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ara Md printed in *!*almt.&. 







THE final preparation of this volume for the 
press has been a labour of love, albeit mingled 
with regret. The death of its designer and part 
author, Mrs. Charlotte Skinner, robbed a large 
circle of friends of a great personality. Research, 
too, lost in her one of its most earnest and de- 
voted workers. 

As " Aunt Nora Loveall " she was well known 
in the literary world, and her books Marks of 
the Master, Uncrowned Queens, etc., have an 
abiding value. The present work, however, was 
intended to be the chief effort of her life. She 
spent upon it time, labour, and money without 
stint, and it is matter for regret that she, to 
whom it owes so much, did not live to see its 

The matter here presented is part of a har- 
vest gathered during many years. It is sent 
forth in the hope that it will prove to be a solid 
contribution to the available knowledge of the 
heroes of the Mayflower, and point the way to 
further investigation. 



The new material offered will, at least, raise 
the student's estimate of the social status of 
the Pilgrim Fathers in England, and will add 
considerably to his mental picture of their 
individual greatness; it will also help to give to 
London and the Eastern Counties their appro- 
priate position in the great Pilgrim Movement. 

If, in addition, it leads to a higher admira- 
tion for the characters and ideals of the Pilgrim 
heroes, and to a strengthening of those bonds 
which now unite England to her fairest daugh- 
ter, all who have toiled in it will find abundant 
reward therein. 

The chief authorities consulted, for the main 
outline of the Pilgrims' story, are Bradford's 
History, Morton's New England Memorial, with 
its Supplement ; Winslow's Relation, and John 
Smith's New England's Trials. Of these the 
first must remain the authority on the subject. 

Other works that have been found useful are 
Dr. Dexter's The England and Holland of the 
Pilgrims, and Dr. Goodwin's The Pilgrim Republic. 
Dr. R. G. Usher's recent book The Pilgrims and 
their History, in its contention that the Pilgrims 
" had all been farmers in England," that " no 
further accession of evidence is now probable," 
and that, therefore, his own narrative " possesses 
a certain aspect of finality," receives challenge 
in the material contained in these pages. 


The following have rendered most valuable 
assistance, for which gratitude is here expressed : 
Dr. R. F. Scott, Master of St. John's College, 
Cambridge ; Dr. P. Giles, Master of Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge; Dr. W. T. Whitley, 
Droitwich ; Rev. Claud Jenkins, B.A., Librarian, 
Lambeth Palace ; the Librarians of Colchester, 
Chelmsford, and Dr. Williams's Library; the 
Rev. Walter Burgess, B.A., Secretary of the 
Unitarian Historical Society; the Verger of 
St. Martin's, Charing Cross ; Miss Mary Cook, 
of Sandwich, U.S.A. ; Mrs. Joseph Caley, 
Philadelphia, U.S.A.; Mr. Wilfred Rogers, 
Nottingham ; Mr. and the late Mrs. Crow, 
Wanstead ; Mr. and Mrs. Moorcock, Rayleigh ; 
Mr. T. W. Moss, J.P., Rayleigh; and Mr. S. C. 
Ratcliff of the Public Record Office, London. 
Thanks are specially due to Miss F. Barnard, 
Mr. J. H. Petty and Mr. W. Hazeltine Frost for 
photographs, to Mr. Arthur Greenhalgh, of Ray- 
leigh, for labour most generously given in the 
production of the etchings, and to Mr. C. F. 
Garrood for most valuable help in the reading of 
the proofs. 

This list would be incomplete if mention were 
not made of Miss Robinson, of Forest Gate, 
London ; the Lord Bishop of Chelmsford, and 
all the clergy of Essex, who have shown the 
most unfailing kindness; also of the Rev. T. G. 


Crippen, Librarian of the Memorial Hall, and 
the Rev. W. Melville Harris, M.A., whose wide 
knowledge of the subject has been unstintedly 
placed at my disposal. 


April 1920. 

THE aim of this book, as stated in the foregoing, 
is to call attention to the important part played 
by Essex, the Eastern Counties, and London in 
the Pilgrim Movement. Whilst doing so, how- 
ever, there is no thought of challenging the claim 
of Scrooby to the honour of being the birthplace 
of that Movement. Mr. Mason has collected 
much new and interesting information about 
the men and women supplied by that area, 
having had, for some part of the time, a most 
valuable co-worker in the late Mrs. Skinner, 
whose death means serious loss to the world of 
knowledge. As representing the Literature Com- 
mittee of the Congregational Union it has been 
a distinct pleasure to be associated with him in 
the production of this work. He very readily 
welcomed such suggestions and revision as 
seemed desirable. 

One word is necessary in reference to the title 
of the book. In one or two preliminary an- 
nouncements it has appeared as Some Haunts and 


Adventures of the Pilgrim Fathers. It has, how- 
ever, been felt that that too nearly intruded 
upon Dr. MacKennaPs Homes and Haunts of the 
Pilgrim Fathers ; hence the present one has been 
adopted. It ought to be said even in reference 
to this that it does not claim to be perfectly 
exact. It sufficiently indicates, however, the 
general purpose of the work. 

The book is sent forth in the hope that it 
will illumine many a hitherto dark page, and 
quicken interest in the story of one of the most 
momentous events in the history, not of this 
country alone, but indeed of the world. 


April 1920. 


I COUNT it a privilege to write a " Foreword " to 
this volume, which is timely and appropriate, and 
concerns events many of which are so closely 
connected with Essex. The sailing of the Pil- 
grim Fathers in 1620 will have increasing interest 
to historians as America becomes more and 
more a dominating factor in international affairs, 
and the publication of this interesting volume 
on the eve of the celebration in 1920 of the Ter- 
centenary of that epoch making event will have 
special significance owing to the alliance of 
America and England on behalf of democracy 
and freedom, the very principles which governed 
the action of the Pilgrim Fathers three hundred 
years ago. I am thankful Mr. Mason has com- 
pleted the task which Mrs. Skinner began and 
did not live to complete. No one can read this 
record without realising that its authors were 
enthusiastic lovers of their subject. By patient 
and untiring industry they have delved into the 
past and have brought to light many interesting 
facts, and have unearthed many a quaint and 
apt quotation. By both Englishmen and Ameri- 
cans this book will be read not only with interest, 
but with profit, and the illustrations with which 



it is enriched will emphasise the story which 
they help to reveal. I am glad to think that 
thisTvolume will link in the minds of its readers 
the Diocese of Chelmsford with those far reaching 
events of bygone days, and with the great re- 
sults of which they were the beginnings. The 
ideals of the Pilgrim Fathers are gradually being 
woven into the texture of the world's life, 
and I trust that this record may have a wide 
circulation and help forward the time when 
the great principles for which they stood may 
dominate the world. 



March 1920. 








FLOWER . . . . 67 

VIII. IN LACE LAND V . , . . 74 






XIV. WATCH TOWER TOWN . . .' <; . 140 
XV. A LONDON PUZZLE . ..'... . 150 



INDEX . 169 




BACKGROUND . . . Frontispiece 



BOSTON " STUMP " . . . . . .11 

FLOWER . . ' . . . . 25 

GIDEA HALL . . . . .59 

WARLEY FRANKS ...... 69 

BROXTOWE HALL ...... 75 


STEEPLE ....... 81 












COLCHESTER CASTLE . . . . . .106 

MALDON CHURCH ...... 106 


" COCKSEY HURST " ..... 125 




NORWICH CASTLE . . . . . .150 



HOME 159 


. Bay H* 

~ r 


: ' 14fc f : J# 


N.W angle - Rochpord Hall, Cssex. r- 




" Far away, 

In mighty centuries that we shall not see 
Swell the rich domes, the visionary towers, 
Whose harsh dark ground-work scarce is planned to-day, 
Our children shall inhabit it, and not we, 
Yet it is ours, that Holy City, and ours 
That sacred country shining on the sea." 


ACTUAL beginnings, or even distinct stages, are 
often difficult to trace in the mighty movements 
of history, and some who have laid the founda- 
tions of great causes appear for the time to be 
strange helpers. Such was Anne Boleyn, the 
mother of Queen Elizabeth. All unwittingly she 
took part in events that made possible the sail- 
ing of the Mayflower. To the lordly hall of 
Rochford, Essex and it was lordly in those 
days, with its eight towers and many gables 
came King Henry VIII love making. In the 
vitrified bricks in the garden may still be de- 
tected the French emblem he used in his corre- 


spondence with her. He calls her in the Privy 
Record Expenses, " My Lady Anne of Rochford." 
It was there she chased butterflies in the old 
park, learnt to play skilfully on the lute, and 
studied Tyndale's New Testament. She induced 
the king to read it too, and the book proved to be 
the " stepping stone to the Reformation." Apolo- 
gists for this English Bluebeard have long defamed 
the name of Anne Boleyn, but there is ample 
evidence that she was not the " careless " woman 
so often portrayed. She who defended Latimer, 
the friend of the Reformation, in the hour of 
death, proved to be of sterner stuff than any mere 
lute player. 

Until the time of Anne's marriage with Henry, 
Tyndale's New Testament was smuggled into 
the country and distributed by stealth ; then, 
in part due to her influence, it was printed by 
royal permission. The results were astonishing. 
" England," says Mr. J. R. Green, " became the 
people of a book, and that book was the Bible. 
... It was read at churches and read at home, 
and everywhere its words, as they fell on ears 
which custom had not deadened to their force 
and beauty, kindled a startling enthusiasm." l 
Nor was Anne's part in contributing to such a 
consummation confined to suggestions to the 
king. On May 14, 1533, she wrote a letter to 
Secretary Cromwell, telling him that she was 
" credibly informed that Richard Harman, mer- 

1 J. R. Green, A Short History of the English People, enlarged 
edition, p. 460. 


chant and citizen of Antwerp, was put and ex- 
pelled from his English house there, for nothing 
else than that he, like a good Christian man, did 
help to the setting forth of the New Testament." 
" We, therefore, instantly pray," she continued, 
" that this good and honest merchant may be 
restored to his pristine freedom." Thus even 
Anne Boleyn contributed, as did many others, 
towards the great events of later days. 

The next stage in the way of preparation 
is not linked with any outstanding name. 
Under the influence of the Scriptures, dis- 
cussions took place and people began to gather 
for mutual edification in small companies, 1 apart, 
as they said, from any taint of Roman Catholicism. 
At Bocking in Essex, where skilful men and 
women wove " cloth of gold and purple velvet " 
for the coronation of King Edward VI, and where 
the " poor preachers " of Wy cliff e had taught 
their fathers " to talk over the Scriptures," sixty 
men and women dared to meet for worship. 

People of this type suffered in the fierce fires 
of Mary's persecution (1553-8), as did every- 
thing that bore the mark of Protestantism. In 
the days of Elizabeth, however, revival was 
immediate. The forces of those who sought a 
new way of life were speedily augmented by the 
addition of a number of ministers who, for not 
wearing the surplice, and other things, were 

1 A number of these separated from the Established Church, 
hence the term Separatist. " They claimed that God separated 
them." Dale, History of English Congregationalism, p. 93. 


deprived of their livings in the Anglican Church 
by an Act of Uniformity. 

In 1567 a secret company, under the guise of 
celebrating a wedding, attempted to hold a 
religious meeting in Plumber's Hall, London. 
They were arrested and a number of them sent 
to prison. About the time they were released 
(1568), Grindal, Archbishop of Canterbury, wrote 
to the reformer, Heinrich Bullinger, of Zurich, 
respecting the discovery in London of a secret 
church, " with ministers, elders, and deacons." 
A similar company in 1571 met in Whitechapel 
Street, London, now Whitechapel Road. Their 
minister, Richard Fitz, and a deacon, Thomas 
Rowland, had both died in prison, and those 
remaining sent a letter to Queen Elizabeth urg- 
ing her to follow the example of Jehoshaphat. 
They all subscribed their names, which deserve 
to be remembered. They are here appended : 

Joane Abraham. Annice Evans. 

Constance Fox. Elizabeth Leonard. 

Elizabeth Slack. Joane Ireland. 

Annice Hall. Jasper Weston. 

Mary Race. Martin Tillmana. 

Helen Race. John Davy. 

Elizabeth Balfurth. Edward Bowe. 

Sarah Cole. Elizabeth Hill. 

Harry Sparrow. Joane Haverick. 

John Kyng. Mary Wever. 

James Aubynes. Abraham Fox. 

John Leonardo. Mary Mayer. 

George Haies. Elizabeth Rumney. 
John Thomas. 

But the movement, whose rank and file were so 
faithful, had also stout hearted leaders, and the 


story takes us again to Rochford Hall. To the 
family of Lord Rich resident there, about 1586, 
came a deprived Norfolk clergyman, John Green- 
wood, a name never to be forgotten. He joined 
Robert Wright as one of his lordship's chaplains. 
In the old private chapel the simple faith of the 
Puritans was taught, and thus was fostered the 
spirit that wrought the triumph of the Mayflower. 
Here came to worship the accomplished mother 
of Lord Bacon, who confessed to her brother-in- 
law, Lord Burleigh, that there she had " profited 
more in the inward feeling of God's holy will 
than she had done by occasional sermons at St. 
Paul's for nigh twenty years together." Along 
the lanes, from the adjoining parish of East- 
wood, walked John Vassal, bringing with him 
the youthful Samuel, who, years after, figured 
in many a fight for freedom and was brought 
before the infamous Star Chamber, his mortal 
remains being laid to rest in Boston, New Eng- 

The Bishop of London, however, was resolved 
to repress all such " irregularities." Both Lord 
Rich and Robert Wright were imprisoned. Green- 
wood fled to London, hoping to lose his perse- 
cutors in the mazes of the city. There he still 
preached to a secret congregation gathered in the 
house of Henry Martin, at St. Andrews in the 
Wardrobe, near St. Paul's. His whereabouts 
was ultimately discovered ; he was arrested, 
and for seven years underwent the privations, 
indignities, and sufferings of the prison life of 


those days. 1 Even there he was not idle ; he 
smuggled thence occasional sheets of writing 
which were conveyed to a printer in Holland, 
and afterwards distributed far and wide in 

Up to this time the forerunners of the May- 
flower heroes were few, but now they became a 
formidable company with friends in high places, 
such as Burleigh, Bacon, and others. 

Sir Walter Raleigh said there were " twenty 
thousand Brownists in England, chiefly in London 
and the Eastern Counties," though most modern 
historians consider this estimate somewhat ex- 
cessive. But other counties were also awake to 
the significance of the new teaching. In Not- 
tinghamshire, Lincolnshire, and Yorkshire men 
like Richard Clifton, John Robinson, and John 
Smyth were ready for the new hour to strike, as 
were Hugo and Ann Bromhead of Gainsborough, 
Francis and Frances Jessop of Scrooby, and many 
others with whose names we shall presently meet. 
Prisons became indeed nurseries of liberty of 

1 Bradford refers to a printed list containing the names of 
eighteen Separatists dying of jail fever in London between 1586 
and 1692, and quotes from a petition of sixty of the survivors 
who prayed that they might not be " murdered by hunger and 
cold and stifled in loathsome dungeons." 

George Johnson, a Cambridge M.A., and son of the Mayor of 
Richmond, Yorkshire, was confined in London as a Separatist 
for six months in the darkest and most unwholesome part of 
" The Clink." Sometimes he had no sustenance of any kind 
for two days and nights, and for twenty days no bedding but a 
straw mat, and no change of linen. Goodwin, The Pilgrim B*- 
public, p. 13. 


thought. In a letter to Anthony Bacon, names 
of two worthy builders of the new freedom are 
given. The letter is unsigned, the writer not 
knowing into whose hands it might fall. " Our 
church," it proceeds, " has been marvellously 
troubled about matters of government, and the 
striving to bring in uniformity is further like to 
make a wonderful desolation. Mr. Cartwright, 
I think to honour him, cast into the Fleet, Mr. 
Fenner of Coventry. Udall, a profitable preacher 
of Kingston- on-Thames is condemned and hath 
judgment given him to be hanged. They have 
informed the Queen that we have no Church, no 
ministers, no sacraments." 

From letters of John Chamberlain in the reign 
of James I we may learn still further the cost in 
human life of the laying of liberty's foundations. 
" Peacham the minister hath been stretched," 
we read, " though he is more than three-score ; 
but they could bring nothing out of him, and 
will have him prosecuted to the uttermost." He 
died in prison a few months afterwards. 

The principal London prisons were Counter 
Poultry, Counter Wood Street, Bridewell, New- 
gate, Clink, Fleet, Gatehouse, Tower. The site 
of the old Fleet is now occupied by the Memorial 
Hall, the headquarters in England to-day of the 
spiritual successors of the men who died for 
religious liberty long ago. How trivial some of 
their offences were ! George Cotton, for hearing 
a portion of Scripture read by Greenwood in a 
friend's house, was thrown into prison, without 


trial, for twenty-seven months. Quentyn Smith 
was put in irons in a dungeon at Newgate for a 
similar offence. Nor was the lot of those who 
escaped imprisonment much more enviable. For 
reasons dealt with at length by Dr. Dale, 1 it 
seems not too much to say that England was in 
danger of becoming one great civil prison. The 
Separatists at the time did not see all that was 
involved in what they claimed ; but it was upon 
them that the whole brunt of the situation fell, 
and right manfully did they endure it. 

In the year that Greenwood died, a law was 
passed whereby if any person attempted, by 
speech or pen, to persuade any from coming to 
church he should be committed to prison until 
submission was made. If, during three months 
he refused, he was to be banished from the realm, 
and if he returned without permission he must 
be hanged. " With a refinement of cruelty," says 
Dr. Dale, " it was made a penal offence to give 
shelter to a Separatist. For a man to receive 
into his house his dearest friend, if that friend 
refused to attend the services of the Queen's 
Church, made him liable to the ruinous fine of 
10 a month. His friend might be dangerously 
ill, and might have no other home ; but the law 
was inexorable : to give him shelter from rain, 
snow, fog, and frost was a crime. For a man 
to keep in his house his own wife, child, mother, 
father, sister, brother, if they refused to attend 
the Queen's churches, made him liable to the 

1 History of English Congregationalism, pp. 165, 166. 


same penalty unless he could show they had no 
other home." 1 

Can we wonder that the prisons were crowded ? 
But any of those who suffered might have sung 
with Father Tyrrell in our day : 

" Put out mine eyes ; but when you've done, 
See if you can put out the sun. 
Thrust me in gaol and turn the key 
Freedom shall live nor fails with me. 

Fetter these hands that wield the pen 
The sword most feared of knavish men ; 
Some hand, some pen renews the strife, 
While throbs one heart for God and life. 

What though my fire-touched lips were dumb, 
Sealed in the darkness of the tomb ? 
Ten thousand voices thunder loud 
Shall mine be missed in such a crowd ? " * 

Yet how unromantic distinctly heroic lives may 
appear to those who live them may be gathered 
from the following pathetic " Memorial of many 
poor Christians imprisoned by the bishops in 
sundry prisons in and about London " : 

" Pleaseth it then your lordship to understand, 

1 History of English Congregationalism, p. 166. 

* " By a law of Nature, cruelty grows with indulgence," writes 
Goodwin. " In Elizabeth's day barbarity soon extended from 
Roman Catholics to such Protestants as offended the Govern- 
ment. Amputation of ears and hands, boring the tongue with 
a red-hot iron, branding cheeks and foreheads, fearful scourgings 
and exposure in the pillory to every abuse short of murder, were 
the lot of hundreds not of sufficient importance for the rack 
and the quartering block. Nor was the stake yet obsolete. In 
1575 two Dutch Baptists of London were burned alive." The 
Pilgrim Eepublic, p. 6. 


that we, her Majesty's loyal, dutiful and true- 
hearted subjects, to the number of three score 
and upwards, have, contrary to all law and 
equity, been imprisoned, separated from our 
trades, wives, children and families : yea, shut 
up close prisoners from all comfort ; many of us 
the space of two years and an half, upon the 
bishop's sole commandment, in great penury and 
noisomeness of the prisons ; many ending their 
lives, never called to trial, some haled forth to 
the sessions ; some cast in irons and dungeons ; 
some in hunger and famine ; all of them debarred 
from any lawful audience before our honourable 
governors and magistrates, and from all benefit 
and help of the laws ; daily defamed, falsely 
accused by published pamphlets, private sugges- 
tion, open preaching, slanders and accusations 
of heresy, sedition and what not. And above 
all (which most toucheth our salvation) they 
keep us from all spiritual comfort, and edifying, 
by doctrine, prayer or mutual conference." 1 

It was through such experiences that the 
character, which made possible the magnificent 
adventure of the Mayflower, was brought to 

1 Strype, Annals, iv. pp. 128, 129. 



" Well worthy to be magnified are they 

Who, with sad hearts, of friends and country took 

A last farewell, their loved abodes forsook, 

And hallowed ground in which their fathers lay." 


MENTION was made in the previous chapter of 
the work of John Greenwood as an early Separa- 
tist, but before him in influence must be placed 
Robert Browne, who was born at Tolethorpe 
Hall in Rutlandshire about 1550. This extra- 
ordinary man was a kinsman of Lord Burleigh. 
At Cambridge, where he was educated, he be- 
came an ardent Puritan. At first he took up 
the duties of a schoolmaster, but shortly after- 
wards, with his friend Robert Harrison, " Master 
of the Hospital " at Norwich, whither John 
Robinson later was destined to find his way, he 
started a Congregational Church of the origin of 
which little is known. Up to this time, Browne 
was certainly the most logical and the most pro- 
nounced of all the Separatists. His enthusiasm 
soon set Norfolk and Suffolk aflame. The usual 
persecution followed, and in 1581 Browne, Har- 
rison, and sixty of the Norwich Church found it 


expedient to settle at Middelburg in Zeeland. 
Henceforth those who shared his tenets were 
derisively called " Brownists." Towards the end 
of his life Browne departed from his early ideals ; 
but seeing that he had suffered upwards of thirty 
periods of imprisonment, it is little wonder if 
heart and brain lost force and fire. 

Robert Browne's work fell from his hands in 
England only to be caught up with like zeal by 
Henry Barrowe, a young barrister and courtier, 
of whom Francis Bacon said : "He made a leap 
from a vain and libertine youth to a life of 
earnest purpose, the suddenness and strange- 
ness of which made him very much spoken of." 
Turning into a London Church one day, Barrowe 
heard words that led to his conversion. After 
long imprisonment he, like his friend Green- 
wood, gave up his life rather than his principles. 
They were executed at Tyburn, April 6, 1593. 

Associated with these martyrs for freedom was 
a brilliant young Welshman, John Penry, who 
has been called " The Morning Star of the Re- 
formation in Wales." The story of his passion 
for the evangelisation of his native country is 
equalled only by that of his loyalty to his friends 
and his fidelity to the truth, for which he made 
the supreme sacrifice on May 25, 1593, barely 
seven weeks after Barrowe and Greenwood, his 
fellow members of the Southwark Church. 

In his parting words Penry says : " Seeing 
that banishment with loss of goods is likely to 
betide you all, prepare yourselves. Let not the 


poor and friendless be forced to stay behind. 
And I humbly entreat you that you would take 
my poor and desolate widow and my mess of 
fatherless children with you." That Barrowe 
also shared his views is seen from the fact that 
he left money to enable his people to get away 
as quickly as possible. 

This pathetic turning towards Holland is a 
significant fact. No story of religious freedom 
can be complete which does not give recognition 
to the important part played therein by Holland 
and the Dutch. Mr. Douglas Campbell wrote 
some years ago : " When the Reformation came 
in, in which North Western Europe was reborn, 
it was the Netherlands which led the van, and 
for eighty years waged the war which disen- 
thralled the souls of men. Out of that conflict, 
shared by thousands of heroic Englishmen, but 
in which England as a nation hardly had a place, 
Puritanism was evolved the Puritanism which 
gave its triumph to the Netherland Republic, 
and has shaped the character of the English- 
speaking race." l We may not be inclined to 
accept that statement without some qualification, 
but to the student of Elizabethan history Separat- 
ism or " Brownism " will hardly appear the 
great constructive principle of history that it is, 
unless he frequently refers to its twin roots 
English Lollardism and Dutch Protestantism. 
After Antwerp had been captured by the Duke 

1 The Puritan in Holland, England, and America, by Douglas 
Campbell, A.M., LL.B., p. 19. 


of Parma a third of the merchants and manufac- 
turers of the mined city are said to have found 
refuge on the banks of the Thames. Green pots 
the number of refugees at over 50,000. In 
the early part of the seventeenth century the 
population of London was not more than 
130,000, and of these 10,000 were foreigners, 
mostly Walloons. In Norwich alone, as early 
as 1571 there were 3,925 Dutch and Walloons, 
and in 1587 this number had risen to 4,679, 
mating a majority of the population. 1 In this 
city, as in Canterbury, London, Sandwich, Dover, 
Maidstone, etc., they had their own places of 
worship. But welcome as they were for trade 
Tiiiimii, they must in other ways have been no 
small annoyance to Elizabeth, because it was 
mmnnf fJt^fii tf***" the preaching and doctrines 
of WycKffe had taken root and rapidly spread. 
LoDardism became immortal in the Dutch. "The 
Netherlanders became missionaries to the people 
wherever they settled down, instructing them in 
the truths of the Bible, quickening at once their 
intelligence and aspirations, and leading them 
into the love and practice of virtue."* Arch- 
bishop Parker on a visit to Sandwich *' enquired 
diligently into the behaviour of French and 
Dutch who had there settled themselves. He 
found them very godly on the Sabbath day, and 

1 It ugaaOauA that Robert Browne and John B 
fived some while at Norwich, and that Bnarater had 

Campbell, Tk Puritan, t Holland, EnaUmd, a*d America. 


busy in their work on a week day; and their 
quietness such as the Maior and his brethren had 
no cause of variance between themselves coming 
before them. Profitable and gentle strangers 
ought to be welcomed and not grudged against 
were his [Parker's] words." 

England was becoming too strait a place for 
all who desired freedom of worship ; and among 
others, William Dennis of Thetford, Norfolk, 
John Copping and Elias Thacker of Bury St. 
Edmunds, showed themselves willing to pay the 
full price of their position. But such a state of 
things could not continue. God heats His fur- 
nace, but He does not burn His metal. 

The exile of Browne and Harrison in Holland 
was followed by that of Francis Johnson and his 
Southwark flock. Constant intercourse between 
the East Coast and the Netherlands made such a 
course comparatively easy. There were at the 
time numerous Dutch settlements round the 
mouth of the Thames. Nor would popular senti- 
ment be any formidable obstacle. Such, how- 
ever, was by no means the case when a few 
years later the newly formed communities of 
Scrooby and Gainsborough tried to effect a simi- 
lar escape by way of Boston. The story of the 
ill usage and imprisonment of these friends 
ranks with the sufferings of the early prisoners 
previously named. Their subsequent escape is 
romantic enough to fire the imagination of 
the most casual reader, and to prove that if 
the value of spiritual realities may be judged 


by what their possessors are prepared to pay 
for them, these men and women were in the 
enjoyment of things the dearest and richest of 
all. Bradford's quaint words sum up the silent 
resolve of many : " By a joyous consent they 
resolved to go into ye Low Countries where they 
heard was freedom of religion." 

The story now leaps forward several years. 
James I is on the throne of England ; Holland is 
drawing towards the close of its twelve years' 
truce with Spain. The Pilgrims' days of sojourn 
in exile have been to them of inestimable value. 
The free air of liberty has allowed them to put 
their polity to the test of practice. The positions 
assumed by John Smyth and the troubles of 
Francis Johnson accomplished more than the 
sending of Robinson's followers to Ley den. 
They showed how extravagant ideas of liberty 
might easily issue in serious peril for the Church. 
They appear also to have helped Robinson him- 
self to that magnanimous toleration which he 
more than any other stamped upon the New 
Plymouth Plantation. Experiment rounded off 
their churchmanship. It clarified their ideals 
and broadened their outlook. 

The relations of the exiles with both the 
authorities and the Dutch people generally 
seem to have been the happiest. " Though 
many of them were poore," says Bradford, " yet 
ther was none so poore, but if they were known 
to be of yt congregation, the Dutch (either 
bakers or others) would trust them in any 


reasonable matter when they wanted money. 
Because they had found by experience how car- 
full they were to keep their word, and saw them 
so painfull and dilligente in their callings ; yea, 
they would strive to gett their custome and to 
imploy them above others, in their worke, for 
their honestie and dilligence." J 

" Againe ; ye magistrats of ye citie, about ye 
time of their coming away, or a little before, in 
ye publick place of justice, gave this comend- 
able testemoney of them, in ye reproofe of the 
Wallons, who were of ye French church in yt 
Citie. l These English,' said they, * have lived 
amongst us now this 12 years and yet we never 
had any sute or accusation came against any of 
them ; but your strifs and quarels are con- 
tinuall.' " 

Neither were they esteemed less in matters of 
more public moment. Isaac Allerton became a 
freeman of the City of Leyden. John Robinson 
was not more famous for his care of his own 
flock than for his impressive public disputes with 
the Arminian Episcopius. Evidence is not lack- 
ing that the kindly treatment meted out to 
them by the Dutch people was heartily recipro- 
cated by the Pilgrims. The reference to 
Leyden as " a fair and a bewtifull citie, and of 
a sweete situation," has in it a world of signifi- 
cance, as have the many tears that were shed on 
their leaving Holland. 

But the great God, " watching invisible, judg- 

* Bradford's History (1901 ed.), p. 26. Ibid., p. 27. 



ing unheard," had a far larger purpose in view 
than the perfecting of a Church organisation or 
the fostering of amiable neighbourliness among 
fellow Protestants ; and that now comes pro- 
minently into sight. 

As early as 1617 the Leyden contingent of 
exiles began seriously to consider the need for 
emigration to some other country. Various 
places were considered. " Some were ernest for 
Guiana, or some of those fertill places in those 
hott climats ; others were for some parts of 
Virginia." * Finally, however, the northern part 
of Virginia was decided upon. Intending emi- 
grants put their money into a common fund and 
decided to proceed in two companies. John 
Robinson was to be with the majority whether 
they stayed or went. John Carver and Robert 
Cushman were sent into England to make the 
necessary arrangements. They were joined later 
by Christopher Martin. The project was to be 
financed by a number of Merchant Adventurers, 
prominent amongst whom was Thomas Weston. 

