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Full text of "A new medical dictionary; including all the words and phrases used in medicine, with their proper pronunciation and definitions. Based on recent medical literature"

LI3RARY {Wjri 



UNIVERSIT^OF 
CALIFORNIA 



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ONIVEBSITV Of C«L1F0RN1* S»N DIEGO B 



3 1822 01063 7403 






A NEW 

MEDICAL DICTIONARY. 



RECOMMENDATIONS AND PRESS NOTICES 



GouLD's Medical Dictionary 



" One pleasing feature of the book is that the reader can almost invariably find the 
definition under the word he looks for, without being referred from one place to another, 
as is too commonly the case in medical dictionaries. The tables of the bacilli, micrococci, 
leucomaines and ptomaines are excellent, and contain a large amount of information in a 
limited space. The anatomical tables are also concise and clear. . . . We sliould 
mihesitatmgly recommend this dictionary to our readers, feeling sure that it will prove of 
much value to them." — AmeHcan Journal of Medical Science, Sept., i8go. 

" Again and again we have submitted the book to tests, and we have found it relialjle 
and full, every page giving proof of careful editing and research. It is sufficiently large 
to meet the requirements of any ordinary practitioner. Of course the bespectacled, poly- 
syllabic, home-from- Berlin young man could not take pleasure or feel satisfied in anything 
short of a multi-voluminous work ; but, like the Heathen, he is a law unto himself, and 
may safely be left out of calculation in practical therapeutics. In addition to the dictionaiy 
proper we have elaborate tables of bacilli, micrococci, leucomaines and ptomaines, and all 
such infinitesimal creatures as we to-day build laboratories to hatch; tables with analyses 
of American mineral waters, some of which waters will soon, we believe, be found in our 
midst; and tables of vital statistics. All this great mass of information is excellently 
arranged, so that the reader has no difficulty in at once finding what he wants, and the 
type is beautifully clear, there being no blurring, so that reading is a pleasure. As we 
turn over the pages we are grateful for the free trade system that admits, free of duty, 
such a useful and desirable book." — T/ic Dziblin Journal of Medical Science, A'ov., iSgo. 

" We know of no work in which so many important and yet isolated facts may be 
obtained without great expenditure of time. The tables of muscles, nerves, arteries, etc., 
seem to be very complete, and in looking through the dictionary, we were struck by the 
good presswork, clear type, and handsome paper, while no one of the many words which it 
occurred to us to look for have been found absent." — Therapeutic Gazette, May i^th, iSgo. 

"As a handy, concise and accurate, and complete medical dictionary it decidedly 
claims a very high place among works of this description. In fact, taking handiness and 
cheapness into account, we certainly think this is the general practitioner's model dictionary, 
and we cordially recommend it to our readers. The definitions are for the most part terse 
and accurate, and the derivations up to modern lights." — British Medical Journal, Lon- 
don, Sept., iSgo. 

" I find it an excellent work, doing credit to the learning and discrimination of the 
author." — Dr. J. M. Da Costa, Pj-of of Practice of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College. 

" In Gynaecology, Ophthalmolog}% Otology and Tar>-ngolog)' ; in Biology, Embrj'ology, 
Physiology and Pathology ; in Electro-therapeutics, and in the newly-developed fields of 
Bacteriology, Ptomaines and Leucomaines, the aim has been evidently to issue an authori- 
tative text-book, one that should be ample in its vocabulary, concise in its definitions, 
compact in its arrangement, and convenient of size for the everyday use of busy practitioners 
and as a handbook for medical students. The author, in this respect, is to be congratulated 
upon his success, and so far as a careful examination enables us to judge, it faithfully 
represents the medical literature of to-day." — Jourtial of American Modical Association. 

" The work of Dr. Gould claims to be essentially a new work, all definitions being 
framed ' by the direct aid of new, standard and authoritative text-books.' It certainly 
l>ears very little resemblance to previous works of the kind, in nearly all of which a great 
deal of space is devoted to obsolete terms. . . . More complete and more up to date 
than any other medical dictionary of similar dimensions in our own, or, indeed, as far as 
we know, in any other language." — London Lancet, July 20th, iSgo. 



ANEW 



Medical Dictionary 



INCLUDING ALL THE WORDS AND PHRASES GENERALLY 
USED IN MEDICINE, WITH THEIR PROPER PRO- 
NUNCIATION AND DEFINITIONS. 



BASED ON RECENT MEDICAL LITERATURE. 



BY 



GEORGE iM. GOULD, B.A.. M.D., 

OPHTHALMIC SURGEON TO THE PHILADELPHIA HOSPITAL AND CLINICAL CHIEF 

OPHTHALMOLOGICAL DEPARTMKNT, GERMAN HOSPITAL, 

PHILADELPHIA. 



WITH ELABORATE TABLES OF THE BACILLI, MICROCOCCI, LEUCOMAINES, PTOMAINES, 

ETC.; OF THE ARTERIES, GANGLIA, MUSCLES, NERVES AND I'LKXUSES; OK 

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES, THERMOMETERS, ETC.; AND APPENDICES 

CONTAINING CLASSIFIED TABLK:S WITH ANALYSES, OF THE 

WATERS OF THE MINERAL SPRINGS OF THE U. S., 

AND TAULE.^ OF VITAL STATISIICS. 



PIIII.ADnLPHIA: 

P. BLAKISTON, SON & CO. 

I o I 2 Walnut S r k i-. i : r. 
1 891. 



Copyrighted, 1S90, by P. Blakiston, Son & Co. 



WM. F. FELL & CO., 

Electrotvpers and Printers, 
1220-24 sansom street, philadelphia. 



PREFACE. 



Throughout the preparation of this Dictionary my work has been shaped 
to meet the following distinct purposes: — 

1. To include those New Words and Phrases created during the past 
ten years — a period rich in coinages — which appeared destined to continuous 
usage. There are certainly thousands of these; and in their compilation I 
have especially endeavored to cover the latest results in the study of Bacteri- 
ology, Ptomaines and Leucomaines, Electro-therapeutics, Physiology, Path- 
ology, and in the various special branches of medicine, such as Ophthalmology, 
Otology, Laryngology, Gynaecology, Antiseptic Surgery, etc. 

2. To frame all Definitions by the direct aid of New, Standard and 
Authoritative Text-Books, instead of making a patchwork of mechanical 
copyings from older vocabularies. 

3. To OMIT Obsolete Words not pertinent to medicine, except in a remote 
or factitious sense, while neglecting nothing of positive value. 

4. To make a volume that will answer the needs of the medical student 
and busy practitioner by its compactness and logicalness of arrange- 
ment, its conciseness of definitions, its elimination of the useless, and 
its convenience of size and price. It would not have been half the labor 
to make a volume double or treble the size of this one. 

I have to express my appreciation of the services rendered the work 
by Professor Jacques W. Redway, in the compilation of the departments of 
Chemistry, Materia Medica and Physical Science; by Professor A. P. Brubaker, 
with continuous advice and help ; by Dr. Judson Daland, in unreservedly giving 
the results of long study and labor concerning the mineral springs of the 
United States ; by Professor J. W. Holland, Dr. J. M. Keating, Professor Henry 
Lcffmann and others. 



GEORGE M. GOULD. 



it() South Snentecnth St., Philadelphia. 
February, l8(}0. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



I. ABBREVIATIONS USED IN GENERAL MEDICINE. 

aa ana Of each. 

Abdom Abcloincn The belly. 

Abs. feb Abseiitc fcbre When fever is absent. 

Abstr Abslractuni Abstract. 

Ad .-Vdde Add. 

Ad lib Ad libitum To the desired aincunt. 

Admov Adtnoveatur Let it be apjilitd. 

Ad pond, om .Ad pondus omnium To the weight of tlio whole. 

Alt. dieb Alterius diebus Every other day. 

Alt. hor Alterius horis Every other hour. 

Alv. adstrict Alvo adstricta The bowels beiiiR confined. 

Alv. deject Alvi dejectiones The evacuations. 

Aq Aqua Water. 

Aq. bull Aqua bulliens Boilinjj; water. 

Aq. dest Aqua dcstillata • . . Distilled water. 

Aq. ferv Aqua ferveiis Hot water. 

Aq. font Aqua fontis Sprinj; water. 

Aq mar Aqua marina Ocean water. 

B. A., or B. S Balneum arena; Sand bath. 

Bals Balsamum Balsam. 

Bib Bibe Drink. 

Bis ind Bis in dies Twice daily. 

Bol Bolus A large pill. 

Bull Bulliat Let it boil. 

B. V Balneum vaporis Vapor hath. 

C Coiigius, Centigrade A gallon ; centigrade. 

c.c Cubic centimeter. 

Cap Capiat Let him take. 

Cm Cras mane To-morrow morning. 

cm Centimeter. 

C m. s Cras mane sunieiidus To be taken to-morrow morning. 

C. n Cras noctc To-morrow night. 

Cochl Cochleare Spoonful. 

Cochl. ampl " amijlum A tablespoonful. 

" infant " infantis A teaspocjiiful. 

" mag " magnum A tablespoonful. 

" med " medium A dessertspoonful. 

" parv " parviim A teaspooiitul. 

Col Cola Strain. 

Colat Colatus Strained. 

Comp Compositus Compound. 

Cong Congius A gallon. 

Contin Conlinuatur Let it be continued. 

Cont. rem Continuetur remedium . . . . Let the medicine be continued. 

Coq Coque Boil. 

Cort . . Cortex ... Bark. 

Crast Crastinus For to-morrow. 

Cuj Cujus Of which. 

Cyath Cyathus ' A glassful. 

D Dosis A dose. 

Decub Decubitus Lying down. 

De d in d De die in diem From day to ilay. 

Destill Dcstilla Distill. 

Det Detur Let it be given. 

Dieb. alt Diebus alterius On alternate days. 

tert " tertius Every third <lay. 

Dil Diluc Let it be dissolved. 

Dilut Dilutus Dilute. 

Dim Dimidius One-half. 

Di»t Dislilla Distill. 

Div Divide Divide. 

D. in p. aeq Divide in partes ii-<iual<-s . . . Divide into equal parts 

Donee alv. lol. fuerit. . . Donee alviis solnta fiierit . . . Until the bowels be opt ti. 

D. P Direclione propria ..... . With a proper direction. 

vii 



viii ABBREVIATIONS. 

Ejusd Ejusdem Of the same. 

Enem Enema Enema. 

Ext Extractum Extract. 

Exhib Exhibeatur Let it be given. 

F Fahrenheit Fahrenheit. 

Feb. dur Febre durante The fever continuing. 

F. ; Ft Fac, Fiat Make. 

Filt Filtra Filter. 

Fid Fluidus Fluid. 

Flor Flores Flowers. 

F. m Fiat mistura Make a mixture. 

Fol Foliae Leaves. 

F. p Fiatpotio Make a potion. 

F. pil Fiat pilulae Make pills. 

F. s. a Fiat secundum artem Prepare skillfully. 

Gr Granum . Grain. 

Gtt Guttas Drops. 

Guttat Guttatim By drops. 

Hor. decub Hora decubitus At bed time 

H. s Hora somni At bed time. 

Inj Injectio An injection. 

Liq Liquor Liquor. 

M Misce Mix. 

Mac Macera Macerate. 

Mass. pil Massa pilularum Pill mass. 

Mod. prescript Modo prajscripto In the manner directed. 

Mor. sol More solito In the usual way. 

Muc Mucilago Mucilage. 

No Numero Number. 

Noct Nocte By night. 

O Octarius A pint. 

Ol Oleum Oil. 

Ol. res Oleoresina Oleoresin. 

Ol. oliv Oleum olivse Olive oil. 

Cm Omni mane Every morning. 

Omn. bih Omni bihora Every two hours. 

Omn. hor Omni hora Every hour. 

Omn. noct Omni nocte Every night. 

Oz Uncia Ounce. 

Part seq Partes sequales Equal parts. 

P. B Pharmacopeia Britannica . . . British Pharmacopeia. 

P. G " Germanica . . German Pharmacopeia. 

Pil Pilula • . . Pill. 

Pond Pondera By weight. 

Pot Potassa Potassa. 

Ppt Preparata Prepared. 

P. rat. setat Pro rata setatis In proportion to age. 

P. r. n Pro re nata When required. 

Pulv Pulvis Powder. 

Q. 1 Quantum libet According as required. 

Q. p " placeat At will. 

Q. s " sufficit A sufficient quantity. 

I;t Recipe Take. 

Rad Radix Root. 

R Reaumur Reaumur. 

Rect Rectificatus Rectified. 

Rep Repetatur Let it be repeated. 

Sp. Gr • Specific gravity. 

S Signa Label. 

Sig Signetur Let it be labeled. 

Sig. n. pr Signa nomine proprio .... Label with common name. 

Sing Singulorum Of each. 

Si non val Si non valeat If it do not answer. 

Si op. sit Si opus sit '. . . . If requisite. 

Solv Solve Dissolve. 

Sp., or Spir Spiritus . . Spirit. 

Ss SemijSemissis One-half. 

St . Stet Let it stand. 

Sum Sumat Let him take. 

Syr Syrupus Syrup. 

T. d Ter in die Three times a day. 

Tr. Tinct Tinctura Tincture. 

Ung Unguentum Ointment. 

Vesic Vesicatorum A blister. 

ITl Minimum Minim. 

3 Drachma Drachm. 

3 Scrupulum Scruple. 

S Uncia Ounce. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



IX 



II. ABBREVIATIONS L'SEU IX HLECTKOTHERAPEUTICS. 



.\iii(de. 

.\nodaI Closure Contraction. 

AiKuial Duration. 

Anodal Opening. 

Anodal Opening Contraction. 

Cathode. 

Cathodal Closure. 

Cathodal Closure Contraction. 

N'arious Uejjrees of Contraction. 

Cathodal Opeiiint; Contraction. 
C. S. . . . Current Strength. 

D Duration. 

D Density. 

De. R. . . Reaction of Degeneration. 

E Electromotive Force. 

K K.ithode. 



A. 


, or An. 


A. 


C. C. . 


A. 


D. . . . 


A. 


O. . . . 


A. 


O. C. . 


C. 




C. 


C. . . . 


c 


C. C. . 


c. 


c . C-. . 


c. 


O. C. . 



Kl Klang (Sound). 

K. C. . . . Katliodal Closing. 

K. C. C. . Katliodal Closing Contraction. 

K. C. T. . Katliodal Contraction, Tonic. 

K. D. . . . Kathodal Duration (or Period of 

Closure of Circuit). 
K. D. T. . Kathodal Duration Tetanus. 
Ma. . . Milliampere. 
O Opening of Circuit. 



Te. 



Tetanic Contraction. 



R Resistance. 

Z Zuckung (Contraction). 

-f Anode or Positive Pole. 

— Kathode or Negative Pole. 

> Greater than, as, A' >W. 

< Less than. 



III. ABBREVIATIONS USED IN OPHTHALMOLOGY. 



Ace. . . . Accommodation. 

Ah Hyperopic .Astigmatism. 

Am. . . < Myopic Astigmatism. 

As Astigmatism. 

cm Centimeter. 

Cyl. . . . Cylinder, Cylindrical Lens. 

D Diopter. 

E Emmetrupia, Emmetropic. 

F Formula. 

H Hvperopia, Hyperopic. 

L. E. . . . Left Eye. 

M Myopia, Myopic. 



mm. . . . Millimeter. 

CD.... Right Eye. 

O. S. . . . Leit Eye. 

p.p. . . . Punctum proximum, Near Point. 

p. r. ... Punctum remotum, Far Point. 



R. E. 
Sph. 



Right Eye. 

Spherical, Spherical Lens. 



V Vision. Visual Acuity. 

+ , — , = . Plus, Minus, Eiinal to. 

00 Intinity, 20 ft. distance. 

C Combined with. 

o Degree. 



IV. SUNDRY ABBREVIATIONS. 



Adj. . 
Adv. . 
Am. . 
Arab. 
A. S. . 
Bot. . 
Celt. . 
Chem. 
Colloq. 
Comp. 
Dim. . 
r. g. . 
Elec. . 
Eng . 
Etym. 
Fr. . . 
A • • 
Geoe. 
Geol. 
Geom. 
Gcr. . 
Gr. . . 
Heb. 
Ichth. 
It. . . 



Adjective. 

Adverb. 

American. 

,\rabic. 

Anglo-Saxon. 

Botany, Botanical. 

Celtic. 

Chemistry, Chemical. 

Collo<iuial. 

Compounded, Compound. 

Diminutive. 

For example. 
, Electricity. 
. English. 

. Etymology, Etymological. 
, French. 
, Feminine. 

, f'leography, Gcogranhical. 
. tieology, (Jeologir.al. 
. (ieometry. Geometrical. 
. German. 
. Greek. 
. Hebrew. 
. Icluhyology. 
. Italian. 



Lat. . 


. . Latin. 


Masc. 


. . Masculine. 


Math. 


. . Mathematics. 


Med. 


. . Medicine, Medical. 


Nat. Hist. Natural History. 


Neg. 


Negative. 


Obs. 


. . Obsolete. 


Ophth 


. . Ophthalmology, Ophthalmological 


Path. 


Pathologv, Pathological. 


Phil. 


. . Philosophy, IMiilosophical. 


Phys. 


. . Physiology, Physiological. 


pi. . . 


. . Plural. 


priv. 


. . Privative. 


Pron. 


. . Pronounced, Pronunciation. 


Lx. 


. . (Quod vide) which see. 


. . Saxon. 


Sing. 


. . Singular. 


Sp. . 


. . Spanish. 


Surg. 


. . Surgery, Surgical. 


Unof. 


. . Diiollicial. 


V. . . 


. . Verb. 


V. 1. 


. . Intransitive verb. 


V t. 


. . Transitive verb. 


Zool. 


. . . Zoology, Zoological. 



PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES USED IN MEDICAL TERMS. 



I. PREFIXES. 



A-, an-, called alpha privative (Gr. a, av, or a/u.). The equivalent of our prefix, un-, or in-; denotes, 
an absence or want of the thing or quality expressed by the principal, e.g., adynamia, 
ancErobic, aphasia, apraxia, apyrexia, astigmatism, atony, etc. a, is used before consonants, 
an, before vowels, and, rarely, am before bl, or br. (To be distinguished from ana, below.) 

Amphi- (or amph-) {a^^i) upon both sides, in two ways, as in amphiartiirosis, amphibia, etc. 

Ana- (afa). Up, through again, e.g., anabolism, anasarca, a^iatomy, etc. 

Anti- (or ant-) (avri). Against, opposed to, opposite of, as aiitaphrodisiac, antipyretic, antiseptic, etc. 

Apo- (ano). Off, away, upon, e.g., aponeurosis, apoplexy, etc. 

Dia- (Sia). Through. Examples: Diabetes, Diagnosis, Diaphragm, Diarrhoea, etc. 

Dys- (6us). Difficult, defective, painful, e.g.. Dysentery, Dyspnoea, Dysuria. 

Ec-, Ex-, Ecto- (eK, ef, 6KT05). Out, outside, away from. As in Ecchymoses, Ecdemic, Eclampsia, 
Exostosis, Exanthema, Ectiopion, Ectoderm. 

En-, Em- (ev, e^i). In, within. As in Embryo, Embolism, Endemic, etc. 

Endo-, Ento- {ivho%, ei-ros). Within, internal, e.g.. Endarteritis , Endoscope, Entoblast , Entoptic. 

Entero- {ivTipov). The intestine. As in Enterocele, Enterostomy, etc. 

Epi- (cTTt). Upon, over, above, e.g., Epiblast, Epicranium, Epistaxis, Epidemic, etc. ' 

Extra- (Lat.). Outside, e.g.. Extravasation, Extroversio?i. 

Gastro- (-yao-TTjp). The stomach; relation to the stomach, e.g., Gastrocele, Gastrocnemius, Gas- 
troenterostomy, etc. 

Hsema-, Hsemato- or Heme- (at/aa). The Blood ; pertaining to the blood. See Hamatomesis, 
Hczmatoma, Hirmorrhage, etc. 

Hemi- (ij/xi-tjuio-ds). Half. As in Hemiachromatopsia, Hemicrania, Hemiplegia. 

Hetera- i^'i.-npo'i). Different; opposite, e.g., Heteroinfection, Heterologous, Heteiopathy. 

Hydro-, Hydr- (uSwp). Water; resembling or relating to water, dropsy, etc., as in Hydremia, 
Hydragogue, Hydrate, Hydrocephalus, etc. 

Hyper- (i/n-ep). Excess; exaggerated abnormality in amount, size, quality, etc. S&e. Hyperes- 
thesia, Hypermetropia, Hyperpyrexia, Hypertrophy, and others. 

Hypo- (i/TTo). Diminution as to degree, amount, size, quality, etc., or that located under or beneath. 
e. g., Hyposthenia, Hypoblast, Hypochondriac, Hypodermic, Hypoglossal. 

Hystera-, Hystero- (ucrrepa). The uterus or womb ; relation to the same, e.g., Hysterectomy, 
Hystero-epilepsy, Hysteropexia, etc. 

Im,- In- {In). Privative; negative, as Imperforate, Incarceration, Insane, Incontinence. 

In- (ei'). In, within, upon, by ; as Incubation, Infarction, Inflammation, Inoculation, etc. 

Infra- {Infra). Beneath, Below; e.g., Inframaxillary, Infrascapiilar. 

inter- {Inter). Between. See Intercellular, Intercostal, hitertrigo, and others. 

Leuco- (AevKo?). Whiteness, e.g., Leiichcrmia, Leucocyte, Leucomaines, Leucorrhcca. 

Lith-, Litho- (Ai^o?). Pertaining to stone, calculus, or lithic acid. See Lithcrmia, Lithiasis, 
Lithotripsy, etc. 

Macro- (|U.a«pos). Largeness, Hypertrophy, as in Macroglossia, Macromelia. 

Melano- (jueAa?). Blackness, Pigmentation, e.g.. Melancholia, Melano-sarcoma. 

Meso- f/neo-os). The middle. See Mesoblast, Mesocolon, etc. 

Meta- (nera). With, amidst, e.g.. Metabolism, Metatarsus. 

Micro- (luiorpo?). Smallness. e.g., J\/icrococcus, Microglossi 1, Microscope. 

Mon-, Mono- (/ixoi'os). Singleness. For example, Monamine, Monomania, Monorchis. 

Multi- {uiullus). Number, many. ^. g., Multilocitlar, Multiparous. 

Myelo- (/nveAo?). Referring to the brain or spinal cord, as in Myeloid, Myelitis. 

Myo- (p-u!). Pertaining to a muscle or muscularity. See Myocarditis , Myoma, Myopathia. 

Neuro- {vtvpov). Relating to a nerve or neurology. As, e.g., Neuralgia, Neurastheiiia, Neuri- 
lemma, Neuroglia. 

Odonto- (060U5). Of the teeth, as in Odontology, Odontalgia. 

Oligo- (oAiyos). Fewness or lack of, as Oligocythamia. 

Ophthalmo- (o<f)0aApos). Pertaining to the eye, as in Ophthalmia, Ophthalmoplegia. 

Osteo- (oo-Teoi'). Referring to bone. See Osteoblast, Osleoinyclitis, Osteoplastic. 

Oxy- (ofir?). Denoting the presence of oxygen, or acidity, as in Oxygen, O xyheemoglobin. 

Para- {irapa.). Through, near, by, by the side of, abnormality. Examples : Paracentesis, Parcrslhe- 
sia. Parenchyma, Parotid. 

Peri- (n-ept). About, around. See, e. g.. Pericardium, Perimeter, Perinccum, Perineoplasty, 
Periosteum. 

Poly-, Pol- (ttoAus). Many, much, e.g., Polycoria, Polygalactia, Polyuria. 

Prae-, Pre- {Prcp). Before, e.g., PrcEcordia, Prepuce. 

Pro- (Trpo). Before, down, as in Process, Procidentia, Prolapse, Proptosis. 

Pseudo- (i/(evSr)?). False, spurious, as in Pseudarthrosis, Pseudocyesis. 

Pyo- (-n-vov). Pertaining to pus, or purulency. e.g.. Pyogenic, Pyosalpinx. 

Pyr-, Pyro- {nvp). Concerning fire or heat, or inflammation, e.g., Pyrogenous, Pyrexia. 

Retro- {A'etro). Backward, behind, e.g., Petroflex, Retroversion. 

Sub- {.Sub). Beneath, under; and also Partialty or Deficiency of, as. Subclavian, Subluxation. 

Super- {.Super). Above, upon ; excess of. e. g., Supercilium, Superfecundation. 

Supra- {.Supra). Above, U|)on, superior to, as Supraorbital, Supiaspinatus. 

Sym-, Syn- (a-vv). With, together, same. See, e.g., Symblepharon, Symphysis , Synalgia, Synchon- 
drosis. 

X 



PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES USED IX MEDICAL TERMS. xi 

II. SLFFIXES. 

-aemia (oi/ia, blood). Denotes a condilinii of ilie blood, or ingredient in the same expressed by 
l>rccciliiig word, e.g., Hyiiia-mui, l.ilhtrmui, Pyii-niia, L'm-iiiia. 

-agogue i^ayai, lo bear oft", carry away). Signifies an agent stimulating the function of excretion or 
secretion of the product. Thus, Emnu-iiagoguf, Hydtagogue, Siala^ogiit-, tic. 

-agra (aypa, an attack, seizure). Denotes an acute attack ol pain in the part, as Arlhragta, 
PoJai:ra. 

-algia loA-yi?, pain). Pain in a part, expressed by the chief word, e.g., Cephalalgia, Castralgia, 
.Xostalgia. 

-atresia (arpijcria). Imperforate, as in Proctatresia. 

-cele [Ki]\r)). \ tumor, hernia or protrusion. See Cyslocele, Hydrocele, Meningocele. 

-ectomy ^txTtM''"))- Excision, exsection, as in Oophorectomy, JS'ephrectomy, i^plenectomy. 

-graph, graphy (>pa.J)u), to write). An instrument; a treatise or description, e.g., iyphygmo- 
g> apli, Jhmogiapliy. 

-itis (iTit). An inllammation, as Gastritis, Otitis, etc. 

-logy lAoyot, discourse). A treatise upon, as Bacteriology, Derinatology, Pathology. 

-malacia (uaAaKos, soft). Abnormal softness, as in osteo-malacia. 

-mania (/xana, madness). The chief word denotes tlie principal symptom of the mental afTection : 
e.g., Etotomania, Kleptomania, etc, 

-Gdynia (oSui-i), excessive pain). The principal word denotes the seat of great pain, as Coccyo- 
liynia. 

-Old (ei'ios, form). Similar in shape, etc., as xnChoroid, Cuboid, Sphenoid, Xiphoid. 

-oma (ujfLo.). A tumor. See Glioma, Sarcoma. 

-opia [u)Jj). Pertaining to the eve or vision, as in Amhhopia, Myopia, etc. 

-pathy (iraSo?). A condition of disease, and also a method of cure. As, e.g.. Adenopathy, Psycho- 
pathy, Honuvopathv, Hydropathy. 

-phobia ((^odo?, fear). Excessive fear or dread, as Agoraphobia, Photophobia. 

-plasty irkacraui, to form). Surgical plastic operation upon a part, e.g., Blepharoplasty, Rhino- 
plasty. 

-rhaphy (pai^ij, a suture). A stitching or suturing of a part, as Enterorrhaphy, Perineorrhaphy. 

-rhagia (pijyruM', to burst forth). A hemorrhage or excessive discharge, e.g., Blennorrhagia, 
Metrorrhagia. 

-rhoca (ptui, to flow). An excessive discharge or excretion, as in Blennorrhcea, Diarrha-a, Leucor- 
rhita. 

-scopy (dKOTTfui). An examination, as Ophthalmoscopy. The instrument by which the examina- 
tion is made takes the termination scope, as in Laryngoscope. 

-tomy (T«/iru), to cut). Incision, e.g., Laparotomy, Tenotomy. 

-uria (oi'peu), to urinate). Abnormalities of the urine or of urination. As Albuminuria, Polyiti ia. 

CONCERNING PRONUNCIATION. 
The syllable marked with a single acute accent, is the accented syllable. 

Quantity of I 'owels. 

Accented vowels are usually long, except i followed by a consonant and ;', as in inhibition, 
imbibition, beneficial, etc. 

Diphthongs are usually long, but in a few words, such as haemorrhage, which are often spelled 
with a single vowel, the ^is short. 

In words ending in ite, the / is long. 

In words ending in itis, the » of the i>eindt is always long, as bronchitis, neuritis, etc. 

Final i, o, and « are long; final e, uidess silent, is long. It is marked with a grave accent if 
sounded. 

A vf)wel which is obscure in <iuantily has usually the long sound. 

A vowel before two or more coiiSdii.ints, ex<ept as previously noted, is short. 

The I in words eiuliiig in ine is short. 

The vowel /at ihi- end of an iniacccnled syllable is short. 

When in one syllable a vowel is followed by a coiisunant, the vowel li:is the usual s1ii«i t Ivnglish 
soun<l, as in man, m/rn, f»n, not, stwIT, mjstery. e.g., nmcula, p^'ctoral, d/ploe, li'lnilus, suppurate, 
sj-steniic. 

Quality of Vowels, 

l-inal a has the Italian sound of a, as \n father. 

In words ending in aine, such a^ ptomaine, the a has the Italian sound. 

//• and ir are pronounced as e, in mete. 

au (fliplithoiig) has the sound (i( a7t' in sa7i>. 

eu (diphthong) h.is the sound nf /-re \\\yew, 

CONSONANTS. 

In words of Latin and C.ri-ek deriv.Ttion ch is hard, like k. 
The Idlers//', represenling the (',rci-k </>, havi- ihe sound ofy. 
In Creek words /// has the soft souml, as in Ihm. 

The combination phth, <(><♦, has the sound of/ at the beginning of a word. 

Itefore e,i.y, if, and <r, c hnsthe sound of t, and v: . of j. f.g , ciiliac, cephalic, gynecology, 
ginglynuis. In other cases c and/,' have tin- li;iid siiiiiid. 



INDEX OF TABLES. 

PAGE 

Abbreviations used in General Medicine, . vii 
Abbreviations used in Electro-therapeu- 
tics, ix 

Abbreviations used in Ophthalmology, . . ix 

Abbreviations, sundry ix 

Prefixes and Suffixes used in Medical 

Terms, x 

Arteries, 53 

Bacilli, 65 

Ganglia 169 

LeucomaVnes, 237 

Micrococci 263 

Muscles, 280 

Nerves 299 

Plexuses 350 

Ptomaines 367 

Spectacle-lenses, numbering of, 40S 

Thermometers, comparison oi 437 

Tumors 447 

Wave-lengths of Light 464 

Weights and Measures, 465 

Weights and Measures — comparative 

scales, 467 

Mineral Springs of the U. S., 473 

Vital Statistics, 506 



NEW DICTIONARY 



OF 



Medical Words AND Phrases. 



A (a, av, or au, without). The Greek letter 
alpha, called alpha privative, equivalent to 
the prelix ttn or ///. It denotes absence 
or want of the thing or quality expressed 
liy the root of tlie word, a- is used before 
consonant, and an- before vowel sounds ; 
am is sometimes used before bl or be. 
Also, the s}'mlx)l of anode. 

Aa {ava., of each). An abbreviation, writ- 
ten aa, used in prescriptions to denote repe- 
tition of the same quantity for each item. 

Ab {ab, from). A Latin prefix signifying 

J I 0111. 

Abacf'us Venter [abigcre, to drive out). 

An abortion procured by artificial means. 
Abaptis'ton (a, not, jiaTr-iaror^ immersed). 

A trephine so shaped that penetration of 

the l)rain is imjXDSsible. 
Abarticula'tion {ab, from, articulatio, 

joint). Same ^s diarthrosis, a. term more 

frequently used. 
Aba'sia (a neg., I^nrjir, a step). Motor in- 

c:o ordination in walking. See Astasia. 
Abbe's Apochromatic Lenses. See 

Af'i'' lirciiiiilii- /,, iisrs. 

Abbrevia'tions. See List of Abbrcvia- 
tii'H\, p. vii. 

Abdo'men {abJrrr, to hide). 'Ihe large 
inferior cavity of the trunk, extending from 
the pivic cavity to the dia|)hragm, and 
Ixjunded in front and at the sides by the 
lower ribs and aUlominal mu.stles; behind 
by the vrrtebral (oluinn, p.soas and quadra- 
tus lumlioruin mustlis. It is artificially 
dividi-d into nine regions by two circular 

2 17 



lines, the upper parallel with the cartilages 
of the ninth ribs, the lower with the iliac 
crests, and by two lines from the cartilages 
of the eighth rib to the center of I'oupart's 
ligament. The regions thus formed are, 
above, the right hj-pocliondriac, the epigas- 
tric, and the left hypochondriac; secondly, 
the right lumbar, umbilical, and left lum- 
bar; and below, the right inguinal, the 
hypogastric and the left inguinal. Pen- 
dulous A. A relaxed and pendulous 
condition of the alxlominal walls. 

Abdom'inal. Pertaining to or connected 
with the abdomen. A. Aorta. See r/z/frr. 
A. Ganglia. See Ga/ix^/ia. A. Gesta- 
tion. S(.e J'/Yi;/iaiirv, Extra-iiti:niu\ A. 
Muscles, tlie Internal and External 
C)bliques, the Transversalis, Rectus, Pyra- 
midalis, and Quadratus Lumborum. A. 
Reflex, an involuntaiy contraction of the 
abdominal muscles when the skin over the 
abdomen is stinnihitcd. A. Regions. See 
Abdomen. A. Respiration, R. earned 
on chiefly by the diaphragm and abdominal 
muscles. A. Ring, External, a triangu- 
lar opi'ning in the fibres of the aponeurosis 
of the external oblique nuiscle transmitting 
the S[)ermalic cord of the male and the 
rouiitl ligament of the female. A. Ring, 
Internal, an oval aperture in the fascia 
transver.salis which transmits the si)ennalic 
cord of the male and the round ligament 
of the female. 

Abdominos'copy (abdomen, ffAoTrw, to 
examine]. I'.xainination of the abdomen 



ABDUCENS 



18 



ABORTION 



for diagnostic purposes, by inspection, pal- 
pation, measurement, percussion, etc. 

Abdu'cens {ab, from, diuo, to lead). A 
term applied to certain muscles, or their 
nerves, that draw the related part from the 
median line of the body. Also, the sixth 
pair of nerves supplying the external recti 
of the eye. A. Oculi. See Muscle. 

Abdu^cent. See Abduceiis. 

Abduct^or. Same as Abduccns, q. v. A. 
Auris. See Muscle. 

Aber^'rant [ab, erro, to wander). Deviating 
from the normal or regular type, in ap- 
pearance, structure, course, etc. e. g., aber- 
rant duct of the testis or liver, aberrant 
arteries, etc. 

Aberra'tion [ab, en-o). Deviation from the 
normal, especially mental derangement, 
foetal malformation, vicarious menstruation, 
escape of the fluids of the body by any 
unnatural channel. In optics, any imper- 
fection of focalization or refraction of 
a lens. A., Chromatic, the dispersion 
arising from unequal refraction of light of 
different parts of the spectrum. The violet 
rays being more refrangible than the red 
rays, are brought to a focus nearer the lens, 
and the image is surrounded by a halo of 
colors. A., Spherical, the excess of re- 
fraction of the peripheral part of a convex 
lens over the central area, producing an 
imperfect focus and a blurred image. 

A^bies. A genus of coniferous plants, in- 
cluding the tir, hemlock and spruce. 

Abiogen^esis [a neg., (iio^, life, ycyvofiaij 
to beget). The production of living by 
non-living matter. The older term was 
spontaneous generation. Other synonyms 
of the word are generatio lequivoca, 
gencratio piimaria, archlgenesis, arche- 
biosis, etc. The theory has been supported 
by Pouchet, Haeckel, Huxley, Bastian 
and others. Those opposed to the doctrine 
are called panspermists or heterogenists. 
The dispute is one of the most fundamental 
in biology. 

Abirrita^tion [ab, Irrito, to irritate). Di- 
minished tissue irritabihty, synonymous 
witli asthcitla. 

Ablacta^tion [ab, from, lacto, to give suck). 
The end of the suckling period. The 
weaning of a child. 

Abla^tion [ablatio, removal). Removal 
of a part of the body, as a tumor, by am- 
putation, excision, etc. 

Ableph^aron [a, ftlt^apov, the eyelid). 
Congenital al^sence of the eyelids. 

Ab^luent [abluo, to wash away). Deter- 
gent. That which cleanses or washes away. 



Ablu''tion. Washing or cleansing the 
body. Separation of chemical impurities 
by washing. 

Abnorm'al [ab, away from, norma, a law). 
A term used to describe anything opposed 
to the natural order or law, as A. Pigmen- 
ta'tion, any excess, deficiency or uncom- 
mon distribution of the natural pigment 
cells in the rate mucosum. Sometimes 
caused artificially either by mechanical 
means, such as tattooing, or by the reduc- 
tion and deposition under the epidermis of 
metallic salts administered as medicine, 
such as nitrate of silver, etc. 

Aboma^sum [ab, o/nasuni, the paunch). 
The fourth, or true stomach of ruminating 
animals, called also the rennet, which is 
used for coagulating milk. 

Abort^ [aborior, to pass away). To mis- 
carry ; to expel the foetus before it is 
viable. Also, to prevent the full develop- 
ment of a disease, as in abortive small- 
pox or varioloid, in which the eruption is 
limited to the vesicular stage. 

Abort'icide [abortus, a miscarriage, cccdo, 
to kill). The killing of the unborn foetus. 

Abortifa''cient [abortus, facio, to make). 
A drug, or agent inducing the expulsion of 
the foetus. Ergot, rue, cotton-root, digitalis, 
etc., are examples. They act by causing 
uterine contractions. See oxytocic and 
ecbolic. 

Abor^tion [abortus). The expulsion of the 
foetus before it is viable. By some authors 
expulsion of the ovum during the first three 
months is abortion; from this time to via- 
bility, it is termed immature delivery, or 
Diiscarriage, and from the period of viability 
to that olvx3.\.\x\\V'y, pre mature delivery. A., 
Artificial, that produced intentionally. A., 
Criminal, when not demanded for thera- 
peutic reasons. A., Embryonic, up to 
the fourth month. A., External causes 
of, those acting from without to pro- 
duce A., as violence, pressure, injections, 
etc. A., Foetal, taking place subsequent 
to the fourth month. A., Incomplete, 
when the membranes or placenta is re- 
tained. A., Inevitable, is when the em- 
bryo or foetus is dead, or when there is an 
extensive detachment or rupture of the 
ovum. A., Internal Causes of, are 
those due to abnormal conditions or dis- 
eases of the mother. A., Missed, the 
death of the foetus and not followed with- 
in two weeks ijy its expulsion. A., Ovu- 
lar, that occurring during the first tliree 
weeks after conception. A., Paternal 
and Maternal Causes of, those due to 



ABOULOMANIA 



19 



ABSORBENTS 



disease of the fatlicr or of the mother re- 
spectively. A., Spontaneous, that not 
induced by artiticial nuaiis. 
Abouloma'nia (ii prW. , .ii)v?.rf,v,-\\\, /lavia, 
niadncss). A disease of the mind charac- 
teri/.ed by imperfect or lost will-power. 
Abrach'ia ^a priv., ,3/)(i\/tj»', the arm). 

The ccindition of an armless monster. 
Abra'sion [c:/> priv., nit/o, to rub). E.xcori- 
atiun of tlu' cutaneous or mucous surface 
by mechanical means. In dentistry ap- 
plied to the destruction of the dentine and 
enamel, or the cutting edges of the teeth, 
whether by mechanical or chemical means. 
A 'brine. The chemical ferment or jroison- 
ous principle of jeijuirity, eiToneously sup- 
poseil to be due to a sj>ecitic microbe. 
A'brus. Jequirity. The seeds of ^. />re- 
ciitorius, or wild liciuorice. Properties are 
Uiought to be due to the presence of cer- 
tain ferments. Non-sterilized infusions 
applied to the conjunctiva or to any mucous 
surface induce violent purulent inllamma- 
tion with growth of false membrane. It is 
used in producing artiticial conjunctivitis. 
A. Infusum : semina iij, aqua dest. ^.ss. 
Macerate and add acj. 5 ss. All unoflicial. 
Ab'scess {abscesstis, 2ide\)3iri\xre or separa- 
tion — of the matter). A pus formation 
within some cavity of the body, the result 
of localized inflammation. According to 
location, abscesses are named Dorsal, Iliac, 
Mammary, Ischio-rcctal, Peri-typlilitii, Re- 
Iro-pharyui^cal, Urethral, etc. A., Alve- 
olar, abscess in the gum or alveolus. A. 
of Brain, due to local injury, or to supi)u- 
rative inflammation near or distant, such, 
especially, as diseases of the ear. The 
symptoms are those of pressure, impaired 
function of the part affected, meningitis, 
headache, optic neuritis, etc. A., Bursal, 
abscess in the bursx', the most frequent 
being in the bursa; patella;, commonly 
called Ihniii'maid's Knee. A., Chronic, 
or Cold Abscess, one of slow and a])pa- 
rcntly noninflammatory development, usu- 
ally aUjut a iK^ne, joint, or gland. A., 
Congestive, the pus appears at a ix)int 
distant fmm where it is fomied. A., Con- 
stitutional, due to some systemic disor- 
der. A., Critical, occurring^ at some 
critical [x-ri'xl of an acute disia.se. A., 
Embolic, formnl iti the clot <jf an cinbol- 
isin. A., Fecal, <jne developing in the 
rectum <jr large intestine. A., Gangre- 
nous, one :itti'[idi-d with death of adjacent 
jKirLs. A., Lacunar, one in tin- la< un;e of 
the untliri. A., Metastatic. .Sec /'r,r- 
tnia. A , Miliary. .See J'yiciiiia. A., 



Milk, or A., Mammary, one in the female 
breast. A., Multiple. See PytCDtia. A., 
Perforating, one perforating the cornea, 
the lung or other containing wall. A., 
Phlegmonous, an acute A. A., Point- 
ing of, the point where the abscess tends 
to break through its external confining wall. 
A., Psoas, one arising fVom disease of the 
lumbar or lower dor.^al veitebnv, the pus 
descending in the sheath of the psoas 
muscle, and usually pointing beneath I*ou- 
part's ligament. A., Pysemic. See Py- 
u-mia. A., Residual, about the products 
of some old result of inflammation. A., 
Stercoraceous. See Fecal A. A., 
Symptomatic, one indicative of some 
other affection. A., Thecal, in the 
sheaths of tendons. 

Ab'scess Root. The root of Polcmcnium 
rcptaiis. Alterative, astringent and ex- 
pectorant. Dose of lid. ex. ^ss-ij. Unof 

Abscis''sae (I'Y. ahscisse'). The transverse 
lines cutting vertical ones at right angles, 
to show by a diagram the relations of two 
series of facts, as, e. g., the number of 
pulse-beats, or the temperature record in 
given periods of time. 

Abscis'sion {ab, from, scindo, to cut off). 
Removal of a part, as the prepuce, or a 
fractured bone, by cutting. Applied par- 
ticularly to a surgical operation upon a sta- 
phylomatous cornea, in which the bulging 
portion is excised, the parts brought to- 
gether so that the posterior and chief j)art 
of the globe forms a "stump" for an arti- 
ficial eye. 

Absinthe. See Absinthium. 

Absinth'ism. A disease similar to alco- 
h(jlism, the result of the excessive use of 
absinthe. It is characterized by general 
muscular debility and mental disturbances, 
which may proceed to convulsions, acute 
mania, general softening of the brain, or 
general ])aralysis. 

Absinth'ium. Wormwood. The leaves of 
Artemisia absinthium. Contains a vola- 
tile oil and an intensely bittt-r principle, 
Absinthin, CiglL^^O^, which is a narcotic 
poison. A. increases cardiac action, |)ru- 
duces tremor and e|)ileptiform convulsions. 
I )osc gr. xx-xl. Absinthe, a I'Vench 
li<|uor, is an alcoholic solution of the oil 
exhibited with oils of anise, marjoram and 
other aromatic oils. 

Absorb'ents (ab, sorbere, to suck). In 
phy^iologv, an organ or i)ait which absorbs, 
witliilraws, or takis uj). .\ leriii applird 
to the lacteals and lyin/>h,itics, t/.i'. In 
inatciia niediia, a name applied to a drug 



ABSORPTION 



20 



ACCOMMODATION 



or medicine which produces absorption or 
exudation of diseased tissue. In surgery, 
applied to substances which mechanically 
take up excreted matter, as A. Cotton, 
A. Sponge, etc. A. Glands. See Lymph- 
atics. 

Absorp^tion. The permeation or imbibi- 
tion of one body by another. The process 
whereby nourishment, medicines, morbid 
products of tissue metamorphosis, etc., are 
taken up by the lymphatic and venous sys- 
tems. In ophthalmology the process by 
which the lens is disintegrated and carried 
off after the capsule has been ruptured. 
A. Lines or Bands, the lines of the 
spectrum, called Fraunhofer's lines ; they 
are dark lines caused by the arrestation or 
absoiption of the ethereal waves of certain 
lengths and rapidities, mainly by vapors of 
the sun's atmosphere. 

Abste'mious (^abs, from, tcinetiim, wine). 
Abstinence from wine. Temperance, or 
moderation in matters of diet. 

Abster^gent {abs, tergeo, to cleanse). 
Cleansing, detergent. See Detergent. 

Ab^stinence [abs, tineo, to hold or keep). 
Privation or self-denial in regard to food, 
liquors, etc. 

Ab^stract (abstraho, to draw from). A 
preparation containing the soluble princi- 
ples of the drug evaporated and mixed 
with sugar of milk. It represents twice 
the strength of the drug or its fluid extract. 

Abstrac^tion (^abstraho). Blood-letting. 
In pharmacy, the process of distillation. 
Also, attention to one idea to the exclusion 
of others. Generalization or classiiication 
of the qualities common to the individuals 
of a group. 

Abstrac^tum. See Abstract. 

Abu^lia (a priv,, j3ov?.>}, will). Loss or 
defect of will power. 

Aca^cia. Gum Arabic. A nearly white 
transparent gum exuding from several 
species of acacia. Soluble in water. 
Used in manufacture of mucilage. Con- 
tains Arabin, CjjHjjOjj, identical in com- 
position with cane sugar. A. Mucilage, 
acacia 34, water lOO parts ; incompatiljle 
with alcoholic tinctures. A. Syrup, muci- 
lage 25, syrup, simp. 75. Used in vari- 
ous mixtures, as a demulcent, and to sus- 
pend insoluble powders. 

Acard^ia (a neg., Kapdia, heart). A mon- 
strosity without heart, developed simulta- 
neously with a normal fcetus. 

Aca'rus (« neg., Keipu, to cut [because so 
small]). The mite or tick, a parasite of 
man and animals. A. Autumnalis, the 



harvest-bug. A. Scabiei, the sarcoptes 
scabiei, or itch parasite. 
Accel'erans Nerve. A nerve from the 
accelerans center in the medulla to the 
heart, intermediating acceleration of its 
rhythm. 
Accelera'tor Urinae. A muscle of the 
penis whose function is to expel the last 
drops in urination, to expel the semen and 
to assist erection. The sphincter vaginae 
is its analogue in the female. 
Acces^sion {ad,X.o, ccedo,\.o draw). The 
insult, beginning, or onset of a disease, or 
of a stage of the same ; applied especially 
to periodical diseases. 
Acces'sory. A term applied to certain 
muscles, ducts, nerves, arteries, etc., that 
are often inconstant, but always auxiliary 
in function, course, etc., to the principal. 
A. of the Parotid, the socia parotidis. 
A. Willisii, the spinal accessory nerve, 
named after the discoverer. A. Gland of 
the Pancreas, Brunner's glands. 
Accident'al Hemorrhage. See Hemor- 
rhage. 
Acclimatiza''tion (ad, clima, climate). 
The act of becoming accustomed to the 
climate, soil, water, etc., of a country to 
which a plant, animal, person or a people 
have removed. 
Accommoda'tion of the Eye [accon- 
niodo, to adjust). That function of the 
ciliary muscle and lens whereby objects at 
different distances are clearly seen. It 
depends upon the inherent elasticity of the 
lens, which when the ciliary muscle of an 
emmetropic eye is at rest, is adapted to the 
proper focalization of parallel rays of light, 
or of such rays as proceed from an infinite 
distance, or from the horizon of the ob- 
server. Objects nearer, to be clearly seen, 
require a greater refracting power on the 
part of the eye because the rays from such 
objects are more divergent. This addi- 
tional refracting power is gained by an 
increased antero-posterior diameter of the 
lens brought about by the contraction of 
the ciliary muscle which occasions, a 
loosening of the suspensory ligament and 
a thickening of the lens by its own elas- 
ticity. ^., Absolute, the accommoda- 
tion of either eye separately. A., Anom- 
alies of, departures from the normal in 
the action of the mechanism of accommo- 
dation. A., Negative, the eye passive 
or at rest. A., Paralysis of, ]>aralysis of 
the ciliary muscle. A. Phosphenes, the 
peripheral light streak seen in the dark 
after the act of accommodation. A., 



ACCRETION 



21 



ACHEILIA 



Range of, the distance between the /■unr- 
tu»i proximuni, or nearest of distinct vis- 
ion, and the punctuin reiuotissimum, or 
most distant jx)int. 

