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Full text of "New Jersey; life, industries and resources of a great state"

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LIFE, INDIST RIES X RESOURCES 

OFA 

GREAT STATE 



EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 
FLOYD W. PARSONS 



PUBLISHED BY NRW JERSEY STATE CHAMBER OFCOM/AERCE 

NEWARK, NEW JERSEY 



2\EW JERSEY 

Life, Industries and Resources 
of a Great State 

Editor-in-Chief 
FLOYD W. PARSONS, E. M. 

Fac-simile of the Original Lease of New Jersey to 
Lord John Berkley and Sir George Carteret. 

Fac-simile pages of the Concessions and Agreements 
of the Proprietors, Freeholders and Inhabitants of the 
Province of West New Jersey, in America. 

Eight pages and Jacket in fot/r colors. 

408 Halt-tone Illustrations of Interesting Places, 
and Instructive Subjects with which every Inhabitant 
of the State should be Familiar. 

CONTENTS 

CHAPTER 

I. POLITICAL AND SOCIAL HISTORY, HISTORIC 
SHRINES AND INTERESTING PLACES, GOVERN- 
MENTAL ORGANIZATION, REVENUE AND TAXA- 
TION, THE STATE CAMP GROUNDS. 
II. GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES, GEOG- 
RAPHY, CLIMATE, FOREST RESOURCES, FISHERY 
RESOURCES. 

III. THE PEOPLE AND RELIGIONS. 

IV. PUBLIC SCHOOLS, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY, RUT- 
GERS UNIVERSITY, STEVENS INSTITUTE OF TECH- 
NOLOGY, LAW SCHOOLS, OTHER PRIVATE SCHOOLS, 
LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS. 

V. AGRICULTURE, FARM CROPS, SOILS AND FERTIL- 
IZERS, HUMAN AND ANIMAL NUTRITION, 
AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, VEGETABLE GROW- 
ING, DAIRYING, POULTRY, ORNAMENTAL HORTI- 
CULTURE, FRUIT GROWING, LIVESTOCK, COM- 
BATING AGRICULTURAL ENEMIES, AGRICULTURE 
AND EDUCATION, FARMS OF DISTINCTION. 

VI. PUBLIC UTILITIES, WATER, TELEPHONE, GAS, 
ELECTRICITY, ELECTRIC CAR AND MOTOR Bus. 
SERVICE. 

VII. TRANSPORTATION AND COMMERCE, RAILWAYS, 
GREAT BRIDGES AND TUNNELS, PORTS AND 
TERMINALS, STATE HIGHWAYS, TRUCKING, 
AVIATION. 

VIII. THE GREAT BEACHES, ATLANTIC CITY, PLAY- 
GROUND OF THE WORLD, ASBURY PARK AND THE 
NORTHERN RESORTS, CAPE MAY AND THE SOUTH- 
ERN OCEAN FRONT. 

IX. PARKS AND PLAYGROUNDS, GAMES AND SPORTS, 
FISHING AND HUNTING, MOTORING ENJOYABLE 
TRIPS, UPLANDS AND LAKES, PUBLIC PRESS, 
THEATERS. 
X. INSURANCE AND BANKING. 

XI. GROWTH AND IMPORTANCE OF INDUSTRY, GREAT 
INDUSTRIES PETROLEUM REFINING, SILK, COT- 
TON AND FABRICATED PRODUCTS, CERAMICS, 
JEWELRY MAKING, MACHINE INDUSTRY, ELEC- 
TRICAL INDUSTRY, SHIPBUILDING INDUSTRY, 
TOBACCO INDUSTRY, LEATHER INDUSTRY, PAINT 
AND VARNISH INDUSTRY, CANNING INDUSTRY, 
PACKING INDUSTRY, MINERAL INDUSTRIES, 
GLASS INDUSTRY, BAKING INDUSTRY. 
NEW JERSEY'S GREAT FIRMS. 
DEPARTMENT STORES. 

XII. HOSPITALS, CHARITY AND CORRECTIONAL IN- 
STITUTIONS. 
XIII. NEW JERSEY TO-MORROW. 

Published by 

NEW JERSEY STATE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 

NEWARK, NEW JERSEY 
1918 



From the collection of the 

* n m 

o PreTinger 
v JJibrary 



San Francisco, California 
2006 



NEW JERSEY 



LIFE, INDUSTRIES AND RESOURCES 
OF A GREAT STATE 







WORLD WAR MEMORIAL, EDGEMONT PARK, MONTCLAIR 
Dedicated Nov. n, 192.5. Raymond M Hood, architect, Charles Keck, sculptor. 

The beauty and expression of this memorial have elicited much favorable comment from both American and European 

authorities. 



NEW JERSEY 



LIFE, INDUSTRIES AND RESOURCES 
OF A GREAT STATE 



Editor-in-Chief 
FLOYD W. PARSONS, E.M. 

Founder and Editorial Director of Business and Trade Publications; Author of "American Business 

Methods" and "Everybody's Business"; Contributing Editor of Advertising and Selling; 

Special Writer for The Saturday Evening Post and other national periodicals 



Associate Editors 
GEORGE S. BURGESS EDWARD PIERCE HULSE 

Vice President and Secretary, New Jersey State Technical Critic for Publishing Houses; Chairman 

Chamber of Commerce of Printing Industries Committee, American 

Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
Author of "Traffic Creating" 



Published by 

NEW JERSEY STATE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 

NEWARK, NEW JERSEY 

192.8 



COPYRIGHT, 19^8, BY 

NEW JERSEY STATE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 
NEWARK, NEW JERSEY 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES 



Foreword 

THE New Jersey State Chamber of Commerce dedicates 
this volume to the citizens of New Jersey in the hope 
that a brief but vital story of the life, industries and 
resources of the State will stimulate interest in our present 
opportunities and responsibilities. 

Washington spent two and one-half years of the Revolu- 
tion on New Jersey's bloodstained soil. Emergencies have 
always developed men to meet them and thus in every na- 
tional crisis the State has borne its full share of the burden. 
Men of all races and creeds have united to make its people 
sturdy and resourceful. We stand on the threshold of great 
events. The tread of marching millions soon to be added to 
our population is already heard. Our problems require the 
leadership of men able to see into the future and willing to 
make sacrifices for the common good. 

Transportation, water supply, housing and education must 
be dealt with on broad and adequate lines. Industrial and 
residential areas must be properly defined. Our dreams of 
the future must be converted into the achievements of the 
engineer. Our desire to make life better for all people must 
crystallize into action based on accurate knowledge of con- 
ditions and needs. We must preserve the sacred traditions 
of the past, and in guarding its heritage, plan for a greater 
future. 

We confidently believe that today is better than yester- 
day and that tomorrow will be better than today. Faith, 
vision and courage on our part will produce if not an ideal 
State, one of which we may well be proud. To this end 
the officers and directors of the State Chamber pledge 
their united efforts and urge upon all the importance of 
cooperation in advancing the interests of New Jersey. 

WILLARD I. HAMILTON, 

President. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT 



ACNOWLEDGMENT is made of special 
contributions to the text of this book 
by the following: 

Members of the Faculty of Rutgers Uni- 
versity Prof. E. E. Agger, Director, Bureau 
of Economics and Business Research; Dr. Jacob 
G. Lipman, Dean of the College of Agriculture 
and Director of the State Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, and his staff of scientific experts; 
E. H. Rockwell, Dean of the School of En- 
gineering; Irving Kull, Asst. Professor of His- 
tory; G. H. Brown, Professor of Ceramics; H. 
McD. Clokie, Asst. Professor of Government; 
C. S. Crow, Professor of Education; Henry 
Keller, Jr., Professor of Economics; J. V. 
Emelianoff, Professor of Research; Eugene 
Greider, Professor of Economics; A. C. Hawk- 
ins, Professor of Geology. 

Educators in general Charles H. Elliott, 
Ph.D., State Commissioner of Education; 
V. Lansing Collins, Secretary, Princeton Uni- 
versity; James Creese, Vice-President, Stevens 
Institute of Technology; Harold S. Sloan, 
Head of History Department, Newark State 
Normal School. 

Authorities on religious history Rev. 
Joseph F. Folsom, William J. Kearns (At- 
torney, Newark), Rabbi Solomon Foster, Rev. 
Archibald Black, Rev. Oscar E. Braune, D.D., 
Rev. Harry J. Smith, Rev. Philip E. Clifford, 
Rev. M. Joseph Twoomey. 

Public officials, boards, and commissions 
C. P. Wilbur, State Forester; P. C. Betts, Chief 
Engineer, Public Utilities Commission; C. S. 
Catcart, State Chemist; Victor Gelineau, 
Secretary, Board of Commerce and Naviga- 
tion; Dr. Henry B. Kummel, State Geologist; 
William J. Ellis, State Commissioner of In- 
stitutions and Agencies; Harold Noyes, United 
States Weather Forecaster; Sarah Askew, 
Librarian, State Library Commission; A. Lee 
Grover, Secretary, and E. B. Loughran, Chief 
Traffic Officer, State Highway Commission; 
George A. Mott, Director, State Department 
of Shell Fisheries; John E. Ramsey, Chief 
Executive Officer, Port of New York Author- 
ity; Col. Samuel S. Armstrong (Retired) State 
Quartermaster General's Department; E. S. 



Jackson, Captain, United States Navy, Com- 
mandant Lakehurst Station; Palisades Inter- 
State Park Commission; Union, Essex and 
Hudson County Park Commissions; Interstate 
Bridge and Tunnel Commission, Raritan Port 
Commission; South Jersey Port Commission; 
Carleton E. Shell, Publicity Manager, New 
Jersey Fish and Game Commission. 

Newspaper writers and others Joseph T. 
Scarry, Sporting Editor, Newark Evening 
News; Kenneth Lockwood, Editor, Out-in- 
the-Open Page, Newark Evening News; Grace 
Lockhart, Special Writer; Harold O'Neil, New 
Brunswick Home News; Henry L. Bullen, 
Librarian, American Type Founders Company; 
Albert D. Way, Secretary, Motor Club of New 
Jersey. 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

The New Jersey State Chamber of Commerce 
acknowledges the aid received from photog- 
raphers, public officials, chambers of commerce, 
utility companies, manufacturers and others 
who have assisted in procuring and furnishing 
the illustrations. Fully half of the photographs 
did not indicate the name of the photographer, 
hence credit for them cannot be given. Many 
photographs were taken specially for this 
book. The photographers represented include 
Potter Studios, Newark; Harvey W. Porch, 
Bridgeton; J. Eickenbush, Newark; Drew B. 
Peters, Newark; Underwood & Underwood, 
New York; U. S. Navy Official Photographer, 
Lakehurst; Orren J. Turner, Princeton; George 
A. Wonfor, Camden; Belden & Co., Newark; 
Aero Service Corp., Philadelphia; Reid Studio, 
Paterson; Wells Studio, Montclair; Fred Hess 
& Son, Atlantic City; Amagraph Co., Jersey 
City; Teich & Co., Chicago; Newark Photo 
Studio; Merritt E. Gregory, Morristown; R. 
H. Rose & Son, Princeton; Ventnor Photo 
Service; Erna Commercial Photo Co., Jersey 
City; Curtiss Photo, Morristown; Prickett, 
Burlington, W. H. Hoedt, Philadelphia; Geo. 
H. Pound, New Brunswick; Mitchell Studio, 
Mt. Holly; Atlantic Photo Service, Atlantic 
City; Morris Rosenfeld and Albert Rothschild, 
New York. 



PREFACE 



THERE is real need in America for a wider 
and more complete understanding of the 
life, resources and industries of the differ- 
ent States. While the people of our country are 
bound together by one national Government, 
we are divided by the boundaries of 48 separate 
and distinct commonwealths. Our habits and 
thoughts are influenced by such natural endow- 
ments as climate, topography, water, minerals 
and timber. Citizens of Florida, New Jersey, 
Montana and Utah cannot all have the same 
viewpoint. We are part of our environment, 
and it varies from semi-tropical to snow- 
bound from sea level to the high altitudes of 
the Rockies. 

Not only do we suffer from a sectionalism 
that limits our appreciation of the problems of 
our neighbors, but we are sadly deficient in our 
knowledge respecting the noble traditions, ad- 
vantages and opportunities of the particular 
State in which we reside. What of its great 
industries that send their products throughout 
the earth; its recreational advantages that add 
to the joy of living; its humanity as evidenced 
by devotion to the welfare of its needy; its 
romances, shrines and charms; its great systems 
of education, finance and transportation; and 
its intelligent development of a sound and 
modern agriculture to serve as a firm foundation 
for an enduring prosperity. 

It is to supply information of such a character 
that this practical outline of New Jersey's past 
and present activities has been prepared. The 
book is the work of the business leaders of New 
Jersey, who used their State Chamber of Com- 
merce as an instrument to make the dream a 
reality. The result is a volume that will fill a 
want never before satisfied. Interesting facts 
are here set forth to serve a variety of purposes, 
from education in home and school to reference 
and research in office and library. 

The Bureau of Economics and Business Re- 
search of Rutgers University assisted in collect- 
ing much of the material for the volume. The 
hundreds of contributions were prepared and 



submitted by an equal number of public offi- 
cials, special writers, economists and business 
executives. The chief job of the editorial staff 
has been to exclude repetition and to reduce 
the various articles to the space limitations 
prescribed by their relative importance. This 
was not an easy task because of the evident be- 
lief of the individual contributor that his 
subject was the most vital, and therefore should 
be treated at greatest length. 

The editors are well aware that the attain- 
ment of perfection is impossible in the handling 
of a subject so inexhaustible. But their intimate 
knowledge of the immense amount of labor 
entailed in developing, in a single volume, the 
authentic story of a great State and its people, 
affords them no ground for apology. Aside from 
the local educational benefits the book pro- 
vides, there is also the fact that this work rep- 
resents a pioneering effort in the broad field of 
dignified State publicity. The volume is not 
only New Jersey's fulfillment of a desire to be 
understood and appreciated by her own people, 
but it is also her original way of inviting the 
attention of non-residents to the advantages 
and opportunities she offers. 

It will be noticed by the reader that the text 
is particularly free of propaganda, individual 
puffs and rhetorical flourishes. The pronoun 
"I" appears almost not at all. The outcome of 
this definite policy of completely avoiding per- 
sonalities, except those that are historical, 
carries out the original purpose of producing a 
book to render constructive educational serv- 
ice. Favoritism or bias has had no place in the 
work. Politics has been given no thought. If 
any description appears out of proportion to its 
relative importance the fault may be traced to 
a tardiness, perhaps unavoidable, at the 
sources of information. 

But taken as a whole, the difficulties pre- 
sented to the editors have been surprisingly 
few. There has been not only a common agree- 
ment on the desirability of producing such a 
volume, but a spirit of willing cooperation in 



Vill 



PREFACE 



every quarter. These evidences of unselfish 
support provided the necessary encouragement 
to make the work pleasant and effective. The 
editors wish to express their full appreciation 
for the voluntary assistance extended by a 
small army of New Jersey's loyal citizens. 

The chief burden of responsibility, from be- 
ginning to end, has been borne by Mr. George 
S. Burgess, Vice-President and Secretary of the 
New Jersey State Chamber of Commerce. Not 
only was the book his original idea, but to him 
goes practically all of the credit for presenting 
the story of the State in a fascinating manner 
in the form of pictures. Although rendering 
continuous assistance in a literary way, he 
found time to collect and complete the ar- 
rangement of the hundreds of views that illus- 
trate the text. Professor E. E. Agger of Rutgerc 



University was actively interested in the 
accumulation of material. Mr. Edward P. 
Hulse, for years technical critic for large pub- 
lishing houses, gave invaluable time and atten- 
tion to the condensation and editing of a mass 
of original manuscript. 

If this finished volume proves to be a book 
of inspiration as well as information; if it 
builds faith and confidence in the great des- 
tiny of New Jersey; if it engenders thought, 
discloses opportunity and spurs initiative on 
the part of the individual citizen, then the 
editors will be gratified and fully rewarded 
for all effort expended. 



FLOYD W. PARSONS 



New York, N. Y., 
December i, 1928. 



ORIGINAL LEASE OF NEW JERSEY 



KING CHARLES II made a grant in 1664 
to his brother, the Duke of York, 
afterward James II, of a tract extend- 
ing from the Connecticut River to Delaware 



The lease has been reproduced in fac-simile 
for this Book through the courtesy of Mr. 
Walter E. Robb of Burlington, who is its pres- 
ent possessor. Apparently the contents of this 




TRANSCRIPT OF LEASE 

This Indenture made the Three and twentieth day of June in the Sixteenth year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord 
Charles the Second by the grace of God of England, Scotland, France and Ireland. King defender of the faith etc. Annoq. 
Dm 1664 Between his Royal Highness James Duke of York and Albany Earl of Ulster Lord High Admirall of England 
and Ireland Constable of Dover Castle Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports and Governour of Portsmouth of the one part. 
John Lord Berkley Baron of Stratton and one of his majesty's most Honorable privy council and Sir George Carterett 
of Saltrum in the county of Devon Knight and one of his most Honorable privy council of the other part. Witnesseth 
that the said James Duke of York for and in consideration of the sum of Tenne Shillings of lawful money of England to 
him in hand paid before the Sealing and Delivery hereof by the said John Lord Berkley and Sir George Carterett the receipt 
whereof the said James Duke of York doth hereby acknowledge and thereof doth aquitt and discharge the said John 
Lord Berkley and Sir George Carterett forever by these presents Hath bargained and sold and by these presents doth bar- 
gain and sell unto the said John Lord Berkley and Sir George Carterett all that Part of Land Adjacent to New England 
and lying and being to the Westward of Long Island and Manhattas Island and bounded on the East part by the main 
sea and part by Hudson's River and hath upon the West Delaware Bay or River and extendoth Southward to the Main 
Ocean as far as Cape May at the mouth of Delaware Bay and to the Northward as far as the Northermost Branch of the 
said Bay or River of DelaWare which is in Forty one degrees and Forty minutes of latitude and crosseth over thence in a 
Straight Line to Hudson's River in Forty one degrees of latitude which said Tract of Land is hereafter to be called by 
the name or names of New Ceasarea or New Jersey. And also all Rivers, Mines, Minerals, Woods, Fishings, Hawking, 
Hunting and Fowling and all other Royalties profits, commodities, Hereditaments whatsoever to the said landes and 
premises belonging or appertaining with them and every of their appurtenances and the Reversion and reversions Re- 
mainder and Remainders thereof To Have and to hold the said tract of land and premises with their and every of their 
appurtenances unto the said John Lord Berkley and Sir George Carterett from the First day of May last past before the 
date hereof unto the full end and term of One whole year from thence next ensueing and fully to be terminate and ended 
Yielding and paying therefor unto the said James Duke of York his heirs or assignes the rent of a pepper corne upon the 
feast of the Nativity of Saint John Baptist next ensuing the date hereof only if the same shall be lawfully demanded. 
In Witness thereof the parties aforesaid to this present Indenture have enterchangeably set their hands and Seals the day 
and year first above written. 



Bay. On June 13, 1664, the Duke of York 
leased that part of the tract which now is New 
Jersey to Lord John Berkley and Sir George 
Carterett, friends of the King and prominent 
in his court. 



lease have not heretofore been published. A 
supplementary lease executed on the day fol- 
lowing this one has been published, though 
not in fac-simile, but a comparison of the two 
shows that, while similar in form, the leases 



CONCESSIONS AND AGREEMENTS 




THE BOUND VOLUME WHEN CLOSED 

are not alike. The consideration of "tenne 
shillings" paid is not mentioned in the supple- 
mentary lease. 

The transcript of the contents of this original 
lease does not conform to the quaint spelling 
and oddities of penmanship where they make 
difficult reading. Note the signature of 
"James," then Duke of York and afterward 
King James II. The lease is written on a sheet 
of heavy parchment about 12. inches from top 
to bottom and folded vertically and crosswise 
as shown by the breaks in the paper. 

CONCESSIONS AND AGREEMENTS 

ON THESE and succeeding pages are fac- 
simile reproductions of that famous 
document of laws and religious liberty 
known as "The Concessions and Agreements of 
the Proprietors, Freeholders and Inhabitants of 
the Province of West New Jersey, in America. " 

The Bill of Rights in the Federal Constitu- 
tion, which came 113 years later, seems to have 
been based largely on this document. 

These reproductions are from original photo- 
graphs of the document in its present state of 
preservation in the vault of the Burlington 
City Loan and Trust Company. These photo- 
graphs were taken for exclusive publication in 
this book through the courtesy of Mr. Walter 
E. Robb, who is President and Treasurer of 



the Council of Proprietors of West New 
Jersey. 

This document of rare, historical value, 
though now in its 2.53^ year, is surprisingly 
well preserved, as attested by the clearness of 
these half-tones. The text of the Concessions 
and Agreements is in the hand-writing of the 
times yet, except in minor respects, the ink is 
not much faded and the pages may be read with 
little difficulty. 

Though their contents were published about 
1751, and again in 1881, in editions long 
since exhausted, these are the only facsimile 
copies that have ever been made, in so far as 
known. 

This document was drawn up and signed in 
England under date of March 3, 1676. It consti- 
tutes a set of laws, a plan of colonization, and 
the grant of rights and religious liberty to the 
colonists. There are 44 chapters, the last 3i 
being known as "The Charter of Fundamental 
Laws of West New Jersey," and these last are 
the basis of the present laws of the State of New 
Jersey. The document was bound in a volume 
as shown by the half-tones and was brought 
across the water to this country where it has 
since remained in the possession of the Council 
of Proprietors of West New Jersey a body per- 




TITLE PAGE AND BEGINNING OF CHAPTER I 
"We do consent and agree, as the best present expedient, 
that . . ." 



CONCESSIONS AND AGREEMENTS 



XI 



petuated by the lineal descendents of the first 
proprietors, who have inherited the shares that 
represented the original ownership of the lands 
of the colony and which to-day give their 
owners title to all lands which remain un- 
claimed or have not since been deeded to others, 
When Edward Byllinge, a partner with John 
Fenwick in the early settlement of West New 



shares became the proprietors of the colony 
and they made these Concessions and Agree- 
ments under which it was governed. The Con- 
cessions became operative four months after 
they were executed, when Penn and his associ- 
ates executed a deed with Carteret dividing the 
colony into East and West New Jersey, 
Carteret retaining only the former. 



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Chapter 16, on the left hand page, contains the grant of religious liberty. The chapter reads as follows, the words 
italicized being on the page ahead of the one shown in the illustration: "That no men, nor number of men on earth, hath power 
or authority to rule over men 'j consciences in religious matters, therefore it is consented, agreed and ordained, that no person whatsoever 
within the said Province, at any time or times hereafter, shall be any ways upon any pretense whatsoever, called in ques- 
tion, or in the least punished or hurt, either in person, estate, or privilege, for the sake of his opinion, judgment, faith 
or worship towards God in matters of religion. But that all and every such person, and persons, may from time to time, 
and at all times, freely and fully have, and enjoy his and their judgments, and the exercises of their consciences in matters 
of religious worship throughout all the said Province." 

Chapter 17, on the right hand page, proclaims the right to trial by jury in these words, italicized words being those 
that complete the chapter on the succeeding page: "That no Proprietor, freeholder or inhabitant of the said Province 
of West New Jersey, shall be deprived or condemned of life, limb, liberty, estate, property or any ways hurt in his or their 
privileges, freedoms or franchises, upon any account whatsoever, without a due trial, and judgment passed by twelve 
good and lawful men of his neighborhood first had: And that in all causes to be tried, and in all trials, the person or 
persons, arraigned may except against any of the said neighborhood, without any reason rendered, (not exceeding thirty 
five) and in case of any valid reason alleged, against every person nominated j or that service." 

At first there were two capitals of the West 
New Jersey Colony one at Salem, and the other 
at Burlington. The Council of Proprietors the 
governing body was, and still is, comprised of 
five representatives from the Burlington Di- 
vision of West New Jersey and four from the 
Gloucester Division of West New Jersey, these 



Jersey, became financially embarrassed in 1675, 
he assigned his interests to William Penn, 
Gawen Lawrie and Nicholas Lucas, three 
Quakers who divided his interests into 100 
shares, or proprieties, and from the sale of a 
portion of the shares received enough to pay 
Byllinge's creditors in full. The owners of these 



Xll 



CONCESSIONS AND AGREEMENTS 



being the two sub-divisions of the Colony. 
Burlington has always been the Seat of the 
Proprietors. Many early governors lived 
tiiere, and the Concessions and Agree- 



The meetings of the Council of Proprietors 
are held at the Surveyor General's office on the 
first Tuesday in February, May, August and 
November. A right of propriety consists in the 




The text at the top of the left hand page is the last part of Chapter 44 and covers the distribution of the Province 
into shares, settlement of towns, and general colonization. The last part reads: "In testimony and witness of our con- 
sent to and affirmation of these present laws, concessions and agreements, we the Proprietors, freeholders, and inhabitants 
of the said Province of West New Jersey, whose names are under written, have to the same voluntarily and freely set 
our hands, dated this third day of the month commonly called March, in the year of our Lord one thousand six hundred 
and seventy six. E. Byllynge, Richard Smith, Edward Nethorp, John Penford, Daniel Wills, Thomas Ollice, Thomas 
Rudyard, William Biddle, Robert Stacy, John Farrington, William Roydon, Richard Mew, Percivall Towle, Mahlon 
Stacy, Thomas Budd, Samuel Jeninns, Gawen Laurie, William Penn, William Emley, Joshua Wright, Nicholas Lucas, 
William Haig, William Peachee, Richard Mathews, John Haracis, Francis Collins, William Kent, Benjamin Scott, Thomas 
Lambert, Thomas Hooton, Henry Stacy. Note: 12.0 additional signatures follow on next page of the document. 



ments have been kept there. The Surveyor 
General is their legal custodian and his office 
is in Burlington. 



ownership of a share, or a portion of one of the 
100 shares, into which Edward Byllinge's inter- 
ests in West New Jersey were divided. 



CHAPTER I 



History and (government 

GENERAL HISTORY 



WHEN the early Dutch and Swedish 
settlers arrived in the section of the 
New World now known as New 
Jersey, they found it occupied by the Lenni- 
Lenape, one of the tribes of the far-reaching 
Algonquin family, later known as the Dela- 
wares. Lenni means pure or original and Lenape 
means people, hence their name may mean "the 
first people." Moved by their human wants and 
needs, the Lenni -Lenape lived along the river 
valleys, and were more numerous in the 
southern and central than in the northern parts 
of New Jersey. Their total number in the State 
probably never exceeded one thousand. Al- 
though often seeking new fishing and hunting 
grounds, when settled for a while, they lived 
in villages. Their wigwams were not artisti- 
cally conceived and were usually indescribably 
dirty. The girls, after reaching early woman- 
hood, became coarsened by hard work and un- 
attractive. Few marriages occurred between 
them and the white settlers, though many be- 
tween Indians and negroes. 

The Indians of New Jersey were hospitable, 
although in their relation to the white settlers 
they occupied an uncertain position. Some- 
times they were treated by the Colonial Legis- 
lature as menials and again as equals. Generally 
speaking, the Dutch and Swedes were kindly 
disposed toward the red men, although there 
was constantly the cloud of racial jealousy 
overshadowing all transactions. They all cried 
"Peace" on approacning and called one an- 
other "Friend" and "Brother," but suspicion 
was much more real than any peace and friend- 
ship. Fortunately in New Jersey the situation 
never became acute except for a brief contest 
between the Dutch and the Indians before the 
English conquest, and the Indian massacres in 
Sussex County during the French and Indian 



War. The stories of extremely friendly rela- 
tions between the Indians and some white 
families, particularly among the Quakers, are 
pleasing exceptions to the general condition. 

During the quarter century of English colon- 
ization between 1664 and 1701, the governors 
were ever instructed to treat the Indians with 
all humanity and kindness - for it ' 'will prove 
beneficial to the Planters and likewise advan- 
tageous to the propagation of the Gospel." 
Severe penalty was meted out to anyone who 
willfully killed an Indian. Because extreme 
care in procuring land titles when purchasing 
Indian land was always enjoined upon the col- 
onists, practically all Indian title to land in 
New Jersey was extinguished before the 
Revolution. 

In 1758, as an act of charity and also, as a 
matter of protection, the first Indian reserva- 
tion in the United States was established in the 
"Pines" of Burlington County, New Jersey. 
There 2.00 Indians were settled upon 3,000 acres 
of land. Thence the Lenni-Lenape removed to 
New York State, later to Green Bay, Wisconsin, 
and finally to Indian Territory. Now, excepting 
in the retention of place names, corrupted by 
long usage, half-forgotten village sites and 
graves, a little Indian blood in a few New Jersey 
families, and scattered collections of their 
handiwork in stone, bone, and shell, no trace 
of the Lenni-Lenape remains in New Jersey. 

It fell to the lot of the Swedes to demonstrate 
the possibilities of the Delaware Valley for 
permanent settlement, and also by their own 
misfortune to prove that no winning of the 
wilderness could be gained save by endless toil 
and unity of action. After ^ years of adventur- 
ing back and forth across the seas, between 
Scandinavia and the Delaware River, and en- 
during the persecution and inhospitality of the 



NEW JERSEY 



English in Virginia and the Dutch roundabout, 
the Swedes finally in 1655 surrendered their 
rights on the Delaware River to the Dutch 
under the doughty Peter Stuyvesant. 

Few if any permanent settlements had been 
made in this period. Their influence upon New 
Jersey history consists not so much in pkce 
names as in the strong course of blood which 
has held sway for two and a half centuries in 
many an old settled family in Salem City, in 
Swedesboro, and in the Maurice River Valley. 
There the effect of Swedish life and character 
appears in the physical and mental constitu- 
tions of men and women to this day. Their po- 
litical surrender was most peaceful. They 
married, especially among English colonists. 
They shifted their religious interests to the 
Society of Friends or to Episcopalianism. Ey 
1800 the Swedish was a dead language upon 
the New Jersey shore of the Delaware. 

The Dutch, jealous like the Swedes of the 
other European powers who were getting a 
foothold upon the New World, tried their 
ships and men in the Seventeenth Century race 
for land and trade. Again, as fcr the Swedes, 
so for the Dutch, the interest in the occupancy 
of New Jersey was in comparatively small 
areas, with little effort to colonize whole sec- 
tions. However, when the English navigator, 
Henry Hudson, returned to Europe in 1607 
after sailing for a week in the Delaware Eay 
and River and landing upon Sandy Hook, (even 
before sailing up the "Great North River cf 
New Netherland," later to bear his name,) the 
excitement in Holland was unbounded, par- 
ticularly because of the quantities of fur-bear- 
ing animals reported. Eefore this, in 1458 
Sebastian Cabot had sailed along the shores of 
New Jersey, and may have been the first white 
man to view the land. Following this English 
explorer, in 152.4 Giovanni de Verrazano, an 
Italian navigator in the employ of the French 
government, anchored his vessel at Sandy 
Hook, according to his records, and spent three 
days on the high lands near the shore. 

In 1614 the Dutch established themselves 
under authority upon Manhattan, and in 16x3 
Captain Cornelius Jacobse Mey built Fort 
Nassau near Red Bank and named the north 
cape of Delaware Bay for himself, now Cape 



May. Their settlement of the Delaware River 
section was fragmentary and inefficient, save 
in driving out the Swedes. 

The Dutch settlement of the New Jersey 
shore of the Hudson River was more lasting. 
In the locality called Hoboken-Hackingh, "the 
place of the tobacco pipe," the Indians and fur 
traders met to trade gewgaws fcr peltries. In 
1643 attempts at agriculture centered around 
the farm house and brew house cf Aert Ten- 
nissen Van Putten, north cf Hoboken, but the 
forbidding river-front led to the later and more 
active growth of her neighbor, Jersey City. 
Fcr many years, a small colony in this latter 
section, then called Paulus Hook, thrived as a 
trading and farming community. The site of 
the little trading hut of Michall Paulusen, 
where he purchased furs from the Indians in 
1633, lies nearly 1000 feet to the west of the 
present ferry house, the river having been filled 
in to that extent. 

In 1660 the town of Eergen, now Jersey City 
Heights, was established. A fort was erected. 
Here there was established the first religious 
congregation in New Jersey under the Dutch 
Reformed Church. To the Hollander is due the 
credit for establishing the principle of pur- 
chasing the Indian title to land and for planting 
his church and his schools wherever he went. 
But by 1660, with the advent of the efficient 
English colonizers, the conquerors found New 
Jersey, through wise government, quite ready 
to change masters. 

For some years England had looked upon 
New Netherland with longing eyes. To have 
the settlements along the Atlantic Coast from 
northernmost Massachusetts to the most south- 
ern point of the Carolinas homogeneous and 
English seemed only proper. In 1664 the easy- 
going Charles II, who always looked upon any- 
thing desired as his own, issued a patent to his 
brother James, Duke of York, for all the lands 
between Cape Cod and the Hudson River as 
well as all the land between the Connecticut 
River and the east side of Delaware Eay. These 
grants took in much of what are now New 
England, New York, and New Jersey. Im- 
mediate preparations were made for a military 
invasion to subdue the Dutch. In August of 
that year a small English fleet anchored off 



HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 




PRINCETON BATTLEGROUND 



Coney Island, and without bloodshed the Eng- 
lish colors were soon raised over the fort at 
New Amsterdam, hereafter known as New 
York for the King's brother. In this conquest, 
New Jersey, until this time known only as a 
part of New Netherland, was formally recog- 
nized for the first time in colonial history as a 
dependency of the British Crown. 

Even while the squadron of conquest was on 
the high seas, James, Duke of York, made over 
to two loyal adherents John Berkeley, Earon 
cf Stratton, and Sir George Carteret all that 
portion of his acquisition bounded on the east 
by the main sea and the Hudson River and on 
the west by Delaware Bay and River to be 
called "New Caesarea or New Jersey," in 
honor of Sir George Carteret 's defense in 1649 
of his native Isle of Jersey in the English Chan- 
nel against the Cromwellian Parliamentarians. 

And so these two, "true and absolute Lords 
Proprietors of all the Province of New Caesarea 
or New Jersey," found themselves owners of a 
vast tract of land, its great river fronts sparsely 
settled by Dutch and Swedes and wandering 



bands of Indians, and with it the great prob- 
lem of colonization as yet unsolved. Early in 
the Seventeenth Century, Queen Elizabeth had 
granted Virginia to Sir Walter Raleigh, and 
New Jersey was included in this great tract. 
When Berkeley and Carteret came into pos- 
session of this land, the present State of New 
Jersey was in both Virginia and New York, 
but the claims of Virginia were withdrawn. 

Back in England were many men dissatisfied 
with king, church, and society, waiting for an 
invitation to "come on over." In April, 1665, 
Philip Carteret, a relative of Sir George, landed 
at a point in New Caesarea which he called 
Elizabethtown, in honor of the wife of Sir 
George Carteret, and called himself the first 
governor. Before him there came within the 
next two years the settlers already in New 
Jersey 33 from Bergen, 65 from Elizabeth- 
town, 13 from Woodbridge, 2.4 from Navesink, 
two from Middletown and likewise two from 
the Delaware and subscribed to the oath of 
allegiance to King and Lords Proprietors. 

Word had already reached New England of 



NEW JERSEY 




HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 



the plans for New Jersey, and the Congrega- 
tional churches sent a committee headed by 
Robert Treat down to Governor Carteret to ex- 
amine the advantages offered here. So in May, 
1666, the New Englanders "with their families, 
their beloved pastor, their church records and 
communion service, their deacons, and their 
household goods," arrived in Newark, thus 
marking the type of settler that should come 
to East Jersey. The East Jersey settlers were 
God-fearing Calvinists, Congregationalists, and 
Presbyterians. In Newark only members of the 
Congregational Church had any political rec- 
ognition. Land including Newark, Belleville, 
Bloomfield, and the Oranges was soon pur- 
chased from the Indians. To the first assembly, 
which met in Elizabethtown in May z6 to 30, 
1668, came burgesses from the settlements 
already named. 

Nearly 10 years after the first Governor, 
Philip Carteret, named Elizabethtown in East 
Jersey, the story of West Jersey began. On 
March 18, 1674, Jhn Fenwicke, Quaker, pur- 
chased from Lord Berkeley for himself and his 
Quaker friend, Edward Byllynge, Berkeley's 
half interest in the western part of "Jarsey," 
for a price a little less than $5000. Their object 
was the creation in America of a haven of 
religious and political freedom for the oppressed 
Society of Friends, and thus West Jersey, and 
not Pennsylvania, is the oldest Quaker colony 
in America. 

At the front of the movement stood William 
Penn, the most noted convert of the Society. 
His energy and enthusiasm were unlimited, and 
under his influence two land-purchasing and 
colonizing associations were formed in Eng- 
land, one composed of Friends in Yorkshire, 
the other of members of the Society in London. 
Penn became a proprietor. He settled land dis- 
putes between other proprietors. He drew the 
line of partition between the two Jerseys from 
Little Egg Harbor on trie Atlantic Coast, from 
the southern end of what is now Long Beach, 
to a point on the Delaware River. East of 
this line was East Jersey, the property of 
Carteret, and west of it was West Jersey, the 
property of Penn and his Quaker associates. 

To Penn is credited also the authorship of the 
"Concessions and Agreements of the Proprie- 



tors, Freeholders and Inhabitants of West New 
Jersey in America," a most democratic docu- 
ment giving to the future settlers all local gov- 
ernmental powers, trial by jury, and religious 
freedom, reserving for the proprietors merely 
the shadow of government. To the emigrants 
these dear liberties were promised as well as an 
abundance of land, and West Jersey offered rare 
advantages. The Delaware, open to the sea, 
suitable for trade by the largest ships, received 
many sluggish tributary streams, with banks 
that were loamy and fertile. Easily tilled plains, 
short winters, long summers, a supply of 
timber, as well as quantities of wild game, 
promised a less rigorous life than the East 
Jersey section around Elizabethtown. 

John Fenwicke, with his family, relatives, 
servants, and a company of settlers, arrived in 
Delaware Bay on the ship "Griffin" or "Grif- 
fith" in the month of June, 1675. Although for 
three years Fenwicke was heckled by Governor 
Andros of New York, covetous of West Jersey 
for the Duke of York, still other Quaker settlers 
came by shiploads, and their enthusiastic let- 
ters written back to England brought still 
more. Fenwicke 's colony settled Salem. 

In the autumn of 1677 the ship "Kent" with 
Z5o passengers entered the Delaware and pro- 
ceeded slowly north to the site of Burlington, 
where settlement was made. In 1677 and 1678 
new shipments arrived. 

Whereas East Jersey was disturbed more or 
less by conflicts with Governor Andros over in 
New York and by political and land disputes, 
the beginnings of West Jersey were marred by 
few disturbances. Burlington was made the 
capital, with courts there and at Salem. The 
Quaker settlers spread east as far as the pine 
barrens, a forest impenetrable even to the In- 
dians except for hunting. Checked on the east, 
from Salem they spread south to the Cohansey, 
settling Bridgeton and Greenwich. For just Z7 
years West Jersey existed as a separate colony. 
In spite of her peace-loving settlers there had 
been bickerings for the last 10 years of the peri- 
od, between the proprietors themselves, with 
the people, and with the Crown. Both Jerseys 
had been bullied by the English Governors 
of New York; and finally, worn out by the 
strife, the proprietors of both East and West 



NEW JERSEY 




QUEEN BUILDING, RUTGERS UNIVERSITY, AT NEW BRUNSWICK, ERECTED 



Jersey surrendered their rights of government 
to Queen Anne on April 17, 1702., and were 
united into one colony under a government 
appointed by the Crown. 

Governor Cornbury, appointed in 1702. by 
Queen Anne to rule for her the united colony of 
New Jersey, early showed himself unsympa- 
thetic with the rights of the people. The pop- 
ular sentiment against him lasted until he de- 
parted five years after his arrival. But the evil 
he did lived after him and paved the way for 
the growth of a definite spirit of resistance, 
first directed against the royal governors and 
then against the Crown itself. 

Governors came and went some good, some 
bad. There was always friction between the 
Governor and his council upon one side and the 
House of Assembly on the other, and only a 
portion of the people, because of property 
qualifications, was granted the franchise to 
choose their Assemblymen. The Governors al- 
ways surrounded themselves with representa- 
tives of the landed interests of West Jersey and 
the wealthy merchants of East Jersey. Usually 
a Church of England man was the chief exec- 



utive, unsympathetic toward the Calvinists of 
East Jersey, but usually supported by the So- 
ciety of Friends. Nor were the Governors at 
fault for all unhappy conditions. They had to 
bear the odium of enforcing the laws of the 
home government, which looked upon the 
transatlantic colonies usually as a source of 
revenue. The colony's roads were poor, its 
trade was hampered, and the loyalty of men of 
affairs became shaken until in 1775 it meant 
revolution. 

The first 75 years of the Eighteenth Century 
were years of growth and adjustment in the 
colony. Farming was the chief economic inter- 
est. Practically the whole population lived on 
farms, or if a man lived in a town, he owned a 
farm. The training of the women and girls as 
well as of the men was for farm life, and their 
work was not lightened by modern conven- 
iences. 

The typical farm in East Jersey was small, 
while that of West Jersey, because of level and 
uninterrupted acreage, was large. Owing to this 
condition, in West Jersey slaves were particu- 
larly useful and were widely held and employed 



HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 



in spite of the precepts of John Woolman Ship- 
building flourished up and down the Delaware. 
From Perth Amboy and Salem, yachts, schoon- 
ers, and larger craft entered and cleared for 
every seacoast town from Boston to Charleston. 
The whaling industry led to the settlement of 
Cape May, Atlantic, and Ocean counties. By 
the use of the Indian canoes up and down the 
rivers, and the use of the slaves' backs to carry 
the master through the wilderness, transpor- 
tation developed by 1775 into a network of 
rough roads connecting different sections of the 
colony. 

As the storm of the great revolt gathered 
throughout the colonies, we read the pathetic 
stcry of New Jersey's last Royal Governor, 
William Franklin, only son of Benjamin Frank- 
lin. Loyalty itself, he could not sanction the 
measures passed by the New Jersey Assembly, 
following in the steps of her neighbors. He 
could only warn his people that anarchy and 
confusion would destroy the blessings of their 
civil society. At last, those Assemblymen, who 



had been lavishly entertained at his model farm 
on the Rancocas, and at Perth Amboy, and to 
whom he had endeared himself in many ways, 
arrested him and as "delicately as may be" 
transported him to the care of the Governor 
of Connecticut, a Whig. 

In the autumn of 1771, New Jersey caught 
the spirit of Massachusetts in the inauguration 
of township and county committees of corre- 
spondence. At first these committees were only 
centers of political organization of each local- 
ity, but gradually they assumed greater power, 
until by 1776 they were the means of authority 
for preparing for the momentous struggle. They 
established markets, encouraged the home in- 
dustry of spinning and weaving, regulated 
prices, and arranged to forward powder, salt- 
peter, and other supplies to the army. Down in 
Greenwich on the Cohansey, a shipload of tea 
was burned in 1774 nearly as dramatically as at 
the Boston Tea Party. These were spurts of 
popular feeling, amid the considerable Tory 
sentiment which was to be found in New Jersey . 




COOPER HOME, AT CAMDEN 

Stone section built, 1634. Section in rear built of imported English brick in 1707. Cooper family settled northern 
Camden. Kaighn family settled southern Camden. 



NEW JERSEY 




MONUMENT TO THE DESPATCH RIDER THE "PAUL REVERE" OF NEW JERSEY 
Old burying ground of First Presbyterian Church, at Main Street and Scotland Road, Orange 



HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 



The years of the Revolution brought more 
passings of both armies across the State and 
more battles fought than in any other of the 
thirteen colonies. Nearly 100 battles, large and 
small, were staged on New Jersey soil. Through 
the earlier years of the Revolution, New Jersey 
bore the brunt of the gigantic struggle for the 
control of the valleys of the Hudson and the 
Delaware. On June 2.3, 1775, General George 
Washington, who was destined to spend much 
of his military life here, paid his first official 
visit to the colony on his way from Philadel- 
phia to Boston. When near Trenton he was met 
by a carrier with the news of the battle of 
Bunker Hill. 

That loyalist regiments should be formed in 
New Jersey was to be expected. Their religious 
scruples as well as their economic prosperity 
under existing conditions meant that the Quak- 
ers would disapprove of any war. Wealthy 
merchants and many of the socially prominent 
in Trenton and Newark, as well as Burlington 
and Perth Amboy, Episcopalians, leading law- 
yers of the State, members of the Governor's 
Council, Hollanders in the Hackensack and 
Passaic valleys, were loyal to England. The 
official loyalist regiments operated largely in 
guerrilla warfare from Staten Island and New 
York and up the easily accessible river valleys, 
like the Passaic, Hackensack, and Raritan. 
The "Pine Robbers," a disjointed band of land 
pirates, were associated with the loyalists, 
although the loyalists often shuddered at the 
horrible deeds plotted in the recesses of the 
"Pines" by these "robbers." 

When Lord Howe took possession of New 
York City later in 1775, Washington wrote 
General Lee that in his opinion Howe had "de- 
signs upon the Jerseys." And so it proved. 
Crossing to New Jersey the American troops 
were soon scattered from Fort Lee, and Wash- 
ington's retreat across New Jersey began, lest 
he be cut off by the English possibly at the 
Raritan. The two armies, one ragged and dis- 
ordered, the other disciplined and triumphant, 
crossed the State so closely that they could hear 
one another's music, but without an engage- 
ment. 

Through Newark, New Brunswick, Prince- 
ton, and Trenton, leaving English and Hessians 



in comfortable quarters all along the way, 
Washington and his troops moved across to 
the bluffs above Philadelphia. From this point, 
a few weeks later, on Christmas night, Wash- 
ington and his troops made the memorable 
crossing of the Delaware and surprised the 
English at Trenton, defeating them without 
the loss of a man in the Colonial army. This 
was followed by another victory at Princeton, 
where the loss of American officers was large 
and most unfortunate. These two battles, in 
their influence upon popular sentiment, quite 
saved the day. They blotted out all the taunts 
and fears the poor little army had aroused in 
its "retreat" a month earlier. 

Then followed Washington's winter in Mor- 
ristown with his army. Poorly nourished, 
poorly clothed, and with a thousand down 
with smallpox, the army was hardly refreshed 
by spring, when Lord Howe crept around to 
Philadelphia by sea and seized the city, to 
Washington's real surprise. The summer of 
1777 meant little advance for Washington's 
plans and was followed by the horrors of the 
winter at Valley Forge. 

Early in the spring of 1778, the British 
started their evacuation of Philadelphia. Wash- 
ington and his army followed them and their 
li-mile baggage train across New Jersey on 
their way to New York, until the famous en- 
gagement at Monmouth took place on June 
2.8th. The Americans were victorious, and 
Washington wrote that after two years' ma- 
neuvering, "both armies are back to the very 
point they started from, and that which was 
the offending party in the beginning is now 
reduced to the use of spade and pickaxe for 
defense." Then came a winter with Wash- 
ington at Somerville, and a second winter at 
Morristown, and in between were many diffi- 
cult problems, smaller engagements and con- 
siderable trouble with the Indians in the 
summer of 1778. However, with the battle of 
Monmouth ended the extensive operations for 
the control of New England and the Middle 
States. Henceforth it was the southern Com- 
monwealths which were to feel the brunt of 
the war. 

In June, 1783, the Continental Congress ad- 
journed from Philadelphia to Princeton. There 



IO 



NEW JERSEY 



it prepared the Berrien house for General 
Washington at Rocky Hill, of which he took 
possession on August 2_4th. Two days later he 
rode the five miles to Princeton, where he was 
welcomed with dignity by Congress in Nassau 
Hall of the College of New Jersey. In the chapel 
of the college, the first authentic account of 
the conclusion of the definitive treaty between 
Great Britain and the United States was re- 
ceived. From the Rocky Hill headquarters on 
Sunday, November i., 1783, Washington de- 



federation, created in times of stress, failed to 
hold the separate colonies in time of peace. 
All jealous of one another, the smaller states 
were bullied by the larger ones. The Articles 
had neither power to levy taxes nor to regulate 
trade, and New Jersey refused to pay her quota 
of $136,000. Some call this act the deathblow 
to the Confederation. Accordingly, when steps 
were taken for the colonies to consult together 
in order to strengthen the Federal Govern- 
ment, New Jersey was aggressively active. 




PRINCETON BATTLE MONUMENT 
One of America's most impressive memorials 



livered his farewell address to the armies. His 
baggage was ordered to Mount Vernon, and 
General Washington departed for West Point, 
leaving New Jersey, where he had spent two 
and a half years of the eight years of the 
Revolution. 

For several years New Jersey worked desper- 
ately to secure the National Capital, but to no 
avail. In 1799 Congress convened in Trenton 
temporarily, only because there was yellow 
fever in Philadelphia. 
- At the end of the war the Articles of Con- 



At a national convention, held in Phila- 
delphia in 1787, New Jersey and Delaware were 
opposed to the limitation which proportional 
representation would give them, the smaller 
states. Thus it was that William Paterson, one 
of New Jersey's illustrious delegates, laid be- 
fore the other delegates the "New Jersey Plan," 
which though finally defeated, furnished in 
compromise some of the most important ele- 
ments in the Constitution. When the Consti- 
tution was completed in September and sub- 
mitted to the several States for ratification, it 



HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 




CHURCH AT SPRINGFIELD WHERE THE "FIGHTING PARSON" TORE UP THE BIBLES AND HYMN BOOKS 
AND USED THE PAGES FOR WADDING OF THE GUNS OF THE AMERICAN ARMY DURING THE BATTLE 

OF JUNE 13, 1780 



12 



NEW JERSEY 




MONUMENT AT GREENWICH TO THE PATRIOTS 

OF CUMBERLAND COUNTY WHO BURNED THE TEA 

DECEMBER 2.2., 1774 

was entirely acceptable to the people of New 
Jersey. In 1776 New Jersey had worked out 
and adopted a Constitution which was a pow- 
erful factor in developing a feeling of loyalty 
in the State. 

On April 6, 1789, the choice of the people 
fell upon George Washington as the first Presi- 
dent of the United States, and he was called to 
meet Congress in New York City. His route 
from Mount Vernon to the metropolis was 
that of a conqueror, and in New Jersey the en- 
thusiasm of the people was high. 

With the inauguration of the National Gov- 
ernment, New Jersey stood stanchly Federalist, 
but by the turn of the century, considerable 
republicanism with the dissemination of the 
French Revolution's fraternity, liberty, equal- 
ity, and the spread of Methodism through the 
State, had seeped into certain sections. When 
in 1812. the clouds of war with England again 
arose, New Jersey, lying between Philadelphia 
and New York, two great prizes for the British 
fleet, was opposed to war. Of course the Friends 
were peace lovers for ethical reasons, but 
another wing of the peace party was made up 
of New Jersey's growing body of manufactur- 
ers, common carriers, and merchants, to whom 
war meant disaster. However, to the call of 



Congress for the raising of state militia, New 
Jersey's response was hearty and prompt, and 
during the three years' war the State fur- 
nished 400 officers and over 5,000 non- 
commissioned officers and privates. 

Former Governor Bloomfield was prominent 
as Brigadier General in the United States Army. 
In the navy, William Bainbridge, a native of 
Princeton, who commanded the "Constitu- 
tion" when it took the British ship "Java," 
and the famous James Lawrence, born at Bur- 
lington, by their courage and accomplish- 
ments, possibly made up for any seeming lack 
of loyalty in the State. Lawrence, as he was 
carried below on the defeated "Chesapeake," 
gave the navy its motto in his dying cry of 
"Don't give up the ship." 

New Jersey's problems in the war were the 
protection of Philadelphia and New York and 
her own coast. Blockhouses built on Sandy 
Hook and the Navesink Highlands were of aid 
to New York. No engagements took place on 
New Jersey soil, but there were several in her 
rivers and bays. Although her record during 
the war was that of efficiency and responsibil- 
ity, the treaty of peace brought real relief to 
this State of many navigable waters, many 
ships, and much trade. 

One result for New Jersey of the War of 




WHERE THE TEA WAS FOUND STORED AT 
GREENWICH 



HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 



1812. was the realization of the need of good 
roads and rapid transit across the State, par- 
ticularly across "the waist" the section be- 
tween the head of the tidewater of the Raritan 
and that of the Delaware, from New Bruns- 
wick to Trenton. A national charter was 
granted in the United States Congress for the 
building of a railroad over this space. The plan 
never materialized, but the circumstance is 
interesting as it was the first railroad charter 
to be granted in the United States. 

New Jersey had benefited by the war in that 
not less than $z,ooo,ooo had been circulated in 
the State as payment for transportation of 
goods, while investors were attracted by the 
abundance of water power and mill sites. The 
tariff of 1816 was also an encouraging turn for 
the State. But just as the State's industrial 
skies were brightening, England's large army 
was returning after long years of European 
war. This meant well-filled weeks of labor, 
low wages, and cheap production of manu- 
factured goods in England. English capitalists 



hastened to send shiploads of surplus goods 
to America, and New York City was filled with 
auction rooms, to which buyers from New 
Jersey and the surrounding country flocked 
to purchase what they neither wanted nor 
needed. American manufacturers, seeing ruin 
ahead, petitioned Congress and State Legisla- 
tures, but in 1817 the panic came, and the 
suffering among the poor in New Jersey towns 
was great. The situation was an evidence that 
this State, like others, was changing from a 
farming commonwealth to an industrial one. 
And it was with dread and apprehension that 
the passing generation watched the mills and 
factories rise. 

When Thomas Jefferson became President, 
the majority sentiment of New Jersey was 
Republican, and was proud to have a native 
son, Aaron Burr, in the Vice-President's chair, 
though this did not lessen the shock caused by 
the famous duel at Weehawken between Burr 
and Hamilton. The State mourned Hamilton as 
a friend of Washington and Governor Livings- 




FRTENDS BURIAL GROUND AT SALEM, ESTABLISHED 1676 

This oak tree, a survivor of the original forest, was standing here when John Fenwick founded Salem in 1675. 
is 88 feet high and its foliage covers K" acie. 



NEW JERSEY 




HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 



ton and as an active supporter of New Jersey's 
manufacturing development. For 10 years New 
Jersey's annually elected governors, Joseph 
Bloomfield, William S. Pennington, and Isaac 
H. Williamson, were Republicans, with only 
one Federalist governor, Aaron Ogden, in 1811. 

The years between 1800 and 18x8 in New 
Jersey are called the "Turnpike Era." With the 
produce from the large farms of the State, the 
livestock and mines in the northern interior, 
and the products of the hundreds of mill sites 
of the State, markets had to be reached, and 
New York and Philadelphia had to be con- 
nected as well as the smaller communities. 
Good roads were necessary. During this time 
54 original charters were secured for turnpike 
companies in New Jersey, and about 550 miles 
of gravel and dirt were laid. 

Taverns were numerous, though their com- 
forts and those of the stage coaches were 
meager. In the spring even the pikes were hub- 
deep in mud. But the resulting contacts and 
associations were beyond estimation. By 1834 
the Delaware and Raritan Canal was completed 
between Trenton and New Brunswick, and 
shortly afterwards the Morris Canal farther 
north. Early in September, 1833, the State's 
first railway, the Camden and Amboy, was put 
into operation after years of struggle with 
stage-coach interests. Within a very few years 
several other railroads were chartered and 
built. By this time the steamboat, too, had be- 
come an established fact. 

When Andrew Jackson became President in 
1 8x8, New Jersey was firmly supporting him. 
Among her Jacksonian Democratic governors 
the name of Peter D. Vroom stands out. Until 
the panic of 1837 the New Jersey delegation to 
the House of Representatives was solidly Dem- 
ocratic. These years are often called the "era of 
social unrest." Reform was in the air and ex- 
pressed by public meetings, lyceums, news- 
papers, legislatures, and thousands of pam- 
phlets and monographs. Prison reform led to the 
abandonment of the old prison at Trenton and 
the erection of a better structure. Child labor 
was limited by the Legislature in 1851. An or- 
phan asylum was incorporated at Mount Lucas 
near Princeton in 1845. The first insane asylum 
was opened in 1848 near Trenton. 



Temperance societies flourished, particularly 
in West Jersey. Twenty years of prosperity fol- 
lowed the panic of 1817 and were marked by 
considerable economic development in the 
State. The factories were not large, but were 
growing and multiplying. Villages and towns 
were taking minor city ways upon themselves. 
The first flood of immigration had come. The 
immigrants coming to New Jersey were few, 
chiefly English, Scotch, and Irish, with a few 
Germans, all of whom were easily assimilated. 
The silkworm craze developed and burst in 
South Jersey. 

With a feeling of false security, because of 
vast sums from the sale of public lands and the 
National Government's surplus revenue "loan" 
to "pet" banks in the State, bank notes were 
recklessly issued. The crisis came with the 
movement of hard money from the Eastern 
cities toward the West in payment for western 
lands. The returning paper brought the panic 
of 1837. New Jersey suffered with the other 
States, and knew well the tales of starvation 
on the streets of Philadelphia and New York. 
Not until 1844 was a normal economic condi- 
tion established, and then we find that the glass 
industry in the southern portion of the State 
had survived the shock in many factories. 

In North Jersey were numerous iron forges 
and factories. The cotton industry was espe- 
cially strong in northeast Jersey and woolen in 
the south. Paper mills, potteries, and hat and 
clothing factories were scattered throughout 
the State. Shipbuilding towns thrived on the 
rivers. Henceforth New Jersey was to take her 
place among the great manufacturing States of 
the Union. The most potent expression of the 
reform spirit of the first half of the Nineteenth 
Century in New Jersey was the adoption of a 
new State Constitution in 1844, replacing that 
of 1776. 

When the Mexican trouble arose in the 40*5, 
New Jersey was heartily in favor of the war 
and was generous in raising the companies 
called for by President Polk. To the two brave 
Jerseymen, General Stephen Watts Kearny and 
Commander Robert Field Stockton, belong the 
honor of having seized San Diego and Los 
Angeles in 1847, thus annexing the Pacific 
slope. 



i6 



NEW JERSEY 



From 1819 to 1837 the Democratic party tri- 
umphed. With the panic of 1837, this party was 
driven from power, and William Pennington, 
Whig, was governor until 1843. However, the 
Democrats were coming into power here and 
there in the State, until in 1850 the entire 
political machinery of the State was thrown 
into the hands of the Democratic party. By 
1854 the old Whig party had died, and a new 
one had been born out in the new State of Wis- 
consin and had swept east under an old name, 



Eighteenth Century we find considerable agi- 
tation against the institution itself. This had 
started among the Society of Friends much 
earlier. By 1860, slavery being illegal in the 
North, the census showed 64 slaves in the 
North and 18 of them in New Jersey, while in 
the South there were 4,000,000 negro slaves to 
3,000,000 free whites. 

After the passage of the national "Fugitive 
Slave Law" in September, 1850, New Jersey 
assumed an important part in the development 




BATTLEGROUND AT MONMOUTH COURT HOUSE, FREEHOLD, JUNE 18, 1778 



Republican. In 1857 Dr. William A. Newell be- 
came the first Republican governor of the State. 
From the first settlement of New Jersey, 
negro slavery had been taken for granted as an 
economic matter. The moral question was not 
considered at first. In 1737 there were 4000 
slaves in the province, eight and four-tenths 
per cent of the total population. In 1790 there 
were 11,000 slaves in New Jersey, a larger slave 
population than in any other State north of the 
Mason and Dixon Line except New York. A 
great deal of legislation was enacted concern- 
ing slavery, and during the last quarter of the 



of the ' 'underground railroad" for aiding escap- 
ing slaves on their way to Canada. Into West 
Jersey particularly did the escaping negro come 
from the South, especially from Maryland and 
northern Virginia. It is claimed that there were 
as many as 12. definite routes across the State, 
and practically all began in the farmhouses of 
the West Jersey Quakers. 

When the important year of 1860 arrived, 
along with the confused state of thought in 
the country, New Jersey's electoral votes were 
divided for the first time, giving four for Lin- 
coln and Hamlin and three for Douglas and 



HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 



Johnson. When Lincoln's call for troops came 
in April, 1861, giving New Jersey's quota as 
3,000, there were 10,000 volunteers. Her loy- 
alty was firm in spite of her closeness to Mary- 
land and the South, and notwithstanding her 
support of a Democratic governor, Joel B. 
Parker, throughout the Civil War. During the 
four years' struggle the State furnished 79,348 
men for periods from 100 days to four years and 
gave of money to the amount of $13,000,000. 

With the end of the war came an intense 
industrial activity in the State. Between 1866 
and the fateful "Black Friday" of 1873, New 
Jersey was almost revolutionized. Cities grew; 
population poured in from New York and 
Philadelphia; the great captains of industry 
forged to the front, and men strove not for the 
ideals of the period of unrest in Jackson's time, 
but for the material ideals that come with 
sudden wealth. 

Money being plentiful, it was a time of spec- 
ulation. Many schemes were floated, good and 
bad. Eleven companies were formed for work- 
ing marl pits in the State and 31 for developing 
cranberry growing. Railroads closely con- 
nected the towns of the State. The commuters 
and land-promotion companies arrived. Cities 
built block pavement out into districts that 
would not need them for 50 years. The over- 
speculation in Western lands was reflected in 
New Jersey. Mortgages fell due as did taxes. 
In September, 1873, the crash came, and in this 
State, railroads, manufactures, and scores of 
industries were alike crippled. But by 1876 
most had emerged from bankruptcy to see the 
world in a new light in the Centennial Expo- 
sition in Philadelphia. 

When in 1898 President McKinley called for 
volunteers for conducting war against the 
Kingdom of Spain, New Jersey's quota was 
filled very rapidly. Part of her volunteers were 
assigned to the monitor "Montauk," which 
remained at Portland; Maine, during the war. 
Others were assigned to the "Resolute" and 
the "Badger" and were in active service in the 
fleet off Santiago. 

The close of the Nineteenth Century found 
New Jersey an important State in many ways. 
Eighty per cent of her population was urban, 
living in large cities or in daily contact with 




MONUMENT AT CHESTNUT NECK ON THE ROAD 

FROM TOMS RIVER TO ABSECON 
Commemorates battle fought here October 6, 1778 



i8 



NEW JERSEY 




R 




TRENTON MONUMENT 
Commemorates battle fought on the site December 2.6, 1776 



HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 



Philadelphia and New York. Her farms were 
still prospering, and her market-garden sup- 
plies for the large cities within and just out- 
side her boundaries gave her then the name of 
the "Garden State." The two great factors 
which had brought about the change from a 
rural to an urban State in a hundred years were 
the development of manufactures and the 
growth of systems of transportation. The many 
silk mills in and around Paterson, brick and 
terra-cotta works around Perth Amboy, pot- 
teries at Trenton, jewelry manufacturing in 
Newark, woolen manufactures in Passaic, as 
well as the many plants throughout the terri- 
tory devoted to leather, rubber, chemicals, 
iron and steel, shoes, hats, and glass, were only 
a few of the varied industries in the State in 
1900. And they have only multiplied during 
the last 15 years. 

The chief issues in State politics since the 
beginning of the century have been connected 
with taxation, the tariff, and the control of 
corporations. With the political interests of 
the State wavering from Democratic to Repub- 
lican and back again, ever since the Civil War, 
the governorship of Woodrow Wilson, Dem- 





SITE OF HAMILTON-BURR DUEL AT WEEHAWKEN 



NEW JERSEY LIBERTY BELL IN THE TOWER OF THE 
OLD COURT HOUSE AT COHANSEY BRIDGE (NOW 

BRIDGETON), ERECTED, i 75 z 

Rang out the news of the Declaration of Independence, 
July 4, 1776. Transferred to Fireman's Hall when the Court 
House was razed in 1846. Thereafter used as a fire alarm 
bell until 1854, when it was placed in the cupola of the 
West Jersey Academy. Still well preserved and now located 
on the Bridgeton High School. 



ocrat and former President of Princeton Uni- 
versity, was of interest to the whole country. 
And this interest was intensified when he be- 
came the first President of the United States 
from New Jersey. 

In the World War, New Jersey acquitted her- 
self well. With her full quota of men overseas 
and in training camps, her industrial centers 
were beehives of activity, manufacturing war 
supplies as well as the necessities of life at 
home. Since the war much of the machinery for 
war equipment has been scrapped, but the 
factories and farms over the State are quite as 
busy in peace productions. The so-called 
metropolitan areas of the State near New 
York and Philadelphia are growing yearly. 
New Jersey stands thus at the center of the 
industrial belt of the United States where the 
currents of the day are swiftest. 



2.O 



NEW JERSEY 



HISTORIC SHRINES AND INTERESTING PLACES 



STORIES inspiring to Americans the nation 
over are immortalized in the historic 
shrines of New Jersey. How George 
Washington turned a long and disheartening 
retreat into a glorious victory at Trenton; the 
crisis that was successfully met at Monmouth; 
the deeds of intrepid souls who, risking the 
fate of traitors in a rebellion, carried on 
the civil affairs of a nation in the making; 
the trials and hardships of the Continental 
Army in Morristown; and the happy moments 
spent by the Commander-in-Chief at Rocky 
Hill such scenes are recalled with a new sense 
of vividness when one treads the very ground 
on which they were enacted. Before the re- 
vered memorials and remains we pause a mo- 
ment, read their meaning, and see in them 
and through them the birth and development 
of those American ideas, ideals, and institu- 
tions that we treasure. 

The preliminary events of that memorable 
December 2.6, 1776, can be visualized at the 
Washington Crossing Park, nine miles above 
Trenton on the river road. Visit it in the 
summertime if you will and enjoy the natural 
beauty of the countryside and the refreshing 
breeze from the river valley, but if you would 
catch a glimpse of the loyalty, courage, and 
endurance of the men who made that spot 
famous, visit it on a cold and stormy winter 
morning, when the wind is from the north- 
east and beats sharp sleet in your face. Take 
refuge in the cozy little McKonkey House, the 
same that offered shelter to George Wash- 
ington about 150 years ago. Here you may 
wander from room to room and enjoy the sur- 
roundings of a middle-class Colonial dwelling 
of Revolutionary times. The low-beamed ceil- 
ings, the huge fireplace, the old wooded lock 
and hinges on the doors of the kitchen cup- 
board all have been reverently preserved. 

Now face the cold again, follow the general 
direction of the line of march and proceed 
almost due east for about a mile in the direc- 
tion of Pennington until you come to the first 
crossroads. On the northeast corner is Bear 



Tavern, little changed since serving as the first 
objective of the American Army after it 
crossed the river. Here it was, in all prob- 
ability, that the Continental forces divided, 
General Sullivan and his group turning directly 
south, and General Green's division taking a 
more easterly route; the one entering Trenton 
by what is now Hanover Street, the other by 
the present Pennington Avenue. The story of 
the surprised and alarmed Hessian troops, the 
clash that ensued, and the victory that gave 
new hope to the cause of liberty is familiar to 
every schoolboy. 

In Trenton there are many reminders of that 
fateful morning; of actual remains, however, 
there are but few. The Old Barracks located at 
the corner of South Willow and Front Streets 
pre-dates Revolutionary days, but is closely 
associated with them. The original sections 
were erected in 1758 by petition of the people 
to house the King's troops. The French and 
Indian War was in progress, and the populace 
lived in constant dread of attacks by the 
Indians. In that year, therefore, barracks were 
built in various parts of the State in order that 
troops might be distributed throughout the 
territory and yet not be quartered in the homes 
of the colonists. Today the remains at Trenton 
are all that are extant. For two weeks prior to 
the battle of Trenton a party of English dra- 
goons and some German yagers occupied the 
building, together with a large number of 
Tory refugees who had placed themselves under 
the protection of the English Army. A week 
after the battle the building was filled with 
American militia. A visit to the Old Barracks 
is well worth the while. Different rooms have 
been furnished with rare collections of Colonial 
furniture by various historical societies, while 
a section of the former officers' quarters has 
been converted into a museum of relics and 
data of the Revolutionary period. 

In addition to the Old Barracks, the Douglass 
House, now located at Stacy Park, is well 
worthy of the title of a historic shrine. A 
famous conference between General Wash- 



HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 



'LI 




2.2. 



NEW JERSEY 



ington and his staff was held here on the night 
of January z, 1777. The American forces, it 
will be remembered, were at that moment 
facing a crisis. They were encamped south of 
the Assunpink Creek; the second battle of 
Trenton had taken place; a superior British 
force faced them, and the impassable Delaware 
at their rear made escape to Pennsylvania im- 
possible. Defeat that would have brought to 
naught the glorious achievements of the 
previous fortnight was imminent. Within the 
walls of this quaint old house, however, the 
perplexing problem was solved. It is said 
that while the council was engaged in its 
deliberations, a lady, possibly the wife of 
Captain Douglass, passed through the room, 
observing as she went, "Gentlemen, that 
which you are talking about will suc- 
ceed." It did. The morning sun found the 
American Army in Princeton and the day 
witnessed a new victory for the cause of 
liberty. 

A pilgrimage to the Princeton battle-field 
site will be found full of interest. Golf links, 
the Graduate College of Princeton University, 
an immaculately kept country estate, and 
thrifty looking farmland now cover the terri- 
tory. Despite this modern outlook, however, 
with a little persistence old landmarks can be 
found. After entering Princeton Township on 
the main highway from Trenton, watch for 
the bridge over Stony Brook. Turn sharp to 
the right after crossing it and follow the old 
Quaker Road along the brook for about a half 
mile. This will bring you close to a little 
Quaker meeting house, approachable only 
through a narrow country lane. This building 
housed the British Light Dragoons during 
December, 1776, and was in the thick of the 
struggle that opened the battle of Princeton. 
Follow the lane a few rods farther and you 
will come to the house in which General 
Mercer died. Just in front of it is a monument 
marking the spot where he was mortally 
wounded. Various markers point out the 
movements of the contending armies. On the 
Pyne estate near Mercer Street close by is the 
memorial to the British and American soldiers. 
Here the visitor will pause a moment in silent 
appreciation of the beauty of the spot and of 



the sentiments there inscribed in the verse 
composed by Alfred Noyes: 

Here Freedom stood, by slaughtered friend and foe, 
And, ere the wrath paled or the sunset died, 

Looked through the ages; then, with eyes aglow, 
Laid them to wait that future side by side. 

Military operations frequently obscure the 
less spectacular but equally significant civil 
affairs, and admiration for national heroes too 
often dims the contributions of others less 
exalted but no less heroic. At various times 
during 1777 the first Assembly of the State of 
New Jersey, driven from Trenton and Princeton 
by the movements of the armies, held sessions 
in Haddonfield in the Indian King Tavern. The 
famous hostelry is on the old King's Highway 
in the center of this historic town. By an act 
of the Assembly therein enacted on March 15, 
1777, the Council of Safety of New Jersey was 
created a body of judicial, executive, and 
military authority of extraordinary scope. 
Under the wise leadership of William Living- 
stone it guided the affairs of the State wisely 
and well when the destiny of a nation hung in 
the balance and when all eyes were turned on 
New Jersey soil to witness the outcome. 

In September of the same year the Legis- 
lature there unanimously resolved that there- 
after the word "state" should be substituted 
for "colony" in all public writs and com- 
missions. Recognizing the interest and im- 
portance of the events that happened within 
the wafls of the old tavern the State Legis- 
lature in 1902. created a commission to purchase 
and care for the building. It is now open to 
the public, and there one may go and do 
reverence to the men who, if the armies had 
been less successful, could hardly have escaped 
the hangman's noose. 

In a final analysis the fate of all the colonists 
hung upon military defeat or victory. It is 
little wonder, therefore, that the nation does 
particular honor to the man who guided the 
fighting forces, and sets apart the very ground 
on which he trod as a memorial to his genius, 
loyalty, and determination. On the Green 
Brook road from Dunellen to North Plainfield 
hundreds of automobilists pass daily. How few 
notice the American flag floating proudly from 



HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 




2-4 



NEW JERSEY 



the hilltop to the north as the southern ex- 
tremity of North Plainfield is reached! It 
marks Washington Rock, now a State park, 
and a spot of unusual beauty. As the rugged 
slope is mounted an uncommon panorama is 
spread out before the spectator. From the sky- 
line of New York City on the left the eye may 
wander for an expanse of 60 miles to the 
heights of Princeton and Trenton on the right. 
Here it was in the summer of 1777, when the 
American Army was stationed at various 
points on the plain below, that Washington 
resorted to witness the operations of the con- 
tending forces. According to no less an au- 
thority than John Fiske, the campaign in 
progress at that time has attracted far less 
attention than it deserves and in point of 
military skill was perhaps as remarkable as 
anything that Washington ever accomplished. 
A visit to this historic shrine will well repay 
the effort. If encouragement is needed, the 
State lodge at the summit may be mentioned 
where one may refresh oneself while reviewing 
this neglected bit of American history and 
enjoying the simplicity of the furnishings 
which are typical of the simple life of the 
Colonial farmer. 

In point of advantage, operations on the 
military chessboard frequently shift from one 
extreme to the other with bewildering rapidity. 
The traveler has seen the remains of the winter 
of 1776-1777, reminders of the fortitude and 
courage of the men whose efforts at that time 
regained for the American cause the morale 
and prestige that had sunk to such a low ebb 
during the retreat through New Jersey. Wash- 
ington Rock has been visited, suggestive of a 
period of military strategy no less important. 
However, fate had decreed another dark and 
anxious period for the patriots. Philadelphia 
was captured by the superior naval forces of 
the British, September 16, 1777, and the horrors 
of the never-to-be-forgotten winter at Valley 
Forge followed. Then the tables turned a bit. 
The French alliance made necessary the evacua- 
tion of Philadelphia by the enemy. Washington, 
quick to take advantage of every opportunity, 
reversed the condition of 1776, and pursued the 
British across the State. The climax of this 
campaign was the battle of Monmouth. Thence 



the traveler will wish to go to see such re- 
mains of that famous encounter as still exist. 
In those days it was called Monmouth Court 
House. 

Freehold, Monmouth County, is the ob- 
jective. Two blocks to the rear of the court 
house and standing 94 feet high is the battle 
monument: "Commemorating the success of 
the American Army on the 2.8th of June, 1778." 
Particular attention is directed to this monu- 
ment because of the five bronze reliefs at its 
base which so graphically set forth the out- 
standing events of that conflict. The council of 
war at Hopewell is shown with Washington 
listening to Lafayette, who is urging an im- 
mediate attack, other generals being grouped 
around the conference table intent upon the 
argument. Washington is seen rallying the 
troops after Lee's ignoble retreat. "Molly 
Pitcher" is shown in the act of swabbing a gun, 
her wounded husband at her feet and the old 
Tennent Church in the background, while 
Ramsey defending his guns and Wayne's charge 
are depicted in the other two reliefs in minute 
detail. 

With these illustrations lending a sense of 
reality to the historic remains that have been 
preserved, the traveler is prepared to visit the 
battlefield. Proceeding up Court Street, a left- 
hand turn will lead into the main highway to 
Englishtown. Keep a sharp lookout on the left 
along the railroad track and you will see a 
marker, "Molly Pitcher's Well," with the 
form of a closed well beside it. Differences of 
opinion exist as to whether this heroic woman 
obtained water from a well, a spring, or a 
brook, and some misunderstandings have 
arisen over the name. Certain it is, however, 
that a woman whose identity has been estab- 
lished beyond a reasonable doubt brought re- 
lief to the thirsty soldiers during the heat of 
the conflict, and after her husband was inca- 
pacitated by a wound, manned the gun that he 
was operating and kept that piece in action 
until darkness brought an end to the conflict. 

A few rods beyond, on the opposite side of 
the road, the spot is marked where Washington 
met Lee and uttered the famous few but heated 
words, and where the panic-stricken troops 
were rallied and returned to the attack. As 



HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 




BARNEGAT LIGHTHOUSE ^ 
Now a State Museum. One of America's most famous lighthouses. Built, 



2.6 



NEW JERSEY 



Englishtown is approached the Old Tennent 
Church may be seen at the right and some dis- 
tance from the road. You will feel the serene 
dignity of this old edifice as you stand beside it 
there on the hilltop overlooking the battle- 
field. You will think of the many sermons 
therein preached in the cause of loyalty and 
liberty, and you will recall how the peaceful 
quietude of a Sunday morning was suddenly 
interrupted by the sound of cannon and the 
pews deserted for the more imminent duty of 
caring for the wounded brought in from the 
heat of battle. 

The fact that the reader has arrived at this 
point in a survey of the historic shrines of the 
State is fair indication that he will not become 
discouraged at the mere mention of the Wash- 
ington Headquarters of New Jersey. Three old 
homesteads in particular each sacred with 
peculiar historical associations, furnished with 
interesting and valuable relics and documents, 
and open to all who are interested will well 
repay a prolonged inspection. A few months 
after the Battle of Monmouth, General Wash- 
ington established his headquarters at the 
Wallace house in Somerville. This was in the 
winter of 1778-1779. It is in the west end of 
the town near the spot where the Raritan road 
crosses the tracks of the Central Railroad. One 
of the most interesting and significant events 
associated with his stay in Somerville had to 
do with the planning of the "Indian Cam- 
paign of 1779" which broke the power of the 
Six Nations along the New York and Penn- 
sylvania frontier. 

In point of time, the mansion of Col. Jacob 
Ford, Jr., in Morristown the most famous 
Washington Headquarters in the State, if not 
the entire nation should be mentioned next. 
It is situated on the road to Whippany, about 
a mile eastward of the village green, and was 
occupied by the General and his staff during 
their second winter in Morristown. For a 
period of sheer distress the winter of 1779-1780 
associated with this old homestead can be sur- 
passed only by the pitiable conditions faced at 
Valley Forge. Finally the Berrien Mansion at 
Rocky Hill will be included in the itinerary of 
the traveler. When Washington took up his 
residence here the war was practically over. 



Naturally enough, therefore, the place is re- 
plete with associations of many festive oc- 
casions. During his leisure moments at Rocky 
Hill the General wrote his farewell address to 
the army, a document characteristic in its 
simplicity and sincerity of the noble personage 
who served so well and suffered so much. 

Put away, now, all thoughts of battlefields, 
the clash of arms, and political strife. Seek out 
a little house in Camden located at 330 Mickle 
Street, enter its hospitable doors, for all who 
come are welcome, and do reverence to the 
"good grey poet," Walt Whitman. Here he 
lived from 1873 to 1892.; here he worked, and 
here he died. His grave is in Harleigh Cemetery. 
Here you will catch the spirit of appreci- 
ating the beauty in the commonplace, the 
good in all things, and the wholesomeness of 
American life, the very foundations of which 
you have traced in the historic shrines of New 
Jersey. 

Of the very earliest scenes of New Jersey's 
history, when the red man looked out from his 
bark or skin home in the untouched forest and 
saw upon the tumbling waves of the sea the 
first of that new race that was to pour upon 
his land in millions, no trace remains. No 
marker indicates the spot, and the tradition 
itself is hazy, but Verrazano is said to have 
landed at the Navesink in 1514. Hendrik 
Hudson was at Sandy Hook in 1609. After re- 
turning from his trip up the Hudson in vain 
search for a northwest passage he anchored off 
Castle Point. Hudson thought that a white 
pinnacle of rock might be silver ore, but did 
not land to test it out. The Indians called the 
place We-awken, which meant rocks that 
look like trees, the first name for the Palisades. 

Early spots identifiable in some measure to- 
day are the site in 1633 of a trading post at 
Paulus Hook in Jersey City and the place 
where in 1674 an i ron works was started in 
Shrewsbury in which 60 negroes were employed 
in smelting the ore. Munitions for Washing- 
ton's army were made here a hundred years 
later. 

At Salem was the location of the Swedish 
fort which might have changed Jersey history 
had its garrison not been routed by an almost 
unseen enemy. The Dutch ships sailing up the 



HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 



2-7 



bay were compelled to salute and dip their 
colors as they passed. All went well during the 
winter and the colony seemed to be firmly 
settled, but during the summer the mosquitoes 
routed the garrison. The work was completed 
by Peter Stuyvesant, and the Swedes gave up 
and merged their interests with the Dutch and 
other colonists. The Swedes had bought from 
the Indians the lands along both shores of 
Delaware Bay and along the west side of the 
river as far as a point opposite Trenton. 

One may now in a motor trip swiftly cover 
the route that took Benjamin Franklin several 
laborious days to make when in 1713 he walked 
across the State in search of work in Phila- 
delphia. Franklin was proud in later years to 
sign his name with the word "printer" follow- 
ing it. Franklin intended to work in a printing 
office in Philadelphia, and leaving New York 
he landed at Amboy and began his long journey 
on foot. He arrived at Burlington and rowed to 
Philadelphia, and on the sixth day from New 
York he reached the printer's shop. The Wash- 



ington House in Bordentown was the inn 
where he spent one night. 

There are hundreds of historic trees in New 
Jersey, and some of them were standing when 
the Indians hunted their food through the 
forests. In Washington Park, Newark, just 
south of the tablet that tells the story of the 
Academy burned in 1780 by the British raiders 
who crossed on the surface of the frozen Hud- 
son on January 2.5th, there stands a sycamore 
tree that was witness to the events of the 
Revolutionary days of 1764. 

In the years during which England passed 
the Stamp Act so burdensome to her colonies, 
there were two sycamores planted in Princeton 
and they now shade the old house occupied by 
one of the university staff. 

The great oak at Basking Ridge is one of the 
best known of Jersey's ancient trees. In 1781 
some raiding Tories tied their horses there. 

To a buttonwood tree that still leans over 
the river bank at Burlington was moored the 
ship "Madrid," the first vessel to pass up the 




BERRIEN MANSION, ROCKY HILL, NEAR PRINCETON 
Where Washington wrote the farewell address to his army, delivered here on Sunday, November z, 1783 



2.8 



NEW JERSEY 






HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 



2-9 



Delaware beyond the then vacant site of Phila- 
delphia and from which embarked more settlers 
for the scanty colony. 

Under a great oak that still towers above the 
Quaker burying ground at Salem was made the 
treaty of friendship between the Indians and 
John Fenwicke, who with his wife, three 
daughters, and a small band of followers had 
sailed up the Delaware and into the small 
creek in 1675. Five men scarcely can circle the 
tree touching finger tips, and its branches 
spread horizontally 117 feet and reach a height 
of 88 feet. It may have been growing there 
when Columbus sighted the land of the New 
World. 

In Burlington is St. Mary's Episcopal Church, 
built in 1703, said to be the oldest church 
structure in the State. 

In 1769 Christ Church was built in Shrews- 
bury and was used as a barracks during the 
Revolution. 

The church in Shiloh has a tablet in front of 
it reading: "Marker at Shiloh. Memorial of 
Seventh Day Baptist Brick Meeting House, 
1771-1850. Union Academy, 1849-1868." In 
Shiloh everybody works on Sunday, but on Sat- 
urday the stores and places of business are 
closed and no one works. 

In front of the church at Springfield and fac- 
ing the Revolutionary battlefield stands a 
statue to keep in mind the brave deed of the 
"fighting parson," Rev. James Caldwell. Early 
on the morning of June 6, 1780, on the hill 
south of the old Connecticut Farms Church, 60 
militiamen armed with muskets checked for 
a while the British advance. Rev. James Cald- 
well with his family lived in the parsonage of 
this church. The British in retreat fired into the 
house, killing Mrs. Caldwell as she sat with a 
baby in her arms. The second attempt to attack 
Washington's army was made on June i}, 1780. 
The British met some resistance at Connecticut 
Farms, now part of Union. One division started 
by way of Milburn for Morris town. On reach- 
ing Springfield they met the Americans under 
General Greene. The defenders ran out of wad- 
ding for the guns, and Caldwell gathered up 
Bibles and hymnbooks from the church at 
Springfield, and tearing out the leaves passed 
them to the soldiers, crying, "Put Watts into 



them, boys." The British were defeated and 
retired. 

A granite monument 14 feet high at Green- 
wich is "in honor of the patriots of Cumber- 
land County, New Jersey, who on the eve of 
December n, 1774, burned British tea near this 
site." 

On a narrow strip of land above the river 
bank near Weehawken and beneath the Pali- 
sades was the place where early one morning in 
July, 1804, the duel was fought between Aaron 
Burr and Alexander Hamilton, fatal to the 
latter. Burr, the son of the President of Prince- 
ton, blamed Hamilton for his failure to become 
Governor of New York. A son of Alexander 
Hamilton was later shot in a duel over his 
father's governmental plans. 

A monument in the El Mora section of Eliz- 
abeth at the corner of Galloping Hill Road and 
Colonial Road, a block from Westfield Avenue, 
bears this inscription: "Here the British turned 
into Galloping Hill Road from Elizabethtown 
to Connecticut Farms and Springfield at the 
time of the battles June 7 and 2.3, 1780." Wash- 
ington afterwards said of the New Jersey 
Militia: "They flew to arms universally and 
acted with a spirit equal to anything I have 
seen during the war." A son of Gen. William 
Crane is said to have been bayoneted to death 
near this spot. 

During the dreary and uncertain days while 
the army under Washington was encamped in 
Morristown a fort was built on the hill to the 
southwest. This was named "Fort Nonsense" 
because no apparent military need existed for 
it. But as it kept the men busy and as the work 
displaced the dissatisfaction, it may have been 
a very wise structure. The tablet says that it 
was "an earthwork built by the Continental 
Army in the winter of 1779-80." 

There is a marker at the spot where Wash- 
ington crossed the Delaware on December Z5, 
1776. 

The monument at Princeton with its carved 
figures is one of New Jersey's finest works in 
memory of the Revolutionary battles fought 
on its soil. 

At Menlo Park, where Edison carried out so 
many of his successful experiments, before he 
moved to West Orange, there stands a marker 



NEW JERSEY 




WALLACE HOUSE, SOMERVILLE 
Where Washington made his headquarters during the winter 1778-1779 



by the side of the road commemorating his 
work in the large laboratory there. 

At Allaire is what remains of the deserted 
village, deserted almost in a night by the men 
leaving their furnaces and starting for the 
western goldfields. 

The claim is made that the first telegraph 
message to be transmitted over a wire was sent 
at the iron works at Speedwell, near Morris- 
town, at which place Professor Morse and Mr. 
Alfred Vail, son of the proprietor of the works, 
were making experiments with the telegraph. 
The first public message was sent more than 
six years later from Washington to Baltimore. 
Over three miles of wire on the walls of a room 
was sent the message, "A patient waiter is no 
loser." The house still stands. The Speedwell 
Iron Works was on the Morris Plains road 
where it crossed the Whippany River. 

Many of the old Dutch houses in Bergen and 
Hudson counties, built of the old brown stone, 
are in fine shape today and as remodeled look 
almost as new as when constructed in the first 
days of the State's history. The old mansions 



of the days of English rule also are picturesque 
spots, notably the house in Elizabethtown 
where Governor Carteret lived. 

Government House still stands in Perth Am- 
boy, with a wing added since the days when 
William Franklin was the last Royal Governor 
of East Jersey. In the study in 1775 occurred the 
last stormy meeting between father and son 
when Benjamin Franklin, 69 years old, rode 
south to join the Continental Congress. In June, 
1776, the son was deposed. 

The Bordentown school children in memory 
of the woman who created the American Red 
Cross raised the money to rebuild the school- 
house there in which Clara Barton first taught. 

Belgrave, the site of the childhood home of 
Gen. Philip Kearny, is on a high bluff over- 
looking the Passaic River. It was General 
Kearny, who fought in many battles of the 
Civil War, who said: "Give me Jerseymen; they 
never flinch." 

The daughter of Jonathan Edwards of 
Stockbridge and Northampton, Mass., was 
married to Rev. Aaron Burr, of Newark, sec- 



HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 



ond president of the College of New Jersey, 
now Princeton University. They moved to 
Princeton and occupied the new house of the 
President next to Nassau Hall. It looks much 
the same today. 

The Hermitage at Hohokus stands as a re^ 
minder that here Aaron Burr, the younger, 
courted Theodosia Provost. 

The first house built in Flemington has a 
tablet giving 1756 as the date and "Fleming 
Castle" as the name. 

In Mount Holly, at 47 Mill Street, stands the 
house used as a tailoring shop by John Wool- 
man, and a frame dwelling in which he lived 
for a while is at 99 Branch Street. Woolman 
was the first to raise his voice against negro 
slavery. In 1741 he rose in meeting to protest, 
and later on walked to Newport, then the 
center of the slave-ship traffic, to fight it. His 
"Journal" is included in the "Five-Foot Book- 
Shelf" of Dr. Eliot. 

In the old stone and log house at Alpine 
Landing, now used as a police station by the 
Interstate Park force, Cornwallis spent a night 



while pursuing Washington's forces in their 
retreat across the State. 

One settlement in New Jersey was started by 
a woman, Elizabeth Haddon, whose father, 
John Haddon, a Quaker blacksmith of South- 
wark, near London, had bought land here. In 
1701, on her twenty-first birthday, she sailed 
for her home in the then wilderness . It was she 
who built the meeting house in Haddonfield, 
and its records in her hand still exist. The story 
of her courtship and marriage to John Estaugh, 
the Quaker preacher who had preceded her here, 
has been told in Longfellow's "Tales of a Way- 
side Inn." The house that they built in 1713 on 
a hill above Cooper's Creek was burned in 
1841, but two yew trees brought from England 
and the boxwood hedge are to be seen, as well 
as the English bricks of the garden wall. 

At Bordentown, in a house still standing at 
the southeast corner of Farnsworth Avenue and 
Park Street, lived Francis Hopkinson, patriot 
and signer of the Declaration of Independence. 
A few doors away lived Thomas Paine, great 
propagandist of the Revolution. 




OLD NASSAU AT PRINCETON 
Where Continental Congress met in 1783 



NEW JERSEY 



The birthplace at Caldwell of Grover Cleve- 
land, President of the United States, is kept 
open for visitors. 

James Fenimore Cooper was born in Burling- 
ton, in an old house at 457 South High Street, 
now the home of the Burlington Historical So- 
ciety. Next door was the house of Captain 
James Lawrence, who when the Chesapeake 
lost to the Shannon died crying repeatedly, 
"Don't give up the ship." 

In the pronunciation of many place names of 
old West Jersey one experiences a historical 
thrill, knowing that each one commemorates 
a courageous pioneer or a dear home back in 
England Buddtown, Beverley, Gibbsboro, 
Whip Lane, Paulsboro, Gloucester. In many 
an old house of West Jersey is preserved the 
memory of Benjamin Franklin, James Fenimore 
Cooper, and Captain James Lawrence in Burl- 
ington and John Woolman in Mount Holly. 

How sweet the silent backward tracings ! 
The wanderings as in dreams the meditation of old times 
resumed their loves, joys, persons, voyages. 




AN ANCIENT CRAG OF TRAP ROCK STANDING OUT 
FROM THE FRONT OF THE PALISADES 




COVERED BRIDGE OVER SOUTH BRANCH OF RARITAN RIVER 

Built 2.00 years ago without a nail. All joining parts are wooden dowels. This is in Somerset County, where Anna 
Case, noted opera singer, was born. 



HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 



33 



GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION 



p ^HE New Jersey Constitution is one of the 
I few remaining pre-Civil War constitu- 
JL tions. Like so many societies with a long 
history, New Jersey has retained many institu- 
tions long after their original purposes have 
been accomplished. This was the case with her 
first Constitution, that of 1776, which was 
adopted as a temporary expedient looking for- 
ward to reconciliation with England, but 
which was nevertheless maintained for 68 
years. Then finally, when the successive waves 
of Jacksonian democracy had done their work 
in other States, with a single gesture New 
Jersey established a new Constitution in 1844. 
Many of the Revolutionary devices were wiped 
away, and in place of the simple document of 
five or six pages of print, there was adopted 
one of thrice the length. 

This document of 1844 breathes the spirit 
of the democracy of the day. After 70 years' 
experience as an independent State in the 
Union, many lessons had been learned. Five 
new principles were incorporated in this Con- 
stitution and hold their place in the govern- 
ment today. First there is the promulgation 
of a bill of rights and privileges. There had 
been no such idea in the minds of the men of 
1776, but now they follow the trend and enu- 
merate the natural rights with which we are all 
so familiar in the first ten amendments to the 
Federal Constitution free religion, free speech 
and free press, freedom from search and arrest 
except upon warrant. 

A second departure is in the thorough adop- 
tion of the doctrine of the separation of powers. 
"The powers of the government shall be 
divided into three distinct departments, the 
legislative, the executive, and the judicial." 
No longer was the Governor to be chosen by 
the legislative council and assembly, but by 
the people. In him the executive power was 
vested. Legislative power was concentrated 
in a Senate and General Assembly. The old 
equality of the counties in representation in 
each body was surrendered for the Federal 
principle of equality in the Senate and pro- 



portional representation in the lower House. 
Final judicial power was placed in a Court of 
Errors and Appeals. An independent Chancellor 
replaced the Governor as dispenser of equity; 
the Supreme Court dispenses common law. 

The most obvious result and intention of the 
separation of powers was to render the depart- 
ments independent of each other. But this was 
more nominal than real. The principle of 
checks and balances was introduced in con- 
siderable detail as a mitigation of this other 
principle. The Governor was the executive, 
popularly elected for a three-year term, and was 
indeed the only State officer chosen at large. 
The State Treasurer and Comptroller (as also 
Common Pleas Judges at first) were to be 
selected at joint meetings of the Senate and 
Assembly. The Attorney-General, Prosecutors 
of the Pleas, Secretary of State, and keeper of 
the State prison were appointed by the exec- 
utive head, with the consent of the Senate. 
Although the Governor is commander-in-chief 
of the military and naval forces of the State, 
the active heads, such as the Adjutant-General, 
Quartermaster-General, and Major-Generals, 
whom he appoints, are removable only by 
court-martial; and most of the field and regi- 
mental officers are elected by their subordinates. 
Moreover, the control exercisable over local 
county and city law-enforcing officers is almost 
negligible. 

Nor was the Legislature endowed with full 
law-making powers, as the first view indicates. 
Quite apart from the veto possessed by the 
Governor, which might be overridden by a 
simple majority, the Constitution is full of 
limitations. To check the Legislature, pro- 
hibitions have been inserted to prevent or 
regulate such things as divorce by statute, 
lotteries, loaning the credit of the State to 
individuals, creating debts or liabilities of the 
State beyond the maximum of $100,000, private 
or local bills respecting highways, internal 
affairs of towns and counties, the granting of 
franchises, and schools. All such matters may 
be dealt with only by general laws. 



34 



NEW JERSEY 




HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 



The courts were and have remained among 
the most independent and unchecked institu- 
tions in New Jersey. While the judges are not 
appointed for life, the reputation of the State 
for "Jersey justice" has been largely owing to 
the fact that no judge of a court of record is 
elected. The Justices of the Supreme Court, the 
Chancellor, those of the Common Pleas, though 
nominally appointed for some five, six, or 
seven years, are virtually secure in their tenure. 
Removal from office is by impeachment. The 
Governor has a right of reprieve, but for pardon 
he is only one of a court including the highest 
judges. 

In one final respect the Constitution intro- 
duced an innovation. This was in providing a 
special method of constitutional change. 
Amendments must be passed by two successive 
Legislatures, and after adequate newspaper 
publicity in each county, are to be submitted 
to popular vote throughout the State. The 
referendum is used in one other case the 
occasion being the Legislature's desire to in- 
crease the State indebtedness beyond the pre- 



scribed limit, in which event there must be 
popular ratification. 

From this early organization there has been 
a great and supplementary growth. From the 
government of a simple agricultural and trad- 
ing community the government of New Jersey 
involves institutions and purposes which vary 
from regulating maximum automobile speeds 
to the inspection of factories; from maintain- 
ing villages for epileptics to licensing civil 
engineers; and from supervising boxing contests 
to operating employment bureaus. The salaries 
paid vary all the way from $19,000 for Supreme 
Court Justices to $xoo for pages in the Legisla- 
ture. 

The Governor is elected by the voters of the 
State for a term of three years, taking office on 
the third Tuesday in January. A governor is 
ineligible to succeed himself. 

The original executive machinery is com- 
paratively simple. Some four or five major 
officers are named in the Constitution; all the 
others are later additions by legislative action. 
And as the State has entered industrial and 




STATE HOUSE AT TRENTON 
The Governor's office is on the ground floor, middle wing. Senate Chamber is at the right rear of the picture 



NEW JERSEY 




RAMAPO MOUNTAIN RANGE FROM STATE HIGHWAY NORTH OF OAKLAND 



social regulation, different types of institutions 
have been created from time to time. There are 
now about zo major and 30 minor State depart- 
ments. These are run by boards, commissioners, 
and directors chosen in a great variety of ways 
for different terms and at different rates of pay. 
They vary in term of office from three to nine 
years, and in pay from nothing to $15,000 a 
year. 

The two houses of the Legislature are the 
Senate and General Assembly. Each of the xi 
counties is represented by one Senator chosen 
for three years, who must be 30 years of age, 
a citizen, and a resident of the State for four 
years and of the county for one. The Senate has 
but two distinctive functions, the trial of im- 
peachment cases and the assent to nominations 
by the Governor. The Assembly is composed 
of 60 representatives elected annually, appor- 
tioned among the counties according to popu- 
lation, but no county to have less than one. 
As two counties have a population of over 
650,000 and as eight have fewer than 50,000, 
this cannot be arranged in proper proportion. 
The Assembly has but one power not shared 



equally with the Senate, namely, the initiation 
of bills for raising revenue. In all other respects 
the houses are equal. The members choose 
their own presiding officers, decide disputed 
elections, and receive the same stipend of $500. 

In the administration of justice New Jersey 
presents contrasts of efficiency and antiquity. 
The appointive judges have tended to maintain 
judicial independence. But there has also been 
retained the distinction between courts ad- 
ministering equity and courts administering 
common law. The Chancellor (with seven 
Vice-Chancellors, masters, surrogates, etc.) 
takes cognizance of cases in equity respecting 
divorce, wills and probate, orphans, etc. The 
other courts for common law extend from the 
justices of the peace and recorders, to district 
courts, county courts (Common Pleas), circuit 
courts, and finally the Supreme Court, com- 
posed of a Chief Justice and eight Associates. 
Final judicial authority is vested in a Court of 
Errors and Appeals, composed of the Chancel- 
lor, Supreme Court Justices, and five others. 

At the present time the importance of the 
town has been largely superseded by the grow- 



HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 



37 



ing metropolitan areas. Counties are used as 
judicial units, as agents for the care of the 
poor, for highways, for enforcement of laws 
by the sheriff, and for taxation and elections. 

Some of the oldest cities in America are in 
New Jersey. For years the government of 
municipalities was of the mayor and council 
type. In 1911, however, the Walsh Act per- 
mitted the adoption of commission forms by 
certain communities. Cities are grouped into 
four classes, and within their groups they may 
by popular vote adopt the plan of having a 
board of from three to five commissioners who 
shall take over all the administrative, legis- 
lative, and judicial functions previously dis- 
tributed among mayor, council and elected 
officials. 

In 1913 a further step was taken when it was 
made possible for municipalities to adopt the 
city-manager plan. There are to be from three 
to seven members of a municipal council chosen 
at large, who select as presiding officer a mayor. 



But their chief function is to select, appoint, 
and retain a professional municipal manager, 
whose duties are to propose policies, investi- 
gate plans of administration, and finally to 
execute those that have received the approval 
of the council. Cape May City is the only place 
so far to adopt the city-manager plan now per- 
mitted by law. 

From 1903 New Jersey had been experiment- 
ing with election laws. It was in 1911, how- 
ever, that the great step of introducing the 
direct primary was taken. By the Geran Act 
important changes were made in political 
parties and in their nominations of candidates 
for election. The old delegate convention and 
the unregulated primary were abolished, and 
instead a system of State-controlled party nom- 
inations was introduced. It provided for the 
registration, voting, and counting of the vote 
for party candidates, and placed control of 
party committeemen in the hands of interested 
party adherents. 




RARE BEAUTY AND WONDERFUL FISHING IN THE STOKES STATE FOREST 



NEW JERSEY 



REVENUE AND TAXATION 



PERHAPS the most striking impression of 
a study of the fiscal history of New 
Jersey is the increase in revenues and 
expenditures, especially during the period 
since 1800, and most amazingly since 1500. 

In 1668, 30 was raised and expended. In 
1800, revenues were $9,92.7. 92. and $13,575.33 
was spent; in 1900, $3,453,2.95.71 was received 
and $1,701, 2.2.6. 97 spent; in 1917, $33,441,- 
097.48 received and $30,454.8x0.13 disbursed. 

The list of expenditures for the year 1704, 
in which the budget was 2.000, will serve to 
indicate the narrow scope of State functions 
in that day. This amount was raised by means 
of a direct tax on specified articles of property 
and on certain occupations, and is as follows: 



Governor 

Lieutenant-Governor 

Receiver-General 

Governor's house rent, etc. 

Chief Justice 

Second Judge 

Attorney-General 

Secretary 

Clerk of Council 

For contingencies 

Clerk of Assembly 

For contingencies 

Printer 

Doorkeeper for Council . . . 
Doorkeeper for Assembly . . 

Total... 



300 
2.60 
1 80 
130 

IOO 
100 

3 
5 

zo 

5 

2.O 

5 
30 
3 

2.000 



The greatly increased budget of New Jersey, 
as in other States, is due in some degree to a 
centralizing tendency, and to that extent in- 
volves no new functions. It is also, in part, an 
actual bringing into the field of regulation 
much of the activities of individuals which 
were previously unregulated. To some extent 
the increasing complexity of a commercial- 
industrial society creates new relationships 
that require and demand regulation. The cen- 
tralizing tendency is well illustrated in the 
fields of education, health, and highways. 
These matters in an earlier day were of purely 
local, or even individual, concern. The earliest 



local taxes, indeed, were for the maintenance 
of bridges and roads. 

The rate of increase in local budgets has 
been even greater than in the State budget, 
and in recent years the amounts raised and 
spent locally for local purposes through the 
State have totaled about four times the amount 
raised and spent by the State government it- 
self. In rough figures, there is about $2.2.1,- 
000,000 spent a year for government within 
the State, of which the State government ex- 
pends less than one-fifth. 

The functions of the State government were 
still very narrow in 1800. The amounts paid 
out for salaries, for the State prison, for the 
Legislature, and for pensions, made up the 
bulk of the expenses. By the middle of the 
century the expenses were more than five 
times those of 1800, but this was due more to 
the increase in population than to any added 
functions of the government. The chief new 
items worthy of note were the expenditures 
for the blind, for the deaf and dumb, for a 
lunatic asylum and salaries of its managers, 
for inquisitions, for building a house of refuge, 
for a court of errors and appeals, for a library, 
and for establishing a school fund. 

By 1860 a State Normal School had been 
established, and considerable amounts were 
being expended for the public schools; and by 
1900 there had been established a number of 
boards and commissions of a regulative nature, 
such as the Board of Fish and Game Com- 
missioners, the Oyster Commission, the State 
Board of Health, the Department of Banking 
and Insurance, the State Board of Assessors, 
the Riparian Commission, and the State Sewer- 
age Commission. Judicial expenses, too, had 
increased very rapidly. The Supreme Court and 
the Court of Chancery were the main items of 
this nature. In 1900 the sum of $48,191.80 was 
spent for industrial education. Considerable 
sums were needed for the State Board of 
Education, for the Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, and for such things as free school 
libraries. 



HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 






4 o 



NEW JERSEY 



During this half of the century the State 
had entered an entirely new field agriculture. 
In 1900 the largest item of expense under this 
head was that of the Agricultural Experiment 
Station. Other expenditures were for the State 
Dairy Commissioner, the Tuberculosis Com- 
mission, and the State Board of Agriculture. 
Large amounts were then being expended for 
military purposes and for public roads. But the 
greatest increase in functions and expenditures 
was in the field of charities and correction. In 
1900, out of a total of $1,701,116.97 of ex- 
penditures from the State fund, the sum of 
$1,184,047.56 was for such undertakings. For 
the most part, the phenomenal increase in ex- 
penditures since 1900 has been due to a rapid 
expansion of those agencies already created. 

The following statement of the expenditures 
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 19x7, will 
give some idea as to the present scope of State 
activities : 



Institutions and agencies 

General 

Educational 

Regulative 

Executive and Administrative . 

Constructive 

Military 

Agricultural 

Judicial 

Pension and retirement funds. . 

Legislative 

State emergency fund 

Total . . . 



$ 9,610,651.75 
5,386,975.41 
4,410,590.93 
3,546,810.77 
z, 190,340.86 
1,866,939.84 
1,000,938.55 
999,044.87 



2.63,685.00 
140,469.00 
50,000.00 

$30,454,819.73 



In addition to the expenditures shown in the 
schedule, representing the items disbursed 
from the "State fund," there is a large number 
of boards, commissions, and funds whose 
revenues are not passed through the State 
fund, but are derived independently from 
special taxation, invested funds originally ap- 
propriated from the State fund, or otherwise. 
For example, in 192.7, there were the State 
road tax, amounting to $5,481,105.35; motor 
vehicle license fees and the gasoline tax, the 
soldiers' bonus bond tax, $948,017.80; and the 
bridges and tunnels tax, $1,945,533.10, as the 
principal revenue items not passed through 
the State fund, but which nevertheless were 



spent directly by the State government, 
through its administrative agencies. 

The disbursements from the State fund in 
1800 were $2.3,575.33, while the receipts were 
only $9,917.92.. The next year, however, an 
act was passed for raising a tax of $30,000, and 
from then until 1847 similar acts were passed 
practically every year, the amounts varying 
from $10,000 to $60,000. During the period 
from 1800 to 1850 the disbursements rose from 
$2.3,575.33 to $1x5,541.93. Since the annual 
State tax during this period had never exceeded 
$60,000 (and that for only the one year 1814), 
it can readily be seen that some other source 
of revenue had been found. In 1810 an act for 
the taxing of bank stock was passed. This was 
New Jersey's first attempt to reach intangible 
wealth by taxation. The president and directors 
of specified banks were required to pay annu- 
ally into the State treasury one-half of one 
per cent on paid-up capital stock. By an act 
passed December 2.6, 1816, provision was made 
for collecting the percentage tax of the gross 
amount of premiums received by agents of 
foreign insurance companies doing business 
within the State, and by the act of January 2.1, 
1831, a tax was placed upon the capital stock 
of insurance companies incorporated within 
the State. This tax was one-fourth of one 
per cent. 

The first acts regarding railroads and canals 
were passed in 1830. On February 4th of that 
year the Legislature passed acts incorporating 
the Delaware and Raritan Canal Company and 
the Camden and Amboy Railroad Company. 
It was provided that the officers of the com- 
panies should make quarterly returns of the 
passengers and freight transported and pay to 
the State Treasurer a lump sum per passenger 
and per ton. By an act passed February 11, 

1849, the roads were required to make state- 
ments of the cost of the road and its earnings 
until the net income amounted to six per cent 
upon its cost, after which the road should pay 
to the State an annual tax of one-half of one 
per cent. 

In 1840 the sum of $30,176.39 was collected 
from these transit duties. This had increased 
to $41,136.59 in 1845, and to $86,107.36 in 

1850, when the total receipts to the State fund 



HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 



4 1 



were only $1x8,583.03. Most of the remainder, 
or approximately $41,000, was made up from 
the tax on the capital stock of railroads 
($11,665) an d from dividends ($11,000). Ap- 
parently these acts had been productive of 
enough revenue to meet the needs of a govern- 
ment whose functions were still comparatively 
narrow, for a State tax was no longer levied 
every year. 

The act of March 14, 1851, was the first 
general property tax act in New Jersey. It 
rendered liable to taxation all property, real 
or personal, whether owned by individuals or 
corporations. Railroads were thus brought 
under the general property tax, but only until 
1873. The general property tax still continues 
to be the basis of the New Jersey tax system, 
but railroads and corporations generally have 
been specially taxed. 

By an act passed April 13, 1876, a board of 
railroad commissioners was created, consist- 
ing of the Comptroller, the Treasurer, and the 
Commissioner of Railroad Taxation. They 
were given the power to estimate the "true 



value" of the road and equipment as a basis 
for the State rate of one-half of one per cent. 
The method of taxing railroad and canal prop- 
erty was further developed by the act of 1884. 
The main features of this act have been re- 
tained to the present time. 

By the act of 1884 the State Board of Asses- 
sors was created, composed of four members 
appointed by the Governor with the approval 
of the Senate. 

On April 5, 1906, an act known as the 
Perkins Act was passed. This produced a very 
considerably increased revenue from the rail- 
roads, and this net increase was applied to the 
support of the public school system. 

The act of 1884 and the supplements thereto 
have been so productive of revenue that the 
State has been able to dispense with any direct 
tax for general purposes. The amount of tax 
on railroad and canal corporations levied and 
collected for the year 1884, under the old law, 
was $713,655.46. The amounts collected for 
the last 18 years, under the law of 1884 and 
acts supplementary thereto, are as follows: 







BEAUTY SPOT IN WEST HUDSON COUNTY PARK, HARRISON AND KEARNY 



NE W JERSEY 



Payable in 
the Year 


State Tax 
for State Uses 


Local Tax 


Total Tax 


1900 


$ 906,788.11 


$ 610,091.86 


$ ,506,880.08 


1501 


S95.477-3 2 - 


608,460.00 


.503.937-3 2 - 


1901 


899,110.95 


601,313.80 


,500,514.75 


1 93 


908,546.31 


616,494.39 


,535,014.71 


1904 


911,795.11 


641,514.50 


,564,309.61 


i95 


939,767.46 


655,355.68 


,595,111.14 


1906 


950,991.11 


1,113,375.69 


1,074,366.90 


1907 


3,501,868.14 


891,505.40 


4.395.373-64 


1908 


3,146,733.45 


,031,690.01 


4,178,413.46 


1909 


3,390,441.93 


,159,164.10 


4,649,706.13 


1910 


3,710,898.95 


,448,106.05 


5,169,105.00 


I9 11 


3.9M.575-74 


,396,814.01 


5,311,389.75 


1911 


4,331,410.91 


,805,917.83 


6,138,118.74 


W} 


4,503,591.50 


,964,176.91 


6,467,868.41 


1914 


4,533,001.46 


,953,680.39 


6,486,681.85 


IQI^ 


4,650,150.89 


,088,487.65 


6,738,638.54 


1916 


4,980,948.51 


,160,917.71 


7,141,866.11 


I9 X 7 


5,166,501.17 


,196,917.95 


7,463,419.11 


1918 


5,495,360.65 


,601,657.46 


8,097,018.11 


1919 


5,939,891.83 


,084,185.30 


8,014,177.13 


19x0 


7,037,160.61 


3,594,098.63 


10,631,359.15 


192.1 


7,135,071.31 


3,651,805.71 


10,786,877.04 


1912. . 


8,375,185.49 


4,331,545.13 


11,707,730.71 


TQ2.7 


9 lie 71J.2O 


5,134,499.91 


14,170,131.11 


i9M 


)* JJ >/ j *j w 

9.47, I 35- 6 


6,316,615.10 


i5.733.75- :! -6 


192-5 


9,409,734.65 


7,398,718.75 


16,908,463.40 


1916 


9,911,618.87 


7,686,573.53 


i7>599> 20 M 


1 92-7 


9,591,115.04 


8,710,358.34 


18,311,583.38 



The figures for the last ten years were taken 
from the annual reports of the Comptroller 
for each of those years. They represent the 
total amount of tax collected in each year 
whether due in that year or in previous years. 
The amounts of State tax for the year 1907 and 
the years subsequent thereto include the ap- 
portionment for school purposes. 

Another large source of revenue for general 
State purposes is the franchise tax levied on 
miscellaneous corporations. The first act was 
passed in 1884, and its main features have re- 
mained unchanged. Manufacturing, mining, 
agricultural, and horticultural companies with 
50 per cent of their capital invested in New 
Jersey are exempt. It is a graded tax; one-tenth 
of one per cent on all amounts of capital stock 
issued and outstanding up to and including the 
sum of $3,000,000, and one-twentieth of one 
per cent on all sums in excess of $3 ,000,000 and 
not exceeding $5,000,000, and the further sum 



of $50 per annum per $1,000,000 or any part 
thereof on all amounts in excess of $5,000,000. 
In the case of stock with no par value the sum 
of three cents per share shall be paid upon all 
shares of stock issued and outstanding, up to 
and including 2.0,000 shares; two cents per 
share on all in excess of 10,000 and not exceed- 
ing 30,000 shares; one cent per share on all in 
excess of 30,000 shares but not exceeding 40,000 
shares; five mills per share on all in excess of 
40,000 but not exceeding 50,000 shares, and 
the further sum of two and one-half mills per 
share on all shares of such stock issued and 
outstanding in excess of 50,000 shares. 