William Bradford says that they left Holland 
for four reasons : First, grim poverty ; some 
lived there on twopence a day. Eminent scholars 
worked as porters. Secondly, fear of war with 
Spain. Thirdly, the evil influence of the coun- 
try on their children. Fourthly, the desire to 
advance the Gospel in remote parts of the earth. 
At Delfshaven the Pilgrims took leave of the 
country in which for a dozen years they had 

1 Bradford's History, p. 36. 


found a place of refuge. There John Robinson, 
falling down on his knees, blessed them : " And 
they all with watrie cheeks, mutual imbrasses, 
and many tears tooke their leave one of 

The first attempted departure from England 
was made from Southampton. Two ships were 
employed, the Speedwell of 60 tons, bought for 
the purpose and which it was intended to retain 
for service in the colony, and a London vessel of 
" about 9 score," the Mayflower. They sailed 
on August 15, 1620, but they had not gone 
far before the smaller ship was found to be leak- 
ing. Putting into Dartmouth for repairs, a second 
effort ended as unfortunately. After proceed- 
ing some three hundred miles they returned to 
Plymouth. Eventually the smaller ship and 
about twenty faint hearted passengers found 
their way back to London, among them being 
Robert Cushman. The rest, with their belong- 
ings, were crowded into the Mayflower. The 
season was late and threatening, but the same 
Guiding Hand that sent them over to Holland 
for testing and preparation now gathered to- 
gether " the knights and dames courageous " of 
the Pioneer Band. An Unseen Agent had been 
at work weighing men's souls and marking 
those fitted to shape " the destiny of a con- 
tinent, and thereby the destiny of the whole 

" The pilgrims leave no impression of person- 
ality on the mind," says a modern writer. " Not 


one of them had compelling personal genius or 
marked talent for the work in hand. They were 
plain men of moderate abilities, who, giving up 
all things, went to live in the wilds, at unknown 
cost to themselves, in order to preserve to their 
children a life in the soul." l The first part, at 
least, of that statement is happily being corrected 
in the light of modern research, and a much 
more generous estimate of the Pilgrims is now 
both possible and necessary. 

" We were well weaned from ye delicate milk 
of our Mother Country," wrote Robinson and 
Brewster in 1617. That process was completed 
in 1620. Money matters, during the final stages 
of preparation, troubled them sorely. In settling 
their accounts at Southampton they were over 
a hundred pounds out of their reckoning and had 
to resell part of their provisions. But fortitude 
for high endeavour did not fail them. They 
sent the following letter to the merchants with 
whom they had dealings : " Scarce haveing any 
butter, no oyle, not a sole to mend a shoe, yet 
we are willing to expose ourselves to such emi- 
nente dangers and trust to ye good providence 
of God rather than His name should be evil 
spoken of." * 

The course of their negotiations with the 
authorities was not much more smooth. They 
besought the king to give them permission under 

1 Masefield, Introduction to th Chronicles of the Pilgrim 
Fathers, p. xv. 

2 Bradford's History, p. 77. 


the great seal to worship God according to the 
dictates of conscience. But the Archbishop of 
Canterbury stepping in prevented this. James, 
however, promised, by word of mouth, to " con- 
nive with them and not to molest them as long 
as they carry themselves peaceably." This com- 
forted them, for they remembered that even a 
promise under the great seal, " though as broad 
as the house floor," could be broken. 

At length all obstacles were surmounted. Pas- 
sengers, crew, stores assembled. Would that we 
could ask the Pilgrims whence they came, and 
something of their parentage. Some we know 
were from London, others from Kent, Essex, 
and Norfolk; Nottinghamshire, Yorkshire, 
Lancashire, and Lincolnshire also were repre- 
sented. 1 

The old "Causay" from which the Pilgrims 
stepped into the vessel was taken up a few years 
afterwards, but a large slab, on which the Mayor 
of Plymouth recently stood to welcome the 
American airmen who were the first to cross the 
Atlantic in the air after the late Great War, has 
on it the word Mayflower to mark the spot. An 
inscription recording the departure has been let 
into an adjoining wall. The kindness of the 
Plymouth people to their unexpected guests is 

1 Charlotte Skinner has this note : " Fifteen are from the 
bonny North ; forty stalwarts are from the Eastern Counties ; 
ten tried and true from the Midlands, and thirty from the South." 
Assuming that the total number aboard was 102, this leaves 
seven to be accounted for from homes unknown. H. M. Dexter, 


immortalised in the name " New Plymouth " 
given to their first settlement in America. 1 

Watch those 102 pioneers as they board the 
Mayflower, whilst rocking off Plymouth Hoe 
on that memorable September day. The sailors 
hoist the sails. God's hour has struck. His 
breezes waft them ; and with this parting message 
they commit themselves to their great venture : 
" We veryly beleeve ye Lord is with us, unto 

in The England and Holland of the Pilgrims, p. 649, gives the 
following table of those who emigrated to Holland : 

From the North of Eng. Dur. (1) with Scot. (3) 4-4 

From the East of Eng. 

Yorks. (East) 


Norf. . 

. 32 

Sufi. . 


Essex . 

. 11 

Kent . 

. 17-68 

From the Middle of Eng, 

, Yorks (remainder) 

. 6 

Line. . 


Notts. . 




Leic. . 


Berks. . 


Wilts . 


From the South of Eng. 







Hants . 


17 17 123 

Uncertain prob. Notts., 

Norf., Sufi., or Kent 

. 14-14-137 

Unless care is exercised this list may easily be mistaken for 
that of the actual emigrants on the Mayflower, especially as it 
is followed by one containing the names of those who went out 
to New England in the Fortune, the Anne, the Little James, etc. 

1 The name was not, however, first given by the Pilgrims as is 
sometimes supposed. It appears on the map of Captain John 
Smith, 1616. 


whom and whose service we have given ourselves 
in many trialls, and that He will graciously prosper 
our indeavour." 

The Mayflower was a somewhat clumsy boat ; 
yet it must have looked distinctly picturesque 
when breasting the waves. It had a broad foun- 
dation, with cabins built on the deck fore and 
aft, appearing in the distance almost like handles 
with which to lift it. In addition to the many 
drawings extant, the seal used by the Southamp- 
ton Corporation bears the impress of a ship 
that gives a good idea of what the Mayflower 
was like. One wonders what the Indians thought 
when their keen eyes detected it off Cape Cod, 
driving into the surf, and sheltering in Plymouth 
Harbour in those early November days of 1620. 



" Man is the eternal wonder woman bears ; 

If she but give him holy motherhood ; 
And if she dims the child in him she dares 
A deed that wrongs him as none other can." 


ON their leaving Leyden, John Robinson, through 
the medium of John Carver, addressed to the 
Pilgrims a letter, full of manly piety and common 
sense. The last paragraph reads : " Whereas 
you are become a body politik, using amongst 
yourselves civill governmente, and are not fur- 
nished with any persons of spetiall eminencie 
above ye rest, to be chosen by you in office cf 
government, let your wisdome and godlines 
appeare, not only in chusing such persons as 
doe entirely love and will promote ye comone 
good, but also in yeelding unto them all due 
honour and obedience in their lawfull adminis- 

Far sooner than anyone anticipated, it became 
necessary to call into use the caution and counsel 
contained in those words. For, thanks to Chris- 
topher Jones, captain of the Mayflower, who, 

1 Bradford's History, p. 81. 



instead of making for Northern Virginia, took 
them to New England, they established their 
settlement where their patent gave them no 
jurisdiction. To complicate matters also it came 
to the knowledge of the leaders that a few among 
them imagined that all authority would come to 
an end when once they landed. These, however, 
proved equal to the occasion. A Compact was 
drawn up, which is as remarkable for the sim- 
plicity of its language as for the greatness of the 
principles it recognised. " In this unforeseen 
emergency," we read, " they instinctively laid 
hold on great principles hitherto unrevealed to 
the nations of the earth." The body of the 
Compact is as follows : " Having undertaken 
for the glory of God and advancement of the 
Christian faith, and honour of our king and 
country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the 
northern parts of Virginia, we do by these pre- 
sents solemnly and mutually in the presence of 
God and one another covenant and combine 
ourselves into a civil body politic, for our better 
ordering and preservation, and furtherance of the 
ends aforesaid, and by virtue hereof do enact 
constitute and frame such just and equal laws 
from time to time as shall be thought most meet 
for the good of the colony; unto which we pro- 
mise all due submission and obedience. In 
witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed 
our names." * 

It is not difficult to picture the scene. It is 

1 Chronicles of the Pilgrim fathers, p. 23 (slightly abbreviated). 


Thursday morning. The company is assembled 
in the cabin. The Covenant is read aloud. 
Signatures are asked for. The document is on 
the table, and one by one men take the pen 
and subscribe to an instrument that ranks in 
the history of the Anglo-Saxon peoples with the 
Magna Charta or the laws of Alfred the Great. 
The names appended were as follow : 

John Carver. John Turner. 

William Bradford. Francis Eaton. 

Edward Winslow. James Chilton. 

William Brewster. John Crackston. 

Isaac Allerton. John Billington. 

Miles Standish. Moses Fletcher. 

John Alden. John Goodman. 

Samuel Fuller. Degory Priest. 

Christopher Martin. Thomas Williams. 

William Mullins. Gilbert Winslow. 

William White. Edmund Margeson. 

Richard Warren. Peter Brown. 

John Howland. Richard Britteridge. 

Stephen Hopkins. George Soule. 

Edward Tilley. Richard Clarke. 

John Tilley. Richard Gardiner. 

Francis Cooke. John Allerton. 

Thomas Rogers. Thomas English. 

Thomas Tinker. Edward Dotey. 

John Rigdale. Edward Leicester. 
Edward Fuller. 

Of the forty-one who signed, James Chilton 
and William Button, a servant to Dr. Samuel 
Fuller, died before landing. Two other men 
died shortly after, Solomon Prower and John 
Langerman, both of Billericay, Essex. Illness, 
indeed, seems to have prevented these from 
signing. Concerning the compact itself John 


Quincy Adams has remarked : " This is perhaps 
the only instance in human history of that posi- 
tive, original social compact which speculative 
philosophers have imagined as the only legiti- 
mate source of government. Here was a unani- 
mous and personal assent by all the individuals 
of the community to the association, by which 
they became a nation. . . . The settlers of all 
the former European colonies had contented 
themselves with the powers conferred upon them 
by their respective charters. . . . The founders of 
Plymouth had been impelled by the peculiarities 
of their situation to examine the subject with 
deeper and more comprehensive research." 1 

The Mayflower company numbered 102, of 
whom seventy-three were men and boys, and 
twenty-nine women and girls. The signing of 
the Compact did not mark the end of discomfort 
and trial. They had taken ninety-nine days to 
cross the Atlantic from Southampton. Thirty- 
four days previously some of them had said fare- 
well to their friends at Delfshaven ; and a 
further ten weeks had to be endured on board 
the Mayflower before all could be housed on 
shore. Earnest and effective attention was given 
to exploration, building, the search for food, 
and plans for the future ; and in the meantime 
death and disease began their work with swift 
and terrible results. Before the end of March 
1621, no fewer than forty-four of their number 
had perished. By the time the good ship For- 

1 Goodwin, The Pilgrim Republic, p. 65. 


tune visited them in the following November, and 
their sentry called " Sail Ho ! " from Fort Hill, 
this number had increased to one-half their 
total strength, among them being twenty-one 
subscribers to the Compact ; together with 
Dorothy, wife of Governor Bradford ; Rose, wife 
of Captain Standish ; Mary, wife of Isaac Allerton ; 
Elizabeth, wife of Edward Winslow ; and Catherine 
the wife of John Carver, the first Governor. 

Reference must be made to the annals of the 
various New England chroniclers for the subse- 
quent history of those who signed. On this 
side the Atlantic their story of heroic adventure 
was for over two hundred years neglected and 
almost forgotten. It was in 1849 that the Rev. 
Joseph Hunter's researches led to the identifica- 
tion of Scrooby, Austerfield, and Gainsborough ; 
and, in other ways, awakened interest in the sub- 
ject. To this day, however, we are unpardon- 
ably ignorant of American history, and no 
adequate textbook of the subject is to be found in 
our schools. The Americans also long neglected 
to study seriously the English antecedents of the 
Pilgrims. But now new demands and trials 
have brought new fellowship. Enthusiasts in 
this country are turning to the heroic pages of 
the West ; and the more careful inquirers in the 
West are searching not for pedigrees only, but 
also for those noble family traditions, religious 
associations, and educational influences, which 
helped to make the Pilgrims and America what 
they afterwards became. 





" Brave men who brought 
To the ice and iron of our winter time 
A will as firm, a creed as stern, and wrought 
With one mailed hand and with the other fought." 


NOTHING but the simple truth can do any real 
service to a great cause, or adorn a great theme. 
This we shall do well to remember when we 
appraise the adventure of the Pilgrim Fathers. 
No future writer, however, can relegate them 
to an unimportant place in world history, or rob 
them of the halo of glory which is theirs. But 
this should not discourage inquiry as to how 
much they were the product of their times. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the emigration 
of the Pilgrims to America was in the seventeenth 
year of James I, they were essentially of the 
England of Elizabeth. They were of the same 
blood as those who sailed the Spanish Main. 
They drank from the same fountains as those 
who fashioned the Elizabethan literature. They 
were reared in the same atmosphere as those 
members of the House of Commons who were 



almost unconsciously, inch by inch, winning 
freedom at the expense of the royal prerogative, 
nor were they one whit the less debtors to the 
great Universities than some of the less extreme 
Puritans, whom the Separatists often roundly 

We may say that they were in advance of 
their time ; but far more than they realised, and 
a great deal more than their persecutors and 
detractors saw, were they the crown and glory 
of their day. They were the fruit of an age 
which the Great Gardener planted in a far 
distant, sequestered plot that it might not be 
spoiled by some of the less desirable growths 
which were to make their appearance in later 

Such were the men who laid the foundations 
of the New World. Let us look at the country 
to which they went. It was on October 12, 
1492, that Christopher Columbus first set eyes 
on the wonder world of his dreams ; and May 
1498 before he saw the mainland. Meanwhile, 
Sebastian Cabot, with an English crew from 
Bristol, explored the coast from Florida to 
Hudson's Bay. Spain and Portugal made settle- 
ments mostly in South America, and later the 
French and Dutch did so in the North. 

In 1578 New Albion, as it came to be called, 
on the north-west coast was discovered by Sir 
Francis Drake. An attempt to found an Eng- 
lish settlement by Sir Humphrey Gilbert, who 
perished on his way home in 1584, ended in 


failure. A similar effort was made by Sir Walter 
Raleigh. The first permanent colony was begun 
in 1604 in the region named, in honour of Queen 
Elizabeth, " Virginia." It comprised 105 set- 
tlers. Their leader was Captain John Smith, 
whose life and adventures read like a new series 
of Arabian Nights. In 1609 Smith returned 
home. Five years later he made a voyage all 
along the coast where the Pilgrims were soon to 
settle. His visit was evidently carried out at 
the most favourable time of the year, for on his 
presentation to Prince Charles on his return he 
reported : " I have seen fortie severall habita- 
tions upon the sea coast, and sounded about 
five and twenty good harbours. Of all the four 
parts of the world I have yet seen uninhabited, 
could I have means to transport a colony I would 
rather live here than anywhere. . . . Here are 
isles planted with corn groves, mulberries, savage 
gardens and good harbours." 1 He constructed 
a map from sketches he had made and presented 
it to the Prince, who said : " Why, this is of a 
verity New England, and let it be so named." 
A little while before, in 1602, Captain Gosnold 
of Falmouth had been on the scene, and, because 
of the number of that kind of fish caught there, 
he named the hook shaped promontory "Cape 

The very winter that Smith returned home 
from Virginia, the Colony passed through a ter- 
rible experience known as " The Starving Time." 

1 Skelton's Story of New England, p. 11. 


Out of 490 people alive in October, all but sixty 
were dead by the next March. These facts were 
most likely known to the Pilgrim leaders, as in 
1619 Smith volunteered to take them to their 
desired destination. By 1621 the Virginian 
settlement had grown again to 5,000 souls. It 
is, however, to the more idealistic and influential 
settlers in the north that historians turn for the 
story of the real Anglo-Saxon founding of America. 
The Pilgrims in the Mayflower made the land 
on November 19 after a wild Atlantic passage. 
A child was born and a man died during the 
voyage. There, after many vicissitudes, they 
kept a strange Christmas : 

" But did ever men with a nobler will 

A goodlier Christmas keep ? 
When sky was cold and grey, 

And there were no ancient bells to ring 
That cold grey Christmas Day." 

Nothing can equal in quiet vividness the de- 
scription which Bradford gives of their experi- 
ences, he being an eye witness. " It was winter," 
says he, " and they that know ye winters of ye 
countrie know them to be sharp and violent 
& subjecte to cruell & fierce stormes, dengerous 
to travill to known places, much more to serch 
an unknown coast. Besids what could they see 
but a hidious and desolate wildernes, full of wild 
beasts and willd men ? and what multituds ther 
might be of them they knew not. Nether could 
they, as it were, goe up to ye tope of Pisgah to 


vew from this wildernes a more goodly cuntrie 
to feed their hops ; for which way soever they 
turnd their eys (save upward to ye heavens) they 
could have little solace or content in respecte 
of any outward objects. For sumer being done, 
all things stand upon them with a wether- 
beaten face ; and ye whole countrie, full of 
woods and thickets, represented a wild and 
savage heiw. If they looked behind them, ther 
was ye mighty ocean which they had passed, 
and now was as a maine barr & goulfe to seper- 
ate them from all ye civill parts of ye world. 
If it be said they had a ship to sucour them, 
it is trew ; but what heard they daly from ye 
Mr & company ? but yt with speede they 
should looke out a place with their shallop, 
wher they would be at some near distance ; for 
ye season was such as he would not stirr from 
thence till a safe harbor was discovered by them 
wher they would be, and he might goe without 
danger ; and that victells consumed apace ; but 
he must and would keepe sufficient for them 
selves & their returne. Yea, it was muttered by 
some, that if they gott not a place in time, they 
would turne them & their goods ashore & leave 
them." ' 

Fortunately, the threat was not put into 
execution. Parties sent ashore to explore met 
with many adventures. Sickness soon appeared 
in their midst, and by and by they had to make 
many graves, which, lest their enemies should 

1 Bradford's History, p. 95. 


know how their ranks were being depleted, were 
left level with the rest of the ground. But a 
providential discovery of corn that had been 
buried by the Indians, and the friendship formed 
with two natives, Samoset and Squanto, stood 
them in good stead. In April 1621 the May- 
flower sailed away home. In November of the 
same year Robert Cushman arrived in the ship 

Bradford closes the ninth chapter of his history 
with these words : " May not & ought not the 
children of these fathers rightly say : ' Our 
faithers were Englishmen which came over this 
great ocean, and were ready to perish in this 
willdernes ; but they cried unto ye Lord, and 
he heard their voyce, and looked on their 
adversitie. Let them therfore praise ye Lord, 
because he is good, & his mercies endure for 
ever. Yea, let them which have been redeemed 
of ye Lord, shew how he hath delivered them 
from ye hand of ye oppressour. When they 
wandered in ye deserte willdernes out of ye way, 
and found no citie to dwell in, both hungrie, & 
thirstie, their sowle was overwhelmed in them. 
Let them confess before ye Lord his loving kind- 
nes, and his wonderfull works before ye sons 
of men." ' 

The question may fittingly be asked as to 
whether the exiles put into practice the high 
ideals of liberty and toleration which they pro- 
fessed and claimed for themselves. The answer 

1 Bradford's History, p. 97. 


is emphatically in the affirmative. 1 The con- 
trary, however, has so often been insisted upon 
that it will be well to notice how it arose and 
what are the real facts of the case. There can 
be no doubt that these Separatists were so little 
understood and, consequently, so unpopular that 
it would be quite easy for distorted statements 
of their doings to gain currency ; but it is worth 
noting that it is within quite recent times that 
such a charge has actually been suggested. It 
arose, probably, through confusion in the mind 
of writers respecting the founders of the 
different American settlements. The colonies 
planted at Salem and Boston, Massachusetts, in 
1628, were not Separatist but Puritan. They 
were made up of members of the Church of Eng- 
land who had been harried out of the Church 
and out of .the country by Archbishop Laud. 
They were as much opposed to the Separatists 
as Laud was to the Puritans generally. Tolera- 
tion had no place in their creed. Hence, the 
Quakers, Roger Williams, and a number of 
others received scant consideration at their 
hands, and severe measures of persecution were 
adopted against them. But in the New Ply- 
mouth colony it was not so, at any rate not 
before it was merged in the " Civil Body Politic " 
of Boston. 

Differences of opinion there were, especially 
with regard to Roger Williams, but it was his 

1 Scott's Pilgrim Fathers neither Puritan* nor Persecutor*, 
pp. 46, 47. 


peculiar tenets and political views which led to 
his voluntary withdrawal to Salem. That there 
was no suggestion of persecution is evident from 
the fact that after his second trouble in Massa- 
chusetts, he speaks of Winslow as " lovingly 
advising " him, and saying that " I might be 
as free as themselves, and we should be loving 
neighbours together." In Plymouth, Governor 
Hutchinson l says : " When Mrs. Hutchinson 2 and 
her adherents were banished from Massachusetts, 
they applied to the Colony of Plymouth for 
leave to settle upon Aquidnick or Rhode Island, 
which was then acknowledged to be within 
Plymouth patent, and it was readily granted, 
although their tenets were no more approved of 
by Plymouth than Massachusetts. Some of the 
Quakers also fled to Plymouth bounds, and 
probably saved their lives." The suggestion 
that the men who went over in the Mayflower ever 
persecuted the Quakers is without a shred of 
satisfactory proof. According to George Fox, 
it was not until 1656 that Quakerism made its 
appearance in America. By that time most of 
the Pilgrims were dead. John Carver, the first 
Governor, died in 1621 ; Samuel Fuller in 1633 ; 
Elder Brewster in 1643 ; Edward Winslow in 
1655 ; Miles Standish in 1656, and within a 
year, in the sixty-seventh year of his age, William 
Bradford, the historian of the Pilgrims. 

Nor did their tradition die with them. Isaac 

1 Thomas Hutchinson, Governor of Massachusetts, 1769-1774. 

2 Mrs. Ann Hutchinson, expelled 1638. 


Robinson seems to have been a worthy son of 
his great father, John Robinson ; for we find 
that " in 1658 he fell under the displeasure of 
the Commissioners, c because he would not set 
his hand to the laws which had been propounded 
to the several courts to be enacted against the 
Quakers.' l He was left out of the magistracy 
and Board of Commissioners and deprived of his 
military command. A letter of his in 1658 shows 
plainly what were his sentiments. 4 The anti- 
Christian and persecuting spirit,' says he, 4 is 
very active. . . . He that will not lash, perse- 
cute and punish men that differ in matter of 
religion, must not sit on the bench nor sustain 
any office in the Commonwealth. . . . But I 
told them the [court] that as I was no Quaker 
so I would be no Persecutor.' " * 

1 The coming of Quakerism, and with it almost unimaginable 
fanaticism, unfortunately had to be dealt with soon after the 
non-Pilgrim Prence had succeeded Bradford in the Governor- 
ship. No one was executed, but whipping and banishing from 
the Colony were applied as penalties for disturbing other people's 
liberty. The regulations were never popular, and after influ- 
ential opposition fell into disuse. Even these defects, however, 
must be thought of in the light of prevailing laws and practices 
elsewhere. Fide Goodwin's Pilgrim Republic, pp. 477-90. 

" At the accession of James I England made thirty- one crimes 
capital. This number gradually increased to 223. Massachu- 
setts Bay made thirteen crimes capital ; and the Virginian Com- 
pany had seventeen, including Unitarianism, sacrilege, adultery, 
defrauding the public treasury, false-witness, and the third 
offence of refusing to attend public worship. . . . Plymouth 
had only five classes of capital crime ; and of these she actually 
punished but two." Ibid., p. 2. 

2 Scott's Pilgrim Fathers neither Puritans nor Persecutors, 
p. 48. 


By the time the Long Parliament assembled 
in England 20,000 Englishmen had settled in the 

" Ay, call it holy ground, 

The soil where first they trod ; 
They left unstained what there they found 
Freedom to worship God." 



" There were men with hoary hair 

Amidst that pilgrim band ; 
Why had they come to wither there, 
Away from their childhood's land ? 

There was woman's fearless eye, 
Lit by her deep love's truth." 


CROSSING the Atlantic in fine weather and in 
these days of ocean greyhounds, luxurious cabins, 
handsome dining rooms, and obliging stewards, 
it is hardly possible to imagine what life would 
be like on the Mayflower as it sailed those waters 
three centuries ago. 

Bradford, as we have seen, described the land 
in winter. Would that he had given us an 
equally vivid description of the sea ! " In sun- 
drie stormes the winds were so feirce & ye seas 
so high, as they could not beare a knote of saile 
but were forced to hull, for diverce days to- 
gither," is about the only sentence of that type 
to be found in his book. But his reference to 
the fears of Seneca, of Ancient Rome, when 
sailing a few miles "on ye coast of his owne 



Italy," and the grumblings of the Mayflower 
crew, would seem to indicate that this wild 
western ocean had its terrors for even our hardy 

But what of women and children in such a 
ship, at such a season ? "In fine weather the 
ventilation was bad. In bad weather, when the 
hatches were battened down, there was none,'* 
says a recent writer. And indeed little imagi- 
nation is required to realise how far removed 
are the comforts of a modern liner from the 
accommodation which the Mayflower provided. 
Luxury, however, has never been a successful 
nursing mother to liberty. It is not to Cleo- 
patra's barge, with poop of gold, oars of silver, 
sails of purple, that we must turn for the May- 
flower type of character; but" rather to the ship 
in which St. Monica, the mother of St. Augus- 
tine, set sail, for the sake of her boy, towards a 
strange continent. 

American idealism is a noble thing. It was 
born on English soil and under conditions that 
seemed to give no promise of such a growth. It 
lived, too, in the mothers who accompanied 
their loved ones in heroic adventure. 1 Hence, 
with Dr. Eliot, we may " salute tenderly and 

1 Nathaniel Hawthorne's sweeping generalisation would be as 
untrue of the women of New Plymouth as it is of those of Massa- 
chusetts : " Morally, as well as materially, there was a coarser 
fibre in those wives and maidens of English birth and breeding 
than in their fair descendants, separated from them by a series 
of six or seven generations, for, throughout that chain of ancestry, 
every successive mother has transmitted to her child a fainter 


reverently the Pilgrims of the Mayflower, and re- 
calling their fewness and their sufferings, anxieties 
and labours, felicitate them and ourselves on the 
wonderful issues in human joy, strength and 
freedom of their faith, endurance and dauntless 

That Puritanism owed much to its women 
cannot be in the least doubt. We have already 
noted as early helpers Queen Anne Boleyn and 
Lady Bacon. Sixteen out of the twenty-seven, 
who signed their names as belonging to the 
Church of Richard Fitz, were women. In 1567 
seven women were sent to Bridewell prison as 
well as twenty-four men. More than once in 
connection with the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries secret churches we come across the 
words, " mostly women." The majority of these 
we do not know even by name. But from the 
days of Priscilla and Phoebe there have been 
women who, like Joan of Arc, have led the way 
in unconventional enterprise. That such was 
possible to Separatist women is proved by 
Bradford's entertaining description of the " one 
ancient widow," who was elected a deaconess 

bloom, a more delicate frame, if not a character of less force 
and solidity than her own." The Scarlet Letter, chap. ii. p. 61. 

For the time being this writer was the victim of a spirit of 
exaggeration, so we need not be surprised that in referring to 
the men in the same connection he speaks of " the grim rigidity 
that petrified the bearded physiognomies of these good people." 

The reference to the women shows that the writer was think- 
ing of the class that made up Shakespeare's " drabs " and 
" sluts " rather than that from which his heroines were drawn. 


of the Leyden Church. She was sixty years of 
age when she was chosen. " She honoured her 
place and was an ornament to the congregation. 
She usually sat in a convenient place in the 
congregation, with a little birchen rod in her 
hand, and kept little children in great awe from 
disturbing the congregation. She did frequently 
visit the sick and weak, especially women, and, 
as there was need, called out maids and young 
women to watch and do them other helps as 
their necessity did require, and if they were 
poor, she would gather relief for them of those 
that were able, or acquaint the deacons ; and 
she was obeyed as a mother in Israel and an 
officer of Christ." 1 

It is women who feel partings most, and so 
we would gladly know more of the heart aches, 
doings, and responsibilities of the Pilgrim mothers. 
No women's historian, however, accompanied 
them, no Miss Strickland to write the story of 
these queens of liberty. All we know is that 
" they did not complain and why should we 
complain for them ? " Nevertheless we do well 
to remember that the age which produced 
Shakespeare's galaxy of immortal heroines gave 
to the world these pioneer women. They went 
forth braving all, having " no friends to well- 
come them, nor inns, no houses, much less 
townes to repaire too." Yet dire peril through 
the breaking of the Mayflower's main beam, 

1 Bradford's Dialogue quoted in Dale's History of English 
Congregationalism, pp. 168, 169. 


storm, sickness, death, do not seem to have 
created among them any panic or misgiving 
worthy of note ; for Bradford, ever quick to note 
the shadow not less than the sheen, closes his 
story of the voyage without one suggestion of a 
complaint concerning their conduct. 

It is generally supposed that the first to step 
upon Plymouth Rock, New England, was Mary 
Chilton ; and the last survivor of the original 
band was Mary Allerton. Around one of its 
rising women, too, Priscilla Mullins, 1 later ro- 
mance has thrown its most enchanting mantle. 
We may indeed well cherish all of them in sacred 
memory, as women who braved in winter the 
dread Atlantic rather than that the children, 
who shared the enterprise, should make ship- 
wreck of their lives. The Pilgrim Mothers were 
eighteen in number : 

Katherine Carver, Susanna White. 

Mary Brewster. Elizabeth Winslow. 

Ellen Billington. Elizabeth Hopkins. 

Ann Tilley. Elizabeth Tilley. 

Alice Rigdale. Ann Fuller. 

Priscilla Mullins, Senr. Sarah Eaton. 

Mary Allerton. Mary Chilton. 

Dorothy Bradford. Rose Standish. 

Marie Martin. Mrs. Tinker. 

Would that it were possible to describe them 
individually or give some adequate estimate of 
their differing characteristics. 