Accre 'tion (</</, to, crcscere, to increase). A 
tirni denoting the manner by which ciys- 
talline and certain orijanic forms increase 
their material substance. Also, the ad- 
lierence of jiarts that are normally sepa- 
rate. 

Accouchee (Fr. <7,to, lOuchc, a bed). A 
woman delivered of a child. 

Accouchement (r7</,to,<'^//<7/<\ abed). The 
l-'rench tmn lor lai>or, or delivery of a 
child. The act of childbirth. A. Force, 
rapid and forceful deliver)- with the hand 
durinn severe hemorrhage. 

Accoucheur. A man-midwife. 

Accrementi'tion ((/(/, craccrc). A term 
ap])lied to grow ths in which increase takes 
place by interstitial development from 
blastema, and also by reproduction of 
cells by fission. 

Accoucheuse. A midwife. 

A. C. E. Mixture. An anesthetic mix- 
ture, not so depressing as chloroform : al- 
cohol, 1 part; chloroform, 2 parts; ether, 
3 Jiarts. 

Acepha'lia (a neg., Ke<j>aXT/, head). A 
monstrosity without a head. The tenn is 
compounded with others to denote the ab- 
sence of the head and some other part. 
Thus: Acephalobra'chia, without head 
and arms. Acephalocar'dia, without 
head and heart. Acephalochei'ria, 
without head and hands. Acephalogas'- 
tria, without head and belly. Acepha- 
lopo'dia, without head and feet. Aceph- 
alora'chia, without head and vertebral 
column. Acephalothora'cica, without 
head and chest. 

Aceph-'alocyst (/ctwr/r, a bladder). The 
bladder-worm. A headless, sterile hyda- 
tid, found in the liver and other organs. 
A. Racemosa, the hydatid mole of the 
uterus. 

Acerb'ity (ncfrbita:^, shaqjness, sourness). 
Acidity combined with astringency. 

Acerv'ulus Cerebri. A term applied by 
Sommering to certain concretionary matter 
nearthcba.se of the pineal gland, consist- 
ing of alkaline phosphates and carlxjnales, 
with amyloid matter. 

Aces'ccncc (acaeo, to grow .sour). A 
di.scase of wines, whereby they liecomc sour 
owing to (he agency of Niycotirrnia accti. 

Acetab'ulum [iiirtiihultim, a vinegar cu|>). 
'l"h<- eup-.sha|Md cavity whicli receNes the 
S<x:ket of the bip-lx>nc. 



Ac'etal {iiccttim, vinegar). Ethidene di- 
ethylate, a colorless liquid having the 
composition CpII,^(>.„ fonned by the oxida- 
tion of common alcohol. 

Ac'etate. Any salt of acetic acid. 

Acetan'ilide. See Antifcbrin. 

Acet'ic. Pertaining to acctitm or vinegar; 
sour. See Aii\/, .Li/ir. 

Acet'ic Ac'id and Ferrocyanide Test 
for Albumin. Strongly acidulate the 
sample of mine and add a few droi)S of 
recently prepared potassic ferrocyanide 
solution. (It precipitates hemialbumose, 
but does not affect peptone.) 

Acetom'etry {<u\'tiiiii, fierfMv, mcnsure). 
The quantitative estimation of the amount 
of acetic acid in vinegar. Usually made 
by an acctoiiu-ter. 

Acetonae'mia (acetone, ai^ia, blood). The 
presence of acetone in the organism. It 
may result from a number of diseases, but 
is characteristic of chronic diabetes, and is 
associated with dyspnoea, subnomial tem- 
perature, lowered pulse-rate, etc. The 
patient finally falls into coma. The treat- 
ment consists in increasing the secretions 
and by removing the causes of the disease. 

Ac'etone [ucco, to be sour), CjHgO. Di- 
methyl Ketone, Methyl Acetyl. A color- 
less, inllammable liquid prepared by dry 
distillation of the acetates. It is develojied 
in the body by the feniientalion of organic 
matters, and is found in such diseases as 
diabetes, some febrile diseases, alcoholism, 
etc. 

Acetonu''ria {acefoite, ovpov, urine). Ace- 
tone in the urine. 

Acetphenit'idin. See P/ieit(j<et/>ie. 

Acetophe'none. Hypnone. A hyjinotic 
and antiseptic. Without satisfactoiy re- 
sults. 

Ace'tum. Vinegar. An impure, dilute 
acetic acid produced by acetous fermenta- 
tion of wine, cider or other fruit juice. 
See Fermcutatiou. In phannacy a .solu- 
tion of the active principles of certain dnigs 
in dilute acetic acid. There are fonrofticial 
acr/<i, each of which contains the soluiije 
prineipUs of lo per cent, of its weight. 

Ac'etylene. A name given to a series of 
hydrocarbons having the structure Cn llan 
— J. Al.so, applied to i-t/iine, the .second 
meml)er of the .series, a gaseous sul stance 
fonned during the incomplete combustion 
of hytlrocarlwn fuels. 

Ache (r/ yor, allliction). Any continuous or 
throbbing pain. 

Achci'lia [<i, without, V"^"C. ^ lip)- The 
congenital absence of lips. 



ACHEIRIA 



22 



ACID 



Achei''ria (a, without, x^'Py^^^^*^)- The 
congenital absence of hands. 

Achei^rus. See Acheiiia. 

Achillea {^Achilles, its reputed discoverer). 
Milfoil, Yarrow. The herb A. niillefoHum. 
Properties due to a bitter, aromatic, astrin- 
gent, tonic extractive, (?f////A7«, and a vola- 
tile oil. It has long been used as a vul- 
nerary, and has been highly recommended 
for intermittents, and in low, exanthematous 
fevers. Dose of an _^j to Oj infusion, «</ 
lib. ; of the extractive, ^ j- 3 iij ; of the vola- 
tile oil, gtt. v-xv. Unof. 

AchiPles Tendon. See Tendon. 

Achlorops^ia [a neg. , ;<;Aupof , green, o-\\>Lq, 
vision). Green-blindness. See Blindness. 

Acho'lia (a priv., x^'^^U bile). Non-secre- 
tion or non-excretion of bile. 

Acho'lous (a, JO'^-'A bile). Pertaining to 
Acholia, q. v. 

A''chor (ajup, chaff, scurf, or dandruff). 
Crusta lactea. A small pustule, followed 
by a scab, upon the heads of infants. 

Acho^rion («j(jp.) A name given to 
several species of fungous (or fungoid) 
organisms (possibly modified forais of 
Petiicilimn glauciini), found in the skin, 
especially the hair-follicles. A. Kerato- 
phagus, the form causing onychomycosis, 
q. v. A. Lebertii, the parasite of tinea 
tonsurans. A. Schbnleinii, the species 
occurring in ringworm or tinea favosa. 

Achroi'a (a, without, xi>°'-"-i surface color). 
Same as Achro/na, q. 7'. 

Achro'ma (a, ;t;/)w/^a, color). Absence of 
color. Pallor. Paleness, from whatsoever 
cause. A., Congenital. See Albinism. 

Achromat'ic (a, XP'^F^)- Pertaining to 
achroma ; without color. A. Lens, one 
whose dispersing power is exactly neutral- 
ized by another lens having the same 
curvature but of unequal refractive index. 
See also Aberration. 

Achro'matin. The substance in the nu- 
cleus of a cell prior to division. So called 
because not readily stained by coloring 
agents. See Cell Body. 

Achro^matism (a, xP^^I-t")- Absence of 
chromatic aberration. 

Achromatops''ia (a, j/i6j//«, oijitg, eyesight). 
Color-blindness, Daltonism, dyschroma- 

. topsia. See Blindness. 

Achroodex''trin. A reducing dextrin 
formed by the action of the diastatic fer- 
ment of saliva upon starch or glycogen. 
Achylo'sis (« neg., ;^;i'Aof, juice). De- 

licient chylification. 
Achymo'sis (a neg., ;i,'i'//of, chyme). De- 
ficient chymification. 



Acic'ular (acus, a needle). Needle-like. 

Ac'id [acere, to be sour). A name loosely 
applied to any substance having a sour 
taste. A compound of an electro-negative 
element with one or more atoms of hydro- 
gen which can be replaced by electro-posi- 
tive or basic atoms. Acids vaiy in their 
terminations according to the quantity of 
oxygen or other electro-negative they con- 
tain. Those having the maximum of oxy- 
gen end in -ie ; those of a lower degree in 
-o:es. WTiere there are more than two com- 
binations the preposition liyper- is prefixed 
to the highest, and hypo- to the lowest. 
Acids which end in -ic, as sulphur/c acid, 
form salts terminating in -ate ; those end- 
ing in -ous form salts terminating in -ite. 
Physiologically, acids in concentrated form 
act as caustics ; diluted and in medicinal 
doses they check acid-producing and in- 
crease alkaline secretions. A., Acetic, 
an acid solution composed of 36 parts of 
absolute acetic acid, C2H^02, and 64 parts 
water, f las strong acid properties. Mis- 
cible with water and alcohol. A., Acetic, 
Glacial, the absolute acid in ciystalline 
form. A., Acetic, Dilute, contains 6 per 
cent, of absolute acid. Dose 3J-ij. An 
impure foim obtained by the destructive 
distillation of wood is known as wood vine- 
gar, or pyroligneous acid. A., Arse- 
nious, and Arsenic. See Arsenic. A., 
Aromatic, a name applied to certain or- 
ganic acids occurring in the balsams, resins 
and other odoriferous principles. Also, in 
pharmacy, a dilute mineral acid reinforced 
by aromatic substances in order to modify 
their flavor. A., Boric. See Boron. A., 
Butyric [biityriim, butter), an acid, C^Hg 
Oj, having a viscid appearance and rancid 
smell. It is obtained commercially by the 
fermentation of a mixture of sugar and 
butter or cheese in the presence of an alka- 
line carbonate, but occurs in various plants. 
Combined with glycerine as glyceryl buty- 
rate it is essentially butter. The ether de- 
rived from butyric acid is the natural flavor 
of the pineapple. A., QaxhoWc, phe7iy lie 
alcohol, or phenol, an alcoholic product of 
the distillation of coal-tar having the com- 
position CgHg*^). It occurs in pinkish 
acicular crystals, highly soluble in water, 
alcohol, ether, glycerine, and oil. It is a 
powerful antiseptic and germicide, and a 
violent poison. Internally it is useful in 
nausea and phthisis. Dose gr. \^. A., 
Carb., Glycerite, contains acid I, gly 
ceriive4}mrts. A., Carb., Solutions.', arv 
from I to 5 per cent, in water. A. Carb., 



ACID 



23 



ACID 



Unguent, contains acid lo, ointment 
90 parts. A., Chromic, CrO^, used as 
an escharolic for the desti-uciion of syphi- 
litic warts and similar growtlis. A solu- 
tion of I : 40 is used as an antiseptic wash 
for putrid sores and wounds. See J\>f<is- 
siitni. A., Citric. See I.imoii. A., Flu- 
oric, I IF, gaseous and soluble in water. 
The dilute acid, I : 200, is used as an in- 
ternal remedy in goitre. Dose TT\_xx-xxx. 
A., Formic ( forrnicn, an ant), an organic 
acid, Cli./).^, and the first of a series 
formed by the oxidation of alcohols. It is 
secreted naturally by the ant, and is also 
thought to be identical with the venom of 
the bee. A., Gallic, lICJIjO^, an acid 
prepared from nutgalls. Similar in ])ro- 
perlies to tannic acid, </. 7>. Occurs in fme 
acicular crystals. Astringent and disin- 
fectant. Useful in night sweats, diabetes 
and chronic diarrhiY?a. A., Gallic, Un- 
guent, benzoaied lard 90, gallic acid 
ID. A., Pyrogallic (unofficial), obtained 
from gallic acid by heating the latter. 
Recommended locally in phagedenic chan- 
cres. A., Hydrobromic, 1 1 Br, the dilute 
acid, which is the chief form used, consists 
of 10 jjer cent, acid and 90 per cent, water. 
A good solvent for quinine. Useful in 
hysteria, congestive headaches and neural- 
gia. Is recommended as a substitute for 
potassium and sodium bromides. Dose 
n\^xx-_:5ij. A., Hydrochloric, jy//r/V?//<r 
Acid, IlCl, a licjuid consisting of 32 per 
cent, of II CI gas in 68 jjer cent, of water. 
Colorless, pungent and intensely acid. Val- 
uable as an aid to digestion. A., Hydro- 
chlor.. Dilute, a 10 {>er cent, solution of 
al)S^jlute acid in water. Dose ULiij-x. A., 
Hydrocyanic, Dilute, I'ntssic And, 
IICN, a li<iuid consisting of 2 jjcr cent, of 
the acid with 98 jier cent, of water and 
alco!)ol. I'russic acid is found in the hitter 
almond, the leaves of the peach, and in 
the cherry laurel, from the leaves of which 
it is distilled. It is the most violent |X)ison 
known, death from complete asjjhyxia 
Ijcing almost instantaneous. Valuai)le for 
its sedative and antis|)asmoflic effects in 
vomiting, wIi<)r)|)ingcough, and spasminlic 
affeclicjns. Dose n\j-v. 'I'iie following 
prcjKirations are empioyrd : Ai/ttu I.anro- 
cerasi, water distilled from the leaves of 
the cherry laurel. Dose n\^v-xxx, with 
caution. Schei-Ws Dilute //vtinuyiiuir 
Acid, in 4 or 5 per rent, solution ; dangcr- 
oas. Amyn^dalii atiiiira, oil f)f i)itter al- 
mond ; u.scd in cosmetics. A., Lactic, 
IIC3H/),, a liquid containing 25 [icr cent. 



of absolute acid in 75 [ler cent, of water. 
I'rtHluced in the fennentation of milk. 
Generally lound impure from subsequent 
fennentation except when freshly made. 
Useful in aiding digestion, in diabetes, and 
as a solvent of false membrane in dij)h- 
theria. Dose ^ss-^ss. A., Muriatic. 
)r^QQ Acid llydroihloiic. A., Nitric, IINO3, 
a li<|uid consisting of about 64 per cent, 
absolute acid in 31 per cent, of water. 
The pure acid is colorless, fuming, and 
highly caustic. A very powerful escharotic, 
used in cauterization of chancres and 
phagedenic ulcers. A., Nit., Dilute, con- 
tains 10 per cent, ab.solute acitl. Dose 
ITLiij-xv.well diluted. A., Nitro-hydro- 
chloric, A(pi(i A'cj^-ia, a golden yellow, 
finning mixture of 4 parts nitric and 15 iif 
hydrochloric acid. A ready solvent of 
goKl. Valuable in alTections of the liver. 
Dose TTLv-xx, very dilute. A., Oleic, 
IIC,yIl3.,0.2, a constituent acid present in 
many fats and oils. Obtained in the manu- 
facture of stearine candles. Soluble in 
alcohol, benzol and the essential oils; in- 
soluble in water. Saponifies when heated 
with alkaline bases. A., Osmic, the 
oxide of osinitini, one of the rarer elements. 
Has been recommended for hypodermatic 
use in sciatica, strumous glands, and can- 
cer. A., Oxalic, a colorless crystalline 
solid, C^H.^O^, obtained by treating sawdust 
with caustic soda and potash. In I2 g"". 
doses a depressant to respiratory centers. 
In large doses a violent poison. Unof A., 
Phosphoric, Orthophosphonc Acid, H3- 
PO^, contains 50 per cent, aa acid and 
water. Of value in strumous alTections, 
and thought to be serviceable in dissolving 
phosphatic deposits. Has none of the 
effects derived from free phosjihorus or 
the hyix)phosphites. A., Phosphor., Dil., 
contains 10 per cent, of absolute acid. 
Dose n\^v-xxx. See Si'di/tw, /Wiissi/tm, 
C(ilcium,etr. A., Picric, Caibazotic Acid, 
CgH.,(N0.^)30, oi)lained by the action 
of nitric on carbolic acid. A saturated 
solution is of some value as a wash in ery- 
sipelas. An excellent test for albumen and 
sugar in urine. Dose gr. v-xv. A., Pyro- 
gailic. .See A., (in/Zic A., Sulphu- 
ric, Oil of Vitriol, H.^SO,, a heavy, oily, 
corrosive acid, consisting of not less than 
()U per cent, sulphuric anhyilride and 10 
per cent, of water. ( If value in lead poi- 
soning. Sonutinu's used as a caustic. A., 
Sulph., Dilute, contains 10 per cent, 
strong acid to 90 of water. I lose tTLx-xv, 
well diluted. A., Sulph., Aromatic, con- 



ACID-ALBUMIN 



24 



ACOLOGY 



tains 20 per cent, acid, diluted with alcohol 
and rtavored with cinnamon and ginger. 
Dose TT\^v-xv. A., Sulphurous, H.^S03, 
a colorless acid containing about 3^^ per 
cent, of sulphurous anhydride in 96 j^ per 
cent, of water. The gas (SOj) is a very 
valuable disinfectant. The acid is used as 
a spray or lotion in diphtheria, stomatitis, 
and as a vi^ash for indolent and syphilitic 
ulcers. The various hyposulphites are 
mainly valuable in that they decompose 
and give oft sulphur dioxide. Dose Tr^v- 
3J. See, also, SoJiuin, Potassiuni, and 
Magnesium. A., Tannic, Tannin^ Cj^- 
H,(,Og, an astringent acid obtained from 
nutgalls, occuiTing in yellowish, scaly 
crystals. Soluble in water and alcohol. 
Internally it is an antidote in poisoning by 
alkaloids and tartar emetic, and in hemor- 
rhoids and catarrh of mucous membrane. 
Useful mainly as an astringent lotion in 
many skin diseases. Dose gr. j-xx. A., 
Tan., Unguent, a 10 per cent, ointment 
of the acid incorjMrated with benzoated 
lard. A., Tan., Troches, each contain 
I gr. of tannic acid. A., Tan., Sup- 
positories, I part of tannin to 20 of Ijutter 
of cacao. A., Tan., Glycerite, i part 
tannin in 4 of glycerine. A., Tartaric, 
HjQH^Og, the acid principle of the grape 
and many other fruits. Obtained in color- 
less, transparent crystals ; chiefly employed 
in refrigerant drinks and in baking powders ; 
20 grains neutralize 27 of potassium dicar- 
bonate, 22 of sodium dicarbonate and 15 j^ 
of ammonium carbonate. Dose gr. x-xxx. 

Acid-Al^bumin. A derived albumin. A 
proteid, having been acted upon or dis- 
solved in the stronger acids, and yielding 
an acid reaction. 

Acidim''etry [acidus, acid, /xerpoi', a 
measure). Determination of the free acid 
in a solution, by an acidimeter, or by 
chemical reactions. 

Acid Phenyl Sulphate. A solution of 
3 grammes of phenol in 20 c.c. of strong 
sulphuric acid. Used for the detection of 
nitrates in water. 

Ac^idum. See And. 

Acine^sia {a, without, Kivr/a/r, motion). A 
name used to denote loss of motion in 
any or all parts of the body. Also, the 
interval between consecutive throbs of the 
heart. See also Diastole. 

Acin^iform (^acinus, a grape). Grape-like. 

Aci''nus (//. acini). The smallest lobules 
of conglomerate glands; the saccules of 
compound racemose glands; the lobules 
of the liver, etc. 



Acleitocard^'ia (a/c?i.f<rof , unclosed, Kapc^ia, 
the heart). A term applied to the imper- 
fect closure of the foramen ovale, a fatal 
opening between the auricles of the heart, 
vi^hich prevents perfect aeration of the 
blood. It is thought to be connected 
with the disease variously known as 
cyanapathy, " Blue Disease," " Blue Jaun- 
dice," etc. 
Ac^me {uK/LiTf, a point). The critical stage 
of a disease; the crisis. The highest 
point or degree of anything. 
Ac^ne. Varus. A general term used to 
designate lesions arising from pustular 
inflammation about the sebaceous glands 
and hair follicles. The forms commonly 
distinguished are A. /rosacea, A. J'ari- 
olifoniiis, and A. Vulgaris. A. Ade- 
noid, a disseminated form of A. ]^ul- 
garis, q. v. A. Adolescentum. See 
Acne Vtdgaris. A. Albida. See Alili- 
uvi. A. Atrophica. See Acne Varioli- 
formis. A. Disseminata. See Acne 

Vulgaris. A. Erythematosa. See 
Ac7te Rosacea. A. Frontalis. See 
Acne Vanolifo7-niis. A. Hypertrophica, 

Whiskey N^ose, an extreme development 
of A. Rosacea, q. v. A. Keloid. See 
Dc7-iiiatitis Papillaris Capillitii. A. 
Keratosa, a form of A. Vtdgaris, dis- 
tinguished by a horny plug in the hair fol- 
licle. A. Rhinophyma, an extreme 
development of Acne Rosacea, q. v. A. 
Rosacea, a chronic congestion of the 
skin and subcutaneous tissue of the face, 
attended with seborrhcea, and resulting in 
permanent vascular dilatation. May hyper- 
trophy the tip and sides of the nose 
[A. hypertrophica, "whiskey nose''), or 
expand it into a pendulous tumor i^A. 
rhinophyma). A. Sebacea. See Sebor- 
7-hcea. A. Varioliforme. See Molliis- 
cum Contagiositm. A. Varioliformis 
(not to be confused with A. Varioli- 
forme). A pustular eruption confined 
mainly to the face and scalp, which 
leaves pitted scars. The papules and 
pustules are indurated and grouped. A. 
Vulgaris, stone pock; an inflam- 
mation of the sebaceous glands, arising 
from obstructed or retained secretion. 
Occurs mainly in children or youth. 
May be indurated, punctate or pustular 
in form. 
Acce^lius (a priv., Koilaa, the belly). 
Without a belly ; applied to those ex- 
tremely emaciated. 
AcoFogy (a/fof, remedy, Aoyoq, a dis- 
course). The science of remedies. 



ACOMIA 



25 



ACTION 



Aco'mia {aKfior, bald). Baldness. A 
general temi applied to the deficiency of 
hair, arising from any cause. 

Aconite, or A''conite. 

Acon'itum. The root of Aion;titr?i tia- 
pcllus. Possesses a bitter, pungent taste. 
I'rtKluces numbness and persistent tingling 
in the tongue and lips. \'iolently jKiison- 
ous. E.xerts great depression of the heart, 
respiration, circulation and ners'es. The 
active principle is .h-onitine. Highly bene- 
ficial in fevers, acute throat affections and 
intlammation of the respiratoiy organs. 
Dose gr. ss-ij. A. Abstractum, has 
double the strength of the i>o\vdered dmg 
or its fluid ext. Do.se gr. %-]. A. Ex- 
tractum. Dose gr. '^-'j. A. Ext. 
Fluid., has a strength of one drop to the 
grain of powdered dmg. Dose H^J2-'j- 
A. Tinct., contains, aconite 40, tartaric 
acid 0.4, alcohol loo parts. Dose \\ '^-ij- 
The following are unofficial : Aconitia 
(aconitine), an amoiphous solid. Dose gr. 
5 Jjj— -'5. AioiiitiH(t-, Olcatiiiii, a 2 per cent. 
solution of aconitine in oleic acid. Napcl- 
lina. Dose gr. \-\. St. Jacob's Oil, a 
weak aconite liniment. 

Acor'mus («, /io/|//of, the trunk). A mon- 
ster without a trunk or body. 

Ac'orus. See CuIiuiihs. 

Acou'meter, or Acouom''eter {okovu, to 
hear, /if -/<oi, a measure). An instrument 
for measuring the acuteness of hearing. 

Acous'tic. Relating to the ear or sense 
of he.ning. A. Tetanus, the rapidity of 
the induction shocks in a frog's nerve-muscle 
preparation, as measured by the i)itch of a 
vibrating rod. A. Nerve, ])ortio mollis 
of the seventh ])air. See A'c/7>c's. 

Acous'tics. The science of sound. 

Acquired Movements. Those brought 
un<li-r the inlUience of the will only after 
con.scious and attentive effort and i)racticc, 
in (ii.stinclion from reacciuired movements, 
those rcin.st.itcd in their former proficiency 
after injury to the motor regions of the 
brain. 

Acra'nia {n priv., Kftaviov, the skull). The 
condition of a mon.iter with partial or com- 
plete ai^scnce of the cranium. 

Acrature'sis (nKj>aTnn, without strength, 
(ivitiiiir, micturition). Inability to mictu- 
rate from atony of the bla/ldrr. 

Acrodyn'ia (nKimr, an exlr -mity, oih'vrj, 
pain). A <lisease clo.sely allii-d t(» pellagra 
and ergoti-m; attended with acute hy|H'r- 
a .stiiesia of the |)aliiis and soles, troubles 
of motility, di.sorden-d nutrition of the .skin 
ftn<l muc<jus membranes, followed by an 



erythematous eruption, with excess of dark 
brown jiignientation. Thought to be caused 
by diseased grain. 

Acro'leine ((/ctr, sharp, (?/(•///;/, oil). Acrylic 
Aldeliyde. A highly volatile li(iuid hav- 
ing the composition C'.,1I^(); derived from 
the decomi osition or the destructive dis- 
tillation of glycerine. 

Acromega'lia {aKpng, ^eyalo^, large). Ab- 
normal development of the extremities. 

Aero 'mien [nKpov, a summit, utio^, the 
shoulder). The triangular-shaped process 
at the summit of the scapula, which fonns 
the attachment of the deltoid muscle. 

Acrompha'lus [anpov, nii(j)a'Aog, the navel). 
The center of the umbilicus, to which the 
cord is attached. 

Acro'nyx (uKprn', oi-i'^, a nail). The in- 
growing of the nail. 

Ac'rotism («, without, Kimrog, striking). A 
tenn used to designate any defective beat- 
ing of the pulse. 

Actin'ic (UKnc, a ray). Referring to those 
wave-lengths of the spectrum corres]xind- 
ing to the violet and ultra-violet jiarts of 
the same which produce chemical changes 
in the haloid salts of silver, and arc there- 
fore valuable in photograjihy. 

Actinom'yces [uKTir, fivhor, mucous). 
\'egetable parasites, the origin of the dis- 
ease actinomycosis. Called also the Juiy 
/''//)/i;'//s. 

Actinomyco'sis {aKTig, ftvKrjg, a fungus). 
A parasitical, infectious, inociilable dis- 
ease lirst observed in cattle, also in 
man, due to the presence, in ab.scesses 
and sinuses, of the leptotlinx-strcptotlirix. 
The most frequent, and most curable, fonn 
is when the abscesses form abcmt the jaws 
and teeth. The treatment is prophylactic, 
guaifling, by the choice of meat and by its 
pro]ier cooking, against the transference of 
the parasite ; and curative, the evacuation 
an<l antisejitic treatment of abscesses, sin- 
uses, carious teeth, etc. When the ]iara- 
site has found a nidus in the lungs or di- 
gestive tract, all treatment is .so far use- 
less. 

Actinospo'ra Charta''rum. .\ parasitic 
fungus developing on ])aper and lionks. 

Actinozo'a [iiKTir^ fwoi', an animal). One 
of the two divisions of the cielenlerata, 
including the sea anemones, stone corals, 
etc. ; called also antho/oa. 

Ac'tion {('i^o, to do or ju-rform). In 
pliysiolog)', a teiTU used tn denote the 
function of an organ. A., Reflex, a 
movement of an organ or pail of the Uxly 
resulting frnm an impressiun carried by a 



ACTIVE 



26 



ADENOGRAPHY 



sensoiy or afferent nerve to a subordinate 
center, and then sent back by an efferent 
nerve to some point at or near the source 
of irritation. 

Act'ive.' In medicine, a tsrm applied to 
treatment the reverse of passive, that is, 
where the pathological conditions are 
acted upon directly rather than partly 
controlled. 

Active Insufficiency of Muscles. See 
Insiifficioicy. 

Act'ual Caut^ery. See Cautery. 

Acu^ity {aciio, to sharpen). Acuteness or 
clearness of visual power in the percep- 
tion of small or distant objects. 

Acupres^sure {aciis, sharp, pre/no, to 
press). An operation to stop ha;moiThage 
or aneurysm by the compression of a needle 
inserted into the tissues upon either side, 
either above or below the vessel. 

Acupunct^ure [aciis, pungo, to prick). 
Puncture of the skin or tissue by one or 
more needles for the relief of pain, the 
exit of fluid, the coagulation of blood in 
an aneurysm, etc. 

Acute' (acHs). Used of disease, and 
signifying rapid and severe onset, pro- 
gress and termination. When applied 
to pain, sound, vision, etc., means sharp, 
keen. 

Acutenac'ulum. A needle-holder. 

Acute'ness. Pertaining to the acute stage 
of a disease. Referring to vision, used as 
a synonym for keenness or acuity. 

Acyanops''ia. See Blindness. 

Acye'sis (a, without, Kyr/aig, pregnancy). 
Sterility of the female. 

Ad [ad, to). A Latin prefix of words and 
terms, signifying to, toward, at, etc. Ad 
didiqnium, to fainting. Ad libittvn, at 
pleasure, or, according to discretion. 

Ad, or Add. A contraction of Adde, or 
Additur, meaning, add, or let there be 
added : used in prescription- writing. 

Adacf'ylous {a, without, 6aKTv7\.oq, a 
finger). Without fingers. In biology, 
certain crustaceans the arms of which 
are without claws. 

Ad'arn's Apple. See Poniiun Adami. 

Addepha'gia. See Bulimia. 

Ad^dison's Disease'. Melasma supra- 
renale, Dermato-melasma-supra-renale, or 
cutis aerea (" bron/ed skin "), adisease of 
the supra-renal capsules, first described Ijy 
Dr. Addison, and characterized by tuber- 
cular infiltration of the capsules, discolora- 
tion of the skin, progressive anremia and 
asthenia, ending in death from exhaus- 
tion. 



Adduc'tion [adduco, to bring toward). 
Movements whereby a part is brought 
toward another or toward the median line 
of the body. 

Adduct'or. Applied to muscles effecting 
adduction. 

Adelomorph'ous. See Delomorphous. 

Ademo'nia (o, Stjuovia^ trouble, distress). 
Mental distress. 

A'den [adi/v, an acorn, a gland). A gland, 
a bui)0. 

Adenal'gia (ad?/p, aZyof, pain). Glandular 
pain. 

Adenecto'pia [aSr/v, ektotzoq, away from 
a place). A condition in which the gland 
does not occupy its proper position. 

Adenemphrax'is ((l6>iv and efu^pa^tg, to 
obstruct). Glandular obstruction. 

Ade'nia. See Lymphadenoina. 

Aden'iform [aSijv, forma, resemblance). 
Of the shape of a gland ; glandlike. 

Ad'enine [a6r]v, a gland, — first discovered 
in pancreatic glands). A leucomaine, dis- 
covered in 1885 by Kossel; the simplest 
member of the uric acid group of leuco- 
maines. A relation exists between hydro- 
cyanic acid and all the members of this 
group, and the base Adenine seems to be 
fonned by polymerization of hydrocyanic 
acid. It occurs, with other bases, as a de- 
composition product of nuclein, and may 
be obtained from all animal and vegetable 
tissues rich in nucleated cells. It exists 
largely in the liver and urine of leuco- 
cythremic patients, as a result of the 
breaking up of the nucleated white blood 
corpuscles. It appears to be necessary 
to the formation and building up of 
organic matter, playing an important part, 
together with guanine, in the physio- 
logical function of the cell nucleus. Non- 
nucleated cells, though capable of living, 
are incapable of reproduction ; the nucleus 
appears to be the seat of the functional 
activity of the cell, indeed, of the entire 
organism. Nuclein, the parent of ade- 
nine and guanine, has been credited 
with a direct relation to the re])roductive 
powers of the cell. Adenine is not poi- 
sonous. Its physiological action is not 
definitely known. 

Adeni'tis [a(hjv and itis, inflammation). 
Infiamniation of a gland. See Bubo. 

Ade'no-. A Greek prefix to denote rela- 
tion to glands. 

Aden'ocele. See Adenoma. 

Adenodyn'ia. See Adenalgia. 

Adenog'raphy {aAiiv, ypai^u, to write). A 
treatise on the glandular .system. 



ADENOID 



27 



ADVENTITIA 



Ad'enoid (^«('vi',f"'"f, resemblance). Re- 
sembling a gland. A. Body, the pros- 
tate gland. A. Tissue. See Aninial 
y 'issue. 

Adenol'ogy yufiijv and /.o^.cf, a discourse). 
Tlic science of the glandular system. 

Adeno'ma (nJr/i', o^ia, tumor). A tumor 
that has sprung from a gland, or con- 
structed after the type of a secreting 
gland. 

Adenomyxo'ma [a^i{\\ fiv^n, mucous). A 
composite growth having the characters of 
adenoma and myxoma. 

Adenop'athy (^aJ;/r, -a(^of, disease). Dis- 
t-ax' of glands. 

Adenophleg'mon (a^^,<p?.eyfxov^). Sup- 
purative inflammation of a lymphatic gland 
complicating a wound. 

Adenosarco'ma {aSi/v, sarcoma). A 
tumor with the characters of adenoma and 
sarcoma. 

Adenosclero'sis (aSr/v^sc/erosis). A hard- 
ening of a gland, with or without swelling. 

Adeno'ses [aS/jv). Chronic abnormalities 
of the glands. 

A'deps. Lard. The fat obtained from the 
alxiomen of the pig. Composed of 38 
per cent, stearin and margarin, and 62 
per cent, olein. Forms 70 per cent, of 
CL-ratum, and 80 of unguentum, //. ?'. A. 
Anserinus, goose grease. A. Benzoa- 
tus contains 2 per cent, of l)en/oin. A. 
Ovillus, mutton suet. Adipis Oleum, 
a fixed oil expressed from lard. 

Ader^'mia (a priv., Sepua, skin). Ab- 
sence or defect of the skin. 

Adhe'sion {ii<///irro, to slick to). Abnor- 
mal union of two surfaces as a result of 
abrasion, inflammation, £>/<-. A., Primary, 
called also Hi-aliiii; by First Intrn/ioii, and 
by Iiniitediate Union, a rtiethod of healing 
of wounds by the production of lymj)!!, 
followed by the vascularization and cica- 
trization of the exudate. A., Secondary, 
or I/ealinj^ by Sei-ond /nh-iitioii, or bv 
Granulation, is that mode of healing at- 
tended by the production of |>us and the 
formation of granulations. A. Plaster. 
See Kiitplaslruin . 

Adhe'sive Plaster. See Resin and J-'.in- 
p/iistrunt. 

Adiaphore'sis (« priv., (hrulxiprvij, to per- 
s|>iri-). iJi-dcicnt sweat. 

Adiapneus''tia («, (W«Ti't(j, to perspire). A 
wurcl used to denote stopp;»ge of |>ersi)i- 
ralion. 

Adiathe'sia (a, Aia^iair, condition). A 
tirtn u.si-d lo denote a condition or partic- 
ular disc-ojie which is not coni^eniiul. 



Ad'inine. See Adenine. 

Ad'ipic Acid. An oxidation product of 
the fatty acids, having the comjxisition 
^.^'^ 1 ii"4- ^' '* diba.-ic and diatomic. 

Ad''ipocere [adeps, fat, cera, wax). A 
wax-like substance formed by the exjx)- 
sure of fleshy tissue to moisture, with the 
exclusion of air, i. e., in the earth or under 
water. It consists of the fatty acids in 
coml)ination with the alkaline earths and 
ammonium. Human botlies in moist burial 
places often undergo this change. 

Adipog''enous ((7</e/>s, fat, genero, to pro- 
duce). That which produces fat and adi- 
pose tissue. 

Ad'ipose. Patty. A. Tissue, fat cells, 
united by connective tissue ; distributed 
extensively through the body. It is com- 
po.sed of triolein, tripalmitine and tristear- 
ine, and is liiiuitl during life or at the tem- 
perature of the living body. 

Ad'juvant [aJjm'o, to assist). A medi- 
cine that assi-sts the action of another to 
which it is added. 

Adoles'cence ((^/(»A'.frv>, to grow). Youth, 
or the period between puberty and ma- 
turity, usually reckoned as extending in 
males from about 14 to 25 years, anil in 
females from 12 to 21. 

Ado'nis Estiva'lis. A plant much used 
in Italy as a cardiac tonic. Similar pro- 
perties possessed by A. Vernalis. Dose 
tal)lespoonful of ^^j to i^ xl. Unofficial. 

Adoscula'tion (</</, to, osculor, to kiss). 
Impregnation by external contact without 
intromission. 

Adre'nals {ad, pn>, the kidney). The 
supra-renal capsules. 

Adru'e. Anti-emetic root. The root of O'- 
/<ents artieulatus. Strongly recommended 
to check black vomit of yellow fever. Dose 
of tlie fld. ext. gtt. xx-xxx. I'nof. 

Adult' {adoleseo, to grow). Mature. 

Adultera'tion [adu/tero, to counterfeit). 
The admixture of inferior, imjuire, inert, 
or less valuable ingredients to an article 
for gain, dece])tion or concealment. Medi- 
cines, wines, foinls, etc., are largely adul- 
terated, the latter to a shameless extent. 

Advance'ment. An ojjeration to remedy 
straliismus, generally in conjunction with 
tenotomy, whereby the opposite tendon 
from the over-acting one is aUo cut and 
brought forward, so that, growing fast in a 
more advanced jxisition, it shall have more 
|x)wer to act u|ion the globe o( the eye. 

Adventi'tia (aih'entitim, fonigii). The 
evlein.il covering or coat of the blootl- 
vessels. 



ADVENTITIOUS 



28 



AFTER-BIRTH 



Adventi^tious. Accidental, foreign, ac- 
(|uired, as opposed to natural or hereditary. 

Adyna'mia (^a priv., (Svi'afin^, power). 
Deliciency or loss of vital or muscular 
power. 

.^dcEag''raphy (^aiSoMj the generative 
organs, ypcKpu, to write). A description 
of the generative organs. 

.^doeoFogy [aidoia^ '/^^oyoc, a discom-se). 
A treatise or monograph on the organs of 
generation. 

.^gagro'pili (ni^ [gen. c}")f], aypiog, a 
wild goat, TTt/iOf, hair). Intestinal concre- 
tion fonned of hair, found in animals and 
occasionally in man. A bezoar. 

^gilops (a^f, uibj eye). Abscess with per- 
foration at the inner canthus of the eye, 
supposed to be a result of lachrymal fistula. 
See Anchylops. 

.^goph^ony {atS,, (jxjvtj, the voice). In 
auscultation, a term meaning a modification 
of bronchophony in which the voice sounds 
sharjj and tremulous, like that of a kid. 

.^quabiFiter just'o ma'jor, or mi'nor 
PeFvis. See Pelvis. 

A^erated (n///), the atmosphere). Impreg- 
nated or charged with carbon dioxide. 

Aerhaemocto'nia (a?/p, air, aijia^ blood, 
KTovoq, killing). Death by the entrance of 
air into the veins. 

Aero'bia (a/;p, air, /5«of, life). The quality 
of living in the presence of oxygen. A., 
Facultative, normally or usually anae- 
robic, but under certain circumstances 
acquiring terobic power. 

Aero'bic. Pertaining to microbes I'equiring 
oxygen (air) in order to live. 

.ffiroco^mia Sclerocarpa. A South Ameri- 
can plant, very popular as a remedy in 
leucorrhcea, diarrhrea and albuminuria. It 
is astringent. Unof 

Aerom^eter [arip, fierpov, a measure). An 
instrument for ascertaining the density of 
gases. 

Aeropho''bia (a?;/), (pojSog, fear). Dread 
of a current of air. A symptom of hydro- 
phobia and hysteria. 

A^eroscope (a///), oko-eu, to observe). An 
instrument for the examination of air 
dust. Also, an instrument for estimating 
the purity of the air. 

Aerotherapeu^tics. A mode of treating 
disease by varying the pressure or the 
composition of the air breathed. 

Aerterivef'sion (fw/p, r?/pfw, to hold, 7>tvVo, 
to turn). A method of arresting hajmor- 
rhage by everting the cut end of an artery, 
invaginating the vessel in itself and lixing 
the parts by a needle. 



.^s^culin. A glucoside in the bark of the 
horse chestnut having the composition 

.^s^thesin (a/fn?//crif, sensibility). A name 
given by Thudichum to an anhydrous 
compound of sphyngosin and neurostearic 
ether occurring in brain-tissue. 

i^sthesiom^eter. An instrument for 
measuring tactile sensibility. 

.^sthesod^ic [aicdr/cig, odog, path). Re- 
lating to the gray substance of the cord 
that conducts sensory impressions to the 
brain. Kinesodic parts conduct the motor 
impulses from the centers to the muscles. 

.^stua'rium [trsha, heat). A vapor-bath. 
Also a stove designed to apply warm, dry 
air to all parts of the body at the same 
time. 

yE-'ther. See £t/ier. 

JEtioVogy. See Etiolos^y. 

Affec^tion [afficio, to affect). A synonym 
of disease. 

Af^ferent (ad, \.o,fcro, to cairy to). A term 
applied to vessels, nerves, ch-., that con- 
vey their contents or impulses from the 
periphery to the center. An efferent 
nerve, impulse or current is in the reverse 
direction. 

Affin^ity (afflnis, akin to). Relationship; 
a synonym of attraction. A., Chemical, 
the force exerted at inappreciable dis- 
tances, and between definite and invari- 
able weights of two or more combining 
substances, whereby bodies of dissimilar 
nature unite to form new compounds. 
Contradistinguished from cohesion, which 
is an attraction between molecules. A., 
Elective, the preference of one sub- 
stance for another rather than for a third 
or fourth. 

Af ^flux [iiffltio, to flow toward). The flow 
of the blood or other liquid to a particular 
part. 

Affu^sion (affiindo, to pour upon). Pour- 
ing water upon a substance to cleanse it, 
or upon the body in fevers to reduce tem- 
perature and calm nervous symptoms. 

African Lethargy. A " sleeping sick- 
ness " affecting negroes of the West 
African coast. Increasing somnolence is 
the characteristic symptom. Veiy fatal. 
Death after emaciation follows in from 
three to six months. The cause is un- 
known, and post-mortem examination has 
revealed only hyperemia of the arachnoid. 
No treatment avails. 

After-birth. The popular designation of 
the placenta, cord and membranes, some' 
times called the secundines. 



AFTER-IMAGES 



29 



AGRVPNIA. 



Arter-images. Continued retinal im- 
pressions after the stimulus of the light or 
image has ceased to act. A fositii'c after- 
image is a simple prolongation of the sen- 
sation ; a nei^ative aftcr-iniiii^c is the ap- 
jxjarance of the im;ige in complementaiy 
colors. After-sensations may be also e.\- 
jx^rienced with other senses. 

After-pains. See Piiins. 

After-sensation. A sensation lasting 
longer than tlie stimulus jiroducing it. 

Agalac'tia (a, }«/«, milk). Failure or 
insulliciency of the mother's milk after 
childbirth. 

Agamogen'esis (nyaim^, without mar- 
riage, }fi'f(j/f, generation). Reproduction 
without fecundation, as, e.g., by gemma- 
tion. See Piirt/u-nogt')icsis. 

A'gar-a'gar. A Ceylon moss. A kind of 
glue made from certain mosses, used in 
medicine to make suppositories, and in 
bacteriological studies to make a solution 
in which micro-organisms are bred or kept. 
See Gclose. 

Agar''icine. The active principle of Ai^ar- 
iitts all'us. It has proved useful in the 
night sweats of phthisis, where atropia has 
failed. Dose gr. tV~i*s- Unof. 

Agar'icus. A genus of the family of 
Agaricini or mushrcHDm. The edible va- 
riety, A. Campestris, is characterized 
by a brownish color, which does not 
change when cut, and an agreeable taste. 
A. Albus, Purging Agaric, unof , a fun- 
gas parasitic upon the European larch ; 
contains an alkaloid agaricin and agaric 
Olid. Used as a drastic purgative, valuable 
in night sweats. Dose gr. xxx-^jj. A. 
Cheirurgorum, a parasitic fungus for- 
merly u->ed fur moxa, ij. v. .Soaked in .so- 
lution of pota.ssium nitrate it forms spiivk. 
A. Muscarius, a poisonous mushroom, 
containing an alkaloid muscarim', q. v., 
a {xjWL-rful cardiac depressant. Dose of 
the alkaloid gr. %-\]. Munarine nitrate, 
a>ed hy]XKlermically. Dose gr. -j^y-f. 

Age. A jK-riod of life. The age of 
infancy, up to the third year; of child- 
hiKxl, from 3 to I2; of adolescence, fmni 
alxjul 12 to 25; of maturity, from 25 to 
50; of decline or .senility, from 50 to 
death. The word is sometimes used to de- 
note the la.st period alone. Other divi- 
.sions may Ik; made, as, <•. g., thosi- of em- 
brj'onic life, of inunaturity, of maturity, 
of sti-rility, etc. 

Agene'^sia («, ywiair, generati(jii). A 
lenn vjmewhat lix»sely used to designate 
abnormal or imj>crfect development. Also 



imjx)tence and sterility. In 1 otany, the 
asexual development of the llower. 
Agens Morbi. See IMorhi. 
A'gent (ago, to act, to do). A substance 
or force that by its action effects changes 
in the human body. 
Ageu'sia (a, ytvaig^ taste). Abolition of 
the sense of taste. 

Agglutina'tion (i/gg/t/ti/io, to glue ujwn 
or to). A joining together; applied to the 
healing of wounds; it is called imnte- 
liitite, if by the lirst intention; mediate, if 
through the inteiposition of some sub- 
stance in the lips of the wound. 

Agglu^tinatives. Substances with adhe- 
sive properties, fitted to retain the edges 
of wounds in apposition. Such are caout- 
chouc, Collodion, etc. 

Aglobu'lia (a negative, and glMniliis, a 
globule). A decrease in the cjuantity of 
red blood coipuscles, with corresponding 
increase of serum. 

Aglos^sia (a priv., y^Moaa, the tongue). 
Congenital alisence of tongue. 

Ag'minate Glands. See Glands, Pey- 
cr' s. 

Ag^'nail. Hangnail. 

Agna'thia (a jsriv., yvnf^og, a jaw). Ab- 
sence or defective development of the 
jaws. 

-ago'ga, -agogues [nyuyog, one who 
leads). A suflix, denoting agents that 
drive out other substances, as enimena- 
gogues, lithagogues, ete. 

Agorapho^bia [(lyopa, a market-place, 
(f>Oj3og, fear). A symptom of mental dis- 
ease characterized by a morbid fear of 
open places or spaces. 

-agra {ciypa, a seizure). A Greek word 
added as a suffix to various roots to denote 
seizure, se7iere />ain ; as jxjdagra, ete. 

Agram'matism (a, ypafifirj, a word). A 
j)henomenon of aphasia consisting in the 
inability to form words grammatically, or 
the suppression of certain wurtls of a 
phr;i>e. 

