporated in 1868 and is 
governed under the charter of that date, which 
provides for a mayor, elected every two years, 
and a uiiicameral council. The city owns and 
operates its water works. Pop., 1900* 6840 ; 1910, 
9402; 1914 (U.S. est.), 10,577; 1920, 12,162. 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE, glos'ter-sher. A 
southwest county of England, bounded by 
Worcester and Warwickshire on the north, 
Oxford on the east, Wiltshire and Somerset on 
the south, and Monmouth and Hereford on the 
went ( Map : England, Do). Area, 1259 square 
miles. Gloucestershire is famous as a dairy 
county and raises large numbers of cattle; its 
cider is also noted. The Forest of Dean has 
some iron deposits. The manufactures are nu- 
merous, cloth and textiles being important. 
The county contains the parliamentary bor- 
oughs of Cheltenham and Gloucester and part 
of the parliamentary borough of Bristol. Capi- 
tal, Gloucester. Pop., 1901, 708,439; 1911, 736,- 
125. Consult Victoria History of the Counties 
of England, vol. ii (London, 1907), and P. H. 
Ditchfield, Memorials of Old GrloucestersJiire 
(ib., 1911). 

GLOTJSTER, glos'ter. A village in Athens 
Co., Ohio, 15 miles noi-th of Athens, on the Kan- 
awha and Michigan, the Toledo and Ohio Cen- 
tral, and the Zauesville and Western railroads 
(Map: Ohio, G 6). The chief industries are 
coal mining and hrickmaking. The water works 
and elcetric-iight plant are owned by the village. 
Pop.. 1900, 2155; 1910, 2527. 

GLOTJVET, gloo'va', JULES DE. See QUESNAY 

DE BKALWKPUKE, JULES. 

GLOVAT'SKI, ALEXANDER. See GLOWACKT, 

ALEKSAJfDEB. 

GI<OVE (AS. fjldf; perhaps connected with 
Goth, lofa, led. lofi, En#. loof, palm of the 
hand). A covering for the hand having a sepa- 
rate sheath for each finger, as distinguished 
from a mitten, in which there is a separate com- 
partment for the thumb only. The glove is a 
very ancient article of dress. It has been found 
in the relics of the cave dwellers, made of 
leather and sewn with leather thread. Gloves 
were worn, by the ancient Greeks, but chiefly 
as a protection for the hands in doing heavy 
work, rather than as an ornamental part of 
the dress. By the Romans they were worn as 
ornaments and were considered a sign of rank. 
While something in the form of a protection 
for the hands from cold must always have 
been needed by northern nations, gloves did 
not become an important article of dress until 
after the Normau Conquest. It is thought that 
the custom of carrying a pet falcon upon the 
wrist led to their general use. During the 
eighth and ninth centuries they were worn 
chiefly by persons of noble birth. Hence they 
were considered a sign of rank and were taken 
off, as a token of reapect, before a superior or 
in churches. They were worn in the hat as 
favors and cast clown as a challenge. By the 
sixteenth century gloves were worn by all classes, 
and then, as now, were made of silk, worsted, 
and leather. Those worn by the wealthy were 
most elaborately ornamented with embroidery 
and lace. As early as 1190 a guild of glove 



GLOVE 

makers was formed in France, which took upon 
itself the task of maintaining honest workman- 
ship among glove makers and in introducing 
constant improvements in methods of manufac- 
ture. In Scotland the glovers of Perth were in- 
corporated in lltio. Nearly five^ centuries later 
a company of glovers was organized in London, 
and that city has been an important centre of 
glove manufacture ever since. At one time 
glove making was an important industry in 
Ireland, and the famous "Limerick" glove was 
widely esteemed for its exquisite texture and 
workmanship. For many centuries France has 
excelled in the number and quality of gloves 
manufactured in some of her cities. 

Glove Manufacturing in the United States. 
The manufacture of leather gloves in the United 
States is said to date back to the days of Sir 
William Johnson in New York State. In 17CO 
he induced several families of glove makers from 
Scotland to settle on his grants, who brought 
over with them their glove patterns, and the 
necessary needles and thread for glove making. 
Gloves continued to be made in this locality, 
and gradually the demand for them spread until 
by 1825 they had found a market in Albany 
and Boston. These early gloves, as compared 
with modern productions, were crude and clumsy. 
They were cut with shears from pasteboard 
patterns, the cutting being usually clone by men 
and the sewing by women. Later, dies were in- 
troduced for cutting and were a great improve- 
ment. The invention of the sewing machine in 
1852 marked the beginning of a new era in glove 
manufacture, and soon all hand work was super- 
seded. Steam power for running the sewing 
machines was introduced in 1875. From the 
start glove making has been to a largo extent 
a household industry, and it still gives employ- 
ment to a large number of home workers. The 
cutting and the stitching on the backs are done 
at the factories before the gloves are sent out. 

Glove-Making Processes. The term "kid" 
is a mere technicality, as the quantity of leather 
bearing this name yearly consumed is largely 
in excess of what could be supplied from the 
skins of all the young goats that are annually 
slaughtered. Gloves are largely made from 
lambskin. The finest gloves, however, arc, made 
from real kid, derived chiefly from Germany, 
Austria, Sweden, Brazil, Madagascar, Franco, 
and Bavaria. The younger the kid, the thinner, 
finer, and softer the glove. Lambskin is frmgher 
and harder to work than kidskin, but it is said 
that none but an expert can tell the difference 
in their appearance. The so-called dogskin, 
buckskin, and doeskin gloves are made chiefly 
from sheepskin; some of the thickest kinds of 
leather gloves are made from calfskin, Nuddo 
gloves are those in which the inside of the skin 
is used as the outside of the glove, the name be- 
ing derived from the SwediHh manner of making 
up gloves, fllace gloves are made with the out- 
side of the leather retained as the outside of the 
glove. 

The leather in all cases undergoes a much 
lighter dressing than when used for boots and 
shoes. The skin having been freed from hair 
and cleaned, it is prepared for UHO by ono of 
the three processes of dressing tanning, tawing, 
or shamoying described under LEATHER. For 
light dress gloves the skins are usually tawed. 
The leather is next broken or "staked" to render 
it pliable and even in texture. Tt is then col- 
ored, by painting lightly on the outside, two 



So 



GKLOVS 



or three coats, with a brush, so that the inside 
will not be affected by the coloring. White 
gloves are simply undyed gloves. When the dye 
is thoroughly dried, the superfluous color is 
removed and the surface rubbed with a size. 
The gloves are now "doled" ou a marble slab, 
to remove the dirt und irregularities. After the 
leather has been properly prepared the, gloves 
are cut out by means of dies. The die cuts out 
all the parts, including the gussets. A Hingle 
glove consists of from 10 to 10 pieces. The 
large skins are used for ladies' evening gloves, 
but one pair of which can be made from a single 
skin, though ordinarily t\vo pairs of ordinary 
gloves can be made from one skin. The scraps 
that are left, unless the skin was tanned, are 
used for glue. The first and fourth lingers are 
completed by gussets or strips sewed only on 
the inner side, but the second and third fingers 
require guasets on both sides to complete the 
linger. Besides these, small pieces of a diamond 
shape arc sewed in at the bawe of the lingers, 
toward the palm of the hand. The stitching of 
the partd together, ami also the ornamental 
stitching ou the back of the hand, as required 
by fashion, is done by specially made sewing 
machines. The putting ou of the thumb piece 
requires special skill and management,, and 
budly made gloves commonly give way at this 
point. 

Jn the American glove factories there are two 
classes of cutters, the block anil the table cut- 
ters, the former of whom are engaged Hiieily on 
the cheaper grades of gloves. Tim block cutter 
simply cuts out the jJo\v with a die und ham- 
mer, from a akiu which is laid on u block of 
wood. The table cutter tin t dampens hin skin, 
stretches it to the fullest possible extent, and 
cuts oil 1 the length of a glove. He then wtretehcs 
it again and cuts it to width, after which 
lingers are cut to shape with a die. A table- 
cut glove is more elastic? and hence fitu better 
than one cut on the block. The table cutters 
employed in America are. mostly foreigners from 
the glove-manufacturing con ires of Kuropc, and 
many of them conic* from families which for cen- 
turies have been engaged in the glove-making 
industry. To be a good cutter requires not only 
great experience, but natural dexterity and rare 
judgment in selecting leather so as to cut out 
the greatest possible number of glovos and yot 
avoid flawH. 

Gloves not Made from Leather. Tho manu- 
facture- of woven and knit gloves is an entirely 
separate branch of the trade. Sometimes tho 
material is first woven and then cut and made 
up similarly to the leather glovcu, or they may 
bo knit into shape by special knitting machines. 
Statistics. Tho centre of tho glove induntrv 
in the United States is still in Fulton do., N. VM 
in the. vicinity when* Sir William .Johnson 
planted his first colony of glove makers. Of 
the IJ77 glove factories in the United States, in 
100$), as reported in the ThirliHibth fftw/tf, 
Manuf&otum (IJ)ltt), 225 were in the Shite of 
New York, 150 being in Pulton County, which 
supplied 54.7 per cent of tho total product. Itw 
two principal cities, Oloversvillc and JoImHtown, 
reported 87 and 54 establ tollmen fa roupwiively. 
The remaining cKtabliahmontH aro scattered over 
the entire country. These 377 establishments 
represented a combined capital of $1(1,908,071, 
and they turn out an annual product valued at 
,$23,030,398. This business has whown a steady 
growth since 1850, when the first eiwrnm report 



GLOVE 5 

of the industry was published. At that time 
there were already 110 glove factories in the 
country, with a capital of $181,200 and an an- 
nual product of $708,184. Of the 3,368,655 
dozen pairs manufactured in 1909, all but 782,678 
dozen pairs were men's gloves, as the liner grades 
of women's gloves are still chiefly produced in 
Europe. In 1913 the imports of gloves into the 
United States were valued at $7,691,927. 

Consult: Beck, Gloves: Their Annals and As- 
sociations (London, 1883) ; Frothingham, His- 
tory of Fulton County, 2\ T . Y. (Syracuse, 1892) ; 
Cote, TJ Industrie gantierc a Grenoble (Paris, 
1003); PAttger, Die Lcdcrhaitdschuindustrie 
Dcutschlands (Heidelberg, 1908) ; Redmond, 
The Leather Glove Industry in the United States 
(New York, 1913); "Leather Glove and Mit- 
ton Industry," vol. x, Manufactures: Thirteenth 
United States Census (Washington, 1913). 

GLOVE, THE. A story originally told (about 
1550) by Pierre Bonsard, and later variously 
adapted by Schiller, Leigh Hunt, and Brown- 
ing. It tells of a lady who tosses her glove 
into a lion's den and commands her lover to 
fetch it back. He springs down and, returning 
unharmed, hurls it in her face in scorn at her 
capricious cruelty. 

GLOVER, JOHN (1732-97). An American 
soldier, prominent in the Revolutionary War, 
born in Salem, Mass. He removed to JMarble- 
head when very young, was a shoemaker for a 
time, and then engaged in the fishing business. 
In February, 1773, he was chosen colonel of a 
militia regiment which upon the outbreak of 
the Revolution became a part of the continental 
army, as the Fourteenth Regiment, better known 
as the "Marine Regiment." On Oct. 4, 1775, 
he was placed in charge, with Stephen Moylan, 
of the equipment and maiming of armed ves- 
sels and cruisers designed for service against tho 
British, and until July, 177G, was stationed at 
Beverly, Mass. He then was ordered to New 
York, and on the night of August 28-29, after 
the battle of Long Island, conducted the trans- 
fer of the American army from Long Island to 
New York. He was placed in command of Gen- 
eral Clinton's brigade on September 4, took part 
in the battle of White Plains, and on December 
25 manned the boats in which Washington and 
his army effected the passage of tho Delaware 
beforo the attack upon Trenton. On Feb. 21, 
1777, he was appointed brigadier general by 
the Continental Congress and afterward took 
an active part in the campaign against Bur- 
goyne; was placed in charge ( of the British 
prisoners on their march from Saratoga to Cam- 
bridge; took part in General Sullivan's Rhode 
Island expedition in July and August, 1778; 
was a member of the court which tried Major 
Andre* and was officer of the day when Andrd 
watt executed; and in July, 1782, was retired 
on half pay. He returned to Marblehead and 
Boems for a time to have worked as a cobbler 
again. In 1788 he was a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Convention which ratified the Federal 
Constitution. His orderly hooks and a letter 
book containing his Revolutionary correspond- 
once are in the possession of the Essex Insti- 
tute at Salem, Mass. Consult Upham, A Me- 
moir of General John Glover of Marblehead (Sa- 
lom, ISO;]), and Sanborn, Gen. Glover and his 
Mdrblehead Regiment (Marblehead, 1003). 

GLOVER, JOHN (1767-1849). An English 
landscape painter, born in Leicestershire. He 
was self-taught in art, having been master of 



I GLOVERSVILLE 

the Appleby Free School from 1780 to 1794. 
He went to London in 1805 and joined the 
Water-Color Society, of which he became presi- 
dent in 1815. He received a gold medal at the 
Paris Exhibition in 1814, and in 1823 he took 
a prominent part in the foundation of the So- 
ciety of British Artists. He went to Australia 
in 1831 and sent to England his sketches of 
native scenery, until his death in Tasmania. 
Glover waa one of the earliest founders of the 
modern landscape school and of the English 
water-color school. He was an artist of some 
skill and originality, especially skillful in aerial 
perspective, but his* work became mannered. He 
also painted in oils, but not with equal success. 
Among his water colors are views of "Tivoli," 
"Windsor Castle, 11 and a "River Scene/' in the 
South Kensington Museum. One of his best oil 
paintings is a "Landscape with Cattle/' 1 in the 
British Museum. 

GLOVER, MBS. JULIA EETTEBTOW (1779- 
1850). An English actress, born at Newry. The 
daughter of an actor, she began to play juvenile 
parts about 1789. In 1795 she made her formal 
de*but as Marianne, in Revnolds's Dramatist. 
Her repertoire included Lydia Languish, Widow 
Green in The Lore Chase, and the Queen in 
Richard III. Her last appearance on the stage 
was as Mrs. Malaprop, at Drury Lane only a 
few days before her death, July 16, 1850. Re- 
markable for her memory, she was during her 
middle life considered the host comic actress of 
the time and in later years was styled the 
"Mother of the Stage." Consult the memoir by 
Mrs. Wilson in Our Actresses, vol. ii (London, 
1844), and Cook, Hours urith the Players (ib., 
1881). 

GLOVER, RIOHABD (1712-85). An English 
poet. He was the son of a London merchant, 
and after attending school at Cheam, in Surrey, 
he entered his father's business. In 1762-68 he 
sat in Parliament for Weymouth. Though he 
never attended either university, he acquired, it 
is said, a good knowledge of Greek. Be that as 
it may, most of his poems arc founded on Greek 
subjects. In 1737 appeared his Leonidas, an 
epic in blank verse running through nine books, 
subsequently (1770) extended to 12 books. 
Onco popular, the poem is no longer read. Its 
sequel, the Athenaid (30 hooks, 1787), it is hard 
to believe any one ever read. He wrote sev- 
eral heavy tragedies: Boadicca (1753), Medea 
(1761), and Jason (1709). His fame now rests 
upon the spirited "Ballad of Admiral Hosier's 
Ghost," founded on Hosier 's disastrous expedi- 
tion to Porto Bello (1726). For his poems con- 
sult Chalmers, Works of the English Poets, vol. 
xvii (London, 1810). 

GLOVOSiRSVXLLB. A city in Fulton Co., 
N. Y., 54 miles northwest of Albany, on the 
Fonda, Johnstown, and Gloversville Railroad, 
and on the Erie Canal (Map: New York, F 4). 
It has a Carnegie library, Federal building, and 
the Nathan Littauer Hospital. Gloversville is 
the principal seat of the manufacture of gloves 
in the United States, its factories with those of 
the neighboring city of Johnstown controlling 
a large proportion of the entire production of 
the country- Besides gloves and mittens, there 
are extensive manufactures of glove and shoe 
leather, pocketbooks, and leather novelties. 
Settled during or just before the Revolution, 
Gloversville was known as Stump City from 
1836 to 1832, when it received its present name. 
It waa incorporated as a village in 1851 and 



GLOVE SPONGE 52 

was chartered as a city in 1890. The govern- 
ment, under the revised charter of 1809, is ad- 
ministered by a mayor, elected biennially, and a 
council which confirms the executive's appoint- 
ments to the Board of Health and olects all 
other officers, except standing committees, boards 
of civil service and plumbing, which are ap- 
pointed by the mayor. The boards of education mid 
water commissioners are 'chosen by tlic people. 
The city owns and operates its water works 
and sewage system. Top., 1000, 18,340; 1!)1Q, 
20,042; 1914 *(U. S. est.), 21,618; 1920, 22,075. 

GLOVE SPONGE, or FIWGEB SPONGE (so 
called from the branching shape),. An inferior 
sort of commercial sponge (Spon'gia offidnalis) 
which takes a bushy form, sometimes 2 feet 
high. It grows on hard bottoms all along the 
coast of Florida and Bermuda and is regarded 
as the poorest kind gathered, although closely 
related to the finest sort of sponge. See SPONGE. 

GLOWACKI, gto-vitts'kS, ALEKSANDEH (1847- 
1912). A famous Polish writer, best known by 
his pseudonym "Boleslav Prus," under which he 
contributed popular feuilletons to the Warsaw 
Courier and the Illustrated Weekly. Collec- 
tions of Ms works appeared under the titles 
Tales (1881), Sketches and Portraits (1885- 
86), Early Tales (1890), and in a complete edi- 
tion in 1897. In his tales the humorous and 
lifelike portraits of children, peasants, and ani- 
mals are peculiarly excellent. The best-known 
series of tales is Placowka (The Sentry), which 
deals with the national and economic conflict be- 
tween the enterprising German colonists and 
the stubborn Polish peasant Slimak (Snail). 
The Doll ( 1891 ) is perhaps the most important 
of his novels, while The Emancipated Women is 
somewhat marred by mysticism. Among his 
last works was a novel entitled The Children 
(1909). His Faraon was translated into Eng- 
lish as The Pharaoh and the Priest (Boston, 
1902). His humor conceals a deep sympathy 
for the unfortunate, to which is added a mas- 
terful power of character analysis. Consult 
Konstanty Wojciechowski, Boleslaw Prus (Cra- 
cow, 1913). 

GLOWWORM. See FDHEFLY. 

GLTT'CASE (from Gk. T^tfJs, fflytys, sweet). 
An enzyme also known as maltase, found in 
various species of yeasts, in some molds, and 
probably also in the seeds of germinating barley 
and other cereals. It is also found in various 
parts of animal bodies. The glucase prepared 
from cereals differs somewhat in its action from 
that obtained from fungi; the latter acts best 
at a temperature of 40 C., and the former is 
most active at 57-60 C. Glucase acts upon 
maltose, hydrolyzing it into two molecules of 
glucose. It has also been found to decompose 
certain glucosides. See DIGESTION* IN PLANTS. 

GLTTCFNTTM (Neo-Lat., from Gk. y\vjc6s 9 
fflykys, sweet), or BiatrixitrM. A metallic 
chemical element discovered by Wtfhler in 1828. 
It is not found native, but occurs as a constit- 
uent of various minerals, such as beryl, chryso- 
beryl, and phenacite. Its existence as an oxide 
was recognized in beryl in 1798 by Vauquelin, 
but it was not until WBhler obtained the im- 
pure metal by the action of potassium on fused 
glucinum chloride that the element itself may 
be said to have been isolated. 

Glucinum (symbol, Gl or Be; atomic weight, 
9.1) is a steel-colored, malleable metal that has 
a specific gravity of 1.93, and its melting point 
is about 1400 C. (about 2000 F.). ft U 



GLUCK 



divalent and combines with oxygen, forming 
glucinum oxide, or (jltic'ma, <J1O, a win to infusible 
powder with a sweetitth taste. However, on the 
basis of the composition of ita organic coin- 
pounds, Tanatar considers glucinum as a quad- 
rivalent element. With copper iincl certain other 
metals glucinum forms alloys that have valuable* 
properties; thus, a small percentage of glucinum 
renders copper SOIIOVOUH ; tin alloy of 95 per cent 
copper and 5 per cent gluc.imzui is malleable, 
takes a polish,- and is not affected by the air. 

GLTTCK, gink, ALMA (1880- ), An Amer- 
ican dramatic soprano, born at Bucharest, May 
11, 1S80. Her parents brought her as a child of 
five to New York. A gentleman who heard her 
sing was so niuc.h struck with the quality of hoi- 
voice that he advined her to have it cultivated. 
Without any thought of a professional career 
she studied with BiiZ7.i-Foc.cia in New York from 
1900 to 1909. In the latter year her teacher 
induced her to sing for Mr. Gatti-Casaxssa, the 
director of the Metropolitan Opera House, who 
immediately offered her an engagement. She 
accepted, and made her debut as Sophie in Mas- 
senet's Werther in November, 1909. During 
that first season she sang 11 different rOles and 
instantly became a prime favorite with tho pub- 
lic. At the same time she also appeared fre- 
quently in recitals with such success that she 
practically withdrew from the stage. In 1912 
ahe went to Berlin and studied for one year 
under Madame Sembrich (q.v.). In 1914* she 
married the violinist Kfrcm Zimbalist (q.v.). 

GLtfCK, gluk, CHRISTIAN FKIKDRIOII vox 
(1755-1831). A German jurist, born and edu- 
cated at Halle. In 1784 he became professor 
of law in the University of Jflrlangon, Bavaria. 
Ifis principal works are AitsfiMirliahc. Krlfintti- 
rung der Pandekten (34 vola., 1790-1830; con- 
tinued by other scholars, 1832-93), which WUH 
begun to supplement Hellfeld's ElMnwita juritt 
cimlifi (1728), and Handbuch SHIM #i/fitctna- 
tisoJicn Ktudiuni dcs ncuoslcn rQviiuQhcn, Pri- 
wired* te (1812). 

GLXTCK, CiiBiSTOPir WI&UBALD (1714-87). 
A famous Gorman composer and operatic ro- 
formor. He was born July 2, 1714, at Woidon- 
wang, in the Upper Palatinate, whe.ro IUB father 
was forester to Prince Kugone of Savoy, and 
later to Prince JLobkowitss at Kteenberg. From 
1726 to 1732 this boy attended a Jesuit seminary 
at Komotau, where ho wa taught singing, violin, 
cello, and organ. In the latter year ho wont to 
Prague to continue hits musical studies and wan 
compelled to eke out a livelihood by playing in 
the neighboring villages. While there, ho hoard 
and stored away in his memory many rustic 
tunes which later did norvicio in hi operas. 
Czernohorsky, noting his aptitude, took him 
as a pupil. In 1730 he went to Vienna, where, 
through the good offices of the Lobkowite family, 
ho met Prince MTelzi, The latter became deeply 
interested in the young musician and took him 
to Milan, where Gluck continued his technical 
studies with Sammartini. 

Gluck was 27 years old when his ft rat opera, 
Artaserse, was produced at La Reala. Artawrtw 
led to commissions for other works, and within 
five years Qluck produced eight operas. H'IH 
fame having reached England, ho went to Lon- 
don in 1745 at the invitation of Lord Middle- 
sex and produced f a caduta de* giyanti in honor 
of the Duke of Cumberland's victoria. The 
time, however, was inauspicious, and Tfa 



GLtTCK 

of the Giants was withdrawn after only five 
performances. The performances of an earlier 
opera, Artamene, were more successful, while 
a pasticcio, Piramo e Tisbe, an opera loosely 
strung together from the best arias of his 
earlier xvorks, met with a complete fiasco. 

In 1748, Gluck's father having died and left 
him a small inheritance, he settled in Vienna, 
which remained his principal place of residence 
for the rest of his life. On May 14, 1748, in cele- 
bration of the Empress's birthday, he produced 
in the recently completed opera house La, Semira- 
mide riconosciuta, which achieved great success. 
Tlio spring of 1749 found the composer in Copen- 
hagen, where he was received with distinction 
and lodged in the royal, palace, and where he 
produced a two-act serenade, Tetide, in honor of 
the recent birth of a Crown Princo (afterward 
Christian VII). In April of the same year he 
traveled in the guise of a Capuchin ( for no other 
reason, it is believed, than to avoid trouble re- 
garding passports) to Rome. There and in 
Naples he brought out a new two-act opera. Tele- 
macco, ossia VIsola di Oirce t which was attended 
with his usual success. 

Shortly afterward Gluck returned to Vienna, 
where, in September, 1750, he married Marianne 
Pergin. They soon loft Vienna for Naples, 
where he achieved great success with his opera 
La clem&nsa di Tito. In 1754, having produced, 
and again successfully, two operas, II Trionfo 
di Gamill o and Antigone, in Rome, the Pope 
created him Chevalier of the Golden Spur, and 
thereafter the composer, who set great store by 
this title, was always careful to call himself 
Ritter von Gluck. Previous to this visit to 
Rome he had been appointed by Count Durazzo 
conductor of the Opera at Vienna. His produc- 
tivity in this office was great, including the com- 
position of light operas whose librettos Durazzo 
secured frpm Paris, where they were brought out 
with music usually by Duni and Monsigny, while 
the Viennese heard the same librettos with 
music by Gluck. Meanwhile Gluck was growing 
steadily in intellectual breadth. He became 
more and more dissatisfied with the flippant con- 
ventionalities of the Italian opera of the day, 
though he himself had composed an appalling 
number of works in that style. About 1760 he 
met Ranierp di Calzabigi, a real poet, who held 
very decided views as to the possibilities of 
music when wedded to a real drama. It was he 
who furnished Gluck with the libretto to Orfco 
ed fiuridice, the* first of the "reform" operas, 
produced in Vienna, Oct. 5, 1762. This, his first 
great opera, is still a famous work. Though not 
immediately successful, Orfeo soon established 
itself in popular favor, not only in Vienna, but 
also in Italy, where, at Parma, Traetta was 
unable to obtain a hearing for his Armida be- 
cause every one wanted to hear Orfco. G luck's 
other operas in his great style are Alocste ( 1767 ) , 
Paride ed Elena (17G9) (both on texts by Cal- 
zabigi), IpMgdnie en Aulide (Paris, 1774), 
Awnide (1777), and IpMgonic en Tauride 
(1779). 

The production of Iphigvnie en AitJide in 
Paris was an important event in Gluck's life. 
It led to the hotly waged and now historic con- 
test between the operatic reformers headed by 
Gluck and those who championed the existing 
style of opera. The latter put forward Piccini 
to oppose Gluck, but Gluck was overwhelmingly 
victorious. In 1780 he returned to Viorina, but 
ill health prevented him from accomplishing 



53 



GLUCOSE 



anything of importance, and he died in that city, 
Nov. 15, 1787. Gluck 's reform of the opera was 
his greatest service to music. He found it 
marred by senseless embellishments, and a mere 
vehicle for the display of singers 5 voices; he left 
operatic music restored to its original purpose 
of expressing musically the meaning of the 
words to which it was composed and of empha- 
sizing the dramatic situation, and in this re- 
form the share of Calzabigi is scarcely less im- 
portant than that of Gluck himself." In two 
prefaces, printed in the scores of Alceste and 
Paride ed Elena, the master explains his views 
in detail. Consult: A. B. Marx, Gluck und die 
Oper (Berlin, 1863); E. Newman, Gluck and 
tlie Opera (London, 1895) ; A. Reissman, Chris- 
toph Willibald von Gluck (Berlin, 1882); J. 
d'Udine, Gluck, biographic critique (Paris, 
1906) ; J. Tiersot, Gluok (ib., 1910). 

GLtfaKSBERG, DUKE OF. See DECAZES, L. 

GLttCKSTADT, glyk'shtat. A town in the 
Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein, on the 
Elbe, 32 miles below Hamburg (Map: Germany, 
C 2). It is intersected by canals; has a Gym- 
nasium, railway repair shops, shipyards, fruit 
and vegetable canneries, manufactories of furni- 
ture, wagons, mirrors, soaps, shoes, saddlery, 
bricks, cigars, etc. The fisheries are important. 
When the Elbe is icebound the harbor, which is 
large and deep, receives much of the Hamburg 
shipping. Gliickstadt was founded in 1617 by 
Christian IV of Denmark, fortified, and endowed 
with various commercial privileges. During the 
Thirty Years' War it successfully withstood 
three sieges; its fortifications were demolished by 
the allies in 1815. Pop., 1900, 6586; 1910, 6555. 

GIiTT'COSE (from Gk. yXvicfa, glykys, sweet) . 
Glucose is a carbohydrate, and it is customary 
to speak of this simple sugar also as dextrose 
and grape sugar. The latter name is given to 
it on account of its occurrence in the juice of 
the grape and of other ripening fruits and also 
to distinguish it from cane or beet sugar. It is 
also contained in honey. In the vegetable king- 
dom it is widely distributed, where it plays an 
important r61e in the economy of plant life. It 
is also found in the animal body, and the human 
blood may have as much as 0.1 per cent under 
healthy conditions. 

The molecular formula of glucose is CJEIjaOa, 
and it is called a carbohydrate because the mole- 
cule contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, the 
II and being present in the same proportion 
as in water (HaO). 

Glucose can be readily prepared from starch 
by hydrolyzing with dilute sulphuric or hydro- 
chloric acid. It may also be prepared from cel- 
lulose and cane (sucrose), beet (sucrose), milk 
(lactose), or malt (maltose) sugar, but in most 
of these cases other sugars are split off with 
the dextrose. Thus cane or beet sugar when 
treated with an acid or the ferment invertase 
(present in yeast) yields equal parts of glucose 
and levulosc. The name "invert sugar" is given 
to the products of hydrolyzation of cane or beet 
Hugar. Levulosc accompanies dextrose in the 
juice of fruits. 

In appearance chemically pure glucose is 
white, and it is less sweet in taste than cane 
sugar. Unlike cane sugar, it never separates in 
well-defined, clear crystals from either water or 
alcohol. It is usually met with as a crystalline, 
crusty powder. It is very soluble in water and 
less so in ethyl and methyl alcohol, 



GLUCOSE 



54 



Either glucose anhydride or hydrate crystal- 
lizes from strong concentrated aqueous or 
strong alcoholic solutions at temperatures of 
30 to 40 C. and as hydrate from water at 
room temperature. The needle-like crystals of 
the anhydride melt at 140 C. and the hydrate 
at 80 to 100 C. (176 to 200 F.). 

Ghicose deflects the ray of polarized light to 
the right (dextroglucose) and when first polar- 
ized shows a variable rotation (mutarotation), 
which rises or sinks to a constant level after 
a number of hours. Glucose reduces cupric 
hydroxide (mixed Fehling's solution) to copper 
oxide. This fact and the degree of polarization 
are utilized when determining glucose in foods, 
etc. Heating glucose with a decinormal sodium 
hydroxide solution for a number of hours at 
37 C. destroys it. Cane sugar when present in 
the same solution is not decomposed, and this 
constitutes a method for separating cane sugar 
from glucose. By heating glucose at a tempera- 
ture of 170 C. or over, it becomes brownish 
and loses much of its sweetness and is converted 
into glucosan (CeHuA). When heated between 
200 and 220 C., it is converted into caramel, 
a brown coloring matter principally employed 
for coloring artificial vanilla extract, beers, 
whiskies, confectionery, etc. 

On oxidation glucose yields three acids, viz., 
gluconic, glucuronic, and saccharic. Physiologi- 
cally considered, glucuronic acid is the most in- 
teresting because it is frequently found in the 
urine combined with a variety of substances 
and in the sugar beet combined with a resin 
acid. 

Under normal conditions glucose is rapidly 
oxidized in the animal body, to which it fur- 
nishes heat and energy. 

Glucose is fermentable by the zymase con- 
tained in yeast and also by the ferments of some 
molds and bacteria. Before starch, malt, or cane 
sugar can be fermented, it is necessary to con- 
vert the first two into glucose, and cane sugar 
into glucose and levulose. Upon the fermentabil- 
ity of glucose by yeast the manufacture of al- 
cohol, wine, beer, distilled liquors, cider, and 
bread depends. (See BEBB.) Alcohol is not 
always the final product resulting from the fer- 
mentation of glucose, and in many cases lactic 
acid, acetic acid (see VINEGAB), and butyric 
acid are formed. 

Commercial Glucose. The first person to pre- 
pare sugar from grapes was Proust (1800-01) ; 
but, according to Wichelhaus, KirchhoiT must 
be regarded as the real discoverer of the con- 
version of starch into glucose. According to 
Gaissicourt, however, Foureroy and Parmentier 
in 1781 produced sugar from starch, but the 
value of the reaction was not appreciated at 
that time. 

In the United States the term "glucose" to 
the brewer, candy maker, leather manufacturer, 
etc., has come to mean an almost transparent, 
sirupy liquid composed of dextroglucose, maltose, 
dextrin, and water prepared from cornstarch 
by heating with dilute acids. In Europe, espe- 
cially in Germany, the product is usually pre- 
pared from potato starch and takes the name 
of starch sirup. Quite often cornstarch is pre- 
pared in the same establishment where glucose 
is manufactured, and here the two processes 
make up a large industry. 

For the manufacture of glucose from corn, the 
grain is first softened by treatment, for two or 
three days, with water containing a small per- 



GLUCOSE 

centage of sulphurous acid, then coarsely 
ground, and then treated with "starch milk" (a 
mixture of starch and water) of such a density 
that the lighter embryos, or "germs," float on 
the surface, whence they are removed, while the 
heavier parts of the kernels sink to the bottom 
of the liquid. The "germs" arc dviotl and sold 
for stock food after the extraction by hydraulic 
pressure, of the oil they contain. This oil is 
found in commerce under the name of corn oil, 
or maize oil. The parts of the kernel that sink 
are finely ground. The starch is thus sot free, 
so that it can be separated from the ground 
grain by washing on sieves. It is afterward 
purified by successive mixing with water and 
sedimentation, or by % deposition on "starch 
tables," over which the washings from the sieves 
are allowed to How. The starch, which is much 
heavier than water and the impurities from 
which it is to be freed, collect** at the bottom 
of the settling vats in a hard white layer which, 
when drained, is called "green starch" and is 
ready for conversion into glucose. The residue 
retained by the sieves and the nitrogenous 
matter, as 'well as the small amount of starch 
left in the wash waters, are collected, pressed, 
dried, and sold for stock feed. Sec GLUTEN 
MEAL AND GLUTEN FEED. 

For converting the starch into glucose (hy- 
drolysis), sulphuric acid is now very generally 
used. For certain products sulphuric acid in 
mixture with a minute quantity of nitric acid is 
employed. Hydrochloric and oxalic acids are also 
used for this purpose. The operation is con- 
ducted in steam-heated, closed copper "convert- 
ers," under a prcsjmre of two or three atmos- 
pheres (30 to 45 pounds per uquare inch). 
This high pressure greatly lessens the, quantity 
of acid and time necessary for conversion. In 
the case of sulphuric acid from one to three 
pounds are used per 100 pounds of dry starch; 
in the case of hydrochloric acid only one-half 
to three-quarters of a pound of the concentrated 
acid is necessary. The starch is mixed with a 
considerable quantity of water before the acid 
is added; the time required for the eon ver- 
sion varies from 10 to 30 minutes, according to 
the character of the required product. Hy the 
action of the acid the starch is iirst converted 
into dextrin and maltose; by continued treat- 
ment these bodies are changed to dejctrogluc-owe. 
As the liquor conies from the "converter," the 
acid is neutralized with chalk or marble dust, 
if sulphuric acid is used, or with soda if hydro- 
chloric acid is used. Fn tin* former case tlus 
gypsum, or sulphate of lime, formed crystalli/en 
out and is separated by filtration; in the case 
of hydrochloric acid the neutralization product 
is sodium chloride (common salt). This product 
cannot be used for all purposes on account of 
its salty taste. The neutralized liquid is de- 
colorized by filtration through boneblaek and 
concentrated in vacuum evaporator** to form a 
simp. 

Other products manufactured in glucose fac- 
tories from starch are solid snbstaricetj rich in 
dextrose (glucose) and containing a minimal 
amount of dextrin and maltose. These are tho 
so-called grape sugars of commerce, hi manu- 
facturing these products the time required for 
heating with dilute acid is longer than for 
making glucose sirup. Tho products occur in 
the hydrous and anhydrous forms. 

The following analyses of starch sugar prod- 
ucts are taken from Bulletin 66 of the Bureau of 



GKLTTCOSIDE 



55 



Chemistry, United States Department of Agri- 
culture : 

COMPOSITION OF COMMERCIAL GLUCOSE AND 
STARCH SUGAR 



DESCRIPTION 


Water 


Ash 


Dex- 
troae 


Mal- 
tose 


Dex- 
trin 


Neutral glucoee sirup . 
XXX glucose . . . ; 


Perct. 
18.00 
18.31 


Perct. 
.259 
.459 


Perct. 
14.00 
14.53 


Per ct. 
33.40 
38.24 


Perct. 
30.99 
26.53 


70 per cent sugar . . 
80 per cent sugar 
AxJiydrous grape sugar 


18.56 
10.34 
tf.18 


.837 
.790 
.351 


68.71 
79.28 
86.43 


1.79 
.90 
2.02 


2.89 
3.68 
.88 



According to the thirteenth census the amount 
of glucose manufactured during 1909 was 769,- 
660,210 pounds, and its value was $17,922,514. 
The grape sugar manufactured during the same 
year amounted to 159,060,478 pounds and had 
a value of $3,620,816. In 1904 the money value 
for each of these commodities was $12,352,616 
(glucose) and $2,254,745 (grape sugar). 

Among the products of glucose factories those 
of greatest commercial importance are ''mixing 
glucoses" used hy sirup and molasses manipula- 
tors ; "'jelly glucose," used in making jellies from 
evaporated apple juice and other materials; 
''confectioners' glucose" ; "brewers' glucose," used 
as a substitute for malt in brewing; and "an- 
hydrous grape sugar." Well-made glucoses must 
be regarded as a perfectly wholesome product, 
as they are composed of substances of frequent 
and abundant occurrence in foods that have been 
in use from time immemorial, and which are 
similar to the products into which starch is 
normally transformed by the processes of diges- 
tion. The objection to their use in the prepara- 
tion of foods lies mainly in the fact that the 
consumer is frequently misled in regard to the 
value of the commodities containing them, and 
that they are frequently uwed in the fabrication 
of inferior, artificial or highly diluted, or other- 
wise adulterated goods. 

Consult: Wagner, A, Practical Treatise on the 
Manufacture of Starch, Glucose, 8tarc7ir8itgar, 
and Dextrin, translated by Frankel and Hutton 
(Philadelphia, 1881) ; Ilallock, Bibliography of 
Starch-Ruyar (Washington, 1884) ; 0. Hammar- 
sten, A. Text-Book of Physiological Chemistry, 
trans, by J. A. Mandel (New York, 1909) ; 
Thirteenth Census of the United States Taken 
in the Year W1Q: vol. a, Manufactures, 1009, 
Reports for Principal Industries; E. F. Arm- 
strong, The tiimple Carbohydrates and the Qlu- 
cosiaes (New York, 1912) ; 11. Wichelhaus, Der 
tittarkcsurkor (Leipzig, 1913) ; B. Tollens, Kurses 
llandbucli der KoMcntydrate (ib., 1914). 

GKLTTCOSIDE, gltx/kft-sfd. A name given to 
a number of complex organic substances which 
occur principally 5n the plant kingdom. As a 
class, they arc generally colorless, crystalline, 
bitter substances and can bo obtained by extract- 
ing the plant with water or alcohol. They have 
the common property of yielding a sugar usually 
glucose when decomposed with either an acid 
or appropriate ferment, and one or more organic 
substances classed with the alcohols, aldehydes, 
phenols, etc. Tims, amygdalin found in bitter 
almond, the kernels of the peach, apricot, plum, 
and other stone fruits belonging to the Rosacece, 
when treated with the ferment emulsin, is de- 
composed into glucose, tenzaldehyde, and hydro- 
cyanic acid. Ill most cases the ferment which 



CKLTTE 

hydrolyzes the glucoside is present in the same 
plant or seed, but in different cells. Glucosides 
which give off hydrocyanic acid, a strong poison, 
are termed cyanogenetic, and their detection is 
a matter of the utmost importance when they 
occur in beans used as a food for man and in 
animal fodders. 

Digitonin, a glucoside contained in Digitalis 
purpurea (foxglove), a heart stimulant, on 
decomposition yields when decomposed (hydro- 
lyzed) both glucose and galactose, while hesper- 
idin, found in the unripe orange, and quercitrin, 
in the black oak (Quercus tinctoria) , yield a pen- 
tose sugar called rhamnose. 

Again saliein, a glucoside, the active principle 
of willow bark and used as a remedy against 
fever and rheumatism, is hydrolyzed by emulsin 
to glucose and saligen, and gaultherin, con- 
tained in G-aultheria procumbens, yields methyl 
salicylate, which is essentially oil of winter- 
green. Sinagrin and sinalbin, found in black 
and white mustard respectively, when hydrolyzed 
by myrosin, yield mustard oils, "lucowe, etc. 

The real biological function of gluco sides in 
the economy of the plant is not known, but is 
suggested as protective. Many of the glucosides 
have been produced artificially. Consult Haas 
and Hill, An Introduction to 1hc Chemistry of 
Plant Products (New York, 1913), and E. F. 
Armstrong, The Simple Carbohydrates and the 
Olucosides: Monographs on Biochemistry (ib., 
1912). 

GLTTE (from OF. glu, bird lime, from Lat. 
glus, glue; connected with Gk. 7X016?, gloios, 
glue, Eng. el ay). An inferior grade of gelatin, 
prepared on account of its adhesive qualities, for 
use in the arts and industries and particularly 
in the various branches of woodworking. A 
preparation of glue or other gelatinous material 
for glazing the surface of a textile fabric, paper, 
or other material is known as "size." With the 
development of the textile, paper, and allied in- 
dustries, the use of glue as sizing has enor-" 
mou&ly increased the demand for this article 
and its consequent commercial importance. The 
best glue-making material is the corium, or true 
skin of the animal, that portion lying beneath 
the epidermis and inner layer of fat, which is 
also used for the manufacture of leather. The 
glue extracted from the bones of animals is in- 
ferior in adhesive qualities unless prepared by 
the acid process, which is expensive. The softer 
bones of an animal yield the better glue. Fish 
glue is made from the skin, scales, and muscular 
tissue of some of the larger fish, especially cod, 
and is, of course, a very diiforent product from 
true isinglass (q.v.). In its adhesive powers 
it resembles hide glue, but it retains an offensive 
odor. The raw material of most glue factories 
is chiefly composed of the waste from slaughter- 
houses and from leather manufactories the 
trimmings of hides and bones, and scraps of 
leather or pieces of old leather which was cured 
by some other process than tanning. Glue, how- 
ever, cannot be made from material in which 
the slightest trace of tannic acid remains. 

The method of glue manufacture varies with 
the character of the material employed. In 
making glue from hide the scraps are first limed, 
to facilitate the removal of adhering hair, fiesh, 
and fat, as in the manufacture of leather (q.v.). 
This process requires from 10 to 40 days, after 
which the skins are, washed and dried. Instead 
of lime, caustic soda or sulphurous acid is some- 
times used for cleansing the glue, stock. The 



GKLTTE 56 

prepared stock is converted into glue by the ap- 
plication of heat, and the solution, separated 
from the impurities and foreign matter, is fil- 
tered off and concentrated, after which it is 
cooled in thin layers on Hat surfaced. By ail older 
method the pieces are placed in Jlat-bottomed 
copper boilers, which have perforated false bot- 
toms placed a little above the true ones, to pro- 
vent the burning of the materials. The whole is 
kept at a gentle boiling heat until the gelatinous 
part has boiled out, and the mass of the material 
has sunk down into the iluid. The boiler is at 
first filled with soft water for two-thirds of its 
depth. The boiling is sustained until, by repeated 
trials of small quantities, the operator knows 
the fluid to be of the right consistency, when 
it is drawn off to the congealing boxes; a fresh 
lot of material is often added to the residue left 
in the boiler, and the process is repeated. Re- 
cently the use of steam, either indirectly in 
closed pipes or directly in perforated pipes, or 
else blown under high pressure directly into the 
closed vessel containing the mixture, has been 
found to expedite the process and improve the 
quality of the glue. After boiling, the glue is 
allowed to settle, or is strained through linen 
bags to free it from impurities. The waste thus 
recovered, consisting of fat, hair, and other 
matter, is utilized in the manufacture of ferti- 
lizers, while the glue itself is subjected to a 
process of drying. Drying is likely to prove a 
troublesome process, requiring* great care, as the 
glue readily spoils at this stage. Onco drying 
was accomplished in the open air, but recent 
practice is to place the glue in specially pre- 
pared drying rooms, where the temperature and 
humidity can be carefully regulated. The glue 
is dried in shallow wooden molds, or ''coolers," 
and the tablets are laid in wire netting. Thence 
it is removed to a smooth -topped table, whoso 
surface has been moistened to prevent sticking, 
and here it is cut, by means of wires, into pieces 
of the desired shape and size. Fish glue is 
made by a similar process of treating with 
hydrochloric acid, washing, liming, and boiling 
with water. 

Bone glue is extracted by boiling the bones, 
which, have been previously 'treated with & solu- 
tion of hydrochloric acid, to remove the calcium 
phosphate. The powdered bones are kept in a 
solution of dilute hydrochloric acid for several 
days. They are then allowed to stand in lime 
water for a few hours, after which the gelatin 
is extracted by means of boiling water or steam, 
as in the preparation of hide glue. The calcium 
phosphate recovered from the bones is used as 
fertilizing material, and the fat is also utilized. 

Liquid glue is prepared from a solution of 
dried glue by the action of nitric or acetic acid, 
which checks its tendency to gelatinize without 
diminishing its adhesive qualities. An excellent 
liquid glue may be made by mixing four parts 
of transparent gelatin, four parts of strong 
vinegar, one part of alcohol, and a small amount 
of alum. Consult Taggart, The Qlue Booh 
(Toledo, 0., 1913). 

The glue industry in the United States dates 
from 1837, when Peter Cooper produced the 
first American-made glue. Since that time it 
has developed steadily, and the thirteenth 
United States census of manufactures (11)13) 
reported that in the year 1909 the glue industry 
embraced 65 establishments, employing an aver- 
age number of 3265 wage earners, with an 
annual product valued at $13,717,820 -an in- 



crease in the value of product from 1899 of 
154.0 per cent. Illinois ranked first, in 1909, 
in the value of itn product, supplying 27.5 per 
eent of the total, being followed by New York 
and IVunsylvauia with 21.8 per cent and 14vO 
per cent respectively. The (ft establishments 
had an aggregate capital of $14,288,074, with 
aggregate expenses for the year of $l],75U,#3(i. 
A aeries of teats of ordinary glue were re- 
ported before the 1014 meeting of the American 
Society for Testing Materials by 0. Linclor and 

E. C. Frost. Tn making the ' tests they con- 
sidered the principal qualities to be covered 
were: viscosity of the melted solution, strength 
of the cold jelly (judged by the fingers), odor, 
reaction, grease content, liability to foaming, 
ash, moisture, appearance. The -method of test- 
ing was to glue a 2 X I X 1 inch block between 
two 2X1X1% inch pieces, pressing together 
under 100 pounds' pressure for 12 hours, and 
after another 12 hours pushing the middle block 
from between the others on a testing machine. 
It was found that in the 25 samples tented the 
strength developed varied from 1100 to 1950 
pounds per square inch for one part dry glue 
to three parts of water, and GO to 70 per cent 
of thin amount for a one to live glue. Tt was 
further found that prolonged heating of glue 
lowered its strength, and, if kept heated to 150 

F. for 20 hours, a IOSH of from 20 to 45 per cent 
in strength was shown in testing. Consult: 
Davidowsky, (Jhw, (jalatine, Cements, and Pastes 
(Philadelphia, 1905); Lambert, Qlue, (letatwe, 
and their Allied Prod/nets (London, 1905) ; 
Fernbaek, Glues and Gelatine (ib., 1907) ; 
Standage, Aflfflutinants of All Kinds (ib., 1907). 

GLtTE, MARINE. A waterproof cement made 
by dissolving one part of finely divided pure 
gum rubber in 12 parts of naphtha or benzine, 
adding 20 parts of powdered shellac, and digest- 
ing at a gentle heat until the shellac is dis- 
solved. The hot fused masfl is poured on plates 
of metal or atone, and allowed to cool in thin 
sheets. For use, it is melted awl applied with 
a bruHh. Owing to its property of rotating 
moisture, it is much used in shipbuilding, to 
unite surfacts exposed to water, and is also 
valuable as a cement for glass, metal, and 
stone. 

aLtrGJEA BOMBYCIS, gloo-jO>a Wm-to'sts. 
A parasite of the silkworm, which formerly did 
immense injury to the silk incUwtry of France. 

GKLTTKHOV, gloo'KAv. The capital of a din- 
trict of the same name in the KuHSian Govern- 
ment of Tchernigov, situated on the VoHinaua, 
180 miles south-south oast of Tchornigov (Map: 
liussia, 04). The chief occupation to agricul- 
ture; the trade is insignificant. The town ex- 
isted as early as the. twelfth century and pastwd 
to Lithuania in the fourteenth century and 
later to "Poland. It was the seat of the hetmann 
of Little Riuwia. l*op., 1897, 14,850. 

GLUME, glTOn (Lat. glwna, huak, from ylu- 
lere, to peel, Gk. 7X<50eiy, fflypliein, to carve). 
The, characteristic bract which distinguishes the 
inflorescence of grasses* which on this account 
are often spoken of as "gluraacoouB plants." See 



GLtfKER, gUi'mSr, ADOLF VON (1814-Otf). 
A Gorman soldier. He was born at Longrfeld 
and, entering the Prussian army in 1831, won 
rapid promotion, participated in the Austro- 
Pruasian War of 1806, and thim wa commander 
of the Thirty-second Infantry Brigade. Tn the 
Franco-German War he especially distinguished 



GLUHER 

himself, serving as a division commander at 
Spichern, Forbach, Gravclotte, and Metz, and 
taking a prominent part in the battle around 
Belfort. In 1873 ho was Governor of Metz and 
retired from active service. In 1878 the Ger- 
man Emperor intrusted him with the task 
which he had to give up in 1880 of unifying 
the Imperial army. 

GLUMER, CLAIHE VON (1S25-190G). A (Jer- 
inan author, born at Blankeuburg in the Harz 
Mountains and educated ehielly in France. Her 
translations include works of Swift, Daudet, 
George Sand, Turgenev, Tolstoy, and otiiers. 
Among IHT novels and romances are: Diistwe 
Mrichte (1870) ; Tom Welstuhl dcr Zeit (1882) ; 
Junge Merecn (1800); Es gielt em Gliick 
(1897). The story of her childhood is told in 
Aus eincw, Ptuchtlingsleben (1904). 

GLUTEN (Lat., glue). One of the most im- 
portant constituents of the varieties of grain 
used as food. It is obtained by mixing flour 
with water and thus forming a paste or dough. 
This paste is placed in a bag of fine linen and 
kneaded in water, which must be repeatedly 
changed, till it ceases to assume a milky ap- 
pearance. A gray, tenacious, viscous, tasteless 
substance, having the appearance of birdlime, is 
left in the bag. This substance consists mainly 
of gluten, mixed with traces .of bran starch and 
of oily matter. The gluten thus obtained from 
wheat and from rye is far more tenacious than 
that which is obtained from the other cereals, 
and it is the great tenacity of this constituent 
that eHpeciully iita these Hours for conversion 
into bread. It is found, by analysis, that the 
proportion of gluten contained in wheat grown 
in hot countries is considerably higher than in 
wheat grown in colder countries; and the hard, 
thin-skinned wheats contain more of this in- 
gredient than the softer varieties of the grain. 
The quantity of gluten usually found in flour 
varies from 8 to 15 per cent. Gluten in a moist 
state rapidly putrefies, the mass acquiring the 
smell of decaying cheese; but when dry, it forms 
a hard, brownish, horny-looking mass, that does 
not very readily decompose. Gluten is composed 
mainly of two protein substances, gtiadin and 
glutenin, which are present in approximately 
equal quantities. The action of gluten in the 
manufacture of bread is probably a double one; 
it induces, by constant action, an alteration 
of the starch, and subsequent fermentation, 
while by its tenacity it prevents the escape of 
carbonic-acid gas. 

The largo quantities of gluten obtained as a 
by-product in the manufacture of starch are at 
present utilized for the manufacture of certain 
articles of food. The cohesive properties of 
gluten are destroyed, or rather suspended, by 
the action of dilute acids or alkalies, but are 
restored again by the addition of salts. Wet 
gluten, when first extracted, contains two parts 
by weight of water for every one part of true 
gluten. 

GLUTEN JttEAL AND GLUTEN PEED. 
By-products resulting in the manufacture of 
starch or glucose from the starch of the corn 
kernel. Their principal use is as a feeding stuff 
for farm animals. The products differ greatly 
in composition according to the process of manu> 
facture which is followed. Gluten feed is the 
entire residue of the kernel, including the germs 
and hulls. Gluten meal, cveam gluten, and 
similar materials sold under a variety of trade 
names, do not contain the corn hulls* Some fac- 



57 



GLYCERIN 



tories extract a part of the fat from the gluten 
meal; others mix the gluten meal with the hulls 
and germs without extracting the fat and sell 
it as gluten feed. The dried products from the 
same factory vary considerably in composition 
from time to time, so that although a very large 
number of samples of gluten meal and feed have 
been analyzed by the experiment stations, no 
very constant figures can be given for percentage 
composition. In general, the gluten meals art; 
richer than the gluten feeds. These meals con- 
tain from 20 to 40 per cent of protein, the 
average being about 30 per cent, and from 6 to 
20 per cent of fat, with an average of nearly 
12 per cent. The carbohydrates constitute about 
45 per cent, and the fibre varies with the com- 
pleteness of the separation of the hulls, rareh 
amounting to over 3 or 4 per cent. The gluteii 
feeds usually contain about 24 or 25 per cent 
of protein, although the product from some 
factories has been below 20 per cent and of 
others over 30 per cent. The fat varies less 
than in gluten meal, averaging about 10 per 
cent; and the carbohydrates are higher, averag- 
ing over 50 per cent. Like other corn products, 
none of these materials contain much ash 
less than 1 per cent usually. . 

Gluten meal and feed are both quite digest- 
ible, from 85 to UO per cent of the protein, 90 to 
95 per cent of the carbohydrates, and 85 to 95 
per cent of the fat being digested by ruminants. 
They are highly prized as feeding stuffs, espe- 
cially for dairy cows, and arc now very exten- 
sively used over the northeastern part of the 
United States. Gluten meals, when fed to cows 
in considerable quantity, cause a slight soften- 
ing of the ImtttTj but give a product of good 
quality. Gluten meal is also a satisfactory 
feed for fattening steers and for pigs. 

GLUT HERRING. A "river herring** ( Olupea 
(estivalis], closely related and similar to the 
alewife and often confused with it in the mar- 
ket, although considered inferior. It is more 
commonly known on the Ne\v England coast as 
"blueback." 

GLUTIN. Sec GELATIN. 

GLUTTON. The English name for the Euro- 
pean representatives of the circumpolar carni- 
vore known in North America as the wolverine 
(Chilo luscus). The fables to which it owes its 
name, and the equivalents in all European lan- 
guages, are sketched and considered by Dr. El- 
liott Coues in his Pur-Bearing Animals (Wash- 
ington, 1877). In the early books about ani- 
mals this denizen of forests, popularly supposed 
to be more or less filled with hobgoblins any- 
how, was represented as a ruvenous monster of 
insatiate voracity, matchless strength, and 
supernatural cunning. For the real character of 
the animal whose name perpetuates these fool- 
ish calumnies, the reader is referred to the 
article WOLVEIMKE, and the Plate of FUR-BEAB- 
ING ANIMAXS. 

GLYCE'RIA., See MANNA GBASS. 

GLTOERIN, glls'e-r-m, GLYCEROL, glls'- 
er-ol (from Gk. y\vicep6$, glykeros, sweet, from 
7\i//ctfs, glykys, sweet), or PBOPEJSYL ALCOHOL, 
G 3 H 3 (OH) 8 . An organic chemical compound, 
used for a variety of purposes in the arts and 
in medicine. Perfectly puro glycerin is a crys- 
talline solid substance melting at 17 0. 
(02,6 F.) ; but the merest traces of impurities 
prevent it from crystallizing, and it is therefore 
usually obtained in the form of a thick sirupy 
liquid that boils at 290 0. (554 V.). Small 



GLYCERIN 5 

quantities of salts cause it to decompose to 
some extent when distilled. Glycerin mixes in 
all proportions with water and alcohol and 
readily absorbs moisture if exposed to the air, 
but, owing to the three hydroxyl groups con- 
tained in its molecule, it does not mix with 
ether, chloroform, carbon disulphide, benzene, 
and many other organic liquids. On the other 
hand, it forms an excellent solvent for a variety 
of substances, both inorganic and organic. It 
is colorless and odorless, but has a distinctly 
sweet taste. Its specific gravity at 15 C. 
(59 F.) ia 1.265. Glycerin is obtained in large 
quantities in the manufacture of soap and of 
candles. It is well known that natural fats are 
largely used in the manufacture of these prod- 
ucts, and as fats consist mainly of glycerides, 
i.e., compounds of glycerin with fatty acids, 
glycerin is set free when the fats are decom- 
posed, or "saponified." It is thus obtained, in 
more or less dilute aqueous solution, through 
the saponification of fats with lime or with 
superheated Bteam. To separate the glycerin 
from the dilute solution, the latter is somewhat 
concentrated by evaporation, filtered through 
boneblack, and then further evaporated in yucuo. 
To render it fit for use iu medicine and in the 
manufacture of nitroglycerin, the product thus 
obtained ia further purified by distillation with 
superheated steam before it is brought into the. 
market. Finally, to eliminate, for scientific 
purposes, the last traces of impurities iu the 
commercial product, the latter may be again 
mixed with water, filtered through carefully 
purified boneblack, and evaporated in wicuo. 
In medicine glycerin is used chie/ly as a vehicle 
for applying externally many substances, such 
as the alkalies, neutral salts, bromine, iodine, 
alkaloids, tannic acid, etc., the glycerin solu- 
tions of which are readily absorbed by the 
skin. If injected into the rectum, glycerin re- 
lieves constipation, its action being speedy, 
painless, and followed by no constitutional dis- 
turbance. Very large doses of glycerin taken 
internally are liable to cause loss of muscular 
strength, lethargy, and even death. In the 
arts glycerin is employed mainly in the manu- 
facture of nitroglycorin, from which many 
valuable modern explosives are made; nitro- 
glycerin is the trinitrato of glycerin, CaH 5 (NOa)3, 
obtained by the action of a mixture of nitric 
and sulphuric acids on glycerin. Glycerin is 
further used as a preservative fluid for small 
and delicate anatomical preparations and has 
been applied to the preservation of meat and 
other foods; it has been added to the water in 
gas meters, with the view of preventing it from 
freezing in winter and from evaporating too rap- 
idly in summer. It is also used in the manu- 
facture of toilet soap, of parchment paper, and 
of printers' rollers, in the textile industry, etc. 
Chemically glycerin is a triatomic alcohol, 
its constitutional formula being CHo(OH).CH- 
(OH).CH a {OH). When the hydrogen of its hy- 
droxyl groups is replaced by metals or by 
organic acid radicals, alcoholatcs or esters 
respectively are obtained. Fats are mixtures 
containing, in various proportions, mainly the 
esters which glycerin forms with oleic, palmitic, 
and stearic acids. The hydroxyl groups of 
glycerin may be readily replaced by chlorine 
or bromine, one or two atoms of chlorine being 
thus substituted by the direct action of hydro- 
chloric acid, while the third hydroxyl group 
may be replaced by chlorine by the action of 



t GLYCOGEtf 

phosphorus pentachloride. Besides the method 
described above, by which glycerin is made on 
an industrial scale, it may be prepared by the 
action of potassium permanganate on ullyl 
alcohol, and it is produced in amtill <|uaiititieH 
during the alcoholic fermentation of sugars. 
By the action of acid potassium sulphate or 
other dehydrating ugentti on glycerin, or simply 
by distilling impure glycerin under ordinary 
atmospheric pressure, acrolcin is produced ac- 
cording to the following chemical equation: 



Glyocriu Acrolein Water 

When carefully oxidized with dilute nitric- aeicrf, 
glvcerin is transformed into glvceric acid, 
(iff, (OH) .OH (OH) .COOH. Usually, however, 
the products of oxidation of glycerin are oxalic, 
carbonic, and glycollio acids. 

Glycerin was discovered by Rclieclc* in 1770; 
Chevreul demonstrated its existence, in the 
form of glycerides, in the fats; its composition 
was determined by Pelousse, and its chemical 
constitution by Berth elot and Wurtss. Finally, 
Charles Fried'el, in collaboration with Silvn, 
succeeded in effecting the complete syntheais of 
glycerin from its chemical elements; their 
method, however, is too complicated to be 
described here. 

Imports of glycerin into tho United States are. 
about 35,000,000 pounds iinniuilly, valued at 
about 12 centfl per pound. In 1013 imports were 
34.414,000 pounds, chiefly from France and 
Kngland. 

GKLYCERRHIZA, gliB'e'r-ri'zii. flee LICOBICR. 

GLY'CIITE (from Ok. yXvicfa, ///,<//,://, sweet), 

GlATOCINE, (iLYCOCOUj, ftlKlAH OF (JKLATIN, or 

AMINO-ACETIO ACID, CIl a (NH a )OO()H. An or- 
ganic chemical compound of carbon, hydrogen, 
oxygen, and nitrogen, discovered by Bruwmnot 
in 1820, It forms colorless, transparent, rhom- 
bic prisms, which have a sweet taste and are 
devoid of odor. It is very Holuhlu in water, but 
is insoluble in alcohol and in ether. <ilyc',in<* 
combines both with acids (as hydrochloric, 
nitric, sulphuric, ami oxalic acid) ami with 
metallic oxides, and tho compounds in both 
cases are soluble and cryHtallixahle; they arc, 
however, of no groat importance. (Jlyc.ino is 
usually prepared by subjecting hippurie! acid to 
prolonged boiling with hydrochloric, acid, benxoie 
acid being produced at the same time. It is 
also sometimes prepared synthetically, by the 
action of ammonia, or ammonium carbonate, 
upon monochloracetic acid, according to tho 
following chemical equation: 

CH 3 (C1)COOH + 2NIT 8 = 
Nonochlor- Ammonia 

acetic acid 

cii a (NH 3 )C(X)ir + wr.oi 

Glyohio Ammcmimu 

c;hlri(lo 

Glycine exists in tho animal body only in com- 
bination; it is one of the chemical component* 
of hippuric acid and glycollic acid, two sub- 
stances of considerable physiological importance. 
It is, further, one of the produotH obtained by 
boiling gelatin with acids or with ulkaliea and 
is produced ultio when uric, acid iw wubjected 
to the action of hydriodic acid. 

Q-LY'COCIITB. See Q-LYOINE. 

GIjY'COCOLI*. See GLYCXNK. 
1 GOLY'COGKEN (from ftk. 7\v/cfo t 
sweet -}- y&nj*> -genda, producing, from 

i, to be born), or ANIMAL ST Alton. 



GLYCOL 



59 



An organic substance found in small amounts 
in all tissues of the body, lymphoid, blood, and 
pup, cells. In larger quantities it is found in 
the liver of mammals, particularly after the in- 
gestion of large quantities of carbohydrate food. 
It is also found in large amounts in the muscles 
of mollusks, oysters, clams, and scallops. 

CJlycogon is a carbohydrate closely related to 
the starches or dextrins, with the general for- 
mula (CftHwOoJn. It forms an amorphous, white, 
tasteless, and inodorous powder. With water it 
gives an opalescent solution which is dextroro- 
tatory, the specific rotation being [a] a = + 
196.57. The solution is colored wine red by 
the addition of iodine. Glycogen is separated 
out of its solutions by various reagents, such as, 
barium hydrate, acetic acid, tannic acid, and 
phosphotungstic acid. It may be salted out of 
its solutions by means of either magnesium 
sulphate or ammonium sulphate. Boiling with 
dilute mineral acids converts glycogen, like 
starch, gradually into dextrose. This is also ac- 
complished by diastatic enzymes present in vari- 
ous plant and animal tissues and animal secre- 
tion. Yeast does not ferment glycogen into 
ulcohol. This is, however, accomplished by yeast 
press juice which contains diastatic enzymes 
which first convert glycogen into dextrose. The 
conversion of glycogen into dextrose may also 
he accomplished by photocatalysis and by elec- 
trolysis. The heat of combustion of glycogen has 
been determined for 1 gram = 4190 cal., and for 
1 gram molecule = 678.9 cal. It may be pre- 
pared by plunging into boiling water, immedi- 
ately after death, the liver of an animal (rab- 
bit) which has been fed on large amounts of 
carbohydrates. The organ is then macerated and 
boiled several times with fresh water. The com- 
bined filtered extracts are concentrated and al- 
lots od to cool. The proteids arc removed from 
it by alternate precipitation with potassium 
mercuric iodide and hydrochloric acid. From 
thin solution the glycogen is precipitated by the 
addition of large volumes of alcohol. The uses 
of glycogen in the animal economy are noticed 
in the article LIVEB (q.v.). 

G-LY'COIi (from gly&enn + alcoh-o&), or 
more properly, ETHYLENE GLYCOL, CiHt(OH) 3 . 
A thick liquid, having a sweet taste and boiling 
at 197.5 C. (387.5 F.). It cannot be mixed 
with ether, owing to the two hydroxyl groups 
(OH) contained in its molecule; but mixes in 
all proportions with water and ordinary alco- 
hol. It may be prepared by heating ethylene 
dibromide with an aqueous solution of potassium 
carbonate, evaporating the resulting solution 
at a gentle heat, extracting the semisolid resi- 
due with a mixture of alcohol and ether, and 
subjecting the solution thus obtained to frac- 
tional distillation. Ethylene glycol is the 
simplest substance of the group of glycols, or 
diatomic alcohols, a general description of 
which may be found under ALCOHOLS. A de- 
tailed account of the glycols was given by their 
discoverer, Adolphe Wurtz, in a lecture deliv- 
ered before the Chemical Society of Paris. 
Consult Pasteur, Cahours, Wurtz, etc., Legona 
de ohimic professees en 1860 (Paris, 1861). 

GLYCOI/IjIC ACID, or HYDBOXYAOETIC 
Acn>, CH a (OH).COOH. A compound .of carbon, 
hydrogen, and oxygen, which is at once an acid 
and a primary alcohol. It may be prepared 
from monochloracetic acid by boiling a con- 
centrated solution of its potassium salt in 
water for a number of hours, then distilling off 
VOL. X B 



most of the liquid under reduced pressure, and 
diluting the residue with acetone: at first 
potassium chloride separates out, but after 
that the filtered mother liquor deposits a iiuiss 
of crystals of glycoilic acid. Pure glycollic 
acid molts at 73.0 C. (174 F.). Glycollic a.ud 
is contained in beet juice and is the principal 
acid constituent of sugar-cane juice. 

GI&'CQTX (Lat, from Gk. TMwv, GlykGn) . 
An Athenian sculptor, who lived probably in the 
first century A.D. He executed the celebrate ^ 
colossal marble statue of the Farnese Hercules, 
discovered in the baths of Caracalla in 1540. 
After adorning the Farnese Palace for some 
time, it was removed to the Royal Museum at 
Naples. It represents the hero resting on his 
club after one of his labors and is supposed to 
have been copied from the Heracles of Lysippus 
(q.v.). No ancient writer mentions Glycon, but 
TATKJ2N A6HNAIOS EJIOIEI (Glyeon, the 
Athenian, made it) is engraved on the rock 
which supported the statue. Consult Brunn, 
GcscMchte der grieoMscfien Efinstler (Bruns- 
wick, 1853), and E. A. Gardner, A. Handbook 
of Greek Sculpture (London, 1911). 

GLY'COSTKRIA (Neo-Lat., from Gk. i\vick, 
glykys, sweet + ofyov, ouron, urine). A symp- 
tom of diabetes mellitus. See DIABETES. 

GLY'KAS, MICHAEL. A Byzantine historian, 
Little is known of his life. His History of 
tJie World, from the earliest times to 1118, is 
a valuable work of reference and contains many 
interesting references to theological and other 
matters. The best edition of the work was pub- 
lished by Bekker (Bonn collection, 1836). 
Glykas is said to have been imprisoned and 
blinded about the middle of the twelfth cen- 
tury. A poem, containing nearly 600 verses, 
addressed to the Emperor Manuel Comnenus, 
is valuable as one of the earliest examples of 
vulgar Greek. 

GIiTN", ELINOB (?- ). An English 
novelist, daughter of Douglas Sutherland, of 
Toronto, Ontario. In 1892 she married Clayton 
Glyn, of Harlow, Essex. She made Paris her 
residence. Among her published books are: Tlie 
Visits of Elizabeth (1900); The Reflections of 
Ambrosine (1902); The Damsel and tJie Sage 
(1903) ; Vicissitudes of Evangeline (1905) ; Be- 
yond the Rocks (1906) ; Three Weeks (1907)", a 
great success because of its almost scandalous 
audacity; The Sayings of Qrandmama (1908) ; 
Elisabeth Visits America (1909), with the 
author's impressions of the United States; His 
Hour (1910) ; The Point of View (1913; called 
The Contrast in England) ; The Sequence (1913) ; 
Your Affectionate Godmother (1914). 

CKLYEHff, JOHN (1722-79). An English poli- 
tician and lawyer. He studied at Exeter Col- 
lege, Oxford, but got no degree. Called to the 
bar in 1748, he soon became famous for his 
wide knowledge of law and for his radical posi- 
tion in politics. He was the valuable friend 
and adviser of John Wilkes, and acted for him 
in many cases. Wilkes said of Glynn, "He was 
a Wilkite, which I never was." In 1772 he 
was counsel for an alderman named Townsend 
in a suit against a land tax, in which he urged 
the nullity of Parliament on the ground of ir- 
regular elections. In 1768 he was elected to 
Parliament after an exciting campaign, marked 
by much violence and corruption; in 'the next 
year he presented the Middlesex petition, and 
in 1770 urged a committee to inquire into 
cases in regard to the press. 



OLYNN 60 

GLYN3ST, MABTIN H. (1871-1024). An 
American public official, born at Kinderhook, 
N. Y. He graduated from St. John's College, 
Fordkam, in 1894, and in the following year 
became managing editor of the Albany Times- 
Union. He served in the 56th Congress (1899- 
1901), and was comptroller of New York State 
( 1906-08 ) . He was elected Lieutenant Governor 
in 1912, and on Aug. 14, 1913, became acting 
Governor, although William Sulzer (q.v. ) still 
continued in the duties of that office ; but after 
Sulzer was removed by the Court of Impeach- 
ment Glynn assumed full control, Oct. 18, 1913. 
He received the degree of LL.D. from Syracuse 
University in 1914. After he became Governor, 
Glynn frequently reiterated his early statement 
that he was independent of Tammany Hall, and 
he claimed to have effected great economies in 
the State government. In 1914 he was success- 
ful in the direct primaries, winning the Demo- 
cratic gubernatorial nomination in a contest with 
John A. Hennessy (q.v.). Though supported by 
both Tammany and the Wilson administration, 
Glynn was defeated, in a Republican landslide, 
by Charles S. Whitman. 

CKLYlSrira, SIR Jonisr (1G03-C6). An English 
jurist and .Parliamentarian. He was born at 
Glynllifon, Carnarvonshire, and was educated 
at Westminster School and Oxford. Called to 
the bar in 1628, by 1639 he was a leading mem- 
ber of the famous Long Parliament and shared 
in the impeachment of Straft'ord. He was re- 
corder of the city of London for six years 
(1643-49) and retired on an annual pension of 
300. Though a stout adherent of Cromwell 
and a most able prosecutor of his would-be 
assassins, Glynne was no Republican and urged 
the Protector to call himself King. After the 
Restoration he devoted his great abilities as 
judge and advocate to the service of Charles II, 
bringing to trial some of his former associates. 
But he was no ordinary turncoat, though he so 
figures in Pepys's Diary and in Hndibras, and 
he remained true throughout to the Presbyterian 
party. 

GLYOXTI/IC ACID, CHO-COOH. A com- 
pound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, found 
in various fruits, including unripe apples, cur- 
rants, grapes, and gooseberries. Chemically it 
is 'closely related to glycollic acid (q.v.) and is 
at once an aldehyde and an acid. In its salts, 
however, its aldehyde group is changed by 
hydration to the usually unstable group 
CH(OH) a . Crystalline glycollic acid, too, has 
been shown to have the formula CH(OH) a COOH. 

GLYPTICS. The art of engraving, particu- 
larly as applied to the carving of precious 
stones. It is now generally performed by means 
of diamond dust and diamond-pointed instru- 
ments. In addition to gems the engraving of 
various substances, such as coral and ivory, and 
unusually hard woods, such as box and ebony, 
is included under this head. See ENGRAVING; 
GEMS? INTAGLIO. 

, GLYP'TODCW (Neo-Lat., from G-k. y\vTrr6s, 
glyptos, carved -f <J5o*5s, odous, tooth, in allusion 
to the sculptured grinding surface of the teeth ) . 
A gigantic extinct edentate mammal allied to 
the armadillo, and of which fossil remains are 
found in the Pleistocene deposits of South 
America and less commonly In Mexico, Texas, 
and Florida. The animal had a solid carapace 
made up of mostly hexagonal plates arranged 
in transverse rows, like those of the armadillo, 
but solidly united, so that the creature wag 



GMELIN 

unable to curl up. These bony plates were often 
ornamented by grooves or tubercles and were 
covered by horny epidermal scales. The tail 
also was incased in a sheath of strongly nodular 
bony plates. The head likewise had, in some 
species, a coat of mail of small plates. The 
skull is high, narrow, and short, with a peculiar 
long process descending from the zygomatic 
arch. Both the jaws have eight molar teeth on 
each side, each of which is divided into throe 
vertical prisms by two deep lateral grooves, and 
the form of the crown sculpturing is very pe- 
culiar. The legs are heavily built, the foot 
large, and the fingers are short and armed with 
thick hooilike claws. The latter character 
shows that the animal could not have boon a 
hurrower like the armadillo. The bent-known 
Hpecies is Glyptodon claoipcs of the Pleistocene 
hods of Argentina, which attained a length ovor 
all of about 17 feet. An allied genus is l)<rdi- 
cuni8 t of even larger size than Gtyptodon, with 
a smooth carapace pierced by many cavitioH, 
and a longer tail formed of live or perluipH six 
movable rings, terminated by a club-shaped tube, 
which seems to have borne movable spines or 
bosses at its extremity. 

Consult: Huxley, "On the Osteology of the 
Genus Glyptodon," Collected Memoirs, iii (Lon- 
don, 1898); Lydekker, "The Extinct Edentates 
of Argentina," in Analcs dc Afnsco de la Plata, 
Paleontoloyia Argentina, vol. iii, part ii (La 
l*lata, 1804) ; Scott, A History of Land Mam- 
mals in the Western Beniisphcrc (New York, 
1013). flee EDENTATA. 

GLYP'TOTHE'CA, or GLYPTOTHEK' 
(Ger., from Glk. y\vvr6$ t ylyptos, carved + Ofay, 
thckd, chest) , A building or room for the pres- 
ervation of sculpture. Such buildings wore com- 
mon in ancient times. Cicero givob a minute 
description of ono. The moat fnuioiiH modern 
gallery of sculpture called by this name in the 
Ulyptothek in Munich (q.v.); another is the 
Ny-Karlsberg Glyptothek in Copenhagen. 

G-MELIiNT, gttuVlen, CuitiSTiAw GOTTLOI* 
(1702-1800). A German chemist, born in 
Tubingen, and for many years profeasor of 
c.liomistry and pharmacy in the university of 
his native city. Ilia discovery of the artificial 
preparation of ultramarine was highly impor- 
tant in its bearing on manufacturing induntry. 
His principal work is entitled Evnlcitnng in die, 
(Jhemic (1833-37). 

GMELIMT, JOHANN GEOBG (1709-55). A Gor- 
man botanist. He wan born in Tubingen, was 
educated in the univerHity there, and in 1731 
became professor of chemistry and natural hiw- 
tory at St. Petersburg, In 1733, by order of 
the Empress Anuc, he joined Dosliulo, (I. K 1 . 
Mttller, and Bering in au expedition for the 
exploration of {Siberia, which country thoy pono- 
trated as far an tho Lena. Ho returned to St. 
Petersburg in 1743. In 1740 he watt chotwn pro- 
fessor of botany and chemistry at Tiibingon. 
He published Flora Ribirica (1747-OJ)) and 
tfcise durch Sibiricn ( 1751-52 ) . Limuwis named 
a genus of plantw (hnclina in his honor. 

GMEIXNT, LEOPOLD (1788-1853). A German 
chemist. For several generations mombors of 
the Gmclin family Ivavo distinguished them- 
selves in. science. Leopold^ father, Johann 
Friedrich, held professorships of natural his- 
tory and medicine at Tubingen and Qttttingon. 
Leopold was professor of medidne and chem- 
istry at Heidelberg from 1817 to 1851. Cn 1830 
he undertook, in conjunction with Tiodcznanu, 



GMBLIW 



61 



GUTATHOBDELLIDA 



a series of experiments on digestion, and in 
1826 they published their celebrated work on 
the subject, in two volumes, under the title Die 
Verdaitung-. Gmelin is famous chiefly, however, 
for his admirable and elaborate Handbook of 
Chemistry (1817-19), which was subsequently 
revised and enlarged by Kraut; Gmelin-Kraut's 
Handbuch is well known to every student of 
chemistry. An English translation of the work 
(under the auspices of the Cavendish Society), 
with important additions by Watts, the trans- 
lator, was published in the course of 1848-59. 
Consult obituary in ttie Journal of tJie Chemi- 
cal Society (London, 1855). 

GMELIN, SAMUEL GOTTLIEB (1743-74). A 
German botanist and traveler, nephew of J. G. 
Gmelin. He was born in Tubingen, graduated 
there in 1763, went to St. Petersburg in 1767, 
and in 1768, with Guldenstadt and Lapuchin, 
entered on a journey for the scientific explora- 
tion of the southeastern possessions of Russia. 
When on his way back to St. Petersburg, he 
was seized as a hostage by Usmey Khan, of the 
Kaitak tribe, and died from the results of his 
ill treatment. He published: Historia Fucorum 
(1768) ; Reisen durch Russland (1771-84) ; and 
other works. 

0-MEIiINA, mell-na, or m-lS'na (Neo-Lat., 
named in honor of the German traveler J. G. 
Gmelin, 1709-55). A genus of trees of the 
family Verbena'ceae, with heart-shaped leaves and 
panicles of flowers consisting of a small four 
or five toothed calyx and a large obliquely 
bell-shaped corolla. Gmelina arborea, called 
goombar or kooinbar in Hindustan and the 
Eastern Peninsula, where it is widely distributed 
and attains a great size, is valuable for its 
timber, which resembles teak, but is closer in 
grain and lighter. It is used for many pur- 
poses, such as foundations for buildings, decks of 
boats, Venetian blinds, picture frames, etc. It 
bears exposure to water better than do most 
kinds of timber. This tree has been successfully 
grown in the south of Florida and in California. 
In Australia there are two species that yield 
important timber Gmelina wacrophylla and 
Gmelina leichhardtii. The latter attains a height 
of 120 feet, with a diameter of 4 feet, and is one 
of the most valuable timbers of the country, 
where it is known as beech or white beech, al- 
though it is in no way related to the white 
beeches of Europe and America. The sapwood 
of the former species is mottled, heavy, close- 
grained, and valuable. 

GMtJND, gnujnt. A town of the German . 
Kingdom of Wurttemberg, situated in the beau- 
tiful valley of the Hems, about 32 miles south- 
east of Stuttgart (Map: Germany, C 4). It 
was formerly an Imperial city, and its walls 
and towers still remain. The most noteworthy 
churches are the Romanesque church of St. John 
and the fourteenth-century church of the Holy 
Cross, with a sculptured portal and a carved 
altar. The thirteenth-century Dominican mon- 
astery of Gotteszell is now used as a prison, and 
the church of St. Salvator, hewn in a cliff put- 
side the town, is visited by many pilgrims. 
Gmilnd has a Gymnasium, a trade school in 
working the precious metals, and a Catholic 
teachers' seminary. The manufactures are 
wooden and iron articles, bronzes, cigars, chro- 
nometers, wax goods, flour; but the chief in- 
dustry is making jewelry and other gold and 
silver goods. Gmilnd, first mentioned in the 



eleventh century, became an Imperial free city 
in the thirteenth century and retained its inde- 
pendence until 1803. It is the birthplace of 
Heinrich von Gmiind, one of the architects of the 
Milan Cathedral. Pop., 1900, 18,699; 1910, 
21,270. 

CHEtJ'ND, Vox. A German family of stone 
cutters. For the more important members, see 
P ABLER, PETER. 

GMUNDElNr, gmyn'den. A favorite summer 
resort and watering place of Upper Austria, 
charmingly situated at the north end of Lake 
Traun, 1395 feet above sea level, about 50 miles 
northeast of Salzburg (Map: Austria, C 3). It 
lias a seventeenth-century Catholic church with 
a fine carved wood altar; a new sanatorium, a 
Gymnasium, and a brewery. It is well built and 
lighted by electricity, and has beautiful prome- 
nades and many handsome villas in the environs, 
which offer many chances for excursions. Pop., 
1000, 7126; 1010, 6699. 

GNAT, nat (AS. gnoet). A name applied to 
several kinds of small flies and in England to 
mosquitoes. Having been replaced by "mos- 
quito," the word is becoming obsolete in North 
America. The commonest form to which it is 
still applied are the fungus gnats (Myceto- 
philidie) and the gall gnats of the family Ceci- 
domyiida. The fungus gnats are mosquito-like, 
but are easily recognized by the great length of 
the coxal (or uppermost) joint of the leg. They 
are found in groat numbers on fungi and around 
decaying vegetable matter found in damp places. 
They can leap actively as well as fly. The gre- 
garious larvae live in such vegetable "matter. In 
some species the larvae before pupating will form 
a marching army in which the individuals are 
four to six deep. The gnats of the dipterous 
genus Sciara frequently swarm in houses during 
summer evenings. The gall gnats have the body 
and wings covered with long hairs, that are 
easily lost. The larvsc are small maggots, often 
bright-colored, and live in plants, in which they 
form galls. The Hessian fly that infests wheat 
belongs here, and also the resin gnat that infests 
pine. Sec FUNGUS GNAT; GALL GNAT; MOS- 
QUITO; BLACK FLY. 

GN"AT CATCHER. A small insectivorous 
bird, related to the Old World warblers, and 
peculiar to America, especially to Central and 
South America. About 15 species are known, of 
which three reach the United States. The color- 
ation is bluish ash, paler below; tail black and 
white. They are said to be good singers. The 
commonest species is the blue-gray gnat catcher 
(Polioptila ocerulea o&rulea), which is found in 
the southeastern United States, in summer 
breeding as far north as southern Pennsylvania 
and New Jersey, from the Atlantic to the Pa- 
cific. It breeds throughout its range, making 
a singularly beautiful nest in the form of a tiny 
cup, set upon the upper side of a lofty tree limb, 
and coated with lichens until it simulates a 
mossy excrescence. A western subspecies occurs 
on the Pacific coast and two other species are 
found in the southwestern United States, near 
the Mexican border. 

GKNTATHO, na'thfi. A sycophant in Terence's 
Eunuchus, and in later comedy the typical name 
for a parasite. 

GWATHOBDELLEDA, mith'ob-dellt-da (TsTeo- 
Lat. nom. pi., from Gk. yv&dos, gnathos, jaw --J- 
0&XXa, bdella, leech). The order of worms of 
the class ttirudinea which includes those Icecnea 



flffATIA 62 

that have no proboscis, as the common parasite 
leech, the horseleech, the land leech, and related 
forms. See LEECH. 

GRATIA, na'bhl-a, or EGNATIA, gg-na'shI-4. 
An ancient town in southern Italy, on the Adri- 
atic Sea, 38 miles southeast of Barium (see 
BABI), mentioned by Horace, Satires, i, v, 97, 
in his account of his journey from Rome to 
Brundisiuin, as lacking in good' water, and as the 
seat of a supposed fire miracle (consult Pliny, 
H'istoria Xaturalis, ii, 107, 240). In Roman 
times the town had a lively trade because of its 
position on the sea and at the junction of im- 
portant roads. The ancient city, which some 
locate near Monopoli, others at Torre d' Anazzo, 
near Fasano, has disappeared, but important 
finds have been made in its tombs; these are to 
be seen in the museum at Bari. Consult the 
article "Gnathia," in Lubker, ReaUcxi/con des 
Jdassischen Altcrtums (8th ed., Leipzig, 1914). 

GKNTATSIBTAPPER.. A name given to cer- 
tain Old World birds that seize insects on the 
wing, often with an audible snap of the beak, 
such as the bee eater (q.v.). 

GMATTTH, giiout, ADOLF (1840-84). A Ger- 
man architect, born in Stuttgart, where ho was 
educated at the Polytechnic Institute. In 18G1- 
03 he studied in Italy, whither, after a stay in 
Vienna, he went again, in 18^4, to collaborate 
with Ernil von Forster in making the designs 
for Raschdorff's Palastarchitektur von Ober- 
italicn und Toscana, (Berlin, 1883). He was 
once more in Italy during the Bummer months 
of 1867-09, painting large-sized water colors of 
the monuments of the Renaissance for the Arun- 
del Society in London. Appointed professor at 
the Poly technician in Stuttgart in 1870, he re- 
signed in 1872, in order to execute orders for the 
erection of a number of private building. He 
visited Greece and Egypt in 1875, Spain and 
southern France in 1882, and became director of 
the Industrial Art School at Nuremberg in 1877. 
An adherent of the late Renaissance style, he 
adapted in an original manner the palatial archi- 
tecture of Ftalian cities to his structures. 

GNBDITCH, gna'dlcli, NICOLAI IVANOVITCU 
(1784-1833). A Russian poet. He was born at 
Poltava and was educated at the University of 
Moscow. He went to St. Petersburg at the age 
of 19 and was employed there in the Ministry 
of Education and in the Imperial Public Library. 
He devoted especial attention to translation of 
the classical poets of Europe, his best work in 
that field being the Russian version of the Iliad 
(latest ed., 1880). The work was begun in 1800 
and completed in 1820 and is a masterpiece of 
versification. He wrote several original poems 
of high merit and translated into Russian sonic 
works of Shakespeare, Voltaire, Schiller, and 
other European poets. 