Professor Lecky has told us that " Puritanism 

1 The heroine of Longfellow's poem, " The Courtship of Miles 


is the most masculine form that Christianity has 
yet assumed." " It can hardly be questioned," he 
says, "that in the great religious convulsions of 
the sixteenth century the feminine type followed 
Catholicism, while Protestantism inclined more 
to the masculine." Whether such a character- 
istic belongs intrinsically to Protestantism in 
general or to " Separatism " in particular may 
be questioned. 

There were several other factors, whose in- 
fluence the Puritans in general did not altogether 
escape in their attitude to women. There 
were, for example, the baneful traditions of 
Monasticism and Catholicism, which frequently 
regarded woman as " the door of hell," " the 
mother of all human ills." Then there were the 
pernicious after effects of so-called chivalry ; 
and finally, the social perils as laid bare by 
Sir Walter Scott in the opening pages of his 
Fair Maid of Perth. These things somewhat 
influenced Protestantism, and, it may be, in part 
explain the comparative silence of the New Eng- 
land chroniclers on the subject of their women. 

If, however, we are entitled to any use of the 
argument from silence, and especially that of 
the Statute Book, the case is highly significant. 
New Plymouth had no laws regulating apparel, 
as had England and Massachusetts. 1 No woman 

1 That such were not wholly uncalled for in the latter case, 
may be gathered from the following : " The dress of the ladies 
[in Massachusetts] was made of the richest materials, shoes of 
silk and satin elaborately embroidered, very high heels and a 


was ever committed as a witch. Nor was the 
Church ever disturbed by faction over high 
heeled boots, ribbons, fashions, or such like things, 
as was that under Francis Johnson at Amsterdam. 
No portrait, no diary, no outstanding saying of 
a Pilgrim Mother has come down to us to give 
definiteness to the picture ; but in their care for 
the sick, their solicitude for the dying, their 
tenderness for newborn and motherless children, 
and in all those gracious ministries for which 
their condition called, we may be sure that they 
would not be wanting. 

Nor can we identify many little treasures that 
must have been dear to these women. A seam- 
stress's bill of the period is before me as I write. 
The ink is faded ; the words can be traced with 
difficulty, and the significance of many is not 
easily discovered. What are "cap pinners" and 
" waist pinners," " Coberd cloth," named in it, 
and "neclets," "head-bands," and " molander 
sleeves " ? > 

We know these women through the silence of 
their men, in their uncomplaining heroisms, and 
in the spirit which they bequeathed to their 

green ribbon tied in large bows at the instep of the shoe ; their 
dresses were cut very low at the neck and monstrous hoops were 
worn ; their hair, by the aid of ' crape cushions ' was built to 
an enormous height, in some cases two feet, and when they 
were to attend some function they would have their hair arranged 
the day previous and sit up all night in a chair that no disaster 
might befall what had been the labour of hours." Skelton, Story 
of New England, p. 101. 

1 Names of material, if not quantities, will be more familiar 
in the accompanying : 


posterity. We watch them in imagination as 
their feet touch New England's shores, and see 
them planting Old English gillie-flowers, rose 
trees, forget-me-nots, with sprigs of rosemary 
for remembrance. 

Only fifty years previously the law in England 
had forbidden them to read the Bible, as it did 
their servants or apprentices, under pain of im- 
prisonment. Their husbands might do so, " if 
they were not of the lower order." Their high 
task was to found a country " closely bound up 
with the welfare of all mankind " ; to fulfil a 
" grand scheme and design of Providence." 

Bill of Lading for the ? Mayflower of London, 1641. Master, 
John Cole, trading to Virginia. 

350 Ells of Canvas. 300 m. of Nayles of all sorts. 

160 Holland. 60 dozens of Baggs. 

600 blew lining. 4 Tons of Canary Wine. 

600 peices of white Calico. 10 peices of Broadcloth. 

500 peices of Lockram. 10 hogs heads of Meale & 

100 cases of strong water. Flower. 

100 gallons of in 12 Cases of Soap Cont. 6,000 1. 

rundlettes. 30 kettles, 20 potts. 

40 peices of kersey. 20 Stewing pans. 

10 ,, ffreezes. 4 Frying panns. 

100 doz. of Irish stockings. haberdashers ware 40 

40 Rugs and other bedding. sterling. 

100 doz. candles. 24 Hogshead of Beefe. 

20 m. of Bread. 40 Tonns of Beere. 

1 of ffish, 50 gall. oil. 60 Bushells of Pease. 

20 ffirkins of butter. 2 Barrells of Oat Meale. 

16 ban-ells of gunpowder. 40 dozen of candles. 

400 dozen of shoes. To proceed to Virginia.* 

* Acts of Privy Council, 1641. 


"The virtues who shall paint 
Of our meek Pilgrim dames ? 

Wife, mother, matron, maid, , 

Who braved the stormy sea, 
And worthy to become 

The mothers of the free." 

On the Mayflower were children as well as 
mothers and fathers, and who cannot see in this 
the hand of that gracious Providence under whose 
direction the whole adventure was taken ? For 
the children's sake, it was well that they were 
there, so that they might see the thing from 'the 
beginning and be able to cherish memories of 
noble parenthood in after days. Nor was it less 
well for the parents ; it made cramped, incon- 
venient quarters homely. To care for them 
would cure many anxieties, and a smile or laugh 
from one of the little ones in mid- Atlantic would 
be as good as a peep at a daisy or buttercup in 
the old homeland. 

Here is the list : 

Priscilla Mullins. Elizabeth Tilley. 

Mary Chilton. Humility Cooper. 

Ellen More. Mary Allerton. 

Remember Allerton. Resolved White. 

Bartholomew Allerton. Harry Sampson. 

Francis Billington. Joseph Rogers. 

John Billington. Jasper More. 

Wrestling Brewster. Love Brewster. 

John Cooke. Samuel Fuller. 

John Crackston. Samuel Eaton. 

Giles Hopkins. Richard More. 

Joseph Mullins. Peregrine White. 1 
Constantia Hopkins. 

1 Born just before the landing. 


In addition to these were two boys named 
Turner, sons of John Turner ; a son of Thomas 
Tinker ; and the baby born at sea with the 
high sounding name of Oceanus Hopkins, mak- 
ing a grand total of twenty-nine children, eight 
girls and twenty-one boys. 

No need to pity them. They would have 
great times on board ! Perhaps Elder Brewster 
kept school ; in any case, there would be many 
things to learn. 

Then there would be the delight of standing 
beside the man who " cund " * the ship, called 
" the look-out man." John Alden, the ship's 
cooper, would explain his work ; and there 
would be delightful Stephen Hopkins, who had 
been a sailor and could tell the true story of how 
years before he had sailed from the Plymouth 
they had just left for " Virginia," and how, 
because he knew his Bible, they called him a 
" Brownist," and the ship's master had made 
him " dark," to read the prayers. William 
Bradford also would tell how, when he was 
only seventeen, his friends from Scrooby and 
Gainsborough were arrested and put into " Little 
Ease " at Boston, through the treachery of 
a ship's captain, and how, after two other at- 
tempts, they all got away at last to Holland. 

When the weather was fine, all would gather 
on the deck for worship ; for as Winslow says, 
" many were very expert in music." Indeed, it 
is quite a mistake to think of the Puritans as 

1 The modern " conned." 


a people who knew nothing of joy or beauty. 
Milton's " L' Allegro " shows quite conclusively 
that pleasures and pastimes were not foreign to 
the Puritan conception of religion. If we turn 
to Mrs. Hutchinson's glowing picture of her 
husband it is the same. " She dwells on the 
personal beauty which distinguished his youth," 
informing us that " as soon as he had improved 
his natural understanding with the acquisition 
of learning, the first studies he exercised himself 
in were the principles of religion." ..." Serious 
as was his temper in graver matters, the young 
squire was fond of hawking, and piqued himself 
on his skill in dancing and fence. His artistic 
taste showed itself in a critical love of 4 gravings, 
sculpture, and all liberal arts,' as well as in the 
pleasure he took in his gardens, ' in the improve- 
ment of his grounds, in planting groves, and 
walks and forest trees.' While * diligent in his 
examination of the Scriptures,' he had a great 
love for music, and often diverted himself with 
a viol, on which he played masterly." l Nor 
were these cases among the Separatists or Puri- 
tans exceptional. All over England their well 
trimmed gardens, their books and pictures could 
be found. Often were they vastly more power- 
ful because of their learning than their numbers 
would have suggested. It was a Puritan who 
built and endowed Emmanuel College, Cam- 
bridge ; and the first promoter of the Northern 

1 J. R. Green, A Short History of the English People, enlarged 
edition, pp. 462-3. 



University was a Nonconformist. They loved the 
beautiful in art and the stately in architecture, 
entering into conflict with them only when they 
were made to come between them and God. How 
could the Pilgrims have won the hearts of those 
of the Indians who were embittered had they 
not possessed attractive graciousness ? The offer 
of these Indians was that they might " dwell 
where they would." And Squanto loved them 
to such an extent that " when he came to die he 
desired them to pray that he might go to the 
Englishman's God in heaven, bequeathing sun- 
drie of his things to sundrie of his English friends." 
Nor is there any evidence that they were less 
tender, natural, or Christian in their attitude to- 
wards their own offspring. Morton, for example, 
shows they were solicitous to a surprising degree 
about their children's welfare. After narrating the 
settlement of Skelton and Higginson at Salem in 
1629 he proceeds : " The two ministers being seri- 
ously studious of reformation, they considered of 
the state of their children, together with the 
parents; concerning which letters did pass 
between Mr. Higginson and Mr. Brewster, the 
reverend elder of the church of Plimouth, and they 
did agree in their judgments, namely, concerning 
the church membership of the children with their 
parents ; and that baptism was a seal of their 
membership ; only when they were adult, they 
being not scandalous, they were to be examined 
by the church officers, and upon their approba- 
tion of their fitness, and upon the children's 


public and personally owning of the covenant, 
they were to be received unto the Lord's Supper. 
Accordingly, Mr. Higginson's eldest son, being 
about fifteen years of age, was owned to have 
been received a member, together with his 
parents ; and being privately examined by the 
pastor, Mr. Skelton, about his knowledge in the 
principles of religion, he did present him before 
the church when the Lord's Supper was to be 
administered, and the child, then publicly and 
personally owning the covenant of the God of 
his father, he was admitted unto the Lord's 
Supper ; it being then professedly owned, ac- 
cording to 1 Cor. vii. 14, that the children of the 
church are holy unto the Lord as well as their 
parents, accordingly the parents owning and 
retaining the baptism, which they themselves 
received in their infancy, in their native land, as 
they had any children born, baptism was admin- 
istered unto them, namely to children of such 
as were members of that particular church." 1 

This long extract is given merely to show that 
the regard of the Pilgrims for their children in New 
England was on a level with their solicitude for them 
while in Holland. And it may be safely assumed 
that their attitude would be equally sympathetic 
towards those higher and brighter elements which 
give childhood its golden hours of pleasure. Of 
many a child the Pilgrims could have said : 

" Something in thy face did shine 
Above mortality, that showed thou wast divine." 

1 Morton's New England Memorial, pp. 101, 102. 



" Man is a shippe, affections the sayle, 

The world the sea, our sinnes the rocka and shelves, 
God is the Pylot, if He but please to fayle, 

And leave the steering of us to ourselves, 
Against the rugged rocks wee run amaine, 
Or eke the winding shelves doe us detaine." 


SINCE the sailing of the Mayflower the name of 
Francis Cooke has possessed little significance. 
It deserves to be rescued from oblivion. His 
grandfather was Sir Anthony Cooke, of Gidea 
Hall, near Romford, Essex, who was tutor to 
King Edward VI. Francis was born at the 
Hall. Here Sir Anthony had entertained Queen 
Elizabeth, and later Marie de' Medici had stayed 
within its walls on her way to London. An 
attendant of the latter drew a picture of the old 
place, the only one in existence. True, Lord 
Burghley sketched a rough plan, but this con- 
veyed little idea of its appearance. It was a 
quaint, rambling place, specially noted for the 
inscriptions on the outer walls in Latin, Greek, 



and Hebrew, a prominent Hebrew motto being 
" With God's help." 

One summer evening lately, a visit was paid 
to the place, when the grounds were found to 
be cut up into streets, with small, artistic houses 
dotted here and there. A heavy Georgian build- 
ing stands on the site of the old Hall, and the 
only traces of the original pleasaunce are to be 
found in a wall of the Orangery, some spreading 
cedars, the fish ponds, remnants of the Lime 
Walk, and an avenue which led up to the main 

Sir Anthony was a staunch Protestant, and 
during Mary's reign escaped to Strasburg, where 
he attended Peter Martyr's lectures. He had 
two sons and four daughters. The sons appear 
to have been quite ordinary men, but three of 
the daughters were very learned and became 
famous. Mildred married Queen Elizabeth's dis- 
tinguished Treasurer, Lord Burghley, or Burleigh, 
who was distantly related to Robert Browne the 
Independent. Burghley speaks of him as being 
" of my own blood." Anne became Lady Bacon, 
mother of Lord Bacon, and the third daughter, 
Elizabeth, married Lord John Russell. 

In St. Edmund's Chapel, Westminster Abbey, 
may be seen the tomb of Lord John Russell, 
with a full length effigy, the inscription under- 
neath in Latin, Greek, and English, written by 
his wife, beginning thus : " Right noble, twice 
by virtue and birth, of Heaven Loved, Honoured 
on the earth, His country's hope. My husband 


dear, more than this world's light." Their son 
Francis is also buried there. 

By the side of the tomb is the life sized figure 
of a woman sitting in an osier chair. This is in 
memory of the daughter, Elizabeth. In the 
next chapel, that of St. Nicholas, is the most 
stately monument in the Abbey. It was erected 
by Lord Burleigh to the memory of his wife 
Mildred, and their eldest daughter, Ann, Coun- 
tess of Oxford. The figure of Lord Burleigh in 
a kneeling attitude appears on the upper part of 
the monument. 

Look now at the man on board the May- 
flower, with his broad high hat, his short 
cloak gathered closely about him, and his 
stout boots with long, wide uppers. His son, 
John, a lad of fifteen summers or so, is beside 
him. A quiet reserved man he is, on whose 
clear judgment the colony in future years is 
destined often to depend. His kith and kin are 
among the great of the land ; some even " sleep 
with kings." He is facing hardships and priva- 
tions because there are things dearer even than 
life. No abbey will receive his body ; he will first 
do much for God and man, and then be laid to 
rest in a nameless grave in a great cathedral of 
liberty, where the wide Atlantic provides the organ 
sounds. Surely he may fittingly be called " The 
St. Francis " of the Mayflower. He was one of the 
" Patriarchs of Religious Freedom " of the seven- 
teenth century, as Francis of Assisi was of the 
thirteenth. Neither of them knew what great 


things he was doing. Francis of Assisi dreamed 
only of spending his days in meditation and 
kind deeds ; he had no idea of preparing the 
way for a Martin Luther. Nor did the Republic 
over which the " Stars and Stripes " float come 
within the purview of Francis of the Mayflower. 
But both were spiritual pioneers. In Francis of 
Assisi's time there was a genuine attempt to 
found a universal priesthood, to proclaim the 
rights of the individual conscience. 'Twas but 
an attempt. In the days of Francis of the May- 
flower, it was an attempt crowned with success. 

Francis Cooke was the youngest son of Sir 
Anthony's eldest son, Richard. His mother was 
Anne, daughter of John Cawnton, merchant, 
London. He v was taken for baptism to St. Mar- 
tin's, Charing Cross, on October 27, 1578, a year 
before the death of his father. 

The name is spelt " Francisca " in the Church 
Register, and against it is neither " son " nor 
" daughter." One of the churchwardens who 
has made a study of the history of the Church 
said that the clerk of that period was a clear 
writer, but that he had no knowledge of either 
Latin or Italian. The " i " is certainly mascu- 
line, but the " ca " is just as certainly feminine. 
It is probably owing to the terminal letter " a " 
that the story of Francis remained a secret for 
so long. Of course it should be " o." The 
secret was revealed one day when going carefully 
through Spedding's voluminous life of Lord 
Bacon, for the thought of finding the Mayflower 


Francis in the Gidea-Cooke family had long 
possessed me. At first the story of a great- 
grandson of Sir Anthony was followed ; but the 
dates did not fit in, and ultimately the clue led 
to Chelmsford, where in 1654 he, with several 
others, signed a petition to the sheriff for the 
better protection of the Protestant faith. In 
Spedding's work was discovered a letter from 
the pen of Lord Bacon to his aunt, Anne Cooke, 
which gave the needed light. The following is a 

" AUNT, 

"I had spoken a good while since with 
my Lord Treasurer, whose lordship took pains to 
peruse the will which I had with me, and in con- 
clusion was of the opinion that if the younger 
children wanted reasonable allowance, it should 
be supplied, and the overplus to be stored for 
their advancement. Of the same mind I ever 
was and am, and there is nothing in my cousen 
Morrises note against. 

" Accordingly I have enclosed a note of a pro- 
portion which I think you cannot dislike, and 
which I pray communicate with my cousen 
Morris, and the rest of the executors. 

" For my part I wish you as a kind alliance. 
But the question is not between yow and me 
but between your profit and my trust. I pur- 
pose as soon as I can conveniently, to put the 
monies I have into some other hand, lest you 
should think the case of the money prevaileth 


with me. But I will endure in a good cause, 
and wishe I yowe right well, in hast, 

" your lovinge nephewe, 

[His usual signature was " Fr. Bacon."] 

" WIKDSOB CASTELL, this 29th of October, 1593." 

To this letter these notes are appended : 

" The revenues Mrs. Cooke receiveth for the edu- 
cation of the younger children, of Langport, Hock- 
ford, and part of Hartshill, are as I am informed, 

pr annum C li. 

The allowance convenient for the Children, beinge 
foure, maie be XL li to Mistress Anne Cooke in re- 
gard of her yeares. [This would be the eldest of the 
four children] XXX li to cache of the other three. 

"SommeTot is CXXX li. 

" So that Mistress Cooke is to be answered XXX li 
overplus above that she receiveth. 

44 But because there are received by the execu- 
tors both two parts of the interest money and the 
profit of the parsonage [of] Michekirke, it is fit 
that the overplus go out of the interest bycause 
it is for the daughters, inasmuch as the lands of 
Langport and Hockfoord do sufnze for the two 
sonnes ; and so the profits of Michekirke to be 
wholly stored for their advancement, and the 
residue of the interest for the mending of young 
Fr. Cooke's porcion, according to the will." 

This letter and notes are in Lambeth Palace 


Library. 1 Richard and Anne Cooke had a large 
family. Anthony, the eldest son, inherited Gidea 
Hall. The eldest daughter was Phillipa. Then 
a big gap through death appears, and afterwards 
there are four young children named respec- 
tively, Anne, born 1572 ; Mildred, 1573 ; John, 
1575 ; Francis, 1578. They were all baptized 
at St. Martin's ; the number, two sons and two 
daughters, agreeing with Lord Bacon's note. 

Richard Cooke's will is in Somerset House. 
He leaves money to his daughter ; twenty 
pounds to the Countess of Oxford, his niece; 
all his property in Tetford, Lincoln, to his 
wife, and makes her residuary legatee. He be- 
queaths sixty pounds to Stephen Bright ; to 
Mrs. Bright a mourning gown ; to Mr. Francis 
White twenty pounds, " to preach yearly at 
Romford, for five years, as often as he shall 
think convenient for godly instruction of such as 
shall be present." The will is dated from Tet- 
ford. There is no mention of the four youngest 
children. This, however, was no unusual thing 
in those days. No doubt he left them to the 
care of his wife, assured that she would look well 
after them. She had also received, under the 
will of Sir Anthony Cooke, the manor of Chad- 
well, and Reden Court, Havering-atte-Bower, 
situate a mile or so from Gidea Hall. 

A visit to Havering was made the same even- 
ing that the surroundings of old Gidea Hall 
were studied. The way lay past the remaining 

1 Lambeth MSS., 649, nos. 237, 238. 




fragment of Hainault Forest and the old forest 
clearing where Edward the Confessor had his 
palace, when the nightingales seriously disturbed 
his devotions. The woods have since been silent 
in the night watches ; but the song of the 
nightingale may still be heard among the trees 
round about Gidea. One of these trees suffers 
the indignity of a brickwork patch in its ancient 
trunk. Perhaps under its shadow Francis would 
pass to the little church. Near it, too, would go 
less virtuous members of society, of whom the 
ancient village stocks are a vivid reminder. 

During the visit I talked with some who live 
in cottages overlooking the green. They had 
never heard of the name of Cooke in connection 
with the place, or of Reden Court. The last 
thing I noted was Pirgo Park, once the home of 
Lady Jane Grey, with the footpath she daily 
took when going to Gidea to share lessons with 
Sir Anthony's daughters. 

In the Record Office, London, there is a letter, 
dated 1593, written by Francis Cooke's brother, 
Anthony, to his uncle, Lord Burghley, entreat- 
ing him to " further the Suppression of a con- 
veyance passed without judgment " on his part ; 
and which " would grievously impoverish" his 
family. In vol. ii. of Anthony Bacon's papers, 
in the Lambeth Palace Library, there is another 
letter by the same author, much to the same 
effect, addressed to Anthony Bacon. Evidently 
Anthony Cooke was trying to regain some pro- 
perty he had signed away at his father's death. 


This may have had something to do with the 
writing of Francis Bacon's letter to his aunt, 
which bears the same date, and may have led 
Mrs. Cooke to draft the will which Lord Bacon 
states that he showed to Lord Burghley. 

So far the story of Francis Cooke has to do 
only with three districts St. Martin's, West- 
minster, Gidea Hall, and Tetford. We shall find 
him, however, in many other places ; but for 
the moment a few isolated but interesting facts 
may be noted. Sir Anthony's great grandfather, 
Sir Thomas Cooke, Lord Mayor of London, was a 
merchant goldsmith. Sir Anthony was a Mercers' 
merchant, the business premises being in West- 
minster. Several of the family are buried in 
the crypt of St. Martin's. Some left bequests to 
that Church. 

According to the poor rate return of 1660, a 
Thomas Cooke was living on the east side of 
Soho Square at that date. A house of the family 
of Howard was on the same side. The lead work 
of the cistern bears the date 1669. 

The father of Francis Cooke was a merchant, 
and the richest merchants were those who dealt 
in textile fabrics. Along with the goldsmiths, 
they were the bankers of the time. They were 
the carriers of new ideas, as also was another 
textile worker, the Apostle Paul, especially in 
connection with religion. 

Antwerp was at that time the great conti- 
nental centre of the cloth trade, " the cloth 
fleet " taking English wool thither, and returning 


with Flemish cloth. The company of Barbary 
Merchants was instituted by the Earl of Warwick, 
so well known in Essex. From Barbary came 
gold, red and yellow morocco skins, gum, indigo, 
and wax. The Cookes had business dealings 
with this place. It seems also that they had 
their own ships ; for mention is made of one, 
the Sampson, whose Captain was Rainsborough, 
and master William Cooke. 1 The Cookes of 
Gidea and the Rainsboroughs of Stepney were 

It has not been ascertained whether the suit 
of Anthony Cooke was successful. But the year 
1592, the year before he wrote his letter of 
distress, is of great importance, for then Francis 
was entered as a sizar, a kind of charity student, 
at St. John's, Cambridge, the College where his 
uncle had been treasurer. Lord Bacon might 
well think that the " porcion " of his young cousin 
Francis needed " mending." We may detect by 
the tone of Lord Bacon's letter that the mother 
was keen with regard to money matters. 

St. John's College was a powerful centre of 
Puritanism. The emblem of its founder, Queen 
Margaret, was a daisy. The lawns are thickly 
strewn with them still. Surely the college of 
the " day's eye " was a fit place for training one 
of the heralds of a new world and a new liberty. 

How long Francis stayed there we do not 
know. The scene changes quickly to the eastern 
end of London, where his brother John is in 

1 Vide, pp. 119-131. 


business as a merchant tailor. John lived in the 
parish of St. Antholin. The church of that name 
was at the corner of Budge Row, between the 
Mansion House and Cannon Street. A monument 
within a small enclosure overgrown with ivy marks 
its site to-day. St. Antholin was a stronghold 
of the Puritan party. The bells rang for prayers 
at five o'clock in the morning, the Geneva party 
making it a point of duty to attend. There was 
morning lecture at which probationers " made 
tryal of their abilities " before being sent forth 
on their mission in various parts of England. 

Several matters point to the close connexion 
of the Cooke family with the Nonconformist 
movement. Lady Bacon believed that " the 
cause of Nonconformists was the whole cause of 
Christ." It is thought that it was by Lord 
Burghley's advice that Robert Browne emi- 
grated with sixty of his flock from Norwich and 
founded a Church at Middelburg, Holland, of 
which Thomas Cartwright, a personal friend of 
Lady Bacon, was the second minister. Another 
significant fact is that money was sent from 
the Church of English merchants at Barbary to 
the refugees at Amsterdam. Still further, at the 
foot of Penry's letter, the names of his little 
flock are indicated by letters twenty-two in all, 
among them being W. C. ; J. C. ; E. C. These 
may have been cousins to Francis and much 
older than himself. 

Between the two brothers, John and Francis, 
who for some time lived together, there was 


evidently the deepest affection. In the Liberty 
of Portsoken, London, literally Port for Den- 
mark, a district which extended from Petticoat 
Lane as far as the " bars," there was at the time 
a number of Protestant refugees, many of them 
weavers mostly in silk "taffety." In Chamberlain's 
letters there is mention of the reported death of 
the King of Denmark, " the Queen and her ladies 
mourning seven days in white taffety." Petti- 
coat Lane was then Hog Lane, a lane of gardens 
where the Spanish ambassador lived, and whither 
Londoners went for the air. 

Somewhere in that district there lived a widow 
from Dinan in Northern France, a weaver named 
Jane Mahew, or Mahieu, who had a daughter 
Hester. One may still pick out the old houses of 
the weavers by their wide latticed windows. To 
her home Francis Cooke went love making. The 
weavers' homes were easily known by the songs 
they sang at their looms. They had singing 
matches which were determined by the burning 
of an inch of candle. Says Falstaff : "I would 
I were a weaver ! I could sing all manner of 
songs." That remark would be specially inter- 
esting if the " Baconian " theory of its author 
were proved, Bacon, as we have seen, being cousin 
to Francis Cooke. 

How Francis and Hester first came to know 
each other we cannot say. Seeing, however, 
that the neighbourhood of the weavers was within 
ten minutes' walk of St. Antholin parish, their 
meeting is not difficult to imagine. In 1601 


Francis went to Holland, whether on business or 
to secure a freer life there is nothing to show. 
Later, in 1604, Hester joined him in Ley den, 
where they were married. Here their eldest son 
was born and named John after his uncle. Ley- 
den was a manufacturing centre, and it may have 
been in the interests of cloth weaving for his 
brother, or on business connected with the silk 
trade for his uncle, William Cooke, that Francis 
first went there. That added to his value for 
the Scrooby exiles, when after being robbed and 
harassed they arrived there seven years after- 
wards. It is interesting to think of Francis 
Cooke coming under the influence of John 
Robinson, that gentle, strong spirit, the apostle 
of the Mayflower movement, also how much it 
must have meant to Robinson on his arrival to 
have the home, the welcome, the wealth, and 
the experience of Francis Cooke at the disposal 
of himself and his flock. Doubtless the move- 
ment at that stage even owed much to the quiet 
statesmanship of Francis Cooke. 

The mother of Francis is buried with her hus- 
band in the family vault underneath what was 
the Lady Chapel, in the Parish Church, Rom- 
ford. The news must have reached him in 
Holland, in 1617. Three years later came the 
parting from wife and little ones, these remain- 
ing behind whilst he and his son went with the 
Mayflower party to New England. 

Seven of their children lived to manhood and 
womanhood. John became a Baptist minister, 


married Sarah Warren, and died in 1695 ; Josias 
married Elizabeth Deane, died 1673 ; Jacob 
married Damaris Hopkins, died 1676 ; Hester 
married Richard Wright, inheriting the old home- 
stead at Cooke's Hollow, Kingston, Plymouth, 
New England ; Mary married John Thompson ; 
Jane married Experience Mitchell ; Elizabeth 
seems to have remained unmarried. The above 
particulars have been supplied by Miss Mary 
Cooke of Sandwich, Massachusetts, a descen- 
dant of the son Josias. Ex-President Taft is a 
descendant of the daughter Jane. 

In 1634 the affection between the two brothers 
is shown in John's leaving London, crossing the 
Atlantic and taking the house next to Francis 
in Ley den Street, Boston. He is called " John 
Cooke, sen.," in the list of ratepayers for that 
year, so there is no confusing him with his son 
John. He became a member of the East India 
Company in 1619. He is mentioned in the 
will of his cousin, John Parker, merchant of 
St. Antholin's Parish, London, 1627. After 
that no further trace of him in London can be 

Francis Cooke occupied important positions in 
the new colony. Like so many of his great 
English kinsmen, he was called upon repeatedly 
to administer justice. Several times he arbi- 
trated in disputes. As with all the other early 
settlers, he took part in the most practical 
affairs of the colony, and for a while was a com- 
missioner for laying out roads. It is said he 


spent a considerable estate in promoting the 
success of the colony. 

In the first book of Old Colony Records, p. 1, 
is a map of Leyden Street, with names of the 
inhabitants, where he appears as " Francies 
Cooke." A last glance at the Records reveals 
" Francis Cooke taking John Harman, weaver, as 
apprentice." It would seem that even across 
the sea he kept up his connection with the loom. 
Perhaps this was due to his little French wife, 
who liked to hear its music, recalling as it did 
the old days and the old songs. Francis Cooke 
died in 1663. He had founded no great order 
as did Francis of Assisi ; but he, too, was will- 
ing to forsake all and follow where God led. And 
right manfully he helped in the forming of a 
continent and of " a great people." 



STEPNEY was once the residential quarter for 
London merchants. It was the home of the 
Huguenot silk weavers ; the place where Erasmus 
visited Dean Colet ; and the parish of all born 
at sea. 

Here Samuel Fuller, the third child of Nicholas 
Fuller, was born. In the Guildhall, London, is 
an old will dated 1390, in which John Clenhand 
mentions Agnes, daughter of Nicholas le Fuller, 
plainly showing the origin of the name. Nicholas 
Fuller of Stepney was a barrister admitted to 
Grays Inn in 1587 ; he became Treasurer to the 
Inn in 1591. In 1601 he was Member of Parlia- 
ment for St. Mawes, a pocket borough in Corn- 
wall. The place has an interesting little link 
with the adventure of the Mayflower because 
the two principal families in it, the Parkers and 
the Killigrews, were cousins to Francis Cooke. 
The Killigrews founded the town of Falmouth. 