Agraph'ia (a neg., ypndu, to write). In- 
aliility to express ide;is l)y writing. In 
.some cases not a single leder can be 
formed; in others, wt)rds, and a luiinber 
of words, without meaning, can be written. 
See Af'liiisia. 

A'gria (nypwr, wild). A ceilain pustular 
erupt ioti. 

Ag'rimony. The r(K)t of .Igrimonia en- 
patoria. A mild a>tringent. Dose of lid. 
ext. _^ss-ij. Unof. 

Agryp'nia (ayfimc, restless, vkviic. sU-ep). 
Loss of sleep, sleeplessness, insomnia, y. v. 



AGUE 



30 



ALBUMIN 



A''gue {^nciifus, sharp, acute, Fr. (iii,ni). 
Malarial or intermittent fever, character- 
ized by paroxysms or stages of chill, fever, 
and sweating at regularly recurring times, 
and followed by an interval or intemiission 
whose length detennines the epithet, quo- 
tidian, tertian, etc. In some cases there is 
a double paroxysm, and hence called, 
double quotidian, double tertian, etc. In 
dumb ague the paroxysms are masked. 
Splenic enlargement follows ague, and is 
called A. -cake. A. -drop, a solution of 
the arseniate of potash, and for which 
Prowler's solution is substituted. 

Ailan^thus. The bark oi A. glandulosa, 
commonly known as Tree of Heaven. 
Properties due to an oleoresin and a vola- 
tile oil. A nauseant and drastic purgative, 
constituting an excellent anthelmintic 
against tape-woiTn. A., Ext. fld., dose 
TTLx-gj. A., Tinct., dose TTLx-^ij. 

Ain^hum (negro word, meaning to sau'). 
A disease in Guinea and Hindostan, pe- 
culiar to negroes, in which the little toes 
are slowly and spontaneously amputated 
at about the digito-plantar fold. The pro- 
cess is very slow, does not affect other toes 
or parts, is unaccompanied by any consti- 
tutional symptoms, and its cause is un- 
known. Sometimes attacks the great toe. 

Air (cE/), from aw to blow or breathe). 
The chief part of the atmosphere. At- 
mospheric air consists of a mixture of 77 
parts by weight, or 79.19 by volume, of 
nitrogen, and 23 parts by weight or 20.81 
by voliune of oxygen, with 3.7 to 6.2 parts 
by volume of COj in 10,000 parts. 100 
cubic inches weigh 30,935 grains. The 
pressure of the air at sea-level is about 14^4^ 
fts. upon the sq. in. A., Complemental, 
is that that can still be inhaled after an 
ordinary inspiration. A., Reserve or 
Supplemental, that that can still be ex- 
haled after an ordinary expiration. A., 
Residual, that which remains in the lungs 
after the most complete expiration possible. 
A., Tidal, that taken in and given out at 
each respiration. A. Vesicles, the 
rounded tenninations of the bronchial 
tuljes, the alveoli. See Atmosphere. 

Air-space. A space in tissue filled with 
air or other gases arising from the separa- 
tion, rupture, or absorption of cells. 

Ajo^wan. Bishop's Weed. The fmit of 
A. Carum. Carminative and antiseptic. 
Has been recommended in colic, diarrhoea, 
etc. Dose of the fld. ext. TTLx-xxx. 

Akanthaesthe^sia (anavOa, a thorn, aiaO//- 
ciq, sensation). A form of parai'sthesia or 



perverted sensation in which there is a 
feeling as of a shar]) point. 

Akatapha^sia (a, without, Kciraipan'u^ to 
declare). Inability to utter or to form a 
complete sentence, arising from a .syntactic 
disturbance of speech. 

Akin'esis (n neg, Kiveu, to set in motion). 
Absence or imperfection of movement. 
Applied to the heart's diastole. 

Akroposthi^tis {oKpng, point, nnaOia, fore- 
skin). Inflammation of the foreskin. See 
Bala>iitis. 

Akyanops''ia. See Blindness. 

AI. The Arabic definite article, the. Pre- 
fixed to many words to designate preemi- 
nence, etc., as alkali, alcohol. In chemi- 
cal nomenclature it is used as a suHix to 
denote similarity to or derivation from an 
aldehyd, as chloral, butjTal, etc. 

A^las (pi. of ala, a wing). Applied to 
various wing-shaped parts or appendages. 
A. Auris, the pinna of the ear. A. Nasi, 
the lateral cartilages of the nose. A. 
Vespertilionis, the broad ligaments of 
the uterus. A. Vulvae, the labia of the 
pudendum. Applied also to the armpits, 
parts of the sphenoid, vomer, etc. 

Ala^lia (a ne:^., "kaXeu, to talk). Impaired 
or lost articulation from paralysis of the 
muscles of speech. 

A^lar i^ala, wing). 'Winglike. A. Liga- 
ments, lateral synovial folds of the liga- 
ment of the knee-joint. A. Odontoid 
Ligaments, lateral ligaments of the 
odontoid process. Alaria ossa, lateral 
processes of the sphenoid bone. Alares 
musculi, the pterygoid muscles. 

Albicans {^albico, to grow white), white. 
Applied to the corpora albicantia at the 
base of the brain. 

Al'binism [at/>us, white). Congenital 
leucoderma, congenital leucopathia, con- 
genital achroma. The congenital absence 
or abnormal deficiency of pigment in the 
skin and other tissues. Alay be complete 
or partial. 

Albugin'ea {a/in/s). White, or whitish. 
A. Oculi, the sclerotic coat of the eye. 
A. Ovarii, and testis, the tunica albu- 
ginea of the ovary and testicle. 

AFbumen [albus). The white of egg. 
See Albumin. 

Albumim'eter(rt'/(^;<w2«,;«erpov, measure). 
An instrument for determining the quanti- 
tative estimation of albumin in urine. 

AFbumin {^albiis, white). A proteid sub- 
stance, the chief constituent of the body. 
Its molecule is highly complex and varies 
widely within certain limits in diff"erent 



ALBUMINATE 



31 



ALE 



Cleans and conditions. It contains the 
following percentages: C;irlK)n 51.5 to 
54.5; hydrogen 6.9 to 7.3 ; nitrogen 15. 2 
to 17.0; oxygen 20.9 to 23.5; sulphur 
0.3 to 2.0. Its approximate formula is 
C7,H,,,N,^< X_,,S. Albumen, white of egg, 
often called albumin, is largely comjxised 
of it. Dther varieties are called after 
their sources or characteristic reactions, 
as acid-allmmin, alkali-altnmiin, muscle-, 
serum-, ovum-, vegetable-albumin, etc. 
A., Circulating, that found in the fluids of 
the lK.Kly. A., Organic, that forming an 
integnil part of the tissue. See, also, 
Protiids and Niitive Albumins. 
Albu'minate. The compound of albumin 
and certain bases, as albuminate of iron, 
or of iron and ]x>tassium, etc. 
Albu'minoid {tilliiiniin, rifniq, form). Re- 
sembling albumin. Ajjplied to certain 
compounds having many of the character- 
istics of albumin. 
Albu'minoids. Substances resembling 
true proteicis in their origin and comjiosi- 
tion. They are amoqjhous non-cr}'Slalline 
colloids, occurring as organized constitu- 
ents of the tissues, and also in fluid form. 
Mucin, Nuclein, Keratin, Fibroin, Spon- 
gin, Elastin, Gelatin, Chondrin, etc., are 
the ])rincipal members of the group. 
Albuminu'ria {albumin and ovpov, urine). 
The presence of albumin in the urine. 
The term is not now used, as it formerly 
was, as synon)Tiious with Blight's disease. 
All)umin in the urine may result from a 
number of caases, e. t,'., mechanical inter- 
ference with renal circulation ; from* toxic 
substances in the blood ; from changes in 
the blood due to various diseases ; from 
lesions and diseases of the kidneys them- 
selves, etc. A., Tests of. See .Ubumi- 
meter, .Acetic Acid uiul Fcrrocyanide, Boil- 
inj^, EsbaclC s Method, Heller, Picric Acid, 
Ix'lurt',' Pediment, Pan ret. 
Al'bumoses. The first products of the 
splitting up of proteids by en/ymes, inter- 
mL-diate between the food-albumin-, and the 
typical peptones. After the precipitation 
and filtering off of the para-peptones, e. ;'., 
in the [K-ptic digestion of fibrin, the cK-ar 
solution of albuin<)s<-s thus olitained, treated 
with .sfxlium chloride, yields in precipitate 
form, J'roto-albutnose, Dys-albumose and 
Heteroalhumoie ; a fourth, Deulero-ulbit- 
tnoic, remains in solution. The iJeutero- 
alliinno~i- i> the ncan-st to pi-ptones. A., 
Vegetable. Sci; J'/iytiilbumnus. 
Al'chcmy (.\rabir, of doubtful derivation), 
'i'he sujij»>)St.-d art of the transmutation of 



metals (into gold) and of finding a remedy 
for all diseases. Modern cluinistiy is the 
development of this chimerical mediaeval 
dream. 

AFcohol (Arab, al, the, ko/iol, finely pow- 
dered antimony). Ethyl alcohol, C.llgO. 
A lii|uid obtained by the distillation of fer- 
mented grain or starchy sub.-tance. Used 
in pliamiacy as a solvent for resins, and as 
a base for all tinctures. Commercial alco- 
hol contains 91 per cent, of absolute alco- 
hol, with 9 ])er cent, of water. Is in- 
flammable, colorless, and jiossesses a pun- 
gent otior ami burning taste. Sometimes 
used externally as a stimulant lotion. In- 
ternally, it is a powerful cerebral excitant ; 
in large doses a depressant, narcotic poison, 
producing muscular incoordination, deli- 
rium and coma. A food within the limits 
of 3J-5J per day; continued use is 
apt to result in epilepsy, amblyojna and 
insanity. In form of wine, whisky or 
brandy, it is invaluable in diphtheria, ady- 
namic fevers, and ])oi>oning by cardiac 
depressants. A., Absolute, spirit contain- 
ing no water. A., Ethyl. See Alcohol. 
A., Methyl, CII^O, commonly known as 
"Wood Spirit.' A., Amyl, C'/H,./), com- 
monly known as " Potato .Spirit" and 
"Fusel Oil." A., Phenic. See Acid 
Carbolic. A., Dilute, composed of equal 
parts each of alcoliol and water. 

Al'coholism. The morbid results of ex- 
cessive or prolonged use of alcoholic 
liquors. The term acute A. has been 
used as a synonym for inebriety. The 
chronic form is associated with severe 
lesions or disturbances of the digestive, 
respirator)' and nervous systems. Delirium 
tremens is a common result of alcoholism. 

Al'dehyde [al, the first syllable of alco- 
hol, dchyd, from deliydratus). Alcohol 
deprived of two atoms of hydrog,en, or 
acetic aldehyde. It is a colorless, limpid 
liquid, with a characteristic odor, having 
the comi)o>ilion C.;I1^(). Interi>ally it 
produces intoxication, aiuvstlusia and as 
jihyxia. A., Benzoic, the oil of bitter 
almonds, C'^IIuO. Chemically, the alde- 
hydes are iKwlies containing the group CO, 
associated witii a monatoiiiic alcohol radi 
cal, and with hydrogen. Tliey are easily 
converted into the corres|X)nding acid by 
oxidation, or into the corres|H)iuliiig alco- 
hols by nascent hyilrogen. They are 
|)owi-rfiiI reducers. 

Ale. .All alcoholic beverage brewed from 
malt and hops. It contains from 3 to 7 
per ciiit. of alcohol. .See A/alt /.ii/uors. 



ALEMBIC 



32 



ALLEN'S TEST 



Alem''bic (Arab, al, afilii^, a cup). A 
vessel used for distillation. 

Alep'po Boil, or Evil. See Furimculus 
Orieiitalis. 

Ale^tris. Star Grass, Unicorn Root, Star- 
wort, Colic Root. The root of A. farinosa. 
Tonic, diuretic and anthelmintic. Formerly 
a popular domestic remedy in colic, dropsy 
and chronic rheumatism. Dose of fid. e.xt. 
Tl^x— XXX ; of aletriii, the extractive, gr. 



X-iv. 



Unof. 



Alexan'der's Operation. An operation 
consisting in shortening the round ligament 
of the uterus in order to bring the uterus 
into its normal position. 

Alex^ia (a, "kt^iq, word). Word-blindness. 
A form of aphasia and a special type of 
psychical blindness, in which the patient 
is unable to recognize ordinary written or 
printed characters. 

Alexipharm^ic (a^.E-fw, to repel, (pap/itaKov, 
a drug). A medicine neutralizing a poi- 
son. 

Alexipyrefic (aZefw, Tvviierog, a fever). 
A febrifuge. 

Aleze^ (aAefw, to protect). A cloth to 
protect the bed from becoming soiled from 
excreta, efc. 

Al'gae {^al^^oi; coldness). A group of 
acotyledonous plants, of simple vegetable 
construction, living mostly in the water. 

Al'garoth (It. A/garotti, the Veronese phy- 
sician). A name formerly used to desig- 
nate an oxychloride of antimony. 

Alge'do [aXyo^^ pain). A name applied to 
severe pain in the generative and extend- 
ing to the urinary organs, sometimes arising 
from a sudden stoppage of gonorrhoea. 

-algia {aTiyoq). A suffix denoting pain, 
as odontalgia, neuralgia, etc. 

Algid {^a/gidus, cold). Cold, chilly. A. 
Fever, a pernicious intermittent fever, with 
great coldness of the surface of the body. 
A. Cholera, Asiatic cholera. 

Aliena^tion (alieno, to withdraw). Men- 
tal derangement, insanity. 

A'lienist. One who treats mental diseases ; 
a specialist in the treatment of insanity. 

AFiment {aUmcntiim, from alo, to nour- 
ish). Nourishment, food. A substance 
that, acted upon by the digestive and as- 
similative organs, yields the sources and 
repairs the losses of heat, force or the tis- 
sues of the body. 

Aliment^ary. Nourishing. A. Bolus, 
the food after mastication and just prior 
to swallowing. A. Tube, System, or 
Canal, the digestive tube from the lips to 
the anus, with its accessory glands. 



Alimenta''tion. The process of the recep- 
tion and conversion of food into material 
fit for nourishment. 

AFizarine. The red coloring principle 
occurring in the madder plant, Ruhia tinc- 
torium, and in "anthracene, a coal-tar pro- 
duct. Its composition is Cj^HgO^. 

Al'kali (Arab, al, and kali, the plant from 
which soda was first obtained). The term 
includes the hydrated oxides of the alkali 
metals; these are electro-positive, are 
strong bases, uniting with acids to form 
salts, turn red litmus blue and saponify 
fats. A., Caustic (usually potash), when 
so concentrated as to possess caustic pro- 
perties ; potash and soda are called fixed 
alkalies, because permanently solid ; soda 
is called a mineral, potash a vegetable, 
and ammonia a volatile alkali. 

AFkali- Albumin. A derived albumin; 
a proteid having been acted upon by dilute 
alkalies and yielding an alkaline reaction. 

Alkalim'eter [alkali, and ^erpeu, to mea- 
sure). Alkalimetry, the measurement of 
the amount of an alkali in a substance. 

Alkaloid [alkali and euhQ, likeness). 
Resembling an alkali. The alkaloids are 
nitrogenous organic compounds, basic and 
alkaline in character, highly complex in 
chemical constitution and usually of vege- 
table origin. Most are solid and ciystal- 
lizable ; but nicotin and conein are liquid. 
Most are toxic. A., Putrefactive. See 
Ptomaines. 

AKkanet (Arab, alkanah, a reed). The 
root of AncliHsa tinctoria, now used in 
medicine as a coloring material. 

AUanti^asis {al7M^, a sausage). Sausage 
poisoning, due to putrefactive changes in 
imperfectly cured sausages, or in those 
made from bad materials. 

Allant^oin. C^HgN^Og. Occurs in 
traces in normal urine, and prepared from 
uric acid by oxidation processes. 

AUant^ois (aAA«f, eidoq. like). One of 
the fetal appendages or membranes, de- 
rived from the mesoblastic and hypoblas- 
tic layers. Its function is to convey the 
blood-vessels to the chorion. The lower 
part finally becomes the bladder, the rest, 
the urachus. 

Allant''o-tox''icon (a?.Z«f, to^ikov, a poi- 
son). A name applied to a poisonous sub- 
stance, probably a ptomaine, which devel- 
ops during the putrefactive fermentation 
of sausage, especially that made of blood 
and liver. 

Allen's Test for Zinc. A few drop-; of 
potassium fcrrocyauide added to boiling 



ALLIACEOUS 



33 ALPHA-OXVNAPHTHOIC ACID 



water slightly alkaline yields a white pre- 
cipitate if zinc be present. 

Allia'ceous ((//////w, garlic). Resembling 
garlic or pertaining to the same. 

Al'ligator Pear. The seeds of Piisc-a 
^ratissirna, or Avocado pear. A Mexican 
remedy for intercostal neuralgia, and, in- 
ternally, an anthelmintic (?). Dose, in- 
ternally, of the tld. ext. tTLxxx-;^j. 

Al'lium {d/.eu, to avoid). Garlic. The 
bulb oi .4. satiium. Cont:uns a pungent 
volatile oil^allyl sulphide), which is found 
also in the leek and the onion. The tubers 
of each are used both as a food and as a 
condiment, and are stimul.ants to digestion. 
A. Syr., contains, garlic 15, sugar 00, dil. 
acetic acid 40 parts. Dose 3 j-.^ iv. 

Allochi'ria («/./■.<){■, other, x^'lh hand). 
An infrequent tabetic symptom, in which, 
if one extremity be pricked, the patient 
locates the sensation in the corresjxjnding 
member of the other side. The better 
name, al/irst/u-sia, has been suggested. 

Allop'athy (a'/./jo^, other, TvaOng, affection). 
According to Hahnemann, the inventor of 
the tenn, that method of the treatment of 
disease consisting in the use of medicines 
whose action upon the body in health pro- 
duces morbid phenomena different from 
those of the disease treated. Opposed to 
homivopathy. It need hardly be said that 
modem scientific medicine is based ujxin 
no such theoiy, or definition, as that sup- 
plied by homa^opathy. See Regular. 

Allorhyth'mia (a/v.flC, pvfi/ioc:, rhythm). 
Variation in intcr\-al of the pulse. See 
Pulse and J^u/stts. 

Allotrioph'agy {n7.7x)Tptoq, strange, (^ayw, 
to eat). Depraved or unnatural ajjpetite. 
The Italian epidemic disease called /'ica. 

Allot'ropism (n/./of, TpoTro^, method). 
The term expresses the fact of certain 
elements existing in two or more condi- 
tions with differences of physical ]iro{x:rties. 
Thus carlxin illustrates allotropism by ex- 
isting in the forms of charcoal, ])lumbago, 
and the diamond. See homi-ric. 

AUox'an. An oxidation jirotluct (C^IIj- 
NjO,) of uric acid. 1'a.sses into alloxanic 
acid, C'^N.^II^O, by the action of alkalies. 
Occurs in the intestinal mucas in case of 
di.irrh'i-a. 
All'spice. See Pimenta. 
Al'lyl. < ,H^- A non-saturated univalent 
alcohol-radical of the oils olitained from 
alliaceous plants. A. Alcohol, (',!I^II(). 
A. Aldehyde, ' ",! 1/ ), a synonym o{ Acro- 
Ifin. A. Sulphide, (<'jl I j)j.S, the essen- 
tial oil of garlic. 
3 



Al 'men's Test. A test for haemoglobin 
or blood in urine. Add to urine freshly 
prepared tincture of guaiacum and ozo- 
nized ether ; a blue color indicates the 
presence of blood. 

Al'mond. See Aniyj^dahi. 

Al'nus. Akler Bark. The bark of the 
American Alder. A. Serrulata, contains 
tannic acid. Decoction of bark and leaves 
is astringent, and used as a gargle and as 
a lotion for wounds and ulcers. Dose of 
powtlered bark gr. x. 

Al'oe [a/or/, gen. a/.aijq). The inspissated 
juice of several species of aloe, of which 
the A. Socotriiia, A. Bml'iKhnsis, and 
A. C(7/>t'nsis are most conmionly used. 
Properties due to a glucoside, <j/(fn. A 
tonic astringent, useful in amenonhoea, 
chronic constipation, and atonic dyspepsia. 
Dose gi-. j-v. A. Purificata, the com- 
mon drug purified by solution in alcohol 
antl evaporation. Dose gr. j-v. A. Ext. 
Aquosum, prepared by mixing i with 
10 parts boiling water, straining and evapo- 
rating. Dose gr. ss-v. A., Tinct., con- 
sists of aloes 10, glycyrrhiza 10, dil. alco- 
hol 100 jaarts. Dose ^ss-^ij. A. et 
Myrrh, Tinct., aloes 10, mynh 10, alco- 
hol 100 parts. Dosejss-jij. A.,Vin., 
has aloes 6, cardamon I, ginger I, -str. 
white Avine loo parts. Dose 3J-3'^'- 
A., Pil., aloes and soap aa gr. ij. A. et 
Asafostida, Pil., aloes and asafa-tida aa 
gr. I \^. A. et Ferri, Pil., contains gr. j 
each of aloes ami ferrous sulphate incoipo- 
rated with confection of roses. A. et 
Mastich, " Lady Webster's" jjill, contains 
each aloes gr. ij, mastich and red rose gr. 
ss. A. et Myrrh, Pil., contains each aloes 
gr. ij, myrrh, gr. j, aromatic powder gr. ss, 
mixed with syrup. A. et Canellae, Pulv., 
contains powdered bark of Canella alba. 
Dose gr. v-xx. 
Aloin. See .-l/ot'. 

Alopc'cia (aPt-Tz/f, a fox). A general 
term to designate all forms of baldness. 
May be congenital, seniK-, idiopathic pre- 
mature, or symptomatic jircmature. A. 
Area'ta, Porrit^o Dciith'iiits, I'iiua Dc 
cithuiiis. Area Cr/si. A. Circumspecta, 
an atrophic affection of the hair marked 
by the appearance of circumscribed bald 
s|K)ts. It soinitimes affects the beard, eye- 
brows and pulics, and is thought lobr non- 
parasitic. A. Pityro'des Universalis. 
See Sriwrrhifti. 
Arpha-Oxynaphtho'ic Acid. .\ <leri- 
vativf of iiaplilliol. Solulile in glycerine 
and oils only. A disinfectant. L'nolVicial. 



ALSTONIA CONSTRICTA 



34 



AMAUROSIS 



Alsto'nia Constricta. See Ditta Bark. 

Altera'tion Theory. See Difference 
Theory. 

Alterative [ciller, another). A medicine 
that alters the processes of nutrition and 
excretion, restoring, in some unknown way, 
and witliout sensible evacuation, the nor- 
mal functions of an organ or of the system. 
It seems to be a necessary or convenient 
term covering our ignorance of the modus 
operandi of certain medicines, as mercury, 
iodine, etc. A. Compound, a domestic 
remedy consisting of bamboo, brier-root, 
stillingia, burdoclv-root, and poke-root, aa 
fl. ext. ^iij, prickly-ash bark fl. ext. ^j. 
Recommended by Sims in scrofulous affec- 
tions. Dose 3J-ij. 

Alterna'tions of Generation. That form 
of reproduction in which some of the 
members of the cycle can produce new 
beings non-sexually, while in the final stage 
reproduction is always sexual. Taenia or 
tapeworm, is an example. The segments, 
Proglottides, are hermaphrodite, and are 
evacuated with the fceces. From the egg, 
fertilized after it is shed, is developed 
the embryo, that is swallowed by another 
animal, in whose tissues it forms an en- 
cysted stage {Cysticercus, Ccemirus, or 
Echinococcus^. To undergo further de- 
velopment the cysticercus must find an- 
other host, where it forms new seg- 
ments. 

Althae'a. Marsh-mallow. The peeled root 
of A. officittalis, a plant of the mallow 
family. Consists about one-third of vege- 
table mucus and starch, together with the 
alkaloids Asparagin and Althein. Em- 
ployed as a mucilaginous drink. A. 
Syrupi, contains 4 per cent, althaea. Dose 
indefinite. Asparagin possesses sedative 
and diuretic properties. Useful in ascites 
and gout. Dose gr. ij-iij. 

AFum or AFumen. See Aluminium. 

Alumin^ium. Al = 27. Quantivalence 11, 
IV. A silver white metal distinguished 
by its low specific gravity, about 2.6. A. 
Hydrate, Al2(H0)g, a tasteless white 
powder, feebly astringent. Dose gj. iij- 
XX. A. Sulphate, Al2(SO^)3, an anti- 
septic and astringent used as a lotion in 
5 per cent, solution. A. Potassium 
Sulphate, K2Al2(S04)4, alum of com- 
merce, a valuable astringent used in ca- 
tarrh, leucorrhoea, gonorrhoea. Dose gr. 
x-xx. In teaspoonful doses, an emetic. 
A. Exsiccatum, alum deprived of its 
water of ciystallization. Dose gr. x-xx. 
Used also as an escharotic. A. Acetate, 



unof ; a disinfectant. A. Acetotartrate, 
unof ; a disinfectant. 

AKum Root. The root of Heuchera 
aiiiericana. Properties due to gallic and 
tannic acids. Very astringent. Dose of 
fld. ext. gtt. x-xx. Unof. 

Alve^olar {^alveolus, a small hollow). Per- 
taining to the alveoli or sockets of the 
teeth. A. Abscess, a gum-boil. A. 
Arch, the alveolar surface of the jaw. A. 
Artery, a branch of the internal maxillary. 
A. Process, the border of the superior 
maxilla in which the alveoli are placed. 

Alveola^rium (alveus, a bee-hive). A 
name sometimes applied to the external 
meatus of the ear. It is so called because 
the wax of the ear gathers in that place. 

Alve^'olez. An extractive from Eztphorbia 
heterodoxa, having diuretic properties. It 
is highly recommended as a topical appli- 
cation in cancer. Unof. 

Alve^olus, pi. Alveoli. The bony socket 
of a tooth. A. of the Stomach, or the 
alveolar structures, are depressions, like 
honeycomb cells, found in the stomach, 
intestines and oesophagus. A. of the 
Lungs, are the air cells. A. of Glands, 
the ultimate sacs of a racemose gland. 

AFveus {iilveus, a trough). A trough, tube 
or canal, applied to ducts and vessels of 
the body. A. Communis, the utricle. 
A. Hippocampi, certain structures in the 
cerebral hemispheres. 

AFvine (alviis, the belly). Pertaining to 
the belly. A. Discharges, the faeces. 

AFvus. The belly, or its contents. 

Am^adou. Geniian tinder or touchwood, 
a fungus found on old tree-trunks, used to 
stanch local hemorrhage, as a dressing of 
wounds, etc. 

AmaFgam (a//a, together, yafieu^ to wed). 
A combination of mercury with any other 
metal, used for filling teeth. 

Ama^ra [amai-us, bitter). Bitters. 

Amaranth'us Spino'sa. Fresh root of 
the shrub used in India as a specific in 
gonorrhoea. Dose indefinite. Unof. 

Ama'rin. A bitter alkaloid, C2iHjgN2, 
derived from bitter almonds. 

Amas^tia (a, /naarog, breast). The condi- 
tion of being without mammae or nipples. 

Amauro'sis [n/Mvpou, to darken). A 
term that, from its vagueness, is happily 
becoming disused, signifying partial or 
total loss of vision. When partial, the 
word amblyopia is now used; when com- 
plete, blindness. The word is still some- 
times used to express blindness when the 
cause is unknown or doubtful. 



AMAZIA 



35 



AMINES 



Ama'zia. See Amastia. 

Am'ber. See Sitcciiiuin. 

Am'bergrease, or 

Am'bergris \^unbt-r and Fr. i^ris, gray). 
A substance excreted by the sperm whale, 
Physeter viacroiephaltis. It is not known 
whether it is a pathological j^rocluct or the 
thickened, insoluble part of the fx'ces. 
Exhales a fragrant, musky odor when 
warmed. Used in adynamic fevers, chronic 
catarrh and nervous diseases. Dose, gr. 
j-iij. Unuf. 

Ambidex'trous (^ninfh', Ixath, </,x/rr, the 
riglit hand). Able to use l)oth hands 
eijually well. 

Amblyo'pia (^afi,3?.vg, dulled, uiji, eye). 
Sulinormal acuteness of vision, due neither 
to dioptric abnonnalism nor to visible or- 
ganic lesion. It may be lon^t-ni/al ; or 
from disuse {^cx(ino/>si(i)\ from the use of 
tobarco or alcohol or other loxic influences ; 
from traumatism; or it may be hysterical. 
Nyctalopia or day-blindness, and hcmcral- 
opia or night-blindness, are other forms ; 
it may arise from cntoptic phenomena, such 
as mtiscic ~<o!itantes, micropsia, megalopsia, 
mctamorphopsia, etc. It may take the form 
of contracted fields of vision, of color- 
blindness, or aiucslhesia of the retina. 

Amboy'na Button. See Frambasia. 

Am'bulance {tuitbulo, to walk alxjut). In 
Euro|>e the term is applied to the surgical 
staff and arrangements of an army in 
ser\'ice. In the U. S. the word is re- 
stricted to a vehicle for the transference 
of the sick or wounded from one place 
to another. 

Ambus''tion {iimbtistio, a bum). A burn 
or scald. 

Amc'lia [a ncg., fiF?/>r^a limb). Absence 
of the limljs from arrested develoimient, or 
atrophy. 

Am'elus (a priv., /zt/of). A monstrosity 
without limbs. 

Ame^nia. Sec Amenorrhna. 

Amenoma''nia (ama-nit':, agreeable, //aivrt, 
madne.v->). A mild form <jf mania in wliich 
the symjjtoms are manifested under the 
form of gayety, fondness of dress, exaggera- 
tion of sfKial condition, etc. 

Amenorrhoc'a {a priv., /irfv, mouth, /V<j, 
to tlow). Absence, irregularity or sup- 
pression of menstruation when it should 
normally Ijc present. The secretion may 
not take place, or lie retained, or be sup- 
pressed during menstruation. Primitive, 
is a tirtri applied to tho.se cases when the 
catami'tiia have not ap|x-ared at the proper 
time, and secondary, when the discharge 



has been arrested after it has existed, and 
during the reproductive ]H'riod of life. 

Amen'tia (aneg., ///(//.f, mind). Defective 
intellect ; a vague term synonymous with 
idiocy, imbecility. 

Amer'ican Colum'bo. The root of Fra- 
sera carotinensis. Tonic, ajierient ; in 
large doses, purgative. Dose of the I'd. 
ext. n\,xx-5J. Fraserin, a concentrated 
extract. Dose gr. j-iij. Unof. 

Amer'ican Pvy. The twigs and bark of 
Ampelopsis qitiuijuefolia. Alterative, tonic, 
astringent and expectorant. Dose of the 
fid. ext. TT\_xxx-3J. Anipelopsin, the con- 
centrated ext. Dose gr. ij-iv. Unof. 

Amer'ican Spike'nard. The rhi/omeof 
Aralia raconosa. Aromatic, diuretic and 
alterative. Used in rheumatism, dropsy 
and scrofulous affections. Dose of the 
decoction, indelinite. Unof. 

Amertume {French). A disease of wine, 
characterized by bitterness, and caused by 
a specific bacillus. 

Ametrom'eter. An instrument for meas 
uring ametro]iia by means of the diffusion 
circles fonned by two small llamcs. 

Ametro^pia (a neg., /uerpov, a measure). 
Ametropia exists when an imperfect image 
is formed uixin the retina, due to defective 
refractive power of the media, or to abnor- 
malities of form of the eye. In myopia 
the antero -posterior diameter is too gcpat, 
or the jx)wer of the refractive media is too 
great ; hypermetropia (or hyperopia) is the 
exact reverse of the last; astigmatism is 
due to imperfect curvature of the cornea, 
or of the retina, or to inequality of refract- 
ing power in different j)arts of the lens; 
presbyopia is due to the growing inelas- 
ticity of the lens, producing insufficient 
acconnnodalion ; aphakia, or absence of 
the lens, produces both insuflicient refract- 
ing ])Ower and loss of accommodation. 

Am'ides. Organic compounds derived 
from annnonia liy the substitution of acid- 
radicals for hydrogen. Most nitrogenous 
animal i)ases are amides. NIl.^, their 
hypothetical radical, is called amidoi^en. 

Am'idin (Fr. amidon, starch). Starch in 
a state of solution, or altered by heat into 
a horny, transpari'iit mass. 

Am'ido-my'elin. See Myelin. 

Amid'ulin. Solulile starch. 

Amim'ia (n, (iiiior, a mimic). An a|)hxsic 
symptom consisting in loss of the |iowerol 
imitation or nl pantomime speech. 

Am'incs. Hasir (()m|«>iniils, regarded as 
dciivatives of annnonia by the substitution 
of alcohol radicals. They are called mona- 



AMMONIA 



36 



AMPERE 



mines, diamines, triamines, etc., according 
to the number of amidogen molecules, 
NHj, substituted for H. The lower mem- 
bers are gases, the higher, oily liquids. 
Ammo^nia. See Ammonium. 
Ammoni^acum. Ammoniac. A gum 
resin obtained from a Persian plant, Do- 
rema annnoniacum. A stimulating expec- 
torant and laxative, resembling asafcetida. 
Employed in chronic bronchial affections. 
Dose gr. x-xxx. A. cum Hydrargyro 
Emplastrum, ammoniac 72, mercuiy 18 
per cent., with sulphur, acetic acid and 
oil, q. s. A. Emplastrum, 100 parts of 
ammoniac, digested with 140 parts of acetic 
acid, dil., strained and evaporated. A. 
Mistura, a 4 per cent, emulsion in water. 
Dose ^ ss-j . 
Ammoniae^mia {ammonia and aifia, 
blood). The theory explaining the pro- 
duction of uraemia as due to a decomposi- 
tion of urea in the blood, yielding ammo- 
nium carbonate. 
Ammo'nium (from the name of Jupiter 
Amnion, because first discovered near his 
temple in Libya). A hypothetical alkaline 
base, having the composition NH^. Exists 
only in combination. Occurs most com- 
monly in the foiTn of ammonia gas, NH3, 
which, dissolved in water, is the water of 
ammonia of commerce. Inhalation of gas 
causes suffocation and oedema of glottis. 
The salts first stimulate and then paralyze 
the motor nerves. Useful as a stimulant, 
as an antagonist in cardiac depressants, 
and locally in bites and stings of venomous 
reptiles and insects. Ammonia Aqua, 
water of ammonia, a solution containing 10 
per cent, of the gas in water. Dose tTLv- 
^ss, well diluted. A. Aqua Fortius, 
contains 28 per cent, of the gas in solu- 
tion. A., Aromatic Spt., spirit of ammo- 
nia, with A. carb., A. Aq., Ol. Lemon, 
Lavender and Pimenta, Alcohol and water. 
Dose Jss-ij. Ammonii Acetas Liq., 
dilute acetic acid neutralized with ammo- 
nia. Dose 3J-oJ- A. Benzoate. Dose 
gr. v-xv. A. Bromide. Dose gr. x- 
_:^ss. A. Carbonate, a mixture of car- 
bonate and dicarbonate. Dose gr. v-x. A. 
Chloride, sal ammoniac. Dose gr. j-xx. 
A. Chloridum Trochisi, each lozenge 
contains gr. ij of the salt. A. Glycyrrhi- 
zate. Unof An expectorant. A. Iodide. 
Dose gr. ij-x. A. Liniment, A. Aq. 30, 
cottonseed oil 70 per cent. A. Spt., 
a 10 per cent, solution of aqua ammonia 
in alcohol. Dose Tt\^x-_5J, diluted. The 
following salts and their preparations are 



official : A. Nitrate, used only in preparing 
nitrous oxide. A. Phosphate. Dose 
gr. v-xx. A. Sulphate, used only in the 
preparation of other ammonium salts. A. 
Valerianate. Dose gr. j-v. RaspaiPs 
Ean Sedatif (unof), am. aq. "T^x], sodium 
chloride ^^ij, spt. vini camph. ^iij, aq. 
^xxxij. For local use. 
Amne^sia (afivrjaia, forgetfulness). Defect 
of memoiy. Loss of the memory for 
words. 
Am'nion [afiviov, the membrane of the 
fcetus). The inner membranous layer 
surrounding the foetus and inclosing the 
liquor amnii, or amniotic fluid. It is a 
double non-vascular membrane, the inner 
layer or sac derived from the epiblast, the 
outer from the mesoljlast. The cavity of 
the inner folds is called the true amnion, 
that of the outer, the false. A., Dropsy 
of the, excessive secretion of li(|uor 
amnii. 
Amni'ota. Animals with an amnion and 
allantois, comprising mammals, birds and 
reptiles.' Those without an amnion are 
called anamnia. 
Amnioti^tis. Inflammation of the am- 
nion. 
Amoe'ba (a«e</3w, to change). A color- 
less, single-celled, jelly-like protoplasmic 
organism found in sea and fresh waters, 
constantly undergoing changes of form, 
and nourishing itself by surrounding ob- 
jects. The white corpuscles of the blood 
perform amccboid movements, i.e., changes 
of form, consisting of protrusions and with- 
drawals of its substance. 
Amcenoma^nia (ama-nus, pleasant). A 
symptom of monomania or partial insanity 
in which the feelings and hallucinations 
are mirthful or pleasant. 
Amorph'ous (a neg., [lop^Tj, a form). 
Formless, shapeless, non-crystallized. 
Amorphous quinine, Quinoidine, its salts 
being non-crystallizable. 
Amor^phus (a, fiopfi/,). An acardiacus 

without head or extremities. 
Ampere (a French physicist). A.'s Laws, 
relate to the forces between conductors 
carrying electric currents. AT'ogadiv's 
lav/, that equal volumes of a gas when 
under the same conditions, contain the 
same number of molecules, is also called 
Ampere's Law. In honor of Ampere, 
the unit of measurement of an electric 
current is called an Ampere. It is the 
electro-motive force of one volt produced 
in a circuit with one ohm of resistance, 
equal to ^^ C. G. S. (Centimetre-Gramme- 



AMPHI- 



37 



AMVLENE 



Second) electro-magnetic unit. It is suflfi- 
cient to deposit .3 grain of copper jier 
minute on the plate of a copper voltameter, 
or decompose sufiicient acidulated water to 
generate 10.32 c.c. of mixed hydrogen and 
oxygen j^er minute. A. -Hour, the equiva- 
lent of 3600 coulomljs. 

Am 'phi- (a/i^/, both). A Greek prefix, 
signifying about, on both sides, around, etc., 
a.s amphi-arthrosis, amphibia, tte. 

Amphiarthro'sis (nfOi, afn^pDai^, articu- 
lation). A fonn of mixed articulation 
in which the surfaces of the tones are con- 
nected by broad discs of fibro-cartilage, 
or else they are covered with tibro-car- 
tilage and connected by external liga- 
ments. Di.stinguished by limited flexion 
in every direction, as, <•. ^^, between the 
vertebr.e. 

AtTiphib^'ia {afii^i, 3to^, life). A class of 
the I'crtcbrata, living during their life both 
in the water and upon the land, as the 
frog, newt, etc. 

Amphi-cre'atine. One%f the muscle- 
leucumaines. In its properties it resem- 
bles creatine, and Gautier thinks it may be 
a combination of creatine with the base 

Amphicreat'inine. A member of the 
creatinine group of leucomaines said to 
have toxic (|ualities. 

Amphidiarthro'sis {ni'<pi, (^ia(>6puci^, an 
articulaliun). The articulation of the lower 
jaw, as it partakes of the nature both of 
ginglymus and artlirodia. 

Ampho-pep'tone. See Peptones. 

Amphor'ic ('iiioopnr, a two-handled ves- 
sel). A. Resonance, in auscultation, a 
metallic sound like that of blowing into a 
l)Ottle,caased by the reverberation of sound 
in a cavity of the lung. 

Amphoter'ic {n//(fn)Trpnr^ Ixjth of two). 
Sulistantes neither acid nor alkaline, as 
glucose, gums, etc. 

Am'plitude {amplitudo, the extent of a 
thing). The range or extent, as of vibra- 
tions and undulations, the pulse, etc. 

Ampul'la. A Roman wine jug. The 
trumix.t mouthed or dilated extremity of a 
canal, a.s of the lachrymal canal, tlie recep- 
taculum chyli, the J-allopian tul)es, mam- 
mary ducLs, semi-circular canals, vas de- 
ferens, etc. ('hemically, the term denotes 
a largelx-Ilied Ixjttle. 

Ampula'tion ((//;//>«/(?, to cut away). The 
removal of a limb or part of the Inxly, by 
the knife, ligature or other means, or a.s a 
result of gangrene, constriction {e. ^^, of 
the curd, in the futas) or the diseiuse, 



ainhtim. It is tenned primary, if done 
very soon after an injuiy ; secondary, if 
after the limb has passed through the stage 
of inflammation. In the circular method 
the division is vertical to the jilane of 
tlie limb ; in the cutaneous, the (laps are 
composed exclusively of the integuments; 
in the Jlap method, the soft paits are cut 
obliquely and are comjiosed of both skin 
and soft parts. Spontanecus aiupu/ation 
occurs in the ftetus, and in ainhum; sub- 
periostea/ is when jieriosteal flaps are made 
to cover the cut end of the bone. 

Amy'elus (a neg., five/.oq, marrow). A 
fcetal monstrosity, with partial or ccmplete 
absence of the sjjinal cord. 

Amyenceph'alus {t^KKpa7oi\ the brain). 
A fietal monstrosity with absence of the 
spinal cord and brain. 

Amyg-'dala. Almond. The seeds of .7. 
amara and .-/. du/cis, containing the 
principle Emulsin or Synaptase. The 
former contains Amygdalin. The ex- 
pressed oil of the sweet almond is a de- 
mulcent useful in skin affections; in doses 
of 3J-ij, a mild laxative. That of A. 
amara is used in ctisinetics and is jioisoii- 
ous internally. A. Amara, Aq., a 1 : 100 
solution of the oil in water. I )ose in- 
deflnite. A. Amara, Ol., a volatile oil 
bitter to the taste Contains 3-I4 jier cent, 
of hydrocyanic acid. Dose ITLJ4-J. A. 
Expressum Ol., oil of .sweet almonds. 
A. Mistura, oil of sweet almonds 6 per 
cent., sugar, water, and acacia q. s. Dose 
.^j-,^ss. A. Syr., contains oil of bitter 
almonds 3, sweet almonds 10, syrup 87 per 
cent. 

AmygMalae. A term used to denote the 
tonsils. 

Amyg'dalin. .See Amyi^dala. 

Am'ykos. An antiseptic fluid used in 
Russia and Sweden, comjiosed of I oric 
acid and thymol. Of reputed service in 
gononhoa and catarrhs. Unof. 

Am^yl. The hy]X)thetical radical C5II,, of 
amyl alcohol, tlic fifth term of the scries 
of alcohol radicals, C'„H.,n-f,. A. Alco- 
hol. See .-l my lie .-I /echo/. A. Nitrite, 
nitrite of amyl, C",, II,,N( ),^, a clear, yel- 
lowi.sh liquid, ethereal, aromatic, volatile ; 
produces vascular dilatation and great car- 
diac activity, and hence is useful in angina 
]H(loiis, respiratory ncurosi'S, etc. 

Amyla'ceous {nmy/itm, .starch). Con- 
taining starch ; starch like. 

Am'ylene. C,_H,„. ,\ transjiarenl. li<|uid 
hydrocarbon, having an:isll)etic ])roperties, 
but dangerous to u.se. A. Hydrate, a 



AMYL HYDRATE 



38 



ANESTHESIA 



tertiary alcohol having hj-pnotic effects. 
Dose rrLxxx-gj. Unof. 

Am'yl Hydrate, or 

AmyFic Alcohol. Fusel Oil. Potato 
Starch Alcohol. Amyl Hydrate. An al- 
cohol having the composition CjHi.jO. 
Occurring in the continued distillation of 
fermented giain. The pure substance has 
considerable value as a hypnotic. In large 
doses it suppresses tactile sensibility, and 
produces motor paralysis. It is employed 
with advantage in mental disorders. Dose 
n\^ I5~7S- Unof. It was formerly much 
used to adulterate whiskey. 

Am^yloid (amylum, starch, u8oq^ form). 
Starchlike. A. Bodies, pathological pro- 
ducts resembling starch grains found in 
the membranes of the brain and other 
nervous tissues, the prostate, etc. A. De- 
generation, waxy, fatty or lardaceous de- 
generation ; a disease occurring in most of 
the organs of the body, and indicative of im- 
paired nutritive function. It is a nitrogenous, 
not starchy body, of uncertain composition. 

Amylolyt^ic {aniyhiin, Tivu^ to loosen). 
Pertaining to ferments, like the saliva and 
pancreatic juice, that convert starch into 
sugar. 

Amylop^'sin. See Ferments. 

Amylo'ses. One .of the divisions of the 
carbohydrates, comprising starch, glycogen, 
dextrin, inulin, gum, cellulose and tunicin. 

Amy^lum. Starch, CgHj^Og. The internal 
cells of Triliciim vulgaris, common wheat, 
all other cereals and many tubers, piths, 
and roots, such as potato, cassava, etc. ; 
constitutes nearly the whole of arrow-root, 
tapioca, and sago. Converted into glu- 
cose by boiling with mineral acids. The 
most valuable nutrient. Inert medicinally. 
A. Glyceritum, a jelly for external ap- 
plication. Starch lo, glycerine 90 per 
cent. A. lodatum, contains starch 95, 
iodine 5 P^i" cent., triturated with rose 
water and dried. Dose 3;j-5ss. 

Amyosthe^nia (a neg., five, muscle, 
adevoc, force). Deficient muscular power 
without obvious disease or lesion. 

Amyosthen'ic. Pertaining to amyosthe- 
nia. Also, a medicine or agent depressing 
muscular action. 

Amyotroph'ic (a, /uvg, rpo0?/, nutrition). 
Muscular atrophy. A. Paralysis, that 
which is due to muscular atrophy. 

Am^yous (a, without, /«'f). Weak ; 
deficient in muscle or muscular strength. 

Ana («i'a). A Greek preposition signify- 
ing tZ/rouq-//, tip, again, etc. In prescrip- 
tions contracted to aa, meaning of each. 



Anabi''osis (a!'a,/3(ow, tocome to life again). 
The phenomenon of a restoration of vi- 
tality possessed by certain organisms after 
drying, or even after heating to 140° C. 

Anab^olism [avaba'Alu, to throw or build 
up). Synthethic or constmctive metabol- 
ism. Diminished activity and repair of 
function. Opposed to KataboUsm. The 
process by which simpler elements are 
built up into more complex. See Meta- 
bolism. 

Anacar''diuni. The oil of the pericarp of 
the cashew, nut. Of reputed value in 
leprosy. Unof. 

Anac^rotism (ava/cporew, to lift up and 
strike together). A peculiarity of the 
pulse-curve, when a series of closely- 
placed elastic vibrations occur in the upper 
part of the line of ascent, so that the apex 
appears dentate and forms an angle with 
the line of descent. It takes place in 
dilatation and hypertrophy of the left ven- 
tricle, when extensibihty of the arterial 
wall is diminished, in great diminution in 
the velocity of the blood-stream, after lig- 
ature of an artery, etc. 

Anadicrot'ic {civa, upward, ^Lq, twice, 
KpoTot;, a stroke). Dicrotism of the venous 
pulse-wave occurring in the upward stroke. 

Anae^mia [av neg., ai/ia, blood). Defi- 
ciency of blood, or deficiency of the rela- 
tive number of its red coipuscles, the latter 
being the most generally understood mean- 
ing and use of the term. Idiopathic, pcr- 
iiiciojis, essential, progressive, malignant, 
etc., are terms denoting a t}p)e resisting all 
treatment and of fatal prognosis. 

Anae''mic [av, aiua). Pertaining to anamiia. 
A. Murmur, blood murmur, or soft mur- 
mur heard at the base of the heart over the 
great vessels. 

Ansemot^rophy [av priv., aiua, Tprxp?/^ 
nourishment). A deficiency of blood 
nourishment. 