GUTEISENATT, gnl'ze-nou, AUGUST WXLTIELM 
ANTON, COUNT NEITHAKDT VON (1700-1831). A 
Prussian Hold marshal and one of the most 
prominent figures in the War of Liberation. He 
was born at Schildau in Prussian Saxony, Oct. 
27, 1760. In 1777 lie entered the University of 
Erfurt and two years later joined an AuHtrian 
regiment. In the following year he entered the 
service of the Margrave of Ansbach-Bayreuth 
and in 1782 went to America as an officer in 
the mercenary force raised by Great Britain in 
Germany. He returned, however, in the follow- 
ing year without having seen any actual fight- 
ing. In 1786 he entered the Prussian service as 
lieutenant of infantry. The next 20 years, with 



the exception of a year's active service in Poland 
in 1793-94, were spent in the quiet of garrison 
life. During this time, however, Gneisonau be- 
came a profound student of military and politi- 
cal history. In 1806 he took the field against 
Napoleon and fought at Saalfeld and Jena. He 
was raised to the rank of major and was in- 
trusted, in April, 1807, with the defense of Kol- 
berg, which was invested by a largo French 
army. With the aid of Schill and Nettelbeck 
he carried on a heroic resistance against the 
greatly superior forces of the French until hos- 
tilities were concluded by the Peace of Tilsit. 
For his services he waa raised to the post of 
chief of engineers, received the Prussian order 
"pour le merite," and was made a member of 
the council to which was intrusted the tawk of 
reorganizing the Prussian state, which had 
exhausted its forces in the disastrous war 
against Napoleon and had been dismembered by 
the Peace of Tilsit. In this work of national 
revival he cooperated heartily with Stein and 
Scharnhorst, and though primarily devoted to 
the problem of military reorganization, exereiaod 
considerable influence on the general policy of 
the ministry. After Stein's dismissal he re- 
signed (1800), owing to the hostility of Na- 
poleon, and from 1811 to 1813 waa intrusted 
with secret missions to Austria, Sweden, Russia, 
and England. Upon the outbreak of the War of 
Liberation in 1813, he became a general in the 
corps of Blilclier and subsequently chief of staff 
to the army of Silesia. In this position Gnoiwe- 
nau displayed remarkable strategic talents, a 
relentless energy, and a daring which con- 
tributed in no small degree to the success of 
the Prussian arms. He became lieutenant gen- ' 
oral after the battle of Leipzig and upon the 
return of Napoleon from Elba was made once 
more chief of staff under hin old commander, 
Hiiicher. After the repulse of the PruwsianH at 
Ligny, June 16, 1815, ho executed a Hkillful 
rotroat, and to him waw duo, in large measure, 
the opportune arrival of the PniHHiann on the 
battlefield of Waterloo (Juno 18). After the 
ilocisiou of the battle he lod the pursuit, turn- 
ing the French retreat into a complete roxit. lie 
WIIH made. Governor of Berlin in 1818 und field 
marahal in 1825. Soon after the outbreak of 
the Polish insurrection of 1830 ho wan atwignod 
to the command of the Prussian corps on the 
PoUnli frontier, but he died at Poaon, Aug. 24, 
1831. Gnoisctiiiu has assumed in Prussian his- 
tory the dimensions almost of a national hero. 
He was with Stein, Scharnhorpt, and York, one 
of the small band of patriots who in the hour of 
Prussia's deepest degradation never despaired 
of their country, and later, when an opportunity 
offered for overthrowing Napoleon, devoted 
theuiHolvoa to the destruction of the hateful 
French domination. In GneiHonau, moreover, 
ardent patriotism was combined with a most 
lovable nature, marked by natural gentleness 
and refined by years of study and by travel. 
There is a monumental life of Uneigenau, /)o# 
Lcbcn dos FcUlnwrscliallut Urafcn Nvitlwrdt von 
(Jneiwnau, in live volnmcfl, by Pert/ and Del- 
brttck (Berlin, 1804-80); a shorter biography* 
Mas holtw, <ks Ptildmaraclwlta (trafvn, Naitlwrdt 
vow tfnoJAcnatt, wan published by IMhrilek in 
two volumes (3d ed., ib., 1007). Commit 
also Neff, Die Hcldonlwufbahn to (hnvralft dcr 
Infanterie August von (jneiftenau (ib., 188U), 
and Pick, Aw for Mt for Mot, 1806 6i* 181S 
(ib,, 1000). 



GNEISS 63 

GNEISS, nis (Ger., probably connected with 
OHG. gneista, Icol. gneisti, AS. gnast, Eng. 
gnast, spark). A family of rocks belonging to 
the metamorphic series and resembling granite 
in composition. Gneisses are granular aggre- 
gates of feldspar and quartz, with mica, horn- 
blende, or pyroxene, and sonic of the rarer 
metals. Their structure is characterized by a 
parallel arrangement of the constituents; the 
light and dark minerals alternate in bands or 
layers, which are sometimes so regular and 
distinct as to give the appearance of stratifica- 
tion. Owing to this peculiarity, many geolo- 
gists hold that they arc metamorphosed sedi- 
ments. There is conclusive evidence, however, 
that the parallel arrangement may be brought 
about in rocks of truly igneous origin, either as 
a result of movements of the constituents while 
the magma is in process of solidification, or by 
compression and shearing strains after the rock 
mass has solidified. Some gneisses, doubtless, 
have resulted from the metamorphism of sedi- 
ments; but in such cases the proof is not based 
primarily upon the gneissoid character. Neither 
the igneous nor the sedimentary theory of 
origin is to be accepted for gneisses as a class, 
and each occurrence must be studied by itself. 
For this reason geologists have come to use the 
term "gneiss" in its structural sense, without 
implying anything further as to origin or 
constituent minerals. When it is desired to 
define the composition of a particular type, other 
rock names are united with the term; e.g., 
granite gneiss, syenite gneiss, gabbro gneiss, or 
granitic gneiss, syenitic gneiss, gabbroic gneiss. 
Gneisses are the most widely distributed of 
metamorphic rocks (q.v.) and are found under- 
lying the earliest sediments in almost all parts 
of the world. They are important quarry ma- 
terials, and many of the so-called granites that 
are employed for structural stones are really 
gneisses, as indicated by their foliated textures. 
Consult Kemp, Handbook of Rooks (New York, 
1000), and Pirsson, Rocks and Rock Minerals 
(ib., 1011). See GEOLOGY. 

GNEIST, gnlst, RUBOUF VON (1816-05). A 
German jurist and statesman, born in Berlin, 
Aug. 13, 1816. He was graduated from the 
University of Berlin and while occupying the 
post of lecturer in the university practiced the 
profession of law. From 1841 to 1844 he trav- 
eled through Italy, France, and England, mak- 
ing a comparative study of the law system of 
these countries. In 1844 he became professor 
extraordinary of jurisprudence, and in 1850 he 
resigned his position as assistant judge of the 
Superior Court to devote himself more ex- 
clusively to teaching and especially to further 
the interests of the National Liberal party. In 
1858 he became a member of the Lower Prussian 
House, where he served till 1893. He was promi- 
nent as a Liberal in that body and in the 
Reichstag, of which he was a member from 1867 
to 1884. Gneist was an active member of the 
Liberal opposition, and subsequently of the Na- 
tional Liberal party, among whom his profound 
scholarship made him an intellectual leader. 
Several of his ablest works relate to the English 
constitution, which he greatly admired, and 
which ho studied and cited as a model in the 
discussion of German affairs. In 1888 Frederick 
III raised him to the nobility. His first notable 
work was Geschiohte und Ueutige Gestalt der 
Aemter in England (1857). Other important 
works of special interest to English students and 



GNETALES 

appearing in English translations are Englisclic 
Verfassungsgeschichte (1882), which is perhaps 
his greatest single piece of work, and Daft 
Enylische Parlament (1886). He also wrote 
Der Reclitsstaat (1872) and numerous other 
works on the history of jurisprudence and legis- 
lation. Consult Gierke, Rudolf von Gneist (Ber- 
lin, 1805). 

GNESEN, gnfi'zen (Pol. Gniesno). A town 
iu the Province of Posen, Prussia, capital of a 
district of the same name, situated between hills 
and lakes, 31 miles east-northeast of Posen 
( Map : Germany, G 2 ) . Its old and noteworthy 
cathedral, begun in the tenth century, is adorned 
with fine paintings, bronze doors, and chapels, 
and contains the tomb of St. Adalbert, who was 
Bishop here, and first preacher of the gospel in 
Prussia. There are also an archiepiscopal 
palace, a theological seminary, a college, a Gym- 
nasium, and a monument to Emperor Frederick 
III. The manufactures include machinery, lum- 
ber, leather, dairy products, sugar, and flour. 
It has a large trade in cattle, horses, and grain. 
Tradition fixes the year 550 as the date of the* 
foundation of Gnesen, one of the oldest towns in 
Poland. It became an archiepiscopal seat in 
1000 and during the Middle Ages was for a time 
the residence of the Polish kings, who were 
crowned here until 1320. The archbishops of 
Gnesen were primates of the realm and acted as 
vicars during the frequent interregnums. Pop., 
1900, 21,093; 1910, 25,339, including many Poles. 

GNETALES, nS-tal&z (Neo-Lat. nom. pi., 
from Gnetum, from Malay gnemon, the native 
name). One of the great groups of gynmo- 
sperrns, which comprises at present three genera, 
that differ remarkably in habit and habitat. 
The genera are Ephedra, with about 30 species, 
from the arid regions of both hemispheres; the 
very peculiar Welwltschia, from certain ex- 
tremely arid regions of western South Africa; 
and Gnetiim, with about 15 species, from the trop- 
ics of both hemispheres. The species of Ephedra 
are low, straggling shrubs, with long-jointed 
and fluted green stems, and opposite, scalelike 
leaves connate into a two-toothed sheath. The 
body of Welwitschia has the shape of a gigantic 
radish, which rises little above the surface of 
the ground, and whose crown is sometimes 12 
to 15 feet in circumference. From the edge of 
the crown two enormously long, parallel-veined 
leaves arise, which extend upon the ground some- 
times for 10 to 15 feet, and become split into 
numerous ribbons. This single pair of opposite 
leaves, the only pair produced, grows continually 
at the base and lasts through the lifetime of the 
plant, which, is said to reach more than 100 
years. The species of Gnetum are either small 
trees or woody climbers and are among the 
prominent lianas of tropical forests. The foliage 
is leathery in texture and suggests dicotyledons, 
as the well-developed opposite leaves are lanceo- 
late to ovate in outline and pinnately net-veined. 
See Plate of GYMNOSPERMS. 

The group is of special interest to the botanist 
on account of the display of certain angiosper- 
mous characters that have suggested that Gne- 
tales may have given rise to the angiosperms. 
The characters that distinguish the group from 
other gymnosperms are the occurrence of true 
vessels in the secondary wood and the presence 
of a so-called perianth. In addition to these 
two distinguishing characters, the group lias the 
following four characters in common, but not 
peculiar to it: (1) opposite leaves, (2) dicoty- 



GNOLI 64 

ledonous embryos, (3) cauline ovules, and (4) 
no resin ducts. Some fossil forms have been 
found in the later deposits that suggest Gnetales 
in appearance, especially Ephedra, but such evi- 
dence is not trustworthy. At present Gnetales 
arc unknown as fossils, but they give evidence 
of an extended history. Their great dissimi- 
larity in habit, structure, and habitat, associated 
with their widely scattered distribution, indicate 
a relatively large group of ancestors of some- 
what general distribution. 

GNOLI, nyf/lS, DOMENICO (1839- ). An 
Italian author, born in Rome. He attracted 
public attention by his volume of poems pub- 
lished under the pseudonym of "Dario Gaddi," 
and a collection of critical essays, Odi t'lbcrine, 
classic in style. Ho was professor of Italian 
literature at Turin and in 1803 was made pre- 
fect of the Library Vittorio Emanucle at Rome. 
He collaborated on the Nuova Antologia and 
founded and was a director of the Archivio 
Storico dell' Artc. Besides translations of the 
Rdmische Elcgien of Goethe and various other 
German classics, he published several volumes 
of verse under the name "Giulio Orsini." Many 
of his original essays were published in the 
Nuova Antologia. His other writings are: E 
morto il re (1882) ; Canto dei pellegrini alia 
tomba del gran re (1883) ; Le opere di Donatella 
in Roma; II banco tf Agostino Chigi; Jacowllo, 
poems (1005), showing an entirely new manner 
of exquisite sentimentality as opposed to the 
sculptural intellectuality of his earlier work. 
His critical studies, especially of the Risorgi- 
mente, are admirable. He became famous as a 
lecturer. 

GNOME, nOm (Fr. gnome, apparently from 
Gk. yvdpTi, gnome, knowledge, or from ywbiLwv, 
gnonidn, one who knows, from yfYPtbo-Kew, gigno- 
skein, to know). A name given in the cabalistic 
and meditcval mythology to one of the classes of 
beings which are supposed to be the presiding 
spirits in the operations of nature in the mineral 
and vegetable world. They have their dwelling 
within the earth, where they preside specially 
over its treasures, and are of both sexea, male 
and female. (Sec JNOTJBUH; KOHOLD.) The 
males are often represented in the form of mis- 
shapen dwarfs. They are supposed to be the 
special guardians of mines and miners. In later 
times the word has been loosely uacd as the 
equivalent of "elf 1 or "fairy." 

GNOHE (Gk. VV&M, knowledge, judgment, 
maxim). A short and pithy proverbial saying, 
often embodying a moral precept. Such sayings 
have been common among nearly all nations 
at some period of their development; examples 
are plentiful in the Bible. In Greece the period 
when men began to express in a proverbial form 
general maxims of conduct was the age of the 
Seven Wise Mon. The gnomic form of expression 
became also a characteristic of much of the lyric 
poetry of the period, and such poetry as had 
this characteristic was called at n later time 
gnomic (yvufitris) . Lyric poets in whose verso 
this gnomic character prevailed or waa promi- 
nent are Solon, Theognis, PhocylidoR, Simonides 
of Amorgus, and Xonophancs; of these Theognis 
is the most important, since his gnomic writings 
arc wll preserved. In gnomic poetry the source 
of moral philosophy has been found. The Ko- 
raans had a great fondness for short and pithy 
sayings, which they called sentential. Such 
sentential characterize all Latin writing, but 
especially the writers of the late Augustan age 




GNOSTICISM 

and of the first century A.D., e.g., Publilius 
Syrus, Lucan, and Juvenal. There are editions 
of the gnomic poets by Brunok (Strassburg. 
1817), Schilfcr (Leipzig, 1817), and Bcrgk, 
Poetic Lyrici Qrwci, vol. ii (4th erl., ib., 1882). 
Consult also: Opsimathes, Tvupai; siue Thcsau- 
nut tiententiarum rt ApophtkcytnatU'tn (ib., 
1884) ; Haskins and Hoitland, ed. of Lucan, pp. 
Ixv-lxix (London, 1887) ; Wright, .4 Nhort His- 
tory of Greek Literature, 81 ff. (Now York, 
1007) ; Murray, A History of Ancient Qrcck 
Literature, 84 ff. (ib., 1807). 

GNOME OWL. A name given both to the 
burrowing owl (q.v.) and to the pygmy owl 
(q.v.) of the western United States. 

GNOMON, no'mon (Gk. yvtbuw, one who 
knows). The name given to odd numbers by 
Pythagoras. An odd number of the form 2n -|- I 
was known to be the difference of two square 
numbers (n + I) 2 and rf. This doubtless arose 
from the geometric conception of a gnomon aa 
the difference between two 
squares or rectangles ; e.g., 
take a square of side 3 
(see figure) and extend its 
length and breadth one 
unit. The resxilting liguro 
in a square of area 1 6. The 
difference of these squares, 
160, or 7, represents an 
odd number, or gnomon. 
The term "gnomon" was 
alno applied to a kind of sundial (o.ou Bint ing of 
a staff through the centre of three concentric cir- 
cles), used not only for measuring time during 
the day, but also for ascertaining the periods 
between the solstices and for finding altitudes 
of the sun and stars. As a scientific instru- 
ment, it is said to have been introduced into 
Greece by Anaximander (610-540 B.C.). 

GNOSTICISM, nofl'tl-sIJK'm (from gnostic, 
from Lat. gnostieits, Gk. 'YVCMTTI^S, gnfistikofi, re- 
lating to knowledge, from yvwrfa, gnoxtos, 
knowable, from yiyvtbo-Kii>, yigndakcin, to know ) . 
The name given to related Hystcms representing 
a wide movement which llourinhed in the Chimtb 
of the second century. Like much of the phi- 
losophy of that time, the Gnoatic HyHtenw wore 
syncrotifltic, drawing their material** from 
Jewish, Christian, and pagan (Oriental) Hourcwfl. 
They were coamr logical rather than theological 
in character, their aim being to describe how 
tho cowmic order was originally projected, then 
lost, and finally restored. 

Gnosticism arose outride the Church, hut HOOH 
entered it. Even before the clon< of tho Nmv 
Testament wo find warnings against a u falH<i" 
knowledge (1 Tim. vi. 20), which doubtless 
refers to some kind of Gnostic speculation 
already judged to bo dangerous to the faith. 
The letter to tho Colossians combatw ideas which 
show olo.menta of GnostitiiHin, Novorthelofw, 
Gnostic ideas wore, long current within tho 
Church, and often dxvring the early period they 
were maintained without oflenHO. Ignatinn of 
Antioch, at the bcginniiitf of the Bucond century, 
USCH Gnostic language in apeaking of Ohrint a 
the Logos of God, "who proceeded from Hiloneo." 
(Kp. to Magnesiann, 8.) And in 2 (Jl<wnt, 14, 
wo meet again with Gnostic, terms, whore tho 
preacher nays : '*! do not suppose, ye are ignorant 
that the* living Church in the body of Christ for 
the Scripture uaith God made man male and 
female. The male is Ohrint, and tho fo.malo in 
the Church," In other words, the Ohrintian 



GNOSTICISM: 65 

Gnostics were Christian theologians, though the 
system had already developed from Oriental 
mythologies before it came into contact with 
Christianity. Their leaders were persistent in 
maintaining that they drew their inspiration 
and authority from apostolic sources. So Val- 
entinus traced his connection with Paul through 
one Theudas; Basilides with St. Peter through 
Glaukias. (Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, 
vii, 17.) We learn from Epiphanius that 
Ptolemy declared - he had the authority of 
"apostolic tradition" for what he taught. In 
this respect the Gnostics pursued the same course 
as the ancient Catholic church. But when 
Ircnccus wrote his great work, Against Heresies 
(180-100 A.D.), the Church had already begun 
to distinguish between "ordinary" (i.e., ortho- 
dox) Christians and Gnostics, whom Irenscus 
calls ''heretics." We may therefore infer that 
about this time the exclusion of Gnostics from 
Church fellowship was beginning. After the 
close of the second century, whenever the claims 
of "knowledge" are freely advanced and main- 
tained by prominent writers (as, e.g., by Clement 
of Alexandria and Origcn), it is a permissible 
Christian Gnosticism which they are describing 
and defending, not the Gnostic heresy which 
the Church had by that time rejected. To 
Clement the Christian is the only true Gnostic. 
(Stromata, vii, passim.) 

Most of the Gnostic literature has perished, 
though several extensive treatises from. Coptic 
represent a late form of the movement, and we 
are forced to rely upon its orthodox opponents 
for most of our information concerning the 
heresy. Our most important witnesses are Ire- 
nifius, Tertullian, Eippolytus, and Epiphanius; 
but light is also cast upon its early forms by 
Ignatius and Justin Martyr. Gnostics were nu- 
merous after the end of the first century and 
found in widely separated localities. (For the 
names of the leaders and sects, see GNOSTICS.) 
Their teachers differed from one another in de- 
tails and in some important doctrines; neverthe- 
less, a remark made by Hippolytus in his 
account of the serpent worshipers (Refutatio, 
v, i) might be applied to all Gnostics alike: 
"Their detached heresies are essentially one." 
The sects were all religions of redemption. All 
held some sort of dualistic theory of the world 
that spirit and matter, good and evil, are essen- 
tially opposed to each other. Whatever comes in 
contact with matter shares in its contamination; 
therefore the supreme God cannot be the Creator 
of the world. Of the supreme God indeed hardly 
anything can be predicated. He (It) is wholly 
transcendent, utterly remote from all that we 
know as existing. We might even call Him (It) 
the "Nonexistent," as does Hippolytus. From 
information given mainly by Irenseus in his 
work Affaimtt Heresies we are able to construct 
an outline of the teaching of Valentinus, from 
which the place occupied by the Creating God 
wiU appear in due course. At the two extrem- 
ities of thought are transcendent Deity and the 
Void, or Emptiness (jc&w/ut). Between them 
there is no connection or communication. No 
world exists, nor is there any creative agency 
to produce a world. There is a series of divine 
beings, or powers, called J3ons (aUfas), which 
emanate in pairs from the First Cause, with 
diminishing dignity as they proceed. These 
JEons together constitute the Pleroma (ir\i}pw/w) , 
or Fullness of divine existence, as over against 
the Kenoma, or great Void. They are sym- 



GNOSTICISM 

bolized as male and female; e.g., Nous (vovs, 
mind) and Aletheia (d\rj6eia t truth); Logos 

(Xo7os, word or reason) and Zoe (wij, life). 

The total number is 30, corresponding to the 
unknown and mysterious years of Christ's life, 
before He began His public ministry. They are 
arranged in groups of an Ogdoad, a Decad, and 
a Duodecad. One of the lowest and feeblest 
JEons, Sophia (<ro0fo, wisdom), rashly attempts 
to mount up to a union with the great First 
Cause, or Father of All, and thereby interrupts 
the order or equilibrium of the whole svstem, 
which is the Gnostic "fall," Part of Sophia 
sinks to the great Void and produces a son, the 
Creator, or Demiurge (StjfJLiovpySs, which suggests 
Plato's creating god), who proceeds to form the 
visible world, including man. He is the Jehovah 
of the Old Testament, the only God known to the 
Jews. He, ignorant of the Pleroma, supposes 
Himself to be the Supreme Being. The material 
creation, being more or less directly the con- 
sequence of an interrupted order, is itself by 
nature evil. And this evil quality, from which 
nothing material escapes, includes the human 
race. See DEMIURGE. 

The problem of redemption for the Gnostics 
was to restore the lost cosmic order, to remedy 
the evil caused by the weak and erring Sophia, 
to liberate those sparks of Deity which had be- 
come entangled in the meshes of evil matter and 
in man. Christ is an instrument in the ac- 
complishment of this task Himself an JEon 
indeed, who was joined with the human Jesus of 
Nazareth from the time of his birth, or of his 
baptism to his crucifixion. This union was 
docetic, i.e., only a seeming. The heavenly 
Christ did not in fact suffer or die, but left the 
man Jesus before his death on the cross. (See 
DOCETJE.) Christ's office, so far as men are 
concerned, was to teach the true "'knowledge," to 
make Gnostics, to impart the secrets of that 
system to which He Himself belonged. The re- 
deemed are those who can receive this esoteric 
teaching and become free from the flesh. Their 
salvation is only an incident in the vast process 
of restoring the lost harmony of the Pleroma. 
This salvation is from ignorance a- very differ- 
ent matter from the Christian idea of being 
saved from sin. 

According to the ethical system of the Gnos- 
tics, all men are divided into three classes, 
according as they have, or have not, elements of 
Deity within them; spiritual or pneumatic men 
(irvevfjLa.ri.Koi) ; animal or psychic men (^uxucof) ; 
and carnal 'or physical men (0-apjcuco/, <rw//-ori/coO . 
The Gnostics the'mselves constitute the members 
of the first group; they will be saved through 
their knowledge of the esoteric system and 
through their ascetic life: The third group are 
wholly material and cannot be saved, for their 
nature is evil; they have no single spark of the 
divine within them. In the intermediate class 
ordinary Christians are found, persons who have 
not the higher knowledge, yet who may possibly 
at least some of them be saved through faith 
, which is vastly inferior to "knowledge." 



In the practical relations of life the Gnostics ap- 
plied their principles in one of two ways. Al- 
though these seem diametrically opposed to each 
other, yet each was supported by an appeal to 
the logic of their principle that mattor is essen- 
tially evil. Some said: The body, being com- 
posed of evil matter, should bo. denied in its 
every tendency and impulse whence resulted 
asceticism. Others said: Tt may bo indulged in 



GNOSTICISM 66 

every physical gratification and even abused 
through overuse whence resulted libertinism 
and sensuality. All the nobler Gnostics adopted 
the ascetic life, and some of them pushed it to 
an extreme (as, e.g., the Eneratitcs). The op- 
posite theory of self-indulgence was advocated 
and practiced by such sects as the Carpocra- 
tians, the Nieolaitans, and the Cainitcs. 

The traces of Christian teaching in this sys- 
tem arc manifest. But not less evident is the 
influence of Hellenic and Oriental speculation. 
Harnack has coined a phrase which is already 
proverbial (the "acute Hellenizing of Christian- 
ity"), to describe the progress of Gnosticism. 
The attempt to Hullcnizo Christianity and ex- 
plain away its doctrines iu the light of the 
'"higher knowledge" was parallel to the line 
which heathen philosophers had taken with 
popular theology, which they admitted contained 
some manner of truth accommodated to the 
ignorance of the multitude. So Gnosticism 
would admit the necessity of faith for the vulgar 
multitude, but reserved the "higher knowledge" 
for the few who were fitted to receive it. This 
knowledge was superior to and independent of 
the faith. The central idea of Gnosticism made 
it welcome to many who were half converted 
from heathenism. The aesthetic instinct, which 
was the soul of Greek and Roman culture, re- 
volted at the authority of the Church, which im- 
posed the same belief on all, and exacted the 
same submission from philosopher and slave 
alike. In a system of compromise like Gnosti- 
cism, it escaped this ignominy. 

In the course of the Gnostic controversy the 
Church defined her theory of the ancient Cath- 
olic standards, as the tests of orthodoxy, viz., 
the rule of faith, the canon of Scripture, and 
the episcopate, each of these being regarded as 
of apostolic origin and authority. Upon them 
she relied not only for vindicating the truth of 
her doctrine and the sole validity of her prac- 
tice, but also for proving the falsity of her op- 
ponents' position. With these standards once 
generally recognized, the Gnostics, who were in 
the minority, could be, and wero, shut out from 
Christian fellowship. This development was 
under way long before the close of the second 
century and was practically complete in the age 
of Cyprian (c.250 A.IX), when Gnosticism had 
already become a negligible factor. In fact, 
after Marcion, in the middle of the second cen- 
tury, Gnosticism is of little practical impor- 
tance, though its tendencies reappear in the 
Maniclxces and Manichaean sects of the Middle 
Ages. 

Gnostic Writings. Basilides 1 24 books on 
the Gospel, entitled Eaoogetioa, have for the most 
part perished, along with other early heretical 
works, but we have some quotations from them 
in the early Christian literature. There is at 
present no way of verifying Origen's statement 
that Basilides wrote a gospel of his own, nor 
have we the Gospel of Truth, which Irenious 
attributes to the Valentinians. The Letters, 
Homilies, and Psalms of Valcntinus have like- 
wise perished. Fragments have come down to 
us from the works of Bardcsanes, a Christian 
poet of Syria (died after 220 A.D.) , who is some- 
times classed among the Gnostics. In the Pis tig 
Sophia we possess an Egyptian Gnostic writing 
of tho. third century, preserved in Coptic, relat- 
ing the history of Wisdom in the form of 
a dialogue between the risen Christ and His 
disciples. Here asceticism is put forward as a 



GNTT 



Christian duty, and wo find something cloudy 
akin to the sacramental theory of penance. Other 
valuable Coptic versions of Gnostic works have 
recently been discovered by Carl Schmidt, in- 
cluding the Books of Jen, the Gospel of Mary, 
and the fiophia Jcsu Ohristi. EpiplianiuH pre- 
serves for us a letter from the Valcmtinitm 
Ptolemy to Flora, and there is also a Naassene 
hymn. There are several books of Gnostic Ads, 
bearing the names of Peter, John, Thomas, ami 
Andrew, which appear to have been circulated 
in a collection which passed under the name of 
one Leucius. 

Bibliography. On the literature of Gnonti- 
eism, consult: Harnack-Preuschen, Gcschichta 
der altchristlich&n Litterateur (Leipzig, 1803) ; 
Mead, I'istis Sophia, translation (London, 
1896); King, The Gnostics wnti their Remains 
(3d ed., ib., 1887) ; Mansel, The Gnostic //m-aww 
of the First and Second Ccntwios (ib., 1875) ; 
1 Filgenf cldt, Keteergcschichte dcs UrchristMtr 
tliums (Leipzig, 1884) ; Mead, Fragments of 
a Faith Forgotten (London, 1000) ; Swiney, 
Esoteric Teachings of the Gnostics (ib., 1900) ; 
Bousset, Haupt probleme dor (Jnosis (dottiu- 
gen, 1011) ; Faye, Onostiques ct gnostiriftme 
(Paris, 1STL3); and especially C. Schmidt, ftop- 
tish-gnostische Sch-nften (Leipzig, 1905). Tho 
most important attacks upon the Gnostics may 
be read, in English, in the AntG-Niccnv Fathers, 
ed. by Coxe (10 vote., New York, 1885-0(5). Tn 
general, consult: Harnack, His tori/ of Doyma, 
vol. i (London, 1804); Rainy, The Ancifiut 
Catholic Church (New York, 1002) ; W. Rchultz, 
Dokumente der Qnosis (Jena, 1910). See BASI- 
LIDES; CABPOCRATES ; CERDONIANH; OERINTIIUH; 
DOCET/E; KNCKATITER; HEBACLEON; MAUUION; 

NlCOLAITANS; OPHITES; SETILlTESj VALKN- 
TINIANS. 

GNOSTICS, noVtlks. Those who adhered to 
the system known as Gnosticism. From tho end 
of the first century onward for two generations 
Gnostic heretics were many and widely Mat- 
tered. "A multitude of Gnostics have sprung up 
and have shown themselves like niUHhroonm 
growing out of tho ground," SHVH Trciui'UH. It 
\va formerly eutttomary to distinguish two main 
types, a Jewish and a Grcok, but it is hardly 
posHiblo to claHsify them with any exoetmm 
Carpocratcs, Saturnilus, Cerdo, Basil! eta*, Val- 
cntinus, Isidore, Heracleon, Ptolemy, and JuliuH 
Cassianus arc among the best-known Gnostic 
leaders. Saturnilus (or Saturninun, as ho. is 
sometimes called) represents tho Syrian school, 
to which Tatian and the ascetic sect of tho 
Encratites are in a measure related. Basilidos 
and Valentinus are the masters of the Alexan- 
drian Gnostics, the school which was by far the 
most important and about which we have the 
fullest information. Baailidos taught in tho 
time of Hadrian. ValentinuB went from Alex- 
andria to Rome, whore ho labored (c. 140 -160 
A.D.) and founded a church. Marcion of Poutun 
(q.v.) is sometimes reckoned as a GnoHtic and 
certainly had many points in common with 
them. See GNOSTICISM, and the articles on the 
Gnostic teachers and sects. 

GNOSTTS. See CNOSUS. 

GNTT, nu (from Hottentot, gnu, nyu), or 
WILDEBEEST. A member of a remarkable gonus 
(Vonnochetes) of African antelopes, of which the 
best-known species has been formerly described 
aa made up of parts of an antelope, a buffalo, 
and a horse. The grotesque appearance of BOIUO 
apocios suggests this composite. (See Plato of 



GOT GOAT 

ANTELOPES.) The gnus form a genus of large, 
ungainly animals, having horns in both sexes and 
the withers higher than the haunches. The body 
and legs are antelope-like, but the head is so 
massive and broad as to resemble that of an 
ox. The muzzle is naked, the eyes are small, 
with a gland beneath each, whence sprout long 



67 



GOA POWDER 




HORNS OF GNU. 

Showing development from the yearling (1) through youth 
(2) to maturity (3) in the white-tailed gnu. 

stiff hairs, and the horns, which in old age form 
a helmet over the forehead, are broad, black, and 
shaped like an African buffalo's, to which must 
be added the bovine-like circumstance, not 
present elsewhere among antelopes, that the 
horn cores are honeycombed with cavities. Long 
hairs bristle about the chin and throat, and a 
stiff mane is borne upon the arched crest of the 
neck; while the tail is profusely hairy, like that 
of a horse, and sweeps the ground. 

There are two species. The once "common" 
gnu, or white-tailed wildebeest (Oonnochetea 
gnu), formerly roamed all over South Africa, 
but by the end of the nineteenth century had 
become so scarce as to be extinct except in the 
remoter districts; its dependence upon water 
denied it the desert, which lias been the means 
of preserving some of its former associates. In 
this species long hair fringes the chest, and the 
color is uniformly deep brown, with the tail 
white. In the other species, the brindled gnu 
or blue wildebeest (Gonnochetes taurinus), whose 
habitat was north of the Zambezi, wherever 
plains extended, the chest has no long hair, the 
tail is black, and the general color duller, and 
marked with dark vertical stripes upon the 
shoulders and neck. The former stands about 4 l / 3 
feet high; the latter is somewhat larger. The 
females of both are lighter in hue than the males. 

Gnus went about in bands of 30 or 40 and 
were fond of associating with quaggas and 
zebras, whose actions their own resembled. The 
old bulls were extremely watchful and usually 
the first to discover danger and give the alarm. 
Consult Lydekker, Game Animals of Africa 
(London, 1908). See ANTELOPE, and Plate of 
ANTELOPES. 

GMT! GOAT. See TAKEN. 

GOA, gt/u. A Portuguese colony on the Mala- 
bar coast, India, extending from lat. 14 53' to 
15 48' H. and from long. 73 45' to 74 24' E. 
(Map: India, B 6). It is 60 miles long by 30 
miles broad and contains an area of 1301 square 
miles. It has been a Portuguese possession since 
its conquest by .Albuquerque in 1510. Pop., 
1900, 475,513. Capital, Panjim, or New Goa. 
(See following article.) 

GOA. A city on the Malabar coast, India, in 
lat. 15 30' N. and long. 73 57' E., the former 
capital of the Portuguese dominions in India 
(Map : India, B 6) . It was once a city of great 



magnificence, with 200,000 inhabitants, and im- 
portant chiefly on account of its harbor, one of 
the best on the west coast Its decline was due 
to the ravages of cholera in the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, when most of the Portu- 
guese left the former site and settled nearer the 
harbor of Panjim, or New Goa, which is the 
present seat of the colony. Pop., 1900 (old 
town), 2302; (new town), 9325. The old city is 
the see of an archbishop, the head of Roman 
Catholicism in India, and contains the imposing 
cathedral of St. Catharine, built in 1623, and the 
church of Boni Jesus, besides many interesting 
ruins. Panjim, on the Mandavi River and con- 
nected by the Portuguese West India Railway 
with British India, is a clean and picturesque 
town, with a good modern harbor, large bar- 
racks, viceregal palace, college, and public 
library. It has large salt works near by. Rice, 
coconuts, and spices constitute the chief prod- 
ucts and exports. For a description of ancient 
Goa, consult: Marryat, Phantom Ship (London, 
1839) ; B. H. Baden-Powell, The Villages of Ooa 
in the Early Sixteenth Century (ib., 1900) ; 
Henry Bruce, Letters from Malabar and on tJie 
Way (New York, 1909). 

GOA. A gazelle (Gazella picticaudata) , in- 
habiting the highest pastures of the Tibetan 
plateau, and having a very heavy coat of hair 
in adaptation to its cold habitat. 

GOA CEDAR. See CYPRESS. 

GOAJIRA, go'a-Hti'ra. A peninsula of South 
America, lying west of the Gulf of Venezuela, 
forming the most northern part of the continent. 
Its area is estimated at over 5000 square miles 
(Map: Colombia, C 1). The coasts are mostly 
sandy and low, while the interior contains a 
number of mountains. It is sparsely watered, 
and the chief occupation of the inhabitants is 
cattle breeding. Its people are semi-independent 
Indians, known under the name of Goajiros, and 
variously estimated at from 30,000 to twice that 
number. The peninsula was formerly divided 
between Venezuela and Colombia, but by the 
decision of 1891 it was awarded to the latter. 

GOAJIROS, go'i-H#V6s. An Arawakan tribe 
of the Goajira Peninsula, on the northwest of 
Lake Maraeaibo, South America. This most in- 
teresting tribe build their houses in the Mara- 
caibo and other lagoons of Venezuela, driving 
piles into the mud, and erecting on them oblong 
rectangular dwellings with high-pitched roofs. 
The structures are thatched and have on one or 
more sides platforms on which cooking and the 
family occupations are carried on in open air, 
and which also serve as landing places for 
canoes. The name "Venezuela," or "little 
Venice," originated from the prevalence of these 
structures over the water. The people subsist 
by fishing, agriculture, and on the natural 
fruits, nuts, and roots of this bountiful region. 
They are expert in weaving cotton and palm 
textiles and make beautiful feather work. Con- 
sult I. F. Holton, New Granada: Twenty Months 
in the Andes (New York, 1857). 

GOA POWDEK, ARAROBA, or CHRTSAROBIN. 
A drug imported in the form of a yellowish or 
chocolate-colored powder. The name "Goa pow- 
der" is derived from the Portuguese colony of 
Goa, where the drug appears to have been intro- 
duced about the year 1852. It was exported 
from Bahla to Portugal, whence it found its way 
to the Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia. 
The tree which yields it (Indira ararola) is 
met with in great abundance in certain foresta 



GOAR 68 

in the Province of Bahia, Brazil, preferring low 
and humid spots. It is from 80 to 100 feet high 
and is furnished with imparippinate leaves, the 
leaflets of which are oblong, about iy 2 inches 
long and % of an inch broad, and somewhat 
truncate at the apex. The flowers are papilio- 
naceous, of purple color, and arranged in pani- 
cles. The Goa powder, or araroba, ia contained 
in the trunk, filling crevices in the heartwood. 
To obtain it the oldest trees are selected as con- 
taining the larger quantity, and after being cut 
down are sawed transversely into logs, which are 
split longitudinally, and the araroba chipped or 
scraped off with the axe. During this process 
the workmen feel a bitter taste in the inouth, 
and great care has to be taken to prevent injury 
from the irritating action of the powder on the 
eyes. In this state, i.e., mixed with fragments 
of wood, the Goa powder is exported. Somewhat 
purified, as clirysarobin, it is used in the form 
of an ointment made by rubbing together 40 
grains of the powder, 10 drops of acetic acid, and 
an ounce of lard. It is used in several skin 
diseases, especially in ringworm and psoriasis; 
and it owes its efficiency to the chrysophanic 
acid it contains. 

GOAR, gO'ilr', SAINT (e.585-C49). A medie- 
val missionary, born in Aquitaine. According 
to the legends concerning him, he went (c.018) to 
Oberwesel, Germany, whore he erected a chapel 
at what is now St. Goar and made numerous 
converts. He was buried in the chapel, and tho 
monastery subsequently erected there became a 
chapter house in 1127. In 1708 the celebrated 
church of St. Goar on the Rhine was dedicated 
to him. His futo is July 0. 

GOAT (AS. gat, Icel. grit, OHG. gets, Qer, 
Qeiss; ultimately connected with Lat. hcsdus, 
kid). A genus (Capra) of ruminant quadru- 
peds of the family Bovidce, so closely allied to 
the sheep that it is not easy exactly to define 
the distinction, although the common domestic 
goat and sheep are of widely different appear- 
ance. One of the most marked of the distin- 
guishing characters is that the horns of gouts, 
present in both sexes, but smaller in the fcmalen, 
arc long and directed upward, backward, and 
outward, while those of the sheep are more or 
less spirally twisted. Other characteristics are 
the beard on the chin of the male goats, which 
is wanting in the sheep, and the straight line of 
the face in goats, as compared with the arched 
line in sheep. The tail of goats is also much 
shorter than that of sheep. A constant mark of 
distinction is the absence in goats of a small pit 
between the toes of the hind feet (in some cases 
of all four feet), producing a fatty secretion, 
which exists in sheep and is peculiar to them. 
And another constant mark which is absent in 
sheep is the strong smell of male goats, particu- 
larly during the rutting season. Equally con- 
stant are the differences of temper and man- 
ners, goats being in a high degree curious and 
confident. 

"WILD GOATS 

True wild goats, of which some 10 species are 
recognized, belong to the Old World alone, where 
they are confined to the mountainous region 
which extends from the Atlas ranges of north- 
western Africa to Central Asia. Some other 
animals called goats arp zoologically otherwise 
related. All are essentially mountain animals 
and exhibit a great aptitude for scrambling 
among rocks and bushes, arc extremely suro- 



GOAT 

footed, and display great strength and agility 
in leaping. They also prefer as food the leaves 
and small branches of shrubs, and the strongly 
aromatic herbs which abound in mountainous 
localities, to the herbage of the richest pastures, 
browsing rather than grazing, as do sheep. 
They live in small herds, hut the old bucks 
are likely to live separately, and thus servo the 
purpose of scouts, though all arc extremely wary 
and hence are among the most diflicult of game 
for the sportsman. Two kids are usually pro- 
duced at birth, in late spring, and very quickly 
become able to travel with tho band. 

The best-known as well as most characteristic 
species of wild goat is tho bi'zoar goat, or pasting 
(Capra ceyayrus), which wan onco common 
throughout the Grecian Archipelago, but now in 
known only in Crete and one or two other 
islands and thence eastward through tho high- 
lands of Asia Minor to Per-siti and thence to 
northeastern India. It inhabits all barren hills 
in the East, but ia Persia rurely dcHceuilu 
much below the timber lino. This* goat (HO< 
Plate of WILD GOAW, ETC.) stands* about , 4 JO 
inches high and in winter in brownish grny, 
changing in summer to a more reddish-vellow 
tint, with the buttocks mid undcrparU nearly 
white; and the older bucks ha vis the forehead, 
oh in, beard, throat, front of the legB, a Hlripc 
along the spine, tho tail, and a band of tho flunka 
dark brown. Tho horns of the old bucks moun- 
ure 40 to 50 inches along- the curve, rine close 
together from the top of the skull, and Hwoop 
backward hi an even curve, with tho front 
edge forming a strong keel marked by irregular 
prominences ; the horns of the female arc much 
smaller and smoother. The old bucks maintain 
a most vigilant watch, one or more being con- 
stantly on tho lookout and warning tho herd 
of danger. This is tJio species from which <lo- 
meatic gouts have been derived. An illustrated 
account of this species will be found in tho 
J'wcmMnga of the Zoological tiocicty of London 
for JS7.>, by C. CJ. Dunford. 

Goats of the Caucasus, or Turs. Threo 
kinds of wild goals, distinguished as gpecicH, but 
perhaps only varieties of a, single raw, inhabit 
the Caucasus llange, which in form ami color 
much resemble the pasting, though somewhat 
paler as a rule, and with long rod dish -brown 
beard and short scut. Their horns, however, are 
very different, being very massive, smooth, and 
black, with a squarish cross section at the base, 
aud sweeping outward and then inward, with a 
tendency towards a spiral, best shown in tho 
Western, or Severtzow's, tur (sec Plate of WILD 
GOATS, ETC.), ^ which moro nearly approach the 
form of the ibex's. The eastern Caucasus is 
inhabited by Pallas' s tur (Capra cylindricor- 
nis) ; the central parts of the range, hotween 
Mount El bur x and Daghestan, by the Caucasian 
tur ( Capra eauca&ica ) ; and the western part 
by tho larger, moro ibex-like Huvorteow'rt tur 
(Capra novcrtsowi) . 

The Spanish G-oat. Closely allied to tho tars 
is the wild goat, or "cabromontoB" (flVrjwfl 'pyw- 
naioa) , of the mountains of Spain and Portugal. 
It ia a smaller animal than the other H, buekn 
standing about 20 inches in height, with horiw 
measuring 25 to 28 iuchon in length.. It horns 
are divergent, teud to bo spiral, are somewhat 
triangular in section, with a strong keel on their 
posterior border, and knobs along the outside. 
These goats are so wary and resourceful that 
they remain numerous. 



GOAT-ANTELOPES 









1. EUROPEAN CHAMOIS (Rupicapra rupicapra). 

2. JAPANESE SEROW (Nemorhoedus crispus). 

3. WHITE GOAT of Rocky Mountains (Oreamnus 

montanus). 



4. TAHR or HIMALAYAN GOAT (Hemitraaus jem- 

licus). 

6. HIMALAYAN SEROW (Nemorhcedus bubalinus). 
6. HIMALAYAN GORAL (Cemas goral). 



GOAT t 

Ibex. All wild goats are frequently spoken 
of as ibexes, but the term should properly be re- 
stricted to four species of Gapra dwelling upon 
the _ higher mountains of southeastern Europe, 
Syria, Arabia, Abyssinia, and in the Himalayan 
region. They have long, knobbed, scimitar-like 
horns. See IBEX. 

The Markhor. This is a large wild goat 
(Gapra falconcri) of the western Himalayas, 
distinguished by its high, upward-reaching, 
flattened and spirally twisted horns. ( See Plate 
of WILD GOATS, ETC.) It is found from central 
Afghanistan to the sources of the Indus, and in 
this area exhibits several well-marked local 
races, in some of which the horns are much less 
twisted than in others, the longest measuring 
(along the curve) 50 inches. Its habitat ranges 
from barren foothills to the edge of the snow 
and includes much rocky forest land; the 
country, therefore, is always an exceedingly dif- 
ficult one to hunt in, besides which the animals 
are wonderfully keen and watchful. Neverthe- 
less, kids are captured from time to time and 
are found to thrive well in captivity and to 
interbreed with domestic goats. The markhor is 
larger than other goats and is distinguished 
by the great black beard of the old bucks, which 
covers the whole throat and breast with a mat 
of long hair, which also forms a heavy ruff 
around the shoulders. The remains of a goat 
closely resembling the markhor have been found 
in the Pliocene strata of India. 

Tahrs and Goat Antelopes. There exist in 
southern Asia three species of goat which have 
no beards and small horns and are assigned to a 
separate genus, Hemitragus, the tahrs; one is 
known to Anglo-Indian sportsmen as "Nilgiri 
goat." For an account of this genus, see TAHB. 

Intermediate between the goats and the an- 
telopes stand several genera and species of moun- 
tain-loving animals, including the goral, cambing- 
utan, serows, takin, chamois, and the American 
white goat. For these, see their names* and 
GOAT ANTKLOPK. 

Bibliography. Lydekker, Royal Natural His- 
tory, vol. ii (London, 1896) ; Blanford, Fauna 
of India: Mammals (ib., 1888-89) ; id., Eastern 
Persia: Zoology (ib., 1870); Danford, ''Notes 
on the Wild Goat," in Proceedings of the 
Zoological Society of London (ib., 1875) ; 
Lydekker, Wild Oxen, Sheep, and Goats (ib., 
1898). Consult also the writings of sportsmen 
in India and Central Asia. 

DOMESTIC GOATS 

Tt is probable that the native Asiatic goats 
were among the first animals brought under the 
subjection of man, and there is no doubt that 
the main stock of those now in domestication 
was derived from the Persian pasang (see above) . 
They must have been of peculiar value to the 
early nomadic men of southeastern Asia, since 
they could pasture on the scanty herbage and 
bushes of the rocky mountains and plateaus and 
move anywhere their masters went with even 
greater facility conditions which domestic sheep 
could not well endure. 

The varieties of the domestic goat are too 
many for treatment here, where only the most 
important can be mentioned. Those of Europe 
present many diversities of coat and form of 
horns, and distinguishable breeds are found in 
Ireland, Wales, and Norway; but no kind has the 
pendulous ears frequently seen in Asia, except a 



9 GOAT 

cream-colored breed peculiar to the island of 
Malta, whose ears hang below the jaw. This 
goat and some Spanish breeds are frequently 
hornless. More distinctive breeds exist south and 
east of the Mediterranean. Thus, the "guinea'' 
goats, kept in enormous flocks by the natives of 
the Sudan and of the Niyer valley, are rather 
small, short-legged, short-haired, ' and usually 
dark in color, black and red prevailing. The 
horns are only 3 or 4 inches long and curve 
forward at their tips; and the black beard is 
continued downward to spread over the shoul- 
ders and forelegs, suggesting some possible an- 
cestral cross with the aoudsid (cj.v.). The Nile 
valley and Egypt have a different goat, in 
'which the legs and horns are longer; the profile 
is very convex, the horns crumpled, and often 
absent, and there is no beard. The short coat 
is usually reddish or bluish gray, more or less 
spotted, and the pendent ears are about us long 
as the head, fiat, and round at the ends. The 
goats of Syria, Turkey, and southwestern Asia, 
on the other hand, are large and tall, with the 
hair long, black, and silky, prominent curving 
horns, a small beard in both sexes, and the cars 
hanging for half their length below the jaw. 
These are sometimes called mamber, or Kurd, 
goats, and are the common stock of the country. 
In Asia Minor, however, there has existed, from 
immemorial times, a remarkable breed known 
as mohair, or Angora, goats, which merit par- 
ticular description, since lately they have been 
sedulously cultivated in various other countries, 
including South Africa and the United States. 

The Angora Goat. Various types of Angora 
goats have arisen in Asia Minor and Turkey 
during the last half century, owing to unwise 
crossing with the common Kurd stock. The 
pure-bred Angora was originally a small, ex- 
ceedingly delicate animal, with small thin horns, 
suggesting by their spiral form descent from the 
wild markhor. It was clothed with "dazzling 
white, fine, soft, silky, very lustrous mohair, 
curling in ringlets from 10 to 18 inches long." 
The continual crossing and recrossing it has 
undergone has resulted in an animal much 
larger and more hardy. The type now approved 
in the United States (see Plate of WILD GOATS) 
is strongly built, with a straight horizontal 
back, short and strong legs, the head like that 
of a common goat, but less coarse, and the horns 
heavy, with an inward twist. "Except the face 
and legs, from the hocks and knees down, the 
entire animal should be covered with mohair. 
Both the belly and throat and even the lower 
part of the jaws should have a covering of fine, 
silky mohair in long, curly ringlets." These 
goats were introduced into the United States 
by a gift of nine from the Sultan of Turkey in 
1849. Little increase followed, and all disap- 
peared during the Civil War. Other importa- 
tions were occasionally made until 1881, when 
the Sultan prohibited any exportation of the 
animals. Several were, nevertheless, obtained 
for California breeders in 1901. Angoras were 
scattered through the Southern States, but their 
raising and keeping did not become an industry 
until recently, when large flocks wore produced 
on the Pacific coast, especially in Oregon, and 
they have been successfully introduced in Iowa 
and Missouri. So promising have been these 
experiments that an extensive culture of this 
breed all over the United States, as well as in 
southern South America, is expected; and two 
clubs for the encouragement of the industry 



GOAT 70 

and the registry of blooded stock have been or- 
ganized. It is claimed for the Angora goats 
that they are among the most useful of domestic 
animals in a variety of ways. "The fleece, 
called mohair (q.v.), furnishes some of the finest 
of fabrics among ladies 1 goods and is used in 
various other manufactures; their habit of 
browsing enables the fanner in a wooded locality 
to use them to help in subjugating the forest; 
their llesh is exceedingly delicate and nutritious ; 
the milk, though not so abundant as with the 
milch breed of goats, is richer than cow's milk; 
their tanned skins, though inferior in quality to 
the skins of the common goat, are used for 
leather; their pelts make the neatest of rugs 
and robes; they are excellent pets for children; 
a few of them in a flock of sheep are a protec- 
tion from wolves and dogs; their manure is 
noticeably helpful to the grass, which follows 
them after they have cleaned away the under- 
brush." A pamphlet was issued by the United 
States Department of Agriculture in 1901, con- 
taining an account, with illutstrations, of the 
breed, and its qualities and products, and full 
directions as to feeding, care, shearing, etc. 
See Bibliography. 

Goats otherwise have never taken a serious 
place in the farm property of the United States. 
The latest agricultural statistics enumerate only 
45,500 in the whole country a number exceeded 
by such small countries as Cape Verde Islands 
and Senegal. The great bulk of the goats in the 
world, estimated at 36,000,000 in 1893, and 32,- 
000,000 in 1806, are to be found in the south of 
Europe, in Syria, and in northern Africa. All 
the rest of the world together possesses scarcely 
a fifth of the total, and goats are almost absent 
from English-speaking countries the world over. 
The ordinary domestic goat is highly prized in 
oriental and tropical countries for its milk and 
its flesh which differs but little from that of 
sheep. The akins form an important article of 
commerce, the value of the goat skins imported 
into the United States ranging from $20,000,000 
to $25,000,000 per annum and coming from 
China, Southern Russia, South America, and 
Mexico. 

The Cashmere or Shawl Goat. Nowhere 
have goats, other than Angoras, received more 
attention or been brought to a higher usefulness 
than in India, where a long list of varieties 
might be named and described, such as the 
streaked "naga" of Assam, the "bukee" of the 
Deccan, the "maycay" of Mysore, etc. None of 
these equal in importance, however, those of 
the western Himalayan region, which arc culti- 
vated for the sake of their wool, of which the 
genuine Cashmere shawls are made. Two prin- 
cipal varieties of these are distinguished 
the lesser, or chappoo, and the more common 
changra, or "shawl goat." This variety is 
rather small, of various colors, but generally 
silvery white, with long, flattened, spiral horns, 
and pendent oars. These goats are valued, not 
for the long outer hair, but for the underwool, 
or pashm, which in summer is combed out and 
appears like grayish down. It is beautifully 
fine, soft, and silky, and from it are made the 
famous and often extremely costly shawls of 
Kashmir and its neighborhood. These goats 
were introduced into France and Germany dur- 
ing the last years of the nineteenth century 
and have thriven well. Their natural home 
extends through Tibet through the mountains 
south westward to the country of the Kirghiz, 



GOATSUCKER 



and enormous nocks are pastured by the natives 
in the high Himalayan valleys. 

For the "Rocky Mountain goat," see ROCKY 
MOUNTAIN WHITE GOAT. 

Bibliography. Pegler, The Book of the Goat 
(4th eel., London, 1JUM)) ; Schreiner, The Angora, 
Cioat |in South Africa] (London, 1898); 
Thompson, ' 4 Thc Angora Goat/ 1 in United States 
Department of Agriculture, Farmers' Bulletin 
A'o. 137 (Washington, 11)01); llobertson Scott, 
The Case for the Coat (New York, 1908). 

GOAT ANTELOPE. A term applied by 
zoologists to a group of ruminants having char- 
acteristics that join them to the goats on one 
side and the antelopes on the other; moat of 
them, individually described elsewhere, have a 
more or less goatiike build, goatiike teeth, short 
tails, relatively small cylindrical horns, and 
no boards. The group includes the genus (Icmas 
of the Himalayan region (see CORAL) ; the genus 
Nemorhccd'iis of southeastern Asia, including the 
caiubing-utun of Sumatra, etc. (ace SEUOW) ; 
the Tibetan genus Budorcas (nee TAKIN); the 
genus Kupicapra of the European Alps (ace 
CHAMOIS ) ; and tho genus Oreamwts, or ffap- 
lovcros, -which contains the white, woolly goats 
of northwestern America (sec ROCKY MOUNTAIN 
WHITE GOAT). Sec Plate of GOAT ANTELOPES. 

GOAT1TSH', or SALMONETE. A marine iish 
of the genus Upenciis, closely related to the 
sur mullets, many species of which exist in 
tropical American wtiters and are uaod as food 
as well as admired for their gaudy beauty. The 
red goatfish is Upcneus maculatus; the yellow 
is UjMificaa niartimcwi. Both are common at 
Key West, Fla., and in the West Indies. 

GOAT ISLAND. An islet roughly oblong in 
shape, a little more than Vs a mile long and 
somewhat less than y fc of a mile in average 
width, which divides the two grout cataracts 
forming the Niagara Falls (q.v.). A bridge 
connects it with the American shore. 

GOAT LOTTSE. A biting louse of one or 
more species of the genus Trwhodectat, parasitic 
in the hair of goats. Several species are known 
in various parts of the world, most widely 
Trichodcotwt climax. The species commonly 
troubl(!Home on the Angora, or mohair, goats is 
regarded by some entomologists as peculiar to 
that animal and is named Trichodcatcs Limlatus. 
Consult Osborn, "Insects Ailecting Domestic 
Animals," in United States Dopartnwttf of 
Agriculture, Divurion of Entomology, Bulletin 5 
(Washington, J897). 

GOAT MOTH. One of the largest of ICuro- 
poiiu moth a (Voaws ligniperda), measuring 3 to 
3% inches across the expanded wings, and brown, 
with various streaks and niottlings. In Groat 
Britain the long, flat, hairy, yellowish caterpillar 
is called the auger worm, and wanders about in 
search of some suitable tree into which to 1x>re 
a tunnel. It feeds upon the excavated wood 
more than three years, then spins at the extrem- 
ity of the tunnel a very tough cocoon formed of 
wood chips glued together by* a gummy secretion, 
in which a small aperture is left for the admis- 
sion of air. The adults have no proboscis, take 
no food, are very short-lived, and take their 
name from the goatlike odor they exhale. Con- 
generic species dwell in the United States. 

GOATSBEABD. See SALSIFY; also SPI&&A, 

GOAT'S-BtTE. See RBJST-HABBOW. 

GOAT'StTCB/EB. The common European 
nightjar (Gapnmulgus europceus), known an- 
ciently as "caprinmlgtis 1 ' in Italy and "aigothe- 



GOBAT 71 

las'* in Greece, representative of a large cosmopoli- 
tan family of wide-gaped/ nocturnal, moth-catch- 
ing birds, the Caprimulgida*. The name is due 
to an immemorial popular belief that this bird 
milks goats. The notion probably arose from the 
habit of these birds of seeking * insects, usually 
at dusk and near the ground, in pastures with 
domestic animals. Thoir strange leaping mo- 
tions and great mouths would easily lend them- 
selves to the construction of such a tale among 
primitive folk. See NIGHTJAB. 

GOBAT, go'ba' (CHABLES), ALBEBT (1843- 
1914). A Swiss Parliamentarian, born at Tram- 
elan, Canton Bern. He practiced law at Detei- 
nont from 1868 to 1882, when he was elected as a 
radical to the Great Council of Bern. In 1884 he 
became a member of the Federal Council of 
States, and in 1890 of the National Council. He 
became noted as an advocate of international 
peace and in 1902 received the Nobel prize 
(with Ducommun). He wrote a popular history 
of Switzerland (1900) and Croquis et impressions 
d'Amerique (1904). In 1907 he became head of 
the International Bureau of Peace in Bern. 

GOBAT, g6-ba', SAMUEL (1799-1879). An 
English missionary, born at Creinine in Switzer- 
land. In 1826, after studying at the Mission 
House in Basel, and learning Arabic, Ethiopia, 
and Amharic, he started as a missionary of the 
English Church Missionary Society to Abyssinia. 
Until 1829 he and his companion, Christian 
Kugler, got no farther than Cairo. Then they 
went to Gondar and met with much success. 
But in 1832, after Kugler's death and the be- 
ginning of hostilities, Gobat left the country. 
In 1839 he went to Malta, worked on the Ara- 
bic Bible, had charge of the presses there, and 
in 1845 was director of the Protestant College. 
A year afterward he was appointed (joint An- 
glican and Lutheran) Bishop of Jerusalem. 
There he did a great work, especially in his or- 
phan schools and in the hospitals. His expe- 
riences in Abyssinia are described in A Journal 
of a Three Years' Residence in Abyssinia (2d 
ed., 1847; in French in Paris, 1834). Con- 
sult Schoelby, Samuel Gobat t evangelischer Bi- 
schof in Jerusalem (Basel, 1900), and Madame 
Roerich's biography (Paris, 1880; in German, 
Basel, 1884; in English, with preface by Shaftes- 
bury, London, 1884). 

G-OB'BO, IL. See SOLABI, CBISTOFOBO. 

GOBBO, LAUNCELOT. A quaint, shrewd clown, 
in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice, at first a 
servant to Shylock, whom he afterward deserts 
for Bassanio. 

GOBELIN, g6T>laN'. Any tapestry woven at 
the Gobelins, Faubourg Saint-Marcel, Paris, 
where the industry was established in 1601. 
(See TAPESTBY.) The origin of the name is 
shown by the inscription in French at the en- 
trance gateway: "Jean and Philibert Gobelin, 
merchant dyers of scarlet, who left their name 
to this quarter of Paris and to the tapestry 
factory, had their works here at the end of the 
fifteenth century." The family prospered and 
from dyers finally became financiers, two of 
them at the end of the sixteenth century acting 
as first presidents of the Chamber of Accounts, 
and a third later acquiring the title of Mar- 
i of Brinvilliers. Dyeing being beneath their 
dty, they were glad to dispose of the prop- 
. The name, however, remained and became 
so closely identified with the tapestry industry 
established by Comans and Planche on the in- 
vitation of Henry IV, that in Germany gobelin 



GOBINEAU 



still is, and elsewhere for a time was, the name 
of any picture tapestry, even one woven long 
before 1440, when Jean Gobelin moved from 
Kheims to Paris. Consult: Guiffrey, Les Gobe- 
lins ct Beaurais (Paris, 1906) ; Fenaille, L'Etat 
general des tapisseries de la manufacture des 
Gobelins depuis son origine jusqufa nos JOINTS 
(5 vols., ib., 1903-12): Hunter, Tapestries 
(New York, 1912). See EMBROIDERY. 

GOBE-MOTJCHE, gub-moosh' (Fr., gaping 
mouth). Originally the name of a certain spe- 
cies of birds termed flycatchers. In its trans- 
ferred use it refers to a silly or credulous per- 
son who has no opinion of his own or to one 
who is generally idle. 

GOBI, gc/bS, or STTATVrO, sha'mo'. A vast 
desert region of Central Asia, constituting the 
eastern extension of the arid belt that stretches 
across the whole breadth of the Asiatic conti- 
nent into Africa (Map: Asia, L 4). As gener- 
ally defined, it includes only the desert area of 
Mongolia from the confines of Sinkiang on the 
west to the Khingan Mountains on the east, al- 
though some geographers extend its western 
limits to Lob Nor, in about long. 90 E. East 
of the Khingan Range is a smaller arid region, 
commonly called the Eastern Gobi. The Gobi 
has the form of a great plateau, whose surface, 
lying 3000 feet or more above the sea, is divided 
into dreary wastes of sand, rocky table-lands, 
and mountains. The climate is severe, especially 
on the borders, and the rainfall scanty; the 
precipitation being generally sufficient, however, 
to furnish pasturage for flocks and herds during 
the summer months. Most of the nomadic tribes 
inhabiting the interior are Buddhists. The per- 
manent settlements are confined to the northern 
part, which is traversed by spurs of the Tian- 
Shan, Altai, and Yablonoi mountains. A num- 
ber of caravan routes lead across the desert 
from China proper to Siberia. Some allusions 
to the Gobi Desert are found in the writings of 
Marco Polo, but the first definite information 
we owe to the Jesuit Gerbillon, who made sev- 
eral journeys across the country in 1688-98. It 
was later visited by the Dutchman Ysbrand 
Ides, in 1692-94, and twice (1727-28 and 1736) 
by Lorenz Lange, who was sent by the Russian 
government to Peking. The most accurate and 
valuable information about the desert was ob- 
tained by explorers in the last 50 years, es- 
pecially by Przhevalski and Sven Hedin (qq.v.). 

GOBINEATT, gybSW, JOSEPH ABTHUB, 
COUNT OF (1816-82). A French Orientalist, 
born at Ville-d'Avray, near Paris. He held vari- 
ous diplomatic positions in Europe and rep- 
resented France at Athens, at Rio de Janeiro 
(1868), and Stockholm (1872-77). His works 
include: Trois ans en Asie (1859) ; Les religions 
et les philosophies de I 9 Asie oentrale (1865; 
3d ed., Paris, 1900) ; Traite" des inscriptions 
cun&formes (2 vols., 1864) ; Histoire des Perses 
(2 vols., 1869) ; Histoire d'Ottar Jarl, pirate 
norvtigien (1879) ; Essai sur I'in^galite des races 
Tiumaines (4 vols., Paris, 1853-55), translated 
into English under the title Moral and Intellec- 
tual Diversity of Races (Philadelphia, 1856) 
and into German by Schemann (Stuttgart, 1898- 
1901) ; and Pages choisies, a volume of selections 
edited by Morland (Paris, 1905), in which can 
be found a brief biography (pp. 5-45) . Consult: 
Kretzer, Gobineau (Leipzig, 1902) ; Seillicre, Z/o 
comte de Gobineau et Varyani'sme Historique 
(Paris, 1903) ; Kleinecke, Gobineaus RassenpM- 
losophic (Berlin, 1902). 



GOBLET 

GOBLET, REid; (1828-1905). A French 
statesman. Fie was born at Aire-sur-la-Lys, 
studied law, and practiced with great success 
at Amiens. Already distinguished for his demo- 
cratic principles expressed in his paper, the 
Progres de la Somme, at the fall of the Empire 
he became proeureur general at the court of 
Amiens. In 1871 he was elected to the National 
Assembly, where he joined the Republican Left 
and was soon recognized as an orator of rare 
ability. In 1876 he failed of reelection to the 
Chamber, but was successful in 1877 and 1881. 
In 1879 he was appointed Undersecretary of 
State for Justice, and in 1882 was appointed 
Minister of the Interior in the Freycinet cabi- 
net, but in the crisis brought about by the Egyp- 
tian question and because of the attacks made 
upon the ministry of Freycinet, he, with the 
other members, resigned, (tablet was appointed 
Minister of Education and Public Worship in 
the Brisson minitjtry (April, 1885) and ener- 
getically continued his reform policy. He re- 
tained -his portfolio in the Freycinet cabinet, 
which went out of office in December, 1S8C, 
when ho became Prime Minister. His ministry 
was overthrown in May, 1887, because of his 
unpopular efforts towards radical change in the 
municipal organization of Paris and because 
he was weak in the Schnaebele affair with Ger- 
many. He had been much embarrassed besides 
by his Minister of War, Botilanger. From April, 
1888, to February, 1889, he held the portfolio 
of Foreign Affairs in the Floquct cabinet. He 
was elected senator in 1801, and as such warmly 
supported anticlerical measures and, together 
with Lockroy, Sarrion, and Peytral, drew up a 
political programme of action of which the Petite 
Rdpubliquc I^ran^aise is tho organ. From 1893 
to 1898 he was again a member of the Cham- 
ber of Deputies, where he voted with the Radi- 
cals. In 1902 he protested against Gombcs's 
action in closing schools conducted by the reli- 
gious orders. 

GOBLET D'ALVIELLA, go'blft' diU-vySlla, 
AiBEKT JOSEPH, COUNT (1790-1873). A Bel- 
gian general, born at Tournai. He served in the 
French army in 1811-14 and then in the Dutch, 
and was Minister of War after the revolution 
of 1830, which post he exchanged in 1832 for 
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. From 1837 to 
1839 he was Ambassador to Portugal and was 
adviser to the young Queen, Maria da Gloria, 
from whom he received the title of Count 
d'Alviella. In 1839, returning to Brussels, he 
became Minister without portfolio, was again 
Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1843 to 184, r >, 
and exercised a considerable influence upon the 
public measures advocated in the Chamber, As 
a military engineer, he plannod the defenses of 
northern Belgium and the extension of the for- 
tifications of Antwerp. T-lis principal publica- 
tions are DCS cinq grander pmssanaes do VJSu- 
rope dans Icurs rapports politiqucs et militaires 
avee la Belgique (1803) and DiiB'huit mote do 
politique (2 vols., 1805), Consult the biographi- 
cal sketch by Juste in Lcs fondatevrs de la 
monarchic 'beige, vol. viii (Brussels, 1870). 

GOBLET D'ALVIELLA, EuaftNE, COUNT 
(1846- ). A Belgian historian of religion, 
grandson of Albert Joseph. He was a member 
of the Chamber of Deputies in 1874-78 and of 
the Senate in 1892-04 and after 1900. He be- 
came in 1894 professor of the history of reli- 
gion at the University of Brussels. In 1875 he 
accompanied the Prince of Wales (later Edward 



2 GOBY 

VII) on the latter's journey to India. He also 
became a collaborator on the tfemie de Belgique. 
In addition to descriptions of travel, Sahara ct 
Laponie (Eng. trans., "Sahara and Lapland," 
1874), I tide et Himalaya, and several other 
works, he published notably: HE volution rc- 
llgieutte contcmporainc uhcz Ics Anglais, Ics 
America-it^ ct Ics Hindoo (1884; Eng. trans, 
by Moden, "The Contemporary Evolution of Re- 
ligious Thought in England, America, and In- 
dia," 1885); La migration dcs Rymbolcs (1891; 
Eng. trans., "The Migration of Symbols," by Sir 
George Birdwood, 1804), his numt important 
volume, whose thesis is that "the religious sym- 
bols common to the different historical races of 
mankind have not originated independently 
among them, but have for tho most part boon 
carried from one to the other in tho course 
of their migrations, conquests, and commerce"; 
the (Ilibbert) Lectures on the Origin find (iromth 
of the Conception of God as Tllmttralcd by An- 
thropology and History (1802); Oc f/nc rintlc 
doit <i la, drew (181)7); OoT/frmrv, ritc.fi, insti- 
tutions (3 vols., 1911). Ho nuido tho windy of 
symbols a rccognizedly valuable branch of 
archeology. 

GOBELINS (OF. goMin, from ML. cobalus, 
Ok. /co/3aXo$, kobalos, rascal). Spirits of popular 
superstition, grotesque in appearance, and gen- 
erally malicious, who live in woods or caves and 
often lurk about houses. They arc called hob- 
goblins, perhaps a corruption of hopgoblin. See 
DEMON. 

GOBLINS, THE. A sparkling comedy, inter- 
spersed with songs and music, by Sir .John 
Suckling, first acted at 131ackfriars in 10IJ8 
and revived at tho Theatre Royal, Jan. 24, 
1007. 

GOB01TY. A term in heraldry. See COM- 

PONfi. 

GOB'SECK, A novel by Balzac ( 1830) . 

GO'BY (from Lat. gobio, gobius, gudgeon, 
from Gk. fcw]8i6s, kobios, gudgeon). A spiny- 
rayed fish of tho family (ioluudos, whoso ventral 
fins are completely united into a disk more, or 
loss capable of being used as a sucker, enabling 
the fish to cling to rocks and so resist the power 
of waves and currents. Thoy have no air blad- 
der. The true gob LOR are generally small fishes, 
some of them inhabiting the shallow buys of 
the coaflt, and others doepor water; tho species 
are very numerous and belong to both no.mi- 
sphoros. One. species (of Russia) inhabits fronh 
water alone. The gobies aro very interesting, 
on account of their habits, and aro of tho num- 
ber of nest-building fishes, employing seaweeds 
and eol grawH for this purpose in spring. When 
the female has deposited her eggs in the nest, 
the male watches ovr thorn till they aro hatched. 
In Europe, consequently, these fishes are much 
in request for aquaria, of which they are among 
the most interesting occupants. A JJritiHh spe- 
cies (Gobitts 'minutwi), which ascends rivers, 
chooses a cockleshell for its home in Home ti<lal 
pool. "The. shell being placed on the sand with 
its concave surface downward, the sand be- 
neath it ifl hollowed out and cemented by a 
special mucilaginous secretion from the wk'm; 
a cylindrical tunnel gives access to the nest, and 
the whole structure is covered over with IOOHO 
sand." The female having glued her eggn to the 
shell, the male guards them for six to nine days, 
until they hatch. Another "European goby (La* 
trunciilus pellucidMs), which is nearly transpar- 
ent, is remarkable for being perhaps the most 



GOGH 

short-lived of all vertebrates, being- born in mid- 
summer, maturing during the following winter, 
and spawning and dying upon the approach of 
summer, so that none live more than a year. 
Small species of several genera inhabit the coast 
and estuaries of the southern United States and 
of California. See MUDFISH. 

GOGH, gda, JOHANNES VON (properly JOHANN 
PUPPEB, or CAPUPPEB) (c.1400-75). A German 
Augustinian monk. He was born at Goch, Prus- 
sia, studied at Cologne and probably at Paris, 
and was the founder (1459) of an Order of 
Canoncases at Tabor, near Mechlin, Flanders, 
of which he subsequently became prior. A pre- 
cursor of the Reformation, in his writings, De 
Lioertate Christiana, De Quatuor Erroribus circa, 
Let/em EvangeHcam exortis, and Epistola Apolo- 
getica (1521), he attacks the influence of Pela- 

rnism in the Church, and advocates a return 
the text of the Bible as the only true source 
of religious truth. He was considered a man 
of profound piety, and as a theologian was un- 
excelled in his day. Consult Clemen, Johann 
Puppcr von G-och (Leipzig, 1890). 

GOCKEKTGK, ge'klnk (also spelled GOEKINQK 
and GOKINOK), LEOPOLD FBIEDBICH GUNTHEB 
vox (1748-1828). A German poet. He was 
born at Grb'ningen and was educated at Halle. 
After occupying various official positions under 
the government at Magdeburg, Wernigerode, and 
Berlin, and acting for several years as privy 
councilor to the Prince of Orange-Fulda, he 
in 1826 removed to Berlin and subsequently to 
Wartenborg, Silesia. His Lieder ssweier Lie- 
lenden (3d ed., 1819) won for him great popu- 
larity in Germany towards the close of the 
eighteenth century. His OedicJite (rev. ed., 
1821) contain the excellent Episteln and Sinnge- 
dichte (separately published, 2d ed., 1778). The 
latter are occasionally characterized by a vein 
of modern political satire. Consult Gockingk's 
correspondence with Btirger (q.v.) in Strodt- 
mann, Brief e von und an Burger (4 vols., Ber- 
lin, 1874), and Kasch, Leopold von Goeckingk 
(Marburg, 1009). 

GOD (AS., OS., Dutch god, Goth. gu]>, OHG. 
got, cot, Ger. Gott, of doubtful etymology, per- 
haps connected with Skt. ha, to call, or with Skt. 
hu, Gk. xeiv, chein, to pour; the word is evi- 
dently originally a passive participle; the fre- 
quent derivation of god from good, AS gOd, 
Goth, gods, OHG. guot, Ger. gut, is entirely er- 
roneous). Two types of definition of God are 
possible. One is the maximum definition, which 
defines God in terms of the highest conceivable 
religious ideas. According to this, God is the 
eternal and infinite personal Spirit, the Creator 
and Governor of the universe, the loving Father 
of all men. The other is the minimum definition 
BO framed as to include the god of any historic 
religion, however primitive. A wide variety of 
such definitions have been given, which may be 
summarized thus : an extrahuman power, treated 
as personal, and conceived of as exercising con- 
trol over some sphere which affects human life. 
In primitive religion any spirit may, by gaining 
more power and so winning worshipers and a 
cult, become a god. Man needs help for various 
things, and those powers to which he feels that 
he can appeal in any personal way become for 
him gods. 

The idea of gods once introduced, the tendency 
is towards a multiplication of gods, whence 
arises polytheism. A tendency soon becomes 
marked to ascribe to one god the control over 



73 



GOD 



some restricted portion of country or over the 
affairs of one family. This produces a "heno- 
theism" within a restricted group of persons, 
which may be perfectly consistent with polythe- 
ism and polytheistic worship apart from the re- 
stricted circle to which this one god belongs. 
But with the growth of the family into a tribe, 
and of the tribe into a nation, the sphere of the 
god is also enlarged, and victories over other 
nations, as well as the attempt to find a single 
cause behind all things, will produce ultimately 
the idea of one god, beside whom all other gods 
are only pretended gods, having no real exist- 
ence. Thus monotheism must develop. The He- 
brew conception of God grew from an early 
tribal god to a national deity, caring for the 
welfare of the Hebrew nation. Under the 
prophets the conception came to be strongly 
moral, and Jehovah, the national God, became 
a God of social righteousness: fc 'What doth the 
Lord require of thee but to do justly and to 
love rnercy and to walk humbly with thy God?" 
(Mic. vi/8.) The contact with other nations 
led the prophets to see that their God must bo 
conceived as controlling the nations if he was 
to guide the fortunes of Israel. In this way He- 
brew thought developed an ethical monotheism. 
By the time of the beginning of the Christian 
era the Hebrew idea of God was that of a Being, 
the sole cause of all things, omniscient and 
omnipotent, benevolent, rewarding the good and 
punishing the evil, and guiding the world to 
the fulfillment of His own purpose. The idea, 
however, was still nationalistic. While Jehovah 
was the God of the whole world, Israel was His 
particular care. This conception of God Chris- 
tianity took over, only emphasizing the idea of 
God as a loving Father, and, when the new re- 
ligion passed from the Hebrews to the Greeks, 
putting the Christian Church for the Hebrew 
nation as the object of God's peculiar care. 
Every age has a different conception of God, 
and the Christian idea has developed as the con- 
ceptions of ethics and of the brotherhood of the 
world have advanced. Theology has brought 
forward various proofs of the existence of God. 

1. The first proof is the so-called cosmological, 
from the mere existence of a dependent world, 
which does not bear in itself the marks of eter- 
nal and independent existence, to an independ- 
ent something which shall be its cause. This 
leaves the doctrine in a very vague condition. 

2. The teleological proof adds definiteness to it. 
In innumerable individual objecta, like the 
plants, in the adaptations of the chemical ele- 
ments to each other, the construction of the bod- 
ies of animals and of the mind of man, and in 
the whole universe as revealed more and more 
by modern study, we see evidences of plan. The 
Cause of the world is therefore capable of mak- 
ing a vast plan; He possesses intelligence and 
will, i.e., rational personality. 3. The moral 
proof argues from the nature of man himself, 
especially as a moral being, to the nature of 
God as also moral, or benevolent, which argu- 
ment is supplemented by the Christian argument 
which draws the conclusion from the experience 
of regeneration that God positively seeks to 
promote the holiness of men. 4. These argu- 
ments are completed by the ontological argu- 
ment, which in its best form ascribes to the 
highest conception which man is able to form 
of God (the Christian conception) objective* 
validity, on the basis of the proposition that it 
is fundamentally inconceivable that the highest 



GODAEJD 74 

conception at which the mind of man can ar- 
live should bo a more subjective creation. 

The modern objection to this line of proof 
began with Kant, who declared it to be an ap- 
plication of the principle of causality beyond 
the bounds set by nature as an intellectual prin- 
ciple given man for the knowledge of empirical 
objects. The Sensational school, which Kant 
was opposing, has also denied the application 
of causality to roach beyond experience on vari- 
ous grounds. Mill was chiefly influenced by the 
complexity of the investigation, and particularly 
by the difficulties created by the existence of 
pain and sin. Spencer, who has carried this 
school to its natural results and combined a de- 
veloped theory of evolution with sensationalism, 
has based his objections upon the doctrine of 
the relativity of knowledge, which makes such 
a conception as that of a first cause essentially 
unintelligible. In a more popular form the ob- 
jection is raised against the idea of God that 
it is incapable of proof, by which is meant such 
proof as is given to the propositions of natural 
science, experimental and tangible proof. 

It has sometimes been claimed that the idea 
of God is innate in the soul. If by this is 
meant that every man has by nature the idoa of 
one infinite person, the claim is manifestly false, 
for the existence of polytheism at once disprove* 
it. But if it bo meant that there are innate in 
the mind certain principles, such as that of cau- 
sation, which impel the mind to look up from 
phenomena to their source, and that the ex- 
amination of all the phenomena belonging to 
this sphere will finally give to man the knowl- 
edge of God, the proposition in this sense i 
true. The argument is thus mingled of a priori 
and a posteriori elements. The former are neces- 
sary as the rational foundation of the argument, 
the latter to give it contents and to lead it to the 
concrete result of the being of God. See TIIKIHM. 

Bibliography. Among the numerous excel- 
lent treatises of recent timew upon theism may 
be mentioned as tho host: Orr, Christian View 
of God and the "World (London, 1807); Flint, 
Theism (ib., 1886) ; id., Anti-Tlwititic Theories 
(Edinburgh, 1884) ; Martinuan, .1 Ntndy of Re- 
ligion (Oxford, 1888) ; id., The Idea of God (.Boa- 
ton, 1887); Fiskc, Thorough Naturo to God (ib., 
1809); Clarke, The Christian Doctrine of God 
(New York, 1909) ; Acloney, The Ctvristian Con- 
ception of God (ib., 1912) . For a modern theory 
of tho origin of the idea of God, consult King, 
The Development of Religion (ib., 1910). 

GODABD, gft'diir', BENJAMIN (1849-95). A 
French composer, bom in Paris. Ho was a 
precocious child and, after studying 1 the violin 
with Richard Hammer, entered tho Paris Con- 
servatory, where his teachers were Vieuxtcmps 
(violin) and lleber (composition). Tn 1805 a 
violin sonata was published, and shortly after- 
ward Godard received a prize from tho Institut 
de France. From this time on, his compositions 
followed each other rapidly. While not works 
of genius, they are characterised by felicity of 
expression and met with considerable popular 
favor. His most successful opera was La vivan- 
di&re, produced at the Opdra Oomique shortly 
after his death. Ho also wrote: Pedro de Zala- 
mea (1884) ; Jocelyn (1888) ; Le Dante (1890) ; 
Jeanne d'Aro (1891); and numerous sympho- 
nies, suites, concertos, and songs. 

OODAVABI, ga-da'va-rS. One of the prin- 
cipal rivers of the peninsula of India, and the 
largest of the Deccan, rising within 60 miles of 



GODEFROY 



the Arabian Sea in the \VcHteru Ghats, near 
Dindori (Map: India, 05). It flows southeast 
for 900 miles across the peninsula into the Bay 
of Bengal. Dividing at Rajanumdry, it enters 
the sea by two principal mouths tho northern 
at the French town of Yanaon and the southern 
at Narsapur. About 23 miles above the head 
of tho delta the Godavari emerges near Jlarupa 
from the Eastern Ghats. It is navigable for 
300 miles. Its northern tributaries arc tho 
Purna, tho Pranhita, the Indravati, and the 
Saveri-, from the south it receives tho Munjera 
and the Manor. 

GOD'DAKD, ABABELIA (MRS. J. W. DAVI- 
SON) (183C-1922). An English pianist. i=5ho 
was born, of English parentage, in Brittany, 
studied in Paris under Kalkbrenner and in 
London under Mrs. Anderson und Thalberg, and 
made her first public appearance in 1850 at tho 
Grand National Concerts at Her Majesty's 
Theatre. She continued her studien under 
Davison, whom she married in 1800. I For mont 
brilliant succefls was in her interpretation of 
the last compositions of Beethoven. In 1 87."} -70 
she made a nucccHsfu! tour of the world, includ- 
ing America, Australia, and India, and in 1880 
retired from professional concert giving. 

GOD'DESS OP REASON. The now divinity 
set up by the French Revolutionists in thoir at- 
tempted reconstruction of religion in 1793. On 
November ]0, in tho cathedral of Notre Diune, 
changed into a Temple of Keaaon, the goddess 
was installed with much ceremony. The purl of 
the goddess was taken by an act mm, drewwul in 
white and wearing the Phrygian cap and tho 
tricolor. Tho cathedral wart restored to its 
proper functions by Napoleon in 1802. 

GODEBSKI, g6-dSl/ske-, CYPRIEN ( 1835- 
1009). A Polish Hculptnr, a won of Xaver <0ilcb- 
ki. He was born at Mlry-Hur-C/hnr, Krsuice, 
and was educated at tho Polish school, Jlati- 
gnolles, and in the studio of JouflTrny. He upent 
many years in Galicia and ut St. Petersburg. 
His principal works include: 'The. Awukening," 
a marble statue. (1880): "Children," a hronxtt 
group for a Polirii school (1880); 'The. Ango.l 
of tho Fatherland Protecting Two Orphans"; 
"Brutal Force tfuirocatinp; (taniuR" (Toulon Mu- 
seum) j btists of ROMNJII), VieuxtempN, Xirhy, 
Servais, Prince Gortchakov, KraH/ovHki, arid 
others, and tho Htatues of GencrulH Luiulon and 
Lassy, in tho Vionnu Arsenal. lie also executed 
a fine inonuimmt of the composer Moriiunako, hi 
Warsaw Cathedral; a monunumt to the IUTOCH 
of the Crimean War, at Sebawtopol; the tomb 
of the tenor Tambcrlik, at Pere, Lachatae (tonie- 
tery, Paris; and various other monumental 
works. Many of hi later Htatuew are poly- 
chrome, e.#., "A Dream of Glory." 

GODEBSKI, gMSb'skS, KBAWHRSE or XAVKB 
(1801-66). A PoliHh author, born at Frankon- 
thal, a son of Cyprion OodebHki, poet and patriot 
(177i)-1800). lie was for many ywuw profowor 
in a Poliwh school at Pains. Ills literary work 
includes the edition of his father's more impor- 
tant writings, works on politics and history, 
especially a Hfo of Plater (1848), and the 
studies on social reform in Poland in tho eight- 
eenth century (1866), and on the spirit of tho 
times (1860). lie also translated several French 
plays into Polish. 

OODEFBOY, gfld'frwa/ (Lat, aothofiwdun). 
The name borne bv a family of diatin#uiHlic,ul 
scholars and jurists of French origin. DENIS 
GODEFBOY (1549-1622) was born at Paris and, 



GODEFROY 

after studying at Louvain under Ramus, com- 
pleted his education at the universities of Co- 
logne and Heidelberg. It waa probably at this 
last place that he adopted Protestant tenets. 
In 1579 Godefroy quitted France and became a 
professor of law at Geneva. In 1589, having 
returned to France, he was made bailiff of the 
District of Gex; but, his house having been pil- 
laged and his library burnt by the troops of the 
Duke of Savoy, he retired first to Basel and 
later to Strassburg, where in 1591 he was given 
the chair of Roman law and history. In 1605 
the Elector Palatine of the Rhine called him to 
be head of the faculty of law at Heidelberg. 
In 1618 he was sent as envoy to Paris from 
Frederick V to Louis XIII. Though numerous 
offers were made to him, Godefroy preferred 
to remain at Heidelberg, but in 1621 the pres- 
ence of the army of the Catholic League under 
Count Tilly forced him to seek refuge at Strass- 
burg, where he died Sept. 7, 1622. His most 
important work was his edition of the Corpus 
Juris Cirilis (Geneva, 1583), which was lung 
the standard text. He was also the author of 
numerous works on jurisprudence and on the 
classics. THEODORE GODEFBOY (1580-1649) was 
the eldest son of Denis Godefroy. In 1602, after 
being educated at Geneva and Strassburg, he 
settled in Paris and abjured Protestantism. Al- 
though an advocate before the Parliament of 
Paris, he devoted most of his time to the study 
of history and eventually became the historiog- 
rapher royal of France. During the latter half 
of the Thirty Years' War he was employed as 
one of the French diplomats at Cologne and 
Minister and helped negotiate the Peace of 
Westphalia in 1648. He died at Mtinster, Oct. 
5, 1G4J). He was the author of xnirierous works 
111 French history and politics and made a large 
and important collection of documents tor the 
history of France and of other countries. This 
was continued by his son DENIS (1615-81) and 
in 1749 found its way into the library of the 
Institut do France. JACQUES GODEFBQY (1587- 
1652), the younger brother of Theodore, passed 
his life as professor of law at Geneva and re- 
mained true to his Protestant convictions. He 
hold many important public offices during his 
stay in Switzerland. He is known as the editor 
of *the Theodosian Code (Lyons, 1665*), upon 
which he worked for 20 years, and which is still 
used by jurists. Besides this, he published a 
multitude of works on law and jurisprudence, 
and he ranks higher as a scholar than even his 
learned father. -Others of the Godefroy family 
who were distinguished in their time are: JEAN 
GODEFBOY, Sieur d'Aumont ( 1656-1732, the third 
son of the younger Denis, and an historian of 
note; DENIS CHARLES GODEFBOY, MARQUIS OF 
MEUILOLOIBB (1795-1877), the family biographer 
and a scholar of ability. He published Les 
savants Godefroy and M&movres tfune famille 
pendant les XVIeme* XVIleme, et XVHIeme 
siecles (1873). 

GODEffROY, gdd'frwJi', FREDERIC (1826- 
97 ). A French literary historian. He was edu- 
cated for the most part privately and early 
devoted his leisure to the study of French lan- 
guage and literature. His Lewique compare" de 
la langue do Oorneille (1862) was crowned by 
the Academy. He also wrote a Histoire de la 
Utterature franQoise depute le XVIeme siecle 
jusqu'a nos jours (1859-78; 2d ed., 1878-81). 
With governmental support he prepared the vo- 
luminous and important Dictionnaire de Van- 
VOL. X. 6 



75 GODFATHEB AND GODMOTHEB 

cienne langue fran^aine et tous scs dialcctes du 
IT&me au XVeme siecle (10 vols., 1880-1903). 
This work, laboriously compiled from all au- 
thoritative printed and manuscript sources, re- 
mains, despite certain defects, a standard refer- 
ence book. 

GODERICH, gOd'rlch. See RIPON FREDERICK 
JOHN ROBINSON, EARL OF. 

GODEBICH. A popular summer resort and 
the county seat of Huron Co., Ontario, Canada ; a 
port of entry on Lake Huron, at the entrance of 
Maitland River, and on the Grand Trunk and 
the Canadian Pacific railroads (Map: Ontario, 
C 6). It has a good harbor and steam com- 
munication with all lake ports. There are salt 
refineries, flour and lumber mills, an organ fac- 
tory, iron foundries, tanneries, grain elevators, 
and manufactories of wheels, road machines, and 
knitting machines. The surrounding district 
supplies excellent limestone, sand, and clay for 
manufacturing purposes. Pop., 1901, 4158; 
1911, 4522. 

