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Copyright, 19O3, 1OO4, loo.!, 19OG, 1OO7, 1 OO0, 1911. 1912, 1915 

Dom>, !Mt-Ai> A.NII COMPANY 

ri&hts reserved 
Copyright, 1917, 1921, 1O22 



Printed in the U. S. 

VAir.-BAz.x.oiT PRBae, Tiro . BIWGHAMTON. N* 7. 















MAP, Map of Ptolemy . . 48 

MAP, World Map of Ptolemy, Flm Edition; World Map of Mercator 49 

MAP, Hereford Map and Peu linger Table 50 

MAP, Portolan Chart 51 

MAP, Topographical 54 


MARBLE . . 62 


MEISSONIER, Jean Louis Ernest ("Friedland, 1807") 358 





METAL WORKING MACHINERY, Typical Machine Tools 485 

METAL WORKING MACHINERY, Typical Machine Tools 486 

METAL WORKING MACHINERY, Typical Machine, Tools 487 

MEXICO (CITY), The Cathedral 554 

MICHELANGELO ("Creation of Adam") 576 

MICHELANGELO ("Moses") 578 


MICROSCOPY, Clinical 602 

MILAN, The Cathedral 628 

FAcnra PAOB 

MILITARY AERONAUTICS, European Military Dirigibles 642 

MILITARY AERONAUTICS, Aeroplanes of the European War 643 

MILITARY AERONAUTICS, Types of Hydroplanes 648 

MILITARY AERONAUTICS, Aeroplanes Mounting Machine Guns 649 

MILLET ("The Gleaners") . . . . 690 

MILTON, JOHN . . . . 700 

MINE ACCIDENTS AND SAFETY, Investigating Mine Accidents 716 

MINE ACCIDENTS, Preventing Mine Accidents 717 

MINERALOGY . . . 720 

MINT, UNITED STATES, at Philadelphia 762 

MINT, ETC 763 


For a full explanation of the various sounds indicated, see the KEY TO PRONUNCIATION in Vol I. 




tt tt 

tt it 

tt tt 

tt tt 

t tt 

t it 

5 as in ale, fate. 

a " " senate, chaotic. 

ft " " glare, care, and as e in there. 

ft " " am, at. 

arm, father. 

ant, and final a in America, armada, etc. 

final, regal, pleasant 

all, fall. 


elate, evade. 

end, pet. 

fern, her, and as i in sir, etc. 

agency, judgment. 

ice, quiet 

old, sober. 

obey, sobriety. 

orb, nor. 

odd, forest, not. 

atom, carol. 

oil, boil. 

food, fool, and as u in rude, rule. 

house, mouse. 

use, mule. 


cut, but. 

full, put, or as oo in foot, book 

urn, burn. 

yet, yield. 

Spanish Habana, C6rdoba, where it is like 
English v but made with the lips alone. 




65" " 
oa" " 
u " " 
s " " 

M " " 


u tt 



di as in chair, cheese. 





" " Spanish Almodovar, pulgada, where it is 
nearly like th in English then. 

tt it 
tt n 

go, get. 
German . 

Landtag = ch in Ger ach, etc. 
" j in Spanish Jijona, g in Spanish gila; like 

English h in hue, but stronger. 
wh in which. 
ch in German ich, Albrccht = g in German 

Arensberg, Mecklenburg, etc. 
n "in sinker; longer, 
ng " " sing, long. 

N " " French bon, Bourbon, and m in the French 
fitampes; here it indicates nasalizing of 
the preceding vowel, 
sh " " shine, shut, 
th " " thrust, thin. 
TH " " then, this. 
zh " 2 in azure, and s in pleasure. 

An apostrophe ['] is sometimes used as in taVl 
(table), k&z"m (chasm), to indicate the elision of 
a vowel or its reduction to a mere murmur. 

For foreign sounds, the nearest 'English equiva- 
lent is generally used. In any case where a special 
symbol, as o, H, K, N, is used, those unfamiliar with 
the foreign sound indicated may substitute the Eng- 
lish sound ordinarily indicated by the letter. For 
a full description of all such sounds, see the article 



Mr. Oscar Phelps Austin. 

Mr. Roscoe R. Hill. 

Professor Robert M. Brown. 

Mr. John W. Russell. 

Dr. George Kriehn. 

Professor Charles Russell Richards. 

Professor Isaac Leon Eandel. 

Professor Alvin Saunders Johnson. 

Dr. Edwin West Allen. 

Captain Lewis Sayre Van Duzer, U.S.N., 


Professor John M. Coulter. 

Professor Heinrich Ries. 

Major LeRoy 8. Lyon, U.S.A. 

Captain Lewis Sayre Van Duzer, U.S.N., 


Dr. Allan Herbert Willett. 

Professor Alvin Saunders Johnson. 

Professor George W. Kirchwey 

Professor Melanchthon W. Jacobus. 

Professor Irving F. Wood. 

Professor Munroe Smith, Professor 
Franklin H Giddings, Dr. Harlan F. 
Stone; Professor George W. Kirchwey. 

Mr. Oscar Phelps Austin. 

Professor Charles Knapp. 

Professor George W. Kirchwey. 

Mr. C William Beebe. 

Dr. William B. Clark, Professor Alvin 
Saunders Johnson, Honorable R P. 
Graham; Honorable M. B. Stephens; 
Mr. Allen Leon Churchill; Mr. 
Charles Vernon Katz. 

Dr. Newton D Mereness. 

Professor A. D. F. Hamlin. 

Mr. Albert C. Stevens. 

Rev. Thomas J. Campbell, S.J. 

Rev Patrick A. Halpin, Ph.D. 

Professor Robert M Brown; Honorable 
F. J. Donahue; Honorable D. Sned- 
don; Professor Alvin Saunders John- 
son; Mr Allen Leon Churchill; Mr. 
Charles Vernon Katz. 

Professor Francis M. Burdick. 

Professor George W. Kirchwey. 


Mr. Herbert T. Wade. 

Professor W. A. Fairburn. 

Professor Evander Bradley McGilvary. 

Professor David Eugene Smith. 

Professor Joseph Sweetman Ames. 


Professor William H. P Hatch. 

Professor Robert M Brown; Mr Ed- 
ward Lathrop Engle; Professor J. 
Salwyn Schapiro. 

Dr. Herbert J. Spinden. 

Miss Juliet Stuart Poyntz. 

Professor J. Salwyn Schapiro. 

Captain Lewis Sayre Van Duzer, 

U.S.N., Ret 

Dr. Alfred Charles True 

Dr. Edwin West Allen. 

Mr Frederick Remsen Hutton. 

Professor Joseph Sweetman Ames. 

Professor Robert M Brown; Professor 
Dana Carleton Munro, Mr. Irwin 
Scofield Guernsey. 

Professor Francis R. Packard. 

Dr. David Gilbert Yates. 

Professor Dana Carleton Munro. 

Dr. Alfred Lee 

Dr. David Gilbert Yates. 

Professor Alpheus Spring Packard*; 
Mr Gilbert Van Ingen; Mr. C. Wil- 
liam Beebe 

Dr. W J McGee*; Professor George 
Grant MacCurdy; Mr. William 

Dr James Maurice Whiton. 

Professor Irving F. Wood. 

Professor Martin A. Rosanoif 

Professor Edward Bradford Titchener. 

Judge J P Young. 

Professor Alfred Remy. 

Professor Samuel McCune Lindsay. 

Professor Alvin Saunders Johnson. 

Dr. Albert Warren Ferris. 

Dr. David Gilbert Yates. 

Mr. Allen Leon Churchill. 

Reverend Jacob Krehbiel. 


Professor Alfred Remy. Mr. Oscar Fhelps Austin; Professor 

MENTAL DEFECTIVES. Charles Enapp; Professor Dana 

Dr. William L. Stowell. Carleton Munro; Professor J. Salwyn 

MENTAL TESTS. Schapiro. 

Professor Edward Bradford Titchener. MILITARY ACADEMY, UNITED STATES. 
MERCHANT MARINE. Colonel C. DeWitt Willcox, U.S.A. 


wurwmv " Colonel C. DeWitt Willcox, U.S.A. 


Professor T. W. Edmondson. *Di.rt*aai. A TI T? TTa-mii** 


eMOr Heinrich Ri68> Colonel C DeWitt Wfflcox, U.S.A. 

lssor Nathaniel Bfedlt 

Professor William Campbell. Major LieKoy b. Lyon, U.S.A. 


Mr. Louis D. Huntoon. Colonel C. DeWitt Willcox, U.S A. 


Mr. George Leland Hunter. Captain James J. Maycs, USA. 

Professor A. D. P. Hamlin. Colonel Edward Hunter, U.S A., Ret. 


Mr. Frederick Remsen Hutton. Major LeRoy S. Lyon, USA. 


Professor Evander Bradley McGilvary. Dr. Alfred Charles True, Dr. Marcus 

METEOR. Benjamin; Dr. Edwin West Allen. 

Professor T. W. Edmondson. MILLENNIUM 

METEORITE. Professor Nathaniel Schmidt. 

Professor T. W. Edmondson. MILTON. 

METEOROLOGY. Professor Wilbur Lucius Cross. 

Professor Cleveland Abbe. Dr Horatio S. Krans. 

Professor Charles F. Marvin. MILWAUKEE 

METEOROLOGY, MARINE. Mr William W. Wight. 

Captain Lewis Sayre Van Diuer, MIMICRY 

U.S.N., Ret. Mr C. William Beebe. 


Professor John Alfred Faulkner. Professor Nathaniel Schmidt 


Mr. Wilbur F. Tillett. Professor Edward Bradford Titohener 


Professor David Eugene Smith. Captain Lewis Sayre Van Duzer, 

Mr. Herbert T. Wade. USN., Ret 


V A?T F ^SSSPi^rSK ^ Mr George Samuel Rice 


Professor John D Fitz-Gerald. MINERALOGY. 

MEXICO. "Mr. Herbert Percy Whitlock. 
Mr. Roscoe R. HiH; Major LeRoy S MINERAL WA TERS 

Lyon, U.S.A.; Dr. Herbert J. Spin- Professor Heinrich Ries 


Mr ROBCOC R Hill Professor George W. Kirchwey 


MICHEL^G^LO rieta Lieutenant Colonel Edgar Jadwin, 


Professor Almon Ernest Parkins; Pro- MINIATURE PAINTING. 
fessor Alvin Saundere Johnson; > , TVTTVT ^ Dr - George Knehn. 
Honorable Fred L. Keeler; Mr Allen MINING. 

Leon Churchill; Mr. Charles Vernon INNE ^oL?S* Cornell. 

MICROSCOPE ' Honorable E. Dudley Parsons. 

Professor William Hallock.* MINNESOTA. 

Professor A. H. Pfund Honorable E Dudley Parsons; Honor- 

MICROSCOPY. Able G. G Schulz; Professor Alvm 

Dr. Frederick R. Bailey. Saunders Johnson; Mr Allen Leon 

Dr. David Gilbert Yates. Churchill, Mr. Charles Vernon Katz 


Professor Dana Carleton Munro. Professor Thomas Joseph Shahan; Dr. 

MIGRATION. Henry Otis Dwight; Professor Irving 

Dr. Robert H. Lowie. F Wood, Rev. Patrick A. Halpin, 

Professor Dana Carleton Munro. Ph.D.; Mr. Paul H Clements. 


MANOiCHJE'ISM. A specula- 
tive religious system of western 
Asia, founded by Mani (q.v ) in 
the third century of our era. The 
ideas upon which it was based were mostly Per- 
sian (Zoroastrian), but it took some terms from 
Christianity. The Babylonian elements in it 
were not so great as was formerly supposed. 
There may also have been some traces from 
Buddhism, although this has been questioned by 
recent critics. The Christianity from which it 
borrowed was of the Gnostic type (see GNOSTI- 
CISM), and Manich&eism has been called, not im- 
properly, "the most complete Gnosis." Its west- 
ern branch came closely m contact with the 
Church, and appropriated so many Christian 
ideas and usages that it was sometimes regarded 
BIS a heresy, although it was properly a rival 
system. It differed from Christianity, among 
other things, in its complete rejection of the 
Did Testament. 

The dualism which Mani taught was radical 
and materialistic, postulating two opposite origi- 
nal domains, represented respectively by light 
and darkness, good and evil. They are from 
eternity contiguous, yet distinct and separate. 
The kingdom of light included both a heaven 
and an earth, the latter guarded by good angels 
(aeons). This kingdom has its Good Spirit, or 
God, whose attributes are set forth in a series 
of 10 (some say 12) virtues. It is not certain 
that Mani assumed a second god for his kingdom 
of darkness, but this kingdom was at least per- 
sonified, and from it sprang Satan and the evil 
demons. There is an earth of darkness, analo- 
gous to the earth of light, and its five quali- 
ties all obviously evil are mist, heat, the 
sirocco, darkness, and vapor. What might be 
called the equilibrium of the two kingdoms was 
destroyed by Satan, who overstepped his own 
boundaries and invaded the light realm. To op- 
pose him God created "primal man," who should 
be the champion of the invaded kingdom and 
fight its battles against the evil demons. All this 
is the prelude to human history. 

Mankind came into existence after a long cos- 
mic process, everywhere attended by disturb- 
ance and disaster. He is the creation of Satan, 
who placed in him all the light elements under 
his control in order to imprison them. Light 
and dark elements had already become entangled 

with one another and the conflict had begum 
before the creation of our present world, but 
with the advent of humanity it began to wax 
keener and more tragic. The destiny of the race 
is to have its light portions finally liberated, 
which result will accompany the restoration of 
the lost cosmic order in the universe Some of 
the accounts represent the signs of the zodiac 
as playing an important part in gathering to- 
the scattered particles of light. We also 
of a great final catastrophe, which shall 
bring the whole process to an abrupt conclusion 
The influence of a docetic Christianity appears in 
Western Manichaeism in the notion of the "Jesus 
patibilis" and "impatibilis." The former term 
was applied to the light which had become dif- 
fused throughout the world. By a peculiar ap- 
plication of the proper name Jesus the sum total 
of these particles came to be regarded as a being 
capable of suffering, and actually enduring it, 
through contact with evil matter. The other 
term, "Jesus impatibilis," means a sort of phan- 
tom, attendant upon the historic Jesus, but not 
partaker of his human experiences or sufferings. 
He was rather a messenger descended from the 
realm of light to aid in the world's redemption. 
In this work other prophets had taken part, and 
to crown the series Mani himself appeared, the 
final prophet of human history. Salvation con* 
sists in knowledge of the true nature of the 
universe and in the final separation of spirit 
(light) from matter (darkness). 

The Manichaeans fall into two classes, the per- 
fecti, or fully initiated members of the society, 
and the auditores, hearers or novitiates. The 
hearers constituted by far the larger body, and 
held the "perfect" in the highest veneration. 
St. Augustine, before his conversion to Chris- 
tianity, was for nine years a Manichsean hearer. 
The elect followed the ascetic rule of life, being 
distinguished by their threefold "seal" of mouth, 
hands, and bosom. The signaculum oris required 
abstinence from all defilement through evil 
speech or animal food; the signaculum mawuum, 
abstinence from all avoidable contact with the 
material world; and the signaculum sinus, ab- 
stinence from marriage and from all sexual 
indulgence. The uninitiated were satisfied with 
a less exacting moral standard, and lived very 
much as other men and women do. 

The Manichaeans were organized under a sort 
of hierarchy, in some respects like that of the 
Catholic church. Augustine tells us of a graded 

system of officers, including 12 teachers, 72 
bishops, and a number of elders. Above them 
all stood one supreme authority, for a long time 
resident in Babylon, but afterward in Samar- 
kand, who was apparently regarded as the rep- 
resentative of Mani. The worship of the Mani- 
chaeans was not elaborate ' It included, besides 
the ordinary service of prayer and song, an in- 
itiatory rite of baptism, in which oil was used 
instead of water, and a eucharistic meal. Fast- 
ing was emphasized as very important for the 
elect. An annual festival, called the Bema, com- 
memorated the death of the founder, Mani. 

From the latter part of the third century Mani- 
chaeism spread rapidly within the Roman Em- 
pire. Among its early adherents were sur- 
vivors of the Gnostic sects, especially the Mar- 
cionites. (See MARCION.) It also won converts 
from the non-Christian educated classes of Eu- 
rope, and in Africa even clergy embraced its 
teachings. By the end of the fourth century it 
had become one of the three great world systems, 
competing with Neo-Platonism and Christianity 
for religious and intellectual leadership The 
most notable of its early Christian opponents 
were Titus of Bostra, Metropolitan Bishop of 
Arabia, and St. Augustine. The Roman govern- 
ment took measures against the Manicheans 
almost from the beginning. Diocletian issued 
an edict against them, commonly dated about 
287. Valens (364-378) issued other similar de- 
crees. Manichaeans were condemned to exile 
under Valentinian III (425-455) and to death 
under Justinian (527-565). But nothing seemed 
capable of crushing the movement. It survived 
even the attacks of Islam, and flourished in 
Asia beyond the tenth century, whence some 
traces of it came into Europe in the heresies 
known under the names of the Paulicians, Bogo- 
miles, Cathari, and Albigenses (qqv.). For 
references to the literature, see MANI. 

MANI^BE GRIBLE, ma'nyar' kr&'bla' 
(Fr., sieve fashion) Probably the oldest proc- 
ess of engraving upon metal for the purpose of 
printing. It derives its name from the white 
dots with which the dark ground of the print 
is covered, resembling the holes of a sieve. These 
dots, which form the outlines of the engraving, 
were beaten into the plate by means of a punch, 
the parts hollowed out forming a light image 
on a dark ground. The plates were made of 
some soft metal, like brass. The earliest ex- 
amples of prints, of the Bibliotheque Nationale 
(Paris), are from Cologne, where the art may 
have originated, in a manuscript dating at latest 
from 1406. The maniere criblee continued to be 
practiced as late as the first quarter of the six- 
teenth century, but was never an important fac- 
tor in the development of engraving. 

MANIFEST (Lat. mamfestus, evident), 
COMMERCIAL A document, in commercial naviga- 
tion, delivered to the officer of customs by the 
captain of a ship, which gives a list in detail of 
the cargo in his charge, with the names of the 
places where the goods were shipped and to 
which they are addressed. 

MANIFESTO (It., manifest). In interna- 
tional law, a declaration or formal statement 
of policy or intention which it was formerly 
customary for a belligerent to publish within 
its own territory or to communicate to other 
states through diplomatic agents. With modern 
conditions of intercommunication, such a for- 
mal notification has become less imperative, al- 
though commercial interests and international 

courtesy often render it desirable. See DECLA- 






MANTHOT. A genus of about 80 species of 
tall herbs and shrubs of the family Euphorbi- 
aceae, natives of South America The best-known 
species are cultivated in warm climates for 
their underground parts, which yield a starch 
known as Brazilian arrowroot, and cassava 
( q.v. ) Other species are rubber-producing plants. 
See Plate of CARNATIONS, ETC. 

MANH/A, Sp pron. ma-ne'la. The capital 
of the Philippine Islands. It is situated on the 
west coast of the island of Luzon, at the east 
end of Manila Bay, at the entrance of the river 
Pasig, in lat. 14 35' N. and long. 120 58' E. 
(Map Philippine Islands, C 3). The city oc- 
cupies part of an extensive plain on both banks 
of the Pasig, and is surrounded on the land side 
by a semicircle of picturesque mountains. It is 
divided by the Pasig into two parts, the old 
walled city and the suburbs. The former lies 
on the south bank of the river and is surrounded 
by an old wall with bastions and parapets built 
about 1590. The wall is 2% miles long and is 
pierced by six gateways with drawbridges. The 
use of the drawbridges was -discontinued about 
1850 and the moats on the land side of the walls 
were filled with earth in 1905 for sanitary rea- 
sons. The city is surrounded by Manila Bay 
on the west and the Pasig on the north. The 
walled city contains the principal public build- 
ings, such as the government offices, colleges, the 
weather observatory, the archbishop's palace, and 
the cathedral The aspect of the old city, essen- 
tially medieval, has materially changed since 
American occupation. Separated from the old 
city by the Pasig is Binondo, the centre of the 
commercial as well as of the industrial activity 
of the metropolis. Here are situated the princi- 
pal warehouses, cigar and tobacco factories, the 
business houses of the European trading com- 
panies, and the pnncipal shops. North of Bi- 
nondo lies the suburb of Tondo, where the work- 
ing population of the capital lives, chiefly in 
small houses built of cane and palm leaves. San 
Miguel, situated on an island formed by an arm 
of the Pasig, is the fashionable suburb of Ma- 
nila and contains the fine residences of the 
wealthy merchants and officials. 

Several bridges cross the Pasig from the 
suburbs, the principal being the Bridge of Spain, 
a handsome stone structure with a number of 
arches, leading from Binondo. At the south end 
of this bridge, and stretching along the Pasig 
outside the city walls, is the Paseo or Plaza de 
Magallanes, containing an obelisk erected to the 
memory of the discoverer of the islands. From 
this plaza a handsome paseo stretches in a 
semicircle and terminates on the bay front south 
of the city, where there is a park and prome- 
nade called the Luneta, which is lighted by elec- 
tricity. Most of the streets of Manila are broad 
and cross at right angles, and have been greatly 
improved since American occupation. The street 
railways are operated by electricity, the streets 
are well lighted and paved, and by a thorough 
system of drainage the healthf ulness of the city 
has been greatly improved. Among the build- 
ings of Manila the most prominent is the cathe- 

dral, destroyed by the earthquakes of 1863, but 
rebuilt. The customhouse is a handsome build- 
ing, also rebuilt since 1863. The best buildings 
are, as a rule, the convents and some of the 
churches. Manila is the intellectual centre of 
the entire archipelago, and has, besides the Uni- 
versity of St. Thomas (see MANILA, UNIVERSITY 
OF), the College of San Juan de Letran, the 
medical and pharmaceutical school of San Jose*, 
a general hospital built and operated by the 
government, a leper hospital, a hospital for con- 
tagious diseases, training schools for nurses, 
normal schools, a large military hospital, a 
home for convalescents, an insane asylum, and 
the excellent and spacious hospital of San Juan 
de Dios. The water supply of the city has been 
greatly improved since American occupation, the 
water being brought from the Mariquina River 
25 miles away to a large storage reservoir about 
200 feet above sea level. The drainage system 
has also been greatly improved, the sewage being 
discharged into the bay more than a mile from 
shore by a pumping system. 

The chief manufactures are cigars and ciga- 
rettes, furniture, boots and shoes, products of the 
famous Manila hemp or abaca, and some tex- 
tiles Iron foundries, machine shops, and vari- 
ous milling establishments are also flourishing. 
Manila's future, however, will depend chiefly on 
its commerce. Its harbor has been greatly im- 
proved under American rule, by the construction 
of breakwaters or jetties inclosing about 350 
acres of harbor area and dredging this to a 
depth of 30 feet, and the construction of steel 
wharves 650 feet long and about 100 feet wide. 
The Pasig River has also been dredged to a 
depth of about 20 feet, and the Manila harbor 
may now be considered the best and most modern 
in that part of the Orient. The city has steam- 
ship communication with many of the great 
ports on both sides of and in the Pacific Ocean. 
The larger commercial houses are conducted by 
Americans and by Spaniards or other Europeans, 
while the small trade is mostly in the hands of 
the Chinese, who are very prominent in the com- 
mercial activity of the city. Manila exports 
mainly sugar, hemp, tobacco and cigars, coffee, 
dyewoods, and precious metals. It is the great- 
est hemp market of the world. The imports are 
rice, cotton goods, chemicals, machinery, metal 
goods, and wine The trade is chiefly with 
China, the United States, and Great Britain, the 
share of the trade with the United States hav- 
ing greatly increased with the removal of all 
duties on Philippine products entering the United 
States and the admission duty free into the 
Philippines of all domestic merchandise from the 
United States. The population of Manila and 
suburbs, according to the census of 1903, was 
219,941, of whom 189,782 were Filipinos, 21,230 
Chinese, 4389 Americans, 2528 Spaniards, and 
1117 other Europeans. In 1910 the population 
was estimated at 234,400. Manila is the centre 
of a railway system of 475 miles and with its 
excellent harbor facilities is the chief entrepot 
of the Philippine group. A very large share of 
the $56,000,000 worth of imports and $53,000,000 
worth of exports of the islands enters or leaves 
this harbor. The city received its new charter 
of incorporation from the Philippine Commission 
on July 31, 1901, by which the government is 
vested in a municipal board appointed by the 
civil Governor of the islands. There is an ex- 
cellent school system, established by the Ameri- 
cans after assuming control of the islands. 

existed as a palisaded native town 
under the name of Mainila when it was first 
visited by the Spaniards. In 1569 Juan de 
Salcedo, a nephew of Legazpi, the conqueror of 
the Philippines, made an unsuccessful attempt to 
found a Spanish colony m the town. In 1571 
Legazpi himself appeared m the harbor with a 
Spanish fleet and was admitted into the town 
by the two native chiefs, who rendered homage 
to Spain. Legazpi at once strengthened the for- 
tifications and built a church and a number of 
houses for the Spaniards, and in the same year 
a municipal government was inaugurated with 
great solemnity. The city in 1574 was sacked 
and burned by Chinese pirates; m 1590 the 
present permanent fortifications were begun. In 
1602 an insurrection of the Chinese residents of 
the city was put down with great severity, sev- 
eral thousands of the insurgents being killed. 
The same year the city was blockaded by the 
Dutch. In 1762 it was captured and sacked by 
the English, who occupied it until 1764. 

Towards the end of the nineteenth century 
Manila became the centre of secret agitation for 
the overthrow of Spanish sovereignty. Many 
arrests were made; on Sept. 2, 1896, 13 promi- 
nent Filipino citizens were shot at Cavite, and 
on December 30 Dr. Rizal was executed at 
Manila. On Aug 30, 1897, a skirmish with the 
insurgents took place on the outskirts of the 
city, which was then declared under martial law. 
On May 1, 1898, Dewey destroyed the Spanish 
fleet in Manila Bay an event which was the 
signal for a great uprising of the Filipinos 
against Spanish rule, under the lead of Agui- 
naldo, and on August 13 the city capitulated to 
the American forces. It was placed under a 
military government and policed by a provost 
guard of American soldiers. During the winter 
of 1898-99 the city was practically in a state of 
siege by Aguinaldo's forces until the actual out- 
break of hostilities, which began with an unsuc- 
cessful attack of the Filipinos upon the Ameri- 
cans at Manila, on Feb. 4-5, 1899. The actual 
transfer of the military government to the new 
civil authorities took place on Aug. 7, 1901. In 
1914 the constabulary discovered a well-organ- 
ized native plot to revolt, with headquarters at 
Manila. About 30,000 Filipinos were involved. 
It was frustrated by the arrest of several leaders 
after an abortive attack on the police in the 
Botanical Gardens. 

Manila has a number of times suffered from 
earthquakes, the most terrible of which occurred 
on June 3, 1863, when all the prominent build- 
ings were destroyed and several thousand per- 
sons killed. Consult the authorities referred to 

OF ST. THOMAS). A university in Manila which 
owes its origin to Philip II of Spain, who in 
1585 gave permission for its foundation. In 
1601 a seminary for nobles was opened here, 
and in 1611 the Dominicans, supported by the 
Archbishop of Manila, established the Col- 
lege of St Thomas for natives and poor Span- 
iards. In 1619 the college received papal 
permission to grant degrees and in 1644 was 
converted into a university. The present insti- 
tution, however, dates from 1857 and was built 
up on the basis of the old. In 1871 schools of 
medicine and pharmacy were added The uni- 
versity is now organized on the model of similar 
American institutions and has faculties of the- 
ology, canon and civil law, medicine, pharmacy, 

philosophy and arts, and engineering. In 1912 
the university had an enrollment of 767 students, 
of whom 665 were in the colleges of law and 

MANILA BAT. A large and beautiful inlet 
of the China Sea, running into the southwestern 
coast of Luzon (Map: Philippine Islands, C 3). 
It has, roughly, the shape of a triangle with its 
base line, 37 miles long, forming the head of 
the bay from southeast to northwest, while its 
apex is at the entrance, which is 11 miles wide. 
The depth of the bay from the entrance to the 
base is 25 miles. The land on both sides of the 
entrance and along the west shore is high and 
forested; that on the east and north is low, and 
the north shore especially consists of the marshy 
delta of the Rio Grande de la Pampanga, which 
enters the bay through numerous mouths, be- 
tween which tall reeds grow far out into the 
shallow water. The greater part of the bay, 
however, has deep water, with good and ample 
roadsteads at Manila and Gavite, and for har- 
bor purposes it is the finest in the Far East. 
The entrance is well lighted by a large light- 
house on Corregidor Island and another on the 
smaller island of Gaballo. The bay connects 
through the Pasig River at Manila with the 
large Bay Lagoon in the interior of Luzon. 
Manila Bay was the scene of the victory of 
Admiral Dewey over the Spanish fleet on May 1, 


MANILtAN LAW. A law proposed at 
Rome in 66 B.C by the tribune Gaius Manilius, 
providing for the recall of the commanders then 
in Asia, where the Romans were fighting Mith- 
ridates, and for the extension of Pompey's power 
over all the East. Pompey was then in the East, 
clothed with large powers against the Gilician 
pirates (see CILICIA) ; Mamlms proposed to give 
him command against Mithridates also. Gicero 
made his first address to the people in support 
of the proposition of Manilius The speech, Pro 
Lege Manilla, or De Imperio Cn Pompeii, is ad- 
mirable in form, far superior in this respect to 
the orations against Catiline. It throws much 
light also on the operations of the publicani 

MANILTGTS, MABCUS. The supposed name 
of the author of a Latin poem on astrology en- 
titled Asttonomica. Nothing is known of his 
personality, but from the poem itself it is in- 
ferred that he lived in the reigns of Augustus 
and Tiberius. Five books of his poem are pre- 
served, treating of the constellations and their 
influence on human life. The work is of no 
great poetic value, but exhibits great learning 
and diligent research in the works of the best 
authorities. The writer imitates Lucretius and 
has much of that author's enthusiasm and power 
to enliven a difficult subject. There are several 
editions, including those of Scaliger (Leyden, 
1579 and 1600), Bentley (London, 1739), Jacob 
(Berlin, 1846), and Breiter, with Commentary 
(Leipzig, 1907-09), and an edition of Book ii by 
Garrod (Oxford, 1911). There in an English 
translation by Creech (London, 1697). Consult : 
Lanson, De Manilio Poeta (Paris, 1887); R. 
Ellis, Noctes Mamlianw (Oxford, 1891) ; Martin 
Schanz, Geschtchte der romischen Litteratur, 
vol. ii, part ii (3d ed , Munich, 1913). 

MANIN, ma-nen', DANIELE (1804-57). An 
Italian patriot He was born in Venice, May 13, 
1804, studied at the University of Padua, and 


was admitted to the doctorate of laws at the 
age of nineteen. He was then admitted to the 
bar, of which his father, Pietro Manin, was an 
eminent member. After 1831 he became a rec- 
ognized leader of liberal opinion in Venice. In 
1847 his reputation as a political economist was 
established during the sittings of the scientific 
congress at Venice. Shortly after he was thrown 
into prison for a spirited public address against 
Austrian domination. Previous to the rising 
against Austria of 1848 Manin was for a second 
time imprisoned, but when the news came of the 
revolution in Sicily and of the February revolu- 
tion m France he was released in triumph by 
the populace, was placed at the head of the 
patriotic movement, and was invested with su- 
pieme power as President of the restored Re- 
public of St. Mark. The organization of a 
civic guard and the expulsion of the Austrians 
from the arsenal were Manm's first public meas- 
ures. At the same time he prevented the mob 
from murdering their former oppressors. Manin 
devoted himself energetically to the organization 
of the inhabitants foi self-defense. For a short 
time he had to give way to more radical leaders, 
but was soon recalled. During the invasion of 
Loiribardy by Charles Albert of Sardinia Manm 
laid down his authority, but on the defeat of 
the Sardinian army at Novara, March 23, 1849, 
he resumed power, and was the animating spirit 
of Venice during the heroic defense of the eity 
for four months against the besieging Austrian 
army. On August 23 Venice capitulated, but 
Manin, with 40 of the principal citizens, being 
excluded from the amnesty, quitted the city. 
Having lost his fortune in the defense of Venice, 
he retired to Paris, where he taught his native 
language, declining innumerable offers of aid. 
He died there, Sept. 22, 1857. Manm's public 
career was one of complete unselfishness. Be- 
lieving as strongly as Mazzini in a republic, he 
was yet wise enough to see Italy's need, and 
from his exile in Paris he urged upon his com- 
patriots cooperation with the Sardinian mon- 
archy in effecting the union of Italy. 

Bibliography. Rovani, "Di Daniele Manin 
memoria storica," in Document* dell a guerra 
santa d'ltaha (Gapolago, 1850) ; Gastille, "Ma- 
nin," in Portraits pohtiqncs au dir-neumtme 
siecle (Paris, 1856) ; Reuchlin, "Daniel Manin/' 
in Histonsches Taschenbuch, vol. xxxii (Leip- 
zig, 1861) A. Errera, La vita e t tempi di 
Daniele Manin (Venice, 1872); id, Daniel c Ma- 
nin e Venezia 1804-53 (Florence, 1875); Dam- 
ele Manin c Giorgio Pallawcino- Epistolano 
politico 1835-57 (Milan, 1877); E L H Mar- 
tinengo-Gesaresco, Italian Characters in the 
Epoch of Unification (New York, 1901); Fer- 
rari-Bravo and Marloni, Daniele Mamn e i suoi 
tempi (Venice, 1904) , R. S. Holland, Builders 
of United Italy (New York, 1908). See ITALY: 

A New Zealand judge, born at Johnville, County 
Dublin, Ireland His father emigrated with his 
family to Tasmania in 1824 and in 1833 young 
Maning settled among the Maoris of New Zea- 
land He became a favorite of the natives; was 
adopted into their tribe, and later he married 
a Maori wife. He gave good advice to both 
sides in the wars of 1845 and 1861. From 1865 
to 1881 he was judge of the native land courts. 
A victim of cancer, he returned to England in 
1881 and there died. Much credit is due to 
Maning for the knowledge that has been gained 


of the Maoris through his books, Old New Zea- 
land ( 1876; 6th ed., 1906 ) and The History of the 
War m the North with Heke m 1845 (3d ed., 


MANIOC (Mamhot utilissima). A South 
American plant, of the family Euphorbiacese. 
Its starchy underground stems are used to 
make tapioca. See CASSAVA, Plate of CAB- 

MANIPLE (OF. maniple, Fr. mampule, from 
Lat. manipulus, handful). 1. A narrow strip 
of silk worn on the left arm by the sacred min- 
isters in a solemn mass. Originally it was a 
mere linen handkerchief, but since the eleventh 
century it has been made of the same material 
and color as the chasuble. When a bishop cele- 
brates mass pontincally he assumes the maniple 
only at the Confiteor; otherwise it is put on in 
the sacristy with the other vestments. See COS- 
TUME, ECCLESIASTICAL. 2. In the Roman mili- 
tary organization the legion (q.v.) was divided 
into 30 maniples, each commanded by a cen- 
turion, and consisting of about 100 men in the 
case of the regular infantry and 40 men among 
the vehtes, or light-armed skirmishers. 

MANIPUR, ma'n-poor / . A native state of 
northeast India, situated between Assam and 
Upper Burma, and called by the Burmese Gas- 
say or Kathe (Map Burma, B 2). Its area is 
8456 square miles. It consists chiefly of a deep 
valley 2500 feet above the sea. The industries 
are purely agricultural, the chief products being 
tea, cotton, rice, tobacco, opium, and indigo. 
The state is administered by a rajah, but has 
been a political dependency of Assam since 1825. 
In 1891, during the disputed succession to the 
throne, the British Commissioner Resident, and 
several officers were treacherously murdered; a 
punitive expedition hanged the ringleaders, set- 
tled the succession, and resumed the administra- 
tion under British supervision. Pop., 1901, 283,- 
957; 1911, 346,222, chiefly Hindus. Capital, 

The natives of Manipur consist of Manipuris 
proper, Nagas, and Kukis, all of whom are by 
tradition assigned to a common ancestry. The 
Manipuris call themselves Meithei, and since 
their conversion to Hinduism in the beginning 
of the eighteenth century they claim a Hindu 
origin. They are of the Mongoloid type of fea- 
ture and do not resemble the Aryan or Aryanized 
peoples of Hindustan. Their language is closely 
allied to the Chin, Lushai, and Kuki tongues. 
Among the Meithei clan worship of tribal deities 
and peculiar rain ceremonies prevail, and ances- 
tor worship was probably once in vogue. Each 
tribe seems to have a rain rite of its own. The 
Kukis are still migratory, but the Nagas live 
in permanent villages. Terrace cultivation with 
irrigation channels occurs in Manipur. The 
Nagas of Manipur and the mountains to the 
north are essentially Indonesians, and the Lushai 
of the south are Nagas mixed with Kyens and 
Burmese of Arakan. The game of polo was 
formerly almost peculiar to Manipur and the 
state was once famous for its breed of ponies. 
Consult: Grimwood, Three Years in Manipur 
(London, 1891); Dalton, Descriptive Ethnology 
of Bengal (Calcutta, 1872); Reid, Chin-Lushai 
Land (ib., 1883) ; Sir James Johnstone, My Ex- 
periences in Manipur and the Naga Hills (Lon- 
don, 1896). 

MANIPT7B, or IHPHAL. The capital of the 

native State of Manipur (q.v.), on the Nam- 
kathay River, 236 miles northwest of Mandalay 
(Map: Burma, B 2). The town is encircled by 
a wall and is the centre of a populous district. 
An export trade is carried on in cattle, tea, and 
rice. Here in 1891 occurred the massacre of 
British officials, which led to a change of ad- 
ministration and the establishment of a military 
cantonment. Pop., 1901, 67,093; 1911, 74,650. 
MA'NIS (Neo-Lat., assumed sing, of Lat. 
manes, ghosts; so called from the animal's noc- 
turnal habits). The ordinary and generic name 
of the scaled anteaters or pangolins of the Old 
World edentate family Mamdse. Seven species 
are recognized, all inhabiting the tropical parts 
of Asia or of Africa. In general structure and 
habits they resemble the American anteaters 
(see ANTEATEB), but are singular in having the 
body covered with horny imbricated scales, be- 
tween which (except in the adults of the African 


forms) grow hairs; these scales are sharp-edged 
and are large upon the trunk and long terete 
tail, but small on the head, neck, and limbs. A 
common name is scaly anteater. Their legs are 
short and strong, and their feet armed with 
powerful claws, with which they burrow, and in 
walking those of the forefeet are turned under. 
They feed, always at night, exclusively on ants 
and termites, which they procure by means of 
their long viscid tongue. All are able to roll 
themselves into a ball, which a man's strength 
is unable to open, and thus they present to their 
enemies only an armored surface, after the 
manner of armadillos. The largest species are 
those of Africa, and live upon the West Coast, 
one (Mams gigantea) reaching a length of 6 
feet, including the tail. The one called phatagen 
by the ancients was probably the long-tailed 
mams (Mams macrura). A third, the short- 
tailed (Mams temminckii), ranges all across 
south Central Africa. The three Asiatic species 
are little different. One, common in India 
(Mams pentadactyla) , has a body 2% feet long 
and dwells in rocky places. A second species 
ranges eastward to China, and a third, more 
slender and long- tailed (Mams javanicus), is 
the one originally called by the Malays pangolin, 
a term often now applied to* the whole genus. 
They do not live well in captivity and show but 
little signs of intelligence. Consult writers on 
the zoology of India and Africa; also W. T. 
Hornaday, Two Years in the Jungle (New York, 
1885); F. E. Beddard, Mammalia (London, 
1902) ; C. W. Beebe, in New York Zoological 
Society, Bulletin, vol xvii (New York, 1914). 

MANIS'SA, or MANISA (the ancient Mag- 
nesia ad Sipylum: see MAGNESIA, 1). A town 
of Asia Minor, in the Vilayet of Aidin, 40 miles 
northeast of Smyrna, with rail connection (Map: 
Turkey in Asia, A 2) . It has numerous mosques, 
one Armenian and several Greek churches, four 

XAlfllBTBE < 

synagogues, and several notable secular build- 
ings, among them the palace of Kara Osman 
Oglu. The chief industries are the manufacture 
of cotton goods and pack saddles. Pop., about 
35,000, including 13,000 Greeks, 6000 Armenians, 
and 3000 Jews. For history and archaeology, see 
MAGNESIA, 1. Consult Baedeker, Konstantino- 
pel, Balkanstaaten, Kleinasien, Archipel, Cypern 
(2d ed., Leipzig, 1914). 

3CANISTEE, man'Is-t'. A city and the 
county seat of Manistee Co., Mich., 114 miles by 
rail northwest of Grand Rapids, on the Manistee 
River, which flows between Manistee Lake and 
Lake Michigan, a distance of 1 mile, and on the 
Pere Marquette, the Manistee and Northeastern, 
and the Michigan East and West railroads 
(Map: Michigan, C 4). It has a fine harbor 
and regular steamship communication, during 
the open season, with Chicago, Milwaukee, and 
other points on the lake. The city is in a fertile 
fruit-growing region, and its excellent transpor- 
tation facilities have developed large commercial 
interests, particularly in lumber and salt, which 
are manufactured on an extensive scale. There 
are manufactures also of furniture, foundry 
products, vacuum pans, and sole leather. The 
principal features of interest are a fine court- 
house, Carnegie library, Mercy Hospital, Home 
for Aged Women, Federal building, two bridges 
across the Manistee River, and Orchard Beach, 
a popular lake resort. Settled about 1849, Man- 
istee was chartered as a city in 1869 and adopted 
the commission form of government in 1914. 
The city owns and operates the water works. 
Pop., 1900, 14,260; 1910, 12,381. 

MANISTIQUE, man'is-tek'. A city and the 
county seat of Schoolcraft Co., Mich , 107 miles 
by rail west by south of Sault Ste Marie; on 
Lake Michigan, at the mouth of the Manistique 
River, and on the Minneapolis, St. Paul, and 
Sault Ste. Mane, the Ann, Arbor, and the Man- 
istique and Lake Superior railroads (Map. 
Michigan, C 3). It has some reputation as a 
summer resort, but is known chiefly as an in- 
dustrial and commercial centre, its trade being 
carried on both by rail and lake. There are 
limekilns, ironworks, and manufactories of lum- 
ber, chemicals, alcohol, cedar products, and char- 
coal. The fishing interests also are important. 
There are municipally owned water works and 
a public library. Manistique received a city 
charter m 1901. Pop., 1900, 4126; 1910, 4722 


MANITOBA, man'I-to'ba. A province of the 
Dominion of Canada, extending from the inter- 
national boundary line to Hudson Bay, situated 
between 49 and 60 N lat. and between 92 
and 101 20' W. long (Map. Canada, L 5, 6). 
It is bounded on the north by the Northwest 
Territories, on the east by Ontario, on the south 
by the States of Minnesota and North Dakota, 
and on the west by Saskatchewan. Area, 251,- 
832 square miles, including 19,906 square miles 
of water. 

Topography. The province belongs to the 
great central prairie region in the south and 
west, and in the east and north it is a part of 
the Laurentian country, broken and hilly, with 
a higher altitude than the adjoining region. 
The southeastern part consists of an almost 
perfectly level lacustrine bed, the bottom of the 
Pleistocene Lake Agassiz (See LAKE AGASSIZ.) 
It slopes very gently northward, being 800 feet 
above the sea in the south and 710 feet in the 
north. Its western boundary is formed by a 


line of escarpments with a maximum height of 
500 feet above the plain and running southeast 
to northwest. These are the ancient shore lines 
of Lake Agassiz, and above them stretches a 
more elevated and undulating plain known as the 
Riding and Duck Mountains, which cover the 
western and southwestern parts of the province. 
Both this plain and the lacustrine plain below 
are treeless prairies, becoming gradually wooded 
northward, first along the river courses and in 
isolated clumps of poplars, and finally thicken- 
ing into dense pine forests on the Duck Moun- 
tain in the northwest. The principal river is 
the Red River of the North, which enters the 
province from the south and flows through the 
prairies into Lake Winnipeg m the southern 
part of the province. Its chief tributary is the 
Assiniboine, cutting through the western upland 
Nearly all the rivers of the province have cut 
their beds through the soft drift deposits, so 
that they flow in narrow valleys from 30 to 
nearly 100 feet below the surrounding plains. 
As the waters of Lake Agassiz were drained off 
the lowest depressions of its bed remained flooded 
and now form the great lakes of the province 
Of these Lake Winnipeg is 270 miles long and 
from 20 to 60 miles broad, Lake Winnipegosis 
150, and Lake Manitoba 135 miles long The 
last named is very shallow, and the shores of all 
are low and marshy. 

Climate. The climate is very cold in winter 
and warm in summer The mean annual tem- 
perature is 33 F, and the extremes 95 F. and 
40 or even 50 below zero F. Both extremes, 
however, are rendered bearable by the dryness 
of the air, and the winter cold does not inter- 
fere with the wheat ciops, as the sowing season 
arrives here even earlier than m the eastern 
provinces which lie farther south. The mean 
annual rainfall is only 17 43 inches, but 74 per 
cent of it falls in growing seasons, the winters 
being dry and sunny and the snowfall light 

Geology and Minerals. The Laurentian sys- 
tem of ancient crystalline rocks extends into 
the northern and eastern part of the province, 
from the east shore of Lake Winnipeg neaily to 
Hudson Bay. It is bordered by a belt from 60 
to 120 miles wide of Silurian and Devonian 
limestones running from southeast to northwest 
through the east-central part of the province 
and forming the western shore of Lake Winni- 
peg. The remainder of the plains consists of 
Cretaceous and Laramie formations Nearly the 
whole surface, however, is covered with a thick 
deposit of glacial drift. The principal minerals 
are lignite and coal, which are mined to some 
extent along the Souris River, near the southern 
boundary. By a recent law the settlers are 
allowed to mine for home use the outcropping 
coal on public lands by paying a small royalty 
to the government. Some deposits of iron are 
also found, but are not worked Extensive de- 
posits of gypsum have been found in the Dau- 
phin District, north of Lake St Martin. Gold is 
found near the east boundary, in the Lake of 
the Woods area. Brine springs exist on the 
peninsulas in the southern part of Lake Winni- 
pegosis, but no salt has been manufactured 

Soil and Productions. The poor soils char- 
acteristic of the Laurentian region prevail in 
the eastern part of the province, and in the hills 
to the west the soils are also of a poor quality. 
Over the greater portion of the western plains 
the soil consists of a very deep mold or loam 
with a tenacious clay subsoil. The best quality 



is found in the Red River valley, which was 
formerly the bed of Lake Agassiz, and the soil 
of which is therefore a lake deposit. The Red 
River valley has become famous for its enor- 
mous production of the finest qualities of wheat. 
The region farther to the west also produces 
abundantly and contains vast fields of wheat. 

Agriculture. The main economic interests of 
the province centre in agriculture. The hardier 
gram and root crops are grown with great suc- 
cess, but the season is too short for corn. In 
extent of area the annual crop of wheat is 
greatly exceeded by many American States, but 
the grade of wheat is unexcelled. Oats are 
also extensively grown, and barley, potatoes, and 
flax are important crops. The increase and 
variation of acreage of the leading crops are 
shown in the following table. 








The decline in wheat acreage in 1913 is due 
in part to the growth of mixed farming and 
stock raising. The grasses, both natural and 
cultivated, grow luxuriantly and afford excellent 
pasturage. Tho variation in the number of do- 
mestic animals is shown in the following table, 
taken from official returns 




Milch cows 
Other cattle 




The figures in the above tables for 1901 and 
1911 are taken from the census for those years 
respectively, and those for 1913 are the estimates 
of the Census and Statistics Office, Ottawa. 

The value of the butter and cheese product in 
1910 was $593,375. In 1910 there were pro- 
duced 694,712 pounds of cheese, valued at $81,- 
403. In 1910 the butter production was 2,050,- 
487 pounds, valued at $511,972. 

Game and Fisheries. Large numbers of 
game and fur-bearing animals continue to abound 
in the north (a region now known as New 
Manitoba) and are profitably hunted They in- 
clude the deer, antelope, elk or wapiti, moose, 
reindeer or caribou, marten, mink, fisher, and 
muskrat Duck, grouse, quail, woodcock, 
and plover are found in great numbers. Of 
greater importance are the resources of fish in 
the large lakes Large quantities of whitefish, 
pickerel, sturgeon, and other varieties are 
caught annually. Assistance from the Dominion 
government is given for the development of 
markets for fresh fish in the interior of the 
provinces by payment of one-third of the ordi- 
nary express charges from the Atlantic coast on 
shipments of fresh fish as far west as the east 
boundary of Manitoba and from the Pacific 
coast as fai east as that boundary. Manitoba 
has four of the 51 fish hatcheries supplied by the 
Dominion government. The value of the Mani- 
toba catch in 1913 was $800,149. 


Transportation, Manufactures, Banks. The 
Dominion, provincial, and municipal govern- 
ments have aided in the construction of rail- 
roads and an admirable system has been de- 
veloped in the southern portion of the province 
and is being extended northward. The Canadian 
Pacific, Grand Trunk Pacific, and Canadian 
Northern pass through it and establish com- 
munication with both the Atlantic and Pacific 
oceans. Branch lines of the Northern Pacific 
Railroad pass up the Red River valley and es- 
tablish connection with the railroad systems of 
the United States. The National Transconti- 
nental enters Manitoba on the east boundary 
and runs to Winnipeg. A railway line was under 
construction by the Dominion government in 
1914 from Le Pas in Manitoba to Hudson Bay. 
There were, in 1913, 3993 miles of steam rail- 
way in operation in Manitoba and 872 miles in 
course of construction The large lakes to the 
north, together with the Saskatchewan River 
system, afford possibilities for an extensive de- 
velopment of water communication with the re- 
gion to the north and west possibilities which 
have only just begun to be realized. The Red 
River to the south and the Assmibome to the 
west are also navigable during the high-water 
season, but have been little used since the con- 
struction of railroads. Enormous quantities of 
wheat are annually exported to English mar- 
kets, and exports of hard wheat to the United 
States for milling purposes and for mixing with 
the softer varieties of wheat show a substantial 

The manufacturing industries, which in 1900 
were chiefly represented by flour and lumber 
mills, had increased in 1905 to 354 establish- 
ments, with $27,517,297 invested capital, em- 
ploying 10,333 hands, with salaries and wages 
of $5,090,791 and an output valued at $28,155,- 
732; in 1910 there were 439 establishments, an 
invested capital of $47,941,540, employing 17,- 
325 hands, paying $10,912,866 in wages and 
salaries, and with an output valued at $53,673,- 
609. Winnipeg in 1910 was the fourth manu- 
facturing city in Canada 

In 1914 the bank branches located in Manitoba 
numbered 205 In 1913 the clearing-house trans- 
actions at Winnipeg amounted to $1,634,977,237, 
making this place thud among Canadian com- 
mercial centres in the importance of its clear- 
ing-house transactions 

Population. The population of Manitoba has 
been acquired almost wholly since 1870. In 
that year there were only 2000 whites in the 
province and an Indian half-breed population of 
about 10,000. In 1881 the population had in- 
creased to 62,260, in 1891 to 152,506, in 1901 to 
255,211, and in 1911 to 455,614. In 1911, of the 
total population of 455,614 those born in Canada 
numbered 264,828 and those born in the British 
Isles and possessions, 91,606; the foreign born 
numbered 95,688, of whom 78,051 were born in 
continental Europe and 16,326 in the United 
States There were 10,822 Indians in 1913. 
Winnipeg had in 1911 a population of 136,035; 
Brandon, 13,839; Portage la Prairie, 5892; and 
St Boniface, 7483. 

Government. The government of Manitoba 
consists of a lieutenant governor, appointed by 
the Governor General in Council of Canada, an 
executive council of seven members, responsible 
to the provincial Legislature, and the Legislative 
Assembly of 41 elective members. The seat of 
government is Winnipeg Up to 1890 French 


was the official language used by the Legisla- 
ture. The common law of England is in force 
in the province. Manitoba sends four Senators 
and 10 members of the House of Commons to 
the Dominion Parliament. Practically universal 
manhood suffrage exists, and the time require- 
ment is one year in the province and three in 
the electoral division. The judicial system con- 
sists of the Court of Appeal, with a chief jus- 
tice, who ranks as chief justice of Manitoba, 
and four minor judges; the Court of King's 
Bench, with a chief justice and five minor 
judges; and also surrogate courts, county courts, 
police magistrates, and justices of the peace. 
The rural regions are organized into townships, 
and the denser units of population are organ- 
ized into villages, towns, or cities, according to 
number of inhabitants. In each of these the 
governmental affairs are intrusted to a council 
(called board of aldermen in cities), as is true 
also of the counties, the members of the county 
council being elected by the townships and 

The receipts and expenditures show a gradual 
increase from less than $900,000 each in 1880 
to $5,788,070 and $5,314,849 respectively for the 
year ended Nov. 30, 1913. The principal items 
of revenue were as follows: the Dominion sub- 
sidy, $1,349,895; provincial telegraph and tele- 
phones, $1,814,407; sales of provincial lands, 
$323,769, land titles, general fees, $328,137; 
liquor licenses, $162,466; succession duties, 
$268,009; railway tax, $205,358, interest on 
school land funds, $237,488. The principal items 
of expenditure were: public works, $1,322,963, 
education, $668,832, Treasury Department, $798,- 
837; Department of Agriculture and Immigra- 
tion, $411,781; Attorney-General's Department, 
$563,491. The Dominion subsidy, which forms 
a large part of the receipts, was increased by 
reason of the extension of Manitoba's boundaries 
in 1912. On Nov. 30, 1912, there were 1296 
prisoners and insane persons in provincial in- 
stitutions. Of charitable institutions the prov- 
ince maintains in whole or m part 11 general 
hospitals, two orphanages, a home for incur- 
ables, a deaf and dumb institution, a woman's 
home, and a Salvation Army rescue home. One 
of the five Dominion penitentiaries is located in 
the province. 

Public Utilities Commission. An important 
measure was enacted m 1912 establishing the 
control of a commission, consisting of a com- 
missioner and his secretary, over all the public 
utilities subject to the legislative authority of 
the province (including telegraph and telephone 
lines, companies furnishing water, gas, heat, 
light, or power either directly or indirectly to 
the public), the provincial government tele- 
phones and the business carried on under the 
Manitoba Grain Elevators Act, and also such 
municipalities as shall properly consent to come 
within the authority of the commission The 
latter has the powers of a court of record, can 
enforce its judgments, value the property of 
public-service corporations, regulate rates, con- 
trol issues of stocks and bonds, and compel a 
uniform system of accounting. The judgments 
of the commission are final, except as to ques- 
tions of jurisdiction, from which an appeal can 
be taken. Municipal franchises are subject to 
the commission's approval. The work of the 
commission was watched with much interest be- 
cause of its importance as an economic and 
political experiment. The report for 1913 showed 


the commission at work shaping the measures 
resulting in obtaining a Winnipeg water supply 
and procuring the consent of two cities, four 
towns, and certain rural municipalities, all of 
which were to share in the benefits. Other work 
done included investigations and reports upon 
publicly owned property and awards and de- 
cisions affecting disputes between municipali- 
ties and railway companies. Public approval of 
certain measures was secured by vote in vari- 
ous municipalities and, wherever necessary or 
expedient, popular opinion is sought in order 
to strengthen the efforts of the commission. 
Public confidence therein has thus far resulted 
from the judicial power and responsibility, sub- 
ject to provincial legislation, with which the 
commission is invested, and which enable it to 
piocure adequate evidence and the aid of experts. 

Religion. The Roman Catholic church was 
first in the field, missions having been estab- 
lished among the Indians at a very early day. 
Among the more recent colonists, however, the 
Protestants have greatly preponderated, Roman 
Catholics in 1911 numbering 73,994, less than 
one-sixth of the total population. A Roman 
Catholic archbishop resides at St Boniface, and 
the see house of the Anglican Bishop of Rupert's 
Land is at Winnipeg. Of the Protestants in 
1911 the Presbyterians (103,621), Anglicans 
(Episcopalians) (86,578), Methodists (65,897), 
Baptists (13,992), Lutherans (32,730), and 
Mennomtes (15,600) were the most important. 
There were 31,042 adherents of the Greek church 
in 1911. 

Education. Originally the school system of 
Manitoba recognized a complete separation of 
Roman Catholics and Protestants, but in 1890 
the schools were made undenominational; the 
Act making this provision \vas unsatisfactory 
to the Roman Catholics, and was amended in 
1897 so as to admit of religious instruction 
when demanded by the parents of a certain 
number of pupils, but which would not be ob- 
ligatory upon the other pupils, nor lead to the 
establishment of separate schools According 
to the report of the Minister of Education for 
the year ended June 30, 1913, the school popu- 
lation numbered 99,750, of whom 83,670 were 
enrolled in the public schools and 48,163 were 
in aveiage attendance. In the same year there 
were 2964 teachers and 2430 schools Of the 
teachers 500 were male and 2464 were female. 
The value of school property was $8,780,076. 
There were 13 high schools, 16 collegiate insti- 
tutes, and a normal school. The provincial uni- 
versity elected its first president, Dr. James A. 
MacLean, in 1913, and in 1014-15 had made 
rapid progress towards establishing a teaching 
faculty and accomplishing an extensive building 
programme Formerly the university was only 
an examining and degree-conferring body. Sev- 
eral theological and other colleges are affiliated 
with it 

History. Sieur de la Verandrye (q.v.), a 
French Canadian explorer, twice visited the ter- 
ritory now included in Manitoba, building Fort 
de la Reme, on the site of Portage la Prairie, 
in 1733, and five years later Fort Rouge, on the 
site of Winnipeg* The fall of Quebec in 1759 
opened to British fur traders and merchants a 
vast tract previously held by the French and 
stimulated fur trading in the vast regions con- 
trolled by the Hudson's Bay Company The 
Northwest Company, founded in Montreal in 
1795, became a powerful rival of the latter. A 


race of half-breeds, sprung chiefly from the mar- 
riages of French and Scotch employees of the 
two companies with Indian women, began to 
settle along the banks of the Red and Assini- 
boine rivers, acquiring squatters' rights, which 
they afterward resolutely defended. In 1811 the 
Earl of Selkirk, a member of the Hudson's Bay 
Company, attracted by the fertility of the soil 
on the banks of the Red River, obtained from 
the company a grant of a large tract of land on 
both banks of the river, extending some distance 
within the present frontier of the United States. 
The following year he brought out a number of 
settlers from the Highlands of Scotland. The 
right of the Hudson's Bay Company to grant 
this land was, however, disputed by the North- 
west Company, and when the settlers began 
to build they were driven off by the servants 
of the Northwest Company. Hostilities con- 
tinued between the servants of the two com- 
panies for several years, and in 1816 there was 
a pitched battle between them. The Earl of Sel- 
kirk, arriving soon after, found his settlers 
scattered; but by his energetic measures, and 
by help of 100 disbanded soldiers from Europe 
whom he had brought with him, he secured for 
his old and new protgs a peaceful settlement. 
They established themselves near Fort Garry 
(now Winnipeg), and in 1817 the Earl obtained 
from the Indians a transfer of their right to 
the land 2 miles back from the Red River on 
both sides. Still the settlers had some difficul- 
ties to overcome, especially from visitations of 
grasshoppers. These were gradually surmounted ; 
but the population, including now a large num- 
ber of half-breeds, remained very isolated, hav- 
ing little communication with the outside world. 
The Northwest Company was amalgamated in 
1821 with the Hudson's Bay Company. Between 
1841 and 1867 the acquisition and organization 
of the vast territories exploited by the fur com- 
panies had been much discussed by statesmen of 
the old Province of Canada, but no decisive ac- 
tion was taken until 1869, two years after 

In that year the Hudson's Bay Company sur- 
rendered all their claims to the Northwest Ter- 
ritories to the British government, which in the 
following year transferred that region to Canada. 
While the proposed transfer to the British 
crown of the Hudson's Bay Company was pend- 
ing this portion of their dominions was the 
scene of considerable contention and violence. 
The French-speaking population, led by Louis 
Riel (qv.), a half-breed, organized a force, im- 
prisoned their English and Scotch opponents, 
seized Fort Garry, established a provisional 
government, robbed the strong box, and dictated 
terms to the governor of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany, to which he had to submit. A military 
force under Colonel Garnet (later Field Mar- 
shal Viscount) Wolseley arrived in the prov- 
ince in July, 1870, and Riel, fearing capture, 
fled, upon which the insurrection collapsed. In 
1870 that portion of the Red River district be- 
tween long. 96 and 99 W. and lat. 49 and 
50 30' N. was organized as the Province of 
Manitoba, and its admission to the Confedera- 
tion took place in July of the same year. Dis- 
content among the Indians was allayed by sev- 
eral treaties (1871-77) under which reserva- 
tions were allotted to them, with the option of 
living therein after the manner of the white 
population or of retaining their native customs. 
Canadian and American commissioners worked 


together to define the international boundary 
between the United States and Manitoba (1872). 
In 1873 the Royal Northwest Mounted Police 
was organized (see MILITARY POLICE), and two 
years later amnesty was granted to those who 
took part in the rebellion of 1869, excepting 
Riel and two of his confederates. Although the 
rights of the Indians were thus early safe- 
guarded, the half-breeds were neglected, with the 
result that in 1885 there was another rebellion 
(see SASKATCHEWAN), likewise headed by Riel. 
The rebellion was suppressed the same year and 
Riel was captured and hanged. Manitoba be- 
came involved in the boundary dispute between 
the Dominion and Ontario. Sir John A. Mac- 
el onald, unfavorable to Ontario's assertion of 
provincial rights, procured in 1881 the passage 
of a bill extending the boundaries of Manitoba 
towards the west, which would have taken from 
Ontario part of the territory awarded to that 
province in 1878. Ontario vigorously opposed 
this threatened loss, proceeded in 1883 to as- 
sume full ownership and control of the disputed 
area, and was thus brought into political con- 
flict with Manitoba. Besides the effort to en- 
large her boundaries, Manitoba also contended 
for larger grants from the Dominion Treasury 
and freedom from the monopolistic construction 
privileges of the Canadian Pacific Railway. 
These privileges were abolished in 1888. The 
boundary claims of the province were rejected 
by a decision of the Judicial Committee of the 
Privy Council in 1884, but the dispute continued 
until 1912, when it was finally settled by the 
addition of 178,100 square miles to the old 
provincial area. The Dominion subsidies to 
Canada were also increased In 1890 the ques- 
tion of parochial or separate schools went far 
to make Manitoba the storm centre of federal as 
well as provincial politics In 1871 the province 
had established a system of separate schools 
under which Roman Catholic pupils were con- 
trolled by the Roman Catholic section of a 
general school board. Thomas Greenway (q.v.), 
the provincial Premier, procured the enactment 
of laws abolishing separate schools and the offi- 
cial use of the French language in the province. 
This was strongly resented by the Roman 
Catholic and French-speaking population, and a 
struggle ensued for the repeal of the obnoxious 
legislation. The French of Quebec and Roman 
Catholics throughout the Dominion sympathized 
with the minority m Manitoba. The case was 
taken eventually to the highest court of colonial 
appeal, the Judicial Committee of the Privy 
Council, whose decision referred to the Dominion 
government the duty and task of enforcing a 
remedial measure against Manitoba, according 
to the provisions of the British North America 
Act. The question thus became a federal issue 
and excited prolonged and bitter controversy. 
The Conservatives favored the forcing of Mani- 
toba to change the new school law; the Liberals 
advocated a milder course. Upon the advent of 
Wilfrid Laurier to the Dominion premiership in 
1896, his administration, together with the 
Manitoba administration of Thomas Greenway, 
arranged a compromise whereby, without the 
full restoration of separate schools, religious 
instruction was to be given after regular school 
hours to the children of either Protestant or 
Roman Catholic parents. This arrangement was 
agreeable to the party of provincial rights, but 
it did not placate the Roman Catholic popula- 



After 1896 a large increase in immigration 
and agricultural production gave rise to new 
economic and political problems. The Liberal 
and Conservative parties respectively in the 
province were in large part affiliated with the 
corresponding parties in Dominion politics; but 
both showed a greater readiness to increase 
government initiative in the ownership and 
supervision of public services, though the lead- 
ing part therein was taken by the Conservatives. 
Prohibition of the liquor traffic became a party 
question, the Liberals generally advocating aboli- 
tion of the bar and the Conservatives local 
option. In 1905 the Conservative administra- 
tion of Sir R. P. Roblin (qv.), who had become 
Premier in 1900, passed a high-license bill; 
but the movement for abolition of the bar was 
vigorously continued. Premier Roblin sought to 
conciliate the Prohibitionists by a measure for 
the earlier closing of saloons (1914). Reor- 
ganization of the Court of King's Bench, the 
creation of a Court of Appeal, and the com- 
pulsory display of the British flag on public 
schoolhouses had been effected by 1907 Rail- 
way extension to districts with few or no trans- 
portation facilities was also aided liberally, and 
in 1908 an important step in the ownership and 
regulation of public utilities was taken in the 
government's purchase and operation of the Bell 
telephone system A workmen's compensation 
act was passed in 1910. An elaborate system of 
elevators for the storage of grain and the facili- 
tation of shipments thereof under the Canada 
Grain Act (1912) had been organized in Ontario, 
the Northwest Provinces, and British Columbia; 
and Manitoba participated importantly therein 
on account of Winnipeg being one of the centres 
for grain inspection, the others being the great 
terminal elevators at Port Arthur and Fort 
William, Ontario Consolidation and regulation 
of public utilities became the subject of notable 
legislation in 1912 See section on Public 
Utilities Commission 

The question of religious education in 1912- 
14 became more urgent on account of the in- 
creasing variety of immigration The lingual 
provisions of the school compromise of 1897, and 
the giving of religious instruction after school 
hours, became more difficult because of the de- 
mands of German, Scandinavian, and Slav ele- 
ments of the population. The law implied that 
teachers of children speaking other than English 
must qualify to teach them in their mother 
tongue as well as in English. The Liberals 
favored compulsory education and the strict en- 
forcing of the teaching of English; the Con- 
servative government, a liberal construction of 
the law. It was recognized that the question 
contained elements of future disturbance. The 
War in Europe (qv ) aroused demonstrations 
of loyalty throughout the province; neverthe- 
less, in certain German newspapers contrary 
sentiments and opinions were expressed until 
prohibited by the government. The Royal 
Northwest Mounted Police, part of which force 
is employed in the more unsettled parts of Mani- 
toba, was increased by 500 men in order to 
deal more effectively with disturbing conditions 
due to the war. 

The lieutenant governors of Manitoba since 
its incorporation into the Dominion in 1870 are: 
A. G. Archibald, 1870-72; Francis G. Johnston, 
1872, Alexander Morns, 1872-76, Joseph E 
Cauchon, 1876-82; J. C. Aikins, 1882-88; Sir 
John Schultz, 1888-95; J f C. Patterson, 1895- 

1900; Sir D. H. McMillan, 1900-11; Sir D. a 
Cameron, 1911- . 

The different premiers of provincial adminis- 
trations since 1870 are: Alfred Boyd, 1870-71; 
Marc A. Girard, 1871-72; H. J. H. Clarke, 
1872-74; Marc A. Girard, 1874; R. A. Davis, 
1874-78; D. H. Harrison, 1878-88; Thomas 
Greenway, 1888-1900; Hugh J. (afterward Sir) 
Macdonald, 1900; R. P. (afterward Sir) Roblin, 
1900- . 

During the earlier years of provincial ad- 
ministration party lines were not very strictly 
drawn; but with the Liberal administration 
of Thomas Greenway and the Conservative ad- 
ministrations of H. J. Macdonald and R. P. 
Roblin Manitoba had developed a regular party 

Bibliography. Henry Hind, Narrative of the 
Canadian Exploring Expedition of 1851-58 
(London, 1860) ; Geological and Natural His- 
tory Survey of Canada, Annual Reports (Mont- 
real, 1872 et seq.) ; Alexander Begg, Great 
Canadian Northwest (ib., 1881) ; John Macoun, 
Manitoba and the Great Northwest (Guelph, 
1882) ; George Bryce, Manitoba (London, 1882) ; 
id., "History and Condition of Education in the 
Piovince of Manitoba," in Proceedings of the 
Btitish Association for the Advancement of 
Science: Canadian Economics (Montreal, 1885) ; 
William Kingsford, History of Canada (London, 
1887-98); A O. Legge, Sunny Manitoba, its 
Peoples and its Industries (ib, 1893); J S. 
Ewart, Manitoba School Question (Toronto, 
1894) ; Alexander Begg, History of the North- 
west (3 vols, ib., 1894) ; S G B Coryn, "Mani- 
toba," in British Empire Series (London, 1900) ; 
George Bryce, Romantic Settlement of Lord 
Selkirk's Colony (Toronto, 1909); Reports of 
Departments of the Provincial Government 

MANITOBA, LAKE. A body of water in the 
Province of Manitoba, Canada, intersected by 
the fifty-first parallel and the ninety-ninth 
meridian (Map: Manitoba, E 3) It is about 60 
miles southwest of Lake Winnipeg, which re- 
ceives its Maters through the Saskatchewan, or 
Dauphin, River, which, near the middle of its 
course, expands into St. Martin's Lake Mani- 
toba Lake is about 125 miles long and about 25 
miles wide; area, about 1900 square miles It 
is 40 feet higher than Lake Winnipeg, and 
navigable for vessels drawing 10 feet of water 
It abounds in fish, and its shores are resorted 
to by sportsmen for moose, elk, deer, and wild 
fowl. At its north end it receives the waters of 
several smaller lakes, and at the south those of 
the White Mud River. The scattered settle- 
ments around are inhabited chiefly by Nor- 
wegians and Icelanders 

MANTTOTJ, manl-too". A town in El Paso 
Co., Colo , 6 miles northwest of Colorado Springs, 
on the Colorado Midland and the Denver and 
Rio Grande railroads (Map- Colorado, E 3). 
The centre of a region renowned for picturesque 
scenery, Manitou is situated about 6300 feet 
above the sea, at the junction of and in three 
cations Ute Pass, William's Cafion, and Engle- 
man's Cafion at the foot of Pikes Peak (q.v.). 
A number of important mineral springs, which 
are valued for their medicinal properties, and 
the many natural attractions of the vicinity, 
combine in making Manitou one of the most 
popular health and pleasure resorts in the United 
States. The varied features of interest are the 
Pikes Peak Cog Railway, which begins here, the 


Cave of the Winds, cafions, falls, drives, Soda 
Spring Park, and the famous Garden of the 
Gods (q.v.), which contains picturesque forma- 
tions of red and white sandstone. The town 
contains a Carnegie library and a tuberculo- 
sis sanitarium. Spring water is bottled and 
shipped in large quantities. The population in 
summer is estimated at between 10,000 and 
15,000. Pop., 1900, 1303; 1910, 1357. 

MANITOU, or MANITO (Algonquian In- 
dian, mystery, supernatural). An Algonquin 
word now used in current writing to designate 
a special religious concept common to the Algon- 
quin-speaking Indian tribes of the Great Lake 
region. These Indians believe in the existence 
of a cosmic mysterious property pervading the 
universe and manifest everywhere In their 
sacred mythology this element is personified in 
various manlike gods spoken of as the manitous, 
but the Algonquin never ceases to feel that the 
real manitou property may and does reside in 
any and all things. It is fairly evident that 
there is not and never was in primitive Indian 
beliefs any conception corresponding to the 
modern civilized idea of God or Deity The 
manitou might be a supernatural being of any 
grade however low, and, further, anything mys- 
terious or beyond comprehension was manitou. 
Another term of Chinook origin, viz , tamanuus, 
is now widely used in the Northwest of North 
America to express much the same conception, 
and the cult of the tamanuus as a protecting 
spirit of an individual has thrown much light 
on shamanistic customs and beliefs A similar 
conception is termed wakanda by the Sioux and 
orenda by the Iroquois. In Melanesia there is 
the strikingly similar notion of "mana " Mana 
is believed to effect anything outside the ordi- 
nary course of nature; thus, a strangely shaped 
stone is interpreted as containing mana, and 
any conspicuous success achieved by a person is 
ascribed to his possession of mana The oc- 
currence of this conception in two quite distinct 
culture areas has led a number of writers to 
ascribe to it an important place in the develop- 
ment of religious beliefs It has been assumed 
by some that the Algonquian manitou is an 
essence or force, but Radin's most recent data 
indicate that this is an abstraction created by 
the investigators- "If a belief in a manito 
'essence' or 'force' exists, it is as a characteristic 
of a manito" (being) This again strengthens 
the resemblance with mana, for, while imper- 
sonal, mana is always connected with some 
directing personal agency (Codrington) Con- 
sult: R. H. Codrington, The Melanesians (Ox- 
ford, 1891) ; Jones, "The Algonkin Maaitou," in 
Journal of American Folk-Lore (Boston, 1905) ; 
F. W. Hodge (ed.), Handbook of American In- 
dians North of Mexico (Washington, 1907-10) ; 
Saintyves, La force magique (Paris, 1914) ; 
Paul Radin, "An Introductive Enquiry into the 
Study of Ojibwa Religion," in Ontario Historical 
Society, Papers and Records, vol. xii (Toronto, 

A group situated in Lake Huron, from whose 
north shore it is separated by North Channel, 
varying from 7 to 18 miles in breadth (Map: 
Ontario, B 2). It comprises Great Manitoulm, 
or Sacred Isle; Little Manitoulin, or Cockburn 
Isle, belonging to Great Britain ; and Drummond 
Isle, belonging to the State of Michigan Great 
Manitoulin is 90 miles long by 5 to 30 broad; 
Little Manitoulm is circular in shape and has 
VOL. XV. 2 

a diameter of 7 miles; Drummond Isle IB 24 
miles long by from 2 to 12 broad All are 
irregular and striking in their natural features; 
tbe first two are covered with large and dense 
forests of pine. The islands afford good fishing 
and the various villages on them are favorite 
summer resorts Half of the resident population 
are Ojibwa Indians. Pop., 2000. 

MANITOWOC, man'I-t6-wdk'. A city and 
the county seat of Manitowoc Co , Wis , 75 miles 
north of Milwaukee, on Lake Michigan, at the 
mouth of the Manitowoc River, and on the 
Chicago and Northwestern, the Ann Arbor, the 
Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Sault Ste Marie, and 
the Pcre Marquette railroads (Map. Wisconsin, 
F 4). It has a fine harbor with good docking 
facilities and considerable lake commerce, the 
shipments being principally gram, flour, cheese, 
coal, etc. The city is chiefly interested in the 
building of ships; other industrial establish- 
ments include aluminium- ware factories, cigar 
factories, extensive malt houses, grain eleva- 
tors, coal docks, planing mills, brick yards, 
furniture and canning factories, machine shops, 
and edge-tool and agricultural-implement works. 
The County Insane Asylum, the Holy Family Hos- 
pital, and a Polish orphan asylum are situated 
here. Other noteworthy features are the Train- 
ing School for Teachers, public library, and three 
beautiful parks. Manitowoc was chartered as a 
city in 1870. The water works and electric- 
light plant are owned by the city. Pop., 1900, 
11,786, 1910, 13,027; 1914, 13,553; 1920, 17,563. 

MANIZALES, mfi'nS-salas. A town of Co- 
lombia, the capital of the Department of Caldas. 
It is situated 100 miles northwest of Bogota, 
and at the junction of the main routes over the 
Central Cordillera, 6400 feet above sea lovel 
(Map Colombia, B 2) It was founded in 1848 
and has had a very rapid growth The town is 
a thriving commercial centre and is of great 
strategic importance. It has gold-mining and 
stock-breeding industries, a bank, and a public 
library. Pop., 1905, 24,676; 1912, 34,720. The 
town was the headquarters of the rebels during 
the civil war of 1877-78. 

MANKATO, man-ka't6. A city and the 
county seat of Blue Earth Co., Minn, 86 miles 
southwest of St Paul, at the confluence of the 
Minnesota and Blue Earth rivers and on the 
Chicago and Northwestern, the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee, and St. Paul, and the Chicago Great 
Western railroads (Map: Minnesota, D 6). It 
has a State normal school, a fine Federal build- 
ing, Carnegie library, a ladies' seminary (Lu- 
theran), a Catholic mother house, two commer- 
cial colleges, and Immanuel and St Joseph's 
hospitals. Other places of interest are the 
spot where 38 Indians, convicted of murdei, 
were hanged during the Sioux Indian outbreak 
in 1862; Minneopa State Park, which has pic- 
turesque falls, and Rapidan Dam. The city is 
in an agricultural region and has extensive quar- 
ries of stone. Excellent water power is afforded 
the industrial establishments, which include 
flour and knitting mills, foundries and machine 
shops, lime, brick, and cement works, wood- 
working plants, and manufactories of shirts, 
overalls, traction engines, cigars, candies, in- 
cubators, steam engines, tents, awnings, brooms, 
etc Mankato adopted the commission form of 
government in 1910. The water works are 
owned by the city. Pop., 1900, 10,599; 1910, 
10,365; 1920, 12,469 

MAN'LEY, or MANLY, JOHN (1733-93). 


An American naval officer, born at Torquay in 
England. He removed to Marblehead, Mass., 
and at the outbreak of the Revolution joined the 
naval forces of the Colonies. Washington ap- 
pointed him commander of the Massachusetts 
State cruiser Lee, in which capacity he rendered 
efficient service during the siege of Boston by 
intercepting British supplies. In 1776 he re- 
ceived from Congress a commission as captain 
of the new cruiser Hancock, and soon after 
putting to sea captured the British man-of-war 
Fox The following year, while cruising in com- 
pany with the Boston, he fell in with the two 
British men-of-war Rainbow and Victor, and, 
being deserted by his consort, was captured. In 
1782 he was put in command of two privateers 
and the government frigate Hague, in which he 
was attacked by a superior British force, but 
managed to make his escape. 

1724). An English author, daughter of Sir 
Roger Manley, Governor of the Channel Islands, 
born in Jersey, or at sea between Jersey and 
Guernsey Having been beguiled (about 1688) 
into a mock marriage with her cousin, John 
Manley of Truro, she lived for a time with the 
Duchess of Cleveland. Besides plays and short 
novels, she wrote many numbers of the Examiner, 
after Swift abandoned it. For some years she 
was the mistress of Alderman Barber. She died 
at Barber's printing house on Lambeth Hill, 
July 11, 1724. Mrs. Manley employed her talents 
mainly in depicting the scandalous life of the 
times. Letters Written by Mrs. Manley (1696) 
and the Secret History of Queen Zarah and the 
Zarazians (1705) were followed by the New 
Atalantis, of which two volumes appeared in 
1709 With this famous work were afterward 
incorporated Memoirs of Europe (1710) and a 
further continuation. Among several plays 
which she wrote may be mentioned Lucius, 
played at Drury Lane ( 1717 ) . In 1720 appeared 
a series of short tales called The Power of Love, 
in Seven Novels. Incidents in her own career 
Mrs Manley related in the A dventures of Rivella 

MANXITJS. A Roman gens, chiefly patri- 
cian, some of whose members played an impor- 
tant part in the history of the Republic. 1. 
in 392 B.C and two years later gained his sur- 
name by rescuing the Capitol from the attacks 
of the Gauls, after he was roused by the cackling 
of the sacred geese. Later, tradition says, he 
favored the lower classes, and, in consequence, 
in 381 was arraigned before the Comitia Cen- 
turiata on a charge of aspiring to be king, and 
sentenced to be thrown from the Tarpeian Rock. 
The name of Marcus was never after borne by 
any of the Manlian gens, who considered him a 
traitor to his family and class. 2 Lucius 
MANLIUS IMPEBIOSUS, dictator 363 BC. 3. TI- 
Lucius, military tribune, twice dictator (353, 
349 B c ) , and three times consul His surname 
was derived from his having despoiled a gigantic 
Gaul of a golden chain (torques) after having 
slain him in single combat. In his last consul- 
ship he waged a successful war against the 
Latins and Campanians, defeating them in two 
battles near Vesuvius, in one his colleague, P. 
Decius Mus, devoted himself. Manhus, too, 
caused to be put to death his own son, who had 
disobeyed his orders by engaging in single combat 
with the enemy. 4. TITUS MANLIUS TOBQUATUS 



was consul in 235 and in 224 B.C., censor in 231, 
dictator in 208. In 235 he subdued Sardinia, 
which had been ceded to Rome by Carthage at 
the close of the First Punic War. In 224 he 
defeated the Gauls and crossed the Po. In 216 
he was victorious over the Carthaginians when 
they tried to regain Sardinia. 5. GNJEIUS MAN- 
LIUS VULSO, consul 189 B.C. He was victorious 
over the Galatians in Asia Minor. 


An American scholar, born in Sumpter Co., 
Ala., and educated at Furman University and 
at Harvard, where he took the degree of PhD. 
in 1890. During the preceding six years he 
had been a teacher as well as a student, and 
after leaving Harvard he was successively asso- 
ciate professor and professor of English at 
Brown University (1891-98), and professor of 
and head of the department of English in the 
University of Chicago. In 1909 he was the 
Chicago exchange professor at the University of 
Gottingen. A contributor to the Cambridge 
History of English Literature and the Encyclo- 
pcedia Bntannica, he was also the editor of 
Specimens of the Pre-8hakespearean Drama 
(1897); English Poetry (1907); English Prose 
(1909). He also served as managing editor of 
Modern Philology 

MAN MILLINER, THE. A nickname given 
to Henry III of France on account of his ef- 
feminacy and fondness for dress 

MANN, SIB DONALD D. (1853- ). A 
Canadian railway promoter He was born at 
Acton, Ontario, and was educated at the public 
schools and privately. He studied for the min- 
istry of the Presbyterian church, but later re- 
linquished that aim and engaged in business as 
a railway contractor He became associated 
with Sir William Mackenzie (qv ) in the build- 
ing of the Canadian Northern Railway, acquired 
a large fortune, and was made first vice presi- 
dent of that railway and president of, or director 
in, several industrial and financial corporations 
He was appointed honorary lieutenant colonel 
of the Twentieth Regiment (1908) and was 
kniohted m 1911. 

MANN, HOBACE (1796-1859). An American 
educational reformer and philanthropist, born 
at Frankbn, Mass., May 4, 1796. He was grad- 
uated at Brown University, 1819 Studying 
law, he was admitted to the bar in 1823; in 
1827 he was elected to the State Legislature of 
Massachusetts and six years later to the State 
Senate, over which he was chosen to preside in 
1836 From the beginning of his legislative 
career he became a leader in philanthropic and 
reform movements of various kinds In 1837 
the State Legislature, largely on the advice of 
Mr. Mann, appointed a board of education to 
revise the school laws and to reorganize the 
common-school system of the State Of this 
board Mr Mann was made secretary, and for 
12 years he devoted to this cause all his time, 
often against the most bitter opposition This 
was the great work of his life, for the movement 
begun under his leadership was not confined to 
Massachusetts, but affected the entire United 
States and led to the development of the free 
public-school system as it exists to-day These 
reforms were instituted through various instru- 
mentalities, chief among which were his annual 
Reports as secretary. The 12 volumes of these 
Reports (1837-48) have become educational 
classics, and were reprinted in Europe as well 

as circulated throughout the United States. In 
addition to these he also founded and edited the 
Common School Journal, through which he ad- 
vocated his reform ideas. Finally, through a 
very great number of teachers* institutes and 
meetings, to which he gave indefatigable atten- 
tion, he inspired the teaching body to greater 
efforts and with higher ideals. 

In the course of his reform efforts he visited 
the schools of continental European countries 
and introduced, against a storm of opposition, 
many of the advanced ideas of school work, es- 
pecially those growing out of the Pestalozzian 
movement ( q v. ) . The immediate work of Mann, 
however, which was of the greatest importance, 
was the reorganization of the common-school 
system of Massachusetts Since the dominance 
of the democratic sentiment during the latter 
half of the eighteenth century the unit of 
school organization had been the district instead 
of the town In place of the district, Mann 
sought to restore the more centralized control 
of the town, which would give a broader public 
support, a greater freedom from factional quar- 
rels, a better financial basis, a better prepared 
and better remunerated staff of teachers, and 
better equipment. Though the reform was not 
accomplished until after Mann's withdrawal 
from the secretaryship, and in fact not finally 
settled until after a bitter conflict lasting a 
quarter of a century, yet his efforts developed 
the public sentiment" that finally established the 
more centiahzed control of education and gave 
to this oigamzation when established a far 
better support than education had ever received 
But one service to education rendered by Horace 
Mann is to be rated above even all these It 
was owing to his efforts that the first normal 
school ( q v ) m the United States for the train- 
ing of teachers was established This first 
school was opened in 1839 at Lexington, Mass 
In 1848 Mann was elected to Congress to fill the 
vacancy caused by the death of John Quincy 
Adams. There for two terms he continued the 
work besrun by Adams in opposition to slavery 
From 1852 to 1859 Mann was president of Anti- 
oph College, Yellow Springs, Ohio, where he 
again led in an advanced educational movement 
that of the coeducation of the sexes. 

Horace Mann was not a professional educator, 
however, but a publicist and statesman His 
greatest work was the rather indefinite one of 
arousing public opinion to the importance of 
education and the directing of legislative effort 
to the improvement of educational conditions. 
He became the leader, or at least the forerunner, 
of the great educational movement which has 
reached from the middle of the nineteenth cen- 
tury to the present time 

In addition to his Reports, his published works 
include- Lectures on Education (1840) ; Lec- 
tures on Education (1845); On the Study of 
Physiology in Schools (1850); Slavery, Letters 
and Speeches (1850); and numerous lectures 
and addresses. 

Bibliography. M. P. Mann, Biography of 
Horace Mann (Boston, 1891); O. H Lang, 
Horace Mann: His Life and Educational Work 
(New York, 1893); A. E. Wmship, Horace 
Mann, the Educator (3d ed., Boston, 1896) ; A 
D. Mayo, "Horace Mann and the Great Revival 
of the American Common School, 1830-1850," in 
United States Bureau of Education, Report of 
the Commissioner, 1896-97 (Washington, 1897) ; 
a. G. Boone, Education in the United States 

(New York, 1899) ; G. A. Hubhell, Horace Mont 
in Ohio: A Study of the Application of hi 
Public School Ideals to College Administration 
(ib., 1900) ; B. A Hinsdale, Horace Mann am 
the Common School Revival in the United State* 
(ib, 1900), Gabriel Compayrg, Horace Mont 
and the Public Schools in the United States (ib. 
1907), G A. Hubbell, Life of Horace Mont 
(Philadelphia, 1910). See the articles on COM 

MANN, JAMES ROBEBT (1856- ). Ar 
American Congressman and lawyer, born neai 
Bloomington, 111 In 1876 he graduated fron 
the University of Illinois and in 1881 from tin 
Union College of Law at Chicago, where he 
thereafter practiced his profession with suc- 
cess. He was attorney of Hyde Park in 
1888, alderman of the 32d Ward of Chicago 
in 1893-96, master in chancery of the Superior 
Court of Cook County in 1892-96, and attorney 
of the South Park Board m 1895 Participat- 
ing in politics as a regular Republican, he was 
temporary chairman of the State Convention of 
that party in 1894 and chairman of the Cook 
County conventions in 1895 and 1902 He 
served as a member of the 55th to the 63d 
Congresses (1897-1915), and in 1911 was chosen 
floor leader of the Republican minority in the 
House For one congressional term he was as- 
sisted by ex- Speaker Cannon. Mann's ability as 
a parliamentarian was highly praised by Presi- 
dent Taft In debate he led his party skillfully 
in its opposition to the tariff, currency, and 
canal tolls policies of the Democrats He be- 
came known for his comprehensive grasp of and 
attention to the details of legislation and for his 
constant attendance at the sessions of Congress 

An American obstetrician, born at Utica, N Y. 
He graduated at Yale in 1867 and at the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, in 1871. 
After two years' study in Heidelberg, Paris, 
Vienna, and London he practiced in New York 
until 1879, then m Hartford until 1882, and 
thereafter until 1910 was professor of gyne- 
cology in the University of Buffalo. He became 
gynecologist at the Buffalo General Hospital, 
and in 1894 was president of the American 
Gynecological Society. He was one of the 
physicians who attended President McKinley 
after he had been shot by the anarchist Czolgosz. 
He wrote Immediate Tieatment of Rupture of 
the Perineum (1874) and Manual of Prescrip- 
tion Writing (1878, 6th ed., rev., 1907); and 
edited an American System of Gynecology (2 
vols, 1887-88) 

MANN, TOM (1856- ). An English 
labor leader. He was born at Foleshill, War- 
wickshire, and worked on a farm for two years 
before he was 11 and then for three years in the 
mines He became an engineer in Birmingham 
and (1877) in London, where in 1881 he joined 
the engineers' union (Amalgamated Society of 
Engineers) and began his career as a trade- 
unionist In 1885 he became a Socialist He 
was the first secretary of the London Reform 
Union (founded 1892) and of the National 
Democratic League, and was one of the first 
English labor leaders to ally himself with syndi- 
calism In 1912 he was arrested for a speech 
urging soldiers to refuse to shoot at strikers. 
He was found guilty and sentenced to six 
months' imprisonment, but served only about 
six weeks. 


American Lutheran theologian and author, born 
in Stuttgart, Germany. He studied there and 
at Tubingen and was ordained in 1841. Three 
years later he came to the United States with 
Dr. Philip Schaff and settled in Philadelphia. 
There he was assistant pastor (1850-63) and 
pastor (1863-84) of St Michael's and Zion's 
Church. From its establishment m 1864 almost 
to his death he was professor of symbolics at 
the Lutheran Theological Seminary. With Dr. 
Schaff he edited Der deutsche Ktrchenfreund 
His own works include Plea for the Augsburg 
Confession (1856); Lutheranism in America 
( 1857 ) ; Life and Times of Henry Melchwr 
Muhlenberg (1887) Consult his Life by his 
daughter, Emma T Mann (Philadelphia, 1803). 

MAN'NA (Hob man, Ar. mann, Gk. fidvva, 
manna; perhaps connected with the Egyptian 
mennu). According to the biblical account, the 
chief food of the Israelites during their 40 
years* wandering in the desert (Ex. xvi; Num. 
xi. 6-9 ) It is described as falling from heaven 
like rain or with the dew; small, round and 
white, like coriander seed; in taste, sweet like 
honey, or like fresh oil. It was gathered in the 
morning and it melted when the sun arose A 
sufficient amount was provided daily for each 
individual and no more; if a surplus was gath- 
ered it spoiled before the succeeding morning. 
On the sixth day, however, a double portion was 
provided, and none could be found on the Sab- 
bath. It could be ground in a mill, beaten in a 
mortar, baked and made into cakes, or boiled 
A command was given to preserve an omer of it 
in the ark of the covenant for future genera- 
tions (Cf. Heb ix. 4 ) The supply ceased on 
entrance into the promised land. (Josh. v. 12 ) 
In Ex xvi. 15 the name is explained by a refer- 
ence to the exclamation of the Hebrews when 
they first saw the manna and knew not as yet 
what it was, man being made equivalent to 
mah, "what is it 7 " This explanation is probably 
a species of popular etymology and indicates 
that the true origin of the word was unknown. 
In the later literature manna is called "corn" or 
"bread of heaven" and "angels' food" (Ps. 
Ixxvin 2^-25, cv 40, cf John vi 31; 1 Cor. x 
3.) Attempts have been made to explain the 
biblical manna as the exudation from the taifa 
tree, a species of tamarisk (Tamarix galhca 
mannifera), or the camel's thorn, or as lichens 
Manifestly such an explanation fails to satisfy 
all the conditions of the narrative. If it be 
believed, however, that the latter represents an 
early tradition with later embellishments, the 
view becomes plausible that the use of some 
such food by a small tribe or clan m time of 
need may have formed the basis of the narrative 
The passage in Numbers is attributed to the 
Yahwistic writer, and hence is precxilic; that 
in Exodus is found m the priestly narrative, 
but it probably embodies certain old fragments 
with considerable additions by the redactors 
Consult the commentaries of Dillmann, Baentsch, 
and Strack on Exodus xvi.' See Coccioffi. 

MANILA. A sweet substance that exudes 
from incisions in the stems of Fraannus ornus 
and other species of ash. The principal supply 
of manna comes from Sicily, where during July 
and August incisions are made in the trunks 
and larger limbs of the trees, and if the weather 
be warm the manna begins to ooze from the cuts 
and hardens into lumps or flakes which are re- 
moved by collectors. Manna is a light, porous 
substance of a yellowish color, not unlike dried 


honey. There are different qualities found upo 
the market, which vary in their purity and con 
position. Flake manna is obtained when ther 
is an abundant flow from the upper incisions 
It dries into flat pieces or tubes and differs some 
what in composition from the other varieties 
Small, or talfa, manna occurs in tears from th< 
lower incisions and is less crystalline and mor< 
gummy. Fat manna is brownish, viscid, non 
crystalline, and is usually full of fragments o 
bark and other impurities. Manna is largely 
used in medicine as a laxative, demulcent, anc 
expectorant, and is commonly administered witl 
other medicines, as senna, rhubarb, etc Its 
constituents, as reported by many investigators 
are mannite 60 to 00 per cent, glucose, mucilage 
fraxin, resin, etc. In addition to its value ir 
medicine, manna has been extensively used foi 
food, its value for this purpose depending upon 
the carbohydrates present 

In addition to that produced by various species 
of ash, manna or substances resembling it are 
excreted by many other species of plants In 
Australia various species of Eucalyptus produce 
what is called manna or lerp This saccharine 
substance is said to be without the laxative 
properties of true manna and is eaten as food 
Similar substances are obtained in Australia 
from the tea tree (Leptospermum scopauum). 
sandalwood (Myoporum platycarpum ) , and Aus- 
tralian blue grass {Andropogon annul at us }. 
During a famine in India a manna-like substance 
was exuded in sufficient abundance from a species 
of bamboo ( Dendrocalamiis stnctus) to form an 
important food supply in some districts It did 
not contain any mannite, the principal charac- 
teristic of true manna. Similar substances are 
obtained from the common larch of Europe 
(Lanx decidua), the substance being* known as 
Briancon manna, from Qucrcus vallonea, called 
Armenian manna; Persian manna from Alhagi 
camelorum, camel's thorn , tamarisk manna from 
Tamarix galhca mannifera, believed by some to 
have been the source of the manna of the Israel- 
ites, while others attribute it to a lichen, Leca- 
nora esculenta; American manna, from the sugar 
pine (Pinus lambertw,na) , California manna,., 
believed to be deposited from Phragmites com- 
munis, etc. Some insects, as Lavinus melhficus, 
secrete a similar material. All of these saccha- 
rine substances are usually grouped together as 
false manna They contain as their principal 
constituent melitose or melezitose, but no man- 
nite. A large number of plants yield small quan- 
tities of mannite For a discussion of their 
chemical composition, consult Tollens, Handbuch 
der Kohlcnhydrate (Breslau, 1895) 

fluitans) A perennial grass, 1 to 3 feet tall, 
found in marshes, ditches, and by the sides of 
stagnant pools in Europe, Asia, North America, 
and Australia. The stems are decumbent at 
the base and rooting at the joints; the leaves 
long and rather broad, the lower ones often 
floating, the inflorescence, a long, slender, nearly 
erect panicle In irrigated meadows and in very 
wet grounds manna grass affords large quanti- 
ties of cattle food In many parts of Germany 
and Poland the seeds, which fall very readily 
out of the spikelets, are collected by spreading 
a cloth under the panicles and shaking them 
with a stick; they aie used m soups and gruels, 
are very palatable and nutritious, and are known 
as Polish manna. There are a number of other 


species of Glyceria, neaily all of which frequent 
moist soils By some botanists they are all 
referred to the genus Pamculana. 

MANNA INSECT. A scale insect (Gossypa- 
na mannifera) which lives on tamarisk in many 
places in countries bordering upon the Mediter- 
ranean Sea and produces manna, which is a sub- 
stance very like honey. It is surely a product 
of the insect and not a secretion of the plant, 
although formerly it was supposed to exude from 
the plant through punctures made by the insect. 
The insect is found in Algeria, Arabia, Armenia, 
and southern Russia Formerly it was known 
as Coccus manniferus, or Chermes mannifer, the 
latter, the earliest name, having been proposed 
by Hard wick m 1822. See Coccus. 

MAN'NERING, MART (1876 ) . An 
American actress, born in London She studied 
for the stage under Hermann Vezm and made 
her d6but as an actress at Manchester under her 
own name of Florence Friend in 1892. She ap- 
peared on the London stage in the same year and 
in 1896 was induced by Daniel Frohman to come 
to New York, wheie she began playing as "Mary 
Mannermg" (the maiden name of her father's 
mother) She first starred at Buffalo, N. Y., in 
1SH)0, in the title role of Janice Meredith. There- 
after she played leading parts in White Roses 
(New York, 1901), The Truants (Washington, 
1909) , The Independent Miss Goiver (Chicago, 
1909), A Man's World and The Garden of 
Allah (New York, 1910). She was married to 
James K. Hackett (q.v ) and later to Frederick 
E. Wadsworth 

MANNERISTS. A term applied to painters 
and sculptors who make an exaggerated or un- 
meaning use of inherited or acquired forms, 
without independent study of nature and with- 
out understanding their significance A work 
of art is mannered when the forms are inap- 
propriate to the ideas expressed The term 
Mannerists is most frequently applied to those 
Italian painters who were pupils of or im- 
mediately followed the leaders of the High 
Renaissance especially Michelangelo, Raphael, 
Corieggio whose styles they imitated and ex- 
aggerated See PAINTING. 

MANNERS, CHARLES (1857- ). An 
English basso and operatic impresario, born in 
London, his real name being Southcote Man- 
sergh. Having studied in Dublin, London, and 
Italy, he began his career as a chorus singer in 
1881 In the following year he made his debut 
at the Savoy Theatre in Gilbert and Sullivan's 
lolanthe After a successful tour of the prov- 
inces he appeared at Covent Garden in 1890 
On his return from a tour of South Africa he 
established the Moody-Manners Opera Company 
His attempt to give 'opera in English met with 
such success in the provinces that in 1902 he 
gave a season in London, with the result that 
his season has become a fixture in the capital 
Beginning with smaller works, the company 
gradually undertook works of a more exacting 
nature, until the repertory now includes all the 
great Wagner dramas, which thus were heard 
for the first time in the provinces. In 1890 he 
married Fanny Moody (born 1866), an excellent 
singer, who became the leading artist in his 
operatic company 

SCANNERS, J. HARTLEY ( ?- ) . An Amer- 
ican playwright, who was early an actor. His 
Peg o 9 my Heart, a comedy, played in New York 
from Dec. 20, 1912, to May 30, 1914, his wife, 
Laurette Taylor (q.v.), taking the leading role. 

It afterward had a long run in London. Man- 
ners's other plays include: The Crossways; A8 
Once in May; The Queen's Messenger; Zira, with 
Henry Miller; The Majesty of Birth, Ganton & 
Co.; The Girl and the Wizard; The Pnnce of Bo- 
hemia; The Girl in Waiting; A Woman Inter- 
venes He published Peg o 1 my Heart m 1913, 
and Happmess and Other Plays, including Just 
as Well and The Day of Dupes, in 1914. 

MANNERS, JOHN. A British general. See 

RUTLAND (1818-1906). An English statesman, 
born at Belvoir Castle, Leicester shiie, Dec 13, 
1818. He was educated at Eton and at Trinity 
College, Cambridge. In 1841 he began his long 
parliamentary career in the Conservative inter- 
est, was twice Postmaster-General ( 1874-80 and 
1885-86), and succeeded Earl Stanhope as chair- 
man of the Copyright Commission On the 
death of his brother (1887) he became seventh 
Duke of Rutland Under Disraeli's influence he 
joined the Young England party, and with the 
former he toured the industrial districts of 
Lancashire, impelled by his zeal for industrial 
reform In Disraeli's Ooningsby (1844), Sybil 
(1845), and Endymion (1860) he figures more 
or less prominently Among his publications 
are: England's Trust and Other Poems; English 
Ballads and Other Poems (1850) , and notes of 
his Irish and Scottish tours of 1848-49 Con- 
sult Reginald Lucas, in Dictionary of National 
Biography, Second Supplement, vol. ii (London, 

MANNERT, man'nert, KONBAD (1756-1834). 
A German historian and geographer, born at 
Altdorf and educated at Nuremberg In 1796 
he became professor of history at Altdorf, in 
1805 at Wurzburg, in 1807 at Landshut, and in 
1826 at Munich His geographical works in- 
clude the valuable Geographic der Griechen und 
Homer (10 vols., 1795-1825), with Ukert, and 
an edition of the Tabula Peutingenana (1824) ; 
and among his historical labors the more im- 
portant are- Kompendium der deutschen Reichs- 
geschichte (1803, 3d ed , 1819) ; Kaiser Ludwig 
IV (1812); Geschichte der alten Deutschen, 
besonders der Franken (1829-32). Consult 
Allgemeine deutsche Biographic, vol. xx (Leip- 
zig, 1884) 

MAJTNES, DAVID (1866- ). An Ameri- 
can violinist, born in New York City At the 
age of 10 he took up the violin, without a 
teacher, and made considerable progress After 
systematic study under H. Erode and C Ritcher, 
he earned his living by playing in theatre or- 
chestras. During the summers he went abroad 
and studied at different times with De Ahna, 
Halir, and Ysaye In 1891 he was discovered 
by Walter Damrosch, who engaged him as one 
of the first violins for the New York Symphony 
Orchestra. From 1899 to 1911 he was concert 
master of this organization The Sonata Re- 
citals which he began in 1905 with his wife 
(Clara Damrosch) soon were recognized as 
events of importance He always took deep in- 
terest in the affairs of the Music School Settle- 
ment, of which he became director in 1910. In 
1912 he founded the Music School Settlement for 
Colored People 

MANNFELD, man'felt, BERNARD (1848- 
) . A German etcher. He was born in Dres- 
den and as a boy studied painting under Otto 
Georgi, but later acquired a knowledge of archi- 
tecture, which led him to take up etching. He 


designed for the Seller Institute for Glass Paint- 
ing (Breslau) from 1866 till 1873, when he re- 
moved to Berlin. Three years later he pub- 
lished his first cycle of original etchings, entitled 
"Durchs deutsche Land," containing 60 plates of 
views of cities, buildings, and picturesque spots 
in Germany and Austria. He continued to make 
a specialty of architectural subjects and romantic 
landscapes, constantly improving his technique 
by studying the work of foreign etchers, par- 
ticularly that of Axel Haig. He was employed 
bv the state to etch some of the monuments in 
the National Gallery, Berlin, and in 1896 was 
called to the Stadel Institute, Frankfort (profes- 
sor in 1900). Among his finest plates are "The 
Castle of Heidelberg"; "The Rheingrafenstein 
in Nahetal", "The Albrechtsburg m Meissen"; 
"The Cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle" ; "View of 
Dresden", "Old Bridge, Frankfort"; "Interior 
of Frankfort Cathedral " 

MANNHARDT, manliart, WIOTELM (1831- 
80). A German mythologist, born at Friedrich- 
stadt in Schleswig He was educated in the 
universities of Berlin and Tubingen and be- 
came editor of the Zeitschnft fur deutsche My- 
thologie und Sittenkunde (1855) His books on 
Germanic myth include* Germamsohe My then 
( 1858) ; Die Gotter der deutschen und nordischen 
Volker (1860) ; Roggenwolf und Roggenhund (2d 
ed., 1866); Die Komdamonen (1868); Klytia 
(1875) ; and his great works, Wald- und Feld- 
kulte (1875-77, 2d ed , by Heuschkel, 1904-05) 
and Mythologische Forschungen (ed. by Patzig, 
1884) Consult AUgemeine deutsche Biographic, 
vol. xx (Leipzig, 1884). 

MANNHEIM, mim'him. The largest city of 
the Grand Duchy of Baden, at the confluence of 
the Rhine and Neckar, 43 miles southwest of 
Frankfort (Map Germany, C 4). It is the 
third largest city on the Rhine, surpassed only 
by Cologne and Dusseldorf ; since its connection 
by railroad with all important cities in the 
German Empire it has become the first com- 
mercial town in the Grand Duchy of Baden. 
The site of the town is low, and a high dike 
protects it from floods. The Rhine, which is 
here 1200 feet in breadth, is crossed by a rail- 
way bridge which connects Mannheim with 
Ludwigshaf en ; a chain bridge spans the Neckar 
The town is remarkable for its cleanliness and is 
the most regularly built town in Germany, the 
main part is divided into 136 square sections 
and is encircled by a semicircular boulevard 
known as the Ring Strasse. Outside of the 
semicircle are numerous suburbs. The palace, 
built 1720-29, by the Elector Palatine Charles 
Philip, with a front of over 1700 feet, and 1500 
windows, is one of the largest buildings of the 
kind in Germany It has several museums, 
containing paintings by Van Ruysdael and 
Rubens, and a library of 66,000 volumes. The 
city contains a Gymnasium with a library, a 
botanic garden, an observatory, an ancient mer- 
chants' hall, the National Theatre, founded in 
1776, in which Schiller's Rollers was first acted, 
and the large concert hall. Among notable pub- 
lic monuments are those of William I, Prince 
Bismarck, Schiller, and Moltke. The Schloss- 
garten, bordering on the Rhine, is the chief of 
the five public gardens surrounding the city 
Since the construction of harbors (covering 240 
acres) and extensive docks in 1875 and 1897, 
Mannheim has had a great and increasing trade 
in grain, coal, petroleum, tobacco, sugar, and 
ironware. Its metal and machine works, in- 


eluding the manufacture of agricultural imple- 
ments*, gasoline, and electric motors, give em- 
ployment to 10,000 persons; 2000 are engaged 
in a celluloid factory. Cigars, varnish and 
rosin, carpets, rubber, cables, railway supplies, 
wire, stoves, chemicals, oil, furniture, brushes, 
mirrors, sugar, mattresses, glass and leather 
goods are also manufactured. Its institutions 
include Gymnasia, a reformatory, a trade school, 
a marine school, and a conservatory of music. 
Pop, 1885, 61,273; 1900, 140,384; 1910, 193,902. 
The United States is represented by a consul. 

Mannheim is mentioned as a village as early 
as 764. Its prosperity dates from 1606, when, 
under the Elector Palatine Frederick IV, it be- 
came the refuge of religious exiles fiom the 
Netherlands It suffered severely in the Thirty 
Years' War and was almost totally destroyed by 
the French in 1689 After being rebuilt it was 
again occupied by the French in 1795 and a 
large part of it burned In 1802 it was given to 

MAN'NING, DANIEL (1831-87). An Ameri- 
can journalist, financier, and politician He was 
born in Albany, N Y , and at the age of 10 
entered the printing office of the Albany Atlas 
as an apprentice After the consolidation t)f 
the Atlas with the Argus he was appointed legis- 
lative reporter, in which capacity lie made a 
wide acquaintance among politicians and became 
known as an authority on State political affairs 
In 1865 be became editor and part owner of the 
Argus, and president of the company in 1873 
In 187G jie was elected a member of the New 
York Democratic State Committee, of which he 
became secretary in 1879 and chairman m 1881 
In thin position he was associated closely with 
Grover Cleveland, to whose election as Governor 
of New York he contributed greatly in 1882. 
To Manning's astuteness and tact also was 
largely due the successful presentation of Cleve- 
land's name as a candidate for the presidency 
in 1884, and to his personal supervision of the 
campaign was largely due the success of the 
Democratic ticket in 'the pivotal State of New 
York President Cleveland occasioned consider- 
able surprise when he appointed Manning Secre- 
tary of the Treasury Manning remained in 
office until 1887, and his able administration 
justified his appointment He retired shortly 
before his death, on account of ill health. 

English Roman Catholic prelate, one of the 
most notable figures in the Church life of his 
time He was born July 15, 1808, at Tottendge, 
in Hertfordshire, and educated at Harrow and at 
Balhol College, Oxford, where he graduated in 
1830 He was ordained in the Church of Eng- 
land in 1832, married in 1833, and m 1834 ap- 


ointed rector of Lavmgton and Graffham 
Sussex His wife died in 1837 Manning de- 
voted himself with increasing zeal, energy, and 
success to the work of his profession, and was 
recognized, though still a young man, as a lead- 
ing figure in the group of Tractanan leaders. 
His appointment in 1840 as Archdeacon of Chi- 
chester gave him a still more influential position. 
Newman's secession affected him painfully and 
for a time seemed to increase his attachment to 
the Church of England, but in 1851 the decision 
in the noted Gorham case (see GOBHAM CON- 
TROVERSY), which seemed to claim for the crown 
authority over a purely doctrinal question, shook 
his allegiance. After long and arduous con- 
sideration he made his submission to the Roman 


Catholic church in 1851. Only two months later 
an unusual recognition of his gifts and his 
theological attainments he was ordained priest 
by Cardinal Wiseman. He made some further 
studies in Rome, and from 1852 to 1856 was in- 
formally connected with the Jesuit Church in 
Farm Street, London, finding much to do in 
preaching and spiritual direction. In 1857 he 
developed an English congregation of priests 
known as Oblates of St. Charles, a revival of the 
community founded at Milan by St. Charles 
Borromeo, and became its first superior. The 
same year saw his appointment as provost of 
the Chapter of Westminster, which brought him 
into close relations with Cardinal Wiseman, then 
Archbishop. In the difficult circumstances con- 
nected with the insubordinate attitude of Arch- 
bishop Errmgton, Wiseman's coadjutor, Man- 
ing was a loyal supporter of the Cardinal and 
of great service. On the latter's death in 
1865, Pius IX took the unexpected step of ap- 
pointing Manning his successor as Archbishop 
of Westminster, and for the next quarter of a 
century he occupied .a commanding position in 
the religious life of England He not only did 
much to bring the Roman Catholic body out of 
the obscurity in which centuries of repression 
had left it, but he was indefatigable in all kinds 
of good works the care of the poor, religious 
education, and very prominent in social and 
temperance work. In the Vatican Council of 
1870 he took a prominent part, standing among 
the pronounced advocates of defining papal in- 
fallibility, and engaging in a controversy, famous 
at the time, with Monseigneur Dupanloup, 
Bishop of Orleans. His Petri Pmvilegium 
(1871) is an exposition of the doctrine and an 
account of the proceedings On the same sub- 
ject he also published (1875) an answer to 
Gladstone's expostulations, giving his views of 
the bearing of the Vatican decrees on civil 
allegiance ; and in 1877 he wrote The True Story 
of the Vatican Council. Among Manning's other 
published works are- The Temporal Mission of 
the Holy Ghost (1865) ; The Internal Mission of 
the Holy Ghost (1875) ; England and Christen- 
dom (1867); Sin and its Consequences (1876). 
His manifold services were recognized by the 
gift of a cardinal's hat in 1875 He died in 
London, Jan 14, 1892. 

Bibliography. The fullest biography of him 
is by E S Purcell (2 vols, London, 1896), 
which is unfortunately disfigured by many mis- 
leading inferences and grave faults of taste; 
it may be corrected in particular as to the facts 
of the Errington case by Wilfrid Ward's Life 
and Times of Cardinal Wiseman (London, 
1897). There is a shorter but in many ways 
more satisfactory biography by A. W. Hutton 
(Boston, 1892) Consult also: Francis de 
Pressensg, Life of Cardinal Manning (Phila- 
delphia, 1897) ; P. H Fitzgerald, Fifty Tears of 
Catholic Life and Social Progress (London, 
1901 ) ; I A Taylor, The Cardinal Democrat 
(St. Louis, 1908) ; Paul Thureau-Dangin, Eng- 
lish Catholic Revival in the Nineteenth Century 
(2 vols, London, 1914); and a number of the 
biographical works cited under OXFORD MOVE- 

MANNING, JAMES (1738-91) An Ameri- 
can educator He was born in Elizabethtown, 
N J., graduated at Princeton College in 1762, 
and was ordained to the Baptist ministry in 
1763. Cobperating with an association of Bap- 
tist ministers in Philadelphia, he went to Rhode 


Island and proposed to the Baptists in Newport 
a plan for the establishment of a "seminary of 
polite literature, subject to the government of 
the Baptists." A charter was obtained in 1764. 
The next year Manning was appointed president 
of the institution, which was opened in 1766 as 
the College of Rhode Island (later Brown Uni- 
versity). He served in that office (except dur- 
ing the Revolution, when the school was closed) 
till 1790, when he resigned. During the greater 
part of this period he was also pastor of the 
First Baptist Church in Providence, founded by 
Roger Williams. His chief educational publica- 
tion, Report in Favor of the Establishment of 
Free Public Schools in the Town of Providence, 
indicates his activity in another direction. In 
1786 he was elected to the Congress of the Con- 
federation He was an active Federalist, and it 
was due largely to his influence that Rhode 
Island adopted the Constitution and came into 
the Union Consult R. A Guild, The Life, 
Times, and Correspondence of James Manning, 
and the Early History of Brown University 
(Boston, 1864) See BROWN UNIVEBSITY. 

MANNING, ROBERT (1784-1842). An Amer- 
ican pomologist one of the pioneers in horti- 
cultural nomenclature In order to determine 
the value of varieties he established at Salem, 
Mass , a fruit garden, in which he raised vari- 
eties of all fruits that could withstand the 
rigor of the climate of that State, and in which 
at the time of his death nearly 2000 varieties 
were growing. He published a descriptive cata- 
logue, called Book of Fruits, in 1838. Manning 
was one of the founders of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, and during his later 
years was recognized as an authority on horti- 
cultural matters, especially on fruit varieties 

MANNING, THOMAS (1772-1840). An Eng- 
lish traveler, born Nov. 8, 1772, at Broome, 
Norfolk, where his father was rector In 1790 
he entered Cams College, Cambridge, where he 
became distinguished in mathematics; but he 
left without a degree, owing to his unwillingness 
to take the oaths. From 1800 to 1803 he studied 
Chinese in Paris In 1806 he went out to Can- 
ton as doctor In 1810 he proceeded to Cal- 
cutta, whence he made his way into Tibet to 
Lhasa (1811). He was the first Englishman to 
enter the Holy City. On returning to England in 
1817, after a visit to Peking, a shipwreck near 
the Sunda Islands, and a call on Napoleon 
at St Helena, he lived for several years at a 
cottage called Orange Grove, near Dartford, in 
the midst of his Chinese books. There he was 
visited by the chief literary men of the day. 
One of his many eccentricities was a long, flow- 
ing beard. This he plucked out by the roots 
before leaving Orange Grove for Bath, where he 
died May 2, 1840 Manning was familiar with 
15 languages and was esteemed the first Chinese 
scholar in England in his day. Charles Lamb 
made the acquaintance of Manning in 1799, and 
a memorable friendship ensued Consult: 
Charles Lamb's Letters and Essays of Eha ("The 
Old and the New Schoolmaster" and "A Dis- 
sertation on Roast Pig") ; also the Narratives 
of the Mission of G Boyle to Tibet and of the 
Journey of T Manning to Lhasa, edited with 
memoirs by Sir C. R. Markham (London, 1876) ; 
W. P. Courtney, in Dictionary of National Bi- 
ography, vol xxxvi (ib., 1893) 

An American jurist, born at Edenton, N. C. He 
was educated at the University of North Caro- 


lina, was admitted to the bar, and practiced for 
a time in his native town. In 1855 he removed 
to Alexandria, La., and built up a large practice. 
After serving as a member of the Secession Con- 
vention, he entered the Confederate army as a 
lieutenant and in 1863 became adjutant general 
with the rank of brigadier general. He was 
a member of the Louisiana Supreme Court 
(1864-65) and in 1872 a Democratic presiden- 
tial elector. In 1876 he was temporary chair- 
man of the Democratic National Convention. 
He was a second time presidential elector in 
1876 and in 1880 was appointed to the United 
States Senate, but the Committee on Elections 
and Privileges declined to consider his creden- 
tials. From 1877 until the adoption of the 
new Constitution he was Chief Justice of the 
State Supreme Court. From 1882 to 1886 he 
was again justice of the Supreme Court and 
during 1886-87 was United States Minister to 
Mexico, where he died. He was also trustee of 
the Peabody Fund from 1880 until his death. 