Anaero'bia (a neg., ar/p. air, fiioq, life). 
The ([uality of living without oxygen. A. 
Facultative, normally or usually living 
in the presence of oxygen, but under cer- 
tain circumstances acquiring anaerobia. 

Anaero'bic. A term used of microorgan- 
isms, leucomaines, ptomaines, etc., that 
are produced or that live in the absence 
of oxygen (or air). 

Anaesthe^sia [avaicBrjaia, want of feeling). 
A condition of insensibility or loss of feel- 
ing clue to pathological conditions of the 
centres, conducting paths of the nerves, or 
the peripheral terminations of the same, or 
to artificial production by means of anoesthe- 



AN.tSTHESIMETER 



3d 



AXAMNIA 



tics. A., Bulbar or Central, due to 
central disease. A. Dolorosa, loss of 
touch but preservation of pain in the part. 
A., Local, of a limited part of the boily. 
A., Muscular, loss of muscular sense. 
A., Peripheral, depending upon conili- 
tions of the end organs of the nerves. A., 
Surgical, by means of amvsthetics for the 
purpose of preventing pain, producing re- 
la.vation of muscles, or for diagnostic pur- 
jx)ses. 

AnsesthesinT'eter. An instrument to mea- 
sure the amount of an ana-sthetic adminis- 

' tered in a given time. 

Anaesthet'ic (a privative, aicdavouai^ to 
lecli. A substance which produces insen- 
sibility to feeling or to acute pain, dimin- 
ished muscular action, and other ]>he- 
nomena. May lie local, general, partial 
and complete. The following are the sub- 
stances mo.st conmionly used : Car/>on 
Tetrachloride, not so irritating to organs of 
respiration, but far more dangerous than 
chloroform. Chloral hydrate, action indi- 
rect and incomplete. Rarely, if ever, used. 
Chloroform, by inhalation. largely em- 
ployecl in general surgery. Fatal i : 3000 
in 500 cases. Death by cardiac paraly- 
sis. Cocaine. Local, and of short dura- 
tion. Used mainly in eye, throat, and 
mucous tissues. /:V//(7-, by inhalation. I're- 
cjuently cau.ses spasmodic action and sus- 
pension of respiratory action. Twenty 
cases (1 : 16,000) of death reported from 
its u.se. Ethylene Chloride, chlorinated 
muriatic ether; clo.sely re.'iembles chloro- 
form, but less of a cardiac depressant. 
Safer than chloroform, and recovery from 
the effects prompt. Ethylene Dichloride. 
Dutch liquid ; chloric ether. Rapid and 
powerful in its effects. Paralyses respira- 
tory centers. Nitrous Oxide, by inhala- 
tion, much used by dentists for extraction 
of teeth. Symjjloms resemble those of a.s- 
phyxia. A., Local, an anaslhetic which, 
locally applicfi, pro<luces absence of sensa- 
tion in the organ treated. Methylene Di- 
chloride. Not much used. .Several deaths 
(cardiac paralysis) having occurred from 
its emjiloyment. A. Mixtures, those for 
pro<iucing an.isthesia. The following are 
considered among the In-st : Xiiss/iinini's — 
ether 3, tliloroforrn I, alcohol I ; Vienna 
Gen. J/ospilal — ether 9, chloroform 30, 
alcohol 9; *^ I'ientia Mixtnre"—c\.hcr 3, 
chloroform I; MedicoChiruri^ical Soc. of 
I.ouili'n—*-\\\i-\, 3,<hloroforrn 2, alcohol I. 

Anagal'lis Arven'sis. riniiierncl. .An 
herb having .some local reputation on the 



Pacific coast as a remedy for rheumatism. 
Unof. 

Anaku''sis {av^ okvoUj to hear). Xervous 
dcafuos. 

A'nal {iiniis, the fundament). Pertaining 
to the anus. 

Analep'tic {avah/xjug, recovery). Agents 
restoring strength after illness, as nouri.sh- 
ing foods antl tonics. 

Analge^sia (ar, without, a/; oc, pain). In- 
scii>iliility to or absence of pain. 

Analge'sic. A remedy which relieves pain 
either by depressant action on the nerve- 
centres or by impairing the conductivity of 
nerve fibres. 

Anal'gia. Paralysis of the sense of pain. 

AnaFogous (ora>o)of, confonr.able). Con- 
forming to, proportionate, answering to. 
See, al.so, Analoi^iw. A. Tissues, mor- 
bid tis.sues similar to the elementary and 
normal tissues of the body. 

An'alogue. A part or organ having the 
same function as another, but with a differ- 
ence of structure. The correlative term 
liviiioloi^ue, denotes identity of stioicture 
with difference of function. The wing of 
the butterfly and that of the bird are analo- 
gous, but the wing of a bird and the arm 
of a man are homologous. 

Analysis [ava7vu, 1 unloose). The reso- 
lution of compound bodies into simpler, 
or constituents. A., Gasometric, the de- 
termination of the constituents of gaseous 
com|X)unds, especially the determination of 
the amount of oxygen in .samples of atmo- 
spheric air. A., Gravimetric, the ([uan- 
titative deteniiination by weight of the 
elements of a body. A., Organic, the 
determination of the elements of matter 
formed under the influence of life. The 
analysis of animal and vegetable ti.ssues. 
A., Proximate, the determination of the 
sinipkr compound elements into which a 
substance may be resolved. A., Qualita- 
tive, the determination of the nature and 
number of elements which comj)Ose a body. 
A., Quantitative, the determination of 
the proi)Oiti(in:ite parts ot the various ele- 
ments of a com|)ound. A., Ultimate, 
the resolution of a compound, not into 
its simpler constituents, but its ultiniale 
elements. A., Volumetric, the (|uan- 
titativc determination of a ( <)n^tilU(■nl 
by ascertaining the volume of a licjuid 
which is re()uired to complete a given 
reaction. 

Anamnes'tic {avn, again, /irtimr, memory). 
l\<(.illiiig 1(1 mind; remembering. 

Anam'nia. See .Imniota. 



ANAPEIRATIC 



40 



ANENCEPHALUS 



Anapeirat''ic [aimTTeipao/uaij to do again). 
A general term for such affections as 
writers' and telegraphers' cramp, or pa- 
ralysis. 

Anaphrodis''iac [av, a(ppoSiT?j, Venus). An 
agent which allays sexual passion. 

An^aplasty [avmrAaacro), to form again). 
Operation for the renewal or restoration of 
lost parts, commonly called "grafting," or 
a '■'■plastic operation.'''' 

Anap^nograph (avaTzvorj^ respiration, 
ypa(po)j to write). Ap apparatus register- 
ing the movements ot inspiration and ex- 
piration, together with the quantity of air 
inhaled. 

Anar''thria [avapdpia, want of vigor). Par- 
tial aphasia from partial destruction of the 
paths of the motor tracts of speech. 

Anasar^ca (ai'a, through, cap^, the flesh). ■ 
An accumulation of serum in the areolar 
tissues of the body. General dropsy. If 
the affection be local it is called oedema. 

Anaspa^'dias (ai'a, upward, (777aw, to draw). 
An urethral opening upon the upper sur- 
face of the penis. 

Anastotno'sis {^avaarofiocj, to bring to a 
mouth). The junction or intercommuni- 
cation of vessels. Anastomotic arteries 
of the thigh, etc., branches of the brachial, 
femoral, etc., whereby the collateral circu- 
lation is established after ligatui'e for 
aneurysm, etc. The term has been in- 
accurately used of the junction of nerve- 
filaments. 

Anat^omy (^avaTSfivu, to cut up). The 
dissection of organic bodies in order to 
study their structure, the situations and 
uses of their organs, etc. A., Compara- 
tive, the investigation and comparison of 
the anatomy of different orders of animals 
or of plants, one with another. A., Mor- 
bid or Pathological, is a study of dis- 
eased structures. A., Regional, a study 
of limited parts or regions of the body, the 
divisions of which are collectively or pecu- 
liarly affected by disease, injury, operations, 
etc. 

Anazotu'ria [an negative, azotum, nitro- 
gen, tiria, the urine). A name applied 
to that form of chronic diuresis in which 
urea is deficient or alisent from the urine. 

Anchie''ta Saluta^ris. Vegetable mercury. 
The root of a violaceous plant growing in 
Brazil. Highly recommended as an altera- 
tive in syphilitic affections. Possibly iden- 
tical with Manaca, q. v. 

An^chilops. See Aiichyhps. 

Anchyloglos''sia. See Ton^ne-fie. 

An^chylops (aj^j^, near, wi/;, eye). Abscess 



at the inner angle of the eye, prior to 
rupture. 

Anchylo^sis. See Ankylosis. 

Anchylostomi^asis i^ayKvloq, curved, 
OTopa, mouth). A peculiar anaemia pro- 
duced by the parasite Dochmius Duode- 
nalis sucking the blood from the walls of 
the duodenum. Especially prevalent among 
brickmakers and other workmen in Europe. 
Called also Brickmakers' Anaemia, Tunnel 
Aniemia, Miners' Cachexia, Egyptian Chlo- 
rosis, Tropical Chlorosis, etc. Male fern 
and thymol expel the worm. 

Anchylosto^mum. A worm found in the' 
human intestine. The duodenal variety 
is common in Italy and Egypt. See Anchy- 
lostomiasis. 

An''con («7/c(ji', the elbow). Originally the 
olecranon process; applied to the elbow 
generally. 

Anco''nad. Toward the olecranon or 
elbow. 

Ancona''gra. Arthritic pain at the elbow. 

Anco''nal. Pertaining to the elbow. 

Ancone^us. A small muscle, an extensor 
of the forearm, inserted into the olecranon. 

Anco^noid. Resembling the elbow. 

Ancyloglos''sum. See Tongue-tie. 

An^da Assu. The oil expressed from the 
seed of a plant found in Chili. Laxative. 
Unof. 

AndrcE''cium {avrjp, a man, oiKca, a house). 
Male spores taken collectively. 

Androg^yna {av7/pj man, yvvri, woman). 
An hermaphrodite ; a female in whom the 
genital organs are similar to those of the 
male. 

Androg^ynus. A male with genital or- 
gans similar to those of the female. 

An'drum. A form of elephantiasis Arabum, 
characterized by oedema of the scrotum. 

Anelectrot'onus (av neg., ri?.eiiTpov, elec- 
tricity, Tovog, tension). The condition of 
diminished excitability at the positive pole 
when a nerve is traversed by a current of 
electricity. See Electrotonus and Catelec- 
trotonus. 

Anemia. See Amemia. 

Anemom'etry (aw/zof, wind, /nerpov, to 
measure). The art of measuring the ve 
locity and direction of the wind, princi- 
pally by means of the anemometer. 

Anem^onin. The active principle (Cj^- 
HjjOg) of the anemone. See Pulsatilla. 

Anenceph'alus [av, without, evK£(paXoQ, 
brain). A monster with a rudimentary or 
brainless head, and with an an^est of de- 
velopment of the vertebral column, the 
spinal cord being absent. 



ANEROID BAROMETER 



41 



ANGULAR 



An''eroid Barom'eter. See Barometer. 
Anerythrop'sia (av neg., epiHpng^ red, 
oi/'/i", sight). Subnormal color perception of 
red. See B/int//icSs. 

An'eurysm [atTVfnvua^ an aneurysm). A 
tumor con>isting of a dilated arter)' or com- 
municating with an artery. In the eaily 
stages there is expansive pulsation of the 
tumor, and a systolic nmrmur. In the later 
stages the laminated coagulum increases, 
so that pulsation may be ab>ent, and there 
may be secondan,- troubles from pressure 
upon adjacent organs. It may be caused 

• by the rupture, wound, disease or weakness 
of the arterial walls. Cardiac dilation is 
sometimes sjxiken of as aneurysm of the 
heart. A., Cirsoid. "S^q \'anx. Arterial. 
A., Diffused, follows ruptiu-e of all the 
arterial coats with intiltration of sunound- 
ing tissues. A., Dissecting, when the 
blood forces its way between the media 
and adventilia. A., False, or spurious, 
indicates a ruptiue of one or more coats ; 
true, when there is only a dilatation. A., 
Varicose, opens both into a vein and an 
artery. 

Anfractuos'ity [aiifractus, a l)ending 
round). The furrows or sulci between the 
cerebral convolutions. 

Angeiec'tasis (avyeiov^ a blood vessel, 
tKziiair^ dilatation). Abnormal dilatation 
of a vessel, as in aneurysm, etc. 

Angeioglio'ma (avyetcrv^ 7^'^, glue, o/ja). 
A gliomatous vascular tumor of the spinal 
cord. 

Angei'ograph {avyeiov, ypa(^^ to write). 
A form of sphygmograph invented by 
I-amiois. 

Angeioleuci'tis (nv^'nov^ a vessel, 7.evKo^^ 
while, irir). Inliammation of the lym- 
phatic vessels. 

Angeid'ogy [nvynov, '/oyoq, account). 
A description 
lymphatics. 

Angeiolympho'ma. 
lymphatic ves.sels. 

Angeio'ma. A tumor formed of blood 
ve^sl•l■,. ( "all<-d also rircitile or Vascular 
Tumor. Cavernous A., with commu- 
nicating alveolar spaces. See I'arix, 
Cirsoid. Capillary and venoas angeio- 
mata are calle<i A'/-?'/, or Mothers' Marks. 

Angeioncuro'sis. A neurosis of the 
bI(Kxl vt-isi-ls ; a disturbance of the va.so- 
motor syst<rn, — a symptom of many dis- 
eases. 

Angeioparal'ysis. Vasomotor jKiralysis. 

Angciosarco'ma. .\ vascular sarcoma of 
the .spinal cord. 



of the blood-vessels and 
A tumor formed of 



An''geiospasm. A convulsive neiu-osisof 

the blood vessels ; a vasomotor s|'asm. 
Angelica. The seeds and root of ./;<//- 
a>ii:^elica officinalis and other species. An 
aromatic stimulant and ennnenagogue. 
Dose of the tld. ext. : Seeds n\_v -x ; root 
^:5ss-j. Unof. 
Angi'na {a/ix'o, to strangle). A sense of 
choking or suffocation ; a symptom of in- 
tlammatory affections of the pharvnx. A. 
Acuta or Simplex, simple sore throat. 
A. Parotidea, mumps, or parotitis. A. 
Pectoris, a paroxysmal neurosis with in- 
tense pain and oppression about the heart, 
Tlie exact cause is unknown. A. Ton- 
sillans, quinsy. 
An'gio-. See Am^eio-. 
Angiodef'ma Pigmento'sum. See At- 

ropliodertna. 
Angiograph. See Angeio;.^raph. 
An'gio-myo'ma. See Myoma. 
Angle [aiii^itlus). The degree of diverg- 
ence of two lines that meet each other ; 
the space between two such lines. A., 
Alpha, the angle formed by the intersec- 
tion of the visual line and optic axis. 
Cephalic angles, measurements for com- 
paring tlie skulls of different races. A., 
Facial, that formed by a horizontal line 
from the external auditory meatus to the 
aheolar liorder of the up]ier jaw, with 
another from the most ])rominenl j^art of 
the forehead to the edge of the alveolar 
border of the u]iper jaw opjiosite the in- 
ci,sor teeth. A. of Incidence and of Re- 
flection (of light or sound), that between 
the incident anil the rellected ray res]:ec- 
tively, and tlie pei-])endicular to the reflect- 
ing surface. A, of Refraction, that 
made by a ray of light in passing through 
a transparent .sulistance with a line at right 
angles to it. A., Visual, that between 
lines drawn from the extremities of an 
object to the ncxlal point. The smallest is 
al)out 30 seconds. 
Ang^licus Su'dor. Engli.sli Sweating 
Fever. A contagious malignant fever, also 
known as J-.plienti ra malii^iia, character- 
i/iil by black or dark-colored sweat. 
A n'gor ((///;'«;-, a strangling). Synonymous 
with .Ini^ina. Api)lied by some to epi- 
gastric pain. 
Anguil'lidae [ani^uilla,tmfc\). 'i'lu-smiill 
nematdid worms that live in \inegar and 
Sdur past<\ 
An'gular (angulus, an angle). I'ertainiiig 
t(i an angle. A. Artery and Vein, the 
terminal branclK'S of tlii' facial artery and 
vein. A. Gyrus or Convolution, the 



ANGULARIS SCAPULA 



42 



ANKLE 



pli coiirbe, a convolution of the brain. A. 
Processes, the external and internal ex- 
tremities of the orbital arch of the frontal 
bone. 

Angularis Scapulae Muscle. The Le- 
vator nnguli scapula. 

Angustu''ra. The bark of Galipea cus- 
paria. A stimulant tonic and febrifuge. 
In large doses emetic. Dose of fld. ext. 
Tr\^x-xxx. Unof. 

Anhalo'nium Lewin'ii. The active 
principle of the cactus of this name. 
Intensely poisonous. Resembles strych- 
nine in action. Unof. 

Anhela^tion [anhelo, to pant). Shortness 
of breath ; dyspnoea. 

Anhidro^sis (av neg., tJpcjf, sweat). Ab- 
sence or deficiency of sweat. 

Anhidrot^ic. An agent that checks 
sweating. 

Anhydrae''mia. The opposite of hydroe- 
mia, or an abnormal decrease in the rela- 
tive proportion of the water and salts of 
the blood. 

Anhy'dride ( av^ v(^up, water). In chem- 
istry, any oxide, either basic or acid, un- 
combined with water. 

Anhy^drous (av, without, wTup). In 
chemistry, a term used to denote the 
absence of hydroxyl or of constitutional 
water. 

Ani''dous (av neg., ei6og, form). Foetal 
monsters, formless, from general arrest of 
development. 

Anidro'sis. See Ankidrosh. 

An'iline (Port, anil, indigo). A thin, 
colorless liquid alkaloid, having the struc- 
ture CgH^N, derived from coal-tar. Com- 
bined with chlorine, the chlorates and 
hypochlorites, the various aniline dyes are 
produced. Poisonous. Unof. A., Red. 
See Fuchsin. 

An^ilism. An acute or chronic disease 
produced in workmen in aniline factories, 
by the poisonous fumes. 

An'imal {anima, the spirit, breath or life). 
An organic being having life and power of 
motion. Pertaining to the same. The ani- 
mal kingdom is composed of the Vertebrata , 
Jllolliisca, Articulata and Radiata. A. 
Charcoal, bone-black, ivory-black, etc., 
is the product of calcining bones in close 
vessels. A. Chemistry, that concerning 
itself with the composition of animal bodies. 
A. Magnetism, mesmerism, hypnotism, 
etc. A. Starch. See Glycogen. 

AnimaPcule (dim. of animal). An or- 
ganism so small as to require the micro- 
scope for its examination. 



Animaliza^tion (rt;^/wa//.f, animate). The 
process of assimilating food to the tissues 
of the body. 

An'imal Tis^sue. A general name for 
any of the textures which form the ele- 
mentary structures of the body. T., Ade- 
noid or Retiform, a variety of tissue found 
in the lymphatic glands. T., Adipose, a 
variety of areolar tissue constituting a re- 
servoir for fatty substances. T., Areolar, 
Cellular or Connective, a tissue of easily- 
distended meshes, used to bind the various 
parts of the body together. T., Cartilagi- 
nous. See Cartilage. T., Erectile, tissue 
of a spongy nature, which is expanded 
when turgid with blood or other fluid. T., 
Fibrous, the membranous tissue covering 
the bones and cartilage. T., Gelatinous, 
or Mucoid, a form of tissue found chiefly 
in the fcetus. T., Muscular. See Muscle. 
T., Nervous. ^eeNe>-ve. T., Osseous. 
See Bone. 

Anima^tion [animare, to have life or ex- 
istence). To be possessed of life. Formerly 
used to denote the effect of the vital principle 
by which the foetus acquires the power of 
continuing its existence. A., Suspended, 
a condition marked by interrupted respira- 
tion and consciousness ; caused by strangu- 
lation, the inhalation of carbon dioxide or 
other gases, etc. 

An^ion [ava.^ up, «//<, to go). A word 
employed in electrolysis to designate an 
electro-negative element. See Ion. 

Anirid^ia [av neg., iris). Absence or de- 
fect of the iris. 

Anischu^'ria (an neg., ischuria). A word 
sometimes used to denote enuresis or in- 
continence of urine. 

Anisoco'ria. See Isocoria. 

Anisometrop^ia' (av neg., iao(;, equal, 
jxerpov, a measure, wi/', the eye). A differ- 
ence in the refraction of the two eyes. 

Anisofropous (aviGog, unequal, r/3£7rw,to 
turn). Pertaining to the ])Ower of doubly 
refracting a ray of light, like Iceland spar. 

An''isum. Anise. The fruit of Anisiiin 
piiiipinella. Properties due to a volatile 
oil. Slightly stimulant to heart action. 
Useful chiefly to liquefy bronchial secre- 
tions, and is therefore a favorite ingredient 
in cough mixtures. Dose, gr. x-xx. A. 
Aqua, oil of anise I, water 500 parts. 
Dose indefinite. A. Oleum, an ingre- 
dient in tinct. opii camph. Dose TTLJ-v. 
A. Spt., a 10 per cent, solution of the oil 
in alcohol. 

An'kle. The joint between the tibia and 
fibula above and on the sides, and the 



ANKYLOBLEPHARON 



43 



ANTEVERSION 



astragalus. It is a ginglymus joint, with 
three Uganients, the anterior, internal and 
external. A. Clonus, " foot-clonus," 
" foot-[)henomenoii,'' a clonic series of 
sjMisniodic contractions elicited by putting 
the extensors of the ankle joint on a con- 
tinuous stretch. They are uniform and 
number from si.x to nine contractions per 
second. 

Ankylobleph'aron {aynv/n, a thong or 
ktij), .i/.t<;>(if)in\ fvelid). The adhesion of 
the ciliary edges of the eyelids. 

Ankyloglos'sia. See 7\»tifuc--/i\'. 

Ankylo'sis {(r.Kv/.og, curved). Union of 
the bones, forming a joint resulting in a 
stirtjoint. A., False, or Spurious, is 
due to the rigidity of surrounding parts. 
A., True, or Bony, when the connecting 
material is bone. A., Ligamentous, when 
the nudiiim is fibrous. 

Ankylos''tomum [a-}Kv?.or, aro^a, mouth"). 
A nematoid worm inhabiting the duodenum 
of man. 

Ankylo'tia (a>7cvAof, ore, o^^og, ear). Union 
of the walls of the meatus auditorius. 

Annat'to. See Annotto. 

Annot'to. Annatto, arnotto. A coloring 
matter obtained from the pellicles of the 
seeds of Bixa orellatta. Used to color 
plasters. Also employed as an artificial 
color for butter. 

An'nual [tifiiit/s, a year). Yearly. In 
botany, plants that mature and die in one 
year. 

An''nular [aniin/us, a ring). Ringlike. 
A numl)er of ligaments of the joints are 
called annular, as those of the ankle, wrist, 
eU. A. Muscle of Miiller, the circular 
fibres of the ciliary muscle. A. Carti- 
lage, the cricoid cartilage. A. Process, 
or Protuberance, the jxins varolii. 

An'nulus (dim. of annus, a ring). A 
ring-sha|)ed or circular oix-ning. A cir- 
cular or rounded margin. A. Abdomi- 
nalis, the external and internal abdominal 
rings. A. Abdominis, the inguinal ring. 
A. Fibrosus, the external ]):irt of the 
inicrvi-rtebral discs. A. Membrani 
Tympani, an incomplete Ixjny ring which 
forms the f<L-tal auditory ])r(x:css of the 
tem[)oral Ixane. A. Ovalis, the rounded 
or oval margin of the fcrcii/irn (Walis. A. 
Umbilicus, the umbilicid ring. 

An'ode («iyi, up, ofW, a way). The posi- 
tive |)oic of a galvanic battery. 

An'odyne {iiv, oi^wr/, a |>ain). A medicine 
that given relief from pain. From their 
tendency to pnxluce sleej) they are called 
kypnotus. A., Hoffman's. .See J:tlier. 



Anom^alous (a.vuua>Mq, not equal). Ir- 
regular, deviation from the common order. 
.\ UKinster is an anoina/y. 

Anonych'ia [av neg., ori-f, nail). Ab- 
sence or defect of the nails of the hngers 
or toes. 

Anophthal'mos [av, o(pda}.^io^, eye). 
Congenital absence of the eyes. 

Anops'ia [(iv neg., oftq, vision). Disuse 
of the eye, not from retinal or cerebral 
disease, but because of defects of the 
media, strabismus, errors of refraction, etc-. 
A. Amblyopia, ex-, amblyopia from 
disuse. 

Anor'chus [av neg., op\ir, the testicle). 
A person in whom the testicles are absent 
or not descended. The adj. is anorchous, 
the condition, anarchism. 

Anorex'ia (av neg., opeiig, appetite). Ab- 
sence or diminution of appetite. 

Anos'mia («r neg., oa/trj, smell). Partial 
or complete loss of the sense of smell. 

Anosto'sis {av neg., oareov, bone). De- 
fective development of bone. 

Anoves'ical. Pertaining conjointly to the 
anus and bladder. 

Ant-, Anti- {avri, against). Prefixes to 
comjwund words signifying ojiposed to, 
against, counteracting, eU. 

Antac^id {nrTt,act</ns, add). A substance 
counteracting or neutralizing acidity ; an 
alkali. 

Antag'onist {avrayoriarer, counteracting). 
A term a])])lied to drugs that neutralize the 
thera])eutic effects of one another. In 
anatomy, muscles that act in op]X)sition to 
each other. Applied also to diseases that 
seem to exclude each other. See Dm^. 

Antal'gic {avri, a?.yog, pain). Remedies 
relie\ing pain. 

Antal'kaline. An agent neutralizing alka- 
lies, as acids. 

Antaphrodis'iac (avn, acpprx^iaia, sexual 
desire). Agents lessening the venereal 
desires. ' 

Antarthrit'ic {am, nfyHpiTi^, the gout). 
.Mcijicincs for the relii'f of gout. 

Antasthmat'ic [avn, aaH/in, short breath). 
Remedies for the relief of xsthma. 

Anteflex'ion {an/r, before, //,r/o, to bend). 
A bending forward. A. of Uterus, a con- 
dition in which the fundus sinks between 
the eersix and the neck of the bla<l<ler. ,. 

Anten'nae {unfrnna, a yard-arm). 'Hu' 
paired feeler like a])|K-ndages of certain 
insects. 

An'te Part'um (I-at.). Mefore delivery. 

Antcver'sion ({intr, ;v/A', to turn). A 
turning forward. A. of Uterus, the fun- 



ANTHELMINTIC 



44 



ANTIDOTE 



dus is bent toward the symphysis pubis, 
the cervix toward the sacrum. 

Anthelmin'tic [avri, against, e/fiivc;), a 
worm. A vermicide. An agent either Ivill- 
ing or rendering powerless intestinal para- 
sites ; a vermifuge expels worms. 

An^themis. Chamomile. The flower- 
heads of A. mobilis. Properties due to 
a volatile oil, a camphor and a bitter 
principle. Useful in coughs and spas- 
modic infantile complaints. An excellent 
stomachic tonic. Infusion of C^ iv to Oj, 
given in doses of 5 j-ij- No official prepa- 
rations. A. 01., the volatile oil of chamo- 
mile. Dose, n\^ij-x, in sugar. 

Another [avO/^pog, in full bloom). The male 
sexual organ in plants ; the summit and 
essential part of the stamen. It contains 
the pollen or fecundating substance of the 
flower. 

An'thony's Fire, St. A popular name 
for Erysipelas. 

Anthracnc'sis. Black rot, a fungus dis- 
ease of vines, caused by the Plwnia zivi- 
cola, or Sphaceloma a?iipe/iiii!t. 

Anthracom^etry [avOpa^, carbon, /lerpov, 
measure). The determination of the 
amount of carbon dioxide in air. 

Anthraco''sis {av6pa^, carbon). Carbun- 
cular disease. An affection of the lungs 
in miners from the inhalation of coal-dust. 

Anthraro^bin, A derivative of alizarine, 
similar to chrysarobin. A soluble alkaloid 
useful in psoriasis. Unof. 

Anthrax [avftpaS, a coal or carbuncle). A 
carbuncle ; a painful, dark-colored tumor 
of the cellular tissue, ending in mortifica- 
tion of the part and the discharge of a 
foetid, bloody pus. The benignant variety 
has no fatal consequences. The malig- 
nant, called also malignant piisttde, is 
caused by the infection from animals suffer- 
ing from splenic apoplexy, and is due to a 
specific bacillus, which, fi-om a single cen- 
ter, may extend over the body and invade 
the intestinal tract, producing in this way, 
or by direct infection of diseased meat, the 
intestinal type of the disease. See Bacillus 
(anthrax). 

Anthropog''eny [avOpomog, man, yevvau, 
to produce). The study or science of the 
descent of man. 

Anthropog'raphy [avOpuTvo^, ypa(pu, to 
write). A treatise upon the human struc- 
ture or organism. 

An'thropoid [avdpuTro^, £i6og, form). Re- 
sembling man. 

Anthropology {avOpuno^, T^ojoc, dis- 
course). The science of the nature, physi- 



cal and psychological, of man and of man- 
kind. 

Anthropom''etry [avOpuTzog, fierpov, a 
measure). The determination of the 
measurement, weight, strength and pro- 
portions of the human body. 

Anthropoph'agy [civBpupog, (jiaysiv, to eat). 
Cannilialism. 

Anthropophc'bia [avftpuiroc;, (poiSot;, fear). 
A symptom of mental disease consisting in 
fear of society. 

Anti- (sometimes contracted to ant-) {civtl, 
against). A prefix of compound words sig- 
nifying counteraction, opposition, etc. 

Anti-aFbumin. According to Kiihne, one 
of the preformed substances existing in the 
proteid molecule. The other he calls 
hemi-albumin. Gastric juice first con- 
verts them into anti-albumose and 
hemi-albumose, and these finally into 
anti-peptone and hemi-peptone. 

Anti-albumose. See Anti-albumin. 

Antia^rin (Javanese, antiar or antschar'). 
The active principle, Cj^HjuO. -|- 2H,^0, 
of Antiaris toxicaria or Upas antiar, the 
Javanese poison-tree. It is used as an 
arrow-poison, and is intensely poisonous. 

Antiarthrit^ic [avri, ap&pirig, the gout). 
A remedy against gout. 

Antibra'chium [a//ti and brachiuni, the 
arm). The foreaiTn. 

Antibro'mic [(ipu/uag, a stench). A drug 
that destroys offensive smells. A deodorizer. 

Antic^ipating {a)iticipo, to take before). 
Applied to the occurrence of periodical phe- 
nomena in disease or health, before their 
customary time, as in intermittent fever or 
the catamenia. 

Anti^cus (rtz/Z/V/M, that in front). Anterior, 
in front of. 

An'tidote [avTi&oroc,, from avri, against, 
6L()u)fii, to give). An agent preventing or 
counteracting the action of a poison. A., 
Chemical, changes the chemical nature 
of the poison so that it becomes insoluble 
or harmless. A., Mechanical, prevents 
absorj^tion by holding the poison in 
mechanical suspension or by coating the 
stomach. A., Physiological, supplies its 
own peculiar and neutralizing effect upon 
the system. The ofRcial A., Arsenical, 
of the German Pharmacopeia is prepared 
by dissolving loo parts of the hydrated 
sulphate of iron in 250 parts of water, to 
which add (without heat) 15 parts of burnt 
magnesia and 250 parts of water. A., 
Universal, a mixture of one part of dis- 
solved iron sulphate in two parts of magne- 
sia water. See Drug. 



ANTI-EMETIC ROOT 



45 



ANTISEITIC 



Anti-emet'ic root. See Adnie. 

An'ti-fat. See Fiutis Wsiculosus. 

Antifeb'rile (avri, against, /£'(^r/7/>, a fever). 
An agent reducing a fever ; a febrifuge. 

Antifeb'rin. Phcnyl-acetamid acetanilide. 
A white, crystalline powder insoluble in 
water, freely soluble in alcohol. An anti- 
pyretic alleged to be more powerful than 
quinine. Eft'ects manifest in one hour, 
passing away in 3-10 houre. Efficacious 
in fevers characterized by high teni|)era- 
ture. Dose gr. iv-.\v. Unof. 

Antigalac'tic (air*, ya/.a, milk). Agents 
lessening the secretion of milk. 

Antihe'lix [nvri, t'/t^, a coil). The semi- 
circuhir piuminence of the external ear, 
opix)>ite the helix, or outer circle. 

Antihydrop'ic (avri, i'(5/)wi/', dropsy). A 
medicine used for the relief of dropsy. 

Antihydrot'ic. An agent lessening the 
secretion of sweat. 

Antilep'sis [arri'/.r/tj'ig, a receiving in re- 
turn). The treatment of disease by the 
application of the remedy to a healthy 
]>.irt. 

Antilith'ic {aiTi, TuOog, a stone). Agents 
preventing the deposit of urinary calculi or 
sediment. 

Antilob'ium (avrt, ?/)/3f)?, the lobe of the 
ear). The tragus or part of the ear opjx)- 
site the IoIjc. 

Antimo'nium. Antimony. Sb = 122 
([uaniivalence I, HI, V. A non-metal, 
having a metallic luster. Only the com- 
binations are VLsed in medicine. Anti- 
monial salts are cardiac depressants. Pro- 
mote rai)id excretion of waste jiroducts 
ofthelxxly; in large doses produce vomit- 
ing and purging, with .symptoms similar to 
those of cholera. Valuable in inllamma- 
tory ailments of the respiratory organs, 
pueqxiral |>eritonitis and muscular rheu- 
matism. A. et Potass. Tartrate, tar- 
trate of antimony and |X)tassiuni, '• tartar 
emetic." iJose gr. ■j',;— }. A. Vini, wine 
of antimony, boiling water 60, tartar 
emetic 4, stronger white wine looo |iail^. 
A gfKxi exjxTtorant. Itose H\_v-xv. Syr. 
Scillae Comp., (ox's hive mixture, hive 
.syrup. E:ii !i '^j contains gr. i,^ of tartar 
emetic. A. O.xide, Sb^Oj, soluble in 
hydrochloric an<l tartaric acids. Dose 
gr. j-ij. A. Pulvis, |)f,>wder of antimony, 
James' |xjwder, consists of antiinonious 
oxide H, and calcium phosphate, 67 parts. 
A prom|)t diaphoretic. Do.se gr. iij-viij. 
In larger dos<s, emetic and cathartic. A. 
Sulphide, black sulphide of antiniony. 
Dose gr. %-]. A. Sulph. Purificatum. 



Dose gr. %-]. A. Sulphuratum, the sul- 
phiile w ith a small but indefinite amount 
of the oxide. Dose gr. j-v. A. Comp., 
Pil., Plummer's pills, contain calomel and 
antimony .sul])huratum, aa gr. ss. 

Antiparasit'ics {avrt, nu/iuaiTdr, a jjara- 
site). Agents destroying or preventing in- 
crease of parasites. Insecticides. 

Antip'athy [avri, Tratfo^, aflection). Aver- 
sion. Aitlif<allnc is applied to the treatment 
of disease by agents producing symptoms 
of an opposite nature to those of the affec- 
tion. Synonymous with Allopathic. 

Anti-pep'tone. See Peptones. 

Antiperiod'ics. Remedies breaking up 
the periodicity of certain diseases. (Qui- 
nine is the best known. 

AntiperistaFsis. See Peristalsis. 

Antiphlogistic (avTi, <pAoyuaig, inflam- 
mation). An agent subduinij or reducing 
inflammation or fever. A. Treatment, 
consists in bloodletting, the application of 
cold, administration of antipyretics, etc. 

Antiplast''ic {aiT<,7r/,ac7aw, to form). Un- 
favorable to granulation or the healing 
process. Also, agents impoverishing the 
blood. 

Antiprurit'ic {J>n/rittis, itching). A drug 
which relieves the sensation of itching. 

Antipyre''sis {avri, TTVfnToq, fever). The 
empluyment of antipyretics in fever. 

Antipyret'ic [av-i, Trvpe-oq). An agent 
reducing the temperature of fever; any 
antifebrile medicine, or febrifuge. Most 
such also reduce the normal bodily tempera- 
ture slightly. They act either by prevent- 
ing oxidation processes, or encouraging the 
ratliation of heat. 

Antipy 'rin. Dimethyl- oxy chinicine, 
C,,11,.,N.,0. An alkaloidal product of the 
destructive distillation of coal-tar. It is a 
grayish crystalline jiowder, slightly bitter, 
.soluble in water ; adult dose gr. v-x, 
every hour for two or three hours. It re- 
duces the temi)eralure 3-5 degrees in 
fevers, causes sweating, sometimes vomit- 
ing, but no serious result. 

Antipyro'tic (al•^^ -vftuxjir, a burning). 
.\l;( Ills ( urativi' of burns. 

Antiscorbu^tic {aiiti, scorhiitiis, scurvy). 
A remedy for or ijrevenlive of scurvy; 
mainly v<-getable acids. 

Antisep'tic ("it/, (Tz/tw, to make putrid). 
Having iH>W(r to prevent or destroy jnilre- 
faclion, or, what is the same thing, the 
bacteria u|)on which putrefaction dei^nds. 
The principal in use are corrosive subli- 
mate, carliolic acid, iiKloform, thymol, sali- 
cylic acid, Ixjric aciil, ftc. A. Gauze, 



ANTISIALICS 



46 



APHASIA 



open cotton cloth charged with carbolic 
acid, resin, and paraffin. A. Ligature, 
catgut or other material rendered aseptic 
by soaking in antiseptic solutions. The 
antiseptic treatment of wounds looks 
to thorough asepsis and antisepsis as re- 
gards the wound, the instniments, the 
operator's hands, the dressings, etc. See, 
also, Listeria7i Method. 

AntisiaKics. Substances that lessen the 
secretion of saliva. 

Antispasmod'ic {avTL,GJvaafio^, a spasm). 
An agent allaying or relieving convulsions 
or spasmodic pains, as the narcotics, the 
nitrites, etc. 

Antispas''tic. That which counteracts 
spasm. An antispasmodic. 

Antisyphilit'ic. A remedy directed 
against, or used for the relief of syphilis. 
Usually an alterative. 

Antithe''nar [avri, devap, the hollow of 
the hand or foot). Opposite to the thenar. 
A. Eminence, the border of the palm 
of the hand from the base of the little fin- 
ger to the wrist. A. Muscles, of the toe 
and of the thumb : the adductor pollicis 
pedis, and the flexor brevis pollicis manus. 

Antitra''gus (avr<, rpftyof, the tragus). An 
eminence of the external ear opposite the 
tragus. The antitragicus muscle arises 
from it. 

Antizymot^ic (avTi, Cv/iwr/Kof, causing to 

ferment). An agent preventing the process 
of fermentation. 

Ant^lia [antiia, a pump). A syringe or 
pump. A. Lactea, a pump for drawing 
milk from the breast. A. Mammaria, 
same as A. Lactea. 

Antri^tis (antrum, a hollow place, -itis, 
inflammation). A word denoting inflam- 
mation of any of the cavities of the body, 
especially the A. Ilig/unoriamim. 

An'trophore. A soluble, medicated bougie. 

An''trum (autnuti). A physiological cavity 
or hollow place, especially in a bone. A. 
Ethmoidale, the ethmoidal sinuses. A. 
Highmorianum, Antrum of Highmore, 
a cavity in the superior maxillary bone. 
A. Pyloricum Willisii, the cavity of the 
pylorus. 

Anu^'ria [av neg., ovpoi>, urine). Absence, 
deficiency, or retention of the urine. 

A^nus [anus, the fundament). The ex- 
tremity of the rectum ; the lower opening 
of the alimentary canal. A., Artificial, 
an artificial opening, the natural for any 
reason being closed. A., Fissure of, 
rupture of the skin at the side, due to pas- 
sage of hardened fceces. A., Fistula of, 



a sinus, or fistulous ulcer opening from the 
rectum into the connective tissue about the 
rectum, or discharging externally. A., Im- 
perforate, absence of the anus, the natural 
opening being closed by areolar tissue or a 
membranous septum. A., Pruritus of, 
persistent itching of the anal orifice. A., 
Prolapse of, protrusion of the rectum 
or its mucous membrane. 

Aor^ta [aopTTj). The great arterial vessel 
arising from the left ventricle and ending 
with its bifurcation into the two common 
iliacs at the fourth lumbar vertebra. 77n' 
arch, that extending from the heart to the 
third dorsal vertebra, is divided into an 
ascending, a transverse, and a descending 
part. The thoracic portion extends to 
the diaphragm ; the abdominal, to the bi- 
furcation. The diseases of the aorta are 
acute aortitis, due to traumatism, throm- 
bosis, etc. ; and the chronic form, or athe- 
roma of the aorta ; fatty degeneration ; 
stenosis ; aneurysm. See Artery. 

Ap^athy (« priv., Tradog, feeling). In- 
sensibility, want of passion or feeling. 

Aper'ient (aperio, to open). A mild pur- 
gative; a laxative, or aperitive. 

Aperistal^sis. See Peristalsis. 

Ap'erture (apertura, an opening). An 
opening. 

A^pex [apex, the extreme end of a thing). 
The summit or top of anything ; the point 
or extremity of a cone. A. Beat, the 
impulse of the heart felt in the fifth inter- 
costal space about 2)% inches from the 
middle of the sternum. A. Murmur, a 
murmur heard over the apex of the heart. 
Apices of the Lungs, the upper extremity 
of the lungs behind the border of the first 
rib. 

Apha''kia [a neg., (paKog, a lentil, and the 
crystalline lens). Condition of an eye 
without the lens, whether the result of con- 
genital defect, luxation, traumatism or cata- 
ract operation. 

Apha^sia (a, (paaig, speech). Partial or 
complete loss of the power of expression 
or of comprehension of the conventional 
signs of language, from no lesion of the 
peripheral organs or nerves, but from le- 
sions of the cortical centers concerned. If 
sensory, it may be either of two varieties : 
I. Word-deafness, in which spoken words 
are not understood (there is usually some 
paraphasia or imperfection of speech con- 
nected with this form); 2. lVord-bli?idness. 
in which written or printed words are not 
understood. If motor, it may be either — 
I. Motor aphasia, or afhemia, consisting 



APHEMIA 



APOCYNUM 



in a loss of language, or inability to ex- 
press thoughts by articulate language ; or, 
2. A-^rapltia, or "aphasia of the hand," 
inability to write. Charcot sup|X)ses the 
center for articulate language divided into 
four sub-centers, a vi.-.ual center for words, 
an auditory center for words, a motor cen- 
ter of articulate language, and a motor 
center of written language. Lesions of 
one or more of these centers produce the 
characteristic fonns of aphasia al>ove given, 
which have had clinical e.xemplilications. 
A., Ataxic, loss of sjjcech owing to in- 
ability to execute the various movements 
of the mouth necessary to speech, the mus- 
cles lieing not paraly/ed but not coordi- 
nated, owing to disease of the cortical cen- 
ter. A., Amnesic, loss of memory of 
words. Parapha''sia, inability to connect 
the ideas with the jiroper words to express 
the ideas. Agram'matism, inability to 
form words grammatically. Ataxapha''sia, 
inability to arrange words synthetically 
into sentences. Bradypha'sia, aljnormal 
Slowness of speech, from pathological 
cause. Tumultus Sermonis, a stutter- 
ing manner of reading, from pathological 
cause. 

Aphe'mia (a, (?7yU<, to speak). Motor 
aphasia; inability to articulate words or 
sentences from focal and not from periphe- 
ral disease of the organs of speech [A/a/ia). 

Apho'nia (a, ^wi';/, the voice). Dumbness, 
due to some peripheral lesion. 

Aphore''sis (n, (^o/jz/a^f, carrying). Separa- 
tion or ablation of a part, either by excision 
or .iminitation. 

Apho'ria (a, <*)opeu , to bear). Sterility of 
thi- female. 

Aphra'sia. A sj'non)in iox Aphasia. 

Aphrodis^iac (a(f>po(iiaia, venery). An 
agtnt stimulating the sexual passion. 

Aph'thae ((Kplla, from a-ru, to set on fire). 
The small, white ulcers, .sjx)ts or vesicles 
of the mouth, characteristic of the infantile 
disease. Thrush. Aphthoid and Aphthous 
are adjectival forms. 

Aphthong''ia (n neg., ^o}70f, sound). A 
jx-culiar form of aphasia due to spasm of 
the muscles supplied by the hyixjglo.ssal 
ncr%"e. 

A'pices (plural of ^7/,-.r). Summits. 

A'piol. A non-volatile, oily liquid of acid 
pri)|><-rties, <l(rivc<l from c<jmin<>n j)arsley, 
/'i/rosr/iinirii sativum. < arniinative, diu- 
retic, and in larger closes an cmmriiagogue. 
F.m|)loyed in intermittent fever, amenor- 
rh'>-a and dysm<-norrh<i-a. .Somewhat 
fashionable a.s an al>ortifacicnt, but worth- 



less. Dose ^iij-x. In doses of IT^xxx 
is n;iJCOtic Unof. 

Aplanat^ic (a, ^7.avau, I wander). Not 
waiuicring; rectilinear. A. Lens, a lens 
corrected for all aberration of light and 
color. A rectilinear lens. 

Apla'sia (a neg., -/rtfffTu, to form). A t\-pe 
of incomplete structure by reason of the 
non-formation of a necessary cell-group 
during the developmental stage. Called 
also Jhptplasia. 

Aplas'tic ((/, 7r?.(/fTCT(.)). Structureless, form- 
less. A. Lymph, one of the products 
of inflammation or disease. A non-tibrin- 
ous material incapable of coagulatioia or 
organization. 

Apleu^ria («, 7r?.ei'p«, a rib). A word 
employed to denote congenital absence of 
ribs. 

Aplotom''ia (a-?.orc, simple, roiir), section). 
Simple incision. 

Apneumato^sis (a neg., TriTiy/arojcr/f, in- 
flation). L'ollapse of the air cells of ^oxn& 
parts of the lung caused by blocking of the 
bronchial tubules, and resulting in a condi- 
tion of non-inflation whereby the lung tis- 
sue is reduced to a condition similar to that 
of atelectasis, or congenital apncumatosis. 

Apnce^a (n, -kveu, to breathe). Breath- 
lessness. Difficult respiration ; partial or 
complete suspension of breathing. Sy- 
nonymous with ,-/.\//')'.i7Vz. A. Neonato- 
rum, of the new-born child, caused by 
diflicult labor, pressure u])on the cord, etc. 

Apo-. A Greek prefix denoting y)(W/, a-vay^ 
separation. 

Apocen'osis (aTo/cfiow, to drain). An 
increased flow or evacuation of blood or 
other humors. 

Apochromat'ic Lens {a-o, from, away, 
off). A lens for micro.scopic and optical 
j)ur]K)ses, wiili high correction of spherical 
and chromatic aberrations, and better "de- 
finition." Professor Abbe, through Dr. 
Sciiott, of Witten, in \Vestphalia, as a re- 
sult of extended research, di.scovered crown 
and flint glass in which the dispersions for 
tiie different regions of the spectnmi should 
ap])r()xiniateiy |)ossess the same ratio, and 
thus avoid li)e "secondary s|)ectnun." A 
maiuifactory hxs been established in Jena 
for tiie production of these lenses. 

Apoc'ynum. ( anadian llenip. The rofU 
of -'/. cauUiihinuin. Properties due to 
an alkaloid, a/'orynin. In full doses an 
emetic and cathartic. \'aluable in dropsy. 
Dose gr. v-xx ; of the alkal()i<l, gr. j^-f'i. 
.Should not U' confoundeil with Cannabis 
Jndiia. Unof. 



APOLAR 



48 



APRAXIA 



Apc'lar (n neg., TTo\og, the end of an 
axis). Having no pole. A. Cells, nerve- 
cells vi'ithout processes. 

ApoUina'ris Water. A German alkaline 
mineral water, highly charged with car- 
bonic acid, largely used for gout, rheuma- 
tism, etc. See Mineral IValer. 