In 1891 the Legislature passed an act known 
as the Collateral Inheritance Tax Act, the 
official title of which is "An Act to Tax intes- 
tates' estates, gifts, legacies, and collateral 
inheritance in certain cases." Few States had 
passed such acts previous to that time, but 
Virginia had such a statute as early as 1844, 
and those of Maryland, Pennsylvania, and New 
York had been adopted before 1891. 

The statute of 1891 imposed a tax of five 
dollars upon every $100 of value, of "all prop- 
erty which shall pass by will or by the intes- 
tate laws of New Jersey, of all estates that shall 
be valued at over $500, with the following 
exceptions : Those to or for the use of father, 
mother, husband, wife, children, brother or 




JERSEY CITY APPROACH TO HOLLAND TUNNEL 



HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 




44 



NEW JERSEY 



sister, or lineal descendants, born in lawful 
wedlock, or the wife or widow of a son, 
or the husband of a daughter." The tax 
was turned over to the treasurer for State 
purposes. 

Until 1914 New Jersey had taxed only col- 
lateral inheritances, but in that year the Legis- 
lature passed an act which provided for the 
taxing of direct inheritances as well. This act 
resulted in a greatly increased revenue. By an 
act passed in 192.1, certain changes were made 
in the rates and exemptions, but something had 
to be done to keep pace with the natural in- 
crease in the cost of government, and in 19x6 
the rates were again revised upward. As before, 
property passing to or for the use of the State 
or a municipal corporation within the State 
for exclusively public purposes was exempt. 
Property passing to churches, hospitals, and 
orphan asylums, public libraries, Bible and 
tract societies, religious, benevolent and chari- 
table institutions and organizations, was still 
to be taxed at five per cent. Property passing 
to a brother or sister of decedent, wife or widow 
of a son of a decedent, or the husband of a 
daughter of a decedent, or the issue of any 
child or legally adopted child of a decedent, 
was taxed five per cent in amounts up to 
$300,000, and increasing to 16 per cent for any 
amount in excess of $z,xoo,ooo. 

Property passing to a father, mother, hus- 
band, wife, child or children of a decedent, or 
to any legally adopted child or children of a 
decedent, was exempt under $5,000, and from 
$5,000 up to $50,000 the tax was one per cent, 
and so on in increasing ratio up to 16 per cent 
for any amount in excess of $3,700,000. 

Property passing to every other transferee, 
distributee, or beneficiary not in the foregoing 
classifications was taxed eight per cent for any 
amount up to $900,000, and so on up to 16 per 
cent for any amount in excess of $1,700,000. 

Stock of New Jersey corporations and na- 
tional banking associations standing in the 
name of or belonging to a non-resident decedent 
was no longer to be considered as a taxable 
asset in the estate of said decedent. The Comp- 
troller in his report for 192.7 claimed that there 
was but a slight decrease in the revenue from 
non-resident estates and this loss was more 



$2.,000,000 
I,OOO,OOO 
600,000 
6oO,OOO 
450,000 
450,000 

3I933 

I7O,OOO 
I2.5,OOO 

II5,OOO 
113,000 



than offset by the increase in revenue derived 
from resident estates. 

As has been noted, the State since the act of 
1884 has been able to dispense with the general 
property tax. Since that time the receipts from 
railroad corporations, miscellaneous corpora- 
tions, and the inheritance tax (since 1891) 
have amounted to approximately 75 per cent 
of the total receipts. The remainder is made up 
chiefly from such things as fees, fines, licenses, 
interest on deposits, and the sale of articles 
manufactured at the State prison, reformatory, 
institution for the blind, etc. Items amounting 
to more than $100,000 are as follows: 

Department of Banking and Insurance 

Department of Institutions and Agencies 

Secretary of State 

Motor Vehicle Department 

Interest on Deposits 

Commission on Elimination of Toll Bridges . . 

Board of Fish and Game Commissioners 

Real Estate Commissioners 

Clerk in Chancery 

Clerk of the Supreme Court 

Department of Commerce and Navigation . 

Marked as has been the increase in State ex- 
penditures, the increase in local expenditure 
has been even greater, and this despite the 
fact that much of the State fund account goes 
to assist in the doing of things which formerly 
were performed entirely without the partici- 
pation of the State. In 19x7 the total amount 
raised by taxation for local purposes and dis- 
tributed by local disbursing officers was $187,- 
581,154.59. This total includes the so-called 
State school tax of $13, 105, 163 .94, which is 
not really what its name implies at all, but 
a local tax. It is levied and collected by the 
local taxing district like any other local tax, 
paid into the State treasury by the counties, 
90 per cent immediately refunded to them, 
and the remaining 10 per cent, called the re- 
serve fund, reapportioned among the counties 
by the State Board of Education in accordance 
with their respective needs. 

In addition the school fund, having a 
principal of about $10,000,000 ($10,711,301.95 
on June 30, 192.7) invested in securities, 
riparian rights and real estate, yields an annual 
revenue of about $500,000, apportioned to the 
counties by the Commissioner of Education. 



HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 



45 



Until about 1810 the taxes on specific prop- 
erty, the poll tax, and taxes on occupations 
or businesses were sufficient. Sometimes only 
one of these was used at a time, sometimes 
two, and sometimes all three. In 1851 the 
first general property tax law was passed in 
New Jersey, and this tax is still the basis of 
practically all local revenue, as well as of 
special State taxes, such as the road tax, in- 
stitutional tax, soldiers' bonus bond tax, 
bridges and tunnels tax, school tax, and 
various others. 



The general property tax assesses all prop- 
erty, real and personal, tangible and intangible, 
an assessed valuation, supposed to be its true 
market value, but usually somewhat lower. 
Local taxes and some State taxes are levied as 
a percentage of this valuation. This tax has 
not been wholly satisfactory in administra- 
tion; taxation of intangibles has proved almost 
an impossibility, evasion is universal, and 
thus inequality results from the virtual ex- 
emption of those whose property is largely in 
securities and other intangibles. 



STATE HIGHWAY ROAD AND BRID'GE CONSTRUCTION 



Voif 


Revenue from 


Revenue from 


t Revenue from 


Revenue from 


Revenue from 


Tr\t-<i1 


i e3.r 


Mill Tax 


Bond Issue 


M.V. License 


Gas Tax 


Federal Aid 


local 


i9 J 7 


$ 


$ 


$ 


$ 


$ 


$ 


1918 


1,895,106^66 


o 


o 


o 


118,415.36 


3,013,631.01 


i9 J 9 


3,489,545.15 





o 


o 


771,408.01 


4,160,953.17 


1910 


3,340,32.5.89 











1,118,696.51 


4,469,011.40 


192-1 


3.569.72-5-97 








o 


1,187,556.45 


4,757,181.41 


192.2. 


3,840,339.03 


o 


o 


o 


941,870.95 


4,783,109.98 


192-3 


4,095,658.62. 


8,000,000.00 


o 


o 


618,580.63 


11,714,139.15 


i9M 


3,483,777.40 


8,000,000.00 


1,750,000.00 


"o 


580,313.16 


13,814,090.56 


192-5 


2-,2-I7,972--92- 


8,000,000.00 


3,503,048.16 





941,871.00 


14,663,891.18 


192.6 


3,886,043.64 


8,000,000.00 


3,881,130.50 





894,958.00 


16,663,131.14 


192-7 


1,945,478.09 


8,000,000.00 


4,611,391.83 


63,378,551.58 


934,611.00 


19,881,033.50 


192.8 


* 2., OOO,OOO.OO 


A 30,000,000.00 


5,735,000.00 


* 8,100,000.00 


935,111.00 


46,870,111.00 


* 192-9 


1,637,000.00 





6,660,000.00 


9,000,000.00 


950,000.00 


18,147,000.00 


* i93o 


,510,000.00 


o 


7,385,000.00 


9,800,000.00 


950,000.00 


19,655,000.00 


*i93i 


,400,000.00 


o 


8,110,000.00 


10,600,000.00 


950,000.00 


11,060,000.00 


*i932- 


,l8o,000.00 


o 


8,660,000.00 


11,400,000.00 


950,000.00 


11,190,000.00 


*i933 


1,600,000.00 


o 


8,660,000.00 


11,400,000.00 


950,000.00 


11,610,000.00 


Total 


$43,101,073.37 


$70,000,000.00 


$5 8 .967,570-59 


$63,778,551.58 


$13,815,413.08 


$150,761,609.61 



A Sale of Bonds authorized as required for construction. 

B Gas Tax Collections July ist to Nov. 30, 1917. 

* Estimated. 

Mill Tax becomes available year following its assessment and collection. 

f Portion of total receipts applicable to road and bridge construction. 

NOTE: This table was specially compiled for this book by the State Highway Department. 



NEW JERSEY 





REGIMENTAL REVIEW AT SEA GIRT 




WHITE HOUSE. GOVERNOR'S HEADQUARTERS AT SEA GIRT 



HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 



47 



THE STATE CAMP GROUNDS 



THE Sea Girt site, known formerly as the 
Stockton Farm, was selected in 1885 by 
the military authorities of New Jersey 
for annual encampments, and, when necessary 
as in 1898, mobilization of the organizations 
of the national guard for muster into Federal 
service. 

The State leased the camp grounds in 1885 
from the Sea Girt Land and Improvement Com- 
pany at an annual rental of $3000. but did not 
acquire the property by purchase until 1891. 
In 1907 an additional purchase was made of 
two small tracts at the lower end of the Camp 
ground, thereby giving the State an ocean 
frontage of some 3000 feet, equal to that of 
the western boundary line. The total area of the 
camp ground is now 165 acres acquired at the 
moderate cost of $88,085. 

One of the important improvements is a rifle 
range fully equipped from firing points to butts 
with all latest appliances. The range has the 
entire ocean frontage forming a natural safe- 
guard against accidents, and with firing points 
ranging from 2.00 to 1000 yards this range is 
unexcelled by any rifle range in the United 
States. On part of the tract bordering on Stock- 
ton Lake on the south is the Club House and 
Administration Building of the New Jersey 
State Rifle Association. Bulkheads have been 
constructed in Stockton Lake, filled in and 
graded, and on them has been constructed a 
modern Arsenal for the storing of all military 
property, both State and Federal, for the arm- 
ing and equipment of the national guard. 

There have also been erected administration 
buildings, concrete kitchens, mess halls, latrines 
and other supplemental buildings making al- 
together a splendidly equipped camp ground 
for both temporary or extended use as may be 
required in period of p"eace or mobilization in 
event of War. Complete facilities for entraining 
and detraining troops; loading and unloading 
military stores and transporting animals are 
afforded by convenient sidings over which the 
Pennsylvania Railroad, the Central Railroad of 
New Jersey and the New York and Long Branch 
Railroad operate. 



The building used as the headquarters of the 
Governor (Commander-in-Chief) is the New 
Jersey State building used at the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition held in St. Louis, moved 
to and erected at Sea Girt in 1906, and since 
that time has been the scene of many political 
and social gatherings during the periods of the 
annual encampments. 

Before the exposition building was brought 
to Sea Girt the Governor's Headquarters was 
established in the quaint farm house fronting 
the roadway to the ocean, known as the 
"Little White House." Previous to the erection 
of the present headquarters, this cottage was 
removed to a position south of the clump of 
trees on the knoll known as "Little Round 
Top" facing the parade grounds. This little 
cottage has become of historical interest for in 
it have been entertained many National, State 
and Foreign dignitaries. 

The first camp held at Sea Girt was desig- 
nated as "Camp Abbett" in honor of Governor 
Leon Abbett and this custom of giving the 
name of the presiding Chief Executive to the 
encampments has been adhered to. 

During the season of rifle practice the various 
military units of the State compete for places 
on the rifle team to represent the State in the 
National Matches shot annually at Camp 
Perry, Ohio. 

The units of the National Guard training 
at Sea Girt during the encampment season 
are the following: Major General and Staff, 
44th Division (Headquarters, Newark); Brig.- 
General and Staff, 57th Infantry Brigade 
(Headquarters, Camden); ii3th Infantry 
(Headquarters, Newark); ii4th Infantry 
(Headquarters, Camden); io4th Engineers 
(Headquarters, Englewood); ii9th Medical 
Regiment (Headquarters, Trenton); Special 
Units (Headquarters, Orange); ioxd Cavalry 
(Headquarters, Newark). 

As there are no facilities at the State Camp 
Grounds, Sea Girt, for artillery practice, the 
nith Field Artillery, New Jersey National 
Guard, takes its summer training at Pine Camp, 
Great Bend, New York. 



NEW JERSEY 




COOPER'S GLEN, SUSSEX COUNTY-COLEVILLE ROAD NEAR COLEVILLE 
One of the State's most picturesque waterfalls 



CHAPTER II 



TS[atmal T^e sources 

GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES 



Nw JERSEY, for all the unyielding rock 
and metal in its strata, is an intensely 
human State, with characteristics that 
make it lovable. There are those who see forms 
in its outlines that suggest the human. A giant 
head and bust facing toward the west, its pro- 
file limned by the Delaware, is the favorite 
comparison of some. There are others who even 
vision it as the likeness of a mighty Washing- 
ton, who on its harried soil worked out his 
dream of Liberty. Others see an armless torso, 
with the mountains as its sturdy backbone, 
straining toward the east in the poise of the 
sculptured figure of Victory that has come 
down through the centuries. Whatever the 
noble forms it parallels, it is a land of bound- 
less romance and unending achievement. 

It is well to know whereon we stand and 
just what is under our feet and this is all that 
Geology means. So it becomes interesting to be 
well informed about one's own home, one's 
own State, its rocky backbone and its clothing 
of soil and sand. 

This is how Geology concerns New Jersey 
and its people. The great Atlantic Slope of the 
continent has two "provinces," the Appa- 
lachian Province and the Coastal Plain. New 
Jersey rests in both, for the line between them 
crosses the State diagonally from about Car- 
teret and Woodbridge, in Middlesex County, 
where the Arthur Kill separates New Jersey 
from Staten Island, which is part of New York 
State, and runs to Trehton, in Mercer County, 
on the Delaware River, which stream divides 
New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 

The great Appalachian Province has four 
divisions, these zones following a general direc- 
tion from northeast to southwest, and New 
Jersey is represented in three of them. Farthest 
back, or to the northwest, is (i) the Appala- 



chian Plateau, and in this are found the Catskill 
Mountains, the Pocono Plateau, the Allegheny 
Plateau, etc., but it does not occur in New 
Jersey. 

Then comes, moving down toward the sea- 
shore, (x) the Appalachian Valley a broad 
belt of valleys and subordinate ridges, of which 
the Wallpack Ridge (which guards the very 
farthest boundary of the State and forms the 
eastern wall of the Delaware River) and the 
long Kittatinny Mountain, sometimes called 
Blue Mountain, and the Kittatinny Valley are 
the names that concern New Jersey. 

The next division is (3) the Appalachian 
Mountains, represented in New Jersey by the 
Highlands, but farther south in other States by 
the mountains lying east of the Cumberland 
and the Shenandoah valleys. Last of all of the 
four zones of this Appalachian Province of 
the Atlantic Slope is (4) the Piedmont Plateau, 
the hilly lower land lying east of the Highlands 
and the Appalachian Mountains and between 
them and the Coastal Plain, which, it will be 
recalled, is the eastern or shoreward of the two 
great provinces of the Atlantic Slope. This 
Piedmont Plateau in New Jersey is essentially 
the region of the red shale and sandstone with 
associated traprock ridges, the Triassic area. In 
this State much of it is so low and level as 
rather to deserve the name of plain than pla- 
teau, except that in Hunterdon County a part 
of it is a true plateau. 

Staying now within the State and confining 
our geology to it, we have learned that New 
Jersey itself has four distinct zones or strips 
that run across the State, roughly from north- 
east to southwest; and every citizen or resident, 
proud of the State as he should be, may quickly 
learn them. Terms should not deter. Triassic 
means only the third layer of rock, and topog- 



49 



NEW JERSEY 



raphy is only the surface and its variations that 
you see as you go around. The "Coastal Plain" 
then becomes only the sand of the shore and the 
low-lying pinelands back of it. These four zones 
of the State may be set out thus : 

i. The Appalachian zone, including the Kit- 
tatinny Mountain and the Kittatinny 
Valley. 

ii. The Highlands. 

in. The Red Sandstone area or Triassic Low- 
land, 
iv. The Coastal Plain. 

These belts differ characteristically in their 
geographic features, their underlying bedrock 
geology, and in their natural resources as well. 
So that New Jersey has as great a variety of 
physiographic and climatologic attractions as 
any other State on the Atlantic Slope can offer. 
These four belts are to be considered in their 
order, beginning at the State's western limits, 
where the Delaware River cuts it off from the 
rest of the continent, and ending with the east- 
ern edge, bounded by the salty Atlantic. 

The first zone of mountain and valley lies in 
the extreme northwestern part of New Jersey, 
embracing the northwestern portions of the 
counties of Sussex and Warren, and has its 
eastern boundary extending from a point near 
Unionville, Orange County, New York, to the 
bend of the Delaware River near Belvidere, 
Warren County, New Jersey. It is a country of 
strongly marked ridges and valleys whose 
trend is northeast to southwest. The long, 
even-crested Blue or Kittatinny Mountain walls 
it in on the western edge, except that beyond 
it is the ridge of the Wallpack along the Del- 
aware. The Kittatinny Mountain comes across 
from New York State, where it is known as the 
Shawangunk (shong-gum) Mountain, and 
extends across into Pennsylvania, where it is 
also called the Kittatinny. 

Here, where the Kittatinny Mountain crosses 
over into Pennsylvania, the Delaware River 
trenches the ridge, this being known as the 
Delaware Water Gap. To the southeast of the 
Kittatinny is the Great Valley, the Kittatinny 
Valley, which extends southwestward from 
Quarry ville, Owens and Glenwood, in Sussex 
County, on the northern boundary of the 



State, and crosses the Delaware River near the 
towns of Portland, Pennsylvania, and Colum- 
bia and Delaware, in Warren County, New 
Jersey. This Blue or Kittatinny Ridge is sup- 
ported by a steeply upturned layer of quartzite, 
a strong rock of Silurian age, which may be 
very plainly seen as one passes through the 
Water Gap. The Gap itself has been slowly 
sculptured out by the river, by much the same 
processes that may be witnessed going on to- 
day. Frost, rain, and seasonal temperature 
changes have all done their part in loosening 
the great blocks of quartzite which lie against 
the mountainside, ready to be carried away by 
the river. 

The valleys of this area, on the other hand, 
are underlaid by limestone and slate, rocks 
which are decidedly inferior to the quartzite 
of the mountain ridge in their resistance to 
erosion. The limestone is of a light gray color 
and is Cambro-Ordovician in geologic age. It 
is usually found to contain, besides calcium 
carbonate, the carbonate of magnesium in vary- 
ing amount, and thus it is a magnesian lime- 
stone, or at times a true dolomite. The presence 
of this rock gives rise to a large and flourishing 
cement industry, especially in the vicinity of 
the Delaware. Other belts of this limestone 
near Phillipsburg are also very extensively and 
actively worked. 

Limestone and dolomite are also good build- 
ing stones, and as such this rock appears in the 
construction of many public and private build- 
ings throughout the State. It is also used in 
crushed form for concrete construction and the 
surfacing of roads and walks. The slate of this 
valley is dark gray and of Ordovician age. It 
has been highly compressed and folded during 
mountain-building periods in the remote past, 
and its slaty cleavage is sharp and highly 
inclined. At certain localities within this belt 
excellent slate is obtained; the largest workings 
of the belt are at Bangor, Pennsylvania. New- 
ton, in Sussex County, has afforded in the past 
a quantity of good slate. 

The Highland zone or belt includes a wide 
strip extending in the same northeast to south- 
west direction, including the northwest part 
of Passaic County, crossing the county of Mor- 
ris and including the southeast portion of 



NATURAL RESOURCES 



Warren County and the northwest corner of 
Hunterdon County. Its southeastern border 
extends from Mahwah in Bergen County, 
which is adjacent to Suffern, New York, to 
near Riegelsville, Warren County, on the Del- 
aware River. 

The rocks underlying this area are for the 
most part of granitic types and darker colored 
varieties, having an arrangement of their com- 
ponent minerals in bands, which gives the 
rocks the name of gneiss. They are very old. A 
study of the stage of atomic disintegration 
shown by some of the radioactive minerals in 
them indicates that these rocks had already 
solidified from a state of fusion some i, zoo- 
mill ion years ago. They are Pre-Cambrian, 
according to the geologic classification, which 
means that the sedimentary rocks to the north- 
west and to the southeast were composed of 
materials largely derived from them and were 
laid down upon their deeply eroded surface. 

The narrow valleys in this Highlands belt, 
including the Pequest, Musconetcong, and Ger- 
man valleys, are all underlaid by these later 



sediments and the limestones and slates of 
Cambrian and Ordovician age. There is, how- 
ever, one very ancient limestone deposit which 
is shown in the Highlands that is vastly older, 
being intruded by the granite arid other gneisses 
in this area, and is therefore the oldest rock in 
this belt. This is a fine-to-coarse-grained white 
crystalline calcite marble, known as the Frank- 
lin limestone. This formation appears to have 
had a sedimentary origin, though the surface 
upon which it was deposited is now lost to 
sight. 

The Franklin limestone is altogether unique 
in that it carries, in Sussex County, two very 
large ore deposits, containing extremely varied 
mineral compounds, 1x3 species of minerals 
having been identified among the products of 
this locality. These deposits are at Franklin and 
Ogdensburg, and the ore itself consists princi- 
pally of oxides of zinc, iron, and manganese, 
with zinc silicate, all of which compounds, 
though common here, are uncommon or rare 
in these associations in other parts of the world. 

The crystalline rocks of the Highlands also 




ONE OF THE HIGHEST STRETCHES OF THE PALISADES CLIFFS 
Height 540 feet 



NEW JERSEY 




WATERFALL IN THE STOKES STATE FOREST 



carry magnetic iron ore (magnetite) in quan- 
tity. This has been mined here since 1710. The 
mountains of northern New Jersey were at one 
time a great source of iron ore. The principal 
mines were located in these crystalline high- 
lands, and include 89 mines which have pro- 
duced magnetite ore, some of the largest being 
the Andover, Byram, Dickerson, Green Pond, 
Hacklebarney, Hibernia, Hurdtown, Mount 
Hope, Mount Pleasant, Ogden, Oxford, Rich- 
ard, Ringwood, Sterling and Teabo mines, all 
in Morris and Sussex counties. These two coun- 
ties were the very center of the industry in 
America. 

One of these Jersey mines, the Hurdtown, at 
the time of its closing in 1898, had reached a 
depth of 6,000 feet on the slope or 1,600 feet 
vertically. The Dickerson has been called the 
oldest iron mine in America. The spathic iron 
ore of Mine Hill, in Litchfield County, Con- 
necticut, dates from about 1750. There have 
also been a number of mines which have oper- 
ated on the brown iron ore, limonite, in a 
number of counties. The maximum year's out- 
put of iron ore for the State was 931,762. tons 



in 1881. In 1879 there were 16 blast furnaces 
operating in the State and using home ores 
almost entirely. There is now little iron min- 
ing in New Jersey, depth of operations and 
competition of the abundant near-surface red 
hematite ore of the Lake Superior region hav- 
ing rendered it unprofitable. 

Some other small mineral deposits exist in 
this belt of the State. Among these the serpen- 
tine asbestos of Montville, Morris County, is 
worthy of note. Though the product is of ex- 
cellent quality, the deposit was small and soon 
exhausted. No anthracite or bituminous coal 
has so far been located in New Jersey, there 
being no Carboniferous rocks within its bor- 
ders; and although there is some lignite coal 
in the strata of the Coastal Plain, the lignite 
layers are poor and thin. 

The next subdivision to be considered is that 
generally known as the Triassic Lowland . This 
area is bounded on the northwest along a line 
running from the northern State line west of 
Nyack, New York, southwestward through 
Bernardsville, in Somerset County, then through 
Flemington, in Hunterdon County, to the Del- 



NATURAL RESOURCES 



53 




CLAY PIT AT MAURER IN MIDDLESEX COUNTY 



aware River just below Phillipsburg, in Warren 
County. To the southeast it is bounded by the 
Hudson River, the hills of northern Staten Is- 
land, and the clays and sands which overlap the 
Triassic along a line from Bonhamton, in Mid- 
dlesex County, to Trenton. 

The Triassic Lowland is an area of gently un- 
dulating topography, with the ridges of the 
Watchung Mountains and the Palisades stand- 
ing up in somewhat sharp relief. The rocks are 
for the most part red shale, but in some places, 
as north of Newark and along the Delaware 
River above Trenton, reddish brown and white 
sandstones have in the past supplied the mate- 
rial for the "brownstone fronts" comprising 
the many rows of residences of the older type 
in New York and Philadelphia, and for the 
construction of railroad^bridges, culverts, and 
other public works. The main lines of the Penn- 
sylvania and the Baltimore & Ohio railroads 
traverse this area of red rocks and soils length- 
wise. Hence the erroneous impression often 
gained by travelers on these railroad lines that 
New Jersey is "flat and red." They see nothing 
of its wonderful uplands. 



The rocks of this belt have attracted much 
popular attention on account of the fact that 
the footprints of lizards and of the dinosaurs, 
the ancient extinct reptiles, are occasionally 
found in them. The most productive locality 
for these fossil remains in New Jersey so far 
discovered is at Towaco, in Morris County. 

The ridges of the Palisades and of the Watch- 
ungs are volcanic in origin, the present hills 
marking the resistant edges of slightly tilted 
lava flows. The ridges are barriers opposed to 
east-west transportation to some extent, and 
especially along the Hudson their physio- 
graphic effect and reaction upon mankind are 
very pronounced. The chief economic product 
of these ridges is traprock or basalt, quarried 
at Bound Brook, Plainfield, Scotch Plains, Sum- 
mit, Montclair, Orange, and West Paterson. 
This rock is crushed and used for roads and con- 
crete, but its somber cast of color and rusty 
weathering render it unfit for general use as a 
building stone. The Watchungs and Palisades 
have furnished much timber, and are serving as 
sites for numbers of handsome modern resi- 
dences, 






54 



NEW JERSEY 



Copper has been mined in the Triassic rocks 
in considerable quantity, though all of the 
mines are now closed, since the removal of the 
richest ores has left only low-grade deposits 
that cannot compete with the great deposits of 
Lake Superior. The old copper mines were 
worked principally in Revolutionary times. 
The Schuyler mine at Arlington, north of 
Newark, furnished copper to make bronze for 
the cannon of the hard-pressed Continental 
army. Another mine extends under the Raritan 
River at the Johnson & Johnson factory in New 
Brunswick, and its tunnels have repeatedly 
been encountered in the construction of the 
buildings on the lower campus of Rutgers Uni- 
versity. 

The old Griggstown mine, famous locally for 
the numerous natural copper compounds and 
other minerals in great variety, can still be 
found not far from the town of Rocky Hill, 
Somerset County; and the American mine near 
Pluckemin, Somerset County, on the slope of 
the First Watchung ridge, was worked into the 
present century. The exploratory work done 



by Thomas A. Edison in the search for copper 
in the deposit near Menlo Park, Middlesex 
County, can still be traced. It might also be 
mentioned that native gold has been found in 
very small quantities in the rocks at three local- 
ities in the State, and native silver at a number 
of places; these metals are minor constituents 
of the copper deposits. 

The Coastal Plain on the southeast, the last 
zone under consideration, comprises half cf 
the area of the State. In contrast to the north- 
ern and western parts, it is comparatively 
featureless in its physiographic relief. Its north- 
western border lies along a line from Wood- 
bridge, Middlesex County, southwestward 
through South River to Trenton, beyond which 
point the Delaware River, on the State line, is 
its western limit. This plain spans 50 miles at 
its widest part and is approximately 100 miles 
long. Its highest elevations rise to nearly 400 
feet in the hills near Matawan, Monmouth 
County, while its southern portion is practic- 
ally without recognizable features rising above 
the general level. Its outer margin is fringed 




TARGET ROCK, BERGEN COUNTY 
Part of a pillar fallen from Palisades centuries ago 



NATURAL RESOURCES 



55 




GLACIAL FORMATION ON SOUTH MOUNTAIN IN ESSEX COUNTY 
Spot in County Reservation of rare interest to nature lovers 



NEW JERSEY 



with an almost continuous succession of 
beaches and bars, the work of wave action, 
mostly accomplished in time of winter storms. 

These attractive white sand beaches are 
occupied by famous summer resorts, among 
them Atlantic City, Asbury Park, and Cape 
May. The northern extremity of the bar is 
terminated by Sandy Hook, a large hooked spit 
caused by storm waves sweeping into Lower 
New York Bay. The Navesink at Atlantic 
Highlands is a sea cliff of former times before 
the bar was built up. It is the highest point to 
be viewed from the sea along the entire coast 
south of Maine, and affords a fortunate loca- 
tion for lighthouses guarding the entrance to 
one of the world's greatest harbors. 

The Coastal Plain is also marked by a great 
number of lagoons or estuaries behind the bars. 
All of the major rivers of the coast in this area 
show old gorges and channels now sunken far 
below sea level. The Hudson River has such a 
gorge extending for 150 miles east of Sandy 
Hook, to the edge of the continental shelf and 
the border of the very deep ocean. Exploration 
of this gorge by sounding has shown the 
presence of an ancient waterfall which is said 
to be 1000 feet high. 

The Coastal Plain is composed of a series of 
sedimentary beds, Cretaceous in age, of sandy 
and clayey composition, which are found to 
have a slight dip or tilt of about 50 feet per 
mile toward the ocean. As the surface of this 
area is actually higher in elevation to the east- 
ward, near the ocean, this brings different beds 
of the sediments to the surface over different 
parts of the area, with a similar distribution of 
the economic deposits contained in these beds. 

The low western border of the Coastal Plain 
is underlaid by sands and clays, which extend 
to the east as far as the hills near Freehold and 
Matawan, in Monmouth County. The lower- 



most is a coarse white sand extensively dug for 
molding purposes. Above this sand and out- 
cropping just to the east of it are the Wood- 
bridge clays. These have for years been dug in 
the vicinity of the town of that name and at 
many other places in Middlesex County and 
are especially desirable for making the finest 
quality of firebrick and tile. The Cliffwood 
clays outcrop in a belt including Keyport and 
Englishtown, in Monmouth County, and 
points southwest therefrom. From these sandy 
clays red brick is made. 

Following along on the east, and occupying 
the higher land from Atlantic Highlands 
through Freehold, is the belt of marls and red 
sand which afford the rich soil which supports 
the wonderful market-garden industry of this 
section of New Jersey. The marl is a greenish 
colored sandy soil, rich in lime, phosphorus, 
nitrogen, and iron, thus being in itself an ex- 
cellent fertilizer. The southernmost part of the 
Coastal Plain is composed of sandy strata. Its 
surface is very even and flat except in the sand 
dunes along the coast. It is covered largely by 
a pine-barren flora. Certain horizons furnish 
glass sand of a high degree of purity, as in the 
vicinity of Vineland, in Cumberland County. 

The Coastal Plain has excellent supplies of 
artesian water, which on account of the dip of 
the strata are tapped by wells 300 feet deep 
near South Amboy and at from 1300 to 1500 
feet at Asbury Park and Atlantic City. The con- 
ditions which have given rise to the great 
petroleum and natural-gas fields in Texas and 
Louisiana seem however to be absent in coastal 
New Jersey, and in the higher parts of the State 
there are none of the favorable oil-bearing 
rocks. Unless in small and probably negligible 
amounts, there is no oil or gas in the older 
rocks of New Jersey for much the same reason 
that there is probably no coal. 



NATURAL RESOURCES 



57 




HOW AND WHEN WAS THIS BOWLDER LANDED UPON SOUTH MOUNTAIN? 




THE BROAD, FLAT BEACH AT ATLANTIC CITY 



NEW JERSEY 



GEOGRAPHY 



THE geologic and topographic features of 
New Jersey are so interrelated that it is 
difficult to cover separately the geog- 
raphy of the State. 

The greater part of the Kittatinny Mountain 
and Valley district and the Highlands lies with- 
in the northwestern quadrant of the State, and 
includes the counties of Sussex and Warren, 
most of Passaic and Morris, and the northern 
portions of Hunterdon. The area of the Kitta- 
tinny and Highlands sections is approximately 
1,650 square miles, the land being generally 
elevated. Near the New York State line, on the 
north, the Kittatinny Mountain, a remarkably 
level-topped and narrow range, rough and 
rocky, and nearly all wooded, reaches a maxi- 
mum height of 1,804 feet at High Point. The 
Kittatinny Valley lies between the Kittatinny 
Mountain ridge on the northwest and the 
Highlands on the southeast, trending northeast 
to southwesterly, and is from 10 to 15 miles 
wide. It is characterized by its high, rolling 
hills and minor valleys and its pleasing land- 
scapes and beautiful farming country, which is 
continuous on the northeast with the valley 
of Orange County in New York, and to the 
southwest stretches away into the great Cum- 
berland Valley in Pennsylvania. 

From Delaware Water Gap to Belvidere, the 
Delaware River crosses the valley transversely 
in a narrow trench, whose bottom, at Belvidere, 
is about 2.2.0 feet above sea level. Along the 
New York State line the elevation of the valley 
varies from 400 feet at the Wallkill River to 
1,000 feet near the foot of the Kittatinny 
Mountain. Two well-defined sub-valleys tra- 
verse this district longitudinally, the principal 
one lying from two and one-half to five miles 
from the northwest side, while the second lies 
on the east side, close to the foot of the High- 
lands plateau. Between the two sub-valleys are 
broken and irregular shaped ridges, attaining 
in places a height of about 1,000 feet. 

The main drainage streams of the Kittatinny 
Valley are Papakating Creek and the Wallkill 
River on the northeast, and the Paulinskill and 



Pequest Rivers on the southwest, the last two 
discharging into the Delaware River. There 
are numerous lakes and ponds scattered through 
the valley, Sw arts wood, Culvers and Owassa 
being the largest. The bottom lands of the Kit- 
tatinny Valley are of limestone formation, and 
they are fertile and well cultivated. The higher 
lands are slate, and as a rule are not so well 
fitted for agriculture. 

The Highlands plateau lies to the southeast 
of Kittatinny Valley, and has the same trend, 
in a general northeast to southwest direction. 
Its surface is hilly and is made up of several 
parallel ridges, separated by deep and narrow 
valleys. The valleys are smooth, cleared and in 
farms. Much of the northern half of this dis- 
trict is in forest. Bowlders, bare ledges of rock, 
and drift gravel, the remains of the glacial 
period, predominate. The southern half of the 
district is generally free from these rocky for- 
mations, timber is relatively scarce, and the 
land is mostly fertile. 

Entering the State from New York, with a 
width of about 18 miles, the Highlands section 
has a maximum elevation, near Vernon Town- 
ship, in Sussex County, of nearly 1,500 feet. On 
reaching the Delaware River, over the northern 
portion of Hunterdon County, the region is 
depressed below 600 feet elevation. The surface 
of the Highlands is broken by numerous distinct 
ranges and valleys, chief of which are the Cen- 
tral Highland Plateau and the German-Long- 
wood Valley. The diversities of the surface pro- 
duce numerous watersheds, those draining the 
largest areas being the Ramapo on the north- 
east, the Rockaway on the east, and the Mus- 
conetcong on the southwest. 

The elevation of the watersheds is sufficient 
to afford gravity delivery of water, and their 
nearness to the populous cities of northeastern 
New Jersey is exceptionally favorable for fur- 
nishing valuable water power and public water 
supply. The northern portion of the Highlands 
contains several lakes, some of the latter being 
of marked beauty. The largest, Lake Hopat- 
cong, covers an area of about 1,500 acres. 



NATURAL RESOURCES 



59 




GLACIAL ROCK SLIDE NEAR WANAQUE 
Banding of the rock and glacial striae do not coincide in direction. Glacial movement was up to the left 




GLACIAL ROCK SLIDE NEAR WANAQUE 
A great contrast to the view above. Smooth floor polished by the ice movement carrying debris across 



6o 



NEW JERSEY 



Greenwood, Macopin, Splitrock, Green Pond, 
Wawayanda and Budd lakes are among the 
more important of these natural upland sheets 
of water. There are many developed or man- 
made lakes in the State, such as Union, Sunset, 
Mohawk, Arrowhead, Lenape, Kittatinny, 
Cranberry, Mountain, Beaver, Indian, not to 
mention the many reservoirs. In this way 
several unsightly swamps have become attrac- 
tive sheets of water. 

The subdivision of New Jersey known as the 
Piedmont or Red Sandstone Plain, so named 
from the character of its soil, includes the 
counties of Essex, Hudson, and Union, most of 
Bergen, Hunterdon, Middlesex, Passaic, and 
Somerset, and restricted portions of Mercer and 
Morris. This region lies immediately southeast 
of the Highlands section, extending from Ber- 
gen County on the northeast, southwestward 
to the Delaware River. Its extreme length is 67 
miles, and at the Delaware River it is 30 miles 
wide; it has an area of approximately 1,500 
square miles. At the New York State line the, 
district has a breadth of about 15 miles, and it 
broadens to slightly more than 30 miles at the 
Delaware River. 

The surface of this district is broken by 
ridges of traprock hills and mountains, none of 
the latter attaining any marked elevation. The 
traprock ridges, known as the Palisades, 
Watchung, Sourland, Cushetunk, and other 
mountain ranges, abruptly rise above the gen- 
eral level. They are still heavily forested, 
whereas the Sandstone country is nearly cleared 
and in farms. These mountains rise 400 to 900 
feet above sea level. 

The Red Sandstone Plain is the most densely 
populated division of the State, the large cities 
of Newark, Jersey City, Paterson and Elizabeth 
being situated in the northeastern part. The 
soil generally is fertile and highly cultivated. 
The principal watersheds are the Hackensack 
and the lower part of the Passaic, in the north- 
east, and the Raritan in the central and south- 
ern portions. The southwestern part of the dis- 
trict is drained by several swiftly moving 
streams that discharge into the Delaware River. 

The -'Coastal Plain zone includes all the 
country southeast of the Triassic Sandstone 
area and borders the ocean. It is 100 miles long 



from Sandy Hook across to Salem on the Dela- 
ware, and is 2.0 to 30 miles wide. The surface is 
hilly in part, but with gentle slopes, except 
where some of the streams have cut their way 
through earthy beds and formed deep-sided 
stream valleys. 

The southern interior is essentially an im- 
mense plain of 4400 square miles, the greater 
portion less than 100 feet elevation. The drain- 
age systems of the southern part of the State are 
very simple, the streams flowing southeast to 
the ocean or northwest to the Delaware River. 
The divide begins near the Navesink Highlands 
in the extreme northeastern part of Monmouth 
County, runs westward for about iz miles, and 
thence extends in a generally southwesterly 
direction, passing through Monmouth, Ocean, 
Burlington, Camden, Gloucester, Salem, and 
Cumberland counties, with short spurs extend- 
ing eastward and westward in the southwestern 
counties. In its extreme northern portion the 
divide has an elevation ranging from zoo to 391 
feet and there is a secondary maximum eleva- 
tion of about 370 feet in the central part of 
Monmouth County. 

The Manasquan, Metedeconk, Toms, Mul- 
lica, and Great Egg Harbor Rivers, with their 
tributaries, drain most of the southeastern 
slope of the southern interior, while the ex- 
treme southern portion is drained principally 
by the Maurice River, flowing into the Dela- 
ware Bay. Although the streams of southern 
New Jersey have a relatively small fall, their 
even flow produces numerous fine waterpowers, 
several being on the Mullica River. 

The soil of the southern interior is made up 
of alternating beds of sand, gravel, clay, and 
marl. The clay and marl region on the whole 
is the most fertile and productive part of the 
State. The region known as the "Pines" com- 
prises the higher parts of the western and all 
of the eastern slope south of Long Branch. It 
is triangular in shape, beginning at a point in 
the northeast and widening to 50 miles at Del- 
aware Bay, its length being a little less than 100 
miles. Pine forests, pure or mixed with oak, in- 
terspersed with swamps, cover the greater por- 
tion of this region, and only a small part of it is 
under cultivation, being predominantly sandy. 

The seacoast section includes the narrow 



NATURAL RESOURCES 



strip of sand beaches and tide marshes extend- 
ing from Sandy Hook to Monmouth Beach, in 
the extreme northeastern portion of Mon- 
mouth County, and from the head of Barnegat 
Bay to Cape May City, together with that part 
of the mainland of Monmouth County that 
borders directly upon the Atlantic Ocean. The 
sand beaches are separated from the marshes 
by a series of bays and sounds, connected by a 



network of narrow and crooked channels, 
through which boats of light draft may pass. 
The beaches vary in width from a few rods to 
one-half mile, and are cut through by numer- 
ous inlets at intervals, ranging from more than 
2.0 miles on the north to about two miles near 
Cape May City. Most of the well-known health 
and pleasure ocean resorts of New Jersey are 
along this strip of sand beaches. 




RAMAPO RIVER AT DARLINGTON 



62. 



NEW JERSEY 



CLIMATE 



THE Highlands and the Kittatinny Valley 
of the State of New Jersey are far enough 
to the north to lie fairly well within the 
main storm tracks of the country, and as a 
result the rains and snows occur in normally 
ample and regular supply. The summer pre- 
cipitation, the heaviest of the year, usually 
comes as an attendant upon thunderstorms. 
This period of maximum rain shades off to an 
autumn minimum in October and November. 
Much of the precipitation in the winter 
months is snow, with some sleet and ice 
storms. In these northern sections snow to a 
depth of 2.0 inches sometimes occurs in one 
storm, and good sleighing for several weeks is 
frequent, when the ground is bare over much 
of the southern half of the State. 

The rugged irregularities of contour of this 
part of the State naturally reflect corresponding 
variations of temperature conditions. The 
extremes of summer heat are somewhat milder 
than those of lower elevations and latitude, 
but the extremes of winter cold are much more 
severe. The modifying influence of the ocean is 
largely ineffectual in tempering the cold waves 
that sweep over the northern regions. On the 
other hand, the long periods of oppressive 
heat in the summer are somewhat ameliorated 
in this division of the State. The extreme tem- 
perature range, which may be anticipated as 
not being extraordinary, lies from 100 degrees 
above to zo degrees below zero. 

The Red Sandstone Plain very frequently 
experiences weather conditions of either a con- 
tinental or oceanic type. It is somewhat 
protected by the barriers of the Appalachians to 
the northwest, and not all the great force of 
the cyclonic movements across the northern 
portions of the country reach this region. 
Storms that travel northeastward along the 
Atlantic Coast are also warded off slightly by 
the outlying coastal plain and barrier islands. 
The temperature and rainfall conditions are 
much the same as in the southern interior. It 
is slightly warmer than the Highlands, with a 
lessened range of extremes. 



The daily temperature changes in this region 
are least noticeable during the middle of July, 
but previous thereto the regular gain in heat is 
readily apparent and constant. After the middle 
of July the decline in warmth becomes notice- 
able. The time from about January 10 to Feb- 
ruary 10 is the coldest season of the year. Per- 
iods of pronounced moisture and warmth from 
the ocean sometimes occur, but are Jess intense 
than in the southern interior. Occasionally the 
most severe winter conditions entirely over- 
spread this section and persist for two to three 
weeks at a time, and the opposite extreme 
sometimes occurs, when the ground remains 
snow covered but a few hours at a time during 
an entire winter and when streams and ponds 
are unfrozen. 

The relative humidity of this region, the 
eastern portion of which contains a great con- 
centration of population and large numbers of 
manufacturing plants, is a subject of much 
popular interest, especially in the warm periods 
of the year. There are conjunctions of excessive 
urban heat and oceanic moisture that occur 
some few times each summer, lasting for a day 
or two, that interfere appreciably with manu- 
facturing processes and in rare instances cause 
physical prostration. 

The Atlantic Ocean on the east and Delaware 
Bay on the southwest exert a marked influence 
on the climate of southern New Jersey, the 
modifying effects of the ocean being most pro- 
nounced for a distance of from five to ten miles 
inland from the coast line. 

The entire southern interior shows but slight 
variation in mean temperature, the difference 
being about four degrees both midwinter and 
midsummer between northern and southern 
sections of this division of the State. There are, 
along the divide between eastern and western 
drainage, various localities where radiation is 
notably great on clear, quiet nights, especially 
in the "Pines" and on the cranberry bogs, re- 
sulting in early and late frosts. 

Rainfall is relatively constant and fairly 



NATURAL RESOURCES 




WINTER SCENE IN UNION COUNTY 




TROPICAL SCENE? 
No. Summer in Stokes State Forest, Sussex County 



NEW JERSEY 



equally distributed, both as to season and lo- 
cation. There is a marked dry season in the fall 
of the year, but the deficiency is not great 
enough to warrant a comparison with the dry 
seasons of many of the western sections of the 
country. In extreme south portions there are 
many winters without appreciable snow, and 
occasionally this condition prevails over the 
whole southern region. 
As to temperature, the seacoast is usually 



much affected by its proximity to the ocean, 
with lesser ranges of daily, monthly, and an- 
nual extremes. The extreme heat of early sum- 
mer lags in its advance, owing to the modifying 
oceanic influence, and the occasional intense 
heat of the interior does not approach the 
shore. Thus the almost continuous sandy beach 
shore from Sandy Hook to Cape May affords 
playground recreation for millions of vaca- 
tionists from all over the country. 




GLEN IN STOKES STATE FOREST, SUSSEX COUNTY 



NATURAL RESOURCES 



FOREST RESOURCES 



THE forests of New Jersey have contributed 
largely to the development of the State. 
There was a vast storehouse of forest 
wealth and a thriving lumber business in the 
early days, and the growth of the State has 
gone hand in hand with the exploitation of 
this natural wealth. The forests now reach out 
into nearly every industry in the State. 

In common with the general forest history 
of America, the use of New Jersey's forest re- 
sources has been wasteful. The best was imme- 
diately usable and was taken; the remainder had 
no immediate value and was ignored. In addi- 
tion, the forest cover was stripped from many 
areas for settlement or agriculture. Because of 
these conditions, the State's forest history is a 
story of wasteful use and of indifference to the 
damage done to the remaining timber, prima- 
rily by fire. 

There are 1,000,000 acres within the State 
naturally maintained as forest areas. There is 
a "hardwood" region of three-eighths of this 
area lying north and west of a line from Sea- 
bright to Glassboro to Bridgeton and a "pine" 
region of five-eighths of this area lying south 
and east of the same line. 

The hardwood region contains deciduous 
species such as oak, chestnut, maple, hickory, 
beech, tulip poplar, ash, birch, gum, and elm, 
with small quantities of the conifers, such as 
white and pitch pine, red cedar, and hemlock. 
The pine region contains pitch pine, shortleaf 
pine, and white cedar, with considerable oak 
on the better soils. 

Of the whole forest area nearly seven-tenths 
has been so recently cut over or so severely 
burned that the tree growth on it, while po- 
tentially valuable in three species that make 
good timber, is yet too small to be merchant- 
able. In the south Jersey section the soils are 
mostly natural pine land, and it may be as- 
sumed that pine will largely replace the hard- 
woods and be the future crop. 

The remaining three-tenths of the total for- 
est area contains merchantable timber, esti- 
mated at i, 640,000,000 board feet of saw timber, 



poles, ties, and piling, and 5,000,000 cords of 
fuel wood. This comprises all the hardwoods, 
with white pine, hemlock, yellow pine, and 
cedar. There is four times as much pine as 
cedar, but the merchantable yield from cedar 
is far higher than from the pine because it is 
usable to extremely small sizes. 

The merchantable timber of the State has a 
stumpage value of $15,000,000, the yearly cut 
is $1,000,000, and the market value of the prod- 
ucts, as sawed lumber, poles, ties, and cord- 
wood, is $10,000,000. 

If the tide marsh and beaches be excluded, 
New Jersey's 1,000,000 acres of forest represent 
46 per cent of the land. The fundamental prin- 
ciple of forestry is to encourage timber growing 
only on land not more valuable for other use. 
The forest, unlike other crops, gives fertility 
to the soil. 

Possibly one-quarter of the forest area is 
suitable for agriculture. But for years such 
forest land as has been cleared for agricultural 
or other development has been closely balanced 
by abandoned fields reverting to woodland. 
There are 400,000 acres of deserted farms in 
New Jersey, and the need is for more farmers 
and not more farms. The present forest land 
should anticipate no other use until it has 
grown at least one crop of timber. 

New Jersey consumes 600,000,000 board feet 
of timber annually, of which half is sawed 
lumber used in industries and for construction, 
and half is rough form used for poles, ties, pil- 
ing, mine timbers, posts, and fuel. The annual 
output of the sawmills in the State is not over 
one-tenth of the sawed lumber consumed, leav- 
ing nine-tenths to be imported. On the other 
hand, about two-thirds of the round and rough 
timber used in the State is produced locally. 
Very little New Jersey timber is exported. 

The forest industry of the State is necessarily 
at low ebb, and the total production small as 
compared with the capacity of the State's for- 
est soils. The products are of low quality in 
most instances, partly because of the inferior 
quality of much of the standing timber as the 



66 



NEW JERSEY 




A MATURE STAND OF MERCHANTABLE HARDWOOD TIMBER IN NORTHERN NEW JERSEY 




AN OLD "WOODS ROAD" IN NORTHERN NEW JERSEY 



NATURAL RESOURCES 



result of the recurrent fires and the continual 
culling of the woodlands, and also because of 
the nature of the operations, for New Jersey's 
lumbering and sawmill work is of necessity 
temporary and intermittent. There are between 
2.00 and 300 sawmills operating in the State, 
employing 1,000 men. Not less than 2.00 other 
operators are producing ties, poles, posts, fuel 
wood, piling, and a variety of other rough and 
unsawed material, using 1,000 men. Also thou- 
sands of farmers get out cordwood, ties, posts, 
and other products during their slack work 
period in winter. 

The personnel and location of the lumbering 
and logging operations are continually chang- 
ing, and most of the operators are dependent 
upon other lines of work, such as farming, con- 
tracting, and dealing. Few mills or operations 
run steadily throughout the year. 

The wood-using industries of the State im- 
port the greater part of their timber and lum- 
ber. There are hundreds of such industries, 
producing agricultural implements, baskets, 
boxes and crates, car construction, caskets, 
chairs, cigar and tobacco boxes, electrical ap- 
paratus, elevators, house fixtures, furniture, 
handles, machinery, musical instruments, pat- 
terns and flasks, planing-mill products, profes- 
sional and scientific instruments, refrigerators, 
sash, doors, blinds and general millwork, ships 
and boatbuilding, shuttles and spools and bob- 
bins, tanks, trunks, vehicles and vehicle parts, 
woodenware and novelties, barrels and casks, 
excelsior, matches, toys, bungs and faucets, 
rollers, paving blocks, sporting and athletic 
goods, shoe lasts, treated timbers, ties, and a 
variety of minor products. 

Forest products play their part in many ways 
in maintaining industrial or commercial life. 
The transportation and communication facili- 
ties are vitally dependent upon the woodlands 
for ties, piling, posts^ poles, and fenders. The 
industrial, commercial, and agricultural inter- 
ests need baskets, boxes, crates, barrels, and 
other containers, besides excelsior and packing 
materials. The mining industry requires ties, 
timbers, and other woodland products. Smelter 
poles, charcoal, and various special forms are 
required in other industries. 

Forestry bears an important relation to the 



public welfare in the field of recreation. Year 
by year the number of those using the wood- 
lands for their playgrounds increases. 

A reorganized Forest Fire Service took the 
field in October, 192.3, under which rapid im- 
provement has been made in providing ade- 
quate protection from fire in the woodlands. 
There are 1,000 fires on an average reported 
annually, caused about equally by railroad 
operation, smokers, brush burning and camp- 
fires. The average annual fire loss in merchant- 
able timber and improved property is a third of 
a million dollars. 

An average annual merchantable growth of 
300 board feet per acre is possible when the for- 
ests have been protected from fire and made 
efficient under forestry management. When the 
15 or more years have given a fully productive 
stand of timber, it can thereafter be maintained 
as such. The State's 1,000,000 acres of forest 
land would then furnish much of its timber 
needs. 

The State maintains a Forestry Division in its 
Department of Conservation and Development 
with power to acquire and manage land for 
forestry use, to enforce the legislation for 
forest protection and development, and to 
advise and assist the private owner in scientific 
forest management. Under a forester the general 
development of the State forests and the forest 
fire service are handled by a permanent force of 
40 technical foresters and fire wardens. There is 
a large corps of local fire wardens, lookout 
watchmen, and rangers. 

More than 2.00 owners have undertaken for- 
estry work in their woodlands, these control- 
ling one-tenth of the forest area of the State. 
There have been over 1,000 acres of open land 
planted to forest trees. State forests practically 
support themselves from the income they 
produce. 

As the State must lead the way in the redemp- 
tion of the vast area of idle land, (if it is to be 
recovered for use within this generation,) the 
department is working on a program for State 
ownership and management of not less than 
100,000 acres of desirable land for State forests. 
This is being done to insure a prompt begin- 
ning in timber production by demonstrating the 
profit in forestry to private owners. It is 



68 



NEW JERSEY 




A ROAD IN THE PINES OF SOUTH JERSEY IN THE COASTAL PLAIN SANDS 




MATURE SHORT LEAF PINE TIMBER GROWTH IN SOUTH JERSEY SANDY SOILS. TYPICAL OF WHAT 
CAN BE RAISED ON THE COASTAL PLAIN 



NATURAL RESOURCES 



expected that this plan will result in the pro- 
duction of large sizes and special species from 
which the profits are less and which demand 



long-time management. Such a scheme will 
also provide permanent acres of wild land for 
outdoor recreation. 



FISHERY RESOURCES 



NEW JERSEY ranks among the first six 
States in the nation in the value of 
her fisheries, the annual amount of 
which is $6,ooo,oco. The State is practically a 
peninsula bounded on the west side by the 
Delaware River and Bay and on the east by 
the Hudson River, New York Bay, Kill van 
Kull, Arthur Kill, Raritan and Sandy Hook 
bays and the Atlantic Ocean. 

The numerous pound fisheries along the 
Atlantic coast are busy the greater part of the 
year and form a picturesque feature of the 
shore line. Their proximity to the large cities, 
coupled with railroad freight service of high 
excellence, places these fishing operators in a 
highly favorable situation in getting their 
catch to market. Fleets of power boats, with 
nets, hauling machinery, cleaning sheds, ice- 
making plants and storehouses, form an equip- 
ment calling for a large investment and indicate 
clearly that the industry is stable and profitable. 

The pounds consist of huge nets attached to 
stakes. The tallest trees are used for these, as 
they must be sunk deep into the sandy bottom, 
rise through seven fathoms of water, and pro- 
ject above high tide for 10 feet. One of the 
sides of the pound is continued in each direc- 
tion, with stakes and rope nets; and the fish on 
meeting these barriers swim along to the 
funnel-like entrance to the pound. 

Auxiliary fleets using handlines add to the 
catch according to the variety of the fish and 
the seasonal run. Mackerel and bluefish, weak- 
fish, cod, shad, and even the tuna are among 
the marketable catchy On the westerly shore 
are the Delaware shad and sturgeon fisheries. 

The oyster beds and the fleets that tend them 
add to the State's wealth from the far-famed 
favorable localities of Delaware Bay and 
Maurice Cove and around the southern and 
eastern shore to Maurice River. Even crab 
catching is on a commercial plane. 

On the eastern shore surf-casting and line 



fishing for weakfish, croakers, flounders, and 
similar fish, while classed non-commercially 
as sport fishing, add much to the State's com- 
mercial gain because of the countless thousands 
of fishermen who visit the New Jersey coast 
every year, furnishing an income for thousands 
of citizens, including hotel-keepers, boatmen, 
and motor mechanics. 

The State is richly blessed by nature in respect 
to its rivers and creeks and in the supply of 
foodfish in its waters. This benefit has been 
largely preserved by the policy of protection 
and conservation. The license fees of New 
Jersey sportsmen in one year made it possible 
for the State Fish and Game Commission to add 
100,000,000 fish to the piscatorial population. 
The fish were distributed in every lake and 
stream where temperature and freedom from 
pollution furnished conditions that would 
sustain fish life. 

Most of these fish were reared at the State 
fish hatchery at Hackettstown, and included 
brook trout, Lockleven trout, brown trout, 
rainbow trout, large mouth bass, small mouth 
bass, bluegill sunfish, catfish, yellow perch 
and pickerel. Other sources of supply were shad 
and white perch from the branch hatchery at 
Pennsville; bass, perch, crappie, pickerel and 
sunfish netted from the Orange and Boonton 
reservoirs; and brook trout and other fish 
bought from outside hatcheries. 

In the early days of the settlement of New 
Jersey it was found to be a custom of the 
Indians from as far distant as the Middle West 
to travel to the coast and gather and roast shell 
fish, more especially the quohog or hard clam, 
after which they were dried and strung, and 
then carried back to the inland tribes. As only 
the matured shellfish were gathered by the 
Indians and the settlers from these natural 
beds, there was always an abundant supply, 
but as the settlements along the coast grew 
it was soon found that shells could be used, 



7 



NEW JERSEY 



and then began the depletion of the natural 
oyster beds. The shells, together with the 
shellfish growing thereon, were burned for 
lime to use in the manufacture of iron. 

In 1846 a legislative act closed the oyster 
beds during the summer months. Some of 
those who gathered oysters for market carried 
their catch to the markets of New York and 
Philadelphia by boat. Some Delaware Bay 
oystermen finding the market overstocked, 
took their cargo back and put the oysters over- 
board near their homes. By fall the oysters had 
made such a remarkable growth that these 
men gained the idea of catching the small 
oysters from their natural shallow beds and 
planting them in the more salty waters of the 
bays. In consequence of this discovery of trans- 
planting, this became the universal practice, 
but it soon depleted the natural beds. 

In 1861 the freeholders of Monmouth 
County were given the power to lease parts of 
Shark River for oyster cultivation, this being 
the first law authorizing the leasing of grounds 
for that purpose. As the planting increased and 
New Jersey seed oysters began to be shipped into 



New York, Connecticut, and Rhode Island, it 
was found that the beds would soon be de- 
stroyed. Laws were passed, but enforcement 
was left to the oystermen themselves, and so 
no one separated the oysters from the shells 
and threw the shells back on the beds for the 
young oysters to attach to. Depletion contin- 
ued until New Jersey planters had to go to 
Long Island Sound for their seed oysters. This 
seed grew rapidly and made the finest oysters 
grown in the bays along the coast of New- 
Jersey. 

In 1893 a law divided the State into seven 
districts with a commission of 14 members to 
promote the propagation and growth of seed 
oysters and to protect the natural seed grounds. 
Thus began the first real improvement of the 
oyster beds, as these men enforced the culling 
acts and the spreading of shells on the depleted 
beds. Another law gave the planters associa- 
tion of Maurice River Cove power to make 
rules to govern the industry, to employ guards, 
and to assess fees. This in a measure was a 
success, but in 1899 the State control bill was 
passed, and this proved to be the real beginning 




OYSTER FLEET AT BIVALVE, GOING OUT AT 4 A. M. 



NATURAL RESOURCES 




NEW JERSEY 



of the great development of the oyster industry 
in that section of Delaware Bay known as the 
Maurice River Cove. One survey disclosed 
that 4,500,000 bushels of oysters are gathered 
and planted yearly from this vast bed and that 
a first day of the season haul has totaled a 
third of a million bushels. 

The oyster industry at the mouth of the 
Maurice River generally employs 300 boats 
and 3,000 men. Boats range from 80 to no feet 
in length and are usually motor driven. 

In 1915 an act consolidated the several com- 
missions into the Board of Shell Fisheries, and 
another act passed in 1917 enlarged its powers. 
The estimated value of the shellfish shipped 
from and consumed in the State is $10,500,000, 



and shells to replace those that are carried 
away are being spread on the natural beds to 
which the young oysters are attached. Federal 
and State supervision works for the purifying 
of the waters in which shellfish grow, and 
where correction of pollution cannot be effected 
these sections have been condemned and shell- 
fish are not allowed to be cultivated thereon or 
taken therefrom. 

An inquiry into the nutritive value of the 
protein of fish as compared with that of land 
animals might lead to recommendations that 
seafood be given a more prominent place in 
the human dietary and also more extensive use 
might be found for waste products of this 
industry in agriculture. 




OYSTER BOAT ARRIVING AT PORT NORRIS 



NATURAL RESOURCES 



73 





CHAPTER III 



The Teople and Religions 
THE PEOPLE 



THE land lying between the Hudson and 
Delaware Rivers seemed to be a promis- 
ing home for Seventeenth Century im- 
migrants to the New World. There were 
harbors and navigable waters, the soil was 
fertile, the climate more temperate than that 
of New England, and the Indians were friendly. 
Swedes, Dutchmen, Englishmen, and Scotch- 
men were attracted to "Nova Caesarea," as 
the region was called. The Swedes located 
chiefly along the banks of the Delaware. The 
Dutchmen chose the northeastern section in 
proximity to New Amsterdam (New York) 
and partly in the Raritan Valley. The Scots 
preferred the fertile central part around Raritan 
Bay and directly south. The English were dis- 
tributed throughout the region, although the 
Quakers concentrated along the Delaware 
River. 

This diversity of population in colonial 
times served to enrich New Jersey. With differ- 
ences of thought, of customs, and of tempera- 
ment, and coming from lands with different 
agricultural practices, each group of people 
contributed its peculiarities and special ex- 
periences to the farming of Nova Caesarea, for 
in one respect they were all alike their chief 
occupation was agriculture. 

Since that time the immigrants have been 
a very important element in the population of 
New Jersey. Of later years their gateway to 
the New World has been an island off its 
shores and on another is placed the friendly 
beacon of Liberty. In 1910, when the last 
authentic data were available, there were 
among the residents of this State those who 
could claim American-born parentage of at 
least two generations to a number that was 
38.3 per cent of the population; Americans of 
one generation, 34.3 per cent; foreign-born, 



2.3.4 per cent; and negroes and others, 3.7 per 
cent. 

In the percentage of foreign-born and those 
of foreign and mixed parentage, the State of 
New Jersey ranks high among the other States 
of the Union. Not less than zo.y per cent of the 
present citizens of New Jersey migrated here 
from other parts of America. This is a higher 
percentage than is found for any other State 
except Delaware. Negroes, Chinese, Japanese, 
and Indians constituted, in 19x0, only 3.7 per 
cent of all the population of New Jersey as 
compared with 10.3 per cent for the United 
States and 2-5 per cent for the Middle Atlantic 
geographical division. 

POPULATION GROWTH 

In 19x0 there were 3,155,900 residents in the 
State of New Jersey. Although it stands forty- 
fifth in area among the other States of the 
Union, it ranked tenth in its total population 
and third in population on the basis of land 
area. 

Between 1910 and 19x0 the population in- 
creased 2.4 per cent, while that of the entire 
nation increased but 14 per cent. Since 1860, 
the general growth of population in this State 
has been greater than the average percentage 
of increase for the United States. 

Eighteen counties of the State of New Jersey 
show an increase in population from 1910 to 
19x0, and only three Cape May, Hunterdon, 
and Sussex- show a decrease. The total land 
area of the State is but 7,514 square miles. The 
average number of inhabitants to the square 
mile in 1910 was 410.0; in 1910 it was 337.7; 
and in 1900 only 2.50.7. 

In density of population the State is ex- 
ceeded only by Massachusetts and Rhode 
Island, yet neither of these latter States 



74 



THE PEOPLE AND RELIGIONS 



75 




SHAD FISHING ON MAURICE RIVER 



showed an increase in population at a rate 
equal to that of New Jersey between 1910 
and 192.0. In those ten years 81.3 persons 
per square mile were added to the population 
of New Jersey, whereas the number of persons 
per square mile in Rhode Island increased 
only 57.9 and the number in Massachusetts 
60.4. This growth of population and its 
density has not been uniform, however, but is 
confined largely to specific areas. 

Over 75 per cent of the whole population is 
found in seven of the zi counties of the State 
Hudson, Essex, Passaic, Bergen, Union, Cam- 
den, and part of Middlesex and over 78 per 
cent ^,474,936 persons out of 3,155,900 in 
19x0) is in cities and towns of more than 1,500 
inhabitants. 



There are three highly developed industrial 
sections in this State with a density of popula- 
tion higher than the average for the State. 
These are the Metropolitan section, which 
takes in Hudson, Essex, Passaic, Bergen, 
Union, and parts of Middlesex and Monmouth 
counties, which being adjacent to New York 
have a total population of over z,zoo,ooo, or 
74. z per cent of the population of the State; 
Philadelphia-Camden section, which is Cam- 
den County, with a population of 190,508, or 
6 per cent; and the Trenton section, including 
Mercer and part of Burlington counties, with 
a population of over zoo,ooo, or 6.3 per cent. 
The remaining 546,796, or 13.5 per cent, are 
distributed over the other eleven counties of 
New Jersey. 



POPULATION JULY i, 192.8 ESTIMATED BY BUREAU OF CENSUS 



New Jersey . 



3,82.1,000 



Atlantic City 

Bayonne 

Camden 

East Orange .... 

Jersey City 

New Brunswick. 



Union City . 



54.700 

95,300 


Newark 
Orange 


473. 6o o 
36 soo 




Passaic 


71 800 




Paterson 






Perth Amboy 




40,800 


Trenton 


139,000 



64,400 



NEW JERSEY 



The great industrial growth of the State in 
consequence of its exceptionally favorable 
conditions may be demonstrated by the fact 
that, including its nearest neighbors, there is 
found within 60 miles of the capital at Trenton 
more than a tenth of the whole population of 
the United States. The center of population in 
the State in 192.0 was at New Brunswick, in 
Middlesex County. 

The Atlantic coast-line area of New Jersey 
is famous for its summer resorts centers with 
world-wide reputations, such as Atlantic 
City. Over a million temporary residents live 
in the counties of Cape May, Atlantic, Ocean, 
and Monmouth during the summer season. 

OCCUPATIONS 

The proportion of the population in the State 
of New Jersey engaged in what for lack of a 
more inclusive and fitting term have come to 
be called the gainful occupations, was equal 
to or higher than that in the whole Union or 
more than that in the Middle Atlantic division 
for the last 40 years, with the single excep- 



tion of the records taken in 1910. Comparative 
figures for the proportion of people engaged in 
different occupations place the State of New 
Jersey among the most highly developed in- 
dustrial regions of the United States. 

Among the 61,153 persons engaged in agri- 
culture in 1910 there were, in general farming, 
as farmers, dairymen, and stock raisers, 2.1,415; 
as foremen on farms, 1,177; and as laborers on 
farms, 1.1,179. ^ n I 9 2 - there were 2.9,702. farms 
of all kinds in the State. The number of farms, 
total amount of farm land, and improved land 
on farms, and the average acreage per farm are 
gradually decreasing, but the value of farm 
capital and the average value per farm and 
per acre have been constantly increasing in the 
last several decades. 

A large number of people are engaged in fish- 
eries in New Jersey. The tidal grounds in the 
bays of Raritan and Sandy Hook and in areas 
in Great Bay, Little Egg Harbor, Barnegat 
Bay and numerous sounds and inlets along the 
coast, but mainly in Delaware Bay, yield 
many millions worth of oysters and clams 




OLD ST. MARY'S CHURCH AT BURLINGTON 



THE PEOPLE AND RELIGIONS 



77 



annually. Protected and controlled through 
appropriate legislation, this industry keeps 
^,048 special enterprises of fishermen and 
oystermen here. 

Manufacturing and mechanical industries in 
New Jersey, with their 8,2.04 establishments, 
415,377 wage earners, $5765X35,8x6 paid in 
wages, and $3,539,181,153 worth of manu- 
factured products in 19x5, are the main sources 
of livelihood for 47.9 per cent of the persons 
engaged in gainful occupations in 1919. New 
Jersey ranked seventh in 19x5 in manufactur- 
ing, being surpassed only by New York, Penn- 
sylvania, Illinois, Ohio, Massachusetts, and 
California. 

Located in the heart of the country's system 
of communications, from which its main 
arteries radiate in all directions, with easy 
access to two great ocean ports, the State of 
New Jersey ranks first among the States of the 
country in respect to communication facilities, 
on the basis of area. With 6,xn track miles 
of steam railroads and i,x9i track miles of 



electric railroads; with excellent facilities on 
the Jersey sides of New York and Philadelphia, 
with a number of streams used for minor ship- 
ping, and, last but not least, with its 17,000 
miles of rural roads, of which 6,669 m iles (39 
per cent) are hard surfaced; the State provided 
employment for 111,115 persons in transporta- 
tion in 19x0. This number was 8.4 per cent of 
persons employed in the State. 

Over 144,000 persons were employed in 
trade in New Jersey according to the census of 
19x0. Among the clerical occupations the book- 
keepers (30,671), clerks (80,404), and ste- 
nographers and typists (x8,6o6), are most 
numerous, though all the occupations of this 
group enroll I5i,xx6 persons. 

Professional service in 19x0 engaged 70,119 
persons, including xo,x87 teachers, 3,504 doc- 
tors, 3,918 lawyers, and 3,316 clergymen. 
There were 34,6x4 people employed in public 
service, 104, xi 3 in domestic service, and 3,935 
were enlisted in the fields of mining and 
metallurgy. 



RELIGION 



THE religion of the people of New Jersey 
is as varied as one might expect that it 
would be in a community with such an 
unusually cosmopolitan population. The early 
settlement of several different nationalities 
within its present borders gave rise to the firm 
establishment in the State of religions that are 
hardly known even to-day in many of the other 
original thirteen States. Then, too, as New 
Jersey was the cross-road between the larger 
colonies to the north and to the south others 
were influenced to overflow into the State in 
considerable numbers, and still others became 
thriving organizations with the immigration 
influx of the Nineteenth Century. 

No population can be completely classified 
by religions. An authentic census of this sort 
is impossible because thousands who are actual 
adherents of the so-called Protestant denom- 
inations do not formally affiliate with any 
particular church. Nevertheless, it appears 
from the facts at hand that close to x,x5o,ooo 



of the estimated present population of 3,8x1, 
ooo are positively identified with some religion. 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 

Presbyterianism organically began in New 
Jersey when in I79X the "Old Scots Church" 
of Freehold, was founded. A Scotchman, Wal- 
ter Ker, banished for his faith, crossed to Amer- 
ica and was the leading spirit in organizing this 
church. It stood on Free Hill, where now 
stands, at Wickatuck, the Presbyterian memo- 
rial monument in the midst of the ancient cem- 
etery. Here was held the first recorded meeting 
of the Presbytery of Philadelphia, December 
X9, 1706, to ordain John Boyd, the first pastor 
of "Old Scots," and the first Presbyterian min- 
ister to be ordained in America. "Old Scots" 
was finally abandoned and a new church, now 
"Old Tennant," some ten miles distant, be- 
came the center of worship for the Freehold 
people. Here the famous Tennants, John and 



NEW JERSEY 




FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, NEWARK 

Dedicated 1791. Known as "Old First." Society organized as Congregational in 1666. First Pastor, Rev. Abraham 
Pierson. Second pastor, Rev. Abraham Pierson, Jr., founded Yale College and was its first president. Second president of 
Princeton was Rev. Aaron Burr, pastor of "Old First." Rev. Jonathan Dickinson, an Elizabeth pastor, started the college 
in his home but died within a year and the college was transferred to the Burr Manse, William and Broad Streets, Newark. 



THE PEOPLE AND RELIGIONS 



William successively, preached for many years, 
with sometimes Gilbert as visitor. 

There had been Presbyterian ministers in 
America before 1706, but there was no organi- 
zation. Some of the preachers of New England 
and the Middle Colonies occupied pulpits in 
so-called Congregational churches. These 
churches, like those of Newark, Woodbridge 
and Elizabeth, began to ally themselves with 
the Presbytery of Philadelphia and gradually 
Presbyterians grew in favor and in strength. 

Rev. Francis Makemie, who was jailed by 
Lord Cornbury for preaching in New Jersey 
and New York without his lordship's partic- 
ular license, though acquitted on trial by the 
judges on the basis of the Toleration Act, had 
been the leader in the establishment of the 
Presbytery of Philadelphia, to which New 
Jersey Presbyterian churches originally ad- 
hered. It is due to the Scotch and Scotch-Irish 
element of the population of New Jersey that 
Presbyterianism won its way in the colony. 
They began to come here about i68z in con- 
siderable numbers, and it was their influence 
which led to the formation of the many Presby- 
terian churches of the Eighteenth Century. 
However, there were many preachers of New 
England origin, like the second Abraham Pier- 
son of Newark, later the founder of Yale Col- 
lege, and the famous controversialist, Jonathan 
Dickinson of Elizabeth, who had Presbyterian 
leanings, and their influence played a large 
part in the early progress of New Jersey Presby- 
terianism. 

The State organization of the church is 
known as the "Synod of New Jersey." Dr. 
James Steele of Rutherford is the present Mod- 
erator. The Synod comprises 10 Presbyteries in 
which there are now 448 church edifices, 62.5 
ministers, 151,2.11 communicant members, and 
178,599 Sunday School members. 

CoNGREGATIONAlTCHURCH 

Congregationalism came to America from 
England with the Pilgrims, and was closely 
identified with the great Puritan movement. 
As a consequence, it first took root and grew 
in New England, but as the scope of the new 
country widened, Congregationalism proceeded 
with it. It is stated on good authority that 



long before the Revolution a number of Con- 
gregational churches were founded in eastern 
New York, and several on Long Island. 

New Jersey Congregationalism goes back to 
the beginning of Newark, and actually means 
the beginning of that city. In May, 1666, 30 
New England families came to that locality 
as settlers, making their purchase of land 
directly from the Indians. They considered it 
to be their first duty as settlers to form a 
church, this church being Congregational in 
polity. They selected for their minister Rev. 
Abraham Pierson of Connecticut, who was a 
native of Yorkshire, England, and a graduate 
of Trinity College, Cambridge. Curiously 
enough, he was ordained to the Christian 
ministry in Newark, England. 

From that time, Congregational churches 
sprang up elsewhere in the state. Later the 
churches of this faith in northern New Jersey 
considered themselves to be the indirect off- 
shoots of the first church formed in what is 
now Newark. New Jersey Congregationalism 
also received impetus from Connecticut and 
from Long Island. 

At present there are 51 Congregational 
churches in the state, 53 ministers, and 30 
parsonages. 

EPISCOPAL CHURCH 

The Episcopal Church was established at 
Perth Amboy as early as 1698 and in other parts 
of the State, notably at Burlington Nov. i, 
1701, as a result of the incorporation in Lon- 
don, England, the previous year, of "The 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts." George Keith, who received 
orders in the Church of England, became the 
first missionary of the society in the American 
Colonies and preached first in Perth Amboy. 

Rev. John Talbot, who accompanied Keith, 
laid the corner stone of the old church in Bur- 
lington March 2.5, 1703 and remained as per- 
manent missionary until 172.5. He is regarded 
as the father of the church in New Jersey. 

Nineteen parishes and missions were estab- 
lished in the State before the Revolutionary 
War. Rev. Samuel Seabury, first bishop of the 
American church, began his career in New 



8o 



NEW JER SEY 



Jersey. He was in charge of Christ Church, New 
Brunswick, 1756-1758. 

The movement to constitute one Episcopal 
Church for the whole United States was begun 
at an informal meeting of churchmen from New 
York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey at Christ 
Church, New Brunswick, May n, 1784. The 
"Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion" were es- 
tablished at the General Convention of the 
Church held in St. Michael's Church, Trenton, 
in 1801. This was the only meeting of the gen- 
eral convention that has been held in this 
State. There were but six members of the 
House of Bishops that year. 

New Jersey was the ninth State to be pro- 
vided with its own bishop. That was in 1815, 
when the Diocesan Convention was held in 
St. Michael's Church, Trenton. Dr. John Croes 
was the first bishop. He was rector of Christ 
Church, New Brunswick, but he was conse- 
crated bishop in St. Peter's Church, Philadel- 
phia. Bishop Doane, then rector of Trinity 
Church, Boston, was elected the second bishop 
in 1831 and made his home in Burlington. He 



founded St. Mary's School in that town in 
1837 the second oldest girls' school of the 
Episcopal Church in the United States. 

The diocese was divided in 1874, the north- 
ern portion becoming the Diocese of Newark 
and the southern portion remaining the Dio- 
cese of New Jersey. The latter now has 188 
parishes and missions, 160 canonically con- 
nected clergymen, 180 church edifices, and 
31,596 communicants. The Diocese of Newark 
has 153 parishes and missions, 177 canonically 
connected clergymen, 148 church buildings, 
84 parish houses, 103 rectories, and 51,867 
communicants. 

BAPTIST CHURCH 

Three settlements mark the beginnings of 
the Baptists in New Jersey. The first was at 
Middletown, but its members came from a 
wider territory than the little village, so that 
it is more often spoken of as ' 'The Middletown 
and Holmdel Church," or "Churches." The 
first meeting was held in 1667. The Church 
was organized in 1688. A genealogist of the 




SOPHIA ASTLEY KIRKPATRICK MEMORIAL CHAPEL, RUTGERS UNIVERSITY 
Contains the oil portraits of all the past presidents and great men of Rutgers. 



THE PEOPLE AND RELIGIONS 



8l 




FRIENDS' MEETING HOUSE AND SCHOOL, ATLANTIC CITY 



Holmes Family says that the doughty old 
warrior, Obadiah Holmes, Sr., was present at 
the organization. The pioneer folk who con- 
stituted this church brought their own min- 
ister with them. He was James Ashton, who 
in addition to his pastoral duties "worked a 
farm" west of Holmdel. 

The second was at Cohansey.The first meet- 
ing there was in 1683, but the church was not 
organized until 1690. Dr. Thomas S. Griffiths, 
whose name indicates his Welsh descent, in 
his "History of the Baptists in New Jersey," 
makes this interesting statement relative to 
the Cohansey Baptist Church, "When in 1683, 
the first Baptists came from Clouketin,Tipperary 
County, Ireland, they settled on the south 
side of the river, and- built a meeting-house 
on the farm of David Thomas (a Welsh name)." 

The third church was established at Piscat- 
away in 1689. It is stated that the Baptists 
preached in the Town House there in 1685. 
The people who formed the church came from 
the region of the Piscataway River, dividing 
the provinces of Maine and New Hampshire. 
These sturdy men and women brought their 



New England name and gave it to a section 
of New Jersey. Since "at home" they had 
belonged to Baptist churches they founded 
the Piscataway Baptist Church. This in turn 
became the mother of the Scotch Plains 
Church, and through her became the grand- 
mother of the Newark and New York City 
churches. 

Thus we see that the three sowings in New 
Jersey of the Baptist idea were made by the 
hardy stock that settled the countryside of 
our State. The polity of the Baptists readily 
explains the lack of connection between the 
flocks, and the independence of the movements. 

The first president of what is now "Brown 
University," the first college founded by the 
Baptists in America, was James Manning (1738- 
91), a member of the Scotch Plains Baptist 
Church, educated at Hopewell and at Prince- 
ton. From the latter he graduated after four 
years with the highest honors of his class. 

Out of these small and scattered beginnings 
has grown a body of z6i churches with a 
membership of 69,59z, who function through 
the New Jersey Baptist Convention, organized 



NEW JERSEY 



in 1830. The convention office is at Newark. 
The 4x,ooo Negro Baptists in the State have 
a convention through which their churches 
unite for missionary service. 

METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH 

The Methodist movement in New Jersey 
had its beginnings in the work of Captain 
Thomas Webb, of the English army, who 
preached in the market place and the Court 
House of Burlington in 1770. The first "class" 
or group of Methodists who gathered for wor- 
ship and mutual help was formed there De- 
cember 14, 1770. 

The first organized Methodist Society was 
formed at Trenton in 1771. It had 19 members 
In 1773 this Society erected a small frame 
house for worship, the first Methodist Church 
to be built in this State. 

New Jersey Methodism gained impetus 
through the work of Bishop Francis Asbury, 
who traveled for many years throughout the 
eastern part of the state, preaching and form- 
ing Societies. We find him at Burlington in 
1771, at Greenwich, at Haddonfield, at Man- 



tua and other places, all of which profited by 
his spiritual power and organizing ability. At 
the Conference held in Philadelphia in 1773, 
New Jersey reported two hundred members. 

The Church at New Mills, now Pemberton, 
was third in order of erection. One of the 
trustees was Daniel Heisler, great-grandfather 
of John Fort, one-time Governor of New Jersey. 

Methodism suffered during the Revolution, 
but with the coming of peace it began an 
advance that has continued without serious 
interruption until the present time. An inter- 
esting feature of its progress has been its camp- 
meetings. By 1819 they were very common. In 
1819 four camp-meetings were held on a single 
circuit during one summer and fall, until the 
church authorities intervened. Many of them 
are still annual affairs. The Forkbridge Camp 
Meeting ran from 182.0 till 1835. Those at New- 
field, South Seaville and Mount Tabor have 
been running for many years. Most noted is 
that at Ocean Grove, founded and chartered in 
1869, now grown to a flourishing permanent 
community, featuring each summer a series of 
religious meetings of great interest. 




UNION CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, UPPER MONTCLAIR 



THE PEOPLE AND RELIGIONS 




8 4 



NEW JERSEY 




THE PEOPLE AND RELIGIONS 



Educational institutions of Methodism in 
New Jersey include Bordentown Military Insti- 
tute and Pennington Seminary, both schools 
for boys, and Centenary Collegiate Institute at 
Hackettstown, for girls, all of these being of 
secondary grade. Drew University, founded in 
1867 as Drew Theological Seminary, has 
trained nearly 3500 ministers for home and 
foreign service, and now offers work in re- 
ligion, theology and the liberal arts. 

For administrative purposes, the Methodist 
Episcopal Church is divided into conferences, 
one of which, the New Jersey Conference of 
the Philadelphia Area, under the presidency of 
Bishop Ernest G. Richardson, is entirely within 
the State. Another, the Newark Conference of 
the New York Area, under the presidency of 
Bishop Francis J. McConnell, comprises north 
and west New Jersey, with some churches in 
New York and Pennsylvania. The conferences 
are divided into districts under the supervision 
of district superintendents, each conference hav- 
ing four. 

There are in New Jersey 630 Methodist min- 
isters and 149,413 church members. Property 
totalling $15,141,000 is held by the Trustees of 
the two Conferences. 

REFORMED CHURCH 

The Reformed Church in America, which 
has had and holds a large place in the growth 
and development of New Jersey, can be traced 
back to the movement in Switzerland under 
the leadership of Zwingle about 1516. It was 
introduced in Holland as early as 152.3, and 
fully organized by Calvin, a refugee from 
France, in 1536. It has been styled the "grand- 
mother of the Presbyterian Church . " Its faith 
is based on The Word of God and finds expres- 
sion in The Heidelberg Catechism and "The 
Westminster Confession of Faith." 

In France it attained^such vigor that by 1599 
a General Synod was formed at Paris and its 
churches numbered over 2.000, but these were 
decimated by religious wars. Some half million 
of those persecuted for their belief scattered all 
over Europe. Many of them came to America at 
a later date. 

The fierce struggle of The United Netherlands 
with Philip II of Spain resulted in the peace of 



Westphalia in 1648 and confirmed the rights 
and liberties of The Reformed (Dutch) Church 
which, at a later date in American history, fur- 
nished from its polity, a representative form of 
government. 

Emigrants from Holland, under the auspices 
of the West India Company and the Classis of 
Amsterdam, began work in New Jersey. After 
many years of missionary effort the first church 
was established at Bergen (Jersey City) in 1660. 
Then followed a church at Hackensack, in 
1686, Aquackanonck (Passaic) in 1693; Raritan 
in 1699, Paramus in 17x5, Totowa (Paterson) in 
1755, and Millstone in 1766. 

Today there are 168 churches divided into 
eight classes under The Particular Synod of 
New Brunswick. There are about 45,000 mem- 
bers representing some 10,000 families. There 
are more than 170 Bible Schools. Queens Col- 
lege, now a part of Rutgers University, also 
the Theological Seminary at New Brunswick, 
are fruits of the educational work of The Re- 
formed Church. The highest court of this 
church, known as the General Synod, assembles 
once a year and when meeting in the East gath- 
ers at Asbury Park, where it has erected a 
synodical church. 

LUTHERAN CHURCH 

Like other denominations the German Lu- 
theran Church reached New Jersey by way of 
Philadelphia and New York. 

A number of Germans set sail for the latter in 
1707 but unfavorable winds carried them to 
Delaware Bay, from whence they decided to 
put in at Philadelphia. Still heading for New 
York they kept on across New Jersey, but the 
rich valleys of the Musconetcong and the Pas- 
saic induced them to cut short their overland 
journey and tarry there. 

In these valleys they built their homes, wor- 
shipping at first therein and later gathering in 
buildings better adapted for community assem- 
blages. They settled Long Valley, in Morris 
County, and gave it the name of German Valley 
which it retained for years. From here they 
spread to Somerset, Bergen and Essex Counties. 
In Bergen County they came in contact with 
Holland Lutherans. According to the historian 
Albert Faust and the records of the First Lu- 



86 



NEW JERSEY 




THE PEOPLE AND RELIGIONS 



theran Church in New York City, the first 
Lutheran settlement in New Jersey was founded 
in 1710 in the vicinity of Hackensack. The first 
German Lutheran church in the State was dedi- 
cated in 1731. The parish of Rev. Justus Falck- 
ner, who began his ministry in New York City 
in 1703, extended all the way up the Hudson 
Valley to Albany and over the northern portion 
of New Jersey as far west as the Raritan River 
in Hunterdon County. 

THE RELIGIOUS SOCIETY OF FRIENDS IN 
NEW JERSEY 

The first Friends in New Jersey appear to have 
settled along the Raritan River in 1664, and in 
1670 "a meeting was settled at Shrewsbury." 
Then in 1675 John Fenwicke, with a company 
of Friends, landed on the shores of Delaware 
Bay at a place they named Salem. In 1677, Z3o 
Friends emigrated in a body on the ship Trent 
and founded Burlington. Others followed and 
by 1 68 1, 1,400 had come to the province. The 
first meetings were held under a tent made of 
sail-cloth; then in private houses until a meet- 
ing-house was built and a "monthly meeting" 
was set up July 15, 1678. "At the next meeting 
it was agreed that a collection be made once a 
month for the relief of the poor and such other 
necessary uses as may occur." "On the 4th of 
the 7th month 1679 it was desired that Friends 
would consider the matter as touching the sell- 
ing of rum to the Indians if it be lawful at all 
for Friends professing truth to be concerned in 
it." 

The first Epistle from an American meeting 
to the Yearly Meeting in London was sent by 
Burlington Friends in 1681. Burlington Quar- 
terly Meeting appears to have been set up in 
1680 and in May 1681 it was concluded to es- 
tablish a Yearly Meeting to be held in August 
following. This meeting was held annually 
until 1686, after which^for a number of years 
it was held alternately at Burlington and Phil- 
adelphia. 

The founder of the Society of Friends was 
George Fox, born at Fenny Dray ton, Leicester- 
shire, July, 162.4. William Penn once said that 
Fox had "an extraordinary gift in opening the 
Scriptures, but above all he excelled in prayer." 
In 1672. George Fox and his companions visited 



the Friends at Shrewsbury and Middletown in 
New Jersey. 

William Penn and his co-proprietors issued 
a statement of their views in regard to the 
government of the Province of West Jersey 
which was in part: "Thus we lay a foundation 
for after ages to understand their liberty as men 
and Christians, that they may not be brought 
into bondage but by their own consent; for we 
put the power in the people. . . . No person to 
be called in question or molested for his con- 
science or for worshipping according to his 
conscience." 

The interest of Friends in education devel- 
oped early as schools were set up in many places 
in New Jersey long before any other school 
system appeared in the State. These schools 
were not only for Friends but for anyone wish- 
ing to take advantage of them. Many of these 
schools are still in operation. 

Today there are about 3,500 Friends, or 
Quakers, in the State and the Yearly Meeting 
is at Philadelphia. Many of the old meeting- 
houses are used only once a year but they are 
kept in perfect repair and several are historical 
land-marks. 

CHRISTIAN SCIENCE CHURCH 

As a religion, studied and practiced by in- 
dividuals, Christian Science began to be known 
in New Jersey during the decade 18801890. 
As a denomination, represented by congrega- 
tions, this religion in New Jersey dates from 
the next decade. The first congregation began 
to hold informal meetings at Long Branch in 
1893. First Church of Christ, Scientist, of 
Jersey City, formed in 1896, was the first Chris- 
tian Science church in the State to be formally 
organized as such. In the next few years, it 
was followed by churches at Newark, Orange, 
Cranford, Englewood, and Camden. Now 
there are in the State 58 Churches of Christ, 
Scientist, and Christian Science societies, be- 
sides a considerable number of groups not yet 
formally organized. 

Each church and society conducts a Sunday 
School for children up to the age of 10, each 
maintains a Reading Room, usually in a busi- 
ness district, and each provides annually at 
least one public lecture on Christian Science. 



NEW JERSEY 




FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, MERCHANTVILLE 



In several of the cities and villages beautiful 
churches have been erected embracing various 
types of architecture. The edifice in Orange is 
of Norman architecture. That in Maplewood, 
Old English; Montclair, pure Colonial; Cran- 
ford, conventional; East Orange, a type of 
ancient architecture; and Paterson, old colonial 
meeting-house type. The Montclair church is 
one of the most charming in America and in 
plan and conveniences it is unique among 
houses of worship. 

RELIGIOUS LIFE OF THE JEWS OF NEW 
JERSEY 

The Jews of New Jersey number approxi- 
mately 350,000, according to the estimate of 
the Jewish Publication Society of America. 
They are distributed throughout the State, 
with the largest groupings in Newark, Jersey 
City, Paterson, and Trenton. In every com- 
munity of Jews the religious activities form 
their chief concern. In response to the most 
ancient and imperative call of duty, the Jew- 
ish groups, often the smallest, build sanc- 



tuaries and schools as soon as they settle in a 
place. 

In the oldest Jewish communities, such 
as Newark, Paterson and Trenton, there are 
many synagogues and religious schools 
among them being some of the largest and 
finest in the United States. While there are 
traces of Jewish life in New Jersey in earlier 
times, the first organized religious institutions 
appear in Newark and Paterson, Congregation 
B'nai Jeshurun at Newark being the name 
given to the two oldest Synagogues in New 
Jersey founded about 1848. 

The religious life of the Jewish people in 
towns too small to support a synagogue finds 
expression in the home life, where the cere- 
monials connected with Sabbath and Holy 
Day observance and symbols of the faith are 
held sacred by the faithful. Not infrequently, 
Jewish people in small towns are affiliated with 
the larger synagogues in neighboring cities, 
especially for the high Holy Days. 

The Jewish people are divided into three 
religious groups known as Orthodox, Con- 



THE PEOPLE AND RELIGIONS 



8 9 



servative and Reform, organized on the basis 
of differences in the ceremonial institutions 
and the traditional beliefs which are cherished 
by them. But the differences are not so funda- 
mental as to prevent unity of thought, soli- 
darity of religious aims and harmony of action 
in all things that concern the preservation of 
the Jewish heritage. 

The education of Jewish youth in religious 
matters has always been regarded as a primary 
duty. The synagogues, the Jewish homes, the 
Jewish social centers and special Jewish schools 
regard Jewish education as the paramount need 
of the present day. 

ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH 

Like the mustard seed in the Gospel parable 
the Catholic Church in New Jersey developed 
from especially humble beginnings. Marbois, 
writing from Philadelphia, March 15, 1785, 
gave the number of Catholics in New York and 
New Jersey as only 1700. More than half of 
these were probably in New Jersey. 

As early as 1672. there were Catholics at 
Woodbridge and at Elizabethtown, whose 



spiritual needs were looked after by the Cath- 
olic Chaplains of Governor Dongan of New 
York, Fathers Harvey and Gage. Some of these 
pioneer Catholics were Alsatians, engaged in 
the salt-making industry. 

In the Eighteenth Century Fathers Robert 
Harding and Ferdinand Farmer (Steinmeyer) 
made fatiguing tours across the State minister- 
ing to the scattered groups of Catholics at Mt. 
Hope, Macopin, Basking Ridge, Trenton, Ring- 
wood and other places. Some time before the 
Revolution German Catholics settled at Maco- 
pin, near Echo Lake, and some of their descend- 
ants compose the Catholic parish thereto-day. 
French refugees from the West Indies settled 
around Princeton and in the neighborhood of 
Elizabeth early in the Nineteenth Century. 

The first parish in the State was established 
at Trenton in 1814, St. John's, the first church 
built in Newark, was opened in i8z8, the Pas- 
tor being the Rev. Gregory B. Pardow, of New 
York. The first native of Newark ordained to 
the Priesthood was Rev. Daniel G. Burning, 
son of Charles Durning, in whose house Mass 
was celebrated before St. John's was erected. 




TEMPLE B'NAI ABRAHAM, NEWARK 



9 



NEW JERSEY 




CHURCH OF THE BLESSED SACRAMENT AND SISTERS' HOME, NEWARK 



In 1 8xo Father Richard Bulger erected the 
first Church in Paterson. In 1815 the first Mass 
was said in New Brunswick by Rev. Dr. Power, 
of New York, and on December 19, 1831, the 
first church was opened there by Rev. Joseph 
A. Schneller. In 1830, the first Mass was said in 
Jersey City (Paulus Hook) and in 1837 the first 
church was opened there by Rev. Hugh Mohan. 

Rev. Ferdinand Farmer is considered the 
pioneer Catholic missionary of New Jersey. 
He arrived in Philadelphia in 1758. It was his 
custom every Spring and Autumn to journey 
along the Delaware River, cross country through 
Hunterdon County, Somerset County, Morris 
and Sussex Counties, visiting Geigers, Charlot- 
tenburg, Mt. Hope, Macopin, Basking Ridge, 
Long Pond, Trenton and Salem. 

About 1848 many Irish Catholics came to 
New Jersey. Rt. Rev. Bernard J. McQuade, 
later Bishop of Rochester, began his missionary 
career in New Jersey. He became pastor at 
Madison in 1848 and had missions at Morris- 
town, Dover, Mendham, Basking Ridge and 
Springfield. His first parish in New Jersey ex- 
tended from Madison to the Delaware. He 



opened the first Catholic School in New Jersey 
at Madison, built the Church of the Assump- 
tion at Morristown, St. Joseph's at Mendham 
and St. Rose's at Springfield, now removed to 
Short Hills . He became rector of St. Patrick's 
pro-cathedral at Newark in 1853 upon arrival 
of the Bulls from Rome appointing James 
Roosevelt Bayley, first Bishop of Newark. He 
built Seton Hall College, was its first President, 
and brought the Sisters of Charity into the 
Diocese of Newark. When the Rt. Rev. James 
Roosevelt Bayley was consecrated first Bishop 
of the Diocese of Newark, which then com- 
prised the whole of New Jersey, there were 
only 50,000 to 60,000 Catholics, 15 priests and 
no Diocesan Institutions in the State. 

In 1856 Seton Hall College was opened. In 
10 years the churches increased to 67 and the 
priests to 63. Bishop Bayley was promoted to 
the Archiepiscopal See of Baltimore, July 30, 
1871, and his successor, Bishop Michael Augus- 
tine Corrigan, was consecrated May 4, 1873. 
On October i, 1880 Bishop Corrigan was made 
Co-ad jutor to the Archbishop of New York 
and Rev. Dr. Winand M. Wigger was chosen 



THE PEOPLE AND RELIGIONS 



to succeed him as the third Bishop of Newark, 
October 18, 1881 In July 1881, the Diocese was 
divided by the creation of the Diocese of Tren- 
ton, which comprises the 14 southern counties 
of the State, leaving in the Diocese of Newark 
the seven northern counties. 

On July ii, 1899 Bishop Wigger laid the 
corner stone of the New Cathedral of the 
Sacred Heart on Clifton Avenue, Newark. Rt. 
Rev. John J. O'Connor succeeded him and be- 
came the fourth Bishop of Newark. He was 
consecrated July -L^, 1901. 

In 50 years there has been an increase of ten- 
fold in the number of churches and ninefold 
in the Catholic population, with 50,000 chil- 
dren attending 167 Catholic schools and insti- 
tutions, and 396 priests attending 416 churches 
and chapels. Bishop O'Connor died May xo, 
1917 and the See of Newark remained vacant 
until the installation of Rt. Rev. Thomas J. 
Walsh, May i, 19x8, as the fifth Bishop of 
Newark. While the See of Newark remained 
vacant the Diocese was administered by Rt. 
Rev. Monsignor John A. Duffy, D.D., who had 



been Vicar General under Bishop O'Connor, 
and whom Bishop Walsh appointed as his 
Vicar General. 

The first Bishop of the Diocese of Trenton 
was Rt. Rev. Michael J. O'Farrell, who was 
consecrated November i, 1881. He was suc- 
ceeded by Bishop James A. McFaul, who was 
consecrated October 18, 1894. Bishop McFaul 
was succeeded by Rt. Rev. Thomas J. Walsh, 
consecrated July 15, 1918, and transferred in 
1918 to the See of Newark, being succeeded in 
the Trenton See by Rt. Rev. John J. McMahon, 
D.D., as the fourth Bishop of that Diocese. 

In 19x8, which marked the looth Anniver- 
sary of the opening of the first Catholic Church 
in Newark, there were in the Newark Diocese 
under Rt. Rev. Thomas Joseph Walsh, D.D. as 
Bishop, 711 priests, 4iz churches and chapels, 
14 orphan asylums, four Homes for the Aged, 
ix hospitals, 4,640 boys and girls in private 
Catholic high schools and colleges, 1,670 boys 
and girls in 60 parochial high schools, 82.,663 
pupils in 150 parochial schools and a Catholic 
population of 704,785. 




CATHEDRAL OF THE SACRED HEART, NEWARK 
Situated on High Ground. A Striking Landmark 



92. 



NEW JERSEY 



In the Diocese of Trenton there were 2.47 
priests, 140 churches and chapels, 3,364 stu- 
dents in Catholic high schools, 36^x4 pupils 
in 89 parochial schools, two hospitals, two 
Homes for the Aged and a Catholic population 
of i3o,2-4z. 



In the Ukrainian Catholic Diocese of the 
district there were n priests of the Greek rite 
and 34 churches with 60,000 Catholics of the 
Oriental rite. To these must be added the 
Uniats. All told the Catholic population is 
about a million. 




GLIMPSE OF A LUXURIANT GARDEN IN MONTCLAIR 
(Photographed for this book by special permission of the owner) 



CHAPTER IV 

Education 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS 



THE public schools of New Jersey are the 
pride of the people. Education very early 
received much attention, and the keen 
interest in its development laid the foundation 
for the present public school system. The 
social and economic life of the State have ex- 
ercised an important influence on its growth. 
Local initiative and the establishment of local 
school systems under trained public education 
officials, coupled with a highly organized 
plan of State control, have facilitated the 
general adoption of progressive policies. 

Vocational schools, adult education, con- 
tinuation schools, provisions for retarded and 
crippled children, and for physical and health 
training are samples of what the State has 
undertaken. But aside from the development 
which appears in the structure of the system, 
the courses of study are modern, and teaching 
is of a high order. Few states in the Union have 
to an equal degree recognized teaching as a 
profession. 

The study on education published by Dr. 
Leonard Ayres in 19x0 ranked New Jersey as 
the fourth State. The investigation indicated 
that New Jersey had made notable progress 
and had risen steadily in its relative progress 
as measured by an exacting index of efficiency. 
It was the only State in the Eastern Division 
that had gained in rank in the 30 years pre- 
ceding 19x0. Using the same index as a basis 
for classification in ^92.4, New Jersey ranked 
fourth. Of those States east of the Mississippi 
River, it preceded all except New York, which 
occupied third place. 

The public schools provided by the re- 
spective communities received their first recog- 
nition by the Legislature in 1817, when 
provision was made for a State school fund. In 
1846 the position of State Superintendent of 



Schools was created. In 1867 a requirement was 
inserted in the State Constitution that "the 
Legislature shall provide for the maintenance 
and support of a thorough and efficient system 
of free public schools for the instruction of all 
the children in the State between the ages of 
5 and 18 years." 

The whole system of education was re- 
modeled and placed on a better basis. Provision 
was made for a State Board of Education, of 
ten members appointed by the Governor, each 
for a term of eight years; a Commissioner of 
Education, appointed by the Governor with 
the approval of the Senate, for a term of five 
years; the maintenance of the Normal School 
and a Model Training School; and for a State 
Board of Examiners to examine and license 
teachers. 

The local district, or community, schools 
continued until 1874, when the district schools 
of the city were combined into a city school 
district. In 1894 the school districts outside of 
the cities were made co-extensive with the 
municipalities in which they were located. 
These changes were made by acts of the 
Legislature and they reduced the number of 
school districts from about 1500 to 400. 

The Commissioner of Education, with the 
approval of the State Board of Education, ap- 
points five assistant commissioners, each in 
charge of a supervisory division; a County 
Superintendent of Schools for each of the 2.1 
counties of the State; a director of teacher 
training; normal school principals; instructors; 
and other positions covered by statute. 

For more than a half-century New Jersey has 
had a compulsory education law. All children 
between 7 and 16 must attend a day school, or 
obtain equivalent instruction elsewhere, except 



94 



NEW JERSEY 



STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT GLASSBORO 




CENTRAL COMMERCIAL AND MANUAL TRAINING HIGH SCHOOL, NEWARK 
An "All- Year" School. A national authority on vocational education declares, "there is none better. 



EDUCATION 



95 



those between 14 and 16 who hold employment 
certificates. 

New Jersey is conscious of her rural school 
problem, and this phase of educational work 
has been well developed. Since 1916 highly 
trained and experienced teachers designated as 
"helping teachers" have been employed for the 
supervision of instruction in the rural schools. 
There are now 40 helping teachers giving full 
time to this rural-school work. The statutes 
provide for the transportation of children liv- 
ing remote from school buildings, and for a 
reimbursement of three-fourths of the cost of 
such transportation when approved by the 
County Superintendent of Schools. This pro- 
vision has been a great aid to rural districts in 
providing high-school facilities in neighboring 
districts and for the consolidation of the small 
rural schools. 

About 10 years ago in Burlington County 
there were 56 one-room schools. After an in- 
tensive campaign for consolidated schools, and 
with the aid of the transportation subsidy, 
there is to-day only one one-room school, and 
this building is soon to be abandoned. There 
are still many one-room schools in the State, 
some of which it does not seem practical to in- 
clude in a consolidation scheme, but the 
enlargement of the school unit and the elimina- 
tion of the smaller one-room type of building 
continues to be the objective in all places where 
transportation is feasible. 

The first normal school for the training of 
teachers was established in Trenton in 1855. 
There are now additional State normal schools 
at Newark, Glassboro, and Paterson, and a 
Teachers' College at Montclair. A new normal 
school is being erected at Jersey City. Since 
1913 State summer schools have been conducted 
for the training of beginning teachers and the 
improvement of teachers in service. 

In 1 88 1 an act was^passed by the Legislature 
to encourage the establishment of schools for 
industrial education. In 1888 the various school 
districts were authorized by law to establish 
courses in manual training. Under this law the 
districts are reimbursed out of State funds to 
the extent of one-half of the initial cost of es- 
tablishing the course and one-half of the yearly 
maintenance cost, provided such State aid to a 



district shall not exceed in any one year the 
sum of $5,000. 

A similar provision was made for district 
vocational schools in 1913, with the proviso 
that the contribution by the State for any such 
school shall not exceed in any one year the sum 
of $10,000. The same statute provides for 
county vocational schools, and many of the 
school districts and several counties are now 
conducting excellent vocational schools. 

For the past 15 years school districts have 
been required to engage physicians as medical 
inspectors to ascertain physical defects in 
pupils and to advise the teachers relative to 
contagious diseases. In 1917 a law was passed 
requiring that physical training be taught in 
all of the public schools in the State. The Jaw 
requires that two and one-half hours per week 
be devoted to the physical training program, 
which includes instruction in hygiene and 
related subjects. 

The health of school children is receiving 
more attention every year. A large percentage 
of the districts have school nurses, and many 
districts employ school dentists. Most of the 
high schools are equipped with cafeterias and 
gymnasiums. The water supply of all school 
buildings is inspected by the State Department 
of Health at least once each year. The school 
officials are generally interested in provisions 
for the prevention of disease and promotion of 
the health of all the children. 

Special facilities are prescribed for the crip- 
pled, blind, deaf, and subnormal children and 
for foreign-born and native adults. Continua- 
tion schools are also provided for employed 
pupils holding age and schooling certificates. 

There are approximately 750,000 pupils en- 
rolled in the public schools of the State, more 
than 50,000 of whom are transported at public 
expense. Nearly 16,000 teachers are employed 
in the 1,187 school buildings, which have an 
approximate value of $141,000,000. 

The New Jersey Legislature of 19x8 provided 
for a survey of public education by a special 
commission, which is now going into all 
questions affecting the efficiency and adminis- 
tration of our present school system, with 
particular reference to present costs and future 
requirements. 



NEW JERSEY 




ST. CECILIA'S HIGH SCHOOL, ENGLEWOOD 




ST. MARY'S HALL, BURLINGTON EPISCOPAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS 



EDUCATION 



HIGHER EDUCATION 



PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 

IT WAS an enthusiastic Oxford don who said 
that Princeton is a jewel in an emerald set- 
ting. Airplane pictures reveal whatever 
justification underlies the bit of flattery, but 
the fact remains that Princeton is a typical 
university town, set on a ridge halfway between 
New York and Philadelphia, and, lifting above 
the surrounding girdle of green fields and wood- 
land, its towers dominate the view one gets 
both from the air and from the distant railroad. 

Its setting in the country has had much to do 
with the University's traditions and develop- 
ment. Founded by royal charter in 1746 at 
Elizabeth, removed in 1747 to Newark and to 
Princeton in 1756, in which year were com- 
pleted the first college buildings, Nassau Hall 
and the President's house, it is now the oldest 
and also the largest university in the United 
States situated in a village. Location as well as 
tradition also led to the decision in 1896, at the 
sesqutcentennial of the founding, that the Uni- 
versity's future lay not in developing large 
professional schools but in devoting itself pri- 
marily to higher liberal education or, phrasing 
it differently, to those liberal aspects of the arts 
and sciences which support and broaden all 
professional and technical training in other 
words, developing along the lines of the orig- 
inal medieval studium generale, or university. 

With the exception, therefore, of the School 
of Engineering and the School of Architecture, 
Princeton maintains no technical departments; 
and both of these exceptions are so definitely 
humanistic in purpose and method that they 
contrast sharply with the usual technical 
schools in those subjects. Similarly, the Prince- 
ton Graduate School carries students on to 
higher degrees in preparation for teaching and 
other professions, or for public service, or for 
the pure research that lies at the heart of 
modern humanitarianism as well as of modern 
industry. Utilitarian and commercial ends are 
of secondary importance in such a programme. 

Other characteristics of Princeton have in- 



evitably developed from these fundamentals. 
One for example, dating from the time when 
Nassau Hall was dormitory, refectory, chapel, 
recitation hall and library all in one, is the 
stamp of the communal dormitory life that 
marks the daily existence of the place. 

On the central, older portion of the goo-acre 
campus are grouped 2.1 dormitories, mostly in 
quadrangles and courts of English collegiate 
Gothic, a style Princeton frankly borrowed 
from England and introduced into American 
university architecture in 1896. A large pro- 
portion of the undergraduate body is thus 
already housed on the campus and it is the ul- 
timate plan to erect enough dormitories to 
hold virtually all the undergraduates. The 
residential idea was the basic principle of the 
Princeton Graduate College, which at the time 
of its erection was unique in America not only 
in affording graduate students adequate living 
quarters, but also in giving them a common 
scholarly life and the beneficent spur of daily 
democratic contact with one another and with 
the University as a whole. 

This dominant characteristic had no small 
influence in instituting the Honor System in 
1893, now one of Princeton's most treasured 
traditions. An honor system can be adequately 
maintained only where students live together 
in the same atmosphere and under identical 
influences. The fact that Princeton has no non- 
resident or commuting students provides a 
solidarity and intimacy which have enabled 
student self-government to reach a high plane. 

The Honor System is administered solely by 
the undergraduates; they also share in the ad- 
ministration of university discipline, and of 
university athletic and non-athletic organiza- 
tions; and the Student Council, with general 
oversight of campus life, is composed of repre- 
sentatives of the four college classes. 

One of the obvious essentials of the Princeton 
plan is that not more students should be ad- 
mitted than can be properly housed, boarded and 
taught. The University therefore was the first 
frankly to limit its enrollment by these con- 



9 8 



NEW JERSEY 




PYNE LIBRARY, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 
Gift of Mrs. Percy Rivington Pyne. Contains main library, reading rooms and 17 seminary rooms for advanced study 




CUYLER DORMITORY, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 
One of ii dormitories, mostly in quadrangles and courts of English collegiate Gothic 



EDUCATION 



99 



siderations. Its freshman class is set at approxi- 
mately 600 or about 2.000 for the entire under- 
graduate body, and its graduate school to 2:50. 

Situated on the old "King's Highway" of 
colonial days, the town and campus are full of 
historic memories. Even before the Revolu- 
tionary War the college was known as a center 
of the new Americanism that culminated in 
that struggle. The decisive Battle of Princeton 
was ended on college grounds; Nassau Hall was 
occupied by British and American troops in 
turn; here Congress sat at the close of the war; 
here audience was given to the first foreign 
minister accredited to the United States; and 
here Washington received the thanks of the 
nation for his services. 

In Nassau Hall too, the first Legislature of 
New Jersey sat, the first governor of New Jer- 
sey was inaugurated, and the Great Seal of the 
State was adopted. These events have given 
a quality to Princeton tradition which has had 
its effect on the character of the University. 
Two presidents of the United States have 
been among its graduates and a third was one 
of its trustees and a devoted supporter. Two 
vice presidents and one chief justice of the 
United States have been Princeton alumni, 
and Princeton names are plentiful in the annals 
of American diplomacy, government, politics, 
education, letters, science, theology and law. 

A significant illustration of the University's 
service to the State is the large proportion of 
its graduates who have occupied positions of 
highest legal authority in New Jersey. Since 
1776 Princeton has awarded diplomas to 15 of 
the 1.7 attorney generals of the State, 1 1 of the 
1 6 chief justices of the New Jersey Supreme 
Court, and 19 of the 2.7 chancellors of the State. 

A less familiar illustration of Princeton's 
quiet service to the nation may be found in 
the story of her work in science dating from 
the beginning of^the Nineteenth Century 
through Hosack, Torrey, Guyot, and Joseph 
Henry up to the present generation of Princeton 
scientists whose work in research has recently 
received generous endowment from the General 
Education Board. 

The undergraduate courses offered at Prince- 
ton lead to the degree of A.B., B.S. and B.S. in 
Engineering, while the higher degrees obtain- 



able in the Graduate School are those of A.M., 
M.F.A., and Ph.D. and the advanced engineer- 
ing degrees. 

The University has an extensive system of 
scholarships and loan funds for undergraduates 
in need of financial aid to pay their way through 
college. Its bureau of personnel also provides 
remunerative employment for such students. 
In the year 192.7-2.8 between 450 and 500 men 
were helped in this manner; scholarships and 
loans were granted to them amounting to 
roughly $175,000; and they earned in addition 
over $100,000. 

The health of the student body at Princeton 
receives most careful attention. A new and 
thoroughly modern Infirmary is maintained 
with competent staff for dispensary and other 
service. Athletics, both intramural and inter- 
collegiate, are given prominence in the Prince- 
ton scheme of things, and the athletic equip- 
ment is extensive including stadium, boathouse, 
skating rink, tennis courts, gymnasium, swim- 
ming pool, and several athletic fields for base- 
ball, football, soccer, lacrosse and polo. The 
Field Artillery Unit has a barracks and riding 
hall. 

While supervised exercise is required of all 
freshmen, and other students are constantly 
urged to take advantage of Princeton's outdoor 
facilities, those who are less athletically in- 
clined have the choice of some 40 non-athletic 
organizations, musical, literary, scientific, 
dramatic and social. It is, therefore, a rare in- 
dividual who cannot find some extra-curricular 
interest to occupy his leisure hours when he 
has any. 

For the modern undergraduate undoubtedly 
has less leisure than his father had at college. 
If he is a normal lad he has more interests to 
begin with. Under the Princeton preceptorial 
method and the broadened curriculum, to- 
gether with the new freedom of the "four- 
course" plan for upper classmen, he has far 
more liberty than his father had in the choice 
and performance of his work. But this in its 
turn lays on him a proportionately greater 
personal responsibility. Nevertheless the Prince- 
ton undergraduate, like his fellows elsewhere, 
does not appear to suffer from overwork and he 
seems to find the place a pleasant one to live in. 