GODESBERG, go'des-berK. A watering place 
in the Prussian Rhine Province, situated near 
the left bank of the Rhine, 4 miles below Bonn. 
It has an alkaline chalybeate spring, believed 
to have been known to the Romans, a hydro- 
pathic establishment, and numerous fine villas 
with gardens. It has extensive industries in 
quilting and brickmaking. A short distance 
from the village lie the ruins of the castle of 
Godesberg, erected by Archbishop Dietrich of 
Cologne in the thirteenth century. Pop., 1900, 
8927; 1910, 10,644. Consult Dennert, Gode&berg> 
eine Perle des Rheins (Godesbcrg, 1900). 

GODET, g&'da', FRED&HC (1812-1900). A 
Swiss Protestant theologian. He was born at 
Neuchatel and was educated in that city and 
at Bonn and Berlin. In 1850 he was appointed 
professor of theology at Neuchiitel and in the 
following year received a pastorate which he 
held until 1866. In 1873 he helped to found 
the Evangelical church of Neuchatel, independ- 
ent of the state, and was a professor in its 
faculty of theology. As a prominent represent- 
ative of Reformed orthodoxy, Godet exercised 
a very wholesome influence on the development 
of religious thought in Switzerland, further 
stimulated by his published works, particularly 
by his commentaries, which are marked by great 
delicacy of exegesis. He wrote: Eistoire de la 
rtiformation et du refuge dans 1c pays de NCU- 
chdtel (1859) ; Gommentaire sur I'&vangile de 
8aint-Jean (1863-65; 3d ed., 1881-88), which 
has been translated into English (1886), Ger- 
man, Dutch, and Danish; Commentaire sur 
I'tvangile de 8avnt-Luo (1871; 3d ed,, 1889; 
Eng. trans., 1875); Oommentaire sur V6pUre 
auai Romams (1879-80; 2d ed., 1890; Eng. 
trans., 1881); Etudes UUiquea (4th ed., 1889; 
Eng. trans., first part, Old Testament Studies, 
3d ed., 1885, second part, New Testament Stud- 
ies, 6th ed., 1885) ; Lectures in Defense of the 
Christian Faith (4th ed., 1900). 

GO'DEY, Lotus ANTOINE (1804-78). An 
American publisher, born and educated in New 
York City. From 1830 to 1877 he conducted 
at Philadelphia Godey's Lady's Book, the first 
woman's periodical in the United States. Among 
Ms other publications were Jarvis's 'Musical Li- 
brary and the Young People's Book. 

GODFATHER AND GODMOTHER. The 
sponsors of candidates for baptism, and, in the 
Roman Catholic church, of candidates for con- 
firmation. See SPONSOBS. 



GOIXFBEY 76 

', SIB EDMUND BEHBY (1621-78). 
An English magistrate, born in Kent and edu- 
cated at Christ Church, Oxford. He became a 
justice of the peace for Westminster, and in 
1666 was knighted for his efficient work during 
the plague. In 1678 he received the depositions 
of Titus Gates (q.v.) concerning the "Popish 
Plot." Shortly afterward he was found dead 
near Hampstead. The public immediately ac- 
cused the Roman Catholic priests of having 
murdered Godfrey, and subsequently a man 
named Miles Prance was induced to make a 
confession implicating the Catholics. As a re- 
sult of this confession, three men were hanged 
for the crime; but Prance, when accused of per- 
jury, finally (1686) admitted that he had con- 
cocted his evidence. Considerable controversy 
arose as to how Godfrey met his death aomo 
claimed ho had committed suicide but thougli 
the evidence pointed to murder, the mystery 
was never solved. Consult John Pollock, The 
Popish Plot (London, 11)08), and Alfred Miirka, 
Who Killed Sir J3. B. Godfrey? (ib., 1005). 

GODPBEY, THOMAS (1704-49). A self-taught 
American mathematician, who acquired Homo 
reputation from an improvement which he made 
in Da vis's quadrant. (See SEXTANT.) He was 
a man of intemperate habits, a humble artisan 
in Philadelphia, but he was Hufliciently inter- 
ested in science to learn Latin that he might 
read the better clans of mathematical literature 
of the time. The improvement in the quadrant 
seems to have been due to him, but there was 
a dispute between him and John Hadloy of 
England as to the priority of the invention. 
The Royal Society considered the claims of both 
parties and rewarded each, Bonding to Godfrey 
gifts to the value of $1000. The account in the 
Philosophical Transactions of the Eoyal Society 
of London (abridged ed., London, 1800, vol. vii, 
p. 667, for 1734) speaks -of him as "having un- 
der the greatest disadvantages made himself 
master of the principles of astronomy and op- 
tics, as well as other parts of mathematical 
science," and as having made his invention in 
1730, the first account of it appearing two years 
later. 

CtOBPBEY DE BOTnLLOM", de boo'yoN' 
(c.1058-1100). One of the leaders of the Firt 
Crusade and the first Latin ruler of Jerusalem. 
He was the son of Eustace of Boulogne urul Ida, 
sister of Gosielo, or Godfrey, the Humpbacked, 
of Lower Lorraine. Tho year of lug birth is 
uncertain, but it was about 1058. His family 
traced its descent from Charles the Great, and 
later legends made Lohengrin, "the Knight of 
the Swan," Godfrey's progenitor. In the strife 
over investiture (q.v.) he was on the side of 
the Emperor, and it was said that he was the 
first to scale the walls of Rome when it was at- 
tacked by Henry IV in 1084. The legends also 
recount how he was stricken with disease bc- 
sause of his sacrilege at Rome and then mirac- 
ulously healed when he took the Crusader's 
row. In 1089 he became Duke of Lower Lor- 
raine. He was one of the leaders in the First 
ZJrusade (1006-99), but not commander in chief, 
md after the capture of Jerusalem was elected 
'Baron and Defender of the Holy Sepulchre." 
According to an untrustworthy legend, ho was 
>ffered the title of King, but refused "to wear 
t crown of gold where the Savior had worn a 
MTOWML of thorns." He held this dignity for 
iJbout a year, and died July 17 or 18, 1100. 
3odfrey is described as a man of large stature 



OODIN 

and great bodily strength. Many feats of 
bravery and strength are ascribed to him, sue.h 
as his combat binglo-handed with a ferocious 
bear, or Ms cleaving asunder the body of a Alos- 
lein emir with a single blow of bis 'sword. He 
made an excellent and energetic ruler of Jerusa- 
lem. Many legends clustered about his name, 
and many deeds were falsely imputed to him. 
Consult: Sybel, (Jcsrhiahtr dc'tt crstcn Kmixziii/M 
(Leipzig, 1000) ; Froboese, Gottfried run Huuillon 
(Berlin, 1879) ; Ktthricht, Die toiutwhcn im, 
Hciliycn Lancle (limsbruch. 18JI4) ; I'igeonneiiu, 
Le cycle dc la croiwitlc et dc la famillc de Uonillon 
(Saint-Cloud, 1877). Hagemneyer, f/iw/ Wtan- 
coruw (Heidelberg, 1890), given a bibliography 
of all the best works on Godfrey . See, Atsaizifi 
OF JKRUHALKALJ CRUSADK. 
GODGIFTT. See (louivA. 
OODHAVK", god'hiiv'n. A town of (Jreen- 
land, on the south coast of Disco Island (Map: 
America, North, N B). It is the residence of 
the Danish Inspector of the Northern Inspec- 
torate, and has some, fishing industricM. (iod- 
havn, also called Lievely, is mainly known in 
America as the stopping place of uuiity polar ex- 
peditions. Pop., 300, of Avhoui five only are 
Danes. 

GrODIN, go'dfiN', A&ifti.i&. Sets LINZ, AM^LIR. 
GODIN, go'diiN', JEAN BAPTINTE ANUK (1817- 
88). A French socialist, born at Bttqueherien, 
in the Department of Ataue. lie oamu from an 
artiaun family, and received the meagre educa- 
tion which waa given to boyp of his claws at Unit 
time. When 17 years old he began a trip 
through Prance, in order to perfect his skill an 
an artisan. Three yearn afterward ho was a 
workman in Enquohovios. A jsmtill workshop 
which he established in 1840 prospered and in 
1840 employed about 30 men. Jle removed to 
in order to find a better market for Inn 



wares. Tie found time to pick up n very fair 
education, and became deeply intcreniod in the 
writings of curtain Hoeialiatu, especially Fourier. 
lie contributed 1 00,000 fraucH to this 



project of Victor (V)iiHiderant (q.v.) to found 
a .KourieriHtic colony in Texan. In Irtfii) he be- 
gun the construction of the buildingH for II'IH co- 
0])orativc aHHociation, or famitittturU) and before 
3880 had fully <'HtabliHbed proiit Khuring. Uy 
hia plan proiits in OXCUHH of 5 pt*r cent on 
capital ^vve.re to be, divided between labor aucl 
capital in the ratio of aggregate wagofl to aggre- 
gate minimum profits, Prior to this dintnlm- 
tion, however, a sum was to be w k t awide for edu- 
cation, insurance againt HiokiuwH and ol<l a^ T 
etc. At hi death ho left almost hit* entire, ]>er- 
soiial fortune (about 2,500,000 francs) to the 
association. Almtwt all tbe. tjliareH in Ihe UHHO- 
oiation are at present held by the workerH, num- 
boring laomc 1200. 

flodin liad some HUCCCMB in iwlititw. Ife wnw 
elected president of the numioipal eonunission 
of Guitto in 1870, an<l member of the National 
AsBouibly in 1875. In 1882 he waa made Knight 
oi tbe Legion of Honor. Jle published Hctveral 
books, tbe chief of which arc: Solutions wrialctt 
(1871); La yoUtiqm du trwwil ct l<t, poliii^w 
des pntn%(3 (1875)j ha Aoiwomtorfd t /<? 
droita du p&uplo; le ffouvernomcnt ct l<> vmi 
9odaHsme en action (1883); La rtipullitiiw du 
travail et la rtifornw partomentairv (JH8D), 
Consult Bornadot, Le faniilistiiro <te (luisc et 
son fonduteur (Paris, 1880), and D'lHambcrt, 
ttoeialteteB en France (ib., 1006). See 



GODItf 

GODIW, Louis (1704^60). A French astron- 
omer, born in Paris. He studied at the Lyee'e 
Louis le Grand and under Delisle. On May 
16, 1735, he started on an expedition to South 
America to measure a degree of the meridian 
by geodetic methods He arrived at Quito, Peru, 
in February, 17 36, established two astronomical 
stations in the Andes, and was subsequently 
appointed professor of mathematics at Lima, 
where, in 1746, he made important seismologies! 
studies during the famous earthquake. A year 
after his return to Europe, in 1752, he was 
appointed president of the naval academy at 
Cadiz, where he rendered valuable service dur- 
ing the earthquake of Lisbon. His principal 
works include: Histoire de I'Academie des 
Sciences 1680 & *9Q (1728) ; El temblor de tierra 
de Lima, sus causas, efectos y consequential 
(1748); Observations astronomiques au Perou 
(1752); Des tremoleinents de terre en general, 
de ceitx de Lima, et Lisbon en particulicr 
(1753); Lea possessions espagnoles de 1'A.me- 
rique du- Sud (1755). 

GODIN DBS OD03STAIS, da z&Wni,', JEAN 
(1712-02). A French naturalist, born at Saint- 
Amand, Franco. Early in his life he went to 
Peru, where be was appointed to the chair of 
natural science and astronomy at Quito (1739). 
Several years later he began a botanical explora- 
tion of northern Peru and Ecuador, and after- 
ward removed to Cayenne, where from 1750 to 
1765 he explored the neighboring countiy and 
Brazilian Guiana. From here he traveled along 
the Amazon, on the banks of which he made fur- 
ther botanical investigations during a period 
extending over eight years. On these journeys 
lie prepared illustrations of hundreds of mam- 
mals and birds, many of them before unknown, 
and collected more than 10,000 species of plants. 
Returning to France in 1773, he gave his collec- 
tions to the Museum of Natural History at Paris. 
His numerous publications, comprising works on 
the botany and languages of South America, in- 
clude: Flore rai&onnee du P6rou (1776), con- 
taining more than 4000 species, with two vol- 
umes of illustrations, in more than 700 plates; 
Lcs plantes de la Guayane (1777) ; Faitno du 
P&rou (1778), with numerous illustrations; 
ffloro de la Quaynne (1779), witji three volumes 
of illustrations ; Grwrnnaire Gomparee des langues 
mdivnncR do FAm&riquo du Sud (1784). 

G-6DING-, gSMIng (Bohemian Hodonin}. A 
town in Moravia, Austria, on the right bank of 
the navigable March, which here forms part of 
the Hungarian boundary, about 70 miles north- 
oast of Vienna. It is in a good agricultural 
district. The principal attraction is the Im- 
perial castle, with its immense park. It has 
(tar man. and Czech high achools, cavalry bar- 
racks, a state horse depot, a tobacco factory, 
sugar refineries, a spirit distillery, a brewery, 
and Hcvoral saw mills. Pop., 1900, 10,231. 

GODI'VA, or GOD'GKEBTr (?-c.!080). Ac- 
cording to legend, a Saxon lady of Coventry, in 
WftnvickHhire, who rode naked through the 
stroetn of the town out of devotion for her peo- 
ple. It i impoRfliblo to way whether the story 
IB wholly fictitious or partly true. In its devel- 
oped form the legend runs as follows: About the 
year 1040, Lcofric, Karl' of Mercia and Lord of 
Coventry, imposed certain onerous services and 
heavy exactions upon the inhabitants of the lat- 
ter, of which they loudly complained. His wife, 
the Lady Godiva, having the welfare of the town 
at hcari, besought her husband to give them re- 



77 GK>DKI3ff 

lief, and was so earnest in her entreaties that at 
length, to escape from her importunities, the 
Earl said he would grant her the favor, but only 
on condition that she would ride naked through 
the town, supposing, from the modesty of Lady 
Godiva, that he had imposed an impossible con- 
dition. He was surprised with her answer: 
"But will you give me leave to do .so?" As he 
could not in justice refuse, she ordered that 
proclamation be made that on a certain day no 
one should be out of doors, or even look from 
their houses: and, clothed only in her long hair, 
she rode through the town. Her husband, in ad- 
miration of her intrepid devotion, performed his 
promise. This circumstance was commemorated 
by a stained-glass window, mentioned in 1690, in 
St. Michael's Church, Coventry; and the leg- 
end that an unfortunate tailor, the only man 
who looked out of a window, was struck blind, 
has also found commemoration in an ancient 
effigy of "Peeping Tom of Coventry/' probably 
an image of St. George, still to be seen in a 
niche of one of the buildings. By a charter 
of Henry III (1218), a fair is held at Coventry, 
beginning on Friday of Trinity week, and lasting 
eight days. The fair was formerly opened with 
a grand 'civic procession, a part of which was, in 
1678, the representation of the ride of Lady 
Godiva. These processions were continued at in- 
tervals of from three to seven years until 1826. 
Some beautiful woman, who represented Lady 
Godiva, was the principal figure; but many other 
historical and emblematic personages were intro- 
duced. In 1848 the procession was revived with 
great splendor, and attracted 15,000 strangers. 
The ceremony has, however, fallen into disre- 
pute, the last procession occurring in 1887. For 
a full discussion of the legend, consult Freeman, 
Tlie Norman Conquest (Oxford, 1870-79) ; con- 
sult also Poole, Coventry, its History and An- 
tiquities (London, 1870), and Harris, Story of 
Coventry (ib., 1911). 

GOIXKIN", Eowitf LAWBENCE (1831-1902). 
An American editor and publicist, born in 
Moyne, County Wicklow, Ireland, son of a 
Presbyterian minister who was also a journalist 
and a leader in the "Young Ireland'* movement. 
The son graduated at Queen's College, Belfast, 
in 1851, and during the Crimean War (1854- 
56) was special correspondent of the London 
Daily News. In 1856 he came to the United 
States, and traveled in the South. In 1857 
he settled in New York City, where he read law 
under David D. Field (q.v.), was admitted to 
the bar in 1858, and for several years practiced 
occasionally. From 1862 until 1865 he was a 
correspondent of the Daily Neuxt and an edi- 
torial writer for the New York Times. In 1865 
he established and became editor of the Nation, 
a woekly fashioned after the London Spectator, 
whose proprietorship was assumed in 1866 by 
himself, J. M. McKim, and F. L. Olmsted (q.v.) 
In 1881 the Nation was merged with the Eve- 
ning Post, of which it became the weekly edition, 
and Godkin was thereafter an editor (in 1883- 
09 editor in chief) and proprietor of the com- 
bined publications. As a journalist, he devoted 
little attention to the organization of newspaper 
service, but he was one of the foremost leader 
writers in the history of the American press. 
His editorials in the Nation influenced in mani- 
fold ways the best thought of the time, and from 
1884, previous to which the paper had been 
avowedly Republican, he made the Evening Post 
the leading independent American daily. His 



GODLEY 78 

style was noteworthy for its directness, its pith, 
and (to quote Henry James) "admirably ag- 
gressive and ironic editorial humor, of a quality 
and authority new in the air of a journalism 
that had meant for the most part the heavy 
hand alone." Godkin's critical estimates 'were 
singularly acute and mainly just, hut possibly 
too purely intellectual to be often sympathetic. 
He was a prominent figure in reforms aft'ecting 
the causes of sound ononey, of reconstruction, 
and of the civil service. In 'him the idea of pub- 
lic office as a public trust had undoubtedly its 
chief exponent in the United States. He con- 
sistently and severely opposed the "spoils" or 
close party system in American politics, as well 
as "boss" or "machine" rule in various forms. 
His fearlessness often exposed him to disap- 
proval, and not seldom to abuse. In prepara- 
tion for the New York City municipal campaign 
of 1890, he printed in the Post, with scathing 
editorial comment, a scries of biographies of 
Tammany Hall leaders, which resulted in the 
issuance against him of several warrants of ar- 
rest on charges of criminal libel. The cases wore 
dismissed for lack of prosecution. He received 
the degree of D.C.L. from Oxford University in 
1897. A memorial Godkiii lectureship at Har- 
vard upon "The Essentials of Free Government 
and the IKities of the Citizen" was founded in 
1003. He published a History of Hungary, A ./). 
800-1850 (1853; 2a ed., 1856); an excellent 
work on Government (1871), in the "American 
Science Series"; and Reflections and Comments 
(1895), Problems of Modern Democracy (1800), 
and Unforeseen Tendencies of Democracy (1898) 
all valuable collections of papers respectively 
from the Nation, the Atlantic, and other sources. 
Consult Ogdcn, Life and Letters of JS. L. Qod- 
kin (New York, 1907). 

G-OIXLEY, ALFKHJD DENIS (1850-1925). A 
British educator, born in County Leitrim, Ire- 
land, and educated at Harrow and at Balliol 
College, Oxford. He was assistant master at 
Bradfield College in 3879-82 and fellow and 
tutor of Magdalen College in 1883-1032, and in 
1910 became public orator of the university. A 
remarkably clever writer of light verse, lie con- 
tributed some brilliant parodies to the Oxford 
Magazine; edited, with Prof. Robinson Kllis, 
the No-va Anthologia Oaooniensis (1899); p\ib- 
lishcd an edition of Tacitus' Histories (1887 
and 1890) and a translation of Horace's Odea 
(1898) ; and wrote Verses to Order (1892 and 
1903), Aspects of Modern Oarford (1893), Socra- 
tes and Athenian Society (1895), Lyra Frivola 
(1899), Second Strings (1902), Oxford in the 
Eighteenth Oentury (1908), The Casual Ward 
(1912); and "Senecan Tragedy," in English 
Literature and the Olassios (Oxford, 1914). 

aOD'M^LBT, JottN D. (1794-1830). An Amer- 
ican physician, born in Annapolis, Md. He 
graduated at the University of Maryland in 
1818, was professor of anatomy in the Medical 
College of Ohio, was one of the editors of the 
Philadelphia Journal of Medical Beicnoe, and in 
3820-27 was professor of anatomy and physiol- 
ogy in Rutgers Medical College in New York. He 
was the author of many articles in the Mnoyclo<- 
pcedia Americana, and in addition published: 
Atrwiean Natural History; Anatomical Investi- 
gation (1824) ; and Rambles of a Naturalittt. 

GODO'DENT. A seventh-century epic by the 
Welsh bard Aneuriri, who was the son of the 
chief of the Gododin tribe, founded on the week's 
battle of Cattraeth (603). It is about 900 lines 



GODOLPHIBT 

in length, and in 1852 was translated by Rev. 
John Williams, at Ithel. John Morley bus 
also translated parts of it, and the poet Gray 
founded his "Death of Hoel" upon it. Con- 
sult Elton, Origins of English History (London, 
1882). 

GODOLLO, ge'del-le. A market town in Hun- 
gary, about 10 miles northeast of Budapest. 
It 'is chiefly noteworthy for its royal chateau 
of more than 100 rooms', with an extensive park, 
formerly the property of the Princes Grasaal- 
kovich, ' later of Baron Sina, but purchased in 
1807 by the Hungarian nation and presented to 
the King at his coronation. It is now the royal 
summer residence; yearly the court holds a 
great hunt here. In the vicinity is Betmyfl, a 
noteworthy pilgrims' resort, ft has a school of 
hand weaving. Pop., 1000 r 5803. At Godnllo, 
April 0-7, 1840, the Hungarians under (Jorgey 
defeated the Auntriaiin under Windiwhgriltz. 
The victory led to the proclamation of Hun- 
garian independence, April 14, 1849. Consult 
Kipka, (fodollo (Vienna, 1808). 

GODOI/PHIW, SIDNBY, first KAKL on 1 (1045- 



, 

1712). An ICngliHli statesman. The third non 
of Sir Francis (todolpliin, he was born at Uel- 
ston, Cornwall, but of his youth little w known. 
In 10(J2 he was page of honor to Charles II, 
and in 1678 he became Miintor of the Hobes. 
From 16*08 to 1(570 he was a member of Parlia- 
ment for Hclston, then two yearn for St. Mawen. 
In 1078 he was one of the exmrnuHflioners sent 
to Holland to nogotiato the Peace of Nimeguen. 
Next year the government appointed him Lord 
of tho Treasury. In 1084 he was mode l<Mvst 
Commissioner of the Treasury and created a 
peer, with the title of Lord Godolphin of Rial- 
ton. Although his dislike of Roman Catholicism 
led him to vote for the exclusion of the Duke of 
York from tho succession, on the Duke's ac- 
cession as James IT, (jodolphin became cham- 
berlain to the Queen; in IGfttf he was again 
Commissioner of the Treasury; and afterward 
tho King gave him a place on the e.owmiHHion 
went to treat with William of Orange. In 1000 
William appointed him First Lord of tho TVMIH- 
ury, and five years afterward one of tho HOVMI 
lords jiuticcrt Vor the admin istrafcion of govern- 
ment during tho King's absence. AH Godolphin 
was guilty of secret correspondence, with Jamcm 
II at Saint-Germain, he resigned bin otti in 
trepidation upon Sir John Fonwick'n confession. 
When Fenwick was beheaded and his story <11- 
oreditod, however, Godolphin again became Ix>rd 
of tho Treasury (1700), Appointed Lord Treas- 
urer on the accession of Anne (1702), he re- 
mained head of the home government during 
eight years, mainly through the influence of tho 
Duke of Marlboro ugh, whom Qodolphin stawthly 
supported with funds for the, prosecution of tho 
Duke'p wars. In 1700 Godolphin wan cr 
Karl of Godolpbin and Viscount Kialton. 
position as head of the Whig government 
to an end in 1710, when he fell from power and 
was supplanted by Harley. Tie died at 8t, 
Albania, Sept. 15, 1712. A man of remarkable 
intelligence and of business-like habits, he was 
thorough in everything ho did, and in an ago of 
corruption he kept his hands pure. Consult: 
Klliot, Life of Sidney, Karl of (Jodolphin (Lon- 
don, 3888), very favorable; Collins, Peerage (9 
vols., ib., 1812); Evelyn, Diary (4 vols., ib., 
1879); Clarke, Life of James II (2 vols., ib., 
1816) ; Macpherson, Original Pavers (2 vols., 
ib.i 1775); Burnet, History of my Own Time 



BARB 79 

(Oxford, 1833); and Walpole, Essays Political 
and Biographical (London, 1908). 
GODOIiPHIN BARB, THE. See BABB. 
GO'DON, STLVANUS WILLIAM (1809-79). An 
American naval officer. He was born in Phila- 
delphia; entered the navy as a midshipman in 
1819; served in the Mexican War; and, in com- 
mand of the Moliican, took part in the attack on 
Port Royal in 1801. In 1863 he became commo- 
dore, and in the attacks on Fort Fisher (q.v.) 
commanded a division of Admiral Porter's fleet. 
He was made rear admiral at the elose of the 
war ; commanded the South Atlantic squadron in 
1800-07; was commandant of the Brooklyn 
Navy Yard in 1808-70; and was retired in 1871. 
GODOWN' (Malay gadong, godong, ware- 
house ) . A term applied in the East Indies and 
in most of the Orient to a storehouse or building 
located on or near a wharf and chiefly used for 
the storage of goods. The term is believed by 
some to be a modification of a Dutch word indi- 
cating storehouse; by others it is believed to 
have come into use from the circumstance that 
most of the storehouses in the East Indies were 
formerly below the surface of the ground. 
CrODOWSKC, go-dov'sk3, LEOPOLD (1870- 
). A Polish-American pianist. He was 
born at Vilna, in Russian Poland, and received 
his first instruction from local teachers. From 
1881 to 1884 he was student at the High School 
of Music, Berlin, coming from there to America 
on an extended concert tour (1884-85). From 
1880 to 1890 he studied with Saint-Satin* in 
Paris. During the next two years he made his 
second tour of America. From 1895 to 1900 
he was director of the pianoforte department of 
the Chicago Conservatory. In 1900 he resumed 
playing again in Europe, meeting everywhere 
with extraordinary success. When he was ap- 
pointed director of the Klaviermeisterschttle at 
Vienna in 1909 he settled definitely in the Aus- 
trian capital, but continued at the same time 
his extended concert tours. During the seasons 
of 1912, 1913, and 1914 he visited the United 
States again. The most conspicuous quality in 
his playing is a dazzling, fabulous technique, 
while he is lacking in soulfulness and poetic con- 
ception. His numerous paraphrases of works by 
Chopin, Weber, Henselt, and J. Strauss make ex- 
traordinary demands upon the player's technical 
execution. His original compositions consist of 
a sonata in E minor, 24 pieces published under 
the title Renaissance, and 24 others 'entitled 
Walsxirmasken. 

GODOT, g6-D6', MANUEL DE, DUKE OF AL- 
OUDIA (1767-1851). A Spanish statesman. He 
was born at Badajoz, of a noble family in strait- 
ened circumstances. At the age of 17 lie entered 
the King's bodyguard at Madrid, where his per- 
Honal attractions gained him the favor of 
Charles IV, and of Ms Queen, Maria Luisa. 
Honors and titles were heaped upon him and 
he became, in 1791, lieutenant general and 
grandoe of Spain, with the title of Duke of Al- 
cudia. The next year he was made Prime Min- 
ister, and, failing to save the life of Louis XV, 
h declared war against the French Republic, 
which resulted disastrously for Spain. To 
secure peace Godoy negotiated the Treaty of 
Baael, for which he was severely criticized, 
though the King rewarded him with the title 
of the Prince of the Peace. Tn 1797 he was 
roinoved from the office of Minister, retaining all 
his IIODOTH and emoluments and continuing to ex- 
erciao a dominating power in Spanish politics. 



GOD SAVE THE KING 

Returning to power in 1801, he entered into an 
alliance with France against Portugal, and in- 
vaded the latter country in command of the 
allied forces. The brief '"War of the Oranges" 
was ended by the Treaty of Badajoz, by which 
Portugal closed her ports to England and ceded 
Olivenza and its territory to Spain. As a re- 
ward for this exploit Godoy was made gen- 
eralissimo of the Spanish forces on land and 
sea. The ill success of the war against England, 
culminating in the defeat of Trafalgar, stirred 
up great popular hatred for Godov, while his 
sudden elevation incited the hostility of the 
envious nobles. The Crown Prince Ferdinand 
placed himself at the head of a court faction, 
and Godoy's attempt to stir up the King against 
the Prince only served to excite popular feeling. 
When Godoy, upon the invasion of Spain by the 
French troops in 1808, prepared to escape with 
the King and the Queen to Mexico, an insur- 
rection broke out at Aranjuez. The King was 
forced to imprison the hated Minister to save 
his life from the mob. Napoleon, who wished 
to make use of Godoy in his raid on the Spanish 
crown, summoned him to Bayonne, where he 
signed Charles's act of abdication in favor of 
his son Ferdinand. (See CHARLES IV; FEBDI- 
NAND VTI.) The latter part of his life was 
spent at Rome and, after 1830, in Paris. Re- 
duced to straitened circumstances for a long 
time, he received back part of his confiscated 
property in 1847, together with his titles. He 
died in Paris, Oct. 7, 1851. His Memoriae Crl~ 
ticas apologe'ticas para la historia del reinado 
del 8enor don Carlos IV de Bourbon were pub- 
lished in English (London, 1836) and in French 
by Esmenard (Paris, 1830). Consult Ovila y 
Otera, Vida politico, y wilitar de D. M. Godoy 
(Madrid, 1844), and D'Auvergne, Godoy, the 
Queen's Favorite (Boston, 1913). 

GOD SAVE THE KING- (or QUEEN). 
The national anthem of Great Britain, of which 
the music by adoption is that of several of the 
German states. It is played and sung in every 
part of the British Empire alike on solemn and 
festive occasions. Its origin has long been a sub- 
ject of controversy. The contentions that it is 
of French or Scottish origin have been disproved, 
and according to Chrysander (Jalirbiiclier I, 
287-407) it is almost certain that Henry Carey 
(q.v.) is the author of the hymn as we know 
it to-day. He is credited with having composed 
both words and music about 1740, though he 
never claimed the song as his, and though none 
of his friends put forward such a claim until 
his son, some nfty years later, petitioned the 
government for a pension on the ground that 
his father had written the hymn. The evi- 
dence which he adduced in support of this was 
purely circumstantial, and the petition was re- 
fused. On the contrary, there are traces of the 
existence of the song, or a similar one, long 
before Carey's time. A Latin hymn, "0 Deus 
Optime," which still exists, and whose words are 
a counterpart of the present hymn, was sung 
in 1740. As for the music, John Bull (c.1503- 
1628) wrote an "ayre," still existing, which is 
identical in rhythm and similar in melody to 
"God Save the King." The hypothesis, backed 
by considerable circumstantial evidence, is that 
the above Latin words, or their prototypes, 
were written in 1688, and set to Bull's "ayre" 
by their author. There is record of such a hymn 
having been sung in King James's Chapel. The 
song would naturally be preserved by the Stu- 



GOD'S POOL So 

arts, and the music, passing through various 
popular transformations, would ultimately reach 
its present form. It will be seen that this theory 
does not preclude Carey from having translated 
the words and given the final shape to the music. 

The words and music were first published 
anonymously in the Harmonia Anglicana (1742), 
and appeared in the Gentleman's Alayasine 
(1745). It has been chosen for a national air 
in Prussia, where it is sung to the words Hcil 
dir im ftiegerkranz, and it was sung in Eussiu, 
until the new anthem was written in 1833. In 
the United States it has long been known as the 
air to which "My Country, Tis of Thee 1 ' is sung. 
Consult: Bateman, "The National Anthem," in 
the (jentleman's Magazine, vol. celxxv (London, 
1893), and Hadden, "The 'God Save the Queen' 
Myths," in Argosy, vol. Ixxii (il>., 1900); Cum- 
mings, God flare t1\e King (ib., 1902) ; also 
Chappell, Collection of National Airs (ib., 1838- 
40). Sec NATIONAL HYMNS. 

GOD'S TOOL. A novel by Maartcu Maartens 
(1892), considered by the author his master- 
piece. The fool, Klias Lossel, by accident in 
childhood became blind, deaf, and obscured in 
mind. In spite of all lie had a sweet and lov- 
ing nature. Handsome and wealthy, he was at 
last the victim of his half brother's greed. The 
story gives a realistic picture of life in a small 
Dutch city. 

GOD'S TBrTJOE. See TBUCE OF GOD. 

GODTHAAB, g6t*haB (Dan., good hope). 
A town and harbor of Greenland, on the west 
coast, the capital of the Danish Southern In- 
spectorate and the residence of the Danish In- 
spector (Map: America, North, N 3). It was 
founded by Hans Egcde in 1721 and is the oldest 
colony in Greenland. Pop., of the district, about 
1000, of whom less than 20 arc Danes. Of those 
about 150 are at Godthaab and 110 at Ny 
(New) Hernnhut, near by, the former head- 
quarters of the Moravian missionaries. 

GOD TBEE. See CEDAB. 

GODTTNTOV, gd'du-nof, BOBIS (c.1551-1005). 
A czar of Russia. Ho became to all intents "Re- 
gent during the reign of Feodor I (1584-98), 
In 1591 he is said to have caused the murder of 
the Czarevitch Demetrius, and in 1598, upon 
Feodor *s death, was elected to tho throne. In 
1595 lie recovered the territory previously lost 
to Sweden. He had proviouwly (1501) defeated 
the Khan of the Crimean Tatars. While feegent, 
he recolonized Siberia, placed the Muscovite 
church on an equal footing with the other East- 
ern churches, and forbade (by the famous ukay 
of 1587 ) the transfer of peasants from one land- 
owner to another an edict of far-reaching con- 
sequences. As Czar, he appears to have been 
in the main clement and progressive. But the 
favor shown by him to foreigners and numerous 
innovations introduced by him resulted in con- 
siderable popular discontent. Thus, southern 
Russia was prepared to revolt to the standard 
of the first false Demetrius in 1604. Codunov's 
history has been utilized by Pushkin in a drama 
of the name, for a German rendering of which 
consult Von Bodenstedt's translation of the com- 
plete works of that author (vol. iii, Berlin, 
1855). It has also inspired a charming opera 
by the Russian composer, Moussorgsky (q.v.). 

GOIXWIN, or GODWTKTB (W053). An 
earl of the West Saxons. Nothing is known 
definitely of him until 1018, when he is de- 
scribed as du$, or earl. About 1020 he was 
Canute's most powerful official. More than any 



GODWIN 



other person he contributed to the elevation of 
Edward the Confessor to the English throne, 
and from that time Godwin was the head of the 
national party, as opposed to the Norman court 
favorites. He was Jilarl of WCKBOX and enor- 
mously wealthy; his son Sweden \vtin "Marl of 
Hereford, Gloucester, and Oxford; his son Har- 
old was Earl of East Angliii; his wife's nephew, 
Beorn, was Earl of Plertfordshire and Bucking- 
hamshire; and his daughter Edith was Ktl- 
ward's Queen. As the Norman party became 
powerful, Godwin's influence over the King de- 
clined. The crimes of hi son Swegcn, who was 
outlawed for the seduction of an ubbewH and 
the murder of his cousin Beorn, weakened his 
position. Finally, in 1051, when Godwin re- 
fused to obey the orders of Edward, to punish 
the citizens of Dover on account of complaints 
of ill treatment nuule by the Normaim, he lost 
the King's favor, was outlawed, and Ucd to 
Flanders. Godwin attempted to treat with the 
King, but, finding this of no avtiil, resorted to 
violence, encouraged in this by the promines of 
support extended him everywhere in England. 
In September, 1052, ho sai'led up the Thames 
with a strong fleet and was enthuwaHtically re- 
ceived by the people. The King yielded and on 
September 15 restored to him ami his family all 
his property which had been confiscated. Boon 
after Godwin became ill, and died, April 14, 
1053. Consult Freeman, The Norman Conquest, 
vols. i and ii (Oxford, 1870-70), for a favor- 
able view of Godwin, and Green, The Conquest 
of England (London, 1883), for a rather un- 
favorable estimate. Consult JI!HO Tlodgkin, His- 
tory of England from Earliest Time to Norman 
Conquest (London, 190(1), and Oman, Km/land 
before the Norman Conquettt (New York 
1910- ). 

GOIXWIir, FRANCIS (1502-100:J). An Eng- 
lish Bishop and author, born at riannin&tou, 
Northamptonshire,. Jle ntudied at Christ Church, 
Oxford, graduating in 15SO, took orders, and be.- 
canie rector of Sampford, ami afterward vicar 
of \Vcston-in-XoyliiiKl and Hiibdeun of Kxeter 
(159G). I Us a<tlatotjuti of the Jtfahops of MH<J* 
land (100J) attracted the attention of Queen 
Elizabeth, who made him Bishop of Liu ml air. 
In 1017 he waa tranwf erred to the, HIKJ of Flere,- 
ford by Jamen 1. lie revised his (Catalogue 
several times (KJ15 and 10 Hi) and also wrote 
Rerun Angliearuni Annales (10 Hi; Kn#. ver- 
sion by liia aon, 10,'iO). The beat known of his 
works ia The Man in the Moonv, or a Discourfte 
of a Voyage Thither by Donrinyo (Jonsalett, the 
8'pecdt/ Messenger (1038). It ia supposed to 
have influenced Cyrano de Borgerac's Voyage to 
the Moon, as- it was translated into French by 
J. Baudoin (KM 8), and tracea of it wecni to 
appear in parts of (hilliner'n Trtiwth. 

GODWIN", MARY WOI.LRTONKCUAI^ (1759-07). 
An English miscellaneous' writer. She wan born 
at Iloxton, near London, April 27, 1750, and was 
of Irish descent. Her mother died in 1780, and, 
owing to the brutality of her father, Mary and 
her sisters were compelled to leave, his house. 
Mary earned her living as achool-teacho.r and 
governess until 1788, when she settled in Lon- 
don and waa employed by Johnwm the publisher 
as reader and translator. While at Paris in 
1792 she met Gilbert Tmlay, an American mer- 
chant and author. After bearing to him a 
daughter she was deserted. On March 29, 1707, 
she married William Godwin, and became tliw 
mother of Mary, the future Mrs. Shelley. Whe 



GODWIN 81 

died Sept. 10, 1797. The outline of her career 
contributed to the plot of Mrs. Amelia Opie's 
Adeline Mowlray (1804). Mrs. Godwin was 
one of the "advanced women" of her time. Her 
most notable work is Vindication of the Rights 
of Women (1792), a conspicuous landmark in 
the history of feminism, which has anticipated 
the claims for greater freedom, personal, social, 
and political, that are the marks of the woman's 
movement of a century later. In it she attacked 
Rousseau's ideal woman, the heroine of novels 
and boarding schools. She advocated the estab- 
lishment of government day schools and main- 
tained the right of women to enter the pro- 
fessions and politics. In short, her thesis was 
the equality of the sexes. Among her other 
works are: Thoughts on, the Education of Daugh- 
ters (1787); Original tit ones from Heal Life 
(1788) ; Vindication of the Rights of Men, a let- 
ter to Burke (1790) ; Posthumous Works, con- 
taining "Wrongs of Women," fragment of a 
novel, and "Letters and Miscellaneous Pieces" 
(4 vols., 1798). Consult: Godwin, Memoirs of 
the Author of a Vindication of the Rights of 
Women (London, 1708) ; Paul, Mary Woll- 
stonec-raft: Letters to Imlay, with memoir (ib., 
1879; and a good later edition, New York, 
1908); Peimell, Life of Mary Wollstonecraft 
(Boston, 1884) ; E. Rausehenbusch-Clough, 
Study of Mary Wollstonecraft and the Rights 
of Woman (New York, 1898) ; G. R. S. Taylor, 
Mary Wollstonecraft (ib., 1911); W. Godwin, 
Elopement of Percy Bysshe Shelley and Mary 
Wollstonecraft Qodirin (privately printed, St. 
Louis, Mo., 1912), with commentary by H. B. 
Forman. 

GODWIN, PABEE (1816-1904). An Ameri- 
can journalist and author. He was born in 
Paterson, N. J., Feb. 25, 1810, and after gradu- 
ating at Princeton, in 1834, practiced law for 
a short time in Kentucky, but after 1837 was 
for many years in the main connected with the 
New York Evening Post, of which the poet 
Bryant, his father-in-law, was for so long chief 
editor. Godwin conducted in 1842 a weekly, the 
Pathfinder, contributed much to the Democratic 
Review, was one of the editors of Putnam's 
Magazine, deputy collector in the New York 
Custom House under President Polk, and an 
early member of the Republican party, though 
a consistent advocate of free trade. Two vol- 
umes of essays from Putnam's Magazine aro 
gathered in Out of the Past (1870). Among 
his numerous other publications may be men- 
tioned: A Popular View of the Doctrine of 
Fourier (1844) ; Democracy, Civic and Con- 
structive (1844); Vala: A Mythological Tale 
(1851) ; Political Essays (1856). Godwin com- 
piled a Handbook of Universal Biograpty 
(1851) and Cyclopedia of Biography (1863). 
He edited the Works of W. C. Bryant, with a 
Life (4 vols., 1884), and made translations from 
the prose of Goethe, Fouqu4, and Zschokke. He 
also wrote an ingenious but rather erratic New 
Study of Shakespeare's Sonnets (1900). 

GODWIN, THOMAS (1587-1G42). A Church 
of England scholar. He was born at Wookey, 
Somersetshire; educated at Oxford; was rector 
of Brightwell, Berkshire, and died there March 
20, 1642. He is remembered for his English 
treatise on Roman antiquities, with the Latin 
title Romance Histories Anthologia, (1614); and 
Moses and Aaron, or Civil and Ecclesiastical 
Rites Used by the Ancient Hebrews (1625). 

GODWIN, WILLIAM (1756-1836). An Eng- 



GODWIM"- AUSTEN 

lish novelist and political writer. The son of a 
dissenting minister, he was born at Wisbeach, 
Cambridgeshire, March 3, 1750. After studying 
at the Hoxton Presbyterian College, he became 
minister at Ware in Hertfordshire and in 1780 
minister at Stowmarket in Suffolk. Having 
been shaken in his religious belief, he gave up 
preaching in 1783 and by 1787 he was fci a com- 
plete unbeliever." He was already devoting 
himself to literature. After a Life of Chatham 
(1783), Sketches of History, in Six Sermons 
(1784), and considerable hackwork, he pub- 
lished the famous Enquiry Concerning Political 
Justice (1793), in which were presented the 
most radical theories of French philosophy on 
morals and government. By this book he is 
best known. It was followed by The Adventures 
of Caleb Williams (1794), a remarkable novel, 
intended to illustrate the political views ad- 
vanced in the Political Justice and by The En- 
quirer ( 1797 ) , a collection of essays on morals 
and politics. In 1796 he formed an alliance with 
Mary Wollstonecraft (q.v.). After some months 
they yielded so far to custom as to be married. 
His wife died a short time after, in giving birth 
to a daughter, the future wife of the poet Shel- 
ley. In 1799 he published a successful romance 
entitled Saint Leon. In 1801 he married a Mrs. 
Clairmont. To secure a more certain support, 
Godwin and his wife started in 1805 a small 
publishing business, which, however, failed in 
1820; but he also worked indefatigably with his 
pen to the end of his life. He wrote many 
school books; Life of Chaucer (1803); Fleet- 
icood, a novel (1805); Mandeville, a novel 
(1817) ; Of Population (1820), a reply to Mal- 
tliua; History of the Commonwealth of England 
(1824-28); Ctoudoaley, a novel (1830); 
Thoughts on Man (1831); Deloraine t a novel 
(1833) ; and Lives of the Necromancers (1834). 
As he grew old, he modified his opinions on 
politics and society, and especially on marriage, 
which he warmly commends in some of his later 
works. Many of his books were translated into 
foreign languages. He died in London, April 
7, 183G. Consult: Paul, William Godwin: His 
Friends and Contemporaries (London, 1876) ; 
Hazlitt, essay in the Spirit of the Age (ib., 
1825) ; Stephen, English Thought in the Eight- 
eenth Century (ib., 1876). See GODWIN, MABY 

WOLLSTOXECBAFT. 

GODWIN-ATTSTEN, gSd'wtn-fts'ten. One of 
the highest mountain peaks in the world, ex- 
ceeded probably by Mount Everest only, situ- 
ated in the Jftustagh Range of northern Kashmir 
(Map: India, C 1). It was named after Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Henry H. Godwin- Austen (q.v.). 
Its altitude is placed at 28,265 feet. It is also 
called K 2. 

GODWIN-ATJSTBN, HENRY HATORSHAM ' 
(1834-1923). An English topographer and ge- 
ologist and one of the pioneers of scientific geog- 
raphy. He was born at Teigumouth, the son of 
Robert A. C. Godwin- Austen ; was educated at 
the Royal Military College, Sandhurst; obtained 
a commission in the Twenty-fourth Regiment 
of Foot in 1851 and joined it in India in the 
following year. He served with distinction in 
the Second Burmese War and after its close 
became an assistant topographer in the East 
Indian Trigonometrical Survey. In 1857 he was 
connected with the Government Survey in Kash- 
mir, where he made the discovery of the impor- 
tant Baltoro glacier at the head of the Shigar 
River. In 1862-63 he conducted surveys in 



(HXDWIN-ATJSTEtf 82 

Ladakh, making 13 ascents of mountain peaks, 
among thorn that of Mata, 20,607 feet high. 
Ho served in the Bhutan campaign in 1874 and 
took part in the expedition against the Daflas 
in the eastern Himalayas. He retired from the 
army in 1877 with the rank of lieutenant colonel. 
He was elected a fellow of the Royal Geographi- 
cal Society, in 1910 was presented the Found- 
er's medal for his work in exploration, and Mt. 
Godwin- Austen (q.v.) was named for him. His 
writings include numerous important articles 
and monographs for various ucientific maga- 
zines and society reports. His works include: 
On the Land and Fresh Water Mollusc* of In- 
dia (1882-90), a monumental work in 11 parts, 
and The Fauna of British India, vol. Mollusctt 
(1908). 

GODWI1T-ATTSTEN, ROBERT ALFRED GLOYNE 
(1808-84). An English geologist, born near 
Guildford, the son of Sir 11. E. Austen. He 
was educated at Mid hurst Hchool, at a military 
college in France, and at Oxford, where 1 , after 
graduation, he was elected a fellow of Oriel 
College. Here he studied geology under William 
Buckland. In 1S33 he married a daughter of 
Gen. H. T. Godwin, upon whose death in 18f>4 
he prefixed, by royal license, the name of God- 
win to his own. His geological studies and dis- 
coveries, covering a period of more than half a 
century, were extensive and valuable, and his 
contributions to geological literature were con- 
sidered authoritative, particularly the result of 
hia investigations in Devonshire. Ho edited, as 
literary executor, the Memoir on the Fluu-io- 
Marine Tertiancs of the Isle of Wight (1850), 
left by Kdward Forbes in manuscript, and com- 
pleted the Natural History of the European Mcaa 
(1869), begun by the same author. In addition 
to these lie wrote numerous original articles 
and notes in various geological journals. He 
was made a fellow of the Geological Society of 
London in 18 IK), a fellow of the Royal Society 
in 1849, and wan twice president of the Geolog- 
ical vSeetiou of the "British Association. 

G-OBWI1TE. See GODWIN. 

GODWIN'S OATH. A proverbial expression 
for a false oath, originating in the story that 
Godwin, JSarl of Kent, was choked to death 
by a piece of bread while calling Heaven to wit- 
ness hia innocence of the murder of Alfred, the 
brother of Kdward the Confessor. 

GOD'WIT (of doubtful etymology-, possibly 
from AS. g6d, good -f- wit, wit; hardly from 
g6d, good 4- wiht, wight, creature, ,,pr from god, 
God-f-M#, wit, or unht, wight, ^feature). A 
genus (Limosa) of large curlew-like shore birds 
of the snipe family (Scolopacidue), with very 
long bill, slightly curved upward, and long 
slender legs. All the species frequent marshes 
and shallow waters, often those of the aeacoaat, 
where they seek their food by wading and plung- 



GOEBEL 




BltL OF 



ing the long bill into the water or mud like 
snipes. They sometimes also run after small 
crustaceans or other animals and catch them 
on the sands from which the tide has retired. 
All are noted for their loud, yelping cries. Two 
species are confined to tforth America -the great 



marbled god wit (Limosa fedoct) and the Kud- 
sonian godwit (Limosa hamast-ica) . .Neither in 
very numerous, and both are visible only when 
passing back and forth from their northern 
breeding haunts to their tropical winter homes; 
the marbled godwit, however, nests in Io\ya and 
northward. The general hue of these bin In in 
rufous or cinnamon, the marbled godwit being 
paler than the Hudsonian, but both vary greatly 
with ago, sex, and season; the former has the 
reddish tail barred with black and without any 
white, while the latter has a black tail broadly 
white at the base. The females are uniformly 
larger than the males. Godwita build their 
nests anywhere on the ground, not necessarily 
near water, and lay three and four egg, olive 
drab spotted with urnbor brown. Four or live 
other species of godwit are found in the Old 
World. The flesh of all is good, and in Eliza- 
bethan England it was regarded aH an expo.univu 
delicacy, often celebrated in the prow? and vows 
of the period. The incessant pursuit of thin 
bird, particularly by netting on the foiiH, nearly 
exterminated it in Great Britain. It in taken 
by gunners whenever encountered, but in not 
much sought after nor especially valued either 
for sport or food. See Colored Plate of SIIOUK 
BIROS. 

GOEBEL, gt/bel, JULIUS (1857- ). An 
American Germanic scholar, born ut Frankforl- 
on-the-Main, Germany. Tie wan educated at the 
universities of Leipzig and Tubingen (IMi.I)., 
1882). He came to the United HtuteH in ISSii; 
was instructor in German at JoIiiiH Hopkins 
University (1885-88), profenwor of (lornuinio 
philology and literature at Leland Stanford 
(1892-1005), and lecturer on Germanic philol- 
ogy at Harvard (1905-08), and became professor 
of Germanic languages at the University of 
Illinois in 1008. Ho WUH editor of the. IMI?- 
trisl'isches Journal in 1888-92 and of the /<>///- 
wal> of English and Oomi&nio mtolotw after 
1009; edited Goethe's Poms (1901), Schiller'* 
J'ocws (1903), Goethe's Fa/ml (1907), (Icnnun 
Classics (1909), Tear Booh of the German 
American Historical Society (1!)13) (1wmuni<* 
Literature and Culture (1013); and wrote 
Ucbftr die Kukwwft unsorca Volkrn in Awvritw, 
(1883); Uelwr traguwho AY/iwM and M/MIO 
(1884); Oedichte (1895); 1)<M floutMhlwH in 
den Vcreiwigtcn fltaaten (1904). 

GOEBEL, gOVcl, KAKT*, Emm* VON (IHSfl- 
). A German botanist, born in Hiotighehu, 
Baden, and educated at Tfihingcu, HtraaHburg, 
and Wlinsburg. He became profenor of botany 
at Rostock (1882), at Marburg (1887), and at 
Munich (1891), where ho was director of the 
Now Botanical Gardens TTe. traveled in India, 
Ceylon, and Java in 1885-80, in Venezuela in 
1890-91, and in Australia in 1898-09. Goe.be! 
received honorary degrees from Cambridge, Ge- 
neva, and St, Andrews, and wan knighted in 
1909, Among his important works are: <tnutd- 
ssiige dor Bj/atftmatik und dor spus-icUm I* flan- 
sen-Morphologic (1882; in English, by Garnney, 
1887) ; Vorgleichende flnttcioklunfffrfieaaktrhto 
( 1883 ) ; J'flwff&iUologtifihc fluhildorunflm 
(1893); Organographia dcr Pflanscn (1898- 
1901; 2d yd., 1913; in English, by Bayley Dai- 
four) ; EMeitung m die eaperimGntellv Afor- 
phologie (1908). 

GOEBEL, gd'bel, WILLT^M (1860-1900). An 
American politician, born in Sullivan Co., Pa. 
He removed to Covington, Ky M in early boyhood, 
studied law, was admitted to the. bar, and won 



GOEBEN 83 

a reputation as a trial lawyer, and as a politi- 
cal speaker and leader in the Democratic party. 
In 1887 lie was elected to the Kentucky State 
Senate, to which body he continued to be re- 
elected at every election up to and including 
1898. He built up a strong political machine. 
One of his personal quarrels culminated in his 
shooting and killing Col. John D. Sandford, for 
which he was acquitted on the grounds of self- 
defense. In 1897 he secured the passage of the 
'Goebel law," relieving the courts of all power 
in the appointment of election officials, and cre- 
ating a State election commission of three mem- 
bers, chosen by the Legislature, which should 
hare the power to appoint local boards on the 
bame principle. This act was intended to assure 
Democratic ascendancy. It was passed over the 
veto of Governor Bradley (Republican), and 
was held constitutional by the State Supreme 
Court in December, 1898. In June, 1899, Goebel 
was nominated for Governor by the Democratic 
party. Seceding Democrats nominated John 
Young- Brown, and W. S. Taylor, the Republican 
candidate, was elected by about 2300 votes. 
Goebel contested the election, and a legislative 
committee was about to report in Goebel's favor, 
when, on January 30, he was shot in front of 
the State Capitol by an assassin concealed in a 
neighboring building. The Democratic members 
of the Legislature immediately declared him 
Governor, and the oath of office was adminis- 
tered to him on January 31. He died on Febru- 
ary 3. Consult My Oicn Story (Indianapolis, 
1005 ) , by Caleb Powers, Republican nominee for 
Secretary of State, convicted of complicity in 
the murder of Goebel. 

GOEBEN, ge'ben, AUGUST VON (1816-80). A 
German soldier. He was horn at Stade in Han- 
over, entered the Prussian military service at 
the age of 17, but in 1836 went to Spain as a 
partisan of Don Carlos, and took an active part 
in the fighting hetween 1836 and 1840, being 
repeatedly wounded and twice taken prisoner. 
After the end of the Carlist War he returned to 
Germany and wrote an account of his Spanish 
experiences, entitled Vier Jahre in Spanien 
(1841). Regntering the Prussian army, where 
he served on the staff, he took part in the cam- 
paign against the revolutionists in Baden in 
1849, and became, in 1855, chief of staff of the 
Fourth Army Corps. In 1860 he was Prussian 
attachd -with the army of the Spanish General 
O'Donnell in the campaign in Morocco. In 1864 
he took a prominent part in the war against 
Denmark and became in the following year lieu- 
tenant general and commander of the Thirteenth 
Division. At the head of this division he first 
entered Hanover in the War of 1866 and then 
fought successfully at Kissingen and other places 
in Bavaria. In the Franco-German War, as 
commander of the Eighth Army Corps, he dis- 
tinguished himself at SaarbrflcKen and Grave- 
lotte and took part in the siege of Metz. In 
January, 1871, Goeben was appointed com- 
mander of the First Army Corps and fought a 
decisive battle at Saint-Quentin (January 19), 
when he defeated General Faidherbe and caused 
the disbanding of the French Army of the North. 
Besides the excellent account of his experiences 
in Spain, Goeben wrote valuable articles in 
military journals on the wars of 1866 and 
1870-71. He was decorated with the Iron Cross 
and commanded at Coblentz until his death 
there, in 1880. 

GOEDEKE, g^de-ke, KAB& (1814-87). A 



GOES 



German historian of literature. He was born at 
Celle and was educated at Guttingon, where he 
was professor from 1873 until his death. He 
was a remarkably prolific author and. after 
writing several novels and the drama Eonig 
Kodrus, cine Hissgeburt der Zeit, under the 
pseudonym of Karl Stahl, devoted himself to 
critical and biographical literature. The long 
list of his publications includes: Dnitschlaiids 
Dicht&r von 1813 bis 1S43 (1844) ; Elf Biicher 
deutsclier Dichtung con Sebastian Brant bis auf 
die Qegemoart (1849); Deutsche Dichtung int 
Mittelalter (2d ed., 1871); and the monumen- 
tal Cf-rundriss zur GescMchte der deutschen 
Dichtung (3d ed., under the editorship of Ed- 
mund Goetze, 1910 et seq.), his principal work. 
His biographies of Leasing, Goethe, and Schiller 
are well known. Consult Schreck, Karl Qoedelce 
(1894). 

GOEHBE, ge^re, PAUL (1864- ). A Ger- 
man author and politician, horn in Wurzen, . 
Saxony, and educated at Leipzig and Berlin. 
He studied theology and was a Lutheran pastor 
at Schonbach, near Lfibau, in 1888-90; then 
was a workman in Chemnitz; had charge of a 
church in Frankfort in 1894-97; and, after 
two years' work in the National Socialist party, 
in 1899 joined the Social Democrats. He was 
elected to the Reichstag in 1903, but resigned 
almost immediately, and was elected again in 
1910. He wrote: Drei Monate Fabril-arbeiter 
und Handw&rksbursche (1891), a great success, 
translated into English (1895), Norwegian, and 
Danish; Die evangelisclie-soziale Beicegung 
(1896; also translated into English; in 1891 
he was general secretary of the Evangelical- 
Social Congress) ; Wie ein Pfarrcr Sovial-Demo- 
krat lourde (1900) ; Die Kirche im 19. Jahrhun- 
dcrt (1902); Die Waarerifiaus (1907); Der 
deutscnen- Arbeiter-Konsumvereiii (1010) ; Die 
sachsisclien Volksschule und ilire Reform (1911) . 

GOEJE, goofye, MICHAEL JAN DB. See DE 
GOEJE. 

GOEKTOTGE, gStSnk, LEOPOLD FBIEDBIOH 

GiJNTHEE VON. See GSCKINGK. 

GOEBCKE, g&Vke, JOHANN (1750-1822). A 
German physician, born at Sorquitten, East 
Prussia. He entered the Prussian army as a 
surgeon at the age of 17 and in 1789 was ap- 
pointed one of the three chief surgeons in the 
army. Meanwhile he had traveled extensively- 
in Austria, Italy, France, and in England, where 
he entered into friendly relations with John 
and William Hunter, Bell, Cooper, Hamilton, 
and other equally celebrated surgeons. In 1797 
he was appointed chief surgeon of the Prussian 
army, in which capacity he rendered invaluable 
services during the various campaigns terminat- 
ing with the battle of Waterloo- He founded 
several educational institutions for military 
surgeons, the most important of which was the 
celebrated Pepiniere, afterward known as the 
MediciniBch-Chirurgisches Friedrich-Wilhelms- 
Institut. His literary works include Pharma- 
copoeia, Oastrensis Borussica- (1805) and Be- 
schreibung der Krankentransportmittel lei der 
koniglichprcussischen Armee (1814). 

GOES, ooTfe, or TEBGOES, tSr'oUos. A sea- 
port and market town of Holland, situated on 
the island of South Beveland, Province of Zee- 
land, about 3Vi miles from its northern coast 
and 11 miles east of Middelburg (Map: Nether- 
lands, B 3) . The town has a fine Gothic church, 
a city hall, dating from 1442, with fine paint- 
ings, and the remains of an ancient castle of 



GOES 84 

Jacqueline of Bavaria. It has a harbor formed 
by a canal communicating with the East Scheldt, 
shipbuilding docks, and an active trade in hops, 
salt, and grain. It also has saw mills and es- 
tablishments for bookbinding and cigar making. 
Pop., 1889, 6000; 1900, 6919; 1910, 7620. 

GOES, go'ash, BENITO DE, or BENTO DE (1562- 
1GOO). A Portuguese traveler and Jesuit prieat. 
He was born on the island of San Miguel, one 
of the Azores, and until his twenty-sixth year 
led the life of an adventurer in the East Indies. 
In 1588 he entered the Order of Jesus and in 
1603 was sent on a mission to the Great Mogul 
and thence to Cathay. At the court of the Em- 
peror Akbar he acquired an extensive knowledge 
of the geography of Asia, ascertaining after 
his arrival at Suchau (1G05), on the Chinese 
frontier, that Cathay and China were identical. 
His interesting notes and observations were pub- 
lished after his death by the Italian Jesuit 
missionary Matteo Ricci. Many translations 
into Gennan, French, and English were also 
made, one of them entitled The Report of a 
Mahometan Merchant which had been in Cam- 
balu t and the Travels of Bento de Goes . . . 
from Lahor to China by Land (1625). 

GOES, DAMIAO DE (1501-73). A Portuguese 
historian and diplomat, born at Alemquer 
(Estremadura). King .John 1LT of Portugal 
sent him on several important diplomatic mis- 
sions to Flanders (1523), Poland (1529), Den- 
mark and Sweden (1533). Ho then spent sev- 
eral years in Italy, engaged in philosophical and 
historical studies. At the siege of Lou vain in 
Flanders by the French in 1542, Goes aided in 
the defense and saved the city from plunder, 
but was taken prisoner. lie returned to Portu- 
gal in 1545 and three years afterward was placed 
in charge of the national archive, but his ideas 
were too advanced for the age. Suspected of 
Lutheranism, in 1572 he was condemned to im- 
prisonment in the monastery at Batalha by the 
Inquisition and there died in obscurity. Among 
his works are: Legatio Mayni fmperatoris Prcs- 
byteri Joannis . . . dc fndoruni fide^ ccrcnioniis, 
religione . . . (1532); Fides, reUtfio, Moresque 
Aetiopum sub imperio Prcliosi Joannis (1541) ; 
Oommentarii Rervm eat arum in India (li>39) ; 
Hispania (1542); De Bello Gambraico Ultimo 
(1549) ; Chronica do felicisfiiino rci Do in ni- 
mwiuel (1506-67); Chronica, do prinoipe Dom 
Joam (1567). 

GOES, <S5os, HUGO VAN DEB. See Huoo VAN* 
DEB GOES. 

GOES, JAN ANTONIWZ (Lat. form, JOANNES 
ANTONIDES) VAN DEB (1647-84). A Dutch poet, 
born at Rotterdam. Owing to the success of his 
first efforts at poetic composition, he found a 
patron in a wealthy gentleman of Fhishing, who 
paid for his education at Utrecht, where he 
studied medicine. Afterward he became a mem- 
ber of the Admiralty at Rotterdam. Goes was 
a poet of considerable power and may in many 
respects be regarded as the last of the Dutch 
classics. He was very precocious, and before 
the age of 25, eulogies had already been written 
in his honor by Kaspar Brandt, Vollenhove, 
Huygens, Oudaen, Vonclel, and other distin- 
guished authors. One of his best productions is 
Ystroom ( 1071 ) . The poem entitled Bcllcne aan 
Bant, celebrating the peace between France and 
Holland, also occupies a high rank in Dutch lit- 
erature. His collected poems appeared in 1C85. 
GOES, gc^ash, PEDBO DHJ (1503-64). A Portu- 
guese pioneer, born in Lisbon, In 1530 he went 



GOETHALS 

to Brazil with the expedition of Marti m Alfonso 
dc Sousa and some years later was granted a 
strip of territory on the count, where he first 
successfully introduced the cultivation of sugar 
cane. Hi's plantation was subsequently de- 
stroyed by Indians, and (Joes wont to Portugal to 
secure the assistance of the King in suppressing 
the native uprisings. In 1548 he was appointed 
to assist the newly appointed (Jovernor-dieneral, 
Sousa, and, returning at once to Ura/il, con- 
tributed greatly to the pacification of ihe coun- 
try and the establishment of organized govern- 
ment. He is said to have been the first to bring 
specimens of the tobacco plant to Europe ( lf>47). 

GOESSMANKT, ges'man, CIIARLKH ANTHONY 
(1827-1010). An American chemist. lie was 
born at Nauniburg in Hesse and was educated 
at Gottingen, where he became assistant in the. 
chemical laboratory and (1855) privatdoeent. 
In 1857 he came to America, was chcmisi. and 
superintendent of a Philadelphia sugar refinery 
until 18(U, and then ac,cepU l d a position with a 
Syracuse salt company. In 1HUJI he became pro- 
fessor of chemistry in the Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College at Amherst, in I87.'i chemist to 
the State Board of Agriculture, and in 1880 
chemist to the State Hoard of Health. These 
three positions he held until his death. In IS87 
he was president of the American Chemieul So- 
ciety. His writings include: VhvmiwtJ fW/ww- 
tioti of the. Brinrtt of (hwnddt/u (IS(iii); ttvl. 
Mode of Afanttfftutiirinff CWwr or tfo/wr Hull 
from the Brines of Ononrfaya (18(i#) ; Halt, De- 
posits of Petite A use, La. (1807); Null Re- 
sources of (hdcrich, Canada (1808); Man itf (fu- 
ture of Mf//w w (tuba (1805). 

GOETHALS, gv/Llmlas, (3KOKOK WAfliilNciTON 1 
(1858- ). Au American military and civil 
engineer, engineer in chief of the Panama Canal, 
and first Civil Governor of the Panama On mil 
Zone. He was horn in Urooklyn, N. Y., and 
after studying in the College of the City of 
[New York entered the United States Military 
Academy, Graduating in 1880, he was appointed 
second lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers. 
Through successive promotions he readied the. 
grade of colonel in 11)09, further advancement 
being proposed for him in 11)14. During the 
Spanish-American War lie was lieutenant <*ol- 
onel and chief of engineers of United States 
Volunteers. From 1885 to 1887 he nerved an 
assistant professor of military engineering at 
West Point. -His early river and harbor work 
Included the construction of the Mussel Shoals 
locks and dams on the Tcnuossco River, H<* 
was made a member of the board of fortifi- 
cation and in 1003 a member of the general 
staff. 

In 1007, President Roosevelt having decided 
that all bids for the construction of the Puna ma 
Canal bo rejected, and that, iuatead of leaving 
tho work in charge of a civilian e-omminHton, tlio 
government should undertake, the eotwtruetion 
directly, Colonel Goethalw wa appointed chair- 
man, as well aw chief engineer, of a new com- 
mission, composed on its technieal ido of army 
and navy officers. An able engineer, familiar 
with conditions attending the prosecution of 
government work, and a man of force and re- 
MOUTCCS, strong in personality and able to in- 
spire confidence and energy 'in others, Colonel 
Cfoethals straightway developed a system by 
which the excavation of the canal and the many 
allied problems could be handled efficiently and 
effectively. The army engineers soon had the 



GOETHE 85 

entire work of design and construction organized 
in harmony with the main general system, so 
that the actual construction could be under- 
taken at a rate not before realized a rate 
which constantly improved with the progress of 
the work. Colonel Goethals, who regarded his 
work as that of an administrator rather than 
as that of an engineer, and who possessed a 
peculiar genius for detail, received ample exec- 
utive powers. Largely through the exceedingly 
important services of Gen. William 0. Gorgas 
(q.v.), the questions of sanitation,, commissary, 
housing, and labor were all satisfactorily solved, 
and a complete social fabric as well as con- 
struction organization developed. The Panama 
Canal came to be known as a model of efficient 
labor and industrial contentment no less than, 
as a piece of sound engineering. So vigorously 
was the work prosecuted that its virtual com- 
pletion was possible in 1914, although the time 
scheduled had been June 1, 1915. Colonel Goe- 
thals received unstinted praise from visiting 
engineers and from the technical press of the 
entire civilized world. In 1013 the degree of 
LL.D. was conferred on him by the University 
of Pennsylvania, and in the spring of 1914 he 
was awarded medals by the National Geographic 
Society, the Civic Forum (New York), and the 
National Institute of Social Sciences. Late in 
1913 and early in 1914 he was in demand for 
various administrative positions. He declined 
the police commissionership of New York City, 
offered him by Mayor Mitchel, and the "city 
managership" of Dayton, Ohio. On Feb. 3, 1914, 
he was appointed by President Wilson the first 
Civil Governor of the Panama Canal Zone. See 
PANAMA CANAL. 

GOETHE, gg'ie, AUGUST VON (17S9rl830). 
The son of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (q.v.). 
He was born at Weimar and occupied the position 
of chamberlain to the Grand Duke of Saxe- 
Weimar. He died Oct. 27, 1830, while visiting 
Rome. By his marriage with the Baroness Ot- 
tilie von Pogswisch, a highly accomplished wo- 
man, he had three children, of whom WALTHER 
WOLFGANG (1818-85) was known as a composer 
of operettas and songs, while his younger 
brother, WOLFGANG MAXIMILIAN (1820-83), was 
a jurist and poet. The third, ALMA VON GOETHE 
(1827-44), died in Vienna. These three grand- 
children of the great poet left no offspring. 

GOETHE, JOHANN WOLFGANG VON (1749- 
1832 ) . The greatest German writer and one of 
the greatest of the world, excelling in every 
literary genre, distinguished in many branches 
of science and in literary and artistic criticism. 
He was born in Frankfort-on-thc-Main, Aug. 
28, 1749. Both his parentage and the place of 
his birth were significant for his future develop- 
ment. He was among the first of German lit- 
erary meiFBWice the Meistersinger days to spring 
from a commercial environment and parents 
closely affiliated with political life in what re- 
mained of the old free cities. His father's father 
was a tailor and innkeeper. His father re- 
ceived a good education, traveled in Italy, at- 
tained the distinction of Imperial councilor, and, 
though never wealthy, wafl always in easy cir- 
cumstances. He Trtarricd (1748) Katherine 
Elisabeth Textor, and Goethe was the first of 
their four children, of whom only himself and a 
sister, Cornelia, survived childhood. 

In the pages of Goethe's brilliant autobio- 
graphical Diohtung und Wahrheit we seldom 
9ee his father unbend from Ms philistine self- 



GOETHE 

satisfaction. But the mother must have been a 
very remarkable woman, simple, hearty, joyous, 
affectionate, not highly educated, but with a 
faculty of rapid assimilation that made her no 
unworthy companion or correspondent of per- 
sons of deeper culture or higher station. The 
relation of mother and child was ideal. His 
childhood and youth owed more to her direct 
influence than to all else besides. She died in 
1808. Her Letters are published by the Goethe 
Society (1894). Consult Heinemann, Goethes 
Mutter (6th ed., Leipzig, 1900). 

But Frankfort, too, had a molding influence 
on him. It was a commercial city, then even 
more than now one of the great centres of Ger- 
man financial life. Old and new in turn and 
together left their impress on the brilliant and 
receptive boy. He was precocious, knew some- 
thing at eight of Greek, Latin, French, and 
Italian, had acquired from his mother a knack 
of story-telling and from a toy puppet show in 
his nursery a taste for the stage and a stimu- 
lus to imagination on which his autobiography 
lays much stress. He never went regularly to 
school and as a child showed consciousness of 
superiority. The French occupation of Frank- 
fort in 1750 served to polish his French and 
still further to cultivate his interest in the 
stage. He continued to study books and men 
at Frankfort till he was 16, and had had one 
love affair, from which he of course recovered 
with the facile mobility of youth before he went 
to Leipzig to study law and be fascinated by 
his host's daughter, Katchen Schonkopf. 

Leipzig in 1765 was a "little Paris" in its 
social and literary ideals. Goethe's letters show 
that he quickly caught a spirit that accorded 
well with his nature. He studied little, wrote 
love songs, interested himself critically in art, 
learned far more about life than about law, and 
lost his health. By 1768 he had come to look 
at life on its seamy side, and showed his dis- 
illusionment in a drama, Die Mitschutdigen, 
where vice and meanness in manifold variety 
find it convenient to forgive and forget. This 
was completed later in Frankfort. Another 
drama, D\e Laune des Terliebten, begun in Leip- 
zig, is an embellished version of his relation to 
Katchen. It was his author's instinct to put 
into literary form every experience. All his 
works, he says, are confessions of his life. These 
two youthful dramatic essays, both in their 
matter and their form, show Goethe as a realist. 
Ho idealized neither the world nor individual 
characters. 

Goethe returned ill to Frankfort in the au- 
tumn of 1768. He remained there sick or con- 
valescent till April, 1770, gaining the while 
from the works of Leasing a sharpened aesthetic 
sense and a more balanced judgment. Here, too, 
he began the scientific studies that were later to 
round out his fame, and from an amiable ac- 
quaintance, Frilulein von Klettenberg, the 
''Beautiful Soul" of his Wilhelm Meister, he 
gained some insight into the phenomena of pie- 
tistic religious experience and became interested 
in alchemy and kin'dred lore, all of which proved 
useful for Fauat. 

With health restored Goethe went to Strass- 
burg to continue his legal studies. This city, 
French in government and institutions, German 
in people and spirit, was a good place in which 
to complete a cosmopolitan training. Goethe set 
himself earnestly to work to pass his prelimi- 
nary examinations and to learn to dance. He 



GOETHE 86 

studied also music, art, anatomy, and chemistry. 
He had begun to work on his dissertation when, 
in September (1770) he met Herder (q.v.) and 
in October made the acquaintance of Friederikc 
Brion (q.v.) the -winning daughter of a pastor 
of Seaenlieiin. He loved her and let her love 
him till her visit to Strassburg somewhat dulled 
the idyllic illusion. He would not, perhaps 
ho felt he ought not, fetter his fortunes and 
his genius to any yoke. He left Strassburg 
(August, 1771), carrying with him a sore heart 
and a sense of wrong to be atoned. Similar 
situations haunt his literary work of the next 
years. The Marie of Qotz, the Marie of Olavigo, 
the Olarchen of Egmont, the Gretchen of Faust, 
spring from this experience, of which he has 
loft a charming and rather objective account 
in his autobiographic Dichtung und Walirhrit. 
Friedcrike died unmarried in 1813. They saw 
each other without strong emotion on either 
side in 1779. 

Meantime Goethe had formed a close intimacy 
with Herder, who was confined for months to 
his room through an operation on the eyes. This 
was hardly less important to Goethe's literary 
development than the love affair at Sesenheim. 
They read literary masterpieces and talked of 
them. Goethe learned through Herder to dis- 
trust French classical canons, to appreciate 
Shakespeare, and to realize that all poetic de- 
velopment must be based on national character 
if it is to be enduring or beneficent. It was 
Herder, too, who brought Goethe under the in- 
fluence of Rousseau, an influence apparent iix 
Gotst, and especially in Die Leiden dcs jungcn 
WcrthQrs. Herder's influence was inspiring, 
even when it was merely restraining, for Goethe 
was already meditating hia GSte and even hi a 
Fwtst, and both profited by a maturing delay. 
But Herder finished his work for Goethe at 
Strassburg. When they met again (1776), 
Goethe felt he had little to gain, and presently 
it was he who repaid tho old debt. 

Goethe with his licentiate's degree went back 
to Frankfort (1771) and began the nominal 
practice of law, contributing critical notices to 
the press and working on "tftfte, which he in- 
tended for a more daring proclamation of the 
newly claimed liberties of tho Gorman stage 
than Leasing, who had won them, would have 
ventured or approved. It was the trumpet call 
of the decade of Storm and Stress (q.v.), in 
which German young blood held high carnival, 
and in a blind following of Shakespeare nat- 
urally showed more of his faults than of his 
spirit* 0d't# was a dramatic adaptation of the 
autobiography of a robber knight of the sixteenth 
century, striking in its local color and nalvetS. 
In his sturdy independence Goethe saw fore- 
shadowed the reassertion of individualism in 
the eighteenth century, and he made GttJtz, far 
more than that knight had made himself, typi- 
cal of the national revolt against the "Roman 
law and church and the centralization of au- 
thority. For to Goethe at this time the only 
progress practicable for Germany lay in the 
stressing of individuality. But the play as 
written in 1771 proved too lawless even for hia 
youthful taste. The first sketch was completed 
in 1771 and remains a curious monument of a 
period of ferment. It appeared much modified 
in 1773, struck an answering chord in every 
heart, and made its afl yet unnamed author the 
literary leader of hia time. It gave an immense 
stimulus to dramatic production, though in cast- 



GOETHE 

ing all thought of the unities to tho winds 
Lessing thought the "captivating monstrosity" 
retarded the development of dramatic; art. 
Goetho may have thought HO, too; for he sub- 
jected it to a radical revision many yearn later 
(1804) for the Weimar stage. 

This was a period of manifold activity. To 
it belong some fine wongs, among them the Wan- 
derers Sturmlied, orations, essays, reviews, and 
minor work in large quantity, to whieh he was 
stimulated by the, shrewd and cautious orltioiHiu 
of Merck, an army paymaster at Darmstadt, 
some of whose traits Goethe used for McpliiM- 
topheles. This production waa interrupted by 
a new experience. In 1772 Goethe went to Wotss- 
lar to practice law und fell in love with Char- 
lotte BuJI (Lotte), the betrothed of MB friend 
Kedtncr. From the rather delicato situation 
thus created Goetho suddenly withdrew (Sept. 
11, 1772), and on his way 'back to Frankfort 
managed to find heart for a flirtation with 
Maximiliane von Laroche, who afterward be- 
came tho mother of one of bis last adorers, "Bet- 
tina von Arnim-Brentano. Literary expression 
he gave to his Wetzlar experieneea in Dio hridnn 
dcs junfjen \Verthere, which revealed powers in 
the German tongue till then unimagined and 
still unsurpassed. Tho story, which has been 
often translated into many languages, is senti- 
mentally morbid and typical of its generation. 
It was suggested by the suicide of Jerusalem, 
a student who had formed an attachment for a 
friend's wife, similar to Goethe's for Lotte. But 
Goethe, having expressed the mood of his time 
and age, quickly recovered from it to enter on 
a period of great creative fecundity, tho fruits 
of which were to appear later in Fount, I*romo- 
thonft, flgmont, and Stella, as well as in many 
lyrics. Then came his passing betrothal to Liii 
Schcincmann (died 1817), a banker's daughter, 
the nearest Goethe over came to a love match. 
For hor he wrote some very beautiful songs, and 
he cherished her memory till death. But for tho 
time they drow apart (September, 1775), and 
soon after Goetho WJIH hivitod by Karl August 
to b ono of hirt court at Weimar. Meantime 
Goetho had written (Hawffo (1774) and many 
slighter pieces, among them (iott<\r 9 Ifchton und 
Wiclwd, and had found in Merck a friend and 
a cautttically discriminating critic, of muali valuo 
to him in the dittciplino of genius. His rela- 
tions to LiH found expression a little later in 
Stella (1776). In May, 177*5, ho had nmdo a 
journey to Switzerland with his friends tho 
counts fitolberg, and there became intimato with 
Lavater, whom he had already me.t. 

The coming of Goetho to Weimar (November, 
1775) is a turning point in the literary life of 
Germany. From 1770 Goethe'H influence bcgiiM 
to be paramount wherever German in Hpoken. 
Weimar was already beginning to bo what it 
has remained till now, a ploaaant rwidencc for 
the cultured. Goethe made it the Athena of 
Germany, aided by Karl August and hut mother, 
Amalio, hindered at first by Karl's prim wife, 
I/uise, and by a jealous group of court official)*. 
Goethe was received in Weimar with an ofFervew- 
ccmce of enthusiastic appreciation. For a time 
he and bin Prince led the court a frolic dance, 
but presently he settled down to be a prudent 
and blameless man of affairs and found in this 
courtly life and the intimate contact with arin- 
tocratic society much to widen his mind and 
give his judgment a balanced calm. For tho 
next 10 years (1776-86) ho wrote little save 



* 





GOETHE 

FROM THE PORTRAIT BY CARL STIELER IN THE NEW PINAKOTHEK AT MUNICH 



GOETHE 



occasional verses and dramatic trifles, of which 
the chief is Die Oeschtcister. He began work on 
Wilhelm Meister in 1777. Study of natural 
science, mineralogy, geology, osteology, inter- 
course with Herder, Wieland, and others, and 
his interest izi the mines at Ilmenau, claimed 
his time, and he made a journey to the mining 
district of tho Harz on tlieir account, bringing 
back impressions that \vere of use, not only at 
Ilmenau, but for his Faust. He managed the 
Court Theatre (with some intermissions, till 
IS 17) and the War Department, superintended 
the roads and bridges, accompanied Karl Au- 
gust on a journey to Switzerland, from which 
he gathered literary impressions, and above all 
he maintained a correspondence and intercourse 
with Charlotte von Stein, a remarkable woman, 
33 years old and the mother of seven children, 
who, in making his life "an enduring resignation," 
gave his nature more refinement and self-control 
for the days of his emancipation. For when he 
had learned from her what she had to teach, 
he began to chafe both at this relation and at 
his court life, until in 1786 he asked of Karl 
August unlimited leave of absence, that he 
might visit Italy. The literary product of this 
decade is almost wholly lyric or epigrammatic; 
but he carried across the Alps the uncompleted 
Iplvigenie (which in a prose form had been acted 
in 1779), Eg-mont, Tasso, and Faust works not 
to be finished in the spirit of their inception. 

For the Italian journey marks a most im- 
portant epoch of Goethe's literary and moral de- 
velopment. All the work that follows is quite 
different from all that went before. Here 
Goethe found at last his moral balance. From 
1788 till his death he went his way among men 
with the serenity of perfect self-possession. He 
went first to Verona, then to Padua and Venice, 
where he stayed two weeks, and then turned 
southward to Ferrara and across the Apennines 
to Florence, where he lingered but three hours, 
so eager was the impetuous traveler to see Rome 
(Oct. 20, 1786). Here the poetic stream that 
had long flowed so scantily was unsealed. By 
mid- January, 1787, he had turned Ipfiigcwie into 
classic iambics, as a first fruit of the new in- 
fluences, and was so sure that he was on tho* 
right track that he determined to do the same 
service for Tasso on a journey to Naples and 
Sicily, from which he returned in June. 

In Rome he now remained nearly a year, per- 
fecting Iphigenie, finishing Egmont, working on 
Taaso and Faust, and prosecuting zealously ar- 
tistic and botanical studies. He also lived con- 
nubially with a Roman girl, and the connection 
seems to have revealed to him a joy of life dis- 
sociated from the somewhat morbid sentimental- 
ity that had characterized his previous relations, 
especially that with Charlotte von Stein. This 
new moral attitude is reflected in the RSmische 
Elegien (1788), an epithalamium addressed to 
Christiane Vulpius, a young woman of Weimar, 
with whom he lived quasi-maritally from 1788 
till their marriage in 1806, and afterward 
till her death (1816), to his own satisfaction, 
but to the scandal of the ladies of Weimar and 
the vexation of Bettina von. Arnim-Brentano. 
According to Goethe's correspondence with 
Christiane, but recently published (Goethe- 
Gesellschaft, Weimar), she was the true and 
faithful companion of his after life, loving and 
beloved. His mother treated her from the first 
as "her daughter/' and she earned, after the 
battle of Jena, the honor of a public recognition 



87 GOETHE 

of her place by preserving, at the risk of her 
life, Goethe's house from French marauders. 

Goethe brought to Weimar (June 18, 1788) 
Iphigenie and Egmont, with Tasso almost in its 
present form, and an essentially altered con- 
ception of Faust. Iphigenie was planned in 
1776 and written in prose in 1779. It was a 
literary projection of his relation to Charlotte 
von Stein. Orestes recovers a clear mind in the 
angelic presence of his sister, as Goethe imagined 
lie would do if Charlotte would fk be a sister" to 
him. Such ethics were unripe and unnatural, 
and the play lacks action. It was old work made 
over, and its exquisite versification did not 
wholly suffice to make it harmonize with his 
new spirit. There is the same discord of old and 
new in the prose drama Egmont, "the weak, 
aristocratic twin brother of Gots' 3 (Hermann 
Grimm). Tasso has more unity of conception 
and execution, though it is deficient in dramatic 
action, and, indeed, was not put on the stage 
for 18 years after its publication (1790). It, 
too, in its pre-Italian prose form (1780-81) re- 
flected Goethe "caught in the snare' 1 of Char- 
lotte von Stein, a situation that in 1786 had 
ceased to have living interest for him. He con- 
centrated his thought on its form, and made the 
iambics of Tasso so perfect that Schlegel said 
their very beauty made them unsuited to dra- 
matic dialogue. He also changed the close to 
conform to his new ethical position. 

Goethe's first homogeneous work after Ms re- 
turn from Italy was the Romisolie Elegien, in 
the spirit, he said, of Tibullus, Catullus, and 
Propertius, the most antique in thought of 
modern German verse. The frankly naive sen- 
sualism that they exhibited, borne out by his 
conduct, caused Goethe a temporary loss of social 
popularity in the "imperfectly monogamous" so- 
ciety of Weimar, as well as a breach with Frau 
von Stein. He had outgrown her and the Wei- 
mar circle. Even his literary preeminence 
seemed to wane. In Q-otz and Werther he had 
led his countrymen. Now he had passed beyond 
them in his deepened aesthetic insight. For a 
time and until rejuvenated by the friendship 
of Schiller, he gave his time largely to scientific 
studies, to which he brought not only an origi- 
nal mind, but almost a seer's vision. In 1784 
he had discovered the intermaxillary bone by 
a method that foreshadowed the science of com- 
parative anatomy. In his essay Die Metamor- 
pJiose der Pflanzen, he became, says Esenbeck, 
"the tender father" of a just-born science; his 
experiments in optics were ingenious and valu- 
able, though his theory of colors was false, and 
he was first to perceive the vertebrate character 
of the human skull. Thus, while his contem- 
porary botanists and anatomists were wandering 
aimlessly or making dry registration of facts, 
he gave them ideas whose fruitfulness is not 
yet exhausted. From these studies Goethe was 
won back to literature by the friendship of 
Schiller. 

Schiller had been living in or near Weimar 
since 1787, but a strange irony of destiny kept 
the poets estranged till 1704, though Schiller 
was drawing, unperceived, into closer sympathy 
with Goethe's classic ideals. Meantime Goethe's 
son August was born (Dec. 25, 1789), the only 
one of several children to reach maturity. This 
and the storm clouds of the French Revolution 
led him to defer a visit to Italy, though in 1790 
he went to Venice to meet the Duchess Amalie 
there, and wrote a group .of Tenetianiscke Epi- 



GOETHE 88 

that show how his quasi marriage had 
helped him to a calmer judgment of Italian cul- 
ture than that of the Elegies. Work in lighter 
vein now attracted him, Wilhcltn Meiatcr and 
the Court Theatre (the management of which 
he undertook in 1701), till in the summer of 
1792 he was summoned by Karl August to join 
hiin in. the invasion of Franco that was to cul- 
minate in the defeat of the Duke of Brunswick 
at Valmy. Goethe recorded his six weeks' im- 
pressions in his Kampagne -in Fraukreich and 
returned to Weimar to find almost ready for 
his occupancy a mansion presented to him by 
the Duke and now, as the home of the Goethe 
Society and its museum, inseparably connected 
with his name. The pleasure of this enlarged 
domesticity is reflected in Reineke Fuchs, writ- 
ten in 1793 and published in 1794 the adapta- 
tion to social satire of an animal fable that can 
be traced back to j-Eaop and to India, though 
Goethe's immediate model was a German ren- 
dering of the mediaeval Flemish version of the 
fable by a certain Willem (about 1250). Out 
of this comic epic he made, without local or per- 
sonal illusions, a social and political satire full 
of ease and vigor, a humorous apotheosis of im- 
pudence that has become and is likely to re- 
main one of his most popular poeuM, though at 
the time it passed almost unnoticed. 

Goethe had met Schiller on several occasions 
since 1779 and had secured for him a profes- 
sorship at Jena, though it had seemed to him 
that the author of Die Rtiuber wtood in the way 
of development of claHnical taste which, since 
his return from Italy, Goethe had boon desirous 
to foster. But Schiller was himself developing 
along these lines, and when they came to un- 
derstand one another, iu 1704, Goethe may well 
have felt that Schiller, more than any other in 
Germany, was fitted to appreciate and aid him. 
He was first to speak of friendship, first to visit 
Ms new-found friend. Their intercourse, grew 
constant, especially after Schiller came to Wei- 
mar (1799), and was interrupted only by Schil- 
ler's death (1805). To Goethe the relation was 
of stimulating rather than of directing force. 
He contributed to Schiller's periodical Die II wen 
(1795-97) the Unterhtkllungen dcutttckor Aus- 
gewanderten and the Rb'mifMhc Megicn, and to 
the Afuscnalmanach (1700-1800) his share of 
the Xenien couplets of stinging literary criti- 
cism that aroused great excitement and lifelong 
enmities. 