Apomorph^ia or Apomor^phine (a/ro, 
morphia). Cj^Hj^C^N,^ morphia — H2O. 
An artificial alkaloid, derived from mor- 
phine. The hydrocJilorate is the salt used, 
and is a grayish crystalline powder. It is a 
systemic emetic acting directly upon the 
vomiting center, and is the quickest, most 
certain and least irritating of all emetics. 
Unof. 

Aponeuro'sis (aT\:o, from, vevpov, a ten- 
don). A fibrinous membranous expansion 
of a tendon giving attachment to muscles 
or serving to enclose and bind down mus- 
cles. Remarkable for their size or import- 
ance are the iiifra-spinous, enclosing the 
infra-spinous muscle ; that of the arm, of 
the deltoid muscle, of the external oblique 
or abdominal, of the foreartn, of the leg, 
of the transvcrsalis, of the head, etc., etc. 

Apoph'ysis [a-rro^vo), to put forth). A 
bony protuberance or process of bone; 
when separated by cartilage it is called 
Epifihvsis. 

Apoplectig^enous [a-KOTz'kt^ia, ytwcuS). 
That which produces apoplexy or cerebral 
hemorrhage. 

Ap'oplexy i^aKOir'ktj^ia). The symptom- 
complex resulting from cerebral hemor- 
rhage, affusion, or from the plugging of a 
cerebral vessel. Modern writers mostly 
describe the post-mortem appearances by 
other terms, as cerebral hemorrhage, effu- 
sion, thrombosis, etc. The chief symptom 
is sudden loss of motion, sensation and 
consciousness, the patient falling and lying 
as if dead. The bursting of a vessel in the 
lungs, liver, etc., is sometimes called apo- 
plexy of the lungs, liver, etc. A., Capil- 
lary, from rupture and effusion of capil- 
laries. 

Aposte'ma [aTvoar/i/ia). A term formerly 
employed to denote an abscess. 

Apothe^ca [aTvoOf/icr/, a store, shop). A 
store or shop where medicines are sold. 

Apoth'ecaries' Weight. A system of 
weights and measures used in compound- 
ing medicines. The Troy pound of 5760 
grains is the standard. It is subdivided 
into 12 ounces. The ounce is sut:)divided 
into 8 drachms, the drachm into 3 scru- 
ples, and the scruple into 20 grains. For 
fluid measure the quart of 32 lluid ounces 



is .subdivided into pints, the pint into 16 
fluid ounces, the ounce into 8 fluid drachms, 
and the fluid drachm into 60 minims. The 
following abbreviations are used :— 

]\[, nmiim. 
gU.,^u/ia, a drop. 
3,scr?epii/Hs, a sltu 



pie (20 grains). 
5, d r a c h m a, a 
drachm (60 gr.). 



3, icncia, an ounce 

(480 grains). 

K), libra, a pound. 

O., octarius, a pint. 

gv.,_S^)-a>iu»t, a grain. 

ss., se?nis., one half. 



See IVeights and Measures. 

Apoth'ecary. A druggist. One who pre- 
pares and sells drugs, fills prescriptions, 
etc. In Great Britain the apothecary is 
also a physician, filling his own prescrip- 
tions. In the United States it frequently 
happens that an authorized practitioner is 
also an apothecary, but without the degree 
of M. D. the practice of medicine is illegal. 

Apoth^'ema (oTro, from, QEjia, a. deposit). 
A brown powder formed by the open-air 
evaporation of a vegetable infusion or 
decoction. 

Apoz^ema (a/ro, ffu, to boil). A decoc- 
tion. 

Appara''tus {apparatus). The instruments 
used in any science, art or surgical opera- 
tion. Anatomically the word is used to 
designate collectively the organs effecting 
any specified work or action. A. Liga- 
mentosus Colli, the occipito-axoid liga- 
ment, a broad band at the front surface of 
the spinal canal, which Covers the odontoid 
process. 

Appendici'tis. Inflammation of the ap- 
pendix vermiformis. 

Append^ix (pi. appendices) (appendo, to 
hang upon or to). What is accessory to 
or dependent upon another. An append- 
age. A. Auricularis, the auricular ap- 
pendage, a process of the auricles of the 
heart. A. Caeci Vermiformis, a worm- 
shaped process of the c^cum. A. Epi- 
ploicae, pouch-like, fatty projections of 
the peritoneum of the large intestine. 

Ap^perts' Pro^cess. The preservation 
("canning") of meat, fruits and vegetables 
by exclusion of air and germs ; effected by 
hermetically sealing the substances in tin 
cans after lieating the contents to 110° or 
more. 

Ap'petite {appcto, to desire). The desire 
for food ; also any natural desire ; lust. A., 
Perverted, that for unnatural and undi- 
gestible things, frequent in disease and 
pregnancy. Anorexia, loss of appetite ; 
Bulimia, insatiable appetite ; Hunger, the 
strong desire and need of food. 

Aprax'ia (« neg., npaaau, to do). De- 
fective thought and memory associated 



APRON, HOTTENTOT 



49 



ARBUTIN 



with aphasia; especially concerns the use 
of objects and methculs of doing things. 

A'pron, Hottentot. Aniticially elongated 
labia minora. 

Aprosex'ia [a, -poaexu^ to give heed). 
A niontal disturbance consisting in inability 
to tix the attention ujxjn a subject. 

Aproso'pia (a, -poau-ov, the face). A 
fetal monstrosity with partial or complete 
absence of face. 

Apselaphe'sia (a, \l<ri7M<i>Tjaiq, touch). Pa- 
nilysis of the tactile sense. 

Ap'titude {aplitudo, titness). Fitness, 
tendency. The natural proneness of an 
organism toward certain functions or patho- 
logical conditions. 

Apty'alism (a, without, TrrfaZ/CtJ, to spit). 
A tenn applied to a condition marked by 
deficiency or absence of saliva. 

A'pus (n, -oi'f, foot). A monstrosity con- 
sisting in absence of the lower limbs, or feet. 

Apyrex'ia [a neg., rrvptacu, to have a 
fever). Without fever; especially used of 
tlie intermission-periods of ague, e/c. 

A'qua. Water. An o.xide of hydrogen 
having the composition H.^0. Is a solid 
below 32°, a liquid between 32° and 212°, 
vaporizes at 212° at the sea level (bar. 760 
mm.), giving oflf vapor of tension equal to 
that of the air. Covers four-lifihs of the 
surface of the earth, but is never pure in 
nature, containing from a trace of soluljle 
matter, in rain water, to 26 per cent, of 
soluble mineral salts, in the Dead Sea. 
Water is an essential constituent of all ani- 
mal and vegetable tissues. In the human 
Ixxly it forms 2 per cent, of the enamel of 
the teeth, 77 per cent, of the ligaments, 
78 per cent, of the blood, and 93 per cent. 
of the urine. Kxtemally, water has a 
stimulating effect upon the skin, either by 
direct or reactionary means. Cold water 
when continued too long may lower the 
general lemix;rature of the body so as to 
praluce .serious depression of circulation 
and mascular power. Hot water and 
vapor increase circulation and profluce 
dia|)horesis. Its too long-continued use 
deijililates. Internally, water is a diuretic. 
It is the most usiful of all the solvents 
in pharmacy. The following arc the offi- 
cial preparations anrl forms. A. Bulliens, 
Ixiihng water. A. Communis, coininou 
water. A. Destillata, di^iillol water. A. 
Fervens, lir)l watir. A. Fluvialis, river- 
water. A. Fontana, well or spring- water. 
A. Marina, s<.a water. A. Pluvialis, 
rain water. Sec also Mitifral If'd/rr. 
In pharmacy, a s(.>lution of a volatile 
4 



soluble substance in water. There are 
15 official aqua:, all of arbitrary strength. 
Also, A. Fortis. See AciJ, Nitric. A. 
Regia, a mixture of hydrochloric acid 3, 
and nitric acid I part. A solvent of gold 
and platinum. A. Vitae, spirit, q. v. In 
anatomy, A. Labyrinthi, the clear liquid 
existing in the labyrinths of the ear. 

Aqueduct'us {aqua, water, ductus, a lead- 
ing). Used of ducts or canals in various 
parts of the body. A. Cerebri, the in- 
fundibuluni. A. Cochleae, aqueduct of 
the cochlea. A. Fallopii, the canal of the 
portio dura in the petrous portion of the 
temporal bone. A. Sylvii, the acjueduct 
of Svlvius from the third to the fourth 
ventricle. A. Vestibuli, aqueduct of the 
vestibule of the ear. 

A'queous. Referring to water. A. Cham- 
ber of the Eye, the space between the 
conica and the lens; the iris divides it into 
an anterior and a posterior chamber. A. 
Extract, solid preparations of drugs made 
by evaporation of ac|ueous solutions. A. 
Humor, the fluid tilling the anterior cham- 
ber of the eye. 

Aquocapsuli^tis {aqua, capsula, a small 
l)ox). A disused name for what is now 
classed as Serous Iritis, q. v. 

Ar^abic Acid. One of the constituents 
(C,.^H.^2^^ii) of acacia, or gum arabic, a 
gummy exudation of Acacia. 

Arachni'tis {apaxviov, a spider's web, itis). 
Inflammation of the arachnoid membrane 
of the brain. 

Arach^noid {apaxviov, eiSoc, form). Re- 
semliling a wel). A. Cavity, the sjiace 
between the arachnoid numbranc and the 
dura mater. A. Membrane, the deli- 
cate serous membrane of the brain and 
cord between the dura and pia mater. 
Sub-arachnoid fluid. See Ccrebro- 
spiiuil J-luiii. 

Ar'ack {/iit/.). A spirituous licjuor dis- 
tilled from rice or cocoanut juice, used in 
India. 

Araeom'eter {(i/>ai(>c, light, thin, fierpov, 
measure). ,\n instnmient for estimating 
tile s])eeiric gravity of fluids. 

Aran'tii. See Corpora. 

Afbor Vi''tae. A term applied to the 
arborescent ap]>earance of a section of the 
cerebellum, and also to a similar ap|)ear- 
ance of the folds of the interior of the cervix 
uteri. 

Arbu'tin. A bitter glucoside, Cj^II,.^0|j. 
11/ ), obtained from U7',i ursi, or jjcar- 
berry. It is lU'Utral, crystalline, and re- 
solvable into glucose and liydn)quitu)ne. 



ARCANUM 



50 



ARGYRIA 



Arbutin is an efficient diuretic. See Uva 
Ursi. 

Arca'num [arcanwn, a secret). A medi- 
cine wliose composition is kept secret. 

Arch (L. arcus, a bow). A term applied 
to the curved shape of several various parts 
of the body. A. of Aorta. See Aorta. 
A. of Colon. See Colon. A., Crural. 
See Poitpart's Ligament. A., Palmar, 
the arch formed by the radial artery in 
crossing the bones of the metacarpus. 

Archebi^osis [apxv, the beginning, fSitoai^, 
life). The theory of the origin of living 
organisms from non-living matter. See 
Generation, Spo)itaneoiis, and Biogenesis. 

Archegen^esis. The same as Archebiosis. 

Archespo'rium [apx>?, a beginning, airupa, 
a seed). The cells from which spore 
mother-cells are immediately derived. 

Arch^etype (apje, chief, tvkoq, a type). 
A word employed in comparative anatomy 
to denote an ideal type or form to which 
other individuals or classes may be com- 
pared. A standard type. 

Archiblast^ic (apxi, the beginning, (ilaa- 
Toq, bud). A term used by His, of the 
three layers of the embryo, in contra- 
distinction to Parablastic cells or ele- 
ments that he thinks wander in between 
the epiblast and hypoblast from the margins 
of the blastoderm, from which are devel- 
oped the blood vessels, blood and con- 
nective tissue. 

Ar^chil. A coloring matter somewhat like 
litmus, chiefly obtained from the lichen 
Rocella tinctoria ; used for staining animal 
tissues. 

Arcta^'tion [arcto, to draw close together). 
Contraction or lessening of an opening or 
of the lumen of a canal. 

Arcua^tus [areas, a bow). Bent or curved 
in an arched form. A. Morbus, a former 
name for jaundice. 

Arc^us («;r«^). A bow or arch. A. Den- 
talis, the dental arch. A. Senilis, the 
ring of fatty degeneration of the corneal 
tissue about the periphery. A. Zygoma- 
ticus, the zygomatic arch. 

Ar''dent Spiralis. AlcohoHc liquors. vSee 
Spiritus. 

Ar^dor (ardor, to burn). Violent heat, 
burning ; applied to fevers and the sexual 
passion. A. Urinae, burning pain in the 
inflamed lu-ethra in micturition. 

A^rea [area, an open space). Any space 
with boundaries. A. Celsi. Set Alopecia 
areata. A. Germinativa, or Embryonic 
Spot, the oval germinating spot of the 
^mbiyo. A. Pellucida, the light central 



portion of the last. A. Opaca, the opaque 
circle about the same. A. Vasculosa, 
the vascularization of the A. Opaca. 

Are^ca Nut. See Betel. 

Ar^ecin, An organic base (CjjH^gNoO) 
isomeric with brucin, derived from cinchona 
bark. 

Arefac^tion [arefacere, to make dry). Ex- 
siccation or desiccation. The removal of 
structural or constitutional water from a 
substance. Applied to the process whereby 
certain watery medicines may be reduced 
to a dry powder. 

Arena'tion {arena, sand). A sand-bath. 
The application of hot sand to a limb or 
part of the body. 

Are^ola (dim. of area, an open space). 
The brownish space surrounding the nipple 
of the female breast. This is sometimes 
called Areola papillaris. A secondary 
areola, smrounding this, occurs during 
pregnancy. The pigmentation about the 
umbilicus is called the tunbilical areola. 
A. Tissue, connective tissue. 

Areom^eter (apaioq, thin, light, /usTpov, 
measure). An instrument for estimating 
the specific gravity or strength of liquids, 
especially alcoholic liquids. 

Argen^tum. Silver. Ag = io8 ; quanti- 
valence, I. A malleable and ductile 
metal of brilliant white luster. Tarnishes 
only in presence of free sulphur, sulphur 
gases and phosphorus. An excellent sub- 
stance for vessels used in pharmacy, and 
for sutures used in surgery. The follow- 
ing salts are used : A. Cyanidum, used 
in the jjreparation of hydrocyanic acid. 
A. lodidum, sometimes used internally in- 
stead of A. nitrate. Dose gr. ^-j. A. 
Oxidum, explosive when treated with am- 
monia. Dose gr. j^-ij. A. Nitras, 
" nitrate of silver," argentic nitrate, " lunar 
caustic," a powerful astringent and an 
escharotic of moderate strength. Stains 
skin and other tissue black when applied 
in strength. In small doses stimulates 
heart and nerve centers. Too long con- 
tinued, leaves a slate-colored, insoluble 
deposit of silver under the skin (Argyria). 
Dose gr. y^-^z- A. Nitras Fusus, 
" stick caustic." Contains 4 per cent, of 
silver chloride. Used locally. The miti- 
gated or dilute stick is fused with an e<iual 
weight of potassium nitrate. 

ArgiKla [apyiXkoq, potter's clay). White 
or potter's clay, alumina. 

Ar^gol. See Tai-tar. 

Argyll Robertson's Pupil. See Pupil. 

Argy^ria (L. argentum, silver). A form 



ARISTOLOCHIA 



51 



ARTERIA 



of chloasma or discoloration of the skin 
and mucous membrane produced by the 
prolonged administration of nitrate of silver, 
the molecules of silver being deposited in 
much the same position as those of the 
natural pigment of the skin. It may be 
gi-nvral, from internal administration, or 
/(><(7/, from its local application. 

Aristolo'chia. See Sdrpcntaria. 

Aristolo'chin. A bitter principle found 
in \ irijinia snake-root. See Scrpcntaria. 

Aristotle's Experiment. The double 
feeling exijerienced by the fingers when a 
single pebble is placed between the crossed 
fingers of one hand. 

Arm (^Sax. Arm, G. Arm, Lat. Armits). 
That part of the upper extremity from the 
shoulder to the wrist. 

Armamenta'rium (Lat., an arsenal). The 
outfit of medicines or instruments of the 
physician or surgeon. 

Arma'rium. See Armamentarium. 

Ar'mature (armatura, equipment). A 
ma>s of soft iron at the extremity of a 
magnet. Also, the core of iron around 
which coils of insulated wire are wound 
or disposed. 

Ar''nica. A plant commonly known as 
" Leopard's bane," — A. moutana. Both 
flowers and root are used in medicine. 
Proixjrties probably due to an alkaloid, 
tri-methyl-amine. In small doses a car- 
diac stimulant ; in larger doses a depres- 
sant. In toxic doses frequently causes 
death. A popular remedy, when locally 
apj>lied, for sprains, bruises and surface 
wounds. Valuable also in t>'^)hus and 
tj-phoid fevers as an antipyretic. A. 
Tinct., 20 per cent. Dose ITLv-xxx. A. 
Infusum, 20 parts flowers, loo parts 
water. Suix-rior to tincture for local use. 
A. Ext. Radicis. Dose gr. j-iij. A. Ext. 
Rad. Fid. Dose TT^v-xx. A. Tinct. 
Rad., 20 percent. Dose tl\^v-xxx. A. 
Emplastrum, contains ext. of root 50, 
lead pla-tcr ICO parts. 'J'rimelhylaviine 
(unof. ). Dose gr. ij-iij in syrup. 

Ar'nicin, C^gH^^O^. A brownish, bitter 
glucoside extracted from the flowers of 
Aiuiiii montana. 

Arnot'to. See Anatto. 

Aro'ma (n{xma, s|>ice). The im])ondcr- 
abli- fragrant or o<loroas emanation of 
vegetable suljstances. 

Aromal'jc {npu/ia, spice). A sul)stance 
th.ir.u teri/ed liy a fragrant, spicy taste and 
o<ior, a.s cinnamon, ginger, the essential 
oils, efc. A stimulant to the gastro intes- 
tinal mucou.<i membrane. A. Acids, those 



of the benzine group of hydrocarbons. A. 
Group, a series of hydrocarbons having 
the composition C,gH,5. A. Vinegar, 
any mixture of aromatic oils iu vinegar. 
Used as a stimulating agent. 

Ar''rak. See .Iraii. 

Arrecfor Pi^li Muscle. A fan-like ar- 
rangement of a layer of smooth muscular 
fibers surrounding the hair follicle, whose 
contraction erects the follicle and produces 
cutis-aiiscrina or " gooseskin." 

Arrest^ (ar/, to, rt'j/c, to withstand). Stop- 
page, detention. Arrested development, 
is when an organ or organism fails in its 
normal evolution, stojiping at the initial or 
intermediate stages of the process. Ar- 
rested head, when in parturition the child's 
head is hindered but not impacted in the 
pelvic cavity. 

Ar'row-Poison. See Curare. 

Ar'rowroot. (Doubtful derivation.) A 
kind of starch derived from Maranta 
arundiitacea of the West Indies, South- 
em States, etc. It is a jxjpular remedy for 
diarrh(va; widely used as a food. 

Ar'senic, Arsen'icum, or 

Arsen'ium. As =75; quantivalcncc iii, 
V. A non-metal having a metallic lustre 
and crystalline structure. In small doses 
a stomachic and general tonic, promoting 
appetite and cardiac action, and stinm- 
lating mental activity. Of great value in 
irritative dyspepsia. Sometimes used in- 
ternally to blanch and clear the skin. In 
larger doses creates skin eruptions, and 
becomes a violent corrosive poison, acting 
with cumulative eflect. Externally, is a 
jx)werful escharotic, used in cancer. Only 
the salts and oxides are used in medicine. 
A. Acid., arsenious acid, white arsenic, 
"ratsliane," As./)3. Dose gr. ^'jf— ^^. A. 
Acid., Liquor, a l per cent, sululidn of 
tlie acid in hydrucliUiric acid and distilled 
water. Potassii Arsenit., Liq., Eow- 
ler's solution, contains A. acid i, jx)ta.ss. 
dicarbonale I, comp. tinct. lavender 3, and 
distilled water i\. s. ad 100 parts. Dose 
Tt\,ij-x. Sodii Arsenias. Dose of the 
dried salt gr. tj^-ti- Sodii Arseniat., 
Liq. Dose TTLij-xv. A. lodid. Do.se 
gr. ^V-i- A. et Hydrargyri lod., Liq., 
lii|uor of the iodide of arsenic and mer- 
cury, Donovan's solution, contains A. 
iodide I, mercuric iinlidc I, di.stilknl 
water loo parts. Dose ll\,ij-x. Sec 
A'.iusch's Test, Marsh's Test anil J'ieit- 
vinnu's Ti'St. 

Artc'ria (ufiTiiua, the trachea). Tlie plural 
was applied to the bronchial tubes. The 



ARTERIOGRAM 



52 



ARTIFICIAL 



ancients supposed these filled with vital 
spirit during life. See Artery. 

Arte^riogram. See Sphygmogram. 

Arterio^lae Rectae. The small blood ves- 
sels which supply the medullary pyramids 
of the kidneys. 

Arteri''tis {artery and itis, inflammation). 
Inflammation of an artery. The acute 
form is generally consecutive to trauma, 
thrombosis, or embolism, and may be pura- 
lent in character; the chronic, more prop- 
erly endarteritis, arterial sclerosis, leading 
to athej'oma or atheromatotis changes, is a 
frequent disease of the aged. A. De- 
formans, the result of atheromatous 
changes producing ci'umpling or irregu- 
larities of the walls. A. Obliterans, an 
increase of connective tissue ending in ob- 
literation of the lumen. 

Ar^tery {arteria, arjp, air or spirit, TTjpEu, 
to preserve, because supposed to contain 
the spirit or soul). Arteries are the tube- 
like vessels through which the blood is 
propelled by the heart to the peripheral 
organs. They end in arterioles and capil- 
laries. They are composed of three layers : 
the outer, or tunica adventitia ; the middle, 
or tunica media, the muscular coat ; the 
internal, or i^itima, composed of nucleated 
epithelial cells, connective and elastic tis- 
sue. A table of the chief arteries is ap- 
pended (pp. 53, 54, 55). _ 

Arthralgia [apOpov, a joint, alyog, pain). 
Pain in a joint ; gout ; arthritis ; rheuma- 
tism. 

Arthri^tis [apdpov, -ltiq, inflammation). 
Inflammation of the joints. A. Defor- 
mans, chronic inflammation of the bone- 
tissue of a joint with deformity. A., 
Rheumatic, acute rheumatism of the 
joints with gouty complications. 

Arthrocla^sia [apOpov, klau, to break). 
The breaking down of ankyloses in order 
to produce free movement of a joint. 

Arthro^dia (apOpou, to fasten by a joint). 
A form of joint permitting a gliding move- 
ment. See Diarthrosis. 

Arthrodyn^ia [apdpov, o6vv7], pain). See 
Arthralgia. 

Arthroempy''esis [apdpov, efinvrpiq, sup- 
puration). Suppuration in a joint. 

Arthrog^raphy [apdpov, ypacpeiv, to write). 
A description of the joints. 

Arthron^cus [apOpnv, oKog, an eminence). 
The cartilaginous body or bodies which 
occasionally form within the knee-joint. 

Arthropath''ia [apOpnv, Traffof, disease). A 
peculiar disease of the joints similar to 
rheumatoid arthritis, but, according to Char- 



cot, a distinct disease. It belongs to the 
prodromal stage of tabes ; rapidly destroys 
the joint ; is painless, without fever or 
inflammation ; prefers the large joints ; and 
is connected with hydrarthrosis and swell- 
ing of the joints. 

Arthro^sis [apOpoo), to fasten by a joint). 
Articulation or jointing. 

Arthrot^omy [apOpov, TCfivu, to cut). In- 
cision of a joint. 

Ar^tiad [aprial^u, to be even). In chemistry, 
a term used to designate atoms having an 
even quantivalence, as oxygen, which is 
bi-, iron quadri-, and sulphur hexivalent. 

Artic^ular [articiilaris, of the joints). Per- 
taining to an articulation or joint. 

Artic^ulate [articulo, to divide in joints). 
Divided into joints, distinct. A. Speech, 
the communication of ideas by spoken 
\Yords. 

Articula''tion (rtr/zV^^/^ifi-, a joint). A joint 
or arthrosis ; a connection between two or 
more bones, whether allowing movement 
between the two or not. The articulations 
are divided into : I. Syn' arthroses, iuimov- 
able, subdivided into schindy' leses, or 
grooved )6vs\\s,,gompho' ses, in sockets', as the 
teeth, and siitu'ra, as in the bones of the 
skull; 2. Di' arthroses, ox movable joints, 
subdivided into the arthro' dia, or gliding 
joints, the gingly' mus, or hinge-like, the 
en' arthroses, or ball-and-socket joints ; 3. 
Am'phiarthroses, or those of a mixed 
type. 

Articula''tion. The enunciation of spoken 
speech. Confluen4: A., the clipping of 
words, ot running syllables together — a 
symptom of certain cerebral diseases. 

Articula^tion Positions. See Consonants. 

Artic^ulo Mortis (Lat.). The moment of 
death. In the act of dying. 

Artifi''cial [artificialis). Made or imi- 
tated by art. A. Anus, an opening in 
the abdomen to give exit to the faeces ; an 
opening made in case of imperforate anus. 
A. Eye, a film of glass, celluloid, rubber, 
etc., made in imitation of the front part of 
the globe of the eye and worn in the 
socket or over a blind eye for cosmetic 
reasons. A. Joint, ox false joint, ^-\&noTx- 
united ends of a broken bone. A. Leech. 
See Leech. A. Vitreous. See E^nscer- 
ation. A. Pupil, removal of a piece of 
the iris [iridectomy, iridodialysis, etc.), to 
allow the light to pass through the open- 
ing. A. Respiration, the aeration of the 
blood by artificial means. A method of 
inducing the normal function of respira- 
tion when from any cause it is temporarily 



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56 



ASPARAGIN 



in abeyance, as in asphyxia neonatoram, 
drowning, etc. Hall sMethod, by turning 
the body alternately upon the side or face. 
Harvard's Method, by pressure upon the 
lower ribs every few seconds. Sylvester's 
Method, chiefly by movements of the 
arms. 

Arytc'noid [apvraiva, a pitcher, scSog, like- 
ness). Resembling the mouth of a pitcher. 
A. Cartilages, two cartilages of the 
laiynx regulating, by the means of the at- 
tached muscles, the tension of the vocal 
cords. A. Muscle, arises from the pos- 
terior surface of one arytenoid cartilage 
and is inserted into the corresponding parts 
of the other. It is composed of three 
planes of fibres, two oblique and one trans- 
verse. It draws the arytenoid cartilages 
together. 

Aryth^mic. Irregular; without rhythm. 

Asafcef'ida. Asafetida. A resinous gum 
obtained from the root of Ferula nai-thex 
and F. scordosoma. Somewhat soluble 
in alcohol, and forms an emulsion with 
vi^ater. Properties due to allyl sulphide, 
CgHjgS. A powerful antispasmodic, 
stimulant and expectorant. Very service- 
able in hysteria and bronchial affections. 
Dose gr. v-xx. A. Tinct., strength 20 
per cent. Dose ^ss-ij. A. Emplas- 
trum, asafcetida 35, lead plaster 35, gal- 
banum 15, yellow wax 15, alcohol 120 
parts. A. Mistura, a 4 per cent, emul- 
sion. A. at Magnesiae Mist., Dewer's 
carminative, magnesium carb. 5) tinct. asa- 
fcetida 7, tinct. opii I, sugar 10, aq. dest. 
ad 100 parts. Dose^ss-^ss. A. Pil- 
lulae, contain each gr. iij of asafcetida 
and gr. j of soap. Dose j-iv. A. et 
Aloes Pil., have gr. i^ of each ingre- 
dient. Galliani PH., comp. See Gal- 
batiuvt. Ammo7iicE Fcetidus Spt., con- 
tains asafcetida l'^, liq. ammonite fort. 2, 
spirit 20 parts. Dose Jss-j. Unof 

Ascar''icide. A medicine that kills asca- 
rides. 

Ascaridi^asis. The existence of ascarides 
in the intestine. 

As''caris (plural Ascarides) [aoKapi^u, to 
jump). A genus of the family Ascarida. 
A class of parasitical worms inhabiting the 
bodies, and especially the intestine, of most 
animals. A. Lumbricoides, is found 
in the ox, hog and man. It inhabits the 
small intestine, especially of children. A. 
Vermicvalaris (the thread worm), a syno- 
nym of Cryz^rw VertJiicitlaris. A. Mys- 
tax, the round worm of the cat, and A. 
Alata have rarely been foimd in man. 



Asci''tes [aaKiTTjg, from atjKog, a bag). An 
abnormal collection of serous fluid in the 
peritoneal cavity. There is uniform en- 
largement of the abdomen, fluctuation, 
percussion dullness, etc. 

Ascle^pias. Pleurisy Root. The root of 
Asclcpias tuberosa. A popular remedy 
in the Southern States for pleurisy. A 
powerful diaphoretic and a moderate 
emetic and cathartic. The infusion re- 
commended has a strength of ^j of the 
powdered root to ^ xxxij of water. Dose 
teacupful every 3 or 4 hours. Unofh- 
cial. Also, A. Curassavica, Blood 
Flower. An herb common to tropical 
America. Astringent, styptic and anthel- 
mintic against the tapeworm. A popular 
remedy for checking capillary hemorrhage. 
Dose of fld. ext. 3J-ij. Unof 

Ascococ^cvis (aanoq, a leather bag, KOKKog, 
a kernel). A genus of the family of Coc- 
cacees; with elements united in massive 
colonies surrounded by tough, thick, gela- 
tinous envelopes. A, Billrothii, found 
in putrefied meat; its natural habitat is 
the air. Details of culture, etc., are 
wanting. 

Ascomycc'tes (acKog, /.iVKrjg, a mushroom). 
A large family of fungi, of whicli the 
truffles, or Tuberacea, the ergot of rye and 
mould of dried fniits are examples. 

Ascoph^ora Muce''do. A microscopic 
fungus, of which the mould of bread is an 
example. 

As^cospore {aaKog, airopa, a spore). A 
spore developed within a sac-like fungus- 
cell. 

Asep''sis (rt neg., (J7]ku, to putrefy). The 
condition of non-putrefaction ; absence of 
all septic material or pathogenic micro- 
organisms. 

Asep^tic. Free from contaminating or 
septic matter. The antiseptic treatment of 
wounds, including aseptic and antiseptic 
dressings, renders the wound aseptic. 

Asep^tin. This term has been given to a 
secret preparation containing lioric acid, 
used for preserving articles of food. 

Asep^tol, CgHgSO,, a reddish liquid, with 
an odor of carbolic acid, recommended as 
a disinfectant and antiseptic. Used ex- 
ternally I : 1000, and internally in about 
the same dose as carbolic acid. 

Asit^ia (a, without, atrog, food). The want 
of food. Also a loathing for food. 

Aspar^agin. A crystalline organic princi- 
ple, C^HgN.^O^, found in asparagus and 
many other plants. It is diuretic, and 
sedative to the circulation. See Althcea. 



ASPARAGUS 



57 



ASTHMA 



Aspar'agfus. Tlie green root of Aspara- 
i^iis officinalis. A mild diuretic. Dose 
q{ lid. ext. "^ ss-j. Unof. 

Aspaf'tic Acid. C^I^NO^. A dibasic crys- 
talline substance obtained from asparagin. 
It occurs in the body as a result of the 
action of the pancreatic juice on the fibrin 
of the bkxxl. 

Aspergil'lus (aspcrs^o, to scatter). An 
order of fungi. A. Auricularis, a fungus 
found in the wax of the ear. A. Glaucus, 
the bluish mould found, ('. g., upon dried 
fruit. A. Mucoroides, a species found 
in tuberculous or gangrenous lung tissue. 

Asperm'atism (n neg., a-epjia, seed). 
Non-emission of semen, whether owing to 
non-secretion or non-ejaculation. 

Asper'sion {aspcrgo, to sprinkle). The 
act of besprinkling, medicines being some- 
times thus applied. 

Asphyx^'ia (aneg.,CT^i'f/f, thepulse). The 
effect upon the body of the non-oxygena- 
tion of the blood ; the suspension of vital 
phenomena when the lungs are deprived 
of air. The excess of carbon dioxide in 
the blood at first stimulates, then paralyzes 
the respiratory center of the medulla. Arti- 
ficial respiration is therefore re'juired in 
cases of sudden asphyxia. A. Neonato- 
rum, the inability of new-bom infants to 
begin respiration spontaneously, or to con- 
tinue it. 

Aspidiosper^mine. An alkaloid extracted 
from OuLhraih\ q. v. 

Aspid'ium. The rhizome of several spe- 
cies of A., especially A. vtarginalc. Pro- 
perties due to a resin containing filicilic 
acid. Valuable chiefly as a vermicide 
against tapeworm. Dose Jss-^ss. A. 
Oleoresina, an ethereal extract. Dose 

As'pirates. Sec Consonants. 

Aspira'tion (ad, to, spiro, to breathe). 
U>e<l as a synonym of inspiration, also of 
imiiibition. The act of using the aspira- 
tor. A method of withdrawing the lluids 
and gases from a wound to prevent con- 
tamination. A. of Cataract Extrac- 
tion. See Extraction of Cataract, Suc- 
tion Met ho J. 

As'pirator. .An instrument for withdraw- 
ing the contents of an al»scess, tumor, etc., 
wilhoui the atimission of air. 

Assafoc'tida. See Asafatida. 

Assimila'tion (as^itnulo. to maki' like). 
The jiroMss of Iraii^fonning fi><«l into such 
a nutrient condition that it is taken up by 
the circulatory system, and forms an inte- 
gral jjart of the economy; synthetic or con- 



structive metabolism; anabolism. A., Pri- 
mary, that concerned in the conversion 
of food into chyle and blood. A., Sec- 
ondary, that relating to the fonn;ition of 
the organized tissues of the body. 

Associa'tion [associatio). The act of com- 
bining; union with. Associated Move- 
ments, coincident or consensual move- 
ments of other muscles than the leading 
one, and which by habit or unity of pur- 
pose are involuntarily connected with its 
action. P.oth eyeballs move alike in read- 
ing, though one be a blind eye. Move- 
ment of the normal ami will sometimes 
produce slight motion of the ojiposite para- 
lyzed ami. An uniformity of innervation 
is usually the cause of these movements, 
and such an example as the rigidity of the 
jaw in lifting a heavy weight should hardly 
be called an associated movement. Asso- 
ciated Paralysis, a common paralysis of 
associated muscles. 

As^surin. A name given liy Thudichum 
to a complex substance occurring in brain- 
tissue. Properties not investigated. 

Asta^sia (a neg., oraotg, standing). Motor 
incoordination for standing. See Abasia. 

Asteato'des (a neg., areap, tallow, uth]q, 
fullness). Delicient or absent secretion of 
sebaceous matter by the sebaceous glands. 

As'ter. .See A'aryol-inesis. 

Aster^ion. See Sku/l. 

Astern'al (a neg., arfpiw, the breast bone). 
Not connected with the stemum. A. 
Ribs, the five lower pairs, because not 
joinc<l directly to the stemum. 

Astern^ia. Absence of the sternum. 

Asthe^nia (a neg., aOevng, strength^, den- 
eral loss or absence of strength ; adynamia. 

Astheno'pia (a neg., aOei'n^, urp, eye). 
Weakness, speedy fatigue of the ocular 
muscles or visual powers, due to errors of 
refraction, insulliciency, over-use, anxmia, 
etc. A., Accommodative, due to hy- 
peropia, astigmatism, or a combination of 
the two, ])roducing strain of the ciliary 
muscle. A., Muscular, due to weakness 
or strain of the external ocular muscles, 
most commonly the internal recti — insuf- 
ficiency. A., Retinal, or Nervous, a 
rare variety, caused by retinal hyi>enesthe- 
sia, anaesthesia, or other abnormality, or by 
general nervous aflections. 

Asth'ma (aaOfin, pairing). Paroxysnial 
or int<nnittcnt dyspnea, generally acccim- 
p:iiiii (1 by cough and broiuhial secretion, 
a feeling of constriction and sullncation. 
The etiology is obscure, being ascribed to 
heredity, nasal disease, gout, exhalations 



ASTIGMATISM 



58 



ATELECTASIS 



of plants and atmospheric impurities, colds, 
etc. It has been thought to be due to re- 
flex neuroses and spasm of the muscular 
tissue of the bronchial tubes. When de- 
pendent upon disease of the heart, the kid- 
neys, stomach, thymus, etc., it has been 
designated cardiac, renal, peptic, thymic, 
etc. A. Dyspepticum, due to nervous 
reflexes through the vagus. A., Nervous, 
from reflex stimulation of the pulmonary 
plexus. 

Astig^matism (a neg., aTiyp.a, a point, 
because rays of light from a point are never 
brought to a point by the refractive media 
of the eye). That condition of the eye 
wherein homocentric rays of light are not 
brought to a focus by the media. It is 
usually due to inequality of curvature of 
the different meridians of the cornea (cor- 
neal A.), but may be caused by imperfec- 
tions of the lens (lenticular), unequal 
contraction of the ciliary muscle, or may 
perhaps be due to retinal imperfection. It 
maybe acquired or congenital, and may 
complicate hypermetropia or myopia, pro- 
ducing either simple hypermetropic A., 
in which one principal meridian is emme- 
tropic, the other hypermetropic ; or com- 
pound hypermetropic A., in which both 
meridians are hypermetropic, but one more 
so than the other. Complicating myopia, 
we may in the same way have simple 
myopic or compound myopic A. In 
mixed A., one principal meridian is 
myopic, the other hypermetropic. Regular 
A. is when the two principal meridians 
are at right angles to each other. Irregular 
A., when different parts of a meridian have 
different refracting powers. 

Astigmom^eter (a, criyiia, jitrpov, a meas- 
ure). An instrument for the measurement 
of astigmatism. 

Astrag^alus (ftcrrpayrtAof, adie; the analo- 
gous l)ones of the sheep were used by the 
ancients as dice). The ankle-bone, upon 
which the tibia rests. Also a genus of 
leguminous plants from some varieties of 
which gum tragacanth is derived. A. 
MoUis^simus (Loco Plant). The active 
principle of this plant has mydriatic proper- 
ties. Unof. 

Astrapapho^bia [aarpa-KT], lightning, ^o- 
/3of, fear). A symptom of mental disease 
consisting in fear of lightning and thunder. 

Astric'tion {^ad,io,stringo,X.o bind). Con- 
stipation or any condition resulting from 
the use of astringents. 

Astrin^gent. An agent producing con- 
traction of organic tissues, or which arrests 



haemorrhages, diarrhoeas, etc. Tannin, 
alum, opium, alcohol, the salts of silver, 
lead, etc., are examples. 

Asy^lum (ajj/z/w, a place of refuge). An 
institution for the support, safe-keeping, 
cure, or education of those incapable of 
caring for themselves, such as the insane, 
the blind, etc. 

Asym^metry (a, avfj./ierpLa,^ symmetry). 
Unlikeness of organs or parts that are nor- 
mally of the same size, etc., as e.g., Asym- 
metiy of the two halves of the skull or 
brain. 

Asyner''gia (a, cwepyia, cooperation). 
Faulty coordination of the different organs 
or muscles normally acting in unison. 

Atac'tic [aruKTog, irregular). Irregular. 
Pertaining to muscular incoordination, es- 
pecially in aphasia. Also used of atypical 
fevers. 

Afavism [atavus, a forefather). The 
reapjiearance of an anomaly, physical, 
mental or pathological, in an individual 
whose more or less remote progenitors had 
had it, but in whose immediate ancestors it 
had not been shown. 

Ataxapha''sia. See Aphasia. 

Atax^ia, or 

Atax^y (ara^'ia, want of order). The 
word means primarily, irregularity or want 
of order, but is most commonly used to 
express incoordination of muscular action ; 
an excess or deficiency in contraction of 
the various muscles concerned in a given 
action. Since innervation of many muscles 
is required in a fixed position of the body 
or of a limb, the term A., Static, describes 
the failure of muscular coordination in 
standing still or in fixed positions of the 
limbs, whilst A., Locomotor, expresses 
the same essential phenomenon as regards 
movements, and especially in walking. 
A., Hereditary, Friedreich's Disease, is 
an inherited disease of children and the 
young. See Friedreich'' s Disease. Both 
static and locomotor ataxy are prominent 
symptoms of tabes or disease of the pos- 
terior columns of the cord, but it is absurd 
to speak of ataxy, as if it were a disease 
itself instead of being only one of many 
symptoms of many diseases. 

Atelec'tasis {aTtkrjq, imperfect, EKraaig, 
expansion). Failure of dilatation of the 
pulmonary air-cells in the new-born. The 
condition is due not to disease of the 
lungs, but to nei-ve injuries, weakness, etc. 
In this case the lung has never been 
inflated, whilst in apneumatosis it has 
been. 



ATELIA 



59 



ATROPA 



AtelFa [aTe?^ia, iuiperfection). A tcrato- 
Ic^ical term for imperfection or failure of 
development of some ]iart of the Retus. 
The word is comixmnded with others to 
designate the member wanting, as a/e/o- 
cardia, atelocheilia, ateloenceplialia, atelo- 
ntyelia, ateloprosopia, etc., expressing such 
a defect of the heart, lip, brain, spinal cord, 
face, res]x^ctively. 

Athelas'mus (a, d;/?.a(y/iog, a suckling). 
Inaliility to give suck, from defect or want 
of the nipples. 

Athero'ma [nOapa, gruel). Primarily, a 
soft encysted tumor; more commonly, tlie 
fatty degeneration of the walls of the 
arteries in consequence of chronic arteritis, 
and called atheromatous dei^eneration. 
Atheromatous (7/'j<r5J, resulting from chronic 
arteritis, is a soft matter beneath the in- 
tima, while an atheromatous ulcer is 
formed by the abscess breaking through 
the intima. 

Ath'etoid. Pc-rtaining to or affected with 
atlictosis. A. Spasm, an occasional 
symptom of hemiplegia and after some 
ctTcbral lesions. 

Athetc'sis {^afhjrog, unfixed, changeable). 
A disease characterized by continual change 
of position of the fingers and toes, and 
inal)ility to kee]) them still. It is due to 
some lesion or functional derangement of 
the brain or cord. 

Athrep'sia (a, Tpetpc), to nourish). The 
symptom-complex resulting from imj^erfect 
nutrition in children, from whatever cause. 

At'las. The up])ermost of the cer\'ical 
vertebrre. Articulates with the occipital 
l)one of the skull. 

Atlod'ymus (<ir?.ng, Sifivfioq, double). A 
monosomic dual monstrosity with two 
heads and a single l;o<ly. 

Atmi'atry (ar//of, vajwr, larpeia, medical 
ireatmenl). Treatment of diseases of the 
lungs or mucous membrane, by inhalation, 
fumigation, or by directing a current of 
va|)or or gas u|>on the part. 

Atmom'eter, or Admidom''eter [ar/wg, 
fiLTfxiv, a measure). An instrument to de- 
termine the amount of water exhaled from 
a given surface in a given time, in order to 
determine the humidity of the atmosphere, 

of a |)l:icc. 

At'mosphere (nriinr, ci^aipa, a sphere). 
'Ilie mixture of gas<-s, vajwr of water, and 
other sus|)ended matters, surrounding the 
earth, as an elastic fluid envelo|H-, to the 
hiij^hi r)f aUjut 200 tniles. 

Atmospher'ic. Pertaining to the atmo- 
sphere. A. Moisture, the vajwr of 



water mingled with the atmosphere. It 
varies in quantity according to temperature. 
A. Tension, the pressure of the air per 
sciuare inch on the surface of a body. Nor- 
mally, at the sea-level it is about 14.7 lbs. 
per square inch, or ecjual to that of a col- 
umn of mercury about 30 in. in height. 
It decreases about ^^ in., or :,'j lb. per 
stjuare inch for every 90 feet of altitude. 
Above lOjOOO feet, the rarity of the atmo- 
sphere is usually noticeable in quickened 
breathing and j)ulse rate. 

Ato'cia {aTOKoq, bairen). Sterility of the 
female. 

Afom (« neg., re/tvu, to cut). The ulti- 
mate unit of an element; that part of a 
substance incapable of further division, or 
the smallest part capable of entering a 
chemical compound, or uniting with an- 
other to form a Molecule, — which last is 
the smallest quantity of a sul)stance that 
can exist free or uncombined. Atomic 
Valence, Equivalence, or the Atom- 
icity of an element, is the saturating 
power of its atom as compared with that 
of hydrogen. Atomic Weight, the 
weight of an atom of an element as com- 
pared with the weight of an atom of hydro- 
gen. Atomic Heat of an atom is its 
specific heat multiplied by its atomic 
weight. 

Afomizer. An instrument for transform- 
ing a iKjuid into a spray or mist. 

At'ony (a, roi'of, tone). Want of tone. 
Deiiilily. Loss or diminution of muscular 
or vital energy. 

Atopomenorrhce''a {aTorrng, out of place, 
/iiv, month, /^tw, to flow). Vicarious 
menstruation. 

AtrabiPiary {ater, black, />i7/s, bile). An 
obsolescent term relating to melancholy and 
hypochondriasis; abso referring to the rinal 
and supra-renal glands, believed to j>ro- 
duce i)lack bile, or atrabilis, the cause of 
the gloomy disposition. 

Atre'sia [a neg., r^zpntvu, to ])erforate.) 
Imjxirforation of an opening or canal, as 
of the anus, vagina, meatus auditorius, 
]iupil, etc. The word is com|x)unded with 
the name of the organ affected; <'. .4'., 
atrcsocystia, atresoi^astria, atresometria, 
alretruteria, etc., denoting respectively, 
in)]K-rforation of the bladder, stomach. 
Worn!), intestine, etc. 

A'trium {utrium, the fore-court or hall). 
Tli:il ]).irt of the auriile of the heart into 
wiiieli liie venous IiUmmI is |K)ured. 

At'ropa ((iT/ioTTdg, one of the three I'ates, 
who cut the thread of life, in allusion to 
\ 



ATROPHIA 



60 



ATTENUATION 



the poisonous effects of the plant). A 
genus of the nat. ord. Solanaccce. A. 
Belladonna, the deadly nightshade, 
whence is obtained atropine. See Bella- 
doiina. 

Atroph^ia (a, without, rpocj)?/, nourish- 
ment). Atrophy, (/. v. A term applied to 
various diseases marked by wasting or 
innutrition. A. Cutis. See Atropho- 
dej-ma. A. Cutis Senilis. See Atropho- 
dcDfia. 

Atroph^icum Melanc'sis Progres^'siva. 
See AtropJioderma. 

Atrophoder^ma (a, rpoipr/, nourishment, 
Ssp/ia, the skin). Atrophia Cutis, atrophy 
of the skin, a wasting of the skin due 
to innutrition. A. Pigmentosum, Xero- 
derma Pigmentosum, Angioderma Pig- 
mentosum, Atrophicum Melanosis Progi'es- 
siva, — a degenerative wasting of the skin 
accompanied by a development or gather- 
ing of pigmentary matter in patches. A. 
Albidum, described by Kaposi as con- 
fined to the inner parts of the thighs and 
anus. The skin is white, thin, glistening, 
and destitute of pigmentary matter, a con- 
dition remaining stationary throughout life 
(dif. from A. Scleroderma). A. Neuri- 
ticum. Glossy Skin, an atrophy of the 
skin in the area of a diseased or injured 
nerve. Occurs most commonly on the ex- 
tremities. A. Senile, Atrophia Cutis 
Senilis, an atrophy of the skin due to old 
age. A. Striatum et Maculatum, Stride 
et MaculiB Atrophica;, a form of the dis- 
ease occurring in streaks and spots. May 
be idiopathic or symptomatic. 