IOO 



NEW JERSEY 



The University is absolutely non-sectarian by 
charter and stands solely on the broad basis of 
Christian liberalism. This attitude is illustrated 
not only by the work of its Philadelphian So- 
ciety but also in the new University Chapel, 
which was dedicated to the worship of God 
on Memorial Day 19x8. Without thought of 
denominational or other restrictions, it was 
erected and is being completed by numberless 
gifts in memory of Princeton men and Princeton 
friends who served well their day and gen- 
eration. 

The Catalogue for 1917-18 showed 1488 
students from 48 states and zo foreign coun- 
tries; 19 states had each more than 2.0 students 
enrolled, and z8 had more than 10. A residential 
community of such variety necessarily has a 
democratizing and broadening influence on its 
members. The elusive spirit of the place is im- 
possible to describe. It is safe to say that it is 
not to be found in any single trait or organiza- 
tion, but rather in a certain unity of feeling and 
action. 

Naturally, as President Woodrow Wilson 
long ago pointed out, alumni never feel their 



connection with the place and its life is en- 
tirely ended. Yet they return again and again to 
renew old associations, and through organized 
alumni channels they are consulted at every 
critical turn. "Princeton lives and grows," con- 
tinued Mr. Wilson, "by comradeship and com- 
munity of thought; that constitutes its charm; 
binds the spirit of its sons to it with a devotion 
at once ideal and touched with passion; takes 
hold of the imagination even of the casual 
visitor if he have the good fortune to see a little 
way beneath the surface; it is the genius of the 
place." 

RUTGERS UNIVERSITY 

Rutgers University, the State University of 
New Jersey, was chartered as Queens College 
November 10, 1766, by William Franklin, Gov- 
ernor of the Province of New Jersey and by the 
authority of George III of England. It was the 
eighth college founded in the American col- 
onies and had its origin in the zeal for educa- 
tion and religion shown by the Dutch colonists 
in New York and New Jersey. The college was 
opened for instruction at New Brunswick in 




PORTION OF CAMPUS AND BUILDINGS, SETON HALL COLLEGE, SOUTH ORANGE 



EDUCATION 



IOI 




102. 



NEW JERSEY 



1771, and in 1774 it graduated its first student, 
Matthew Leydt, with the degree of bachelor 
of arts. 

In 18x5 its name was changed to Rutgers 
College in recognition of the benevolence of 
Col. Henry Rutgers, of New York City. In 1864 
Rutgers was made the Land-Grant College of 
New Jersey, and a year later courses in agri- 
culture, engineering, and chemistry were 
offered. In 1880 the New Jersey Agricultural 
Experiment Station was established at the col- 
lege farm, and in 1887 the College Agricultural 
Experiment Station was founded. In igoz a de- 
partment of ceramics was created by the State. 

In 1917 Rutgers was designated the State 
University of New Jersey, and in 192.4 Rutgers 
University was adopted as the name of the in- 
stitution, its separate colleges, and depart- 
ments. In 192.5 a division of university exten- 
sion was established, and in February, 19x7, 
the trustees took over the New Jersey College 
of Pharmacy. The university is composed of six 
colleges and schools, each directed by its dean, 
under the supervision of the president and the 
board of trustees. 

The College of Arts and Sciences offers courses 
in liberal arts, economics, business administra- 
tion, journalism, chemistry, and biology, in 
addition to pre-medical, pre-law, and pre-theo- 
logical courses. 

The College of Engineering, established 
April 4, 1864, trains men for the profession of 
engineering. 

The College of Agriculture is at the college 
farm of 750 acres. It offers curricula in general 
agriculture, dairy husbandry, dairy manufac- 
tures, pomology, vegetable growing, poultry 
husbandry, landscape gardening, floriculture, 
and economic entomology. In the winter of 
each year the college offers six courses of iz 
weeks in general agriculture, dairy farming, 
dairy manufactures, fruit growing, vegetable 
gardening, and poultry husbandry. 

The School of Education, established Oc- 
tober iz, I9Z3, organizes and administers the 
university program for the training of teachers. 

The New Jersey College for Women was 
established April iz, 1918. It is adjacent to the 
College of Agriculture. Two courses of under- 
graduate instruction are offered, the liberal 



arts course and the practical arts or home eco- 
nomics course. The degrees of A. B., Litt.B., 
and B. Sc. are awarded to students completing 
the four-year curricula. 

The New Jersey College of Pharmacy is in 
Newark. It was incorporated August 17, 1894, 
and is a member of the American Association 
of Colleges of Pharmacy. The course extends 
over three years, leading to the degree of Ph.G. 

The Department of Ceramics offers a four- 
year course of preparation for places of leader- 
ship in the ceramic industry. 

The Department of Military Science and 
Tactics offers two-year courses in basic military 
training. It is required of all freshmen and 
sophomores, and in advanced elective courses 
during junior and senior years. The Corps of 
Cadets is organized as a battalion of infantry, 
forming a unit of the Reserve Officers' Training 
Corps. 

Connected with the university are several ex- 
tension divisions and bureaus, including agri- 
culture and home economics, courses for 
teachers, the university extension division, the 
United States Bureau of Mines experiment 
station, the bureau of economic and business 
research, and the bureau of biochemical and 
bacteriological research. 

The grounds, buildings, and equipment of 
the university are valued at more than $7,000,- 
ooo, and the campus includes over 800 acres. 
The undergraduate enrollment in i9Z7~i9z8 
was z,638, and the total number receiving in- 
struction by the university, including the 
summer session, the university extension 
division, the short courses in agriculture and 
in engineering,' and the extension courses for 
teachers, was 10,313. 

Intercollegiate athletics are conducted under 
the direction of the athletic association, with 
a graduate manager of athletics. Varsity teams 
are maintained in football, basketball, swim- 
ming, baseball, track, lacrosse, tennis, and 
cross-country. 

A dean of men gives full time to questions 
of undergraduate discipline, spirit, and morale, 
and a university chaplain acts as advisor on 
matters of religion and as executive secretary 
of the Y. M. C. A. 

Approximately 80 per cent of the under- 



EDUCATION 



I0 3 




104 



NEW J E R S E Y 



graduates are residents of New Jersey, and the 
extension activities are confined to citizens of 
the State. During the past five years the average 
increase in enrollment of resident students has 
been approximately 2.0 per cent. 

STEVENS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 

Stevens Institute of Technology at Hoboken 
is a college of engineering. From its first estab- 
lishment in 1870 this college has offered con- 
sistently one course in the fundamentals of 
engineering intended to provide basic training 
for the practice of the profession in its several 
branches, electrical, civil, or chemical as well 
as mechanical engineering. It was the first col- 
lege to grant the degree of Mechanical En- 
gineer and it continues to give only that degree 
to its graduates. 

In its name and by reason of its location on 
Castle Point above the Hudson River, the 
Stevens Institute of Technology perpetuates a 
remarkable tradition of engineering. Colonel 
John Stevens, who purchased in 1784 the 
grounds now included in the campus of the 
college, was an engineer of unusual and pro- 
phetic gifts. On his estate at Castle Point he 
planned the first low-pressure engine con- 
structed on the American continent, installing 
it in a boat on the Hudson three years before 
Fulton's Clermont took the water. 

Here he built the Phoenix (1808) which, 
rounding the New Jersey shore from Hoboken 
to Philadelphia under the supervision of his 
son Robert L. Stevens, was the first steamboat 
to brave the ocean. Here, between Hoboken 
and New York, he established the first steam 
ferry in the world. Here also he caused to be 
constructed and operated on a circular track 
(18x5-18x6) the first locomotive in America 
to run on a track under steam. His sons, Robert 
L. Stevens and Edwin A. Stevens, founders of 
the Stevens Institute of Technology, inherited 
their father's devotion to the development of 
steam navigation and railroad transportation. 

The history of practical railroading in the 
State of New Jersey begins with the incorpora- 
tion in 1830 of the Camden and Amboy Rail- 
road, of which one of these brothers was presi- 
dent and chief engineer; the other, treasurer. It 
was for the Camden and Amboy Railroad that 



Robert Stevens invented the T-rail and the 
hook-headed spike, and for it the Stevens 
brothers imported the historic locomotive 
"John Bull." 

Edwin A. Stevens was not only an engineer 
but also a pre-eminent master of finance, and 
he had an important part in laying the founda- 
tion for the State's commercial greatness. He 
also gave to the State one of the first colleges 
of engineering in the country, for he prescribed 
by his will that there be established an in- 
stitution "for the benefit, tuition, and ad- 
vancement in learning of the youth residing, 
from time to time, within the State of New 
Jersey." An act of the legislature consequently 
incorporated the Trustees of the Stevens In- 
stitute of Technology, and the doors of the 
college were opened in September of 1871 for 
the admission of students. 

As first president of the college was chosen 
Dr. Henry Morton of Philadelphia who previ- 
ously had served as secretary of the Franklin 
Institute of that city. With him in the first 
faculty were associated Professor Alfred M. 
Mayer, the leading experimental physicist of 
his day; Professor R. H. Thurston who later 
was to establish the course in mechanical en- 
gineering for Sibley College of Cornell Uni- 
versity; Professor C. W. MacCord, collaborator 
with Ericsson on the Monitor; Professor A. R. 
Leeds, expert on water supply and sanitary en- 
gineering; and Professor DeVolson Wood who 
was to form the department of civil engineering 
in the University of Michigan. The prestige 
given to Stevens by this faculty caused it to be 
emulated in other states and brought to it addi- 
tional funds for endowment, among the fore- 
most donors being President Morton himself 
and Andrew Carnegie. 

Dr. Morton was succeeded in icpx by Presi- 
dent Alexander Crombie Humphreys, Stevens 
'81, who departed from a distinguished career 
in the illuminating gas industry to direct the 
affairs of the college. In his quarter century as 
president (i9ox-i9X7) the facilities of the col- 
lege were still further increased by the acqui- 
sition of the Castle Point estate of the Stevens 
family; by the installation in new laboratories 
of the departments of chemistry and mechanical 



EDUCATION 



I0 5 




- 



io6 



NEW JERSEY 




EDUCATION 



lO/ 



engineering; by the extension of athletic fields 
and the erection of a gymnasium; and by the 
reconstruction of buildings, erected during the 
war, to house the department of electrical 
engineering, the engineering museum, and the 
library. 

Professor Frank L. Sevenoak served during 
the year 19x7-1918 as Acting President of the 
Institute until the Trustees installed as the 
third president of the college in 57 years, Dr. 
Harvey Nathaniel Davis, previously Professor 
of Mechanical Engineering in Harvard Uni- 
versity. The Trustees reaffirmed at this time 
their purpose "to offer to a restricted number 
of young men thorough training for the profes- 
sion of engineering through a single course 
leading to the degree of Mechanical Engineer, 
and prescribed that the enrollment of the col- 
lege should not exceed 500 students. For this 
purpose the college possesses a plant and equip- 
ment valued at $1,000,000 and permanent funds 
to the amount of $1,750,000. 

The campus and grounds of the Institute 
extend over approximately 30 acres, and offer 
facilities for education and student life unusual 
in an area of so great industrial and metropoli- 



tan activity as is to be found in northern New 
Jersey and the neighboring city of New York. 

The Stevens Alumni number approximately 
3,000, of whom more than one-fifth are resi- 
dents of New Jersey. The student body in an 
even greater proportion includes young men of 
this state. Many of the students are in residence 
on the campus of the college, either in the 
dormitory maintained in Castle Stevens or in 
the nine national and two local fraternities 
which exist there. The Honor System prevails 
at Stevens as part of a system of student self- 
government. 

The Stevens Engineering Society brings its 
members into affiliation with the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers and the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers. 
High scholastic standing is recognized by 
membership in the honorary engineering fra- 
ternity, Tau Beta Pi. Basketball, baseball, 
lacrosse and tennis are the Varsity sports, and 
the student publications are the LINK (annual), 
the STUTE (weekly), and the STONE MILL 
(six issues yearly). The Glee Club and the 
student dramatic society, Clef and Cue, offer 
performances annually. 



OTHER PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS 



LAW SCHOOLS 

THE New Jersey Law School was opened 
in one of the Prudential buildings at 
Newark, October 4, 1908. At first, two 
years were required for completion of the 
course. In 1911 it was extended to three years. 
The corporate purpose, as set forth in its State 
charter, declares that the school is established 
"to maintain and operate a law school, to 
establish and maintain a law library, and to 
publish books. "Studefits are permitted to count 
14 months spent in law school as part of the 
necessary time required in the serving of a 
three-year clerkship. 

In December 1908 the property at 33 East 
Park Street was purchased. In 1909 an addition 
was built, and in 1916 the property at 35 East 
Park Street was added. In 1911 a structure of 



Gothic architecture was erected for the school's 
law library. 

In 1917 the school numbered 1,335 students. 
Since 1917 one year of college work has been 
required for admission and two years of college 
work will be required on and after 1919. Steps 
have been taken to form a pre-legal college 
department. 

The South Jersey Law School, in Camden, 
offers a general legal preparatory course. There 
is also a college department. Practical training 
is given in office practice, in the preparation 
of briefs, and in the pleading of cases. Par- 
ticular attention is given to New Jersey law, 
and the courses on pleading and practice are 
designed to promote a knowledge of procedure in 
the State courts. The school is open to men and 
women above 1 8 years of age, who have had two 
years of college study, or its equivalent. The 



NEW JERSEY 





EDUCATION 



109 



degree of LL.B. is conferred. There are evening 
sessions. 

The Mercer Beasley School of Law, named 
for Chief Justice Beasley, was incorporated in 
19x7, and received its charter to confer degrees 
in December of that year. Two years of college 
education, or its equivalent, are required for 
admission. The school has a full three-year 
course. Its quarters are in the Industrial Office 
Building, Newark. It has a library of about 
3,000 volumes, and conducts both afternoon 
and evening classes. 

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECH- 
NICAL SCHOOL NEWARK 

Newark Technical School was founded by 
the Board of Trade of Newark in 1883, when 
legislation was secured for joint support from 





FIRE LOOKOUT STATION NEAR CULVER'S LAKE, 

STOKES STATE FOREST 

This 9ooo-acre tract is available for summer recreation. 
The forestry division of the Department of Conservation 
and Development encourages the use of camp sites on this 
large mountain, lake and forest reservation. 



NEW JERSEY LAW SCHOOL. NEWARK 

the City and the State. The school shares the 
distinction with a similar institution in 
Toledo, Ohio, of being one of the first two of 
its type in the United States. As technical 
education progressed, the school kept pace 
with it, and a decade ago the College of En- 
gineering was established. 

The college has adopted the co-operative 
method of engineering education. Courses are 
offered in civil, chemical, mechanical, and 
electrical engineering, leading to the degree 
of Bachelor of Science. Electrical, mechanical, 
or chemical engineering degrees may be ob- 
tained after two years of practical experience 
and acceptance of a thesis. 

Pupils are paired, one working in the shop 
while the other is taking classroom instruc- 
tion. Practical shop experience is obtained in 
the works of a number of the leading indus- 
trial plants of Newark, Elizabeth and other 
places in the vicinity. The enrollment is in 
excess of 1,300. 



no 



NEW JERSEY 




EDUCATION 



OTHER PRIVATE SCHOOLS 



NEW JERSEY has many private schools 
with long and honorable careers that 
are known beyond the borders of the 
State. Some of them are distinguished for 
their efficiency. Some are of the college grade 
and others are college preparatory schools. 
Special mention of a few is possible. 

Lawrenceville is unique in its plan and 
methods. It has the English House system 
adapted to meet American conditions. Its prop- 
erty comprises a golf links, 30 clay tennis 
courts, eight baseball and football fields, a 
quarter-mile cinder track, a pond for skating, 
and an excellent gymnasium. Every applicant 
must take entrance examinations, or furnish 
college entrance board credits, and take mental 
aptitude tests. The school credits according to 
the college standards and requires its pupils 
to pass the entrance board's examination. 
Classes are restricted to not more than 15 boys. 

The first Catholic School for women in the 
United States, the College of St. Elizabeth, 
founded in 1899, at Convent Station, in Morris 
County, had for its background the Academy 
of St. Elizabeth established 40 years earlier. 
The latter had its origin in the building in 
which a "seminary for young ladies" had been 
opened by Madame Helo'ise Chegaray in 1837, 
on the road from Bottle Hill in Madison to 
Whippanong. 

In 1854, Bishop Bay ley purchased the Che- 
garay place and converted it into a diocesan 
seminary for young men, known as Seton Hall. 
When Seton Hall was removed to South 
Orange in 1860, the Society of the Sisters of 
Charity of New Jersey, took charge of St. 
Elizabeth's. In 1878, St. Elizabeth's began to 
register students fromjDther states, and a new 
site was sought. The present site, on a mile- 
wide plateau between Morristown and Madi- 
son, was first occupied in 1880. 

The courses are, classical, scientific, and 
general. A two-year post-graduate course, a 
department of pedagogy, and a music and art 
course, supplement the regular courses. St. 
Elizabeth's was first conducted as a high school 



but became a Catholic college in 1899. The 
first building of the college was Xavier Hall 
completed in 1899. Santa Rita Hall was opened 
in 1907. The new chapel was dedicated in 1909. 
The plant experiment house was built in 1911. 
Santa Maria Hall contains the main library, 
class-rooms, and laboratories. The newest 
dormitory was opened in September, 19x6. 

Seton Hall College at South Orange is con- 
ducted by members of the Catholic clergy of 
the Diocese of Newark. It consists of a college 
of arts and sciences and a school of education. 
It was incorporated in 1861. It aims to impart 
a college education. There are three general 
courses classical, scientific, and pre-medical. 
There is a high-school department in buildings 
separate from the college activities. 

The Princeton Preparatory School was 
founded in 1873 by Princeton University as 
a preparatory department of the college. The 
school was purchased in 1889 by John B. Fine, 
a Princeton graduate and the present head- 
master, and became a private school under his 
management. The school gives personal atten- 
tion to a limit of 115 boys and prepares them 
for college. The regular course covers four 
years. 

In 1863 Peddie School began in a small way 
in the old brick chapel of the Baptist Church 
at Hightstown. The trustees of that early day 
gave themselves unselfishly to their task, and 
more than one pledged his property to support 
the school. In 1866 they laid the corner stone 
of the first building. The school's benefactor 
and headmaster, Thomas B. Peddie, is con- 
sidered the founder. He was aided by his pastor, 
Dr. Henry Clay Fish, whose faith in the school 
kept alive Peddie's interest. Rev. William V. 
Wilson bought the school in 1878 for $io,oco, 
when it was sold by the sheriff for indebted- 
ness. He deeded it back to the incorporators 
for 2.5 cents , paid his own expenses, and refused to 
accept remuneration for his work. Co-educa- 
tion was discontinued in 1908 and Peddie 
became a school for boys. 

Blair Academy was founded in 1848 by John 



Ill 



NEW JERSEY 



I. Blair. The little colonial house, now known 
as the Old Academy, was opened as a day 
school for the children of Blairstown and 
vicinity. The school grew and in 1850, Mr. 
Blair provided a building for boarding students. 
It now has an enrollment of 300 boys and owns 
300 acres. After Mr. Blair's death in 1899, his 
son, DeWitt Clinton Blair, became the school's 
benefactor. The Academy is situated on a hill 
above Blairstown in one of the most pictur- 
esque mountain regions of the State. Besides 
the school buildings there are a campus and 
lake on the premises. The aim of the school is 
to prepare boys for college or technical 
institutions. 

The Centenary Collegiate Institute, at first a 
co-educational school, was founded in 1869 
by the Newark , Conference of the American 
Methodist Church as a memorial of the cen- 
tenary of American Methodism observed three 
years previously. The first class was graduated 
in June, 1876. In 1910 the school was changed 
to one for girls. It is interdenominational, but 
Bible study and chapel attendance are required. 
Home economics, secretarial, college prepar- 
atory, general, academic, and music courses 
are taught. 

Alma College at Zarepath, founded in 19x1, 
is a preparatory school. It also trains teachers 
for high school and Bible institute positions. 

Georgian Court College, Lakewood, founded 
in 1908 by the Sisters of Mercy of Trenton, is 
a school for young women. In 1914 it acquired 
the estate of the late George J. Gould in the 
pine belt of New Jersey. There are four halls 
of residence. The mansion of brick and stucco 
contains living rooms, reception rooms, library 
and sun terrace, while the sleeping rooms are 
used by the senior and junior classes. Raymond 
Hall, of Spanish design, is separated from the 
mansion by formal gardens. It contains lecture 
and music rooms, libraries, and domestic 
science lecture rooms. The court, a group of 
buildings facing the Italian gardens, contains 
the auditorium and gymnasium. There is a 
swimming pool nearby. The campus has zoo 
acres with golf links, polo grounds and fields 
for sports. 

Courses in domestic science as applied to 



home duties, and training for educational 
work in music, arts and sciences, are offered. 
The following list includes the principle 
private schools of the State: 

PRIVATE SCHOOLS BOYS AND YOUNG 

MEN 

LeMaster Institute, Asbury Park. 

Winchester School, Atlantic City. 

Blair Academy, Blairstown. 

Bordentown Military Institute, Bordentown. 

Pingry School, Elizabeth. 

Englewood Country School, Englewood. 

Kingsley School, Essex Fells. 

Freehold Military School, Freehold. 

St. Bernard's School, Gladstone. 

Peddie School, High town. 

Stevens School, Hoboken. 

Newman School, Lakewood. 

Lawrenceville School, Lawrence ville. 

Montclair Academy, Montclair. 

DeVitte Military Academy, Morganville. 

Morristown School, Morristown. 

Newark Academy, Newark. 

Rutgers Preparatory School, New Brunswick. 

Carteret Academy, Orange. 

Cornish School, Orange. 

Pennington School, Pennington. 

Hun School of Princeton, Princeton. 

Princeton Junior School for Boys, Princeton. 

Princeton Preparatory School, Princeton. 

Lance School, Summit. 

Oratory School, Summit. 

Wenonah Military Academy, Wenonah. 

Seton Hall College, South Orange. 

PRIVATE SCHOOLS GIRLS AND YOUNG 
WOMEN 

St. Mary's Hall, Burlington. 

Vail-Deane School, Elizabeth. 

Dwight School, Englewood. 

Centenary Collegiate Institute, Hackettstown. 

Bergen School for Girls, Jersey City. 

Kimberley School, Montclair. 

College of St. Elizabeth, Convent Station 

St. John Baptist School, Morristown. 

St. John's School, Mountain Lakes. 

Prospect Hill School, Newark. 

Miss Beard's School, Orange. 

Dearborn-Morgan School, Orange. 



EDUC ATI ON 




NEW JERSEY 




NEWARK PUBLIC LIBRARY, BUSINESS BRANCH 




NEWARK MUSEUM. ENTRANCE GALLERY AND COURT 



EDUCATION 



Rosemount Hall, Orange. 

Seguin Physiological School, Orange. 

Hartridge School, Plainfield. 

Kent Place School, Summit. 

Oak Knoll School of the Holy Child, Summit. 

Rose Haven School, Tenafly. 

Bowen School, Trenton. 

Georgian Court College, Lakewood. 

PRIVATE SCHOOLS COEDUCATIONAL 

Tahoma, Bernardsville. 
Caldwell Country Day School, Caldwell. 
Somerset Hills Preparatory School, Far Hills. 
Bancroft School for Retarded Children, Had- 

donfield . 

Hobo ken Academy, Hoboken. 
Brookside School, Montclair. 



Moorestown Friends' School, Moorestown. 

Leacroft, Morristown. 

The Peck School, Morristown. 

Newark Preparatory School, Newark. 

Neid linger School, Orange. 

Newark Normal School for Physical Education 

and Hygiene, Orange. 
Varick School, Orange. 
Collegiate Institute, Paterson. 
Miss Fine's School, Princeton. 
Rumson School, Inc., Rumson. 
Modern School, Stelton. 
Prospect Hill School, Trenton. 
Rider College, Trenton. 
Training School at Vineland, Vineland. 
Alma Preparatory and Alma College, Zare- 

path. 



LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS 



NEW JERSEY has 2.75 municipal libraries, 
nine county libraries, and two great 
university libraries. There is a State 
Library at Trenton and a Public Library Com- 
mission. The libraries of the State contain 
more than 4,000,000 books and circulated in 
192.7 more than 11,000,000 volumes. Only four 
municipalities of more than zooo inhabitants 
are without library service. 

The New Jersey Library law authorizes the 
establishment of a library in any community 
by a vote of the people. It allows the library 
for its support the revenue from not less than 
one-third of a mill and not more than one mill 
tax. Under this law libraries are able to give 
service in recreational, educational, industrial 
and professional lines. By a system of inter- 
library loans books in one library are available 
to all other libraries of the State, except such 
books as are for reference use. This enables the 
resident of the smallest community to procure 
books for study and research. 

The earliest record of a public library in the 
colony of New Jersey is that established at 
Trenton in 1750 by Dr. Thomas Cadwalader, 
first Chief Burgess. Money was given by 
John Lambert Cadwalader, great-grandson of 
Thomas Cadwalader, to build the reference 
room of the present municipal library at Tren- 



ton. Governor Belcher wrote to William Morris 
in 1751 regarding the "better establishment of 
our Trenton Library." 

The early Quaker libraries of New Jersey 
form an interesting study and played an impor- 
tant part in the educational development of the 
State. Those still in existence are at Burlington, 
Woodbury, Salem, Moorestown, Mount Holly, 
Bridgeton, Woodstown, and Haddonfield. That 
at Burlington was established in 1758. Most of 
them, while still retaining their entity, are 
merged in municipal libraries. They contain 
old books and documents, which are well 
worth inspection. 

The old library at Middletown, now a part 
of the Middletown Township Library, was 
started over a hundred years ago with the 
avowed purpose of affording the ' 'populace an 
opportunity to learn enough to keep out of the 
hands of the sheriff." 

A number of New Jersey libraries have a 
national reputation for some special line of 
work. The Newark Public Library is particu- 
larly noted for its business branch, which 
renders a specially efficient service to business 
and professional people. It has many other 
branches serving outlying sections of the city. 

The Jersey City Public Library has an unu- 
sual system of branch libraries in fine modern 



n6 



NEW JERSEY 




EDUCATION 



117 



buildings, and is said to have a larger portion 
of its inhabitants enrolled in the library than 
has any other city in America. 

Libraries own buildings in 82. municipalities. 
Many of these are memorial buildings and are 
widely known for the beauty of their archi- 
tecture. 

The public library act of 1884 began the 
movement for free municipal libraries in New 
Jersey. The large cities immediately took ad- 
vantage of this act, but smaller municipalities 
were slow to act. Upon the request of the New 
Jersey Library Association, the New Jersey 
Public Library Commission was established in 
1900 to encourage public libraries, to aid free 
libraries, and to circulate books to such people 
as did not have free library service. It was given 
charge of a system of traveling libraries formerly 
operated by the State Library. 

The Public Library Commission today acts 
as an inter-loan bureau for the libraries of the 
State, besides circulating books of its own 
through traveling library stations and as spe- 
cial loans for study purposes. Last year 61,789 
books were sent out as special loans, and X954 
traveling libraries, showing a circulation of 
over 900,000. It maintains a reference bureau 
for the libraries of the State and advises and 
assists on all library lines, as well as on books 
and reading. It also conducts a summer school 
in library economy, established in 1905, and 
this has had an attendance of 859. 

The State Library of New Jersey in Trenton 
dates from 1796 and has 150,000 volumes. It is 
a law library and general reference library 
mainly for the use of the Legislature and the 
bar, but is free to all the people. Its newspaper 
collection dates back to 1776. It procures for 
its collection every book and pamphlet issued 
on the State of New Jersey. Its collection of 
early English and colonial law is one of the 
most complete in Amerfca, and its early manu- 
script documents of New Jersey as a colony and 
State are of great interest and value. It also spe- 
cializes on genealogy. As it is a depository 
library it contains a complete file of govern- 
ment documents. 

The university library of Princeton dates 
from 1746 and is one of the greatest university 



libraries in the world, containing more than 
600,000 volumes. 

The county library system is the latest li- 
brary development in New Jersey and is devised 
to give to the small towns and rural commun- 
ities the same service as given to urban com- 
munities by municipal libraries. The county 
library maintains no central library, but puts a 
reference collection in every school and a sta- 
tion for book circulation in every community. 
Frequent exchange of books is made by means 
of a book car with shelves. The county library 
law was passed in 1910 at the request of Bur- 
lington County. There are now nine county 
libraries, and they circulate more than x,xoo,ooo 
volumes each year. It is the policy to establish 
these county libraries at the rate of one each 
year, and it is hoped in ten years to have a 
library in each county which has any rural and 
small town population. When these county 
libraries are so established they, with the 
municipal libraries, will afford library service 
to every inhabitant of New Jersey. 

During the past year New Jersey has been 
visited by delegates from thirty-two foreign 
countries coming to see our municipal and 
county libraries. The Department of Public 
Instruction cooperates with the Public Library 
Commission in the establishment and main- 
tenance of libraries in all the high schools of 
the State. 

Much of the sentiment for libraries and read- 
ing in the State has been created by the New 
Jersey Library Association. The two yearly 
meetings of this association attract librarians 
and trustees from many States. The association 
maintains two scholarships for the New Jersey 
Summer Library School. 

The State Library is under the direction of 
the state librarian, who in turn is under the 
State Library Commission, consisting of the 
Governor, Chancellor, Chief Justice, Attorney 
General, Secretary of State, State Comptroller 
and State Treasurer. 

The New Jersey Public Library Commission 
consists of five persons appointed by the Gov- 
ernor and confirmed by the Senate, with the 
State Commissioner of Education and the State 
Librarian ex-officio members. 

The library of the New Jersey Historical So- 



n8 



NEW JERSEY 




NEWARK MUSEUM, JUNIOR DEPARTMENT 




NEWARK MUSEUM, CENTRAL COURT 



ED UC ATI ON 



119 



ciety is at Newark. This is a private institu- 
tion, but it has close connection with the State 
in the preparation of the New Jersey Archives, 
of which thirty-seven volumes have been issued. 

The Newark Museum Association is a cor- 
poration formed in 1909 for the exhibition of 
articles of art, science, history, and technology, 
and for the encouragement of the study of the 
arts and sciences. 

At first it had its headquarters in the Public 
Library building, but later Mr. Louis Bam- 
berger, of L. Bamberger & Company, presented 
the Museum with the present commodious 
building which was opened to the public on 
March 16, 1916. 

There have been special exhibitions of 
leather, radioactive minerals, use of bird and 
floral motifs in Japanese art, colonial kitchen 
and early American life, armor and weapons, 
and evergreens, in the Museum. The Junior 
Museum has arranged exhibits of stamps, non- 



poisonous snakes, Junior Red Cross work and 
hobbies and toys. 

There are 6,406 exhibits in the lending col- 
lection, which lends material to teachers for 
class room use. This department has prepared 
340 industrial exhibits in chart form. 

In 1913 a "museum on wheels," with charts 
and a hundred simple minerals, was sent out, 
and this has grown so that the traveling ex- 
hibits include physical geography models, ma- 
terial illustrating the lives and customs of 
peoples and races, weapons, toys and pottery, 
costume dolls, textiles, nature study material, 
and economic products. 

The Junior Museum is in a separate room 
housing more than z,ooo objects. Children in 
groups are guided about by the members of the 
staff and encouraged to name their preferences 
among the objects exhibited. The work is in- 
structive and tends to develop in children a 
real and lively interest in many things not 
otherwise offered to their imaginations. 




TYPOGRAPHIC LIBRARY AND MUSEUM, JERSEY CITY 

Located in one of the buildings of the American Type Founders Company. Privately owned but open to the public on 

business days 



12.0 



NEW JERSEY 



THE TYPOGRAPHIC LIBRARY AND MU- 
SEUM OF THE AMERICAN TYPE FOUND- 
ERS COMPANY, JERSEY CITY 

The Typographic Library and Museum of 
the American Type Founders Company in Jer- 
sey City, established in 1908, has an inter- 
national fame as a library of libraries. It 
concerns itself only with the graphic arts. It 
has exhibits from the days before the inven- 
tion of typography, with books and inscrip- 
tions on palm leaves, clay blocks, papyrus, vel- 
lum, and printing from wood blocks. 

Its examples of typography include works 
of the first typographers, Gutenberg and 
Schoeffer, and of the printers of the Fifteenth 
Century, and the work of the more celebrated 
printers of every country, and in every century 
until the present day. 

Other classifications are the general literature 



of printing in all languages; Frankliniana of 
rare and unique items; type specimen books 
from 1486 to date; text books in all languages; 
books and broadsides relating to the liberty of 
printing; books and pamphlets on journalism; 
newspaper publishing and advertising, with 
first and special historical editions of lead- 
ing newspapers of many countries, and ex- 
amples of fine bookbinding; books on the 
history of writing and alphabets and engraving 
processes; tiny books, prints and portraits re- 
lating to the history of the graphic arts and its 
exponents; autograph letters and manuscripts; 
and ancient printing presses and printing 
appliances. 

The Library and Museum are open to the 
public on business days, though they are the 
property of the American Type Founders 
Company. 




COVERED BRIDGE OVER THE NESHANIC RIVER AT MONTGOMERY, SOMERSET COUNTY 
This bridge is over 2.00 years old and is still in use 



CHAPTER V 



^Agriculture in T^ew Jersey 

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 



A ING with New Jersey's growing popu- 
lation and industrial expansion, certain 
changes have taken place in agriculture. 
Up to 1880 both the number of farms and the 
acreage of improved land increased. Since 1880 
both have declined, although the number of 
farms is an uncertain index. According to the 
1915 census New Jersey has 19,671 farms with 
nearly z,ooo,ooo acres, of which 1,311,5x8 acres 
is improved land. All but six counties have 
over 1,000 farms (Cape May, Essex, Hudson, 
Ccean, Passaic, and Union), and six counties 
have over 1,000 farms each (Burlington, Cum- 
berland, Gloucester, Hunterdon, Monmouth, 
and Salem.) The most rapid decline in farm 
acreage has taken place in the five northern 
counties of Bergen, Passaic, Essex, Union, and 
Hudson, and in the one south Jersey county of 
Camden. From 1910 to 1915 the number of 
farms in New Jersey declined from 33,487 to 
2.9,671, but most of this decrease took place 
between 1910 and 1910. 

The number of people actually living on 
farms in New Jersey from the 1915 census was 
139,155, or about four per cent of the State's 
population. This percentage is much lower 
than the average for the United States. 

Tenancy is a question that arouses discussion. 
In New Jersey from 1910 to 1915 the percentage 
of farms operated by tenants decreased from 
14.8 to 15.9. Atlantic County has the lowest, 
3.9 per cent. Four counties (Salem, Sussex, 
Mercer, and Burlington) all have over 2.0 per 
cent of their farms operated by tenants. For the 
United States as a whole the percentage of 
tenancy is 38. 

The total acreage in farms has been declin- 
ing, and from 1910 to 192.5 it has declined 15 
per cent (1,573,857 to 1,914,545). However, 40 
per cent of the total land area is in farms. 



Agriculture in New Jersey represents a large 
investment. From 1910 to 1915 the value of all 
farm property has risen from $154,831,665 to 
$311,084,184. Of this total, real estate is 84 per 
cent, or $161,536,810. Farm machinery invest- 
ment has about doubled since 1910, now being 
$13,451,000, or jJ/2 per cent of the total farm 
property. Livestock on the farms was valued 
at $15,000,000, or around eight per cent of all 
farm property. 

With the decrease in farm-land acreage and 
increase in equipment, such as trucks and trac- 
tors, the horses and mules on farms have de- 
clined in the same period from 93 ,000 to 61,000, 
or just about one-third. This is a larger per- 
centage of decrease than that of the farm land. 
The total number of cattle has declined over 
30 per cent, but cows only about 10 per cent. 
According to the 1915 census, there was more 
milk produced in 1914 than in 1919 by nearly 
6,000,000 gallons, with 8000 fewer cows. 

Sheep have declined from 30,683 to 5,684; 
swine from 147,000 to 55,854. Chickens have 
increased from 1,310,439 to 4,113,611, or 77 per 
cent, from 1910 to 1915. Eggs have increased 
by a larger percentage, indicating greater pro- 
duction per hen. 

In general there has been a decided decrease 
in acres in crops such as corn, small grain, and 
hay. On the other hand, small truck crops have 
increased until in 1914 they represented 113,730 
acres, and in 1916 134,000 acres. This trend will 
probably continue owing to increasing popula- 
tion or market and high fixed costs. 

With this $300,000,000 investment, for the 
last three years the farm industry in New Jersey 
has been producing around $100,000,000 worth 
of major products. In 1916, for corn and grain 
this was $11,000,000; hay, $9,000,000; pota- 
toes, both white and sweet, $17,900,000; fruit, 



in 



12.2. 



NEW JERSEY 



including apples, peaches, pears, and grapes, 
$9,000,000; cranberries, $1,800,000; 13 truck 
crops, $17,000,000, and all dairy products, 
$16,000,000. 

Dairy products in Sussex County amounted 
to over $1,000,000, and in Burlington, Hunter- 
don, Salem, and Warren over $1,000,000 each. 
The total value of eggs produced in New Jersey 
was $11,515,000, over $1,000,000 of which was 
for Cumberland County and $1,000,000 in Hun- 
terdon County. The value of chickens raised 
was $7,148,117. Poultry has become a $10,000,- 
ooo industry. There are six truck crops that 
have done consistently over $1,000,000, 
tomatoes (can-house and market), sweet corn, 
strawberries, string beans, asparagus, and pep- 
pers. Lettuce had been in this group until 
recently, when it fell to around a half-million. 
Cabbage is well toward being a million-dollar 
crop. Of course some of these crops are fed on 
the farm and do not represent sales, but even 
allowing for this, New Jersey's farm business, 
with its $300,000,000 investment, is a big 
industry. 

The 1915 census reports that 14,906 farms 



paid out $16,469,007 for feed alone; 10,191 
farms spent $8,597,114 for fertilizer and lime; 
15,476 farms paid for cash labor $14,186,113; 
10,643 farms expended $1,181,876 for lumber, 
posts, etc. The four items of feed, fertilizer and 
lime, labor, and posts and lumber cost over 
$41,000,000. 

In the 1915 census reports 8 per cent of New 
Jersey's farms were on concrete or brick roads; 
15.5 per cent on macadam roads; 16.1 per cent 
on gravel roads; 8.1 per cent on improved dirt 
roads; 34.7 per cent on unimproved dirt roads, 
and 7 per cent on all others, including those 
not reporting this item. 

Most excellent sources of information for the 
farmers of New Jersey are available through the 
Agricultural Experiment Station and the Agri- 
cultural Extension Service of the State Uni- 
versity and the State Department of Agriculture. 
County agricultural agents are placed in every 
farm county to help with local farm problems. 

Climatic conditions are moderate, with 
fairly uniform rainfall and an average monthly 
precipitation of close to four inches. The length 
of the growing season ranges in the northern 




POTATO FARM, DEERFIELD 



AGRICULTURE IN NEW JERSEY 



12-3 




TOMATO FIELD, CUMBERLAND COUNTY 



section from the first to the fifteenth of May to 
the latter part of September or the first part of 
October; in the central part from the latter part 
of April to the first part of October, and in the 
southern section from about April xoth to 
October i5th. 

New Jersey ranks among the highest States 
in acreage devoted to commercial production 
of the following crops: Strawberries, cucum- 
bers, lettuce, onions (the intermediate crop), 
peas, spinach, sweet potatoes, and tomatoes. 
In Passaic, Bergen, and Essex counties there is 
one of the most intensive market gardening sec- 
tions of the country. The value of produce 
raised in nurseries and greenhouses amounts to 
over $6,000,000. 

The growing use of electricity in New Jersey 
agriculture offers unusual advantages. The 
power companies employ an expert who studies 
new methods of electrifying farm processes. 
Power-transmission lines, particularly in rural 
south Jersey, cover a wide territory. The 
Department of Agriculture reports 10,000 farms 
in south Jersey (353,000 acres), producing 
mainly garden truck of an annual value of 



$34,000,000. Over X3oo of these farms are now 
partially or wholly electrified. Other New 
Jersey power companies serve comparable areas. 

Overhead electric irrigation is being devel- 
oped, and the pumping equipment for this is 
now equivalent to the pumping for a city of 
40,000 people. 

New Jersey farmers use electricity for illum- 
inating, for pumping water, feed grinding, 
ensilage cutting, hoisting hay and other mate- 
rials, fruit grading, milking, clipping, running 
separators, churning, refrigeration, ventilation, 
incubation, brooding, and stimulating egg 
production. 

FARM CROPS 

Farm crops are those which are raised ex- 
tensively or on a field scale. Broadly speaking, 
the term would include not only grain and 
forage crops, but fruits, vegetables, and orna- 
mentals as well. It is the custom, however, to 
class the latter as horticultural crops and to 
include in farm crops the following: Grain 
crops, forage crops, pastures, green-manure 
crops, and potatoes. 






12.4 



NEW JERSEY 




WAITING FOR THE TOMATO BOAT THAT PLIES THE COHANSEY RIVER 




FIELD OF POLE BEANS NEAR PORT NORRIS 



AGRICULTURE IN NEW JERSEY 



12-5 



The grain crops and pastures of New Jersey 
are devoted primarily to the support of its 
livestock industry, dairy animals mainly, but 
to a lesser extent the poultry flocks and the 
work stock. Green-manure crops are grown to 
maintain the productivity of the soil, princi- 
pally for vegetable and potato growing. The 
potato crop is the only cash or market crop 
which is generally considered a farm crop in 
this State. 

The grain crops include corn, wheat, rye, 
oats, and buckwheat. Corn is grown in all 
counties, largely for the grain, but to a con- 
siderable extent for silage and fodder. Wheat 
and rye are the grain crops that are sold off the 
farms to a considerable extent. These grains 
largely find their way into stock feeds, how- 
ever, rather than into food for human con- 
sumption. Oats are consumed almost entirely 
on the farms producing them. Buckwheat is 
raised to only a slight extent. 

The crops used for hay occupy a larger acre- 
age than any other crop; the total acreage 
devoted to hay, according to the 192.5 census, 
was x8i,53Z acres. The hay crops consist of 



timothy alone, timothy and clover mixed, 
clover alone, alfalfa, other tame grasses, small 
grains cut for hay, annual legumes cut for hay, 
and wild grasses cut for hay. The total produc- 
tion in 1915 was 411,379 tons. The acreage of 
alfalfa is increasing rapidly and should eventu- 
ally constitute an important part of the total 
hay crop, especially on farms devoted to dairy- 
ing. Such forage crops as roots and soiling 
crops are of minor importance in this State. 

The area devoted to pastures in the State, 
according to the 19x5 census, was 335,057 
acres, which is larger than that devoted to any 
crop or group of crops. Pastures are used to 
furnish dairy animals and work stock with 
summer grazing during approximately six 
months of the growing season. 

The green-manure crops include those raised 
.primarily to improve the productivity of the 
land. They are depended upon to supply or- 
ganic matter, to conserve plant food, and to 
prevent the soil from blowing and washing. 
The most important group in New Jersey are 
the winter wheat crops. In central Jersey it is 
almost universal to sow a winter cover crop, 




A GOOD CRY IN EVERY HILL AN ONION FARM IN . CEDAR VILLE 



12.6 



NEW JERSEY 



usually rye, after potatoes, to be plowed down 
the following spring. On the vegetable-pro- 
ducing farms the practice of sowing winter 
cover crops after market crops are harvested is 
rapidly increasing. The crops used for this 
purpose are rye, wheat, hairy vetch, and vari- 
ous of the clovers. 

The area devoted to potatoes in 1915 was 
6z,zoi acres and the production was 8,514,815 
bushels. 

SOILS AND FERTILIZERS 

The fertilizer industry in New Jersey has 
been built up very largely within the last half- 
century. Before fertilizers came into general 
use many farmers in the southern counties of 
the State had used greensand marl extensively 
on their farms. It was used principally for the 
phosphoric acid and potash it contained 
though some deposits were rich in shells, and 
the marl thus became a source of agricultural 
lime. 

As early as 1830 Thomas Gordon wrote: "It 
would be difficult to calculate the advantages 
which the State has gained and will yet derive 
from the use of marl. It has already saved some 
districts from depopulation and increased the 
inhabitants of others, and may one day con- 
tribute to convert the sandy and pine deserts 
into regions of agricultural wealth." 

Dr. George H. Cook, in his "Geology of 
New Jersey," published in 1868, speaks as fol- 
lows with reference to marl for agricultural 
purposes : 

"Marl has been of incalculable value to the 
country in which it is found. It has raised it 
from the lowest stage of agricultural exhaus- 
tion to a high state of improvement. Found in 
places where no capital and but little labor 
were needed to get it, the poorest have been 
able to avail themselves of its benefits. Lands 
which, in the old style of cultivation, had to 
lie fallow, by the use of marl produce heavy 
crops of clover, and grow rich while resting. 
Thousands of acres of land which had been 
worn out and left in commons, are now, by the 
use of this fertilizer, yielding crops of the finest 
quality. Instances are pointed out everywhere 
in the marl district of farms which in former 
times would not support a family, but are now 



making their owners rich from their produc- 
tiveness. Bare sands by the application of marl 
are made to grow clover, and then crops of 
corn, potatoes, and wheat. What are supposed 
to be pine barrens, by the use of marl are made 
into fruitful land. The price of land in this 
region was considerably below that in the 
northern part of the State forty years ago; now 
that the lands are improved their prices are 
higher than those in the northern part of the 
State, though even there they are higher than 
anywhere else in the United States." 

Other geologists and chemists have con- 
tinued the work so ably carried on by Dr. 
George H. Cook, with the result that a com- 
mercial method has been developed for the 
extraction of the potash from the greensand. 

For many years the potato industry in New 
Jersey had been placed at a disadvantage on 
account of the heavy losses due to the scab 
fungus. Among the many remedies that were 
tried was the use of sulphur. At first it was not 
quite clear just how the sulphur aided in re- 
pressing the scab, but finally it was learned that 
sulphur increased the acidity of the soil, and 
this led Dr. J. G. Lipman to suggest that the 
sulphur was acted upon by soil organisms 
which converted it into sulphuric acid. Further 
researches demonstrated the truth of this, and 
now potato growers are instructed to use sul- 
phur or fertilizers giving an acid reaction for 
the purpose of combating the scab fungus. 

Some thirty-five or forty years ago New 
Jersey farmers were experimenting with organic 
nitrogenous fertilizers such as tankage, blood 
meal, fish scrap, and leather waste. The de- 
mand for more definite information finally led 
to carefully planned research along two dif- 
ferent lines. An exhaustive experiment was 
planned for the purpose of comparing materials 
of this class with the so-called standard mate- 
rials, such as nitrate of soda and sulphate of 
ammonia, in the growing of crops. 

This work has now been under way for thirty 
years, and the experiments have definitely 
shown that nitrogen in the organic form is gen- 
erally less efficient than in the mineral form. 
Nitrogen in the organic form now costs ap- 
proximately twice as much as in the mineral 
form, and these conclusions will enable the 



AGRICULTURE IN NEW JERSEY 



12-7 



farmer very materially to reduce his expendi- 
tures for fertilizers without any loss in efficiency. 

The other piece of research had as its object 
the discovery of laboratory methods for deter- 
mining the availability of the nitrogen in low- 
grade organic nitrogenous materials. A method 
of treatment was successfully worked out, and 
now leather scraps, wool waste, and similar 
materials that originally had little value and 
which the laws of some States actually declared 
could not be used in fertilizers, have come to be 
sources of valuable fertilizers. 

Up to about the last decade of the last 
century the use of lime in agriculture was gov- 
erned very much by rule-of-thumb methods. 
In some cases high-grade calcium was used and 
in others magnesian lime was considered satis- 
factory. But farmers were asking questions as 
to the relative value of the two kinds of lime 
and the amount to use, and again field and 
greenhouse experiments made comparative 
studies of the two forms. These experiments, 
covering a period of twenty years, have shown 
that both forms may be used with equal success, 
and much has been done in determining how 



much lime is required under varying soil and 
crop conditions. 

HUMAN AND ANIMAL NUTRITION 

The problems in human and animal nutrition 
in the State of New Jersey are those of the in- 
habitants of a thickly populated area living 
under artificial conditions as compared with 
the more natural environmental conditions of 
sparsely populated regions. It has been amply 
demonstrated that growth, reproduction rec- 
ords, and general health of experimental ani- 
mals can be influenced by the nutritive value of 
the diets supplied. The confirmation of this 
principle in the case of humans and domestic 
animals, and education in their application, 
are of utmost importance. Much valuable work 
has been done in the dissemination of modern 
principles of nutrition, but much is yet to be 
done in putting this information into the hands 
of the people of the State. 

Although the State is well equipped with 
transportation facilities, so that fresh foods 
are available throughout the year, yet much 
of the food consumed by humans is subjected 




MODERN IRRIGATION INSTALLATION, LOCUST WOOD FARM, WESTVILLE, GLOUCESTER COUNTY 



NEW JERSEY 




GRAPE HARVESTING AT VINELAND 



to processing. Any treatment that is given, 
such as drying, sterilizing, or boiling, is liable 
to change its nutritive value. Certain food- 
stuffs offered to livestock are subjected to proc- 
essing, and with the increasing application of 
factory methods to farm practice, more proc- 
essing of agricultural products is to be ex- 
pected. Thus artificial drying of hay crops 
may become a common practice in the future. 

The nutritive value of plant products may 
depend upon the composition of the soil, and 
a study of this relationship would be worth 
while in New Jersey, in view of the long period 
of use to which the soil has been subjected and 
the necessity of applying fertilizers. 

Certain nutritive properties of foods of 
animal origin, notably eggs and milk, are in- 
fluenced by the ration fed, and because of the 
extensive human consumption of these foods, 
it is essential that studies be made of them. 
Many citizens work at sedentary occupations, 
usually indoors. The food requirements of this 
class, so that deficiencies may be prevented or 
remedied, call for chemical and nutritional in- 
vestigation. It is quite possible that much of 



the economic loss due to infections, such as 
the common cold, might be avoided if more 
information were available as to the relation 
of diet and environment to the resistance to 
infection. 

Infectious diseases in poultry flocks in parts 
of the State have brought about a program of 
rearing in confinement. Success in this must 
depend upon the fundamental knowledge of 
the complete nutritive requirements of the 
species. Fertility and hatchability of the eggs 
will undoubtedly be influenced by the ration. 

Dairy cows are confined for at least part of 
the year. The cow is restricted to feeds selected 
by man, and studies of nutritional require- 
ments are imperative for maintenance of maxi- 
mum production, high quality milk, and re- 
production of the best strains. 

In some cases swine are allowed the free 
choice of food, but many of these animals are 
raised and bred on a garbage ration. Difficul- 
ties in this phase of the industry are encoun- 
tered in maintaining correct environmental 
conditions. 



AGRICULTURE IN NEW JERSEY 



12.9 







I 3 



NEW JERSEY 



The influence of environment on the meta- 
bolic processes makes desirable studies on the 
effect of such factors as humidity, temperature, 



and light, especially the ultra-violet portion of 
the spectrum, on the human and animal 
organism. 



AGRICULTURAL MARKETING 



MARKETING facilities for the farms and 
truck gardens of New Jersey are 
available right at the door, with 
New York City on one side and Philadelphia 
on the other, in addition to the manufacturing 
cities, country towns, and villages within New 
Jersey. The rapidly growing seashore resorts 
make available through the summer months 
an added market, and it has been estimated 
that they bring in an extra population for the 
summer months amounting to around three- 
fourths of a million people. Further transpor- 
tation facilities of roads, bridges, and tunnels 
that are being planned on a generous scale will 
no doubt help greatly to further this growth. 

There are many cities in New Jersey which 
have curb and municipal farmers' markets, 
where the consumers buy directly from the 
producers, aside from regular wholesale market 
places for farmers. 

The 192.5 census reports that co-operative 
farm sales amounted to $2.,309,49i, and farm 
purchases of materials, etc., $956,753. Since 
population has much to do with markets avail- 
able to agriculture, these facts are pertinent. 
The population of New Jersey has grown 
steadily ever since colonial days, but the largest 
expansion took place between 1840 and 1870, 
v, hen the increase was about 3 per cent annu- 



ally. Since then the rate of increase has de- 
clined to about i_5 per cent. 

With an increasing growth in population and 
a stationary area, there is of course an increas- 
ing density. In 1800 there were z8.i persons to 
every square mile in New Jersey, and in 1910 
this had increased to 410 persons per square 
mile. 

A large proportion of the population is 
urban. In 1890 the census indicated slightly 
over 60 per cent as urban, and in 19x0 this had 
increased to over 78 per cent. The rural popu- 
lation is defined as "that residing outside of 
incorporated places having -L^OO inhabitants or 
more." The farm population proper, persons 
living on farms, is much smaller than the rural 
population. According to the 192.5 census the 
farm population was 139^55, which comprises 
all persons living on farms and includes "con- 
siderable numbers" engaged in occupations 
other than farming. The leading counties in 
farm population are Cumberland, Monmouth, 
Burlington, Gloucester, and Hunterdon. 

In recent years hundreds of farmers' roadside 
markets have been developed, and this is a 
prominent trend in the fruit-growing industry. 
Many growers are devoting time and thought 
to the production of fruits of high quality that 
appeal to the automobile trade. 



VEGETABLE GROWING 



NEW JERSEY was one of the first States to 
develop the production of vegetables 
on a commercial scale. At first there 
were market gardens near the large centers of 
population, such as New York and Philadel- 
phia. As the population increased and the de- 
mands for fresh vegetables grew, it became 
necessary to find larger areas of cheaper land, 
and this resulted, in south Jersey, in the devel- 
opment known as truck farming. Aside from 



producing vegetables for market, the canning 
of vegetables for market has become an impor- 
tant industry and makes a fine outlet for many 
acres of tomatoes, lima beans, peas, pumpkins, 
squash, and other crops. New Jersey has always 
ranked high in the commercial production of 
sweet potatoes, asparagus, tomatoes, string 
beans, peppers, and eggplants. 

Market gardening sections have been devel- 
oped in north Jersey, in Hudson, Essex, Passaic, 



AGRICULTURE IN NEW JERSEY 




CATTLE COMING TO WATER, SALEM COUNTY 




COHANSEY RIVER TOMATO BOAT READY TO START FOR MARKET 



I 3 2 - 



NE W JERSEY 



Morris, and Middlesex counties, while truck 
farming has had its place in southern Middlesex 
and the counties to the south. A gradual shift- 
ing of the intensive vegetable farms to such 
points as Freehold and Vineland is taking place, 
and will continue as the land in the metropol- 
itan areas becomes more valuable. 

Another factor is the competition from dis- 
tant producing regions. In 1913 the average 
haul for fresh fruits and vegetables to the New 
York market was 1500 miles, and 40 States and 
nine foreign countries helped to supply the 



Philadelphia market with fresh fruits and 
vegetables. 

In the future, as many counties in New Jersey 
become more urban in character and with in- 
creased competition in many of the truck crops, 
the tendency will be toward a more intensified 
production of vegetable crops . New Jersey has 
some of the best markets in the world at her 
door and by producing high quality products, 
carefully graded, should be able to keep her 
place as a leading State in the production of 
vegetables. 



DAIRYING 



THERE are over 145,000 dairy cattle in New 
Jersey. According to Government figures 
dairy cattle in New Jersey in proportion 
to the number are valued higher than in any 
other State. On the same basis the State ranks 
first in the amount of advanced registry work 
done and is among the first five States in the 
percentage of cows on test in cow-testing or 
herd -improvement associations. The Holstein 
and the Guernsey breeds predominate, yet there 
are Jersey and Ayrshire breeders who are among 
the world's leaders. 

New Jersey is primarily a market milk state. 
Although several of the country's largest pro- 
ducers of certified and modified milk are here, 
considerable milk is imported, which indicates 
the opportunity for expansion. The proximity 
to large centers of population and the advan- 
tage of collective marketing are assurances of 
fair prices to any dairy farmers familiar with 
intensive and up-to-date practices in producing 
a high grade of market milk. 

There are now seventeen cow-testing associ- 
ations, and the breeders of Holsteins, Guern- 
seys, and Jerseys have well-organized State 
breed associations. There are county breed as- 
sociations in Burlington, Salem, Cumberland, 
Gloucester, Mercer, Hunterdon, Somerset, and 
Warren counties. 

The members of these associations are sub- 
stituting pure breeds for unprofitable animals as 
fast as they learn the condition of their stock. 

The value of the dairy industry in New Jer- 
sey is shown by these figures ; 





1915 


1916 


Number of cattle 
Value of cattle 
Value of dairy products 


156,00x3 

$10,390,000 
15,087,874 


147,000 
$11,830,000 
18,000,000 



That there is more milk obtained from fewer 
cows in New Jersey is proved by these figures : 





1919 


1914 


Number of cattle 


171,693 


1 53'49 i 


Quantity produced, gallons.. . 


54,135,989 


76,M5 > 10 4 


Average per cow, gallons .... 


S3 2 - 


651 



A comparison of the production and the 
money returns of the average cow and the good 
cow in the State, meaning by the "good cow" 
the average for the test-association cow in 
1916, is given thus: 





Yearly 
Milk 


Butter- 
fat 


Feed 


Returns 
Over 


Feed 
Cost 




Yield, 
Pounds 


Yield, 
Pounds 


Cost 


Feed 
Cost 


per 100 
Pounds 
of Milk 


Good cow 


8,000 


185 


$116 


$167 


$i-44 


Average cow.. . 


5,600 


in 


116 


108 


l.IO 



AGRICULTURE IN NEW JERSEY 



I 33 




NEW JERSEY 



There are 88 creameries in operation in New 
Jersey. In 1916, in addition to much milk that 
was bought at a flat rate per quart, approxi- 
mately 140,000,000 quarts of milk were pur- 
chased from 4000 farmers on the basis of its 
butterfat content. Of this about 60 per cent was 
sold in New Jersey markets as fluid milk and the 
remainder went either to New York City or 
Philadelphia or was manufactured into by- 
products. The average price paid for this milk 
was six cents per quart. 

Outside of market milk the other important 
dairy product is ice cream. During 19x7 the 
State ranked seventh in its production, and the 
value of its manufacture amounted to $ix,9oo,- 
ooo. Only a comparatively small amount of 
butter, cheese, and powdered milk is produced. 

Through legislation, education, and disease 
control, the quality of the milk supply is con- 



tinually improving. A study of the bacterial 
counts of the milk of producers and distributors 
shows an almost invariable reduction during 
fifteen years. The inspection and the control 
work of certain milk companies and marketing 
associations have been conducive to improved 
quality. The payment of a bonus for low bac- 
teria and adequate butterfat percentage is 
another recent practice inaugurated by some 
of the companies. The elimination of tubercu- 
lar cattle is one of the biggest factors in 
the improvement of New Jersey's milk 
supply. There are 4,648 herds with 2.3,2.17 
cattle under supervision for the eradication of 
tuberculosis. 

When a herd is tuberculin-tested the owner 
immediately becomes a more painstaking pro- 
ducer, and cleaner and more wholesome milk 
is the result. 



POULTRY 



THE tendency toward intensification of 
farming methods and specialization as 
to farm products has resulted in New 
Jersey's taking a conspicuous place in poultry- 
keeping. It forms one of the major branches of 
farming, reaching especially high development 
in such communities as Vineland and Toms 
River. 

New York City is essentially a white-egg 
market, paying a premium for the white over 
the brown-shelled egg. Back somewhere in the 
middle of the last century the modern Leghorn 
poultry farm, producing white-shelled eggs 
exclusively, was introduced into New Jersey. 
The New York City market had been depending 
upon States to the west for the bulk of its 
supply, and practically all of these eggs were 
farm-produced and had brown shells. Gener- 
ally they did not reach the consumer in first- 
class freshness. The newly-established nearby 
Leghorn plants were placing ever-increasing 
supplies of strictly fresh white-shelled eggs 
upon that same New York market. It is not 
strange that the metropolitan consumer soon 
came to correlate shell color with egg quality. 
The efficiency of the egg-type fowl, as the 
Leghorn, has resulted in that breed becoming 



the favorite in the modern poultry industry in 
New Jersey, and it represents 90 per cent of the 
poultry population in the commercial industry 
of table-egg production. The economic con- 
ditions that have caused greatly increased land 
values in those sections adapted to commercial 
poultry-keeping have been brought about by 
more efficient management, more prolific fowls, 
and more intensive methods. 

The second event in the development of this 
type of poultry raising has been the growth of 
the baby-chick industry. New Jersey proudly 
claims Mr. Wilson, of Stockton, as the first 
poultryman to send day-old chicks through 
the express or mails. From that original at- 
tempt in the latter part of the last century has 
grown the whole baby-chick industry of this 
country, measured in millions of dollars. The 
Frenchtown section of New Jersey, in which 
Stockton is located, has developed as a great 
center for this business. Huge hatcheries send- 
ing forth thousands of baby chicks each spring 
have sprung up over the State, and this in- 
dustry has opened up opportunities to large 
numbers of poultry men. 

The third step in the development of modern 
poultry-keeping in New Jersey is the use of the 



AGRICULTURE IN NEW JERSEY 




DUCK RAISING FOR EGGS AND FEATHERS, VINELAND 




MOORESTOWN COMMUNITY HOUSE GARDEN 



i 3 6 



NEW JERSEY 




SHELTER ON A DUCK FARM NEAR VINELAND 



trap-nest and the egg-production performance 
record and pedigree breeding. Research work 
has emphasized the fact that individual hens 
vary widely, even within varieties and breeds 
correlated with egg-production performance. 
In 1916 an egg-laying contest providing space 
for 100 poultry flocks of 2.0 pullets each was 
established at Vineland, where the best pullets 
from the farms entering could be officially trap- 
nested and recorded. In 1919 a similar contest 
was established in north New Jersey in Bergen 
County. The department of poultry husbandry 
at the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment 
Station officially conducts these projects. Many 
thousands of officially recorded hens have been 
turned back to the owners to be the nuclei of 
improved breeding flocks from which general 
egg -production flocks have been reared. 

In 1915 a State-inspected plan was developed 
whereby poultry-breeders might trap-nest un- 
limited numbers of birds at home. Over ix,ooo 
pullets and hens are now being trap-nested 
under this supervision. 

With the growth of the industry along in- 
tensive lines, wherein the number of fowls 



kept per acre has materially increased, poultry 
diseases and parasitic infections have devel- 
oped. The discovery of the presence of such 
diseases and parasites has led to a program of 
prevention based upon sanitation of most 
modern character and a scheme of management 
looking toward the prevention rather than the 
treatment of such troubles. A plan was put in 
force for the testing of all adult fowls for the 
presence of "carriers" of these organisms. The 
second event along this line of trouble preven- 
tion has been the gradual building up of 
methods of chick rearing which would prevent 
infestation of growing stock. 

The present conditions in the poultry in- 
dustry of New Jersey are undoubtedly the sum- 
mation of the economic and production 
conditions which have prevailed during the 
years in which commercial poultry keeping has 
been advancing from obscurity among agri- 
cultural pursuits to the position of being 
recognized universally as one of the major 
agricultural industries of the State. 

Among new methods of management is 
artificial illumination in laying houses during 



AGRICULTURE IN NEW JERSEY 



the winter period, which has intensified egg 
production. 

The future of the poultry industry in New 
Jersey promises well. It cannot be overlooked 
that the egg consumption per capita tends to 
increase every year as people come to realize 
more generally the great food value of fresh 
eggs, and as the modern poultry industry 
works out methods whereby the average con- 
sumer may secure at reasonable prices strictly 
fresh high-quality eggs. 

The poultryman knows with some degree of 
accuracy about how many eggs he may expect 
the average hen in his flock to lay in the course 
of a year. He also knows with considerable 
accuracy what the distribution of those eggs 
over the year period will be season by season. 



He knows about how many producing units, 
or laying fowls, he may be able to take care of. 
He knows approximately what prices season by 
season he may reasonably expect the average 
consumer to be willing to pay for the product 
of his farm. 

These three factors place certain limitations 
before the poultry producer. His success in 
making a profitable enterprise out of poultry 
and egg production in New Jersey will lie 
largely in his ability to produce a more efficient 
hen and one that will be a more dependable 
breeder; in his improvement of his own effi- 
ciency as a production manager; and in his 
ability to work with his fellows in the estab- 
lishing of more efficient methods of reaching 
the ultimate consumer with his products. 



ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE 



THERE are 314 substantial nurseries in the 
State. Many are annual prize winners at 
the marvelous exhibits in Grand Central 
Palace, New York City. There are other annual 
flower shows within the State at city and 
county park nurseries. People come from far 
and wide to see the floral displays of New 
Jersey nurseries, and depart with a realization 
that this is "The Garden State." 

Some of the most beautiful productions of 
prize-winning orchids are shown each year by 
Julius Roehrs Company, of Rutherford. It is 
worth a special trip to Riverton in mid- 
September to see the truly gorgeous display of 
cannas by Henry A. Dreer, Inc. Each spring 
Bobbink and Atkins, of Rutherford, have a per- 
fect fairyland of iris in their fields on the 
slopes of Clifton. This firm conducts the 
experimental rose garden of the United States 
Department of Agriculture at Arlington, 
Virginia. ^ 

The Plainfield Nurseries at Scotch Plains 
have one of the best and most varied collections 
of evergreens. L. B. Coddington at Murray 
Hill, Charles Totty at Madison and George L. 
Ehrle at Richfield are outstanding specialists 
of national reputation as developers of roses. 
The Peacock Dahlia Farms, just off the road 
from Berlin to Williamstown, fascinate every 



lover of flowers who visits them. Thousands 
of acres are intensively cultivated by the nurs- 
erymen of New Jersey. Those cited are some 
of the most widely known to the people of 
this and other States. 

Ornamental horticulture was not mentioned 
in the census reports until 1890. The first 
known florist's establishment in New Jersey 
was started between 182.0 and 1830. The exact 
date is not known. The number wholesale 
and retail in 19x0 was 753, with an area of 
8,577,817 square feet covered by glass, and hav- 
ing sales of $5,064,684. In the 1890 census it 
was estimated that 65 per cent of the products 
are marketed at wholesale, while 35 per cent 
are marketed at retail. The retail flower trade 
in the larger cities is considerable. 

In 1900 the leading counties in area covered 
by glass in order of rank were: Hudson, Mor- 
ris, Essex, Bergen, Union, Passaic, Mon- 
mouth, Mercer, and Burlington. The glass- 
house production of flowers is segregated in 
the metropolitan area. Morris County is the 
seat of the rose-growing industry, particularly 
in the neighborhood of Madison. The Bergen- 
Passaic district is largely concerned with the 
production of pot-grown plants and miscella- 
neous cut flowers. 

There are only a few strictly fruit-tree nurs- 



NEW JERSEY 



cries, most of the others carrying some fruit 
trees as an accessory. The period from the 1910 
census to the present has witnessed a consider- 
able expansion in ornamental nurseries. One 
cause is the plant quarantine act, a virtual 
embargo on the importation of nursery stock 
from foreign countries. The second factor is 
the growth of urban and suburban communities 
and the increased use of plant materials. A 
deterrent to growth, however, has been the 
Japanese beetle quarantine, which restricts the 
movement from the State of certain classes of 
materials without treatment of the soil, thus 
forcing into unrestricted areas the production 
of these materials. 



In at least three centers broad-leaved ever- 
greens are being propagated on a large scale. 
Several attempts at growing narcissus and 
tulip bulbs have been made, but many of the 
largest plantings have been discontinued. The 
propagation and sale of dahlias has increased 
tremendously within the past decade, and New 
Jersey ranks high in new varieties and in total 
sales of roots. 

Ornamental horticulture in New Jersey, 
according to the census of 192.0, represented an 
investment of more than $6,000,000, and an in- 
come of about the same amount. New Jersey 
ranked sixth among the States in area of land 
under glass. 



FRUIT GROWING 



NEW JERSEY, which is known through 
the country as the "Garden State," 
acquired its name from the great 
variety of fruits, vegetables, and flowers grown 
in profusion. William Cox, who resided at Bur- 
lington, was the first American to publish a 
book upon horticulture, and as early as the 
beginning of the Nineteenth Century began 
rather extensive field tests in the planting and 
care of fruit trees. From the first introduction 
of deciduous fruits from the Old World, it was 
apparent that the climate and soil of New 
Jersey were particularly adapted to all kinds 
of such fruits. The soil and climatic conditions 
vary from the rolling and hilly country of 
Sussex, in which apples and tree fruits behave 
much as they do in the New England States, 
to the sandy and open soils of the southern 
counties, where the climate is modified by the 
Atlantic Ocean and Delaware Bay. 

The Winesap apple succeeds well in the 
southern counties. The Oregon Evergreen black- 
berry, whose culture is largely confined to the 
milder temperate region west of the Cascade 
Mountains in Washington and Oregon, grows 
well in southern New Jersey. The winter tem- 
perature south of Trenton in the most severe 
seasons seldom goes under five degrees below 
zero. Peach trees are therefore seldom winter- 
injured as a result of low extremes. Hence, 
the area of fruit production is expanding. 



New Jersey, with portions of Delaware and 
Maryland, became noted as the first great com- 
mercial peach district. Large quantities of 
apples were not only grown in southern New 
Jersey but also through the northern counties, 
including Essex, now largely suburban. Essex 
was once famous for its apples, strawberries, 
and other fruits. 

New Jersey contributed to the horticultural 
world such famous varieties of peaches as Early 
and Late Crawford, Mountain Rose, Smock, 
Fox Seedling, and Iron Mountain. New varie- 
ties of peaches of exceptional quality are being 
bred within the State and promise soon to 
restore the reputation held when the Crawford 
peaches were first introduced. Peach growing 
at present is centered in the counties of Bur- 
lington, Camden, Atlantic, Gloucester, and 
Cumberland, with considerable areas in other 
counties. Apple production is extensive in the 
same counties, and also in Monmouth, Middle- 
sex, Mercer, and Sussex. The production of 
small fruits and grapes is most extensive in 
the southern counties. In the counties of Sussex 
and Warren a combination of dairying and 
fruit growing is a profitable practice. 

There are large areas of land still devoted to 
general farm crops that are admirably adapted 
to the culture of fruits. As economic conditions 
warrant, many of these areas will be brought 
into fruit production. 



AGRICULTURE IN NEW JERSEY 




LANDIS AVENUE, VINELAND 
Large poultry center 



m 





YOUNG APPLE ORCHARD AT CRANBURY, MIDDLESEX COUNTY 



140 



NEW JERSEY 



LIVESTOCK 



L'ESTOCK for the production of meat and 
the breeding of horses is not considered 
as among New Jersey's major agricul- 
tural enterprises. In the raising of beef cattle, 
the margin of profit is much less than in the 
growing of grains. The demand for raw milk 
in the metropolitan area offers the farmer a 
greater income from milk than from meat. 

The largest source of beef production in 
New Jersey is from cows of the dairy herds 
that have reacted to the tuberculosis test. 
These animals are slaughtered in the local abat- 
toir for the poorer class of retail meat trade. 
A few farmers buy "feeders" in the fall and 
keep them through the winter, selling them in 
the early spring. In this way the herders are 
able to feed up their unsalable roughage, while 
the manure obtained cuts down their fertilizer 
cost. The only possibility of any increase in 
the number of beef cattle is in those sections 
of the State where there is rough land suitable 
only for grazing. 

There are in New Jersey about 10,000 sheep, 
mostly in the northern counties. More sheep 
in the northern part of the State could be 
easily supported. Here there is considerable 
rough land that would be excellent for grazing, 
the only objection being the cost of fencing. 
New Jersey, at the door of the best markets in 
the East, which especially pay a premium for 



early lamb, could double its sheep and still 
not oversupply the market. 

There are more swine in New Jersey than any 
other class of meat-producing animal. Swine 
raisers are of two types : One is the farmer who 
is producing general crops and keeping a few 
brood sows to take care of the surplus. He kills 
enough of the pork produced to supply his own 
needs and sells the remainder. The other type 
feeds garbage collected from the cities. These 
garbage-feeding plants are found along the 
shore and in the section around Jersey City and 
Newark. They vary in size, the number of 
animals fed ranging anywhere from 300 to 
15,000. 

The horses found in New Jersey may be 
divided into two groups those which are used 
for heavy work and those used for pleasure. 
The first group is used for hauling in the cities 
and for farm work. Practically all of these are 
brought in from the Middle West, and are sold 
to the farmer and city trucking men by the 
local horse dealers. The second group include 
the animals used in riding clubs, fox-hunts and 
for racing. They are bred to some extent in the 
State by wealthy estate owners, and some are 
brought in through dealers in New York City. 
The breeding of horses in the East will never 
be much of an agricultural enterprise owing to 
the cost of feed and the price of grazing lands. 



COMBATING AGRICULTURAL ENEMIES 



PLANT DISEASES 

FEW people realize the tremendous extent 
of the losses from plant diseases. The 
value of the New Jersey potato crop 
alone is reduced approximately a ---'million 
bushels each year as the result of , leaf roll," 
mosaic, spindle tuber, and other diseases. Fruit 
growers suffer enormous losses, apple scab 
sometimes ruining most of the crop. The peach 
growers also experience serious crop deprecia- 
tion from brown rot. During 19x6 the losses 



from plant diseases were estimated as follows: 
Apple, ii per cent; peach, 5.5; potato, 16.4; 
tomato, 18.5; sweet potato, 17.1; corn, 5.5. 
These yield reductions may not always indicate 
a corresponding reduction in the value of the 
crop, since the remainder of the crop may have 
brought a higher price because of the smaller 
production. 

Many of the important diseases producing 
pathogenes have markedly different life his- 
tories. In the case of cedar rust of the apple the 
organism alternates between the cedar and the 



AGRICULTURE IN NEW JERSEY 







MODEL DAIRY IN CUMBERLAND COUNTY 




MODEL COW BARN 
Home and school for children, Vineland 



NEW JERSEY 



apple. Ordinary spray measures are insufficient 
for its control, but by removing all red cedars 
from the vicinity of the orchard the disease is 
readily controlled. Wheat rust spends part of 
its life on the wheat and then passes over to 
the common barberry. By eliminating this 
plant, no further difficulty is experienced with 
wheat rust. Peach-leaf curl has a less com- 
plicated life history, the organism causing the 
disease spending all of its existence on the 
peach. 

It is necessary also that some consideration 
be given to the relation of the organism to en- 
vironmental conditions. Many of the organ- 
isms causing serious diseases to plants show a 
definite response to such factors as soil moisture 
and temperature. Others causing diseases of the 
above-ground parts of plants are influenced by 
atmospheric moisture and temperature. In the 
case of potato scab it was early found that the 
disease was much more severe in soils which 
had an alkaline than in those with an acid 
reaction. This discovery led to methods to 
inhibit the growth of the organism causing 
scab. 



Plant diseases can be controlled, in the opin- 
ion of many, by measures of protection, such 
as the application of toxic materials in the 
form of spray or dust to the growing plant. 
This is only one method of controlling diseases, 
however, and is to be resorted to only after all 
others have failed. One of the other methods is 
the modification of environmental conditions 
as practiced in the control of potato scab. 

A second method of disease control is by crop 
rotation and cultivation. Many potato grow- 
ers have learned that the continuous growing 
of potatoes on the same land very often leads to 
an increase in the amount of scab. Tomato wilt 
likewise becomes increasingly severe where 
this crop is planted year after year on the same 
land. Proper cultivation also is of value in 
reducing disease. In the orchard the plowing 
under the old apple leaves affected with scab 
will assist in reducing the severity of this 
disease. In the seed bed the stirring of the soil 
will stop the advance of damping off diseases. 

A third method commonly practiced is the 
eradication of diseased plants or plant parts to 
prevent the spread of the disease-producing 




CULTIVATING AND SPRAYING POTATOES AT FAIRTON 



AGRICULTURE IN NEW JERSEY 



'43 




HORTICULTURAL GARDEN, BRIDGETON WATER WORKS 



organisms. The growers of seed potatoes make 
extensive use of this system of control. All 
plants showing disease symptoms are pulled 
out and removed from the field. 

Another important and widely used method 
of plant-disease control is disinfection, either 
of the plant or plant part or of the environ- 
ment. Probably the most common methods are 
the disinfection of white potatoes for scab and 
rhizoctonia, sweet potatoes for scurf, and 
cereal seeds for smuts. These treatments may 
either be liquid, using corrosive sublimate or 
formaldehyde in the case of potatoes; or dry, 
by using copper carbonate for cereal smuts, or 
the more recent possibility of the organic 
mercury compounds. 

Another important -factor in the prevention 
of plant diseases is the planting of varieties 
resistant to disease. In the case of rust of 
asparagus and of the wilt disease of tomatoes, 
cabbage, cotton, and other plants, resistant 
varieties of these plants have been developed. 

When, however, all of these measures have 
failed and diseases still make their appearance, 
there remains one more step, and this is con- 



trol by protection; that is, by the application 
of liquids or dusts to the exposed plant parts. 
Timeliness of application is the first prerequi- 
site. Success in spraying is also dependent upon 
covering the plant parts with a film of the 
spray material. 

The more general adoption of these disease 
control measures will unquestionably result 
in larger and better crops per acre and this in 
turn will result in a larger profit for the farmer. 

INSECTS 

Profitable crops of fruits and vegetables can- 
not be produced in New Jersey without reason- 
ably effective insect control. The State Depart- 
ment of Entomology has kept abreast of the 
progress of knowledge on this vital subject 
throughout the world; discovered new and 
better methods of controlling species where 
there formerly existed no satisfactory and 
effective procedure, and created special 
organizations for applying methods of insect 
control. 

The members of every graduating class in 
agriculture go out with some knowledge of 



NEW JERSEY 




AGRICULTURE IN NEW JERSEY 



insect problems; each year specialists in insect 
control are being trained, and insect-control 
practice among the urban and farm population 
proceeds along sound lines. These factors all 
contribute to a minimum loss from insect 
injury. Insect-control practice grows better 
each year, and insects of a beneficial character 
are more extensively utilized. County mosquito 
commissions have been created and are effecting 
a measure of protection from the mosquito 
pest to more than two-thirds of the popula- 
tion. The way has thus been opened for large 
increases in taxable values, a considerable 
amount of which has already occurred. The 
substation for the study of cranberry and blue- 



berry problems has met the problem of insect 
control on these crops in a satisfactory manner. 
The substation for the study of the biology of 
sewage disposal has materially improved old 
methods and is devising new and more efficient 
ones for the disposal of sewage wastes at less 
cost. An organization of apple growers to 
fight the apple worm was effected in 1916, 
this group operating nearly 1,500 acres of 
bearing fruit. In 19x5 these growers picked 
50 per cent of the fruit free from apple worm, 
but in 19x6 it was 69 per cent free, and in 19x7 
it was 82. per cent free. In 1916 they produced 
z8o,ooo bushels and in 1917 they had 370,003 
bushels. 



AGRICULTURE AND EDUCATION 



AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION 

THE agriculture of New Jersey is served 
by several agencies which have aided 
materially in the development of the in- 
dustry. Some of these are independent groups 
of persons interested in agriculture. Others are 
governmental agencies of organization, in- 
struction, research, extension, and inspection. 

The State Grange is one of the oldest farm 
organizations in New Jersey and has 17,000 
members. There are 1x3 local or Subordinate 
Granges and 15 Pomona Granges organized 
largely along county lines. 

The State Farm Bureau Federation, a branch 
of the National Farm Bureau organization, 
has a membership of 6,000. It is a federation 
of the local units known as County Boards of 
Agriculture which cooperate with the county 
agents of the Agricultural Extension Service. 

Then there are numerous State-wide organ- 
izations representing special types of farming, 
such as the State Horticultural Society, Poul- 
try Association, Cranberry Growers' Associa- 
tion, Dairymen's Association, Alfalfa Associa- 
tion, Potato Association, Beekeepers' Associa- 
tion, Association of Nurserymen, Farmers' 
Roadside Market Association, and Swine 
Growers' Association. There are also numerous 
organizations of farmers, such as the county 
poultry associations. 



For the marketing of their products New 
Jersey farmers have 30 or more cooperative 
associations, among them the Jersey Fruit 
Growers Cooperative Association, South Jersey 
Farmers' Exchange, Monmouth County Farm- 
ers' Exchange, and Beverly Cooperative Associ- 
ation. Local branches of the Dairymen's League 
are to be found in the milk-producing sections. 

The educational work centers around the 
State University at New Brunswick. Special 
service to agriculture began in 1864, when the 
Rutgers Scientific School was designated the 
State Agricultural College under the provisions 
of the Morrill Land Grant Act passed by Con- 
gress in 1862.. Resident instruction is offered 
by the college in four-year courses leading to a 
bachelor's degree, in short winter courses, and 
in special unit courses. The college also con- 
ducts community short courses on special agri- 
cultural topics in different parts of the State. 

At the Agricultural Experiment Station 
established in 1880 numerous research prob- 
lems and investigations of agricultural matters 
are carried out. The Experiment Station has 
rendered valuable assistance to the farmers in 
the control of insect pests and plant diseases, 
in testing fertilizers, in studying soil fertility, 
in problems of feeding and breeding livestock, 
in developing varieties of fruits and vegetables, 
and in the control of poultry diseases. The 
station maintains a laboratory service for the 



146 



NEW JERSEY 



inspection and analysis of fertilizers, feeding 
stuffs, insecticides, milk-testing apparatus, 
seeds, and legume inoculants, thus protecting 
both the farmer and the honest dealer. 

Another agency which renders valuable serv- 
ice is the State Department of Agriculture, 
with bureaus on animal industry, marketing, 
and statistics and inspection. The Bureau of 
Animal Industry supervises quarantines against 
animal diseases and works for the control of 
such diseases as bovine tuberculosis and hog 
cholera. It supervises the testing of dairy herds 
against tuberculosis and the official accrediting 
of tuberculosis-free herds. 

The Bureau of Markets cooperates with farm- 
ers in the transportation and marketing of their 
products, gives advice on the organization of 
cooperative marketing associations, maintains 
a market reporting service, and supervises offi- 
cial market inspection. The Bureau of Statistics 
and Inspection gathers data on farm products 
and is in charge of the inspection of nursery 
stock for the control of insects and plant dis- 
eases. The State Agricultural Convention and 
Farm Products Show is held annually under the 



auspices of the State Department of Agriculture, 
at Trenton. 

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION IN AGRICULTURE AND 
HOME ECONOMICS 

The State Agricultural College of the Univer- 
sity of New Jersey and the Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station are the headquarters of the Ex- 
tension Service in Agriculture and Home Eco- 
nomics, conducted in cooperation with the 
United States Department of Agriculture and 
the several counties. Through this organiza- 
tion the services of the college and station are 
brought directly to the farmers and home- 
makers. There are agricultural agents in 19 of 
the ii counties and home demonstration agents 
in 13 counties. 

The University through this organization 
maintains close touch with the agricultural in- 
terests throughout the State. It distributes in- 
formation on agricultural problems through 
visits of specialists, lectures before agricultural 
groups, an extensive correspondence, and the 
distribution of publications. 

During 19x6 these extension agents made 




LUMBER WAITING TO BE MADE INTO HAMPERS AND BASKETS, BRIDGETON 



AGRICULTURE IN NEW JERSEY 




148 



NEW JERSEY 




WOODSTOWN SUBSTATION 
Atlantic City Electric Company 



2.8,887 culls on over 11,300 farmers. At 7,013 
of these calls information was given on agri- 
culture, and at 1,991 information on home 
matters. The number includes also homes of 
boys and girls enrolled in club work. The sum- 
mer field day held annually at the College farm 
attracts several thousand visitors. 

The Agricultural Experiment Station has 
branches in different parts of the State. Egg- 
laying contests are maintained by the poultry 
department at Vineland and Westwood, a cran- 
berry substation is at Pemberton, and an oyster 
laboratory at Bivalve. Experiments with crops 
are held on individual farms chosen in different 
locations. 

Another important phase is the instruction 
in agriculture in secondary schools. Nineteen 
of the New Jersey high schools now have de- 
partments of agriculture where vocational agri- 
culture is taught along with the sciences funda- 
mental to the industry. This work is adminis- 
tered according to the requirements of the 
Federal Smith-Hughes Act. Under this plan 
schoolroom instruction is supplemented with 



practical work on the home farm. The super- 
visor of agriculture under the State Department 
of Public Instruction is also Professor of Agri- 
cultural Education at the State University, 
where university students are trained for this 
special type of high-school instruction. 

The agriculture of New Jersey has been pass- 
ing through a transformation from the old 
general farm type to an industry of specialties, 
such as fruits, vegetables, poultry products, 
and milk. The intensive specialized agriculture 
gives rise to many problems where scientific 
research and a higher type of education are re- 
quired. Under these circumstances the farmers 
of New Jersey have come to rely heavily upon 
the leadership of their State institutions and 
organizations. 

CONTROL ACTIVITIES OF THE NEW 
JERSEY STATION 

Several laws have been enacted during the 
past years to regulate the sale of materials used 
for agricultural purposes, for the protection of 
the consumer and the honest manufacturer; 



AGRICULTURE IN" NEW JERSEY 



149 



and the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment 
Station has been given the authority to secure 
compliance. This form of service has always 
been one of its main activities. 

In the early history of the Experiment Sta- 
tion the only control law in force was the fer- 
tilizer law, but it was deemed necessary to 
regulate other products, and now there are 
laws covering the sale of agricultural lime, 
fertilizers, feeding stuffs, seeds. The necessity 
is apparent when many millions of dollars are 
spent annually for materials manufactured on 
a tonnage basis by parties who undoubtedly 
intend to deliver the material agreed upon, but 
who are confronted with many fluctuating con- 
ditions during the process of manufacture. The 
usual result is an improperly prepared product 
which may be the cause of a poor crop. There 
are also a few people who would attempt to sell 
a worthless product and would thus unfairly 
compete with the honest manufacturer. 

The service which the Experiment Station is 
giving in the form of control work is in secur- 
ing accurate information as to the composition 



of the materials on the market and in submit- 
ting the results of the examinations to those 
interested, in order that they may not only 
know the composition of any particular ship- 
ment, but that they can make the comparison 
with other similar products. This information 
is secured by trained inspectors who travel 
about and secure samples from actual shipments 
and also study the manner in which the guar- 
antees are stated. The samples are examined at 
the laboratories and reports are issued. During 
the year several thousand samples are secured 
and examined. 

Additional work is done that may be called 
special service. If a purchaser desires a report 
on a particular shipment, efforts are made to 
comply. Also when reports are received stating 
that the failure of a crop was due to materials 
purchased, the cases are investigated to ascer- 
tain the cause. 

SEED CONTROL 

The seed control laboratory of the Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station was estab- 




DEEPWATER SUBSTATION, DELAWARE RIVER NEAR PENNSGROVE 
Atlantic City Electric Company 



5 



NEW JERSEY 



lished in 1912. for the purpose of govern- 
ing the sale of seeds in the local markets . The 
law includes crop seeds and vegetable seeds sold 
in amounts of one pound or over. 

The primary function of the laboratory is 
the inspection and collecting of samples of 
such seeds. Packages of crop seeds must bear 
the percentage of purity and germination and 
date of test; of vegetable seeds, the germina- 
tion or growth percentage and date of test. 
Accordingly an inspection is conducted twice 
yearly, samples are gathered from every local 



market and analyzed, and reports are made to 
the vendors of these seeds. Dealers are advised 
by the reports whether the seed tests as labeled. 
If not complying with the law, the seeds must 
be withdrawn from sale. To date 181 towns 
have been visited, the stocks of 443 dealers 
inspected, and 1510 samples analyzed and 
reported. 

Another valuable service is the analysis of 
seeds for residents. More than 3000 samples 
were tested annually, which means over 6000 
analyses and more than 1.7,000 determinations. 



FARMS OF DISTINCTION 



CAMPBELL'S SOUP COMPANY 

CAMPBELL Soup Company farms, Nos. i 
and z, containing 175 acres near Moores- 
town, Burlington County, are unique 
in that they are devoted to crop improvement 
work and crop service work. The first includes 
the originating and testing of new varieties and 
strains of vegetable suitable for canning, test- 
ing fertilizers, sprays and other blight and 
plant-disease repellents, trying out ideas and 
methods of soil preparation, the planting, 
spraying, picking, and transporting of canning 
crops, and in every other way improving their 
production or handling. The second is the 
growing and delivering of plants to the com- 
pany's contracting growers, including the serv- 
ices of field men who are qualified experts. 

Demonstrations are also conducted at the 
farms, which are clearing houses for informa- 
tion and advice on the growing of canning 
crops. The equipment includes an experimental 
laboratory and a hothouse for developing seed- 
ling plants. Thirty acres are covered with glass 
in hotbeds and cold frames for the tomato 
plants used by growers in 10,000 acres con- 
tracted for by the company locally. A system 
of overhead irrigation is used on the farms for 
field crop cultivation. 

Much attention is given to producing new 
and improved strains of tomatoes, and several 
successful ones have been developed. The traits 
sought in the experimental work on tomatoes 
are proper color, size and shape; high specific 



gravity, acid content and sugar content; vigor 
of growth and disease-resisting characteris- 
tics; early bearing, free setting, and heavy fruit- 
ing qualities. 

DEL-BAY FARMS 

Del-Bay Farms at Bridgeton is one of the 
largest diversified farm properties in the East, 
operating with modern equipment zooo acres 
of orchards and vegetables. While fruit and 
vegetables constitute the major portion of its 
products, the company also grows greenhouse 
roses. During the production peaks of July, 
August, and September, 700 employees are re- 
quired, running to a low of about 150 during 
the winter months. The farm includes noo 
acres of orchards, with 46,000 peach trees and 
70,000 apple trees; 1000 acres of vegetables, of 
which 150 acres have overhead irrigation from 
36 miles of pipe; five acres of cold frames, and 
six greenhouses each 60 by 300 feet. All of this 
requires buildings and equipment rarely seen 
on a farm. A spur of the railroad carries the 
produce from the farm platforms to the city 
markets, while part of the crops is transported 
by auto trucks. A branch factory of the Snider 
Packing Corporation of Rochester, located on 
the farm, is an additional outlet for the com- 
pany's crops. 

There are a power plant, a cold-storage plant, 
an ice plant making zo tons of ice a day, a pack- 
ing house, garage, machine shop, stables, a 
hundred tenant houses,, and 50 barracks. The 



AGRICULTURE IN NEW JERSEY 




BROAD STREET, WOODBURY 
A home center in the truck-gardening belt 



equipment includes 43 trucks and automobiles, 
10 caterpillar tractors, two wheel type tractors, 
nine small garden tractors, 14 gang plows, iz 
power sprayers, three power dusters, 75 farm 
wagons, transplanters, vegetable washing ma- 
chines, two-row potato planters, 60 horses and 
mules, and a stockroom containing 3800 items 
of hardware and supplies. 

Employees' conferences and meetings aid in 
formulating the policies of the business. Heads 
of departments and foremen are called upon to 
discuss matters of production, marketing, and 
management. The company employs a cost ac- 
counting system, and the cost of every opera- 
tion is known. 

RIVERVIEW FARMS 

Riverview Farms at Bridgeton has 1000 acres 
under the plow, and this means Z5O acres in 
asparagus, 50 acres in peach orchards, and the 
remainder in general farm and truck crops. 

There are also 1000 acres in marshlands for 
the production of salt hays and muskrats. 
These areas are protected by heavy embank- 



ments, drainage ditches being cut inside them. 
The result is that the natural food supply of 
the muskrat is protected and increased, and 
the animals themselves encouraged to settle 
within these guarded areas. One acre of em- 
banked marsh may produce more muskrat pelts 
than a hundred acres of wild marsh. 

Riverview Farms employs 30 workers in the 
winter and 1x5 workers in summer. The invest- 
ment represents $300,000. The volume of prod- 
uce includes 15,000 crates of asparagus, 1,000,- 
ooo of asparagus roots, two to three tons of 
asparagus seed, 10,000 bushels of peaches, 1000 
tons of fresh and salt hays, and the miscellane- 
ous vegetables, such as tomatoes, peppers, 
beans, lettuce, cabbage, cauliflower, beets, 
carrots, eggplants, spinach, and strawberries-^ 
a total of 100,000 packages yearly. 

WHITESBOG 

The first unit of the Whitesbog cranberry 
property was purchased in 1857 by James A. 
Fenwick, one of New Jersey's pioneer cran- 
berry growers. Mr. Fenwick died in 1882. after 



NEW JERSEY 



having developed about 40 acres of cranberry 
bog. There are now over 500 acres planted to 
cranberries on the property. For many years 
the only product was cranberries, but recently 
the production of blueberries has been added, 
60 acres now being planted to blueberry 
plants. 

The annual yield of cranberries at Whites- 
bog sometimes exceeds 15,000 barrels, and the 
yield of blueberries has exceeded 1,000 crates 
of 31 quarts each. The number of employees 
varies from about zo in the winter to more 
than 300 when cranberries are being harvested. 
When the cranberries were all picked by hand 
the population of the village of Whitesbog 
sometimes numbered 1000 persons, but now 
that most of the cranberries are picked by ma- 
chine scoops, fewer laborers are required. 

Whitesbog has been developed almost en- 
tirely from the profits resulting from the cul- 
ture of two indigenous wild fruits, consistently 
turned back into the improvement of the prop- 
erty by three generations of the same 
family. 



WALKER-GORDON 

The Walker-Gordon Laboratory Company 
has two producing farms, one with 800 acres 
at Juliustown and another of 3000 acres at 
Plainsboro. The company specializes in milk 
for infant feeding, and the plant at Plainsboro 
has grown from a small dairy farm of 30 milk- 
ing cows to over 1500. 

The 3000 acres of farm land are used largely 
to grow feeds for the herd. Each year around 
800 acres of corn is raised for ensilage, and 
from zoo to 400 acres of alfalfa. 

This farm is also making a commercial at- 
tempt to dry forage crops artificially, and has 
installed a mechanical hay-drying apparatus 
which receives the alfalfa green from the field 
and dries, grinds, and bags it ready for feeding. 

The producing plant is operated separately 
from the farm. Men who care for and feed the 
cattle and perform different operations in the 
barns do that work and nothing else. About 
300 men are employed in the producing plant 
and Z on the farms. 




CONCRETE SHIP BUILT DURING WORLD WAR 
Sunk off Cape May Point to serve as a breakwater 



CHAPTER VI 
"Public Utilities 



WATER 



WATER as a necessity of life and its 
availability when required are taken 
for granted to such an extent that 
few think of anything except the mechanical 
act of turning the faucet. Annoyance first and 
then consternation would follow the continued 
failure of water to flow through its customary 
channels. It is a far cry from the occasional 
Indian wandering by the forest stream to the 
time when every man had his own well by his 
dwelling, and on to the present, when water 
must be furnished in enormous volume to great 
centers of population for domestic use and for 
a multitude of industrial purposes. The problem 
is complex but can be solved satisfactorily if 
dealt with on broad lines and with the co-opera- 
tion of all concerned. 

The total consumption of water from public 
systems, both publicly and privately owned, 
in New Jersey during 192.4 was over 354,000,000 
gallons daily. Of this 101,500,000 gallons 
daily was ground water taken from a large 
number of artesian wells. For convenience in 
considering water supplies, New Jersey may 
be divided into three parts. 

First, the Northern Metropolitan District, 
comprising roughly the counties of Bergen, 
Passaic, Essex, Hudson, Union and Middlesex. 

Second, the Southern Metropolitan District, 
comprising the counties of Mercer, Burlington, 
Camden and Gloucester, including the cities 
of Camden and Trenton. 

Third, the rest of the State. 

NORTHERN METROPOLITAN DISTRICT 

In the Northern Metropolitan District reside 
1,360,000 people, or 68% of the total popula- 
tion of the State, in about 175 incorporated 
communities. Nearly all are supplied from 



40 water systems, of which 2.2. are publicly and 
1 8 privately owned. They consumed in 19x4 
about 150,000,000 gallons daily. The principal 
developed sources are the following: (i) The 
Pequannock watershed of 64 square miles, from 
which Newark draws a maximum of 57,000,000 
gallons daily; (2.) The Rockaway watershed of 
1 2.1 square miles, which furnishes Jersey City 
with 60,000,000 gallons daily, a part of which 
is sold to neighboring cities, (this supply, 
with additional storage, can be increased to 
100,000,000 gallons daily); (3) the Passaic 
River (main stream at Little Falls), from which 
the Passaic Consolidated Water Company takes 
some 50,000,000 gallons daily for sale to Pater- 
son, Passaic, Clifton, Kearny, Harrison, East 
Newark, and Bayonne;* (4) the Hackensack 
shed of 115 square miles (partly in New York 
State) from which the Hackensack Water Com- 
pany supplies between 16,000,000 and 3 0,000,000 
gallons daily to Union City, Guttenberg, Wee- 
hawken, West New York and Secaucus in Hud- 
son County, besides Hackensack, Englewood 
and some 40 other communities in Bergen 
County; the sources used by the Elizabethtown 
Water Company, the Plainfield Union Water 
Company and the Middlesex Water Company, 
which include the Elizabeth and Rahway rivers 
and a large number of wells located at different 
points. These companies supply some 35 com- 
munities in Union and Middlesex Counties 
with about 16,000,000 to 17,000,000 gallons 
daily. The Commonwealth Water Company 
supplies about 8,000,000 gallons daily to 
Summit, Irvington, West Orange, Millburn, 
Maplewood and other places. Perth Amboy 
secures 14,000,000 gallons daily from wells and 

* NOTE: Some of these cities will share in the Wanaque 
supply referred to later. 



NEW JERSEY 




WANAQUE RESERVOIR 
Lookout south from intersecting concrete bridge 




WANAQUE RESERVOIR 
Looking north from same point. When filled, the reservoir water will be up to the line of trees shown in these views 



PUBLIC UTILITIES 



New Brunswick about 7,000,000 gallons daily 
from Lawrence Brook. 



of new sources of water-supply, especially in 
the Northern Metropolitan District. 



SOUTHERN METROPOLITAN DISTRICT NEW SOURCES OF WATER SUPPLY 



In the Southern Metropolitan District there 
were 54x,ooo people (16% of the total popula- 
tion) in some 105 incorporated communities. 
Nearly all were supplied from 48 public water 
systems, of which 19 were publicly and 2.9 
privately owned. They consumed about 84,- 
000,000 gallons daily. Trenton has an unlimited 
supply from the Delaware River, the chief 
problem being to prevent pollution from 
streams flowing into the Delaware and from 
other sources. Camden has developed a supply 
of over 16,000,000 gallons daily from under- 
ground sources, and the remainder of the 
district derives its supplies mainly from wells 
in a similar manner. 

REST OF THE STATE 

The rest of the State has an area of about 
double that of the two metropolitan districts 
combined, but contains only about one-sixth 
of the population and is predominantly rural. 
There are, however, ^o incorporated com- 
munities, but they are generally small and 
widely scattered. 

POPULATION GROWTH 

The growth of the population is reflected 
proportionately in the need for additional 
water supplies. Those best qualified to judge 
estimated the population of New Jersey in 192.4 
to have been 3,044,000, and that by 1930 it 
would be 3,463,000, with a further increase 
by 1940 to 4,xi9,ooo. The census bureau now 
estimates the population of the State, as of 
July i, 1918, to be 3,8x1,000, or 358,000 more 
than was anticipated by 1930. 

Increasing knowledge of New Jersey's many 
advantages for industrial, commercial and 
residential purposes, the facilities afforded by 
the Holland Tunnel and bridges between New 
Jersey and New York, and by the Delaware 
River bridge connecting Camden and Phila- 
delphia, combine to produce this exceptionally 
rapid growth, which is but the beginning of a 
still greater influx. These facts give added 
emphasis to the necessity for the development 



In this district the margin of safety between 
daily consumption and the maximum average 
capacity of developed supplies is very narrow 
and may disappear entirely in the first dry 
season, such as was experienced in large areas 
in 1918 and again in 19x3. Furthermore, in- 
creasing pollution in some of the sources in 
thickly populated districts will render desir- 
able, and even imperative, the abandonment of 
these supplies as soon as they can be replaced 
with purer water. Filtration and chlorination 
are already resorted to extensively, but there 
is an undetermined limit beyond which it 
would not be prudent to go in this direction. 

A factor of very great importance in the 
northern district is the approaching comple- 
tion of the development of the Wanaque water- 
shed, adjoining that of the Pequannock, with 
an area in New Jersey of about 66 square miles. 
The city of Newark, anticipating future needs, 
very wisely, and after a long period of pre- 
liminary consideration, entered into a contract 
with the North Jersey District Water Supply 
Commission on October 31, 1918, for a supply 
of 50,000,000 gallons a day from the Wanaque 
River. The project was later enlarged to pro- 
vide for a supply of 100,000,000 gallons daily 
and to make possible the participation of other 
cities under a supplementary contract with 
Newark, dated January 2.4, 19x4. 

Meanwhile, the drought of 19x3 had 
alarmed a number of adjacent communities and 
negotiations were entered into which finally 
resulted in contracts between the city of New- 
ark and the commission with the cities of 
Paterson, Passaic, Clifton, the towns of 
Kearny, Montclair, Bloomfield, and the Bor- 
ough of Glen Ridge. Under this arrangement 
the needs of these communities will be met for 
a reasonable period and Newark, which will 
have an allotment of 40,500,000 gallons daily, 
will be in a position for a few years to aid other 
cities until its own needs require the use of its 
full share. One example of this is the city of 
Elizabeth, which is negotiating with Newark 
for the inter-connection of the distributing 



i 5 6 



NEW JERSEY 






PUBLIC UTILITIES 




WANAQUE DAM 
Wanaque-Midvale in the valley at the right 



systems, so as to render possible the use of 
Wanaque water to supply its needs. 

The Wanaque project, as finally planned, 
provided for the acquisition of about 6,000 
acres of land and the creation of a reservoir 
with a water surface, when full, at an eleva- 
tion of 300 feet above sea level. This is zoo 
feet above the level of the business centers of 
Newark, Paterson and Passaic. The reservoir, 
which has been completed, is about six miles 
long and a little less than a mile wide at the 
widest point. When full, its average depth will 
be about 37 feet, and its total storage capacity 
at the normal overflow level will be 17,600,- 
000,000 gallons. 

It was necessary to ^construct eight dams 
with an aggregate length of about one and 
one-half miles. The largest of these, the Wan- 
aque dam, is an earth structure 1500 feet long 
with a concrete core wall in the center, extend- 
ing from the flow line down to bedrock. Re- 
location of the Erie Railroad for six miles, 
and of highways for eight miles, has been 
necessary. The aqueduct from the reservoir 



will be about 2.1 miles long. Except for the 
tunnel through Watchung mountain, little 
work has been done on this part of the under- 
taking, which will probably require two years 
for completion. 

The total cost of the entire project will 
amount to some $2.6,000,000 to $17,000,000, 
apportioned among the participating com- 
munities. The supply thus furnished will, even 
if supplemented by local projects and the 
interchange of existing supplies, enable the 
Northern Metropolitan District to meet its 
needs adequately for only a few years. 

The Hackensack watershed is susceptible 
of further development and the Hackensack 
Water Company now contemplates the erec- 
tion of a dam at Rivervale, Bergen County, 
near the New York State line, which would 
make possible a substantial increase in the sup- 
ply available from that source. 

The Ramapo River watershed includes 147 
square miles but about nz square miles of 
this area are in New York State. This is sus- 
ceptible of development, which would produce 






i S 8 



NEW JERSEY 



some 70,000,000 gallons daily, available for 
Bergen and Hudson Counties. 

It must be borne in mind, however, with 
respect to both the Hackensack and Ramapo 
that, since these streams rise in New York 
State and a substantial portion of their catch- 
ment areas are in that State, full development 
is impossible without joint action, which of 
necessity would include provision for certain 
New York communities. Another fact of 
growing importance is the increasing density 
of population in Bergen County, which will 
make it more difficult in future to keep supplies 
from these sources sufficiently free from pollu- 
tion to warrant their use for potable purposes. 

In view of the situation thus outlined, it is 
necessary, either through action by the State 
of New Jersey or by a cooperative movement 
on the part of all interested communities, to 
plan at once for the next major development. 

A substantial supply may be obtained from 
the North and South Branches of the Raritan 
River, but the ultimate solution of the problem 
for the Northern Metropolitan District is to 



develop the streams in the sparsely settled 
highlands in the western part of the State, all 
of which flow into the Delaware River. 

New York and Pennsylvania, as well as New 
Jersey, have inalienable rights in the great 
Delaware basin, which contains about 7,000 
square miles above Trenton Falls. It is highly 
important, therefore, in order to avoid endless 
litigation in future, to arrive at some equitable 
understanding among all three States. Two 
attempts have been made to accomplish this 
result and one treaty negotiated by commis- 
sions representing New Jersey, New York and 
Pennsylvania, is now in the hands of the 
legislature for consideration. 

Several State bodies have jurisdiction over 
various phases of the water problem. Chief 
among these are the State Department of Con- 
servation and Development, and North Jersey 
District Water Supply Commission. The Water 
Policy Commission was created by the legisla- 
ture for the purpose of investigating and re- 
porting upon various phases of the question 
as it affects the welfare of the entire State. 




"CUBORE" 
First American-built and successfully operated ship equipped with Diesel oil engines. Docked at Claremont Terminal 



PUBLIC UTILITIES 




GENERATORS THAT FURNISH THE POWER FOR RINGING THE TELEPHONE BELLS AND FOR COLLECTING 

AND RETURNING COINS IN PAY STATIONS 
South Orange office, New Jersey Bell Telephone Company 




NEW BRUNSWICK OPERATING ROOM 



i6o 



NEW JERSEY 



jj 



l.t 

I 




NEW 2.0 STORY HEADQUARTERS OF THE NEW JERSEY BELL TELEPHONE COMPANY, IN NEWARK 
Will house all of the administration and management staff, and their assistants, numbering 3,000 of the 15,000 em- 
ployees of the company. Designed in free, American style without interruptions to the tall lines straight to the top of the 
building. Across the front there are six sculptured figures by Edward McCartan, representing linemen, plant workmen, 
switchboard operators and subscribers. 



PUBLIC UTILITIES 



161 



TELEPHONE 



THE company or individual that contem- 
plates establishing itself in New Jersey 
practically can eliminate from its calcu- 
lations the problem of adequate telephone serv- 
ice. More telephones are in use in New Jersey 
than in anyone of 3 8 other states in the country, 
and the telephone industry is developed in ade- 
quacy and speed of service to a point where 
inter-community and interstate calls are nearly 
on a par with local calls. 

The strategic position of the State between 
the cities of New York and Philadelphia has 
led to the provision of telephone facilities of 
the highest order into both cities from any 
point in New Jersey. Direct lines radiate to 
many other cities the country over, from the 
principal manufacturing, industrial, commer- 
cial and residential sections of the State. 

The extent to which the telephone is used for 
the speedy transaction of business is indicated 
in more than 760,000,000 calls made yearly by 
New Jersey people from more than 62.0,000 tele- 
phones. About 1x0,000,000 of these calls are to 
points outside the State and originate in the 
3 ,000,000 miles of telephone line in the system 
of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company, 
the associated company of the Bell System in 
New Jersey, which owns all except three per 
cent, of the telephones in the State and handles 
90 per cent, of the telephone business. 

This company, in common with the rest of 
the Bell System, has pledged itself to furnish 
the most telephone service and the best, at the 
least cost to the people of the State; to seek no 
large profits for distribution as "melons' ' or extra 
dividends; and to use any earnings in excess of 
actual requirements to improve the service, or 
else to reduce rates . IruNew Jersey this means a 
constant improvement of telephone service al- 
ready of high standard. When improvements 
are possible, they are quickly made, especially 
in the provision of faster and more accurate 
handling of calls to nearby communities and 
to towns at great distances. Within recent years 
the time required to complete toll and long dis- 
tance calls has been greatly reduced. 



Industrial and residential expansion in New 
Jersey has been rapid in recent years. The robust 
growth constantly challenges the telephone in- 
dustry to keep pace, but it has promptly met 
the demand for additional facilities. In order to 
do so the rate of growth of the industry meas- 
ured in terms of new telephones alone has been 
more rapid at times than anywhere else in the 
country. In meeting the task of keeping pace 
with New Jersey 's development, the New Jersey 
Bell Telephone Company is spending annually 
some $15,000,000 for new construction, an out- 
lay made in accordance with carefully prepared 
and annually revised forecasts of future tele- 
phone needs. The capacity of the industry to 
provide adequate service, even if the demand 
exceeds the forecasts, is limited only by the 
national resources of the Bell System. 

The rural nature of a large part of the State 
outside its great cities is yielding steadily to 
metropolitan conditions in two big areas north 
and south. A steady influx of new residents and 
new business enterprises into these areas has 
been given tremendous acceleration by such 
projects as the bridges and vehicular tunnels 
connecting New Jersey with New York in the 
north, and the great bridge between New Jersey 
and Pennsylvania over the Delaware at Camden 
in the south. Local and sectional boundaries 
and interests are dwindling in these areas and 
being supplanted by the idea of single large 
communities of metropolitan interests. This is 
an attitude the telephone industry recognizes 
and shapes its efforts to meet by offering new 
types of service providing larger calling areas. 
This extension of service is given as part of a 
schedule which provides telephone facilities for 
a wide range of individual needs, offering a 
choice of the most convenient form for specific 
needs at the most economical rate for the use to 
be made of the telephone service. 

The parallel developments of the State and 
the industry during the last half century have 
been interdependent to a large degree. Urban 
and rural life in New Jersey as it exists now is 



162. 



NEW JERSEY 




PUBLIC UTILITIES 



i6 3 



possible because of the telephone, to as large a 
degree as the great office buildings in the State's 
cities. And in turn the telephone industry in the 
State has achieved its size and importance be- 
cause it is a necessity for the communication 
needs of a constantly growing state. 

The people of New Jersey only recently have 
been served by one state-wide service with mod- 
ern plant under a single operating control. For 
a number of years prior to 19x7 the industry was 
largely maintained by two separate organiza- 
tions, the New York Telephone Company in 
the northern and central parts of the State, and 
the Delaware and Atlantic Telegraph and Tele- 
phone Company in the southern. In 192.7, be- 
cause of the size of the existing telephone sys- 
tems and the expectancy of their continued 
growth, it seemed desirable to create the single 
organization with a single management which 
could devote its entire efforts to the increas- 
ingly complex problems of providing telephone 
service for the people of the State. Merger of 
the two properties was approved that year by 



the State Board of Public Utility Commis- 
sioners. 

How great and complex is the problem 
which prompted the merger can most readily 
be seen from records of telephone growth. 
These show that from 1878, when telephone his- 
tory in New Jersey commenced, to 1890, the 
average gain in telephones in the state yearly 
was 470; from 1890 to 1900 about 3,600; and at 
present more than 40,000 a year, or almost 100 
times the annual average growth up to 1890. In 
1900 there were 5.6 telephones per square mile 
of New Jersey territory. In 1918 there were 78.5 
a hundredfold increase in telephones while 
population has only slightly more than doubled , 
from 150.7 persons per square mile in 1900 to 
550 in 1918. 

Telephone history on a commercial basis in 
New Jersey began in 1878 in Monmouth County, 
where the Bell Telephone Company of New 
York began furnishing service, and in Newark 
and Passaic in 1879 when the Gold and Stock 
Telegraph Company started operations. 



GAS 



IN AN industrial state, gas, either natural or 
manufactured, is an absolute essential. Its 
manufacture, sale, and distribution consti- 
tute one of the oldest of present-day public util- 
ity services. Although gas for balloon purposes 
had been produced in the Eighteenth Century, 
it was not until the early part of the Nineteenth 
Century that this product came into use for 
illumination. While apparently the earliest 
developments must be credited to English and 
Scotch investigators, we find that New Jersey 
was not far behind in this development. The 
first gas-works in America was also the third 
in the world. It was preceded only by those in 
London and Liverpool-, It was established in 
Baltimore in 1816. 

This was the result of the spirit of investiga- 
tion and progress of Rembrandt Peale, the artist, 
who in 1813 illuminated his museum and gallery 
of fine arts in Holliday Street, Baltimore, by 
gas produced in a home-made gas making 
machine. Everybody in Baltimore, including 
the city fathers, was interested, and in con- 



sequence there was little difficulty in securing 
the passage in 1816 of an ordinance permitting 
Peale and his associates to manufacture gas and 
to contract with the city for lighting the 
streets. Thus it came about that an artist, and 
not a business man, became the first of the so- 
called public utility "magnates" of the country. 

As first produced, gas was not only ex- 
pensive, but was of far less value than today's 
product. Furthermore it was a source of danger 
to walls and pictures owing to the products 
resulting from its combustion. Pressures were 
low and the area that could be served from a 
single plant was restricted. It was only about 
2.0 years ago that the distribution of ordinary 
gas at higher pressures was taken up, and today 
every community of any size in New Jersey is 
supplied with manufactured gas at rates com- 
mensurate with the cost of production in the 
different areas. 