In 1604 Nicholas Fuller went to live at 
" Warley Franks," an old house still standing. 
It is near North Ockenden, Essex, only seven 
miles from Gidea Hall, and the same distance 





Sabbath days, after the sermon ended, sojourn- 
ing to the house of Mr. Jacklee in Yarmouth, 
joyned with him in repeating the substance and 
the heads of the sermon. Brought prisoner to 
Lambeth, as also Richard Mansell, preacher." ' 

For his brave defence of these men, Nicholas 
Fuller was made to suffer. In the letters of John 
Chamberlain, which are in the Record Office, he 
is mentioned several times. By December 7, 
1607, Fuller is represented as having paid the 
fines imposed, but it is stated that : " There are 
submissions which he cannot digest." On Jan- 
uary 7, 1608, like Barrowe, he was taken in a 
boat from the Tower to Lambeth to appear 
before the Archbishop. On being set at liberty, 
John Chamberlain says he was so " frolic," and 
so eager to see wife and children again, that he 
could not wait to travel down as far as London 
Bridge to cross the river, that being the only 
bridge in those days, but actually crossed the 
river on foot by jumping the blocks of ice 
floating in the stream, although between sixty 
and seventy years old, and weakened by prison 

It is worth trying to picture the scene. The 
great grey building of the Prison Palace ; the 
fast flowing river, angry at the unusual obstacles 
in its course ; the old man, just free from prison 
life, his long hair streaming in the wind, pausing 
in mid stream, to balance himself before springing 

1 Vide Chapter XI, p. 117. Also Chronicles of the Old Congrega- 
tional Church, Great Yarmouth, pp. 8, 8, and 27. 


to another resting place. At last the opposite 
shore is reached, he has won through, as his chil- 
dren were destined to do in another matter in 
after years. In a few minutes he is at Charing 
Cross, soon afterwards at Bishopsgate Street, 
where at the Bull Inn, near the house of Anthony 
Bacon, the Cambridge coach started, driven by 
Hobson, of " Hobson's Choice " fame. The coach 
would stop at the White Hart, Brentwood. 
Thirty years ago, an old ostler living there 
could remember the coaching days, and how 
seventy-two coaches stopped there every day. 
Forty years after Nicholas Fuller's time, Lady 
Warwick complained of the roughness of this 
inn, likening it to life's journey. Fifty coach 
horses and fifteen post horses were always kept 
in readiness. The old Puritan lawyer, having got 
so far on his journey, would soon reach his home 
at "Warley Franks." But he did not enjoy 
his freedom long. He was again arrested, and 
this time when released it was to cross another 
river to a fuller liberty. He died at the age of 
seventy-seven. Such was the stock from which 
Samuel Fuller sprang. At what medical school 
he was trained has not been ascertained, the 
registers of some not going back so far. He was 
a widower when quite young ; his first wife being, 
it is thought, Alice Glasscock, of Bow. 

It was in the year of his father's release from 
the Tower that Samuel, together with his sister 
Susanna and brother Edward, left Stepney for 
Holland. This departure was made at the same 


time as that of the Nottinghamshire group. 
There may have been connecting links. We note, 
for example, that William Brewster, of Scrooby, 
as Secretary to Davison had spent some time in 
London, and that the brothers Hamerton of 
Nottingham were afterwards in London. 

In Holland, as already noted, the exiles had 
to take to manual labour. Samuel Fuller be- 
came a weaver. Nor was the physician the only 
professional man to turn mechanic in further- 
ance of the great cause. During the twelve years 
that he lived there he was twice married ; first 
to Agnes Carpenter, and afterwards to Bridget 
Lee, who survived him. He was deacon of the 
Leyden Church, where John Robinson was pastor. 

Note this little family party on embarking on 
the Mayflower. First comes the doctor, then 
sister Susan, or "Anna" as she was generally 
called, with her husband, William White, and a 
son ; next brother Edward, his wife Ann, and 
their boy Samuel. Samuel's wife, Bridget, joined 
the Pilgrims some time after. We shall meet 
with Susan again as wife of Governor Winslow; 
but for the present they are a family party of 
seven, with several other relatives. The old 
father had been dead some time ; but perhaps 
there would be there Anna's twin brother, 
Nicholas, the Snows, the Saffins, and the young 
brother Dowse, who were to follow later, and other 
good Stepney folk to wish them " good-bye." 

It is a delightfully interesting phrase that 
William Bradford uses of Samuel Fuller when 


he passed away : "He died in the end after he 
had much helped others." But, as we stand 
back from the canvas of bygone years, we can see 
several other pictures in which Samuel Fuller is 
the central figure. First, on his rounds of mercy 
aboard the Mayflower, with its life and death, 
major and minor illnesses, we hear him giving 
sage advice as English autumn weather is replaced 
by almost Arctic cold. Then how busy would he 
be with those forty-four fatal cases, which were to 
be thrown on his hands before milder conditions 
came and the singing of the birds brought him 
relief! Later scenes show him helping sick 
Indians, visiting other colonists, taking his part 
in building houses and stores and the Grand 
Fort. Again : " On the visit of Winthrop and 
the Rev. John Wilson of Boston, N.E., late of 
Steeple Bumstead, Essex, England, to Ply- 
mouth, N.E., the deacon, Mr. Fuller, put the 
congregation in mind of their duty to contri- 
bute, upon which the Governor and all the rest 
went down to the deacon's seat, and put into the 
box and then returned." Samuel Fuller was one 
of the noblest of the Mayflower group, with a 
gentle tolerance and a wide outlook on life, of 
which one indication is found in his friendship 
with Roger Williams. 

The " Beloved Physician " died in 1633, aged 
about fifty-nine. His descendants are through 
his son, Samuel. The place of his burial is un- 
known, and no memorial in his native Stepney 
perpetuates his stainless name ; but he gave to 


the American nation, not only in its early days, 
gentle firmness, sympathetic helpfulness, and 
heroic devotion ; but also for all time, a name 
and a tradition worthy of being inscribed on the 
honour roll of the world's healers. 



THE stocking frame was invented by William 
Lee of Calverton, Nottinghamshire, and on it a 
fine pair of silken hose was woven for Queen 
Elizabeth. On that same frame years later lace 
was made, to be afterwards embroidered by 
hand. Queen Catherine had taught lace making 
in the neighbouring counties of Huntingdonshire, 
Bedfordshire, and Northamptonshire; and even 
till somewhat recent years lace makers kept her 
fete day on December 6, sending round their 
Cattern l cakes and pies. 

The making of pillow lace soon followed Queen 
Catherine's point lace, or bone lace, as it was 
called, from its bone bobbins. The net for the 
embroiderers was made on the pillows till the 
stockinger came to the help of the lace maker. 
Puritans did not entirely discard the wearing of 
lace. Even Oliver Cromwell used it occasion- 
ally, and certainly the Puritan women took the 
art of lace making with them to America. In 
the eighteenth century much fine lace was made 

1 The name given to a special cake and is a corruption of 
Catherine. It occurs in the epilogue of Dry den's tragedy, 
Tyrranic Love, founded on the legend of St. Catherine. 





in Long Island. This union of the practical and 
the beautiful in Nottinghamshire was typical of 
much in the Puritan character. 

While Nottingham was preparing for her great 
industry, the Puritans were beginning to perfect 
their plans for a new condition of life, a new 
world indeed, well nigh a new race of mankind. 

In our pilgrimage to lace land, let us go to 
Broxtowe Hall. Its discovery was not an easy 
task. Old tradesmen had never heard of it ; 
of two public officials, one said that he had 
heard of the place but he could give no indica- 
tion as to its whereabouts ; the other said that 
it was four miles away and could not be reached 
either by tram or train. A leading Nonconformist 
minister in the city asked if it was near London. 

It was, however, marked on the map, and 
with the help of a tram, followed by a two miles' 
tramp, the goal was reached. The road was 
straight over a bridge, a railway crossing, and past 
a coal pit with its huge mounds of slag. Inquiring 
the direction from a shopkeeper, he replied : " It's 
a long, long way " ; whilst another person said : 
"It is not so far ; keep on and you will come 
to the Barley and Corn, then turn sharp to 
the left." Ten minutes' walk down Broxtowe 
Lane, and there it was 1 It looked like a dream 
house. Not a human being was in sight, nor 
was a sound to be heard. The old archway is 
much more ancient than the house, the former 
standing only about six yards beyond the iron 


The present building is really but a remnant, 
and it is quite uncertain which part dates back 
to the time of Queen Elizabeth. Traces of the 
moat may be seen, and the garden at the side is 
still called the Chapel Garden. 

Before the Conquest, Broxtowe belonged to 
Earl Cedric ; centuries later, Sir Hugh de Wil- 
loughby lived here. He was a famous explorer 
and an intimate friend of Sebastian Cabot. The 
latter drew up thirty-three articles for the voyage, 
the object of which was the discovery of Cathay, 
which Willoughby undertook, and from which 
he never returned. They contained instructions 
for *' morning and evening prayer," with other 
common services, appointed by the King's 
majesty "to be reade and saide in every ship 
daily." There were also warnings against " card- 
ing, dicing and other such divelish games." The 
fateful expedition had an unexampled send off 
from Greenwich, just about the time when 
Edward VI was seized with his last illness. 

Lucy Hutchinson speaks twice in her journal 
of Broxtowe Hall having to be defended against 
the Royalists during the Civil War. The com- 
mander of the fort for some time was Captain 
Thornhough, a Puritan in religious principles, 
around whose name a. stirring romance gathers. 
He is said to have rescued from violation Agnes 
Willoughby, the daughter of the occupier of 
Aspley Hall, a Royalist and a Papist. The whole 
country was then infested with gangs of men, 
half soldiers, and half robbers, and as Agnes was 


returning from Bilborough she was attacked by 
three ruffians. The captain, who heard cries, 
went to her assistance and shot one of the assail- 
ants, whereupon the other two made off. 

A strong attachment sprang up between res- 
cuer and rescued, but their love for each other 
was overmastered by their hatred of each other's 
creed. 1 During an attack on Shelford and 
Wiverton, Thornhough received a bullet in his 
breast from which he died. His lady love was 
heartbroken. She resolved never to marry, but 
to give herself to prayer, fasting, and almsgiving. 
She kept her word, and died, expecting to meet 
the Puritan where creeds do not divide. 

Nor are these the only stirring pages in the 
history of the locality. In 1831 the Broxtowe 
ratepayers were fined 21,000 for the firing of 
Nottingham Castle, which was done as a protest 
against the Duke of Newcastle's opposition to 
the Reform Bill. But long before either of these 
events " Brocul " had its share in matters of im- 
portance : for when King Alfred divided the 
country into its present counties, it was made 
one of the six wapentakes for Nottinghamshire, 
and all the men of the city and district were 
accustomed to appear here and touch their 
weapons in token of allegiance. 

There used to be an avenue of elm trees from 
beyond Broxtowe to Nottingham, showing the 
way of approach from the town ; the road I 

1 Mellor'a In and about Nottinghamshire, p. 309. 
3 Vide Longfellow' " Sonnet to Tennyson." 


traversed was then only a bridle path. The 
natives of Broxtowe also speak of a subterranean 
passage to Nottingham Castle, which would not 
be surprising, for beneath the old city is a perfect 
labyrinth of passages and cave dwellings. 

But we are not so much concerned with Saxon 
or Norman knights as with the Puritan, Thomas 
Helwys, and his brave wife, Joan. Stepping 
inside the gate of Broxtowe, to get a better view 
of the old house, with its trim lawns, I stood 
beneath the ancient arch, under which many 
saints of former days passed. Among them were 
John Robinson and the Whites from Sturton-le- 
Steeple ; William Brewster from Scrooby ; Wil- 
liam Bradford from Austerfield ; Richard Clifton 
from Babworth; and William Hamerton from 
Nottingham. John Smyth of Gainsborough was 
nursed here when " weak and near to death." 
Broxtowe was in fact the rendezvous for all the 
Puritans, its hospitable doors being always open. 

Respecting Helwys John Robinson said: "It 
was Mr. Helwiss who above all other guides or 
others furthered this passage into strange coun- 
tries, and if any brought oars, he brought sails, 
as I could show in many particulars, and as all 
that were acquainted with the manner of our 
coming over can witness with me." Thus lonely 
Broxtowe comes into close touch with the 
United States of America. 

Thomas Helwys married Joan Ashmore from 
the adjoining parish of Bilboro. He had to 
escape hurriedly to Holland to avoid arrest, but 


the wife Joan was not so fortunate, and was 
imprisoned in York Castle. At the end of three 
months she appeared before the justices, but 
bravely refused to submit, and according to the 
law of those days should have suffered banish- 
ment. No mention, however, of her being in 
Holland has been found, neither is her burial 
recorded at Bilboro. Where are the vaults of 
the Ashmores and the Helwyses ? It may be 
she died in the foul York Prison. 

Resuming my pilgrimage, I reached Notting- 
ham's famous market place. Ignoring the lure 
of Standard Hill, and Byron's lodging place and 
all the other rich historical associations of " the 
Queen of the Midlands," I took my stand in 
sight of the " Long Row," where the Puritan 
women did their shopping, and thought of John 
Robinson as he rode through this great market 
on the way to his wedding. 

I had often wondered if there was any faint 
memory left of the stirring times of the Puritans, 
and if it would be possible to come across such, 
practically in the shadow of the old castle. 
Turning down a narrow passage leading to St. 
Peter's Church with this in view, I found at a 
bookstall a man named Appleton. " Yes," he 
exclaimed in answer to my inquiry, " I belong 
to the Appleton family, some of whom went 
over to New England in Puritan times." Then 
after further particulars he concluded : " What 
I say is this. Puritans made the name of Eng- 
land feared ; and what is more," bringing his 


brawny fist down vigorously on the palm of the 
other hand added : " Puritans made the name 
of England respected." It was delightful to 
meet with such a strong breeze in the old place. 

But John Robinson more particularly took 
possession of my thoughts. I recalled sitting, in 
bygone days in Friar Lane Church, Nottingham, 
one Sunday morning and reading some lines in the 
Leeds Hymn Book, heading one of the hymns. 
I wondered then who John Robinson was, little 
thinking that Nottinghamshire would one day be 
able to claim him as one of her illustrious sons, 
or that he had passed within a stone's throw of 
where I sat. Immediately in front of me sat 
Annie Matheson, who wrote " Jesus, the children 
are calling," and to my right Jemima Taylor, 
the sister of Jane and Ann Taylor of Ongar. It 
was an atmosphere redolent with the best in 
modern English Puritanism. When coming across 
a picture of John Robinson praying on the sands 
at Delfshaven, in the midst of his weeping flock, 
he became still more real. Since then, his words 
have often been with me : " God hath still more 
light to break forth from His Holy Word." 

John Robinson was born about the year 1575 
in the village of Sturton-le-Steeple, Nottingham- 
shire. Since the finding of his father's will by 
the Rev. James Burgess that point may now be 
regarded as settled. Educated at Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge, where he was afterwards a 
Fellow till 1603, he became curate of St. Andrews, 
Norwich, and gathered round him there many 





close friends, some of whom followed him to 
Holland. It was while at Norwich that he 
married the friend of his childhood, Bridget 
White. The marriage took place at Greasley, 
only a few miles from Broxtowe. The bride's 
parents had passed away, and probably she was 
married from the old home of Richard Clifton, 
whose name occurs several times in the register. 
The entry runs : " Feb. 15, 1603, Mr. John 
Robynson to Mistress Bridget White." The pre- 
fixes " Mr." and " Mistress " are significant, being 
used in these old registers in special cases only. 

It was while he was resident at Norwich also 
that their two eldest children were born. The 
retirement from Norwich seems to have been a 
compulsory one. 1 It was not till 1607 that John 
Robinson became assistant to Richard Clifton, 
at the newly formed church at Scrooby. 

A walk of a mile westwards from East Ret- 
ford leads to Babworth, where Richard Clifton 
was minister. Doubtless there are many spots in 
England sacred to the cause of liberty, but there 
are none more so than the hamlet of Babworth, 
where Richard Clifton inspired three brave leaders 
in the great cause John Robinson, William 
Brewster, and William Bradford. Some have 
thought that the whole Pilgrim movement had 
its inception here, but that is to claim too much. 
Babworth, however, may be regarded as the 
training place of eminent Pilgrim leaders. 

A footpath through a park brings us to church 

1 Burrago, Pastor of the Pilgrim Fathers, p. 26. 


and rectory. Close by runs the sparkling little 
river Idle, and it was to this sylvan retreat that 
William Bradford, as a lad, walked twenty miles 
on the Sabbath day to listen to the good rector. 
What was there about the man that could draw 
a youth so far ; that enabled him to wield an 
influence so wondrously powerful over men des- 
tined to achievements so glorious ? He is said to 
.have been a very fatherly man and to have had 
a long beard which soon grew white. But what 
is more to the point, he taught that " the right 
of conscience, the right of private judgment, was 
of the very essence of Protestantism." 

Sturton-le- Steeple is no great distance. It owes 
the latter part of its name to the twelve pinnacles 
which surrounded the parapet of the tower. Little 
did its builders dream that one day the gaze of 
the English speaking world would be turned to 
that quiet village. Rome may be said to have 
become the home of Protestantism when the 
Light of Freedom came to Luther as he climbed 
the Scala Santa on his knees; Sturton as the 
home of John Robinson has a similar honour in 
the struggle for liberty. 

Sturton was also the home of the Whites. 
One may imagine the four sisters tripping along 
the old Priest's Causeway on some summer 
morning, clad in white homespun linen, with 
dainty lace at neck and wrists. The father in his 
will left to each of them " one hundred marks 
of lawful English money." The mother, whose 
will was proved August 2, 1599, left Katherine, 


then married, "ten pounds, two payre of linen 
sheets, one long needlework cushion, and two 
payre of pillowbeares " ; to Bridget, " fifty 
pounds, two payre of linen sheets, two payre 
tablecloths " ; to Janie, " one silver spoon, two 
payre of linen sheets, two payre of pillowbeares." 
These three all went to Holland, as did their 
brothers, Thomas and Roger. 

A pleasant drive across country brings us to 
far famed Scrooby. It is situated on the Great 
North Road, midway between London and Scot- 
land. I do not know where John and Bridget 
Robinson lived while here, probably they lodged 
with William Brewster. I wandered over the 
old Manor House which he occupied and peeped 
into its great barns, but no sleeping echo awoke 
to speak of the past. The secrets of the old 
house are well hidden, but not so its influences, 
they live on. 

The formation of the Scrooby Church with 
Clifton as pastor and Robinson as teacher, about 
1607, was an event of capital importance in 
the history of the Pilgrim movement. The 
Church did not enjoy immunity from perse- 
cution. Former afflictions, indeed, were as 
nothing compared with what now came to them. 
Yet were they not dismayed, rather, they cove- 
nanted with each other : " To walk in all His 
ways, made known, or to be made known unto 
them, according to their best endeavours, what- 
soever it should cost them, the Lord assisting them." 

That the Scrooby fraternity maintained its 


organisation at all was due in large measure to 
the noble hearted William Brewster. Born in 
the village of Scrooby in 1566, he was for some 
time assistant to Queen Elizabeth's Secretary of 
State, Davison, and when the keys of Flushing 
were delivered to Her Majesty's Ambassador, 
William Brewster slept with them beneath his 
pillow. The attachment between the two men 
was very great. On the eve of his return to 
England, Davison was presented with a golden 
chain, which he placed on the neck of Brewster, 
requesting him to wear it until their arrival at 
court. Davison, however, falling under the dis- 
pleasure of Elizabeth on account of the death 
warrant of Mary, Queen of Scots, Brewster re- 
turned home about 1588, and on the death of his 
father, a year later, became postmaster, a very 
responsible position in those days. He was a 
Cambridge man by education, and, having learnt 
much by study and experience, he began to wor- 
ship God according to the guidance of the Bible 
and the dictates of conscience. Gathering to- 
gether a company of like minded friends, he 
threw open the old Manor House for worship, 
and in it the Church was formed. Then it was 
that John Robinson became assistant minister. 
Brewster was content to occupy a second place 
all his life. He was a quiet, noble soul. He 
had means which he used freely for the cause he 
loved. He worked as a printer for his living 
while in Holland. In New England, when there 
was no minister, he preached twice every Sun- 


day, " powerfully and profitably." He studied 
Hebrew when quite an old man as a help to the 
understanding of the Bible. 

Associated with this little company was Wil- 
liam Bradford, the Pilgrim Historian, and oft 
elected Governor of New England. He was a 
Yorkshire man, born at Austerfield in 1590. The 
following is scarcely the language we expect from 
a youth of seventeen : " To keep a good con- 
science and walk in such a way as God had 
prescribed in His Word, is a thing which I shall 
prefer above you all, and above life itself." 
Such, however, was William Bradford's state- 
ment in the Scrooby days. He remained the 
stalwart the words suggest till his death in New 
England, May 9, 1657. 

John Robinson became sole minister of the 
Church when it was at Leyden. The preceding 
years had been preparing him for the great work 
of his life, which was not so much the planning 
of the departure for America, as the training of 
the men who were to found the New World. 
He moulded and stamped them with his own 
character. That is why they were of gentler 
spirit than the stern men who followed later. 

But I am lingering long in the old garden. 
The first time I visited Scrooby was in company 
with a happy band of Americans. I can still 
hear their song as we wended our way to the 
station : 

" John Robinson's body lies a-mouldering in the grave, 
BuMiis soul goes marching on." 



" BILLERICAY " is a name that has long puzzled 
the curious and the learned. There is no doubt 
that the Romans encamped here, and that 
Alfred the Great approached it during his struggle 
with the Danes ; but no trace of association with 
either appears in the name Bill-er-ic-ay. To-day 
the little town is exactly in the form of the letter 
Y. Its one street leads up from the railway 
station by a steady incline, and then divides 
into two, just where the Church of St. Mary 
Magdalen stands. 

Billericay is pleasantly situated on the high- 
way between Chelmsford and Tilbury Docks, 
north to south ; and is distant about twenty 
miles from the metropolis. It was a very busy 
centre in the old coaching days, and, as late as 
the year 1830, had a silk industry. But it is not 
because of Roman remains, the blast of the 
coachman's horn, or the whirr of the loom that 
Billericay claims attention just now ; rather is 
it because of the honoured place won by its sons 
and daughters in the annals of the race. Is 
there something in the air of this locality that 



has given to so many of its men and women the 
power of private judgment, and grit enough to 
live out its conclusions ? Was there some subtle 
alkali in its wells that made those who drank of 
them far seeing in vision, strong and pure of 
heart to pursue what they saw ? 

Standing where the road divides, mark the 
heroes of old as they pass. First comes a crowd 
of farm labourers belonging to the fourteenth 
century ; Billericay is the place where Essex 
men made their second stand during the Pea- 
sant Revolt. In after years is a vaster crowd 
of different mien ; they are hurrying to Billeri- 
cay as the headquarters of the Essex Lollards ; 
no mere rioters or malcontents, and 500 horses 
are needed to draw their baggage. But it is 
treason to ask for a fairer or freer England as yet, 
so these are all ruthlessly butchered by soldiers 
and their goods confiscated. Nearly a century 
later appears a notable and daring soul. It is 
godly Miles Coverdale on his way to the Billeri- 
cay Parish Church, Burstead. As a young man, 
while still a priest, he spoke at Steeple Bum- 
stead against the confessional and the worship- 
ping of images. But his arch crime was the deter- 
mination to provide an English Bible for the 
people. With John Rogers of Chigwell, who was 
afterwards martyred, and of whose descendants 
we shall hear more presently, he had assisted 
Tyndale in the translation of the New Testa- 
ment. England, indeed, owed to Miles Cover- 
dale the first translation of the whole Bible into 


the mother tongue. Coverdale with the passing 
years grew more deeply attached to his Protes- 
tant principles ; and when Mary ascended the 
throne he had to flee to the continent, his wife 
accompanying him disguised as a servant. On 
the death of Mary he returned to England and 
was buried on February 19, 1568, in the chancel 
of St. Bartholomew Church, London. 

Several other worthies approach. John Tyrrel, 
for example, a convert of Hugh Latimer, is on 
his way to prison. Thomas Brice, author of a 
Poetical Register of Martyrs, hurries into exile. 
Next appear " Joan Homes, Elizabeth Thack- 
well and Margaret Ellis, three maidens of Billeri- 
cay and Great Burstead," all of whom were even- 
tually burnt at Smithfield. Of these, mere children 
apparently, we know little save of the first. She 
appeared before the terrible Bonner, Bishop of 
London, on April 14, 1556, and told her perse- 
cutors that " being eleven years of age she 
began to learn the faith set forth in King 
Edward's reign, in the which faith and religion, 
she said, she had hitherto, and yet doth, and 
will continue hereafter, God helping her." Being 
charged with not believing the sacrament of 
Christ's body and blood, she boldly answered : 
" If you can make your God to shed blood, or 
to show any condition of a true lively body, 
then I will believe you ; but it is but bread, 
and that which you call heresy I trust to serve 
my God in." 

Two others in trouble from the same cause, 


about the same time, were Jane, wife of Hugh 
Potter, and James Harris, the servant of William 
Harris of Broomhill. Of Jane nothing is known 
beyond the fact of her arrest. She either re- 
canted or died. Harris was a mere stripling of 
seventeen, but like his contemporary, William 
Hunter of Brentwood, he proved that Protestant 
courage was safe with youth. The crime of 
which he was charged was that of '* not having 
been to his parish church by the space of one 
year or more." This he admitted, saying that 
once for fear he had been at the church, and at 
the altar had received the Popish sacrament, for 
which he was " heartily sorry," detesting the 
same with all his heart. Bonner commanded 
him to go to confession. To this he consented, 
but when he came to the priest he stood still 
and said nothing. " Thou must confess thy sins," 
said the priest. " My sins," he replied, " be so 
many that they cannot be numbered." With 
this the priest, so he informed Bonner, took the 
lad into his garden, and with a rod gathered out 
of a cherry tree " did most cruelly whip him." 

But the palm for local heroism must be given 
to Thomas Watts, "worthy Watee," as he is 
called by Brice, in his Register. By occupation 
he was a draper in somewhat prosperous circum- 
stances, and evidently no mean preacher of the 
faith he professed. He had a considerable fol- 
lowing, but he was apprehended in 1555. Just 
before his arrest he had " sold and made away 
with all the cloth in his shop, and dispersed his 


things to his wife and children, and given much 
away to the poor, for he looked always to be 
taken." He appeared before Bonner on May 2, 
1555, and after three examinations was con- 
demned and sent to Newgate. On June 9 
following he was conveyed to Chelmsford. On 
his arrival there he was taken to an inn 1 where 
he met with four other prisoners, Thomas Hawkes, 
Nicholas Chamberlain, Thomas Osmond, and 
William Bainford, who, like himself, had been 
sentenced to death ; Hawkes suffered next day at 
Coggeshall ; Chamberlain five days after at Col- 
chester ; Osmond six days later at Manningtree ; 
and Bainford on the same day as Osmond at 
Harwich. That night they all supped together, 
after which they joined in prayer. Then Watts 
went to pray privately, and coming to his wife 
and six children said : " Wife and my good chil- 
dren, I must now depart from you. As the 
Lord has given you unto me, so I give you again 
unto the Lord, whom I charge you see you do 
obey and fear Him ; and beware ye turn not to 
this abominable papacy against the which I 
shall anon, by God's grace, give my blood. Let 
not the murdering of God's saints cause you to 
relent, but take occasion thereby to be stronger 
in the Lord's quarrel. I doubt not He will be a 
merciful Father unto you." Two of his chil- 
dren, it is said, offered to be burnt with him. 

Taking the most northerly of the two roads 
that form the letter Y, we pass up a gentle incline 

i The old Lion Inn. 


where the old mill stands ; silent witness of many 
a scene one would fain recall. The road now de- 
scends through pleasant country, bounded in the 
distance by the charming Laindon Hills, and then 
climbs the ascent to the Parish Church of Great 
Burstead. Here the antiquarian, architect or 
student, will find many things to his taste and 
worth remembering. From the tower, if the day 
be clear, it is possible to look down upon the 
spot where the good King Sebert is buried, and 
out upon a beautiful sweep of country. But of 
far deeper interest to the lover of things human 
is this simple annal of a brave woman in the 
Parish Register : " Elizabeth Watts, widow of 
Thomas Watts, the blessed martyr of God, who 
for witnessing suffered his martyrdom in the fires 
of Chelmsford the 22nd of May in the reign of 
Queen Mary, was buried this tenth day of July 
1599. Having lived a widow after his death 
and made a good end like a good Christian woman 
in God." 

Hurrying back to the memory haunted streets 
of Billericay, let us imagine ourselves there in 
the year 1619. Matters have mended somewhat 
since Watts died. The accession of Queen Eliza- 
beth came like September rains after the fierce 
summer drought of Mary's supremacy only to 
decline into an October of disillusionment and a 
winter of bitter persecution and tyranny under 
King James I. 

Some Parish Churches in Essex were at this time 
generous enough in their sympathies to embrace 


Christians of widely divergent creeds. Notably 
was this the case at Prittlewell under the saintly 
Samuel Smith ; but William Pease, vicar of Great 
Burstead at the time, was of another spirit. The 
prelatic spirit of James I, which issued in the 
malicious persecution of the Puritans and the 
even more vindictive treatment of those drifting 
towards Separatism, found in Pease a willing 
exponent. In March 1619 he caused several of 
his parishioners to be summoned before the 
Archidiaconal Court. William Farrington was 
cited for " suffering his son to be scurrilous " 
when he came to be catechised. On asking him 
who gave him his name, he answered, his father. 
" Whereupon," says Pease, " he asked me whether 
I would have him tell a lye, and whether a lye 
were a sinne, and so catechised me.*' Farring- 
ton was also charged with not sending his maid 
to be catechised. Thomas Pirke was summoned 
for " suffering his servant to answer him undulie 
and contrarie to the form of the catechism set 
down in the Common Booke," and for " not 
sending his maid servant also to be catechised." 
Solomon Prower was summoned for refusing to 
answer him at all, " unless," Pease says, " I would 
ask him some other question." We shall see 
more of this man Prower as we shall of his sister- 
in-law, Marie Prower. But it is to a fellow de- 
linquent of this time, Christopher Martin, who 
was summoned for " allowing his son to answer 
his father gave him his name," that Billericay 
will turn with most pride in days to come. 