Afrophy [aTpo(j)ia, want of nourishment). 
A retrogressive change in parts originally 
well-formed and nourished, consisting in a 
loss of weight, size and function of an or- 
gan or tissue, owing to some disorder of 
nutrition. A., Active, due to the inherent 
inability of the cells of a tissue to assimi- 
late the nutriment brought to them. A. 
of the Bulb, progressive shrinking of the 
eyeball. A., Muscular, affects the mus- 
cles, and may be hereditary or acquired, 
simple or progressive. A., Passive, 
caused by diminished nutrition supplied 
the part. A., Pigmentary, so called from 
a deposit of pigment (yellow or yellowish- 
brown) in the atrophied fat cells. A., 
Serous, that characterized by a transuda- 
tion of serum into the tissue after the fat 
has gone, giving it a gelatinous appear- 
ance. A., Simple, the retrogressive pro- 
cesses and shrinking due to pathological 
causes, allied _ to the physiological retro- 



gression of senility, but occurring, as it 
were, prematurely. A., Trophoneurotic, 
that dependent upon abnormality of the 
nervous supply or control of an organ or 
tissue, best illustrated in muscular atrophy 
from injury of the proper nerves of the 
muscle, or in disease of the anterior horns 
of gray matter of the cord. A. of Hair, 
a wasting or deficient growth of the hair. 

Atropi^na or At^ropine. A crystalline 
alkaloid, Cj7H23N03, obtained from Atropa 
belladonna, and is the active principle of 
the plant. The sulphate is a white powder 
of bitter taste, neutral reaction, soluble in 
water. Homatropine, CjgHjjNOg, is a de- 
rivative alkaloid, the hydrobromate being 
used by ophthalmologists as a mydriatic, 
principally because its effects pass off more 
quickly than those of atropine. Atropine 
is an irritant narcotic, a mydriatic, anti- 
spasmodic and anodyne ; in small doses a 
cardiac, respiratory and spinal stimulant, 
in large doses a paralyzer of the cardiac 
and respiratoiy centers, the spinal cord, 
motor nerves and voluntary muscles. It 
produces congestion and dryness of the 
mucous membrane of the mouth, nose, 
pharynx and larynx, at first lessening the 
gastric and intestinal secretion, to be fol- 
lowed by an increase of the same. It is 
extensively used in ophthalmic practice to 
dilate the pupil, paralyze accommodation, 
and also in various corneal, iritic and 
other ocular diseases. Its therapeutic use 
in general medicine is also manifold; e.g., 
in inflammatory affections and pain in 
cerebral and spinal hyperemia, atonic con- 
stipation, cardiac failure, h}'persecretions, 
etc., and as a physiological antagonist in 
opium poisoning. 

At^tar of Rose. Oil of Rose. The volatile 
oil distilled from the fresh flowers of the 
Damascene rose. Comes mainly from 
E. Roumelia. Generally adulterated with 
other volatile oils. Used only as a per- 
fume. 

Atten^tion. The direction of the will or 
thought upon an object or to a particular 
sensation. A. Time. See Time. 

Atten^'uant [atteniio, to make thin). A 
medicine or agent increasing fluidity or 
thinness of the blood or other secretions. 

Atten^uating Medium. See Fractional 
Cultivation. 

Attenua^tion [attenuo, to make thin). A 
thinning, naiTowing or reducing the strength 
or size of a substance. A. of Microbes, 
weakening the pathogenic virulence of 
microbes by successive cultures and other 



ATTOLLENS 



61 



AURICLE 



methods, so that they may be used as a 
vaccine to confer immunity from future 
attacks of the disease. A., Sanderson's 
Method of, by passing the virus through 
the system of another animal {^.^., guinea 
pig, in anthrax) so that it becomes modi- 
fied in virulency. Toussaint and Chauveau 
showed that heat is a valuable attenuation 
method, while oxygen, sundry chemical 
reagents, exposure to sunlight, c/f., have 
also l>een used. 

Attol'lens (^attol/o, to raise up). Applied 
to nniscles raising or elevating the part, ;ts 
the A. Auris, a muscle raising the exter- 
nal ear. 

Attrac'tion {attraho, to draw to). The 
tendency of one particle of matter to ap- 
proach another. Athnity. As existing 
between celestial bodies it is termed 
gravitation, while molecular attraction or 
cohesion expresses the force aggregating 
molecules into masses. A., Chemical, 
the attraction of affinity, relates to the 
attraction of atoms of one element to those 
of others, resulting in chemical comjwunds. 
A., Capillary, the tendency of a cun-ed 
surface or a tube to exert traction on a 
liquid. A., Electrical, the tendency of 
bodies toward each other when charged 
with opposite electricities. A., Magnetic, 
the traction of a magnet upon certain 
metallic substances, chielly iron. 

Attra'hens {attraho, drawing). Applied to 
muscles, as Attrahens auris, a muscle 
drawing the ear forward and u]5ward. 
Also used of medicines attracting lluids to 
the part, as stimulants, epispastics, etc. 

Attri^tion [attero, to rub against). An 
abrasion or chafing of the skin. In physics, 
any rubbing or friction which breaks or 
wears the surface. 

Atyp'ic (a neg., ti'ttoc, a tyi^e). Inegiilar; 
not conformai^le to the type. A. Fever, 
an intermittent fever with irregularity of 
the paroxysm. 

Aubernage (Fr.). A contagious disease 
of the vine, called by the Italians the Black 
Disease. It is doui>tful whether it is due to 
a fungus or a bacterium. 

Audiom'tter [aitJio, to hear, fjirpnv, a 
measure). An instrument for measuring 
the ,i( ul<-ni-ss of hearing. 

Aud'iphone (audio, <p>-)yr/, a sound). An 
instrument for improving the jxjwer of 
h<-aring. 

Audi'tion. 'Ilie act of hearing. 
Aud'itory. Pertaining to the act or the 
organs f(f hearing. A. After-Sensations, 
continuing or occurring after the cessation 



of the stimulus. A. Area, the cerebral 
center for hearing, location not definitely 
detennined. A. Aurae, auditory sensa- 
tions preceding an attack of epilepsy. A. 
Center, same as .-/. Area. A. Hairs, the 
processes of the crista acustica, at jiresent of 
indeterminate function. A. Meatus (exter- 
nal and internal), the external and inlcnial 
canals or openings of the ear. A. Nerve, 
ihc /ortio mollis of the seventh pair. A. 
Ossicles, the chain of small bones of the 
middle ear. A. Sac, the lalyrinth pit 
or depression in the epiblast, on both sides 
of the cmbr)ological after-brain, \^hen 
cut olT from the epiblast it is calletl the 
vesicle of the labyrinth, or Primary 
Auditory Vesicle. 

Au'ra (ow, to breathe). A breath of wind ; 
a soft vapor. A sensation like a gentle 
cun-ent of air rising from the limbs or body 
to the head ; a frequent forerunner of an 
epileptic attack, aura epileptica. Also 
applied to any slight sjTnptom preceding 
an attack of any disease or paroxysm, as 
the aura hysterica, aura verliginosa, etc. 

Auran''tium. Orange. The fruit of Ci- 
trus ztili^ai'is and C. aurantiuni. Both 
the flowers and the rind of the fruit are 
employed. The volatile oil from the rind 
is aromatic and a mild tonic. Used mainly 
as a flavor. A. Amara, Ext. Fid., bitter 
orange peel, alcohol and water. Used as 
a tlavor. A. Amara, Tinct., bitter orange 
peel 20, dilute alcohol, q .s. ad 100. Dose 
^^^j-ij. A. Corticis, Ol., the volatile oil 
exjiressed from the rind of the orange. 
I lose gtt. j-v. A. Dulcis, Tinct., sweet 
orange peel 20, dilute alcohol, (|. s. atl loo. 
Dose 3J-ij. A. Elixir, oil of orange I, 
sugar 100, alcohol and water, q. s. ad 30x3. 
A. Spt.,oil of orange 6, alcohol 94. Dose 
according to iiuantity of alcohol desired. 
A. Flores, Aq., fre.sh orange (lowers 40, 
water 200. Distill to 100 parts. A. 
Florum, Ol., " oil of neroli," a volatile oil 
distilled from fresh orange tlowers. I )ose 
gtt. j-v. A. Florum, Syr., orange water 
35, sugar 65. A cdninum llavoring agent. 
A. Syr., sweet orange peel 5, alcohol 5, 
calcium j)hosphate precip. I, sugar 60, 
water, f|. s. ad 1 00. 

Aur'icle (auricula, the outer ear), 'i'hc 
pinna and external meatus of the lar. The 
auriclo of the heart are the two cavities 
between the veins and the ventricles. The 
Auricular arteries, anterior and jKistcrior, 
are liranclies of the tiinporal nn<l <-xterhal 
carotid supplying the auricle of the «ar; 
auriculotemporal nerve, a branch of the 



AURISCOPE 



62 



AUXOCARDIA 



inferior niaxillary supplying superficial 
parts about the auricle ; auriculo-'i'entricti- 
lar opening, the opening between the auri- 
cles and the ventricles of the heart. 

Aur^iscope [auris, the ear, ckotteu, to 
examine). An instrument for examining 
the ear, and especially of the Eustachian 
passage. 

Aur^ist [aun's). A specialist in diseases 
of the ear. 

Aur^um (Gold). Au =: 197 ; quantiva- 
lence. III. One of the metals character- 
ized as "noble" by the ancients, because 
of its weight and lustre. Has a brilliant 
yellow color and will not ' tarnish. The 
metal is sometimes used as a plate on which 
artificial teeth are set. The chloride is the 
only salt used. Locally it is an escharotic. 
Internally its action resembles that of 
mercuric chloride. In small doses pro- 
motes digestion and stimulates the functions 
of the brain ; in large doses it is a violent 
poison. Useful in certain fomis of dys- 
pepsia, hypochondriasis. A. et Sodium 
Chlor., soluble in water. Dose gr. -jo-yV- 
A. Chloridum (unof.). Soluble. Dose 

Ausculta^tion (anscidfo, to listen to). A 
method of investigation of the functions 
and condition of the respiratory, circula- 
tory, digestive and other organs by the 
sounds they themselves give out, or that 
are elicited by percussion. It is called 
immediate, when the ear is directly applied 
to the part, and mediate, if by the aid of 
the stethoscope. Obsteti'ical auscultation 
is practiced in pregnancy to detect or study 
the fcetal heart-sounds, or the placental 
murmur. See I\hirmw, Respiration, Rales, 
Rhonchiis, Bronchophony, Pectoriloquy, 
A^gophony, Bruit, Souffle, etc. 

Aut'oclave (nv-of, self, clavis, key). An 
instrument for sterilizing or killing germ- 
life by steam-heat, the gauge indicating 
automatically the pressure, and therefore 
the degree of heat, to which the micro- 
organism is subjected. 

Autodiges''tion {avroq, digere, to digest). 
Digestion of the walls of the stomach by 
the gastric juice consequent upon loss of 
the epithelium, or other gastric disease. 
Aiitopepsia. 

Autogen^esis (niTOf, yeveaiq, production). 
Spontaneous generation ; self-production. 

Autog^enous [avroQ^ jeveaic;). Pertaining 
to diseases or conditions self-produced 
and not derived from external or objective 
sources ; to poisons generated in the body 
by its inherent processes, — e. g., puerperal 



fever has been supposed due to self-gen- 
eration of the septic material. 

Autoinocula^tion [avToc, inoculo, to im- 
plant). Reinoculation by virus obtained 
from the same person. 

Autolaryngos''copy [avToq, ?Mfw}^, the 
larynx, anoiieu, to examine). The exami- 
nation of one's larynx by himself. 

Automat^ic [avrofianqu, to act spontane- 
ously). Pertaining to such functions as are 
performed without the influence of the will. 

Auton^omy [avroc,, vofiog, law). Self-law; 
not subject to external rule. 

Autopath'ic [av-oc, nadog, suffering). The 
same as Endopathic. 

Autopep''sia [avTog, ttetttu, to digest). 
Autodigestion. 

Autoph^agy [avrog, (payu, to eat). In 
starvation the absorption of the tissues 
themselves for nutrition. Life may be 
thus continued until about half the body- 
weight has been consumed. 

Autoph'ony [avrog, <pcjv7j, voice). In 
auscultation the peculiar quality of the 
physician's own voice while listening to 
the patient's chest sounds. 

AutophthaFmoscope. See Ophthalmo- 
scope. 

Aut'oplas''ty [avroq, TrJ.aaau, to form). A 
met'nod of repairing the effects of a wound 
or lesion involving loss of tissue by graft- 
ing or implanting fresh parts taken from 
other portions of the patient's body, as 
e.g., rhinoplasty, keratoplasty, etc., refer- 
ring to the nose, cornea, etc., the special 
part operated upon. 

Aut^opsy (aurof, oi/^/f, seeing). Exami- 
nation, or seeing one's own self, — self- 
inspection. The word is strangely mis- 
applied to the post-mortem study of the 
body of another. 

Aut^oscope [avToq, aKmveu, to see). An in- 
strument, ('.^'■. ,the ophthalmoscope, arranged 
for the examination of an organ by oneself 

Autos^'copy. The examination of one's 
own disease by means of the autoscope. 

Aut'osite (ni)-of, cirog, food). Used to 
designate that member of a double fcetal 
monster that nourishes by its own organs 
the life of the other, called the parasite. 

Autosteth''oscope ( avrog, arifiog, the 
breast, aKo-rreo), to examine). A stetho- 
scope so arranged that one may by it listen 
to his own chest sounds. 

Auxocar''dia {av^?/, an increase, KapAia, 
the heart). The normal increase of the 
volume of the heart during diastole, in 
distinction from meiocardig._. the diminu 
tion during systole. 



AVA-KAVA 



63 



BACILLUS 



A'va-Ka''va. See A'ava-A'ara. 

Ave'na Sati'va. Oat. The einl ino of the 
seed of the common oat plant. Contains 
starch, gluten, a ferment calleil diastase and 
a small amount of alkaline phosphates. A 
nutritious food. The j^K-ricarp contains an 
alkaloiil with slight narcotic jx)wers. Unof. 

Av'ens Root. Tlie root of Gemn rivn/e. 
A tonic and astringent. Contains gallic and 
tannic acid. Dose of fld. ext. ^ss-j. Unof. 

Avoirdupois Weight (Fr., a-'oir, to have, 
JuJ'oiJs,oi weight). The common English 
weight u.sed for all commotlities e.\cept 
precious metals, gems and medicines. The 
pound is equal to 7000 grains Troy, or 
453.54 granmies, or 16 ounces. The 
ounce is divided into 16 drams, each of 
437.5 grains. See U'a'i^hfs a.nd Mcasiirt's. 

Avul'sion {avci/o, to clear away"). A 
traumatic or surgical tearing or wrenching 
away c>f a part, as a pt>lypus, a limb, cA-. 

Ax'ial Current. See J'oiseiiilh-'s Sparc. 

Axil'la ^duul'tful derivation). The armpit. 

Ax'illary. Pertaining to tlie axilla. A. 
Artery, the continuation of the subclavian 
artery, extending from the Ixjrder of the 
first ril) to the in.sertion of the pectoralis 
majfir muscle, where it becomes the bra- 
chial. A. Glands, the lymphatic glands 
of the axilla. A. Plexus, the brachial 
plexus formed by the last three cervical and 
the first dorsal ncr%es. A. Space, the 
irregular conical space of the axilla. A. 



Vein, a continuation of the brachial, cor- 
res|K)nding with the artery and terminating 
in the subclavian. 

Ax'is (a^wv, an axletree). An im.iginary 
line passing through the center of a body. 
Tlie second vertebra. A., Cerebro- 
spinal, the central ner\ous system. A. 
Cylinder (of a nerve), the conducting or 
essential part of a nerve lying in the 
centre and surrounded by the sheath, or 
sheath of Schwann. A., Optic, the line 
from the corneal ajxjx to the macula hitea. 
A., Visual, the line from the olijcct through 
the nodal point to the macula, — the two 
last are not identical. 

Azed'arach. The bark of J. vicHa. 
Occurs in curved pieces or (|uills, having a 
sweetish taste. The decoction, ^^ ij toOj, 
is a gastro-intestinal irritant and anthel- 
mintic. Unof. 

Azobsperm'ia (a, ^ux), life, a-spfia, seed). 
Want or deficient vitality of the sjierma- 
tozoids. 

Az'ote (n, C(jrj). A .synonym of nitrogen. 
Azotic acid, nitric acid. 

Azotu''ria (azotiim, nitrogen, itrina, the 
urine). An increase of the urea in the 
urine. 

Az^ygos (rt, C^'/'T, yoke). Ajijilied to 
jiarts that are single, not in j)airs. A. 
Uvulae, a small mu.scle of the uvula. A. 
Vein, a vein connecting the superior and 
inferior venix; cav:e. 



B 



B. In chemical terminology the symbol 

of I'oron. 
B. A. A contraction of balneum aqua-, a 

water-liath; also, of balnciivi airtuf, a 

sandliath. 
B. M. A contraction of balneum maris, 

a s< -a water i>ath. 
B. V. A contraction of balneum Z'aporis, 

a vai)orbath. 
Ba. 'Hie chemical symi<ol of barium. 
Bab^s Oven. .See 0-:',n. 
Ba'by-farm. An institution for raising 

orjihan and pau|)cr inf.-inls. 
Bac'chia {liachus, the go<l of wine). A 

synonym for acne rosacea, often found iu 

drunkards. 



BaciUlum (dim. of A/<7//«;w, a stick). A 
slick; a cylindrical troche; an instnuncnt 
for carr)'ing a .sponge ; the rods in the layer 
of rods and cones of the retina. 

Bacil'lus {bacillum, a little rod). The 
most im|xirtanl class pathogenically of the 
schizomycetes, schizophytes, or bacteria. 
They are microorganisnis, cylindrical or 
club-shaped, straight, mobile or immobile, 
and held to be (lirectly or indirectly the 
cau.se of many diseases. B. of Cancer, 
a fonn believed to be the sju'cilic cause of 
cancer, though cultures and inocukiiion 
exptriincnts are not delinitive. B. of 
Charbon. See /A .-///////<;< />( /I/ZV^). B. 
of Symptomatic Charbon. .See H.Chau- 



BACK-STROKE OF HEART 



64 



BAG OF WATERS 



vceiiyTable). B. of Cholera. SeeSpinl- 
lum CholetcE. Comma-Bacillus. See 
Spirilhiin Cholera:. B. of Green Diar- 
rhcEa of Infants ; Lesage has isolated a 
species whose pure culture products in 
animals a disease similar to that of the in- 
fant. B. of Diphtheria. Of a number 
isolated and believed pathogenic, the 
Krebs-Loffler variety is thought specific by 
Klein. B. of Epidemic Dysentery; 
inoculations upon animals of a B. isolated by 
Chautemasse and Widal seemed conclusive 
that it was the specific cause of the disease. 
B. of Glanders. ?>eeB.Ma/lei{Tabk),— 
proved specificity. B. of Hay, the B. Siib- 
tilis, not pathogenic. B. of Hog Cholera. 
See Table. B. of Jequirity, does not 
exist ; the ocular imtation being due to an 
alkaloid in the jequirity seed. B. Krebs- 
Lbffler, see B. of Diphtheria. B., Lac- 
tic. See B. Lacticiis ( Table). B . of Blue 
Milk. See B. Syncyanus ( Table). B. of 
Leprosy. Hansen and others have iso- 
lated a B. they believe specific, but inocu- 
lation experiments are not conclusive. B. 
of Malaria. Lemaire, Klebs and Crudeli, 
and others, have isolated forms believed by 
them to be specific. Laveran first, and 
Richard and Marchiafava and Celli found 
in the l^lood three forms of protozoa, one 
of which particularly produced intermit- 
tent fever by inoculation. B. of Blue 
Pus. See B. Fyocyatieus [Table). B. of 
Rhinoscleroma, probably the same as 
Micrococcus Pneiinwiiite, of doubtful spe- 
cificity. B. of Measles of Hogs (see 
Table), of proved specific nature. B. of 
Syphilis. Lustgarten first, and a number 
of others, have isolated a form believed 
specific, but no cultures have so far been 
successful. B. of Tetanus ; the l)acterial 
origin of this disease seems established by 
many observers, the B. discovered by Ni- 
colaier being the specific cause. B. of 
Tuberculosis. There seems to be no 
reason to doubt the specificity of Koch's 
B. B. of Typhoid, the typhic B. has 
not been isolated from the air, but has been 
isolated, and of its specific quality there is 
little remaining doubt. B. of Whoop- 
ing- Cough. Afanassieff believes an iso- 
lated form specific, and injections in ani- 
mals lends some support to the view. 

A Table of the chief characteristics of the 
principal B. is herewith appended (pp. 

65-74)- 
Back-stroke of the Heart. See Diastole. 
Bacte^ria {jiaKTrjpiov, a little staff). A 

generic tenn for microorganisms, or mi- 



crobes. According to Colin (1872), divisi- 
ble into four families, the Spherobacteria, 
Microbacteria, Desmobacteria and Spiro- 
bacteria. The classification of Zopf ranged 
all forms also in four classes : Coccacees 
(including Streptococcus, Micrococcus, 
Merismopedia, Sarcina and Ascococcus) ; 
Bacteriacees (including Bacterium, Spiril- 
lum, Vibrio, Leuconostoc, Bacillus and 
Clostridium) ; Leptothricees (including 
Leptothrix, Beggiatoa, Crenothrix and 
Phragmidiothrix) ; Cladothricees (Clado- 
thrix). Mace's classification gives three 
families : the Coccacees (including 4 gen- 
era, the Micrococcus, Sarcina, Ascococcus 
and Leuconostoc) ; the Bacteriacees (gen- 
era : Bacillus, Spirillum, Leptothrix and 
Cladothrix) ; the Beggiatoacees (with two 
genera, the Beggiatoa and Crenothrix). 

Bacteria''cees. The second family of the 
order of Bacteria or Schizomycetes ; the ele- 
ments are rod-shajjed, sometimes in short 
cylinders or in filaments, but the length 
always exceeding the breadth. Many have 
true endogenous spores. The following are 
the members of the family : The Bacillus, 
Spirillum, Leptothrix and Cladothrix. 

Bacte^ricide. See Germicide. 

Bacterid^ia. Davaine's designation of 
the Bacillus. 

Bacterid^ium. According to Davaine, a 
genus of Bacteriacees, characterized by 
immol)iKty of the elements at all periods 
of their existence. The distinction does 
not now obtain. 

BacterioKogy [(ianrripiov, 2,oyoq, science). 
The science of microorganisms. Bacterio- 
logical investigation consists in the study 
by the microscope of forms present, the 
artificial cultivation or culture of the same, 
and the study of the effects of pure cul- 
tures upon animals. 

Bacteriopur''purine. The coloring matter 
of Beggiatoa roseo-persicina, isolated and 
studied by Ray Lankester. Insoluble in 
water, alcohol, chloroform, ammonia, ace- 
tic and sulphuric acids, etc. 

Bacte^rium. An individual of the order 
of Bacteria. B. Chauvaei. See Bacil- 
lus ChauvcT-i. B. Chlorinum. See Ba^ 
cillus Chlorinus. B. Janthinum. See 
Bacillus Janthinus. B. Phosphores- 
cens. See Bacillus Phosphoreus. B. 
Termo. See Bacillus Termo. B.Xanthi- 
num. See Bacillus Synxa)ithus. [Table.) 

Bag of Waters. The foetal membranes 
enclosing the liquor amnii, projecting 
through the os uteri, which usually nip 
tares when the cervix is dilated. 







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ture ; buttery 
consistence. 






Culture 

white and 

opaque. 






"3 
O 




The gelatin 

becomes 

viscid. 




Rapid 

liquefaction ; 

whitish 

deposit. 




Jelly partly 

liquefied ; 

upper layers 

tinged with 

blue. 


Does not 

liquefy ; 
whitish semi- 
transparent 
culture. 


Does not 

liquefy; 

putrid odor. 


Does not 

liquefy ; 

nail-shaped 

culture. 


tn 

0) 

!2 
tn 




Colonies of 

whitish 

concentric 

rings, like a 

tortoise shell. 




Yellow-green 

small round 

colonies, 

quickly 

liquefying. 






Small, trans- 
parent islets 
with yellow- 
ish center and 
sinuous 
borders. 


Thin grayish, 
almost trans- 
parent, layer. 


Grayish 
convex 
colonies. 


< 

3 
< 

X 


u . 
.3 3 


Excrement 

and 

putrefying 

masses. 


Animals 
with symp- 
tomatic 
charbon. 




■a . 

■U 0) 

0) <u 

(I. 


1^ 
01 


Intestine of 
man and 
animals ; 
in water 

and earth. 


=1 


Saliva and 

coating of 

tongue. 




< 


3 

3 
U 


U 


> 

3 

u 

PQ 


3 
3 
'u 



!S 
u 

03 


B. Claviformis 
( Tyrotlirix 
claviformis). 


u5 

3 

0) 

"3 

H 
U 


E 




■■3 2 
U3 
E 
n 


V 

01 tn 

M3 

si 

pa 


1 

3 
a 

in 

tfl . 
3 tn 
tn 3 



66 



u 

o 

•V 

o 
i> 
75 
55 
















1 

0. 


'5 

o 


Agent of albu- 
minoid fer- 
mentation. 


Pathogenic. 




■?. 

0. 


u 
Q. 
a 


(fi 


Agent of albu- 
minoid fer- 
mentation. 








Aerobic. The 
rods die at 
90° to 95°; 
the spores 
at 100° to 
105°. 








1 
< 


Aerobic. The 
rods with- 
stand 100°; 
the spores 
110°. 




2i 

1' 


ii CO 

iH 

E 'O 
E " 




«.« 

tA . 
1=0 


en 

u 
t/3 


Thin mobile 
rods, growing 
often in fila- 
ments. Spores 
a dirty red. 




■§55 


Mobile rods. 
Spores ovoid, 
of same size. 


Cloudy 

liquid ■ 

greenish 

sediment. 




The dull 

liquid 

sooti 

becomes 

alkaline in 

reaction. 




At the sur- 
face small 

white 

scales with 

reddish 

center. 




Thickwhite 

velvety 

pellicle; 

cloudy 

liquid. 




Green 

culture 

covering 

surface. 








Layer 

reddish, 

then brown. 








"7, V 
*— ^ 










Numerous 
radial fila- 
ments from 
the central 
streak. 






Does not 
liquefy; 
greenish 
culture. 


Does not 
liquefy; 
culture 
whitish. 




1^ 


Does not 

liquefy ; 

whitish 

culture ; the 

jelly tinged 

green. 


Does not 

liquefy ; 

numerous 

whitish 

filaments in 

the jelly. 




1.^ 

■"3 


« 3 3'= 


Small 

whitish 

colonies ; do 

not liquefy. 




Small clear 

spots 

becoming 

yellowish, 

with darker 

center ; later 

they become 

whitish. 


Wrinkled 

whitish 

colonies with 

brown center. 


Whitish 
islets, with 
fine straight 
or curved 
prolonga- 
tions. 




Yellowish 

colonies with 

darker 

center ; 

hyaline 

surface cells. 


Intestine of 
infant. 


Diphthe- 
ritic false 
membrane. 


Fermenl- 
Caseine. 


(A 

1 


< 


< 


Ferment- 
ing 
Caseine. 


< 


is 

A 1 


K 

•c 

V 

o. 
ai ; 


3 Cv 

2 la 

.2,^-5 


<j 
B . 

4) >. 

n 


i 



u 
x: 

«-* 

t- . 

u 

n 


in 

c 

S2 

£ 

n 


B. Filiformis 
( Tvrothrix 
ji/t/oi-niis). 


B. Fitzianus. 



C7 





(/} 










• ^^ 


• • 




z 

>-2 










3 3 


do 














— J3 
















01 oT3 


*j CIS 




z > 










3 3 A 


c c 




D a! 










dj.S^ 


(U.i3 




03 U 










E oj-— 


E i> 




CO 










&3i5 


b«3 




O 










IX 


E 




















u 








>^ . 










_o 


_o 


_o 


s§ 









'^ S 


'-t-* 




'■*-» 


_o 


■^ 







>% 


>> 


>. 


0-- 


's 


>i 


_„^ 




Si 


/= 


* 


~3 


<u 


Si 


"§ 

s 


s 


a 
o 

u 


& 


3 V 


be 


Xi 


0. 

u 


> 


a 


a 


o. 


£ S 


■*-» 


ft 


8 


X 


rt 


rt 


rt 


C3 


rt 


■•« 


D-, 


(/) 


t/3 


[/2 


< 


a< 


U3 


S 

e 


z < ■ 








-M 01 

.2S 






— 








•a a^- 








"fcz5 
R o w a 

i PS 








m'"^^ 






1— 1 








3o '^ 

•— o *-• 






kJ 


5 X 








<L> CO rt 








O 








O 








,/" "^ 


>. . 


O 


' ^ a. 


j: ' 


00 


<; 


CO 

Id 


•S^ 


U3 D 




rt u o 


.t; X 


►-t 


m 


J 


o o 


o 


"-i 


— s " 


^ ^ 


-i 


< 

H 
Pi 

1— ( 

w 
Pi 


D 
J 

U 

u 

Id 
X 
H 




O 0) 


a; tn oj 

> 3 ^ M 

Vh (U ^ 3 
3 ££'^ 
U 


V — 

t: 5 s 
p 1- 






c 
_o 

'3 
o 

m 




T3 '-^ •- >^ E ^ V 
•JTTD en — E ?^ O 


TJ — ^ 
111 


•::.? cL) ;;; 

13 IC 






o 




















6 




3 :>. ?* u. 


^-Mbi 




^cl . 


rt 




H 
3 


B 
o 

Oh 




•S^O (LI 


IS'E'n 

(A be 




tu rr: -^ 




U 
















^ 




U 


(/) 








. 


o 
u 

t-H 

H 


U 
X 
h 

[I. 


u 

p 

01 


O 


<1> 

3 

E 


Is. 

^ 3 = 
o So 


>■ •" 2 i- 




•T3 

II 


iioo 
— ■ o"r 


Pi 






•- 1 Vh 






i*-. 


^ 


w 

H 

< 
Pi 
< 

u 

H-l 
U 


S 

w 

H 
U 
< 

< 

u 


5 
"3 

O 




C.2 o . 
« ^ S S u 


u 






mm 

a, 
3 


s 3 u ^i";; 






•d-a . 




■B • '^ 










m 


"1 o !i-- 


•C m 3 ■ ■ 


gl-«^S^^i3 






j; 01 01 01 3 • 

3 (u 3 hr >,^ 






O O m 3 




:r m O U_Q „-T3 r; O 

« tU 3t3 3 O « CJ ?i 




llilfll 


HH 

Pi 






^T3 










h 






TJ . 


"ti U 


tn . 




Ph 










E^-3 


5^1 

3 a 










2 ^ 


c 

(U 


in (-0 

3 ;^ s 












<v S 


■*-' -t^ -Vl 




oi 

3 

c 

■— > 




w 
< 


3 


0- — 


^1 


■3S1 
'3^5 


01 

3 


■3 








n 


m~ 


PQ 


n 


n 


pq 



68 



f S2 

- C 3 

= -•« 

u 







u 
•3 . 

c 

Bl.S 

.2 2 
OS 




1 

= 
— j= 


c - 

!;._ 

Bji 
Un 




The rods are 
divided into 
short joints, 
each with a 
spore. 




o - 

^_. s 

? « « 

< 


(J 

tic 


*-* 




1 




j= 

Q. 


u 

a 

tn 




>^ 

a 


u 

a 
« 




c 

be 


Cu 


cu 

£ 

a 
n 
I/} 




lo 
o 

u 
-■« 

< 




is 

i2 
J' 






2 

••OJ 

<: 






Short immobile 
rods, 1.7 by 0.6 


1.^ = 

re N — 
|2i 

1^6 = 
— c 


IS 

c --r-^ 

tfl'w ^ 

« i 
OS 


u 
> 

£^ 

♦-» -^ 

t: 

is 


a 

p 

»— 1 


5i 




i 
en" "O 

ii "^ 

li 
s 














« in 








U S 71 ? j^ 




t J,-o"ll« 

a.5 o.5t3 

U) H "" P 1* 




£ c u 5-6 


lit 

— 3 

i1 


01 i> efl 3 . 
■0'5 m 




Us 

§15 


0-" 









u 1; 
■;: 3 

n 




Ills 

■I- ! 


V'.'.f -r— • 

Z*-.' ■; ;2 y 

<" a -^ - ^ 

u 




en 

V 

3 




• 


<n . 

3 '-> 




b..l 

i »i Z = ' 

S S'-f J = i, 
</■' '^ * s j! i; 


m 

IV j 

1 






en 

C §• 










"1 

illlJi 

-5 = *l 




< 


< 


V) (n 

3 "2 


< 


u 


u 

1 


V 

tfi . 

^ H 

03 




i 
1 




•a 

n 


B 

9 
■c 

M 

a 

n 


6 

c 

n 



(i!J 



c3 



o 

< 

H 

H 
O 

I— I 

W 
Pi 
O 



w 

H 
O 

U 
H 

P^ 

w 

H 
U 

<; 
Pi 

< 

u 

I— I 

u 

Pi 





(A 

z 








^ ?! 




5 a 




. o 








3 t« „; 








p <: 
z > 








•=.:e 




.— < CO (^ 




D Bi 








« 4)t3 , 














— E<c 




<n C 




o 








M 




ft 




< 
















u 


















u 


_o 


3 











8§ 




'■*-» 


ft 


.y 




_u 


u 


p*» 


p^ 


<*-< l-» 


'5 


■?. 


'c 


J2 


25 


^ 


J3 


o§ 


<u 


j:: 


(U 


(11 


a 


0. 


be 


ft 


M 


M 




0. 


s 






■*-» 



u 

ft 








X 


ca 


a 


rt 


rt 


rt 


ta 


o, 


Ifi 


m 


< 


O, 


m 


ft 


ft 


Q 
















U < . 
















Z h 
















Wfc Z < 


d 


• 



d 










D o W U 

[I. >■" 

Z X 



















2 



IB 


u 

01 










'^ o 


< 


< 


< 










y5 


M 


M 





uT'l 


V >> 


■U . 


"2 


M 


IH 


ni 


■*-• 


T3 


— ^ 


c 6 u 




ELLULl 


■Si 
o\ 


o\ 


■c i 

2^. 




02 


«^3 


5 




u 


v-^ 


<U-^ 


"Z 


2 N 


(p S; « 


•"^^ 


•s_^ 


w 


C ♦J 


•§2 


ro 


d 

E^o 


(n.y 

■U J .• 


cn.ii 

+-• 


H 


s 


s 


S 


c 


> 


Di 


05 




a 




1 -aTJ^ 














o 




Ci ^ dj oj^ • 
















Q^ji: Z— u 














ra 




u^ « 3 rt 












h 

u 

w 

X 
h 


■3 






















fill?? 

,': i; -' -K b 






•CT3 . 

jr 3 g 
^E- 


rr ^ (J c 

£■3 3 rt 






^ 


> 

















•Sii"S 




•0^ o.iS d 


^ 


^ 0) 

1^ 




b 
O 

in 
y 








C^ > 

s^ 






P 

H 
h 

< 




> 






u 











(LI 

3 

a" 


3 


lif.E S & 


(LI r' 
.M 3 u,.5 


tf3 . 

3 y 

2*3 


>> 

^ . 

ES 

rt 3 


cnci'-'-g 


< 

X 
V 


J 


2 


£ ft 




JO* 


CU CJ 


be 


01 


S^ c cu £ 

> 


5 CT) M v. 

^ ■% S <" .E tn S" • 


> m rt 

■Si 2^ 
3 fc- '^ 

w 

u 


-4J , 

^ c/) OJ (U 

2:53-5 


^c/>2° . 

c^IIeSs 

TO rj — • >. 

c 


s. -IS 

tfl tfl c 
<— *J ^ D 

I- (n K-. 


*-» . 

^I'eI 

U&28 
ft 








1 " 


U) 






-t3 


< 

h 

n 


< 


< 


i" r c c« 
i '5 t;; 


J, 3 




03 cn 

•En 

a; g 


(U 

3:;: 
^ 3 






3-z; rtX3 
o< 3 

en 


■*-' .— 

3 — 
ft 


U 


C 

« 


C 




, 


■ (n 












■< 


Qj tn 

S3 


•C3 
^3 


■2 S ? 


ft 

(L) 

cn 

Is 


(U 

-a 
'S 


2 

ft 
« . 
OJ ,n 


cn 
u> 3 
3 cn 

2-e 

u 




u 


. 









c 


ft 






m 


n 


pq"" 


m 


n 


n 


m 



70 



Light very 
weak below 
30°, and dis- 
appears at 10°. 








Produces blue 
crystalli/alilo 
pyo-cyanine. 




Is 

1- 

3 
Tl — 
— 3 

u 
b 




Brick-red spots 
upon cooked 
rice. 






R 

M 

3 

C 


0. 


c 
u 



Ol. 




u 



6 



u 




1 

■*-» 
a 
Cu 




'S 



X 

*.* 

<2 




0. 





"5 


u 

•a 
'0 

Jl 

< 


(J 

1 

< 








ASrobic or 
facultative 
anaerobia. 








>> 

C N 






u 
< 


Very mobile 
rods, 1. 15 to 
1.75 by 0.45 jx- 


•Si 

IE 

C M 
£0 






Short, very mo- 
bile rods, I to 
1.5 by 0.6 m- 


Rods slowly mo- 
bile, 1.45 by 
0.58 M- 


00 


° i 




Rods 6 to 8 by 
I fi. Very mo- 
bile. 


Short elliptical 
rods, I to 1.5 
by 0.6 jn, with 
capsule. 


Short rods, slow- 
ly movable, 2 
by 1. 1 jit. 


Cloudy, 

thin vail 

on the 

surface. 






Thick 
mem- 
brane ; 
creamy 
at the 
surface. 


Greenish 

cloud ; 

dry, 

friable 

pellicle. 




Quickly 
clouds. 
Slight 

deposits. 




Whitish 
weak 
cloud. 


Fragile 

pellicle 

adhering 

to the sides. 


Thin 

white 

culture. 




Thick, 
slightly 
reudish 

layer. 


Gelatinous 
masses of 

almost 
cartilagi- 
nous con- 
sistency. 


Brownish 

mucoid 

layer ; the 

medium 
green. 


Brown, 

clear 

lu,\uriant 

culture. 










0" 


Milky spot 
with cut 
bortlers. 






Mucoid, 

grayish, 

nacreous 

layer; the 

jelly green, 

then brown. 


Grayish 
band. 


Small 
whitish 
colonies. 




U5 




Cupuliform 
depression, 

then 
liquetaction. 


Does not 
hquefy ; 

thin 
whitish 
culture. 


Liouefies 

rapidly ; thick 

sediment. 




Liq'iefies. 

The liquitl 

becomes 

greenish. 


Grayish, 

mucoid, 

transparent 

layer. 


Does not 

liquefy ; 

flocculent 

cloud about 

the point. 








Brownish 

colonies, 

liquefying 

the gelatine. 




Granular 

colonies 

surrounded 

by radial 

filaments. 




Small round 
yellowish 

colonies ; the 

jelly becomes 

greenish. 


Gray spots, 
almost trans- 
parent at the 
borders. 


Small 
flocculent 
colonies. 








u 
B 

1 


i 


rt 

It 

E2 

0. 




in 

3 
& 


3 

a 


Pus of a 

fetid 
abscess. 


c 


< 


Normal or 
pathologi- 
cal saliva. 


U. 


A 

u 


X 

& 
X = 

» 


It 


3 

s 
2 

c . 
= 2 


B. Polymyxa. 


c 

3 

si 


8 

n 


1 


C 

v 
X> 
3 
Oi 

n 


in 

a 

« 3 

CO 


B Scaber 
( Tyrothrix 
scaber). 



71 



-S 



1-1 
I— ( 

< 
m 

o 



pi; 
o 



o 

in 
U 

H 

I— I 
Pi 
H 

U 

<: 
Pi 
< 

o 

«1 

Ph 

I— I 

o 

P< 

Ph 





• 








tr 


-^ 






>«-t3 


>2 










rt 






1) 








a 


u 






*^ 








cd 








^ "TT 


« H 








i_ • 








ca 


c ■>: 










a^ 






ft" 


z > 








>•! 








3 o! 








.^ u 






v-^ <j 


CD W 








•- 2 


„ 






j;— 3 










U b« 


_ 0. 

^ in 






§:E3 


o 








> 


U 






D 


J 








_o 







>— IS ' 


< 








'n 


'S 




c 


o 








0) 


£ 




_ iJ^ 


§§■ 


"a 


"S 




'5 


M 


J3 


J3 • 


u 
>> 


•— .— a 


s 


<u 


u 


11 




~ C 


j: 


■" ft . ,: 


M 


M 


M 


rtu' 


rt 


a 


<" ^-■- 


o 


O 

J3 





p4 u 





a 


'- 3 :; c 




^ 


rt 


c u 


cs 

2;, 


cij2 c M 


Oh 


a. 


a. 


a, 


(« 


[fi 


« g 
















i ^H 




o 












^(i, z < 


• 


2 









d 




1 ^ 




o 












'2 


u 


S 






2 




2 

■•0) 


a 


2 








u 




" o 


< 


< 


<; 






< 




en 


1) ^o 

" 6 






^> 


in bi 


22g 


>,->j-in u 

^- u-a 


U 






S 


e 


2>,Win 


3 
J 
J 













„ " ftrt 

■"3 ii'x: 


u 

u 
x 


-00 

o 


E-^ 


^3 


E-Q 




">S?5 3 


<Uu2 


Jc 


I'' 


10 in 


CJ3 oiT: 


H 


> 


S 


S 


tt! 




_^ 












, 






(I. 










.■a >;3~ 
















x: I- c rt 


■- 3 3 3 




3 

o 










s'r 


1=^1^ 


d 
13 


i.y i; o 


en 








:§itli 


-^ in 


H 

D 


o 


§^51 


3 ojSt;; 

D4 en 








^>m 


u 

u 
a 

h 

(I. 
o 

u 
p 

2 


















"a; 
O 


5= 


c ^ w 

E^-2 

^"8 




c 
I' . 

ti 5 01 >- _- - 




rt 0) c 
0|^^ 


U t, u 

>^ ft*^ 333 
t3-^IS| 

0- ft 


_n 












in 

iS>. 


M 
in p *j 

•i: 3-3 


u 

< 

X 

u 






^5 


u) i; 3 

a*., 
Q = | 


>- 




=1 

J"" 




,' >. 












■S c a-" 






„ 1- ^J2-S be 




I- j:^ 






M . 


•2 .- 3 M . 




55 


O I- — 




S S (« 






^ (L) n y^ 

CO.— ^>. ^M 

£ cl cu 


. — in his 1- 3 >» 

X <U 3T3^-= = 

1 ^E-^- 


H 


O 0*0 


"5 in ^< 

5 OS 




c . 


c . 


■« ,• 


^' 


< 


r: (U 


t« at; 


J3 


rt in 


a! m 


c « 


E 

lU 


3 




•SoE 




5^ 


Eji 


nil 

■5? 


< 
X 






w 


3 

5 




SSg) 












en 


w 
s 




3 


si 

a.5f 


m 


1-1 


wi 


3 
C 




;z; 


*.*- en c3 


0. 


1 


!.!= 


J3 
3 






°rE 


w 


TO 


t^ 


'^E 


t/) 


(/) 






m 


m 


f^ 


M 


m 




M 


m 



72 



irjis 








JL bo 

SI 


-^5 




•0 ' ' 

" s ?. 


1 • 










2i 




u a> v 

3 
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74 



BAIN-MARIE 



75 



BANDAGE 



Bain-Mahe (Fr.). An instrument for 
immersing solutions, microorgiiuisms, etc., 
in water or chemical solutions, thus keep- 
ing them at a desired temi^)erature. 

Bakers' Itch. An ec/ematous alTection 
uf the hands, caused by the irritation of 
the yeast. 

Bakers' Salt. A synonym for smelling 
salts, or the subcarbonate of ammonia. 

Bal'anic. Pertaining to the gland of the 
[Kiiis or clitoris. 

Balani'tis ( Jti/<irof, ghuis penis, tnq, in- 
flammationV Inflammation of the glans 
penis, sometimes called Balano-poithitis. 
Phimosis is a frequent complication. See 
Posthitis. 

Balanoplas'ty (.?n?rti'Of ; T?.aff(ra),toform). 
Plastic surgery of the glans penis. 

Bal'anus (Ja}aiof, an acorn). The glans 
ixriiis or glans clitoridis. 

Balbu'ties [l>albutio, to stammer). Stam- 
mering. 

Bald. Wanting hair. A term applied to 
one who has lo>t the hair of the scalp. 

Bald^ness. Aloj^ecia, whether congenital 
or acquired. When the loss of hair is 
circumscribed it is called tinea decalvans ; 
when general, it is called alopecia. Senile 
baldness is called calvities. Premature 
haltiiiess is caused by disease. 

Ball-and-Socket Joint. See Diart/irosis. 

Ballotte'ment (Kr. from A?//.)/'/^', a ball). 
.\ method of diagnosticating pregnancy 
from the fourth to the eighth month. A 
push is given the uterus by the finger in- 
serted into the vagina, and if the fnetus 
be present, it will move up and fall again 
like a heas-y Ixxly in water. 

Balm {balsam urn, a balsam). A popular 
synonjTn of bal.uimum. Any soothing 
application or ointment. B. of Gilead. 
See Balsam. See also Melissa. 

Bal'mony. The herb Chelone glabra. 
Cathartic and anthelmintic. Dose of fid. 
cxt. "3^ ss-j. Chelonin, the concentrated 
ext. Dose gr. j-iv. Unof. 

Balned'ogy {Balneum, a bath, ?o}or, a 
treatise). The science of baths and their 
cTfccis u|)on the sy^t^•m. 

Balneother''apy [/alneum, Oepaireia, heal- 
ing). Systematic bathing for therapeutical 
purposes. 

Bal'neum. A bath. See BatA. 

BaKsam {3a/frii/ioi'). The resinous, vola- 
lili-, aromatic vcgi-table substance, li(|uid or 
concrete, obtained fnjm certain trees by 
natural exudation or by artificial extraction. 
Bnlsams are divided into two clas.scs, those 
with, and those without l>en/oic and cin- 



naniic acids. In general they are mixtures 
of various essential oils, resins and acids. 
B., Canada ; a turpentine gathered from 
the natural blisters of the bark of j^bies 
balsamutn. It is much used as a mounting 
medium by microscopists. B. of Copaiba. 
See Copaiba. B. of Fir. Same as 
Canada Balsam. B., Friar's. See Ben- 
zoin. B. of Gilead ; the balm of the Old 
Testament, an oleo-resin obtained from 
the Balsainodendron Gileadcnsc. B. of 
Peru ; the balsam obtained from Myro.vy- 
lon pereinc, antiseptic ; stimulant to cir- 
culation, and sedative to nervous system. 
Generally a tonic, and expectorant in 
bronchitis. Applied locally is useful in 
chronic intlammalory skin diseases. Dose 
of the emulsion rt\^x-xxv. B. of Tolu- 
tan, or of Tolu, obtained from Myroxy- 
Ion tolufera. Properties due to a volatile 
oil, toluene. Possesses an agreeal)le odor, 
and is a basis for many cough mixtures. 
A fair expectorant. The tincture contains 
lo per cent, of the balsam in 90 per cent, 
of alcohol. Dose ITLx-xxx. The syrup, 
balsam 4 parts ; simple syrup 96. Dose 

Bamboo'' Brier. The root of Smilax 
sarsaparilla. Habitat, Southern Slates. 
Properties identical with those of sarsa- 
parilla. Dose of the fld. ext. 3ss-ij. 
Unof. 

Banan'a. The root of the common banana, 
JSIusa sapientum. .Said to be a valuable 
alterative, and useful in strumous aflec- 
tions. Dose of the fid. ext. n\^x-xxx. 
Unof. 