In addition, gas is available in many rural 
sections. It is distributed at high pressure with 
individual house governors. At the present 



164 



NEW JERSEY 



TWO EXTREMES OF ENERGY 




COAL TO STEAM 
Public Service power plant boiler room at Kearny 




STEAM TO ELECTRICITY 
Turbines of Public Service at Kearny 



PUBLIC UTILITIES 



time about 600 miles of high-pressure gas mains 
are in service along country roads. The rates 
charged for gas have resulted in considerable 
development of industry where this fuel is used 
for tempering and other heat-treating processes. 
One notable use, although not very extensive 
of course, is in the manufacture of glass eyes, 
there being two such factories in the northern 
part of the state using gas in this operation. 
This ideal fuel is also extensively used for 
house heating owing to the elimination of 
problems involving storage and the handling 



of coal and ashes. Gas heating at the seashore, 
where there is ample unused capacity in the 
winter time, has had a rapid development. The 
State, of course, cannot offer the same low rates 
as are available where natural gas can be 
had, but the production of gas by the larger 
companies is on such a scale as to compete 
favorably with similar operations in other 
parts of the country. This has resulted in the 
use of gaseous fuel in large quantities by many 
manufacturing plants which require heat in 
their industrial processes. 



ELECTRICITY 



IN AN industrial community power is one of 
the foundations on which success is built. 
Much of the history of the development 
of electric power was enacted in New Jersey. 
The Edison dynamo, an important element of 
the first successful direct-current system, the 
Sawyer-Mann incandescent lamp, the Weston 
motor, the Daft electric railway system, and 
the Edison electric meter were all developed and 
first put in use in this State. At Mr. Edison's 
laboratory at Menlo Park were conducted many 
of the early experiments in connection with 
the development of the direct-current dynamo, 
the incandescent lamp, the street railway motor, 
and the Edison electric meter, in which the 
principle of electro-deposition was used to deter- 
mine the amount of current which had passed 
through the circuit. 

All of the early electrical generators were 
quite small in capacity, so small in comparison 
with the capacity of the engines, that in many 
plants a single engine, through the medium of 
a line-shaft, was utilized in the driving of a 
large number of generators. The first electric 
lighting, principally used for lighting streets 
and stores, was by j:he use of arc lamps, and 
very soon afterwards by incandescent lamps. 
Both were operated by means of series circuits, 
each circuit being supplied by its own inde- 
pendent generator. 

Between 1890 and 1900 the development of 
electric illumination was literally astounding, 
and New Jersey had its part in this advance. 
The State profited greatly and today electrical 



energy is available in nearly every community. 
High-tension transmission of electrical energy 
now supplies the most remote portions of the 
State. There are still a number of rural areas 
not supplied, but the electric companies are 
rapidly spreading their distribution lines over 
all remaining areas where the business avail- 
able justifies. 

The era of the small generating plant has 
passed, and service is supplied by less than a 
dozen companies, most of which are so inter- 
connected that it is safe for an industry to 
locate its plant in almost any part of the State 
with an assurance that there will be a relatively 
unlimited supply of electric power at reasonable 
rates. Because of the high-tension transmission 
lines and minor interconnections between the 
various companies, it is no longer necessary to 
confine industrial development to the vicinity 
of the large cities. 

For many years it has been the practice to 
locate small factories in villages and small 
towns in order to utilize labor which would 
otherwise have to move to the larger cities. 
Today the power question need no longer in- 
fluence the choice of location for an industry. 
The interconnections, sometimes referred to as 
the "superpower" system, which are being 
made between the different companies, include 
all the adjacent states. 

For upward of two years the cables of the 
Philadelphia Electric Company have brought 
power into the City of Camden and vicinity. 
In October, 1917, the Trenton switching sta- 



i66 



NEW JERSEY 




PUBLIC UTI LITIE S 



i6 7 



tion of the Public Service Electric and Gas 
Company was put into service at a cost of 
$1,500,000. Through it Public Service receives 
power from the Philadelphia Electric Company 
for the supply of Trenton and vicinity. This 
power is received at the present time at 66,000 
volts. The line itself, however, is designed for 
131,000 volts. The capacity of the line is 
50,000 kilowatts and when necessary can be 
readily doubled. 

A thoroughly modern plant has been con- 
structed in Kearny. It has an ultimate capacity 
of 450,000 kilowatts and it is operated as part 
of a group which includes the Essex power sta- 
tion, Newark, and the Marion power station, 
Jersey City. Combined, these three plants have 
about six times the dependable, continuous 
capacity of the much-talked-of Muscle Shoals 
plant in its present stage of development. 

Connecting this group of plants with a 
switching station at Athenia, midway be- 
tween Paterson and Passaic, a switching sta- 
tion at Roseland, several miles west of Newark, 
and extending to the southward, southeast- 
ward, and thence toward the east to a point 
south of Metuchen, is a two-circuit trans- 
mission line operating at 131,000 volts, tying 
together all of the large power stations in the 
northern part of the State. Construction of a 
new power station is to be commenced at a 
point near Perth Amboy where ample water 
and fuel are readily available. Later 131,000- 
volt connections are to be established, if 
possible, from the Metuchen switching sta- 
tion to the Kearny switching station along 
Newark Bay and the Passaic River and thus 
making a complete loop connection for the 
northern section. 

Utility companies have recognized for a long 
time the general principle that full cooperation 
is best for all concerned. This has led to an 
agreement between Rublic Service Electric and 
Gas Company on the one hand, the Phila- 
delphia Electric Company on the southwest, 
and the Pennsylvania Power and Light Com- 
pany on the northwest, for a pooling of the 
resources of the three companies. In order to 
make this effective a "ring" is under con- 
struction, including an 8i-mile transmission 
line from Siegfried, Pa., eight miles north of 



Allentown, to the Roseland switching station, 
where connections will be made with the 
i3i,opo-volt lines already referred to; a 49- 
mile line from Siegfried to a switching station 
near Philadelphia, where connections will be 
made from the Conowingo hydroelectric plant 
on the Susquehanna River and the other sta- 
tions of the Philadelphia Electric Company; 
and the Roseland and Philadelphia stations 
will be connected by a yy-mile line, thus com- 
pleting the loop, into which will feed all the 
generating stations of the three companies. 

The work of constructing these transmission 
lines will be completed in 1930 at a cost of 
approximately $16,000,000. The net result of 
this pooling of interests will be a saving of 
$3,000,000 per annum because of economies 
effected. The principal advantage which the 
interconnection of these systems is expected to 
achieve is improvement in service, especially 
as to dependability. In addition there will be 
benefits arising from diversity of load, the 
possibility of staggering construction pro- 
grams, and the ability to concentrate produc- 
tion in the most efficient generating plants, 
irrespective of ownership. The diversity factor 
alone has a very important effect in reducing 
the combined needs of the system. 

The total capacity of all the plants feeding 
into this pool will be approximately 1,150,000 
kilowatts. Other plants than those men- 
tioned which will be connected with this sys- 
tem are, first, a plant at West Pittston with a 
capacity of 66,000 kilowatts, owned jointly 
by the American Gas and Electric Company 
and the Pennsylvania Power and Light Com- 
pany; and a plant to be located at Sunbury on 
the Susquehanna River, which will be con- 
nected to the Siegfried switching station. 

In addition to the connections now partly 
established and being completed by Public 
Service Electric and Gas Company, the plants 
at York Haven and Middletown on the Sus- 
quehanna River; at Reading and Easton, Pa.; 
and at Dover, New Jersey, are all connected 
by means of no,ooo-volt transmission lines 
extending from the Susquehanna River through 
western and northern New Jersey to Walden, 
New York, where connections are made with 
the Adirondack Power Company. Through 



i68 



NEW JERSEY 




MAIN GENERATING PLANT, ESSEX STATION -PUBLIC SERVICE 




PUBLIC SERVICE POWER PLANT AT KEARNY 



PUBLIC UTILITIES 



169 



these various interconnections the entire coun- 
try from Boston to Pensacola and to Chicago 
may be connected at any time for emergency 
purposes, and in fact, was connected for a 
temporary test in June, 192.7. At Holland, on 
the Delaware River, a few miles above French- 
town, a modern power station operated at a 
steam pressure of 1,2.00 pounds, is under con- 
struction. This will be connected directly to 
the no,ooo-volt line referred to. 

The entire portion of the State south of 
Barnegat City on the east and a point a few 
miles south of Camden on the west is served 
by the Atlantic City Electric Company. Here 
is a large area for potential industrial develop- 
ment, surrounded by deep-water shipping 
facilities, and interlaced by an extensive trans- 
portation system. 

The Atlantic City Electric Company's man- 
agement is already preparing for the develop- 
ment of this territory. From east to west the 
State is spanned with two principal 66,000 
volt lines both of which originate at Deep- 
water Point on the Delaware River opposite 
Wilmington, Delaware. After diverging 
to Hammonton on the north, and through 
Bridgeton and Ocean View on the south, they 
come together again at Atlantic City. Radiat- 
ing from these trunks are other transmission 
lines, which cover the territory with a com- 
plete network of 300 miles of line. 

There is now under construction still another 
double-circuit steel tower 131,000 volt line 
to be run in a straight line from Deepwater 
Point to Atlantic City. This line is 56 miles 
in length and will be constructed at a cost of 
nearly a million dollars. 

In addition to its own facilities, now in- 
stalled or under construction, the Company has 
provided for supplementary sources of supply 
to take care of breakdowns or other emer- 
gencies. At Deepwater Point submarine cables 
connect with the system of the United Gas 
Improvement Company, including the Phila- 
delphia Electric Company's steam plants and 



Conowingo Hydro-Electric Plant on the Sus- 
quehanna River. A connection with the West 
Jersey and seashore transmission lines makes 
available other sources of supply. 

Although the plant capacity of the Atlantic 
City Electric Company of 80,000 horse power 
is ample to take care of immediate load neces- 
sities, the anticipated growth of southern New 
Jersey is so great that the company is now 
engaged in the construction of a new plant at 
Deepwater Point. This plant will have an ul- 
timate capacity of 575,000 horse power, of 
which the first unit of 160,000 horse power is 
now being installed at a cost of $ix,ooo,ooo. 

It embodies all of the most modern elements 
of power plant construction for the production 
of electric energy at the lowest possible cost. 
The boilers will have a working pressure of 
1350 pounds and the high-pressure turbines 
will operate at izoo pounds pressure. 

The plant has an ideal strategic location, 
being at the center of the anticipated load, and 
immediately on the Delaware River where 
there are unlimited water supply and deep- 
water shipping facilities. Coal may be un- 
loaded directly from ships or barges as well as 
from direct railroad connections. 

An unusual feature of this plant is the pro- 
vision for the sale of steam to the Du Pont 
Company for its dye works. So certain is the 
Company of the location in the immediate 
vicinity of manufacturing plants using proc- 
ess steam, boiler capacity has been provided 
and large tracts of land for such plants have 
been purchased in the neighborhood of Deep- 
water Point. 

Industry in New Jersey need not lack ample 
supplies of power at reasonable rates. Charges 
for electrical energy must of course be based 
upon cost, but owing partly to the intercon- 
nection with the various companies, rates have 
been reduced in the last few years, for both 
power and ordinary household uses. This has 
encouraged the installation of labor-saving 
household devices on a widespread scale. 



170 



NEW JER SE Y 




HGBOKEN TERMINAL PUBLIC SERVICE ELECTRIC LINES 




TYPICAL BUS BARN OF PUBLIC SERVICE 



PUBLIC UTILITIES 



171 



ELECTRIC CAR AND MOTOR BUS SERVICE 



BECAUSE of the way in which its popula- 
tion is distributed throughout many 
municipalities, which, though politi- 
cally separated, are bound together by common 
commercial, industrial and social interests, 
adequate and dependable local transportation 
service is extremely essential to New Jersey's 
welfare. The northern section of the State de- 
mands the finest possible communication with 
the neighboring city of New York, and a sim- 
ilar demand for communication with Phila- 
delphia is present in the southern part of the 
State. In addition, each of the major cities of 
New Jersey is a nucleus around which cluster 
residential and industrial communities, whose 
growth and progress require the high devel- 
opment of transit facilities. 

While few other states have so great a need 
for local transportation service, it is also true 
that nowhere else has such a widespread system 
of local transportation been developed . Before 
the advent of the motor bus as a common car- 
rier, one of the largest and most comprehensive 
street railway systems in the world provided 
communication for New Jersey's many com- 
munities and played a major part in their 
growth and upbuilding. 

This street railway system, which embraces 
some 875 miles of track, still constitutes the 
backbone of the service, meeting the need for 
mass transportation in the larger population 
centers. It has been augmented by a veritable 
network of bus lines, which, radiating into 
suburban territory, supplementing street-car 
facilities, connecting outlying districts, tra- 
versing the State to supply interstate facilities, 
and providing a new and more luxurious form 
of transit, have strengthened, extended and 
improved in very great measure transportation 
resources . 

The adoption by the larger local transporta- 
tion companies of the motor bus as an auxiliary 
to rail transportation, has not only given to its 
operation a stability which it would not other- 
wise have possessed, but has created a new 
standard of bus construction and new conditions 



of service. With operation in the hands of re- 
sponsible corporations closely regulated by the 
State, the dilapidated vehicles of a few years 
ago are rapidly disappearing, and their place is 
being taken by modern buses, many of them of 
the gas-electric type. The haphazard and unde- 
pendable transit facilities formerly offered are 
being supplanted by a unified service, operating 
in accordance with carefully prepared and su- 
pervised schedules. 

That the adoption of the motor bus, as an 
auxiliary by street railway companies has per- 
mitted a great extension of transit facilities, is 
well demonstrated by the fact that Public Serv- 
ice Co-ordinated Transport, the largest of the 
State's operating companies, and which form- 
erly supplied street car service to a maximum 
of 147 municipalities, now supplies transpor- 
tation, by car or bus in many cases both to 
some 181 New Jersey communities. Supplement- 
ing the Public Service system, which operates 
more than 1500 miles of bus routes, other com- 
panies and individuals are providing such ad- 
ditional service that practically every section 
of the State has ample communication. 

A feature of the New Jersey bus system that 
is constantly growing in popularity is the so- 
called "super" or "de-luxe" service. This pro- 
vides at higher rates, a faster schedule and a 
more luxurious type of equipment, and thereby 
not only encourages the patronage of shoppers 
and theatre-goers, but at the same time lessens 
traffic congestion by inducing owners of private 
automobiles to use buses. 

In addition to its system of intrastate bus and 
car service, New Jersey has a large and growing 
system of interstate buses, affording speedy 
transportation between its municipalities and 
New York and Philadelphia. The operation of 
lines of this character has been facilitated by 
the construction of the great Delaware River 
bridge between Camden and Philadelphia, and 
the Holland vehicular tunnel between Jersey 
City and New York. The completion of the 
great suspension bridge which is to span the 
Hudson River between Fort Lee and the upper 



172- 



NEW JERSEY 




ELEVATED STRUCTURE OF PUBLIC SERVICE AT HOBOKEN 




ATHENIA SUBSTATION PUBLIC SERVICE ELECTRIC & GAS COMPANY 



PUBLIC UTI LIT IBS 



part of Manhattan will undoubtedly give ad- 
ditional impetus to this form of bus traffic. 

These interstate lines not only provide what 
may be called commuter service in and out of 
New York and Philadelphia, but in addition 
carry large numbers between these metropolises 
and New Jersey's famous coast resorts. Still 
another type of bus transportation with which 
the State is amply provided is that afforded by 
the longer interstate lines, which not only 



connect New Jersey points with Pittsburgh, 
Cleveland and Chicago, but in some cases run as 
far west as California. 

The flexibility of the motor bus, the rapid 
expansion of the State's system of hard-surface 
roads, and the success that has attended the 
adoption by New Jersey utilities of the bus as a 
transportation facility, assure to every New 
Jersey community ample transportation in the 
future. * 




ONE OF THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD'S THROUGH SCHEDULED FREIGHT TRAINS 
Photographed near Colonia, N. J., enroute from the west to tidewater at Jersey City. Practically all Pennsylvania 
Railroad through freight trains have now been placed on schedules almost as rigid as those of the passenger flyers. Sixty- 
one of them have been given names. The "Greyhound" carries livestock from St. Louis to the seaboard; the "Packer" 
perishable freight from Chicago to Jersey City, and the "Ironmaster" general merchandise from Pittsburgh to tidewater. 



174 



NEW JERSEY 




TOP BROADWAY LIMITED OVER THE PENNSYLVANIA 
Jersey City to Chicago in zo hours Photographed at Metuchen 

MIDDLE BOARDWALK FLYER OF THE READING 

Camden to Atlantic City 55 miles in 60 minutes 

LOWER BLACK DIAMOND EXPRESS, LEHIGH RAILROAD 
Entering Raritan Valley from West Portal 



CHAPTER VII 



Transportation and Commerce 

RAILWAYS 



IT is the railroads of New Jersey that have 
put the State in the forefront among the 
great industrial centers of the United 
States. Much of her growth and progress is 
owing to her position in the heart of the manu- 
facturing belt extending along the North 
Atlantic seaboard from Virginia to Massa- 
chusetts. Many of her industries were origi- 
nally attracted by the water-power facilities of 
the State. Their later expansion has been owing 
to quick transportation connections with the 
markets of the two neighboring metropolitan 
communities representing the combined pur- 
chasing power of more than 10,000,000 people. 

Rail connections over which there are, on 
the one hand, short hauls from all points 
within the State to the ports of Newark, 
Jersey City, Hoboken, Trenton and Camden, 
are, on the other hand, a means of easy access 
to the coal and iron mines of Pennsylvania. 

The six trunk lines that cross the central and 
northern part of New Jersey carry a large 
share of the commerce ,of the nation to and 
from the eastern seaports. An idea of the im- 
portance of these rail connections to the State 
is gained from the fact that they handle 94 
per cent of the exports of the port of New York. 
Their presence furnishes a network of arteries 
of trade that make it very easy to distribute 
the products of the State through both foreign 
and domestic commerce. 

Few states have as extensive railroad facili- 
ties as New Jersey, and few places in the world 
have as many large railroad terminals as the 
west shore of the Hudson River in New Jersey 
from Weehawken to Bayonne. 

A description of the main railroad routes of 
New Jersey might well begin with those cen- 
tering around New York Harbor. The West 
Shore, driven back from the Hudson by the 



precipitous hills below Haverstraw, enters the 
State by way of the Hackensack Valley, tun- 
nels the lower Palisades at Weehawken, and 
terminates at the river there. 

The main line of the Erie departs from the 
Ramapo Valley as it enters the State at Mah- 
way; thence it passes through Paterson and 
Passaic, crosses the Jersey meadows, and ends 
at Jersey City. The Lackawanna enters the 
State below the Delaware Water Gap, proceeds 
by alternative routes to the lower end of Lake 
Hopatcong, and again proceeds by two routes 
from Denville to tidewater. One of these passes 
through Paterson and Passaic and the other 
through Newark. They converge at Hoboken. 

The Lehigh Valley Railroad emerges from 
the valley of that name at Easton, Pa., and 
crosses into New Jersey there; thence it runs 
eastwardly to Bound Brook and to South 
Plainfield, turning there for Elizabeth, Newark, 
and finally Jersey City. Between Lansdowne 
and Neshanic it clings closely to the south 
branch of the Raritan River. 

The Central Railroad of New Jersey, like the 
Lehigh Valley, enters the State at Easton, pro- 
ceeds by a somewhat similar course to Bound 
Brook, and thence by way of Plainfield, Eliza- 
beth, a long bridge across Newark Bay, and 
the Bayonne peninsula, to Jersey City. The 
closely affiliated Philadelphia & Reading 
crosses the Delaware a few miles above Tren- 
ton. It takes advantage of the break created by 
the Raritan River between the Watchung 
Mountains and the high ground southwest of 
there. At Bound Brook it turns its freight 
trains to reach tidewater at Port Reading in 
the Arthur Kill while its passenger trains go 
on to Jersey City. 

The Baltimore & Ohio, it should be noted, 
operates its passenger trains in the State over 



i 7 6 



NEW JERSEY 



the Reading to Bound Brook and thence over 
the Central Railroad of New Jersey to Jersey 
City. The Baltimore & Ohio, the Philadelphia 
& Reading, and the Central Railroad of New 
Jersey run into the same passenger terminal at 
Communipaw in Jersey City. The Pennsylvania 
closely parallels this joint route across the 
State, with a passenger and freight service 
serving Trenton, New Brunswick, Elizabeth, 
Newark, and Jersey City. 

This is one of the most intensively utilized 
stretches of" railroad in the world. Passenger 
service is available from Manhattan Transfer 
to New York City over another line through 
the Hudson River tunnel. The main tracks of 
the Pennsylvania, in turn, are paralleled by its 
Camden & Amboy line to the southeast. An- 
other line of the Central Railroad of New Jersey 
runs from Bayside, at the head of Delaware 
Bay, lengthwise of the State to Perth Amboy, 
Elizabeth, and Newark. Finally the New York 
& Long Branch line of the Pennsylvania con- 
nects the oceanside with the metropolitan dis- 
trict, passing through South Amboy and join- 
ing the main line of the Pennsylvania near 
Rahway. 

These are the main rail radii which center 
in the densely populated and highly industrial- 
ized area around Newark Bay. Almost every 
carrier has a number of shorter lines connecting 
suburban areas with the central territory. The 
lines of the Erie from Nyack, New City, and 
Haverstraw, N. Y., each connect a number of 
Jersey localities with Jersey City. So does the 
Greenwood Lake division, with its three 
branches. Another branch includes Newark 
within the service of the system. The New 
York, Susquehanna & Western winds its way 
through a different territory, and by another 
tunnel through the lower end of the Palisades 
gives the system an outlet to the Hudson at 
Edgewater. The Lackawanna has branches to 
Montclair, Gladstone, Chester, Hampton, 
Franklin, and Branch ville. The Lehigh Valley 
has several branches within the industrial area. 

In determining the course of transportation 
lines in New Jersey, as elsewhere, geographical 
conditions play a part. The northern third of 
the State is mountainous, corrugated by ranges 
of hills of a generally northeasterly to south- 



westerly trend. In this section the railroad, 
either follow the valleys between these hills 
or take a tortuous course from one valley to 
another, perhaps along some traversing streams 

Thus in the extreme northwestern part of 
the State the Lehigh & New England operates 
in the valley of the Paulinskill parallel to the 
Kittatinny Ridge, which divides the waters 
of that stream from those of the Delaware. 

In South Jersey the railroads for the most 
part run in long and straight lines across the 
coastal plain. The Atlantic City line of the 
Reading pursues an undeviating course for long 
distances between Camden and the seaside 
resort; and the same is true of the Pennsylvania 
east of Cape May Junction. 

Among the branch lines not terminating in 
the metropolitan area are the Central of New 
Jersey's south branch from Somerville to Flem- 
ington. The Raritan River Railroad runs be- 
tween New Brunswick and South Amboy. Be- 
sides its line to Atlantic City, the Pennsylvania 
has several lines across the State. It has one 
from Monmouth Junction to Sea Girt; another 
from Camden to Seaside Park; a supplementary 
electric line to Atlantic City from Camden by 
way of Newfield. It has a branch from that 
point to Cape May City. The line of the Read- 
ing to Atlantic City has branches to Ocean 
City, Wildwood, Cape May City and other 
points inland and along the coast. The Tuck- 
erton railroad extends from Tuckerton to 
Barnegat, and thence inland to Whitings. 
Barnegat is connected with Toms River by a 
branch of the Central of New Jersey. 

The long list of steam railroads serving this 
fortunate State takes in the West Shore Rail- 
road; Delaware, Lackawanna & Western; Erie; 
New Jersey & New York; New York, Susque- 
hanna & Western; Pennsylvania; Lehigh Valley; 
Central Railroad of New Jersey; Philadelphia 
& Reading; West Jersey & Seashore; Atlantic 
City Railroad; Lehigh & Hudson; Lehigh & 
New England; Wharton & Northern; Mount 
Hope Mineral; Morristown & Erie; Rahway 
Valley; Raritan River; Union Transportation 
Company operating the line between Pem- 
berton and Hightstown; Tuckerton; Balti- 
more & Ohio; and the Wildwood & Delaware 
Bay Short Line Railroad. 



TRANSPORTATION AND COMMERCE 



177 




GRAIN ELEVATORS, DOCKS AND TRANSFER YARD OF WEST SHORE RAILROAD AT WEEHAWKEN 




MAIN FREIGHT YARD OF WEST SHORE RAILROAD AT WEEHAWKEN 



i 7 8 



NEW JERSEY 



The character of the service provided by a 
railroad may be judged by various indications. 
The attractiveness and convenience of its pas- 
senger stations are important. Freight depots 
and team tracks should be abundant, capacious, 
and accessible. The facilities should conduce 
to safe and rapid handling. Passenger trains 
should be comfortable and clean. Track should 
be well ballasted. Locomotives should be 
powerful and kept in good working condition. 
Schedules should be well maintained, both pas- 
senger and freight. And in all of these things 
the railroads that form a network in New 
Jersey are notable. No State moves daily such 
a proportion of its population back and forth 
in the commuting zone. 

The New York Central has a line in New 
Jersey the West Shore. The major portion of 
the main line consists of a four-track freight 
and passenger line extending north from Wee- 
hawken by tunnel through the Bergen Hills 
to the State line just north of West Norwood, 
a distance of about 19 miles. A secondary line, 
the New Jersey Junction Railroad, is a freight 
line which extends north from a connection 
with the main line of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road and the National Docks Railroad, in 
Jersey City, crosses the main line of the Dela- 
ware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad and 
the Erie Railroad in Jersey City, connects with 
the Hoboken Shore Railroad in the vicinity of 
Willow Avenue, Hoboken, and runs thence 
north along the waterfront of Weehawken. 
From Weehawken the line continues north 
along the waterfront to a connection with the 
Erie Terminals Railroad at the Hudson-Bergen 
Counties line. 

The principal terminus at Weehawken has 
1 6 station tracks and five ferry slips. The freight 
station has team tracks of about 100 cars ca- 
pacity, the less-than-carload transfer station 
2.00 cars capacity, and the milk station 100 cars 
capacity. The icing station can fill 2.2. cars at one 
time. The passenger service on the West Shore 
within the State is almost exclusively subur- 
ban commuter service, principally moving via 
Weehawken and ferry to West 4ind Street and 
Cortlandt Street, Manhattan. The average 
daily trains moving in and out of Weehawken 
are 14 through trains and 57 suburban trains. 



On its several parts, the Erie maintains 
ample freight-handling facilities in New Jersey. 
On the New York division there are 14 team 
tracks and they will hold 3x8 cars; the Newark 
branch, 18 team tracks, and they will hold 193 
cars; the Greenwood Lake division, 41 team 
tracks, and they will hold 3iz cars; the North- 
ern Railroad of New Jersey, 2.1 team tracks, and 
they will hold 179 cars; the New Jersey & New 
York division, 15 team tracks, and they will 
hold 132. cars; and on its New York, Susque- 
hanna & Western there are 39 team tracks 
which will hold 300 cars. 

The freight-handling facilities of the Lack- 
awanna in New Jersey are complete. The regu- 
lar receiving and delivery stations in New York 
Harbor, including rail termini, are between 
Hoboken and Jersey City, and include a general 
delivery and receiving station for all kinds of 
freight and facilities for unloading milk trans- 
ported in tank cars. 

In the years between 1909 and 1913, the Lack- 
awanna expedited its service by a major piece 
of engineering. For geographic and population 
reasons the road, after entering the State 
through the Water Gap, descended to Washing- 
ton, N. J., and then ascended another valley 
to Lake Hopatcong a detour of 39^ miles 
along a route of many grades and curves. The 
management decided to construct a line over 
an entirely new route rather than to improve 
the old line piecemeal. 

The construction necessitated a viaduct 1,450 
feet Jong and 65 feet high over the Delaware, 
another 1,100 feet long and 115 feet high over 
the Paulinskill, a fill three miles long and no 
feet high across the Pequest valley, and numer- 
ous other works of engineering. The result was 
a reduction of n miles in the main-line distance 
and an improvement of grade and curvature. 
The maximum grade was reduced from 60. 2. 
feet to 19.04 feet per mile, 137 miles of rise and 
fall were eliminated, and so were 8.1 miles of 
curvature. 

The Reading handles a great variety of 
traffic. As an instance of its service facilities, 
both freight and passenger, a description of its 
Trenton station can be given. Its passenger sta- 
tion has three tracks accommodating 18 cars, 
with two car-storage tracks for 15 cars. At the 



TRANSPORTATION AND COMMERCE 







i8o 



NEW JERSEY 



main freight station at Ringgold and Reading 
Streets, a i5o-foot covered platform receives 
outbound freight, with ample warehouse ac- 
commodations. At the East Trenton freight 
station, there is a 6o-foot covered platform for 
outbound freight, with ample warehouse, and 
three public tracks holding 2.0 cars. 

The New York branch is the route of the 
Reading's famous "Every Hour on the Hour" 
Philadelphia to New York express trains. En- 
tering New Jersey above Trenton, it crosses the 
State through a rolling country of prosperous 
farms. The Atlantic City line extends from 
Camden to Atlantic City, a distance of 55.5 
miles. It is built as the crow flies, through a 
sparsely populated section, with neither large 
towns nor industries along the right of way, 
making ideal operation of the highest type of 
passenger service. 

There is one stretch of track 18 miles long 
that does not deviate from a straight line, and 
another similar stretch of seven miles, where 
the curvature does not exceed one degree. There 
are i3o-pound rails, creosoted ties, rock ballast, 
and an automatic system of train control. 
Track-walkers cover the entire distance daily, 
keeping the roadbed in perfect condition. The 
"Boardwalk Flyer" is operated over this line. 

The density of traffic and the industrial de- 
velopment along the Pennsylvania within the 
State are indicated by the miles of track. Of 
its 1151.77 miles of main track, the total of 
first track is 739.01 miles; of second track, 
193.43; f third track, 64.68; and of fourth 
track, 55.64 miles. The yard tracks and sidings 
add 851.64 miles, making an actual total of 
1004.41 miles of track. 

One of the most important aspects of railroad 
service is, of course, the rapidity with which 
passengers are carried and goods are delivered 
to their destinations. Perhaps equally im- 
portant, at least in the passenger service, is 
the frequency of service the number of trains 
operated daily. Time is of great importance 
for goods which are perishable or of such high 
value that the interest charges during transit 
are heavy; also for goods being sent to fill a 
rush order. 

The Pennsylvania maintains a series of trains 
which it calls the "Limiteds of the Freight 



Service." Goods offered to the railroad at 
Jersey City are scheduled for delivery at Balti- 
more by the next noon. Perishables received at 
Baltimore will be forwarded to Jersey City by 
the next morning and non-perishables by the 
next noon. Freight for Chicago will be carried 
on "The Ace" and the "Star Union Line," 
arriving on the fourth morning. Starting in 
the same train and finishing in "The Valet," 
freight would be in Louisville by the fourth 
noon after the Pennsylvania received it. If sent 
to Rochester it would arrive on the third 
morning. Supplies could be obtained from the 
latter city on the third morning after they 
were sent. 

Goods entrusted to the railroad at Newark 
for delivery in Cincinnati would arrive on the 
third afternoon, or at East St. Louis on the 
fourth morning, or at Norfolk, Va., on the 
second morning. From Indianapolis livestock 
shipped on "The Thoroughbred" will arrive 
in Newark by the fourth morning, and shippers 
of perishables have equally speedy delivery 
with "The Bullet." From Camden to Buffalo 
perishables arrive by the second morning on 
"The Bison" and non-perishables the morning 
after. Perishables consigned to Camden from 
Fort Wayne by "The Packer" arrive on the 
third morning. 

For the shipper who does not have a carload 
of goods to send, the Pennsylvania provides 
daily through package-car service from Jersey 
City to Baltimore, Camden, Chicago, Col- 
umbus, Lancaster, Philadelphia (three sta- 
tions), Pittsburgh, Trenton, Washington, Wil- 
mington, and York. From Newark and 
Harrison daily cars are available to Baltimore, 
Camden, Chicago, Columbus, Fort Wayne, 
Indianapolis, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Tren- 
ton, Washington, and York. From Trenton 
there are daily cars to Allen town, Pa., As- 
bury Park, Long Island City, New Brunswick, 
Scranton, Toledo, and many other towns, as 
well as to ii transfer points. 

The Lackawanna, also, operates a through 
merchandise service from its transfer stations, 
New York Transfer and Scranton Transfer. 
Goods from points in northern New Jersey are 
scheduled for delivery by way of New York 
Transfer on the third day at Cleveland, De- 



TRANSPORTATION AND COMMERCE 



181 




LEHIGH VALLEY RAILROAD DOCKS AND CAR FLOATS, AT JERSEY CITY 




CAR DUMPER OF THE PHILADELPHIA & READING RAILROAD AT PORT READING, NEAR CARTARET 



NEW JERSEY 



troit, Pittsburgh, Toronto; the fourth day at 
Chicago, Grand Rapids, Louisville, Toledo; 
and the fourteenth day at Los Angeles and San 
Francisco. 

Similar service is available by way of 
Scran ton Transfer from the Reading and Cen- 
tral Railroad of New Jersey stations at Jersey 
City, Newark, Elizabeth, Camden, Trenton, 
and elsewhere, if Lackawanna routing is used. 
Every freight or passenger station is, in a 
sense, a terminal facility, but the term is com- 
monly used to describe those forms of trans- 
portation plants that grow up where a large 
amount of traffic reaches the end of its destina- 
tion, or where an important break in the form 
of transportation occurs. The existence of such 
facilities is an outstanding characteristic of 
transportation in New Jersey. 

In northeastern New Jersey is to be found 
one of the greatest concentrations of terminal 
facilities in the world. They fall into two 
great groups. One series lies along the Hudson, 
at the foot of the lower Palisades, on the low 
rocky ridge which forms a continuation of 
those cliffs. The other series of terminals lies 
in the "Jersey meadows" behind the Palisades 
ridge. Here there is flat ground almost ideal 
for the laying out of large freight yards, al- 
though calling for some filling. This series of 
terminals continues along the west shore of 
Newark Bay and the Arthur Kill behind 
Staten Island. 

These terminal facilities are of various kinds. 
Some are employed to transfer freight from 
railroad cars to vessels; others are equipped to 
shift the freight from railroad cars to motor 
trucks, or from one car to another. In still other 
instances the terminals are used for inspecting 
and auctioning produce freight; for collecting 
freight to be turned over to the main railroads; 
and for making and breaking up trains. This 
last type of terminal is what is called a classi- 
fication yard. 

The terminal properties of the West Shore 
include three piers on the North River and the 
Manhattan Produce Yard in Kearny, N. J. 
The capacity of this produce yard is 550 cars 
for team-track delivery, 450 cars for receiving 
and display purposes, and a receiving and 



classification yard holding 1,156 cars, or a total 
of approximately 1,156 cars. 

The Erie has important special facilities. 
Fruit is handled in large tonnage eastbound 
into the New York metropolitan area from 
Pacific Coast territory and many intermediate 
localities. To take care of this a separate yard 
at Croxton, N. J., has nine tracks. Icing facil- 
ities for 400 cars at one setting and a platform 
1 12.0 feet long are provided. Fruit and vege- 
tables requiring New York City delivery are 
moved from Croxton to Jersey City float- 
bridge. New bridges constructed in 1917 are 
in service north of the Jersey City passenger 
station. Fruit and vegetables not moved to 
New York City are handled at Monmouth 
Street team tracks in Jersey City. The yard has 
10 tracks, holding 191 cars. The daily turnover 
is 80 to 90 cars. 

At Jersey City a large team track and plat- 
form track capacity is used by the fruit and 
vegetable trade in the busy season; n tracks 
with capacity for 1x5 cars can be used. Icing 
facilities are available at Jersey City. Fruit for 
export is lightered at Jersey City and Wee- 
hawken piers as convenient. 

The Erie rails reach the Jersey City Stock 
Yard Company at Jersey City, where 16 cars 
can be unloaded at one time. Seven cattle-boats 
make New York Harbor deliveries. A grain 
elevator of 1,500,000 bushels capacity is located 
on an Erie pier at Jersey City. At Weehawken 
the Erie Railroad operates a large terminal of 
1410 cars' capacity. Live poultry is handled at 
a special facility of 5o-car capacity. Delivery is 
made at the poultry yard from cars to the 
trade. At Undercliff is a large terminal oper- 
ated by the Erie. This is in connection with a 
yard at Undercliff Junction with i535-car 
capacity. The river at Undercliff is reached by 
a double-track tunnel. The waterfront yard 
has 1148 cars' capacity. 

In the Erie service in and out of Jersey City 
about 500 cars and 100 engines are used, and 
50,000 passengers arrive and leave Jersey City 
station daily, commuting to and from New 
Jersey and points north of the State line. A 
standard morning train in and an evening 
train out handle 12. steel coaches. Such service 
operates within 30 miles of Jersey City. A 



TRANSPORTATION AND COMMERCE 



i8 3 




1 84 



NEW JERSEY 



large milk tonnage arrives at Jersey City during 
the night and is handled at platform team 
tracks before daylight, empty cans being 
loaded in cars for return movement. 

The terminal equipment of the Lackawanna 
railroad is capacious. The Hoboken terminal 
accommodates 150,000 travelers daily and is 
one of the most convenient railroad terminals 
in the world, comprising a great ferry and 
railroad structure, with six slips to accommo- 
date the ferries to and from New York City. 
The train-shed covers 17 tracks and is 607 feet 
in length. Adjoining the Hoboken terminal 
are the piers of the United States Lines, the 
North German Lloyd, Holland- America, Lam- 
port & Holt, and Scandinavian- American 
Lines. 

The handling of milk is one of the most 
important classes of traffic. Through milk 
trains are operated into Hoboken daily on fast 
schedules from points in New York, Pennsyl- 
vania and northern New Jersey, the average 
number of milk refrigerator cars arriving in 
Hoboken each day being 62., the equivalent of 
13,000 4o-quart cans. The health of New York 
and its environs depends largely on the Lack- 
awanna milk-train service. In addition, mod- 
ern facilities have been installed at Hoboken 
and Newark for unloading milk transported in 
tank cars. 

The Lackawanna is one of the largest an- 
thracite coal carriers in the country, normally 
handling iz,ooo,ooo tons annually, of which 
about z,5oo,ooo tons go through its Hoboken 
tidewater terminal. 

Grain in bulk for domestic consumption and 
trans-shipment to foreign countries is handled 
direct from cars to grain barges. As many as 
2.60 carloads have been unloaded in one day, 
or in excess of half a million bushels. A goodly 
proportion of grain for export moves to for- 
eign destination in cargo lots, and the Lack- 
awanna's facilities permit of loading six 
steamers at once, floating elevators transferring 
the grain from barge to steamer, as many as 
three operating simultaneously in loading. As 
each floating elevator has a capacity for hand- 
ling zo,ooo bushels an hour, it is possible to 
load a large steamer within a single day. At 
this terminal there are warehouses of modern 



construction equipped not only to take care of 
perishable merchandise requiring refrigeration, 
but to service goods requiring only ordinary 
dry storage. 

The Manhattan produce yard, on the New 
Jersey side of the Hudson River, constitutes an 
auxiliary to the Pennsylvania Railroad produce 
terminal. It has been greatly extended and is 
the largest capacity yard in the world devoted 
to perishable freight. There are seven modern 
float-bridges used for placing the loaded cars 
on the car-floats and receiving the empty cars 
from the floats for the return movement. To 
the west of the supporting yards is the largest 
receiving and break-up yard on the Atlantic 
coast devoted to perishable freight service. It 
has a capacity of noo cars and is utilized ex- 
clusively for produce traffic. Cars received at 
this point are passed over a gravity hump to 
their proper classification tracks, where they 
are segregated as to consignees and commodi- 
ties, in order to facilitate unloading upon 
arrival at the terminal. 

A plant for icing cars is regularly operated 
at Jersey City, and cold storage also is avail- 
able. The independent facilities of the yard in- 
clude four display tracks, adjacent to covered 
platforms. On these tracks refrigerator cars 
may be placed, their doors opened and samples 
of their contents removed to the covered plat- 
forms for display to buyers. 

The display tracks at Manhattan produce 
yard are used principally for handling water- 
melons and juice grapes. In the season of 1917 
over 3,500 carloads of watermelons were sold 
at the yard, the juice-grape receipts for the 
season approximating 10,000 cars. An average 
of two cars of grapes per minute are sold at the 
auctions throughout the period of the crop 
movement. The Pennsylvania Railroad has 
provided a new pier for the apple-export trade. 
In one season the railroad handled 11,000 car- 
loads of export apples through New York 
Harbor. 

The principal terminal facilities of the Le- 
high Valley Railroad are in the tidewater 
basin opposite the lower tip of Manhattan; 
in the great piers of the Claremont terminal 
farther down New York Bay; in a large yard 



TRANSPORTATION AND COMMERCE 



i8 5 




REFRIGERATOR CARS ON DISPLAY TRACKS 
Manhattan Produce Yard, Pennsylvania Railroad largest in the world capacity 1,100 cars 




ERIE RAILROAD FRUIT YARD, MONMOUTH STREET, JERSEY CITY 



i86 



NEW JERSEY 



across Newark Bay from Claremont; and in 
"Fitzpatrick farm." The new project at the 
tidewater basin has a track capacity of 2.6 cars 
and a traveling crane with a capacity of zo 
tons. Along the length of the bulkhead an 
area is reserved for storage and unloading 
purposes. This will accommodate over 500 
crated automobiles or about 100 carloads. 

The Lehigh Valley also has a tract of 535 
acres at Claremont terminal, in the Greenville 
section of Jersey City. The site is advantageous 
because the berthing space for ships is on a 
direct line from the Narrows, which connects 
the upper and lower portions of New York 
Bay, and makes possible docking without the 
aid of tugs. The first unit of the terminal which 
has been constructed and is now in operation 
is two-thirds of a mile in length with a water- 
draft of 3 5 feet at mean low tide, affording easy 
berthing for the largest steamers afloat. A 
dock for the handling of iron ore and similar 
bulk freight, equipped with two unloaders of 



1 5 -tons and 5 -tons capacity, is able to load 
400 cars from boats every 14 hours. 

Fitzpatrick farm at Hillside, adjacent to 
Newark and Elizabeth, is a new industrial 
site, offering advantages for the manufacturer 
seeking a location for his factory or a site for 
an additional plant. It is only 13 miles from 
New York City and on the borders of Newark 
and Elizabeth, in the heart of a thriving and 
rapidly developing territory. It is served 
directly by the Lehigh Valley Railroad, with 
numerous well-paved thoroughfares. 

The principal freight terminus of the Read- 
ing is on the Jersey mainland across from 
Staten Island. The freight station has delivery 
tracks accommodating zo cars. In addition 
there are coal- and coke-dumping facilities at 
Port Reading. The main yard has a storage 
capacity for z8oo cars. Port Reading terminal 
is on the Arthur Kill, about 17 miles from 
New York City, and four tugs are kept in 
operation Z4 hours daily. 



GREAT BRIDGES AND TUNNELS 



UNUSUAL and unprecedented means of 
transportation such as bridges and 
tunnels are required to take care of the 
great increase of urban population which must 
be absorbed by New Jersey. Nowhere else in 
the world has there been so much construction 
of great tunnels and bridges as that which has 
been completed recently in the vicinity of New 
York and Philadelphia. 

New Jersey, as an equal partner with New 
York, has been engaged in the most extensive 
and difficult program of bridge and tunnel con- 
struction that has ever been undertaken. The 
Holland Tunnel was built jointly by the New 
York State Bridge and Tunnel Commission and 
the New Jersey Interstate Bridge and Tunnel 
Commission. The Delaware River Suspension 
Bridge, connecting Philadelphia and Camden, 
was built by the Delaware River Bridge Joint 
Commission of the States of Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey. The same men represent New Jersey 
on each of these bi-state commissions. 

The Outerbridge Crossing, between Perth 
Amboy, N. J., and Tottenville, Staten Island, 



and the Goethals Bridge between Elizabeth, 
N. J., and Howland Hook, Staten Island, are 
noteworthy cantilever bridges. They were 
built by the Port of New York Authority, 
which is now constructing the new Hudson 
River Bridge and the bridge between Bayonne 
and Staten Island over the Kill van Kull. 

THE HOLLAND TUNNEL 

The Holland Tunnel was constructed by the 
bi-state commission that also built the suspen- 
sion bridge at Camden. The first idea of build- 
ing a bridge between New York and New Jersey 
was superseded by the tunnel project in 1913. 
This great vehicular tube has a larger cross- 
section and is longer than any other, but its 
fame as the greatest of all tunnels is based 
on the fact that it has been constructed for the 
traffic of thousands of motor cars which throw 
off large quantities of deadly gases. To accom- 
plish the intended purpose, it was necessary to 
provide an infallible system of ventilation, 
illumination that must never fail, fire-fighting 
apparatus designed for tunnel service, and 



TRANSPORTATION AND COMMERCE 



i8 7 




GOETHALS BRIDGE AT ELIZABETH 




OUTERBRIDGE CROSSING AT PERTH AMBOY 



i88 



NEW JERSEY 



dozens of safety devices to meet every possible 
emergency. Energy for this equipment is sup- 
plied by four power houses having a total 
capacity of 6oco horsepower. 

The Holland Tunnel has been planned with 
such care that it is safer than most city streets. 
On the opening day, November 13, 1917, there 
were 51,000 cars rapidly transported through 
it without a single accident. The continued 
maintenance of this high efficiency is a tribute 
to the wisdom of the builders. 

The tunnel consists of twin tubes, one for 
traffic in each direction. The tube itself is made 
of a cast-iron lining covered with concrete. The 
lining is circular in shape, 2.9 feet 6 inches in 
diameter, and is made in segments which were 
placed in position one at a time, bolted to the 
preceding section and calked to prevent water 
leaking into the interior. Finally the iron lin- 
ing was covered with concrete. 

Each tube is 9,2.50 feet long, of which length 
5,480 feet is directly beneath the Hudson River. 
The entrances and exits in lower New York and 
in Jersey City are separated so as to prevent con- 
gestion at the terminals. The maximum depth 
of the roadway below mean high water is 93 
feet, with a minimum depth of the soil between 
the bed of the river and the top of the tunnel 
lining of 1 6 feet. The roadway in each tube is 
2.0 feet wide with a clear headroom of 13^ fe et - 

Forty-two large fans are used to propel air 
into the tunnel, through a space underneath 
the roadway. It is brought into the tunnel at 
frequent intervals through the sides, so that 
there is no longitudinal air movement. Forty- 
two other large fans exhaust the vitiated air 
through openings in the roof near the point of 
entrance. The system provides for changing 
the air 42. times per hour. It requires a supply 
of air per minute of 3,761,000 cubic feet. 

Two hundred and ten specially trained 
policemen are required to direct traffic. There 
must be absolute continuity of lighting, so to 
secure this end, every second lamp receives its 
electricity from New Jersey and the alternate 
ones get their current from New York. Further- 
more, the power from each of these States is 
supplied by three separate cables and originates 
at two independent sources. The tunnel cost 



$48,400,000. For the first full year of operation 
November 13, 1917, to November iz, 1918 
8,517,689 vehicles passed through the tunnel 
and the income from tolls was $4,700,2.01. 
The maintenance cost was $3,664,591. 

HUDSON RIVER RAILROAD TUNNELS 

A vast improvement in transit facilities be- 
tween New Jersey and New York City was 
effected with the opening of the railroad tun- 
nels under the Hudson. These are for electri- 
cally equipped trains only. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad Passenger Tunnel 
to the terminal at 33rd Street, New York, and 
from thence under the East River to Long 
Island, affording through train service to New 
England, was opened November 2.7, 1910. 
From its New Jersey entrance to the Pennsyl- 
vania Station in New York it is 13,380 feet. 
Including the Long Island extension the length 
is z6,93o feet. 

The Hudson & Manhattan Railroad Tunnels 
were opened by units the first February z6, 
1908 and the last, October, 1911. There are two 
tubes extending to Down Town New York and 
another pair to 33rd Street at Broadway. In 
New Jersey these divide, affording direct lines 
to Hoboken and to Newark via Jersey City. 
From Hoboken to the uptown terminal the 
tunnel is 3.5 miles long and to the Hudson 
Terminal (downtown) it is 3.0 miles. From 
the Jersey City entrance to 33rd Street is 5.0 
miles and to the Hudson Terminal, 2.. 6 miles. 

THE HUDSON RIVER BRIDGE 

Along about 1810 Thomas Pope published a 
treatise on bridge architecture which, while it 
reveals an utter lack of knowledge of engineer- 
ing design and construction existing at the be- 
ginning of the Nineteenth Century, is still the 
first known proposal for a bridge across the 
Hudson between New York and New Jersey. 
It was to have been constructed of timber, 
fastened with iron bolts, erected as a cantilever 
from each end, and after joining at the center 
made to appear as a very flat arch. Modern 
analysis shows it could not have carried more 
than a tenth of its own dead weight. 

The Hudson River Bridge now being built 
from the Fort Lee Palisades in New Jersey to 



TRANSPORTATION AND COMMERCE 



189 



I 





VICTORY BRIDGE, LOOKING TOWARD PERTH AMBOY 




HOLLAND TUNNEL 
The New Jersey-New York line is under the middle of the river 



190 



NEW JERSEY 



the high ground in New York City at Wash- 
ington Park, is designed for the unprecedented 
span of 3500 feet twice the length of anything 
yet built. A bridge double the span of the 
Delaware River Bridge and carrying a dead 
weight in the suspended span of 90,000 tons is 
a leap into the realms of new engineering 
wonders. Traffic studies indicate a volume of 
over 8,000,000 vehicles for this bridge the year 
following its opening in 1932., and a steady in- 
crease up to 16,000,000 in 1960. 

The Hudson River Bridge will be a suspen- 
sion bridge 2.05 feet above the river, with 
towers 635 feet high and four steel wire cables 
each 36 inches in diameter. The site chosen is 
advantageous and economical because the high 
land on both sides of the river permits the use 
of comparatively short approach spans. The 
New Jersey anchorage can be built directly 
into the solid rock. The towers will be of sili- 
con steel skeletons, covered with concrete and 
faced with granite. The total length of the 
structure, with approaches, will be 8080 feet. 

The bridge is designed for an average dead 
load per linear foot of about 40,000 pounds. 
There will be four 36-inch wire cables placed 
in pairs. Each cable will have 61 parallel strands 
of 434 galvanized steel wires of 0.196 inches 
diameter, making 2.6,474 wires in each cable 
and providing an ultimate strength of 180,000,- 
oco pounds. The total capacity of the cables 
will be about 1.8 times as great as the actual 
maximum pull from all the suspended loads 
and wind. Their strength is almost exactly 
three times the strength of the cables in the 
Delaware River Bridge and three times the 
strength of those in the Manhattan Bridge 
from New York City to Brooklyn now the 
two suspension bridges with the strongest 
cables. 

The trusses will support two sets of floor 
beams and stringers. The upper floor system 
will carry eight lanes of vehicular traffic. The 
lower roadway will be completed when the 
necessity for rapid transit electric trains arises. 
This arrangement leaves an almost unobstructed 
view from the upper deck of a remarkable 
scenic panorama of the Palisades, river, and 
New York sky line. 

It is planned to open the center four-lane 



roadway and footwalks for traffic some time 
during 1931. Up to this state of completion the 
bridge will have cost around $60,000,000. The 
other roadways, the rapid transit tracks and 
the masonry towers will be finished at a later 
date at an additional cost of $15,000,000, mak- 
ing the total expenditure $75,000,000. The 
New Jersey tower foundation and the New 
York anchorage were started in the spring of 
19x7. 

OTHER BRIDGES 

The project of connecting Philadelphia and 
Camden by the erection of a bridge was under 
discussion for a century. The dream was finally 
consummated and the bridge opened for vehicles 
at midnight July i, 19x6, a few days ahead of 
schedule. For the first 30 months of operation 
ending October 30, 19x8, zo, 886,376 vehicles, 
a daily average of 14,486, passed over the bridge. 
It is the largest structure of its kind in the 
world today. It has a span of 1750 feet between 
the main piers, and its 30-inch diameter wire 
cables are also the largest yet constructed. It 
has a height of 135 feet over the middle of 
the river. The main deck provides for six lines 
of automobiles and two of electric cars inside 
of the main trusses and two additional lines of 
electric cars carried on brackets outside the 
trusses. 

The general details and dimensions of the 
bridge are: Length of clear span, 1750 feet; 
length with approaches, 9510 feet; width of 
bridge, 118 feet; each of eight towers above 
water, 380 feet; clearance above mean high 
water, 135 feet; weight of main span per linear 
foot 16,000 pounds; live-load capacity per 
linear foot, 11,000 pounds; and total weight 
of suspended structure, 40,000 tons. As for 
materials, the masonry totaled 315,000 cubic 
yards; paving, 70,000 square yards; steel for 
the main structure, 35,900 tons; and steel for 
the approaches, 15,800 tons. The cost was 
$36,02.3,373. 

The twin bridges known as the Outerbridge 
Crossing between Perth Amboy, N. J., and 
Tottenville, Staten Island, and the Goethals 
Bridge between Elizabeth, N. J., and Rowland 
Hook, Staten Island, are very similar in design 
and construction. They were both authorized 



TRANSPORTATION AND COMMERCE 





NEW JERSEY 



at the same time and in similar acts of the two 
State legislatures. They were completed and 
dedicated on the same date, June 2.0, 19x8, and 
were opened to traffic on June 2.9, 19x8. The 
two structures are identical in the essential 
matters of conception, design, construction 
and date of completion, and as in the case of 
the other bridges, they are the result of con- 
stantly growing needs for increased transpor- 
tation facilities. They were completed ahead 
of schedule and at less than the estimated cost 
of $18,000,000. 

Both of these Arthur Kill bridges are mainly 
for highway traffic and are designed to carry 
2.o-ton trucks. In addition to the 4i-foot road- 
way for highway traffic (four lanes) the bridge 
at Perth Amboy will carry two lines of rapid 
transit cars when needed, placed on the outside 
of the trusses on brackets. The structures are 
both of the cantilever type, and each has a 
clearance above the water of 135 feet. 

The Outerbridge Crossing is io,xoo feet long 
and has a 75o-foot cantilever span with a 375- 
foot anchor arm, a 3oo-foot simple span and a 
plate girder approach, all being supported on 
concrete towers of appropriate design. 

The Goethals Bridge has a length with ap- 
proaches of 8,500 feet and consists of a 67Z-foot 
cantilever span. It has a 2.4o-foot anchor arm 
and plate girder approaches on each side, all 
of which are carried on concrete towers or piers. 

In March, 192.5, the legislature of New Jersey 
passed an act authorizing the Port of New York 
Authority to construct a bridge across the Kill 
van Kull from Bayonne, N. J., to Port Rich- 
mond, Staten Island, and in 19x6 New York 
enacted similar legislation. The estimated cost 
of the bridge is $16,000,000, including the prop- 
erty required for approaches and plazas. The 



first contract was awarded July 5, 1918. This 
bridge is a necessary connecting link with the 
Outerbridge Crossing and the Goethals Bridge. 
The shortest and most direct line from New 
York via the Holland Tunnel or the Hudson 
Bridge to the New Jersey shore resorts and to 
Philadelphia and the West will be by way of 
the Hudson Boulevard, the Bayonne Bridge, 
and then across Staten Island and over Outer- 
bridge Crossing into Perth Amboy. South and 
West traffic out of Perth Amboy will be largely 
over the recently completed Victory Bridge, 
which is a fine example of a low-level bridge 
with consideration for a suitable artistic treat- 
ment. 

The Kill van Kull Bridge will have a span of 
1700 feet, or practically the same span as the 
Delaware River Bridge. It is proposed to con- 
struct a roadway for six lanes of traffic, the 
same as at Camden. The clear height between 
the river and the bridge is planned to be 150 
feet, or somewhat more than for the Arthur 
Kill bridges, which have 135 feet clearance, 
the same as the East River bridges in New 
York. 

In addition to the bridges already mentioned 
there are a great many railroad and highway 
structures in New Jersey, including very early 
ones with an interesting history of long service. 
The State Highway Commission is studying 
the problem of transportation and has a com- 
prehensive plan of state highways that recog- 
nizes the new conditions rapidly arising. This 
plan includes many new bridges. An outstand- 
ing example of the new type of bridge engineer- 
ing now being favored because of its artistic 
architectural features is the new highway 
bridge over the Raritan River at New Bruns- 
wick. 




SUSPENSION BRIDGE FROM ROOF OF VICTOR TALKING MACHINE COMPANY OFFICE BUILDING 



TRANSPORTATION AND COMMERCE 







NEW JERSEY 



PORTS AND TERMINALS 



WITH competition among the cities on 
the Eastern seaboard and their cam- 
paigning for better water and port 
facilities, came the demand for some organiza- 
tion that could more adequately cope with the 
many problems. This need was met by the 
establishment of port commissions. The first in 
New Jersey was that of the Port of New York 
Authority, followed recently by movements in 
other parts of the State creating additional port 
commissions. 

The Port of New York, through which half 
the foreign commerce of the United States 
flows, is undertaking by novel machinery to 
overcome political, physical, and economic 
handicaps, to achieve commercial and trans- 
portation coherence, and to provide for future 
development. Lying partly in the State of New 
Jersey and partly in the State of New York, 
divided by wide and deep waterways difficult 
to tunnel or bridge, thus causing railroad 
carriers to mass largely on one side and deliver 
and assemble much of their freight on the other 
side by expensive and complicated means, its 
problems are many and most complex. 

To the Port of New York Authority, created 
in 19x1 by a compact between New Jersey and 
New York, assented to by the Federal Congress, 
has been entrusted the task of unifying the port 
and modernizing its facilities. At the same time 
it fills the role of port defender against 
the ambitions of those who would divert 
commerce to other and less favorably located 
harbors. 

The comprehensive plan of the Port Author- 
ity provides that all parts of the port shall be 
brought together by a series of rail belt lines so 
that freight may be transported to and from 
any section without the delay and expense of 
the present car-float and lighterage operations. 
Thus the great trunk lines that terminate on 
the New Jersey side of the Hudson will have 
direct access to Manhattan, Brooklyn and 
Queens, while the New England carriers will 
be able to offer service to the manufacturing 
interests of New Jersey. The principles of the 



comprehensive plan as formally set forth in the 
law are as follows : 

That terminal operations within the port district, so far 
as economically practicable, should be unified. 

That there should be consolidation of shipments at 
proper classification points so as to eliminate duplication of 
effort, inefficient loading of equipment, and thus realize re- 
duction of expenses. 

That there should be the most direct routing of all com- 
modities so as to avoid centers of congestion, conflicting 
currents, and long truck-hauls. 

That terminal stations established under the compre- 
hensive plan should be union stations, so far as practicable. 

That the process of coordinating facilities should so far 
as practicable adapt existing facilities as integral parts of 
the new system, so as to avoid needless destruction of ex- 
isting capital investment and reduce so far as may be possible 
the requirements of new capital; and endeavor should be 
made to obtain the consent of local municipalities within 
the port district for the coordination of their present and 
contemplated port and terminal facilities with the whole 
plan. 

That freight from all railroads must be brought to all 
parts of the port wherever practicable without cars break- 
ing bulk, and this necessitates tunnel connection between 
New Jersey and Long Island, and tunnel or bridge connec- 
tions between other parts of the port. 

That there should be urged upon the Federal authorities 
improvement of channels so as to give access for that type 
of water-borne commerce adapted to the various forms of 
development to which the respective shore fronts and ad- 
jacent lands of the port would best lend themselves. 

That highways for motor-truck traffic should be laid out 
so as to permit the most efficient inter-relation between 
terminals, piers and industrial establishments not equipped 
with railroad sidings and for the distribution of building 
materials and many other commodities which must be 
handled by trucks; these highways to connect with exist- 
ing or projected bridges, tunnels and ferries. 

That definite methods for prompt relief should be devised 
which can be applied for the better coordination and oper- 
ation of existing facilities while larger and more compre- 
hensive plans for future development are being carried out. 

The Port District comprises about 1,500 
square miles of territory, including the whole 
of Greater New York City and much of West- 
chester County; and in New Jersey the whole or 
the greater part of the counties of Bergen, 
Hudson, Passaic, Essex, Union and Middlesex. 
It extends approximately 2.5 miles in any direc- 
tion from the Statue of Liberty. Its population 
of 9,000,000 is constantly increasing, and it is 



TRANSPORTATION AND COMMERCE 




196 



NEW JERSEY 




TRANSPORTATION AND COMMERCE 



of 9,000,000 is constantly increasing, and it is 
at once the greatest market place and the great- 
est manufacturing district of equivalent area in 
the world. 

One of the first achievements of the Port of 
New York Authority was to secure the creation 
of what is known as Belt Line No. 13. This fa- 
cility, running for 17 miles along or parallel to 
the Hudson River from Fort Lee to Bayonne, is 
now operating as an entity, tying together the 
freight terminals of all the New Jersey railroads 
and giving a speedy and economical inter- 
change to those carriers. The industries in the 
territory contiguous thereto have gained 
great advantages not only in time and better 
service but in the saving of freight charges. 

Studies have been in progress for some time 
on the proposed Belt Line No. i, connecting 
New Jersey with Long Island by means of a 
tunnel under New York Bay and, proceeding 
over the Hell Gate Bridge, terminating at 
Spuyten Duyvil on the Hudson River. This 
belt line would almost encircle the central part 
of the port. Much of the new construction 
would be in New Jersey where new territory 
would be opened for development. 

Four interstate bridges have been fathered 
by the Port Authority the Hudson River 
Bridge between Fort Lee, New Jersey, and 
Washington Park, Manhattan; a great arch 
bridge from Bayonne, New Jersey, to Port 
Richmond, Staten Island; the Goethals Bridge, 
connecting Elizabeth, New Jersey, and How- 
land Hook, Staten Island; and the Outerbridge 
Crossing, from Perth Amboy, New Jersey, to 
Tottenville, Staten Island. The Port Authority 
believes that its plans will bring about a more 
equitable distribution of population in the New 
York-New Jersey region. Among its other 
activities the Port Authority is co-operating 
with the North Jersey Rapid Transit Commis- 
sion in studying plans to relieve congestion in 
the entire district. 

Plans for the first inland freight station have 
reached the point where prospective operators 
have been invited to submit proposals. Water- 
front property in both New York and New Jer- 
sey would be released for its proper purpose, 
that of shipping, under the inland station sys- 
tem, it is claimed. The Railroad Presidents' 



Conference has named a contact committee to 
study this subject with the Port Authority. 

A survey discussing airports for the port dis- 
trict was made public largely for provocative 
purposes and preceded the appointment of a 
general fact-finding committee under Federal 
auspices. Investigation of this question has con- 
tinued in co-operation with Federal, State and 
municipal authorities. Another survey which 
was made at the request of the poultry trade of 
the metropolitan district advised establishment 
of a union live poultry terminal for New York 
and New Jersey at Weehawken. 

The Port Authority has aided a number of 
municipalities in their investigation of the pos- 
sibilities of marine terminals and it has given 
similar aid to the improvement of channels and 
waterways. 

The commissioners take an impersonal pride 
in the financial chapter of the Port Authority 
history. To have attained a recognized invest- 
ment standing in financial circles is a notable 
achievement in itself, after the comparatively 
brief existence of this organization. Financial 
standing is essential to success, since under the 
law the Port Authority cannot attempt any- 
thing not economically practicable. Only a 
portion of the funds necessary for its construc- 
tion program has been derived from bond issues 
of the two States . The rest has been secured on 
the credit of the Port Authority. 

The city of Newark is situated on Newark 
Bay and has 10.5 miles of waterfront. Port 
Newark, a municipal development, is con- 
stantly growing more prominent among At- 
lantic ports. During the last decade the city has 
invested over $10,000,000 in the development 
of its waterfront. Fully 1,100 acres of meadow 
land have been reclaimed and subdivided into 
industrial sites. The channel has been deepened 
to 3 1 feet and widened. Freight cars are brought 
here to the terminal docks and their cargoes 
deposited directly into the vessel's hold. Over- 
head cranes and other equipment for loading 
and unloading, together with extensive ware- 
houses of modern type, provide all the facilities 
essential to a great port. 

The South Jersey District comprises the ter- 
ritory bordering on Delaware River and Bay 
and the Atlantic Ocean from the head of tide- 



NEW JERSEY 




TRANSPORTATION AND COMMERCE 



199 



water at Trenton to Great Egg Harbor Inlet, 
embracing the seven counties of Mercer, Bur- 
lington, Camden, Gloucester, Salem, Cumber- 
land and Cape May. The district was created 
as a State agency, and the South Jersey Port 
Commission was established with power "over 
the survey, development, control and operation 
of port facilities in such port district." 

The commission will develop a comprehen- 
sive plan for South Jersey's water, rail and 
other transportation facilities to meet the rapid 
industrial growth and increase in population 
in this section of the State and to protect the 
interests of its manufacturers and shippers. 

As its first achievement it plans a large 
marine terminal at Camden. The site covers 53 
acres of river-front property with belt-line 
service by the Pennsylvania and Reading Rail - 
roads. It is in the center of the Camden water- 
front, between the Pennsylvania Railroad ter- 
minus and the Municipal pier. The commission 
operates the Municipal pier and, with the new 
terminal, it will have supervision of a water 
frontage of z,37o feet. At the former, eight 
South American and Pacific Coast steamship 
lines now make regular calls. 

In connection with the construction of the 
Camden Marine Terminal it is planned to 
dredge and maintain a channel of 30 feet at 
mean low water between the new terminal 
frontage and the main ship channel, which is 
of 35 feet depth to the sea. 

The commission has been active in promoting 
a zo-foot channel from Camden to Trenton. It 
has co-operated with Salem in the straightening 
of Salem River, which work was recently com- 
pleted under the direction of Government engi- 
neers. The cut-off shortens the distance from 
Salem to the Delaware Bay about three miles. 
The mouth of the river is opposite the northern- 
most entrance of the new Chesapeake and Del- 
aware Canal, whiclv-has been deepened to a 
iz-foot channel, affording a more direct water 
route for small steamships plying between 
Delaware River ports and Baltimore and pro- 
viding an ideal inland waterway as far south 
as Norfolk. 

The first railroad built in the State of New 
Jersey had South Amboy as its eastern terminus 
for the reason that South Amboy was located 



on Raritan Bay, and there was thus provided 
cheap water transportation to New York. An 
effort is being made to have the Amboys resume 
their importance in marine trade. 

For some years there had been men and civic 
organizations in New Brunswick, Perth Am- 
boy, South Amboy, Sayreville, South River 
and the surrounding territory, actively attempt- 
ing to improve the water transportation facil- 
ities in their vicinity. Finally in 192.0 there was 
formed the Raritan Terminal and Waterways 
Association, and because of this in 192.4 there 
was created out of it the Port Raritan Survey 
Commission, with representatives from the 
Board of Freeholders of Middlesex County and 
from the municipalities of Perth Amboy, New 
Brunswick, South Amboy, South River, Wood- 
bridge, Sayreville, and Raritan. 

Among the projects in which the commis- 
sion has interested itself are, the reclamation 
of areas of the lowlands at Perth Amboy and 
at South Amboy; development of adequate ter- 
minal and warehouse facilities at Perth Amboy; 
removal of explosives from Raritan Arsenal; 
deepening and straightening South River to aid 
the commerce now using it and as a connection 
to the proposed New Jersey Ship Canal ; deepen- 
ing of the Raritan River from Washington 
Canal near the mouth of South River to New 
Brunswick, and from the main division channel 
in Raritan Bay to the deep pool above the New 
York & Long Branch Railroad bridge at Perth 
Amboy; and the deepening of Woodbridge 
River. 

It is again becoming a familiar sight to see 
in the port of Perth Amboy the flags of foreign 
nations, and with the constantly increasing 
congestion of New York Harbor it is expected 
that more transportation lines and industries 
will seek locations in the area favored by the 
Port Raritan commission. 

The city of New Brunswick is constructing 
a dock at the head of navigation of the Raritan 
River and is so building it that advantage can 
be taken of an increased depth of channel. 

More and more the strategic positions of the 
New Jersey shore and river borders are receiv- 
ing recognition from the captains of industry 
and commerce. 



100 



NEW JERSEY 




CAMDEN MUNICIPAL PIER 
First unit of the projected water-front development 



The New Jersey side of the deep and navi- 
gable waterway of the Hudson and New York 
Bay from Edgewater to the "tip-of-the-boot" 
at Bayonne; the water frontage around into the 
broad expanse of Newark Bay, where the 
affluences of the Hackensack and Passaic Rivers 
afford still many an available tide-water indus- 
trial site; the shores of the Arthur Kill at Eliza- 
beth, Carteret and Perth Amboy; and the 
Raritan Bay district; constitute a seaboard area 
exceeding 100 miles of ports and terminals and 
skirting a hive of industry. 

Down the long ocean front from Atlantic 
Highlands to Cape May and up the lower Dela- 



ware Bay there is little industry except fishing. 
At Paulsboro, however, the commercial aspect 
of things comes again into view. From here to 
Trenton the cities and towns along the Dela- 
ware River are encouraging industries to occupy 
the sites that are yet available, and this impor- 
tant artery of commerce is rapidly assuming its 
proper place in the development of the State. 
The advantages that accrue to industry from 
the direct receipt of raw materials by water 
and the opportunities for coast-wise and trans- 
oceanic shipments without a long overland 
haul, assure the State stability and permanence 
of business. 



STATE HIGHWAYS 



NEW JERSEY has spent millions to mod- 
ernize her highways. In many cases 
they follow the Indian trails along 
which the early settlers made their perilous 
way. These first roads, made by Indians and 



side the streams in the dense forests. Wagons 
were unknown, and the early inhabitants went 
afoot or on horseback. Most of the commerce 
was carried on waterways. 

The first highways in the State extended 



wild animals, were merely winding paths be- north and west along the valleys of the Passaic 



TRANSPORTATION AND COMMERCE 



10 T 



and Hackensack Rivers. The settlements of 
Hackensack and Passaic were connected by a 
narrow road that led into Newark. From there 
a road went through Elizabethtown, Eliza- 
beth port and Amboy to New Brunswick. In 
West Jersey a road connected Trenton with 
Newton, Burlington, Salem, and Bridgeton. 
An old trail joined New Brunswick and Tren- 
ton. It was not until 1695 t ^ lat t ^ le legislators 
ordered public roads constructed between the 
important towns. 

In the early days of the Province the need for 
certain trunk-line highways became evident. 
To meet this need there were established cer- 
tain' Great Roads, or King's Highways, by 
decree of the rulers, or by King's grant. Por- 
tions of these roads are still in existence and 
they form parts of the State and County High- 
way Systems. 

Prior to 1891, the county, township or 
municipality having jurisdiction over any par- 
ticular highway was charged with its con- 
struction and maintenance, and funds had to be 
provided entirely from local sources. The need, 



of course, for improved roads was not then so 
urgent as it became with the advent of the 
motor vehicle. 

The first Public Road Act in New Jersey 
carrying a provision for the granting of aid in 
the construction of roads, was passed in 1891, 
but did not become effective, due to a defect, 
until amended in iSy-L. The plan of State Aid 
to counties and municipalities in the construc- 
tion of their roads, was administered by the 
president of the Board of Agriculture until 
1894, when a Commissioner of Public Roads 
was appointed, to serve for a. three-year term. 

The percentage of aid granted by the State 
on approved construction was first 33^ per 
cent. This was later changed by Chapter 395, 
Laws of 1912., to a 40 per cent share of the cost. 
In 1906 the act providing for the use of the re- 
ceipts from motor vehicle licenses, fees and 
fines, as aid to counties and municipalities in 
the repair and maintenance of roads, became 
effective. 

In 1912. the "Convict Labor Law," Chapter 
ZZ3, Laws of 1912., was passed. It provided that 




ONE OF THE DELIGHTFUL VISTAS IN THE PEQUEST RIVER VALLEY 
The State Highway follows the river for miles 



2.02. 



NEW JERSEY 




STATE HIGHWAY ROUTE NO. 9 BETWEEN CLINTON AND PERRYVILLE 
On the through-route from Elizabeth to Phillipsburg 




RANSOM CONCRETE MIXER MADE IN DUNELLEN AND AT WORK ON A 
NEW JERSEY STATE HIGHWAY 



TRANSPORTATION AND COMMERCE 



10 3 



the Commissioner of Public Roads might em- 
ploy prisoners in the repair and construction of 
roads and many miles have been built by this 
means. 

Procedure under these several acts was fol- 
lowed without vital changes in legislation 
until 1916. Chapter z85, Laws of 1916, popu- 
larly known as the "Egan Act," was passed by 
the Legislature and approved, March 31, 1916. 
This act provided for the issuance of bonds in a 
sum not to exceed $7,000,000, the proceeds to 
be used for the construction of a State Highway 
System comprising 13 routes as therein listed, 
the bonds to be retired by the use of Motor 
Vehicle Funds. This act further provided for 
the creation of a Highway Commission. 

The then Commissioner of Public Roads, 
Colonel Edwin A. Stevens, called the attention 
of the Attorney General to the fact that the 
amount provided in the act was not sufficient 
to meet the cost of construction of the system of 
highways that it ordered built and the Attorney 
General advised him, therefore, that the provis- 
ions of the Egan Act could not become operative. 

At the 1917 session of the Legislature the 
"Edge Acts" were passed, Chapter 14 defining 
the State Highway System, Chapter 15 pro- 
viding for the appointment of a State Highway 
Commission and the establishment of a State 
Highway Department, and Chapter 16 provid- 
ing for the levying and collecting of a tax of 
one mill on each dollar of the ratables of the 
State, the proceeds to be used in the construc- 
tion of the highways included in the State 
Highway System. 

The 1917 Legislature also passed Chapter 98, 
providing for a State Engineer. Under this act 
General George W. Goethals was appointed 
and the State Highway Department was or- 
ganized and operated under his direction until 
he was called into service by the World War. 

The State Highway Commission originally 
comprised eight members serving without pay 
until 19x1 when, by Chapter 336, of that year, 
the salary of each was made $4,000. 

At the session of the Legislature of 19x2: a 
bond issue of $40,000,000 was voted for the 
extension and construction of State Highways 
during the next five years. Further provision 
was made that the receipts from the mill tax 



should be used to pay the carrying and retire- 
ment charges of the highway bonds. 

In 192.3, the State Highway Commission was 
reduced to four members, no more than two 
to belong to the same political party. Salaries 
of the commissioners were raised to $7,500 a 
year. This plan is still in effect. 

The State Highway System, as originally 
adopted in 1917, included approximately 5x5 
miles, the State Highway Commission having 
sole jurisdiction over their construction and 
maintenance. The roads taken over under the 
authority of amendments and supplements to 
the State Highway Act up to and including 
1916 increased the mileage to 890 miles. 

The 1916 session of the Legislature adopted 
a resolution directing the State Highway Com- 
mission to prepare a report with recommenda- 
tions covering a comprehensive highway sys- 
tem, and this report was presented in 1917. 
During the session of the latter year a greatly 
enlarged State Highway System, comprising 
more than 1,800 miles, was voted. Laws were 
passed providing for a bond issue of $30,000,000, 
a gasolene tax of two cents per gallon, and the 
use of other moneys for State Highway con- 
struction, improvement, reconstruction and re- 
pair. 

It is estimated that the completion of the 
comprehensive highway system as now ordered 
will require approximately six and one-half 
years from the date of approval of the act, and 
it is further estimated that the sources of in- 
come as provided in the act will produce a total 
revenue of approximately $i6i.,ooo,ooo during 
that period. A table at the end of the section 
on Revenue and Taxation in Chapter I of this 
book reveals the financial results of this legis- 
lation in interesting detail. 

Chapter nz, Laws of 192.8, revives the pro- 
visions of Chapter 183, Laws of 1918, whereby 
the State Highway Commission may make 
agreements with counties, or municipalities, to 
construct portions of the State Highway Sys- 
tem and to reimburse such counties, or munici- 
palities, for the cost of the work. This Act is 
intended to facilitate the completion of the big 
program of the Commission. 

New Jersey's traffic problem is complex. The 
eastern border for more than 12.0 miles along 



2.04 



NEW JERSEY 




TRANSPORTATION AND COMMERCE 



105 



the Atlantic Ocean is a great resort drawing 
the people of this and other States in numbers 
that tax highway capacity. 

The great metropolitan areas of New York 
and Philadelphia, only 90 miles apart, spread 
out into New Jersey territory with two effects 
upon traffic, first, a heavy, through commer- 
cial and bus traffic; and second, a traffic created 
by the extensively populated suburban areas. 
All this is in addition to the traffic incident to 
that developed by the industries and agricul- 
ture of the State. 

There is superimposed upon the traffic of a 
manufacturing and agricultural State a flood of 
other traffic growing out of special conditions. 
The latter stream is highly seasonal and varies 
in volume greatly from day to day creating 
peaks that must be met in providing highway 
capacity. Again, vehicles coming into New 
Jersey from New York or Philadelphia reach it 
by bridge, ferries, and tunnel through densely 
populated, highly developed districts. This 
compels highway construction of a difficult 
and expensive type in order to avoid congestion 
at the entrances and exits. Facilities for these 
peaks of traffic must be provided over a con- 
siderable part of the State in much the same 
way as in the larger cities. 

The traffic increase incident to completion of 
the Holland Tunnel and the Camden Bridge 
presented the most difficult problems. It re- 
quired highway construction on a scale beyond 
that ordinarily attempted. The highway lead- 
ing from the tunnel plaza in Jersey City through 
Kearny and Newark to a point beyond Eliza- 
beth, approximately 13 miles, will cost about 
$30,000,000. For the eight miles from the plaza 
to Haynes Street, Newark, there are no grade 



crossings. All connections to main city streets 
and intersecting county highways are over 
ramps. The United States Department of Roads 
has aptly referred to this highway as the 
"Super-Highway of the World." 

In Camden a belt known as Crescent High- 
way, has a paved width of 56 feet. It connects 
the principal traffic arteries entering the city. 
From this a boulevard about 1.% miles long, 
paved 78 feet in width, leads to the Camden- 
Philadelphia Suspension Bridge Plaza. It is 
estimated that the maximum-hour traffic over 
this boulevard will be 6,150 vehicles, which is 
slightly in excess of that expected for the high- 
way leading from the Holland Tunnel. The 
Camden State Highway units involve about 12. 
miles of new construction estimated to cost 
$6,000,000. 

In addition to these outstanding State High- 
way creations there is the 55 mile White Horse 
Pike, a four-car width concrete road from 
Camden to Atlantic City. The Lincoln High- 
way from Jersey City to Trenton, another 55 
miles across the State, carries the heaviest 
trucking traffic, while the great highway from 
Newark to Asbury Park claims the record 
count of motor vehicles of all types. 

Other through-routes of the most modern 
construction connect Phillipsburg with the 
eastern cities of the State via Washington and 
Hackettstown, and via Lebanon and Bound 
Brook. Each follows rushing streams through 
charming valleys and climbs mountains that 
reveal enchanting views. Linking these and 
other main highways are numerous State routes 
that form a net-work of roads with modern cut- 
offs, viaducts, bridges, and lanes for as many 
as six cars abreast in some places. 



TRUCKING 



INDUSTRIAL New Jersey has benefited greatly 
through the use of motor trucks. At 
present there are only 6 States showing 
greater totals of truck registrations. In 1918, 
there were 2.6,134 trucks in New Jersey. By 
July i, 192.7, the figure had jumped to 115,886. 
Of this number 11,378 were owned by farmers; 
8x per cent were privately owned; n per cent 



belonged to contract carriers, and the remaining 
7 per cent were operated for hire. There were 
14,368 fleets of two or more trucks, including 
438 fleets of 10 or more. 

From a recent survey of the State Highway 
Department, it was found that of the total 
vehicles using our highways on week days, 
Z2. per cent are commercial either trucks or 



2.O6 



NEW JERSEY 



buses. On Sunday this percentage drops to 
approximately 5 per cent, which is a defi- 
nite indication that the Sunday peaks are 
created by the increased use of the pleasure 
vehicle. 

The farmer has found that by the use of the 
truck he can send his foodstuffs to a more 
favorable market in a shorter time and to a 
greater distance. With the large farm area in 
this State, foodstuffs from southern Jersey are 
trucked to both the New York and the Phila- 
delphia markets, while the northern part of 
the State sends its produce by truck to Newark 
and New York. 



New Jersey, located between New York and 
Philadelphia, affords her merchants an oppor- 
tunity to carry smaller inventories, and by the 
use of trucks secure a sufficient stock for their 
needs. Manufacturers are also using the trucks 
for the delivery of their products. 

Throughout the State, new homes are being 
built and small country communities in- 
creased by the use of the automobile and bus. 
The city dweller is living in the suburbs and 
commuting to his business. This change in 
living conditions has been expedited by the 
trucks that have carried the home-building 
materials efficiently and rapidly. 



AVIATION 



THE development of aviation has had its 
fitting response in activities in New 
Jersey. One company manufactures air- 
craft, another builds engines and others carry 
passengers and goods, the services ranging 
from short pleasure flights to the long-distance 
carriage of mail to and from Jersey air fields. 
The United States Navy maintains a dirigible 
station at Lakehurst. 

The Wright Aeronautical Corporation at 
Paterson does not manufacture airplanes, but 
concentrates on the production and develop- 
ment of aeronautical engines. It builds one 
commercial engine the zcc-horsepower, nine- 
cylinder, air-cooled Wright "Whirlwind." It 
also builds the 5x5 -horsepower, air-cooled 
Wright "Cyclone" engine exclusively for the 
Government, but expects to release it for com- 
mercial sale. Two airplanes are used exclu- 
sively for company purposes. At the hangar at 
Teterboro considerable testing and service 
work is done. 

The Atlantic Aircraft Corporation in its 
factory at Teterboro, Hasbrouck Heights, 
builds the Fokker airplane and uses the Teter- 
boro Airport as a testing ground. The Atlantic 
and the Wright corporations, with Walter C. 
Teter, are the owners of the airport. Located in 
Hasbrouck Heights, at the upper end of the 
Hackensack meadows, the field comprises 2.00 
acres. There are three xooo-foot runways, two 
at right angles, and the third bisecting the 



angle; and because a plane may start at either 
end of any of them, they may be said to extend 
in six directions. 

The Gates Flying Circus and Aviation Cor- 
poration of Newark has been in business about 
17 years and operates the flying circus on tour. 
This circus has four four-passenger planes, with 
trucks, supplies, and automobiles, making it 
virtually a moving aerodrome. It has been in 
forty-three states. The concern also operates 
the commercial flying at Teterboro Airport. 

It has transported approximately a million 
passengers with but one fatality. The Gates- 
Day Aircraft Corporation now owns the flying 
circus and is a new manufacturing enterprise 
building a five-place, open cockpit, sesqui- 
plane, to sell at a very low price for com- 
mercial operators. 

The Seaboard Airways operates between 
Teterboro Field and Washington, its terminus 
there being at the Washington Airport, at the 
South End Highway Bridge. The planes used 
on this line are sister planes to the "Spirit of 
St. Louis." The cabins hold four passengers, 
who may wear their ordinary clothes. They 
are powered with Wright Whirlwind motors, 
with double ignition. 

The National Air Transport operates con- 
tract air mail route No. 17 between Chicago 
and Hadley Field, New Brunswick. On this the 
only regular stop is at Cleveland Bryan, 
Ohio, and Bellefonte, Pa., are both emergency 



TRANSPORTATION AND COMMERCE 



2.0 7 




io8 



NEW JERSEY 



fields, where pilots may land to refuel or to 
await clearer weather. There are a number of 
others along the route at which revolving 
beacons are placed, but the pilots do not land 
at these except in an emergency. Passengers are 
carried between New York and Cleveland and 
Chicago in the regular mail and express planes 
leaving Hadley Field. These planes fly 5,000 
miles every 1.4 hours. 

The National Air Transport is the largest 
air transport company in the United States and 
the second largest in the world. Its planes have 
flown a total of 1,500,000 miles. It owns 18 
Douglas airplanes which it took over from 
the Government when it assumed the operation 
of the New York-Chicago air mail line; eight 
Travel Air monoplanes with mail and express 
facilities and an enclosed cabin for passengers; 
seven Curtiss Carrier Pigeons equipped for 
handling mail and express; one Aerial Mercury 
and one Stout all-metal monoplane of the 
cabin type, equipped with three Wright en- 
gines and having accommodations for eight 
passengers and two operators. In the operating 
department are two division superintendents, 
ii field managers, 13 pilots and 51 mechanics. 
The operating department maintains a repair 
depot, employing 10 men, and an engine over- 
haul shop. 

Eight planes make the trip daily between 
New Brunswick and Chicago. Planes and pilots 
are changed at Cleveland. The Liberty engines 
used in the Douglas planes between Chicago 
and New Brunswick and in the Curtiss Carrier 
Pigeons are overhauled after every 150 hours 
of flying. The Wright Whirlwind air-cooled 
engines used in the Travel Airs and in the 
Stout plane are overhauled every 2.50 hours. 

The express traffic handled by the National 
Air Transport, while still the smaller part of 
the business, is increasing steadily. The com- 
pany acts merely as the carrier, the American 
Railway Express company handling the solici- 
tation of traffic and the transportation of car- 
goes to and from the flying field. 

Hadley Field is at present the "clearing 
house" for all of New York's air mail but this 
business will be transferred to Newark Airport 
when the latter is ready. 

The Colonial Air Transport operates an air 



mail route known as Contract Air Mail No. i 
between New York and Boston, making a trip 
each way daily and stopping on each trip at 
Hartford, Conn. The planes carry air express 
as well as air mail. They do not carry passengers 
owing to the fact that during the winter months 
the route necessitates night flying almost en- 
tirely, and the airport terminal at Hadley 
Field is not convenient for passengers coming 
from Boston to New York. The Hartford port 
is known as Brainard Field. The Boston Air- 
port is still in the process of development. 

At Hadley Field the Reynolds Airways con- 
ducts aviation activities. It carries passengers 
for short rides and instruction and does general 
cross-country work and aerial photography; 
and carries newspaper and movie films of big 
events. It operates no schedule runs. The busi- 
ness is more of an air-taxi service. 

The Government Weather Bureau main- 
tains a station here, with a radio telegraph for 
airplane dispatching. There is also a "radio 
beacon," a link in the government system of 
"beams" across the State to inform the aviator 
whether he is following his true course. 

An important feature of Hadley Field is its 
proximity to two main highways, with a con- 
necting paved road, and five trunkline rail- 
ways, with 149 trains a day. There are hangars 
to accommodate mail planes and transients. 
Fifty boundary lights mark its edges. Red ob- 
struction lights give the signal above nearby 
buildings. Green lights mark the best ap- 
proaches. There are two floodlights, the largest 
illuminating a semi-circle with a 3,600 feet 
radius more than half a mile. 

The Miller Corporation at its New Bruns- 
wick airport has a field with two runways, one 
x,90o feet long and the other 1,500 feet, where 
flight instruction is given and passengers are 
taken for short rides. 

Newark Airport, when finished, will be the 
largest and best airport in the New York area. 
It is a municipal project owned by Newark 
but built with the cooperation of the United 
States Department of Commerce. It is on a site 
selected by the committee appointed by the 
Secretary of Commerce, Herbert C. Hoover, to 
make a survey of the metropolitan district and 



TRANSPORTATION AND COMMERCE 



LO9 




2.10 



NEW JERSEY 



recommend desirable airway terminals. When 
completed it will cost $6,000,000. 

The airport is adjacent to the city in the 
Port Newark district. Mail can be relayed by 
truck to the up-town post office in New York 
in 33 minutes, or to the down-town post office, 
via the Holland Tunnel, in zo minutes. It can 
be sent to the Newark post office in 10 minutes. 

The largest hangar will be 700 feet wide and 
it will have a paved take-off strip down the 
center 2.00 feet wide and a runway z,zoo feet 
long. It will have a cross runway forming a 
maltese cross with the first runway. The mu- 
nicipal hangar will be 12.0 feet square and its 
doors will afford a 30-foot clearance. The walls 
of the latter will be partly of brick but mostly 
of shatter-proof glass, providing practical day- 
light conditions inside. The roof will be of 
chrome yellow, a color selected because of its 
high visibility. 

Newark's airport is being constructed on re- 
claimed salt marsh land. When completed, it 
will cover 5 oo acres . It will be lighted by a three- 
unit flood-lighting project, supplemented by 
three beacons, two fog-penetrating neon lights 
and one revolving beacon. The usual border 
lights will be installed and red lights will be 
mounted on tall chimneys in the vicinity. There 
will be a 6o-foot dirigible mooring mast. 

THE U. S. NAVAL AIR STATION 

The United States Naval Air Station is located 
one mile northeast of Lakehurst, New Jersey, 



on the Lakehurst-Lakewood Road. Lakehurst, 
due to its position on the east coast, was chosen 
as a base for erection of a hangar capable of 
housing two airships of the U.S.S. "Shenan- 
doah" design. Work on the hangar was begun 
in 1919 and completed in the fall of 1910. 

Grouped at this station are all the lighter- 
than-air activities of the United States Navy. 
Here is the home of the great airship "Los 
Angeles." Here the "Shenandoah," our first 
American rigid airship, was assembled, tested 
and operated. In addition to the rigids, for 
purposes of instruction and development, non- 
rigids are flown, the largest of which is the 
J-4- Other aeronautical activities of the station 
are the development of, and experiments with, 
kite and free balloons. All the parachutes for 
the entire naval service are tested here and a 
parachute school for personnel is maintained. 

The hangar is a gigantic single room, 806 
feet long, 348 feet wide and zoz feet high, con- 
taining over all about 40,000,000 cubic feet. 
Almost three Woolworth Buildings (13,000,- 
ooo cubic feet) could be housed in this hangar. 
It is the largest single building in the world. 
It cost about $3,600,000 and is so strongly con- 
structed that it can withstand a hundred-mile 
gale. 

The heavy doors slide to the side on tracks, 
and are operated by electric motors. The door 
clearance is 170 feet, the height of a 15 -story 
building. The walls are of asbestos composi- 
tion to keep out the heat rays which have a 




GRAF ZEPPELIN, THE COMMERCIAL DIRIGIBLE THAT MADE THE OVERSEA TRIP FROM GERMANY IN 

OCTOBER, 1918, UNDERGOING REPAIRS AT LAKEHURST UPON ARRIVAL IN THE UNITED STATES 

Los Angeles at center, Graf Zeppelin at right 



TRANSPORTATION AND COMMERCE 



decided effect on the lift of a rigid airship. The 
hangar will house two great rigids and several 
non-rigids. One must see this hangar to ap- 
preciate its immensity. The Graf Zeppelin was 
housed in it during her first stay in America in 
October, 19x8. 

The flying field of this Naval Station is 1,502. 
acres in area and is one of the largest in the 
world. At a cost of $6,000,000 the station grad- 
ually developed to its present size. With its 
huge hangar, two mooring masts, the aero- 
logical observatory (complete weather bureau), 
the helium purification plant, and shops for 
repairs and engine overhaul, it has every mod- 



ern facility for the service of all types of lighter- 
than-air craft. 

The mooring mast is about 170 feet high, 
furnishing the rigids with an elevated mooring 
cone. Only 15 men are required to moor a ship, 
though at times more than 100 are required to 
take the Los Angeles out into the open and 
free her for a cruise. Elevator and pipe lines 
furnish facilities for the supply of helium, 
gasoline, water, personnel and food while the 
ship is moored, swinging to the wind. 

Operation of the various ships and plant re- 
quires approximately 50 officers, 400 enlisted 
men, 100 civilian workmen, and 50 Marines. 




NEWARK VELODROME BICYCLE-TRACK AND BOXING ARENA 
Still a famous bicycle race-track in constant use 




NEWARK AIRPORT 

Soon to be the Eastern terminus of the trans-continental air mails. Under construction by the City of Newark 
planned for extensive commercial use. Covers 500 acres. Completed cost, $6,000,000 



:nd 



Ill 



NEW JERSEY 








ASBURY PARK, GEM OF THE NORTH SHORE RESORTS 







ATLANTIC CITY, PLAYGROUND OF THE WORLD 



CHAPTER VIII 



The (jreat Reaches 

ATLANTIC CITY, PLAYGROUND OF THE WORLD 



THE New Jersey coast is the great play- 
ground of this country and a favorite of 
cosmopolites who know the world's 
best recreation spots. Along the 12.0 miles from 
Sandy Hook to Cape May are 40 excellent 
bathing beaches and behind them many inlets 
and bays with ideal conditions for fishing and 
yachting. Compared with other sections, cli- 
matic conditions in New Jersey are highly 
favorable throughout the year. The pre-emi- 
nent position of Atlantic City, "Playground of 
the World," as the most popular all-year recre- 
ation center, as a resort where ozone-filled air 
possesses recognized therapeutic value, as a 
delightful residential community, and as a con- 
vention city of thefirst rank, is firmly established. 
Yesterday, in a historic sense, Atlantic 
City's 16,000 acres were a low-lying and sandy 
solitude visited occasionally' by a few roving 
Indians. Today this ground is covered by a gor- 
geous city, extending six miles along a won- 
derful, flat and smooth beach visited yearly by 
millions. The permanent population is about 
67,000, but its visitors reach 11,000,000 a year. 
Atlantic City has commission government and 
an assessed valuation of over $300,000,000. It 
is connected with the mainland by such mag- 
nificent motor roads as the White Horse Pike, 
Harding Highway and the Shore Road to 
northern points. Five miles out in the ocean on 
Absecon Island, it has a climate conducive to 
good health. Snow fall?- occasionally but does 
not remain. Cooling breezes from the ocean 
moderate the heat in summer. Days of sunshine 
average high. 

The hotels number more than 12.00. They 
meet the most exacting demands for elegance 
and comfort. Along the ocean's edge they rise 
massively and majestically and provide a 



fitting setting for the kaleidoscopic panorama 
which stretches before them. 

The famous Boardwalk of Atlantic City, ex- 
tending eight miles along the beach, has a 60- 
foot width, overlooks the ocean at every point 
and rivals in brilliancy the gayest thorough- 
fares of the world. In itself the Boardwalk is a 
most facinating recreation and diversion. The 
vivacity and modernity of scene and action 
allure the eye of every visitor, and Atlantic 
City is encompassed by a constant holiday 
atmosphere. Inseparably associated with the 
Boardwalk life, the roller-chairs are a popular 
and dallying pleasure. 

Unique among world institutions of this 
kind, the Boardwalk is described as analogous 
to the deck of an immense ocean liner, for the 
impression of being far out at sea is enhanced 
by the many "steamer decks" with their 
"steamer chairs" at the second-story level, all 
overlooking boardwalk and ocean. Exhibits 
of merchandise and manufactured products 
line the miles of boardwalk. They are main- 
tained for national advertising purposes, since 
people come here from everywhere. 

The six great ocean piers whose names the 
Heinz, Garden, Steel, Steeplechase, Central and 
Million Dollar arouse memories in millions 
of minds, are among the most popular attrac- 
tions. They furnish concerts by famous bands, 
motion pictures, vaudeville, minstrels, danc- 
ing, deep-sea net hauls, and just the still and 
far-out watching of the waves and the moon. 
They also house many large conventions. The 
newest convention hall will seat 50,000 and 
has 150,000 square feet for exhibition space. 

In the waters of Atlantic City the fisherman 
finds his ambitions sated. Crabbing is a favor- 
ite pastime. The organized amateur fishing life 



113 



NEW JERSEY 




THE GREAT BEACHES 



of Atlantic City is centered in the Anglers' 
Club with its pier and club house. There are 
nearby opportunities for gunning also. Inland 
waterways supply reedbirds, ducks, yellow- 
legs, plover, and geese for the sportsman. 

Varied and excellent golfing is available on 
the mainland a few miles back from the city. 
The Atlantic City Country Club, the Linwood 
Country Club and the Seaview Golf Club each 
has an i8-hole course. Golf is played here 
every month in the year, and all the clubs are 
accessible. Tennis courts are kept in condition 
by the city. Yachting is represented in Atlantic 
City by four yacht clubs and a large fleet of 
speedy and picturesque motor and sailing craft. 

Horseback riding along the beach at low 
tide is popular. Hydroplanes from the "Inlet" 
municipal aviation station are increasingly 
popular. Viewing Atlantic City from the air is 
a pastime for visitors. The beach patrol is 
maintained by the municipality. There are in 
the summer season 100 trained guards, with 
ambulance service and hospital stations. 



Brigantine Beach is a notable development 
and possesses many of Atlantic City's natural 
advantages. This new seaside beach resort is 
one mile across the inlet from Atlantic City. 
It is connected with the mainland by a bridge 
1760 feet long and 30 feet wide. 

From Bay Head on the north to Beach Haven 
on the south stretches the attractive sheet of 
water of Barnegat Bay. Varying in width from 
three to six miles, Barnegat Bay offers facilities 
for boating, fishing, sailing, crabbing, and 
hunting such as are rarely found. Along the 
eastern ocean side of the bay for a distance of 
about 50 miles extends a narrow strip of land 
upon which many thriving and progressive sea- 
shore resorts are located. Picturesque and 
abundant in shadow trees is Island Heights. 
Attractive and rich in facilities for sailing, 
fishing, and hunting is Seaside Park. Beach 
Haven and Bay Head are summer resorts of 
interest on Long Beach and Barnegat Bay. 
Historic Barnegat light, built in 1835, rises 161 
feet above the sea. 



ASBURY PARK AND THE NORTHERN RESORTS 



WELL placed on the northern stretch of 
New Jersey's ocean shore is Asbury 
Park, with its faultless public parks 
and its well groomed and shaded streets. This 
widely loved resort community has a perma- 
nent population of ix,ooo, and its seasonal 
devotees enthusiastically swell this to hun- 
dreds of thousands more. The city's entire 
beachfront is municipally owned. This came 
about when the founder of Asbury Park, James 
A. Bradley, deeded it to the municipality nearly 
a half century ago. There are theaters, hotels, 
schools, libraries, paved streets, and all the 
equipment of a modern city, where the stranger 
expects to find the sandy shore with a few 
clustering rows of houses. Interlaken, Allen- 
hurst, and Deal, beautiful adjoining towns, 
have equal facilities for pleasure and comfort. 
They are noted for hundreds of America's 
finest summer estates. 

In the summer season the boardwalk of As- 
bury Park is the most favored mecca of the 



northern Jersey coast. A fireproof natatorium, 
numerous shops, and many amusements are 
among its attractions. Asbury Park has been 
called "The Resort of a Thousand Delights" 
because of its diversified recreations. Pictur- 
esque lakes for canoeing and boating, launch 
rides, motor car rides, dance halls, tennis, golf, 
baseball, bowling, and children's sports make 
vacation here a round of pleasure. 

One of the many natural beauties of Asbury 
Park is Sunset Lake. A short distance to the 
south there are located Fletcher Lake, Sylvan 
Lake, Wreck Pond, Shark River, and Manas- 
quan River. 

To the south of Asbury Park, separated only 
by Wesley Lake, Ocean Grove is located. This 
is a picturesque, clean, wholesome resort with 
wide-shaded streets. Ocean Grove was founded 
as a camp-meeting resort in 1869 by Metho- 
dists. Since that time it has continued its suc- 
cessful history as one of America's leading 
"camp-meeting resorts." In August the Metho- 



NEW JERSEY 




BOARDWALK AND BEACH AT LONG BRANCH IN OCTOBER, WHEN THE CROWDS ARE GONE 
Shows section of the unsurpassed 3o-mile ocean boulevard 



dist Congress is held here and attracts tens of 
thousands from all sections of the country. Its 
famous auditorium seats 10,000 persons. 

Among numerous lesser beaches and seashore 
resorts of the same section are Long Branch, 
with the Shrewsbury River at its back and the 
broad ocean in front. West End, Hollywood, 
and Elberon are included in its corporate 
limits. It is one of the oldest and best-known 
resorts along the fashionable North Jersey 
coast and is proud of the fact that it has been 
the summer home of four presidents of the 
United States. The charm of Long Branch is in 
its cottage life, amplified by several good 



hotels. The resort has five miles of ocean front 
and it is tempered by ocean bieezes. Oppor- 
tunities for outdoor sports are abundant and 
include golf courses, clubhouses, tennis courts, 
swimming pools and fishing. Long Branch 
once vied with Newport as the home of Eastern 
fashion. 

To the north and at the point where Sandy 
Hook juts out from the shore line is Atlantic 
Highlands, from which one gets a wonderful 
view of the sea and Lower New York Bay. The 
lights on Navesink throw their beams far out 
to sea from the highest point on the Atlantic 
Coast south of Maine. 



CAPE MAY AND THE SOUTHERN OCEAN FRONT 



CAPE MAY COUNTY, where the southern 
end of the State parts Delaware Bay 
from the Atlantic, enjoys climatic con- 
ditions which place it properly on a par with 
some of the Southern states. Snowfall of any 



depth is a curiosity. It seldom lasts more than 
a few hours. Cape May County contains some 
of New Jersey's oldest resorts, set beside 40 
miles of gently sloping beaches. Here are sit- 
uated Cape May City, Wildwood, North Wild- 



THE GREAT BEACHES 



117 



wood, Wildwood Crest, Sea Isle City, Avalon, 
Stone Harbor, Strathmere, and Ocean City. 
The county is delightfully placed at the extreme 
tip of a narrow peninsula that extends for uo 
miles along the ocean and around into the bay. 

Cape May City is farthest to the south of 
any settlement in the State. It is in the latitude 
of Washington, D. C., but seldom has an un- 
comfortably hot day. It is located almost at the 
tip of the cape that bears its name. The Dutch 
navigator, Captain Mey, sighted the point in 
1614. The permanent homes form a quaint and 
pretty settlement and it entertains a comfort- 
able type of summer population. Its leading 
hotel has an exceptional ocean outlook. 

Many of Cape May's vacationists and those 
responsible for its social charm are from Balti- 
more, Washington, and the Southern states. 
Some of the older hotels and cottages still 
demonstrate, in their colonial type of architec- 
ture, the tastes of earlier visitors. There are 
good modern hotels. 

Golf and yacht clubs, good roads and di- 
versified amusements abound. Bathing is safe 



and pleasant on a wide, smooth and hard 
beach that is nearly flat. 

Ocean City, "Cameo of Cape May," is on an 
island eight miles long. It is ten miles to the 
south of Atlantic City. In 1879 Simon Lake 
purchased Peck's Beach, the island on which 
it stands. In the 48 years of its existence Ocean 
City has grown normally and naturally, and 
is more particularly a home resort for summer 
vacationists, although it has several good 
hotels. 

There are eight miles of bathing beach. Out 
of these eight miles the city has selected the 
best portions and established protected beaches. 
They are patrolled by efficient lifeguards. 
There has never been a life lost on a protected 
beach in Ocean City. Each year an increasing 
multitude of visitors and vacationists attest 
its growing popularity. 

Ocean City has a fine new boardwalk, re- 
placing the one destroyed by fire early in 1918. 
It was dedicated July 4, 192.8, with one of the 
most striking of the many beach pageants for 




A SUNDAY AFTERNOON ON ONE OF THE LONG, STRAIGHT STRETCHES OF THE ATLANTIC 

CITY BOARDWALK 



2.1 8 



NEW JERSEY 




THE GREAT BEACHES 



which all New Jersey Coast resorts are annu- 
ally noted. 

Wildwood has a five-mile boardwalk with 
ocean piers. It has one of the newest and best 
hotels on the Jersey Coast. It has a double 
advantage in the way of cool breezes from all 
directions, since it is not far from the tip of 
Cape May. The peninsula in the rear is but 
six miles wide and on the other side Delaware 
Bay is 30 miles across. On a smaller scale Wild- 
wood, like Ocean City, possesses most of the 
aspects of Atlantic City. Theaters, piers, a 
newly erected half-million-dollar convention 
hall, roller coasters, and other amusements 



provide a variety of entertainment to all 
vacationists. 

An i8-hole golf course open throughout the 
year is at the disposal of visiting golfers. Here- 
ford Inlet and the ramifications of the water- 
courses between the resort and the mainland 
provide boating, crabbing, and channel fishing. 

The permanent population of Wildwood is 
14,800. The approximate summer population is 
150,000. Just to the south, on the same stretch 
of beach, is Wildwood Crest. To the north are 
Stone Harbor, famous for motor-boating, and 
Avalon for sound fishing, quieter yet pleasant 
spots that appeal to vacationists. 







HIGHLANDS 

A popular resort beneath the bluffs from which famous "Highland Light" guides the mariner to New York Ba-, 
Land-end of Sandy Hook is in the distance 




WEEQUAHIC PARK HORSE-RACING TRACK AND COURTS FOR SPORTS NEWARK 
It is an Essex County Reservation and immensely popular 



2.2.0 



NEW JERSEY 




CHAPTER IX 



Community Life and Recreation 

PARKS AND PLAYGROUNDS 



PALISADES INTERSTATE PARK 

THE Palisades Interstate Park of New 
Jersey and New York is one of the great- 
est public playgrounds in the world. It is 
the most notable example in the United States 
of interstate cooperation for the conservation 
of an outstanding scenic feature. The beauty 
and majesty of the Palisades, located wholly 
on the New Jersey side of the Hudson River, 
inspired men and women to save them, for the 
perpetual enjoyment of all. This effort has led 
to the extension of the Interstate Park up the 
west bank of the Hudson, to the saving of 
Hook Mountain of equal character and gran- 
deur, and to the inclusion of the great Harriman 
State Park in the Highlands of the Hudson as a 
wilderness preserve. 

For years there was public agitation against 
the despoliation of the Palisades by quarrymen, 
but the New Jersey State Federation of Women's 
Clubs was the first to take effective action. The 
Federation appealed to the Governor of New 
Jersey and he appointed an investigating com- 
mission of five. This commission comprised 
Mrs. John A. Holland, then president of the 
Federation, and four others. It was enthusi- 
astically aided by organizations in New York. 
Combined efforts in the two States brought 
about the creation of the Palisades Park Com- 
mission with power to acquire land from joint 
State appropriationgv 

The commission began work in the spring of 
1900 with only $15,000; $5,000 from New Jer- 
sey and $10,000 from New York. George W. 
Perkins was chosen President of the New York 
commission and served until his death in 19x0. 
His enthusiasm and his understanding of the 
needs of the people for outdoor recreation and 
of the need for conserving the scenery and 



forests nature had placed so near a population 
exceeding ten millions, made him the main- 
spring of the commission. 

With the $5 ,000 appropriated by New Jersey 
a systematic survey of the area proposed for 
acquisition was made. The land holdings were 
numerous and complicated, the New Jersey 
frontage on the river including 147 parcels held 
by nz different owners. With the survey com- 
pleted, the commission set to work to stop the 
quarrying, which was going on with feverish 
speed in anticipation of possible forced cessa- 
tion. The big quarry north of Fort Lee Bluff, 
where iz,coo cubic yards of trap rock were 
being blasted away daily, was secured for 
$131,500, and New York's $10,000 was used to 
bind an option on it. Mr. Perkins appealed to 
J. Pierpont Morgan, the elder, and Mr. Morgan 
donated the $1x1,500 required for completion 
of the purchase. In the same year, New Jersey 
appropriated $50,000 and New York $400,000, 
for additional land purchases. About $540,000 
was expended in acquisition of land, riparian 
rights and improvements. The gift of 60 
acres of land along the shore and cliffs above 
Alpine and 3,000 feet of riparian rights by Mr. 
and Mrs. Hamilton McKay Twombly, was the 
final step to complete the desired frontage from 
Fort Lee to the New York state line. 

Subsequent appropriations and land dona- 
tions have brought the contribution of New 
Jersey up to $1,100,000. New York State in like 
manner has donated $11,000,000. Land given 
by private owners represents another original 
$8,000,000. The present-day value of the inter- 
state holdings exceeds $50,000,000. 

When acquisition of the Palisades was com- 
pleted, the commission had as raw material 
thirteen and a half miles of cliffs, badly scarred 
in places by quarrying, but retaining much of 



zzi 



12.2. 



NEW JERSEY 



their original wild and inaccessible character. 
The formal dedication took place, in Septem- 
ber, 1909, at the old house at Alpine landing 
used in 1776 by General Cornwallis, when he 
landed his army and climbed the cliffs to drive 
Washington's forces out of Fort Lee. 

The commission cleared the shore front and 
built a path which has come to be one of the 
most popular rambles for the city populations. 
The double hair-pin highway ascent from the 
Englewood-Dyckman Street ferry was con- 
structed up the cliffs, and the Henry Hudson 
Drive was carried north along the base of the 
Palisades to Alpine, with a branch to another 
vehicular ferry to Yonkers. The drive connects 
at the top of the cliffs with the newly widened 
and relocated State Highway, Route number 18, 
which follows the top of the Palisades, comes 
out upon the brink two miles north of Alpine 
and, crossing the State Line into New York 
State Highway Route No. 3 , turns back through 
the old village of Palisades, N. Y. From here 
the drive passes over the new steel viaduct at 
Sparkill constructed by the Palisades Commis- 
sion and continues up the west bank of the 
Hudson to Nyack, Rockland Lake, Haver- 
straw, Stony Point, Bear Mountain, West Point 
and the Storm King Highway, now skirting 
the river edge, now rising over mountains, and 
combining elements of scenery that make it 
America's unequalled highway. 

Intensive development of the Palisades sec- 
tion of the Interstate Park was carried out in 
the years following and is still going on. Bath- 
ing beaches were established, with bathhouses 
and lockers at Hazard's Beach, and Undercliff. 
Motorboat basins and playgrounds were built 
at Englewood Landing, Forest View Grove and 
Alpine. North of Forest View to the state line, 
underneath the 500 foot cliffs of Indian Head, 
and along the rough, bare talus blocks of the 
Giant Stairs, where the duck hawk still nests 
on the crags, the park was left in a natural 
state. It is accessible only by hikers' trails and 
remains one of the most entrancing bits of 
wilderness within an hour of the metropolis. 

At the top of the Englewood approach there 
is a motor tourist camp, which is the only one 
of its kind so near New York City. Camping is 



allowed along the Palisades shore front under 
the cliffs south of Forest View. 

A new development planned is the damming 
of Green Brook, a mile and a half south of 
Alpine, in a depression back of the escarpment, 
to make a lake and picnicking area. Here Green 
Brook leaps down the face of the cliff in a con- 
tinuous cascade for 300 feet. 

The top of the Palisades is accessible from 
northern New Jersey by many primary and 
secondary routes from Jersey City, Hoboken, 
Union City, and Fort Lee, or from Englewood 
and Hackensack; and the shore front may be 
reached from the Englewood approach to the 
Henry Hudson Drive and the ferry approach to 
Alpine landing. Eventually the drive will be 
carried south, under the New Jersey approach 
of the new Hudson River Bridge, to Edgewater. 

In addition to the Palisades, New Jersey 
shares with New York enjoyment of the five 
New York divisions of the Interstate Park. 
These are the Blauvelt section, near Blauvelt 
station on the West Shore Railroad; the Hook 
Mountain section, along the Hudson between 
Upper Nyack and Havers craw; the Bear Moun- 
tain and Harriman State Park sections, extend- 
ing from the Hudson to the Ramapo Valley, 
and the Storm King section, between West 
Point and Cornwall. 

New Jersey philanthropic organizations are 
well represented among the hundred camping 
groups installed in comfortable quarters around 
the various lakes of these divisions. Many of 
the groups use their cabins in winter. Hiking 
clubs from New Jersey and the New York City 
metropolitan district use the trails and shelters 
in the Harriman State Park all the year round. 

No geographical or geological division ex- 
ists in the Palisades Interstate Park. It is di- 
vided only by an invisible political boundary, 
and its several divisions, particularly the 
43,000 acres of the Harriman State Park, and 
Bear Mountain Park, are as much New Jersey's 
as New York's for the perpetual and unre- 
stricted outdoor enjoyment of the people of 
both states, and of the nation. 

This park is much advertised by the excursion 
boats plying the Hudson River. It is the show- 
place for tourists from all parts of the world 
visiting northern New Jersey or New York City. 



COMMUNITY LIFE AND RECREATION 




*, 



NEW JERSEY 




HIGH POINT PARK. HIGHEST MOUNTAIN IN NEW JERSEY. HEIGHT 182.3 FEET ABOVE SEA-LEVEL. 

VIEW TAKEN FROM THE STEPS OF THE STATE BUILDING 
The Soldiers and Sailors Memorial is shown under construction at the end of the winding road up the slope 



STATE PARKS 

High Point Park 

The State maintains several charming parks. 
High Point Park is the largest and derives its 
name from the highest elevation in the State 
1,8x3 f eet which is in the reservation. The 
park comprises more than 10,000 acres. It is in 
the extreme north-western corner of the State 
at the top of the Kittatinny Range. It borders 
New York State for a considerable distance, 
approaching within a few miles of the Pennsyl- 
vania line at the point where Tri-State Monu- 
ment marks the meeting place of all three 
states. 