Under this new influence Wilhelm M cist era 
Lehrjahre (1706) was completed a novel with 
no definite plot, its purpose being the unfold- 
ing of characters drawn from varied social 
spheres, wonderfully realistic studiew involving 
much ripened worldly wisdom and philonophy. 
Mignon and Philine are enduring creations, the 
songs interspersed in the novel are among the 
most exquisite in any literature, and the analy- 
sis of ff<mlet is a very acute criticism. Some 
fine ballads and elegies belong to this period 
also, and it closes with that hymn to the family 
and masterpiece of classic realism, Hermann und 
Dorothea (1797). Here all is studied from life; 
there is no idealization, no sentimentality. It 
was an old story, but instinct with a conserva- 
tive patriotism in these years of revolution and 
social upheaval. Other less important works 
of thia period are a realistic drama, Die viattir- 
liohe TotiMer, held in higher esteem by mores re- 
cent critics, and Achillas, an attempt to con* 
tinue the Iliad. Some work was done on Faust 



GOETHE 



also; but sickness and public cares interrupted 
it, and the first part was not published till it 
was included in the first edition of Goethe's 
Works (13 vola., 1808). 

Meantime Goethe had lost many friends 
Cleini, Klopatock, and Herder iu 1803, Schiller 
in 1805, his mother in 1808. In that year 
Goethe came in frequent contact with Napoleon 
at Erfurt. It was about this time, too, that 
Bettina von Arnim-Brentano conceived that vio- 
lent attachment for him that appears in her 
(Joethes Bricficeohsel mit einem Kinde, which, 
however, does not represent an actual corre- 
spondence; but Bettina could not endure Chris- 
tiane, and the acquaintance ccaaed after 1811. 
In 1809 Goethe published his second novel, Die 
"WaMvericandtftoliaftent a story of the conflict 
of love and conjugal duty, with a tragic clowe. 
Though now little read, its influence has been 
great, for it is the starting point of German 
psychologic fiction. It lias also an autobio- 
graphical value. Charlotte is Frau vou Stein, 
and Edward is what Goethe felt he might have 
become. Ottilie lias been thought by some, prob- 
ably wrongly, to be studied from a young Jena 
girl, Minna Hcrzliob. 

From 1811 to 1814 appeared the first three 
parts of l)iclituny md \\'ahrheit, one of the 
most fascinating autobiographies in any lan- 
guage. It is early memories scon through a 
long vista of years and under the transforming 
influence of an artist's eye, beginning with in- 
fancy and closing with Iris coming to Weimar. 
Meantime the War of Liberation had restored 
national independence to Germany; but while 
the fate of his country was changing before, his 
eyos, Goethe was studying the Oriental jwetw 
and checking the effect of their exuberance by 
renewed reading of Homer. It wuw in thene 
years that he wrote in great part the, H'<t- 
b'stliohcr Divan (1810), foreign in external^ 
mysterious and oracular in parts, but aiming to 
cultivate international sympathies, Hocial and 
literary, in years of intense chauviuiHin. The 
Hulciku poems in the Diwm have been thought 
to be addressed in gracefully platonic affection 
to Marianne Willemer, wife of IUH congenial 
'host on a journey to the Rhine in 1815, but 
this is very doubtful. He also undertook at 
this time some antiquarian studies, standing in- 
tentionally aloof from the temporal anpirationn 
of the (toman people that he might labor more 
effectively for their intellectual xipliftittg. 

The Wcat-Gstlio/icr Divan IH the lartt work of 
Goethe's long connubial life. ChriHtiane bad 
died in 1816. He felt the blow aeverely and 
said that what remained of life to him wan but 
time granted "that ho might mourn her loan." 
Hiw directorship of the Weimar Theatre he gave 
up in 1817. But the yearn that remained to 
him, "testamentary yeary," he called them, were 
to yield much of interest. WUMm Mci*twtt 
WandcrjalirQ may indeed necm dreary reading, 
though it contains many wine pedagogical ob- 
servations and some epiaodos that recall the 
narrative power of Goetlio'H prime. To theae 
years, also, we owe the Second Part of Fiiwtt, 
the necessary complement of the former, with 
its teaching that men rise by unaelfitth altruistic 
effort. Here, aH Scherer noticed, Fauwt choose, 
not wealth, but work, and finds in that choice 
his salvation. Mediately Gretchen brings him 
to the choice; immediately Helena, the incarna- 
tion of Greek ideals, as though to suggest that 
beauty is positive, creative, revealing the worth 



G-OETHE 

of life, and freeing Faust at last from the 
Mephistophelean spirit of negation. So the 
teaching is the same as that of \Vil1ielm Meister. 
The scholar, as the poet, passes, in Goethe's 
conception, from a groping, contemplative, 
searching aesthetic existence under the spur of 
negative spirits and ideal models, to active, 
useful labor. Here is to be found Goethe's phi- 
losophy of life, which aims to realize the ideal 
by the idealization of the real, to correlate ac- 
tion with thought. 'The rest of my life may 
be regarded as a free gift," he said as he sealed 
the manuscript of this Second Part of Faust. 
''It is now really indifferent what I do, or if I 
do anything at all." It was his philosophic 
testament to Germany. 

It is to this last period, too, that we owe 
fche Conversations (Gesprache) with Ecker- 
mann, which have preserved to us much keen 
criticism of men and things, for during these 
declining years he continued to be in closest 
touch with the intellectual movement of his 
own country and of others. Weimar became a 
goal of pilgrimage to men of many minds and 
nations. He seemed to Germans the survivor, 
almost the last, of a heroic age. Some of these 
visitors give us glimpses of the old man's life, 
among them Heine, Thackeray, and his old 
friend Lotte Kestnor. After his wife's death 
he traveled but little, seldom farther than Jena, 
lingering especially over places associated with 
his prime, and towards the last working in- 
termittently, as health permitted, on the annals 
of his Weimar life. In 1828 Karl August died, 
followed two years later by Goethe's son August, 
whose widow, Ottilie, cared for her father-in- 
law to the end. In the same year (1830) Grand 
Duchess Luise passed away. So Goethe was 
left, almost the last of Ms generation. He 
died in Weimar March 22, 1832, in his chair, 
so peacefully that men did not know the hour. 
Eckermann, who saw his body as it was pre- 
pared for burial, noted the deep peace and 
firmness of the features, the magnificence of 
the limbs, the broad, strong, and arched chest. 
Nowhere on the body, he says, was there a trace 
of wasting. "A perfect man lay in great 
beauty before me." This body lies now, with 
that of Schiller, in the ducal mausoleum of 
Weimar in front of the bronze coffins of the 
two princely patrons of both, Luise and Karl 
August. 

This is the most completely rounded literary 
life in history a life of monumental proportion 
and yet of perfect symmetry, responsive to all 
intellectual impulses of art, philosophy, and sci- 
ence, open to every light, yet self-poised and 
self -controlled till its calm seems Olympian. 
Goethe is at once the representative and the 
prophet of the modern spirit, reconciling the 
antinomies of the ideal and the real in the 
world wisdom of his Faust. 

The literature that has gathered around 
Goethe would fill a library indeed, it does so 
in the Goethe archives at Weimar, whence is- 
sues the great edition of his works, embracing 
also the Tagebuoher and Briefe, now all but 
complete. The Goethe-Jahrbuoh (annual) is 
devoted entirely to Goethe. An exhaustive 
bibliography of Goethe literature is to be found 
in Goedeke, Grundriss zur GesoMchte der deut- 
schen Dichtung, vol. iv (3d ed., 1910- ). 
Recent comprehensive' editions are those of 
Heinemann (Leipzig, 1000- ), the Julilaeums- 
Ausgale (Stuttgart, 1907- ), the Wilhelm 



89 CrOETHITJS 

Enist-Ausgalr (Leipzig, 1008- ), the Propy- 
laeen-Ausgabe (Munich, 1909- ), the Tempel- 
Elassiker-Ausgabc (Leipzig, 1909- ), the new 
Hempel-JLitsgabc (Berlin, 1910- ). Of the 
letters there arc selections by Von der Hellen 
(Stuttgart, 1900- ), Stein (Berlin, 1902- ), 
Richard M. Mover (Berlin, 1909- ). The 
correspondence with Schiller is best edited by 
Graef and Leitzmann (Leipzig, 1912- ), that 
with Frau von Stein by Fraenkel (Jena, 1908). 
Von Biederniann has edited Goethe's Gesprache 
(10 vols., 2d ed., Leipzig, 1909- ); Houben 
has edited his Gesprache -mit Eckermann (8t!i 
ed., Leipzig, 1909). 

Of the lives of Goethe, Diintzer's (Leipzig> 
1883) is the most complete (also in Eng. trans.) . 
Excellent popular biographies are those by 
Heinemann (3d ed., 2 vola., Leipzig, 1903) ; 
Bielschowsky (25th ed., Munich, 1913; trans, 
by Cooper, New York, 1905-08) ; and Wit- 
kowsky (2d ed., Leipzig, 1913). Lewes's well- 
known life is largely superseded by these Ger- 
man works. Another biography in English, by 
Atkins, appeared in 1904 (London). 

Among the later studies of Goethe, omitting 
all treatises on special works, the most signifi- 
cant are: Weissenfels, Der junge Goethe (Tubin- 
gen, 1899) ; Menzel, D&r Frankfurter Qoetht 
(Frankfurt, 1900) ; Sclierer, Aufstittse fiber 
Goethe (2d ed., Berlin, 1900) : Graef e, Goethe 
tiler seine Diclitunycn (Frankfurt, 1901- ) ; 
Bode, Goethes Aesthetik (Berlin, 1901) ; VogeL 
Goethes Sellsteeugnisse uber seine Stellung &wr 
Religion (3d ed., Leipzig, 1903) ; Hermann 
Griimn, Goethe-Vorlcsimyen, (7th ed., Stuttgart, 
1903) ; Wasielewski, Goethe und die Descend- 
cnzlehre (Frankfurt, 1903) ; Richard M. Meyer, 
Goethe (3d ed., Berlin, 1905); Ludwig Geiger, 
Goethe und die Beincn (Leipzig, 1908) j Vogel, 
Goethes Studenten-Jahre (3d ed., Leipzig, 
1909) ; Diezmann, Goethe und die lustige Zeit 
in Weimar (4th ed., Weimar, 1909) ; Bernays, 
Der junge Goethe (new ed., Leipzig, 1909-12) ; 
Houston Stewart Chamberlain, Goethe (Munich, 
1912; in German) ; Maass, Goethe vnd die 
Antike (Stuttgart, 1912). 

GOETHE, KATIIAEINA ELISABETH, known as 
"Frau Rat" and "Frau Aja" (1731-1808). The 
mother of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. She 
was born at Frankfort on the Main and was a 
daughter of Johann Wolfgang Textor, a prom- 
inent citizen of that city. At the age of 17 she. 
was married to Johann Kaspar Goethe, by 
whom she had four children. She was a woman 
of exceptional intellect, marked individuality, 
and a delightfully joyous cast of mind, as evi- 
denced by her letters, and in the frequent refer- 
ences to her found in the works of her son, 
upon whose intellectual development she un- 
doubtedly exerted a remarkable influence. She 
was made the heroine of the work by Bettina 
von Arnim entitled Dies Buch gehort dem KSnig 
(1843) and is one of the central figures of 
Gutzkow's famous play, Der Ktinigsleutnant. 
Much of the correspondence of Katharina Elisa- 
beth Goethe has been published in Goethe* a 
Mother, Correspondence of Catharine Elizabeth 
Goethe with Goethe (Leipzig, 1889). Her let- 
ters to the Duchess Anna Amalia were published 
at Weimar in 1885. Consult: Keil, Frau Rat 
(Leipzig, 1871) ; Erich Schmidt, Oharakteristiken 
(Berlin, 1886) ; Heinemann, Goethes Mutter 
(7th ed., Leipzig, 1904). 

GOETHITE, gg'tlt (named in honor of 
Goethe). A hydrated iron peroxide that orys- 



GOETSCHIUS 90 

tallizes in the orthorhombic system, producing 
slender prisms which pass by gradations into 
crystalline aggregates and massive forms. The 
lustre ia adamantine and the color yellow red 
to brown. It occurs with other iron oxides, es- 
pecially hematite or limonite, in Nassau, Saxony, 
and elsewhere in Germany; at various localities 
in England ; and in the United States in the Lake 
Superior region, Missouri, Colorado, California, 
and elsewhere. Goethite is sometimes found 
penetrating quartz, like rutilo, forming sagenite 
or *'Venus's hair stone/' which, when cut, is 
used for seals and charms in jewelry. 

G-OETSCHITTS, ge^chfls, PERCY (1853- ). 
A distinguished American musical scholar, 
writer, and composer, born in Paterson, N. J. 
A graduate of the Stuttgart Conservatory of 
Music, he was 111 1870 placed in charge of tho 
English classes there and in 1885 was made 
royal professor. He at the same time contrib- 
uted to the leading musical journals of Ger- 
many. He was called to Syracuse (N. Y.) Uni- 
versity in 1800, as professor of harmony, 
musical history, and advanced pianoforte play- 
ing. In 1802-00 he had charge of the composition 
brancli of the New England Conservatory. He 
was appointed organist of the First Parish 
Church of Brookliue in 1897. In 1005 he be- 
came head of the theory department at the 
Institute of Musical Art in New York. His 
principal works are: 77*0 Material Used in 
Musical Composition, (1882); The Theory and 
Practice of Tone delations (1802); Models of 
the Principal Musical, Powns ( 1805 ) ; Syllabus 
of Musival History (1895); Tho Homophonic 
fforms of Musical Composition (1898) ; Exer- 
cises in Melody-Writing (1000); Applied Coun- 
terpoint (1002) ; Lessons w, Muxic-Forni (1004) ; 
Exercises in Iijlwrnvntuvy Counterpoint (1009). 

QOETZ, gets, (LEOPOLD) KABL (1868- ). 
A German Old Catholic theologian and historian, 
born in Karlsruhe and educated at Bonn and 
Bern. In 1802-1000 he was priest of the Old 
Catholic Congregation at Passau, for two years 
was professor in the theological seminary of 
that denomination at Bonn, and in 1902 became 
professor in the University of Bonn. His works 
on Church history, especially as it touched the 
points in controversy between Rome and the 
Old Catholics, and on early Russian, history, 
include the following: Bwtstehre Cyprians 
(1805); Oesohiohtliche ftlellung und Aufgabc 
des deutsehen Altkatholissismus (1805-00); Oe- 
svfiichte der Nlawwapostel Konstantinus und 
Methodius (1807) ; Lassaristen und Jesuiten 
(1808); Leo XTII (1890); F. H. Reusch 
(1901); Das Kiever Hohlenkloster als Eultur- 
ecniruwi der vormongolisehen Russlands (1004) ; 
Kirchenrevhtliehe und fiulturgcschichtliche Denk- 
tndler Attruaslands (1905); fltaat und Kirche 
in A Itrussland ( 1008 ) ; and a great work on 
Russian law, vols. i-iv (1910-13). 

GOETZ, gats, TIIEODOE VON (1826-92). A 
Gorman battle painter, born in Lieschen, Silesia. 
He studied at first under the genre painter 
HantzBch in Dresden, but turned later to mili- 
tary subjects. Ho is particularly noteworthy 
for his faithful representations of the events of 
the Franco-German War of 1870-71, in which 
he took part as commander of a battalion of 
riflemen. His pictures are faithful in detail, 
but hard in color, The best known include: 
"Episode in Battle of Sedan" (1875); "Prince 
George of Saxony in Battle of Saint-Privat" 
(1876); and "Crown Prince Albert after the 



GOIT 

Battle of Beaumont Congratulated by Prince 
George" (18S7, Dresden Gallery). 

GOETZ, or GOTZ, VON BEB.LICHINGEN, 
gets fun ber'liK-ingVii. See BEBLKUIIMIKN. 

GOETZE, get'ztj, KRKDKUICK ART HUB (1S70- 
). Au American mechanical eujjiiiei-r and 
educator. Ho \vas bom in Jersey City* N. rl., 
and was educated at Stevens Preparatory School 
(1882-85), at Cooper Union, New York (18S5- 
87), and at the Columbia School of Minos (ISiKJ- 
95). From 1895 to 1907 he was aBwiatant su- 
perintendent and superintendent of buildinga 
and grounds of Columbia University, where ho 
became dean of the schools of Mines, Engineer- 
ing, and Chemistry, consulting engineer in 1007, 
and controller in 10 13. 

GOEZE, ge'tse, JOIIANN AUGUST KPHBAIM 
(1731-93). A German theologian and natural- 
ist, a brother of Johann Mekhior Goexe. lie 
was born at Aschersleben and studied theology 
at the University of Plalle (1747-51). After 
occupying several pastorates lie became deacon 
of the cathedral at Quedlinburg, where he died. 
He is best known for his rerteurchos in natural 
history. His microscopical investigations led to 
the publication of the important work entitled 
Vers'iich cuter Naturgcachichte der NlHi/wrrndfr- 
warmer ticrinchcr Korpcr (1782 5 appendix, 
1800). In 1773-74 he prepared about 75 trans- 
lations of Bonnet's treatises on the natural his- 
tory of insects. 

GOEZE, JOIIANN MJSXCHIOB (1717-80). A 
German Lutheran clergyman, born at Halher- 
stadt (Province of Saxony, Prussia). Educated 
at Jena and Hallo, he became pastor of the 
church of the Holy Spirit at Magdeburg in 
1750, and in 1755 chief pastor of St. Catha- 
rine's Church at Hamburg, tfrom 1700 to 1770 
lie held the seniority of the. Lutheran clergy 
at Hamburg. He is known chielly an a tirden'n 
controversialist, and in particular for hiw at- 
tacks on Leasing because of tho latter'* publica- 
tion, in the "Wolfenbiittcl Fragment,' 1 of the 
posthumous Fragm&ite vims Ungwiannton ( 1 774, 
1777, 1778) of the freethinker Hurniaim Reima- 
rus. He began tho well-known content in 1777, 
with an essay in Nos. 55 and 50 of the /'V<rJ- 
wiUigo Beitrti'f/e ffu den Jlambtirg/terlwn Nach- 
richtcn, which ho followed by Wtwan VorHiu/ij/cw 
f/egen des Hewn, Hofrath 'Lcssinf/a mittttlbaru 
und unmittelbare feindsel iflc Anflriffa (,177H), 
and Lessings tichwiichvH, (1778), all acrid and 
personal. Leasing made his chief reply in 1778 
111 fiino Duplik, IHne Parapet, A mom at a and 
Anti-Goose, among both the keenest of bin writ- 
ings and the foremost examples of tho literature, 
of the class. The pastor had little of the in- 
cisive thought, and yet less of the. nkillfnl e.x- 
prossion, of his opponent. He was intolerant, 
even for the time, and a stickler for u narrowly 
literalistic interpretation of thu Rcriptxiren. II w 
polemics against Lessing were oditxwl by N). 
Schmidt in 1803. OoiiHiilt liin life hy 'lln<> 
(Hamburg, I860), and Oropp, ^LoasingH Mtroit 
mit Hauptpastor Goeze," in Heft 155 of the 
Deutsche Zeit- und Streit-Fragcn (Berlin, 1881). 
See LKSSINO. 

GOFF, JOHN W. (1848-1924). An Ameri- 
can lawyer and judge. JUe wa born at Woxford, 
Ireland, went to the United (States at an early 
ago, and was educated at Cooper Union, New 
York City. He studied law and in 1870 WUH 
admitted to the bar. From 1888 to 181)1 ho was 
assistant district attorney of New York City; 
later he attracted attention au counsel for the 



GOFF g 

Law Association in the investigation and prose- 
cution of election frauds in New York and as 
counsel for the Lexow Senatorial Committee 
\vhich investigated police administration in the 
same city. From 1894 to 1906 he was recorder 
of the c"ity of New York, and he was elected 
justice of the Supreme Court of New York, first 
district, for the term of 1007 to 1920. In 1912 
he presided over two of the most famous crimi- 
nal trials ever held in New York the first trial 
of Charles Becker, former police lieutenant, 
who was convicted of instigating the murder 
of the gambler Herman Rosenthal, and the 
trial of the four gunmen convicted of the actual 
shouting. 

GOFF, NATHAX (1843-1920). An American 
legislator, born at Clarksburg, W. Va. He was 
educated at Georgetown College and at the Uni- 
versity of the City of New York, and from 1861 
to 1805 served in the Union army, rising from 
the rank of lieutenant to major. Admitted to 
the bar in 18G6, he then was (Republican) 
member of the West Virginia House of Repre- 
sentatives in 1SG7, United States district attor- 
ney in 1868-81, Secretary of the Navy under 
President Hayes in 1881, a'gain United States 
district attorney in 1881-82, and member of 
Congress (1883-89). In 1888 his election as 
Governor of West Virginia was successfully 
contested by his Democratic opponent. He 
served as United States circuit judge from 1892 
to 1911 and as judge of the United States Cir- 
cuit Court of Appeals in 1912-13, and was 
elected United States Senator for the term of 
1913-19. 1 

GOFFE, gof, WILLIAM (?-<j.l680). An Eng- 
lish regicide, born in Sussex, where his father 
was the rector of a church at Stammer. Ap- 
prenticed to a salter in London, he embraced 
the cause of the Parliament against Charles I 
and in 1645 was commissioned a captain in the 
New Model army, in which by his zeal and 
bravery ho won rapid promotion. He was one 
of the judges at the trial of Charles I and 
signed the death warrant. He commanded Crom- 
well's old regiment at the battle of Dunbar and 
distinguished himself at Worcester. He was 
elected to Parliament in 1654 and was promoted 
major general in 1655, with command in Sussex, 
Berkshire, and Hampshire. In 1656 he sup- 
ported the proposition to offer the crown to 
Cromwell, by whom he was appointed a mem- 
ber of the newly constituted House of Lords. 
At the Restoration he was excepted from the 
Act of Indemnity and escaped with his father- 
in-law, General Whalley, to America, settling 
iirst at Cambridge, and thence removing to New 
Haven in 1661 to escape arrest. He remained 
in hiding in and about New Haven and Guilford 
until 16(54, when he fled for safer refuge to the 
house of the Rev. John Russel in Hadley, Mass. 
There is a tradition that he appeared on the 
occasion of an Indian attack upon Hadley on 
Sept. 1, 1675, rallied the frightened townsmen, 
and drove off the raiders. But there is no 
other record of even an attack on the town at 
that time. However, the incident has been used 
by Scott in his Peveril of the Peak and by 
Cooper in his Wept of Wishrton-Wish, or The 
Borderers and forms the subject of "The Gray 
Champion" in Hawthorne's Twice-Told Tales. 
There is an affidavit alleging that Goffe was in 
Hartford in 1680, but there is no other trace of 
him subsequent to 1679. Consult Stiles, His- 
tory of Three of the Judges of King Charles I 
VOL. X. 7 



I GOG AND 3VEAGOG 

(Hartford, 1794), and a close study by Sheldon 
in the introduction to the new edition of Judd's 
History of Hadley (Springfield, 1903). 

GOFFSTOWN". A town in Hillsborough C u.. 
N. H., S miles northwest of Manc-hester, on tlu 
Boston and .Maine Railroad, and on the Piscata- 
quog River (Map: New Hampshire, G 7). It 
contains the St. Anselms College and a public 
library. Goffstown is a summer resort and has 
manufactories of sashes and blinds. The touii 
was first settled in 1748 and incorporated in 
1761. Pop., 11)00, 252S; 1!)10, 2579. 

GOG AND MA'GOG. In Ezek. xxxviii. 1- 
xxxix. 20, an oracle is directed against Gog, 
Prince of Rosh, Mebhech, and Tubal, announcing 
that he will be led to invade Palestine, accom- 
panied by Paras, Cush, Put, Gomer, Togarnmh, 
and people from "the sides of the north," only 
to meet with a crushing defeat on the mountains 
of Israel and to be buried with all his host in 
"the Valley of the Travelers to the Sea." L 'To 
the land of Magog" has the appearance of being 
an interpolation in xxxviii. 2, and the Greek 
translator seems to have road "Gog" and not 
"Magog" in xxxix. C; the glossator evidently 
regarded Magog as a term covering the realm 
over which Gog ruled. Gog also occurs in the 
Greek version of Num. xxiv. 7 and Amos vii. 1 ; 
but the original reading in the tirst passage is 
doubtful., and the second is probably a late inter- 
polation. Magog appears as one of the sons of 
Japhet in Gen. x. 2. As all the other sons 
represent well-known peoples the Cimmerians, 
Medes, Greeks, Moschi, Tibarenes, and Tyrrheni- 
ans Magog, no doubt, also stands for a definite 
people. If the name has been correctly trans- 
mitted, it may yet come to light in ancient in- 
scriptions. It may be an expansion of Gog, 
which occurs in the form of Ga-ga in a letter of 
Amenhotep III (1411-1375 B.C.) to Kadashman- 
harbe (Amarna Tablets, i, 38) as the name of 
a people, and seems to have survived to the time 
of Strabo in Gogarene, north of Saeasene, near 
the Cyrus River (xi, 14). Josephus (Ant., i, 
123) and Jerome (Com. in Evedi.) understood 
Magog as referring to the Scythians. In Gon. 
x. 3 Ashkcnaz (Ass. Ashkuza), son of Gomcr 
(q.v.), appears to represent the Scythians. But 
just as the terms "Scythian" and '"Sakae" were 
used by Greeks and Persians of many ethnic ele- 
ments, so Gog, or Magog, may have come to 
include in later times both the Scythians proper 
and many other nations, like the Sarmatians, the. 
Roxalani, the Bastarnians, and the Massageta*. 

Some modern interpreters, among them Wcll- 
hausen and Smend, regard Gog as a fictitious 
personage representing the reflection of the 
Scythian invasion in 625 B.C. expected by Eze- 
kiel to recur again. Others, like Bousset and 
Gressmann, who regard the two chapters as 
later than Ezekiel's time, consider Gog as a 
mythical figure and look to Babylonian lore for 
an elucidation of the oracle. Others have felt 
that a distinct historic personage is in the 
author's mind. Grotius was led by a suggestion 
already thrown out by Polychronius, the brother 
of Theodore of Mopsuestia, to the idea that Eze- 
kiel used the name of the Lydian King Gyges in 
prophesying the career of Antiochus III. Sei- 
necke thought of Antiochus IV Epiphanes. 
Winckler assumed that the writer was a contem- 
porary of Alexander the Great and referred to 
his invasion of Syria. But neither Antiochus III 
nor Antiochus IV nor Alexander could well be 
designated as "prince of Rosh, Meshech, and 



AND MAGOG 92 

Tubal." Schmidt suggested that "prince of 
Meshech and Tubal" would be a most appropri- 
ate title of Mithridates VI of Pontus, a native 
and ruler of the territory associated with these 
names. If "Rosh" is the name of a people and 
refers to the Roxalani, the Ros of Georgius, 
Simon Logotheta, Zonaras, and Tzetzes (Gese- 
nius, Thesaurus, s.v.), the appropriateness, 
after the victory over this people by Mithri- 
dates, is even more striking. Among his forces 
were Persian auxiliaries, Egyptian ships, Cappa- 
docian troops, Armenian contingents, and Scyth- 
ian, Sarmatian, and Bastarnian soldiers. His 
terrible massacre of 80,000 Italians in Asia 
Minor, and his robbery of 800 talents from the 
Jews on Cos, then in league with Rome, would 
naturally have aroused hatred and excited the 
fear that he would invade Syria, as his ally 
Tigranes afterward did, and also the hope that 
he would be defeated on the old battlefields in 
the valley of Esdraelon, and that the ruler of 
Scythia would be buried in the city of Scythop- 
olis (Beth Shean). If this identification is 
correct, the name "Gog" would be natural, and 
the position of the oracle in the Book of Eze- 
kiel would be due to a reader or copyist familiar 
with his style. In Rev. xx. 8 Gog and Magog 
are nations gathered from the four corners of 
the earth by Satan to the last war after the 
millennium. It was probably through Chris- 
tians that Mohammed became familiar with 
them. He alludes to Yagug and Magug as na- 
tions against whom Dhu'l Karnain (Alexander) 
built a marvelous wall (Koran, xviii, 93-97), 
and also as peoples that were to appear in the 
distant future (ib., and, 95 f,). A 'poem by a 
Christian of Edessa published by Knos (Chresto- 
mathia Syriaca, GSttingen, 1807) also refers to 
Alexander and the wall of brass. Rumors of 
the Chinese Wall, built by Shi Hwang Ti, are 
probably at the basis of the legend. Moham- 
med's references to the wall naturally awakened 
curiosity; and al Wathik is said to have sent an 
expedition from Samarra in 842 A.D. to sock for 
it, which reported to have found it 27 days' 
journeys beyond Derbent on the Caspian Sea. 
They could not have reached the Chinese Wall in 
that time; and if they had, they would have 
known that it was not of brass. Arabic geog- 
raphers relate that Yagug and Magug are of 
small stature and live chiefly on fish. The de- 
scription applies well to the Massagetce, a 
Scythian people in the wider sense of the term, 
whose name seems to mean "fish eaters." In 
Arabic as well as later Hebrew eschatology 
Gog and Magog are to come to the last war 
across Lake Tiberias to the plain of Esdraclon. 
Consult: the commentaries on Ezokiel by Jerome, 
Polychronius, in Migne, Patrologia Grceca, Gro- 
tius, vol. clxii (Paris, 1854-60), Rosenmtiller, 
Hitzig, Smond, Knabenbauer, Bertholet, Kriltz- 
schmar, Skinner, Toy, Lofthouse; also Well- 
hauscn, Israelitische und jildteohe Qoftchiohte 
(7th ed., Berlin, 1914) ; Seinccke, Ocsohiohte fa* 
Volkes Israel, vol. ii (Gettingen, 1884) ; Winck- 
ler, Altorientalische ForscJmngen, vol. ii (Leip- 
zig, 1898) ; Schmidt, art. "Scythians," JStocyoZo- 
pcsdia BMioa, (New York, 1903) ; Bousset, Die 
Religion des Judentums (Berlin, 1903); Gresa- 
mann, Der Ursprung dor teraeUtisoh-jildisohen 
Wsohatologie (Gbttingfcn, 1905) ; Weber, Judische 
Theologie (Leipzig, 1897); Herrmann, Essechiel- 
ttudien (Leipzig, 1908); Herbelot, Bibtiotheque 
Orientate, art. *Iagiouge et Magiouge" (2d ed., 
Paris, 1783); Michaelis, 8<upplementa (Gattin- 



GOGH 



gen, 1784--92) ; Gesenius, Thr$ftitni& (Leipzig, 
1835-53, "Rosh" by Roediger) ; Montgomery, 
"Gog and Magog," Tliv Jewish Encyclopaedia, 
vol. vi (New York, 1904). 

Gog and Magog are names popularly given 
to the two wooden statues of giiintH preserved 
in the Guildhall at London. According to the* 
story, the living prototypes of the two figures 
were the survivors of a nice of giants found in 
Britain by Brute, son of Antcnor of Troy, and 
by him subdued. They were brought prisoners 
to London, where they were chained to the gates 
of a palace on the site of the Guildhall and kept 
as porters. When they died, their eiligies were 
set up in their place. This is Caxlon's account ; 
but there is another, which represents one, of the 
giants as Gogmagog and the other as a British 
giant who killed him, named Corineiis. The two 
giants have been the pride of London from time 
immemorial. On London Bridge they \vcieouied 
Henry V in 1415 ; in 1558 they stood by Templo 
Bar when Elizabeth passed through the city 
gate. The old giants were burned in the great 
fire, and the new ones were constructed in 
1708. They ate 14 feet high and occupy suit- 
able pedestals in the Guildhall. The. ancient 
eiligies, which were made of wickenvork and 
pasteboard, wore carried through the streets in 
the Lord Mayor's shown, and copies of the pres- 
ent giants were in the show of liS,'J7. 

GOGABX flee GOGKA. 

GOGERLY, gr/jer-li, DANIKL JOHKT (17012- 
18G2). An English missionary and scholar, tlut 
founder of Pali scholarship. Born in London, 
of German descent, he loft Hnglaml in 181H to 
take charge of the Wesleyan Methodist printing 
office in Colombo, entered the ministry in J882, 
and labored as a Methodist 'missionary in Oy- 
lon. lie developed remarkable linguistic talent, 
could preach in Singhalese and Indo-Portugncso, 
and was the first European to master the an- 
cient sacred Buddhist language of Pali, tlio 
native language of Magadha, the country of tlio 
Buddha. Ho not only compiled a WttUtninry of 
35,000 words, but had tho Jinddlrist priests 
write out the whole of their I*li books with 
their authorised glossaries or eoinnients, a col- 
lection ho bequeathed to tlw mission. In JM8 
lie became superintendent of the mission. Ho 
translated the Jdtaka'putn, (the Hook of JJBO 
births of Buddha), and by his translations and 
discussions was the first to irilroductu to Euro- 
pean scholars a scientific knowledge of the Pali 
in original Buddhism, tie also published in 
1802 the first able defense of Christianity in 
Singhalese, a book which led by reaction to tho 
awakening of the Buddhist oonso/iouHncss in 
Ceylon. He died at Colpotty, Ceylon. 

GOGKGLE-EYE' (so called from its protrud- 
ing eyes). The rook baas (Ainblopliloti ru/jaw- 
tris) , locally so called. Sou ROOK I$ANH ; WAU- 
Motmr. 

QOGKG-LE-WOSE' (so called from the round, 
black spots on its nose, which rosomble goggles). 
A local name among American gunnora for the 
surf scoter (duck). Soe HOOTKU. 

GOGH, gog, VnsrowNT VAN (1853-00). A 
Dutch figure, still-life, nnd landscape painter, 
one of the leaders of post-Tinprcssiomrtw (q.v,). 
He was bom at Groot-Zuiulcrt, a village of 
North Brabant (Holland), the son of a Protes- 
tant clergyman. Destined for tin art dealer, hc 
was until his twenty -third year in the wnploy 
of the firm of Goupil and Company, at The 
Hague, London, and Paris, lie was a school- 



GOGOL 

master in England, studied theology in Am- 
sterdam, and then became an evangelist among 
the gold miners of Belgium. Although he had 
always designed and modeled, he did not begin 
the study of painting until 1882, at The Hague. 
In 1884 he studied a short time at the Academy 
in Antwerp, whence he removed to Paris, join- 
ing his younger brother, Theodore, an art dealer 
of Modernist predilections, who brought him in 
touch with the Impressionists. He afterward 
removed to southern France, painting at Aries 
and Saint-Remy. At this time he was much in 
the company of Gauguin (q.v.), who greatly in- 
fluenced his work. Always in delicate health, 
he spent his last days in a hospital for nervous 
diseases at Auvers-sur-Oise, and there he com- 
mitted suicide. 

His work naturally falls into two periods, 
separated by the year 1885 a Dutch period of 
preparation and the French period of his mature 
art. His earliest works were powerful peasant 
pictures, such as "Winter" and "The Shepherds" 
(both in the Peletier collection, Utrecht) and 
the remarkable "Potato Eaters." His land- 
scapes of the country about Aries and elsewhere 
in southern France are characterized by broad 
surfaces of color, skillful treatment of light, and 
linear rhythm. A fine "Autumn Landscape" is 
in the Museum of Meudon. He also painted 
characteristic figure pieces, such as several peas- 
ant women of Aries, Dr. Gachet, and his own 
portrait in several versions, and the powerful 
and gloomy "Prison Court." He was, above all, 
a colorist, who worked in broad surfaces of pure 
color rather than in values. His letters to his 
brother Theodore, who supported him through- 
out his artistic career and died of grief as a 
result of his death, and to his friend Emil Ber- 
nard, were published by the latter in 1911. They 
contain strikingly original views on art, ex- 
pressed with force and lucidity. An English 
version of his letters was published under the 
title Letters of a Post-Impressiomst (Boston, 
1913). Consult the monographs by Meyer- 
Graefe (Munich, 1910) and Bremer (Amster- 
dam, 1911). 

GOGOL, gO'gol, NIKOIAI VASILIEVITCH (1809- 
52). One of the greatest of Russian writers, 
born in the Province of Poltava (Little Rus- 
sia), of a family of Cossack origin. On gradu- 
ating at the Nyezhin Lyceum he went to 
St. Petersburg (1828) and was a clerk in the 
Department of Appanages in 1830-32. During 
these years he published a series of sketches, 
Evenings at a Farmhouse near Dikanka. In 
these he exploited his personal knowledge and 
his grandfather's stories of Cossack everyday 
life. These sketches attracted immediate atten- 
tion and introduced their author into the select 
circle of Pushkin and Zhukovsky (qq.v.), who 
obtained for Gogol an instructorship in litera- 
ture and in 1834 an adjunct professorship in 
history. This latter position he soon resigned 
for purely literary work. During 1832-34 ap- 
peared a second series of Ukrainian sketches, 
Mirgorod (collected in 1835), containing among 
others, Taras Bulba, Old World Proprietors, 
and How the Two Ivans Quarreled. Taras Bulba, 
rewritten and enlarged in 1842, is a glowing pic- 
ture of the Cossack struggles with the Catholic 
Poles and Mohammedan Tatars in the sixteenth 
century. It is an epic in poetic prose and the 
best historical novel of the tune. The two other 
sketches are minute studies of the picturesque 
life of Little Russian (Ukrainian) villages. 



93 



GOHIER 



After these inimitable bits of realism Gogol 
wrote two series of sketches in a more romantic 
vein Arabesques (1834) and Tales (1836), 
dealing with Great Russian life, chiefly of St. 
Petersburg. In 1836 appeared the comedy Revi- 
zor (Inspector General), which held up to ridi- 
cule the ignorance, corruption, trickery, and 
arbitrariness of provincial officialdom. A dis- 
tressed cry of treason went up from all who were 
supported by state money, and but for the will 
of Nicholas I, who heartily enjoyed the bold com- 
edy, it would have been immediately withdrawn 
from the stage. The intense mortification at 
the general protest his play aroused undermined 
Gogol's constitution, and for 12 years thereafter 
he lived mostly abroad, searching in vain for 
health. In 1842 he published the first volume 
of Dead Souls, describing the adventures of 
one Chichikov, who travels all over Russia in 
pursuance of a scheme to become an estate 
holder by purchasing the dead serfs (souls of 
the dead), who are officially counted as living 
until the next census is taken. This almost 
plotless novel presents types of all walks of Rus- 
sian life, drawn with all of Gogol's former art 
and with a mastery still more marked. The sec- 
ond volume was almost ready in 1845; but the 
author, in a fit of hypochondria, of which he had 
become a victim and which made him a religious 
mystic and champion of autocracy, consigned the 
precious manuscript to the flames. A rough draft 
and detached scraps of it found after his death 
were pieced together and published by his 
friends. It clearly reflects his dwindling intel- 
lectual powers ; the personages are mostly figures 
of the "respectable" type, drawn not from actual 
life, but simply as a foil to the characters in 
the first volume. The Eascerpts from the Cor- 
respondence icith my Friends (1847) presented 
the painful spectacle of recantation and nega- 
tion of his artistic work, in a manner anticipat- 
ing Tolstoy's similar utterances. Gogol died 
in Russia, after a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 
1848. He is generally considered the founder 
of the Natural school, and the father of realism 
and the modern period of Russian literature. 
The latest complete edition of his works in Rus- 
sian is that of Bykov (Moscow and St. Peters- 
burg, 1911), containing a good biographical 
sketch by Dmitry Merezhkovsky. Almost all 
his works are available in both French and Ger- 
man. The English translations are: Hapgood, 
St. John's Eve and Other Stories; Taras-Bulba; 
ToMtchikoff's Journeys, or Dead SouU (New 
York, 1886) ; Mandell, The Remssor (New Haven. 
1910). 

GOGKRA, or GOGKAIM. One of the largest 
affluents of the Granges (q.v.), British India, 
joining that river from the left near Dinapur 
after a generally southeast course of 600 miles. 
It rises in lat. 30 28' N. and long. 58 40' E., 
on the southern declivity of a Himalayan range 
near the border line of Nepal and Tibet. After 
receiving many tributaries on both sides, it 
enters the great plain of Hindustan, 148 miles 
from its source, and 70 miles lower down be- 
comes navigable for craft of considerable burden. 
Farther down it is navigable for boats of all 
sizes at all seasons and is one of the most im- 
portant waterways ol India. The principal 
affluents are the Sarju (a name sometimes ap- 
plied to reaches of the Gogra) and the Rapti. 

GOHIER, gd'yS/, Lotns JER6ME (1746-1830). 
A.French politician, born at Semblancay (Indre- 
et-Loire). A distinguished advocate, he was 



GOIL 

deputy from Ille-et-Vilaine to the Legislative 
Assembly of 1791, where he strongly opposed the 
civil constitution for the clergy. The following 
year he became Secretary of the Department of 
Justice and then Minister of Justice (1793), 
succeeding Garat. He was president of the 
criminal court, judge of the Court of Cassation, 
and last President of the Directory (1799). He 
refused to participate in Napoleon's coup d'etat. 
In 1802 Napoleon made him Consul General to 
Holland and wished to send him in the same 
capacity to the United States (1810), when 
Qohier retired from public life. His Jltinoircs 
were published in 1824. 

GOIL, goil, Locn. A small sea loch in Argyll- 
shire, Scotland, a branch of Loch Long, C miles 
in length and less than 1 mile in breadth. 
Its shores are very steep, wild, and rugged, but 
diversified by extensive woods of hazel. Loch- 
goilhead is a favorite summer watering place. 

GOING, CHARLES BUXTON (18<>3- ). 
An American engineer, author, and editor, born 
at Westchester, N. Y. Graduating from Co- 
lumbia College School of Minos in 1882, ho at 
once took up, in the Middle West, active work 
in industrial chemistry and corporation manage- 
ment. He joined the staff of the Enginwinff 
Magazine in 1896, becoming managing editor in 
1898 and editor in 1912. In this connection ho 
did much to discern, define, and establish the 
now fully recognized profession of "industrial 
engineering." He became special lecturer on this 
subject at Columbia, Harvard, Now York Uni- 
versity, and the University of Chicago, and 
much of the best literature on this subject ap- 
peared, under his editorial encouragement. He 
received the degree of M.Sc. (hem.) from Colum- 
bia in 1910. His writings include Methods of 
the Santa Fe (1009) and Principle* of Industrial 
Engineering (1911), and, in lighter vein, Hum- 
mer-Fallow (18f)2) and Star-Ohir awl 8<tny 
( 1909 ) ; also, in collaboration with Mario Over- 
ton Corbin (later Mrs. Going), Orvhins of the 
Sea (1900) and Urchins (it the Pole (1901). 
He was a contributor to the second edition of 
tho NEW INTERNATIONAL ENOYCWHMSDIA. 

OOITO. gO'fi-tft. A town in tho Province of 
Mantua, Italy, on the right bank of the Mineio, 
11 miles northwest of tho city of Mantua (Map: 
Italy, 02). Its vicinity to Mantua ha* made 
it the scene of numerous battles, notably that 
between the Piedmontese and tho Austrians in 
April and May, 1848, when the former were, vic- 
torious. Pop. (commune), 1901,5094; 1011,6702. 

GOITRE (Fr., from Lat. gutter, throat). 
An enlargement of the thyroid gland (q.v.) oc- 
cupying the front of tho neck, and sometimes of 
such a size as to project downward over the 
breast and even admit of being thrown over tho 
shoulder. Goitre is, for the most part, an en- 
demic or local disease, being found in tho moun- 
tainous regions of the Alps, Andes, and Hima- 
layas, in the Pennine Range, and in Derbyshire, 
England (whence Derbyshire neck), in the 
JUione valley, in the Indian Punjab, and in 
north Italy, especially, it is said, where lime 
prevails largely as a geological formation. The 
connection of goitre with drinking water is a 
very ancient belief. Goitre wells are mentioned 
by Pliny and Vitruvius. Mungo Park is said 
to have found evidence of the belief in Africa, 
and Gago discovered a similar one in the West 
Indies in the seventeenth century. Men subject 
to^hilitary service drink the water of goitre 
wells in order to acquire the disease and thus 



Q4 



GOKHALE 



escape cuiibcriptioii. On the other hand, families 
living in goitre districts ha\* been known to 
escape the malady by drinking only rain water 
or wine. Again it has been noted that goitre 
streams or wells may change their character. 
Sometimes ;i well mtiy acquire goitre-producing 
qualities. Homo rivers produce goitre only at 
particular points in their coin-Be. In certain 
goitre districts in Italy and Switzerland tho 
disease lias been controlled by the introduction 
of water from a goitre-free region. Women are 
oftcner affected with goitre than men. An ex- 
planation offered for this fact is to the effect 
that they drink mure water than men. Repin, 
in 14)08, found a high degree of radioactivity, 
due to ruxliothorium, in the waters of the Wwiss 
Alps. Goitro is mot with endemically to a 
slight extent in various parts of Scotland, but on 
a very small scale indeed as compared with 
Switzerland, in which it is a very important de- 
formity, especially when conneuted with cre- 
tinism (q.v.). Sporadic goitre may occur in any 
country. The pathological changes which under- 
lie the enlargement of the thyroid in goitre are 
not always the same in all cases. The enlarge- 
ment of the gland may be due to a general 
hypertrophy of all the tissues, ttimplc. goitre; or 
depend on an overgrowth of the fibrous elements 
alone, fibrous yoitrr; or one or several of tho 
normal alveolar spares may become diJa-ted, con- 
stituting tiiiulw goitre; in other eases there- 
is little new gland formation, the increase iti 
sixe being duo to dilatation of tho blood vessels, 
which causes an expansile pulsation in tho mass, 
pulsatinf/ yoitrv; later on, the gland may become* 
indurated from the deposition of liriiu salts, 
forming tho variety known as ml rifled ftuttre,. 
The thyroid gland often becomes temporarily on- 
larked in women during the menstrual period or 
at puberty. In tho form of goitre known an 
exophthalmic goitre (see BASUDOW'N DIHKANK), 
which is market! by protrusion of the eyes (av- 
ophthalniott) and functional disturbance of tho 
heart action, there is increase in tin* si HO of the 
thyroid, which ia in most casuw a condition of 
active glandular proliferation. From the symp- 
toms of this disease taken in connection with the 
known effect of thyroid extract upon tho system, 
there, is little doubt that the change in tho gland 
IB the pathological basis of the diwaw. The 
treatment of goitre, not of tho exophthalmic 
variety, consists in tho administration of very 
minute doses of iodine for a lung time inter- 
nally, locally by inunction, or locally by cataph- 
orosin. The X-ray alleviates or cures in a 
large percentage of cases. ($00 KLBUTBICJETY, 
MEDICAL UHKH OP.) Tn a few rare cases tho ad- 
ministration of thyroid gland has cured. In 
others the administration of thyinus gland has 
cured, fu India, especially, applications of the 
hiniodide of mercury to the tumor, followed 
by exposure to tho sunlight, has proven a 
successful method of treatment. Commit ar- 
liule on "Goitre" by Dock, in Oslor'n Mode.m 
Mcditine (2d cd., Philadelphia, 1014), and 
McCarrison, Etiology of Mndcmiic (Mlra (Lon- 
don, 1013). 

GOKHALB, gtmi-A', GOPAL KRISHNA (1800- 
1015). An East Indian educator and political 
loader. Ho was born in Bombay ami, after 
receiving an excellent education in native and 
English colleges, became a professor in Ferguson 
College, Poona. There he remained for 20 
yours, during which ho devoted himself to pro- 
moting education among his Mahratta fellow 



GttKINGK 

countrymen. He became actively identified 
with the National Indian Congress movement, 
and by his moderation and enlightened views 
came to be accepted as a safe leader of the 
Indian Progressives. In 1905 he was elected 
President of the Indian Congress. He gave 
evidence before the Indian Expenditure Com- 
mission in London. In 1005 he founded the 
Servants of India Society and in 1!>12 was 
appointed a member of the Royal Commission 
on Public Services in India. He was elected a 
fellow of Bombay University. As a writer and 
speaker also, he became well known. 
GOKINGK, ge'klnk, LEOPOLD FBIEDBICH Gte- 

THEE VON. See GOCKINQK. 

GOKTCHA, gok'chii, or SEVANGA (syS- 
vtin'gu) LAKE. A lake in the Transcaucasian 
Government of Erivan, situated at an altitude 
of about 6300 feet and surrounded by high 
barren, mountains of volcanic origin '(Map: 
Russia, GO). It is about 45 miles long, 23 
miles wide, 07 fathoms deep, and has an es- 
timated area of 540 square miles. It receives 
a large number of mountain streams. The out- 
let is through the Sanga, a tributary of the 
Aras. In the northwestern part of the lake is 
the lava-formed island of Sevang, with an old 
Armenian monastery. 

GOLAW, go'lav, SALOMON VON. The pseu- 
donym of the German epigrammatist Friedrich 
Logau (q.v.). 

GOLCOMT'DA. A ruined city and fortress in 
the Nizam's dominions, India, 5 miles west- 
northwest of the capital, Hyderabad, in lat. 17 
22' N. and in long. 78 25' E. The ruins of 
the ancient city, once the metropolis of the 
Kingdom of Gplconda, the solid mausolea of its 
former sovereigns, which form a vast group 
at a distance of 600 yards from and overlook- 
ing the fortress, and the fortress itself, are 
all of great archaeological importance and in- 
terest. The fort is now used as a state prison 
and as the Nizam's treasury. Golconda is pro- 
verbially famous for its diamonds, which, how- 
ever, were merely cut and polished here, being 
generally found at Purtial, near the southern 
frontier of the Nizam's dominions, 

GOLD (AS., OHG. gold, Ger. Gold, Goth. 
gulp; connected with AS. geolu, Eng. yellow, 
Lat. hclvus, grayish yellow, Gk. xXwjoos, chldros, 
yellowish green, Ski hari, yellow). A metallic 
chemical element, probably the first metal known 
to man. The alchemists regarded gold as the 
most perfect metal, compared it to the sun, and 
designated it by the same symbol by which they 
represented that orb; their efforts were con- 
stantly directed towards the transmutation of 
baser metals into pure gold. Gold is widely 
distributed in nature and is frequently found 
native, though usually alloyed with silver and 
containing small quantities of copper or iron; 
it is also associated with palladium, rhodium, 
and bismuth. It is sometimes found crystallized, 
usually as octahedra or tetrahedra, but more 
commonly in thin laminae or grains in sand or 
gravel. Its presence in this condition is believed 
to have been caused by the disintegration of 
gold-bearing rocks, and it is readily collected 
from such alluvial sources by washing the au- 
riferous soil. The purest specimens of native 
gold have yielded from 99.7 to 99.8 per cent 
of the pure metal, the average California gold 
containing 88 per cent, while Australian gold 
sometimes runs as high as 96 per cent pure 



95 



GOLD 



metal. Gold also occurs in combination with 
mercury as electrum, with silver and tellurium 
as sylvanite, and with tellurium and lead as 
nagyagite. It is further found in various sul- 
phides, as those of copper, lead, iron, and zinc; 
also in other ores, and in very small quantities 
in sea water. 

Gold (symbol, Au; atomic weight, 197.2) is 
of a bright yellow color when pure and has 
a high metallic lustre. It is the most malleable 
of all metals and has been hammered into a 
leaf 0.00009 millimeter in thickness. In this 
condition it appears green by transmitted light. 
Gold is very ductile and can be drawn into 
wire so fine that 166 meters weigh but a single 
gram. Its specific gravity is 19.31, and it melts 
at about 1075 C. It is a good conductor of 
both heat and electricity. Whatever the tem- 
perature, neither water nor oxygen is capable 
of attacking it; and it is not affected by fusion 
with potassium chlorate. It yields, however, to 
alkalies and nitrates and especially to sodium 
or potassium cyanide. It is not dissolved by any 
single acid, exempt selenic, but readily passes 
into solution when treated with aqua regia (a 
mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids) or 
with other acid liquids in which chlorine or 
bromine is evolved. Pure gold, being too soft 
for all ordinary purposes, is generally alloyed 
with other metals. With copper it yields a red- 
dish alloy, which is quite hard; the standard 
metal used for coinage is made up of 900 parts of 
gold and 100 of copper. With silver it yields 
so-called kC white alloys," which are used for jew- 
elry. It amalgamates readily with mercury, 
forming a white amalgam of a pasty consistency. 
The most extensive uses of gold are for coinage, 
jewelry, gilding purposes, electroplating, and in 
dentistry. 

Compounds. With oxygen gold forms a mon- 
oxide, or aurous oxide, and a trioxide, or auric 
oxide. The former is obtained by decomposing 
aurous chloride with cold dilute potassium hy- 
droxide; the latter by heating a solution of gold 
trichloride with an excess of magnesia and well 
washing the precipitate with nitric acid. Auric 
oxide, which is the more common of the two, 
combines with bases, forming salts called au- 
rates. Perhaps the most important of the com- 
pounds of gold with acids is auric chloride, 
which is readily obtained by dissolving metallic 
gold in aqua regia and evaporating the solu- 
tion to crystallization. The resulting orange-red 
crystals may be further purified by recrystalliza- 
tion. It is a very deliquescent salt and is 
chiefly employed for toning silver prints in. 



hninating Gold, which was originally de- 
scribed in a work published under the name of 
Basil Valentine, is a green or brown powder that 
readily explodes when dry; it may be obtained 
by the action of ammonia on gold hydroxide, or 
by precipitating gold chloride with ammonia or 
its carbonate. 

Gold Purple, or Purple of Oassius, which was 
originally prepared by Andreas Cassius, and de- 
scribed in 1685, is a flocculent purple precipi- 
tate obtained by treating a solution of stannous 
and stannic chlorides with gold chloride. The 
resulting product is believed to be a mixture of 
tin oxide and finely divided gold. The color of 
ruby glass is due to small proportions of this 
pigment. 

Mosaic Gold is a fine flaky yellow variety of 
tin bisulphide; it is prepared by heating a mix- 



GOLD 06 

ture of seven parts of sulphur, six parts of 
ammonium chloride, and 18 parts of a powdered 
amalgam consisting of two parts of tin to one 
of mercury. When the odor of hydrogen sul- 
phide is no longer perceptible, the heat is raised 
to low redness, and the mercurous chloride, 
ammonium chloride, and mercuric sulphide are 
volatilized. The mosaic gold thus obtained is 
used as an imitation bronze in the arts. 

Production of Gold. The supply of gold in 
ancient times was derived mostly Irpm surface 
deposits of sands and gravels which yielded their 
values by simple processes of washing. Gold 
was thus mined at a very early period in India, 
Central Asia, the southern Urals, and in the 
region bordering the eastern Mediterranean. 
With the progress in metallurgical knowledge 
attention was directed to the exploitation of au- 
riferous veins, a branch of the industry which 
seems to have attained to some importance be- 
fore the opening of the Christian era. Ancient 
workings of this character, ascribed to the Egyp- 
tians, have been found in the mountains of 
Nubia; and Dr. Karl Peters has described ex- 
tensive mines in the interior of South Africa, 
not far from the gold fields of Rhodesia a 
locality believed by Dr. Peters to be the Ophir 
of the Israelites. The Romans operated mines 
in Hungary, Spain, and Great Britain at vari- 
ous periods. During the Middle Ages the min- 
ing industry seems to have made little progress. 
It is estimated that the total stock of gold in 
Europe when America was discovered did not 
exceed $225,000,000. 

The first gold mined in. the United States 
came from the Appalachians. As civilization ad- 
vanced west the production increased. With 
the discovery of new districts, such as Cali- 
fornia, South Africa, Australia, and Alaska, the 
increase in production was very marked. With, 
improvements in the metallurgical extraction, 
low-grade deposits have become workable which! 
only a few years ago were considered of no 
value; this has resulted in a gradual increase, 
not so marked as the discovery of now districts. 

WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF GOLD 1493-1020 
Annual Report, 1020, Director of the Mint 





PERIOD 


Years 


Annual 
average 
production 


1493 


to 1600 


107 


14,687 000 


1601 


1700 


100 


6 064 000 


1701 


1800 


100 


12.628,000 


1801 


I860 


50 


15 750 000 


1851 


1875 


25 


126,960 000 


1876 


1880 


5 


114,586 000 


1881 


1885 


5 


99,116 000 


1886 


1800 


5 


112 895 000 


1801 


1895 


5 


162,947,000 


189ft 


1900 


5 


257,301,000 


1001 


1905 


5 


328,619 000 


100ft 


1910 


5 


433,453,000 


1011. 




1 


461 980 500 


101ft 




1 


466,136,100 


1913. 




1 


459,939,900 


1914 




1 


439,078,260 


1915. 




1 


468,724,918 


1916. 




1 


454 176 500 


1917. 




1 


419,422,100 


1918. 




1 


383 605 552 


1919 




1 


365 788,796 


19510 






334,987,610 
















Total $18,100,874,536 



GOLD 

that the production for the 34 years from 1880 to 
1920 has exceeded that of the previous 394 years. 
The gold-producing countries mentioned in 
order of their importance, and the percentage 
of their output in 1920 as compared with the 
total output, were: Africa, 56 per cent; United 
States, 15.25 per cent; Australia, 7.4 per cent; 
Canada, 4.75 per cent; and Mexico, 4.6 per cent, 
leaving a balance of 12 per cent for the re- 
maining countries of the world. Brazil, with 
87,075 fine ounces or 0.575 per cent of the 
world's total, and Colombia with 280,575 fine 
ounces, or 1.78 per cent were the leading pro- 
ducers in South America. The table given below 
giving the gold output from the various coun- 
tries of the world, is abridged from the Report 
of the United States Mint for 1021. 

GOLD PRODUCTION OF THE WORLD 

FOR 1920 
From Annual Report, Director of tho U. S. Mint 



COUNTRIES 


Tine ounces 


Value 


Total North America- . , - - 


3,981,651 


$82,305,0*16 


United States 


2,476,166 


51,186,000 




766,913 


15,853,478 




738,472 


15,265,508 




0,080,283 


187,802,178 


Australasia 


1,144,024 


23,640,056 


Total Europe 


87,464 


1,808,038 


Russia 


70,000 


1,447,028 














Sweden 


484 


10,000 


Italy 


726 


15,000 


France 


7,300 


150,004 


Servia 






Total South America 


502,400 


12,246,051 




145 


3,000 


Bolivia 


34,104 


705,000 


Chile f 
Colombia 


280,575 


5,800,000 


Ecuador. 


36,281 


750,000 


Brazil 


87,075 


1,800,000 




24,187 


500,000 


Guiana 
British 


8,840 


182,740 


Dutch 


14,512 


300,000 


French 


43,537 


1)00,000 


Peru 


62,757 


1,297,302 


Uruguay 


387 


8,000 


Central America and West 
Indies 


145,125 


3,000,000 


Asia 


1,165,177 


24,086,341 




2(J6,9JJ4 


5,518,035 


China 


145,120 


3,000,000 


Tndo-China 


1,935 


40,000 


Chosen (Korea) 


145,125 


3,000,000 


Siara 






British India 


430,719 


0,027,778 


East Indies 
British 


29,025 


600,000 


Dutch 


00,022 


1,870,525 








World total 


10,305,020 


9334, 087,610 









The accompanying statistics of world produc- 
tion were compiled by the late Adolf Soetbeer 
and by the United States Mint from the most 
authoritative sources. It is interesting to note 



TTnlted States. In tho United States, as else- 
where, tho occurrence of gold IB limited to aras 
of crustal and volcanic disturbances, thcao ap- 
parently being tho prime factors that govern tho 
formation of ore bodies the world over. Thuro 
are, thus, two distinct regions in which gold is 
produced the eastern region along tho Appa- 
lachian Mountains, and the wostfrn, or Oordil- 
leran, region. Gold has been found at numerous 
localities on the eastern slope of the Appalach- 
ians, and the mountain system might to said 
to be gold-bearing throughout its extant from 
Newfoundland to Alabama, although workable 
deposits occur only In Nova Scotia, Canada, and 
the Southern States* In the United States th* 



GOLD 



97 



GOLD 



auriferous belt, varying from a few miles to 
75 miles in width, extends from Virginia through 
North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, 
into Alabama. Both veins and surface deposits 
are worked. The veins of auriferous quartz cut 
through the slates and schists, generally forming 
only small pockets of ore. Associated' with the 
gold is usually a small percentage of the sul- 
phides of copper and iron. Some pockets of ore 
are exceptionally rich, and specimens of quartz 
literally covered with gold are to be found. The 
Haile gold mine in South Carolina, no longer 
worked, was a large low-grade body of aurifer- 
ous schist; this mine was operated for a number 
of years and attracted considerable attention. 
It was at this property that the Keith lead- 
lined chlorination barrel for the extraction of 
gold was developed. The Dahlonega district in 
Georgia has also attracted considerable atten- 
tion, and placer or surface mines have been 
worked in this district. In North Carolina the 
tendency is for the gold to occur in quartz veins. 
The first gold shipped to the mint for coinage 
from the Southern States was from North Caro- 
lina in 1804. For 20 years following, the 
annual output from North Carolina did not 
exceed $2500. In 1829 Virginia and South 
Carolina, in 1830 Georgia, in 1831 Alabama 
and Tennessee, and in 1868 Maryland, shipped 
gold to the mint for coinage. Since then the 
production, although small, has been fairly 
constant. 

The Western gold fields are scattered over 
the whole region between the eastern foothills 
of the Rocky Mountains and the western slopes 
of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade ranges and 
extend from Alaska into Mexico. In 1848 gold 
was first discovered in California in an excava- 
tion made for the tailrace to a water-power mill. 
This discovery caused the gold-rush excitement 
of '49, when men from all parts of the world 
rushed by boats and by wagons across the 
prairies to the new gold district. The wonderful 
richness of this new discovery furnished the in- 
centive for the exploration and development of 
the whole Far West. 

The accompanying statistics for the Appalach- 
ian States are taken from the Annual Report 
of the Director of the Mint for 10*21, which in 
the United States is the authoritative source of 
statistics in gold and silver. 

GOLD PRODUCTION, APPALACHIAN STATES 
1799 TO 1920 



STATES 


Total 
production 


Production. 
1920 


Alabama 


$766,632 


$200 


Georgia ....... 


17,825,268 


700 




71,405 




North Carolina 


23,629,580 


1,100 


South Carolina 


5,181,842 


300 


Tennessee 


264,502 


5,900 


V*rffi>V 


3,296,569 








* 


Total 


$51,035,798 


$8,200 









The gold occurs in three types of deposits 
river gravels, or placers, high gravels, and 
veins. The river gravels, found in the beds of 
the numerous streams that flow down the west- 
ern slopes of the Sierras, have been derived from 
the higher levels, where the erosive processes 
have cut deeply into the auriferous rock forma- 
tions. Most of the gold is generally found near 



bed rock, and it is necessary to remove a heavy 
overburden before the values can be obtained. 
The gold particles vary from minute pellets or 
dust to nuggets of considerable size. The high 
gravels represent the work of ancient rivers 
whose channels are more or less parallel to 
those of the present day, but have been filled in 
with detrital materials and frequently buried 
beneath lava flows. They lie along the higher 
slopes of the Sierras up to 5000 foet above sea 
level and sometimes attain a thickness of 500 
feet. The veins, which have furnished the gold 
found in both the placers and high gravels, oc- 
cupy fissures in slates, schists, and igneous 
rocks, and are of variable extent and richness. 
Quartz is generally the gangue material, while 
the gold occurs in a free state or combined with 
sulphides, most commonly pyrites. A great 
series of these veins, called the "mother lode," 
extends across Tuolumne, Calaveras, Amador, 
and El Dorado counties; for a number of years 
it has been the source of much of the gold 
mined in the State. The Comstock Lode (q.v.) 
is situated on an eastern spur of the Sierras, 
extending into Nevada. Placers and veins simi- 
lar to those of the Sierras are found also in 
Oregon and Washington. 

The Rocky Mountains and the outlying ranges, 
which were first prospected by CaTifornian 
miners in the early sixties, include an immense 
area of gold-bearing territory. Rich gravels 
have been worked near Leadville, Fairplay, and 
in San Miguel Co., Colo. ; near Helena and Butte, 
Mont.; along the Snake and Salmon rivers, 
Idaho; near Deadwood, S. Dak.; at Santa Fc, 
N. Mex.; and in Alaska. The output from the 
gravels, although large, amounted to only 20. 1 
per cent of the total output for 1020, as shown 
in the accompanying table: 

GOLD PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES 
IN 1020 



STATES* 


Fine ounces 


Value 


Alaska 


412,015 


$8,535,700 


Alabama 


10 


200 


Arizona 


240,032 


4,961,900 


California 


710,477 


14,810,000 


Colorado 


363,218 


7,508,400 




34 


700 


Idaho 


22,668 


408,000 




10 


200 


Misv""? 


14 


300 




01,802 


1,897,700 


Nevada 


175,451 


3,626,900 




21,720 


449,000 


North Carolina 


54 


1,100 


Oregon 


49,714 


1,027,700 


South Carolina 


14 


300 


South Dakota 


209,842 


4,337,800 


Tennessee 


2S5 


5,900 


Texas 


5 


100 


Utah 


102,975 


2,128,700 


Washington 


7,160 


148,000 




10 


200 


Philippines 


61,756 


1,276,600 








Total 


2,476,166 


$51,186,900 









*From Bureau of Mint Report, 1921. 

The amounts of gold produced by the differ- 
ent States from deep mining requiring metal- 
lurgical treatment, and from residual deposits 
requiring only washing, are given in the accom- 
panying table. In this table it will be noticed 
that Alaska produced 31 per cent, and Cali- 
fornia 56.5 per cent, of the total residual or 
placer gold produced in 1920, the greater part 



GOLD 4 

of the California production being secured by 
dredges. See table below. 

The total output of the mines of the United 
States and its insular dependencies was in 1920 
approximately $51,180,900. 

California during 1920 produced 215. 6 per cent 
or 716,477 fine ounces of which 350,740 ounces 
was from deep mining, 333,805 ounces from 
dredging and 7,752 ounces from other placers, of 
the total output of gold in the United States. 
The output was derived from 454 mines operat- 
ing in 28 counties. The largest county produc- 
tion in California is reported to come from Yuba 
County, mainly from dredging operations. In 
deep mining the most productive in gold was 
Amador County. 

Colorado during 1920 produced 13.4 per cent 
of the total output of gold from the United 
States. Cripple Creek, which has been one of 
the rich and large American producers, contrib- 
uted 57.5 per cent of this production. This dis- 
trict became prominent in 1894, when the Inde- 
pendence mine was discovered. The ores were 
exceptionally high grade, the gold occurred in 
combination with tellurium, resembling silver, 
and the deposits were large. In 1905 approxi- 
mately $18,000,000 in gold was produced. The 
district has been a heavy producer and is now 
treating successfully low-grade ores by con- 
centration, and cyaniding by a special process 
developed by Philip Argall, of Denver, for han- 
dling this particular ore. The placer output 
amounts to only about .73 per cent of the total 
output of the State. 

DISTRIBUTION OF GOLD PRODUCTION 
OF THE UNITED STATES 
BASED ON SOURCE, 1920 



STATES 


Deep 
mining 


Dredges 


Other 
placers 


Alabama and Georgia. 


Fine 
ounces 
50 


Fine 
ounces 


Pine 
ounces 


Alaska 


217,327 


54,660 


132,606 


Arizona 


149,518 




221 


California 


350,740 


333,805 


7,752 ' 




341,011 


24,810 


83 


Idaho 


17,984 


4,871 


635 


Illinois 








Massachusetts 


9 






Michigan 








Missouri. 










75,572 


12,302 


1,616 


Nevada 


165,156 


1,314 


6,070 


Now Mexico 


23,129 




106 


North Carolina 1 ... 


14 




57 


South Carolina \ 
Oregon 


27,398 


17i361 


A 440 


Pennsylvania 








Mouth Dakota 


226,196 




00 


Tennessee 


282 






Texas 








Utah 


07,432 




00 


Washington 


5,776 














Total 


1,608,194 


449,183 


1X3 81 Q 











Nevada during 3020 produced fl.5 per cent 
of the total output of gold in the United States. 
The fiolds about Tonopah in Nye County were 
the largest producers followed by the mines at 
Jarbridge, while tho Goldfields District in Es- 
meralda County, once the largest producing 
region, suffered a curtailed production. Most of 
the ore is from deep mining, and the gold is re- 
covered by amalgamation and cyaniding. The 
Tonopah mine, discovered ahoxit 1002, caused 
the rush to Nevada which resulted in the de- 
velopment of tho Tonopah District and the 
discovery and development of the Goldfields Dis- 



I GOLD 

trict. Exceptionally high-grade ore was pro- 
duced in the Goldfields District. The output 
from Nevada has been decreasing; the largest 
decrease was from the mines of the GoldfieldK 
District. 

Alaska during 1920 produced 15.3 per cent of 
the total gold output of the United Statc. 
amounting to $8,365,500. About 47 per cent of 
the output was from placers, but the ratio of 
output of placer gold to lode gold had been 
decreasing as the richer gravels were being 
worked out and the deep or lode mines were be- 
ing developed. Dredging was also extensively 
carried on and in 1919, 28 dredges recovered 
gold worth $1,360,000. Up to tbe end of 1919 
gold of the value of $21,524,932 had been re- 
covered by dredges. With the increased applica- 
tion of dredging the output of placer gold will 
probably be maintained for many years. Tho 
total output of gold from quartz mines in 1920 
amounted to $4,473,687 ; of this output the low- 
grade mines of South Eastern Alaska, especially 
in the June,au district, where mining is carried 
on a large scale with the most modern machinery, 
were responsible for much of tho production. 
There were 19 lode mines producing gold in 
Alaska in 1920, of which eight were in South 
Eastern Alaska; two in Kenai, three in tbe 
Willow Creek District, two in the "Fairbanks 
District, and one in the Kantishiui and Mc.- 
Kinley Districts. In 1920 it was reported that 
the average value of the gold and silver con- 
tents for all siliceous ores mined was $I..')9 
a ton. 

The gold production from Arizona in 1920 
was valued at $4,786,122 in tbe production of 
which Mohave County with $2,852,141 ranke.d 
first, followed by Cochise County with $919,107 
and Yavapai County with $059,541. Tlus largest 
part of the gold, or $2,873,422, had its source, 
m bullion from ore treated by amalgamation or 
cyanidation. Tho gold from deep mhx'H was 
derived from the following sources: siliceous 
ore, $3,090,812, copper ore $1,579,378, load ore 
$1 10,640 and copper lead ore $725. Practically 
all of the State's gold came from copper ore ami 
siliceous ore combined, as placers produced only 
$4,567 in gold. With each million poundH of 
copper the gold output was increased $2,830 in 
1920. In 1920 there were 318 mines producing 
gold and silver of which number only eight were 
placer mines. Most of the output came from 
the gold ores of the San Francisco District 
which was sufficiently rich to pay tho cunt of 
mining and milling. 

South Dakota was maintaining its output of 
gold from the low-grade ores of tho Black Hilln, 
with the indication that it probably would con- 
tinue to do so for many years to come. Tbe 
yield is wholly from siliceous ores. Mining and 
metallurgical practice of tho highest grade have 
been characteristic of tho successful opttrutioiiH, 
and particularly was this true, of the Homo 
stake mines, which have produced the bulk of 
the output with interruptions due to labor 
troubles and such vicissitudes as tires. Tint mill- 
ing practice consists of amalgamation followed 
by cyaniding. The total output of gold from 
the Black Hills of South Dakota from 1876 to 
1920 inclusive was $223,623,669, and the yield 
during 1920 amounted to $4,676,470. 

The States above discussed produced about 70 
per cent of the total outptit during 1 920. There, 
are numerous smaller fields located in Utah, 
Montana, and elsewhere, which in the aggregate 



GOLD MINING 



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GOLD MINING BY HYDRAULIC METHODS 




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produce about 30 per cent of the output, of 
which a large percentage is recovered from the 
smelting of copper, lead, and zinc ores. 

The total output of gold derived from the 
mines of the United States in 1921 was approxi- 
mately $49,105,500 the smallest amount to be 
mined since 1895 when the production was 
valued at $46,310,000. 

Africa. The gold production for 1920 
amounted to $191,538,433. Of this amount the 
Transvaal, Cape Colony, and Natal produced 
$108,048,178; British West Africa $4,336,771; 
French West Africa, $82,478; and Rhodesia, 
$1 1 ,432,890. With the development of the "deep- 
deep 1 * mines the cost of mining has increased, 
and this to some extent has been balanced by 
the reduction in total cost of operation by con- 
solidating many properties and the building of 
large central mills for the recovery of the gold. 
The' deposit consists of a conglomerate com- 
monly called a "banket," varying from a few 
inches to several feet in thickness. It can be 
tniced for hoveral miles along the strike and 
for several thousand feet has retained its 
auriferous tenor in depth. 

Australasia. The large output from alluvial 
deposits which first attracted the miner to 
the gold fields of Australia has largely been 
replaced by quartz mining due to exhaustion. 
The most productive states are Western Aus- 
tralia, with an output for 1920 of $12,771,925; 
Victoria, $3,158,480; New Zealand, $3,893,265; 
Queensland, $2,360,327; and New South Wales, 
$1,010,997. 

Russia. Most of the gold produced by Russia 
prior to the revolution was obtained from placer 
wnrkingH on the eastern slope of the Ural Moun- 
laiiiH. During 1911 mining was stimulated by 
the high price of platinum, and during that year. 
In total gold production Russia and Siberia 
then ranked third being surpassed only by the 
United States and Australasia. In 1917 the 
gold production of Russia including Siberia was 
valued at $18,000,000, but with disturbed con- 
ditions duo to war and revolution mining suf- 
fered and in 1920 Russia and Siberia according 
to unoiUcial estimates produced but 70,000 
ounces valued at $1,447,028. 

British North America. In 1920 the Do- 
minion of Canada produced 766,912 tine ounces 
of gold valued at $15,853,478. Of this amount 
84,05!) oumtcffl, or 1 1 per cent, was derived from 
plaeer or alluvial mining; 582,852 ounces, or 76 
per cent was in the form of bullion, while 
44,982 ounces, or 5.9 per cent was in blister 
copper or lead bullion, 54,399 ounces, or 7.10 
per cent, was in residues and ores imported. 
The Province of Ontario led in gold production 
with 504,950 ounces, valued at $11,665,000, and 
the record for 1920 was 11.7 per cent greater 
than in 1919, and by far the greatest produc- 
tion evor recorded. In 1920 Ontario produced 
73.7 per cent of the total output of gold in 
Canada. Of this amount the Porcupine District 
furnished 512,625 ounces, valued at $10,690,562 
derived from handling 1,162,065 tons of ore 
which carried on the average $9.20 of gold per 
ton. The discovery of rich gold veins in Porcu- 
pine dates only from 1909 when it was found 
by a prospector, J. S. Wilson, and in 1910 the 
District was filled with prospectors and the be- 
ginning of activity made which has continued 
ever since. The output in 1910 was valued at 
$35,539, and during 1911 claims changed hands 
at high figure**, with no other showing tlian the 



& GOLD 

snow or possibly a "rock cropping." Mills were 
freighted in and boilers shipped by express to 
the end of the railroad so that they could be 
hauled over the snow and frozen lakes before 
the spring thaw and ''break up." The summer 
of 1911 saw the entire district, mills and equip- 
ment, wiped out by a forest fire, with a heavy 
toll of life. In 1912 the two large mines, the 
Hollinger and the Dome, dropped their stamps 
for the first time and commenced the regular 
production of gold. The output from the Porcu- 
pine District in the early years was as follows: 
1910, $35,539; 1911, $17,187; 1912, $1,731,000; 
and 1913, $4,285,000. 

In British Columbia the output of gold in 
1920 was 127,387 ounces, a decrease of 23.8 per t 
cent from 1919, and much below normal, which 
was stated as from 220,000 to 298,000 ounces 
per year. The placer gold in 1920 amounted in 
value to $221,600 and that from lode mines to 
$2,481,392. The Yukon territory by 1920 had 
declined considerably in its gold output from 
the earlier days, and in that year the production 
was 72,140 ounces, derived almost wholly from 
alluvial gravels with a small amount from the 
ores of the Conrad District. The production of 
gold in Nova Scotia in 1920 was 690 ounces, an 
amount which also represented a considerable 
decline. The Province of Quebec in 1920 yielded 
955 ounces derived from pyritic ores of the 
Eastern Township and the Notre Dame des 
Anges of Portneuf County. 

GOLD MINING 

Gold-mining operations may be divided into 
two classes placer mining, where the gold 
occurs in river beds or ancient river beds and 
in the native state scattered through sand and 
gravel; and vein or quartz mining, where the 
gold occurs native or associated with sulphides 
in a vein or ore body. Placer mining may 
again be subdivided into hydraulic mining and 
dredging, depending on the method used in ex- 
cavating the gravel. 

Hydraulic Placer Mining. This method of 
mining was first attempted in a crude way in. 
1852 in Placer Co., Cal., and was largely prac- 
ticed until laws were passed practically pro- 
hibiting this method in the State. This method 
was later followed in Alaska, as the con- 
ditions leading to suppression in California did 
not exist in that territory. In California and 
also in Alaska hydraulic mining has largely 
boon replaced by dredging. Briefly described, 
hydraulic mining consists of directing a power- 
ful stream of water under a heavy head through 
a "giant" (nozzle) against the gold-bearing 
gravel bank, which breaks do\yn the material 
and washes it away through specially constructed 
sluices, where the gold is saved. The sluices are 
large and built of heavy material to withstand 
the pounding of heavy bowlders washed through 
them. The first length of sluice terminates with 
a grizzly, or screen, consisting of parallel bars 
of iron; the large bowlders are removed at this 
point, and the smaller material carrying the gold 
passes through the grizzly into the second sec- 
tion, of sluices. In this section, are placed spe- 
cially designed riffles to permit the coarser gold 
to settle from the gravel. At intervals the bottom 
of the sluice is replaced by a grating or grizzly 
to permit .the finer material to go through and 
enter sluices which are built at right angles to 
the main sluice; in these cross sluices riffles 



GOLD 



too 



GOLD 



are also placed to catch the gold. Mercury is 
added behind the riffles to amalgamate with the 
gold and prevent its washing away. When con- 
ditions are favorable ground-sluicing is some- 
times resorted to. In this process a stream or 
portion of a stream is diverted and caused to 
flow steeply and rapidly across the placer bed, 
eroding and bearing away large quantities of 
gravel. In the pit where the speed of the cur- 
rent diminishes, one or more giants serve to 
a weep the gravel into the sluice boxes. 

Dredging. On rivers, or where hydraulic 
mining is prohibited, dredges are used. These 
consist of flat-bottomed boats which carry the 
necessary machinery for excavating the gravel 
and recovering the gold. When dredges are used 
on dry placers, or deposits away from the river, 
it is necessary first to dig a hole of sufficient 
size in which to build the dredge. Provision 
must be made to supply the dredge with a con- 
stant stream of water sufficient to float it and 
furnish the water which is lost in discharging 
the wet tailings at the rear. The dredge is 
equipped with powerful machinery, large ex- 
cavating buckets closely attached to an endless 
chain consisting of large heavy bars of iron, 
a heavy cylindrical screen for separating the 
large bowlders and discharging them over the 
side of the boat, sluices quite similar to those 
used in hydraulic mining, and a tailings stacker 
at the stern to dispose of the gravel after the 
gold has been recovered. This method of mining 
is practiced in Australia and California, and 
also in Alaska and Central America. A large 
steel dredge costing about $650,000 was in oper- 
ation in the Yuba River field, California, in 1020. 

Quartz Mining. The mining of gold veins is 
conducted in much the same way as that of other 
metalliferous veins. Shafts are aunk, drifts are 
driven laterally on the vein from the shafts, and 
the method of breaking and handling the ore is 
determined by the size of the ore body, inclina- 
tion or dip, and local conditions. In a few 
cases tunnels on the ore body are driven, or 
cross-cut tunnels through the barren rock are 
driven to the ore body. After the ore body is 
opened up or developed, the ore is blasted, loaded 
into cars, trammed or transported to the shaft, 
and hoisted to the surface, where the ore is de- 
livered for metallurgical treatment. 

METALLUBGY 

The method of extracting gold from the ores 
depends on the character of the ore and the loca- 
tion of the property. Heavy gold sulphide ores, 
such as copper, lead, etc., are smelted. Ores 
containing only a small percentage of sulphides 
with free gold or gold finely disseminated in the 
sulphides are usually treated at the property 
by amalgamation or cyaniding, or a combina- 
tion of both. Progress has been very rapid in 
recent years, and processes such as the chlori- 
nation have been almost, if not wholly, replaced 
by the cyanide process. The reader is referred 
to publications on gold metallurgy for detailed 
descriptions of these several processes. Briefly, 
the chlorination process consists of converting 
the insoluble gold into the soluble chloride of 
gold, leaching with water, and precipitating the 
gold with a suitable precipitant, such as char- 
coal, sulphate of iron, or sulphuretted hydrogen. 

Stamp Mailing and Amalgamation. This 
process, which is the oldest method of crushing 
ores for the extraction of gold, is still in use 
to-day, and the modern stamp mill owes much 



to South Africa for its existence. It has been 
threatened many times by new machines and in 
many cases of gold milling has been replaced; 
where amalgamation is necessary for the re- 
covery of the gold, or a portion of the gold, the 
stamp mill is always found as the preliminary 
crusher. (For a detailed description of the con- 
struction of the stamp mill, see GRINDING, CBUSH- 
ING, AND PULVERIZING MACHINERY. ) 

The stamp mill is usually the preliminary 
crusher to amalgamation; the ore, as delivered 
from the mine cars, first enters the ore bin, 
from which it is fed to breakers and broken to 
fragments about 1% to 2 inches in size; from 
the breakers the ore is again transported to the 
ore bins immediately in the rear of the stamp 
mill; from these bins the ore is fed mechani- 
cally, together with a stream of water, to the 
stamp mill to be crushed; and the crushed prod- 
uct is splashed through a screen to this amalga- 
mated plates, or aprou plates, placed directly 
in front of the mill for recovery of the gold by 
amalgamation. The process of extraction by 
amalgamation consists of crushing the ore suffi- 
ciently fine to liberate or free the native gold 
and then catch the gold in mercury. The gold 
does not combine chemically with the mercury, 
but amalgamates with it, forming a si ill' punly 
mass known as amalgam. In stamp milling, 
copper or silver-plated copper plates covered 
with mercury are used for catching the gold. 
The plates may be located inside of the stamp 
battery or housing surrounding the stumps, 
suspended in front of the discharge screen, whon 
it is known as the splash plate, ami in front of 
the stamp battery, placed at a slight angle to 
permit the pulverized ore to be washed over; 
in the latter case thoy arc known as apron 
plates. The length of the apron plates varies 
greatly, but the width is regulated by th width 
of the mortar. To prepare the amalgamating 
plates they are first thoroiighly washed, and all 
grease spots, if any, removed; mercury is then 
sprinkled on and rubbed into the plate with 
copper plates sodium amalgam is often used for 
this purpose; all excess of mercury iw removed 
with a stiff brush ; this leaves the 'platen bright 
with a thin coating of mercury. The pulverized 
ore is then washed across the plates from the 
stamp battery, and the free or native gold ad- 
heres to the mercury; more mercury ia sprin- 
kled on the plates as required. At certain 
periods the amalgam is scraped off the plates 
and the gold separated, an described later. 

Pan amalgamation lias been largely usod, but 
at present it has been replaced to a large extent 
by other processes. Pau amalgamation consists 
of feeding comparatively fine ore, or concen- 
trates to a grinding pan, adding the proper 
amount of mercury, and pulverizing the ore in 
close contact with the mercury; following this 
operation, the grinding inuller is raifled off the 
bottom, the pulp diluted, and more mercury 
added to collect any suspended amalgam; the 
amalgam sinks to the bottom of the.' pan and is 
drawn off. Investigations have shown that 
amalgam containing coarse gold carries a higher 
percentage of gold than that containing fine 
gold, although the physical characteristics ap- 
pear to be the same, In recovering the gold 
from the mercury the amalgam is placed Si a 
large wedgwood mortar, more mercury added 
to reduce the plasticity, and then hot water 
is added, and the amalgam washed by working 
with the pestle; sand and foreign matter is by 



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OOLD 



101 



GOLD 



this means removed. The clean amalgam is then 
placed in a chamois bag, and the excess mer- 
cury squeezed out, leaving a hard amalgam; 
this hard amalgam is made into balls, covered 
with paper to prevent the gold sticking to adja- 
cent balls or the sides of the iron retort, and 
retorted. The temperature of the retort is 
slowly increased so as to prevent too rapid dis- 
tillation of the mercury. The mercury vapor is 
passed through condensing tubes and recovered. 
The remaining gold is then melted into bars, 
assayed, and shipped to the mint. The purity 
of the gold brick is reported in parts in 1000, 
auch as 627 fine in gold, and 258 fine in silver; 
the balance of 115 would represent base metal, 
auch as coppor. The pulverized rock from the 
stamp mill, after being washed across the apron 
plates, is known as plate tailings. In most 
cases the plate tailings contain sufficient gold 
to warrant further treatment. The method 
adopted to recover this gold depends upon the 
value and character of the tailings. When the 
ore contains auriferous sulphides, the tailings 
are usually concentrated; when the tailings are 
comparatively free from sulphides, the gold is 
usually extracted by dissolving it in cyanide 
solution; in many cases a combination of con- 
centration followed by cyaniding is used. The 
concentrates produced are either shipped to the 
smelter or treated on the property, depending 
on local conditions. 

Cyanide Process. That gold was soluble in 
cyanide solution had been known for many 
years before a commercial process based on this 
principle was developed for recovering the metal 
from the ores. The first attempt to use this 
process commercially was made by J. H. Rae, 
who secured patents from the United States in 
1867; Rae's process made use of the electric 
current in connection with a solution of cyanide 
salts. In 1885 J. W, Simpson, of New Jersey, 
proposed using a 3 per cent solution of cyanide 
together witli a small percentage of ammonium 
carbonate. In the following year (1886) J. S. 
MacArthur and R. W. and William. Forrest, of 
Glasgow, started their experiments and were 
finally successful in commercializing the process 
which for many years was known as the Mac- 
Arthur-JForrcst process. It was in 1890 that the 
MacArthur-Forrest process was introduced into 
South Africa to replace the chloriuation process, 
which up to that time had been the standard 
method of extracting gold. The chief advantages 
which the cyanide process offered over the chlo- 
rination process were reduction in cost of opera- 
tion by eliminating the preliminary roasting 
and the recovery of tho silver with the gold by 
one leaching. The process is dependent upon 
the fact that very fine particles of gold, or 
exceedingly fine sheets of gold, are rapidly 
soluble in a weak solution of potassium cyanide 
in the presence of free oxygen; coarse gold is 
practically insoluble in such a solution, as it is 
necessary to bring in contact with the gold free 
oxygen lor the reaction to take place. At first 
solutions containing from 1 to 2 per cent of po- 
tassium cyanide were used, but it was soon 
found that weaker solutions dissolved the gold 
in practically the same length of time and 
greatly reduced the cost of chemicals required; 
the first, or the strong solutions, now vary 
from 0.1 to 0.2 per cent, depending on local 
conditions. It was in South Africa that this 
process was commercially developed, and the 
first few volumes of the Transactions of the 



South African Mining Society are mostly con- 
fined to the cyaniding process. 
_ The process as developed in South Africa con- 
sisted of stamp milling followed by amalgama- 
tion; the tailings from the amalgamating plates 
were then classified into sands and slimes and 
treated separately. The sands were conveyed 
into large cylindrical shallow tanks holding 
many tons; the cyanide solution was then intro- 
duced under pressure through the bottom of the 
tank and allowed to permeate the sands until 
the surface of the tank was covered with solu- 
tion; after a few hours the solution was drawn 
from the bottom of the tank and fresh solution 
added to the top of the tank. After such treat- 
ment for several days, wash water was added 
to the top of the tank to replace the gold solu- 
tion and wash the sands of any dissolved gold. 
The slimes were conveyed to large settling tanks 
and allowed to settle, followed by decantation 
of the water; cyanide solution was then added, 
and the slimes agitated by mechanical means 
for several hours, allowed to settle, and the gold- 
bearing cyanide solution decanted. This opera- 
tion was repeated until the soluble gold had 
been extracted from the slimes. Following this 
treatment, the slimes were washed as free as 
possible of any dissolved ^old This method of 
treating the slimes required large tankage and 
considerable time, and was soon improved upon 
in the United States by the invention of the 
Moore filter, and many other filters using the 
principle suggested by George Moore. 