An American Protestant Episcopal clergyman 
He graduated B.D from the University of the 
South in 1893, was ordained a deacon in 1889 
and a priest in 1891, and served as rector at 
Redlands, Cal. (1892), at Lansdowne, Pa (1896- 
98), and at Nashville, Tenn. (1898-1903) For 
two years (1893-95) he was professor of dog- 
matic theology at the University of the South. 
In New York City he was vicar of St. Agnes's 
Chapel in 1903-04, assistant rector in 1904-08, 
and thereafter rector, of Trinity parish 

MANNINGTON. A city in Marion Co., 
W. Va., about 20 miles north of Clarksburg, on 
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (Map: West 
Virginia, D 2). It has a large pottery, ex- 
tensive oil and gas interests, glassworks, ma- 
chine shops, and rich coal mines. The water 
works are owned by the city. Pop., 1900, 1681; 
1910, 2672. 


MANTOITE, or MANNITOL (from manna), 
C e H 8 (OH) 6 . A hexahydnc alcohol found m the 
manna from Fraxmus ornus (Linne*), which 
grows in the basin of the Mediterranean It was 
discovered in that manna by Proust in 1806 and 
may be readily extracted from it with hot water 
or boiling alcohol. It is found also in many 
other vegetable products, including onions, 
celery, asparagus, many fungi, etc ; and it has 
been prepared artificially from the sugar man- 
nose by reduction with sodium amalgam. Vice 
versa, careful oxidation of mannite with nitric 
acid yields mannose. A mixture of mannite and 
a very similar hexahydnc alcohol called sorbite 
is produced when ordinary fructose (levulose) 
is reduced with nascent hydrogen ( sodium amal- 
gam). Mannite is also produced during al- 
coholic fermentation, particularly at higher 
temperatures, and a special mannitic fermenta- 
tion often occurs in wines, changing the fructose 
contained in them into mannite. However, the 
amount of mannite generally discoverable in 
unspoiled wine is very small. Mannite may be 
obtained either in the form of rhombic prisms 
or in the form of silky needle-like crystals, it 
melts at 165-166 C. (329-330.8 F.), and it is 
readily soluble in hot water or alcohol, but only 
moderately soluble in col'd water, and scarcely 
soluble at all in cold alcohol or in ether. Its 
pure aqueous solution has a very slight action 
on polarized light ; the action is, however, greatly 
increased by the presence of free alkali as well 


as of certain salts, especially borax. The con- 
stitution and configuration of mannite are 
represented by the formula: 

(CH,OH) . C . C . C . C . (CH 2 OH) 


The hexahydric alcohols sorbite (see above), 
dulcite, idite, and tctiite have the same compo- 
sition and constitution as mannite, and differ 
from it and from one another only in their 
configuration, i e , in the arrangement of their 
atoms in space (See STEREOCHEMISTRY ) 

(1848-1904) An Austrian engineer and in- 
ventor. He was born at Mainz, Germany, and 
for many years served as chief engineer of the 
Imperial Northern Railroad (Kaiser Ferdinands 
Nordbahn). In 1899 he was called to the Aus- 
trian Upper House in recognition of his public 
services. He became widely celebrated through 
his many inventions and improvements in mili- 
tary small arms and to him was due the original 
Mannhcher rifle, which with modifications was 
used in the military services of several Euro- 
pean and other nations. See SMALL ARMS. 

MANNS, mans, SIR AUGUST (1825-1907). A 
German-English musical conductor, born at Stol- 
zenberg, Pomerama. He received his early train- 
ing in music from a village musician and from 
Urban, the town musician of Elbing. He became 
a member of a military band at Danzig, then at 
Posen, and in 1848 joined Gungl's orchestra in 
Berlin. Soon after he became conductor and 
first violin at KrolPs Garden, Berlin In 1851 
Von Boon, the War Minister, selected Manns as 
bandmaster of his regimental band, first at 
Konigsberg, then at Cologne. In 1854 he became 
assistant conductor, and in 1855-1905 was con- 
ductor, at the Crystal Palace, London, where he 
accomplished important results in the fuither- 
ance of the newer romantic music of Germany 
He also changed the original wind band into an 
orchestra and founded (1850) the famous Satur- 
day concerts, which he continued till 1901 He 
conducted the Glasgow Choral Union (1879-92) 
and six triennial Handel festivals He was 
knighted in 1903 Consult H. S Wyndham, 
August Manns and the Saturday Concerts: A 
Memoir and a Retrospect (London, 1909). 

MAlfNUS (according to some, connected 
with Goth, manna, AS, Eng, OHG. man, Ger. 
Mann, Skt. manu, man, the mythical father of 
the human race). According to Tacitus (Ger- 
mama, chap, ii), the name given by the Germans 
to the son of the earthborn god Tuisto From 
his three sons they derived their three great 
tribes, the Ingcevones, the Herminones, and the 
Istcevones Mannus belongs, not to the Teutonic 
people alone, but to the great myth of the origin 
of the human race, common to the whole Aryan 
family, and, like the Hindu Manu (qv ) or 
Manus, stands forth as the progenitor of the in- 
habitants of earth endowed with reason Con- 
sult K. Mullenhof, Deutsche Altertumskunde, 
vol. iv (revised by M. Roediger, Berlin, 1900). 

An English adventurer, born in Hainault, 
France. He first appeared m England probably 
in 1327 as an esquire of Queen Philippa. He 
was engaged in the Scottish wars in 1331-37 
and again in 1341; had command of English 
fleets in 1337 and 1348; served under Edward 



III in the wars in France between 1338 and 
1300; and was second in command in the in- 
vasion of France by John of Gaunt in 1369. He 
served as a baron by writ in Parliament in 
1347-71 and was knighted in 1359. Much space 
is given to his exploits in Froissart's Chronicles 
(Eng. trans., London, 1895). He is chiefly 
known as one of the founders of the Charter- 
house in London. 

BBUNNE) (flourished c.1290-1340). An English 
poet, native of Brunne, or Bourne, in Lincoln- 
shire. In 1288 he joined the neighboring broth- 
erhood of Gilbertme canons at Sempringham 
There he wrote Handlyng Synne (1303), a free 
paraphrase of the Manuel des Pechiez by William 
of Wadmgton. It depicts, with much sharp 
satire, the social life of the time. The best 
manuscript (the Harleian), with the French 
original, was edited by F. J. Furnivall for the 
Roxburghe Club in 1862. In 1338 Mannyng, 
then resident in the Gilbertine priory of Sixhill, 
Lincolnshire, finished his Chronicle of England. 
It has little historical value, as it closely follows 
the earlier chronicles. The earlier part of the 
Chtontcle was edited by Furnivall for the Rolls 
Series (London, 1887), and the latter part by 
T. Hearne in 1725. To Mannyng is also at- 
tributed Meditacyuns of the Sopcr of oure Lorde 
Ihcsus, edited for the Early English Text Society 
(London, 1875). Consult T L K. Oliphanf, 
Old and Middle English (London, 1878), and B. 
A K Ten Brink, Early English Literature to 
Wichf, translated by H M. Kennedy (New York, 

MANOA, ma-no'a. A fabulous city said to 
have been built on an island in Parima Lake, 
Guiana, and governed by El Dorado (q.v.). 


MANOBO, ma-no / bd. The Manobo is a 
powerful pagan tribe inhabiting the lower 
Agusan River valley in Mindanao. They closely 
resemble the Mandaya in bodily appearance and 
culture and, like them, are frequently tree 
dwellers. They practice a crude agriculture and 
are somewhat skilled in forging iron knives and 
spear heads For centuries they have been slave- 
holders, and their extensive raids into the ter- 
ritory of neighboring tribes have caused them to 
be greatly dreaded They probably number more 
than 50,000 See PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 

MANGEL, ma'nd-al'. The Portuguese form 
of Manuel (qv ). 

na'shg-mAn'td, FRANCISCO. A Portuguese poet. 

MANOEUVRES, ma-noo'verz (Fr. manoeuvre, 
OF. manouvre, manovre, from ML. manuopera, 
manupera, a working with the hand, from Lat. 
manus, hand + opera, work). Exercises of 
large or small bodies of troops, designed to 
teach in time of peace the duties of troops in 
war. Manoeuvres are conducted in two ways: 
(1) by field exercises on the terrain itself, 
during which actual bodies of troops are ma- 
noeuvred in accordance with the tactical prin- 
ciples involved; (2) on special maps, where the 
movements of troops are indicated by colored 
bits of paper. The latter are known as "map 
manoeuvres" and are finding increasing favor in 
the instruction of officers in all armies. (See 
WAB GAME.) In Europe field manoeuvres are 
carried on in most great armies throughout the 
year, the grand manoeuvres (of one or more 
army corps) usually taking place in the autumn, 

and simulating the conditions of war as closely 
as possible. In the United States there are 
similar operations, usually held in the fall, 
in which the regular army and the militia 

Naval manoeuvres and the combined manoeu- 
vres of sea and land forces working in harmony 
are of more recent origin than their military 
counterpart. Frederick the Great of Prussia 
first conceived the idea of having sham battles 
between his troops, an idea which Napoleon 
utilized in the great camp of Boulogne in 1805, 
during his preparation for the invasion of Eng- 
land. It was Von Moltke, however, and the 
Prussian general staff who first developed the 
idea of manoeuvres into its full modern signi- 
ficance, and in the combined naval and military 
operation around the city of Flensburg in 
Schleswig-Holstem (1890) set an example which 
was soon copied The United States naval and 
military manoeuvres held in 1902 in the vicinity 
of New York followed practically the same plan 
of campaign as did Germany in the instance 
already cited. England and France and the 
United States hold periodical naval manoeuvres, 
the problem usually being the attack or defense 
of shore defenses In naval manoeuvres par- 
ticularly, conditions may be created which are 
faithful replicas of actual battles and campaigns. 
Besides their value in the formulation of the 
most effective scheme of shore defense against 
attack or invasion, they are just as important in 
the training under war conditions of the naval 
personnel, besides which they afford commanders 
excellent experience in the practice of battle 
tactics and strategy Flaws in methods and 
material which otherwise might not be discovered 
until too late are noted and subsequently 
remedied; new ideas in the application of stra- 
tegical or tactical principles carried out; the 
employment of torpedoes, mines, destroyers, sub- 
marines, wireless telegraphy, searchlights, air 
craft, and the various experiments in coaling at 
sea thoroughly tested; and the whole carefully 
observed and noted by officers of the national 
government appointed for the purpose, whose 
report usually forms the basis for future naval 

MAN* OF BLOOD, THE. A designation ap- 
plied by the Puritans to Charles I of England. 

name given to Prince Bismarck, originating in 
a phrase used by himself in regard to the settle- 
ment of the differences of Prussia and Austria. 

so called because of his coup d'tat of Dec. 2, 

MAN OF DESTINY, THE. A name given 
to Napoleon Bonaparte, who considered himself 
specially chosen and directed by fate 

MAN OF LAW'S TALE, THE. One of Chau- 
cer's Canterbury Tales. It is the story of Con- 
stance, told in Gower's Confessio Amantis, and 
taken from old French romances. 

TER. A comedy by George Etherege, presented 
in 1676. 


MAN-OF-THE-EARTH. A weed. See 

MAN-OF-WAR. An armed naval vessel 
regularly commissioned by some acknowledged 
government and fitted for purposes of war. A? 
such she possesses the privileges of war; her 



deck is, by a legal fiction, taken to be a portion 
of the soil of the nation whose flag she hoists; 
in time of war she is justified in attacking, sink- 
ing, burning, or destroying the ships and goods 
of the foe, and, by the law of nations, she may 
stop and search the merchant vessels of neutral 
powers which she suspects of carrying aid to her 
OF WAB; NEUTRALITY.) In case of being over- 
powered the crew of a man-of-war are entitled 
to the ordinary mercy granted to vanquished 
combatants lawfully fighting. Any vessel mak- 
ing war, but not belonging to an acknowledged 
government, is technically either a privateer 
(see MARQUE, LETTERS OF) or a pirate, but the 
naval war waged by vessels belonging to insur- 
gents is not regarded as piracy if solely directed 
against the forces of the government they are 
fighting (see PIRACY). See BATTLESHIP; 


MAN-OF-WAR BIRD, or HAWK (so called 
from its predatory habits). A frigate bird 
(q.v.) ; but occasionally the term is applied to 
some other swift and predacious sea fowl, as a 

MAN'OGRAPH (from Gk. jwfe, manos, 
thin, and ypdQeiv, graphem, to write). An in- 
strument designed to render visible to the eye 
the varying pressure in an engine cylinder or 
other confined space in which the pleasure 
changes with a cyclically varying volume ( See 
INDICATOR ) It is specially adapted for the high 
speeds and high temperatures of the internal- 
combustion motor. ( See GAS ENGINE ; INTERNAL- 
COMBUSTION ENGINE.) The fundamental prin- 
ciple is to have the pressures of the cylinder 
received upon a steel diaphragm of calibrated 
resistance to deformation by such pressure The 
yielding of the diaphragm to pressure is meas- 
ured by the motion of a very small mirror, which 
reflects a ray of light from an electric arc. The 
flexure of the diaphragm moves the mirror 
around an axis and causes the beam of reflected 
light to move vertically over a ground-glass sur- 
face in its path. The rise and fall of the spot of 
light measures the pressure on the diaphragm. 
To relate the position of the spot of reflected light 
to the position of the piston of the engine the 
mirror receives from the engine shaft a syn- 
chronous movement of rotation through a small 
angle around an axis at right angles to that of 
its motion from pressure. The position of the 
spot of light is therefore at any instant the 
resultant of the pressure and of the piston 
motion. The spot of light will therefore trace 
a diagram like an indicator diagram in which 
vertical ordmates are pressures and horizontal 
displacements or abscissas are the piston mo- 
tions or cylinder volumes. If the ground glass 
for optical observation be replaced by a sensi- 
tized photographic plate a diagram of pressure 
and volume relations is photographically re- 
corded. The manograph has very little inertia 
or friction; its motion is very small and the 
multiplication of motion is done optically and 
without complications. The objection to it is the 
uncertainty whether the known static pressures 
of calibration produce the same movement of 
the diaphragm as the dynamo's impact of the 
cylinder pressures, and whether the latter are 
translatable into the same units as the former. 


MANOM'ETEB (from Gk. fiav6s, manos, thin, 
rare + fUrpov, metron, measure). An instru- 
ment for measuring the density or pressure of 
the air or any gas. A barometer (q.v.) is one 
form of manometer, as the pressure of the at- 
mosphere is measured by the height of the 
column of mercury which it supports. The 
manometer in its simplest form would be a 
glass tube open at both ends and bent into the 
form of a U and containing a sufficient quantity 
of some liquid to cover the bend and rise to a 
small height in each arm. The vessel containing 
the gas whose pressure is to be ascertained is 
connected with one arm of the tube, and if the 
gas is at the same pressure as the atmosphere 
the liquid will stand at the same level in both 
tubes If the gas is at a greater pressure the 
liquid in the arm of the tube on which it acts 
will be at a lower level, and the pressure of the 
gas will be obtained by adding to the pressure 
of the atmosphere the weight of a column of the 
liquid whose height is equal to the difference in 
level in the two tubes When the pressure of 
the gas is considerably greater than that of the 
atmosphere we use mercury on account of its 
high specific gravity, and when the pressures 
are sufficient a tube with one arm closed can be 
employed and the 
prossure determined 
by measuring the ex- 
tent to which the air 
is compressed Now, 
according to Boyle's 
or Mariotte's law, a 
pressure exerted on 
the column of mer- 
cury sufficient to force 
the air into half the 
space it occupies at 
the normal atmos- 
pheric pressure must 
become doubled, or 15 
pounds to the square 
inch must be added. 
Again, to compress 
the air into half the 
remaining space, 30 
pounds, or double the 
pressure required for 
the reduction to the 
first half, must be 
added, making in all 
a pressure of four at- 
mospheres for the re- 
duction to one-fourth 
the original volume. 
It is evident, there- 
fore, that a graduated 
scale, to exhibit the 
degrees of pressure, must have its spaces decrease 
from below upward If the gas is considerably 
raier than the air, as, eg, in the receiver of an 
air pump, we employ a shortened barometer con- 
sisting of a bent tube with one end closed but 
filled with mercury, which is supported by the 
pressure of the atmosphere. In this case the 
pressure is measured by the difference in level 
of the two columns, which would be zero were 
the vacuum perfect 

These manometers are of course constructed in 
various forms, depending upon the use to which 
they are to be put, and the tubes and air cham- 
bers are variously constructed. The most com- 
mon form of manometer is the steam gauge, 
which may be either a piston actuated by the 



, ..iterthan 
', for prea- 


pressure to move an indicator against the force 
of a spring, or more commonly a metal tube of 
elliptical cross section bent into circular shape. 
One end of this tube is permanently fastened 
to the case of the instrument and through it the 
steam or gas enters, while the other end is closed 
but free to move. It is connected with a spring 


and a series of levers, so that its motion, which 
depends upon the pressure, is communicated to 
an indicator moving over a scale graduated usu- 
ally in pounds in the United States and England 
and atmospheres in Europe. These steam gauges 
must of course be adjusted and calibrated by 
reference to some direct source of pressure, such 
as would be furnished by a column of liquid in 
a vertical tube See MANOGRAPH 

MANON, ma'noN' An opera by Massenet 
(qv ), first produced in Paris, Jan 19, 1884, in 
the United States (New Vork), Dec 23, 1885. 

given to the French Geneial Boulanger (qv ), 
who usually appealed in public riding a black 

noted romance by the Abbe" Prgvost. It was pub- 
lished in 1731 and vas originally only an epi- 
sode of Ins M&aoires d'un homme de quaht6. 

MANON LESCAUT. An opera by Puccini 
KJ \ ), first produced in Turin, Feb. 1, 1893; in 
tho United States (Philadelphia), July, 1894. 

MAN'OR (Fr manoir, fiom Laf. manenum, 
a dwcUjjig place, from manere, to abide, to 
dwell). A district of land held by "some baron 
or man efworth" by freehold tenure of the king 
or of some mesne lord, within which the lord of 
the manor exercises a certain jurisdiction in 
addition to his rights as landlord. The term 
"manor" to describe such a lordship did not 
come into use in England till some time after 
the Norman Conquest, but the institution is 
found jn .a less-developed form among the Anglo- 
Saxons. \ The typical manor, in its later devel- 
opmenETvonsisted of two parts: (1) the inland 
(demesne) or home estate, which the lord held 
in his own hands, upon which his house was 
built, and which was farmed by nonfree, peas- 
ant occupiers, and (2) the outland (geneat- 
land), which was held, in part at least, by free- 
men as freehold tenants, holding of the lord at 
a rent, which might be money, or produce of the 
land, or military or other service. The tenants 
proper were freemen, but most of the occupiers 

who constituted the lord's dependents, belonged 
to one or more of the classes of the unfree (as 
villeins), who constituted the bulk of the peas- 
ant population. These for the most part dwelt 
together in villages and lived ordinarily by ag- 
riculture. It is held by writers like Gneist, 
Stubbs, and Freeman that originally there were 
few manors, but that they gradually increased 
in number, until in the twelfth century the pre- 
vailing system of society, outside the boroughs 
or incorporated towns, was that of manors with 
dependent peasants. The origin of the manor 
is obscure, some authorities, as Seebohm, hold- 
ing it to be due to the imposition of the system 
of the Roman villa on the servile population by 
the Norman invaders ; others, like Maitland, see- 
ing in it a normal development of the village 

i As has been said, the lord of a manor might 
hold directly by grant of the king, who was, 
under the feudal system, the supreme land- 
owner, the lord paramount, of all lands in the 
kingdom, in which case his customary juris- 
diction, based upon and derived from the an- 
cient customs of his manor, might be restricted 
f0f~5hlarged by the royal grant; or he might 
hold under some mesne lord, who in his turn 
held the manor, together with other land's, di- 
rectly of the crownJ>With~"tKe~ gfowtlnof-4fee 
process of suDinwflaation, i e , of the granting 
of lands by a tenant to be held of himself as 
overlord, the latter method of holding manors 
became common in the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries. Where one lord held two or more 
manors, whether of the king or of a mesne lord, 
the entire estate was known as a lordship or 

MANOR HOUSE. The residence of the 
lord of the manor. This was an important sub- 
ject of architectural design under the Tudor 
kings in England, when such manor houses were 
built as Loscley, Westwood, Levens Hall, North 
Cadbury, and many others. Under Elizabeth 
and James I (1558-1625) the manor house was 
de\ eloped to imposing proportions upon monu- 
mental plans with sumptuous decorations and 
furnishings ( Wollaton House, Longleat, Burghley, 
Aston, Bramslull, Hatneld, and scores of others). 




MANBESA, man-ra'sa. A town in the Prov- 
ince of Barcelona, Spam, 30 miles northwest of 
the city of that name (Map: Spain, F 2) It 
is picturesquely situated on the left bank of the 
Gardoner, ana in an Amphitheatre of hills 
crowned by a large Gothic cathedral of the four- 
teenth century. It has a high school, conducted 
by the Jesuits, and in the neighborhood are the 
convent of Santo Domingo, built near, and the 
church of San Ignacio, built over, the cave in 
which Ignatius of Loyola dwelt for a year, and 
which is on that account a place of pilgrimage. 
The surrounding region is irrigated by a canal 
fed by the Llobregat River. Manresa has manu- 
factures of cotton and woolen yarns and silk 
fabrics. In 1811 it was set on fire by Marshal 
Macdonald. Pop., 1900, 23,416, 1910, 23,036. 

MANBIQUE, man-re'ka, G6MEZ (71415- 
?1490). A Spanish poet, dramatist, soldier, and 
statesman, born of a noble family. Unfortu- 
nately, from a literary point of view, he was the 
nephew of the Marques de Santillana (q.v.) and 
the uncle of Jorge Manrique (q.v.), both of 


whom are more celebrated than he. None the 
less he played an important part in the disturb- 
ances of the reigns of John II, Henry IV, and 
Isabella II. In his earlier lyrics he adhered to 
the Gallegan methods, but he soon affiliated him- 
self with the movement that aimed to Italianize 
Gastilian poetical forms. He attained some suc- 
cess in the composition of the political satire, 
but the pathetic note is the most distinctive one 
in his lyrics. Gomez also essayed the drama in 
several pieces, the best of which is the liturgical 
play, Representation del nacimiento de Nuestro 
Seftor. But he tried also a couple of momos 
that are not without merit. In short, he fore- 
shadowed both the sacred and profane elements 
in the Spanish drama. Consult his Cancionero, 
edited by A. Paz y Melia (2 vols., Madrid, 1885- 
86), and Marcelmo Mene*ndcz y Pelayo, Anto- 
logia de poetas Uncos castellanos, vol. vi (ib., 

MANBIQUE, JORGE (71440-1479). A Span- 
ish poet and soldier, nephew of Gomez Manrique 
(q.v. ). He fell in the battle of the fortress of 
Garci-Mfifioz, when yet hardly old enough to 
have attained the fullness of his poetical power. 
The greater part of his verse, preserved in the 
Caneionero general of 1511 and in other can- 
oioneros, gives little evidence of any extraor- 
dinary merit in him, and his fame is really 
based on a single poem, that written in com- 
memoration of the death of his father, the 
Maestre de Santiago. This suffices, however, to 
make his name one to be remembered as long as 
his language remains intelligible. In verses 
mournfully sweet of tone the exquisite coplas 
of this composition proclaim the vanity and 
brief duration of all things terrestrial and the 
necessity of yielding to death, as even the 
most powerful and exalted of human beings 
have had to do. Longfellow's graceful transla- 
tion of the poem has preserved much of the 
dignity and pathos of the original. The Spanish 
text may be found in Bibhoteca de autores es- 
panoles, vol. xxxv (Madrid, 1782), and in the 
Bibhotheca Hispamca, vol xi (ib, 1902), Jorge 
Manrique, Coplas por la muerte de su padre 
(ed. R FoulcheVDelbosc). Consult also Mar- 
celino Menndez y Pelayo, Antologia de poetas 
Uncos castellanos, vol vi (ib., 1896). 

MANS, roans, or MAN-TSE, man'tseA An 
aboriginal people occupying some of the moun- 
tainous parts of the Chinese provinces of Szech- 
wan and Yunnan, portions of Tongking, etc., a 
division of the Mois (q.v.) . During the last half 
century they have been forced more and more into 
the hills The Mans are short in stature and 
mesocephalic They are more or less nomadic 
and do not mix readily with other peoples of the 
country. They are looked upon as part of the 
aboriginal population of Szechwan, driven back 
into Yunnan about the third century A D by the 
advance of the Chinese, and now moving sea- 
ward along the heights of land. The Mans and 
the Lolos (q.v ) seem to be linguistically related 
Consult Verneau in L'Anthropologie (Paris, 

MANS, maN, LE. The capital of the Depart- 
ment of Sarthe, and formerly of the Province of 
Maine in northwest France. It is situated in 
the, centre of the department, on a hill above 
the left bank of the river Sarthe, 116 miles 
southwest of Paris (Map: France, N, F 4). 
It is an old town, but has some wide streets, 
many monuments, and several parks and prom- 
enades. The most notable building is the cathe- 


dral of St. Julien, which is one of the mo? 
beautiful churches of France. It was built ii 
the period between the eleventh and the fifteentl 
centuries, and has a magnificent choir built ii 
pure Gothic style and some beautiful stained 
glass windows. It holds the tomb of Berengaria 
the Queen of Richard Cceur de Lion. The churcl 
of Notre Dame de la Couture is also noted foi 
its sculptures. The town has a seminary, twc 
normal schools, a school of music, a lyceum, a 
museum of natural history, a public library 
containing 53,000 volumes and 600 manuscripts 
and paintings by Corot, Constable, Ruysdael, anc 
Troyon. There are also excellent museums oi 
natural history, art, and archaeology. The prin 
cipal manufactures are chemicals (especially 
sulphuric acid), tobacco, sailcloth, instruments 
and clocks, cereals, cordage, oil, paints, leather, 
woolen goods, machinery, railway cars, agricul 
tural implements, stained glass, chocolate, and 
candles. There is a chamber of commerce and 
of agriculture, and the town has considerable 
trade in cattle, poultry, eggs, fruit, grain, and 
wine. Pop (commune), 1901, 63,272; 1911, 
69,361. It is the headquarters of the Fourth 
Army Corps. 

Le Mans existed before the Roman conquest. 
Its original name was Vindinum It was the 
chief city of the Cenomani, from whom it re- 
ceived its present name It was fortified by the 
Romans in the second century, and became one 
of the most important cities of the Frankish 
Kingdom It was taken by William the Con- 
queror in 1063 and suffered many sieges during 
the long Anglo-French wars The Vendeans 
were defeated here in December, 1793, and the 
city subjected to a massacre. In 1871 it was 
the scene of the defeat of Chanzy's army by the 
Germans under Prince Frederick Charles, 'in a 
battle lasting from the 10th to the 17th of 
January It is the birthplace of Henrv II, Duke 
of Normandy and afterward King of England. 

MANSARD (man'sard) ROOF. A form of 
roof named after N Francois Mansart ( q v ) It 
is constructed with a break in the slope of the 
roof, so that each side has two planes, the lower 
being steeper than the upper This kind of roof 
has the advantage over the common single-slant 
form of giving more space in the roof for living 

(1646-1708). A French architect, born in Paris, 
grandnepjiew of N Francois Mansart, whose 
name he assumed in addition to his own family 
surname Hardouin. His father was peintre ordi- 
naire du roi He studied under his grandmicle 
and under Bruant The latter presented him 
to Louis XIV, to whose order he built the Cha- 
teau de Clagny for Madame de Montespan 
(1672). In 1675 he was admitted to the Acade- 
mic d' Architecture, and from that time on, as 
architect of the King and contrdleur-ggngral des 
batiments, he was occupied mainly with his 
two most important works, the dome of the 
Invalides (qv.) and the palace at Versailles. 
The latter was almost wholly his design, though 
the core of the central block was the work of 
Levau under Louis XIII and the chapel was com- 
pleted by De Cotte after Mansart's death ^The 
Grand Trianon, the Chateau de Marly, and the 
Place Venddme at Paris (out not its eolumn) 
were also his work The triple-shelled dome of 
the Invalides was completed from his design in 
1735; it is regarded as his greatest and most 
original achievement. 


A French architect, born in Paris, the son of a 
carpenter. Besides earlier works of less impor- 
tance, he designed the extension of the Hdtel 
Carnavalet (1634); the Hdtel de la Vrilliere 
(now the Banque de France) in 1635; the west 
wing (wing of Gaston d'Orteans) of the chateau 
of Blois (1635), and after 1645 the church of the 
Val-de-Grftce for Anne of Austria and the beau- 
tiful chateau, of Maisons-sur-Seine for Louis XIV. 
Owing to his unreasoning extravagance in con- 
struction he was not permitted to complete the 
Val-de-Grace, which was turned over to Jacques 
Lemercier (q.v.) for completion; but he erected 
a reduced replica of his design as a chapel for the 
Chateau de Fresnes. His work is noted for its 
classical refinement and purity of detail. His 
treatment of high roof stories gave rise to the 
term "Mansard roof (toiture a la Mansarde). 
The spelling Mansard is not a correct form of 
the name 

MANSE. In Scots law, the dwelling house 
of a minister of the Established church. Every 
minister of a rural parish is entitled to a manse, 
which the heritors, or landed proprietors, are 
bound to build and maintain; and he is also en- 
titled, as part of the manse, to a stable, cow 
house, and garden. The manse must, by statute, 
be near to the church. The amount fixed by law 
as the allowance for the manse has varied from 
time to time, and it may vary more or less ac- 
cording to circumstances, but it is now usually 
fixed at a value of 1000. It is only the min- 
isters of rural parishes that are entitled to 
manses, and not ministers of royal burghs, where 
there is no landward district. 

An English metaphysician, born at Cosgrove, 
Northamptonshire He graduated at St John's 
College, Oxford, in 1843, and in 1855 was ap- 
pointed reader in moral and metaphysical phi- 
losophy in Magdalen College At Oxford he be- 
came Waynflete professor in 1859 and in 1867 
professor of ecclesiastical history In 1869 he 
was appointed dean of St. Paul's Cathedral, 
London He belonged to the school of Sir W. 
Hamilton, whose lectures he edited (1859) with 
the assistance of Professor John Veitch. He 
was well versed in metaphysical philosophy and 
wrote in a clear and finished style The best 
known of his publications is his Bampton Lec- 
tures (1858-59; 5th ed., 1867) on "The Limits 
of Religious Thought," in which, applying the 
idea developed in Hamilton's articles, "The Philos- 
ophy of the Unconditioned," he maintained that 
any attempt to arrive at an idea of the Absolute 
through the categories of substance or cause is 
attended by insurmountable difficulties. It was 
urged by many that the work, though purport- 
ing to be theistic, was really agnostic, and Spen- 
cer asserted (in the prospectus to his Synthetic 
Philosophy, 1860) that he was merely working 
out "the doctrine put into shape by Hamilton and 
Mansel." Controversies resulted between Mansel 
and F. D Maurice and Goldwin Smith, and Man- 
sel characterized his opponents' statements as 
misrepresentations. His further works include: 
Prolegomena Logica: An Inquiry vnto the Psy- 
chological Character of Logical Processes ( 1851 ; 
2d ed., 1862) ; The Philosophy of the Conditioned 
(1866) ; Letters, Lectures, and Reviews (1873) ; 
The Gnostic Heresies of the First and Second 
Centuries (1876; ed. by J. B Lightfoot, with 
biographical sketch by Lord Carnarvon). Con- 
tali the sketch referred to; also J. W. Burgon, 

Lives of Twelve Good Men (London, 1988), and 
A. W Benn, History of Rationalism (ib., 1906). 

MANSFELD, mans'fflt, ERNST, COUNT (1580- 
1626). A German soldier, born in Luxemburg. 
He was the illegitimate son of Peter Ernst, 
Count of Mansfeld, and was educated by his god- 
father, Archduke Ernst of Austria. In return 
for valuable military services under his half 
brother in Austria he was legitimized by Rud- 
olph II The title and estates of his father were, 
however, withheld from him, and in revenge he 
joined the enemies of Austria in the Thirty 
Years' War as a stanch Protestant champion. 
He fought gallantly in Bohemia and on the 
Rhine for the Elector Palatine. His efforts 
failed, but brought him great renown. In 1625, 
under the leadership of Christian IV of Den- 
mark and aided by English and French subsidies, 
he again attacked Austria. Wallenstein met and 
overcame his force at Dessau, April, 1626. But 
Mansfeld soon gathered a new army of 12,000 
men and marched, in the summer of the same 
year, through Moravia and Hungary to join the 
forces of Bethlen-Gfibor (q.v.) of Transylvania. 
When the latter made peace with the Emperor, 
Mansfeld tried to escape to Venice, but died on 
the way, in Rakowitza, near Serajevo, before 
the close of the year Consult: Reuss, Graf 
Ernst von Mansfeld in lohmischen Krieg, 1618-21 
(Brunswick, 1865) , Villermont, Ernest de Mans- 
feld (Brussels, 1866) , Grossmann, Des Graf en 
Ernst von Mansfeld letzte Plane und Tat en 
(Breslau, 1876). 

MANSFIELD, m&nz'feld. A market town 
and municipal borough in Nottinghamshire, 
England, 16 miles north of Nottingham, sur- 
rounded by the remains of the ancient forest of 
Sherwood (Map: England, E 3). The town is 
regularly built and has an early Norman church, 
a grammar school founded in 1561, 12 almshouses 
founded in 1693, and other charitable institu- 
tions. Its public buildings include a town hall 
and municipal offices, a mechanics' institute, free 
library and isolation hospital, and it owns water, 
gas, markets, bath, and pleasure grounds. It 
stands in the centre of a large manufacturing 
and coal-mining district It manufactures shoes, 
machinery, lace, silk and cotton goods, and brick 
and tile. It is an important centre for cattle 
and agricultural produce. Many relics excavated 
in the vicinity point out that Mansfield was the 
site of a Roman station. Pop., 1901, 21,400; 
1911, 36,888. 

MANSFIELD. A town in Bristol Co., Mass., 
24 miles south by west of Boston, on the New 
York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad (Map: 
Massachusetts, E 4) Noteworthy features in- 
clude the Memorial Library, the town hall, and 
the high school Among the products manu- 
factured are machinists' tools, chocolate and 
cocoa, straw and felt hats, and baskets. The 
municipality owns a fine water-supply system 
and the electric-light plant. Pop., 1900, 4006; 
1910, 5183. 

MANSFIELD. A city and the county seat 
of Richland Co., Ohio, 79 miles southwest of 
Cleveland, on the Baltimore and Ohio, the Erie, 
and the Pennsylvania railroads, and interurban 
lines connecting with points on the Big Four 
System (Map: Ohio, E 4). It is on the Lincoln 
highway, at an elevation of 1487 feet, and has 
the Ohio State Reformatory, a memorial soldiers' 
and sailors' building, a public library, Sherman- 
Heineman Park of 100 acres, and two smaller 
parks. The city is an important trade 


for the adjacent agricultural country, and is 
noted for the diversity of its manufactures, 
which include threshing machines, farm tractors 
and small farm implements, boilers, engines, en- 
gine fittings and brass goods, stoves, pumps, 
interior sanitary appliances, chains, brick, auto- 
mobile tires, steel sheets, buggies, cigars, web- 
bing and suspenders, electrical and electric-rail- 
way supplies, etc. Mansfield is governed under 
the Ohio municipal code, which provides for a 
mayor, elected biennially, a city council, and ad- 
ministrative boards of public safety and of pub- 
lic service The water works are owned and 
operated by the municipality, also a large sew- 
age and garbage disposal plant Settled in 1808, 
Mansfield was first incorporated in 1828. It was 
the home of John Sherman (q.v ). Pop, 1900, 
17,640; 1910, 20,768; 1914, 22,100; 1920, 27,824. 

MANSFIELD. A borough in Tioga Co., Pa., 
36 miles southwest of Elmira, N. Y , on the Tioga 
River and on the Erie Railroad (Map: Pennsyl- 
vania, G 2). It is the scat of a State normal 
school with a library of nearly 6000 volumes, and 
has a Carnegie library. The annual county fair 
is held here in beautiful Smythe Park Mans- 
field is a shipping point for hay, cattle, and dairy 
products, stock and farm produce, and there 
are manufactures of condensed milk and wood 
novelties. Pop., 1900, 1847; 1910, 1654. 

MANSFIELD, MOUNT. The highest peak of 
the Green Mountains in the State of Vermont, 
situated in the northwestern part of the State, 
20 miles east by north of Burlington (Map: Ver- 
mont, C 3). It rises 3000 feet above the sur- 
rounding country and has three peaks, the high- 
est of which is 4364 feet above sea level. Its 
summit affords one of the finest views in New 
England, including Lake Champlain with the 
Adirondacks beyond, and a large part of the 
Green and White mountains. 

An American author, born in New Haven, Conn. 
He graduated at West Point in 1818, but declined 
to enter the army and studied at Princeton, 
from which he graduated in 1822. In 1825 he 
was admitted to the Connecticut bar He after- 
ward removed to Cincinnati, and in 1836 be- 
came professor of constitutional law in Cincin- 
nati College. Shortly afterward, however, he 
abandoned the legal profession to engage in 
journalism, and edited successively the Cincin- 
nati Chronicle (1836-49), Atlas (1849-52), and 
Railroad Record (1854-72). While editing the 
Chronicle and Atlas he introduced many young 
writers to the public, among whom was Harriet 
Beecher Stowe He was Commissioner of Sta- 
tistics for the State of Ohio from 1859 to 1868, 
was a member of the Societe* Francaise de Statis- 
tique Universelle, and published : Political Gram- 
mar of the United States (1835) ; Life of Gen. 
Winfield Scott (1848); History of the Mexican 
War ( 1849 ) ; American Education ( 1851 ) ; 
Memoirs of Daniel Drake (1855); A Popular 
Life of Ulysses 8. Grant (1868); Personal 
Memories (1870), an interesting social and po- 
litical chronicle reaching to the year 1841. 

62 ) . An American soldier He was born in New 
Haven, Conn., graduated second in his class at 
West Point in 1822, was assigned to the Engineer 
Corps as brevet second lieutenant, and during 
the next 24 years was engaged almost con- 
tinuously on engineering work for the govern- 
ment, his most important service being the con- 
struction of Fort Pulaski, for the defense of 


Savannah River, Ga., to which he devoted most 
of his time between 1830 and 1846. During the 
Mexican War he served throughout the northern 
campaign as chief engineer under General Tay- 
lor, with the rank of captain, constructing and 
aiding in the defense of Fort Brown, taking a 
prominent part in the battle of Monterey (where 
he was wounded) and in the battle of Buena 
Vista, and receiving the successive brevets of 
major, lieutenant colonel, and colonel. He then 
served as a member of the Board of Engineers 
for the Atlantic coast defense from March, 1848, 
to April, 1853, and of the board for the Pacific 
coast defenses from April to May, 1853, and 
from 1853 to April, 1861, was inspector general 
of the United States army with the rank of 
colonel. During the Civil War he was engaged 
in organizing companies of volunteers at Colum- 
bus, Ohio, in April, 1861 , commanded the De- 
partment of Washington from April to July, 
1861, was appointed brigadier general of volun- 
teers in May, was in command of the city of 
Washington from July to October; then com- 
manded successively at Camp Hamilton, New- 
port News, and Suffolk, Va , captured Norfolk, 
Va., on May 10, 1862, was raised to the rank of 
major general of volunteers in July ; commanded 
a division in the Army of the Potomac during 
the Maryland campaign, and was mortally 
wounded at Antietam on Sept 17, 1862 

MANSFIELD, RICHARD (1857-1907) An 
American actor, born May 24, 1857, on the island 
of Helgoland, where his parents Madame 
Rudersdorff (Mansfield), a prima donna, and 
Maurice Mansfield, a London wine merchant 
were staying He made his first appear- 
ance as an actor while at school in England, 
playing Shylock at a class-day exhibition. His 
mother wished him to become an artist, and after 
leaving school he studied painting at South 
Kensington, but at the age of 17 financial diffi- 
culties forced him to seek a surer means of sup- 
port, and he came to America, where he obtained 
a position as clerk in a mercantile house in Bos- 
ton. In 1875 he returned to England, hoping to 
sell some pictures he had painted in the inter- 
vals of his clerical work Failing m this, he ac- 
cepted an engagement with a company of stroll- 
ing actors, and sang in Gilbert and Sullivan 
operas He continued to act in England till 
1878, when he returned to America and appeared, 
September 26, in the opera Les manteaux noires, 
In January, 1883, he won success as Baron 
Chevrial in A Parisian Romance. This was fol- 
lowed by a number of roles which within 10 
years gained him a leading place among Amer- 
ican actors Among his parts were Dr Jekyll 
and Mr Hyde (1887); Richard III, produced 
in London in 1889, Beau Brummell (1890); 
Arthur Dimmesdale in his own dramatization of 
The Scarlet Letter (1892). Shylock (1893); 
Bluntschli in Arms and the Man (1894) ; Dick 
Dudgeon in The Devil's Disciple (1897) ; Cyrano 
de Bergerac (1898) ; Henry V (1900) ; Monsieur 
Beaucaire (1901); Brutus in Julius Cassar 
(1902); Prince Heinrich in Old Heidelberg 
(1903) ; and the leading parts in Ivan the Ter- 
rible (1904), Don Carlos (1905), Moliere's 
Misanthrope (1905), and Ibsen's Peer Oynt 
(1906). Deep study and careful elaboration of 
detail characterized Mansfield's work. 

Bibliography. McKay and Wingate, Famous 
American Actors of To-Day (New York, 1896) ; 
L. C. Strang, Famous Actors of To-Day in Amer- 
ica (Boston, 1900) ; N. Hapgood, The Stage vn 


America in 1897-1900 (New York, 1901); P. 
Wilstach, Richard Mansfield (ib., 1908); W. 
Winter, Life and Art of Richard Mansfield, with 
Selections from his Letters (2 vols., ib., 1910). 
OF (1705-93). A celebrated British jurist. He 
was born at Scone in Perthshire, Scotland, March 
2, 1705, the fourth son of David, Viscount Stor- 
mont He studied at Christ Church, Oxford, 
took the degree of M.A. in 1730, and was called 
to the bar in the same year. Through the facil- 
ity and force of his oratory, as well as through 
the clearness of his understanding, he acquired 
a brilliant reputation and an extensive practice; 
in cases of appeal he was often employed before 
the House of Lords. In 1741 he was appointed 
by the ministry Solicitor-General, entered the 
House of Commons as member for Borough- 
bridge, and at once took a high position. In 
1746 he acted, ex officio, as counsel against the 
rebel lords Lovat, Balmerino, and Kilmarnock; 
and in 1754 he was appointed King's Attorney. 
He became Chief Justice of the King's Bench in 
1756. At this time he entered the House of 
Lords under the title of Baron Mansfield of 
Mansfield in the County of Nottingham. As 
his opinions were not those of the popular side, 
he was exposed to much abuse and party hatred 
Junius, among others, bitterly attacked him; 
and in the Gordon riots of 1780 his house, with 
all his valuable books and manuscripts, was 
burned. He declined with dignity indemnifi- 
cation by Parliament. In 1776 he was made 
Earl of Mansfield. He worked hard as a judge 
till 1788, when age and ill health forced him 
to resign His death occurred on March 20, 
1793 He was a brilliant parliamentary de- 
bater, fluent, clear, and logical, and one of the 
greatest who ever sat on the bench. Consult: 
Report of Cases Argued and Adjudged tn the 
Court of the King's Bench during the Time of 
Lord Mansfield's Presiaency in that Court (Dub- 
lin, 1794) , John Holhday, Life of William, Late 
Earl of Mansfield (London, 1797); A General 
View of the Decisions of Lord Mansfield (ed. by 
Evans, ib , 1803) ; J M. Rigg, in Dictionary of 
"National Biography, vol. xxxix (ib., 1894). 

MANSFIELD COLLEGE. A theological col- 
lege at Oxford, England, not incorporated with 
the university It was founded in 1886 by the 
transfer to Oxford of Spring Hill College, Bir- 
mingham, and has been erected and supported by 
the Congregational churches for the study of 
theology, particularly for the education of Con- 
gregational ministers. The buildings consist of 
an open quadrangle with hall, common rooms, 
library, lecture rooms, and chapel, and are well 
designed in Gothic style. Consult W. B. Selbie, 
"Founding of Mansfield College," in his Life of 
Andrew Martin Fairbairn (New York, 1914). 

1769). Roman Catholic Archbishop of Lucca. 
He was born at Lucca, Feb. 16, 1692; taught 
theology many years at Naples; made literary 
journeys through Italy, France, and Germany; 
established an academy in Lucca over which he 
presided; was made Archbishop in 1765; and 
died in Lucca, Sept. 27, 1769. He is best known 
as the editor of the great work on the councils, 
Bacrorum Conciliorum Nova et Amplissima Col- 
lectio (31 vols., Florence, 1759 et seq.), which 
goes down to the middle of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. Consult his Life by Zatta (Venice, 1772) 
and Quintin, J. D. Mansi et les grand col- 
lections oonciliaires (Paris, 1900). 

$ MAJttO , 

MANSION, maN'syoN', PAUL (1844- ). 
A Belgian mathematician, born in Marchin-le- 
Huy. He became professor of mathematics in the 
scientific faculty in the University of Ghent, re- 
signing in 1910. In 1877, with Namur, he 
published valuable logarithmic tables His im- 
portant works on analytical geometry, calculus, 
etc., include: Throne de la multiplication et de la 
transformation des fonctwns elliptiques (1870) ; 
Theorie des equations aux denvees partielles du 
premier ordre (1875); Resume du cours & ana- 
lyse infinit4simale, etc. ( 1887 ) ; Pnnoipes fonda- 
mentaux de la geometne, etc. (1895) ; Mdlanges 
mathematiques (1874-82, 1883-98); Introduc- 
tion a la throne des determinants, etc. (1877; 
3d ed., 1899); Calcul des probability (1906); 
8ur la portee objective du calcul des probability 
(1908). He also translated from the German 
into French, among such translations being La 
divine comedie de Dante (1887) by Hettmger. 

MANSION HOUSE. The name given to the 
official residence of the Lord Mayor of London, 
situated opposite the Royal Exchange. It was 
built between 1739 and 1753 from designs by 
George Dance, and its hexastyle Corinthian 
portico is a notable example of the classic revi- 
val under George II State banquets are given 
in its Egyptian Hall 

MAN'SLAUGH'TEB. The unlawful killing 
of another without malice, express or implied. 
It is this absence of malice which distinguishes 
the act from murder Not infrequently persons 
are charged with this crime who are admittedly 
free from any moral blame. At common law 
manslaughter is of two kinds, voluntary and in- 
voluntary. The former includes cases of inten- 
tional killing, upon sudden heat or passion due 
to provocation, which palliates the offense; as 
when the person killed grossly insults or wrongs 
the slayer or quarrels with him. Involuntary 
manslaughter occurs when the killing is not in- 
tended, but results from the commission of an 
unlawful act which falls below the grade of 
felony, or from the doing of a lawful act in an 
unlawful manner, as in cases of culpable negli- 
gence A railroad engineer, a trolley-car motor- 
man, or a horse-car driver, whose negligent mis- 
conduct causes the death of a human being is 
guilty of manslaughter. By modern statutes the 
offense has been extended to every kind of homi- 
cide which on the one hand is not murder and on 
the other is not justifiable or excusable. It has 
also been divided into degrees the first degree 
including cases marked by unusual cruelty, or by 
unlawful conduct of a grave character, such as a 
deliberate assault or the use of dangerous weap- 
ons, or administering drugs to produce miscar- 
riage; while the second degree embraces culpable 
acts and omissions which are less blameworthy. 
The common law treated manslaughter as a 
felony, but within the benefit of clergy. Modern 
statutes in England punish the more serious 
forms by penal servitude for life and the lighter 
forms by imprisonment or fine. In the United 
States manslaughter in the first degree is pun- 
ishable by imprisonment for a term generally 
varying from five to 20 years; in the second de- 
gree, by imprisonment for a shorter term, or by 
a fine of a limited amount, or by both fine and 
imprisonment. See CRIMINAL LAW (consult the 
authorities there cited) ; HOMICIDE; MTJBDEB. 

(1760-1826). A German philologist and histo- 
rian, born at Blasienzell (Gotha). He studied 
at Jena and from 1790 until his death was rector 

of an academy at Breslau. As a poet, he was a 
dry didactic and was ridiculed by Goethe and 
Schiller in their "Xenien." His translations from 
the classics Vergil's (Jeorgics (1783) and the 
CEdipus Rex of Sophocles (1785) were not suc- 
cessful, but the Geschichte des preuaaiachen 
Stoates ois zur ssweiten parser Aokunft (3 vols., 
1819-20) has more merit and was much read. 
Consult Allgemeine deutsche Biographic, vol. xx 
(Leipzig, 1884). 

MANSON, GEORGE (1850-76). A Scottish 
water-color painter and engraver, born in Edin- 
burgh. He at first worked as an engraver, and 
during this time and afterward studied painting 
in the Edinburgh School of Art, and etching in 
1875, under Cadart in Paris. His pictures are 
usually of homely rustic subjects, treated with 
much delicacy and beauty of color and form; 
such are "Devotion," "What is it?" and "Milking 
Time." He was fond of painting children. As 
an engraver, Hanson imitated the simple, direct 
methods of the Bewicks. Consult Gray, George 
Hanson and his Works (Edinburgh. 1880) 

MANSON. SIB PATRICK (1844-1922). An 
English physician and parasitologist and writer 
on tropical diseases. He was born in Aberdeen, 
was educated there and in London, and tirst 
became known by his investigations into the 
pathology of filanal diseases. He was one of 
the first to suggest the hypothesis that the mos- 
quito is an active agent in the propagation of 
malaria He was dean of the College of Medi- 
cine for Chinese at Hongkong and for some years 
after 1897 was medical adviser to the British 
Colonial Office. He received many honors, in- 
cluding the K. C. M. G. in 1903 and the G C. 
M. G. in 1912. In 1904 he investigated cachexial 
fevers, including kala azar ( q.v. ) . Manson lec- 
tured on tropical medicine at the London School 
of Tropical Medicine and at the Charing Cross 
Hospital and Medical School, and was consulting 
physician to the British Seamen's Hospital. He 
published many monographs on tropical dis- 
eases. His most important works are Filana 
Sanguvnis Eomims (London, 1883) and Tropi- 
cal Diseases (1898, 5th ed, rev., 1914). See 

MANSUBAH, man-soo'ra. A town of Lower 
Egypt, capital of the Province of Dakahlieh, 
situated on the right bank of the Damietta arm 
of the Nile, about 35 miles southwest of Dami- 
etta, on the Cairo-Damietta Railway (Map: 
Egypt, C 1) It has extensive cotton manu 
factures and carries on a large trade in raw 
cotton The town was founded in 1222 and is 
noted as the place where Louis IX of France was 
defeated and made prisoner in 1250. Pop., 
1907, 40,279. 

MANT, RICHARD (1776-1848). An Irish 
bishop He was born at Southampton, Eng- 
land; was educated at Winchester School and 
Trinity College, Oxford, taking his bachelor's de- 
gree in 1797; was elected fellow of Oriel College 
in 1798; was ordained priest in 1803; and was 
curate and vicar of several parishes in and near 
London, 1804-20. He was made Bishop of Kil- 
laloe and Kilfenoragh, Ireland, in 1820, and in 
1823 was transferred to the see of Down and 
Connor, to which Dromore was added in 1842. 
Bishop Mant voted against Catholic 1 emancipation 
in 1821 and 1825. In 1830 he was a member of 
the Royal Commission to inquire into ecclesiasti- 
cal union. He was a prolific writer of poetry, as 
well as of historical and theological works; and 
some 20 of his hymns are found in many 


hymnals. With George D'Oyly (qv.) he pre- 
pared the annotated edition of the Bible known 
as D'Oyly and Mant's Bible (1814), which had 
an immense sale in England and was republished 
in New York, with additions by Bishop Hobart. 
He also published The Book of Common Prayer 
with Notes (1820) and a History of the Church 
of Ireland from the Reformation to the Union of 
the Churches of England and Ireland in 1801 
(1840). His poetical works include a version of 
the Psalms (1824) and Ancient Hymns from 
the Roman Breviary, with Original Hymns 
(1837). Consult the memoir by his son, Walter 
Bishop Mant (Dublin, 1857) 

MANTA, man'tu. A port of the Province of 
Manabi, Ecuador, situated on the Pacific coast, 
150 miles west-southwest of Quito (Map Ecua- 
dor, A 4). Its harbor is deep enough for large 
vessels. Among the ports of the country in 1911 
it held second rank in imports and third in ex- 
ports, the former having a value of $22,629 and 
the latter $25,734. It exports straw hats, rub- 
ber, and coffee, and is the seat of a United States 
consular agent. Manta is the chief port of the 
province, serving especially the inland towns of 
Monticristi and Portoviejo. It was founded in 
1535. Pop. (est.), 2500. 

MANTA (Sp., blanket). A name about Pan- 
ama of the huge ray (Manta lirostns), more 
commonly known as devilfish (q.v.) or sea 
devil, which is greatly dreaded by the pearl 
fishers, "whom it is said to devour after envelop- 
ing them in its vast wings," sometimes 20 feet 
across, as in a blanket. See Plate of RAYS AND 

MANTARO, man-ta / r6. A river in Peru It 
is formed at a height of 13,000 feet above sea 
level by the small head streams of Lake Chin- 
ch ay cocha, in the western part of the Province 
of Junm. Thence it flows southeast past the 
towns of Jauja and Huancayo into the Province 
of Huancavelica, where it turns northeast, 
breaks through a deep gap in the eastern cordil- 
leras, and joins the Apunmac to form the Ene", 
which joins the Quillabamba to form the Uca- 
yalli. Its length is about 280 miles, and it is 
navigable a few miles above the junction 

MANTCHURIA, man-choo'ri-a. See MAN- 

MANTEGAZZA, man'ta-gk'tsa, PAOLO ( 1831- 
1910). An Italian physiologist and anthropolo- 
gist, born at Monza. After studying medicine in 
the universities of Pisa and Milan, he received 
his doctor's degree at Pavia (1854), and then 
traveled extensively in Europe, India, and South 
America, where he practiced for a time in Para- 
guay and the Argentine Republic. In 1858 he 
returned to Milan, was appointed physician at 
the hospital in that city the following year, and 
became in 1860 professor of general pathology 
at Pavia. In 1870 he was made professor of 
anthropology at the Istituto di Studii Superior! 
in Florence, and there he founded the Museum of 
Anthropology and of Ethnology, the first in 
Italy, as well as the Italian Anthropological 
Society and a review, Archivo d" Antropologia e 
a" Etnologia He was deputy for Monza in the 
Italian Parliament from 1865 until 1876, when 
he was appointed to the Senate He was a pro- 
lific writer. His philosophical and medical 
works include. La soienza e I' art e di guarire 
(1859) ; La generazione spontanea (1864) ; Ele- 
menti d 9 igiene ( 1875 ) ; Igiene dell' amore 
(1878) ; Fvnologia del dolore (1880) ; F^iologia 
del piaoere (1881); Fiaonomia e nUmioa 


(1883) ; Oli amort degli uomini: Baggio di una 
etnologia dell' amore (1886); Le estaai umane 
(1887) ; Fmologia della donna (1893) ; Fisiolo- 
gia dell 9 amore (1896); L' anno 3000 (1897); 
L 9 amore (1898). He also published travel 
sketches and political treatises: Rio della Plata 
e Tenemffe (1877) ; Viaggio in Laponia (1884) ; 
India (1884); Studi sull 9 etnologia dell 9 India 
(1886) , Ricordi d 9 un fantaocmo al parlamento 
italiano (1896); Biblia della speranea (1905); 
and among his novels may be mentioned II dio 
ignoto (1876). 

MANTEGNA, man-ta'nya, ANDREA (1431- 
1506). An Italian painter and line engraver of 
the early Renaissance, the chief master of the 
Paduan school. He was born at Vicenza, the 
son of one Biagio (Blasius), who seems to have 
been a peasant. After the death of his father he 
removed to Padua, where he received his intel- 
lectual and artistic education. He was adopted 
by the painter Squarcione, whose apprentice and 
pupil he became. They disagreed repeatedly and 
finally separated, when Andrea came under the 
influence of Jacopo Bellini and espoused his 
daughter Nicolosia in 1453 It is the tendency 
of the latest criticism to minimize the influence 
of Squarcione upon Mantegna's art, neverthe- 
less, it is certain that we find all the character- 
istics of Squarcione's school in it. He was also 
influenced by the work of Donatello and Piz- 
zolo, his assistant, by Paolo Uccello, and by Fra 
Filippo Lippi at Padua. At the age of 17 
Mantegna was an independent master, practic- 
ing his art at Padua, where he remained until 
the end of 1459 

The chief works of this early Paduan period 
are his seven mural paintings in the chapel of 
Sts. James and Christopher, in the church of 
the Eremitani, in which the entire progress of 
his art can be traced Mantegna's paintings are 
far superior to those of the other pupils of 
Squarcione in the chapel and were as important 
for noithern Italy as the Brancacci frescoes for 
Florence. Five are from the life of St James 
and two from the life of St Christopher His 
earliest known work is a wall painting repre- 
senting Sts. Bernardmus and Antonius (1452), 
above the main portal of San Antonio in Padua. 
Others are the fine polyptjch of St Luke in the 
Brera, Milan (1453-54), containing panels of 
saints in arched frames, the most prominent of 
whom is St Luke, "St E up hernia," in the Mu- 
seum of Naples, the "Presentation of Christ in 
the Temple", and the portrait of Cardinal Luigi 
Scarampi, in the Berlin Museum The altarpiece 
of St Zeno, Verona (1457-59), has rich classical 
decoration of columns and garlands; in the cen- 
tre is the Madonna, surrounded by angels and by 
a group of saints on either side The predella 
contained a "Crucifixion" of infinite pathos, now 
in the Louvre, which was flanked by "Gethsem- 
ane" and the "Resurrection," at present in the 
Museum of Tours. 

In 1459, after repeated invitations from Lodo- 
vico Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua, Mantegna 
removed to that city, where he resided for the 
remainder of his life Here he participated in a 
sumptuous court life (designing pageants), dec- 
orated palaces, and painted portraits of his pa- 
trons Although very independent and some- 
times irritable, he was treated with high honor 
and great consideration by the Marquis and his 
successor, Francesco II, under whose patronage 
he continued until his death. He was granted a 
coat of arms, raised to knighthood, built him- 
VOL. XV. 3 

self an imposing dwelling, and gathered a fine 
collection of antiques. In 1483 Lorenzo de' 
Medici visited him, and in 1488 Pope Innocent 
VIII summoned him to Rome to decorate the 
Belvedere Chapel, now deetioyed. In 1490 he 
returned to Mantua, where he died Sept. 13, 
1506 His last years were darkened by financial 
troubles which caused the sale of some of his 
antiques, particularly a bust of Faustina to 
Isabella d' Este for 100 ducats. He left sufficient 
wealth, however, to provide for a fine family 
chapel in Sant' Andrea, in which he was in- 
terred. It contains a "Madonna with Saints" by 
his hand and frescoes after his designs by his 
two sons, Ludovico and Francesco, both mediocre 

His chief work at Mantua was the decora- 
tion of the Camera dei Sposi, the marriage cham- 
ber of Duke Gianfrancesco and Isabella d'Este, 
in the Castello di Corte, finished in 1474. Two 
of the walls and the ceiling remain One of 
these, which is partially damaged, is covered with 
a realistic group of the Marquis, his wife, and 
the entire court The other snows a meeting of 
the Marquis with Cardinal Francesco Gonzaga, 
both attended by relatives. The figures are 
nearly all in profile and stiff in action, but in- 
tensely realistic and of monumental grandeur. 
The same wall contains a hunting scene, some- 
what damaged, and a group of beautiful genii 
holding an inscription The ceiling is richly 
decorated and contains a circular dome painted 
to represent the open sky, with angels and other 
figures looking over a parapet. Before going to 
Rome, Mantegna had also begun his nine car- 
toons, the "Triumph of Caesar," now in Hampton 
Court, which he finished soon after his return to 
Mantua. They are drawn on paper in high col- 
ors, to represent, as if in bas-relief, a continuous 
triumphal procession, and were used as hangings. 
No other monument of the fifteenth century 
shows such knowledge and feeling for the antique. 
For Isabella d' Este, Marchioness of Mantua, he 
painted two pictures in the famous chamber 
which she furnished with paintings by promi- 
nent Italian artists, viz, the "Triumph of Vir- 
tue over Vice" and "Parnassus," the latter con- 
taining groups of graceful classical figures in a 
romantic landscape Both are now in the 

Among his other works painted at Mantua 
are a fine triptych in the Ufiizi, with the "Adora- 
tion of the Kings," the "Circumcision," and the 
"Ascension", "St. Sebastian," in the Gallery of 
Vienna, "St George," in the Academy of Ven- 
ice, "Summer," "Autumn," and the "Triumph 
of Scipio," in the National Gallery, London, and 
the "Dead Christ," in the Brera, Milan, a marvel 
of foreshortening and realistic ugliness. In 
later life he painted a large number of Ma- 
donnas, of which there are good examples in the 
Uffizi at Florence, the National Gallery, London, 
the Dresden Gallery, and the Trivulzio collec- 
tion, Milan. Particularly famous is the "Ma- 
donna della Vittoria" (1496), painted in com- 
memoration of a supposed victory over the 
French and now in the Louvre. Under a canopy 
of fruit and leaves the Virgin, surrounded by 
saints, is represented blessing Francesco Gon- 
zaga. In the United States, Mantegna is rep- 
resented in the Gardner collection, Boston, by 
the "Infancy of Jesus," an early work; in the 
Metropolitan Museum (Altman collection) by 
an admirable "Holy Family"; in the New York 
Historical Society by a "Crucifixion"; in the 


Johnson collection, Philadelphia, by an "Adora- 
tion of the Magi" the last three being late 

Reared in the classical atmosphere of Padua, 
whose university was the centre of classical 
learning, Mantegna was a highly cultured man, 
well versed in classical literature, and numbered 
among his friends prominent humanists, like 
Felice Feliciano, who dedicated a book to him. 
No other painter of the Renaissance understood 
antique art as did Mantegna. His paintings 
were its sculpture transfer-led to canvas, and he 
mastered completely its decoration The figures 
and draperies are sharp and rigid, and his 
archaeology is sometimes more learned than ar- 
tistic. Yet he was a profound student of nature 
and an intense realist His portraits are full of 
strength and character, his ideal figures noble 
and grand. No artist of the early Renaissance 
had greater invention and imagination. His 
execution was careful, his composition good, and 
the excellence of his drawing is attested by the 
finished drawings in the Louvre, British Mu- 
seum, Uffizi, and other collections As a colorist, 
he did not stand on the same high level, although 
his color, whether in bright or quiet harmonies, 
is at best veiy impressive All of his woik was 
in tempera, and his wall paintings, winch were 
painted upon dry plaster, are improperly called 
frescoes. His influence on North Italian and 
Venetian painting was profound He inspired 
Tuia, and his woiks taught the later Venetians, 
above all Correggio 

Mantegna was the greatest line engraver of 
northern Italy, and his influence upon that art 
was potent not only in Italy, but in Germany 
as well. Unlike Italian engravers before him, 
he engraved copper plates from his own designs. 
At first his technique was primitive, but it im- 
proved with the study of German engravings 
In all cases his invention is more interesting 
than his technique The best-known plates of 
his Paduan period are the "Flagellation of 
Christ" and "Christ at the Gates of Hell", to 
the Mantuan period belong the "Resurrection of 
Christ," "Deposition from the Cross," and "En- 
tombment " This last plate had a greater inilu- 
ence upon art than any other ever executed. Its 
composition was adopted by Raphael in his pic- 
ture of the same name, by Holbein (q\ ) in the 
"Basel Passion" series, and the figure of St 
John was used by Durer in his "Crucifixion " 
Mantegna also engraved a number of classical 
subjects, the best known of which are two Bac- 
chanals, two "Battles of Tiitons," and sev- 
eral plates from the "Triumph of Caesar." He 
had a large number of followers who developed 
his technique and engraved his compositions, the 
best known of \vhom was Jacopo de' Barbari. 

Bibliography. The sources for the life of 
Mantegna are chiefly his correspondence and 
other documents published by Baschet, "Docu- 
ments sur Mantegna," in Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 
vol. xx (Paris, 186(5), in the appendix to Kris- 
teller's work, cited below. Vasari (q.v ) is un- 
reliable upon Mantegna. The best modern au- 
thority is Paul Kristeller, Andrea Mantegna, 
translated by S A Strong (London, 1901), con- 
taining a bibliography, a work as scholarly as 
it is critical. Among other monographs that by 
Maud Crutwell, Andrea Mantegna, in "Great 
Masters in Painting and Sculpture" (ib , 1901), 
is a good brief account, while Julia Cartwright, 
Mantegna and Francia, in the "Great Artists 
Series" (ib, 1881), is of a popular character. 


Other works on Mantegna are by Thode (Biele- 
feld, 1897), Yriarte (Paris, 1902); N. R. E 
Bell, Mantegna (New York, 1911) ; also Masters 
in Art, vol vi (Boston, 1905), containing an ex- 
haustive bibliography; Fritz Knapp (ed.) t "An- 
drea Mantegna," in Des Meisters Gemalde und 
Kupferstiche" (Stuttgart, 1910) For his en- 
gravings, see Hind, in the Connoisseur, vols. xv, 
xvi (London, 1900), and the volume of the 
"Great Engravers Series" entitled Mantegna 
(ib, 1910) 

MANTELETTA, man'te-let'a. See COSTUME, 

MANTEL, or MANTELPIECE. The decora- 
tive composition which forms a frame and setting 
for a fireplace Its name is derived from the 
wide projecting hood (manteau = mantle) which 
in the later Middle Ages served to gather and 
convey to the chimney flue behind it the smoke 
of the fire on the hearth. When, first in France 
and later in England, the fireplace formed in the 
masonry of the wall itself or of a chimney breast 
took the place of the primitive fire on the open 
health, the hood lost its importance and the 
mantelpiece became one of the chief features 
of interior decorative architecture, employing 
bculpture as an adjunct to architecture with 
great effect. Famous .Renaissance examples are 
in the Doge's Palace, Venice, the Museo Cluny, 
Paris, the Chateau of Blois, and others, es- 
pecially of the Jacobean period, in English 
manor houses In the eighteenth century a huge 
mirror in an ornate gilt frame became in 
France the universal and dominant feature of 
the mantelpiece aboic itss shelf, while in Eng- 
land carved wooden mantelpieces, or designs of 
stone below, with woodwork above framing a 
picture or mirror, became common The re- 
fined beauty of many American Colonial mantel- 
pieces of painted woodwork is well known. 
Modern designers employ brick and terra cotta, 
as well as stone, marble, and wood, in mantel- 
pieces of the gicatest \arivty. 

A British geologist, born at Le\u>s in Sussex 
lie studied and piacticed medicine and surgery, 
in which he was successful, but devoted himself 
chiefly to geology and paleontology His excel- 
lent collection of fossils was bought by the Brit- 
ish Museum He investigated the fossils of the 
Wonldon formations and discovered four of the 
live genera of dinosaurs known at the time of 
lus death He was elected F.R S. in 1825. He 
wrote a large number of books, memoirs, and 
papers, many of the papers being published in 
the Philosophical Transactions and the Geologi- 
cal Transactions Among his books were The 
Wonders of Geology (1838) and The Medals of 
Creation (1844) 

American actor, born at Irvine, Ayrshire, Scot- 
land His parents intended him for the law, 
but he made so little progress in his studies that 
they decided on a commercial career for him, and 
he was apprenticed to a wine merchant. During 
his apprenticeship he happened to take part in 
some amateur theatrical performances, and 
meeting with unexpected success, he developed 
a desire to become an actor. His parents op- 
posed him in this, and at the age of 20 he left 
home and took passage for Boston Failing to 
obtain an engagement there, he returned to Eng- 
land in two weeks, where he joined a company 
under the management of Richard Edgar and 
made his debut Oct. 21, 1876, at Rochdale, Lan- 

cashire, as the sergeant in Arrah-na-Pogue. His 
next important rdle was Father Doolan in The 
Shaughran. He then toured the provinces with 
Charles Matthews, Barry Sullivan, and Dion 
Boucicault till 1878, when he returned to Amer- 
ica and played juvenile rdles in the company of 
Modjeska. His first appearance in London was 
in July, 1880, at Saddlers Wells Theatre. He 
visited America again in 1882, touring the 
country in Romany Rye, in which he appeared 
as Jack Hearn. In 1883 he played Boris Ispanoff 
in Fedora with Fanny Davenport. Later he be- 
came a star and appeared with his own com- 
pany in a large repertoire of classic and romantic 
plays, including Hamlet, Richard III, Othello, 
Macbeth, Romeo and Juhet, Corsican Brothers, 
Lady of Lyons, and Richelieu. In later years he 
confined himself almost exclusively to Shake- 
spearian roles He appeared in New York in re- 
vivals of King Lear and Macbeth in 1905 and in 
1911, and in 1915, with his wife, had a success- 
ful season there in repertoire. William Winter 
(q.v ) paid high tribute to Mantell's ability. He 
came to be known for consistently sincere and in- 
telligent work and for adequate productions. 

MANTES, mdNt A town in the Department 
of Seine-et-Oise, France, beautifully situated on 
the left bank of the Seine, 30 miles west-north- 
west of Paris by rail (Map: France, N., G 4). 
A twelfth-century bridge ciosses the Seine above 
the town, and modern bridges connect Mantes 
with an islet in the Seine and with Limay on the 
opposite river bank The fine Gothic church of 
Notre Dame, dating from the twelfth century, 
occupies the site of the prior church burned dur- 
ing the siege of 1087 , other buildings include the 
town hall, library, and palace of justice Mantes 
has large tanneries, manufactures musical in- 
struments and saltpetre, and has a considerable 
agricultural trade Mantes was a Celtic town 
from which Julius Caesar expelled the Druids; 
it is the Roman Medunta William the Con- 
queror destroyed the town in 1087 and here re- 
ceived the injury which caused his death Pop. 
(commune), 1901, 8034, 1911, 8821 

KARL, BARON VON (1809-85) A Prussian gen- 
eral. He was born at Dresden, entered the army 
in 1827, and became an officer a year later He 
became in 1843 the personal aid of Prince Al- 
brecht and in 1848 of King Frederick William 
IV. His promotion was rapid, and he played a 
prominent role in the great Prussian military 
reforms He was a lieutenant general in the 
War of 1864 against Denmark, and in 1865 be- 
came the Governor of Schleswig and as such 
played a prominent role in the ultimate solu- 
tion of the Schleswig-Holstein question During 
the War of 1866 against Austria he commanded 
the Army of the Main, and during the Franco- 
Prussian War he commanded the First Army 
Corps and participated in the battles of Colom- 
bey-Nouilly and Noisseville. Later he became 
the commander in chief of the German troops 
in south France and operated effectively there, 
driving Bourbaki's army across the Swiss fron- 
tier. After the close of the war he was made 
commander in chief of the German army of oc- 
cupation and was decorated with the Iron Cross 
and the Black Eagle. In 1873 he was created 
field marshal and later sent on important diplo- 
matic missions to Russia. His last prominent 
post was that of Governor of the Imperial Prov- 
ince of Alsace-Lorraine 


(1805-82). A German statesman, born at Lflb- 
ben. He studied jurisprudence and political 
science at Halle and became in 1845-46 a director 
of one of the departments in the Prussian Min- 
istry of the Interior When Count Brandenburg 
undertook the suppression of the revolutionary 
movement of 1848, he was appointed Minister 
of the Interior. In 1850, at the death of Count 
Brandenburg, he took office as Minister of For- 
eign Affairs and president of the cabinet and as 
such pursued a reactionary policy. In 1856 he 
was sent as Plenipotentiary to the Congress of 
Paris and in 1858 retired from the ministry. 
After 1864 he was a member of the Prussian 
House of Lords. From his literary bequest H. 
von Poschinger published Unter Fnedrich Wil- 
helm IV Denkiciirdigkeiten des Ministers Otto 
Freiherm von Manteuffel (Berlin, 1901) and 
Preussens auswartige Pohtik, 1850-58 (il>., 
1902). For his biography, consult Hesekiel 
(Berlin, 1851), and Allgemeine deutsche Bw gra- 
phic, vol. xx (Leipzig, 1884). 

MANTI, man'ti. A city and the county seat 
of Sanpete Co., Utah, 126 miles by rail south of 
Salt Lake City, on the Denver and Rio Grande 
Railroad (Map: Utah, C 3) The Mormon tem- 
ple which cost about $2,500,000 is a noteworthy 
feature of the city, and there are two fine pub- 
lic school buildings, a public library, Manti 
Cafion, and municipally owned water works and 
electric-light plant. Manti is surrounded by a 
productive agricultural country, largely engaged 
also in sheep and cattle raising, and has flour 
mills, a candy factory, saw mills, stone quarries, 
and a creamery. In the vicinity are productive 
coal mines Manti was settled in 1849 and in- 
corporated two years later The city was greatly 
damaged on several occasions by cafipn floods, 
but by a system of patrol and regulation of va- 
rious sections of the watershed this devastation 
has been stopped entirely. Pop., 1900, 2408; 
1910, 2423 


from Gk. Maprtraa, Mantineia). A city of Ar- 
cadia, in the Peloponnesus, on the high table-land 
west of Argolis (Map- Greece, Ancient, C 3). 
It was on the river Ophis, in a broad plain, and 
was at first a group of open villages, owning the 
supremacy of Sparta Shortly after the Persian 
wars, under Argive influence the five villages 
united in a fortified city, which gained great 
military strength. Through its efforts to control 
the watershed of the river Alpheus (qv.) and 
the two highways which led from Arcadia to the 
Isthmus of Corinth, it frequently came into col- 
lision with Sparta; in these struggles the city 
sought help from Argos. Mantineia fought fre- 
quently with Tegea (q.v.). The community was 
dissolved later by the Spartans, in 385 B c., only 
to be reconstituted by the Thebans under Epa- 
minondas after the battle of Leuctra. The plain 
in which Mantineia stood, from its strategic im- 
portance, was the scene of several battles, of which 
the most famous was that of 362 BC., when 
Epaminondas defeated the Spartans and Athe- 
nians, but fell himself in the moment of victory. 
Later, Mantineia became less important than 
Megalopolis (q.v.) . For a time the city belonged 
to the Achean League (see ACH^EA), but in 222, 
having deserted the League, it was laid waste. 
Excavations conducted by the French School at 
Athens during 1887 and 1888 have clearly de- 
termined the course of the walls of Mantineia 
and laid bare the Agora and its surrounding 


buildings, including a small theatre, interesting 
because built up from the level plain instead of 
being laid, in the usual Greek fashion, against a 
hillside. The site of the city is now called 
Palaeopoli. Consult: Fougeres, Bulletin de cor- 
reapondance hellemque (Paris, 1890) ; id., Man- 
tvnee et I'Arcadie onentale (ib., 1898) ; J. Kro- 
mayer, Antike Schlachtfelder in Onechenland 
(Berlin, 1903) ; D. Worenka, Mantineia (1905) ; 
Baedeker, Greece (4th Eng. ed., Leipzig, 1909). 

MANTIQUEIRA, maN'tfc-ka'fe-ra, SERBA DA. 
A mountain range in southeast Brazil. It ex- 
tends for about 200 miles parallel with the At- 
lantic coast and about 70 miles away from it, 
first along the boundary between the states of 
Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes, and then for a 
short distance into the latter, where it divides 
into two branches, the Serra dos Aimores con- 
tinuing along the coast, and the Serra do Espm- 
ha/co extending through the centre of Minas Ge- 
raes The name Mantiqueira is sometimes 
applied to this whole system, but is properly 
confined to the single range in the south. It is 
granitic in character, and the highest and rough- 
est in Brazil Its highest point, Mount Itatiaia, 
on the state boundary, has an altitude of 9739 
feet The range is the watershed of the Rio 
Grande, the principal head stream of the Parana. 

MANTIS (Neo-Lat, from Gk. judvTis, diviner, 
prophet, so called from the position of the fore- 
legs, which resembles the attitude of prayer). 
One of the popular names for any of the orthop- 
terous insects of the family Mantids? and the 
scientific name of the type genus Other popu- 
lar names are praying insect, soothsayer, 
prophet, rear-horse, mule killer. The family 

a, adult male Stagmomantis Carolina, b, 

Mantidae form the old group of the Orthoptera 
known as the Raptoria or graspers. They have 
the prothorax long and the front legs fitted for 
grasping their prey The head is oblique and 
generally three-cornered. They are much more 
abundant in tropical regions than elsewhere and 
exhibit striking instances of protective resem- 
blance and aggressive resemblance. The so- 
called "flower mantes" of tropical countries re- 
semble the flowers of certain plants, and in these 
flowers they lurk awaiting the visits of the in- 
sects upon which they feed. The term "praying 
insects" has been derived from the attitude 
which they assume when at rest or when waiting 
to grasp another insect; the knees are bent and 
the front legs are held as though supporting a 
prayer book. The commonest North American 

species is the rear-horse or mule killer (Stag- 
momantia Carolina), but the European (Mantis 
religiosa) has been introduced into the United 
States by accident and has become acclimatized. 
The eggs of the Mantidae are laid in tough cases 
attached to the twigs of trees, where the young, 
when hatched, begin immediately to feed upon 
plant lice or other small soft-bodied insects, the 
size of the insects attacked increasing with the 
growth of the mantes. They have always been 
recognized as beneficial insects, but they are 
indiscriminate in their diet and will feed upon 
other beneficial insects as well as upon injurious 
forms. Their eggs are frequently parasitized by 
a very curious chalcis fly of the genus Podagrion, 
which by means of a long ovipositor is enabled 
to pierce the tough egg cases of the mantes. 

These insects seem always to have been re- 
garded with superstitious awe. They were used 
by the Greeks in soothsaying, and the Hindus 
display a reverential consideration of their 
movements and flight. In southern France the 
peasants believe that they point out a lost way; 
the Turks and other Moslems recognize intelli- 
gence and pious intentions in the actions of the 
mantis; a South African species is, or was, 
venerated by the Hottentots; the Chinese and 
the Javanese keep them in cages and cause them 
to fight for wagers 


burrowing crustacean (Squilla empusa), of the 
order Stomapoda, which lives in large irregular 
holes which it excavates at or near low- water 
mark of spring tides. It is so called from the 
resemblance of the great spiny claw to that of 
the mantis (qv) This claw is borne on the 
legs of the second pair, and instead of ending in 
a forceps-like claw, which is armed with a row 
of six sharp curved spines fitting into corre- 
sponding sockets, the terminal joint is turned 
back and is attached to the penultimate segment 
like the blade of a pocket knife to the handle 
By means of these singular organs, says Vernll, 
the shrimps hold their prey securely and can 
give a severe wound to the human hand, if 
handled incautiously It has large eyes, but, as 
it remains in its burrow constantly, 'it is blind, 
the facets of the eye being partly atrophied It 
lives chiefly on annelid worms The European 
species is used as food, and the American species 
is probably edible 

MAN'TLE (AS. mcentel, OF. mantel, Fr. 
manteau, It. mantello, Lat. m ant ell urn). A 
long sleeveless cloak, worn in the Middle Ages 
over the armor and fastened by a fibula in front 
or at the right shoulder The mantle was an 
important part of the official insignia of various 
orders of knighthood Ladies wore mantles, 
often decorated with heraldic charges and bear- 
ing either the impaled arms of the lady and her 
husband or the husband's arms only. The Teu- 
tonic or White Knights were known as the ordo 
alborum manteUorum (order of white mantles) 
because of their white cloaks, and the robe of 
office worn by the electors of the Holy Roman 
Empire was called the electoral mantle The 
name is still given to the robes of state of kings, 
peers, and knights 

heraldic ornament attached to the helmet. 
Sometimes it is cut into irregular strips and 
curls of the most capricious forms, supposed to 
indicate that it has been torn on the field of 
battle; but usually the strips fall in graceful, 

flowing lines. In British heraldry the mantling 
of the sovereign is of gold lined with ermine; 
that of peers, ordinarily of crimson velvet lined 
with ermine; but sometimes the livery colors 
(see LIVEBY) are adopted instead, as is generally 
the practice in continental heraldry. This kind 
of mantling, being inseparable from the helmet, 
cannot be used by ladies. See HEBALDBY. 

MANTBA8, m&n'traz. A people of the terri- 
tory of Malacca and Rembau, formerly regarded 
as a Negrito people of the Malay Peninsula, but 
more recently described as Sakai-Malav half- 
breeds. The mixture of these peoples has re- 
sulted in giving the Mantras a somewhat taller 
stature than the Sakai and a whiter skin. 


MANTUA, mftn'tu-a (It. Mantova). A for- 
tified city of Lombardy, Italy, situated on the 
Mincio, 25 miles by rail southwest of Verona 
and 100 miles southwest of Milan (Map: Italy, 
G 2). It was formerly the capital of the Duchy 
of Mantua and is now the capital of the province 
of the same name. It is the see of a bishop and 
the centre of a military district. It occupies 
two islands in the river and is elaborately for- 
tified Three lakes formed by the river half 
surround the town and there are marshes ad- 
jacent It is not a healthful city. Architectur- 
ally it is interesting on account of the Renais- 
sance churches and secular edifices, especially 
the church of Sant' Andrea, built towards the 
close of the fifteenth century after plans by 
Leon Battista Albert! (q.v ), also the chapel of 
San Sebastiano by Alberti The old Ducal Palace, 
built 1302-28, is one of the largest of its kind 
in Europe. It is still more prominent in the 
world of painting, owing to the works of Man- 
tegna and Giuho Romano, both of whom resided 
here. The inadequate population and the sullen 
massive grandeur of the edifices explain why the 
traveler in Mantua associates the city with a 
gloomy decadence. The streets are regular and 
spacious, but poorly paved. There are several 
fine squares. The spacious Sant' Andrea has 
been subjected to many changes during the cen- 
turies. Its white fagade of marble is adorned 
with a portico and contrasts curiously with the 
adjacent red brick campanile. The interior (110 
yards long) contains many frescoes by prom- 
inent artists. The cathedral of San Pietro is 
not attractive, but has a fine ceiling. 

The Corte Reale, formerly the Ducal Palace 
of the Gonzagas and now consigned to military 
purposes, is a notable structure dating from the 
beginning of the fourteenth century. It was 
embellished with frescoes by Giuho Romano. 
Its apartments are of exceptional interest for 
their varied decorations, representing the most 
delightful Italian period of the art of interior 
ornamentation. Another fine old Mantuan pal- 
ace is the Palazzo del Te, constructed by Giulio 
Romano and adorned by him in a most artistic 
style Some of the frescoes are excellent. The 
friezes in the loggia are by Primaticcio, who 
was educated in Mantua under Giulio Romano. 
In the old castle of the Gonzagas is a collection 
of archives. Among the frescoes here by Man- 
tegna only two remain in a satisfactory con- 
dition. The Vergilian Academy of Arts and 
Sciences contains some specimens of art. The 
neighboring library in the Lyceum has a work 
by Rubens, who lived and studied in Mantua 
several years. In the adjacent museum are 
some good Greek bust? and sarcophagi, and the 
Museo Partio possesses other antiquities. A 

statue of Dante and the house of Giulio Romano 
are shown as attractions to the visitor in Man- 
tua. It was formerly an important military 
post, but owing to the swampy nature of the 
surrounding area was maintained with difficulty. 
The city has a theological institute, a botanical 
garden, an astronomical observatory, a public 
library with 75,000 volumes, founded in 1780 by 
Maria Theresa, and an excellent, commodious 
military hospital The modern sections of the 
city have ironworks, oil and flour mills, tan- 
neries, breweries, toy factories, etc. Pop. (com- 
mune), 1901, 29,142, 1911, 32,657. 

History. Mantua was originally an Etruscan 
city It became a Roman municipium just be- 
fore the time of Vergil, who was born in the 
neighboring region of Andes, but very near to 
the town. In the sixth and seventh centuries 
the town was occupied by the Lombards In the 
ninth century it was in the hands of the Church. 
The town rose to importance in the twelfth cen- 
tury, when it became one of the city republics 
and a member of the Lombard League. Towards 
the close of the thirteenth century began the 
rule of the house of Bonaccolsi, which was suc- 
ceeded in 1328 by the house of Gonzaga. A 
century later Mantua with its territory was 
erected into a marquisate, and in 1530 the Gon- 
zagas became dukes of Mantua. The state 
prospered greatly under this dynasty, its politi- 
cal power and territory being increased at the 
expense of Venice and Milan. The Gonzagas 
were liberal patrons of the arts and learning. 
After the Mantuan War of Succession (1628- 
30) the city began to decline. The last Duke 
was driven away in 1703 and died in 1708 and 
Mantua fell to Austria. The French took the 
city in 1797, but lost it again in 1799. The 
Treaty of Lune*ville (1801) restored it to the 
French, who held it until 1814. The Austrian^ 
then held it until 1866, when it was ceded, to 
Italy. During the Austrian occupation it was 
of great military importance and constituted 
one of the so-called quadrilateral of fortresses, 
the others being Verona, Legnago, and Peschiera. 

MANTUAN (man'tu-an) BARD, MAN- 
TUAN SWAN. Titles applied to Vergil in 
allusion to his birthplace, Mantua. 

M ANTJ, ma'noo ( from Skt. manu, man ) . An 
ancient mythical sage of India, the progenitor 
of mankind, according to the Hindus, and the 
reputed author of the great law book known as 
the Code of Manu (Skt. Manava-Dharma- 

There is no good ground for accepting the ex- 
istence of Manu as a historical personage. In 
the Rig-Veda he is merely the ancestor of the 
human race, the first one to offer a sacrifice to 
the gods. In the 8 at ap at ha Brahmana and in 
the MaMbMrata he alone survives the universal 
deluge. In the first chapter of the law book 
ascribed to him he declares himself to have been 
produced by Viraj, who was an offspring of the 
Supreme Being, and to have created all this uni- 
verse. Hindu mythology knows, moreover, a 
succession of Manns, each of whom created, in 
his own period, the world anew after it had 
perished at the end of a mundane age. 

The Manava-Dharma-Sastra, written in verse, 
is a collection of religious ordinances, customs, 
and traditions, such as would naturally grow up 
by established usage and receive divine sanction 
in course of time. This work is not a mere law 
book in the European sense of the word; it is 


likewise a system of cosmogony; it propounds 
metaphysical doctrines, teaches the art of gov- 
ernment, and treats of the state of the soul after 
death. In short, it is the religious, secular, 
and spiritual code of Brahmanism. It is divided 
into 12 books. The chief topics are the follow- 
ing: (1) creation; (2) education and the duties 
of a pupil, or the first order; (3) marriage and 
the duties of a householder, or the second order; 
(4) means of subsistence, and personal moral- 
ity; (5) diet, purification, and the duties of 
women; (6) the duties of an anchorite and an 
ascetic, or the duties of the third and fourth 
orders; (7) government, and the duties of a 
king and the military caste; (8) judicature and 
law, private and criminal; (9) continuation of 
the former, and the duties of the commercial and 
servile castes; (10) mixed castes and the duties 
of the castes in time of distress; (11) penance 
and expiation; (12) transmigration and final 

This Code of Manu, not improbably based on 
a Manava Dharma Sutra, is closely connected 
with the Mahabhdrata (q.v.), of which three 
books alone (iii, xii, xvi) contain as many as 
260 of its 2684 slokas. It probably assumed its 
present form not much later than 200 A D. 

Bibliography. The text of Manu has often 
been edited and translated, as by Mandlik, with 
seven native commentaries (Bombay, 1886) ; 
Julius Jolly, Manava-Dharma-Sastra (London, 
1887) , in the series of the Nirnaya Sagara 
Press (Bombay, 1887); and better, with Kul- 
luka's commentary (ib., 1888). There are sev- 
eral translations, especially by Buhler, The 
Laws of Manu (Oxford, 1886), and by Burnell 
and Hopkins, The Ordinances of Manu (London, 
1884, 1891). Consult also: E. W. Hopkins, 
Mutual Relations of the Four Castes According 
to the MGnavadharmac.astram (Leipzig, 1881), 
the French translation of Strehly (Paris, 1893) , 
Beaman, On the Sources of the Dharma&attras 
of Manu and Yajnavalkya (Leipzig, 1895) ; 
Julius Jolly, Recht und Sitte (Strassburg, 
1896) ; S. V Ketkar, History of Caste in India: 
Evidence of the Laws of Manu in the Social Con- 
ditions in India during the Third Century (2 
vols., Ithaca, N Y., 1909-11) ; A. A. Macdonell, 
History of Sanskrit Literature (London, 1913). 

MANUA (ma-noo'a) ISLANDS. See 

MANOTAL (Lat. manuahs, relating to the 
hand, from manus, hand). The keyboard of an 
organ played by the hands, in contradistinction 
to the pedal, played by the feet The number of 
manuals varies from two to four according to 
the size of the organ. In older French organs 
even five manuals are found. The names of the 
different manuals are- (1) great organ; (2) 
choir manual; (3) swell manual; (4) solo man- 
ual; (5) echo manual. Each manual really is a 
separate organ in itself, having its own set of 
pipes and stops. By means of couplers any or 
all of the manuals can be connected, so that by 
striking a note on one manual the same note 
sounds on all the other manuals that are 
coupled. The usual compass of manuals is four 
octaves and a fifth, C-g*. 

MANUAL OF ABMS. The rules and ex- 
planations for the instruction of military re- 
cruits in the use of their arms and their care 
and preservation They are part of the course 
of instruction given the soldier in the school ot 
the soldier, which in turn is one of the several 
distinct courses of training included in -the 


manual known as drill regulations (q.v.). The 
manual of arms owed much of its former elabo 
rateness, both in the United States and England 
to its German origin. In this connection it ifi 
interesting to note that the exercises in all three 
countries nave been reduced in number and sim 
plified. In the United States army all drills arc 
prefaced and concluded with an examination oJ 
cartridge chambers, as a precaution against ac 
cidents, and for purposes of instruction the 
movements are divided into motions and ex 
ecuted in detail. The command of execution 
determines the prompt execution of the firsi 
motion, and the commands Two, Three, etc , the 
other motions. The commands and movements 
of the manual of arms are given after the sol 
dier is in position with rifle at the order, and 
are as follows- (1) order arms; (2) present 
arms; (3) right shoulder arms; (4) port arms, 
Other movements are: (5) parade rest, (6) fix 
bayonets; (7) charge bayonets; (8) trail arms; 
(9) rifle salute; (10) inspection arms 

MANUAL TRAINING. This term, in spile 
of considerable criticism, has come to be gener- 
ally applied to the use of constructive handwork 
in the schools, as a feature of general education 
The term is broadly used to include the work of 
both boys and girls in various materials, in 
which case instruction in domestic arts and 
science is understood; but it is often used in a 
narrower sense as relating only to the work with 
tools commonly given to boys. The chief grounds 
of objection to the use of the term are that it 
emphasizes discipline rather than content There 
is a tendency at present to use the term "hand- 
work" or "handicrafts" for the actual construe 
tive work and to introduce a new group of con- 
tent subjects, which furnish information about 
industries in general, under the name of 
industrial arts. The two branches are intended 
to supplement each other, with the result that 
the type of constructive work is enriched and 
varied. The aim in general is not only to pro- 
vide some acquaintance with industrial organ 
ization of the world, but also to afford boys and 
girls about to leave school some basis for select- 
ing their future occupations. To this extent such 
courses are also prevocational 

The earliest official recognition of manual 
training as a legitimate part of school work was 
obtained in European countries. As early as 
1858, Uno Cygnseus organized a plan of manual 
training for the primary schools of Finland, and 
in 1866 instruction in some branch of manual 
work was made compulsory in the training col- 
leges for male teachers in that country and in 
all primary schools for boys in country districts 
Sweden is, however, the country which con- 
tributed most towards the earlv development of 
manual training and from which has come the 
largest influence in its propagation. In 1872 
the government reached the conclusion that 
schools for instruction in Sloyd were necessary 
to counteract the tendency towards concentra- 
tion in cities and the decline of the old home in- 
dustries The schools first established had 
naturally an economic rather than an educa- 
tional significance. This was changed, however, 
as the movement grew, until a thoroughly or- 
ganized scheme of educational tool work foi 
boys between 12 and 15 years of age was de 
veloped In 1877 the work was introduced intc 
the folk school, and the government granted aid 
in support of the instruction. The Sloyd Semi- 
narium at Naas, established in 1874 under the 


direction of Otto Saloman, was not only an active 
and stimulating force in the development of the 
work in Sweden, but exercised a far-reaching 
influence upon the thought and practice of other 
countries. At present Sloyd is taught in all the 
regular normal schools of the country. 

In France manual training was made obliga- 
tory in the elementary primary schools by the 
Law of 1882. The official programme for manual 
training is very complete and thorough, but its 
provisions are only partially realized because 
of the failure of communes to provide workshops 
and of the insufficient supply of trained teachers. 
In Paris about 200 schools' were equipped with 
workshops in 1914, and at this time more than 
one-third of the regular teachers in the city 
schools had taken normal courses in manual 
training. A feature of the French work is the 
variety of materials and processes used and the 
fact that handwork instruction has been planned 
for every grade of the elementary primary school 
The tendency here is to associate handwork with 
drawing and mathematics more closely than is 
done in other countries. 

Germany, although the seat of a very active 
propaganda issuing from the German Associa- 
tion for Manual Training for Boys, has done 
very little towards incorporating manual train- 
ing with the regular work of the common schools 
A large number of workshops have been estab- 
lished in various parts of the Empire, supported 
mainly by individuals and societies, in which 
pupils of the public schools are given instruction 
out of school hours. The educational ministries 
of Prussia, Saxony, and Baden make annual 
contributions in aid of this instruction, but the 
work is obligatory in only a very few places 
Manual work for girls, on the other hand, has 
been for a long time a compulsory branch of in- 
struction in the common schools of Germany 
The Manual Training Seminary at Leipzig, 
founded in 1887 by the Association for Manual 
Training for Boys, under the leadership of Dr. 
Waldemar Gotze, is the active centre of the 
movement and the main institution for the 
training of teachers 

In England handwork received but little offi- 
cial encouragement until quite recently. It was 
taught here and there in elementary schools, but 
on no organized basis The need of manual 
training was pointed out by the Royal Com- 
mission on Technical Education in 1882 and 
again in 1884, after it had met with success in 
Manchester and Sheffield. In 1890 it appeared 
in the code for elementary schools "as recognized 
for attendance purposes," and grants were paid 
for the subject by the Department of Science 
and Art from 1891 to 1898 The subject was 
taught and is still taught frequently in centres 
used by a number of schools, the instructors 
were often skilled craftsmen, but the tendency 
now is to give regular teachers training in hand- 
work in special and summer courses. So far as 
aim is concerned, the movement has been from 
an emphasis on hand and eye training and the 
^subject for its own sake to the present emphasis 
on handwork as a method of expression with 
possibilities of application to geography, nature 
study, history, arithmetic, and geometry Hand- 
work is now found generally in all classes of the 
elementary schools from the constructive work 
of the infant schools through the light wood- 
work in the middle stages to the manual train- 
ing of the older pupils. The media used are 
clay, plasticine, paper, string, wire, cardboard, 



prepared wood, wood, and metal. In the second- 
ary schools comparatively little attention has 
been given to manual training, which was for 
long regarded as an extra and was not infre- 
quently taught by the school janitor or carpenter 
or any other person able to handle tools. 

The history of manual training in the United 
States involves both the development of the idea 
and the development of practice. In the field of 
practice, little of a purely educational character 
appeared before 1878, at which time the Work- 
ingman's School was founded by the Ethical 
Culture Society of New York. This institution 
comprised a kindergarten and an elementary 
school, in which manual work formed from the 
first a vital and important part of the educa- 
tional scheme The general movement, however, 
took its large beginning, as has been the case 
with so many educational movements, at the top 
instead of the bottom of the school system In 
1880, through the efforts of Dr. Calvin A Wood- 
ward, the St Louis Manual Training School was 
opened in connection with Washington Univer- 
sity. The work of this school attracted wide 
attention, and its success led to the speedy 
organization of similar schools in other large 
cities Chicago, Baltimore, and Toledo, 1884; 
Philadelphia, 1885; Cleveland, Cincinnati, and 
Omaha, 1886 The first provision for girls' work 
in these schools was made in the case of the 
Toledo school and included sewing, dressmaking, 
millinery, and cooking In 1895 the Massachu- 
setts Legislature, under the lead of the State 
Board of Education, made it obligatory upon 
every city in the State of 30,000 or more inhab- 
itants to establish and maintain manual train- 
ing in a high school 

The rapid development of this type of second- 
ary school resulted in the establishment of an 
institution peculiarly American. In other 
countries the introduction and spread of manual 
training has been confined to the elementary 
school, and no institution exists in Europe, of a 
purely educational character, that presents any 
parallel to the comprehensive and costly equip- 
ment of these schools The shop work comprised 
joinery, turning, pattern making, forging, and 
machine work, and sometimes foundry practice 
and tmsmithing The nature of this work was 
very similar in the various schools, and until 
late years has been almost uniformly based upon 
the principles of the Russian System The cen- 
tial idea of this system of shopwork instruction, 
developed m a technical school for the instruc- 
tion of engineers, is the analysis of a craft into 
its elementary processes and constructions, and 
the presentation of these details in an orderly 
and sequential scheme as separate elements 
This type of manual-training high school tended 
to become formal and scholastic and gradually 
lost its distinctive character. It has in recent 
years begun to be replaced by industrial or 
technical schools providing some definite voca- 
tional training, but the new type in turn is only 
in process of reorganization. In place of work 
that has been called "abstract, isolated, imprac- 
tical, and unsocial in character," courses have 
been established in Cincinnati and Fitchburg 
which involve work under actual labor condi- 
tions, the students working for part time in 
school and part time in the shop (See TECH- 
NICAL EDUCATION.) Compared with the develop- 
ment of manual training in the high school, the 
introduction of the work in the public elemen- 
tary school came at first but slowly. Experi- 


better remembered now as author than as 
soldier, and despite the turbulence of his life he 
was a voluminous writer. His prose is clear, 
vigorous, and interesting. Several of his works 
may be found in Rivadeneyra's Biblioteca de 
autores espatloles, vol. li (Madrid, 1884). The 
most important of them is El Conde Lucanor, 
first published, and with a commentaiy, by 
Gonzalo Argote de Molina in 1575. This con- 
sists of 49 stories, told somewhat in the Oriental 
manner, with a little moral in verse at the end 
of each tale More modern editions of El Conde 
Lucanor are those of Stuttgart (1839), Barce- 
lona (1853), Madrid (1860), Vigo (1898 and 
1902 ) , and Leipzig ( 1900 ) . There is an English 
tianslation by James York (London, 1868 and 
1888). For editions of his other works, and 
for studies about him and his works, consult 
James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Bibliographic de I'his- 
toire de la literature espagnole (Paris, 1913). 

MANUEL, ma'nu'&'i NIKOLA us, called 
DEUTSCH (1484-1530). A Swiss painter, poet, 
and magistrate, born at Bern His early profes- 
sion was probably that of an architect or painter 
and engraver, and in his youth he traveled much, 
probably visiting Italy, for his early paintings 
show the influence of the Paduan school. Upon 
his return to Bern he became a member of the 
Great Senate (1512), and afterward served in 
the French army He was a pronounced sup- 
porter of the Swiss reformation. His writings 
include the fantastic satirical comedies 1 om 
Papst und seiner Priest ersch aft, Der Iblass- 
kramer, Berbeli, and Elsli Tragdenknaben, re- 
edited by Tittmann m 1868 and Bach told in 
1878. His works as an artist are veiy interest- 
ing, although his natural genius and inventive 
power exceed his technical ability, his execution 
being often faulty; they consist of a few oil and 
tempera paintings, and a number of drawings, 
mostly of soldiers and troopers, best studied in 
the Basel Museum His frescoes, "The Dance of 
the Dead," painted on the walls of the Dominican 
convent (1517-22) at Bern, weie destroyed, but 
have been well copied in the 24 lithographs, 
Niklaus Manuels Totentams (Bern, 1829-31). 
In the City Hall at Basel are a number of finely 
colored stained -glass windows which he designed 

which has been created by the application of 
labor to crude materials, whereby they are trans- 
formed into a new and different quality, shape, 
or form, having a distinctive name, character, or 
use, and capable of being used without altera- 
tion. The term is sometimes confused with 
manufactured products, such as pig iron or pig 
lead, which are merely iron and lead reduced 
from the native ores and freed from impurities, 
and which are, in law, considered as raw or 
crude materials, ready to be manufactured into 
articles. The word "article," therefore, in its 
technical legal sense means a thing adapted for 
use. The distinction between manufactured 
articles and crude or raw materials is of great 
importance under tariff and revenue acts where 
the former are assessed with a higher rate of 
duty than the latter The distinction above 
mentioned has been adopted by the United States 
courts in the interpretation of tariff laws. 
For example, India rubber, which is a product 
obtained by reducing the juice or sap of certain 
tropical trees and plants to a solid form by 
dipping convenient molds into it and drying it 
over a fire made from a peculiar kind of nut, 
was held not to be a manufactured article under 


a tariff act taxing articles made of rubber. The 
court described it as a "raw material in a more 
portable, useful, and convenient form for other 
manufactures here" The court, however, held 
that rubber shoes, made by the same process, 
except that the mold was in the form of the 
human foot, were manufactured articles, as they 
were adapted for immediate use. Consult- 
Webster Elmes, Treatise on the Lau of the Cus- 
toms (Boston, 1887); W. W. Carr, Judicial 
Interpretation by the United States Courts of 
the Acts of Congress Relating to the Tariff Acts 
(Philadelphia, 1894) ; also the authorities re- 
ferred to under SALE 

TION OF An association of American manufac- 
turers organized in Cincinnati in 1895 for the 
purposes of increasing their export trade, in- 
fluencing legislation affecting their interests, and 
of coping with the demands of labor organiza- 
tions Ihe association maintains a central office 
in New York which supplies members with in- 
formation about foreign markets, prices, credit 
reports, and undertakes through its international 
freight bureau the shipment and delivery of 
foreign consignments Its most conspicuous 
function is the energetic campaign which it 
wages against radical legislation and trade- 
unionism The public measures with which the 
association has been most prominently connected 
are the reform of the patent law and of the 
consular and postal services The association 
has placed itself on record as not being opposed 
to labor organizations as such, but maintains 
that employers must be free to employ their 
\\orking people without interference on the part 
of individual organizations and that they must 
be unmolested in the management of their busi- 
ness and in the use of any methods or systems 
of pay which are equitable. The association 
provided for the organization of separate defense 
associations in the different lines of industry it 
represents Provision was further made for the 
federation of these affiliated protected associa- 
tions into a "permanent central organization 
that will create a clearing house for ideas and 
provide means for cooperation on matters of 
common interest " In 1907-08 the association 
aided in conducting a suit against the officers 
of the American Federation of Labor for partici- 
pation in a boycott dnected against the Bucks 
Stove and Range Company, whose president was 
also president of the National Association of 
Manufacturers. The case, which was legarded 
by the association as a test case, dragged out 
through several years; its outcome practically 
put an end to boycotting through the American 
Federation of Labor. The association conducts 
an educational campaign through the distribu- 
tion of pamphlets, etc , in behalf of its labor 
and industrial policies In 1913 it assumed an 
attitude of active hostility towards the I W W. 
While resistance to what it considers the un- 
reasonable demands of labor is not the only 
object of the association, it is generally re- 
garded in labor circles as essentially an 'anti- 
trade-union organization. The association pub- 
lishes the American Trade Index and the Confi- 
dential Bulletin of Inquiries from Foreign 
Buyers, its organ is American Industries, pub- 
lished semimonthly at New York 

MANUFACTURES (ML. manufactura, from 
Lat. manufactus, manu factus, made by hand, 
from manu, abl sing, of manus, hand, and factus, 
p.p. of facere, to make). In a broad sense of 



the term, manufactures are such forma of in- 
dustry as elaborate for economic use materials 
which are themselves the product of industry. 
Manufactures are thus distinguished from ex- 
tractive industry, which procures wealth from 
nature in its primary forms. In practice it is 
difficult to draw a hard and fast line between 
these two types of industry, since many com- 
modities which are commonly classed as raw 
materials have been subject to one or more 
elaborative processes, as, eg., raw cotton, raw 
sugar, pig iron. The practice of American 
statisticians is to class with extractive industry 
processes which are directly connected with the 
exploitation of natural products. Butter and 
cheese which are made on the farm are treated 
as agricultural products; when produced in fac- 
tories distinct from the farm they are classed 
with manufactures. A product in its earliest 

of products in the yea* under review, tb 
working to the order of the individual custom 
such as custom tailors, dressmakers, shoemake 
etc., but included large concerns doing spec 
work, such as machine shops. Establishmei 
engaged in the building industry oilier th 
those manufacturing building materials for 1 
general trade, as well as so-called neighborho 
industries and hand trades, such as blacksmi 
ing, harness making, and tinsmithmg, in whi 
little, if any, power machinery was used, a 
which did usually only a local business, w< 
excluded, furthermore, retail stores with 
cidental manufacturing on a small scale, whi 
could not be distinguished from their mercant 
business, and various eleemosynary and per 
institutions engaged in manufacturing indi 
tries, were also excluded These consideratio 
must be borne in mind in considering the tab] 

From Thirteenth Untied States Census 

ber of 




Cost of 

Value of 

Factories and hand and neighborhood 


1849 (census of 1850) 







1859 (census of 1860) 







Per cent of increase, 1849 to 1859 

14 1 






1869 (census of 1870) (gold value) 
Per cent of increase, 1859 to 1869 







1879 (census of 1880) 
Per cent of increase, 1869 to 1879 







1889 (census of 1890) 
Per cent of increase, 1879 to 1889 







1899 (census of 1900) 







Per cent of increase, 1889 to 1899 







Factories, excluding hand and neigh- 

borhood industries 

1899 (census of 1900) 







1904 (census of 1905) 







Per cent of increase, 1899 to 1904 







1909 (census of 1910) 







Per cent of increase, 1904 to 1909 







Per cent of increase, 1899 to 1909 







merchantable form may then be classed with 
raw materials, when subjected to further proc- 
esses of elaboration it becomes a manufactured 
commodity. For the technical legal distinction 
in this matter, see MANUFACTURED ARTICLE. 

Again, many commodities undergo minor 
changes incidental to consumption. The prepa- 
ration of food may be cited as a case in point. 
Such processes are not usually placed under 
manufactures If the preparation of food is 
carried on in separate establishments with a 
view to supplying a market, it will fall under 
the head of manufactures. This distinction is 
obviously difficult to make in practice The 
twelfth census of the United States excludes 
from manufactures proper most forms of order 
production, confining the term to production of 
standard commodities for a general market, 
while the thirteenth census by statute was "con- 
fined to manufacturing establishments conducted 
under what is known as the factory system ex- 
clusive of the so-called neighborhood household 
and hand industries." In other words, the 
thirteenth-census manufactures excluded the 
establishments producing less than $500 worth 

accompanying this article and other tables o 
manufactures in the United States for this cen 
BUS year under review. 

In the Census of Production taken in Grea 
Britain in 1908 of the work of the year 190' 
and published in 1912, much the same plan wai 
followed, but the general scheme was more com 
prehensive. Fisheries and agriculture wen 
omitted, but the products of mines and quarries 
are included as well as other items. 

From a theoretical point of view, however, il 
is better to include under manufactures all 
processes of elaboration of merchantable ma 
terials into commodities primarily designed foi 
sale. In this sense of the term manufactures 
presuppose a considerably developed economic 
life. They did not exist when each household 
produced exclusively for its own consumption. 
In western Europe they were first carried on 
under the guilds (see GUILD), forming, however, 
but an insignificant part of the economic life. 
With the rise of capital in the fifteenth and six- 
teenth centuries manufactures were carried on 
more extensively under the domestic system. 
The capitalist-merchant put out materials te be 

worked up at home by workmen whose chief 
occupation was usually agriculture. This form 
of manufacture still exists in America and Eng- 
land; it is widely practiced in France, Germany, 
and Russia; and in some European districts, 
notably in Norway, it is the prevalent form. 

In the more advanced nations domestic manu- 
facture has been largely supplanted by the fac- 
tory system (q.v.). The extension of the mar- 
ket in early modern times, requiring a vastly in- 
creased production of goods of standard kinds, 
led first to excessive division of labor and later 
to the invention of machinery The first indus- 
tries to respond to these influences were the 
textile and the iron industries. 

Manufactures in the United States. At 
the end of the Colonial period manufacturing in- 
dustry in America was of slight importance. 
The principal salable articles were raw ma- 
terials, such as the products of the forests Each 
household provided itself with the chief com- 
modities for consumption In New England, 
however, the manufacture of rum was extensive, 
and the production of hats, coarse cloth, and 
nails was carried on under the domestic system 
of industry. The total value of the manufac- 
tures of America at the time of the adoption of 
the Constitution has been estimated at $20,000,- 
000 , but this includes much domestic production 
for home consumption 

Machine production scarcely existed before 


1790. In that year a British mechanic, Slater, 
set up spinning machinery in Rhode Island. In 
1794 Whitney invented the cotton gin, thus as 
suring a supply of raw materials for the new 
cotton manufacture. By 1810 machinery had 
been generally introduced in textile manufac 
ture, although large quantities of goods were 
still produced under the older system. The 
value of textiles produced in that year was 
estimated at about $40,000,000. 

The iron manufacture developed more slowly, 
Machinery of improved types was introduced in 
the first and second decades of the nineteenth 
century, but the greater part of the production 
and manufacture was carried on in a primitive 
fashion, until the fifth decade of the century, 
when anthracite began to be substituted for 
charcoal in smelting. From that time increase 
was rapid. 

The value of the manufactures of the United 
States for the year 1810 was estimated by Tench 
Coxe to be $198,613,471. In 1820 the value was 
$268,000,000 The accompanying table, taken 
from the Thirteenth Census, Manufactures, vol. 
viii (Washington, 1913), shows the growth of 
manufactures from 1850. 

In estimating the economic significance of the 
development of manufactures, shown in the table 
on page 37. it will be necessary to make allow- 
ance for the fact that a considerable number of 
operations are now carried on as manufactures 

INDUSTRY (1909) 

of estab- 






(expressed in 


(expressed in 


All industries 





Slaughtering and meat packing 
Foundry and machine-shop products 









Lumber and timber products 








Iron and steel, steelworks and rolling mills 








Flour-mill and gristmill products 
Printing and publishing 
Cotton goods, including cotton small wares 
Clothing, men's, including shirts 










Boots and shoes, including cut stock and findings 








Woolen, worsted, and felt goods, and wool hats 








Tobacco manufactures 








Cars and general shop construction and repairs by 
steam-railroad companies 








Bread and other bakery products . 








Iron and steel, blast furnaces 








Clothing, women's 








Smelting and refining, copper 








Liquors, malt 








Leather, tanned, curried, and finished 








Sugar and molasses, not including beet sugar 
Butter, cheese, and condensed milk 








Paper and wood pulp 








Automobiles, including bodies and parts 








Furniture and refrigerators 








Petroleum, refining 








Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies 








Liquors, distilled 








Hosiery and knit goods 








Copper, tin, and sneet-iron products 
Silk and silk goods, including throwsters 








Smelting and refining, lead 








Gas, illuminating and heating 
Carriages and wagons and materials 








Canning and preserving 








Brass and bronze products 








Oil, cottonseed, and cake 








Agricultural implements 








Patent medicines and compounds and druggists' prep- 

















Paint and varnish 








Cars, steam-railroad, not including operations of railroad 

















Marble and stone work 








Leather goods 








All other industries . . , 





UANtrFACTtr&BS 39 

which formerly were a part of household indus- 
try. The increase in the net product of manu- 
factures above cost of material is not wholly a 
net increase in national income, although the 
greater part may be so regarded. It is further 
to be kept in mind that the statistics of capital 
are based upon estimates which in the nature 
of the case are not very reliable. 

The accompanying table shows the extent and 
rank in value of products of the more important 
manufacturing industries of the United States 
in 1909 The various manufacturing industries 
of the United States arranged in order of the 
amount of products in the census year 1909 are 
given in the accompanying table from the 
Thirteenth Census, Manufactures, vol. vni 
(Washington, 1913). 

The four States New York, Pennsylvania, Il- 
linois, and Massachusetts, as shown by the 
census of 1909, produce nearly one-half the 
manufactures of the United States The greatest 
concentration of manufacturing industry is in 
southern New England and New York and 
eastern Pennsylvania, but there appears to be a 
general tendency towards extension of the area 
of manufaetuies Consult sections on Manufac- 
tures in the articles on the various States; 
also under UNITED STATES and various other 

The United States occupies at present the 
foremost rank as a manufacturing nation. The 
buccessne stages by which it has reached this 
position are illustrated by the accompanying 
table, taken from the Twelfth Census, Manufac- 
tures, part i (Mulhall's estimates). These fig- 
ures, which are as late as any statistician has 
presented on a comparative basis, must of course 
be considered with due regard to modern condi- 
tions when the annual value of manufactures 
has risen to over $20,000,000,000 in the United 
States and in the United Kingdom to over 






United Kingdom 
United States 
Other States 





United Kingdom 
United States 
Other States 



For the manufacturing industries of Europe 
there are not available statistics compiled along 
the lines of the United States census. In 1908 
there was taken in Great Britain a Census of 
Production for the year 1907, and the final re- 
port published in 1912 summarized the results 

While differences of classification and method 
do not permit exact comparison between the 
manufacturing industries of Great Britain and 
those of the United States, yet the final report 
of the Census of Production of the United King- 
dom, referred to above, affords some statistics 

which may be of significance in this connection. 
During the census year 1907 the manufacturing 
industries of England and Wales, Scotland, and 
Ireland represented a gross output measured by 
selling value or value of work done of 1,765,- 
366,000 Ihe cost of materials used amounted 
to 1,028,346,000; the work given out, or the 
amount paid to other firms, aggregated 24,885,- 
000. The net output of productive industries, 
obtained by deducting from the value of the 
gross output the cost of materials and the 
amount of work given out to other firms, was 
712,135,000 In these various manufacturing 
industries there were employed, exclusive of out- 
workers, 6,984,976 persons, and the net output 
per person employed, excluding outworkers, was 
102. The total horse power of the engines 
owned in the various manufacturing establish- 
ments was 10,755,009. 