A panorama of grandeur is unfolded from the 
great rock at its summit. The view is unbroken 
in any direction for many miles. Far to the 
north may be seen the Catskill Mountains of 
New York State, to the east the Wantage Val- 
ley of that State, to the south the rolling hills 
of northern New Jersey and the Delaware Water 
Gap, and to the west the Pocono Mountains of 



Pennsylvania. Twenty-two towns and villages 
in the three States are visible on a clear day. 

Lake Marcia, in the park, is the highest 
natural spring lake in New Jersey. It is five- 
eighths of a mile in length, a quarter of a mile 
across, is situated 1,590 feet above sea level 
and at places it is 50 feet deep. On its eastern 
shore it is bordered by an abrupt, craggy ele- 
vation of 100 feet. 

The State Building is a half-mile from the 
summit. The building is 1,670 feet above sea- 
level. A wide, encircling veranda affords a sub- 
stantial promenade from which the view is 
inspiring. Water is obtained from an artesian 
well. The water is pumped to a reservoir near 
the summit and from thence it is carried by 
gravity to the State Building. There is a pleas- 
ing mile drive through a pine forest from the 
park entrance up to the building. 

Camping sites in the park are free. Hunting 
is prohibited, hence the park is a sanctuary for 
many species of wild birds but there are both 
hunting and fishing grounds close by. There is 



COMMUNITY LIFE AND RECREATION 



2.2.5 



a stone road from the lower end of the lake to 
Cedar Park two miles away where there are 
115 acres of a remarkable forest of spruce and 
cedar and an undergrowth of rhododendron so 
thick that it can be penetrated only by crawl- 
ing on the hands and knees. 

The entire tract included in High Point Park 
was the property of Colonel Anthony R. Kuser 
of Bernardsville up to 192.3, when he presented 
it to the State and it was created a park under 
Chapter 36 of the Laws of that year. Along 
with the land, Colonel Kuser presented his 
mountain home on the estate and it is now oc- 
cupied as the State Building. Supplementing 
this magnificent gift to the people of New Jer- 
sey, Colonel Kuser recently provided the funds 
for a monument that will rise 118 feet above 
the summit of the park. The monument will be 
a memorial to the soldiers and sailors of New 
Jersey. It will be 34 feet square at the base, 
where there will be a platform 84 feet square. 
From a memorial chamber within there will be 
a staircase to the top of the monument. The 
monument is being constructed from native 
quartzite, quarried near the site, and it will be 



finished on the outside with granite from a 
quarry ten miles distant. 

Hacklebarney Park 

Hacklebarney Memorial State Forest Park, 
a recent addition to the State Park System, is 
located in Morris County. It may be reached 
from Hackettstown over Schooley Mountain 
and through Long Valley, from Dover by way 
of Chester, by going north from Lamington, 
or northwest from Far Hills. It was presented 
to the State in 192.4 by Adolphe Edward Borie 
and it is making a growing appeal to the public. 
It is bordered by the Alamatuck River, the 
waters of which are shiny black. 

The park is in a thick forest growth of un- 
usual beauty. The river, and Trout Brook on 
the opposite side of the park, meet at an apex 
and add to the woodland vistas. They wind 
among shady dells, forming here and there 
trout pools at the base of tumbling water-falls. 

Washington Crossing Park 

Washington Crossing Park is more than a 
State Park it is a National Shrine. It is seven 




SHINY BLACK WATERS OF THE ALAMATUCK RIVER IN HACKLEBARNEY STATE PARK 
An interesting place to see 



2.2.6 



NEW JERSEY 




ARTISTIC BRIDGE OVER THE WATERWAY IN BRANCH BROOK PARK 
One must travel far to find a park so well designed, or maintained, as this Essex County Reservation 



miles above Trenton on the Delaware River at 
the point where General Washington crossed 
with his army the night before the Battle of 
Trenton. The McKonkey Ferry House, from 
which he directed the movement of his troops, 
is within the park. It has been renovated and is 
now a colonial museum. The Bear Tavern prop- 
erty is a part of the park. This is the landmark 
two miles from the ferry mentioned in 
Washington's orders as the point at which he 
divided his forces into two columns one under 
Greene accompanied by Washington taking the 
Pennington Road, and the other under Sullivan 
the River Road to Trenton. 

The park has been enlarged lately and now 
comprises over z89 acres. It lies along the river 
for more than a quarter of a mile. It was estab- 
lished and is maintained for the primary pur- 
pose of a suitable memorial. Its historic features 
have been preserved as much as possible but to 
these have been added picnic facilities. Camp- 
ing is not allowed. Besides the ferry house the 
significant features of the park are Continental 
Lane, Washington Grove, Sullivan's Grove and 



Greene's Grove. About 15 acres have been de- 
veloped into a formal park and the National 
Chapter of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution has built a Memorial Garden of 
colonial aspect. The park contains a State 
Forest Nursery in which seedlings are grown 
for State reforestation and adjacent to Conti- 
nental Lane 100,000 evergreens have been 
planted over a plot of ico acres. Sample blocks 
of an acre each show the different species of 
evergreens used for forest planting. Sometime 
these acres will constitute a delightful grove of 
upstanding trees. 

Swartswood Lake Park 

This park is 6 miles west of Newton in Sus- 
sex County. Most of its 567 acres are occupied 
by Swartswood Lake set in mountain scenery 
The groves of the park are popular places for 
picnics, but camping is not allowed. 

Washington Rock Park 

This is a small State Park of about 10 acres 
on Watchung Mountain, Somerset County. It 



COMMUNITY LIFE AND RECREATION 



was acquired by the State in 1913 and is the 
site of a monument commemorating the use of 
the spot for observation by General Washing- 
ton in 1777 at the time of the Battle of Spring- 
field. The other State Parks are in the care of 
the Department of Conservation and Develop- 
ment, but this park is supervised by a special 
body known as the Washington Rock Park 
Commission. 

COUNTY PARKS 

County park systems may be established 
under a law passed in 1895 which permits any 
county with a population of 2.00,000 to under- 
take such a system, to issue bonds for its ac- 
quisition and development, and to add to the 
tax levy for its maintenance. Essex County was 
the pioneer, creating the Essex County Park 
Commission under the provisions of the act the 
same year it was adopted. Hudson followed in 
1902., with slightly different provisions, and 
Union in 1911. Steps have been taken by the 
Counties of Camden, Bergen, and Passaic to 
create similar park systems in their respective 
counties. 



The selection of park sites is peculiarly im- 
portant and an effort was made to remove them 
as far as practicable from political control. 
Accordingly, the Act of 1895 provided that 
county park commissions be appointed by the 
justice of the Supreme Court presiding in the 
respective county courts and that they serve 
without compensation. An exception was made 
for Hudson County by Chap. 177-1902.. The 
common pleas judge in that county makes the 
appointments and the commissioners receive 
$1500. 

Since it is not restricted by municipal lines, 
the county can provide a well-balanced park 
system. It can establish reservations to preserve 
natural scenery. These reservations are as im- 
portant as are more formal parks. They supply 
that retreat, away from the man-made world 
that all of us long for at times. Here we find 
nature in her happiest mood, with brooks, the 
songs of myriad birds, cool inviting shade, a 
wealth of riotous color in blossoms and foliage, 
and the scurrying of wild things. 

Both summer and winter joys breathe the 
new view -point of the out-of-doors. 




ONE OF THE WOODS-ROADS THROUGH THE DENSE FOREST IN SOUTH MOUNTAIN RESERVATION 



NEW JERSEY 



Essex County Parks 

Essex County's parks comprise 3915 acres of 
woodland and formal landscape development; 
2.3 miles of park roads and boulevards; i.^ miles 
of equestrian roads, and 45 miles of trails and 
walks. The formal parks under the control of 
the Commission are, Weequahic, Vailsburgh, 
Independence, Riverbank, West Side and Ivy 
Hill in Newark; Branch Brook in Newark and 
Belleville; Yanticaw in Nutley; Watsessing in 
East Orange and Bloomfield; Verona in Verona; 
Orange in Orange and East Orange; Grover 
Cleveland in Caldwell; Belleville in Belleville; 
Irvington in Irvington; Anderson and Glenfield 
in Montclair. Park Avenue and Oraton Park- 
way serve as connecting links in the system. 

South Mountain and Eagle Rock Reserva- 
tions, lying in the Watchung Mountain range, 
enclose 2.500 acres of natural forest, into which 
bridle paths, trails, picnic grounds, camp sites 
and delightful drives have been artistically 
fitted. These reservations are havens of rest and 
the public derives rare enjoyment from driving 
or rambling through the wild woods, climbing 
hills, following brooks in shady ravines, and 
enjoying distant prospects. 

These large woodland tracts, particularly 
South Mountain Reservation, have a constant 
popular appeal, for they hold our interest all 
through the seasons year after year. They can 
be enjoyed in winter after a light snowfall 
when the leafless branches of shrub and tree 
show their dark traceries against the whitened 
ground. One is delighted with their spring 
effects when violets, hepaticas, anemones, and 
all the little wild flowers spring up from the 
browned leaf carpet; when the pink azalea 
nudiflora and the wild honeysuckle are blos- 
soming; when the dogwood is flowering and 
the laurel is in bloom. Visitors have rejoiced 
in their autumnal aspects when the cool days 
bring colorful patterns into the landscape with 
the burnished huckleberries, the mosaicked 
maple-leaved viburnums, the changing sassa- 
fras, the red maples, the yellowing ironwoods, 
and the russet oaks. 

The commission desires to keep these stretches 
of mountain landscape as nearly as possible in 
their original state, that the public may thor- 



oughly enjoy their beautiful natural scenery. 
With that in view it has sought to reintroduce 
those species of trees, shrubs, and wild flowers 
which formerly thrived here but which, from 
one cause or another, have been destroyed or 
are becoming extinct. 

Every effort has been made to attract and pro- 
tect the bird life and the forms of animal life 
whose habitat is in the mountain reservations. 
There are numerous gray squirrels, hares, foxes, 
and raccoons, while songbirds, pheasants, 
quail, and partridge are familiar sights in the 
timbered areas. The native red deer have dis- 
appeared and the commission would have 
gladly restocked the reservations with this 
species but for the fact that these animals are 
shy and rarely permit themselves to be seen, 
whereas the fallow deer, hundreds of which 
the commission has introduced in South Moun- 
tain Reservation, are gentle and least shy of 
all the deer species, and will quietly graze in 
the open fields to the delight of the visitor. 

Essex County is proud of the view from both 
Eagle Rock and Washington Rock. The whole 
of the county is to be seen from the former and 
on clear days Jersey City, New York, Hoboken, 
Rutherford, Passaic, Bayonne and Elizabeth 
stand out to the view in surprising detail. From 
Eagle Rock can be seen the homes and work- 
shops of more people than from any other 
natural elevation in the world. 

Washington Rock overlooks the valley be- 
tween the two Orange Mountains. The views 
are principally those of hillside, stream, and 
forest. Tradition tells us that this is one of the 
vantage points from which General Washing- 
ton watched the progress of the British forces 
from Elizabethtown toward Morristown, be- 
fore the battle of Springfield. In getting to 
Washington Rock one may go along the new 
road from South Orange Avenue that follows 
the crest of First Mountain for about two 
miles. 

The two largest county formal parks lie 
mostly in Newark. They are Branch Brook 
Park and Weequahic Park. They are the resorts 
of lovers of flowers and formal landscape and 
they are Meccas for those who delight in 
healthful sport and other out-door exercise. 
These parks are among Newark's most valuable 



COMMUNITY LIFE AND RECREATION 



12.9 







NEW JERSEY 



assets and visitors exult at their beautiful set- 
ting and various activities. The former is partly 
in Belleville but wholly within an area that is 
thickly populated. Fascinating lakes set 
among drooping willows, woodland streams 
with stone arched and rustic bridges, winding 
roads kept in perfect condition for motorists, 
a concert pavilion, boat-house, acres of lawn 
for baseball and football and scores of clay 
tennis courts, offer an unparalleled opportunity 
for both rest and recreation for the masses in 
whose midst this park has been placed. In one 
grove there is a playground restricted to the use 
of crippled children with games suitable for 
such youngsters. 

On a Saturday afternoon in Weequahic Park 
one finds it difficult to follow all the different 
events. The half-mile track for trotting races 
is the scene of contests replete with speed, 
stamina and hard-fought finishes for applaud- 
ing throngs that fill the grandstand. It is now 
equipped with a system of amplifiers through 
which announcements may be heard all around 
the track. Other contests that attract rival 
crowds in the same park are the model yacht 
and motor-boat races held Saturday afternoons. 
Skippers, young and old, launch craft that 
elicit enthusiastic cheering from the spectators 
lining the shore. A similar scene is enacted 
almost daily throughout the summer on Har- 
rison Pond, Edgemont Park, Montclair. 

Gardens abound in all the Essex County 
Parks. Weequahic has an extensive rose garden 
and a plantation of lilacs, while in Orange 
Park there is a collection of 4000 irises pre- 
sented by the late Dr. George R. Kent. There 
is an annual chrysanthemum show at the 
Branch Brook Park Greenhouses. Courses in 
Weequahic and Branch Brook cater to hosts of 
golfers and at Watsessing Park there is a 
meticulously kept bowling green for the dev- 
otees with whom Essex County abounds of 
one of the oldest of organized sports. 

UNION COUNTY PARKS 

The Union County Parks are similar in con- 
cept and variety to those of Essex. They are 10 
in number and occupy 3,600 acres. This is close 
to six per cent of the acreage of the entire 
county, but the commission foresees the needs 



of the not-far-off day when the county will be 
completely built over with homes. With this 
in mind it has extensions under way that will 
increase the acreage to 10 per cent. 

In the parks of this county younger though 
they are than the extensive developments of 
neighboring Essex we find the same idea of 
location and use. The units within the popu- 
lated areas are given over to play purposes, 
spacious greens and formal gardens that inter- 
est and instruct. For the lover of the freedom 
of woods and hills the 1,800 acre tract, called 
Watchung Reservation, stretching along the 
mountainside from Scotch Plains to Springfield, 
is kept in its natural state, except for good 
roads, bridle paths and forest walks. Ulti- 
mately the Rahway River Parkway, now well 
along toward completion, will span the county 
from north to south with outstretched arms to 
Watchung Reservation and Echo Lake Park 
on the west and to Galloping Hill Park on the 
east. It will link up with South Mountain Res- 
ervation in Essex County, now separated by a 
scant mile, and thereby create a continuous 
drive through the two county-park systems 
that will be much longer and will pass through 
far more varied landscape than that of the 
famous Rock Creek Park in Washington, D. C. 

As in Essex, the commission has distributed 
the county parks quite uniformly. There is 
Green Brook Park on the western border of 
Plainfield where Somerset and Union Counties 
meet. At the other side of Plainfield, bordering 
Middlesex County, is Cedar Brook Park. A 
projected parkway along Green Brook will 
soon connect the park of that name with Watch- 
ung Reservation. Echo Lake Park rests on the 
borders of Westfield and Mountainside and is 
in the heart of the county. Nomahegan Park in 
Cranford is close by. To the northeast is Gal- 
loping Hill Park serving Kenilworth and 
Union. The city of Elizabeth has Warinanco 
and Elizabeth Parks. John Russell Wheeler 
Park is in Linden. These nine, with Rahway 
River Parkway, comprise the county group. 

When the commission was organized in 1911, 
no municipality possessed adequate park or 
recreational facilities. Now alf are well and 
conveniently served. Large sums have been 
appropriated by the county and donations of 



COMMUNITY LIFE AND RECREATION 




2.31 



NEW JERSEY 



175 acres of valuable property by public spir- 
ited citizens have helped to advance park 
developments. 

Swamps have been reclaimed and filled, or 
converted into attractive lakes. A riding stable 
with 50 stalls has been built in Watchung Res- 
ervation, where riding instruction is given. 
Twenty miles of bridle paths radiate from the 
stable and afford convenient entrances over 
wooded trails without passing through the 
traffic of main highways. 

Watchung Reservation largest of the parks 
lies in the Blue Brook Valley between First 
and Second Mountain. It combines some of the 
features of Eagle Rock and South Mountain 
Reservations in Essex County. The view from 
Peckham's Tower in the south-easterly section 
is superb. It seems astounding that such primal 
country exists within zo miles of New York 
City. Wild deer and smaller game are abun- 
dant. Silver Lake is regularly stocked and 
affords opportunity for boating and fishing. 
Here is Lake Surprise, a mile in length with 
facilities for bathing, boating, canoeing, fish- 
ing, picnic parties, camping and skating. 

Recreational provisions have been distrib- 
uted throughout the parks of the county to 
the extent of 16 baseball fields; n football and 
soccer fields; 10 lakes for fishing, boating, 
bathing, skating and hockey; iz tennis courts; 
ii refectories; numerous picnic groves with 
fireplaces; an athletic stadium; playgrounds and 
wading pools for small children; and separate 
areas for trapshooting, lawn-bowling, cricket, 
fencing and handball. 

With all these opportunities for rest and 
play, Union County parks are immensely pop- 
ular. Field days and water carnivals are fre- 
quent; and the history of the county, com- 
memorated in 19x8 by a spectacular pageant in 
Echo Lake Park, strengthened the interest of 
the people. 

HUDSON COUNTY PARKS 

The Hudson County System is limited as to 
acreage, and accordingly goes in for intensive 
use of every tract. 

West Side Park, in Jersey City, is the most 
centrally located and has a frontage on the 
Hudson County Boulevard. It extends westerly 



to the Hackensack River. This park is the 
eastern gate-way to the Lincoln Highway. An 
Archery Club of 400 members holds weekly 
tournaments on its fairway. 

North Hudson Park at 35th Street, Wood- 
cliff, overlooks the Hudson River and has a 
view up and down the river and across to 
Riverside Drive in New York City. Washing- 
ton Park, formerly the Suckley estate, situated 
partly in Jersey City and partly in West Hobo- 
ken, is surrounded by built-up residential 
sections. Hoboken Park was formerly the site 
of the St. George cricket grounds. It has been 
developed for athletic and playground activi- 
ties. Bayonne Park extends from Avenue C on 
the east to Newark Bay on the west and is 
crossed by the Boulevard. West Hudson Park 
is in Harrison and Kearny. There is a driveway 
throughout its length and open rolling lawns 
and wooded hills with water features and 
playground facilities. 

The six parks are all in centres of dense pop- 
ulation. Hence, they are used by large numbers 
of people. They have been placed so that they 
benefit all parts of the county and they abound 
in recreational facilities such as ball fields, 
swimming pools, driveways, paths, prome- 
nades, lawns and some wooded tracts. There 
are 60 clay tennis courts. Structures for shelter 
are well located. Flower gardens are numerous 
and beautiful. Most of the parks are on the 
County Boulevard, and this makes them quickly 
accessible to those who live at a distance. 

These, and the comparatively near-by parks 
of the larger county systems of Essex and 
Union, exert a wholesome influence on an 
immense population, for they attract thousands 
from New York as well as from New Jersey, 
and make for the greater health and happiness 
of countless people. 

CAMDEN COUNTY PARKS 

Specialists were put to work a few years ago 
by Eldridge R. Johnson to find a way to con- 
vert the unsightly swamps and meadow-lands 
of the Cooper River basin into a parkway. They 
were waste lands, breeding mosquitoes, and 
were unfitted for any commercial purpose. 

A comprehensive plan was evolved and with 



COMMUNITY LIFE AND RECREATION 



this initial advantage Camden County is going 
forward. A county park commission was 
created two years ago and one park has been 
finished. The commission has reclaimed the 
upper reaches of the river and established there 



a general playground area; a charming lake 
that comes down to a low water-fall over an 
artificial dam of cobble-stones; picnic grounds; 
gardens, lawns and shrubbery; and other means 
of rest and recreation. 



GAMES AND SPORTS 



SPORTS of all kinds play an important part 
in the life of New Jersey, and it may be 
said fairly that this State has a real part 
in the realm of sport. It has a field unexcelled 
for yachting, motor-boat racing, tennis, and 
golf. These four forms of sport are mentioned 
first because their cohorts are actual partici- 
pants. In boxing, football, and baseball, there 
is the thrill of large assemblies, but after all, 
playing the game is the big compensation. 

In the first quarter of the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury horse racing was the only prominent 
sport in New Jersey, the races being run on 
Broad Street, in Newark, south from Market 
Street. Gifford's Tavern, at Broad and Market 
streets, was the gathering place for the horse- 
men, as it also was for participants in the mam- 
moth fox hunts held about the same period, 
and for which hounds and hunters were 
brought from as far as Virginia and the 
Carolinas. 

But horse racing for runners now is a thing 
of the past in New Jersey, the sport having 
been brought into disrepute by gamblers and 
for this reason abolished. In its day, however, 
it cut a figure, with tracks at Monmouth Park, 
Linden, Guttenberg, Clifton, and Gloucester 
holding the public's eye. 

For those who like trotters the State still 
has something to offer. The Road Horse 
Association of New Jersey is an active organ- 
ization and conducts a number of attractive 
meets each summer at^the Weequahic track in 
Newark. Interest in "the horse is kept up by 
the annual fairs and the horse shows, such as 
the Paterson Horse Show, the Morris County 
one at Morristown, the Far Hills exhibition, 
the Monmouth County Horse Show at Rum- 
son, the Westfield Horse Show held in its 
armory, and by the hunts such as the Essex 
Fox Hounds and the Monmouth County with 



its meets at Marlboro, Scobeyville, Red Bank, 
and other places. 

Although New Jersey is a farming State, 
there probably is more sod broken with nib- 
licks than with plowshares. The State contains 
something like 75 golf courses, and their 
number is increasing annually. The glacial 
undulations of the land and its adaptability 
for growing grass, as well as the adaptability 
of the population for golf, are conditions ideal 
for more and more golf courses. 

The Baltusrol Golf Club, where Bobbie 
Jones lost his amateur crown in 192.6 to George 
Von Elm, is near Summit and Short Hills. The 
Morris County Golf Club at Convent has been 
the scene of many interesting tournaments. 
The Shackamaxon Club at Westfield has often 
been a championship battleground. Experts 
who have played the Hollywood links near 
Asbury Park declare it one of the best and most 
scientifically laid out courses in the country. 
Pine Valley is an unusual course that golfers 
travel across the continent to play. 

New Jersey has also produced its share of 
brilliant linksmen, the most outstanding of 
whom is Jerome D. Travers, of Montclair. 
Travers, 15 to 2.0 years ago, was America's 
greatest amateur golfer. He won the amateur 
championship four times, the greatest number 
it has ever been won by one individual, and 
he led a great field in the national open cham- 
pionship at Baltusrol in 192.5. Golfing suprem- 
acy in the State has now been left to younger 
players, notably William M. Reekie, of Mont- 
clair, and Lauren Upson, of Englewood. Reekie 
has twice held the Metropolitan title and 
Upson has since been State champion. Johnnie 
Golden and Bobbie Cruickshank are profes- 
sionals who have brought New Jersey its share 
of renown, and there is a younger crop of golf 



2-34 



NEW JERSEY 




SPORTS ON SUNSET LAKE NEAR BRIDGETON 




PALMER STADIUM AT PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 



COMMUNITY LIFE AND RECREATION 



2-35 



pros who are bound to be heard from in the 
future. 

Most of New Jersey's country clubs are 
linked up with superb golf courses, but many 
provide for tennis, yachting, and other sports. 
A list of the well-known Jersey country clubs 
includes the Arcola Country Club; Asbury 
Park Golf and Country Club; Atlantic City 
Country Club at Northfield; Baltusrol Golf 
Club at Short Hills; Beacon Hill Golf Club at 
Atlantic Highlands; Braidburn Country Club 
at Madison; Brigantine Yacht and Golf Club; 
Canoe Brook Country Club at Summit; Cape 
May Golf Club; Colonia Country Club; 
Cohanzick Country Club; Country Club of 
Salem; Crestmont Golf Club of West Orange; 
Deal Golf Club; Diamond Spring Club; East 
Orange Golf Association; Echo Lake Country 
Club at Westfield; Elmwood Country Club at 
Warren Point in Paterson; Englewood Golf 
Club; Essex County Country Club of West 
Orange; Essex Fells Country Club; Ferncliff 
Country Club; Fort Ellsborg Country Club; 
Forest Hill Field Club, Bloomfield; Glen Ridge 
Country Club; Green Brook Country Club at 
North Caldwell; Hackensack Golf Club; Holly- 
wood Golf Club at Deal; Homestead Golf 
Club; Houvenkopf Country Club, south of 
Suffern, N. Y.; Hydewood Golf Club; Jumping 
Brook Country Club near Asbury Park; Knick- 
erbocker Country Club at Tenafly; Lake Hop- 
atcong Country Club; Lakewood Country 
Club; Lackawanna Country Club; Linwood 
Country Club; Locust Grove Golf Club at 
Rahway; Madison Golf Club; Manasquan 
River Golf Club; Maplewood Country Club; 
Metuchen Country Club; Montclair Golf Club; 
Morris County Golf Club at Convent Station; 
Mountain Ridge Country Club; Musconetcong 
Country Club; Newark Country Club; New 
Brunswick Country Club; North Jersey Coun- 
try Club, near Patersoji; Norwood Golf Club 
at Long Branch; Ocean City Golf Club; Oradell 
Golf Links; Orange Mountain Golf Club; Pine- 
brook Golf Club; Phelps Manor Country Club 
at Teaneck; Pine Valley Golf Club; Plainfield 
Country Club; Point Pleasant Golf Club; Rari- 
tan Valley Country Club in Somerville; Ridge- 
wood Country Club; Riverton Country Club; 
Rockaway River Country Club; Roselle Golf 



Club; Rumson Country Club; Sea view Golf 
Club; Shackamaxon Country Club at Westfield; 
Shrewsbury River Country Club; Somerset 
Hills Country Club at Bernards ville; South 
Orange Field Club; Spring Brook Country Club 
at Morristown; Springdale Golf Club at Prince- 
ton; Sussex County Golf Club, near Sussex; 
Spring Lake Golf and Country Club; Suburban 
Golf Club of Elizabeth; Summit Golf Club; 
Tavistock Country Club at Haddonfield; Teter- 
boro Golf Club; Trenton Country Club; 
Upper Montclair Country Club; Walkill Coun- 
try Club; Watchung Valley Country Club at 
Plainfield; Weequahic Golf Club; West End 
Golf Club; White Beeches Golf and Country 
Club at Haworth; Wildwood Golf Club; Wood- 
bury Golf Club; and Yountakah Country Club 
at Nutley. 

In tennis New Jersey has taken a leading 
part for 30 years. At present more than 50 of 
its clubs are affiliated with the United States 
Lawn Tennis Association, two of the oldest 
and most pfominent organizations being the 
Seabright Lawn Tennis and Cricket and the 
Orange Lawn Tennis Club. The annual invita- 
tion tournament of the Seabright Club on its 
Rumson Road courts in late July or early 
August has been for years looked upon as the 
final "warming up" practice week for both 
the men's and women's national champion- 
ship. The Orange Club's invitation tourney at 
the end of May each year has always attracted 
the country's leading male stars. 

The Montclair Athletic Club field, with its 
perfect courts, is the scene of many champion- 
ship meets. Here also may be seen bowling on 
the green more extensively than anywhere 
outside of old England. The numerous alleys 
are lighted for play at night. Such annual 
events as the North Jersey championship, and 
the contests for the North Jersey Coast, the 
Atlantic Coast, the Western New Jersey and 
the State Turf Court and Clay Court champion- 
ships are hard-fought events. Princeton and 
Rutgers have their crack teams, and good 
playing is always to be seen at the Bloomfield 
Tennis Club, the Oritani Field Club at Hacken- 
sack, the Moorestown Field Club, the Bathing 
and Tennis Club at Spring Lake, Westfield 
Tennis Club, Engleside Tennis Club at Beach 



NEW JERSEY 




COMMUNITY LIFE AND RECREATION 



Haven, Ocean City Tennis Club, Seabright 
Lawn Tennis and Cricket Club, and the Orange 
Lawn Tennis Club. 

The State's prominence in tennis dates back 
to 1899, when Holcombe Ward, who is still 
playing tennis at the Seabright Club, won the 
intercollegiate championship, and with Dwight 
F. Davis, now Secretary of War, the national 
doubles. Since then its popularity has in- 
creased constantly. The two Larneds lived in 
Summit, and in 1911 William Larned was a 
defender of the Davis cup. He won the cham- 
pionship for America for seven straight years. 
Dean Mathey, now of Cranford, and Harold 
A. Throckmorton were famous New Jersey 
tennis players of an earlier day, and in the last 
few years the sport's foremost representatives 
included Martha Bayard (Guild) of Short 
Hills, Ceres Baker (Sackett), Gerald B. Emer- 
son, Weller B. Evans, John Van Ryn, Kenneth 
D. Appel, all of the Oranges; Gregory Mangin, 
of Newark, Le Moyne Hauser, of Montclair, 
and others. Junior activities have been centered 
for years at the East Orange Tennis Club, and 
aside from the Seabright affair, tournaments 
of more or less importance are held each year 
at Hoboken, Montclair, Westfield, Hacken- 
sack and Spring Lake. 

Football, naturally, has been the leader 
among the intercollegiate sports of New 
Jersey, and some of the best teams in football 
history have come out of the State. Princeton 
has produced most of the great elevens, with 
Rutgers contributing its quota, especially 
during the war period. 

It may be of interest to note that the first 
game of college football in the world was 
played between Princeton and Rutgers in 1869; 
but so different were the rules that it would 
not be recognized as football today. Rutgers, 
playing on its home grounds, defeated Prince- 
ton six goals to four.. It was not until three 
years later that Princeton played its first game 
with Yale, beginning a series that has now 
passed the 50-year mark and is the oldest in 
the annals of sport. 

Since those early days great teams and great 
players have come out of both Princeton and 
Rutgers. One of the best of them all was the 
Princeton eleven of 19x5, which ran up 61 



points on Harvard and Yale. The Rutgers team 
of 1918 was another, defeating the Newport 
News Naval Reserve team, composed of former 
college stars, by 14 to o in a game that attracted 
nation-wide attention. The Princeton elevens 
of 1896 and 1910 compared favorably with the 
best the game has produced. 

On the football field the name of New Jersey 
has been carried afar by such men as K. L. 
Ames, H. A. H. Baker, Hector Cowan, John R. 
DeWitt, Homer Hazel, Phil King, "Doc" 
Hillebrand, Jake Slagle, Paul Robeson, and 
H. P. Tallman, to mention only a few. The 
name of Poe has been closely associated with 
football at Princeton. Five brothers in all, 
relatives of the famous writer, have carried 
the orange and black colors in the field. 

Lacrosse is played by strong teams from 
Princeton, Rutgers, and the Montclair Athletic 
Club. 

Rutgers and Princeton also have had their 
fair share of outstanding baseball, basketball, 
and track teams and will continue to have 
them. The Tigers in the last ten years have won 
the intercollegiate basketball championship 
twice and tied for first place twice. A Princeton 
crew in 1911 achieved one of the greatest feats 
of a New Jersey college when it defeated the 
Naval Academy's Olympic champions on Car- 
negie Lake. The victory of this crew, which 
was stroked by Heinie Leh and coached by 
Duncan Spaeth, startled the sporting world. 

There is not much amateur wrestling outside 
of Princeton and Rutgers. Princeton has its 
hockey team and its fencing experts. 

The State is particularly fortunate in having 
a New Jersey State Interscholastic Athletic 
Association that is considered the most efficient 
organization of its kind in the United States, 
and its mode of operation has been widely 
copied. As a result of its work, scholastic foot- 
ball, basketball, and baseball are developed to 
a high degree. Annual state-wide competitions 
in all these sports are run off under the direc- 
tion of the association. 

Under its system was developed the power- 
ful Passaic high school basketball team that 
attracted nation-wide notice while coached by 
Ernest Blood, who is now in charge of St. 
Benedict's Prep basketball squad. 



NEW JERSEY 



Certain school football games in New Jersey 
elicit interest hardly less acute than that de- 
veloped in the college teams. At the end of the 
192.7 season three teams were tied for first 
place, Central High of Newark, Atlantic City, 
and Rutherford. The association decided against 
a play-off. In basketball Trenton High School 
won the Class A title at Camden after a grueling 
struggle against New Brunswick. 

For the indoor track season important meets 
are staged annually by Dickinson High School, 
of Jersey City, Prudential Insurance Athletic 
Association, St. Joseph's Catholic Club of 
Newark, St. Benedict's Prep, and Seton Hall 
College. In some of these the best-known ath- 
letes of the country compete. Lloyd Hahn, 
America's premier middle-distance runner, 
achieved notable victories in two events. Other 
outstanding performers were Miss Catherine 
Donovan, of the Prudential, who established a 
world's record for 880 yards, and Bernie 
McCafferty, of Seton Hall, who broke the 
track record at Newark Armory for 600 yards. 

Other residents of the State who have made 
and are making their marks in track and field 
events include Chet Bowman, of Eatontown, 
the sprinter, and Johnnie Gibson, of Bloom- 
field, who broke the world's record for the 
440-yard hurdle race at Lincoln, Neb., in 19x6. 
The Newark Athletic Club is recognized among 
the big clubs of the nation for its development 
of track and field athletes. 

Motor-boating is increasing both as a rec- 
reation and as a sport. The first touch of spring 
brings to life the boat yards on the Passaic 
River, on Newark Bay, and along the Jersey 
shore. The automobile traffic on week-ends and 
holidays has caused many to take to motor- 
boats for their trips to and from their summer 
homes at the shore. Motor-boat regattas are 
held on the Passaic River during the season and 
attract large throngs of spectators. Lake Ho- 
patcong and other lakes have events that prove 
most interesting. Yachting is very popular on 
the New Jersey shore, the more important 
events being held in Barnegat Bay and on Toms 
River. Catboats, sneakboats and outboards 
have their partisans, and hydroplane racing is 
growing in favor. Aquaplaning is a popular 
diversion. 



Essex and Hudson counties are hotbeds of 
soccer. New Jersey has produced more and 
greater soccer players than any other State in 
the Union, except Missouri. Ice-boating is 
popular on the Shrewsbury River and polo 
plays no small part in club life, notably at 
Rumson. 

Walter Johnson's assumption of management 
of the Newark baseball team of the Interna- 
tional League gave New Jersey more promi- 
nence in baseball than it had attained at any 
time, with the exception of Newark's entrance 
into the old Federal League, which was started 
to compete with the two major leagues. Jersey 
City also has a team in the International 
League. 

There are numerous amateur and semi-pro- 
fessional teams in New Jersey, organized into 
various leagues. The State has produced many 
big league ball players, the late John (Dots) 
Miller, of Kearny, having been one of the best 
known. Others of present or recent prominence 
include Ralph (Speck) Stroud, who came from 
the vicinity of Dover; Leon (Goose) Goslin, 
of Camden; Alex Ferguson, Bloomfield; Owen 
Carroll, Newark; George Haas and George 
Earnshaw, of Montclair (now with the Phil- 
adelphia Athletics); Moe Berg, Newark; and 
Frank O'Rourke, Elizabeth. 

New Jersey might be called the home of 
bicycle racing. The game was introduced into 
this country about 1870 when a troup of Eng- 
lish cyclists came here to race on dirt tracks. 
It spread to the West, and Salt Lake City be- 
came the cycling center. The game died out 
there, and on the rebound hit Newark, where 
in its Velodrome cycling has since prospered as 
have few sports anywhere. In recent years the 
sport has attained more general popularity. 

The Legislature passed a law permitting de- 
cision boxing contests in New Jersey and it has 
given pugilism a great impetus here. It will be 
recalled that it was in this State, in the famous 
Boyle's 30 Acres, in Jersey City, that Tex 
Rickard's first "Battle of the Century" was 
held the battle in which the then heavy- 
weight champion, Jack Dempsey, knocked out 
Georges Carpentier. It is not improbable that 
decision boxing will lead to other big pugil- 
istic encounters. 



COMMUNITY LIFE AND RECREATION 







MOTOR-BOATING ON THE HACKENSACK RIVER 




WATER SPORTS ON LAKE HOPATCONG 



NEW JERSEY 



There are boxing clubs in all parts of the 
State, and a smaller edition of Madison Square 
Garden is now being erected in Newark for 
major boxing contests, ice hockey, and other 
indoor sports patronized by great throngs. 
Atlantic City's new Municipal Stadium, seat- 
ing 48,000, will be the largest indoor arena in 
the world. 

The sporting life of New Jersey would not 
be complete without mention of the annual ice- 
boat races on the Shrewsbury. Aviation also 
has its growing list of enthusiastic flyers. 

Polo fields are many, and some of the warm- 
est contests take place on the Rumson Country 
Club polo field, the Saddle River polo field, the 
Crestmont Golf Club field, the Ora worth field 
at Oradell, and with the teams of the Whip- 
pany River, the Westfield, the Ramapo, the 
Newark City, the Essex Troop, the Tenakill 



Four of Closter, and the Suneagles of Eaton- 
town. The game is played in the armory in 
East Orange, the Roseville Avenue Armory in 
Newark and the armory in Westfield. 

There is a fine automobile racing track at 
Woodbridge, and another on the White Horse 
Pike near Hammonton. 

The community life of the State has its dog 
shows and kennel clubs; its river pageants; its 
historical pageants and reviews; its dances and 
balls and barn dances and masquerades; its 
baby parades and beauty contests; its bridge 
tournaments; its dramatic clubs and theater 
guilds; its art exhibits; its garden clubs and 
flower shows; its concerts, glee clubs and or- 
chestras; its lectures, junior league activities, 
and all the round of concerted pleasures that 
make community life more enjoyable in most 
attractive surroundings. 



FISHING AND HUNTING 



NEW JERSEY ranks among the foremost 
states in producing sport for the hunt- 
er and angler. Incredible as it may 
seem, the sportsman's take of game and fish, 
exclusive of salt-water fishes, in this. State 
annually reaches at least $1,000,000 in value 
on the basis of market prices. 

Of course it has been necessary to resort to 
extensive artificial propagation of game and 
fish, bulwarked by reasonable laws and based on 
good principles of conservation. But the problem 
has been solved so that between 150,000 and 
zco,ooo male residents more than 14 years of age 
take out shooting and angling licenses each year. 

Game production of late years has meant an 
annual outlay of around $350,000. However, 
no appropriation is made from the general 
funds of the state, as the sportsman pays his 
own way. He does more than that, because his 
license fee provides also for the protection of 
the non-game birds that are the invaluable 
allies of the farmer and the delight of the 
aesthetic. In the game farms at Rockport and 
Forked River, and in the hatchery at Hacketts- 
town, built with his own funds, he has added 
materially to the tangible assets of the State. 

National prominence has come to New Jer- 



sey, for her achievements in the distribution 
of trout have received widespread commenda- 
tion. In fact, the system here developed is 
being adopted by other states. 

Up to a few years ago the general custom was 
to stock trout streams with fry and fingerling, 
but young trout have many natural enemies, 
and the conviction developed that the percent- 
age of fish attaining catchable size was almost 
negligible. It is now the plan to hold the fish 
until they are large enough to furnish immed- 
iate sport. Instead of distributing several mil- 
lions of fry and fingerling, New Jersey annually 
plants several hundreds of thousands of adult 
fish in the larger streams and confines stocking 
with the infant millions to spring runs, the 
small feeder brooks, and a few waters which 
afford exceptional cover. 

Estimates place the total stream area of the 
State at about x,8oo miles. Roughly, 650 miles 
of it average between 30 and 50 feet in width, 
and sections of this, totaling about 300 miles, 
are adapted to the planting of trout. The re- 
mainder of the water area consists of lakes, 
mill ponds and shallow riffles, which are in- 
habited for the most part by bass, pickerel, 
perch, and other warm-water fishes. 



COMMUNITY LIFE AND RECREATION 







STATE FISH HATCHERY AT HACKETTSTOWN 




WHERE THE PLEASURE FISHING BOATS TIE UP AT ATLANTIC CITY 



142- 



NEW JERSEY 



Three varieties of trout are produced at the 
state hatchery Eastern brook trout, browns 
and rainbows. The hatchery, a model plant, 
embraces 12.0 acres and contains, in addition 
to hatchery and nursery building, zoo pounds, 
five of which cover an acre each. Recently a 
tract of 33 acres was acquired nearby, which 
will permit of the construction of one and one- 
half miles of rearing ponds of about an acre 
each. When fully developed, this latter area 
will enable the State to just about double its 
present output of large fish. 

Altogether, practically 100,000,000 fishes 
will have been produced when 19x8 closes. The 
culture of the bass is a comparatively new 
phase of the activity, but splendid headway is 
being made with it. 

While, generally speaking, rainbow trout 
predominate in the streams, the proportion of 
brooks and browns caught by the angler is 
large. The more northern counties furnish the 
better trout streams, for the water is cooler 
and less sluggish there than in the central and 
southern sections. Warren, Sussex, Morris, and 
Hunterdon are the best fishing grounds. Among 
the larger and more popular waters are the 
Musconetcong Creek, the Pequest, the Paul- 
inskill, the South Branch of the Raritan, and 
Flatbrook. In their riffs and pools a host of 
anglers find excellent sport throughout the 
season. 

Wading River, which flows through the 
Burlington wilderness, to the vicinity of 
Tuckerton, may be followed with much suc- 
cess. It is a short stream, but one of many 
twists and turns. The canoeist may follow it 
for long reaches without coming upon evidence 
of habitation except the huts of cranberry 
pickers, which are occupied only a short time 
after the first few frosts of autumn. Numerous 
deer come down to drink from the river, which 
is filled with stumps and brush, the haunts of 
pike. 

Of lakes and ponds there are a multitude, 
ranging downward in size from Hopatcong 
and Greenwood. While those north of the Rari- 
tan are much better known than those farther 
south, anglers familiar with both contend the 
latter have a bit the edge on the former when 
it comes to productiveness. Naturally, they 



are not fished so much as those nearer the 
centers of population. 

Bass, pickerel, and perch are found in the 
lakes and the ponds. The small-mouth is more 
eagerly sought than his 'clumsier cousin, the 
large-mouth or Oswego, but the latter is no 
mean battler and makes a fine dish for the 
table. 

For the salt-water angler there is sport un- 
limited, offshore, in the surf and in the bays 
and inlets that dot the long coastline. Striped 
bass, red drum or channel bass, bluefish, and 
weakfish are the principal species sought. 
Great schools of tuna course offshore in season 
and angling for them is growing in popularity 
each year. 

The capital investment in salt-water sport 
fishing runs into the millions. The most impor- 
tant single item of it is represented by the great 
fleet of professional boats that take the anglers 
to their favorite grounds. Because no license is 
required to fish in tidal waters it is impossible 
to check up on the number of anglers with any 
degree of accuracy, but there is no doubt it 
largely exceeds the number who indulge in 
fresh-water fishing. The range of the former 
extends from the extreme northern end of the 
coast around Cape May and up into the Dela- 
ware. 

For those who prefer hunting to fishing 
there is the opportunity. The game ranges from 
the lowly cotton-tail to the lordly deer. For 
the lover of the bird dog, there is the sports- 
man's old migrator, the woodcock, and always 
in the more remote sections the much-beloved 
ruffed grouse, or mountain-bird, may be found. 
In all but a few counties, those more densely 
populated and built up, ring-neck pheasants 
provide thousands of hunters with sport. 

The northern counties afford good deer hunt- 
ing, but those who haunt the runways at the 
break of day favor south Jersey, especially Bur- 
lington, Ocean, and Atlantic Counties, where 
the deer herds are estimated to be in excess of 
8,000. In a recent December only a few less than 
i, 800 bucks fell legal prey to hunters. This 
number is small when compared with the 
13,000 bagged each year in Pennsylvania, or 
the 6,000 in Maine, or the 5,000 in the Adi- 
rondack region of New York State, but it com- 



COMMUNITY LIFE AND RECREATION 




2-44 



NEW JERSEY 



pares favorably with the annual kill in both 
Vermont and New Hampshire, and it exceeds 
the number taken by hunters in many other 
larger states, including Connecticut and Massa- 
chusetts. In Burlington, Ocean, and Atlantic 
Counties alone, more deer fall prey to the fire 
of licensed hunters than are killed in all the 
State of Colorado with its wide open spaces 
and splendid game covers, or in all the 100 
counties which make the rugged State of Vir- 
ginia. 

Settlers followed the Indians and established 
the city of Burlington, in Burlington County, 
long before the greater part of the state had 
been thoroughly explored, because it was in 
the heart of the deer country and there would 
always be venison. Today the hunter gets off 
at places with the intriguing names of Buck- 
shodten, Turkey Swamp, Hominy Mills, 
Devil's Half Acre, Yellow Meeting Place, Red 
Lion, Double Trouble, Sooy Place, Mount 
Misery, Barrens, Friendship and Tabernacle, 
and hikes a few miles into the pine forests, 
swamps, and barrens for deer. 

The Pine barrens, where many of New Jer- 
sey's deer congregate, form one of the most 
primitive regions remaining on the Atlantic 
Coast, though within 50 miles of New York 
and less than that of Philadelphia. The cutting 
of valuable white cedar and replacement by 
cranberry bogs have opened up some parts, but 
hundreds of square miles exist where there is 
nothing but white sand on which grow the 
stunted pines, scrub oak, and holly trees. The 
"Plains" proper might be narrowed to 2.0,000 
acres in the center of the pine belt. It is a 
desolate region, romantic and alluring, and 
until it has been seen, New Jersey is not as well 
known as it should be. 

Barnegat Bay is a favorite ground for duck 
hunters. With its wide marsh wastes and in- 
numerable inlets, it is one of the most famous 
duck-shooting regions in the country. The 
backwaters of the Shrewsbury and of the Del- 
aware also abound in waterfowl. 

The situation of the game was just as bad 
as that of the fish not so long ago. Industrial 
and agricultural development, combined with 
the automobile and progress in the manufacture 
and use of firearms, was playing havoc with 



our furred and feathered friends. The Bob 
White was disappearing in north Jersey; the 
ruffed grouse, our only other important native 
upland game bird, was hard-pressed in its 
wooded haunts; the deer were virtually gone. 
Even that prolific little fellow, the cotton-tail 
rabbit, was finding it a job to hold his own. 

For relief the authorities turned to the im- 
ported ring-neck pheasant, which had saved 
the day elsewhere. The State established a fine 
game farm at Forked River, in Ocean County, 
and proceeded to raise its own birds. A few 
years ago a second farm was acquired at Rock- 
port, near Hackettstown, in Warren County. 
In the five years beginning in 1918, Z3,42_3 of 
the birds were distributed; in the succeeding 
five years 56,910 were liberated. In addition to 
raising as many as possible at the farms, the 
State buys birds wherever and whenever it can 
procure them, here and abroad. 

Thousands of rabbits are annually bought 
outside the State to augment the native supply, 
and recently there has been stocking with 
Hungarian partridges. In the meantime an 
effort is being made to rehabilitate the quail 
in the northern counties by a long closed season 
and by bringing in birds from outside to in- 
crease the brood supply. The grouse, too, are 
protected the year round in certain counties 
and the daily bag limit in open sections is low. 

The restoration of the deer is one of the most 
remarkable incidents in the history of game 
affairs and furnishes an excellent illustration 
of the value of conservation principles properly 
applied. The supply was practically exhausted 
when, some 30 years ago, a law was passed 
closing the season on them indefinitely. A 
few animals were brought into the State and 
turned loose. Before many years they multi- 
plied to such an extent that it was possible to 
allow a short season for shooting, bucks alone 
being legal quarry. An open season averaging 
four days with certain limitations on hunters 
has prevailed ever since, and year after year 
the total kill has increased without noticeable 
diminution in the supply remaining. In the 
four open days of 1917, 1,790 bucks were legally 
bagged in the state, 69 of them in Bergen 
County, almost within sound of the whistles 
of New York's factories. 



COMMUNITY LIFE AND RECREATION 



MOTORING; ENJOYABLE TRIPS 



-i^ -ITEW JERSEY has many points of historic 
1^^ I interest and many highways to delight 
_L. ^| the motorist. Modern hard-surfaced 
pavements are kept in excellent condition. 
Every modern safety and directional appliance 
has been provided for the guidance of motorists 
and unacquainted tourists. 

Several trips of interest are here described, the 
mileage being covered to serve as a basis for 
calculating the time necessary for each journey. 

Trip i .From any point in northern New Jer- 
sey, drive to Suffern, N. Y., or, if desired, pick 
up this route by driving to Riverdale over the 
Pompton Turnpike. From Suffern, turn west 
under the Erie Railroad on the Ramapo Valley 
Road. Note that for long stretches the trees 
alternate from pine to maple. Continue through 
Darlington, where is found the Immaculate 
Conception Seminary. On the right is Glen 
Gray, the camp of the Montclair Boy Scouts, 
and up the road over the river is Delbrook 



Farm, a wooded paradise popular as a camping 
spot on top of the mountains. Continue on the 
Ramapo Valley Road to Oakland, passing on 
Pompton Lake the "Sunnybank" home of 
Albert Payson Terhune, writer and traveler. 
Next on the right is Scenic Falls and the town 
of Pompton Lakes. Turn left on Wanaque Ave- 
nue and right on Hamburg Turnpike to River- 
dale 13.0 miles. The famous Wanaque Reser- 
voir, to supply Newark, six miles long, one mile 
wide, with a concrete dam 1500 feet long and 100 
feet high, has just been built in this locality. 

Continue straight ahead on Route No. 8 and 
up the Pequannock Gorge to Bloomingdale, 
Newfoundland, Beaver Lake (which is pri- 
vately owned), Franklin, Hamburg, and Sus- 
sex, then right and on to Quarryville and 
Union ville 38 miles. 

This stretch is one of the most picturesque 
and enchanting in the State, with mountains 
on every side and wonderful scenery. At the 







JENNIE JUMP MOUNTAIN NEAR HOPE 



146 



NEW JERSEY 




THE GREAT STATE HIGHWAY FROM HACKETTSTOWN TO WASHINGTON FOLLOWS THE MUSCONET- 
CONG RIVER THROUGH THE BEAUTIFUL VALLEY OF THAT NAME 



northern end of Sussex County is High Point 
Park, owned by the state; 10,000 acres being 
maintained for the use of the public. High 
Point is the most elevated land in the state. 
Here a monument, zz5 feet high, is being built 
as a memorial to all the soldiers and sailors of 
American wars. The two highest lakes in the 
state, Lake Rutherford and Lake Marcia, are 
also in this park. At Sussex is the Clove Valley 
with its old Indian fort, 2.12. years old, and 
Clove Church, zoo years old. 

At Hamburg, to the right, is the Vernon 
Valley road, with historic and interesting 
features. It is one of the richest valleys in the 
East, lying between the Pochung and Hamburg 
mountains. At Franklin are famous zinc mines, 
which extend z,ooo feet underground and have 
75 miles of electric railway. This region is 
scenically beautiful and on a trip of 150 miles 
from Newark it is possible to pass by Z5 lakes. 

Trip z. Starting from Elizabeth, turn west 
on Westfield Avenue or State Route No. 9 
and follow to Roselle Park, Westfield, and 
Plainfield, passing in Garwood the large plant 



of the Aeolian Company. Plainfield contains 
many attractive homes and several industrial 
plants. Continue over Route No. 9 to Dunellen, 
with the Watchung-Range to the right, on the 
summit of which, above Dunellen, is Washing- 
ton Rock Park, the lookout promontory of 
General Washington during the Revolution. 
Continuing on Route No. 9, the next town is 
Lincoln, then Bound Brook, which in early 
days was on the boundary line between East 
and West Jersey. Bound Brook has large in- 
dustries, such as the Calco Chemical Works 
and the Johns-Manville Asbestos plant. Fol- 
lowing over the same route, Somerville is 
reached Z4 miles from Elizabeth. 

General Washington spent the winter of 
1778-1779 at the Wallace house in Somerville. 
Visitors are permitted to go through the rooms 
and look at the interesting relics. Turn right 
on Mountain Avenue to Pluckemin, z8 miles, 
where can be seen one of the original milestones 
that were used in early days, and where one 
may see the first altar cloth used in the Re- 
formed Church in America, 



COMMUNITY LIFE AND RECREATION 



Turn right in the center of the town on a 
macadam road, and enjoy a ride through the 
beautiful Washington Valley of rich farms, 
fine orchards, wild flowers, and pleasing scenery 
to Martins ville, 34 miles. Then on to Warren- 
ville, 38 miles, where is located the magnificent 
Hopfheimer estate. 

Turn right on Mountain Boulevard to 
Watchung, 40 miles, enjoying the rustic setting 
of this quaint hamlet, bear right on Watchung 
Avenue to North Plainfield, 41 miles, then turn 
left on Mountain Avenue and follow past 
Mount St. Mary's, perched high on the moun- 
tainside, to Scotch Plains and Springfield, 50 
miles. Here turn right on Morris Avenue 
through Union to Elizabeth, 57 miles. 

Trip 3 . Taking Morristown as the point of 
departure, drive north on Speedwell Avenue 
at Washington Park, and follow to Morris 
Plains, where on the left is Grey stone Park, the 
state home for the feeble-minded. Continue 
to Mount Tabor, a summer cottage colony, to 
Denville, 6 miles, all on Route No. 5. Turn left 
to Rockaway and Dover, 10 miles; the latter 
formerly the seat of the iron industry and a 
busy industrial center at present. Continue on 
to Ledgewood, 15 miles, and Netcong, 17 
miles, just north of which is Lake Hopatcong, 
the largest body of water in the State and a 
noted summer resort. 

Following Route No. 5, pass along Budd 
Lake, with its bungalow colony, and on over 
the Musconetcong mountains until one glides 
gracefully down into the valley and crosses 
the river into Hackettstown, where the State 
fish hatcheries are located 2.4 miles. Follow- 
ing straight through the town, climb over the 
mountain ranges where the scenery ever in- 
creases in grandeur through the far-sweeping 
Pequest Valley, to Buttsville, 36 miles. Con- 
tinuing on Route No. 5, one may reach the 
Delaware Water Gap, a distance of 54 miles 
from the starting point, or turn right to Blairs- 
town and continue on to the Gap over an 
equally fine concrete road "up hill and down 
dale." 

Trip 4. Starting from New Brunswick, 
cross the town on George Street and turn right 
on Commercial Avenue and out Route No. i 
to Dayton, Hightstown, with its boys' acad- 



emy, on to Hamilton Square and Mercerville 
to Trenton. This was the line of General Wash- 
ington's march to the battle of Princeton. 
Trenton is 33 miles from New Brunswick. Turn 
left on Chambers Street in Trenton to South 
Trenton. Continue into White Horse and over 
Route No. 2. to Bordentown, passing on the 
right Point Breeze, Joseph Bonaparte's old 
estate, and the Bordentown Military Institute. 
Continue through the town on Route No. z 
to Fieldsboro, the home of a large brick in- 
dustry and the State Industrial School; on to 
Burlington, where the first newspaper in the 
State was published and the first free public 
library was established. 

Continue over Route No. z, south of Bur- 
lington, and follow to Beverly, and Riverside 
with its large watch company plant, and to 
Bridgeboro on Rancocas Creek, over which a 
new bridge has been built, and from which 
the last covered bridge on a State road was 
removed. Follow over Route No. z to Five 
Points, and Pensauken into Camden 36.1 
miles from Trenton. This is the city of great 
shipyards, great industries, and the terminal 
of the Delaware River Suspension Bridge. It 
has a large outlying suburban residential dis- 
trict. 

Trip 5 . If one wishes to note contrasts be- 
tween the old and the new, a trip from Egg 
Harbor to Cape May City furnishes many. Turn 
south from Egg Harbor over Route No. 14 to 
Mays Landing, county seat of Atlantic County. 
Drive on to Esterville and Oakville, passing 
the ten-mile long shell-loading plant on the 
left, now out of use, and to Corbin City, Tuck- 
ahoe, Ocean View, Cape May Court House, 
with its zoo-year-old court house, then to 
Whitesboro, with an entire colored popula- 
tion, Rio Grande, Bennet, and Cold Spring, 
with its large dirigible shed and hangar, which 
is a naval base for the United States Navy. 
Cross Schellinger's Landing into Cape May 
City, a clean residential town with large 
hotels and a fine bathing beach, the home 
chiefly of retired sea captains. Continue 
straight ahead over Sunset Boulevard to Cape 
May Point, with its lighthouse, life-saving sta- 
tion, cottages, and little activity. Cape May 
City is 50 miles from Egg Harbor. 



248 



NEW JERSEY 




COMMUNITY LIFE AND RECREATION 



Trip 6. Leave Atlantic City over Absecon 
Boulevard to Absecon, 7 miles, where the first 
successful life-saving test was made in 1847. 
It resulted in the establishment of the United 
States Life Saving Service. Turn right over 
Route No. 4 and over the shore road to the 
Sea View Golf Club, the State's finest, and on to 
Ocean ville, n miles. Cross Mullica River to 
New Gretna, zi miles, and Tuckerton, 2.8 miles, 
with its gigantic Marconi Wireless Station that 
was seized from the Germans during the War; 
continue on to Parkertown and Manshawken, 
35 miles. A road to the right leads to Beach 
Haven, Ship Bottom, and the famed Barnegat 
Light at Barnegat City, now replaced by a 
lightship iz miles at sea. 

A visit to old Barnegat Light will show that 
this lighthouse is a cylindrical tower 168 feet 
high, with a foundation extending 60 feet into 
the ground. It was built in 1856, and the light 
had never been out, except for a short period 
during the Civil War, until it was replaced by 
the lightship. It was a kerosene flash of 
168,000 candlepower, and usually could be 
seen 2.0 miles out to sea. In very clear weather 
the light was visible 40 miles. 

The walls are nine feet thick at the bottom 
and three feet at the top. There are 300 steps to 
climb. The top housed a set of prisms in the 
shape of a bell, iz feet high and 10 feet wide. 
A passageway around the top affords excellent 
views. This whole section is known the world 
over as a fishing ground and hunting area. 
Barnegat Bay is 50 miles long and 10 miles wide 
in its narrow places. From Manshawken go on 
to Toms River, 55 miles. 

Continue over Route No. 4 to Lakewood, 
Point Pleasant, Asbury Park, Long Branch, 
Keyport, Perth Amboy, and Rahway 116.5 
miles from Absecon. This is an enjoyable ride 
up the famous Jersey ocean shore line and over 
excellent pavements its entire length. 

Trip 7. From Newark, go south over Fre- 
linghuysen Avenue to Elizabeth, 5 miles. Turn 
right on Westfield Avenue one block, then 
fight on Morris Avenue and follow to Union 
and Springfield, iz miles; the latter famous as 
a Revolutionary skirmish ground. Turn left 
on Mountain Avenue to Mountainside and 
Scotch Plains, 17 miles, and on to North Plain- 



field, 2.0 miles. Here turn left one short block, 
then right on Green Brook Road over an inside 
well-paved road along Green Brook stream to 
Bound Brook, z8 miles. 

At the end of town, turn right on Chimney 
Rock Road and through a gorge in the Watch- 
ung Mountains that is unsurpassed for the 
beauty of its setting, 30 miles. One crosses and 
recrosses the brook on quaint bridges six times, 
noting the immense quarries with every grade 
of stone from screenings to cobble stones, large 
crushers, and the high, scarred mountainside 
where the rock has been blasted away. There 
are waterfalls to the right and left, and fishing 
and swimming holes all bowered over with 
heavy foliage. Emerging into Washington Val- 
ley one is surrounded with orchards of all kinds 
and fields covered with wild flowers of every 
color. 

Continue into Martins ville, 32. miles, and 
turn right to Warren ville and Watchung, 38 
miles. Turn left on Stirling Road, passing 
through pleasant towns to Brantwood and the 
Spring Valley service station, 54 miles. Turn 
right on South Orange Avenue over the Orange 
Mountains, and left on Wyoming Avenue to 
West Orange, 60 miles. Here turn right, down 
the mountain to Valley Road, next left, then 
right on Park Avenue through East Orange to 
Newark 67 miles. 

Trip 8. From Rahway turn south over 
Route No. 4 to Woodbridge and Perth Amboy, 
5 miles. Cross the four-million-dollar Victory 
Bridge to South Amboy and Keyport, 13 miles. 
Continue over Route No. 4 to Centerville and 
Cherry Tree Corner, 17 miles. Here turn left 
on good concrete pavement to New Monmouth, 
and Atlantic Highlands, Z3 miles. Drive left on 
Main Street and right on Ocean Boulevard or 
Sky Line Drive, which skirts the very edge of 
the Highlands 300 feet above the water, with 
a view of famous Sandy Hook, with Long 
Island in the distance. 

Follow over this splendid drive to Highland 
Beach, z6 miles; cross the Shrewsbury River 
and turn right for an ocean-shore drive to As- 
bury Park. In Asbury Park turn right on Corlies 
Avenue or Route No. 7, and follow to Hamilton 
and Freehold, where the battle of Monmouth 
was fought and many interesting relics of the 



i 5 o 



NEW JERSEY 



Revolutionary War are to be seen. Freehold is 
63 miles. Turn right at the Court House here 
and follow over a good road to Marlboro, and 
Matawan 74 miles. Turn left to Browntown, 
then right on a narrow gravel road to Rose's 
Corner, 82. miles. Turn right to Route No. 4, 
South Amboy, and continue left over the bridge 
to Perth Amboy and Rahway 86 miles. 

Trip 9. From Jersey City follow north over 
Hudson County Boulevard to Union City and 
Hudson Heights, 6 miles. Bear left on Daily- 
town Road to Fairview and right on Grand 
Avenue to Ridgefield and Leonia, 9 miles. Con- 
tinue through Englewood, Tenafly, Cresskill, 
over Piermont Road to Closter and Norwood, 
and through Rockleigh to Tappan, zz miles. 
In Tappan may be seen the original prison in 
which Major Andre was kept before his execu- 
tion on the hill nearby. 

Bear right along the brook and turn right on 
New York Highway to New Jersey Route No. 
1 8 north, following along the outermost edge 
of the Palisades, which commands a wonderful 
view of the Hudson River. The road is 500 feet 
above the water edge in places, and it is a per- 
pendicular drop to the river. Follow along to 
Alpine, zy miles, and turn sharply on the left 
for a ride on the celebrated Henry Hudson 
Drive, winding and dipping along the river on 
a narrow, tree-covered roadway with sights of 
interest all along the way. 

At Englewood Ferry, 3Z miles, turn right 
and climb to Mountain Top, turn left on Hud- 
son Terrace Boulevard for another distance 
along the top of the Palisades, and into Fort 
Lee, where can be seen the activity connected 



with the building of the new Hudson River 
Bridge 35 miles. Continue along Palisades 
Road to Cliffside and over Hudson Boulevard 
to Weehawken via Palisade Avenue from Union 
City 48 miles. 

Trip 10. From Trenton, turn west along the 
Delaware River on River Road to Scudder's 
Falls and Washington's Crossing, eight miles. 
Here a State Park commemorates the place at 
which Washington crossed the Delaware River. 
The McConkey House, at which he stopped, 
and other reminders of that event are also found 
here. 

Continue along the river to Titusville, nine 
miles. Pass the Mercer County Work Farm and 
into Lambertville, with its immense mills, 15 
miles. Turn right in Lambertville and follow 
the county road to Ringoes, zi miles. Turn 
right on the new concrete road to Flemington, 
county seat of Hunterdon County, zy miles. 
Follow through town, bear right along Raritan 
River to Dort Mills and on to Pleasant Run and 
Whitehouse, 37 miles. Here turn right on State 
Route No. 9 to North Branch and Somerville, 
county seat of Somerset County, with its 
lovely white marble court house, 45 miles. 

Turn right on Bridge Street over Route No. 
1 6, cross the Raritan River, pass the gorgeous 
Duke estate on the right, and through a fine, 
rolling country to Belle Mead, 53 miles, on to 
Princeton with its famous university and his- 
toric battleground, commemorated by one of 
the most pretentious monuments in the world, 
6 1 miles. At the monument turn right on Route 
No. 1 6 to Lawrenceville, with its celebrated 
preparatory school, and to Trenton 71 miles. 



UPLANDS AND LAKES 



THE nature lover does not have to search 
long and far in New Jersey for something 
to interest him. He finds it wherever he 
may be, on bleak moors, or sand dunes; on cool 
mountain tops, or in sunny valleys; by wind- 
rippled lakes and swift-moving streams, or on 
colorful plains and lovely uplands. 

There are those who like to know the moods 
of nature. There are hikers who prefer the un- 
frequented paths. There are people whosehobby 



it is to fish and hunt. For these and for all those 
who have any interest in the outdoors, New 
Jersey is a treasure-land and an incitement. 

This State is not the unspoiled wilderness of 
the day when the Indians of the Lenni-Lenape 
nation, roaming alone in its 4,500,000 forested," 
water-indented and ribboned acres, were the 
sole guardians of its many varieties of big game 
and of the many species of fish; nor of the later 
day when early Dutch settlers, coming up the 



COMMUNITY LIFE AND RECREATION 



2.51 




2-5 2- 



NEW JERSEY 



Raritan River, and the Quakers, exploring 
along the Delaware, saw herds of elk feeding 
contentedly along the banks. But in spite of 
the smokestacks of its many industries, its 
large cities and a great population, it still has 
open spaces, lakes, and uplands. 

If the pounding New Jersey coast, with its 
fantastic sand dunes not unlike those of Cape 
Cod, does not appeal, the hills and the lake 
section of northern New Jersey may satisfy. 

Perhaps one has a fond memory of Maine and 
New Hampshire, where the mountains are 
high, their sides clothed with the dark green 
growth of pines. In Sussex, Morris, Warren, 
and Bergen counties, one comes upon much of 
this same scenery. The hills may not be so 
high, but they are there, steep and rugged; and 
there too are the eternal pines and the sap- 
bearing maples still untouched by the axe. The 
lakes are numerous and just as beautiful, only 
a few miles separating such expanses of water 
as Budd's Lake, Lake Hopatcong, Green Pond, 
Culver Lake, Swartswood, Greenwood Lake 
and others. 

The Kittatinny Valley in Sussex and Warren 
counties is not unlike the much more advertised 
Berkshires; and the Kittatinny Range, that 
solemn, glorified boundary guardian, may be 
compared with the ranges of Massachusetts and 
Vermont. Eye-filling vistas are everywhere, 
whether one visits the Stokes State Forest, 
High Point Park, the highest spot in the State, 
or the magnificent Delaware Water Gap. 
Throughout the northern tier there is beauty 
aplenty, because the hand of civilization and 
progress, difficult to stay, is only faintly evi- 
dent. Many go only to see, but remain to love 
and enjoy. 

Where within the easy reach of a few hours' 
drive from the city can an automobile party go 
and get the most for their time and money of 
exactly what they need and want ? Surely it is 
in the open country with its green fields, run- 
ning streams and bright lakes that wind and 
nestle among the hills and mountain heights. 

In no direction from the great metropolis can 
one within so short a distance break free from 
the teeming life of multitudinous humanity as 
he can by simply taking a run into Sussex 
County, where, as in Old England, the well-fed 



cows and oxen while away the dreamy hours 
chewing their cuds in absolute contentment. 

Sussex boasts 40 lakes. The beautiful Lake 
Hopatcong lies largely in this county. It is the 
land of opportunity for boating, bathing, hunt- 
ing, fishing, and all outdoor sports. 

"Hopatcong" is Indian for "Honey Waters 
of Many Coves." With its indented and irregu- 
lar outline it has a shore line of over 40 miles. 
Although but nine miles long and from one to 
two miles wide, it has as much shore front as a 
round lake 30 times as large that is to say, a 
lake having 12.8 square miles of surface. At an 
elevation of 908 feet above the sea level, it is 
the highest navigable lake within 350 miles of 
New York City. It is the largest in New Jersey; 
Greenwood Lake is next. The principal seacoast 
resorts are the only spots that surpass them in 
popularity with summer visitors. 

Hiking also has its joys, as well as has 
motoring. The details of the uplands and the 
lakes may be seen at their best by those who 
leave the car-infested highways and seek them 
out on foot. There is no mountain in New Jersey 
taller than zooo feet, but the high ridges of the 
State are not without interest. A climb up 
Kakeout Mountain near Butler will be rewarded 
by the wide pastoral panorama it commands 
on a clear day. From Wyanokie, high point 
near Midvale, one can get a wonderful view of 
the huge Wanaque dam and its mountains, val- 
leys, and lakes for miles and miles. 

One old-established New Jersey club the 
Paterson Rambling Club conducts a different 
hike every Sunday in the year, rain or shine, 
hail or snow. Few of the trips are accessible to 
the automobile, yet never more than a few 
miles from the nearest railway station or bus 
route. Other active New Jersey walking clubs 
are the Yosians, Newark branch, and the Union 
City Ramblers. 

It is a tribute to her rugged countryside that 
the New York City clubs conduct most of their 
explorations across the Hudson in incompar- 
able New Jersey. 

Not all of the lakes are in the hill country. 
Over the southern sandy farm country the land- 
scape is dotted with them. Here around the 
larger towns, parks enhance their natural set- 



COMMUNITY LIFE AND RECREATION 



2-53 







2-54 



NEW JERSEY 



ting, and hidden back in the woodlands are 
sheets of water that are the rendezvous of hunt- 



ers and fishermen. Secluded camps of city folks 
are along their shores. 



PUBLIC PRESS 



NEWSPAPERS did not make their mark in 
New Jersey in the beginning as in 
many of the old states. Situated as she 
was midway between the two most powerful 
presses in the country, at New York and at 
Philadelphia, the people of New Jersey were 
in excellent position to enjoy the news facilities 
of those two cities. In such excellent position 
were they, in fact, that for many years journal- 
ism made slow progress in the strip of land 
between the Hudson and the Delaware rivers. 

The first newspaper in New Jersey was born 
of the American Revolution, in response to a 
desire of patriots for "news." During the war 
the New York and Philadelphia newspapers, 
censored, suppressed, and frequently forced by 
the enemy to shut up shop, were unable to 
"cover "New Jersey. The State therefore found 
itself compelled to print its own news or go 
without. New Jersey newspapermen rose to the 
occasion. After the excitement was over the 
journals of New York and Philadelphia were 
once more found in the taverns of New Jersey. 

During the World War ' the newspapers of 
New York and Philadelphia were again unable 
to "cover" New Jersey. Flooded with general 
news, world news, and war news, local New* 
Jersey items became a negligible quantity. This 
time New Jersey newspapermen rose to the 
occasion with permanent gain. And the press 
of the State emerged self-confident, self-sup- 
porting and practically self-sufficient. 

During the last decade newspapers have 
made their mark in New Jersey. The develop- 
ment of an aggressive, progressive press has 
eliminated the metropolitan competition prob- 
lem. In liberality of news gathering, fearless 
editorial criticism, and typographic excel- 
lence, the journals of this State are the equals 
of any publications in the country. 

While it has become increasingly difficult 
for New York and Philadelphia to cover New 
Jersey accurately and intelligently, it has be- 
come increasingly easy for New Jersey to cover 



New York and Philadelphia, as well as world 
affairs, accurately and intelligently. This abil- 
ity to give their readers general and world news 
in a highly satisfactory manner, plus local 
news, has made possible the complete domina- 
tion of New Jersey newspapers in the home 
field. 

The official circulation reports of the Audit 
Bureau of Circulations tell a remarkable story 
of progress, all the more remarkable because 
editors in the state have not thought enough 
about it to claim it as an achievement, but have 
simply gone quietly ahead for further gains. 
Circulations of New Jersey newspapers in 
every section of the State show a steady and 
substantial gain since 1918, while circulations 
of the metropolitan newspapers in the same 
New Jersey areas and over the same period of 
time show only negligible increases, and in 
many instances decreases in circulations. 

Comparative circulation trends between the 
metropolitan sheets and the local newspapers 
are clearly illustrated in Newark, across the 
Hudson River from New York; in Camden, 
across the Delaware from Philadelphia, and in 
Trenton, midway between and crossed by both 
New York and Philadelphia newspaper rims. 
In these representative areas the problem of 
"foreign" competition has ceased to be a prob- 
lem. 

Metropolitan dailies may enter the state, and 
do, but they cannot compete in areas where the 
home town paper holds sway. And where 
there is a good home town paper, it does hold 
sway. Geographic circumstance has made New 
Jersey the homeland of thousands of men and 
women who work in New York and Philadel- 
phia. But the hold of the metropolitan news- 
paper on the commuter is no greater than the 
hold of the metropolis itself upon him. 

National advertisers have found it increas- 
ingly profitable to capitalize the good will 
which the home town paper enjoys with New 
Jersey residents. The local paper offers what 



COMMUNITY LIFE AND RECREATION 




NEW JERSEY 



advertising agents define as "advertising in- 
surance." New Jersey people want New Jersey 
newspapers, and it is this desire that New 
Jersey publishers have been quick to capitalize. 

During the past year more than 500 investi- 
gations were completed by New Jersey publica- 
tions in the interests of national advertising. 
Big merchandising campaigns cannot be put 
over today in New Jersey through the mediums 
of New York and Philadelphia papers, because 
local dealers are not interested in New York 
and Philadelphia papers. The advertiser of 
necessity must make his local dealer contact 
through the local press. 

As with the dailies, so with the weeklies. 
New Jersey weeklies are big papers in small 
towns and rank among the leading weeklies 
in the country. Essential factors in the life of 
their communities, they print the local news, 
direct public opinion, and mirror neighbor- 
hood life and living in their editorial pages. 
They give their readers something they can 
get in no other paper, so that regardless of how 
many other papers they may buy, they buy the 
local newspaper for that "something." 

As New Jersey became metropolitanized, in- 
dustrialized, and prosperous, newspapermen 
made the most of their opportunities. Their 
policy may be defined as one of progressive con- 
servatism. Circulation problems involve quality 
as well as quantity. News reports are com- 
plete, accurate, clean. Essentially home news- 
papers, they do not give extended space to 
crime and scandal, assuming that the local 
residents will naturally exclude that kind of a 
newspaper from their homes. 

The New Jersey Press Association, one of the 
most enterprising and active in the country, 
includes almost every newspaper in the State. 
Founded in 1857, it has rendered an important 
service in the development of the press in New 
Jersey, by fostering an esprit de corps among 
editors and publishers, and by zealously pro- 
tecting the interests of the newspaper profes- 
sion through its committees on libel, legisla- 
tion, and advertising. From the beginning its 
meetings were largely attended. 

In the early days it was no uncommon sight 
to see 50 or 75 editors, in response to notice, 
suddenly appear and fill the State legislative 



halls, each looking after his own local repre- 
sentative, exerting influence for what they 
deemed to be "the protection of the rights and 
interests of the people of the State. ' ' According 
to John Nancock, one of the early secretaries 
of the Press Association, "many an intractable 
legislator disappeared out of sight and never 
again was seen in public office at Trenton." 
The vigilance and cooperation of the commit- 
tees is no less lively today. The Press Associa- 
tion has in a real sense lived up to its constitu- 
tion: "To promote the mutual friendship of its 
members and the best interests of the profes- 
sion." 

Newspaper statistics for 19x7 record 3x4 
newspapers in New Jersey, 4z dailies and 2.81 
weeklies, of which 2.05 are members of the 
Press Association. In 191.2. the association pro- 
posed a summer conference to be held under 
its auspices for the advancement of the best 
interests of newspapers and newspapermen in 
the State, by a friendly interchange of opinion 
among themselves and prominent journalists 
of other states. 

These meetings were the genesis of the New 
Jersey "Newspaper Institute," which has be- 
come a permanent feature of the program of 
activities carried on by the Press Association. 
An annual competitive exhibition of the jour- 
nals of the State under the institute auspices 
has been a factor of considerable consequence 
in the production of first-class newspapers. 
Awards are discussed at length, not from an 
academic or theoretical viewpoint, but from 
the basis of practical experience and for prac- 
tical purposes. 

Professor Bristow Adams, of Cornell Uni- 
versity, after serving for five years as judge in 
the institute competitions, noted "an even ex- 
cellence of newspapers throughout the state, 
both as regarded dailies and rural weeklies, a 
high professional consciousness, and a keen 
sense of community responsibility." 

The establishment of the Department of 
Journalism at Rutgers University was perhaps 
the most important contribution of the Press 
Association to journalistic advancement. Until 
a few years ago there was no instruction in the 
state in professional journalism. In 1914 mem- 
bers of the association decided that there ought 



COMMUNITY LIFE AND RECREATION 



2-57 







NEW JERSEY 



to be such instruction. They came to an agree- 
ment with the Rutgers authorities, discussed 
the project with members of the Pulitzer 
School of Journalism at Columbia University 
and others, and then requested the State Legis- 
lature to make an appropriation for instruction 
in newspaper-making in New Jersey. 

The result of their efforts was a $z,ooo appro- 
priation, with which a beginning was made. 
The new chair of journalism was organized by 
Professor Allan Sinclair Will, associate profes- 
sor in the Pulitzer School, who was appointed 
first director of the new department at Rutgers. 

So successful was the venture, both from the 
point of view of editors in the state and the 
State itself, that the following year the fund 
was increased to $8,000, and in 192.710 $11,000. 
The status of instruction was raised then from 
an elective for juniors and seniors to that of a 
regular department of the university, with a 
full four-year course. 

The department was founded on three dom- 
inant principles employment of instructors 
who had had not less than five years' versatile 
experience on newspapers of high standing, 
placement of students after graduation, and 
direct cooperation with the organized news- 
paper profession in the state. 

The Press Association maintains a commit- 
tee on relations which gives its whole-hearted 
and effective co-operation in the conduct of the 
department and everything relating to it. The 
Rutgers Department of Journalism is the only 
newspaperman's school in the country con- 
ducted under the direct auspices and with the 
active co-operation of newspapermen. At the 
end of each academic year a written report is 
drafted by the director for confidential circula- 
tion among members of the Press Association, 
containing what may be called a newspaper 



diagnosis of the graduates. In the wake of these 
reports students are graduated directly into the 
newspaper mill. 

Editors in the state want the college-bred 
man; they want the investigating quality of 
mind, the tenacity of memory, and the broad- 
mindedness which are the marks of the college- 
bred man. They are anxious to employ corre- 
spondents and reporters who can render the 
intelligent service that their readers demand, 
and they believe that the college man has much 
in his favor for rendering this service. 

Many factors of importance have contributed 
to the building up of a powerful and prosper- 
ous press in the state. Coordination of interests 
and the assimilation of lesser journals by lead- 
ing papers in various areas during recent years 
have resulted in broader news coverage and 
higher standards of service. A great many mod- 
ern newspaper plants have been built, with 
every convenience for the collection and dis- 
semination of news. Others have been re- 
equipped with modern printing and circulation 
devices. In response to demand by publishers 
and the public for "all the news," the New 
Jersey bureau of the Associated Press has ex- 
panded rapidly, all the leading papers using 
full A. P. service. 

New Jersey newspaper success is the kind of 
success not easily assailable. The courage, in- 
tegrity, and quality-mindedness of newspaper- 
men in the state have built up the prestige of 
their journals and the confidence of their read- 
ers. In the last analysis progress has been the 
result simply of making good newspapers. The 
success of New Jersey newspapers has been 
founded entirely upon their merit as sources of 
news, and because of this fact they have suc- 
ceeded in overcoming New York and Philadel- 
phia competition. 



COMMUNITY LIFE AND RECREATION 



2-59 




2.60 



NEW JERSEY 



THEATERS 



THE motion picture industry, which is 
today one of the largest in America, was 
cradled in New Jersey. If one looks back 
30 years, he will realize that it was this State 
which gave the cinema an impetus that has 
carried the industry to its present place. Me- 
chanically, inventively, and productively, New 
Jersey has contributed much to the making of 
the motion picture. 

The State's part in the development of the 
industry can be tied in with the life of Thomas 
A. Edison, the accomplishments of the Rev. 
Hannibal Goodwin, and the early films pro- 
duced at Coytesville, Fort Lee, and West 
Orange. 

It was in the year 1886 that Edison, working 
then in his Newark laboratory, determined 
that he would like to give the phonograph, 
which he had just devised, "eyes as well as 
ears." He dallied with the idea of a machine 
that recorded and transmitted not only sound 
but sight. 

With the assistance of William Kennedy 
Laurie Dickson, a young Englishman, Edison 
went to work on the reproduction of pictures 
on a cylinder. The solution of "roller photog- 
raphy" by George Eastman, of kodak fame, 
resulted in the Edison Kinetoscdpe, forerunner 
of the modern motion-picture camera. 

But another chapter of the motion picture 
was being written in Newark. The studio of 
John McDougal in Newark, a photographer and 
painter of miniatures, was the rendezvous for 
many creative minds, among them the Rev. 
Hannibal Goodwin. The latter had a flair for 
amateur chemistry, and in the attic of the 
rectory still standing in Newark, one may see 
the acid stains on the walls of his workshop. 
Goodwin began to tinker with a new zinc- 
etching process of making printing plates. This 
led him into etching photography and resulted 
in his invention of a film base to take the place 
of glass plates in the camera. The film was not 
celluloid, but a related nitrocellulose com- 
pound. 

The Edison Kinetoscope, a peep-show ma- 



chine, created a demand for films, resulting in 
the building of a studio in West Orange for the 
making of motion pictures. This was in Febru- 
ary, 1893. It was the world's first motion-pic- 
ture studio, and was swung bridge fashion from 
a pivot post, so as to permit the swinging stage 
to follow the light of the sun. The sincere and 
whole-hearted photography of that primal day 
demanded maximum contrast. The performer 
stood in the full glare of the little sunlit stage 
against a black background. The resulting pic- 
ture was hard and sharply defined. 

The peep-show business, however, began to 
drag, and the owners were forced to look about 
for a machine that would project the "enter- 
tainment" on a screen. Then came the Vita- 
scope, which was an improvement on the Kine- 
toscope. Nickelodeons mushroomed all over 
the country. People who owned empty lots 
and had a few hundred dollars put up the 
"open air" places that are well remembered by 
everyone who can go back to the first decade 
of the current century. The movies were now 
on their way toward becoming an industry. 

Edwin S. Porter, an employee of Edison, de- 
termined to produce a "super-picture" around 
several dramatic situations. It was "The Great 
Train Robbery." Porter directed the simple 
story of a hold-up, a pursuit, a dance-hall epi- 
sode and a final escape. He gathered his players 
and went to work. The first move was to secure 
the loan of a train from the Lackawanna Rail- 
road. The company went out "on location" 
near Paterson. The bridge over the Passaic 
River was used for a scene where a man was 
supposed to be tossed from the moving train. 
The "wild-riding scenes" on horseback were 
made in Essex County Park. 

As a result of this crude but earnest effort, 
"The Great Train Robbery," the first "super- 
special," was made in New Jersey. The picture 
also served to introduce to early amusement 
patrons G. M. Anderson, who later carried the 
Westerns, as frontier pictures were called, to a 
high-water mark of the period under the name 
of "Broncho Billy." 



COMMUNITY LIFE AND RECREATION 



2.61 



MAIN STAIRWAY, STANLEY THEATER JERSEY CITY 







MEZZANINE, LATEST AND LARGEST OF THE GREAT STANLEY THEATERS JERSEY CITY 



NEW JERSEY 



The ' 'movies" were at last under way. Better 
and longer dramatic productions came quickly 
when new mechanical contrivances perfected 
the recording and projecting cameras. Stories 
were soon filmed with a semblance of continuity 
and directors began to pay attention to a rhyth- 
mical, intelligent and dramatic unfolding of 
the plot. Greater and greater became the in- 
fluence of the films on the stage and many 
legitimate "names" were conscripted for cin- 
ema work. 

Developments in the second decade of the 
century caused imaginative showmen to start 
dreaming of vast motion-picture temples. 
Meanwhile a foreseeing lover of the screen was 
already planning the erection of a mammoth 
theater. He was Jacob Fabian, of Paterson, who 



built the Regent Theater, a Z5oo-seat playhouse 
to be devoted exclusively to motion pictures. 
This theater was opened in August, 1914. 
Shortly afterward came the Branford Theater 
at Newark, representing an investment of 
$z,ooo,ooo, and this was followed by the beau- 
tiful Mosque Theater in the same city. 

Mr. Fabian then helped organize First Na- 
tional Pictures, Inc., one of the largest produc- 
ing firms. A little later, he commenced the con- 
struction of an impressive playhouse in Jersey 
City, the largest municipality in Hudson 
County, and one of the most important in the 
State. The outcome of this project was the 
Stanley Theater, a 5ooo-seat motion-picture 
house of great architectural beauty, that still 
ranks first in size among Jersey playhouses. 




STATE NURSERY FOR FOREST SEEDLINGS WHICH ARE DISTRIBUTED TO LAND OWNERS FOR 

REFORESTATION 
Located in Washington Crossing Park, near Trenton 



CHAPTER X 

Insurance and Finance 

INSURANCE 



LIFE INSURANCE 

THE Prudential Insurance Company of 
America was formed primarily to provide 
for the insurance needs of the industrial 
classes, although after the first few years, 
regular ordinary policies were also issued. The 
origin of industrial insurance may be traced to 
the burial clubs and friendly societies of the 
wage-earners in England. 

The English Prudential began to issue weekly 
premium policies in 1854. Years later, Elizur 
Wright, the distinguished insurance commis- 
sioner of Massachusetts, in discussing the Brit- 
ish companies called attention to the success 
of the Prudential, but few believed that a 
similar institution could be developed in this 
country. The late John F. Dryden became con- 
vinced, however, that this system could be 
adapted to the requirements of the American 
public. 

Conditions then were unfavorable to any 
new insurance enterprise. The panic of 1873 
had sent banks, savings institutions, and com- 
mercial houses tottering to disaster; more than 
half the life-insurance companies had failed 
or gone out of business; the number of policy- 
holders had been very largely reduced; dis- 
trust was the rule, and confidence the excep- 
tion; capital was timid, and laboring men 
suffered from conditions which no one seemed 
able to remedy. A broad faith in the instincts 
and hopes of the wage-earning classes and a 
prophetic vision of what might be achieved 
were therefore necessary to the introduction 
of industrial insurance to America. 

On February 18, 1875, "The Widows' and 
Orphans' Friendly Society," which had been 
chartered in New Jersey two or three years 
earlier, was acquired and reorganized as "The 



Prudential Friendly Society," actual organiza- 
tion being effected October 13, 1875. The title 
was changed in 1877 to "The Prudential In- 
surance Company of America." 

At the close of 1879 t ^ le 2 -^ companies trans- 
acting ordinary business in the State, some of 
which were over 30 years old, had a total of 
only 17,318 policies in force in New Jersey. 
The newly launched Prudential (its first policy 
being issued November 10, 1875) was weak 
financially, and had to struggle hard to over- 
come a variety of adverse factors which nearly 
terminated its existence. Eventually, however, 
the efforts of the management were successful 
and the company attained a measure of sta- 
bility. The partial solution of a great social 
problem was slowly emerging from the chacs 
following 1873. 

The creation of an organization to sell an 
idea to people who were striving for the bare 
necessities of life was difficult. In all the years 
before, life insurance had been offered in 
amounts of $1,000 or more with premiums 
payable quarterly, semi-annually, or annually, 
and these conditions practically debarred the 
wage-earners of that period from the benefits 
of protection. 

The distinctive features of industrial in- 
surance were, first, the adoption of the weekly 
premium, three cents, five cents or multiples 
thereof, as the unit of value; second, the ad- 
justment of the amount of insurance to this 
premium, which necessarily meant an irregular 
sum instead of the even amounts for which 
ordinary policies were issued; third, the col- 
lection of the premium at the homes of the 
insured by the agents of the company; fourth, 
the fact that every member of the family from 
infancy to old age could be insured. The last 
was revolutionary but vital. The chief need 



163 



2.64 



NEW JERSEY 







JyUMyiiDI 

H ill liiiiitif ~ 



iiiiin jin 

ui; in li) III III HI III II II III III Hi ;: in an" 

B IB 1 1 in i HI H i in in HI i 

""-1B (1 





GIBRALTAR BUILDING 

One of the Prudential Insurance Company buildings in Newark. Cost $7,000,000. It is the latest in the group of 
Prudential buildings which are a distinctive feature in the business center of Newark. It covers an entire block, is 14 
stories high and houses several thousand employees. 



INSURANCE AND FINANCE 



was to provide a burial fund, since the family 
seldom had more than the weekly income, 
which was usually spent almost as soon as 
received. Thus the regular payment of claims 
very promptly after death, when money was 
so urgently needed, created confidence. 

The Prudential, while organized and con- 
tinued as a stock company until 1915, distrib- 
uted benefits to policyholders largely in excess 
of contract obligations, as it became apparent 
by actual experience that the rates warranted 
such action. In the first 10 years these conces- 
sions amounted to about $630,000,000. The 
paramount interest of policyholders led to the 
mutualization of the company and to the 
conduct of the business on a basis of net cost 
to policyholders for all forms of life insurance. 
A large proportion of industrial business is 
issued without medical examination, and the 
company's mortality experience has been in- 
creasingly favorable. 

An extensive health service has been de- 
veloped in the Prudential laboratory, and dur- 
ing 19x7 over 90,000 examinations were made. 
Educational health pamphlets are circulated, 
and co-operation also is extended to national 
health agencies. 

In dealing with the company's investments 
it is believed that one of the best methods of 
aiding the community at large is to facilitate 
individual home ownership and to assist in 
providing additional housing accommodations. 
More than $864,000,000 is invested in farm and 
city mortgage loans, and in spite of the fact 
that many are for substantial amounts, the 
average loan at the close of 192.7 was only 
about $6,700. 

Of late years much attention has been de- 
voted to group insurance, which renders it 
possible for large employers to furnish needed 
protection to their employees. 

As of December 31,^917, when the popula- 
tion of New Jersey was estimated to be slightly 
under 3,600,000, the Prudential had in force 
in the State, 3,078,917 policies covering over 
$610,000,000 of industrial insurance, and over 
$467,000,000 of ordinary insurance, or a total 
of $1,077,000,000. This protection covered 
approximately 1,051,000 individual lives, or 
57 per cent of the population. 



At the close of 1917, the company had over 
9,000 employees. Mortgage loan investments 
amounted to more than $59,600,000. Taxes 
and license fees, state and local, were $4,- 
085,000, and claims paid during the year were 
$9,313,000. 

In addition, the Prudential had the largest 
amount of industrial insurance in force of 
any company in the world. With all forms of 
insurance combined, it ranked second. On 
that date its policies in force were: Industrial, 
18,990,165, for the amount of $6,190,095,455, 
insuring approximately 19,000,000 lives; or- 
dinary, 3,031,681, for $5,470,414,616, insuring 
approximately 1,000,000 lives; a total of 31,- 
011,947, for $11,660,510,071, insuring approxi- 
mately 11,000,000 lives. It had assets of $i,- 
789,166,619.86 and its payments to policy- 
holders in 1917 were $195,039,455.15. In addi- 
tion to these payments there was credited in 
dividends to policyholders, both industrial and 
ordinary, $63,007,645.34. All taxes paid in 
1917 were $10,949,606.78. In addition to the 
home office employees, there were 16,918 field 
employees. 

During the World War the Prudential re- 
sponded in every way possible to the call for 
patriotic service. The company itself purchased 
over $95,000,000 in various war loans issued 
by the United States and Canadian govern- 
ments, and subscriptions made or secured by 
employees aggregated nearly $48,000,000. More 
important than all else was the fact that 1,719 
representatives of the company, about ten per 
cent of its force at that time, were in the war 
in different branches of service. Of this num- 
ber 50 were either killed in action or died. 
As a tribute to these loyal citizens who gave 
their lives, the company erected a memorial 
tablet over which American and Canadian 
flags are continuously draped. 

When the Mutual Benefit Life Insurance 
Company was founded in 1845, ^ was decided 
that the company was not to be operated for 
the financial benefit of its members, and the 
company's funds were to be owned entirely 
by the policyholders, who were to elect the 
directors. Before the doors were opened there 
were applications for $400,000 of life insurance. 
By the end of 1845, or within nine months 



2.66 



NEW JERSEY 




HOME OF THE MUTUAL BENEFIT LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY NEWARK 



after it began business, it had issued nearly 
$1,500,000 insurance and had assets of over 
$55,000. The company has grown until it is 
among the leaders in strength, stability and 
size. At the end of 192.7 it had 599,704 policies 
in force for $1,108, 3 10,000. The assets were 
$481,180,62.8 and the surplus $18,797,091. 

The company confines its business to the 
simple forms of insurance. Any reasonable 
desires of the insured with respect to the 
payment of premiums or to the settlement of 
the proceeds are complied with. The proceeds 
of a policy may be paid in one sum or may be 
distributed over a number of years, or a life 
income may be provided. 

An excerpt from an advertisement of the 
company shortly after its organization stated 
that "Its funds will be applied to the furthering 
of the interests of its members." This pledge 
has been amply fulfilled. Since the organiza- 
tion and up to the end of 1917 the company 
has received $1,081,511,105 in premiums. There 
has been returned to policyholders or held for 
future payment to them a sum that exceeds 
the premiums paid by nearly $167,000,000. Of 



the total income of the company only about 
13 per cent has been required for expenses, in- 
cluding taxes. 

As rapidly as experience has proved such 
action to be wise, the Mutual Benefit has 
broadened and liberalized its policy contracts, 
this action being extended to old as well as 
new policyholders. 

The company passed through the Great War 
and the epidemic which followed, and not- 
withstanding the increase in death claims and 
the higher cost of transacting business owing 
to economic conditions, it did not increase the 
cost of insurance to its policyholders. 

The Colonial Life Insurance Company of 
America, whose home office is in Jersey City, 
has been built up upon a broad conception of 
service. The company was founded in 1897 
by a group of Jersey City merchants, bankers, 
and attorneys who desired to create an organi- 
zation to write both ordinary and industrial 
life insurance. 

Starting with offices on the second floor of 
a building at 43 Montgomery Street, Jersey 
City, the company grew so rapidly that in a 



INSURANCE AND FINANCE 



short time the entire building was required. 
Here the company remained until its quarters 
were destroyed by fire on the night of De- 
cember 13, 1916. New offices were then secured 
at Journal Square. 

The Colonial writes ordinary, intermediate, 
and industrial business, and since 1906 all of 
the policies issued have been on the non- 
participating plan. The writing of group in- 
surance was taken up in 1914. 

Through its variety of plans, insurance is 
made available for all members of the family. 
The child, as well as the adult, can secure 
protection in the industrial department, and 
the business-man finds all his requirements 
met by the ordinary policies. 

The Colonial has over 500,000 policyholders 
throughout the Eastern States. Its annual re- 
port for 1917 disclosed over $100,000,000 of 
insurance in force. 

From the start, the Colonial's success has 
been built on sound financial and actuarial 
lines. In its investments care has been taken 
to protect the interests of the company from 
every angle, its moneys being chiefly invested 



in mortgages totaling many millions of dollars. 
Its policy clauses are liberal and its payments 
prompt. 

FIRE INSURANCE 

New Jersey presents an attractive field for 
the formation and growth of insurance com- 
panies. The facilities provided, for the invest- 
ment of funds are excellent, being within a 
short distance of the New York and Philadel- 
phia financial centers. Real estate can be ac- 
quired at reasonable prices for home-office and 
agency-office purposes. Labor conditions are 
such that a clerical force can be secured with- 
out difficulty, and excellent commuting facili- 
ties provide living conditions unsurpassed. 

The first fire insurance company organized 
in New Jersey was the Newark Mutual Fire 
Assurance Company. The history of the com- 
pany may be set forth briefly as follows: 

In the early part of the Nineteenth Century 
property owners in Newark began to realize 
that fire insurance was of sound, practical 
value. A few took out policies in a New York 
or a London company. In 1807 a stable in 




HOME OF THE GLOBE INDEMNITY COMPANY-NEWARK 



2.68 



NEW JERSEY 



x . -rv- w *w mr wf *> MB i 

Iliiiiiii 

iiiiiiiii 




INSURANCE AND FINANCE 



169 



Market Street, in the rear of Newark's leading 
tavern, which stood at the northeast corner 
of Market and Broad Streets, was burned. 
The prompt payment of loss was a powerful 
object lesson, and it was driven home with 
force after each fire, for it was not long before 
another insured building was burned. 

In February, 1810, a mass-meeting was held 
"at early candle-lighting," in the Court House, 
when preliminary steps were taken to organize 
a fire insurance company among the citizens 
on a mutual plan. It was purely a public meas- 
ure, without the slightest thought of individ- 
ual gain. Its secretary was Joseph C. Horn- 
blower, then a young lawyer, who afterwards 
became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of 
New Jersey and one of its leading citizens. 
The company's business at first was carried on 
in Hornblower's office, and he handled most 
of it himself for a short time. 

The corporation is now owned by the Royal 
Insurance Company of London and has grown 
rapidly during recent years. It operates as one 
of the Royal Group in a large part of the 
United States and Canada. 

OTHER FIRE INSURANCE COMPANIES 

In 1 8x6 the New Brunswick Fire Insurance 
Company was organized with a capital of 
$50,000. Confining its operations entirely to 
New Brunswick and vicinity, it developed 
very slowly during the last three-quarters of 
a century. In 19x7, the company was reorgan- 
ized and is now operating in many states under 
the direction of the Home Insurance Company 
of New York. 

The Camden Fire Insurance Association com- 
menced business in 1841. An early history of 
this company refers to the fact that of the 13 
original directors, two were ferrymen and inn- 
keepers, one a gunsmith, one a shoemaker, 
and the fifth a sausage weaver. The company 
operated in a very conservative manner at 
first, its income for the initial year being 
$147. The records disclose that no losses were 
incurred during that year. The concern was 
changed in 1870 to a stock company, and since 
that date has increased its capital several times. 

The American Mutual Insurance Company of 
Newark was organized in 1846 by twelve of 



Newark's most substantial citizens. The com- 
pany commenced business in an office on the 
second floor of the Daily Advertiser Building 
at Broad and Market Streets. It has grown 
rapidly, and is now operating through agency 
connections both here and abroad, transacting 
a considerable volume of fire and marine busi- 
ness in foreign lands through the American 
Fire Insurance Association and the Marine 
Office of America. 

The Firemen's Mutual Insurance Company 
of Newark was organized in 1855 by Newark 
business men, a number of whom had served 
as volunteer firemen. Its beginning was small 
and its growth slow for a number of years, 
but it has become one of the great American 
companies controlling a number of small com- 
panies and operating successfully throughout 
an extensive territory. 

Prior to the Civil War nearly all of the fire 
insurance companies in New Jersey were or- 
ganized and operated as mutual companies. 
A history of one of the first companies organ- 
ized contains the following statement: 

"The original deed of settlement provided 
that the policies issued by the company should 
cover a period of five years, except on goods, 
wares, and merchandise, which might be in- 
sured for a shorter term. It also stipulated that 
every person insured should deposit, in addi- 
tion to the premium paid, a certain sum for 
every hundred dollars insured according to the 
rates and regulations. These deposits were 
available for payment of losses and expenses 
after premiums had been exhausted, but if not 
required for those purposes or such portions as 
were not thus required, were to be returned 
to the insured at the end of the policy term." 

The practice of most of the companies was 
to retain these deposits, giving to the insured 
some evidence of indebtedness in the form of 
script. Under reorganization arrangements the 
mutual companies were transformed into stock 
companies by permitting the owners of script 
to surrender their script holdings and secure 
therefor certificates of stock. 

Following the Civil War and during the 
financial depression of 1873, there were few, 
if any, fire insurance companies organized. 
When the reaction set in after the depression 



2/70 



NEW JERSEY 



of 1873, a number of such companies were 
started with rather disastrous results. Several 
of them failed and others reinsured their busi- 
ness in larger companies. 

Again from 1895 to 192.5, financial conditions 
did not warrant the development of insurance 
companies, and the result was that very few 
were organized. During the last three years a 
large number of new fire insurance organiza- 
tions have commenced operations. 

Following is a list of the fire insurance com- 
panies in New Jersey : Ajax, Newark, organized 
in January, 19x7; American, Newark, February, 
1846; Atlantic City, Atlantic City, July, i9oz; 
Camden, Camden, April, 1841; Columbia, Jer- 
sey City, March, 1901; Eagle, Newark, Feb- 
ruary, 1912.; Eastern, Atlantic City, February, 
1901; Essex, Newark, February, 19x8; Federal, 
Jersey City, March, 1901; Fidelity, Atlantic 
City, August, 1919; Firemen's, Newark, De- 
cember, 1855; Jefferson, Newark, December, 
19x7; Jersey Coast, Atlantic City, September, 
19x5; Merchants & Manufacturers, Newark, 
May, 1849; National Fire & Marine, Eliza- 
beth, August, 1865; National Guaranty, New- 
ark, August, 19x5; Newark, Newark, 1811; 
New Brunswick, New Brunswick, May, i83z; 
New Jersey Manufacturers Association Fire 
Insurance Co., Trenton, December, 1911; Pa- 
vonia, Jersey City, March, 19x8; Public, New- 
ark, February, 19x8; Seaboard, Atlantic City, 
May, 19x4; Standard, Trenton, February, 1868; 
Sussex, Newark, June, 192.8; and Universal, 
Newark, March, 19^1. 

CASUALTY 

Casualty insurance has been used in New 
Jersey in a limited way during the last 15 
years. The passage by the New Jersey Legis- 
lature of the Workmen's Compensation Act 
in 1909 gave rise to a demand for the organiza- 
tion of casualty companies. 

The International Fidelity Insurance Com- 
pany of Jersey City was one of the first to 
enter that field. It was followed some years 
later by the Commercial Casualty Insurance 
Company of Newark and the New Jersey Fidel- 
ity and Plate Glass Company of Newark, which 
latter company had been operating since 1868, 
insuring only plate glass. 



The following are the casualty insurance 
companies in New Jersey: Bankers Indemnity, 
Newark, organized in 19x6; Commercial Cas- 
ualty, Newark, 1909; Globe Indemnity, New- 
ark, 1911; Hudson Casualty, Jersey City, 19x1; 
Independent Bonding & Casualty, Newark, 
19x6; International Fidelity, Jersey City, 1904; 
Liberty Surety Bond, Trenton, 19x6; New 
Jersey Fidelity & Plate Glass, Newark, 1868; 
and Reliance Casualty, Newark, 19x6. 

TITLE 

Besides life insurance, fire insurance, and 
casualty insurance, there is title insurance and 
also the guaranteeing of principal and interest 
on mortgages. The title insurance business and 
the guarantee business are highly developed in 
New Jersey. The neighborhoods centering 
about New York and Philadelphia were prac- 
tically pioneers in title insurance and in guar- 
anteeing the payment of principal and interest 
on mortgages. Large amounts of capital are 
invested in both lines. Most of the transactions 
in mortgages and property transfers in New 
Jersey are carried on under the protection of 
title insurance. 

This form of insurance had its birth in 
Philadelphia over a third of a century ago. 
The growth of the business in the past five 
years has been marked. On January i, 1917, 
there were but 10 title companies operating 
in the State as compared with 54 at the begin- 
ning of 1918. 

The following are the title companies in 
New Jersey: Asbury Park, Asbury Park; Asso- 
ciated Bankers of the Oranges, East Orange; 
Atlantic City, Atlantic City; Atlas, Jersey 
City; Bankers, Westfield; Bloomfield of New 
Jersey, Bloomfield; Bond and Mortgage, Toms 
River; Caldwell, Caldwell; Camden, Camden; 
Central, Rutherford; Chelsea, Atlantic City; 
Citizens', Passaic; Columbus, Newark; Com- 
monwealth, Paterson; Equitable, Passaic; Fed- 
eral, Orange; Fidelity, Ridgewood; Fidelity 
Union, Newark; Franklin, Newark; Glouces- 
ter County, Woodbury; Guarantee, Passaic; 
Guaranty, Newark; Guardian, Newark; In- 
vestors', Paterson ;Irvington, Irvington; Jersey, 
Elizabeth; Land, Camden; Lawyers, Newark; 



INSURANCE AND FINANCE 



271 



Lincoln, Newark; Monmouth, Asbury Park; 
Morris and Essex, CaldweJl; Mortgage, Pater- 
son; National Commercial, Newark; Newark, 
Newark; North Jersey, Hackensack; Nutley, 
Nutley; Ocean County, Toms River; Passaic 
County, Passaic; Paterson, Paterson; Plain- 
field, Plainfield; Pompton, Pompton Lakes; 



Preferred, Westwood; Real Estate, Trenton; 
Realty, Hackensack; Security, Passaic; South 
Jersey, Atlantic City; State, Summit; Title, 
Newark; Trenton, Trenton; United Bankers, 
Paterson; United States Title of New Jersey, 
Newark; Watchung, Montclair; and the West 
Jersey at Camden. 



BANKING 



B \NKING as an economic art was little 
understood in colonial days. The first 
"bank" in Massachusetts was nothing 
but a batch of paper money. 

Banking has been described as the "hand- 
maid of commerce." Need for it arises when 
commercial operations are on a scale large 
enough to require considerable sums of capital. 

In colonial New Jersey, as in other colonies, 
uses were made, however, cf the beguiling but 
disreputable "bill of credit." In 1709 the Gov- 
ernment issued some of these bills to finance 
a military expedition of Jerseymen into Canada. 
A second issue was made in 1711, and by 17x3 
the Assembly was providing for bills to be 
issued as loans to individuals. About 1740 the 
home government in England, alarmed at the 
volume of "bills of credit" appearing in the 
colonies, endeavored to limit the issues. New 
Jersey and the other colonies were, however, 
impatient of restraint. A new "loan office" was 
provided in 1774, and the original issue of 
ioo,oco was followed by others. The con- 
sequences were the familiar ones of over-issue, 
depreciation, discontent, and disaster. 

Despite the bitter lessons of the colonial and 
revolutionary period, the old will-o'-the-wisp 
was chased again after independence was won. 
Another "loan office" issue of money was made 
in 1786.. Other forms of legal-tender paper as 
well were provide^-. By 1789 this paper had 
lost a good third of its value, and its course 
was downward. The ratification of the Federal 
Constitution luckily put a quietus on further 
issues. 

The early banking needs in New Jersey were 
satisfied after a fashion through dependence on 
institutions in New York City and Philadel- 
phia. Documents describe New Jersey as essen- 



tially agricultural down to the forties. But in 
the early part of the Nineteenth Century indus- 
trial and commercial activities had attained 
considerable significance in Trenton and New- 
ark. In 1804 banks were chartered in both these 
cities. A third institution followed in New 
Brunswick in 1807. Five years later the first 
general law was passed creating six banks. The 
War of i8iz forced suspension of specie pay- 
ments in New Jersey as elsewhere, but in the 
main these early institutions held their own. 
There appear to be no reports of failures until 
182.7. 

After the panic of 1817 New Jersey gave 
banking privileges to manufacturing and trans- 
portation companies. In 182.2. the Salem Steam 
Mill and Banking Company was incorporated, 
followed in 18x3 by the New Jersey Manu- 
facturing Company and in 18x4 by the Morris 
Canal and Banking Company. In this period 
there was a rapid increase in bank incorpora- 
tion. Ten banks were chartered from i8zz to 
18x4. The pace then slowed up, but in the 
period from 1834 to 1837 eleven new banks 
received power to operate. 

Such rapid growth could hardly be healthy. 
From 1804 to 1836, 14 banks had wound up 
their affairs. Seven of these have been chartered 
in the period from 182.2. to 182.4. Then when the 
panic of 1837 hit the country New Jersey banks 
had to follow those in New York and Phila- 
delphia in suspending specie payments. 

Taking a hint from New York's experiment 
with so-called free banking, New Jersey enacted 
in 1850 a "General Banking Act." This act per- 
mitted banks organized or operated under its 
provisions to issue circulating notes against 
adequate securities deposited with the State 
treasurer. But this measure was not the success 



272. 



NEW JERSEY 



that it was expected to be. Although by 
January, 1855, some 1.4 banks had been estab- 
lished under its provisions, only 10 remained 
in operation. 

By 1855 the Legislature was again granting 
special charters. The new charters were, how- 
ever, more drastic than those of the earlier 
years. Matters went well enough until the 
panic of 1857 descended upon the country. 
Specie payments in New York and Philadel- 
phia were suspended. New Jersey banks natu- 
rally carried balances in these centers. Indeed 
the law forced them to do so to some extent 
because it required redemption of circulation 
in these cities. Hence suspension in their re- 
serve-holding centers meant suspension also 
for the banks of New Jersey. But the State 
treasurer is authority for the assertion that the 
New Jersey institutions had come through the 
panic "generally sound." 

Things went well until the outbreak of the 
Civil War. By December, 1861, banks in 
Boston, New York, and Philadelphia had sus- 
pended specie payments. The New Jersey banks 
inevitably followed suit. They, like many 
other Northern banks, suffered heavily because 
of losses growing out of Southern business. In 
1863 the National Banking System was estab- 
lished. State bank issues were subsequently de- 
stroyed by a 10 per cent tax. 

Almost from the outset New Jersey has been 
well represented in the National System. In 
1865 a law was passed authorizing the incorpo- 
rated banks to surrender their State charters 
and to join the National System. Only nine of 
the banks having special charters failed to 
avail themselves of the privilege, while all but 
two of the banks incorporated under the general 
banking law joined the National System. 
Thenceforward the National Banking System 
developed steadily in New Jersey. There are 
about 300 national banks in the State. In 
number they represent about one-half, while 
their resources constitute about two-fifths of 
the total resources of all the banking institu- 
tions of the State. 

For several decades after the Civil War the 
State banks lost ground. By 1880, according to 
the report of the Commissioner of Banking and 
Insurance, the number dwindled to seven, 



while capital and surplus were a little over a 
million and deposits somewhat above two and 
a half million. Thereafter, however, the tide 
turned, and the number began to increase. In- 
deed in the period from 1885 to 1890 the num- 
ber jumped from 10 to 2.2.. For 15 years there- 
after the combined resources of the banks 
steadily expanded. At the end of i^io there 
were 19 State banks with something over 
$18,500,000 in resources. There are now some 
40 such institutions with $111,000,000 of as- 
sets. 

A striking development in the banking field, 
however, has been that of the trust company. 
Of the existing trust companies of the State, 
some of which represent converted State or 
National banks, only 20 were established be- 
fore 1900. At the end of that year, however, 
the statistics published by the State banking 
department show that there were in existence 
some Z9 trust companies with total resources 
of something over $57,500,000. Obviously some 
of these failed or were absorbed. But from 1900 
to the end of 19x7 the number increased to 07, 
while total assets jumped to $1,318,000,000. 

In 1875 there were 40 savings banks in New 
Jersey, where now there are 2.8. Indeed the 
number has been hovering about that level 
since 1880. From 1875 to ^80 t ^e deposits in 
savings banks shrank from almost $33,000,000 
to a little over $19,000,000, but since that time 
they have been advancing steadily until today 
they run well over $170,000,000. In 1880, ac- 
cording to official statistics, the savings banks 
paid their depositors $686,138 as interest on 
their savings, but this had grown to $i2.,z87,- 
483 in 1916. In 1880 the average deposit in New 
Jersey savings banks was $2.61.56. It has now 
more than doubled, standing at $535.55 at the 
end of 19x6. 

The savings banks standing alone, however, 
by no means indicate the total growth of sav- 
ings in New Jersey. Since the enactment of the 
McFadden Act by Congress in 19x7 National 
banks are definitely authorized to establish 
savings departments. On the other hand there 
has been a rapid growth of the building and 
loan associations which have attracted mem- 
bers by the thousands. 

Trust companies carried time deposits before 



INSURANCE AND FINANCE 



173 





2-74 



NEW JERSEY 



the State banks did. In 1907 the time deposits 
of the trust companies had already grown to 
something over $68,000,000 while their demand 
deposits stood at $57,500,000. At the end of 
19x7 their time deposits totaled $5x5^78,0:0 
and demand deposits $514,731,000. New Jersey 
National banks show an even more remarkable 
growth in their time deposits. It was not until 
the Federal Reserve Act was passed that Na- 
tional banks were authorized to accept time 
deposits as such. At the end of 1914 the demand 
deposits of New Jersey National banks totaled 
$173,670,000 while time deposits equaled 
$40,853,000. By the end of 19x7 demand de- 
posits grew to the respectable total of $367,- 
013,000, but time deposits grew even faster, 
reaching a total of $434,380,000. 