The Moore process consists of adding cyanide 
solution to the slimes, conveying the slimes to a 
filter tank, collecting a cake of slimes on the 
filter leaves by vacuum, transferring the filter 
leaves containing the cake, while the vacuum 
is on, to a second tank containing wash water, 
replacing the gold solutions in the slimes by 
wash water, and finally transferring the leaves 
containing the washed filter cake to a, third 
tank, where the slimes are discharged from the 
filter leaves by introducing compressed air into 
the leaf in place of the vacuum. By this proc- 
ess the original tankage investment has- been 
minimized and a much better extraction ob- 
tained from the slimes. Recently this latter 
process has been greatly improved by the intro- 
duction of the Dorr countercurrent settling 
tanks, followed by the Moore-Oliver filter. These 
tanks are the invention of J. V. N. Dorr and 
have met with success throughout the United 
States. In this process the slimes travel through 
a series of tanks in an opposite direction to the 
cyanide solution, and the process is known as 
the Dorr countercurrent cyanide process. The 
slimes from the last tank are thickened and fed 
to a rotary filter. This rotary filter is a large 
revolving cylinder the surface of which consists 
of vacuum chambers connected to a central 
vacuum and pressure valve on the shaft. The 
vacuum chambers are covered with woven wire, 
cocoa matting, canvas, and wound spirally with 
wire. The surface of the cylinder with the 
vacuum attached is slightly immersed in the 
thickened slimes ; the slimes adhering to the cyl- 
inder are elevated by the revolving of the cylin- 
der, washed with a spray of water near the top 
of the cylinder, and are discharged after wash- 
ing by a scraper; immediately preceding the 
scraper the vacuum is replaced by compressed 
air. The advantage which this process offers 
ia that it is continuous and less expensive 
to operate. The soluble gold and silver go 



GOLD 



102 



GOLDATT 



into solution as a double cyanide with the 
potash. The gold from this solution is extracted 
by passing the solution over zinc shavings. In 
many mills this method of precipitation has 
been replaced by the introduction of zinc dust 
into the cyanide solution as it is conveyed to 
filter presses. The gold and silver are precipi- 
tated aa a fine black powder. This precipitate 
is then treated with dilute sulphuric acid to 
dissolve any small pieces of zinc and pumped 
to a filter press. The cake obtained in the 
filter press, consisting of practically pure gold 
and silver, is then dried, mixed with the proper 
fluxes, and melted in graphite crucibles. The 
gold and silver obtained after melting is cast 
into bars and shipped to the mint. 

Extraction by Waslung. Extraction of gold 
by washing alone is possible only in the case of 
ores carrying native gold. Hydraulicking and 
dredging are the two commercial methods. Hand 
operations are only practiced when the pockets 
of ore are very rich and too small to warrant 
the erection of a plant; mines of this char- 
acter have been operated in Australia. For 
testing the value of placer ground the gravel 
obtained from drilling is washed by hand; pros- 
pectors also make use of the "gold pan" to tost 
samples and specimens of rock for free gold. 
In uncivilized countries hand washing is often, 
practiced. Unless carefully conducted the losses 
by hand washing are liable to be very heavy. 
Hand washing may be performed by means of 
pans, cradles, long toms, and sluices. The oper- 
ation of panning is the simplest and consists of 
placing the material in a flat-bottomed pan, 
known as a "gold pan," the sides of which slope 
at an angle of about GO , The pan IB then 
placed under the surface of the water, and an 
oscillating motion given to it, so that the free 
gold will settle, and the mud and fine sand will 
wash over the edge, which is gradually lowered 
until there is little left in the pan other than 
the heavy minerals and gold. The pan is then 
lifted and shaken so as to spread out the ma- 
terial, when the yellow specks, or "colors," of 
gold are visible. The cradle is a box provided 
with a sieve at the feed end, the whole resting 
on rockers so that it can be rocked by moans 
of a handle. The gold-bearing mineral is placed 
on the sieve and washed with water, the coarse 
particles being removed from the sieve by hand 
and the fine particles, together with the gold, 
passing through and falling on an inclined 
bottom, where the light material runs off witli 
the water, and the heavier gold winks to the 
bottom and is retained by transverse slats known. 
as riffles. The long torn consists of two troughs, 
the lower one of which has cross riffles on its in- 
clined bottom. The upper trough is about 14 
feet long by 20 inches wide at the upper end and 
30 inches wide at the lower end, which is 
closed by a sieve. The lower end of the upper 
trough discharges into the upper end of the 
lower trough. The lower trouglx is about 12 feet 
long by 3 feet wide, and by means of a strong 
stream of water flowing in at the upper end 
of the upper trough the material is washed 
through both troughs, the gold being caught in the 
riffles in the lower box and the coarse material 
being discharged by hand from tho upper box. 

Parting. As the greater part of tho gold pro- 
duced by the preceding processes carries silver 
(see SILVER), the parting of the gold from the 
silver is an ioaportant process in the metallurgy 
of gold. Parting is performed in what are 



known as the dry way and the wet way and by 
electrolysis. The dry method of parting depends 
upon the fact that silver can be converted into 
aulphide or chloride, while gold is attacked by 
neither sulphur nor chlorine at high tempera- 
ture. The wet method depends upon the solu- 
bility of silver and the insolubility <>f gold in 
nitric acid and in boiling concentrated sulphuric 
acid. The electrolytic method depends upon the 
property of silver to pasw from a bar of "'old- 
silver alloy employed AH an anode to the cathode, 
when the two poles are immersed in an acidu- 
lated solution of nitrate of Hilvei 1 , and an elec- 
tric current established. Tho wot process, us- 
ing sulphuric acid as the solvent, and the elec- 
trolytic process are the two parting processes 
most employed at present. For the metallurgy 
of gold, consult Schnabel, Handbook of Metal- 
lurgy (translated New York, 1889). 

Commercial Uses. It is estimated that about 
one-fourth of the annual production of gold ia 
employed in coinage, the remainder being con- 
sumed in the arts and in making good tho an- 
nual loan. The purposes for which gold is em- 
ployed in the arts are familiar to every one. 
Home of the items are jewelry, gold loaf, gild- 
ing, etc. 

Bibliography. Suess, Die ZuJtunft ties Ooldcs 
(Vienna, 1877) ; Delmar, History of the, Pre- 
vious Melals (London, 1880) ; Lock, (fold: Jts 
Occurrence and Extraction (ib., 1882) ; Patter- 
won, New Golden Age, and Influence of the 
Precious Metal* on the World (ib., 1882) ; Soet- 
beer, Matcrialien z\(r Erlautcr'itng und Keurtail- 
ung der wvrtschaftlivlien- Edclmctallverhiiltnissc 
(Berlin, 1880); Weil, //Or (Chimic, geologic, 
mincralogie, fn4tall urgic) (Paris, 1895) ; Hatch, 
The Oold Mines of the Rand (London, 1805); 
J. C. F. Johnson, (Jetting Gold a Practical 
Treatise (5th ed., London, 1917) ; Eissler, Metal- 
lurgy of Gold (ib., 189(5); Kemp, Ore Deposits 
of the United States (New York, 1900) ; Curie, 
Gold Mines of the World (London, 1899); The 
Mineral Industry (New York, 1893 et aeq.) ; 
.Eissler, Metallurgy of Gold (London, 1890) ; 
T. K. Rose, Metallurgy of Gold (Oth ed., ib., 
1915) ; Bosqui, Practical, Rotes of the Cyanide 
Practice (Now York, 1904) ; T. A. Rickard, Thv 
titamp Milling of Gold Ores (ib., 1897); id., 
Jt.cecnt O'f/anide Practice (San Francisco, 1907) ; 
13. B. Wilson, Hydraulic, and Placer Mining 
(New York, 1907) ; J. K. CleimeU, Cyanide Hand- 
book (ib., 1010) ; id., The Chemistry of Cyanide 
Solutions (2d. cd., ib., 1910) ; H. A. Me.graw, 
Practical Data for the Oyan.de Plant (ib., 
1910); id., Details "of Cyanide Practice (ib., 
1914) ; and Transactions of the American In- 
stitute of Mining Kngineers; Mining and Metal- 
lurgical Society of South Africa; Institute of 
Mining and Metallurgy, London ; F. A. Thomson, 
8 tamp Milling andCyaniding (Now York,! 01 5) ; 
fltamp Milling and Cyaniding (New York, 1915) ; 
Amalgamation (3d ed., San Francisco, 1914). 
Consult also the Annual Reports of the Director 
of the Mint and bulletins and reports of the 
U. S. Geological Survey. 

GOLDAtT, g61'dou. A village in the Canton 
of Schwyz, Switzerland. It was formerly situ- 
ated between Mount Eigi and the Roasberg and 
waa tho scone of the terrible landslide from the 
Rossberg, Sept. 2, 1806, which destroyed Goldau 
and three other villages, burying 457 people 
and filling up part of Lauwcrz Lake. The pres- 
ent village of Goldau, built near the mines, 
contains a population of about 500. 



GOZfDBEATE&'S SKTN 



103 



GOLD COAST 



GOLDBEATER'S SKIN. A delicate mem- 
brane prepared from the caecum, or blind gut, 
of the ox, and used as the fabric for court- 
plaster, etc., but chiefly by goldbeaters. The 
outer or peritoneal membrane is used for this 
purpose. The intestine is first subjected to a 
partial putrefaction, by which the adhesion of 
the membranes is sufficiently diminished to 
enable them to be separated; the separated 
membrane is then further cleaned from adhering 
muscular fibres, dried, beatcii, and pressed be- 
tween paper, besides being treated with cam- 
phor or alum, isinglass, and white of egg, the 
object of which is to obtain the pure continu- 
ous membrane free from grease and impurities 
and thus prevent weakening by putrefactive 
processes. When thus prepared, goldbeater's 
skin may be beaten continuously for several 
months with a 12-pound hammer without ma- 
terial injury. !Hie intestines of about 380 oxen 
are required to furnish the 050 leaves that 
form one packet, or mold, as it is technically 
called. The manufacture is extremely offensive. 
Chlorine has been introduced both as a disin- 
fectant and to assist in the separation of the 
membrane. 

GOLDBEATING. The process by which 
gold is hammered into thin leaves. The use of 
gold leaf for gilding is a very ancient art, hav- 
ing been practiced by the Egyptians and Greeks 
many centuries before the Christian era, and 
gold used for this purpose is usually alloyed 
with silver or copper, according to the color re- 
quired. The consumption of gold leaf by den- 
tists is also general, as the material in this 
form is extensively used for fillings. As gold 
leaf is not sold by weight, but by superficial 
measure, and as increasing the quantity of alloy 
diminishes the malleability, there is but little 
temptation to use the baser metals as an adul- 
teration. The gold, which is first alloyed with 
a small amount of pure copper and silver, 12 
grains of each to the ounce of gold 908 fine, 
is first cast into oblong ingots or bars about 
1 inch wide. The ingot or bar is flattened out 
into a ribbon of about jfa of an inch in thick- 
ness by passing it between polished steel rollers 
until it is about 24 feet long and weighs about 
55 pennyweights. This is annealed or softened 
by heat, and then cut into 210 pieces approxi- 
mately 1 inch square; these are placed between 
leaves of vellum or tough paper specially made 
in France, each piece of gold in the centre of a 
square leaf, another placed above, and so on till 
the pile of 210 is formed. This pile, called a 
cutch, is inclosed in a double parchment case, 
placed upon a marble block, and beaten with a 
16-pound hammer. The elasticity of the packet 
considerably lightens the labor of beating, by 
causing the hammer to rebound with each blow. 

The beating is continued until the inch pieces 
are spread out to 3% -inch squares; they are 
then taken out and cut into four pieces. The 
squares thus produced are now placed between 
layers of goldbeater's skin (q.v.), instead of 
vellum, made into piles, and inclosed in a parch- 
ment case, and beaten as before, but with a 
lighter hammer weighing about 10 pounds. An- 
other quartering and beating produces, 3360 
leaves, each with a thickness of about) inn?* 
of an inch. An ounce of gold is thus expended 
to a surface of about 100 square feet. A still 
greater degree of thinness may be obtained, but 
not profitably. A thinness has been attained 
of 367,500 leaves to the square inch, and a 



grain of gold is thus made to cover 52 square 
inches. After the last beating the leaves are 
taken up with wooden pincers, and a tool called 
a ' 4 wagon/' placed on a cushion, blown out flat, 
and their ragged edges cut away, by which 
they are reduced to squares of* 3% inches. 
Twenty-five of these are placed between the 
leaves of a paper book, previously rubbed with 
red chalk to prevent adhesion of the gold, and 
are sold in this form, 20 books being included 
in a pack. It is stated that an amount of gold 
weighing 4 pennyweights 6 grains and worth 
$4.25 commands at wholesale, in the form .of a 
pack of gold leaf, about $7.25. Attempts have 
been made to apply machinery to goldbeating, 
but its application is very limited; and most 
of the gold leaf is still beaten by hand. 

GOLD BUG, THE. One of the most noted of 
Poe's tales (1843). The scene is the vicinity 
of Charleston, S. C., where a recluse, Legrand, 
locates an enormous treasure in gold and jewels 
by means of an intricate cipher found on an old 
parchment. 

GOLD CARP. See GOLDFISH. 

GOLD COAST, A British Cro\yn colony in 
West Africa, extending along the Gulf of Guinea 
about 334 miles, and bounded by the French 
colony of the upper Senegal and Niger on the 
north (about the parallel of 11 N". lat.), Togo- 
land on the east, and the French Ivory Coast 
on the west (Map: Africa, D 4). The area of 
the colony excluding the Northern Territory 
and Ashanti ( q.v. } is estimated at 25,000 square 
miles; the total area, 80,253 square miles. The 
coast region is rather low, with rocky cliffc 
lining the shores and reaching a height of 2000 
feet. The interior is mountainous. In the 
southeast is the Akuapem Range. South of it 
runs the Adanse Range, covered with dense 
forests and constituting a great natural barrier 
along the coast district. The western part of 
the interior is generally hilly; the eastern/part 
is formed mainly of extensive terraces* 11 ' The 
chief rivers flowing south are the Volta, which 
is a part of the German boundary line, the 
navigable Ankobra, emptying into the sea. near 
Axim, the Pra, and the Tbji. The~ climate of 
the colony, although not so deadly as that of 
the west coast, is very unhealtliful for Euro- 
peans. April is the hottest month. There are 
two rainy seasons from April to August and 
from October to the end of December. The 
rainfall varies along the coast* being heavy in 
the west, 79 inches per year, and Mght in the 
east, 27 inches. Impassable forests of palms, 
gum trees, and the giant karkum seriously 
interfere with the development of the interior. 
The level regions in the south, and the savannas 
north of the Akuapem Mountains, are overrun 
with herds of elephants, buffaloes, and other 
wild animals. 

The soil is of great fertility, producing coffee, 
cacao, tobacco, cotton, and other tropical prod- 
ucts. Agriculture has received little attention, 
but a botanical station at Aburi aids in the 
cultivation of colonial products coconuts rub- 
ber, cocoa, coffee, cotton, pepper, nutmeg, 
pimento, and croton. The chief products are 
derived from the forests and mines. The trade 
of the colony is prosperous and increasing. 
Imports increased from 2,125,464 in 1902 to 
'4,023,322 ia 1912, and exports from 774,186 to 
4,307,802. In 1012 imports from the United 
Kingdom amounted to 2,622,932, and exports 
thereto, 2,680,973. The chief exports in 1911 



GOLD COAST 



104 



GOLDEN BEETLE 



were: cacao, 1,613,468; gold and gold dust, 
1,071,616; rubber, 219,447; palm kernels, 
175,891; lumber, 138,821; palm oil, 128,916. 
Gold, both alluvial deposits and quartz, is widely 
diflused throughout the colony, Ashanti, and 
some parts of the Northern Territories. The 
output was 281,257 ounces (valued at 1,194,- 
743) in 1908; 253,976 ounces (1,079,024) in 
1011; 352,957 ounces (1,499,469) in 1912. 
Shipping entered and cleared in the foreign 
trade, in 1912, 2,849,248 tons. There is a gov- 
ernment railway from Seccondee on the coast to 
Coomassio, 1G8 "miles ; and a line is in operation 
between Accra and Mangoase, 40 miles. Road 
construction is progressing rapidly. There are 
about 1500 miles of telegraph line, and at Accra 
is a wireless telegraph station. The colony is 
administered by a governor, and by an executive 
and legislative council, the members of which 
are chosen from o/ficials and colonial merchants. 
The colony proper is divided into three prov- 
inces Western, Central, and Eastern each 
under a commissioner; Ashanti and the Northern 
Territories are each under a chief commissioner. 
Revenue and expenditure in 1902 were 511,502 
and 547,607 respectively; in 1907, 708,718 and 
617,124; in 1911, 1,111,632 and 914,501; in 
1912, 1,230,850 and 1,157,091. 

The negro inhabitants are divided into a large 
number of tribes more or less independent of 
each other, but with similar customs and forms 
of government. As education and civilization 
spread, there is an increasing tendency to tribal 
disintegration. The population in 1911 was 
probably in excess of the census returns of that 
year. The census disclosed 1,503,386 inhabit* 
ants, divided as follows: the colony, 853,766; 
Ashanti, 287,814; the Northern Territories, 361,- 
806. Europeans numbered 1700. In 1912 there 
were 11 government primary schools and 148 
assisted schools controlled by various Christian 
religious bodies; enrollment in primary and 
secondary schools, 18,524; average attendance, 
14,113. The chief towns include Accra, the 
capital (pop.,- 19,585 in 1911), Coomassie, the 
capital of Aahanti (18,853), Cape Coast Castle 
- 



)- Seccondee (7725), Saltpond, Quittah, 
Winnebah, Akuse, Axim, and Aburi. There are 
a largo number of small towns, with populations 
ranging between 2000 and 5000. 

The Gold Coast is thought to have been dis- 
covered by the Portuguese in 1470. In 1481 a 
Portuguese colony of about 700 men under Diogo 
d'Asambuja landed at the present, seaport of 
Blmina, and erected the fort of St, George. The 
Dutch by 1642 had succeeded in driving away 
the Portuguese. Meanwhile the English began 
to arrive, but their first attempts at establishing 
themselves were frustrated by the Dutch. After 
the establishment of the Royal African Company 
in 1672, the English succeeded in erecting a 
number of forts on the coast and soon concluded 
an alliance with the Fanti, whose old enemies, 
the Ashanti, had allied themselves with the 
Dutch. The slave trade was the chief source of 
commerce. In 1821 the English possessions on 
the Gold Coast were taken out of the hands of 
the African Company of Merchants, who had 
succeeded the previous monopoly, and made a 
dependency of Sierra Leone. The Fanti, with 
the aid of the British, decisively defeated the 
Ashanti in 1826, and in 1831 the rule of England 
was recognized over the territory lying south of 
the upper Pra. In 1872 the Dutch ceded their 
holdings to the British for trading privileges, 



and since then the rule of the English has been 
supreme in the Gold Coast. In 1874 the terri- 
tory was made a crown colon}' distinct from 
Sierra Leone. For a further account, see 
ASHANTL Consult: Macdouald, The Gold Coast, 
Past and Present (London, 1898); Ueindorf, 
History of tho Gold Coast and Ashanti (Basel, 
1895) ; H. W. Redwar, Comments on some Or- 
dinances of the Gold Coast Colony (London, 
1909) ; John Lang, The Land of the Golden 
Trade (Edinburgh, 1913); C. P. Lucas, His- 
torical Geography of the British Colonies, vol. 
iii (3d ed., Oxford, 1914). 

GOLIXCB.EST' ( so called from the yellow spot 
on its head), GOLDEN-CHESTED WBEN, or FIEK- 
CBEST. English names for European species of 
kinglets. Sec KINGLET. 

GOLDEN. A city and the county scat of 
Jefferson Co,, Colo., 16 miles by rail west of 
Denver, on Clear Creek, and *>n the Colorado 
and Southern and the Denver and Inter-Moun- 
tain railroads (Map: Colorado, D 2). It is the 
seat of the Colorado School of Mines, opened in 
1874, and of the State Industrial School for 
boys. There are extensive deposits of coal and 
clay in the vicinity, and the city has smelting 
works, a brewery, and manufactures of pressed 
and lire brick, tile, pottery, flour, otc. The 
water works arc owned by the city. Pop., 1900, 
2152; 1910, 2477. 

GOLDEN AGE. In Greek and Roman my- 
thology the earliest of the four ages; the ideal 
period when the earth, under Saturn's reign, 
produced fruits without cultivation, when there 
was no warfare, and man lived in perfect hap- 
piness before sin entered the world. The char- 
acteristics of the golden age, and of the ages 
of silver, brass, and iron which followed, 
are described in the first book of Ovid's Meta- 
morphoses. The term is used to represent the 
period of highest development in literature, art, 
and history. Consult K. F. Smith, "Ages of the 
World (Greek and Roman)," in Hastings, Mn- 
cyclopcedia of Religion and fit hies, vol. iv (New 
York, 1908). See AE; SATUIIN. 

GOLDE3ST APPLE. See PARTS. 

GOLDEIT ASS (Lat. Asinus Aureus). A 
fable or romance written by Apulcius, a Latin 
writer of the second century. The work is en- 
titled The Metamorphoses, or the Golden Afts, 
and was modeled after a similar work by Lucian, 
which Apuleius paraphrased and embellished 
with other talcs, among which the one bust 
known is that of Cupid and Psyche. The hero 
is punished for his curiosity by being changed 
into an ass, but after a series of most wonderful 
adventures he is purified and resumes lii 
natural form. This story is thought by some to 
have been written as a satire on priestw, magi- 
cians, and debauchees. The moral and religious 
conditions of Apuleius' time arc portrayed with 
much humor and truth. Tho language, although 
abounding in clever turns, often contains obso- 
lete and provincial phrases. The cditio prin- 
oeps was published in Rome in 1469. Tho. story 
of Cupid and Psyche was first translated in 1500, 
by Adington; this translation was republishcd 
in 1887 with an introduction by Andrew Lang. 
For further bibliography, see APCTLBXUS. 

GOIDEN BEETLE. The golden beetles 
(family Chrysomelidip, tribe CaHsidini) are 
among the most beautifully colored of all beetles. 
They are usually small, with a gold or greenish 
iridescence which in many apecies fades com- 
pletely as soon as tho insect dies, so that mu- 



GOLDEN 1 BELL 



105 



GOLDEN-CROWNED THRUSH 



seiim collections give no conception of the beauty 
of these beetles when alive and on their food 
plant, but the brilliancy is said to vary with 
the excitation of th beetle They are flattened 
below and convex above, hence they have also 
been named tortoise beetles. The margins of the 
prothorax and elytra arc expanded so as to form 
an oval flat frame about the convex part of the 
beetle. Both the adults and the larvae of Gas- 
sida, or Coptocycla, aunchalcea feed on the 
morning-glory and sweet potato, and a laige 
yellow and black species feeds on the sunflower. 
The caudal end of the larva is forked, and to it 
are retained the molted skin and frass, which 
are held up over the body like a shield. Pupa- 
tion takes place on the underside of the leaves 
of the food plant. 

GOLDEN BELL. See FOBSYTHIA. 

GOLDEN" BIBLE. A name given on its pre- 
tended discovery to the Book of Mormon, which 
was described as being written on sheets of 
metal resembling gold. 

GOLDEN 1 BOOK. See LIBBO D'OBO. 

GOLDEN BULL (Lat. lulla aurea,, so called 
from the gold case in which the seal attached to 
the bull was inclosed). The Imperial edict is- 
sued by the Emperor Charles IV, in 1356, for the 
purpose of settling the form of the Imperial elec- 
tion and coronation, the persons to whom the 
right of election belonged, and their duties and 
privileges. Up to that time some uncertainty 
had prevailed as to the rights of the electoral 
body, claims having frequently been made by 
several members of the lay electoral families and 
divisions having repeatedly arisen from this un- 
certainty; the effect of such divisions being to 
throw the decision for the most part into the 
hands of the Pope. In order to obviate these 
inconveniences, the Golden Bull defines that one 
member only of each electoral house shall have 
a vote, viz., the representative of that house in 
right of primogeniture, and, in case of his being 
a minor, the eldest of his uncles paternal. The 
seven electors were declared to be the archbishops 
of Mainz, Tr&ves, and Cologne, the King of 
Bohemia, the Count Palatine of the Rhine, the 
Duke of Saxony, and the Margrave of Branden- 
burg. The place of election of the Emperor was 
fixed at Frankfort; the coronation was toj take 
place at Aix-la-Chapelle. On the great question 
as to the dependence of the Imperial office < n the 
Pope, and as to the right of the Pope to examine 
and approve the Imperial election, the Golden 
Bull is silent, although it declares the Enperor 
competent to exercise jurisdiction in Germany 
from the moment of election. It invests the 
vicariate, together with the government of the 
Empire during an interregnum, in the Elector 
Palatine and the Elector of Saxony; but il is to 
be noted that this applies only to German} Of 
the vicariate of Italy, which was claimed I y the 
popes, nothing is said. The Golden Bui also 
contains some provisions restraining the so- 
called Faustreoht (lit. 'fist law/ or right of 
private redress). It was promulgated m a diet 
at Nuremberg in 1356 and ratified at Metz 
in the same year, and original copies of it 
were furnished to each of the electors and to 
the city of Frankfort. The electoral coi stitu- 
tion, as settled by this bull, save for the n umber 
of electors, was maintained almost unalter id till 
the extinction of the Empire. There is a trans- 
lation into English of the Golden Bull in Hen- 
derson, Historical Documents of the Middle Ages 
(London, 1892). In Hungarian history there is 



a constitutional edict called by the same name. 
It was issued by Andrew II in 1222. It 
strengthened the monarchy, although limiting 
its functions. It contained guarantees of in- 
dividual liberty and insured periodical meetings 
of the assemblies. It preserved the power of the 
nobles by preventing further subdivisions of 
fiefs. Consult Hahn, Ursprung und Bedeutung, 
der Goldenen Bulle Karls IT (Breslau, 1002). 

GOLDEN CALF. The molten image tasli- 
ioned, according to Ex. xxxii. 2 et seq , at Sinai 
by Aaron When requested by the Israelites to 
make a god for them, he demanded their golden 
earrings, made of them a molten image, and said 
(so 2 Hebrew Manuscripts and the Greek), 
"This is thy sod, Israel, who brought thee 
up out of the land of Egypt." The Masoretic 
text, supported by the versions, reads' "These 
are thy gods"; but the singular is used in Nell, 
ix. 18, where the words are quoted, and the 
plural is manifestly a later change intended to 
suggest the heathenish character of the bull wor- 
ship. As Aaron says: "There will be a festival 
to Yahwe to-morrow," there can be no question 
as to whose image the golden calf was intended 
to be. It was ground to powder by Moses; the 
people were obliged to drink it, mixed with 
water; and 3000 were slain by the Levites to 
atone for the sin. The narrative points to the 
existence of the worship of Yahwe under the 
form of a hull among the Hebrews. For this 
there is abundant evidence. Images of bulls 
overlaid with gold stood in the ancient sanctua- 
ries at Dan and Bethel, though this cult is not 
traced further back than the days of Jeroboam 
(1 Kings xii. 28 et seq.; 2 Kings x. 29). In 
Samaria likewise the bull cult was introduced 
(Hos. viii. 5) . In the temple at Jerusalem there 
were also images of bulls. The brazen sea, 
representing the primeval ocean, rested on oxen; 
and in the Holy of Holies gold-covered images 
of winged bulls (see CHEBUB) stood on the lid 
of the sacred chest. (See ABK OF THE COVE- 
NANT.) It is difficult to say, however, how far 
these were regarded as representations of Yahwe, 
The story of Aaron's making a golden calf may 
have been told originally to establish the anti- 
quity of the bull cult and its legitimacy as a 
part of the worship of Yahwe; but in the hands 
of redactors, who were opposed to all image wor- 
ship, the story was reshaped so as to make it 
appear that Aaron in reality committed a griev- 
ous sin for which atonement had to be made. 

GOLDEN CHAIN. See LABUBNUM. 

GOLDEN CIRCLE, KNIGHTS or. See 
KNIGHTS OF THE GOLDEN CIRCLE. 

GOLDEN CROSS, UNITED OBDEE OF. A fra- 
ternal organization, founded in 1876. It had, 
in 1913, 11 grand commanderies and 488 subor- 
dinate commanderies. Its members numbered 
about 171,000. The order has disbursed since 
its organization a total of $11,650,032. The dis- 
bursements for each year average about $400,000. 

GOLDEN-CBOWNED SPABBOW. A large 
and sprightly sparrow (Zonotrickia ooronata) 
of northwestern America, distinguished by a 
broad stripe of yellow on the crown of the head. 
It is related to the familiar white-throated and 
white-crowned sparrows of the Eastern States 
and like them has a most pleasing song. It 
breeds along the coast from northern California 
to Alaska, nesting on the ground, and is widely 
migratory 

GOLDEN-CBOWNED THBT7SH (so called 
from the yellow spot on its head), or WAGTAIL. 



GOLDEN-CBOWNED WBEN 



106 



GOLDEN" HORDE 



(q.v.). An American wood warbler (Beiurus 
aurocapilliis) . See OVENBIBD. 
GOLDEN-CROWNED WBE1T. See KINGLET. 
GOLDEN" EAGLE. See EAGLE. 
GOLDEN-EYE'. A duck of the genus Clan- 
ffula, having the bill shorter than the head and 
the nostrils well forward; a garrot. The typi- 
cal species (Glangula clangula americana) is a 
common winter visitant, appearing in small 
flocks, most frequently in severe weather, not 
only in estuaries, but on the lakes and rivers 
of inland parts of North America, as it does on 
those of all the central and southern parts of 
Europe, and equally on those of the temperate 
parts of Asia. The wings are pointed and rather 
short, with the first quill the longest, and the 
tail of 16 feathers is rounded and of medium 
length. In the male the coloration is pied black 
and white, while it is brown and white in the 
female. The golden-eye takes its name from the 
golden-yellow hue of the iris, and the male may 
be recognized by the metallic green of the head 
and upper neck, the white patch at the base of 
the beak below the eye, and by the scapular 
region being striped with white. The length of 
the European bird is about 18 inches; the Ameri- 
can form (amerioana) is somewhat larger. A 
second North American species is Barrow's, or 
the Rocky Mountain golden-eye (Olangula 
islandica), which is larger and has the white 
loral spot more extended; it is more northerly 
and less numerous than the other. Though 
classed among the sea ducks, and like them sub- 
sisting largely on animal food, these ducks are 
scattered inland all over the continent, and are 
well known to gunners by sound as well as by 
sight, for their wings make a loud and character- 
istic whistling in flight; hence a common local 
name is "whistler," or "whistlewing." They go 
in small parties, mix with other ducks, especially 
bluebills, and are extremely watchful, often 
alarming their companions and leading the whole 
flock swiftly away before any other kind has 
- suspected danger. They breed from Quebec and 
Dakota northward and throughout northern re- 
gions generally as far as trees go, making their 
nests of~Btraw, feathers, etc. in cavities of 
dead trees and tall stumps, and laying 8 to 10 
ashy-green eggs. Consult: Dresser, Birds of 
Europe (London, 1881) ; Job, Among the Water- 
fowl (New York, 1902); Oakley, Wild Ducks: 
How to Rear and Shoot Thorn (ib., 1005) ; Shaw, 
Wild Fowl (ib., 1905). 

GOLDEN-EYED FLY. A lace-winged fly of 
the family Chrysopidse, so called because in some 
lights the eye seems made of burnished gold. 
See LACEWING. 

GOLDEN FLEECE. In Greek tradition, the 
fleece of the ram Chrysomallus, the recovery of 
which was the object of the Argonautic expedi- 
tion. (See AEQONATTTS.) The golden fleece has 
given its name to a celebrated order of knight- 
hood in Austria and Spain, founded by Philip 
the Good, Duke of Burgundy, and sovereign of 
the Netherlands, at Bruges, on Jan. 10, 1430, on 
the occasion of his marriage with Isabella) 
daughter of King John I of Portugal. This 
order was instituted for the protection of the 
Church, and the fleece was probably assumed for 
its emblem as much from being the material of 
the staple manufacture of the Low Countries as 
from its connection with, heroic times. The 
founder made himself grand master of the order, 
a dignity appointed to descend to his successors. 
This- order ranks among the highest on the Con- 



tinent. The knights were consulted before the 
sovereign undertook a war, and his deeds were 
subject to review by all the members of the 
order. After the death of Charles V the Bur- 
gundo-Spanish line of the house of Hapsburg 
remained in possession of the order; but at the 
close of the War of the Spanish Succession the 
Emperor Charles VI laid claim to it in virtue of 
his possession of the Belgian Netherlands and, 
taking with him the archives of the order, cele- 
brated its inauguration with great magnificence 
at Vienna in 1713. Philip V of Spain contested 
the claim of Charles, and the dispute, several 
times renewed, was at last tacitly adjusted by 
the introduction of the order in both countries. 
In Austria the Emperor may now create any 
number of knights from the old nobility. In 
Spain princes, grandees, and personages of pe- 
culiar merit are alone eligible; if Protestants, 
the Pope's consent is required. The insignia 
are a golden fleece hanging from a gold and blue 
enameled flint stone emitting flames, and borne 
in its turn by a steel forming the letter B. On 
the enameled obverse is the legend I'rctium La- 
uorum Non Vile (No mean recompense for 
effort). The decoration was originally sus- 
pended from a chain of alternate firestoncs and 
rays, for which Charles V allowed a red ribbon 
to be substituted, and the chiiin is now worn 
only by the grand master. The costume consists 
of a robe of deep-red velvet, lined with white 
taffeta, and a long mantle of purple velvet lined 
with white satin and richly trimmed with em- 
broidery, containing firestones and steels emit- 
ting flames and sparks. On the hem, which is 
of white satin, is embroidered in gold Jc Vay 
empns (I have dared it). There is alwo a cap 
of purple velvet embroidered in gold, with a 
hood; the shoes and stockings are reel. Consult 
Paul, 'The Order of the Golden Fleece," in Scot- 
tish Historical Review (Glasgow, 1008). Wee 
ORDERS. 

GOLDEN GATE, THE. See SAN FRANCISCO 
BAY. 

GOLDEN HORDE. The name (1) of a great 
body of Tatars who, under Batu Khun, grandson 
of Genghis Khan, overran eastern Kuropo; and 
(2) of the khanate, or empire, which they estab- 
lished! on the banks of the Volga, and which is 
also tynown as Kiptchak (q.v.). The. ivrniy led 
by Batu (known also as Rain Khan, 'the good 
prince/ and described by Marco Polo art u a very 

?uissant king 31 ) was one of three sent out in 
235 by Ogotai Khan, the auccewsor of Genghis. 
Crossing the Ural River in 1237, they invaded 
Russia, penetrating to the very centre of tho 
country, pillaging, burning, devastating, and 
murdering, defeating army after army, and 
showing no mercy. Moscow and Kiev and other 
cities. were taken and burned, and their inhab- 
itants, put to the sword. From Russia they 
passed into Poland, Silesia, and Hungary, carry- 
ing devastation and bloodshed everywhere. 
Lublin and Cracow were destroyed in 1240, 
Breslau was burned in 1241, and at Licguitz, 
on the field since known as the. Wahlstatt, an 
army .of Silesians, Poles, and Teutonic knights, 
under! Henry II, Duke of Silesia, was overcome, 
although with great loss to the victors, April 9, 
1241. i Unsuccessful in the siege of Neustadt, 
the Horde turned eastward, and Batu pitched 
his gorgeously embroidered silk tent (which gave 
rise to the name "Golden") on the banks of tho 
Volga,! and summoned the Russian princes to 
his presence to do him homage. This settle- 



GOLDEN HORN 



107 



GOLDENBOD 



ment was called Sir Orda (Golden Camp), from 
which originated the expression "Golden Horde." 
The empire established by him over the Russians 
was maintained until the power of the khans 
was broken by Ivan III towards the close of the 
fifteenth century. Consult: Lane-Poole, Moham- 
medan Dynasties (London, 1893 J ; Howorth, 
History of the Mongols (ib., 1876-85) ; Schurtz, 
"Hochasien," in vol. ii of Helmolts, Weltge- 
scliichte (Leipzig, 1902). See EJPTCTTAK; MON- 
GOL DYNASTIES. 

GOLDEN HORN. See CONSTANTINOPLE. 

GOLDEN HOUSE OP NERO (Lat. Aurea 
Domus). A remarkable structure planned by 
Nero after the fire of 64 AJ>., between the Pala- 
tine and the Esquiline hills, covering an area of 
a square mile. It embraced farms, vineyards, 
game preserves, sulphur and sea baths, ponds 
and waterfalls, and elaborate colonnades and 
halls, adorned with the most lavish expenditure. 
Among its celebrated features were a vestibule 
containing a colossal bronze statue of Nero, 120 
feet in height; a portico 3000 feet long; and a 
banquet hall with a revolving ceiling of carved 
ivory representing the firmament. In other 
halls the ceilings dropped flowers and perfumes 
on the guests. The walls were incrusted with 
rare marbles, mosaics, mother-of-pearl, precious 
stones, and paintings, and the courts and apart- 
ments contained hundreds of rare columns and 
statues. The depression where the Coliseum 
now stands was occupied by a lake. The Golden 
House had been pulled down before 75 A.D., and 
its remains were used as foundations for later 
buildings, particularly for the baths of Trajan 
and Titus, while the grounds were given back to 
public use. Within the extensive remains of the 
Golden House excavations have again been made 
recently, by Weege; consult his article, f *Das 
Goldene Haus des Nero," in Jahrluch des Kaiser- 
lick Deutsohen Archaologischen Institute, xxviii, 
127-224 (Berlin, 1913), summarized by Winter, 
in The Classical Weekly, vii, 163-164 (New 
York, 1914). 

GOLDEN gDiynVTETl. A Peruvian humming 
bird (Heliothrix aurita), having a golden gloss 
upon its plumage. Also called black-eared fairy. 
See Colored Plate of HUMMING BIKDS. 

GOLDEN LEGEND (Lat. Legenda Aurea). 
A celebrated collection of hagiology, which for a 
time enjoyed almost unexampled popularity, 
having passed through more than 100 editions, 
and translations into almost all the European 
languages. It is the work of James of Viraggio, 
better known as Jacobus de Voragine, who was 
born at Viraggio (now Varazze), on the coast, 
near Genoa, about the year 1230. He entered 
the Dominican Order (1244) and was provincial 
of the order in Lombardy from 1267 to 1286. 
In 1202 he became Archbishop of Genoa, and by 
his ability, moderation, and exemplary life he 
played a most influential part in the public 
affairs of his time. He died in Genoa in 1298. 
The Legenda consists of 177 sections, each of 
which is devoted to a particular saint or festi- 
val, selected according to the order of the calen- 
dar. It presents nearly the entire narrative 
portions of the Bible, with many homilies and 
much information, some curious, concerning 
Church characters. In its execution the work, 
as may be supposed from its age, is far from 
critical. It was primarily a book of devotion, 
and is deserving of study as a literary monu- 
ment of the period and as illustrating the re- 
ligious habits and views of the Christians at 
X. 8 



that time. The work, entitled Legenda Sancto- 
rum by its author, is also called Historia Longo- 
bardica, because it appends a brief Lombard 
chronicle to the life of Pope PelagLus. A trans- 
lation of the Golden Legend was made by \Vil- 
liam Caxton for the Earl of Arundel and first 
published in London ( 1483 ) ; it was reprinted", 
edited, and modernized by Ellis (London, 1900). 
The classical edition of the original Latin is by 
Graesse (Breslau, 1800). 

GOLDEN LEGEND, THE. A religious dra- 
matic poem by Longfellow, published in 1851. 
With New Engiand Tragedies and The Divine 
Tragedy, it forms a trilogy entitled Ohristus. 
It is a mediaeval tale, faintly resembling Faust. 

GOLDEN (or CAPE) HOLE. A member of 
a family of insectivores, Chrysochloridoe, con- 
fined to South Africa, having" an external re- 
semblance to, and the habits of, inoles, but in 
structure more closely allied to the tenrecs and 
potamogales. They do not dig, as do the true 
moles, with forefeet modified into hands, but 
mainly with the enormous claws of the two 
middle fingers. They take their name from the 
brilliant and varying bronzed lustre of their fur. 

GOLDEN NTTMBEB (Lat. numerus au- 
reits). The number of any year in the Metonic 
cycle (q.v.). As this cycle embraces 19 years, 
the golden numbers range from 1 to 10. The 
cycle of Meton came into general use soon after 
its discovery, and the number of each year in 
the Metonic cycle was ordered to be engraved in 
letters of gold on pillars of marble. Since the 
introduction of the Gregorian calendar the point 
from which the golden numbers are reckoned is 
1 B.C., as in that year the new moon fell on 
January 1; and as by Meton's law the now 
moon falls on the same day (January 1) every 
nineteenth year from that time, we obtain the 
following rule for finding the golden number for 
any particular year : "Add one to tJie numlcr of 
years, and divide by nineteen; the quotient gives 
the number of cycles, and the remainder gives the 
golden number for that year; and if tliere "be no 
remainder, tlien nineteen is the golden number, 
' ' ' ' the circle." %he 




3. BUSHY GOLDENROD (Solldago lanceolate), 

4. WHITE SNAKEROOT (Eu pa to Hum ageratlfbllum) 
ROD (Solidago cawla). 



GOLDEN ROSE 



108 



GOLDFINCH 



lias been used in medicine as an aromatic, 
diaphoretic, and tonic. Blue-stemmed goldenrod 
(Solida-go cassia), and the varieties of tfolidago 
virgaurea, serotina, nemoralis, and racemosa, are 
among the most interesting. Sheep readily cat 
various species of goldenrod, and as a forage it 
is considered valuable in parts of New York 
and elsewhere. When prepared in the same 
manner as hemp, the stalks of Solidago canaden- 
sis, which attain a height of 4 to G feet, are said 
to yield a strong fibre that might be utilized. 

GOLDEN ROSE (Lat. rosa aurea). A rose 
formed of wrought gold and blessed with much 
solemnity by the Pope in person on the fourth 
Sunday of Lent, which is called, from the first 
word of the introit for the day, Latare Sunday. 
The prayer of blessing contains a mystic allusion 
to Christ as "the flower of the field and the lily 
of the valley." The rose is anointed with bal- 
sam, fumigated with incense, sprinkled with 
musk, and is then left upon the altar until the 
conclusion of the mass. It is then usually pre- 
sented to some Catholic prince or princess whom 
the Pope desires especially to honor, with an ap- 
propriate form of words. The origin of trie 
ceremony is uncertain, but the most probable 
opinion as to its date is that of MartSne and Du 
Cange, who fix it in the pontificate of Innocent 
IV (1243-54). Consult Barry, The Sacramen- 
tals (Cincinnati, 1853). See L^ETAEE MEDAL. 

GOLDEN RTTLE, REQULA AUBEA, RULE OP 
THBISE, REGULA DE TBIBUS, MEHOUANTS' RUIJE, 
and REGULA MEBCATORQM. Terms once applied 
in arithmetic to designate the operation of simple 
proportion. See PBOPOBTION. 

GOLDEN SEAL. See HYDBASTIS. 

GOLDEN SEAL, OJBDEB OF HIE. A fraternal 
insurance organization, incorporated under the 
laws of New York State in 1002. It is governed 
by a supreme court. Membership carries with 
it insurance against accident, sickness, and 
death. Every six years a distribution of tho 
profits is made, and members receive a cash 
dividend. In 1914 there were about 500 local 
courts, with about 15,000 certificates of member- 

) "*? %.;!: , 

teathers, 



aw,teahers, etc, iii cavities of 
dead trees and tall stumps, and laying 8 to 10 
ashy-green eggs. Consult: Dresser, Birds of 
^pc (London, 1881 ) ; Job, Among the Water- 
fowl (New York, 1002); Oakley, Wild Ducks: 

b " 1905) ; Shaw ' 

fT,- , ace-winged fly of 
the family Chrysopidae, so called because in some 
lights the eye seems made of burnished gold. 
See LACBWING. 

GOLDEN FLEECE. In Greek tradition, the 
fleece of the ram Chrysomallus, the recovery of 
which was the object of the Argonautic expedi- 
turn. (See ABGONAUTS.) The golden fleece has 
given its name to a celebrated order of knight- 

i d ^ A ^ st f ia a , n Spain ' founded bv phi KP 
the Good, Duke of Burgundy, and sovereign of 
the Netherlands, at Bruges, on Jan. 10, 1430, on 
the occasion of his marriage with Isabella, 
daughter of Kmg John I of Portugal. This 
order was instituted for the protection of the 
Church and the fleece was probably assumed for 
its emblem as much from being the material of 
the staple manufacture of the Low Countries as 
from its connection with heroic times. The 
founder made himself grand master of the order, 
a dignity appointed to descend to his successors. 
This- order ranks among the highest on the Con- 



^n^ 

of ( 
(2) 
lish< 
also 
by] 



123fi 
Croa 
Russ 



mur< 



citiei 

itant 

pass< 

ing 

Lubl! 

Bresl 

on tl 

army 

unda 

althoi 

1241. 

the I 

his ffo 

rise to 

Vc-ka 

his pi 



Schnitt (ib., 18S4), who mis claimed the golden 
section as the aesthetic law in nature (see 
ESTHETICS), and by Bochenek, JKanun filler 
nienschlichen Gesstalten intd drr Ticrc (Berlin. 
1885), who has applied it in matters of art. 
Consult also: Wittstein, Dcr goldcnc ftohnitt 
und die Aniccndungen dcssclbcn in drr Kutwl 
(Hanover, 1874); Pfeifer, Dei goldcne Rrhnitt 
(Augsburg, 1885) ; Matthias, Die. ftcr/cf r-on 
goldenen Schnitt im Kunstgcwcrbc (Leipzig, 
1886). 

GOLDEN SFUR. A papal order, founded 
probably by Paul IV, but also attributed to 
Constantino and to Pope Sylvester JT. The 
decoration was so freely bestowed that the 
value was impaired, and the order was recon- 
stituted in 1841. It is now conferred for spe- 
cial distinction and for services to the Catholic 
church. 

GOLDEN STATE. California. Sec STATES, 
POPULAR NAMES OF. 

GOLDEN TERGE, THE, or THE GOLDYN 
TABGE. An allegorical poem by William Dun- 
bar, published in 1508 by Chepman and Myllar. 

GOLDEN VERSES (Gk. eVg xpu<ra, P 
chrysa). A traditional collection of gnomic 
sayings of the Pythagoreans, containing the 
teachings of virtue in practical form. 

GOLDEN WARBLER. The, commonest of 
American wood warblers (Dondroicti (estiva), 
more frequently called summer warbler, yellow 
warbler, or summer yellowbird. (See WAJIB- 
LEB.) The golden-winged warbler IB a (liircrent 
but closely allied species (Vcrmivora, vhrysop- 
twa), one of the swamp warblers (q.v.). 

GOLDEN WEDDING. See WEDDING ANIU- 

VEESARIES. 

GOLDEN- WINGED WOODPECKER. See 

FLICKER. 

GOLDTINCH'. 1. A pretty European finch 
(Carduelis carduclis), belonging to the Kringii- 
lidis family. It is a favorite cage bird, on ac- 
count of its soft and pleasing song, its intelli- 
gence, its liveliness, and the attachment which 
it forms for those who feed and caress it. The 
goldfinch is about inches in entire, length; 
black, blood red, yellow, and white arc beau- 
tifully mingled in its plumage. Tho colors of 
the female are duller than those, of thcs male. It 
is widely diffused throughout Europe and Home 
parts of Asia and is to be seen in small llocks 
on open grounds, feeding on the secdw of thistles 
and other plants or in gardens and orchards. Its 
nest is made in a tree, bush, or hed#o, is re- 
markable for its extreme neatncwfl, and IB always 
lined with the finest downy material that can bo 
procured. The eggs are four or five in number, 
bluish white, with a few spots and lines of pale 
purple and brown. Tho goldfinch IB much em- 
ployed by birdcatchers as a call bird. It can bo 
trained to the performance of many little tricks, 
such as the raising of water for itself from a well 
in a bucket the size of a thimble. It has boon 
introduced into America and is now fairly well 
established in the vicinity of New York City 
and to a less degree about Boston. See Plate of 
CAGE BIRDS. 

2, The American goldfinch (Astragalinufi tris- 
tifi), more generally called "yellowbird" and 
"thistle bird," is very similar to the European 
species in habits and song and displays tho same 
interesting liveliness and affection in domestica- 
tion. The nest is also of the same elegant struc- 
ture. It is a common bird in most parts of 
North America. It is hardly 5 inches in length 



GOLDENROD ETC. 




1. ROUGH-LEAVED GOLDENROD (Solldago patula). 3. BUSHY GOLDENROD (Solldago lanoeolata). 

2 "EVERLASTING" (Anaphalta margarltacea). 4. WHITE SNAKEROOT (Eupatorium ageratlfollum) 

5. BLUE-STEMMED GOLDENROD (Solidago cassia). 



GOLDFUTNY 



109 



GOLD LACE 



and is bright yellow, with the crown, wings, and 
tail black. The female is much duller, grayish 
brown, more or less tinged with yellow beneath. 
In winter the male assumes a plumage very sim- 
ilar to that of the female. The goldfinch is emi- 
nently gregarious, except during the breeding 
season, and it seems loath to give up its social 
life, for it is the last of our birds to go to house- 
keeping; the eggs, which are spotless, are rarely 
laid before the end of June. The nest is a deli- 
cate cup of soft materials, sometimes wholly of 
vegetable down, and is placed in a bush or low 
tree. It is often invaded by the cowbird (q.v.), 
in which case the goldfinches are likely to con- 
struct a second story i.e., a new nest on the 
top of the original one burying their own and 
the strange egg and laying a fresh set above. 
The flight of the goldfinch renders the bird easy 
to recognize on the wing, for it is always in a 
series of undulations, and generally is accom- 
panied by a faint sweet twitter, which one 
writer translated as "per-chicfc'-o-pee." Sev- 
eral closely related species are found in the 
southwestern United States and in Mexico. 

G-OIiDPnTlTY. See GOLDSINNY. 

GOLDTISH', or GOLDEN CABP. A fish ( Caras- 
sius auratus) closely related to the carp, a na- 
tive of China, but now domesticated and natural- 
ized in many parts of the world. It has been 
long common in many of the fresh waters of 
China and was introduced into England about 
the end of the seventeenth or the beginning of 
the eighteenth century. On account of the bril- 
liancy of its colors and the ease with which 
it is kept in glass globes or other vessels in 
apartments, it soon became, and has continued 
to be, a general favorite. Its ordinary length 
is 5 or 6 inches, but it has been known to reach 
a foot. When young, it is of a blackish color, 
but acquires its characteristic golden red as it 
advances to maturity, some individuals (silver- 
fish) becoming rather of a silvery hue. Mon- 
strosities of various kinds are frequent, partic- 
ularly in the fins and eyes, a favorite Japanese 
variety having three large tails. Culturists can 
induce and strengthen the artificial golden color 
by controlling the amount of mineral in the 
water. Goldfish are easily kept in* small glass 
aquaria. There should be some sort of water 
plant in the water, which should not be cold, 
and should be changed in part every few d.iys. 
Occasional sunlight is good, to prevent the 
growth of fungi. The safest food is that pre- 
pared and sold for the purpose. Escaped speci- 
mens naturalized in rivers (as in the Potomac) 
revert to their native olivaceous green hue. For 
an elaborate account of these fish, consult Wolf, 
Goldfish Breeds (Philadelphia, 1008). An arti- 
ficial grotesque variety is illustrated on the 
Plate of CABP AND ALLIES. 

GOLDFTTSS, gftlt'foos', GEOBQ AUGUST (1782- 
1848). A German paleontologist and zoologist. 
He was born at Thurnau, near Bayreuth, Ba- 
varia, was educated at Berlin, and in 1804 re- 
ceived the degree of Ph.D. at Gtfttingen, where 
he became professor of zoSlogy in 1818. During 
the last 30 years of his life he was professor of 
mineralogy and zoology at Bonn, where he was 
also appointed director of the Zoological Mu- 
seum. Besides his principal work, Petrafacta 
Germanics (partly in collaboration with Count 
zu Mlinster, 1826-44), he published Qrundriss 
der Zootogie (2d ed., 1834). He is said to have 
been the first to introduce the term "protozoa" 
into scientific nomenclature. 



G-OLD1E, SIB GEOBGE DASHWOOD TATJBMAN 
(1846- ). A British administrator, the 
founder of Nigeria, born at the Nunnery, Isle of 
Man. After graduating from the Royal Military 
Academy at Woolwich he was lieutenant in the 
Royal Engineers for two years. He visited the 
Niger in 1877 and became interested in adding 
this territory to the British Empire. To this 
end he organized (1879) the British commercial 
interest of those regions into the United African 
Company, modeled on the defunct East India 
Company. The name was changed to the Na- 
tional African Company; its capitalization was 
raised from 125,000 to 1,000,000; new stations 
were opened; French interests were purchased; 
and in 1886 a charter was granted by the British 
government to the company under the new name 
of the Royal Niger Company, with Goldie as 
Vice Governor. In 1895 he became Governor. In 
spite of the activities of French and German 
political agents, Goldie built up the state and 
maintained the integrity of the territory, but 
finally, in 1900, the Royal Niger Company sold 
its territory to the British government for 
865,000. Goldie was a royal commissioner on 
the South African War in 1902-03 and on war 
stores in 1905-06. He was created a K. C. M. G. 
in 1887, was chosen president of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society in 1905, and became a fellow of 
the Royal Society, a privy councilor (1898), 
and an alderman of the London County Council 
(1908). 

GOLIXENG, ABTHUTJ (c.l556-c.!605). An 
English writer and translator. He was born 
probably in London and is said to have studied 
at Queen's College, Oxford. He was a friend of 
Sir Philip Sidney, who, on leaving for the Low 
Countries, intrusted to him the completion of 
the translation of Philippe de Mornay's trea- 
tise, De la v6rite' de la religion chretienne, which 
Golding published under the title A Woorke 
Concerning the Trewenesse of the Christian Re- 
ligion (1589). He made many translations, de- 
voting himself especially to those from the works 
of Calvin and Theodore Beza, but will be re- 
membered chiefly for his rendering into Eng- 
lish, in ballad metre, of the "fyrst fower bookes" 
ef Ovid's Metamorphoses (1565-67). 

GOLD LACE. A fabric formed by weaving 
silken threads that have been previously gilded. 
The peculiarity of this manufacture consists in 
the gilding of the silk in such a manner that it 
shall retain sufficient flexibility for weaving. A 
deep yellow or orange-colored silk is used for 
the purpose. The usual method of doing this 
is by what is called "fibre plating" A rod of 
silver is gilded by simply pressing and bur- 
nishing leaves of gold upon it. This gilded silver 
is then drawn into very fine wire, so fine that 
one ounce of metal can be extended to the length 
of more than a mile. It is then flattened be- 
tween polished steel- rollers, and further ex- 
tended, so that a mile and a quarter weighs 
only one ounce; for the last drawing the wire 
is passed through perforated gems, such as dia- 
monds or rubies. The film of gold upon this 
flattened wire is much thinner than beaten gold 
leaf and has frequently been quoted as an ex- 
ample of the divisibility of matter, as one inch 
of the highly gilded wire contains but the eighty- 
millionth part of an ounce of gold, while -fa 
of an inch, which is a visible quantity ex- 
hibiting the color and lustre of gold, contains 
but goooioooo * an ounce; or, in other words, 
one ounce of gold covers a length of wire of 



GOLD LEAF 



no 



GOLDONI 



more than 100 miles. This flattened gilded wire 
is then wound over the silk, so as to inclose it 
completely and produce an apparently golden 
thread. Other means of directly gilding the 
thread have been tried and for some purposes 
are successful; but none have yet been discov- 
ered which give the thread the same degree of 
lustre as the above, which was first practiced 
in a ruder manner by the Hindus. Much of the 
so-called gold lace of commerce is made of an 
alloy known as Dutch metal. SILVEB LACE is 
made in the same manner as gold lace, except 
that the gold coating is omitted. Both gold 
and silver lace are used extensively for military 
and other uniforms and for ornamental effects 
in women's apparel. 

GOLD LEAP. See GOLDBEATING. 

GOLDMAKT, gult'man, EMMA (1809- ). 
An American anarchist, born in Kovno Province, 
Russia. She lived in Ko'nigsberg, Prussia, in 
] 878-82, went to St. Petersburg, and in 1880 emi- 
grated to tbe United States. The execution of 
certain participants in the Ilaymarkct Square 
Riot (q.v.) in Chicago in that year aroused her 
sympathies and finally led her to support an- 
archism. After 1889 she was associated in 
New York with Johann G. Most, Alexander 
Berkman, and other agitators, among whom 
her fiery speeches in German and Yiddish soon 
made her popular. In 1893 she was sentenced 
to one year at Blackwell's Island (New York) 
for inciting to riot. She lectured in England 
and Scotland in 1895 and 1890 and made ex- 
tended lecture tours in the United States in 
1897, 1899, and 1007-10. Following the assas- 
sination of William McKiuley in 1901, she 
lived under the name of "Mist* Smith" to escape 
persecution. After 1900 she cooperated in the 
publication of Mother Eartli, a monthly anar- 
chist magazine. She had attended the First 
Anarchist Congress ut Paris, in 1800, and in 
1907 was a delegate to the Second Congress at 
Amsterdam. Her writings include Anarchism 
and Other Essays, with a biographical sketch 
by Hippolyte Havel (J910), and The Modal 
Significance of the Modern Drama (1914). 

GOLDMABK, g61t'milrk', KARL (1830- 
1915). An Austrian composer. Ho was born in 
Keszthcly, "Hungary, and musically was largely 
self-taught, although ho had some instruction on 
the violin from Jansa in Vienna in 1844 and 
throe years later took lessons in composition 
from Bfthm. Firmly believing in hit* musical 
talent, he devoted himself almost entirely to 
composition. Overcoming the most difficult ob- 
stacles, he so far succeeded as to give his first 
public concert in Vienna at the age of 20 years, 
a pianoforte concerto of his own being a feature 
of the programme. Outside of Germany he is 
better known through his orchestral suites and 
arrangements and small instrumental and vocal 
compositions than for his operas, although in his 
own country, as well as in Germany, they arc 
regarded tut standard. His published works in- 
clude: operas Die Konigin von 8aba, his chief 
operatic success; Merlin (1880); Das Heimchen 
am Herd (1800, from Dickens's Cricket on the 
Hearth); Die Kriegsgefangene (1899); Ootss 
von JBerlichingen (1902); A Winter's Tale 
(1900). The overtures to Prometheus Bound, 
tiappho, ftakuntala, Pcnthesilea, Im Friihling, and 
In ftalien are universal favorites. Other coin- 
positions are: Sturm und Drang (for piano- 
forte, op. 5) ; symphonies: Landliche Hoohseit, 
and one in K fiat; scherzo ID A (for orchestra) ; 



a symphonic poem Zr'uii/; two \iolin concertos; 
chamber music: songs; choruses. 

GOLDMABK, RUBIN (1872- ). An 
American composer, born in New York. From 
1889 to 1891 he studied piano and composition 
at the Vienna Conservatory, ami after his re- 
turn to America continued the piano with Joseli'y 
and composition with DvoMk. For six years 
he was director of the Colorado College of 
Music (1890-1901). In 190'2 he returned to 
New York, devoting his time to composition and 
lecture recitals. His compositions include Theme, 
and Variation^ for orchestra, a concert overture 
Iliatcatha, a symphonic poem Ham&on; some ex- 
cellent chamber music, piano pieces, and songs. 

GOLD OF PLEASURE, or FALSE FLAX 
(Camclina). A genus of plants of the family 
Cmcifene. The common gold of pleasure (('ame- 
ntia satiea) (Fr. CV/jnefrnc, per. hotter] is an 
annual ly ? to 3 feet high, with smooth, bright- 
green, entire or slightly toothed leaves, and ter- 
minal racemes of yellow flowers and pear-shaped 
pods. Notwithstanding its high-sounding Eng- 
lish name, the plant is of humble and homely 
appearance. It grows in iields and waste 
places of Europe and the north of Asia, but in 
not regarded as a native of America, although 
often found in fields, particularly of llax. Its 
seed is very commonly mixed with Haxsetid im- 
ported from other lands. In many parts of 
Germany, Belgium, and the south of KSuropu it 
is extensively cultivated for the Rake of its 
seeds, which tire rich in oil, and the oil cake of 
which, as well as the seeds, though inferior to 
linseed and linseed-oil cake, is also used for 
feeding cattle. The oil, although sweet and 
pure at first, soon becomes rancid and is less 
valued than that of rapeseed or colza, with 
which it is often mixed. Tho value of the plant 
in agriculture depends much on its adaptation to 
poor sandy soils, although it prefers those of a 
better quality; and, on account of its rapid 
growth, to secondary cropping and green manur- 
ing. Since it readily scatters seed, it is likely to 
become a weed pent. The stems, which aro 
tough, fibrous, and durable, are used for thatch- 
ing 'and making brooms; their fibre is adapted 
for making coarse paper. See C A MELT N A. 

GOLDONI, gGl-do'nft, CARLO (1707-93). The 
moat celebrated Italian writer of comody. He 
was born in Venice, Fob, 2/>, 1707, of !i good 
family, which lost itw property in hw child- 
hood. His father, a physician, took him to 
Perugia, where he first entered school. He. was 
encouraged by hia father in IHH strong taste? 
for the literature of cloHHic comedy and was 
given an opportunity for practice on the ama- 
teur stage. But the boy showed no aptilwlo 
for such performances and was sent to Pavia to 
study for the Church. Still less fitted, however, 
for boing an ecclesiastic than for being an ac.tor, 
ho was finally expelled from college for writing 
scurrilous satires. Me studied law and was 
admitted a an advocate, getting his degree from 
Padua in 1732, after his father's death. But 
the legal profession did not prove lucrative, and 
he relinquished its practice to set about com- 
posing comic almanacs, which became* highly 
popular. In this early part of hi career ho 
wrote a few tragedies, among them Bvltoario, 
and several of his minor comedies were repre- 
sented, attracting public favor by thoir novelty 
as well as their merits. In 1786 he married tho 
daughter of a notary of Genoa, and about 1740 
was for a short time Consul of Genoa at Venice. 



GOLDS 



in 



GOLDSBOROTJCKH 



Financial difficulties, however, occasionally ham- 
pered him in literary work, until, having ob- 
tained an introduction to Prince Lobkowitz, he 
was intrusted with the composition of an ode 
iu honor of Maria Theresa, and with the or- 
ganization of the theatrical entertainments of 
the Austrian army. Subsequently for a time he 
lived at Florence and Pisa. He returned to 
Venice in 1747 to write for a manager named 
Medebac, and five years later he made still 
more lucrative arrangements at the theatre of 
St. Luke, where much of his best work was 
done. In 1761 he was invited to France, where 
he was soon appointed Italian master to the 
royal children a situation which allowed him 
to devote himself tranquilly to his literary oc- 
cupations. He began after a time to write in 
French, and Le "bourru lienfaisant, composed for 
the wedding of Louis XVI, excited the admira- 
tion even of Voltaire. On the breaking out of 
the Revolution Goldoni lost his pension, but 
after his death (Feb. 6, 1793) it was restored 
to his widow. He left about 150 comedies of 
very unequal merit, some of the most noted of 
which are: La donna di garbo; La "bottega del 
caffe; Pamela nubile; I Rusteghi; Todero Bron- 
talon; La casa nona; La loeandiera; II gioca- 
tore; II vecchio listsarro; and L> Adulatore. His 
ambition was to dispense with some of the con- 
ventional accessories of the comic stage of his 
time and elevate that branch of the national 
drama from the buffooneries into which it had 
fallen. In this he succeeded. He was a great 
admirer of Moliere, and the larger part of his 
works are inimitable representations of the 
events of daily life, under both their simplest 
and their most complex aspects. 

Consult: the Memoirs of Carlo Goldoni, trans, 
by John Black, with an essay by Howells (Bos- 
ton, 1877); Gherardini, Vita di Carlo Goldoni, 
prefixed to the collected comedies (Milan, 1821) ; 
Molmenti, Carlo Goldoni (Venice, 1875) ; Ga- 
lanti, Goldoni e Venesia, nel secolo XVIII 
(Padua, 1883) ; Rabany, Carlo Goldoni: Le thea- 
tre et la vie en Italie au XVIII&me stecle (Paris, 
1896); Copping, Alfieri and Goldoni: Their 
Lives and Adventures (London, 1857) ; Lettere 
di Carlo Goldoni, con prefazione e note di G. M. 
Urlani (Venice, 1880) ; Dole, "Goldoni and 
Italian Comedy," in The Teacher of Dante (New 
York, 1908); Mathar, Carlo Goldoni auf dem 
d&iitschen Theater des XVIII Jahrhunderts 
(Montjoie, 1910) ; Chatfield-Taylor, Goldoni: A 
Biography (New York, 1913). The most com- 
plete edition of his plays is that of Venice, 1788, 
republished in Florence in 1827. 

GOLDS, goldz. A people living on the Lower 
Amur, in southeastern Siberia, belonging phys- 
ically and linguistically to the Tungusic group 
of Siberian peoples. Deniker (1900) describes 
them as "of a very pure type, and having a 
fairly well developed ornamental art." Laufer, 
who visited them in 1898-99, notes the great in- 
fluence of Chinese symbolism and ornamental 
motifs upon the art products of the Golds; the 
dragon and the cock seem to have been introduced 
thus. The Golds have a rich mythology (with 
many archaic words and phrases), a considerable 
portion of which has evidently originated in 
Mongolian Central Asia. From the Chinese 
some of the Golds have learned the art of silk 
embroidery, in which they display great skill. 
Although fishers and hunters generally, a por- 
tion of them have taken to agriculture with not 
a little success. They are said to be losing of 



late years their individuality through the mania 
for Russian fashions, etc. Laufer informs us 
that "a tendency to rationalism, due perhaps to 
continuous contact with Chinese culture, is one 
of the distinguishing traits of the Gold's char- 
acter." It is to this ''preponderance of intellect" 
that Laufer attributes the absence of many cere- 
monies, feasts, etc., among the Golds, and the 
dying out of belief in the old shamans, whose 
place the Russian physician now takes. Mar- 
riages of Golds and Chinese are said to be often 
infertile. A primitive people, under the influ- 
ence of such differing cultures as the Chinese 
and the Russian, the Golds are of considerable 
ethnological importance. The best recent ac- 
count of the Golds and other tribes of the Amur 
will be found in Schrenck, "Die Volker des 
Amurlandes," vol. iii of his Forschungoi in 
Amurland, 1854-56 (St. Petersburg, 1881-91), 
and Laufer, "The Ainoor Tribes/' in the Amer- 
ican Anthropologist (New York) for 1900. 

GOLDS'BOBO. A city and the county seat 
of Wayne Co., N. C., 50 miles by rail southeast 
of Raleigh, on the Southern, the Atlantic Coast 
Line, and the Norfolk Southern systems, and on 
the Neuse River (Map: North Carolina, E 2). 
It has Hermann Park, an Odd Fellows' Orphan 
Home, the Eastern Insane Asylum (colored), 
the Goldsboro Hospital, and the Spicer Sani- 
tarium. The city is the commercial centre for 
an agricultural and cotton-growing region. Its 
industrial plants include cotton, oil, lumber, and 
rice mills, furniture factories, agricultural-im- 
plement works, veneer plants, brickworks, a to- 
bacco stemznery, knitting mills, machine shops, 
and tobacco warehouses. Goldsboro was settled 
in 1838 and was incorporated three years later. 
Under a charter of 1901 the government is 
vested in a mayor, elected every two y^ara, and a 
council. The water works are owned and operated 
by the municipality. Pop., 1000, r>S7T; 1010, 
6107; 1914 (U. S. e&b.), 10,500; 1920, 11,206. 

GOLDS'BOROtTGH, Louis MAJLESTIEBBES 
(1805-77). An American naval officer, born in 
Washington, D. C. He was appointed a mid- 
shipman in the navy in 1812, when only seven 
years old, but did not enter upon active duty 
until 1816. He served on the Mediterranean and 
Pacific stations and was promoted a lieutenant 
in 1825. He then spent two years in study in 
Paris on leave of absence. In the following 
year (1827), being again on duty in the Medi- 
terranean, he distinguished himself by rescuing 
an English brig which had been captured by 
pirates in the Grecian archipelago. In 1833 
lie retired from the navy and settled in Florida, 
where he recruited and commanded a, company 
of volunteer cavalry during the Seminole War. 
Returning again to the navy, he was promoted 
commander in 1841 and served in the Mexican 
War, acting as executive officer of the frigate 
Ohio at the bombardment of Vera Cruz. In 
1849 he was a member of the joint army and 
navy commission in California and Oregon; was 
superintendent of the United States Naval 
Academy at Annapolis from 1853 to 1857, dur- 
ing which period (1855) he attained the grade 
of captain; and from 1857 to 1861 was again 
at sea. He was made flag officer at the out- 
break of the Civil War, and on the abolition of 
that rank in 1862 became rear admiral. His 
first service was with the North Atlantic block- 
ading squadron in September, 1861. Ho com- 
manded the fleet which cooperated with Gen- 
eral Burnside in his North Carolina expedition 



GOLDSCHM3D 



112 



GOLDSMITH 



in 1862, commanded the European squadron in 
1865-67, and subsequently was commandant of 
the navy yards at Mare Island, California, and at 
Washington. In 1873 he retired from active duty 
as senior oincer in point of length of service. 

GOLDSCHMID, golt'shmlt. See FAJBBICIUS, 
GEOBG. 

GOLDSCHMIDT, gdlfshmit, ADALBERT VON 
(1848-1906). A German composer. He was 
born at Vienna and was educated at the conser- 
vatory in that city. Although not a musician 
by profession, he acquired an excellent reputa- 
tion as a composer, notably through his three- 
part cantata Die sielen Todsunden, based upon 
the celebrated poem by Robert Hamerling. The 
cantata was first performed at Berlin in 1875. 
In 1884 Goldschmidt brought out an opera en- 
titled ffelianthus, which was followed, in 1889, 
by a trilogy, Qcea. 

GOLDSCTTTVrTDT, HANS (1801-1923). A 
German industrial chemist. He was born in 
Berlin; was educated in the sciences at Berlin, 
Strassburg, Heidelberg, and Charlottenburg; 
and then spent several years in travel. In 1886 
he entered into partnership in the chemical 
manufactory established by his father, and to- 
gether with nis brother Karl he built up an 
important industry. He is chiefly known, how- 
ever, for the "Goldschmidt process." Sec 
ALUMINO-THEKMIOS. 

GOLDSCHMIDT, JENNY LIND. See LIND, 
JENNY. 

GOLDSCHMIDT, MEIB AAEON (1819-87). 
A Danish publicist and novelist, born at Vor- 
dingborg, of Jewish parents. Ho began journal- 
istic work at an early age with the N&stvcd 
Ugeblad, which became later the much-feared 
Corsarett, (1840-46). In 1847 he founded the 
periodical Nord off Syd, which under his man- 
agement became an influential political organ. 
In 1861 he established the weekly paper Hjemme 
og Ude. He was a gifted* story-teller, and his 
descriptions of Jewish Jife have never boon sur- 
passed. His numerous novels, talcs, and dramas 
include: En Jode (1845; 3d ed., 1899; Eng. 
trans, under the title 77k? Jeio of Denmark, by 
Mrs. Bushby, 1852) ; Hjemlos (5 vols., 1853-57; 
Eng. trans, by the author under the title Home- 
less; or, A Poet's Inner Life, 1861) ; JtMicn og 
Ridderen (1869), a drama; Ejarlighcdshistorier 
fra mange Lande, a series of love tales of vari- 
ous lands (1867); Avromchc Nattergal (1873). 
In Ravnen (1867; 3d ed., 1899) and Mazer he 
is at his best. A selected edition of his works 
was published in 1898 et seq. His autobiog- 
raphy, Livserindtringer, appeared in 1877 in two 
volumes. Consult G. Brandes, Levned (1908). 

GOLDSCHMIDT, OTTO (1829-1907). A Gor- 
man-English pianist, conductor, and composer. 
He was born at Hamburg and was a pupil of 
Jakob Schmitt, Mendelssohn, and Chopin. In 
1851 lie accompanied Jenny Lind on her Amer- 
ican tour and married her at Boston in the fol- 
lowing year. After a sojourn of three years at 
Dresden (1852-55), the couple removed to Lon- 
don in 1858, after which Goldschmidt was prom- 
inently identified with the musical life of the 
British capital. He successively became pro- 
fessor and vice principal of the Royal Academy 
of Music (1863), and director of the Bach Choir 
(1876-86), a society founded by him in 1875. 
He also on several occasions conducted the cele- 
brated Lower Rhine Festivals at Dttsseldorf. 
Among his principal musical publications are: 
Ruth, an oratorio (1867); Choral-Book {or 



England (with Julius Benedict) : a pianoforte 
concerto, op. 10; a pianoforte trio, op. 12; and 
several other pianoforte compositions and songs. 

GOLDSCHMIDT PBOCESS. See ALUMTNO- 
TriEHincs. 

GOLD SEED. See DOG'S-TAIL GRASS. 

GOLD'SINNY, or GOLDITIlTinr. A small, 
bright-yellow European wrasse (flymphod-us me- 
lops), frequenting rocky coasts anil sometimes 
taken by anglers. 

GOLD'SMID, SIR FREDERICK JOHN (1818- 
1908). A British soldier, explorer, and Oriental- 
ist. He was educated at King's College, Lon- 
don, in 1830, entered the army of the East In- 
dia Company, and served in the China War in 
1840-41 and in the Crimea with the Turkish 
army in 1855-56. He retired in 1875 with the 
rank of major general. Goldsmid became known 
more especially for his services in establishing 
the Indo-European telegraph, of which he was 
director general from 1865 to 1870. Having 
obtained telegraph treaties, he superintended 
the construction of the linos across Persia and 
Baluchistan to India. In 1870-72 ho adjusted 
boundary claims between Persia and Baluchis- 
tan and between Persia and Afghanistan. He 
was controller of the crownlands of Daira Sanich 
in Egypt in 1881-82, conducted a diplomatic 
mission for the British government to Con- 
stantinople in 1882, and in 1883 was adminis- 
trator in the Congo for King Leopold II of 
Belgium. Versed in Hindustani, Persian, Ara- 
bic, and Turkish, Goldsmid was considered an 
authority on Oriental questions. He published 
Telegraph and Travel (1874), Eastern Persia 
(2 vols., 1876), and the Life of tiir James Ou- 
tram (2 vols., 1880; 2d ed., 1881). 

GOLDSMID, SIB ISAAC LYON (1778-1859). 
An English Jewish financier and philanthropist, 
born in London. He was bullion broker of the 
Bank of England and of the East India Com- 
pany. University Collect*, London, owes much to 
him; from 1830 to 1857 he was treasurer of the 
. University College or North London Hospital, 
which he helped to found in 1834. He wan 
zealous in the cause of Jewish emancipation 
the ultimate passage of the Jewish Disabilities 
Bill, first introduced in 1830, was greatly due to 
his energy. In 1841 ho was created Baronet, the 
first Jew to win that distinction in England. 
For settling the monetary dispute between Por- 
tugal and Brazil the Portuguese government 
made him Baron da Palmoira in 1846. 

GOLD'SMITH, Uwis (c.1703-1846). An 
English journalist, whose parents 01* grand- 
parents were Jews from Portugal. He was born 
in London and was educated there for the law. 
A strong sympathizer with the Revolutionists in 
France and Poland, he published, in 1801, The 
Crimes of Cabinets, or a Itcoicw of the Plans 
and Aggressions for the Annihilation of the Mb* 
erties of France and the Dismemberment of her 
Territories, and the following year removed to 
Paris, whore, with the assistance of Talleyrand, 
he established a triweekly paper, the Argus, in 
the interests of Napoleon. But Napoleon having 
demanded of him services of espionage and in- 
trigue that he refused to render, he returned 
to London in 1809 and two years later founded 
the Anti-Oallican Monitor, in which he vehe- 
mently pleaded for drastic measures to effect 
Napoleon's overthrow. He also published: A 
Secret History of the Cabinet of Bonaparte 
(1810); Secret History of Bonaparte's Diplo* 
maoy (1812) ; and An Exposition of the Con* 



GOLDSMITH i 

duct of France towards America (1810). He 
became a disciple of Robert Owen, again re- 
moved to Paris in 1825, and died there Jan. 6, 
1846. In 1832 he published Statistic* of France. 

GOLDSMITH, OLIVEB (1728-74). An Irish 
author. He was born, according to long-ac- 
cepted belief, at Pallas, County Longford, Ire- 
land, or, as now seems more probable, at Elphin, 
County Roscommon, Nov. 10, 1728. His father, 
Rev. Charles Goldsmith, was a clergyman of 
the Established church. When six years old, 
Oliver was placed in the village school kept by 
an old soldier, Thomas Byrne, described in "The 
Deserted Village." On leaving Byrne's school, 
he suffered permanent disfigurement from a bad 
attack of smallpox. He subsequently attended 
other small schools and at length entered Trin- 
ity College, Dublin, as a "sizar," or poor scholar 
(June 11, 1744). Neither at school nor at the 
university did he display any conspicuous 
talents. But he had long been interested in 
chapbooks and the ballads of the peasantry 
and had attempted verse. Disliking his tutor 
and his studies, humiliated by his position, and 
becoming involved in trouble over a convivial 
entertainment in his college rooms, at wnich, 
contrary to rules, persons of both sexes were 
present, he sold his books and ran away to 
Cork. Through the influence of his brother 
Henry he was induced to return to the uni- 
versity, where he was graduated B.A. (Feb. 27, 
1749). His uncle, the Rev. Thomas Contarine, 
who had helped Goldsmith at the university, 
now tried to induce him to take orders. He 
became a candidate for the ministry, but was 
rejected, on what grounds history does not 
record, by the Bishop of Elphin. Thereupon he 
went to Cork to embark for America, but missed 
his ship. His uncle next gave him 50 to study 
law in London; but Ctoldsmith soon returned, 
having got no farther than Dublin, where he 
lost his money at a gaming house. Again aided 
by Mr. Contarine, he succeeded in reaching 
Edinburgh, where he began the study of medicine 
in 1752; but towards the end of the next year 
he sailed for Leyden and then set out on the 
grand tour, wandering on foot through Flan- 
ders, France, Germany, and Italy, paying while 
in France for the hospitality of the peasants 
by playing on his flute. In 1756 he returned 
to England with empty pockets and soon began 
to practice medicine in Southwark. He quickly 
abandoned his profession to become, in turn, 
proof reader, usher in an academy at Peckham, 
and then hack writer at "an adequate salary" 
for the Monthly Review. In 1758 he was nomi- 
nated physician and surgeon in the India serv- 
ice, but the appointment was not confirmed; 
and being examined the same year at Surgeons' 
Hall for the post of "hospital mate," he was 
found "not qualified." The very clothes in 
which he appeared before his examiners were 
borrowed; and, being in great distress, he 
pawned them. 

Besides several articles in the Monthly Re- 
view, Goldsmith had by 'this time translated 
the Memoirs of Jean, Marteilhe of Bergerao 
(1758). In April of the next year he attracted 
some attention bj the Enquiry into the Present 
State of Polite Learning in Europe. He was 
employed on three periodicals started in this 
year, writing probably all the articles for the 
Bee, a weekly that ran through only eight 
numbers. On Jan. 24, 1760, he contributed to 
the Public Ledger the first of the celebrated 



J GOLDSMITH 

letters of a , Chinese, which were collected and 
published in book form two years later under 
the title of The Citizen of the World. In 1762 
appeared also the Life of Richard Xosh, the 
famous Bath beau. His literary work had al- 
ready gained him the friendship of Bishop 
Percy and Dr. Johnson. In 1764 the Literary 
Club was founded, and Goldsmith was one of 
the nine original members. He was thus brought 
into intimacy with some of the most eminent 
men of the time. This year he published .1 
History of England, in a series of letters, which 
was followed by u The Traveler" in 1764, a poem 
which placed him at once in the front rank of 
contemporary poets. In 1766 came his only 
novel, The Vicar of Wakefield, which, with all 
its faults, is one of the most delightful stories 
in English literature. It lias passed through 
more than 100 editions. Turning now to the 
drama, he produced The Good-Natured Jfaw, 
performed at Covent Garden, Jan. 29, 1768. It 
did not meet with great favor. Disheartened, 
he turned again to hack work; but in 1770 he 
published his finest poem, "The Deserted Vil- 
lage." On March 15, 1773, She Stoovs to Con- 
quer, unsurpassed among later English come- 
dies, was performed at Covent Garden, and 
met with instant success. Goldsmith died in 
his chambers at the Middle Temple, April 4. 
1774, and was buried in the grounds of the 
Temple Church. The Literary Club erected a 
monument to his memory in Westminster Ab- 
bey, bearing an epitaph by Dr. Johnson. His 
statue stands at the portal of Trinity College, 
Dublin. While Goldsmith was producing his 
finest work, he was also compiling histories and 
writing reviews. Among productions not men- 
tioned above are: The History of Greece 
(1774) ; the incomplete History of Animated 
Nature (1774); and the delightful poems, "Re- 
flation" (1774) and "The Haunch of Venison" 
(1776). Goldsmith did not possess Johnson's 
massive intellect, nor Burke's passion and gen- 
eral force; but he wrote the finest poem, the 
most charming novel, and with the exception 
perhaps of The School for Scandal the best 
comedy of the period. Than his style, nothing 
could be more natural, simple, and graceful. 
For his life, consult the memoir from Bishop 
Percy's materials in Miscellaneous Works (Lon- 
don, 1831); Forster (ib., 1848; enlarged ed., 
1854) ; Irving (New York, 1849) ; Black, in 
English Men of Letters (London, 1879) ; Di " 
son, in Great Writers (ib., 1888); the criti 
biography by H. S. Krans in the first volume 
of the Turk's Head edition (10 vols., New York, 
1908), which emphasizes the Irish aspects of 
Goldsmith's work; Moore, Life of Oliver Gold- 
smith (London, 1910) ; also Boswell, Life of 
Dr. Johnson (ib., 1889), and the Wakefield 
edition of the Complete Works (12 vols., ib., 
1900). J. J. Kelly's Early Haunts of Oliver 
Goldsmith (Dublin, 1005) contains original ma- 
terial concerning the topic Indicated by the title 
of this book, and also strong arguments in favor 
of Elphin as Goldsmith's birthplace. 

GOLDSMITH, OLIVES (?1787-c.l848). A 
Canadian writer. He was born in Annapolis 
County, Nova Scotia, and was educated in the 
public schools, entered the commissarial depart- 
ment as a clerk, and eventually attained the 
rank of commissary general. He collected mate- 
rial for, but never published, a biographical 
work on the distinguished men of Nova Scotia. 
His poem, The Rising Village (1825), was highly 



GOLDSMITH BEETLE 



114 



GOLF 




GOLDSMITH 
(Cotalpa Zaaiffcra.) 



praised. It commemorates the busy life of a 
now settlement and is a sentimental contrast to 
Tho Deserted Tillage of the distinguished rela- 
tive for whom he was named. See CANADIAN 
LITERATURE. 

GOLDSMITH BEETLE. A large scarabaeid 
beetle (Cotalpa lanigcra) of the eastern United 
States, allied to the dung 
beetles, and golden yel- 
low in color. The specific 
name laniyera, or wool 
bearer, refers to the dense 
hairy coat which eovers 
the underside of the body. 
It is especially fond of 
1 willow trees, \vhere it 
hides and nests among the 
leaves in the daytime, 
going abroad only at 
night. It deposits its 
large eggs singly in the 
soil, and the larval stages, 
which extend over about three years, are passed 
underground. The name is applied in a more 
general way to till the beetles of the group 
Rutelinffi, of which many of the largest and most 
brilliantly metallic inhabit Central America. 

GOLDSMITH MAID. A buy trotting mare, 
sired by Abdalluh, and famous between 1806 
and 1878. In 1871 she took the mile trotting 
record from Dexter in 2:17; but in 1874 was 
beaten by Ranis (2:13*4). 

GOLDSMITH'S WORK. See JEWETJBY; 
PLATE. 

GOLD STICK. An officer in the English 
Royal Bodyguard, and a captain in the Corps 
of G<?ntlemen-at-ArmH. They are so called bo- 
cause, on state occasions, they carry u gilded 
baton. See GENTLTSMEN-AT-ABMS. 

GOLDSTtJCKEB, golt'shtyk-er, THHODOB 
(1821-72). A Gernmn-Knglish Sanskrit scholar. 
He was born of Jewish parents at KiinigHberg, 
Prussia, and was educated in that city and in 
Bonn and Paris, where he Htudied under 
Burnouf. After a visit to England and a so- 
journ of two years at K<inigsbe,rg, lie went to 
Berlin, whore he contributed valuable material 
on Indian affairs to Humboldt's Kosmos. Ex- 
pelled from Berlin because of his political 
opinions in 1848, ho accepted Wilson's invita- 
tion to come to Knglancl and in 1852 was ap- 
pointed profeHSor of Sanskrit at University Col- 
lege, London. During an activity of nearly 30 
years at that institution he did much towards 
the 'advancement of Oriental science. He was 
an able controversialist, but frequently per- 
mitted himself to be carried too far in his 
attacks on such distinguished scholars of the 
German, school as " Btthtlingk, Weber, and 
others. He began an extensive revision of Wil- 
son's /Sanskrit and English Dictionary in 1856, 
but was obliged to interrupt this colossal un- 
dertaking before reaching the end of the letter 
A (480 pp., London, 1850-64). His writings 
include: On the Deficiencies in the Present 
Administration cf Hindu Law (1871) ; Pdnini: 
Mis Place in Sanskrit Literatwe (1861); an 
anonymous translation of Krishna MiSra's Pro- 
Wdha-OhandrOdaya (KOnigsberg, 1842) ; and 
his posthumous edition, of the Mah&bhdshya 
($ vols., London, 1874), which also contains a 
biographical note (vol. i, pp. 5-16). Many of 
his minor contributions are collected in liis 
Literary Remains (2 vols., London, 1870). 
GOLD THREAD. See Coma. 



GOLD'TIT, or VERDIN. A most curious little 
bird ( A.uriparus flaviceps) of the titmouse fam- 
ily (Paridse). It is 4 inches long, and abun- 
dant in the valleys of the Rio Grande and 
Colorado and in Lower California. Tho upper 
parts are ashy, the under parts whitish, and 
the whole head golden yellow. Its habits and 
manner partake of those of both the chickadees 
and the warblers; mid it makes a remarkable* 
neat, often as large ati a man's head, woven of 
twigs into a globular mass, and plaeed in a 
thorny tree. It is lined with down ami feathers, 
and the eggs are four to six, pah* bluish speckled 
with brown. Consult Coues, Birds of the Colo- 
rado Valley (Washington, 1878). 
GOLD WASP. See CUCKOO FLY. 
GOLDZIHER, golt'tse-er, IONAZ (1830- 
). An Hungarian Orientalist, born at 
Stuhlwdssenburg. Tie studied at the universi- 
ties of Budapest, Berlin, and Leipzig, and made 
special investigation of Oriental manuscripts 
in the libraries of Leycleu and Vienna. Ho 
was appointed a lecturer at the University of 
Budapest in 1872 and became professor there 
in 1894. In 1870 he was elected a correspond- 
ing member, and in 18J)2 a full member, of the 
Hungarian Academy. He vim ted Hgypt, Syria, 
and Palestine in 1873-74. His ivritingu in 
Hungarian comprise a large number of contri- 
butions to the publications of the Academy, 
including papers on Oriental houkmakhig 
(1874), on the history of philological study 
among the Arabs (1878), and on the progress 
and results of urelueology in Palestine (1880). 
His chief publications are in. (jcrnuui, among 
them such scholarly works as Ntudi<j fiber 
TauchAtn, Jcrftftchulmi (1871); the treatise Dcr 
Mytltos boi ilen llcbriicm and wino gcschiclit- 
fu'lic flntimvklung (1S7G; Kng. trans., 1877); 
MoJitiumcdttnirtchc' Mind-ion (2 voln,, ISSiHJO) ; 
Abhandlungen eur arabischcn J'hilologio (2 
vols., 181)0-99) ; Vorlcmtnycn 'liber den J slain 
(J!)10; Hung, trans., 1JH2-, Fr. truiiH. by Arin, 
1JM4). (Juldzihur ia coiiHidorod one of the fore- 
iu<wt J^uropc'iin seholarw in wubjeolrt counectod 
with Mohaiumodaniuiu. 