Bibliography. For the rise of manufactures 
in England Ashley, Economic History (London, 
1888-93), and Cunningham, Growth of English 
Industry (Cambridge, 1890-92) For the growth 
of manufactures in America- C D. Wright, In- 
dustrial Evolution of the United States (New 
York, 1897), D A Wells, Recent Economic 
Changes (ib., 1899) , and, in general, George 
Unwin, Industrial Organisation in the Sixteenth 
and Seventeenth Centuries (Oxford, 1904) ; 
Arthur Shadwell, Industrial Efficiency: A Com- 
parative Study of Industrial Life in England, 
Germany, and Austria (2 vols , London, 1906) , 
C R Gibson, Romance of Modern Manufacture 
(Philadelphia, 1910), J C. Duncan, Principles 
of Industrial Management (New York, 1911). 
Consult also the several censuses of the United 
States, particularly the Twelfth Census (Wash- 
ington, 1903) And' Thirteenth (ib, 1013), Final 
Report, Census of Production of United King- 
dom, 1907 (London, 1912) , M G. Mulhall, Dic- 
tionary of Statistics (ib., 1903) ; A D Webb, 
New Dictionary of Statistics (ib, 1911) See 
the articles on the manufacturing industries, 

STATES, Manufactures 

MANUL, ma'nul (Malay word). A small 
wild cat (Felis manul) of Tibet and Siberia It 
is whitish gray, with black marks on the chest 
and about the head and dark vertical bands 
across the loins It has a very broad, round 
head. The cat is about 30 inches in length, the 
tail measuring a third of this. The chief char- 
acter is the very dense and long fur adapted 
to the intense cold of the creature's haunts. 
Instead of being a jungle animal it makes its 
home among barren rocks, feeding on picas and 
other small mammals It has been suggested 
that this is the ancestor of the Persian breed of 
domestic cats, but facts which rather negative 
this view are the smallness of the ears and the 
contraction of the pupils to circles instead of 

MANUMIS'SION (Lat. manumissio, from 
manumittere, to manumit, from manus, hand + 
mittere, to send). In Roman law, the enfran- 
chisement of a slave In the older law (jus 
civile) this could be accomplished: (1) Vin- 
dicta, i e , by a fictitious action. In the later 
law the forms of suit were dropped and the 
master simply appeared before the magistrate 
and declared that the slave was to be set free. 
(2) Censu, i.e., by the entry of the slave's name, 
with the assent of the master, on the register 
of citizens. This form disappeared in the Im- 


perial period. (3) Testamento, i.e., by a bequest 
of liberty in the master's will. When the Roman 
Empire became Christian a fourth mode of 
manumission was recognized manwnissw tn 
ecclesia, by declaration of the master in the 
presence of priest and congregation. Informal 
manumissions "among friends," or "by letter/' 
were originally void; but in the later Republi- 
can perio'd individuals thus freed were protected 
by the magistrates and in the Imperial period 
they were recognized as legally free. These in- 
formal manumissions were regulated, under 
Justinian, by requiring five witnesses to prove 
the manumission. The right of a master to 
manumit his slaves was restricted in the Im- 
perial period. Some of the restrictions were im- 
posed in the interest of creditors; others in the 
interest of the public. 

By manumission the slave usually became a 
citizen, but his political rights were restricted 
Moreover, he remained for life in a relation of 
dependency; he was the "client" of his master 
and of his master's children and owed them cer- 
tain semifeudal observances and services. He 
and his children were also debarred from mar- 
riage with free-born persons Consult the au- 
thorities referred to under CIVIL LAW. 

Among the early Germans also the ordinary 
forms of manumission, by the act of the master 
alone, gave the f reedman only a partial freedom , 
he was dependent upon his former master for 
protection. There were, however, methods of 
manumission which gave the former slave the 
full rights of a freeman, viz, his adoption into 
a kinship group or into the tribe. 

manwBvrcr, manovrer, Fr. manaevrer, to manage, 
work by hand, from OF. manouvre, manovre, 
from ML manuopera, manopera, a working with 
the hand, fiom Lat. manus, hand + opera, 
work). In a broad sense, the term "manure"' is 
applied to any substance used to increase the 
productiveness of soil. The word is commonly 
used in a more restricted sense to mean the 
excreta (solid and liquid) of farm animals, 
either mixed or unmixed with litter, and more 
or less fermented. In this article the term is 
used in its broader sense. Manures may be 
direct or indirect in their effect. The former 
supply plant food which is lacking in the soil, 
the latter render active the insoluble fertilizing 
constituents already present and improve the 
chemical, physical, and biological conditions in 
the soil The first class includes the so-called 
commercial or artificial fertilizers, such as super- 
phosphates, nitrate of soda, etc ; the second em- 
braces natural manures, such as the green 
manures, seaweed (qv.), and animal manures 
A third class includes the soil amendments or 
soil improvers, such as marl, lime, gypsum, 
salt (q.v.), etc., and the so-called catalytic or 
stimulant fertilizers, such as salts of manganese, 
aluminium, iron, boron, lead, zinc, etc., whose 
fertilizing value has not yet been definitely 
determined. Under certain conditions most of 
these manures may be both direct and indirect 
in their action 

Plants derive the larger part of their food 
directly or indirectly from the atmosphere A 
small but very essential portion, however, is 
drawn from the soil. This includes the inor- 
ganic or ash constituents and nitrogen, which, 
however, is in certain cases derived indirectly 
from the air. Of the soil constituents which 
plants need those most likely to be exhausted 


by ordinary systems of cropping are nitrogen 
phosphoric acid, potash, and, in some cases 
lime and possibly sulphur. Direct manure* 
supply one or more of these constituents. Th< 
fertility of the soil would remain practically 
unchanged if all the ingredients removed in the 
various farm products were restored to the land 
This may be accomplished to a large extent bj 
feeding the crops grown on the farm to animals 
carefully saving the manure and returning it tc 
the soil, and when practicable combining a ju 
dicious use of green manures with a system oi 
stock feeding in which those farm products 
comparatively poor in fertilizing constituents 
are exchanged for purchased feeding stuffs rich 
in these substances. Under such practice the 
loss of soil fertility may be reduced to a mini- 
mum or there may even be an actual gain in 
fertility. Under ordinary conditions of farm- 
ing, however, the manure produced on the farm 
is not sufficient to maintain its fertility. Roberts 
estimates that in ordinary mixed husbandry 
only about one-half of the fertility taken from 
the soil by crops is restored in farm manures. 
Hence the necessity for supplying the deficiency 
from other sources, resulting in the wide use 
of artificial or commercial fertilizers of various 

Natural Manures. These include all manu- 
rial substances derived from natural sources 
without undergoing any specific treatment or 
process of manufacture, such as animal excreta, 
animal and vegetable refuse of the farm, and 
peat, as well as various factory wastes The 
natural manures are, as a rule, bulky in char- 
acter and contain small amounts of the essential 
constituents. The most important and useful of 
the natural manures is farmyard or barnyard 
manure. Its quality, which is very variable, 
depends upon the care taken in its preservation, 
the kind and age of the animal producing it, 
the quantity and quality of the food used, nature 
and amount of the litter added 

Mature animals, neither gaining nor losing 
weight, excrete practically all of the fertilizing 
constituents consumed in the food Growing 
animals and milch cows excrete from 50 to 75 
per cent of the fertilizing constituents of the 
food, fattening or working animals from 90 to 
95 per cent Roberts states that the value of 
the manure produced by animals is from 30 to 
50 per cent of that of the food they consume 
As regards the fertilizing value of equal weights 
of manuie in its normal condition, farm animals 
probably stand in the following order- poultry, 
sheep, pigs, horses, cows Poultry manure is 
the richest of the animal manures, because it 
consists of a mixture, in somewhat concentrated 
form, of both the solid (intestinal) and liquid 
(urinary) excreta The liquid excretum of farm 
animals is the most valuable part of the ma- 
nure, being especially rich in nitrogen and 
potash, but poor m phosphoric acid Sheep 
manure is dner and hence richer in fertilizing 
constituents than pig, horse, or cow manure 
Pig manure contains as much water as cow 
manuie and more than horse manure, but is 
richer in nitrogen Horse manure is a compara- 
tively dry manure, which ferments rapidly For 
this reason it is called a hot manure and is 
especially valuable for use in hotbeds and for 
forcing early crops Cow manure is a wet cold 
manure, which ferments slowly. Its low per- 
centage of fertilizing constituents is due to its 
high percentage of water. The amounts of fer- 


tilizing constituents in animal manure stand in 
direct relation to those in the food. As regards 
the value of the manure produced the concen- 
trated feeding stuffs, such as meat scrap or 
meal, cottonseed meal, linseed meal, gluten meal, 
and wheat bran, stand first; the leguminous 
plants (clover, peas, beans, etc.) second; the 
grasses third; cereals '(oats, corn, etc.) fourth; 
and root crops, such as turnips, beets, and man- 
gel-wurzels, last. High salting and succulent 
foods as a rule give watery and poor manure. 
With high feeding there is less complete diges- 
tion and hence richer manure. Highly nitrog- 
enous foods givo richer manures, although at 
the same time they increase the excretion of 
urine, thus requiring more bedding and reducing 
the value of the manure, if, as is frequently the 
case, the material used as litter is poorer in fer- 
tilizing constituents than the animal excreta 
Animals kept in cold quarters probably digest 
their food more closely, and hence make poorer 

Barnyard manure rapidly deteriorates from 
two chief causes* (1) fermentation, which be- 



of fresh manure renders it better suited to early 
garden truck, grasses, and forage plants than, 
to plants grown for seed, such as cereals. Direct 
applications to root crops, such as sugar beets, 
potatoes, or tobacco, often prove injurious 
This result can, as a rule, be avoided by apply- 
ing the manure some months before the planting 
of the crop or by using only well-rotted manure. 
Barnyard manure is not applied to fruit trees 
with the same good results as in case of other 
crops. It does not stimulate fruiting to the 
same extent as the mineral fertilizers. This is 
probably due to the fact that it is poor m total 
and available mineral constituents and compara- 
tively rich in nitrogen, which tends to produce 
large growth but a poor quality of fruit. As a 
rule, therefore, the best results are likely to be 
obtained by using barnyard manure in connec- 
tion with commercial fertilizing materials, lime, 
gypsum, etc., either in compost (q.v ) or 

Other natural manures of secondary impor- 
tance are peat, ashes (qqv ), wool waste, \\hich 
contains on an average 5.5 per cent of nitrogen, 

(New York Cornell Experiment Station and other sources) 


Amount of 
excrement per 
100 pounds 
live weight 
per day 






per ton 




Per cent 



* Valuing nitrogen at 15 cents, phosphoric acid at 6 cents, and potash at 4^ cents per pound 
t Fine-cut straw of known composition in sufficient quantity to keep the animals clean 

j According to the Maine Experiment Station each hen produces about 30 pounds per year of manure which can be 

gins as soon as the manure is dropped, (2) 
weathering and leaching, which rapidly reduce 
the value of unprotected manure Roberts re- 
ports experiments at Ithaca, N Y, in which 
manure exposed in loose heaps of from two to 10 
tons each lost from 42 to 62 per cent of its 
value in six months, and cow manure 30 per 
cent, while mixed and composted manure lost 
only 9 per cent The loss from destructive fer- 
mentation may be consideiably reduced by the 
use of proper absorbents (litter), but the most 
perfect preservation is secured by storing the 
mixed manure of different animals under cover 
and keeping it compact to exclude air Extremes 
of temperatuie and moisture should be avoided 
to prevent "fire-fanging" and to secure a uniform, 
moderate, and harmless fermentation. Such fer- 
mentation, in fact, improves the quality of poor, 
coarse manure by rendering its constituents more 
available as plant food 

When practicable, it is best to avoid storage 
by hauling the manure directly to the fields and 
spreading it upon land occupied by plants. 
From 10 to 40 tons per acre is usually applied 
Moderate applications at frequent intervals aie 
preferable to large but infrequent applications, 
except when the purpose is to warm the soil to 
force early crops. Excessive use of manure, as 
in forcing-house work, sometimes causes the soil 
to become "manure sick." Heating the soil has 
been suggested as a remedy. The forcing effect 

1 per cent of phosphoric acid, and 2 per cent of 
potash, hair waste, containing 7 per cent of 
nitrogen and less than 1 per cent of phosphoric 
acid, felt waste, with about 8 per cent of nitro- 
gen, leather, with about 7 per cent of nitrogen. 
Peat and the wastes mentioned are principally 
valuable for the nitrogen they contain, but this 
is very slowly available to plants and hence not 
of great value 

Intermediate in eharactci between the natural 
manures proper and artificial or commercial fer- 
tilizers are the soil amendments or soil improvers 
and the so-called catalytic or stimulant ferti- 
lizers, to which refeience has already been made, 
and which are valuable as a rule for their 
indirect or stimulant effect rather than as direct 
sources of plant food 

Artificial or Commercial Fertilizers. With 
the continued sale of products from the farm the 
natural manures available are often insufficient, 
as aheady explained, to maintain the original 
fertility of the soil In specialized intensive 
farming, moreover, there is a demand for an 
abundant supply in the soil of more active plant 
food than farm manures furnish, in order that 
the high -value crops grown under such condi- 
tions may be forced into early, rapid, and vigor- 
ous growth Under such circumstances the more 
concentrated and available forms of commercial 
fertilizing materials are used to good advantage 
There are numerous sources of supply of such 


materials, which may be divided into three 
glasses, viz., nitrogenous, furnishing nitrogen; 
phosphatic, furnishing phosphoric acid; and 
potassic, furnishing potash. It is assumed in 
the preparation of fertilizers that the constitu- 
ents most likely to be deficient in soils are 
nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash. A ferti- 
lizer, therefore, containing all three of these is 
termed complete, one containing only one or 
two of them incomplete. The price of a fertilizer 
is based upon the price of the nitrogen, phos- 
phoric acid, and potash it contains. 

Nitrogen, the most costly ingredient of fer- 
tilizers, is derived mainly from organic matter, 
ammonium salts, and nitrates, but also in 
recent years from calcium cyanamide (see 
CYANAMID), containing about 20 per cent 
of nitrogen as offered for sale as a fertili- 
zer. Nitrates furnish the most available 
form of nitrogen. The nitrate most com- 
monly used as a fertilizer is nitrate of soda 
(Chile saltpetre), which contains on the average 
16 per cent of nitrogen, although basic calcium 
nitrate, containing 13 per cent of nitrogen, a 
product obtained, like calcium cyanamide, from 
electrical fixation of the free nitrogen of the 
air, is also coming into use as a fertilizer and 
is considered somewhat more effective than 
nitrate of soda on soils in need of lime as well 
as nitrogen. The more valuable sources of or- 
ganic nitrogen are dried blood and tankage, 
which are produced in large quantities in 
slaughterhouses and rendering establishments; 
dried fish, residue from fish oil and canning 
establishments, and cottonseed meal, a by- 
product of cottonseed-oil manufacture. (See 
table on page following for composition.) Ni- 
trogen in the form of ammonium salts stands 
between that of nitrates and organic ni- 
trogen as regards efficiency. It is obtained 
for use as a fertilizer almost exclusively as 
ammonium sulphate, prepared largely as a by- 
product of gas works, coke ovens, etc., and 
containing on an average about 20 per cent of 
nitrogen. The nitrates are readily available, 
but also very soluble, and hence likely to be 
rapidly leached out of the soil. The ammonia 
salts, however, while considered less efficient 
than nitrates, are not so readily leached out of 
the soil, although extremely soluble. When used 
with proper precaution the nitrogen of calcium 
cyanamide is considered about as efficient as 
that of ammonium salts. The organic forms of 
nitrogen are practically insoluble and unavail- 
able until they have been converted into am- 
monia compounds and undergone nitrification 
(q.v.) in the soil. They vary widely with re- 
spect to the rapidity with which these changes 
occur, dried blood and meat products, freed as 
completely as possible from fat, standing first, 
cottonseed meal and similar vegetable products 
next, and leather, hair, horn, and hoof lowest. 

Phosphoric acid of fertilizers is derived from 
bone, mineral phosphates, and phosphatic, basic, 
or Thomas slag, a by-product of the manufacture 
of steel from phosphatic ores In these it is 
present mainly as calcium phosphate (tricalcium 
phosphate, (CaO) 8 -P 2 6 , in the first two, tetra- 
calcium phosphate, ( OaO ) 4 P 2 O B , in the last ) . It 
is found in fertilizers in three forms: (1) trical- 
cium phosphate, largely insoluble in water and 
other weak solvents, designated in fertilizer an- 
alysis as "insoluble" phosphoric acid; (2) sol- 
uble in water and readily available to plants, 
as the superphosphates, which are prepared from 


bones, bone black, mineral phosphates, etc., by 
grinding and treatment with sulphuric acid, 
thus converting the insoluble tricalcium phos- 
phate into soluble monocalcium or acid phos- 
phate, CaO-(H s O) a -P a O B ; (3) "reverted," or in 
form of dicalcium phosphate, (CaO) 2 -H a O-P 2 O 6 , 
which is not soluble in pure water, but is soluble 
in weak solutions of organic acids and their 
salts. This form results from the tendency of 
soluble monocalcium phosphate to revert to a 
less soluble (dicalcic) form. In fertilizer an- 
alyses it is classed with the water-soluble as 

Potash, as a constituent of fertilizers, exists 
in a number of forms, but chiefly as chloride or 
muriate and as sulphate. All forms are freely 
soluble in water and are believed to be nearly, 
if not quite, equally available, but it has been 
found that the chlorides may injuriously affect 
the quality of tobacco, potatoes, and certain 
other crops. The chief sources of potash are the 
potash salts from Stassfurt, Germany kainite, 
carnalhte, sylvinite, muriate of potash, sulphate 
of potash, and double-manure salt (sulphate of 
potash and magnesia). Wood ashes and cotton- 
hull ashes are also important sources of potash, 
and the Pacific coast kelps (see KELP) , which are 
very rich in potash, have recently been exploited 
for this purpose Kainite, carnalhte, and syl- 
vinite are crude products of the mines, and con- 
tain, in addition to potash, a number of other 
salts, chiefly sodium chloride and magnesium 
sulphate. Kainite and the sulphate and chloiide 
are the principal salts on the market for fer- 
tilizing purposes The potash in kainite, though 
in the form of a sulphate, produces an effect 
quite similar to that derived from the use of 
muriate, because of the large quantities of 
chloiides mixed with it It contains on the 
a\erage about 12% per cent of actual potash. 
The muriate and sulphate are refined products 
and contain on the average not less than 50 per 
cent of actual potash. The chief impuuty in the 
case of the muriate is common salt High-grade 
double sulphate of potash and magnesia 
("double-manure salt"), which is used to a 
limited extent as a fertilizer, contains about 26 
per cent of actual potash, though much lower 
grades of this material are found. See also 
table of composition below 

The substances referred to above as the sources 
of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash are the 
raw materials from which the various manu- 
factured brands of fertilizers are compounded 
The quality of a mixed fertilizer will depend 
upon the character of the raw materials selected, 
as regards both amount and availability of their 
fertilizing constituents, and upon the propor- 
tions in which they are mixed. For instance, in 
one brand the nitrogen may be entirely in the 
form of insoluble organic materials and the 
phosphoric acid as insoluble mineral phosphates, 
while in another all three forms of nitrogen may 
have been used, viz., nitrates, ammonium salts, 
and organic matter, with phosphoric acid en- 
tirely in the form of superphosphate The total 
plant food may be just as large in the first as 
in the second brand, but its availability and the 
immediate effects from its use would be much 
larger in the second case than in the first. 
Since chemical analysis cannot always tell with 
certainty the source and availability of the 
essential constituents of fertilizers, especially 
of the organic nitrogen, it is often desirable to 
purchase the unmixed materials, either for use 


separately or to be mixed on the farm as 

To use fertilizers to the best advantage it is 
necessary to take into consideration a variety 
of conditions, among the more important of 
which are the character of the fertilizer itself, 
the character of the soil and its previous manur- 
ing and cropping, the climate, and the crop to 
be grown. In general, concentrated fertilizers 
prove most profitable on: (1) soils in good 
physical condition, ie, well tilled and abun- 
dantly supplied with humus; and ,(2) high-value 
crops, such as are grown in market gardening. 
Different classes of farm crops vary in their 



the slow-growing beets and mangels; soluble 
phosphates in abundance for the turnip; and 
potash for potatoes, white and sweet. That is, 
while the fertilizers should contain ail three 
elements, individual crops, because of their 
peculiarities of growth, require certain fertiliz- 
ing constituents in greater relative amounts and 
in immediately available forms. Fruit trees are 
slow-growing plants and therefore do not need 
quick-acting fertilizers as a rule. Highly sol- 
uble manuies, such as nitrate of soda, are likely 
to be washed out of the soil without being 
utilized. For this reason the use of nitrate of 
soda is not advised except where the growth of 








1. Supplying nitrogen 
Nitrate of soda 

15 5 to 16 




Per cent 


Calcium nitrate, basic 


Sulphate of ammonia 
Calcium cyanamid" 

19 to 20 5 

Dried blood (high 

12 to 14 

Dried blood (low grade) 
Concentrated tankage 

10 to 11 
11 to 12 5 

3 to 5 
1 to 2 

Tankage (bone) 

5 to 6 

11 to 14 

Dried fifah scrap 

7 to 


6 to 8 

Cottonseed meal 

65to 75 

15 to 2 

2 to 2 

Ciistor pomace 

5 to 6 

1 to 15 

1 to 15 

2. Supplying phosphoric acid 
South Carolina rock phosphate 

26 to 28 

26 to 28 

South Carolina rock superphos- 

phate (dissolved South Carolina 

rook phosphate) 

12 to 15 

Ito 3 

13 to 16 

Florida land rock phosphate 

33 to 35 

33 to 35 

Florida pebble phosphate 

26 to 32 

26 to 32 

Florida superphosphate (dissolved 

Florida phosphate) 


14 to 16 

1 to 4 

16 to 20 

Bone black 

32 to 36 

32 to 36 

Bone black superphosphate (dis- 

solved bone black) 

15 to 17 

Ito 2 

17 to 18 

Ground bone 

2 5 to 45 

5 to 8 

15 to 17 

20 to 25 

Steamed bone 

1.5 to 25 

6 to 9 

16 to 20 

22 to 29 

Dissolved bone 

2 to 3 

13 to 15 

2 to 3 

15 to 17 

Thomas slag 

*11 4 to 23 

3. Supplying potash 

Muriate of potash 

48 to 52 

45 to 48 

Sulphate of potabh (high grade) 
Sulphate of potash and magnesia 

48 to 52 
26 to 30 

5 to 15 
1 5 to 25 


12 to 12 5 

30 to 32 



16 to 20 

45 to 46 

Cotton-hull ashesf 

7 to 9 

20 to 30 

Wood ashes (unleached)f 

1 to 2 

2 to 8 

Wood ashes (leached) t 

1 to 15 

Ito 2 

Tobacco stems 

2 to 3 


3 to 5 

5 to 8 

Giant kelps, Pacific coasts, dry 


* In good Thomas slag at least 80 per cent of the phosphoric acid should be soluble in ammonium citrate, i. e., 

t Cotton-hull ashes contain about 10 per cent of lime, unleached wood ashes 30 to 35 per cent, and leaohed wood ashes 
35 to 40 per cent. 

fertilizer requirements. The cereals, maize ex- 
cepted, and grasses are similar in their habits 
of growth and are able to utilize comparatively 
insoluble forms of mineral plant food, but are 
much benefited by nitrogen, especially nitrates, 
applied in time to carry them through the 
period preceding maturity. It is for the latter 
reason that nitrogen has been termed the ruling 
or dominant element for this class of plants. 
Leguminous plants clover, peas, beans, etc. 
which are capable of acquiring nitrogen partly 
from the air, make liberal use of the mineral 
constituents, especially potash and lime. Fer- 
tilizers for such plants should therefore contain 
an abundance of the mineral constituents only, 
potash being the dominant element. Root and 
tuber crops require an abundance of all the 
fertilizing constituents in readily available 
forms Of the three classes of fertilizing con- 
stituents, the nitrogen is especially useful for 
VOL. XV.-4 

nursery stock is to be forced or where bearing 
trees exhibit a lack of luxuriance in foliage. 
Frequently, however, it is desirable to stimu- 
late the growth and fruitfulness of the trees, 
and for this purpose more active fertilizing 
materials than the above are needed. In se- 
lecting and mixing the latter the fact that 
fruits are potash feeders should be taken into 
consideration. The fertilizer requirements of 
small fiuits are similar to those of orchard 
fruits, but, being as a rule more rapid growers, 
they can utilize to advantage heavier applica- 
tions of soluble fertilizing materials and do not 
derive the same benefit as orchard fruits from 
slowly decomposing manures. 

It may be said that in general crops grown on 
soils poor in decaying vegetable matter (humus) 
are as a rule benefited by applications of nitrog- 
enous manures, while those grown upon soils 
well supplied with this substance are more 

benefited by phosphates and potash. Upon 
heavy soils phosphates are likely to be more 
beneficial than nitrogen, while the reverse is the 
case on light dry soil. Sandy soils are as a rule 
deficient in potash, while clayey soils contain 
this element in larger quantities. Deep-rooting 
crops with long seasons of growth are able to 
acquire the necessary plant food where shallow- 
rooted and short-season crops would suffer. As 
regards the different forms of fertilizing matef 
rials it may be said that nitrates and soluble 
phosphates should be applied only a short time 
before they are required by the plant Potash 
salts, ammonium sulphate, organic nitrogenous 
matter, and insoluble phosphates, being less 
likely to be converted into less available forms 
or leached out of the soil, may be safely applied 
weeks or even months before they are needed. 
In general farm practice the best results are 
likely to be obtained in the use of fertilizers by 
applying them systematically, i e , by adopting 
a combined system of rotation and manuring 
which is adapted to the given conditions of crop, 
climate, and season, and which provides for the 
utilization to the best -advantage of the home 
and local supplies of manures. 

The preparation and use of commercial fer- 
tilizers on an extensive scale practically dates 
from the announcement of'Liebig's theory of 
plant nutrition in 1840 and the publication soon 
after of the results of Lawes's experiment on 
the preparation and use of superphosphates as a 
fertilizer. Since that date the industry has 
grown to enormous proportions. A recent es- 
timate values the world's consumption of fer- 
tilizers at $400,000,000. 

The composition of the more important mate- 
rials used in the preparation of fertilizers is 
shown in the table on the preceding page. 

Bibliography. C. M. Aikman, Manures and 
Manuring (London, 1894) ; F H. Storer, Agri- 
culture in Some of its Relations with Chemist* y 
(7th ed., 3 vols , New York, 1897) , I. P. Roberts, 
Fertility of the Land (ib, 1897); E. B. Voor- 
hees, Fertilizers (ib., 1892); F. W. Sempers, 
Manures: How to Make and How to Use them 
(16th ed., Philadelphia, 1907); A. Stutzer, 
Dungerlehre (Leipzig, 1907), Harry Snyder, 
Soils and Fertilize* s (3d ed, New York, 1908) 
A. D. Hall, Fertilisers and Manures (ib., 1909) , 
C. G. Hopkins, Soil Fertility and Permanent 
Agriculture (ib, 1910); A Rumpler, Die kuu- 
flichen Dungestoffe (5th ed, Berlin, 1911), J. 
Fritsch, Manufacture of Chemical Manures 
(London, 1911); L L. Van Slyke, Fertilisers 
and Crops (New York, 1912) ; Alva Agee, Crops 
and Methods for Soil Improvement (ib , 1912) ; 
The American Fertiliser Handbook (Philadel- 
phia, annually) , Hunt and Burkett, 8 mis and 
Crops (New York, 1913) ; C. E Thome, Farm 
Manures (ib., 1913 ) ; H. J Wheeler, Manures and 
Fertilizers (London, 1913); W. E. Brenchley, 
Inorganic Plant Poisons and Stimulants (New 

MANUSCRIPT (Lat. manu scriptum, writ- 
ten by hand). A term applied to anything 
written by hand, on either hard or soft and 
flexible substances. The hard substances are 
principally stones, metals, bone, and wood, on 
which the writing is in the nature of engraving; 
the soft or flexible substances are especially 
papyrus, wax, parchment and other skins, tex- 
tiles, and paper, while terra cotta or clay par- 
takes of both classes. The instruments used 
were the wedge, stylus, brush, and graver for 


the hard, and the reed, quill, stylus, and metal 
pen for the soft substances. The stone chisel 
was used in rock writings. In the matter of 
inks, black was always the ordinary color, and 
red was used at an early date (e.g., in Egypt) 
for decorative purposes; other colors had* a 
special meaning, as purple was the Imperial 
color of the Byzantine and Carlovingian em- 
perors and yellow the Imperial color in China. 
For the history of the methods of production 
and preservation of various kinds of manuscripts, 


MANUTITJS, ma-nu'shl-us. The Latin name 
of a famous family of Italian printers. TEO- 
(Aldus Manutius), was born at Sermoneta, near 
Rome, in 1450 Having studied Latin at Rome 
under Gasparino rla Verona and Greek at 
Ferrara under Battista Guanni, Manuzio went 
in 1482 to live at Mirandola with his old friend 
Giovanni Pico Pico got Manuzio a place as 
tutor to his nephews, Alberto and Lionello Pio, 
princes of Carpi Alberto supplied the funds 
with uhich Manuzio, in company with Andrea 
Toiresano d'Asola, bought the press of Nicolas 
Jenson, and brought the groat Aldine firm into 
existence. Manuzio, or Aldo, to use the name 
now most familiar, settled in Venice in 1490, 
and soon published the undated Hero and Lean- 
tier of Musaeus, the Galeomyomachia, and the 
Greek Psalter In 1495 the first volume of 
Aristotle appeared Nine comedies of Aris- 
tophanes followed in 1498 Thucydides, Sopho- 
cles, and Heiodotus came out in 1502, Xeno- 
phon's Hellenics and Euripides appeared in 1503, 
Demosthenes in 1504 In 1513 Plato was issued, 
and Pindar, Hes^chms, and Athenseus came out 
in 1514 Aide's press now devoted itself to 
printing Latin and Italian works, including the 
Divine Comedy. These works (1495-1514) were 
printed with Aldine types, a style cast by Fran- 
cesco da Bologna and quite absurdly, according 
to a legend originating in an error of A Firm in 
Didot (1872), said to have been copied from the 
handwriting of Petrarch Italic type "was in- 
vented by Aldo, as is shown by his 'i/ont turn of 
March 10, 1.103, reprinted in Renouard (vol 111) 
Italics were soon adopted by Lyonese printers 
Apparently the first book thus pVinted at Lyons 
A\HS issued in 1501 Aldo was an ardent hu- 
manist, and the Academy of the Filelleni (better 
known as the Aldine Academy), which he gath- 
ered around him, has the distinction of being 
one of the most serious in purpose and accom- 
plishment of the time. He loved the books that 
he printed and wished to make not only them 
but his manuscripts accessible to many Sy- 
monds roughly estimates the current price of 
Aldo's pocket series of Greek, Latin, and Italian 
classics, begun in 1501, at two shillings a 
volume It would seem that Aldo's books were 
cheaper than those of modern publishers, who 
have hardly surpassed him in quality at their 
best In 1499 Aldo had wedded Maria, the 
daughter of his colleague Andrea Torresano. On 
Feb. 6, 1515, Aldo died, leaving three sons to 
help carry on his business. PAULUS MANUTIUS 
(1512-74), born in Venice, June 12, 1512, took 
up in 1533 the task which had meanwhile been 
done mainly by his grandfather, Andrea Tor- 
resano Paolo set up his own firm and devoted 
himself mainly to the Latin classics. He skill- 





fully edited Cicero's Letters and Orations, and 
published his own Latin version of Demosthenes. 
In 1561, at the invitation of Pius IV, he went 
to Rome, where he was to have 500 ducats a 
year and enough to defray the cost of his press. 
The profits were to be equally divided between 
Paolo and the Camera Apostoliea. Paolo seems 
to have fared well under Pius IV, but the cold- 
ness of Pius V compelled him to leave Rome. 
He went back, however, and died there in 1574. 
His partnership with the papacy was more 
favorable to theological writers than to classic 
literature. ALDUS MANUTIUS, the younger 
(1547-97), son of Paolo, was born Feb. 13, 1547, 
and died m Rome, Oct. 28, 1597. At the age of 
nine his name appeared on the title-page of the 
Eleganze delta lingua toscana e latina. In 1561, 
whether with or without help we do not know, 
he produced a work on Latin spelling, Ortho- 
graphice Ratio, which he completed with an 
Epitome Orthographies in 1575, both highly 
valuable books In 1572 Aldo married Francesca 
Lucrezia, daughter of Bartolommeo Giunta, 
grandson of that Giunta who had established the 
famous Venetian press This was a lucky alli- 
ance, for the Aldine press had been steadily de- 
clining, while the other was growing richer. In 
1574 his father's death in Rome made Aldo the 
younger head of the firm. His commentary of 
the Ars Poctica of Horace (1576) maintained 
the family's traditional blending of good print- 
ing and scholarship. As a professor of belles- 
lettres Aldo went to Bologna ( 1585 ) , and thence 
to Pisa (1587). There he printed Alberti's 
comedy Philodoxius, and attributed it strangely 
to Lcpidus. In 1588 he went to Rome and again 
turned to printing, \vith Clement VIII as his 
patron, until his death. 

Bibliography. Goldsmid, A Bibliographical 
81 etch of the 11 dine Press at Venice (Edin- 
burgh, 1887); Pierre de Nolhac, "Les corre- 
spondents d'Aldo Manuce," in Ktudi e documenti 
di storia e dintto, vol viii (Turin, 1887) . Cas- 
tellani, La s tarn pa a Venezia dalla sua ongine 
alia morte di Aldo Manusio seniore (Venice, 
1889) ; Henri Omont, Catalogue des livres grecs 
ct latins imprimis par Aide Manuce (Paris, 
1 892 ) ; Ongania, V arte delta stampa nel rina- 
scimcnto itaiiano a Venezia (Venice, 1895) ; G. 
H Putnam, Books and their Makers during the 
Middle Ages (2 vols , New York, 1896), J. S. 
Konnard, Some Early Printers and their Colo- 
phons (Philadelphia, 1902); T L De Vinne, 
Notable Printers of Italy during the Fifteenth 
Century (New York, 1910) ; Fowler, "The Auto- 
graphs of Petrarch's Rerum Vulganum Frag- 
menta," in the Libra* y (London, 1911). See 



story by Edward Everett Hale, first published 
anonymously in the Atlantic Monthly (1863). 

MANX CAT. See Domestic Cats, under CAT. 

MANX LITERATURE. The Celtic dialect 
still spoken by about 3000 persons on the west 
coast of the Isle of Man is closely related 
to Irish and Scottish Gaelic, standing nearer on 
the whole to the latter. (See CELTIC LAN- 
GUAGES.) Unlike both of them, Manx has aban- 
doned the traditional Gaelic orthography and 
modeled its spelling rather upon English. Manx 
literature, so far as preserved, is scanty and 
confined to the modern period. The principal 
monuments are the translations of the Book of 

Common Prayer and of the Bible. The former 
was first published in 1765; the latter in 1771- 
75. But an older manuscript version of the 
Prayer Book, completed by Bishop Phillips in 
1610, has been recently printed by John Rhys 
and A. W. Moore (Douglas, 1895). Moore has 
also published several books dealing with the 
history and popular traditions of the Isle of 
Man. The native literature, of which this au- 
thor gives specimens, consists principally of 
ballads, and carvels (the local term for carols) 
sung on Christmas Eve 

Bibliography. A general account of Manv 
remains was given by H. Jenner in the Trans- 
actions of the London Philological Society 
(London, 1877). John Kelly's Practical Gram- 
mar of Manx and Manx Dictionary have both 
been published by the Manx Society (Douglas, 
1859 ) . Professor Rhys contributed an investiga- 
tion on the Outlines of Manx Phonology to the 
edition of Bishop Phillips's Book of Common 
Prayer (ib., 1894). The following publications 
of A. W. Moore are all of value The Surnames 
and Place Names of the Isle of Man (London, 
1890) , The Folk-Lore of the Isle of Man (Doug- 
las, 1891) ; Manx Carols (ib, 1891) ; A History 
of the Isle of Man ( London, 1900 ) P. M C. Ker- 
mode's Manx Crosses (London, 1907) is devoted 
to the inscribed and sculptured monuments of 
the Isle of Man from about the end of the fifth 
to the beginning of the thirteenth century. For 
Manx folklore, see John Clague, Cooinaghtyn 
Manmnagh, or Manx Reminiscences ( Castletown, 
1911) For a brief sketch of Manx literature, 
consult L. C. Stern, "Schottisch gkhsche und 
Manx Literatur," in Die romanischen Litera- 
turen und Sprachen (Berlin, 1909). Edmund 
Goodwin's First Lessons in Manx (Dublin, 1911) 
is also a useful work. 

MAN-YO-SHU, man'-yo-shoa' (Jap., Col- 
lection of a Thousand Leaves). The most an- 
cient anthology in the Japanese language. It 
was formed in 'the eighth century A.D., being one 
of the first books written in Japan. It retains 
the highest place in the estimation of Japanese 
critics, and a whole literature has gathered 
around it To the foreign student its chief 
value is in its facts and allusions, which make 
it a prime source for the study of ancient Japan- 
ese history and sociology. 

MANZANARES, man'tha-na'ras A town in 
the Province of Ciudad Real, Spain, situated 98 
miles south of Madrid, in a vast and arid 
plateau known as La Mancha, 1980 feet above 
the sea level (Map- Spain, D 3). The town is 
well built and contains a modern church of 
Gothic architecture and an ancient, moat-sur- 
rounded castle, built after the defeat of the 
Moors at Las Navas de Tolosa (1212). The 
country around is flat, requiring irrigation to 
render* the soil productive. The climate is health- 
ful and delightful; the chief industry is the 
raising of saffron and making Valdepeflas wine. 
There are manufactures of cloth, soap, and 
brandy. Pop., 1900, 11,181; 1910, 14,176. 

MANZANHXO, man'sa-ne'lyd. A port in 
the Province of Santiago de Cuba. Cuba (Map: 
Cuba, H 6). It is situated on the west coast 
of the province, at the head of the Gulf of Gua- 
canayabo, in a low and unhealthful region sur- 
rounded by mangrove swamps. Though not 
very attractive in appearance, it is regularly 
built, with straight and wide streets crossing at 
right angles. It has four high schools, several 
hospitals, and a good market. The roadstead, 

protected by the Keys of Manzanillo, forms a 
capacious harbor. The city serves as the port 
of Bayamo, and is the outlet for the products 
of the fertile Cauto Valley, the chief of which 
are sugar, tobacco, and lumber. It is the seat 
of a United States consular agent. Pop., 1899, 
urban, 14,464, municipal, 32,288; 1907, urban, 
15,819, municipal, 54,900. 

MAtfZAXILLO (Puerto de Colima).' A sea- 
port of the State of Colima, Mexico, situated on 
the beautiful bay of Manzanillo, an arm of tlie 
Pacific (Map: Mexico, G 8). The Mexican gov- 
ernment has transformed the bay into an excel- 
lent harbor by the construction of an extensive 
breakwater and sea wall. It is served by a num- 
ber of steamship lines, arid a national railway 
connects it with Colima, the capital of the 
state, 40 miles inland. In 1913 its exports, con- 
sisting of bullion, hides, timber, and coffee, were 
valued at $306,317, and its imports, chiefly ma- 
chinery and vehicles, amounted to $1,486,148. 
It is the seat of a United States consul Pop., 
1910, 1503. Consult P. F Martin, Mexico of 
the Twentieth Century (New York, 1907). 

MANZANITA, man'za-ne'ta. A California 
shrub. See ABCTOSTAPHYLOS and Plate of CALI- 

MANZONI, man-dzo'nS, A&ESSANDBO (1785- 
1873). An Italian poet and novelist, born at 
Milan, March 7, 1785. Having completed his 
earlv training at Milan and Pavia, he accom- 
panied his mother (a daughter of Cesare Bec- 
caria) to Paris in 1805, and with her he fre- 
quented some of the most fashionable salons, es- 
pecially those in which the encyclopaedic and 
rationalistic ideas of the preceding century still 
J*** 1 "?* * hold Bu * the skeptical opinions 
that this Parisian sojourn gave him were not to 
tost IIis acquaintance with the French scholar 
Fauriel began at this time and greatly influ- 
enced his later artistic development Back m 
Milan in 1808 he married Ennchetta Blondel, 
a follower of the Reformed religion The couple 
went to Pans, and there in 1810 the marriage 

rfh r i e - 80l ^ Zed * cc rdin S to the ri <*a <>* the 
J* faith ' whlch the wife embraced and 
which Manzoni practiced from this time on with 
sincere ardor After 1810 he made his home in 
tne region of Milan. He was on terms of closest 
intimacy with such writers as Massimo d'Aze- 
gio, who married his daughter, Tommaso Grossi, 
the novelist, and Berchet During his later 
?? a i" he became the acknowledged leader of 
Italian thinkers and men of letters, among whom 
he had numberless friends and correspondents 
Although an avowed patriot, he played no very 
public part in the struggles for political inde- 
pendence, so that he was included in no pro- 
scription. He became a Senator in 1860. He 
died May 22, 1873. During his youthful period 
Manzoni produced poems after the manner of the 
school of classicists, reflecting his earlier skepti- 
cal feelings, eg., the Trionfo delta liberta, ob- 
viously written under the influence of Monti a 
composition in blank verse entitled In morte di 
Carlo Imbonati, and the Urania. The period be- 
tween 1816 and 1825 was his most active one in 
the production of works in both prose and verse 
To it belong the Inni sacri, which aae full of ex- 
alted religious sentiment, one or two political 
can&oni, and the poem that made him really 
famous, the Cinque maggw, an ode on the death 
Of Napoleon (1821). Of this same period are 
his dramatic compositions with which he hoped 


to inaugurate a reform in the Italian theatre. 
They are the Conte di Carmagnola and the 
Adelchi, the former published in 1820 and the 
latter in 1822 (at Milan). Admirable as liter- 
ary performances, they are not adaptable to 
scenic production, and neither was well received 
at home, although Goethe warmly praised the 
Conte di Carmagnola. In connection with these 
pieces Manzoni enunciated the following princi- 
ples: the dramatic composer should adapt the 
poetic invention to the historic fact and not fol- 
low the contrary practice; the unities of time 
and place need not be observed; the style and 
the dialogue should be perfectly natural; and 
the chorus, a sort of commentary on the events 
enacted, should provide a place in which the 
author may freely express his own feelings. Of 
the prose publications of Manzoni, noteworthy 
is the Morale cattohco (Milan, 1819), a reply to 
Sismondi's strictures upon Catholicism. His 
critical output is remarkable for its trenchancy 
and soundness. His masterpiece iq the novel / 
promessi sposi' (The Betrothed) (Milan, 1825- 
26). Somewlfat cumbersome in plot, this ro- 
mance, for its sage reflections on human nature, 
its graphic descriptions (especially that of the 
plague at Milan in 1631), and its 'masterly por- 
trayal of characters, has deeply influenced ma- 
ture minds of every nation* such a scholar as 
the American Andrew D. White calls it the best 
historical novel ever written Many of its tig- 
urea the unnamed knight, repentant in the con- 
sciousness of sin, Fra Cristoforo, the monk of un- 
swerving piety and sacrifice, the weak but very 
human priest Don Abbondio, Gertrude, the nun 
with no love for her calling have become uni- 
versal types Aside from its aiti&tic merit, the 
romance has great value as an historical study 
of the seventeenth century in Italy In its 
revised form (1840) it became the illustration 
of Manzoni's theory of the national Italian lan- 
guage, as regards vocabulary and syntax (see 
ITALIAN LANGUAGE), and as such still figures as 
an important language text in Italian schools. 
It had numerous epigones among later novels 
(eg, the Monaco, di Monza of Rosini ) The ode 
of Pentecost (from the Inmsacri) and the Cinque 
maggio (translated into English, Oxford, 1005) 
are masterpieces of the first order, and are the 
best reflections of the force of religion in Man- 
zoni's intellectual outlook on life. 

Bibliography. Opere vane di A. Manzoni 
(Milan, 1845-70, with additional prose works) ; 
the edition of his letters or Epistolano, by G 
Sforva (ib, 1882-83); Bersezio, A. Manzoni, 
studio biografico e critico (Turin, 1873) ; Vis- 
mara, Bibhografia manzomana (Milan, 1875) , 
De Gubernatis, A Mantsoni, studio biografico 
(Florence, 1879); C. Cantu, A Mamom, re- 
minwcenzc (Milan, 1885) ; V. Waille, Le roman- 
tisme de Manzoni, (Paris, 1890) ; English trans- 
lation by Featherstonhaugh (Washington, 1834) ; 
annotated edition with notes and vocabulary 
in English, by Geddes-Wilkins (Boston, 1911); 
edition of principal works in two volumes edited 
by F. Martini (Milan, 1914). 

2CAORI, ma'd-rl. The Polynesian race found 
in .New Zealand by the first white men who dis- 
covered the island. Above the average in stat- 
ure, they are more or less robust, with athletic 
frames. The head form is dolichocephalic. The 
women for the most part are strong and vigor- 
ous. Both sexes are adepts in swimming and 
the people are fond of bodily exercise. Some au- 
thorities hold, on insufficient grounds, that the 



Maoris and other Eastern Polynesians are non- 
Malay, and Caucasic rather than Mongolic, al- 
though they admittedly speak dialects of the 
common Malayo-Polynesian speech. A few more 
venturesome inquirers have even sought to show 
that the Maori tongue is related to the Aryan 
family of languages. But all such efforts are 
vain. The Moriori of Chatham Islands are hardly 
more than a branch of the Maori, with perhaps 
more of a pre : Maori Melanesian intermixture, 
noticeable not only in physical characteristics, 
but also in art, weapons, etc. The Maoris are 
noted for their tattooing, their ornamental and 
decorative art, their epic poetry, legends, and 
mythology. In earlier times they were among 
the most cannibalistic of Polynesian peoples, de- 
spite their relatively high culture. Their long 
and valiant struggle with the British colonists, 
in the course of which they displayed some bril- 
liant war tactics, gained for them the respect 
of their opponents, and they now have their rep- 
resentatives in the Legislature on the same 
basis as tlieir white fellow countrymen. The 
Maoris, scattered over parts of the northern 
island and the northern portion of the southern 
island, seem, according to the last census, to be 
increasing in numbers. Considerable intermar- 
riage has also taken place. There were two 
Maoris in tlie New Zealand cabinet of 1906. 

Bibliography. Otto Fmsch, Reise \n der 
Sudsce (Vienna, 1884); J. White, The Ancient 
History of the Maori, his Mythology and Tradi- 
tions (London, 1889) ; E. Tregear, Maori Poly- 
nesian Comparative Dictionary (Wellington, 
1891) ; Roblev, Moko, or Maori Tattooing (Lon- 
don, 1806) , Reeves, The Long White Cloud (ib., 
1898), E Tregear, The Maon Race (Welling- 
ton, 1904) , W. Dittmer, Te tohunga: Ancient 
Legends and Traditions of the Maoris (New 
York, 1907) , James Cowan, The Maoris of New 
Zealand, in "Makers of Australasia" (Melbourne, 
1910) , S. P Smith, The Original Home of the 
Maori (3d ed , Christchurch, 1910) ; J. M. Beel, 
The Wilds of Maonland (London, 1914) ; also 
Journal of the Polynesian Society (Wellington, 
1902 et seq ) . See POLYNESIANS. 

MAP (from Lat. mappa, napkin). The rep- 
resentation of the whole or a portion of the 
earth's surface, or of the heavens, upon a plane 
surface, usually on a greatly reduced scale. Map 
and chart (q.v.) are nearly synonymous terms, 
though the latter is now chiefly used to desig- 
nate a map designed for navigational or astro- 
nomical pui poses The earliest maps of the 
simpler sort were doubtless prehistoric, as from 
the accounts of explorers of old as well as of 
modern times it has been found that many of the 
most ignorant and primitive savages make and 
use rude plans of their surroundings, whether 
of land or water, while Eskimo and American 
Indians have been found able to understand the 
charts of the white man in addition to making 
for themselves rude maps. The earliest his- 
torical record of map making is that of Sargon, 
King of Akkad, one of the states of Babylonia, 
which existed before the formation of the Baby- 
lonian or Assyrian Empire. The date of these 
maps is about 3800 B c , and they are cadastral 
or topographical surveys, with a pretense at ac- 
curacy in the representation of lands, inasmuch 
as they were prepared for purposes of taxation. 
Other surveys in Babylonia and Assyria are 
depicted on clay tablets dating from 2300 to 
2100 B.C., now in the British Museum. At least 
as early as 1300 B.C. map making was common in 


Egypt, as at the time of Ramses II (Sesoetris 
of the Greek historians, 1333-1300 B.C.) a BUT* 
vey and map of the country were made in view 
of the necessity of apportioning land and the 
readjustment of the boundaries after the Nile 
floods. In fact, under these conditions the 
pharaohs had virtually to maintain a land 
office. According to Herodotus, such early work 
was the origin of geometry and surveying, with 
consequent map construction. The oldest map 
extant is an Egyptian papyrus of the thirteenth 
century B.C. in which some Nubian gold mines 
are shown. 

One of the first students of the world-wide 
geography was Thales of Miletus (624-543 B.C.) ; 
and Anaximander '(610-546), his pupil, is cred- 
ited by Strabo with making the first map of the 
world, while Diogenes Laertius states that not 
only did he make a map of earth and sea, but 
also constructed a globe. According to Agathe- 
merus and Herodotus, Hecataeus (550-475) of 
Miletus, who had traveled extensively in Egypt, 
Persia, Libya, Spain, and Italy, improved, cor- 
rected, and greatly extended the map of Anaxi- 
mander. Thales is reported to have divided the 
earth into five climatic zones, much as they are 
recognized to-dav, though this is also ascribed 
both to the Pythagoreans and to Parmenides 
of Elea (544-430 BC ), and the latter was said 
to be the hrst to assert that the earth was of 
spherical form and at the centre of the universe. 
It is probable that Thales was the first to use 
meridians on a map and possibly the first to 
draw the equator; he is credited with the dis- 
covery that the plane of the ecliptic is inclined 
to that of the equator and made a rough meas- 
urement of the inclination. 

Up to the time of Thales, and even later, the 
world was considered as a plane. Thales, how- 
ever, is said to have suggested the spherical 
shape of the earth, and this is probable if he 
was the originator of the climatic zones; but we 
are told by Aristotle and Plutarch that, inasmuch 
as his pupil Anaximander considered the earth 
to be a disk or a section of a cylinder rest- 
ing in the centre of the hollow celestial sphere, 
it is doubtful if Thales held more correct views 
Very soon afterward the Pythagorean school of 
philosophy, if not Pythagoras himself, taught 
that the earth was spherical, though this hypoth- 
esis was based more upon ideas of symmetry 
than upon known facts. The proof of the earth s 
sphericity was left to Aristotle (384-322), who 
drew this conclusion from the shadow of the 
earth cast upon the sun in eclipses, and though 
he made no maps of which we have record, he 
may be said to have founded scientific geography 
and map making. *' 

Diccearchus of Messina, a pupil of Aristotle, 
constructed maps of Hellas and is said to have 
estimated the size of the earth on an oval map 
of the world he constructed. He is supposed 
to have been the first to draw a parallel of lati- 
tude on a map, such a line having been derived 
and drawn on his map from observations of the 
length of the shadow cast by the sun. 

The first attempt to measure the actual size of 
the earth was made by Eratosthenes (c.275- 
195), from whom scientific geography may be 
said to date. (See ERATOSTHENES.) Appointed 
keeper of the Alexandrian Library by Ptolemy 
Euergetes in 245, he started his map making by 
determining the difference in latitude between 
Alexandria and Syene by measuring the shadow 
of the sun as cast by a gnomon or pillar at each 

place on the same day, and then after computa- 
tion determined in linear measure the length of 
the corresponding arc of meridian. He deter- 
mined the latitude of Alexandria, Syene, and 
Meroe, through which he traced his initial 
meridian. He obtained the distance between 
Alexandria and Syene from maps made by 
Egyptian royal surveyors, as 5000 stadia, 
which corresponded to one-fifth part of a 
circle. From the data thus obtained, he con- 
cluded that the length of a degree of latitude 
waa about 700 stadia. Assuming the stadium to 
have been 164 meters (Dorpfeld), this would 
give the length of a degree as 114,800 meters 
(61.9453 modern geographical miles of 6080.20 
feet), which is 3992 meters (2 154 geographical 
miles) in excess of its real value. This dif- 
ference may have been due in part to the fact 
that Syene and Alexandria are not on the same 
meridian or longitude as Eratosthenes supposed . 
but there was established tbe earliest system 
of geographical coordinates which is fundamen- 
tal to all accurate mapping, either in whole or 
in detail Notwithstanding the error, this was 
an enormous step forward towards accui acy, and 
the map he prepared from information obtained 
in the great library was far superior to that 
of any predecessor. 

Grates of Mallus, who died in 145 B.C , was the 
first to construct a globe which represented the 
views of the earth held by the Stoic school of 
philosophy In this the symmetry ideas of the 
Pythagorean school are found carried still fur- 
ther. Since .land exists on both sides of the 
equator, he concluded that the known continent 
of Europe, Asia, and Africa must be balanced by 
another on the opposite side of the world. The 
resulting globe had an equatorial ocean and a 
meridional one, the two dividing the world into 
four parts each containing an inhabited conti- 
nent. On this globe the existence of such conti- 
nents as North and South America and Austra- 
lia was anticipated. As showing the effect of this 
arrangement in modes of thought it may be said 
that such a globe so divided by bands early be- 
came typical as one of the insignia of royalty 

Hipparchus of Rhodes (fl. c.160 B.C.) compiled 
no maps, but his labors in the field of geography, 
astronomy, and mathematics were most impor- 
tant and helpful to map making On the 
strength of his astronomical knowledge he criti- 
cized the work of Eratosthenes, describing its 
defects and their remedies. He showed the de- 
sirability of constructing large maps upon a rec- 
tangular projection or plan where the feature 
of a curved or spherical surface was represented 
on a plane in such a way as not so greatly to 
distort the areas at equal distances, devising 
what are known in map making as the ortho- 
graphic and stereographic projections, described 
later in this article. He placed at equal dis- 
tances the meridians and parallels which Era- 
tosthenes had arranged somewhat arbitrarily, 
and in order to secure accuracy he showed that 
the positions of places both in latitude and 
longitude should be determined astronomically; 
he also pointed out that longitude could be de- 
termined astronomically by the eclipses of the 
sun and moon, instead of being based merely 
on the itineraries or estimated or roughly meas- 
ured distances of travelers and sailors, as had 
been done hitherto. Though he constructed no 
maps, Hipparchus made a celestial globe which 
was in the Alexandrian Library in the time of 
Marinus, 300 years later; and by considering the 

a HAP 

earth a sphere and dividing it by great circles 
perpendicular to the equator and extending to 
the poles, and by parallel lines at equal dis- 
tances from the equator to the poles, he not 
only made geography possible as an exact sci- 
ence, but provided the introduction to modern 
ideas of latitude and longitude. 

During this long period map making does 
not appear to have progressed, though Strabo 
(50 BC.-24 A.D ) added considerably to geo- 
graphical science and knowledge, and the cam- 
paigns of the Romans, of which rough itineraries 
or crude maps were prepared, gave much infor- 
mation in regard to regions previously unknown. 
A military map of the Roman provinces was 
made under the order of Julius Caesar by three 
surveyors, who began their work in 44 B c and 
continued it for 25 years. Such military maps 
and the itineraries of travelers, however, must 
be considered at their face value, for they did 
not represent places in their relative distances, as 
would a map based on latitude and longitude 
Thus, m the Peutingerian Table, a Roman ^t^ne- 
raria jncta, in one of the oldest surviving medi- 
aeval maps, now in the Royal Library in Vienna, 
there is seen a thirteenth-century copy of an 
old Roman original showing the Roman world 
at the time of Theodosms (393 AD ) It is some 
18 feet in length and more than 1 foot in breadth, 
embracing the region from Spain to India. See 

But, returning to more scientific maps, men- 
tion next may be made of the woik of Marinus 
of Tyre (c.120 AD ), which is known from the 
description furnished by Ptolemy. Marinus, who 
studied the work of his predecessors and all 
other accumulated geographical data, was the 
first to determine the geographical positions of 
places on his map by using a projection or plan 
based on their latitudes and longitudes. This 
plan was not really a projection as understood 
by modern geographers, as it had the parallels 
and meridians equidistant and at right angles, 
and as the relative lengths of the degrees of lati- 
tude and longitude were based on a central par- 
allel for which the latitude of Rhodes ^ as taken, 
regions to the north and south naturally were 
distorted both in aiea and shape. The errors of 
this chart were even further increased by his 
adopting the length of a degree of latitude, 500 
stadia, as determined by the Stoic geographer 
Posidomus, instead of accepting the more accu- 
rate determination of 700 stadia made by 

Claudius Ptolemy of Alexandria (c.190-270 
A D ) was one of the greatest geographers, as- 
tronomers, mathematicians, and map makers of 
all times; and fortunately most of his work, 
both the maps and the indexes of places, has 
come down to us, but only in copies with doubt- 
ful authentication His knowledge of geog- 
raphy, astronomy, and mathematics eminently 
fitted him for map making, which was ong of 
the least of his achievements, important as it 
was. He made maps largely by compilation, 
editing the work of previous geographers and 
particularly correcting many errors of Marinus 
and to a large degree the distortion of his maps. 
He also furnished descriptions of them with 
tables of geographical positions of places, so that 
the maps could be reproduced by others having 
copies of the original data, and in fact this was 
done extensively. 

Ptolemy was responsible for two projections 
one a modified conical, where the parallels were 























The First Drawn on this Projection 

From photographs by Edward Luther Stevenson, Ph D 

MAP 4 

curved and the meridians straight, and the other 
also a modified conical, but having both par- 
allels and meridians curved both being seen 
in his maps of the world. In the first pro- 
jection he preserves the correct relations be- 
tween latitude and longitude at the equator and 
the extreme northern limit of his chart (lati- 
tude of Thule or the Hebrides). In the second 
plan he preserves the correct relations at the 
northern (Thule, about 65 degrees north) and 
southern (Agisymba, 20 degrees south) limits, 
at the equator, and at the parallels of MoroS 
(about 15 degrees north) and Syene (about 25 
degrees north). Ptolemy's small maps, 26 in 
number, according to the oldest extant edition 
of 1478, are drawn upon a simple rectangular 
projection, their moderate areas not requiring 
the curve of the meridians or parallels to secure 
adequate accuracy. 

Ptolemy's maps as planned and executed by 
him were a great advance upon those of his 
predecessors, but unfortunately he, like Marinus, 
followed the estimates of Posidonius instead of 
the more exact measurements of Eratosthenes 
as to the size of the earth, using 500 stadia 
as the length of a degree of latitude instead of 
700. The known world was therefore unduly 
expanded in longitude (and at some places in 
latitude) on Ptolemy's charts, the east coast of 
Asia being shown to extend so far to the east- 
ward as to place it 0000 miles or less from the 
west coast of Europe. Ptolemy's work, after 
being neglected for centuries, was revived in the 
fifteenth century, and his maps were known, 
copied, and extended These maps were known 
to and studied by Columbus, and the compara- 
tive shortness of the distance from Europe to 
Asia was one of the reasons which led him to 
believe he could successfully reach China by 
sailing westwaid. While Ptolemy's work was 
of great value at this time, yet mariners and ge- 
ographers, aided by geographical discovery dur- 
ing the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, realized 
that the errors were both fundamental and de- 
tailed, so that his authority became undermined 
with the development of the more modern 

Soon after the death of Ptolemy there came 
an end to nearly all development of science in 
the Christian world The Church at this time 
included in its domain science as well as all other 
forms of learning, and the fathers, such as St 
Auguhtme, then such theologians as Thomas 
Aquinas and the popes regarded the Bible as the 
sole repository of wisdom, scientific as well as 
spiritual, and adhered blindly to a literal inter- 
pretation of its text. The bishops of Alexandria 
destroyed the rehabilitated Alexandrian Library 
and the Serapeum and scattered the priceless 
iccords of previous scientific achievement. For 
a thousand years now the intellectuality of the 
Christian peoples reverted to the beliefs ante- 
dating the rise of Greek philosophy; geography 
and map making suffered with other branches 
of science. The clear and intelligible maps and 
scientific methods of Ptolemy were neglected and 
forgotten for a thousand years, and instead there 
were put forth grotesque and fanciful represen- 
tations of land and water which form all the 
commentary necessary as to the intellectual 
state of the times. Some were rectangular, some 
circular, all consisted of fancifully shaped land 
surrounded by the "circumfluent ocean." Many 
contained fantastic figures of princes and scrip- 
tural characters as well as legendary beasts and 

monsters. The map still in existence in the 
cathedral at Hereford, England, and dating from 
1283, is interesting as indicating an increasing 
knowledge of geography at this time while still 
preserving many of the absurdities of the pa- 
tristic period. 

Thus the Christian world not so the Moham- 
medan. As soon as the blind fanaticism and 
fury of their early conquests were spent, the 
various Mohammedan rulers encouraged sci- 
ence, literature, and commerce. They sought 
learning and philosophy wherever it was to be 
found, and much that has survived of the work 
of Aristotle, Ptolemy, and of other Greeks and 
Egyptian learned men has come down through 
them. Moreover, they developed and greatly im- 
proved and practicalized the science and infor- 
mation they received. Among the many things 
with which they dealt were charts and maps, 
which they made more correct and more common. 

Among the most important developments of 
this period were the so-called compass maps 
which were attached to the portolani or books 
of sailing directions for mariners trading in the 
Mediterranean. The distinguishing feature of 
these charts was a great number of lines radiat- 
ing from one or more centres. The exact use 
made of these lines is uncertain, but it may be 
that they served to show the general directions 
of places from each other. As they were drawn 
without regard to land and water, they did not 
show practicable routes for vessels; and as they 
seem to have been common before the introduc- 
tion of the compass, they were not designed for 
use with it. The origin of the portolani charts 
is unknown, but they show that much advance 
had been made in accuracy of knowledge con- 
cerning latitude and longitude since the days of 
Ptolemy. Some of these charts were more am- 
bitious and covered as much of the earth as was 
known, and we know that one by Toscanelli, 
made about 1474 on the basis of the travels of 
Marco Polo, was sent to Columbus. 

The discovery of America aroused interest in 
science and secular learning and caused a gen- 
eral skepticism as to previously accepted facts 
and a distrust of the hitherto accepted ideas as 
to astronomy, cosmogony, and geography. For 
nearly 1500 years science and the Church had 
been in opposition, and naturally this extended 
to map making. The Spanish conquistadores 
found that the Peruvians had ordinary maps 
and maps in relief, while the Mexicans had ca- 
dastral plans of villages and towns and a map 
of the coast, but the Spanish Conquest put an 
end to all development in that part of the world. 

The discovery of America, which continent 
first appeared in the Waldseemuller map of 
1507 and in Ruysch's map of 1508, upset views 
as to the shape of the earth, but the Church al- 
lowed the facts to spread but slowly and op- 
posed the ideas of Copernicus and Kepler, but 
the truth necessarily prevailed in time. The re- 
sult was a great impetus towards exploration 
and map making. The works of Ptolemy, Hippar- 
chus, and Eratosthenes were again considered, 
especially in view of the fundamental principles 
upon which the work was executed, and maps 
began to be constructed upon real projections 
and with more attention to collecting the results 
of explorations. The map of the world made by 
Gerhard Kremer (Mercator) in 1569 is by far 
the best produced up to that time. Its principal 
errors are the undue width of North America 
and an extension of the Antarctic continent too 

far to the northward BO far indeed as to con- 
nect it to Australia, of which the southern coast 
was then unknown. Mercator's charts were en- 
grayed on copper and were among the first in 
which reproduction by this method was employed. 

c 1 






Showing lines of projection 

Since the time of Mercator the development of 
map making has continued without a break, not 
only as regards scientific improvement of the 
projections and of the methods of reproduction 
but also as regards accuracy of delineation and 
of geographic positions, which has been ren- 
dered possible by the extension of geographic 
knowledge and the perfection of modem surveys 
Map making has also been extended to cover 
geological, meteorological, and other terrestrial 
phenomena; to show elevations or depressions 
in the earth's surface by variations in color, 
contour lines, and maps in relief , and to exhibit 
by suitable means the mineralogical character 
of the earth's crust or its magnetic forces. 

Most civilized countries now are quite accu- 
rately and more or less completely mapped on 
a large scale, the first attempt m this direction 
being made in 1733 by Cesar Cassini, the direc- 
tor of the astronomical observatory at Paris. 
Assisted at first by the French Academy of Sci- 
ences and afterward by a private company, he 

Fia. 2. 


undertook to map the entire area of France. The 
first sheets appeared in 1744 and the last were 
completed in 1793 The work aroused wide- 
spread interest in all civilized countries and so 
forcibly illustrated the value of accurate maps 
that the French government undertook an elab- 
orate survey, an example that has been generally 

followed in Europe and America. In the United 
States the map-making establishments are the 
Geological Survey (q.v.), which is bringing out 
topographical and geological maps of the whole 
country, the Coast and Geodetic Survey (q.v.), 

G I 




On the plane of a meridian and on a tangent plane, showing 
lines of projection 

which publishes charts of the coast and harbors, 
and the Hydrographic Office (q.v.) of the Navy, 
which publishes charts of the Great Lakes and 
of the oceans, coasts, and harbors of the world 
beyond the limits of the United States 

The number of types of projection used in the 
official and private maps of the diffeient coun- 
tries, as well as the difference in scales, nomen- 
clature, symbols, character of information pre- 
sented, etc, has caused much trouble to geog- 
raphers, map makers, engineers, educators, and 
others throughout the world. Several interna- 
tional conferences have been called to consider 
the various geographic and constructional ques- 
tions of general interest. The conference of 1909 
took place in London The United States and 
the principal European nations were represented. 
Among other matters decided upon was the con- 


struction of an international map of the world 
on a uniform scale, each nation mapping its 
own areas. 

This map is to be prepared on a modified poly- 
conic projection (hereinafter described) with 
a scale of 1 in 1,000,000 (about 16 statute miles 
to the inch) and will be made up of sheets cov- 


1. HEREFORD WORLD MAP, 1283. A typical mediaeval map on which are shown scriptural allusions as we/1 as geograph- 
ical myths and fables. It is preserved at Hereford Cathedral, England 

2. PEUTINGER TABLE A Thirteenth Century copy of an old Roman itinerary or road map. The upper section show* 
Italy, etc., and the lower the Balkan Peninsula, Rome, and Constantinople. This map is in the Royal Library, Vienna. 






o i 
o I 

LU 5 

5 u> 

LU 9 

I o 




ering 6 of longitude and 4 of latitude. The 
sheet containing New York City (40 to 44 N., 
72 to 78 W. ) is about 17.5 by 20 inches exclusive 
of border. By trimming off the border the sheets 
may be joined to form a large map covering any 


On a plane tangent at lat. 30 N , showing lines of pro- 

desired area The work is in progress in all 
countries which were represented at the confer- 
ence and in some others which have since ac- 
ceded to the plans. It was hoped that the map 
would be completed about 1920 

Relief maps are frequently made to show the 
topographical features of a country, district, 
watershed, canal, river, mountain range, etc. If 
the scale is small the altitudes are usually ex- 
aggerated in order to give a clearer appreciation 
of details. When the scale is large this is not 
so necessary. Some relief globes have been made, 
but they are not common except for instruction 
of the blind. 

Theory of Map Construction. As the earth 
is a spheroid, it is impossible exactly to represent 
it, or even a small portion of it, upon a plane 
surface. In order to represent parts of it upon 


On plane tangent at the pole. 

a plane with as little distortion as practicable, 
maps are prepared according to various systems 
of construction called projections. There are 
three classes of maps: (1) those made by per- 
spective projection upon a plane, (2) those per- 
spectively projected upon a curved surface of 

single curvature, such as a cone or cylinder, and 
the resulting projection developed (i.e., rolled 
out) upon a plane, and (3) arbitrary construc- 
tions. All are commonly termed projections, 
though only the first has any right to the des- 
ignation (and even that is not a normal pro- 
jection), while the third has no real claim to 
the title. 

Projections of the first class may be divided 
into three groups internal, surface, and ex- 
ternal depending upon the position of the 
point of sight, which may be inside, on the 
surface of, or outside the sphere. The only 
internal projection of importance is the gno- 
monic, and the only surface projection is the 
stereographic. The external projections are 
the orthographic, globular, Clarke's, James's, La 
Hire's, Parent's, etc The developed projections 
are the simple conical and the cylindrical Mer- 
cator's is sometimes placed in this class, but this 
is incorrect. The arbitrary constructions in- 
clude Mercator's and a vast number of others 
designed for various uses. 

In the central or gnomonic projection the eye 


Showing meridians and parallels of latitude 10 apart. 

is supposed to be at the centre of the earth and 
the plane of projection tangent to the surface 
usually at the equator or about 30 north or 
south latitude. As the planes of all great circles 
pass through the centre of the sphere, they are 
projected as straight lines All lines of sight on 
the earth and the path of the shortest distance 
between two points are shown as straight lines 
Within 3 from the point of tangency of the pro- 
jecting plane both distances and angles are 
quite accurately promoted, but beyond 3 the 
errors increase rapidly At 60 from that point 
the distortion is very great. This projection is 
suitable for surveying sheets and maps of mod- 
erate area and for charts of large area designed 
to give great-circle courses, tracks, and distances. 

In the stereographic projection the eye may 
be placed at any point in the surface of the 
sphere; the projection is made on any plane 
perpendicular to the diameter passing through 
the eye. The usual planes are the one which is 
tangent to the sphere at the opposite end of the 
diameter and the plane of the great circle of 
which the eye is the pole. In a sphere both 


angles and shapes are projected in their true 
form, but in a spheroid this is not so, and the 
difficulties connected with the computations have 
prevented extensive employment of this pro- 
jection in exact mapping of the earth. 

The external projections are numerous, as 
there are certain advantages to be gained by se- 
lecting particular distances beyond the surface 
for the point of sight. The type most com- 
monly used is the orthographic in which the 
eve is assumed to be at an infinite distance and 
the projecting lines are parallel and perpendicu- 
lar to the plane. In Clarke's projection the dis- 
tance of the point of sight is variable and is 
adjusted to the area in such a manner as to 
give the minimum deformation. In Parent's 
projections the distances from the centre of the 
sphere are 1.595 and 1.732 times the radius, 

the ones most commonly used. The different 
forms are designed to afford certain advantages 
equivalent areas, similar shapes* equal angles, 
equal distances, great-circle routes, simplicity 
of construction, minimum errors of area, shape, 
angles, distances, etc., suitability for surveying 
purposes, for navigation, for representation of 
large areas, etc. Projections in which very small 
figures, angles, etc., are represented in the same 
shape as on the earth are called orthomorphic ; 
those in which equal areas of the sphere are 
shown as equal (but perhaps slightly deformed) 
areas in the projection are called equivalent or 
equal-area pi ejections; equidistant projections 
are those in which the distances, measured in 
certain directions, are the same as on the sphere 
The simplest form of the arbitrary projection 
is the ordinary globular In a hemisphere on 

160 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 

while in La Hire's the distance is 1.707 times 
and in James's 1.5 times. 

The developed projections are the simple con- 
ical and the cylindrical. In the conical the cone 
is tangent to the earth along some circle of lati- 
tude and the projection is perspective with the 
eye at the centre of the earth or where the nor- 
mal cuts the minor axis. After receiving the 
projection the imaginary cone is supposed to be 
cut along one of its elements and rolled out flat 
upon the paper. The meridians are evidently 
straight lines and the parallels concentric 
circles. Near the circle of tangency the distor- 
tion is small, but it rapidly increases beyond 
a distance of 3 in latitude. In the cylindrical 
projection the points on the earth's surface are 
projected upon the cylinder by normals to the 
common diameter of the sphere and cylinder. 
The cylinder is supposed to be cut open along 
an element and rolled out flat on a plane. Cyl- 
indrical projections are also made perspective^ 
with the eye at the centre of the sphere. The 
Mercator is popularly supposed to be developed 
in this way, but that is not so. 

The arbitrarily constructed projections are 

this projection the boundary is a great circle; 
the equator and central meridian arc shown an 
straight lines. The other meridians are arcs of 
circles passing through the poles and cutting the 
equator at equidistant points, and the parallels 
of latitude are arcs of circles which divide the 
bounding meridian and the central meridian into 
the same number of equal parts. 

Nearly all the other arbitrary projections of 
importance make use of an imaginary cone or 
cones in the construction, or may be regarded as 
modifications of conical projections. In the true 
conical projections the meridians are straight 
lines and the parallels are arcs of circles. In 
the polyconic the central meridian and equator 
are straight, other parallels and meridians are 
curved. In the modified conical either the me- 
ridians or the parallels are curved or they are 
both curved. 

The most important of all projections is the 
Meicator. It may be regarded as constructed 
upon a cone of definite base (the equatorial 
great circle) and infinite altitude in other 
words, a cylinder. The popular idea of this 
projection is that it is of the perspective type, 


projected upojcylinder tangent to the earth 
at the equate* eye being at the centre of the 
earth; and thhe projection so formed is de- 
veloped by cut along a meridian and rolling 
it out upon 4ne surface. Such is not the 
case. The totktension of the meridian from 
to 60 of lade is only about 25 instead of 
65 per cent asgn by a perspective projection. 
In sailing u a fixed compass course this 
course necessai cuts all meridians at a con- 
stant angle. l pa th of a ship so steered is 
not a straight but a curve called a rhumb 
line. (See SAJGS.) The rhumb line join- 
ing two points er exactly coincides with the 
great circle pas* through them except when 
they are both ohe equator or both on a me- 
ridian. The d(gence between the two in- 
creases rapidly jh the increase of difference 
of longitude befcn the points and with the 
mean latitude. fen the points are 180 apart 
the great circle idently passes through the 
nearest pole and always lies nearer the pole 

tude are published by the United Statei'Navy De- 
partment. While the Mercator projection is 
invaluable for navigating charts it is not well 
adapted for charts of large areas except when the 
extent of latitude is moderate or when no part of 
the area is more than 30 from the equator. In 
charts of the world or of a hemisphere the rela- 
tive exaggeration of areas beyond 45 of lati- 
tude is so great as to give very wrong ideas as 
to their extent. 

The polyconic projection is quite largely used 
for surveying sheets and by the United States 
Coast Survey for nautical charts. For purposes 
of navigation these charts are not nearly so con- 
venient as those on Mercator's projection, be- 
cause the ship's track is not a straight line and 
charts of the same scale and latitude do not 
match at the edges. The polyconic projection 
is quite accurate as to distances, angles, and 
areas within 3 of longitude from the central 
meridian; beyond 60 of latitude its accuracy 
is fair throughout. The method of construction 


than the rhumb lip As the rhumb line cuts 
all meridians at a jnstant angle, it can only be 
represented as a stiight line on a plane surface 
when the meridian are represented as straight 
lines and are panlel to each other; and the 
angle on the planejan only be equal to that of 
the sphere or spheoid when the projected lati- 
tudes are progressiely increased so that the re- 
lation between theiengths of a minute of lati- 
tude and a minuterf longitude at any point of 
a sphere is the saie as that existing between 
similar lengths on the map. 

If x is the distnce (on the map) from the 
equator to any panllel of latitude L; and if R 
is the equatorial -adius of the earth, M the 
modulus of common logarithms, and e the earth's 

eccentricity, then x = -p log tan (45 + \L) - 

____ . 

For the sphere e becomes zero and the second 
term disappears. To express a in terms of 
minutes of equatorial longitude, substitute 12 = 

3437.74677 and jL = 2.30268. Tables showing 
the value of x for every degree and minute of lati- 

assumes a series of cones tangent to the sphere 
at equidistant parallels of latitude. These cones 
are rolled out both ways from the central me- 
ridian, each base forming a circle with the slant 
height of the cone as a radius The successive 
bases form the parallels of latitude On these 
the correct longitude is laid off from the central 
meridian and the points on adjacent parallels 
joined to form the other meridians. 

One of the most useful projections is the or- 
thomorphic conical projection with two standard 
parallels. This was devised by Lambert, but is 
commonly attributed to Gauss. It is of the 
simple conical type in which all the meridians 
meet at a point beyond the limits of the map. 
The correct meridional lengths are laid off along 
the central meridian. The parallels are circu- 
lar arcs of large radius. Two parallels (at 
about one-sixth the total length of the chart in 
latitude from top and bottom) are selected as 
standards. The correct spheroidal lengths are 
laid off on these parallels and the meridians 
drawn through corresponding points. The other 
parallels are arcs of circles having the same 
centre, pass through the correct latitude points 
on the central meridian, and therefore intercept 


the correct lengths on all meridians. This pro- 
jection is well suited to the representation of 
the whole northern or southern hemisphere on 
a single sheet, and is very correct as regards 
areas, angles, shapes, and distances for a range 
of 40 in latitude and fairly so for a range of 

Lat 90, long 180 

60. It is particularly well suited for maps of 
smaller areas. 

If for tioo standard parallels we substitute 
one, we get the simple conical projection This 
has no particular merits, its range of accuracy 
being confined to a narrow belt of latitude on 
each side of the standard parallel. 

Bonne's projection is much used in geographies 
and atlases It is a modified conical. The cen- 
tral meridian is a straight line on which are 
laid off the correct spheroidal distances between 
parallels. The parallels are arcs of concentric 
circles. One of them is selected as the standard 
and this is struck with a radius of p cot L, in 
which p is the length of the normal to a merid- 
ian (which is an ellipse) intercepted between 
the circumference and the minor (polar of the 
sphere) axis and L is the latitude of the par- 
allel The other parallels are struck with the 
same centre and intercept correct intervals of 
latitude on the central meridian On each par- 
allel are marked the correct distances between 
meridians as derived from the spheroid The 



With rectified meridians and two standard parallels. 

corresponding points are connected to form the 
meridians of the map. Bonne's projection is an 
improvement of one of Ptolemy's. It is an 
equal-area projection and is suitable for maps 
of not more than 120 of longitude and on one 
side of the equator; beyond 60 from the central 
meridian the distortion of shapes is considerable. 
The sinusoidal or Flamsteed's projection is 

similar to Bonne's in construction except that 
the parallels are straight lines perpendicular to 
the central meridian. It also is an equal-area 
projection. It is suitable for a map of 180 of 
latitude and 120 of longitude; indeed it is prob- 
ably the best of all projections for showing a 
hemisphere No projection can show the whole 
world in a continuous projection without enor- 
mous distortion of polar areas 

Zenithal projections may be perspective (all 
perspective projections are zenithal) or arbi- 
trary. A point is selected for the centre of the 
map All planes passing through this centre and 
the centre of the sphere cut straight lines in the 
projection and great circles in the sphere. The 
points of the sphere are laid out on the corre- 
sponding lines of the projection at distances de- 
pending upon the law of the particular projec- 
tion If perspectively, with the eye at the 
centre, we get the gnomonic , if the eye is in the 
opposite surface, the stereographic. Aside from 
these and other zenithal projections already de- 
scribed or mentioned, only two are very useful. 
One is the equidistant zenithal and the other the 
equal-area zenithal In the equidistant zenithal 
the true lengths of the spheioidal arcs are laid 
off on the corresponding lines of the projection, 
in the other the lengths are so proportioned as 
to give equal areas A third projection is 
Airy's, in which the errors of distance, shape, 
and direction are balanced so as to make them 
as small as possible in each direction without 
increasing them unduly in others. Zenithal pro- 
jections are adapted tc the representation of 
fairly large areas in any part of the world, but 
are chiefly (except as regards the gnomonic) em- 
ployed in polar charts. 

The projection selected for the International 
Map of the World is a modified polyconic Each 
sheet is plotted independently on its central 
meridian, which is a stiaight line marked off 
in degrees in a manner heieinafter explained. 
Through the points so marked circles are drawn 
to represent the parallels The centres of the 
circles are on the prolongation of the central 
meridian, and the radius of each circle is A T cot 
L, in which N is the length of the normal inter- 
cepted between the curve and the minor (polar) 
axis of the meridional ellipse and L is the lati- 
tude of the parallel represented. Along the lim- 
iting parallels of each sheet (i.e., the circles at 
the top and bottom) the degrees of longitude are 
laid off in their true length to scale. Corre- 
sponding longitude points on the limiting par- 
allels are joined by straight lines whicli rep- 
resent the meridians. The meridians which are 
true to scale are those which are 2 to the east 
and west of the central meridian. The actual 
lengths on the central meridian are true to scale 
minus the small correction necessary to effect 
the adjustment, and this is given in a special 

Practical Construction. The surveys (see 
SURVEYING, HYDROGRAPHY) having been com- 
pleted, the results are transferred to the base 
map on a suitable projection; errors and dis- 
crepancies are eliminated or reconciled, and if 
certain localities need additional examination 
this is made. From the base maps and the orig- 
inal data drawings for the final map are pre- 
pared on the predetermined scale. In some 
cases it is practicable to obtain the suitable 
working plans by photo reduction from the 
base maps. 

To facilitate projection of points, areas, me- 



^Contour Interval 5O JfeeQ HYDROGRAPHY (!? " 

^ Jtaten* tt mean, MO. 2Mf& ) VF* h n 

L Kilometers. 

ridians, parallels, etc., tables have been prepared 
for all the principal projections, and these obvi- 
ate the necessity for computation. After the 
working drawing is completed the maps or charts 
are prepared for reproduction by engraving 
them on plates, etching them on plates, or by 
photolithography. The engraved plates (copper 
or soft steel) give the best results, but are more 
costly; the etched plates are prepared by photo- 
graphing on copper plates and etching with acid. 
The photolithographed charts are by far the 
cheapest, but are necessarily printed on inferior 
paper and will not stand much use. 

The map shown upon the accompanying plate 
has been designed to illustrate the methods of 
delineation employed by the Coast and Geodetic 
Survey, the Geological Survey, and the Hydro- 
graphic Office of the Navy. The Geological Sur- 
vey maps give certain additional data, as do 
some of the charts published by the Hydro- 
graphic Ofnce. 

Bibliography. Visconde de Santarcm, Atlas 
compos6 de mappemondes et de portulans (Paris, 
1842-53) , J. Lelewcl, Geographic du may en Age 
(Brussels, 1850-57) ; E. F. Jomard, Monuments 
de la geographic (Paris, 1862) ; N. A. E. Nord- 
enskjold, Pcnplus ( Stockholm, 1869 ) ; Vivien 
de Saint-Martin, Uistoire de la geographic 
(Paris, 1875) ; Peschel, Geschichte der Erdkunde 
(2d ed, by Sophus Ruge, Berlin, 1877) , Justin 
Winsor, A Bibliography of Ptolemy's Geography 
(Cambridge, Mass., 1884); id., "Earliest Maps 
of the Spanish and Portuguese Discoverers," in 
his Narrative and Critical History of America, 
vol. ii (New York, 1886); Theodor Fischer, 
Sammlung der mittelalterlicher Weld und See- 
kartcn (Vienna, 1886) ; N. A. E. Nordenskjold, 
Facsimile Atlas (Stockholm, 1889); Konrad 
Krctschmcr, Atlas zur Entdeckung Amenkas 
(Berlin, 1892); Henri Wauwermans, Histoire 
de Vecole cartographique beige et anversoise du 
J6e siecle (2 vols., Brussels, 1895) ; Henri Zou- 
dervan, Allgemcine Kartenkunde (Leipzig, 1901) ; 
Crown Collection of Photographs of American 
Maps, 1600-1800, edited by A. B. Hulbert 
(Cleveland, 1904-09) ; Geographisches Jahrbuch 
(Gotha, annually) ; E L Stevenson, Maps Illus- 
trating the Early Discovery and Exploration of 
America, 1502-1530 (New Brunswick, N. J., 
1906) ; Konrad Kretschmer, Die italienischen 
Portulane des Mittelalters : Em Beitrag zur Ge- 
schichte der Kartographie und Nautik (Berlin, 
1909) ; E. A. Reeves, Maps and Map-Making 
(London, 1910); E. L. Stevenson, Portolan 
Charts (New York, 1911); id., Genoese World 
Map of 1457 (ib., 1911); A. R. Dwerryhouse, 
Geological and Topographical Maps: Their In- 
terpretation and Use (London, 1911); H. N. 
Dickson, Maps: How they are Made and How to 
Read them (ib., 1912); Sir H. G. Fordham, 
Studies in Carto-Biblwgraphy (Oxford. 1914). 

Projection and Construction: Adrien Ger- 
main, Traite des projections (Paris, 1865) ; 
Gretschel, Lehrbuch der Kartenprojektion (Wei- 
mar, 1873); C. A. Schott, A Comparison of the 
Relative Value of the Polyconic Projection 
(Washington, 1880) ; Tissot, Memoire sur la 
representation des surfaces et les projections des 
cartes gtographiques (Paris, 1881); Fiorini, Le 
projezioni delle carte geografische (Bologna, 
1881 ) ; Thomas Craig, A Treatise on Projections 
(Washington, 1882); Ilemhauses, Grundzuge 
der mathernatischen Geographic und Landkar- 
tenprojektion (3d ed., Vienna, 1887); West, 
The Elements of Military Topography (London, 


1894) ; Cebrian and Los Arcos, teoria, general 
de las proyeociones geogrdficas (Madrid, 1895). 
Valuable material is to be found in publications 
of the United States Coast and Geodetic Sur- 

MAP, or MAFES, WALTER. A mediaeval au- 
thor, of Welsh descent, born probably in Here- 
fordshire, England, about 1140. He studied in 
Paris from about 1154; was connected with the 
household of Henry II, whom he attended 
abroad; was sent on missions to Paris (1173) 
and Rome (1179); and was precentor of Lin- 
coln, incumbent of Westbury, Gloucestershire, 
prebend of St. Paul's, and Archdeacon of Oxford 
(1197). He died about 1209. Map's one un- 
doubted work is De Nugis Cunalium (The 
Triflings of Courtiers), a curious and interest- 
ing medley of anecdotes, reminiscences, and sto- 
ries, to which we owe most of our knowledge of 
Map's life. In several of the manuscripts of 
the prose Lancelot, Grail, and Morte a? Arthur 
his name occurs as the author. But recent schol- 
arship places them at a later date. With some 
doubt the Golias poems are ascribed to him, 
satires in Latin on the clergy. Map was espe- 
cially a foe of Jews and Cistercians. In this 
collection occurs the famous drinking song 
"Mihi est propositum in taberna niori," which 
was rendered into English by Leigh Hunt. Con- 
sult the Latin Poems Attributed to Map and 
De Nugis Cunalium, edited by Wright, Camden 
Society (London, 1841, 1850), and Bardoux, 
De Waltherio Mappio (Paris, 1900). 

MATLE (AS. mapol, mapul, moepel, Icel. 
mopurr, OHG. mazzaltra, mazzoltra, Ger. Mas- 
holder, maple), Acer. A genus of trees of the 
family Aceraceae, containing nearly 100 species, 
natives of north-temperate regions, especially 
abundant in North America and eastern Asia. 
They have opposite, lobed, or palmate leaves 
without stipules; flowers m small axillary ra- 
cemes or corymbs, rich in nectar, and attractive 
to bees; fruits, two small winged nuts, one or 
two seeded. With a few exceptions the entire 
order is embraced in the genus Acer. The best- 
known European species are Acer oampestre and 

1, European maple (Acer campeafre); 2, striped maple 
(Acer pennsulvamcum) , 3, sugar maple (Acer saccharum), 
4, out-leaved form of Japanese maple (Acer japonicum, var. 

Acer pseudo-platanus. The common maple (Acer 
campestre), a shrub or small tree seldom attain- 
ing a height of 50 feet, is a native of many parts 
of Europe and Asia. Its wood is hard, fine- 
grained, takes a high polish, and is much used 
by turners and for carved work The greater 
maple, sycamore, or plane tree of Europe (Acer 
pseudo-platanus) is extensively planted both in 
Europe and in America. It is a large tree with 
a spreading head, 70 to 90 feet tall, of rather 


quick, vigorous growth. Its wood, which is 
white, compact, moderately hard, receives a fine 
polish and is much used by wheelwrights, turn- 
ers, etc. Sugar is sometimes made from the sap. 
The Norway maple (Acer platanoides) , a na- 
tive of Europe, is commonly planted in the east- 
ern United States and elsewhere as a shade tree. 
It grows to a height of 100 feet and has a com- 
pact, round head that renders the shade very 
dense It is by some preferred as a shade 
tree to the sugar maple, which it resembles. 
Among the American species 
perhaps the best known is the 
sugar maple (Acer saccharum), 
a large tree, 90 to 120 feet 
high, and found from New- 
foundland to Georgia and west- 
ward to the northern shores of 
the Great Lakes, eastern Ne- 
braska, and Kansas. The wood 
has a satiny appearance and is 
extensively used in cabinet- 
work and finishing houses 
When the grain has a pio- 
nounced wavy appearance the 
wood is called bird's-eye maple 
and is used as veneer From 
the sap of this tree large quan- 
tities of sirup and sugar are 
made To obtain the sap, holes 
are bored into the tree for half 
an inch or more in the late 
winter or early spring The 
sap, caught in vessels, is evaporated until the 
lesidue becomes sirupy or until a yellowish or 
brown sugar is obtained Trees will yield from 
two to six pounds of sugar during a season, and 
if the tapping, as it is called, is properly done, 
the tree suffers little injury. The black maple 
(Acer nigrum], now regarded as a variety of 
Acer sacckarum, is also an abundant producer 
of sugar. The tree is of similar habit and range 
to the former, and is distinguished from it by 
its black bark and generally duller appearance 
The silver maple (Acer saccharinum, formerly 
known as Acer dasycarpum) is -a large, rapidly 
growing tree of the same range as the last It 
is an ornamental tree, with light, brittle wood, 
and is extensively planted as a shade tree, but, 
aside from its rapid growth, is not equal in this 
respect to the sugar maple. The tree is very 

a, Btaxninate 
flowers, b, pistil- 
late flowers 

XUBD MAPLE (Acer ru&niwi) 
Spray with fruits 

hardy and easily grown, but on account of its 
brittleness is especially liable to damage by 
winds and storms breaking its limbs. This spe- 
cies was named Acer saccharinum by Linnaeus 
under the impression that it was the true sugar 
maple, a tree which it is now believed he never 

6 MAPLE nr 

saw. Sugar is made from it, but the sap is leas 
sweet than that of either of the two species most 
commonly tapped. The striped maple (Acer 
pennsylvamcum) is a small tree with greenish 
bark striped with white lines. Its compact habit 
of growth and large leaves make it an excellent 
shade tree. The red maple (Acer rubrum) has 
about the same range as the sugar maple. It 
somewhat resembles the silver maple in habit, 
but is of slower growth. Its timber is valuable, 
and the spring coloring of the flowers and fruits 
and the autumn coloring of the leaves make it 
a veiy ornamental tiee. The mountain maple 
(Acer spicatum), a small tree in the eastern 
United States, the large-toothed or Oregon maple 
(Acer grandidentata) , and the vine maple (Acer 
circmnatum) of the Rocky Mountains and Pa- 
cific coast are other common and well-known 
species possessing the habits and uses desciibed 
above All of the species are valuable for fuel, 
in this respect exceeding all other woods except 
hickory in popular estimation. Of many of the 
species there are numerous cultivated vaneties 
differing in their habit of growth, color and 
character of foliage, etc The autumn coloring 
of the maples, especially in the United States, 
is not surpassed by any other group of trees, the 
reds and yellows of their leaves adding greatly 
to the beauty of the autumn landscape 

Among the species of eastern Asia are a num- 
ber that have been introduced into western coun- 
tries, and some have proved valuable for plant- 
ing, such as the famous Japanese maples, most 
of which are varieties of Acer pal mat um and 
Acer japomcum They are mostly small trees or 
shrubs, and on account of their great variety in 
color and the deep and often curious lobmg of 
their leaves, they are extensively planted as 

One section of the genus Acer, sometimes 
called ash-leaved maples, have compound leaves. 
There are representatives of this group in Japan 
and in the United States, the best known of 
which is Acer negundo (Negundo aceroides), the 
box elder (qv), coming to be a very common 
shade tree along streets 


(1845-1903). An English capitalist He was 
educated at Crawford College and at King's 
College School In 1862 he entered his father's 
furniture business, of whieh he was practically 
the head after 1880 The firm developed rapidly, 
and in 1891 it was ehanged into a limited 
liability company with 2,000,000 capital 
Maple was a Conservative member of Parliament 
for Dulwich from 1887 until his death; was 
knighted in 1892; and was created Baronet in 
1897. The owner of a large stud of blooded 
race horses, he won 544 races in 21 years with 
his entries, many of which were made under the 
name of "Mr. Childwick." He rebuilt University 
College Hospital, London, and left a fortune of 

MAPLE INSECTS. The different species of 
maple are greatly subject to the attacks of in- 
jurious insects, certain species, such as the 
silver-leaved maple, being more susceptible than 
others Several insects bore in the trunks of 
these trees. The sugar-maple borer (QlycoliuB 
speciosus), a black, long-horned beetle which 
has yellow bands, destroys the sugar maple in 
the northern parts of the United States; the 
horntail borer (see HOKNTAIL) and the larva of 
a clear-winged moth (JBgeria aoerni) also bore 

the trunks, the latter being especially abundant 
in the Mississippi valley. A buprestid beetle, 
Dicerca divancata, in the larval stage bores in 
red-maple stiuftpa, although undoubtedly origi- 
nally an enemy of the beech. The principal 
bark borer of the sugar maple in the northern 
United States is Corthylus punctatissimus t one 
of the Scolytidee. The striped maple worm 
(larva of Amsota rubicunda) is a widespread 
enemy of these trees, frequently feeding upon the 
leaves in such gieat numbers as entirely to 
defoliate long rows of shade trees The tent 
caterpillar of the forest (Malacosotna disstria) 
is a decided enemy of all species of maples and 
has greatly damaged the sugar maples in New 
York and New England. The tussock moth's 
caterpillar (Orgy to, leucostigma) and the fall 
webworm (Hyphantna cunea) frequently de- 
foliate the shade trees of the larger cities. The 
cottony maple scale (Pulvinana innumerabilis) 
is occasionally so numerous as to cause serious 
injury, and another scale insect (Pseudococous 
aceris), probably introduced from Europe, is 
very abundant on the shade trees of certain 
cities The so-called gloomy scale (Aspidiotus 
tenebricosus) has a southern range, and is 
frequently the unnoticed cause of the death of 
otherwise \igorous shade trees Several species 
of plant lice, notably Pemphigus acerifoln, 
damage the leaves of early summer, and a gall 
mite (Phytoptus quadnpes) disfigures the leaves 
with its massed reddish galls Consult A S 
Packard, Fifth Report of the United States 
Entomological Commission (Washington, 1890), 
and publications of the United States Bureau of 
Entomology, especially the Circulars (ib, 1900 
et seq ) 

(1829-1901). An English operatic impresario, 
born in London. He studied the violin for two 
years at the Royal Academy of Music and then 
went to Italy for singing lessons, but soon after 
his return a throat affection made a vocal career 
out of the question, and he was engaged in the 
orchestra at Her Majesty's Theatre After hav- 
ing made tours with several leading artists, in 
1861 he succeeded E. T. Smith as manager of 
the Italian opera at the Lyceum in London. He 
controlled Her Majesty's Theatre (1862-69), and 
then went to Drury Lane until 1877, when he 
returned to Her Majesty's, and the following 
year he brought Italian opera to the United 
States He was successor to Strakosch at the 
Academy of Music in New York City and in- 
troduced many of the greatest singers of his 
time to New York audiences. In 1888 he pub- 
lished his reminiscences in two volumes under 
the title The Mapleson Memoirs (Chicago). 


MAPLEWOOD. A city in St. Louis Co., 
Mo., adjoining the city of St. Louis on the 
west, and served by the Missouri Pacific Rail- 
road It is essentially a residential suburb of 
St. Louis. Pop., 1910, 4976. 


MAP TURTLE. One of the names of a com- 
mon North American land turtle (Malaco- 
clemmys geographicus) , also called geographic 

MAPU, ma'poTJ, ABRAHAM ( 1808-67 ) . A Rus- 
sian Hebrew novelist. He was born in a suburb 
of Kovno and achieved a reputation as a Talmud- 
ist by the time he was 12. A Latin psalter fall- 
ing into his hands, he set about studying Latin 

with intense interest, aaij^&Bder the guidance of 
a friendly Polish curate/made rapid progress. 
This opened the way for the study of the Latin 
classics, which left an indelible impression on 
Mapu's poetic nature. A knowledge of French, 
which he acquired next, introduced him to the 
French romanticists, with whose works and 
especially the novels of Eugene Sue he became 
infatuated. In 184$, having secured an ap- 
pointment as teacher in a Jewish government 
school in Kovno, he came in touch with Senior 
Sachs, who inspired him with new enthusiasm 
for Hebrew literature and urged him to devote 
himself to it. The result of this advice and 
encouragement was the completion of a novel, 
Ahabat Ztyon (The Love of Zion) (1852), con- 
ceived some 20 years before. As this historical 
romance was the first of its kind in Hebrew 
literature, its importance cannot be overesti- 
mated It recalls in glowing colors the golden 
age of ancient Judcea. In spite of its puerile 
technique and crude psychology this work had 
an immense success While strictly orthodox 
rabbis condemned The Love of Zion as a prof- 
anation of the holy language, their students 
everywhere were entranced by its poetry and 
sentiment. Mapu's next work, The Transgres- 
sion of Samaria (1865), is another historical 
romance dealing with the same period as the 
first and written in noble biblical style. Both 
have been translated, under various titles, into 
German, English, and Yiddish. A third his- 
torical romance was all but destroyed by the 
Russian censorship. Mapu's last and longest 
novel, The Hypocrite (1859-69), fell far short 
artistically of the earlier ones. Besides these, 
Mapu wrote also an excellent manual of Hebrew 
(containing suggestions for teaching it), a He- 
brew grammar, and a Hebrew textbook for the 
study of French. 

MAPTJRITO, ma'poo-re'td. See CONEPATE; 

MAQUET, ma'ka', AUGUSTS (1813-88). A 
French author, born in Paris. He was educated 
at the College Charlemagne, where he was for a 
time teacher Having written the drama Ba- 
thilde, he was introduced to Alexandre Dumas, 
who, impressed by his talent, proposed their 
working together. It has generally been ad- 
mitted that in this capacity of collaborator he 
furnished large portions of Dumas's most famous 
books and plays. Under his own name he pub- 
lished the romances Beau d'Angennes (1843), 
La belle Gabnelle (1853-55), and many others. 
For the theatre he prepared Le chateau de Gran- 
tier (1852), Le comte de Lavernie (1855), La 
Itelle Gabnelle (1857), and a number of others. 

MAQTJI, ma'kwg (Sp. maqui, from the Chilean 
name), Aiistotelia macqui. One of a few species 
of a genus of plants sometimes referred to the 
family Eleeocarpaceae, a Chilean evergreen or 
subevergreen shrub of considerable size. The 
small green or yellow flowers, borne in axillary 
racemes, are followed by three-celled edible black 
acid berries about the size of peas, which are 
used by the Chileans to make wine. The wood 
is used for making musical instruments, and the 
tough bark for instrument strings. The maqui 
is frequently cultivated as an ornamental shrub, 
and in favorable conditions sometimes bears 
fruit in northern countries. 

MAQTJI. A peculiar type of xerophytie 
thicket characteristic of the Mediterranean 
region of Europe. The plants are chiefly 6wr- 
green shrubs and half shrubs and comprise a 


large number of well-known plants, such as the 
myrtle, box, laurel, and oleander. It is similar 
in appearance to the chaparral found in the 
southeastern United States, which is composed 
of dwarf evergreen oaks together with various 
shrubs of the buckthorn and rose families. See 

MAQUOKETA, m&-k6'ke-ta. A city and the 
county seat of Jackson Co., Iowa, 38 miles by 
rail northwest of Clinton, on the Maquoketa 
River and on the Chicago and Northwestern and 
the Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul railroads 
(Map: Iowa, G 2). It has a Boardman refer- 
ence and a Carnegie library, a sanitarium, and 
Elhsonian Institute. Maquoketa is a trade and 
industrial centre of considerable importance, its 
manufactures including lime, flour, foundry and 
machine-shop products, brick, lumber, cigars, 
butter tubs, etc. In the vicinity are valuable 
quarries of limestone. The water works are 
owned and operated by the municipality. Pop., 
1900, 3777; 1910, 3570 


ING (1749-1833) A German singer, born at 
Cassel. She began to play the violin at such an 
early age that her father, a poor musician, gave 
her a few lessons and then exhibited her as a 
prodigy in Vienna and London. In the latter 
city she took a few singing lessons from Paradisi 
and was so successful that thereafter she de- 
voted herself entirely to vocalization. Her first 
engagement was at Leipzig; she then sang at the 
Dresden Court Opera, and in 1771 accepted an 
engagement for life at the Berlin Court Opera. 
In Berlin she married the violoncellist Mara, who 
squandered her fortune. In 1780, owing to a 
series of annoyances, she broke her contract 
and went to Vienna, and from there, in 1782, to 
Paris, where her great rivalry with Todi (qv ) 
became an historic event, and the French public 
was divided into "Maradista" and "Todists" 
With the exception of two visits to Italy, she 
spent the period from 1784 to 1802 in England. 
Upon leaving London she went to Paris and 
then, after an extensive tour, to Russia, where 
she lost her property at the time of the French 
invasion. Her voice had now failed her, and she 
became a singing teacher at Reval, where she 
died in great poverty. Consult Arnold Niggli, 
Oertrud Elisabeth Mara (Leipzig, 1881). 

MARABOU (m&r'a-boo') STORK (Fr. mara- 
bout, Sp. marabu, from Ar murabit, hermit, 
from rabata, to bind). The African name of a 
stork allied to the adjutant (qv ) or argala of 
India. Both species belong to the genus Leptop- 
tilus, which is remarkable for having the feathers 
of the anal region lengthened so as to conceal 
the true tail feathers, and these elongated feath- 
ers are the so-called marabou feathers which 
were formerly much used for trimming ladies' 
hats and dresses. The African species is Leptop- 
tilus crumemferus It is white with the back 
and wings greenish slate color. The sausage- 
like pouch which hangs from its neck is capable 
of being inflated, giving the bird a strange ap- 
pearance. It is gregarious in its wild state, 
frequenting the mouths of rivers and living upon 
animals too large for other storks to swallow. 
It is easily domesticated, but its exceeding 
voracity impels it on every occasion to purloin 
poultry, cats, and puppies, swallowing them 

MARABOUTS, m&r'&-bSots'. The French 


form of the name of a Mohammedan sect, from 
which sprang the Almoravides (q.v.), who 
founded a dynasty in northwest Africa and in 
Spain during the eleventh century. In Arabic 
the term al Murabituna (the hermits) is de- 
rived from ribat, which designates a hermit hut 
and a fortified place, but came to be a name of 
not only the hermits themselves, but also of 
those who joined them in establishing the new 
dynasty. The descendants of the original as- 
cetic missionaries form to-day a sort of order 
among the Berbers, leading a sanctified and 
contemplative life, though the appellation Mara- 
bout is generally given them only after their 
death. They are the western counterpart of the 
eastern Mujahid, who, suppressing the passions, 
seeks union (Ittih&d) with Allah, and of the 
saints (wahs) of the Sufis. They are often at- 
tached to mosques, chapels, or places of pilgrim- 
age, explaining the Koran and providing the 
faithful with amulets. As their influence is 
very great, their orders are implicitly obeyed. 
There are various divisions among them; the 
higher Marabouts living in a sort of monastery 
(Zawiyah} composed of a mosque, a domed 
building (kubbah), in which are the tomb of 
some saint, schools for children and for the 
teaching of the Koran and the sciences, as well 
as living rooms for scholars and travelers The 
tomb of the saint is sometimes itself called a 
Marabout, and is an object of pilgrimage for 
the pious Mohammedans Consult Rmn, Mara- 
bouts et Khouans (Algiers, 1884) 

MARACAIBO, nrn'ra-kllri. The capital of 
the State of Zulia, Venezuela, situated on a 
sandy plain on the west shore of the strait 
which connects Lake Maracaibo with the Gulf of 
Venezuela (Map. Colombia, C 1). It is a 
handsome town, with a hot but healthful cli- 
mate, and has several fine buildings, notably 
the government palace, the city hall, and the 
school of arts It has also a nautical school, 
several libraries, and a hospital well located on 
an island opposite the city. Its streets are 
lighted by electricity and traversed by a tram- 
way system It has manufactures of candles, 
soap, hats, boots, and lumber Its importance, 
however, is due to its harbor, which has the 
finest dockyards in the Republic and is deep 
enough to admit the largest vessels , the entrance 
is, however, made difficult by a shifting bar. 
It is the only port of entry for western Vene- 
zuela and a part of eastern Colombia, with 
which regions it carries on an active tiade In 
1912 it held first rank among the ports of the 
Republic in exports and second rank in imports, 
the former amounting to $2,293,802 and the 
latter $1,217,822. The chief articles of export 
are coffee, cocoa, quinine, dyewoods, sugar, and 
hides. Steamship lines run to the United 
States, and a United States consulate is estab- 
lished here. Pop. (est ), 55,000 Maracaibo 
was founded in 1571 by Alonso Pacheco. 


MARACAIBO, LAKE. A large sheet of water 
in the northwestern part of Venezuela, con- 
nected with the Gulf of Venezuela (or of Mara- 
caibo) by a strait nearly 9 miles wide (Map: 
Colombia, C 2). It is of nearly rectangular 
shape, with a length from north to south of 100 
miles and a width of 50 to 60 miles. Its ex- 
treme depth in the northern part is 500 feet, 
but it shoals rapidly towards the south, where 
the shores are low and marshy and the water 

MA&A0HA j 

shallow. The entrance is obstructed by a bar 
with only 7 to l^vfeet of water, so that large 
vessels cannot enter. Owing to the narrow en- 
trance and to the great number of rivers which 
discharge into it, the water of the lake is fresh 
and the tides are scarcely felt, so that, though 
it fa form is that of a marine inlet, it is to be 
considered as an inland lake. It occupies part 
of a much larger lake basin surrounded by 
lofty mountains. This basin has been partly 
filled up by alluvium, leaving a number of 
smaller lakes connecting by creeks with the main 

MARAGHA, ma'ra-ga'. An old town in the 
west of Persia, in the Province of Azerbaijan, 
on the Safi River, 80 miles south of Tabriz 
(Map: Asia, Central, B 4). It consists mostly 
of mud houses inclosed by a high, dilapidated 
wall. The town is celebrated as the site of an 
observatory which Hulaku Khan built for the as- 
tronomer Nusir ed Din It is surrounded by 
vineyards and orchards, the pioduce of which is 
exported to Russia. Famous marble pits produce 
a nearly transparent marble. Pop., about 16,000. 

MARAIS, ma'ra', LE. 1. A name given dur- 
ing the Fiench Revolution to the centre party of 
the Legislative Assembly and of the Conven- 
tion, usually called the Plain. 2. A quarter of 
Paris, built on marshy ground, east of the Rue 
Saint-Denis and including the Place dcs Vosges, 
formerly, as the Place Royale, the centre of 
aristocratic Paris. It contains fine buildings 
from the time of Henry IV and Louis XIII. 
3. Vast plains in the west of France, reclaimed 
from the sea, consisting of two distinct divisions, 
the Breton or western and the Poitevin or 

MARAJ6, ma'ra-zho', or JOANNES A large 
island formed by the estuaries of the Amazon 
and the Parti and the network of river arms 
connecting them (Map: Brazil, H 4). It is 165 
miles long from east to west and 120 miles wide 
Its surface is very low and flat; the northern 
part consists of immense swamps, while the 
western part is covered with forests, consisting 
largely of rubber trees There are several large 
lakes in the interior, and in the wet season the 
greater part of the island is flooded In the 
dry season it affords excellent grazing The 
population is scanty, consisting largely of 
hunters and rubber gatherers visiting the island 
during the dry season. The principal settle- 
ment is Saure*, on the east coast. 

MARAL, ma'ral'. A large species of deer 
(Ccrvus maral) of the Caspian provinces of 
Persia, which is closely related to the European 
red deer in structure and habits, but is probably 
distinct from that species. Its antlers always 
terminate in more than two tines. Consult 
Lydeker, Deer of All Lands (London, 1898). 

MARAMATtOS-SZIGET. A town of Hun- 

MAB'ANATH'A. An expression found in 
the New Testament near the close of Paul's 
First Epistle to the Corinthians (xvi. 22: "If 
any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let 
him be Anathema Maran-atha" ; R. V., "anath- 
ema. Maran atha"). The term, not being 
Greek, but Aramaic, has occasioned much dis- 
cussion. Interpreters ignorant of Aramaic, or 
in localities where there was no old tradition 
as to its meaning, considered it a threat of 
some sort. But ancient Eastern tradition and 
modern scholarship explain it as made up of 
VOL. XV. 6 


two Aramaic words, marana (Our Lord) and 
tha (come). It is therefore to be understood as 
a fervent prayer or exclamation, "Our Lord, 
come!" A parallel is found in Rev. xxii. 20: 
"Even so, come, Lord Jesus." Maranatha is also 
found in the Didache (see TEACHING OF THE 
TWELVE APOSTLES) apparently with the same 
sense, at the end of a thanksgiving prayer in 
connection with the Eucharist. The expression 
doubtless came into vogue very early m Pales- 
tinian circles in connection with the expectation 
of the speedy return of Jesus, and probably as a 
part of the celebration of the agapae or love 
feasts. Consult: Schmidt, in the Journal of 
Biblical Literature, vol. xiii (Boston, 1894); 
Gustaf Dalman, Grammatik des judisch-palasti- 
mschen Aramaisch, p. 152 (Leipzig, 1894) ; 
James Hastings (ed ), Dictionary of the Bible 
(New York, 1909). 

MARANHA, ma-ra'nya, MIRANHA, or 
MARIANA. A fierce cannibal tribe of Ara- 
wakan stock (qv.), ranging from the Jutahy 
River on the south, across the Amazon and 
Putumayo, to the Yapura on the north, in west- 
ern Brazil and the adjacent parts of Colombia 
and Peru They wear wooden labrets and ear 
pendants, with nose pendants of shell, but do 
not tattoo. The boring of a child's lips is cele- 
brated by a feast. When a bov is 12 years old 
four gashes are cut near his mouth by his father, 
and he must then fast five days. At a later 
period the boys whip themselves as a test of 
manhood. In fighting expeditions each man 
carries a small bag of salt as an antidote against 
poisoned arrows. The Mirahan dialect is be- 
lieved by Rivet to be a much modified and dif- 
ferentiated form of the Tupi-Guaiam. Consult 
A. Mochi in Archives pour I'anthropotogie, vols. 
xxxii, xxxiii (Paris, 1902-03), and Journal de 
la Somite" des Americanistes de Pans, vol. viii 
(N. s, ib., 1911). 

MABANHAO, ma'ra-nyouN', or MARAN- 
HAM. A northern state of Brazil, bounded by 
the Atlantic Ocean on the northeast, the State 
of Piauhy on the southeast, Goyaz on the south- 
west, and Parfl on the northwest (Map- Brazil, 
H 4). Its area is 150,795 square miles. The 
surface is only slightly elevated and traversed 
by a number of rivers. The coast land is gen- 
erally low and subject to inundations The 
climate is hot, the average for the year being 
80 F., with very little variation. The bound- 
aries with the states of Piauhy and Para and 
most of that of Goyaz are formed respectively 
by the Parnahyba, Gurupy, and Tocantms rivers. 
The important rivers of the interior are the 
Itapicuru, Mearim, Grajahu, and Pundar. The 
soil is very fertile and the whole state is well 
wooded. The chief products are cotton, sugar, 
tobacco, corn, rice, and cacao. The conditions of 
the state make it adaptable for stock raising, 
which is carried on extensively. Agricultural 
development is greatly handicapped by the scar- 
city of population, and efforts are being made to 
establish agricultural colonies for the natives 
as well as to attract foreign settlers by liberal 
grants of land. The chief exports are sugar, 
cotton, rice, rubber, tobacco, cattle, hides, and 
skins. Pop., 1900, 459,508; 1912 (eat.), 520,000. 
The inhabitants are chiefly whites of Portuguese 
descent, but there are also a considerable num- 
ber of negroes and mulattoes and about 20,000 
Indians. The capital is Maranh&o (qv.). 



The capital of the State of Maranhao, Brazil, 
situated on an island lying between the bays of 
Sfto Marcos and Sao Jose!, 280 miles southeast 
of Para (Map: Brazil, J 4). The climate is 
very warm, but is not unhealthful. The town 
is well built and clean and has handsome public 
buildings, a theatre, a hospital, a cathedral, and 
a fine bishop's palace. It has training, music, 
and normal schools, the latter being considered 
the best in Brazil. The originally good harbor 
has suffered from silting, but extensive port 
works were begun in 1908 to improve this con- 
dition. The city carries on considerable com- 
merce. In 1913 the imports amounted to $258,- 
677 and the exports $305,189. It is the seat of 
a United States consular agent. Pop. (est.), 
1912, 45,000. The town was founded by the 
French in 1612. The birthplace of many states- 
men and writers, it is renowned for the cultiva- 
tion of science and letters and is called the 
Brazilian Athens. 

MARANO DI NAPOLI, ma-ra'n6 d na'- 
p6-le. A town in the Province of Naples, Italy, 
situated about 5 miles northwest of Naples. 
It lies in a fertile region and produces wine, 
grain, and fruit. Pop. (commune), 1901, 10,- 
317, 1911, 11,934. 

MABAffON, ma'ra-nyon'. A name some- 
times applied to the upper course of the Amazon 

MARASCHINO, ma'ra-ske'ni (It., from ma- 
rasca, a sort of cherry, from Lat. amarus, bit- 
ter). A liqueur distilled from the fermented 
juice of the marasca cherry and flavored with 
its pits The marasca cherry is a small black 
fruit, so named from its bitterness Maraschino 
is chiefly made in Zara, Dalmatia. See LIQUEUR. 

MARASH, ma-rash'. The capital of the 
sanjak of the same name in the Vilayet of 
Aleppo, Asiatic Turkey, situated at the foot of 
Mount Taurus, about 90 miles north-northeast 
of its port, Alexandretta (Map: Turkey in Asia, 
C 3 ) . It is a well-built city with fine bazars and 
a considerable trade in Kurd carpets and em- 
broideries. Besides mosques and Mohammedan 
schools there are a number of Christian churches, 
a college and schools attached to the American 
mission, and a Jesuit establishment. In the 
vicinity of the town are found traces of Roman 
fortifications and tombs with Greek inscriptions. 
Many Hittite monuments have also been discov- 
ered near Marash. The population is estimated 
at from 40,000 to 52,000, including many 

MARAS'MTJS (Neo-Lat., from Gk. fjutpatrpts, 
marasmos, decay, from papaiveiv, marainein, to 
weaken; ultimately connected with Skt mar, to 
grind, mla, weaken, Olr meirb, AS. mearu, OHG. 
muruwi, murwi, Ger. murbe, soft). A term some- 
what vaguely used by the older medical writers 
to designate those cases of general emaciation 
or atrophy for which they did not see any special 
cause. The word still has a definite connotation 
as applied to infantile atrophy and is employed 
to describe a form of wasting due to nutritional 
disorder combined with bad hygienic surround- 
ings and not dependent upon constitutional 
diseases such as tuberculosis and syphilis, al- 
though these may be an underlying factor in 
some cases. Marasmus occurs in bottle-fed 
babies, chiefly among the poor in large cities and 
in institutions. The symptoms are similar to 
those of slow starvation; the child, as a result of 
improper feeding, soon becomes unable to as- 
similate the food that is given it. The tempera- 

ture is subnormal, the eyes large and sunken, 
the skin hangs in loose folds, the limbs are 
wasted, and the face has an indescribable look 
of age. The outlook for children under six 
months old is unfavorable, but timely and ap- 
propriate treatment restores some babies to 
health. This consists in careful feeding, by a 
wet nurse when practicable, bathing, massage, 
and fresh air. (See INFANTS, FEEDING OF.) 
The term is also used occasionally as a synonym 
for tabes mesentenca, or tubercular disease of 
the mesenteric glands. See TUBERCULOSIS. 