[Photo A. Wool/ord, F.R.P.S. 


We do not know as much of him as we could 
wish ; but, as Goodwin remarks, the man who 
was commissioned to assist in provisioning the 
May flower t and who commanded the implicit 
confidence of men like John Carver, John Robin- 
son and others, is entitled to no small mark of 
respect. It has been generally supposed that 
Martin only joined the Pilgrims at London. But 
this is a mistake. The Billericay Congregational 
Church records indicate that he was for some 
time a member of the Church at Leyden. His 
real character has all too long been overshadowed 
by the reflections of the weakly, uncharitable, 
and easily gulled Robert Cushman. 1 Any im- 
partial reader will note how carefully Carver and 
Martin had to act to prevent the Pilgrims from 
being exploited by the unscrupulous Merchant 
Adventurer, Thomas Weston. 

Two scenes in Billericay are worth attention. 
The first is that of a country wedding. There 
are no leaves on the trees, nor any flowers lining 
the banks, such as in May delight the visitor 
to these scenes. 'Tis the 26th day of " Fill 
Dyke " February, 1607. " Christopher Martin, 
single-man," and " Marie Prower, widow,'* pass 
through the streets of Billericay and are married 
at the beautiful old Parish Church of Great Bur- 
stead. The entry in the Register is very clear. 
Their solemn words, " till death us do part," 
seem to linger still where those who uttered them 

1 Vide hia letter written from Plymouth, Bradford'! History, 
pp. 86-90. 


once stood. Little did they dream then that 
they would be parted during a much worse 
winter far away in a strange land, and their 
mortal remains laid to rest where the Atlantic 
breakers roll. 

Now for the second scene. It is sultry August, 
1620. The bridegroom of thirteen years ago has 
become a man to be trusted in matters of urgent 
moment. His son, too, as we have seen, is of 
age to know the significance of his father's re- 
ligion. Christopher Martin has arranged for the 
Mayflower to pick up his goods and his party 
either at Leigh-on-Sea " where tall ships do 
ride," and where in 1594 a thousand soldiers em- 
barked for Holland, or perchance at Sandwich, 
one of the Cinque Ports, just round the Nore on 
the Kent side. There is a thrill, not all of joy, 
running through many an Essex household the 
night before embarking. As the shades gather 
around quaint Billericay four figures meet in 
silence Christopher Martin, his wife Marie, our 
old friend Solomon Prower, and the mystery 
man of the party, John Langerman. They 
mount a waggon ; the moon climbs up the sky ; 
they take a last glance at " Home " ; the old 
patriot, martyr spirits rise up to bid them God 
speed ; and away into the history of future years 
rumbles Billericay's fourfold contribution to the 
Mayflower Pilgrims. 



" I HAVE found it to be a real truth that the 
very sitting by the river's side is the greatest and 
fittest place for contemplation." That is what 
quaint Izaak Walton said, and certainly he had 
plenty of experience of that kind, having sat by 
many streams. 

We are now by the banks of the Chelmer in 
Chelmsford, Essex. If, as is sometimes said, 
Cambridge was the home of the Puritans, it was 
at Chelmsford that the home was planned. 
Emmanuel College, Cambridge, was where Puri- 
tanism was fostered, giving a tone to all the 
other colleges, and it was Sir Walter Mildmay, of 
Danbury, Chelmsford, who built and endowed 
that College. Ninety Cambridge University men 
went over to New England as the result of Laud's 
persecution. Queen Elizabeth said to Mildmay, 
" I hear you have created a Puritan foundation." 
" No, madam," was the answer, " far be it from 
me to countenance anything contrary to your 
established laws. But I have set an acorn, 
which, when it becomes an oak, God alone knows 



what will be the fruit thereof." 1 New England 
may well be said to have been the " fruit." 
Cotton Mather said: "If New England hath 
been in some respects Immanuel's Land, it is 
well, but this I am sure of, Emmanuel College 
contributed more than a little to make it so." 
Sir Walter's portrait is in the College. 

Walking through the town as far as the 
Bishop's Bridge, and looking down the stream 
in each direction, one catches a glimpse of 
scenes that must have been familiar to Mildmay. 
That old half timbered house was once the home 
of the Rogers family, in whose possession it had 
been for centuries. It is not only connected 
with the martyr and his grandson, but also with 
John Harvard. In 1639 Harvard endowed the 
first College, which still bears his name, at Cam- 
bridge, New England. To it he gave his library 
and the half of his estate. His mother was 
Katherine Rogers, connected with the same 
Chelmsford family. Stepping inside and imagin- 
ing ourselves back in the seventeenth century, 
three young women will be seen coming in to bid 
the family farewell before sailing for the New 
World, where their brothers Joseph and John 
have already settled. Their names are Mary, 
Margaret, and Milcas. We know of them through 
their father only, William Kelway, whose will 
is dated 1650. One became the wife of a Gilbert 

1 Laud's own testimony as to its importance is quite clear. 
He says that " Emmanuel and Sidney Colleges are the nurseries 
of Puritanism." 


Montague; Milcas married Thomas Snow of 
Stepney; and Mary, William Lane of Stepney. 
All six were living in Boston, New England, when 
the will was made. There is surely a romance 
connected with these names. Two of the sisters 
owned property in Rayleigh, Essex. Did they 
know Sarah Carey of Moulsham? They were 
probably girls together, and certainly knew each 
other when Sarah became Mrs. John Jenny, wife 
of the miller on the town brook in the same city 
of Boston, where they were quite near neighbours. 
It is necessary to go through a tangle of 
streets in search of what is now Chelmsford 
Cathedral. Here preached Thomas Hooker, who 
afterwards, by the wisdom of his legislation for 
New England, laid the foundations of* the pre- 
sent government of the United States. The 
Cathedral has been almost rebuilt since his time, 
but the tower is old, and he must often have 
passed through the doorway beneath. His suc- 
cess was wonderful, " without parallel in any 
county." Hear the testimony of an opponent 
concerning him. Samuel Collins, vicar of Brain- 
tree, in a letter to Laud's Chancellor says : " His 
genius will haunt all the pulpits in this country 
where any of his scholars may be permitted to 
preach, and there be divers young ministers 
about that spend their time in conference with 
him and return home and preach what he hath 
brewed. I have lived in Essex to see many 
changes, and have seen the people idolising many 
new ministers and lecturers, but this man sur- 


passes them all for learning, and gains more and 
far greater followers than all before him." 

Then in a later letter he writes : " This will 
prove a leading case. All men's tongues in 
London are taken up with plotting and expect- 
ing what will be the conclusion of Mr. Hooker's 
business. It drowns the noise of the great ques- 
tion of poundage and tonnage. If he be once 
quietly gone my lord hath overcome the greatest 
difficulty in governing this part of his diocese." 

Owing to his Nonconformity, Hooker was 
obliged to resign his Lectureship in this Church. 
When cited to appear before Laud, a petition on 
his behalf was signed by the majority of the 
Essex clergy. He started a boys' school at 
Little Baddow, four miles away. When the 
time came for him to appear before the High 
Commissioner he had escaped to Holland. Later 
on, hearing that a number of his friends in Eng- 
land were leaving for America, he determined to 
join them. Returning to England for that pur- 
pose, he narrowly escaped arrest, soldiers arriv- 
ing on the shore in time to see the ship disappear 
in the distance. 

Hooker's assistant at the Baddow School was 
John Eliot, afterwards the illustrious missionary 
to the North American Indians, the first Protes- 
tant English foreign missionary. He was born 
at Nazing, Essex ; Americans say at Wedford, 
Herts, but he was simply baptized there, Wed- 
ford being his mother's old home. The home of 
the Eliots was in Essex. John's spiritual birth- 


place was Little Baddow. He saw such real 
religion in the schoolmaster's family that the 
light came to him there. Southey says he was 
one of the most remarkable men of any country. 
" Hooker reappeared in Eliot, Eliot in Edwards, 
Edwards in Carey, Carey in Judson." And yet 
in the village of Baddow is no relic or memory 
of either Hooker or Eliot. 

Eliot went to America in 1631, many of his 
friends and relatives sailing with him. Twenty- 
eight other families from Nazing followed later. 
This pioneer missionary translated the whole of 
the Bible into the Indian language. Through 
his labours being reported in London, The 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel was 
started, being the first missionary society in Eng- 
land. His first preaching place to the Indians was 
named " Nonanlum," " Rejoicing." In his Indian 
grammar are the words, " Prayer and praise 
through faith in Jesus will do anything." It 
would not be amiss to rename Baddow " Rejoic- 

On the day of his death, John Eliot, then in 
his eightieth year, was found teaching the alpha- 
bet to an Indian child at his bedside. " Why 
not rest from your labours ? " asked a friend. 
" Because," said the Pilgrim hero, " I have 
prayed to God to make me useful in my sphere, 
and He has heard my prayer ; for that I can no 
longer preach, He leaves me strength to teach 
this poor child his alphabet." 

Another young man to whom Hooker was a 


spiritual father, leading him into the full light, 
was Hugh Peters, the schoolmaster at Laindon, 
ten miles away. The house where he kept school 
is still to be seen, it is the half timbered house of 
the priests. After his meeting with Hooker he 
decided to become a clergyman, and was evi- 
dently curate at Laindon. He married Mrs. 
Reed, a widow of Wickford. Peters became the 
popular preacher of St. Sepulchre's, Holborn, 
and was imprisoned because he prayed for the 
Queen's conversion. He managed to escape to 
Holland, and thence to New England, returning 
in Cromwell's time, to become one of his chap- 
lains. His daughter and stepdaughter,- how- 
ever, remained in America, the latter marrying 
Governor Winthrop's son. When Charles as- 
cended the throne Hugh Peters lost his life. His 
Dying Father's Last Legacy to an Only Child is 
said to be one of the most pathetic prison books 
ever penned. It contains two of his poems, in 
one of which is the well known verse : 

" I wish for such a heart as Mary had, 

Minding the Main, opened as Lydia's was, 

A hand like Dorcas ; who the naked clad, 
Feet like Joanna's, posting to Christ apace 

And, above all, to live yourself to see 

Married to Him who must your Saviour be." 

He was broad minded enough to praise a 
woman's exposition of the Bible, that of Mary 
Carey, and was also a practical philanthropist, 
advocating strenuously many of the things in- 
cluded in the programme of all true social re- 











formers to-day. Few men have been honoured 
with two such spiritual sons as Thomas Hooker 

Passing on to the market-place, and still 
lingering in the past, we shall probably meet 
Farmer Pynchon of Springfield, three miles 
away. He went out to America with Governor 
Winthrop, settling for a while at Roxbury. In 
1636, with a band of associates, he went to form 
a plantation at Agawam, now Springfield, U.S.A., 
so called after the old home. All were charmed 
with the landscape. The chief item in the 
agreement signed was : " Our town shall consist 
of forty families or more, if we think meet to 
alter, yet not to exceed fifty. Every inhabitant 
to have a house lot.'* This reminds us of the 
words in William Hilton's letter : " Moreover 
we were all free holders, the rent day doth never 
trouble us." Pynchon returned to England, but 
his son remained, and there are many descen- 
dants of that sturdy Essex farmer in New 
England to-day. 

It being market day, we may also meet Parson 
Washington and his wife, Martha, from Pur- 
leigh, whose rectory he vacated in 1642 because 
of his Royalist sympathies. His burial is recorded 
in the registers of All Saints' Church, Maldon. 
They are the last of the famous George 
Washington's English ancestors, their sons, John 
and Laurence, emigrating to Virginia. We stand 
again by the slow river and reflect. Along the 
streets of this town there passed a score or more 


who three centuries ago went across the sea, and 
the debt which the America of to-day owes to 
this quiet country town, guarded by its two 
calm rivers, is simply incalculable. 1 

1 Calamy quotes Walker as referring to " some Browniste who 
had a meeting at Chelmsford." 

The Parish Registers of Chelmsford record the marriage of 
John Turner and Mary Stonnard, May 12, 1586 ; and a Thomas 
Williams and Mary Jones, November 27, 1598. John Turner 
and Thomas Williams are both Mayft<nver names. 



THE Colchester of to-day is a busy thriving 
town, and an important military centre of some 
40,000 inhabitants. Originally known to the 
Romans as Camulodunum, over which Cuno- 
belinus, the Cymbeline of Shakespeare, began 
to reign about A.D. 5, it has been successively : 
" A stronghold of the Britons ; the Colonia of 
the Romans ; and the Colneceaster of the 
Saxons." l The draining of the marshes has re- 
moved the reproach of its being " aguish," and 
its pleasant elevated situation, its almost complete 
Roman walls, its great store of other Roman 
remains, its quaint and historical buildings, 
together with the keen interest of its public men 
in things historical and archaeological, make it 
one of the most delightful places in England. A 
modern writer has said : " There is no town in 
Great Britain that can compare with Colchester 
in that it is the oldest recorded town that we 
know of in these realms." 

1 Cambridge County Geographies, Essex, p. 156. 
Sir Henry Howorth, D.C.L.,|F.R.S., F.S.A. Vide Colchester 
Official Guide. 



Nor is it only because of its situation and con- 
tribution to exact knowledge that Colchester 
casts such a spell over visitors. Here mys- 
tery and legend sufficiently abound to inspire the 
poet and challenge the inquirer. Linked with 
it also are associations distinctly epic. If a 
line be drawn across the county of Essex, east 
of Chelmsford, from Leigh-on-Sea to the river 
Stour, there will be shut off towards the North 
Sea a piece of country as interesting historically 
as may be found anywhere in England. These 
indented, once marshy, coast lines were the 
scenes of the Romans' early landing in Britain ; 
of Boadicea's heroic defence of her country ; the 
first invasion of the Danes ; the " Fight of 
Brihtnoth " at Maldon ; and of the great struggle 
between Edmund Ironside and Canute the Dane 
which, through the treachery of Eadric, led to 
Canute ascending the English throne. 

The sufferings endured by this part of Essex 
during the Spanish Wars owing to its exposed 
position, the solidarity of the county for Crom- 
well, and its perils during the Napoleonic struggle 
do not belong to our present story ; but he, who 
would understand the forces which made Essex 
one of the foremost Protestant and Puritan 
counties in the land, must refer again and again 
to a geographical position, which made daily 
heroisms the requisites of existence. Many of 
these heroisms are written in the varied story of 

Into this area, as well as to Norwich, Yarmouth, 


and Canterbury, there came in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries a great number of 
Protestant settlers from the continent. . 

Communication with the continent was easy, 
and royal encouragement was given to it. 
Edward III gave a great impetus to the wool 
trade by encouraging the Flemings to settle in 
Essex and teach the people the art of weaving. 
The chief influx, however, was in the reign of 
Elizabeth, and numbers settled around Colchester 
about 1570 and flourished till about 1748. 

The fabrics woven by the Flemings were 
known as " bays " and " says " and corresponded 
to our modern baize and serge. Colchester was 
famous for the " bay and say " trade, while 
Bocking was noted for its woollen drugget or 
baize, which was also known as " Bookings." 

It will be well to consider the atmosphere into 
which these new arrivals of 1570 were plunged. 
It must have been extremely invigorating. The 
student of those times only needs to turn to the 
pages of Foxe's Book of Martyrs, 1 where abun- 
dant evidence will be found. 

1 More accurately The History of the Acts and Monuments of 
the Church. This work has fallen out of use a great deal more 
than it ought to have done. Just as every monastery and convent 
was encouraged to defame Queen Anne Boleyn for her Protes- 
tantism, so has Foxe been traduced. Of course he was a partisan 
in the sense that his religious sympathies were Protestant. But 
he is often our only historian of the period. Let the following 
statements be well weighed. " I trust Foxe when he produces 
documentary evidence, because I have invariably found his 
documents accurate." J. A. Froude. " I had good reason to 
be satisfied with the Martyrologist's fidelity and accuracy." Dr. 
Jenkins, who edited Archbishop Cranmer's Remains. 


The following are a few extracts from it : " In 
1557 the persecutions of Mary still increased." 
Thomas Tye, a renegade Protestant, reported : 
" The rebels are stout in Colchester." Locally, 
he and Edmund Tyrrel were some of Bonner's 
most ferocious creatures. In August three and 
twenty persons " about the town of Colchester 
were apprehended at one clap," twenty two of 
whom were " driven up like a flock of Christian 
lambs to London, with two or three leaders with 
them at most, ready to give their skins to be 
plucked off for the Gospel's sake." An easy 
submission was framed for them, however, and 
for the present they escaped, but only for the 
present. Among those who were rearrested were 
William and Alice Munt, with their daughter, 
Rose Allen, a wonderful heroine. By two o'clock 
on a Sunday morning the wretched Tyrrel came 
to their house. " He bade them at once pre- 
pare to come to Colchester Castle. Alice Munt 
desired that her daughter might fetch her some 
drink. To this Tyrrel consented, and Rose 
Allen accordingly went out, taking a stone pot 
in one hand and a candle in the other. On her 
return Tyrrel met her, and taking the candle 
from her, held her wrist, and the burning candle 
under her hand burning crosswise over the back 
thereof so long till the very sinews cracked 
asunder. ... In which time of his tyranny he 
often said to her, 4 Why, whore, wilt thou not 
cry ? Thou young whore, wilt thou not cry ? ' 
unto which she always answered that she had 



\By If. Hazeltine Frost. 


no cause, she thanked God, but rather to re- 
joice." They waited for death from March 
to the 2nd of August, which date should be 
a memorable one even in a town of so many 

" Between six and seven of the clock in the 
morning," says Foxe, " were brought from Mote 
Hall unto a plot of ground hard by the town 
wall of Colchester, William Bougeour, William 
Purcas, Thomas Benhold, Agnes Silverside, Helen 
E wring, and Elizabeth Fowkes. When all the 
six were nailed at their stakes and the fire about 
them, they clapped their hands for joy in the 
fire, that the standers by, which were by estima- 
tion thousands, cried generally almost, ' The 
Lord strengthen them,' 4 The Lord comfort 
them,' 4 The Lord pour His mercies upon them,' 
with such like words as were wonderful to 
hear." > 

" In the afternoon of the day, the Munts, 
Johnson and Allen, were brought forth into the 
castle yard, which godly constant persons, after 
they had made their prayers, and were joyfully 
tied to the stakes, calling upon the Name of God, 
and exhorting the people earnestly to flee from 
idolatry, suffered their martyrdom with such 
triumph and joy that the people did no less 
shout thereat to see it, than at the others that 
were burnt the same day in the morning." 

Nor apparently were witnesses for truth in 

1 Davids' condensed accounts in hia Evangelical Nonconformity 
in Essex, pp. 48, 49, 50. 


this district so entirely without primitive organi- 
sation or co-operation as might sometimes be 
supposed. Strype has this glowing and instruc- 
tive account of the town : " The ancient and 
famous city of Colchester was, in the troublesome 
times of Queen Mary's persecution, a sweet and 
comfortable mother of the bodies, and a tender 
nurse of the souls of God's children (as I tran- 
scribe from a book published this year [1579]), 
And was the more frequented because it afforded 
many zealous and godly martyrs ; who con- 
tinually with their blood watered those seeds, 
which by the preachers of the word had been 
sown most plentifully in the hearts of Christians 
in the days of good King Edward. This town, 
for the earnest profession of the gospel, became 
like unto a city set upon a hill ; and as a candle- 
stick, gave light to all those who, for the com- 
fort of their consciences, came to confer there 
from divers places of the realm. And repairing 
to common inns, had by night their Christian 
exercises ; which in other places could not be 
gotten." ' 

The character of some of those who went from 
place to place to strengthen others in those ter- 
rible times is well illustrated in the case of one 
" Trudge," or " Trudge-over." His proper name 
was George Eagles, " sometime a tailor by occu- 
pation." He was called " Trudge," and " Trudge- 
over," and " Trudge- over- the- world," because of 

1 Strype's Annals of the Beformation, Clarendon Press Ed., 
1824, vol. ii, pt. ii, p. 282. 


his extraordinary and continual travels about 
from place to place, to exhort and confirm the 
brethren. The Council had heard of him and 
sent orders to waylay him. "But he and his 
company concealed themselves a great while in 
the northern part of Essex, in privy closets and 
barns, in holes and thickets, in fields and woods." 
A proclamation was sent into his chief haunts 
in Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, and Kent. Soon 
after he was captured in a field at Colchester. 
He was taken to Chelmsford, then to London, 
and afterwards back to Chelmsford, where he 
appeared at the sessions on a charge of treason. 
" On that charge he was sentenced to be hung, 
drawn and quartered." The sentence was most 
barbarously carried out. He was " laid upon a 
sledge with a hurdle on it, and drawn to the 
place of execution, being first bound, having in 
his hand a Psalm Book of the which he read very 
devoutly all the way with a loud voice." The 
details which follow in Foxe are of a revolting 
kind. But ultimately, " his head was set up at 
Chelmsford, in the market cross, on a long pole, 
and there stood till the wind did blow it down." 
This was the atmosphere into which the Flemings 
of 1570 entered. 

But the coming of these workers meant more 
than the starting of a new industry. It gave rise to 
a new intimacy with their old homes. We are 
therefore not at all surprised to find, according to 
Dr. Dexter's list, that a number of Colchester 
people belonged to the Pilgrims in Holland. 


Among them were Mary Brown, Roger Chandler, 
Daniel Fairfield, John Jennings, and his wife Eliza- 
beth ; Thomas Smith, cloth merchant and ex- 
deacon of the Church at Amsterdam ; and John 
Crackstone, with his son John, according to 
Dexter, the only Colchester men known to have 
been aboard the Mayflower in 1620. 1 But in all 
probability a good number of those who went to 
New England in 1620-1623 will prove to have 
come from this area. One of the astonishing 
things in the history of Nonconformity and Pro- 
testantism in this county is to find that whilst 
justice has been done to the martyrs, to the 
Quakers, and to the men ejected in 1662, no one 
has attempted to do appropriate honour to the 
memory of the early Brownists and associates of 
the Pilgrim Fathers. The time is opportune, and 
the material available is now sufficient to furnish 
a promising beginning to any historian who will 
undertake to remedy this neglect. 

Associated with the name of Crackstone are 
those of Fletcher and English. There was a 
Moses Fletcher, also a Thomas English among 
the first emigrants. Were these Colchester men ? 
The name of Doughtie or Dotey is fairly common 

1 John Crackstone with Moses Fletcher witnessed the betrothal 
of Zech. Barrow [Barry ?] and Joan Barrow, June 16, 1616 ; 
also that of Henry Collett, May 19,1617; and that of his daughter 
Anna to Thomas Smith, December 12, 1618. It is in this con- 
nection he is said to be " of Colchester." 

It is only proper, however, to say that I have found no trace 
of the name in connection with Colchester. There was a family 
of Croxtons at Fyfield, Essex, in 1617. The latter name also 
appears in Stock Parish Registers for 1611. 





in the records of Colchester and vicinity. Was 
this the home of Edward Dotey of the Mayflower ? 
This Dotey married Faith Clark, daughter of 
Thurston Clark. Thurston is a prominent Col- 
chester name, and was borne by one of the 
martyrs. The Clarks, Palmers, and Minters 
appear closely connected in Pilgrim circles. In 
the registers of Moze, not far from Colchester, 
is an account of the marriage of " Charitee Clark " 
and " Wyllya Palmer," in September 1601 ; and 
they contain entries of a family of Minters as 
late as 1636. 

Scattered facts of this kind are perhaps in- 
sufficient to give this Star of the East any pro- 
minent place in the annals of the Founders of 
America, in the restricted sense in which the 
term is properly used. But for a considerable 
period another question has been shaping itself. 
Does Colchester possess the oldest Separatist 
Church now existing in the British Empire ? We 
shall be in a better position to answer this ques- 
tion a little later. Meanwhile let us collect such 
scattered evidence as is now available. 

Strype gives Foxe as the authority for saying 
" that at the King's Head in Colchester, and at 
other inns in the said town, the afflicted Chris- 
tians had set places appointed by themselves to 
meet at." l 

It would be a mistake to suppose that such 
gatherings always meant the development of 

1 Vide Foxe, vol iii. p. 723, for a similar gathering at the Sara- 
cen's Head, Islington. 


Separatist ideals. For instance, Strype in his 
Memorials Ecclesiastical has this account of one 
held in London during the Marian persecution : 
" But notwithstanding these merciless execu- 
tions for religion, it is not to be passed over with- 
out remark, that there was a congregation of 
godly men at London, in the very mouth of 
danger, who met together for religious worship 
all the Queen's reign, from the beginning to the 
very end of it. Their ministers were these 
among others : Edward Seamier, afterwards 
Bishop of Peterborough ; Thomas Foule ; Au- 
gustin Berhner, sometime Latimer's servant ; 
Thomas Bentham, afterwards Bishop of Coventry 
and Litchfield," l etc. Here evidently were people 
who met much as the Separatists did later, but 
who were simply Protestants and who remained 
sufficiently Episcopalian to attain high positions 
when better days came. Let two things be noted 
concerning the matter. Separatism here appears 
as a practice before it became a creed in the 
minds of such men as Browne, Barrowe, and 
Ainsworth. And the example of Separatism of 
a kind was set by Episcopalians themselves. 

Again, it is necessary to say that references by 
earlier historians do not always convey just the 
precise information, even when they are intended 
to do so, concerning these organisations that we 
should like. Take the following as an example : 
" Another thing happened in 1585 which gave 

1 Memorials Ecclesiastical, Clarendon Press Ed., 1824, vol. iii, 
pt. ii, p. 147. 


some concern to our careful bishop. 1 It was a 
Presbytery set up within his diocese at Hatfield 
Peverel in Essex ; the head and teacher whereof 
was one Carew. Of him and his congregation 
such information was brought to the Bishop and 
his fellow commissioners, that they could not 
but summon divers of them, and after examin- 
ing, commit them. . . . For as for Carew, he 
took upon him to preach without authority, 
nay, against authority ; but this was not all, but 
he contemned all ecclesiastical censures ; he was 
elected by the people and practised a presbytery. 
. . . The noise of these men was so great in these 
parts adjacent, that the Earl of Sussex who lived 
at New Hall, not far off, signified to the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury their great evil example." 
If these statements can be taken to indicate 
that a properly ordered Separatist Church existed 
in this area in 1585, it antedates the churches of 
Scrooby and Gainsborough by some years. 

But what evidence have we, it may be asked, 
that the spirit of that time was alive in 1620? 
The answer will be found in the Archidiaconal 
Records. These show that the tyrannies of 
Mary, Elizabeth, and James I effected anything 
but what they were meant to do. The church 
structures seem to have been most woefully neg- 
lected, the temper of the people was distinctly 
ruffled, and discipline was evidently very difficult 
to enforce. 

In connection with St. Martin's, Colchester, in 

1 Strype'a Life of Aylmer, Bishop of London, p. 78. 



1616, for instance, John Andrews, churchwarden, 
was in trouble, " for that he wilfully and wrong- 
fully deteyneth one with the furniture, one buff 
coot and our Register Book, so that we know not 
how to frame our transcript. 1 Alleged that he 
keepeth Registers book. He is to deliver it to 
the (other) churchwarden." 

1609. "Trinity Steeple likely to fall down." In 
relation to St. James's " for taking down some 
part of the parsonage and leaving it ruinated and 
ready to fall down. Benj. Laye " [cited]. 

The state of things in the surrounding district 
is even more instructive. Hence we read of the 
following presentments : " John Gosling of Moze 
for entertaining strangers." " Thomas Doughtie 
for not receiving communion." 1617. Thomas 
Genver of Fordham " Interog. whether refused 
to kneel at Com.[munion] or not, and whether 
a certain book being written against kneeling at 
Com. he did not, getting company about him, 
read and publish the same unto them." 1616. 
John Barton, of Lexden, " For carting haye on a 
Saboth day in July last and for saying that he 
did not regard nor care for Mr. Archdeacon and 
that he would go to carte when he listed. That 
Mr. Archdeacon did send gap-tooth, his appari- 
tor about to spye, he cannot tell what words 
he did speak very irreverently." 1616. Samuel 
Cooper, Jnr., Dedham : " For abusing the minister. 
Said as his minister he did reverence him, but 

1 The order for the keeping of Parish Registers was first made 
in 1538. 


otherwise he did not care a figg or a rush for 
him." William Lyre, of Beaumont: "That his 
wife beat the apparitor. He asked the judge if he 
sent the apparitor to beat men's wives ? " Thomas 
Adams of the same place : " For coming to 
Church when Church was done." Richard New- 
man of Birch. Mag. : " For retaining an excom- 
unicated person in his home. 1 Alleged that 
Richard Prentice is his servant and he cannot 
put him away." 

Nor apparently did these distressed people 
lack sympathy among those who ministered to 
them in holy things ; for, just as Richard Rogers 
had been molested at Wethersfield, and William 
Negus, Ezekiel Culverwell, and Camillus Rusticus 
had been suspended elsewhere, so William Ames 
of Colchester, a Lecturer, had to flee to Holland, 
where he became Pastor of the English Church 
at the Hague, and afterwards Professor of 
Divinity in the University of Franeker. Another 
Lecturer, who seems to have been a kindred spirit, 
was George Northie, 8 who died and was buried at 
St. James's, Colchester, 1593. 

Mr. Champlin Burrage in his Pastor of the 
Pilgrim Fathers* speaks with confidence of a 
Brownist Church at Colchester about this time, 
but although we do not know the history of this 

1 Vide p. 8. 

2 For Northie or Northye vide Davids' Evangelical Nonconformity 
in Essex, p. 106. 

3 P. 29. This reference suggests that John Robinson may 
have visited here. 


organisation we gather that the whole tendency 
of the times was favourable to the religious 
earnestness and political discontent coalescing 
to form societies other than those allowed by 
law. The growing despotism of James I, his 
bitter hatred of the Puritans, his declaration in 
favour of Sunday games, together with the 
taunting of Thomas Drax, Vicar of Dovercourt, 
Essex, wherein he asks among other things 
whether it would not be good for the Separa- 
tists " to remove to Virginia, and make a plan- 
tation there in the hope to convert the Infidels," 
justified the opinion of the Rev. T. W. Davids, 
a former minister of Lion Walk Congregational 
Church, that " what Drax intended only as an 
idle taunt, hundreds were already meditating in 
sober earnestness." 

Among the very oldest Separatist Churches in 
England are the following : Cheshunt, Hertford- 
shire, 1600; Ledbury, Herefordshire, 1607; Ep- 
ping, Essex, 1625 ; Bolsover, Derbyshire, 1630 ; 
Newport, Mon., 1640 ; Penmain, Mon., 1640 ; 
City Temple, London, 1640. 