GOOOBB, GKOKQK W. (1864- ). An 
American hetilth oflicor. He wa born in Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., and graduated from the medical de- 
partment of the University of Buffalo in 1889. 
Between 1888 and 181)7 he served at tho Infante* 
ltoBi>ital at Charlotte, W. Y.; was intnlum! in- 
spector of the Rochester (N. Y.) Board of Health 
in 1892-96, and health oflicer after 18SIO. In 
1807 he established in Rochester municipal milk 
depots that have served an models for health 
officers throughout the United States and tfu- 
rope. In addition, Dr. Golcr instituted a vigor- 
ous and sustained campaign against unsanitary 
conditions in the dairy farmw forming the 
source of the city's 'milk supply. In 1J)04 he 
became attending physician of tho Kochenter 
Hospital for Infectious Diseases, which he had 
been instrumental in founding. He served at 
one time as president of the Hospital Medical 
Society and is -author of papers on the prob- 
lems of milk supply and. on tuberculosis, 
GOLET'TA. The port of Tunis, Africa. 
GOLF (perhaps from Dutch kolf, OHO. oholbo, 
Ger. Kolbe, Kolben, club, Iccl. bolfr, bolt, Icylja, 
club) . Par excellence, the national game of Scot- 
land, though possibly of Dutich origin. The Ro- 
mans had a game called paffanica,, played with a 
crooked stick and a ball of leather stuffed with 
feathers, and in England, during the reign of 



GOLF 




^$?f , X'v f-j;.*V>;, .- ' v ^' ; -. 



1. TOP OF THE SWING 

2. FINISH 



3. HALF MASHIE SHOT 

4. ADDRESSING THE BALL 



GOM 1 i. 

Edward ITI, the game was called Iwndy hall, or 
rawbtica. The Dutch game differs greatly from 
the Scottish, and it is maintained that golf is a 
lineal descendant of the game of shinty, but it 
is more probable that it is a combination of both. 
Shinty is a rude game of force; golf, a game 
of skill. 

In 1457 golf was so much played in Scotland 
that it took the place of archery and other an- 
cient games. The year following, Parliament 
passed an act that the game be abandoned, and 
it was not until 1491 that Parliament ceased to 
interfere with it. 

In 1502 the Town Council of Edinburgh or- 
dained that none of the inhabitants '"be sene 
at ony pastymes or gammis within or without 
the town upoun the Sabboth-day sic as Golf, 
Archerie, etc." Even during the seventeenth 
century similar acts were passed, and offenders 
were severely punished. This extract from the 
Kirk-Session Books of the Parish of Cullen, 
Banffshire, is an excellent example: 1041. 
"James and George Duff us and Charles Stevin- 
son convict in break of ye Sabboth for playing 
at ye golff efternovne in time of sermone and 
yrfor are ordayned evrie ane of them to pay 
halif a merk and mak yr repentance ye next 
Sabboth." When James VI of Scotland suc- 
ceeded Qiieen Elizabeth on the English throne, 
his Scottish train played the game on Black- 
heath; whereby came about the curious fact 
that the oldest organized golf club is English. 
It was an exotic, however, and remained the 
only one south of the Tweed for 250 years. 
James VI secured a special "club-maker to his 
Hienes" and therefore established a monopoly 
of ball making to prevent gold and silver from 
going out of his kingdom for buying golf balls. 
The Duke of York (afterward James II) was 
very fond of the game, and one day, with an 
Edinburgh shoemaker as his partner, he de- 
fended Scotland's claims in the sport against 
two English noblemen. The Duke and his 
partner completely outplayed their opponents 
in the foursome. This was the first great match 
of which we have record. Meanwhile in Scot- 
land the game maintained its popularity and 
was so generally indulged in by all classes of 
society that any village in East Lothian could 
be sure of competitors, from the village cobbler 
to the laird of the neighborhood. The early 
conditions were as democratic as the company. 

Henceforward the history of golf is marked 
mainly by the formation of societies and clubs 
for the practice and promotion of the game. 
Some of the most celebrated of these institu- 
tions were the Honourable Edinburgh Company 
of Golfers, the Edinburgh Burgess Golfing So- 
ciety, and the Royal and Ancient Golf Club 
of St. Andrews, established in 1754, now the 
national club of Scotland, 

A tent erected upon special occasions was the 
only rendezvous of the local golfers; and the 
links were laid out across a tract of common 
land by the seaside, over which every inhabitant 
of the district had some right. The prize was 
seldom more than a club 1 with a silver band 
round it, or a dozen balls, or later on a simple 
modal; even the great national prize was only 
a silver club, and that never became the prop- 
erty of the winner. The association for which 
the winner played had its custody until the 
next yearly contest. The earliest implements 
with which the game was played were practically 
as good as they are to-day, except in the case 



:$ GOLF 

of the balls, which were formerly simply a 
leather case stuffed with feathers. The two 
great Scottish associations, while younger than 
the English one mentioned above*, are of far 
greater importance to the history of the game. 

The first clubs established outside Great 
Britain were the Calcutta Golf Club of East 
India, established in 1829, and the Royal Bom- 
bay Club, incorporated in 1842. Another club 
was in full vigor in Madras at a somewhat 
later date. The next foreign settlement was 
at Pau, in southern France, where numerous 
Scotchmen were in search of health. It was 
not until 1864 that the invasion of England 
proper began, with the establishment of the 
Golf Club of Westward Ho, in Devonshire, fol- 
lowed in the next year by the London Scottish, 
at Wimbledon; and shortly afterward by the 
Hoylake, at Liverpool; and then by hundreds 
of others throughout the country. Canada 
caught the infection in the early seventies, 
resulting in the organization of che Royal Mon- 
treal Golf Club in 1873. 

In the United States,, New York was the first 
to take up the game, although it is stated that 
the game of golf was played on the Pacific coast 
by a band of old sea captains in the sixteenth 
century. The St. Andrews Golf Club was the 
first formed in the United States (Nov. 18, 
1888), followed almost immediately by others 
throughout the country, so that at the begin- 
ning of the twentieth century public links were 
to be found in the public parks of the large 
cities, and nearly every town and village in the 
country had its public or private golf links. 

The game was played with a ball made of 
gutta-percha having a diameter of 1?4 inches 
and weighing from 25 to 28 pennyweights. 
Previous to 1848 the balls had been made of 
leather stuffed with feathers, and the manu- 
facture was very difficult. During that year 
the gutta-percha ball was invented and remained 
in vogue for many years, until the advent of 
the rubber-cored ball. Many golfers believed 
that the old gutta-percha ball was better than 
the present rubber-cored ; so a match was planned 
in England during the latter part of March, 
1914, which resulted in a decisive victory for 
the rubber-cored. Four of England's leading 
professionals were chosen to participate in the 
match. The loss of distance to the rubber-cored 
ball was not great in the driving, but the dif- 
ference was felt in the second shots, especially 
when the players using rubber cores could get 
up comfortably with irons. Their opponents 
had to slug desperately hard and even then 
were generally short. In playing the gutta- 
percha ball every ounce of power had to be util- 
ized, and at the end of the round the gutta-percha 
professionals were dead. In the afternoon the 
sides were changed so as to eliminate as much 
as possible the personal equation. 

Golf is played over a course laid out on an 
open stretch of country, and the object is to hit 
the ball into each of the holes made for its recep- 
tion successively in the fewest number of strokes. 
These holes are about 4 inches in diameter, usu- 
ally lined with iron to keep them from getting 
too large, while a flag at each indicates to the 
golfer the correct direction. The number of 
holes is usually 18, but where the area available 
is limited, a nine-hole course is played twice. 
The distance of each hole from the tee depends 
upon the nature of the intervening land; from 
110 to 650 yards is the usual limit. In laying 



GOLF 



116 



GOLIAD 



them out advantage is taken of such natural 
obstacles to straightforward play as ditches, 
walls, trees, hills, roads, or hollow places, so 
as to break up the total length into difficult 
portions, compelling the player to exercise judg- 
ment and skill. If there are no natural ob- 
stacles or hazards, artificial ones are intro- 
duced, such as traps made by hollowing out 
the earth and leaving it loose like sand in front 
of a hole, or an embankment raised at some 
selected spot, called a bunker. The game is 
played by one, two, three, or four persons in 
either "medal" or "match play." In the former 
all the strokes of the game on each side arc 
added together at the end of the 18 holes, and 
the side which has completed the round in the 
lowest number of total strokes wins; or, if 
match play, each hole is counted separately to 
the one who makes it in the fewest strokes, the 
winner being the one who has most holes to his 
credit. 

The play is begun by one player teeing, or 
placing his ball on the tee, which is usually a 
section of ground about 10 foot in diameter, 
either sand or turf, and striking it with one of 
his clubs, usually the driver, such a distance 
as will best land it in a favorable place for 
the next stroke. Then his opponent drives off, 
and they both proceed to where their respective 
balls have fallen. In the ensuing strokes, and 
the choice of clubs with which to make them, 
the players must bo guided by conditions the 
length of the hole, the conformations of the 
ground to be covered, and the obstacles to be 
safely passed. The game is divided into three 
parts Alistance shots, approaching, and putting. 
For the distance shots throe clubs are generally 
used the driver and the brassie, made of wood, 
and the driving iron, made of steel. When the 
ball has been driven to within 100 or 150 yards 
of the hole, the approach shot, of which the ob- 
ject is accuracy rather than distance, may be 
made by using the mid-iron, mashic, or mashie- 
nibiick. Around the hole the grass is cut short 
and the ground made as level as possible. This 
is called the putting green. Putting, the third 
department of the game, consists of tapping the 
ball lightly with a short club with the object of 
rolling the ball into the hole. The conventional 
set of clubs consists of the driver, brassie, cleek, 
mid-iron, mashie, niblick, putter, and driving 
iron. There are, however, variations of these 
, such as the spoon, hollow-faced cleek, 
r, mashie niblick, putting cleek, and many 

her modern clubs. 

The rules are based upon those of the St. 
Andrews Golf Club of Scotland. Players are of 
two classes, professional and amateur, and the 
national championships are three one for men 
(amateurs), one for women (amateurs), and an 
open championship for amateurs and profes- 



In America the central authority is the United 
States Golf Association, organized Dec. 22, 
1894, when it consisted of the Chicago Golf 
Club, the Country Club of Brookline, the New- 
port Golf Club, and the St. Andrews Golf Club 
of Yonkcrs. It now (1914) consists of nearly 
200 clubs, and there are subsidiary associations, 
the Metropolitan, Western, Southern, Intercol- 
legiate, Western Pennsylvania, Florida, and 
Trans-Mississippi associations, the League of 
the Lower Lakes, the Pacific Northwest, New 
Jersey State, Indiana State, and several women's 
associations. Not included in these associations 



are hundreds of separate clubs. There are 
over 750,000 golfers in the United States. 

In the men's amateur championship the en- 
tries are reduced by a preliminary sifting at 
medal play to the 64 lowest. These then play 
match play every consecutive day, whereby the 
numbers are day by day reduced, first to 32, 
then to 16, then to 8, then to 4 t and finally to 2, 
the finals. The woman's championship is 'not so 
exhaustive as the men's. In it the entries are, 
reduced by one round at medal play to 32, who 
thereafter meet at match play in a, round of 18 
holes every consecutive day, as in the former 
case. In England there is sometimes move than 
one course played over, usually due to the num- 
ber of entries. The open championship is a con- 
test of four times round the links, 72 holes, at 
medal play. 

Consult: Clark, Golf: A Royal and Ancient 
Game (New York, 1800) ; Lee, Golf in America 
(ib., 1895) ; Vardon, Complete Golf (ib., 100f>) ; 
H. G. Hutchinson, Golf Greens and Green Keep- 
ing (London, 1906) ; G. W. Beldam, Great 
Golfers (ib., 1907) ; W. W. Tulloch, Life of Tom 
Morris, with Glimpses of 8t. Andrcirs and its 
Golfing Celebrities (ib., 1907); Hilton and 
Smith, The Ancient and Royal (lame of Golf 
(ib., 1912); A. V. Taylor, Orifjincs Got fiance 
(Woodstock, Vt., 1912) ; James Braid, Adr.anced 
Golf (Philadelphia, 1908); Arnold Haultain, 
The Mystenj of Golf (2d ed., New York, 1910) ; 
H. G. Hutchinson, Tlie New Book of Golf (ib., 
1912) ; Jerome D. Travers, The Tracers Golf 
Book (ib., 1913). 

GOLGI, gdl'jfi, CAMTLLO (1844-1920). An 
Italian histologist and neurologist, born in 
Cortcno and educated at the University of 
Pavia. He studied medicine, practiced at Ab- 
biategrasso, and was professor at Hiena and 
then at Pavia, where lie was director of the 
histological and general pathological cabinet. 
In 1870 he first used silver nitrate to color 
nervous structure and about 1885 revolutionized 
the theory of nervous physiology by proving 
that there was not a net, but only an inte,r- 
lacement, of nervos. A class of nerve, endings 
found in tendons are called the "organs of 
Oolgi." His most important work in pathology 
was the discovery of three varieties of malaria 
parasite. In 1 906 he divided the Nobel prize for 
medicine with Cajal, His collected works ap- 
peared in three volumes in 1903 the iirst and 
second on histology, the third on pathology. 
He wrote for the groat Italian medical encyclo- 
pedia and for Italian medical journals. 

GOI/GOTHA. See HOLY SEruLOHKE. 

GKXLIAD. A town and the county seat of 
Goliad Co., Tex., 134 miles south of Austin, 
on the San Antonio River, and on the Oalves- 
ton, Harrisburg, and Ban Antonio Railroad 
(Map: Texas, D 5). It contains n fine court- 
house and interesting remains of the old Span- 
ish mission, La Bahla. The town has cotton 
gins, whose products with livo stock constitute 
a considerable trade. Pop., 1914 (local eat.), 
2250. Here in 1747 was established the mission 
Esplritu Santo de ZuSiga, and the presidio of 
Santa Maria de Loreto del Esplritu Santo, 
generally known as La Balrfa, which had been 
founded about 1722 on the site of La Halle's 
Fort St. Louis and removed to the Ouadalupe 
River about 1727. In 1 829 the place was raised 
to the rank of a villa and was named Goliad 
(Goliath). In 1812-13, during the war be* 
tween Mexico and Spain, Gutierrez was be- 



GOLIARDIC LITERATURE 

sieged here for a short time by a large Spanish 
force; on Oct. 9, 1835, the place, then garrisoned 
by a Mexican force of about 50, was captured 
by an equal number of Texans under Captain 
Collingsworth. On Dec. 20, 1835, a declaration 
of Texan independence was made here, several 
months before the official declaration was made 
at Washington (Texas), and on March 27, 
1836, in what is known as the "massacre of 
Goliad," more than 300 Texans and Americans 
under Colonel Fannin were murdered near here 
in cold blood by the Mexicans, at Santa Anna's 
orders. See FANNIN, JAMES W. 

GO'LIAR'DIC LITERATURE, or CARMINA 
BUBANA. The songs of the wandering students 
in the later Middle Ages. These called them- 
selves Goliardi, i.e., children or followers of 
Golias. Nothing is definitely known about this 
Golias. By some the poems bearing his name 
have been attributed to Walter Mapes, but there 
is no possibility that the songs of the Goliards 
represent the creation of any one man or even 
of a few men. They bear the stamp of uni- 
versality. A song, originally sung by one poet 
or rhymester, was adopted, changed, resung, 
by others, until it became the common property 
of the student body. The poems as a whole 
may be divided into two general classes. The 
first class comprises the satirical songs. With 
the impatience and enthusiasm of youth the 
students attacked the vices of all classes except 
their own, and the members of the Church fared 
worst. Their poems are exceedingly irreverent 
to the ecclesiastical dignitaries, and this fact 
alone was sufficient to prevent any author from 
putting his name to his verses. In the second 
class the noticeable facts are the purely pagan 
spirit, the love of outdoor life, the zest for 
enjoyment, the feeling that all things which 
yield pleasure are lawful. Their themes are 
three nature, wine, and women all of which 
they loved ardently. Some of their songs are 
popular at the present time. The German 
Corps students still sing at the grave of a 
departed brother, Qaudeamus igitur, juvencs dum 
sumus. The best known of the drinking songs 
is Mihi est propositum in talerna mori. The 
Lauriger Horatius is believed to be the work 
of the Goliardi, Consult: Symonds, Wine, 
Women, and Song (London, 1884) ; Schmellcr, 
Carmina Burana (3d ed. T Breslau, 1894) ; 
Wright, "Latin Poems Commonly Attributed to 
Walter Mapes," in Camden Society Publications 
(London, 1841); Pernwerth von Barnstein, 
Oarmina Burana Selecta (Wtirzjmrg, 1879); 
Haessher, Die Qoliardendichtung und die Satire 
im 13. Jahrhundert m England (Leipzig, 1005) ; 
Lundius, Deutsche Vagantenlieder in den Car- 
mina Burana (Kiel, 1907); Wright, History 
of French Literature (New York, 1912). 

GOI/IAS. See GOLIABDIC LITEBATUBE. 

GOLI'ATH. A Philistine giant, born in Gath, 
and slain by a Judcean hero. According to 1 
Sam. xvii, it was the youthful David who killed 
this giant, felling him with a stone from his 
sling and cutting off his head with the fallen 
champion's sword. (See DAVED.) An older 
and more reliable tradition ascribes the deed 
to one of David's warriors, Elhanan, of Beth- 
lehem (2 Sam. xxi. 19). If this Elhanan is 
identical with Elhanan ben Dodo, of Bethlehem, 
mentioned in 2 Sam. xxiii. 24, his father's name, 
Dodo, is omitted in 2 Sam. xxi. 19, and the 
reading "Jairi," "the Jairite," indicating the 
clan to wnich he belonged, should be preferred to 



117 



QOLITZINT 



'Jair," supposed to be the name of his father. 
In that case the name of Dodo and the birth- 
place may have facilitated the transfer of the 
story to David. It is a common occurrence, how- 
ever, that a famous king receives the credit for 
deeds done by his men. In 1 Chron. xx. 4-8, 
Elhanan is said to have slain Lahmi, the 
brother of Goliath, and in the Authorized Ver- 
sion the words "the brother of" are introduced, 
without the slightest warrant either in the 
Hebrew text or the ancient version, to accord 
with this. By a comparatively slight emenda- 
tion, which fortunately the Samuel text es- 
caped, the Chronicler or a later copyist har- 
monized the two narratives. 

GOLIATH BEETLE. Any of several huge 
cetunian beetles of the family Scarabseidae and 
genus Gfaliathvs, specifically Ooliathus gigan- 
tcus, which is about 4 inches long by 2 inches 
wide. This species is West African, and ac- 
cording to Uhlet is subject to so much variation 
that several names have been given to its 
varieties. It is generally chalky white, with 
velvety-black markings, prominently six black 
lines on the prothorax. These beetles frequent 
the tops of forest trees and are said to feed on 
the sap. They are near allies of the Hercules 
beetles (q,v.). 

GOLITZIN, gd-lltsln, or GAMTZOT. A 
princely family of Russia, tracing its descent 
from Gedimin, Grand Prince of Lithuania, an- 
cestor of the Jagellon kings of Poland. PRINCE 
MIKHAIL GOLITZIN was a celebrated military 
commander under Basil IV, Grand Prince of 
Moscow. He fought in the Crimea and in 
Lithuania and in 1514 led an army against the 
Poles. He was defeated at Orsha and taken 
prisoner, remaining in captivity until 1552. He 
died in a convent at Moscow soon after his re- 
lease. VASTLY VASILYEVITCH GOLITZIN, great- 
grandson of Mikhail, played an important rOle 
at the time of Boris Godunotf and the false 
Demetrius. He was sent as Ambassador to 
Poland with the offer of the Russian crown for 
Prince Ladislas, but was cast into prison by the 
Poles, and died in 1610. BORIS ALEXETEVITCH 
GOLITZIN (1641-C.1713) was the preceptor of 
Peter the Great and one of the regents of the 
Empire during Peter's travels abroad. He be- 
came subsequently Governor of Kazan and As- 
trakhan and enjoyed great favor with the Gzar. 
VASILY VASILYEVITCII GOLITZIN, known as 
tho Great (1643-1714), distinguished himself 
in military operations against the Cossacks of 
the Dnieper, gained the title of Ataman, and 
after 1680 was Minister of State. He was the 
lover of Sophia, sister of Peter the Great, who 
acted as regent during the young ruler's minor- 
ity. As such, Golitzin was the virtual ruler of 
Russia, carrying on the government with great 
ability and firmness. He made the beginnings 
of military reform, thus preparing the way for 
the thorough organization of the army by Peter 
the Great. Upon the assumption of the gov- 
ernment by Peter in 1680, Vasily suffered dis- 
grace and was banished to Siberia, where he 
died. (Consult R. N. Bain, The First Roma- 
noff a, London, 1905.) DMTEBI GOLITZIN (died 
1738) was Russian Ambassador to Turkey and 
Austria and subsequently Superintendent of 
the Imperial Finances. He was one of the 
leaders of the aristocratic party which, upon 
the accession of Anna Ivanovna (q.v.), sought 
to impose a constitution upon the Empress by 
the terms of which the chief power would have 



GOLITZI1T 



118 



GOLOVUIN 



been vested in the hands of a small faction of 
the nobility. The attempt, however, failed, and 
Dmitri died in prison at Schltisselburg. MI- 
KHAIL GOLITZIN (1074-1730), brother of Vasily, 
entered the army at the age of 12 and early 
distinguished himself against the Turks. In 
1700 he commanded a Russian corps, operating 
against the Swedes in Lithuania; in 1708 he 
gained the important victory of Lyesnaya and 
in 1714 overran Finland and was Governor of 
the country until 1721, in which year he con- 
ducted the negotiations leading to the Peace of 
Nystad. Golitzin was one of the greatest gen- 
erals Russia has ever produced and a man of 
many abilities and admirable character. As 
Governor of Finland, his conduct was marked 
by such justice and kindliness as to gain him, 
from a conquered population, the title of Fins- 
kibog (Godhead of the Finns). ALEXANDER 
MIKHAILOVITCII GOTJTZIN (1718-83), son of 
Mikhail, after acting in the diplomatic service 
of Russia at Constantinople and Dresden, en- 
tered the army and fought with distinction in 
the Seven Years' War. In 1760 he took Khotin 
from the Turks. He was subsequently Gover- 
nor of St. Petersburg and field marshal. 
DMITBI ALEXEYEVITCII GOLITZIN (1735-1803) 
was a well-known diplomat and man of letters. 
From 1705 to 1773 he was Russian Ambassador 
at Paris, where he lived in close touch with 
Voltaire and other literary men of the time. In 
1773 he became Ambassador at The Hague, 
whence, on the outbreak of the French Revolu- 
tion, he retired to Germany, where he devoted 
himself to the study of the physical sciences. 
He wroto: Description physique de la Tauride 
(1788) ; Traitti de mineralogie (1792) ; L'Esprit 
des foonotnistcs (1706). His wife, ADELIIEID 
AMALIE (1748-1806), was a fervent Catholic. 
She made her home at MiinRter and became 
the centre of a band of religious enthusiasts 
and mystics, whose efforts were directed to- 
wards counteracting the prevailing materialism 
of thft age. Her son DMITBI was a Catholic 
missionary in the United States. (See GAL- 
LITZTN, DMITRI.) ALEXANDJUB NJKOLAYEVETCU. 
GOLITZIN (1774-1844) was one of the most 
influential counwelors of Alexander I, witli 
whom he had buen brought up. He became 
Procurator of the Holy Synod in 1803 and 
from 1817 to 1824 was Minitttor of Education 
and Public Worship. His liberal views aroused 
the opposition of the conservative clement 
among the clergy, and with the accession of 
Nicholas I he lost all influence. (Consult 
Angolo S. Rappoport, The Curse of the Koma- 
novs, London, 1007.) EMANTIEL MIKHAIIX>VITCIT 
GOTJTZIN (1804-53) was born in Paris and 
studied at the Ecole Polytechnique under Gay- 
Lussac. He entered the Russian army in 1825 
and distinguished himself at the wtorming of 
Varna (1828), but retired from the army in the 
following year. He led a life of dilettante 
scholarship in the capitals of western Kuropo, 
his chief interest lying in geography. He con- 
tributed to tho Bulletin de la Sootete* de Ueo* 
ffraphie in Paris and translated Ferdinand von 
Wrangel's Voyage to Siberia from tho Russian. 
He also wrote La Russia du Ifcme siecle dans MS 
rapports avec I'Mttrope occidental^ which was 
published two years after his death. NIKOLA* 
SRBGTCYBViToir GOLITZIN (1808-92) entered the 
army in 1825 and rose to be lieutenant general. 
He wrote A Military History of the World from 
the Most Ancient Times (13 vols., 1872 et seq.). 



GOLItTS, Gifll-uB, JACORUS (1500-1667). A 
Dutch Orientalist and mathematician, born at 
The Hague and educated at the University of 
Leyden. In 1624 he became professor of Arabic 
at Leyden and in 162U professor of mathematics. 
He wrote Lexicon Arabico-Latinum (1053), 

GOLLANCZ, gol'anks, ISRAEL (18C4- ). 
An "English scholar, professor of English litera- 
ture in King's College, University of London, 
and secretary of the British Academy, lie was 
born in London, graduated from * Cambridge 
(B.A., 1887; M.A., 1891), became lecturer in 
English at University College, London (1802- 
05), and lectured in university extension courses 
and at Cambridge. He edited and translated 
many Old and Middle English texts, as the 
Pearl (1801), Cynewulfs Christ (18f)2), and the 
Rxetcr Booh (1805). He edited the Temple 
SJiakcspcare (1804-06) and UamJct in Iceland 
(18fl8). In 1913 he was, as he had been for 
some years pre,vious to that date, general editor 
of The King's Library. 
aOL'OMTJTN'KA. See OIL FISH; BAIKAL. 
GOL'OITORI'NA. The common grcon house- 
swallow (Tavhycincta lenuorrhoa), abundant 
everywhere south of the Amazonian forests. It 
is closely related to the white-bellied tree swallow 
of the United States, and, like that and other 
species, has forsaken its native wildncsa and cus- 
tom of nesting in hollow trees for intimate asso- 
ciation with men, and nest making beneath the 
oaves of buildings. It is richly green, with a 
white breast and rump. Many interesting things 
are related of it by Hudson, Naturalist in La, 
Plata (4th ed., London, 1903), Sec SWALLOW. 

GOLOSHES, gfl-losh'ez (Fr. galoohc f ML. 
calopcdes, Gk. icaXo7r<58iop, from fcaXov, wood + 
irotfs, foot) . Originally wooden sandals or shoes; 
later, large, high overshoes; now, warm and 
heavy overshoes of rubber and cloth, buckling 
around the ankle. See SHOES. 

GOLOVATSKY, gO'ld-vJit'sk*, YAKOV FBODO- 
ROVITOII (1814-88). A Russian (Rtithenian) 
ethnographist, born in Czcpiele, eastern Oalicia. 
After study at Pent and Lemberg, ho became 
profitRHor of the Russian language and literature 
at the. University of Leiuberg in 1848. From 
1867 lie resided in Russia. His uhicf work is a 
collection of the folk Hongn of the Rutmian peoples 
in Galicia, Hungary, and Bxikowina, Narodnyia 
pcsni Oalickoi i Uf/orskoi Atari (1878). 

GOXjOVNXKT, gft-lftv-nen'. A native settle- 
ment on Golovnin Bny, Alaska, 10 milos cast of 
Bluff. It has a population of about 200. Tho 
United States maintains a school, and the Swed- 
ish Evangelical Union conducts a mission. Tho 
natives have reindeer herds exceeding 2000 head. 
Sec REWARD PENINSULA, ALASKA. 

GOLOVNTN", VASSILI MiKiiATLOViTon ( 1770- 
1831). A Russian sailor and explorer, born at 
Ryazan. Tie served in the Kn^linh navy under 
Nelson and Cornwallis, and on his return to Rus- 
sia in 1806 was put in command of the sloop 
Diana to make a trip of exploration around the 
world. In 1811 he wan captured in Japan and 
kept prisoner until 181;J. A second trip around 
the world was mad (1817-10) in the Ruswuin 
corvette Kamchatka. From 1821 till his death 
he held the highest positionw in the Russian 
navy, dying with the rank of vice admiral. His 
complete works, which contain descriptions of 
both^ voyages and of his adventures while in 
captivity, were published in five volumes at St. 
Petersburg in 1864. Golovnin Bay and Golovnin 
Sound, in Bering Sea, are named for him. 



GOLP i: 

GOLP, or GOLPE. A heraldic charge. See 
HEBALDKY. 

GOLTEEJSiIANir, gol'tSr-man, GEOHG EDUABD 
(1824-98). A German violoncellist and com- 
poser. He was born at Hanover and received his 
musical education under Prell, Mentor, and Lach- 
ner. After completing his studies he traveled 
for two years giving concerts, in which he fre- 
quently performed his own highly successful 
compositions. In 1852 he received a position as 
musical director at \Vtirzburg and in the fol- 
lowing year was appointed assistant conductor 
of the orchestra of the Stadttheater at Frankfort 
on the Main, of which he became chief conductor 
in 1874. Besides a symphony (1851) and two 
Festspiel-Overtures (op. 24 and 94), his compo- 
sitions include sonatas, songs, and numerous 
works for the violoncello. 

GOLTHEB, g61'te"r, WOLFGANG (1863- ). 
A German writer on ancient and mediaeval Ger- 
man legends. He was born in Stuttgart and was 
educated at the University of Munich. In 1895 
he became professor of German philology at 
Rostock, where he was rector of the university 
in 1909-10. He wrote: Das Rolandslied der 
Pfaffen Konrad (1887); Die Sage von Tristan 
und Isolde (1S87); Studien zur germanischen 
Sagcngeschichte (1888) ; Oeschichte der deutschen 
Littcratur in Hittel-Alter (1891) ; Deutsche Eel- 
densage (1894; 2d ed., 1909) ; Ootterglaule der 
Oermanen (1894; 2d ed., 1911) ; Handbuch der 
germanischen Mt/thologie (1895); Die sagen- 
geschichtlichen Orundlagen der Ringdiclitung 
Richard Wagners (1902); Wagner als Dioh- 
ter (1904); A-ltnordische Litteraturgeschichte 
(1905); Religion und Mytlms der Oermanen 
(1909) ; Die dcutsche Dichtung im Mittel-Alter 
(1912); Parsifal und der Oral (1913); and 
edited various early texts and Blchard Wagner's 
letters and (1914) his collected works. 

GOLTZ, gQlts, ALEXANDEB D. (1857- ). 
An Austrian historical and decorative painter. 
He was born in Hungary, of German parentage, 
but was brought up in Vienna. Beginning to 
paint at his fourteenth year, he studied in the 
academies of Vienna and Munich, especially 
under Feuerbach, and at Paris with Puvis de 
Chavannes. One of the most prominent contem- 
porary painters of Attstria, he is represented es- 
pecially in the museums of Vienna: in the Hof 
Museum by "Christ and the Women," in the 
Municipal "Museum by "A Peasant Madonna," 
and in the Moderna Gallerie by "Vintage in 
Lower Austria." He is widely known as a deco- 
rative painter, having painted the curtains of 
the court theatre at Wiesbaden, and of the city 
theatre at Salzburg, and decorated the aula of 
the University of Graz. He painted, besides, 
many portraits and figures, and landscapes, 
chiefly of his home in Lower Austria. 

GOLTZ, AUGUST FBIEDBICH FEBDINAND, 
COUNT VON DEB ( 1765-1832 ) . A Prussian states- 
man, born at Dresden and educated at Leipzig 
and Frankfort on the Oder, where he studied 
law. He was Prussian Ambassador to Denmark, 
Sweden, and Russia; was the Plenipotentiary of 
Prussia at the Congress of Erfurt (1808) ; and 
concluded the last negotiations (1812) with 
France under direction of Hardenberg. After 
the termination of the Napoleonic wars he was 
appointed Prussian Councilor of State (1817), 
and was member of the Bundestag of Prussia in 
1817-24. 

GOLTZ, BOGUMIL (1801-70). A German 
humorist, satirist, and moral philosopher. Ba 



9 GOLTZ 

was born in Warsaw, attended the Gymnasia at 
Marienwerder and Konigsberg, studied agricul- 
ture from 1817 to 1821, and for a time attended 
lectures on philosophy and philology at the Uni- 
versity of Breslau. In 1S23 he purchased, near 
Thorn, an estate which he subsequently aban- 
doned to settle in Gollub and devote himself to 
the study of literature and aesthetics. In 1847 
he removed to Thorn, whence he made extensive 
travels and where he died. In 1847 appeared his 
Bitch der Kindheit, in which, with a mystic ten- 
derness akin to that of Jean Paul, he depicts the 
impressions of his own childhood. This was fol- 
lowed by Ein Jugendlelen (1851), in similar 
vein. Der Mensch und die Leute (1858) is a 
penetrative and peculiarly original study of va- 
rious races, Die Deutschen (1800) revealing the 
same method applied to the German national 
genius. He was a profound though eccentric 
thinker; but his style, though often spirited, 
lacks technical finish and frequently displays 
the grotesqueness of Jean Paul without the lat- 
ter's imagination. His further works include: 
Bin Kleinstiidter in A cgyptcn ( 1853 ) ; Typcn 
der Gescllschaft (2 vols^, I860} ; Feigenllatter 
(1861-64); Die Bildiwg und die Gelildeten 
(1864): Die WeltUughcit und die Lclemweis- 
heit (1860). 

GOLTZ, FEiEDEicn (1834-1902). A German 
physiologist, bom at Posen. He was educated 
at Konigsberg and was there appointed a pro- 
fessor in 1865. In 1870 he became professor of 
physiology at Halle and from 1872 to his retire- 
ment in 1901 occupied a similar chair at Strass- 
burg. His most important researches concern 
the functions of the nerve centres and in par- 
ticular reflex nervous action. HLK writings in- 
clude: Beitrage sur Lehre von den Fnnktionen 
der Nervencentren des Froschcs ( 1869) and many 
contributions to the Archiv flir pathologische 
Anatomic, Physiologie und JcUniache Medisin of 
Virchow. 

GOLTZ, KOLMAB, BARON VON DEB (1843- 
1916). A German soldier and military author. 
He was born at Bielkenfeld, East Prussia, was 
educated at the Military Academy, Berlin, and 
served in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. 
After the Franco-German War, in which he par- 
ticipated, he was appointed to the historical de- 
partment of the general staff at Berlin and 
subsequently became instructor in the Military 
Academy. He resigned from the German service 
in 1883 and entered that of Turkey, where he 
conducted the department of military education 
until 1896. In that year he returned to Germany 
and was made general of division. He became 
general of infantry in 1900, commander of the 
First Army Corps in 1902, in 1907 general in- 
spector of the Sixth Army Corps, in 1908 lieu- 
tenant general, and in 1908-10 he reorganized 
the Turkish army. Made general field marshal 
in 1911, he was afterward general inspector of 
the Second Army Corps until 1913. In August, 
1914, he was appointed military governor of 
Belgium after the German armies had success- 
fully invaded that country and captured Brus- 
sels. (See WAR IN EUROPE.) His works include: 
Leon OambettOt und seine Armee (1877; also 
translated into French, 1877); Daft Volk m 
Waff en (4th ed., 1800) ; Der thessalische Krieg 
und die tilrkisohe Armee (1808); Erieg- und 
Heerfuhrung ( 1901 ) ; Von Jena. Ms Eylan 
(1907) ; Kriegsgeschichte Deutschlanfo im XIX. 
Jahrhundert (1910). 

GOLTZ, MAX, BARON VON DEE (1838-1906), 



GOLTZ 



I3O 



GOMBEBG 



A German naval officer, bom at Kfmigsberg. He 
entered the Prussian marine in 1853, was ap- 
pointed naval ensign in 1859, in 1870 was de- 
tailed for service in the Ministry of Marine, and 
in 1875 attained the rank of captain. During 
the disturbances in Egypt in 1882 lit; was com- 
manding officer of Germany's Mediterranean 
squadron, in 1888 became vice admiral and com- 
mander of the Wilhelmshaven Naval Station, and 
in 1895 was retired, with the rank of admiral, at 
his own request. 

GOLTZ, THBODOB, BARON VON DER (183U- 
1905). A German agriculturist, bom at (Jobleuz 
and educated at Erlangen and Bonn. In 1802 
he was appointed instructor at the Royal Acad- 
emy of Waldau, East Prussia, into which prov- 
ince he introduced the first agricultural schools. 
He was professor of agriculture at Konigsbcrg 
from 1869 to 1873, when he was appointed di- 
rector of the Agricultural Institute in that city. 
In 1885 ho was made professor of agriculture at 
Jena and in 1805 at Bonn. His publications in- 
clude: Die landioirtschaftliche Buchfiihrung 
(9th ed., 1903) ; Landwirtschaftliche Taxations- 
lehre (3d ed., 1903) ; Agrarische A-uJgaben dcr 
Oegenwart (2d ed., 1895) ; Leitfadcn der land- 
wirtftchaftlicJien Betriebslehre (1897; new ed., 
1911) ; Yorlesiingcn fiber Agrancesen und Agrar- 
politik (1899); Handbuch der lantfwirtschajt- 
lichen Betriebslehre (1896; 4th ed., 1912) ; Qc- 
schichte dcr deutftchen Landwirtschaft ( 1002-03) . 

GOLTZIUS, gol'tsl-ns, HENDBIK (1558-1610). 
A Dutch line engraver and painter. He was 
born at Miilebrecht, near Venloo, of a family of 
artists. He was a pupil of Coornhoert, and of 
Philip Galle, at Haarlem, where he later set up 
as a printer. In 1850 he began a tour of several 
years through Germany and Italy ; he was much 
influenced by Michelangelo. In his later years 
he executed several paintings in a mannered Ital- 
ian style, much inferior to his engravings. In 
his command of the burin Goltzius was hardly 
surpassed by Dtirer himself, although he lacked 
the latter J s imagination and invention. He made 
great progress in the plastic treatment of en- 
graving, his modeling being especially line. His 
remarkable ability to adapt his technique to any 
style is evinced in his six master prints: "The 
Annunciation," after Raphael; 'The Visitation," 
after Parmeggiano; "The Adoration of the Shop- 
herds," after Bassano; "The Holy Family," after 
Baroccio; "The Adoration of the Kings," after 
Lucas van Leiden ; and "The Circumcision," after 
Diirer. However excellent in technique, most of 
his engravings, of which about 330 survive, are 
mannered in form and hollow in content. His 
engraved portraits, however, are excellent in 
finish as in characterization. One of the best 
is the life-size portrait head of the artist 
himself. 

GOLtTCHOWSKI, , gol'oTJ-KcVski, ACHDNOB, 
COUNT VON (1812-75). An Austrian statesman, 
born in Galicia and educated at the Jesuit Con- 
vent of Tarnopol and at Lemberg. He entered 
government service and was Governor of Galicia 
from 1847 till 1850, when he was made Minister 
of the Interior. He gave up this position in 
1860 and the next year entered the House of 
Lords. In 1866^67, and from 1871 until hi 
death, he was again Governor of Galicia and very 
active in favoring the thorough Polonixation of 
the province. 

GOLTJCHOWSKI, AGBJNOE, COUNT (1849- 
). An Austrian statesman, son of the pre- 
ceding. He was early in the diplomatic service 



as attach^ at Berlin (1872), attache and 
counselor at Paris, and Minister at Bu- 
charest (1887-94). As Austro-llungarian Min- 
ister of Foreign Affairs (1805-1906), he made 
the maintenance of the Triple Alliance and es^ 
pecially of close relations with Germany the 
basis of his policy; temporarily, as it proved, he 
adjusted with Russia Balkan difficulties; he ar- 
ranged for concerted action of the European 
powers during the Armenian difficulties of 1896, 
and again in 1002 urged joint action in obliging 
the Sultan to grant reforms in Macedonia. In 
1905 he also led the concert of Powers in forcing 
Turkey by an international naval demonstra- 
tion to accept European control of Macedonian 
finances. The Hungarians, who hated Golu- 
chowski, finally compelled him to retire from the 
ministry. 

GOMABA, go'mii-ra, FRANCISCO L6PEZ DE 
(1510-C.1559). A Spanish historian, born at 
Seville. He studied at the University of Alcala 
and became professor of rhetoric there. Leaving 
the university, he took orders and about 1540 
became secretary and chaplain to Hernando 
Cortes. In this capacity he may have gone with 
him to America, but it is not probable. He 
wrote one of the first histories of America, which, 
however, is not reliable. The title of the work is 
Historia general de las Indian con la conquista 
<te Mejivo a da la Nucua Espana (1552-53). 
The second part of this work described Mexico 
and was reprinted as a separate volume, Crdnica 
dc la "Niieva, flspafia, con la conq-uista de Af&cico 
. . . (1554). A modern edition, with a biog- 
raphy, is in the Bibliotcoa de autore* espaftoles, 
vol. xxii (Madrid, 1884). 

GCXKLftJEUTS, FRANCIS (15G3-1641). The 
most strenuous opponent of Arminius. He was 
born at Bruges, Jan. 30, 1563, studied at Neu- 
stadt, Heidelberg, Oxford, and Cambridge, where 
he received the decree of B.D. in 1584. He was 
pastor of the Reformed church at Frankfort 
from 1587 till 1594, when he became professor 
of theology at Leyden. Here he signalized him- 
self by hin vehement opposition to the views of 
Arminius, who became his colleague in 1603. In 
the disputation at The Hague in 1608 his zeal 
was very conspicuous; and at the Synod of Dort 
(1618-19) he was mainly Jnstrumontal in secur- 
ing the expulsion of the Armenians from the Re- 
formed church. Gomarus resigned his profes- 
sorship when, after the death of Anniniuw, an 
Arminian was appointed to the vacancy (1609). 
He was professor at Snumur (1614-18) and at 
Gromngen from 1618 till his death (Jan. 11, 
1641). Though prejudiced, even bigoted, and 
more Calvinistic than Calvin himself, neverthe- 
less Gomarus was a man of learning, and not the 
contentious personage he to sometimes repre- 
sented. His works were published at Amsterdam 
after his death (1645). Thntto who wided with 
Gomarus in the Arrniman controversy are often 
called, from his name, Gonwriats. See AUMIN- 
IUH, JACOUUH: ARMINIAN IBM; DORT, SYNOD OF. 

OOM'BBBa, MOSKS (1800- ). An Amer- 
ican chemifit. He was born at Klizabotgrad, 
Russia, where he was educated at the Gymna- 
sium; in 1800 he graduated from the University 
of Michigan (M.S., 1892; Sc.D M 1894) ; and he 
also studied at the universities of Munich 
(1896-97) and Heidelberg (1897). At the Uni- 
versity of Michigan he became instructor in 
chemistry in 1803, assistant professor of organic 
chemistry in 1899, junior professor in 1902, and 
full professor in 1904. He is author of con- 



GOMBEBVILLE 



121 



GOMES DE AMOBIM 



tributions to the Journal of the American Chem- 
ical Society, the Bench te der Deutsche Che- 
niische QeseUschaft, and other periodicals, deal- 
ing especially with quino-carbonium sals, tetra- 
phcnylmethene, and trivalent carbon. 

CrOMBEBVILLE, goN'bar'vel', MARIN LE 
ROT, SIEUB DU PAJRC ET DE ( 1600-74) . A French 
novelist of considerable imaginative originality, 
one of the first to make the novel a vehicle of 
exotic and geographic description and of historic 
information. He was born in Paris and was a 
wealthy nobleman, a cherished member of the 
Precieux bluestocking circle, to whose vocabu- 
lary he contributed some gems, as may be seen 
from Somaise's Dictionnaire des precicuses. 
While still a youth, he wrote Carithee (1621), 
whose heroine furnished the type for Sorel's 
burlesque Dulcinea in the Berger extravagant. 
Eleven years later Gomberville published the first 
draft of Polexandre (1632), which he extended 
in 1634 by the injection of a story of Mexican 
adventure, and, since this piqued curiosity, he 
again greatly extended the story in 1637. Mean- 
time Gomberville had aided in founding the 
Academy. A few years later he fell under the 
influence of Port-Royal, and, in penitential re- 
gret for having amused a worldly generation, he 
published Young Alcidiane (1652). He was a 
facile polygraph, but Polexandre, which in its 
final shap'e contains 4409 closely printed pages, 
is his only significant work. It rejuvenated the 
interest in the romance of chivalry by transport- 
ing it to the New World in a generation whose 
imagination was intoxicated by strange voyages 
and undreamed-of conquests. The story is almost 
wantonly inartistic, but Gomberville is the first 
important pedagogue of fiction, bent on remold- 
ing the "perfect lives" of the old romances into 
a model for the gentlemen of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. He died in Paris, June 14, 1674. Consult 
KSrting, Geschichte des fran&8sischen Romans 
im XVII. Jahrhundert, vol. i (2d ed., Oppeln, 
1891), and R. Kerviler, Marin Le Roy de Gom- 
lerville (Paris, 1876). 

GOM/BO. See HIBISCUS. 

GOMBROON'. See BENDEB ABBAS. 

GOMEL, go'mSly', or HOMEI*. A district 
town of the Russian Province of Mohilev, situ- 
ated on the Soje, an affluent of the Dnieper, about 
113 miles southeast of Mohilev (Map: Russia, 
D 4). It is the centre of the Russian hop in- 
dustry, lies on two railway lines, has a number 
of sugar refineries, paper and oil mills, and a 
good river trade with Mohilev and Kiev. Pop., 
1897, 36,846; 1911 (est.), 47,000, mostly Jews. 
There was a massacre of Jewish inhabitants in 
September, 1903. 

GOOyCER. The form of powder chamber gen- 
erally used in smoothbore guns. It was in the 
form of the frustum of a cone with a hemi- 
spherical end, the base of the cone joining the 
cylinder of the bore. The name was derived from 
that of its inventor. 

GCXHER (Heb.; Ass. Gimirrai, Bab. Gimiri, 
Gk. KifjLfjLJiptoi, Kimmerioi, Lat. Cimmerii, Amen. 
Gamir). An ancient people, probably belonging 
to the Iranian family of nations. About the be- 
ginning of the first millennium B.O. they lived 
on the northern shores of the Black Sea. Here 
Homer locates them (Odys., xi, 14) . In the reign 
of Sargon II (722-705) they appear in Asia 
Minor, where they threaten the Kingdom of 
Urartu (see CIIALDIANS) , according to letters sent 
by Sennacherib to Sargon, and the letters of one 
of his generals. In the reign of Esarhaddon(681- 



668) the Cimmerians were forced by the Scyth- 
ians, who were in league with the Assyrians, 
farther west. They fell upon Phrygia and put 
an end to the kingdom of Midas. When attacked 
by the Cimmerians, Gyges, King of Lydia (689- 
655), appealed for help to Asurbanipal (668- 
625), sending to the Assyrian court a couple of 
Cimmerian prisoners "whose language no in- 
terpreter understood." Sardis was besieged by 
the Cimmerians (c.657 B.C.), and Gyges fell in 
the battle with them (c.655 B.C.). In the time 
of Ardys (655-G25), who entered into closer re- 
lations with Assyria, the Cimmerians were 
finally crushed in a great battle in Cilicia, near 
the Mediterranean. .Remnants of them survived 
in Cappadocia, which was called by the Armeni- 
ans Gamir. In Gen. x. 2, 3, Gomer appears as 
the son of Japhet (q.v.). Consult: Rogers, FHs- 
tory of Babylonia and Assyria (New York, 1900- 
01); Winckler, Altoricntalische Forschungen, 
vol. i (Leipzig, 1897) ; id., Die Eeilinschriften 
und das Alte Testament (3d ed., Berlin, 1902) ; 
Alfred Jeremias, Das Alte Testament im Lichte 
fas Alien Orients (Leipzig, 1906) -, Ed. Meyer, 
Gcschichte des Atterturns (3d ed., Stuttgart, 
1913). 

GOMEBA, g<5-ma'ra. One of the Canary 
Islands, situated 20 miles west of Teneriffe, in 
lat. 28 6' N. and long. 17 8' W. (Map: Portu- 
gal, F 5) . Area, 145 square miles. It is of vol- 
canic origin, like the whole archipelago, and has 
no good harbors. Its elevations, which in some 
parts of the interior approach 4000 feet, are 
well wooded with bay and palm trees. Drome- 
daries are bred, and the chief industry is cattle 
raising. Some silk and potatoes are exported. 
Pop., 1900, 15,358; 1910, 19,736. Chief town, 
San Sebastian de Gomera; pop., 3187. 

GOMES DE AMOBOZ:, gu'mgsh da ii'ma-rSir'. 
FRANCISCO (1827-91). A Portuguese poet and 
dramatist, born at Avelomar (Minho). Born in 
poverty, he was sent to Brazil early in life, 
where he was compelled to labor under severe 
conditions, yet he found time to study the lan- 
guage and customs of the wild peoples in the 
primeval forests bordering the Amazon and the 
Xingu- In 1846 he returned to Portugal; in 
1848 wrote "Garibaldi," U A liberdade," and other 
verses in celebration of that revolutionary year; 
and though at first compelled for support to 
learn the hatter's trade, he obtained a post in 
the government service in 1851 and in 1859 was 
appointed librarian to the Ministry of Marine 
and curator of the Museum of Naval Antiqui- 
ties. In his literary career he was much en- 
couraged by Almeida-Garrett (j.v.), whose 
Camoes he read in Brazil, and in regard to 
whom he wrote the appreciative Memorias lio- 
graficas (1881), which is in fact a history of 
the literary movement represented by Garrett. 
The volumes of poems, Cantos matutinos (3d ed., 
187^) and Ephemeros (2d ed., 1866), were fol- 
lowed by a series of dramas Odio de raga^ A 
prohibigao, Figados de tigre, Os incognitos do 
imtndo, Ghigi, A viuva, and others many of 
which, like cedro vermelho (with a commen- 
tary), are derived from Brazilian life. The 
works of fiction Os selvage-ns (1875), and its 
sequel, remorse vivo (1876), have the same 
source. There is a collected edition of Gomes's 
works in Portuguese (Lisbon, 1866 et seq.), and 
several of the dramas have been rendered into 
French by Richon and Denis. Consult Reinhards- 
toetfcner, Aufsatsse und Abhandlungen (Berlin, 
1887). 



G6MEZ j 

G-6MEZ, gtVnius, ANTONIO. See ORSINI, FE- 
LICE. 

GOMEZ, ESTEVAJ* (C.1474-C.1530). A Portu- 
guese navigator. In 1510 he started from Spain 
with Magellan, as pilot on the Trinidad, of 
which vessel Magellan himself acted as captain; 
but in the Strait of Magellan he commanded 
a. successful mutiny on the San Antonio, to which 
vessel he had been transferred, and, leaving the 
rest of the fleet, returned to Spain. Sent by 
Charles V on a voyage to discover a western pas- 
sage to the Moluccas in 1524-25, he sailed along 
the coast of North America, between lat. 40 N. 
and Newfoundland. It is not known whether he 
sailed from north to south, or vice versa. The 
results of his voyage were incorporated in the 
map of Diego Ribeiro (1529), where the eastern 
portion of the United States is called Ticrra de 
Estcvan (jdmcz. Consult Harrisse, Discovery 
of North America (London, 1802), and Bourne, 
Spain in America (New York, 1004.) 

GOMEZ, Josfi MIGUEL (1858-1U21). A 
Cuban soldier and politician, born in the Prov- 
ince of Santa Clara. The son of a rich cattle 
raiser, ho spent mueh of his life in thiw occupa- 
tion. He served with distinction in the patriot 
army during the Ten Years' War ( 1868-78 ) and 
again in the revolution of 190/5, rising to the 
rank of major general. During the First Ameri- 
can Intervention he was Governor of the Province 
of Sauta Clara and a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention. He was again Governor of 
Santa Clara under the presidency of Estrada 
Paluia. In 1005 he was the candidate of the 
Liberal party for the presidency, but withdrew 
before the election, claiming that the Conserva- 
tive (administration) party were using corrupt 
means to secure the victo'ry. His activity in 
the revolution of 1900 against the regime of 
JEstrada Pal ma was cut short by his arrest 
at the beginning of the movement and his 
imprisonment in Havana, where he remained 
until the Second American Intervention began. 
In 1908 he was elected President by the Liberals, 
and on Jan. 28, 1909, Governor Magoon turned 
over the government to the new President. Laws 
were immediately passed legalizing cockfights 
and the lottery and establishing long-distance 
telephones. There was much extravagance in 
the administration of finances during his term. 
Charges of corruption led in 1912 to a revolt, 
which was crushed, and a year later President 
G6mcz quietly retired from office. 

G&KEZ, JUAN VICENTE (1859- ). A 
Venezuelan politician, born in San Antonio de 
Tachira. He devoted his early life to agricultural 
pursuits and entered politico in 1892. Having 
been elected Vice President, he was left in charge 
of the government by General Castro when the 
latter went to Europe in 1908. Learning of a 
plot for his own assassination, G6mex assumed 
control of affairs and was chosen provisional 
President. He at once adjusted the difficulties 
in which Castro's acts had involved Venezuela 
with various foreign countries. In 1910 he was 
elected constitutional President for a term of 
six years. Consult J. Humbert, "Le President 
GOmez ct la politique Ven&nielicnne," in the Bul- 
letin de la Bibliotheque Amtiricaine (Paris, 
1910). 

G6MEZ DE AVELLA3OJDA Y ARTE- 
AGA, go'raath da a'vel-ya-nil'TBrt. $ Hr'ta-a'ga, 
GBJJTEDDIS (J814r-73). A Spanish poet drama 



22 G6MEZ Y BAEZ 

tist, and novelist, born on the island of Cuba, 
where her father, a naval oiUcer, was then serv- 
ing. In 1840 she went to Madrid and in the 
same year produced ti successful drunui, Lcnncia. 
She wrote many novels, among which arr Dos 
viujeres (1842), fispatolmo (1844), and til 
mulato tiab (1339), this last-named work being 
a tale resembling Uncle Tom a Cabin; but they 
are mostly forgotten, and she survives as dram- 
atist and poet. In addition to Leoncia* she 
wrote several other dramas, chief of which are 
tiatil (1849), one of the most daring and happy 
strokes of genius that Spain has seen, and JRal- 
tasar (1858), a classic drama with a biblical 
subject and considered by most critics her mas- 
terpiece. Her Poesias Uricas first appeared in 
1841, and critics have been unanimous over since 
in proclaiming her without a rival of her sex 
among writers of Castilian in the nineteenth 
century. Fitzmaur ice-Kelly, who is not fond 
of superlatives in criticism, goes so far as to 
Bay that Dona Gertrudis has no superior (with 
the single exception of Christina Rosse.tti) 
among modern poetesses in any language. A 
single example will show how her work was 
judged even when it was not known to be 
hers. At a literary competition held by the 
Licuo de Madrid in 1845 two prizes were offered 
for the two odes that should most worthily 
praise the Queen's clemency in pardoning a cer- 
tain political criminal. Dofia Gertrudis pre- 
sented two odes one signed with her own name 
and the other with that of her maternal half 
brother, Felipe de Escalada and won both prizes. 
The Licco then voted her a crown of honor, 
which was placed upon her head by the lufauto 
Francisco de Borbon. Her Obras literariatt, vols. 
i-v (Madrid, 1809-71), are still incomplete. 

Gd&EZ-FABlAS, go'mas-fa-rG'as, VALEN- 
TIN (1781-1858). A Mexican statesman. He 
was bop and educated at Guadalajara, where 
he received a professorBhip in the university in 
1810. He was a pronounced Liberal in the 
First Constituent Congress, became Vice Proni- 
dent upon the election of Santa Anna, and as- 
sumed the reins of government upon the absence 
of the latter (April 1, 1833). In consequence 
of his pronounced antagonism to the Church 
party, he was, after a constant struggle of two 
years against continuous opposition, compelled 
to resign in 18,35 and exiled. Although received 
by the masses with general acclamation upon 
his return, his political influence aroused the 
fears of the party in power, and, after wittering 
imprisonment and vainly endeavoring to foment 
a revolution, he was again banished, lie was 
again Vice President at the time of the war with 
the United States, when Santa Anna was com- 
pelled to take the Held. After the abolition of 
the vice-presidential cilice he became a member 
of Congress. He later took an active part in 
overthrowing the dictatorship of Santa Anna 
and became Postmaster-General under hiw suc- 
cessor Alvarez. 

GtfJOJZ Y BlEZ, gO'mas 6 bii'As, M&XIMO 
(182C-1905). A Cuban general, born at Bani, 
Santo Domingo. He served in the Spanish army 
in Santo pommgo and in Cuba, but in Cuba he. 
became disgusted with Spanish rule. Tie left 
the Spanisli army, settled down as a planter, 
and in the insurrection of 18G8-78 joined the 
insurgents and was made colonel by the Cuban 
President Cespedes. He was active and able aud 
after Agramonte's death was put in command of 



GOMME 



123 



the insurgents in Puerto Principe. Yv'hen peace 
\vas signed with Campos in ]S78, G<3miz went 
to Jamaica and then to Santo Domingo, where 
lie lived on his farm until 1S05. when the second 
revolution broke out. He became general in 
fhi-'f of the forces of the Heprblio of "Tuba and 
waii especially active in Puerto Prfnt'ipe, where 
his perfect familiarity with tl-e country stood 
him in good stead, "fie did little upen fighting, 
but accomplished much by harassing the Span- 
iards and destroying their supplies. Tie put his 
small force at the disposal 'of the Americans as 
soon as they landed in Cuba and was markedly 
friendly to this country. In March, 1899, he was 
deposed from his supreme command by the 
Cuban Military Assembly for receiving for his 
army the $3,000,0 ! voted by the United States 
government, but his general popularity remained 
undiminished, and the city of Havana gave him 
the summer home of the iormer Spanish Gover- 
nor-General. Among his sketches of warfare in 
Cuba are Panchito G6me3 and J/i Escolta 
(1S9G). Consult Carrillo, In the Saddle, with 
Gomez (New York, 1898). 

GOMME, gum, SIR (GEORGE) LAUKENCE 
(1853-1916). An English antiquary and folk- 
lorist, born in London. He became statistical 
officer and later clerk to the London County 
Council, was the founder of the Folklore So- 
riety, an organization that has done important 
work in the preservation of records of the rural 
customs of England. Of this society he was 
flatted successively secretary, president, and 
victi president. He was also appointed a lec- 
turer in the London School of Economics and 
edited the Archaeological Review, the Folklore 
Journal, and the Antiquary. In 1911 he was 
knighted. His publications include: Primitive 
Folk-Moots ( 1880 ) ; Folklore Relics of Early 
Village Life (1883); The Tillage Community 
(1890); Etlvnology in Folklore (1892); Lec- 
tures on the Principles of Local Government 
(1897); Folklore as an Historical Science 
(1008); The Making of London (1912). 

GOMOB/BAH. See SODOM AND GOMORRAH. 

GOMTERS, SAMUEL (1850-1924). An 
American labor leader, born in London, Eng- 
land. Apprenticed to the trade of cigar making, 
he came to the United States in 1863 and in 
1864 became the first registered member of the 
Cigar-Makers' International Union, of which he 
wan secretary and president, and which he 
made one of the most successful of American 
trade unions. He was elected vice president of 
the American Federation of Labor, which he 
helped to organize in 1881, and from 1882, with 
the exception of the year 1894, when he was 
defeated by John McBride, representing the m 
coal miners, was its president. Under his di- 
rection the American Federation of Labor grew 
into a powerful organization, including most of 
the stronger and more conservative unions of 
the country. Its influence in politics has been 
exerted for the most part indirectly, but has 
counted in such matters ad the extension of the 
eight-hour day to work on government contracts, 
the short-hour movement in enterprises of a 
public-service character, employers' liability 
laws, etc. In 1908 Gompers sought, without 
marked success, to throw the strength of the 
Federation to the Democratic party, on the 
ground that the Republican candidate was un- 
friendly to organized labor. He consistently 
opposed socialistic tendencies in the labor move- 
ment and actively promoted industrial concilia- 
VOL. X. 4 



tion. He served :is first vice president of the 
National Civic Federation. In 19U7 Gompers 
and other officers of the American Federation 
were enjoined by n Federal court from publish- 
ing the name of the liuck Stove and Rang.' 
Company in t)i*s list of "unfair" concerns in ilw 
oi an of t!-e Federation. In consequence of 
failure to ol -serve the injunction he was tried 
for contempt and sentenced to a term in prison. 
Through successive appeals the case was dragged 
out until 1914. w-ien the Supreme Court de- 
cided that further action was barred by the 
Statute of Limitations. 

GOMPERZ, guin'pSrts, TIIEODOR (1832-191'J). 
An Austrian classical scholar. He was born at 
Brlinn and studied tit Brihm and at the Uni- 
versity of Vienna, where lie was professor of 
classical philology from 18G9 to 1901, when he 
entered the House of Peers. He is best known 
for his decipherment of the papyri at Hert,*u- 
laneum (q.v.). He wrote, besides many other 
works and articles: Demosthenes der "Staats- 
r.iann (18C4) ; Philodcmi dc Ira Liber 1 1864); 
ncrculauixvhe Shtdien (2 vols., lStio-66) ; 
Beitrdge zur Kritik und ErtcWruny yriechischen 
Bchriftsteller (7 vols., 1875-1900); Die Bruch- 
stilcke der yriechifsclien Trapiker und Cobets 
neueste Jtritische Plainer (1878) ; Hcrodoteische 
Rtudicii (1883); Zu Plrilodems JBiichcrn con der 
Musik (1885); Platonische Aufsiitze (3 vols., 
1887-1905) ; Qriechische Denker, eine GeschicJtte 
der antilcen Philosophic (3 vols., 1893-1909; 
vols. i and ii in a second edition, 1911-12; 
translated into English by Magnus and Berry, 
4 vols., New York, 1905-12). He also edited 
the German edition of the works of John Stuart 
Mill (12 vols.. 1809-80). 

GOltPHOCERAS, gom-f5s'6-ras (Neo-Lat., 
from Gk. 7<5/x0os, gomphos, nail, bolt + icepas, 
keras, horn) . A genus of totrabranchiate cepha- 
lopods, allied to Qrtlioceras, and found in the 
Paleozoic rocks, with short, thick, straight, or 
curved shells, and restricted lobate aperture. 
The siphuncle is situated near the ventral wall 
and is usually beaded. The shell, when curvod, 
turns away from the ventral side, (hmphocwas 
presents variations that grade towards Phrag- 
moceras, of which it perhaps presents, in a loose 
sense, an ancestral stage. About 150 species of 
Oomphoceras have been described from rocks of 
Ordovician and Silurian age of Europe and 
North America. They are especially abundant 
in the Silurian basin of Bohemia. See CEPHA- 
LOPODA; OBTHOCERAS-, NAUTILUS. 

aOMPHO'SIS (Neo-Lat., from Gk. 'y6ju.0w<ris, 
a nailing together, from yofupovv, gomphotin, to 
nail, from 76/^05, gomphos, nail, bolt) . A joint 
in which one bone is implanted into a process 
in another bone, as in the case of the teeth, im- 
planted into the alveolar processes of the jaw. 

GOMTTTI, gd-moo^tl (Malay), ABENG, or 
EJOO PALM, also called WINE PALM (Arenga 
saccharifera) . An important palm which grows 
in dry ground in Cochin China and in the in- 
terior of Java, Sumatra, Celebes, and Amboyna. 
The stem is 20 to 40 feet high; the pinnated 
leaves 15 to 25 feet long. The flowers, which 
are produced but once, are in bunches 6 to 10 
feet long, succeeded by yellowish-brown, three- 
seeded, extremely acid berries of the size of a 
small apple. The stem, when young, is entirely- 
covered with sheaths of fallen leaves, and black 
horsehair-like fibres, which issue in great abun- 
dance from their margins; but as the tree in- 
creases in age, these drop off, leaving a beauti- 



OONAlVES 



124 



GONCOTJBT 



ful naked columnar stem. The strongest of the 
fibres* resembling porcupine quills in thickness, 
are used by the Malays as styles for writing 
on the leaves of other palms. The finer fibres, 
or Ejoo fibre, well known in Eastern commerce 
as gomuti, are by far the most valuable. They 
are much used for making strong cordage, par- 
ticularly for the cables and standing rigging of 
ships, European as well as native. Want of 
pliancy renders them less fit for running rigging 
and for many other purposes. They need no 
preparation but spinning or twisting. No ropes 
of vegetable fibre withstand wet as well as those 
made of gomuti fibre. At the base of the leaves 
of the gomuti palm there is a fine woolly ma- 
terial, called bara, much employed in calking 
ships and stuffing cushions. The saccharine sap, 
obtained in great abundance by cutting the 
spadices of the flowers, is evaporated to make 
a brown sugar, the so-called jaggery. It is also 
a beverage and by fermentation yields an in- 
toxicating wine (neroo), from which a spiritu- 
ous liquor called brum is made. According to 
Roxburgh, the pith of the tree yields sago, as 
much as 150 pounds being taken from a single 
specimen. After fruiting, the tree dies, and the 
stems, which become hollow, are used for 
troughs, spouts, etc. The young fruits are em- 
ployed for making preserves. 

G-OUAlVES, go'na/fiv'. A seaport town of 
Haiti, with an excellent harbor, situated on the 
west coast, about 67 miles northwest of Port-au- 
Prince (Map: West Indies, D 3). It is a pros- 
perous place, with a large trade in cotton, coffee, 
and logwood. It has played a prominent part 
in the history of Haiti; Dcssalines proclaimed 
the independence of the country here (Jan. 1, 
1804). In 1014 two important battles were 
fought here between the rebels and the govern- 
ment forces. Its population is estimated at 
13,000. Gonaives is the seat of a United States 
consul. 

GONAQTJAS, g6-n2/kwaz. A mixed Hotten- 
tot-Kaffir people of Cape Colony. See GBIQUAS. 

GONCAIiVES BIAS, goN-siil'Vesli de'&sh, 
ANTONIO (1823-64). A Brazilian poet, born in 
MaranhSo. Ho was educated at the University 
of Coimbra, Portugal, but, returning to Brazil 
in 1846, there published his first volume of 
poems, Primciros cantos, which won him imme- 
diate fame. Two years later his Segundos 
cantos appeared. In 1849 he was chosen to fill 
the newly created chair of Brazilian history 
in the Imperial College of Pedro II. The publi- 
cation in 1851 of his UUimos cantos practically 
closed his poetical activity, for in that year he 
was appointed to investigate educational condi- 
tions in northern Brazil. In 1852 he was sent 
to Portugal to collect from the archives there 
documents relating to Brazilian history, and in 
1860 he was a member of a scientific expedition 
to CearS. to report on history and ethnography. 
His last years were spent in Europe in declining 
health, and he died at sea during a storm which 
sank the ship and with it his remains and the 
results of his last three years' labors. Possess- 
ing the blood of the three races of Brazil, he 
represents that which is most national in her 
poetry, besides being the bard of the Indians. 
His writings include history, drama, and lyric 
poetry, in the latter of which he ranks first in 
Brazil. Besides his Owitos, his writings include 
the epic Os TymMras (1857), Diccionario da 
lingua Tupy (1858), Historia dos Jesuit as de 



America (incomplete), and numerous reports 
on his special commissions. Consult his O&ros 
posthumas . . . precedida de unia not Ida de sua 
vida e obras pelo Dr. A. ffenriqucs Leal (Ma- 
ranhSo, 1868), and Verissimo, fJstutlos dc litcra- 
tura brassileira, segunda serie (Rio de Janeiro, 
1001). 

GONCHAROV, gon'chA-rOf 7 , IVAN ALEXANDRO- 
VTTOH (1812-91). A great Russian novelist. He 
was born at Simbirsk, of a very wealthy family. 
At 10 he was sent to school at Moscow, whence 
he went to visit his home only during vacations. 
Completing his university course in 1S3G, he 
accepted a position in the Ministry of Finance 1 . 
His literary career began with .4 Common R I or if 
(1847), which had a great success. In 1850-57 
he published the Frigate Pallas* a collection of 
letters describing his voyage around the world, 
made in the frigate Pallada. Those lottern con- 
stitute one of the choicest works of the kind in 
Russian literature. In 1858 he wrote the novel 
OUotnov and a little later was appointed to a 
position in the Department of Onaorahip. Then 
he became editor of the oilicial organ, the North- 
ern Post, and retired with a pension in 1873. 
In ]8G8 his Precipice appeared in the 
of Europe and greatly aroused the public 
critics by the caricature of Young Russia in the. 
dissolute Volokhov. His later short aketehes 
and critical essays, the most striking of which 
is A Million Tortures a powerful analysis of 
The Woes of Wit by Griboedov (q.v.) added 
little to the fame of the author of Oblomon, a 
masterpiece which ranks with the host novels 
of Tolstoy and Turgenev (qq.v.). The diseased 
will and chronic indolence which its liero, 
Oblomov, typifies have given Russia the term 
"Oblonaovism. 1 * The power of generalization 
reached here by the author has never been 
surpassed in Russian literature. The best com- 
plete edition of hia works was published at St. 
Petersburg in 1886-87. Consult: Merczhkovwky, 
Dostoyevfiky, Oonvharov, J/m'Aow (Wfc. Pctcra- 
burg, 1908); Ven^erov, DrttMnik, (tonti/M-rati, 
Pisemsky (ib., 1011); Liatsky, (Vow/wron: flis 
Life, Personality, and Work (ib., 1012). Jn 
Knglish a good brief study may lx found in 
Kropotkin's Russian Literature (New York. 
1905). 

GOWCOTTBT, gON'koor', HDUOKD J)B (1822- 
96) and JULKS DB (1830-70). Brothers, impor- 
tant in the development of French fiction, They 
fostered naturalism by the minuteness of their 
observation find so continued the n at n ml iu tic 
method of Flaubert and regarded themselves as 
masters of a school in which Zola was the most 
brilliant pupil; while, on the other hand, in the. 
tortured artificiality of their style they preHagc 
the painful striving of the SymholiHt (q.v.) to 
express feeling and emotion by Hound. Their 
intensely modern style, often bizarre, Homotimes 
intentionally faulty, always achieving its effect, 
made all their contemporaiy novelists in Home. ' 
degree their debtors, while it estranged the gen- 
eral public. Their work consists of unimportant 
dramas, of minute and valuable fltutliea in tho 
social life of the. French eighteenth century: 
ffistoire da la 80ci&l& frmqaise pwdant la rdfio- 
lution (1854) ; Histoire <le la soci6M fmnqaise 
pendant lo dvrectoire (1855) ; /,& revolution 
dans lets mature (1854); Portraits inthncs <lu 
XVUltMHS 9&rt9 (1856-68); MaHc Antoinette 
(1858) ; //<? mattresses do Louis XV (1800-70) ; 
La femme CM XVIUtme sibole (1JW2) ; f/Art au 
XVHIbme sieele (1874) ; L'Amour au XVllleme 



ftO&DAB I 

stecle (1877) ; to which Edmond added historical 
studies of Watteau (1876), Prud'hon (1877), 
and Les aotrices au XVllleme siccle (1855-90) ; 
of articles that first directed French attention 
to Japanese art; and, finally, of novels: Charles 
Demailly (1860); 8ccur Philomene (1861); 
Renee Mauperin (1864); G-erminie Lacerteua 
( 18C5 ) ; Manette Salomon ( 1867 ) ; Madame 
Gervaisais ( 1809 ) ; to which Edmond added : La 
fille Elisa (1878) ; Les freres Zemganno (1879) ; 
La Fausiin (1882); Oherie (1884). All these 
are minutely realistic, composed of facts and 
observations strung together without much re- 
gard for unity of composition. Their observa- 
tion, however, for all its minuteness is apt to be 
superficial and morbid. Germinie Lacerteuas is 
to be "the clinic of love/* and La fille Elisa 
pushes to its utmost paradox the divorce be- 
tween fiction and conventionality, though in 
Rende Mauperin they succeeded in giving a most 
characteristic portrayal of the young Parisian 
society girl. Their ability to reproduce a series 
of sensations by a series of images is what most 
attracts. Edmond left the larger part of his 
fortune to endow an Academy of the Goncourts. 
This was first organized in 1904 with 10 mem- 
bers, each to receive an annual income of 6000 
francs. Every year a prize of 10,000 francs is 
awarded to the author of a meritorious work in 

Srose. Among the members named by Goncourt 
a his will were Alphonse Daudet, Le'on Hen- 
nique, J. K. Huysmans, Paul Margueritte, and 
the Rosny brothers. Their Journal (1887-96) 
is a most valuable document on the literary 
movement of their period. Consult: Delzant, 
Les Goncourts (Paris, 1889) ; Brunetiere, Le 
roman naturaliste (ib., 1896) ; Wells, A Century 
of French Fiction (New York, 1898) ; Gustave 
Abel, 4k Le labeur des de Goncourt," in Melanges 
de Philologie (Paris, 1901) ; M. Fuchs, Leanque 
du Journal des de Goncourt (ib., 1912), 

GOITDAB, or GUENDAB. The former capital 
of Abyssinia, in Amhara, situated about 25 miles 
north of Lake Tsana (Map: Egypt, D 5). It 
lies on an isolated hill in a spur of the Wogara 
Mountains, at an altitude of over 6000 feet. It 
is poorly built, with crooked, narrow streets, 
and is divided into several parts, which are lo- 
cated at some distance from each other. In for- 
mer times Gondar had a large number of 
churches, of which only one is now in perfect 
preservation. Near by is the ruined fort of Gip, 
constructed by the Portuguese. The palace is a 
fine example of Abyssinian architecture. The 
inhabitants, once estimated at 50,000, now num- 
ber about 7000, including many monks and 
other ecclesiastics. Gondar is on the route of 
the partly constructed railway line from Mas- 
sawa (q.v.). There are many skilled artisans 
here, who produce gold ornaments and textiles. 
Gondar is the seat of the abuna, the head of the 
Abyssinian church, and has several ecclesiastical 
schools. Its decline dates from the reign of 
Theodore II, whose hostile attitude towards the 
Mohammedans caused a great decrease in the 
population. Of late years Gondar has shown 
signs of returning prosperity, and the Moham- 
medan population is rapidly on the increase. 
Consult P. H. G. Powell-Cotton, A Sportinff Trip 
through Abyssinia (London, 1902). 

GONDI, or QONDY, gOnrMft', JEAN FBAN^OIS 
PAUL DE. See KETZ. 

GONO3IBERT. A religious epic in elegiac 
stanzas by Sir William Davenant, begun late in 
1649, in Paris, and finished during imprison- 



15 GONDWANA 

ment in the London Tower. It was published 
in 1651. 

GOKDOKOBO, g6n-dSk'0-r6, or ISMAILIA, 
ez'ma-elS-a. A small settlement in Uganda, 
capital of the northern province of that protec- 
torate, 1070 miles south of Khartum, situated 
on the upper Nile, in lat. 4 55' N. (Map: 
Egypt, C 6). It was formerly an important 
trading centre for ivory and slaves. Its com- 
merce began to decline * after its annexation to 
Egypt in 1871, though it is still important com- 
mercially as the head of the navigation of the 
Nile and is the outlet for much of the produce of 
northern Uganda. It is also a military post of 
some distinction. Gondokoro figures prominently 
in the history of the explorations of Africa. 

GOITDOI^A (It.). The ordinary passenger 
boat used in the canals of Venice. Gondolas 
were formerly the only moans of getting about 
the city, but they are now being displaced in 
part by small launches. An ordinary gondola 
is 30 feet long and 4 or 3 feet wide and is flat- 
bottomed, so that the draft is light. The 
bottom rises slightly above water at the ends, 
while at the bow and stern slender ornamental 
stem and stern pieces reach to about the height 
of a man's breast. The stem piece is sur- 
mounted by the ferro, a bright iron beak 
of uniform shape, the roatri&gue tridentfbus of 
Vergil, common to old Roman galleys. There is 
a covered shelter for passengers in the middle 
of the boat, which is easily removable. In ac- 
cordance with a mediaeval regulation, gondolas 
are painted black. The gondolier stands erect, 
with his face towards the bow, and propels the 
boat with a forward stroke, making his way 
through the narrow and often crowded canals 
with amazing dexterity. 

GONDS. An important Dravidian people, in- 
habiting mainly the Central Provinces of India, 
but found also in other sections of the country, 
and numbering about 1,500,000. The wilder 
and uncivilized tribes of the Gonds, who in- 
habit the forested hills of the Vindhya and Sat- 
pura ranges, preserve more of the primitive 
Dravidian physical type, social institutions, re- 
ligious and mythological beliefs and practices 
than do those whose culture is more advanced, 
who have to a considerable extent adopted Hin- 
duism, and with whom the higher classes are 
more or less mixed with Hindu blood. The 
Gonds are said to have formerly offered up hu- 
man sacrifices to some of their "deities, but now 
they sacrifice instead an imago of straw. The 
Gond women have a curious festival, called the 
Gurturna (sugar breaking), in which the men 
figure to some disadvantage. It often ends in a 
saturnalia. Among the Gonds the worship of 
such plagues as smallpox, cholera, etc., prevails, 
and many of them reverence the dog, the horse, 
and the tiger to an extraordinary degree. The 
Gonds are to a large extent monogamous and 
have many curious marriage and premarital 
customs. The Gonds are not to be confounded 
with the Khonds, another Dravidian people to 
the east of them. Besides the earlier works of 
Campbell, Wild Tribes of Khondi^tan (London, 
1863), and Hislop, Aboriginal Tribes of the Cen- 
tral Provinces (Nagpur, 1866), reference 'may 
be made to Forsyth, Highlands of Central, India 
(3d ed., London,* 1889) : V. A. Smith, The Early 
History of India (ib., 1908) : T. W. Holdernoss, 
Peoples and Problems of India (New York, 
1912). 

GONDWA2TA, gttnd-wa'na (the land of the 



GOWERIL 126 

Oonds) (q.v.). A name vaguely applied to a 
hilly tract in Central India, lying between lat. 
18 and 24 30' N. Most of the region is in- 
cluded in the Central Provinces. 

GOKT'ERIL. The move wolfish of the un- 
natural daughters of King Lear, in Shake- 
speare's tragedy of that name. 

(JON-TALON (archaic yonfanon, OF. gon- 
fanon, Pr. gonfalon, from AIL. gonfano, g-unt- 
fano, banner, from OIEG. gundfano, battle flag, 
from gitnd t battle -1- fano, i-owo, Ger. Palme, 
flag). The ensign or standard, indicative of 
authority, which was carried before, and some- 
times by, the chief magistrate (hence called 
gonfaloniere) of many of the Italian cities in 
the latter part of the Middle Ages. The title 
was also used by the counts of Vexin, and when 
Vexin passed to the crown the French King 
became the "Gonfalonier de S. Denis." 

GONG. See TAM-TAM. 

G6NGORA Y ABGOTE, gun'go-ra 6 rir-gu'ta, 
Luis DE (1561-1(527). A Spanish poet, born at 
Cordova. He studied law tit the University of 
Salamanca and there composed the greater part 
of his erotic poems, romances, and satires. At 
the age of 45 he took orders, obtained a small 
prebend in the cathedral of Cordova, and was 
afterward appointed honorary chaplain to Philip 
III. Gongora^s poetic career divides itself into 
two periods. Tn his first or youthful period he 
yielded himself up entirely to the natural ten- 
dencies of Ilia genius and to the spirit of the 
nation. His lyrics of this period are villuncico8 9 
letrillas, romances, and sonnets in the old genu- 
ine Spanish style, and, as regards their caustic 
satire and burlesque wit, are among the most 
admirable specimens of the clans of poems to 
which they belong. Gfmgora, however, wished 
to outdo all his predecessors and to furnish 
something wholly new and unheard of; and the 
result of this unfortunate ambition was the 
introduction of a new poetic phraseology, called 
the estilo culto, or the ^cultivated style.' I'rom 
this point the second period in GOngora's liter- 
ary career dates. To popularize the estUo cutto, 
he wrote hia Polifomo, 8olcdades f and the JPlramo 
y Ttebe productions of the most pedantic and 
tasteless description, poor in invention and 
thought, but rich in high-sounding, pompous 
phrases, and overloaded with absurd imagery 
and mythological allusions, expressed in lan- 
guage of studied obscurity. In this way ho 
became the founder of a new school, the Gtongo- 
riatas, or Oultoranos, who even surpassed their 
master in the depravity of their literary tastes. 
The baneful influence of GOngorism, a style quite 
like that of Euphuism in England and that of 
Marinism in Italy and France, continued down 
through the eighteenth century;. Nona of G<>n- 
gora'H poems were printed during his lifetime; 
but in 1027, immediately after his death, they 
were published at Madrid by his friend Vicuila, 
as the O&rcw en verso del Homero Espanol. 
Some additions are found in the later editions 
of 1633, 1654, and 1650, as well as in the edition 
of lG3(i40, for which Salcedo Coronel prepared 
a commentary, made necessary by the studied 
obscurity of G6ngora's style. He died at Cor- 
dova. A critical edition of the poet's work is 
still a desideratum. 

Bibliography. Quintana, Poesias eelectas, 
voL iii (Madrid, 1807) ; Churton, (Mnyora; An 
Historical and Critical Kssay, >ivith Translations 
(London, 1862) ; Poesias c&cogidas de Gdngora, 
con varias in&ditas (Madrid, 1863); ttevuc His- 



GONIOHETER 

panique, vol. iv (Paris, 1897), containing 49 
unedited poems published by Rennert; Foulche- 
Delbosc, "Note sur trois manuscrits des ceuvres 
poetiqucs de Otingora," in Itci'itc Hispanique, 
vol. vii (1000), "Vingt-six Icttres rte CJfingora/' 
ib., vol. x (1003), "Poesies attributes & G6n- 
gora," ib., vol. xiy- (1DOG), "Biblio^ralie do Goii- 
gora," il)., vol. xviii ( 1908 ) ; Thomas, Gongora, ct 
le gongorismc considers dans leur rapports aver, 
IG 'inarinisme (Paris, 1911); Biblioteca do au- 
torcs espanoles, vol. xxxii (Madrid, 1849-80), 
unsatisfactory as to text. 

GONIATITES, go'ni-a-tl'tez (Noo-Lat., for 
*(joniaHtcs f from Gk. yuvla., gonia, angle + \l9o$, 
lithos, stone, in allusion to the aiigulate aut- 
urert). An extinct tetrahrunchiatc cophalopod, 
the shell of which resembles that of the A-m- 
monoidt>a in form, hut differs from it in having 
a simple suture line that shows undulating or 
zigzug curves without secondary crimping. The 
Goniatites have Hinooth unoruamoiited shells of 
discoid or globular form, with opon or closed 
umbilicus. They vary in size from 1 to 4 inches, 
though some spocios from the Devonian system 
attain a diameter of over 12 inches. The name 
"Goiiiatites" has long been UBt'd in a generic 
seutie; but the group has proved to be hetoro- 
geneoua, and the upec.ios liave been redirttributed 
among a number of new gunora and four new 
KiihordertJ, the Microeainpyli, Me.socampyli, 
Euryeampyli, and Glossocampyli, thew. names 
referring to the form of the saddles of the 
sutures in the types of the different groups. 
The old genus Qoniatitcs was considered to be 
an intermediate form between the Nautiloidea 
and the Ammonoidca, and the above-mentioned 
suborders represent, in a broad way, transition 
groups between certain races of nautiloida and 
certain races of ammonoids. 

The species of Goniatites appear first in the 
lowest .Devonian rocks, and they disappear in 
the Triassic system; their period of maximum 
development was during Upper Devonian and 
Lower Carbon ifarous time. They are thus index 
fossila of the Upper Palooxoiu age. They are 
found in Europe, Asia, AiiHtralia, and North 
America, often in such abundance that the beds 
containing them have received the names of Cly- 
merien-kalk and Goniatitos limestone. 8oe AM- 
WONOIDEA and CBrnAf-oPonA, and the bibliog- 
raphy given under the latter title. 

Q-OITCBOLA. (Neo-Lat. num. pi., from Gk. 
yovfa ff (M8 9 seed). The algal celts df a lichen. 
Also applied by some botanists to the. aHCXiial 
spores of algrc and fungi and including the 
well-known conidia of those groups. See LTOHKN. 

GOKTOCEBAS, go'nl-fls'er-nH. A widely 
aberrant genus of nautiloid cephalopoda, char- 
acterized by its flat triangular shape, with broad 
lateral wingw, recurving septa, and moniliform 
siphnnclc. It is l>cst known by (jomoverast an- 
(tdps from the Ordovician limestones of Now 
York and Canada, but has been found in the 
far north of America and in China, apparently 
having been restricted to the Pacific and Arctic 
oeeanB and their continental invasions. See 
CKPHALOPODA ; NAUTILUS. 

GO'NTOM'ETER (from Gk. ytaitta, 0<Jma, 
angle + ^rpov, wetron, measure). In mineral- 
ogy, an instrument used to measure the angles 
of crystals. Tho simplest form in the contact 
goniometer, which consists of a pair of arms 
which move about a pivot like a pair of shears 
and can be clamped in any position and con- 
nected with a protractor for the reading of 



GONIOMETBY 



127 



GOWSALVO BE CORDOBA 



angles, The reflecting goniometer makes use of 
a beam of light reflected successively into a tele- 
scope from diiferent faces of a crystal as the 
crystal is revolved 4ipon a single axis. The 
direct readings of this instrument give by their 
numerical difference the supplement of the angle 
desired. The most modern type of goniometer is 
constructed on the principle of the theodolite and 
measures angles in two planes at right angles to 
each other. This is known as the theodolite goni- 
ometer, or two-circle goniometer, and its intro- 
duction has not only extended the possibilities of 
measurement, but greatly simplified the calcu- 
lation of crystal forms. See CBYSTALLOGBAPIIY. 
G-O'NIOM'ETRY. A branch of trigonome- 
try concerned with the functions of angles in 
general and with their relations. The word 
signifies "angle measure." See TBICONOMETRY; 
GONIOMETER. 



, gen'ne"r, NIKOLA.US TBADDAUS VON 
(1704-1827). A German jurist, statesman, and 
author. He was born at Bamberg, where he was 
appointed to the chair of law (1789). Ten 
years afterward he accepted a similar position 
at Ingolstadt, where he exercised a most bene- 
ficial influence upon the development of the 
university, which by his suggestion was subse- 
quently removed to Landshut. From 1811 until 
shortly before his death he held many judiciary 
offices at Munich, where he was appointed Coun- 
cilor of State in 1820. His principal works in- 
chide ffandbuch des deutsclien gemeinen- Pro- 
zesscs (2d od., 4 vols., 1804) and Deutsclies 
Staatsrecht (1804). 

GO'INTOCOC'CTTS. See GONOBBHCEA. 