MARAT, ma'ra', JEAN PAUL (1744-93). One 
of the radical leaders of the French Revolution, 
born May 24, 1744, at Boudry, near Neufchatel, 
Switzerland. In youth he made himself master 
of several languages; subsequently he studied 
medicine at Bordeaux and at Paris, and, after 
traveling extensively in Europe, removed to Lon- 
don. There he practiced medicine and published 
An Essay on Man (1772) and The Chains of 
Slavery (1776). Retuining to Paris, he wrote 
on optical subjects and electricity and entered 
the service of the Count of Artois as a veteri- 
nary surgeon in 1777. The fruits of his studies 
in physics appeared in a number of publications 
on electricity and optics. Upon the outbreak of 
the Revolution, Marat soon came to the front as 
one of its most extravagant, passionate leaders, 
and won a large following After several abor- 
tive journalistic experiments he established, 
Sept. 12, 1789, a journal, Le Pubhciste Parisian, 
which as L'Ami du Pcuple and, after Sept 21, 
1792, as Le Journal de la KtpuWujue became one 
of the most famous papers of the revolutionary 
period. In it Marat attacked the moderates of 
the Constituent Assembly and later the Giron- 
dists with such violence that he was compelled 
on several occasions to take refuge in England 
Danton, who had found Marat useful in the 
preparation of the events which led up to the 
storming of the Tuileries (Aug 10, 1792), made 
him a member of the Commune of Paris It 
was in a gieat measure the influence of Marat 
which led to the cruelties and massacres of 
September, 1792, in the midst of which he was 
elected a member of the Convention His jour- 
nal became more radical and vehement than 
ever. During the King's trial he was urgent for 
his immediate execution, and in his journal 
called upon the people to slay 200,000 of the 
adherents of the old regime On April 14, 1793, 
he was brought before the Revolutionary Tri- 
bunal on the charge of fomenting sedition, but 
was acquitted (April 24) and returned to the 
Convention more powerful than ever He plaved 
probably the leading part in the events of May 
31 to June 2, which brought about the downfall 
of the Girondists, who had long regarded him 
as their inveterate enemy. On July 13, 1793, 
Marat was stabbed in his own house by Charlotte 
Corday (q.v ) His death aroused tremendous 
public feeling His bust was placed in the Hall 
of the Convention; the scene of his murder was 
painted by David; fetes in perpetuation of his 
memory were held all over France; mothers 
named their children after the "martyr of the 
people," and in November the Convention de- 
creed to Marat's remains the honors of the 

Bibliography. Charles Burnet, Marat (Paris, 
1862 ) ; Francois Chevremont, Jean Paul Marat 
(ib., 1880) ; A. Vermorel, J P. Marat (ib., 
1880) ; A Cabanes, Marat tnconnu, Vhomme 
prive", le medecin, le savant, d'apres des docu- 


ments nouveaux et intdits (ib., 1891); E. B. 
Bax, Jean Paul Marat, the People's Friend (2d 
ed., Boston, 1901); Polish Letters from the 
Original Unpublished Manuscripts, issued by the 
Bibliophile Society (2 vols, ib., 1905); Charles 
Vellay, Correspondance de Marat (Paris, 1908). 

MARATHI, ma-ra'te*. A language spoken in 
western India, belonging to the southern group 
of the Indo-Aryan family, and closely related 
to Hindi, Gujarati, and other modern vernacu- 
lars of Indo-Iranian origin. It is the tongue of 
between 15,000,000 and 20,000,000 people and is 
divided into several dialects, which are com- 
prised under the two great groups Dakhani and 
Konkani. The former of these is found, as its 
name implies, in the Deccan and contains the 
standard dialect, called Deshi, spoken near 
Poona. The district of the Konkani is along 
the coast in the southwestern portion of the 
country of the Mahrattas. It contains a con- 
siderable mixture of Dravidian words from the 
neighboring Kanarese, and around Goa it has 
numerous Portuguese loan words. Marathi as 
a whole, despite its importations from Persian 
and Arabic, has departed less from the Sanskrit 
form than almost any other New Indian lan- 
guage. It is probably descended from the ver- 
nacular form of the Maharaahtri Prakrit dialect 
of mediaeval India. 

Marathi literature is abundant It begins in 
the thirteenth century with Namdev, a pred- 
ecessor of the famous Tukaram (1609 AD.), 
who wrote religious poems of a pronounced 
Vishnuitic trend Another poet almost as highly 
esteemed as Tukaram was Mayur Pandit, or 
Moropant, in the eighteenth century Prose 
works in Marathi are Comparatively unimpor- 
tant Modern literature in this language, under 
English influence, is copious but rather me- 
diocre. The alphabet employed by the Marathi 
is the Devanagari, in which Sanskrit is written 

Bibliography. Molesworth and Candy, 
Marathi and English Dictionary (2d ed., Bom- 
bay, 1857) ; Padmanji, Marathi and English 
Dictionary (3d ed, ib., 1882); Bhide, Mar&thi- 
English Primer (ib, 1889); Sanskrt a- Marathi 
Koga, a Sansknt-Marathi Dictionaiy (ib, 
1891); J. M. Mitchell, "The Chief Marathi 
Poets," in the Transactions of the Ninth Inter- 
national Congress of Orientalists, vol i (Lon- 
don, 1892) ; G. R. Navalkar, Students 9 Marathi 
Grammar (3d ed , Bombay, 1894); Godabole, 
Selections from the Marathi Poets (4th ed , ib., 
1895); A Manwaring, Marathi Proverbs Col- 
lected and Translated (Oxford, 1899) ; Joshi, 
Comprehensive Mara-tht Poets (Poona, 1900) ; 
Grierson, "Marathi Language," in the Linguistic 
Survey of India, vol vii (Calcutta, 1905); 
Bloch, La formation de la langue marathe 
(Paris, 1914). For a brief account of its litera- 
ture, see N. G. Ranade, Rise of the Mar at ha 
Power (Bombay, 1900). 

MAR'ATHON (Lat., from Gk. Mapafc*?). 
Anciently a small town on the coast of Attica, 
about 20 miles northeast of Athens (Map: 
Greece, Ancient, D 2). The modern village lies 
at the point where a valley opens into the plain 
of Marathon, which is surrounded by a semi- 
circular range of mountains on the north, west, 
and south, while on the east it is washed by the 
Bay of Marathon. South of the valley of Mara- 
thon is another valley, m which is the little vil- 
lage of Vrana, while from the southern extrem- 
ity of the plain, between the sea and the moun- 
tains, a road leads by a circuitous route between 


Mounts Pentelicus and Hymettus into the Attic 
plain. Along with three other towns, Proba- 
linthos, Tricorythos, and (Enoe, Marathon be- 
longed to the Tetrapolis, which claimed a very 
early legendary origin and independent existence 
until the time of Theseus. It is clear that the 
league continued to exist for religious purposes 
until at least the fourth century B.C., and prob- 
ably for a longer time. The plain, of Marathon 
is especially famous as the scene of the decisive 
battle in which Miltiades (q.v.) led the Athe- 
nians and the Plataeans to victory over the army 
of Darius under the command of Datis and Ar- 
taphernes in 490 B.C. (See GBEBCE, Ancient His- 
tory.) The details of the battle are not easy to 
determine, as the ancient accounts are confused. 
It is probable that the Athenians occupied the 
valley of Vrana and attacked the Persians either 
when they were preparing to re&nbark or to exe- 
cute a turning movement by the road to the 
south. The Greek force seems to have numbered 
about 10,000, of whom 192 fell. The numbeis of 
the Persians are unknown, but the traditional 
100,000 is certainly much exaggerated; their 
loss is said to have been 6400 Contrary to 
custom, the Athenian dead were buried on the 
field, and over their remains was raised the 
great mound (or soros) which is still conspic- 
uous in the southern part of the plain Its 
identity, at one time much disputed, was proved 
by the excavations of the Greek Archaeological 
Society under Stais, in 1890 and 1891, which 
brought to light, in a space 85 feet by 20 feet, 
human bones, ashes, vases of the early fifth 
century B.C., and a sacrificial trench, where 
offerings had been made before the earth was 
heaped up. Some of the remains found in the 
soros are to be seen now in the National Mu- 
seum at Athens. The literature on Marathon is 
very extensive. Besides the standard histories 
of Greece, consult: 'Apx*u>\oyiK&v AeXrlop (Athens, 
1891); Fraser, Pausanias, vol. ii (London, 
1898), containing a large bibliography; Milch- 
hdfer's text to Curtius and Kaupert, Karten von 
Attika (Berlin, 1881-95); Macan, Herodotus, 
books iv, v, vi, especially vol. ii, pp. 149-248 
(London, 1895) ; Journal of Hellenic Studies, 
vol. xix (ib., 1899) ; G. B. Grundy, The Great 
Persian War (ib, 1901); Baedeker, Greece 
(with map: 4th Eng ed., Leipzig, 1909). 


MARATTA, ma-rat'ta, or MARATTI, CARLO 
(1625-1713). An Italian painter of the Roman 
school, born at Camerano. He was a pupil of 
Andrea Sacchi and was influenced by the works 
of Raphael and the Carracci. Considered the 
most eminent painter in Rome, he long enjojfi^ 
the papal patronage. In 1702-03 Clement XI 
commissioned him to restore Raphael's frescoes 
in the Vatican, and Innocent XI appointed him 
superintendent of the paintings in the Vatican. 
He died at Rome as Prince of the Academy of 
St. Luke. Most of his pictures are small easel 
paintings in oil, the best being portraits. His 
design is academic, his color pleasing, his brush- 
work weak; his style resembles that of Guido 
Reni, but is even less original. He etched a 
number of important plates. Among his best 
paintings are the following: "Madonna," Pa- 
lazzo Doria, Rome; "Annunciation," Turin Gal- 
lery; "Adoration of Shepherds," Basel Museum; 
"Holy Night," Dresden Museum; "St. John at 
Patmos," "Sleeping Child," "Portrait of a Car- 
dinal," Old Pinakothek, Munich; "Presentation 
in the Temple," "Portrait of Clement IX," 


Hermitage, St. Petersburg; "Madonna in Glory," 
"Hagar and Ishmael," Madrid Museum ; portrait 
of Cardinal Cerri, National Gallery, London. 

MAB'AVEO)!, 8p. pron. mu'ra-vA'di (Sp., 
from AT. Murabitin, name of a Moorish dynasty, 
pi. of mur&btt, hermit). The name borne by 
certain Spanish coins. One of gold weighing 
about 60 grains was issued by the Moorish emirs 
in the eleventh and twelfth centuries; sub- 
sequently the maravedi constituted the lowest 
denomination in the Spanish coinage, varying 
in value from one-seventh to one-third of a cent. 
MABBEAU, mar'bo', JEAN BAPTISTE (1798- 
1875). A French philanthropist, born at Brives. 
In 1841, while a city official at Paris, in mak- 
ing some investigations of the charitable insti- 
tutions, he was struck with the lack of pro- 
vision for the care of babies under two years 
of age whose mothers were compelled to go out 
to work. He wrote a book, Des creches, ad- 
vocating the establishment of day nurseries. 
The first was established at Chaillot, Nov. .11, 
1844. An association of creches was formed in 
1846. Throughout the rest of his life, while 
specially interested in cr&ches, he took an active 
part in furthering various charities. Among 
his writings are: Etudes sur V economic sociale 
(1844; 2d ed., 1875) ; Des creches, ou le moyen 
de diminuer la misere en auqmentant la popula- 
tion (1845; many later editions); Du paupe- 
nsme en France et des moyens d'y remtdier 
(1847); De V indigence et des secours (1850). 
He died at St. Cloud, Oct. 10, 1875 

MARBECX, mar'bek, or MEBBECK, or 
HEBBECKE, JOHN (?-c.!585). An English 
musician and theologian, organist of St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor, in the reign of Henry VIII 
and his successor. He early read Calvin's writ- 
ings, adopted his views, and joined an associa- 
tion in support of the Reformed doctrines. 
Among the members were a priest, a chorister 
of St. George's Chapel, and a tradesman, and 
these men, together with Marbeck, were arrested 
on a charge of heresy. Their papers were seized, 
and in Marbeck's handwriting were found notes 
on the Bible, materials for a concordance in 
English, and a copy of an epistle* of Calvin 
against the mass. They were all condemned to 
the stake, but Marbeck, on account of his mu- 
sical talents and through the interposition of 
Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, was pardoned 
and restored to his place as organist. His trial 
is related in Foxe, Acts and Monuments, book 
viii (London, ed. of 1857, vol. v). He lived to 
see the triumph of his principles and to publish 
his work, The Bake of Common Praier Noted 
(1550), an adaptation of the plain chant of the 
older rituals to the first liturgy of Edward VI ; 
reprinted in facsimile (1844) and in Jebb's 
Choral Responses and Litanies (1857). He 
published also his Concordance to the Bible 
(1550), which was the first work of the kind in 
English on the entire Bible. A Te Deum of his 
and a mass of five voices are found in Smith's 
Musica Antiqua, now in the British Museum. 
In 1574 was published The Lyves of Holy 
Sainctes, Prophetes, Patriarches, and Others 
and subsequently The Holte Historic of King 
David, drawn into English meetre (1579) and 
A Ripping Up of the Pope's Fardel (1581). 

KABBELLA, mar-balya. A port of south 
Spain in the Province of Malaga (Map* Spain, 
C 4). It is situated amid picturesque surround- 
ings on the shore of the Mediterranean, 35 
miles northeast of Gibraltar. It is well built, 

with a notable church of the Incarnation and 
the ruined castle of San Luis, its former defense, 
on the adjoining hill. In the neighborhood are 
granite quarries and mines of sulphur, lead, and 
iron; the town has iron foundries and sugar 
refineries. The harbor is used principally in 
local coasting trade; it is an ill-sheltered, open 
roadstead, but equipped with a large iron pier 
reaching into deep water and a lighthouse 
visible for 12 miles. The principal exports are 
uon, grain, sugar, cork, and fish. Pop., 1900, 
9075: 1910, 10,286. 

MAB/BLE (OF. marble, marbre, Fr. marbre. 
Prov. marme, marbre, from Lat. marmor, marble, 
from Gk. /uippopos, marmaros, bright stone, 
marble, from papfiatpeiv, marmairein, to sparkle ) . 
In a strict sense a crystalline limestone having 
a granular structure. The term has, however, 
become broadened as a result of commercial use 
and now includes any limestone, either crys- 
talline or noncrystalline, which will take a 
polish Marbles vary considerably in their tex- 
ture and color Some are extremely fine-grained, 
like those of Vermont, while others are coarsely 
granular, as some Georgia ones. Those com- 
posed entirely of calcite or dolomite are pure 
white, but many are colored gray or blue by car- 
bonaceous or graphitic matter, and sometimes 
grayish or greenish by fine scales of micaceous 
minerals. Others exhibit beautiful shades of 
pink, yellow, red, and brown, due to iron com- 
pounds. The mineral impurities which give the 
varied colors to the stone are often disposed in 
patches or wavy bands, and highly ornamental 
effects are sometimes obtained by properly 
matching these banded slabs The presence of 
fossil remains may also add to their beauty. 
Marbles are usually found in regions of meta- 
morphic rocks (see GEOLOGY), and hence the 
rock has been at times subjected to crushing 
forces. These have developed fissures in the 
lock, which subsequently became filled by for- 
eign mineral matter, and it is to this that much 
of the beautiful marking or veining of many 
ornamental marbles is due. 

Marble occurs in many geological formations, 
but in the United States it is obtained mostly 
from the Paleozoic rocks The best-known de- 
posits are found in the Eastern States In 
western Vermont, at West Rutland, Proctor, 
Brandon, and other localities, some of the quar- 
ries have reached a depth of 400 feet and con- 
tain many grades, varying from the purest 
white statuary marble to the gray, or "true 
blue" variety, as it is called. In recent years 
gray and green banded marbles have been quar- 
ried to an increasing extent for decorative work. 
A fine-grained, white, dolomitic marble is quar- 
ried at Lee in western Massachusetts, and a 
medium-grained gray marble for structural 
work is obtained from St. Lawrence Co., N. Y. 
Cockeysville, Md., furnishes white marble, but 
is the most important Southern producer of gray 
and white stone for structural and decorative 
purposes. Near Swanton, Vt., there occurs a 
deposit of variegated marble much used for 
wainscoting and floors. Some of the varieties 
found here resemble imported marbles. The 
pink and brown marbles are widely used for 
wainscoting and flooring. Aside from the above 
areas, marble of white and gray striping is 
quarried in Inyo Co., Cal., and a white marble 
is now being quarried in Colorado. Two types 
which have attracted some attention are the 
serpentine, or verde antiques, found in eastern 


IP 9 Iff. 



thorne (1860). The title originally proposed 
was The Transformation of the Fawn, changed 
in the English edition to Transformation, and in 
the American to The Marble Faun. 

MARBLilCHlSAIX. A town, including the vil- 
lages of Clifton, Devereux, and Marblehead 
Neck, in Essex Co., Mass., 18 miles northeast of 
Boston, situated on a rocky peninsula in Massa- 
chusetts Bay and on the Boston and Maine Rail- 
road (Map: Massachusetts, F 2). It is a port 
of entry and has a deep and safe harbor, is a 
popular yachting and summer resort, and 
possesses many pre-Revolutionary buildings and 
other features of historic interest. In Abbot 
Hall are the town offices, the public library, and 
an art gallery. There are Crocker, Fort Sewall, 
and Fountain parks. The principal industries 
include boat building and the manufacture of 
shoes and aeroplanes, though fishing and seed 
growing are of some importance. The govern- 
ment is administered by town meetings. There 
are municipal water works and electric-light 
plant Pop., 1900, 7582; 1910, 7338. Settled 
in 1629 by emigrants from the east and south 
of England, and later by people from the islands 
of Jersey and Guernsey, Marblehead was under 
the jurisdiction of Salem until 1649, when it 
was incorporated as a separate town. It ranked 
for a time next to Boston in its maritime and 
fishing trade. Marblehead was the birthplace, 
and for many years the home, of Elbridge Gerry 
and Judge Story Consult Roads, The History 
and Traditions of Marblehead (Marblehead, 

MARBLEHEAD. A sailors' name for the 
North Atlantic fulmar (qv ). 


are little balls of marble or some other hard 
substance and are used as playthings by children. 
They have been in use from the earliest times 
and are to be found among all the peoples of the 
world. They are manufactured in large quanti- 
ties in Saxony and are exported to India, China, 
Africa, and practically every nation of Europe 
and America. There is an endless variety of 
games of marbles. 

MAR'BO, or MABOBO'DUUS (c.ll B.C. 
-41 A.D.). A Germanic chief, King of the Mar- 
comanni. See MABCOMANNI. 

MARBOD, mar'bo;, or MARBODIUS (c.1035- 
1123). A French bishop and author. He was 
born at Angers, the son of a merchant, and 
taught with great success, becoming in 1067 
head of the diocesan school, in which he trained 
many prominent scholars and statesmen Mar- 
bod was made Archdeacon in 1081 and Bishop of 
Rennes in 1096. In 1104 he took part in the 
Council of Tours, and in 1109 he was adminis- 
trator of the diocese of Angers during the 
absence of the Bishop. His works include 
biographies, hymns, the Versus Canonicales, 
valuable as giving a picture of the monkish life 
of the period, and De Lapidibus Pretiosis, which, 
following a Greek original, treats of the mysteri- 
ous properties of gems. Marbod's works are 
contained in Migne, Patrol ogia Latina, vol. clxxi 
(1854). His hymns are to be found in Blume 
and Dreves, Analecta Hymnica (Leipzig, 1907). 

BARB& A French statesman. See BARBE- 

MARBURG, mai/burK. A town in the 
Crownland of Styria, Austria, 37 miles south- 
southeast of Gratz, in the wooded plain on the 


left bank of the navigable Drave (Map: Austria, 
D 3). The town has a sixteenth-century ca- 
thedral, a mediaeval castle, an episcopal palace, 
and a casino. It is the seat of the Prince-Bishop 
of Lavant. Its educational institutions include 
schools of theology and pedagogy, a pomological 
school, and a school for vintners The chief in- 
dustries are the manufacture of leather, foot- 
wear, iron, cement, cutlery, flour, and spirits. 
The extensive workshops of the Southern Rail- 
way are situated in the suburb of Sankt Mag- 
dalena. Marburg carries on an extensive trade 
in wine, grain, poultry, and lumber, the chief 
products of the surrounding country. Pop , 
1900, 24,501, 1910, 22,994, mostly Germans. 
Consult Bucking, Geschichtliche Bilder aus Mar- 
burgs Vergangenheit (Marburg, 1901). 

MARBURG. A town in the Province of 
Hesse-Nassau, Prussia, on the Lahn, 60 miles 
north of Frankfort (Map Germany, C 3). The 
town is built on terraces from the river up to a 
thirteenth-century castle on the summit. The 
castle was originally the residence of the land- 
graves of Hesse, later a state prison, and is now 
a repository for the Hessian state archives. In 
its' Rittersaal the disputation concerning tran- 
substantiation between Luther and Zwingh took 
place in 1529 Its thirteenth-century church of 
St Elizabeth, a perfect specimen of early Gothic 
architecture, was erected by the Teutonic Knights 
and contains the fine tomb of the saint, as well 
as numerous monuments to the Hessian rulers 
and Teutonic Knights. Noteworthy are also the 
Rathaus (1512), the fourteenth-century Lu- 
theran church, and the government buildings 
The educational institutions of Marburg include 
the university with a library of 260,000 volumes 
(see MARBUBG, UNIVERSITY OF), a Gymnasium, 
a Realschule, a nurses' school, and an agricul- 
tural school. The chief manufactures are 
leather, pottery, machinery, surgical instruments, 
pewter ware, toys, cornets, carpets, and tobacco. 
The environs are of great natural beauty. Pop , 
1900, 17,527; 1910, 21,860, chiefly Protestants. 

First mentioned in 1140, Marburg was en- 
dowed with municipal rights by the Landgrave 
Louis of Thurmgia in 1227, and after his death 
became the residence of his widow, Elizabeth of 
Hungary. During the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries Marburg was one of the residences of 
the landgraves of Hesse. It passed with Hesse- 
Cassel to Prussia in 1866. The fortifications 
were demolished by the French in 1810-11. 


American publicist, born at Baltimore, Md. He 
studied at Johns Hopkins (1880-81), at Oxford, 
England (1892-93), at the Ecole Libre de la 
Science Politique, Paris (1893-95), and at the 
University of Heidelberg (1901 and 1903). He 
became active in various economic, political, 
law, art, and peace societies; became trustee of 
Johns Hopkins; and was United States Minister 
to Belgium in 1912-13. He translated Emile 
Levasseur's Elements of Political Economy and 
published: In the Hills (1895), a poem; The 
World's Money Problem (1896) ; The War with 
Spain (1898); Expansion (1900); The Peace 
Movement Practical (1910); Salient Thoughts 
Judicial Settlement Conference (1911); Phi- 
losophy of the Third American Peace Congress 

estant university of Germany, founded by Philip, 


Landgrave of Hesse, in 1527, and endowed with 
the income of 13 suppressed monasteries. The 
Imperial assent was given in 1541. The new 
foundation drew largely from Wittenberg for its 
early teaching staff, became a stronghold of 
Lutheran doctrine, and flourished accordingly. 
In 1607 Landgrave Moritz converted it into a 
Calvinistic school, which conversion resulted in 
the departure of many professors and students 
and the foundation of the University of Giessen. 
The Thirty Years' War nearly ruined the uni- 
versity, which was reconstituted in 1653. Since 
the incorporation of Hesse-Cassel with Prussia 
it has flourished greatly. The university de- 
veloped especially the provision of facilities for 
the study of modern languages and philology 
and maintained a strong summer school in these 
subjects. In 1913 it had a budget of nearly 
1,500,000 marks, and 2406 students, including 
163 women, in theology, medicine, law, and 
philosophy, the majority being in the two latter 
faculties Its library contains about 260,000 
volumes and 200,000 dissertations. 

MABBUBY vs. MADISON. The title of a 
famous decision rendered by the Supreme Court 
of the United States in 1803 and reported in the 
first volume of Cranch's Reports Its impor- 
tance in the constitutional development of the 
United States lies in the fact that this was the 
first instance in which the Supreme Court as- 
sumed the right to declare a statute of Congress 
null and void on account of its repugnance to 
the Constitution. It is popularly regarded as 
the chief basis for the American doctrine of the 
right of the courts to disregard unconstitutional 
statutes, although the right had been asserted 
by State courts in some half a dozen instances 
before the adoption of the Federal Constitution. 
The case of Marbury v Madison arose out of an 
attempt of the plaintiff to secure a writ of man- 
damus from the Supreme Court to compel James 
Madison, then Secretary of State, to deliver to 
him a commission as justice of the peace of the 
District of Columbia. Marbury had been ap- 
pointed to this office by President Adorns, the 
Senate had confirmed the nomination, and his 
commission had been made out, signed and 
sealed, but had not been delivered When Mad- 
ison entered upon his duties as Secretary of 
State he found the commission and refused to 
deliver it. Marbury, in bringing his suit, relied 
upon an act of Congress which empowered the 
Supreme Court to issue the writ of mandamus 
to executive officers to compel them to perform 
their duties in certain cases. But as the Con- 
stitution expressly enumerates the cases in 
which the Supreme Court shall have original 
jurisdiction and nowhere mentions the right of 
issuing the writ of mandamus, the congressional 
act in question was clearly without constitu- 
tional warrant. This evident repugnance of the 
statute to the Constitution was the first question 
decided by the court. The second point in the 
decision related to the power of the court to 
declare the act null and void and to refuse to be 
bound thereby when its repugnance to the Con- 
stitution was once established. Chief Justice 
Marshall, who delivered the opinion of the court, 
declared that if two laws conflict with each 
other, the courts must decide on the operation 
of each, and if a law be in opposition to the 
Constitution so that the court would have to 
decide the case conformably to the law disre- 
garding the Constitution or conformably to the 
Constitution disregarding the law, the court 

must decide which of these conflicting rules 
governs the case. If then, he said, the courts 
are to regard the Constitution, and if the Con- 
stitution is supreme over any ordinary statute, 
the Constitution and not the statute must gov- 
ern the case to which they both apply. Mar- 
shall's argument was readily accepted as the 
only correct and just rule, and thus was laid 
the foundation of a judicial prerogative which 
has immensely influenced the legal and constitu- 
tional development of the United States. Con- 
sult: T. M. Cooley, Constitutional History of 
the United States (New York, 1889); J. B. 
Thayer, John Marshall (Cambridge, 1904), id., 
Legal Essays (Boston, 1908). See CONSTITU- 

MARC A, m&r'ka', PIERRE DE ( 1594-1662) . A 
French historian and ecclesiastic, born at Gan, 
near Pau. He studied law at the University of 
Toulouse, and for his zealousness in reestablish- 
ing the Catholic faith in B^arn he was appointed 
president of Pau in 1621 by Louis XIII. After 
the death of his wife in 1631 he studied theology, 
in 1639 he became a member of the Council of 
State, and in 1641 the King made him Bishop of 
Couserans. From 1644 to 1651 he was Intend- 
ant or Governor of Catalonia, then held by the 
French, and in 1652 he became Archbishop of 
Toulouse. During the uprising of the Fronde 
Marca supported Louis XIV in opposition to 
the Pope, and he succeeded Retz, who resigned, 
as Archbishop of Paris in 1662. His historical 
writings include: Histoire de Beam (1640); 
De Concordwt, Sacerdotii et Imperil seu de Liber- 
tatibus JEcclesics Gallicance (1641) ; Marca His- 
panica seu Limes Hispanicus ( 1688 ) . 

MAB'CASITE (Fr m areas site, Sp. marque- 
sita, from Ar. marqashitha, from raqasha, to 
speckle, to embellish) An iron disulphide that 
crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, has a 
metallic lustre, is of a pale bronze-yellow color, 
and resembles pyrite, from which it differs only 
in crystalline form. It is found in Bohemia, 
Saxony, Hungary, and in the United States at 
various localities in New York, Massachusetts, 
Connecticut, and New Hampshire. The mineral 
is mined in some parts of Europe for its sulphur 
and for the ferrous sulphate that may be made 
from it. The word was applied indifferently to 
crystallized varieties of iron sulphide until 1845, 
when it was retained exclusively for the ortho- 
rhombic variety. 

MABCATO, mar-ka't6 (It., marked). In 
music, a term signifying in a strongly accentu- 
ated manner. 

called MARCEAU-DESGBAVIERS (1769-96) A sol- 
dier of the French Revolution, born at Chartres. 
He joined the army as a private at the age of 
16, participated actively in the capture of the 
Bastille, and in 1792 was in the Army of the 
Ardennes commanded by Lafayette. His serv- 
ices under Westermann in La Vended made him 
general of division in 1793. With Klber he 
crushed the rebellion at Cholet, then fought 
under Jourdan in 1793-94. A Prussian sharp- 
shooter mortally wounded him at Altenkirchen. 
In 1889 his remains were placed in the Panthgon 
at Paris 

MARCEL, mar'sel', ETIENNE ( ?-1358) . Prov- 
ost of the merchants of Paris. After the battle 
of Poitiers (q.v.), in 1356, Marcel took the 
government of Paris into his own hands. To 
check the abuses to which the citizens were sub- 
jected he had two of the most prominent officials 



of the King put to death. In order not to be 
obliged to obey the commands of King John, who 
was a prisoner in the hands of the English, 
Marcel induced the Dauphin to take the regency. 
Finding the Regent opposed to him, he sought 
aid from Charles the Bad, King of Navarre, and 
from the Jacquerie (q.v.). This made him un- 
popular and he was slain by a rising on July 31, 
1358 For a few months he had been the most 
powerful man in France. It is impossible now 
to judge his conduct or his aims with certainty. 
Consult Ernest Lavisse, Histoire de France 
depute les ongmes jnsqu'a la revolution, vol. iv, 
part i (Paris, 1902), and the works cited there. 

3CABCELINE, mar's-len'. A city in Linn 
Co., Mo., 106 miles northeast of Kansas City, on 
the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad 
(Map: Missouri, C 2). It is in a rich coal and 
oil region, having three mines and an oil and 
gas pumping station. There are railroad shops 
and roundhouse of the Santa Fe System, and a 
concrete-block factory. Marceline contains a 
sanitarium and municipal water works and elec- 
tric-light plant. Pop, 1900, 2638; 1910, 3920 

MAB/CELLI'NUS, SAINT. Bishop of Rome, 
or Pope, 296-304 He was born in Rome, but 
little is known of his life or administration. 
There is an account of a synod held at Smuessa 
in 303 or 304, at which Marcelhnus is said to 
have confessed that, at the instance of Diocle- 
tian, he had offered incense to Vesta and I sis. 
The synod is said to have deposed Marcellinus, 
who, with many members of the synod, was put 
to death by Diocletian. The story is denied by 
Augustine and Theodoret and is not credited by 
either the Roman Catholics or the Protestant 
controversialists The Roman church commem- 
orates Marcellinus on April 24. Consult J. J I. 
von Ddllinger, FabJes Respecting the Popes of 
the Middle Ages (New York, 1871). 

MARCELLO, mar-chgl'10, BENEDETTO (1686- 
1739). An Italian composer. lie studied music 
under Gasparmi and Lotti and is chiefly known 
for the music to Giustimam's paraphrase of 
50 Psalms He also wrote an opera Le Fede 
riconosciuta, an oratorio Giuditta, five concerti, 
and a number of sonatas. The characteristics 
of his musical style are melody, simplicity, and 
a sound good taste. He was also an instructor 
of wide reputation, and a conservatory at Venice 
is named after him. He wrote the satire II 
teatro alia moda (1720). Consult Enrico Fondi, 
Benedetto Marcello (Rome, 1909) 

MARCEL'LUS. The name of two popes. 
MARCELLUS I, Saint, Pope, 308-309, a Roman 
by birth, elected after an interregnum of four 
years due to the persecution of Diocletian. A 
new outbreak under Maxentms drove him from 
Rome, the attention of the heathen authorities 
being directed to him by his severity against 
the lapsed He died in exile, but his body was 
brought back to Rome and buried in the cemetery 
of Priscilla with that of his predecessor, Marcel- 
hnus. His feast day is January 16. MARCEL- 
LUS II, Pope, 1555, Marcello Ccrvini degli 
Spannocchi. He was born in 1501 at Monte- 
pulciano and made Bishop of Nicastro and 
Cardinal in 1539. He was one of the legates 
appointed to preside over the Council of Trent, 
and was elected Pope in spite of the opposition 
of the Imperial party. His reign, however, for 
which his character and learning had given great 
hopes, lasted only 22 days Palestrina's famous 
"Missa Papas Maicelh," written in 1562, was 
named in his honoi, and the name gave rise to 

the story that it was sung in his presence and 
won the Pope's regard for polyphonic music. 

208 BC.). 1 A famous Roman general. He 
belonged to a distinguished plebeian family. He 
was consul for the first time in 222 B.C , and 
obtained a decisive victory over the Insubrians 
in Cisalpine Gaul, slaying with his own hand 
their King, Bntomartus or Viridomarus, whose 
spoils he dedicated to Jupiter, for this he was 
honored with a triumph This was the third 
and last occasion in Roman history on which 
spoha opima were offered to Jupiter Feretrius 
In the Second Punic War, after the defeat of 
the Romans at Cannae, Marcellus fought as 
praetor, in 216 B.C , against Hannibal at Nola 
in Campania; and the victory which he gained 
there was the more important as it showed that 
Hannibal was not invincible, and that the Ro- 
mans had not been irreparably overthrown at 
Cannse In the course of two years he thrice 
repulsed the Carthaginian general at this place. 
Being consul again in 214 B c , he was intrusted 
with the command of the war in Sicily He took 
Leontmi, massacring in cold blood 2000 Roman 
deserters whom he found there, and then ad- 
vanced against Syracuse, which he tried to 
storm. All his efforts were rendered unavailing 
by the skill of Archimedes, and he was compelled 
to blockade the city Famine, pestilence, and 
ultimately treachery on the part of the Spanish 
auxiliaries of the Syracusans enabled Marcellus 
to make himself master of the place (212 BC ), 
after which the remainder of Sicily was soon 
brought under the dominion of the Romans In 
210 BC. he was again consul and was again op- 
posed to Hannibal, with whom he fought an in- 
decisive battle at Numistro in Lucania, and by 
whom he was defeated at Canusium in Apulia 
in 209 BC On the following day, however, he 
retrieved the defeat. In 208 B c he was for the 
fifth time elected to the consulate, and assumed 
once more the command of the Roman army 
against Hannibal When out reconnoitring one 
day he fall into an ambuscade near Venusia and 
was slain. Consult Livy, books xxiii-xxvii, pas- 
sim, and the article "Claudius 45," in Friednch 
Lubker, Reallexikon dcs klassischen Altcrtums 
(8th ed, Leipzig, 1914) 2 A distinguished 
Roman orator, a vigorous opponent of Julius 
Caesar, who, when consul in 51 B c , proposed 
that Caesar's command in Gaul should end in 
March, 49. In January, 49, when Pompey's 
supporters were keen for war with Caesar, he 
urged delay till a suitable army could be pre- 
pared, but unsuccessfully He went to Greece 
with Pompey, but after the battle of Pharsalus 
he retired to Mytilene, to study rhetoric and 
philosophy. In 46 the Senate appealed to Caesar 
to pardon him; in support of this appeal Cicero 
delivered his speech Pro Marcello When the 
pardon was granted Marcellus started for Rome, 
but was murdered at Athens by one of his 
retinue. 3. The son of Augustus' sister Octa- 
via, and C Marcellus, he was born in 43 BC 
In 25 BC. the Emperor adopted him as his son 
and successor and married his daughter Julia to 
him, but two years later the young man died, at 
Baise. In certain famous lines (JEneid, vi, 860- 
886) Vergil refers to his death. Augustus 
named a theatre in Rome in his honor 


Rome, begun by Julius Caesar, completed by 


Augustus in 13 B.C., and named for his nephew 
and son-in-law Marcellus. (See MABCELLUS, 3.) 
The stage lay towards the river. Of the semi- 
circular structures which carried rows of seats 
a large portion, comprising 12 arches in two 
tiers, is still standing. This portion is similar 
in general external appearance to the Coliseum, 
and is built of travertine with Doric arcades in 
the lower tier and Ionic in the upper. The ar- 
rangements of the cross walls and seats within 
the theatre were also duplicated in the Coliseum 
The pilasters of the third story were Corinthian 
and the windows were rectangular. The theatre, 
according to ancient authorities, could seat 
about 13,500 spectators; Ch. Huelsen, in Bulle- 
tino delta commissione archeologica comunale 
di Roma (1894, p. 312), gives the seating ca- 
pacity as 9000 to 10,000. In the fourth cen- 
tury some of the travertine blocks were used in 
restoring the Cestian bridge. In the eleventh 
century the building was turned into a strong- 
hold of the Pierleoni, and in the fourteenth cen- 
tury it was purchased by the Savelh, upon whose 
extinction it passed to the Orsmi m 1712. The 
palace of the latter family stands upon the stage 
and the seats, which are buried under 15 feet of 
modern soil. Many corridors and chambers of 
the original building are preserved and are used 
as offices of the palace The remains of the 
Doric arcades are used as low shops Consult: 
R. A. Lanciani, The Ruins and Excavations of 
Ancient Rome (Boston, 1897); S. B. Platner, 
The Topography and Monuments of Ancient 
Rome (2d ed , ib , 1911) ; Charles Knapp, "The 
Roman Theater," in Art and Archwology, vol. i 
(New York, 1915). 



MARCH (OF., Fr marche, from Goth., OHG. 
marka, Ger. Mark, AS. mearc, border, connected 
with Lat. margo, Olr 6rti, Welsh, Corn, tro, 
Av. nwwzu, boundary) A term applied in Eng- 
land during the early Middle Ages and later to 
the frontier or border line between England and 
Wales and between England and Scotland. In 
Anglo-Saxon times the word appears under the 
form Mercia as the name of the most western of 
the English kingdoms. See MABK. 

In Scotland the word came into common use 
to designate the boundaries of real property, 
corresponding to the English term "boundary" 

MARCH, marK (Lat Marus, Slav. Morava). 
A tributary of the Danube and the principal 
river of Moravia (Map: Austria, E 2). It rises 
in the Sudetic Mountains on the boundary of 
Silesia, and runs southward, forming in its 
lower course the boundary between Austria and 
Hungary, and entering the Danube 26 miles 
east of Vienna, after a course of about 217 
miles, for the last 80 of which it is navigable. 
Its headwaters lead to the Moravian Gap or 

MARCH (Fr. marche, from marcher, to walk, 
march, probably from OF., Fr. marche, bound- 
ary; or possibly from Lat. marcus, hammer; 
connected with Skt. mar, to grind, on account of 
the beat of the feet). A musical composition 
having primarily as its object the regulation of 
the steps of a large number of persons in motion. 
Even in remote antiquity solemn processions 
were always accompanied by music. In the 
Greek tragedy the entrance as well as the exit 
of the chorus was so accompanied. The military 
march undoubtedly was developed from soldiers' 



songs. The ordinary march used for parades, 
drills, etc., has about 75 steps to the minute, 
the quickstep about 100, and the double quick 
or charge about 120. The march as an art form 
was developed from the dance forms during the 
seventeenth century. Lully in his operas and 
F. Couperin in his piano works established the 
march form as consisting of two reprises of 
eight or 16 measures. To this was added, some- 
what later, a portion distinguished by repose 
and broad melodic outline, generally in a closely 
related key. This was called the trio, because 
at first it was in three-part writing as against 
the two-part writing of the first section. After 
the trio the first section is repeated. To-day 
the art form of the march is highly developed 
and employed on various occasions A special 
kind of march is the funeral march. It is 
written in very slow tune (giave, lento, adagio) 
and always in the minor mode The trio is in 
the relative or corresponding major. Beethoven's 
great funeral march in the Eroica Symphony 
is in C minor with trio in C major, Chopin's 
funeral inarch in the Sonata op. 35 is in B fiat 
minor with trio in D flat major 

MARCH, ALDKN ( 1 795-1 8G9). An American 
surgeon, born at Sutton, Mass He attended 
medical lectures in Boston and at Brown (M.D , 
1820). Subsequently he served as professor in 
the Vermont Academy of Medicine (1825-31), 
in Albanv Medical Seminary (1827-33), and in 
Albany Medical School (1833-34). In 1834 he 
established a school of practical anatomy and 
in 1839 he founded the Albany Medical College, 
which absorbed the other medical schools of 
that city. In this new institution March held 
the chair of surgery from 1839 until his death. 
The growth and development of the college are 
largely to be attributed to his work. He was 
also the founder of the Albany City Hospital. 
March was president of the New York State 
Medical Society (1857) and a founder of the 
American Medical Association, of which he was 
president in 1864. He was a successful operator 
and originated several well-known surgical ap- 
pliances, such as an improved splint for use in 
hip disease (1853), an improved harelip forceps 
(1855), instruments for the removal of dead 
bone (I860), and a new instrument for the re- 
moval of urinary stones He contributed largely 
to medical journals and is the author of Wounds 
of the Abdomen and Larynx (1854). 

MARCH, AUSIAS ( 71397-1459 ). A Catalan 
poet, born in Valencia, probably before the end 
of the fourteenth century. He was admired and 
praised not only by his fellow citizens in Cata- 
luna, but also by noted Spanish authors. In 
March's chief works, the Cants d'amor and the 
Cants de mort, he is visibly under the influence 
of Petrarch, as are so many of his contempo- 
raries. He avoided all close imitation, however, 
and may safely stand on his own merits. Live- 
liness of fancy and genuineness of sentiment 
are among his best traits; his chief defect is a 
certain obscurity of expression. Consult the 
edition of his poems by Pelayo y Britz (Bar- 
celona, 1864) and that of Barcelona, 1888, 
neither of them a good reproduction of the six- 
teenth-century editions; J. Rubiti y Ors, Ausias 
March y su epoca (ib., 1862) ; A. Pages, "Docu- 
ments inldits relatifs a la vie d'Ausias March," 
in the Romania, vol. xvii (Paris, 1888). The 
best edition of his works is that by Amadeu 
Pages, Les obres d'Auzias March (3 vols., Bar- 
celona, 1912 et seq.). 





MARCH, FRANCIS ANDREW (1825-1911). An 
American philologist and author, born at Mill- 
bury, Mass. He graduated in 1845 at Amherst, 
where he was tutor in 1847-49, and, after study- 
ing law in New York, was in 1850 admitted to the 
bar. He taught at Fredericksburg, Va., from 1852 
to 1855 and from 1856 to 1906 was professor of 
English language and comparative philology in 
Lafayette College. He became honorary emeritus 
professor under the Carnegie endowment in 1907. 
In 1873-74 and 1895-96 he served as president of 
the American Philological Association, from 
1876 to 1905 as president of the Spelling Reform 
Association, and in 1891-93 as president of the 
Modern Language Association of America. He 
received honorary degrees from Princeton, Am- 
herst, Columbia, Oxford, and Cambridge. In 
1879 he was chosen to be the head of the Ameri- 
can staff of A New English Dictionary on His- 
torical Principles, prepared under the dnection 
of the Philological Society of London March's 
article "On Recent Discussions of Grimm's Law," 
which was published in the Transactions of the 
American Philological Association of 1873, an- 
ticipated to a great extent the law of vocalic ac- 
cent discovered by Verner in 1877. His pub- 
lications include A Method of Philological Study 
of the English Language ( 1865 ) , Anglo-Saxon 
Reader (1870); Comparative Grammar of the 
Anglo-Saxon Language (1870) ; and a Thesaurus 
Dictionary of the English Language (1903). He 
also edited a series of textbooks of Greek and 
Latin authors, and was consulting editor of the 
Standard Dictionary (1890-94). Consult Ad- 
dresses in Honor of Prof. F. A. March, delivered 
at Easton, Pa, on Oct 24, 1895, and J W. 
Bright, "Address in Commemoration of Francis 
Andrew March," in Modern Language Associa- 
tion of America, Publications, vol. xxix (Cam- 
bridge, 1914). 

(1832-1900) A Canadian statesman, born at 
St. John's, Quebec He studied at St Hyacmthe 
College and was admitted a notary in 1855. In 
1867 he was elected a Liberal member of the 
Legislative Assembly of the Province of Quebec, 
from 1878 to 1879 was Provincial Secretary, 
and in the latter year was also Commissioner of 
Crownlands. From 1887 to 1892 he was Speaker 
of the Assembly, in 1892 succeeded Honore" Mer- 
cier (qv ) in the leadership of the Liberal party 
in the Legislature, and in 1897 was appointed 
Premier and Treasurer. In 1860 he established 
Le Franco-Canadien, which he edited for many 
years. He wrote- Fatenmlle (1869); Erreur 
n'est pas compte (1872) ; Un bonheur en attire 
un autre (1884); Les faux brillants (1885). 

A French officer and explorer, born at Thoissey, 
Ain. He entered the army in 1883, received a 
commission in 1886, and from 1888 to 1899 he 
explored parts of Africa. His explorations in 
search of an improved route to the Gulf of 
Guinea from the valley of the Niger resulted in 
a scheme for the Transnigerian Railway between 
the Bandama and Niger rivers. In 1898 he es- 
tablished on the White Nile the post of Fashoda, 
which resisted attacks from the dervishes, but 
found a more formidable foe in General Kitch- 
ener, who, with British forces fresh from their 
victory over the Mahdi, was determined to take 
possession of the country. Major Marchand 


refused to withdraw, and international compli- 
cations ensued; but the affair was settled when 
the French government retired from the posi- 
tion while Marchand was on his way home to 
report. He took part in the expedition for the 
relief of Peking in 1902 and was promoted to 
the office of colonel, but resigned In 1904, not 
being permitted by his government to enter the 
Russian army during the Russo-Japanese War. 
He was made a Commander of the Legion of 
Honor Consult Murphy, Le commandant Mar- 
chand et ses compagnons d'armes a travers 
VAfnque (Paris, 1900). See KODOK. 

MARCH ANT, mar'chant, JAMES (1867- 
) An English reformer. From 1889 to 
1894 he was evidential lecturer to the Bishop of 
St. Albans and then preached in Trinity Presby- 
terian Church, London, in 1895-97, and at St 
Andrew's, Chatham, in 1900-02. In 1903-06 he 
was secretary of Dr. Barnardo's Homes and with 
Mrs Barnardo he edited The Memoirs of Dr 
Karnardo (1907). Becoming greatly interested 
in hygienics and eugenics, in 1911 he was conse- 
crated for the work of public morals in West- 
minster Abbey by the Lord Bishop of Durham 
and F. B. Meyer; and he became director of the 
National Council for Race Regeneration and 
editor of Prevention, an organ of the movement. 
He wrote- Theories of the Resurrection (1899) ; 
a Life of Dr Paton (1909); The Nation's 
Morals (1910) , a sketch of A Russel Wallace in 
Wallace's Revolt of Democracy (1913) , The Mas- 
ter Problem (1915) 

MARCHANTIA, mar-kan'shl-a. One of the 
bryophytes ( q v ) . 

MARCHANTIALES,'shi-a1ez See 


MARCHENA, mar-chfi'na. A town of south 
Spain in the Province of Seville, situated 28 
miles east of Seville, ou the railroad between 
Cadiz and Cordova (Map Spain, C 4) It is a 
picturesque old town, partly surrounded bv the 
grass-covered remains of Moorish fortifications, 
and contains a half -ruined palace of the dukes 
of Arcos (within the close of which is an old 
Moorish building) and two notable Gothic 
churches In the neighborhood are sulphur 
springs. The surrounding region is fertile, 
growing fine olives Pop., 1900, 12,255, 1910, 

da kas'trd, JOSE (1768-'1821) A Spanish au- 
thor and journalist, who studied the humanities 
at the University of Seville, took minor ciders, 
and was for a while professor at the seminary of 
Vergara. Having been strongly influenced by the 
theories of the French philosophers, his writings 
became such that he had to escape to France in 
order to avoid arrest by the Inquisition in 1792. 
In France he became intimate with persons of 
influence, continued his writings, was expelled 
from France in 1799, declared himself a Bona- 
partist in 1804, accompanied Murat to Spain 
in 1808, and was imprisoned by the Inquisition 
and released by Joseph Bonaparte, who appointed 
him editor of the Oaceta From 1813 to 1820 
he was again an exile. In his day Marchena 
was one of the best Latinists in the world. As 
an amusement he published at Strassburg in 
1800 what he claimed was a fragment of Petro- 
nius' Cena Trimalchioms that he had found. 
After the Latinists of the world had admitted 
that they could find no fault with the text, ex- 

cept his refusal to show the original he claimed 
to have found and copied, Marchena acknowl- 
edged that he had written it himself. 

MARCHES, THE (It. Le Marche, the bound- 
aries). A name frequently occurring in Italian 
history as applied to a stretch of territory in the 
central part of the peninsula, comprising the 
present provinces of Ancona, Ascoli-Piceno, Ma- 
cerata, and Pesaro e Urbino (Map: Italy, D 3). 
The use of "marches" for waste land separating 
two tubes where the need of rigid boundaries is 
not felt was common in mediaeval Europe 

MARCHESA COLOMBI, miir-ka'za kd- 
Idm'bg. A pseudonym of the Italian author 
Maria Torelh-Torriani (qv.). 

MABCHESI, mdr-ka'zg, MATHILDE, n6e GBATJ- 
MANN (1826-1913). A German-French singing 
teacher, born at Frankfort-on-the-Main. She 
studied under Nicolai in Vienna and with Man- 
uel Garcia in Paris, afterward appearing as 
a concert singer in London and on the Con- 
tinent. Her voice was pleasing but not remark- 
able. In 1852 she married Signer Salvatore 
Marchesi (qv.) and taught singing at the 
Vienna Conservatory from 1854 to 1861, after 
which she moved to Paris and succeeded in mak- 
ing her salon one of the most important circles 
of musical life in the city. She taught at 
Cologne from 1865 to 1868, then at Vienna for 
a number of years, but ultimately settled in 
Paris She published an Ecole de Chant and 24 
books of Vocalises. In English appeared Ten 
Singing Lessons ( 1901 ) . Among her pupils were 
Tremelh, Caroline Sulla, Emma Schuk-Proska, 
Gerster, Melba, Eames, Calve", Sibyl Sanderson, 
and her own daughter Blanche, who afterward 
sang, especially in opera, in England and on 
the Continent. Consult the autobiographical 
Maichcsi and Music: Passages from the Life of 
a Famous Singing Teacher, with introduction by 
Massenet (New York, 1897). 

1858) An Italian sculptor. He was born at 
Saltrio, near Milan, and studied at Rome under 
Canova He was for many years professor of 
sculpture at the Academy of Milan Some early 
and rather clumsily executed statues by him 
are in Como Cathedral, which also contains a 
relief of the "Death of St. Joseph," his latest 
and one of his most admired works He con- 
tributed largely to the decoration of the Arch 
of Peace at Milan, the relief commemorating the 
"Battle of Leipzig" and "Drowning of Prince 
Poniatowsky" deserving special mention. His 
later works include the sitting statue of Goethe 
for the Frankfort Library, a statue of Em- 
peror Francis I of Austria for Graz, and another 
for the Hofburg in Vienna. One of his largest 
but not most pleasing works is the colossal group 
for the church of San Carlo at Milan, in which 
is the figure of the famous "Mater Dolorosa." 
The excessive sentimentality which characterizes 
most of his religious compositions is particularly 
visible here. Much better is the sepulchral 
monument for Duke Emmanuel Philibert of 
Savoy (1843) in the Turin Cathedral. 

celebrated Italian barytone and singing master, 
born at Palermo. He was a nobleman, his full 
title being Cavaliere di Castrone, Marchese della 
Rajata. While studying law and philosophy at 
Palermo he also had his voice cultivated by 
Raimondi. In Milan he continued his musical 
studies under Lamperti and Fontana. Because of 
participation in the revolution of 1848 he had to 

flee, and came to America. His operatic de*but 
made in New York, he went to London for fur- 
ther study under Garcia. After his marriage to 
Mathilde Graumann, who later became famous 
as Madame Marchesi, he and his wife appeared 
with great success in concert and opera in Eng- 
land and on the Continent. In 1854 both ac- 
cepted positions at the Vienna Conservatory, but 
soon went to Paris. In 1865 they were called to 
the Cologne Conservatory, and in 1869 once 
more to Vienna. From 1881 to his death he re- 
sided in Paris. He wrote a number of success- 
ful songs, vocalises, and a School for Singing. 

MARCHFELD, marK'felt. A large plain on 
the north bank of the Danube, opposite Vienna 
It is bounded on the east by the river March. It 
contains only a few villages Because of the 
physical characteristics this has been a noted 
battlefield. Here Marcus Aurelius contended 
with the Marcomanni. In 1260 King Ottokar of 
Bohemia defeated Bela IV of Hungary on the 
Marchfeld On the same plain in 1278 Ottokar 
was defeated by Rudolph of Hapsburg and slain. 
In modern times the most important battles 
fought on the Marchfeld were those of Aspern 
(q.v.) and Wagram (qv.) in 1809. 

MARCH FLY. Any one of the dipterous in- 
sects of the family Bibionidae, so called because 
these flies are most common in the early spring. 
They are of medium size, rather thick-bodied and 
rather hairy, but they are weak fliers The wings 
are frequently fuscous. More than 300 species 
are known. The larvae feed upon excremental or 
vegetable substances and are supposed to attack 
the roots of growing grass The larvae of some 
species have been found on the surface of snow. 
One of the commonest species in the United 
States is the white-winged bibio (Bibio albipen- 
nis), which sometimes occurs in enormous num- 
bers. The smallest forms belong to the genus 
Scat op se and breed in decaying animal and vege- 
table matter. 

MABCHIENNE-ATJ-PONT, m&r'sh&'en'd'- 
p6N'. A town in the Province of Hainault, Bel- 
gium, 2 miles west of Charleroi, on the Sambre 
River (Map: Belgium, C 4). It is an important 
coal-mining centre, has an industrial school and 
manufactures of iron, machinery, and glass. 
Pop., 1900, 18,461; 1910, 21,635. 

MARCHING. General Principles. A suc- 
cessful march, whether in peace or war, is one 
that places the troops at their destination at 
the proper moment and in the best possible con- 
dition. In war marches are of daily occurrence, 
and success depends in a great measure upon 
the skill with which they are conducted. Good 
marching is secured by careful preparation, 
strict discipline, and the due observance of 
march sanitation. While conforming to other 
requirements, marches are conducted so as to 
reduce to a minimum the hardships of the 
troops. When possible ample notice is given so 
that preparations can be made without haste. 
The march is habitually at route order. Troops 
are informed of the length of halts so that they 
can take full advantage of the same. The men 
are not kept under arms longer than necessary, 
nor required to carry heavy burdens when 
transportation is available. Special care is paid 
to the feet of the men and to the hoofs and 
backs of animals. In prolonged marches at 
least one day in seven should be a day of rest. 
A forced march is never undertaken unless the 
situation requires it. As a rule troops on the 
march pay no compliments; individuals salute 


when they address, or are addressed by, a su- 
perior officer. The conduct of a march (forming 
the column or columns, distribution of troops, 
start, rate, length of march, etc.) is controlled 
by the situation and object to be accomplished. 
Forming the Column. To form the column a 
"march order" is issued by the superior com- 
mander. This order states the object of the 
march, gives the distribution of the troops, order 
of march of the main body, and the manner of 
forming the column In drafting such orders 
the road space and rate of march of the different 
fractions of the command and their distances 
from the initial point must be considered. With 
foot troops and cavalry marching four abreast, 
artillery and trains in single column of car- 
riages, the following may be assumed for ap- 
proximate calculations: two men per yard for 
foot troops, one man per yard for each mounted 
man, 20 yards for each gun, caisson, or wagon, 
and 12 yards for each auto truck. Distribution 
of Troops. The order of march of a column is 
controlled mainly (1) by tactical considerations, 
which are paramount in the presence of the 
enemy, and (2) by the rule requiring the hard- 
ships of troops to be reduced to a minimum. 
During an advance the order of march of a col- 
umn is generally as follows, the necessary se- 
curity being provided: combatant troops (with 
combat trains) : 1, cavalry and horse artillery; 
2, infantry and light or mountain artillery, 3, 
engineers and signal troops; 4, trains, etc. Dur- 
ing a retreat this order of march is reversed. A 
detachment of engineers marches near the head 
to repair bridges, etc. Infantry usually marches 
in column of squads, column of twos when neces- 
sary; cavalry in column of fours on good roads, 
otherwise in column of twos; artillery in sec- 
tion or double-section column, depending on the 
width of the road. The Start. When practi- 
cable, marches begin in the morning, ample time 
being allowed for the men to breakfast, animals 
to feed, and the animals and wagons to be 
packed. Foot troops do not start before broad 
daylight; mounted troops, when practicable, 
about an hour after broad daylight. Too early 
a start is inadvisable, as both men and animals 
rest better in the early morning hours. 

Bate and Length of Marches. The rate 
of march of a mixed command is regulated by 
that of the foot troops. For infantry the rate 
prescribed for drill is 100 yards a minute or 3 4 
miles an hour; on the road the maximum to be 
counted on is 88 yards a minute or 3 miles an 
hour; including halts this rate is reduced to 
2% to 2% miles. The rate of infantry columns 
under average road conditions may be assumed 
at 2% to 2% miles per hour. The average 
march of infantry is 15 miles a day; large bod- 
ies, 12 miles. Small bodies under favorable con- 
ditions may average 20 miles. For cavalry the 
drill rate is: walk, 4 miles; trot, 8 miles, gal- 
lop, 12 miles per hour. The average walk of a 
horse is at the rate of a mile in 16 minutes, or 
3% miles an hour; the average trot a mile in 8 
minutes, or 7% miles an hour. In the field the 
usual gait is the walk of 3% miles per hour; 
including halts, 3% to 3% miles per hour. The 
average march of cavalry, after men and animals 
are hardened, is 25 miles a day. 

The daily march of field artillery is the same 
as that of the command of which it forms a part; 
if alone, it covers from 15 to 20 miles. 

The rate of a wagon train under average con- 
ditions in long columns is about 2 miles per 

i MAJ&C1U1TG' 

hour, including halts. Small trains may make 
2y 2 miles. The daily march is the same as in- 

The average load of a pack mule is 250 pounds, 
and thus loaded a pack train can travel 20 to 
25 miles a day over ordinary roads, over rough 
country, 10 to 15 miles. The rate of auto 
trucks vanes with the road and truck. Halts. 
As a rule infantry halts 15 minutes after the 
first three-quarter-hour march; thereafter 10 
minutes every hour. Cavalry 5 minutes every 
hour. Artillery from 5 to 10 minutes. 

Marches may be classified as follows: 1. 
Marches in peace, which include changing sta- 
tion and practice marches. 2. Marches in cam- 
paign, which include concentration marches, 
marches in the presence of the enemy, forced 
marches, and night marches. In changing sta- 
tion marches are conducted almost solely with 
reference to the comfort of men and animals 
and facility of supply and camping, as such 
marches do not involve tactical considerations. 
Practice marches have for their purpose harden- 
ing the men and animals and instructing offi- 
cers and men in campaign duties. Concentration 
marches assemble at a certain time and place 
bodies of troops from different localities Com- 
putation of time and road space is important. 
Marches in the presence of the enemy are con- 
trolled solely by tactical considerations, and re- 
quire the use of certain troops, for information 
and security, disposed as advance, flank, and 
rear guards, for the protection of the main body 
of troops. If the command is a division the 
following is a not unusual disposition- advance 
guard, consisting of one brigade of infantry, all 
of the divisional cavalry, one battalion of artil- 
lery, one company of engineers, a detachment of 
signal troops, and a detachment of the sanitary 
train Following this, with a distance of from 
y s to 1 mile, is the mam body, in order of march 
as follows: one regiment infantry, one battalion 
of artillery, a regiment of artillery, two brigades 
infantry (less one regiment), engineers, signal 
troops, artillery combat trains, trains A di- 
vision at war strength consists of 22,000 men, 
7500 animals, and 900 vehicles. With its field 
trains, closed up without distance, a division will 
occupy about 12 miles of road. 

Forced Marches are not made unless abso- 
lutely necessary, as they seriously impair the 
fighting power of the best troops. A maximum 
day's march of infantry and trains is about 28 
to 30 miles. Such a march should not be pro- 
longed more than 36 hours. Under favorable 
conditions cavalry and field artillery may march 
at a rate of 50 miles in 24 hours for three or 
four days. Under very favorable conditions a 
single march of 100 miles can be made in from 
24 to 30 hours 

Night Marches are sometimes made in hot 
weather, but usually to surprise the enemy or 
to secure a favorable position to attack at night 
or at dawn. Special precautions must be taken 
to keep the units in touch and in the proper 
roads or trails. If secrecy is required special 
instructions are given with regard to smoking, 
lights, talking, etc. Cavalry follows infantry, 
the artillery is in rear with a special infantry 

French infantry has always had a reputation 
for rapid marching In June, 1914, the 166th 
regiment of (fortress) infantry marched 55.8 
miles in 36 hours without having a man drop 
out. During former Indian campaigns troops 


and squadrons of United States cavalry were 
credited on their records, on more than one oc- 

It is said that Polycarp (q.v.) once met Mar- 
eion in the streets of Rome and saluted him as 

casion, with a distance of 110 miles in 24 hours, "the first-born of Satan " In this he gave expres- 

Consult Field Service Regulations, United States 
Army (Washington, 1914). 

widely popular ballad of the Civil War, begin- 

sion to the general sentiment of the Church, for 
Marcion was attacked by almost every orthodox 
writer from Justin onward. Yet Marcion re- 
garded himself in the light of a reformer. He 

ning "Bring the good old bugle, boys." It com- believed that Christianity marked an essentially 
memorates Sherman's famous march to the sea 
and was written by H C. Work soon after the 
march commenced, on Nov 16, 1864. 

MARCHIONESS, mar'shun-fts, THE. In 

new departure, but that it had already become 
corrupted through the admixture of Jewish ele- 
ments. These must be purged out For him 
Paul was the only true Apostle, because he 

Dickens's Old Curiosity Shop, a small servant alone thoroughly abjured Judaism These prin- 
to Sampson ~ J * ' J -* ^--- -1-1- *- ^ -.._... -....*__. 


LIAMS (1 852-1923). An English novelist, born 
at Southgate, Middlesex, and educated privately 
and at Pembroke College, Oxford. In 1888 he 
entered Lincoln's Inn. Up to 1894 he devoted 
himself to journalism in London and the prov- 
inces, editing at one time the North Eastern 
Daily Gazette and later the Lancashire Daily 
Post and contributing constantly to reviews and 
magazines. In 1894 journalism was abandoned 
for fiction, in the production of which this author 
was prolific; witness, among others, the novels- 
Isa (1887) ; By Right of Sword (1897), drama- 
tized, and produced in America (1902) ; Santa 
the Carlist (1902); The Queen's Advocate 
(1904); The Man who was Dead (1907); An 
Imperial Mamage ( 1909 ) ; In the Name of the 
People (1911) , The Mystery of Eagrave Square 
(1912) ; When Love Called (1913) ; The Heir to 
the Throne (1914). 

MARCIANISE, mar'cha-ne'za. A town in 
the Province of Caserta, Italy, 18 miles by rail 
from Naples, in a low, unhealthful plain, where 
are several small lakes Weaving of flax and 
hemp and the raising of fruite and grain con- 
stitute the principal industries Pop (com- 
mune), 1901, 12,785; 1911, 13,465 

MABCIL, mar-sel', CHARLES (1860- ). 
A Canadian journalist and statesman He was 
born at Ste Scholastique, Province of Quebec, 
was educated at Ottawa College, and in 1879-81 
was on the staff of the Montreal Gazette. He was 
with the Montreal Herald (1882-86), the Mont- 
real Post (1886-96), and afterward with La Pa- 
trie and the Star, of the same city. He was an 
unsuccessful Liberal candidate for the Quebec 
Legislative Assembly (1897), but was elected to 
the House of Commons for Bonaventure in 1900 
He became Deputy Speaker of the House in 
1905, and was Speaker thereof in 1909-11. In 
1911 he was appointed a member of the King's 
Privy Council for Canada, and in the same year 
was made an honorary vice president of the 
Universal Races Congress at London, England 
He acquired a wide reputation as a public 

MABCION, mar'shon. A second-century 
Christian, classed among the heretics. He was 
born in Sinope, Pontus, and died after 160. 

Brass, and a friend of Dick ciples appear in Marcion's Scripture canon 

the earliest Christian collection known which 
embraced one Gospel (Luke, without the story 
of the infancy, which was "Jewish") and 10 of 
Paul's Epistles (omitting those of Timothy and 
Titus). Church writers accused him, with ap- 
parent justice, of "mutilating" the Scriptures. 
His own chief work, entitled Antitheses, set forth 
the alleged contradictions between Law and Gos- 
pel The Creator of the Old Testament was rep- 
resented as a cruel and vindictive being, wholly 
different from the God of love revealed through 
Chnst Marcion's Christology was docetic, i.e., he 
taught that Christ suffered only in appearance, 
for neither suffering nor a material body could 
be supposed of the Divine ( See DOCET.E ) Since 
matter was regarded as evil, his ethics resulted 
in a severe asceticism. His Gnostic tendency 
appears in the dualistic tenet that man's body 
cannot be saved, only his spirit, which is the op- 
posite of matter. This was a striking departure 
from the common Christian belief An 'attempt 
lias recently been made to prove that the old 
Roman symbol, which lies at the basis of the 
Apostles' Creed, was formed to combat Marcion's 
Gnosticism The Marcionite church was com- 
pletely organized, having its clergy, its rites, and 
its Scriptures The sacrament of baptism was 
administered much as in the orthodox Church, 
but in the Eucharist water was substituted for 
wine. In the East Marcionite churches are 
found as late as the sixth century, but in the 
West they disappeared earlier, being absorbed by 
the more virile Manichseans (See MANICHJE- 
ISM. ) Their downfall was due in part to ecclesi- 
astical opposition and in part to hostile legisla- 
tion under Christian emperors from Constantino 
onward In the persecutions through which they 
passed not a few Marcionites suffered a mar- 
tyr's death, and the property of their churches 
was declared forfeited to the Catholic church. 
Consult, for information as to the surviving 
fragments of Marcion's works, C. T. Cruttwell, 
Literary History of Early Christianity (London, 
1893), and Gustav Krtiger, History of Early 
Christian Literature (New York, 1897). Among 
the sources, consult the interesting work of 
Tertullian, Against Marcion, translated in The 
Ante-'Kicene Fathers, vol. iii (New York, 1905). 
In general, consult: Adolf Harnack, History of 
Dogma, vol i (Boston, 1894), and Wace and 

About the year 140 he came to Rome, where he Piercy (eds.), Dictionary of Christian Biography 

fell under the influence of the Syrian Cerdo (see 
CEBDONIANB ) , from whom his Gnostic ideas were 
perhaps derived, and here he founded his church. 
He afterward traveled through the East, visiting 
Rome again in the episcopate of Anicetus (154- 
165) Nothing is known of his later life. His 

and Literature (ib., 1911). 


MARCKS, ERICH (1861- ). A German 
historian, born in Magdeburg and educated at 
the Gymnasium there and in the universities of 

disciples, chief among whom was Apelles, con- Strassburg, Berlin, and Bonn and in Paris and 

tinued his work, and Marcionite churches were 
soon to be found scattered over north Africa, 
Gaul, Asia Minor, and Egypt. 

London. He was decent at Berlin (1887-92) 
and became professor of modern history at Frei- 
burg (1892), Leipzig (1894), Heidelberg (1901), 


Hamburg (1907), and Munich (1913). At 
Leipzig he was an editor of Leipziger Studien 
aus dem Gebiet der Gesohichte. With the ex- 
ception of an incomplete biography of Coligny 
(1892), a study of Queen Elizabeth of England 
(1897), and some local historical works, 
Marcks's published books deal with modern per- 
sonages and problems, especially in Germany 
and England. They include: Kaiser WUhelm 1. 
(1897; 7th ed., 1910); estimates of Ludwig 
Hausser (1903) and ot Treitschke (1906); sev- 
eral volumes on Bismarck, notably the first vol- 
ume of a biography (1909); Deutschland und 
England (1900; also in English as England and 
Germany t 1900) ; Die impenalistische Ideen in 
der Gegenwart (1903); Biographical Essays 
(1905-08); Einheitlichkeit der englischen Aus- 
landspohtik (1910); the popular Manner und 
Zeiten (1911); Historische und akademische 
Eindrucke aus Nordamenka (1913). 

MARCO BOZZABIS. A well-known poem 
by Fitz-Greene Halleck on the death of the 
Greek patriot Bozzaris (q.v.). It appeared in 
the New York Review in 1825. 

MABCO DA OGGIONE, mar^d da 5d-jo'na. 
An Italian painter. See OGGIONE, MARCO DA. 

MAB'COMAN'NI (Lat., from OHG * Mar La- 
man, border man, from marca, border -f- man, 
man). An ancient German people who, in the 
time of Cesar, lived along the banks of the 
Rhine, but afterward, as appears from Tacitus 
and Strabo, settled in Bohemia, from which they 
expelled the Boii. Their King, Maroboduus, en- 
tered into an alliance with the tribes living 
around them to defend Germany against the Ro- 
mans. The combined iorces of the alliance num- 
bered 70,000 men, and the Emperor Tiberius 
signed a treaty with them in 6 AD; but the 
Marcomannic alliance was defeated 11 years 
later by the Cherusci and their allies, and in 
19 the Gothic Catualda drove Maroboduus from 
the throne and himself usurped the sovereignty. 
But he was soon overthrown and the native 
dynasty established, under whose rule the Mar- 
comanni extended their territory up to the Dan- 
ube, till their encroachments alarmed the Ro- 
mans, who attacked them in the time of Domi- 
tian. This war, which subsided for a time in 
the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian, broke out 
again under Marcus Aurelius, and was carried 
on with bitterness from 166 to 180, when it was 
ended by the Peace of Commodus The Marco- 
manni continued to make raids into the provinces 
of Noricum and Rhaetia, and in 270 invaded 
Italy as far as Ancona. In the fourth century 
their name fades away from history; it has been 
held that the Marcomanni were merged with the 
Boiarii or Baiouarii, later known as the Bava- 
rians. See BAVARIA, History 

MARCONI, mar-ko'ng, GUGLIELMO (1874- 
). An Italian electrical engineer, inventor 
of the wireless telegraph. He was born of an 
Italian father and an Irish mother at Bologna, 
April 25, 1874.) After study under Rosa at 
Leghorn he entered the University of Bologna. 
There he came in contact with Professor Righi, 
who had long been interested in the nature of the 
Hertzian waves. The young man saw the pos- 
sibilities of using these waves for the transmis- 
sion of messages, improved the coherers of 
Onesti and Branly, made several successful ex- 
periments at Griffone in 1895, and in 1896, hav- 
ing failed to interest the Italian government in 
Ms behalf, went to England, where his plans 
laid before the post-office authorities. 


There his project was well received and suc- 
cessful tests were made between Penarth and 
Wiston. Sir William Preece, engineer in chief 
of the British telegraph system, who had himself 
made experiments m 1893 and 1894, took up the 
new method, tested it, and declared it successful, 
but limited in application. Almost immediately 
afterward tests of the Marconi method were 
made by the Italian Ministry of Marine at 
Spezzia In 1897 the Marconi Wireless Tele- 
graph Company, Limited, was founded and two 
years later signals were successfully exchanged 
across the English Channel, and the system was 
established pretty generally in the British and 
Italian navies, although at the time some insular 
jealousy was aroused in England that the scheme 
of a foreigner should be adopted in view of 
Preece's early study of the problem. 

In December, 1901, Marconi sent signals to 
Newfoundland from his station at Poldhu on the 
coast of Cornwall, and on Dec. 19, 1902, he suc- 
ceeded in transmitting messages between Poldhu 
and the permanent station erected at Glace Bay, 
Nova Scotia, this being the first occasion of the 
transatlantic transmission of wireless messages. 
Previously, however, in February, 1902, Marconi 
had been able to maintain communication be- 
tween the transatlantic steamship Philadelphia 
and Poldhu for a distance of 2099 miles in the 
case of test letter signals and for 1551 miles 
for actual messages These experiments proved 
the possibility of constant long-distance com- 
munication between vessels at sea and the main- 
land, as well as the general advance of the art 
By 1903 Marconi was able to begin the trans- 
mission of news messages between America and 
Great Britain for the London Times, and during 
the same year continuous communication was 
maintained between land and the steamship 
Lucania during her entire crossing, so that news 
messages could be supplied to the vessel. Simi- 
lar communication was maintained between 
Poldhu and the British warship Duncan By 
1904 over-sea transmission was developed to a 
point of efficiencv and reliability, so that a daily 
newspaper containing the news of both Europe 
and America could be published on the vessels 
of the Cunard line. In 1907 a limited commer- 
cial service across the Atlantic for public use 
was established, and from that time its use in- 
creased without, however, making any serious 
inroads into the business of the submarine tele- 
graphs In the meantime his experimental 
work continued and he invented a directive sys- 
tem of wireless, as well as a new persistent wave 
system, which was brought out in 1906. The 
underlying physical considerations were studied 
and apparatus notably new detectors and gen- 
erators giving the form of wave desired was 
evolved which increased the efficiency of the 
transmission and reception of messages. 

About 1910 Marconi brought out a new valve 
receiver and a new electrolytic detector. He also 
developed about this time a duplex system by 
which the sending and receiving devices are 
rendered operative and inoperative alternately 
in rapid succession, avoiding synchronism at the 
two stations. By this time the Marconi Com- 
pany had developed its transatlantic service on 
a practical basis, and its station in Argentina 
was able to receive signals from Nova Scotia and 
from Ireland, a distance of 5600 miles, which 
was extended to other South American stations, 
making an aggregate of 7000 miles 

The promotion of the Marconi companies both 


in Great Britain and in the United States was 
not free from unfavorable comment. In fact, 
in 1912 charges were made that Premier Asquith, 
Chancellor Lloyd George, and other members of 
the British cabinet had corruptly favored the 
Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company and had 
benefited through speculation in its stock. The 
subject was investigated by a parliamentary 
committee and in May, 1913, Marconi was 
placed on the stand. He replied vigorously to 
the various charges and insinuations both tech- 
nical and commercial. No general blame at- 
tached to him in this connection and the cabinet 
members were regarded as having been only in- 
discreet, but for the time being the incident was 
conspicuous in British politics. 

Chi May 1, 1913, an advisory committee of 
Parliament reported that the Marconi system 
alone was certainly capable of meeting the re- 
quirements for the Imperial wireless chain, but 
that the company need not be employed as con- 
tractors for all the work, and that it was not 
necessary to employ exclusively the apparatus of 
the company then in use, as further develop- 
ments might be reasonably expected. In the 
meantime the business of the Marconi system had 
developed broadly and it was employed generally 
on the vessels of the British merchant marine 
and at various colonial stations, as well as 
throughout the United Kingdom. When Italy 
entered the European War (June, 1915), Mar- 
coni took charge of the wireless for his govern- 
ment. He was decorated with the Russian 
Order of St. Anne, the Italian Order of St. 
Maurice and St. Lazarus, and with the Grand 
Cross of the Ciown of Italy; and he received 
the freedom of the city of Rome (1903). In 
1904 Oxford and Glasgow gave him honorary 
degrees, he became a Chevalier of the Civil 
Order of Savoy ( 1905 ) , received the Grand 
Cross of the Order of Alphonso XII, and with 
Ferdinand Braun shared the Nobel prize for 
physics ( 1909) . He received the British G.C.V.O. 
in 1914 and in the next year was nominated a 
Senator of the Kingdom of Italy. See WIBELESS 



MAHCELIN, BARON DE (1782-1854). A French 
soldier, born at La Riviere, Coneze. He left the 
College de Soreze in 1799, served in the Republi- 
can army in Italy under his father, Gen. Jean 
Antoine Marcot; and was rapidly promoted un- 
til he became aid-de-camp to Marshal Augereau 
in the Russian and Prussian campaigns of 
1806-07 He was with Lannes and Massena in 
the Peninsular War, and in 1812-13 was colonel 
of light cavalry in the Russian and German 
campaigns. During the Hundred Days he served 
as a general of brigade under Napoleon, and 
for this was exiled upon the Second Restoration. 
He returned to France in 1819; became a 
margchal de camp in 1830 and a lieutenant gen- 
eral in 1836; was made a peer of France in 
1845; and retired in 1848. 

MARCOU, marTeoo-', JULES (1824-98). A 
French geologist, born in Salins in the Depart- 
ment of Jura. He was educated in Paris and, 
after completing his course at the College St. 
Louis, made geological excursions through the 
Alps. In 1846 he was attached to the mineral- 
ogical department of the Sorbonne and conducted 
geological investigations in various parts of 
Europe and from 1848 to 1850 in the United 



States and Canada. In 1853-54 he was empL 
by the United States government in surve 
the Rocky Mountains, but he returned in 
to Europe to accept the chair of paleontological 
geology in the Polytechnic School of Zurich. In 
1860 he again visited the United States and was 
engaged with Prof. Louis Agassiz in paleonto- 
logical researches, and afterward entered the 
government service. He died at Cambridge, 
Mass. He published two fine geological maps, 
one of the United States in 1853, another of the 
world in 1862 (2d ed., 1875). Marcou became 
best known, perhaps, for his Recherches geo- 
logique sur le Jura salmois (1848) and The 
Taconio System and its Position in Stratigraphio 
Geology (1885). He published many scientific 
papers besides the following more extended 
works: Geology of North America (1858); De 
la science en France (1869) ; Origin of the Name 
America (1875) ; First Discoveries of California, 
and the Origin of its Name (1878) 

MARCOUX, miir'koo', JOSEPH (c 1770-1855). 
A Canadian missionary. He was born in Canada, 
was educated for the Catholic priesthood, after 
his ordination was sent as a missionary to the 
various Iroquois tribes, and in 1819 settled 
among them at Caughnawaga, on the south shore 
of the St. Lawrence River. His persevering 
labors resulted in imparting a considerable de- 
gree of civilization to the Indians, and he built 
a schoolhouse and church at Caughnawaga for 
their benefit. He became a master of the Iro- 
quois language, of which he wrote a grammar 
and dictionaries. He also published in that lan- 
guage: The Life of Christ; Letters to Iroquois 
Chiefs (1848-49), Prayer Book (1852); Cate- 
chism (1854). 

MARCOUX, VANNI (1879- ). A French 
basso, born at Turin, Italy. Having received a 
liberal education, he was admitted to the bar 
and began to practice law, but, as his musical 
talent showed itself early, he also devoted much 
time to the serious cultivation of music, study- 
ing with Collino of Turin and later with Boyer 
at Paris. At his debut in Paris he immediately 
attracted attention because of his striking and 
quite exceptional power of characterization. 
From 1905 to 1912 he appeared every season at 
Covent Garden in London. In 1912 he became a 
regular member of the Boston Opera Company. 
His repertory is very extensive, including almost 
all the important roles in older and modern 
French and Italian operas. He created the title 
r61e in Massenet's Don Quichotte. 

MAR'CUS, SAINT. Bishop of Rome, or 
Pope, Jan 18 to Oct. 7, 336. He was a native of 
Rome and is said to have had a share in the 
building of two churches, one of which still re- 
mains as San Marco, although frequently al- 
tered and repaired 




MAR'CY, MOUNT. The loftiest of the Adi- 
rondack Mountains and the highest point in 
New York State, situated in Essex Co., 10 miles 
south of Lake Placid (Map: New York, G 2). 
It is 5344 feet high and was known to the In- 
dians as Tahawus, the "cloud divider." Within 
a few miles of it are many other famous Adiron- 
dack peaks, such as Mclntyre Mountain (5112 
feet), Mount Skylight (4920 feet), Mount Hay- 


stack (4018 feet), Basin Mountain (4825 feet), 
Mount Redfield (4606 feet), and Saddleback 
Mountain (4530 feet). 

MABCY, HENRY ORLANDO ( 1 837-1924 ) . An 
American surgeon, born at Otis, Mass. In 1863 
he volunteered in the Union army as assistant 
surgeon He was assistant in chemistry at Har- 
vard after the close of the war; then studied 
surgery at Berlin (1869) and in England under 
Lister, and devoted himself especially to the bac- 
teriology of wounds. He was president of the 
American Academy of Medicine in 1884, and of 
the American Medical Association in 1892. 
Marcy wrote Best Methods of Operative Wound 
Treatment (1882), The Perineum: Its Anatomy 
and Surgical Treatment (1889), and the very 
valuable work Anatomy and Surgical Treatment 
of Hernia (1892). 

American soldier, born at Greenwich, Mass. He 
graduated at West Point in 1832. He was as- 
signed to the United States regular infantry, 
and was chiefly engaged against the Indians 
until the outbreak of the Mexican War, for his 
services in whicli ho was promoted captain 
(1846) Subsequently he was engaged in ex- 
plorations in the Red River country (1852), in 
operations against the Seminoles (1857), and 
in the Utah expedition of 1857-58 He was ap- 
pointed paymaster, with the rank of major, in 
1859, and inspector general, with the rank of 
colonel, in 1861. During the Civil War ho was 
chief of staff to General McClellan (his son-in- 
law), in West Virginia, on the Peninsula, and 
in Maryland; and in 1865 was brevetted major 
general in the regular army for faithful and 
meritorious services during the war. In 1869, 
after performing inspection service in a number 
of military departments and as inspector gen- 
eral of the military division of Missouri, he was 
appointed inspector general of the United States 
army, with the rank of brigadier general, and 
was president of the Army Regulation Board 
until Jan. 1, 1881, when he retired from active 
service He contributed largely to magazines, 
and published- Exploration of the Red River 
(1853); The Prairie Traveler (1859), Thirty 
"Years of Army Life on the Border (1866) ; Bor- 
der Reminiscences (1871). 

An American statesman, born Dec. 12, 1786, at 
Southbridge, Mass. He graduated at Brown 
University in 1808 and entered upon the practice 
of law at Troy, N. Y , in 1810. At the open- 
ing of the War of 1812 he entered the volunteer 
service as a lieutenant, and on Oct. 22, 1812, 
led a successful attack upon St. Regis, a Cana- 
dian post For this he was soon afterward 
promoted to be captain Before the end of the 
war he returned to Troy, where he was active 
as a newspaper writer and politician, support- 
ing the Tompkins faction against the Clinto- 
nians, and allying himself with the "Albany 
Regency" (qv.). After filling several minor 
offices, and after a service of six years as Comp- 
troller of the State, he was made an associate 
justice of the New York Supreme Court in 1829 
In 1831 he was elected Senator of the United 
States by the Democratic party, but resigned the 
office upon being chosen Governor of New York 
in 1832. In the Senate he served as chairman 
of the Judiciary Committee, and gained distinc- 
tion by his defense of Martin Van Buren against 
the attacks of Henry Clay. In the course of a 
speech on the question of appointment to office 



he upheld the right of the President to bestow 
the offices upon his political supporters, saying, 
"We can see nothing wrong in the maxim that 
to the victors belong the spoils," thus associat- 
ing his name in history with the spoils system. 
He was, however, much more than a spoilsman: 
"he was a hard-headed, aggressive Democratic 
partisan, with none of the popular power of his 
younger rival, Douglas, but with much more 
caution and political shrewdness." He served 
as Governor for three terms, and was nominated 
for a fourth term in 1838, but was defeated by 
William H. Seward (qv ). He was then ap- 
pointed a commissioner on claims against the 
Mexican government, serving in that capacity 
until 1842 In 1845 he became the Secretary of 
War in President Polk's cabinet His ability in 
this position was severely tested by the Mexi- 
can War. In the presidential campaign of 1848 
he supported General Cass. The last and most 
important public station in which he served was 
that of Secretary of State during Pierce's admin- 
istration (1853-57) Among the foreign compli- 
cations or treaties which demanded action on his 
part in this capacity were the settling of the 
Mexican boundary, the Canadian reciprocity 
treaty, Commodore Perry's negotiations with 
Japan, the British fishery dispute, the Oaten d 
Conference, and the so-called Koszta Affair 
(qv ), which added much to his popularity In 
these and m other matters Marcy successfully 
defended the interests of his country and dis- 
played the qualities of a trained statesman and 
accomplished diplomat One of his notable diplo- 
matic papers was his instructions to the Amen* 
can ministers abroad to appear at court "like 
Franklin in the simple costume of an American 
citizen" when this could be done without detri- 
ment to the interests of the United States. 
Marcy's death occurred at Ballston Spa, N Y, 
but a few months after the expiration of his 
term of office He is entitled to high rank as a 
statesman, while as a shrewd politician he was 
at his time almost unsurpassed Consult- J. S. 
Jenkins, Lives of the Governors of the State of 
New York (Auburn, 1851); J. F Rhodes, His- 
tory of the United States from the Compromise 
of 1830, vols i and ii (New York, 1892); S 
Webster, "Mr. Marcy, the Cuban Question, and 
the Ostend Manifesto" in vol. lii of the Political 
Science Quarterly (ib., 1893) ; De A S. Alex- 
ander, Political History of the State of New 
York (ib., 1906). 

MARCZALI, mar'tsa-lS, HENRY ( 1850- ) . 
A Hungarian historian, born in Marczali, County 
Somogy He was educated at the University of 
Budapest and, after studying in Berlin, Paris, 
and London, became lecturer (1880) and pro- 
fessor (1895) of the Historical Seminary of 
the University at Budapest. HP contributed to 
the great millennial history (in Magyar) of 
Hungary (1895-1901), edited by Szilagyi; and 
himself published- Ungarns Oeschichtsquellen 
(1882-88) ; Hungary in the Times of Joseph II 
(1891); Mary Theresia (1900-04); Enchiridion 
Fontium Bistort Hungariorum ( 1902) , in Latin 
and Magyar; Hungary in the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury (1910) ; Ungansche Verfassungsgeschichte 
(1910); Ungarisches Verfassungsrecht (1911). 

MARDI QRAS, mar'd*' gra'. See CARNIVAL. 

MARDIN, mar-den' The capital of a sanjak 
in the Vilayet of Diarbekir in north Mesopo- 
tamia, Asiatic Turkey (Map- Turkey in Asia, 
D 3) It is strikingly situated on the steep 
slopes of a conical hill 5000 feet above sea 


level, crowned by the ruins of an old castle. It 
has a number of mosques, bazars, and baths, 
as well as Christian churches and monasteries, 
and is the seat of an important American mis- 
sion with a church and a school. It is also the 
seat of the Jacobite Patriarch of Antioch, who 
occupies an ancient and interesting monastery 
not far from the city. It is also the headquar- 
ters of a Roman Catholic archbishop. Pop , 
about 25,000, of whom less than one-half are 
Moslem Kurds; the rest are Christians of vari- 
ous Eastern sects. 

MARDO'NITJS (Lat., from Gk. Maputo?, 
Hardonios, from OPers. Marduniya). A Persian 
general, son of Gobryas and son-in-law of Darius 
Hystaspes. In 492 BC he commanded an ex- 
pedition sent out by Darius to punish the Ere- 
trians and the Athenians for the aid they had 
given to the lonians. (See GREECE, Ancient 
History ) Near Mount Athos, however, his fleet 
was destroyed by a storm, and when, shortly 
afterward, his land forces were cut to pieces, he 
returned to Asia and was relieved of his com- 
mand by Darius. On the accession of Xerxes he 
was restored to favor and was appointed one of 
the generals of the expedition against Greece. 
After the battle of Salamis ( 480 B c ) he was 
left by Xerxes with 300,000 men to conquer 
Greece In the following year, 47ft BC., he was 
defeated and probably slain in the battle of 
Platoea, by the Greeks under Pauaanias Con- 
sult Herodotus vi, 43-45, 94 , vii, 5, 9, 82 , viii, 
100 et seq, 113 et seq, 133-144, ix, 1-4, 12-15, 
38-65, and the editors on these passages. Con- 
sult ateo the standard histories of Greece. 


MARDTJK, mar'dufik,. The chief god of 
Babylon. An older form of the name seems to 
have been Maruduk He was manifestly a Sume- 
nan divinity Since he is represented as a son 
of Ea, the 'god of Endu, it is possible that a 
dynasty of Endu established itself in Babylon 
between the dynasty of Uruk and Ur Engur of 
Ur, with Marduk as its chief god. For some 
centuries preMOus to this the city probably had 
a prevailingly Akkadian population, as the 
Semitic god Nairn appears to have established 
for himself so strong a position that it had to 
be recognized even in later times With the 
growth of Babylon the importance of its great 
god increased. * When Hammurapi's conquest of 
Larsa, made in 2094 B.C., made it the capital 
of all Babylonia, Marduk naturally tended to 
become the head of the Babylonian pantheon, 
and he was greeted as "King of the gods," "King 
of heaven and earth," "Lord of lords, king of 
kings." The Semitic population also seems to 
have called him Bel, he is addressed as Bel at 
the end of the Code of Hammurapi and else- 
where, and hence the Hebrews also spoke of him 
as Bel or Bel Meiodach (qv ). In Endu Mar- 
duk seems to have been a sun god, and it was 
probably there that the myth developed accord- 
ing to which he became the creator of the pres- 
ent world and of mankind after his conquest of 
the chaos monster Tiamat. This myth spread 
from Babylon to Assyria and even to Syria. In 
the city of Assur this mighty deed is ascribed 
to Assur in the time of Sennacherib. Among the 
Hebrews it is Yah we who violates Rahab, over- 
comes Tehom, punishes Leviathan, and creates 
the world. Later the struggle is transferred to 
Michael and the Dragon and St. George and the 
Dragon. In the astral system of the Babylonian 
sages, which identified the chief deities with the 
VOL. XV. 6 



great stars, Marduk was thought of as con- 
nected with the planet Jupiter. The Marduk 
of Babylon therefore seems to have lost to some 
extent the solar character that Marduk of Eridu 
possessed. The spiritual nature ascribed to him 
as loid of gods and men comes to view in many 
hymns In one of these the worshiper prays: 
"Put truth into my mouth, let good thoughts be 
in my heart." The great temple of Marduk in 
Babylon was known as E-sag-ila (the lofty 
house), and to him was also dedicated the temple 
tower, called E-temen-an-ki (the house of the 
foundation of heaven and earth). Both have 
been laid bare by the excavations of the Deutsche 
Orientgesellschaft. (See BABYLON; BABEL, 
TOWER or ) Consult: Zimmern, in Schrader, 
Die Keihnschnften und das alte Testament (3d 
ed., Berlin, 1902) , Jastrow, Die Religion Baby- 
loniens und Assywens (Giessen, 1902-12): Jere- 
mias, Das alte Testament im Lichte des alien 
Orients (Leipzig, 1906); Rogers, The Religion 
of Babylonia and Assyria (London, 1908) ; Con- 
damm, in Huby, Christus: Manuel d'histoire des 
religions (Pans, 1913). 

MARE ATT DIABLE, mar 6 dya'bl', LA (the 
devil's pool). A romance by George Sand 

(1750-1803). A French atheistic writer, born 
in Paris He studied law, but became sublibra- 
rian at the College Mazarin and held that posi- 
tion until 1784 His parody on the Psalms 
(1784) caused his dismissal, and four years af- 
terward his Almanack des honnetes gens, a sort 
of calendar, in which the names of celebrated 
men were substituted for those of saints, earned 
him four months in prison. His other works 
include: Les voyages de Pythagore (1799) and 
a Dictionnaire des afheles anciens et modernes 
( 1800) , in which he was assisted by Lalande, the 

MARE CLAUSUM, ma'rg kla'sum or ma'ra 
klou'sum (Lat., closed sea). In international 
law, a body of water, as a bay, a sea, or a great 
lake, which is under the exclusive jurisdiction of 
a single power Usually such a body of water is 
mare clauvum when its shores are exclusively 
possessed by a single power, as is the case with 
Lake Michigan, which lies wholly within the 
territory of the United States, and as was 
formerly the case with the Black Sea before 
Russia had wrested its northern and eastern 
shores from Turkey. The doctrine that a nation 
may by appropriation convert a portion of the 
open sea into a mare clausum was formerly 
maintained by Great Britain with respect to the 
Narrow Seas, the North Sea, and the Atlantic 
from Norway to Spain, by Russia with respect 
to Bering Sea within 100 miles of the Alaskan 
and Siberian coasts, and by Sweden and Den- 
mark with respect to the Baltic and Arctic 
seas, but these pretensions were always disputed 
and have long since been abandoned See HIGH 

MAREE, ma-re 7 , LOCH. A beautiful lake in 
Ross and Cromartyshire, northwestern Scotland 
(Map: Scotland, C 2). It is about 12 miles 
long by 2 miles wide, and very deep. It is 
studded with islets, and surrounded by mountains 
3000 feet high. It drains by the Ewe over an 
artificial dam to Loch Ewe 

MABEI'A, or MA'REOTIS (Lat., from Gk. 
MapewTts). A salt lake of the Nile delta in the 
north of Egypt, separated from the Mediter- 
ranean by a narrow isthmus of sand on which 


is situated the city of Alexandria (Map: Egypt, 
El). Its modern name is Birket or Beheret 
Maryut. It is some 12 miles long, with width 
of about the same extent, but in antiquity it is 
said to have been somewhat larger. The sur- 
rounding district was anciently very fruitful and 
the Mareotic wine had a high reputation. Dur- 
ing the Middle Ages the lake dried up because 
the canals flowing into it from the Nile were 
choked with sand. In 1801 the English, dur- 
ing the siege of Alexandria, cut through the 
isthmus west of Abukir, allowed the sea to flow 
in, and destroyed 150 villages. Mehemet Ali 
tried to reclaim the resulting salt marsh (6 to 
10 feet deep), but with little success. The 
water of the lake is used for the manufacture 
of salt by evaporation. Consult Stanley Lane- 
Poole, History of Egypt in the Middle Ages 
(New York, 1905), and Baedeker, Egypt (6th 
ed., Leipzig, 1908). 

MARE ISLAND. An island, about 2 miles 
long, in Solano Go , Gal., at the east end of 
the Bay of San Pablo and opposite the city 
of Vallejo, from winch it is separated by a 
strait half a mile wide. It has ferry connection 
with that city On its west shore is situated 
the Pacific station of the United States navy, 
its yard being one of the largest in the country. 
It has a naval arsenal, sectional floating dock, 
an observatory, and a lighthouse of the first 


MARE&MA, ma-rem'ma (corruption of Ma- 
nttima, "situated on the sea"). A vast marshy 
region of Tuscany, west Italy, extending along 
the coast, from the mouth of the Gecina to 
Orbetello and 15 to 20 miles inland (Map Italy, 
C 3). In ancient times these districts were 
drained, cultivated, and inhabited, but the neg- 
lect of watercourses has brought about their 
malarial condition, which is, however, being 
again improved, since Leopold of Tuscany in the 
early part of the nineteenth century began 
drainage canals. The railway line along the 
coast has greatly contributed to the improvement 
of the district. 

MARENCO, ma-ren'kd, CARLO, COUNT (1800- 
46). An Italian Romantic dramatist, born at 
Cassolnuovo, resident and mayor of Ceva, Pied- 
mont. He was the author of some 15 trage- 
dies, dealing with mediaeval subjects and reveal- 
ing the influence of Alfieri, and more directly 
that of Pellico, as well as a tendency to adopt 
the methods of the historical drama of Romanti- 
cism. The most popular of his plays were 
Buondelmonte, Pia de 9 Tolomei, and Arnaldo da 
Brescia. Of these the Pw still enjoys some 
vogue, after being immensely popular in its own 
day, interpreted by Adelaide Ristori. The 
Arnaldo was overshadowed by Nicolmi's famous 
tragedy of the same title. Consult the edition 
of his Tragedie (Turin, 1837-44) ; the Tragedie 
vnedite, etc. (Florence, 1856) ; Orlandi, II teatro 
di C. M. (Florence, 1900). 

An Italian dramatist, born at Ceva, Piedmont. 
He was the son of Carlo Marenco (qv ) and 
wrote his play Isabella Orsini when only 20 
years old. In 1871 he scored decided triumphs 
with II falcomere di Pietro Ardena and Celeste. 
His plays, which affect, when most distinctive, 
a sentimental tone and a mediaeval stage setting, 
include: Piccarda Donati (1869); Saffo (1880); 
Rosalinda (1884); Lo spiritismo (1869); II 
di Monte Bianco (1870); Quel che 


nostro non e (1877); Giorgio Oandi (1882); 
Bice (1884). His collected works were pub- 
lished in 20 volumes (1884 et seq.) at Turin. 

MARENQO, ma-ren'gd. A locality near 
Alessandria, Italy, the scene of one of the most 
famous of Napoleon's battles, fought on June 
14, 1800, in which the French completely de- 
feated the Austrians under General Melas (Map: 
Italy, B 2). After Napoleon got control of the 
government he determined to wage a vigorous 
war against Austria so that she would be 
unable to help England and Russia. Morean 
(qv.) was sent to Germany, while Napoleon 
himself ciossed the Great St. Bernard Pass into 
Italy with about 40,000 men. On June 14 
Melas crossed the Bormida from Alessandria, 
assailed the French, and at first was successful, 
because Napoleon had scattered his troops in an 
effort to find the Austrians. But at five in the 
afternoon Desaix (q.v ) and Kellermann (q.v.) 
appeared with fresh troops an<l swept all before 
them, though the former lost his life in the 
chaige. The French lost about 7000 m killed, 
wounded, and pnsoners, while the Austnans lost 
about 10,000 The battle firmly established 
Napoleon's supremacy in France General Mclas 
was compelled to sign the Convention of Ales- 
sandria, by which he surrendered Genoa, Pied- 
mont, and the Milanese, and promised to with- 
draw the Austrian garrisons from all cities to 
the west of the Mincio^ Military critics havo 
generally maintained that the Marengo campaign 
was one of the most brilliant conceptions in 
the history of warfare. See NAPOLEON I. 

BEBTHA VON (1810-93). A German educator 
and author, born near Brunswick. Attracted 
by the ideas of Friednch Frobel (qv ), whom 
she met in 1850, she became his disciple and de- 
voted her life to founding kindergartens in 
German v and many other European countries 
Her activity in London attracted much attention 
and is noticed by Dickens in Household Words 
Among her writings are : Beitraqe sum Verstand- 
nis Friednch Frobels (1876) ; Der Kindergarten 
(2d ed , Dresden, 1878); and a number of 
pamphlets on the kindergarten, several of which 
have been translated into English. Consult 
Goldschmidt, "Bertha von Marenholtz-Bulow," 
No. 230, in the Sammlung wissenschaftlicher 
Vortrage (Hamburg, 1896), and Life of Baroness 
Bertha Marenholtz-Bulow, by her niece of the 
same name (New York, 1901). 

MARENZIO, ma-ren'tsi-6, LTJCA (c!555- 
99). An Italian composer of madrigals, born 
at Coccagho, between Bergamo and Brescia He 
was a chorister in the Brescia Cathedral and 
received musical instruction from its organist, 
Giovanni Contmi He began publication in 
\~emce (1581), with a collection of madrigals 
for five voices, and he issued nine books of the 
same within 10 years About 1584 he was 
living in Rome, employed by Cardinal d'Este as 
maestro di cappella, and in 1587 he had a post 
at the Polish court, but went back to Rome 
(1595), and received an appointment in the 
chapel of the Pope. He composed a quantity of 
Church music, but it is on account of the great 
advance he made upon his predecessors in the 
production of madrigals that he is chiefly re- 
membered. Six books of them for six voices 
were published in Venice (1582-1609), and he 
wrote others for three, four, eight, and twelve 

HABEOTIS, mar'e-o'tls. See MABETA. 




MARET, ma'r^, HUGUES BERNARD, DUKE OF mark, Norway, and Sweden. She was the second 
BASSANO (1763-1839). A French statesman, daughter of Valdemar IV, King of Denmark, 
At the beginning of the Revolution he was editor and the wife of Haakon VI, King of Norway, 

of the Bulletin (the original of the Moniteur), - v ^ ~ ~ " " - - - 

containing the proceedings of the Constituent 
Assembly, a position which gave him much 
political influence. At first inclining to the 
Jacobins, he subsequently favored a constitu- 

whom she married in 1363. On the death of her 
father without direct male heirs, the Danish 
nobles, after an interregnum, offered the crown 
in 1376 to Margaret and her husband in trust 
for their infant son Olaf. By the death of 

tional monarchy. In 1792 he became chief of a Haakon in 1380 Margaret became sole guardian 

bureau in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and 
after Aug. 10, 1792, was employed in various 
diplomatic missions as Envoy to England, to 
Naples (1793), and to England again (1797). 

of the young Prince, who died in 1387 Such 
was the skill with which she had conducted the 
government that the estates of both kingdoms 
concurred in electing her as their joint sovereign. 

He cooperated with Napoleon in the coup of She nominated her cousin, Eric of Pomerania, 

*u~ 1Q4-U r ; /T7fto\ TT i> XT ner SUCC essor ; and although, owing to Eric's 

infancy at the time, and his subsequent in- 
capacity, the real power rested in the hands of 
Hundred Days, Napoleon made him Duke of Margaret, she contented herself from that time 

the 18th Bruraaire (1799). He became Na- 
poleon's confidential adviser, and later his Sec- 
retary of State for Foreign Affairs. During the 

Bassano. He was in exile during the Restora- 
tion; but Louis Philippe restored him to the 
peerage in 1831, and made him the head of a 
short-lived ministry. 

MABETZEK, ma're-tsSk, MAX (1821-97). 
A German-American composer, director, and im- 
presario, born in Brunn, Moiavia He studied 
music there and also at Vienna and Paris. In 
1843 he composed the opera Hamlet, which 
secured him the place of music director at the 

with the title of "Margaret, by the grace of 
God, daughter of Valdemar, King of Denmark." 
At the moment that Margaret was cementing 
the union of Norway and Denmark, the condi- 
tion of affairs in Sweden opened the way for a 
further extension of her power. The Swedish 
King, Albert of Mecklenburg, had so thoroughly 
alienated the affections of his subjects that the 
nobles declared the throne vacant and offered 
to acknowledge Margaret as their ruler. The 

Royal Opera in London In 1847 he went to Queen lost no time in sending an army into 
XT ^__,_ __j . , OAU A1 _, j x _ Sweden to BU p por t her pretensions, and defeated 

the King's German troops at Aasle near Fal- 
kopmg in 1389, \vhere Albert fell into her hands 
The King lemamed in prison till 1395, during 
which time Margaret continued the work of sub- 
jugating Sweden. In 1397 she effected the so- 

New York, and in 1848 was the musical director 
at the Astor Place Opera House. In 1849 he 
commenced his career as an impresario of 
Italian opera in New York, and continued it 
until 1878, subsequently teaching He published 
in 1855 Crochets and Quavers, or, Revelations 

of an Opera Manager in America; composed the called Union of Kalmar (q.v.), by which the 

opeia Sleepy Hollow (1879) ; and wrote chamber 
and oichestral music. He died on Staten Island, 
N Y 
Iff A KEY, ma'ra', ETIENNE JUUES (1830- 

crowns of the three Scandinavian kingdoms 
were henceforth to remain united Eric, who 
was in his sixteenth year, was invested with 
the triple dignity. Margaret continued to exert 

ITI r* r* | ujaiju, JLUJ. j. JLII j^ Hi tru-Lido \ AOCJV biiu uijpie u.iguii>j. -LUCLigOiicb viliibliiucu tu CACI I* 

1904). A French physiologist, born at Beaune great influence in the government She died to- 

(Cote-d'Or) He went to Paris when 20 years 
old, took the degree of doctor of medicine in 
1860, and the same year began work in physi- 
ology at the College de France. In 1864 he 
established a physiological laboratory, and in 
1807 was appointed adjunct professor of phys- 
iology in the College He became a laurgat 
of the Institute and a member of the Academy 
of Medicine (1872) and of the Institute (1878). 
He began to publish scientific tracts as early 

wards the close of 1412, while she was attempt- 
ing to bring about peace between Eric and the 
Duke of Holstein. Consult M. Hill, Margaret of 
Denmark (London, 1898). 

MARGARET, or MARGUERITE, mar'g'ret' 
(variously called of ANGOUL&ME, of ORLEANS, 
of ALEN^ON, and of NAVARRE) (1492-1549). A 
daughter of Charles of Orleans, Count of 
AngoulSme, sister of King Francis I of France. 
She was born at Angoul&nc, April 11, 1492. 

as 1857, and worked on the experimental In 1509 she married the Duke d^Alengon, and 
physiology of the heart and circulation, on 
animal heat, on the electric phenomena which 
provoke or accompany movements in animals, 
and on the action of poisons which especially 
concern the nerves and muscles In 1863 he 
invented the sphygmograph, which has been an 
important laboratory instrument. His studies 
and works on motion in animals, especially on 
the flight of birds and insects, have given him a 
wide reputation, since he devised photographic 
methods of recording the motions of the wings. 
His most important publications were: Physiolo- 
gic medicate de la circulation du sang (1860- 
64) ; Physiologic du systeme circulaire (1866) ; 
La methode graphique dans les sciences experi- 
mentales (1878); Developpement de la methode 

two years after his death (1527) Henri d'Albret, 
titular King of Navarre. His small dominions, 
for Francis I failed to reconquer the entire 
Kingdom as he had promised, she governed after 
his death in 1544 Their daughter, Jeanne 
d'Albret, became mother of Henry of Navarre 
(Henry IV of France). Margaret was active in 
politics, in religious reform, and in literature. 
Of a strong mystical tendency, she favored re- 
ligious liberty rather than Protestantism, and 
was the leading exponent of the Neoplatonic 
movement which was cultivated for a while 
within a restricted milieu During the ascend- 
ancy of her influence with her brother, she was 
an effectual defender and patron of humanists 
and men of letters of such varied complexion 

graphique par I'emploi de la photographic as Rabelais, Marot, Des Pe*riers, Dolet, Peletier, 

(1885); Physiologic du mouvement: le vol des 
oiseausv (1890) ; Le mouvement (1894). 

MARGADANT, mar-ga-dant', SIMON LEMM. 
The real name of the German humanist Simon 
Lemnms (q.v.). 

Brodeau, and many others. Her little courts at 
Ne"rac and at Pau, for a time the most brilliant 
intellectually in Europe, .roused seemingly 
groundless slander. After undergoing many dis- 
appointments she died a,t.,Odos in Bigorre, the 

MAR'GARET (1353-1412). Queen of Den- 21st of September, 154*. Her affection for her 


brother was especially beautiful. During his 
captivity in Spain in 1525, she went to console 
him and tried in vain to secure less rigorous 
conditions of release from Charles V. Though 
a victim of much slander on the part of her 
enemies, no charges have been brought against 
her personal character that can be supported 
by investigation. Her literary work comprises 
Le Miroir de Vame p6cheresse (Alencon, 1531), 
which was translated into English prose in 1544 
by Queen Elizabeth, then eleven years of age 
Tliis translation was reproduced in facsimile by 
Ames (London, 1897). In 1547 some of the 
religious and dramatic poems of Margaret of 
Navarre were collected together in a volume en- 
titled Les Marguerites de la Marguerite des 
Princesses, reprinted in 1873 in four volumes. 
While her poems are usually written in an easy, 
flowing style, there hovers over them a veil of 
mysticism which at times obscures the thought 
Her Letters, of considerable interest from the 
historical or literary point of view, were pub- 
lished by G&iin in 1841-42 (2 vols , Paris) 
Other poems, consisting of two comedies, Les 
prisons, Le nnvire, and a number of shorter 
pieces, were discovered in the National Library 
in 1895 and published by Lefranc under the title 
Dernieres pofoies (Paris, 1896) As a prose 
writer Margaret is probably deserving of even 
greater praise than as a poet Though some 
have attempted to cast doubt upon the author- 
ship of the Heptameron (q.v ), it is very prob- 
able that Margaret dictated the work to her 
secretary Des Pe*riers, or at least the greater 
part of it. It was originally printed in 1559 
at the order of Jeanne d'Albret. Though ap- 
parently of no great personal beauty, Margaret's 
character was marked by a sweetness of dis- 
position combined with intellectual strength as 
well as a scrupulous morality free from all 
prudery; and she probably contributed more to 
the renaissance of learning in France than any 
other individual at that time, not even excepting 
Francis himself. 

Bibliography. Margaret has been the sub- 
ject of a considerable number of studies in 
recent years, due to a certain extent to the large 
number of her inedited works that are being 
published. She forms the subject of one of 
Brantftme's discourses in Les dames illusttcs 
(vi, 166.5-66). Other works worthy of note are 
Leroux de Lmcy, Essai sur la vie et les ouvrages 
de Marguerite d" IngouUme (Paris, 1853) ; Fer- 
dinand Lntheissen, Komqin Margarete von 
Navarra (Berlin, 1885) ; M. W. Freer, The Life 
of Marguerite d'Angouleme (London, 1895) ; 
Rasmussen, Marguerite of Navarre (Copen- 
hagen, 1901); Courteault, Marguerite de Na- 
varre (Paris, 1904) ; M. G. Fawcett, Five Fa- 
mous French Women (London, 1905) ; M. B. 
Ryley, Queens of the Renaissance (Boston, 
1907 ) ; Cristina Garosci, Margherita di Navarra 
(Turin, 1908); and Madame Darmesteter, 
Marguerite d'AngoulGmc, reine de Navarre 
(Paris, 1910). For a critical estimate of her, 
see Cabantous, Marguerite d'Alengon et les 
debuts de la reforme (Montauban, 1898), and A. 
J. M. Lefranc, Grands ecrivains de la renais- 
sance (Paris, 1914) For the most recent dis- 
covery of inedited poems by her, see F. Gohin, 
"Huitains in&lits de Marguerite de Navarre et 
d'un amant platonique," in the Melanges Emile 
Picot, vol. i (Paris, 1913). 

MABGABET, SAINT (c.1045-93). A queen 
of Scotland. She was the daughter of Edward 


the Exile, son of Edmund Ironside, and was 
born, according to tradition, in Hungary. In 
1067 she came to Scotland with her brother 
Edgar Atheling (q.v.) and soon after became 
the wife of King Malcolm III. She appears in 
the chronicles as a woman of almost angelic 
character and saintly virtues, and numerous 
instances are recorded of her works of piety and 
unceasing devotion to the cause of the Church 
She exercised a refining influence on the rough 
manners of the Scottish court by the example 
of her stainless life, and advanced the welfare 
of her people by her wide beneficence to the 
crippled, the orphaned, and the poor. She died 
Nov 17, 1093, after receiving news of the death 
of her husband and her eldest son in a border 
i aid. She was canonized by Pope Innocent IV. 
Consult- W F. Skene, Celtic Scotland, vol. i 
(Edinburgh, 1876) ; Andrew Lang, History of 
Scotland from the Roman Occupation, vol. i (2d 
ed, New York, 1900); R S. Rait, Five Stuart 
Princesses (ib., 1908). 


MABGABET OF ANJOU, aN'zhoo' (1430- 
82). Queen Consort of Henry VI of England 
She was born on March 23, 1430, and was the 
daughter of Rene" the Good of Anjou, titular 
King of Naples and Jerusalem. When in 1439 
the peace party in England, headed by Cardinal 
Beaufort, came into power, they sought to end 
the Hundred Years' War, and as a step in this 
direction looked around for a suitable French 
princess as a wife for the young Henry VT 
Their choice fell upon Margaret, and in 1445 
the marriage took place She became, however, 
rapidly unpopular, the loss of the English pos- 
sessions in France being charged against her 
When in 1453 a son was born to her, Richard, 
Duke of York, gave up all hope of succeeding 
peacefully to the crown Just before the birth 
of the son Henry had become insane and York 
had been made Regent, but on the King's re- 
covery in 1455 he led the Yorkists in arms 
against the house of Lancaster, inaugurating 
the Wars of the Roses Margaret became leader 
of the Lancastrians In 1460 she was victorious 
at Wakefield, where the Duke of York fell, but 
the battle of Towton (qv) in 1461 was dis- 
astrous to the Lancastrian cause In 1462 and 
1463 Margaret made attempts to restore the 
fortunes of her house and invaded England with- 
out success, and in 1464 her adherents were 
defeated at Hexham. In 1470 Warwick (q.v.) 
joined the Lancastrians and restored Henry VI 
to the throne, but in 1471 Edward IV won a de- 
cisive victory at Barnet; Henry was recaptured, 
and spent the remaining weeks of his life in the 
Tower Meanwhile Margaret had landed in 
England, but was defeated and taken at Tewkes- 
bury in 1471, while her son lost his life on the 
battlefield. She remained in captivity for about 
five years, till Louis XI redeemed her for 
50,000 crowns She then retired to France, and 
died at the chateau of Dampierre, near Saumier 
in Anjou, on Aug. 25, 1482 

Bibliography. M. A. Hookham, Life and 
Times of Margaret of Anjou, Queen of England 
and France (2 vols, London, 1872); Sir J. H. 
Ramsay, Lancaster and York, vol ii (Oxford. 
1892) ; 0. W. G. Oman, Political History of Eng- 
land, vol. iv (London, 1906) ; Schmidt, Marga- 
teta von Anyou (Palaesta, vol. liv, Berlin, 1906) ; 
Gambler's introduction to the Paston Letters, 
vol. i (Edinburgh, 1910): Edgcumbe Rtaley, 
King Rent d'Anjou and his Seven Queens (New 


York, 1012). See ROSES, WABS OF THE; 

A daughter of Maximilian I of Austria and of 
Mary of Burgundy. She was born at Brussels 
and brought up at the French court. Affianced 
to the Dauphin, afterward Charles VIII, by the 
Treaty of Arras (1482), she was sent back in 
1491 by the King, who married Anne of Brit- 
tany. About five years later she mairied John, 
Prince of Asturias, heir to the Spanish throne, 
but he died the next year. In 1501 she became 
the wife of Philibert II, Duke of Saxony, who 
died three years later. In 1507 her father made 
her Regent of the Netherlands. In this office 
she displayed great ability, carried on the policy 
of centralization, repressed heresy, but watched 
also over the material welfare of the country 
She participated in the conference at Cambrai 
in 1508, and negotiated with Louise of Savoy the 
Peace of Cambrai (1529), called the Paix des 
Dames (Ladies' Peace). Consult Christopher 
Hare, High and Puissant Princess Marguerite of 
Austria (New York, 1907 ) , and E E Tremayne, 
The First Governess of the Netherlands: Mar- 
garet of Austria (London, 1908). 