For a great many years it was supposed that 
the "Pilgrim Fathers' Church" in Old Kent 
Road, Southwark, had a unique and unbroken 
historic association with the New England pio- 
neers. This supposition is no longer tenable. A 
recent writer, after reviewing all the evidence 
available, remarks : "All we can say with cer- 
tainty is that the present Pilgrim Church has an 
unbroken history from 1662, but there is reason- 


able probability that it has some vital links with 
the Pilgrim Fathers of 1620." 

The question of real seniority must remain 
for the present unsettled, but the following ex- 
tract from a letter to the Rev. T. W. Davids by 
the Rev. J. S. Russell, sometime minister of 
Great Yarmouth will show that in verifiable 
history Lion Walk links up with an important 
Pilgrim centre. 1 It probably antedates the pre- 
sent South wark Church by some twenty -one 
years, and if the words italicised bear the stress 
that may very well be given to them, we have a 
link with Pilgrim, and perhaps martyr days, such 
as it would be difficult to equal elsewhere : 

" As far as we know the only passage in our 
Church books which refers to the Church at Col- 
chester, is in the opening paragraph of the Declara- 
tory Statement 1641-2. After stating the cause 
why many of the godly in Norwich, Yarmouth 
and other places fled to Holland, the narrative 
relates that 4 divers joined themselves to the 

1 Mr. J. E. Clowes, in his Chronicles of the Old Congregational 
Church at Great Yarmouth, gives some interesting extracts from 
the Church books, and on page 27 refers to a yet older Separatist 
Church "founded by Thomas Cayme some time previous to 
1624." On page 14 the fifth article of a covenant adopted in 
1643, which says, " We shall account it our duty at all times to 
embrace any further light or truth that shall be revealed to us 
out of God's word," seems a re-echo of John Robinson's great 
utterance. When we compare these facts wth the case of Sir 
Nicholas Fuller's clients (vide page 68), and remember that John 
Robinson was for some time in the neighbourhood of Great 
Yarmouth before he went to Norwich, Lion Walk Church 
would appear to be in the apostolic succession of that great man. 


Church in Rotterdam, and abode members of 
their Church five or six years ; among whom were 
also Mr. Wm. Bridge and Mr. John Ward, who 
also were chosen Officers of the Church there. 
N.B. It was of that same Church that Hugh 
Peters had been previously Pastor. The calling 
of the Long Parliament determined many of the 
exiles to return, and it is in connection with this 
fact that Colchester is named. Upon the return 
of divers, at several times, and sitting down in 
various places among their former acquaintances, 
where some of them had formerly inhabited, as 
Norwich, Yarmouth, etc., they found many lets 
and impediments which hindered their present 
gathering. In the meantime, Mr. John Ward 
being called to Colchester, 1 did there, with others, 
gather into Church fellowship and there con- 
tinued.' The probable date of this narrative is 
1642, or possibly a year earlier. The Long 
Parliament assembling in 1640." * 

From the above extracts it will be seen how 
the citizens of Colchester not only experienced 
the extremes of martyrdom, but how they may 
also lay claim to unexampled constancy in seek- 
ing, through suffering, the way of eternal life. In 
so doing they have won the lesser crown of an 
assured share in the victories that give Non- 
conformity honourable rank in the life of to-day. 

1 Does this not imply a church already in existence ? 

2 A Brief History of the Independent Church in Lion Walk, 
by J. A. Tabor, p. 15. 



THE flora of Essex gives it no pre-eminent place 
among the counties of England ; but its hedge- 
rows in spring are beautiful with May blossom. 

" Mayflower " is a word scented with Eng- 
land's rural loveliness. It has become a word 
to conjure with in two hemispheres. Around it 
are entwined the sentiments of great nations. 
From it historians and poets have gained inspira- 
tion. It recalls the world every springtime to 
1620, and to one of the most wonderful events 
in the migrations of people in all ages. 

The ship Mayflower began its famous voyage 
from London. But to whom did it belong ? 
Which was its native port ? What was its sub- 
sequent history ? The matter is one of real 
interest and deserves attention. That the May- 
flower returned home in 1621, and made another 
voyage to New England in 1629 are things known 
to most students of Pilgrim history. 

In view of the fact that recent investigation 
has proved that London and Essex had a greater 
part in the Mayflower venture than has been 



usually recognised, one might expect to discover 
that the vessel belonged to Leigh-on-Sea or some 
other Essex port. It is common knowledge that 
it was partly provisioned by an Essex man, 
Christopher Martin, of Billericay. 

Interest in the matter has been quickened by 
statements to the effect that there was a May- 
flower of Leigh in 1575, and a Speedwell in 1579. * 
Goodwin long since said that sixteen Mayflowers 
had been traced. That number might now be 
increased to nearer fifty. It is, therefore, as 
much with a view to assisting others in the 
search, as of suggesting definite conclusions, that 
the following is penned. 

The first notice of a ship of that name 
within any reasonable reach of 1620 is that 
of Hakluyt in 1567. In the Acts of the 
Privy Council a Mayflower of Linne, Captain 
Alexander Musgrave, is mentioned, and Goodwin 
says that in 1588 the officials of the town 
offered the Mayflower, of 150 tons, to join the 
fleet against the dreaded Spanish Armada. In 
1589 a matter relating to a Mayflower of Yarmouth 
is reported to Sir Francis Drake. 8 This is men- 
tioned in connection with a plea for wages by 
Richard Heysforth and others. In the same year 
the Acts of the Privy Council refer to "An open 
placard to the Maiours of Plimouth, Fawmouth 
and Foye and other officers of those portes that 
whereas a Shipp of London called the Maye 

1 J. W. Burrows, Southend-on-Sea, Historical Notes, pp. 69, 72. 

2 Acts of Privy Council, vol. xviii, p. 155 (Record Office). 




Flower, being partelie laden with clothe leade 
and tynn, for furnishing of the full fraught the 
merchant es that did fraught her have besought us 
that they may take in Pilchardes at Fawmouthe 
and those other portes," l etc. Twenty-seven 
years intervene before the next record, 1616. It 
is to be found in the Acts of the High Courts of 
Admiralty, and is an account of an action by 
" Robert Bell of Redriffe [Rotherhithe] against 
the shipp the Robber, otherwise the Mayflower, 
and against John Dolph." If we could only be 
certain that this is the Pilgrim vessel, there is 
here a suggestive theme for the moralist. Soon 
after, we meet with a William Cooke,' Master of 
a Mayflower, and a further reference to Robert 
Bell in the same connection. 

In 1624 William Tuft commenced proceedings 
" against the Mayflower of Ipswich, and William 
Parker, Master of the same in particular and 
all, etc. Parker appeared in Southgate Cham- 
bers and produced as sureties, Martin Joyce of 
the precincts of St. Catherine's, wood- monger and 
Edward Lowe, weaver, who bound themselves for 
the said Parker, to the said Tuft in 5 lawful 
English money." 4 At that time there was also 

1 Acts of Privy Council, vol. xvii, p. 419 (Record Office). 

8 " In the year 1618 Christopher Jones was plaintiff in an 
Admiralty suit, and is described as of Redrith [Rotherhithe]. 
The name of Mayflower does not occur in this connection." R. G. 
Marsden, The English Historical Review, 1904. 

3 Vide p. 61. 

4 Acts of High Court of Admiralty, vol. xxx, p. 38 (Record 


a small vessel of the same name in trouble in a 
Scottish port. 

There are three sets of facts bearing upon the 
question which deserve careful attention. The 
first of these has to do with a Mayflower of 
London already engaged in the Dutch carrying 
trade. It is mentioned in connection with an 
action in which " John Monk sues for twenty 
half-pieces of cloth called English fustian, in- 
cluded in certain burden, in the name of a 
certain Peter Van Vine, and laden in a shipp 
called the Mayflower of Limehouse, London, 
whereof John Brockson was Master." This is 
dated May 10, 1619. There seems much to be 
said for the suggestion that the ship chartered 
for the Pilgrims would probably belong to some 
place near London. It does not seem reasonable 
to suppose that Weston, Cushman, Martin, each 
of whom belonged to the life of London and 
its environs, would go as far afield as Harwich 
or Yarmouth to charter a vessel, which would 
have to take in so much of its provision and so 
many of its passengers at London. 

The foregoing names and associations, however, 
are overshadowed by a second group of facts. 
Bradford quite distinctly refers to the captain 
of the Pilgrim ship as " Mr. Jonas." Further, the 
sailor, who gave evidence in connection with poor 
William Mullins' nuncupative will in New Eng- 
land before the Mayflower returned, was named 
Christopher Jones. Mark now the significance 
of the next item ; " Valuation of the Mayflower 


ship, Port of London, moved by Robert Childs, 
John Moore, and Jones relic 1 [of] Christopher 
Jones, deceased, proprietors of three-fourth parts 
of the said ship." This application was made 
by a notary named Wyan and was granted ; and 
is dated 1623. The entry seems to fix three things 
distinctly. The captain of 1620 was part owner 
of the ship ; about two years after the return 
from America he was dead ; and finally the 
Mayflower of 1620 was a London ship just as 
Bradford said. It does not, of course, settle the 
question of the fourth part owner. 

Mr. R. G. Marsden has not collected all the 
references in the Admiralty Court Records to the 
ships of this name, as he acknowledges is 
probable, but no survey of the subject can be 
complete which does not take note of his very 
valuable work. 1 It is interesting to find that he 
carries the association of the name of Chris- 
topher Jones with the Mayflower right back to 
1609 in a voyage to Norway. He regrets not 
being able to trace it after 1616. But the Port 
Books of London show that Jones was still in 
the same ship in January 1619, and that he 
evidently resumed his trading to that Port im- 
mediately on his return from New England in 
1621. In each case the ship is said to be " of 
London." And the last mention of his name 

1 A Christopher Jones, son of William Jones, was baptized 
at All Saints Church, Maldon, a port of Essex, in February 1589. 

2 Acts of High Court of Admiralty, vol. xxx, p. 227. 

* Article by R. G. Marsden, M.A., Transactions of the Royal 
Historical Society, vol. xvi. Also Historical Review, 1904. 


before his death is October 1621. Let us note 
the latter carefully and then turn to another set 
of facts. 

No inquirer into this matter of the ownership 
of the Mayflower will go far before he meets 
with a family showing a marked preference for 
this ship name, with widespread trading interests, 
associations with great seafaring families, and 
connections with New England which are truly 
remarkable. We have already met with the 
Vassals, who worshipped in the days of Green- 
wood, at Rochford Hall, Essex. In the Chapel 
at Boston, Massachusetts, is a beautiful monu- 
ment which bears this inscription : 

" Sacred to the memory of Samuel Vassal, 
Esq., of London, Merchant, one of the original 
proprietors of the land of this country, a steady 
and undaunted assertor of the liberties of Eng- 
land in 1628. He was the first who boldly refused 
to submit to the tax of tonnage and poundage, 
an unconstitutional claim of the crown, arbi- 
trarily imposed. For which (to the ruin of his 
family) his goods were seized and his person im- 
prisoned by the Star Chamber Court. He was 
chosen to represent the City of London in two 
successive Parliaments which met on April 13 
and November 3, 1640. The Parliament in 
July 1641 voted him 10,445-12-3, for his 
damages, and resolved that he should further be 
considered for his personal suffering, but the 
rage of the times, and the neglect of proper 
application since, have left to his family only the 


honour of that vote and resolution. He was one 
of the subscribers to raise money against the 
rebels in Ireland. All these facts may be seen 
in the journals of the House of Commons. He 
was son of the gallant John Vassal, who in 1588, 
at his own expense, fitted out and commanded 
two ships of war, with which he joined the Royal 
Navy to oppose the Spanish Armada. This 
monument was erected by his great grandson, 
May 1766." 

Samuel Purchas in the third edition of his 
immortal Pilgrimage, published in 1617, and 
Benton in his History of the Rochford Hundred, 
throw very welcome light on the antecedents of 
this remarkable man. The former, until 1614, 
was Rector for some time of Eastwood, Essex, 
and wrote of John Vassal, as an Alderman and 
citizen of London who had been voyages to 
Barbary. John Vassal was twice married. One 
of his sons was the Rev. Stephen Vassal, Rector 
of Rayleigh, his half brothers were Samuel Vassal, 
referred to above, and Captain William Vassal, 
who went out from Rayleigh with Winthrop in 
1630 and rendered such yeoman service in 
Scituate, New England. His daughter married 
Resolved White of the Mayflower. Nor are theirs 
the only important names associated with this 
locality. Dexter's statement that eleven of the 
Leyden exiles were from Essex, and Goodwin's 
opinion that Rowland, Hopkins, and Carver were 
probably Essex men, might have prepared us for 
others, but it is surprising to find even the sur- 


names of Alden, Standish, and Carver in the 
Rayleigh Church Records. 

Samuel Vassal, the senior half brother, seems to 
have had quite a passion for the ship name May- 
flower. His family was associated with all the 
great seafaring, trading, and Puritan families of 
the period. He was a member of the East India 
Company. The Whites, Fullers, Cookes, Parkers 
among the traders; the Freebornes, Crandleys, 
Salmons, Haddocks among the seafaring families 
of the Thames estuary, appear to have been 
associated with him in one way or another. 1 
" Cocksey Hurst," Eastwood, the house in which 
Samuel Vassal lived, is still standing, and a 
large proportion of the farm buildings and 
some of the beams of the house are made 
of old ship's timber. The family also, at 
different times, intermarried with the local 
family of Goodlad. 

In the Record Office is a document 8 which runs 
thus : "In the name of God Amen. Indenture of 
an agreement made ye 29th day of April 1647 
and in ye 23rd s yeare of the reign of our sove- 
rign Lord Prince Charles as between Samuel 

1 Nor is his name missing from more eminent circles. In the 
Calendar of State Papers, Colonial, America, and West Indies, 
1574-1660, p. 324, we learn that Samuel Vassal had been nomi- 
nated with Sir Henry Vane, Oliver Cromwell, Miles Corbet, and 
many others as Commissioners for Plantations (Colonies). Miles 
Corbet was a Great Yarmouth man, and was executed at the 


2 Exchequer Miscellanea, ~- 

8 It should be 20th. 


Vassal owner of the good ship Mayflower of 
London . . . now riding at anchor in the river 
of Thames London, on one part and Richard 
Crandley, Nathaniel Goodlad, etc. etc., on the 
other." It goes on to call Vassal "Merchant of 
London." Three years later we find Crandley 
and Vassal suing a Captain Jackett for 20,000 
to 40,000 for the loss of the Mayflower, besides 
another ship which had been engaged in the slave 
trade and had fallen into the hands of the 
Spaniards. From this entry some have concluded 
that this was the inglorious end of the Pilgrim 
ship. But such was not the case, as this par- 
ticular vessel is plainly said to be of " about 
350 tons." There is no record anywhere as far 
as one can find that Vassal ever got his ship 
back. But by 1657 he had another ship of 
the same name, for then " Samuel Vassal of 
London complained that the Government had 
twice impressed his ship Mayflower, which he 
had fitted out with sixty men for the Straits." 
Nor are these apparently all the ships he had of 
the same name. In the Calendar of State 
Papers (Colonial) is this entry for September 29, 
1634 : 

" Petition of Edward Kingswell, Having under- 
taken a Plantation in Carolina, he contracted 
with Samuel Vassall to take him with his com- 
pany thither, and provide a shallop and pinnace 
for the service of the intended Colony. Vassall 
failing in both, the petitioner agreed with Peter 
Andrews, who had command of the ship the 


Mayflower, and by these persuasions they were 
landed at Virginia in Oct. 1633." ' 

The matter would appear to have got Vassal 
into the Fleet Prison, but afterwards the charges 
brought against him proved to be false. The 
entry is of interest as showing the kind of trading 
in which Vassal engaged. So does another record 
from the same source, dated 1630. It is called 
" An account of men robust and courageous and 
skilful in agriculture, also soldiers who served in 
Holland together with magazines of clothing, 
arms, ammunition and provisions which Mons. 
Vassall thinks necessary to send to Virginia." * 

The Mayflower of 1633 is said to be "of 400 
tons," and Peter Andrews * is quoted as " Master." 

The question may very naturally arise as to 
why Vassal should be so devoted to the name 
Mayflower. No certain answer can be given, 
but some lines of approach to it may be sug- 
gested. Dr. Rendel Harris 4 has shown that the 
last date on which Christopher Jones brought 
his Mayflower into the Port of London was 
October 1621. Probably he was then sickening, 
for we know that his death took place soon 
afterwards. Now, however, there arises a new 
factor. The very next month, November 21, 
there came into London a Mayflower from the 

1 Calendar of State Papers, Colonial, America, and West Indies, 
1574-1660, p. 190. 

2 Ibid.,p. 113. 

3 Andrews was brother-in-law to Vassal and was for some 
time master of the Elizabeth of Harwich. 

* The Last of the Mayflower, Dr. Rendel Harris, pp. 70, 78, 94. 


island of Zante having on board a consignment 
of currants, with Mr. John Goodlad as master. 
We have already noted the association of the 
Goodlads and Vassals. Dr. Harris concludes 
that this cannot be the original Mayflower. But 
why not ? The very short time which elapses 
between the dates doubtless would not suffice 
for a complete return voyage to Zante. But are 
we shut up to the idea of a complete voyage ? 
The Cookes, Whites, and others with whom the 
Goodlads and Vassals were associated, traded 
regularly on the route. It was also the one sailed 
by Vassal's father, as we have seen. Dr. Harris 
gives the tonnage and measurements of a May- 
flower on this route in 1634, the master being 
William Baddiley ; but what evidence have we 
for its identity with the Goodlad ship returning 
from Zante in 1621 ? The tonnage quoted for 
the 1634 ship makes it almost an exact duplicate 
of the fresh vessel acquired by Vassal in that 
year, previously named the Christopher and Mary, 
and it is just where we might have expected to 
find a ship belonging to him. Here for the 
moment the matter must rest, with just the note 
that we find several Mayflower ships in the 
Goodlad Vassal circles, 1621 to 1657. 

The case for the Mayflower being a whaler is 
a good one ; but since the Goodlads were very 
prominent later in connection with the Greenland 
fishery, there is not much difficulty in earlier 
associating them with Christopher Jones, Robert 
Childs, John Moore, and the Vassals. In 1625 


Childs and Moore built a new Mayflower at Aide- 
burgh. In their case, as with the Vassals, there 
was a clinging to the old name. In a suit also, 
Vassal c. Greene, Samuel Vassal sues Greene, 
owner of the Susan, of " Alderborough," and this 
"Susan, which sailed in company with Vassell's 
Mayflower of 1633, had been a whaler in 1614." 
Here we get Vassal linked with Child and Moore's 
port of Aldeburgh as well as with the whaling 
interest, in which the original Mayflower was 
undoubtedly employed. Then as another link 
in the chain of evidence, take the fact that 
" there was a Mayflower of London, 250 tons, 
owned by John Vassal [father of Samuel] and 
others fitted out by the Londoners for the Queen 
in 1588, and mentioned in documents until 1594." 
The words " and others " do not make it difficult 
to connect the name of Vassal with the joint 
ownership of the Pilgrim ship. As to her fate 
after 1623, very little can be said. Captain John 
Smith said, " She was a leaking, unwholesome 
ship." Bradford's statement that the sailors 
" Knew ye ship to be stronge and firme under 
water " would seem to be in opposition to this, 
and Marsden thinks she was sold for very little 
on valuation. It is significant in the case which 
Dr. Rendel Harris makes out for the ownership 
of a Mayflower that Mr. Horth is a trader with 
Aldeburgh, that no Mayflower is traceable to him 
until a year after the new Mayflower is built 
at that port, and finally, if Mr. Horth's is not that 
vessel, she is a mystery boat which disappears 


from history. All that we can actually prove is 
that the Vassals belong to Pilgrim and other 
" New England " circles. They owned ships of 
that name before and after the Pilgrim's May- 
flower sailed in 1620. 

Some day research may make it clear that 
with Robert Childs, John Moore, and Christopher 
Jones, Samuel Vassal l was fourth part owner of 
the Pilgrim ship. 

1 The crest of the Vassals was a ship without tails, alluding, 
no doubt, to their maritime and mercantile pursuits. Samuel 
Vassal records his pedigree in 1633, when his arms were respited 
for want of proof, until he could send to France (whence his 
family came) for evidence of his title. He never established 
his right, and armorial bearings were never allowed or con- 
firmed to any of the older Vassals. The family were probably 
Huguenots. In France the name was spelt " Vousal." 



THE nature of the matter contained in the last 
chapter demanded that it should not be inter- 
rupted by any of those quiet contemplations of 
past or present so dear to the heart of the poet, 
the painter, and indeed all happy observers of 
the affairs of nature and of men. Hence little 
excuse need be offered for asking the reader to 
tarry here for a little while to consider this 
charming Essex locality, situated about three 
miles from Southend-on-Sea, two from Rochford, 
and three from Rayleigh. Eastwood is reached 
from the latter place by an undulating road that 
is reminiscent of past history. The great preva- 
lence of " Leigh," as a terminal for names in the 
locality, will serve to remind the visitor that he 
is travelling over ground previously surrounded 
by one of the famous old English forests, in 
which these " Leighs " were clearances. Hockley, 
Rayleigh, Thundersley, may be taken as a few 
instances. Views of the White House, South 
Benfleet Tower, and Shoeburyness will empha- 
sise the fact that he is on ground familiar to the 
Romans, the Danes, and Alfred the Great. The 



circular mound of an old windmill outside Ray- 
leigh and what remains of the old Eastwood 
Lodge also speak of past usefulness and greatness. 

" Eastwood," " Estuud," or " Estwd," as it is 
written in old records, is supposed to have de- 
rived its name from its situation with respect 
to the woods and parks which existed here for 
some time after the reign of Henry VIII. The 
approach to the more modern part of the village 
is not very interesting. Gipsy encampments 
lend a sense of freedom, if not of security, to the 
place. Modern cottages, some of which have 
run a long way up their gardens to escape motor 
dust and observation, have not acquired fame, 
either for their names or architecture. But once 
this part is passed and a turning is taken off the 
main road into what is little better than a country 
lane, there will be found high hedges, wayside 
banks, and old landmarks, such as children and 
all who are child-hearted love. A swerve round 
some farm buildings and a switchback over the 
hump of a little bridge brings us to Cocksey 
Hurst, at the junction of two roads. 

A modern writer on England, Mr. Hissey, con- 
fesses in A Tour in a Phaeton through the Eastern 
Counties that he is astonished to find in Essex, 
" spots of so much beauty so near town and so 
little known . . . ruined abbeys and ancient 
churches fraught with interest for the ecclesiolo- 
gist and antiquary ; romantic homes of the old 
days many of these moated still all abounding 
in past memories and historic associations ; old- 


time coaching hostelries wherein our fathers 
made merry ; old-fashioned, oddly built country 
towns, picturesque hamlets, pleasant pastoral 
scenes varied by wild wind-swept heaths and 
gorse-sprinkled common." It is not suggested 
that all these features may be met with at East- 
wood, but there are few places that present a 
larger number of them than the vicinity of 
" Cocksey Hurst." Not that the house as it now 
stands goes back in all detail to the times of 
John, Samuel, William, and Stephen Vassal. The 
outside indeed represents a unity of design and 
workmanship which might well deceive the un- 
wary, so splendidly has the architect done his 
work. And the effect inside is hardly less pleas- 
ing. Because of the attention which has been 
given to the effects of elevation and position, the 
visitor is hardly aware of the fact that the rear 
portion has been added to an outer wall. The 
grand old oak flooring has unfortunately quite 
recently become unserviceable, and the carved 
lions' heads and oak panelling in some of the 
rooms were already painted over when the pre- 
sent occupier, Mr. Fowler, took possession some 
twenty-five years ago. The last link of the 
Vassal name disappeared in 1830, when Mary 
Vassal married Mr. William Weld Wren of 
Southchurch ; but the ample rooms seem to 
speak still of those who did spacious thinking in 
them long ago. 

The preceding and succeeding chapters will 
make clear to the reader of this story, that the 



A. J. Padgett & Son 


Vassals were as remarkable in their associations 
with seafaring families, as they were in their 
connections with New England. But local his- 
tory makes it quite plain that, in later years, the 
Old England branch of the family was as ready 
to gather the harvests of the soil, as their name- 
sakes were the riches of the sea and the first 
fruits of liberty in New England. For of Asser, 
the last of the male line of Eastwood Vassals, 
who died in 1808, it is recorded : " Those who 
remember Vassal speak of him with great re- 
spect." His usual farming cob had its ears 
cropped, which was the fashion of that day. He 
is mentioned by a contemporary, Arthur Young, 
as one who disliked " new f angled whims " in 
farming ; but that writer, who was trying to 
introduce fresh methods into farming, speaks 
very highly of his stock and methods of rotation. 

This old house, enshrouded in its bower of green 
and peeping over its garden fence into the well 
stocked orchard over the way, enshrines the 
spirit that filled the adventurers of the May- 

Passing the vicarage on the left, through the 
great elm trees the spire of Eastwood Church 
may be seen. Here came John Vassal, his first 
and his second wife, his sons, and his daughter, 
Judith. But it was not always that they did so. 
Whilst the Purchas family were here very likely 
some members always attended. 1 At other times, 

1 But even then its senior representative does not seem always 
to have been interested, for in the Archidiaconal Records of 1619 


it is probable they found their way across the 
meadows to Rochford Hall, where we have al- 
ready noted the presence of some of them. The 
unusual characteristics of Eastwood Church will 
attract the attention of the curious. To such the 
features dwelt upon by the Rev. F. Boyd John- 
son, in a paper read in 1915, before the Essex 
Archaeological Society, will be of interest. "The 
structure," he says, " is probably Late Norman, 
chiefly shown by remains of three Norman lancet 
windows in the north wall of the nave, and also 
by a flat buttress outside the north wall of the 
chancel, indicating foundations of a church of 
the early part of the twelfth century ; but the 
whole edifice underwent extensive alterations in 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 

" The south and north doors have entirely lost 
their original character, being now square headed, 
but they were probably built when the south 
wall was erected. This is Early English. They 
are noticeable for their very fine hammered iron 
work. Incised on some of the iron strap work of 
the south door are the remains of an inscription 
in Lombardic or uncial letters, ' Pax regat in- 
trantes eadem regat egredientes.' An elegant 
crosslet forms a central feature on this door. At 
this doorway are to be seen the remains of a 
holy water stoup. The square headed doorways 
would appear to be of recent construction. 

is the following : " John Vassal for sleeping in the tyme of ser- 
vice in the afternoon until all the people had gone forth of the 


" The font is of unusual size and peculiar form. 
It belongs to the transitional period from 
Norman to Early English, well indicated in the 
slightly raised pointed arcading, with slender 
shafts and bases round the drum. It still retains 
its original lead lining. 

" In the south aisle there is an original hagio- 
scope, or remarkable squint, to afford a view of 
the high altar. This aisle underwent consider- 
able alteration in the fifteenth century. The 
roof with the quasi- clerestory appears to be of 
the same period as the brick built south porch, 
that is, of the sixteenth century. The arches are 
Early English. The column of the arch nearest 
the font is roughly cut on the outside, and the 
column of the next arch on the inside, to give 
the bellringer a view of the high altar. The 
windows on the south side have remains of a 
lancet window reduced in height and near it 
a double lighted Edwardian one with cusped 
tracery. Two three-light windows of Eliza- 
bethan character with plain mullions have been 
filled in. Traces of them are to be seen in the 
plastering outside. 

"The most unusual and noticeable feature of 
the church is in the north-west corner of the 
north aisle, where there is an oak framed enclo- 
sure of a highly interesting character dating 
from the time of Henry VI, 1430-1461. It is 
entered by a narrow Tudor headed door open- 
ing, with massive door covered with nails and 
hung upon three stout hinges, with a moulded 


embattled beam over. The lower apartment 
may have been the sacristy, and the upper the 
muniment room, or the whole may have been 
the residence of a priest in charge of the Church. 

" The arches of this aisle are Transition Norman, 
and the window at the east end is Late Decorated. 
On the floor are several ancient tiles nine inches 
square, vitrified. Elizabeth Hooker's gravestone 
is dated 1666, and alongside of it is one with 
the ancient brasses and inscriptions torn off. 
The Church possesses a bier with the date 1706 
cut in. 

" The roof of the nave is very interesting, with 
two massive tye beams as in the chancel, support- 
ing king posts, nicely moulded and with curved 
pieces springing as supports from post to roof. 

" The chancel arch was rebuilt in the fourteenth 
century, but over on the east side are indications 
of the roof of an earlier chancel. The rood beam 
has been sawn off and the ends have been left 
in the wall. Nearest the arch on the north side 
is an original Henry III, 1216-1272, window, and 
on the south side under a wide arch is a window, 
which some authorities say is a ' low side win- 
dow,' formerly unglazed but having a shutter ; 
others claim it to be a leper window. In the 
floor is an effigy in brass, with an inscription on 
Purbeck gravestone to the memory of Thomas 
Burrough dated 1600. 

" The spire was formerly shingled, but it is now 
of modern carpentry and weather boarded. At 
one time there were four bells, but now there 


are only three, which are inscribed as follows : 
(1) Robert Bell, C. Warden. Charles Newman 
made me 1693. (2) Sancta : Katerina : Ora : 
Pro : Nobis. (3) Sancte : Gregori : Ora : Pro : 
Nobis." ' 

Traditions of dissent seem to have lived on in 
that branch of the Vassal family which remained 
in the old country, for in the office of the Regis- 
trar General is a return as follows : " House of 
Henry Vassal of Rochford registered in the 
Bishop's Court as a Presbyterian place of meet- 
ing by Thomas Scalbott, preacher, 1 June 1699." 

1 Transactions of the Essex Archaeological Society, rol. rir, 
pp. 90-2. 



THE road from Eastwood to Southend-on-Sea 
seems to have had more difficulty than usual in 
threading its way through the Essex marsh land. 
Perhaps it was the zigzagging of the steeds of 
some early British Queen that first drew the 
diagram of the double Z by which it proceeds. 
Be that as it may, it will now be found as plea- 
sant and sociable a bit of road as any in England. 
For, having run off at full speed, like an im- 
petuous schoolboy, to meet the Rochford road, 
it skilfully doubles round romantic old Eastwood 
Bury, and, after a few more twists and turns, 
marches off, arm in arm with the main Rayleigh 
highway to Prittlewell, and right up to the gates 
of the Church. 