GOWOHRHCEA, gon'o-re'a (Lat., from Gk. 
yopoppoia, gonorrhoia, from 761*05, gonos, semen 
+ /$ofc, rhoia, a flow, from fair, rJiein, to flow). 
A name which was formerly applied almost in- 
discriminately to all discharges from the geni- 
tal passages in both sexes. At present the name 
designates a specific inflammatory disease of 
the mucous membrane of the urethra, caused 
by a germ, the gonococcus* which was discovered 
by Neisser. The disease is never caused by 
"taking cold/* or a "strain," by mere unclean- 
liness or injury. The access to the urethra of 
mucus or pus containing the gonococcus occurs, 
in the vast majority of cases, during sexual 
intercourse. From 2 to 10 days after the sex- 
ual intercourse a slight watery discharge ap- 
pears at the mouth of the urethra, the lips of 
which become red and swollen. The discharge 
quickly becomes abundant and white, later 
yellowish, possibly greenish or bloody. Itching 
follows, with burning pain, especially on urina- 
tion, which becomes frequent. In the male 
painful erections of the penis occur, principally 
at night, during which the organ is curved. 
This condition is called ohordee. Disease of 
deeper parts often follows an acute attack, and 
the prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and neigh- 
boring lymphatics become infected. General in- 
fection is frequently followed by "gonorrhoea! 
rheumatism," which is an arthritis, or joint 
disease, with stiffness and pain, caused by the 
toxins which are formed by the disease germs. 
It is extremely difficult to treat the disease 
when it invades the prostate gland or the 
seminal vesicles. In a woman the vagina, blad- 
der, uterus, Fallopian tubes, and ovaries may 
be attacked. In many cases acute symptoms 
are absent or slight, and the patient may not 
know she has the disease till uterus and tubes 
are attacked. 



From three to five days after contracting the 
disease most patients suffer from fever, head- 
ache, slight nausea, possibly preceded by a 
chill. During this stajjje the patient should be 
in bed, on low dit-t, and shoxild take a cathartic 
and drink large quantities of plain water. In- 
jections taken too early or in too concentrated 
a form may drive the infected mucus deeper, or 
injure the urethra. Injections of solutions of 
protargol, argyrol, nitrate of silver, perman- 
ganate of potash, sulphate of zinc, etc., are pre- 
scribed. Irrigations with bichloride of mercury 
are sometimes used. Internally cubebs, copaiba, 
salol, oil of sandal, saw palmetto, and many 
other drugs are given. When the infection is 
deep-seated or when the joints are involved, 
vaccines are frequently curative. All alcoholic 
beverages must be absolutely prohibited, and 
all sexual intercourse positively stopped, till 
two weeks after the patient is cured. The 
disease is not at an end when the discharge 
stops, unless the urine is perfectly clear, and 
the mucus from the prostate gland as well 
as the seminal fluid contains no gonococci dis- 
coverable by the microscope. Infection of a 
wife may occur when there is no discharge 
from the disease if the germs lurk in the semi- 
nal vesicles. Extreme care should be taken by 
one suffering with gonorrhoea to catch the dis- 
charge in gauze, which should be burned. If 
the fingers be soiled with the discharge, the 
eyes may become infected, and blindness may 
result. The testicles should be supported by 
a snug suspensory bandage. Patent medicines 
should be shunned. If gonorrhoea persists for 
a considerable time and the discharge becomes 
thin and scanty, the term *'gleet" is applied 
to it. 

The GonocoGciiB, or Micrococcus gonorrhcrce is 
an extremely minute organism. It occurs in 
pairs, with flattened sides lying in apposition. 
For this reason it is of ten " referred to as the 
Diploooccus gonorrhoea?. It grows readily on 
human blood serum, with or without agar, at 
the temperature of the body, not on the more 
common media. The mucous membranes of the 
lower animals do not seem susceptible to gonor- 
rhceal infection, but the human urethra reacts 
promptly to inoculation with pure cultures. In 
the mucous membrane it sets up an exudative 
inflammation and may be found either free in 
the exudate or inclosed in the cast-off epithelial 
cells. Its presence within the cell bodies, taken 
in connection with its occurrence in pairs, and 
its behavior when subjected to a special stain 
, knqwn aa Gram's stain, complete its indentifi- 
cation. Quite frequently the pus-producing 
organisms are associated with the gonococcus. 
It is believed that gonorrhoeal infection from 
the vagina of the mother during parturition is 
responsible for ophthalmia nconatorum,, a severe 
form of conjunctivitis which often results in 
blindness through the destruction of one or 
both eyes. 

GONORBHXEAL OPHTHAI/MIA. See 
CONJUNCTIVITIS. 

DE C6&DOBA, g6n-sal'v& da 

(GONZAXO HERNANDEZ Y AGTJILAB). A 

celebrated Spanish commander. He was "born 
at Montilla, near Cordova, in 1453 (according 
to some in 1443). He distinguished himself 
in the war waged by Queen Isabella of Castile 
against Portugal and in the war against the 
Moors and was charged in 1491 with the con- 
duct of the negotiations for the surrender of 



GONTABD i: 

Granada. In 1495 he was sent by Ferdinand 
of Aragon to the assistance of Ferdinand, King 
of Naples, against the French. In less than 
a year Gonsalvo, with his limited resources, 
had delivered the greater part of the kingdom 
and obtained the appellation of El Gran Capi- 
tdn. In 1498 he returned to Spain and was 
received with signal marks of distinction by the 
King. Having been placed in command of a 
JLeet in the Mediterranean, he took Cephalonia 
from the Turks at the beginning of 1501 and 
restored it to Venice. When the partition of 
the Kingdom of Naples was determined upon 
by a compact between Louis XII of France and 
Ferdinand the Catholic, entered into at Granada 
in 1500, Gonsalvo de Cordoba led the invading 
Spanish army. The conquest of the kingdom 
was speedily achieved, but the conquerors soon 
quarreled over the partition of the booty, and 
war broke out between them in 1502. Gonsalvo 
de COrdoba vanquished the French at Cerignola, 
April 28, 1503, took possession of Calabria, 
the Abruzzi, Apulia, and the city of Naples 
itself, and then laid siege to Gaeta, but was 
compelled to retreat before a superior force of 
the enemy. On December 27 of the same year, 
however, he fell upon them unexpectedly near 
tho Garigliano and obtained a complete victory. 
The French army was almost annihilated, the 
fortress of Gaeta fell, and the possession of 
Naples was secured to the Spaniards. King 
Ferdinand bestowed the Duchy of Sesa upon, 
the conqueror and appointed him Viceroy of 
Naples with unlimited authority. His good 
fortune, howevor, made him many powerful ene- 
mies, and bin popularity with the Neapolitans 
awoke the King's jealousy. Gonsalvo was re- 
called to Spain, where the King treated him 
with marked neglect. He now betook Uimself to 
liia estates in Granada; but after the defeat of 
the new Viceroy in Naples by Gaston de Foix, 
he was again appointed to the command of the 
Spanish army in Italy. Mental suffering, how- 
ever, had undermined his health, and on Dec. 
2, 1515, he died at Granada. Consult Quintana, 
Vida de espatloles cclebres (Madrid, 1807), and 
"Prescott, Ferdinand and Isabella, (Philadelphia, 
1864). 

GONTABD, gon'tiirt, KARL vow (1731-91). 
A Gorman architect, born at Mannhoim. He 
studied under Kichter at Bayreuth and Fran- 
QOIS Blondel at Paris. In 1765 he entered the 
service of Frederick the Great, with whom he 
became a favorite, and who intrusted him with 
several architectural commissions. His struc- 
tures include two tower-like domes erected on. 
previously existing churches on the Gcndarmen- 
markt, Berlin; the colonnades of several fine 
bridges at Berlin; and the marble palace at 
Potsdam, completed by Langhans. 

GONTATTLT, gON'td 7 , CHABLES DE. See 
BXHON, CHABLES DE GONTATJLT, Due DE. 

GONTAtlT-BIBON, gdNW-be'roN', A. L. DE. 
See LAUZON, Duo DB. 

GOW / VTLIJE AND CAIUS (k$z) COL- 
LEGE. A college of Cambridge University, 
which is usually called Caius College. It was 
founded in 1348 by Edmund Gonville, some- 
time vicar-general of the diocese of Ely, but 
the wuddcn death of the founder and the in* 
sufficient provision for support of tho scholars 
led Gonvillft's executor, William Bateman, 
Bialtop of Norwich, to remodel the statutes, 
rechnsten the house as the College of the Annun- 
ciation, and divert the students to the special 



8 GONZAGA 

study of theology and canon and civil law, 
Soon after, tho college was moved from its 
original site to tlie place it now occupies. It 
was then of little importance and seems to have 
consisted only of a master and three or four 
fellows. In 155S Dr. John Cains, who was 
physician to the court, refounded the college, 
altering the name to its present form; added 
much to the college buildings as well as to the 
endowment; and became muster of the college, 
which office he held till his death in 1573. 
Owing to his influence, the college has since 
been famous for its attention to medical studies, 
and some of the greatest of English physicians 
have boon among its members, of whom Harvey, 
the discoverer of the method of the circulation 
of the blood, is the most distinguished. Gon- 
ville and Caius College consists of a master 
and 20 fellows. It has 30 scholarships and 
exhibitions, besides several studentships in 
medicine and natural science. Among its great 
names are those of Sir Thomas Gresham, Jan 
Gruter, Jeremy Taylor, and Lord Chancellor 
Thurlow. Consult J. Venn, Caius Gollege (Lon- 
don, 1901). 

GONZAGA, gon-zU'ga, HOUSE: OF. A princely 
Italian family whose members for a number of 
centuries ruled over Mantua and Montferrat. 
It claimed descent from the German Emperor 
Lothair. The rule of the Gonzaga in Mantua 
was established in 1328 by the final defeat of 
the Bonacolsi family and the murder of their 
chief, Passerine de' Bonacolsi, by his brother- 
in-law Luigi I. In 1432 the captaincy was 
changed to a marquisatc and in 1530 to a 
dukedom. In 1536 the Gonzaga became mar- 
quisea of Montferrat, in 1539 they acquired 
the Duchy of Guastalla, and in lf>65 that of 
N overs. Other important possessions of the 
family at various times were the duchies of Sol- 
ferino, Rethel, and Sabbionetta, the Principality 
of Bozzolo, the. Marquisate of Medola, the count- 
ships of Torelli and Novellara, and the Princi- 
pality of Castiglione. The members of the house 
of Oonzaga were the faithful champions of Im- 
perial interests in Italy and waged war with 
the Visconti, dukes of Milan. They produced 
many men who became famous soldiers, states- 
men, churchmen, and patrons of art and letters. 
The most illustrious of these were: GIOVANNI 
FRANCESCO (died 1444), in whose favor Mantua 
was created a marquisatc by tho Emperor Sigis- 
mund, in return for services to tho Empire. 
GIOVANNI FBANCESCO IT (reigned 1484-1510), 
who was defeated by Charles VJ1I of Franco 
at the battle of Fornovo, on the bunks of the 
Taro, in 1495, and who took part in the engage- 
ment of Atella (1406), which led to tho ca- 
pitulation of the French forces in Naples. His 
son, FEDEBIGO II (reigned 1510-40), was in- 
vested by the Emperor Charles V with tho ducal 
dignity in 1530 and also obtained the Mar- 
quisate of Montferrat in 1536. During the 
reign of this prince the court of Mantua was 
one of the most magnificent in Europe. Otrat,- 
IBLMO (1550-87), won of Fcderigo, proved a 
wise and enlightened ruler; his secretary was 
Bernardo Tasso, father of the poet. VICENBO 
(1587-1612), son of Guglielmo, was the warm 
friend and patron of Tasso. His brother Ltriai 
(1568-91) was a Jesuit scholastic, and died 
while attending those stricken of the plague 
in Borne. He was canonized as St. Aloysius 
in 1726 and is the patron saint of students. 
Vicenzo was followed by his three sons, 



GOETZAGA 



129 



GONZALEZ CARVAJAIi 



CESCO, FERDINAND, and VICENZO, all of whom 
died without heirs, and thus the direct line 
of the ducal branch became extinct in 1627. 
A collateral branch in the person of Charles I, 
Duke of Never s, son of Ludovico, the brother of 
Guglielmo, mentioned above, claimed the duchy, 
which was contested by his cousin, CESABE, 
Duke of Guastalla. This family feud led to a 
war, in which France supported Nevers, while 
the Emperor Ferdinand II claimed the right of 
adjudging Mantua, as an Imperial fief, to a 
candidate of his choice. Spain supported Aus- 
tria in this War of the Mantuan Succession. 
Mantua was stormed, sacked, and stripped of 
all its treasures by the Imperialists in 1630 
and never regained its former splendor. The 
war was terminated a few months later, CHABLES 
DE NEVEBS being recognized by the Emperor. 
The successors of Charles were weak and dissi- 
pated rulors, and the tenth and last Duke of 
Mantua, Charles IV, was the worst of all. As 
he had allied himself with the French in the 
War of the Spanish Succession, the Emperor 
Joseph I placed him under the ban of the Em- 
pire, and he was deprived of his possessions, 
the Duke of Savoy seizing Montferrat, and 
Austria taking Mantua and the minor fiefs. 
This division was confirmed by the treaty of 
peace that followed. Charles died in exile in 
1708, leaving no issue, and the family became 
extinct, save for the branch which ruled Guas- 
talla until 1746. Consult: Symonds, The Ren" 
aissance in Italy (7 vols., London, 1897-98); 
E. Solari, Ercole Gonzaga (Venice, 1004) ; 
C. Hare, A Princess of the Reformation: Giulia 
Gonsaga, 1m* Family and Friends (New York, 
1012). 

GONZAGA, gSn-zll'ga, THOKAZ ANTONIO 
(1744-1807). A Portuguese poet* born at 
Oporto. He studied law in the University of 
Coimbra, receiving his degree in 1763. In 1768 
he went to Brazil, and, after having acted for 
some years as local magistrate at Beja and 
elsewhere, he was appointed judge at Villa Rica 
in the Province of Minas. Before this time he 
developed some talent for versification, and his 
literary tastes soon brought him into intimate 
association with Claudio Manoel da Costa, 
Alvarengo Peixoto, and other writers of the 
so-called Minas school; but the love which 
inspires the poet did not come upon him until 
he had made the acquaintance (c.1788) of Dofla 
Maria Joaquina Dorothea de Seixas, the Marilia 
of his masterpiece, the Marilia de Dirceu (the 
latter being the name adopted by the poet him- 
self). These verses form the most remarkable 
collection of erotic poetry, dedicated to a single 
person, ever written in Portuguese. Gonzaga 
had just been nominated a member of the 
Supreme Court of Bahfa and was on the eve 
of hia marriage when discovery was made of 
the treasonable plot of Minas, and he was 
arrested on suspicion of having been impli- 
cated in it. On inconclusive circumstantial 
evidence he was condemned (1702) to banish- 
ment for life to Pedras de Angoche, a sentence 
which was afterward commuted to one of 10 
years* exile at Mozambique* Here he made 
some effort to practice as an advocate, but he 
never recovered from the depression with which 
his cruel lot had affected him. He was attacked 
by nervous fever, which undermined his health, 
and after years of increasing melancholy, which 
occasionally alternated with fits of acute mania, 
be died. His poems are still favorites with the 



Portuguese-speaking peoples, chiefly because of 
the charm of their style, their melody, and their 
refined sentiment. Some 29 editions of the 
Marilia de Dirceit, appeared before 1854. The 
best edition is that published in IS 62 at Paris. 
There are biographies prefixed to the editions of 
Rio de Janeiro (1845 and 1862). 

GOITZALES, gon-zalez. A city and county 
seat of Gonzales Co., Tex., 76 miles east of Ran 
Antonio, on the G-alveston, Harrisburg, and San 
Antonio, and the San Antonio and Aransas Pass 
railroads, and on the Guadalupe River (Map: 
Texas, D 5). Cotton, cottonseed oil, brick, and 
tiles are produced. Gonzalea \ras the scene of 
the first battle in the struggle for Texan inde- 
pendence from Mexico (see TEXAS). Pop., 1910, 
3139. 

GONZALEZ, gen-safe's, MANUEL (1833-93). 
President of Mexico from 1880 to 1884, born 
near Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He at- 
tained prominence as reactionary leader under 
Marcelino Cobos. In the succeeding civil wars 
he received a wound in action which resulted 
in the loss of an arm. Under Juarez he fought 
brillian y during the French invasion, was 
promote 1 brigadier general for bravery in 1867, 
and after the fall of the city of Mexico was 
appointed by Juarez governor of the government 
palace. In 1871 he was arrested on a charge of 
complicity in the stealing of the gold and silver 
plate that had belonged to Maximilian, but in 
the revolution of the same year escaped and 
joined Dfaz. He took part in the third rebellion 
of Diaz in 1876, distinguished himself in the 
decisive battle of Tecoac, and in 1878 was ap- 
pointed by Diaz Secretary of War. In 1880 he 
resigned his portfolio to become a candidate 
for the presidency, to which office he was elected. 
His administration was marked by financial 
mismanagement and disaster. His attempt to 
compromise the English debt, and his decree 
suppressing the liberty of the press, aroused 
such opposition that he resigned in 1884, in 
favor of Dfaz. A resolution of impeachment 
for misappropriation of funds was introduced 
in the national Congress, but was not pressed, 
and he afterward successfully administered the 
affairs of the State of Guanajuato, of which 
Dfaz appointed him Governor. 

GONZALEZ CAE.VAJAL, g6n-tha1ftth kiir'- 
va-al', or CARBAJAL, kftr'ttA-Hal', TowAs Josfi 
(1753-1834). A Spanish poet and statesman. 
He was educated in Seville, where he studied the- 
ology and jurisprudence and became a noted 
Hellenist and Latinist. After holding, in the 
Treasury Department and elsewhere, a number of 
offices of importance, and refusing to swear alle- 
giance to Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain, 
he was obliged to flee in disguise from Madrid 
to Seville in January, 1809. In March, 1813, he 
was made Secretary of State and Secretary of 
the Treasury Department, but resigned both 
positions in August of the same year in order 
to become director of the Estudios Reales de San 
Isidro, where, by establishing a chair of inter- 
national law and by his liberal ideas, he of- 
fended the government and was imprisoned for 
five years. He was reinstated by the revolution 
of 1820 and became Councilor of State, but was 
forced into exile by the counterrevolution three 
years later. After 1829 he became successively 
Minister of the Supreme Council of War, mem- 
ber of the Royal Council of Spain and the 
Indies, and Knight Grand Cross of the Order of 
Isabella the Catholic, Carvajal was the author 



G02ST2ALB2 



130 



GOOD 



of metrical translations of the poetical books 
of the Bible and of other works in prose and 
verse, which earned for him membership in the 
Real Academia Espaiiola and in the Real 
Academia de la Historia; and his name figures 
in the Catalogo do autoridades de la Icnyua 
published by the Spanish Academy. 

GONZALEZ DAVTLA, dii'v6-la, or DE 
AVILA, GIL (c.1578-1058). A Spanish histori- 
ographer, born at Avila. He held a minor ec- 
clesiastical office at Salamanca and was ap- 
pointed royal chronicler of Castile (1612) and 
the Indies (1641). His Tcatro eclcsiastico de 
la primitiva iglesia de las Indias Occidentalcs 
(1045-55) holds a high place as a general 
Church history of New Spain. The same may 
be said, for Spurn, of his Tcatro eclcaiastJco 
de Ids cindados iylctiias catcdrales dc fispana 
(Salamanca, 1018) and of his Tcatro eclcsl- 
dstico de Ins iglcsiaK dc Espafia (2 vole., Ma- 
drid, 1640-50). 

GONZALEZ NAVEItO, EMILIANO (1801- 
). A Paraguayan politician. He was edu- 
cated at the University of Asuncion, in 1SS7 
he was appointed criminal judge and later a 
member of the Superior Court. Entering poli- 
tics, he was elected senator by the Liberal party. 
In 1005 he was made Minister of Finance in 
the cabinet of President Ferreira. The next 
year he was chosen "Vice President and in 1908 
succeeded to the presidency. He called the most 
distinguished men of the country to his aid and 
endeavored to foster better relations with the 
rest of Latin America. 

G03STZALO DE BERCEO, gdn-thilld- da bar- 
thu'6 (?1180-?1247). The oarliest Castilian 
poet whoso name we know with certainty. Born 
at Berceo (Old Castile), he became a secular 
priest in the Benedictine monastery of San 
Milton de la Cogolla. He became deacon in 
1221 and priest in 1237. He appears as a wit- 
ness in an Act of 1246, which is the last certain 
date wo possess for his life. In addition to 
the 13,000 verses (written in the four-verso 
couplets known as the cuadcrna via) which 
compose the nine long works that are known to 
be his, the 10,000 verses of the Libro de Ale- 
jomdre have also been attributed to him; but 
not all scholars are convinced of tho justifica- 
tion for this latter claim. In 1736 appeared 
the first edition of any of his works, La Vida de 
Santo Domingo, published by Vergara; and in 
1780 Torn/Is Antonio Sanchez published tho 
complete works. Recently two of his works 
have been given careful editions: J. D. Fitz- 
Gerald published a critical edition of La Vida 
de Santo Domingo de Silos (Paris, 1904) ; and 
in 3913 A. G. Solalinde published a paleographic 
edition of M Sacrificio de la Misa. Consult 
also: J. D. Fitz-Gterald, The Versification of the 
Ouaderna Via as found in Bcrceo's Vida de 
Santo Domingo de Silos (New York, 1905) ; 
"Gonzalo de Berceo in Spanish Literary Criti- 
cism before 1780," in the Romanic Review, i, 
290-301 (ib., 1910); R. Becker, Qowsalo do 
Beroeos Afilagros und i)vre Grundtogen (Strass- 
burg, 1910) ; F. Hanssen, "Notas a la Vida de 
Santo Domingo de Silos/' in Anales de la Uni- 
versidad de OJrile, vol. cxx, 715-763 (Santiago, 
Chile, 1907). 

aOO'BER. See PEANUT. 

GOOCH, gtfoch, SIB DANIHJL (1816-89). A 
British mechanical engineer and inventor, born 
at Bedlington, Northumberland. He learned the 



principles of locomotive design under Robert 
Stephenson. From 1837 to 18(>4 he \vns loco- 
motive superintendent of the Great Western 
Railway and in this connection became known 
for the original design and general excellence 
of his locomotives. In 1843 he invented the 
"suspended link motion with the shifting radius 
link'' for locomotives. In 1805-C6 Gooeh had 
charge of laying cables across the Atlantic 
Ocean, upon the* successful completion of this 
ttisk being created Baronet. In IStJG he took 
charge of the reorganization of the Great West- 
ern Railway, which he soon placed on u sound 
financial footing. From 1865 to 1885 he was a 
member of Parliament. Consult his Diaries 
(London, 1802). 

GOOCH, FKANK: AUSTIN (1852- ). An 
American chemist, born at Watortovni, Mtitw., 
and educated at Harvard University (A.B., 
1872; Ph.D., 1877). In 1873 he became in- 
structor in chemistry in the Lawrence Scientific 
School. A year later he was assistant iu the 
chemical laboratory and in 1877 assistant to 
Wolcott Gibbs. In 1879 he was connected with 
the chemical laboratory of the Geological Sur- 
vey at Newport as a special agent of the tontli 
census, in 1881 was appointed chemist to the 
Northern Transcontinental Survey, and in 1885 
became professor of chemistry at Vale. His 
writings include: Outlines of Inorganic Chcm.- 
tetry, with C. F. Walker (1905); putlinctt of 
Qualitative Chemical Analysis, with P. K 
Browning (1906; 3d ed., 1011); Methods in 
Chemical Analysis (1912). 

GOOCH, SIB WILLIAM (1081-1751). An 
English soldier and Colonial Governor in Amer- 
ica. He was born in Yarmouth, served \vitli 
distinction in the English army, and from 1727 
to 1747 was Governor of Virginia. lie was a 
man of considerable ability, and his administra- 
tion was, on the whole, a wise and prospcroufl 
one. In 1740 he led the Virginia troops which 
accompanied Admiral Vernon on his futile expe- 
dition against Cartagena, New Granada. On 
his return to England in 3740 he was made 
Baronet. 

GOOD, JAMES ISAAC (IH50-1024). An 
American Reformed church clergyman and his- 
torian, born at York, Pa. lie graduated at 
Lafayette College in 1872 and at Union Theolog- 
ical Seminary in 1875. He was wettled in 
pastorates in York, Pa. (1875-77), Philadel- 
phia (1877-90), and Heading, Pa. (1890- -1905). 
Between 1890 and 1907 he was professor and 
dean of the school of theology of ITrninus Col- 
lege (Philadelphia), then becoming professor of 
Reformed church history and liturgies at the 
Central Theological Seminary ( Dayton, Ohio). 
He was elected president of the General Synod 
of the Reformed Church in the United NtatoB. 
lie wrote: The Origin of the Reformed Church 
in Germany (new ed., 1913); The History of 
the Reformed Church in Germany (1894); 
Rambles around Reformed Lands; History of 
the Reformed Church in the United States 
(1899); Famous Places of the Reformed 
Churches (1910); History of the Informed 
Church in the United States in the Nineteenth 
Century (1911) ; History of the Swiss Reformed 
Church smce the Reformation (1913); Thti 
Heidelberg Confession in its Newest Light 
(1914) ; and he contributed to the NEW INTKK- 
NATIONAI. ENCYCLOPAEDIA. 

GOOD, JOHN MASON (1704-1827). An Em?- 
lish physician and author, born at Epping in 



GOODALE id 

Essex. In 1784 lie practiced as surgeon in 
Sudbury, but removed to London in 1703, with 
the view of obtaining literary employment. He 
published various poems, translations, and pro- 
fessional treatises. Among his translations are: 
The Song of Songs, or Sacred Idyls, from the 
Hebrew (1803); The Nature of Things, from 
Lucretius (1805); The Book of Job (1812). 
His chief professional works are The Study of 
Medicine (4 vols., 1822) and The Bool: of .Vo- 
titre, a series of lectures at the Surrey Institu- 
tion, 1811-12 (182C). He likewise published, 
in conjunction with Olinthus Gregory, a dic- 
tionary of the arts and sciences completed in 
12 volumes (1813). The translation of Lucre- 
tius, valuable for its parallel passages, is in- 
cluded in Bohn's Classical Library. He died in 
London. For his Life and Writings, consult 
Gregory (London, 1828). 

GOOD'ALE, ELAINE (1863- ) and DOBA 
KKAD (18GC- ). American poets, sisters, 
who were born in Berkshire Co., Mass. They 
showed remarkable poetic precocity. Poems of 
Elaine appeared as early as her eighth year, in 
flky Farm Mfc, a monthly conducted by herself. 
In 1SS7 versus of both sisters began to appear in 
ft (tint Nicholas and their contributions to period- 
icals were thereafter frequent. The most note- 
worthy of their books are : Apple Blossoms ( 1878 ) ; 
hi Berkshire with the Wild flowers (1879); AH 
round the Year (1880) ; and Verses from Sky 
Farm (1S80). In 1881 Elaine published The 
Journal of a Farmer's Daughter. In 1883 she 
became teacher in the Hampton (Va.) Institute 
for the education of Indians and negroes, and 
in 1SS5 made a tour of observation through the 
Sioux Reservation. In the next year she re- 
ceived a government appointment to teach In- 
diana at White River Camp in Dakota and in 
1800 was made superintendent of all Indian 
schools in that State. In 1891 she was married 
to Dr. C. A, Eastman (q.v.), an Indian, Dora 
wrote also Heralds of Easter (1887). 

GOODALE, GEORGE LINCOLN riP?9-l23). 
An American botanist, born at Saco, Me. He 
graduated at Amherst College in 18GO and at 
the Harvard Medical School in 1863. He prac- 
ticed his profession at Portland, Me., until 
18G7; became professor of natural science and 
applied chemistry at Bowdoin; and at Harvard 
was appointed instructor in botany and uni- 
versity lecturer on vegetable physiology (1872), 
assistant professor of the latter subject (1873), 
professor of botany (1878), and (1888) Fisher 
professor of natural science, a chair formerly 
held by Asa Gray. After 1879 he served also 
as director of the botanical museum. In 1909 
he retired. In 1889 he was president of the 
American Society of Naturalists and president 
of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science. In addition to monographs 
and contributions to scientific journals, his 
publications include: Wild Flowers of North 
America (1882); Vegetable Physiology (1886); 
Vegetable Histology (1885); Useful Plants of 
the Future (1891) ; Concerning a Few Common 
Plants (1879; 3d ed., 1903). 

GOOD BEHAVIOR. As a legal expression, 
used chiefly as synonymous with keeping the 
peace. Thus, if one person assaults or threatens 
another or provokes him to a breach of the 
peace, the offense is punishable summarily by 
a justice of the peace, who, besides inflicting 
a fine, may bind over the offending party to 
keep the peace and be of good behavior for a 



r GOOD CONSIDERATION 

specified period. The mode of doing this is by 
requiring the offending party to enter into a 
recognizance with or without sureties, which is, 
in fact, the giving of a bond for a specified sum 
to the court, and if it is broken, the recognizance 
is forfeited and the offending party may be 
again punished. 

In early English law the expression was 
emploved to denote the obligation of chastity 
imposed upon a widow who enjoyed real property 
derived from her deceased husband, as in the 
case of the dower right known us free bench 
(cj.v.), or of a devise by a husband to his widow 
dam sc Itene gcsserit, *so long as she should be 
of pood, i.e., chaste, behavior. 

GOOD-CpNDUCT BADGES. Special dis- 
tinctions given to enlisted men in the United 
States navy for proficiency, sobriety, and obe- 
dience. Any person when discharged, either at 
expiration of enlistment of four years or within 
three months of expiration of enlistment, who 
is recommended for a good-conduct medal by 
his commanding officer is entitled to this badge, 
neconirnendations are based on the following 
final averages in marks: for petty officers, pro- 
ficiency 4.5, sobriety 4.5, obedience 4.5; for men 
of lower ratings, proficiency 4, sobriety 4.5, 
obedience 4.5. The first badge is a medal; 
subsequent badges are bars with the name of 
the vessel from which each was given engraved 
thereon, and are worn on a ribbon above the 
medal. The holder of a medal cannot be de- 
prived of it except by sentence of a general 
court-martial. Every enlisted man, except a 
mate, receives 83 cents per month, in addition 
to pay of his rating, for each medal or bar lie 
is awarded. 

GOOD CONSIDERATION". In English and 
American law, the relationship which subsists 
between the parties to certain conveyances of 
land and which is relied on, in lieu of 'an actual 
consideration of money or money's worth, to 
sustain such a conveyance. The former, some- 
times called the ''consideration of blood,*' i.e., 
of blood relationship, or of "love and affection," 
was known as a "good" consideration, as dis- 
tinguished from the latter, which was described 
as a "valuable" consideration. Any relationship 
of consanguinity, no matter how remote, was 
sufficient to constitute good consideration. It 
was required where a freehold estate was con- 
veyed by the device known as a covenant to 
stand seised to the use of another or to give 
effect to a conveyance made without an express 
declaration that it was made to the use of the 
grantee or of some one else as beneficiary. As 
distinguished from the "covenant to stand 
seised," which required a "good" consideration, 
the conveyance by "bargain and sale" called 
for a valuable consideration. It is to be noted 
that neither form of consideration was neces- 
sary to the validity of a conveyance made in 
any other form, as by livery of seisin or tbe 
modern deed of grant, if only the instrument 
declared that the conveyance was for the use 
of the donee or grantee. Modern statutory 
forms of conveyancing have rendered the pres- 
ence of a good consideration less important 
than it once was, but it would seem that it is 
still generally required where a deed of land 
fails to state that the conveyance is for the 
use of the grantor and where there is no valu- 
able consideration therefor. See USES; TRUSTS, 

As used in tbe famous statute concerning 
fraudulent conveyances (13 Eliz., c. 5), where 



GOOD COUNSEL 



132 



GOOD FAITH 



it is provided that the statute is "not to extend 
to any estate or interest in lands, etc., on good 
consideration and bona fide lawfully conveyed 
to any person not having notice/' etc., the 
expression "good consideration" does not bear 
the technical sense in which it is employed in 
conveyancing, but signifies lawful, i.e., valuable, 
consideration. A conveyance otherwise forbid- 
den by the statute would not be protected because 
made to a blood relation, but only if to an in- 
nocent purchaser for value. See CONSIDERATION. 

GOOD COUNSEL, BOOK OF. See Error ADESA. 

GOODE, GEOBGE BBOWN (1851-96). An 
American ichthyologist, born in New Albany, 
Ind. He graduated in 1870 from Wesleyan 
University, at Middletown, Conn., and then stud- 
ied under Louis Agassiz. From 1871 to 1877 
he was curator of the museum at Wesleyan 
University, and in 1873 he became an assistant 
in the United States Fish Commission and also 
a member of the scientific staff of the United 
States National Museum, of which he was made 
assistant director in 1881. From 1887 until his 
death he served as the assistant secretary of 
the Smithsonian Institution in charge of the 
National Museum. He also was prominently con- 
nected with various popular and scientific ex- 
hibitions, as commissioner of the United States 
to the fisheries exhibitions at Berlin in 1880 and 
London in 1883, as representative of the Smith- 
sonian Institution at the exhibitions at New 
Orleans in 1884, Cincinnati in 1888, Louisville 
in 1888, and Atlanta in 1805, and as succes- 
sively commissioner and commissioner general 
of the United States at the Columbian Histori- 
cal Exposition at Madrid in 1892-93. He 
planned classifications for, and was one of the 
directors of, the United States government ex- 
hibit at the World's Columbian Exposition at 
Chicago in 1893. In 1888 he was elected to the 
National Academy of Sciences; and at various 
times he received foreign honors, including the 
decoration of the Spanish Order of Isabella the 
Catholic, with the grade of Commander. His 
publications number about 400, of which these 
are important: Catalogue of Fishes of the Ber- 
mudas (1879); History of the Menhaden 
(1880) ; editor of Fisheries and Fishery Indus- 
tries of the United States (7 vote, 1884-87) ; 
American Fishes: A Popular Treatise upon the 
Game and Food Fishes of North America 
(1888); Oceanic Ichthyology, with Tarleton H. 
Bean (1896). Goode was an authority on the 
management of museums and wrote: Museums 
of the Future (1890); Principles of Museum 
Administration (1896); Annual Reports, as 
director of the National Museum. He was also 
interested in historical studies and wrote: The 
Beginnings of Natural ffistory in America 
(1880); The Beginnings of American Science 
(1889); The Origin of the National Scientific 
and Educational Institutions of the Vnited 
States (1890). 

GOODELI/, HBJNBY HILL (1839-1905). An 
American agricultural educator, born at Con- 
stantinople, Turkey. He graduated at Amherst 
College in 1862 and served in the Union army 
during the Civil War. He was professor of 
modern languages and English literature in 
the Massachusetts Agricultural College (1867- 
86) and in 1886 became president of that in- 
stitution. The degree of LL.D. was conferred 
on him by Amherst College in 1891. For many 
years, as chairman of the executive committee 
of the Association of American Agricultural 



Colleges and Experiment Stations, he exerted a 
wide influence in the great movement for agri- 
cultural education in the United States. 

GOODELL, THOMAS DWIQHT (1854-1920). 
An American classical scholar, born at Elling- 
ton, Conn. He was graduated at Yale in 1877 
and received the degree of Ph.D. in 1884. He 
\vaa classical teacher in the high school, Hart- 
ford, Conn., from 1877 to 1888, and in the latter 
year was appointed professor of Greek at Yale. 
In 1911 he was elected president of the American 
Philological Association. He is author of 
various philological papers in the learned jour- 
nals, and of Cliaptei-s on Greek Metric (1001), 
an important work, and A School draw mar of 
Attic Greek (1902). 

GOODELL, WILLIAM (1702-1807). ATI 
American missionary. HG was born at Temple- 
ton, Mass., educated at Phillips Academy (An- 
dovcr), Dartmouth College, and Andover Theo- 
logical Seminary. He was accepted as a mis- 
sionary by the American Board and at the 
close of 1822 sailed for Malta and thence the 
next year went to Beirut, whore he aided in 
establishing the station which has become the 
centre of the Syrian mission. In 1828, on 
account of threatened war between England and 
Turkey, the missionaries removed to Malta, 
where Goodell labored in preparing and printing 
books for the mission; until, in 1831, the way 
having been opened by the destruction of the 
Turkish fleet at Navarino, he went to (JonHtanti- 
nople, where he commenced the Ar menu-Turk inn 
mission. During his missionary life he and 
his devoted wife cheerfully endured many trialn 
and perils and were compelled to move their 
residence 33 times in 21) yearH. One of his e.hief 
labors was the translation of the Bible into 
Armcno-Turkish, in making and rcviHing which 
he spent 20 years. In 1865, after 43 years of 
toil, he returned to the United States and died 
in Philadelphia at the residence of his son, 
Feb. 18, 1807. Consult his life by Prime (New 
York, 1876). 

GOODELL, WILLIAM (1792-1878). An 
American editor and reformer, prominent as an 
abolitionist in the antislavory wtnigglo before 
the Civil War. He was born in Coventry, 
N. Y.; was engaged in business successively at 
Providence, R. I,, Alexandria, Va., and New 
York City; took part in the difictiHsinn of the 
Missouri Compromise, to which lie was utrougly 
opposed, and in 1827 established at Providence 
a paper called the Investigator. He subHe- 
quently edited successively the National Philan- 
thropist, the Moral Daily Advertiser, the V*rfatul 
of Man (Utica, N. Y.), the organ of the New 
York State Anti-Slavery Society, the Jtudival 
Abolitionist, and the Principia all devoted to 
the cause of abolitionism. Among his publica- 
tions are: Views of American Constitutional 
Law (1844); The Democracy of Christianity 
(1851); Slavery and Anti-Slavery: A Jfistory 
of the Or eat Struggle in Both Hemispheres 
(1852); The American Stave Code (1853). 
Consult a Memorial of William Ooodell (Chi- 
cago, 1879). 

GOOD FAITH (Lat. lona fides). In law, 
either (I) an absence of fraudulent design in 
the person acquiring real or personal property 
by conveyance from another, or (2) ignorance 
on the part of an assignee or grantee of the 
existence of claims of third persons affecting 
the property conveyed. The expression is used 
in the former sense in the statute (13 Eliz,, c. 6) 



GOOD tf&IDAY 



133 



GOODBICH 



making void conveyances in fraud of creditors, 
but saving conveyances "on good consideration 
and bona i'xle lawfully" made. This does not 
mean that the- grautiv must be ignorant of the 
fact that the effect of the conveyance will prob- 
ably be to delay or defraud the creditors of 
the grantor, but that he shall not be a party 
to the fraud by participating in an unreal or 
fictitious conveyance. As thus employed, the 
expression does not differ materially in mean- 
ing from its ordinary sense as signifying honest 
dealing. 

On the other hand, as used to denote the 
innocent holder, commonly known as the bona 
fide holder, of commercial paper, it signifies no 
more than that the present holder came into 
possession of the paper in due course and with- 
out notice of defenses, such as lack of considera- 
tion, which would have been available against 
the transferor. It is in this latter sense also 
that the expression is employed where property 
affected with a trust in favor of a third person 
is conveyed by the trustee to a purchaser who 
has no knowledge of the trust. The person 
acquiring the property under such circumstances 
takes it free from the trust, not because he is 
free from moral turpitude, but because, having 
paid value therefor in ignorance of the trust, 
it is deemed unconscientious to subject the 
property in his hands to the obligation which 
rested upon his grantor. See NEGOTIABLE 
PAPER; TRUST. 

GOOD FBIDAY. The Friday before Easter, 
observed in commemoration of the crucifixion of 
Christ. That from a very early period it was a 
day of solemn mourning and special prayer is 
apparent from the Apostolic Constitutions (i, 
18) and from Eusebius, who tells us that, 
when Christianity was established in the Em- 
pire, Constantine forbade the holding of mar- 
kets, law courts, and other public proceedings 
upon this day. It is still a legal holiday in 
England and Ireland. A number of ancient 
popular customs, such as the eating of "hot 
cross buns" cakes with a cross impressed on 
them are connected with the day. For its 
ceremonial observance in the Roman Catholic . 
church, see CBOSS; HOLY WEEK. A service of 
modern origin, increasingly popular in Catholic 
and Episcopal churches, is the Three Hours' 
Devotion, consisting of addresses upon the seven 
last words of Christ, prayers and hymns, and 
occupying the hours from 12 to 3, when He 
hung upon the cross. 

GOOD GRAY POBT, THE. A popular desig- 
nation of Walt Whitman. 

GOOD HOPE. See CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 

GOOD'HITE, BERTBAM GROSVENOB (1869- 
1924 ) An American architect. He was born 
at Pomfret, Conn., was educated at Russell's 
Collegiate and Commercial Institute, New 
Haven, Conn., and studied architecture for six 
and a half years under J. Ren wick. In 1891 
he became a partner in the firm of Cram and 
Wentworth (later Cram, Goodhue, and Fergu- 
son) and in this connection participated in the 
reconstruction and additions to the United 
States Military Academy and in the construc- 
tion of numerous ecclesiastical, academic, li- 
brary, and other buildings (for list of these, 
see CBAM, RALPH ADAMS). In 1914 he was en- 
gaged to plan a new building for Si Bartholo- 
mew's Church, New York. He made the deco- 
rations for fhe Altar Book, contributed articles 
to magazines and to Sylvester Baxter's Spanish 



Colonial Architecture in Mexico (10 vols., 
1903), and is author of Mexican Memories 
(1802). 

GOOD1JLND. A city and the county seat of 
Sherman Co., Kans., 196 miles east of" Denver, 
on the Chicago, Rock Island, and Paid fie Kail- 
road (Map: Kansas, A 4). It contains a 
Carnegie library, has railroad repair shops and 
a grain elevator, and carries on a trade in the 
products of the adjacent farming and stock- 
raising district. There are municipal water 
works. Pop., 1900, 1059; 1910, 1903. 

GOOD'ILAN'S FIELDS THEATRE. A 
London theatre, erected in 1729 and torn down 
in 1746. The theatre erected later upon its site 
was destroyed by fire in 1802. Garrick made 
his appearance on its stage in 1741, and many 
of his most successful performances occurred 
in this playhouse. 

GOOD-NATURED MAN, THE. A comedy 
by Goldsmith, produced by Colman at Covent 
Garden, Jan. 29, 1768. 

GOOD'NOW, FRANK JOHNSON (1859- ), 
An American educator and legal scholar, born 
in Brooklyn, N. Y. He graduated at Aniherat 
College in 1879, at the Columbia Law School in 
1882, and studied at the Ecole Libre des Sciences 
Politiques, Paris, and at the University of Ber- 
lin. Appointed instructor in history and lec- 
turer in administrative law at Columbia L T niver- 
sity in 1883, he was promoted to the rank of 
adjunct professor in 1887 and to a full profes- 
sorship in 1891. In 1906 he was a member of 
the Public Ownership Commission of the Na- 
tional Civic Federation, which investigated 
municipal ownership undertakings in Europe. 
During the years 3913-14 he served as legal 
adviser to the Chinese government. In 1914 
he became president of Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity. His works include: Comparative Ad- 
ministrative Law (1893) ; Municipal Problems 
(1897); Politics and Administration (1900); 
City Government in the United States (1905); 
Principles of the Administrative Laics of the 
United States ( 1905 ) . He was editor of Selected 
Cases on the Law of Taxation (1905) ; Selected 
Gases on Government and Administration ( 1906) ; 
Selected Cases on the Law of Officers (1906); 
Social Reforms and the Constitution (1914). 

GOOD PABLIAMENT. The English Par- 
liament of 1376, famous for its attempts at 
political reform and for its impeachment of 
Latimer, Neville, and others. 

GOOD QUEEN" ANNE. A designation of 
Anne of Bohemia, wife of Richard II of England. 

GOOD QUEEN BESS. A popular name for 
Elizabeth, Queen of England. 

GOOD RE'GENT, THE. A title given to 
James Stuart, Earl of Murray, or Moray, who 
was Regent of Scotland between 1567 and 1570. 

GOOIXBICH, ALFRED JOHN (1847-1920). A 
widely known American musical theorist. He 
was born at Chilo, Ohio, and was practically 
self-taught. He held appointments as professor 
of theory in many of the leading musical insti- 
tutions in the United States and for two years 
served on the faculty of the Martha Washing- 
ton College, Abingdpn, Va. After 1899 he de- 
voted himself to private teaching and writing. 
His essays and other published works include: 
Music as a Language (1880) ; The Art of Song 
(1888); Complete Musical Analysis (1889); 
Analytical Harmony (1894) ; The Theory of In- 
terpretation (1898); Synthetic Counterpoint 
(1903K 



GOODRICH 



134 



GOODRICH 



GOODRICH, CASPAR FREDERICK (1847- 
1925). An American uaval officer, born in Phil- 
adelphia. He graduated from Annapolis in 1864 
and served on the- Macedonian ia the summer 
of that year. Promoted through the various 
grades, he became captain in 1897 and roar ad- 
miral in 1904. He (served as naval attache on 
the staff of Sir Garnet Wolseley during the 
Tel-el-Kebir campaign in 1882, brought the 
Greely relief ship Alert to New York m 1884, 
was in charge of the Torpedo Station in 1SSC- 
89, and was president of the Naval War Col- 
lege in 1897-98. During the Spanish-American 
War he commanded the St. Louis and Xctcarb. 
He was commandant of the Portsmouth (Vti.) 
Navy Yard in 1903-04 and of the Now York 
Navy Yard in 1907-09 and was commander in 
chief of the Pacific squadron in 1903-00. 

GOODRICH, CHARLES AUGUSTUS (1790- 
18G2). An American author, brother of Samuel 
G. Goodrich (q.v.). He was born at Ridgefield, 
Conn.; graduated at Yale in 1812; wuu long 
pastor of congregations at Worcester, Mass., 
Berlin, Conn., and Hartford, Conn.; and became 
favorably known through his writings, which 
include: Lives of tlie Signers to the Declara- 
tion of Independence (1829); Family Tourist 
(1848); Geography of the Chief Places Men- 
tioned in the Bible (1855); History of the 
United States (1852-55; rev. ed., 1867). 

GOODRICH, CIIAUNCEY ALLEN (1790-18CO). 
An American scholar, born at Now Havon, Conn., 
and son of Elizur Goodrich. He graduated at 
Yale University in 1810, was a tutor there from 
1812 till 1814, and then studied theology. He 
was ordained pastor of the First Congregational 
Church in Middletown, Conn., in 1816; in 1817 
he resigned his charge to become professor of 
rhetoric in Yale. This chair he hold until 1839, 
when lie was transferred to that of pastoral 
theology in the Divinity School. He published 
a 0-reek Grammar (1814) ; Greek find Latin Les- 
sons (1832); Select British Eloquence (1852); 
and superintended the abridgment of Webster's 
Dictionary (1847). At the time of MH deatli lie 
was engaged in a reviaion of this work, which 
afterward was published under the supervision 
of Noah Porter (1864). From 1829 till 1838 
Dr. Goodrich edited the Quarterly Spectator. 

GOODRICH, ELIZUH (1734-97). An Ameri- 
can Congregational clergyman. He was born in 
Wethersiield (now Kocky Hill), Conn., gradu- 
ated at Yale in 1752, and from 1750 to 1797 
waa pastor of a church at Durham, Conn. He 
devoted much of his time to the study of the 
mathematical and astronomical sciences and 
wrote an excellent account of the aurora borealis 
of 1789. 

GOODRICH, FRANK Boon (1826-04). An 
American author, son of Samuel Qriswold Good- 
rich. He waa born in Boston, graduated at 
Harvard in 1845, and was for some time the 
Paris correspondent of the New York Times, 
writing under the signature of "Dick Tinto." 
His articles were published in book form in 
1854, under the title Tri-Oolored Sketches of 
Paris, Goodrich also published: The Court of 
Napoleon (1857); History of Maritime Adven- 
ture, Exploration, and Discovery (1858) ; Women 
of Beauty and Heroism ( 1859 ) ; World- Famous 
Women, from Semiramis to Eugenie (1890); 
Remarkable Voyages: or, Man upon the Sea 
(1873). 

GOODRICH, JOSEPH KING (1550- ), 
An American writer on Oriental and other sub- 



jects. He was born in Philadelphia and was 
educated in the Hopkins Grammar School of 
New Haven, Conn. Be organized the depart- 
ment of ethnology in the United States Na- 
tional Museum at Washington in 1881-84, was 
assistant editor of the Smithsonian Institution 
in 1884-80, and from 188(> to 1910 served as 
professor of English at the Imperial Govern- 
ment College at OHaka, Japan, and later at 
Kyoto, Japan. He is author of The Coming 
China (1911); Africa of To-Day (1912); Jtus- 
sid in Europe and Asia (1912) ; The Coming 
Mexico (1913); Our Neighbors The Japanese 
(1913); Coming Hawaii (1914); and articles 
on Chinese and Japanese art, language, and 
literature. 

GOODRICH, SAMUEL GBISWOLD (1793-1800). 
An American author, who wrote under the pseu- 
donym 'Tutor Parley," and perhaps was most 
widely known for his school histories. He was 
born in Ridgefield, Conn., Aug. 19, 1793. tic was 
a book publisher in Hartford, and later in Boston, 
Mass., where he edited the Token, (1828-32), an 
original annual noted for the encouragement 
given to young American authors. Hia nu- 
merous juvenile and educational works gave him 
a wide reputation. Altogether in his life he 
edited or wrote some 170 volumes under his 
pseudonym, of which, however, lie was sole 
author of only the following: The Outcast, and 
Other I'oems (1830) ; Sfnn Well and Jtcap Well: 
or, Household Education (1838); Five letters 
to my A'eigltlwr Mmith (1839); Sketches from 
a Student's Window (1841); Ireland and the 
Irish (1842); />ocms (completed, 1851); Recol- 
lections of a fAfetimc-: or, Men and Things I 
JIavv ticen (1850) ; Peter Parley's Own Story 
(1804). He was United States Consul at Paris 
in 1852, where he published a statistical work 
on the United States. He died at Hartford, 
Conn., May 9, 1800. 

GOODBICH, or GOODEICKE, TTTOMAB 
((.'.1485-1554). An English ecclesiastic. He 
studied at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 
and in 1510 was made u fellow of Jesus College. 
As rector of St. Peter Cheap (1529), he was 
coiiHultcd on the legality of the marriage of 
Catharine of Aragoii and was appointed syndic 
of Cambridge for the settlement of that 'ques- 
tion (1530). Soon after ho became chaplain 
to the King and in 1533 went to France on an 
embassy. In the following year he became 
Bishop of Ely and proved a zealous partisan of 
the Reformation, urging the spiritual headship 
of tue King and helping compile the Bishops' 
Jiook. Under Edward VI he became a member 
of the Privy Council and was one of the com- 
pilers of the Book of Common Prayer. In 1552 
he became Lord High Chancellor and sealed Ed- 
ward's settlement of confession, but was igno- 
rant of its contents. He was pardoned by Queen 
Mary for his part in placing Lady Jane Grey 
on the throne and, although he lost the chan- 
cellorship, was permitted to keep his bishopric 
until his death, May 10, 1554. 

GOODRICH, (Joins') WALLACE (1871- ). 
An American musician, born at Newton, Mass. 
He studied at the Royal Academy of Music, 
Munich, in 1894-95, and in Paris and Leipzig 
for two years, and in 1807 joined the faculty 
of the New England Conservatory of Music, 
where he was appointed dean in 1907. He was 
organist of Trinity Church, Boston (1002-09), 
and of the Boston Symphony Orchestra (1897- 
1009), and conducted (1901-07) the Choral Art 



GOODEICKE 



135 



GOOD WILL 



Society of Boston, which he had founded, the 
Worcester County Musical Association (1902- 
07), the Cecilia Society of Boston (11)07-10), 
and the Boston Opera Company (1000-12). He 
published 8 y Halt us of the Course of Lectures 
upon the Ritual Music of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church in tJte United States of America 
(1J112). 

G-OODBJCKE, THOMAS. See GOODRICH, 
THOMAS. 

GOODS AND CHATTELS. A legal as well 
as popular expression, in common use, to sig- 
nify personal property. The two words are not 
identical in meaning, however, the term "chat- 
tels" being the more extensive in signification 
and including the other. The term ''goods" cor- 
responds closely in meaning to the bona of the 
common law and to movables of the civil law, 
i.e., chattels movable, including domestic ani- 
mals and certain incorporeal rights such as 
copyrights, patent rights, etc.; whereas chat- 
tels includes as well certain rights in land, i.e., 
chattels real, such as estates for years, the in- 
terest of a mortgagee in mortgaged land, etc. 
The term "goods" is now generally employed as 
coextensive in meaning with the old expression, 
"goods, wares, and merchandises," used in the 
seventeenth section of the Statute of Frauds. 
See BONA; CHATTEL. 

G-OOD'SELL, DANIEL AYBES (184(^-1909). An 
American Methodist Episcopal bishop, born in 
Newburgh, N. Y. He graduated at the Uni- 
versity of the City of New York in 1850 and 
soon after entered the Methodist ministry. He 
was elected Bishop in 1888. Besides contribu- 
tions to the religious press, he wrote Nature and 
Character at Granite Bay (1901), a "book which 
in its general character suggests the genius of 
Burroughs; The Things which Remain, an Ad- 
dress to Young Ministers (1904) ; Peter the Her- 
wit, in "Men of the Kingdom Series" (1906). 

GOOD'SHB,, Joim (1814-67). A Scottish 
anatomist, bom at Anstruther, Scotland. He 
studied at St. Andrews University; graduated 
in medicine at the Royal College of Surgeons, 
Edinburgh; practiced in Anstmther; was made 
conservator of the museum of the College of 
Surgeons, Edinburgh (1840) ; acted as lecturer 
on pathology of tumors from 1842 to 1843; was 
assistant professor of anatomy, University of 
Edinburgh, from 1844 to 1846; and succeeded 
Munro as professor of anatomy in 1846. Con- 
sult Memoir, by Turner (Edinburgh, 1868). 

GOOD'SON, KATHARINE (1872- ). A 
distinguished English pianist, born in Watford 
(Hertfordshire). In 1888 she entered the Royal 
Academy of Music, where she studied under 
Beringer until 1892. For four years (1892-96) 
she was a pupil of Leschetizky in Vienna. Im- 
mediately after her return she made her ddbut 
in London, meeting with unusual success. In 
1899-1900 she made a triumphal tour of Ger- 
many and Austria. Her first American tour 
was in 1907, when she was received with such 
enthusiasm that she made several subsequent 
visits. Her special characteristics are a marked 
individuality of style and extraordinary mag- 
netism. In 1903 she was married to the Eng- 
lish composer Arthur Hinton (q.v,)- 

GOODSPEED, (JOSEPH) ARTHTTB WILLIS 
(1860- ). An American physicist, born at 
Hopkinton, N, H. He graduated from Harvard 
University in 1884 and in 1889 from the Uni- 
versity oi Pennsylvania (Ph.D.), where he was 
an assistant in 1884-85. an instructor in 1885- 



89, an assistant professor in 1889-1904, and 
professor of physics after 1904. His scientific 
articles deal mostly with the Rontgen rays and 
their application, with radioactivity, and with 
constants of the induction coil. 

GOOD'SPEED, EDGAB JOHWSOX (1871- \. 
An American Greek scholar, born at Quincy, 
111. He graduated from Denison University 
(Ohio) in 1S90 and studied also at Yale, Chi- 
cago (Ph.D., 1808), and Berlin. After teach- 
ing the classics for several years in preparatory 
schools, he was appointed to the faculty of the 
University of Chicago, becoming associate pro- 
fessor in'lOll. In 3902 he was made assistant 
director of the Haslcell Oriental 3Iuseum. He 
joined the editorial staff of the American Jour- 
nal of Theology and is editor or author of Greek 
Papyri frorn Cairo Museum (1902) ; Asterius, 
with Galusha Anderson (1J104) ; Homeric Vocab- 
ularies, with William B. Owen (1906; 3d ed.. 
1900); Index Patriaticus (1907); The Epistle 
to the Eelreirs (1908) ; Index Apoloyeticus 
(1912); Die f/riecJiische Apologeten, with M. 
Sprenffling (1914); The Freer Oospeh (1014). 

GOOD TEM/FLAItS, INTERNATIONAL ORDER 
OF. A world-wide fraternal society, having for 
its object the promotion of total abstinence for 
the individual and prohibition for the state and 
nation and the world, organized at Syracuse, 
X. Y., in 1851. The flight Worthy Grand Lodge 
was organized at Cleveland, Ohio, in 1855. 

The order was introduced "in England in 1868 
and in a short time spread throughout the civi- 
lized world, its ritual being translated into some 
18 different languages. The question of admis- 
sion of colored persons in 1874 caused a schism 
in the organization; a section of the order then 
organized under the name of the Right Worthy 
Grand Lodge of the World. The two branches 
were reunited through the efforts of John B. 
Finch, R.W.G.T., at Saratoga, N. Y., in 1887. 
The Prohibition party was formed in 1869 by 
a committee appointed by the Right Worthy 
Grand Lodge. The Woman's Christian Tem- 
perance Union was formed in 1874 by Good 
Templar women. The Washingtonian House for 
Inebriates at Chicago, 111., and the Orphans 5 
Home at Vallajo, Cal., were founded by the 
order. The name of the supreme governing 
body of the order has been changed to Inter- 
national Supreme Lodge, which meets trien- 
nially. The College of Good Templary is 
maintained by the order. The course of study, 
covering from one to three years, is designed to 
inculcate the principles of the temperance re- 
form movement. Its graduates receive the de- 
gree of Master of Temperance Literature. 

The organization in 1914 comprised two na- 
tional Grand Lodges (United States and Canada), 
67 Grand Lodges, aggregating 680,665 members, 
including 263,410 in the Juvenile branch, dis- 
tributed through the United States, Great 
Britain, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, 
France, Switzerland, Asia, South Africa, Aus- 
tralia, and New Zealand. Members are required 
to pledge "that they will never buy, sell, use, 
furnish, or cause to be furnished, to others as 
a beverage, any spirituous or malt liquors, wine, 
or cider, and will discountenance the manufac- 
ture and sale thereof in all proper ways." 

GOOD WILL. The favorable disposition or 
inclination of persons to extend their patronage 
to a particular firm or corporation on account 
of the reputation it has established. Good will 
is something more than the probability that 



GOODWIN 



136 



GOODWIN 



old customers will resort to the old place. It 
includes every advantage or benefit accruing to 
a business establishment from its locality, name, 
or common reputation, from its business habits, 
connections, and standing, or from any other 
matter which identifies and distinguishes it 
from other establishments. The good will of 
a business is property as much the subject of 
valuation and transfer as any tangible chattel. 
Tt is an asset of a business and may be taken 
into account in deciding whether a business es- 
tablishment is solvent or insolvent. In a liti- 
gated case in England the good will of a part- 
nership was valued at 20,000. The New York 
Court of Appeals has decided that the good will 
of a corporation organized under the laws of 
another State, but having its place of business 
in Now York, is taxable in New York as property 
employed there by the corporation. Under the 
dissolution of a partnership, as in case of death 
of a partner, the good will of the concern must 
be converted into cash and its proceeds distrib- 
uted, precisely as though it wore tangible prop- 
erty. Upon *a wale of the entire partnership 
business and assets the purchaser becomes en- 
titled to the good will. This includes the sole 
right to hold himself out as the successor of 
the firm. In England and in some of the United 
States ho acquires the right to \ise the old firm 
name, subject only to the qualification that he 
must not hold out the former partners as doing 
business under the old name, while in other 
States such right can be acquired only by express 
agreement to that effect. 

The extent to which the seller of the good 
will of a business can compote with the buyer 
is a subject upon which the authorities are at 
variance. The tendency of modern decisions in. 
England is to limit the seller more narrowly 
than the. courts have felt disposed to do in the 
United States. Accordingly they hold that the 
seller of a good will must not in any way solicit 
patronage from the customers of the old business, 
nor in any way represent himself as succeeding 
to such business. In the absence of a contract 
to the contrary, however, he may engage in the 
same line of business in the same locality and 
in his own name, although that narao may bo 
a part of the old businews name. Tn the- United 
States, on the other hand, the seller of a busi- 
ness may usually compete with the buyor pro- 
vided the competition be fair and free from 
fraud. Tf the purchaser of a good will would 
cut the seller off from soliciting old customers 
ho inust secure from him a contract surrender- 
ing those rights. Consult: Pollock, Digest of 
Partnership, 30 (8th ed., London, 1005); Se- 
bastian, The Law of Trademark* (4th ed., U>., 
3889) j Hopkins, The Law of Trademarks, Trade- 
names, awl Unfair Competition (2d ed., Chi- 
cago, 1005) ; Dicksee and Tillyard, Goodwill 
and Us Tmitm>cnt in Amounts (3d ed., Now 
York, 1006) ; Lindloy, Treatise on tlic Law of 
Partnership (8th cd., Toronto, 1012). See RE- 
STRAINT OF TBA.DK, CONTRACTS IN. 

GOOD'WrN', AJSTIIUR (3503-1043). Ai) Eng- 
lish soldier, prominent during the Civil War in 
England. He studied at Magdalen College, Ox- 
ford, with his lifelong friend, John Hampdeu, 
and with the latter contributed Latin verses to 
the college collection, Luctus Postlviimus, pub- 
lished on the death of Henry, Prince of Wales. 
He became a member of the Inner Temple in 
1613; entered Parliament in 1620 and was 
elected again in 1623, 1625, and 1640; and on 



the outbreak of the Civil War was appointed 
colonel of a regiment of cavalry which proved 
of great assistance to the Parliamentary 
party. In 1642, aided by Hampden and Lord 
Brooke, he defeated the "Earl of Northampton 
at Coventry in Warwickshire, and with the aid 
of Colonel "Hurry drove Lord Digby from Wan- 
tage. In January, 1043, Goodwin was appointed 
commander in chief of the forces of Buckingham- 
shire, was defeated in an attack on Brill, and 
took an active part in the siege of Reading. 

GOODWIN, HARRY MA.NLEY (1870- ). 
An American physicist and chemist, born in 
Boston. He graduated in 1800 from Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology, where, though at 
intervals absent for study at Harvard Univer- 
sity and at the universities of Leipzig and Ber- 
lin, he was a member of the faculty after 1800, 
in 1006 becoming professor of physics and elec- 
trochemistry with supervision of the depart- 
ment of electrochemistry. Ho is known for his 
studies on the voltaic cell, on the viscosity of 
mercury vapor and of fused salts, and on the 
electric conductivity of dilute acid solutions. 
He ia author of I'hytiicat Laboratory Kxpcri-- 
ments (1004; 3d ed., 1011) and Memento of 
the Precisions of McaH-urcmcuitx and Urajriiicdl 
Methods (1008; 4th ed., 1013). 

GOODWIN, JOHN (c. 1594-1 6<i5). An Eng- 
lish Puritan divine. Ho was born in the County 
of Norfolk about 1504, graduated at Queen's 
College, Cambridge, and obtained a fellowship 
there in 1617, Having married, ho gave, up his 
fellowship and took orders, oilioiatintf in various 
places in the county with much acceptance. In 
1632 he removed to London and in 1633 suc- 
ceeded John Davenport (q.v.) at St. Stephens. 
In 1635 he was admonished for leanings towards 
independency. In 1630 he occasioned dissatis- 
faction by insisting on the nocd of a learned 
ministry. In 1642 he published Anti-Cavalier- 
isme, in support of the Parliamentary cauae, 
which received further commendation in Might 
and Right Well Met (1648). In 1043 he 'as- 
sailed the theory of the divine right of kings in 
his Os Ossorianuw, ; or, A Hone, for a Bishop 
and in 1044 denounced the Presbyterians as a 
persecuting party in Oeo/Aaxfo: or, The (Jrand 
Imprudence of Fighting Against Ood. In 1645 
ho was ejected from his living for refusing to 
administer the sacrament to all indiscriminately 
and formed an independent church, which was 
largely attended. At Iho Restoration lie was 
one of 18 incapacitated from holding any puliliu 
trust. He died in 1665. Many of his publica- 
tions, though all in Knglinli, have Greek or 
Latin titles. Ho has been a favorite with Meth- 
odists and been called the ** Wiclif of Methodism/' 
John Wesley abridged his Treatise of JuHlifica* 
tion (London, 1642). Samuel Dunn, a Wes- 
leyan minister, edited his Christian Tfi-eolofft/ 
(London, 1836) from Goodwin's works and 
wrote his life. Hi Redemption ftr-dcomcd was 
ropublitthod in London in 1842. The standard 
life of Goodwin is by Thomas Jackson, another 
Woaleyan nun inter (London, 1822). 

GOODWTNT, NATfiJANiEr.) Cl(AitL) (1857- 
1010). An American actor. Ho was born in 
Boston and after a brief experience in IwsinoHs 
made his do'lmt, on March 5, 1874, at the Howard 
Athenaeum, in a piece called Law in .A r wn York. 
His success in imitating personal peculiarities 
led him to the variety stage, and at Pastor's 
Theatre, in New York (1875), lie became vary 
popular. Later ho made a hit in the burlesque 



GOODWOT 



137 



GOODYEAR 



nf Black-Eyed Nusan. He married in 1877 Eliza 
\VeatherHby, an actress, under whose name his 
company toured successfully. Most of his work 
was in lighter comedy, till in 1889-90 he ap- 
peared as Woolcott in A (Jold Mine. The fol- 
lowing summer lie first played in England. 
Among his productions since have been: A Gilded 
Fool; In Jfizsoura; An American Citizen; 
Xathan Hale, his greatest success (produced in 
Chicago, Jan. 31, 1898) ; The Cowboy and the 
Lady (1809) ; The Altar of Friendship (1902) ; 
A Midsummer 'Sight's Dream (1903); Beauty 
and the Barge (1905). In 1907 he toured in 
repertoire, in 1911 he played in vaudeville, and 
in 1912-13 he made a great success, artistic and 
financial, as Fagin in the centenary production, 
of Oliver Ticist. Consult: Strang, Famous Ac- 
tors of the Day in America (Boston, 1000) ; 
McKay and Wingate, Famous American Actors 
of To-Day (New York, 1896) ; Winter, The Wal- 
let of Time (2 vols., ib., 1913) ; and the auto- 
biographical Nat Goodwin's Book (Boston, 1014). 

GOODWIN", THOMAS (1600-80). An Eng- 
lish divine of the later Puritan period. He was 
born at Rollesby, Norfolk, studied at Cambridge, 
and became a fellow in 1620. In 1625 he was 
licensed a preacher of the university, and three 
years later became lecturer of Trinity Church, 
Cambridge, and was presented the vicarage by 
the King in 1632. Harassed by the interference 
of his Bishop, who was an adherent of Laud, 
he resigned his preferments and left the uni- 
versity in 1634. He then seems to have lived 
for some time in London as a Separatist 
preacher. In 1639 he withdrew to Holland and 
for a few months was pastor of a small con- 
gregation of English merchants and refugees 
at Arnheim. Returning to London soon after 
Laud's impeachment by the Long Parliament 
(1640), he ministered for 10 years to an inde- 
pendent congregation in the parish of St. Dun- 
stan's-in-the-East and rapidly rose to consider- 
able eminence as a preacher. In 1643 he was 
elected a member of the Westminster Assembly 
and. at once identified himself with the Con- 
gregational party. He frequently preached by 
appointment before the House of Commons, and 
in January, 1650, his talents and learning were 
rewarded with the presidentship of Magdalen 
College, Oxford, a post which he held until the 
Restoration (1660). He rose into high favor 
with the Protector and ultimately became some- 
what prominent among his more intimate ad- 
visers. From 1660 until his death, Feb. 23, 
1680, he lived in London and devoted himself 
exclusively to theological study and to the 
charge of a small congregation. Five volumes 
of his works were published at London (1682- 
1704; reprinted in Edinburgh, 1861-66). 

GOODWIN", WTT.T.TAUT WATSON (1831-1912). 
A distinguished American classical scholar, born 
at Concord, Mass. He was graduated from 
Harvard in 1851 and then continued his studies 
at the universities of Bonn, Berlin, and GiJttin- 
gen, receiving from GSttingen the degree of 
Ph.D. in 1855. He was tutor at Harvard (1856- 
60) and Eliot professor of Greek there (1860- 
1901) . In 1901 he became Eliot professor emeri- 
tus. He was the first director of the American 
School of Classical Studies at Athens (1882- 
83) and in 1872 and 1885 was president of the 
American Philological Association. In 1860 he 
published the first edition of his Sywtaa of the 
Moods, and Tenses of the Greek Verb. This work 
has contributed more than any other single book 



in America and England to the elucidation of 
Greek syntax and it has received generous rec- 
ognition in Germany. It was published in re- 
vised and enlarged form in 1865 and 1890. He 
published also a Greek Grammar (1870; last 
ed., 1893). Both these books owed much, in 
their later editions, to the writings of B. L. 
Gildersleeve (q.v.). He edited also Demosthenes 
On the Croicn (Cambridge, 1901) and Demos- 
thenes Against Meidias (ib., 1906), scholarly 
works both, showing thorough knowledge of At- 
tic law and Greek history. He was also a con- 
tributor to American journals and scientific pub- 
lications, especially to the Transactions of the 
American Philological Association and Harvard 
Studies. Professor Goodwin received the degree 
of LL.D. from Amherst (1881), Cambridge, Eng- 
land (1883), Columbia (1887), Edinburgh 
(1890), Harvard (1891), Chicago (1901), Yale 
(1901); D.C.L., Oxford (1890); and was also 
Knight of the Greek Order of the Saviour. Con- 
sult Gildersleeve, American Journal of Philology, 
xxxiii, 367-368 (New York, 1912), and Eliot, 
William Watson G-oodidn (Boston, 1913). 

OOODWIN SANDS. Dangerous banks of 
shifting sands stretching for a distance of about 
10 miles northeast and southwest, 5 to 12 miles 
off the east coast of Kent, England (Map: Eng- 
land, H 5 ) . The sands are divided into two 
portions by a narrow channel, and at low water 
many parts are uncovered. When the tide re- 
cedes, the sand becomes firm and safe; but dur- 
ing the flow the water permeates the mass, ren- 
dering the whole pulpy and treacherous, in which 
condition it shifts to such a degree as to render 
charts uncertain from year to year. They have 
always been dangerous to vessels passing through 
the Strait of Dover, bound either for the Thames 
or traversing the North Sea. They serve, how- 
ever, as a breakwater to form a secure anchor- 
age in the Downs (q.v.) when east or southeast 
winds are blowing, but become dangerous when 
the wind blows strongly off shore, at which time 
ships are apt to drag their anchors and to strand 
upon the Goodwin breakers, in the shifting sands 
of which their wrecks are soon entirely swal- 
lowed up. Many celebrated and terribly fatal 
wrecks have occurred here, and many gallant 
rescues by local seamen have been made. Nu- 
merous buoys, fog sirens, warning guns, four 
lightships, and the North and South Foreland 
lighthouses now afford a valuable system of 
warning and protection. These sands are said 
to have consisted at one time of about 4000 
acres of lowland, fenced from the sea by a wall. 
At the period of the Norman Conquest these 
estates were taken from Earl Godwin and be- 
stowed upon the abbey of St. Augustine at Can- 
terbury, the abbot of which allowing the sea 
wall to fall into a dilapidated condition, in the 
year 1100, the sea rushed in and submerged the 
whole. Near the Goodwin Sands the Dutch won 
a naval victory over the English in 1652. 

GOOIXWOOD. An estate of the Duke of 
Richmond and Gordon, 3 miles east of Chiches- 
ter, Sussex, England, chiefly noted for the annual 
race meeting held in July on the course estab- 
lished in the park in 1802. The castle, an eight- 
eenth-century structure, has a fine collection 
of portraits by old masters; the park is cele- 
brated for the beauty and variety of its trees 
and contains herds of deer. In it is a temple 
containing a Roman relief of Neptune and Mi- 
nerva found at Chichester. 

OOODTEAB, CHABUSS (1800-60). An 



GOODYEAR 138 

American inventor, born at New Haven, Conn. 
He was the son of an iron manufacturer, with 
whom, at the age of 21, he went into business 
in Philadelphia. Unsuccessful in the iron trade, 
his attention was attracted to the manufacture 
of India rubber, and he expended all his means 
in experiments with various mixtures and proc- 
esses which should remedy the fatal defects 
of India rubber in its natural state, since it is 
brittle in cold weather and sticky in warm 
weather. His efforts were a aeries of failures, 
excepting a partial success in treating the sur- 
face of rubber goods with nitric acid, until he 
bought of one Hayward, a rival experimenter, 
an invention for mixing India rubber with sul- 
phur. The great secret of vulcanizing a proc- 
ess in which the two substances, submitted to 
a high temperature, are converted into the elas- 
tic, enduring, and heat-and-cold-defying material 
now in use was an accidental discovery made 
by Ooodyear while standing by a stove and idly 
subjecting a mixture of rubber and sulphur to 
its heat. This new prodxict he patented in 
1844, discovering new usos to which it could bo 
applied, until it required 00 patents to secure 
his inventions. Some of these rights, were se- 
cured by other persons in England, and in France 
they were forfeited by an informality; so that, 
by these means and from expensive lawsuits, lie 
gathered little save the honors awarded to his 
skill and perseverance. See RUIJBER. Consult 
biographical sketch in Parton, Famous Awcri- 
oans of Recant Times (Boston, 1807; lltli od., 
1807), and B. K. Peirce, Trials of an Inventor 
(New York, 1806). 

OOODTEAB,, ELLSWORTH D. S. (1827- 
1910). An American soldier and inventor, born 
at New Haven, Conn. In 1840 he moved to 
New York City, where he engaged in the rubber 
trade. Sharing in the experiments that have 
gained renown for his family's namo, he himself 
invented a process of making hollow rubber 
goods. During the Civil War he was captain 
for three years of a company of the Tenth Con- 
necticut Volunteers. Promoted lieutenant col- 
onel, he commanded a regiment in General 
Grant's line of battle before Petersburg, Va. 
On April 2, 1865, he led the assault on Fort 
Gregg and in spite of frightful IOHBCH Rucooedod 
in holding the position gained by his regiment. 
For this service he was brevettecl brigadier gen- 
eral. In 3867 he was a member of the Connecti- 
cut Legislature, and from 1868 to 1884 he was 
United States customhouse inspector at New 
Haven, Conn. 

GOOPYEAR, WILLIAM HENRY (1840-192,1). 
An American art historian and curator. He 
was born in New Haven, Conn., the son of 
Charles Goodyear (q.v.), the inventor; grad- 
uated at Yale in 1867; and studied art history 
in Heidelberg and in Berlin (1807-70). He 
traveled extensively in Europe and the near 
Orient in making his original studies, especially 
in architecture. From 1881 to 1886 he was 
curator in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 
New York, and after 1890 he was curator of 
line arts in the Brooklyn Institute Museum. 
Professor Goodyear is especially known for his 
discoveries in the architectural refinements, par- 
ticularly in naediceval church buildings. In nu- 
merous contributions to scientific periodicals he 
demonstrated that Egyptian, Greek, Roman, 
and mediccval buildings are constructed with 
intentional asymmetry, intended for optical ef- 
fects. He became honorary member of societies 



GOOLE 

in Rome, Edinburgh, Milan, and Venice, and a 
corresponding member of the Society of American 
Architects. His principal pxiblications include: 
A History of Art (1887) ; The (Jrammar o\ the 
Lotus (1891) ; Roman and Mediccval Art ( 1893) ; 
Renaissance of Modern Art (1894); Greek Re- 
finements (1912). 

GOODY TWO-SHOES. A familiar nursery 
tale, published by Nowbery in 1705 and ascribed 
to Oliver Goldsmith. 

GOOGE, gooj, BABNABE (1540-04). An Eng- 
lish poet. He was born in 1540 at Alviiigham 
in Lincolnshire, studied at Cambridge and at 
Oxford, traveled on the Continent, and on his 
return became one of the gentlemen pensioners 
in the court of Queen Elizabeth. Consult "Eg- 
logs, Epytaphes, and Sonnetcs" originally pub- 
lished in 1C63 in Arbor, English Reprints ( Lon- 
don, 1871), and The Popish Kingdom c (1570), 
a verse translation from the Latin of Thomas 
Naogoorgus (i.e., Thomas Kirchmaycr), ed. by 
Hope (London, 1880). 

GOO'KIN, DANIEL (1012-87). A New Eng- 
land soldier and historian, horn in Kent, Eng- 
land. Gookin came with his father to Virginia 
in 1621, but, sympathizing rather with this Puri- 
tan than with the Cavalier, he moved, in 1044, 
to Cambridge, Mass., where he was aoon made 
captain of militia and elected to the House of 
Deputies, of which ho became Speaker in 1051. 
In 1052 he was elected magistrate and in 1056 
appointed superintendent of all Indians under 
civil authority. ITe held this oilice till death 
in spite of unpopularity occasioned by tho pro- 
tection he gave to his wards during and after 
King Philip's War. He was associated with 
Eliot in mission work among the India us. He 
visited England in 1050 and again in 1057, efli- 
ciently protecting on his return in 1000 the fugi- 
tive regicides dofTe and Whalley. Fn 1074 he 
wrote Historical Collections of the Indians of 
Massachusetts (published by the MassaclniaettH 
Historical Society, 1792), and later n never- 
published and now lost History of New fingland. 
In 1077 lie iiniahed .-! Historical Account of -the 
Doings and Ruffe-rings of the (Jlirintiun fwliantt 
of Nflio England, whieh was Rent to England, and 
there lost for over a century and a half, when 
it WUB found and printed in' 1830 by the. Ameri- 
can Antiquarian Society. Fn 1081 (lookin was 
made major general of the Colony and wtiH an 
active asserter of popular rights in the agita- 
tion which preceded the withdrawal of tho Co- 
lonial Charter (1080). He was a man of line 
character and an historian of balanced judg- 
ment and dignified, though not easy, style. 'Con- 
sult K. W. Gookin, Daniel (lookin . . . his lAfe 
and Letters (privately printed, Chicago, 1912). 

GOOLE, gool. A market town and river port 
in the West Hiding of Yorkshire, England, 22 
miles south-southeast of York, on the, right bank 
of the OUBO at its junction with the Don, 47 
miles from the open se,a at tho month of tho 
Number (Map: England, F 3). Tho town is \yoll 
built and possesses line modern public huild- 
inga. Water and gas arc supplied by private 
companies. It has iron foundries, ship and 
boat-building establishments, and extensive man- 
ufactories of woolen and cotton goods, ropes, 
sails, alum, sugar, and agricultural implements. 
It has a commodious harbor, wet and dry docks, 

Siiays, and warehouses, and imports raw wool, 
ncn yarn, timber, logwood, indigo, oil, wina, 
farm produce, and groceries. Its chief exports 
are coal, woolen and linen goods, and machinery. 



GOORKHAS 



139 



GOOSE 



It has a passenger service with Antwerp, Am- 
sterdam, Copenhagen, and other ports in north 
Europe. The value of its imports for 1912 
amounted to aboiit $44,581,000 and its exports 
to $54,891,000. The total tonnage of vessels 
entered and cleared in foreign and colonial trade 
was 1,44!), 101 tons. Its rise from an obscure 
hamlet dates from the opening of the Knot- 
tingley Canal, which brought about its establish- 
ment as a bonded port in 1829. Pop., 1901, 
Kv376; 1911, 20,332. 

GOORKHAS, goorlvas. See GURKHAS. 

GOOROO, goo'roo. See GURU. 

GOOSANDER. See MEBGANSEB. 

GOOSE (AS. yds, Jcel. gas, OHG-. gans, Ger. 
Gans; connected with Lat. anser, Gk. xfa ch&n, 
Oh*, t/eitt, Lith. zansls, Skt. hamsa, goose, also 
ultimately with OHG. ganazzo, AS. ganot, Eng. 
gamict, and AS. gandra, Eng. gander). A web- 
footed bird of the subfamily Anserinse, of the 
family Anatidoe, order Anseres (q.v.). The geese 
are closely allied to the swans on the one hand 
and to the ducks on the other. They differ from 
the swans in having the lores feathered and 
from the ducks in having the tarsi reticulate 
and the sexes alike in color. The geese form 
a fairly well-defined group of about 40 species 
found in all parts of the world. They are mostly 
larger than ducks and have longer necks. They 
are more terrestrial and many times are to be 
seen feeding on land herbage. They walk better 
than ducks, the legs not being quite so far back. 
Most of them are good eating, but there are a 
few, which are animal feeders, whose flesh is 
rank. Like the swans, they resent intrusion by 
hissing with outstretched neck. They utter 
characteristic notes called honking when on the 
wing. They generally fly in companies, each 
led by an old gander, which they follow in a 
wedgelike formation. 

Wild Geese. Of the ten or twelve species of 
geese occurring in the United States, all but 
two or three breed in the far north and are mi- 
grants and winter visitants south of Canada. 
The common wild goose (Brant a canadensis) is 
abundant throughout North America. It is 
about 3 or 3% feet long and 5 feet across the 
wings. The head and neck are black, with a 
white patch on the chin; general color brownish 
gray, paler below. The nest is usually on the 
ground, but sometimes in trees. The eggs are 
usually five or six, plain buffy white. A re- 
markable Arctic goose is the emperor goose 
(Philacte canagica), about two-thirds as large 
as the common goose, abundant on the shores of 
Bering Sea; the flesh is said to be rank and 
unfit for food. The snow goose (Chen hyper- 
loreus) is a pure- white one, found throughout 
America, but rather rare in eastern parts. The 
so-called "tree ducks" (Dendrocygna) are tropi- 
cal American geese occurring as far north as 
Texas in the summer. They are only about 20 
inches long and are colored with various shades 
of yellowish and reddish brown. They make 
their nests in hollow trees, often some distance 
from water. 

Among the notable geese of the Old World 
must be mentioned the graylag goose (Anser 
anser), which is thought to be the ancestral 
stock of the common domesticated goose. (See 
Colored Plate with WATER Bnros.) It is found 
in central Europe and Asia and in north Africa. 
Another, common in Great Britain, is the bean 
goose (Anser falxiUs), small and brownish, with 
a black "nail" on the beak. The spur-winged 
VOL. X.10 



goose (Plectropterus gamlensis} is a purplish- 
black bird, with prominent spurs on the wings, 
found in Africa. In Australia there are two 
very remarkable geese one (Anserancts semi- 
palmata) with the feet little more than half 
webbed, and the other (Ccreopsis noi-fe-hollan- 
dice}, a scarcely aquatic bird, with long legs 
having the tibia partly bare and the bill small 
and membranous. Among the best known of 
the geese are the brants and barnacle geese 
(qq.v.). Consult D. G. Elliot, Wild Fowl of 
the United States and British Possessions (New 
York, 1808): and L. H. D. Shaw, Wild Foicl 
(ib., 1903). See Plate of NOBTH AMERICAN 
WILD DUCKS in the article DUCK. 

Domestic Geese. The domestication of the 
goose was very easy and doubtless began as soon 
as men began to 'remain in fixed settlements. 
They are among the animals figured on the 
olde'st Egyptian and Asiatic monuments, and the 
Oriental breeds were no doubt derived from local 
wild species, especially the great Chinese swan, 
or "guinea" goose (Cygnopsis i'i/gnoidcs) , whose 
true home is in the valley of the Amur River. 
This is the largest of living geese, and wild 
and domesticated specimens are freely crossed 
to this day 'with other breeds. The basis of the 
domestic geese of Europe, however, is the gray- 
lag above described ; and this kind waa imported 
by the early colonists to America, where some 
admixture has taken place with local wild geese. 
Formerly the cultivation of geese was more ex- 
tensive and important than at present. Great 
herds of geese were annually driven slowly from 
western Europe to Rome, where botli flesh and 
feathers (down) were in great demand. Previ- 
ous to the invention of metallic pens goose quills 
supplied all the pens used and formed a large 
article of trade now almost obsolete. In south- 
ern England goose culture was formerly far 
more extensive than at present, many thousands 
being driven to market every fall; and goose 
fattening in Holland and Germany is still a 
great industry, especially in the neighborhood 
of Strassburg. The long domestication of geese, 
however, has brought about remarkably little 
variation. As is pointed out by Darwin in his 
Animals and Plants under Domestication, the 
change has been little more than a considerable 
increase in size and fecundity, and a tendency 
to lose the brownish tints of the wild stock and 
become spotted with white or altogether white. 
The last feature has resulted not only from a 
preference for pure white which has prevailed 
ever since the time of the Romans, but from the 
former cruel practice of phicking geese alive, 
the new feather produced by the injured skin 
being usually white. 

The standard breeds commonly raised in the 
United States are gray Toulouse, white Embden, 
gray African, brown Chinese, white Chinese, 
gray Wild, and colored Egyptian. A number of 
crossbred geese have also given good results. 
In general Toulouse geese are more compact in 
form than are other breeds and for this reason 
are preferred by many. The head is rather large 
and short and the bill comparatively short. The 
neck is carried well up and is of medium length. 
The breast is broad and deep. The body of the 
Toulouse gooae is moderate in length, broad, 
deep, and compact. In birds .of good condition 
the belly almost touches the ground. The wings 
are large and strong, the tail comparatively 
short, the thighs and shanks stout. In color 
the plumage is gray. The standard weight of 



GOOSE 



140 



GOOSEBERRY 



the adult gander is 20 pounds; adult goose, 
20; young gander, 18; and young goose, 15 
pounds. They are termed Christmas geese, since 
they mature later than others and are in season 
at the holiday time. They are fairly good lay- 
ers, averaging 40 eggs in a season. See Colored 
Plate of DUCKS. 

White Embden geese are beautiful birds of 
large size, tall and erect carriage, snow-white 
plumage, and are about as heavy as the gray 
Toulouse goose. They originally came from Emh- 
den in Westphalia and have been bred in the 
United States for many years. They are con- 
sidered a very satisfactory breed to raise. Gray 
African geese are by many considered the most 
profitable of all. They grow very rapidly and 
are ready for market in 10 weeks, weighing at 
that age between S and 10 pounds. According 
to standard weights they are as heavy as Tou- 
ouse and Embden, but heavier specimens are 
not uncommon. 

The brown and white Chinese goose aro smallor 
than those previously mentioned, and probably 
for this reason less popular. The domesticated 
gray wild geese are satisfactory and are gen- 
erally bred throughout the United States. They 
are very highly prized for table purposes, are 
good layers, hardy, and easy to raise. The 
standard weight of the adult gander is 16 
pounds; adult goose, 14 pounds; young gander, 
12 pounds; and young goose, 10 pounds. 

The colored Egyptian geese are purely orna- 
mental, being seldom bred for other purposes 
than the showroom. They are sometimes called 
Nile geese. They aro tall and slender. The 
color of the head is black and gray; the bill is 
purple or bluish red, and the eyes orange. The 
neck and back are gray and black; the centres 
of the breast is chestnut, with the other part 
gray. The upper parts of the plumage of the 
body are gray and black, and the under parts 
are a pale yellow, penciled with black. 

Breeding. Geese aro long-lived birds, some 
having been known to attain the age of 40 years. 
Birds 15 and 20 years old are not uncommon. 
Mature geese, at 'least two years old, should 
always be used for breeding. Breeding stock 
^ should be pastured in the fall and later fed on 
' grain with some beef scraps. Ten per cent of 
the ration should bo green feed, stewed clover 
and cooked vegetables. The eggs may bo hatched 
by hens or by geese. When goslings are, four or 
five days old, they arc able to take care of them- 
selves, but should always be cooped at night. 
The first food of goslings is grass fed as sod, 
and a little corn meal sometimes mixed with 
a little sand and charcoal. Very soon they may 
be fed a mixture of ground grains, grasH, and 
vegetable food. When young geese are fattened, 
they should be placed in a rather small pen, so 
that they mav not exercise too much, and should 
be fed three times a day a mixture of corn meal 
and beef scraps. They should be kept as quiet 
as possible. At 10 weeks of age, or when tho 
tips of the wings reach the tail, they should be 
ready for market. Geese require a wider range 
than do ducks and, unlike the latter, will not 
do well unless they have access to water. 

Economic Uses. Geese are valuable for their 
feathers, quills, eggs, and as food. The flesh is 
most commonly roasted. It contains on an aver- 
age some 18 per cent refuse (waste, bones, etc.) 
and 82 per cent edible portion. The edible por- 
tion has, on an average, the following per- 
centage composition: water, 46.7; protein, 16.3; 



fat, 36.2: and ash, O.S. Cjoone livers are es- 
teemed a delicacy. The liver, morbidly enlarged 
by excessive feeding combined with luck of ex- 
ercise, is used for making a delicately seasoned 
food called pate dc foic grttft, for the manu- 
facture of which Strasbourg is especially famous. 
In Germany the breast is pickled and smoked 
under the name of Pomeranian goose breast. 
Goose fat is used to a large extent for culinary 
purposes, especially by Mohammedans and 
Jews. Consult Howard, "Ducks and Geese," in 
United States Department of Agriculture, Farm- 
ers' Bulletin No. 6J/ (Washington, 1H97). 