STANTINOPLE (c 1200-80). Countess of Flanders 
and Hamault She was the younger daughter of 
Baldwin IX, Count of Flanders and Hamault, 
who died without male issue, the succession pass- 
ing to her elder sister, Joanna Margaret, who 
was usually called "Black Meg." married Bou- 
chard d'Avesnes, bailiff of Hainault, in opposi- 
tion to the King's wishes, and after a number 
of years the marriage was annulled, owing to 
the fact that Bouchard in early life had taken 
the lower orders of priesthood. In 1223 Mar- 
garet married William of Dampierre, and be- 
tween the children of the two marriages bitter 
strife ensued for the succession to the lordship 
over the two counties, which Margaret had ob- 
tained in 1244, on the death of her sister. The 
dispute was referred to the arbitrament of 
Louis IX of France, who decided that after the 
death of Margaret Hamault should go to the 
sons of d'Avesnes, while the children of the 
second marriage were to receive Flanders Mar- 
garet's reign of 35 years seems to have been one 
of prosperity for her subjects. Consult Charles 
Duvivier, La Querelle des d'Avesnes et des 
Dampierre (2 vols., Brussels, 1894). 

MARGARET OP PAR1&A (1522-86). Re- 
gent of the Netherlands. She was an illegiti- 
mate daughter of the Emperor Charles V and 
was born and brought up in Brussels. In 1536 
she married Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of 
Florence, who was murdered in 1537; and in 
1542 Ottavio Farnese, who became Duke of 
Parma and Piacenza. She was appointed by 
Philip II in 1559 to govern the Netherlands 
with Granvelle (q.v.) as her chief adviser. 
Though well inclined personally to the people 
of the Netherlands and their liberties, she 
yielded readily to the fanatic orders of Philip 
and the counsels of Granvelle. The attempt to 
introduce the Inquisition into the country 
brought about the revolt of 1566, which was the 
beginning of the long struggle for independence 
in the Netherlands. In 1567 Alva (q.v.) was 
sent to crush out all opposition and Margaret 
resigned her office. 

MARGARET OF VALOIS, va'lwft', or OF 
FRANCE (1553-1615). A French princess, daugh- 
ter of Henry II of France and Catharine de' 



Medici, and wife of Henry IV She was born 
at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, May 14, 1553, and 
received an excellent education Her marriage 
to Henry of Navarre at Paris on Aug 18, 1572, 
was intended to be a bond of perpetual recon- 
ciliation between Catholics and Huguenots, but 
was followed after a week by the Massacre of St. 
Bartholomew. With no love lost on either side, 
husband and wife, during Henry's forced sojourn 
at the French court, lived in good-natured tolera- 
tion of each other's transgressions After the 
flight of Henry of Navarre in February, 1576, 
she was detained for some time as a hostage, but 
in 1578 rejoined her husband at Pau in Gas- 
cony. There she remained for four years and 
then returned to Paris. Her intrigues at court 
aroused the resentment of Henry III, who sub- 
jected her to repeated humiliations, imprisoned 
her, and finally instituted a public investigation 
into her conduct (1583). From 1587 to 1605 
she lived at the chateau of Usson in Auvergne, 
and there wrote her Memoires In 1599, after 
the death of Gabrielle d'Estrges, the favorite of 
Henry IV, she consented to a divorce from the 
King, \\ho for a number of years had been de- 
sirous of an heir In 1606 she returned to 
Paris, where she lived on the best of terms 
with Henry, attending the coronation of her 
successor, Maria de' Medici, in 1610 Her hdtel 
in the Rue de Seine was a centre for Paris 
learning and fashion until her death With 
her the house of Valois became extinct Her 
MGmoires. Poesies, and Letters were published 
by Guessard (Paris, 1842). Consult: Leo de 
Saint-Poncy, Histoire de Marguerite de Valois 
(Paris, 1887) ; C. Merki, La reme Margot (ib., 
1905) ; Albert Savine, La vraie Reine Margot 
d'apres les documents d 9 archives et les mtmoires 
(ib , 1908) ; H. N. Williams, Queen Margot, Wife 
of Henry of Navarre (London, 1911). 

MAR'GARET TU'DOR (1489-1541). The 
wife of the Scottish King James IV (q.v ) She 
was born at Westminster, Nov 29, 1489, the 
daughter of Henry VII by Elizabeth of York. 
She was married after considerable negotiation 
to King James IV of Scotland on Aug 8, 1503. 
She played a considerable rOle in the shifting 
politics of her time, especially after the death 
of her husband in 1513, but her importance to 
posterity consists chiefly in the fact that from 
her James VI of Scotland derived his claims to 
the English throne, which he ascended as James 
1 of England in 1603. 

MARGAR1C ACID (from Lat. marganta, 
from Gk. juap7ap/n?s, margante's, pearl, from 
fi.apya.pos, margaros, pearl oyster; so called from 
being deposited as pearly scales during cooling 
in alcohol in which it has been dissolved), 
C,H n COOH. An artificial solid fatty acid, sim- 
ilar to stearic acid and melting at about 60 C. 
It has been found in the wax of lichens. An acid 
having the same molecular composition as mar- 
garic acid, but melting at a somewhat lower tem- 
perature (55 C.), has been found in the seeds 
of Datura stramonium Linne*, and is therefore 
named datunc acid. The name margaric acid 
was formerly applied to a mixture of palmitic 
and stearic acids that occurs in certain natural 
products. The fact that this substance was a 
mixture, and not a definite chemical compound, 
was demonstrated by Heintz. 

MARGARITA, mftr'gft-re'ta. An island in 
the Caribbean Sea near the coast of Venezuela, 
to which country it belongs. Together with 
other neighboring islands, it forms the State of 


Nueva Esparta (Map: Colombia, El). It is 
about 45 miles long and from 5 to 20 miles 
broad, with an area of 444 square miles. It con- 
sists of two mountain ranges, one of them over 
4000 feet high, united by a low isthmus There 
is a little agriculture and cattle raising, but the 
principal industries are fisheries and the produc- 
tion of salt. The valuable pearl fisheries of 
the island are a government monopoly, leased 
for a term of years to a private company, which 
is restricted so as to prevent the extinction of 
the pearl-producing oysters. The population is 
estimated at 50,000, mostly civilized Indians. 
The island was discovered by Columbus in 1498 
The capital is Asuncidn (pop., 1933) and the 
chief port is Pampatar. 

MARGARITE (OF. marguerite, Fr. mar- 
gante, marguerite, pearl, from Lat marganta, 
pearl), or PEARL MICA. A hydra ted calcium- 
aluminium silicate, closely related to the mica 
group -and crystallizing in the monochnic system 
It is of a light-gray, red, or yellow color and is 
found associated with corundum, especially in 
the emery deposits in Asia Minor and the islands 
of the Grecian archipelago; also m Chester, 
Mass., Union ville, Pa , and localities in North 

to'na da-rt'ts6 (c 1236-89). A prominent Tus- 
can painter of the late mediaeval epoch, a native 
of Arezzo His frescoes m San Clemente at 
Arezzo have perished, but his Madonna and his 
Crucifix at San Francesco, his altarpiece at the 
National Gallery, and his various portraits of 
St. Francis show crude color, childish drawing, 
and lack of life; he was a representative of the 
end of the Italo-Byzantine decline rather than a 
herald of the Giottesque revival. Portraits of 
St. Francis were his favorite theme, several re- 
main, both signed and unsigned, in the Vatican, 
at Siena, Florence, Pisa, Castighone, and else- 
where Va sari's contention that he excelled as 
a sculptor and architect is open to doubt, as the 
works he attributes to him the church of San 
Ciriaco at Ancona and the monument of Gregory 
X at Arezzo are not of his age or manner 

MAR'GATE. A popular watering place and 
municipal borough in the Isle of Thanet, Kent, 
England, 74 miles east of London and contiguous 
to Westgate and Broadstairs (Map: England, 
H 5). It has important fisheries, but is more 
noted as a pleasure resort for Londoners, with 
a theatre, baths, libraries, zoological gardens, 
esplanade, and excellent hotels. It has many 
London seaside charitable institutions. The 
town owns its water supply. Its ancient name 
was Meregate the gate to the sea. Its parish 
church of St. John the Baptist was founded in 
1050 Pop, 1901, 23,000; 1911, 27,085. 

food fish (Hcemulon album), one of the grunts 
or roncos of the Gulf of Mexico and southward, 
where it is common in water of moderate depth 
and reaches a length of 2 feet or more. It is 
white, with olive-colored back and fins and in- 
distinct spots; the mouth is orange In some 
places no one will eat it, but at Pensacola and 
Key West, and in Nassau and other parts of the 
British West Indies, it is commonly sold in the 
markets, frequently under the name "porgy." 

MARGAY, mar'gft (Brazilian name). A wild 
cat (Felis tigrvna) of the forested parts of tropi- 
cal America. The animal is so variable in size, 
color, and markings that several species have 
been described from its varieties. It seems to 


differ little from cats generally in its habits, and 
occasionally is domesticated. 

MARGELAN, mar'ge-lan', or MAHGILAN, OLD 
and NEW. Two towns in the Territory of Fer- 
ghana, Russian Turkestan (Map: Asia, Central, 
O 2). Old Margelan, about 40 miles east of 
Khokand, is an Asiatic city, surrounded by a 
wall and containing mosques and bazars, etc. 
It has some trade in locally woven earners-hair 
cloth and is the centre of a rich agricultural 
district. Pop, m 1912, 43,586, mostly Sarts, 
Tajiks, and Jews. New Margelan, situated 
about 10 miles south of the old town, is the 
seat of the administration of the territory, and 
had m 1912 a population of 10,751, mostly 

(1709-82). A German chemist He was born 
in Berlin; studied at Berlin, Strassburg, Halle, 
and Freiberg; and in 1735 became an assistant 
to his father, a chief apothecary Elected a 
member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences in 
1738, he was placed m charge of its chemical 
laboratory after 1754 and of its physics class 
after 1760. He made valuable observations on 
phosphoric acid and made improvements in 
metallurgical processes. His most important 
contribution, however, was in connection with 
the discovery of sugar in beet roots, and in 
1747 he published an account of his experi- 
ments in extracting this sugar. He published 
also Chymische Untersuchungen eines sehr merk- 
wurdigen Salzcs, welches das Saure des Phos- 
phors in sich enthalt (1757) and Chymische 
Kchriften (2 vols , 1761-67). 

German poet and humorous autfhor He was 
born at Zullichau; studied at Berlin; and, de- 
voting himself to journalism, lived and wrote 
in Leipzig, Munich, Augsburg, and Frankfort, 
finally settling in Leipzig (1853) as editor of 
the Blatter fur literarische Unterhaltung He 
wrote the critical essay, Deutschlands jungste 
Kultur- und Litteraturepoche (1839), several 
plays, as, e.g, Das Taubchcn von Amsterdam, 
humorous novels, including Justus und Chrysos- 
tomus, Gebruder Pech (1840), Johannes Mad el 
(1841), and Fritz Beutcl (1855), after the 
fashion of Munchhausen; a biography of Ernst 
Schulze (Leipzig, 1855) ; Schillers und Korners 
Freundschaftsbund ( 1 859 ) ; Oedichte ( 1 857 ) ; 
Balladenchronik (1862). 

1926). Queen Dowager of Italy, the daughter 
of Ferdinand, Duke of Genoa. She was married 
in 1868 to her cousin, Humbert, the Prince 
Royal, who succeeded his father, Victor Em- 
manuel I, as King of Italy, Jan 9, 1878, and 
who was assassinated at Monza on July 29, 1900. 
Her charm of manner and sweetness of disposi- 
tion made her extremely popular in Italy. 

MARGIN DEALS (OF. margine, from Lat. 
margo, boundary). Transactions in which one 
person, in the character of purchaser, puts up 
collateral security for the performance of his 
agreement to purchase securities or other prop- 
erty of fluctuating value. For example, a person 
employs a broker to purchase stock or other 
property for him. The buyer not having the 
money with which to pay the price, the broker 
advances it, upon receiving from the buyer (his 
principal) the deposit of a specified sum (mar- 
gin) and an agreement that he (the broker) 
may sell the stock in case it depreciates so 




that the stock and margin are no longer ample for the Jewish Publication Society of America, 

iJ !_ ] Ct 1_ _ .!._____ _J. A _ 2*. _<] .!_ tf\f\f\ 1 1 . _J 11_1 1 

security for his advanced Such a transaction is 
perfectly valid and enforceable at common law. 
By constitutional or statutory provisions in some 
of the United States, however, even margin deals 
of this sort have been put under the ban and are 
void as tending to encourage speculative dealing 

and in 1909 he became professor of biblical 
philology at Dropsie College for Hebrew and 
Cognate Learning, Philadelphia. He published- 
The Columbia College Manuscript of Meghilla 
(1892); An > Elementary Text-Book of Hebrew 
Accidence (1893); The Theological Aspect of 

in shares of corporations or in the necessaries Reformed Judaism (1904); A Manual of the 

of life, and thus to enhance their price to the 
nonspeculative buyer. In such jurisdictions the 
buyer may repudiate the agreement and recover 
from the broker any moneys put into his hands 
as a margin. 

The term is more frequently applied to con- 
tracts entered into, and deposits made, to dis- 
guise gambling transactions in stocks or in 
property sold for future delivery Deals of this 
sort are illegal and void at common law. Not 
only is the contract itself unenforceable, but 
negotiable paper or other secuiities given as a 

Aramaic Language of the Babylonian Talmud 

MAR'GRAVE (Ger. Markgraf, border count). 
In early mediaeval times the military chieftains 
or guardians to whom was intrusted the defense 
of the border, with the government over such 
frontier provinces, known as marks or marches. 
In continental Europe these margraves at first 
held their offices only during life, but, as they 
became more independent and powerful, their 
positions and titles became vested in the same 
line, and they were established as a powerful 

part of the transactions arc void, and property hereditary order of nobility. In England the 

deposited as a margin may be recovered. Mar- 
gin deals of this kind, being in reality gambling 
transactions, are punishable in some of the 
States as criminal offenses Consult F. R 
Mechem, The Law of Agency (Chicago, 1889), 
and J. R. Dos Passes, Treatise on the Law of 
Stock Brokers and Stock Exchanges (2d ed., 2 
vols, New York, 1905). 

MARGITES, mar-ji'tez. A mock-heroic epic, 
ascribed to Homer by Aristotle and by him con- 
sidered to be the germ of comedy It has also 
been attributed to Pogres of Hahcarnassus, the 
brother of Queen Artemisia. It describes the 
various predicaments in which Margites, a 
foolish young fellow, was placed 

MARGOLIOUTH, mar-guli-out, DAVID SAM- 
UEL, (1858- ) An English Arabic scholar, 
born in London. He studied at Winchester and 
at New College, Oxford, became fellow of New 
College ( 1881 ) , and in 1889 was appointed Lau- 
dian professor of Arabic at Oxford. He also 
held the post of assistant keeper of Oriental 
books and manuscripts in the British Museum 
In 1912 he represented the British government 
at the Oriental Congress at Athens He wrote: 
Analecta Orientaha ad Poeticam Anstoteleam 
(1888); Jepheth Ben Eli, Commentary on the 
Book of Daniel (1889); Arabic Papyri of the 
Bodleian Library (1893) ; Chrestomathia Baida- 
wiana (1894); Letters of Abul 'Ala (1898); 
Lines of Defense of the Bibhcal Revelation 
(1900; 3d ed., 1903) ; Mohammed and the Rise 
of Islam ( 1905 ) ; Cairo, Jerusalem and Damas- 
cus (1907) ; Mohammedanism (1911) ; The Early 
Development of Mohammedanism, Hibbert lec- 
tures (1914) ; and he edited Yakut's Dictionary 
of Learned Men (1907-13) and Aristotle's Poetics 

An American Hebrew philologist, born at 
Merech, Vilna, Russia, and educated at the 
Leibnitz Gymnasium, Berlin, and at Columbia 
University, New York (A.M., 1890; PhD., 
1891). He was lecturer on Jewish literature at 
the Glenmore School for Cultural Sciences at 
Keene, N. Y., in 1892, assistant professor of 
Hebrew and biblical exegesis in 1892-97 and 
professor of biblical exegesis in 1905-07 at the 
Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio, and 
assistant professor of Semitic languages and 
literatures (1897-98) and associate professor 
(189&-1905) at the University of California. 

lords or wardens of the marches were appointed 
to guard the frontiers of Wales and Scotland, 
and the office was long regarded as special or 
temporary; the term "marquis" was not applied 
to the office until 1395. See GBAF; MARK, 

MARGRY, mar'grg', PIERRE (1818-94). A 
French historian, born at Paris. He became as 
a young man adjunct curator of the archives 
of the department of the Minister of Marine, 
and in 1842 was intrusted with the task of 
studying the colonial history of France in Amer- 
ica. Among his works are: La navigation du 
Mississippi et les prtcurseurs de Fulton aux 
Etats-Ums (1859); Les Normands dans les 
valises de I'Ohio et du Mississippi (I860) ; Les 
navigateurs franqais et la revolution maritime 
du XlVeme au XVIeme sitcle (1867) ; Relations 
et mtimoires pour servir a I'histoire de la France 
dans les pays d'outre mer (1867) ; Les seigneurs 
de la Martinique (1879); D6couvertes et 
e'tabhssements des Fran^ais dans VAmtnque 
septentrionale (1879-88); Le oonquerant des 
iles Canaries (1880). He edited Les souvenirs 
d'un homme de lettres, based on Augustin JaFs 
manuscripts (1877) 

MARGUERITE, mar'ge-ret'. A garden 

principal female character in Goethe's Faust 


MARGUERITTE, mar'g'-reV, PAUL (1860- 
) and. VICTOR (1866- ). French novel- 
ists, brothers, sons of a general who fell at 
Sedan. Both were born in Algeria. Paul made 
his dgbut as a naturalist writer, but turned more 
and more towards introspection and problems of 
morality. Alone he wrote: Tousquatre (1885) : 
La confession posthume (1886) ; Maison ouverte 
(1887); Pascal Gefosse (1887; 2d ed., 1912); 
Jours d'tpreuve (1889); Amants '(1890; 2d 
ed, 1908); Ma grande (1892; 2d ed., 1911); 
La tourmente (1894); L'Essor (1896; 2d ed., 
1910); A la mer (1906); La flamme (1909); 
La faiblesse humaine (1910); La maison brtile 
(1913). Victor, who had been an officer of 
cavalry, had published some verse and the novels 
Le carnaval de Nice (1897) and Poum (1897) 
before he joined his brother in one of the moat 
notable collaborations in literary history. Alone 
he wrote in later years: Prostitute (1907); 

After visiting Europe in 1907-08, he served for Jeunes files (1909) ; L'Or (1910) ; Pour mieux 
a year as editor in chief of Bible translation vivre (1910); L'/mpr&m (1910), a comedy; 


Lea fronti&res du copur (1912) ; Le journal d'un 
mollot (1912); La rose des mines (1913). To- 
gether the brothers produced a series of ro- 
mances dealing with the Franco-German War, 
including Le desastrc (1898), Les tr onions du 
glaive (1900), Les braves gens (1901), and La 
commune (1904). Their views on the social 
position of women are embodied in Femmes 
nouvelles (1899), Les deux vies (1902), and Le 
prisme (1905), the second of which was drama- 
tized with great success as Le occur et la loi 
(1905). They published a popular history of 
the war with Germany ( 1903 ) , a volume of 
miscellaneous essays, Quelques idees (1905), 
Bur le vif (1906), Vamte (1907), UAutre, a 
drama (1908) ; Alphonse Daudet (1908) , L'Eau 
souterrame (1908; 2d ed , 1910), Nos treteaux 
(1911). Paul Margueritte \\as one of the 
original members of the Acadmie Goncourt. 
Consult Pilon, Paul et Victor Marguetitte 
(Paris, 1905). 

RAD (1780-1846). A German theologian He 
was born at Hildesheim, May 1, 1780, educated 
at Gottingen ; became i epetent there, 1 804 , pro- 
fessor extraordinary of theology at Heidelberg, 
1805; professor ordinary there, 1800, and in 
1811 was called to the same position at Berlin 
and chosen pastor of the church of the Trinity, 
where he became a colleague of Schleiermacher 
His studies lay principally in the direction of 
Christian symbolism and dogmatics To the 
former he devoted his Ghnslliche tfymbohk 
(1810-14) and his Institutiones Symlohcw 
(1812); to the latter, his Grundlehren der 
chnsthchen Dogmatik (1st ed , 1819, 2d ed , 
1827). The second edition of this work is 
stiongly Hegelian, and all his later work was 
done under Hegelian influence. The positive 
form of his theology may be found in his Ent- 
wurf der praktischen Theologie (1837) He 
wrote many books besides those named, includ- 
ing the important Oeschichte der deutschen 
Reformation (1816) and Die Reformation^ ihre 
Entstehung und Verbreitung in Deutschland, 
dem deutschen Volke erzahlt (1846) He died 
in Berlin, May 31, 1846. His Theologische 
Vorlesungen appeared posthumously (1847-49), 
with biographical sketch Consult Weber, Le 
sy steme dogmatique de Marheineke (Strassburg, 
1857), and Otto Pfleiderer, Development of 
Theology in Germany ( 3d ed , New York, 1909 ) 

MARlA CHRISTINA, ma-re'a krls-te'na 
(1806-78). Queen of Spam. She was a daugh- 
ter of Francis I, King of the Two Sicilies, and 
was born in Naples, April 27, 1806 In 1829 
she became the fourth wife of Ferdinand VII of 
Spain. In 1830 Ferdinand restored the law by 
which, in default of male issue, the right of in- 
heritance was given to females. In October of 
that year the Queen gave birth to a daughter, 
Isabella. The Spanish Liberals gladly embraced 
the cause of the Queen, rejoicing to see Fer- 
dinand's brother, the reactionary Don Carlos 
(q.v.), further removed from the succession to 
the throne. Ferdinand died Sept. 29, 1833, and 
by his testament his widow was appointed 
guardian of her children the young Queen 
Isabella and the Infanta Louisa (born 1832) 
and Regent until the Queen should attain the 
age of 18. A civil war at once broke out m 
Aragon and the Basque Provinces between the 
opposing parties known as Carhsts and Cris- 
tmos, but the Queen mother seemed indifferent 
to everything except the company of Don Fer- 


nandezMufioz (1808-73), one of the loyal body- 
guard, whom she made her chamberlain, and 
with whom she was united in December, 1833, 
in a morganatic marriage. Her practice aft 
Regent was to adopt the course agreeable to the 
Minister of the day, and thus her government 
\vas despotic under one ministry and liberal 
under another She contrived, however, upon 
many occasions to embrace the pipceedings of 
her more liberal or constitutional ministers, but 
when she sanctioned by her signature the law 
which deprived the communes of the right to 
elect their councils, a popular commotion ensued 
and she was compelled to resign the regency, be- 
ing succeeded by the Prime Minister, Esparteio. 
She retired to France, but continued to interfere 
in the affairs of Spain. After the fall of Espar- 
tero she returned to Madrid (1843) and in 
October, 1844, her marriage with Mufioz, who 
was now made Duke of Eianzares, was publicly 
solemnized Her participation in the schemes of 
Louis Philippe in the matter of the marriage of 
her daughters, in 1846, and the continued exer- 
cise of all her influence in a manner unfavorable 
to constitutional liberty, made her the object of 
great dislike to the whole Liberal party in Spain 
At length, in July, 1854, a revolution expelled 
her from the country, and she again took refuge 
m France She retuined to Spain in 1864, only 
to letire again in 1868 She died at Havre, Aug 
22, 1878 Consult Hglene Vacaresco, Kings and 
Querns I hare Knoicn (New York, 1904), and 
E. B d'Auvergne, A Queen at Bay. The Story of 
Cnstina and Don Carlos (ib., 1910). See SPAIN. 

MABIA CHRISTINA (1858- ). \ 
Queen of Spain. She was the daughter of Arch- 
duke Karl Ferdinand of Austria, and in 1879 
married Alfonso XII of Spain, to whom she bore 
a posthumous son in 1886, Alfonso XIII She 
acted as Regent until Alfonso XIII was declared 
of age, May 17, 1902, carrying on the govern- 
ment with much ability and tact, and so train- 
ing the young King that he was often spoken of 
as "the best-brought-up" boy in Europe 

MABIA BE' MEDICI, ma-re'a da m.VdeX-he:, 
MEDICIS in French (1573-1642). The second 
wife of Henry IV of France She was the 
daughter of Francis I, Grand Duke of Tuscany, 
and was born at Florence, April 26, 1573 She 
was married to Henry IV in 1600, and in 1601 
gave birth to a son, afteiward Louis XIII. 
Maria, though beautiful, was an obstinate, am- 
bitious, passionate, and stupid woman Her 
quarrels with Henry over her favorites and the 
King's gallantries became the talk of Paris 
Two Italians, Leonora Galigai and her husband, 
Concmi (see ANCBE), exercised a powerful in- 
fluence over her mind and encouraged her dislike 
to her husband, who on his part avoided her as 
much as possible She was not publicly crowned 
as Queen until the day before Henry's 'assassina- 
tion (May, 1610) For the next seven years she 
governed as Regent, but proved incapable as a 
ruler After the murder of Concmi, in 1617, 
Louis XIII assumed royal power, aided by his 
favorite, the Duke de Luynes, who had put* Con- 
cini out of the way Maria was kept under 
surveillance in the castle at Blois. She escaped 
in 1619, and began a war against the King and 
court, being allied with certain of the disap- 
pointed nobles. The conflict was brief, and 
ended in the complete overthrow of Maria. In 
1621 the death of Luynes led to her return to 
court. Maria hoped to \v in over Richelieu to her 


party, and he was created Cardinal and Minister 
of State, partly through her influence. She soon 
found out, however, that he did not care to be 
ruled by her, whereupon she resolved to under- 
mine his influence with the King. Her intrigues 
for this purpose in 1630 failed, and she was 
imprisoned in Compiegne, from whence she es- 
caped to Brussels in 1631. She finally found 
hei? 1 way to England to the court of her son-m- 
law, Charles I, but was compelled to leave 
London in 1641. She died at Cologne on July 3, 
1642 Maria de' Medici was a lover and patron 
of the fine arts, and Paris owes to her the 
Luxembourg Palace and other public works 

Bibliography. B. Zeller, La minority de 
Louis XIII: Marie de Media* et Sully, 1610- 
J6J2 (Paris, 1892); id, La minorite* de 
Louis XIII. Mane de Medicis et Villeroy 
(ib, 1897); Julia Pardoe, Life of Mane de 
Medicis, Queen of France (3 vols , New York, 
1902) ; A. P. Lord, The Regency of Marie de 
Medicis (ib, 1903); Louis Batiffol, Marie de 
Medicis and the French Court in the Seventeenth 
Century, translated by Mary King (ib, 1908) ; 
F A d'Estrees, "Me"moires du mare'chal d'Es- 
tr<5es sur la re"gence de Mane de Medicis, 1610- 
1610, et sur celle d'Anne d'Autriche, 1643- 
1650," in Societe de Vhistoirc de Paris, publica- 
tion, vol. cccxhx (Paris, 1910). See HENEY IV; 

MABIAGE DE FIGABO, ma'r-azh' de fe- 
ga'rfi', LE, ou LA FOLLE JOUBNEE A comedy 
by Beaumarchais, produced at the Come'die 
Franchise in 1784 It forms the continuation 
of Lc barbicr de Seville. 

MABIAGE FORCE, ma'r6-azh' fOr'sfi.', LE 
(Fr, the forced marriage). A one-act prose 
comedy ballet by Mohere (1664). The piece 
bore the name "ballet du roi," because Louis 
XIV danced in it as a gypsy 

MA11IA GENS. A plebeian gens at Rome. 
It was never divided into families. Its most 
celebrated member was Gams Marius (q.v.), 
conqueror of the Cimbri and the Teutones 

MARIAGER, ma'rS-a'ger, PETEB (1827-94). 
A Danish novelist, born at Nyborg. He became 
known through translations from the French 
and German, such as that of Flammanon's In- 
habited Worlds His original works are: Fra 
Hellas, Fern antike FortwUmger (1881); Den 
sidstc Lamia, og andre antike FortcBllmqer 
(1884); Magthaveren paa Rhodos (1886); 
Sybans (1887), a drama, Dronningcn af Ky- 
rcne, og andre antike Fortcelhnger (1890), Et 
Bryllup i Katakomberne (1893) ; Sparta (1895). 
All his stories relate to Greek and Roman sub- 
jects, and some were translated into English, 
German, Swedish, Dutch, and Greek 

MARIA II DA GLORIA, ma-re'a da glo'- 
r$-a (1819-53). A Queen of Portugal. She was 
a daughter of Dom Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil, 
and a granddaughter of King John VI of Portu- 
gal. She succeeded to the Portuguese throne in 
1826 on the death of her grandfather (her 
father Dom Pedro renouncing his claim to the 
throne in her favor), and, though only a child, 
was promised m marriage to her uncle, Dom 
Miguel, who was to act as Regent The latter, 
however, in 1828 usurped the throne. In 1832- 
33 Dom Pedro successfully attacked Dom Miguel 
by land and sea, and in 1834 the usurper, yield- 
ing to the threats of England and France, sub- 
mitted. Maria was established on the throne, 
and in 1835 she married the Duke Charles 
Augustus of Leuchtenberg, who died a few 

83 MABfA 

months later. The next year she married Duke 
Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha-Kohary. She 
was succeeded by her eldest son, Pedro V. 

MABIA LESZCZYNSKA, lesh-chin'ska 
(1703-68) Wife of King Louis XV of France. 
She was the daughter of Stanislas Leszczynski, 
King of Poland, and was born in Breslau before 
he came to the throne. Maria accompanied her 
father in his wretched wanderings after his ex- 
pulsion from Poland. He settled in Alsace in 
1719, and there the Duke of Bourbon saw Maria 
and arranged her marriage with Louis XV, who 
was seven years her junior. She lived in retire- 
ment, devoting herself to acts of piety and 
charity, and died at Versailles. Consult- D'Ar- 
maille, La reine Marie Leszczynska (2d ed., 
Paris, 1870) ; De Nolhac, La reine Mana 
Leczinska (ib, 1900); id, Louis XV et M 
Lecsmska (ib., 1902). 

MABIA LOUISA (1791-1847). The second 
wife of the Emperor Napoleon I. She was born 
Dec. 12, 1791, the daughter of the Archduke 
Francis, afterward the Emperor Francis I of 
Austria, and was married to Napoleon on April 
2, 1810 The marriage seemed to give stability 
to the Bonaparte dynasty, and in some measure 
to afford a prospect of peace to Europe On 
March 20, 1811, she bore a son, who was called 
King of Rome. On the abdication of Napoleon 
she was not permitted to follow her husband, 
but went with her son to Rchonbrunn, where she 
remained during the Hundred Days and until 
1816, when she received the duchies of Parma, 
Piacenza, and Guastalla In 1822 she contracted 
a morganatic marriage with her chamberlain, 
Count von Neipperg, who had been her lover 
before and by whom in 1821 she had a son, the 
Duke of Montenuovo. Count von Neipperg died 
in 1829 In 1833 she entered into a secret mar- 
riage with Count Bombelles, likewise her cham- 
berlain She died at Vienna, Dec. 17, 1847. 

Bibliography. A. L. Imbert de Raint-Amand, 
The Happy Days of the Empress Mane Louise 
(New York, 1890-91); id, Marie Louise and 
the Invasion of 1814 (ib., 1892); id, Marie 
Louise et le Due de Reichstadt (Paris, 1892) ; 
id , Mane Louise, the Island of Elba, and the 
Hundred Days (New York, 1894); id., Mane 
Louise and the Decadence of the Empire (ib., 
1902) , H. A Guerber, Empresses of France (ib., 
1906), E. E. Cuthell, An Imperial Victim (2 
vols., ib, 1912). See NAPOLEON I. 

order founded by Charles IV, in 1792, and be- 
stowed by the Queen on women of the old no- 
bility The recipient is expected to devote her- 
self to charitable and pious works. The order 
has one class 

MABfA LTJISA, ma-rg'a loo-e'sa (1751- 
1819). Daughter of Duke Philip of Parma and 
wife of King Charles IV of Spain (q.v.), whom 
she married in 1765 while he was still Prince of 
Asturias. When he succeeded to the crown in 
1788 she and her lover, Godoy, Duke of Alcudia, 
managed to secure practical control of the gov- 
ernment. After the revolution in 1808, -which 
placed Ferdinand VII on the throne of his 
father, she and her husband fled to France and 
appealed to Napoleon, who induced the young 
King to restore the crown to his father and then 
persuaded the latter to cede it to him; where- 
upon he promptly bestowed it on his brother 
Joseph (q.v.). Maria spent the remainder of 
her life in exile at Marseilles and Nice and 
latterly at Rome, where she died. 


MARfA LTJISA (1782-1824). Queen of 
Etruria, daughter of Charles IV of Spain (q.v.) 
and Maria Luisa of Parma (q.v.). Sne married 
Louis, eldest son of Duke Ferdinand of Parma, 
in 1795. In 1801 her husband was invested 
by Napoleon with the Kingdom of Etruria (Tus- 
cany), the consideration being that Parma 
should revert to France on the death of Fer- 
dinand. When Louis died in 1803, her son, 
Charles Louis, succeeded to the Etrurian throne 
under her regency, but the Kingdom was incor- 
porated in 1807 in the French dominions. She 
then retired to Spain, but after her father's 
abdication lived in Parma and later in Nice. 
An attempt to flee to England was frustrated in 
1811, and she was forced to seek refuge in a 
cloister in Rome, where she remained until 1814. 
The Congress of Vienna in compensation gave to 
the young Prince the city of Lucca, which his 
mother governed as Regent until he came of 
age, and in a subsequent treaty it was stipulated 
that Parma should revert to him on the death 
of the ex-Empress Maria Louisa. She was 
beatified by the Pope in 1876. The Queen's 
memoirs were published by d'Argy, entitled 
Memoir es de la reme d'Etrurie (Paris, 1814) 

MARIAMNE, ma'ri-&m'n6. Wife of Herod 
the Great (q.v.). She belonged to the family of 
the Hasmonseans or Maccabees ( q.v ) , being the 
granddaughter of Hyrcanus II. Although she 
was deeply beloved by her husband, he had her 
put to death in a fit of jealousy, and remorse 
for the act embittered the later years of his 
life. She is famed for her beauty as well as her 
tragic fate. 

MARIAMNE. The title of plays by Alex- 
andre Hardy (1610), Tristan 1'Ermite (1637), 
and Voltaire ( 1723) , based on the story of Mari- 
amne, wife of Herod the Great. 

MARIANA, m&'r6-a'na. A tribe of South 
American Indians See MABANHA. 

MARIANA, ma'rl-an'a. In Shakespeare's 
Measure for Measure, the charming and womanly 
lover of Angclo. Tennyson's Mariana in the 
Moated Grange and Mariana in the South were 
based on her character. 

MART AN A. The name given by Capt John 
Mason to the land granted him by the Council 
for New England on March 9, 1621-2. The pa- 
tent, which was the second granted by the Coun- 
cil, covered the lands lying between the Naumkeag 
(Salem) and Merrimac rivers, with the islands 
within 3 miles of the shore, and was included 
in the present territory of Massachusetts. 

MABIANA, md'rS-a'na, JUAN (1536-1623 or 
1624). A distinguished Spanish historian and 
scholar, born at Talavera. In 1553 he entered 
the Order of the Jesuits His early studies in 
languages and theology were so brilliant that he 
was appointed to teach in the schools of his 
order, first at Rome (where the celebrated Bel- 
larmine [qv.] was one of his scholars) in 1561, 
afterward in Sicily in 1565, and finally in Paris 
in 1569. After a residence there of seven years 
he settled at Toledo, where he resided till his 
death, at an extreme old age. His retirement, 
however, was passed in sustained literary activ- 
ity. From an early period he devoted himself 
to writing a history of Spain (1592-1605). The 
original of this history was Latin, the elegance 
and purity of which have secured for Mariana 
a place among the most distinguished of modern 
Latinists. Mariana himself published a Spanish 
translation, which still remains one of the clas- 
sics of the language. Among his other produc- 


tions are his scholia of the Bible and an edition 
of the works of Isidore of Seville. But the most 
celebrated of the works of Mariana is his well- 
known treatise, De Rege et Regis Institutione 
(1599), in which is raised the important ques- 
tion whether it is lawful to overthrow and kill 
a tyrant. Mariana decides that it is right for 
every man to do so, even where the tyrant is not 
a usurper, but a lawful king, and esteems 
Jacques Clement (qv.) equally with Brutus. 
Mariana's views on other subjects were broad- 
minded and liberal. In 1609 he published a 
volume Tractatus VII Theologioi et Historici, 
which was placed upon the Index Expurgatorius 
and caused his arrest by the Inquisition. His 
Disoursus de Erronbus qui in Forma Guber- 
natioms Societatis Jesu Oocurrcnt (Bordeaux, 
1625) was reprinted by Charles III as a defense 
of his order banishing the Jesuits from Spain 
in 1767. Consult: Juan Mariana, Histona ge- 
neral de Espana: ilustrada en esta nucva im- 
prcsidn de tablas cronoldgicas, notas, y observa- 
ciones oriticas' con la wda del autor (9 vols., 
Valencia, 1783-96) , Leopold von Ranke, Zur 
Kntik neuerer Geschichtschreiber (Leipzig, 
1874) ; Georges Cirot, Mariana, histonen 
(Pans, 1905). 


MABIANI, ma'rg-a'n6, ANGELO (1822-73). 
A famous Italian orchestral conductor, born at 
Ravenna He received his entire musical edu- 
cation at the Liceo Filarmonico in Bologna, 
where he was a pupil of Rossini. In 1844 he be- 
gan his career as conductor in Messina, whence 
he went to Milan. Here he found ample oppor- 
tunity to display his remarkable gifts, so that 
in 1847 he was called to Copenhagen as court 
conductor. At the outbreak of the revolution 
of 1848, however, he hastened back to his native 
country and joined the colors. In 1852 he be- 
came conductor at the Tcatro Carlo Felice in 
Genoa. Before long he had won the reputation 
of being the greatest conductor in all Italy 
About 1860 he was called to the municipal 
theatre of Bologna, where he began a propaganda 
for Wagner, at a time when in Italy Lohengrin 
was regarded as a monstrosity In 1873 he re- 
turned to Genoa, where he died a few weeks after 
his arrival. He composed a Requiem and several 


MAR'IAN'NA. A city and the county seat 
of Lee Co , Ark , 43 miles southwest of Mem- 
phis, Tenn , on L'Anguille River, at The head of 
navigation, and on the St Louis, Iron Moun- 
tain, and Southern Railroad (Map: Arkansas, 
E 3) It carries on a considerable trade in cot- 
ton, and has cotton gins, cottonseed-oil mills, 
lumber mills, and manufactories of headings, 
box shocks, and spokes The city contains an 
Elks' Home, courthouse, public park, and fine 
city hall building The water works are owned 
and operated by the municipality. Pop , 1900, 
1707, 1910, 4810 

DE LA COMTESSE DE. . . An unfinished romance 
by Marivaux (1731-41), to which a second part 
was added in 1755 by Madame Riccobini The 
novel has been said to be the origin of Pamela. 
It is important as the first novel of analysis 
rather than of incident, and contains minute 
pictures of bourgeois and conventual life. 

MARIANNE (m&'ri-fin') ISLANDS. See 


UARIAITUS SCOTUS (1028-C.1082). An 
Irish chronicler, whose real name was Moelbrigte. 
He took the vows of a monk at the age of 24 
and, leaving Ireland, entered the monastery in 
Cologne in 1056. There he remained for two 
years. He became a recluse in Fulda in 1059, 
and continued as such all the rest of his life, 
which, after 1069, was spent at Mainz. His 
claim to remembrance rests upon a Chromcon 
Umversale, extending from the birth of Christ 
to 1082, which contains extracts from Bede and 
other chroniclers, besides new material. The 
first printed edition was made at Basel in 1559, 
and five have appeared since then, including 
one published with translation at Dublin in 

MARIANUS Scorns (died probably 1088), the 
contemporary and namesake of the above, was 
first abbot of the monastery of St. Peter, Ratis- 
bon, of which he was one of the founders He 
was born in Ireland. His calligraphy made him 
famous, and he is known as a saint 

MARIA (ma-ri'a) OF AUSTRIA (1505- 
58 ). A Queen of Hungary, a daughter of Philip 
the Fair of Burgundy and Joan of Castile, and 
sister of the emperors Charles V and Ferdinand 
1 of Hapsburg. Born at Brussels in 1505, she 
married Louis II of Hungary at 17 and was 
widowed at 21, her husband being killed by the 
Turks at Mohacs. In 1530 she was appointed 
Governor-General of the Netherlands by Charles 
V, succeeding Margaret of Austria. There she 
ruled ably and firmly for 24 years. In general, 
she aided Charles in his foreign policy, often 
acted as mediator between him and Ferdinand, 
and resigned from her office in the Netherlands 
upon the abdication of Charles (1555) She 
retired to Spain, and died at Cigalea. Maria 
was a patron of arts and letters, and left a valu- 
able collection of manuscripts now in the Bur- 
gundian Library of Brussels Consult T. Juste, 
Les Pays-Bas sous Charles V; Vie de Mane de 
Honyme (Brussels, 1861). 

MARIA PIA, ma-re'a pe'a (1847-1911). A 
Queen of Portugal, daughter of Victor Em- 
manuel II of Italy, born at Turin In 1862 she 
married Luiz I of Portugal. Upon the acces- 
sion to the throne of her son Carlos I (Oct 9, 
1889), she became the dowager Queen On Feb. 
1, 1908, King Carlos and Prince Luiz, the heir 
apparent, were assassinated in the streets of 
Lisbon and Maria Pia's grandson Dom Manuel 
ascended to the throne. Of a very kindly dis- 
position, she lived in close retirement after the 
accession of Manuel and devoted herself to chari- 
table and philanthropic work. When Manuel 
was overthrown, in 1910, she went to live with 
her sister, Princess Clotilda, near Turin, Italy. 

MARIA STUART, ma-re'a stoo'art. A 
tragedy by Schiller, printed and presented in 

MARIA THERESA, ma-rl'a te-re'sa (1717- 
BO). Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Arch- 
duchess of Austria, and wife of the German 
Emperor Francis I. She was the daughter of 
the Emperor Charles VI (q.v.) and was born at 
Vienna, May 13, 1717. By the Pragmatic Sanc- 
tion (qv.) her father sought to secure from the 
European Powers her undisputed succession to 
the Hapsburg dominions in the absence of a 
male heir. On Feb. 12, 1736, she married 
Francis Stephen, Duke of Lorraine (soon after 
Grand Duke of Tuscany), and on the death of 
tier father, Oct. 20, 1740, she succeeded to the 
Hereditary possessions of the house of Austria, 

which, in addition to the German, Hungarian, 
and Slavic lands, included Lombardy and the 
Belgian Netherlands. She found the monarchy 
exhausted, the finances embarrassed, the people 
discontented, and the army weak; while Prussia, 
Bavaria, Saxony, Naples, and Sardinia, stirred 
up by France, put forward claims to portions of 
her dominions, chiefly founded on the extinction 
of the male line of the house of Hapsburg and 
in contravention of the Pragmatic Sanction 
The War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48) 
ensued, in which England supported Austria 
(See SUCCESSION WABS.) Frederick II of Prus- 
sia soon made himself master of Silesia; Spain 
and Naples laid hands on the Austrian do- 
minions in Italy; and the French, Bavarians, 
and Saxons overran the hereditary Austrian 
territories. The young Queen was in the utmost 
danger of seeing her realms dismembered, but 
was saved by the chivalrous fidelity of the Hun- 
garians, the assistance of England, and most of 
all by her own resolute spirit. Her enemies 
quarreled among themselves, and the War of the 
Austrian Succession was terminated by the 
Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 Maria Theresa 
lost Silesia and Glatz and the duchies of Parma, 
Piacenza, and Guastalla. In 1745 her husband 
(Francis 1) had been raised to the Imperial 
throne of Germany on the death of Charles VII. 
During the period of peace that followed she 
initiated great financial reforms Agriculture, 
manufactures, and commerce flourished, the na- 
tional revenues greatly increased, and the bur- 
dens of the peasantry were diminished All this 
time she was strengthening her resources in 
anticipation of a renewal of the war with 
Frederick the Great. Her indomitable pride and 
her devout Catholicism would not permit her to 
relinquish Silesia as long as she could fight for 
it. She found in Kaunitz (qv ) a minister 
possessed of the wisdom and energy requisite 
for the conduct of affairs, and in hint she placed 
almost unlimited confidence. He effected the 
alliance with France which disturbed all exist- 
ing international arrangements (1756). In the 
Seven Years' War (qv) which followed Maria 
Theresa and her allies well-nigh achieved the 
ruin of Frederick the Great, but the generalship 
of the indomitable Prussian King, the incapacity 
of the generals of Louis XV, and Russia's aban- 
donment of the cause of Maria Theresa enabled 
Frederick to emerge from the struggle with his 
dominions intact. The war reduced Austria to 
a state of great exhaustion, but when it was 
concluded Maria Theresa renewed her efforts to 
promote the national prosperity, and made many 
important reforms, ameliorating the condition 
of the peasantry and mitigating the penal code 
Her son, Joseph II, became Holy Roman Em- 
peror on the death of her husband in 1765. 
Maria Theresa associated him with herself in 
the government of her hereditary states, but in 
reality committed to him the charge only of 
military affairs She joined with Russia and 
Prussia in the first partition of Poland (1772), 
Galicia falling to her share. She also compelled 
the Porte to give up Bukowina to her (1777). 
The brief War of the Bavarian Succession (1778- 
79) ended in her acquisition of a district along 
the Inn ( Inn viertel ) , but led to the formation 
of the Furstenbund, or League of German 
Princes, which set bounds to the Austrian 
power in Germany. Maria Theresa died in 
Vienna, Nov. 29, 1780. Throughout her reign 
she displayed a resolute and masculine charaq- 


belongs to France and lies 17 miles southeast of 
Guadeloupe, of which it is an administrative 
dependency (Map: West Indies, G 4). It is 
nearly circular in shape; area, 58 square miles. 
It consists of a limestone plateau, 300 to 600 
feet high, surrounded by steep rocky shores. 
The climate is healthful and the soil is fertile, 
the chief products being sugar, coffee, and cotton. 
The chief town is Grandbourg, on the south-west 
coast. The population in 1901 was 15,181, con- 
sisting mostly of negroes and mulattoes Marie 
Galante is so called from the name of the ship 
commanded by Columbus when he discovered 
the island in 1493 

MARIENBAD, ma-re'en-bat. A famous 
watering place of Europe, situated near the 
west border of Bohemia, Austria, amidst pine- 
clad hills, at an altitude of 2060 feet, 36 miles 
northwest of Pilsen (Map: Austria, G 2). The 
visitors number about 30,000 annually. It is 
a small town, with a fine Roman Catholic church 
(1844-50) in Byzantine style, a tasteful syna- 
gogue, English and Russian churches, a theatre, 
four baths, including the Neubad, built in 1895, 
and a military Kurhaus. Its fine promenading 
grounds are adorned with monuments Its 10 
springs containing Glauber's salt do not differ 
essentially from those of Karlsbad except that 
they are cold. They range in temperature from 
48 F. to 53 F. The principal springs are the 
saline Kreuzbrunnen and Ferdmandsbiunnen, 
used both for bathing and drinking. They yield 
yearly over a million bottles for export. The 
Marienquelle is used only for bathing, and con- 
tains a large proportion of carbonic acid The 
chalybeate Ambrosius- and Karohnenbrunnen 
are used both for drinking and for bathing. 
Besides the above-mentioned springs there are 
mud baths and a hydropathic establishment. 
Considerable quantities of salt are exported 
Although the springs of Marienbad enjoyed a 
local reputation long before the nineteenth cen- 
tury, it \\as only in 1808 that the first bathing 
establishment was opened and the place assumed 
its present name Pop, 1900, 4588; 1910, 
6280, chiefly Germans. 

MARIENBTJRG-, ma-re'en-burx. An old 
town in the Province of West Prussia, 30 miles 
south-southeast of Danzig, on the Nogat River 
(Map: Germany, HI). It is chiefly interesting 
because it was for one and a half centuries the 
seat of the grand masters of the Teutonic Order 
These knights built the Marienburg Schloss, one 
of the largest and most strongly fortified build- 
ings in Germany and one of the most remarkable 
secular buildings of the Middle Ages. It has a 
sixteenth-century town hall, a notable monu- 
ment to Frederick the Great, a teachers' sem- 
inary, a Gymnasium, and an agricultural school. 
Marienburg remained in the hands of the 
Knights till 1457, when it was taken by the 
Poles. Marienburg was occupied by the Rus- 
sians during their first offensive campaign 
against the Germans in the European War which 
began in 1914. They were later compelled to 
evacuate it. (See WAR IN EUBOPE ) The town 
has large wool-cleaning works and manufactures 
machinery, chemicals, pottery, bricks, and cotton 
wadding. It trades in grain, wood, linen, and 
horses. Pop., 1900, 10,732; 1910, 14,019. Con- 
sult Bergau, Das Ordenshaupthaus Marienburg 
in Prussia (Berlin, 1871). 

KARIENWERDER, ma-re'en-ve'r'de'r. A 
town in the Prussian Province of West Prussia, 
on a tributary of the Vistula, 45 miles south of 


Danzig (Map: Germany, H 2). It has a four- 
teenth-century cathedral with tombs of the 
grand masters of the Teutonic Order and a castle 
built by the Teutonic Knights, the founders of 
the town in 1233 The principal industries are 
sugar refining and the manufacture of cloth, 
machinery, lumber, print goods, soap, vinegar, 
and dairy products There is a considerable 
trade in fruit. Pop., 1900, 9686; 1910, 12,983. 

MARIE THRSE, ma're' ta'rez', OF Aus- 
TBIA ( 1638-83 ) . A wife of Louis XIV of France, 
daughter of Philip IV of Spain, born in Madrid. 
By the terms of the Peace of the Pyrenees 
(1659) she was married to Louis XIV (1660), 
giving up all claims to the Spanish throne 
She lived very unhappily with Louis, but at 
length seemed to find comfort in religion. Con- 
sult H L Duclos, Mme. de la Valhere et Mane 
Thtrcse (2d ed., 2 vols , Paris, 1870). 

MARIETON, ma're'a'toN', PAUL (1862- 
1911 ) A French poet and critic, born at Lyons. 
He early became associated with the Provencal 
movement in southern France and took a prom- 
inent part in that revival. (Roe FLIBRIGB. ) 
He was the founder and editor of the Revue Fel\- 
"bieene. His writings include- Sourenance 
(1884); La viole d 9 amour (1886); Hellas 
(1888) , La terre provencale (1890) ; Le voyage 
des Felibres et des Cigahcrs sur le Rhdne et le 
littoral (1892) ; Le 4wre de me'lancohe (1896) , 
Vne histoire d'amour: George Rand et Alfred de 
Musset (1897; 2d ed , 1903); Le voyage des 
Felibres et des Cigahers sur 1c Rhone et Vau- 
cluse ( 1895 ) ; Jasmin ( 1798-1864 ) ( 1898 ) , 
Hippolyta (1902) ; Le theatre antique d'Orange 
et scs representations (1903, 1908); Les epi- 
gram mes (1909). 

MARIETTA, ma'rl-et'a or mar'I-. A city and 
the county seat of Cobb Co , Ga , 20 miles north 
by west of Atlanta, on the Louisville and Nash- 
ville, the Nashville, Chattanooga, and St Louis, 
and the Western and Atlantic railroads (Map- 
Georgia, B 2). It has the Clarke Library and 
a city park In the large National Cemetery 
here there are 10,532 graves, 2967 of unknown 
dead Kenesaw Mountain ( q y ) is situated a 
short distance west. The city is the centre of a 
farming and stock-raising district and has ex- 
tensive marble works, chair factories, knitting 
mills, machine works, table factory, etc Ma- 
rietta, first incorporated in 1852, is governed, 
under a charter of 1885, by a mayor, elected 
biennially, and a city council, chosen at large 
The water works and electric-light plant are 
owned by the municipality. Pop., 1900, 4446; 
1910, 5949 

MARIETTA. A city and the county seat of 
Washington Co, Ohio, 115 miles by rail south- 
east of Columbus, at the junction of the Ohio 
and the Muskingum rivers, the former being 
spanned by a bridge connecting with Williams- 
town, W Va., and on the Baltimore and Ohio, 
the Pennsylvania Company, and the Marietta, 
Columbus, and Ohio railroads (Map: Ohio, 
H 7). It is the seat of Marietta College (q.v ), 
with a large library, and has a city park, set 
apart in 1788, and the oldest church organiza- 
tion and the oldest building in the Northwest 
Territory. The latter, known as the "Two- 
Horned Church," was once the office of the Ohio 
Land Company. It was destroyed by fire in 
1905, but has since been rebuilt of brick along 
its original lines. In the cemetery here are 
buried many Revolutionary soldiers. The city 
is in an agricultural, petroleum, and coal region, 


has large commercial interests through its river 
trade, and it manufactures flour, lumber prod- 
ucts, stoves, tables and furniture, cars, tanned 
leather, carriages and wagons, refined petroleum, 
boats, oil-well tools, boilers, wooden bicycle rims, 
brick, harness, glass, caskets, etc. The govern- 
ment is administered under the Ohio municipal 
code of 1902 by a mayor, a unicameral council, a 
board of public safety appointed by the mayor 
with the concurrence of two-thirds of the council, 
and a board of public service elected by the peo- 
ple All these officers are chosen for a term of 
two years. The city owns and operates the 
water works and electric-light plant. Pop., 1900, 
13,348; 1910, 12,923; 1920, 15,140. 

Marietta, the first settlement within the 
present limits of Ohio, was founded in 1788 by 
Rufus Putnam and a colony from New England 
under the authority of the Ohio Company (q.v.). 
It was named in honor of Marie Antoinette. In 
July, 1788, the Northwest Territory was for- 
mally organized here by Governor Arthur St. 
Clair. Blennerhasset Island, 12 miles below, 
was the scene of various incidents in the Burr 
Conspiracy. Marietta was first incorporated, as 
a town, in 1800. In 1890 the village of Harmar, 
where, in 1785, Fort Harmar had been built, was 
annexed Consult Hoar, Oration at the Celebra- 
tion of the Centennial of the Founding of the 
Northuest at Marietta (Washington, 1888). 

MARIETTA COLLEGE. A coeducational 
institution of learning at Marietta, Ohio, 
founded as Muskingum Academy in 1797 by 
pioneers of the Ohio Company, chartered in 
1835. It has a regular college course leading 
to the B A. degree The library, of over 60,000 
volumes, is especially strong in the history of 
the old Northwest Territory. In 1914-15 the 
college had a facultv of 17 instructors and an 
attendance of 200 Its endowment was $700,000, 
its income $40,000, the value of its grounds and 
buildings $350,000, and the total value of the 
college property $1,000,000. The president in 
191o was George W. Hinman, Ph.D 

(1821-81) A French Egyptologist, born at 
Boulogne-sur-Mer. He became in 1849 assistant 
in the Egyptian museum at the Louvre He was 
sent to Egypt to collect Coptic manuscripts, but 
there became interested in the ruins of Memphis 
and in excavations Aided financially by the 
French government and by the Duke de Luynes, 
he excavated, in 1851, the Serapeum near the 
modern Sakkara and the tombs of the Apis bulls, 
finding thousands of inscriptions and statues, as 
well as many mummies of sacred bulls and cows, 
which went chiefly to Paris In 1854 he re- 
turned to Paris and was made curator in the 
Egyptian Museum. In 1858 he went to Egypt 
and became director of the governmental excava- 
tions and curator of the monuments Acting in 
this capacity, he cleared most of the ancient 
temples, the great Sphinx, the tombs at Sak- 
kara, and other historic spots from sand and 
rubbish, and formed the Egyptian National Mu- 
seum. In 1873 he received the biennial prize of 
20,000 francs from the Institute of France. The 
Egyptian government gave him the title of Bey, 
later that of Pasha. He died in 1881 and was 
buried in a huge stone sarcophagus standing 
before the museum. He produced, with the aid 
of collaborators and draftsmen, many books, 
among them: Memoir e sur la mere d'Apis 
(1856) ; Renseignements sur les 64 apis trouves 
dans les souterrains du Serapeum (1856); 


Choix de monuments et de dessins, decouverts 
executes pendant le deblayement du Serapeum 
de Memphis ( 1856 ) ; Le Serapeum de Memphis 
(1857 et seq.) ; Apergu de Vhistoire d' Egypt* 
(1867) ; Abydos (1870) ; Lea papyrus egyptiens 
du muste de Boulaq ( 1872-77 ) ; Denderah 
(1869-75) ; Monuments divers (1872-82) ; Deir- 
el-Bahari (1877); Karnak (1875); Voyage 
dans la Haute Egypte (1878; 2d ed., 1893); 
Catalogue des monuments tf Abydos (1880); 
Les Mast abas de Vancten empire (1881-89). 
The CKuvres diverses d'Auguste Manette t edited 
by Maspero, began to appear in Paris in 1904 
Consult Edouard Mariette, Manet te Pacha 
(Paris, 1904), and G. C. C Maspero, Notice 
bioqraphique sur Auguste Mariette ( ib , 1905 ) . 

MABIGLIANO, ma'rS-lya'no. A town in the 
Province of Caserta, Italy, 10 miles northeast of 
Naples. It has a fine church and a palace. It 
manufactures spirits and markets gram and 
wine Pop. (commune), 1901, 12,491; 1911, 

MARIGNANO, ma're-nya'nd. See MELE- 


(fl 1290-1357). An Italian traveler, born at 
Florence. He was one of four legates of Pope 
Benedict XII to the court of the Khan of Cathay. 
Starting in 1338 he reached Peking in 1342 and 
remained there three or four years He trav- 
eled in eastern China ; after leaving that country 
he discovered a church of the Latin communion 
at Columbum in Malabar in 1348, made a long 
sea voyage down the coast and probably to Java ; 
and on his return voyage was detained in Ceylon 
by a native ruler. By 1353 he had returned to 
Europe and delivered a letter from the Khan to 
Pope Innocent VI. He became a chaplain of 
Emperor Charles IV in 1354 and Envoy to the 
Pope from Florence in 1356. The story of his 
travels was brought to light by J. G. Meinert 
in 1820 

MABIGNY, ma're'nye', ENOUEBBAND DE ( 1260- 
1315). A French statesman and financier, born 
at Lyons-la-Foret, Normandy. He became grand 
chamberlain and chief minister of Philip IV the 
Fair in 1304. He received many favors from 
Philip and from Edward II of England, but his 
share in the debasement of the French coinage 
made him unpopular. When Philip died in 
1314, Marigny became a victim of the feudal 
reaction against the increasing royal power He 
was accused of malfeasance in office and of 
treachery to the King, but his accounts were 
found to be correct. Louis X, however, per- 
mitted him to be convicted on a charge of sor- 
cery, and he was hanged 

MARIGOLD (Mary, in allusion to the Virgin 
Mary, gold) . A name given to certain plants of 
the family Composite, chiefly of the genera 
Calendula and Tagetes. The genus Calendula 
comprises about 20 annual and perennial herbs 
and shrubs, of which some of the former are 
found in the countries bordering on the Medi- 
terranean, the latter chiefly in South Africa. 
Pot marigold (Calendula officinahs) is a com- 
mon cultivated annual, native of southern 
Europe, with an erect stem, 1 to 2 feet high, 
obovate lower leaves on long stalks, and large, 
deep-yellow flowers. There are a number of va- 
rieties, some of which have double flowers. The 
whole plant has a slight aromatic odor and 
a bitter taste. The dried florets are often^ggj? 
ployed to adulterate saffron arfd sometinbes for 
coloring butter or cheese. They are alsfc used 



in the preparation of soups. The plants are 
propagated by seeds sown in spring in ordinary 
garden soil in sunny or half-shady places. Later 
they are thinned to about one foot apart. The 
genus Tagetes consists of annual and perennial 
herbs, natives of the warmer parts of America 
from Arizona to Argentina Although Tagetes 
erecta, one of those most frequently cultivated, 
bears the name of African marigold, and Tagetes 
patula, another well-known annual, is called 
French marigold, both species are Mexican. Corn 
marigold is Chrysanthemum segetum. Marsh 
marigold (Caltha palustns) has no botanical 
affinity with the true marigolds. Bidens beckti 
is called water marigold. 

MARIIEINA, mar'i-ke'na. See MARMOSET. 

MARILLAC, ma're'yak', GHABLES DE (1510- 
60). A French diplomat, born in Auvergne. 
He became an advocate in Paris; in 1535 went 
to Constantinople, where he became Ambassador 
shortly after; and in 1538-43 was Ambassadoi 
to Henry VIII of England From 1547 to 1551 
he served in the same capacity in Switzerland 
and at the court of Emperor Charles V, and in 
1555 was one of the negotiators of the Peace of 
Ardres with England In recognition of his serv- 
ices he was made Bishop of Vannes m 1550, 
Archbishop of Vienne in 1557, and a Councilor 
of State. He played a leading part m the As- 
sembly of Notables at Fontamebleau in 1560, 
but his policies aroused the enmity of the 
Guises. He wrote Discours sur la roupture de 
la Trefve en Van 1556 (1556). 

MARINA, ma-re'na, or MALINTZIN, ma'l&n- 
tsen' A Mexican woman She was born m 
Coatzacoalcos, probably in the early years of the 
sixteenth century She was of a noble family, 
but when a child was sold in slavery to the 
Tabascan Indians. Soon after Cortgs invaded 
Mexico she became his interpreter and his mis- 
tress. She constantly acted as intermediary be- 
tween the Spanish and the natives, and thus 
became prominent in all the affairs of the Con- 
quest. Their son, Don Martin Cortes, attained 
considerable importance in Mexico She was 
afterward married to Juan de Jaramillo and was 
living as late as 1550 

MARINDUQUE, ma'ren-doo'ka. One of the 
Philippine Islands, situated in the Visayan Sea, 
19 miles south of the Isthmus of Tayabas, sep- 
arating North from South Luzon (Map: Philip- 
pine Islands, C 4). It is roughly circular in 
shape, with a diameter of 24 miles and an area 
of 667 square miles. Its coast line has four 
good harbors. Its surface is hilly, with a maxi- 
mum altitude near the centre of probably 2500 
feet. The interior is forested, with some fine 
grazing grounds. The principal occupations of 
the inhabitants are cattle raising and the cul- 
tivation of rice, coconuts, and hemp Copra is 
manufactured and exported. Pop., 1903, 51,674, 
almost entirely Tagalog. Marinduque was a 
separate province until June 23, 1902, when the 
large island of Mindoro (q.v.) was annexed to 
it; it forms now a subprovince of the Province 
of Tayabas, Luzon. The capital is Boac (q.v.). 
Marinduque is a port of call on the main line of 
communication between Luzon and Mindanao. 


,. MARINE CITY. A city in St. Clair Co., 
MJL, 46 miles (direct) northeast of Detroit, 
town ie St. Clair River and on the Rapid Rail- 
on a ti< 

road, a freight line (Map: Michigan, G 6). It 
is a residential city and summer resort Im- 
portant industries are the manufacture of salt 
and beet sugar and the building of wooden ves- 
sels for the Great Lakes. The water works are 
owned by the municipality. Pop., 1910, 3770. 

MARINE CORPS (OF., Fr. mann, from Lat. 
mannus, pertaining to the sea, from mare, sea, 
connected with Goth, marei, AS. mere, OHG. 
mart,, Ger. Meer, Ir. muir, OChurch Slav, morye, 
Lith. mdres, sea; possibly connected with Gk 
Ppv, bryx, sea depth). A body of soldiers en- 
listed for service in the navy. While the ma- 
rines, as they are called, are by many regarded 
as a relic of the days when the fighting comple- 
ment of ships consisted of soldiers, this is not 
strictly true. Three hundred years ago, when 
the heavy gun displaced the ram as the prin- 
cipal naval weapon of offense, the soldiers on 
board ship rapidly decreased in numbers and 
importance and soon disappeared from the ships 
altogether. After a few years' absence they were 
brought back again. In 1653 Admiral Blake 
embaiked a number on his ships to act as rifle- 
men in his action against Van Tromp. Their 
efficiency probably led to the establishment of 
the British marine corps in 1664, but afterwaid 
it was several times wholly or partly abolished 

The value of well-trained and expert riflemen 
in the close-fought actions and frequent luind- 
to-hand encounters of the seventeenth, eighteenth, 
and nineteenth centuries was bo great as to cause 
marines to form important parts of the comple- 
ments of all men-of-war of those days They 
were, moreover, of much use as a police force foi 
controlling the mixed, ignorant, and often mu- 
tinous sailors who composed the crews in the 
days of the press gang and indiscriminate 

The United States marine corps was estab- 
lished by Act of Congress dated June 25, 1776, 
and provided for the appointment of one major 
(Samuel Nichols), nine captains, and ten fhst 
lieutenants. After the close of the Revolution 
the navy was practically abolished, and, with 
the other branches of the service, the marine 
corps disappeared. When the reorganization 
of the navy took place in 1798, the marine corps 
was again established with an authorized 
strength of 881 officeis and men commanded by 

During the first 75 years of the nineteenth 
century the marine corps was one of the most 
important and distinguished parts of the navy, 
both afloat and ashore. Its officers and men 
added lustre to their name in the naval opera- 
tions on the Barbary coast, in the War of 1812, 
and in the Civil War. But with the advent of 
the high-power gun the battle range increased to 
such an extent that riflemen were no longer of 
use in naval action, and the removal of marines 
from ships began to be urged The arguments 
to this end were given added force by the fact 
that marines were no longer needed for ship- 
board police on account of the greatly improved 
character of the enlisted force of the navy. The 
removal might have taken place but for the 
contemporary total abolition of sails on fighting 
ships, which obviated the necessity for a ship's 
company composed wholly of sailors of the old 
type. It was therefore possible to find a place 
for a limited number of well-trained riflemen 
who could be utilized at the smaller guns. Then 
came the Spanish War and furnished its lesson 
as to the value of a military expeditionary force 

OOftP* { 

to accompany the fleet, not only wholly under 
naval control, but thoroughly conversant with 
the practical needs of the vessels and of the 
service generally. The marine corps, therefore, 
shared in the general naval expansion which fol- 
lowed the war and has continued to increase as 
the navy has developed. 

At present marines form about 10 per cent of 
the complements of large ships in the United 
States navy and are found most useful in landing 
operations for the protection of American citi- 
zens and their property in regions disturbed by 
war or insurrection. The sailors are drilled as 
infantry and artillery, but as their chief duties 
are connected with the main battery of the 
ship, when they are landed the battle organiza- 
tion of the vessel is entirely broken up, so that 
they cannot be spared without greatly weaken- 
ing the efficiency of /the ship. 

Less than one-third the marine corps is on 
shipboard. The lemainder is distributed in bar- 
racks in or near the principal naval stations 
Duung the prevalence of ordinary conditions 
they act as guards and military police forces 
at these stations, but they are organized and 
trained as regiments or parts of regiments and 
are ready for mobilizing at any time as an ex- 
peditionary force of one to six regiments (two 
are usually in the Philippines) for immediate 
service wherever American interests are threat- 
ened by revolutionary disturbances abroad; or, 
in case of war, to be sent to seize certain for- 
eign places, to establish a fortified advance base, 
or to protect weak or threatened points. They 
are carried in naval transports, conveyed by 
fighting ships, and accompanied by freight and 
supply ships if advance base and other materials 
are needed in quantities to make this necessary 

The commandant of the corps is a major gen- 
eral The staff consisted (1915) of one adju- 
tant and inspector, one quartermaster, and one 
paymaster, all with the rank of colonel. As 
assistants in these staff departments there are: 
5 lieutenant colonels, 8 majors, and 13 captains 
The line consists of 8 colonels, 7 lieutenant colo- 
nels, 8 majors, 94 captains, 97 first lieutenants, 
89 second lieutenants, and 9921 noncommissioned 
officers and privates Consult: J. F Cooper, 
History of the Navy (New York, 1866) , R. S. 
Collum, The History of the Marine Corps (ib, 
1902) ; McLaughlm and Hart (eds.), Cyclopedia 
of American Government, vol. ii (ib., 1914) ; 
also the works of Maclay, Spears, and other 
naval historians. 

Marine Corps in Foreign Navies. France, 
Austria, Spain, Japan, and Greece have no 
marines Argentina, Brazil, Italy, Germany, 
and the Netherlands have marine infantry 
Chile has marine infantry and artillery. Den- 
mark has marine artillery. Russia has marine 
infantry and artillery in large numbers. Most 
of the troops of these countries are used at naval 
stations and in the colonies; few are used on 
board ship except in the Russian navy. The 
British marine corps is very similar to the 
American, except that it is divided into marine 
infantry and marine artillery. It was estab- 
lished in 1664 and was at first called the Ad- 
miral's Regiment. At this time the irregular 
methods of obtaining crews for men-of-war and 
the lack of regulation of the naval forces made 
the presence of such a disciplined force neces- 
sary. Impressment and the dissatisfaction en- 
gendered by the various methods of forced serv- 
ice continued the necessity for nearly 200 years. 
VOL. XV. 7 

While no longer required for their original pur- 
pose, they still form a valuable part of the 
British navy. The budget for 1914-15 provided 
for 428 commissioned officers, 85 warrant offi- 
cers, 1353 staff sergeants and sergeants, 1801 
band ranks, buglers, and music, 227 band boys, 
and 14,691 rank and file. 

MARINED, ma-rend'. A term in heraldry, 
applied to an animal whose lower extremity 
terminates in a tail like that of a fish. See 



of the science and art of engineering which con- 
cerns itself with the propulsion of ships and the 
design and operation of ship machinery of all 
kinds. At one time it was solely concerned with 
steam engineering, but such is no longer the 
case, foi* ships not only have auxiliary machinery 
driven by electric power or internal-combustion 
engines, but many ships are propelled by them. 
The different parts of the subject are considered 
or treated under the heads of BOILER, DYNAMO- 



MARINE INSURANCE. The practice of 
marine insurance, at least on a purely commer- 
cial basis, antedates by centuries the applica- 
tion of the insurance principle to other kinds 
of risks Even in ancient times there was de- 
veloped a system of quasi-insurance in the form 
of loans on bottomry by which risks were at 
least partially transferred In the Middle Ages 
marine insurance on a commercial basis first 
appeared as early as the thirteenth century in 
Flanders and in Portugal. The oldest legal 
document relating to insurance which has come 
down to us consists of the ordinances issued by 
the magistrates of Barcelona in 1435 to regulate 
the business of marine insurance. Marine under- 
writing appears to have been introduced into 
England by the Lombards early in the sixteenth 
century. By the eighteenth century that coun- 
try had obtained the leading position in the 
business, which she has since maintained 

For many years marine underwriting in Eng- 
land was carried on exclusively by unassociated 
individuals and continued to be conducted on a 
strictly individual basis until late in the eight- 
eenth century. The first step towards the regu- 
lation of marine underwriting by the Lloyds As- 
sociation (see LLOYDS) was taken in 1779, when 
a printed form of policy was adopted, practically 
the same as the one still in use. In 1871 the 
Lloyds Association was incorporated by Act of 
Parliament, the articles of incorporation stating 
as the main objects of the organization the con- 
duct of the business of marine insurance, the 
protection of the interests of the members of the 
association, and the collection and publication of 
information in regard to shipping. It is for 
the accomplishment of the last-named purpose 
that the association has developed its remark- 
able system of agencies, whose intelligence and 
dispatch in gathering and reporting shipping 
news are unequaled in any similar organization. 
Marine underwriting at Lloyds is still exclu- 
sively an individual transaction, though under 
the general supervision of the association. The 


method of transacting business is as follows: A 
merchant having a ship to insure sends through 
a broker a slip setting forth the characteristics 
of the risk he desires insured Any underwriter 
who desires to assume a part of the risk places 
on the slip his initials and the amount he is 
willing to assume No one underwriter assumes 
very large risks, a ship and cargo being usually 
underwritten by a large number of individuals, 
each of whom carries from 100 to 500. The 
responsibility of each underwriter is limited to 
the amount foi which he has subscribed. When 
the entire amount has been subscribed, the 
policy is made out and signed by those who have 
already put their initials on the slip 

In the seventeenth century two insurance com- 
panies, the Royal Exchange and the London, 
were authorized to transact a marine business, 
while the privilege was denied to all other com- 
panies. These two companies appear to have 
done little marine underwriting In 1824 the 
monopoly restriction was removed, and since 
that time many companies have gone into the 
business Even these companies, however, find 
it advantageous to work thiough Lloyds, each of 
them having a representative on the floor of that 

In America marine insurance was the first 
form to be written In 1759 the first office was 
established, although a large amount of indi- 
vidual underwi itmg had previously been carried 
on. This office was opened in New York and 
was known as the Old Insurance Office The 
method of conducting business was by individual 
underwriting, after the manner of the English 

It was not until near the end of the eighteenth 
century that corporations took up the business 
of marine underwriting The first in the field 
were the Insurance Company of North America 
and the Insurance Company of the State of 
Pennsylvania Both were located in Philadel- 
phia, "and both began marine underwriting in 
1794. The growth of the business was rapid and 
was greatly stimulated by the expansion of 
American shipping during the period of the 
Napoleonic wars in Europe The companies 
rapidly absorbed the entire business of the 
country, and by the year 1825 individual under- 
writing was practically at an end in the United 

The period of the Civil War subjected the 
marine companies to a severe strain, and several 
of them succumbed. Since that time the condi- 
tion of marine underwriting has reflected the 
condition of the shipping industry of the coun- 
try. The great growth of the business has been 
seen, not in the insurance of risks on the high 
seas, but in the insurance of risks on inland 
waters. The headquarters for the insurance of 
shipping on the lakes is Chicago The business 
is especially hazardous on account of the limited 
area over which the operations extend and a 
consequent great fluctuation in loss rate 

Upon the outbreak of the European War in 
1914 the difficulties encountered by American 
shipping led to the passage by Congress of an 
Act to establish a bureau of war risks in the 
Treasury Department. The Act was signed by 
the President on Aug. 19, 1914, and went into 
effect immediately. The Secretary of the Treas- 
ury was authorized to appoint a director and 
other officers of the bureau and to aid the bu- 
reau in fixing premiums and in adjusting pay- 
ments for losses. The function of the bureau 


was to insure American ships and cargoes 
therein against loss or damage by risk of war 
whenevei it appeared to the Secretary impos- 
sible for American shippers to secure war-risk 
insurance on terms substantially equal to those 
given^ foreign vessels or cargoes by their respec- 
tive governments An appropriation of $5,000,- 
000 was made to inaugurate the system, in addi- 
tion to $100,000 to defray the expenses of the 
bureau The President was authorized to sus- 
pend the operation of the Act as soon as the 
necessity of war-risk insurance should disappear 
In any event the Act was limited to two years 
fiom the date of enactment. 

The general principles on which marine in- 
surance is based are not different from those 
underlying other forms of insurance, but in 
practice the former presents a number of pecul- 
iar features 

The Policy. The common form of marine 
policy is the voyage policy, i e , a policy to be 
in force for a voyage fiom one specified port to 
another Occasionally, however, a ship is in- 
suied under a tune policy, which is to be in 
force for a specified time, usually a year The 
chief practical distinction between the two is 
that with a voyage policy there is alwa\s a wai- 
lanty, express 01 implied, that the ship is sea- 
u 01 thy at the beginning of the voyage, while 
with a time policy no such warranty is implied 

An open policy is*onc which provides that in 
case of total loss the amount of the indemnity 
shall be determined by ascertaining the amount 
of loss actually suffered It is incumbent upon 
the insuied to prove the value of the destroyed 
property. A \alued policy, on the other hand, 
provides that in case of total loss the amount 
stated in the policy shall be regarded as the 
value of the insured propeity and paid as in- 
demnity Valued policies are more frequently 
issued on the ship, while the cargo is more com 
inonly covered by an open policy. The use of 
the valued policy has undoubtedly tended to in- 
crease the amount of o\ennsuranee and dehb- 
eiate destruction of vessels This practice is 
especially easy under the s\wtem of individual 
underwriting pret ailing at Llo\ds, since the un- 
derwriter frequently knows little or nothing 
about the ship he is insuring beyond what is 
stated in the slip. 

Objects. The objects most commonly insured 
under a marine policv are ship, cargo, and 
freights. Sometimes other objects are covered, 
such as the expected profits of the voyage or, 
more frequently, the liability for damages on 
account of collision The insurance of freight is 
an illustration of a peculiar featuie of marine 
insurance In all other forms of insurance of 
property the amount of indemnity that can be 
recovered in case of loss is determined by the 
value of the property destroyed, damnum *emer- 
gens In marine insurance it is possible to 
insure an expected gam and to obtain indemnity 
if the occurrence of anv of the events covered 
bv the policy makes it impossible to realize the 
gain, lucrum cessans 

Dangers. A marine policy covers a far 
greater number and variety of dangers than any 
other form of policy issued. Besides the more 
characteristic perils of the seas, such as wind 
and wave, fire, collision, stranding, jettison, and 
the like, the policy covers three distinct kinds of 
danger war risks, including detention as well 
as capture or destruction; pirates, rovers, and 
thieves, and barratry, or illegal acts of captain 


or crew As to the losses caused by the perils 
of the sea, they must be due to extraordinary 
action of wind and wave or to some other un- 
usual cause. The losses caused by ordinary 
forces are known as wear and tear and are not 
covered by the insurance The distinction be- 
tween the two kinds of losses has been the sub- 
ject of much litigation, and the present condi- 
tion of the law of the subject is precise but 
complex. Modern policies cover some further 
kinds of loss, especially liability for damages 
on account of collision. 

Insurance after the Loss. Uncertainty as to 
the fate of a vessel may continue for an indefi- 
nite time after the loss has occurred. Insurance 
may be taken out on an overdue ship, and even 
though it should afterward appear that the ves- 
sel had already suffered shipwreck at the time 
when the insurance was effected, the indemnity 
could still be collected The premium rate on 
an overdue ship indicates the judgment of the 
underwriters as to the probability that the ves- 
sel has already suffered disaster. 

Reinsurance. Individual underwriters enjoy 
only to a limited extent the advantages that 
come from the combination of a large number of 
risks in a group, and consequently single losses 
may involve a considerable share of their capi- 
tal. They avoid this danger partly by under- 
writing only a small portion of the value of 
each ship they insure and partly by resorting to 
reinsurance. As it is always possible to insure 
a ship HO long as it is unknown whether she 
suffered disaster or not, it is customary for 
those who have insurance in force on a vessel 
that is overdue to protect themselves by rein- 
suring her They are naturally obliged to pay 
higher premiums than they themselves received. 
If this p IDC ess of reinsurance is repeated several 
times, as is frequently the case, the effect is 
that a loss is distributed in small proportions 
over a large number of underwriters 

The Loss. Loss may be complete or partial. 
When it is complete the settlement between the 
insured and the underwriters is comparatively 
bimple. On a valued policy an insurer becomes 
liable for the amount stated in the face of the 
policy. In the case of an open policy it is neces- 
sary for the insured to prove the value of the 
property destroyed or the amount of freight lost 
Unless otherwise agreed, the value of the ship is 
its value at the time of starting on the voyage 
with the value of the ship's stores included; 
the value of the cargo is its invoice value with 
the addition of insurance premium and other 
charges, and the value of the freight is the 
amount the ship would have earned if she had 
reached her destination in safety 

Abandonment. A peculiar feature of marine 
insurance is the practice of abandonment, when 
the insured surrenders or abandons to the un- 
derwriters the property covered by the policy 
and demands his entire indemnity This right 
does not always exist, but arises only when the 
insured property has suffered so serious damage 
from perils covered by the policy that it amounts 
to constructive total loss. With regard to the 
ship or the cargo there is held to be constructive 
total loss when the damage exceeds one-half the 
value of the vessel or cargo respectively and 
when the vessel is captured by the enemy or de- 
tained by embargo. There is constructive total 
loss of cargo when it is so badly injured that it 
has to be sold at some other place than its orig- 
inal destination. There is constructive loss of 


freight when the ship is unable to complete her 
voyage, or the goods on which the freight is to 
be paid are so badly damaged that they cannot 
be carried to their original destination. 

When the conditions are such as to give a 
legal right to abandon, it is optional with the 
insured whether he will take advantage of the 
right or not. If he decides to do so he must give 
notice to the insurer within a reasonable time, 
and having once elected to abandon, it is im- 
possible for him to draw back. The effect of 
abandonment is to vest the title to the insured 
property in the underwriter and to convey to him 
all rights and claims on account of the ship and 

Average. When there is partial loss and the 
insured cannot or docs not elect to abandon 
and receive the entire indemnity, it becomes 
necessary to ascertain the amount for which the 
insurer is liable. Such partial losses are known 
by the name of "average," a term borrowed by 
marine insurance from general maritime law 
It is frequently necessary to sacrifice some part 
of the ship or cargo in order to save the rest. 
It is obviously unjust to have the entire burden 
of loss under such circumstances fall upon the 
party whose property is thus voluntarily de- 
stroyed or injured Maritime law, therefore, 
prescribes the way in which such losses shall be 
apportioned or averaged among all the interests 
at stake. The term "average" was later extended 
to include losses of all kinds. To distinguish 
those losses which are of such a nature that 
they ought to be apportioned among all the par- 
ties from those which ought to be borne entirely 
by the party whose property is damaged, the 
former kind of loss is called general average, 
the latter particular average. In the case of the 
ship, the voluntary cutting away of a mast to 
save the ship would be general average, the loss 
of a mast through the violence of the wind 
would be particular average There is general 
average on the cargo when a part of it is jetti- 
soned or thrown overboard to lighten the ship, 
there is particular average when a part of it is 
damaged as the result of the action of forces 
which are included in the policy. So far as the 
insurance is concerned, it is the general rule 
that the insurer is liable for all general averages 
under all conditions, in the absence of fraud. 
His liability for particular average, however, is 
usually limited in the policy. For certain kinds 
of commodities the policy exempts the insurer 
from all liability; for others, from liability for 
losses of less than 5 per cent or some other 
specified proportion, unless the ship be stranded , 
while for all other commodities and for ship 
and freight, liability does not attach unless the 
loss exceed 3 per cent or the ship be stranded. 
When several successive losses are experienced 
during the same voyage, the sum of all the 
losses is the amount considered in determining 
whether the percentage of loss is high enough 
to render the underwriters liable. 

The measure of the liability of the insurer for 
particular average on the ship is the cost of 
repairs, including all extra expenses which they 
involve, with a deduction, usually of one-third, 
from the value of new material used in repair- 
ing the ship, in the case of freight it is the 
amount actually lost through the diminution in 
the weight of the cargo; and for the cargo it is 
that part of the invoice value of the damaged 
goods which remains after there has been sub- 
tracted from their total value such a proportion 


f the total value as the gross value of the 
damaged goods at the port of destination is of 
the gross value of similar goods in a sound 

General Average. In the absence of insur- 
ance general average would be apportioned 
among all the owners of ship, cargo, and freight. 
Each party, including the one whose property 
was sacrificed, would make contribution in pro- 
portion to the value of the property he had at 
stake. In estimating that value the value of 
ship and cargo is usually taken at their actual 
value when they reach their destination, while 
the value of the freight is ascertained by sub- 
tracting the wages of captain and crew from the 
gross amount received as freight. When the 
different parties are insured, general average is 
paid by the underwriters and not by the owners 
of the property. So far as general aveiage is 
concerned, insurance is a transfer from owners 
to underwriters of liability for contributions to 
reimburse those whose property has been sacri- 
ficed for the general good. 

Sue and Labor. When loss or disaster 
threatens a ship or cargo, the master of the 
vessel is bound to do everything in his power 
to avoid the danger or avert the loss What- 
ever expense is incurred for that purpose the 
underwriters are responsible for, under the so- 
called suing and laboring clause, which reads 
as follows: "In case of any loss or misfortune, 
it shall be lawful to the assured, their factors, 
servants, and assigns, to sue, labor, and travel 
for, in, or about the defense, safeguard, and re- 
covery of the said goods and merchandise, or 
ship, or any part thereof, without prejudice to 
this insurance: to the charges whereof, we, the 
assurers, will contribute, each one according to 
the rate and quantity of the sum herein in- 
sured." While the clause says that the insured 
"may" so sue and labor, it is the established 
rule of law that he is bound so to act. The 
general rule is that, in case of damage or partial 
loss, the insured is bound to act as a prudent 
man would act under the circumstances if he 
were uninsured. 

Bibliography. Theophilus Parsons, Treatise 
on the Law of Marine Insurance and General 
Average (2 vols , Boston, 1868); Frederick 
Martin, History of Lloyd's and of Marine In- 
surance in Great Britain (London, 1876) ; Wil- 
liam Gow, Marine Insurance: A Handbook (ib., 
1895), containing a bibliography; Karl Doern- 
berger, Die Besonderheiten der Seeversicherung 
(Nuremburg, 1911), containing a bibliography, 
E W. Congdon, General Average: Principles 
and Practice in the United States of America 
(New York, 1913) ; William Gow, Sea Insurance 
According to British Statute (London, 1914) ; 
Douglas Owen, Ocean Trade and Shipping (New 
York, 1914). 







MARINETTE, mftr'I-net'. A city and the 
county seat of Marinette Co., Wis., 178 miles 
north of Milwaukee, on the Chicago and North- 
western, the Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul, 
and the Wisconsin and Michigan railroads 
(Map: Wisconsin, F 3). It is situated at the 


mouth of the Menominee River, on Green Bay, 
opposite Menominee, Mich., with which it is 
connected by bridges and by steam and electric 
trams. Marinette has a fine harbor and carries 
on an extensive lake commerce, and its good 
water power and proximity to valuable forests 
have developed its extensive lumber interests. 
It is, moreover, growing in favor as a summer 
resort. There are also large box factories, knit- 
ting mills, granite works, several establishments 
making various cedar products, pail and broom 
factories, paper and pulp mills, ironworks, and 
manufactories of steam threshing machines, 
gloves, cutlery, pianos, cooperage supplies, and 
gas and traction engines. Settled about 1850, 
Marinette was incorporated in 1887. The gov- 
ernment is administered under a general charter 
of 1898, which provides for a mayor, elected 
every two years, and a unicameral council. 
Pop., 1900, 16,195, 1910, 14,610; 1920, 13,610. 

MABINETTI, mar'e-net'tfi, FRANCOIS (1878- 
). A poet, born at Alexandria, Italy, but 
a resident of France. He founded and directed 
the international review, Poesia, and initiated 
and became the advocate of a hteratuie of 
"futurism." Among his works are Le roi 
Bombance (1905), satirical tragedy; La conquete 
des etoiles (1902, 2d ed., 1908); La mile 
charnelle and Lcs dieux s' en vont, d' A nnunzio 
reste (1908), Poupees elcctnqucs (1909), a 
drama; Mafarka-le-futunste- (1910) , Le futu- 
nsme (1911), the manifesto of his school, La 
bataille de Tripoli (1912); Le monoplan du 
pape (1914) 

MARINI, ma-re'ne, GIAMBATTISTA (1569- 
1625). An Italian poet, born at Naples, Oct 
18, 1569, frequently called simply Cavalier 
Marino. He began the study of jurisprudence, 
but lived so wildly that his father eventually 
banished him from home. He was received by 
the chief admiral of Naples as secretary, but 
the part he played in connection with an abduc- 
tion forced him to flee to Rome. There he pros- 
pered, and before long (1603) he was able to 
undertake a journey to Venice to superintend 
the publication of his verse Attached to the 
household of Cardinal Aldobrandim, he traveled 
with him in Italy and, under his auspices, came 
into contact with many men of letters of the 
tune He next won the favor of the ducal ruler 
of Turin, Charles Emmanuel I, but, as a result 
of one of his many quarrels growing out of 
literary jealousies, he was arrested, and upon 
his release went to Paris, where he won the 
good graces of Maria de' Medici. He remained 
in France from 1615 to 1623, arid then, return- 
ing to Italy, he was everywhere received with 
extraordinary honor. He died at Naples, March 
25, 1625. Before his twentieth year Marini had 
gained considerable repute by his Canzone de 9 
baci. The first collection of his verse was that 
of Venice (1602-14), entitled La lira, in which 
there is an erudite imitation of Ovid, Tibullus, 
Spanish writers, and earlier Italian poets Not 
to mention his Sampogna, his Strage dcgl 9 inno- 
centi, his Gallene and minor lyrics, his most 
noted production is the A done (Venice, 1623), 
a long poem in octaves, ostensibly on the love 
of Venus and Adonis, but containing long digres- 
sions. What most attracts modern attention 
in this work is its mannerisms, the excess of 
imagery, and its overwrought style; with its 
contemporaries it aroused unbounded admira- 
tion, as well as bitter criticism among Marino's 
enemies. Of these the most venomous was 




Tommaso Stigliani, whose Occhwle initiated a 
polemic lasting over half a century. The Adone 
is the most brilliant and most characteristic 
specimen of the concettistic literature of the 
Italian seventeenth century. As regards form, 
it shows the extreme development of the Renais- 
sance theory of ornament as the essence of style; 
as regards substance, it reflects the sensuahstic 
aestheticism of its time with a genius somewhat 
similar to that of our contemporary D' Annunzio. 

Bibliography. Giambattista Marini, Epiato- 
lorio (2 vols., Bari, 1911), id., Pome vane 
(ib., 1913); Adone (Florence, 1888); Borzelli, 
11 cavalier G. B. Marino (Naples, 1898) ; Croce, 
Lirun mannisti (Bari, 1910); id., Studt lette- 
rari del seicento (ib., 1911); Thomas, Oongora 
et le Oongonsme consider^ dans leurs rapports 
avec le Manmsme (Paris, 1911). 


MARINO FALIEBO, mA-re'nd fa,-lya'rd. A 
drama by Byron (1820). 

MABINONI, mlL'r-n5'n6, HIPPOLTTE (1823- 
1904). A French inventor, born at Paris. He 
invented a rotary press which could print 40,000 
impressions in an hour and was extensively 
used, and another which printed polychromes 
in six colors at the rate of 20,000 an hour, as 
well as many other improvements in printing. 
After 1883 he was editor of the Petit Journal. 

DIA (1810-83) An Italian dramatic tenor 
singer, born at Cagliari, Sardinia In 1830 he 
received his commission as officer in the chas- 
seurs Sardes, but abandoned his commission and 
fled to Paris, where he later secured the appoint- 
ment of first tenor at the opera At the same 
time he adopted the name Mario. After two 
years' study at the Conservatory he made his 
debut in 1838 in Robert le Diable and achieved 
the first of a long series of operatic triumphs. 
From 1845 to 1850 he fulfilled an engagement 
in Russia and on his return appeared in Lon- 
don, and in 1854 he went to America. In his 
private life he was known for generosity to 
struggling artists. His repertoire embraced all 
the staged operas of Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti, 
and Verdi. In 1844 he married the singer Grisi. 
He died in Rome. Consult Judith Gautier, Le 
roman d'un grand chanteur (Paris, 1912). 

MABION, marl-on or mar'-. A town and 
the county seat of Perry Co , Ala , 28 miles 
northwest of Selma, on the Southern Railway 
(Map: Alabama, B 3). It has the Judson Fe- 
male Institute (Baptist), opened in 1839; Mar- 
ion Female Seminary, opened in 1836; Marion 
Military Institute; the Lincoln Normal School 
for colored pupils (Congregational) ; and a 
Carnegie library. An agricultural country sur- 
rounds the town. There are municipally owned 
water works. Pop., 1900, 1698; 1910, 1834. 

MARION. A city and the county seat of 
Williamson Co., 111., 114 miles southeast of 
St. Louis, Mo., on the Illinois Central, the 
Chicago and Eastern Illinois, the St. Louis, Iron 
Mountain, and Southern, and the Eldorado, Mar- 
ion, and Southwestern railroads (Map: Illinois, 
G 10). It has a trade in grain and live stock, 
and manufactures of flour, cigars, canvas gloves, 
shoe machinery, novelties, etc. In the vicinity 
are fine timber lands and deposits of coal, the 
mining of which constitutes the leading industry 
Pop., 1900, 2510; 1910, 7093. 

MABION. A city and the county seat of 
Grant Co., Ind., on the Mississinewa River, 
68 miles (direct) northeast of Indianapolis, on 

the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago, and St. 
Louis, the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago, and 
St. Louis, the Toledo, St. Louis, and Western, 
and the Chesapeake and Ohio of Indiana rail- 
roads (Map: Indiana, F 3). Interurban elec- 
tric lines connect the city with Indianapolis and 
other cities and towns. Marion has a Federal 
building, fine courthouse, a large normal col- 
lege, hospital, and Carnegie library. A Na- 
tional Soldiers Home, which cost $1,500,000, is 
3 miles to the south. The city is the centre of 
a farming region and has a supply of natural 
gas. There are extensive manufactories of glass 
products; also flouring, saw and planing, lin- 
seed-oil, and pulp and paper mills, foundries, 
cornice and brick works; and manufactories of 
bedsteads, motor trucks, railway supplies, furni- 
ture, cement posts and blocks, forgings, engines 
and boilers, paper-mill machinery, shoes, and 
gasoline motors. The government is vested in a 
mayor, elected every four years, and a unicam- 
eral council. Marion owns and operates its 
water works Pop, 1900, 17,337; 1910, 19,359; 
1914 (U. 8 est.), 19,656; 1920, 23,747. 

MABION. A city and the county seat of 
Linn Co., Iowa, 5 miles northeast of Cedar 
Rapids, at the junction of divisions of the Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul Railroad (Map: 
Iowa, F 2) It is situated in a fertile agricul- 
tural country, is a healthful residential city, 
and has the county buildings, a Carnegie library, 
sulphur springs, a park in the centre of the 
city, and a septic sewer system. There are 
large freight yards and repair shops of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul Railroad; 
also a flouring mill, a broom factory, cement 
block and vault works, and two greenhouses. 
Marion was settled in 1839 and was incorporated 
in 1852. Pop., 1900, 4102, 1910, 4400 

MABION. A city and the county seat of 
Marion Co, Ohio, 46 miles north of Columbus, 
on the Hocking Valley, the Cleveland, Cincin- 
nati, Chicago, and St. Louis, the Pennsylvania, 
and the Erie railroads (Map: Ohio, D 4). There 
are division headquarters of the Erie Railroad, 
a Carnegie library, a normal school, the Marion 
County Children's Home, Old Ladies Home, 
Elks Home, and a fine Federal building Marion 
is the centre of a farming district and has lime 
works, malleable iron works, silk mills, a piano 
factory, and manufactories of engines, steam 
shovels, dredges, shoes, agricultural machines, 
racing sulkies, etc. Pop., 1900, 11,862, 1<)10, 
18,232; 1914 (U. S. est.), 22,032; 1920, 27,891. 

MABION. A city and the county seat of 
Marion Co, S C., 103 miles east of Columbia, 
on the Atlantic Coast and the Raleigh and 
Charleston railroads (Map: South Carolina, 
E 2 ) . It is in a fertile region interested chiefly 
in cotton and tobacco growing and has cotton 
and cottonseed-oil mills, a foundry, large lumber 
mills, etc. There is a Carnegie library and a 
well-kept city park. Pop., 1900, 1831; 1910, 

MABION. A city and the county seat of 
Smyth Co., Va., 107 miles west by south of 
Roanoke, on the Norfolk and Western Railroad, 
at the terminus of the Marion and Rye Valley 
Railway (Map: Virginia, C 5). It is the seat 
of the Southwestern State Hospital for the In- 
sane, accommodating about 700 inmates, and of 
the Marion Female College (Lutheran). The 
principal industries are woodworking, milling, 
mining, and stone quarrying. Settled in 1832, 
Marion was first incorporated in 1871. The 


town has its own water supply, obtained by the 
gravity system from springs which are about 
3 miles distant, Pop , 1900, 2045; 1910, 2727. 

MARION, FRANCIS (1732-95). An Ameri- 
can soldier. He was born at Winyah, near 
Georgetown, 8. C., in which neighborhood his 
grandfather, a Huguenot refugee, had settled 
soon after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes 
in 1685. In 1759 he removed to Pond Bluff, 
near Eutaw In 1775 he represented St. John's 
Parish, Berkeley County, in the Provincial Con- 
gress, which adopted the Bill of Rights, and 
voted to raise forces after the battle of Lexing- 
ton He was commissioned a captain in Colonel 
Moultrie's regiment June 21 and took part 
in the occupation of Fort Johnson, which caused 
the flight of the royal Governor, Lord William 
Campbell After his promotion to major, in 
1776, he was stationed at the unfinished Fort 
Sullivan (afterward called Fort Moultrie), in 
Charleston harbor He showed great coolness 
during Sir Peter Parker's bombardment, June 
28, 1776, and was made lieutenant colonel m the 
regular service. For a time he was in command 
of Fort Moultne, and then took part in the un- 
successful attack of D'Estaing and Lincoln on 
Savannah in 1779. When the British captured 
Charleston in 1780 and began to overrun the 
State, Marion fled to North Carolina, where he 
met General Gates, who received him coldly. 
Soon he was asked to command four companies 
of irregular cavalry, which had been raised 
around Williamsburg, S. C, and in August, 
1780, Governor Rutledge gave him a commission 
as brigadier general of State troops His ir- 
regular force was ill-equipped and ill-fed, yet 
Marion demonstrated himself the greatest of 
partisan leaders, in spite of many obstacles and 
disadvantages. After the defeat of Gates at 
Camden and of Sumter at Fishing Creek, this 
was for a time the only American force of any 
strength in the State The men furnished their 
own equipment and came and went almost at 
will, as it was necessary to protect their families 
from the Tories and to plant their crops. 

The first important action was on Aug 2, 
1780, at Nelson's Ferry, where two companies of 
British regulars were routed and 150 Conti- 
nental soldiers taken at Camden were recap- 
tured. Marion's men caused much trouble to 
Cornwallis by intercepting communications, cap- 
turing foraging and scouting parties, and intimi- 
dating the Tories Major Wemyss and Colonel 
Tarleton were especially instructed to take him 
For a time Marion was forced to retreat to- 
wards North Carolina, but in 1781 he established 
himself at the confluence of Lynch's Creek and 
the Pedee River, in a swampy forest known as 
Snow's Island. He took Fort Watson in con- 
junction with Col Henry Lee, captured Fort 
Motte and Georgetown, fought at Quinby's 
Bridge and Parker's Ferry and at Eutaw 
Springs. The force was not disbanded until 
after the British evacuation, in December, 1782 
In June, 1782, Marion put down a Loyalist up- 
rising on the banks of the Pedee River, and in 
August he left his brigade and returned to his 
plantation. Marion was elected to the General 
Assembly in 1782 and was publicly thanked by 
that body in 1 783 As he had been impoverished 
by the war, the sinecure of commandant of Fort 
Johnson was created for him with a salary of 
500 per annum After his marriage to a 
wealthy woman, Mary Videau, he represented 
St. John's in the State Senate and in th<' Con- 

stitutional Convention of 1790. Consult: Sir 
Banestra Tarieton, History of the Campaigns of 
1780-1781 %n the Southern Provinces of North 
America (Dublin, 1787); Horry and Weems, 
Life of General Francis Marion (Philadelphia, 
1852) ; W G. Simms, Life of Francis Marion 
(ib., 1860) ; Edward McCrady, History of South 
Carolina in the Revolution (New York, 1901- 
02 ) ; and a "Study of Marion's Ancestry and 
Early Life," in Southern and Western Monthly 
Magazine and Review, vols. i, ii (Charleston, 

MARION DELORME, ma'rfr-oN' de-lorm'. 
A drama by Victor Hugo (1831), based on the 
life of the notorious courtesan of that name. 
She appears in De Vigny's Cinq-Mars and in 
Bulwer's Richelieu 

MARIONETTE, mar'I-6-neV (from It. mono, 
a fool or buffoon, or possibly from manolette, 
meaning a diminutive figure of the Virgin 
Mary). A small, j'ointed figure, representing a 
character m the miniature drama of a puppet 
theatre. See PUPPET 

MARIOTTE, ma'rg-6t', EDME (c.1620-84). 
A distinguished French natural philosopher He 
was born in Burgundy and was the prior of 
St Martin-sous-Beaune, near Dij'on He was 
active in developing experimental research in 
France and was one of the first members of the 
Academic des Sciences, founded in 1666. He 
repeated Pascal's ^experiments on gravitation 
and detected some peculiarities which had es- 
caped that philosopher, confirmed Galileo's 
theory of motion, discovered through experi- 
ment an approximate formula for determining 
heights by the barometer, enriched hydraulics 
with a multitude of discoveries, and finally 
made a thorough investigation into the subject 
of the conduction of water and calculated the 
strength necessary for pipes under different 
circumstances His collected works were pub- 
lished at Leyden m 1717 and at The Hague 
(2 vols., 4to) in 1740. His Traitt du mouve- 
ment des eaux was published at Paris in 1686 
Mariotte's name is associated with the law of 
gases discovered 14 years previously by Robert 
Boyle, this law being always known in France 
as Mariotte's law It was published in a treatise, 
Sur la nature de Vair (1676). It is, in sub- 
stance, that the volume of a gas varies inversely 
as the pressure it is under 

MARIOTTE'S LAW, usually referred to as 
the law of Boyle and Mariotte See BOYLE'S 

MARTFO'SA (Sp , butterfly). A local name 
in California for the opah (q.v.) 

MARIPOSA GROVE. A tract of land 4 
square miles in extent in Mariposa Co , Cal , 
containing two groves of the Sequoia gigantea, 
consisting of about 465 fine specimens The 
largest of the trees, the Grizzly Giant, has a 
circumference of 94 feet, and its main limb, at 
a height of 200 feet, is 6% feet in diameter. The 
road between the groves passes through an open- 
ing 9% feet wide, cut through the heart of one 
of the trees The tallest tree is 272 feet high, 
and a number exceed 250 feet. The tract is 
reserved as a State park. 

LILIACE^E and Plate. 

MARTPO'SAN, or YOKUT. A linguistic 
stock or family of North American Indians, for- 
merly located in southern California, about Tu- 
lare Lake, and extending as far nortli as the 
junction of the Fresno with the San Joaquin. 


Twenty-four subtribes are mentioned by Powell. 
Of these there survive: Chomimni, Chookiminah, 
Chukchansi, Kashowoo, Tachi, Wechikht, Wik- 
chamni, Yokuts, and Yowdanclu, 533 individu- 
als in all. Every village consisted of a single 
row of wedge-shaped huts of tule, with an awn- 
ing of brush stretched along the front These 
houses were used for sleeping pui poses only. 
The mountainous condition of the country was 
naturally productive of a series of isolated 
areas, in which each camp with its separate 
captain and medicine man resided The main 
sources of their food supply were fishing, hunt- 
ing, and gathering acorns Their weapons were 
sinew-backed bows and excellent allows There 
are no more delicate and beautiful baskets made 
anywhere than in the villages of this stock, and 
specimens are to be seen in every fine collection, 
together with fish weirs, fishing booths, fish 
traps, and tule boats Consult Stephen Powers, 
Contributions to Xorth American Ethnology, 
vol. 111 (Washington, 1877), and J. W Powell, 
Seventh Annual Keport of the Bureau of Ethnol- 
ogy (ib., 1801) 

MARIQUINA, mu'ie-ke'na A town of Lu- 
zon, Philippines, in the Province of Ri/al It 
is situated 7 miles northeast of Manila, at the 
intersection of several important roads, and has 
manufactuies of shoes and other leather work 
In the neighborhood are the medicinal iron 
springs of Chorillo Pop., 1903, 8187 

MABIS, ma'rls The bruthoib JACOB, MAT- 
THUS, and WILLEM, three of the most distin- 
guished among modern Dutch painters. JACOB 
(1837-99), the eldest, was born at The Hague, 
studied under Stroebel, Van IIooc, and at the 
Antwerp Academy, also foi a short time under 
Hubert in Pans After his leturn from France 
he lived chiefly at The Hague His art is essen- 
tially Dutch, 'owing most to Vei nicer and Rem- 
brandt, it is purely pictonal, powerful yet 
graceful The color is soft, lucid, and delicately 
harmonious His subjects are usually views of 
Dutch cities, canals, windmills, and the sea- 
shore. Twenty-four pictures by him, including 
the admirable "View of a Dutch Town" and 
"The Shell Gatheiers," are in the Ri]ks Museum, 
Amsterdam There is also a beautiful "View of 
a Village" in the Dordrecht Museum Other fine 
landscapes are 'The Bridge" (Frick collection, 
New York) and "Canal m Holland" (Metropoli- 
tan Museum, New York) Good examples of 
his figure paintings are the "Young Mother" 
(Rijks Museum) and "The Bird Cage" 

His younger bi other, MATTHIJH (Matthew) 
(1839- ), was also born at The Hague, stud- 
ied there at the Academy under Louis Meijer 
and at the Antwerp Academy He followed his 
brother to Paris in 1869, but after 1872 lived 
chiefly in London Possessed of a romantic im- 
agination strongly tinged with mysticism, he 
lived the life of a recluse, painting in a vaguo, 
mysterious, yet intensely personal manner 
His art is characterized by purity of line 
and charm of color. His type of woman is 
unique monumental yet childlike, mysterious 
yet intensely living. Among his most celebrated 
paintings are "The Bride" and the "Cake Baker," 
both in the Mesdag collection. The Hague, "But- 
terflies", "Piimaveia", "Siska", "In the 
Slums", and "Rcvery" (Metropolitan Museum, 
New York). His landbcapes include "Souvenir 
of Amsteidani," "The Four Windmills," and 
"Lausanne." His etchings and drawings are no 
less individual and charming than his paintings 


WILLEM (1844-1910) was almost equally as 
distinguished in landscape and cattle painting 
as his elder brothers, under whom he studied. 
His work is brighter and warmer in color but 
less vmle and varied than Jacob's. He delights 
m gray-green tones, rich landscapes with sun- 
light effects His subjects are usually land- 
scapes with gleaming water, in which are cows 
or ducks, although he sometimes paints pure 
landscapes. The collection of James G Shepard, 
in New York, possesses five of "such paintings; 
the Rijks Museum, Amsterdam, six The Shep- 
ard collection also possesses a like number of 
paintings by each of his brothers Consult Ed- 
uard Rooses, Dutch Painters of the Nineteenth 
Century, vols h and iv (London, 1898-1901), 
D. C. Thomson, The Brothers Mans (New York, 
1907 ) ; Marius, Dutch Painting of the Nineteenth 
Century, English translation (London, 1908). 

reVmas del gwa'Dal-k-ver', MARQUES DE LAS. 

MARISTS, ma'rists, and MARIANISTS, 
m.'i'ii-an-ists (Neo-Lat. Marista, from Lat Maria, 
Mary) The Society of Marists was founded by 
the venerable Jean Claude Marie Colin (born 
1790 and died 1875), who obtained canonical ap- 
probation for bis society fiom Gregory XVI in 
1836 and was Superior General fiom 1836 to 
1854. Many missionary houses and colleges were 
established m France and all Oceanica was put 
undei the care of the fatheis. A province was 
erected in the United States in 1889, where they 
ha^e, according to the oflicial Catholic Directory 
of 191.), 123 priebts, 36 scholastics and novices, 
r>0 aspnants, 21 parishes, and 4 colleges The 
Mananivts. a distinct community, was begun in 
1817 in France bv William Joseph Chaminade, 
born in 1761 His societv was approved by 
Leo XIII in 1891 The order has increased rap- 
idly and exfjanded widely They are to be found 
in Belgium and in many other European coun- 
tries, as well as in China, Japan, Mexico, Can- 
ada, and the United States, where since their 
entiance in 1840 they have more than 50 estab- 
lishments, including colleges, normal and paro- 
chial schools. 

MARITANA, ma'r-ta'na. An opera by Wal- 
lace (q.v ), first produced in London, Nov 15, 
1845, in the United States, May 4, 1848 (New 

MARITIME LAW (Lat maritimus, relat- 
ing to the sea, from Lat. mare, sea) In its 
broadest sense, that system of law, both public 
and piivate, which relates to commerce and nav- 
igation upon the high seas or other navigable 
waters r lhe sources of the law of the sea as 
now applied in England and the United States 
are more ancient and perhaps more complex than 
those of anv other branch of our law. Some of 
its doctrines, as the law of general average, are 
traceable to the Rhodian laws, dating back to 
the eighth century B c., from which they were 
adopted into the civil law of Rome, and by it 
spread over modern Europe. Many of its doc- 
trines may be attributed to customs established 
by the revival of trade in the countries border- 
ing the Mediterranean and in southwestern Eu- 
lope in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 
During this period the commercial states and 
cities began the compilation of the usages and 
customs of sea commerce and the judgments of 
the various maritime courts. The earliest of 
these is the Consolato del marc (qv.). A later 
compilation, having even greater influence upon 


English law, was that known as the laws of 
Oteron. (See OLRON.) The laws of Wisby, 
a compilation of mercantile customs and usages 
adopted by a congress of merchants at Wisby 
in the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea, about 
1288, which became the basis of the ordinances 
of the Hanseatic League, were also of great in- 
fluence in the development of the modern laws 
of the sea; as were also the Hanseatic ordi- 
nances and the French marine ordinance, pro- 
mulgated by Louis XIV in 1681, by which the 
whole law of shipping, navigation, marine in- 
surance, bottomry, etc., was collected and sys- 
tematized The local ordinances of Barcelona, 
Florence, Amsterdam, Antwerp, Copenhagen, and 
Kbnigsberg were also not without influence. 

The earliest English compilation of maritime 
law appears to have been the Black Book of the 
Admiralty, supposed to have been published 
during the reign of Edward III. It was based 
substantially upon the laws of O16ron. The Brit- 
ish Parliament has never passed general mari- 
time ordinances, but the maritime law drawn 
from the sources here indicated has been em- 
bodied in a series of decisions of the courts of 
admiralty jurisdiction, which, with the decisions 
of our own Federal courts rendered since the 
American Revolution, constitute the maritime 
law of the United States. 

Maritime law is administered in England by 
the courts of admiralty; in the United States 
by the Federal courts, which, by the Constitu- 
tion, have jurisdiction over all causes in ad- 
miralty. This jurisdiction of the Federal courts 
is not, howevei, exclusive, and a suitor may seek 
his remedy at common law in the State courts 
wherever the common law is competent to give 
a remedy. In England maritime causes are said 
to be those which directly affect commerce or 
navigation upon waters in which the tide ebbs 
and flows In the United States, where the con- 
ditions are different, maritime causes are deemed 
to be those directly affecting commerce upon nav- 
igable waters which in themselves or by means 
of other waterways form a continuous highway 
to foreign countries. Hence the fact that com- 
merce in a given case is carried on only upon 
waters within a single State does not necessarily 
affect jurisdiction of the Federal courts, and such 
jurisdiction is not dependent upon the constitu- 
tional power of Congress to regulate commerce. 
As maritime jurisdiction depends upon the sub- 
ject matter and not the parties, a United States 
court may take jurisdiction over a maritime 
cause arising in a foreign vessel between for- 
eigners. The exercise of jurisdiction over for- 
eigners is, however, purely discretionary, and 
may be refused , and it is a general principle that 
a maritime court will not take jurisdiction over 
a ship of war of a friendly foreign nation. 

Liability for torts, or common-law wrongs, is 
recognized and enforced by the maritime law. 
Maritime torts include all wrongful acts or di- 
rect injuries arising in connection with com- 
merce and navigation occurring upon the seas 
or other navigable waters, including negligence 
and the wrongful taking of property The mari- 
time law, however, regards only actual damages 
and allows no recovery for merely nominal in- 
jury. The test for determining whether a tort 
is of a maritime nature is the locality where the 
tortious act is consummated or takes effect. 
Thus, an injury to a bridge or wharf by a ship, 
inasmuch as the injury is effected upon land, 
is not within the jurisdiction of the admiralty 


court, but an injury to a ship by a drawbridge 
is a maritime tort, of which the admiralty curt 
has jurisdiction. The maritime like the common 
law does not recognize a right of recovery for 
wrongful death, but a statute may confer the 
right, which will then be recognized in admiralty 
in accordance with the settled principle that both 
the Federal courts of admiralty and of equity 
will provide a remedy for new substantive rights 
created by State statute. Such statutes have 
been enacted both in England and the United 

The maritime law also recognizes and enforces 
contracts by awarding damages or enforcing 
liens which it recognizes as created on the basis 
of contract In general the essential elements of 
a contract are the same under the maritime as 
at the common law The maritime law differs 
from the common law only in the method by 
which it may enforce the contract and in attach- 
ing to the various classes of contracts certain 
legal incidents peculiar to each class. A contract 
is deemed to be of a maritime nature so as to be 
within the jurisdiction of an admiralty court 
when in its essence it is purely maritime, relat- 
ing to commerce and navigation upon navigable 
waters as already defined, as contracts for the 
betterment of a vessel in aid of navigation or 
for the sustenance and relief of those engaged in 
conducting commercial operations at sea Thus 
a contract of partnership in a vessel is not a 
maritime contract, neither is a contract to build 
a vessel, nor is a preliminary agreement leading 
to a maritime contract, as a contract to pro- 
cure marine insurance, within the jurisdiction of 
the admiralty court. For a fuller discussion of 
the various forms of maritime contracts and 
their incidents, see such special articles as BOT- 

The jurisdiction of maritime courts also ex- 
tends to all prize causes growing out of captures 
of vessels, of ships of war or privateers, made 
upon navigable water, or started there, although 
consummated on land. In England the law of 
prize is administered in a separate department 
of the admiralty court, as distinguished from 
the instance court in admiralty In the United 
States no distinction is made between prize and 
other admiralty causes, all being within the 
jurisdiction of the district courts of the United 
States. By act of Congress captures made upon 
inland waters of the United States are doomed 
not to be prizes, and consequently are not within 
the admiralty jurisdiction of the United States 

The adjustment of the rights of the parties to 
a maritime venture in accordance with the prin- 
ciples of general average is also an important 
function of maritime courts, and the doctrines 
of general average are among the most impor- 
tant of the maritime law. (See MARINE INSUR- 
ANCE, Average ) The English admiralty courts 
have by statute acquired jurisdiction over crimes 
committed on the high seas outside the marine 
league. Similar jurisdiction has by act of Con- 
gress been conferred on the United States dis- 
trict courts 

The peculiarities of maritime law and the 
character of the jurisdiction exercised by mari- 
time courts are best illustrated by the law relat- 
ing to maritime liens, which are enforced by 
proceedings in rem. A maritime contract may 


give rise to a maritime lien when made for the 
benefit or assistance of a marine venture, and 
when made on the credit of the vessel rather 
than on the credit of the owner or charterer. 
There is a presumption that all contracts for nec- 
essary supplies and repairs to a vessel are made 
on the credit of the owner if in a home port, but 
upon .the credit of the vessel if in a foreign 
port. The seamen and subordinate officers, but 
not the master of the ship, have a lien upon the 
ship for wages due. The marine carriers also 
have a lien for freight and demurrage. 

Analogous to the contract lien, although 
strictly not based on contract, is the lien which 
any party to a maritime venture who has made 
a general average sacrifice has upon vessel or 
cargo, or both, to secure contribution in general 
average. Maritime liens may also arise ex de- 
hcto for all wrongs or injuries caused by the 
ship, or by collision, or by failure of the ship as 
a common carrier to carry or deliver goods 

It is a general principle of the maritime law 
that the master has the power, when necessity 
arises and he is unable to communicate with the 
owners, to sell both ship and cargo and confer 
a valid title on the purchaser to sell free of liens, 
which then attach to the proceeds. Lienors do 
not share pro rata in the subject of the liens, 
but have priority according to their importance 
as contributing to the safety or preservation of 
the property. Thus, as between different voy- 
ages, lions have priority in the inverse order 
of their creation In the same voyage the order 
of priority is as follows- (1) costs of litigation; 
(2) salvage; (3) salary of seamen, cost of sup- 
plies and repairs, bottomry and respondentia, 
pilotage and towage. 