Before yielding, however, to its lure, let us 
stand beneath the trees in full view of the mag- 
nificent square tower that marks the next halt- 
ing place and ask : What is it that makes 
journeying so pleasant among these folks of the 
eastern counties ? Why is it that the blue of 
the sky and the green of the earth seem so rich ? 
Surely because in the case of peasant, scholar, 





and ecclesiastic, the art of passing from hand to 
hand the holy grail of simple kindness is prac- 
tised. The most casual pilgrim from Liverpool 
Street Station in London to Colchester, and from 
the Bishop's Court at Chelmsford to St. Mary's of 
the Virgin, Prittlewell, will find his cup frequently 
replenished with the new wine of joy from the 
rich clusters of courtesy, which those parts so 
freely yield. Although much still remains to 
remind us of old times, the world has changed 
considerably since the people of the Mayflower 
looked upon the Church so like a carved minia- 
ture in stone, against a background of green. 

Were it our purpose to deal generally with the 
buildings associated with the " Forefathers," we 
should be amply repaid in spending time tracing 
the growth and changes, which have come to this 
spacious old Church, since its foundation in the 
twelfth or thirteenth century. Romance and 
history may also vie with each other in weaving 
their threads around its charming contour ; for 
long before the Armada threatened our shores, 
mariners were guided by it, doleful monks 
thronged its precincts from the neighbouring 
priory, and its beautiful bells chimed sweet music 
for the locality. " The glory of Prittlewell 
Church, however, from an architectural point of 
view," says an authority, " is its noble tower. 
It is four storeys high and is surmounted by an 
embattled parapet, similar to those below, each 
angle being finished by octangular turrets and 
richly crocketed pinnacles. The bell chamber 


is lighted by four three-light windows, and other 
windows light the lower stages. The tower is 
one of the finest in the country." 

But our main interest centres in two groups 
of people that used to worship here in far off 

Consideration of the first of these groups may 
well gather around the name of Samuel Smith, 
who was Vicar of Prittlewell, 1615-1620. Be- 
cause of physical infirmities Smith would never 
have survived the hardships of a New England 
pioneer, but his mental and spiritual accomplish- 
ments, his courage and fidelity to principle, won 
him an honourable place among the confessors 
of 1662 ; and his power of inspiring and training 
others may well place him in the company of 
Richard Clifton of Babworth and Scrooby. 
Perhaps the memory of the Mayflower's depar- 
ture, as he watched it from his Church tower, 
helped him when his own time of trial came. 
But his connection with that event was probably 
more intimate still. 

Newcourt says that Smith was a minister's 
son, born in Worcestershire. In Nichol's series of 
Commentaries 1 he is referred to as son of Will 
Smith, Vicar of Dudley, and is stated to have 
been born February 1583. He was entered at 
St. Mary's Hall, Oxford, in 1603 ; and we first 
hear of him in Essex in connection with Rowell, 

1 Mr. F. Chancellor, F.R.I.B.A., in Transactions Essex Archaeo- 
logical Society, vol. x, p. 271. 
* Vidt Benton, Hittory of <A Rochford Hundred, p. 876. 


where he settled in 1614. Thence he came to 

How far Smith went in the direction of Separ- 
atism during those early years is not easily ascer- 
tained. The living was in Lord Rich's gift, the 
patron of Wright and John Greenwood ; hence 
we may infer that the vicar's Puritanism would 
be distinct and real. But just as we have to 
discriminate between varying shades of Puri- 
tanism, so there is need of care in deciding who 
were Separatists and who were not. It is neces- 
sary to consider the prevailing conditions in each 
centre. John Robinson would appear to have 
had considerable difficulty in determining the 
degree of Separatism represented by St. Andrews, 
Norwich, and his own rightful relationship to it. 1 
The situation in some parts of Essex seems to 
have been far less acute, as far as local centres 
were concerned, than was the case in other 
places. The persecution of Separatists generally 
was, of course, organised and ecclesiastical, 
behind it was always the State, but in various 
centres local feeling counted for much and some- 
times greatly aggravated the situation. 

Individual cases also must be taken into con- 
sideration. In the Chelmsford Archidiaconal Re- 
cords, for example, mention is made of a Richard 
Matthew, who in 1606 " said in plain terms his 
wife shall not come to the Parish Church but 
shall make her thanksgiving at home," and the 
entry proceeds : "He hath procured a strange 

1 Barrage, The Pastor of the Pilgrim Fathers, p. 30. 


minister to solemnise that duty in his house." 
In some such cases we may seek in vain for per- 
sonal histories of Separatists in connection with 
the Parish Registers. But in other cases, thanks 
to tolerant clergymen, we find Separatist fledg- 
lings nestling under the wings of " Mother 
Church " to a surprising extent. And such 
seems to have been the case at Prittlewell under 
successive vicars, 1 doubtless due to no small 
extent, as we have seen, to the influence of the 
Rich family. 

Samuel Smith probably left Prittlewell at the 
close of 1620. He signed the testimony of the 
Shropshire ministers in 1648, was ejected in 1662, 
and died at Dudley, where he was buried in 1665. 
Calamy says : " He was a very holy, judicious 
man and greatly esteemed." He was also a 
powerful writer : many of his works are known, 
some of which ran to thirty-two issues. The 
most popular of these appear to have been pub- 
lished during his Prittlewell ministry. They in- 
cluded : The Great Assize on the Day of Jubilee, 
in four sermons on Rev. xx., printed in 1619, and 
about one and thirty times up to 1684 ; and A 
Fold for Christ's Sheep, in two sermons on Songs 
of Solomon, printed in 1619 and two and thirty 

1 I have not traced the matter elsewhere, and it is not easy to 
gather from Benton * which house in Southend was first licensed 
for Nonconformist worship. He says it was at the house of 
Robert Butler that the Rev. Christopher Scott took refuge after 
his ejectment from Great Wakering in 1662, and from which he 
dated an epistle to Captain Robert Fisher in 1672. Butler for 
some years prior to his death in 1706 lived at Porter's Grange. 
* Beaton, Bittory of tht Rochford Hundred, p. (86. 


times up to 1684. It was not only as a writer 
that he exercised considerable influence; his 
popularity as a preacher seems to have been 
equally great. He gathered around him a con- 
gregation, which included the names of nearly 
all the famous seafaring families of the district, 
the Salmons, Freebournes, Goodlads, Pulleys, and 

Great, however, as was Smith's influence, there 
must have been around him social evils and dire 
want such as we can hardly imagine. No one 
travelling the road by which we came, past the 
black cottages of Eastwood, or stepping into the 
quaint streets of Prittlewell, would to-day find 
many signs of grinding poverty. It was not 
always so. The miscalled " simple annals of the 
poor" in the England of the times, of which we 
are now thinking, are often sad beyond words. 
As recently as 1813 the clothes of the very poor 
had to be made of a mixed dark grey coloured 
cloth marked with a large Roman " P " on the 
collar of each coat. The women and girls wore 
raiment of the same colour marked in the same 
way, and both sexes had strong brown worsted 
stockings. These people were kept by the work- 
house master at 3s. per head per week, and were 
engaged in spinning and carding wool for the 
master's benefit. In 1817 the names of all per- 
sons receiving parochial relief had to be posted 
weekly in some conspicuous part of the taproom 
of every public house in the parish. But the 
nearer we get to the time of the suppression of 


the old religious houses the more deeply do we 
plunge into a state of almost incredible horror 
and want among the poor of England. The way 
that ecclesiastical property was bandied about 
might well make good Churchmen groan ; the 
manner in which huge estates were thrown to, 
or snatched away from, Court favourites might 
make a modern democrat gasp with astonish- 
ment ; but the tale of the treatment of the poor 
is enough to make one weep. 

The Statute I of Edward'VI, c. 3, ordered that 
any person living idly or loiteringly for the space 
of three days should, on being brought before a 
justice, be marked as a vagabond with hot iron 
upon the breast and be the slave of the informer 
for two years ; he was to be fed on refuse 
meat and the coarsest fare, and compelled to do 
any work, however vile, by beating, chaining, or 
otherwise. If he absented himself for fourteen 
days, he was to be branded on the cheek or fore- 
head with a hot iron, and adjudged a slave to his 
master for ever. If he ran away a second time 
he was to suffer death as a felon. These wretched 
slaves could be sold, bequeathed, or let on hire, 
and, like dogs, might have iron collars riveted 
round their necks by their owners, or rings of 
iron placed round their wrists and ankles. The 
King called this " an extreme law." Whipping 
for vagrancy was both a mild and common form 
of punishment. In 1599 such an act was per- 
formed in the presence of Thomas Newman, 
vicar of the neighbouring parish of Canewdon. 


Many entries in the Parish Minute Book at 
Prittlewell reflect a state of serious want and suffer- 
ing among the poor, and record many attempts 
to deal with it. Under the inspiration of the 
good Samuel Smith one woman at least, Judith 
Freeborn, seems to have felt the glow of human 
compassion, though her name is not mentioned 
until later. Before her marriage she was Judith 
Vassal of "Cocksey Hurst," Eastwood, sister of 
Samuel Vassal. In the same Church, later on, 
acting as sidesman, we find Richard Crandley, 
whose name has already been noticed in con- 
nection with the Mayflower of 1647 ; and yet 
another, Richard Britteridge, 1 is referred to 
as " Gent," probably a notary. Among the 
Mayflower signatures is the name of Richard 

The early New England associations of the 
" Watch Tower Town " by no means end here. 
What, for example, is the origin of the name 
" New England " farm of Rochford, part of the 
land of which lies in Prittlewell ? 

Leaving the days of Smith, and passing by 
Jonathan Negus, who was also vicar of Prittlewell, 
thirteen years elapse. In 1633, Thomas Peck, 
M.A., was presented to the living by Robert, Earl 
of Warwick. Of his preaching powers we know 

1 Mrs. Skinner's notes contain a large number of entries con- 
cerning the Britteridge family ; but the genealogies are very 
difficult to work out. However, a definite statement " of 
Prittlewell near Southend," together with the chain of relation- 
ships, in Pilgrim circles, has led me to assume confidently that 
this was the original home of the first Richard Britteridge. 


little ; but in the struggle between Parliament 
and the Crown, in which Vassal took so strong a 
hand, Peck became a powerful local leader. In 
the Parish Minute Book is a beautifully written 
and well preserved copy of the Solemn League 
and Covenant. Peck was a member of the Fourth 
Essex Classis, but at this stage, at least, in his 
career he appears to have been less advanced 
in his sympathy with the policy of the Common- 
wealth than some. His position was Presby- 
terian ; and in 1648, along with 157 of his par- 
ishioners, he signed an expression of dissent from 
some of Parliament's dealings with the King. 
At the foot of this, however, some person has 
written: "All round head villains." 

Was Thomas Peck closely related to the Pecks 
who, in 1609-1611, were among the Pilgrims in 
Leyden ? It is probable, though proof as yet is 
lacking. The family names, however, are very 
much alike, so are the traditions and associations. 
Robert Peck was betrothed to Jane Merrett in 
Leyden, 1609. Ann Peck, his sister, ward of 
William Brewster, married there, first John 
Spooner, and secondly Peter Powell, of Maldon, 
Essex. The Vicar's father, Robert Peck, who 
hailed from Hingham, Norfolk, the home of 
Abraham Lincoln's English ancestors, went out 
to New England in 1638, and, in conjunc- 
tion with others, there founded Hingham. 
A daughter, Anne, married Captain Mason 
of Connecticut, whilst the Vicar of Prittle- 
well married into the great Puritan family of 


Rogers, and later Rebecca Caley > of Walding- 

Before leaving this place of so many interest- 
ing associations let us ascend the church tower. 
From its summit may be seen many a fair sight 
reminiscent of past days. Away in the distance, 
across the Thames to the south, is the mouth of 
the Medway, where, after four and a half years' 
vigil, England's great watch dogs are at rest. 
Nearer is the Milton shore, where John Frith, the 
heroic friend of William Tyndale, was arrested. 
When will Southend honour itself by erecting a 
monument to him ? To the east is grand old 
Porter's Grange. To the north are the remains 
of the historic Priory. Rolling inland are miles 
and miles of Pilgrim country, and finally, like a 
silver streak in the distance, gleam over thirty 
miles of the historic track of the Mayflower. 

1 Abraham Caley was a member of the Fourth Essex Classis 
and was ejected from Rayleigh in 1662. 




No small amount of time has been spent with 
a view to the solution of what may be called 
" The London Puzzle," in putting together the 
scraps of information gained from old wills, city 
records, and church registers. There are still 
many pieces missing, but enough of the picture 
is visible to enable us to identify two of the 
figures stepping on board the Mayflower. 

The story relates to William White and 
Richard Warren, two names that follow each 
other in the signatures to the Compact on board 
the Mayflower. Up to this time they have been 
names only. Of their parentage, occupation, or 
origin there appeared to be no trace. 

It is necessary to go back as far as the reign 
of Henry VIII, when a young lad came up from 
Reading to London to be apprenticed to a Mer- 
chant Taylor. That lad became the Lord Mayor 
of London, the famous Sir Thomas White, 1 
founder of the Merchant Taylors' School and 
St. John's College, Oxford. Tennyson tells some 

1 A portrait of Sir Thomas is in the Old Guildhall, Norwich. 


of his story in his drama, Queen Mary, but 
Hallam Tennyson says his father always re- 
gretted that through lack of knowledge he had 
not done justice to his character. Certainly the 
words put into his mouth by Tennyson agree 
but little with those he wrote to the officials of 
St. John's College : " That everyone of you shall 
love one another as brothers. If strifes should 
arise I shall desire you for God's sake to pacify 
it." His wealth is still " a fountain of perennial 
alms," as many struggling tradesmen throughout 
England can testify. 

Sir Thomas had several nephews. One was 
Ralph White, master of St. John's, whose sons 
John and Josias did so much in the founding of 
the Massachusetts Colony. John was (rector of 
Dorchester, familiarly known as " Bishop 
John " ; Josias was rector of Hornchurch, Essex. 

The other three nephews who come into the 
story were brothers. One, Alexander White of 
Sturton-le-Steeple, Notts., was father of Mrs. 
Carver, the wife of the leader of the Mayflower 
party, also of John Robinson's wife, Bridget. 

The second was William White, of the Mer- 
chant Taylors' Company, of which he was made 
a Freeman in 1561, by Thomas Rowe of Bishops- 
gate, afterwards Sir Thomas Rowe. He was 
doubtless the William White who, in 1567, was 
arrested at Plumbers' Hall, London, for unlaw- 
fully meeting for worship. 1 

1 Thia should be specially noted and the additional evidence 
in this chapter that not only were the Pilgrims often close blood 


There is still a street called Great Bush Lane 
leading out of Cannon Street, and from this a 
passage led to Plumbers' Hall, in the very neigh- 
bourhood, where so many of the Merchant Taylors 
lived. The third brother was John White. 
Alexander of Sturton-le- Steeple mentions William 
and John in his will. He also names his own 
four sons. One of these was Thomas, and another, 
Roger, who afterwards accompanied the three 
sisters, Katherine, Bridget, and Jane, to Holland. 

From the records of St. John's College the 
following extract has been taken : " In 1592 
Thomas White, aged fifteen, was admitted Fellow, 
as Founder's kin." Later this appears : " Thomas 
White received leave of absence from the Col- 
lege for Sermons preached in London in Alder- 
may." This was a polite way of saying that he 
was dismissed. 1 Now Aldermay is in Watling 
Street, close to the Mansion House. The tower 
of the old church is still standing. The walls 

relations and also related educationally, but that the most 
intimate connection existed between those who fought the 
battle for religious liberty in the Old Country and those who 
established it in New England. Hence there is no room for the 
question : " Who were the braver, those who sailed, or those 
who stayed at home ? " It is easy for partisans to dispute the 
point, but it is doubtful if these ever thought of themselves as 
other than two regiments in one great army. 

1 The College authorities afterwards, on account of his name 
and kindred, gave him a grant of money. He left the Church of 
England and joined the English Reformed Church in Amster- 
dam, but he was back again in London in 1606, having had a 
great deal of unpleasantness while abroad. After that I have no 
knowledge of him. He might have fared better if he had waited 
and crossed the ocean with his sisters and brother. 


were rebuilt after the Great Fire. It was the 
Parish Church of the Puritans. One Merchant 
Taylor left an endowment to be continued as 
long as the Gospel was preached there. These 
College records link the family to Sir Thomas 
White and also to the Puritan party, and they 
connect the Puritan party in London with that 
in Nottinghamshire. 

John, the third brother of the trio, of whom 
Alexander and William were the remaining two, 
was the distinguished John White, D.D., of 
Oxford, rector of Barham, near Ipswich, Suffolk, 
and chaplain to King James. In his will he men- 
tions his son who had left his Church and his 
country. This son was William White of the 
Mayflower, who went over with other London 
Puritans to Amsterdam, and thence to Ley den, 
where he married Samuel Fuller's sister Susanna. 

He is the first Suffolk man that has been dis- 
covered on the Mayflower. The evidence, how- 
ever, points to the fact that he was actually born 
at Cambridge. 

Take now the case of Richard Warren. It is 
necessary to return to the story of the appren- 
tice lad, afterwards Sir Thomas White and 
Lord Mayor of London, who in 1557 married the 
widow of Sir Ralph Warren 1 of the Mercers' 

1 Sir Ralph Warren held very extensive estates in Essex, includ- 
ing Clabury, Barking ; the Manors of Leyton, Asheldam, Great 
Easton, etc. Morant, in his History of Essex, does not appear to 
be very accurately informed on personal matters relating to Sir 
Ralph, but his other references are valuable. In vol. ii, pp. 434 
and 685, the name of his grandfather is given a* " William Warren 


Company, and went to live in her house in 
St. Syths Lane. Sir Ralph was buried in St. 
Syths Church close by, but the church and even 
the burying ground have disappeared. St. Syths 
Lane, however, is still in existence, in the shape 
of a turning out of Bucklersbury close to Cheap- 
side. Sir Thomas White had no children of his 
own, but he was evidently much attached to his 
two step- children, Richard and Joan Warren, 
calling them, in his will, " my children." 

In taking up another piece of the puzzle, we 
come to the name of " Oliver Cromwell." Joan 
Warren married Sir Henry Cromwell, becoming 
through him the grandmother of the famous 
Oliver Cromwell. Richard Warren, therefore, 
of the Mayflower was probably closely related 
to the Lord Protector of England. 

In St. John's College Library is a stained glass 
window on which we read : " Robert Dove, Sir 
William Craven, both of the Merchant Taylors 
Company, and Richard Warren, 2 Esq., gave fifty 
pounds apiece to the building of the Library." 

Note the company in which Warren is found. 
A copy of the memorials of Robert Dove, or 
Dowe, is in the Bodleian Library, called London's 
Dove. His midnight exhortation to the con- 
demned prisoners in Newgate is a very earnest 
one. 1 He was plainly of the Puritan party, as 

of Fering." In Stowe and Strype's Survey of London, ed. 1720, 
bk. iii, p. 28 ; bk. v, p. 131, his father's name is given as Thomas 

1 Vide Clode's History of the Merchant Taylors' Company. 

2 This Richard Wftrren died in 1597. 


was also Sir William Craven. The latter was 
closely connected with St. Antholin's Church and 
was in business with the cousin of Francis Cooke, 
and the Parkers 1 ; and John Cooke, brother 
of Francis, was his business man. Thus by 
family, social, and business ties, those men of 
strong faith and valiant deed appear to have 
been linked together in the closest bonds. 

1 Vide, p. 159. 



WERE the cause of religious liberty in the 
western part of the world still in doubt, this 
perhaps would be the place to pause, and re- 
joice in the splendid Utopian dreams of the 
despised Separatists. Were the world's vision 
of civil liberty a vanishing or vanished mirage, 
it would be both our duty and privilege to cheer 
each other with the words : "Be strong, for 
this is how men and women of Saxon blood 
have borne themselves in an impossible quest." 
Happily England long ago endorsed their ideals. 
America also has embodied them in the consti- 
tution of a great free State of over a hundred 
million souls. Carver has been succeeded by 
Washington, Brewster by Lincoln, Bradford by 
Garfield and Wilson. By and by, when the world 
shall have been made safe for democracy, those 
ideals will conquer realms not even a dream three 
centuries ago. In the first New Plymouth settle- 
ment there was human material, the full worth 
of which is not to be wholly judged by its for- 
titude in the cold, wet, and misery of New 
England, nor yet by its dogged heroism in the 


cause of civil freedom, but rather by two or 
three great events in English history. 

In the year 1559 Queen Elizabeth entered 
London. The streets were bright with waving 
banners and the gay dresses of the citizens strug- 
gling to get nearer to the royal procession. They 
shouted with joy as they beheld their young 
Queen. There was more in their shouts than the 
mere gaiety of a holiday crowd. It was a glad 
day for many in England. The dark reign of 
Mary, with its imprisonments and martyrdoms, 
was over, and the men of the Reformation were 
looking forward hopefully to the future. 

It is possible to recall the scene. There is a 
pause in the long line of banners, plumes, and 
glittering steel. The procession has just arrived 
at " The little Conduit in the Chepe," where one 
of those pageants, the delight of our forefathers, 
is prepared. An old man in emblematic dress 
stands before the Queen, and Her Grace is told 
that this is Time. " Time?" quoth she, " and 
Time it was that brought me hither." Beside 
him stands a white robed maiden, who is intro- 
duced as "Truth," the daughter of "Time." 
She holds in her hand a book on which is written 
Verbum Veritatis, the Word of Truth, an English 
Bible, which she presents to the young monarch. 
The Queen, raising it with both hands to her 
lips, and then laying it against her heart, amid 
the enthusiastic shouting of the crowd, gracefully 
thanks the city for " so precious a gift." Did 
news of that event reach Horsley, in Derbyshire ? 


Did Widow Adriana Rogers tell her fatherless 
children of it, and sing for joy, because her hus- 
band's purpose had been realised ? It may be 

Three years previous to this, on February 4, 
1555, London is still a city of wood, clustering 
about Old St. Paul's. For more than a year 
John Rogers, prebendary of St. Paul's, has been 
" lying in a vile prison amongst thieves," but 
now, after much " shogging " by the keeper's 
wife at Newgate, he is awakened early in the 
morning and bidden make haste to prepare him- 
self for the fire. This he meets with light hearted 
chaffing. He requested to be allowed to take 
leave of his wife and children, of whom there 
were eleven, one still at the breast ; but this the 
heartless Bonner refused. As Rogers was led to 
Smithfield he sang the "Miserere." His wife 
and family were so placed that when he was at 
the stake he would have full view of them in 
order to make him recant; but the man, who 
had lived for pure religion and an open Bible, 
could fearlessly bathe his hands in the biggest blaze 
that popery could command. Noailles, the French 
Ambassador, who was a spectator, wrote to his 
sovereign : " This day the confirmation of the 
alliance between the pope and this kingdom has 
been made by a public and solemn sacrifice of a 
preaching doctor named Rogers, who has been 
burnt alive for being a Lutheran, but he has 
met his death persisting in his opinion ; at which 
the greater part of the people here took such 


pleasure that they did not fear to give him many 
acclamations to comfort his courage ; and even 
his children stood by consoling him in such a 
way, that he looked as if they were conducting 
him to a merry marriage." Mark well the stuff 
of which those children were made. Around that 
fire the characteristics that moulded New Eng- 
land were in process of birth. 

The martyr himself was an Essex man, from 
the banks of the Chelmer. After his day there 
were three families of that name in Chelmsford, 
which adds somewhat to the difficulty of distin- 
guishing them. The testimony of Waters, Benton, 
and Davis, however, is unanimous, and an old 
house, at the corner of Friar's Walk, until 1890 
had been in the possession of the family for 
hundreds of years. Moreover, the names Parker, 1 
Cooke, Rogers, all of the Mayflower circle, are 
found together, notably in the will of a John 
Rogers of 1601. Further, note the relative posi- 
tion of Cooke and Rogers in the Mayflower Cove- 
nant. The sequence of names in that list de- 
serves more attention than it has yet received. 

Of the sons present at the Smithfield burning, 
four had foreign sounding names,* which were 
not likely to be popular with the Puritans. 
Hence possibly some were changed for those of 
English origin. This view is strongly held by 
Mr. John Wilfred Rogers of Nottingham, who 

1 Vide p. 155. 

1 Their mother was probably Dutch or German. Vide Foxe, 
vol. iii. p. 08. 


is the fourteenth in descent from the martyr. It 
certainly seems to have been the case with one, 
Thomas, who some time before 1560, five years 
after the martyrdom, took his mother to live at 
Horsley, Derbyshire, where she died August 8, 
1572. Four years later, on December 31, this 
Thomas had a son baptized Thomas. The 
father's death is recorded, but not that of the son. 

In September 1620 we watch the Pilgrims 
gathering on Plymouth beach, among whom 
is a Thomas Rogers. Something he carries and 
guards most diligently. It is a picture of his 
grandfather, John Rogers the Martyr, now hung 
in Worcester Museum, New England. 

The new country gained more than a picture ; 
it was enriched with such blood as runs in martyr 
veins. It is to such stock, and from a nation 
possessing such potentialities, that the world will 
look for greater things than have even been 
realised in the three centuries that have elapsed 
since those went forth, " to shape the destinies 
of that Continent, and therefore profoundly 
affect the destiny of the whole world." 



THE words " Puritans " and " Separatists " may 
not appear to have been used as consistently 
throughout these pages as some would desire. 
Let it suffice, by way of extenuation and ex- 
planation, to say that whereas "Puritan" is 
sometimes used for Separatist, " Separatist " is 
nowhere used without its proper narrower signifi- 
cance. For as the Rev. T. G. Crippen has said : 
" All Separatists were Puritans, but all Puritans 
were not Separatists." The Puritans consti- 
tuted a genus of whom the Separatists were a 
species. By some American writers the word 
" Puritan " is applied exclusively to the settlers of 
Massachusetts in contradistinction to the Separa- 
tist settlers in New Plymouth ; but such a prac- 
tice loses sight of the great historical setting in 
the Old Country, out of which both sections 

Concerning the word " Pilgrim " much has 
been said by various writers in challenge of its 
appropriateness as a name for the early American 
settlers. The question was specially raised by 
the pioneer of Pilgrim study in England, the 


Rev. Joseph Hunter. Philologically, doubtless it 
is not very accurate. But that it simply states 
what the exiles felt themselves to be, is evident 
from the sentence with which Bradford ends his 
story of the departure : "So they left that godly 
and pleasant city which had been their resting- 
place near twelve years ; but they knew they 
were Pilgrims, and looked not much on those 
things, but lifted up their eyes to the heavens, 
their dearest country, and quieted their spirits." 
The terms " Pilgrim," " First Comers," or " Fore- 
fathers" are now restricted to those who went over 
in the Mayflower in 1620 ; the Fortune, in 1621 ; 
and the Anne and the Little James, in 1623. 

The visit of the Fortune on November 19, 1621, 
seems to have come as a surprise to the little 
band at Plymouth, and it could not have been less 
so when they found Robert Cushman in charge. 
Did he go to them partly to redeem his good 
name from the slur of cowardice, which must 
have rested upon it as a result of his ignominious 
return home from Plymouth in 1620 ? It may 
be so. Certainly one cause of his coming was 
the anxiety of the Merchant Adventurers as to 
their chances of repayment from the colonists. 
In this ship were the following, whose age (at 
landing, and year of death), as far as they are 
known, are given by Goodwin thus : 

Year of Death. Tear of Death. 

John Adams . . 1633 Jonathan Brewster (28) 1659 ? 

William Bassett . 1667 Clement Briggs. 

Elizabeth, his wife. Thomas Cushman (14) 1691 

Edward Bompasse . 1684 ? Stephen Dean . . 1634 


Tar of Death. YarofDath. 

Philip de la Noye( 19) 1681 Robert Hicks . . 1684 

William Wright . . 1633 William Palmer . . 1638 

Widow Martha Ford William Palmer, Jr. 

and her children Thomas Prence (19) . 1674 

William Ford . .1676 Moses Simonson. 

John Ford . . . 1693 John Winslow . . 1674 

Martha Ford . . 1684 

William Seal, John Cannon, William Connor, Thomas Flavel 
and son, William Hilton, Bennet Morgan, Thomas Morton, 
Austin Nicholas, William Pitt, Hugh Statie, James Stewart, and 
William Tench. 1 

Bradford states that there were thirty-five in 

The arrival of this new contingent brought 
anything but immediate strength to the colony. 
It was made up very largely of young men un- 
prepared for the desperate work of pioneers. 
They had been four months on the journey and 
had brought no provisions of any kind with 
them. At Plymouth, England, they had sold all 
their spare clothing and other property to get 
spending money. Even the ship had to be pro- 
visioned from the very scanty store of food avail- 
able in the colony. It was a singular climax to 
this visit when the vessel, which had been laden 
with goods valued at 500 by the colonists, lost 
the whole of her cargo, by falling into the hands 
of the French, on the return journey. The pre- 
sence of the thirty- five new arrivals compelled 
all to face the winter on half rations ; but the 
next year, owing to an unscrupulous merchant 
professing friendship, Thomas Weston, their 

> The Pilgrim Republic, p. 191 . 


plight became even more desperate. Lobsters, 
clams, and mussels, without bread, meat, or vege- 
tables, became their diet long before the harvest. 
Add to all this the fact that the Indian tribes 
became insolent, trading with them difficult, and 
a massacre of the settlers, such as had taken 
place in Virginia, was only averted by Divine 
protection and the extraordinary premonitions 
given to their ever watchful military leader, Miles 
Standish. Drought, which came to a speedy 
end after a day of prayer, threatened the corn 
crop in July of 1623, and famine became so acute 
that Winslow speaks of men staggering at noon- 
day for want of food. Nevertheless the health 
of the Colony remained wonderfully good. 

Late in July of that year there arrived the 
Anne and the Little James, bringing about a hun- 
dred new settlers. Many were from Leyden and 
were relatives of those who came earlier. Some 
were deemed by Bradford to be so unsuitable, 
for the demands of a life under their conditions, 
that he took the precaution to pay their fares 
home again. Of the ninety-seven who were 
allowed to remain the following is the list as given 
by Goodwin : 

Tear of Death. 