An interesting phase of the thrift movement 
in the United States has been the development 
of the school savings system. In 19x1 there were 
8 1 schools in New Jersey that had savings 
schemes in operation. These schools had an 
enrollment of 2.6,453 pupils > f which number 
15,516 were savings depositors. At the end of 
the school year, $19-5,153.91 stood to the 
credit of the children on the books. By June 30, 
19x7, there had been a growth that the fol- 
lowing figures eloquently proclaim: Number 
of schools, 553; number participating, x84,477; 
deposits, $1,593,616.50; net savings, $638,- 

374- I 5- 

Building and loan associations are not bank- 
ing institutions, but they have a relation to 
the whole field of savings and investments. 
New Jersey stands high in the list of states that 
have fostered the building and loan association. 
In total membership it is exceeded only by 
Pennsylvania and Ohio. For the last year for 
which official figures are supplied, namely, 
19x6, the total mortgage loans outstanding 
were almost $7xz,ooo,ooo. 

The organization of the Federal Reserve Sys- 
tem was the greatest step forward in American 
banking since the establishment of the National 
banking system in 1863. Through the mobiliza- 
tion of banking reserves, through the establish- 
ment of rediscount and open-market operations 
and through the organization of an efficient 
scheme of clearing and transfer under the Fed- 
eral Reserve, American banking has been made 



safer and more responsive to changing needs 
than ever before. New Jersey banking has 
naturally participated in these great achieve- 
ments and New Jersey business men have ben- 
efited by them. 

As membership in the Federal Reserve Sys- 
tem is virtually compulsory for National banks 
it follows that all New Jersey's National banks 
are members of the system. For State institu- 
tions, however, membership is voluntary, the 
decision finally resting upon each bank's con- 
ception of its private interests and of its public 
responsibilities. Nine of the 39 State banks 
have joined the Reserve System. Of the T.Q-J 
trust companies in the State at the end of 19x7, 
55 belonged to the Reserve System. Savings 
banks are not eligible for membership in the 
Reserve System. New Jersey banks eligible for 
membership in the Federal Reserve System 
have resources aggregating something over 
two and a quarter billions of dollars. The nine 
State banks, the 55 trust companies, and the 
X95 National banks of the State actually mem- 
bers of the system command between them 
$1,583,490,000, or 71 per cent of this aggregate. 

Since 1903 the bankers in New Jersey have 
banded into a helpful association known as the 
New Jersey Bankers Association. The purpose 
has been to protect the competitive interest of 
New Jersey bankers and also to insure the de- 
velopment of sound banking in the interest of 
the public. Since 1913 the association has had a 
special committee studying New Jersey agri- 
culture. The bankers as a whole have worked 
for good roads and have studied farm credit. 
The association meets periodically and is allied 
with the American Bankers Association. 

The formal educational movement of bank 
men began in 1906. This is known as the 
American' Institute of Banking. The member- 
ship of all the chapters is 2.,359, while 1,553 
students are assembled in classes. 

Banks in New Jersey are in general supervised 
by the State or by the Federal Government, ac- 
cording to the source of their charters. Members 
of the Federal Reserve System are subject to the 
supervision of the Federal Reserve authorities. 
The National banks come under the control of 
the Comptroller of the Currency. The author- 



INSURANCE AND FINANCE 



ity of the State Banking Commissioner goes so 
far that he may throw into receivership a bank 



which he finds to be insolvent or which is not 
following the regulations. 



LARGEST BANKS IN EACH CLASS 



THERE are 17 banks in the State with re- 
sources in excess of $15, 000,000. The 
two largest are the Fidelity Union 
Trust Company, in Newark, with resources 
rising $150,000,000, and the Trust Company 
of New Jersey, in Jersey City, with resources 
exceeding $86,000,000. The largest national 
bank in the State is the National Newark and 
Essex Banking Company, in Newark, with re- 
sources of more than $45,000,000. Among the 
savings banks, the Howard Savings Institution, 
in Newark, is the largest and its assets are 
close to $57,000,000. The State banks are gen- 
erally of less size, the Trenton Banking Com- 
pany leading with resources approaching 
$18,000,000. 

FIDELITY UNION TRUST COMPANY 

In May, 1887, the Fidelity Title and Deposit 
Company began business with a capital of 
$150,000. Four years later this capital was 
doubled and in 1903 it reached $1,000,000. 
During this period the company name was 
changed to Fidelity Trust Company. 

The financial needs of Newark were growing 
fast and greater demands for financing on a 
larger scale had started the consolidation of 
banking interests. The Second National Bank, 
German National Bank, and the State Banking 
Company combined in September, 1901, and 
became the Union National Bank. The Fidelity 
Trust Company and the Union National Bank 
were merged in 1910 as the Fidelity Union 
Trust Company. 

In June, 1917, the Fidelity Union Trust 
Company, through a^stock control, merged 
with six other of the most successful banking 
organizations in Newark. Today it serves more 
than 150,000 customers, a number equal to 
about one-third of the population of Newark. 
There are over 88,000 depositors in its savings 
department. The bank was one of the first to 
establish a trust department for the handling 
of estates. 



Continuity of management has played an 
important part in the growth and affairs of 
the Fidelity Union Trust Company. In addi- 
tion to its 45 officers it has 449 other employees. 
Many of the original officers were the fathers 
of the men who are now in charge. The Insti- 
tution has 19 directors. The branches are 
served by five advisory boards comprising 49 
members. The members of these boards repre- 
sent a large share of the most prominent busi- 
ness interests in the State. Uzal H. McCarter, 
president of the trust company, was one of the 
dominant figures in the effort to secure branch- 
banking for New Jersey. 

The Fidelity Union Trust Company is not 
only the largest bank in New Jersey, it is 
the 3 6th largest bank in the United States. 
It has resources in excess of $150,000,000. 

THE TRUST COMPANY OF NEW JERSEY 

At the session of the Legislature in 1913, 
General William C. Heppenheimer, the presi- 
dent of this bank, led the forces that secured 
a measure which has since permitted trust 
companies to establish branches. 

Under this act the People's Safe Deposit and 
Trust Company, the Bergen and Lafayette Trust 
Company, and the Carteret Trust Company 
were consolidated with the Trust Company of 
New Jersey. These five institutions had been 
organized prior to that time by General Hepp- 
enheimer. He was the president of each. Sub- 
sequently the Legislature permitted the removal 
of the main office from Hoboken to Jersey City. 

The company erected a 14 story office and 
bank building at Journal Square, where its 
main office is now located. It has since opened 
the People's Safe Deposit, Union City, Newark 
Avenue, and Jersey Avenue Branches. It also 
controls by stock ownership the Park Trust 
Company at Fourth Street and Park Avenue, 
in Weehawken, and the Monitor Trust Com- 
pany, at Nineteenth Street and Park Avenue, 
West New York. 



2. 7 6 



NEW JERSEY 



The combined resources of the Trust Com- 
pany of New Jersey at the date of consolida- 
tion, September 10, 1913, were $17,656,778.78. 
On June 30, 1918, they were $85,761,319.13. 
On the latter date the capital, surplus and 
undivided profits were $11,450,107.05. 

NATIONAL NEWARK & ESSEX BANKING 
COMPANY 

The National Newark and Essex Banking 
Company in Newark is the oldest bank in the 
state. It was started in accordance with an act 
of the Legislature passed February 18, 1804, 
"to erect and establish a banking and insurance 
company in the town of Newark." 

Business began with a capital of $12.5,000 
at the home of Sam Burnett on Broad Street, 
near Market, close by the present banking 
rooms. In 1859 the name was changed to the 
Newark Banking Company; in 1865 it became 
the National Newark Banking Company; in 
1901 it merged with the Newark City Bank; 
and in 1918 with the Essex County National 
Bank, when it received its present name. The 
term "banking company" was used in its name 
because banks in England at the time of its 
origin were known as banking companies. 

The company took over the Ironbound Na- 
tional Bank a short time ago and continues 
it as the "Ironbound Branch." The main 
offices are located in an imposing building at 
Broad and Clinton Streets. Throughout the 
century and a quarter of its existence, it has 
withstood all of the financial upheavals of 
the country and today it has resources of 
$45,000,000. 

HOWARD SAVINGS INSTITUTION 

The Howard Savings Institution in Newark 
was incorporated March 16, 1857 and com- 
menced business the following May in the 
office of the Newark Banking Company, then 



located at Broad and Bank Streets. In 1861 it 
purchased the building at 741 Broad Street 
and occupied it until 1883, when it moved to 
768 Broad Street its present location. 

In 1899 it erected its present commodious 
building and in 1914 completed an addition 
that doubled its banking space. In 1917 a 
Branch was opened at Bloomfield and Clifton 
Avenues. 

In 71 years deposits have increased from 
$16,180.16 to $50,089,098.60. The bank's sur- 
plus January i, 1918 was $6,560,867.81 and its 
assets were $56,650,966.41. 

THE TRENTON BANKING COMPANY 

The Trenton Banking Company, largest of 
the State banks, was founded December 3, 
1804, 18 years after the Battle of Trenton. Its 
career of service has continued over a century 
and a quarter. During all these years it has 
been known as "The White Marble Bank." 
In 1805 the old jail and courthouse property 
was purchased and remodeled for use as a bank- 
ing house. Here the bank remained until June 
n, 1919. Then the company moved to the new 
building where it is now located at State and 
Warren Streets. 

The site of the present building has a ro- 
mantic interest, for on this spot lived Abraham 
Hunt, who entertained Colonel Rahl, the Hes- 
sian commander, the night that Washington 
crossed the Delaware. In later years the old 
Hunt home was razed to make way for the 
Masonic Temple, but progress decreed that 
the Masonic Temple must follow its historical 
predecessor and now upon this location stands 
the home of the Trenton Banking Company. 

The business of the bank has increased since 
it moved to its present quarters in 1919 and 
today its deposits of $14,000,000 are more than 
double those of ten years ago. 



&*^.&8$stfzrgi* 




CHAPTER XI 



Industrial Organisation and ^Development 

GROWTH AND IMPORTANCE OF INDUSTRY 



B3ST placed of all the States of the Union 
in the things that make for prosperity 
and progress, New Jersey is recognized 
as ideally located and equipped to meet every 
requirement of modern industry. Filling the 
territory between the great financial and com- 
mercial centers of New York and Philadelphia, 
and with important cities of its own, the State 
is a natural center of industrial activity. It 
may well claim to be the hub of the country's 
busy manufacturing life. It is at the crossroads 
of commerce. 

With deep-water frontage on either side 
from which the world's commerce sets out, 
with the great railroad trunk lines crossing it 
and with others terminating at its borders, 
New Jersey is in a most favorable position 
with respect to the shipment of merchandise 
to and from every part of the continent and to 
and from every port in the world. The interior 
of the State is traversed by thousands of miles 
of steam and electric railroads and by numerous 
navigable waterways, while a network of im- 
proved highways invites the use of the motor 
truck for low-cost short hauls. 

Although of relatively small area, New 
Jersey's extensive manufactures puts it in sixth 
position among all the States in 19x5 as to 
value of products and number of establish- 
ments, and seventh as to number of wage- 
earners and value added by manufacture. 

The 8000 and morejgstablishments reported 
by the census in 19x5 use over two billion dol- 
lars' worth of materials, to which they added 
a value of about $1,500,000,000, creating a 
total value of products of over $3,500,000,000. 
Over 400,000 wage-earners were employed at 
a total wage of more than $570,000,000. The 
machinery employed by these industries uti- 
lized over 1^50,000 horsepower. 



The industries that have chosen to have their 
plants within this State are extremely diversi- 
fied, representing nearly every possible field of 
industrial endeavor. Distribution of the major 
industrial groups within the State follows very 
closely the distribution within the nation as a 
whole. This can be seen graphically from 
Chart I.* The only instances where there is 
an appreciable difference is in the chemicals, 
paper and printing, lumber, and miscellaneous 
groups. 

A comparison has been made on the basis 
of value added by manufacture, since that is 
probably the least misleading item reported by 
the Census of Manufactures. The value of prod- 
ucts is often used, but since this includes also 
the value of the raw materials and the semi- 
finished products entering into the process, 
an industry using extremely expensive ma- 
terials and adding little to the value of the 
materials is given an undue weight. On the 
other hand, the number of wage-earners is 
hardly satisfactory since industries having a 
large output, but relying mainly on machinery, 
would be unjustly topped by a less important 
industry which relied chiefly upon labor. The 
value added by manufacture, which is the 
difference between the value of the products 
and the cost of materials, seems to be the best 
unit of comparison, since it represents more 
nearly than any other figures available the 
actual value created by the industry. 

The Census of Manufactures reports over 
300 industries which are in turn classified into 
the 1 6 major industrial groups. Of these groups 
the most important, both for the United States 
and for New Jersey, is the textile and products 
group, which represents 19 per cent of the value 
These charts will be found at the end of the book. 



2-77 



NEW JERSEY 




WINDING AND THROWING IN A TYPICAL SILK MILL 



added by all industries for New Jersey. Chem- 
icals and allied products is the next most im- 
portant, representing between 15 and 16 per 
cent of the value added for New Jersey. The 
third, fourth, and fifth places are held by ma- 
chinery, iron and steel and their products, and 
food and its kindred products, which rank 
second, third, and fourth respectively for the 
country as a whole. The other groups vary 
from about five per cent for transportation 
equipment to a little less than two per cent for 
lumber and allied products. 

Of the separate industries reported, electrical 
machinery, apparatus, and supplies lead for 
New Jersey with a value of over $9,000,000 
added by manufacture, followed closely by silk 
manufactures and foundry and machine-shop 
products, both reporting an addition by manu- 
facture of nearly $9,000,000. This can be seen 
graphically from Chart II. Petroleum refining, 
often conceded first place among New Jersey 
industries, ranks only sixth, representing only 
half as much value added as electrical ma- 
chinery. On the other hand, if industries were 
to be classified according to the value of prod- 



ucts regardless of the relative cost of the ma- 
terials entering into the product, petroleum 
refining would be by far the leading industry, 
with electrical machinery reporting only half 
as great a value of product, and the smelting 
and refining of copper, which does not appear 
even in the first 15 industries of the chart, 
would be accorded second place. 

It is extremely difficult to find any standard 
for measuring the actual progress of industry 
within the State. Disregarding the error caused 
by the census in different years reporting for 
various sized establishments, any value figures 
will be distorted because of variations in the 
purchasing power of the dollar. However, 
certain price indexes have been computed 
which can be fairly safely used to correct 
this change. Although the value added by 
manufacture for New Jersey industries, which 
totaled $5x3,169,000 in 1914 and $i,452.,3z6,- 
ooo in 192.5, increased 177.6 per cent during 
that period, when corrected for change in 
price, the increase, of course, was not nearly 
so great. But these figures really mean very 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



179 



little, because production has been increasing 
all over the country as well. 

It would seem, then, that interest would be 
mainly as to the growth of New Jersey in- 
dustry relative to the growth of the country as 
a whole. From 1909 to 192.5 the percentage of 
value added to manufactures by New Jersey 
industries has never been more than 5.8 per 
cent of the total for the country as a whole 
and never less than 5 per cent, so that New 
Jersey industry has shown practically no un- 
usual growth or decline in comparison with 
the rest of the country during the past 16 years. 

Over one-fourth of the State's wage-earners 
are employed in the various textile and textile- 
product industries. This can be seen graphically 
from Chart III. The silk industries employ 
more than any other individual business. This 
can be seen graphically from Chart IV. The 
dyeing and finishing of textiles ranks third as 
to the number of employees, worsted goods 
fifth, and cotton goods tenth. The electrical 



machinery industry is the second largest em- 
ployer of labor within the State, and foundry 
and machine-shop products have fourth place. 
Other industries employing 8000 or more wage- 
earners are chemicals not elsewhere classified, 
car and general shop construction by steam 
railroads, petroleum refining, cigars and ciga- 
rettes, rubber goods not elsewhere classified, 
steel works and rolling mills. 

There are a number of industries which, al- 
though not always of comparative importance, 
are concentrated to a large extent in New Jer- 
sey. The refining of gold, silver, platinum, and 
copper represents 57.4 per cent and 33.7 per 
cent respectively for the total value for the 
country. Over 40 per cent of all the phono- 
graphs are produced in New Jersey, while linen 
goods, asbestos, textiles, artificial leather, 
blacking and stains, and polishes all report 
over 30 per cent of the total value for the 
country. 







SILK WEAVING IN A TYPICAL NEW JERSEY MILL 



2.80 



NEW JERSEY 




PRESSURE STILL AND CONDENSING EQUIPMENT AT ONE OF NEW JERSEY'S LARGE OIL REFINERIES 



GREAT INDUSTRIES 



PETROLEUM REFINING 

PETROLEUM refining is one of the leading 
industries in New Jersey, both in relation 
to other industries within the State and 
to refining by other States. In 192.5, the most 
recent census year, petroleum refining ranked 
as the sixth most important within the State 
on the basis of value added by manufacture, 
and New Jersey rated third among the States 
on the same basis. 

Although there are in New Jersey only eight 
refineries, or a little over two per cent of the 
total number for the country, these refineries 
are equipped to run x6i,ooo barrels of crude oil 
daily, which is more than one-tenth of the 
total crude oil production of the United States 
at the present time. In the matter of refining 
capacity New Jersey stands fourth among the 
States, being surpassed by California, Texas, 
and Oklahoma in the order named. Most of 



these refineries are situated in Union and Hud- 
son Counties, although there is one in Middle- 
sex County and one in Gloucester County. 

The census reports of 192.5 give an employ- 
ment of a little over 9,000 wage-earners, but a 
later survey has shown the refinery employment 
to be about 13,000. Actual figures of capitaliza- 
tion are not available, but a competent esti- 
mate would place the capital invested at about 

$2.00,000,000. 

One of the earliest problems of the oil in- 
dustry was that of transportation of the crude 
petroleum, since the refineries were mostly far 
from the oil fields. At the start oil was run into 
wooden barrels, which either were carted or 
floated on barges to market. Next came large 
wooden tanks which were mounted upright on 
flat cars. Finally there appeared the horizontal 
cylindrical steel tank car of today. 

Wooden conduits had been laid for short dis- 
tances, and the crude oil was pumped through 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



them to the refineries. These gave way to iron 
pipes and then to steel ones, until at present 
there is a network of pipe lines across the coun- 
try. There are four main trunk lines from Kan- 
sas, Oklahoma, and Texas to the interior and to 
the Atlantic and Gulf seaboards. Myriad 
shorter gathering lines reach into every produc- 
ing field of magnitude. Pumping stations are 
placed at intervals varying according to the 
topography of the country and the capacity of 
the different lines. 

The volume of oil carried by these lines is 
enormous, amounting to 600,000,000 barrels in 
19x6. Although some of this oil moved only a 
few miles, a large quantity was pumped as far 
as 1,700 miles from the wells. 

Another important means of transportation 
is the tanker, which is used to carry both the 
crude oil and the finished products. These 
tankers, carrying up to 100,000 barrels, can 
take on or discharge their cargo in a short time 
by pumps, either on board the ships or in the 
shore stations. 

There are as many as Z5O commercial prod- 
ucts derived from crude oil, but the total out- 



put of this large number of products is not 
great. The bulk of all the petroleum produced 
is used in some way as fuel. It is burned directly 
under steam boilers, "gas oil" is used to enrich 
gas sold by the manufactured gas companies, 
another part similar to the gas oil is used in 
the great gas engines, furnace oil is burned 
in household oil burners, kerosene is used in 
lamps and stoves, and gasoline is employed for 
automobile fuel. 

Beside the fuel oils there are the lubricating 
oils, which have nearly supplanted all the 
other lubricants. Refining also results in a 
large variety of asphalts for paving, roofing, 
and the manufacture of waterproof building- 
paper and shingles, and in the wax from which 
most candles are now made. 

The percentage of these products obtained 
from crude oils depends to a large extent upon 
the characteristics of the crude oil itself. There 
are some which yield a high percentage of 
gasoline and kerosene and but little asphalt, 
and others which yield a considerable quantity 
of lubricants and asphalts, but only very little 
kerosene and gasoline. 




CONTINUOUS TREATING PLANT AT A NEW JERSEY OIL REFINERY 



182. 



NEW JERSEY 




AGITATORS AT TREATING PLANT, NEW JERSEY OIL REFINERY 



Although the refining of petroleum is com- 
paratively a recent industry, the ancients were 
able to profit by the crude distillation carried 
on by nature. In those days, of course, only such 
oil was known as seeped to the surface, and 
this was slowly distilled by the sunlight, leav- 
ing a heavy residue not unlike that left in the 
stills today after the lighter constituents have 
been driven off. This residue or pitch was used 
as a cement in building, to make their boats 
waterproof, and to keep the air from human 
bodies in their embalming processes. 

Petroleum is a complex mixture of hydro- 
carbons along with small quantities of sulphur, 
nitrogen, oxygen, and varying amounts of 
natural gas, water, and dirt. It is in general 
.divided into three classes in accordance with 
the dominant chemical composition: paraffin 
base, asphaltic base, and naphthenic base. 

The hydrocarbons composing petroleum are 
first separated into groups having similar com- 
position and properties, and then their products 
are purified. Since the different constituent 
hydrocarbons have different boiling points, 



their separation is a comparatively simple 
process. 

The petroleum is heated in a still until boil- 
ing occurs, when the temperature is maintained 
constant until the product which has that par- 
ticular boiling point is all passed off and boil- 
ing ceases until the temperature is raised to 
the boiling point of the product next in the 
scale. Within 48 hours a batch of crude oil goas 
through the complete operating cycle of the 
first step in refining. These crude stills are of 
three kinds: batch or single-unit stills, where 
each still is operated by itself and the crude 
oil is boiled down until only coke remains; 
continuous running stills, where a number of 
stills are operated together and the crude oil 
is reduced to tar and drawn off or charged into 
another still and reduced to coke; and the pipe 
or blast stills, which are for skimming off 
some of the lighter fractions, leaving tar or 
fuel oil. 

The gas passing from the stills is then sent 
through coils immersed in tanks of cold water 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



to be condensed, and the resulting liquid is let 
into a receiving house, where it is routed into 
the proper tanks. 

These products are not finished, but must be 
usually subjected to further distillation and 
treating. Re-run stills are used to re-distill the 
several products and to separate them into 
smaller groups, the two major distillations of 
this operation being naphtha and refined oil 
or kerosene with a residue of gas oil. The 
naphtha and oil are next subjected to chemical 
treatment to remove impurities and to improve 
color and odor and to fix these properties so 
that they will not change during storage. 

The increasing demand for gasoline, made 
necessary a process to give a higher percentage 
of gasoline than simple distillation gives off, 
so that today the process known as cracking 
produces a light oil such as gasoline from a 
heavier and less valuable stock. This is per- 
formed with abnormal heat in a pressure still 
in which the molecules of the heavy oil are 
broken down into smaller hydrocarbons of a 
lighter gravity and lower boiling point. 



SILK 

Introduced into the Celestial Empire by the 
Empress Si-Ling-Chi about 1703 B.C., and 
into Europe by two Nestorian monks under 
order of Justinian in ^^T. A.D., started on this 
continent (in Mexico) by Hernando Coitez in 
1 5 ix, and pursued to a considerable extent in 
Virginia in 1609, the silk industry reached a 
rank of great importance among world in- 
dustries. In the United States in 19x5 it at- 
tained huge volume, occupying 1659 establish- 
ments with 142., 171 employees and having 
a total value in products manufactured of 
$808,979,394. 

New Jersey's part in this great business has 
always been important and the value of manu- 
factured silk products in this State in 19^5 
reached $i9o,7ii,394, or 2.3.6 per cent of the 
value of all silk products manufactured in the 
Union. 

In Colonial days in America silk was manu- 
factured entirely in the home. It was reeled by 
hand, thrown or twisted and doubled by hand 




BATTERY OF CONTINUOUS CRUDE STILLS, AND STILL HOUSE 
New Jersey Oil Refinery 



184 



NEW JERSEY 



and woven on the primitive foot-power loom 
by the women of the family. The first silk mill 
seems to have been started in New England in 
1810. New England may possibly claim pri- 
ority in silk dyeing also, but much experi- 
mental and constructive work was accom- 
plished in Paterson. It was here, in this 
acknowledged "Silk City" of America, that 
the science of silk dyeing had its beginnings. 
John Ryle was the "father of the silk manu- 
facturing industry in Paterson." To him credit 
is due also for the introduction of the art of 
silk dyeing in the decade following 1840. 

The chief improvements in silk manufactur- 
ing during the second part of the last century 
were: (a) The introduction of the Rixford 
roller for doubling and twisting silk; (b) the 
introduction of a machine for making sewing 
silk, patented by Fr. Cheney in 1847; (c) utili- 
zation of cocoons, from which the silk moths 
had emerged; (d) introduction in i88z of the 
Grant reel, which created a practical revolu- 
tion, not only in the silk, but in the cotton 
and worsted-winding industries. 

The silk industry in New Jersey and generally 
in America owes its growth largely to labor- 
saving machinery. The raw silk in the last 
decades has been imported from Italy, China, 
and Japan, the United States being the largest 
importer of raw silk in the world. Silk dyeing 
developed along with the general growth of 
the silk industry, vegetable and artificial dye- 
stuffs being used. 

Paterson has made great contributions to 
this development of the American silk in- 
dustry. Her location early appealed to the silk 
dyers because of the natural softness of the 
Passaic River water. In the fall of 1906 the 
East Jersey Water Company supplied the lead- 
ing dyers of Paterson with an adequate amount 
of water by a special aqueduct, the system 
being extended in 1914. Some of the Paterson 
silk dyers, the Weideman Company in par- 
ticular, have augmented their water supply 
by artesian wells. 

In 192.6 there were concentrated in Paterson 
864 of the 1,155 establishments connected with 
the silk industry in New Jersey. Lodi in Bergen 
County is the second center of the silk industry, 
other establishments being distributed in Essex, 



Hudson, Union, Middlesex, Camden, Mon- 
mouth, Warren, and Hunterdon counties. 

The development of the artificial silk indus- 
try is one of the romances of Twentieth-Cen- 
tury trade. Invented as a poor substitute for 
silk, it has come to a leading place among tex- 
tiles. The increase in its use and production is 
perhaps unparalleled in the textile trades. 
Figures collected by the Silk Association of 
America show the increase of artificial silk 
production in the United States to have been 
from z,445,ooo pounds in 1914 to 16,5x6,700 
pounds in the first half of 192.3. Paterson, with 
its numerous artificial silk establishments, is 
one of the most important centers of this in- 
dustry in the world. 

COTTON AND FABRICATED PRODUCTS 

The importance of the textile industry in 
New Jersey and its high rank among the States 
has been underestimated. Owing partly to the 
early start of the industry in the New England 
States, textiles and their products have been 
associated in the public mind with that sec- 
tion. More recently with a partial shift of the 
industry to the Southern States, this latter ter- 
ritory has received attention by industrialists, 
politicians, and economists on matters pertain- 
ing to cotton manufactures and other textiles. 
These two regions have had publicity to such 
an extent that the textile industry has become 
identified in the public mind solely with them. 

If New Jersey is compared with some of the 
other States, it is disclosed that it leads all the 
States in some textile products and stands well 
up the list in many others. The report of the 
Census of Manufactures for 19x5 reveals that 
New Jersey in linen goods made 36.7 per cent 
of the total for the United States; in asbestos 
textiles, 35.9; in dyeing and finishing textiles, 
zi-4; in worsted goods, 13. z; in corsets, iz.o; in 
fur-felt hats, n.8; in jute goods, 10.7; and in 
millinery and lace goods, 7.4 per cent. 

An even better comparison of the position of 
New Jersey's textile business can be obtained 
by considering the value of the products turned 
out. It has been shown that New Jersey ranks 
first in two products, second in two, and third 
in four. She ranks first in this respect in dyeing 
and finishing textiles and in upholstering mate- 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



rials, second in oilcloth, linoleum, millinery 
and lace goods; third in men's furnishing goods, 
hat and cap materials, and corsets; fourth in 
fur-felt hats and in woolen and worsted goods; 
seventh in women's clothing, hosiery and knit 
goods; and ninth in men's clothing. 

The lack of publicity given to an industry 
ranking as high as does the textile industry in 
New Jersey has not hindered its growth. Sit- 
uated as New Jersey is in the center of a great 
population, with large markets nearby, with 
a large labor supply, and among numerous 
shipping facilities, the economic factors have 
attracted and nourished a large and flourishing 
industry. 

The importance to the people of the State 
itself of the textile industry is even more star- 
tling than its importance as compared with 
other States. Of her total wage workers em- 
ployed in all industries, zo per cent earn their 
livelihood in the textile industry. Of the total 
wages paid in New Jersey industries, textiles 
account for 17 per cent. This same business in- 
cludes 1 6 per cent of all the State's industrial 



establishments, and is responsible for 12. per 
cent of the value of products manufactured. 

The textile industry of New Jersey turns out 
over 30 groups of products ranging from wor- 
sted and woolen fabrics to rag carpets, linen 
belting, and elastic goods. This great business 
ranked first among the State's industries in the 
number of wage-earners employed in producing 
its products. In 19x5 there were 8 5, 7x4 workers. 
In considering the industry as to the value of 
the wages paid out, the sum in 19x5 was 
$96,776,000. The value of marketable goods in 
19x5 was $4x9,550,000. The number of estab- 
lishments making up the textile industry has 
increased nearly threefold in twenty-five years. 
There were about 550 establishments in 1904; 
there now are between 1300 and 1400. 

Some of the firms manufacturing textile prod- 
ucts are known throughout the country. 
Among the many are Forstmann & HufFmann 
Company in Passaic; Botany Worsted Mills in 
Passaic; Clark Thread Company; Johnson & 
Johnson in New Brunswick; New Jersey Wor- 
sted Mills at Garfield; Gera Mills at Passaic, 




MACHINES WHICH LOAD THE NEGATIVE POCKETS WITH OXIDE IRON 
Edison Storage Battery Company at Orange 



2.86 



NEW JERSEY 




PERFORATING CARBON STEEL RIBBON FOR POSITIVE TUBES 
Edison Storage Battery Company at Orange 



and the Millville Manufacturing Company at 
Millville. The New Jersey Worsted Mills cover 
40 acres, with n acres occupied by factory 
buildings. The Certain-teed Products Corpora- 
tion has a large plant at Trenton. The Congo- 
leum-Nairn Linoleum Company, with 1300 em- 
ployees, is another of these large firms. 

The growth and importance of the textile 
industry in the State proclaim no peculiar 
miracle. With easy access to markets, in a 
heavily populated area, with exceptional 
transportation facilities by water and rail, 
centered in a large labor market, with raw 
materials in reasonable freightage distance, the 
past growth and the present importance of the 
industry are understandable. With these help- 
ing factors present, the future of Jersey textiles 
seems well assured. 

CERAMICS 

The ceramic industries of New Jersey have 
been important since early Colonial days, when 
the rapidly expanding nation needed small 
plants for its brick, tile and stoneware. The 



United States owes to New Jersey much of the 
development of the ceramic industries. 

The term "ceramics" was formerly re- 
stricted to pottery, but current usage includes 
all the silicate industries. The Greek word 
"keramos" held the idea of a product where 
fire acted upon earthy materials. Pottery is the 
oldest of arts. Primitive man fashioned the 
moistened clay into crude vessels and hardened 
them in the rays of the sun. The mud-walled 
huts of ancient times show an early knowledge 
of sun-hardened clay products. The opened 
barrows and tombs of Europe reveal prehistoric 
urns and vessels. 

American pottery dates from the mounds of 
the Mississippi Valley, the pueblos of Colorado 
and New Mexico and the ancient tombs of 
Peru. In this State the beginnings antedate 
the Revolution. Records of 1659 reveal pot- 
teries in the Colonies producing tile, stone- 
ware, and brick. Records of court sessions in- 
clude a case apparently relating to the old Bur- 
lington Pottery, showing it as in operation in 
1685, tf not before. In 1738 Caspar Wistar 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



2.8 7 



started a glass plant near Salem, sending to 
Belgium for glass workers. This plant operated 
successfully for 50 years, and the Wistars be- 
came influential citizens. 

In Revolutionary times a few bricks were 
made at a small yard on Assanpink Creek at 
Trenton. Most of the brick buildings of that 
time were of bricks from Holland or England. 
There is also record of brick being made during 
1780 to 1800 at Hamilton Square, near Trenton, 
and a little later at Maiden Head, now Law- 
renceville. In 1831 Joseph Himer and Peter 
Grim of Philadelphia started a brick plant on 
the old Heddon farm at Trenton, about half 
way between the two city reservoirs, the brick 
in the original State prison being made by 
them. 

In 1851 a brick plant was started at Round- 
about, now Sayreville, in Middlesex County, 
by Peter Fisher and James Sayre. This firm 
branched out, and in 1887 merged into a cor- 
poration, the Sayre & Fisher Brick Company, 
one of the largest brick-making plants in the 
world. Excellent brick-clay deposits were 
found in the Hackensack district and in Passaic 
County, and the manufacture of common brick 
was carried on as early as i87Z. But it was not 
until toward the end of the Eighteenth Century 
that the industry became firmly established. 

New Jersey has played a large part in this 
development. She has made American sanitary 
pottery the finest in the world; the finest deco- 
rated china comes from her capital city; the 
greater part of New York's famous skyline is 
of terra cotta from New Jersey factories; count- 
less industries here and in other States are de- 
pendent upon her for structural ware, bricks, 
and the refractories so essential in this age of 
metals. 

Trenton became the center of the pottery 
trade in 1851, when the firm of Taylor & 
Speeler began to mke yellow and Rockingham 
ware. The first cream-colored ware was made 
by William Young & Sons, and Millington & 
Astbury. In 1873 Astbury & Young and 
Thomas Maddock formed a partnership for the 
manufacture of sanitary ware, thus founding 
the sanitary pottery business in the United 
States. Thomas Maddock was born in England 
in 1818 of a long family of potters. In 1847 he 



went into pottery decorating in New York. 
This business was very successful, some of the 
ware being sold to the White House during the 
Pierce administration. Maddock believed that 
sanitary pottery could be made in this country. 
It was a tedious undertaking but he finally 
produced a satisfactory article. 

New Jersey owes its prominence in ceramics 
possibly more to its advantageous location 
than to its own fine clays. The availability of 
labor and the proximity to the metropolitan 
market have done much to bring to the State 
those ceramic industries which are not funda- 
mentally dependent upon New Jersey clays. 
This is particularly true of the white ware 
plants, such as floor and wall tile, china, por- 
celain, and hotel ware, which for the most 
part import raw materials, 90 per cent of the 
Trenton plants being of this type. 

What undoubtedly started the industry here, 
however, was the abundant supply of brick 
and fire clays, some of the latter being unsur- 
passed for metallurgical and other high-tem- 
perature work. These clays are found mostly 
in the Raritan River district, with smaller 
deposits around Trenton, Toms River, and 
Hackensack. This proximity to clays suitable 
for kilns and burning equipment attracted other 
types of ceramic plants. New Jersey also proved 
to be the mecca for immigrant labor trained in 
ceramic work. These factors, combined with 
the ever-increasing demand for ceramic prod- 
ucts, both art and structural, which has ac- 
companied the growth of Philadelphia and 
New York as cultural and business centers, 
have caused New Jersey to be represented in 
practically every branch of the ceramic arts. 
Transportation also has played its part, as New 
Jersey has every advantage for obtaining the 
raw materials and disposing of the finished 
products. 

While the State comes next to Ohio in the 
products of its potteries, it is first in the variety 
and quality of its ceramic wares, the city of 
Trenton leading all other cities of the country 
in output and quality. The advantage of 
natural gas has drawn some of the industry to 
other places. 

The most important item is sanitary ware, 
for it has been in the development of the mod- 



2.88 



NEW JERSEY 



ern bathroom that New Jersey has been most 
active. Of second importance in output are the 
electrical porcelain supplies so essential in 
modern power distribution. The articles made 
in New Jersey include all shapes and sizes from 
little insulating tubes to great power line and 
radio insulators. Third in value are hotel and 
restaurant chinaware. The ceramic products 
made in New Jersey include glass, enameled 
wares, brick, floor and wall tile, terra cotta, 
porcelain and vitreous sanitary wares, table- 
wares, electrical porcelain, refractories, and 
art pottery. 

Clay is a mineral resulting from the disin- 
tegration of certain rocks. It owes irs value as 
a commercial material to its property of be- 
coming plastic when mixed with water. It is 
then easily molded or worked into any desired 
shape, which it retains upon drying. This 
quality and its property of fusing gradually 
without distorting or melting, enable the 
potter to first form the piece or shape and then 
to fire it into a rock-like form. It is then hard 
and durable, resistant to both heat and weather. 
Modern methods employ molds into which the 
clay is pressed, much as in the casting of 
metals. This makes it possible to treat each 
piece separately without prohibitive cost. 

For the cruder wares, such as brick and fire- 
proofing, the clay is used as mined, being 
kneaded with water into a plastic mass in a 
pug mill. This mass is forced in a column 
through a die designed to give it the desired 
shape. The column is then automatically cut 
into standard lengths, which are carried on a 
conveyor to a drying room. The ware is burned 
in kilns holding from 40,000 to 100,000 brick, 
at a temperature of about 2.2.00 degrees Fahren- 
heit. This process requires a long time, some- 
times two weeks being taken in loading the 
kiln, firing and cooling, and then unloading. 
Some brick and special shapes are still made 
by the method of pressing into hand molds, 
and they are dried and fired in the same manner 
as the machine-made articles. 

For large and complex shapes, such as tubs, 
sinks, and decorative units in which size and 
color are essential, it is necessary to add to the 
clay a proportion of preburned material which 
will undergo no shrinkage when fired. This 



preburned material is called grog, and is ob- 
tained by crushing up scrap material of various 
kinds. The mixture of grog and clay is tempered 
with water and made plastic just as in brick- 
making. The clay is then pressed into wooden 
or plaster molds. When very large and bulky 
shapes are made, much care is exercised in 
pressing and in drying and firing so that no 
weak spots or cracks occur. The drying process 
takes from several weeks to six months to 
complete. 

The ware is then coated with a glaze or 
enamel, this being of the same material as the 
body, except that it is of the best quality. A 
fluxing agent is used that causes the glaze to 
melt easily and form a glassy and impervious 
coating. The color of the glaze is attained by 
adding metallic oxides which assume the de- 
sired tint upon firing. 

For the finer clay white wares, such as floor 
and wall tile, tableware, electrical porcelain, 
and art pottery, the work is more complicated. 
Only white-burning clays can be used, and care 
is necessary to keep out iron and other impuri- 
ties that would cause blemishes in the product. 
Because of the necessity of using only white- 
burning materials, the grog added to control 
shrinkage and warpage is made of pulverized 
flint rock. A third constituent of these white 
wares is pulverized feldspar, which fuses and 
bonds the clay and flint, making a dense and 
durable product. 

In the preparation of the body and in forming 
the pieces, the white wares also differ from the 
heavier wares. The clay, flint, and feldspar are 
mixed with an excess of water in a blunger or 
paddle machine, producing a thick cream. This 
slip, as it is called, is run through a screen and 
across magnets, which serve to remove large 
particles and any iron which may have worked 
into the slip. 

In the casting process this slip is poured into 
a plastic mold, and the cast is then dried and 
burned. Such wares as floor and wall tile, 
electrical porcelain, and heating units are made 
by drying the slip and then pulverizing it, the 
powder then being pressed into the required 
shapes. This process is used for quantity pro- 
duction of small pieces, the larger and finer 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



2.89 



pieces being made by the casting or hand- 
modeling method. 

After burning the pressed or cast shapes, 
they must be decorated. In this work the great- 
est skill is required, both in the preparation of 
the glazes and enamels and in their application. 
The pieces are coated with the glaze by dipping 
into a pot of glaze, by painting, or by spray- 
ing. In complicated designs the work is done 
either by hand or by a stencil. 

The glazed ware is then again burned to a 
temperature calculated to develop the color of 
the metallic oxide used. In some cases it is 
necessary to make several successive burns if 
different colors are desired on the same piece 
and the proper colors are not obtainable at the 
same temperature. The success of pottery mak- 
ing depends largely on the skill employed in 
this burning. 

As in other trades it is found advantageous 
to subject all pottery processes to technical 
control. Most plants employ men who check up 
on the raw materials and the operations. In 
this way the standard of the wares is main- 
tained, and these modern methods effect greater 
production and lower cost. 

That the State anticipated this need for 
technical men is seen in its provision for ce- 
ramic education. In 1903 a Department of 
Ceramics was established at Rutgers University, 
the State University of New Jersey, at New 
Brunswick. In 19x2. this department secured an 
appropriation for a fine new building equipped 
to carry on all kinds of ceramic work and test- 
ing and to provide ceramic training for students 
desiring it. 

The clay-mining industry, as distinguished 
from the manufacture of clay products, occupies 
a unique position in the State with respect to 
the qualities of the fine clays dug and the value 
of these clays. The first clay mined in the 
United States was retrieved from New Jersey 
soil. The first writer in English to discuss clays 
from a scientific point of view was Professor 
George H. Cook, on "The Clays of New Jer- 
sey" written in 1878. 

When the long period of years during which 
clay has been dug in New Jersey is considered 
with the record of other States, and when it is 
recalled that New Jersey is not generally con- 



sidered one of the great natural resource States, 
the showing of its clay-mining industry is 
exceptionally creditable. 

The leadership of Trenton among the nation's 
cities as a center for the pottery industry and 
of Perth Amboy for the terra cotta industry 
attest the unexcelled clays dug in those neigh- 
borhoods. New Jersey's clays are basic clays, 
and 80 per cent of the quantity mined is ab- 
sorbed in New Jersey's industries. While the 
Trenton potteries import from abroad or from 
Florida and Georgia their finer white clays, a 
large bulk of the raw materials may be obtained 
from the easily accessible pits about Wood- 
bridge and Perth Amboy and along the valley 
of the Raritan river. 

JEWELRY MAKING 

The jewelry trade of New Jersey is centered 
in Newark. Metals and jewels from all parts 
of the earth are brought to Newark to be sub- 
mitted to various processes of refinement; gold 
from California, Africa, and South America; 
silver from Colorado and Nevada; platinum 
from the Ural Mountains in Russia; and dia- 
monds, rubies, pearls, sapphires, and emeralds 
from remotest places. After being converted 
into articles of beauty they are sent back to the 
markets of the world. 

Before a jeweler's window in the Square of 
St. Mark's, Venice, a Newarker of means heard 
his wife say: "Buy me that platinum ring with 
the ruby in it. I want to take back a souvenir 
typical of Venice; one that whenever I look at 
it will remind me of moonlit nights and gon- 
doliers." 

The man examined the ring, and being a 
jeweler himself, soon found that it was a prod- 
uct of Newark. In almost any part of the earth 
where jewelry is sold one is likely to pick up 
a Newark-made article, especially if it is of 
high quality. 

One must go back a hundred years or more in 
Newark's history to find the beginnings of the 
jewelry industry. The "History of the City of 
Newark" says that "Benjamin Cleveland ad- 
vertised himself as a gold and silver smith in 
1792., while to Epaphras Hinsdale is given the 
credit of being the pioneer of Newark's great 
jewelry industry. Hinsdale was doing business 



2.90 



NEW JERSEY 





INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



2.91 



in 1801, his factory being located on Broad 
Street, east side, a little distance north of 
Lafayette Street. A little later it was quite the 
fashion for ladies of means to drive up in their 
carriages to Hinsdale's to inspect his wares." 

Another book, ' 'Newark the Metropolis of 
New Jersey," says the first jewelry factory was 
started there in 1805 by Hinsdale and that six 
hands were employed, and continues, "Today 
Newark leads all the cities of America in the 
variety of fine jewelry produced. Here is where 
the machinery was built after special designs 
for the making of many of the popular articles 
known to the gold and silver industries of the 
world. Here are the best equipped establish- 
ments on earth. In Newark the manufacture of 
fine jewelry gold and silver, watch cases, 
chains, bracelets, pins, rings, guards, chate- 
laines, pendants, lockets, ornaments and novel- 
ties, plain, engraved, and enameled, set with 
diamonds, pearls, and other precious stones 
has established a standard of excellence for 
fully 60 years." 

The first concern to give Newark jewelry a 
wide reputation was Taylor & Baldwin, whose 
handiwork caused Newark-made jewelry to be 
asked for because of its superior design. Their 
factory was in Franklin Street before 182.0. 

The industry grew rapidly. In 1830 there 
were 50 jewelers in the community. In 1836 
there were four jewelry establishments, em- 
ploying 100 and having an annual output of 
$2.15,000. In 1860 there were 17 jewelry estab- 
lishments, employing 808 and having an annual 
output of $1,515,000. In the past 50 years 
factories have so increased as to give Newark 
the place she now holds in the jewelry world. 
In 19x5 there were in New Jersey 151 jewelry 
establishments, employing 1,568. Of these 
there were in Newark 144 factories, employing 
1,430. The cost of the raw materials used in the 
factories in New Jerseyjn 1915 was $11,157,341, 
while the value of the finished products was 
$13,113,691. 

Nearly all of the factories make a general 
line and most firms specialize on one line. One 
firm makes one-piece collar buttons, another 
spring-back shirt studs, others mesh bags or 
vanity cases. Trophies, golf cups, loving cups, 
and prizes in silver are made in Newark by the 



thousand. The German Kaiser is quoted as once 
having said that a silver set made by a Newark 
house was the finest thing of its kind he had 
seen. 

New Jersey also does a great business in 
smelting and refining. In 1915 there were 17 
plants engaged in gold, silver, and platinum 
refining, employing 831 persons, with an an- 
nual payroll of $1,433,711. The cost of the raw 
materials used was $51,101,758, while the 
value of the products was $54,661,330. One of 
the largest platinum refining plants in the 
world is in Newark. 

Besides jewelry making and refining there 
also are in New Jersey factories engaged in 
silversmithing, watch and clock making, elec- 
troplating, enameling and japanning, engrav- 
ing, and making gold and silver leaf and foil. 

Of the 151 such establishments in New Jersey 
employing 1,568 people, 70 plants employ be- 
tween one and 10 persons, 34 plants between 
ii and 10, 13 between n and 30, 13 between 
31 and 50, and 17 between 51 and 100 persons. 
Among the larger concerns, one plant employs 
115 persons. Four others employ from 150 to 
400. 

The majority of the best jewelry workers in 
New Jersey are of foreign birth or parentage 
and have the artistic way of doing things 
firmly implanted. They are mostly French, Ger- 
man, English, or Italian. The owners of the 
more important factories say that American 
youths do not often take up the jewelry trade. 

MACHINE INDUSTRY 

New Jersey's machinery industry is centered 
largely in Hudson, Union, Essex, and Passaic 
counties. This industry is the third most impor- 
tant in the State, and it employs more wage- 
earners than any other group excluding the 
textiles. 

All manner of mechanical articles are made, 
chief among the industries being electrical 
machinery and supplies, foundry and machine- 
shop products, pumps and pumping equip- 
ment, textile machinery and parts, and ma- 
chine tools. With the exception of electrical 
machinery, which has shown phenomenal 
progress in recent years and is now New Jer- 
sey's leading mechanical industry, foundry and 



192- 



NEW JERSEY 



machine-shop products in the largest industry 
of this group. 

The number of establishments classified as 
foundry and machine shops increased from 397 
in 1904 to 472. in 1914. Since then there has been 
a slight decrease owing to the tendency to con- 
centrate production in larger operating units. 
The value of foundry and machine-shop prod- 
ucts has increased from $41,870,000 in 1914 to 
$i io,zo2.,ooo in 19x5. 

The number of wage-earners in foundry and 
machine shops has remained relatively con- 
stant. This is because improvements in ma- 
chinery and management have enabled produc- 
tivity per man-hour to steadily increase, and 
thus an increased output has been secured 
without increasing the number of employees. 
The amount of wages has increased from 
$11,961,000 in 1914 to $31,013,000 in 192.5. 
The value added by manufacture has increased 
from $X5, 619,000 in 1914 to $73,2.7^,000 in 
19x5. 

New Jersey ranked eighth among the States 
in number of foundries and machine shops, and 
seventh in wages paid, value of product, and 
wage-earners. In value added by manufacture 
the industry ranked third in New Jersey. The 
percentage of New Jersey value to total United 
States value for foundry and machine-shop 
products was 4.9 per cent for 192.5, and the 
value for the machine industry, including all 
groups, was 7.8 per cent for 192.5. 

According to the value of its product, in 19x5 
New Jersey ranked first among the States in the 
production of hydraulic machinery and incan- 
descent lamps, third in the production of clay- 
working machinery and laundry machinery, 
fourth in scales and balances, and fifth in ice- 
cream machinery, textile machinery, and pumps 
and pumping machinery. 

In pumps and pumping machinery production 
New Jersey in 19x5 ranked second in wage- 
earners, fifth in wages paid, and tenth in the 
number of establishments. In textile machinery 
production it ranked fourth in wage-earners 
and in wages paid and third in the number of 
establishments. In the production of type- 
writers and supplies New Jersey ranked fifth in 
wage-earners and wages paid and third in the 
number of establishments. 



The industrial group, machinery, does not 
include transportation equipment, and there 
are therefore excluded such important in- 
dustries as motor vehicles, motor-vehicle 
bodies and parts, and shipbuilding. 

The industry designated as motor vehicles, 
and which is really the assembly of motor- 
propelled four-wheel vehicle bodies and parts 
manufactured either within the State or in 
other parts of the country, ranks ninth within 
the State as to value added by manufacture, it 
being $31,481,000 in 192.5, with a total value 
of over $100,000,000. Both of the other im- 
portant transportation equipment industries 
reported a value of approximately $30,000,000. 

The motor vehicle industry has shown a 
remarkable increase since 1914 from a value of 
product of about $3,000,000 in 1914 to over 
$100,000,000 in 192.5, and from about 500 wage- 
earners to nearly 5,000. Motor-vehicle bodies 
and parts have increased less rapidly from a 
value of about $5,000,000 in 1914 to about 
$31,000,000 in 192.5. 

ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY 

The electrical industry in New Jersey will be 
taken to include establishments engaged in 
the manufacture of machinery, apparatus, and 
supplies for employment directly in the genera- 
tion, storage, transmission, or utilization of 
electric energy, and to exclude the manufacture 
of electric-lighting fixtures, electric signs, and 
motor-driven tools, washing machines, add- 
ing machines, and other machines with built- 
in motors. 

The electrical industry has grown rapidly, 
the intervals of greatest expansion being from 
1904 to 1909, and 1914 to 1919. The value of 
products in 1915 was 372. per cent of that in 
1914, while the average number of wage- 
earners was only 65 per cent greater. This de- 
notes a remarkable increase in the productivity 
of labor in the industry. Since the depression 
of 1911 there has been an uninterrupted growth 
in the industry, the value of products, and the 
value added by manufacture, being markedly 
in excess of the high point reached in the war- 
building period of 1919. 

In estimating the magnitude of the opera- 
tions of establishments in the electrical in- 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 193 







INTERIOR OF SAND-SPUN FOUNDRY OF R. D. WOOD & COMPANY AT FLORENCE 




HIGH SPEED CARD PRINTING PRESSES BUILT BY U. S. TOOL COMPANY AT AMPERE 



194 



NEW JERSEY 



dustry in the State during 192.7, returns were 
received from only three concerns, but these 
included 40 per cent of the wage-earners and 
accounted for 30.1 per cent of the value of 
products in the industry as in 192.5. On the 
basis of these replies the wage-earners may be 
estimated as 11,400, and the value of products 
as $167,000,000. 

New Jersey has consistently maintained 
about the fifth place among the States in the 
production of electrical apparatus and supplies. 
In 19x5 New Jersey was fifth in the value of 
electrical products, sixth in the value added 
by manufacture, and fourth in the horsepower 
capacity of prime movers. 

Newark is the center of the production of 
electrical equipment in the State. In 19x5 the 
product value of this industry in Newark was 
above $50,000,000, or about one-third of the 
State figure, and the number of workers em- 
ployed was nearly 10,000, or about two-fifths 
of the State total. Jersey City, Trenton, and 
Bloomfield are also important centers for elec- 
trical apparatus. Equipment in excess of $11,- 
000,000 was produced in Jersey City in 192.5, 
and the value of electrical products in Trenton 
was about $7,000,000. 

A number of widely known concerns are en- 
gaged in electrical enterprises in New Jersey. 
The General Electric Company has plants at 
Harrison and Bloomfield, Weston Electrical 
Instrument Corporation at Newark, Westing- 
house Lamp Company at Bloomfield, Westing- 
house Electric and Manufacturing Company at 
Newark, John A. Roebling's Sons Company 
at Trenton, Cooper-Hewitt Electric Company 
at Hoboken, and the Edison Lamp Works at 
Harrison. 

The recent development of the radio industry 
has been shared by New Jersey. In 19x7 the 
total radio business done in the State was ap- 
proximately $4,575,000. There are about 50 
large concerns manufacturing radio sets and 
accessories. The De Forest, Kolster, and Split- 
dorf companies produce sets; the Shamrock 
Company makes sets and parts; Swan-Haver- 
stick Company manufactures accessories, and 
the Arcturus and Supertron companies make 
tubes. There are 19 radio-broadcasting stations 
in the State, Z4 radio jobbers, 1,136 retailers 



selling radio equipment, and 311,000 receiving 
sets. 

SHIPBUILDING INDUSTRY 

The Shipbuilding industry puts New Jersey 
first among the States in the amount of capital 
invested per square mile, which is over $31,000, 
California coming next with $700 per square 
mile, and the average for the United States in 
1914 being $400 per square mile. 

With its 45 ship and boat-building establish- 
ments in 1915, with 7,651 employees and 
$17,413,659 worth of manufactured products, 
the State had 8 per cent of the number of estab- 
lishments, employed 15 per cent of the wage- 
earners, and produced 15 per cent of the manu- 
factured products of the United States in this 
industry. 

In 1916 the number of men employed in the 
ship and boat-building industries reached 
10,009 m t ^ le X 9 most important establish- 
ments. These were distributed in eight counties 
of the State, as follows: Camden, eight estab- 
lishments, with 8,006 workers; Hudson, five, 
with looi workers; Monmouth, five, with 49 
workers; Union, three, with 763 workers; 
Bergen, three, with 103 workers; Cumberland, 
three, with 43 workers; Burlington, one, with 
40 workers, and Atlantic City, one, with four 
workers. 

Camden is the center of the shipbuilding in- 
dustry in New Jersey. The city is built along 
two navigable rivers, the Delaware and the 
Cooper. There are several large shipyards here, 
and they are capable of making yachts of most 
exclusive design, as well as battleships. The 
navy dreadnaught Colorado and the giant air- 
plane carrier Saratoga were built here. The 
largest shipbuilding enterprise in Camden is 
the American Brown Boveri Electric Corpora- 
tion with 7,500 employees. 

TOBACCO INDUSTRY 

The Tobacco industry in New Jersey em- 
ployed 8,739 workers in 1915. There were 80 
establishments, which paid $7,715,108 in 
wages and $17,177,969 for materials used. The 
value of all tobacco products in 1915 was $67,- 
745,767, or 7.9 per cent of that of the nation. 
Th~ 78 concerns manufacturing tobacco and 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



its products in New Jersey in 19x7 were chiefly 
in the metropolitan district, as follows: Essex 
County, with 14; Middlesex, 19; Hudson, 8; 
Passaic, n; Bergen, 5; Mercer, 5; Camden, 4; 
Union, i; and Atlantic City, i. 

LEATHER INDUSTRY 

In manufacturing leather, tanned, curried, 
and finished, the State ranked fifth among 
the States in 1919. With $7,500 per square mile 
invested in this industry New Jersey ranked 
first, Pennsylvania with $3,100 being second, 
while the average investment of capital in this 
business for the United States was $110 per 
square mile. The 449 establishments engaged 
in these industries were concentrated mostly 
in Newark and the metropolitan section 
generally. 

According to the latest available official 
data, the Census of Manufactures for 192.5, the 
leather industries of New Jersey paid $6,391,- 
048 in wages to 4,888 employees, and ex- 
pended $13 ,2.70,5 17 for materials used in manu- 



facturing. The value of all leather products in 
the State totaled $39,699,484, or 8 per cent of 
the value of these same products in the nation. 

PAINT AND VARNISH INDUSTRY 

The paint and varnish industry was rep- 
resented in New Jersey in 19x5 by 73 establish- 
ments with 1,899 employees. That year $4,130,- 
161 was paid in wages in this business, $31,- 
677,514 worth of materials was used, and the 
value of production reached $50,556,801, 
which is equal to 10.9 per cent of the total 
value of paints and varnishes produced in the 
United States in that year. In capital invested, 
$1,000 per square mile, New Jersey ranked 
first among the States, New York being second 
with $ 1,000 per square mile. 

Of all the establishments of this industry, 
85 per cent are concentrated in the metropolitan 
section of New Jersey, 18 establishments being 
in Essex County, 16 in Hudson, eight in 
Middlesex, five in Union, five in Passaic, and 
ii in all the other counties. 







QUARRY OF VULCANITE PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY AT PHILLIPSBURG 
Quarry 160 feet deep Deposit 300 feet deep 



NEW JERSEY 



CANNING INDUSTRY 

More than 10 per cent of all canned and 
preserved products, such as fruits and vege- 
tables, pickles, jellies, preserves, and sauces, 
were manufactured in New Jersey in 19x5. 
This State ranked first in the nation in the 
amount of capital invested in this industry 
per square mile and fourth in the total value 
of manufactured products, or $6z,366,7ix. Of 
the establishments comprising this industry, 
66 are in the agricultural section, mainly in 
Cumberland, Salem, and Gloucester counties. 
There were employed in 192.5 in these estab- 
lishments 4,814 wage-earners, who received 
$4,845,857. Over 36 million dollars was spent 
for the materials used in canning. This industry 
is growing, for the production of canned prod- 
ucts in New Jersey, which was valued at about 
$2.,ooo,ooo in 1904, $3,600,000 in 1909, $iz,- 
000,000 in 1914, and $2.5,000,000 in 1919, in- 
creased to over $62.,ooo,ooo in 192.5. 

PACKING INDUSTRY 

Wholesale slaughtering and meat packing 
ranked eighth in the value of manufactured 
products among other industries of the State 
in 192.5. Of the establishments of this kind 38 
employed 3,040 persons and paid them $4,696,- 
880 in wages. Over $73,000,000 was spent for 
materials and the manufactured products were 
worth $84,459,171. Hudson, Passaic, Essex, 
and Mercer counties are the chief sites for the 
establishments of this group, Trenton, Jersey 
City, Newark, and Passaic being the largest 
centers of slaughtering within the State. 

MINERAL INDUSTRIES 

The mineral industries of New Jersey are 
of much variety and value. In Sussex County, 
near Franklin, great zinc deposits are mined. 
In many places in Warren, Morris, and Passaic 
counties high-grade magnetic iron ore occurs, 
and it is actually mined near Washington, 
Dover, and Ringwood. In the northwestern 
section, including Warren and Sussex counties, 
pure limestone is obtained at some spots. 
Magnesian limestone is found here as well as 
in the northern part of Hunterdon County. 

Cement rock of high quality is utilized by 



great cement plants near Phillipsburg in War- 
ren County. Peat is found in some places and is 
made into fertilizers in Warren County. Talcose 
serpentine rock is found also in this county and 
is ground for uses similar to that of talc. Con- 
siderable masses of traprock, deposited in the 
northern section of the State, are quarried on 
a large scale and supply quantities of crushed 
stone of high quality for road making, for 
concrete, concrete blocks, and other purposes. 

Middlesex County is famous for its deposits 
of clays, particularly refractory clays. In the 
southern part of New Jersey sand and gravel 
are abundant. In addition to ordinary building 
sand, in Cumberland County are found some 
high-grade special sands, such as glass sand, 
molding sand, and grinding and polishing 
sands. 

Of the establishments connected with these 
industries, 69 in 19x5 had 6,135 employees and 
paid them $9,074, 802. in wages. The value of 
the products in these industries in 192.5 reached 
$z3,i42.,44o, or 7 per cent of that for the nation. 

GLASS INDUSTRY 

The glass industry was represented in New 
Jersey by 36 establishments in 192.5, with 
4,660 persons employed, $5,051,693 paid in 
wages, and a total value of manufactured 
products of $15,903,403. The glass products 
included art glass, automobile glass, glass 
beveling and designing, bottles, cut tableware, 
hydrometers, mirrors, and thermometers. The 
industry centers in Cumberland County. 

BAKING INDUSTRY 

The banking industry ranks first among the 
other industries within the State in the number 
of establishments, or 917 in 19x5; twelfth in 
the number of employees, 6,2.50 in 192.5; and is 
thirteenth in the wages paid, or $10,166,376. 
The value of the products of the bakeries in 
19x5 amounted to $53,830,970. The units of 
this industry naturally are distributed over the 
State corresponding to the density of popula- 
tion. 

There are many other important industries 
in New Jersey, all of which have played a part 
in giving this State a high ranking among the 
foremost states of the Union. 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



NEW JERSEY'S GREAT FIRMS 



VICTOR TALKING MACHINE COMPANY 

FROM meager beginnings in a tiny machine 
shop a little more than a quarter of a 
century ago in Camden, the plant of the 
Victor Talking Machine Company has ex- 
panded, until today with a capitalization of 
$43,070,000 it consists of 31 large modern fire- 
proof and brick buildings with floor space of 
z,534,ooo square feet, where over 9,000 people 
are employed. 

Eldridge R. Johnson, the founder, was a ma- 
chinist with an imagination. Therefore when 
a man walked into his shop to have some minor 
repairs made on one of the first crude talking 
machines, the sensitive ear of the inventor was 
offended by the grotesque sounds that came 
from the curious toy, and with the inventor's 
enthusiasm for perfection, he set about making 
a machine that would really talk, sing, and 
reproduce instrumental music. His first ob- 
jective was to perfect recording, and when 
that was accomplished, to construct a spring 
motor that would run evenly. 

A total of $1,500 was all that could be spared 
for the first advertising effort. It was a start, 
however, toward one of the greatest continu- 
ous advertising campaigns, in which during 
the last Z5 years there has been invested over 
$40,000,000. 

A good machine, a good record, an organ- 
ized business, and national distribution were 
not the only stepping stones to Mr. Johnson's 
success. When he could divert his energies from 
perfecting the machine and launching a new 
company, he began the work of securing the 
exclusive right to record the voices and music 
of the world's greatest artists of concert and 
opera. 

Improvements have been made to the Vic- 
trola from time to time. The old horn type 
was replaced by the cabinet Victrola, which 
in turn had several changes, until recently 
there were introduced the Orthophonic Vic- 
trola and the Electrola. 

When it was learned that the Bell Telephone 



Laboratories of the Western Electric Company 
and the American Telephone and Telegraph 
Company had developed both a new method 
of recording and a new talking machine far ex- 
ceeding in range and quality the old recording 
and reproducing methods, the Victor Company 
investigated, and the right to use the new 
electrical recording process and the exclusive 
right to manufacture and sell the new repro- 
ducing instrument, which is now known as 
the Orthophonic Victrola, were acquired. 

It is interesting that the principle of match 
impedance, which governs the design of the 
Orthophonic machine, is a mechanical applica- 
tion of the electrical principle which made pos- 
sible long-distance telephone communication. 

The Victor Company then placed on the 
market instruments containing both ortho- 
phonic reproduction from. records and radio 
receiving sets manufactured by the Radio Cor- 
poration of America. Next came an electrical 
amplifying talking machine, developed by the 
General Electric Company, and marketed as 
the Electrola. In some of the larger Victor 
models, Radiola receiving equipment, ortho- 
phonic reproduction from records, and elec- 
trical reproduction from records are combined 
in a cabinet. A later development is the Auto- 
matic Victrola, which changes its own records. 

THOMAS A. EDISON INDUSTRIES 

Revered as the master inventor, it is difficult 
to divorce Thomas A. Edison from the world 
concept of him as a transcendent individual 
working alone like a great composer, sculptor, 
painter or writer. 

So, to form a picture of Edison the manufac- 
turer and Edison the financier, for the moment 
we must draw a veil over our image of Edison 
the inventor. 

The Thomas A. Edison Industries, the 
"House of Edison," stands today a world-wide 
organization creating, manufacturing and mar- 
keting many different articles of merchandise 
through a number of major divisions, each 
operating independently of the other, yet all 



198 



NEW JERSEY 





INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



199 



responsible to the general executive board, of 
which Mr. Thomas A. Edison is Chairman and 
Mr. Charles Edison, President. 

The main plants of Thomas A. Edison, Inc., 
the parent company, and one of its subsidiaries, 
the Edison Storage Battery Company, are 
located at West Orange, N. J. These plants in- 
clude 104 buildings, large and small, many of 
them six stories in height, of which 85% are of 
re-inforced concrete, the largest being 1000 feet 
long. The most important products made in 
the West Orange plants are: 

The Edison Nickel Steel Alkaline Storage 
Battery 

Edison Radio & Radio Phonograph Combi- 
nations 

Edison Phonographs and Records 

The Ediphone (Mr. Edison's dictating ma- 
chine) 

The Edicraft Siphonator, which makes coffee 
by a new process. 

The Edicraft Toaster 

Ediplate Seamless Electroplated Floats for 
steam traps and automatic regulating 
devices 

Another plant of Thomas A. Edison, Inc., 
about five miles from West Orange, at Silver 
Lake, makes Edison Primary Batteries, chem- 
icals for the Edison Storage Battery, Edison 
Radio and phonograph cabinets, wax masters 
for phonograph records and wax cylinders for 
the Ediphone. 

It is interesting to note the number of di- 
versified products of the Edison Industries. An 
example is that of Edison Portland Cement. 
Edison's entry into the cement industry arose 
through his nine years of experience in con- 
centrating magnetic iron ore in the hills of 
New Jersey. To this experience he added many 
supplemental inventions of a basic nature, 
among them his invention of the long kiln, 
which on its inception was derided by his 
competitors, but which has since been gener- 
ally adopted throughout the entire industry. 

The Edison Portland Cement plant at New 
Village is a model one in every respect, equipped 
with all available modern labor-saving devices, 
and maintaining the integrity of its product 
(7,500 Barrels daily) by chemical and physical 



tests which are continued day and night 
throughout the year. 

The latest product to be introduced to the 
country is the new line of Edison Radio Re- 
ceivers, comp -'sing both straight radio sets 
and radio-phonograph combinations. These 
receivers are of advanced design, electrically 
correct and efficiently built; housed in cabinets 
of true artistic excellence. They reproduce 
music both from radio broadcasting and from 
phonograph records, enabling the listener to 
have entertainment anywhere at any time. 
Complete electrification of the receivers is 
peculiarly appropriate to a product bearing the 
name of Edison, the father of the electrical 
industry. 

CAMPBELL SOUP COMPANY 

The Campbell Soup Company is of special 
interest as one of New Jersey's leading manu- 
facturing establishments and also as an outlet 
for much of the State's agricultural produce. 
Organized in 1869 as a canning and preserving 
establishment, the Campbell plant at one time 
produced zoo different articles, but more re- 
cently has specialized in canned soups, beans, 
and spaghetti. 

Campbell was the first to introduce con- 
densed soups in America. From the very begin- 
ning, one of the problems was to educate the 
American people to the advantages of soup 
as a regular diet, since soup did not occupy an 
important place in the American menu. 

The Campbell plant, which embraces 19 
acres of floor space, has been at Camden since 
its origin, although a new plant is now being 
built in Chicago. Over 30,000 carloads of in- 
gredients, containers, and finished products 
move in and out of this plant in a year. 

The production of soup began in 1898 and 
has been constantly increasing, until now 
there is an output of 500,000 cans every hour 
during the busy season, or an amount equal to 
that placed on the market during the first year. 

Agricultural laboratories and farms are 
maintained at convenient points in New Jersey 
for the development and propagation of choice 
varieties of tomatoes, celery, asparagus, and 
other garden vegetables. One year's pack of 



3 oo 



NEW JERSEY 




STERILIZING RETORTS ROOM, CAMPBELL KITCHENS CAMDEN 



tomato soup requires 50,000 acres in tomatoes 
alone. 

The tomatoes are "handled" without hands, 
are turned into running water, and go through 
several washings of hot and cold water. Im- 
perfect specimens are removed, and the perfect 
fruit is carried by a chain of porcelain-lined 
conveyors to the cooking caldrons of solid 
nickel. Skin, seeds, and core fiber are removed 
by electrically driven colanders, leaving only 
the pure juice. The soup then goes to stations 
where sanitary cans are filled, closed, and 
hermetically sealed, after which they are 
sterilized by superheated steam. 

The products of Campbell's are quite varied. 
There are 2.1 kinds of soups manufactured, in- 
cluding vegetable purees, meat soups, and clear 
soups, besides beans and spaghetti. The Franco- 
American Food Company is operated as a sub- 
division, producing 14 different soups and 
canned spaghetti. 

JOHNSON & JOHNSON 

The Johnson & Johnson business was founded 
in 1886. Robert W. Johnson and James W. 



Johnson had both been pioneers in the manu- 
facture of pharmaceutical plasters with an 
India-rubber base. They had developed im- 
provements in the making of plaster mass and 
the spreading of plasters which they believed 
would make these things more effective as 
therapeutic agents. To make surgical dressings, 
first-aid products, dental supplies and toilet 
specialties, the parent company at New Bruns- 
wick occupies a group of 51 buildings, with 
2.2. acres of floor space. 

The Johnsons had been studying the impor- 
tant changes taking place in the medical and 
surgical world. Pasteur had overthrown the 
doctrine of spontaneous generation. The science 
of bacteriology had had its birth. Then Lister 
attributed the mischief in wound repair to 
"living atmospheric particles," septic germs, 
which he attempted to destroy with carbolic 
acid. 

Johnson & Johnson applied themselves to 
producing dressings that fulfilled the demand 
of the best surgical practice under the new 
Listerian system. These dressings were packed 
so that they could be distributed to the profes- 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



3 OI 



sion through the drug trade without danger 
of deterioration by handling or climatic 
changes. 

When antisepsis came in, wounds were 
dressed with tow, oakum, jute, or cotton wad- 
ding, wet with carbolic acid. Absorbent cotton 
was supplied for surgical uses in the form of 
wads or in inconvenient shapes until Johnson 
& Johnson devised the method of rolling the 
cotton into sheets, with tissue paper between 
the layers. 

From the beginning this company realised 
that their success depended upon the confidence 
of the medical profession and that careful 
laboratory supervision of manufacturing proc- 
esses was necessary. The research laboratory of 
the concern is constantly at work upon prob- 
lems of interest to the medical and surgical 
professions. While intended for the develop- 
ment of the interests of Johnson & Johnson, the 
laboratory has been conducted in a scientific 
spirit and its results have always been made 
available to the medical profession. 

Since it is absolutely essential that pure water 
be used in washing gauze and cotton, which 



are themselves filtering materials, a water fil- 
tration plant, with a capacity of 300,000 gal- 
lons a day has been installed to supply the water 
needed in the Johnson & Johnson industry. 
Constant tests show that the water is always 
much above the standard requirements. 

This company has kept pace with the prog- 
ress in the art of surgery, producing a suitable 
dressing for every new method introduced to 
the medical profession. Among their successes 
has been the production of surgically clean 
catgut and sterilized animal membranes. The 
concern was a pioneer in the first-aid system. 
Eesides surgical dressings it makes such toilet 
articles as baby powder, liquid soap, and pack- 
aged dental floss. 

COLGATE & COMPANY 

Colgate & Co. is one of the few institutions 
in America which has been in the active con- 
trol of its founder or his direct descendants for 
over a century. Founded by William Colgate in 
1806 the company is directed by four of his 
grandsons and one great-grandson. 

Although the first workshop was in New 




BROTH KETTLES, CAMPBELL SOUP COMPANY CAMDEN 



3 oi 



NEW JERSEY 




COLGATE'S SOAP AND PERFUME FACTORIES JERSEY CITY 



York City, Colgate's is essentially a New Jer- 
sey enterprise. The factory was moved to Jersey 
City in 1847 and has grown until it takes in 
seven city squares. Twenty-five giant pans for 
boiling soap are in constant use, ten having a 
capacity of 700,000 pounds and one of almost 
1,000,000 pounds. Yet in 1845 people traveled 
miles to gaze in wonder at "Colgate's Folly," 
a pan which in one batch held 45,000 pounds. 
The products of Colgate embrace soaps, glyc- 
erines, perfumes, and toilet articles. Most of the 
soaps are manufactured by the "settled soap" 
process, which either eliminates impurities or 
cuts them to a minimum. The fats or oils are 
boiled with strong caustic soda lye which 
saponifies the oil, producing glycerine as a by- 
product and removing chance impurities. The 
glycerine is washed from the hot soap by a salt 
solution, which also removes the excess alka- 
lies. The soap is again boiled and treated with 
water until it assumes the condition of two 
balanced solutions, the heavier containing 
some soap and impurities not removed before, 
while the upper layer, known as settled soap, 
is the pure product, which is then pumped to 
other parts of the factory to be worked into 
salable shapes. 



Different soap products are secured by using 
certain fats and oils as bases. For toilet soaps, 
cocoanut, palm, olive oil, or clean beef tallow 
are used, and later treated with perfume oils. 
Some potash is substituted for all soda in pre- 
paring shaving soaps with hard fat or stearine 
used as a base. Soap powders and scouring 
cleansers are made from combinations of soap 
and sal soda and soap, soda, and volcanic ash 
respectively. Several dry soaps are sold in flaked 
form. Floating soaps are made by beating up 
with air a pure soap with a large percentage of 
cocoanut oil until it contains enough bubbles 
to make it lighter than water. 

The residue left in the settling process is 
boiled with oil, which absorbs the alkali, and 
the resulting solution is neutralized and clari- 
fied and finally distilled, leaving chemically 
pure glycerine. 

Perfumes in most cases are manufactured 
directly from the plants, using the flowers, the 
leaves, or in some cases the entire plant. This 
is done by steam distillation or by extraction 
with refined petroleums. In some cases the 
exact chemical structure of the perfume mate- 
rial has been determined, so that synthetic per- 
fumes can be produced. These perfume materials 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



33 



are combined with alcohol to secure extracts 
and toilet waters, the toilet waters containing 
a smaller proportion of perfume materials than 
the extracts. 

Many toilet articles are also manufactured, 
of which the most important are dental cream 
and powder, talcum, face, and baby powders, 
cold cream, and vanishing cream. 

BABCOCK AND WILCOX COMPANY 

In 1867 George H. Babcock and Stephen 
Wilcox started a partnership for the manu- 
facture of high-pressure water-tube boilers, this 
being succeeded in 1881 by the Babcock & 
Wilcox Company. This company has extensive 
plants in New Jersey and Ohio, and its asso- 
ciated company, Babcock & Wilcox Ltd., has 
plants in Scotland, England, Australia, and 
Japan. 

The New Jersey works, which were formerly 
at Elizabethport, but which in 1901 were 
moved to Bayonne, cover 46 acres, with a floor 
space of 800,000 square feet. 

Early attempts to utilize water-tube boilers 



were few, the first one being built by Blakey 
in 1766. There followed several improvements 
to this type until Stephen Wilcox, in 1856, con- 
structed the first water-tube boiler, using in- 
clined water tubes connecting water spaces at 
the front and rear with a steam space above. 
Finally George Babcock and Stephen Wilcox 
made commercially successful the utilization 
of water tubes in steam generators. 

The Babcock & Wilcox boiler is built in two 
general classes, the longitudinal drum type and 
the cross-drum type. While the latter was de- 
signed to meet conditions of head room, it 
has become popular in numerous classes of 
work where head room is not a factor, and is 
particularly adaptable for large units. Either 
type may be constructed with vertical headers, 
or with inclined headers perpendicular to the 
tubes, and the headers may be either of wrought 
steel or of cast iron. 

In addition to manufacturing these two 
classes of boilers, Babcock & Wilcox produce 
several devices to use in conjunction with 
them, such as their chain-grate stokers, super- 







ROLLING AND PACKING COTTON AND GAUZE AT THE JOHNSON & JOHNSON PLANT 
IN NEW BRUNSWICK 



34 



NEW 



JERSEY 



HEADER MACHINE SHOP, BABCOCK & WILCOX CO.-BAYONNE 




DRUM SHOP, BABCOCK & WILCOX CO. BAYONNE 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



305 



heaters, economizers, mechanical atomizer 
burners, and steam atomizer burners. 

These boilers are installed in the largest 
buildings, power plants, and factories in the 
country. The Woolworth Building operates 
2^454 horsepower of Babcock & Wilcox boilers; 
the Essex station of the Public Service Electric 
Company of New Jersey operates 36,080 horse- 
power of these boilers, and the Bethlehem 
Steel Company 46,000 horsepower. 

Nor are the boilers confined to land use. In 
fact, the Babcock & Wilcox cross-drum type 
was widely adopted for marine service before 
it had any considerable use on land. One of the 
Navy ships equipped with these boilers is the 
' Tennessee," whose power plant has a capacity 
of 13, 92.5 horsepower. 

JOHN A. ROEBLING'S SONS COMPANY 

The products of the Roebling wire plants in 
and around Trenton include steel, copper, gal- 
vanized, copper-coated, insulated, flat and 
round wire, twisted wire ropes, cables of 
numerous strands of hundreds of wires laid 
side by side and bound into cylindrical form, 
hemp-cored rope, steel-cored rope, round ropes, 
flat ropes, and spools of wire thousands of feet 
long. In fact, every kind of wire is made, from 
that having a diameter of one four-thousandth 
of an inch to cables three inches thick. 

The establishment founded in 1845 by John 
A. Roebling has grown until it embraces three 
plants. The main one is in Trenton and covers 
about 35 acres; the Buckthorn factory is half 
a mile farther south; the Kinkora plant is ten 
miles down the Delaware River and embraces 
the company's own town of Roebling. 

There are a hundred buildings in the three 
plants, four electric power stations with 16,000 
horsepower, and 150 boilers with 15,000 horse- 
power. About 1000 tons of coal is consumed a 
day and zo,ooo,oco gallons of fuel oil a year. 
The Kinkora plant Has 13 miles of standard- 
gage railroad track. Just before the war 8,000 
employees were manufacturing Roebling prod- 
ucts and the value of the output ran far into 
the millions. 

In former years the Roebling company en- 
gaged in construction work as well as in the 
production of wire, but has now discontinued 



that activity. John Roebling was first to realize 
the utility of steel wire in constructing sus- 
pension bridges, and it was he who planned 
the Brooklyn Bridge. Roebling also furnished 
the wire and installed the cable for the Wil- 
liamsburg Bridge and supplied the cable for 
the Manhattan Bridge, which latter called for 
iz,ooo,ooo pounds of wire. 

The company produces its own steel at the 
Kinkora plant. The steel ingots are rolled 
down, cut and re-rolled until they appear as 
rods of the desired size. The rods are then 
pulled through a steel die and wound off in 
miles of wire. This process is repeated, using 
dies of diminishing size until the desired 
diameter of wire is obtained. For very fine 
wire it is necessary to use diamond dies, since 
the threadlike wire cuts the steel dies. 

The town of Roebling, ten miles south of 
Trenton, is a model of its kind. It has its own 
store which sells below current prices, its own 
supply of electric light and coal, its own fire 
and police companies, and its own bank. The 
residences for the most part are of brick, and 
there are a baseball ground, a recreation build- 
ing, a theater, public school, hospital and dis- 
pensary, so that all the needs of the Roebling 
employees can be met within their own town. 

BOTANY WORSTED MILLS 

In 1889 the first unit of the Botany Worsted 
Mills was established at Passaic by the late 
Eduard Stoehr. The first industrial principle 
controlling the enterprise was that the com- 
pany should be a vertical organization taking 
the raw fleece and creating a finished fabric. 
Up to that time many of the processes of the 
wool textile industry had been conducted by 
separate organizations, such as weavers and 
dyers. The second thought behind the establish- 
ment of the mill was that of bringing to the 
United States the most advanced European tech- 
nique, which up to that time had not pene- 
trated the American industry. 

Eduard Stoehr had previously created the 
great worsted and woolen mills at Leipzig, 
Germany, known as Kammgarnspinnerei Stoehr 
& Company, and was recognized as one of the 
leading European authorities of the industry. 
Associated with him were Louis Hirsch, who 



3 o6 



NEW JERSEY 



conducted one of the largest dyeing and finish- 
ing establishments on the Continent, and Fried- 
rich Arnold, one of the largest dress goods 
manufacturers in Europe. Mr. Stoehr was him- 
self a spinner, so that the expert knowledge of 
these three men covered the essential processes 
in wool-cloth manufacturing. 

The American enterprise benefited under the 
McKinley protective tariff so that it was able 
to cope with European competition, putting 
the American industry in a position to compete 
with the best foreign products. The selection of 
Passaic as the site for the first mill was due to 
the chemical properties of the local water. 

There are between 3,000 and 4,000 looms 
operated by Botany Consolidated Mills which 
are supported by combing, dyeing, finishing 
and other machinery in proportion. Approxi- 
mately 4000 workers produce a wide range of 
goods. 

The mills have withdrawn from their large 
European investments, but retain certain equi- 
ties which afford the American organization a 
close contact with technical developments in 
Europe. 



CLARK THREAD Co. 

The original plant of the Clark Thread Com- 
pany was opened in Newark in 1868, at which 
time it occupied 50,000 square feet of floor 
space. Today it is the largest thread mill in the 
United States and one of the three largest in 
the world, occupying a floor area of over 40 
acres and having a capacity of 99^05 miles 
daily of the various types of thread produced, 
or enough to encircle the earth at the equator 
about four times. 

Five thousand people operate over 500,000 
spinning and twisting spindles and other ma- 
chinery used in the manufacture of thread. In 
order that every employee may thoroughly 
know his or her job, training schools for new 
employees have been established, supervised by 
a staff of instructors some of whom have been 
in the employ of the company for over 50 years. 

A five-cent spool of thread is such an insig- 
nificant article that few people realize the care 
and time that go into its manufacture. The 
cotton is received in compressed bales and is 
opened and loosened up by a bale-breaking 




SPINNING ROOM, CLARK THREAD COMPANY NEWARK 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



37 



machine, following which it is beaten up until 
it becomes soft and fluffy. Then it is made into 
large laps. These beating machines are called 
pickers or scutchers, and they remove the heav- 
ier foreign matter. The cotton as it comes from 
the scutchers is in continuous laps much like 
sheets of batting. 

The carding machines receive the cotton 
next. Fibers and bits of dirt have no chance 
when the cotton is being rolled over a cylinder 
covered with fine wire teeth, 90,000 to a square 
foot. Brushed and combed both ways, the al- 
most parallel fibers flow out like a white mist. 

This gossamer is streamed into a thick rope 
which submits to a combing that sorts out and 
discards the fibers that do not come up to 
standard length. Leaving the combers, the 
slivers or strands are drawn out to the dimen- 
sions required, passing through five processes 
before coming to the "mule," or spinning 
frame. 

This machine does the work of our great- 
grandmother's spinning wheel. A thousand 
spindles on a frame advance and retreat in a 
mechanical minuet. Eight thousand revolu- 
tions a minute trick the eye into thinking that 
the spindles are motionless, but with every 
twirl the yarn stretches more. 

Thread is the doubling and twisting of yarn: 
First of all two ends of yarn are twisted to- 
gether, and then three of these are twisted 
together into a six-cord. The thread is still 
unfinished because it has the natural gray ap- 
pearance of cotton. Before it is good enough 
for sewing purposes it must be boiled out and 
bleached or dyed. When this has been com- 
pleted it emerges snow-white, black, or one 
of the many fashionable shades into which it 
is dyed. 

If the thread is to be so softly shining that 
it will conceal its own stitches when used to 
sew on silk it must Jiave a mercerizing treat- 
ment. When it emerges from this, it will have 
a delicate soft sheen and may be literally hid- 
den in a garment, because unlike silk, cotton 
thread can be sewed with a tight tension and 
thus buried in the fabric and protected by it. 

After bleaching, or dyeing, the thread is 
wound on a spool, the end snipped and tucked 
in and the spool is given Clark's O.N.T. 



label. Over 215 machines have been employed 
in changing raw fluffs of cotton into a perfect 
sewing thread. 

TRENTON POTTERIES COMPANY 

In 1892. five prominent and successful pot- 
teries were brought under one management and 
the corporation took the name of the Trenton 
Potteries Company. These potteries were 
known as the Crescent, Delaware, Empire, 
Enterprise, and Equitable. In this merger the 
skilled employees, the formulas, and the man- 
agements became assets of one concern. This 
combination afforded greater economies of 
manufacture through bulk production and the 
coordinate efforts of so many expert potters. 

Very soon this company began experiment- 
ing in the manufacture of solid porcelain, 
which at that time was being imported in 
large quantities. In time the efforts proved 
successful, and a new plant was built for the 
manufacture of this product. This was known 
as the Ideal pottery and was the first in this 
country successfully to produce porcelain bath- 
tubs. 

At the time of the consolidation four of 
these plants were making vitreous china and 
the other one manufactured tableware. At 
present all the potteries are manufacturing 
Tepeco all-clay plumbing fixtures for bath- 
room and kitchen. 

Raw materials are brought from all over the 
country and from across the seas. The articles 
are shaped by both hand molds and by mechan- 
ical casts. Firing is done in both the vertical 
kiln and the tunnel kilns, although the tun- 
nels are gradually replacing the older type. 

WRIGHT AERONAUTICAL CORPORATION 

Most of the concerns mentioned have been 
old-established New Jersey industries, but 
since the war there has sprung up a business 
of increasing importance and which is the 
leader of its kind in the country, the Wright 
Aeronautical Corporation of Paterson, formed 
in 1919. At that time the assets and business 
of the Wright-Martin Aircraft Corporation 
were taken over, so that in this way were 
inherited the patent rights, tradition, and the 
name of the Wright brothers, the fathers of 



3 o8 



NEW JERSEY 



mechanical flying, who made their first flight 
in 1903. 

Several years later there was acquired by 
purchase and merger the business of the Law- 
rence Aero Engine Corporation, which had 
developed a very successful air-cooled engine of 
2.00 horsepower. Water-cooled engines pre- 
viously had been used, but with the intro- 
duction of the lighter air-cooled engine, which 
was more adaptable to variations in altitude 
and climate conditions, there could be built 
a lighter and more compact plane, easier to 
maintain and overhaul. 

The Wright Company concentrates upon 
production of its "Whirlwind" and "Cyclone" 
airplane engines and the "Typhoon" marine 
engine. The Wright Whirlwind engine, used 
in the planes of Lindbergh, Byrd, Chamber- 
lain, and other record -holding flyers, develops 
over zoo horsepower and weighs about 500 
pounds, or about z^ pounds per horsepower, 
as contrasted with the original Wright engine 
used by the Wright brothers which developed 
iz horsepower and weighed 2.50 pounds, or 



zz pounds per horsepower. The engines are 
built like scientific instruments by only highly 
skilled workers, with constant testing of ma- 
terial, frequent measurements such as calibra- 
tion and micrometering of parts to detect the 
slightest variation from standard, and the im- 
mediate scrapping of anything below standard. 

The Whirlwind engine is of the fixed radial 
type, consisting of nine cylinders arranged 
around a central crankcase and crankshaft en- 
circled by a master connecting rod to which 
are joined the other eight connecting rods. 
There are two separate and complete ignition 
systems, each cylinder having two spark plugs 
fired simultaneously by separate magnetos, so 
that if one plug or even one ignition system 
fails, the other will explode the gasoline. 

The Cyclone engine is similar in design to 
the "Whirlwind," but is much larger and 
develops as high as 550 horsepower. At present 
it is being built solely for the United States 
government, but later will probably be re- 
leased for commercial sale. 




AMERICAN BROWN-BOVERI ELECTRIC CORPORATION AND NEW YORK SHIPBUILDING COMPANY 

PLANTS AT CAMDEN 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



309 



There was a sudden increase in the demand 
for aircraft engines in 192.7, so that the number 
of men on the payroll was greatly increased. 
New equipment was rapidly built and con- 
tracts were awarded for the construction of 
new buildings adjacent to the present plant 
at Paterson. 

E. I. DU PONT DE NEMOURS & COM- 
PANY 

The history of the du Pont Company is a 
tribute to the utility of commercial chemical 
research. Originally founded as a black powder 
factory, in 1801 by Irenee du Pont, who was en- 
couraged in this venture by his friend, Presi- 
dent Jefferson, this establishment has gradually 
extended its scope, manufacturing today such 
diverse products as gunpowder, imitation 
ivory toilet-ware, dynamite and Duco, the 
latter for finishing cars. All of these are made 
by closely related chemical processes, but there 
is a great variance to the products. 

Six plants are maintained in New Jersey. 
One at Arlington employs over z,ooo people 
and specializes in pyralin plastic products; one 
at Carney's Point has 1,000 workers engaged 
in the manufacture of gunpowder; the Parlin 
plant, employing nearly 1,000, is in the pyroxy- 
lin business; the Repauno dynamite plant has 
800 workers, while the Pompton Lakes powder 
cap works and the Newark paint and color 
works each employs about 500. 

The Repauno plant, which is the largest 
dynamite factory in the world, produced in 
19x6 in a single month 7,000,000 pounds of 
dynamite, as much as was used by the whole 
world in the year that this plant was founded. 
A research problem successfully solved in 19x5 
was to perfect a dynamite that would not 
freeze at any climatic temperature. 

The Parlin and Arlington plants making 
pyroxylin utilize much of the same raw ma- 
terials, plant equipment, manufacturing proc- 
esses, and technical knowledge as are required 
in the production of smokeless powder. Py- 
roxylin is used in making Fabrikoid or imita- 
tion leather, as a protective film for metal 
objects and gas mantles, as a waterproof cement 
for leather belting, as a carrier for bronze 



powder, and in a solution of low viscosity as 
the automobile finish known as Duco. 

From pyroxylin plaster (a mixture of cam- 
phor, alcohol, and nitrocellulose), are created 
imitations of amber, glass, stone, wood, rub- 
ber, horn, shells, pearl, ivory, and semi- 
precious stones. 

AMERICAN BROWN BOVERI ELECTRIC 
CORPORATION 

Probably the largest and most comprehensive 
unit in America's ship-building strength is the 
American Brown Boveri Electric Corporation 
at Camden. It has built over 2.0 per cent of the 
vessel tonnage now comprising the United 
States Navy. The company for two years has 
been perfecting its organization to design and 
manufacture utility, railway, and industrial 
electrification equipment. 

The plant has 191 acres of land, with 4,171 
feet of waterfront on the Delaware River, and 
ii miles of standard gage tracks and sidings. 
At the north end of the property, back from 
the waterfront, are the shops and power plant 
devoted to shipbuilding activities. These shops 
are equipped with labor-saving machinery and 
have a floor area of 468,000 square feet. A 
crane system serves the buildings and yard. 

The shipway capacity comprises five cov- 
ered double-ways from 12.6 to 140 feet wide, 
two ways each 151 feet wide, and four ways 
each 103 feet wide. The ten smaller shipways 
used for destroyers and other craft during the 
World War could be again put in commission. 
Thus there is a shipway capacity for 2.8 vessels 
of ordinary size in addition to ships that can 
be outfitted in the basins. With the exception 
of the Government plant at Hog Island, the 
shipway capacity of the American Brown 
Boveri Electric Corporation is the largest in 
this country or abroad. This plant has been 
building ships for 2.6 years. At the beginning 
of 1917 there were 4,500 men employed in the 
yard. In 1919 there were 17,500. Now there 
are 7,500. 

Since the yard was built, the company has 
delivered 371 vessels, of which 51 were war- 
ships and 319 merchant ships. The total output 
is 1,2.50,000 gross tons, and the plants installed 
have 1,000,000 horsepower. 



3io 



NEW JERSEY 




INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



MACK-INTERNATIONAL MOTOR-TRUCK 
CORPORATION 

When the internal combustion engine was 
slowly developing from an experiment into a 
practical power plant, the Mack Brothers in 
1900 applied it to American commercial high- 
way transportation. 

For some time prior to the production of the 
first Mack, Adolph Saurer, of Arbon, Switzer- 
land, had been making motor-trucks in Europe. 
The Saurer is still being manufactured in 
Switzerland, France, Germany, and Austria 
through its founder. 

Shortly after the Mack had established itself 
in the American field, the Hewitt Motor Com- 
pany was founded by E. R. Hewitt, an engineer 
of international fame. The first Hewitt light 
truck was delivered in 1901 and the first five- 
ton Hewitt was sold in 1905, followed by the 
ten-ton Hewitt. 

By combining the main features of these 
three trucks, the modern Mack was evolved. 
The company now building Mack trucks and 
buses was incorporated as the International 
Motor Company in October, 1911. It acquired 
the resources, patents, and personnel of these 
three American pioneer motor-truck and bus 
manufacturers, and more than one-third of the 
employees at the time of the consolidation are 
with the present Mack company. 

The Mack is an engineered product, manu- 
factured in three great factories at Allentown, 
Pa., Plainfield and New Brunswick, N. J., 
with direct factory branches at central points. 

R. D. WOOD & Co. 

R. D. Wood & Co. celebrated in 1918 its 
iz5th anniversary of activity in New Jersey. 
In 1803 the founder constructed a blast furnace 
at Millville, where in addition to the metal 
there were cast stove plates, fences, lamp 
posts, and iron water-pipe, the first to be cast 
in America. Since that time there have been 
constant improvements. A number of new 
plants were built and in turn abandoned or 
sold, so that at present the company retains 
and operates only its Florence works. 

The original plant used the oldest method 
of casting water pipes in sand molds in a 



horizontal position, but the Florence works 
has been equipped to employ the newest process 
called the "sand spun" process, by which the 
pipes are cast centrifugally in refractory molds. 

The Florence plant on the Delaware River 
at tidewater covers 54 acres and employs 
1,500 men. In contrast to the products of the 
earlier foundry, it now produces fire hydrants, 
gate valves, hydraulic machinery, gas ma- 
chinery, gas producers, and numerous other 
such products. 

Among the most prominent machines built 
by this company are the original iron pumps 
and turbines used by the City of Philadelphia 
for lifting water into Fairmount Reservoir, the 
centrifugal pumps used in supplying new filter 
beds for the City of Philadelphia, and one of 
the largest single units for steam pumping 
machinery in the United States which is in 
operation in the City of Cincinnati. Thousands 
of tons of materials have been shipped to the 
Pacific Coast for construction of water and gas 
works. This shipment was carried on before 
the construction of the Panama Canal, when 
because of the bad weather encountered around 
the Horn, cargoes were frequently either 
jettisoned or completely lost. 

INGERSOLL-RAND COMPANY 

The Ingersoll-Rand Company's shops at Phil- 
lipsburg have been in full swing since 1904 and 
represent the most conspicuous feature of Phil- 
lipsburg industrial life. This plant is the largest 
of five plants operated by the company, which 
has played an outstanding part in the develop- 
ment of rock drills, pneumatic tools, and air 
compressors, over a period of more than half a 
century. 

The products turned out at Phillipsburg in 
their making call for the services of hundreds of 
skilled workers. The plant manufactures rock 
drills for mines and quarries, air compressors 
of the larger types, turbo-blowers, condensers, 
and heavy oil engines for manifold purposes. 
The shops are equipped with machine tools of 
superior sorts and in numerous instances of an 
automatic nature particularly built for the ex- 
acting work required of them. 

The Phillipsburg plant was called into being 
to provide a spacious and an especially health- 



3 12 - 



NE W JERSEY 



ful industrial center. It is situated near the con- 
fluence of the Lehigh and the Delaware Rivers. 
There is ample room for expansion, and within 
the reservation is the plant of the A. S. Cameron 
Steam Pump Works, an affiliated company that 
manufactures various types of pumps. 

MICHELIN TIRE COMPANY 

The Michelin Tire Company, claiming to be 
the oldest rubber manufacturing concern in the 
world, is an outgrowth of a rubber-ball factory 
founded in France in the year 183-2.. This com- 
pany has plants in France, Italy, England, and 
Milltown, N. J., for the sole manufacture of 
rubber tires. 

In 1888 the business, which had gradually 
declined, was taken over by two grandsons of 
one of the founders. At that time bicycles were 
just coming into popularity, and as the tires 
were not detachable the frequent punctures 
were serious. Michelin brought out the first 
detachable tire fixed to the rim by 17 bolts and 
requiring 15 minutes to change. Improvements 
soon made it possible to change a tire in two 
minutes, so that the Michelins organized a race 
and secretly strewed the route with nails, with 
the result that the 2.44 punctures occurring were 
no trouble to repair. 

When the automobile was introduced, solid 
tires were used with such resultant vibration 
that the cars proved almost useless. In 1895 
Michelin prepared a pneumatic tire, but failed 
to find anyone who would use it in a coming 
race. Consequently they entered a car of their 
own called "Lightning," not because of its 
speed, but because of its zigzag course, and al- 
though it had a puncture every 90 miles and 
caught fire twice, it arrived at the finish tri- 
umphantly introducing pneumatic automobile 
tires to the world. 

Michelin claims to be the first to invent the 
pneumatic auto tire, the ring-shaped tube, 
the demountable rim, the successful non-skid, 
the steel disk auto wheel, and the balloon tire 
for existing rims. At their plant in Milltown, 
Michelins own and rent 240 houses and sell 
homes on the easy-payment plan to their em- 
ployees. There is maintained a community 
house for the use of the 1,800 workers with an 



auditorium, poolroom, bowling alleys, and 
cafeteria. 

UNITED STATES METALS REFINING COM- 
PANY 

The smelting and refining plant of the United 
States Metals Refining Company at Carteret is 
reached by water through Staten Island Sound 
to its docks and also by rail. 

It started operations in 1902. and was for a 
number of years known as the DeLamar Refin- 
ing Works. Its main operations consist of 
smelting copper ores, concentrates, mattes, 
slags, and secondaries, and of refining electro- 
lytically blister copper from its own smelter 
and from others in the United States, South 
America, and other parts of the globe. 

In 1902. this plant produced 8,000 tons of 
electrolytic copper, and since then its produc- 
tion has increased steadily until in 1917 it 
amounted to approximately 1.40,000 tons, thus 
establishing it as one of the world's largest 
producers of refined copper. The copper is 
turned out in such commercial forms as wire 
bars, ingots, cakes, cathodes, and billets. 

In addition to copper, quantities of silver, 
gold, platinum, palladium, and selenium are 
produced. 

The metallurgical and mechanical equipment 
in the works is of the latest design, and it is 
constantly being enlarged and improved to re- 
duce costs and keep pace with the growing 
demand for high-grade products. 

The plant is divided into the three depart- 
ments of smelter, refinery, and scrap-metal 
plant. The smelting plant, the largest in the 
United States east of the Mississippi River, has 
a large storage building, two sampling mills, 
roasters, a Dwight-Lloyd sintering machine, 
and in the main building one large reverbera- 
tory furnace which makes copper matte from 
ores and concentrates. This matte goes to con- 
verters which blow the matte to blister copper. 
There are also blast furnaces which run on 
metallics to produce black copper. 

The yard department handles all incoming 
and outgoing materials. There is a sampling 
room where the incoming copper is tested by 
drilling. 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



The casting department makes anodes for 
the electrolytic department from blister and 
scrap copper, and melts and casts cathode cop- 
per into commercial shapes. There are eight 
large reverberatory furnaces, four for anodes 
and four for wire bars and other refined 
shapes. 

The electrolytic department, or tank house, 
refines the impure copper anodes by electrolysis, 
making pure copper cathodes, which are sent 
to the casting department. The impurities in 
the form of slimes containing the gold, silver, 
platinum, and palladium fall to the bottom of 
the tanks, whence they are sent to the silver 
refinery. Here the precious metals are refined 
electrolytically. Gold and silver are turned 
out in bars and shot, while platinum and pal- 
ladium are produced in powdered form. Sele- 
nium is recovered as a by-product. 

The plant has 1800 employees. In 19x7 the 
company acquired under lease the plant of The 
Balbach Metals Corporation. This plant is 
equipped to treat lead ores, bullion, mattes, 
and other lead-bearing materials. It also treats 
jewelry sweeps and bullion. 



JOHNS-MANVILLE CORPORATION 

The largest manufacturer of asbestos prod- 
ucts in the world is the Johns-Manville Cor- 
poration, with a factory at Manville, about 
four miles west of Bound Brook. It covers an 
area of 3x5 acres, the buildings occupying 15 
acres. They are 150 feet wide and approxi- 
mately 1000 feet long, well lighted and 
ventilated, with concrete flooring throughout. 
Five miles of concrete roads surround the 
plant. 

The products consist of asbestos textiles, 
packings, pipe and boiler insulations, insulat- 
ing and refractory cements, roofings, shingles, 
ebony wood, power specialties, and railroad 
supplies. 

There are over seven miles of railroad sid- 
ings. The power plant develops 10,000 horse- 
power. The employees number about 1500. 
Fully 14,000 carloads are handled at the plant 
annually. 

The company owns asbestos mines in Canada 
and Arizona, and has six other factories in 
various parts of the country. 




NEW YORK BELTING & PACKING CO. WORKS AT PASSAIC 



3*4 



NEW JERSEY 



GRASSELLI CHEMICAL COMPANY 

Grasselli Chemical Company was founded at 
Cincinnati in 1839 by Eugene Grasselli, who 
erected there the first sulphuric-acid plant built 
west of the Allegheny Mountains. As the de- 
mand justified, other chemicals were manu- 
factured. In 1866 the company built a plant at 
Cleveland and transferred its headquarters to 
that city. 

In 1844 the corporation bought the site of 
the original plant at Grasselli, N. J., and this 
has been extended until it covers 150 acres and 
employs 1500 men. The 2.5 products made at 
this plant include sulphuric, muriatic, nitric, 
and battery acids, lithophone, glauber salt, 
silicate of soda, phosphate of soda and tri- 
sodium phosphate. 

The company has 2.5 operations in the United 
States, of which the Grasselli plant is one of 
the largest. It also operates 17 delivery ware- 
houses to facilitate deliveries to customers. The 
chemicals produced at the Grasselli works are 
used by over 100 different classes of industry. 

NEW YORK BELTING & PACKING COM- 
PANY 

The modern plant of the New York Belting 
& Packing Company in Passaic is engaged in 
the manufacture of rubber goods for mechan- 
ical purposes. The products are belting for 
power transmission; rubber hose for use with 
water, steam, and air; sheet and piston pack- 
ings; molded goods in a great variety; and 
grinding wheels banded with rubber, and rub- 
ber-tiled flooring. 

The company dates back to the time of the 
discovery by Charles Goodyear of the process 
of vulcanizing rubber. Organized in 1846, it has 
had 82. years of successful business life. Its plant 
is modern, and many of the buildings are new 
and equipped with efficient machinery for pro- 
ducing goods of uniform quality in large vol- 
ume. 

There is an industrial and chemical labora- 
tory for testing materials and for carrying on 
research work in the development of new goods 
and new processes. The number of employees 
averages 1800. 



WESTON ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENT COM- 
PANY 

Dr. Edward Weston, after having performed 
extensive research with the Weston Dynamo 
Electric Machine Company for several years 
prior to 1886, established his own research 
laboratories in Newark known as the Weston 
Electrical Instrument Company. 

This company has grown from a small labor- 
atory to a factory covering many acres and 
employing over 1,000 people. It manufactures 
instruments for the measurement of direct and 
alternating currents, the Weston standard cell 
which is the international standard of electro- 
motive force, and such adaptations of electrical 
measurement as the electric tachometer, which 
is a device for the measurement of rotary 
speeds, indicating the movement at the point 
of installation, or transmitting the measure- 
ment by cable to managerial offices. 

These instruments have been one of the 
necessary guiding influences in the advance- 
ment of the use of electricity. Without them 
neither the generators supplying power nor 
the networks of transmission and distributing 
lines could be controlled. They also add to the 
effectiveness of research work in laboratories. 

Miraculously delicate and accurate opera- 
tions are necessary in the manufacture of these 
instruments. For example, the trussed frames 
of some of the pointers are made of extremely 
small aluminum tubing having a wall less than 
one one-thousandth of an inch in thickness, 
yet giving essential lightness and strength. 
Exact balance of the pointer is obtained by 
three minute nuts screwed on to aluminum 
cross-arms carrying a pitch of 500 threads to 
an inch. Each instrument during the process 
of manufacture and assembly is on the average 
subjected to 140 careful inspections. 

WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC & MANUFAC- 
TURING COMPANY 

The plant of the Westinghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Company at Newark, where 
more than 4,000 people are employed, is en- 
gaged in the manufacture of watt-hour meters, 
electric instruments, arc and voltage regulators, 
relays, and radio loud speakers. The factory 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



contains the latest equipment, including do- 
mestic and foreign machine tools, modern 
facilities for measuring and conveying equip- 
ment, and a large number of labor-saving 
devices. The first building at the present site 
was erected in 1904, and there are now eight 
buildings which contain 300,000 square feet of 
manufacturing and office floor space. 

More than 30 carloads of equipment valued 
at nearly $1,000,000 are shipped from the 
plant monthly. Electric power is used almost 
entirely in operating the devices in the different 
shops, and for this purpose the Newark works 
uses about 3,800,000 kilowatt-hours of power 
yearly. 

The Westinghouse Lamp Company, a sub- 
sidiary, has had a plant at Bloomfield for 2.0 
years, with 1,500 people now employed. The 
ii acres of land are occupied by n buildings, 
with a net floor space of 658,000 square feet, 
for the manufacture of Tungsten filament 
Mazda lamps, radio-receiving and transmitting 
tubes, rectigons, and high- and low-tension 
rectifiers. 

In addition to the Bloomfield works, the 
company operates plants in Trenton, making 
about Z7,ooo,ooo standard lamps yearly; in 
Belleville, making about 100,000,000 bases 
yearly for lamps and radio tubes; in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., making about 16,000,000 miniature 
lamps yearly; and in Milwaukee, Wis., where 
about 17,000,000 standard lamps are produced 
annually. 

MANHATTAN RUBBER MANUFACTURING 
Co. 

The Manhattan Rubber Manufacturing Com- 
pany, with offices and factories at Passaic, was 
organized in 1893 to manufacture mechanical 
rubber goods. The growth has been steady and 
consistent. Beginning with one building, it 
now covers four larg^ blocks with an auxiliary 
reclaiming plant at Whippany. It is the largest 
independent manufacturer of rubber goods in 
the world. 

In order to control the raw materials that 
go into their products, rubber plantations are 
operated and maintained in Java. The factories 
are located 12. miles from New York and 
operate a fleet of trucks which make daily 



deliveries to all steamship piers and railroad 
terminals. 

Products range from small molded articles to 
conveyor belts that have in many instances 
weighed over 10 tons apiece. Among the prod- 
ucts are belts, brake linings, hose, packing, 
tubing, gaskets, billiard cushions, mats, rubber- 
covered rolls, sundries, molded goods and 
mechanical rubber goods, including Condor belts 
and the Hycoe line of automotive products. 

A large and amply equipped testing labora- 
tory is devoted to the development and im- 
provement of quality products. 

UNITED PIECE DYE WORKS 

The United Piece Dye Works, capitalized at 
$10,000,000, is a merger effected in 1903 of the 
two neighboring Lodi dyeing establishments 
of the Boettgers and the Blums. This company 
employs over 5,000 people. All of its plants but 
one are in New Jersey, and each specializes in 
some operation. The Lodi printing depart- 
ments are devoted to all-silk fabrics, the Haw- 
thorne to cotton and silk mixtures, the Weid- 
mann plant at Paterson to piece dyeing, and 
the Van Houten Street plant of Paterson to 
skein dyeing. 

The Lodi establishment has two groups of 
buildings along the Saddle River, these being 
outgrowths of the original companies. Here 
are maintained a baby clinic and a hospital. 

During the World War the scarcity of aniline 
dyes made it necessary to establish laboratories 
and a dye-producing plant. At the close of the 
war this business was sold to the du Pont com- 
pany. Since 1908 the United Piece Dye Works 
has been in close relations with many large 
establishments of like character in Europe. 

The Alexander Piece Dye Works, one of the 
original companies, claims to be the first to 
perform silk-piece dyeing in this country. The 
United Piece Dye Works claims to be the fore- 
runner in the weighting of piece goods and 
in the commercial development of mastic print- 
ing, an adaptation of the ancient Oriental art 
of batik printing. 

KEUFFEL & ESSER COMPANY 

The Keuffel & Esser Company, with its 
general offices and factories at Hoboken, manu- 



3 i6 



NEW JERSEY 




LABORATORY AND BELT TESTING APPARATUS 
Manhattan Rubber Manufacturing Company works at Passaic 



factures surveying instruments, drawing ma- 
terials, blueprint paper, slice rules, drafting- 
room furniture, measuring tapes, periscopes, 
range finders, telescopes, gun sights, and hun- 
dreds of other products used by civil and 
mechanical engineers and draftsmen. 

In 1867 Wilhelm Keuffel and Herman Esser 
founded this business, conducting it as im- 
porters and jobbers. The rapid growth induced 
them in 1870 to manufacture some of the goods 
sold by them, but the first factory was built 
in Hoboken in 1880. This was supplemented 
every few years by additions until the build- 
ings now occupied have a floor area of 2.50,000 
square feet with nearly 1,000 employees. 

The mechanical equipment of the factories 
is of the highest type and includes special auto- 
matic precision machines for dividing circles 
and graduating slide rules. The workmen are 
highly skilled, and the variety of products re- 
quires services of those in 40 different trades. 

The production of these instruments involves 
high technical skill as well as the most accurate 



mechanical devices, demanding in some cases 
measurements to one fifty-thousandth part of 
an inch. 

SCHWARZENBACH HuBER COMPANY 

Since the time of the Reformation the house 
of Schwarzenbach has been manufacturing 
silks. At that time this clan, which had settled 
about Lake Zurich in Switzerland, took ad- 
vantage of the new industry introduced by the 
Huguenots fleeing from Locarno. Since 182.9 
this silk business has grown until now it main- 
tains mills in Switzerland, France, Germany, 
Italy, and the United States. 

The United States branch of the Schwarzen- 
bach enterprises, known as the Schwarzenbach 
Huber Company, was started in New Jersey, 
where are still located four of its 15 American 
plants. The New Jersey plants are at Union 
City, Bayonne, Hackensack, and Union Hill. 
Other mills are in Pennsylvania, Connecticut, 
Virginia, and Alabama. 

The first American plant was built in West 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



Hoboken in 1886 and has continued in active 
operation since, despite numerous ups and 
downs in the silk trade. 

Since the early organization of this establish- 
ment, frequent replacement of machinery has 
been necessary because of the many improve- 
ments in textile machinery. Throwing ma- 
chinery, which has undergone numerous 
changes, now combines the three operations 
of foretwisting, doubling, and twisting. Al- 
though the weaving looms are essentially the 
same in construction, it has been necessary to 
install wider looms because of the increased 
popularity cf wider silks. Extreme changes 
have also been made in the quillers, warping, 
machinery, and bobbins. 

The Schwarzenbach Huber Company makes 
its own cotton harness and reeds, assembles all 
its metal heddles, and does part of its own 
finishing and dyeing. 

SINGER MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

The Singer Manufacturing Company has one 
of its largest sewing machine plants in Eliza- 
bethport, where its factory employs 10,000 
people. It is made up of 50 buildings, covering 
84 acres. Within the property are nine miles of 
company-owned railroad tracks and over i,ooo 
feet of dock frontage. The factory walls cover 
2.5500,000 square feet of floor space. There are 
manufactured, 1,500 types of sewing machines, 
for every trade purpose from the stitching of 
filmy chiffon to the heaviest of leather belting, 
as well as the models of the familiar family 
machine. Research engineers are constantly ex- 
perimenting to develop new and better ma- 
chines. 

This great plant is really several factories in 
one. It includes a very large iron foundry, ex- 
tensive machine shops, a wood-finishing plant, 
a needle factory, and the electric motor plant, 
where the sewing machines are supplied with 
a motor and light. 

In this factory the Singer Company in 1889 
brought out the first electrically-powered sew- 
ing machine. Since that date, the electric 
machine has become increasingly popular as 
another labor-saving unit in the electrified 
home. The form of the family machine also 



has changed. The elaborately grilled iron sup- 
ports of the old style treadle machine cabinet 
are giving way to a more advanced design. 
Compact portable electric models and library 
table cabinets, in keeping with modern fur- 
niture, today conceal unattractive parts while 
rendering all the more available this indis- 
pensable servant of the modern home. 

All of this Singer production, however, does 
not leave the State. There are over 500,000 
sewing machines of this make in use in New 
Jersey. 

EDISON LAMP COMPANY 

Half a century ago under the tired but eager 
eyes of a young man bent over a rude bench in 
a wooden building at Menlo Park, a small 
loop of wire prisoned in a glass bulb began to 
glow dimly. The men grouped about the bench 
held their breaths. They had been skeptical 
about that light and had made bets that it 
would last only a few minutes. Gradually the 
young inventor turned on more current until 
the loop of wire shone brilliantly and lighted 
up his face, a face that was already glowing 
with the exultant happiness of achievement. 
The skeptical men lost their bets, for the loop 
of wire burned steadily for nearly two days. 