The procedure of maritime law is extremely 
simple, never having been characterized by com- 
plex and technical rules, as was the procedure 
at common law. The most distinguishing char- 
acteristic is the power of the plaintiff to make 
the proceeding purely one in rem, ie, one di- 
rected solely towards the property which the 
plaintiff wishes to subject to the maritime lien 
which he claims The procedure may, however, 
at the plaintiff's option, be an action in per- 
sonam, i.e, one in pursuance of which a per- 
sonal judgment may be recovered against the 
master or owner, or, in the absence of rules of 
court to the contrary, it may be both in rem 
and in personam The proceeding in admiralty 
is begun by filing a libel (q.v.) corresponding 
to the declaration or complaint in a common-law 
action. Upon filing of the libel the court issues 
its writ or mesne process, which is executed by 
the marshal or corresponding officer by attach- 
ing the res, i.e., the ship or cargo, if the pro- 
ceeding is in rem, or by citing the respondent 
to appear and answer, if the proceeding is in 
personam. The respondent is then required to 
file his answer, or he may file exceptions, which 
correspond to the demurrer in an action at law. 
The issues raised are laid before a judge without 
a jury, or, as is more usually done, the testi- 
mony in the case is taken before a commissioner 
or corresponding officer, who reports it to the 
judge. The judge does not usually assess dam- 
ages, but refers that question to a commissioner 
by an interlocutory judgment, and upon the 
commissioner's report renders a final judgment 
fixing the rights of the parties. 

Bibliography. Samuel Parsons, Treatise on 
the Low of Shipping (2 vols., Boston, 1869) ; 

W. T. Pritchard, Digest of Admiralty and Mari- 
time Law (3d ed., London, 1887); Hughes, 
Handbook of Admiralty Law (St Paul, 1901); 
Charles Abbott, Law of Merchant Ships (Lon- 
don, 1901 ) ; Lawrence Duckworth, Encyclopedia 
of Marine Law (New York, 1907) ; D W Smith, 
Law Relating to the Rule of the Road at Sea 
(Glasgow, 1910); V. Dembski, Europe and the 
New Sea Law: A Manual of International Poli- 
tics and Maritime Law (London, 1912). See 
RELATING TO; MASTER; ETC.; and consult the 
authorities referred to under such titles. 

skaya OUast) A name given to the former 
Province of Primorskaya, which extends from 
the Arctic Ocean, where it reaches as far west 
as Tchaun Bay, to the north boundary of Korea. 
Its west boundary runs along the Stanovoi 
Mountains to about long. 130 E., then southeast 
and south to the Amur (which traverses the 
province in a northeasterly direction), then 
along the Usuri, which forms part of the bound- 
ary of Manchuria, and finally southwest to the 
Korean border, along the east frontier of Man- 
churia to Korea (Map: Asia, O 3). Its area is 
made up of the provinces of Kamchatka (qv.) 
(502,424 square miles), Sakhalin (14,668 
square miles), and Primorskaya (226,486 square 
miles). The northern portion, forming the 
northeast extremity of Asia, is a barren 
plateau from 1000 to 2000 feet in elevation and 
watered by the Anadyr and many other rivers. 
Its coasts are deeply indented and present a 
number of promontories towards Bering Strait 
and Bering Sea. The plateau is bordered on 
the north by mountains which rise to 8000 feet. 
The central part of the province is a narrow strip 
of land, 40 to 60 miles wide, along the Sea of 
Okhotsk, occupied by the Stanovoi Mountains 
and intersected by numerous short streams. 

The southern part is somewhat lower west of 
the Amur, while the portion east of that river is 
occupied to some extent by the mountainous dis- 
trict of Sikhota Alin, rising above 5000 feet in 
its highest peaks. The flora of the northern part 
is extremely poor, consisting only of some lich- 
ens, mosses, and dwarf trees The lower moun- 
tain slopes of the central portion of the prov- 
ince and the deep river valleys are thickly 
wooded The same is true of the mountains in 
the southern part, where the lowlands are cov- 
ered with thick grass, and some plants peculiar 
to warmer regions, such as the wild vine, are 
found Northern Siberia has long been famous 
for its rich fauna, but many species, such as the 
blue fox, the black sable, the sea otter, the sea 
lion, the sea cow, and the whale, have either 
entirely disappeared or are rapidly approach- 
ing extinction The fauna of the southern region 
is remarkable for its variety, including such dif- 
ferent species as the tiger and the bear. The 
rivers in this part of the country are exceedingly 
rich in fish, the Amur and the Usuri being filled 
with salmon in August, and it is along their 
banks that the population of the province is 
concentrated The northern part of the province 
is inhabited chiefly by the Tchuktches, who are 
engaged in fishing on the coast and in reindeer 
breeding and hunting in the interior. Besides 
the Tchuktches there are found some Koryaks 
on the coast. The central part of the province 
is inhabited only by a few Tunguses. 

The climate presents great variety, owing to 




the large extent of the region, but even in the 
south it is very severe The temperature at 
Vladivostok, at the southern end of the piovince, 
averages only 39.5 F , while at Nikolaycvsk, at 
the mouth of the Amin, it is below the fi cozing 
point. The summers in the southein pint are 
extremely wet, and inundations are frequent. 

Agriculture is confined by natural conditions 
to the southern portion of the province and is 
progressing very slowly Hunting and fibbing 
are still the chief occupations Some gold is 
produced along the Amur Immigration has 
made wonderful strides since the beginning of 
the twentieth century, as the population figures 
show. This is due chiefly to the Trans-Siberian 
Railway, which was completed in 1898 Many 
Little Russian peasants and Cossacks fiom the 
Don territory and Orenburg have been trans- 
ported to the province by the government. Roads 
are very scarce, but a branch of the Tians-Sibe- 
rian line traverses the province from Khabarovsk 
to Vladivostok for a distance of 469 miles Xi- 
kolskoye, 69 miles north of Vladivostok, is the 
eastern terminal of the Manchuiian branch of 
the Trans-Siberian line The population in 1897 
was 223,336, including about 4.3,000 natives, 
more than 23,000 Koreans, and over 20,000 Chi- 
nese, in 1912 the population was 572,000, the 
density per square mile being 2. The Russians 
constitute over one-half of the entire population 
The original Russian population aie oi^ani/ed on 
a military basis, and are known as Cossacks 
The capital of the province is Khabaiovsk (q v ), 
but the most important town is Vladivostok 


MARITZA, ma-rS'tsa (Lat. Hcbrus). A river 
of the Balkan Peninsula (Map Balkan Penin- 
sula, F 4) It rises in the Balkans in Bulgaria, 
flows southeast through eastern Rumelia past 
the town of Phihppopolis, and continues in that 
direction until it enters Turkey above Adrian- 
ople, where it bends south and falls into the 
JEgean Sea near its northeast cornci. It is 
300 miles in length, and is navigable for small 
boats to Adrianople, about 100 miles fiom its 
mouth. The treaty of Sept 18, 1913, between 
Bulgaria and Turkey makes the lowei reaches of 
the river below Mandra the new frontier 

MABIUFOL, ma'r-oo'pol-y' The capital of 
a district of the same name m the Government 
of Ekaterinoslav, Russia, situated on the north 
Shore of the Sea of Azov, 63 miles west of 
Taganrog (Map. Russia, E o) It has two Gym- 
nasia, a theatre, and a customhouse. Soap and 
leather are its chief manufactures, it carries 
on a considerable trade in grain Its harbor is 
visited annually by over 1300 coasting and about 
100 seagoing vessels Mariupol was founded in 
1779 by Greek emigrants from the Crimea. Pop., 
1911, 53,100, chiefly Greeks and Jews 

MA1UTJS, GAIUS (c. 156-86 BC.). A Roman 
general, born of an obscure family of the Maria 
Gens, at the village of Cereatse (modern Casa- 
mare) , near Arpinum, about 156 B c. ( See ISOLA 
DEL LIBI.) In the Numantine War ( 134-133 B c ) 
he served with great distinction under the 
younger Scipio Africanus In 119 B.C. he was 
elected tribune of the plebs, and vigorously op- 
posed the nobles, by whom he was intensely hated 
He acquired social standing and political influ- 
ence by his marriage with Julia, aunt of Julius 
Cesar. In 114 B c. he went to Further Spain as 
propraetor, and cleared the country of the rob- 
bers who infested it He accompanied Q. Ceecil- 
ius Metellus Numidicus to Africa in 109 BC, 

was elected consul two years after, and intrusted 
with the conduct of the Jugurthme War, which 
he brought to a successful close in the beginning 
of 106 BC Marius sent Sulla, then his quaestor, 
in loceive .Juguitha, and this laid the foundation 
of futuie personal enmity Numidia Marius 
thoroughly subdued and annexed to Rome The 
military success of Marius had now made him 
the most conspicuous officer in the Roman arm\, 
while he had aroused enthusiastic admiration 
among his soldiers. Meanwhile an immense 
horde of Cimbu, Teutonea, and other northern 
barbarians had burst into Gaul and repeatedly 
defeated the Roman forces with great slaughter. 
In consequence Marius was again called to the 
consulate for the year 104 B c , and for the third, 
fourth, and fifth times in 103-101 BC, for it 
was felt that he alone could save the Republic 
The war against the Teutones in Transalpine 
Gaul occupied him for more than two years, 
but lie finally annihilated them in a battle of 
two di^s' duiation at Aqua? Sextiap, now Aix, in 
Piovence,, where 200,000 according to others, 
100,000 Teutones were slain. After this he as- 
sumed the chief command in the north of Italy 
against the Cimbri (qv ), whom he overthrew 
on the Raudian Fields, neai Vercella?, with a 
like destruction (101 BC ). The people of Rome 
knew no bounds to their joy Marius was de- 
clared the savioi of the state, the third foundei 
of Rome, and his name was mentioned along with 
those of the gods at banquets. lie was made 
consul for the sixth time in 100 BC In the 
next 10 yeais, however, his prestige waned, par- 
ticularly because of his association with Satui- 
nmus (q.v.) In the Social War (qv ) he 
twice defeated the Mar si. When Sulla, as 
consul, was intrusted with the conduct of the 
Mithndatic War, Marius, who had long man- 
ifested an insane jealousy of his patrician 
rival, and was himself an aspirant for the com- 
mand of this war, attempted to deprive him of 
the command, and a cnil war began (88 BC ) 
By procuring a new oiganization of the Roman 
tribes, through passage of a law to distribute 
the Italian allies among all the tribes, Marius 
secured an election to the command of the war. 
Sulla fled to his army at Xola, refused to resign 
the command, and marched on Rome. Marius 
Mas soon forced to floe, and after enduring the 
greatest hardships, and making numerous hair- 
breadth escapes, he reached Africa, where he re- 
mained until a rising of his friends took place 
under Cinna (qv) He then huiried back to 
Italy, in the absence of Sulla, and, along with 
Cinna, marched against Rome, which was obliged 
to yield Man us was dehiious in lus re\enge 
upon the aristocracy, a band of 4000 slaves is 
said to have carried on the work of murder for 
five days and nights Marius and Cinna were 
elected consuls together for the year 86 B c. 
Marius was, however, already in his seventy-first 
year, and died after he had held office only 17 

Unlettered, arrogant, and rude of manner, 
Marius did not possess the qualifications requi- 
site for maintaining influence in times of peace. 
The effect of his personal presence is illustrated 
by the scene when, during his flight to southern 
Italy, near Minturnee, a barbarian entered his 
room with drawn sword to assassinate him 
When Marius called out, "Man, durst thou mur- 
der Gaius Marius 7 " the intruder, awed by the 
fiery eyes of Marius, dropped his suord in terror 
and fled. Consult Beesly, Marius and Sulla 




(New York, 1878), and the article "Marius I," 
in Friedrich Liibker, Realleankon des klassisohen 
Altertums (8th ed., Leipzig, 1914). 

MABIUS, MERCATOB (c.390-c.451). An ec- 
clesiastical writer of the earlier half of the 
fifth century, born in Africa. He was living in 
Rome, 418, and 10 years afterward in Constan- 
tinople, where he stayed until about 448, but 
authorities differ as to whether he was priest 
or layman He is known to have been a friend 
and defender of Augustine, a denounce! of the 
Pelagian and Nestonan doctrine. His deter- 
mined opposition to the promulgators of these 
heresies bore fruit in their expulsion from Con- 
stantinople. He made Latin translations of Nes- 
torius, Theodosius of Mopsuestia, Cyril of Alex- 
andria, Proclus, Theodoret, Pelagius, and other 
Greeks which are invaluable to students of 
Church history. These, together with his own 
controversial writings, were twice edited in Paris 
in 1673 bv Gamier and in 1684 by Baluze 

CHAMBLAIN DE (1688-1763) A French dram- 
atist important in the development of French 
comedy, and a novelist, epoch-making in the 
evolution of French fiction He was born in 
Paris, Feb 4, 1688 His father was a Norman, 
director of the Mint at Riom in Auvergne, where 
and at Limoges Marivaux passed his youtlu His 
literary taste developed early. At 18 he had 
written a play, Le pere prudent et Equitable 
(published 1712), and between 1713 and 1715 
he produced three romances, Effcts surprenants 
de la sympathie, La voiture emlourbie, and Le 
Don Quichote moderne, all wholly out of key 
with his later work Then, falling under the 
influence of the parodist La Motte, he undertook 
to tiavesty Homer and Fenelon, but turned from 
this ignoble task to the production of essays 
in the vein of the Spectator for the journal Le 
Mercure (1717) These showed keenness, but 
also preciosity. The year 1720 marks a turning 
point in Manvaux's genius and fortune. He lost 
his considerable wealth in the Mississippi Scheme, 
became dependent on his pen, wrote a poor trag- 
edy, Anmbal, and a good comedy, Arlequin poll 
par I' amour, and started the Spectateur Fran- 
fats, a weekly "Spectator," that might have suc- 
ceeded if his unmethodical habits had allowed 
it to appear regularly. For the next 20 years 
he supported himself as a playwright, succeed- 
ing in comedy at the Italian Theatre and fail- 
ing in tragedy at the The'atre-Franc.ais The 
more noteworthy of his 30 plays are: Lea sur- 
prises de I'amour (1722) ; Le tnomphe de Plu- 
tus (1728); Le jeu de I'amour et du hasard 
(1730), Le legs (1736); and Lea jausses 
confidences (1737). He founded two other un- 
successful journals, and in 1731 began the pub- 
lication of a novel, Marianne, which he left 
incomplete at its eleventh part in 1742. Madame 
Uicciboni finished it In 1735 he began Le paysan 
parvenu, which also remained a torso. Yet these 
are his most important works. In 1736 he was 
elected to the Academy. Late in life he re- 
ceived a pension from Helvgtius (q.v.) and an- 
other from Madame de Pompadour (q.v ). He 
died Feb. 12, 1763. Marivaux shows himself in 
his dramas and in his fiction interested prima- 
rily in the analysis and display of human 
feeling. He drew in both his novels pictures of 
contemporary society and of Parisian street life 
that remained unequaled for a century in their 
impressionistic realism, but his delight is in 
verbal surprise a somewhat affected style known 

in French literature as manvaudagc. Manvaux's 
Works are in ten volumes (Paris, 1827-30). 
There is a modern edition of the plays by 
Fournier and also of Marianne 

Bibliography. Savollee, Marivaux inconnu 
(Paris, 1880) , Jean Fleury, Marivaux et le 
manvaudagc (ib., 1881); Emile Gossot, Mari- 
vaux moraliste: Etude antique suivie d 9 un chouc 
de morceaux tires de ses outrages (ib, 1881); 
Gaston Deschamps, Marivaux (ib., 1897) , Petit 
de Julleville, Histoirc de la langue et de la lit- 
terature francaise, vol. vi (ib, 1900), Sarcey, 
Quarante ans de theatre (ib., 1900) , Gustave 
Larroumet, Marivaux, sa vie et ses ocuvres (4th 
ed., ib., 1910) ; A Selection from the Comedies of 
Marivaux, edited with notes and an introduction 
by E. W. Olmsted (rev. ed., New York, 1911), 
E. C. Baldwin, "Manvaux's Place in the Develop- 
ment of Character Portrayal," in Modern Lan- 
guage Association of America, Publication, vol 
xx (Series 8, Cambridge, 1912) 

MAR'JORAM (OF marjolaine, margclyne, 
Fr. marjolaine, It. majorana, maggiorana, from 
ML majoranca, from Lat. amaracus, amaracum, 
from Gk. d/tdpaicos, amarakos, dfidpaicov, amarakon, 
marjoiam, probably connected with Heb. mdraq, 
to purify, influenced by popular etymology with 
Lat. mayor, greater), Origanum A genus of 
annual, perennial, and shrubby plants of the 
family Labiatae, natives chiefly of the East and 
of the Mediterranean region Some of the 
species abound in a yellow essential oil, marjo- 
ram oil or oil of origanum, which is obtained by 
distillation The common marjoram (Origanum 
vulgare), which has become naturalized in the 
United States, is a perennial plant, 1 foot high, 
with ovate leaves and roundish, panicled crowned 
heads of purple flowers, with large bracts. It is 
used, as are also other species, as a seasoning in 
cookery, and is said to be stimulant and tonic. 
Sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana) is an an- 
nual plant, a native of Greece and the East, 
with ovate grayish-green leaves, wrinkled bracts, 
and small white flowers Its uses are similar to 
those of the common marjoram 


MA UK, mark (Ger., border, march). A Ger- 
man geographical term, signifying primarily the 
mark of a country's limits (the march], and 
hence applied as a designation of the border 
districts of the German Empire Prussia began 
its existence as the north mark, erected against 
the invasion of the Wends, while Austria arose 
from the east mark, erected against the Hun- 
garians The governor intrusted with the charge 
of one of these border districts was called 
markgraf, or margrave (q.v.). There has been 
a long dispute among scholars as to the original 
meaning of mark. On this dispute, consult 
Maurer, Geschichte der Markenverfassung in 
Deutschland (Erlangen, 1856), and Fustel de 
Coulanges, Eistoire des institutions pohtiques de 
Vancienne France (6 vols., Paris, 1888-1908). 

MARK (AS. marc, Ger. Mark; perhaps iden- 
tical originally with mark, token, boundary). 
Originally the term appears to have been used to 
designate a unit of weight, most commonly of 
gold or silver. It was about equal to eight 
ounces, but it varied from country to country. 
In 1524 the Cologne mark was made the standard 
weight for gold and silver throughout the Holy 
Roman Empire, but the standard was never 
properly enforced. In Anglo-Saxon times the 
term "mark" was used to designate a money of 


account, consisting of 100 pennies in the twelfth 
century, 160 pennies In 1663 a silver mark 
was issued in Scotland which was valued at 13s. 
Id English money. In the nineteenth century 
the mark was a 'common small coin among the 
German states, varying considerably in the dif- 
ferent parts of Germany. In 1873 the gold mark 
of 100 pfennige was adopted as the monetary 
unit of the German Empire. It represents 0.3982 
gram of gold (900 fine) and is valued at 
$0.23821 in American money. 

MARK (Lat. Marcus, Gk. Mdpxos, Markos), 
or JOHN, with the surname MABK (Acts xii. 
12). The writer of the second Gospel. The in- 
cidental notices in the New Testament give the 
following facts- Mark was the son of a certain 
Mary, a householder of Jerusalem, at whose 
home the early Christians held meetings in the 
days of persecution (Acts xii. 1-12). He was a 
cousin of Barnabas (Col. iv. 10), hence, possibly, 
in ease the relationship was on the father's side, 
of Levitical descent. An old tradition says that 
he had his thumbs cut off so as to be unfit for 
the priesthood Peter calls him his "son" (1 
Pet. v. 13), which means probably that he was 
converted to Christianity under Peter's ministry 
in Jerusalem. He came to Antioch from Jerusa- 
lem with Barnabas and Paul (Acts xii 25), and 
accompanied them as an assistant on their first 
missionary journey (Acts xin 5) But he left 
them at Perga and returned to Jerusalem (Acts 
xiii. 13; cf. xv 37-39) His action cost him 
Paul's confidence, and when Barnabas proposed 
to take him on a second journey Paul refused. 
The result was a separation, and Barnabas took 
Mark and went to Cyprus (Acts xv. 37-40). 
This was about 50 AD We hear nothing more 
of him until Paul's first Roman captivity (c60 
AD ), when we learn (Col. iv 10; Philem. 24) 
that he was then in Rome, reconciled to Paul 
and esteemed by him, and was about to visit 
Asia Minor He may have come to Rome with 
Peter, who mentions him (1 Pet v. 13) as with 
him in the city The proposed journey to Asia 
was probably undertaken, as he was in the East 
when Paul wrote from Rome (c65) to Timothy 
at Ephesus (?) asking him to bring Mark with 
him (2 Tim. iv. 11). At Rome, according to 
early tradition, he wrote his Gospel, not alto- 
gether as his own work, but as containing the 
substance of Peter's preaching. Another tradi- 
tion makes him the organizer and first Bishop of 
the Alexandrian Church. In the nature of the 
case such traditions are difficult of proof. Con- 
sult the commentaries on Mark, especially that 
of Swete (London, 1898), and Zahn, Einleitung 
in das neue Testament, vol. ii (Leipzig, 1900). 

American anatomist, born at Hamlet, N. Y. 
He graduated at the University of Michigan in 
1871 and in 1872-73 acted as assistant astrono- 
mer on the United States Northwest Boundary 
Survey. He then studied zoology in Europe un- 
der Leuckart, HaeCkel, and others, and obtained 
his Ph.D. at Leipzig in 1876 In 1877 he was 
appointed instructor at Harvard College, in 
1883 assistant professor of zoology, in 1885 Her- 
sey professor of anatomy, and in 1900 director 
of the Zoological Laboratory. In 1903 he be- 
came director of the Bermuda Biological Station 
for Research. In 1904 he was elected president 
of the American Society of Naturalists. His 
publications include: Maturation, Fecundation, 
and Segmentation in Lima campettris (1881) ; 

Simple Eyes in Arthropods (1887) ; Trichina in 
Bwme (1889); Studies on Lepidosteus (1890); 
a translation from the German of O. Hertwig, 
Text-Book of the Embryology of Man and Mam- 
mals (1892), and a translation of Korscheldt 
and Heider, Text-Book of the Embryology of 
Invertebrates ( 1895-1900 ) . Consult Parker 
(ed.), Mark Anniversary Volume (New York, 

MARK, GOSPEL OF. The second of the New 
Testament Gospels. Its first verse opens with a 
phrase ("The beginning of the gospel of Jesus 
Christ") that is evidently intended to be a cap- 
tion for the narrative which follows The nar- 
rative is arranged simply and in an order which, 
while not always exact, is usually the normal 
chronological order of the Gospel events. There 
is first the preliminary history reciting the min- 
istry of John the Baptist and the entrance of 
Jesus upon his work, through the symbolic act 
of the baptism and the personal experience of 
the temptation (i. 2-13) . There then follows the 
main portion of the narrative, which gives, first, 
Jesus' popular work in Galilee (i. 14-vii. 23) 
and his similar work in the region north of Gali- 
lee (vii 24-viii. 26), and then breaks in upon 
this northern work with a presentation of it in 
the light rather of a work of instruction, chiefly 
to his disciples, than a work of construction 
among the people tviii. 27-ix. 29). This new 
character of Jesus' work is carried on into what 
may be generally considered his journey towards 
Jerusalem (ix 30-x. 52). The event that marks 
this change is the disciples' confession of Jesus' 
Messiahship given in the neighborhood of 
Ceesarea Philippi, which was followed by Jesus' 
first clear declaration of his coming death (viii, 
27-ix. 1). This is evidently considered by the 
Evangelist as the turning point in Jesus' work, 
leading him to a change in its character and 
method. Chapters xi-xni are given to the final 
work in Jerusalem, which Mark, in common 
with the other Evangelists, present's as a work 
in which Jesus' Messianic claims are openly 
laid before the nation's religious leaders. The 
narrative closes, as in all the Gospels, with the 
Passion and Resurrection (xiv-xvi). 

It is universally held that verses 9-20 of the 
last chapter (xvi) are a later addition to the 
Gospel, the original ending being generally re- 
garded as lost. Just how much further the 
narrative went and whether it included, as Luke 
alone can be possibly said to do, an account of 
the Ascension, can only be conjectured 

In comparison with the other Synoptists Mark 
is quite distinctly the shortest Gospel, consider- 
able portions of the history appearing in Mat- 
thew and Luke being absent from Mark such as 
the Nativity, the Sermon on the Mount, and that 
part of Luke which is devoted apparently to a 
story of Jesus' last journeymgs to the Holy 
City; and yet where Mark gives the narrative 
in common with the other two he gives it with 
a fullness of graphic detail which the others do 
not possess It is also characteristic of Mark 
that, though he has an account of the parables 
by the Sea of Galilee, he does not give the dis- 
courses of Jesus in a measure equal to that of 
Matthew and Luke. In the opinion of most 
critics this indicates that Mark had not access 
to, or at least did not make use of, the Logia 
collection of Matthew, though some hold that he 
made a moderate use of it. See MATTHEW, GOS- 

It is plain that this Gospel was written by a 

Jewish Christian not because of any Jewish 
cast of the Gospel, as in the case of Matthew, for 
such a cast it does not possess but because (a) 
of the author's familiarity with Jewish things 
and his ready ability in explaining them (cf. 
ii. 18; vii. 3 et seq.; xii. 18; xiy. 12; xv. 6, 42), 
and (b) because of his acquaintance with the 
Aramaic language, expressions from which he 
frequently uses (cf. iii. 17; v. 41; vii. 11, 34; ix. 
43, x. 46; xiv. 36; xv. 22, 34). On the other 
hand, it is clear that the readers were Gentile 
Christians not simply because they were unac- 
quainted with Palestinian customs and speech, 
but because this ignorance seems to be sur- 
rounded by a very general Latin atmosphere, 
as though the readers not merely needed the 
above interpretations and explanations, but 
needed them cast in this mold (cf. v. 9; vi. 27, 
37; vii. 4; xii. 42; xv. 16, 39). As to the place 
of the Gospel's origin there is nothing definite to 
be gathered from the contents, though many 
modern scholars accept the opinion of Clement 
that it was written at Rome. The Latin atmos- 
phere would most easily be thrown around the 
narrative in a Latin country. As to date, 64 to 
70 A u are limits often suggested ; but it is uni- 
versally admitted that whatever may be the year 
of its composition, it gives every evidence of 
being the earliest of all the Gospels. In fact, a 
comparison of Mark's order of narrative with 
that of Matthew and Luke shows that Mark's 
order was that which Matthew and Luke had 
before them when they wrote. See MATTHEW, 

Early church writers, almost without exception, 
ascribe the authorship of this Gospel to Mark 
(q.v.), the cousin of Barnabas, and to Mark as 
in some way connected in the writing with Peter. 
Some of the Fathers, as Jerome and Origen, 
make the relation of Mark to Peter that of an 
amanuensis, others, as Eusebius, that of a re- 
porter; others again, as Clement of Alexandria, 
Justin Martyr, and Iremeus, that simply of a 
disciple recalling his master's words. The 
earliest and most explicit testimony, and that 
which seems to bear upon its face the strongest 
proof of credibility, is the testimony from 
Papias, who describes Mark as the interpreter 
of Peter's preaching, and Mark's Gospel as his 
conscientious reproduction of what Peter's dis- 
courses contained. This testimony of Papias 
would agree with the original Greek character 
of the Gospel's composition, for, according to 
this testimony, the service which Mark rendered 
to Peter was evidently that of interpreting his 
Aramaic discourses into the Greek, which his 
audiences could understand. It would further 
agree with the fresh and vivid style of the Gos- 
pel's narrative, since such immediate contact 
with Peter's reminiscences as Mark must have 
had would give the stamp of an eyewitness to all 
his record And it would yet further agree with 
a certain Petrine element which seems to be 
present at frequent points in the Gospel, since, 
however Mark may have reconstructed these 
discourses of Peter, he is not likely to have lost 
out of them altogether the personal element 
they must have contained. 

Accordingly, the general verdict of criticism is 
that the second canonical Gospel is from the 
hand of Mark and in part reproduces Peter's 
personal knowledge of and participation in the 
Gospel events. At the same time this verdict 
attaches only to the substance of the Gospel, 
since there are clear traces of documentary 

sources in the latter part of the Gospel, aa in 
the discourse regarding the future in chap, xi, 
which could not come from Peter's oral stories. 
The question also arises whether Mark as we 
now have it may be an enlarged edition of the 
original Mark. On this subject there is not a 
unity of opinion; but, since the enlargement was 
in any case not great, the question is relatively 

Naturally in proportion as Mark's Gospel is 
the reproduction of Peter's preaching, so far 
must its purpose be a homiletic rather than a 
purely historical one This purpose was to show 
that the deeds of Jesus proved his mission as 
a messenger from God. It was not so much to 
tell the story of Jesus' life, as to testify to the 
impression which Jesus himself had made upon 
the spiritual experience of his followers. 

Bibliography. Besides the usual New Testa- 
ment Introductions, the introductory portions of 
the more recent commentaries on Mark, and 
the special Synoptic works referred to in the 
literature attached to the article on the Gospel 
of Matthew, consult : J. C Du Buisson, Origin of 
the Gospel of 8t. Mark (Oxford, 1896) ; F P. 
Badham, 8t. Mark's Indebtedness to St. Mat- 
thew (London, 1897); Arthur Titms, "Das 
Verhaltniss der Herrenworte in Markus Evange- 
lium zu den Logia des Matthaus," in Thcologische 
Studten (Gottingen, 1897); W Hadorn, Die 
Entstehung des Markusevangehum (Gutersloh, 
1898) ; Friedrich Blass, Philology of the Gospels, 
translated from the German (London, 1898) ; 
H. B. Chajes, Markus Studien (Berlin, 1899); 
Abbott, The Corrections of Mark (London, 
1901); E. D. Burton, Studies in the Gospel 
According to Mark (Chicago, 1904); Burkitt, 
The Gospel History and its Transmission (2d 
ed., Edinburgh, 1907) ; B. W. Bacon, The Begin- 
nings of Gospel Story (New Haven, 1909). 


MABKBY, mark'bl, SIB WILLIAM (1829- 
1914). An English jurist, born at Duxford, 
Cambridgeshire, the son of a clergyman. He was 
educated at Bury St Edmunds and at Merton 
College, Oxford. He became a barrister in 1856 
and 10 years later went to Calcutta as judge of 
the High Court. Upon his return to England in 
1878 he was reader in Indian law at Oxford 
until 1900. He was a commissioner on the ad- 
ministration of justice in Trinidad and Tobago 
in 1892 Markby was knighted in 1889; 10 
years earlier Oxford had made him a D.C.L. An 
eminent authority on Indian law, he published 
Lectures on that subject and the well-known 
Elements of Law Considered with Reference to 
General Principles of Jurisprudence (6th ed., 



MARKET BUILDINGS. From the earliest 
antiquity it has been the custom to reserve in 
cities and towns a space where farmers and 
merchants could exhibit and sell their com- 
modities, and such spaces were sometimes sur- 
rounded with porticoes or with public bottdings 
and entered by monumental gates. The fate of 
the Agora at Athens (c.40 B.C.) is still extant, 
and the foundations of a circular structure in 
Pompeii are identified as those of the Macellum 
(meat market). The Forum Boarium (cattle 
market) and Forum Olitorium (oil market) in 
Rome illustrate the practice of providing special 
places for particular commodities. This prac- 




tice still prevails in all large cities, and the 
names Grassmarket, Haymarket, Piazza dell' 
Erbe, and the like preserve in many old cities 
the memory of the original use of the places or 
squares which bear them. In process of time 
various types of accessory buildings were de- 
veloped in association with market places, such 
as belfries, clock towers, and crosses, usually 
standing in the centre or at one side of the open 
space and serving as stands from which procla- 
mations and addresses could be made. Such wen; 
the loggias of the Mcrcato Vecchio and Mercato 
Nuovo in Florence, the Poultry Cross at Salis- 
bury (England), the Tour de la Vieille Horloge 
at Rouen (France) A decorative fountain was 
a frequent feature, especially in Italy and 

The erection of covered buildings provided 
with permanent stalls to serve the purposes 
originally met Tby meic open spaces was not 
common until late in the eighteenth century 
Yet as early as the thirteenth centuiy the giain 
market of Florence was housed in a massrxe 
arcaded building later converted into a church, 
the Or San Michele, and in the sixteenth century 
the Shah Abbas surrounded the Meidan-Shah 
at Ispahan with arcades providing shelter for 
merchants, while both there and in Constanti- 
nople certain streets were covered with vaulted 
roofs and given over to particular trades the 
famous bazars of the Orient. The modern 
practice is to erect specially designed structures 
with stalls to be rented to the dealers, and so 
arranged as to furnish convenient access on the 
one hand to the supply wagons and on the other 
to the customers Ventilation, drainage, water 
supply and refrigeration are scientifically pro- 
vided for The materials of construction are 
selected with especial reference to durability and 
cleanliness, and in many cities the markets are 
under the close supervision either of the health 
authorities or of a special officer or bureau. 

The earliest market buildings were little more 
than sheds, of more 01 less architectural design, 
around a square in which a fountain supplied 
running water (Marche* St. Germain, Paris). 
In 1811 the Halle au file", a circular gram mar- 
ket and exchange, covered by a dome of timber 
construction over 100 feet in diameter, was 
burned, and a new dome was built of iron, the 
earliest metallic roof of large space. In 1846- 
52 were built the vast Halles Centrales, by Bal- 
tard, covering over eight acres, in two blocks, 
with a lofty central avenue and four intersecting 
streets This building, of iron and glass (ex- 
cept the lower part of the walls which is of 
brick), still admirably fulfills its purpose, and 
has been a model for other cities to follow. 
Smithfield Market, London, is another vast 
market of somewhat later date, of brick and 
stone, iron and glass, devoted to the wholesale 
meat trade Important market buildings exist 
m nearly all large European cities, those of 
most American cities are far inferior to these 
in design and maintenance, and none deserves 
special mention The early markets and their 
buildings were the precursors and prototypes 
of the modern exhibitions. See METAL WORK 



teen-Woman), An opeia by Humperdiiiek 
(q.v.), first produced in Cologne, May 10, 1914 


TUKAL (AS. market, from Lat. mercatus, traffic, 
market, from mercan, to trade, from tnene, 
merchandise, from merere, to earn, deserve; 
connected with Gk. tfpos, meros, share). A 
market may be defined as a place where goods 
are bought and sold. A market may consist of 
a public place or building used for the exchange 
of goods, or in a broader sense it may consist of 
the world, a country, a city, or a locality, as 
world market, foreign market, domestic market, 
Chicago market, etc. The markets may vary by 
the type of produce sold, as a fish market, wheat 
market, live-stock market, etc. 

Markets have existed from the time when men 
began to diversify their products. At first they 
were entirely local in character. To-day, in 
Europe nearly every town, and in America 
nearly all the large cities, have one or more 
market places. These may be simply open pub- 
lic squares in some centrally located district, or 
they may be substantial buildings fitted up with 
stores, booths, and containing cold-storage rooms 
for the preservation of perishable goods. The 
primary object in establishing such markets was 
to enable the producer and consumer to deal 
directly with each other 

As transportation facilities improved the area 
over which exchange took place inci eased ac- 
cordingly. The development of cold storage and 
refrigeration \\idened the area from which per- 
ishable products are obtained and lengthened 
the season during which they are available Hie 
ease and cheapness with which agricultural 
products may be carried long distances has 
brought about a very complicated system of 
marketing and given* employment to a large 
number of middlemen Many purchasers of 
agricultural products send their agents to the 
farms and purchase produce direct, but in the 
majority of instances one or more persons inter- 
vene in the process There have been developed 
among farmers associations or organizations to 
eliminate one or more of these intermediators 
The farmers have formed cooperative elevators 
to handle their grain, cooperative creameiies 
and cheese factories to manufacture and sell 
their dairy products, egg circles to collect and 
sell their eggs, and produce exchanges to sort, 
distribute, and sell their fruits and vegetables 

The purpose in forming the cooperative or- 
ganizations is to improve the business methods 
and add to the efficiency in the distribution and 
sale of farm products Generally the organiza- 
tion is so arranged that each member benefits 
in proportion to his contribution of the produce 
sold. Generally he can own but one share and 
have but one vote. There are many modifica- 
tions of this form, but the closer the organiza- 
tion adheres to these principles the greater ia 
its chance of success. 

Some of the advantages of cooperative mar- 
keting are that a group of farmers dealing in 
the same produce are normally educating one 
another and thus improving their methods of 
production. This improvement will generally 
take the form of a more uniform production, 
either through the growing of a better vanety 
or through the better methods of packing and 
grading Other advantages of cooperative mar- 
keting are the lower costs in distributing a large 
shipment than many small ones, the prompt 
news service with le'gard to prices and market 
conditions in large trade centres, and the ability 
to sell on the market offering the best induce- 
ments. Cooperative selling associations can con- 



trol sufficient capital and employ able managers, 
and sell only to trustworthy persons who can be 
depended upon to pay cash on delivery and thus 
eliminate the necessity of the producer having 
much capital himself. 

In associated marketing the produceis insure 
one another against loss in particular sales, in 
that the association does not distribute the pro- 
ceeds of each sale but accumulates the proceeds 
of all the sales and distributes the net amounts. 
This type of marketing association has been 
extensively developed in distributing the more 
or less perishable produce of the farmer. Co- 
operative marketing has been developed in the 
United States principally for the sale of fruits, 
vegetables, dairy products, and grains In many 
European countries the cooperative idea has 
extended to the slaughtering and packing of 
various animals and to the gathering and dis- 
tributing of poultry and eggs The cooperative 
idea has had its greatest development in Den- 
mark, where it revolutionized the agriculture of 
the country and added greatly to the prosperity 
of its rural population. 

Bibliography. W. T. Seibels. Produce Mar- 
kets and Marketing (Chicago, 1911); J W 
Sullivan, Markets for the People (New York, 
1913) ; Reducing the Cost of Food Distribution, 
published by the Amencan Academy of Political 
and Social Science (Philadelphia, 'l 913) , T J 
Brooks, Markets and Rural Economics (New 
York, 1914); N S B Gras, Evolution of the 
English Corn Market from the Tnclfth to the 
Eighteenth Centuries ( Cambridge, Mass , 1914); 
Richard Schachner, MnrLte und Mnrlthallen 
fur Lebensnnttcl (2 -sols, Berlin, 1914), con- 
taining a bibliography, also United States 
Department of Agriculture, Yearbook 9 (Wash- 
ington, 1906 et seq ) 

MARKET OVEBT (Fr. ourert, open). In 
the English lau, an open 01 public market The 
law of marhet ot rrt is that the purchaser in 
good faith gets a good title to any goods which 
he may buy in such a maikct, even though the 
vender did 'not own or have a right to sell them 
The law originated in an old Sa\on custom 
which prohibited the sale of anything above the 
value of 20 pence, except in open market and 
in the presence of witnesses The theory was 
that lost 01 stolen goods would probably be 
identified in a public maiket by the o\\ner befoie 
the tradesman or ongmal thief could dispose of 
them This custom became the law of England 
after the Conquest, and was modified MI as to in- 
clude goods of anv value and to dispense* with 
the necessity of witnesses It is applied to every 
kind of personal chattel except horses By sub- 
sequent statutes the law was fuither modified, 
so that at piesent if stolen gondn are sold in 
open market the title revests in the ownei upon 
the conviction of the thief Only certain ancient 
markets have this character, outside of London, 
where every public shop is a market oveit and 
every day 'is market day. This law has never 
existed in the United States See SALE 

tfABKET VALUE. The value of an article 
as established by public sales of such property 
in a particular locality Market value may be 
established by regular* maiket quotations where 
these exist or by the testimony of persons 
familiar with the price at winch such property 
sells regularly in the market If the market 
price is abnormally enhanced or depressed at the 
time and place for delivery of any goods, by 
wrongful combinations or by an illegal monop- 

oly, other evidence than the market sales may 
be resorted to for the purpose of showing the 
fair market value of the property in question. 
Consult the authorities referred to under TOBT; 

) A British admiral, distinguished for his 
participation in Arctic exploration. He was 
born at Bagneres After his education in the 
Royal Navy Academy at Southsea, he entered 
the navy and served in China (1856-64), where 
he was commended for efficiency in the sup- 
pression of the Taiping rebellion and for his 
part in the operations leading to the fall of 
Peking He rose to lieutenant (1862), com- 
mander (1872), captain (1876), rear admiral 
(1892), and admiral (1903). To advance the 
interest of Arctic exploration, he made a cruise 
in Baffin Bay in the whaler Arctic, which 
brought back in 1873 survivors of the Polaris 
American Aictic expedition He commanded the 
Alert in the British Arctic expedition of 1875- 
76, when he reared the Union Jack, May 23, 
1876, on the Arctic Ocean to the north of Grin- 
nell Land, in the most northern point reached 
up to that time (83 20' 26"). In 1879 he 
made a ciuise to No\a Zembla From 1901 to 
1904 he was commander in chief at the Nore, 
and in 1906 he retired Among his publications 
are The Ciuise of the "Rosano" (1873); A 
Tl haling Cruise to Baffin Bay ( 1874) , The Great 
Frozen flea (1877), -1 Polar Reconnaissance 
(1880) ; Life of tor John Franklin (1890). 

1916). An English traveler, geographer, and 
author, boin at Stillingfleet, York He was edu- 
cated at Westminster School and in 1844 entered 
the navv In 1850 he was made lieutenant and 
in 1851 accompanied the expedition sent to 
search for Sir John Franklin, traveled in Peru 
(1852-54), accompanied the British expedition 
against Abyssinia ( 1867-08 ) ; entered the geo- 
graphical department of the India Office (1867- 
77 ) : was editor of the Geographical Magazine, 
secretary of the Hakluyt Society in 1858-87, 
and later secretary and then president of the 
Royal Geographical Society, from which he re- 
tired in 1905 He was knighted in 1896. He 
published- Franklin's Footsteps (1852); Trav- 
els in Peru and India (1862) , A History of the 
Abyssinian Expedition (1869); Major James 
BenneH and the Rise of Modern English 
Qe&graphi/ (1895). Richard Hakluyt: His Life 
and Work, tntft a Fhoit \ccount of the Aims 
and Achievements of the Hakluyt Society 
(1896) , Memoir of \rcJibishop Markham 
(1906) , Richard III (1906) , Quichua Diction- 
ary (1908); Life of Kir Leopold McChntock 
(1909), The Ston/ of Majorca and Minorca 
(1909); The Incas of Peru (1910). 

) An American poet, born in Oregon City, 
Oreg. When 5 years old he was taken to live 
in California, and there during his boyhood he 
worked at farming, blacksmith ing, and cattle 
and sheep herding The San Jose* Normal School 
and two Western colleges equipped him to serve 
first as a school principal and later as a school 
superintendent in California He began to write 
\erse for the California papers at an early age. 
His best-known poem, The Man u*ith the Hoe, 
published in book form with other verses in 
1899, had an immense vogue and made his name 
known the country over. He followed his suc- 
cess East, and resided in or near New York 




City, where he was engaged chiefly in journal- 
istic work for many years He was elected a 
member of the National Institute of Arts and 
Letters. His other books include: Lincoln and 
Other Poems (1901); The Poetry of Jesus 
(1909); Children of Bondage (1909), with 
others; The Shoes of Happiness, and Other 
Poems (1914); California the Wonderful 

1637). An English author, born at Gotham, 
Nottinghamshire He served as a soldier in the 
Low Countries and attained a captaincy in the 
English army. Well versed in the classical and 
modern languages, he took up literature as a 
means of livelihood and prepared numerous 
volumes for the press He wrote largely on 
topics connected with sport, and is also known 
for some indifferent poetry A few woiks at- 
tributed to him were certainly written by others, 
but those regarded as genuine include . The Most 
Honorable Tragedie of Sir Richard Orinvile 
(1595) ; The Poem of Poems (1595) ; Cavelance, 
or the English Horseman ( 1607 ) ; Hunger's Pre- 
vention (1621). 

MARKHAM, WILLIAM (c.1635-1704) An 
American Colonial Governor, born in England. 
He was a first cousin of William Penn, by whom 
he was sent to America as Deputy Governor of 
Pennsylvania after the grant in 1681 On his 
arrival at New York, Brockholls, acting Gover- 
nor in the absence of Andros, surrendered his 
authority over Penn's grant and gave him a 
letter to the local authorities Proceeding to 
Pennsylvania, Markham called a council Aug. 
3, 1681, and almost immediately began a con- 
troversy with Lord Baltimore about the Mary- 
land boundary. He chose the present site of 
Philadelphia for the great city to be built, in- 
stead of that of the Swedish settlement of 
Upland (Chester), which was Perm's choice. 
When Penn arrived in 1682 Markham went to 
England to represent the colony in the boundary 
dispute, and when Penn returned to England 
Markham came again to America and was made 
Secretary of the Province and the Territories 
(the lower counties on the Delaware). He was 
Deputy Governor of the Territories in 1691, and 
was Lieutenant Governor for Governor Fletcher 
of New York (1693 to 1695), the crown having 
revoked the grant made to Penn and assumed 
control. He was continued in office until 1699 
by Penn, who in 1694 had again secured pos- 
session, and during this time the new consti- 
tution was passed Many charges, such as con- 
niving at piracy and using courts to protect 
fraud, were made against him. Penn was not 
altogether satisfied with his course, but ordered 
him to be appointed Register-General of Wills 
in 1703. Markham was an Episcopalian and 
therefore out of sympathy with the aims of the 
Friends, nor was he a man of the force of 
character needed to cope with the Quakers. 

MARKHOR, miir'kor. See GOAT. 

MARKING-NUT. The fruit of Semecarpus 
anacardium, a large tree of the family Anacar- 
diaceae, a native of the mountains of India. It 
has oblong leaves and terminal panicles of 
flowers. The fruit is a heart-shaped, black nut, 
seated on a large swollen receptacle, which 
when ripe is roasted and eaten, although when 
raw it is astringent and acrid. Between the 
two coats of the nutshell is a black, acrid juice, 
much in use for marking cotton cloths, a mixture 
f quicklime and water being applied to prevent 

it from running and to brighten the color. It 
is also used as an external application in rheu- 

MARKIRCH, mdr'ke'rK (Fr. Sainte-Marie- 
auoD- Mines). A town of Upper Alsace,, Germany, 
situated on the Leber, 40 miles southwest of 
Strassburg. It is an important manufacturing 
centre for cotton and woolen goods, and there is 
also a large dyeing industry. In the Middle 
Ages the town was famous for its silver, cop- 
per, and lead mines, which were abandoned dur- 
ing the nineteenth century, but reopened early 
in the twentieth. Cotton weaving was begun 
here in 1755. Markirch was occupied by the 
French in the European War which broke out 
in 1914. (See WAR IN EUBOPE.) Pop., 1010, 
11,778, about one-half Protestants. 

MARK'LAND, JEREMIAH (1693-1776). An 
English classical scholar and text critic. He 
was born at Ghildwall, England, and was ed- 
ucated at London and Cambridge. His works 
included a number of emendations of the text 
of Lysias and of Euripides, made partly in notes 
contributed to the edition of Lysias by Taylor 
and to Musgrave's edition of the Hippolytus of 
Euripides, partly in editions of the Muppliccs, 
the Iphigenia in Aulide, and Iphigema in Tau- 
nde of Euripides; an edition of the difficult 
Silvce of Statius (1728, 1824), which is con- 
sidered a masterpiece of acute criticism, and 
Remarks on the Epistles of Cicero to Brutus 
(1745), in which he tried to prove them spuri- 
ous His attacks on the authenticity of the 
Ciceronian orations Pro Domo 8ua, Post Redi- 
turn in tienatu, Ad Quintes t and the De Harus- 
picum Responsis, in which he was afterward 
followed by F. A. Wolf, started a famous and 
long-standing controversy. Consult Wolf, Lit- 
terarische Analekten, vol ii (Berlin, 1818), and 
J E. Sandys, A History of Classical Scholarship, 
vol 11 (Cambridge, 1908) 

MARKLE, JOHN (1858- ). An Amen- 
can coal operator, born at Hazelton, Pa He 
graduated from Lafayette College in 1880, be- 
came general superintendent in the mines of his 
father's company, and later became president of 
the G. B. Markle Company, the successor of 
his father's firm and one of the largest "inde- 
pendent" anthracite-coal firms in Pennsylvania. 
John Markle represented the independent opera- 
tors in the negotiations with President Roose- 
velt in the settlement of the anthracite coal 
strike of 1902, and he became president and 
chief engineer of the Jeddo Tunnel Company and 
of the Wilkes-Barre and Hazelton Railroad 

An American surgeon. Born in Philadelphia, 
he graduated from Princeton in 1836 and from 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New 
York, in 1841. He was professor of anatomy 
in Castleton Medical College, Vermont, and of 
pathological anatomy at the medical department 
of the University of the City of New York 
(1852-54) In 1860 he became adjunct profes- 
sor of surgery in the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, being elected professor in 1870 and 
professor of the principles of surgery in 1879. 
He is author of A Treatise on Diseases of the 
Bone (1872). 


MARK TWAIN. The nom de plume of S. 
L. Clemens. 

MARL (OF. marie, merle, Fr. mame, OHG. 
mergU, Ger. Mergel, from ML. margila, dim. 


of Lat. marga, marl, from Gall, marga, 
Bret, marg, marl, Gk. &pyi\os, argilos, white 
clay). A somewhat indefinite term applied in 
different localities to widely different materials. 
In a general sense it means essentially a natu- 
rally occurring mixture of calcium carbonate 
and clay with more or less sand, which usually 
falls to pieces on exposure to the air. Although 
probably the greater number of the marls of the 
United States conform to this definition, and 
depend for their agricultural value on their 
lime content, there are quite extensive deposits 
of the Cretaceous marls, known as greensand 
(especially in New Jersey), which contain 
variable but usually small amounts of lime and 
considerable amounts of potash (mainly silicate) 
and phosphoric acid. The name is also some- 
times applied to friable clays, or mixtures of 
clay and sand, in which there is almost no 
trace of lime Marl beds are widely distributed 
in the Atlantic coastal plain and have been ex- 
ploited to a considerable extent in New Jersey, 
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and South 
Carolina The marls of these deposits gen- 
erally belong to three classes and occur in geo- 
logical formations which are found, as a rule, 
one above the other in immediate succession 
The upper layer, blue or shale marl (Neocene), 
generally found at or near the surface, consists 
chiefly of sea mud with partially decomposed 
shells and bones. Its value depends mainly 
upon its content of carbonate of lime (40 to 50 
per cent ) , although it contains in addition small 
percentages of potash (025 to 4.75 per cent) 
and phosphoric acid (trace to 1.75 per cent). 
This class predominates in Maryland, Virginia, 
and North Carolina, and has been used to a 
considerable extent with good results on worn- 
out or naturally infertile soils The second 
class, Eocene or chalky marl, is commonly a 
coarse, friable chalk, consisting of comminuted 
shells and corals, of a light yellowish or grayish 
color to white, sometimes compacted into a 
solid limestone Its content of lime is greater 
(50 to 95 per cent) than that of the shell marl, 
and the percentage of potash and phosphoric 
acid is smaller. In the lower layer occur the 
Cretaceous marls (greensand), which vary 
considerably in chemical composition and agri- 
cultural value. Their fertilizing value is deter- 
mined largely by their content of potash (3.5 
to 7 per cent) and phosphoric acid ( 1 to 4 per 
cent ) , although many are calcareous ( 1 25 to 9 
per cent of lime). These marls have long been 
used with beneficial results by New Jersey 
farmers, although the benefit is more marked 
in case of marls rich in phosphoric acid and 
lime than in case of pure greensand containing 
a high percentage of potash, probably because 
the potash is in the form of an insoluble silicate 
(glauconite) and is very slowly available to 

Marl is both a direct and an indirect fertilizer, 
improving both the chemical and physical condi- 
tions of soils, correcting acidity, unlocking in- 
soluble plant food, and promoting nitrification 
It is very lasting in effect and has been used 
from ancient times for improving soils. But be- 
cause lime ( q.v. ) is quicker in action it has been 
used in many cases instead of marl, although some 
kinds of marl are extremely useful on certain 
soils. On account of its bulkiness and the large 
amounts which must be applied in order to 
secure beneficial results, marl can be used profit- 
ably only in close proximity to the deposits. 
VOL. XV. 8 

Booth, in a report of the State geologist of Dela- 
ware, recommends 60 to 100 bushels per acre as 
the proper amount to be applied on poor light 
soils, 100 to 200 bushels on clay soils, while 
200 to 500 bushels may be used with advantage 
on soils of good quality abundantly supplied 
with humus. The addition of quicklime to marl 
(30 to 40 bushels of lime to 300 to 400 bushels 
of marl) has been found to quicken the action of 
the marl. It is generally advisable to let marl 
lie exposed to the air some time before it is 
incorporated with the soil, that any poisonous 
compounds present may be destroyed. 

The foregoing applies particularly to the im- 
pure marine marls of the coastal plain and their 
use for fertilizer. In those parts of the glaciated 
region where the soil is somewhat calcareous, 
e.g., in Maine, northwestern Connecticut, west- 
ern New York, northern Indiana, and southern 
Michigan, marl deposits of quite a different type 
are found. They are formed in lakes, largely 
through the action of algae on calcareous water, 
and sometimes attain a thickness of 100 feet. 
This fresh-water marl is nearly pure calcium 
carbonate, and in recent years has been used 
very largely in the manufacture of Portland 
cement, especially in Michigan Consult: Ed- 
mund Rumn, Calcareous Manures (Shellbanks, 
Va, 1835); Ullmann, Kalk und Mergel; State 
geological reports of Alabama, Delaware, Florida, 
Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michi- 
gan, New Jersev, North Carolina, South Caro- 
lina, and Virginia; Maryland Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station Report, 1889; and especially 
Bulletin 243 of the United States Geological Sur- 
vey ( 1905 ) , on "Cement Materials and Industry 
of the United States," by E. C Eckel 

MABLATT, mar'lat, CHABLES LESTER (1863- 
) An American entomologist, born at 
Atchison, Kans. He was educated at the Agri- 
cultural College at Manhattan, Kans (B.S., 
1884; M.S , 1886), where he was assistant pro- 
fessor for two years. From 1889 to 1894 he was 
assistant entomologist, and thereafter first as- 
sistant and assistant chief entomologist, of the 
Bureau of Entomology, United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. He made entomological in- 
vestigations for the Department in China, Japan, 
and Java in 1901-02 In 1912 he was appointed 
chairman of the Federal Horticultural Board to 
attend to the enforcement of the plant quaran- 
tine law to prevent the importation of diseased 
plants into the United States, a law which he had 
helped to secure Marlatt was president of the 
Entomological Society of Washington in 1897- 
98 and of the Association of Economic Entomolo- 
gists in 1899 His publications are for the most 
part official reports and bulletins. 

MARYBOROUGH, marl'be-ru. An old and 
interesting town in Wiltshire, England, pleas- 
antly situated in the valley of the Kennet, 75 
miles west of London (Map: England, E 5). 
It is located in the midst of chalk hills known 
as the Marlborough Downs. The chief edifice 
is the "college" (founded in 1843), a handsome 
building occupying the site of an old castle 
built by Henry I. In this a Parliament, whose 
enactments were called the Statutes of Marl- 
bridge, was held during the reign of Henry III. 
The town corporation dates from 1200. It owns 
remunerative real estate and a water supply 
and maintains an isolation hospital and sewage 
farm. Its products include cordage, leather, and 
malt. Pop., 1901, 3046; 1911. 4401. 

MABLBOBOTJGH, marl'bnr-d. A city, in- 


eluding several villages in Middlesex Co., Mass , 
28 miles west of Boston, on the Boston and 
Maine and the New York, New Haven, and 
Hartford railroads (Map- Massachusetts, D 3). 
Among the features of Marlborough are a hand- 
some city hall, public library, high -school build- 
ing, post office, hospital, and a soldiers' monu- 
ment. There are extensive boot and shoe, box, 
and carriage factories, miner's lamp works, and 
manufactories of shoemaking machinery The 
government is vested in a mayor, annually 
elected, a bicameral council, and administrative 
departments. The members of the license de- 
partment are appointed by the mayor, of the 
police, fire, and street departments, by the mayor 
with the consent of the council , while the mem- 
bers of the water, health, and poor departments 
are elected by the council The water works are 
owned by the city. Pop, 1890, 13,805, 1000, 
13,609; 1910, 14,570, 1014, 14,001, 1020, 
15,028. Settled m 16f>6, Marlborough was in- 
corporated as a town in 1600 and was chartered 
as a city in 1890. In 1676, during King Philip's 
War, it was almost wholly destroyed by the 
Indians Out of the parts of the original "town- 
ship Westborough was formed in 1717, South- 
borough in 1727, and Hudson in 1866. Consult 
Hudson, History of the Town of Marlboro, 
Massachusetts (Boston, 1862), and E A Bige- 
low, Historical Reminiscences of the Haily Tunes 
in Marlborough, Massachusetts, and Prominent 
Events from I860 to 1910 (Mailborough, 1010) 

MABLBOROUGH. The northeastern dis- 
trict of South Island, New Zealand (Map New 
Zealand, South Island, D 2) Area, 4325 square 
miles, of which about 100 square miles are de- 
voted to farming and 2625 to sheep grazing It 
has a large business in dairy products, much 
timber is cut Coal, gold, and copper are found 
m the district Pop., 1906, 14,368. 


DUKE OF (1650-1722). A celebrated English 
general. He was born piobably June 24, 1650, 
at Ashe in the Parish of Musbury, Devonshire, 
the second son of Sir Winston Churchill, a 
politician and historian and a stanch buppoiter 
of the Stuarts. John Churchill was educated 
at St. Paul's School, but early in life entered 
the army. He saw some service at Tangier 
against the Moors, and from 1672 to 1677 he 
bore arms on the Continent against the Nether- 
lands, serving part of the time under the gieat 
Turenne. A new eia in the history of war was 
then beginning Artillery and musketry had 
displaced entirely the old pikeman, and rapidity 
of movement henceforth decided campaigns. In 
1674 Louis XIV made Churchill a colonel of 
his regiment, and in 1678 he was made colonel 
of foot in the English service 1 hough there 
was no question of Churchill's ability, still the 
rapidity of his promotion was due also to the 
fact that some time between 1665 and 1668 Ins 
sister Arabella had become the mistress of the 
Duke of York. About 1676 Churchill fell in 
love with Sarah Jennings ( q v ) , who was a 
lady in waiting of Princess Anne (later Queen 
Anne), and noted for her imperiousness and her 
beauty. The couple were married early in 1678, 
and thus Churchill gained the favor of Princess 
Anne, who was under the complete domination 
of her dictatorial attendant. In the following 
years he was occasionally employed in diplo- 
matic missions to Holland, but usually he was 


m attendance on the Duke of York. In 1682 
he was created Baron When in 1685 the Duke 
of York ascended the throne as James II, 
Churchill became still more prominent. He 
commanded a body of troops to suppress the 
rebellion of the Duke of Monmouth (qv ), and 
his coolness prevented a serious disaster to the 
royal troops at Sedgemoor (qv.) Churchill 
was strongly attached to the English church, 
and his eulogists have maintained that he would 
not have betrayed Jt under any circumstances 
This may be doubted, but he certainly did not 
desert the cause of the Church when he noticed 
the current of public opinion turning more and 
more against King James The result was that 
he withdrew gradually from participation in 
the acts of this reign, and, though still affecting 
loyalty to the King, he began negotiations \vith 
William of Orange, and when the latter landed 
in England in 1688 Churchill was one of the 
fiist to go over to him with his troops During 
the early pait of the reign of William III he 
was in high favor, in 1689 was made Earl of 
Mailbornugh, and distinguished himself greatly 
during the invasion of Ireland, but lost all 
favoi uhen he was suspected, and justly so, of 
preparing to betray William III and aid James 
II to recover the throne, of which he had helped 
to deprixe him Nevertheless, on the commence- 
ment of the Wai of the Spanish Succession in 
1701 Marlborough v\as intrusted by William III 
with the command of the British army in the 
Netherlands. On March 8, 1702, however, the 
King died. 

With the accession of Anne began the great 
epoch of Marlborough 's life Through his wife 
he controlled the Queen, while the son of the 
powerful minister Godolphm (qv ) had in 1698 
married his daughter Thus he had a fairly 
free hand to carry out his great military ex- 
ploits, though the allies, Dutch and Germans, 
often caused difficulties The troops of the Em- 
peror Leopold I were commanded by the great 
Prince Eugene (qv) Marlborough, who had 
been elected also captain general of the Dutch 
forces, took command in May, 1702, and in 
December was created Duke of Marlborough 
lie had under him about 10,000 English troops, 
20,000 Dutch troops, and as many mercenaries, 
chiefly Germans lie was opposed by a French 
army of 75,000 men The great danger to the 
allies was that the French would control the 
Rhine valley and thus completely isolate Aus- 
tua In older to prevent this Marlborough, 
\\lio had been conducting a series of brilliant 
operations in the Low Countries, m the summer 
of 1704 made a rapid march to Bavaria and, 
having joined Prince Eugene, met the French 
on equal terms at Blenheim (q v ) on Aug. 13, 
1704 The battle \vas decided when Marl- 
borough, by a skillful use of his cavalry, broke 
through the French centre and the enemy retired 
in great confusion In this series of operations, 
instead of the old method of detailed operations 
and sieges, the two great leaders had concen- 
trated all their forces in the important terri- 
tory, and there by one decisive victory had won 
the whole campaign Not the whole credit of 
the successes of the allies is due to Marlborough, 
a full half belonging to Eugene For this vic- 
tory great honors and pecuniary rewards were 
bestowed on Marlborough and he was made a 
Prince of the Empire (Austria) ' (See BLEN- 
HEIM HOUSE.) He won other important vic- 
tories during the war, as when he compelled the 


French under Villeroi to evacuate the whole of 
Flanders by his victory at Ramillies on May 23, 
1706, and, together with Eugene, defeated Ven- 
dOme at Oudenarde on July 11, 1708. By this 
last victory and the capture of Lille the road to 
Paris was opened, but Marlborough had no 
longer a free hand His wife had had several 
quarrels with Anne, and the Queen was ridding 
herself of the complete ascendancy of the Duch- 
ess Moreover, England was suffering from the 
burdens imposed by the long struggle, and the 
Tones, who opposed the war, were coming into 
power On Sept 11, 1709, Marlborough and 
Eugene won a doubtful victory at Malplaquet, 
but it was the last great battle of the English 
general. The same year the Duchess was dis- 
missed by Anne, a Tory ministry assumed office, 
and in 1711 Marlborough was relieved of hia 
command. His enemies accused him of having 
embezzled the public money, and for a time he 
was deprived of his offices, though the charge 
was not pressed In his last years he was with- 
out influence or friends, being, in spite of his 
victories, unpopular on account of his avarice 
Godolphm had died and most of the great lords 
were his enemies Upon the accession of George 
I in 1714 he was made captain general and 
master of the ordnance, but took little part in 
public affairs He died June 16, 1722, leaving 
a large fortune 

Marlborough has often been severely treated 
by historians. He was unquestionably unscru- 
pulous and avaricious On the other hand, it 
was a time when this was true of nearly all 
public men, regardless of party, and Marl- 
borough has received moie blame simply because 
he was more piominent His military abilities, 
however, have never been questioned I T nhke 
his two great successors, Frederick the Great 
and Napoleon, he w r as never entirely unham- 
pered He w r as always compelled to have regard 
foi the washes of his allies and the political 
situation in England But he was the first 
since classic times to impress upon generals the 
need of rapidity of movement and the execution 
of campaigns as a whole Moreover, he had the 
ability, which only the greatest commanders 
have, to amalgamate the different elements of 
his army, to become the hero of his soldiers. 
His campaigns always showed a grasp of the. 
proportion of things He never frittered his 
strength away on details, but waited for the 
decisive battle Among generals, he is one of 
the veiy few Avho never lost a battle, and never 
failed m a campaign 

Bibliography. Sir George Murray, Private 
Correspondence of the Duke and Duchess of 
Marlborough (2 vols, London, 1838): id, 
Letters and Dispatches of John, Duke of Marl- 
borough, from 1702 to 1712 (5 vols., ib., 1845) , 
id, Letters of the Duchess of Marlborough (ib, 
1875). The most complete life is that of 
William Coxe, Memoirs of the Duke of Marl- 
boroufjh (3 vols, London, 1847-48), but it is 
too partial to Marlborough A bitter attack on 
Marlborough is in Macaulay's History; while an 
impartial character-study is to be found in G 
E. B Saintsbury, Marlborough (London, 1879) 
For the military history of Marlborough, and 
an estimate of him as a general, consult* T. A 
Dodge, Oustavus Adolphvs and the Development 
of the Art of War (Boston, 189.5) , Sir Archi- 
bald Alison, Military Life of the Duke of Marl- 
borough (ib, 1879); F. W. O Maycock, An 
Outline of Marlborough's Campaigns (New York, 


1913); S. J. Reid, John and Sarah, Duke and 
Duches* of Marlborough, 1060-1744 (ib., 1914); 
also general histories like J. K. Green, History of 
the English People (8 vols, New York, 

the south side of Pall Mall, London, erected in 
1710 by Sir Christopher Wren, for the first Duke 
of Marlborough. It was bought by the govern- 
ment in 1817. In it Princess Charlotte and hef 
husband. Prince Leopold, and subsequently the 
Queen Dowager Adelaide, lived. In 1803 it be- 
came the property and city residence of the 
Prince of Wales. 

MAB/LIN. A city and the county scat of 
Falls Co, Tex, 28 miles southeast of Waco; 
on the Houston and Texas Central and the In- 
ternational and Great Northern railroads (Map: 
Texas, D 4). It is in a noted cotton -growing 
district and carries on an important trade in 
cotton, grain, and live stock Among the in- 
dustrial plants are several cotton gins, a cotton 
compress, a large cottonseed-oil mill, and brick 
and maible works As a health resort, Marlin 
has considerable reputation, derived from its 
hot artesian wells, 3350 feet deep, the waters of 
which have a temperature of 147 F and possess 
valuable medicinal properties There are fine 
hotels and sanatoriums, a courthouse, and an 
opera house The w r ater works are owned by the 
city. Pop, 1900, 3092; 1910, 3878. 

MABLIN. A god wit (qv.). 

MABLINESPIKE (from marline, from 
Dutch marhyn, from marren, to bind, Goth. 
mars: tan, OHG ntarrjan, dialectic Ger merren, 
to retard, hinder, Eng mar + liyn, Eng line), 
instrument, used by sailors m knotting, splicing, 
etc It is generally 8 to 12 inches long, about 
an inch in diameter at the head and tapering 
to a point at the other end Its chief use is in 
separating the strands of rope or in opening 
out a knot whieh is jammed so tightly that it 
cannot be untied otherwise In marling and in 
serving it is used as a heaver to haul the tuins 
taut A large wooden instrument of the same 
general shape is termed a fid See KNOTTING 

MABLINSPIKE. The New England name 
for the boatswain or boatswain bird ( q v ) . 

MAR'LITT, E., the pseudonym of EUGENIE 
JOHN (1825-87) A popular German novelist, 
born at Arnstadt Her father was a portrait 
painter; her patroness \vas the Princess of 
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, who sent her to 
Vienna to study music. She became deaf, lived 
for 11 years at court, and then, withdrawing 
to Arnstadt, began there her novelistic career. 
Die wolf Apostel (1865), Ooldelse (1868), 
Das Oeheimnis der alien Mam sell (1868), Thu- 
nnger Erzahhmgen (1869), Peichsgrafin Oisela 
(1870), Heidepnnzesschen 1(1872), Die woeite 
Frau (1874), and other novels are familiar in 
English translations. They have little literary 
value. Her collected works appeared in 10 vols. 
(Leipzig, 1888-90; 2d ed , 1891-94). 

pal borough and market town in Buckingham- 
shire, England, on the north bank of the Thames, 
32 miles west of London (Map: England, F 5). 
Tt is a much frequented fishing resort. Here 
Shelley wrote the Revolt of Islam in 1817. It 
lias manufactures of silk, lace, paper, and furni- 
ture. Pop (urban district), 1901, 4526; 1911, 




03). A great English dramatist, the most im- 
portant of Shakespeare's predecessors, and in 
some sense his master. The son of a shoemaker, 
he was born at Canterbury probably in February, 
1564, and was educated at the King's School, 
Canterbury, and at Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated in 1583, and took 
his M.A. in 15&LJ Here he made a thorough 
acquaintance witnthe Latin classics, and trans- 
lated Ovid's Amores into English verse. His 
life after leaving Cambridge is hard to trace in 
detail. It seems to have been spent chiefly in 
London and to have been characterized by a 
revolt against conventional morality and estab- 
lished religion His career ended untimely and 
unhappily, it was his misfortune to be killed 
in a drunken brawl at Deptford. Of the blas- 
phemy and gross immorality that have often 
been ascribed to him he was probably not guilty. 
However, upon his reputation for heresy and 
irreligion (possibly grounded originally on his 
association with his old Cambridge tutor, Francis 
Kett, who was burned as a heretic at Norwich 
in 1589), was based a warrant for his arrest 
issued a few days before death removed him 
from the jurisdiction of the Privy Council. It 
is pleasanter to dwell on his intercourse with 
the chief men of letters in his time, including 
Kyd, Nash, Greene, Chapman, 1 Raleigh, and prob- 
ably Shakespeare. Whatever his life may have 
been, there can be no question of the magnifi- 
cence of his genius and the far-reaching influence 
which he had upon the development of the Eng- 
lish drama. 

Not only did he establish the iambic pentam- 
eter as the recognized vehicle for serious drama, 
but he made it something more than it had 
been in various experiments since Oorboduc 
(1562). The metre became a living thing in 
his hand, by skillful variation of pause and 
accent, by the swift and smooth carrying along 
of the thought from line to line, it grew to be 
that blank verse which Milton perfected into one 
of the glories of English poetry. But his work 
was wider than this. Dropping the imitation 
of Seneca which had been trying to naturalize 
itself in England, he struck out boldly to create 
English tragedy by the laws of his own genius. 
The prologue to Tamburlaine contains what is 
really a manifesto, not only promising to lead 
his audience away 

From Jigging veins of rhyming mother-wits 

by his blank verse, but proclaiming a doctrine 
of unity far more healthful than the classical 
tradition which was endeavoring to impose itself 
upon England the unity which comes from cen- 
tring the action about one great passion, one 
mighty character. Great as was the age, stu- 
pendous as were its flights beyond what had 
been thought the uttermost limits of the possible, 
Marlowe is able to keep up with them, to find 
for them the "high astounding terms" which 
lend his tragedies such sublimity. In humor he 
was deficient; his touch is not always sure, and 
in his search for effect he sometimes overleaps 
himself and falls into bathos; but as a daring 
pioneer he won, and now more than ever, since 
Lamb and Hazlitt restored him to his place, 
keeps a rank among the very highest. It is 
hard to set limits to what he might have been 
tiad his life been prolonged; but after all his 
achievement is ample in that he made Shake- 
speare possible. After Tamburlaine ( 71587 ^ 

printed 1590), comes probably the first dramatic 
rendering of the Faust legend in Doctor Faustus 
( ?1580; printed 1604) ; The Jew of Malta, spe- 
cially noteworthy for its relation to the Merchant 
of Venice (71589; printed 1633); his most suc- 
cessful attempt at English historical drama, 
Edward 11 (71592; first published 1594). The 
probable sources of Marlowe's important plays 
may be indicated here. In his Tamburlaine he 
seems to have relied mainly on Fortcscue's trans- 
lation (1571) of Pedro Mexias's Spanish life of 
Timur (1543), supplemented by hints from the 
Vita Magni Tamerlams of Ferondmo (1551). 
Doctor Faustus was based on a story familiar 
enough in the Middle Ages, and used in a 
variant form by Calderon in El Magico Prodi- 
gioso; its earliest literary form appeared at 
Frankfort m 1587. For Edward 11, like Shake- 
speare, he makes free use of the chronicles of 
Stowe and Hnhnshed. In other words he col- 
laborated with Nash, and possibly with Shake- 
speare, a share in at least the second and third 
parts of Henry VI being plausibly attributed to 
him. Of his nondramatic work the most impor- 
tant things are his unfinished paraphrase of 
the Hero and Leander of Musseus, and the fa- 
mous lyric, "Come live with me and be my love " 
Consult his Works, ed by Alexander Dyce (3 
vols., London, 1850), by A. H Bullen (3 vols, 
Boston, 1885) ; four plays, ed. by Ellis, with an 
introduction by J A: Symonds, in the "Mermaid 
Series" (London, 1887); also A W Verity, In- 
fluence of Christopher Marlowe on Shakspere's 
Earlier Style (London, 1886) ; Fischer, Zur 
Characteristik der Dramen Marlowes (Munich, 
1889) , J G. Lewis, Christopher Marlowe (Lon- 
don, 1891), A W. Ward, History of English 
Dramatic Literature to the Death of Queen 
Anne (New York, 1889); J. A Symonds, Shak- 
spere's Predecessors in the English Drama 
(London, 1900) , Seccombe and Allen, Age of 
Shakespeare, vol n ( 3d ed., ib , 1909 ) , Swin- 
burne's Marlowe (conveniently accessible in New 
York, 1908 ed ) ; G E Woodberry, "Marlowe," 
in The Inspiration of Poetry (New York, 1911) ; 
W. L. Phelps, in Essays on Books (ib., 1914) ; 
and the exhaustive article by Sidney Lee in the 
Dictionary of National Biography, vol. xxxvi 
(London, 1893) 

MARLOWE, JULIA (1870- ). An Amer- 
ican actress, born near Keswick, England, Aug. 
17, 1870, her real name being Saiah Frances 
Frost. She came with her parents to America 
when five years old. Her later childhood was 
passed in Cincinnati, where at the age of 12 she 
had her first dramatic experience in a juvenile 
opera company. Four years afterward she be- 
gan seriously to study for the stage, and in 
1887 she appeared in New York, but it was in 
Boston, m December, 1888, that she won, as 
Parthenia in Ingomar, an assured place as a 
star. An actress of unusual personal charm, 
she soon became a popular favorite in a variety 
of rOles, especially as Viola in Twelfth Night 
and as Rosalind in As You Like It. In 1894 
she was married to Robert Taber, with whom 
for a time she played, but they separated, and 
in 1899 were divorced. In 1913 she married 
E. H. Sothern, whose associate she had been 
almost continuously since 1904 Among Miss 
Marlowe's successes may be mentioned her High- 
land Mary in For Bonnie Prince Charlie ( 1897 ) ; 
Barbara Frietchie in Clyde Fitch's play of that 
name (1899); and Charlotte Durand in the 
dramatization of Cable's Cavalier (1902) ; Colin- 




ette (1903) ; Queen Fiametta, and When Knight- 
hood was in Flower (1904). In the autumn of 
1904 she began a co-star engagement with E. H. 
Sothern, under the management of Charles 
Frohman, appearing chiefly in Shakespearean 
plays. She met with unusual success in the 
roles of Juliet, Rosalind, Beatrice, Portia, and 
Katherine in The {pfaqing of the Shrew. Subse- 
quently she appeared at various times in modern 
plays, but with no great success, and she came 
to confine herself almost entirely to Shakespear- 
ean parts. At the opening of the Century 
Theatre in New York, 1909, she appeared with 
E. H. Sothern in a production of Antony and 
Cleopatra. From 1910 to 1914, with her hus- 
band, she toured most successfully in Shake- 
spearean repertoire, annually appearing for a 
season in New York. Indeed, both in artistic 
worth and in popularity, the Sothern and Mar- 
lowe productions of Shakespeare were the most 
notable of their time. Consult- McKay and 
Wingate, Famous American Actors of To-Day 
(New York, 1896) ; L. C. Strang, Famous 
Actresses of the Day in America (Boston, 
1899) ; William Winter, in Wallet of Time, vol. 
ii (New York, 1913). 

87). An American soldier, born near Arrow 
Rock, Mo After studying at Yale and Harvard, 
he entered West Point and graduated there in 
1857. In 1858-59 he saw service in the West, 
participating in the Utah expedition to subdue 
the Mormons, who were rebelling against the 
United States government In 1861 he entered 
the Confederate army as first lieutenant, though 
almost immediately promoted to be lieutenant 
colonel In 1862 as colonel of an Arkansas 
regiment he bore the guiding colors at Shiloh 
and captured the first prisoners He was seri- 
ously wounded on the second day, and while 
recovering was recommended for promotion to 
brigadier general During 1863 he was in Mis- 
souri and defeated the Federal forces at Taylor's 
Creek He commanded the cavalry at Price's 
defense of Little Rock and here fought a duel, 
killing Gen L. M Walker The next year he 
was promoted to be major general and led one 
of the three columns in General Price's Missouri 
raid, was taken a prisoner of war, and was held 
until August, 1865. He afterward engaged in 
the commission and insurance business (1866-71) 
and from 1871 to 1874 was editor successively 
of The Journal of Commerce, St Louis Evening 
Journal, and The Illustrated Journal of Agricul- 
ture He was secretary of the State Board of 
Agriculture in 1874. From 1875 to 1880 he was 
a railroad commissioner. In 1884 he was elected 
Governor of Missouri and died in office. 

MARMANDE, mar'ntiNd'. The capital of 
an arrondissement in the Department of Lot-et- 
Gaionne, France, on the Garonne River, 40 miles 
southeast of Bordeaux (Map: France, S, E 4). 
Its parish church is an interesting thirteenth- 
century Gothic edifice. Marmande has a com- 
munal college, schools of commerce and agricul- 
ture, and manufactures rope, cloth, canvas, and 
hats. It is situated in a region extensively en- 
gaged in agriculture and the cultivation of the 
vine. Pop. (commune), 1901,9873; 1911,9832. 

MAR3CARO8-SZIGET, martnd-rdsh sl'gfit, 
or MlBAMABOS-SzioET The capital of the 
County of Marmaros, Hungary, beautifully situ- 
ated on the Theiss and at the base of the 
wooded Carpathians, 232 miles east-northeast of 
Budapest (Map: Austria-Hungary, H *3). Its 

institutions include a school of law, a Roman 
Catholic and a Reformed Gymnasium, and a 
teachers' seminary. It has important salt mines 
worked from ancient times which still have a 
large output. It also produces lumber, spirits, 
and vinegar. Pop., 1900, 17,445; 1910, 21,370. 

MARMETTE, mar'meV, JOSEPH (1844-95). 
A Canadian novelist. He was born in Mont- 
magny, Quebec, and early devoted himself to a 
literary career, choosing the historical novel as a 
medium for bringing before the French-Cana- 
dians the stirring incidents of their history. He 
published: Charles et Eva (1867); Franqois dc 
Bienville (1870), portraying the unsuccessful 
siege of Quebec by Sir William Phips in 1690; 
L'Intendant Bigot (1872), a description of the 
closing years of French rule in Canada, Le 
Chevalier de Mornac (1873) ; and Le tomahawk 
et Vepee (1877). 

MARMIER, mar'mya', XAVIEB (1809-92). 
A French author, born in Pontarlier He trav- 
eled extensively in Switzerland, Holland, and 
Germany. In 1835 he was attached to the scien- 
tific voyage of the Recherche to the Arctic Sea, 
at which time he acquired a knowledge of the 
Danish, Swedish, and Finnish languages. On 
his return in 1839 he was made professor of for- 
eign literature at Rennes, and two years later 
received a sinecure under the Minister of Pub- 
lic Instruction. In 1842-49 he was again travel- 
ing, everywhere studying languages, idioms, and 
literature. His numerous works include narra- 
tives of his journeys and translations from the 
German and Scandinavian, such as Histmre de 
la litterature en Danemark et en Rucde (1839) ; 
Du Rhin au Nil (1846) ; Voyage pittoresque en 
Allemagne (1858-59); Cimarosa (1867); and 
Conies russes ( 1889) Consult the Life by Esti- 
gnard (1893). 

MAR'MION. A metrical romance by Sir 
Walter Scott (1808). 

English dramatist, educated at Wadham College, 
Oxford, where he graduated B.A. in 1622 and 
M A. in 1624. After trying his fortune in the 
Low Countries, he settled in London, where he 
lived somewhat riotously, and was at one time 
arrested for stabbing a man in a brawl. There 
he became associated with Ben Jonson, Hey- 
wood, and other literary men He accompanied 
Sir John Suckling on the showy expedition to 
Scotland (1638). Falling ill at York, he was 
brought back to London to die Marmion made 
a verse paraphrase of the Cupid and Psyche of 
Apuleius (1637), which was greatly admired by 
his contemporaries. It was reprinted by S. W. 
Singer in 1820. For the court, Marmion wrote 
several comedies, which are still interesting. 
They comprise Hollands Leaguer (performed 
1632) ; A Fine Companion (printed 1633) ; The 
Antiquary (performed 1636). Consult his Dra- 
matic Works, ed. by Maidment and Logan (Edin- 
burgh, 1875). 

MARMOL, mar'mol, JOSE (c.1818-71). An 
Argentine poet and patriot, born at Buenos 
Aires. As Deputy and Senator for his native 
province, he took so firm a stand for the rights 
of the people that he was banished by Rosas. 
After the overthrow of the dictator Marmol was 

rin Senator for Buenos Aires and had charge 
the National Library until he lost his eye- 
sight. He published a drama El poeta (1842) ; 
El Peregrine (1846); El Cruzado, a drama 
(1851); Armonias (1851); Poettias (2d ed., 
1854); and an historical novel, Amalia (1855). 




This last is the work by which Mfirmol is most 
widely known both at home and abroad, having 
been translated into French and German After 
his death some of his poems and dramas were 
collected and published by his biographer, Jos6 
Domingo Coites, under the title Ohras pofticas 
y dramatical de Jose Mdrniol (Pans, 1875). 

1852). A marshal of France, born July 20, 
1774, at Chatillon-sur-Seme He entered the 
French army in 1791 and was rapidly promoted. 
He met Bonaparte at Toulon, served with dis- 
tinction in the Italian campaign, particularly at 
Lodi and Castighone, and later accompanied 
Bonaparte to Egypt, where he became brigadier 
general On returning to France Marmont sup- 
ported Napoleon in the coup d'e'tat of the 
eighteenth Brumaire, and afterward continued 
in active military service After the battle of 
Marengo (1800) he was made a general of divi- 
sion. In 1801 he was inspector general in chief 
of artillery, and in 1805 he was made command- 
ant of the army in Holland His services in 
defending the Ragusan territory against the 
Russians and Montenegrins in 1806-07 won him 
his title of Duke of Ragusa After the battle of 
Wagram (1809) he was intrusted with the pur- 
suit of the enemy, and after the battle of Znann 
he was made a marshal. He was theieafter for 
18 months Governor of the Illy nan provinces, 
and in 1811 succeeded Massena in the chief 
command in the Peninsula, where he assumed the 
offensive, and kept Wellington in check for 15 
months, but was eventually defeated in the 
battle of Salamanca (July 22, 1812) A wound 
compelled him to retire to France In 1813 he 
fought at the battles of Lutzen, Bautzen, and 
Dresden. He maintained the contest with gieat 
spirit in France in the beginning of 1814; and 
it was not until further resistance was hopeless 
that he concluded a truce with Prince Schwarz- 
enberg, which was followed by the abdication of 
Napoleon. The Bourbons at first loaded Mar- 
mont with honors and distinction On the re- 
turn of Napoleon fiom Elba Marmont was ex- 
cluded from the general amnesty, and he fled to 
Aix-la-Chapelle After the second Restoration 
he spent much of his time in agricultural pur- 
suits, till the revolution of 1830, when, at the 
head of a body of troops, he attempted in vain 
to put down the insurrection, and finally re- 
treating with 6000 Swiss, and a few battalions 
that had continued faithful to Charles X, con- 
ducted him across the frontier. From that time 
he resided chiefly in Vienna He died in Venice, 
March 2, 1852. He was the last survivor of the 
marshals of the first French Empire. His Me- 
mcnres (9 vols , 1856-57) are valuable for the 
history of his time He was also the author of 
Voyage en Hongnc (1837) and Esprit des insti- 
tutions mihtaires (1845). 

COIS (1816-98). A French pianist, born at 
Clermont-Ferrand, Puy-de-Dome. He studied in 
1828-32 at the Pans Conservatory, where he 
returned to teach in 1836, and in 1848 succeeded 
his former master, Znnmermann, as pianoforte 
professor. He published three books of piano 
studies, besides sonatas, nocturnes, serenades, 
minuets, icveries, and mazurkas, and his liter- 
ary productions are- Art classique et modernedu 
piano (1876) ; Elements d'esthtttque musicale et 
considerations sur le beau dans lea arts (1884) ; 
and Histoire du piano et de see origines (1885). 

A French dramatist, novelist, and critic, born at 
Bort, July 11, 1723, best kno\\n for two series of 
Conies moraux (1761-86), and the moializing 
novels Belisairc (1767) and Ijes Incas (1777). 
He studied for the chinch, but was atti acted to 
letteis by the patronage of Voltaire, went to 
Paris (1745), beeame a journalist, and won 
some success by his tragedies: Deny s le tyran 
(1748) and Anstomene (1749). In 1753 a sine- 
cm e oflice attached him to the court at Ver- 
sailles During 1758 and 1759 he edited the 
Alercure. He was imprisoned 10 days in the 
Bastille for political satire in 1760, was elected 
to the Academy in 1763, and made its perma- 
nent secretary in 1783 His numerous contri- 
butions to the Encyclopedic (see DIDEROT) were 
collected as Elements de htte'rature in 17 87. He 
wrote also Mtimoires and a treatise on French 
versification (1763). Marmontel's Woiks were 
edited by himself in 17 volumes, to which 14 
were subsequently added Thev weie reedited 
by Villeneuve (Paris, 1819-20)" The Mdmoires 
are best edited by Tourneux (Paris, 1891) 
There was an English translation in 1904 Con- 
sult C A. Samte-Beuve, Causenes du lundi, vol 
iv (Pans, 1857-62), and S Lenel, Marmon tel, 
un homme de lettres au XVI lie' sieclc (ib, 

MARMORA, mar'mo-ra, SEA OF (anciently 
PROPOIXTIS). A small sea between European 
and Asiatic Turkey, communicating with the 
JSgean Sea by the Stiait of the Dardanelles 
(anciently Hellespont), and with the Black Sea 
by the Bosporus (Map Balkan Peninsula, G 
4). It is of an oval form, 140 miles in length 
by 45 miles in breadth, and the east fehoie is in- 
dented by the t^o large gulfs of Isnnd and 
Injir Lmian (Mudania) The depth is gener- 
ally over 600 feet, and in some places reaches 
over 4000 There is a current running through 
it from the Black Sea to the ^gean Its navi- 
gation is not diflicult and it is a great avenue 
of commerce It contains many islands, of 
which the largest is Marmora or Marmara, fa- 
mous for its white marble quarries, which sup- 
plied the materials for several famous buildings 
of antiquity. During the European War which 
bioke out in 1914, the Sea of Maimora was of 
great military impoitance The only practi- 
cal means of getting munitions of \\ar into 
Russia and of getting supplies of gram, etc , 
from Russia was closed on account of the 
belligerency of Turkey To open up this high- 
way of eommeice a great allied fleet attacked the 
Dardanelles simultaneously with a Russian naval 
attack on the Bosporus. See WAR IN EUROPE 
MABMOSET, mar'mfi-zSt (OF. marmoset, 
niarmoitset, Fi. marmouset, puppet, from ML. 
marmoretum, marble figure, from Lat marmor, 
Gk. fidpfjiapos, marmaros, marble, from papnalpcw. 
marmairein, to sparkle). One of the small and 
pietty American monkeys formerly considered 
to be comprised in two genera (Hapale and 
Midas) of the family Hapahdae. These little 
creatures are distinguished from all other Amer- 
ican monkeys by several features besides their 
diminutive size, long. hind legs, long fur, and 
penciled ears. Their dentition is like that of the 
Old World monkeys in that it comprises only 
32 teeth, without the four "wisdom" molars pos- 
sessed by the Cebidse (See MONKEY.) Their 
thumbs, are not opposable, their nails are in the 



form of claws, and their tails (which are long 
and bushy) are not prehensile These and 
other characters place them at the foot of the 
scale of the monkeys, and next to the lemurs 
They are arboreal in habits and ehmh about in 
small paities in search of fiuit and insects, 
much as squirrels do; and they habitually pro- 
duce two or three young at a birth instead of 
one, as is usual with highei monkey Elliot in 
his Review of the Primates groups the tamarins 
and marmosets m the family Calliti ichidir, divid- 
ing this into six genera, ttemocclus, Cercopithe- 
cus, Leontocebus, (Edipomdas, CaUithrix, and 
Calhcebus lie recognizes about Go foims The 
common ouistiti (Hapalc, 01 CaUithnx, jacchus) 
of Brazil is a familiar pet throughout tropical 
Amenea, and is often 
brought to the United 
States or taken to Euiope, 
but rarely survives even 
the fiist northein winter. 
It is not larger than a half- 
grown kitten, and is usually 
blackish, with the back and 
thighs banded with giay, 

and two great tufts of hair on the ears pure 
A\lnte, the tail is ringed with black and gray 
Several other species and vaneties are known, 
some of which are van-colored and others pure 
white The smallest, and one of the most widely 
distributed, is only 7 inches long 

The tamaims, or silky marmosets, differ in 
dentition and also in the absence of tufts on the 
eais and the rings of color on the tail. Like the 
others, they are common pets in South and Cen- 
tral America, and some kinds stiay as far north 
as central Mexico Several species are well 
known, especially the negro tamann (Midas, 01 
Ccrcopithecus, ursulus) of the lower Amazon 
valley, the queer little pmche* (Midas, or (Edi- 
pomidas, ccdtpus) of the Isthmus, which has a 
gieat growth of white hair on the head, and the 
silky marmoset, or maiikina (Midas, or Lcon- 
tocefus, rosaha), which is clothed in long silky 
hair of a golden hue, this hair foims a long 
mane on the head and neck, giving the name lion 
monkey to some varieties This species is often 
seen in menageiies, and is a common pet in its 
own country Consult authorities mentioned 
undei MONKEY; especially H. W Bates, A Nat- 
uralist on the River Amazons (London, 1910). 

MAK/MOT (Fr. marmottc, from It mat- 
motta, marmontana, from Rumanian murmont, 
fiom OHG murmunto, Gcr. Afurmcl, from ML. 
mus niontanus, mountain mouse, marmot) A 
name given to rodents of the ground-squii rcl 
family They resemble squirrels in their denti- 
tion, although in their form and habits they 
more resemble rats and mice The animal to 
which the term (now little used) was first 
applied was the common marmot ( 4.rctomys 
alpinus, or, as it is now kno\\n, Mar mot a mar- 
mota) of the mountains of Europe It is about 
the size of a rabbit, grayish yellow, brown to- 
wards the head. It feeds on roots, leaves, in- 
sects, and the like, is gregarious, and often lives 
in large societies It digs large burrows with 
several chambers and two entrances, generally 
on the slopes of the mountains, where the mar- 
mots may be seen sporting and basking in the 
sunshine during the fine weather of summer 
They spend the winter in their burrows, m one 
chamber of which is a store of dried grass; but 
the greater part of the winter is passed in tor- 


pidity The alpine marmot is easily tamed. 
These features and habits are characteristic of 
the group. A half-dozen other species occur in 
Europe, Asia, and North America The best- 
known American species are the woodchuck and 
ils largei relative of the Rocky Mountains See 

MABMOTJSETS, mar'moo'za' (Fr., little 
men). A name given in contempt to the coun- 
cilors of Charles VI of France ( q v ) . They 
\\ere for the most part members ot the lesser 
nobility or of the citizen class and were despised 
by his uncles, who had governed the kingdom 
(luring the minority of Charles. Consult Ernest 
Lavisse, Histoire de France, vol. iv, part i 
(Paris, 1902). 

MABNE, marn (Lat. Matrona). A river of 
France, the principal tributary of the Seine 
(Map: France, N., J 3). It rises in the Plateau 
of Langres, flows first northwest, then westwaid, 
with many windings through the departments of 
Haute-Marne, Marne, Aisne, and Seme-et-Marne, 
passes Chaumont, Saint-Dizier, Chalons, Eper- 
nay, and Meaux, and joins the Seme at Charen- 
ton, about 4 miles above Paris. Its length is 
325 miles, and it is navigable for 226 miles to 
Saint-Dizier. It is a rather rapid stream, sup- 
plying power to a number of mills It is 
paralleled in the upper reaches by lateral canals 
and its large traffic has been extended by means 
of canals, of which the most important is the 
Marne- Rhine Canal, which extends 105 miles 
from Vitry to Strassburg, passing thiough sev- 
eral tunnels The great offensive movement of 
the Germans through France during the Euio- 
pean Wai which began ui 1914 received a final 
check at this stream, resulting in the series of 
very severe engagements lasting several days 
and known collectively as the battle of the 

HffARNE. An inland department in the north- 
east of France, part of the old Province of 
Champagne, extending southward from the fron- 
tier department of Ardennes (Map. Fiance, N, 
J 4) Area, 3168 square miles The department 
is travel sed by the Marne River and a small 
portion of the Seine arid Aisne The soil is very 
fertile in the south, producing oats, wheat, rye, 
and barley, but chalky and arid in the north, 
on this dry and chalky soil, however, the best 
grapes for champagne wine are grown, especially 
in the neighborhood of Epcrnay and Avize and 
between the Marne and the Vesle Cotton, metal, 
and woolen manufactures aie largely carried on, 
also sheep raising and bee culture. There aie 
large iron and copper foundries, blast furnaces, 
and machine woiks Capital, Chalons-sur- 
Marne, important towns are Rheims and Eper- 
nay Pop, 1891, 434,734; 1901, 432,882; 1011, 

MARNE, HAUTE. A department of France. 

MAB/NIAN EPOCH. The name applied to 
the second Iron Age, or culture stage of Europe. 
It is so called from the Department of Marne, 
in northeastern France, also termed La Tene 
Period, from a station of that name in Switzer- 
land It lasted until the first century B.C. in 
France, Bohemia, and England, and until the 
tentli century AD in Scandinavia It corre- 
sponds with the late Celtic of English archseolo- 

SAINTE-ALDEGONDE (1538-98). A Flemish 


statesman and writer, born at Brussels. He stu- 
died theology under Calvin and Beza at Geneva 
and returned to his native country (1560) a 
devoted adherent of the Reformed religion and 
a sworn foe of the Spanish government and the 
Inquisition. Upon the appointment of the Duke 
of Alva to the governorship of the Netherlands 
(1567) Marnix sought refuge in Germany. He 
shared in the labors of William of Orange, who, 
in 1572, sent him as his representative to the 
first meeting of the Estates of Holland at Dor- 
drecht. After a year's captivity in the hands of 
the Spaniards he entered upon an active diplo- 
matic career as representative of the Protestant 
provinces at Paris and London, and in 1578 at 
the Diet of Worms He took a prominent part 
in the formation of the Union of Utrecht (See 
NETHERLANDS ) In 1583 he became burgomaster 
of Antwerp, and, after a 13 months' siege, was 
forced to sunender the city to Alexander of 
Parma (1585) Thereafter he took little share 
in political life. His writings in prose and verse 
form a part of the classic literature of the 
Netherlands Of these the most important are: 
De roomsche byenkorf (1569), a satire; an ex- 
cellent translation of the Psalms ; and Wilhelmus 
van Nassomue, which has become one of the 
national hymns of the Netherlands. His works 
were published at Brussels in seven volumes by 
Lacroix and Qumet (1855-59) Consult: E 
Quinet, "Marnix de Samte-Aldegonde," in 
CKuvres completes, vol. v (Paris, 1857) , Cam- 
bridge Modern History, vol lii (Cambridge, 
1904) ; A. Elkan, Phihpp Marnix von St. Aldc- 
gonde (Leipzig, 1909). 

MARNO, mar'nd, EBNST (1844-83). A Ger- 
man explorer of western Africa He was born 
at Vienna and in 1866-67 went to Abyssinia 
In 1869 he traveled to Khartum, then south to 
Fadasi, and in 1871 and 1872 explored the upper 
course of the White Nile In 1874 he joined 
Gordon, who in 1878 put him in command of 
the District of Galabat, where he did much to 
suppress the slave trade He died in Khartum. 
He wrote Reisen im Gebiete des weissen und 
blauen Nil (1874) and Reise in der agyptischen 
Aequatonalprovine und in K or do fan in den Jah- 
ren 1874-76 (1878). 


MAROCCO, ma-r5k'6. See MOROCCO. 

(1805-67). An Italian sculptor He was born 
at Turin, studied under Bosio and Gros, in Pans, 
and resided at Home from 1822 to 1830. In 
1827 he received a medal for his "Girl Playing 
with a Dog" His first important work was a 
statue of Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy at Turin, 
commissioned by Carlo Alberti of Sardinia, in 
recognition of which service he was made Baron. 
He subsequently returned to Paris The most 
important of his works at Paris include : "Battle 
of Jemappes," a relief upon the Arc de Triomphe 
de FEtoile; a monument to Bellini in Pere- 
Lachaise Cemetery; and the marble group of the 
"Apotheosis of the Magdalen" on the high altar 
of the church of the Madeleine In consequence 
of the revolution of 1848 he emigrated to Eng- 
land. His most important works there are an 
equestrian statue of Richard Coeur de Lion, 
which was cast in bronze by national subscrip- 
tion and is now near the entrance to the House 
of Lords, Westminster; equestrian statues of 
the Queen and of Wellington, for Glasgow; a 
portrait bust of Prince Albert; a statue of Lord 
Clyde in Waterloo Place and that of Thackeray 

4 MABOtflTfiS 

in Westminster Abbey. He also modeled an 
equestrian statue of Washington for the New 
York Crystal Palace (since destroyed), a study 
of which is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 
His style is academic, but distinguished by some 
independence of treatment and skill in technique. 
He received the cross of the Legion of Honor in 
1839 and was elected to the Royal Academy in 

MARONT, ma'rd-ne' (Dutch Marowijnc). A 
river forming the boundary between Dutch and 
French Guiana (Map: Guiana, G 3) It rises 
in the Tumuc Humac Mountains on the fron- 
tier of Brazil and flows northward through a 
densely forested region, falling in a number of 
cascades over the successive escarpments of the 
terraced plateau It enters the Atlantic after a 
course of 425 miles Below the last cascade, 46 
miles from its mouth, it is a wide, deep, and 
beautiful stream, connected with the estuary of 
the Surinam by the navigable Cottica Creek 
running parallel with the coast. 

MAR'ONITES. A Christian sect of Syria, of 
very ancient origin The most probable account 
represents them as descendants of a remnant of 
the Monothehte sect ( see MONOTHELITISM ) , who, 
in the early part of the eighth centuiy, settled 
on the slopes of the Lebanon, their chief seats 
being around the monastery of Maron, a saint of 
the fourth century,^ whose life is found in Theo- 
doret's Religious Histories (iii, p 1222) The 
emigrants are said to have elected as their chief 
and patriarch a monk of the same name, with 
the title of Patriarch of Antioch, and, through- 
out the political vicissitudes of the succeeding 
centuries, to have maintained themselves in a 
certain independence among the Moslem con- 
querors In the twelfth century, on the estab- 
lishment of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 
the Maronites abandoned their distinctive Mono- 
thelite opinions and recognized the authority of 
the Roman church In 1445 they entered into a 
formal act of union with Rome In 1584 a col- 
lege was founded in Rome by Gregory XIII for 
the education of the Maronite clergy, and in 
1736 they formally subscribed to the decrees of 
the Council of Trent Nevertheless, although 
united with Rome, they are permitted to retain 
their distinctive national rites and usages They 
administer communion in both kinds; they use 
the ancient Syriac language in their liturgy, 
their clergy, if married before ordination, are 
permitted to retain their wives; and they have 
many festivals and saints not recognized in the 
Roman calendar The Maronites at present are 
about 300,000 in number Their patriarch is 
still styled Patriarch of Antioch, and resides in 
the convent of Kanobm, in the heart of the 
Lebanon He is chosen by the bishops subject 
to the approval of Rome, and always bears the 
name Butrus (Peter) Every tenth year he re- 
ports the state of his patriarchate to the Pope. 
Under him aie 14 bishops, to whom are subject 
the officiating clergy of the smaller districts. 
The revenues of all orders of ecclesiastics, how- 
ever, are very narrow, and the inferior clergy 
live in great measure by the labor of their hands. 
About 40 convents, including 15 nunneries, are 
to be found m the Lebanon, with about 2000 
members, who wear a distinctive costume and 
follow the rule of St Anthony. The chief seat 
of the Maronites is the district called Kesrowan, 
on the western declivity of Mount Lebanon; but 
they are to be found scattered over the whole 
territory of the Lebanon, and in all the towns 




and larger villages towards the north in the 
direction of Aleppo, and southward as far as 
Nazareth. They have also spread to Cyprus 
and Egypt, to Europe, the French colonies, and 
America Their political constitution is a kind 
of military republic, regulated for the most part 
by ancient usages and by unwritten but well- 
recognized laws Like the Arabs of Syria, they 
have a political hierarchy, partly hereditary, 
partly elective. The chief administration is 
vested in four superior sheiks, who possess a 
sort of patriarchal authority, and under these 
are subordinate chiefs, with whom, as in the 
feudal system, the people hold a military tenure. 
They are bitter enemies of their neighbors, the 
Druses (q.v.) Their chief occupations are cattle 
raising and silk culture 

Bibliography. G. H. Churchill, The Druzes 
and the Maronites under the Turkish Rule from 
1840 to 1860 (London, 1862) ; Albert Socin, 
Palastma und Syrien (Leipzig, 1880) ; Koehler, 
Die katholische Kirche der Morgenlander ( Darm- 
stadt, 1886); Bliss, "Essays on the Sects of 
Syria and Palestine the Maronites," in the 
Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly State- 
ment (London, 1892) ; F N. Nau, Opuscules 
Maronites (2 vols , Paris, 1899-1900); F J. 
Bliss, The Religions of Modern Syria and Pales- 
tine (New York, 1912). 

MABOON (Fr. matron, chestnut, chestnut 
colored, from It marrone, chestnut). A subdued 
crimson color, not so yellow as chestnut (mar- 
ron), from which the name is probably derived, 
nor so brilliant as magenta 

MAROONS (Fr. marron, apocopated, from 
simarron, Spanish cimarron, fugitive, from cima, 
mountain top, twig, from Lat. cyma, Gk. icO/tta, 
lyma, sprout, from icfciv, kyein, to conceive). 
A name given in Jamaica and Dutch Guiana to 
runaway negro slaves. The term was first ap- 
plied to those slaves who ran away and took 
refuge in the uplands when their Spanish mas- 
ters were driven out by the British after the 
latter conquered Jamaica, in 1655. For 140 
years they maintained a constant warfare with 
the British colonists; but in 1795 they were 
subdued and a portion of them removed to Nova 
Scotia, where they gave so much trouble that 
most of them were transported to Sierra Leone. 
The Maroons of Dutch Guiana still form a num- 
ber of small independent communities practicing 
various pagan rites, some of which can be traced 
to analogous African ceremonies. They are now 
known more commonly as Bush negroes. 

MABOS, mft'rosh. The principal river of 
eastern Hungary. It rises in the mountains of 
eastern Transylvania and flows westward, past 
Arad, emptying into the Theiss at Szegedin, 
after a course of 543 miles (Map: Hungary, G 
3). It is navigable about two-thirds of its 
length to Karlsburg, but its navigation is im- 
peded by the great irregularity of its volume. 
The conjunction of the floods of the Theiss and 
Maros destroyed Szegedin in 1879. 

MAROS-N^METH (ma'rdsh-na'met) AND 

MABOS-VASABHELY, va'shar-hel-y'. A 
royal free town and capital of the County of 
Maros-Torda in Transylvania, Hungary, situated 
on the river Maros, 49 miles east-southeast of 
Klausenburg (Map: Hungary, J 3). It has a 
castle which is now used for barracks, and con- 
nected with which is a fifteenth-century Gothic 
church; the Teleki palace, with a fine library of 
over 70,000 volumes (including a manuscript of 

Tacitus) and a natural-history collection; a 
technical school for metal workers, a college 
with a library and printing press, two Gymnasia, 
and an industrial museum. There are several 
other notable Catholic churches, many fine 
buildings, a county hospital, and a museum. 
The industries of the town include the manufac- 
ture of sugar, tile, pottery, shoes, spirits, to- 
bacco, beer, trimmed lumber, and the refining of 
petroleum. Pop., 1900, 19,522; 1910, 25,517, 
mostly Magyars. 

MABOT, ma'ro', CLEMENT (1495-1544). A 
French poet, born at Cahors in Quercy between 
1495 and 1497. He went to Paris with his 
father, the poet Jean Marot, about 1507, and 
began the study of law, which he early aban- 
doned in favor of literature In 1513 he became 
a page in the service of Nicholas de Neufville, 
the powerful lord of Villeroy, and two years 
later wrote his first original poem, the Temple 
de Cupidon, which was dedicated to the new 
King Francis I. This graceful allegory was 
inspired by the Roman de la rose, while its met- 
rical form, though superior to contemporary 
works in its smoothness, was strongly influenced 
by the work of his predecessors, the school of 
the rhetonqueurs. Thanks to this work, he 
became in 1518 valet de chawbre of Marguerite 
d'Alengon, the future Queen of Navarre Having 
entered the service of Francis I, he set out with 
the King on the ill-fated expedition to Pavia 
which resulted in the capture of the latter and 
the imprisonment of the poet in 1525 Marot 
was soon released, however, and returned to 
France After this he is more original and less 
an imitator of Cretin, souverain poete frangais. 
Immediately after his return he was suspected 
of heresy and, in spite of a strong denial, was 
imprisoned in 1526, first in Paris and then less 
rigorously at Chartres. During his imprison- 
ment he began his edition of the Roman de la 
rose and composed three of his best-known 
poems the epistle to Bouchart protesting his 
innocence of the charge, his Enfer, and his 
famous letter to Lyon Jamet on the Lion and 
the Rat, from which La Fontaine drew his well- 
known fable. The King freed him on his return 
to France in 1526 and appointed him valet de 
chambre to succeed his father, Jean Marot, who 
died in 1527. In October of the same year he 
was again arrested for having attempted, while 
engaged in a prank, to save a comrade from the 
hands of the police. An amusing epistle to the 
King, in which the poet describes his efforts to 
bribe the state's attorney, won his release In 
1529 he composed an incomplete edition of hia 
poetry which probably appeared during the 
course of the same year under the title Adoles- 
cence Clementine, but of which the first edition 
extant is that of 1532 To this period belongs 
also the beautiful Complaint e^ en forme d'eglogue 
on the death of the Queen mother Louise de Sa- 
voie (1531), which was imitated by Spenser in 
his Shepherd's Calendar. Suffering from the 
plague which devastated France in 1531, Marot 
wrote to the King his famous Epistre pour avow 
este" derobe, a masterpiece of its kind, in which 
the poet gives a very amusing account of how 
he was robbed by his valet de Gascogne. He 
now fell once more under suspicion of heresy, 
and withdrew to the court of Margaret at Nerac, 
where he probably occupied his time in prepar- 
ing an edition of the poems of Francois Villon 
(q.v.), which he published at the end of the 
year 1533. The preface of this work is worthy 




of nofo M containing the first warm apprecia- 
tion of the works of the vagabond poet. After 
the affair of the placards he fled to Italy, taking 
refuge at the court of the Duchows of Ferrara, 
Rene de France. During his stay in Italy he 
began to compose his blazons, which were im- 
mediately imitated in France, becoming the 
source of an abundant literature. His epistles 
Du Coq-a-l'dne, of which he wrote several while 
at Ferrara, form the point of departure of a 
popular literary genre. Taking advantage of 
the truce of 1 536, he returned to Lyons and was 
publicly obliged to abjure his heretical ideas. 
He was now to enjoy several years of court 
favor during which he composed his. beau- 
tiful Eglogue an roy sous Jes noms de Pan et 
Robin, one of the few works of this period that 
reveal a feeling for nature Immediately after 
his arrival he began his long quarrel with a 
former friend, Francois Sagon, in which nearly 
all the leading poets took part Their contribu- 
tions were collected in a volume, published in 
1537, entitled J'luneurs traictez par aucuns 
nouveaulx poctes du differend de Marot, Sagon 
et la Hueteric. In 1539, with the help of the 
scholar Vatable, he commenced his poetical trans- 
lation of the Psalms At first they were well 
received and sung to popular tunes But the 
Sorbonne took umbrage at such a procedure, 
and Marot was obliged to seek safety in flight. 
He went first to Geneva, where his Psalms were 
being sung m all the Protestant churches 
(1542). But he soon got into trouble with 
Calvin, and then went to Turin, where he died 
in the autumn of 1544. Marot is very impor- 
tant as a poet of transition. In his work we 
see the germ of the new school He excels in 
the lighter vein, such as epigrams, epistles, 
fables, and songs, to which he has given his 
stamp. He was also one of the first to bring 
the sonnet and Italian elegy into France His 
translation of the Psalms was completed by the 
Protestant leader Beza and is still used in French 
Protestant churches In character he was a 
good-natured epicurean, having no desire for 

Bibliography. His works weie frequently 
collected (1534, 1538, 1542, 1544, etc ), best by 
Lenglet-Dufresnoy (4 vols, 1731), and Jannet 
(4 vols., 1868-72) The elaborate edition of 
Guiffrey, begun in 1876, has not yet been com- 
pleted, only three of the six volumes having 
thus far appeared The best biography is that 
of G. Guiffrey (1911). Consult also. Henry 
Morley, Clement Marot, and other Studies (Lon- 
don, 1871); E. O Douen, Clement Marot et le 
Psautier huguenot (2 vols., Paris, 1878-79) , 
A. A. Tilley, Literature of the French Renais- 
sance, vol. i (New York, 1904). Other works 
of interest relating to him are Voizard, De Dis- 
putatione inter Marotum et Sagontum (Paris, 
1885); Paul Bonnefon, "Le diffe*rend de Marot 
ct de Sagon," in the Revue d'histoire litter air e 
de la France, vol i (ib., 1894); Henry Guy, 
De Fontibus dementis Maroti Poetas (ib ,'l898) ; 
Albert Wagner, Clement Marots Verhaltmss zur 
Antike (Leipzig, 1906) , Lefranc, Grands evri- 
vains de la Renaissance (Paris, 1914). 

MABOT, DANIEL (c.1660-1718). A French 
decorative designer and engraver, born in Paris, 
son of the architect and engraver Jean Marot. 
Daniel Marot, being a Tluuonot, fled to Hol- 
land in 1685 when the Edict of Nantes was ic- 
voked, and accompanied William of Orange to 
England, where he was appointed one of the 

King's architects and was especially active at 
Hampton Court. Much of the furniture there 
was designed by him and resembles the plates 
in his published books, especially the monumen- 
tal beds with their plumes of ostrich feathers 
and elaborate crimson -velvet valances. At Wind- 
sor Castle theie is a silver table attributed to 
him After the death of King William in 1702 
Marot returned to Holland, where in 1712, at 
Amsterdam, he published (Euvres du Sieur D 
Marot, architectc du Guillaume III, roi de la 
Grande Bretagne As a youth in France he made 
many designs for Boulle, especially of tall clocks 
and bracket clocks, and his style is always defi- 
nitely Louis XIV. The most accessible collec- 
tion of his designs is in T. A. Strange's French 
Interiors, Furniture, etc. (London, 1907). 

MABOT, HELEN (1865- ). An American 
labor leader. She was born in Philadelphia and 
was active in the labor movement there and m 
New York, where she became executive secretary 
of the Woman's Trade Union League. She was 
also an investigator of child-labor conditions. 
Her writings include A Handbook of Labor Lit- 
erature (1899) and American Labor Union 
(1914), the latter being an authoritative pres- 
entation of the trade-unionist point of view of 
the labor movement. 

MABOT, JEAN (1620-79). One of the great- 
est of French architectural engravers. He was 
born in Paris, designed numerous houses, and 
was for a short time associated with Jacques 
Lemercier (qv). He published Architecture 
frangaise, ou rccueil dcs plans elevations, 
coupes, et profits des eghses, palais, hotels, et 
maisons particulieres d Paris and a work on the 
chateau of Richelieu He was the father of 
Daniel Marot. 

MARO'ZIA. A Roman lady of the tenth cen- 
tury who played an important part m the polit- 
ical history of the times She was the daughter 
of the infamous Theodora (qv ) and Theophy- 
lact, "consul and senator of the Romans " Her 
first husband was Albeiic (q v ) , after his death 
she married Guido of Tuscany, and after the 
death of the latter, Hugo, King of Italy By 
the power of her family and by hei marital al- 
liances hhc had entne control of Rome for some 
years. She deposed Pope John X in 928, and in 
the following year he was either strangled or 
starved to death A little later she bestowed the 
papacy upon her son, John XI, who by popular 
lumor was supposed to be the offspring of her 
guilty love with Pope Sergius III. She styled 
heisclf "Senatrix" of all the Romans and "Pa- 
tricia." Soon after her third marriage Marozia 
and her husband were thrown into prison in 932 
by her bon, Alberic II (qv.) Her husband es- 
caped, but nothing is known of her fate Consult 
Ferdinand Gregorovius, History of the City of 
Rome in the Middle Ages, translated from the 
fourth Geiinan edition by Annie Hamilton, vol 
ill (London, 1895). 

MABTLOT. A meddling, good-natured busy- 
body in the Busybody (q.v.). 

BUSYBODY A comedy by Susanna Centlivre 
(qv). It was performed at the Drury Lane 
Theatre, Deo 10, 1710. and afterward altered by 
Henry Woodward and called 77/r Marplot of 
Lisbon This character reappears in 1825 as 
Paul Pry in the romedy bv John Poole, and re- 
sembles Sir Martin Ma rail in Dryden's success- 
ful comedy, founded on Lord Newcastle's Mar- 
plot, a translation of Moliere's L'Etourdi. 





(171&-95). A German writer on music, born 
at Seehausen in Prussian Saxony. Little is 
known of his early life, but in 1746 he was sec- 
retary to General von Rothenburg at Paris, 
where he met Rameau, Voltaire, and D'Alembert. 
From there he went to Hamburg, and in 1763 
was made director of the government lottery in 
Berlin. He composed six clavier sonatas, organ 
pieces, and sacred and secular songs He is, 
however, better known as a writer on music, his 
most noteworthy works being: Abhandlung von 
dcr Fuge (1753-54), a standard work, Havid- 
buch beim Generalbass und der Composition 
(1755-58); Anleitung zum Clavienpielen 
(1755), Anleitung sur Musik uberhaupt und 
cwr Singkunst insbesondere (1763), which are of 
interest at the present time. 