GOOSE, TAILOR'S. A name applied to the 
smoothing iron used by tailors and supposed to 
have been given on account of the shape of the 
handle, which somewhat resembles the neck of 
a goose. 

GOOSE BAROSTACLE. See BARNACLE. 

GOOSEBERRY, gooz'ber-rl or goos'-. The 
fruit of a prickly shrub of the genus Riles, 
family Saxifragacerc. The genus in common 
throughout the north temperate zone, being 
represented by numerous species in America, 
Europe, and Asia, the great majority of which 
belong to North America. Of all these only 
four or five species have attained prominence 
in cultivation. The currant (q.v.) (Ribcs ru- 
briim] iw one of the most important representa- 
tives of the genus and carries its distribution 
into the Orient. In the gooseberry, however, 
we flnd a very popular shrub in both the New 
and the Old World; it is especially prized in 
England, where it haH attained itw highest per- 
fection, and where it has been in cultivation 
from the sixteenth century. Since it occurs 
only sparingly in southern Europe, where the 
grape thrives so well, it is little wonder that 
the gooseberry was neglected by the Greeks and 
Romans, even if they were familiar with it. 
The European gooseberry (Ribvs grossularia) 
is in its natural state a strong-growing upright 
shrub with very formidable spines upon the 
branches and a hairy, more or less spiny, fruit. 
It is the progenitor of all the mammoth-fruited 




FEtJITING TWIG OF QOOSEBEBDT. 

varieties which have caused so much emulation 
among the gardeners of England, who have pro- 
duced fruits weighing aa much aa ,'30 penny- 
weights; the unimproved fruits hardly average 
four pennyweights in weight. Varieties of this 
species were brought to America by the early 
pioneers, but the climate was uncongenial, and 
they suffered from disease and soon perished. 
Not until the middle of the nineteenth century 
could America claim to have a cultivated goose* 



GOOSEBERRY 



141 



GOPHEB 



berry, and then only a seedling of one of the 
wild forms, JKibes oxyacantlioidcs, common 
throughout the country. This was Houghton's 
seedling, which, however, is not the most com- 
mon wild species even at its place of origin 
(Massachusetts). It was soon followed by one 
of its own progeny, Downing's seedling, or 
Downing. The popularity and universal culti- 
vation of these two, which are still in the lead, 
is due largely to their ability to resist mildew. 
\Vith the advent of spraying to check plant 
diseases a new era opened for European goose- 
berries in America; and since 1890 the English 
varieties have been planted with more assurance 
of success. There are now numerous hybrids 
of the European with native species, which 
promise to combine the resistant characters of 
the latter with the desirable size, color, and 
form of the former. 

The gooseberry is easily propagated by means 
of suckers, cuttings, and layers; cuttings are 
most frequently employed, as they grow readily 
and give a well-formed plant. The gooseberry 
thrives on all good arable soils and demands the 
same treatment as the currant. It is usually 
planted 3 by 6 feet apart in field culture, kept 
free from weeds, and sprayed with an arsenical 
poison early in the season to protect it from 
the worm which is as fond of it as it is of the 
currant. If the English varieties are grown, 
the poison must be supplemented with a fungi- 
cide. The fruits of the gooseberry are used 
extensively for jelly, jam, marmalade, etc., both 
in England and in America. The ripe fruits 
are also used to some extent in the manufacture 
of wines and vinegar. 

Besides the two species above mentioned, the 
following species, being ornamental, should re- 
ceive more attention than they do from horti- 
culturists: the snow-flowered gooseberry (Ribes 
niveum), a native of the northwestern coast of 
America, is remarkable for its beautiful white 
pendulous flowers and its acid berries, which 
in size and color resemble black currants and 
which make delicious pies. Ribes speoiosum is 
ornamental in pleasure grounds and is remark- 
able for its shining leaves, as well as for its 
flowers having four stamens, instead of five, 
as in other species, and for the great length 
of the filaments. Riles sa&atile, a native of 
Siberia, and other species, forming a subgcnua 
called Botrycaryum, have a character somewhat 
intermediate between currants and gooseberries, 
being prickly shrubs, but having their flowers 
in racemes. Ribes sa&atile has small, smooth, 
globose, dark-purple berries, like currants. Con- 
sult Card, Bwth Fruits (New York, 1898). 

GOOSEBERRY, INSECTS INJUBIOUS TO THE. 
The gooseberry is injuriously attacked by sev- 
eral borers, etc., harmful to currants. (See 
CUBBANT INSECTS.) Two caterpillars, how- 
ever, are especially harmful. The most prom- 
inent one in the Old World is the magpie moth 
(Abraaas gros&ulariata) , closely related to the 
cankenvorm, whose caterpillar is the worst 
enemy of the gooseberry in Europe. In the 
United States the most damage is done by the 
gooseberry fruitworm (DaJcruma convolMtella) , 
the larva of a pyralid moth about an inch 
across the wings, which are "pale gray crossed 
near the base by a dark diffuse band which is 
divided by a whitish line." The eggs are laid 
by the female moths on the young fruit, one 
on each; and when the young hatch, they bore 
into the berry and feed on the pulp. The cater- 



pillars are about an inch in length, pale green, 
with brownish heads. As they grow, they bind 
several berries together with silk. Finally they 
drop to the ground, form cocoons beneath the 
leaves, and spend the winter there in the pupa 
state, from which they emerge in the spring. 
The only practical and effective remedy seems 
to be to watch the bushes and pick off and 
destroy the reddish infected berries early in 
the season. The small clearwing (^Bgeria 
tipuliformc) is also harmful in some places. 




GOOSEBERRT INSECTS. 

a, gooseberry moth (Abraxas orossulariata] and larva; 
6, currant borer, the clearwing (JEgeria tipuliforme). 

GOOSE BIRD. A gunner's local name in the 
United States for the Hudsonian godwit (q.v.)- 

GOOSETISH. See ANGLER. 

GOOSE FLOWER. See ABISTOLOCIIIA. 

GOOSE'FOOT. See CHEXOPODIUM. 

GOOSE GRASS, or CLEAVEBS ((folium apa- 
rtjie). A coarse-stemmed annual species of bed- 
straw with whorls of six to eight leaves. The 
hispid stems, leaves, and fruit cling to cloth- 
ing and to animals. A somewhat common 
species is (falium tricorne, introduced from 
Europe into a number of places in the United 
Status. There are about 50 species in the United 
States, none of which are of much importance 
except as weeds. The name is also applied to 
some true grasses. See ELEUSINE; BEDSTBAW. 

GOOSE HAWK* See GOSHAWK. 

GOOTOO (Jamaica negro). A name in 
Jamaica for various small globefishes (q.v.). 

G. O. P. (GBAND OLD- PABTY). A popular 
name for the Republican party (q.v.K 

GO'PHER. A name of somewhat indefinite 
significance. Ft is a corruption of the French 
word ffaiiffrc, a honeycomb, applied by French 
settlers in America to burrowing animals which 
''honeycomb" the soil. 

h Any of several American rodents, belong- 
ing to two diatinct families, the Geomyida and 
the Sciuridue, subfamily Spermophilina. The 
true gophers belong to the first-mentioned fam- 
ily, the spermophiles being more properly 
ground squirrels (q.v.). The Geomyidae are 
known as pouched rats, or pocket gophers. They 
are characterized by very large external cheek 
pouches which are lined with fur. These do not 
communicate with the mouth, but open beside it. 
In some species they run along the whole side 
of the neck as far back as the shoulders. These 
pouches seem to be used largely for carrying 
food. The front feet haye large claws and are 
otherwise fitted for digging. The tail is short, 
and the ears are small. There are only two 
genera Qeomys, with perhaps half a dozen 
species, and Thomomys, with four or five smaller 
species. All of the pouched rats are confined 
to the western half of North America, except two 
species of Gcomys, which occur in the Gulf 



GOPHER SNAKE 



142 



GOPPIWGEN 



States, and they range from Central America 
northward to British Columbia. The most com- 
mon species (Geomys_ bursarius) is found in Can- 
ada, Missouri, Illinois, Iowa, Texas, Mexico, and 
the Gulf States, but not north of the Saskatche- 
wan River. It is about 9 inches long, with an 
almost hairless tail about 2 inches long, and 
weighs about 13 ounces. Its legs are short; 
forefeet strong and well adapted for burrowing, 
having five claws," the three middle ones very 
large and long. The claws on the hind feet are 
small, but the two middle ones longer than tho 
others, the interior one being almost rudimen- 
tary. It has 20 teeth 8 upper and 8 lower 
molars, and 4 incisors, which are very strong, 
especially the lower pair, which are much 
stronger than the upper. The oars are very 
small. The animal is reddish brown on tho 
back and sides, ashy beneath, and has white 
feet. It burrows in sandy soils, throwing up 
the earth in little mounds, and its work is sur- 
prisingly rapid and extensive. It subsists on 
grass, roots, nuts, buds, and farm vegetables. 
The roots of trees often suffer severely from its 
attacks. The pouches which cover the side of 
the head are capable of being so distended as 
to enable the animal to carry a considerable 
load of provisions. The true Southern gopher, or 
Georgia hamster (Gcomys tusa), is a larger ani- 
mal, found in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. By 
a strange misapplication of names the gopher** 
of the Southern States are often called "sala- 
manders," although the latter word is almost 
universally applied to the tailed amphibians, 
and its use should properly be confined to that 
group. On the Pacific coast there are several 
kinds of gophers. Some are G 1 /^ inches long, 
with a tail nearly 3 inches; cheek pouches large, 
resembling tho thumb of a glove, hanging down 
by the side of the head. When in the act of 
emptying its pouches, the animal sits on its 
hams, like a marmot or squirrel, and squeezes 
the sacks against its breast with its chin and 
forepaws. All those not inhabiting warm cli- 
mates hibernate. A familiar species in the 
Northwest is the camaas rat (T homo my s tal- 
poides) . 

Similar animals inhabit the plains of other 
parts of the world, as South Africa, "Russia, Tar- 
tary, and India. Everywhere that civilization 
has caused a lessening of natural enemies, such 
as weasels, badgers, skunks, foxen, wolves, 
hawks, owls, serpents, and the like, these ani- 
mals have increased to the proportions of a 
pest and must be combated by poison, by flood- 
ing their burrows, suffocating with wulphur 
ftutnes, or similar means; in view of which such 
native carnivorous animals and birds as tho 
coyote, badger, skunk, ferret, and all the hawks 
and owls should be preserved to the limits of 
toleration as assistants in keeping down those 
and other harmful rodents, such as tho mice. 
See accompanying Plate and article POCKET 
GOPHER for illustrations of skull, face, and 
claws. Consult: Coues, Goomys and- Thomomyti 
(Washington, 1875); Merriam, Monographic 
Revision of the Pocket Gophers (Washington, 
189.5); Hcrrick, The Mammals of Minnesota 
(Minneapolis, 1892) ; Seton, Life-Histories of 
Northern Animals (Wow York, 1909). 

2. A tortoise. See GOPHEB TORTOISE. 

3. A serpent. See GOPHER SNAKE. 

GOPHER SNAKE (so called because it bur- 
rows like a gopher), or INDJGO SNAKE. A large 
colubrine serpont (Oomjwosoma, or Spilotes, co- 



rais con peri) of the southern Unitod States, 10 
feet in length, black, with reddish markings 
about the mouth and forward part of the belly. 
It is regarded by the negroes as a mortal enemy 
of the rattlesnake (see KIXG SNAKE) and is 
rarely molested by them. This variety passes 
into a variety (mclanurus) of Mexico and Cen- 
tral America, and that into the typical Comp- 
sosoma corals of South America, which is light 
brown, with a blade oblique stripe on each side 
of the neck. 

GOPHER STATE. Minnesota. See STATES, 
POPULAR NAMES OF. 

GOPHER TORTOISE. A turtle (Xerobates 
or Tcxtudo, polyphetnus) of the sandy coast dis- 
tricts of the southern United States. The shell, 
brown and black above and yellow bolpw, meas- 
ures 15 inches in length, the females being larger 
than the males. Those tortoises are strong ani- 
mals, burrowing deeply into the soil, whore they 
pass the hot part of the day in pairs and hi- 
bernate in winter, and whence they come out at 
night in search of vegetable food. They arc 
numerous and somewhat gregarious, especially 
in Florida, and do much damage in gardens and 
among root crops. The rural negroes Hoek thorn 
for food and also search for their buried eggs, 
which are as large as the eggs of a pigeon and 
five in number. The animal is thus an impor- 
tant food resource in Florida, where it i cap- 
tured largely in pit traps. Other similar spo- 
cies inhabit the southwestern Territories tind 
northern Mexico. 

GOPHER WOOD. The wood of which Noah's 
ark was made (Gen. vi. 14). The word occurs 
only in this passage, is not found in the Semitic 
languages otlier than Hebrew, and its true moan- 
ing ia not known. It has been conjectured to 
be akin to the Hebrew kophcr (bitumen) or 
(/ophrith (pitch), to bo a resinous wood like the 
cedar or the cypress, or to correspond to the 
Assyrian gipant (rood). If the last meaning 
is accepted, it is well to remember that the 
kufa now in use on the rivers and canals of 
Babylonia are made of willow branches, palm 
loaves etc., closely interwoven like baskotwork, 
with a coat of bitumon on the inside. 

GOPPERT, ge'port, HEiNKton' ROBERT ( 1800- 
84). A German paleontologist and botanist, 
born at Sprottau and educated at Breslau 
and Berlin. He was teacher at tho, Medico- 
Chirurgical Institute in 1827-30 and in 1831 be- 
came professor of botany at the Univerwity of 
Breslau. During the last 3-1 years of his life he 
was director of the botanical garden of Bres- 
lau. Besides his important compilation and 
classification of all fossilized plants known be- 
fore I860 in Brown's Index Palccontolofficus 
(1848-50), ho wroto a. very large number of 
works, chiefly on vegetable physiology and phyto- 
paleontology. Among those are: DIG foKftilan 
Konlferen rcrgliohcn mit denen rfcr tMsstiwIt, 
with 58 platew (1850) ; RJtitssscn our Konntnifi tier 
Urwiildw Rohmens nnd Sohlesicns (1808) ; 
Ueoer (lie fosnile Flartt der siktrisoMn, devoni* 
sr.hen, und untem Kohlcnformation ( 18(50 ) ; Die 
Flora den Benistcins (1883). 

G5PPINGEKT, gg'pmg-en. A town of the 
Kingdom of Wlirttemberg, Germany, situated, 
1030 feet above sea level, on the Fila, 26 miles 
by rail from Stuttgart (Map: Germany, C 4). 
It has an old castle, built in the sixteenth cen- 
tury. The town is an important industrial 
centre with manufactures of cloth, leather, 



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GOPURA 



143 



GORDIAtf KKTOT 



enameled ware, toys, agricultural machinery, 
wire netting, shoes, paper, hats, gelatine, chemi- 
cals, bricks, textiles, and glue. Pop., 1900, 
19,384; 1910, 22,373. 

GO'PTTRA, or Gp'PTTBAM (Skt g6pura, 
a city gate). In Hindu architecture, a tower- 
like structure erected over the gateway of a 
temple. The term is used almost exclusively 
of the Dravidian temple gateways of southern 
India (see DRAVIDIAN ABOHITECTDEE) . These 
sustain lofty pylons built in successively re- 
treating stories decorated with an extraordinary 
complexity of architectural embellishments ani 
figure sculpture. They have no utilitarian 
function. Some of the great temples have not 
only a gopura over each of the four gates to 
the outer wall, but gopuras also over the gate- 
ways of successive inner enclosures. That at 
Srirangam has twelve; that at Tiruvaleer nine. 
The unfinished gopura in front of the cliouUrie 
of Tirumulla Nayab at Madura measures 107 by 
174 feet on the ground; the gateway is 57 feet 
high, and the structure, if completed, would have 
been probably over 300 feet high. The gopuras 
should not be confounded with the pagodas, 
sikhras and vimanas, which are tower-like 
shrines or parts of the temple proper. See 
INDIAN AST, Architecture. Consult Fergusson, 
Indian and Eastern Architecture (London, 
1891). 

GOB.AKHPTTB, go'ruk-poor'. A division of 
the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, British 
India, bounded on the north by Nepal and on the 
south by the Gogra River. Area of division, 
9543 square miles. Pop., 1891, 6,508,800; 1911, 
6,524,419. It comprises the three districts of 
Gorakhpur, Basti, and Azangarh, and lies im- 
mediately south of the lower Himalayan slopes. 
It is intersected by numerous rivers and lakes 
well stocked with flsh. In the north and centre 
dense forests abound, and the whole country pre- 
sents a verdant appearance. The principal riv- 
ers are the Rapti, the Gogra, and the Great and 
Little Gandak. The tiger is found in the north, 
and many other wild animals abound. The chief 
productions are cotton, rice, bajra, joah, moth, 
etc. Capital, Gorakhpur (q ; v.). Gautama Bud- 
dha, the founder of Buddhism, died within the 
District of Gorakhpur, and it became the head- 
quarters of the new creed. The district formed 
part of the territory ceded by Oudh to the 
British under the Treaty of 1801. During the 
mutiny of 1857 it was lost for a short time, 
but under the friendly Gurkhas the rebels were 
driven out, and the whole district once more 
passed under British rule. 

GORAKHPTJB. The capital of a district and 
division of the United Provinces of Agra and 
Oudh, British India, on the Rapti River, 100 
miles northeast of Benares (Map: India, E 3). 
Its principal edifice is a beautiful mosque, built 
in the seventeenth century. A considerable river 
transit trade in grain and timber is carried on. 
Gorakhpur was formerly an important military 
station, but the troops have been moved, and 
the large cantonment on the west of the city 
is abandoned. Pop., 1901, 64,148; 1911, 56,892, 

GO'RAL (East Indian). A goat antelope 
(q.v.) of the genus Cemas, inhabiting the moun- 
tain tops of Central Asia. Three species are 
separated by zoologists, but those of Tibet and 
Mongolia are so little known that they may 
prove only varieties of Himalayan goral (Oemas 
goral). This antelope-like animal stands only 
27 inches high and is grayish brown, with a 



dark stripe along the back and another down the 
foreleg, and a curious white ring around the 
eye : the forehead, nose, and tail are black. Both 
sexes have short black horns curving 1 backward 
and ringed near the base. They wander in small 
bands about the edge of the highest forest and 
are exceedingly vigilant and agile, so that goral 
stalking is a 'laborious and skillful as well as 
delightful pursuit for the sportsman. See 
SEBOTV, and Plate of GOAT ANTELOPES. 

GORAMZ, go'ra-mi. See GOUBAMI. 

GOB/BODTTC. A legendary King of Britain, 
who is mentioned in the early chronicles, and 
whose tragic fate, together with that of his sons, 
forms the plot of the first English tragedy. The 
play was written by Thomas Norton and Thomas 
Sackville, was acted in 1561, and was printed 
in 1565. It has been highly praised by Sidney 
and Pope, but is rather too sanguinary for mod- 
ern audiences. It goes by the name of its hero, 
who has divided his possessions between his two 
sons, Ferrex and Porrex. The sons quarrel, and 
one is slain; the survivor is slain by his mother, 
who in turn is killed with her husband by an 
indignant populace. 

GORBTJSCHA, g6r-boo'sha. The humpbacked 
salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). See SAL- 
MON; HUMPBACKED SALMON. 

GORCO^ITTM. See GOEKUM. 

GOB/'CtTM. See GOEKUM. 

QOR'DAH-, PAUL ALBEBT (1837-1912). A 
German mathematician, born at Breslau. He 
studied at various German universities and in 
1862 received his doctor's degree from the Uni- 
versity of Berlin. He became a lecturer at the 
University of Giessen in 1863 and professor in 
1865. After 1875 he held a professorship at the 
University of Erlangen. Gordan was one of the 
chief workers in the theory of invariants. He 
cooperated with Alfred Clebsch in much of his 
work and was a collaborator on the Mathema- 
tische Annalen after 1873. His proof of the 
finiteness of the invariant system of binary 
forms (first published in 1869) was a very im- 
portant contribution to the upbuilding of the 
theory of modern algebra. His publications in- 
clude: Ueber die Transformation der Theta 
Funktionen (1803); Theorie der Abel'schen 
Funktionen, with Clebsch (1866); Ueber das 
Form ensystem binfirer Forrnen (1875); Vorle- 
sungen fiber invarianten Theorie (2 parts, 1885- 
87) ; and some 80 papers in mathematical 
journals. 

GOR / DIAK'. The English form of the name 
of three Roman emperors. See GOKDIANUS. 

GOB/DIAN KNOT (Lat. Qordius nodus). 
The traditional origin of this famous knot was 
as follows: Gordius, a Phrygian peasant, was 
once plowing in his fields, when an eagle settled 
on his yoke of oxen. Surprised at so wonderful 
a phenomenon, he sought an explanation of it 
and was informed by a prophetess of Telmissus 
that he should offer sacrifice to Zeus. He did so, 
and out of gratitude for the kindness shown to 
him married the prophetess, by whom he had a 
son, the famous Midas. Somewhat later, in con- 
sequence of factional quarrels, the Phrygians 
consulted an oracle concerning the choice of a 
king. In reply they were ordered to choose as 
king whoever should first come to them riding 
in a car. As Gordms and his family came to 
the assembly while the reply was under dis- 
cussion, he was at once chosen king, or, accord- 
ing to another version, his son Midas became 
ruler. Gordms dedicated his car and yoke to 



OORDIANTJS 



144 



GORDON 



Zeus, in the acropolis of Gordium (a city named 
after himself, in Phrygia, on the road between 
Pessinus and Ancyra, near the river Sangarms) ; 
the knot of the yoke was tied in so skillful a 
manner that an oracle declared that whoever 
should unloose it would be ruler of all Asia. 
When Alexander the Great came to Gordiuin, 
he cut the knot in two with his sword and ap- 
plied the prophecy to himself. 

DOH'DtA/NTTS. The name of three Roman 
emperors, father, son, and- grandson. The first, 
MARCUS ANTOJUUS GORDIANUS SEMPBONIANUS, 
surnamed AFRICANUS (c.158-238 A.D.), was de- 
scended on the father's side from the famous 
family of the Gracchi. He was remarkable for 
his attachment to literary pursuits. After being 
eedile, in which capacity he celebrated the glad- 
iatorial sports with great magnificence, he twice 
filled the office of consul first as the colleague 
of Caracalla in 213 A.D., and later as the col- 
league of Alexander Severus. Soon afterward 
Alexander Severus appointed him proconsul of 
Africa, where he gained the affection and es- 
teem of the people. The tyranny and injustice 
of the Emperor Maximinus having at length ox- 
cited a rebellion against his authority in Africa, 
the Imperial procurator there was murdered by 
a band of nobles who had formed a conspiracy 
against him on account of his cruelty. Gor- 
dianus, now in his eightieth year, was proclaimed 
Emperor after having vainly refused the dan- 
gerous honor (March 16, 238 A.D.). He re- 
ceived the title of Africanus, and his son was 
associated with him in the exercise of Imperial 
authority. The Roman Senate acknowledged 
both and proclaimed Maximinus, then absent in 
Pannonia, an enemy to his country. The younger 
Gordianus, however, was defeated and slain in 
battle by Capellianus, Governor of Numidia, be- 
fore Carthage, and hit) father in an agony of 
grief put an end to his own existence, having 
been Emperor for little more than a month. 
In personal appearance the elder Gordianus 
is said to have greatly resembled Augustus. 
MARCUS ANTONIUS GOBDIANUS (192-238), com- 
monly called GORDIANUS Pius, Emperor 238-244 
A.D., grandson of the older Gordianus, was 
raised to the dignity of Caesar along with Pu- 
pienus Maxtmus and Balbinus, who were alno 
proclaimed emperors in opposition to Maxi- 
minus; and in the same year, after Pupienus, 
Balbinus, and Maximinus had fallen by the 
hands of their own soldiers, Gordianus was ele- 
vated by the praetorian guards to the rank of 
Augustus. Assisted by his father-in-law, Miwi- 
t liens, a man distinguished for his wisdom, vir- 
tue, and courage, whom he made prefect of the 
praetorians, he marched, in the year 242, into 
Asia, against the Persians, who under Shahpur 
(Sapor) had taken possession of Mesopotamia 
and had advanced into Syria. Antioch, which 
was threatened by them, was relieved by Gor- 
dianus, the Persians were obliged to withdraw 
from Syria beyond the Euphrates, and Gordianus 
was just about to march into their country when 
Misitheus died. Philip the Arabian, who suc- 
ceeded Misitheus, stirred up dissatisfaction in 
the army against Gordianus by treachery and 
finally goaded on the soldiery to assassinate the 
Emperor, 244 A.D. 

GKXRDIN, g6r'dy$n, JACOB M. (1853-1909). 
A Jewish playwright and journalist, born in the 
Government of Poltava, Russia. He was pri- 
vately educated and after a number of years 
spent in teaching began to write short stories 



and general articles for newspapers in St. Peters- 
burg and Odessa. From 1886 to 1800 he was 
the editor of various publications at Odessa and 
Yelizavetgrad. In 1871) he founded at Veliza- 
vetgrad the Society of Spiritual Brethren of 
the Bible, whose aim was to reconstruct reli- 
gion upon the sole basis of practical ethics, to 
the exclusion of all rites und ceremonies. In 
1890 the society was suppressed by the Russian 
government, and Gordin came to New York, 
where he began almost immediately to write for 
the Yiddish stage, his first play, Hiberia, appear- 
ing in November, 1891. Within the next 15 
years ho had produced about 60 plays, varying 
greatly in quality, among them many adaptations 
and translations, dealing for the most part with 
Jewish life in Russia and America. His adapta- 
tions are such in the sense only that the gen- 
eral outline of their plot is borrowed; tho de- 
tails of the action, the character drawing, and 
the underlying meaning of the play are most 
often original. Gott, Mensch und Teufel, one 
of his best plays, is the Job or Faust motive 
worked out in modern Jewish life, and in the 
same category are Der judische Konig Lear, Die 
jiidische JS'pp//o, and Kreutzcr Sonata. The last 
was produced in an English version in 1905-OG. 
His plays are robustly realistic, but the ethical 
import *is prominent. Others of his successful 
dramatic works are: llirele IV froth; Der wilde 
Mcnsch; Die. Schcchita (The Sacrifice) ; Die 
flc/iZ'o (The Vow) ; Mcdca; Schlovio Chacham, 
Dcr russische Jnde in Amerika. Consult Hap- 
good, The ftpirit of the OJietlo (New York, 
1902). 

GOB/DITTM. See QOBDIAN KNOT. 

G-OB/DITTS (Lat., Gordian, sc. nodus, knot; 
so called from the intricate knots into which the 
animals twist). Tho type genus of the Gordi- 
oidea, second order of Nematoda (q.v.), includ- 
ing those nematodea in which the body cavity 
is lined by a distinct epithelium. Sec HAIR- 
WORM. 

GOB/DITTS. Sec GOEDIAN KNOT. 

GOE'DOW, THE FAMILY off. A famous Scot- 
tish ftunily. In 1305 Sir ADAM OF GORDON was 
a partisan of Edward T in his struggle for the 
Scottish throne.. He was named joint juwticiar 
of Lothian and was one of the representatives of 
Scotland in the Parliament of Westminster. 
Nevertheless, he was pardoned by Robert Bruce 
and given the lordship of Strathbogie, where the 
chief scat of the family honeeforth lay. His 
descendant, Sir ARAM, fell at the battle of Hom- 
ildon Hill, in 1402, and with him the direct male 
line ended. The name "Gordon" was, however, 
transmitted by Ida two half brothers lo a wide 
circle of gentry in Mar, Buchan, and Strath- 
bogie. 

ELIZABETH OF GORDON, the only daughter and 
heiress of Sir Adam, married Alexander Seton, 
who afterward was given the title of Lord Gor- 
don. Her son ALEXANDER assumed the family 
name of Gordon and was made Karl of Huntly 
in 1449 and Lord of Baden och soon afterward. 
By marriage he acquired largo possession)* in 
Aberdeen shire. Iter son GEOBGK, second Earl of 
Huntly, married Annabolla, daughter of James 
T, and was Chancellor of Scotland from 1498 to 
1501. His son ALEXANDER commanded the Mt 
wing of the Scottish army at Flodden Field. The 
landed possessions of the family were greatly 
increased by this royal marriage, especially in 
BaniFshire and Inverness-shire. GKORGH, fourth 
Earl of Huntly, acquired the earldom of Moray, 



145 



GORDON 



and held the offices of Lieutenant of the North 
and Chancellor of the Realm. Alarmed at his 
power, the crown deprived him of Moray. The 
Earl rebelled, and lost his life by a wound in 
1562. His grandson GEORGE, the fifth Earl (see 
HUNTLY, GEOBGE GOBDON), headed the Catholic 
party in Scotland and defeated at Glenlivet a 
royal army sent against him in 1594, Neverthe- 
less, he obtained a pardon and was made Mar- 
quis of Huntly. GEOBGE, his successor, fought 
for Charles I in the Civil War and was beheaded 
at Edinburgh in 1649. His grandson, GEORGE, 
first Duke of Gordon (10S4), held Edinburgh 
Castle for James II in the revolution of 1688. 
His son was the last Catholic chief of the race, 
while his great-grandson, LORD GEORGE GOKDON 
(q.v.), was leader of the Gordon Riots of 1780 
in London, directed against the Catholics. In 
1836 the title became extinct, but it was revived 
in 1876 for the benefit of the Duke of Richmond. 

Descendants of the first Marquis of Huntly be- 
came viscounts of Melgund and of Aboyne and 
finally inherited the marquisate of Huntly, which 
they still hold. Other members of the family 
became earls of Sutherland. The lords of Lochin- 
var, famous in poetry and song, were Gordons. 
One of them, WniiAar, sixth Viscount of Ken- 
niure, was beheaded in 1716 for his prominent 
part in the Jacobite rising. In 1682 SIR GEORGE 
GORDON of Haddo, Lord Chancellor of Scotland, 
was made Earl of Aberdeen. Other members of 
the family were Lord Byron, whose mother was 
a Gordon, and CUABLES GEORGE GORDON, the 
hero of Khartum. 

Consult: Douglas, The Baronage of Scotland 
(Edinburgh, 1813); W. Gordon, The History 
of the Ancient, 'Nolle, and Illustrious House of 
Gordon (ib., 1726-27); The House of Gordon, 
ed. by J. M. Bulloch (Aberdeen, 1903-12) ; Bui- 
loch, The Families of Cordon of Invergordon, 
Newhall, also Ardoch, Ross-shire and Carroll, 
Sutherland (ib., 1906); id., The -First Duke of 
Gordon (ib., 1909), The Gay Gordons (London, 
1908). 

GORDON 1 , ADAM LINDSAY (1833^-70). An 
Australian poet. He was born at Fayal in the 
Azores and was educated at Cheltenham Col- 
lege, and at Merton College, Oxford. In 1853 
he emigrated to South Australia, where he be- 
came a trooper in the mounted police and later 
a horse breaker. In 1865 he was elected a 
member of the House Assembly for the District 
of Victoria. He became known as an expert 
steeplechase rider, opened a livery stable at 
Ballarat, Victoria, in 1867, and in 1869 moved 
to Melbourne. His writings were little known 
during his life, but after his death he commit- 
ted suicide his reputation increased until he 
became the most popular of Australian poets. 
His volumes of verse include: Sea 8pray and 
Smoke Drift (1867); Ashtaroth: A Dramatic 
Lyrio (1867); Bush Ballads and Galloping 
Rhymes (1870). Consult Marcus Clarke's bio- 
graphical sketch in his edition of Gordon's poems 
(1880), and also J. H. Ross, The Laureate of 
the Centaurs: A Memoir of Adam Lindsay Gor- 
don (1888). His poems, ed. by Douglas Sladen, 
appeared in London in 1912. See AUSTRALIAN 
LITERATURE. 

GORDON, CHARLES GEORGE (1833-85). An 
English soldier, familiarly known as "Chinese 
Gordon" and "Gordon Pasha." The son of 
Henry William Gordon, lieutenant general of 
artillery, he was born at Woolwich, Jan. 28, 
1833. He was educated at Taunton, and entered 



the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich in 
1848. Obtaining a lieutenant's commission in 
1852, he served through the Crimean War with 
distinction. From 185G to 1858 he was em- 
ployed in surveying and settling 1 the Russo- 
Turkish frontier* in Asia and acquired an inti- 
mate knowledge of the people and the districts 
he visited. He was promoted captain, 1S59, in 
I860 joined the Anglo-French forces in China 
and was present at the capture of Peking. He 
remained at Tien-tsin in command of the royal 
engineers; he added to the geographical knowl- 
edge of China by several expeditious to the un- 
known interior, " in 1862 became major, and in 
1863 was appointed commander of the "Ever 
Victorious Army," which suppressed the formid- 
able Taiping rebellion and opened up the rich 
provinces and cities of the silk districts. He 
refused the large money rewards offered him by 
the Chinese Emperor, Vho bestowed upon him 
the yellow jacket and peacock's feather of a 
mandarin of the first class, with the gold medal 
and title of Ti Tu, the highest Chinese military 
rank. In 1864 he received his brevet as lieuten- 
ant colonel, and on his return to England was 
made a C.B. From 1865 to 1871 he commanded 
at Gravesend the royal engineers, who were em- 
ployed in constructing forts for the defense of 
the Thames, and was distinguished for his chari- 
table work among the sick and poor. From 1871 
to 1873 he represented England in the Interna- 
tional Danube Commission at Galatz. In 1874 
he was sent by Ismail Pasha to establish the 
authority of Egypt in the upper Nile basin, and 
was appointed Governor of the Equatorial Prov- 
inces. Subsequently he was created a pasha, and 
in February, 1877," the Khedive appointed him 
Governor of the Sudan. His administration was 
marked by wonderful energy and activity in es- 
tablishing communication between widely sep- 
arated districts, in the development of the 
natural resources of the country, and in sup- 
pressing rebellion and slavery. "The deposition 
of Ismail in 1879 led to his resignation. In 1880 
he accompanied the Marquis of Ripon to India 
as his private secretary, but, finding himself mi- 
suited for the post, at once resigned, and on the 
invitation of Sir Robert Hart visited China to 
advise the government in connection with its 
strained relations with Russia. 

In 1881-82 he commanded the royal engineers 
in Mauritius, where he attained the rank of 
major general. From March to October, 1882, 
he was connected with the Cape government in 
an attempt to terminate the Basuto trouble, but 
resigned in indignation at the intrigues of Mr. 
Sauer, Secretary for Native Affairs. The year 
1883 he spent in a long-desired visit to the Holy 
Land. He had undertaken a mission to the 
Congo for the King of the Belgians when the 
catastrophe to Hicks Pasha*s army, which was 
overwhelmed by the forces of the Mahdi, made 
the Gladstone government insist on the Khedive's 
abandonment of the Sudan. Gordon was com- 
missioned to effect the withdrawal of the scat- 
tered garrisons and the evacuation of the coun- 
try. He arrived at Khartum in 1884 and 
received a warm welcome; but his first battle 
with the hostile Sudanese was unsuccessful, ow- 
ing to the treachery of two pashas, whom he at 
once sentenced to death. The capture of Berber 
by the rebels cut Gordon's communications with 
Cairo, and he was beleaguered in Khartum. By 
vigorous personal effort he successfully repelled 
the besieging hordes for over 10 months, but on 



GORDON 



146 



GOBDON 



Jan. 20, 1885, when a tardily dispatched Brit- 
ish army of relief, under General Wolselcy, had 
arrived within two days' march of the place, 
Khartum fell through the treachery of Ferig 
Pasha, and the heroic commander ' was slain. 
Gordon's writings include: Reflections in Pales- 
tine (1SS4); Last Journal (1885); Letters to 
his Sister (1888). Consult: Andrew Wilson, 
Ever Victorious Army (London, 1808) ; Hill, 
Gordon in Central Africa, (il>., 1SS1) ; Hake, The 
Story of Chinese Gordon (ib., 1884-85) ; and the 
various Lives by Archibald Forbes (ib., 1884), 
by his brother, Sir Henry Gordon (ib., 1880); 
Sir W. F. Butler (ib., 1809); JX Boulgor (ib., 
1011); W. 8. lUunt, Gordon at Khartoum (ib., 
1911) ; and the books on the Egyptian tiudan, 
by Ohrwalder (trans., ib., 1802) and Slatin 
Pasha (trans., ib., 1890). 

GORDON, CHARLES WILLIAM (1800- ). 
A Canadian author. lie was born in the County 
of Glengarry, Ontario, graduated at Toronto 
University, and studied theology at Knox Col- 
.loge. He wan ordained to the Presbyterian 
ministry in 1800. In the Mime year he went 
as a missionary to the Canadian Northwest 
Territories, whore he worked among the minor* 
and lumhoniien for three years, and afterward 
HiicceiMled in scouring the help of Presbyterian 
cliurchcK in Omit Britain in furtherance of 
Canadian misHioiiH. In 1804 lit 1 - was appointed 
puHtor of St. Stephen's Prenbyterian Church at 
Winnipeg. All his writings were published 
under the nom de plume of "Ralph Connor." 
Gordon was elected vice president of the Cana- 
dian Society of Authors, and a fellow of the 
lloyal Society of Canada. In 10 II ho waa chair- 
man of the board of arbitration in the British 
Columbia and Alberta minos dispute. His 
works, tievcrai of which created a sensation, in- 
clude: Bci/taid the. Afarttlt.es (1897) ; Jilack jffoc/j 
(1898); The Nky rilot (189!)) ; The Man from 
Glengarry (1001); Ulengarry School Duys 
(1002); The fliniw Creek BUstard (1004); 
The Prospector (1004); Breaking the Record 
(1904); The Doctor: A Talc of the Iftwkicft 
(1906); The Anycl and the $/, Hermons 
(1908); The Life' of the Late Rev. fir. Jamna 
Robertson (1908); The Da ten I}/ (falileo 
(1909); The Foreigner (1909); The Recall of 
Love (1910) ; Corporal (lameron of the North- 
west Mounted Police (1912). Consult "Eng- 
lish-Canadian Literature/' by Thomas Guthrio 
Marquis, in Canada and its Provinces, vol. vi 
(Toronto, 1018-14). 

GOBDON, DANIEL MINER (1845- ). A 
Canadian educator. Ho was born in Pictou, 
Nova Scotia, and was educated at Glasgow and 
Berlin universities. Ordained to the Presbyte- 
rian ministry in 1866, he was minister of St. 
Paul's Church, Truro, Nova Scotia (1860-67); 
St. Andrew's Church, Ottawa, Ontario (1867- 
82) ; Knox Church, Winnipeg, Manitoba (1882- 
87); and St. Andrew's Church, Halifax (1887- 
94). In 1894-1902 ho was profesHor of system- 
atic theology in the Presbyterian College, Hali- 
fax; and in 1902 he became principal and 
vice chancellor of Queen's University, Kingston, 
Ontario. Long and actively interested in pro- 
moting the union of the Presbyterian churches in 
Canada, Gordon was a delegate to the General 
Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1875, 
in 1906 was appointed a member of the com- 
mittee on union of the Presbyterian, Methodist, 
and Congregational churches of Canada, was 
elected vice president of the Lord's Day Al- 



liance, and in 1910 was a delegate to the World's 
Missionary Convention at Edinburgh. He pub- 
lished Mountain and Prairie (1880), the nar- 
rative of a journey made by him in 1ST9 from 
Victoria, British Columbia, to Winnipeg. 

GORDON", GEORGE, LORD (1751-03). An Eng- 
lish agitator whose name ia connected with the 
"No Popery" riots in London in 1TSO. lie was 
the third son of C'oumo George, third Duke of 
Gordon. He was born Dec. 28, 17i51, and at an 
early age entered the navy, and rone to the rank 
of lieutenant, but quitted the Borneo during 
the American War bci-aiise Lord Sandwich re- 
fused him a whip. Klected in 1774 member of 
Parliament for Ludgerrthall, a pocket borough, 
lie soon made hiimtelf conspicuous by his op- 
position to ministers and by the freedom with 
which lie attacked all parties; but, though ec- 
centric, ho displayed considerable talent in de- 
bate and no little wit. When in 1778 a bill 
passed the Parliament for the relief of lloman 
Catholics from certain penalties and disabilities, 
the Protestant Association of London, among 
other societies, was formed for the purpose of 
procuring its repeal, and in November, 1779, 
Gordon was elected president. In June, 1780, 
he headed a mob of about 100,000 persons in a 
procession to the House of Commons to present 
a petition against the measure, Kiols ensued in 
the city, lasting for several days, in the course 
of which many Catholic chapels and private 
dwelling houses, Newgate and other prisons, and 
the mansion of the Chief Jiwtico, Lord Mans- 
field, were destroyed, and in the HiippresHion of 
the disturbance by military force nearly 500 
lives were lowt. A vivid description of the riots 
will be found in Dickeus'tj JSamaly Rudyc. Gor- 
don was tried for high treason, but acquitted. 
Thereafter he seemed insane. In 178(3 he was 
excommunicated by the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury for refusing to give evidence in a will case, 
and later ho became a convert to Judaism, In 
1787 he was convicted on two official informa- 
tions for a pamphlet reflecting on the laws 
it ud criminal justice of the country and for pub- 
lishing a libel on Marie, Antoinette, then Quoen 
of France. While in prison at Newgate, he died 
of a fever on Nov. 1, 1703. In addition to the 
histories of England, consult: O'Beirne, ConnM*- 
erations on the Lato Disturbances, lij a Consist- 
ent Whiff (London, 1780); Vincent, A main 
and Sucwnct Narralivo of the Jtiols in the Oiiitut 
of London and Westminster and Borough of 
Kouthioarlc (3d od. t ib., 1780) ; Watson, Life of 
Lord Cteorgv (lordon (ib., 1705) ; Womyss, A 
Notable Woman and Other Sketches (ib., 1803) ; 
Cobbott, State Trials, xxi; Annual Register for 
1780, 1784, 1787. 

GOBDON, GEORGE, fifth EABL OF HUMT&Y. 
See HUNTLY. 

GORDON, GEORGE ANOTEB (1853- ). An 
American Congregational clergyman, born in 
Aberdeen shire, Scotland. lie came to America 
when but 18 years old and three years af- 
terward entered the Bangor Theological Semi- 
nary, where ho graduated in 1877. lie preached 
for one year at Temple, Me., took a special 
course in Harvard College, and after his grad- 
uation in 1881 was for three years pastor at 
Greenwich, Conn., and in 1884 became pastor 
of the Old South Church in 'Boston. Ho was a 
university preacher at Harvard University from 
1886 to 1890 and at Yale from 1888 to 1901. 
In 1897 he became an overseer of Harvard. In 
1893 lie received the degree of D.D. from Bow- 



GORDON 



147 



GORDON 



doin and from Yale, and the degree of S.T.D. in 
1895 from Harvard and in 1003 from Columbia. 
His publications include: The Witness to Im- 
mortality (1803) ; The Christ of To-Day (1895) ; 
Immortality and the Xew Tlieology (1897) ; 
The yew Epoch for Faith (1001) ; Ultimate Con- 
ceptions o] Faith (1903) ; Through Man to God 
(1006): Jteligion. and Miracle (1000; rev. ed., 
1910) ; Itcrclation and the Ideal (1913). 

GORDON, GEORGE HAMILTON, fourth EABL OF 
ABERDEEX. See ABEBDEEX. 

GORDON, GEOEGE HENBY (1823-80). An 
American soldier. He was born in Charlestown, 
Mass., graduated at West Point in 1846, and 
served in the southern campaign in the Mexican 
War, earning the brevet of first lieutenant. In 
1854 he resigned from the service, and from 
1854 to 1861, after taking a course in the Har- 
vard Law School, practiced law in Boston. On 
the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861 he or- 
ganized and became colonel of the Second Massa- 
chusetts Volunteers. Largely in recognition of 
his skill and bravery in covering the retreat of 
General Banks's army from Strasburg to Win- 
chester, Va., on May 24-25, 1862, he was pro- 
moted to be a brigadier general of volunteers 
in June, 1862, and served as such at Cedar 
Mountain, Chantilly, South Mountain, and 
Antietam. From March to June, 1865, he was 
in command of the Eastern District of Virginia, 
and on April 0, 1865, was brevetted major gen- 
eral of volunteers. On Aug. 24, 1865, he was 
mustered out of service and subsequently until 
his death practiced law in Boston, where for 
some time he also acted as collector of internal 
revenue for the Seventh Massachusetts District. 
He published: History of the Second Massa- 
chusetts Regiment (1876) ; History of the Cam- 
paign of the Army of Virginia -under &en. John 
Pope from Cedar Mountain to Alexandria 
(1880) ; A War Diary of the Events of the War 
of the Great Rebellion, 1863-65 (1882); Brook 
Farm to Cedar Mountain, 1861-62 (1883). 

GORDON^ SIB JAMES ALEXANDER (1782- 
1860). An English naval officer, born in Aber- 
deenshirc. He entered the navy at the age of 
11, served in the engagement off L'Orient in 
June, 1705, and in the battles of Cape St. Vin- 
cent and the Nile. In 1804 he was placed in 
command of the sloop Raccoon, subsequently 
participated in various actions in the West In- 
dies, the Mediterranean, and the Adriatic, and 
particularly distinguished himself in the battle 
of Lissa, March 13, 1811, in which he commanded 
the frigate Active. In November, 1811, he lost 
a leg at the capture of the French frigate La 
Pomone. As commander of the Sea Horse, he 
joined Sir Alexander Cochrane in the Chesa- 
peake in the fall of 1813 and subsequently com- 
manded the squadron which, in August, 1814, 
entered the Potomac, reduced Fort Washington, 
and captured Alexandria, after destroying or 
capturing the vessels in the harbor. He also 
took part in the futile expeditions against New 
Orleans in 1814-15. Subsequently he was su- 
perintendent of Plymouth Hospital (1828-32), 
superintendent of Chatham Dockyard (1832- 
37), lieutenant governor of Greenwich Hospital 
(1840-53), and governor of that hospital from 
1853 until his death (Jan. 8, 1869). He was 
made a vice admiral in 1848, admiral in 1855, 
and admiral of the fleet in 1868. 

GORDON, JOHN. A Scottish soldier of for- 
tune of the seventeenth century. He entered the 
Imperial army of Ferdinand II during the Thirty 



Years 1 War and rose to the rank of lieutenant 
colonel and commandant of Eger. Upon hearing 
of the defection of Wallenstein, commander in 
chief of the Imperial forces, and the determina- 
tion of that general to form an alliance with 
the Swedes, Gordon joined in the conspiracy 
with Butler and Leslie for the murder of Walleti- 
stein and his most trusted adherents. In com- 
pensation for his services he received a con- 
siderable sum from the Imperial government. 
Gordon is one of the characters in Schiller's 
tragedy. Wallenstein. 

GORDON, Jonx BBOWN (1832-1904). An 
American soldier and politician. He was born 
in Upson Co., Ga., graduated at the State Uni- 
versity in 1S52, and followed the profession of 
law. In 1S61 he entered the Confederate arniv 
as captain of infantry and rose to the grade of 
lieutenant general, being wounded five times. 
At the time of General Lee's surrender at Ap- 
pomattox, General Gordon commanded one wing 
of the army. In 1S68 he was the Democratic 
candidate for Governor of Georgia, but General 
Meade, military commander under the Recon- 
struction Act, declared his opponent, Rufus B* 
Bullock, elected. He defended his State in the 
Ku-Klux investigations, was elected to the 
United States Senate in 1873, reflected in 1879, 
and resigned in 1880. He \vti3 again elected in 
1891, and was one of the leaders of the Demo- 
cratic party. From 1887 to 1890 he was Gov- 
ernor of Georgia. He became well known as a 
lecturer on Civil War subjects, and for a num- 
ber of years held the post of commander in chief 
of the United Confederate Veterans. He wrote 
Reminiscences of the Civil' War (1905). 

GORDON", SIR JOTTN CAMPBELL, seventh EARL 
or ABERDEEN. See ABERDEEN. 

GORDON, SIB JOHN WATSON- (1788-18(54). 
A Scottish portrait painter. He was bom at 
Edinburgh, the son of Capt. James Watson of 
the Royal Artillery and afterward added Gor- 
don to "his family name. He studied for four 
years under John Graham at the Trustees' Acad- 
emy and frequented the studio of his uncle and 
Sir Henry Raeburn. After the death of Raeburn 
he became the principal portrait painter in Scot- 
land. In 1850 he succeeded Sir William Allan 
as president of the Royal Scottish Academy, was 
appointed limner to the Queen, and received 
knighthood. Gordon excelled in transferring 
to the canvas those lineaments of character 
which are conceived to be preeminently Scottish. 
Among his best-known works may be mentioned : 
"Sir Walter Scott" (1831); : 'Dr. Chalmers" 
(1837); "Duke of Buccleuch" (1842); "Lord 
Cockburn" (1842); "Thomas De Quinccy" 
(1843, National Portrait Gallery, London) ; 
"Lord Robertson 1 ' (1846); ^Principal Lee" 
(1847); "Professor Wilson" (1851); "Earl of 
Aberdeen" (1852) ; and the "Provost of Peter- 
head" (1853), which received a gold medal at 
the Paris Exposition in 1855. 

GOBDON, JUDAH LOEB or LEON (1830-92). 
A Russian Hebrew writer. He was born and 
educated at Vilna. Although a graduate of a 
rabbinical seminary, all his life he strenuously 
opposed the backward and fanatic rabbis and 
their obscurantist supporters. For 20 years he 
was a teacher in various Jewish public schools 
in the Government of Kovno, In 1872 he was 
called to St. Petersburg to become secretary of 
the Society for the Dissemination of Culture 
among the Jews of Russia. Accused of political 
conspiracy in 1879, he was exiled to the Govern- 



GOBDON 



148 



GORDON-CTT10EING 



ment of Olonetz. Having proved his innocence, 
he was soon allowed to return to St. Peters- 
burg and became one of the editors of the He- 
brew periodical Ha-Meliz. The Jewish massacre 
of 1882 and the subsequent persecutions em- 
bittered the last years of his life. His writings 
comprise poetry (6 vols., 1808), prose fiction 
(3 vols., 1870-89), and letters (2 vols., 1804). 
Besides Hebrew, Gordon wrote considerably in 
Russian. Yiddish, however, he deprecated, al- 
though he published a volume of poems in that 
language (Sichoth Chut in, 1886). Gordon is the 
greatest poet of the Haskalah, or rationalistic 
school of Hebrew writers, his epics and rhymed 
fables being especially excellent. His letters 
reflect most faithfully the intellectual conditions 
of Russian Jewry in the nineteenth contnry. 
Consult Slouschz, The Renascence of Hebrew 
Literature (Philadelphia, 1909). 

GORDON", JULIEN. The pseudonym of Julie 
Grinnell Chance (q.v.), formerly Mrs. Van Rens- 
selaer Cruger. 

GORDON", LADY LUOIE (or LUCY) AUSTIN 
DUFF- (1821-69). An English author and 
translator, born in London. She was the only 
daughter of John Austin the jurist. Her knowl- 
edge of German was gained during a two years' 
stay in Germany (1826-28). Tn 1840 she mar- 
ried Sir Alexander Dutf-Gordon and almost im- 
mediately began her translations. These in- 
clude: Studies of Ancient Greek Mythology, 
from the German of Niebuhr (1841) ; Mein- 
hold's Mary Sclnneidlet; Lomping's The Frcnah 
in Algiers (1845); FeuerbadTs Remarkable 
Criminal Trials (1846, with her husband); 
Ranke's Memoirs of the House of Brandenburg; 
De Wailly's Stella and VaariostM (1850); the 
Countess d'Arbouville's The Village Doctor 
(1853) ; ancl Ranke's Ferdinand I and Maanmil- 
ian IT (1853, with her husband). At this pe- 
riod she lived in London and counted among her 
friends Heine, Tennyson, Dickens, and Thack- 
eray. About 1860 her health failed, and she 
made a voyage to the Cape of Good Hope, which 
her Letters describe (1861-62). The latter 
years of her life were spent in Egypt, and 
from there she wrote her two aeries of delight- 
ful letters, Letters from tigypt (1863) und Last 
Letters from Egypt (1865). 

CK>BDON, PATBIOK (1635-90). A Scottish 
soldier of fortune, general in the Russian army, 
and a friend of Peter the Great. Tie first served 
(1651) in Poland under Charles X of Sweden. 
Captured by the Poles, he entered their service, 
onty to rejoin the Swedes when recaptured by 
them at Warsaw. Next the German flag claimed 
his allegiance, but he soon took service again 
in the Swedish and Polish armies successively. 
In 1661 he entered the Russian service, in which 
he remained until his death. The Czar Alexis 
sent him on a mission to England, where, in 
1665, he had an interview with Charles II. Al- 
though raised to the rank of lieutenant general 
in the Russian service and in high favor with 
the boy Czar, Peter, yet on another visit to 
England in 1686 he greatly desired to enter the 
army of James IT. Peter would not grant him 
his request and soon afterward promoted him 
to the highest rank, that of general. In the 
contest between Peter and his sister Sophia, 
which resulted in a revolution, it watJ chiefly 
through Gordon's help that Peter triumphed. 
His last years were spent in opulence and honor 
and in high favor with the Czar. Gordon kept 
a journal during the last 40 years of his life, 



which was published at Moscow and St. Peters- 
burg in three volumes in 1849-53, under the 
title Tagelnich dcs Generals Patrick Gordon yum 
erstcnnial collsttindig vcrdffentlicht durch Dr. 
/'. If. C. Posselt, and a part of it was published 
in English in 1830, as Passages from the Diary 
of General Pa truth Gordon of .lurhlciichrics. 

' GORDON, PATCICK (1G44-173G). An Eng- 
lish soldier ancl Colonial Governor in America. 
After serving for some years in the English 
army, he was appointed 'Governor of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1726 and held this position until his 
death. A man of iibility and character, he was 
one of the most popular of the Colonial governors 
of the province und was successful for the most 
part in winning the confidence of the Indians, 
though it was during his administration in 1733 
that they were virtually defrauded of part of 
their lands by the famous "walking purchase." 
Gordon published Two Indian Treaties at Cones- 
togoc (1728). 

GORDON, WILLIAM (1728-1807). An Eng- 
lish clergyman and writer, born at Hitchin, 
Hertfordshire. TTc entered the independent min- 
istry in 1752 at Ipswich, nreachud at South- 
wark from 1704 to 1770, emigrated to America 
in the latter year, settled at Roxhury, Mass., 
and remained in America until 1786, when he 
returned to England, where he subsequently held 
several pastorates. While in America, (luring 
the Revolutionary War, ho strongly sided with 
the Patriot party and in 1788 published, in four 
volumes, a History of the Rise and Independence 
of the United States, Including the Late War, 
which for more than 100 years was considered 
one of the most valuable sources for the history 
of the Revolution, but which has recently boon 
shown to have been plagiarized, in large part, 
from the Annual Register, and from Ramsey 'a 
History of the Revolution in South Carolina, 
which he saw in manuscript. Consult Libby, 
U A Critical Examination of Gordon's History 
of the Revolution," in the Report of Ihr. Ameri- 
can Historical Assoda-tion for 1809 (Washing- 
ton, 1000). Ho also wrote a Treatise Concerning 
fteliyio'iis A ff option* (1702) and was a contribu- 
tor to the ProtestO'iit Dissenter's Magazine. 

GORDON-GUMMING-, CONSTANCE FREDKEIOA 
(1837- ). A Scottish traveler and writer, 
the daughter of Sir William Gordon-Gumming, 
und a sister of R. G. Gordon-Cumming. F>he 
was born at Altyro. After 1807 she spent many 
yoars traveling in tho TSaat and published, among 
other books of travel, from Hebrides to the, 
Himalayas (187fl) ; At Home in Fiji (1882; 3d 
eel., 1880); Fire Fountains of Hawaii (1883); 
drcm&to Crags of California (1884); In the 
Himalayas and on the Indian Plains (1884); 
Wandermgs in China (1880; 2d ed. T 1900); 
Two ffappy Years in Ceylon (1802). She also 
wrote Work for the Blind in China (1888), 
which is now incorporated in The Inventor of 
the Numeral Type for Cfhina (1800), an account 
of the life and work of the Rev. W. H. Murray, 
of Poking. 

GOBDON-CTT3OCtNG, ROXTALEYN GBOBGB 
(1820-06). A British traveler and African lion 
hunter, brother of Constance Gordon-Oumming. 
From an early age he was fond of sports. He 
served under the Igant India Company in 1838- 
40, in the Royal Veteran Newfoundland Com- 
panies, and in the Cape Mounted Rifles in 
1843. Resigning his last commission, he started 
on a five-year hunting trip in South Africa, 
chiefly in Bechuanaland and in the Limpopo 



GORDON HIGHLANDEBS 

valley. He returned to England in 1848 and 
two years later published the story of his 
hunting exploits in his book, Five Years of 
a Hunter's Life in the Far Interior of South 
Africa. This book was very successful; a third 
edition appeared in 1851, and an abridged edi- 
tion under the title The Lion Hunter of South 
Africa came out in 1856 (new ed., 1904). 

GORDON HIGHLANDERS. See HIGH- 
LANDERS. 

GORDONTA, gor-dK/ni-a (Neo-Lat., named 
in honor of James Gordon, a London nursery- 
man of the eighteenth century). A genus of 
trees and shrubs of the family TernstrcemiaceoB, 
of which several species are natives of America. 
Of these the most important is the loblolly bay 
(Gordonia lasianthus), which is found in 
swamps near the seacoast from Virginia to the 
Gulf of Mexico. Moist tracts of considerable 
extent are often covered with this tree alone. 
It is a shrub, or small tree, with oblong leathery 
evergreen leaves and beautiful white sweet- 
scented flowers more than an inch in diameter. 
The bark is used for tanning. The wood is 
handsome, resembling mahogany, but is very per- 
ishable. In England it is cultivated with some 
difficulty and generally appears as a mere bush. 
Gordonia altamaha, an American species, is of 
interest on account of the entire disappearance 
of the tree in its original habitat: it is wholly 
unknown in a wild state. It is said to be hardy 
as far north as Massachusetts, and all the speci- 
mens now growing are believed to have sprung 
from a single tree that long stood in Bartram'a 
garden in Philadelphia. A number of other 
species of this genus are found in eastern Asia. 
As ordinarily seen in cultivation, they are all 
shrubs. See BAY. 

GORDON RIOTS. The name given to a mob 
uprising, directed against the Roman Catholics, 
which occurred in London in 1780. See GORDON, 
GEOBGE, LOED; BABNABY RUDGE. 

GOB/DY, JOHN PANCOAST (1851-1908). An 
American educator, born in Maryland. He re- 
ceived an academic education and also studied 
at Leipzig. He was professor of education at 
Ohio University (Athens) from 1886 to 1896, 
at the Ohio State University (Columbus) from 
1896 to 1900, and in 1901 was appointed to a 
similar chair in New York University. His most 
important publication is the Political History 
of the United States, 'toith Special References. to 
the Growth of Political Parties, vols. i and ii 
(2d rev. ed., 1903). He wrote also: Lessons in 
Psychology (1890) : Qroioth and Development of 
the Normal School Idea in the United States 
(1891); New Psychology (12th ed., 1898); A 
Broader Elementary Education (1903). 

GORE. In heraldry an abatement of honor. 
It consists of two curved lines which meet in 
an acute angle at the centre of the escutcheon. 

GORE, MBS. CATHERINE GRACE (1799-1861). 
An English novelist, the daughter of a wine 
merchant named Moody, and born at East Ret- 
ford, Nottinghamshire. In 1823 she married 
Capt. Charles Arthur Gore. Her first novel was 
Theresa Marchmont, or the Maid of Honor 
(1824). Some of her early novels, as the Lettre 
de Cachet (1827) and the Tuileries, were vivid 
descriptions of the French Revolution; but her 
greatest successes were her novels of English 
fashionable life, conspicuous among which were: 
Cecil, or the Adventures of a Coxcomb (1841), 
and its sequel, Cecil, a Peer (1841); The Am- 
bassador's Wife (1842) ; and The Banker's Wife 



149 



GORE 



( 1843 ) . She also wrote a prize comedy entitled 
Quid pro Quo, or the Days of Dupes; a popular 
comedy called The School for Coquettes (1831) ; 
and several other dramatic pieces. Her novels 
and tales number about 100. Though very pop- 
ular in their own time, they are now forgotten. 
They possess, however, great value as transcripts 
of contemporary fashionable society. Consult 
Thackeray's burlesque, "Lords and Liveries," in 
Novels by Eminent Hands (London, 1847). 

GORE, CHABLES (1853- ). An English 
theologian and prelate. He was educated at 
Harrow and at Balliol College, Oxford, and was 
a fellow of Trinity from 1875 to 1895. After 
ordination he held the position of vice principal 
of Cuddesdon Theological College from 1880 to 
1883. On the foundation in 1884 of the Pusey 
House at Oxford, which was intended not only 
to provide a home for Dr. Pusey's large theo- 
logical library, but to exercise spiritual influence 
over undergraduates by means of a staff of 
clerical librarians, he was appointed its head 
and remained there until 1893. Meanwhile, as 
editor and one of the principal contributors to 
the volume of essays called Lux Mundi (1890), 
he had aroused considerable distrust by the ad- 
vanced and, as many thought, unsound nature 
of his views on the incarnate nature of Christ, 
especially the technical point known as the 
kenosis (q.v.) ; and his resignation was an ob- 
vious solution of the difficulty. While vicar of 
Radley, near Oxford (1893-94), he founded a 
quasi-religious clerical community called the 
Society of the Resurrection. He was canon of 
Westminster from 1894 to 1902 and continued 
to exercise considerable influence by his powers 
as a preacher. After 1898 he served as chaplain 
to the sovereign. In 1902 he was made Bishop 
of Worcester, in 1905 Bishop of Birmingham, 
and in 1911 Bishop of Oxford. His most im- 
portant works are: The Church and the Minis- 
try (1889) ; The Mission of the Church (1895) ? 
Dissertations on Subjects Connected loith the 
Incarnation (1895) ; The Body of Christ (1901) ; 
The Permanent Creed (1905) ; The New Theol- 
ogy and the Old Religion (1908); Orders and 
Unity (1910); The Question of Divorce (1911), 
besides a strong controversial treatise called 
Roman Claims (1889). and commentaries on 
the epistles to the Ephesians (1899) and to the 
Romans (1899). 

GORE, CHRISTOPHER (1758-1829). An Amer- 
ican lawyer and politician, born in Boston, the 
son of a Loyalist who was banished in 1778 
and restored to citizenship in 1787. He grad- 
uated at Harvard College in 1776, studied law 
in the office of Judge Lowell, and soon established 
himself as a successful lawyer in Boston. In 
1789 Washington appointed him the first United 
States district attornev for the State of Massa- 
chusetts. He held this office until 1796, in 
which year he was appointed, with William 
Pinckney and Jonathan Trumbull, a commis- 
sioner to England, under the Jay Treaty, to 
settle the American spoliation claims, and he 
remained in England eight years. In 1803-04 
he was charge^ d'affaires at London during the 
absence of Rufua King, the American Minister. 
He returned to America in 1804 and resumed the 
practice of his profession in Boston. He allied 
himself with the Federalist party, by the lead- 
ing members of which his advice was much 
sought. He was, in 1808, a vigorous opponent 
of the Embargo, and was accused by the Re- 
publicans, with Pickering and other members 



GORE 150 

of the Essex Junto, of planning the secession 
of New England and New York from the Union 
and erecting an independent confederacy under 
the protection of England. In 1809 he was 
elected by the Federalists Governor of Massa- 
chusetts. Tie was, however, defeated in 1S10 by 
Elbridge Gerry. He was the unsuccessful can- 
didate of his party again in the following year, 
being defeated a second time by Gerry. After 
several years spent in private life during a 
period of great political excitement, he was, in 
1814, appointed to the United States Senate by 
Governor Strong to fill a vacancy, which ap- 
pointment was confirmed by the Legislature in 
the following year. In 1817 he resigned from 
the Senate on account of ill health and passed 
the remainder of his life on his large country 
estate at Walthum, Maps. Consult a ''Memoir," 
in Massachusetts Historical Society Collections, 
3d series, vol. iii (Boston, 1833). 

00RE, GEORGE (1820-1008). An English 
physicist and chemist, born at Bristol. He did 
not attend school after his twelfth year, but 
while earning his living he applied himself RO 
industriously to study that he was able to make 
discoveries which secured for him an election 
as fellow of the Royal Society (1805), and the 
degree of LL.D. from the University of Edin- 
burgh (1877). HIH researches in the main were 
in the departments of electrochemistry, electro- 
metallurgy, and chemistry, and wore rewarded 
by many discoveries which arc described in the 
leading English scientific journals. Gore was 
for many years lecturer on physics and chem- 
istry at the Grammar School of King Edward 
VI at Birmingham. In 1891 he was awarded a 
civil-list pension of 150 a year in recognition, 
of the national importance of his scientific dis- 
coveries, several of which have had widespread 
application in the arts. He was the author of 
The Art of Scientific Discovery (1878); The 
Scientific liasis of Morality (1882) ; The Art of 
mcctro-MetalhtrM (1877; 5th ed., 1891); TJio 
JSlctflrolytic Separation and RefMng of Metals 
(1800) ; and other works. 

GORE, THOMAS PBYOB (1870- ). An 
American legislator, born in Webster Co., Miss. 
When he was eight years old, an accident cost 
him the flight of his left eye, and, when cloven, 
he lost the sight of his right eye also. Never- 
theless, he was able to graduate from the nor- 
mal school at Walthall, Miss., in 1890 and from 
Cumberland University in 1892. He taught 
school in 1890-91 and was admitted to the bar 
and began the practice of law in Mississippi in 
1892. Moving to Texas in 1895, he was can- 
didate for Congress on the People's party ticket 
in 1808, but having become a Democrat the next 
year he did campaign work for his party in 
South Dakota in 1900 and in various States in 
1904, becoming noted as an orator. In 1901 he 
moved to Oklahoma, where ho was a member of 
the Territorial Council in 1902-05. Upon the 
admission of Oklahoma to statehood, he was 
elected United States Senator in 1907, being re- 
elected for a full term in 1900. In 1912 he bo- 
came a member of the executive committee of 
tho Democratic National Committee. In 1914, 
through what was afterward supposed to have 
been a political "frame-up," suit was brought 
by a woman against Senator Gore, accusing him 
of dishonorable conduct; he was completely 
exonerated, and was again reflected. 

GOBE'BH/L. A garfish. See GAB. 

aOBECKl, ga-rSts^, ANTON (1787-1861). 



A Polish poet, born and educated in Vilna. He 
took an active part in the Polish revolution of 
1830 and in consequence was obliged to iiee to 
Paris. His complete works were published in 
two volumes at Leipzig in 1S8(J. One of his 
best-known productions is entitled The Death of 
the Traitor. 

G-ORlDE, g6'ra'. A small island southeast of 
Cape Verde, off the west coast of Africa. It 
is about 3 miles in circumference, and the larger 
part is occupied by the town of Gorce, once an 
important free port, but now of little commer- 
cial importance. Its present value lies in its 
climate, and it evves as a health resort for the 
French officials stationed on the west coast of 
Africa. It is fortified and lias a population of 
about 2000. The island was first in the pos- 
session of the Dutch, but has belonged to the 
French colony of Senegal since 1814. 

GORE HOUSE. A mansion in Kensington, 
London, famous an a gathering place for literary 
men, through its two tenants, William Wilber- 
force and the Countess of Blessington. The for- 
mer took up his residence there in 1809. Upon 
the site now stands the Albert Memorial. 

GOB/ELL OF BRAMP'TOMT, JOHN GORELL 
BARNES, BAHON (1848-1013). An English ju- 
rist and judge, son of Henry Barnes, a Liverpool 
whipowner. lie was educated at Peterhousc, 
Cambridge; became a solicitor, in 1870 a bar- 
rister of the Inner Temple, and in 1888 a 
Queen's counsel; practiced largely in admiralty 
cases; and in 1802-1905 was judge, and in 
1905 president (succeeding Sir Francis Jeune), 
of the .probate, divorce, and admiralty division 
of tho High Court of Justice. He was made 
first Baron Oorell of Brampton in 1909. From 
1910 to 1912 he was chairman of the Divorce 
Commission, of which his son, Henry Gorcll 
Barnes (1882- ), who succeeded to the title, 
was secretary. 

GOREIUr&'KIN, gfir'5-mlk^n, IVAN LOGGINO- 
yiTCir (1830- ). A Russian statesman, born 
in the Government of Novgorod. In 1800 he 
entered the Imperial Law School of St. Peters- 
burg (Petrogracl) and four years later went, 
with the commission to form a now government, 
to Poland. " There ho stayed for neveral years, 
becoming Vice Governor of Plock in I860 and 
of Kielcc in 1800, and returning to Poland for 
the years 1873-79. In 1881 and 1893 ho served 
on commissions on agrarian reform, and his 
reports on the condition of the peasants won 
him the Cflar's confidence, so that (after serv- 
ing in the Department of Justice in 1801 and 
in the Ministry of the Interior) he was Minister 
of the Interior in 1895-99, succeeding Durnovo. 
His administration was comparatively mild: 
Jews with university education wore permitted 
to live outside the pale; the first ccnmiB of 
the Empire, was taken in February, 1897. Prob- 
ably he helped plan the first Peace Conference. 
In 1897 he addressed a memorial to tho Czar 
urging administrative reform. Witte's opposi- 
tion to his plan (1899) to extend zonstvo rep- 
resentation forced Gorem^kin out of the cabinet. 
Succeeding Witte as Premier in May, 1900, al- 
though he had the Czar's confidence, he had to 
resign in July after a contest with tho im- 
practical and far from docile first Duma. Tn 
February, 1914, he became Premier again, suc- 
ceeding Kokovtsoff. He wrote in 1809 a his- 
torical sketch of the Polish peasantry. For a 
brief sketch of his career, consult Cleinow iu 
Grena'boten, Jahrg. 73, pp. 337-348 (1914). 



GOBGAS 



151 



GOBGEY 



GORGAS, gur'gas, WILLIAM CRAWFOBD ( 1854- 
1020). A distinguished American sanitarian, 
surgeon general in the United States army. He 
was born at Mobile, Ala., and graduated from the 
University of the South in 1875 and from Belle- 
vue Hospital Medical College in 1879. After 
serving as an interne at Bellcvue in 1878-80, 
he was appointed a surgeon in the army in 
1880. From 189S to 1902 he was chief sanitary 
officer of Havana, Cuba, where his methods of 
fighting yellow fever succeeded in eliminating 
that disease from the city. For these services 
Congress, by a special Act in 1903, made him 
assistant surgeon-general, with the rank of 
colonel. From 1904 to 1913, as chief sanitary 
officer of the Panama Canal, he established and 
maintained rnarvelously healthful conditions on 
the Isthmus throughout the great community of 
workers, most of whom had to become accli- 
mated and to adjust themselves to the food and 
habits of a tropical land. The task of Colonel 
Gorgas was in its way as great as that of the 
engineers; without his resourcefulness, skill, 
and untiring labor the building of the canal 
would have meant immense sacrifice of life. 
He was a member of the Isthmian Canal Com- 
mission after 1907 and received numerous honors 
lie was elected president of the American 
Medical Association in 1908 and of the Ameri- 
can Society of Tropical Medicine in 1910, was 
awarded the Mary Kingsley medal of the Liver- 
pool School of Tropical Medicine in 1907, was 
delegate from the United States to the Pan- 
American Medical Congress at Santiago, Chile, 
in 1908, and was the recipient of honorary 
degrees from a number of American universities, 
among them Harvard, Brown, Columbia, Prince- 
ton, and Yale, and the degree of D.Sc. from 
Oxford (1914). He received a gold medal from 
the American Medical Association in 1914; and 
in the same year he was appointed surgeon- 
general in the United States army with the rank 
of brigadier general. See PANAMA CAKAL. 

GORGE. The rear opening between the faces 
or flanks of a fieldwork or fortification. The 
gorge is prepared for defense by obstacles or 
trenches, or both. See BASTION. 

GOUGED (from OF., Fr. gorge, throat, from 
Lat. gurgesy gulf). A term in heraldry (q.v.), 
applied to a lion or other animal having a collar 
round its neck. The collar is generally in the 
form of a crown or coronet. 

GORGES., gdr'jSs, SIB FERDINANDO (c.1566- 
1647). The founder of Maine and sometimes 
called "the father of English colonization in 
America." He was born probably in Ashton 
Phillips, England, entered the army, served in 
Normandy in 1591, distinguished himself and 
was knighted at the siege of Rouen, and from 
159G to 1629 he was, with but a short suspen- 
sion in 1603, "Governor of the forts and island 
of Plymouth." He seems to have been engaged 
in the conspiracy led by the Earl of Essex, 
against whom he was witness in the trial of 
1601. Becoming early interested in the settle- 
ment of the New World, he was one of the 
grantees in the royal charter of 1606 and was 
one of the founders of the unsuccessful Popham 
Colony at the mouth of the Kennebec River, in 
Maine, in 1607. Capt. John Smith, as agent for 
Gorges, made several unsuccessful attempts to 
establish other settlements; and in 1616 Gorges 
sent out a small party which encamped for the 
winter on the river Saco. In 1620 Gorges and 
his associates obtained a new charter, which 



gave them title to the territory between the 
fortieth and forty-eighth parallels north lati- 
tude, extending westward from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific. Gorges and John Mason, in August, 
1022, took from the Council for New England 
a grant of the district lying between the Merri- 
mac and the Kennebec and extending GO miles 
inland; and under the auspices of the former 
several settlements were made. In 1629 this 
grant was divided, Gorges taking the portion 
east of the Piscataqua. In 1623 Capt. Robert 
Gorges, son of Ferdinando, was appointed by 
vote of the Council for New England "'General 
Governor of the country." Twelve years later 
the Council resigned tlie charter to* the King, 
the elder Gorges expecting to be thereupon ap- 
pointed Governor-General. Disappointed in this, 
he induced the King to grant him a charter con- 
stituting him lord proprietor of the Province of 
Maine and providing that his office should re- 
main hereditary in his family. His son, Thomas, 
was sent out as Deputy Governor. The principal 
settlements were Agamenticus and Saco, the 
former being the place now called York, which 
was chartered as a city in 1042 under the name 
of Gorgeana. But the English Civil War, in 
which Gorges was a follower of the King, was 
unfavorable to his Colonial project. In 1G43 
the four New England Colonies formed an alli- 
ance for mutual defense, excluding therefrom 
the Gorges settlements, and after his death 
these settlements formed themselves into a body 
politic and submitted to the jurisdiction of Mas- 
sachusetts. Gorges wrote J. Briefe Narration of 
the Originall Undertakings of the Advancement 
of Plantations into the Parts of America, espe- 
cially shouting the Beginning, Progress and Con- 
tinuance of That of New England (1658), which 
lias been much used by historians and may be 
found in vol. ii of the Maine Historical Society 
Collections (Portland) and in the 3d series, 
vol. vi of the Massachusetts Historical Society 
Collections. Consult Baxter (ed.), Sir Ferdi- 
nando Gorges and Jvis Province of Maine (3 
vols., Boston, 1890), one of the "Prince Society 
Publications." 

GORGET, gdr'jSt (OF. gorgette, gorgete, Fr. 
gorgette, collar, dim. of gorge, throat). One of 
a series of surgical instruments, devised to facili- 
tate the operation of lithotomy. Gorgets are 
now almost entirely out of use. 

G-OBGEY, gSr'gS-f, or GOBGEI, AKTHUR 
(1818-1916). An Hungarian, general in the 
revolution of 1848-49. He was born at Toporcz, 
in the County of Szepes (Zips), Jan. 30, 1818, 
received a military education, and was com- 
missioned a lieutenant of hussars. While at 
Vienna, he combined a university education 
with his military work. He threw in his lot 
with the National party in the rising against 
Austria in 1848 and was at first employed in 
the purchase of arms in Belgium. In August, 
1848, he received an important command and 
soon distinguished himself against the Croats, 
whom he prevented from crossing the Danube. 
He exhibited great military capacity after the 
rout of the Hungarian army near Schwechat, in 
October, 1848, conducting the retreat with con- 
summate skill. Upon the appointment of Dem- 
binski (q.v.) to the chief command of the Hun- 
garian armies, GSrgey showed his dissatisfac- 
tion in various ways, and it was said that his 
late arrival at the battle of Kapolna prevented 
a great Hungarian victory. He practically re- 
volted against Kossuth and the government. 



GOEOUAS 152 

After Dembinski's resignation Qorgey was made 
commander in chief in his place and succeeded 
in putting into the field an army of 40,000 men, 
with which he executed a brilliant advance 
against the Austrians under Windischgriitz. 
Pest was evacuated by the enemy, the aiege of 
Komorn was raised, and before the month of 
Ajjril was over the Austrians had boon almost 
driven out of Hungary. Buda, the ancient 
capital of the realm, well fortified and gar- 
risoned, had still to be taken, and for this the 
victorious campaign was interrupted. The city 
was stormed May 21, but the three weeks* de- 
lay proved fatal. Russia intervened in behalf of 
Austria, and Eadetzky sent several regiments 
from his victorious army in Italy. After an un- 
successful engagement at Komorn and a battle 
with the Russian main army at Waitzcn (July 
15), he made his way towards the upper Theiss. 
The Hungarians, outnumbered by the united 
Austrian and Russian armies, were gradually 
driven to the wall. Gorgey, after some weeks, 
arrived in the neighborhood of Arad with an 
army decimated by continual fighting, by heavy 
marches, and by disease. On August 9 the army 
under Dembinski was vanquished in the battle of 
Teinesvar, and on the 10th Gorgey was de- 
clared dictator in place of Kossuth. But further 
resistance on the part of the Hungarians was 
hopeless, and on the 13th Giirgey's army sur- 
rendered at Vilagos to General Rtidiger, the Rus- 
sian commander. For this surrender Gorgey 
was severely blamed and charged with treach- 
ery; but the facts are that on the day of sur- 
render Gtfrgey had only 24,000 men with 140 
cannon, while five armies, with more than 200,- 
000 men and 1000 cannon, were closing in upon 
him from every direction. Gorgey was confined 
for a time at Klagcnfurt in Austria, whence he 
was released on parole. All of his generals 
were court-martialed, but he escaped that igno- 
miny. In 1852 he published at Leipzig Moin 
Leben und Wirken in TJngarn in den J nitron 
1848 und 1840, a translation of which, My Life 
end Acts in Hungary, 1848-J9, appeared in 
New York the same year. This was really a 
reply to the charge of treason to the Hungarian 
cause. He returned to Hungary in 1868. Con- 
sult Elemar, Gorgci in 1848-49 (Budapest 
1886). 

GOB/GIAS (Lat., from Gk. Topytas) (c,483- 
375 B.C.). A celebrated Greek rhetorician and 
Sophist. He was born at Lcontini in Sicily, but 
spent most of his life in Greece, residing at 
Athens and at Larissa in Thcssaly. The ar- 
rival of Gorgias at Athens as an Ambassador 
from his native state, in 427 B.C., was fraught 
with important consequences for the literary 
life of Athens, for in him the Athenians first 
saw an exponent of the art of rhetoric as it 
had been developed in Sicily. The SUCCORS of 
Gorgias was immediate. The Athenians thronged 
to hear his speeches, and it is not too much to 
say that the great development of oratory at 
Athens during the fourth century was due pri- 
marily to this Sicilian orator. Numerous teach- 
ers of rhetoric, the Sophists (q.v.), sprang up, 
against whose doctrine of "form, rather than 
substance," Socrates and Plato directed their 
teaching. In. the Gorgias of Plato we have an 
ideal dialogue between the Sicilian orator and 
Socrates. Two orations the Palamedes (ITaXa- 
^Srjs) and the Encomium on Helen (*E\&^ 
'E7*fyuoj>) have come down under his name. 
but scholars are not agreed whether they are 



OOBftO 



really by him or not. Consult: Blass, Die at- 
tische Bcredsatnkeit, vol. i (Leipzig, 1887); 
Jebb, The Attic Orators, vol. i (London, 1876) ; 
Uomperz, Greek Thinkers, vol. i (Eng. trans., 
ib., 1905); CliriHt-Schmiil, deseliiclite tier grie- 
chittchm lAtiwatur, vol. i (5th ed., Munich, 
IMS). 

G-OB'GO, or aOB/G-OW (Gk. TopyA, Gorgo, 
Yopy6p7j 9 Q-oryoM', Topyds, Morgan, from yopy6s, 
gorgos, grim). A sister of the Graeai (q.v.) and 
the daughter of l j horcys and C'eto. In the 
Odyssey, xi, U33, Odysseus fears that Persephone 
may send forth against him the Gorgon's head, 
which is therefore regarded as belonging to the 
Lower World. The later legend, given by 
Hesiod, knows Gorgo as a terrible female 
monster, with hideous face, hair of bronze or in- 
tertwined with serpents, mighty wings, and clad 
in black. Gorgo or Medusa (Me5ou<ra, the 
Queen) is mortal, but her two sisters, S0ej/<6 
(the Strong) and EtfpudXi; (the Far Lcaper), 
are immortal. Medusa is the most terrible; 
one glance from her eyes turns any human 
being to stone. Though she was hated by the 
other gods, Poseidon loved her. These Gorgons 
lived in the Far West, near the garden of the 
gods and the roalin of the dead. Medusa was 
beheaded by Perseus and from her trunk sprang 
the fruit of Poseidon's love, Chrysaor, of the 
golden sword, and the winged horse, Pegasus. 
The head, with its petrifying power, was used 
by Perseus against his enemies and was later 
taken by Athena and placed upon her aegis. 
Attic legend knew of but one Gorgon, produced 
by Ga?a to aid the giants against the gods, and 
slain by Athena, while the later poets explained 
Poseidon's love by telling of the maiden Medusa, 
who won the love of tho god, but inspired the 
jealousy of Athena, who transformed her into 
the hideous monster and guided Perseus to her 
destruction. Roscher (see below) held that the 
Gorgons are a personification of destructive and 
terrifying thunderstorms, which come with speed 
from ' the western ocean. Hence the guidon 
flword of the lightning and the bearer of thunder- 
bolts, Pegasus, spring from her dead body. 
Hence, too, the appearance of the Gorgoneion 
on the a'gis of Zeus and Athena, who are armed 
with the thunderbolt. The head of the Gorgo 
waa used by the Greeks for apotropaic purposes, 
i.e., to ward off the evil eye or other evil in- 
fluences. Another view, noting that tho power 
of Medusa was in her head, explains the whole 
story of the Gorgon aa derived from the ritual 
mask common to primitive cults. In Greek art 
the Gorgoneion does not appear much before 
the seventh century B.C. Its earliest form is 
certainly the hideous mask, with round face, 
nnnky hair, huge staring eyes, and wide mouth, 
with projecting tongue and tusklikc teeth, which 
was used to keep off the evil spirits, and from 
which the later figure of tho Gorgon develops. 
There was a later conception of the Gorgon an 
beautiful, best ween in the "Medusa Rondanini" 
at Munich. Consult: Roseher, Die. Qoryonen 
und Verwavidtcs (Leipzig, 1800) ; Six, De (lor- 
t/onc (Amnterdam, 1880), especially for the coin 
types. Particularly good are the article by 
Roseher and PurtwKngler in Rosclutr'a Leorikon 
der grieMaclien und rowisclwn Mythologie 
(Leipzig, 1880-00) and that by Glotz, in Daroni- 
b<r# and ftaglio, Dhlionnaire des wrtiquites 
(Paris, 1806). Consult also Harrison, Prolegom- 
ena to the Study of Greek Religion (Cam- 
bridge, 1903). 



153 



GORILLA 



GOB,GO'MTA<3EA (Neo-Lat., from Gorgonia, 
from Lat. gorgvnius, relating to the Gorgon, 
from Gorgo, Gorgon; so called from hardening 
in the air). An order of alcyonarian corals 
(Octocoralla), in which the colony has a branch- 
ing or fan-shaped structure. See SEA FAN, and 
Plate with CORAL. 

GOR'OOK'ZO'LA. A town in the Province 
of Milan, north Italy, 11 miles northeast of the 
city of Milan, famous for its cheese. Pop. 
(commune), 1901, 4805; 1911, 5198. 

GOR/HAM. A town in Cumberland Co., Me., 
10 miles northwest of Portland, on the Pre- 
sumpscot River, and on the Boston and Maine 
Railroad (Map: Maine, B 5). It is in an agri- 
cultural region, has a tannery, and contains a 
State normal school, public library, and an 
historical museum. Pop., 1900, 2540; 1910, 
2822. 

GOR/HAM, GEOBGB CORNELIUS (1787-1857). 
An English theologian, who became known as 
the principal figure in the "Gorham case." He 
was born at St. Neots, Huntingdonshire, was 
educated at Queen's College, Cambridge, received 
the degree, of B.A. in 1808, was elected a fellow 
of his college in 1810, and held that appoint- 
ment until 1827. Even before his ordination 
(1811) there, his views on baptismal regenera- 
tion had caused comment, and particularly his 
contention that by baptism infants do not be- 
come members of Christ and the children of 
God; but the discussion did not become cru- 
cial until the question of his appointment to 
the vicarage of Brampford Speke came up before 
Dr. Phillpotts, Bishop of Exeter. (See GORHAM 
CONTKOVEBSY. ) Gorhara obtained his vicarage 
in 1851, and the question of the views on bap- 
tismal regeneration allowed in the Church of 
England was loft unsettled. He was an anti- 
quary of some reputation and the author of a 
number of pamphlets. 

GOBTTATVT COZSTTBOVEBSY. A theological 
controversy within the Church of England as to 
the teaching of this church with reference to the 
sacramental grace of baptism. The occasion was 
a suit by the Rev. George C. Gorham against 
the Bishop of Exeter for induction into the 
vicarage of Brampford Speke, in spite of his 
denial of baptismal regeneration. The Arches 
Court of Canterbury decided in 1845 against 
Mr. Gorham, maintaining that baptismal regen- 
eration is the doctrine of the Church of England, 
while on appeal the judicial committee of the 
Privy Council reversed the judgment of the 
lower court, without, however, expressing any 
opinion as to the theological accuracy of Mr. 
Gorhaiu's opinions. The decision and the atti- 
tude of the high dignitaries of the Church of 
England, amid the fierce controversy which 
arose in regard to it, were the main determin- 
ing factors in Manning's decision to submit to 
the Roman obedience. Consult Purcell, Life of 
Cardinal Manning (London, 1897). 

GOBI, ga/VS. The capital of a district in the 
Russian Government of Tiflis, Caucasus, 48 miles 
west-northwest of Tiflis, on the Poti-Tiflis 
Railway (Map: Russia, F 6). It is pictur- 
esquely situated at an elevation of 2000 feet and 
at the foot of a mountain crowned with the 
ruins of the ancient fortress of Goris-Tsikhe. 
In one of its churches is kept an ancient icon, 
believed to have been presented in the sixth 
century to a member of the family of the Bagra- 
tides by one of the Byzantine emperors. Gar- 
dening, vine growing, wine making, and trading 



are the principal occupations. Pop., 1891, 7200; 
1897, 10,450. Founded, probably, in the seventh 
century. 

G-OBI, g<Vr3, ANTONIO FRANCESCO (1691- 
1757). An Italian antiquary. He was born at 
Florence, whore he was ordained a priest in 
1717. Through the influence of Archbishop Fon- 
tanini he was enabled to devote himself exten- 
sively to antiquarian and archtcologicul studies. 
He succeeded Corsotti in the chair of history 
at the University of Florence, founded the 
Acadcmia Columbaria in 1735. and continued the 
catalogue, begun by Assemani, of the Oriental 
books and manuscripts at Florence. Among 
his writings, which had a very considerable 
influence on the progress of archaeological science, 
are: Inscriptioncs Antiques Orcecce ct Romanes 
quce Extant in Eetrurice Urbibus (1726-44); 
Monumentum Columbarium Lioertoruin et Ser- 
vorum Livice August