That young man was Thomas A. Edison, 
and the light was the first practical incan- 
descent lamp. Today that lamp has many 
millions of descendants, and the man in whose 
brain it was conceived has the homage of the 
world. 

From the humble beginning at Menlo Park 
has gradually grown up a giant industry. In 
1880, a small factory was started about a half 
mile from the old laboratory, and lamps were 
manufactured on a larger scale than had before 
been possible. It was called the Edison Lamp 
Company. 

During the next year the demand for lamps 
became so great that more space was needed, 
and factory buildings were purchased at Har- 
rison, the present headquarters of the Edison 
Lamp works. This was later incorporated with 
the General Electric Company and is now 
known as the incandescent lamp department 
of the General Electric Company. 



3*8 



NEW JERSEY 



Some idea of the long road the incandescent 
lamp has traveled since 1879 ma 7 be gained 
when one learns that of the millions of lamps 
lighting up cities and towns and hamlets all 
over the world today, about 18 per cent are 
made by the 1,600 employees of the New Jersey 
plants of the General Electric Company. 

GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY 

The Bloomfield works of the General Elec- 
tric Company employs 1500 people. The prod- 
ucts turned out by this works are entirely in 
the industrial control classification. Among 
them are rheostats, printing-press controls, 
building equipment controls, drum controllers, 
compensators, temperature relays, magnetic 
switches, solenoids and solenoid brakes. 

The plant, which was originally operated 
by the Sprague Electric Company, has been 
one of the works of the General Electric Com- 
pany for over 2.0 years. It has recently been 
enlarged, the present floor space being nearly 
600,000 square feet. 



FEDERAL SHIPBUILDING AND DRY DOCK 
COMPANY 

The Federal Shipbuilding and Dry Dock 
Company, which is in Kearny on the west bank 
of the Hackensack River, was organized in 
1917 for the construction of steel ocean-going 
vessels. It is one of the subsidiary companies 
of the United States Steel Corporation. The 
company constructed thirty io,ooo-ton cargo 
vessels for the United States Shipping Board 
as part of the war program, and the quality 
of these vessels is evidenced by their popu- 
larity among present operators. 

At the conclusion of the war the company 
continued operations, specializing in the con- 
struction of oil-carrying vessels as well as 
freight and passenger ships. Among its recent 
products are the freight and passenger liner 
"Dixie," which was put in service last Jan- 
uary by the Southern Pacific Company, and 
the Gulf Refining Company's motor tanker, 
"Gulfpride," which is the largest merchant 
vessel ever built in the Port of New York. In 




SEWING MACHINE ASSEMBLING DEPARTMENT 
Singer Manufacturing Company Elizabeth 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



319 



addition to its shipbuilding activities the cor- 
poration operates an 8,ooo-ton floating dry- 
dock and engages in the repair of ocean-going 
ships as well as in the construction of barges, 
dredges, and harbor craft. 

During the past few years it has devoted at- 
tention to converting vessels to Diesel drive, 
and its shops have been engaged in the construc- 
tion of boilers, structural steel, machinery, and 
special equipment for the oil and chemical in- 
dustries as well as marine work. One of its best- 
known standard products is a horizontal fire- 
tube waste-heat boiler popular in open-hearth 
installations. 

The plant occupies 160 acres of land on the 
Lincoln Highway and Hackensack River and 
employs approximately x,ooo workers. The 
channel to the plant is 30 feet in depth. The 
area of its shops is approximately 14 acres, 
and its boiler, forge, machine shop, structural 
and other shops are equipped with modern 
machinery. 

FORD MOTORS 

The Kearny plant of the Ford Motor Com- 
pany is one of 31 Ford assembly plants over the 
country, the Ford policy being to locate its 
plants in centers of population near railroad 
and shipping facilities. The areas in which the 
plants are situated benefit also, as the employ- 
ment situation is made more stable by the prac- 
tically incessant operations of these works. 
The men employed settle in the communities, 
becoming home owners and interested citizens. 

The big Kearny establishment is chiefly an 
assembly plant. Parts are shipped to Kearny by 
freight from the Detroit headquarters of the 
Ford Company. From here they are consigned, 
by rail or ship, to distributing centers in the 
East. 

Cars assembled at Kearny are for domestic dis- 
tribution and also for foreign sale. Shipments 
are made to Europe and South America by 
Ford-owned boats. Where possible, however, 
the overseas demand is supplied by foreign as- 
sembly plants of the Ford Motor Company. 

The highest figure for assembly of cars in a 
single day at the Kearny plant, which was 
opened in 1918, is 700. When full production 



of the model "A" is under way, the production 
here will probably reach 1,000 cars a day. 

The buildings are on property occupying 90 
acres. The floor area of the buildings is 1,000,000 
square feet. The Ford power-house generates 
all the current required by the assembly plant. 

Cleanliness is the motto of the organization. 
The place is kept immaculately clean by a sani- 
tation force. Employees are not allowed to 
smoke within the plant. One of the basic Ford 
policies, that of manufacturing near the source 
of supply and assembling near the point of dis- 
tribution, results in enormous savings in trans- 
portation costs. It also enables the company to 
maintain its manufacturing schedules with ac- 
curacy, thus avoiding a shortage on one hand 
and a surplus of materials on the other. 

The cycle of Ford manufacture begins in the 
iron and coal mines, follows Ford-owned trans- 
portation routes, and includes the conversion 
and fabrication of the materials until the com- 
pleted Ford products are placed in the hands of 
the customers. 

WESTERN ELECTRIC COMPANY 

The Western Electric Company, whose plant 
at Kearny is one of the most modern industrial 
establishments in the country, is the largest 
manufacturer of telephones and telephone 
equipment in the world. In this New Jersey 
plant and in its Hawthorne Works at Chicago 
the company manufactures the major portion 
of the requirements of telephone apparatus and 
cable for the Bell Telephone System and asso- 
ciated operating companies in the United States. 
It also acts as purchasing agent and maintains 
warehouses for all equipment and supplies for 
the system. 

In addition, the company is the manufacturer 
or licensor of such important by-products out- 
side the field of wire communication as radio 
broadcasting equipment, public address sys- 
tems, electrical methods of recording sound, 
the Permalloy type of high-speed submarine 
telegraph cable, and equipment for the produc- 
tion of talking motion pictures. 

About 60 years ago the company started as a 
general electrical business with a capital of 
$1,500. Its present name came into existence in 
1 88 1, since when the corporation has grown 






3 2.0 



NEW JERSEY 




MAIN AISLE OF MACHINE SHOP 
DeLaval Steam Turbine Works at Trenton 



until it has 40,000 employees and in 192.7 re- 
ported sales amounting to $2.53,7x4,013. In 
addition to its Kearny and Hawthorne plants, 
it has distributing plants, repair shops, and 
warehouses in the principal cities of the United 
States. 

For many years the Western Electric confined 
its manufacturing activities to its Hawthorne 
Works at Chicago. In i^xz it decided to con- 
struct a large plant in the East, and Kearny 
was selected as its site. Work was begun there 
in 19x3, and these works have a floor area of 
i,X50,ooo square feet. 

J. L. MOTT COMPANY, INC. 

In 1818, when the nation was still in its in- 
fancy, the original Mott plant was started in 
Mott Haven, near New York City. After a few 
years it became apparent that the plant was 
too small to supply the demands, and enlarge- 
ment followed enlargement, until in 1894 the 
potteries were established in Trenton, where in 
1907 the manufacturing plant was concentrated. 

Mott played a leading part in the develop- 



ment of sanitary plumbing equipment, and as 
the pioneer in that industry has contributed 
many inventions and improvements in this 
field. The Mott company was the first to make 
enameled iron ware, built-in bath tubs, quiet- 
acting closets, one-piece lavatories, built-in 
showers, tile enclosures with glass doors, and 
special hospital and marine plumbing goods. 

The Mott industry, in addition to its brass, 
pottery and enameled-ware units at Trenton, 
comprising 13. acres of floor space, includes an 
extensive foundry and modernly equipped 
enameling plant at Louisville, Ky., where 
enameled-ware plumbing fixtures are manu- 
factured. 

The Mott organization began the second hun- 
dred years of its service under the firm name of 
J. L. Mott Company, Inc. Many improvements 
have been effected to take care of the increasing 
volume of business of the new corporation. 

KEYSTONE WATCH CASE CORPORATION 

The Keystone Watch Case Corporation is 
the successor to several watch-case manufactur- 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



ing companies formerly in Philadelphia, New- 
ark, and Riverside, N. J., that had been in 
business for many years, the oldest dating 
from 1854. 

The company's plant at Riverside manu- 
factures all kinds of solid gold, gold filled, 
rolled-plate and nickel watch cases for pocket 
and wrist watches for men and women. It is 
also interested in a watch-case plant at Toronto, 
Canada. 

Aside from its watch-case business, the con- 
cern owns the Howard watch plant at Wal- 
tham, Mass., where the Howard watch has 
been manufactured under that name for more 
than 75 years. 

The Keystone Watch Case Corporation also 
owns the Riverside Metal Company, manu- 
facturers of high-grade phosphor-bronze and 
nickel-silver in bars, wire, and sheets. It has in 
its activities about izoo employees. 

DE LAVAL STEAM TURBINE COMPANY 

The works of the De Laval Steam Turbine 
Company were established at Trenton in 1901 
for manufacturing the impulse type of steam 
turbine, double-helical speed-reduction gears, 
and high efficiency centrifugal pumps and com- 
pressors. Dr. De Laval, himself, spent 15 years 
in the development of his turbine. 

The plant occupies over 50 acres of suburban 
land and contains Z75,ooo square feet of floor 
space. The machine shop, erecting shop, and 
double-helical gear shop are served by cranes 
of from 5 to zo tons capacity. There have been 
built recently a three-story pattern and pattern- 
storage building and a three-story shop for 
small pumps and turbines. The turbine room of 
the power plant contains three direct-current 
generators with a total capacity of 1,075 kilo- 
watts. 

The plant normally employs from 900 to 
1,000 men, who are for the most part skilled 
workers. All products must be thoroughly 
tested as to capacity and efficiency before they 
leave the works. This requires extensive equip- 
ment of boilers, condensers, calibrated tanks, 
venturi meters, speed-calibrated direct-current 
motors, steam turbines, speed -reducing and 
speed -increasing gears, voltmeters, ammeters, 
and test blocks. 



Production is limited to the one class of 
product, centrifugal machinery of closely allied 
types, all having the same general character- 
istics of design and requiring the same processes 
and equipment for their manufacture. 

AMERICAN TYPE FOUNDERS COMPANY 

The American Type Founders Company has 
a capital of $13,000,000 and operates factories 
in Jersey City and in Elizabeth. 

Printing types are the principal product. 
These are made in the Jersey City plant. Here 
is by far the largest type foundry in existence, 
with its products leading the type fashions of 
the world. The parent company was estab- 
lished in Philadelphia in 1796, and in 1806 
this concern acquired the type foundry brought 
from France in 1785 by Benjamin Franklin. In 
1876 the parent type foundry had become the 
leading type manufacturer of the world. By 
1903 other type foundries had been merged in 
a new corporation, the American Type Found- 
ers Company, and the manufacture of types 
was concentrated in Jersey City. In addition 
to its own manufactures, the company is a 
general provider for the printing industry, 
equipping complete printing plants from its 
stocks at its various sales branches. 

In 1911 the company developed the automatic 
rapid printing press known as the Kelly press. 
The manufacture of this machine began in the 
Jersey City plant, but the demand necessitated 
the erection in 19x4 of the factory in Elizabeth, 
where four sizes of the press are made. The 
company owns a large area of adjoining real 
estate in anticipation of expansion. 

The Jersey City foundry has a productive 
capacity equaling that of all the type foundries 
of Europe. 

UNITED STATES CAST IRON PIPE AND 
FOUNDRY COMPANY 

The United States Cast Iron Pipe and Foundry 
Company, which operates n plants in eight 
states, enlarged and improved its Burlington 
plant in 192.6 until now the New Jersey plant 
claims to be one of the finest specialty gray-iron 
shops in the country. The first pipe foundry in 
New Jersey was constructed at Weymouth in 



NEW JERSEY 



1 8 10 and supplied pipe at that early date for 
the Philadelphia water system. The present 
plant of the company is the outgrowth of the 
McNeal foundry established in 1866. 

The new plant, operated on the De Lavaud 
system, comprises eight centrifugal machines, 
of which five are operated regularly at a total 
output of approximately izoo lengths of four 
to 12. inch pipe a day. 

The buildings have been laid out to insure 
continuous movement of production through 
all stages from the material yard to the ship- 
ping department. The heart of the plant is the 
foundry. This is adjoined on one side by the 
annealing room building and the sheds for 
cleaning, coating, and testing the pipe, and 
on the other side by the cupola houses in which 
are four cupolas having a capacity for melting 
2.0 tons of iron an hour. 

Materials are brought to the plant on Dela- 
ware River barges and by railroad cars. Huge 
cranes span the material yards, where pig iron 
is unloaded by magnets and placed in skips on 
tracks equipped with scales for weighing the 
contents. 

Two cupolas pour molten iron into reservoir 
ladles having a capacity of iz,ooo pounds and 
mounted upon wide-gage tracks. They are 
tilted electrically, and the iron is fed into pour- 
ing ladles which are transferred by cranes to 
the casting floors. Here the pipe is cast, trans- 
ported hot by cranes to the battery of elec- 
trically controlled annealing ovens, and finally 
going to the cleaning, coating, and testing 
sheds. 

Fuel oil is stored in the two 115,000 gallon 
tanks, from which it is pumped to the points 
of consumption. A power building houses 
2., 5 oo kilowatt rotary converters which step 
down alternating current of 13,000 volts to 
direct current of 130 volts. An 800 cubic foot 
air compressor supplies air for ramming cores 
and operating air hammers. Two 900 gallon 
hydraulic pumps operating at 140 pounds pro- 
vide the supply of water pumped from the 
Delaware River, for operating the De Lavaud 
machines, and a smaller pump operating at 500 
pounds furnishes the water for testing the pipe. 



GENERAL CIGAR Co., INC. 

There is no better example of how a business 
has been nationalized than is furnished by the 
General Cigar Co., Inc. This concern is an out- 
growth of the United Cigars Manufacturers 
Co. The organization took its present name 
March i, 1917. At that time it entered a merger 
with M. A. Gunst & Co., Inc., the Conway 
Cigar Co. , and Best & Russell. The factories and 
warehouses include those formerly operated by 
Theobald & Oppenheimer Co., Inc., and Bondy 
& Lederer. 

The concern's net profits have risen steadily 
from $1,165,509 in 1910 to $3,340,435 in 1910. 
Business slackened in 192.1, but instead of a 
deficit there was a net of $1,113,885.79. 

In the old days before the nationalizing pol- 
icy was started, the company had something 
like 150 brands. Its sales on these had run up 
to 450,000,000 cigars. Then it cut down to five 
brands, and a little later introduced the Wm. 
Penn, a five-cent seller, which increased the 
line to six brands. Total sales then climbed to 
the huge total of 700,000,000 cigars annually. 
The company's expansion is attributed largely 
to its successful advertising. 

Cigar manufacturing has always been largely 
a local business. There is scarcely a town of any 
size in the country that has not at least one 
cigar manufacturer. But the opportunity ex- 
isted for a national brand of cigars, just as there 
was opportunity for other products of nation- 
wide consumption. The General Cigar Co. took 
advantage of this opening. It proceeded grad- 
ually to abandon its wide assortment of sec- 
tionally known brands and to concentrate on 
the half dozen varieties that it selected for 
national promotion. The favorable outcome 
proved the wisdom of this new policy. 

The manufacturing department comprises 
55 units and is located in 48 cities. The ware- 
house department has 14 units and is located 
in 17 cities. The corporation claims that its 
six big sellers now get from three to five times 
as much retail display as did the 150 brands in 
the old days. 

The General Cigar Company's plant at New 
Brunswick has 913 employees, with 91,541 
square feet of floor space; the Perth Amboy 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



plant has 880 employees, with 7i,48i square 
feet of floor space; the Woodbridge plant has 
91 employees; the Fords plant has 175; the 
South River plant has 392., with 35,940 square 
feet of floor space; and the Carteret plant has 
2.74 employees, with 2.x,99i square feet of 
floor space. The total number of employees at 
present is 2.,7^5, and the annual output has a 
value of $2.1 5, 5 00,000. 

DIEHL MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

In the year 1879, when the electrical era be- 
gan and the present-day electric text-books 
would have been incomprehensible to the most 
advanced student of the times, Philip Diehl, 
of Elizabeth, developed a small power motor 
having a variable air gap by means of which 
adjustable speeds were obtained. This machine, 
still in operating condition, is considered to 
be the first adjustable speed motor ever built. 
Mr. Diehl's experiments were carried on in 
the cellar of his home. 

In 1884 at the Franklin Institute Exhibition, 
Mr. Diehl showed a dynamo with a variable 



air gap for regulating the current for arc 
lamps, small power motors, and incandescent 
lamps. In June, 1889, the Diehl ceiling fan was 
developed, this being the first electrical ceiling 
fan on the market. Ceiling fans previously had 
been limited to the belt operating type. 

From this beginning, the Diehl Manufactur- 
ing Company rose above obstacles and added 
new items to its lines of manufacture. The 
company now produces electric fans, motors, 
and generators. 

In 1890, Mr. Diehl constructed a sewing 
machine motor of the balance wheel type, 
the first of its kind to be placed in general 
use. This motor was concealed within the 
balance wheel of the sewing machine. The 
Singer Manufacturing Company, makers of 
Singer sewing machines, became interested in 
this development, and the Diehl Manufactur- 
ing Company was commissioned to build all of 
their electric motors. 

In recent years the development of an in- 
dividual motor drive for both family and 
factory type sewing machines increased motor 







ASSEMBLING SEWING MACHINE MOTORS 
Diehl Manufacturing Company at Elizabeth 



NEW JERSEY 



requirements tremendously, and in 1918 the 
Diehl Manufacturing Company was merged 
with the Singer Manufacturing Company to 
insure a constant supply of motors for their 
sewing machines. 

The Diehl company employs 1,000 people 
and occupies over 300,000 square feet of floor 
space in the production of motors, generators, 
and fans. The plant is located at Elizabethport, 
on Newark Bay, giving both rail and harbor 
shipping facilities. It includes a large factory 
and machine shop equipped with modern ap- 
paratus for the production of the larger items. 
Electric fans and small motors are produced 
in a new three-story modern fireproof building 
over 600 feet long. This plant is equipped with 
automatic tools and the many mechanical de- 
vices essential to modern manufacture. 

Products of the Diehl Company include 
standard power motors, generators, and motor- 
generator sets; sewing machine motors, textile 
motors, electrical vehicle motors, motors for 
special application, electric absorption dyna- 
mometers, and motor-driven exhaust and ven- 
tilating fans and blowers; electric fans of desk, 
bracket, ceiling, gyrating, and column types; 
and also power apparatus and fans for Govern- 
ment departments, naval vessels and railway 
coaches. 

The complete electrical machinery for a 
number of submarines now in service has also 
been furnished. This equipment consists of the 
main driving motor used when the ship is sub- 
merged, also smaller auxiliary motors required 
for steering the ship. In addition there are 
pump motors, hull ventilating motors, and 
hydroplane motors, which latter cause the 
ship to dive. 

L. E. WATERMAN COMPANY 

The L. E. Waterman Company plant at 
Newark covers five acres and 75% of its outer 
wall space is glass, thus making it a sunny 
workshop where employees have the further 
advantage of a restaurant, hospital, library, 
rest rooms, and other modernized working 
conditions. The company was founded in 1883 
when L. E. Waterman made his first fountain 
pen in a back room in New York where, with 



almost no assistance, he made by hand a total 
of 2.00 pens . 

Mr. Waterman was an insurance agent who 
lost an important policy because the pen with 
which the applicant started to sign made an 
ugly blot and caused him to change his mind. 
The agent then and there decided he would 
never again lose a sale for such a silly reason 
and the Waterman fountain pen was the result. 

To-day these fountain pens, in a variety of 
models, are in use in every country where writ- 
ing is employed. The company has factories at 
home and abroad and its other products are 
ink and mechanical pencils. 

Millions of Waterman pens play a part in the 
transaction of the world's business. It was with 
a Waterman pen that President Wilson, Lloyd 
George, and the representatives of eleven other 
nations signed the Treaty of Versailles, ending 
the World War. Secretary Kellogg more re- 
cently used a Waterman's to sign the Pact of 
Paris outlawing war as a national policy, and 
it was with another Waterman's that Lind- 
bergh charted his navigation high above the 
Atlantic on that memorable, history-making 
flight. 

The Newark factory employs 750 persons on 
no distinct operations in the making of its 
product. Of these, 80 operations are concerned 
with the gold, iridium tipped point alone. 
Each pen is inspected six times. More than 
$100,000 is salvaged annually in gold dust from 
the burned clothing of workers, the water in 
which they wash, and floor sweepings. Most 
of the machinery used is designed in the com- 
pany's machine shop. 

Even the raw materials contribute to the 
romance of the enterprise, coming as they do 
from the far corners of the earth, for there are 
gold, silver, iridium, rubber, and the ingredi- 
ents of ink which must be garnered from far- 
off places. The business is still directed by the 
descendants of its founder. 

LENOX, INC. 

The announcement that an American china 
had been admitted to the Ceramic Museum at 
Sevres, France, was an important one. The 
name "Sevres" to the lover of ceramics con- 
jures up a picture of the finest work of the 




FULPER POTTERY MADE AT FLEMINGTON AND TRENTON IS NOTED FOR ITS GRACE AND COLOR 




AN EXHIBIT OF THE PEERLESS LENOX WARE MADE IN TRENTON 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



315 



world's greatest potters and ceramic artists. 
The exhibit, consisting of 34 pieces, now on 
display in the museum, is the product of Lenox, 
Inc., of Trenton. 

Lenox ware graces the tables of the presidents 
of three republics the United States, Cuba and 
Venezuela. The service in the White House 
consists of 1700 pieces. This ware is noted for 
the even symmetry of design and the perfection 
of the china itself, as no pieces with flaws ever 
reach the market. The President's service bears 
the coat of arms in the center in gold on the 
ivory tinted background. Then comes a gold 
band with raised stars for each of the 48 States. 
Then a wider band of cobalt and another gold 
band with faultless scroll work. 

Walter Scott Lenox, as a boy, decided to be a 
potter. He learned the ancient trade and in his 
spare time studied designing. His burning am- 
bition was to make an American china that 
would compete with the best china of Europe. 
Many American potteries were then branding 
their wares with English trade-marks to sell 
them. Lenox worked to secure an American 
counterpart of the Irish Beleek ware. He worked 
with Irish immigrant potters and finally 
achieved what is now known as Lenox ware 
a rich ivory body with a perfect glaze. 

Harassed with debts, he began production. 
Then he went blind. Other men would have 
quit, but not Lenox. Eventually the company 
burned its notes in a little kiln set up in the 
office. Success had come. America had a china 
of which it could be proud. Walter Scott Lenox 
passed away only a few years ago. 

NATIONAL SILK DYEING COMPANY 

The National Silk Dyeing Company was 
formed in 1908 and is a combination of the fol- 
lowing corporations: Auger & Simon Silk Dye- 
ing Company, Geeting Silk Dyeing Company, 
Knipscher & Maass Silk Dyeing Company, 
Kearms Brothers Silk Dyeing Company, all of 
Paterson, and Lotte Brothers Company, of 
Allentown, Pa. 

Five plants are maintained in Paterson, while 
other factories are located at East Paterson, 
Allentown and Williamsport. A Canadian 
branch, known as the Dominion Silk Dyeing & 



Finishing Company, Ltd., is situated at Drum- 
mondville, Quebec. 

The company's activities cover practically all 
lines of dyeing, finishing, and printing of silk, 
rayon, celanese and mixed fibers. One of the 
major operations is the dyeing of hosiery and 
ribbons, both pure dyes and weighted being 
employed. The printing of these articles is also 
a regular part of the day's work. 

The piece dyeing and finishing of crepe de 
chines, crepe satins, and georgettes is done with 
skill. Piece dyeing and finishing, with both 
pure dye and weighted, is done at the Dundee 
Lake works, East Paterson, the Pennsylvania 
works at Williamsport, the Valley works at 
Paterson, and at the Dominion works in 
Canada. 

This company specializes in the weighting of 
piece goods of all descriptions and its equip- 
ment for this processing is modern and com- 
plete. Moire is also done, and the dyeing and 
finishing of Jersey cloth, tricolette knitted 
fabrics, and all silk, rayon, and mixtures are 
specialties. 

The National Silk Dyeing Company main- 
tains research and experimental laboratories. 
Approximately 2.000 persons are employed in 
the Paterson plants and vicinity, which in- 
cludes the Dundee Lake plant at East Paterson. 

CORN PRODUCTS REFINING COMPANY 

The manufacture of products from corn 
represents an important New Jersey industry, 
and the Edgewater plant of the Corn Products 
Refining Company, built in 1901 as the prop- 
erty of the New York Glucose Company, has a 
grinding capacity of 15,000 bushels of corn 
daily. Edgewater was the nucleus for the 
present Corn Products Refining Company, 
which also operates two plants in Illinois, one 
in Missouri, and several abroad. 

The concern now grinds approximately 
15,000 bushels of corn daily, the products 
being laundry and edible starches, as well as 
starches for commercial uses; dextrines, the 
basis of various gums and other adhesives; corn 
syrup for confectionery purposes, and the basic 
product of Karo; sugars for the baking, con- 
fectionery, ice cream, candy, and artificial silk 
industries, as well as Dextrose, a health sugar. 



3*5 



NEW JERSEY 



The process of operation consists in steeping 
the soluble matter from the shelled corn and 
grinding and separating the resultant mass by 
gravity and screening methods into starch, 
which amounts to approximately 65 per cent 
of the mass of corn. The germ of the corn kernel 
contains a valuable by-product, corn oil, which 
when refined is sold under the trade name of 
"Mazola," a salad and cooking oil. The fiber 
and protein-bearing materials, when dried, 
make a cattle food. The starch is treated and 
dried for numerous purposes or converted and 
refined into corn syrup and corn sugar. 

J. B. VAN SCIVER COMPANY 

The J. B. Van Sciver Company furniture 
factory at Camden covers to acres, where are 
manufactured great quantities of quality furni- 
ture from the plainest styles to the most 
sumptuous designs. Almost all the furniture 
which the company manufactures is sold at 
retail in its own establishment. However, some 
furniture is shipped to customers in every State 
and nearly every country. 

This establishment has achieved success not- 
withstanding that it is outside of the store 
sections of Camden and Philadelphia. It man- 
ufactures and sells furniture for homes, offices, 
banks, hotels, hospitals, clubhouses, and in- 
stitutions. The company also designs and 
makes furniture for ships, fitting and decorating 
the interiors with a skill that has added to its 
fame. It has a staff of decorators at the service 
of customers. 

The factory is electrically equipped and the 
machinery is modern. The furniture here pro- 
duced is designed in the company's studios. 
The delivery system is unique. The dustproof 
blue and gold vans of the company, 40 in all, 
deliver furniture throughout New York State, 
Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Aside from cabinet furniture, the company 
also manufactures upholstered furniture. Se- 
lected kiln-dried lumber is used in all frame- 
work. Designs and finishes of wicker furniture 
are supplied to meet the requirements of every 
modern home. For the manufacture of cabinet 
furniture this concern brings its wood from 



far markets direct to the plant, where it is 
dried and cured in the company's own kilns. 
The showrooms contain furniture from the 
leading factories in the United States and from 
noted manufacturers abroad. Antiques from 
Europe and America add to the variety. The 
sales floors also show 84 partitioned rooms, in 
which suites are displayed in a homelike 
atmosphere. 

THE FULPER POTTERY COMPANY 

The Fulper Pottery Company was established 
many years ago in Flemington. Early in Jan- 
uary, 19x8, it acquired the old Anchor Pottery 
in Trenton and with these two very large 
plants its capacity for production is equal to 
that of any other art pottery in the United 
States. In fact, it is the only art pottery east 
of Ohio. Showrooms are maintained at the 
Flemington works and they attract many 
visitors from far and near. 

The making of the artware is confined to 
the Flemington plant, the Trenton plant being 
utilized entirely for the production of what is 
known as Stangl ware. This is a plain color, 
glazed, teaware of varying designs and three 
distinct glazes, Persian yellow, colonial blue 
and silver green. It is the only teaware of its 
type made in America. Fulper has recently 
perfected and placed upon the market the only 
crackle-glaze produced in this country. 

WARREN WEBSTER & COMPANY 

The idea of manufacturers rendering service 
is now widely accepted, but Warren Webster & 
Company, of Camden, manufacturers of steam- 
heating systems, feed-water heaters and steam 
traps, was operating on a service basis 40 years 
ago, when service by manufacturers was ex- 
ceedingly uncommon. 

This concern has installed more than 46,000 
systems of steam heating, and has grown 
steadily since 1888. The same executives who 
built the business lead it today. The policy of 
co-operation with owners, architects, engineers 
and heating contractors prevails. The corpora- 
tion was a pioneer in the development of the 
vacuum system of steam heating. 

In 1888 the Webster factory consisted of one 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



3*7 



small building, but growth of the business 
made it necessary to move to a larger plant in 
1909. This plant was enlarged five times be- 
tween 1909 and 1913 to meet increasing de- 
mands. In 192.4 the company moved into a new 
and modern plant. Here Webster-system equip- 
ment is made by skilled workmen with auto- 
matic machinery. A staff of engineers with 
completely equipped laboratories is engaged in 
research to improve the Company's products. 
The diagnosis of heating troubles, the selec- 
tion of suitable apparatus, and the details of 
application are all a part of the job of the heat- 
ing specialist. It is this kind of service that is 
regarded as essential in the Webster system. 

KOLSTER RADIO CORPORATION 

The Kolster Radio Corporation, makers of 
radio receiving sets and speakers, with its 
manufacturing subsidiary, Brandes Products 
Corporation, a pioneer in radio since 1908, now 
occupies five buildings in Newark, with a floor 
space of seven acres. There are 3000 employees 
at the height of the annual activities. 




DEPARTMENT STORE ESCALATOR MADE BY THE 
OTIS ELEVATOR COMPANY AT HARRISON 



In addition to the five Newark shops there 
are a laboratory, service department, and fac- 
tory for transmitting-sets and radio-compasses 







HANDSOME INTERIOR AT THE GALLERIES OF THE J. B. VAN SCFVER CO. FURNITURE-FACTORY 

STORE IN CAMDEN 



NEW JERSEY 



at Palo Alto, California; a factory at Toronto, 
Canada, and another near London, England. 

Dr. F. A. Kolster, the company's research 
engineer, founded the radio laboratory in the 
United States Bureau of Standards in ic^iz and 



was its chief for eight years. He invented the 
decremeter used by radio inspectors to see that 
equipment obeys the requirements of the law, 
and he also invented the radio compass or 
direction finder in use on ships. 



STONE, CLAY AND GLASS 



ATLANTIC TERRA COTTA COMPANY 

THE largest plant of the four operated by 
the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company is in 
Perth Amboy. While the manufacture 
of terra cotta by this concern was started in 
1878, the origin of the first plant dates back 
to 1848, when the firm was known as A. Hall 
&Son. 

Terra cotta was only a minor product in 
those early days, but in 1878 the factory was 
rebuilt to manufacture architectural terra cotta 
alone, and since then the size of the plant has 
been increased many times. 

Terra cotta manufactured in Perth Amboy 
is shipped all over the United States and 
Canada, to South America, Cuba, Porto Rico, 
Australia, South Africa, and particularly to 
Japan. Many of the largest and finest buildings 
in Japan are faced with Atlantic terra cotta. 

Among the noteworthy terra-cotta build- 
ings of the United States are the Woolworth 
Building in New York; the New York Central 
Building; the Philadelphia Museum of Art 
and the Atlantic Refining Company Building 
in Philadelphia; the Dade County Court House 
and Miami City Hall in Miami; the Cuban 
Telephone Building in Havana; the Fulton 
County Court House in Atlanta, and many 
office buildings, hotels, apartment houses, 
theaters, stores and churches. 

VINELAND FLINT GLASS WORKS 

The Vineland Flint Glass Works has as its 
principal items of production the glass bottles 
used in vacuum bottle cases, glass tubing, rods 
of all sizes and colors used by the bathroom 
fixture trade, and bathroom towel bars. The 
tubing is used mostly by the makers of intri- 
cate chemical laboratory apparatus. An inter- 
esting specialty is the glass tubing for sign 



manufacturers who use neon gas in connection 
with electric signs. 

This plant in addition to producing the 
type of glass used with X-ray machines, also 
manufactures iridescent art glass. 

NATIONAL FIRE-PROOFING COMPANY 

The National Fire-Proofing Company oper- 
ates 2.T, hollow tile manufacturing plants, six 
of these being in New Jersey. Three are in 
Perth Amboy, one at Lorillard, one at Port 
Murray, and one at South River. 

This company produces a high quality of 
clay tile for many purposes. Among the prod- 
ucts are fire-proofing for walls, floors, and 
partitions; tile for buildings with facing of 
stucco or brick veneer; tile for interior walls of 
gymnasiums, hotels, corridors, and hospitals; 
and underground glazed conduit for electrical 
cables. 

TRENT TILE Co., INC. 

The Trent Tile Company manufactures floor, 
wall and trim tile at Trenton. This tile is used 
for lining vats in chemical plants where the 
products must have sanitary surroundings dur- 
ing processing. Among these products are foods, 
Pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, fruit juices, and 
patent medicines. Their tiles are also used for 
factory libraries, lunch rooms, rest rooms, wash 
rooms, and lavatories. 

The Trent Tile Company was early a manu- 
facturer of ceramic mosaic tile in white and all 
other colors. The liking for colored tile in 
homes and public buildings is not a new one. 
The Trent Tile's earliest products were largely 
in color. Also the first vestibules, fireplace fac- 
ings and bath-room tiles were mainly in color. 
Early examples of these tiles may still be seen 
in the displays at the plant, along with mosaics 
that were hand-made. 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



3X9 





330 



NEW JERSEY 



AMERICAN ENAMELED BRICK & TILE 
COMPANY 

The use of enameled and glazed brick goes 
back to a very early period in the history of 
mankind. Some fragments taken from Egyptian 
tombs are remarkable for their coloring. Very 
little progress was made from the time of the 
Pharaohs until the Italian Renaissance. Dur- 
ing the latter period many new colors were 
introduced, and the art was generally much 
improved. 

During the last 50 years the technique has 
been revised. Modern science has introduced 
more durable enamels and glazes, and modern 
machinery has standardized the product. Enam- 
eled brick is used wherever light and sanita- 
tion are required, and also for artistic effects. 
The product finds its use on exteriors as well as 
the interiors of buildings. 

The American Enameled Brick & Tile Com- 
pany, at South River, is a large producer of 
this product. 

ILLINOIS GLASS COMPANY 

The Illinois Glass Company has at its 
Bridgeton plant a new and modern bottle 
factory. It employs 750 people, and its daily 
production is 5,900 gross, or 849,600 bottles. 
It is well equipped with five continuous tank 
furnaces and z8 automatic bottle-blowing ma- 
chines. The plant turns out daily z,5oo wooden 
boxes and iz,ooo fiber boxes. It covers 50 acres 
and includes three miles of track. 

The company also has a big plant in Vine- 
land, where it produces chemical glassware. 
It furnishes a complete service to the bottle 
user. 

The corporation owns its own sand mills, 
producing the sand for its glass. It makes the 
bottle, the cork to fit the bottle, the paper used 
in packing the bottle, the corrugated or 
wooden box in which the bottle is packed, the 
printed label and carton to the consumer, and 
makes the machinery used in filling, labeling, 
corking, and conveying the bottles. 

CARBORUNDUM COMPANY 

The Carborundum Company, known as a 
leading manufacturer of electric furnace abra- 



sives and abrasive products, operates a separate 
plant at Keasby, for the manufacture of its 
super-refractory products. This is the only 
plant devoted to the manufacture of super- 
refractory firebrick and refractory shapes. The 
principal product of the Carborundum Com- 
pany at its Perth Amboy plant consists of re- 
fractory materials made from silicon carbide 
sold under the trade name of "Carborundum." 

These products are noted for their extreme 
refractoriness, resistance to abrasion, strength 
at high temperatures, and high thermal con- 
ductivity. The plant also produces refractories 
of all kinds made from electrically fused alum- 
inum and other electric furnace products. 

The Carborundum Company has been a 
pioneer in the development of refractories made 
from materials other than fireclay, silica, mag- 
nesite, or chrome, and has been successful in 
producing a line of specialized refractories 
which have solved many problems in furnaces 
used by dozens of industries. 

KIMBLE GLASS WORKS 

One of the interesting industries in South 
Jersey is the Kimble Glass Works, at Vineland 
in the heart of the Jersey sand area. As early 
as 1904 Colonel Evan E. Kimble saw a future 
in the field of dairy glassware and began its 
production on a small basis. As a result there 
is now manufactured by this concern a com- 
plete line of glassware for the dairy industries 
and all standard items of glass for organized 
laboratory work. 

It was recognized that to produce dairy 
glassware careful supervision was necessary, 
and that furthermore it was desirable to man- 
ufacture this ware in one factory. Every opera- 
tion in the production of Kimble New Process 
bottles from molten glass to the finished article 
is performed in the main plant at Vineland. 

Starting with a batch of special formula, the 
ingredients are mechanically mixed, and melted 
in a large tank instead of in small pots. This 
produces a highly resistant glass of uniform 
composition which will withstand all reason- 
able thermal change and mechanical shock. 

The bodies are blown in a mold and immedi- 
ately transferred to a lehr where they receive 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



33 1 



their initial annealing. The necks of the bottles 
are made from automatic machine-made tubing. 
This tubing has the advantage over hand- 
made tubing in that its uniformity of diameter 
and wall thickness insure greater accuracy in 
calibration. 

At the plant at Vineland the engineers have 
developed a multiple graduating and number- 
ing machine which is completely automatic. 
Twelve necks are placed in this machine, and 
in a single operation they are lined with the 
Bureau of Standards type graduation, at the 
same time being marked with the Kimble 
numerals. 

This method of lining and numbering, with 
its advantages of mechanical accuracy, further 
eliminates the factor of human error. 

In fusing the necks of the bodies a gas flame 
is applied. During this operation severe strains 
are introduced, so the bottles are sent through 
a specially constructed lehr where they are 
reannealed. 

This process relieves all strains in the glass 
caused by unequal heating and cooling in the 
sealing operation, thereby eliminating the in- 
visible weakness in test bottles. 

The Kimble black-filling enamel for lines 
and numerals is an achievement of the research 
laboratory and is really a fused-in glass enamel. 
It sticks so tenaciously that it is practically a 
part of the bottle. 

When bottles are immersed for 14 hours in 
a boiling solution of cleaner, there is no ap- 
parent effect on the filler, the lines and nu- 
merals remaining black. 

Every Kimble Babcock bottle and Babcock 
pipette is inspected and retested for accuracy 
before it is packed so that it may meet with 
the requirements laid down by the State in 
which the ware is used. 



SALEM GLASS WORKS 

The Salem Glass Works was established in 
1868, and at first consisted of pot furnaces 
only. Two colors of glass were produced light 
green and amber and all bottles were made by 
hand. 

As the business developed and improvements 
in glass manufacture were brought about, the 
Salem Glass Works built small semi-automatic 
machines for making bottles. In this method, 
a hand-gatherer dropped the glass into the 
mould, but instead of the slow hand opera- 
tions, compressed air operated the machines 
and blew the bottles . The colors were increased 
to five light green, amber, white flint, emer- 
ald green and blue. Many bottles, resembling 
the imported French and German varieties, 
were made in special colors. 

Later, the semi-automatic machines were re- 
placed by complete automatic machines, and 
attention was then given to the development 
of a continuous pan-annealing lehr. This has 
progressed slowly, but at the present time a 
satisfactory automatic lehr has been installed. 
This machine takes up the bottle, carries it 
through the lehr until it is thoroughly annealed 
and cooled, and transfers it to the examining 
end. 

Every process in the making of glass bottles 
is done by machines with the exception of 
inspection and packing. The sand is taken from 
the freight cars, mixed, passed into the furnace, 
melted and fused by extreme heat, carried from 
the furnace to the machines, revolved in the 
machines, transferred to the lehr and passed on 
to the inspection end a complete bottle 
without the touch of a human hand. At the 
present time, the Salem Glass Works is equipped 
with the most modern machinery and uses the 
latest known methods in bottle-making. 



. 
> 



33^ 



NEW JERSEY 





INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



333 



IRON AND STEEL AND THEIR PRODUCTS 



WARREN FOUNDRY & PIPE COMPANY 

THE Warren Foundry & Pipe Company, 
manufacturing cast-iron gas and water 
pipe, pipe fittings, and a variety of cy- 
lindrical castings, located at Phillipsburg, was 
organized under the name of the Warren 
Foundry and Machine Company in 1856. The 
following year it was awarded a bronze medal 
by the American Institute for its superior 
product. The product varies from 1 2/6-inch 
tubes to pressure pipe 84 inches interior 
diameter. 

The company has a capacity of 85,000 tons 
per year and employs 650 men. It handles an 
average of 2.4 cars a day to move raw materials, 
supplies, and the products that are shipped. 

J. EDWARD OGDEN COMPANY 

The J. Edward Ogden Company and its as- 
sociate, the Star Expansion Bolt Company, 
have their plant at Bayonne. The Ogden Com- 
pany manufactures specialties including heavy 
doors, ferry-bridge machinery, transfer-bridge 
machinery, and special hoisting equipment. 

The doors are chiefly used as the cargo open- 
ings in the sides of pier sheds, dirigible and 
airplane hangars, large warehouses, and rail- 
road buildings. The company is a large factor 
in the ferry bridge and similar business. 

The Star Expansion Bolt Company manu- 
factures drills, drill holders, toggles, and con- 
crete inserts, as well as expansion shields and 
accessories. 

TAYLOR- WHARTON IRON & STEEL COM- 
PANY 

The Taylor- Wharton Iron and Steel Com- 
pany at High Bridge ts the modern and success- 
ful development of a business which had its 
beginning in early Colonial times. The de- 
posits of iron ore underlying the town, abun- 
dant timber in the hills for charcoal, and water 
power, were the chief factors in starting the 
industry in that district. Messrs. Allen and 
Turner were the founders, organizing the busi- 



ness in 1741. They later employed Robert 
Taylor to manage the plant for them. Shoes 
for oxen, horses and mules, wagon iron, nails 
and crude farming implements formed the 
major portion of the early output. 

Various kinds of products have been made 
here for every war in which the United States 
has been engaged. The company has advanced 
from the production of cannon balls in the 
early days to the manufacture of the large 
Hadfield projectiles, used in the Spanish- Amer- 
ican War. Years ago many products were taken 
by wagon freight to Philadelphia. 

The Nasmyth hammer, made at Manchester, 
England, and imported to Falls Village, Conn., 
by Horatio Ames, probably about 1850, was 
later transferred to New Jersey, and still stands 
as a monument on the site where this company 
used it so many years. This hammer is one of 
the first steam hammers employed in America, 
and is single-acting, the steam being used only 
to lift the hammer, while the blow is derived 
from the force of gravity. 

With the building of a railroad through 
High Bridge, railroad materials became pre- 
dominant in the company's production. The 
first work for the railroads was chiefly in the 
production of rolling stock, coupling links and 
pins, axles, and wheels, commencing with the 
chilled-iron wheel and later including also the 
steel-tired wheel. In the steel-tired wheel the 
company specialized on what was known as the 
fused or welded wheel. This wheel had a steel 
tire and a cast-iron center, which were fused 
or welded together so that it was really solid 
and practically of one piece with no bolts 
or rings to loosen. The principle of one-piece 
construction was later carried out in the de- 
velopment of the rolled steel wheel. This was 
solid throughout, and it superseded the solid 
wheel made of the two materials steel and 
iron. 

The greatest change in modern times was 
the introduction in 1891. of the manufacture 
of alloy steels. The idea of using manganese 
steel to make a car wheel was tried but found 



334 



NEW JERSEY 




MACHINE SHOP 
Bethlehem Steel Company. Elizabeth 



unsuitable. Finally it was found that the same 
qualities which made manganese steel a failure 
for steam railroad car wheels, promised a great 
success for the track work on which the wheels 
ran; namely, the frogs, switches, and cross- 
overs of both steam and electric railways. 

ATHENIA STEEL COMPANY 

The Athenia Steel Company was formed in 
1907 and has made a specialty of producing 
high-grade materials for watch-spring and 
watch-part purposes, steel for writing pens 
and for umbrella ribs, feeler-gage steel, spring- 
steel for textile purposes, and for clock, watch, 
and motor springs. The product duplicates the 
high-grade Swedish metal, which before this 
company was formed was entirely imported 
from Sweden. It employs from zoo to 300 men, 
and the factory property covers zz acres. 

AMERICAN STEEL & WIRE COMPANY 

The Trenton plant of the American Steel & 
Wire Company was established on February z, 
1847, and had as its first president the widely- 



known and respected manufacturer and philan- 
thropist, Peter Cooper. With him was associ- 
ated Abram S. Hewitt and others. 

In 1868 Cooper-Hewitt & Company installed 
a Siemens' regenerative furnace, and in De- 
cember of that year produced in Trenton the 
first open -hearth steel made in America. In 
1887 the Trenton Iron Company began the 
manufacture of wire rope for use on aerial 
tramways . After nearly threescore years of cor- 
porate existence, the Trenton Iron Company in 
1905 was acquired by the American Steel & 
Wire Company and became known as the 
Trenton Works of that company. 

The American Steel & Wire Company is the 
largest manufacturer of wire and wire products 
in the United States. Wire rope and locked coil 
cable for aerial tramways manufactured at 
Trenton are shipped all over the world. The 
reputation for quality established by Peter 
Cooper and Charles Hewitt has ever been safe- 
guarded. 

Employment is normally provided for 550 
persons, whose health and safety are of con- 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



335 



stant concern. Adequate safeguarding of ma- 
chinery, education in safety, and the services 
of a visiting nurse have effectively minimized 
the number of accidents and time lost through 
sickness by the employees. 

BETHLEHEM STEEL CORPORATION 

The Bethlehem Steel Corporation at its 
Moore Plant at Elizabeth manufactures deck 
and engine-room auxiliaries for all classes of 
vessels, covering a wide range of types and 
sizes. This plant was formerly the works of 
Samuel L. Moore & Sons Corporation, ship and 
machinery builders. On the present site manu- 
facturing activities have been carried on since 
1886, and it is of interest to note that the 
products of this plant have been used largely 
in connection with the building, repairing, 
and reconditioning of vessels. During 1916 and 
1917 the Moore Plant was practically rebuilt 
and the equipment modernized. 

One of the principal products of the Moore 
Plant is ship deck machinery. This includes 
steam and electric motor-driven steering en- 



gines of various types, such as the combined 
spur or worm-geared and screw-geared type, 
the spur and bevel-geared spring quadrant 
type and its modifications, the worm-geared 
drum type (combined hand and steam), and 
electric hydraulic steering gears of the vari- 
able-throw pump plunger type. Other products 
are steering-gear transmissions, steering col- 
umns, shafting transmissions, hydraulic tele- 
motor transmissions, capstans, gypsies, wind- 
lasses, single or compound-geared deck winches, 
mooring winches for either steam or electric 
motor drives, hand-operated coaling and hatch 
winches, and hawser reels. 

A well-known line of engine-room auxilia- 
ries is manufactured here. This is the Weir- 
type equipment, which has a known reputa- 
tion for dependability and economy in service. 

Weir-type pumps are made for a wide variety 
of uses. The reciprocating type includes feed 
pumps, general service pumps, fuel-oil service 
pumps, fuel-oil transfer pumps, forced lubrica- 
tion pumps, and cargo pumps. Turbine and 
motor-driven pumps are built for boiler-feed, 




FINISHED DRILL PARTS 
Machine Shop of Ingersoll-Rand Company at Phillipsburg 



NEW JERSEY 



condensate, circulating, and general service. 
The motor-driven pumps and the motor-driven 
centrifugal pumps for bilge, sanitary, fresh 
water, ballast, and other services complete the 
line of pumps. 

Weir-type feed -water heaters of the ' 'multi- 
flow" surface type and the direct-contact type 
are built for power plants. 

Other Weir-type products built at the Moore 
Plant for power-plant service include main and 
auxiliary condensers, evaporators, distillers and 
complete evaporating and distilling plants (sin- 
gle and multi-effect), and single and multi- 
stage ejectors. 

A specialty of this plant is the two-cycle 
airless injection Diesel engine. This engine is 
adapted for use in propelling tugs, dredges, 
barges, and other small vessels, and is also 
used for auxiliary power on large ships, and 
for stationary power plants. 

Bethlehem (Dahl) mechanical oil-burning 
systems are manufactured at the Moore Plant. 
These systems are of the mechanical atomizing 
type, needing neither compressed air nor steam 
for atomizing the oil. 

The Moore Plant is the pioneer in the manu- 
facture of paraffine-wax factory equipment used 
for the extraction of paraffine wax from crude 
oil, and has been active in its production for 
40 years. 

CONSOLIDATED SAFETY PIN COMPANY 

The Consolidated Safety Pin Company is a 
combination of most of the pioneers in the 
safety-pin business, and can trace its history 
back to 1861, when it purchased the business 
of I. W. Stewart. The company first started 
manufacturing in Brooklyn, then moved to 
New York City, and in 1890 moved to Bloom- 
field, New Jersey. At that time the business 
was done in one small brick building. Since 
then there have been added about 2.0 times as 
much space for manufacturing purposes. The 
corporation is owned by the Chase Companies 
of Waterbury, Conn. 

FisHER-NoRRis ANVIL FOUNDRY 

A woman, Mrs. Harriet Fisher Andrew, is the 
owner and manager of the Fisher-Norris Anvil 
Foundry. In the 1840'$ the father of Mrs. 



Andrew's first husband, Mark Fisher, came to 
Trenton, and invented and patented a process 
of welding steel and iron. Upon the death of 
the founder, his son, Admiral Clark Fisher, 
resigned from the Navy to take up the manage- 
ment of the plant. 

When he was taken ill and there was not 
a man to take the helm, his wife stepped into 
the breach. Rather than let the Eagle anvils 
and vises fall into the hands of strangers, she 
went into the factory. With no training what- 
ever for the business world, she suddenly found 
herself the head of a large metal-working 
plant. Her first move was to learn every step 
in the business from the proper mixture in 
the melting pot. When every anvil manufac- 
turer in the country was bidding for the anvil 
contract for the Panama Canal it was awarded 
to this concern. 

FERRACUTE MACHINE COMPANY 

The Ferracute Machine Company, located 
near the shore of a lake in East Bridgeton, 
was founded by Oberlin Smith in 1863. Be- 
ginning as a general repair and jobbing busi- 
ness, it developed into the manufacture of iron 
verandas and fences, followed by the making 
of foot presses for canning factories, this lead- 
ing to the present specialty of presses and dies 
for metal stampings. 

The shops of the company were destroyed 
by fire in 1903. New fireproof buildings of 
ample size were erected, these being added to 
from time to time. Freight cars are loaded in- 
side the shops by electric cranes. 

The power is furnished by water-tube boilers 
and steam turbines, the latter direct-connected 
to dynamos, the exhaust steam being used for 
heating. Every machine is driven by electric 
motors, there being no line-shafting or belting. 

During the World War the presses were in 
demand for making brass cartridge cases for 
ordnance, and numbers of these machines were 
shipped to foreign allies as well as to the 
American arsenals. 

Sheet-metal stampings are being increasingly 
used in place of castings and forgings, the 
result being a lighter, stronger, and cheaper 
article. Over 4,000 presses have been shipped 
to one automobile manufacturer. 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



337 



METALS AND THEIR PRODUCTS 



THE LEONARD SHEET METAL WORKS, 
INC. 

THE plant of this company is devoted to 
the manufacture of fireproof doors, win- 
dows, and kalamein work. The factory 
is located in Jersey City, and occupies an entire 
block. 

The concern started in a small frame build- 
ing in Hoboken in 1905 and in a short time 
found it necessary to move to its present loca- 
tion, which has been enlarged from time to 
time. 

Some years ago when the State Department 
of Labor required all factories to erect fire es- 
capes and have the opening protected with fire- 
proof doors and windows, the Leonard Sheet 
Metal Works assisted the late Colonel Bryant 
in preparing the standard specifications. 

SAFETY CABLE COMPANY 

A power cable bears the same relation to an 
electric supply as pipes do to a household water 
supply. The Safety Cable Company, organized 
in 1887, occupies 13 acres of land in Bergen 
Point, Bayonne. There are 218,4x7 square feet 
of floor space devoted to the manufacture of 
rubber, varnished cambric, and impregnated 
paper-insulated cables for carrying voltages up 
to i3z,ooo. The plant is so laid out that the raw 
material enters one end, flowing in a straight 
line through the operations to the completed 
product at the other end. There are 500 em- 
ployees. 

Of special interest is a machine which wraps 
the paper strips over the copper conductor for 
super-tension cables. This machine will apply 
i9z individual papers of a thickness of five- 
thousandths of an jnch in one operation. 
Should one of these papers break, the machine 
will automatically stop in three seconds, and a 
semaphore will indicate the location of the 
broken paper. 

DRIVER-HARRIS COMPANY 

Closely interwoven with the development 
of the electrical, mechanical, and chemical in- 



dustries in New Jersey is the upbuilding of the 
Driver-Harris Company, of Harrison. From a 
small beginning in 1900 the concern has grown 
to be a large producer. 

Electrical resistance wires in 1900 were 
scarcely known in this country and the only 
materials of that character on the market be- 
sides german silver were other alloys of nickel- 
steel and copper-nickel made by German con- 
cerns. 

In 1905 the Driver-Harris Company entered 
the field of experimenting in connection with 
nickel-chromium alloys, and after several 
years, perfected a nickel-chromium alloy man- 
ufactured under the name of "Nichrome." The 
alloys of the corporation are used in the manu- 
facture of ball bearings, gears, transmissions, 
axles, and parts carrying heavy loads. 

The company also produces annually mil- 
lions of pounds of brass wire for brake linings 
of automobiles, bronze wire for the weaving 
of wire cloth, pure nickel and nickel alloys, 
metal ropes, special castings for glass making 
machinery, and many metal alloys. The factory 
is equipped with machinery of latest design, 
including electric furnaces. 

THE OKONITE COMPANY 

The Okonite Company was founded in 1878 
at Passaic, and produces rubber and varnished 
cambric insulated wires and cables of all de- 
scriptions. It also manufactures electric friction 
and splicing tapes. The plant in Passaic occupies 
an area of five acres. Sensing in 19x4 a need in 
the public utility field for paper-insulated 
cables for high-tension transmission, it joined 
with a London company in establishing the 
Okonite-Callender Cable Company of Paterson, 
a leading manufacturer of wire and cable. This 
latter plant now occupies ten acres. 

The products of these two plants are used by 
railroads, light and power companies, electric 
railways, building contractors, and manufac- 
turers of electric appliances. 






NEW JERSEY 




ELECTROLYTIC METHOD OF RECLAIMING COPPER 
Raritan Copper Works at Perth Amboy 



J. Wiss & SONS COMPANY 

In 1848 Jacob Wiss, a Swiss surgical instru- 
ment maker, opened a modest shop in Bank 
Street, Newark, to manufacture shears and 
scissors. He landed at New York but decided 
to go on to Texas. Passing through Newark, 
he was attracted by the future possibilities of 
the town even in those early days. He secured 
work, but in a short time opened up a small 
factory on part of the ground now occupied 
by the Prudential Insurance Company. 

Lacking other motive power for his primi- 
tive machinery, Jacob Wiss used a treadmill 
operated by two large St. Bernard dogs which 
he had brought from Switzerland as his faith- 
ful companions. The present tax buiden did 
not trouble manufacturers in those days. A 
tax receipt dated August i, 1845, signed by 
D. J. Camfield, collector, gives a total of $4 
which was for the two dogs, and this was his 
only tax. 

In this modest shop Jacob Wiss forged by 
hand his shears and scissors. The fame of these 



spread, and larger quarters were taken nearby. 
In 1887 the factory was moved to Littleton 
Avenue. The business has expanded steadily, 
and the present four-story plant covers 12.0,000 
square feet and has over 500 employees, many 
with long years of service. 

J. Wiss & Sons Company makes shears, scis- 
sors, tinners' snips, and hedge, grass, and 
pruning shears. In addition to having wide 
distribution in the United States and Canada, 
the products are shipped to Europe, Africa, 
Australia, and South America, even penetrat- 
ing the cutlery center of Sheffield, England. 

RARITAN COPPER WORKS 

The Raritan Copper Works at Perth Amboy, 
the largest copper refinery in New Jersey, was 
built in 1899, with a monthly capacity of 
10,000,000 pounds of refined copper. From time 
to time the capacity has been enlarged, until 
this refinery has a capacity of 45,000,000 
pounds of copper and is the second largest re- 
finery in the world. 

Situated on the Raritan Bay, shipments of 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



339 



crude copper for refining are received from 
Asia, Africa, Europe, South America, and 
Canada, as well as from all the copper pro- 
ducing States. Refined copper in the shape of 
wire bars, cakes, slabs, ingots, and billets is 
shipped from the refinery to all the com- 
mercial centers of the United States and of 
Europe. 

The plant covers 50 acres, and the electro- 
lytic refining is done in two large tank houses 
containing 3,456 electrolytic tanks. The four 
anode furnaces used to melt the crude copper 
slabs received from the smelters have a ca- 
pacity of 1,340 tons, while the capacity of the 
refining furnaces necessary for the melting of 
the refined copper into the commercial shapes 
is 1,2.75 tons. 

The purpose of the electrolytic refining of 
copper is to produce the very pure copper that 
the electrical industry demands, but at the 
same time large quantities of silver and gold 
which the crude copper contains are also re- 
covered, and the refining of silver and gold is 
therefore an important function of a copper 



refinery. The Raritan Copper Works has pro- 
duced in a year as much as 2.1,440,000 ounces 
of refined silver and 131,000 ounces of pure 
gold. 

SPLITDORF-BETHLEHEM ELECTRICAL COM- 
PANY 

The Splitdorf -Bethlehem Electrical Company 
has a plant in Newark and others in Bethlehem, 
Pa., Chicago, 111., and Toronto, Canada. Until 
19x7 it was known as the Splitdorf Electrical 
Company. Then it was acquired by Bethlehem 
interests and received its present name. 

The company has a background of experience 
in electrical manufacturing dating from 1858, 
when Henry Splitdorf engaged in the making 
of medical batteries and coils. During the Civil 
War his coils were used for firing mines and in 
bombs. On the discovery of the Roentgen 
(X-Ray) he brought out a coil for this partic- 
ular use. 

With the advent of the automobile the com- 
pany turned to the making of spark plugs, 
magnetos, transformers, vibrators and com- 







MACHINE SHOP ERECTION FLOOR 
Ferracute Machine Company at Bridgeton 



340 



NEW JERSEY 



plete ignition systems. It has more recently ex- 
tended its business into the field of radio and 
airplane electrical equipment. 

THE CRESCENT INSULATED WIRE AND 
CABLE COMPANY, INC. 

The Crescent Insulated Wire and Cable Com- 
pany, Incorporated, was organized in 1891, 
under the laws of New Jersey. The products of 
the company cover almost the entire field of 
the electrical-wiring industry. More specifi- 
cally, they consist in part as follows: Rubber 
insulated wires and cables; lead-covered wires 
and cables; magnet, office, and annunciator 
wires and cables; lamp, reinforced and heater 
cords; and special cords and cordage of every 
description. Through its subsidiary, the Cres- 
cent Armored Wire Company, all kinds of 
armored wires and cables are produced. 

THE WELSBACH COMPANY 

The Welsbach Company was organized in 
1887 for the production of gas mantles. The suc- 
cess of the gas mantle, however, was not 
marked until the latter part of 1893, in which 
year but a few hundred thousand mantles were 
produced. The output and sales steadily in- 
creased until, in 1916, it reached the maximum 



of 40,000,000 lamps. The distribution to dealers 
and public-service corporations was through 
the Company's branch offices located in all the 
important cities of the country. At that time 
the organization had about 4,000 people in its 
employ, with a pay-roll well over $1,000,000. 

The Company has supplemented its gas-light- 
ing business by the manufacture, sale and dis- 
tribution of automatic gas water heaters, gas 
room heaters, electric-lighting fixtures, and re- 
cently has begun the manufacture of electric 
refrigerators on a large scale. 

The Welsbach Company's plant is located in 
Gloucester City, New Jersey, and occupies a 
plot of 13 acres with a waterfront on the Dela- 
ware River of 650 feet. The buildings are mod- 
ern in every respect, being of concrete and steel 
construction and having a total floor area of 
approximately 500,000 square feet. 

^EOLIAN COMPANY AND VOTEY ORGAN 
COMPANY 

The Votey Organ Company and the ^Eolian 
Company, in Garwood, are subsidiaries of the 
yEolian Company of New York. They make 
the Duo-Art player actions used in pianos and 
in residence and church organs. Several of the 
Duo-Art players are in royal palaces in Europe. 



MACHINERY 



WORTHINGTON PUMP AND MACHINERY 
CORPORATION 

THE Worthington Pump and Machinery 
Corporation, Worthington Works, is at 
the easterly end of Harrison, on land 
comprising 36 acres. The original factory was 
started in Brooklyn in 1845 by Henry R. Worth- 
ington, and the business developed so rapidly 
that a new location was imperative. The Hat- 
rison site was selected, and in 1904 an assem- 
blage of factory buildings was erected, with a 
floor space of 750,000 square feet. Since then ad- 
ditional buildings were needed to accommodate 
increases in business, so that now the plant floor 
space has increased to 1,000,000 square feet. 

The Worthington Works is equipped with 
modern machinery for quantity production. It 



includes foundries, machine and erecting shops, 
testing shops, shipping houses, pattern mak- 
ing, carpenter and paint shops, stock and 
storage houses, power plant, restaurant, and 
welfare departments. It has more than three 
miles of standard-gage railroad trackage. 

Among the lines manufactured at the Worth- 
ington Works are duplex pumping machinery 
of direct-acting and centrifugal types, built 
from the smallest commercial sizes up to the 
huge machines required for water works, irri- 
gation, sewage, and other large volume pur- 
poses; surface and barometric condensers, from 
those for small evaporative service to the larg- 
est super-power plant needs; steam-air ejectors 
for air-removal service; feed -water heaters for 
locomotive and for stationary power-plant use, 
and meters of varied types for cold and hot 



fi- 

(ft 




THIS YOUNG NEW JERSEY FARMER SEEMS PROUD OF HIS PRIZE EARS OF CORN 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



34 1 



water and oil. The normal operating force of 
the works consists of x,ooo employees. 

The Worthington Works is one of four 
plants, the others being the Laidlaw Works at 
Cincinnati, the Snow Works at Buffalo, and the 
Deane-Blake-Knowles Works at Holyoke. 

Henry R. Worthington, in inventing the 
direct-acting pump, revolutionized water-han- 
dling practice. 

CROCKER-WHEELER ELECTRIC MANU- 
FACTURING COMPANY 

The Crocker- Wheeler Electric Manufactur- 
ing Company was founded in 1888 by Dr. 
Schuyler S. Wheeler and Prof. Francis B. 
Crocker, and was an offshoot of the C. & C. 
Company, founded by Dr. Wheeler and Charles 
G. Curtis about two years earlier. Mr. Curtis 
later invented the Curtis turbine. 

The company moved its factory from New 
York to Ampere in April, 1893, and has had a 
steady growth since that time. 

Curtis, Crocker and Wheeler were the first 
to establish the manufacture of electric motors. 
This was in 1886. Authorities say their motors 
have no superior on the market. The company's 
lifetime is contemporaneous with the era of 
electric power. From the first it has taken the 
lead in advocating the use of current, and has 
specialized on the applications of electricity 
resulting from its own creations. Many of the 
best and most widely used electric power de- 
signs and systems were developed by this 
corporation. 

RANSOME CONCRETE MACHINERY COM- 
PANY 

Concrete is an important factor in New 
Jersey's industrial growth, and hundreds of 
miles of concrete roads cover the State. Giant 
bridges, largely made of concrete, cross the 
rivers to the adjoining-states of New York 
and Pennsylvania. Tubes and tunnels go under 
these rivers, and massive concrete factories and 
office buildings are erected each year in in- 
creasing numbers in all of the cities and towns. 

The proper mixing of the materials for con- 
crete is of importance. Accuracy of the pro- 
portions is not only vital to the architect and 



engineer, but often proves to be the controlling 
factor in the speed of construction. 

Back in 1850 Frederick Ransome designed 
the first concrete mixer, a machine that would 
now seem crude when compared with the 
present-day mixers. The first Ransome mixer 
in America was used on the San Francisco City 
Hall in 1875. From that time on this product 
continued to develop, until finally in 1898 the 
Ransome Company erected a plant in Jersey 
City, and in 19x6 the first unit of the present 
large modern factory was erected in Dunellen. 

As the use of concrete increased, new equip- 
ment was designed and constructed. Eighteen 
years ago the company developed the first port- 
able concrete chuting plant. These steel towers 
and chutes made in New Jersey are used all 
over America and in many foreign countries. 

The rapid development of concrete roads has 
afforded a large market for the company's road 
pavers. These machines, mounted on cater- 
pillar crawlers, are a familiar sight not only 
to the motorist in New Jersey, Michigan or 
Oregon, but in Venezuela or Chile as well. 

In subways and tunnels one will find many 
Ransome pneumatic concrete mixers being used 
to line the interiors of the underground ex- 
cavations. In this practice the concrete is 
blown under compressed air into the forms 
where it sets and hardens. 

SAMUEL L. LANGSTON COMPANY 

Paper-working machinery is made in Cam- 
den by the Samuel M. Langston Company. It 
makes equipment for manufacturing corrugated 
shipping cases such as are used for freight, 
express, and parcel-post; slitters and winders 
or rewinders, such as are used on the ends of 
board or paper machines in the finishing rooms 
of paper mills, or by jobbers of paper for slit- 
ting and rewinding rolls; and it also produces 
spiral-tube or paper-can equipment. 

In addition it has some special lines, such as 
machines for cutting the asphalt slate-covered 
roofing shingles and counting and stacking 
them. Another interesting machine here pro- 
duced is employed for making corrugated as- 
bestos such as is used in manufacturing asbestos 
cellular-pipe covering. 






NEW JERSEY 




ASSEMBLY FLOOR. LARGE MOTORS AND GENERATORS 
Crocker-Wheeler Company at Ampere 



BRUNSWICK-KROESCHELL COMPANY 

The part that mechanical refrigeration has 
exerted toward raising the standards of living 
and its direct effect on the preservation and 
conservation of perishables needs no amplifica- 
tion. In this work the Brunswick-Kroeschell 
Company has played a leading part. It was a 
pioneer in developing refrigerating and ice- 
making machinery. 

This concern is a consolidation of the 
Kroeschell Brothers Ice Machine Company of 
Chicago, manufacturers of carbonic-anhydride 
refrigerating machinery, and the Brunswick 
Refrigerating Company, of New Brunswick, 
manufacturers of ammonia refrigerating ma- 
chinery. 

This company is responsible for the initia- 
tion and development of the carbonic-anhy- 
dride type of refrigerating and ice-making 
equipment in this country, and of the small 
capacity refrigerating plants for service where 
skilled attendance is not desirable on account 
of the cost. 



A. B. SEE ELEVATOR COMPANY, INC. 

In 192.4 the A. B. See Elevator Company pur- 
chased nine acres of undeveloped land fronting 
on Pacific Avenue in Jersey City, and on this 
property it erected a one-story fireproof factory 
of 2.^2 acres. Since that time it has built several 
additions which have doubled the floor area. 

It manufactures at this plant practically all 
of the material used with the exception of 
castings. It is the builder of direct-connected 
electric elevators and has been engaged ex- 
clusively in the manufacture of this one product 
for 2.8 years. 

JOHN WALDRON CORPORATION 

The John Waldron Corporation was founded 
in 182.7 an d remained in the one family for 100 
years, control then having passed to others. 
It was an early concern to make a business of 
building wall-paper printing machinery and 
paper-coating machinery and has made prac- 
tically all classes of such machinery now in 
use. It was also one of the earliest to make 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



343 



rubber machinery when rubber first came 
into use. 

OTIS ELEVATOR COMPANY 

One of the first businesses to incorporate un- 
der New Jersey's protective laws was the Otis 
Elevator Company, which organized over a 
generation ago and still operates under its char- 
ter. In its extensive plant at Harrison there are 
made the Otis escalator and a line of passenger 
cars for Otis elevators. In such widely separated 
cities as New York, Winnipeg, Buenos Aires, 
Tokio, San Francisco, and Newark the escala- 
tors are in daily use in department stores, 
theaters, subways, and elevated railroads. 

In the manufacture of passenger elevator 
cars, a business started only a few years ago, it 
combines modern production methods with 
artistic treatment. A large new car shop is be- 
ing built and equipped to cost about $1,000,000 
to care for this business. 

BATES MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

Among the many office appliances made 
within the State is the Bates numbering ma- 



chine, made by the Bates Manufacturing Com- 
pany of Orange. This product is accepted as a 
necessary piece of equipment in the conduct of 
office business. 

It is interesting to note that while this ma- 
chine bears the name of Bates, it was first put 
out under the direction of the Thomas A . Edi- 
son industries. One of the company's first 
presidents was Samuel Insull, the public util- 
ities magnate of Chicago. After the war, new 
interests acquired the company from the Edison 
people, continuing its home in Orange, but 
moving operations into the factory of the 
new owners. 

A. P. SMITH MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

The A. P. Smith Manufacturing Company 
manufactures apparatus for tapping water 
mains and other carriers of liquids without 
shutting them off. This method was patented 
by Anthony P. Smith while supervisor of the 
old Newark Aqueduct Board and is now in use 
in the principal water works. The business was 
started in 1888 and was incorporated in 1896. 

The company has a large plant at East 




RANSOME CONCRETE MIXER MADE IN DUNELLEN 
Employed in building the Hudson River Bridge Fort Lee end 



344 



NEW JERSEY 



Orange, near the Bloomfield line, where it also 
manufactures a machine for inserting a valve 
in a straight line of pipe without shutting it 



off. Other production includes a complete line 
of supplies and specialties for water depart- 
ments. 



TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT AND REPAIR 



TlETJEN AND LANG DRY DOCK COM- 
PANY 

TlETJEN AND LANG DRY DOCK COMPANY 
has in Hoboken an extensive plant for 
repairing and reconditioning vessels. 
This plant was established by Frederick C. 
Lang in the seventies and has been in operation 
since. In 19116 the business was taken over as a 
subsidiary of the Todd Shipyards Corporation. 
The plant covers 2.3 acres, and nine dry docks 
are operated. Such vessels as the "Leviathan," 
"George Washington," "Manchuria," and 
"Mongolia" have been repaired at this plant. 

PERTH AMBOY DRY DOCK COMPANY 

The shores of New Jersey accommodate 
some of the largest and best-equipped shipyards 
and dry docks. Among these is the Perth 
Amboy Dry Dock Company, which, since its 
reorganization in 1894, has grown from a small 
yard with one dry dock with very little 
waterfront, until it has over 1,000 feet of 
waterfront with five large dry docks, the 
largest of which can "haul out" a ship of 
10,000 tons. Only about 2.5 per cent of the 
shipping which comes to New York is too 
large to be accommodated on this dry dock. 

The plant is equipped with compressed air 
and has a blacksmith and boiler shop, machine 
shop, pattern loft, and derricks. 

ATLANTIC AIRCRAFT CORPORATION 

The Atlantic Aircraft Corporation, manu- 
facturers of the Fokker airplane, is in Has- 
brouck Heights, Bergen County. Here in an 
airplane factory 60,000 square feet in extent 
are built planes which have spanned oceans 
and established international records. Com- 
mander Byrd's North Pole plane, the trans- 
atlantic "America," the "Southern Cross," 
Miss Earhart's Boston to Wales tri-motor 
"Friendship," and many others were built in 
the plant. 



The Atlantic Aircraft Corporation is con- 
structing tri-motor transport planes for the 
Army and Navy and for commercial air-line 
operators. There are 400 employees filling orders 
for single-engined Fokker commercial planes 
from private owners and operators of air-lines. 

At Passaic the corporation has another plant 
in the Hughton Mills occupying 37,000 square 
feet . Many parts are manufactured here which are 
later assembled at the Hasbrouck Heights plant. 
There are 12.0 employees in the Passaic works. 

On the same plot of ground at Hasbrouck 
Heights is the Teterboro Airport, and nearby 
is the hangar of the Wright Aeronautical Cor- 
poration to which all planes equipped with 
Wright "Whirlwind" engines come for servic- 
ing. 

The Fokker tri-motor F-io carries 14 people, 
with Pullman compartment, baggage and mail, 
at a speed of 150 miles an hour. 

FITZ GIBBON & CRISP, INC. 

A business established in 1849 and now a 
large plant producing commercial automobile 
bodies is that of Fitz Gibbon & Crisp, Inc. It 
has 300,000 square feet of floor space and builds 
wood and steel bodies for trucks, busses, and 
moving vans. 

Some of the bodies are of the elevating-hoist 
type generally supplied to coal dealers and con- 
tractors. Other bodies are for double-deck bus- 
ses and for the delivery autos of department 
stores. 

This company was one of the first to manu- 
facture commercial automobile bodies as well 
as passenger-car bodies. 

MAGOR CAR CORPORATION 

Standard railroad freight cars and special 
heavy car equipment for industrial companies, 
including iron ore and copper mines, are built 
by the Magor Car Corporation at Clifton. Its 
special cars for hauling sugar cane are practi- 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



345 




346 



NEW JERSEY 




CAN MAKING FOR WHIZ PRODUCTS 
R M. Hollingshead Plant at Camden 



cally standard with sugar plantations in Cuba, 
Santo Domingo, and Porto Rico. It also builds 
cars for handling ore which are used in Chile, 



Peru, Colombia, Brazil, Manchuria, and Russia, 
and also special cars for logging purposes and 
equipment for carrying bananas. 



CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS 



R. M. HOLLINGSHEAD COMPANY 

IN 1891 the R. M. Hollingshead Company 
occupied in Camden a factory building of 
modest proportions for the manufacture of 
soaps, oils, dressings, and products for the 
harness and saddlery trade. The business pros- 
pered, and other articles were added. Several 
of these were found suitable for automobile 
use, and as the motor car grew in favor, new 
things were developed to meet its requirements. 

More than 46,000,000 packages of "Whiz" 
products are used annually, while the distribut- 
ing organization employs 400 men. 

The manufacturing plant has unique features. 
All fluid raw materials are stored in under- 
ground tanks and pumped to compounding 



departments as required. All tin containers used 
are made in the plant. There is a rubber mill 
for the tube patches, sheet metal works for the 
display cabinets, and a machine shop for dies, 
jigs, and special equipment needed in the man- 
ufacturing processes. 

CALCO CHEMICAL COMPANY 

For generations the United States has been 
largely dependent on importations to supply 
its needs for dyes. To help meet the domestic 
demand the Calco Chemical Company was 
started in 1915. Besides the original prod- 
ucts, aniline oil and beta naphthol, the 
manufactures have been expanded to include 
intermediates, as the bases of dyestuffs, 
dyes, pharmaceutical products, sulphuric and 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



347 



nitric acids, and other kindred chemical 
products. 

Large quantities of these intermediates are 
also used by rubber manufacturers, copper 
mines, and makers of paints, dry colors, print- 
ing inks, hard-rubber substitutes, tanning ex- 
tracts, etc. 

The plant of the Company is located one 
mile west of Bound Brook, and consists of 81 
buildings with 415 acres of land. Several miles 
of yard trackage serve the various departments. 
There is also a frontage of a half mile upon the 
Raritan River. 

The buildings are of steel, brick, and concrete, 
designed according to the best modern practice 
for fire prevention and equipped with auto- 
matic sprinklers and high -pressure fire mains. 

BENJAMIN MOORE & Co. 

Benjamin Moore & Company is one of the 
important factors in the general paint and 
varnish business of America, manufacturing 
paint products of many different types and 
covering practically every requirement of the 



paint industry. Founded in a small way in 
Brooklyn in 1883 with local distribution, the 
business has grown to one which at the present 
time has national distribution and operates 
six factories located in various industrial 
centers. 

There are two important plants located in 
the State of New Jersey. One is at Carteret, 
where wall finishes and varnishes are manu- 
factured on a large scale. The second is at New- 
ark, and manufactures mixed paints, enamel, 
oil colors and other allied products. This latter 
factory serves the eastern section of the country 
and also the West Coast. 

The Company maintains a research labora- 
tory at the Newark plant, and in this way 
supervises the development of new products and 
the quality of the raw materials that enter into 
all the products made in the various factories. 
Here, also, practical tests are made upon the 
wearing and working qualities of the manu- 
factured goods. Other plants are located at 
Chicago, Cleveland, St. Louis, and Toronto, 
Canada. 




WOOL SCOURING 
Eavenson & Levering. Camden. Plant covers 14 acres and is the largest wool scouring and carbonizing plant in the world 



34 8 



MEW JERSEY 



Among the products which are most pop- 
ularly known are: Muresco, a hot-water wall 
finish, which has been on the market for over 
30 years; Sani-Flat, a flat oil interior paint, 
which has become a standard in the industry 
for this type of material; Utilac, a quick-drying 
enamel, and Moore's House Paint. 

MERCK & Co., INC. 

The consolidation of Merck & Co., of New 
York, and the Powers-Weightman-Rosengarten 
Co., of Philadelphia, under the name of Merck 
& Co., Inc., became effective on July i, 19x7. 
This merger brought together chemical estab- 
lishments, the founders of which are identified 
with the very beginning of modern industrial 
chemistry. The main office of the new company 
is at Rahway. 

Both concerns have been large manufacturers 
of chemicals, specializing in fine prescription 
chemicals. Their production activities have 
been to a large extent complementary to each 
other. The name Merck has been identified 
with pharmacy and the chemical industry since 
the Seventeenth Century, and the Powers- 
Weightman-Rosengarten Co. traces its founda- 
tion back to 1818. 

Merck & Co. 's origin was in an ancient phar- 
macy in Darmstadt, Germany, which came 
into the possession of Friedrich Jacob Merck in 
1668, and which has remained in unbroken pos- 
session of this family for 2.^ years. This was 
the nucleus of the great chemical establishment 
now known as E. Merck, Darmstadt. Heinrich 
Emanuel Merck took over the pharmacy in 
1816, and as the intimate friend and collab- 
orator of the great chemist, Liebig, started it on 
the road from pharmacy to factory. 

The preparation of pure alkaloids was the 
main aim of the founder of the Merck factory, 
and his achievements include the original manu- 
facture, on a commercial scale, of morphine in 
iSz/, codeine in 1836, and cocaine in 1862.. 

In 1891 George Merck, a son of one of the 
heads of the Darmstadt concern, came to 
the United States, to become associated with 
the American agency for the old house, and 
eventually to found the American house of 
Merck &Co. 

At its Rahway factory, the company eventu- 



ally manufactured morphine, codeine, cocaine 
and many other chemicals, including such 
salicylates as aspirin, oil of winter green, and 
salicylic acid. It also produces iodine prepara- 
tions, bismuth salts, acetanilid, and chloral, 
besides preparing for the prescription counter 
most of the medicinal chemical requirements of 
the modern pharmacist. 

CELLULOID CORPORATION 

The Celluloid Corporation's industry was 
founded in Albany in 1871 by John W. Hyatt, 
later of roller-bearing fame, and his brother 
Isaiah S. Hyatt. They interested several Albany 
financiers, and with a capital of $6o,cco started 
a small factory. 

In 1873 Col. Marshall Lefferts, Joseph La- 
rocque, Tracy B. Edson and other New York 
capitalists secured a controlling interest in the 
newly formed company, and more extensive 
works were erected in Newark, where the 
manufacture is still centered. Its growth was 
so rapid that frequent increases of capital and 
factory facilities were found necessary, and its 
buildings now cover about 30 city blocks. 

Because it can be made in an endless variety 
of colors this product is adapted to many uses. 
The company was the first to make an endless, 
jointless film base which made possible the 
motion picture. Later this company made the 
first non-inflammable photo film base which is 
now being used in the home picture camera. In 
addition to manufacturing films, sheets, rods, 
and tubes of both cellulose nitrate and cellulose 
acetate, the corporation fabricates a complete 
line of toilet articles, novelties, and special 
articles for household and industrial use. 

In 19x7 the industry was merged with the 
Safety Celluloid Company, a subsidiary of 
the Celanese Corporation of America, with the 
effect of further expansion, so that its output 
now represents an even greater diversity of 
character and application. 

LEHN & FINK, INC. 

In 1918, Lehn & Fink, Inc., perfected their 
plans for moving their manufacturing plant 
from Brooklyn to Bloomfield, N. J. There, 
under improved conditions the manufacturing 
of Lehn & Fink's products has been studied 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



349 







NEWARK "FOUR CORNERS" MARKET AND BROAD STREETS AT A QUIET MOMENT 
A traffic check made by the State Motor Vehicle Department for a n-hour period, October i, 192.6, recorded the 
passage of 36,596 vehicles of all descriptions. There were 1,644 trolley cars, 4,098 buses, 12.4 horse-drawn vehicles, 1,675 
taxi-cabs, 3,474 commercial vehicles, and 2.3,581 passenger cars. Henry M. Brinckerhoff, of Parsons, Klapp, Brinckerhoff & 
Douglas of New York, in a report on a survey of traffic conditions in that city, December 19, 1916, made the statement 
that traffic at the "Four Corners" in Newark is handled better than at Fifth Avenue and 4ind Street, New York, and 
that the "Four Corners" is the busiest traffic center in the world. 



350 



NEW JERSEY 



and developed to cater to the increased pro- 
duction needs of Pebeco tooth paste, Lysol dis- 
infectant and Hind's Honey and Almond 
Cream. A research laboratory has been de- 
veloped, where analyses are continually being 
made of all raw materials and outgoing mer- 
chandise. Having its own machinery for print- 
ing, for the making of cartons, and for the 
manufacture and printing of collapsible tin 
tubes, this plant is a complete unit. 

After 54 years of experience in its chosen field, 
Lehn & Fink now exert a strong influence in the 
ranks of toilet-goods manufacturers. 

ARCHER-DANIELS-MIDLAND COMPANY* 

The Archer-Daniels-Midland Company are 
large crushers of linseed, and the plant at 
Edgewater has an annual crushing capacity 
of 7,000,000 bushels, or about 375,000 barrels 
of linseed oil. 

Raw material is brought from the Argentine, 
and linseed-oil cake is exported principally to 
foreign countries. The linseed oil is used in this 
country, and a large amount of it goes to 
paint, varnish, and linoleum manufacturers in 
New Jersey. 

Edgewater, with the combined crushing 
capacity of this company and Spencer Kellogg 
& Son, produces more linseed oil and cake than 
any other city in the world, using about 40 
per cent of the flaxseed raised in the United 
States . 

The Archer-Daniels-Midland Company em- 
ploys about 5x5 men at its Edgewater plant, 
the majority of them living in New Jersey. 

PITTSBURGH PLATE GLASS COMPANY 

In the last 15 years, the output of paint, 
varnish and linseed oil, at the Passaic River 
plant of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company, 
has multiplied more than I-L times. Its volume 
of business is now greater each month than 
was its annual production in any year up to 
1912.. 

Established Z5 years ago as the Patton Paint 
Company, the original plant consisted of one 
manufacturing building, a power house and 
warehouse. Now its lo-acre site is occupied by 
seven modern buildings. The tower which 
houses its grain elevator rises in concrete bas- 



relief 1 60 feet above the river. A 9oo-foot dock, 
mostly concrete, facilitates water shipping. 
The company's general export offices for paint, 
varnish, lacquer, and insecticides are located 
here. 

All the flax from which linseed oil is made is 
delivered by harbor boats, and all the cake 
linseed from which oil has been pressed is 
shipped out by barge and lighter. The bulk of 
this linseed cake is sold in Europe as fodder 
for cattle. 

Raw materials are brought from nearly all 
parts of the world and the market for finished 
products is equally vast. Most of the flax used 
is brought from the Argentine, with a small 
part of it coming in from the Northwest. Gum 
for varnish is brought from South America and 
South Africa. Ombres and siennas are imported 
from Italy and Turkey. Other necessary ma- 
terials come from many lands. The Company 
makes all of the chemical colors it requires for 
its processes. 

BARBER ASPHALT COMPANY 

The Barber Asphalt Company's plant at 
Maurer has been in operation for 2.4 years. 
Prior to 1901, this concern was located in Long 
Island City. In looking around for a desirable 
location, it decided that the site at Maurer was 
suitable because of the convenient railroad and 
dock facilities. 

It was in 1901 that the company purchased 
15 acres at Maurer, and the plant started op- 
erating in March of 1903. The growth of the 
business made it necessary to acquire more 
ground, so on various occasions additional 
property was acquired until now the plants 
cover Z54 acres. 

The asphalt plant consists of 18 steam stills 
of 70 tons' capacity each, two converters of 15 
tons each, a mastic plant, a slack barrel manu- 
facturing plant, a central power and lighting 
plant, machine shops, and office buildings. 

This plant has docks on deep water for the 
loading and discharging of ocean-going ships, 
has space for the storage of 110,000 tons of 
asphalt, six steel storage tanks of 160,000 bar- 
rels capacity for asphaltic material, and nine 
miles of railroad tracks within the area. 

The Genasco roofing plant, at Genasco, just 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 351 







352. 



NEW JERSEY 



above Maurer, manufactures asphalt roofings 
and shingles, asphalt saturated felt, and felt 
base for floor coverings. It has a raw materials 
warehouse, two manufacturing buildings, and 
a finished products warehouse. This plant 
produces 1,2.80,000 square feet of asphalt roof- 
ing and 400,000 square feet of saturated felt 
base for floor covering per day. 

J. T. BAKER CHEMICAL COMPANY 

The J. T. Baker Chemical Company was or- 
ganized about Z5 years ago to manufacture fine 
chemicals. The factory occupies 10 acres of land 
at Phillipsburg. The business has grown ra- 
pidly and the company's products are now 
shipped to Canada and Mexico, as well as to 
all parts of the United States. 

Its manufactures are pure chemicals for 
analytical work in steel, cement, laboratories, 
and a variety of other processes. It also sup- 
plies materials for experimental and research 
work in schools and colleges. Among its other 
lines are technical chemicals used in manu- 
facturing a wide range of products, and a num- 



ber of pharmaceutical chemicals for the drug 
trade. 

The business has been unusually successful, 
owing chiefly to its diversification of produc- 
tion- there being about 1600 different articles. 
This is probably the reason the company has 
seldom felt the evil effects of dull times. 

MUTUAL CHEMICAL COMPANY OF AMER- 
ICA 

The Mutual Chemical Company of America, 
whose plant is in Jersey City, is a large manu- 
facturer of bichromates. Like many other chem- 
icals, bichromates never reach the public. But 
they play an important part in the life of 
everyone, for they are used in the tanning of 
leather, in mordants, colors, paints, matches, 
window shades, chromium plating, drugs, 
Pharmaceuticals, and in the manufacture of 
dyes and the etching of brass. 

The Jersey City plant occupies 30 acres on the 
east bank of the Hackensack and extends to 
West Side Avenue. The company operates a 




SORTING MACHINE IN PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE 
At U. S. Tool Company Plant. Ampere 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



353 



bichromate plant in Baltimore and works its 
own chrome mines in New Caledonia. 

Other products manufactured are sulphuric 
acid, tanning extract, sulphate of soda, chromic 
acid, and oxalic acid. 

JOHN LUCAS & Co., INC. 

The paint, varnish, lacquer, and color-manu- 
facturing plant of John Lucas & Co., Inc., is 
located at Gibbsboro. 

Beginning in 1849, John Lucas conceived the 
idea of manufacturing chromate colors in an old 
grist-mill of Revolutionary days. This mill was 
run by a water-wheel driven by the waters of a 
tributary of the Cooper River. The business 
grew through 80 years, manufacturing not only 
chromatic colors, precipitated colors of all 
kinds and a line of high-quality paint, but also 
varnish and lacquer products. The concern was 
incorporated in 191 -L and went through a reor- 
ganization in 1911. 

At the original plant at Gibbsboro, 53 build- 
ings cover 60 acres. At Vineland, insecticides 
and fungicides are produced under the name of 
the Lucas Kil-Tone Company. The corporation 
also has plants at Chicago and at West Berk- 
eley, California. 

SHERWIN-WILLIAMS COMPANY 

The Sherwin-Williams Company was founded 
at Cleveland in 1866 by Henry Alden Sherwin 
as a wholesaler and retailer of paints, oils, and 
varnishes. Four years later Edward Porter Wil- 
liams came into the firm, and the new company 
was formed. In 1900 land was purchased on the 
Passaic River in Newark, and a factory was 
started. In July of 1901 manufacturing com- 
menced. 

The Sherwin-Williams factory at Newark 
has within its bounds the original buildings, 
incorporated now in a, more up-to-date plant. 
The style and design of the mills now used in 
grinding paints are much the same as of those 
that were first built. 

In 1873 there was one manufacturing plant 
producing 450,000 pounds of paints and allied 
products. Now there are 51 plants with a 
production of approximately 469,000,000 
pounds. 



VULCANITE PORTLAND CEMENT COM- 
PANY 

The Vulcanite Portland Cement Company 
was incorporated under the laws of New Jersey 
in 1894 by Philadelphia interests. It was led to 
this step by the fact that another company well 
known in Philadelphia at the time, the Vul- 
canite Paving Company, was using large quan- 
tities of portland cement which it had to im- 
port at prices that were excessive. 

The Vulcanite management determined that 
an equally high grade of portland cement could 
be made in this country if proper care and super- 
vision of the processes of manufacture were 
exercised. A property a few miles east of Phil- 
lipsburg was purchased and a small plant 
erected. 

Operations commenced during the summer 
of 1895, the capacity then being 150 barrels per 
day. This has been gradually increased until the 
present capacity of 6,zoo barrels per day has 
been reached. The same interests that organ- 
ized the company in 1894 are still active in the 
management. 

New Jersey cement has no superior and there 
are few locations where its quality is equalled. 
Yet it is a striking fact that of the 8,391,366 
barrels of cement used in the state, on its roads 
and in other directions, in 1917, only about 
1,000,000 barrels were manufactured within 
its borders. There were 4,2.11,938 barrels pro- 
duced in New Jersey, of which about 3,000,000 
were shipped to 10 other states. 

The use in this state of all cement produced 
here would reduce the price to the consumer 
about one-half, this company asserts. Freight 
rates on New Jersey cement going to other 
states and rates from other states to New 
Jersey add this difference to the selling price. 

AIR REDUCTION COMPANY 

The business of the Air Reduction Company, 
Inc., is the production of oxygen, acetylene, 
calcium carbide, calorene (a fuel gas for cut- 
ting), nitrogen, argon, neon, helium, krypton, 
and xenon; also oxyacetylene welding and cut- 
ting apparatus, automatic welding and cutting 
machines, and welding accessories and sup- 
plies are produced. 



NEW JERSEY 




REDUCING CEMENT CLINKERS TO A FINENESS OF 80% WHILE PASSING THROUGH A SIEVE OF 40,000 

HOLES TO THE SQUARE INCH 
Vulcanite Portland Cement Company, Phillipsburg 



The factory is in Jersey City where there is 
also an oxygen liquefaction plant producing 
oxygen, nitrogen, and argon. At a research 
laboratory in Elizabethport other rare at- 
mospheric gases are manufactured. At a works 
in Gloucester, acetylene is produced from cal- 
cium carbide and then compressed in cylinders 
for use in oxyacetylene welding and cutting. 
The company has 36 oxygen plants, 19 acety- 
lene plants, two calorene plants, and two cal- 
cium carbide plants in the principal industrial 
centers. 

The oxyacetylene welding and cutting proc- 
ess, though having been in use only a little 
more than 2.0 years, has become highly im- 
portant in the production, fabrication, and 
repair of structures, machinery, tanks, barrels, 
and a variety of apparatus. 

The air liquefaction process makes possible 
the recovery of all the atmospheric compo- 
nents, so that actually this interesting method 
is hardly more or less than an ingenious plan 
of "mining the air." 



OXWELD ACETYLENE COMPANY 

Manufacture at the National Carbon Com- 
pany's plant at Jersey City has been discon- 
tinued, the location being used as a warehouse. 
The Oxweld Acetylene Company, a unit of 
the Union Carbide & Carbon Corporation, has 
a factory at Newark with 199,900 square feet 
of floor space. About 1,000 people are here 
employed. This plant produces all of the 
equipment sold by the Oxweld Acetylene Com- 
pany and the Oxweld Railway Service Com- 
pany for oxyacetylene welding and cutting. 

Here also are manufactured the flashlights 
sold by the National Carbon Company. All 
types and sizes of these lights are produced, 
from those small enough to be carried in a 
hand bag, to the big portable lights having a 
projecting power of over 1,000 feet. 

SPENCER KELLOGG & SONS 

The entrance of the Kellogg family into the 
linseed oil industry took place a little more 
than a century ago. Near Amsterdam, N. Y., 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



355 



in 18x4, Supplina Kellogg, great-grandfather 
of the present head of Spencer Kellogg and 
Sons, established one of the earliest linseed 
oil mills, a primitive press with a daily 
capacity of only 2.0 gallons of oil. The man- 
agement of the company is now in the hands of 
the fourth generation. 

Since the founding of the present company 
in 1894, the uses of vegetable oil in industry 
have rapidly multiplied. Linseed oil, the staple 
of the paint industry, has become also the 
staple of many different industries including 
linoleum and waterproof products. 

The mill at Edgewater has 180 linseed oil 
presses. Flaxseed from every producing nation 
is brought to these mills for the extraction 
and refining of its oil. 

MACANDREWS & FORBES COMPANY 

The Mac Andrews & Forbes Company, of 
Camden, imports large quantities of licorice 
root from Spain, Italy, and the Near East. 
Licorice long has been prized as a sweetmeat 
and for its health-giving properties. 



The company supplies extract of licorice to 
the tobacco and confectionery trades and to 
pharmaceutical houses. The so-called "spent" 
licorice root, formerly burned to get rid of it, 
now yields a series of commercially valuable 
by-products. 

A secondary extraction is given to the root 
to furnish "firefoam liquid," a substance 
which has had success as the basis of the Foam- 
ite Fire-Extinguishing System. The residual 
licorice fiber is made into many kinds of box- 
board, wallboard, and insulating board. 

CERTAIN-TEED PRODUCTS CORPORATION 

One linoleum plant of the Certain-teed 
Products Corporation is in Trenton. This plant 
makes a full line of linoleum and felt-base floor 
covering. It employs 900 people. In addition to 
this factory, 32. plants are operated by the 
company in other parts of the country. Over 
1500 different items are made in these plants, 
and eight industries are represented in the 
products. 







MACHINE IN FOREGROUND PRODUCES 150 BOTTLES PER MINUTE 
Illinois Glass Works, Bridgeton 



356 



NEW JERSEY 



HERCULES POWDER COMPANY 

At Kenvil, in the northern part of New 
Jersey, is the Kenvil plant of the Hercules 
Powder Company. This plant, built in July of 
1871, is the second dynamite plant to be built 
in America, and it is the oldest now working 
on its original location. Until 1913, the factory 
produced materials only for dynamite, but dur- 
ing 1913, smokeless powder was added. The 
plant embraces 1x15 acres of land and gives 
employment to 300 people. 

The experimental station of the Hercules 
Powder Company is near the Kenvil plant. 
Here about 60 technically trained men are en- 
gaged in research or development work, so that 
the quality of the explosives, naval stores, and 
nitrocellulose manufactured by the company 
will be improved constantly. 

The Union plant of the Hercules Powder 
Company, at Parlin, manufactures nitrocellu- 
lose. At this factory the purified cellulose, 
which is cotton linters, is treated with a mix- 
ture of nitric and sulphuric acids, and the 
resulting nitrocellulose is then freed from excess 
acids, stabilized, and prepared for conversion 
into soluble cotton solutions. The Union plant 
covers several hundred acres of land and em- 
ploys hundreds of men. 

WALTER KIDDE & COMPANY 

A notable example of engineering skill, com- 
bined with manufacturing, is the plant of 
Walter Kidde & Company, in Bloomfield. With 
a highly skilled technique concerned in making 
apparatus for handling gas with pressures run- 
ning as high as 3000 pounds per square inch, 
this factory is producing a unique fire-protection 
system which is being sent out to every part of 
the world. 

Pioneering in the use of carbon dioxide, the 
company has won the approval of boards of 
underwriters of this country and of many for- 
eign classification societies. The carbon dioxide 
when quickly released in large volumes pro- 
duces an inert atmosphere resembling snow in 
appearance, and this manufactured atmosphere 
copes successfully with gasoline, pyroxylin, 
and other intense fires. The inert nature of the 
gas makes the existence of the flame impossible. 



The staff of engineers of the company num- 
bers 15, all of them college-trained men who 
have in hand the solving of problems of special 
fire hazards for every part of the world. Huge 
oil tankers in Germany and motorcraft made 
in England, Japan, and other countries are 
equipped with apparatus made at this plant. 
Likewise hundreds of motor-boats, yachts, 
Coast Guard patrol boats and Navy motor- 
craft are safeguarded with it from the dangers 
of gasoline fires. 

Control over flames in electrical generators 
and other power-plant equipment is also pro- 
vided by this same apparatus. Passenger ships 
of Atlantic and Pacific service are equipped 
with a delicate smoke-detecting device which 
reports any fire in the holds of these ships in its 
incipient stage, thus providing a warning and 
averting catastrophes at sea. This ingenious 
instrument is another of the products of Walter 
Kidde & Company. 

JOSEPH DIXON CRUCIBLE COMPANY 

The Joseph Dixon Crucible Company, of 
Jersey City, in 1917 celebrated the one-hun- 
dredth anniversary of its founding. The word 
"Crucible" in the name of this concern indi- 
cates the important product of its manufacture. 
Joseph Dixon was the inventor of the plumbago 
or graphite crucible now used throughout the 
world . 

Today the company originates and makes a 
great variety of graphite products. The most 
important are lead pencils, such as the Eldorado 
and Ticonderoga; lumber crayons; rubber eras- 
ers, and colored crayons. Other departments 
produce graphite lubricants and silica-graphite 
paint, used as a protection for exposed metal 
surfaces. 

The founder of this Company started a small 
business in Salem, Massachusetts, in 1817. 
From that time until the present day the com- 
pany's growth has centered around this same 
raw material, graphite, which many call 
"black lead." Joseph Dixon 's attention was 
first called to graphite by the discovery of this 
mineral on a New Hampshire farm. The local 
supply of graphite being limited, he arranged 
with sea captains who were sailing to the Far 
East to stop at Ceylon and pick up a small ton- 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



357 




PUTTING FINISHING TOUCHES ON MACK TRUCK ENGINES AT THE PLAINFIELD PLANT 



nage of graphite for his use. Thus commenced 
the business that has grown to be a world 
leader in its line. 

Like many other corporations, the Joseph 
Dixon Crucible Company has reached a point 
where it is more or less true that the tail has 
come to wag the dog. Crucibles were the initial 
idea, but the secondary thought that added 
pencils to the business has become a primary 
purpose. The fame of the Dixon pencil has now 
reached the distant corners of the earth. The 
people of the Far East never dreamed that the 
mineral they were sending overseas would ulti- 
mately come back to them encased in wood. 

The manufacture of pencils in the Dixon 
plant has become almost entirely an automatic 
process, from the workiog of the graphite and 
clay, to the final polishing given the wood 
casings. 

GEORGE W. HELME COMPANY 

The present Helme Company, manufacturer 
of snuff at Helmetta, is one of the oldest estab- 
lished firms in the United States. The opera- 
tions of this concern date back to 1760, by 



reason of its ownership and manufacture of 
the Lorillard brands of snuff. The Helmetta 
plant was established in 1815. 

The Helme Company is probably the oldest 
established business in New Jersey. It also has a 
snuff factory in Delaware and leaf-tobacco 
plants in Virginia and Kentucky. 

BAKER & Co., INC. 

It is natural that such a prominent manu- 
facturing center as Newark should be the 
headquarters of the platinum industry, since 
this metal plays such an important part in the 
arts. It follows, of course, that Baker & Co., 
Inc., the leading platinum house of this coun- 
try and of the world, should be located here. 

The name of Baker & Co. first appears in 
the Newark Directory in 1875, at which time 
the firm included Daniel W. Baker and John 
Frick, the former being the father of Charles 
W. Baker, who is now the company's presi- 
dent. The early location was at 65 Hamilton 
Street, and the concern was engaged in the 
manufacture of jewelry. This partnership ap- 
parently continued until 1879 or 1880, when 






358 



NEW JERSEY 



Cyrus O. Baker, junior, eldest son of Daniel 
W. Baker, was taken into partnership, and 
the business moved to 13 N. J. R. R. Avenue, 
near Mechanic Street. 

Cyrus O. Baker had been a refiner of jewelers' 
wastes and a refining department was appar- 
ently added at this time to the company's 
business. In i88x the plant was moved to 104 
N. J. R. R. Avenue, and again in 1883 to 408 
N. J. R. R. Avenue at the corner of Murray 
Street. This last location is at present occupied 
by a small portion of the company's present 
plant. 

Cyrus Baker had discovered that in the 
refining of jewelers' wastes there were increas- 



ing amounts of platinum, for which there was 
at that time a great demand as leading-in wire 
for the newly invented incandescent lamp. 
This caused him to decide to make the recovery 
and working of platinum the company's chief 
specialty. The subsequent rapid expansion of 
the use of platinum in such industries as jew- 
elry, electrical, chemical and dental, so in- 
creased platinum that the Baker plant had to 
be enlarged. This growth continued until now 
the factory occupies more than two acres, and 
has a floor space of nearly 100,000 square feet. 
Under the present arrangement there are several 
separate departments to supply the different 
industries using their products. 



TEXTILES AND THEIR PRODUCTS 



BARBOUR FLAX SPINNING COMPANY 

THE Barbour family has been in the linen- 
thread business for considerably over a 
century. Their first mills were established 
in Lisburn, near Belfast, Ireland, in 1784. Bar- 
bour 's linen spool threads were first manu- 



factured in America in 1865 at a mill erected in 
Paterson. The mill was driven by water power. 
From its inception the company has produced 
the same high quality of linen thread as that 
manufactured by its parent mills in Ireland. The 
New Jersey factory had been in operation only 




FEDERAL SHIPBUILDING WAYS AT KEARNY 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



359 



a short time when it was found necessary to 
greatly increase its size. In iSyx the foundations 
for the present Grand Street Mill were laid. 
In the years that followed, other Barbour mills 
were established which engaged in the pro- 
duction of linen threads and twines. 

The plants now are the Grand Street Mill, 
the Hart Mill, and the Spruce Street Mill in 
Paterson; the Marshall Mill in Newark; and 
mills at North Grafton, Mass., and Green- 
wich, N. Y. 

TEXTILEATHER CORPORATION 

Textileather is a pyroxylin-coated fabric 
manufactured by the Textileather Corporation 
of Newark. There are three specific classifica- 
tions of what are commonly known as "coated 
fabrics" pyroxylin, linseed oil or oil cloth, 
and rubber. Pyroxylin-coated "Textileather" 
is made to simulate genuine leather in any 
color, grain, or finish. 

The basic fabric used is a woven cotton 
textile. There are four main classifications of 
the textile used sheetings, drills, sateens, and 
moleskins. The cotton textile is purchased from 
the cotton mills in the gray or undyed form and 
finished. The finished textile is then shipped to 
the plant at Newark to be manufactured into 
pyroxylin-coated fabrics. 

The raw materials used in the pyroxylin 
mixture consist mainly of nitrated cotton 
(pyroxylin); solvents such as ethyl acetate, 
benzol, and denatured alcohol; and pigments, 
oils and preservatives. These are compounded 
and every finished batch is carefully tested in 
the laboratory. 

The cloth is then put through a coating op- 
eration in which it passes under a spreader 
knife and receives a coating of the pyroxylin 
mixture. Next the cloth passes into a dry box, 
where the solvents are evaporated. This drying 
operation is repeated from 3 to 15 times, de- 
pending on the quality of goods in process. 

After the coating comes the embossing or 
designing operation. There are two kinds of 
embossing, one known as the press type and 
the other the roller. Following this the mate- 
rial is ready to be finished. The final finish is 
applied on machines similar to the coating 
machines, and the operation consists of apply- 



ing two-colored effects, bright, semi-bright 
and dull. 

ARMSTRONG CORK COMPANY 

The Armstrong Cork Company, manu- 
facturer of linoleum, house insulation, and 
cork specialties, has manufacturing plants in 
New Jersey at New Brunswick and Camden 
and a subsidiary Pennsylvania Trading Com- 
pany at Gloucester. This company is a large 
importer at the port of Philadelphia, an aver- 
age of one ship a week docking at its private 
pier in Gloucester, N. J., where cork from 
Spain, Algeria, and other foreign countries is 
unloaded and warehoused. 

Corkboard used for insulating purposes, 
cork covering, and fittings for pipes in cold- 
storage plants, cork machinery insulation, and 
other cork specialties are produced in the 
Camden factory. 

The New Brunswick factory manufactures 
rugs and floor coverings. 

NEW JERSEY WORSTED MILLS 

The New Jersey Worsted Mills is the holding 
company controlling the Gera Mills and the 
New Jersey Worsted Mills. The Gera Mills at 
Passaic make dress materials, coatings and 
suitings, while the New Jersey Worsted Mills 
at Garfield make worsteds and woolen yarns. 

The company employs 3500 people, and has 
grown from a small beginning in 1901 to its 
present large size. The character of the products 
of this concern is indicated by the fact that one 
of its fabrics has a considerable export sale in 
Paris. 

BURLINGTON SILK MILLS 

The Burlington Silk Mills Company started 
in a small factory in 1908. In 1910, this original 
plant was abandoned and a larger one was 
built. In 1916 an addition was made, and since 
then all the old machinery has been replaced. 
The Burlington Silk Mills makes its own power 
and light. The factory has a working floor space 
of 60,000 square feet. The corporation has 
about 300 employees of whom two-thirds are 
women and one-third men. The product is 
broad silk of all descriptions, only pure silk 
being used. Besides the weaving, all the pre- 



3 6o 



NEW JERSEY 




INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



3 6i 



paratory work including throwing, is done at 
this mill, and the yearly production is 1,500,000 
yards of broad silk. 

STANDARD TEXTILE PRODUCTS COMPANY 

The Standard Textile Products Company was 
organized in 1914 to succeed the Standard Oil 
Cloth Company, which latter was an out- 
growth of a consolidation of manufacturers of 
oilcloth in 1901 known as the Standard Table 
Oil Cloth Company. 

The Standard Textile Products Company is a 
large producer of leather cloth and oilcloth, or 
products made of cotton cloth, as distinguished 
from floor oilcloth and linoleum. The concern 
has an annual output of over 60,000,000 square 
yards of coated fabrics. Its products consist of a 
widely diversified line of finishes applicable as 
leather substitutes for the shoe, luggage, auto- 
mobile, and accessory trades. It also manufac- 
tures a fabric wall covering under the name of 
"Sanitas." 

The company has four converting plants in 
the North, the largest of which is at Clifton. 
Through subsidiaries it owns and operates four 
cotton mills in the South. 

TEXTILE DYEING COMPANY OF AMER- 
ICA, INC. 

The Textile Dyeing Company of America, 
Inc., on the bank of the Passaic River in Haw- 
thorne, has an up-to-date industrial plant. 

Organized in 19x4 it erected a modern day- 
light factory for weighting, dyeing, and finish- 
ing silk fabrics. The buildings have a floor 
space of ziOjOoo square feet. The area of land is 
3Z acres, including a private lake. 

In selecting Hawthorne the company was in- 
fluenced by its natural resources and its close 
proximity to the country's most important 
markets. Two additions have been made to the 
original plant. The output of finished goods is 
over 100,000 yards per day. 

PENNSYLVANIA TEXTILE MILLS, INC. 

The Pennsylvania Textile Mills, Inc., is 
located in Clifton and manufactures plushes 
for upholstery, velvets, and fur effects. The 
factory was built in the spring of 19x4 and em- 
ploys normally about 400 men and women. 



All materials are woven, dyed, and finished 
here, from yarns spun at the company's mill in 
Central Falls, N. C. The products of this con- 
cern are sold to furniture manufacturers in all 
parts of America and Australia under the trade 
name of "Piletex." 

A. & M. KARAGHEUSIAN 

A quarter of a century ago A. & M. 
Karagheusian, then exclusively importers of 
Oriental rugs, decided to weave rugs in 
America, and for the site of their plant they 
chose the town of Freehold. The business has 
expanded until now, with its spinning plant 
at Roselle Park, the company employs 1000 
people. 

The Karagheusian mills specialize in Wilton 
rugs and carpets. There are Z37 looms at Free- 
hold, beginning with the zy-inch-width ma- 
chines and going up to large sizes that produce 
seamless rugs, 15 feet wide. All the wool for 
Karagheusian rugs comes from abroad, most of 
it direct from the Orient. 

PATERSON MUTUAL HOSIERY MILLS 

The Paterson Mutual Hosiery Mills, maker 
of Ruby Ring hosiery, typifies the leadership of 
New Jersey in the manufacture of women's silk 
hosiery. 

This company was one of the first to intro- 
duce ladies' full-fashioned silk stockings in 
America, and as pioneers they have maintained 
a forward position in the refinement of hosiery 
ever since. The product of these mills is shipped 
to all parts of the civilized world. 

W. &J. SLOANE MANUFACTURING COM- 
PANY 

The W. &. J. Sloane linoleum plant at 
Trenton, was completed in May, 19x6, the first 
completely new linoleum plant built in this 
country in nearly zo years. Constructed at a cost 
of many millions of dollars, it brings under 
roof nearly zz acres of floor space. 

In deciding to manufacture their own lino- 
leum, it was the aim of the Sloane organization 
to produce a product of superior quality. Their 
experience gained in 34 years of marketing lino- 
leum had taught them what the ultimate user 
should have. A site of 167 acres was selected 



NEW JERSEY 




ROLLING MILL. RIVERSIDE METAL COMPANY. RIVERSIDE, BURLINGTON COUNTY 

Rolls of German silver on the floor awaiting conversion into blanks for automobile parts, telephone and radio units, 
silver ware and numberless other component functions 

convenient to the markets for the raw materials 
and to an economical shipping point. In this 
factory are incorporated 1x7 improvements in 
layout and equipment. Certain of these effect 
manufacturing economies through savings in 
labor, through the elimination of special han- 
dling, and through the reduction of carrying 
charges. 

With one exception, all of the buildings com- 
posing the unit are of modern one-story con- 
struction with horizontal conveyors. The flow 
of operation is simple, direct, and continuous, 
with no doubling back in any stage of produc- 
tion from the raw materials at one end of the 
plant to the shipping rooms at the other. 

A calendar has rolls measuring 49 inches in 
diameter, between which the final mixture of 
cork, linseed oil, and other ingredients are 
pressed onto the burlap back. This is one of the 
most important operations in the process of 
manufacture, for the density, uniformity, and 
natural finish of the completed goods depend 
in a large degree on the amount of pressure to 
which they are subjected. 



Linseed oil is one of the most important 
ingredients used in the production of linoleum. 
It is produced by crushing flax-seed obtained 
from the northwestern part of the United States 
and from Canada, Argentina, and Russia. 

Cork is another important ingredient of lino- 
leum, giving it much of its resiliency, elas- 
ticity, and its sound absorption properties. It 
comes principally from Spain and Northern 
Africa, and is delivered to the Sloane plant in 
irregularly shaped pieces of bark bound into 
bales. These pieces are run through a breaker, 
after which the cork is ground into fine parti- 
cles. Extra grinding of the cork in special ma- 
chines adds to the density and finish of the lino- 
leum. 

The sap of the Kauri pine found in New 
Zealand and Australia falls from the tree into 
the marshy ground, where, after centuries of 
ossification, it is mined and ground to a con- 
sistency of flour for use as a binder for linoleum. 

All genuine linoleum is made with a burlap 
back. It is woven from jute, grown principally 
in India. 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



3*3 



PAPER AND PRINTING 



JANEWAY & CARPENDER 

JANEWAY & CARPENDER, makers of all 
grades of wall paper, was established in 
1871, and at its plant in Highland Park 
has 350 employees. The total output 
annually is 18,000,000 eight-yard rolls of wall 
paper. Three-quarters of its product is sold in 
the United States. The rest is exported to all 
parts of the world. 