MARQUAND, mur-kwand', ALLAN G. (1833- 
1924). An American archaeologist and art his- 
torian. He was born in New York and after 
graduating from Princeton studied at Berlin 
and Johns Hopkins universities (PhD, 1888) 
In 1896-97 he was professor of archaeology at 
the American School of Classical Studies at 
Rome and from 1883 was professor of art and 
archaeology at Princeton, serving also as direc- 
tor of the museum of historic art from 1 890 In 
1885 he became associate editor of the American 
Journal of Archceology. Among his writings 
are- a valuable Textbook of the History of 
Sculpture (1896-99), written in collaboration 
with A. L. Frothmgham, Greek Architecture 
(1909); Delia Robbias in America (1912), 
Luca deUa Kobbia (1914) , beside contributions 
to journals of art and archaeology He is con- 
sideied the principal authority on the Delia 
Robbias and their art 

An American capitalist and philanthropist, born 
in New York City He prepared for college, 
but went into business as agent of his brother, 
Frederick Marquand (1799-1882), a New York 
leweler and a benefactor of Union Theological 
Seminary and Yale Divinity School This post 
the younger brother held for 20 yeais, after 
Frederick's retirement in 1839 Afterward he 
became prominent in Wall Street, especially in 
connection with railroad enterprises Among 
his benefactions, mention should bo made of a 
chapel and, with Robert Bonner (qv ), a gym- 
nasium presented to Princeton University, of a 
pavilion to Bellevue Hospital, and of contribu- 
tions of paintings and other beautiful objects 
to the Metropolitan Museum of Art 

MARQTJARDT, imirlcvart, JOACHIM (1812- 
82). A German historian and antiquarian, born 
at Danzig. He studied at Berlin and at Leip- 
zig and in 1859 was appointed director of the 
Gymnasium at Gotha, where he remained until 
his death. His chief work was his continuation 
of W A. Becker's Handbuch der ronnschen Al- 
tertumer (1849-67). To the second edition 
(1871-82), almost completely rewritten, in 
which he was assisted by Theodor Mommsen, he 
contributed Komische Staatwerwaltung, vols. 
iv-vi (1873-78, 1881-85), and Das Prwatleben 
der Romer, vol vii (1879-82, 2d ed., 1886) 

MARQUE (Fi , seizure), LETTERS OF Com- 
missions issued by a belligerent state to vessels 
owned and manned ny private persons, either its 
own citizens or neutrals, authori/ing them to 
carry on hostilities at sea against the enemy 

The usage originated in the practice of issuing 
letters of license to go across the boundary 
(mark, or march) and make reprisals. Such 
vessels were known as privateers and were freely 
employed by maritime nations at war in the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries In the latter 
part of the eighteenth century most of the states 
of Europe enacted laws forbidding their subjects 
to take letters of marque from any foreign power 
for use against any power with which they them- 
selves were at peace, and similar laws were 
passed by the United States Congress in 1797 
and 1816. This put an end to privateering by 
neutrals, but the practice of authorizing sub- 
jects of a nation at war to prey on the enemy's 
commerce continued to the middle of the last 
century. It was declared abolished by the Dec- 
laration of Paris, which concluded the Crimean 
War (1856), and the declaration was accepted 
by most of the powers. Of the groat powers 
only the United States refused to become a 
party to the declaration unless it included a 
provision exempting innocent commerce of a bel- 
ligerent from capture by the enemy As this 
lias not yet (1915) been conceded the govern- 
ment of the United States is still technically 
free to employ this method of carrying on mari- 
time warfare, but as no civilized state has issued 
letters of marque since the Conference of Paris, 
the practice may be considered obsolete The 
use by a lielhgerent government of fast mer- 
chant vessels as auxiliary cruisers must not be 
confounded with the practice of privateering In 
that case the private vessel is taken over by the 
government and embodied in its regular naval 

MARQUESAS (mar-kft'sas) ISLANDS, or 
MENDASA (man-d:i'nya) ISLANDS (Fr les 
Marquises). A group of islands in Polynesia, 
in about lat. 10 S. and long 140 W. Area, 
494 square miles (Map: World, Western Hemi- 
sphere, K 7). The most important members of 
the group arc Nukahiva (183 square miles) and 
Hiva-oa (153 square miles) The 11 islands, of 
which six are inhabited, fall into two groups 
which show considerable differences of dialect 
With the exception of a few atolls, they are 
mountainous, falling abruptly into the sea on 
all sides, and reaching in Hiva-oa an altitude of 
4158 feet. The summits are bare, and only the 
narrow vallevs, terminating in small hajs, and 
filled with luxuriant vegetation, arc inhabited 
Climate is hot and generally humid, though for 
six months in the year there is very little rain- 
fall. The chief product, like that of Polynesia 
in general, is copra, oranges are also produced 
The Marquesans form an interesting group of 
the Polynesian race, of which they are physi- 
cally among the best representatives. They are 
very tall, with subdolichocephalic head form. In 
language they are closely related to the Hawaii- 
ans, and one stream of Hawaiian migration 
passed through the Marquesas. The Marquesans 
are an admixture of Proto-Samoan and Tongafiti 
elements, with a stiong preponderance of the 
latter Among Marquesan things worthy of note 
are the carved and ornamented axes and oars, 
feather diadems, coconut slings, carved paddle- 
shaped clubs, etc. Their food consists very 
largely of breadfruit. The Marquesas appear 
to have boon warlike, and traces of cannibalism 
lingeied long among them. The stone terraces 
of Waiko are of interest in connection with simi- 
lar remains elsewhere in Polynesia (See MEOA- 
LITHIC MONUMENTS ) The inhabitants are 




teadily decreasing in numbers. In the early 
art of the nineteenth century the population 
^as estimated at 20,000; in 1876 it was 5240; in 
900, 43,00; and, in 1912, 3117. The Marquesans 
re all civilized and Christians; there are very 
3W Europeans in the islands. The group is ad- 
rinistered by native chiefs subject to the French 
Resident at Hiva-oa. The southern group of 
tie Marquesas was discovered in 1595 by Men- 
afia de Neyra, a Spanish navigator; the north- 
rn group was discovered in 1791 by an Ameri- 
an, Ingraham, who gave it the name of Wash- 
ngton Islands. Peculiar interest attaches to 
he Marquesas because of the fact that this ar- 
hipelago was the first noncontiguous territory 
o be annexed to the United States. This as- 
umption of sovereignty was proclaimed in 1813 
y Commodore David Porter, of the Essex, but 
LO action was taken by the government at Wash- 
ngton. The islands were left very much to 
hemselves until 1842, when they were annexed 
y France. Consult Vincendon, lies Marquises 
Paris, 1843), and Churchill, Easter Island 
Washington, 1912). 
MAB'QUETBY (Fr marqueterie, from mar- 
meter , to inlay, from marque, mark) . A decora- 
ive or pictorial inlay (q.v.) on furniture, of 
hin pieces of wood or veneer, ivory, bone, brass, 
-ortoise shell, mother-of-pearl, etc Marquetry 
s the French name for what the Italians call 
arsia (q.v.), from which it was derived. The 
nost famous French maker of marquetry was 
\ndre* Charles Boulle ( q v. ) He was the nephew 
)f Pierre Boulle, who married the daughter of 
Jie King's marqueteur, Jean Mace*, of Blois. On 
ihe death in 1672 of Jean Mace* after 30 years 
n the royal service with lodgings at the Louvre, 
Colbert wrote to the King, who was absent from 
Paris on a military campaign- "The ebemste 
ffho used to make the panels of frogs is dead; 
le has a son who is not skillful in his profes- 
sion. A man named Boulle is the most skillful 
man in France. Your Majesty will ordain, if it 
pleases him, to which of these he wishes to grant 
his lodgings in the galleries." Louis XIV re- 
plied: "The lodgings in the galleries to the most 
skillful," which of course meant Andre" Charles. 
Realizing that the sombre tones of ebony were 
not satisfactorily softened either by pietra dura 
(q.v.) ornament or by the ivory inlays of Italy 
and Flanders, he increased the amount of col- 
ored ornament and lessened the amount of ebony 
groundwork, developing especially the art of 
brass and tortoise-shell inlay. His process was 
similar to that of wood marquetry, which he 
also employed extensively. He glued together 
two sheets of brass, or white metal, upon two 
sheets of tortoise shell and cut the outline of 
the design through all the four layers The re- 
sult was four replicas of the pattern and four 
replicas of the ground or matrix By inserting 
the metal patterns in the tortoise-shell grounds, 
and the tortoise-shell patterns in the metal 
grounds, two complete sets were obtained. The 
first two, known as Boulle pr&miere-partie, are 
preferable, being less shiny and taking the en- 
graving better than when the pattern is in the 
dark tortoise shell of contre- Boulle. Boulle also 
accentuated salient points of the framework of 
his furniture with brass and bronze mounts and 
gilded carving. Splendid examples of his work 
are the two armoires that brought 12,000 at the 
Hamilton sale, and the marriage coffer at the 
Louvre, illustrated in color on Plate XL of 

Foley's Decorative Furniture (London, 1910). 
An incendiary fire that destroyed his workshops 
in 1720, with their wonderful collection of fur- 
niture, models, and materials, ruined him, so 
that he bequeathed to his four sons an incubus 
of debts. Among great French marquetry 
makers of the eighteenth century are Foulet, 
Oeben, and Riesener. In the Wallace collection, 
London, there is a desk once part of the French 
crown furniture, sold in Holland to Sir William 
Hamilton, purchased from him in Naples by Sir 
Richard Wallace, and signed "Riesener fecit," 
with the date, Feb 20, 1769. It is similar in 
design to the famous Bureau du Roi Louis XV 
in the Louvre, of which there is a copy in the 
Wallace collection. From the Netherlands, 
where tarsia flourished during both the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries, it came to England 
during the reign of William and Mary, and to 
some extent before During the Georgian period 
largely supplanted by carving, until the classic 
revival of the Adam period, beginning about 
1760, when it in turn supplanted carving. Con- 
sult F. H. Jackson, Intarsta and Marquetry 
(New York, 1903). See FURNITURE. 

MARQUETTE, mar-kfct' A city and the 
county seat of Marquette Co , Mich., 400 milos 
by rail north of Chicago, on Iron Bay, an in lot 
of Lake Superior, and on the Duluth, South 
Shore, and Atlantic and the Mumsing, Mar- 
quette, and Southeastern raihoads (Map- Michi- 
gan, B 2) The city, noted for its charming 
scenery, clear and cool atmosphere, and fine 
buildings and streets, is popular as a summer 
resort, and is the principal shipping point for the 
mineral wealth, mainly iron, of the region It 
has a fine harbor and regular steamship com- 
munication with important lake ports, and its 
ore docks, well equipped with the latest devices 
for handling traffic, are among the largest in 
the world. There are blast furnaces, redstone 
and trap-rock quarries, chemical works, iron- 
works, foundries, and machine shops, carriage, 
sash, door, and blind factories, lumber mills, 
a wood-alcohol plant, etc Among the not- 
able structures are the United States Govern- 
ment building, city hall, courthouse, Northern 
State Normal School, new manual training and 
high school, opera house. Peter White Public 
Library, Protestant Episcopal, Roman and 
French Catholic cathedrals, Catholic Orphanage, 
St. Marv and St Luke hospitals, Father Mar- 
quette Monument, and the State House of Cor- 
rection and Branch of State Prison in Upper 
Peninsula. Presque Isle, a headland of 400 acres 
north of Marquette, was presented to the city by 
the Federal government and has been converted 
into an attractive park. The water works, elec- 
tric-light plant, power plant, costing $500,000, 
a cemetery, electric-supply shop, and a stone 
crusher are owned by the municipality. Mar- 
quette, named in honor of Pere Marquette, the 
French missionary explorer, was settled in 1845, 
when the rich de'posits of iron ore began to be 
exploited. The first dock was completed in 
1854 and a railroad to the mines three years 
later The city's subsequent prosperity has been 
marked. In 1913 it adopted the commission 
form of government. Pop., 1900 10,058; 1910, 
11,503; 1914 (U. S. est.), 12,117; 1920, 12,718. 

French missionary and explorer in America. He 
was born at Laon in France. When 17 he 
entered the Jesuit Order, and in 1666 was sent 


as a missionary to Canada. There his supe- 
riors sent him to the country of the Upper 
Lakes, and in 1668 he founded the Mission of 
Sault Ste. Marie. In 1673 Marquette, who was 
then in charge of the newly founded mission 
at Mackinaw, was instructed to accompany Louis 
Joliet on his expedition, sent by the Governor, 
Count Frontenac, to find the Mississippi. Seven 
men, in two birch canoes, set out on May 17. 
They went to Green Bay, up the Fox River, the 
rapids of which they passed by portage, and then 
on to its source, where guides were obtained 
from an Indian village They crossed to the 
Wisconsin and floated down that stream for a 
week. On June 17 they entered the Missis- 
sippi, on the waters of which another week was 
passed before they reached a village of Illinois 
Indians. They passed the junction of the Mis- 
sissippi and Missouri rivers, and at the mouth 
of the Arkansas found Indian villages, whose 
occupants received them with great kindness and 
no little curiosity. The voyagers continued 
southward to lat. 33 40', then, fearing lest 
they should be made prisoners by the Spaniards, 
they started on the return trip. On reaching the 
Illinois River they ascended it, and are sup- 
posed to have made the portage from the head 
of this stream to Lake Michigan, at or near 
the site of Chicago After an absence of four 
months and a voyage in canoes of 2550 miles, 
they again made Green Bay, in the latter part of 
September In October (1674) Marquette ob- 
tained permission from his superior to found a 
mission among the Illinois Indians With 10 
canoes he went to Green Bay, made a difficult 
portage through the forest to Lake Michigan, 
and followed the west shore of the lake to the 
Chicago River, where the party built a hut and 
passed the winter, as Marquette had become so 
enfeebled by illness that it was impossible for 
him to proceed farther In March he was able 
to resume the journey. The party crossed the 
portage to the Illinois River and were most 
hospitably received at the Indian town of Kas- 
kaskia Marquette's condition was so serious 
that his party was forced to turn homeward. 
They reached Lake Michigan and followed the 
eastern shore towards Michilimackmac Mar- 
quette did not live to reach his post, dying on 
May 18, 1675, near a small stream, a little south 
of that which now bears his name He was 
buried in the wilderness, but in 1676 the bones 
weie exhumed by a party of Ottawa converts 
and carried to the mission of St. Ignace, north 
of Mackinaw, where they were interred beneath 
the floor of the chapel. Marquette was a man of 
singular sweetness and serenity of disposition, 
and his influence over the Indians was great and 

Bibliography. Jared Sparks, "Life of Father 
Marquette," in Library of American Biography, 
vol. x (New York, 1854) ; "Joliet and Marquette 
on the Mississippi," in Old South Leaflets, An- 
nual Series, vol. vii (Boston, 1889); R. G. 
Thwaites (ed.), Jesuit Relations (Cleveland, 
1896) ; id., Father Marquette (New York, 1902) ; 
J D. G Shea, Early Voyages Up and Down the 
Mississippi (Albany, 1902) ; id., Discovery and 
Exploration of the Mississippi (2d ed., ib., 
1903) ; Francis Parkman, "La Salle and the 
Discovery of the Great West," in France and 
England in North America, part iii (Boston, 
1907); John Finley, French in the Heart of 
America (New York, 1915). 



Catholic institution for higher education, founded 
at Milwaukee, Wis., in 1864. The university 
includes a college of arts and sciences and schools 
of law, engineering, economics, medicine, dentis- 
try, pharmacy, and music. There is also an 
academic and a premedical department. The 
total attendance in all departments in 1914-15 
was 1187. Of these 270 were in the academic 
department; in the college of arts and sciences 
there were 40; in the school of law 140; in the 
school of engineering 60 ; in the school of econom- 
ics 87; in the school of medicine 140; in the 
school of dentistry 180; in the school of phar- 
macy 70; in the school of music 160; and in the 
premedical department 40. The instructors in 
various departments numbered 254. The univer- 
sity has no foundation funds, but is entirely de- 
pendent on tuition fees and gifts. The medical 
college has a "Class A" rating from the Ameri- 
can Medical Association. The value of the 
grounds, buildings, and equipment is estimated 
at about $800,000. The main library contains 
about 15,000 volumes and the department libra- 
ries about 16,000 volumes. The president in 
1915 was James Grimmelsman, S.J. 

MARQUEZ, mar'kas, LEONARDO (c!820-?). 
A Mexican general. He served against the 
United States in the Mexican War, and was a 

Srominent supporter of Santa Anna in the revo- 
itionary movement of 1849 After the fall of 
that dictator Marquez espoused the cause of 
Miramon and Zuloaga against Juarez. In 1862 
he took up the cause of the French, and rendered 
important service to the establishment of the 
power of Maximilian, by whom he was placed 
at the head of the regular army, and was, in 
1864, given the mission to Constantinople. He 
returned in 1866, and a year later, when the 
French withdrew, he undertook to organize a 
native army to support the Empire. In October, 
1866, Maximilian made him a division com- 
mander and in March, 1867, sent him to Mexico 
City to form a cabinet and raise troops for the 
relief of Quergtaro. He joined Maximilian at 
Querltaro, but broke through the besiegers and 
made his way to Mexico City for the purpose of 
organizing a force to relieve the Emperor. Find- 
ing this impossible, he conceived the plan of 
setting up an independent government of his 
own in the Southern States, with Puebla as its 
capital. He was defeated before he could reach 
that city and returned to Mexico, where he was 
besieged by General Diaz. The city was cap- 
tured, June 21, 1867, and Marquez, after re- 
maining in concealment for several months, made 
his way to Vera Cruz, and then to Havana. He 
was expressly excluded from the amnesty of 
1870. As a soldier and politician his motives 
were less marred by personal ambition than 
those of most of the leaders of Mexican affairs. 
He was fanatical and cold-blooded in his dis- 
regard of human life, receiving the nickname of 
"The Tiger of Tacubaya" for the wholesale exe- 
cutions which followed one of his guerrilla vic- 
tories in 1859, though he alleged the express 
order of Miramon as an explanation. For an 
account of Marquez's military career consult 
H. H Bancroft, History of Mexico, vols. v and 
vi (San Francisco, 1888). 

MARQUIS, marlcwis, or XARQUESS (OF. 
markis, marquis, Fr. marquis, from ML. mar- 
chensis, prefect of a frontier town, from marcha, 
maroa, from OHG. marka, boundary, march). 
The degree of nobility which in the peerage of 
England ranks next below duke. Marquises were 




such as the taking of auspices, by a banquet, 
and by the ceremonial taking of the wife to the 
husband's house, but none of these things was 
necessary: consensus, non concubitus, facit 
nuptias. In the course of time the consensual 
marriage supplanted all other forms except the 
confarreatio, which was occasionally used in 
some of the old families until the empire became 
Christian. The consensual marriage was a "free 
marriage" in two senses: it gave the husband 
no power over the person or property of his 
wife, and it was dissoluble at the will of either 

Marriage could be established when both par- 
ties had reached the age of puberty, which was 
fixed at the completed fourteenth year for 
males, at the completed twelfth for females. 
Betrothal (q.v.), sponsalw, could take place at 
any time after the seventh year. When the 
parties, or either of them, were under paternal 
authority, no betrothal or marriage was valid 
without the paternal authorization. 

The remarriage of widows was regarded in the 
older Roman ethics as improper, but it was 
never legally prohibited. In the later Imperial 
law it was prohibited for ten months, unless 
within that period a child had been born In 
the later Imperial law, certain property disad- 
vantages were attached to second marriages, 
both as regarded husbands and wives; but the 
object was not to penalize second marriages, but 
to secure the interests of the children of the 
previous marriages. 

Early German Law. The usual form of 
marriage among the Scandinavians, the Ger- 
mans proper, and the Anglo-Saxons was wife- 
purchase. The girl was bought from her father 
or guardian, and delivered by the father or 
guardian to the buyer. Abduction of a girl with- 
out payment seems to have been regarded as a 
mode of marriage, but the husband did not ob- 
tain complete marital authority until he had 
paid the customary compensation to the father or 
guardian. In the earliest written laws the price 
paid is beginning to be regarded as something 
that belongs to the woman, not to the father or 
guardian, it is dos or dower in the later English 
sense i e., a provision for widowhood and in- 
stead of paying it over to the father or guardian, 
the bridegroom gives security for its payment 
on his death to his widow. In the earliest writ- 
ten laws also the purchase marriage consists of 
two separate transactions: (1) the agreement 
between the bridegroom and the bride's father or 
guardian, in which each formally binds himself 
to perform his part of the contract, and (2) the 
delivery of the bride, together with the payment 
of the price or the giving of security for its 
payment to the widow. As the formal contract 
of "the old German law consisted in the giving of 
symbolic pledges, wadia, the first of these trans- 
actions was a wadiatio (Anglo-Saxon, bewed- 
dung], while the second was a "giving" (Anglo- 
Saxon, gifta). The wadiatio was more than a 
betrothal, it was an inchoate marriage. It pro- 
duced some of the legal results of marriage, 
while other results attached to the giving, and 
others again to cohabitation. In the later 
development of the German law the wadiatio was 
described as Verlobung or promising, and con- 
sisted in the exchange of promises between bride- 
groom and bride, and the giving became the 
Trauung or intrusting. Verlobung, however, in 
the German view, was always something more 
than a Roman betrothal, and the German view 

was not without influence upon the development 
of the canon law. 

Boman Canon Law. The Roman Catholic 
church considers marriage as a sacrament which 
conveys divine grace to the recipients for the 
purpose of enabling them to perform well the 
duties of the conjugal state. This aspect has 
nothing to do with the validity of the marriage 
as a civil contract, nor does the Church 'by this 
teaching deny that valid marriages are contracted 
outside its communion. But, considered as a 
sacrament of the Catholic church, it cannot be 
received by an unbaptized person, or properly by 
any one who is in a state of mortal sin By the 
general view of theologians, since the consent 
of the parties is considered the essential part of 
the sadVament, tUey are themselves held to be 
the "ministers" of it: the priest simply adds 
the Church's benediction. Since marriage was 
considered a sacrament, it was early asserted 
that as such its regulation fell within the ex- 
clusive jurisdiction of the Church. The claim 
was recognized, and in the exercise of its juris- 
diction the Church developed a uniform law of 
marriage for all Western Christendom It did 
not claim to regulate the property relations of 
husband and wife, but it regulated the estab- 
lishment and determined the validity of mar- 
riages. The principal inference which the Church 
drew from the sacramental theory was that mar- 
riage was indissoluble. The Church courts could 
declare that an existing union was not a valid 
marriage, i.e., they could declare a raairiage 
null, on account of circumstances antecedent to 
or simultaneous with its establishment, and 
they could grant a separation from bed and 
board on account of circumstances that had 
arisen since the marriage, but they could not 
dissolve a marriage validly established by reason 
of any occurrences subsequent to its establish- 

There were numerous grounds on which a 
marriage could be set aside or annulled, called 
dividing or destructive impediments (impedi- 
menta dinmentia), such as a previous marnage, 
a previous vow of celibacy, a difference of re- 
ligion, impotence, etc To the dividing impedi- 
ments belonged also relationship within the for- 
bidden degrees. The wide range of this impedi- 
ment was perhaps the most peculiar feature of 
the canon law. The Church not only forbade 
marriage by reason of consanguinity and the 
legal affinity established by marriage, it attached 
the same result to the spiritual relationship es- 
tablished by participation in the sacraments of 
baptism and of confirmation, and to the illegiti- 
mate affinity established by unlawful concubitus ; 
and it carried prohibitions based on affinity to 
the same degree as those based on blood kinship. 
Before 1215 the impediments of consanguinity 
and affinity extended to the seventh degree, but 
at the fourth Latcran Council Innocent III lim- 
ited the prohibition based on consanguinity and 
affinity to the fourth degree (the seventh by the 
reckoning of the civil law, e.g., third cousins). 
From all these impediments of relationship, 
except those between ascendants and descendants 
and brother and sister, dispensation might be 
granted, as also from a vow of celibacy, a dif- 
ference of religion, and lack of age. Lack of age, 
moreover, and lack of consent, were curable 
defects. In most cases, therefore, these dividing 
impediments did not render the marriages void, 
but only voidable. The hardships logically re- 
sulting from the annulment of marriage were 



lessened by the doctrine of the "putative mar- 
riage " Where one of the parties to the invalid 
marriage was unaware of the impediment, that 
party, and also any children born of the union, 
were entitled to all the rights which would have 
been theirs if the marriage had been valid. In 
particular, the children were legitimate. This 
doctrine, however, reached over into a field 
which, even in the Middle Ages, was regarded as 
secular. The Church could say what was and 
what was not a marnage, but it could not regu- 
late all the civil results ot marriage, nor all the 
civil results of its annulment. 

Other impediments were known as "impeding" 
or "prohibitive." To this class belonged, for ex- 
ample, a precontract de futuro (i.e., a previous 
betrothal to another person) ; also the non- 
observance of ecclesiastical rules regarding banns. 
Disregard of such impediments subjected the 
offender to penalties, but did not invalidate the 

It should be noted, however, that the Church's 
view of betrothal changed in the twelfth century. 
In the early Middle Ages the Church was 
strongly influenced by the German idea that be- 
trothal was an inchoate marriage. In the twelfth 
century it went back to the Roman view that an 
agreement de futuro was a thing wholly distinct 
from marriage. Nevertheless some concessions 
were still made to German ideas. It was ad- 
mitted that an agreement to marry in future 
and subsequent concubitus constituted marriage. 
Moreover, mariiages not consummated were 
treated somewhat differently from those which 
had been consummated : they were annulled with 
more freedom. 

On the whole, the canonical marriage was the 
consensual marriage of the Roman law, made 
indissoluble The ages of consent were the same, 
14 and 12 It was customary to publish banns, 
to exchange trothphght at the church door, and 
to have the marriage consecrated by the priest 
inside of the church, but none of these things 
was necessary. The sacrament of marriage was 
one which the parties could administer to each 
other, and the clandestine unconsecrated mar- 
riage was completely valid. The consent of par- 
ents to the marriages of their children, which 
was required by the Roman law, was not re- 
quired by the Church, not even in the case of 
minors. The law was changed, after the Ref- 
ormation, by the Council of Trent, which de- 
creed that a marriage, to be valid, must be cele- 
brated by the priest of the parish or by some 
other priest delegated by him for the purpose in 
the presence of two or three witnesses. This de- 
cree, however, was not put in force in all Catho- 
lic countries (it is affirmed that it was not in- 
troduced into the American possessions of 
Spain), and where the Tridentine laws are not 
in force, the Catholic church continues to recog- 
nize the secret and unconsecrated marriage. 

Protestant Ecclesiastical. Law. The Prot- 
estant churches of the Continent rejected the 
sacramental theory of marriage. They regarded 
divorce as admissible. Luther revived the theory 
that betrothal was an inchoate marriage, and 
this view was dominant until the eighteenth cen- 
tury. In order to suppress secret marriages the 
Protestant churches demanded the consent of 
parents, or the presence of witnesses, or an 
ecclesiastical ceremony, or all these things; and 
before the end of the century it was held that 
the ecclesiastical marriage was the only perfect 
marriage; but in the cases where oonculntus had 
VOL. XV. 9 

occurred after a promise of marriage, it was 
usual not only to compel the man to go through 
the religious ceremony, but to "supply" his 
assent when he refused to give it. The impedi- 
ments to marriage based on consanguinity and 
affinity were greatly reduced. Consanguinity 
was treated as a bar only within the third or 
fourth degree, affinity only in the direct line. 
Spiritual kinship was not recognized. There was 
manifested also a tendency to treat fraud as a 
ground for annulling marriage, providing it was 
made clear that but for the fiaud the marriage 
would not have been contracted. Some of these 
changes were made by civil legislation, but until 
the nineteenth century legislation was for the 
most part guided by ecclesiastical opinion. 

Modern Continental Legislation. Even in 
Catholic countries marriage is governed at the 
present time by civil legislation. The most im- 
portant innovation of the nineteenth century is 
the civil marriage In the eighteenth century 
publicity of marriage, established in Catholic 
countries by the Tridentine decrees, was secured 
in Protestant states in the same way, i.e., by 
compulsory religious marriage. In some states 
it was demanded that the rites of the established 
Church be observed, but exceptions were gener- 
ally made in favor of the adherents of other con- 
fessions or of no confession, first, by permitting 
marriage to be celebrated according to the forms 
of any recognized confession, and finally by es- 
tablishing civil marriage, i e , marriage before a 
civil officer. The civil marriage is regularly pre- 
ceded by notices, posted or otherwise published 
in the domicile of each of the parties, and the 
civil officer does not proceed to the marriage un- 
til he is satisfied that all the requirements of 
the law have been observed. At the outset the 
parties could choose between civil and religious 
marriage, or the religious marriage was made 
compulsory only upon members of the state 
church. Such a choice exists to-day in Austria, 
Spain, and Portugal In a larger number of 
Continental states, however, civil marriage is 
obligatory The parties may add a religious 
ceremony, but the religious marriage has no 
legal effect. This system obtains in France, 
Holland, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. 

The age of consent has generally been raised 
(to 18 and 15 in France, to 21 and 16 in Ger- 
many), but not in Spain. The consent of parents 
or guardians is required for the marriage of 
minors, and in many legislations the consent of 
parents is required even after majority. In 
some of these legislations, the only result at- 
tached to parental opposition after majority is 
to delay the marriage. In Germany, if the op- 
position of the parents appears unreasonable, 
the necessary consent can be given by the court. 
The Roman rule forbidding remarriage of a 
woman within the ten months following the dis- 
solution of the previous marriage is generally 
retained in modern legislations. The hindrances 
based on consanguinity and affinity vary con- 
siderably in different states. In Germany con- 
sanguinity is a bar only in the direct line and 
between brothers and sisters; affinity is a bar 
only in the direct line. In France uncle and 
niece, aunt and nephew, and brother-in-law and 
sister-in-law are forbidden to intermarry, but 
dispensation may be granted by the head of the 
state. Even in the more conservative Catholic 
countries there is a tendency to limit the impedi- 
ments of consanguinity and affinity. In Spain 
marriages within the fourth degree are pro- 


hibited, but for non-Catholics the restriction 
reaches no further than to first cousins. As 
regards lack of consent, the doctrines of the 
canon law are generally followed in the modern 
civil legislations. Fraud per se does not gener- 
ally invalidate a marriage, but in the German 
Code fraud by which consent has been induced 
has this effect. 

English Common Law, and Acts of Parlia- 
ment. That the general ecclesiastical law of 
Western Christendom prevailed in the British 
Islands until the Reformation, and that it con- 
tinued to prevail after the Reformation until 
changed by Parliamentary enactments, was not 
seriously questioned by the courts until 1843. 
In that year the House of Lords decided, in 
Queen v. Millis (10 Clark and Finelly, 534), 
that, even before the Reformation, there was a 
special ecclesiastical law of England and Ireland, 
which was not in all points identical with the 
Roman canon law; that, in particular, the Ro- 
man doctrine that parties could contract a valid 
marriage by consent alone had never been a rule 
of English ecclesiastical law; that, on the con- 
trary, the assistance and benediction of a priest 
had always been essential to a perfect marriage 
in England and Ireland. This decision denied, 
accordingly, that the form of marriage which is 
still known in the United States as the "com- 
mon-law marriage" had ever been a perfect mar- 
riage at English common law. The correctness 
of this decision has been widely questioned, and 
further historical investigation has strengthened 
the opposite opinion (sec Pollock and Maitland, 
History of English Law, II, 372, and Maitland, 
Canon Law in England], The opposite theory 
has always been held by the courts of the United 
States, and the decision in Queen v. Millis has 
not been accepted by the courts of Canada. 

The marriage of which the validity was de- 
nied in Queen v Millis was an Irish marriage. 
As far as England was concerned, the question 
had been settled by the Acts 26 Geo II, c 33 
(Lord Hardwicke's Act) and 4 Geo IV, 76, which 
required a Church marriage preceded by the pub- 
lication of banns, except when a special license 
was secured, and which declared any other form 
of marriage invalid Church marriage meant 
marriage according to the forms of the Estab- 
lished church, and from 1753 to 1836 no ex- 
ceptions were made except in the cases of Quak- 
ers and Jews Lord Russell's Act, 6 and 7 Wil- 
liam IV, c. 85, supplemented by Acts 1 Viet., 
c. 22, and 19 and 20 Viet., c. 119, furnished a 
choice between marriage according to the forms 
of the Established church, marriage according 
to the forms of other registered confessions, and 
civil marriage before a registrar. Lord Hard- 
wicke's Act further demanded the assent of par- 
ents or guardians to the marriage of minors, and 
the fact that it did not operate outside England 
led to the numerous "Gretria Green" marriages 
over the Scottish border. At present, under later 
acts of Parliament, the same election between 
various forms of marriage is given in Scotland 
and in Ireland as in England an election be- 
tween religious marriage according to the rites 
of any recognized confession and civil marriage. 
In Scotland the formless marriage still exists, 
as it still exists in the great majority of the 
commonwealths of the United States. All that 
is necessary to establish the marriage is the con- 
sent or agreement in presently i.e., an agreement 
of marriage as distinct from an agreement to 
marry at some future time. 


With the requirement of public marriage in 
England and Ireland, the canonical rule that an 
agreement to marry followed by ooncubitus is 
marriage has been abrogated. In Scotland the 
rule is maintained In the United States there 
is a conflict of authorities. Even at the canon 
law the rule was based on a presumption that 
consent in presenti had intervened, but this pre- 
sumption was not rebuttable. Some of the 
American courts treat the presumption as rebut- 
table; a few decline to recognize the rule. Of 
course neither in Scotland nor in the United 
States will a relation which was originally mere- 
tricious be transformed into marriage by a prom- 
ise to marry ; nor was any such result recognized 
by the Catholic church. In accordance with the 
common rules, the common-law ages of consent 
are 14 and 12 If either party, by reason of 
idiocy, imbecility, or insanity, does not com- 
prehend the nature and effect of the marriage 
contract, there is no marriage; but if the lack 
of comprehension is due to intoxication, the 
marriage is not void, but only voidable. Mis- 
take, as at canon law, must be of such a char- 
acter that there was really no consent As re- 
gards fraud, the English courts follow the Ro- 
man ecclesiastical rule, that fraud per se is 
not a ground for annulling a marriage. As Sir 
F H. Jeune said (in Moss v Moss, 1897, P. I) 
268), where manage is said to be annulled for 
fraud, it is really annulled because of the absence 
of consent The American courts, however, are 
inclined to admit that a marriage may be an- 
nulled by fraud, and they are especially inclined 
to admit such an annullment if the 'marriage 
has not been consummated. 

In England, as elsewhere, the Reformation 
brought about a considerable reduction in the 
prohibitions of marriage based on relationship. 
Statutes of Henry VTII, repealed in part by a 
statute of Edward VI and wholly repealed by a 
statute of Philip and Mary, were partially "re- 
vived in the first year of Elizabeth's reipn ,' and 
the provision that survived simply stated that 
"no prohibition, God's law except," shall trouble 
or impeach any marriage outside the Levitical 
degrees " This was interpreted by the ecclesias- 
tical courts to mean that consanguinity and 
affinity were impediments to marriage as 'far as 
the third degree of civil computation Under 
this rule a man might not marry his aunt or his 
niece or the daughter of his* deceased wife's 
sister, but might marry his first cousin Rela- 
tionship by the half blood was put on the same 
footing as that by the full blood, and illegitimate 
consanguinity was treated as equivalent to legiti- 
mate blood relationship. On the other hand, the 
illegitimate or natural affinity of the canon law, 
which was affirmed in 28 Henry VIII, c 7, is held 
to have disappeared from English law with the 
repeal of that statute. The courts regarded mar- 
riages within the forbidden degree as voidable 
rather than void, Jbut such marriages were de- 
clared void by Act of 5 and 6 William IV 
(1835). Repeated efforts to legalize marriage 
with the deceased wife's sister were finally 
crowned with success in 1907. In all the British 
colonies the prohibitions based on collateral 
affinity have been removed 

As to proof of marriage, the common law ad- 
mits any evidence of matrimonial consent. 
Where a formal marriage, religious or civil, has 
taken place, it is presumed, until the contrary 
is shown, that the parties were able to marry, 
that their consent was complete and free, and 



that all necessary forms were observed. If BO 
formal marriage has taken place, or none is 
proved, the fact that the parties have lived 
together as husband and wife, have acknowledged 
themselves, or have been generally reputed, to 
be husband and wife, raises a presumption of 
marriage. This presumption, however, is in- 
validated if it can be shown that the relation 
was illicit in its origin. 

It is a peculiar feature of the English and 
American common law that it gives an action for 
damages for breach of contract to marry. See 

Foreign Marriages. The question whether 
and under what conditions a court of law will 
recognize as marriage a union established in 
another jurisdiction is a question of conflict of 
laws (q.v ). The general rule, all over the 
civilized world, is that if the forms required 
where the marriage was established have been 
observed, the marriage will be recognized as 
formally perfect everywhere. The capacity of 
parties to marry is determined, according to the 
prevailing European theory, by the law of their 
domicile, and the English courts now follow 
this rule. In some of the European states, how- 
ever, capacity to marry is determined by the 
law of the country of which the person is a 
citizen or subject, whether he or she be domiciled 
there or elsewhere. In the United States the 
courts follow the older English decisions, ac- 
cording to which the capacity of the parties to 
marry, as well as the sufficiency of the forms 
observed, is determined by the law of the State 
in which the marriage takes place, so that citi- 
zens of any State can escape the restrictions im- 
posed by their own State by simply crossing 
the line into a jurisdiction where those restric- 
tions are not imposed. 

Statutory Rules in the United States. 
Lord Hardwieke's Act did not apply to the Colo- 
nies, and never became a part of the common law 
of the United States. In nearly all of the 
United States, however, statutes have been 
enacted providing for a ceremonial marriage, 
and in most cases requiring also a license to 
marry granted by the properly constituted offi- 
cer, usually the clerk of the municipality where 
the marriage is solemnized or the officer having 
supervision over vital statistics. 

The marriage ceremony is usually required to 
be performed in the presence of two or more 
witnesses, by a priest or clergyman of some 
church, or by certain enumerated civil officers, 
such as judges of courts of record, justices of 
the peace, police justices, mayors, aldermen of 
cities, and county clerks. Various penalties are 
imposed for failure to comply with the provisions 
of the statute, and in some States intentional 
violation of the law is made a criminal offense. 
In most States, in the absence of a positive pro- 
vision of the statute that marriages not comply- 
ing with the requirements of the statute shall be 
void, the statute is deemed to be directory only, 
and not in any manner to affect the validity of 
the so-called common-law marriage. This is sub- 
stantially the law in all of the States except 
California, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Mary- 
land, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Vermont, 
Washington, and West Virginia, in all of which 
it is held that the common-law marriage has 
been abolished by statute. But in some of these 
States, notably Massachusetts, Washington, and 
West Virginia, there are validating statutes 
providing that mere irregularities when an at- 

tempt is made in good faith to comply with the 
statute shall not affect the validity of the 

A statute of New York, passed in 1901, re- 
quires a nonceremonial marriage to be evidenced 
by a written agreement to be entered into in the 
presence of two witnesses and acknowledged in 
the same manner as conveyances of real estate. 
It would seem that this statute does away with 
common-law marriage in New York. 

In many of the United States the age at which 
an infant may consent to marry has been raised 
by statute to 16 and in some of the States to 
18 years. These statutes do not, however, change 
the common-law rule that such marriages are 
not void, but voidable only at the option of the 
infant or of his parent or guardian. See 

In Connecticut and Minnesota epileptics and 
feeble-minded persons are not allowed to marry, 
and several States have somewhat similar stat- 
utes. Michigan prohibits the marriage of per- 
sons afflicted with venereal disease. Twenty-five 
States prohibit marriage between whites and 
persons of negro descent, four States between 
whites and Indians, and five States between 
whites and Chinese In 17 States the marriage 
of first cousins is forbidden. 

Bibliography. On the history of marriage as 
an institution, consult: E. A Westermarck, The 
History of Human Marriage (3d ed , New York, 
1902) ; G. E. Howard, A History of Matrimonial 
Institutions (Chicago, 1904) ; Charles Letour- 
neau, The Evolution of Marriage and of the 
Family, translated from the French (New York, 
1911) These are general works. The original 
studios which have developed the scientific theory 
of the subject are- L. H. Morgan, The League 
of the Ho-de-no-sau-nee or Iroquois (Rochester, 
1849, reprinted, New York, 1904), the first work 
to direct scientific attention to the character of 
marital and kinship systems among uncivilized 
men; Sir Francis Galton, Hereditary Genius 
(London, 1870) ; L H. Morgan, "Systems of 
Consanguinity," in Smithsonian Institution, Con- 
tnbutions to Knowledge, vol. xvn (Washington, 
1870) ; id., Ancient Society (New York, 1878) ; 
Dargun, Mutt err echt und Raubehe und ihre 
Reste im germamschem Recht und Leben (Bres- 
lau, 1883) : J. F McLennan, Patriarchal Theory 
(London, 1885); Sir H. J. S. Maine, Disserta- 
tions on Early Law and Custom (New York, 
1886) ; J. F. McLennan, Studies in Ancient His- 
tory, two series (London, 1886-96) ; J. J. Bacho- 
fen, Das Mutt err echt (2d ed., Basel, 1897); 
Spencer and Guillen, Native Tribes of Central 
Australia (London, 1899) : Ernest Crawley, The 
Mystic Rose: A Study of Primitive Marriage 
(New York, 1902) ; W. R. Smith, Kinship and 
Marriage in Early Arabia (ib., 1903) ; Sir H. J. 
S. Maine, Ancient Law: Its Connection with 
Early History of Society and its Relation to 
Modern Ideas (ib., 1907) ; C. R. Darwin, Descent 
of Man (ib, 1909). For the Roman law: G. A. 
W. Rossbach, Romische Ehe (Stuttgart, 1853) ; 
Otto Earlowa, Romische Ehe und Manus (Bonn, 
1868) . For the old German law: Rudolph Sohm, 
Das Recht der Eheschliessung, aus dem deutschen 
und canonischen Recht geschichtlich entwickelt 
(Weimar, 1875) ; id., Trauung und Verlobung 
(ib., 1876); Emil Friedberg, Verlobung und 
Trauung (Leipzig, 1876) ; Rudolf Sohm, Zur 
Trauungsfrage (Heilbronn, 1879) ; the works on 
German legal history by A. Heusler, Institutions 
des deutschen Prwatrechts (Leipzig, 1886)$ 



R. SchrOder (2d ed., ib., 1889); and Heinrich 
Brunner (ib., 1892-04). For the ecclesiastical 
law, Catholic and Protestant: A. Esmein, Le 
manage en droit canonique (Paris, 1891) ; 
Binder, Katholischcs Eherecht (4th ed., Frei- 
burg-im-Breisgau, 1891 ); Joseph Friesen, Ge- 
schichte des Kanonischem Eherecht 8 (2d ed., 
Paderborn, 1892); Joseph Schnitzer, Katholi- 
sches Eherecht (ib., 1898) ; and works on Kirch- 
cnrecht by J. F. Schulte (Giessen, 1886) ; A. L. 
Kichter (8th ed., Leipzig, 1886) ; Emil Fried- 
Jjt-rg (4th ed., ib., 1895). For English ecclesias- 
tical law Richard Burn, Ecclesiastical Law ( 9th 
ed., London, 1842 ) ; Joseph Philhmore, Ecclesi- 
astical Law of the Church of England (2d ed., 
ib., 1895). For modern civil marriage Rudolf 
Gneist, Die burgerhche Eheschliessung (Berlin, 
1869), Glasson, Manage civil (2d ed., Paris, 
1880). Comparative legislation- Lehr, Le man- 
age dans les prmcipaux pays ( Paris, 1899 ) Also : 
Bryce, "Marriage and Divorce Under Roman and 
English Law," in Studies in History and Juris- 
prudence (Oxford, 1901), G. E. Howard, His- 
tory of Matrimonial Institutions, chiefly in Eng- 
land and the United States (Chicago, 1904) ; 
Avebury, Marriage, Totemism, and Religion (New 
York, 1911), E. L Wehn, Short History of 
Marriage, Marnage Rites, Customs and Folklore 
in Many Countries and All Ages (London, 1913) ; 
E. J. Schuster, The Wife in Ancient and Modern 
Times (ib , 1914) ; W. H. R. Rivers, Kinship and 
Social Organization (ib., 1914) ; G. E Howard, 
The Family and Marriage : An Analytical Refer- 
ence Syllabus (Lincoln, Neb, 1914). See CUK- 





MARRIAGE A LA MODE, a la mod. A 
series of six paintings by Hogarth (1744) in the 
National Gallery, London, intended as designs 
for a series of engravings, as which they are 
most widely known. They show the results of 
a fashionable marriage between the son of an 
earl and the daughter of a rich London alder- 
man, in subjects as follows- I. The Marriage 
Contract, II After the Marriage (see illustra- 
tion under HOGARTH) ; III Visit to the Quack 
Doctor; IV The Countess's Dressing Room, V. 
The Duel and Death of the Earl; VI. Death of 
the Countess. 

MARRIAGE AT CANA. A favorite sub- 
ject of Italian painters, especially of the Vene- 
tian school The most celebrated examples are 
those by Paolo Veronese in the Louvre (1563) 
and by Tintoretto in Santa Maria della Salute, 
Venice The former, one of the largest easel 
pictures in the world, contains over 130 figures, 
many of which are portraits of contemporary 
rulers and celebrities It represents an elaborate 
Venetian feast, with rich architectural back- 
ground. Other examples of this subject, which 
was a favorite one with Veronese, are in the 
Dresden Gallery and the Brera, Milan. In 
Tintoretto's "Marriage at Cana" the table is 
set lengthwise in a large hall, with Christ at 
the farther end and guests along both sides, a 
remarkable piece of foreshortening. Other 
large canvases of the same subject are by 

Moretto da Brescia at San Fermo and by 
Scarsellino in the Ferrara Gallery. 

lish law of real property a trust of real estate 
created for the purpose of securing to a wife a 
separate interest therein for her life free from 
the control of her husband Such settlements 
were devised to protect the wife's property rights 
from the absolute control which was by the com- 
mon law vested in the husband. This end was 
attained by conveying the land to trustees for 
the sole and separate use of the wife usually for 
life, though sometimes in fee. As the term 'set- 
tlement,' as a term of conveyancing, signified a 
conveyance of property to be held and enjoyed 
by two or more persons, as mother and child or 
children, in succession, a marriage settlement 
came to denote such a conveyance made to, or 
for the benefit of, a woman on her marriage, with 
remainder to her child or children, and this ir- 
respective of whether the wife's estate was legal, 
and so subject to the husband's control, or equi- 
table and as such free from his control A mar- 
riage settlement is usually made in anticipation 
of a contemplated marriage, in which case it is 
known as an antenuptial settlement, but post- 
nuptial settlements are also common. See HUS- 


MARRIOTT, JOHN (1780-1825). An Eng- 
lish poet He was the son of Robert Marriott, 
rector of Cotesbach Church in Leicestershire, and 
was educated at Rugby and at Christ Church, 
Oxford ( B A., 1802 ; M A , 1806 ) . He left Oxford 
in 1804 to become tutor to George Henry, Lord 
Scott (died 1808), elder brother of the fifth Duke 
of Buccleuch While living at Dalkeith (1804- 
08) he made the intimate acquaintance of Sir 
Walter Scott Ordained priest in 1805, he re- 
ceived from the Buccleuch family the rectory of 
Church Lawford in Warwickshire Though he 
retained this benefice till his death, he resided 
mostly in Devonshire, serving in various curacies. 
To the third edition of Scott's Minstrelsy he 
contributed three poems. Marriott's best-known 
poem is "Marriage is Like a Devonshire Lane" 
(in Joanna Bailhe's Collection of Poems, 1823) 
He also wiote several popular hymns, as "Thou 
whose Almighty Word." 

MARRONS GLACIS, ma'rftN' gla'sa' See 

MAB/BOW (AS. mearg, mearh, OHG. marag f 
marg, Ger. Mark, connected with Welsh mer 9 
Corn maru, OChurch Slav, mozgii, Av mazga, 
Skt. majjan, marrow, from maj), Lat mergere, 
to dip) A substance filling the cells and cavi- 
ties of the bones of mammals. There are two 
varieties, which are known as red marrow and 
yellow marrow. In some of the short bones, as 
the bodies of the vertebrae and the sternum, the 
marrow has a reddish color, and is found on 
analysis to contain 75 per cent of water, the 
remainder consisting of albuminous and fibrin- 
ous matter, with salts and a trace of oil. In 
the long bones of a healthy adult mammal the 
marrow occurs as a yellow, oily fluid, contained 
in vesicles like those of common fat, which are 
embedded in the interspaces of the medullary 
membrane, a highly vascular membrane lining 
the interior of the bones. This marrow consists 
of 96 per cent of oil and 4 of water, connective 
tissue, and vessels. The capillary blood vessels 
are very abundant, and in those of red marrow 


the red corpuscles of the blood are constantly 
recruited. The oily matter of the marrow is 
composed of the same materials as common fat, 
with the oleine (or fluid portion) in greater 
abundance. Being of low specific gravity, it is 
well suited to fill the cavities of the bones and 
forms an advantageous substitute for the bony 
matter which preceded it in the young animal. 
Preparations of red bone marrow are in the 
market, for internal administration. They are 
useful in anaemia, when given with other recon- 

memorable struggles in the religious history of 
Scotland. It took its name from a book entitled 
the Marrow of Modern Divinity, published at 
Oxford in 1645. The authorship of the book has 
been attributed, though probably incorrectly, to 
Edward Fisher. The high evangelical character 
of this work, and especially its doctrine of the 
free grace of God in the redemption of sinners, 
had made it JBL great favorite with certain of the 
ministers of the Church of Scotland, and in 1718 
an edition was published in Edinburgh by the 
Bev. James Hog of Carnock, followed in 1719 
by an explanatory pamphlet. A committee ap- 
pointed by the General Assembly of the same 
year, after an examination, drew up a report 
which was presented to the Assembly of 1720. 
and the result was the formal condemnation of 
the doctrines of the Marrow, a prohibition to 
teach or preach them for the future, and an ex- 
hortation to the people of Scotland not to read 
them. This act of the Assembly was immediately 
brought by Thomas Boston before the presbytery 
of Selkirk, who laid it before the synod of 
Mcrse and Teviotdale The evangelical ministers 
in the Church, few in number, but supported by 
a very considerable amount of popular sympathy, 
resolved to present a representation to the next 
General Assembly (1721) complaining of the 
late act and vindicating the "truths" which it 
condemned A commission of the Assembly of 
1721 was appointed to deal with the ministers, 
and a series of questions was put to them, to 
which answers were drawn up by Ebenezer 
Erskine and Gabriel Wilson. These replies did 
not prove satisfactory, and the "Marrow-men" 
were called before the bar of the Assembly 
(1722) and solemnly rebuked. The matter was 
then quietly dropped, but it really occasioned 
the secession of 1734. See BOSTON, THOMAS; 

MAR'RTTCI'NI. An ancient people in cen- 
tral Italy, on a narrow tract of land along the 
right bank of the river Aternus, now the Pescara. 
Their territory extended from the Apennines to 
the Adriatic; it lay between the Vestini on 
the northwest and the Frentani on the southeast, 
and between the Pseligni on the southwest and the 
Adriatic on the northeast. They were an inde- 
pendent nation, said to be descended from the 
Sabines, and generally were in alliance with 
their neighbors, the Marsi and the Pseligni. They 
entered into alliance with the Romans in 304 
B.C., but rebelled at the beginning of the Social 
War Their only place of importance was Teate, 
now Chieti, on the right bank of the Aternus. 
From an inscription, of about 250 B.C., known 
as the Bronze of Bapino, written in the Latin 
alphabet, but in an Oscan dialect, something is 
known of the dialect of the Marrucini. See 
ITALIC LANGUAGES, Marrucinian; and consult 
B S. Conway, The Italic Dialects (Cambridge, 

MARRY AT, mar'rf-at, FLORENCE (1837-99). 
An English authoress, daughter of Captain Mar- 
ryat. She was born at Brighton, July 9, 1837, 
educated at home, and began writing at 12. She 
was twice married, first to Col. Boss Church, of 
the Madras Staff Corps, and second to Col. Fran- 
cis Lean, of the Royal Light Infantry. She died 
in London, Oct. 27, 1899. As a writer she first 
gained public attention by Love's Conflict 
(1865). Miss Marryat was also known as a 
lecturer, an operatic singer and a comedienne 
In collaboration with Sir C. L. Young she wrote 
Miss Chester, a three-act drama, and in 1881 
she acted the principal comedy role in her own 
play, Her World. Her books, fiction and miscel- 
laneous, number some 70, none of them, probably, 
destined to be long remembered. Her Life and 
Letters of Captain Marryat (1872) should, 
however, be mentioned. 

MARRYAT, FREDERICK (1792-1848). An 
English sailor and novelist, born in London, July 
10, 1792. On leaving school he entered the navy 
as midshipman. In 1812 he attained his lieu- 
tenancy. In 1814 he was fighting on the Ameri- 
can coast His health gave way and he went 
home. He was made commander in 1815. In 
1820 he was in the sloop Beaver on the St. 
Helena station. After an able service he re- 
signed in 1830. During his naval career Marryat 
saved at great personal risk more than a dozen 
lives. He was rewarded on this score by a medal 
from the Boyal Humane Society; and he was 
elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1819, 
mainly because he had adapted Popham's signal 
system to the mercantile marine. He was also 
decorated by the King of France for "services 
rendered to science and navigation." Marryat 
wrote easily and made money quickly, but he 
was somewhat lavish, and towards 1844 was in 
straitened circumstances Upon the Admiralty's 
refusal to let him ree'nter the service he burst a 
blood vessel, and six months later, when almost 
well, he was mortally shocked by hearing that 
his son Frederick had been lost in the Avenger. 
He died Aug. 9, 1848, at Langham Among his 
numerous tales are the avowedly autobiographi- 
cal Frank Mildmay (1829) ; then Peter Simple 
(1834); Mr. Midshipman Easy (1836); The 
Phantom Ship (1839); Poor Jack (1840); The 
Privateer's Man (1846). Consult Florence 
Marryat, Life and Letters of Captain Marryat 
(London, 1872), and David Hannay, Life (ib., 

MARS (Lat., also Mar mar, Mavors t or Mar- 
spit er y like Jupiter, Gk. *Apijs, Ares, of unknown 
derivation ) . Among the ancient Greeks and Bo- 
mans the god of war and tumult of battle. The 
Greek and Boman conceptions differ radically. 

Greek. Ares, though prominent in the poets, 
plays no large part in Greek cult or myth. It 
is true that a somewhat long list can be compiled 
of temples of the god, but he did not fill a large 
place in religious thought, and at but few 
localities was his worship important. At Thebes 
and Athens he seems to have been more prom- 
inent than in other communities. At Thebes he 
was said to have been father of the dragon who 
guarded his sacred spring and was slain by 
Cadmus (q.v.), who in the final reconciliation 
wedded Harmonia, daughter of Ares and Aphro- 
dite. Here, as often in Greek legend, Aphrodite 
appears as the recognized consort of Ares. The 
connection of Aphrodite with Hephaestus, and 
her adultery with Ares, though told in the 
Odyssey 9 book viii, was not everywhere canonical, 


and seems to have received its chief prominence 
at a late period. At Athens there was a cele- 
brated temple of Ares, with a statue of the god, 
by Alcamenes, and a legend which connected him 
with the founding of the court of the Areopagus. 
(See the. articles AREOPAGUS; VENUS.) He was 
said to have killed a son of Poseidon for an 
outrage on his daughter, and to have been tried 
by the 12 gods and acquitted on this hill, which 
henceforth, the Greeks said, bore his name. Cults 
of Ares in Thessaly and at Argos, Tegea, and 
Sparta are also mentioned. In legend Ares is 
commonly the son of Zeus and Hera, whose quar- 
relsome disposition he inherits. His sister in 
Homer is Ens, his sons Deimos (Terror) and 
Phobos (Fright), who go with him into battle. 
He is always greedy for war, battle, and blood- 
shed. The tumult of battle is his delight, and in 
later poets, as Sophocles, he appears as the sender 
of pestilence and destruction. In the Trojan 
War he fought with the Trojans, but he yielded 
to Athena, the champion of the Greeks, and was 
even wounded by Diomede. He was certainly 
closely associated in the minds of the Greeks, 
from Homer onward, with Thrace, and there is, 
to many scholars, probability in the view that 
his worship was derived from Thracian tribes or 
their kindred. Another view, supported by O. 
Gruppe, emphasizes the importance of Ares in 
Boeotian story and cult, and holds that his wor- 
ship was carried thence to Thrace. In the earlier 
art, especially on vases, Ares is often bearded 
and regularly wears the full armor of a Greek 
soldier. In the fifth century and later this 
equipment disappears and the god is often rep- 
resented clad in the chlamys, or nude, though 
usually with his attributes of shield and spear. 
Among the most celebrated statues are the 
standing "Ares Borghese" (sometimes called 
Achilles) in the Louvre, which goes back to a 
fifth-century work, and the seated "Ares Ludo- 
visi" in Rome, which seems to be copied from a 
statue by Scopas (qv.), or, according to some, 
from a statue by Lysippus (q.v.), though the 
Erptes are probably the addition of the Hellen- 
istic copyist. Consult: O. Gruppe, Onechische 
Mythologie und Rehgionsgeschwhte, vol. ii 
(Munich, 1906) ; A. Fairbanks, The Mythology 
of Greece and Rome (New York, 1907) , the 
article "Ares," in Friedrich Liibker, Reallexikon 
des klassischen Altertums (8th ed., Leipzig, 

Roman. Mars was an ancient Italian deity, 
worshiped in all parts of central and southern 
Italy. To some scholars he seems everywhere to 
have been the god of war; others think he was 
originally a god of vegetation. To early peoples 
agriculture and war are of prime importance; 
both long remained of prime importance to the 
Romans. At Rome his worship is among the 
most ancient and the most important. His tem- 
ple and oldest altar stood in the Campus Mar- 
tius; and another famous temple was just out- 
side the Porta Capena, to the south of the city. 
At each lustrum at the close of the census, when 
the comitia centuriata, or Roman citizens as an 
army, gathered in the Campus Martius (see 
CENSOR; COMITIA), the gathering was purified 
by leading around it the suovetaurilia (boar, 
ram, and bull) , an offering sacred to Mars, which 
was afterward sacrificed, and similar ceremonies 
are found in connection with other purifications, 
as of the city, villages, and even single farms. 
(See AMBABVALIA.) The sacred emblems of 
Man were the spear and shield, said to have 

fallen from heaveri, which were preserved in the 
Regia and were carried by the Salii (q.v.), 
priests of the god, in their festivals. The chief 
festivals of Mars were in the months of March 
(called Martius, from the god) and October, 
which are clearly connected with the opening 
and close of the, campaigning season. In legend 
Mars was the father by Rhea, or Rhea Silvia 
(q.v.), of Romulus and Remus. The wolf, a 
warlike beast, was sacred to Mars. So too, to 
some extent, were horses, which the Romans 
bred mainly for military purposes; the March 
festival in honor of Mars was known as the 
Equiria, and included horse racing. Augustus 
built in his forum a splendid temple to Mars 
Ultor (Mars the Avenger), because the god had 
helped him to avenge the death of his uncle and 
father by adoption, Julius Csesar. See AUGUS- 
TUS, FOBUM OF. Consult : W. W. Fowler, Roman 
Festivals (London, 1899) ; Georg Wissowa, Re- 
ligion und Kultus der Romer (2d ed, Munich, 
1911); and the article "Mars" in Friedrich 
Liibker, Reallexikon des klassischen Altertums 
(8th ed., Leipzig, 1914). 

MABS. The first of the superior planets. 
Its mean distance from the sun is 141 5 million 
miles, or nearly j times that of the earth, its 
periodic time, 68698 days; its diameter, 4230 
miles; volume, 7 -Vr that of the earth; density, 
071, earth's being unity Its orbit is inclined at 
an angle of 1 15' 1" to the ecliptic, and, with 
the exception of the orbit of Mercury, has a 
greater eccentricity, viz., 009332, than that of 
any other major planet When it is nearest to 
the earth ( i e , in favorable opposition ) its ap- 
parent angular diameter is 25", but when far- 
thest away (i.e., in conjunction) its diameter is 
not more than 4". The axis of rotation is in- 
clined 24 50' to the plane of the orbit and 
therefore the planet presents phenomena of sea- 
sons similar to the earth's The diurnal rotation 
period of Mars is known very accurately from 
observations of surface markings to be 24 hours, 
37 minutes, 22.67 seconds. The planet shines 
with a red light and is a brilliant object in the 
heavens at midnight when near opposition 
Mars has two satellites, discovered by Hall in 
1877. They are very small, and visible with 
powerful telescopes only. The inner satellite, 
Phobos, revolves around the planet at a distance 
of only 3760 miles from its surface in 7 hours, 
39 minutes, which is less than one-third of the 
Martian day. Consequently, Phobos will rise 
in the west and set in the east, its real motion 
more than counterbalancing the apparent diurnal 
motion of Mars on its axis. The outer satellite 
is called Deimos; its period is 30 hours, 18 min- 
utes, and its distance from the surface of its 
primary is 12,500 miles. 

Beginning with the telescopic researches by 
Sir William Herschel, Mars has possessed special 
interest owing to the indication of the existence 
upon its surface of physical conditions not un- 
like those of the earth. Hie Martian seasons 
have already been mentioned. The "canal sys- 
tem" of Mars, suggested by Schiaparelli in 1877, 
has given rise to a careful study of the planet, 
rendered possible by the construction of our 
great modern telescopes. Many things seem to 
indicate that Mars is enveloped in an atmosphere 
with physical properties similar to those of the 
earth's atmosphere. According to observations 
by Lowell, at Flagstaff, Ariz., carried on for six 
months, this atmosphere would appear to be of 
remarkable clearness. Two white patches, in the 


neighborhood of the poles, are very conspicuous 
and so brilliant that they, in the proper light of 
the sun, have been seen sparkling like stars. 
They are generally explained as accumulations 
of snow and ice, and this view is supported by 
the fact that they change with the Martian 

A mixture of orange patches and gray-green 
markings is seen extending over more than half 
the surface of the planet in a central zone, al- 
most parallel to the equator. The orange patches 
are assumed to be land. This assumption is 
based upon the similar appearance that the great 
deserts of the earth would present under the 
same conditions. Also permanent markings on 
these patches have been observed. The gray- 
green markings were at first explained to be 
seas and Sir William Huggins discovered water 
in the atmosphere of Mars, but the observations 
of Douglas in Arizona (1894) and Barnard at 
the Lick Observatory (1890) seem to disprove 
the aqueous character of the "seas." In 1894 
Lowell and Pickering discovered, a month after 
the Martian vernal equinox, a dark belt con- 
nected with the south polar cap, which was ex- 
plained by them as a gathering of water result- 
ing from the melting of the cap by the summer 
heat. A similar appearance has been observed 
around the noith polar cap. 

Of all the markings that have been observed 
on the surface of Mars the "canals" have created 
the most interest. Since their first observation 
at the very favorable opposition of the planet in 
1877 they have been studied carefully at later 
favorable oppositions They have been described 
by observers as faint lines, becoming finer and 
straighter at closer observation, following the 
course of great circles, and distributed like a 
network over the surface of the planet Several 
appear to pass through the same point, at which 
round spots, called lakes, are seen. Various 
theories have been advanced for the explanation 
of this "canal system." They were first taken to 
be waterways, and the change in their appear- 
ance was explained as due to the Martian sea- 
sons Pickering considered them to be tracts of 
land rather than waterways. Lowell advanced 
the view that these "canals" and "lakes" con- 
stituted a system of irrigation carried out by 
the inhabitants of Mars for the purpose of lead- 
ing the water obtained from the melting snow 
of the polar regions over the surface of the 
planet. It has been urged that the appearance 
of the canal system may be nothing but an 
optical illusion, but Lowell in 1905 obtained 
photographs which seem to settle decisively the 
question of the reality of the canals. 

Bibliography. Camille Flammarion, La 

planete Mars et sea conditions d'habitobilite 

(Paris, 1892) ; Meyer, Die phystsche Beschaffen- 

heit des Planeten Mars und die Frage seiner 

Bewohnbarkeit (Berlin, 1894) ; Percival Lowell, 

Mars and its Canals (New York, 1906) ; Simon 

sTewcomb, Optical and Psychological Principles 

'nvolved in the Interpretation of the So-Called 

Canals of Mars (Chicago, 1907) ; A. R. Wallace, 

r s Mars Habitable f (London, 1908); Percival 

jowell, Mars as the Abode of Life (New York, 

909); C E. Housden, The Riddle of Mars, 

he Planet (London, 1914). See ASTRONOMY; 


iouTET, MADEMOISELLE ( 1779-1847 ) . A famous 
Drench actress. She was born in Paris. Her 
ather was the actor Jacques Monvel ; her mother 

WEB an actress, Mademoiselle Mars-Boutet. At 
an early age she appeared at the Comedie Fran- 
caise in personations of ingenuous childhood, but 
it was not till she had reached her twenty- 
fourth year that her first great success was 
obtained in L'Abbt de Vepee, in the part of the 
deaf and dumb girl. From that time forward, 
through a period of nearly 40 years, she acted 
through the whole range of dramatic art with a 
fullness of talent that never failed to present 
with delicacy, power, and good taste each new 
character in which she appeared. She was 
especially celebrated for her work in the ancient 
and classical repertory. Her last appearance 
was in 1841 as Cllimene in Le misanthrope and 
as Arammthe in Lcs femmes savantes She died 
in Paris on March 20, 1847. Her sister, Mars 
aine, was also a well-known actress. Consult, 
though they are of doubtful value, the Memoires 
de Mademoiselle Mars (Paris, 1849) and the 
Confidences de Mademoiselle Mars (ib., 1855), 
published by Roger de Beauvoir. 

MABS, FOBUM OF. A name for the Forum of 
Augustus. See AUGUSTUS, FOBUM OF. 

MARSALA, mar-sala A city in the Prov- 
ince of Trapani, Sicily, 102 miles by rail south- 
west of Palermo (Map: Italy, D 6). Though it 
has ruins of its ancient walls, a castle, and 
several fine churches, it is modern in appearance. 
Marsala has a Gymnasium, a technical school, 
an agricultural school, a city library, and a 
theatre. It is famous for Marsala wine, which 
is made by building up other wines of Sicily. 
The exports are wine, salt, soda, grain, and oil. 
Pop. (commune), 1901, 57,507; 1911, 65,451. 
It is on the site of the ancient Lilybaeum. 

(Dutch marsbanker, scad, apparently from mars, 
peddler's pack, or mas, crowd + bank, bank; so 
called because the fish appears in shoals). Old 
or local names of the menhaden (qv.). Com- 

shal fon be'ber-shtin, ADOLF, BARON (1842- 
1912). A German statesman and diplomat, 
born in Karlsruhe and educated at Heidelberg 
and Freiburg He entered the judicial service of 
Baden, and from 1875 to 1883 was a member of 
the Upper House of its Parliament In the Im- 
perial Diet, from 1878 to 1881, he allied himself 
with the German Conservatives. In Baden he 
made a strong effort to unify Protestant oppo- 
sition to the Ultramontanists , and his activity 
in the Empire was largely in paving the way for 
social reforms. After four years as Secretary of 
State for Foreign Affairs, an office in which he 
devoted himself especially to commercial treaties, 
he was named Prussian Minister of State in 
1894. Upon his retirement in 1897 he was sent 
as Ambassador to Constantinople. In May, 
1912, he accepted a similar position in London, 
but died five months later. He was recognized 
as Germany's ablest diplomat and was largely 
instrumental in influencing the Turkish govern- 
ment in favor of German policies. 

MABSCHNEB, marsh'ner, HEINBICH (1795- 
1861). A German composer, born at Zittau in 
Saxony. In 1813 he entered the University of 
Leipzig to study law, but soon abandoned it in 
favor of music. He met Beethoven in 1817, 
through the medium of his patron, the Count 
von Amadte, and in 1823 shared with Weber the 
directorship of the German and Italian operas at 
Dresden. He succeeded Weber as kapellmeister 
of the Leipzig Theater, and produced on its stage 


his popular opera Der Tempter und die Judin 
(1829), which made him famous throughout 
Germany. Heinnch IV und D'Aubigne had ap- 
peared in 1819 (produced by Weber in 1820), 
and Der Vampyr (regarded as his best work) in 
1828. His compositions also include a great 
number of songs, pianoforte pieces, part songs, 
and choruses, and considerable chamber music. 
Other operas, not mentioned above, are: Hans 
Heiling (1833), a remarkable work: Der Babu 
(1837) ; Adolph von Nassau (1843) ; Hjarne der 
Sangerkonig (1863), reproduced in 1883 as 
Konig Hjarne und das Tyrfingschwert He was 
kapellmeister to the King of Hanover (1831- 
59) His music belongs to the romantic school 
of Weber, whom he greatly resembled in style, 
although m a way his ideals leaned towards the 
,:+vle of Wagner. His operas had a great vogue 
in Germany, and still remain in the repertoire of 
most of the provincial theatres He died in 
Hanover Consult G Munzer, Heinnch Marsch- 
ner (Berlin, 1901) ; M. E Wittmann, Marschner 
(Leipzig, 1905) ; H Gaartz, Die Opern Heinnch 
Marschners (ib, 1912). 

MARSDEN, marz'den, SAMUEL (1764-1838). 
An English missionary. He was born at Hors- 
forth, near Leeds, July 28, 1764; was educated 
at the free grammar school at Hull, and began 
life as a tradesman at Leeds He joined the 
Methodists, but, desiring to obtain a collegiate 
education, entered the English church, studied 
at St John's College, Cambridge, and was or- 
dained in 1793, and in 1794 sailed as chaplain 
to the penal colony at Parramatta, near Sydney, 
Australia. Receiving a grant of land and 13 
convicts to till it as part payment for his serv- 
ices, he made it the model farm in New South 
Wales, and devoted the profits from it to the 
support of schools and missions. A mutinous 
spirit showing itself among the convicts, Mars- 
den sailed for England (1807), mainly for the 
purpose of obtaining permission for the friends 
of the convicts to accompany them to the penal 
colony. This was refused, but his proposal that 
the convicts should be taught trades was well 
received. Having had some intercourse with the 
Maoris of New Zealand, and found them to be 
superior to the Australian natives, he endeav- 
ored, while in England, to obtain funds for the 
formation of a mission among them and mission- 
aries to accompany him. Two laymen, William 
Hall and John King, consented to go as pioneers, 
and accompanied Marsden to Australia, August, 
1809. They were soon followed by Thomas Ken- 
dall, and the party finally went to New Zealand 
in 1814. He employed these teachers in laying 
the foundations of a Christian civilization, fre- 
quently visited them, and in his fourth visit took 
with him the Rev. Henry Williams, who after- 
ward became Bishop of a Maori district. He 
Procured reenforcements for the mission from 
tie English and Wesleyan churches, induced the 
natives to adopt a fixed form of government, pro- 
vided for the preparation of a grammar and 
dictionary of the Maori language, and lived to 
see the people Christianized. He died at Wind- 
sor, May 12, 1838, and was buried in his parish 
at Parramatta. Consult J. B. Marsden, Life of 
Samuel Marsden (London, 1859). 

MARSDEN, WILLIAM (1754-1836). A Brit- 
ish Orientalist, son of a Dublin merchant, born 
at Verval, Ireland. In 1771 he was appointed 
to the civil service of the East India Company 
at Bencoolen, Sumatra, became secretary to the 
government, and acquired a thorough knowledge 

of the Malay language. Having received a pen- 
sion, he returned in 1779 to England, where he 
devoted himself to literature and published a 
History of Sumatra (1783). In 1807 he retired 
to private life and study, in 1812 published his 
Grammar and Dictionary of the Malay Language, 
and in 1818 a translation of Marco Polo (new 
ed., 1880). In 1834 he presented to the British 
Museum his collection of 3447 Oriental coins, 
and in 1835 his library of Oriental books and 
manuscripts to King's College. He published 
also A Grammar of the Malayan Language 
(1812) and Numismata Orientalia (1823). 

MARSEILLAISE, mar'se-laz'; Fr. pron 
mar'sS'yaz'. The hymn of the French Revolu- 
tion and since then the anthem of freedom in all 
European movements of liberation In April, 
1792, when a column of volunteers was about 
to leave Strassburg, the mayor of the city, 
Diedrich, gave a banquet on the occasion and 
asked an officer of artillery named Rouget de 
Lisle (qv ) to compose a song in their honor 
Rouget wrote the words during the night, adapt- 
ing the music probably from the Oratorio Esther, 
by Jean Baptiste Lucien Grison, and calling it 
the Chant de guerre de Varmee du Rhin On the 
following day it was sung with rapturous en- 
thusiasm, and instead of 600 volunteers, 1000 
marched out of Strassburg The whole Army of 
the North soon took up the song In Paris' the 
song was unknown till the Marseilles battalion 
brought it to the city and sang it at the storm- 
ing of the Tuilenes It was received with en- 
thusiasm by the Parisians, who ignorant of its 
real authorship named it Hymne des Marseil- 
laiSj which name it has ever since borne The 
last and most pathetic strophe, the stance des 
enfants, was not written by Rouget de Lisle, but 
was added later 

The following is the first stanza, with refrain, 
approved in 1887 by a commission appointed by 
the French Minister of War to determine the 
exact form of the song. 

Aliens enfants de la patne, 

Le jour de gloire eat arriv6' 
Centre nous de la tyrannic 

L'entendard sanglant est Iev (bis) 
Entendez-vous dan& ccs campagnes 

Mugir ces feroccb soldats 7 

Ils viennent j usque dans nos bras 
Egorger nos fils, nos compagnes. 

Aur armes, ci toy ens' 
Formez vos hataillons' 

Marchons, marchons' qu'un sang impur 
Abreuve nos Billons' 

MARSEILLE, mar'sa'y', FOLQUET DE. Sec 


MARSEILLES, mdr-salz' (Fr. MAR- 
SEILLE, mar'sa'y'). The principal seaport of 
France, the second city of the Republic in point 
of population; capital of the Department of 
Bouches-du-Rhdne, and an important military 
and naval station. It is on the eastern shore of 
an inlet of the Gulf of Lyons, 25 miles east of 
the principal mouth of the Rhone and 534 miles 
by rail southeast of Paris; lat 43 17' N , long 
5 23' E. (Map: France, S., K 5). Its location 
is picturesque, the ground rising on all sides in 
an amphitheatre of wood-crowned hills 1200 to 
1800 feet high, which terminate m a steep 
promontory a few miles south of the city. The 
immediate surroundings were formerly arid, but 
since the completion of the canal bringing the 
waters of the Durance to the city the adjoining 
district has been irrigated and is now covered 
with gardens. 

Few European cities have shown such rapid 
modern development. A century ago the town 
was a cluster of narrow, crooked streets grouped 
around the cove which formed the old harbor. 
Several large avenues now traverse this old por- 
tion, while practically the whole city is laid out 
with broad and straight streets and generally 
presents a modern aspect. The city is dominated 
by the hill of Notre Dame de la Garde, which 
rises to a height of 480 feet on the southwest, 
between the town and the shore. This hill is 
encircled on the water side by a picturesque road, 
the Chemin de la Corniche, which leads south- 
ward along the shore of the gulf to the Anse des 
Catalans, a distance of 4% miles. There is a 
citadel on a promontory guarding the narrow 
entrance to the old harbor, which as a land- 
locked cove reaches into the heart of the city. 
The harbor is also defended by the fortified is- 
lands of Ratonneau and Pomggue, and the Cha- 
teau d'lf, the latter a former state prison im- 
mortalized by Dumas m his Monte Cnsto Two 
principal avenues crossing at right angles divide 
the city into four quarters. One is the Rue 
Cannebiere, the principal business street, which 
begins at the head of the old harbor and is con- 
tinued eastward as the Boulevard Madeleine. 
The other, running north and south, is the Rue 
de Rome, which terminates at the obelisk in the 
Place Castellane, whence it is prolonged as the 
Prado, the principal boulevard of Marseilles. 
This is a magnificent avenue with two double 
rows of trees, which runs 2 miles south and 
southwestward, terminating on the seashore at 
Pare Sorely The old town is still a labyrinth 
of narrow streets inhabited by a seafaring 

Marseilles has few architectural monuments 
and no interesting remains of ancient times It 
is an episcopal see and its most prominent build- 
ing is the new cathedral, the finest modern ca- 
thedral of France, which faces the southern 
basin of the new harbor It is built of Florence 
greenstone in the Byzantine style mixed with 
Romanesque and classic elements, and is sur- 
mounted by five domes Another church worthy 
of notice is that of Notre Dame de la Garde, 
built (1853-64) on the hill of that name south 
of the old harbor Its belfry, surmounted by a 
colossal statue of the Virgin, towers nearly 600 
feet above the level of the sea and affords a 
splendid view of the city and the surrounding 
country Among secular buildings should be 
mentioned the Palais de Longchamp, a magnifi- 
cent Renaissance building containing various 
museums, the Palais de Justice, and the Ex- 
change The educational institutions of the city 
include a school of medicine and pharmacy and 
a faculty of sciences, which form part of the 
University of Aix-Marseilles, a school of en- 
gineering, a school of navigation, an independent 
law school, two lycges, two seminaries, a com- 
mercial high school, a school of fine arts, a 
conservatory of music, an astronomical observa- 
tory, botanical and zoological gardens, a bi- 
ological laboratory, museums of art, archeology, 
and natural history, and a municipal library of 
120,000 volumes. Besides these there are a num- 
ber of scientific and literary societies. The 
water supply is derived from the River Durance 
through the Canal de Marseille, constructed 
1837 to 1848, which delivers water at the rate 
of 9000 liters per second, sufficient both for the 
use of the city and for the irrigation of the sur- 
rounding country. Its total length is 97 miles, 

of which 13 are underground. An extensive 
system of drainage works was completed in 1898, 
by which the sewage is carried miles to sea, 
leaving the waters of the harbor uncontaminated. 
The principal industries of Marseilles are the 
manufacture of soap, smelting of iron and cop- 
per, the construction of steam engines and auto- 
mobiles, the refining of sugar, flour milling, oil 
factories, tanneries, lead, tin, and copper plants, 
petroleum refineries, and the manufacture of 
candles, macaroni, and tiles and brick. It also 
has iron-shipbuilding and naval-equipment yards. 
The great development of Marseilles is due 
chiefly to its commerce, which was greatly en- 
hanced by the opening of the Suez Canal The 
new harbor, begun in 1844, consists of a sciies of 
basins stretching northward from the entrance 
of the old harbor An auxiliary harbor has been 
constructed in the channel between the two islets 
of Pomggue and Ratonneau lying off the promon- 
tory south of the city Here are established the 
quarantine and the marine hospital There are 
altogether 12 miles of quays, accommodating 
2.) 00 vessels at one time, and the new harbor 
has a Mater area of 414 acies, with a depth for 
vessels of all classes The old harbor of 70 acres 
is no\\ used for sailing vessels. In 1902 the 
Chamber of Commerce voted 91,400,000 francs 
for a canal to the mouth of the Rhone (see 
CANALS, Boat Canals), and a canal is also pro- 
jected between the Rhone and the Loire, thus 
bringing Marseilles into connection with north- 
ern France. In 1912 the number of ships which 
entered and cleared was 4464, with a tonnage 
of 7,850,221, of which only about one-half was 
French. The value in 1904 of imports and ex- 
ports combined was 2,061,000,000 francs; in 
1912, 3,643,100,000 The principal exports are 
cotton and woolen goods, ribbons, silks, sugar, 
grain, oil, soap, fruits, wine, candles, and bricks; 
the chief imports are cattle, oil seeds, coffee, raw 
cotton and silk, hides, and grain. The trade is 
chiefly \uth the Mediterranean countries The 
United States is represented by a consul. 

The population of Marseilles in 1911 was 
550,619. An idea of the growth of the city may 
be gained from the following figures. 1789, 
100,000; 1851, 195,185; 1891, 403.749; 1901, 
491,161; 1906, 517,498; 1911, 550,619. The 
increase has been due, at least in late years, 
wholly to immigration, as the death rate is 
higher than the birth rate. The districts around 
the wharves are frequented by people of all na- 
tionalities, and the busy, cosmopolitan air of 
the city is in marked contrast with the rest of 

Marseilles is popularly supposed to have been 
founded by Greeks from Phocaea in Asia Minor, 
but archaeological discoveries have established 
the fact that a Phoenician colony preceded the 
Greek settlement of about 600 B.C The Greek 
colony, called Massilia, soon supplanted the 
Phoenician, and became a flourishing commercial 
centre, a free city, and the mother city of a 
number of other Greek colonies, which spread 
as far west as Cape St. Martin in Spain. In the 
fourth century B.C. Pytheas (q.v.), a citizen of 
Marseilles, sailed even to Britain. Finds of 
coins have shown that Marseilles carried on 
trade, especially in wine, all through Gaul, and 
over the Alps to the Tirol. Since the chief 
trade rival of the city was Carthage, Marseilles 
allied itself with Rome during the Punic wars, 
at which time it was at the zenith of its power. 
Its schools were long preferred to those of Athena 

for the education of Roman youths. During the 
civil wars it took the side of Marius and later 
that of Pompey. Caesar attacked and captured 
it in 49 B.C. and deprived it of its powers and 
privileges, and from that time its decadence be- 
gan, though it still remained for a long time an 
intellectual centre. In the Middle Ages it re- 
tained to a large degree its independence. It 
was finally subject to the counts of Provence, 
and with Provence it was united with the French 
crown in 1481. In 1660 Louis XIV deprived the 
city of its privileges. Consult: Boudin, Histoire 
de Marseille (Paris, 1852) ; Socie'te* de statis- 
tique de Marseille (Marseilles, 1837 et seq.) ; 
Teissier, Histoire du commerce de Marseille, 
1855-74 (ib., 1887); P Castanier, Histoire de 
la Provence dans I'antiquite", vol. ii (Paris, 
1896) ; E Caman, Marseille au XXeme si&cle 
(ib, 1905) 

MARSEILLES. A city in La Salle Co , 111 , 
77 miles southwest of Chicago, on the Chicago, 
Rock Island, and Pacific and the Chicago, Ot- 
tawa, and Peoria railroads, on the Illinois 
River, and on the Illinois and Michigan Canal 
(Map* Illinois, G 3). It has excellent water 
power; its many manufactured products include 
paper boxes and cartons, roofing materials, paper 
box board, agricultural implements, concrete 
blocks, cigars, etc. There are also coal mines. A 
large railroad bridge spans the Illinois near here 
Marseilles adopted the commission form of gov- 
ernment in 1913. Pop, 1900, 2559; 1910, 3291. 

MAKSH, ANNE CALDWELL (c.1798-1874) 
An English author, born at Lmdley Wood, Staf- 
fordshire. She wrote many novels, of which 
Two Old Men's Tales (1846), Emilia Wyndkam 
(1846), and Norman's Bridge (1847) are con- 
sidered the best. Most of her works were written 
anonymously, and it is not certain how many 
are lightly attributed to her Her best work is 
of delicate conception, but lacks power. Several 
of the stories have been repubhshed in the 
United States 

American diplomatist and philologist. He was 
born at Woodstock, Vt. , graduated at Dart- 
mouth College in 1820, studied law in Burling- 
ton, and in 1835 was elected to the State Legis- 
lature and became a member of the Supreme 
Executive Council of the State From 1843 to 
1849 he was a Whig member of Congress, and 
in the latter year resigned to become Minister 
Resident at Constantinople. In 1852 he was 
charged with a special mission to Greece, and 
having traveled extensively in Europe returned 
to the United States in 1854. Between 1857 and 
1859 he served as railroad commissioner for 
Vermont, and from 1861 until his death was first 
United States Minister to the Kingdom of Italy. 
He died at Vallombrosa, Italy, and was buried 
in the Protestant cemetery in Rome. His pub- 
lications include: The Camel: His Organisation, 
Habits, and Uses, Considered with Reference to 
his Introduction into the United States (1856) ; 
Lectures on the English Language ( 1861 ) ; The 
Origin and History of the English Language 
(1862; rev. ed , 1885) ; Man and Nature (1864; 
enlarged in 1874 as The Earth as Modified by 
Human Action; rev. ed , 1885) His second wife, 
Caroline (Crane) Marsh, published one volume 
of the Life and Letters of George Perkins Marsh 
(New York, 1888). 

MARSH, HERBERT (1757-1839). Bishop of 
Peterborough. He was born in Faversham, Kent ; 
graduated at St. John's College, Cambridge, in 

1779, and studied theology at Leipzig. He was 
appointed Lady Margaret professor of divinity 
at Cambridge in 1807, Bishop of Llandaff in 
1816, -and Bishop of Peterborough in 1819. Op- 
posing the allegorical systems of interpretation 
of the Fathers and the Middle Ages, he insisted 
that Scripture had but one sense, the gram- 
matical, and was one of the first to introduce 
German methods of research into English biblical 
scholarship. His publications include- a trans- 
lation of Michaehs' Introduction to the New 
Testament (5 vols., 1793-1801), Rational Re- 
ligion the Foundation of National Education 
(1813) , Lectures on the Authenticity and Cred- 
ibility of the New Testament (1820-22) , On the 
Authority of the Old Testament (1823); Lec- 
tures on the Criticism and Interpretation of the 
Bible (1828). 

American zoologist and paleontologist He was 
born in Lockport, N Y., graduated at Yale Col- 
lege, and studied in Germany. Upon his return 
to the United States he was appointed professor 
of paleontology and curator of the geological 
museum at Yale, and held these positions until 
his death. Professor Marsh accomplished a 
great amount of valuable scientific work in the 
discovery and description of new fossil verte- 
brates from the geological formations of the 
Western States and Territories. In carrying 
out his investigations he organized many explor- 
ing expeditions at his own- expense, and directed 
others which were equipped by the United States 
Geological Survey. More than 400 new fossil 
species of vertebrates were described by Pro- 
fessor Marsh, among them such interesting types 
as the Dinocerata (huge tapir-like animals), 
Pterodactyls ( flying lizards ) , and Odontormthes 
(toothed birds) His discoveries of the fossil 
ancestors of the horse marked an epoch in evolu- 
tionary science and have been frequently em- 
ployed as an illustration of the principle of 
evolution. The more extended and general 
articles by Professor Marsh were incorporated in 
the Reports and Monographs of the United 
States Geological Survey; they included- "Buds 
with Teeth," Third Annual Report, 1883, "The 
Gigantic Mammals of the Order Dinocerata," 
Fifth Annual Report, 1885; "The Dinosaurs of 
North America," Sixteenth Annual Report, 
1896; "Dinocerata," Monograph X; "The Cera- 
topsia," Monograph XLIX (elaborated by J B 
Hatcher and edited by R. S Lull). Consult G 
B. Grinnell, "Othniel Charles Marsh," in Lead- 
ing American Men of Science, edited by D S 
Jordan (New York, 1910). He served as presi- 
dent of the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science in 1878 and of the National 
Academy of Sciences from 1883 to 1895. The 
Geological Society of London, of which he was a 
fellow, bestowed upon him the first Bigsby 
medal, in 1877. He also received the Cuvier 
prize of the French Academy of Sciences. His 
valuable collection of fossil vertebrates was left 
to Yale University. 

MARSH, SYLVESTER (1803-84). An Ameri- 
can merchant, inventor, and promoter, born at 
Campton, N. H. In 1833 he removed to Chicago, 
where he became the originator of the meat- 
packing industry and invented many of the ap- 
pliances now used in that business In 1837, after 
most of his property was lost in the financial 
crisis, he entered the grain business and invented 
the dried-meal process. During a visit to his 
old home in 1852 he conceived the idea of a rail- 


road to the top of Mount Washington, insisted 
upon the feasibility of the plan, and persisted 
until in 1858 he obtained a charter for the con- 
struction of the road, but because of the Civil 
War was unable to begin work until 1866. The 
work was completed in 1868. The cogs and 
brakes used on the road were invented by Marsh. 
Railways of a similar kind and construction 
were soon afterward built up Mount Rigi, Switz- 
erland, and up Green Mountain, Mount Desert, 
Maine, and many others have followed. 

MAR'SHAL (OF. mareschal, marescal, Fr. 
marechal, from ML. mareschalcus, manscalcus, 
from OHG. marahscalh, groom, master of the 
horse, marshal, from marah, AS. mearh, Ir., 
Gael, marc, Gk. fidpxas, markas, horse + scalh, 
Ger. Kchalk, Goth, skalks, AS. scealc, obsolete 
Eng. shalk, servant) . A term in English history, 
originally meaning a groom or manager of the 
hoise, though eventually the King's marshal 
became one of the great officers of the household 
of the Norman and Plantageriet kings, being 
conjointly with the constable (qv.) a judge in 
the curia martiales, or courts of chivalry, and 
enjoying equal rank with the Chancellor The 
constable's functions were virtually abolished in 
the time of Henry VIII, and the marshal became 
thenceforth the sole judge in questions of honor 
and arms The earl marshal is president of the 
English College of Heralds, and appoints the 
kmgs-at-arms, heralds, and pursuivants. The 
dignity of marshal existed formerly in Scotland, 
where a different orthography was adopted, and 
the office of marischal became hereditary in the 
fourteenth century in the family of Keith. In 
France the highest military officer is called a 
marshal, a dignity which originated early in the 
thirteenth century There was at first only one 
marshal de France, and there were but two till 
the time of Francis I. Their number afterward 
became unlimited Originally the marshal was 
the esquire of the King and commanded the van- 
guard in war; in later times the command be- 
came supreme and the rank of the highest mili- 
tary importance From the title of this class of 
general officers the Germans have borrowed their 
Feldmarschall, and the English the title of field 
marshal, a dignity bestowed on commanders dis- 
tinguished either by elevated rank or superior 
talents The title "marshal" in the United 
States is used 1 (1) to denote the ministerial 
officer of the United States courts, there being, 
with several exceptions, one appointed for each 
judicial district The exceptions are the few 
instances where one marshal is required to per- 
form the duties of two districts. The duties of 
this officer resemble those of a sheriff in the 
State courts; he opens and closes the sessions of 
the district and circuit courts, serves warrants, 
and executes throughout the district all lawful 
precepts directed to him. Marshals are also ap- 
pointed for Porto Rico, Alaska, and Hawaii. 
(2) In many States of the South and West the 
marshal is the town or village police officer, and 
is to be distinguished from the officers of the 
county called sheriffs, and from the officers of 
the justices' courts called constables. Besides 
their functions in connection with the courts, 
the United States marshals discharge duties in 
connection with the administration of the 
internal-revenue service, public lands, the mail 
service, etc. They are appointed by the President 
with the advice and consent of the Senate for a 
term of four years. 

atAB'SHATVTN'CK In law, the arrangement 

or ordering and distribution of different funds 
under administration so that all parties having 
rights as creditors or legatees therein may re- 
ceive their due proportions. The principle upon 
which this is done is the equitable rule that a 
party who is entitled to satisfaction or security 
out of one or more of several funds or properties 
which must be looked to by others for their 
satisfaction or security shall not be allowed to 
elect to satisfy or secure himself so as to ex- 
clude another who is entitled to resort to only 
one of the funds, when the first party can other- 
wise sufficiently protect himself. The principle 
of marshaling is applied to the distribution of 
assets of a decedent or insolvent among lega- 
tees and creditors, as well as to the distribution 
of securities of various sorts among creditors 
who may be variously entitled to them. An in- 
stance of marshaling of assets is found in the 
old rule that a simple contract creditor, who 
was at the common law entitled to payment 
only out of the personal estate of a deceased 
person, was subrogated to the right of a spe- 
cialty creditor to be paid out of real or personal 
assets where the latter had recovered out of 
the personal assets So to-day legatees, who are, 
of course, entitled only to personal estate, may 
have their claims satisfied out of the real estate 
where simple contract creditors, who might now 
resort to the real estate, have satisfied their 
claims out of the personal estate and in so 
doing have exhausted it. 

The doctrine of marshaling securities is most 
frequently exemplified in the case of mortgagees 
and others having rights, such as vendor's liens, 
judgment liens, etc., against the real estate of 
the debtor. Thus, where the owner of two 
estates or funds mortgages both to one person 
and only one of them to another person, the 
first encumbrancer will be required to resort in 
the first instance to the estate or fund on which 
the other has no claim. The same principle has 
been applied to mortgages of personal chattels, 
to sureties who have become liable to pay the 
principal debt, and in many other cases The 
doctrine is an admirable example of the way in 
which the courts of equity work out the 
principle, "Equality is equity." See EQUITY; 

the science of arranging several coats of arms 
on the same escutcheon so as to indicate the 
relation borne by one person to others connected 
with him either by birth or marriage. See 

MAR'SHALL. A city and the county seat 
of Clark Co., 111., 18 miles west by south of 
Terre Haute, Ind., on the Vandalia and the 
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago, and St Louis 
railroads (Map: Illinois, J 7). It has some 
trade and manufactures of flour, lumber, furni- 
ture, condensed milk, etc., and is in an oil and 
an agricultural and stock-raising district. The 
water works and electric-light plant are owned 
by the city. Pop., 1900, 2077; 1910, 2569. 

MARSHALL. A city and the county seat of 
Calhoun Co., Mich., 108 miles by rail west of 
Detroit, on the Kalamazoo River and on the 
Michigan Central Railroad (Map: Michigan, E 
6). It has the grounds of the County Agricul- 
tural Society, the Dulcenia Home for Old Ladies, 
and a fine high-school building, city library, and 
county courthouse. The city is the centre of a 
rich farming district, and manufactures coffee- 
roasting and peanut-butter machinery, hot-air 


furnaces, couplers and axles, carriages and 
wagons, bathtubs, electrical appliances, farming 
implements, medicines, flour, etc There are also 
marble and granite works, and roundhouses of 
the Michigan Central Railroad Marshall owns 
and operates the water works and electric-light 
plants, both of which are run by water power, 
on a profitable basis Pop, 1900, 4370: 1910, 

MARSHALL. A city and the county seat of 
Lyon Co., Minn , 165 miles west by south of St. 
Paul, on the Redwood River and on the Great 
Northern and the Chicago and Northwestern 
railroads (Map- Minnesota, B 6). It has a 
public library, and among the prominent build- 
ings are the public schools, county courthouse, 
and county jail An important trade is carried 
on, and there are several grain elevators, a sash 
and door factory, a flour mill, and a creamery. 
The water works and electric-light plant are 
owned by the city Pop., 1900, 2088, 1910, 

MARSHALL. A city and the county seat of 
Saline Co., Mo., 84 miles by rail east of Kansas 
City, on the Chicago and Alton and the Missouri 
Pacific railroads (Map: Missouri, C 2). It is 
the seat of Missouri Valley College (Presby- 
terian), founded in 1889, and Academy Notre 
Dame de Sion (Catholic), and has a handsome 
courthouse, United States government building, 
and a State institution for the feeble-minded and 
epileptics Marshall is near deposits of coal, 
salt, and building stone, and carries on an im- 
portant trade, and manufactures flour, shoes, 
creamery products, lumber, brick and tile, car- 
riages and wagons, and canned goods. The water 
works are owned by the city. Pop , 1900, 5086 ; 
1910, 4869 

MARSHALL. A city and the county seat of 
Harrison Co., Texas, 42 miles west of Shreve- 
port, La ; on the Texas and Pacific and the 
Marshall and East Texas railroads (Map 
Texas, E 3). It is the seat of Wiley University 
(Methodist Episcopal) and Bishop College 
(Baptist) for negroes, and has a fine courthouse, 
city hall, high school, Carnegie library, and opera 
house. The city is in a fertile agricultural 
region adapted particularly for fruit and vegeta- 
ble cultivation, and the vicinity possesses valu- 
able oak and pine forests. Among the industrial 
enterprises are a foundry and machine shops, 
cotton compress, saw and planing mi lib, brick- 
yards, fertilizer factory, pottery plant, carriage 
works, railroad shops of the Texas and Pacific 
and Marshall and East Texas railroads, car- 
wheel works, etc. The water works are owned 
and operated by the municipality. Marshall has 
adopted the commission form of government. 
Pop., 1900, 7855; 1910, 11,452; 1914 (U. S. 
est.), 12,984; 1920, 14,271. 

MARSHALL, ALFHED (1842-1924). An 
English economist, born in London. From the 
Merchant Taylors' School he passed to St. John's 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated with 
distinction in 1865 In 1877 he became principal 
of University College, Bristol, and in 1883-84 
was lecturer and fellow of Balliol College, Ox- 
ford. From 1885 to 1908 he served as professor 
of political economy at Cambridge. In 1891 he 
was appointed a member of the Royal Com- 
mission of Labor. With his wife he published 
(1879) Economics of Industry His Principles 
of Economics (1890) won for him the position 
of one of the foremost of English economists. 
In this work he seeks to present and reconcile 

the essential doctrines of classical and modern 
economics. He published also: Present Position 
of Economics (1886); Elements of Economics 
(1891) ; and numeious articles in scientific and 
popular periodicals. 

An English naturalist, born at Birmingham. 
He received his B.A. degree from London Uni- 
versity at the age of 18 and then went to 
Cambridge, where he graduated in 1874 In the 
following year he was sent by that university 
to the zoological station at Naples. Upon his 
retuin lie began the study of medicine, but in 
1879 became professor of zoology at Owens Col- 
lege, Manchester He was made a fellow of the 
Royal Society in 1885, a counciloi of the same in 
1891-92, and presided over a section of the Brit- 
ish Association in 1892, but was particularly 
distinguished as a teacher and organi/er. He 
started the biological classes at Victoria Univer- 
sity, and contributed much to the scientific 
knowledge of embryology in his technical publi- 
cations, especially the Quarterly Journal of Mi- 
croscopical Science, and in separate memoirs. 
Among his writings are- The Segmental Value 
of the Cranial Nerves (1882) ; The Frog (1882; 
10th ed, 1909), A Junior Course of Practical 
Zoology (1887, 5th ed , 1899), with C. II Huist; 
Vertebrate Embryology (1893). He lost his life 
in the Alps His * Biological Essays and Ad- 
dresses were collected and published posthu- 
mously in 1894, as well as his memoir upon The 
Darwinian Theory. 

MARSHALL, EMMA (1832-99). An Eng- 
lish novelist, born near Cromer in Norfolk, Eng- 
land, the youngest daughter of Simon Mai tin, a 
Norwich banker. She was educated in a private 
school at Norwich. In 1854 she married Hugh 
Graham Marshall, and thereafter lived an un- 
eventful life at Wells, Exeter, Gloucester, and 
Bristol. She died at Clifton, May 4, 1899. Be- 
ginning with Edith Prescott ( 1863 ) , she produced 
during her long career more than 100 volumes 
of tales, mostly for the young. Especially pop- 
ular several of them were translated into Ger- 
man were those in which appeared well-known 
historical characters, as Sir Philip Sidney and 
Sir Thomas Browne. Among her latest novels 
were: In Colston's Days, a Story of Old Bristol 
(1883); The Tower on the Cliff (1886), Pens- 
hurst Castle, in the Time of Sir Philip Sidney 
(1893) , In the Choir of Westminster Abbey in 
the Time of Henry Purcell ( 1897 ) , Under the 
Dome of St. Paul's in the Time of Christopher 
Wren (1898). She also wrote verse 

An English playwright, born in London, Novem- 
ber, 1840 He was educated at Harrow and stud- 
ied at Exeter College, Oxford, but left without a 
degree He became a clerk in the audit office 
of Somerset House and began writing for news- 
papers and periodicals. In 1868 he resigned his 
post and subsequently joined the staff of the 
London Figaro as dramatic critic. He was al- 
ready known for his comedies and farces Mad 
as a Hatter (1863); Corrupt Practices (1870), 
which were followed by Q. E. D., or All a Mistake 
(1871) ; False Shame (1872) ; Brighton (1874) ; 
Lola (1881), a comic opera; and several others. 
For Henry Irving he made a version of Werner 
(1887). He was general editor of the Henry 
Irving Edition of Shakespeare (1888-90), and 
had earlier published A Study of Hamlet (1875) 
and Henry Irving, Actor and Manager ( 1883 ) . 



An American architect and psychologist. He 
was born in New York City; graduated from 
Columbia University m 1873 (A.M., 1876) ; and 
became a practicing architect in New York in 
1878. He lectured on esthetics at Columbia in 
1894-95 and at Princeton in 1915-16. Though 
Marshall achieved success as an architect and 
was president of the New York chapter of the 
American Institute of Architects (1902-04), he 
became better known perhaps as a psychologist. 
Rutgers and Hobart colleges gave him honorary 
degrees He served as president of the American 
Psychological Association in 1907. His writings 
include- Pain, Pleasure, and Esthetics (1894); 
Esthetic Principles ( 1895 ) ; Instinct and Rea- 
son (1898) ; Consciousness (1909) ; War and the 
Ideal of Peace (1915) 

MABSHALL, HUMPHREY (1722-1801). An 
American botanist, born in West Bradford (Mar- 
shallton), Pa He learned the trade of a stone- 
mason, but about 1748 turned to farming, and 
began to cultivate his scientific tastes, which he 
had ample means of gratifying through the ac- 
quisition of property in 1767, and six years after- 
ward he was instrumental in the formation of 
the botanic gardens at Marshallton He held 
several local offices, was made a member of the 
American Philosophical Society (1786), and 
published Arboretum Amencanum (1785), a 
catalogue of the trees and shrubs of America, 
which was translated into French. 

MARSHALL, HUMPHREY (1756-1841). An 
American statesman, cousin of Chief Justice John 
Marshall, born in Westmoreland Co., Va. He 
received very little schooling, entered the Conti- 
nental army during the Revolution, and attained 
the rank of captain. Before the close of the war 
he removed to Kentucky and settled in 1780 
near Lexington, where he studied law and was 
admitted to the bar. In 1787 he was a delegate 
to the convention held at Danville to consider the 
question of separating Kentucky from Virginia, 
and strong] v opposed that project. He soon be- 
came known as one of the strongest Federalist 
leaders in the Kentucky region. In 1788 he was 
a delegate to the Virginia convention that rati- 
fied the Constitution. He had an inborn dislike 
for James Wilkinson (qv ), whom he seems to 
have suspected of intriguing with the Spaniards 
in Louisiana from the first, and for a decade or 
more occupied the position of a sort of "watch- 
dog" of Federal interests in Kentucky and was 
active in opposing and exposing the numerous 
Spanish intrigues and plans for attacking the 
Spanish or French at New Orleans. He opposed 
the plan of George Rogers Clark for an expedi- 
tion against the Spaniards in 1793, declaring it 
was a part of the scheme of Genet (q.v.), and 
would only have the effect of embroiling the 
country with a friendly power. From 1795 to 
1801 he was a United States Senator from Ken- 
tucky. His letters to the Western World sigiipd 
Observer, in which he clearly pointed out the 
existence of the Burr conspiracy, led to Fed- 
eral action and the thwarting of Burr's plans 
of empire While a member of the State Legis- 
lature in 1809 he fought a duel with Henry Clay 
in which both were wounded. He published a 
History of Kentucky (1812; 2 vols., 1824), 
which is in reality a curious and partisan piece 
of autobiography, but contains much of value in 
regard to early politics in the West. 

American soldier and politician, grandson of 
Humphrey Marshall (1756-1841), born at 

Frankfort, Ky. He graduated at West Point in 
1832, but resigned from the army the next year. 
He studied law and practiced in Frankfort and 
in Louisville, where he took much interest in 
the State militia, raising a company of volun- 
teers for service against the Indians on the Texas 
frontier. At the outbreak of the Mexican War 
he entered as colonel of a Kentucky volunteer 
cavalry regiment and led the charge at Buena 
Vista. He was a Whig member of the United 
States House of Representatives in 1849 and 
was reflected in 1851, but resigned in 1852 and 
accepted the post of Commissioner to China. 
He retired in 1854, and the next year again en- 
tered the House of Representatives, on the 
American ticket (see AMERICAN PARTY; KNOW- 
NOTHINGS), and served until 1859. At the 
beginning of the Civil War he entered the 
Confederate army as brigadier general and com- 
manded in eastern Kentucky Pie was in com- 
mand of the Confederates at the battle of Middle 
Creek (1862) and in the same year defeated 
Gen. Jacob Cox at Princeton, Va. He resigned 
from the army to practice law in Richmond, but 
was elected one of Kentucky's representatives in 
the Confederate Congress, serving on the mili- 
tary committee, and was afterward reflected. 
After the war he resumed the practice of law in 

MABSHALL, JOHN (1755-1835). The most 
famous of American jurists, for 34 years Chief 
Justice of the United States Supreme Court 
He was born Sept 24, 1755, in Fauquier Co, 
Va.; studied under a private tutor; then at- 
tended an academy in Westmoreland County; 
and studied law until the outbreak of the Revo- 
lution, when he entered the army as a volun- 
teer He soon rose to the rank of first lieu- 
tenant, and by 1777 was a captain His first 
fight was near Norfolk; he afterward served in 
the New Jersey campaign, was at Valley Forge 
during the memorable winter of 1777-78, and 
participated in the battles of Brandywine, Ger- 
man town, and Monmouth, and m the capture of 
Stony Point. During most of 1780, while with- 
out a command, he attended the law lectures de- 
livered by the famous Chancellor George Wythe 
at William and Marv College The following 
year he was admitted to the bar of Fauquier 
Countv, where lie practiced for two years. In 
1782 he was elected to a seat in the Virginia 
Legislature and soon became a member of the 
Executive Council. In the meantime he had 
removed to Richmond. In 1784 he was again 
elected to represent Fauquier County in the Leg- 
islature In 1787 he was chosen to represent 
Henrico, the county in which he had lately taken 
up his residence, and in the following vear was 
a delegate to the State convention which was 
called to ratify the Federal Constitution The 
distinction of securing the adoption of the Con- 
stitution by Virginia belongs to Marshall and 
Madison perhaps more than to any others. Mar- 
shall's refutations of Patrick Henry's arguments 
against adoption were particularly effective. In 
the meantime his law practice was rapidly in- 
creasing, and he declined a reelection to the 
Legislature in 1792 in order to devote his whole 
time to his practice, but in 1795 he was again 
persuaded to stand for reelection and was suc- 
cessful. It was about this time that Marshall 
appeared before the Supreme Court in the fa- 
mous case of Ware v. Hilton, in which the va- 
lidity of the Virginia Sequestration Act was in- 
volved, and his able argument added greatly to 


his growing reputation. He declined to accept 
the post of Attorney-General or the French 
mission tendered him by President Washington, 
but finally consented to go to Paris in 1797 with 
C. C. Pinckney and Elbndge Gerry to induce the 
Directory to remove the restrictions which it 
had laid on American commerce. Although the 
negotiations proved fruitless, Marshall's conduct 
seems to have been more satisfactory to the 
government than that of either of his colleagues. 
In 1798 he declined to accept a seat on the 
bench of the United States Supreme Court as 
the successor of James Wilson, but in the same 
year at the solicitation of Washington became 
a candidate for Congress and was elected, al- 
though his constituency was decidedly Anti-Fed- 
eralist in politics. In Congress he supported 
the administration in particular and Federalist 
measures generally, although he voted for the 
repeal of the obnoxious Alien and Sedition Acts. 
His most notable effort in Congress was a speech 
in support of the conduct of the President in 
surrendering Jonathan Bobbins, the murderer of 
a man on a British frigate, who had escaped to 
the United States and had been delivered up to 
the British government by the President. Mar- 
shall showed conclusively that the surrender of 
Robbins was clearly within the President's con- 
stitutional power In May, 1800, he was invited 
by President Adams to take the office of Secre- 
tary of War, but declined. However, he accepted 
the position of Secretary of State, which he held 
for a short time. On Jan. 31, 1801, he was 
commissioned Chief Justice of the United States 
Supreme Court. The accession of Marshall to 
the bench of the Supreme Court as Chief Justice 
marks a turning point in his life and an epoch 
in the legal and constitutional history of the 
United States. He died July 6, 1835, at Phila- 
delphia, whither he had gone for medical treat- 
ment. For 34 years Marshall dominated the 
court by his great learning, his masterful power 
of analysis and clearness of statement. Per- 
haps no judge ever excelled him in the capacity 
to hold a legal proposition before the eyes of 
others in such various forms and colors. He 
resolved every argument by the most subtle 
analysis into its ultimate principles, and then 
applied them to the decision of the case in ques- 
tion. His service on the bench, which continued 
until his death, was effective and conspicuous 
not only in securing for the court the recog- 
nition and profound respect for which hitherto 
there had been no especial occasion, but also in 
so expounding the Constitution as to make clear 
for the first time the nature of the national 
government and to forecast the lines along 
which, in actual development as well as in judi- 
cial interpretation, the nation was to proceed. 
In the period of Marshall's predominance the 
court upheld the Federalist theories, as in the 
national bank case of McCulloch v. Maryland, 
and gave a clear definition of the relations of 
the State and national governments. On the sub- 
ject of the constitutional prohibition against the 
impairment of contracts, several noteworthy 
opinions were rendered by him, culminating in 
the famous Dartmouth College case, the sound- 
ness of which has more recently been questioned. 
Particularly in the field of constitutional law 
the work of Marshall forms the greatest contri- 
bution to American jurisprudence made by any 
judge. In a single decision, the famous case of 
Marbury v. Madison (1 Cranch, 137), he estab- 
lished the authority of the Federal courts to set 

aside an act of Congress on the ground of its 
unconstitutionally, and thus he placed on a firm 
footing the principle of judicial supremacy. His 
interpretations of the Constitution have long 
been recognized as an important and permanent 
feature of American public law. In the field 
of international law, also, his contribution was 
very great, as witness especially his opinion in 
Schooner Exchange v. McFaddon (7 Cranch, 
116). This aspect of Marshall's importance had 
not been widely appreciated until it was dis- 
cussed by John Bassett Moore in John Marshall 
(Boston, 1901). Mr. Moore says that from 1790 
to 1801 only six decisions involving Constitu- 
tional questions had been rendered by the Su- 
preme Court; from 1801 to 1835 there were 62, 
of which 36 were written by Marshall. During 
his period of service there were 195 cases in- 
volving points of international law, and Mar- 
shall delivered the opinion in 80 of these 
Aside from his judicial labors, Marshall wrote 
a Life of George Washington ( 5 vols , 1804- 
07; 2d ed, 2 vols, 1832). His introduction 
to this work, A History of the Colonies 
Planted ly the English on the Coast of 
North America, was published separately in 
1824. John Marshall, Complete Constitutional 
Decisions, edited by J M Dillon, appeared in 
1903 (Chicago), and The Constitutional De- 
cisions of John Marshall, edited with intro- 
ductory essay by J/ O Cotton, Jr., in 1905 (2 
vols., New York). Consult also: A. B. Ma- 
grudei, John Marshall (Boston, 1885, new ed , 
1908) ; Henry Hitchcock, in T. M. Cooley et al , 
Constitutional History of the United States as 
Seen in the Development of American Laic (New 
York, 1887); J F. Dillon, John Marshall (3 
vols, Chicago, 1903) , H Flanders, Life of John 
Marshall (Philadelphia, 1905); J E Oster, The 
Political and Economic Doctrines of John Mar- 
shall; also his Speeches, Letters, and hitherto 
Unpublished and Uncollected Writings (New 
York, 1914). 

MARSHALL, JOHN (1818-91). An English 
anatomist and surgeon. He was born at Ely, 
Cambridgeshire, and was educated at University 
College, London, where he became a demonstra- 
tor in surgery m 1845, assistant surgeon at the 
hospital in 1847, surgeon and professor of sur- 
gery in 18G6, and consulting surgeon in 1884 
He became also professor of anatomy at the 
Royal Academy in 1873, and was president of 
the Royal College of Surgeons in 1883 In sur- 
gery he introduced the galvanocautery and the 
operation for the excision of varicose veins. He 
showed great ability as a teacher of anatomy to 
art students His publications include A De- 
scription of the Human Body, its Structure and 
Functions (1860; 4th ed , 1883); Anatomy for 
Artists (1878; 3d ed., 1890); The Outlines of 
Physiology, Human and Comparative (3 vols., 
1867 K 

MARSHALL, Louis (1856- ). An 
American lawyer, born at Syracuse, N. Y. He 
studied at Columbia Law School ; began practice 
at Syracuse in 1878; and later became a member 
of the firm of Guggenheimer, Untermyer, and 
Marshall, of New York City. He lectured at 
Now York Law School in 1900 and at the Law 
School of Syracuse University in 1901, was ap- 
pointed chairman of the New York Immigration 
Commission by Governor Hughes in 1908 ; served 
as mediator in settling the cloak makers' strike 
in 1910; and was counsel for Governor Sulzer 
in/ his impeachment trial in 1913 and for Leo M. 

Frank in Georgia in 1914-15. Marshall was a 
leader in the movement which brought about 
the abrogation in 1911 of the Treaty of 1832 
with Russia; under the treaty the Russian gov- 
ernment had found it possible to discriminate 
against Russian Jews who had become natu- 
ralized citizens of the United States. Marshall 
identified himself actively with Jewish educa- 
tional and institutional work. In 1913 he re- 
ceived the honorary degree of LLD. from Syra- 
cuse University, of which he became trustee in 
1910 and to which he presented a law library. 

An American lawyer and historical writer. He 
was boin at Franklin, Conn., graduated at Union 
College in 1831, studied law, spending some time 
at Yale, and entered upon active practice, having 
been admitted to the bar at Buffalo in 1834 
His interest in literary and historical subjects 
was early manifested. He was one of the 
founders of the Buffalo Female Academy and 
of the Buffalo Historical Society, and for many 
years was chancellor of the University of Buf- 
falo. His historical writings concern chiefly the 
relations of the Iroquois with French and Eng- 
lish and are of considerable value. A volume 
was collected after his death entitled Historical 
Writings of Orsamus H. Marshall Relating to 
the Early History of the West (1887). 

MARSHALL, ROBERT (1863-1910). A Scot- 
tish playwright. He was born in Edinburgh and 
v\as educated at St Andrews and Edinburgh 
universities. In 188G he was commissioned a 
lieutenant in the West Riding Regiment , served 
as district adjutant in Cape Town in 1893-94; 
was promoted to captain in 1895; and was aid- 
de-eamp to the Governor of Natal from 1895 to 
1898, \\hen he retired from the army His plays 
include The Shades of Night (1896) ; His Ex- 
cellennj the Governor (1898) ; The Broad Road 
(1898), A Royal Family (1899); The Noble 
Lord (1900) ; The Second in Command (1900) ; 
3 here's Many a Slip (1902); The Haunted 
Major (1902); The Unforeseen (1902), The 
Duke of Killiecrankie (1904); Everybody's 
Secret (1904) ; The Lady of Leeds (1905) ; The 
Alabaster Staircase (1906). 

MARSHALL, STEPHEN (c. 1594-1 655). A 
Presbyterian leader He was born at Godman- 
ch ester, Huntingdonshire, England, graduated 
B A at Cambridge (1618), entered the ministry 
and joined the ranks of the Nonconformists. 
He was an eloquent man, considered in some 
quarters the greatest preacher of the day; not 
learned or original, but influential because of 
his personality and eloquence. Beginning with 
the advocacy of a reform of the Church of 
England, while retaining episcopacy and liturgy, 
he ended with the de jure divino Presbyterian 
theory. He was one of the leaders of the West- 
minster Assembly (1643 et seq.). Marshall 
published many sermons. One treatise, A De- 
fense of Infant Baptism (1646), may be men- 
tioned He was also one of the joint authors 
of a pamphlet published at London (1641), 
called An Answer to a Booke [by J. Hall, Bishop 
of Norwich] entituled An Humble Remonstrance. 
In which the onginall of Liturgy [and] Episco- 
pacy is Discussed. And Quceres Propounded 
Concerning Both Written by Smectymnuus. 