Band'age. Bandages are usually strips of 
muslin or other material of var\-ing widths 
and lengths used in surgery for the pur- 
jx)se of protecting, compressing, etc., a part, 
or for the retention of dressings and appli- 
cations. A simple bandage or roller con- 
sists of one piece ; a compound, of two or 
more pieces. According to their tlircciion 
they are classed as: i. OV(7//ar, circular 
turns alx»ut the part. 2. /-igurr-of-S, the 
turns crossing each other like that figure. 
3. Oblique, covering the i>art by oblique 
turns. 4. Recurrent, the turns leturiiing 
successively to the jx)int of origin. 5. Spica, 
the turns resembling the arrangement of 
the husks of an ear of corn. 6. Spiral, 
each turn covering one-half of the pieced- 
ing. 7. Spiral reverse, the bandage is re- 
versed in order to beltrr a<la|>t it to the 
part. Handages are alsocl:is>etl according 
to the |)art to which they are applied. Of 
Bandages of the head we have : i. Cir- 



BANDAGE 



76 



BAPTOTHECORRHCEA 



cular, of the forehead, to retain dressings 
to the head. 2. Circular, of the eyes. 3. 
Crossed, of the eyes, to hold dressings to one 
or both eyes. 4. Crossed, of the atigle of the 
jaiv, to support the parts in fracture of the 
angle of the jaw. 5. Knotted, of the head, 
a double-headed roller with compress, to 
make compression in wound of the tem- 
poral artery. 6. Recurre^it, of the head, 
single- or double-headed roller, to retain 
dressings to the head. 7. Gibson's, for the 
body of the lower jaw, to support the parts 
in fracture. 8. Rhea Barton's, for the same 
purpose. Of Bandages of the trunk 
there are: I. Circular, of the neck. 2. Fig- 
ure-of-8, of the neck and axilla, to retain 
dressings over the shoulder or in the axilla. 
3. Anterior figure-ofS, of chest, to draw 
the shoulder forward and to retain dressings 
on the anterior surface of the chest. 4. 
Posterior figure-of-8 , of chest, to draw the 
shoulders back in fractured clavicle, or to 
retain dressings on posterior part of chest. 
5. Crossed, of one or both breasts, to support 
the breasts in excessive lactation or in 
mammary disease. 6. Spica, of shoulder, 
to retain the head of the humerus in place 
after dislocation. 7. Spiral, of the chest, \.o 
make compression in fracture of the ster- 
num or ribs. 8. Circular, of the abdomen, 
to support the abdominal walls. 9. Spiral, 
of the abdomen, \.o compress the abdominal 
walls or retain dressings. 10. Spica, of one 
or both groins, to compress gi-oin or retain 
dressings. 11. Spiral reverse, of the penis, \.o 
retain dressings to the organ. The Band- 
ages of the hand are : i. T\i& Spiral, 
of the finger. 2. Spiral, of all the fingers, 
or gauntlet. 3. Spiral, of palm, or denii- 
gaunth't. 4. Spica, of thttmb — all used in 
cases of fracture or to retain dressings. 
The Bandages of the arm are: I. The 
Circular, of the wrist. 2. Figure-ofS, of 
7vrist, to compress the joint or retain dress- 
ings. 3. Figure-ofS, of elbow. 4. Circular, 
of arm or foreann. 5. Oblique, of arm or 
forear7n. 6. Spiral, of arm, to retain dress- 
ings. 7. Spiral reverse, of upper extremity, 
to support the arm in dislocations, fractures, 
etc. The Bandages of the lower ex- 
tremity are : I. Figure-of-S, of ankle, to 
cover the part or retain dressings. 2. Figure- 
ofS, of knee, to cover the same or compress 
it. 3. Figure-of-S, of thighs, to compress the 
same after wounds or operations. 4. Spica, 
^ zw/(/, to compress the parts. 5. Spiral 
retierse, of whole lower extremity, to sup- 
port the limb after fracture, etc. B. of 
Scultetus, a compound bandage, similar 



to a spiral reverse in appearance and 
action, used in compound fractures, so 
that the short pieces of which it is com- 
posed may be removed without motion of 
the limb. B., Recurrent, for stumps, 
is used after amputations, to support the 
flaps. Velpeau's B. is used to sup- 
port the arm in fracture of the clavicle, the 
neck, or acromion process of the scapula. 
The hand of the injured side being placed 
on the sound shoulder an oblique turn 
is made from the axilla of the sound side 
across the back of the chest to the shoulder 
covering the fracture, down under the 
elbow in front to axilla of sound side, 
then across the back over the outside of the 
point of elbow to axilla of sound side, thus 
continuing the oblique and circular turns 
alternately and advancing over the arm till 
it is held firmly. Desault's Apparatus 
consists of an axillary pad held by tapes 
aliout the neck, a sling for the hand, and 
two single-headed rollers. The foreann is at 
right angles with the humerus, held in place 
by many circular and oblique turns about 
the shoulder and body. T-Bandages are 
compound, and resemble that letter ; the 
menstrual napkin is an example. Starch, 
Plaster-of- Paris, Silica, Dextrine, Tripo- 
lith, etc., etc., are used or recommended 
for making a stiff and immovable dressing 
or bandage. 

Bandl, Ring of. The superior limit of 
the cervical canal, in pregnancy at a level 
with the pelvic inlet, marking the bound- 
ary between the lower uterine segment and 
the rest of the uterus. 

Band^oline. See Cydonium. 

Bang or Bangue. See Cannabis Tndica. 

Bant^ingism. (From name of the in- 
ventor.) A method proposed for the re- 
duction of corpulence, by abstinence from 
saccharine and farinaceous foods. 

Baptis''ia. Wild Indigo. The root bark 
of B. tinctoria. Properties due to an im- 
pure resin, the so-called Baptisin. Laxa- 
tive and stimulant in moderate doses; 
emetic and cathartic in large doses. Valu- 
able in amenorrhcea, typhus and ty])hoid 
fevers. Excellent for local apjilication to 
indolent ulcers and gangrenous .sores. B. 
Extract. Dose gr. j-x. B. Ext. Fid. 
Dose rrLij-xx. B. Tinct. Dose ttlv-xxx. 
Dose of the resin gr. j-v. All unof. 

Baptorrhce^a [(iaivro^, infected, pfw, to 
flow). A generic term for any infectious 
discharge from a mucous surface. 

Baptothecorrhce''a (/JaTrrof, Otjkjj, vagina, 
pe<j). Gonorrhcea in woman. 



\ 



BAR.ESTIIESIOMETER 



77 



BASILAR 



Baraesthesiom'eter (.Jopof, weight, aia- 
Oqaiq, perception by the senses, fi^rpov, a 
measure). An instrument for estimating 
the sense of pressure in disturbances of 
sensibility. 

Barba'does Leg. See Elephantiasis 
Arabuin. 

Bar'berry. See Berbcrin. 

Bar'biers. A paralytic afTection common 
in India. Confounded with l)eriberi. 

Bar'egine. Colonies of bi-;^giatoa floating 
in the waters of suljihur springs. 

Ba'rium (.iw/jif, heavy). 13a = 136. S; 
Huantivalence II. A metal of the alkaline 
group, of pale yellow color, characterized 
by strong attinity for oxygen. Neither the 
metal nor its salts are employd in nudi- 
cine; all are poisonous. B. Carbonate, 
used in llie preparation of the chloride. 
B. Chloride, soluble, used as a reagent. 
B. Monohydrate, caustic baiyta reagent. 
B. Oxide, baiyta. B. Sulphate, used as 
a |)igmcnt. All unof. 

Bark. The cortex or covering surrounding 
the wood of exogens. Sometimes used 
as a sjnionsTn for cinchona or calisaya 
bark. 

Bar'ley (Welsh, bara Ifys, bread-plant). A 
cereal belonging to the order Graminea: ; 
the most common variety, Hordcum dis- 
ticiion, is much used as a food, and also 
in the prejiaration of malt. B., Pearl, 
is the decorticated grain rounded and \Kt\- 
ished. B. Water, decoct h in hordci, a 
decoction consisting of 2 ozs. of Pearl ]}. 
boiled in I '/j ])ints of water and afterward 
strained. B. Sugar, saccharum liordca- 
tuin ; practically a glucose. .Apijlied also 
to an amorphous mass obtained by melting 
cane sugar. 

Barom''eter {,3apoc, weight, furpnv, a meas- 
ure). An instrument for determining 
weight and tension of the atmosphere, it 
consists essentially of a glass tube atjout 36 
inches long, closed at one end, fdled with 
mercury, and inverted in a basin of mer- 
cury. The mercury will sink in the tube 
until it rests at a height of alxjiit 30 inches 
at the .sea level, the height varying as the 
atmosjjheric pressure incna.ses or dimin- 
ishes. B., Aneroid, a metallic lx)x from 
which the air has licen exhausted, the ten- 
sion l>eing indicated by the c<jllapsing or 
bulging of (he tliin corrugated cover, which 
is connect'-d with a movable index. 
Bar'oscope (iia(n>r, amtTiu, to observe). 
/\ti instrument used ff)r determining the 
loss of weight of a lKj<ly in air, compared 
with iL> weight in a vacuum. A form of 



baroscope was invented by Esbach for the 
([uantitative determination of urea. 

Baros'ma [fiapog, oofia, smell). A plant 
of the order A'/itaccn-, native to Cape of 
Cood Hope and vicinity ; several species 
of which yield the Huchu of commerce. 

Bar'renness. Sterility in the female. 

Bartholi'ni's Glands. See Gland. 

Barton's Bandage. See Bandage. 

Barton's Fracture. See Fracture. 

Baryglos'sia {,vipog, ■)}.Ljaaa, a tongue). 
1 hick, slow utterance. 

Baryphonia {jidpug, <jnjvi], a voice). A 
ditticulty of speech. 

Bary'ta, or Bary'tes. See Barium. 

Ba'sal. rcrtiiining to or located at the 
l>ase. B. Ganglia. See Ganglion. 

Bascula^tion [¥r. bascu/cr, to swing). 
The movement by which retroversion of 
the uterus is corrected when the fundus 
is pressed upward and the cervi.x drawn 
downward. 

Bascule Movement [Vr. bascule, a.svi'mg). 
The recoil of the heart in its systolic motion. 

Base [(Saai;, a foundation). The lower 
part, as, the base of the brain. In c/iem- 
istry, an element or radical which com- 
bines with an acid to form a salt. The 
electro-positive molecule or radical of a 
compound. In dentistry, the plate upon 
w-hich artificial teeth are held. In phar- 
macy, the most important ])art of the j^re- 
scription. B., Organic, a term including 
a large number of organic com])ounds, 
especially nitrogen comjxjunds, which, like 
anmionium, unite with acids to fonn salts. 
They are conmionly called alkaloids. 

Ba'sedow's Disease. An exophthalmic 
bronchocele ; called, also. Exophthalmic 
(ioitre, and Craves' Disease. See Goitre. 

Ba'sham's Mixture. See Ferrum. 

Ba'sic. Having jirojierties the opposite of 
those of aci<ls. An acid capable of uniting 
with a single monad atom or radical is 
called monobasic. One which will unite 
with two monad or one dyad atom or radi- 
cal, etc., is .said to be dibasic. This meas- 
ure of the power of an acid is called its 
basicity. 
Basidiomycc'tes {pnair, a sli'p, /'|'^"';, a 
mashroom). A jjarasitic, microscopic fun- 
gus develo|)cd on the leaves of grasses; 
the cereal rust. 

Basihy'al. The two Ixines, one on each 
siilc, wiiieh (i)rni the prinLi|)al lionesof the 
hynid arch. 
Bas^ilar [basiliiris). IVrlainiiig to the base, 
u.sually of the skull. B. Artery, the lu-lery 
cxteudiug along the Ijorder of the Tons \'a- 



BASILIC 



78 



BAYCURU 



rolii, which supplies the Pineal Gland, and 
the valve of Vieussens. B. Aspect, the 
vievi' of the head looking toward the base 
of the skull. B. Membrane, a mem- 
branous division-wall separating the scala 
vestibuli from the scala tympani extending 
from the base to the apex of the cochlea 
and supporting the organ of Corti. 

BasiKic {^iSaai'liKug, royal). Any structure 
or medicine of importance (obsolescent). 
B. Vein, a large vein of the arm on the 
inner side of the biceps. 

BasiFicon Ointment. An ointment com- 
posed of yellow wax, yellow resin, and 
Burgundy pitch aa I lb., olive oil fl. 
5xvj, to which, when melted, turpentine 
5 iij are added. Called also the " four 
drug " ointment. There are several other 
ointments bearing this name. 

Ba^silyst [j^aaig, a base, ?,vacg, a loosen- 
ing). An instrument for use in crani- 
otomy, designed to perforate the cranial 
vault and break up the base of the skull. 

Basi-occip^ital (/ioa/f, occipitalis os). A 
bone, separate in many of the lower ver- 
tebrate animals, forming the central axis 
of the skull. 

Ba^sio-glos''sus. That part of the hyo- 
glossus muscle which is attached to the 
hyoid bone. 

Ba^sion. See Skull. 

Ba^siotribe {fiaaiq, rpilSu, to grind or 
crush). An instrument used in craniotomy 
for perforating or crushing the foetal 
head. 

Basiot^ripsy. The operation of crushing 
the foetal head. 

Ba^sis. Base, ^. v. The Latinized form 
is used to designate the lower or funda- 
mental part of any organ, as £. Cerebri, 
B. Cordce, etc. 

Basi-sphen^oid. The lower part of the 
sphenoid bone. 

Bass-deafness. Deafness to certain 
bass-notes, the perception of the higher 
notes being retained. 

Bas^sorin. The active principle of Bas- 
sora gum. It is an inodorous, white, 
translucent substance becoming gelatinous 
in water. Used to adulterate gum traga- 
canth. 

Bast (Sax. bcest^ a lime tree). The inner 
bark of exogenous plants. The fibrous 
parts of the bark which are used in mak- 
ing cordage. 

Bath (balneum). A bathing place or 
room. The medium in which the body 
is wholly or partly immersed. As thera- 
peutic agents, baths are classified accord- 



ing, as water, vapor, air, etc. is used; 
according to the temperature, as hot, tem- 
perate, cold, etc. ; according to the end de- 
sired, as Jiutritional, medicinal, stimulant, 
etc. B., Chemical, in chemistry, an ap- 
paratus for regulating the temperature of 
chemical processes by surrounding the 
substance with water, sand, oil or mer- 
cury, through which the heat is communi- 
cated. B., Hot Air, one in which the 
body is surrounded by air at a temperature 
of ioo°-i30° F. Used as a sweating bath. 
B., Medicated, a bath in which medicinal 
substances, as mineral salt, sulphur, etc., are 
dissolved or held in suspension. B., 
Pack, or Sheet, one in which the body is 
wrapped in cloths. B., Russian, one in 
which the air of the room is saturated 
with steam by throwing water upon heated 
mineral or metallic substance, after which 
the bather is rubbed down, finishing with 
a cold douche. B., Sea, a bath in sea- 
water. B., Shower, or Douche, one in 
which a fine spray is projected against the 
body. B., Turkish, one in which the 
bather is placed successively in rooms of 
higher temperature, then shampooed or 
rubbed and finally stimulated by a douche 
of cold water. B., Vapor, one in which 
the body is exposed to air saturated with 
steam at a temperature of I22°-I45° F. 
B., Water, a bath of water. It may be 
cold (6o°-75°) or tepid (85°-95°). 

Bat^tery. A term applied to a number of 
connected Leyden jars or galvanic cells. 
B., Galvanic, one or more jars or cells 
containing a plate of zinc and one of cop- 
per (or carbon) suspended in acidulated 
water. When the plates of a cell are 
connected, a current of electricity is gener- 
ated. A current from twelve to twenty 
cells will heat a coarse platinum wire, 
several inches long, to whiteness. In this 
form it is much used for cautery. See 
Cautery. 

Bat^tey's Operation. See Oophorectomy. 

Bat^tledore Placen^ta. One in which 
there is a marginal insertion of the cord. 

Bau^hin, Valve of. The ileo-csecal valve. 

Baun^scheidism. A mode (named from 
tlie inventor) of treating rheumatism l)y 
counter-irritation, the latter being pro- 
duced by pricking the exterior of the 
part affected by very fine needles dipped 
in oil of mustard, formic acid or other 
irritant. 

Baycu'ru. The root of a S. American 
plant, Statice Braziliensis. One of the 
most powerful astringents known. Used 



\ 



BAY RUM 



for ulcers of the mouth and glandular en- 
largements. Dose of the fld. exl., \\\ 
XXX. Unof 

Bay Rum and Bay, Oil of. See Mynia. 

Bay Tree. The Lattrus nobilis ; also 
rruniis laurocerastis ; commonly called 
the laurel and the cherry laurel. 

Bdel'lium (^Heb. b'Jolach). A resinous 
^um exuding from various species of bal- 
samodenJron. B., Indian, somewhat valu- 
able as an emmenagogue. 

Bdellom'eter (,JJf/./.«, aleech). A me- 
chanical substitute for the leech, consisting 
of cupping glass, scarificator and exhausting 
s)Tinge. 

Beak'er. A wide-mouthed glass vessel 
much used in chemical laboratories. 

Bean. The seed of several sjjecies of 
Ifi^iiminosie, especially that of the common 
bean, Faba I'u/garis. B. of St. Ignatius. 
See Ignatia. 

Beard. The hair on the lips, cheeks and 
chin of adult men and certain species of 
apes. 

Bear''ing-down. The feeling of weight 
or pressure in the pelvis in certain diseases. 
B.-d. Pains, uterine pain in labor. 

Bears-foot. Leaf cup. A ix)pular remedy 
for enlargement of the spleen, or the " ague- 
cake" of malarious regions. B.,Ext. Dose 
gr. .ss-j. B., Fid. Ext. Dose ITLiij-x. 
B., Infus, tijj of a ^j to Oj. Unof 

Beat. The pulsations of the blood in the 
arteries, or the impulse of the heart. See 
Pulse. 

Bed. The couch or support on which the 
body may rest in slee]); usually a mattress 
of straw, hair or similar substance. B., Air, 
a mattress of rubjjer or leather which can 
be inflated with air. B.-bug an apterous 
insect, Ciniex lecttilaritis, which infests 
filthy bed.steads, and at times parasitic 
U]X)n the human Ixxly. B.-case, a form 
of hysteria or illness in which tlie patient 
persistently remains in bed. B. Sore, a 
sore produced on any projecting part f)f the 
l)ody by ])roliji)g<-d pressure against tiie 
lx.*d, an<l by nutritive changes in |jara]y/ed 
jxirts. B., Water. See Watt-r Bed. 

Bee. A genas of insects l)elonging to 
the Ifymcnoptera, commonly used to des- 
ignate the common I loiu-y Hee, Af>is mclli- 
fica. B. Bread, a rt-sinous substance 
with which l>ces line their liivcs ami till 
ceriain cirlls. B. Poison, the irritating 
.secretion <lischarged through the sling of 
tlic liee. See l-ormic Acid. 

Beef. The flesh of domestic cattle. Gofxl 
beef should be of red color, ix)ssess firm 



79 BELLADONNA 

texture, and be free from unpleasant 
smell. Beef consists mainly of water 
73, librin 15, gelatin 4, albumen 3, fat and 
other substances 5 per cent. B. Extract, 
the soluble fibrin of lean meat p;\rlly des- 
iccated. B. Tea, the soluble extractive 
matter of beef, made by sleeping fuiely- 
cut lean beef with its weight of water, and 
straining. 

Beer. See Malt Liquors. 

Beer's Cat^aract Knife, a knife with trian- 
gular-shaped blade, for making section of 
cornea in the removal of the crystalline 
lens. 

Bees'wax. See Cera. 

Beggiato'a. A genus of the family of 
IScKgiatoacees, whose filaments are not 
enclosed in a gelatinous envelope. B. 
Alba, a very common variety in sulphur- 
ous and stagnant waters, frequently in wells 
and cisterns, fonning white mucoid flakes 
that may extend to large masses. Spiril- 
lum volutans may form one part of its de- 
velopmental cycle. B. Arachnoidea, 
also common in sulphurous and stagnant 
water; likewise B. Leptomitiformis. B. 
Mirabilis, common in sea water among 
decomposing algx\ B. Nivea, found in 
sulphmous waters. B. Roseopersicina, 
the source of Bacteriopurpurinc, common 
in fresh and sea water. 

Beggiatoa''cees. A family of Bacteria, 
comprising the genera Heggiatoa and Cre- 
nothrix. The elements are in rods or flla- 
ments with a basic part, often fixed, and a 
free apex or top. Forms within its articu- 
lations spherical bodies thai are probably 
true spores. 

Be'la. The dried, half-riiie fruit of Aes^le 
iiuinneloo, or Bengal (|uince. It is a valu- 
able remedy in chronic diarrhna and 
dysentery. The ript- fniit is slightly laxa- 
tive. Dose .^ss-j. L'nof 

Belch'ing. The expulsion or throwing up 
of wind violently from the stomach. 
Enictation. 

Belladon'na. Deadly Night-shade. A 
perennial ])lanl of tlie order .Solnitace<c, 
indigennus to .Southern Europe and Asia, 
and cultivated in tlie U. S. Properties 
due to two alkaloids, atropine and bella- 
dotinitii\ the latter thought to lie identical 
witli hyoscyamine. Hoth leaves and flowers 
are employed. A mild narcotic and ano- 
dyne and a |)owi-rful inydrialic. Valuable 
in inflannnalion of rlicuinalisin, gout and 
neuralgia. Dose of the root aii<l leaves 
gr. j. B. Extractum Alcoholicum. 
Dose gr. ^^-\. B. Tinct., 15 per cent 



BELL'S LAW 



80 



BI 



Dose n\j-xxx. B. Unguent., contains 
extract lo, dilute alcohol 6, benzoated 
lard 84 parts. Atropine Sulphate, an 
excellent antidote in opium poisoning. 
See Atropine. Dose gr. x2o~gV- ^lom- 
atropine. See Atropine. 

Bell's Law. The discovery that the an- 
terior roots of the spinal nerves are motor, 
and the posterior sensory. See also Wal- 
lerian Degeneration. 

Bell's Paralysis. Paralysis of the facial 
nerve. 

Belly. See Abdomen. 

Belt. A girdle about the waist. B., Ab- 
dominal, a broad, elastic belt worn about 
the abdomen as a support during preg- 
nancy. B., Magnetic, a belt consisting 
of plates of metal fastened upon a strip of 
felt moistened with dilute acid. It is a 
cure-all largely sold by empirics. 

Beng. See Cannabis Indica. 

Benign^ {^benignus, kind). A term applied 
to medicines which are characterized by 
mildness. Used chiefly to distinguish tu- 
mors which are not malignant [q.v.) or 
cancerous. 

Benne Oil. See Sesa^ne Oleum. 

Benzi^num. See Benzol. 

Ben^zoin. A resin obtained from Styrax 
benzoin, a tree native to Sumatra and Siam. 
Occurs in tears consisting of several resins 
agglutinated by a balsam. Yields benzoic 
and cinnamic acids. Antiseptic and disin- 
fectant. Used mainly as a stimulant ex- 
pectorant in chronic bronchitis. Sodium and 
potassium compounds are sometimes used 
in place of like salicylic acid compounds. 
Adeps Benzoinatus, benzoinated lard, 
contains 2 per cent, of benzoin. B. Tinct., 
20 per cent, of the resin in alcohol. Dose 
^ss-j. B. Tinct. Comp., Friar's Balsam, 
benzoin 12, aloes 2, styrax 8, balsam of 
Tola 4, alcohol, q. s. ad 100 parts. Dose 
5 ss-ij. Benzoic Acid, alcohol best solvent. 
A constituent of opii, tinct. camphorat. 
Dose gr. x— xxx. Ammonitim Benzoate, 
water best solvent. Dose gr. v-xxx. LitA- 
ium Benzoate, dose gr. v-xxx. Sodium 
Benzoate, water best solvent. Dose gr. 

Ben^zol. A hydrocarbon formed by the 
dry distillation of organic substances. De- 
rived chiefly from coal tar. Composition, 
CgHg. Inflammable and very volatile. An 
excellent solvent for grease. Used inter- 
nally to destroy epizoa. Vapor used in 
whooping-cough. Dose gtt. v-x. 

Beriberis. Barberry. The root of B. 
aquifolium, or Oregoti grape. Properties 



due to an alkaloid, berberine. An astringent, 
bitter tonic. In large doses a cathartic. 
Used locally in conjunctivitis, and inter- 
nally in malarial and typhoid fevers. B., 
Ext. Fid., dose v-xxx. B., Tinct., con- 
tains 20 per cent, of the root. Berberine, 
the alkaloid. Dose gr. j-x. B. Muri- 
ate, an efficient injection in gonorrhoea. 
All unof 

Berga^mii Oleum. Oil of Bergamot. See 
Bergamot. 

Bergamot^, Oil of. An essential oil de- 
rived from the rind of the Citrus hcrgatni. 
Composition, CjqHjj. Used mainly as a 
perfume. 

Beriberi, or Beri Beri (Cingalese, beri, 
weakness). A dropsical ailment charac- 
terized by the appearance of multiple 
neuritis, and accompanied by anaemia and 
paraplegia. Prevalent in India and Cey- 
lon. Possibly of microbic origin. 

Bert's Experiment. Bert removed the 
skin from the tip of the tail of a rat, 
stitched it into the skin of the back of the 
animal, and after union had taken place 
the tail was divided at its base. Sensation 
was preserved. Nerve-fibers were thus 
proved capable of transmitting impulses in 
both directions. 

BestiaPity [bestia, a beast). Unnatural 
intercourse with an animal. 

Beta^ine. A ptomaine obtained from both 
animal and vegetable substances. It has 
been found in human urine and in poison- 
ous mussel, but not in putrid mussel. It 
has been procured from beet-root juice 
and cotton seed. It is not poisonous; 
belongs to the Choline group. 

Beta-naphthol. See Naphlhol. 

Battel. A masticatoiy used in the East. 
A few grains of the nut of the Catechu 
palm, Areca C, are rolled up with a 
small amount of quicklime in a leaf of 
Piper betel, and chewed. Tonic, astrin- 
gent, stimulant and aphrodisiac. Increases 
powers of endurance. Dose of fld. ext. 
3J-iij. Unof 

Beth Root. The rhizome of Trillium 
erecta. Astringent and tonic. Dose of fld. 
ext. rTLxxx-_^j. Trilliin, a concentrated 
ext. Dose gr. ij-iv. Unof 

Be^tol. Naphthalol. A salicylic ether of 
naphthol. Of alleged value in rheumatism 
and cystitis. Resembles salicylic acid in 
properties. Dose gr. x-xv. Unof 

Bezo^ar. See ALgagropili. 

Bhang. See Cannabis Pndica. 

Bi {bis, twice). A prefix signifying " twice" 
or " two;" as <5?-cuspid, two cusps; (^/-lobed, 



BIBULOUS 



81 



BIOrilAGUS 



twice lobed; ^?'-valved, with two valves; 
^/'-lateral, two-sided, etc. In chemistry the 
prefix (//, is commonly employed. 

Bib'ulous (hibere, to drink). Having the 
proi)erty of absorbing moisture or other 
liquids. B. Lapis, pumice stone. B. 
Paper, blotting pajier. 

Bi'ceps (/'/>, twice, caput, the head). A 
term applied to several muscles, as B. 
hrachii, B. extensor, B. Jlexor cruris. So 
called from their double origin. 

Bicip'ital. Pertaining to the biceps muscle. 

Bi-con'cave. See Lens. 

Bi-con'vex. See Lens. 

Bicusp'id {f>i and cuspis, the point of a 
sjx'ar). Having two cusps, as B. Teeth, the 
fourth and fiftli teeth, which are di>tin- 
pui>hed by having each two cusps or [xjints. 
B. Valve, the mitral valve of the heart. 

Bid'der's Gang'lion. A ganglion situa- 
ted between the auricles and ventricles, 
in the walls of the heart. 

Bien'nial \^bi, two, annus, a year). Every 
two years. In botany, plants that pro- 
duce foliage and a root-stalk the first year, 
flowering and maturing the second. 

Bi'fid [dis, twice, yfwf/o, to cleave). Divided 
in two; cleft, as the spina bifida. 

Bifo'cal. With a double focus. Used of 
a system of lenses or spectacle glasses 
with two foci, for the correction of presby- 
opia, when there is at the same time an 
error of refraction for distant vision. The 
distance lens is al)Ove that for near work. 
.Sometimes called Pantoscopic lenses, and 
also Franklin spectacles, because the de- 
vice was first made by Benjamin F"ranklin. 

Bile ( I>at. bilis, Gr. X"'^'l)- 1 he juice 
secreted by the liver. H. is mucilaginous, 
golden brown in man, golden red in car- 
nivora, brownish green in herhivora, and 
green in birds. Composed of biliary salts, 
choleslerin, mucus and certain pigments. 
The principal acids are taurocholic and 
glychocolic, txjth commonly combined with 
sixiium. 

Bile Pigments. I'iliruljin and IJiliverdin. 
B. P., Test for. See Gmelin I/eintz AV- 
aetion. 

Bilhaf'zia Haemato'bia. See Distoma. 

Bil'iary. I'l-rtainiiig to the bile. B. 
Acids, Cilycocholic and Taurocholic 
AcifLs, formed in the liver. Tests for K. 
A. in the urine. See Oliver s Test, /'rttrn- 
kof.ys lest, and Hay's Test. B. Ducts, 
the h<-|xitic, the cystic ami the duclus com- 
munis choled<x:hus. The first liads from 
the liver, the second from the gall-bladder. 
'ITic third is a common excretory duct. 
6 



Bilicy'anin. A blue pigment obtained 

frcmi bilimbin. 

Bilifus'cin (Julis, fusciis,\y{o\s\\). A pig- 
mentary matter occurring in bile, and in 
human gall-stones. 

Birious. A term popularly applied to 
disorilers supjwsed to arise from a too free 
secretion of bile. B. Fever, a term 
kxisely applied to certain enteric and mala- 
rial fevers. 

Bilipra'sin {l>ilis, rrpaaox', a leek). A pig- 
mentary substance occurring in gall-stones, 
icteric urine and bile. It is bilirubin 

-f 11,0 + o. 

Biliru'bin {bilis, ruber, red). A pigment- 
ary substance found in bile. 

Biliver'din {bilis, viridis, green). A pig- 
mentary substance found in bile. 

Bima'na \J>i, two, /nanus, a hand). An 
Older of the division of nianunalia in- 
cluding man only. 

Biman'ual. Two-handed. Ambidextrous. 

Bi'nary (binus, a couple). In chemistry, 
compounded of two elements. In anat- 
omy, separating into two branches. 

Binaur'al (bis, twice, auris, ear). Per- 
taining to or having two ears. 

Bind^er. A wide Ijandage about the abdo- 
men, worn by women during or after labor, 
to support the al)dominal walls. 

Binoc'ular {bi, two, oculus, an eye). In 
anatomy, having, or pertaining to two eyes. 
In oi)tics, an instrument with two eye-pieces 
for use with both eyes at once. B. Vision, 
the faculty of using both eyes synchron 
ously and without diplopia. 

Biogen^esis (/J'of, life, ^eieaic, origin). 
The doctrine that living things are pro- 
duced only from living things — the reverse 
of nbiox'enesis. 

Biolog'ical Law. See F/iylos;eny. 

BioKogy (/^">f, ^oyor, a discourse). The 
science embracing the stniclure, function, 
and organization of life forms. 

BioPysis (..^of, /'.wj, to loosen). The 
destruction of life. The devitalization of 
living tissue. 

Biom'eter (/'?<of, fierpov, measure). Dr. 
I'arr si)eaks of the Life-Table (</. 7'.) as a 
P., and of eijual importance in all iiv|uiries 
connected with human life or sanitary im- 
provements with the barometer or ther- 
mometer, etc., in ])hysical research; and 
the keystone or jiivot on which the whole 
seience of life assurance rests. 

Bioph''apus (,ii<i':< <I><'}(j, U) eat). A ukkIc 
of mitrition of plants, in wiiich the organs 
of the plant seize and di.s.solve the liodics 
of insects. 



BIOPLASM 



82 



BITUMEN 



Bi^oplasm {[^loc;, irlacfia, form). Any liv- 
ing matter. A matter possessing repro- 
ductive vitality. See ProtopiasHi-. 

Bi^oplast [jiioq,'K%aaau, to form). A mass 
or cell of bioplasm which is a unit of living 
matter. 

Bios^copy (/3wf , gkotteu, to examine). Ex- 
amination of the body to ascertain whether 
life be extinct. B., Electro-, examination 
by the aid of the electric current. The 
muscular reaction is lost to Faradic stimu- 
lation in about two hours after death in the 
tongue ; 3-4 hours in the extremities ; 5-6 
in the trunk. Galvanic reactions persist 
somewhat longer. 

Biot^ic [jiio^). Pertaining to life or to the 
laws of animal and vegetable progress and 
evolution. 

Biot's Respira^tion. That occurring with- 
out variation in the size of the individual 
respirations, as, e.g., during sleep. 

Bi^ped iybi, t-wo,J>es, a foot). With or hav- 
ing two feet. 

Bipo^lar. Having two poles. B. Nerve- 
cells, nerve-cells which have two pro- 
longations of the cell matter. Found 
chiefly in the ganglia of the gray matter of 
the brain. 

Bird's Formula. The two last figures 
of the specific gravity of urine nearly repre- 
sent the number of grains of solids to the 
ounce contained in the urine. The same 
two figures multiplied by 2 (Trapp's Fac- 
tor) give the parts per looo. Haeser's 
Factor is 2.33. 

Bird's-nest Cells. The cells of certain 
fonns of epithelial cancer, distinguished by 
the concentric arrangement of their cell 
walls. 

Bird's-nest, Edible. The nest of certain 
species of swift, used by the Chinese as 
food. Consists of marine algce, Gelidium, 
cemented by salivary mucus of the bird. 

Birth (Sax. beortli). The delivery of a 
child. B., Plural, the birth of more than 
a single child. B., Posthumous, a child 
born after the death of its father. B., Pre- 
cocious, the occurrence of natural labor 
in a shorter time after coition than is usual. 
B., Premature. See Labor. B., Still. 
See Still-bom. 

Birth-mark. See N'cevus Pigmcntosiis. 

Bis^cara Button. See Furiinculus Orien- 
talis. 

Bisex''ual. Having the reproductive or- 
gans of both sexes. Hermaphrodite. 

Bish^op's Weed. See Ajowan. 

Bis'kra Boil. See Furunculus Orien- 
talis. 



Bis^muth, or 

Bismu^thum. Bi = 210 ; quantivalence I, 
III, v. A pinkish-white crystalline metal. 
Not used in medicine in its metallic form. 
Commercial salts apt to contain arsenic. 
The insoluble salts of B. are feebly astrin- 
gent. Useful in disordered digestion, 
acne, eczema, etc. B. et Ammonii 
Citras, soluble in water. Dose gr. j-v. 
B. Citras, soluble in water of ammonia. 
Used only for pharmaceutical puiposes. 
B. Oxychlorid., pearl white. Unof. 
Used as a cosmetic. B. Subcarbonas, 
insoluble. Best given in emulsion with 
milk. Dose gr. x-^j. B. Subnitras, 
the salt chiefly used in medicine. Used 
also as a cosmetic. Dose gr. x— ^j. 

Bis^tort. The rhizome of Polygon tun bis- 
torta. An astringent. Dose of fld. ext. 
TTLxx-xl. Unof. 

Bist^oury(Fr. i>'M/6;//;7). A small (straight 
or curved) knife used in surgery. B.- 
cache, has the blade concealed for pass- 
ing to the point to be incised, and by 
pressure on the handle the blade is ex- 
posed and the incision made. 

Bit^ter (Sax. bitan, to bite). A peculiar, 
well-known taste, of which quinine pre- 
sents an example. B. Almond, the nut 
of the Afiiygdalum amara. Contains 
hydrocyanic acid. B. Apple, the fruit 
of the colocynth. Purgative. B. Bugle- 
weed, the herb Lycopiis EuropiEus. Alter- 
ative and tonic. Dose of fld. ext. ^ss-j. 
Unof. B. Cup, a cup made of quassia 
wood. Tonic. B. Purging Salt, sul- 
phate of magnesia. B. Root, the root of 
Gentiana Catesbcei. Tonic. B. Tincture, 
tincture of bitter almonds. B. Wine of 
Iron, a solution of white wine, syrup, citrate 
of iron and quinine. Tonic. See Feri-um. 

Bit^ters. Medicines characterized by a 
bitter taste. B., Aromatic, medicines 
that unite the properties of aromatics with 
those of simple bitters. B., Simple, medi- 
cines that stimulate the gastro-intestinal 
tract without influencing the general sys- 
tem. B., Styptic, medicines that add 
styptic and astringent properties to those 
of bitterness. 

Bit'tersw^eet. See Dulcamara. 

Bitu^men [bitiiiiie?!, Gr. «(T^a/lrof). Min- 
eral pitch or oil composed of various hydro- 
carbons. In solid form it is usually called 
asphalt; in liquid form, petroleum. An 
intermediate form is known as mineral tar 
or maltha. By distillation, bitumen yields 
benzol, naphtha, paraffine, and various 
other hydrocarbons, liquid and gaseous. 



BIURET REACTION 



83 



BLENNORRIICEA 



Biu''ret Reaction. A test for proteids — a 
violet color by adding a few drops of Fehl- 
inij's solution. 

Biv'alent. See Quantivalence. 

Biven'tral (A/, two, vcntrurn, a stomach), 
llavinjj two stomachs. 

Black (Sax. b/tci). Absence of color or 
light. The appearance of an object from 
whose surface none of the spectmm colors 
are reflected. B. Alder. See Priiios. B. 
Antimony, aiuimonium tersulphide, Sb- 
S3. B. Pi.sh,\hchM'koi Fmxintis Siiinbuci- 
folia, a mild tonic and a.vtrin.i^ent. Dose of 
fid. ext. 3 ss-j. Unof B. Blood, venous 
blood. B. Cancer. See .l/./i/^/ .y/.r. B. 
Cohosh. See tV////W///i,''<r. B. Death. .See 
Pla^ttc. B. Draught. See Sciiiui. B. 
Drop See Opium. B. Eye. See Ecchy- 
iiiosis. B.Haw. )^&t.\'iburnum. B. Hel- 
lebore. .See Hellebore. B. Lead, a form 
of carbon properly known as the mineral 
graphite. B. Walnut, the leaves o{ Jug- 
Inns nigra, a tonic, alterative and deobstru- 
ent. i)ose of fld. ext. TT\^xx-xxx. Unof. 
B. Willow, the buds of Salix nigra, a 
bitter tonic with aphrodisiac properties. 
1 lose of fld ext. rt\^xv-_:; j. Unof. 

Blaclc'berry. See Riibus. 

Black-Tongue. See Glossophytia. 

Blad'der (Sax., blasan, to blow). The 
membranous, sac-like reservoir or recep- 
tacle of the urine. B., Atony of, inability 
to expel the urine, from deficient muscular 
]>ower. B., Catarrh of. See Cystitis. B., 
Extrophy or Extroversion of, absence of 
the anterior wall of the H.,and more or less 
deficiency of the corres]xin<ling part of the 
abdomen. B., Fasciculated, the walls 
thrf)wn into ridges by chronic cystitis. B., 
Herniaof. )r>(t& Cystoeele. B., Inflamma- 
tion of. See Cystitis. B., Inversion of, 
a jirotniiionor an invagination of the blad- 
der through the urethra. B., Irritable, a 
condition characterized by constant desire 
to urinate. B., Neck of, the constricted 
portion continuous with the urethra in front. 
B., Paralysis of, the same symjitoms as in 
atony, but more marked and due to nervous 
or central disease. If affecting the neck 
alone, thcrre is ineontinenee; if the Iwdyof 
the organ, retention of urine. B., Saccu- 
lated, |x>uches f(jrm<-<l between the liyiKjr- 
tropliied mu.scular fibres. 

Bladder-wrack. See Fuciis Vesiculosus. 

Blae'sitas ( .i'/anjor, one limping). Stam- 
mering or lisj)ing. Also the condition of 
one with distorted limbs. Ap|)lied also to 
one having an angular curvature of the 
spine. The term is loosely used. 



Blain. A blister; an elevation of the 
cuticle containing serum. 

Bland [blanilns, mild). A term applied to 
mild and soothing medicines and applica- 
tions. 

Blank'et (Fr. blanc, white). A woolen 
covering, so called because originally of 
white color. B., Bath. See Bath, Sheet 
or Paek. 

Blastc'ma (.^/'.nffrrti'w, to germinate). The 
fonnative lymph or paliulum of capillary 
exudation. A synonym of protoplasm. 

Blast'oderm i^^i'/xioravu, iStpua, skin). In 
embr)'ology, the gemiinal membrane fonned 
by the cells of the morula, lying on the 
internal surface of the vitelline membrane 
of the impregnated ovum. The whole hollow 
sphere, with its surrouniling cells, is calletl 
the blastodermic vesicle, and is formed 
about the tenth day. The ectoderm (or 
epiblast) and the endoderm {^entoderm or 
hypoblast) layers are simply due to a pro- 
liferation of the blastodermic cells aliout 
the germinal a rea , wliereby the blastodenn 
is doubled, thus forming these outer and 
inner layers. The mesoblast or middle 
layer is developed after the latter, and 
probably from the h)-poblast. The Blasto- 
pore is the point where the covering in of 
the gemiinal area is temporarily incom- 
]ilete. 

Blast'omere. See Morula. 

Blastopore. See Blastoderm. 

Blast'osphere. The embrj'onic segmenta- 
tion sphere formed by the union of the male 
and female elements. 

Blaf'ta Orienta'lis. The powdered body 
of the cockroach. A jwpular remedy for 
dropsy among Russian jx;asants. Increases 
the amount of urine and diminishes the 
amount of albumen. Dose gr. iv-xx. Unof 

Bleach. To make white or jiale, to dimin- 
ish the intensity of color. Bleaching 
Powder, chlorinated lime, a mixtuie of 
calcium cliloride and calcium hypochlorite, 
containing free chlorine ^'as. Much used as 
a disinfectant. Bleaching Fluid, eau de 
Javelle, a similar comix)sition obtained by 
pa.ssing chlorine gas into an enuilsion of 
calcium hydrate. 

Blear Eye. See Blepharitis Ulcerosa. 

Bleb. See Bulla. 

Bleed'ers' Disease. See Ilitmophilia. 

Blennorrha'gia {^A'hvvw,, mucus, fviyvvfu, 
to iturst forth). y\n excessive discharge 
of muciLS from the urethra or vagina. .See 
Ciouorrhiva. 

Blennorrhcc'a {{V^rvvor,, ptu, to flow). 
Same as Jilennorrhagia. 



BLENNOSIS 



84 



BLOOD 



Blennc'sis. A generic name for diseases 
of the mucous membrane. 

Blephari^tis [jfAeipapov, the eyelid). In- 
flammation of the eyeUds. B. Ciliaris, 
inflammation seated in the hair folhcles. 
B. Marginalis, inflammation seated in 
the marginal l;order of the lids. B. Ulcer- 
osa, a catarrhal or ulcerous inflammation 
of the eyelids, occurring as the sequel of 
catarrhal conjunctivitis. 

Bleph'aro-adeni^tis [[i?ie<l)apov, aSrp, 
gland, LTLq). Inflammation of the Meibo- 
mian glands. 

Blepharophimo''sis {(jyiuucrig, a shutting 
up). Abnormal smallness of the palpebral 
opening. 

Bleph^aroplasty ['!T?MaGu, to form). An 
operation for the formation of any part of 
the eyelid destroyed by wound or lesion, by 
ingrafting or transplanting from a contigu- 
ous healthy part. 

Blepharople^gia. See Ptosis. 

Blepharopto^sis. See Ptosis. 

Bleph'arospasm {airaa/toi;). Spasm of 
the orbicularis palpebrarum muscle. 

Bleph^arostat {iottz/il, to stand). An in- 
strument for holding the eyelids apart or 
firm whilst performing operations upon 
the eyes or lids. 

Blessed Thistle. See Cardmis. 

Blight. A partial paralysis of certain 
facial nerves, arising from sudden or 
extreme cold. B. of the Eye, an extra- 
vasation of blood within the conjunctiva. 

Blind (Sax. blind). Without sight. De- 
prived of sight. B. Spot, that part of the 
area of the fundus of the eye where the optic 
nerve enters. 

Blindness. Want of vision. Color-B., 
subnormal perception of colors. This con- 
dition is found in about 4 per cent, of people, 
is more frequent in men than women, and 
is probably due to non-exercise of the color 
sense. Complete Color-B. is very rare, 
the different colors probably appearing as 
different intensities or shades of white light. 
In Partial Color-B., subnormal percep- 
tion of red is the most frequent, green, 
blue and yellow, respectively, being next in 
order. Tests for Color-B., usually con- 
sist in matching and classifying colored 
yams. Cortical B., B. due to lesion of 
the cortical center of vision. Day-B. See 
Nyctalopia. Moon-B., a rare condition 
of retinal anxsthesia said to be due to expo- 
sure of the eyes to the moon's rays in sleep- 
ing. Night-B. See Ilemeralopia. Psy- 
chical B., loss of conscious visual sensa- 
tion from destruction of the central area 



of the visual center ; there is sight but 
not recognition. Snow-B., photophobia 
and conjunctivitis due to exposure of the 
eyes to the glare of sunlight upon snow. 

Blis^ter A vesicle resulting from the 
exudation of serous fluid between the epi- 
dermis and true skin. Also the agent by 
which the blister is produced. B., Fly, a 
beetle, Caiitkaris vesicatoria, the body of 
which is used as a blistering agent. B., 
Flying, a blister which remains long 
enough to produce only a redness of the 
skin and not vesication. 

Blood. The fluid which circulates through 
the heart, arteries and veins, supjjlying 
nutritive material to all parts of the body. 
In the human being the blood of the arte- 
ries is bright red; that of the veins dark 
red. Blood consists of colorless plasma 
in which are suspended the red and white 
corpuscles. When exposed to the air it 
coagulates, forming a red clot, and a yellow- 
ish fluid called serum. Healthy blood 
consists of 79 per cent, of water and 21 
per cent, solids. B. Corpuscles, small, 
circular, biconcave discs floating in the 
blood. Red corpuscles are circular in 
mammals (except the camel), and elliptical 
in birds and reptiles. They are about 
•j^'qq inch m diameter and y^ooo ''^'^^ 
thick. White corpuscles are about one- 
third larger in diameter and comparatively 
few. 1 hey exhibit a movement similar 
to those of aiiiKba:. The coloring matter 
of the B. is found in a substance known 
as hamoglobin, and is said to be due to 
minute quantities of the salts of iron. B. 
Crystals, crystals of a substance known 
as hjematoidin. B. Heat, a temperature 
varying from 98° to 100° F. B., Loss of. 
See Hemorrhage. B. Plasma, the liquor 
sanguijiis, or fluid part of the blood. B. 
Poisoning, a common term denoting any 
ailment arising from the introduction of 
decomposing organic matter or putrefactive 
germs into the blood. See Anthrax, Pyce- 
jiiia ind Septicdjuia. B. Plates, pale, 
colorless, oval, round or lenticular discs of 
variable size, found in healthy n* rmal 
human blood, 18,000 to 250,000 per cubic 
millimeter. Their function is not cer- 
tainly known. Also called (Hayem) hre- 
matoblasts. B. Pressure, the force of 
compression exerted by the blood upon the 
walls of the vessels under the influence of 
the heart's action, the elastic walls, etc. 
Various instruments have been devised to 
estimate the amount of this pressure, the 
Hceniady7iaino7neter of Poisetiille , L iidwig's 



BLOOD-ISLANDS 



85 



BONE 



Kynicgraph, tick's Spring Kymograph, v. 
Bijsch's Sphygmomanometer, the Gradu- 
ated Sphygmograph, etc. 

Blood-Islands. A temi applied to the 
groups of corpuscles develoj>ed in tlie fowl 
during the first days of embrj-onic life, 
within tiie large branched cells of the 
mcsobLost. 

Bloodless Operations. Surgical opera- 
tions, such as amputations, in which the 
menil>er is so bandaged by compresses and 
elastic rings that the blood is expelled from 
the part to be oj^erated ujxjn. 

Bloodletting. The artilicial abstraction 
of blood from the Ixxly. B., General, 
venesection or phlelx)tomy ; it acis by re- 
ducing the iieart's action and diminisliiiig 
the quantity of blood. Occasionally used 
with excellent results in pneumonia, sun- 
stroke, etc. B., Local or Topical. See 
(. 'tipping. Leeching or Scari/I, ,iti,'/t. Useful 
in certain inllanimator)' conditions. 