Cuthbert Cuthbertson . 1633 
His wife Sarah . . 1633 

and four children. 
John Faunce . . 1654 
Edward Holman. 
John Jenny . . . 1644 
His wife Sarah and 3 



Anthony Annable . 
His wife Jane & 2 chil- 


Edward Bangs (31) . 

His wife Rebecca & 2 


Robert Bartlett (20) . 1676 

Thomas Clarke (18) . 1697 



Tear of Death. 


Manasseh Kempton 

Experience Mitchell (24) 

George Morton . 

His wife Juliana & 5 

Thomas Morton, Jr. 

Joshua Pratt . . 1656 

Nicholas Snow 

Francis Sprague, wife 
Anna & child Mercy. 

Stephen Tracey, wife 
Triphosa and child 

Ralph Wallen . . 1681 

His wife Joyce. 

"Mr. Perce's two ser- 
vants" . 

Fear Brewster . .1633 

Patience Brewster . 1634 

Mary Bucket (Becket) . 1677 

Dr. Fuller's wife Bridget. 

Robert Hick's wife Mar- 
get and three children. 

Year of Death. 

Francis Cook's wife, Hes- 
ter, and three children. 

Eleanor Newton (25) . 1681 

William Palmer's wife, 

Christian Perm 

Mrs. Alice Carpenter- 

Southworth . . 1670 

Barbara (became Mrs. 

Richard Warren's wife 
Elizabeth and 5daugh- 
Elizabeth & Abigail . 1673 

Edward Burcher (Bour- 
chier) & wife. . . 

Christopher Conant 

Anthony Dix 

William Heard 

Edmund Flood 

Robert Long. 

John Oldham, his wife and eight associates ; James Rand ; 
Robert Ratliffe (Radcliffe ?) his wife and two children ; Thomas 
Tilden, his wife and child ; Thomas Flavell's wife ; William 
Hilton's wife and two children. 1 

The colonists, including the new comers, now 
numbered about 180 all told. They were in the 
best of health, not a death among the first 
comers having taken place since the end of the 
great sickness, in the spring of 1621. There were 
many joyful reunions after years of separation, 
but not a few were bitterly disappointed, and at 
this we need not be surprised, for of the state of 

1 The Pilgrim Republic, pp. 243, 244. 


things which prevailed Bradford has left a 
graphic account : " These passengers, when they 
saw their low and poore condition ashore, were 
much danted and dismayed, and according to 
their diverse humores were diversly affected ; 
some wished themselves in England againe ; 
others fell aweeping, fancying their own miserie 
in what they saw now in others ; other some 
pitying the distress they saw their freinds had 
been long in, and still were under; in a word, 
all were full of sadness. Only some of their old 
freinds rejoysed to see them, and yt it was no 
worse with them, for they could not expecte it 
should be better, and now hoped they should 
injoye better days together. And truly it was 
no marvell they should be thus affected for they 
were in a very low condition, many were ragged 
in aparell & some little beter than halfe naked ; 
though some yt were well stord before, were well 
enough in this regard. But for food they were 
all alike, save some yt had got a few pease of ye 
ship yt was last hear. The best dish they 
could present their freinds with was a lobster, 
or a peece of fish, without bread or any thing 
els but a cupp of fair spring water." ' 

The new arrivals brought enough food with 
them to last till the next harvest. The situa- 
tion was one of considerable delicacy, but it was 
well and carefully managed. Moreover, during 
that year the colonists had adopted a new 
method in the distribution of labour, which led 

1 Bradford's History, p. 174. 


to a much more general and satisfactory culti- 
vation of the land. They had collected also a 
good supply of clapboards and beaver skins. 
These were loaded into the Anne ; and on Sep- 
tember 20, 1623, it sailed, carrying Winslow on 
business to England. " Harvest soon followed," 
we read, " and was abundant ; all had enough to 
supply them for the ensuing year, and the more 
industrious had grain to sell. The system of 
individual labour had proved highly successful, 
and the period of famine had come to an end, 
never to return to the firesides of the old 

Whilst these things were happening, some 
troublesome and unsuccessful attempts at colon- 
ising were being made to the north and south of 
them. In 1628 the various claims around Bos- 
ton and Salem were absorbed or superseded by 
the Massachusetts Bay Company, which sent out 
John Endicott. He was followed in 1630 by 
John Winthrop, and with those events the way 
was prepared for a great emigration of perse- 
cuted Englishmen. Among them came a large 
number of noble, liberal minded men, who were 
influenced to an extraordinary extent by the 
Pilgrims of New Plymouth, and who, in turn, 
reacted upon their southern neighbours. Out of 
the people of these settlements have emerged 
the ideals of the great American nation. 

Whither, and to what heights the same 
great guiding hand of God may yet conduct 
this people who can say ? But surely the 


lines of Julia Ward Howe express what is and is 
to be : 

1 Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coining of the Lord ; 
He is trampling out the vintage where the grapes of wrath are 

stored ; 
He hath loosed the fateful lightning of His terrible, swift 

sword : 

His truth is marching on. 
Glory, glory, Hallelujah, 
His truth is marching on. 

' In the beauty of the lilies Christ was born across the sea, 

With a glory in His bosom that transfigures you and me ; 
As. He died to make men holy, let us die to make them free 
While God is marching on. 
Glory, glory, Hallelujah, 
While God is marching on." 


Acts of High Court of Admiralty, 

121, 123 

Acts of Privy Council, 46, 120, 121 
Adams, John Quincy, 27 
Agawam, 101 
Ains worth, 112 
Aldeburgh, 130 
Alden, John, 26, 48 
Aldermay, 152 

Alfred the Great, 26, 77, 86, 132 
Allen, Rose, 106 
AUerton, Bartholomew, 47 

Isaac, 17, 26 

John, 26 

Mary, 43 

Mary, junior, 47 

Remember, 47 

America, 22, 28, 29, 30, 74, 78, 


Ames, William, 115 
Amsterdam, 45, 62, 110 
Andrews, Peter, 127, 128 
Andrews, St., Norwich, 80, 143 

St., in the Wardrobe, 5 
Anne, the, 162, 164, 167 

list of passengers on, 164 
Antholin, St., 62, 63, 65, 155 
Antwerp, 2, 13, 60 
Aquidnick or Rhode Island, 36 
Archidiaconal Records, 113, 135, 

136, 143 

Court, 92 
Arminian Episcopius, 17 
Ashmore, Joan, 78, 79 
Aspley Hall, 76 
Austerfield, 28, 78, 85 
Aylmer, Bishop of London, 113 

Babworth, 78, 81 
Bacon, Anthony, 7, 59 
Francis, Lord, 5, 6, 12, 56, 57, 
60, 6i 

Bacon, Lady, 5, 53, 62 
Bacon, Lord, Spedding's Life of, 55 
Badiley, William, 129 
Bainford, William, 90 
Barbary, 125 

merchants, 61, 62 
Barham (Suffolk), 153 
Barrowe, Henry, 12, 13, 112 
Bartholomew, St., London, 88 
Bedfordshire, 74 

Bell, Robert, 121 
Benhold, Thomas, 107 
Bentham, Thomas, 112 
Berhner, Augustin, 112 
Bilboro', 77, 78, 79 
Billericay, 26, 86-94 
Billericay Congregational Church 

records, 93 
Billington, Ellen, 43 

Francis, 47 

John, 26 

junior, 47 

Bishopsgate, 151 

Boadicea, 104 

Booking, 3 

Bodleian Library, 154 

Boleyn, Anne, 1, 2, 3 

Bolsover, Separatist Church at, 


Bonner, Bishop, 88, 89, 90, 158 
Boston, 15, 48 

New England, 5, 35, 97, 124 
Bougeour, William, 107 
Bow, 70 

Bradford, William, 18, 26, 38, 
39, 71, 78, 81, 82, 85 

Dorothy, 28, 43 
Bradford's History, 8, 18, 17, 18, 

20, 24, 32, 33, 41, 42, 48, 71, 

93, 122, 130, 162, 168 
Braintree, 97 
Branding, 146 
Brentwood, 70, 89 
Brewster, Love, 47 

Mary, 43 




Brewster, William, 20, 26, 36, 48, 
50, 71, 78, 81, 84 

Wrestling, 47 
Brice, Thomas, 88, 89 
Brice's Poetical Register, 88, 89 
Bridewell, 7 

Bridge, William, 118 

Stephen, 58 

Mrs., 58 

Britteridge, Richard, 26, 147 
Brockson, John, 122 
Brown, Mary, 110 

Peter, 26 

Robert, 11, 12, 15, 53, 62, 112 
Brownism, 13 

Brownist Church, 115 
Brownists, 12, 48, 102, 110 
Broxtowe, 75, 76, 77, 78, 81 
Broxtowe Hall, 75, 76, 78 
Bucklersbury, 154 
Budge Row, 62 
BuUinger, Heindrich, 4 
Burgess, Rev. James, 80 
Burleigh, Lord, 5, 6, 11, 53, 54, 

59, 60, 62 

Burrage, Champlin, 115 
Burstead, Great, 87, 88, 91, 93 
Button, William, 26 

Cabot, Sebastian, 30, 76 
Calamy, 102, 144 
Caley, Abraham, 149 

Rebecca, 149 
Calverton, 74 
Cambridge, 153 

Corpus Christi College, 80 

Emmanuel College, 49, 95, 9 ( 

New England, 96 

St. John's College, 61 
Campbell, Douglas, 13 
Cannon Street, 62, 152 
Canterbury, 14 

Archbishop of, 4, 21, 113 
Cape Cod, 23 

Carew, 113 
Carey, Sarah, 97 
Carpenter, Agnes, 71 
Cartwright, Thomas, 7, 62 
Carver, Catherine, 28, 43 

John, 18, 24, 28, 36, 93, 125 
Cathay, 76 

Cattera cakes, 74 
Chadwell Manor, 58 
Chamberlain, John, 7 

Nicholas, 90 

Chamberlain's letters, 63, 69 

Chandler, Roger, 110 

Charles, Prince, 3 1 

Cheapside, 154 

Chelmer, the, 95 

Chelmsford, 90, 93, 95-102, 159 

Cathedral, 97 

Cheshunt, Separatist Church at, 


Chigwell, 87 

Childs, Robert, 123, 129, 130, 131 
Chilton, James, 26 

Mary, 43 

junior, 47 

Clark, Charitee, 111 

Faith, 111 

Richard, 26 

Thurston, 111 
Clenhand, John, 67 
Clifton, Richard, 6, 78, 81 

City Temple, Separatist Church, 

Clink Prison, 6, 7 

Clode's History of the Merchant 
Taylors Company, 154 

" Cocksey Hurst," 126, 134, 147 

Coggeshall, 90 

Colchester, 90, 103-18 

Collins, Samuel, 97 

Columbus, Christopher, 30 

Congregational Church, Billericay, 
records, 93 

Congregational Church, Great Yar- 
mouth, Chronicles of, 69 

Congregationalism, Dale's History 
of, 3, 8, 9, 42 

Cooke, Anthony, 58, 59, 61 

Sir, 52, 53, 55, 60 

Anna, 53 

Ann, Mrs., 56, 57, 58, 60 

Elizabeth, 53 
junior, 65 

Francis, 26, 52, 55, 57, 60, 61, 
62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67 

Hester, 65 

Jacob, 65 

Jane, 65 

John, 61, 62, 65, 155 
junior, 47, 64 

Josias, 65 

Mary, 65 
Miss, 65 

Mildred, 53 

Phillipa, 58 

Richard, 55, 58 

Thomas, Sir, 60 



Cooke, William, Master of a May- 
flower, 61, 121 

" Cook's Hollow," at Kingston, 
New Plymouth, 65 

Cooper, Humility, 47 

Copping, John, 15 

Cotton Mather, 96 

George, 7 
Counter Poultry, 7 

Wood Street, 7 
Coverdale, Miles, 87, 88 
Crackston, John, 110 

junior, 47, 110 

Crandley, Richard, 127, 147 
Craven, Sir William, 154, 155 
Crippen, Rev. T. G., 161 
Cromwell, Oliver, 74, 154 

Secretary, 2 

Sir Henry, 154 
Culverwell, Ezekiel, 115 
Cushman, Robert, 18, 19, 34, 93, 



Dale, Dr., 3, 8 

Danbury, Essex, 95 

Dartmouth, 19 

Davids' Annals, 106, 115 

Davids, Rev. T. W., 116 

Davison, 71, 84 

Dean Colet, 67 

Dean, Elizabeth, 65 

Delfshaven, 18, 27 

Denmark, 63 

Dennis, William, 15 

Dexter, H. M., The England and 

Holland of the Pilgrims, 21, 109 
Dinan, 63 
Dolph, John, 121 
Dotey, Edward, 26 
Dove, Robert, 154 
Dover, 14 
Dovercourt, 116 
Drake, Sir Francis, 30, 120 
Drax, Thomas, 116 
Dutch, 14, 16, 30 
Dutch Settlements at mouth of 

Thames, 15 


Eagles, George, 108, 109 
Earl Cedric, 76 
East Coast, 15 
Eastern Counties, 6, 21 
East India Company, 65 
Eastwood, 125, 132-39 

Eastwood Church, 135-38 

bells, 139 

Eaton, Francis, 26 

Samuel, 47 

Sarah, 43 

Ecclesiastical Commissioners, 68 

Eliot, John, 98, 99 

Ellis, Margaret, 88 

Emmanuel College, 49, 95, 96 

Endicott, John, 167 

English, Thomas, 26, 110 

Epping, Separatist Church at, 116 

Erasmus, 67 

Essex, 1, 3, 21, 26, 61, 67, 91, 94, 
97, 98, 109, 119, 125, 132 

Essex Archaeological Society Trans- 
actions, 136-39, 142 

Ewring, Ellen, 107 

Exchequer Miscellanea, 126 

Fairneld, Daniel, 110 
Falmouth, 31 
Farrington, William, 92 
Fenner, Mr., of Coventry, 7 
Fitz, Richard, 4, 41 
Fleet Prison, 7, 128 
Flemings, 105 
Fletcher, Moses, 26, 110 
Florida, 30 
Fortune, the, 34, 162 

list of passengers of, 162, 163 

Foule, Thomas, 112 

Fowkes, Elizabeth, 107 

Foxe's Book of Martyrs, 105, 106, 

107, 111 

Fox, George, 36 
Francis of Assisi, 54, 65, 66 
Franeker University, 116 
Freeborne, Judith, 147 

family, 145 
French, 14, 30, 163 
Frith, John, 149 
Fuller, Agnes, 67 

Ann, 43, 71 

Dowse, 71 

Edward, 70, 71 

Nicholas, 67, 68, 69 
junior, 71 

Samuel, 26, 36, 67, 70, 71, 72 
junior, 47 

Susanna, 70 

, 6, 15, 28, 48, 78 

Gainsborough, 6, 15, 2 
Gardiner, Richard, 26 



Gatehouse Prison, 7 
Gidea Hall, 52, 58, 67 
Gilbert, Sir Humphrey, 30 
Glasscock, Alice, 70 
Goodlad family, 125, 145 

John, 129 

Nathaniel, 126 
Goodman, John, 26 
Goodwin, 93 . 

Goodwin's Pilgrim Republic, 6, 
9, 37, 163, 165 

Gosnold, Captain, 31 

Gray's Inn, 67 

Greasley, 81 

Great Bush Lane, 152 

Green, J. R., Short History of the 
English People, 2, 14, 49 

Greenwood, John, 5, 7, 8, 11, 12 

Grey, Lady Jane, 59 

Grindal, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, 4 

Haddock family, 126 
Hainault Forest, 59 
Hamerton, William, 78 

Brothers, 71 
Harman, John, 65 

Richard, 2 
Harris, William, 89 
Harrison, Robert, 11 
Hartshill, 57 
Harvard, John, 96 
Harwich, 90 

Hatfield Peverel, Church at, 113 
Havering-atte-Bower, 58 
Hawkes, Thomas, 90 
Hawthorn, Nathaniel, 40 
Helwys, Joan, 78 

Thomas, 78 
Henry VIII, 1 
Heysforth, Richard, 120 
Higginson, Richard, 50, 51 
Hilton, William, 101 
Hingham in Norfolk, 148 

in New England, 148 
Hockford, 57 
Hockley, 132 

Hog Lane, 63 

Holland, 6, 13, 15, 16, 48, 51, 64, 

68, 70, 78, 79, 81, 84, 94, 98, 


Hooker, Thomas, 97, 98, 99 
Hopkins, Constantia, 47 

Damaris, 65 

Elizabeth, 43 

Hopkins, Giles, 47 

Oceanus, 48 

Stephen, 26, 48, 125 
Hornchurch, 68, 151 
Horns, Joan, 88 
Horsley, Derbyshire, 160 
Howland, John, 26, 125 
Hudson Bay, 30 

Hunter, Rev. Joseph, 28, 162 
Hunter, William, 89 
Huntingdonshire, 74 
Hutchinson, Governor, 36 

Mrs. Ann, 36 

Mrs. Lucy, 49, 76 

Ingatestone, 68 

Ipswich, 153 

Chancellor of, 68 

Jackett, Captain, 127 

Jacklee. Mr., 69 

James I, 7, 16, 21, 29, 91, 113, 


James, the Little, 162, 164 
list of passengers on, 164, 


James, St., Colchester, 114 
Jennings, Elizabeth, 110 

John, 110 
Jessop, Frances, 6 

Francis, 6 

John's, St., Oxford, 150 

College Library, 154 

Records, 152 

Johnson, George, 6 

Francis, 15, 45 
" Jonas, Mr.," 122 

Jones, Captain Christopher, 24, 

128, 129, 131 
Relic, 123 

William, 123 
Joyce, Martin, 121 

Kent, 21, 109 
Kelway, William, 96 
Killigrew family, 67 
Kingston-on-Thames, 7 

Lad, Thomas, 68 
Laindon, 100 



Laindon Hills, 91 
Lambeth, 69 

Palace Library, 58, 59 
Lancashire, 21 

Lane, William, 97 

Langerman, John, 26, 94 

Langport, 57 

Latimer, 2, 88 

Laud, Archbishop, 35 

Ledbury, Separatist Church at, 

Lee, Bridget, 71 

William, 74 
Leicester, Edward, 26 
Leigh-on-Sea, 94 
Leyden, 16, 17, 64, 85, 164 

Church, 85 

Street, Boston, 65, 66 

woman deacon, 41, 42 
Lincoln, President, 148 
Lincolnshire, 6, 21 

Lion Walk Congregational Church, 

Colchester, 116, 117 
Lion Walk, A Brief History of 

the Independent Church, 117 
Little Baddow, 98, 99 
Lollardism, 13, 14 
Lollards, 87 

London, 14, 62, 71, 119, 150 
London's Dove, 154 
London merchants, 67 

Bishop of, 5 
Long Island, 75 
Lowe, Edward, 121 

Mahew, Hester, 63 

Jane, 63 
Maidstone, 14 
Maldon, 101, 148 

All Saints' Church, 101 
Manningtree, 90 
Mansell, Richard, 68, 69 
Mansion House, 62, 152 
Margeson, Edmund, 26 
Martin, Christopher, 18, 26, 92, 

93, 94, 120 

Henry, 5 

Marie, 43 

Martin's, St., Charing Cross, 55, 

St., Colchester, 113 

Register, 114, 115 

Martyr, Peter, 53 
MaseBeld, John, 20 
Mason, Captain, 148 

Massachusetts, 35, 38, 44, 68, ll 

Mayflower, 1, 5, 19, 21, 22, 23, 

24, 27, 32, 34, 36, 39, 40, 41, 

43, 46, 54, 72, 93, 94, 110, 119- 

131, 162 

Bill of Lading of a, 46 

Compact, 25, 26, 150, 159 

of Ipswich, 121 

of Limehouse, 122 

of Linne, 120 

of Yarmouth, 120 

or Bobber, 121 

The Last of the, by Dr. Rendal 
Harris, 128 

Medici, Marie de', 62 
Memorial Hall, 7 
Memorials Ecclesiastical, 112 
Mercers' Company, 163 
Merchant Adventurers' Company, 
18, 162 

Taylors, 151, 152, 154 

Company, History of, 154 

School, 150 

Michekirke, 57 
Middelburg, 12, 62 
Midlands, 21 

Mildmay, Sir Walter, 95, 96 
Milton Shore, 149 
Mitchel, Experience, 65 
Monk, John, 122 
Montague, Gilbert, 97 
Morant's History of Essex, 153 
More, Ellen, 47 

Jasper, 47 

John, 123, 129, 130, 131 

Richard, 47 
Morton, 50 
Moulsham, 97 
Moze, 111 
Mullins, Joseph, 47 

Priscilla, 43 
junior, 43, 47 

William, 26, 122 
Munt, Alice, 106 

William, 106 
Musgrave, Alexander, 120 


Nazing (Essex), 98, 99 
Negus, Jonathan, 147 

William, 115 
Netherlandere, 14, 15 
Netherlands Republic, 13 
New Albion, 30 

England, 25, 31, 51, 68, 84, 
85, 86, 97, 100 



New England Memorial, Morton's, 

New England, Story of, Skelton's, 

31, 44, 45 

Newgate, 7, 8, 90, 154, 158 
New Hall, 113 
Newport (Mon.) Separatist 

Church at, 116 
NoaiUes, 158 
Norfolk, 11, 12, 109 
Northamptonshire, 74 
Northie, George, 115 
North Ockenden, 67 
Norwich, 11, 14, 62, 81, 104 

Guild Hall, 150 
Nottingham, 71, 75, 77, 78 

Castle, 77, 78 
Nottinghamshire, In and About, 

Notts., 6, 21, 71, 74, 75, 77, 80 

Osmond, Thomas, 90 
Oxford, St. John's College, 150 

Palmer, Wyllya, 111 
Parker, Archbishop, 14 

John, 65 

William, 121 
Parkers, 67 
Parma, Duke of, 14 
Paul's, St., 5, 158 
Peacham, 7 
Pease, William, 92 
Peck, Ann, 148 

Anne, 148 

Robert, 148 

Robert (vicar), 148 

Thomas, 147, 148 
Pennmain (Mon.), Separatist 

Church at, 116 
Penry, John, 12, 62 
Peters, Hugh, 100, 118 
Petticoat Lane, 63 
Pilgrim Fathers, Chronicles of, 

Masefield's, 20 

Pilgrim Fathers' Church, 116 
Pilgrim Fathers neither Puritan 

nor Persecutors, Scott's, 37 

Pastor of, 81, 115, 143 

Pilgrim Republic, The, Goodwin's, 

6, 9, 37, 163, 165 
Pilgrims, 18, 19, 21, 28, 29, 31, 

36, 41, 50, 92, 162 

Pilgrims, England and Holland of, 

Dexter's, 21 
Pirgo Park, 59 
Pirke, Thomas, 92 
Plumbers' Hall, 4, 151, 152 
Plymouth, 21, 23, 162 

Mayor of, 21 

New, 22, 36, 44, 161 
Colony, 35 

Plantation, 16 
Poor, condition of, 146 
Porter's Grange, Southend-on- 

Sea, 144, 149 
Portsoken, liberty of, 63 
Portugal, 30 
Potter, Hugh, 89 

Jane, 89 
Powell, Peter, 148 
Priest, Degory, 26 
Prittlewell, 92, 140, 144, 145 

Church, 141 

Priory, 149 

Minute Book, 147, 148 
Protestantism, 13, 44 
Prower, Marie, 92, 93 

Solomon, 26, 94 
Pulley family, 145 
Purcas, William, 107 
Purchas, Samuel, his Pilgrimage, 


Puritanism, 41, 43, 61, 95 
Puritans, 5, 30, 44, 48, 49, 62, 68, 

74, 78, 159, 161 
Puritan, the, in England, Holland, 

and America, Douglas Camp- 

bell's, 13 
Purleigh, 101 
Pynchon, Farmer, 101 


Quakerism, 36, 37 
Quakers, 35, 36, 37 
Queen Catherine, 74 

Elizabeth, 1, 4, 14, 29, 31, 52, 
74, 76, 84, 91, 95, 113, 157 

Mary, 88, 91, 113, 157 

Mary, of Scots, 84 

Rainsborough, Captain, 61 
Raleigh, Sir Walter, 6, 31 
Rayleigh, 97, 125, 132, 149 
Church Records, 126 
Reading, 150 
Record Office, 59, 69, 126 
Reden Court, 58, 59 



Reed, Mrs., 100 
Rich, Lord, 5, 143 
Rigdale, Alice, 43 

John, 26 

Robinson, John, 6, 11, 16, 17, 18, 
19, 20, 24, 36, 64, 78, 80, 81, 
82, 84, 85, 93, 143 

Isaac, 36 

Rochford, 1, 132, 139, 142, 147 

Hall, 1, 5, 136 

Rochford Hundred, History of 

Benton's, 125, 142, 144 
Rogers, Adrians, 158 

Catherine, 96 

John, 87, 158, 160 

Joseph. 47 

Richard, 115 

Thomas, 160 

Thomas (Mayflower), 26, 160 

Wilfred, Mr., 159 

family, 96 
Romford, 52, 64 

Church at, 118 
Rowe, Sir Thomas, 151 
Rowell (Essex), 142 
Rowland, Thomas, 4 
Roxbury, 101 
Russell, Lord John, 53 

Rev. J. S., 117 
Rusticus, Camillus, 115 
Rutlandshire, 11 


Saffins, 71 

St. Mawes, Cornwall, 67 
Salem, 351, 36, 50 
Salmon family, 145 
Saltenstall, Sir Richard, 68 
Samoset, 34 
Sampson, Harry, 47 
Sampson, the, 61 
Sandwich, 14, 94 

Massachusetts, 65 
Scalbott, Thomas, 139 
Scambler, Edward, 112 
Scrooby, 6, 15, 28, 48, 71, 78, 83, 


Church, 81, 83 
Sebert, King, 91 

Secret Church at Colchester, 111 
in Whitechapel Road, Lon- 
don, 4 

list of members, 4 

Separatism, 13, 44, 92, 112 
Separatist Church, 111, 113 

Separatist churches, list of, 118 
Separatists, 8, 11, 30, 35, 49, 143, 


Sepulchre's, St., 100 
Shelford, 77 
Silverside, Agnes, 107 
Skelton, 50, 51 

Skinner, Mrs. Charlotte, 21, 147 
Skinners' Company, 68 
Smith, Captain John, 22, 31, 130 

Quentyn, 8 

Samuel, 92, 142, 144, 147 

Thomas, 110 
Smithfield, 88, 159 
Smyth, John, 6, 78 
Snow, Milcas, 97 

Thomas, 97 

Solemn League and Covenant, 


Soule, George, 26 
South Ockenden, 68 
Southampton, 19, 23, 27 
Southend-on-Sea, 132, 149 
Southend-on-Sea Historical Notet 

(Boroughs), 120 
South wark Church, 12, 116 
Spain, 30 

truce with, 16 
Speedwell, the, 19 

a, 120 
Spooner, John, 
Springfield (Essex), 101 

(U.S.A.), 101 
Squanto, 34, 60 
Standish, Miles, 26, 36, 164 

Rose, 28, 43 

Star Chamber, 5, 124 

State Papers, Colonial, 126, 127, 


Steeple Bumstead, 87 
Stepney, 61, 67, 70, 97 
Stowe and Strype'a Survey of 

London, 154 
Strasburg, 63 
Strype's Annals, 10, 108 

Memorials Ecclesiastical, HZ 
Sturton-le-Steeple, 78, 80, 82, 161 
Suffolk, 11, 109 

Sussex, Earl of, 113 
Syth, St., Church, 154 
Lane, 154 

Taft, W. H., ex-President, 65 
Tennyson, Lord, 151 



Tennyson, Hallam, 151 
Tetford, 58 
Thacker, Elias, 15 
Thackwell, Elizabeth, 88 
Thompson, John, 65 
Thornhough, Captain, 76 
Tilley, Ann, 43 

Edward, 26 

Elizabeth, 43 
junior, 47 

John, 26 
Tinker, Mrs., 43 

Thomas, 26, 48 

son of, 48 

Tolethorpe Hall, Butland, 11 
Tower of London, 7, 68, 69 
Turner, John, 26, 48 

son of, 48 
Tyburn, 12 

Tye, Thomas, 106 
Tyndale, William, 149 
Tyndale's New Testament, 2, 3, 87 
Tyrol!, Edmund, 106 
Tyrrell, Father, 9 

John, 88 

Udall, 7 

Vassal's crest, 131 
Vassal, Asser, 135 

Henry, 139 

John, 5, 125, 130, 135 

Judith, 135, 147 

Mary, 134 

Samuel, 5, 124-31 

Stephen, 125 

William, 125 
Vine, Peter Van, 122 
Virginia, 18, 25, 101 
Virginian settlement, 31, 32 


Waddingfield, 149 
Walloons, 14, 17 
Waltham Park, 68 
Ward, John, 118 
"Warley Franks," 67, 70 
Warren, Joan, 154 

Sarah, 65 

Sir Ralph, 153, 154 

Richard, 26, 150, 153 

Thomas, 154 
Warwick, Earl of, 61, 147 

Warwick, Lady, 70 
Washington, Parson, 101 

George, 101 

John, 101 

Lawrence, 101 

Martha, 101 
Watling Street, 152 
Watts, Elizabeth, 91 

Thomas (Worthy Watee), 89, 90 
Wedford, 98 

Westminster Abbey, 53 
Weston, Thomas, 18, 93, 163 
Wethersfield, 115 
White, Alexander, 151, 152 

Bridget, 81, 83, 151 

Catherine, 82, 151 

Francis, 58 

Jane, 83, 152 

John, 151 
D.D., 153 

Josias, 151 

Peregrine, 47 

Ralph, 151 

Resolved, 47, 125 

Roger, 83, 152 

Sir Thomas, 150, 151, 153, 154 

Susanna, 43, 153 

Thomas, 83, 152 

William (of Mayflower], 26, 71, 

Wickford, 100 
Williams, Roger, 35, 72 
Willoughby, Sir Hugh, 76 

Agnes, 76 
Wilson, Rev. John, 72 
Winslow, Edward, 26, 36, 48 

Elizabeth, 28, 43 

Gilbert, 26 
Winthrop, 72, 101, 167 
Wiverton, 77 

Worcester Museum, New Eng- 
land, 160 
Wright, Richard, 65 

Robert, 5 

Wy cliff e, John, 14 

Preachers, 3 

Yarmouth, 68, 69, 104, 117 
York Castle, 79 
Yorks, 6, 21 


Zante, 129 
Zurich, 4 

Printed by Hazell, Watson <k Viney, Ld., London and Aylesbury. 



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