GEORGE LA MONTE & SON 

The National safety paper, which is used for 
checks, drafts, and other negotiable instru- 
ments, is manufactured by George La Monte 
& Son at Nutley. They also manufacture papers 
for inter-line railroad tickets, coupons, certifi- 
cates of deposit, and other forms which require 
protection against alteration and counterfeit- 
ing. These papers are treated in such a way that 
ink writing cannot be removed from the sur- 



face without the appearance of a white spot 
which exposes attempted erasuie by chemical 
or mechanical means. 

George La Monte & Son operate another 
mill in Toronto, Ontario. It is felt that the 
daily transfer of funds required by modern 
business has been to no small extent protected 
from the inroads of crooked practice by Na- 
tional safety paper and its allied brands. 

THE PATER SON PARCHMENT PAPER COM- 
PANY 

The little factory where vegetable parchment 
was first produced in America in 1885, was the 
modest early home of the Paterson Parchment 
Paper Company in Paterson. It was formerly 
called the "Old Gun Mill" because the first 
"Colts" were made in this same building. 

There, in spite of skeptical critics, 6000 
pounds of vegetable parchment were manu- 
factured and sold in the first year. This amounts 







WATCH LATHE DEPARTMENT. WESTINGHOUSE WORKS. NEWARK 



3 6 4 



NEW JER SE Y 




INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



to less than one hour's run of such paper 
today. 

Vegetable parchment was first looked upon 
as a novelty. However, keen producers soon 
realized its value as a protective wrapper for 
food products. Among the first to use it liber- 
ally were the cracker manufacturers. Then, in 
the early nineties, the butter makers and meat 
packers discovered its value to them. 

Other makers of food soon learned how to 
protect their products with this new wrapper. 
Ice-cream manufacturers, milk shippers, cheese 
makers, produce men, florists, fish merchants, 
and finally the housewives themselves all in 
turn found a way in which vegetable parch- 
ment could serve in protecting foods. 

The three present plants in Passaic and in 
Modena and Edgely, Pa., cover 700,000 square 
feet of floor space. 

WARREN MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

The Warren Manufacturing Company was 
founded in 1873. It owns and operates four 
paper mills, at Warren Glen, Hughesville, 
Riegelsville, and Milford, all in New Jersey 
close to the Delaware River and 40 miles north 
of Trenton. 

The establishment of the company was 
mainly the result of John L. Riegel's success 
with a paper mill of his own. The Warren 
Manufacturing Company eventually absorbed 
the Riegel mill. 

In the quaint town of Fines ville, John L. 
Riegel in i86z first engaged in the manufacture 
of paper. The old mill still stands, a pictur- 
esque landmark of the early days of paper- 
making. 

But two miles farther down the creek and 
close by the Delaware River was a larger 
water power that attracted the attention of 
early settlers, and there on the northern or 
Warren County sidejsf the Musconetcong were 
built a gristmill, a sawmill and later an oil- 
mill. On the Hunterdon County side, a saw- 
mill was built in 1793 by Thomas Purcell, and 
was followed by a second mill a few years 
later. 

After passing through several hands, the 
two sawmills on the southern bank finally 
were acquired by John L. Riegel & Son, to 



secure for this company the water-rights. The 
mills on the northern side were purchased by 
John Leidy in 1819. In 1813 he sold them to 
his son-in-law, Benjamin Riegel, miller. In 
this way were the Riegels established as manu- 
facturers . 

Benjamin Riegel built a home for himself 
on the New Jersey side of the Delaware. This 
settlement first was called Musconetcong and 
later Riegelsville. While the town on the 
Pennsylvania side of the river was the first to 
be known as Riegels ville, it was settled later. 

It is not known just what circumstances led 
Mr. Riegel to start making paper. The idea 
probably was suggested to him by Amos Davis, 
a manufacturer of Easton, who was anxious 
to enter the paper industry. 

The mill finally made nothing but jute wrap- 
ping, in which the butt ends of the jute plant, 
a product of India, alone were used. The War- 
ren Company is said to lead all others in the 
manufacture of jute papers, and uses more jute 
butts for paper-making than does any other 
concern. 

In 1873 the company was incorporated, and 
a new site was chosen, four miles above Riegels- 
ville, at "the forge," the site of the Greenwich 
forge, one of the oldest in the country. There, 
in the narrow valley of the Musconetcong, the 
first mill of the new company was erected, and 
August of 1873 found it in operation. Two 
Fourdrinier paper machines were installed, and 
two water-wheels supplied all the necessary 
power except that for the paper machines, 
which were driven by steam engines. 

The second expansion, the building of a new 
mill to take advantage of a 15 -foot fall in the 
stream just below Warren, was the result of 
recommendations made by John L. Riegel in 



The first shipment from the new mill at 
Hughesville, was made in February, 1891. The 
company has among its customers many of 
those who patronized it in its earliest days. 

It finally became evident that there was need 
for further diversification. Careful study con- 
vinced the management that glassine, a prod- 
uct then new in the market, offered the best 
possibilities, and in 1910 the first glassine was 
made at the Milford mill. 



366 



NEW JERSEY 



ART COLOR PRINTING COMPANY 

The Art Color Printing Company at Dunel- 
len is a large printing establishment devoted 
entirely to the manufacture of magazines and 
periodicals. This plant is arranged so that the 
paper stock is delivered at one end, and the 
complete magazines come out at the other, 
enabling the work to be put through in a 
continuous operation without undue loss of 
time or repeated handling. 

The company sets the type for the magazines, 
manufactures the electros, and does the press- 
work for the covers and the inside, in addition 
to doing the binding, shipping, and mailing. 
The plant's capacity is about 6,000,000 copies 
of various nationally known magazines. Five 
hundred people are employed. 

Since the company started operations in 
Dunellen, the revenues of the local post office 
increased so enormously it was placed in the 
first class. 

HINDE & DAUCH PAPER COMPANY 

In the middle eighties, two young men who 
had been reared on Erie County farms, invested 
in a power-threshing outfit and began to serve 
the growers of small grains in their vicinity. 
In order to extend their activities, they also 
bought a baling machine which was driven 
by their threshing engine. To procure employ- 
ment for this equipment, they became buyers 
of straw, which they compressed into bales 
and sold to paper mills. In the year 1888 to 
preserve an outlet for their raw material they 
leased a mill in Sandusky, Ohio, and entered 
upon a new career. One of these young men 
was J. J. Hinde and the other J. J. Dauch. 

Meantime in 1895 and 1896, the original 
partners had developed the Climax bottle 
wrapper. Single-faced and double-faced boards, 
and easy-to-handle containers made from these 
boards were added to the line. The develop- 
ment of the corrugated fiber shipping box, 
and its acceptance by the railroads in 1906, 
necessitated further expansion. About that 
time a plant was acquired at Hobo ken. In 
1910 the Hoboken plant, consisting of a paper 
mill and a box factory, was dismantled, and 
its machinery was installed in more commodi- 



ous quarters in Gloucester, opposite Phila- 
delphia. 

This corporation recently absorbed the 
Thompson & Norris Company of Brooklyn 
and the J. M. Raffel Company of Baltimore. 
It now has 2.0 plants distributed over nine 
states and two Canadian provinces. In its sev- 
eral factories it manufactures numerous styles 
of packages and packing accessories and is a 
large producer of the corrugated fiber shipping 
box. 

OSBORNE COMPANY 

When the Osborne Company located in New- 
ark in 1899, its aim was to get nearer the dis- 
tribution outlets, the raw-materials market, 
the art supply, and the printing industry. A 
factory was purchased on Summer Avenue, 
and almost immediately the company started 
using the first color reproductions of paintings 
as calendar subjects. Previously the pictures 
had been printed in black and white. The 
newer method of reproduction is known as 
the colortype process. 

Its value and virtue lie in the fidelity with 
which everything in the original painting is 
reproduced. All that is in the picture must 
appear in the reproduction, because the method 
is photographic. Although only four colors 
are employed, practically any hue of the rain- 
bow can be reproduced by the colortype 
process . 

The rapid growth of color-printing made it 
necessary to handle this business apart from 
the Osborne organization. Accordingly the 
American Colortype Company, a New Jersey 
corporation, was formed. It became the hold- 
ing corporation for the Osborne Company and 
the other organizations that this concern has 
since developed in allied lines of business. The 
American Colortype Company has two plants, 
one in New York and one in Chicago. With its 
subsidiaries it employs more than 2.,oco per- 
sons. 

The Osborne Company in its own field of 
effort has spread all over the world. It has 
plants in Toronto, London, and Sydney, and 
selling branches in many other cities. 

To keep pace with the growth of the busi- 
ness the Newark plant has been enlarged sev- 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 




368 



NEW JERSEY 




PETER PAN STATUE IN JOHNSON PARK 

AT CAMDEN 

One of the most pleasing works of art in New Jersey. The 
characters of the story are delightfully interpreted in bronze 
figures. 

eral times. In 1912. a new steel and concrete 
building was erected for manufacturing pur- 
poses and the original structure converted into 
executive offices. Since then several units have 
been completed, the latest being a concrete 
and brick building having 14,000 square feet 
of floor space. 

While calendars are still the principal prod- 
uct, the company is a heavy creator and pro- 
ducer of other forms of advertising. Among 
these are holiday greeting cards, display cards, 
specialized booklets, direct-mail advertising, 
mailing cards, and blotters. 

NATIONAL LOCK WASHER COMPANY 

The National Lock Washer Company has 
plants in Newark and Riverside, N. J., and in 
Milwaukee, Wis. The Newark plant covers a 
city block. 

While the business of this company is pri- 
marily that of making lock washers, it has a 
substantial trade in the window equipment of 
railway cars, many varieties of tools and in 
automobile brake-parts. It is about to put on 
the market a speed meter for boats correspond- 
ing to the speedometer of a motor-car. 



Among its most distinctive productions is 
the "sashless" window, made wholly of glass 
and metal, and opening as easily as a window 
of an automobile. The recently built cars of 
the Union Pacific Railroad have been equipped 
with this window and it has created a sensa- 
tion through all the territory it serves. Among 
other large customers of the firm is the Pull- 
man Company. 

No one thinks much about the importance 
of lock washers yet without them no auto- 
mobile would run. They are the means of lock- 
ing bolted parts. The National Lock Washer 
Company makes 10,000,000 Ibs. of them a day. 
The lock washer was the invention of Hey- 
ward Harvey of Orange. 

Employees are responsible for many of the 
inventions which the company has developed. 
A real "suggestion box" is maintained. Weekly 
topics for suggestions are presented by the 
company though suggestions are not limited 
to them. Each suggestion blank has a number 
which corresponds to a number on a stub that 
the employee retains. The suggestions are col- 
lected weekly and the holders of those accepted 
are suitably compensated at once. Not even 
the president of the company knows who 
turned in the suggestion until after it is passed 
upon. 




ELKS BUILDING ON LINCOLN PARK, NEWARK 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



369 



FOOD AND KINDRED PRODUCTS 



SWIFT & COMPANY 

A THOUGH national in scope, Swift & 
Company has important business inter- 
ests in New Jersey. This corporation 
has packing plants located at Jersey City, 
Kearny, and Newark. These three plants 
handle a part of the local livestock supply and 
prepare and distribute meat and other livestock 
products throughout the State as well as in the 
surrounding territory. Refrigerated branch sell- 
ing houses, which sell direct to retailers, are 
in 1 6 of the principal cities of the State. Swift 
& Company's investment in these plants and 
branch selling houses amounts to millions of 
dollars. More than 1800 Swift & Company 
employees in New Jersey receive in excess of 
$3,000,000 a year in wages and salaries. In 
addition to these employees more than 1500 of 
the 47,000 shareholders of Swift & Company are 
residents of New Jersey. Thus about 3500 New 
Jersey people are associated with Swift & Com- 
pany, either as employees or as shareholders. 

THOMAS J. LIPTON, INC. 

The cultivation, manufacture, and packeting 
of tea is a large operation. The quality of tea 





HOME OF THE MANUFACTURERS' ASSOCIATION 
OF NEW JERSEY AT TRENTON 



LOOKOUT TOWER OF THE NEW JERSEY FOREST 

FIRE PREVENTION SERVICE 

Connected with the Department of Conservation and 
Development. Many towers of this type are distributed over 
the southern pine belt. 

depends on climatic conditions and the eleva- 
tion at which it is grown. Sir Thomas Lipton 
has been connected with the tea industry a 
long time, and has a large plant and warehouse 
in Hoboken. Great care must be taken in the 
manufacturing processes from green leaf to black 
leaf. It takes six bushes to produce one pound 
of tea. The growth is checked in the center of 
the bush so that the energies of the plant are di- 
verted to the side branches, from whence the 
young leaves are taken. The packing is done by 
machinery to avoid the touch of thehuman hand. 

CHARMS COMPANY 

The Charms Company of Newark produces 
as high as 50 tons of hard candy daily It has 
a large production of "lollipops" and fruit 
tablets. The factory is of saw-tooth construc- 
tion, giving ample sunlight. The air in the 
packing rooms is washed, dried, and kept at 
a constant temperature and humidity, so as to 
insure packing the merchandise under good 
conditions. 



370 



NEW JERSEY 



WOOD PRODUCTS LAUNDRIES 



NEW JERSEY SCHOOL FURNITURE COM- 
PANY 

SCHOOL furniture is made in Trenton in an 
old established factory. In 1870, a plant 
was established there by L. H. McKee & 
Co., in a brick building 100 feet in length. 
This start in making school desks was under- 
taken on a larger scale than it would have 
been, if New Jersey's new compulsory school 
law had not been put into effect. 

The chief competitor of the firm was the local 
carpenter in various districts and cities who 
followed the designs of his predecessor in mak- 
ing white pine forms and benches . It was hard 
to convince district school trustees that "pat- 
ent school desks" were hygienically better. 
Many held to the opinion that the old bench 
which was good enough for our forefathers 
would be good enough for our children. 

However, the business made headway, and 
1 6 years later the present company was char- 
tered. In 1889 it built its own factory in the 
western end of the city. Since then various 
buildings have been added on a frontage of 700 
feet. 

FERGUSON BROTHERS MANUFACTURING 
COMPANY 

Ferguson Brothers Manufacturing Company 
was incorporated in 1903, having come from 
New York in 1900 as Ferguson Brothers. The 
partnership was started in July, 1878. The busi- 
ness has grown steadily until the plant in 
Hoboken occupies 500,000 square feet of floor 
space and employs about 600 men. It manufac- 
tures furniture specialties, cedar and cedar- 
lined chests, bridge and game tables and folding 
chairs. 

AMERICAN WOLMANIZED LUMBER COM- 
PANY 

The American Wolmanized Lumber Com- 
pany has an up-to-date wood-preserving plant 
in Elizabethport, and treats all kinds of in- 
dustrial lumber against decay. This is done 



under vacuum and pressure, and the chemical 
employed is triolith, which has been used in 
Europe for a quarter of a century. 

The treatment has a valuable feature, in that 
the lumber can be painted with mill white or 
other paints after treatment. 

It is adapted for interior roof plank in in- 
dustries where humidity is produced in the 
manufacturing processes, such as in paper, 
textile, silk, and woolen mills and dye houses. 

LAUNDRY ESTABLISHMENTS 

There are in New Jersey 466 power-laundry 
plants, so distributed over the State as to bring 
their modern service within the reach of every 
housewife. Although these plants, employing 
nearly 2.5 ,000 people and representing a capital 
investment of over $30,000,000, are a notable 
segment in the State's industrial life, they also 
are a force for good. They represent cleanliness 
and the emancipation of the housewife from 
the home's chief drudgery, the washtub. 

Serving the progressive group of this branch 
of industry is the New Jersey Laundry Owners' 




WATER COOLED VACUUM TUBES. RADIO 
TELEPHONE STATION. DEAL BEACH 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



37: 



Association, with offices in Newark. This trade 
association has been in existence under various 
titles for 30 years. Its purpose is to improve 
the variety and standard of service of its mem- 
ber plants through the medium of research, 
education of plant owners and the public; also 
through the training of plant operators, and 
through advertising. 



The association has a code of standards 
which requires that all members shall maintain 
clean and sanitary plants, and that the washing 
process shall not only cleanse but conserve the 
life of the goods. This department is admin- 
istered by the Newark College of Engineering, 
and their engineers make a thorough inspection 
of each member plant every three months. 



PRINTING AND BOOK-BINDING 



NEW JERSEY possesses many large print- 
ing and book-binding establishments. 
Among them are McCrellish & Quig- 
ley (State Printers) at Trenton; Jersey City 
Printing Company (printers of the telephone 
directories) at Jersey City; Essex Press, Baker 
Printing Company at Newark; Sweeney Litho- 
graph Co. at Belleville; J. Heidingsfield Co. 
(Rutgers Printers) at New Brunswick; Chron- 
icle Press (printers of the Legislative Index), 
and Abbe Print Shop at Orange; Quinn and 
Boden (printers of many books), at Rahway; 
Art Color Printing Co. at Dunellen; and 
The Haddon Craftsmen, Inc., at Camden. 

THE HADDON CRAFTSMEN, INC., 
CAMDEN 

When the State Chamber of Commerce de- 
cided to publish this book it awarded the 
printing contract to The Haddon Craftsmen, 
Inc., at Camden because this company was 
equipped to handle a publication of such a 
nature through all its complicated manu- 
facturing processes. 

Exceptional mechanical skill was required 
to produce a book of the quality desired. In the 
art work, photo-engraving, selection and ar- 
rangement of type, this was particularly true. 
To gain the best effect in the reproduction of 
the details of the illustrations, what are known 
as chalk-overlays and lead-moulds were used 
throughout the book. 

The Haddon Craftsmen, Inc., has the most 
modern automatic-feeder presses with exten- 
sion deliveries and gas-drying equipment. 
The company's own electrotyping foundry 
made the plates from which these pages were 



printed, and the books were bound in its ex- 
tensive bindery. There were z6 principal oper- 
ations required in the binding alone: such as 
folding, gathering, pasting in color-pages and 
fly-leaves, sewing, trimming, gluing back of 
book to hold sections, rounding back, putting 
on head-bands and lining, cutting cloth and 
board for covers, making and stamping covers, 
putting book in cover, pressing, drying, ex- 
amining and adjusting wrapper. Readers sel- 
dom stop to consider the processes necessary to 
make a book. 

The Haddon Craftsmen, Inc., possessed the 
equipment to do all this from start to finish 
within its own walls . Through its well-directed 
organization and a corps of 500 employees it 
was able to do it quickly and well. 

The plant of the company occupies an area 
of 110,000 square feet, and all its business, ex- 
cept that of the offices, is conducted on the 
ground floor of a building the exterior walls 
and roof of which are mostly glass. 

The work of some of the largest book 
and magazine publishers is done in this plant. 
In 1918 for one house The Haddon Craftsmen, 
Inc., turned out 185 different books, the edi- 
tions of which ranged from 1,000 to ioo,oco 
copies. On an ordinary day the company manu- 
factures 1 5 ,000 books and thousands of maga- 
zines and pamphlets, its books ranging in 
style from sombre Bibles to the gayest-colored 
picture-books for children, novels for all 
ages and weightier texts for scientists. The 
monthly magazines which are here printed 
are mailed directly from the plant to all parts 
of the world without going through the offices 
of the publishers. 



372. 



NEW JERSEY 




INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



373 



LEADING DEPARTMENT STORES OF THE STATE 



L. BAMBERGER & COMPANY, "ONE OF 
AMERICA'S GREAT STORES" 

B\CK in 1893, in the midst of one of the 
greatest business depressions this coun- 
try has ever experienced, three men 
came to Newark and started a small business 
on Market Street. They had faith in the city 
and a real vision of its future. That Louis Bam- 
berger and Felix Fuld, the surviving partners, 
were amply justified in that faith, is apparent 
from the fact that few department stores in 
the country exceed the volume of business 
which L. Bamberger & Co. transacts in a year. 

The company has just completed an annex 
to its building, costing $13,000,000 and pro- 
viding over i,oco,oco square feet of floor space. 
The new section, the frame of which contains 
11,000 tons of steel, extends four stories below 
ground and 14 above, and the foundations 
will sustain 16 additional stories when re- 
quired. The extensive area underground enables 
the store to receive and deliver merchandise 
without blocking adjacent streets with its 
fleet of trucks. Elevators 35 feet long carry 
trucks to and from the basement where the 
platforms are located. 

Beauty has been combined with utility and 
35 kinds of imported and domestic marbles 
have been used, besides rare woods, bronze and 
other fine metals. Self-leveling express elevators 
travel at the rate of 600 feet per minute. The 
store contains an ice cream factory with a 
daily capacity of 600 gallons and an electrically 
equipped daylight bakery. There will ulti- 
mately be a candy factory, a complete two- 
story house, an auditorium and other special 
features. 

L. Bamberger & Company has always been 
interested in civic progress and co-operates in 
many civic enterprises. An example of this is 
found in the Bamberger Music Scholarships, 
which provide the youth of Newark's high 
schools with an incentive for earnest effort 
and the development of character. As a pro- 



gressive aid to popular education it has placed 
radio receiving sets in the public schools. 

In February, 192.2., the company's radio 
station WOR, was established and it is now 
recognized as one of the most efficient stations 
in the East, with a radius which extends 
around the world. It has aimed to serve espe- 
cially the cultural interests of the entire met- 
ropolitan area. 

The company publishes Charm, a magazine 
devoted to home and cultural interests, which 
is sent monthly to more than 80,000 readers 
over the state. 

Education is regarded as a vital factor in the 
conduct of the business and there is an exten- 
sion division of Rutgers University in the 
store, through which courses in many subjects 
are given for the benefit of employees. Other 
features for their benefit include a library, a 
fully equipped health department, a social 
service department, rest rooms and cafeteria. 

The Co-workers Association, to which the 
co-workers pay four per cent of one week's 
salary once a month, provides two-thirds 
salary to any co-worker while absent because of 
illness. A house magazine, "Counter Cur- 
rents," devoted exclusively to co-workers' in- 
terests, is printed and sold to co-workers at two 
cents a copy. Season tickets for symphony con- 
certs are distributed free to the Bamberger 
Music Club, composed of co-workers . 

A complete lecture service, dealing with 
merchandise demonstration, clothing informa- 
tion, dressmaking and fabrics, home making, 
camp and personnel, is available free-of-charge 
to interested organizations throughout New 
Jersey. The Bamberger Institute offers to the 
public an annual course in dressmaking and 
designing. 

The store in all its appointments is thor- 
oughly modern and the scope and quality of 
its merchandise place it in the front rank 
among the great department stores of the 
United States. Its telephone shopping service 
is one of the outstanding features that have 






374 



NEW JERSEY 




KRESGE DEPARTMENT STORE IN NEWARK 
One of America's most beautiful stores 




MAIN FLOOR, M. E. BLATT DEPARTMENT STORE IN ATLANTIC CITY 



INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT 



375 



contributed to its prosperity. Its basement 
store occupies the impressive area of two good- 
sized city blocks. 

KRESGE DEPARTMENT STORE 

The Kresge Department Store in Newark 
occupies an entirely new building, the erection 
of which was commenced in November, 192.4, 
and finished in September, 19x8. The present 
building one of America's most beautiful de- 
partment stores occupies the site of the de- 
partment store of L. S. Plaut & Company, of 
which it is the successor. This present splendid 
structure was built in units so that the business 
might be carried on while the old Plaut build- 
ings were being razed. 

There are 10 complete floors, two partial 
floors, a basement store, and two sub-base- 
ments, comprising in all a floor-area of 675,000 
square feet. There are izo departments offering 
every feature found in the best equipped mer- 
chandising establishments. The pleasing res- 
taurant on the seventh floor is unsurpassed by 
those of the latest modern hotels. An audi- 
torium, where local organizations meet, ample 
rest-rooms, and a distinctive personal service 
on the part of employees, are preeminent at- 
tractions contributing to that comfort and 
ease of the shopping public which make it 
something of a community center as well as a 
place in which merchandise is sold. 

The architecture of the store interior is 
Spanish in general design. The lighting features 
and furnishings enhance the beauty and har- 
mony of the building interior. The 18 elevators 
are massed lengthwise of the store in a way 
that is both unique and convenient. Apparatus 
for cooling the air of the store in summer sup- 
plies refreshing relief to shoppers in the very 
hot weather. 

Under its several names the Kresge Store has 
a history of nearly' half a century. It was 
started in a small way by Fox & Plaut back in 
1870, when the horse cars rolled along Broad 
Street. The first store was located on the north 
bank of the old Morris Canal. Later it became 
L. S. Plaut & Company and continued under 
this name until purchased by Mr. Kresge in 
July, 1913. 



M. E. BLATT Co. 

Atlantic City numbers among its many 
choice possessions a department store of size 
and quality. It is the nine-story, modern build- 
ing of M. E. Blatt Co. The special lighting 
effect entitles it to the claim of being a "day- 
light" store at all hours. 

Such a department store one might not ex- 
pect to find in a resort city, yet it is there and 
the enterprising owners have built up a sub- 
stantial business by serving the enormous 
transient population and catering to the trade 
of the many high-class hotels. 

Everything that is looked for in up-to-date 
department stores is here and on the top floor 
there is a spacious "economy store" of the 
type customarily found only in basements. 

HAHNE & COMPANY 

Hahne & Company "Hahne's" as it is 
popularly known is a third department store 
in Newark and one of the largest in the state. 
With a history of more than 70 years of busi- 
ness it has progressed as the city has developed. 

Some of its features, aside from a general 
merchandising business, are a model eight- 
room suite, a budget bureau and shopping 
service. 

SEARS, ROEBUCK & Co. 

The new store of Sears, Roebuck & Co. in 
Camden, was opened July 30, 1917. It occupies 
a substantial two-story building, Doric in 
design, and having z6 decorative stone col- 
umns. The establishment of this store by Sears, 
Roebuck & Co. inaugurated a new policy of 
over-the-counter selling. The great success of 
the company hitherto had resulted from its 
long-established and nationally-known mail- 
order business. 

OTHER DEPARTMENT STORES 

Paterson has two extensive department 
stores Quackenbush Co. and Meyer Brothers. 
The former was established in Paterson in 
1886 and the latter moved there from Newark 
in 1879. These stores serve a considerable terri- 
tory surrounding the city. The former was 
founded by Peter Quackenbush but is now 
owned by Louis Spitz. 



376 



NEW JERSEY 





< -Z 

& o 







CHAPTER XII 



Community Welfare 

STATE INSTITUTIONS 



-ik -TEW JERSEY has never forgotten those of 
I ^^ I its people who have fallen by the way- 
_L. ^| side the child and adult dependents, 
the insane, the feeble-minded and epileptics, 
the delinquents, all those who need a helping 
hand or support and guidance. 

Relief of the poor and the afflicted was in- 
augurated by the churches early in the history 
of New Jersey, to be later supplemented to an 
even greater extent by private charitable and 
relief societies. There is hardly a community 
in the State today that does not have a social 
service organization. Institutions supported by 
private generosity have been established. New 
Jersey has well-administered schools for the 
deaf and blind, homes for dependent children, 
day nurseries and kindergartens, homes for the 
aged, hospitals and dispensaries, neighborhood 
houses, and social settlements. Public poor re- 
lief by the local community was also inaugu- 
rated early, the first poor laws being enacted in 
1709. 

The State itself was the first to take over the 
care of the insane, heretofore maintained in 
local institutions, by erecting the Trenton 
State Hospital for the Insane in 1848. Gradually 
other types of patients came under the direct 
care of the state. In 1888 the State Institution 
for Feeble Minded at Vineland was established; 
in 1898 the State Village for Epileptics at Skill- 
man, and in 1907 the State Sanatorium for Tu- 
berculous Diseases at Glen Gardner. New Jersey 
early recognized its" special obligations to its 
soldiers by establishing the Kearny Soldiers' 
Home in 1866. 

Certain of the penal offenders, who until 
1798 were confined in county jails, were trans- 
ferred to the State Prison at Trenton, which 
opened that year. To help the youthful offend- 
ers, New Jersey established the State Home for 



Boys at Jamesburg in 1865 and the State Home 
for Girls at Trenton in 1871. 

Out of the various commissions and boards 
having jurisdiction over the charitable or cor- 
rectional type of institutions there was devel- 
oped in 1905 the Department of Charities and 
Corrections. The outgrowth of this body is the 
present Board of Control of Institutions and 
Agencies, which began to function in 1918. 

New Jersey in its work with each institution 
and agency has recognized the importance of a 
program of treatment, training, social rehabili- 
tation, and prevention, rather than one of mere 
custody. Through the schools, churches, social 
agencies, mental clinics, local medical groups, 
and similar organizations in the communities, 
insanity and tuberculosis are sought out in the 
early stages when treatment is more effective; 
whenever possible the feeble-minded are sent 
to institutions where they can be trained to do 
suitable and profitable work, and by the im- 
provement of social conditions, particularly in 
the homes and by foster-home care, delin- 
quency in many cases is prevented. 

Particularly valuable to this work has been 
the active co-operation of the Department of 
Education through the schools of the State, 
the Department of Health, the Department of 
Labor, and other public and private welfare 
agencies. 

The Department of Institutions and Agencies 
has general supervision over nearly 40,000 
state wards. In the institutions about 17,000 
are enrolled. Sixteen thousand are cared for by 
the State Board of Children's Guardians. Two 
thousand persons are contacted in one way or 
another by the State Commission for the Blind, 
and over 5000 persons in county and private in- 
stitutions receive State support. 

The policy of the two State mental hospitals 



377 



378 



NEW JERSEY 



at Greystone Park and Trenton is to substitute 
active treatment for mere custodial care. Each 
patient is given a comprehensive physical ex- 
amination, including the teeth, the blood, the 
eyes, ears, nose, and throat, by a specialist, 
followed by specific treatment for any abnor- 
malities discovered. The mental examination 
is equally thorough. When the patient is con- 
sidered sufficiently improved to warrant a trial 
visit to his home, the social-service division 
investigates the surroundings, advises the fam- 
ily as to methods for promoting the best inter- 
ests of the patient, assists in procuring work, 
and then supervises the patient for one year 
before he is finally discharged from the hospital 
records. 

While actual mental deficiency cannot be 
cured, much can be done through specialized 
instruction and proper habit formation to make 
the child better able to take care of himself. 
With this end in view, the State Institution for 
Feeble Minded at Vineland established a spe- 
cial school department where the children get 
the practical and academic training that they 
are capable of absorbing. Through the indus- 



trial department the women make sheets, pil- 
low-cases, pillows, knitted goods, underwear, 
and stockings. Work on the farm is done by the 
inmates, who also do the domestic work of the 
institution as far as possible. 

A colony has been established at Red Bank, 
where about 40 girls are housed in two adjoin- 
ing homes under supervision. These girls do 
domestic work in private homes at Red Bank 
and return to the colony in the evening for 
recreation and rest. The colony is largely self- 
supporting. 

At the State Colony for Feeble-Minded 
Males, at New Lisbon, the training and in- 
dustrial activities include farm and dairy work, 
clearing the land, canning, baking, reed-furni- 
ture manufacture, basket weaving, musical 
training in band work, and school training in 
the lower school grades. It is planned to estab- 
lish colonies from this institution to develop 
farming activities. 

The State Colony for Feeble-Minded Males, 
at Woodbine, emphasizes habit training, and 
the ability of each patient is continually 
checked. 




KING'S HIGHWAY LOOKING WEST IN HADDONFIELD 



COMMUNITY WELFARE 



379 




TYPICAL APARTMENT HOUSE AND RESIDENCE VIEW ON THE HUDSON BOULEVARD IN UNION CITY 



The newest state institution is the North 
Jersey Training School at Totowa, opened in 
19x7, built on the cottage plan, permitting 
proper classification and grouping of the higher 
grade feeble-minded girls for the development 
of home life and habit training. 

The Training School at Vineland, although 
a private institution, has as State wards 65 to 
70 per cent of its pupils, placed there and paid 
f&r by the counties or by the State. Its reputa- 
tion is international, partly because of the 
unsurpassed care and training given the pupils 
and partly because of its valuable contributions 
to the study of feeble-mindedness. 

A unique institution in New Jersey is the 
State Village for Epileptics at Skillman, where 
every new discovery in the treatment and care 
of epileptics is put to use. Occupational and 
recreational activities are utilized to the fullest 
possible extent. 

The New Jersey Sanatorium for Tuberculous 
Diseases at Glen Gardner is regarded as a model 
institution. It combines medical treatment and 
education, gives practical demonstration of the 



modern methods of treating tuberculosis, and 
at the same time extends the direct benefits of 
its system to the people at large. Its purpose is 
to render the patient self-sustaining. The sana- 
torium has established an extension department 
organized as a diagnostic clinic to furnish as- 
sistance in the more rural sections and in other 
places requiring trained specialists in tubercu- 
losis. 

Realizing the monotony of sanatorium ex- 
istence a building housing the department of 
diversional and therapeutic occupation has 
been erected. The new treatment unit for chil- 
dren is a most important forward step in the 
preventive health program. 

In accordance with the policy to do all in 
their power to rehabilitate persons, a system 
of classification has been adopted. Each inmate 
is studied by specialists from the viewpoints 
of the medical, psychological, psychiatric, ed- 
ucational and industrial, social history, and 
background. The plan of training and employ- 
ment is in preparation for return to the com- 
munity. 



3 8o 



NEW JERSEY 





COMMUNITY WELFARE 



3 8i 



All persons paroled from the State Home for 
Boys, the State Home for Girls, the New Jersey 
Reformatory at Rahway, and the Reformatory 
for Women at Clinton are under the supervision 
of the central parole bureau of the Department 
of Institutions and Agencies. Employment is 
secured for parolees and assistance given that 
they may re-establish themselves in the com- 
munity and become good citizens. 

The New Jersey State Prison at Trenton is a 
congregate cell-block type of structure, por- 
tions of it being over 100 years old. In order to 
rehabilitate the men, training is given in the 
English language and in other useful subjects. 
Among the products manufactured are shoes 
for men and women, kitchen utensils, sheet- 
metal work, clothing, tools, dies, automobile 
tags, wood furniture, and concrete blocks and 
posts. Additional industries include painting, 
printing, bookbinding of catalogs and books 
for the State Library, baking, and coffee roast- 
ing. From 100 to 115 men build concrete roads 
in co-operation with the State Highway Com- 
mission. Smaller groups are sent to the several 
other institutions for general laboring, exca- 
vating, and similar jobs. 

At the Prison Farm of i ,2.00 acres at Leesburg, 
Cumberland County, men do farming, canning, 
dairying, and pig raising. 

The New Jersey Reformatory for Women at 
Clinton is one of the most successful institu- 
tions for women in this country as measured 
by the stability of the women on parole. It is 
of the cottage type and is not surrounded by 
wall or stockade. The industries include farm 
work, laundry, cleaning and general house- 
work, cooking, sewing, and infant care. 

The New Jersey Reformatory at Rahway 
provides a place where young men may be 
separated from the older offenders so that the 
opportunity to reform may be made as great as 
possible. The institution is a congregate, cell- 
block, prison-type institution, surrounded by 
a wall. Training is given in plumbing, ma- 
sonry, printing, shoe manufacture, tailoring, 
carpentry, machinery, tool making, black- 
smithing, foundry work, painting, musical 
training through band work, barbering, sheet 
metal work, metal-bed manufacturing, and 
electrical wiring. 



A new reformatory is being built at Annan- 
dale by 150 inmates of the Rahway reformatory 
who are working under the supervision of 
skilled mechanics. These men are living in a 
colony which has been established at Annan- 
dale. 

The State Home for Boys at Jamesburg is of 
the cottage type of construction. Each boy is 
made the subject of an intensive study, and a 
plan of training is mapped out. This covers 
efforts at moral and spiritual training by 
chaplains and workers in the several religious 
denominations; home- and boy-scout training 
secured in the cottage where the boy lives with 
a "family" of 30 to 50 other boys of his age 
under the direction of a man and wife who are 
known as the cottage "father" and "mother." 

School training is secured in one of two 
schools, one an academic school for boys who 
learn best from books, the other a school of 
manual education for boys who learn best from 
doing things rather than by book study. Trade 
training for older boys of adequate ability, and 
industrial training for those of lesser ability 
are given. Facilities and opportunities in some 
14 vocations are thus provided. 

The State Home for Girls at Trenton is also 
of the cottage type. The training of the girls 
consists of cooking, general housework, sew- 
ing, academic training, typing, stenography, 
laundry work, power sewing of the factory 
type, infant care, and personal hygiene. The 
object is to fit the girls to return to society and 
to make a satisfactory adjustment in commu- 
nity life. 

The New Jersey Home for Disabled Soldiers 
at Kearny, opened in 1866, is the parent of 
similar institutions throughout this country. 
The New Jersey Home for Disabled Soldiers, 
Sailors or Marines and their wives at Vineland 
is one of the finest in the United States. 

The State Board of Children's Guardians is 
responsible for the "care and supervision over 
all indigent, helpless, dependent, abandoned, 
friendless, and poor children who may now be 
or who may hereafter be in charge, custody and 
control of any county asylum, county home, 
almshouse, charitable hospital-relief or train- 
ing institution, home or family to which such 
children may be or may have been committed. ' ' 



NEW JERSEY 




COMMUNITY WELFARE 



383 



Under the act to promote home life for de- 
pendent children, commonly known as the 
Widows' Pension Act, children left dependent 
through the death of a father, or through his 
incapacity to support them, may be supported 
in their own homes with their own mother, 
through funds available from the municipal- 



ity, or the county, and administered by the 
State Board of Children's Guardians. 

Effort is made to keep in touch with the 
needs of all blind persons in the State, to pro- 
vide training for certain pupils in schools for 
the blind, or to provide training in their own 
homes and communities. 



COUNTY INSTITUTIONS 



COUNTY welfare work in New Jersey, 
broadly speaking, includes all types of 
organized public and private agencies 
for the care and protection of the dependent, 
neglected, delinquent, physically handicapped, 
mentally defective, and diseased. It includes 
also efforts to prevent dependency and delin- 
quency and to promote wholesome and health- 
ful community life. 

Among the private social service and health 
organizations at work in the counties may be 
mentioned the Tuberculosis Association of 
each county, with county and local subdivi- 
sions, all co-operating with the State Tubercu- 
losis League; the Health Leagues; the Visiting 
Nurse Associations; clinics for tuberculosis, 
mental diagnosis, and other diseases, in com- 
munities, schools and industrial establish- 
ments; Red Cross units; privately supported 
homes for neglected and dependent children; 
child-placing agencies; homes for the aged and 
indigent, the incurable, the crippled, and other- 
wise dependent; county and local Y. M. C. A. 
and Y. W. C. A. organizations, with their edu- 
cational, recreational and social programs in 
cities, towns, and rural sections, in industrial 
and in foreign groups; the Boy Scouts and Girl 
Scouts, organized by county or local unit; the 
Needlework Guild of America; the Salvation 
Army; the Church Mission of Help; Parent- 
Teacher Associations'; Women's Clubs; societies 
for organized charity; societies for the preven- 
tion of cruelty to children; benevolent societies 
and similar organizations for social or family 
relief and welfare; Kiwanis, Lions, Rotary, Ex- 
change, and other service clubs; Elks, Knights 
of Columbus, Masons, Odd Fellows, and other 
fraternal orders, which have welfare programs; 
Jewish welfare societies; Catholic welfare so- 



cieties throughout the State, with diocesan 
headquarters at Newark and Trenton; church 
societies; and the American Legion and Dis- 
abled American Veterans, and their auxiliaries. 
The New Jersey Conference for Social Work, 
with headquarters in Newark, co-operates with 
local welfare groups in promoting state-wide 
interest in social questions. 

The county as a governmental unit has 
definite obligations laid upon it in the field of 
public welfare. The County Boards of Chosen 
Freeholders have come to exercise important 
welfare functions through programs of preven- 
tion of dependency and delinquency, as well 
as through the financial support they give to 
general hospitals, children's homes, and other 
institutions that care for the sick or indigent 
within the county. 

Thus, hospitals for mental diseases are main- 
tained by nine counties and sanatoriums for 
tuberculosis by n counties. Those counties that 
do not have institutions of their own contribute 
to the support of their patients in the institu- 
tions of neighboring counties. Counties also 
maintain almshouses, welfare houses or hos- 
pitals for the indigent and chronically ill, and 
assume the support of some of their citizens as 
patients in State institutions. 

The county adjuster of each county assists 
persons to enter state and county institutions 
and aids the overseer of the poor in returning 
indigent persons to their place of legal settle- 
ment. 

The "poor law" administration of New 
Jersey through the modern poor relief law of 
192.4 provides for the rendering of constructive 
service. Through it, outdoor relief is a con- 
structive piece of family rehabilitation and aids 



3 8 4 



NEW JERSEY 




COMMUNITY WELFARE 



in the prevention of pauperism through trained 
social work. 

The old-time almshouses are giving way to 
"welfare houses" which seek to provide a real 
home, not only for indigents, but for persons 
who can contribute toward their partial sup- 
port, and to give adequate hospital care to the 
temporarily and chronically ill. 

The State Board of Health works throughout 
the communities and co-operates with the local 
boards of health in preventing disease, in solv- 
ing health problems, in raising sanitary stand- 
ards, and in enforcing public health laws and 
regulations. Through its Bureau of Child 
Hygiene, community demonstrations are given. 
It emphasizes the importance of examination 
of pre-school children to detect remediable 
defects. 

The State Board of Education, through 
county superintendents of education and help- 
ing teachers, is extending its social work along 
preventive lines through the establishment of 
vocational and continuation schools; special 
classes for the mentally defective and retarded; 
night schools for the foreign-born and those 
employed during the day, and through the 
extension of the health work in these schools. 

New Jersey is in the pioneer group of states 
which early appreciated the social and eco- 
nomic soundness of applying the principles of 
probation in its counties to both adults and 
children. 

Atlantic County maintains at Northfield 
three hospitals for mental diseases, a hospital 
for tuberculosis patients, and a county home 
and hospital for the aged and indigent. 

Bergen County, at Oradell, has a welfare 
unit, consisting of a tuberculosis hospital, an 
isolation hospital, and a home for the indigent. 
The Children's Home at Hackensack follows 
modern methods of social work. 

Burlington County, at New Lisbon, has a 
hospital for mental diseases, a tuberculosis hos- 
pital and the almshouse. The General Hospital 
in Mount Holly and the Children's Home are 
well-managed institutions. 

A remarkable unit of institutions is located 
at Lakeland, in Camden County. The hospital 
for mental diseases has a capacity of 350 and 
the tuberculosis hospital i.^. The almshouse 



has a separate unit for its sick patients. A 
workhouse, as a branch of the county jail, is 
also here. The county detention home for ju- 
veniles is housed in a modern building. 

Cape May County's Home and Hospital for 
the Aged and Indigent is often referred to as a 
good model. Individual rooms are provided, 
and the infirmary is in a one-story building. 
The Cumberland County hospital for mental 
diseases and the county almshouse are at 
Bridgeton. 

Essex County, with the largest population in 
the State, has at Overbrook a thoroughly 
modern curative hospital for mental diseases, 
with a capacity of 2.000. It is equipped to give 
medical, surgical, dental, physiotherapy, hy- 
drotherapy, occupational therapy, and other 
treatments. 

The County Sanatorium for Tuberculous Dis- 
eases at Verona has an average of xy5 patients. 
The County Hospital for Contagious Diseases 
at Soho has a capacity of several hundred. 

The Newark City Home, built in 1916 on the 
modified cottage plan, is the only public aims- 
house in the county. Gloucester County's aims- 
house, in Clarksboro, is beautifully situated 
and well conducted. 

At Secaucus, in Hudson County, are located 
the county institutions. The hospital for mental 
diseases, with an average of noo inmates, has 
modern facilities. The tuberculosis sanatorium 
is one of the best in the State. The well- 
equipped Hudson County Hospital is practi- 
cally a general hospital. A smallpox hospital 
and a contagious disease hospital complete the 
unit at Secaucus. 

In Hunterdon County, with its small popula- 
tion over a large area, social work has been 
local rather than county-wide. Near Trenton, 
in Mercer County, is the municipal colony of 
institutions where complete classification is 
possible, since it provides a tuberculosis hos- 
pital, a home for the aged, a children's hos- 
pital for contagious diseases, and an isolation 
hospital. 

The Middlesex County Tuberculosis League 
maintains an active program and has the co-op- 
eration of the Red Cross chapters, local Boards 
of Health, and similar organizations. The city 
of New Brunswick, through the attendance 



3 86 



NEW JERSEY 




COMMUNITY WELFARE 



department of its schools, does effective social 
work and in co-operation with the Woman's 
Club carries out a playground program. 

The Monmouth County organization for 
social service is the most notable contribution 
toward county organization in the State. The 
County Tuberculosis Hospital, at Allenwood, 
maintains high standards of medical and 
nursing service and provides for the patients' 
home atmosphere and comfort. The preventor- 
ium at Farmingdale admits some county chil- 
dren. 

At Shonghum, in Morris County, is the San- 
atorium for Tuberculosis Diseases, with an 
average of 50. The Welfare House, or home for 
the aged, is also at Shonghum. 

The Ocean County Health Association is 
well established and co-operates with the State 
Tuberculosis League in the prevention of tuber- 
culosis. Such hospitals as the Paul Kimball 
General Hospital at Lakewood, the Mount 
Pleasant Hospital, and several private institu- 
tions have done a great deal to raise the 
standards in medical service through this 
county. 

At Valley View, in Passaic County, a splen- 
did new county hospital to care for 150 tuber- 
culosis patients is being completed. At Paterson 
the county maintains an institution for the 
mentally ill, in connection with the almshouse 
of Paterson. The city of Passaic also has an 
almshouse. Both cities have extensive programs 
of outdoor relief, and have made real progress 
in general social welfare work. 

In Salem County, the County Home for the 
Aged and Indigent and Mentally 111 is in Penn's 
Grove Township. A County Memorial Hos- 
pital at Salem, supported by county, city, and 
private funds, is giving excellent service. In 
Somerset County the County Health Associa- 
tion, which is affiliated with the State Tuber- 
culosis League, ^promotes an outstanding 
health program. The Somerset General Hos- 
pital at Somerville is notable for its methods 
and accomplishments. 

In Sussex County, between Newton and 
Branchville, is the County Farm and Aims- 
house, which has been remodeled and im- 
proved. In Union County, at Scotch Plains, is 
Bonnie Burn, the tuberculosis sanatorium of 



the county. In Warren County, the Almshouse 
is at Oxford. The Warren County Health Asso- 
ciation is largely responsible for the establish- 
ment of a general health program in the county. 

The Ann May Memorial Homeopathic Hos- 
pital, incorporated October 2.7, 1905, is in 
Spring Lake near the ocean front, and from its 
upper floors the patients have a view of the 
ocean. It is a modern hospital and is a highly 
organized and efficient institution. The medical 
profession has given of its best to create and 
maintain it, and it is the only Grade A hos- 
pital on the New Jersey coast between Long 
Branch and Atlantic City. In addition to the 
regular medical and surgical services, it has 
departments of obstetrics, pediatrics, ortho- 
pedic, and X-ray. 

There is in the State of New Jersey a keen 
and understanding interest in the problem of 
providing institutions for the care of the sick 
and maladjusted. There are countless citizens 
actively interested in this problem and many 
public officials prepared to accept their re- 
sponsibility for constructive action. The types 
of institutions needed, the policies and pro- 
grams necessary to successful operation, the 
cost to the taxpayer are all subjects debated at 
each annual session of the Legislature, while 
the details of their administration occupy 
much of the time of the governing bodies of 
the many political units within the State, 
particularly of the County Boards of Chosen 
Freeholders. 

The 16,000 children cared for comfortably 
and happily, in private homes but as public 
wards, under the supervision of the State Board 
of Childrens' Guardians, owe the origin of 
this plan 30 years ago to Emily Williamson, of 
Elizabeth. Most of the counties in New Jersey 
now employ, with undisputed advantage to 
their social rehabilitation work, probation 
officers. 

Along with the State and county institutions 
taking care of all ages and both sexes of the 
ill and the needy, there are many remarkable 
private or semi-private institutions. Among 
these the scores of homes for children stand 
out as notable. Representative of these might 
be mentioned the Bonnie Brae Farm for Boys at 
Millington. 



388 



NEW JERSEY 



A dozen years ago New Jersey had no home 
or institution, non-sectarian in service to boy- 
hood, to which the needy and imperiled boy 
could be sent. For the definitely delinquent boy 
there was the State Home for Boys at James- 
burg, and for the very young child the Orphan 
Home sometimes met the need, but for the 
half-grown boy, not eligible to either of these 



institutions, no desirable provision had been 
made. Judge Harry V. Osborne saw this need, 
and Bonnie Brae was founded. It now cares for 
60 boys in a well-ordered, modern institution, 
homelike in character. Mention of this will 
suffice for the many other like institutions and 
childrens' homes located in various parts of 
the State. 



PINE BARRENS BETWEEN CHATSWORTH IN BURLINGTON COUNTY AND BARNEGAT IN 

OCEAN COUNTY 

Known as "The Plains." One of the most primitive regions remaining on the Atlantic Coast. Deer congregate in these 
hundreds of square miles of white sand, stunted pines, scrub oak and holly trees. A desolate region yet romantic and 
alluring. 



CHAPTER XIII 



Jersey tomorrow 



A HOUGH our present deficiencies are too 
numerous to catalog, not one of us in 
a thousand would care to go back to 
the inconveniences of the years that 'have 
passed. It was not so long ago when Michael 
Faraday was putting together bits of wire and 
steel in order to solve the problem of conveying 
electric current through a metal conductor over 
a short distance. He did not even have any 
electricity to work with except that which 
he obtained from batteries similar to the ones 
we use for doorbells. Sir Walter Scott and Lord 
Byron were making fun of the crazy notion 
of getting light and heat from gas produced 
by the burning of coal. Ruskin drove through 
England in a mail coach as a protest against 
the nonsensical railway. 

Sugar was recognized only for its medicinal 
value. The discovery of oxygen was the sensa- 
tion of the day, and no one had ever heard of 
the periodic system of the chemical elements. 
The dandies in Europe wore shoes equipped 
with high red heels, carried muffs and walking 
sticks, and even went so far as to wear patches 
of court-plaster on their cheeks. Sarsaparilla 
and sassafras were heralded as wonderful cure- 
alls. Tobacco was considered a plant of rare 
virtues, and as a remedy for asthma, it was 
recommended that the leaves be chewed and 
the juice swallowed. 

America's growth, only then commencing, 
was painfully slow. For a century diseases of 
filth took a heavy toll of human life. Urban 
atmospheres were ^saturated with steaming 
abominations from" noisome liquids that filled 
gutters and pools on every side. Fifty genera- 
tions of people throughout the world had gone 
on contentedly getting light from lamps that 
burned only vegetable oils. 

It takes a lot of imagination to draw an 
accurate comparison between the past and the 
present, but it is only in this way that one 



can develop an understanding of current prob- 
lems and chart the road ahead. It was just a 
short while back when we cranked our tele- 
phones; when kerosene provided our bright 
lights; and when even ma rode a bike. Hoop- 
skirts, bustles, pill-box hats and cameo brooches 
were all the style in feminine attire. Men 
wore padded cravats, spring-bottom trousers, 
and derby hats with linings that would have 
done credit to the handiwork of an expert 
casket trimmer. Johnny wore copper-toed boots 
designed to fit either foot, and the "assifidity" 
bag that hung around his neck was expected 
to protect against the evils of disease. Archi- 
tecture was a study in cubes, and watermelons 
were round rather than oblong. 

That was the era when most every house had 
a fence around it and the streets were lined 
with hitching posts and trees. No home was 
complete without tidies, gaudy mottoes on 
the walls, coffee cups having mustache guards, 
and at least one squeaky chair that rocked on 
stationary runners. Any talk concerning wom- 
en's rights, female doctors and co-education 
brought forth tirades about the "shrieking 
sisterhood" and "he girls." The swain who 
possessed a horse and buggy and could strum 
a guitar had the chief qualifications of a village 
sheik. 

It was no longer ago than 1876 when two 
men conversed for the first time over a long- 
distance telephone. Up until 1883 we did not 
even have an accurate time-keeping method. 
Hours were reckoned from sunrise to sunset 
and many people set their watches by the noon 
shadow on the sun dial. Trains operating be- 
tween large cities started on one time system 
and arrived at their destination on another. 
Railroad dispatching was in its infancy, and 
few travelers complained if they were no more 
than an hour late. 

What a change has taken place! The other 



389 



390 



NEW JERSEY 




RADIO TELEPHONE RECEIVING STATION OF THE 
AMERICAN TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH COMPANY AT NETCONG, MORRIS COUNTY 




ANTENNA OF THE RADIO TELEPHONE RECEIVING STATION AT NETCONG 



NEW JERSEY TOMORROW 



39 1 



day a man in New York lifted the receiver of 
his telephone from the hook and was in in- 
stant communication with a friend in Holland. 
When Henry Hudson sailed away from that 
country more than 300 years ago seeking a 
new route to India, he sailed west for six 
months before dropping anchor in what is 
now the harbor of New York. Truly, science 
has transformed months into minutes so far 
as communication is concerned. 

There was never any greater bunk than the 
foolish talk about "the good old days." Com- 
pared with the customs and comforts of the 
present era, the life of yesterday was crude 
indeed. Now we have five new inventions a 
minute. Ours is a nation on wheels, and the 
space about us has been transformed into a 
carrier of music and speech. We navigate the 
air, take pictures of the insides of our bodies, 
broadcast photographs and photograph music. 
We refrigerate with heat, rear oysters from 
artificially fertilized eggs, and measure the 
length of thought waves sent out by the 
human brain. We make furniture out of steel, 
sugar from corn, and motor fuel from molasses. 

A machine called the "brass brain" predicts 
what the tides will be in any seaport in the 
world at any time. It has 15,000 separate parts 
and does the work of 6c mathematicians. A 
new electric microphone is so sensitive to 
sound that one can hear a worm chewing at 
the interior of an eight-inch apple. An appli- 
ance used by power-and-light companies fore- 
tells the approach of a storm 50 miles away. 
A new carbon-monoxide gas indicator is so 
perfect in operation that it will register the 
amount of carbon monoxide thrown off in 
the single puff of a cigarette. 

Today we hear the roar of the mail plane 
over the route of the old Pony Express. On 
the silver screen we see the sun pierce the 
clouds and buds break into flower. Marvels 
like radio are the 'play things of school boys. 
Instead of talking over a single wire with 
grounded circuits, we talk through cables hav- 
ing a diameter of nearly three inches and carry- 
ing more than zooo wires. Gas that had one 
use and cost six dollars now has 5000 uses 
and costs one dollar. Pages might be filled 
with an astounding recital of recent amazing 



developments in the fields of research and in- 
vention. Truly, the fiction of Jules Verne has 
become fact. 

We are no longer workers, but rather masters 
of machines. Now when we arise we do not 
ask, "What must I do today?" but "What 
must I make steam, gas, electricity or com- 
pressed air do for me today?" It is America 
who is showing the world the way in employ- 
ing automatic methods for the purpose of 
raising wages, shortening hours and lowering 
prices. We know that our machine civilization 
has deficiencies, but we do not accept the idea 
that it has developed an "inhuman material- 
ism." How foolish to say that the worker of 
the Middle Ages was treated more humanely 
than the machine operator of the present time. 

One look at the Orient where the handicraft 
of past ages continues supreme will prove that 
America's advance has been upward. We have 
merely transferred the craftsman from the shop 
to the laboratory, where he is doing a better 
job and exercising a wider influence than ever 
before. Nothing has been lost by banishing 
superstitions and fears once essential to the 
perpetuation of Christianity. As one has asked, 
"Is feeding the multitude by mass production 
more materialistic than feeding it by a mir- 
acle? Is it not wiser to prevent famine by cre- 
ating world-wide systems of food distribution 
than by offering sacrifices to the rain gods for 
the purpose of ending a drought?" 

The future of New Jersey is inseparable from 
the future of America. This is not true to the 
same extent of all the states of our Union be- 
cause of existing differences in the two ele- 
mental factors location and climate. In look- 
ing to the years ahead, one must think in 
terms of tomorrow's conditions. It is neces- 
sary to discover the direction and character of 
current trends and the possibilities that lie in 
utilizing forces and resources that are permanent . 

Prosperity built on exhaustible supplies of 
mineral resources is transient. But that created 
by the benefits and advantages resulting from 
great ocean harbors, a coast line unmatched 
in the attractiveness of its beaches and recre- 
ational sites, a soil famed for its variety and 
fertility, a climate that energizes the worker 
and permits outdoor operations to continue 



392. 



NEW JERSEY 




NEW JERSEY TOMORROW 



393 



the year round, and the very closest proximity 
to the world's greatest markets, is the sort of 
prosperity that will show rapid and enduring 
growth. 

Man is subject to the same laws which 
govern the rest of the organic world. He has 
what scientists call a "climatic optima," or 
desirable temperature average, which New 
Jersey approaches as closely as any of our 
states. Abnormal cold brings a sapping of 
human energy and abnormal heat produces 
chronic exhaustion and a disinclination to 
work. A people living where the temperature 
is nearer to the optimum than to the extreme 
limits has all the advantages in the struggle 
for success. The greatest authorities on cli- 
matic influences place the climatic optima for 
the United States at 66 degrees. 

But temperature is not everything. There 
are also the factors of humidity and variability. 
Weather that shows almost no variation at 
all, as well as weather that is subject to violent 
changes, is highly undesirable from the stand- 
point both of individual accomplishment and 
general health. The best possible day is one 
that has dew at night with a relative humidity 
of about 60 pet cent. It is not accidental that 
maps of climatic energy are almost identical 
with maps of human health and progress. All 
of the conclusions here set forth are founded 
on proved statistics covering mortality and 
industrial production, and they explain why 
the Jersey climate is a permanent and invalu- 
able asset to the State. 

New Jersey's position on the Atlantic Coast 
insures for it an unequalled opportunity to 
become the center of a great manufacturing 
industry given over to the refining of immense 
supplies of various raw materials coming to 
this country from overseas. The State is des- 
tined to become the hub of America's greatest 
developments in tha, fields of heat and power. 
Here the existing conditions are most favor- 
able to the consummation of the dreams of 
scientists and engineers respecting the creation 
of immense systems of interconnected super- 
gas lines and interconnected super-electric lines. 
The world's finest bituminous coals are in 
West Virginia and Kentucky and these trans- 
ported by water will supply the raw fuels 



for the great carbonizing plants that will dot 
the Jersey coast. 

These byproduct ovens will operate without 
any discharge of smoke or fumes. They will 
not only supply gas of high heating value for 
transport through pipes under high pressure to 
all parts of the State, but they will produce a 
multitude of substances from coal that will 
reduce the cost of medicines, dyes, solvents, 
lubricants, preservatives, paints, explosives, 
fertilizers, perfumes and insecticides. New Jer- 
sey will be the very heart of a movement in 
the handling and use of fuels that in the next 
zo years will doubtless surpass all the advances 
in this field of effort that have taken place 
since that day, 150 years before Christ, when 
Hero of Alexandria first noted the power of 
steam, but did not understand the phenomenon 
at all. 

In order for any State to make cheap heat 
and electricity instantly available to everyone 
at the turn of a cock or the touch of a button, 
it is essential that there be not only favorable 
transportation facilities for the raw fuel, but 
that there shall be a distribution of population 
sufficiently dense to make such a plan econom- 
ically possible. Furthermore, industry tomor- 
row will give primary thought to the per- 
manence of its energy supply, and there is no 
permanence in any source of heat now avail- 
able except coal. This basic fuel will be so 
carefully resolved into its various constituents 
that a commercial market will be found for 
even the ash that the coal contains. 

New Jersey also has an equal opportunity 
with many other coast states to capitalize the 
values of the ocean. Already the sea yields 
America more than a billion dollars' worth 
of products yearly. At present oysters rank 
first as a sea crop. Research is making this 
business more of a farming operation than a 
fishery. Doubtless before Jong seed oysters will 
be developed in a hatchery much as trout are 
now propagated. Inedible fish will be made 
into oil, fertilizer and meal the oil being 
used for tanning leather, lubricating watches 
and clocks, and serving as a substitute for lin- 
seed oil in paints. 

The skins, scales and waste of certain fishes 
will be utilized in the manufacture of leather, 



394 



NEW JERSEY 






NEW JERSEY TOMORROW 



395 




FLOAT OF NEW JERSEY STATE CHAMBER OF COM- 
MERCE IN THE BOARDWALK DEDICATION 

PARADE, OCEAN CITY, JULY 4, 1918 

Such decorated floats comprise the annual pageants at New 

Jersey shore resorts 

liquid glue, imitation pearls, and dozens of 
other useful products. Air bladders will supply 
isinglass. The truth is that out of the ocean 
will come wealth untold, and the states which 
are able to participate in these riches will be 
fortunate indeed. 

The agriculture of New Jersey will profit 
from its diversity of soils and elevations. 
Scientific studies have brought us to the edge 
of an amazing era wherein there will be de- 
veloped an entirely new conception of agri- 
culture. Technical disclosures will open all 
eyes to the truth that there is no such thing 
as waste land. Out of Jersey sand will grow 
dozens of new things that cannot be propa- 
gated elsewhere. In the rich soil of her high- 
lands will be new fruits combining the exotic 
flavors of the citrus with those of products 
native to the temperate zone. Successful ex- 
perimentation in breeding a new kind of orange 
has indicated clearly the possibilities of greatly 
extending the zones of plant growth. 

Farming is on the way to becoming a highly 
automatized and technical profession. The 
benefits of cheap heat and power to the in- 
dustries of New Jersey will be duplicated in 



the State's agriculture. Electric lights are already 
being used to get the hens up earlier on winter 
mornings and thereby increase the production 
of eggs. Hand work will disappear from almost 
every department of farm life. Ingenious ma- 
chines will separate good berries from bad. 
Various kinds of rays will be employed to treat 
seeds to bring about increased yields. Ordinary 
manufactured gas will speed up the ripening of 
fruits and probably aid in developing a higher 
sugar content in such things as melons. Experi- 
ments w T ith static electricity in the process of 
extracting nitrates from air make it appear 
likely that electrical energy secured from the 
atmosphere will be sent through the soil to 
purify and nurture vegetation. 

New methods and new devices will multiply 
production enormously. One farmer found that 
his 17 cows would not drink sufficient water 
when its temperature was very low. He in- 
stalled a combination electric pumping and 
heating apparatus so that the water might be 
slightly warmed before being supplied to the\ 
cattle. The result was 430 pounds more milk 
a week. A thoughtful fruit grower discovered 
that he could preserve his perishable products 
by dipping them in rubber latex the milk of 
rubber which makes them airtight and per- 
mits the fruit to be shipped long distances 
without refrigeration. Under this plan straw- 
berries traveled 14 days without spoiling. The 
rubber coat is easily peeled off, and this means 
that delicate products may soon reach distant 
consumers with all their delectable flavors 
intact. 

Everything is being made to serve the needs 
of man. Even the desert cactus is having its 
fruit converted into rare confections and its 
juices into liquid fuel. Corncobs are not only 
being made to yield furfural, a substitute for 
formaldehyde, but are being converted into a 
synthetic wood that can be nailed, glued or 
turned in a lathe. In addition to getting alco- 
hol, starch and yeast from potatoes, this most 
common of farm products can be transformed 
into a powder that will bleach juices and 
liquors. This same powder mixed with oil of 
turpentine even makes a good shoe polish. 
A superior grade of potash can be obtained 
by burning the stalks of sunflowers. When 



NEW JERSEY 




N E W JERSEY TOMORROW 



397 



properly handled this plant can be made to 
yield a potash averaging 175 pounds to the acre. 

Hundreds of new products will come from 
New Jersey's farms. Truck gardening will be 
completely automatized. Just as we now have 
cotton-picking machinery, so will we have 
clever devices to pick such things as peas and 
beans and to get other crops out of the handi- 
craft stage. Our supply of rubber will be ex- 
tracted from home-grown plants, and the car- 
bon-dioxide waste that now pours from the 
chimneys of our great factories and mills will 
be utilized for fertilizing purposes or for con- 
version into artificial ice. Machinery will do 
for farming what it has already done for 
manufacturing. 

And talking of soil fertilization, this brings 
us back to the carbonizing plants that will 
extract the values from coal. Out of these great 
ovens will come many things now regarded in 
most places as pure waste. The sulphur from 
the coal will be used as an insecticide or fungi- 
cide, particularly in grape culture; as a dust 
to shake on seed potatoes to accelerate growth; 
as an agent to counteract soil alkalinity; and 
as a substance to combine with phosphate 
rock in the production of a plant food. 

The leveling of walls and the close interrela- 
tion that will exist between New Jersey's in- 
dustries in a near tomorrow, are clearly in- 
dicated by current developments on every side. 
For example, in the process of purifying the 
gas manufactured from coal, there is a waste 
product called sodium-thiocyanite. Recent 
studies have shown that when this substance 
is employed as a dilute solution, it speeds up 
the germination of potatoes that have been 
sprayed or dipped. This means that the farmer 
can market his potatoes earlier and get more 
money for them. This tendency to create values 
out of things that were worthless will be 
carried to a point^where waste in the wide 
world of materials'will be practically unknown. 

The scientific advances that will be made 
during the next few decades will represent 
more progress than had previously been made 
in all recorded history. We shall probably see 
the $150 airplane. But for mass transportation 
through the air, the vehicle that will serve 
our needs will be the airship which, like the 



ocean liner, floats in its own medium and gains 
in effectiveness as the size increases. The plane 
is supreme in speed; the dirigible has most 
of the other advantages. Soon the citizen of 
New Jersey who has a fortnight's holiday will 
be able to spend 10 days of it in Europe. 

Ocean-going vessels fitted with gyroscopes 
will double the speed of trans- Atlantic travel. 
New and far more sensitive films will make it 
possible to record the natural tints and colors 
when a motion-picture is being photographed. 
Then the color of a woman's eyes and hair, 
the tint of the sea and the hues of the rainbow 
itself will be a natural part of every motion- 
picture play. Rapid advances in the arts of 
radio and television will break down all of 
the barriers of distance in the fields of sound 
and sight. We will give a fragrance to hitherto 
odorless plants; pour houses into shapes in- 
stead of building them; convey sound by means 
of light; use various types of rays to make 
surgery bloodless; forecast floods and violent 
weather changes far enough in advance to 
reduce property losses to a minimum; trans- 
mit power without wires; and eliminate insect 
pests by controlling heredity and developing 
a sex situation that produces a vast majority 
of males, thus causing an early extinction of 
the species. 

We will stop building our houses around a 
chimney, for our heat and power will come to 
us through pipes or over wires. All buildings 
will be insulated and the air we breathe will 
be dustless and properly humidified. Instead of 
merely heating air, we will manufacture 
weather indoors, thereby largely reducing the 
cost to life and industry from the greatest of 
all curses the common cold. The same system 
that gives us warm air in winter will provide 
cold in summer, and everyone will devote as 
much attention to the moisture content of the 
indoor atmosphere as to its heat content. The 
abolition of unhygienic heating will put an 
end to the rapid rise of the cosmetic index 
which has resulted from the fading of the 
natural color index of human complexions. 

No longer will lakes, rivers, roads and rail- 
road stations be the only factors in determining 
the location of towns. Through eliminating 
barriers and bridging gaps, the airship will 



39 8 



NEW JERSEY 




NEW JERSEY TOMORROW 



399 



change our motives and revolutionize land 
values. In many places the mountain top, now 
worth but little, will be more valuable than 
the fields in the valley below. Air cities will 
spring up as rapidly as did seaports. Landing 
platforms will cover the roofs of public and 
private buildings. Non-stop mail deliveries by 
planes flying a mile up in the air will be a 
reality. Transportation generally will be under 
the control of radio, which will operate our 
trains and manipulate switches. The railroad 
supervisor at the central station will be able 
to visualize on the screen in his office the actual 
movement of any train on the line. 

The next few years will be a period of 
great activity in railroad electrification, with 
the most intense developments centering in 
New Jersey. The Lackawanna Railroad is 
already engaged in the electrification of its 
lines from Hoboken to Dover, an undertaking 
of immense benefit to the traveling public 
and to many residential centers, but of first 
importance is the plan of the Pennsylvania 
Railway which calls for the electrification 
of 1,300 miles of track in America's most 
densely populated region New York City 
to Wilmington, Delaware. This project, 
when completed, will eclipse all previous 
accomplishments of a similar nature, not 
only in miles of track electrified, but in the 
number of trains affected, terminal opera- 
tions involved, and size and amount of 
equipment required. 

The entire job will cost approximately 
$100,000,000 and *will take seven years to 
complete. Construction will be done in 
sections, each section being put into opera- 
tion as soon as finished. When electrification 
has been accomplished, the necessary power 
will be purchased from outside concerns in 
order to encourage industrial development 
in the territory served by the railway. The 
immediate result will be an acceleration of 
industrial activity throughout New Jersey. 
Because of its strategic situation, this State 
will be the first to electrify its system of 
railways, thereby eliminating that costly nui- 
sance the smoking locomotive. 

All about us are possibilities unrealized. 
Important phenomena of an amazing nature 



now touch our lives at every turn without our 
knowing it. Succeeding groups of students in 
dozens of college laboratories went ahead for 
years operating Crookes tubes in their study 
of physics not knowing that every time this 
apparatus was put into action it gave off 
X-rays. Rontgen later discovered these rays 
purely by chance and then all the Crookes 
tubes were hastily pulled out and hundreds 
of people easily repeated the famous experi- 
ment. The greatest discovery of this generation 
may be made by someone who can lay no claim 
to an intimate knowledge of science. Truly 
there are more things in heaven and earth 
than are dreamt of in our philosophy. 

It is for this reason that the future of New 
Jersey cannot be visualized by merely multi- 
plying and enlarging the latest things of our 
own era. A mere handful of scientists, just a 
few thousand out of two billion humans, now 
hold within their grasp the destiny of hu- 
manity. Race betterment is only just commenc- 
ing in real earnest. In this thought lies a serious 
threat to all those branches of business where 
the leaders stubbornly persist in opposing the 
forces of change. Never were foresight and a 
willingness to meet new conditions so neces- 
sary. New measures designed to improve 
health, comfort and convenience will be de- 
termining factors in shaping the practices of 
commerce and industry. 

Sewage-treatment plants now serve only a 
fraction of the people and this permits the 
wastes from hundreds of industries to run away 
freely and serve as a menace to health. Man- 
agements who do not prepare for a speedy 
correction of this condition will be heavily 
penalized. The same thing is true with respect 
to unnecessary noises . New devices for measur- 
ing sound have removed this problem from the 
realm of mere guessing. We can now estimate 
with reasonable accuracy the actual cost of 
the noise nuisance in damage to health and 
in the distraction of attention. A noisy en- 
vironment means the use of more energy in 
talking. Night noises cause a loss of sleep. 
Conversation on a railway train or in the 
subway requires an expenditure of more than 
loo times as much energy as in a quiet room. 

The architects of tomorrow in designing 



400 



NEW JERSEY 






NEW JERSEY T O M O R R O W 



4OI 



buildings will no more think of neglecting to 
consider sound-absorbing measures and devices 
than they will provisions for adequate supplies 
of heat and water. Street and subway cars 
will have noiseless wheels and silent coupling 
connections. In office and factory every machine 
from typewriter to drill will operate in com- 
parative quiet. This will accelerate office rou- 
tine, conserve human energy, reduce costly 
mistakes and release the body from its present 
use as a sound shock absorber. Soon noise 
producers will be banned completely, and those 
ignoring the current trend will lose heavily. 

New Jersey is a State of destiny by virtue 
of the permanence of its established assets. 
It can never become the geographical center of 
American territory or population. But it will 
continue to be the heart of the world's most 
intense and highly developed industrial life. 
The picture of its future discloses the rapid 
development of the magic art of catalysis to 
a point where the chemist will join hundreds 
of chemicals with other hundreds in the pro- 
duction of strange and useful compounds; the 
transformation of farming into a year-round 
business free of crop failures through the in- 
troduction of measures that afford control of 
natural elements and other factors that are now 
a menace; and a highway system that will in- 
clude three classes of roads primary or arterial 
highways, secondary roads with feeder lines, 
and local roads to take care of short-haul 
traffic. The carrying out of this program will 
give new leases of life to small towns away 
from water and railroads. 

New thoroughfares will be cut through 
built-up sections, and old streets widened. It 
costs more not to have wide roads than to 
build them. Municipal reconstruction will in- 
clude two-level sidewalks, bridges for pedes- 
trians at busy intersections, escalators and 
ramps to connect ^streets that lie one above 
the other, removal of signs and shrubbery 
that obscure vision, express routes through 
and around towns and villages, making it 
possible for fast-traveling tourists to avoid 
meeting traffic; and a rapid extension of the 
no-parking zones. One automobile standing at 
the curb narrows a street for an entire block. 

A further result of rapid traffic growth will 



be new building regulations limiting the num- 
ber of tall structures on each city block. The 
skyscraper has increased the floor space in 
many communities as much as six times, with 
the result that six times as many people are 
discharged every day on that section of the 
street which the building fronts. No system 
of underground tubes will take care of such 
growth. Burrowing into the earth is far more 
costly than growing into the air. Expensive 
subways will probably end up by supplying 
space for sewers, electric conduits, water and 
gas pipes, and other essential service lines, 
eliminating the necessity for constantly tear- 
ing up streets in order to repair and enlarge 
existing facilities. 

The tools and money now available to the 
engineer and scientist render undertakings pos- 
sible today that would have been looked upon 
as fantastic dreams two decades ago. New 
Jersey's meadows that lie in the very heart 
of the great metropolitan district will be re- 
claimed and converted into useful land worth 
hundreds of millions of dollars. Here almost 
at the feet of New York is one of the richest 
unworked gold mines in the world. No in- 
surmountable engineering problems are in- 
volved. Here might be built the most beautiful 
and most utilitarian city that the mind can 
conceive a city constructed in conformity 
with fixed plans that include not only all the 
benefits of modern science, but take advantage 
of developments that are now only matters 
of anticipation. A dream city, perhaps, but 
one so located that it might be made to pro- 
duce a revenue sufficient to extinguish a large 
part of the indebtedness of the entire State. 

It is now essential that we give thought to 
the possibilities of astounding developments 
that will shape the lives of our children's chil- 
dren. Viewpoints must be broadened to recog- 
nize a form of life with universal co-operation, 
free of idleness and the waste of duplicated 
effort, free of social recognition that is based 
on nothing more than financial success, and 
free of any argument on the point that the 
word "good" means everything that adds to 
the total happiness of the human race. Al- 
though innovations of great public benefit may 
be retarded by shortsighted opposition, the 



NEW JERSEY 




ROLLING HILLS AND PLAIN ON THE ROAD FROM SINGAC TO POMPTON 




WINDING CONCRETE ROAD THROUGH THE ORANGE MOUNTAINS IN ESSEX COUNTY 



NEW JERSEY TOMORROW 



403 



advantage is always with the fellow whose 
aims and plans make careful provision for the 
inevitable developments of the future. That 
is why great leaders of finance seek to invest 
in corporations that provide for continuous 
research. 

Much has happened since that August after- 
noon in 182.6 when John Stevens built a wood 
fire in the odd-looking locomotive that was to 
startle the natives by traveling around two 
concentric circles on the wooden rails that had 
been laid down upon his New Jersey lawn. 
This epochal accomplishment of Stevens not 
only gave birth to America's fifty billion-dollar 
transportation industry, but it started us into 
an age of metal contrivances that have greatly 
multiplied the effective range of human senses 
and relieved man's muscles of dreary drudgery. 
Out of New Jersey's famous laboratories will 
come other thousands of automatons and scien- 
tific revelations to maintain the State's prestige 



as a leading benefactor of humankind through- 
out the earth. Right now her citizens are delv- 
ing deep into such profound secrets as the pro- 
duction of cold light and the manufacture of 
rubber from domestic plants. 

New Jersey is fortunate in that the mental 
attitude of its people is expectant and recep- 
tive. Any other frame of mind today means 
industrial death. No business or individual 
has the power to control the moment of every 
crisis. To act any time, the leaders of business 
and industry in a great state must be ready all 
the time. On every side are the graves and dead 
hopes of skeptics who said "It can't be done." 

Great wisdom comes out of the past if we 
can believe the story of the Emperor who 
called a conclave of scholars for the purpose 
of reducing the total knowledge of the ages 
to a four- word summary. After great delibera- 
tion, the report of the ancient convention read: 
"This, too, will change." 




DEAL BEACH EXPERIMENTAL STATION AND ANTENNA OF THE AMERICAN TELEPHONE AND 

TELEGRAPH COMPANY 

Where ship-to-shore telephone communication preceded transatlantic telephone service. Used for first commercial 
short-wave transmitting in overseas telephony. Will ultimately handle all overseas telephoning to the United States. 
In addition to the Netcong Station, the Bell System maintains a long-wave transmitting station at Rocky Point on 
Long Island and a receiving station at Houlton, Maine. Commerical service planned between Deal and South America. 



4 o 4 



NEW JERSEY 



COMPARISON OF RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OP INDUSTRIES IN 
NEW JERSEY AND IN THE UNITED STATES RANKED AS 
PER CENT OF TOTAL VALUE ADDED BY MANU- 
FACTURE 192.3 

Per ant of total value added by manufacture 




i . Textiles and their products, z. Chemicals and allied products. 3 . Machinery, 
not including transportation equipment. 4. Iron and steel and their products, 
excluding machines. 5. Food and kindred products. 6. Transportation equip- 
ment: air, land, and water. 7. Paper and printing. 8. Stone, clay, and glas 
products. Q. Metals and 



ther than iron and steel. 10. Musical 



i and phonographs, n. Rubber products, n. Tobacco manufactures. 
13. Leather and its manufactures. 14. Railroad repair shops. 15. Lumber and 
allied products. 16. Miscellaneous industries. 

LEADING NEW JERSEY INDUSTRIES RANKED BY VALUE ADDED 
BY MANUFACTURE FOR 192.5 

(Millions of dollars') 




i. Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies, i. Silk manufactures. 3. 
Foundry and machine shop products. 4. Dyeing and finishing textiles. 5. Chem- 
icals, not elsewhere classified. 6. Petroleum refining. 7. Tobacco manufactures, 
cigars and cigarettes. 8. Printing and publishing, o. Motor vehicles. 10. Can- 
ning and preserving, fruits and vegetables, n. Worsted goods, n. Iron and 
steel, steel works and rolling mills'. 13. Bread and other bakery products. 14. 
Rubber goods excluding tires, inner tubes and belting. 15. Gas, manufactured, 
illuminating and heating. 



NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS EMPLOYED IN NEW JERSEY BY 
INDUSTRIAL GROUPS 1915 

Average number of wage earners in thousands 




i. Textiles and their products, i. Machinery. 3. Chemicals and allied products. 
4. Iron and steel and their products. 5. Stone, clay, and glass products. 6. Food 
and kindred products. 7. Transportation equipment. 8. Paper and printing 
9. Metals and metal products. 10. Rubber products, n. Railroad repair shops, 
n. Lumber and allied products. 13. Tobacco manufactures. 14. Leather and 
allied products. 15. Musical instruments and phonographs. 16. Miscellaneous 
industries. 



NEW JERSEY INDUSTRIES EMPLOYING OVER 6,000 WAGE 
EARNERS 192.5 

Average number of wage earners 




i. Silk manufactures, i. Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies. 3. Dye- 
ing and finishing textiles. 4. Foundry and machine shop products. 5. Worsted 
goods. 6. Chemicals, not elsewhere classified. 7. Car and general shop construc- 
tion, steam railroad shops. 8. Petroleum refining. 9. Cotton goods. 10. Rubber 
goods, not elsewhere classified, n. Tobacco, cigars and cigarettes, n. Iron and 
steel, steel works and rolling mills. 13. Ship and boat building, steel and wooden. 
14. Pottery, not including porcelain ware. 15. Clothing, men's, i. Printing 
and publishing. 17. Bread and other bakery products. 



INDEX 



To accompany 

New Jersey^ Life, Industries and 
Resources of a Great State 



Published by 

-"New Jersey State Chamber of Commerce 
605 Broad Street, Newark, N. J. 



NEW JERSEY- LIFE, INDUSTRIES AND RESOURCES 
OF A GREAT STATE 

INDEX OF SUBJECTS 



AGRICULTURE 121 

Agriculture in New Jersey 121 

Farm Crops 123 

Nutrition Human and Ani- 
mal 12? 

Control Activities 148 

Cooperative Extension and Home 

Economics 145 

Dairying 132 

Education, Agricultural 145 

Farms of Distinction 150 

Fruit Growing 138 

Horticulture 137 

Insects 140 

Live Stock 140 

Marketing 130 

Plant Diseases 140 

Poultry 134 

Seed Control 149 

Soils and Fertilizers 126 

Stock, Live 140 

Vegetable Growing 130 

AMUSEMENTS 213 

Beaches 
Asbury Park and Northern 

Resorts 215 

Atlantic City 213 

Cape May and Southern Ocean 

Front 216 

Country Clubs, List of 235 

Fishing and Hunting 240 

Motoring Enjoyable Trips 245 

Parks and Playgrounds 221 

Sports 233 

Theaters 260 

Uplands and Lakes 250 

AVIATION 206 

United States Naval Air Station.. 210 

BANKING 271 

Largest Banks in Each Class 275 

BEACH RESORTS, Northern and 
Southern 213 

BRIDGES AND TUNNELS 186 

Camden Bridge 190 

Goethals Bridge 190 

Holland Tunnel 186 

Hudson River Bridge 188 

Hudson River Railroad Tunnels.. 188 

Kill von Kull Bridge 192 

Outerbridge Crossing 190 

Raritan River Bridge 192 

CHURCHES (See Religion) 77 

CLIMATE .... .. 62 



EDUCATION 93 

Agricultural 145 

Colleges and Universities 97 

College of Engineering and 

Technical School, Newark 109 

Princeton University 97 

Rutgers University 100 

New Jersey College for Women.... 102 

New Jersey College of Pharmacy 102 

Stevens Institute of Technology- 104 

Law Schools 107 

Private Schools 112 

Public Schools 93 

FISHERY RESOURCES (See 

Fishing and Hunting) 69 



FOREST RESOURCES 

GEOLOGY (See Natural Re- 
sources) 

GEOGRAPHY ... 



65 



GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZA- 
TIONS (See Page 1) 33 

HIGHWAYS 200 

Cost of Highways, State 45 

HISTORICAL CHURCHES (See 
Churches) 

HISTORY 1 

General History and Govern- 
ment 1 

Historic Shrines and Interesting 
Places (See Motoring) 20 

ORIGINAL LEASE OF NEW 
JERSEY IX-XII 

INDUSTRIES (See Manufactur- 
ers) 297 

Baking 296 

Book Binding 371 

Canning 296 

Ceramics 286 

Chemicals and Allied Products.... 346 

Clay 328 

Cotton and Fabricated Products.. 284 

Electrical Industry 292 

Food and Kindred Products 369 

Glass 296, 328 

Graphs 404 

Iron and Its Products 333 

Jewelry Making 289 

Laundries 370 

Leather 295 

Machine 291 

Machinery 340 

Metal and Its Products 337 

Mineral Industry 2% 



INDUSTRIES Continued 

Packing Industry 296 

Paper and Printing 363 

Paint and Varnish 295 

Petroleum Refining 280 

Printing and Book Binding- 363, 371 

Shipbuilding 294 

Silk 283 

Steel 333 

Stone 328 

Tobacco 294 

Textiles and Their Products 358 

Transportation Equipment and 

Repair 344 

Varnish 295 

Wood Products 370 

INSTITUTIONS Community 

Welfare 377 

County - 383 

State 377 

INSURANCE 263 

Casualty 

Casualty Insurance Cos., List 

of 270 

Commercial Casualty Insur- 
ance Co. of Newark 270 

International Fidelity Insur- 
ance Co. of Jersey City 270 

N. J. Fidelity & Plate Glass 
Co. of Newark 270 

Fire Insurance 

American Mutual Ins. Com- 
pany of Newark 269 

Camden Fire Insurance Asso- 
ciation 269 

Firemen's Mutual Insurance 
Company of Newark 269 

Fire Insurance Companies, 
List of 270 

Newark Mutual Fire Assur- 
ance Company 267 

New Brunswick Fire Insur- 
ance Company 269 

Royal Insurance Company of 
London 269 

Life Insurance 

Colonial Life Insurance Com- 
pany 266 

Mutual Benefit Life Insurance 
Company 265 

Prudential Insurance Com- 
pany 263 

Title 

Title Companies, List of 271 

LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS 115 

Newark Museum 119 

Typographic Library and Mu- 
seum 



120 



MANUFACTURERS 297 

Aeolian Company & Votey Or- 
gan Company 340 

Air Reduction Company 353 

American Brown Boveri Electric 

Corporation 309 

American Enameled Brick and 

Tile Company 330 

American Steel & Wire Com- 
pany 334 

American Type Founders Com- 
pany 321 

American Wolmanized Lumber 

Company 370 

Archer - Daniels - Midland Com- 
pany 350 

Armstrong Cork Company 359 

Art Color Printing Company 366 

Athenia Steel Company 334 

Atlantic Aircraft Corporation 344 

Atlantic Terra Gotta Company.... 328 

Babcock & Wilcox Company 303 

Baker & Company, Inc 357 

Baker, Chemical Company, J. T. 352 

Barber Asphalt Company 350 

Barbour Flax Spinning Company 358 
Bates Manufacturing Company.... 343 

Bethlehem Steel Company 335 

Botany Worsted Mills 305 

Brunswick-Kroeschell Company.... 342 

Burlington Silk Mills 359 

Calco Chemical Company 346 

Campbell Soup Company .'.. 299 

Carborundum Company 330 

Celluloid Corporation 348 

Certain-Teed Products Company 355 

Charms Company 369 

Clark Thread Company 306 

Colgate & Company 301 

Consolidated Safety Pin Com- 
pany 336 

Corn Products Refining Com- 
pany 325 

Crescent Insulated Wire & Cable 

Company 340 

Crocker-Wheeler Electric Manu- 
facturing Company 341 

DeLaval Steam Turbine Com- 
pany 321 

Diehl Manufacturing Company.... 323 

Dixon Crucible Company, Jos 356 

Driver-Harris Company 337 

DuPont de Nemours & Company, 

E. I jr.... 309 

Edison Lamp Company 317 

Edison Industries, Thomas A 297 

Federal Shipbuilding & Dry Dock 

Company 318 

Ferguson Brothers Manufacturing 

Company 370- 

Ferracute Machine Company 336 

Fisher-Norris Anvil Foundry 336 

FitzGibbon & Crisp, Inc 344 



MANUFACTURERS Continued 

Ford Motors 319 

Fulper Pottery Company 326 

General Cigar Company, Inc 322 

General Electric Company 318 

Grasselli Chemical Company 314 

Haddon Craftsmen, Inc. 371 

Helme Company, George W 357 

Hercules Powder Company 356 

Hinde & Dauch Paper Company.. 366 

Hollingshead Company, R. M 346 

Illinois Glass Company 330 

Ingersoll-Rand Company 311 

Janeway & Carpenter 363 

Johns-Manville Corporation 313 

Johnson-Johnson 300 

Karagheusian, A. & M 361 

Kellogg, Spencer & Sons 354 

Keuffel & Esser Company 315 

Keystone Watch Case Company.. 320 

Kidde & Company, Walter 356 

Kimble Glass Works 330 

Kolster Radio Corporation 327 

LaMonte & Son, George 363 

Langston Company, Samuel L 341 

Laundry Establishments 370 

Lehn & Fink, Inc 348 

Leonard Sheet Metal Works, 

Inc, 337 

Lenox, Inc 324 

Lipton, Inc., Thomas J 369 

Lucas & Company, John 353 

MacAndrews & Forbes Company 355 
Mack-International Motor-Truck 

Corporation 311 

Magor Car Corporation 344 

Manhattan Rubber Manufactur- 
ing Company 315 

Merck & Company, Inc 348 

Michelin Tire Company 312 

Moore & Company, Benjamin 347 

Mott Company, Inc., J. L 320 

Mutual Chemical Company of 

America : 352 

National Fire-Proofing Company 328 
National Lock Washer Company 368 
National Silk Dyeing Company.... 325 
New Jersey School Furniture 

Company 370 

New Jersey Worsted Mills 359 

New York Belting and Packing 

Company 314 

Ogden Company, J. Edward 333 

Okonite Company 337 

Osborne Company 366 

Otis Elevator Company 343 

Oxweld Acetylene Company 354 

Paterson Parchment Paper Com- 
pany 363 

Paterson Mutual Hosiery Mills.... 361 
Pennsylvania Textile Mills, Inc... 361 
Perth Amboy Dry Dock Com- 
pany 344 



MANUFACTURERS Continued 

Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company.. 350 
Ransome Concrete Machinery 

Company 341 

Raritan Copper Works 338 

Roebling's Sons Company, John 

Safety Cable Company 337 

Salem Glass Works 331 

Schwarzenbach Huber Company 316 
See Elevator Company, Inc., A. 

B 342 

Sherwin-Williams Company 353 

Singer Manufacturing Company... 317 
Sloane Mfg. Company, W. & J..... 361 

Smith Mfg. Company, A. P 343 

Splitdorf-Bethlehem Electrical 

Company 339 

Standard Textile Products Com- 

.... 361 



pany 



Swift & Company 369 

Taylor-Wharton Iron & Steel 

Company 333 

Textileather Corporation 359 

Textile Dyeing Company of Amer- 
ica, Inc 361 

Tietjen and Lang Dry Dock Com- 
pany 344 

Trenton Potteries Company 307 

Trent Tile Company, Inc 328 

United Piece Dye Works 315 

United States Cast Iron Pipe & 

Foundry Company 321 

United States Metals Refining 

Company 312 

Van Sciver Company, J. B 326 

Victor Talking Machine Com- 
pany 297 

Vineland Flint Glass Works 328 

Votey Organ Company 340 

Vulcanite Portland Cement Com- 
pany 353 

Waldron Corporation, John 342 

Warren Foundry & Pipe Com- 

.... 333 



pany 



Warren Manufacturing Com- 



pany 



365 



Warren Webster & Company 326 

Waterman Company, L. E 324 

Welsbach Company 340 

Western Electric Company 319 

Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Company 314 

Weston Electrical Instrument 

Company 314 

Wiss & Sons Company, J 338 

Wood & Company, R. D 311 

Worthington Pump & Machinery 

Corporation 340 

Wright Aeronautical Corpora- 
tion 307 

MINERAL RESOURCES (See Nat- 
ural Resources) 



MOTORING Enjoyable Trips 

(See Highways) 245 

Historic Shrines and Interesting 
Places 20 

MOUNTAINS AND LAKES (See 
Uplands and Lakes under Amuse- 
ments) 

MUSEUMS (See Libraries and 
Museums) - 115 

NATURAL RESOURCES 49 

Beaches 213 

Climate .*. 62 

Fishery Resources 69 

Forest Resources 65 

Geography 58 

Geology and Mineral Resources.. 49 

Lakes 250 

Mineral Resources 49 

NEW JERSEY Tomorrow 389 

NEWSPAPERS AND NEW JER- 
SEY PRESS ASSOCIATION 254 

OCCUPATIONS (See Industries) 76 

PARKS AND PLAYGROUNDS 221 

County Parks 

Camden County Parks 232 

Essex County Parks 228 

Hudson County Parks 232 

Union County Parks 230 

Palisades Interstate Park 221 

State Parks 

Hacklebarney Park 225 

High Point Park 224 

Swartswood Lake Park 226 

Washington Crossing Park 225 

Washington Rock Park 226 



POPULATION 74-77 

Population Growth 155 

PORTS AND TERMINALS 194 

Port of New York ... 194 



PRESS, Public 



.... 254 



PUBLIC UTILITIES 153 

Electric Car 171 

Electricity 165 

Gas 163 

Motor Bus 171 

Telephone 161 

Water 153 

RAILWAYS AND RAILROADS.... 175 

Baltimore and Ohio 175-186 

Camden & Amboy Line 

Central of New Jersey 

Erie 

Lackawanna 

Lehigh and New England 

Lehigh Valley 

Manhattan Transfer to New York 

Pennsylvania 

Philadelphia and Reading 

Steam Railroads, List of 

RELIGION 77 

Baptist Church 80 

Christian Science Church 87 

Congregational Church 78 

Episcopal 78 

Friends Society 87 

Jewish Religious Life 88 

Lutheran 85 

Methodist Episcopal 82 

Presbyterian 77 

Reformed Church 85 

Roman Catholic Church 89 



RESORTS (See Beaches) 
SCHOOLS (See Education) 

SOLDIERS OR NATIONAL 
GUARD .... .. 47 



SPORTS (See Amusements) 
STORES ... 



373 



Leading Department Stores in the 
State 

L. Bamberger & Company 373 

M. E. Blatt Department Store.... 375 

Hahne & Company 375 

Kresge Department Store 375 

Meyer Brothers 375 

Quackenbush Company 375 

Sears, Roebuck & Company 375 

STATE EXPENDITURES (See 
Revenue) 

STATE REVENUE 38 

TAXATION (See Governmental 
Organization) 33 

THEATERS (See Amusements) 

TELEPHONES (See Public Utili- 
ties) 

TRANSPORTATION AND 
COMMERCE 175 

TUNNELS (See Reference to 
Bridges and Tunnels; Highways, 
Ports and Terminals, Railways) 

WATER (See Public Utilities).... 153 
Northern Metropolitan District.... 153 
Southern Metropolitan District.... 153 

Rest of the State 155 

New Sources of Water Supply 155 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



AGRICULTURE 
Apple Blossoms, Gloucester 

County 276 

Apple Orchard 139 

Asparagus Packing, Fairton 133 

Blackberry Crop, Hammonton 400 

Boy with Prize Ears of Corn 340 

Cattle Coming to Water, Salem 

County 131 

Demonstration Train, Dept. of 

Agriculture 394 

Duck Farm, Vineland 135 

Duck Farm Shelter, Vineland 136 

Egg-Laying House, Vineland 133 

Grape Harvesting, Vineland 128 

Hayloader, Roadstown 147 

Horticultural Garden, Bridgeton.. 143 
Locust Wood Farm, Westville, 

Irrigation 127 



AGRICULTURE Continued 

Milk Loading in Giant Thermos 

Bottles 147 

Model Cow Barn, Vineland 141 

Model Dairy, Cumberland 

County 141 

Onion Farm, Cedarville 125 

Peach Blossoms, Del Bay Farm.... 148 

Pole Beans, Field, Port Norris 124 

Potatoes, Cultivating and Spray- 
ing, Fairton 142 

Potato Farm, Deerfield 122 

Potato Farm, Monmouth County 129 

Pumpkin Farm, Canton 133 

Roadside Market, Fairton 147 

Squashes, Bridgeton Cannery 133 

Tomato Boat, Cohansey River, 

124, 131 

Tomato Field, Cumberland 
County 123 



AMUSEMENTS 
Beaches 
Asbury Park 212, 214 

Atlantic City Scenes, 

57, 212, 214, 217 

Cape May, Boulevard and 

Boardwalk 218 

Highlands, Sandy Hook 219 

Long Branch, Boardwalk and 

Beach 216 

Ocean City, Beach Scene 220 

Ocean City, Boardwalk Dedi- 
cation Parade 214 

Ventnor, Street Scene 248 

Wildwood, Beach Scene 214 

Wildwood, Beach and Board- 



walk 



212 



PAGE 

AMUSEMENTS Continued 
Country Clubs 
Baltusrol Golf Club, Short 

Hills 236 

Maplewood Country Club, 

Maplewood 236 

Pitman Golf Club Fairways 398 

Rumson Country Club, Rum- 
son 236 

Sea View Golf Club, Absecon.... 236 
Fishing and Hunting 
Atlantic County Game Pre- 
serve, Mays Landing 243 

Duck Hunting, Barnegat Bay.. 394 

Fishing Boats, Fortesque 243 

Hunters Lodge, Deer Hunting.. 243 
Pleasure Fishing Boats, Atlan- 
tic City 241 

State Fish Hatchery, Hacketts- 
town 241 

Sports 

Motor Boating, Hackensack 

River 239 

Newark Bicycle Track and 

Boxing Arena 211 

Palmer Stadium, Princeton 

University 234 

Shad Fishing, Maurice River.... 75 
Sunset Lake Sports, Bridgeton.. 234 
Water Sports, Lake Hopat- 

cong 239 

Weequahic Park, Rack Track 

and Athletic Track 219 

Motoring 

See Highways 

AVIATION 

Airplane Factory, Hasbrouck 
Heights 207 

Airplane, "The Spirit of St. 
Louis" 209 

Lakehurst Naval Station, Bal- 
loons and Blimps 209 

Lakehurst Naval Station, "Graf 
Zeppelin" 210 

Lakehurst Naval Station, "Los 
Angeles" 209 

Newark Airport 211 

"Los Angeles" Largest Ameri- 
can Dirigible 34 

BEACH RESORTS (See Beaches 
under Amusements) 

BRIDGES AND TUNNELS 
Bridge over Neshanic Rivw% 

covered 120 

Bridge over South Branch of 

Raritan, covered 32 

Camden-Philadelphia Bridge....34, 192 

Goethals Bridge, Elizabeth 187 

Holland Tunnel Scenes....42, 189, 191 
Outerbridge Crossing, Perth Am- 

boy 187 

Victory Bridge, Perth-South Am- 

boy 189 



CHURCHES 

Cathedral of The Sacred Heart, 
Newark 91 

Church of The Blessed Sacra- 
ment, Newark 90 

Elizabeth Rodman Voorhees 
Memorial Chapel, New Bruns- 
wick 84 

First Baptist Church, Merchant- 
ville 88 

First Church of Christ, Scientist, 
Montclair 84 

First Congregational Church, 
Montclair 86 

First Methodist Church, Camden.. 86 

First Presbyterian Church, New- 
ark 78 

Friends Meeting House, Atlan- 
tic City 81 

Old St. Mary's Church, Burling- 
ton 76 

Princeton University Chapel 83 

Sophia Astley Kirkpatrick Me- 
morial Chapel, Rutgers Uni- 
versity 80 

Temple B'Nai Abraham, Newark 89 
Union Congregational Church, 
Upper Montclair 82 

EDUCATION 

Blair Academy, Blairstown 108 

Central Commercial and Manual 
Training High School, New- 
ark 94 

Drew University, Madison, Ad- 
ministration Building 108 

Nassau Hall, Princeton 31 

New Jersey Law School, Newark 109 

Princeton University, Cuyler Dor- 
mitory 98 

Princeton University, Pyne Li- 
brary 98 

Seton Hall College, Campus and 
Building 100 

St. Cecilia's High School, En'gle- 
wood 96 

St. Elizabeth College, Chapel and 
Campus 108 

St. Elizabeth College, Santa Rita 
Dormitory 108 

St. Mary's Hall, Burlington, 
Episcopal School for Girls 96 

State Normal School, Glassboro 94 

Stevens Institute of Technology.... 101 

FOREST RESOURCES 
Fire Lookout Station, Culvers 

Lake 109 

Hardwood Timber, Northern 

New Jersey 66 

Pine Barrens, Burlington County 388 

Pine Timber, South Jersey 68 

Road in Pines of South Jersey 68 

"Woods Road", Northern New 

Jersey 66 

Fire Prevention Service, Look- 
out Tower 369 



GAMES AND SPORTS (See 
Amusements) 

GEOGRAPHY 

Bergen County Pastoral Scene 376 

Cooper's Glen, Sussex County 48 

Crag of Trap Rock, Palisades 32 

Delaware Water Gap 144 

Glacial Rock Slide, Wanaque 59 

Lake Hopatcong, Aerial View 106 

Navesink River, Red Bank 110 

Palisades Cliffs 51 

Palisades Scene 223 

Passaic River Falls, Paterson 43 

Ramapo Mountains 103 

Ramapo Mountain Range, Oak- 
land 36 

Ramapo River, Darlington 61 

Raritan Bay, Morgan 110 

Rolling Hills, Along Highway, 

Singac to Pompton 402 

Sandy Hook, Atlantic Highlands 144 
Target Rock, Bergen County 54 

GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZA- 
TION 

Bergen County Court House, 

Hackensack 39 

Essex County Court House, New- 
ark 39 

Sea Girt, Regimental Review 46 

Sea Girt, White House, Gov- 
ernor's Headquarters 46 

State House, Trenton 35 

HIGHWAYS 

Bergen County Scenes 259 

Englewood Scenes 257 

Greenwood Lake Scene 251 

Highways, Musconetcong River.... 246 

Jennie Jump Mountain, Hope 245 

Macopin to Butler, View from 

Highway 253 

State Highway, Concrete Mixer.. 202 
State Highway, Pequest River 

Valley 201 

State Highway Route 18, Bergen 

County 204 

State Highway Route 9, Blooms- 
bury 204 

State Highway Route 9, Clin- 
ton 202 

State Highway Route 6, Morris 
County 204 

HISTORY 

Berrien Mansion, Rocky Hill 27 

Chestnut Neck Monument 17 

Concrete Ship, Cape May Point.. 152 

Cooper Home, Camden 7 

Dispatch Rider Monument, Or- 
ange 8 

Friends Burial Ground, Salem.... 13 

Greenwich Monument 12 

Greenwich Tea Storehouse 12 



HISTORY-Continued 

Hamilton-Burr Duel Site 19 

Hancock House, Salem 28 

Indian King Tavern, Haddon- 
field 21 

James Fenimore Cooper's Home- 
stead, Cooperstown 21 

John Brainerd School, Mt. Holly 21 
Lease of New Jersey, Original, 

IX, X, XI, XII 

Liberty Bell, New Jersey 19 

McKonkey Ferry House, Wash- 
ington Park Crossing 28 

Monmouth Court House Battle- 
ground 16 

Old Indian Fort, Near Sussex 28 

Peter Pan Statue, Camden 368 

Princeton Battleground 3 

Princeton Battle Monument 10 

Rutgers University, Queen Build- 
ing 6 

Springfield Church 11 

Tennent Church, Old 14 

Trenton Barracks 23 

Trenton Monument 18 

Wallace House, Somerville 30 

Walt Whitman House, Camden.. 21 

Washington's Headquarters, Mor- 
ristown 4 

Wharf at Greenwich 28 

World War Memorial, Edgemont 
Park, Montclair Frontispiece 

INDUSTRIES 

American Brown-Boveri Electric 
Corporation, Camden 308 

Babcock and Wilcox Company, 
Bayonne 304 

Bethlehem Steel Company, Eliza- 
beth 334 

Campbell Soup Company, Cam- 
den 300, 301 

Clark Thread Company, Newark 306 

Claypit, Maurer 53 

Colgate's, Jersey City 290, 302 

Crocker- Wheeler Company, Am- 
Pere 342 

DeLaval Steam Turbine Works, 
Trenton 320 

Diehl Manufacturing Company, 
Elizabeth 323, 351 

Eavenson & Levering, Camden.... 347 

Edison Storage Battery Com- 
pany, Orange 285, 286 

Federal Shipbuilding Company, 
Kearny 358 

Ferracute Machine Company, 
Bridgeton 339 

FitzGibbon & Crisp, Delivery 
Equipment, Trenton 332 

Fulper Pottery Company Prod- 
ucts, Trenton 324 

Haddon Craftsmen, Book Bind- 
ery, Camden 367 



INDUSTRIES Continued 

Hollingshead Company, R. M., 

Camden 346 

Illinois Glass Works, Bridgeton 355 
Ingersoll-Rand Company, Phil- 

lipsburg 335 

Johnson & Johnson, New Bruns- 
wick 290, 303, 332 

Kimble Glass Company, Landis- 

ville 332 

Lenox, Inc., China Ware, Tren- 
ton 324 

Lumber Mill, Bridgeton 146 

Mack Truck Corporation, Plain- 
field 332, 357 

Manhattan Rubber Manufactur- 
ing Company, Passaic 316 

Manufacturers' Association Build- 
ing, Trenton 369 

New York Belting and Packing 

Company, Passaic 313 

Oil Refinery Agitators 282 

Oil Refinery Continuous Treat- 
ing Plant 281 

Oil Refinery Crude Stills 283 

Oil Refinery Pressure Still 280 

Otis Elevator Company Escala- 
tor 327 

Oyster Boat Launching, Green- 
wich 71 

Oyster Boat, Port Norris 72 

Oysters, Canning, Port Norris 73 

Oyster Dredging, Delaware Bay.. 71 

Oyster Fleet, Bivalve 70 

Oysters, Laying Out, Bivalve 73 

Oyster Sacking, Bivalve 72 

Oyster Shell Pile 71 

Oysters, Taking Up, Bivalve 73 

Perth Amboy Dry Dock 367 

Ransome Concrete Mixer, Dunel- 

len 343 

Raritan Copper Works, Perth 

Amboy 338 

Riverside Metal Company, River- 
side 362 

Silk Weaving 279 

Silk Mill Winding and Throw- 
ing 278 

Singer Sewing Machine Com- 
pany, Elizabeth 318, 351 

Trenton Potteries Company, 

Trenton 310 

United States Tool Company, 

Ampere 293, 352 

Van Sciver Company, J. B., Ex- 
hibit, Camden 327 

Victor Talking Machine Com- 
pany, Camden 298 

Vulcanite Portland Cement Com- 
pany, Phillipsburg 295, 354 

Westinghouse Electric Works, 

Newark 290, 363 

Wood & Company, R. D., Flor- 
ence 293 

Wright Aeronautical Company, 
Paterson 329 



PAGE 

INDUSTRIES Continued 
Chambers of Commerce 

Atlantic City, Credit Bureau.... 345 

Camden, Main Office 345 

Elizabeth, Board Room and 

Office ,. 345 

Jersey City, Building 273 

Newark, Building 273 

State Float, Ocean City 395 

Trenton, Clerical Department.. 360 

INSURANCE 

Mutual Benefit Life Insurance 
Building, Newark 266 

Firemen's Insurance Building, 
Newark 268 

Globe Indemnity Insurance Build- 
ing, Newark 267 

Prudential Life Insurance, Gib- 
raltar Building, Newark 264 

LIBRARIES (Public) 

Bloomfield 116 

Burlington County Rural De- 
livery 113 

Jersey City 116 

Morristown 116 

Newark, Business Branch 114 

Newark, Children's Room 113 

Newark, Main Building 113 

Trenton 116 

LIGHT HOUSES AND SHIPS 

Barnegat Lighthouse 25 

Barnegat Lightship 243 

Ship John Light, Delaware Bay.... 71 

MANUFACTURERS (See Indus- 
tries) 

MOTORING (See Highways) 

MUNICIPAL VIEWS 

Elks Building, Newark 368 

Garden in Montclair 92 

Hoboken from the Air 364 

Journal Square, Jersey City 255 

Kings Highway, Haddonfield 378 

Military Park, Newark 105 

Montclair Street Scene 382 

Moorestown Community House, 

135, 147 
Morristown Municipal Building.. 392 

Newark City Hall and Annex 39 

Newark, "Four Corners" 349 

Newark Public Bath House 39 

Paterson Main and Market 

Streets 360 

Vineland, Landis Avenue 139 

Woodbury, Broad Street 151 

MUSEUMS 

Jersey City, Typographic 119 

Montclair 113 

Newark ... 114, 118 



PARKS AND PLAYGROUNDS 

Branch Brook Park, Newark, 

226, 396, 400 

Essex County Park, Deer Pre- 
serve 229 

Essex County Park, Eagle Rock.. 394 

Essex County South Mountain 
Reservation Fisherman's Re- 
treat 400 

Essex County South Mountain 
Reservation Picnic Site 394 

Essex County South Mountain 
Bowlder 57 

Essex County South Mountain 
Reservation, Forest Scene 227 

Essex County South Mountain 
Reservation, Glacial Forma- 
tion 55 

Essex County South Mountain 
Reservation 84 

Essex County South Mountain 
Reservation, Winding Road 402 

Greenbrook Park, Plainfield 36 

Hacklebarney State Park 225 

High Point Park 224 

Hudson County Park, Harrison 
and Kearny 41 

Hudson County Park, Children's 
Playground 396 

Stokes State Forest Park 37 

Stokes State Forest Park, Glen 64 

Stokes State Forest Park, Tropi- 
cal Scene 63 

Stokes State Forest Park, Water- 
fall 52 

Union County Park, Tennis 
Courts, Elizabeth 396 

Union County Park, Winter 
Scene 63 

Washington Crossing Park, For- 
est Seedlings 262 

West Hudson County Park, 
Administration Building 231 

West Hudson County Park, 
Woodland Walk 231 

West Side Park, Boulevard En- 
trance, Jersey City 231 

West Side Park, Fountain Plaza, 
Jersey City 231 

PORTS AND TERMINALS 

Camden Municipal Pier 200 

Erie R. R. Coal Loader, Edge- 
water 179 

Lehigh Valley Railroad Docks, 

Jersey City *. 181 

Pennsylvania Ferry, Camden..."... 166 
Philadelphia & Reading R. R. 

Car Dumper, Port Reading 181 

Port Newark, Newark 198 

Private Piers, Hudson River 196 

Ship at Claremont Terminal 158 



PACE 

PORTS AND TERMINALS Cont'd 
United States Line Piers, Ho- 

boken 195 

West Shore R. R. Grain Eleva- 
tors 177 

PUBLIC UTILITIES 
Atlantic City Electric Company, 

Substation, Bridgetori 156 

Atlantic City Electric Company, 

Substation, Pennsgrove 149 

Atlantic City Electric Company, 

Substation, Woodstown 148 

Public Service Bus Garage 170 

Public Service Corporation's 

Main Offices 162 

Public Service Electric Terminal, 

Hoboken 170 

Public Service Elevated Tracks, 

Hoboken 172 

Public Service Gas Holder, Har- 
rison 156 

Public Service Main Generating 

Plant 168 

Public Service Power Plant, 

Kearny 164, 168 

Public Service Substation, 

Athenia 172 

RELIGION (See Churches) 
RESIDENCES 
Artificial Lake, Northern New 

Jersey 396 

Audubon Homes 380 

Bernardsville, Residence of An- 
thony R. Kuser 384 

Hudson County Boulevard 

Apartment, Union City 379 

Maplewood, Residence of Charles 

E. Landers 384 

Nutley Homes 380 

Orange, Residence of William J. 

Tierney 384 

Ridgewood Apartment 380 

Rutherford Homes 380 

Short Hills, L. Bamberger & Com- 
pany, Model Home 386 

Short Hills, Residence of Dr. 

Pierce A. Cassedy 384 

Short Hills, Residence of Kirk 

McFarlin 386 

South Orange Residence 386 

Summit, Residence of William A. 
Kirk 386 

RESORTS (See Beaches) 
SCHOOLS (See Education) 
SPORTS (See Amusements) 
STORES 

Kresge Department Store, New- 
ark 374 

L. Bamberger & Company Depart- 
ment Store, Newark 372 

M. E. Blatt, Department Store, 
Atlantic City 374 



THEATERS 

Stanley Theater, Interior Views, 
Jersey City 261 

TELEPHONES 

Bell Telephone Laboratories, An- 
tenna, Whippany 392 

Bell Telephone Experimental Lab- 
oratory, Whippany 392 

Deal Beach Experimental Wire- 
less Telephone Station 403 

Kolster Radio Testing 162 

Morse's Telegraphy Experimental 
Building, Morristown 183 

New Jersey Bell Telephone Head- 
quarters 160 

Radio Station, Water Cooled Vac- 
uum Tubes, Deal Beach 370 

Radio Telephone Receiving Sta- 
tion, Antenna, Netcong 390 

Radio Telephone Receiving Sta- 
tion, Netcong 390 

Telephone Cable Laying, Hacken- 
sack River 156 

Telephone Cable Manufacturing.. 162 

Telephone Operating Room 159 

Telephone Service Generators 159 

Telephone Submarine Cable Man- 
ufacturing 162 

TRANSPORTATION 

Erie Railroad Fruit Yard, Jersey 

City 185 

Erie Railroad, Wanaque Reser- 
voir 367 

Lackawanna Road Bed, Towaco.. 183 
Lackawanna Station, Brick 

Church 166 

Lackawanna Station, Madison 166 

Lackawanna Station, Morristown 166 
Lehigh Valley R. R. Black Dia- 
mond Express 174 

Lehigh R. R. Road Bed 183 

Pennsylvania R. R. Broadway 

Limited 174 

Pennsylvania R. R. Refrigerator 

Cars 185 

Pennsylvania R. R. Through 

Freight Train 173 

Reading R. R. Boardwalk Flyer.... 174 
Reading R. R. Loading Crane, 

Trenton 183 

West Shore R. R. Freight Yards.. 177 
West Shore Railroad, Weehaw- 
ken 193 

WATER 

Oak Hill Reservoir 156 

Wanaque Dam 157 

Wanaque Reservoir 154 



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