An American lawyer and public official, descended 
from the famous John Marshall family of Vir- 
ginia. He was born at North Manchester, Ind., 
was educated at Wabash College (A.B.. 1873; 

A.M., 1876), and studied law in the office of 
Judge Olds of Fort Wayne, being admitted to 
the bar in 1875. He practiced law at Columbia 
City, where as a member of the firm of Marshall 
and McNagny and later, in 1892, of Marshall, 
McNagny, and Clugston, he attained success. 
His practice extended beyond his county, and he 
became known as an orator. In 1880 he was a 
candidate for district attorney, but was de- 
feated; from 1896 to 1898 he was chairman of 
the Democratic committee of his congressional 
district; and in 1908 he was nominated for 
Governor and was elected. Although a con- 
servative in his belief in the maintenance of 
traditional political institutions, he had a pro- 
gressive administration, advocating the direct - 
election of Senators, an employers' liability law, 
and anti-race-track and bookmaking legislation 
His efficiency in office and his alleged opposition 
to the Taggart faction an opposition which, 
however, did not reach an open rupture brought 
him favorable national attention In 1912 he 
was the "favorite son" candidate of Indiana for 
the presidential nomination, and, while unsuc- 
cessful in this ambition, he was given that for 
Vice President. He proclaimed himself a "pro- 
gressive with the brakes set." After his election 
he consistently supported the Wilson administra- 
tion. In 1913 certain of his speeches regarding 
the social unrest growing out of discontent with 
the present distribution of wealth, in which he 
was reported as advocating revolutionary ideas 
respecting inheritance of property, occasioned 
surprise and criticism, partly through misunder- 
standing. He received honorary degrees from 
Wabash College, Notre Dame University, and the 
University of Pennsylvania. See INDIANA, 

A Scottish sculptor. He was born m Edinburgh, 
March 18, 1813. He studied sculpture at the 
Trustees' Academy, Edinburgh, and in London, 
under Chantry and Bailey. In the schools of the 
Royal Academy he won a gold medal and travel- 
ing scholarship, and from 1836 to 1838 continued 
his studies in Rome. His work was chiefly 
idealistic statuary, and among his productions 
of this class are: "The Creation of Adam" 
(1842); "Christ Blessing Little Children" 
(1844) ; "Paul and Virginia" (1845) ; "Sabrina" 
(1846), perhaps the most popular of all his fig- 
ures; and the group "Agriculture" on the Albert 
Memorial In historical figures he modeled the 
bronze statue of Sir Robert Peel in Manchester, 
and in Westminster Palace the busts of Chau- 
cer, Lord Clarendon, and Lord Somers. In 
decoration he was extensively engaged in the 
ornamentation of the new Houses of Parliament 
and the Wellington Chapel in St. Paul's Ca- 
thedral. His work is in the pseudoclassic style 
of his day, but is marked by simplicity and re- 
finement and elegance of design. He died in 
London, June 16, 1894. 

TVTAP.aTTAT.-Lj WILLIAM Louis (1846-1920). 
An American soldier and engineer, born at Wash- 
ington, Ky. He attended Kenyon College, Ohio, 
in 1859-61; served as a private in the Tenth 
Kentucky Cavalry in 1862-63; and graduated 
from the United States Military Academy in 
1868. Entering the engineering branch of the 
service, he was promoted through the various 
grades to brigadier general and chief of engi- 
neers in 1908. He was acting professor of nat- 
ural and experimental philosophy at West 
Point in 1870-71. While in charge of the Colo- 




rado section of the "Explorations West of the 
100th Meridian" in 1872-76 he discovered 
(1873) Marshall Pass across the Rocky Moun- 
tains and the gold placers of Marshall Basin on 
the San Miguel River, Colo, in 1875. He had 
charge of levee construction and improvements 
on the Mississippi River in 1881-84, and there- 
after until 1900 of harbor improvements on Lake 
Michigan and river improvements in Illinois 
and Wisconsin He superintended also the con- 
struction of the Hennepin Canal (1890-1900), 
of the Ambrose channel entrance to New York 
harbor, and of fortifications for that harbor 
As chief engineer he had charge of all the river 
and harbor and fortification works of the United 
States from 1908 to 1910, when he was retired. 

MARSHALL ISLANDS. An archipelago in 
Micronesia, situated east of the Caroline Islands 
and belonging to Germany since 1885 (Map: 
Australasia, J 2). It consists of two parallel 
chains of atolls, the Ratak chain of 13 islands 
in the east and the Ralik of 11 islands in the 
west, with an aggregate area of 158 square miles. 
The islands are low, the water supply scanty, 
and the soil very poor, supporting a scanty flora, 
in which the coconut and the breadfruit tree 
predominate. The chief export is phosphate, 
which in 1910 appeared in the statistical re- 
turns with a valuation of 8,561,000 marks. The 
population of the whole archipelago in 1910 was 
about 15,000, of whom 179 were Europeans, 91 
being Germans The islands are administered 
by an Imperial Commissioner residing on the 
island of Jaluit These islands were occupied bv 
the Japanese during the war which broke out in 
Europe in 1914. See WAB IN EUROPE. 

MAB'SHALLTOWN. A city and the county 
seat of Marshall Co , Iowa, 60 miles by rail 
northeast of Des Moines, on the Iowa River and 
on the Chicago Great Western, the Minneapolis 
and St. Louis, and the Chicago and North- 
western railroads (Map: Iowa, E 2). It is the 
seat of the Iowa State Soldiers Home and has 
a public library It is a shipping point for large 
quantities of grain, and among its industrial es- 
tablishments are extensive meat-packing plants, 
manufactories of steel furnaces and steam spe- 
cialties, flour mills, gram elevators, canning 
and botthng works, and carriage factories. The 
surrounding region is adapted to agriculture 
and stock raising. Settled in 1860, Marshall- 
tovTi was incorporated as a town in 1865 and re- 
ceived a charter as a city of the second class in 
1868. The commission form of government was 
adopted in 1912 The city owns and operates 
the water works and electric-light plant. Pop , 
1890, 8914; 1900, 11,544; 1910, 13,374; 1914, 
(U. S est.), 14,042. 1920, 15,731. 


MAR'SHALSEA. A former prison in South- 
wark, London, connected with a court of the 
tame name. It was abolished in 1849 


1374) An English novelist, daughter of James 
Caldwell, of Linley Wood, Staffordshire In 
1817 she married Arthur Cuthbert Marsh, of 
Eastbury Lodge, Hertfordshire. Encouraged by 
Harriet Martineau, she published Two Old Men's 
Tales (1834). In the course of a few years 
she took rank among the popular novelists of 
her time. She published anonymously, and a 
complete list of her novels has never been made. 
Fifteen volumes appeared in the Parlour Library 

( 1857 ) . They depict mostly the manners of the 
upper middle class and the lower aristocracy. 
Emilia Wyndham (1846) seems to be one of the 



MARSH'FIELD. A town in Coos Co., Ore., 
10 miles north of Coquille; situated on Coos 
Bay, on the Coos Bay, Roseburg, and Eastern 
Railroad, and on the lines of the Inter-Ocean 
Transportation Company, the Northern Pacific 
Steamship Company, and the Southern Pacific 
Steamship Company (Map: Oregon, A 4). 
Marshfield has a navigable channel 300 feet wide 
and 25 feet deep. Features of interest in the 
town and the vicinity are the Carnegie library, 
Golden and Silver Falls, and the Ten Mile Lakes. 
The chief industries are lumbering, coal mining, 
fishing, dairying, and market gardening; and 
there are also manufactories of myrtle-wood 
novelties, pulp, paper, veneered woods, boxes, 
boats, and doors and sashes. Pop., 1900, 1391, 
1910, 2980. 

MABSHFIELD. A city in Wood Co., Wis , 
175 miles northwest of Milwaukee, on the Chi- 
cago and Northwestern and the Minneapolis, St. 
Paul, and Sault Ste. Marie railroads (Map- 
Wisconsin, C 4) Among the noteworthy fea- 
tuies are the public library, hospital, city hall, 
county asylum buildings, experiment farm, and 
three parks. Marshfield has extensive manu- 
factures of lumber, including staves, headings, 
barrels, and furniture, also beds, springs, mat- 
tresses, veneer, foundry products, metal goods, 
gasoline engines, creamery products, etc Dairy- 
ing has assumed a position of great importance 
in recent years. There is also some trade in 
grain and live stock. The city owns its electric- 
light and power plant. Pop.,' 1900, 5240, 1910, 
5783 Marshfield was almost entirely destroyed 
by fire in 1888, but has been rebuilt completely. 


MARSH HARE, or BABBIT. A hare (Le- 
pus, or tiylvilagus, palustns) of the lowlands 
along the southern Atlantic seaboard, uhich is 
slightly larger than the cottontail, measuring 18 
inches, and differs m its nearly bare feet and 
more scanty pelage. It frequents boggy lands, 
and readily takes to the water. 

of prey (Circus cyaneus of Euiope, or Circus 
hudsomus of North America) which haunts 
marshy places. The adult male is light bluish 
gray, the tail is barred with six to eight bands, 
and the tips of the wings are blackish. The 
female is dusky or rusty brown, streaked about 
the head. Both sexes may be easily recognized 
by the broad white patch on the rump Though 
long-winged and capable of strong flight, it is 
habitually slow in its movements, sweep ing back 
and forth over low meadows, river margins, and 
wet ground generally, in search of the small 
game to be found in such places, keeping near 
the ground and dropping suddenly upon its prey 
more often a frog or a mouse* than anything 
else. Only rarely does it seize a bird or disturb 
poultry; and its services are of great value to 
the agriculturists and should be encouraged 
It was classed as "ignoble" in falconry These 
hawks nest upon the ground m some marsh, and 
lay four or five nearly globular, dirty-white 
eggs. Consult: Elliott Coues, Birds of the 
Northwest (Washington, 1874) ; Fisher, Hawks 
and Owls of the United States (ib. 1893); 
Chandler, ''Modifications and Adaptations to 


Function in the Feathers of Circus hudsonius" 
in University of California Publications in 
Zoology (Berkeley, 1914) ; and standard authori- 
ties. See Plate of EAGLES AND HAWKS. 

MARSH HEN, or MUD HEN A gunner's 
name for various rails, coots, and gallinules 

MARSH MALLOW. A name applied to Al- 
thasa officinalis, native of Great Britain and 
naturalized in the United States, in both of 


which countries it grows in meadows and 
marshes, particularly near the seacoast The 
whole plant, which is a woody herb, abounds in 
mucilage, especially in the perennial root, con- 
fections made from it being known as pdtes de 
gmmauve The leaves and tender twigs have 
been used for food in some regions duiing sea- 
sons of scarcity. The hollyhock (Althaea rosea) 
is an allied species. See HOLLYHOCK; ALTHAEA. 
MARSH'MAN, JOSHUA (1768-1837). An 
English missionary. He was born at Westbury 
Leigh, Wiltshire, and was sent in 1799 by the 
Baptist Missionary Society to India to join 
William Carey ( q v ) and his colleagues. They 
established their mission at Serampur, a Danish 
colony, 16 miles above Calcutta, and to supple- 
ment the scanty funds sent out by the society 
schools were opened for both European and 
native children. This course did not meet the 
approval of the society, and in 1826 Marshman 
returned to England to try to effect a settlement 
of the differences. He failed in his object, and 
the matter ended in a separation of the Seram- 
pur mission for the society. He returned to 
Serampur in 1829 and died there, Dec. 5, 1837. 
In addition to his special missionary duties Dr 
Marshman gave himself with great zeal to the 
study of the Bengali, Sanskrit, and Chinese lan- 
guages, and became an extraordinary linguist. 
He published: A Dissertation on the Charac- 
ters and Sounds of the Chinese Language 
(1809), The Works of Confucius, Containing 
the Original Teat with a Translation (1809); 
Clavis Sinica (1814); Elements of Chinese 
Grammar, with a Preliminary Dissertation on 
the Characters and Colloquial Medium of the 
Chinese (1814). He also prepared the first 
complete Chinese version of the Bible. He 
assisted Dr. Carey in preparing a Sanskrit gram- 
mar and a Bengali and English dictionary and 
the Bible in Telugu. Consult J. C. Marshman, 
Life and Times of the Serampur Missionaries 
VOL. XV. 10 

(London, 1859), and Carey, Marshman 
Ward, an abridgment of the above (ib., 1864). 
MARSH MARIGOLD, Caltha. A genus of 
plants of the family Ranunculaceae. Caltha 
palustris, usually called cowslip in the United 
States, is a very common American plant, 
with kidney-shaped, shining leaves and large 
yellow flowers, a principal ornament of wet 
meadows and the sides of streams in spring. 
It partakes of the acridity common to the order; 
but the flower buds, preserved in vinegar and 
salt, are said to be a good substitute for capers. 
The plant is used before flowering as a potherb 

1CAB8H MARIGOLD (CoUhd polustns). 

in many places. A species, Caltha natans, oc- 
curring in ponds from Minnesota northwestward, 
has white or pink flowers. 


MARSH ROSE^MART. A name given to 
several species of 8 tat ice or Limonium, members 
of the family Plumbaginaceae. Statice limonium, 
a perennial plant, grows in salt marshes along 
the seashore of southern and western Europe, 
and Limonium carohnianum, an American plant, 
grows in similar localities on the American coast. 
Marsh rosemary has a tuft of spatulate oblong, 
bristly pointed, one-ribbed leaves, developing in 
August a much-branched, panicled scape, from 
1 to 2 feet high, bearing numerous small laven- 
der-colored flowers. 


MARSH TREFOIL. A plant widely distrib- 
uted in northen latitudes. See BUCK BEAN. 

MARSH WREN. A wren that inhabits 
reedy marshes. In the United States and Canada 
two species are more or less numerous wherever 
such marshes occur. The most familiar one 
along the Atlantic coast is the long-billed marsh 
wren (Telmatodytes palustrts), while the short- 
billed (Cistothorus stellans) is more numerous 
in the interior of the country. Both are brown- 
ish above and light colored below, with little to 
distinguish them besides the marked difference 
in the length of the bill; but the long-billed is 
the larger Both species are migratory, and are 
notorious for their excited activity, micelike 
manners, and rippling prattling song. They 
construct large globular nests, suspended among 

the reeds, woven of grass blades and entered by 
a little hole in the side. As often happens 
among other wrens (see WREN), many more 
nests will be built each season than there are 
pairs in the locality, some of which may be uti- 
lized as sleeping places by the cock birds. The 
nests of the two species are much alike, but the 
eggs are very distinct, those of the long-billed 
being dark chocolate in color, while those of the 
short-billed are pure white. 

BCAB'SI. 1. An ancient tribe of central 
Italy, inhabiting the district around Lake Fuci- 
nus (Lago di Celano, now drained). Their 
origin, like that of other Italian tribes, is in- 
volved in obscurity and fiction. They were 
probably of Sabme origin, but spoke a dialect 
akin to the Latin. They are worthy of notice 
chiefly on account of their warlike spirit. The 
Marstans were at one time allies of the Romans, 
but in 308 BC. they revolted and joined the 
Samnites After being subdued they again (301 
B.C.) shook off the alliance of Rome, but were 
beaten in the field and lost several of their 
fortresses From this time they continued the 
firm allies of Rome, contributing by their valor 
to her triumphs until the Italians were aroused 
in 91 B.C to demand redress of their wrongs 
and a share in the privileges of Roman citizens. 
A war ensued, generally known as the Social 
War (qv), but frequently called the Marsic 
War, because the Marsi were prominent among 
the malcontents. Their leader was Pompsedius 
Silo Though they were often defeated, the per- 
severance of the allies gained, in 87 BC, the 
object for which they had taken up arms en- 
franchisement as Roman citizens The Mar- 
sians, inhabiting a mountain district, were tem- 
perate in their habits, brave, and unyielding 
So marked was their valor that there was a 
proverbial saying recorded by Appian, "that 
Rome had achieved no triumph over the Marsi, 
or without the Marsi." The ancient Marsi were 
represented as enchanters, able to tame serpents 
and to heal their bites ; and it is worthy of note 
that the jugglers who now amuse the people by 
handling serpents are natives of the region in 
the vicinity of Lago di Celano. Inscriptions 
found at the southwest corner of Lake Fucinus 
testify to the existence there of a temple and 
grove of Angitia, a goddess of healing, espe- 
cially skilled in curing, by charms and herbs, the 
bites of serpents. Their only important town 
was Marruvium (San Benedetto), the ruins of 
which are still visible. Consult: Sophus Bugge, 
Itahsche Landet Kunde (Christiama, 1878) , R. 
S. Conway, The Italic Dialects (Cambridge, 
1897); and the article "Marsi" in Friednch 
Lubker, Reallexikon des klassiftchen Altertwns 
(8th ed, Leipzig, 1914). See ITALIC LAN- 
GUAGES. 2. An ancient people of Germany, ac- 
cording to Tacitus, Germawia, chap. ii. In books 
i-ii of his Awnales Tacitus makes the Marsi an 
important tribe or group of tribes between the 
rivers Lippe and Ruhr, perhaps near Dortmund. 
They fought with Germanicus. See GEEMANIA; 

MARSIAN (mar'si-an) WAR. See SOCIAL 

(1848-1924). A Belgian violinist and teacher, 
born at Jupille, near Liege. His earliest pro- 
fessional instruction was at the Dlsire-Heynberg 
Conservatory at Liege. His musical precocity 
was such that at 12 years of age be was organist 
of the Lige Cathedral. At 17 years of age he 

TUT A "HUTTyprrfl 

became a pupil of Leonard at the Brussels Con- 
servatory, and a year later entered the Paris 
Conservatory, where he studied under Massart 
and won the first prize for violin playing. He 
completed his student course under Joachim at 
Berlin, and in 1873 made a very successful debut 
at the "concerts populaires." He became a 
member of the faculty of the Paris Conservatory 
in 1892, succeeding Massart as professor of 
violin His compositions are almost entirely for 
the violin and are very popular on the French 
concert platform. In 1895-96 he toured the 
United States and confirmed the reputation that 
had preceded him. 

COUNT (1658-1730). An Italian soldier and 
scholar, born at Bologna. He rose from the 
ranks to be general in the Austrian army After 
the fall of Altbreisach (1703), where ho was 
second in command, he was degraded by c-ourt- 
martial and was never entirely reinstated, 
though generally considered innocent There- 
after Marsigli devoted himself to scientific ex- 
plorations and founded the Institute of Science 
and Arts at Bologna (1714). In connection 
with it he established a press for printing its 
reports His works include: Osservazionc in- 
torno al Bosforo tracio (1681) ; Stona del mare 
(1711); Danubius Pannonico-Mysicus (1720); 
Stato mihtare dell' imperto ottomano (1732). 
MARSIL'EA'CEJE. One of the two families 
of water ferns, the other being the Salvmiaceae 
(qv). The family comprises the two genera 
Marsilea and Pilulana, whose species root in the 
mud, either under water or in muddy flats. 
The stem is prostrate and gives rise to a series 
of leaves, whose blades reach the surface of the 
uater. The leaf of MarsiJea has a long petiole 
bearing four wedge-shaped leaflets, peltately ar- 
ranged, and resembling a four-leaved clover, ex- 
cept that the veins are forking. The fruit body 
(sporocarp) of Marsilea is somewhat bean- 
shaped, and is borne on a stalk that arises from 
the petiole, which represents a branch of the 
leaf bearing and inclosing the sporangia. 

MARSILI, mar-selg, LUIGI (c 1330-94). An 
Italian humanist. He was born at Florence and 
there entered the Augustmian convent of Santo 
Spirito He studied theology at Paris, on the 
advice of Petrarch, who wished him to become 
a Christian champion against the Avorroists 
Santo Spirito under Marsili became the seat of 
a society for classical study and discussion; 
among its members was Coluccio Salutati Mar- 
sili was employed in several diplomatic errands 
by the city of Florence. His manuscript com- 
ments on Petrarch's poems were preserved at 
the Laurentian Library. Consult Rossi, II 
quattrocento (Milan). 

MABSII/IUS, or MARSIGLIO, mar-se'lyd, 
OF PADUA (C.1270-C.1343). A Christian polemic. 
He was born in Padua and studied medicine 
there. Later he taught philosophy at Paris and 
became rector of the university in 1313. There 
between 1324 and 1326 he produced, in conjunc- 
tion with John of Jandun, the treatise on juris- 
prudence which gives him his lasting fame, the 
Defensor Pacis, an arraignment of the "usurpa- 
tions," as he terms them, of the Roman pontiff. 
The way to peace, he maintains, is for the spirit- 
ual power to give up its claim to rule the tem- 
poral power. He argues for a virtual separation 
of Church and state, and pleads in singularly 
modern language for religious liberty and the 


equality of the clergy. He denies the right of the 
Church to punish heresy. He accompanied his 
patron, Louis of Bavaria, in his conquest of 
Rome (1328), where for a short time his ideas 
were put into practice. His book was printed 
and published at Basel ( 1522 ) . The anonymous 
editor was probably the printer Valentinus 
Curius, though some think he was Huldreich 
Zwmgli. It was translated by William Marshall 
(London, 1553). 

MABSIFOBBANCHII, miir'sIp-d-br&n'kM. 
A class of fishlike animals, the lampreys, with a 
cartilaginous skeleton and the skull imperfectly 
developed See CYCLOSTOMI. 

MABSIVAN, m&r'se-van'. A town of Asia 
Minor in the Vilayet of Sivas, situated among 
gardens and vineyards, 56 miles south of the 
Black Sea (Map: Turkey in Asia, C 2). It is 
the seat of Anatolia College, an institution with 
which a Protestant theological seminary and an 
American hospital are connected, the three in- 
stitutions having a student body of over 700. 
The city also contains Jesuit and Armenian 
schools In the neighborhood are a silver mine 
and hot mineral springs. It is a prosperous 
town with a population of about 25,000, most of 
them Moslems. 

MARS-LA-TOUR, mars'-la-toor'. A village 
of France, in the Department of Meurthe-et- 
Moselle, 12 miles west-southwest of Metz. It is 
noted for the bloody cavalry battle which took 
place there between the French and Germans, 
Aug. 1C, 1870, better known as the battle of 
Vionville (q v ). 

MAB'STON, JOHN ( ?1575-1634). An Eng- 
lish dramatist, belonging to the Marstons of 
Shropshire He was born probably at Coventry 
about 1575 In 1594 he graduated BA from 
Brasenose College, Oxford, and very soon, it 
would seem, studied law. Turning to literature, 
he published in 1598 The Metamorphosis of Pig- 
mahons Image; and Cettaine Satyres, and The 
Scour qc of Villame: three Books of Satyres. 
The first, Pitjmahons Image, is an amatory poem, 
written, the author asserted, to bring into dis- 
repute the whole species The satires, some of 
which are devoted to a quarrel between Marston 
and Joseph Hall, are coarse and brutal On 
the other hand, they are not wanting in vigor 
and point Most famous are the lines in which 
Marston dedicates himself to everlasting obliv- 
ion The earliest trace of Marston as a play- 
wright is in Henslowe's Diary (Sept. 28, 1599). 
His extant tragedies comprise: Antonio and 
Mellida and Antonio's Revenge (1602); The 
Malcontent (1604); Sophonisba (1606); The In- 
satiate Countess (1613), which, however, is 
sometimes assigned to William Barksteed. His 
comedies comprise: The Dutch Courtezan 
(1605), Parasitaster, or The Fawne (1606); 
What You Will (1607). As he often collabo- 
rated, his hand is also discernible in several 
other plays. In conjunction with Chapman and 
Jonson he wrote Eastward Hoe (1605) ; and on 
account of certain offensive passages he and 
Chapman were sent to prison, where Jonson 
voluntarily joined them. Before this Marston 
and Jonson had quarreled, but they were now 
reconciled The comedies are lively and enter- 
taining. The tragedies contain passages of 
power and beauty, but thev tend too much to 
bombast, coarseness, and the gross horrors of 
the tragedies of blood. The best is The Insatiate 
Countess. In middle life Marston left the stage 
and entered the Church. From 1616 to 1631 he 


held the living of Christchurch in Hampshire. 
He died in London, June 25, 1634. Marston's 
WorLes were first published in London, in 1633. 
The Works, edited by J. O. H.- Phillipps, ap- 
ired in 1856 (3 vols., London) ; and, edited 
A. H. Bullen, in 1887 (3 vols., ib.). The 
?ms, edited by A. B. Grosart, appeared in 
1879 (2 vols., ib ). Consult also. F. G. Fleay, 
Biographical Chronicle of the English Drama, 
1559-1642 (London, 1891); "John Marston als 
Dramatiker," in Englische Studien, vols. xx, xxi 
(Heilbronn, 1895) ; W. M. Dixon, in Cambridge 
History of English Literature, vol. vi (Cam- 
bridge, 1910). 

An English dramatic poet, born in Lincolnshire 
He studied law, but left that profession for 
literature. He published Gerald and Other 
Poems (1842), besides some novels and short 
stories, and was long a contributor to the 
AthencBum. His principal literary activity, 
however, was in the field of dramatic literature 
Among his numerous plays are: The Patrician's 
Daughter (1841), a tragedy; Strathmore 
(1849); Ann Blake (1852); A Hard Struggle 
(1858); Donna Diana (1863), his best play; 
The Favorite of Fortune (1866) ; A Hero of Ro- 
mance (1867) ; Life for Life (1869). 

English poet, born in London. From early child- 
hood he suffered a partial loss of sight which 
ultimately became complete blindness. Besides 
vision he lost friends, relatives, and fortune, 
the whole serving to develop in his verse a vein 
of unvaried sadness His sonnets and lyrics 
are highly esteemed for technical excellence It 
is generally believed that he was the subject of 
Mrs Craik's Philip, My King. He is the sub- 
ject of an elegy by Swinburne. He published 
three volumes of poetry: Song Tide and Other 
Poems (1871) ; All in All (1875) ; Wind Voices 
(1883) There were posthumously published a 
collection of stories, edited by W Sharp and 
called For a Song's Sake and Other Stories 
(1887); and, in verse, Garden Secrets (1887) 
and A Last Harvest (1891), both edited by Mrs 
Louise C. Moulton. Consult Coulson Kernahan, 
in Sorrow and Song (Philadelphia, 1894), and 
William Sharp, in Papers Critical and Reminis- 
cent (New York, 1912). 

MABSTON MOOB. A plain in Yorkshire, 
England, where, July 2, 1644, the Royalist army, 
under Prince Rupert, was beaten by the Parlia- 
mentary forces, English and Scottish, under 
Fairfax, the Earl of Manchester, and the Earl of 
Leven The approach of Rupert forced Fairfax 
to abandon the siege of York, and he took up his 
position on Marston Moor, with about 25,000 
men. Rupert, with about the same number, 
came up with him on the afternoon of July 
2 ; and in the evening, at the head of the Royal- 
ist right, he made a fierce charge upon the 
Parliamentary left, which broke and fled in dis- 
order. The Parliamentary centre had likewise 
been broken by the infantry of the Royalist 
centre and had suffered heavily; but while the 
Royalists were dispersed in search of plunder 
or in pursuit of the enemy, Cromwell's famous 
Ironsides brigade, with the Scottish regiments, 
commanded by David Leslie, and some others, 
rallied, charged the Royalists vigorously, and 
remained masters of the field, capturing 1500 
prisoners and all the Royalist artillery. The 
killed on the Royalist side numbered 4000 and 
the wounded about as many more ; on the Parlia- 




primitive of all the marsupials and are thought 
to resemble closely the ancestral stock from 
which came the living members of this inf raclass. 
All the other marsupials (except one) are con- 
fined to the Australasian region, where they 
completely dominate all other mammals and 
form the most characteristic feature of the 
fauna. Their survival and prosperity in Aus- 
tralia are doubtless due to the entire absence 
there of destructive carnivores, except the dingo, 
of doubtful antiquity; and they have become 
diversified within their limited circumstances in 
the same way as have the larger company of 
mammals all over the world, to enable them to 
utilize all possible advantages. The fact of 
marsupials existing in America, and especially 
in the Neotropical region, has excited much 
speculation as to how they came there, so remote 
from Australia Geographical researches show 
that during the Mesozoic age marsupials in- 
habited Europe and North America, but none of 
that period have been found in Australian rocks. 
These oldest ancestors of the race appear to 
have been mainly of the polyprotodont type, 
little differentiated from the diprotodonts, how- 
ever: and either this differentiation occurred 
very long ago (in Jurassic or Cretaceous times) 
or the latter is a condition which has arisen, as 
Beddard suggests, independently in both South 
America and Australia. At any rate, before the 
Tertiary age was finished pouched marsupials 
disappeared from the Northern Hemisphere and 
survived only in Australasia and South America. 
The hypothesis of a former land connection be- 
tween Australia and Patagonia is still a moot 
question It seems probable that in early Ter- 
tiary times there must have been a land con- 
nection by way of the Antarctic continent. The 
most eminent authorities differ on this point. 
It is interesting to know that a diprotodont 
(see OPOSSUM RAT) exists in Patagonia. 

The relationships of marsupials have become 
much better understood than formerly. The 
name Metatheria was originally given with the 
idea that this group was intermediate between 
the Prototheria (monotremes) and higher Eu- 
theria, and in a sense this is true, but the for- 
mer belief that it represents a stage of develop- 
ment from the Prototheria to the monodelphic 
mammals is not now accepted. The distinctions 
between the marsupials and the Monotremata 
are fundamental, and there is no evidence of the 
derivation of the two branches from any com- 
mon source On the contrary, as Beddard con- 
cludes in a learned review of the subject, the 
great specialization of the structure of the 
marsupials (including evidence of degenera- 
tion ) , and their age, point to the fact that they 
are the descendants of an early form of euthe- 
rian mammal, since the time when the stock had 
acquired diphydonty and the allantoic placenta. 
See the article MAMMALIA. 

Classification. Rather less than 150 species 
are known, but they exhibit a most extraordi- 
nary variety of size, form, and color. The classi- 
fication of the marsupials is based primarily 
upon the dentition, although the characters of 
the feet have been given much weight recently. 
There are two principal groups, the Polyproto- 
dontta, which have numerous small, subequal 
incisor teeth, and the Diprotodontta, which have 
not more than six incisors in each jaw and 
usually have only two in the lower jaw. The 
former includes the opossums, Tasmanian wolf 
and "devil," the dasyurea, bandicoots, and the 

like; while in the latter are the wombats, 
phalangers, koala, and kangaroos. Descriptive 
articles will be found under each of these terms 
and the related words. 

Bibliography. In addition to standard works 
and books descriptive of Australia consult the 
folio volumes with colored plates by John Gould, 
Monograph of the MacropodidcB (London, 1841) ; 
C. R. Waterhouse, "Marsupialia or Pouched Ani- 
mals," in William Jardine, Naturalists' Library, 
vol. xxiv ( Edinburgh, 1855 ) ; John Gould, Mam- 
mals of Australia (3 vols., London, 1863) . 
Gerard Krefft, Mammals of Australia (Sydney, 
1871); Oldfield Thomas, Catalogue of Marsu- 
pialia and Monotremata in the British Museum 
(London, 1888) ; F. E. Beddard, Mammalia (ib., 
1902) ; W. K. Gregory, "Orders of Mammals," in 
American Museum, of Natural History, Bulle- 
tin, vol. xxvii (New York, 1910) ; Parker and 
Haswell, Text-Book of Zoology (ib., 1910); W. 
B. Scott, History of Land Mammals in the 
Western Hemisphere (ib, 1913). 

MARSTTPIAIi MOLE (Notoryotes typhlops). 
A small burrowing marsupial of central southern 
Australia. The marsupial mole is in no way 
connected with the European mole, but neverthe- 
less has acquired many similar habits, afford- 
ing a valuable lesson in parallelism in develop- 
ment. Consult Beddard, Mammalia (London 
and New York, 1902). 

MARSUFFINI, mar'soop-pe'nS, CABLO. See 

MAB/STJS, DOMITIUS (c.54 BC.-C.4 B.c ). A 
Roman poet of the Augustan age He seems to 
have been a friend of Maecenas (Martial, viii, 
56, 21), and of Vergil and Tibullus, but he IB 
not mentioned by Horace His works include: 
Cicuta, Hemlock, a collection of epigrams: De 
Urbanitate, a treatise, bitterly satirical, on the 
use of wit, in oratory, which is quoted by Quin- 
tilian, Amazoms, an epic; and erotic elegies 
and fables. He is frequently mentioned by Mar- 
tial (iv, 29, 7; vii, 29, 7), who praises the wit 
and severity of his satire. The few fragments of 
his works may be found in Biihrens, Fragmenta 
Poetarum Romanorum (1886). Consult: J. A. 
Weichert, Poetarum Latinorum Vitce et Reliquiae 
(1830); R. Unger, De Domitii Marsi Cicuta 
(Friedland, 1861); W. S. Teuftel, Geschiohte 
der roimschen Litteratur, vol. ii ( 6th ed , Leip- 
zig, 1910) , M. Schanz, Oeschichte der romischen 
Litteratur, vol. ii, part i (3d ed., Munich, 1911). 

MAR'SYAS (Lat., from Gk. Maptruas). One 
of the Sileni of Asia Minor, and therefore at 
once a spirit of the water (perhaps originally 
god of the river Marsyas: see below) and of 
music, especially of the flute, which was asso- 
ciated with the worship of the great goddess 
Cybele (q.v.), as whose devoted servant Marsyas 
appears in the Phrygian legend. Thus he is 
called the son of Hyagnis (to whom was attributed 
sometimes the invention of the flute), and a 
teacher of Olympus, to whom the development of 
the art was assigned. Under Greek and es- 
pecially Attic influence other features were 
added to the legend. Athena, so ran the story, 
had invented the flute, but, observing the re- 
flection of her distorted face as she played on 
the flute, threw it from her. It was found by 
the Silenus, or satyr, Marsyas, who became so 
skillful in its use that he ventured to challenge 
the god of the cithara, Apollo, to a musical con- 
test. Here two versions follow. According to 
one, King Midas as judge gave the decision to 
Marsyas, whereupon Apollo bestowed on the 




umpire asses' ears for his poor judgment. In the 
other version the muses were the arbiters, and 
gave the decision to Apollo, as his instrument 
allowed him to add song. In both versions the 
god hung his presumptuous rival to a tree and 
flayed him alive, or caused him to be flayed by 
a Scythian slave. At Celaenae in Phrygia Marsyas 
was worshiped at the cavern whence flows the 
tributary of the Mseander that bears his name, 
and here also was shown his skin, which had been 
hung up in warning by the victorious god In 
the Forum at Rome and in Roman colonies 
statues of Marsyas were set up as a symbol of 
liberty. Marsyas was a favorite figure in art. 
The Athenian sculptor Myron made a famous 
group of Athena and Marsyas, of which the 
latter figure seems reproduced in a marble statue 
in the Lateran, which represents Marsyas as 
picking up the flute. Another celebrated group 
is represented by the statue of Marsyas hung 
from the tree, and the celebrated Florentine fig- 
ure of the Scythian whetting his knife to flay 
Marsyas (found at Rome in the 16th century) ; 
of the other figures of this group no certain 
copies have been identified The competition 
was also represented on the base of the statues 
of Leto, Apollo, and Artemis at Mantmea, by 
Praxiteles, and of this composition three of the 
four slabs are now in the Museum at Athens. 

MART. A city in McLennan Co., Tex, 19 
miles by rail east of Waco, on the Interna- 
tional and Great Northern Railroad (Map: 
Texas, D 4 ) . It is in a productive cotton region, 
and has large cotton gins, oil mills, and com- 
presses. The city contains also a fine high- 
school building and railroad repair shops The 
water works are owned by the municipality. 
Mart has adopted the commission form of gov- 
ernment. Pop , 1910, 2939 

MARTEATJ, mar'to', HENRI (1874- ). A 
French violinist, born at Rheims. He studied 
with Leonard and, after the latter's death in 
1891, entered the Paris Conservatory, where in 
the following year he won the first prize. From 
1892 to 1894 he toured the United States with 
emphatic success. His tours of Scandinavia from 
1894 to 1899 were equally successful. In 1900 
he was appointed professor in the conservatory 
at Geneva, and in 1908 he succeeded Joachim at 
the Konighche Hochschule in Berlin. He pub- 
lished some meritorious chamber music and a 
scena for soprano, chorus, and orchestra. 


MARTEL, mar'tel', Louis JOSEPH (1813-92). 
A French politician, born at Samt-Omer. He 
studied law, entered politics, and was elected to 
the Legislative Assembly of 1849 from Pas-de- 
Calais. He protested strongly against the coup 
d'etat of 1851. He was a member of the Corps 
Legislatif from 1863 to 1870; in 1871 was elected 
to the National Assembly, and was vice presi- 
dent of the Chamber. In 1875 he was elected 
life member of the Senate; in 1876 he became 
vice president of the Senate, and in 1876-77 he 
was Minister of Justice and Public Instruction. 
In 1879-80 he was again president of the 

MARTEL BE JANVILLE, de zh&N'vel', 
French author, born at the chateau of Coetsal 
(Morbihan), and better known by her pen name, 
Gyp. She was the great-grandniece of Mirabeau, 
and married Count Martel de Janville in 1869. 
She created the essentially Parisian characters 
Petit Bob, Loulou, and Paulette, types of a 

more or less risque 1 society, which she describes 
in witty dialogue, and with piquant satire Her 
very numerous novels (133 in 31 years) include: 
Petit Bob (1882) ; Autour du manage (1883) ; 
Un homme delicat (1884) , Elle et Im (1885) ; 
Autour du divorce (1886) ; Pour ne pas Vetref 
(1887) ; Pauvres petit 9 femmes (1888) , Bob au 
salon (1888), Mademoiselle Eve (1889), Bob 
a V exposition (1889), L'Education d'un prince 
(1890), Monsieur Fred (1891); Manage civil 
(1892), Du haut en bas (1893); Manage de 
chiffon (1894), Le cwur d'Anane (1895); Le 
bonheur de Ginette (1896), Totote (1897); 
Israel (1898) , L'Entrevue (1899) ; Le pays des 
champs (1900); Le fnquct (1901); Sccurette 
(1902, 2d ed., 1910) , Un manage dernier en 
(1903); Maman (1904, 2d ed., 1910) ; Le co?ur 
de Pierrette (1905); Ces bons Xormands 
(1907), La paix des champs (1908), Joies 
d'amour (1909); L'Amoureux de Line (1910), 
La gumguette (1911); Le grand coup (1912); 
NapoMonnette (21st ed , 1913). 

MARTEL, mar'te-la' (Fr., hammered). In 
music, a direction for bow instruments, indicat- 
ing that notes so marked are to be played with 
a clean, decided stroke. When the term is used 
in piano music it means that the keys are to be 
struck heavily and firmly. 

MARTELliO TOWER. A round masonry 
tower designed to, form part of a system of coast 
defense The original. Martello tower was situ- 
ated in the Gulf of San Fiorenzo, Corsica, and 
was named after its inventor In 1794 two 
British war ships unsuccessfully attacked it, 
with loss to themselves , this single experience, it 
is said, leading afterward to the adoption of 
Martello towers by the English. They were 
erected along the more exposed parts of the 
south coast and the south and south eastern 
coasts of Ireland. They were determined on 
and built hurriedly during the Napoleonic wars, 
owing to fear of a French invasion. They are 
about 40 feet high, solidly built, and situated on 
or near the beach. The walls are five and one- 
half feet thick and were supposed to be bomb- 
proof; the base formed the magazine, the gar- 
rison occupied the two upper rooms, and the 
swivel heavy gun and its accompanying how- 
itzers were placed on the roof They were a 
great expense to the nation, and have always 
been regarded as worthless They are now dis- 
mantled and, except in the few instances where 
they are utilized by the coast guard, abandoned 

MARTEN (Fr. martre, marte 9 from ML. 
martus, martuns, mardarus, mardalus, mar- 
danus, from OHG. mardar, Ger. Marder, from 
OHG. mart, AS. mearp, marten; probably con- 
nected with Lith. martis, bride). Either of two 
species of fur-bearing animals of the genus Mus- 
tela, which also contains the sables The body 
is elongated and supple, as in weasels, the legs 
short, and the toes separate, with sharp, long 
claws. The nose is grooved and the ears are 
shorter and broader than in weasels, and the 
tail is bushy. The martens exhibit great agility 
and gracefulness in their movements and are very 
expert in climbing trees, among which they gen- 
erally live, furnishing a lofty hollow in a decay- 
ing trunk with a bed of leaves. Here the young 
are brought forth in litters of six to eight early 
each spring; but in a mountainous country all 
will make dens, sometimes in crevices of rocks. 

The term marten is somewhat indefinite, but is 
most applied in America to the animal which 
is the nearest analogue to the Old World sable 



(q.v.), and hence is frequently called the Ameri- 
can sable or pine marten: technically it is 
Mustela americana. This species, which for 250 
years has supplied the most valuable of the 
American furs gathered from its tribe, originally 
had a range wherever forests grew from New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania to Labrador and Hudson 
Bay, and from Colorado and central California to 
the barren grounds of the Arctic coast, and it 
was so plentiful that periodically it overflowed 
certain districts and spread in hordes, scat- 
tering far and wide in search of food On the 
other hand, periods of astonishing scarcity of 
martens occur every eight or ten years, no cause 
for which is known. The incessant trapping 
which goes on in the wilderness has of course 
considerable effect in diminishing their num- 
bers, and this species everywhere disappears 
before the approach of civilization. They keep 
mostly to the trees, and hence like the denser 
parts of the forest, but they constantly descend 
to the ground for food, especially in winter, 
Avlien they regularly hunt for hares and grouse 
of all kinds, trailing them with nose to the track 
like hounds. Their broad feet enable them to 
move rapidly, even over soft snow. They also 
hunt persistently for squirrels, chase them in 
the trees and on the ground, and enter their 
nests To this diet are added whatever mice and 
birds and small fare come their way. 

Martens have little to fear from native foes; 
the much larger fisher is said to kill them oc- 
casionally, and it is not improbable that the 
great horned owl now and then manages to 
pounce on one, but very few of the carnivores 
care to taste their flesh unless driven to it by 
extreme hunger They are trapped from Novem- 
ber until towards March, when their coat begins 
to become ragged and dull in hue, and with the 
approach of the rutting season they are no longer 
attracted by the baits oftered by trappers This 
species averages about 18 inches in length of head 
and body, plus seven to eight inches of tail. Its 
highly variable tints may be described as rich 
brown, somewhat lighter below. The winter fur 
is full and soft, an inch and a half deep, and 
has sparsely scattered through it coarse black 
hairs which the furrier pulls out. The tail has 
longer hairs, but is less bushy than that of the 
fisher. The distinction between this animal and 
cither the European pine marten or the Asiatic 
sable is visible only to an experienced eye, and 
it is only recently that naturalists have agreed 
to regard them as specifically distinct. Four 
closely related species are recognized in North 
America, while the best known (americana) is 
divided into six subspecies. 

A much larger, very distinct American form, 
unlike anything in the Old World, is Pennant's 
marten (Mustela rennanti), the "pekan" of 
French-Canadian trappers and commonly known 
to Americans as the "black cat" or "fisher," the 
latter an erroneous name, since the animal never 
catches fish. It is the largest of its race, and 
is described under FISHER For illustration of 
the pine marten see Plate of FUR-BEARING ANI- 
MALS Three other species are natives of western 
Europe, including the now rare and restricted 
pine or sweet marten (Mustela or Maries 
mart es ) and the more common beech or stone 
marten (Mustela or Maries fotna), which is not 
an inhabitant of Great Britain. The habits of 
both are substantially the same as have been de- 
scribed above, and they differ mainly in the pine 
marten having (like the American form) a 

yellowish throat and chest, while that of the 
beech marten is white. Consult: Elliott Coues, 
Fur-Bearing Animals (Washington, 1877); Sir 
H. H. Johnston, British Mammals (London, 
1903); E. T. Seton, Life-Histories of Northern 
Animals (New York, 1909). 

MARTEN, HENBY (1602-80). An English 
regicide. He studied at University College, Ox- 
ford, and in 1640 became a member of Parlia- 
ment. There he joined the extremists of the 
popular party, and as early as 1643 urged the 
extirpation of the entire royal family For this 
he was expelled from the House. In 1646 per- 
mitted to return to Parliament, he again urged 
extreme action against the King He was at 
odds with Cromwell for a time, but later co- 
operated with him in bringing about the King's 
trial, at which he was one of the leading judges. 
He was especially active m establishing the Re- 
public, and he continued to have great influence 
in Parliament during the Protectorate Upon 
the Restoration he gave himself up as a regicide 
m 1660, was tried and found guilty, but was not 
executed He died in prison. 

MARTJjftTE, mar'tan', EDMOND (1654-1739). 
A Roman Catholic scholar. He was born at 
Saint- Jean-de-L6sne, near Dijon, became a Bene- 
dictine monk at 18, and joined the famous Con- 
gregation of St. Maur He spent his life m 
the service of learning, searching the libraries 
of Germany, France, and the Netherlands, the 
fruits of the search appearing in many works, 
notably in the new edition of the Oallia Christ- 
iana (14 vols., 1715-56) ; Commentanus in Regu- 
lars Sancti Pains Benedicti (1690) ; Thesaurus 
Kovus Anecdotorum (1717); Veterum Scrip- 
torum et Monument orum Historicorum Dogmati- 
corum ct M or ahum Amphssima Collectio ( 1724- 
33) ; Annales Ordims 8. Benedict^ vol vi (Paris, 

Russian writer on international law, born at 
Pernau in Livonia He studied law at the uni- 
versities of St. Petersburg, Vienna, Heidelberg, 
and Leipzig. In 1868 he became an official of 
the Ministry for Foreign Affairs and thereafter 
continued to be an active and influential figure 
in matters of foreign diplomacy. In 1873 he was, 
appointed professor of public law at the univer- 
sity of St Petersburg. He took part in the 
Brussels conference for the codification of mar- 
tial law (1874). In 1884 and 1887 he was a 
member of the Red Cross conferences. In 1889 
he represented Russia at the Brussels confer- 
ence for commerce and maritime law. He was 
intrusted with the office of arbitrator between 
England and France in the New Zealand ques- 
tion in 1891, and two years afterward he was 
a delegate to The Hague conference on arbitra- 
tion He was chosen vice president of the In- 
stitute of International Law at The Hague in 
1894 In 1905 he was legal adviser to the Rus- 
sian peace plenipotentiaries at Portsmouth. His 
publications include: Recueil de traites et con- 
ventions conclus par la Russie avec les puissances 
ttrangeres (1874-1909); Das Consular icesen im 
Orient (Ger. trans., 1874) ; La Russie et V Angle- 
terre dans I'Asie Centrale (1879); La question 
egypiienne (1881); La conference afncaine de 
Berlin (1885) ; La paix et la guerre (Fr. trans., 
1901) ; and his famous treatise on international 
law (1882), which is available in French and 
German translations. 



1821). A German publicist and diplomat, born 
at Hamburg. He studied at the universities of 
GSttingen, Strassburg, and Vienna. From 1783 
to 1789 he was professor of law at GBttingen. 
In the latter year he was ennobled. In 1808 he 
entered into the Westphahan civil service as 
Councilor of State and after 1810 as head of the 
finance department. After the restoration, he 
was made Privy Councilor by the King of Han- 
over. Martens's chief literary work is Recueil 
de traites (7 vols., 1791-1801; 4 suppl. vols, 
1802-08); Nouveau recueil (1817-42; continued 
by Karl von Martens and others) ; but he ac- 
quired special fame by his Precis du droit des 
gens modemes de V Europe (1789; 3d ed., 1821; 
rev. by Pucheiro-Ferreira, 1864). 

A Danish theologian and bishop. He was born at 
Flensburg, Schleswig, Aug. 19, 1808; studied 
theology at the University of Copenhagen; and 
in 1840 became professor at the university, first 
in philosophy and afterward in theology. In 
1845 he was appointed preacher to the Danish 
court, and in 1854 elevated to the bishopric of 
Seeland, the highest dignity of the Danish 
church. In this position, by his eminent scholar- 
ship, his catholic spirit, and his tireless activity, 
he exerted a powerful and beneficent influence. 
His writings show a modified mysticism, the re- 
sult of his study of the mediaeval mystics. He 
died in Copenhagen, Feb. 3, 1884 His works in- 
clude* M ester Eckart (1840), an essay on the 
mysticism of the Middle Ages; an Outline of a 
System of Ethics (1841), Christian Dogmatics 
(1849; 5th ed., 1904, Ger., French, Swed trans ; 
Eng. trans, 1866) , a System of Christian Ethics 
(1871-78; Ger., Swed. trans. ; Eng. trans., 1873- 
82), his mam work; Katohcisme og Protestan- 
tisme (1874) ; Jakob Bohme (1882, Eng. trans, 
1885) , an autobiography (Ger. trans., Aus 
meinem Leben, 1883-84). Consult also his cor- 
respondence with Dorner, Brieficechsel mit L. A. 
Dorner (2 vols, Berlin, 1888). 


if AH/TIT A, Q-er. pron. mar'ta. An opera by 
Flotow (qv.), first produced m Vienna, Nov. 
25, 1847; in the United States, Nov. 1, 1852 
(New York). 

Two sisters named in the Gosepls of Luke and 
John as special friends of Jesus. At their home 
in Bethany, on the Mount of Olives, near Jerusa- 
lem, Jesus found a welcome on his visits to 
Jerusalem. Martha, being represented as taking 
the lead, was perhaps the elder, though Mary 
was the more appreciative of Jesus' teaching 
(cf. Luke x. 38-42). The regard in which Jesus 
held the sisters was extended to their brother 
Lazarus (q.v.), at whose death Jesus came to 
Bethany to comfort the sisters, not only by the 
raising of the dead one, but by teaching con- 
cerning immortal life, which Martha, however, 
found hard to grasp (John xi.) A few days 
before the crucifixion Jesus was a guest at a 
meal in the home of Simon of Bethany, a leper, 
at which Martha assisted, and which Mary made 
the occasion of anointing Jesus with the contents 
of a box of most precious ointment a symbol of 
her regard graciously accepted by Jesus (Matt. 
xxvi. 6-13; Mark xiv. 3-9; John xii. 1-8). The 
attempts to identify this anointing with that 
referred to in Luke vii. 36-50 cannot be pro- 
nounced successful. Nothing more is known of 
the sisters. Medieval legend confounded Mary 
with Mary Magdalene (q.v.), and asserted that 


she, Martha, and Lazarus labored and died in 
southern France. 

MARTHAS VINEYARD. An island lying 
off the southern coast of Massachusetts, of 
which State it forms, with one or two minor 
islets, the County of Dukes (Map Massachu- 
setts, F 7). It is about 20 miles long and 
about 9% miles in greatest width, and is sepa- 
rated from the mainland by Vineyard Sound, 4 
to 6 miles wide The island is mainly level ex- 
cepting a ridge of hills along the northwestern 
coast, and some hilly country in the western 
part. The highest point is Prospect Peak, 308 
feet, in Chilmark township. The south coabt 
has shallow lagoons and sand bars, while on the 
north side the coast consists of bluffs about 30 
feet high Gay Head Light, at the western ex- 
tremity, is 145 feet above the sea The island 
is a much- frequented summer resort, and is 
noted for its large annual camp meetings which 
were begun m 1835 at Oak Bluffs, renamed 
Cottage City in 1907. The principal town and 
the county seat is Edgartown The population m 
1900 was 4561; in 1910, 4504 The island was 
discovered and named by Bartholomew Gosnold 
m 1602. Its Indian inhabitants weie all con- 
verted to Christianity, and were loyal to the 
whites during King Philip's War During the 
Revolution the island was plundered by the 

MARTf, mar-te', Jest JULIAN (1853-95). 
A Cuban patriot and author, born in Havana 
At 16 he was condemned to imprisonment for 
his liberal ideas and in 1871 was banished to 
Spain, where he published his first pamphlet, 
entitled El Presidio politico en Cuba (1871). 
He studied in the University of Sarugossa and 
received degrees m law, and 'philosophy and let- 
ters (1873). Escaping from Spain, he went to 
Mexico (1873), where he edited the Revista 
Universal. In 1877 he went to Guatemala and 
there wrote plays, taught m the Normal School, 
and served as ]udge. After the Peace of Zanjon 
(1878), he returned to Cuba, but being impli- 
cated in the revolutionary movements of 1879, 
he was deported again to Spain In 1880 he 
went to New York, visited Caracas, and returned 
to New York, where he accepted the position of 
Consul of Argentina At this time he began 
the propaganda in favor of the separation of 
Cuba from Spain, which won him the title of the 
"Apostle of the Independence." A prolific writer 
and an able orator, he devoted his energies to 
aiousmg the Cuban emigre's to action, lie vis- 
ited Tampa and Key West in 1891 and the fol- 
lowing year founded the Partido Revolucionano 
Cubano, which soon had branches in the Cuban 
colonies in the cities of the United States, 
Mexico, Santo Domingo, and Haiti Martf was 
named Delegado of the Partido with extensive 
powers. He secured the adhesion of Maximo 
G6mez to the movement, and carried on the agi- 
tation, visiting many cities and making speeches 
in English and Spanish. Pursuant to his plans, 
the Cubans arose in revolt on Feb 24, 1895, and 
on April 10 Martf and Maximo Gomez landed at 
Sabana la Mar, near Baracoa, to join the move- 
ment. Martf was named, at once, major gen- 
eral of the patriot forces. On May 19 the 
Cuban army was surprised at Dos Rfos by a 
Spanish column, and in the skirmish Martf was 
killed. He published in New York La Patria, a 
journal devoted to Cuban interests, and La Edad 
de Oro, a children's paper. He wrote a novel 
Ismaelillo and numerous poems, translated 




Ramona, by Helen Hunt Jackson, and Mystery, 
by Hugh Conway, and corresponded for various 
newspapers. His writings have been collected 
and edited by his friend Gonzalo de Quesada, 
under the title Obras literanas (Washington, 
Havana, and Berlin, 1900-11). Consult: "Jose* 
Marti: apuntes biograficos," in Bibhoteca del 
periddico Cuba (Tampa, Fla., 1896); M. Deulo- 
feu, Marti, Cayo Hueso, y Tampa (Cienfuegos, 
1905) ; M. H. Urefia, "JosS Martf," in Cuba Con- 
tempordnea, vol. ii (Havana, 1913). 

MABTI, mar'tg, KARL (1855- ). A Swiss 
Old Testament scholar, born in Bubendorf, Basel 
He studied at Basel under Kautzsch and Socm, 
at Gdttingen under Hitachi, and at Leipzig under 
Fleischer and Delitzsch From 1878 to 1895 he 
was pastor of Reformed churches in the Canton 
of Basel, and for most of this time taught in 
the University of Basel. He went to the Uni- 
versity of Bern in 1895 as professor of Old 
Testament, and after 1901 also held the chair 
of Semitic philology. In 1912 he was rector 
of the university. His most important work 
was on the prophets, and his published works 
include. Der Prophet Jeremia von Anatot 
(1889) ; Der Prophet Sacharja, etc. (1892) ; Der 
Einfl,uss der Ergebnisse der neuesten alt-testa- 
mcnthchen Forschungen auf Rehgionsgeschichte 
und Qlaubenslehre (1894, also in a Swedish 
version) ; Kurzgefasste Gram mat ik der bibhsch- 
aramaischen Sprache (1896; 2d ed., 1911); 
Gcschichte der israehtischcn Religion (1897; 
5th ed, 1904), "Isaiah" (1900), "Daniel" 
(1901), and the "Dodekapropheton" (1903-04) 
in the Kurzer Hand-Kommentar zum alien 
Testament, of which he was editor from 1897 to 
1904, The Religion of the Old Testament (1907; 
in German, 1906) , Stand und Aufgabe der alt- 
testa mentlichen Wissenschaft in den Gegenwart 

MARTIALIS) The greatest Roman epigram- 
matist. He was born at Bilbilis, in Spain, March 
1, 38-41 A.D.; the exact year is in doubt. In 64 
he came to Rome, where he resided till 98, when 
he returned to his native town Here he found 
many good friends and patrons, and a highly 
cultivated lady named Marcella made him a 
present of a small estate, where he passed in re- 
pose the years until his death, which occurred 
not later than 104 AD . While at Rome Martial 
became famous as a wit and poet, and received 
the patronage of the emperors Titus and 
Domitian. He was on intimate terms with 
Juvenal ( q.v. ) . He lived in a sort of precarious 
affluence in a mansion in the city, and in Nomen- 
tum, a suburban villa, to both of which he makes 
frequent reference. From Rome his reputation 
rapidly extended to the provinces; and even in 
Britain his Epigrammata, which, divided into 
14 books, now form his extant works, were 
familiarly read. These books, which were ar- 
ranged by himself for publication, were written 
in the following order: The first 11, including 
the Liber de Spectaculis, were composed at 
Rome, with the exception of the third, which 
was written during a tour in Gallia Togata 
(Cisalpine Gaul) ; the twelfth was written at 
Bilbilis, and the thirteenth and fourteenth at 
Rome, under Domitian. The last two, entitled 
A'enia and Apophoreta, describe in distichs the 
\arious kinds of souvenirs presented by the 
Romans to one another on holidays. To the 
other books we are also indebted for much of 
our knowledge of the manners and customs which 

prevailed under the Empire from Nero to Trajan. 
Martial's works have also a great literary value, 
as embodying the best specimens of what we now 
understand by epigram (q.v.) not a mere in- 
scription, but a poem of two or more lines, con- 
taining the terms of an antithesis, which ends 
with a witty or ingenious turn of thought. The 
wonderful inventiveness and facility displayed 
by Martial in this species of composition have 
always received the highest admiration, quali- 
fied, however, by disgust caused by his gross- 
ness, and his servile flattery of Domitian The 
best edition of Martial is that of Fricdllinder 
(2 vols., Leipzig, 1886) ; a handy text edition 
is that of Gilbert (Leipzig, 1886). The "Intro- 
duction" to E. Post's excellent edition of Se- 
lected Epigrams of Martial gives a good ac- 
count of Martial's life and writings, of his char- 
acter as a man, of his relations with his con- 
temporaries, of his indebtedness to other writers, 
especially Catullus (q.v.), and of his fame He 
has never found an adequate translator, but a 
collection of translations in prose and verse will 
be found in Bonn's "Classical Library." Consult 
also W. S. Teuffel, Geschichte der romischen 
Literatur, vol. ii (6th ed., Leipzig, 1910); P. 
Nixon, A Roman Wit : Epigrams of Martial Ren- 
dered into English (Boston, 1911) , and Martin 
Scanz, Gcschichte der romischen Litteratur, vol. 
iii, pt 2, 413-415a (3d ed , Munich, 1913). 

MARTIAL LAW (Lat. martwlis, pertaining 
to war or Mars, from Mars, the god of war). 
The exercise of exceptional governing power by 
military authorities in cases where the ordinary 
law is superseded by the control of military 
forces. It is not a written law, but arises out of 
a necessity, either (a) in case of the invasion 
of a foreign country by belligerents, or (ft) 
where by the force of internal dissension or con- 
flict the regular civil authority of a country is 
partly or wholly overcome, and the proclama- 
tion of martial law is necessitated by the exi- 
gency of the occasion. , 

Martial law includes under its sway all per- 
sons whether civil or military In its admin- 
istration the forms of military law are adhered 
to as far as practicable. In the Civil War the 
government of the United States declared mar- 
tial law to be the immediate and direct effect and 
consequence of occupation or conquest, and that 
it was simply military authority exercised in 
accordance with the laws and usages of war. 
When a place, district, or country is occupied 
by an enemy, civil and criminal law continues to 
take its usual course unless stopped by order 
of the occupying military power; but the func- 
tions of the hostile government, legislative, exec- 
utive, or administrative, cease, or continue only 
with the sanction or participation of the oc- 
cupier. Under martial law cases which come 
within the "rules and articles of war," or the 
jurisdiction conferred by statute on courts-mar- 
tial, are tried by the latter, otherwise by mili- 
tary commission. It was the judgment of the 
Supreme Court of the United States ex parte Mil- 
ligan (4 Wall. 2, 127) that, when the civil courts 
are open and in "the unobstructed exercise of 
their jurisdiction," a military tribunal is with- 
out the necessary jurisdiction to try civilians. 
Martial law is not retrospective. An offender 
cannot be tried for an offense committed before 
martial law is proclaimed. Martial law may 
continue in a conquered country until a civil 
government can be established or restored. Acts 
done under martial law have no immediate con- 




stitutional or legislative authorization, but ema- 
nate directly from the military power. But 
where the civil authority exists the Constitution 
is imperative (Art. VI, Sec. 2) that it shall be 
paramount. Under the constitutional system of 
the United States, it is held by the Supreme 
Court that a State Legislature may proclaim 
the existence of martial law when demanded by 
the public safety. The power of the Federal 
government to make such proclamation is a re- 
stricted one, implied from the clause in the Con- 
stitution (Art. I, Sec. 9, Sub. 2), providing that 
only in cases of rebellion or invasion, where 
necessary for the general welfare, shall the writ 
of habeas corpus be superseded. For further in- 
formation as to the suspension of the privilege 
of habeas corpus in time of martial law, see 
which martial law must be distinguished. 


French politician and administrator, born at Bor- 
deaux. His devotion to the Bourbons and his 
services to the Duchess d'Angouldme during the 
Hundred Days won him the post of Procurator- 
General of Limoges in 1815. Six years later he 
was elected a deputy, and made himself promi- 
nent by his eloquence and his gradual abandon- 
ment of his extreme Bourbon sentiments. He ac- 
companied the expedition to Spam in 1823 and 
two years later was made Viscount. In 1828 he 
became Secretary of the Interior and actual 
head of the ministry. Here his policy was 
checked by a combination of the Right and the 
Left. He retired in August, 1829, and signed the 
address of the Two Hundred and Twenty-One; 
but after the revolution of July, 1830, boldly de- 
fended Charles X. He wrote an Essai histonque 
sur la revolution d'Espagne et sur Vmtervention 
de 1823 (1832). Consult E Daudet, Le min- 
isterc de M de Martignac (Paris, 1875). 

MARTIGNY, mar'te'nyg', or TVTAKTINACH 
(Lat. Octodurum). Three united villages in the 
Canton of Valais, Switzerland, situated 1550 feet 
above the sea on the left slope of the Rhone val- 
ley, about 24 miles south from the cast end of 
Lake Geneva (Map: Switzerland, B 2). The 
two noted routes, one to the Vale of Chamonix 
by the Tete Noire or the Col de Balme, and 
another to the Great St. Bernard, branch off 
here. Martigny is on the Simplon road into 
Italy, and is a resort frequented by tourists. 
Pop, 1900, 4292; 1910, 5613. 

MABTIN (from Martin, Fr. Martin, from 
ML. Martinus, Martin, from Lat Mars, the god 
of war). A swallow; in the United States, one 
of the large purple swallows of the genus Progne. 
Several of the South American species are famil- 
iar birds in Argentina, one species (Progne ta~ 
pera) breeding only in the clay structures of an 
ovenbird. The common purple martin (Progne 
subis) is widely distributed in North America, 
ranging in summer as far north as Newfoundland 
and the Saskatchewan, and wintering in Central 
and South America. The martin is eight inches 
long and sixteen across the wings. The male is 
shining blue-black, while the female is bluish- 
black above and brownish-gray beneath. The 
nest was primitively made in hollows of old 
trees, but in all settled parts of the country the 
birds now occupy bird houses set upon poles for 
their accommodation, and they have distributed 
themselves accordingly, not frequenting farms or 

villages where' bird houses are not erected for 
them. In occupying these houses they must 
withstand the competition of bluebirds, wrens, 
white-bellied swallows, and, most of all, English 
sparrows. The growing scarcity of the bird in 
New England is attributed mainly to the usurpa- 
tions of the last-named species, which, having 
got possession of the quarters, cannot easily be 
dislodged. These various influences make the 
distribution of the species more and more local, 
and are lessening its numbers in the north- 
eastern States. In the South they are more 
numerous and familiar, and they are everywhere 
regarded with affection. The eggs are pure 
white. The food and habits of the martin are 
like those of other swallows. See SWALLOW. 

In Europe the black swift is sometimes called 
"black martin," and in France the name "mar- 
tin" is applied to the kingfisher, but the French 
colonists in the Orient call the mynas of the 
genus Acndotheres "martins " In the United 
States the bank swallow (q.v.) is sometimes 
called "sand martin," and the kingbird is oc- 
casionally called "bee martin." Such uses of 
the word, however, are confusing, and it is de- 
sirable that the name martin should bo confined 
at least to the swallows, and in America to 
those of the genus Progne. See Plate of 

MABTIN. The name of five popes, the second 
and third of whonf are more properly known as 
Marinus I and II, though since the thirteenth 
century the two names have commonly been con- 
founded in the lists MARTIN I, Saint, Pope 
649-655. He was a martyr to his firm stand 
against monothelitism, which he caused to be 
condemned in the first Lateran Council (See 
LATERAN COUNCILS ) In consequence he was 
seized by the Greek Emperor Constans IT, who 
attempted to depose him and carried him off 
to the Crimea, where he died a prisoner. Con- 
sult Cambridge Medicpval History, vol ii (Cam- 
bridge, 1913). MARTIN 17, Pope 882-884 Bo- 
fore his election to fill the vacancy caused by 
the violent death of John VIII, he had been 
Bishop of Caere, and chosen by three popes to 
represent them as legate in the delicate nego- 
tiations with the East, in which capacity he was 
present at the fourth Council of Constantinople 
in 869. As Pope he had close relations with 
the English King Alfred, to whom lie sent a 
relic of the cross. Consult H K Mann, Lives 
of the Popes, vol. iii (London, 1906) MARTIN 
III, Pope 942-946. A Roman by birth and a 
man of high repute for learning and piety, 
though his pontificate fell in the unhappv period 
of the domination of the Italian noble factions 
Consult H. K. Mann, Lives of the Popes, vol. iv 
(London, 1910). MARTIN IV, Pope 1281-85, 
Simon de Brion A Frenchman by birth, he 
became canon of Tours, was made Cardinal by 
Urban IV in 1261, and was several times legate 
in France He was elected Pope by the influence 
of the French party in the Sacred College, aided 
by the presence at Viterbo (where the conclave 
was held) of Charles of Anjou, whom he after- 
ward constantly supported, especially in his ef- 
forts to retain possession of Sicily. Consult 
"Lcs Registres de Martin IV," in Bibhotheque 
des tcoles frangais d' Athene* et la Rome (Paris, 
1901). MARTIN V, Pope 1417-31, Otto Colonna. 
He was born in Rome in 1368 He was named 
Cardinal in 1405 by Innocent VII, and in 1410 
appointed to adjudicate the appeal of HUBS, 
against whom he decided. By his election to 




the papacy at Constance the great schism (see 
was finally extinguished. He presided in all the 
subsequent sessions of the council; and when 
the Fathers separated without discussing urgent 
questions of reform, he was finally persuaded 
to call another council, originally at Pavia, then, 
from fear of the plague, at Siena, and when it 
was about to meet at Basel, he designated the 
zealous reformer Cardinal Cesarini as its presi- 
dent. Martin himself, however, died just before 
the assembling of the council Consult Mandell 
Creighton, History of the Papacy, vols. i, ii 
(London, 1902-04), and Ludwig Pastor, History 
of the Popes, vol. i (ib, 1906). 

MARTIN, mar'taN', BIENVENTJ (1847- ). 
A French Socialist leader and cabinet officer. He 
was born at Saint-Bris (Yonne), and was edu- 
cated in the law. He held an underprefecture, 
entered the Council of State, and in 1894 be- 
came director under the Minister of Colonies 
He was an unsuccessful senatorial candidate for 
Yonne in 1897; was elected deputy for Auxerre 
in that year; was reelected in 1898 and 1902; 
and in 1905 became Senator for Yonne In the 
Chamber he supported the Waldeck-Rousseau 
and the Combes ministries, and advocated the 
separation of church and state In 1904 he 
organized the new Radical Socialist group of 
the Left In 1905-06 he held the portfolio of 
Public Instruction in the Rouvier cabinet; he 
was Minister of Justice in the Doumergue cabi- 
net in 1913-14, and in the first Viviani cabinet 
organized in June, 1914; and when the War in 
Europe (qv.) broke out in 1914, he became 
Minister of Labor in the second Viviani cabi- 
net, formed August 26 of that year 

MAR'TIN, BRADLEY (1841-1913). An Amer- 
ican banker, brother of Frederick Townsend 
Martin, born at Albany, N. Y. He was educated 
at Union University (AM, 1863); served as 
lieutenant in the National Guard during the 
Civil War, and was admitted to the bar. He 
devoted his time to the management of his in- 
terests in banks, trust companies, and industrial 
corporations, but he took also a leading part 
in the social life of New York City. From 1893 
until his death he lived in England and Scot- 

MARTIN, marten, EDUABD (1809-75). A 
German gynaecologist and obstetrician. He was 
born at Heidelberg, studied medicine there, at 
Jena, Gottingen, and Berlin; and became pro- 
fessor of gynaecology at Jena (1837) and at 
Berlin (1858) Martin was one of the first to 
operate on diseased ovaries. He wrote : Lehrbuch 
der Oebitrtshilfe fur Hebammen (4th ed , 1880) ; 
Handatlas der Gynakologie und Oeburtshilfe 
(1862, 2d ed., 1878) ; and Die Neigungen und 
Beugungen der Oebarmutter (1866; 2d ed., 

An American author and editorial writer, born 
at Owasco, N. Y., educated at Harvard (A.B., 
1877), and admitted to the bar at Rochester, N. 
Y , in 1884. He was^ honored with membership 
in the National Institute of Arts and Letters. 
A contributor, editorially, to Life, and a writer 
for various periodicals, his work includes, also: 
Sly Ballades in Harvard China (1882) ; A Little 
Brother of the Rich (1890), verses; Pirated 
Poems (1890); Cousin Anthony and I (1895); 
Lucid Intervals (1900) ; The Luxury of Children, 
and other Lwwries (1904) ; The Courtship of a 
Careful Man (1905); Reflections of a Begin- 

ning Husband, (1913); The Unrest of Women 
(1913) ; The War Week by Week, being observa- 
tions from Life {1914); Poems (1915). 

MARTIN, ERNST (1841-1910). A German 
scholar in Romance and Germanic philology. He 
was born at Jena, a son of Eduard Martin, 
studied at Jena, Berlin, and Bonn, and was 
made professor at Strassburg in 1877, after hav- 
ing taught in the universities of Freiburg and 
Prague. He wrote a useful Mittelhochdeutsche 
Orammatik (1865; 13th ed., 1906); Examen 
critique des manuscnts du roman de Reward 
(1872), followed by two editions of Reynaert 
( 1874 ) , and Roman de Renart ( 1882-87 ) , as well 
as the Neue Fragmente der Oedichte von den Vos 
Kemaerde (1889); Qeschichte der mederland- 
isehen Litteratur (1870-72); Untersuchungen 
ffur Gralsage (1880) ; Elsassische Litteraturdenk- 
tnaler des IJften bis 11 ten Jahrhunderts (5 vols., 
1878-87) ; Worterbuch der elsassischen Mundar- 
ten (1899); an edition of Parcwal und Titurel 
(2 vols , 1900-03) ; an edition of Eudrun (2 vols., 
1902), Wolfram von Eschenbach (1903); and 
Der Vcrsbau des Heliand und der altsachsischen 
Genesis (1907). 

MARTIN, mar'taN 7 , FLIX (1804-86). A 
French-Canadian Jesuit and author, born at 
Auray in Brittany. In 1842 he was sent to 
Canada to assist in reestablishing Jesuit mis- 
sions there. He founded St Mary's College 
in Montreal; collected material for the history 
of Canada, and published and edited many works 
throwing light on the old Canadian Jesuit mis- 
sions, among which are the following: Manuel 
du pelenn de Notre Dame de Bon Secours 
(Montreal, 1848) ; Relation des Jc suites (1850), 
an enlarged edition of O'Callaghan's work; Mis- 
sion du Canada, relations intdites ( 1861 ) ; De 
Mont calm en Canada (1867) ; and Le R. P. Isaac 
Jogues ( 1873 ) He assisted Carayon in a series 
of volumes on the Jesuit missions. 

An American jurist and historian. He was born 
in Marseilles, France, and when about eighteen 
years of age engaged in business at St Pierre, 
Martinique, then, as now, a dependency of 
France. In 1783 he came to the United States 
and settled in Newbern, N. C Under the 
patronage of ex-Governor Abner Nash he began 
the study of law In 1792, by request of the 
General Assembly, he compiled the British stat- 
utes which were in force in North Carolina at 
the time of the Revolution. In 1794 he made a 
compilation of the private acts of the Assembly, 
and in 1803 extended Judge IredelFs revision 
from 1789. Meanwhile he had translated and 
published Pothier on Obligations In 1806-07 
he represented the borough of Newbern in the 
State Assembly. In 1809 President Madison 
appointed him judge of the Territory of Missis- 
sippi, and the next year he was transferred to 
the Territory of Orleans When the State of 
Louisiana was admitted to the Union in 1813, 
he became the first Attorney-General. In 1815 
he was appointed to the Supreme Court and 
served thirty-one years. During the latter part 
of this time he was presiding judge. At the 
time of his appointment the law in force in the 
State was a mixture of Spanish and French 
statutes and decisions, into which the writ of 
habeas corpus and the system of procedure in 
criminal cases according to the common law had 
been introduced. Judge Martin's services in 
welding into a homogeneous whole this mass of 
contradictory statutes and principles gave him 



the title "Father of the jurisprudence of Louisi- 
ana." During the last ten years of his life he 
was practically blind, but continued to dp full 
work on the bench until superseded by the judges 
appointed under the new Constitution in 1845. 
In addition to his judicial labors, he published 
two volumes of Reports of the Superior Courts 
of Orleans, from 1809 to 1812 (1811 and 1813) ; 
eighteen volumes of Reports of the Supreme 
Court of Louisiana (1813-30); a History of 
Louisiana (1827) ; and a History of North Caro- 
lina (1829). 

Swedish art collector and author, born in Stock- 
holm. He was amanuensis in the State Histor- 
ical Museum (1899-1902) and interpreter at 
the Swedish Legation in Constantinople 1903- 
08), gained the doctorate in Vienna (1899); 
and is best known for his rich collections of 
Oriental art, made on journeys to Siberia (1891- 
92), Russia, Caucasus, and Central Asia (1894- 
95), and to Egypt, Asia Minor, and Turkey 
(1895-96). In 1898-1903 the government sent 
him to Russia, Turkey, and other lands to locate 
objects of art which had been produced in 
Sweden He exhibited collections at the Stock- 
holm Exposition (1897) and at the Moham- 
medan Exposition at Munich (1910), where he 
was a commissioner. Among other works he 
published: The Persian Lustre Vase in the Im- 
perial Hermitage at St. Petersburg (1899), 
Figurale Persische Stoffe, 1550-1650 (1899); 
Svenska kungliga gtivor till ryske zaren, 1647- 
1699 (1900), Silfverskatter i kejserliga skat- 
kammaren i Moskva (1900) ; Danische Silber- 
schatze aus der Zeit Christian IV im kaiser- 
lichen Schatzkammer, Moskva (1900) ; Die Per- 
sischen Prachtstoffe im Sohlosse Roseriborg, 
Kopenhagen (1901) ; Aeltere Kupferarbeiten aus 
dem Orient ( 1902 ) ; A History of Oriental Car- 
pets Before 1800 (1908), a great work; and 
The Miniature Painting and Painters of Persia, 
India, and Turkey, 8th to 18th Century (1912). 

1914). An American author, brother of Bradley 
Martin, born at Albany, N. Y. He graduated 
from the Albany Law School in 1872, and be- 
came judge advocate with the rank of colonel in 
the National Guard. The latter years of his 
life were spent chiefly in Europe, and he died in 
London, where he had become known for his 
philanthropies. His writings on the subject of 
the life of the wealthy and the socially prom- 
inent owe their value to Martin's personal ex- 
periences. Besides contributing to magazines, he 
wrote: The Passing of the Idle Rich (1911); 
My Personal Experiences of Meeting Snobs 
(1911) ; The Reminiscences of My Life (1911) , 
Things I Remember (1913). 

R. MARTIN) (1866- ). An American writer 
of stories, born in Louisville, Ky, and educated 
in the public schools in that city, and at home 
A successful contributor of short stories to maga- 
zines, she succeeded also in winning a large 
audience with her books : Emmy Lou Her Book 
and Heart (1902) ; House of Fulfilment (1902) ; 
Abbie Ann (1907); Letitia, Nursery Corps, U 
8. A. (1907); Selma, her Hopeful Efforts and 
her Livelier Failures (1914). 

MARTIN, GREGORY (7-1582). A translator 
of the Bible, born at Maxfield in Sussex, Eng- 
land. He was educated at St. John's College, 
Oxford (B.A., 1661; M.A., 1565), where he was 
distinguished as a Hebraist and Grecian. After 

leaving the university, he became tutor to Philip 
Howard, afterward Earl of Arundel. A stanch 
Catholic, he encouraged the Howards to remain 
true to their faith. Unable to conform to the 
Established church, he fled to Douai m Flanders 
(1570), where he taught Hebrew in the English 
College, then just established. In 1577 he was 
sent to help organize the English College at 
Rome. In 1578 the college at Douai was moved 
to Rheims. There Martin spent the rest of his 
life m the translation of the Bible. He died 
October 28, 1582 The famous Douai Bible, 
though since revised, is still the standard among 
English Catholics. It was made from the Latin, 
collated with the Greek and the Hebrew versions. 
The New Testament appeared at Rheims in 1582. 
The Old Testament was not published till 1609- 
10. The whole was revised by Bishop Challoner 
in 1749^50. Though Martin's version was 
severely criticized by English Protestants, it was 
freely used for the authorized Protestant version 
made under King James 

). An American author. She was born at 
Lancaster, Pa.; studied at Swarthmore and Rad- 
chffe colleges; and married Frederic C. Martin 
in 1889. She became known for her stories of 
"the Pennsylvania Dutch," the shorter ones con- 
tributed to Leslie's, the Century, the Cosmopoli- 
tan, the Ladies' Home Journal, and other maga- 
zines. Her earty work was so photographic in 
character that it was much resented by the 
people among whom she had lived She is au- 
thor of Warren Hyde ( 1897 ) ; The Elusive 
Hildegarde (1900); TiUie, A Mennonite Maid 
(1904) ; Sabma, A Story of the Amish (1905) ; 
His Courtship ( 1907 ) ; The Betrothal of Elyph- 
olate (1907) ; The Revolt of AnneRoyJe (1908) ; 
The Crossways (1910; new ed , 1914), When 
Half-Gods Go (1911); The Fighting Doctor 
(1912); The Parasite (1913), Barnabetta 
(1914); Martha of the Mennonite Country 

MARTIN, mar'taN', HENBI (1810-83). A 
French historian, born at Saint Quentin. Edu- 
cated for the practice of law, he soon abandoned 
law for literature. At first he wrote historical 
romances and poetry, but later, with Paul La- 
croix, he began the task of compiling a history 
of France, to be made up of extracts from differ- 
ent authors. One volume only was published, 
when Lacroix abandoned it, but Martin resolved 
to go on. The first volume appeared in 1833, 
and the undertaking was completed in 1836 
Meanwhile he set to work on a history of his 
own, the first edition of which appeared in the 
years 1833-36, m fifteen volumes The third and 
enlarged edition appeared between 1837 and 
1854, in nineteen volumes. In 1844 the Academy 
of Inscriptions gave Martin a prize of 9000 
francs; m 1851 he received the Gobert prize, 
and in 1869 was awarded the great prize of 
20,000 francs by the Institute. After the fall of 
the Second Empire he was elected to the Na- 
tional Assembly, and in 1876 he was elected 
Senator. In 1878 he became a member of the 
French Academy. As an historian Martin be- 
longs to the school of Thierry. His Histoire de 
France, which comes down to the year 1789, was 
later continued into the nineteenth century by 
the Histoire de France moderne (2d ed., Paris, 
1878-85). He was the author of numerous other 
literary and historical works, but his* great fame 
rests on the Histoire de France Consult- Hano- 
taux, Henri Martin (Paris, 1885) ; Mulot, Sowve- 



nirs intimes (ib., 1885); Jules Simon, Mignet, 
Mwhelet, Henri Martin (ib., 1889). 
). A French decorative painter. He was 
born at Toulouse and studied under Jean Paul 
Laurens. He became Officer of the Legion of 
Honor, was awarded a "first medal" in 1885, a 
gold medal at the Exposition of 1889, and a 
grand prize at the 1900 Exposition. His works 
comprise: "Beauty" (1900); "Pastoral" and 
"The Painter" (1901); "The Painter's Muse," 
'The Green Country Seat" (both 1902) ; "The 
Landscape" (1903); "Labor," "The Float," 
"Noon," "Evening," decorative panels (1904); 
'"Landscape," decorative panel for Rostand's 
house (1904). In 1903 and 1906 he painted 
decorations for the Capitol of Toulouse, and in 
1907 "Twilight" and "Rural Scenery." 

MAB'TIN, HENBY AUSTIN (1824-84). An 
Americun surgeon, born in London, England, 
and educated at the Harvard Medical School, 
where he graduated in 1845. During the Civil 
War he served as surgeon in the Union army, 
became surgeon in chief of the Second Corps, 
Army of the Potomac, and was later brevetted 
lieutenant colonel and medical director In his 
practice in Boston, after the war, he made him- 
self well known by introducing the Beaugency 
virus (1870), the use of the rubber bandage 
(1877), and tracheotomy without tubes (1878). 
Dr. Martin contributed largely to medical jour- 
nals (especially the London Lancet and the 
British Medical Journal), and also to the North 
American Review. 

GONDE (1852- ). A French paleographer 
and librarian, born at Airvault ( Deux-Sevres ) . 
He became administrator of the Arsenal Library, 
\\as for a time secretary general of the inter- 
national congress of librarians, and took an 
active part in numerous other societies. He 
\vrote- Le livre du roi Dancus (1883), written 
under the nom de plume of Henry Martm-Dair- 
vault; Catalogue general des manuscnts de la 
bibhotheque de V arsenal (8 vols., 1885-1900) , 
L'Odyssee d'un bibliognost e (1892); L'Evange"- 
hare de Sainte-Aure (1897); Histoire de la 
bibhotheque de V arsenal (1900), crowned by the 
Institute, Prooes-verbaux et memoires du emi- 
gres international des bibliothe'caires (1901); 
Observations sur la technique de Villustratwn de 
livres du moyen age (1904) ; Les miniatunstes 
franrais (1906); Le Terence dcs dues (1907); 
La Itgende de Saint-Denis (1909); Les joyaux 
de V arsenal (1909) ; Les peintres de manuscnts 
et la miniature en France (1909) ; Le Boccace 
de Jean sans Peur (1911). He reedited in 1888 
Louys Gruau's NouveUe invention de chasse 
pour prendre et oster les loups de France (pub- 
lished 1613). 

American biologist, born in Newry, Ireland. He 
was* educated at University College, London, and 
at Christ's College, Cambridge, where he grad- 
uated B.A in 1874 and became fellow. In 1876 
he was chosen professor of biology at Johns Hop- 
kins and director of the biological laboratory. 
Martin there carried out some valuable experi- 
ments on respiration in general and especially 
on the beating of the heart of a mammal after 
death. In 1890 he was elected president of the 
American Society of Naturalists. He edited 
Studies from the Biological Laboratory of Johns 
Hopkins and the Journal of Physiology ; assisted 
Huxley in his Practical Biology (1876) and 

Moale in a Handbook of Vertebrate Dissection 
(1881-84); and wrote, apart from the papers 
above mentioned on respiration, The Human 
Body (1881) and Observations in Regard to the 
Supposed Suction-Pump Action of the Mam- 
malian Heart ( 1887 ) . 

MARTIN, HOMEB D(ODGE) (1836-97). An 
American landscape painter. He was born at 
Albany, N. Y., October 28, 1836, and, except that 
he studied there for a few weeks under William 
Hart (q.v.), a landscape painter of the Hudson 
River School, he was practically self-taught. 
In 1857 he first exhibited at the National Acad- 
emy, and five years later he removed to New 
York. In 1875 he was elected a member of the 
National Academy, and in 1877 he was one of 
the founders of the Society of American Artists. 
After visiting Europe in 1876, he returned in 
1881, and spent five years in France, at Viller- 
ville and Honfieur. Abroad he came under the 
influence of Boudin and Corot. On his return to 
America he resided in New York, until in 1893 
he went to St. Paul, Minn., where he died 
February 12, 1897. His interpretation of nature 
is always poetical ; his work was at first careful 
in detail, but later it became far bolder in style. 
Sure and powerful in line, it shows a keen com- 
prehension of form, based upon careful studies 
from nature. His color is subdued, often ex- 
pressed in tones of mellow browns, with subtle 
qualities of reflected light and shade. His brush 
work is firm and broad, and his paintings ex- 
press large spaces, both in sky and land, and are 
always imbued with grave melancholy Among 
his best-known works are: "The Old Mill" 
(1860); "Old Manor House," "Adirondack 
Scenery" (Untermyer collection, New York) , 
"The Iron Mine," "Evening on the Seine," and 
"Louer Ausable Pond," all three in the Evans 
collection, National Gallery, Washington; "New- 
port Neck' 1 (Lotos Club, New York); "Sea at 
Villerville" (Kansas City Art Institute) ; "View 
on the Seme" (called by the painter "Harp of 
the Winds"), "Sand Dunes, Lake Ontario," and 
"Mounts Madison and Jefferson," ail three in 
the Metropolitan Museum, New York; and 
"Lighthouse at Honfleur" and "Lake Sandford," 
both in the Century Club, New York Consult: 
E G. Martin, Homer Martin, a Reminiscence 
(New York, 1904) ; Samuel Isham, History of 
American Paintmg (ib., 1905) ; F J. Mather, 
Homer Martin, Poet vn Landscape (ib., 1912) ; 
F. F. Sherman, "Landscape of Homer Dodge 
Martin," in Art in America, vol. in (ib , 1915) ; 
and for reproductions, D. H. Carroll, Fifty- 
Eight Paintings by Homer D. Martin (ib., 

MARTIN, JOHN (1789-1854). An English 
historical and landscape painter, born at Hay- 
don, near Hexham. The only art instruction 
that he received was from a china painter at 
Newcastle. In 1806 he moved to London, at 
first practicing china painting. He exhibited 
his first picture, "Sadak in Search of the Waters 
of Oblivion," at the Royal Academy, in 1812; 
"Adam's First Sight of Eve" (1813), and 
"Clytie" (1814). In 1817 "Joshua Commanding 
the Sun to Stand Still" gained for him a pre- 
mium of 100 at the British Institute. His best- 
known work, "Belshazzar's Feast," appeared in 
1821, and won a premium of 200. Then 
followed the "Destruction of iferculaneuin" 
(1822); "Seventh Plague" (1823); the "Crea- 
tion" (1824), "Fall of Nineveh" (1828); "Eve 
of the Deluge" (1840) ; and many other biblical 




subjects, besides a number of landscapes in 
water color, six of which are in the South Ken- 
sington Museum. He died in the Isle of Man, 
Feb. 17, 1854. Martin was much criticized for 
his deficiencies in drawing and color, but he 
had a fertile invention and pronounced original- 
ity. His best work is his illustrations to Milton. 
MABTIN, JOSEPH (1852-1923). A Cana- 
dian statesman. He was born at Milton, On- 
tario, was educated at the Michigan State and 
Ontario normal schools and Toronto University, 
and was a public-school teacher for some years 
He removed to Manitoba, and was admitted to 
the bar of that province in 1882, practicing his 
profession successively m Portage la Prairie and 
Winnipeg. He was elected a Liberal member of 
the Manitoba Legislature in 1883, was Attorney- 
General in the administration of Thomas Green- 
way (qv) in 1888-91, and in 1890 introduced 
the famous measure abolishing separate schools 
(see MANITOBA). He was an unsuccessful can- 
didate for the House of Commons in 1891, but in 
1893-96 represented Winnipeg in that body. In 
1897 he removed to Vancouver, British Columbia, 
was admitted to the bar of that province, sat in 
the Provincial Legislature (1898-1903), was 
Attorney-General and Minister of Education 
(1898-99), Premier and Attorney-General 
(1900), and leader of the Liberal Opposition 
(1902-03) He owned and edited the Vancouver 
Guardian in 1907. While in British Columbia 
he was prominently identified with the Asiatic 
Exclusion League, in 1908 was an unsuccessful 
candidate for the House of Commons m its in- 
terest, and the same year removed to England 
to practice his profession in London and enter 
British politics He was elected to the British 
House of Commons in 1910. 

MABTIN, JOSIAH (1737-86). An English 
Colonial Governor, born probably in the West 
Indies He entered the British army in 1756, 
was promoted to be major in 1761, and lieu- 
tenant colonel in 1771. In the latter year he 
was appointed Governor of North Carolina to 
succeed William Tryon, who was transferred to 
New York At first his frankness and honesty 
favorably impressed the people, but his stub- 
bornness and his high opinion of the royal 
prerogative and of his own importance soon 
caused opposition. He attempted to prevent the 
Colony from sending delegates to the Continental 
Congress of 1774, but a Provincial Congress met 
and elected delegates in defiance of his protest. 
This seems to have been the first legislative body 
in America to meet without royal authority. 
After the battle of Lexington he was practically 
a prisoner in the palace at Newbern Martin 
fled to Wilmington and then to Fort Johnston, 
on the Cape Fear River. On July 18, 1775, he 
took refuge in the British sloop-of-war Cruiser 
and attempted to administer the government 
from there until the next year. He was attacked 
by a small force of colonists, fled on board the 
Cruiser, and eventually was compelled to accom- 
pany the British fleet to Charleston in 1776. 
When Lord Cornwallis entered North Carolina 
at the head of a British force Martin was with 
him, and finally accompanied him to New York 
and from there to London, England. 

MABTIN, nutr'ten, KARL (1851- ). A 
German geologist, born in Oldenburg. He 
studied at Munich, Leipzig, and Gottingen, 
where, in 1874, he became assistant in the geo- 
logical museum; and after a year's teaching at 
Wisrnar in Mecklenburg was chosen professor of 

geology at Leyden. In 1878 he was appointed 
director of the geological museum of Leyden; 
and in 1882 became a member of the Philadel- 
phia Academy of Natural Sciences. In 1895-96 
he was rector of the University of Leyden. He 
wrote, besides contributions to periodicals on the 
geology of the Netherlands and of the East In- 
dies: Niederlandische und nordwestdeutsche 
Sedimentargeschiebe (1878) ; Tertiarschichten 
auf Java (1879-80); Bericht uber erne Reise 
naoh Niederlandisch Westindien (1888); Reisen 
in den Molukken, in Ambon, den Uliassem, 
Heran und Bum (1894; 2d ed., 1913); with 
Becker, Geology of the Philippine Islands 
(1901); Geotogischer Teil (1903); Vorlaufiger 
Bericht uber geologische Forschungen an Java 

MABTIN, KONEAD (1812-79). A German 
Catholic theologian, Bishop of Paderborn. He 
was born at Geismar ; studied oriental languages 
at Halle and theology at Munich and Wurzburg; 
took orders in 1836; and taught in Cologne and 
Bonn (1844). He was appointed to the see of 
Paderborn m 1856, and showed great diligence 
in advancing Catholic educational and charitable 
institutions. Called to Home in 1869, he was a 
member of the Vatican Council of 1870, urged 
the dogma of infallibility, and publicly defended 
it His opposition to the government at the 
beginning of the N Kulturkampf (q.v ) was so 
violent that he was imprisoned for a year, and 
in 1875 fled to Belgium, where he died He 
wrote various Catholic manuals Drei Geicissens- 
fragen uber die Maigesetse ( 1 874 ) , anonymously ; 
Drei Jahre aus meinem Leben (1877, 3d ed , 
1878); and Bhcke in* Jenseits (1878) Con- 
sult Christian Stamm, Conrad Martin, Bischoj 
von Paderborn (Paderborn, 1892). 


MABTIN, mdr'taN', Louis AIME (1786- 
1847). A French writer, born near Lyons Edu- 
cated for a mercantile career, he went, against 
the wishes of his parents, to Paris, where he 
took up literature In 1815 he was appointed 
secretary of the Chamber of Deputies, and not 
long afterward became professor of literature 
and ethics in the Ecole Polytechmque In 1831 
he became keeper of the Library of St Genevieve. 
He published Etrennes a la jeunessc (1809), 
and Lettres a Sophie sur la physique, la chimie, 
et I'histoire naturelle (1810), in prose and 
verse His most valuable work was Education 
des families (1834), contending that to improve 
mankind women must be educated so that they 
may be able to rear men of virtue. He was the 
disciple and friend of Bernardin de Saint-Pierre. 

MARTfN, mar-tfcn', Luis (1846-1906). A 
Spanish Jesuit, twenty-fourth general of the 
order He was born in Melgar, near Burgos, 
entered the Society of Jesus when 18, continued 
his studies, held the chair in rhetoric in Po- 
yanne, France, and in 1877 became rector of 
the University of Salamanca, where he made a 
national reputation as a theologian In 1891, 
he became assistant of the order in Spain, and 
in 1892, after the death of Anderledy, and on his 
recommendation, Martin was chosen general, re- 
moving to the official headquarters at Fiesole 
His successor was Father Franz Xaver Wernz 

MABTIN, LUTHER (1744-1826). An Ameri- 
can lawyer and political leader, born in New 
Brunswick, N. J He graduated at Princeton in 
1766; taught school in Queenstown, Md. ; studied 
law; was admitted to the bar in 1771; and prac- 


ticed in both Maryland and Virginia. In 1774 
he was a member of the Annapolis convention 
that protested against the arbitrary acts of the 
British crown, and throughout the Revolution he 
continued active on the Patriot side. In 1778 he 
was appointed Attorney-General of Maryland. 
He was one of Maryland's representatives in the 
Continental Congress in 1784-85 He was a 
delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 
1787 at Philadelphia; steadfastly contended 
there against the establishment of a strong na- 
tional government, finally left the convention 
altogether; and subsequently strongly opposed 
the ratification of the Constitution by Mary- 
land By his opposition to the Constitution he 
earned the sobriquet of "The Federal Bulldog" 
In 1804 he defended Judge Samuel Chase (q.v.) 
in the impeachment proceedings before the United 
States Senate, and in 1807 was counsel for 
Aaron Burr (qv ). From 1814 to 1816 he was 
Chief Justice of the Court of Over and Terminer 
in Baltimore, and in 1818 was again made At- 
torney-General He was stricken with paralysis 
in 1820, and, largely owing to poverty, lived 
thereafter at the home of his friend Aaron Burr 
in New York. He published A. Defence of Cap- 
tain Cresap; Genuine Information Delivered to 
the Legislature of the State of Maryland Rela- 
tive to the Proceedings of the General Conven- 
tion Lately Held at Philadelphia (1788); and 
Modem Gratitude (1801-02). Consult H P. 
Goddard, Luther Martin, the Federal Bull-Dog 
(Baltimoie, 1887). 

MARTIN, PERCY F. (1861- ). An Eng- 
lish journalist and traveler He was educated 
at University College, London, and early oecame 
a newspaper correspondent in Latin America 
and for a bhort time in India. Besides contribu- 
tions to newspapers, reviews, and annuals on 
South and Central America, he wrote: Through 
Five Republics of South America (1905), 
Mexico's Treasure House (1906), Mexico of the 
Twentieth Century (1907), Salvador of the 
Twentieth Century (1911), Peru of the Twen- 
tieth Century (1911), Maximilian in Mexico 
(1913), The Sudan in Evolution (1914). 

MARTIN, RICCABDO (1878- ) . An Amer- 
ican operatic tenor, born at Hopkinsville, Ky 
As a child he began to play the violin In 1893 
he went abroad, studying piano in Germany and 
singing in Italy. After a few years he returned 
and entered Columbia University, where he de- 
voted himself to composition and orchestration 
under MacDowell. At that time he wrote a 
number of songs and choruses In 1900 he 
settled in New York as a teacher of singing 
Here Dr. Holbrook Curtis discovered his voice, 
whereupon he went to Florence to study with 
Lombard i. Having finished his vocal studies 
with Shrfgha and Escalais in Paris, he made his 
operatic debut in Nantes as Faust, in 1904 The 
next two years he sang in Verona and Milan, 
where he was engaged for the San Carlo Opera 
Company, with which he made his American 
d6but at New Orleans in 1906. After 1907 he 
was a member of the Metropolitan Opera House, 
singing the principal lyric rdles; in 1915, after 
Caruso left for Monte Carlo, Martin was his 
temporary successor. He also sang at Covent 
Garden and in Mexico. 

An English historical writer and statistician, 
born in Ireland In 1820-30 he traveled in Cey- 
lon, Africa, and India, and in 1834 published 
his valuable History of the British Colonies 

He prepared for the press the papers of the Duke 
of Wellington, and in 1840 founded the Colonial 
Magazine, which for two years he edited. His 
further works include: Political, Commercial, 
and Financial Condition of the Anglo-Eastern 
Empire (1832); History of the Antiquities of 
Eastern India (1838) ; and The Statistics of the 
British Colonies (1839). 

MARTIN, SIB THEODORE (1816-1909). An 
English author He was born in Edinburgh, and 
was educated at the high school and university 
of that city. In 1846 he became parliamentary 
agent in London. Among his earliest literary 
ventures was the volume of parodies, Bon Gaul- 
tier's Ballads (1845; 16th ed., 1903), written 
in collaboration with Prof. W E Aytoun. 
In 1858 he began his series of admirable trans- 
lations with Poems and Ballads of Goethe 
(again assisted by Professor Aytoun). Faust 
appeared in 1865-66 Martin's other versions 
are dramas from Oehlenschlager (1854-57), the 
Odes of Horace (1860), Catullus (1861), the 
Vita Nuova (1862), Faust (1865-86), Heine's 
Poems and Ballads (1878), and Six Books of 
VergiVs JEneid (1896) The Horace renderings, 
in 1882 extended to include the entire works, 
are generally conceded to be the best yet made 
of that poet. They are supplemented by a book- 
let in the Ancient Classics for English Readers. 
His further works include The Life of W. E. 
Aytoun (1867) ; The Life of the Prwce Consort 
(1874-80) ; The Life of Lord Lyndhurst (2d ed., 
1883) , a Life (5 vols, 1875-80) of the Prince 
Consort, for Queen Victoria: Helena Faucit, 
Lady Martin (1901) ; Queen Victoria as I Knew 
Her (1908) ; and Madonna Pia and other plays. 
In 1881 Martin was elected rector of St Andrews 
University He was knighted in 1880 For 
Ladv Martin, see the article FAUCIT, HELEN. 

). An American electrical engineer and 
editor, born in London, England He was asso- 
ciated with Thomas A. Edison in his work in 
1877-79 and thereafter was engaged in editorial 
work From 1883 to 1909 he" served as editor 
of the Electrical World, after 1909 was executive 
secretary of the National Electric Light Associ- 
ation, and in 1900-11 was a special agent of the 
United States Census Office At various times he 
lectured at the Royal Institution of Engineers, 
London, the Paris Soci4t Internationale des 
Electriciens, the University of Nebraska, and 
Columbia. In 1887-88 he served as president of 
the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. 
He is author of The Electiic Motor and its Ap- 
plications (1887: 3d ed., 1888), with Joseph 
Wetzlcr , Inventions, Researches, and Writings of 
Nikola Tesla (1893; 3d ed, 1894) , Edison- His 
Life and Inventions (1910), with F. L. Dyer. 

Canadian landscape painter, born in London and 
a student there at the South Kensington Art 
School. He went to Canada in 1862 and settled 
at Toronto. He was influential in founding the 
Royal Canadian Academy, the Ontario Art Union, 
the Ontario Society of Artists, and the Ontario 
School of Art, of which he became director in 
1877. His pictures include: "The Untamed Wil- 
derness," "A Summer Idyl," and "Sunrise, Mus- 
koka" He painted many pictures of Rocky 
Mountain and British Columbia scenery. He 
published An Artist's Letters from the Rockies 
(1889) and Canada from an Artist's Point of 
View (1893-95). 



An American legislator. He was born at Scotts- 
ville, Va., and thenceforth lived on a farm two 
miles from that town. He was a cadet in the 
Virginia Military Institute in 1864-65 and dur- 
ing much of that time was in actual service in 
the Confederate army. He studied at the Uni- 
versity of Virginia in 1865-67 and was admitted 
to the bar in 1869. In 1895 he became a United 
States Senator and was reflected for the third 
time for the term ending in 1919. 

(1838-1927). An American reformer, born in 
Homer, Ohio, a sister of Tennessee Claflin, who 
became Lady Cook. Victoria Claflin married, 
when she was 14, Dr. Canning Woodhull; the 
marriage was unhappy and there was a separa- 
tion In 1866 she married Col. James H. Blood; 
they were divorced in 1875. In 1870 Mrs Wood- 
hull, as she was called, with her sister formed in 
New York a stockbrokers' house called Woodhull, 
Claflin & Co., which published for several years 
Woodhull d Claflm's Weekly. In the same year 
she memorialized Congress in behalf of woman 
suffrage. In 1871 Miss Claflin was nominated 
for Congress and both sisters tried to vote in 
New York Both had been mediums and clair- 
voyants and Mrs. Woodhull in this year was 
elected president of the National Association of 
Spiritualists. In May, 1872, she was nominated 
for the presidency of the United States by the 
Equal Rights party. In December of that year 
both sisters were arrested by the Federal au- 
thorities, charged with mailing improper mat- 
ter, viz., the Beecher-Tilton scandal, published 
in their weekly (possibly without their knowl- 
edge). They were acquitted in June, 1873. Mrs. 
Woodhull lectured widely in the United States, 
especially on "The Human Body the Temple of 
God," and urged race improvement, the same 
standard of morality for both sexes, electoral 
reform, etc. In 1877 she went to England to 
live and there married John Biddulph Martin 
(died 1895), a London banker. She became edi- 
tor of the Humanitarian Magazine and wrote on 
social subjects. 

MABTIN, VIOLET ("Martin Ross") (?-1915). 
An Irish novelist, educated at home, at Ross, 
County Galway, and at Alexandra College, Dub- 
lin. She identified herself prominently with the 
woman suffrage movement. Her literary work 
began with a miscellany of articles contributed 
to various British periodicals Eventually she 
collaborated with her cousin, Miss Edith CE. 
Somerville, in a series of Irish novels. The 
Experiences of an Irish R. M (1899), a tale 
racy of the soil and with a sparkle, dash, and 
wit that recall Charles Lever's rollicking stories, 
made a decided hit on both sides of the sea. 
Other novels in which she and Miss Somerville 
collaborated are: The Real Charlotte (1901), 
The Silver Fox (1902) ; All on the Irish Shore 
(1903); Some Irish Yesterdays (1906); Fur- 
ther Experiences of an Irish R. M. (1908) ; An 
Irish Cousin (1910); Dan Russell the Fox 
(1912); In Mr. Knotfs Country (1913). 

(1827-1916). An American missionary and ed- 
ucator, born at Livonia, Ind. He graduated at 
Indiana University in 1846 and entered the 
Presbyterian Seminary at New Albany, Ind. 
(now McCormick, Chicago) ; taught classics for 
a year; and then went to Ningpo, China, as mis- 
sionary (1850). He founded the Presbyterian 
mission at Peking (1863) and remained in 
charge for five years, until he was appointed pro- 


fessor of international law at the Tung-wen Col- 
lege of Peking, of which he was also president 
from 1869 to 1894. For the Chinese government 
he translated a number of works on interna- 
tional law, such as the Guide diplomatique 
(1874) and two textbooks on physics, which 
were especially reprinted for the Emperor. In 
1880 he was sent abroad by the Chinese gov- 
ernment to investigate the educational systems 
in other countries. He received the honorable 
title of mandarin of the third rank in 1885 and 
of the second rank in 1898; and in 1885 was 
also made the first president of the Oriental 
Society of Peking From 1898 to 1900 he waa 
first president of the Imperial University of 
Peking His writings include- The Chinese: 
Their Education, Philosophy, and Lettcts ( 1881 ) ; 
Evidences of Christianity (1855, in Chinese); 
The Three Principles (1856); Religion* Alle- 
gories (1857); A Cycle of Cathay, or China 
South and North (1896, 2d ed., 1897) ; The Lore 
of Cathay, or the Intellect of China (1901, 
2d ed., 1912), The Siege in Peking (1900); 
Awakening of China (1907). 

BARONET (1801-95). "A British naval officer 
Entering the navy in 1813, 10 years later he 
was appointed commander of the sloop Fly, in 
which he gave such valuable service that he was 
thereafter known as "Fly" Martin He was pro- 
moted to captain *in 1824, commodore in 1849, 
rear admiral in 1853, vice admiral in 1858. and 
admiral in 1863. As commander in chief of the 
Mediterranean in 1860-63 he greatly improved 
the discipline of the fleet. From 1866 to 1869 
he was commander in chief at Plymouth and in 
1870 was retired. He succeeded to his baronetcy 
in 1863. 

MARTIN, WINFRED ROBERT ( 1852-1915 ) An 
American Orientalist, Hispanist, and librarian, 
a son of William Alexander Parsons Martin 
Born at Ningpo, China, he studied the humani- 
ties at Princeton University, wheie he received 
the degree of A.B. in 1872, and that of AM. 
in 1875 Three years later he graduated from 
the law school of New York University. After 
a long period of study in Germany he took his 
Ph.D. at Tubingen in 1887 From' 1888 to 1907 
he was professor of Oriental languages and lit- 
eratures at Trinity College (Hartford, Conn ) 
and from 1902 to 1907 gave instruction in San- 
skrit in the mission courses of Hartford Theologi- 
cal Seminary. Dr. Martin's linguistic ability 
was very unusual, and this, coupled with his 
wide reading and extraordinary memory, marked 
him for the difficult post to which he was called 
in 1907, and which he held until his death that 
of librarian of the Hispanic Society of America, 
of which he was also a member. In 1907 Trinity 
College gave him an honorary LL.D., and in 1911 
the King of Spain made him a Knight of the 
Order of Isabella the Catholic. 

MABTINACH, mar'tfe-nao. The name of 
three united villages in Switzerland. See MAB- 

MABTINA FRANCA, mar-teAiA frai/ka. A 
city in the Province of Lecce, Italy, situated on 
a hill 17 miles north-northeast of Taranto (Map: 
Italy, F 4). It is a comparatively modern town, 
with manufactures of oil. Pop. (commune), 
1901, 25,007; 1911, 24,786. 

Charles Dickens, which appeared in 20 monthly 
parts in 1843 and 1844. 

MABTIN DE MOUSSY, mar'taw' de mSS'ae', 



JEAN ANTOINE VICTOR (1810-69). A French 
physician and traveler, born at Moussy-le-Vieux. 
He studied medicine in Paris, and practiced in 
the military hospitals. In 1841 he went to Mon- 
tevideo, South America, and in the nine years' 
siege of that place (1843-52) was director of 
the medical service to the French and Italian 
forces. After the downfall of Rosas, the dictator 
of Argentina, in 1852, he was employed by the 
government of President Urquiza to prepare a 
geographical description of that republic. In 
the execution of this task he spent four years 
(1855-59) in constant travel. The results of 
his labors are embodied in his work in three vol- 
umes, entitled Description gtiographique et sta- 
tistique de la confederation argentine ( 1860 
64), which, with the atlas accompanying it, is 
of the highest authority, and M6moire historique 
sur la decadence et la ruine des missions des 
Jesuits dans le basin de la Plata (1865). He 
presented to the city of Montevideo a well- 
equipped meteorological observatory. 

MARTINE, martin, JAMES EDGAR (1850- 
) An American legislator. He was born in 
New York City and was educated in the public 
schools. He engaged in farming near Plainfield, 
N J, and dealt extensively in real estate and 
building operations. He was a candidate for va- 
rious offices in New Jersey, was a warm supporter 
of Woodrow Wilson during the latter's governor- 
ship, and became United States Senator from 
New Jersey for the term of 1911-17. He at- 
tracted attention in the United States by cham- 
pioning the cause of the working class, partic- 
ularly the miners of West Virginia and 

MARTINEAU, mar / ti-no, HARRIET (1802- 
76). An English writer, sister of James Mar- 
tineau, born at Norwich, England, June 12, 1802, 
educated mostly at home. She early became a 
convert to Unitarianism. Miss Martineau began 
wi iting when a girl, contributing her first article 
in 1821 to the Monthly Repository, the Unita- 
rian organ. In 1829 the house in which had been 
placed the small fortunes of the family failed 
and Miss Martineau turned to literature for sup- 
port Her health had been precarious from girl- 
hood and it now frequently broke down. For 
rest she visited America (1834-35) and Venice 
(1839). By 1845 she had passed from Unitari- 
anism to agnosticism. In 1845-46 she settled 
near Ambleside by the English Lakes, where she 
lived till her death, June 27, 1876 Miss Mar- 
tineau published 36 distinct works, comprising 
tales, novels, and essays on history, politics, eco- 
nomics, and philosophy, and contributed exten- 
sively to periodicals In the Daily News alone 
appeared more than 1600 articles. She gained 
her first success with Illustrations of Political 
Economy (1832-34), a series of tales with a 
purpose, and Illustrations of Taxation (1834), 
in which she sought to popularize current the- 
ories through fiction. Among her other works 
are: Society in America (1837) ; Western Travel 
(1838); Deerbrook, a readable novel (1839); 
The Playfellow, good children's stories ( 1841 ) ; 
Life in the Sick Room (1843), autobiographical; 
Letters on Mesmerism (1845); Eastern Life, 
Past and Present (1848), in which she avowed 
her religious opinions; History of England dur- 
ing the Thirty Years' Peace (1849), a weighty 
piece of writing; Letters on the Laws of Man's 
Social Nature and Development (1851), written 
in conjunction with H. G. Atkinson; The Phi- 
losophy of Comte (1853), a condensation of the 
VOL. XV. 11 

Philosophic positive; Biographical Sketches 
( 1869) . Though little of Miss Martineau's work 
has survived as a permanent literary posses- 
sion, it was of great value to her generation. 
She was a popularizer of the advanced thinking 
of her day. Consult: Autobiography, with Me- 
morials by M. W. Chapman (London, 1877); 
F. F. Miller, Harriet Martineau (Boston, 1890) ; 
J. F. Clarke, "Harriet Martineau," in his Nine- 
teenth Century Questions (Boston, 1898). 

MARTINEAU, JAMES (1805-1900). An 
English Unitarian divine, brother of the preced- 
ing. He was born at Norwich, April 21, 1805. 
He was educated for the ministry at Manchester 
College (Unitarian, then located at York) and 
was graduated in 1827. He spent one year 
teaching in Bristol and then, Oct. 26, 1828, he 
was ordained to the Presbyterian ministry in 
Dublin. He resigned his pastorate in Dublin be- 
cause he objected to receiving state aid in the 
regium donum, though it would have increased 
his salary by 100. From Dublin he went to 
Liverpool, where he was settled over Paradise 
Street Chapel and eked out his income by taking 
pupils Here he attracted considerable attention 
by engaging, along with J. H Thorn and Henry 
Giles, in a controversy against some clergymen 
of the Church of England on the subject of Uni- 
tarianism. Soon afterward Martineau was 
elected professor of mental and moral philosophy 
at Manchester New College and continued to 
lecture in the college when it was removed to 
London in 1853, though he also retained his 
pulpit in Liverpool for four years. In 1857 he 
took up his residence in London The next year 
he added to his work the task of sharing the pul- 
pit of Little Portland Street Chapel with J. J. 
Taylor, then principal of the college. Upon the 
death of Mr. Taylor in 1868 he became principal 
of the college and filled the chapel pulpit alone 
for four years, when the strain compelled him 
to give it up He is the author of The Rationale 
of Religious Inquiry (1836) ; also Unitarianism 
Defended ( in collaboration with Thorn and Giles, 
1839), the lectures delivered in the controversy 
referred to above; Endeavors after the Chris- 
tian Life (2 vols, 1843-47); Miscellanies 
(1852) ; Studies of Christianity (1858) ; Essays, 
Philosophical and Theological ( 1866-67 ) ; Re- 
ligion as Affected by Modern Materialism 
(1874); Hours of Thought on Sacred Things 
(1876-79) ; Study of Spinosa (1882) ; Types of 
Ethical Theory (1885); Study of Religion 
(1888) . and The Seat of Authority in Religion 
( 1890) . He received honorary degrees from Har- 
vard, Leyden, Edinburgh, Oxford, and Dublin. 
He died Jan 11, 1900. In philosophy he was 
an intuitionist, maintaining that men have a 
power of conscience which, without aid from ex- 
perience, can ascertain the higher of two con- 
flicting motives. In theology he was, as already 
seen, a prominent Unitarian; but his greatest 
importance will probably remain in his ethical 

Bibliography. J. H. Hertz, The Ethical Sys- 
tem of James Martineau (New York, 1894); 
A. W. Jackson, James Martineau: A Biography 
and Study (Boston, 1900) ; Henry Sidgwick, 
Lectures on the Ethics of Qreen, Spencer, 
and Martineau (ib., 1902) ; James Drummond, 
Life and Letters of James Martineau (2 vols., 
New York, 1902) ; S. P. Cadman, "James Mar- 
tineau," in Charles Darwin and Other English 
Thinkers (Boston, 1911). 

MABTINELLA, mar^-nSl'la (It., crane). 


A famous bell which in the old days of Florence 
used to announce the approach or declaration of 
war. It is usually spoken of in connection with 
the corroccto, a famous car of large size, drawn 
by oxen, which accompanied the citizens to the 
field of battle. After war was declared the* mar- 
tinclla rang, and when at last the army moved 
out the bell was placed on a car which followed 
the carroccio, and guided the troops by its sound 

( 1848- ) An Italian Roman Catholic prel- 
ate. He was born near Lucca, in the seminary of 
which town he received his 'theological educa- 
tion. He entered the Augustinian Order in 1863, 
was ordained priest in 1871, and was elected 
prior general of the order in 1889 and again in 
1895. On the recall to Rome of Cardinal Satolli, 
the first Apostolic Delegate to the United States, 
he was appointed to succeed him, and at the same 
time \ias raised to the episcopate as titular 
Archbishop of Ephesus (1896). His wise and 
statesmanlike conduct of many difficult questions 
brought him during his term as delegate was 
generally recognized. In 1902, having been made 
Cardinal in 1901, he was recalled. 

MARTINET, miir'te'-na', ACIIILLE Louis 
(1806-77) A French engraver He was born 
in Paris and was a pupil of the painter Heim 
and of Forster, the engraver. Many of his im- 
portant plates were after the old ' masters, as 
Rembrandt's portrait by himself, Raphael s vari- 
ous Madonnas, and Murillo's "Nativity", but he 
also engraved the works of more recent painters 
Among them were "The Last Moments of Count 
Egmont," after Gallait, ''Charles I Mocked by 
Cromwell's Soldiers" , and "Mary in the Desert," 
after Delaroche. Hib work is distinguished by 
great delicacy of line and perfect but somewhat 
rigid technique. 

MARTINEZ, mar-te'nez A city and the 
county seat of Contra Costa Co , Cal , 35 miles 
by rail northeast of San Francisco, on the Straits 
of Carquinez and Suisun Bay and on the South- 
ern Pacific Railroad (Map': California, C 5). 
It is an important slapping point for grain, 
grapes, and pears, has copper-smelting works 
and oil refineries, and manufactures feitih/ers, 
lumber, and acids, etc. The city contains the 
De La Salle Institute of Christian Brothers, a 
public library, park, and fine high school, court- 
house, and city hall buildings Pop., 1000, 1380, 
1910, 2115. 

MARTfNEZ, mar-te'nath, ENRICO (c.1570- 
1632) A Mexican engineer, born, according to 
different biographers, either in Holland, Ger- 
many, or Spain. He probably received his en- 
gineering education in Spain, was appointed 
royal cosmographer, and went to Mexico in 
1603 as an interpreter of the Inquisition. In 
1607 he took charge of the construction of the 
canal which was to drain the valley of Mexico, 
a work which he completed in less than a year 
This ca