Blood-root. See Sangninaria. 

Bloodshot. Extravasated witli blood. 

Bloody. Having the nature of, or filled 
with blood. B. Flux. See Dysentery. 
B. Sweat. See Ephidrosis. 

Blow'pipe. A short tube bent at one 
end and tapering to a point, used in direct- 
ing the tl.iine of a lamp in a fine conical 
tongue. B., Oxyhydrogen, an appa- 
ratus for producing intense heat by l)urn- 
ing hydrogen or illuminating gas at the 
end of a mixing noz/.le. 

Blue. One of the colors of the spectmm. 
B. Disease. See Cyanopathy. B. Flag. 
See Iris. B. Gentian, the root of Gen- 
tiana tv/A-j/'^z-/, tonic and stomachic. Dose 
of lid. ext., n\,x-xl. Unof. B. Gum. 
See Gingival. B. Gum Tree. Sec Aw- 
calyplu^. B. Ointment. See //ydrarg\'- 
riiiii. B. Pill. .See Hydrargyrum. B. 
Stone. Sic Copper. 

Boat-belly. See Scaphoid .Abdomen. 

Body. The animal frame with its organs. 
.\ls<j, a c.id.iver or coqwe. 

Body Louse. Sec Pcdiculus. 

Bcet'tcher's Test. For sugar. First 
eliminate the albumin, if any pre.sent. 
Add a small amount of bismuth subnitrate 
to equal amounts, mixed, of suspected 
urine and j)<'ta.ssium hydrate; Injil; if 
sug.ir l<c present the wiiite jxjwder turns 
gray, Ijfowii or l)lack, from re<luction to 
metallic lii.sinuth. 

Boil (Sax. I<yl). A furuncle, — a local 
i/<-d inflnmm.ition of the skin and siibcu- 
tani.-f)Us t<)nm-ttiv(r tissue altrniird by llic 
fonnation of pus. B., Aleppo or B., 



Delhi, a peculiar ulcerative affection en- 
demic in India, due to a specific and patho- 
genic microbe. It has been proposed by 
lleydenroich to call this Tropical Boii. 
Other names are Penjdeh Boil and Boutott 
Bishra. 

Boil'ing. The vaporization of a liquid 
when it gives off vajwr having the same 
tension as the sunountling air. Most tis- 
sues, animal and vegetable, are soflen'.-d 
and rendered more or less soluble by boil- 
ing. Albumin and most albuminoids, 
however, are rendered insoluble. The 
temperature of B. water at the level of the 
sea is about 212° F. (100° C.) ; it de- 
creases with increasing altitude. 

Boiling Test. For albumin. Acidulate 
an alkaline urine and heat upper half to 
boiling. Turbidity indicates albumin. 

Bois'sons {dr.). Cheaii fermented licjuors 
niaile from raisins or otiier dried fruits to 
which sweetened water is added and fer- 
mentation allowed. 

Bo 'la. See Myrrh. 

Bol'do-glu'cine. An aromatic glucoside 
ol'tained from B. fragrans and other 
species. A hypnotic in doses of gr. xx- 
3J. Unof. 

Bol'dus. Boldo. The leaves and stems 
of an evergreen, B. pete in us, native to 
Chili and vicinity. Sometimes used in 
anemia and general dcliility as a substi- 
tute for ([uinine. B., Tinct., contains 20 
per cent, of the drug. Dose n\^v-viij. 

Bole (.?a>/'.of, a clod of earth). A trans- 
lucent, soft variety of clay formerly much 
useil in medicine, internally as an astrin- 
gent, externally as an absorbent. 

Bologn'a Phos'phorus. A sulphide of 
Barium, having the ])roperty of emitting a 
pale, feeble light in the dark. 

Bo'lus. A mass of medicine exhil)ited 
in the form of a large pill. 

Bom'bus (jiofifiog, the lunnming sound of 
bees). A ringing or bu/./ing sound in the 
ears. Also a sonorous movement or 
rmiibling tiatus of the intestines. 

Bone. (.Sax. M/i). A hard ti>sue which 
constitutes the framework or skeleton of 
the Ixjdy. Comj^sed mainly of tri-caleium 
])hosphatc and cartilage. A single articu- 
lation of Utne usually consists of a compact 
outer mass covered with periosteum, sur- 
rounding a reticulated inner sinicture 
which encloses a central cavity filU tl with 
marrow. A transverse section shows lione 
tissu(- lobe com|K).S((l of a numlK-rof nearly 
circular /ones, eaih having a central tuU-, 
the //(iTcniitn canal, through which the 



BONESET 



86 



BOW 



blood circulates. Surrounding the H. canal 
are concentrically arranged belts of oblong 
cells called lacituis. Each lacuna is the 
outlet of a number of canaliciili, through 
which the nutrition is conveyed to all parts 
of the bone. B. Ash, the calcic phos- 
phate remaining after bones have been 
incinerated. 

Bone^set. See Eupatorhim. 

Bonnet's Capsule. Se^e Octtlar {Sheath). 

Boot, Junod's. ^e.e Jitiiod^s Boot. 

Borac^ic Acid. See Boron. 

Bo^rage. The plant B. officinalis. A 
demulcent, mild refrigerant and diapho- 
retic. Dose of fid. ext. gj. Unof. 

Bc'rax. See Boron. 

Borboryg^mus. See Bombus. 

Bo'ric Acid. See Boron. 

Bor'neol. A principle derived from Drya- 
balanops cajnphora:, a tree native to the 
East Indies. It produces spasms of epi- 
leptiform character. 

Bo^ro-glyc^eride. A preparation made 
by heating boracic acid and glycerine. 
Used as a local application in eye and 
skin affections. Unof. 

Bo^ron. B = II; quantivalence III, V. 
The base of boric acid and of the mineral 
borax. Boracic, or, more properly. Boric 
Acid, a crystalline substance, H3BO3, 
found native in the volcanic lagoons of 
Tuscany. Occurs in white, transparent 
crystals, soluble in water and alcohol. A 
powerful antiseptic, and much used in 
parasitic diseases of the skin. Borax, 
sodium diborate. Occurs in lacustrine de- 
posits as white, transparent cystals, soluble 
in water, alcohol and glycerine. Used as 
an antiseptic wash for ulcers and indolent 
lesions. Valuable also as an emmenagogue, 
and in leucorrhcea. All unof. 

Bot (botus, a belly-worm). The larva of 
certain species of flies of the genus QLstras, 
which are conveyed into the stomach of 
man, where they hatch. Also the thread- 
worm, Oxynrus verniicidaris. 

BotalTi, Foramen of. ^ht foramen ovale 
of the foetal heart. 

Bot^any {(ioTavTj, an herb). The science 
of plants — their classification and struc- 
ture. 

Bothrioceph''alus La''tus. See Tape- 
7uor>?i. 

Bot^ryoid [(ioTpvq, a cluster of grapes). 
Resembling the shape of a bunch of 
grapes. 

Bott'ger's Test. See Ba-ttchei^s Test. 

Bot^tle (povTi^, a flask, Pr. hoiiteillc'). A 
vessel, usually of glass with a narrow neck. 



B., Feeding, a flat flask with a nipple of 
India rubber attached, used in feeding 
infants. B. Nose, a common name for 
Acne Roseola. B., Specific Gravity, a 
Florence flask graduated to contain 500- 
1000 grains of water, with the weight of 
which any other equal volume of liquid 
may be compared. 

Botulin^ic Acid. An acid asserted to 
exist in putrefying sausages, forming their 
specific poison. 

Bougie (Fr. bougie, a candle). A 
slender, cylindrical instnmient made of 
waxed silk, catgut, etc., for introduction 
into the urethra or other passage, for the 
purpose of dilation, exploration, c/r. Some- 
times coated with preparations that are 
thus conveyed to the inner mucous sur- 
faces. B., Armed, a bougie with a piece 
of nitrate of silver or other caustic attached 
to its extremity. B., Filiform, whale- 
bone or other bougies of very small size. 

Bou^hou. A name given to a malarial 
disease resembling dengue, which is preva- 
lent in the Sandwich Islands. 

Bou^illon (Fr.). An alimentary broth 
made by boiling meat, usually beef, in 
water. A soup. Also a liquid nutritive 
medium made by boiling meat for the cul- 
ture of microorganisms. Peptonized bouil- 
lons and solutions of powdered meats have 
also been used. B. of Liebig, made 
by dissolving Liebig's meat extract, 5 
grammes, in boiling water, loo grammes, 
neutralizing with bicarbonate of soda and 
filtering. It becomes more nutritive by 
adding glucose. 

Bounc^ing Bet. See Soapwort. 

Bou'quet. The peculiar flavor of wines 
which have been aged, supposed to be due 
to oenanthic ether. 

Bourdon^nement (Fr. bourdonncr, to 
buzz.) Any buzzing sound. The mur- 
mur which is heard when the stethoscope 
is applied to any part of the body. Thought 
to result from contraction of muscular 
fibrillas. See, also, Bombus. 

Boutonniere Opera^tion (Fr. bouton- 
niere, button hole). An operation for 
urethral stricture. The location of the 
stricture is fixed by a catheter and an in- 
cision is made in front of it ; a probe is 
then passed to the bladder. The stricture 
is then divided. 

Boutons Terminals (Fr.). The enlarge- 
ments of the free ends of certain sensory 
nerves. 

Bow. A bending. B. Leg, a bending 
outward of the lower limbs. 



BOWELS 



87 



BREAD 



Bow'els [dc^Mis, a sausage). The intes- 
tines. 

Bowman's Glands. Peculiar tubular 
glands in the olfactory region of the 
nasal distribution of the olfactor\ ner\e. 
B. Probe. Set Lac/iryma/. B. Tubes, 
artilicial productions made by forcing air 
or fluids between the conical lamella;. 

Box Pulse-measurer. An instrument for 
measuring the pulse by its action upon a 
column of liquid when the exposed artery 
is placed within an oblong box communi- 
caliui; with the column. 

Brach'ial t^l>rachiitni, the arm). Pertain- 
ing to the arm. B. Artery, the con- 
tinuation of the axillary which extends 
along the inner side of the ami. B. Di- 
plegia. Sec Piini/ysis. B. Glands, the 
hinph.itic glands of the arm. B. Plexus, 
the plexus of the tifth, sixtli, seventh and 
eighth cer^ical and the first dorsal pair. 
B. Veins, the veins of the arm which 
accompany the B. artery. 

Brach'ium (dnu/iium). The arm. An 
extensor process of an organ. B. Cere- 
bri, or B. of Optic Lobes, the bands 
connecting the nates and the testes with 
the optic tlialanius. 

Brachyceph'alic [Spaxvr, .short, Ke<pa?.rf, 
head). .Applied to skulls of an egg-like 
sha|>e, the larger end behind. See Index. 

Brachydac'tylous {^^{mxvq, 6aKTv7joq, 
finger). Pertaining to an abnormal short- 
ness ijf the lingers or toes. 

Brachymetro'pia. See Myopia. 

Bradycar'dia ( ipifhf, slow, Kapfiia, the 
heart). \ term us--d 1-iy Eichhorst to indi- 
cate the )jhenomcna as.sociated with slow 
pulse — the op]X)site of tachycardia. 

Bradyla'lia ( ^\mftv<:, hi/.ia, a babbling). 
A slow and disordered utterance. 

Braid'ism. The hypnotic state produced by 
fixation of the eyes ujx)n a shining object. 

Bradypha'sia. See Aphasia. 

Brain >ax. lira\i;en). The general con- 
tents of the cranium, especially the cere- 
brum. B., Compression of, may arise 
from injury or disease, from serous exuda- 
tion, \AiKn\ cxtrava.salion, clc. B., Con- 
cussion of, is tlie result of injury pro- 
ducing symptiiins of loss of jxjwer an<l 
function gi-ni-rally. B. Fever. See Men - 
ittj^tis. B., Irritation of, follows injury 
anrl is mark(<i by symptoms of irritaliility 
and often convulsive phenomena. B., 
Little, tiic i.r.lillmn. B. Pan. the 
cranium. B. Sand, a gritty niim ral mat- 
ter found in and aUjut the pineal gland, 
consisting mainly iT calcium and n)agnc- 



sium carbonates and phosphates. Its func- 
tion is not known. 

Bran. The epidermis or outer covering 
of the seeds of most cereals. Contains 
woody matter 35, starch 22, albumin and 
gluten 13, water 12, giuu 8, other matters, 
including a small amount of siHca, 10 jx-r 
cent. It contains, also, a diastatic ferment, 
which converts the starch into dextrine. 
B. Tea, a decoction of bran, used in 
coughs. 

Branch. A name given to the divisions 
or oftshoots of blood vessels, lymphatics, 
or nerves, from the trunk or main stem. 

Branch''iae. The gills of fishes. 

Branch'ial Openings. See Clefts, J'is- 
ccra/. 

Bran'dy. See Spin'tus. 

Brash (Dutch luaakoi, to vomit). A 
common name indicating almost any dis 
order of the digestive system. B., ^A^ater. 
See Pyrosis. 

Brass. An alloy of copper with 25-40 
per cent, of zinc. 

Bras''sica. A genus of plants, Nat. 
Order, Crttcifem, including the common 
cabbage. B. Acidulata, .sour crout (or 
sauer kraut). B. Asperifolia Escu- 
lenta, the common turnip. B. Cauli- 
flora (or Florida), the caulillower. B. 
Cumana or Rubra, the red cabbage. 
B. Napus, the rape plant. B. Nigra, 
the black mustard. B. Sativa, the com- 
mon cabbage. 

Braye^ra. Kousso. The female flowers 
of B. avthclinintica. Contains tannic 
acid, a volatile oil and a crystalline prin- 
ciple, Koitssin. In large do.ses ]iroduces 
nausea and cmesis. \'alual'le mainly as 
an anthelmintic against tapeworm. Dose 
^ij-^^ss, in infusion of boiling water. 
B., Ext. Fid., dose 3ij-.5J. 

Bread (Sax. bredaii, to nourish, Lat. 
panis, Gr. aprof). A mixture of flour 
and water made jxjrous by carlion dioxide 
and then baked. The Hour may be cif 
wheat, com, oat or rye. The c;u-l on diox- 
ide may be introduced by decomposing an 
alkaline carbonate (sodium or pota.ssium) 
by an acid ("cream of tartar"), or by 
f( rini nting the starch with yeast. B., 
Brown, a kind of bre.ad made from 
a mixture of com, rye and wheal flour. 
B., Graham, made from unbolted wheat 
flour; it lontains more gluten, diastase 
and mill! ral phosphates than onlinary 
bread. B., White, bread made from 
l><)lted wheaten flour, and therefore defi- 
cient in dia.sliUie, gluten ami mineral plios- 



BREAD-PASTE 



88 



BRONCHITIS 



phates. Other kinds, such as rye (or 
black), corn, bran, barley, etc., indicate 
their composition in their name. 

Bread-paste. A cultm-e medium for 
bacteria. Stale, coarse bread is dried, 
ground to powder and made into a paste 
with water. Well suited for the growth 
of moulds. 

Break. See Make. 

Break-bone Fever. See Dengue. 

Breast. The upper anterior part of the 
body between the neck and abdomen. 
Also the mamma. 

Breath (Sax. brceth). The air exhaled 
from the lungs. It has lost a part of its 
oxygen and gained a certain but varying 
amount of ammonia, aqueous vapor and 
carbon dioxide from the oxidation of the 
waste matter of the blood. Also applied 
to the air inspired. 

Breech Position. See Position. 

Breeding-season. The period during 
which certain species of animals, espe- 
cially the lower fomis of vertebrates, beget 
and rear their young. 

Breeze. See Head-breeze and Static-breeze. 

Brefeld and Nagele's Method. See 
Fractional Cultivation. 

Breg'enin (Low Ger. bregan, brain). A 
name given by Thudichum to a soluble, 
crystalline substance found in brain-tissue. 

Breg^ma. See Skull. 

Bren^ner's Form^ula. The feeble tone 
heard when the anode is opened in gal- 
vanic stimulation of the auditory nerve. 
This tone corresponds with the resonance 
fundamental tone of the sound-conducting 
apparatus of the ear itself. 

Brick-makers' Anse^mia. Stt Anc/iylos- 
totniasis. 

Bridge of Nose. A term applied col- 
lectively to the nasal bones. 

Bright's Disease. A name foiTnerly in- 
correctly used as a sjTionym of albuminuria 
and at present covering several forms of 
disease of the kidney associated with albu- 
min in the urine. May be either acute or 
chronic. Considered by P^othergill as a 
secondary condition arising from a ten- 
dency toward the reversion to that pre- 
anthropic type in which the liver per- 
formed the additional office of excreting 
uric acid. 

Brim of Pelvis. See Pelvis. 

Brim^stone. See Sulphur. 

Broad-leafed Laurel. See Kalinia. 

Broad Ligament. See Ligament. 

Bro'mal Hydrate. A fluid of oily con- 
sistence, having a structure similar to that 



of chloral hydrate. More iritating and 
narcotic than the latter. Dose gr. j-v. 
Unof. 

Bromid''rosis [jSpufiog, a stench, Wpwf, 
sweat). Osmidrosis. Offensive sweating, 
due to functional disorder of the sweat 
glands or fermentation of the sweat after 
excretion. Frequently symptomatic of 
scrofula, rheumatism, ursemia, syphilis, etc. 

Bromi'dum. Bromide. 

Bro^mine, or 

Bro^mum {[ipu/mi). Br = 80; quantiva- 
lence l. A reddish-brown liquid, which, 
at ordinary temperatures, gives off a 
heavy, suffocating vapor. In its element- 
ary form it is a very active escharotic, 
and internally a violent poison. The salts 
of bromine are cerebral and cardiac de- 
pressants, and highly valuable as hypnot- 
ics. The salts of the alkaline metals are 
those most commonly used. Ammonii 
Bromidum, prismatic crystals. Dose gr. 
v-xx. Calcii Bromidum, granular and 
deliquescent. Dose gr. v-^j. Ethyl 
Bromide, useful in spasmodic coughs. 
Ferri Bromidi, Syr., contains 10 per 
cent, of the salt. Dose 3 ss-j. Lithii 
Bromidi, granular and deliquescent. Dose 
gr. v-xx. Potassi^i Bromidum, color- 
less, cubical crystals. Dose gr. v-^j. 
Sodii Bromidum, colorless, monoclinic 
crystals. Dose gr. v-^j. Zinci Bro- 
midum, granular, deliquescent powder. 
Dose gr. ;?-ij. 

Bro'moform. A bromide, CHBrg, having 
a structure like that of chloroform, CHCI3. 
A powerful anaesthetic. Use not followed 
by vomiting. Causes irritation of con- 
junctiva and respiratory organs. Unof. 

Bronch^i {i3povxoc, the windpipe). The 
two tubes into which the trachea divides 
opposite the third dorsal vertebra, called 
the right and the left bronchus. 

Bronchiec^tasis (f/cracr^f, dilatation). A 
term denoting the dilatation or relaxation 
of the walls of the bronchi, arising from 
inflammation and other causes. 

Bron''chioles (dim. of bronchus^. The 
smallest subdivisions of the bronchi. 

Bronchi^tis. Inflammation of the mucous 
membrane which lines the bronchial tubes. 
Usually attended with soreness, cough, 
alteration of the voice and febrile symp- 
toms. B., Acute, the initiatory stage of 
the disease. B., Capillary, a stage in 
which the minute tubes of the lungs are 
involved. B., Catarrhal, a form at- 
tended with muco-purulent discharges. 
B., Croupous or Plastic, attended with 



BRONCHOCELE 



89 



BUDDING 



expectoration of the casts of the bronchial 
tubes. B., Mechanical or Potter's, a 
form caused liy the inhalation of dust, etc. 
B., Summer, synonymous with " Hay 
rcver." 

Bronch'ocele. See Goitre. 

Bronchoph'ony (i^vrj, the voice). The 
resonance of the voice within the bronchi 
as heard and diagnosticated by the stetho- 
scope. 

Broncho-pneumo'nia. A term applied 
to intlanunalion of the lungs, which, lie- 
ginning in the bronchi, finally involves the 
parenchyma of the lungs. 

Bronchorrhce'a (/Ww, to flow). A fonn 
of bronchitis attended by profuse expec- 
toration. 

Bronchot'omy {^povxog, te/ivu, to cut). 
A surgical operation upon the bronchus, 
trachea, etc. 

Bronch'us. See Bronchi. 

Bronzed Skin. A s}-mptom of Addison's 
Disease. 

Brood-cells. In cell-division, the mother- 
cells enclosing the daughter-cells. 

Broom. See Scoparius. 

Brown'ian Movement. An oscillation 
or agitation obser\-ed under the microscope 
in very fine granules, drops, etc., when 
sasp)en(.led in a liquid. The movement is 
not locomotion, and is to be distinguished 
from that of the self-motility of living 
microorganisms. Its caase is not de- 
finitely known, but it may be due to heat, 
light, electricity, osmosis, etc. 

Brown Mixture. See Glycyrrhiza. 

Brow Presentation. See Position. 

Bru''cine. See A'tix Vomica. 

Bruise. See Contusion. 

Bru'it (Fr., a noise or report). A term 
ased by French physicians to designate Jie 
various s[x;cific sounds of auscultation. 
B. de Diable, a venous murmur, of a 
whistling or ru>hing character, arising in 
the bulb of the common jugular vein, and 
due to an.emia, lead-poisoning, or other 
specific disease, more common in the 
young, and caased immediately by the 
viljration of the blocni flowing from the 
narrow ])art of the common jugular vein 
into the wide, bull)ous jxirtion of the 
vessel. See als<j Murmur. 

Brunner's Glands. See Glnitd<:. 

Bryg'mus. .Same as Oi/nnto/irisis. 

Bryo'nia. I'.ryony. The root of //. ^//iJ^ ,• 
indi^jcnous to l-.uropc. I'ropcrtii-s due to 
an iiitcnst-ly bitter fjUicosidc lirymiin, a 
Strong irritant when applied lo the skin 
or mucous membrane, often producing 



vesication. A remedy of great value in 
pleurisy, pleuro-pneunionia and rheumatic 
fever. An excellent agent in colds. Dose 
of the root gr. x-xxx. B., Tinct., a lo 
per cent, solution of the root in alcohol. 
Dose TTLx-jj. B., Infusum (unof.), 
has a strength of 5J to the Oj of water. 
L)ose 5ss-ij. 

Bryoplas'tic (;3pwv, moss, iz'/.aaau, to 
form). A descriptive term loosely applied 
to such abnormal growths of tissue as re- 
semble vegetable forms. 

Bu'bo (;}oi',?(ji', the groin). Inflammation 
and swelling of a lymphatic gland, prop- 
erly and generally of the groin, and usually 
following chancroid, gonoirhcea or syphi- 
litic infection. B., Parotid. See J\iro- 
titis. B., Primary, a slight adenitis of 
the groin due to mechanical iiritation, 
or other cause ; formerly supposed to he 
due to .sypliilis without a chancre having 
preceded. B., Sympathetic, one caused 
by irritation, friction, injury, etc., and not 
from infectioue disease. 

Bubon'ocele (/ioi'/^wv, ktjIt), tumor). In- 
guinal hernia when the gut does not extend 
beyond the inguinal canal. 

Buc'cal [/>ucca, the cheek). Pertaining to 
the clieek. 

Buc'cinator. The thin, flat muscle of the 
cheek. See Muscle. 

Bu'chu. The leaves of several species of 
Barosma, yielding a volatile oil, to which 
its properties are probably due. Causes a 
sensation of glowing wamith over the 
body, stimulates the ajipetite, and increases 
the circulation. Useful in urethritis and 
affections of the genito-urinary mucous 
membrane. Dose of the leaves, gr. xv- 
XXX. B. Ext. Fid. I)osen\^x-5J. B. 
Infusum (unof"), _^j toOj. Dose ^ss-ij. 

Buck'bean. The rWw.omcoi Moiyant/ies 
trifoliata. Tonic, antiscorbutic, and em- 
menagogiie. Has been recommended as a 
vermifuge. Dose of fld. ext. TTLxv-^j. 
I'nof. 

Buck'eye Bark. The bark of A-lsculus 
jr/(ilim. Astringent and tonic. Ser\ice- 
able in rectal irritation, prt)lai)sus, and va- 
rious uterine deranf^ements. Dose of fld. 
(•\t. f,'tt. iij-v. Unof. 

Buck'thorn. See J'rani^uln. 

Bucne'ma Tro'pica. See Elephnutiosis. 

Bucne'mia ( ,<«i'. inere.xse, Kviifiii, the leg). 
A kind of intliimmatinn of the leg character- 
ized liy tenseness of swelling;. 

Bud'ding. A form of repriHluclinn ur cell 

<livisii>n, occurring anion),' the jxilyps and 
infu.s<jri.e, in wliieli a bud is ^jiven off" by 



BUGLEWEED 



90 



BUTYRIC ACID 



the parent and comes to resemble the latter. 
The bud may remain permanently attached 
or may form a colony, each member ac- 
quiring a differentiation of function, even 
to the fonnation of male and female ele- 
ments. The process is also called Gemma- 
tion. 
Bu''gleweed. The herb, Lycopus Virgini- 
ctis. Narcotic and astringent. Dose of 
fid. ext. ^ss-ij. Lycopin, concentrated 
ext. Dose gr. j-iv. Unof. 
Bu''hach. See Insect Powder. 
Bulb {l3o?ii3og, a bulb). The expansion or 
dilatation of a canal or vessel. B. of Aorta, 
the dilatation of the aorta near its beginning. 
B. of Corpus Cavernosum, the muscle 
beneath the bulb of the urethra. B. of 
Fornix. See Corpora. B. of Rachi- 
dichus. See Medulla Oblongata. B. 
of Urethra, the posterior expanded part 
of the corpus spongiosum penis. B. of 
Vena Jugularis, the dilatation at the 
Ijeginning of the external jugular vein. 
Bulb^ar. A descriptive term applied to 
certain diseases, especially of the medulla 
oblongata or bulbus rachidickus. B. Dis- 
ease or Paralysis, a term applied to 
the progressive and symmetrical paralysis 
of the facial muscles about the mouth, in- 
cluding those of the tongue, pharynx, and 
sometimes those of the larynx. Called 
also Labio-glosso-laryngeal paralysis. 
Bulb''i Vestib^uli. A name sometimes 
. given to the glands of Bartholini. 
Bulbous Arterio^sus. Pertaining to a 
stage in the development of the heart, in 
which the upper aortic enlargement is so 
called. 

Bulim^ia [(iov, increase, lifiog, hunger). 
Excessive, morbid hunger; frequently 
occurs in idiots and insane persons. 
BuKla {bulla, a bubble). A bleb or "blis- 
ter," consisting of a portion of the epider- 
mis detached from the skin by the infiltra- 
tion of wateiy fluid. The bulla differs from 
the vesicle mainly in size. B., Hemor- 
rhagic. See Pwpura. 
Bun^ion [fiovvog, a hillock). A swelling 
of a bursa of the foot, especially of the 
great toe. 
BuphthaFmos. See Keratoglobus. 
Burc^quism. See Metallotherapy. 
Bur^dock. See Lappa. 



Burette. (Fr.) A graduated tube designed 
for measuring small quantities of a reagent. 
Usually held vertically in a stand and pro- 
vided with a stopcock. 
Burn (Sax. boernan, to scorch). The de- 
struction or injury of tissue by dry heat or 
flame. 
Bumper. A common name for a lamp or 
heating apparatus used in laboratories for 
chemical and pharmaceutical pui-poses. 
B., Argand, uses gas or oil, and contains 
an inner tube for supplying the flame with 
air. B,, Bunsen, a form in which the 
gas is mixed with a sufficient quantity of 
air to produce complete oxidation before 
ignition. 

Burs'se (bursa, a purse). A name used to 
designate small sacs intetposed between 
parts which move one upon another. B. 
Mucosae, situated in subcutaneous areolar 
tissue. B., Synovial, found between 
tendons and bony surfaces. 

Burs^al. Pertaining to a bursa, sac or 
follicle. 

Bursi^tis. Inflammation of a bursa. 

But^ter {butyrum, butter). The fatty part 
of the milk obtained by rupturing the cells 
of the fat globules by " churning " or 
mechanical agitation. Also, various vege- 
table fats having the consistency of butter, 
as B. of Caca'o. See Theobroma. 
Also applied to certain chemical products 
having the appearance or consistence of 
butter, as B. of Antimony, antimonious 
chloride; B. of Tin, stannic chloride; B. 
of Zinc, zinc chloride. See, also, Acid, 
Butyric. 

But^ternut. See Juglans. 

But^tocks. The arse. The fleshy part 
of the body posterior to the hip-joints, 
formed by the masses of the glutei 
muscles. 

But^tonbush. The bark of Cephalanthiis 
occidentalis. A tonic febrifuge and diu- 
retic. Dose of fld. ext. ,^ss-j. Unof. 

But^tonhole Operation. Ste Boutonniere 
Operation. 

But^ton Snakeroot. The root of Liatris 
spicata. A stimulant tonic, diuretic and 
emmenagogue. Dose of fld. ext. 3 ss-j. 
Unof. 

Bu''tyl Chlo''ral. See CJiloral Butylicum. 

Bu''tyric Acid. See Acid, Butyric. 



91 



C^AREAN OPERATION 



C. The chemical sjinbol of Carbon. Abbre- 
viation of ccuti;.^radc. 

C.C. Abbreviation of cubic centimeter. 

cm. Abbreviation of centimeter. 

C. M. Abbreviation of eras mane, to- 
morrow morning. 

C. N. Abbreviation of eras noete, to- 
morrow night. 

Cab'bage Rose. See Ji!osa Centi folia. 

Cacae'sthesis \KaKoq, bad, aia6/^aig, sensa- 
tion). A term used to denote morbid sen- 
sation. 

Caca'o. See Theobroma. 

Cachex'ia [Kamq, bad, cf/f, a habit). A 
term used to designate any morbid ten- 
dency, dyscrasia, or depraved condition of 
general nutrition, etc., used particularly of 
scrofula, syphilis, cancer, etc. C. Strumi- 
priva, the condition allied to, if not iden- 
tical with, myxnedema, occasionally follow- 
ing the extirpation or arrest of function of 
the thyroid gland. It is a cretinoid state, 
characterized in monkeys by hebetude, mal- 
nutrition, muscular tremor, puffy oedema, 
leucocytosis, and the presence of mucin in 
the blood and connective tissues. C. Vir- 
ginum. See Chlorosis. 

Cacoe'thes (KaKoq, ifioq, a habit). A gen- 
eral term used to designate any bad habit 
or disorder. 

Cacogen''esis {mKoq, yeveai^, origin). A 
general term expressing a morbid, mon- 
strous or pathological growth or product. 

Cacot'rophy {Kfiaog, r/jf^tj, I nourish). A 
term applied to disordered or defective 
nouri.shment. 

Cada'ver ( caJcre, to fall). The dead body, 
especially that of man. A coqjse. 

Cadav'erine. A ptomaine, isomeric witli 
ncuridine, and, like it, occurring very 
frequently in dccomjxssing animal tissues. 
Obtained from human hearts, lungs, livers, 
etc., after three days' decom[Kjsition in 
ordinary tem]x.-rature, — al.so from horse- 
flesh, from putrid nius.sei, from herring 
and haddock. It is a constant product of 
the growth of the comma bacillus, irre- 
siK-ctive of the me<lium. It does not 
occur in cultures from which bacteria are 
al»^<:tlt. It is a lliick, water clear, syrupy 
li'|uid, having an exceedingly unplea.sant 
odor, .s<jmcwl)at re.sembling that of coniiiic 
and semen. It is certainly identical with 
wjcalled "animal coniinc." I'utrescine 
und catlavcrine were Ixjlh formerly be- 



lieved to be physiologically indifferent ; but 
recent investigations show both bases calla- 
ble of producing strong inflammation and 
necrosis. The necrosis of the intestinal 
epithelium in Asiatic cholera seems due to 
their presence. They also have the jxnver, 
even in small cjuantities, of preventing 
blood from coagulating, and rendering it 
"laky." Cadaverine is believed by Graw- 
itz to hinder the growth of bacteria. Ca- 
daverine hydrochloride, on dry distillation, 
decom[X)ses into ammonium chloride, N 1 1.,- 
IICI, and piperidine, CjII^N. Whether 
this change, whereby the non-poisonous 
cadaverine becomes a toxic l)asc, can take 
place under the inlluence of bacteria dur- 
ing putrefiction, is not known. 

Cadaveriza'tion. The passage of a living 
body to the state of a cadaver. Applied 
to the algid and cyanotic stage of cholera. 

Cade. See yuni/>ents. 

Cad'mium. Cd ^ II2 ; quantivalence II. 
A bluish- white metal resembling zinc in 
its general properties ; only the .sulphate 
and iodide are used in medicine. In 
physiological action it is escharotic and 
astringent, producing in large doses, emesis 
and violent gastritis. C. lodid., used as 
an ointment, I to 8 of lard. C. Sul- 
phas, a valuable astringent in gonorrhcea 
and in corneal opacities ; used in a lotion 
in strength of gr. j or ij to 3J of water. 
Unof 

Cae'cal. Pertaining to the cajcum. 

Cae'citas Verba'lis. See llWii-blinJ- 
ness. 

Cae'cum [ctrcus, blind). Tlie large blind 
pouch or cul-de-sac in which the large 
intestine begins. 

Caesa'rean Operation [cu-do, to cut). Ex- 
traction of the fcetus through an incision 
made in the abdomen. Gastro-elytrot- 
omy, an incision into the vagina (after 
the alKlominal section) instead of into the 
uterus, and if the child caiuiot be extracted 
in this way, the incision of the os uteri is 
made. Gastro-hysterec'tomy. See 
J'orro's 0/<eration below. Gastro-hys- 
terot'omy, a general name for the C ()., 
according to the best nnnlern melluxls. 
C. O., Improved. See .'^dni^cr, below. 
Kchrer's Operation consist.s in a trans- 
verse incision through the anterior convex 
surface of the uterus at the level of the in- 
ternal OS. Laparo-clytrot'omy. Sec 



CESIUM 



92 



CALCIUM 



G astro- elytrototny, above. Laparot''omy, 
an incision into the abdominal wall ; im- 
properly used as a synonym for any C. O. 
Porro's Operation consists in compression 
of the cervix prior to the prompt longitudi- 
nal uterine incision, and the removal of 
the child, after which the uterus is lifted 
out of the abdomen, the cervix and broad 
ligaments clamped, the utenjs, tubes and 
ovaries removed. Porro-Miiller Opera- 
tion, the uterine mass is raised out of the 
abdomen before incising it. C. O., Post- 
mortem, extraction of the child after the 
mother's death. Sanger's Operation, 
gastro-hysterotomy , Sanger having greatly 
improved the technique of the operation. 
Sigault's Operation, or Symphyseot^- 
omy, delivery by the division of the pubic 
joint. Thomas' Operation, consists in 
certain improvements in gastro-clytrotomy. 

Cae'sium. Cs ^ 132.6; quantivalence i. 
A rare alkaline metal resembling potas- 
sium in physical and chemical properties. 
C. Chloride, unof , lowers pulse rate and 
raises arterial pressure. Dose gr. ij-v. 

CaPfea. Coffee. The seeds of C. Ara- 
bica. The dried and roasted seeds are 
almost universally used in infusion as a 
beverage, forming a cerebral stimulant and 
stomachic tonic. Valuable in promoting 
digestion and allaying hunger and fatigue. 
Frequently causes excessive palpitation of 
the heart. Properties due to an alkaloid. 
Caffein, identical with Thein. See Tea. 
Dose of the alkaloid gr. j-v. C. Citrate. 
Unof Dose gr. j-v. 

Caf^fein. See Caffca. 

Cais^son Disease. The symptoms due 
to increased atmospheric pressure some- 
times occurring in divers, caisson workers, 
etc. Paraplegia, hemiplegia, anesthesia 
or apoplectic attacks are common, but 
paralysis of the legs is the most frequent 
symptom, coming on only after return to 
the normal atmosphere. The nature of 
the lesion is obscure. 

Cajupu'ti Oleum. Oil of Cajuput. A 
volatile oil distilled from the leaves of 
Jlle/aleitca cajiiputi. Resembles oil of tur- 
pentine in its general effects, being iiri- 
tant externally and producing a sense of 
warmth internally, with accelerated pulse. 
Dose TTLJ-v. 

CaFabar Bean. See Physostigma. 

Calage (Fr., wedging). A method of 
prophylaxis or treating sea-sickness by 
fixation of the viscera by pillows placed 
between the stomach and wall of the 
cabin and between the back and edge 



of the berth, the patient lying upon the 
side. 

CaPamus. Sweet Flag. The rhizome of 
Acorns calamus. Properties due to a vola- 
tile oil, acorin. The root is an aromatic, 
stomachic tonic, and a common ingredient 
in many popular "bitters." C. Ext., 
Fid. Dose rr^xv-^j. 

CaPamus Scripto'rius (a writing pen or 
reed). The groove on the anterior wall 
of the fourth ventricle, at the end of which 
is the ventricle of Arantius. 

Calca^neum (67z/x, the heel). A common 
name for the as calcis or heel bone. 

Calca^reous {^calx., limestone). Pertaining 
to or having the nature of limestone. C. 
Degeneration. See Degeneration. 

Calcification {calx,Jio, to become). The 
deposit of calcareous or other insoluble 
crystalline matter within the tissues of the 
body. 

Calcina'tion. The process of driving off 
the volatile chemical constituents from 
inorganic compounds. The expulsion of 
carbon dioxide from carbonates. 

Calcine. To separate the inorganic ele- 
ments of a substance by subjecting it to 
an intense heat. 

CaPcium. Ca = 40; quantivalence II. 
A brilliant, silver-white metal, the basis of 
lime and limestone, characterized by .strong 
affinity for oxygen and isolated with great 
difficulty. Best known in the form of 
calcium oxide, quick lime ; C. Hydrate, 
slaked lime ; and C. Carbonate, chalk. 
The preparations of lime used in medicine 
are usually alkaline and slightly astringent. 
Calcium oxide is a powerful escharotic. 
C. Bromidum. See Broviine. Calcis, 
Liquor, lime-water, contains about ly^ 
parts lime in looo of water. Calx, cal- 
cium oxide, quick lime, not used internally. 
C. Carb. Precipitatus, insoluble in water, 
but soluljle in acids, with effervescence. 
Dose gr. v-xx. C. Chloridum, soluble 
ia water. Dose gr. x-xx. C. Chlorinata. 
See Chlorine. Creta, native calcium car- 
bonate, chalk. C. Hypophosphis. See 
Phosphorus. C. Linimentum, carron 
oil, liniment of lime, contains equal parts 
liquor calcis and cotton-seed oil. C. Mist., 
consists of C. pulv. comp. 20, cinnamon 
water 40, water 40. Dose ^ ss. C. Phos- 
phas. See Phosphorus. C. Preparata, 
chalk freed from impurities by washing 
and elutriation. Dose gr. v-xx. C. Pulv. 
Comp., compound chalk powder, consists 
of C. prep. 30, acacia 20, sugar 50 parts. 
Dosegr.v-^j. C. Sulphidum. See SuJ- 



CALCULUS 



93 



CAMPHOR 



phur. C. Syr., saccharated syrup of 
lime, contains 5 per cent, lime, 30 per cent, 
sugar, 65 jx?r cent, water. 

Cal'culus (dim. of calx, chalk). A cal- 
careous or stone-like concretion found in 
the bladder, kidney, etc. C, Cutane- 
ous. See Mi/itini. C, Lacteal, or 
Mammary, a calcareous nodule some- 
times olistaicting the lactiferous ducts. 
C, Mulberry, oxalate of lime variety, 
resembling a inulberr)' in shape ami color. 
C. Nasal. See Rhiuolilh. C, Pros- 
tatic, in the prostate gland. C, Renal, 
urrc acid calculus found in the kidney, 
producing what has l>een called nephritic 
colic. C., Salivary, forming in the 
ducts of the salivary glands. C., Vesi- 
cal, may have originally ilescended from 
tlie kidney or formed primarily in the 
bladder. 

Calefa'cient (L., f<7//V//Af, warm, and facto, 
to make). A medicine, externally applied, 
which causes a sensation of warmtli. 

Calend'ula. Marigold. The llowering 
plant known as the garden marigold, C. 
officinalis. C, Tinct. contains 20 per 
cent, of the leaves and stems. Used ex- 
clusively as a local application in wounds, 
ulcers and lesions. 

Ca'lices of the Kidneys. The cup-like 
tul>es of the ureter which encircle the 
apices of the Malpighian pyramids of the 
kidneys. 

Cal'ico Bush. See Kalniia. 

Califor'nia Laur'el. The leaves of 
Umbellaria Culifornica, common to the 
Pacific slojie. Recommended by Mann in 
nervous headaciies, cereltro-spinal menin- 
gitis, neuralgia, etc. Dose of lid. ext. gtt., 
x-xxx. 

Calisa'ya. See Cinchona. 

Calisthen'ics {Ka'/j>q, l^eautiful, aihvoq, 
strength). A term used to express various 
rh)thmic movements of the Itody intended 
to develop the muscles and produce grace- 
fulness of carriage. 

Callos'lty or Callos'itas (I-. rrt////r, hard 
ness). Tylosis, Tyloma, Keratoma. A 
hard, thickened patch on the skin pro- 
duced by excessive accumulation of the 
horny layers. 

CaKlus {^callus). The exudative de[)osit 
l>etwcen and almut the fracture of 
a broken l>one. C, Permanent, the 
permanent Ixjnd of Uiny unicin after the 
re absoqition of the C, Provisional, or 
cartil.jge like, phtstic material first tlirown 
out. C. of Skin, induration and thicken- 
ing of Dauic. 



Calm'ative. That which produces a calm- 
ing or depressing effect upon the various 
centres of motor nerses. 

Caromel. See Ilydrargvruni. 

Calorim'eter \calor, heat, fterpoi', a mea- 
sure). An instrument for transforming 
the jxiteiitial energy of tlie food into heat, 
and to measure the number of heat-units 
proiiuced. Two forms are principally 
used, the Water- and the Ice-C. 

Calum'bo. Columlx). The root of C. 
JiUconliiza, native to South Africa and 
paits of E. Indies. An excellent example 
of simple bitters. Is not astringent, and 
may l)e prescribed with salts of iron. Use- 
ful in atonic dyspepsia, and as a mild, 
appetizing tonic in convalescence. C, 
Fid. Ext. Dose n\,v-xxx. C, Tinct., 
contains ID per cent, of C. Dose ^ss-ij. 

Calva'rium or Calva''ria {calvus, bald). 
Tlie upper part of the skull. 

Calvit'ies [calviis). Baldness. 

Calx. The heel. In chemistrj', formerly 
applied to any oxide of a metal, especially 
an alkaline metal. 

Ca^lyx [KaXv^, a cup). In anatomy, the 
truncated extremities of the ureters in the 
kidneys. C. of Ovum, the wall of the 
Graafian follicle from which it has escaped. 
In botany, the outer envelo]>e of the 
flower, — the sepals taken collectively. In 
biology, that part of a coral or crinoid 
which surmounts the stem. 

Cambo''gia. Gamboge. A resinous gum 
from Garcinia Ilauburii, a tree native to 
Southern Asia. Proi)erties due to i:^am- 
bogie acid. A drastic hydragogue catliar- 
tic, decidedly diuretic. Officially a con- 
stituent of Pil. Comp. Cath. See 
Colocynth. Dose gr. ij-v. 

Cam'era {Kniinpa, an arched roof or 
chamber). In anatomy, a chamlier or 
vaulted structure. C. Cordis, the en- 
veloping membrane of the heart, the peri- 
cardium. C. of Cranium, tlie cliainberof 
the skull. C. Lucida, a four sided prism 
with sides cut at such an angle that rays of 
ligiit entering it are divided, part continu- 
ing in a right line, tlie remaining rays 
being relleeti'd at an angle of 90°. C. 
Oculi, the ciianil)cr of tlie eye. In op- 
tics, tile tlianil>er or atlju.stalile d;u-k lox 
of the apparatus used for |)liotography. 

Cam'phor. A solid volatile oil obtained 
from Ciinutiiioniiini cani/<liora, a tree in- 
digenous to Kastern Asia. Yielils cam- 
plu<ric and catnphrctic acids, also C. 
Cymol when distilhd with zinc chloriile. 
A valuable antispasmo<lic, anotlyne and 



CAMPIMETER 



94 



CANNABIS 



diaphoretic. Applied locally, is an ex- 
cellent rubefacient. A moderate cerebral 
excitant. Effectual in cholera, vomiting, 
cardiac depression and affections requiring 
an antispasmodic. C, Aqua consists of 
camphor 8, alcohol l6, distilled water q. s. 
ad looo parts. Dose 3J-iv. C, Car- 
bolated, a mixture of 2)4 parts of camphor 
with one each of carbolic acid and alcohol. 
C. Ceratum, consists of camphor liniment 
3, olive oil 12, simple cerate 85. C, 
Chloral, a fluid prepared by mixing equal 
parts of camphor and chloral hydrate. An 
excellent solvent for many alkaloids. Used 
externally. C. Linimentum, has cam- 
phor 20, cottonseed oil 80 parts. C, 
Monobromated, camphor in which one 
atom of hydrogen has been replaced by an 
atom of bromine. Resembles the bro- 
mides in therapeutical action. C. Sali- 
cylate, prepared by heating together 14 
parts of camphor with 1 1 of salicylic acid. 
Used as an ointment. C. Spt., contains 
camphor 10, alcohol 70, water 20 parts. 
Dose TTLv-xx. C. Tinct., Rubini's. 
Unof. A saturated solution of camphor 
in alcohol. Dose TTLiv-xx. Raspail's 
Eau Sedatif. Unof. Contains aq. am 
monia ^ij, sodium chloride ^ij, camph. 
spt. wine 3 iij, water Oj. Used exter- 
nally. 

Campim''eter. See Perimeter. 

Can^ada Snakc'root. The root of Asa- 
rum Canadense. Aromatic stimulant and 
carminative. Dose of fld. ext. TTLxv- ri ss. 
Unof. 

Can''adol. A transparent volatile liquid 
resembling benzine in smell. It is an 
excellent local anaesthetic for minor surgi- 
cal operations. Unof. 

Canal'', or CanaPis (raw;;;?, areed or tube). 
A tube or duct for carrying the fluids of the 
body. Also a hollow instrument used as a 
splint. C. Arteriosus, the foetal arteiy 
uniting the aorta and pulmonary artery. C. 
of Cloquet, a tube in the vitreous humor 
of the eye, transmitting, in the foetus, an 
artery to the lens. C. of Corti, a canal 
between the membraiia tectoria and lamina 
basilaris of the cochlea. C. of Cochlea, 
the spiral canal of the cochlea or anterior 
part of the labyrinth of the ear. C. of 
Fontana, a small canal in the eye of 
lower animals formed by the pectiniform 
ligament. C, Haversian. See Haver- 
sian Canal. C, Hunter's, an aponeu- 
rotic canal in the middle third of the thigh 
containing the femoral artery. C. of 
Nuck, a sheath surrounding the round 



ligaments of the uterus. C. of Petit, the 
space between the anterior and posterior 
leaflets of the suspensory ligament of the 
lens of the eye. C. of Schlemm, a cir- 
cular canal in the sclerotic coat of the eye 
close to its juncture with the cornea. C, 
Semicircular, three bony canals of the 
ear, the superior, posterior and external, 
each enclosing the membranous canals. 
C, Semicircular, Function of. See 
Goltz's Statical Theory. C. of Stilling, 
the same as C. of Cloquet. C, Verte- 
bral, the canal extending longitudinally 
through the vertebral column, which con- 
tains the spinal cord. 

Canalic'ulus (dim. of canalis). A small 
canal ; especially that leading from' the 
punctum to the lachrymal sac of the 
eye, and in the plural, the minute canals 
opening into the lacunae of bone. See 
Bone. 

Cancellous {cancelhis). Resembling lat- 
tice work. C. Tissue. See Tissue. 

CanceFlus [cancelli, lattice). A term 
used to describe the spongy, lattice-work 
texture of bone. 

Can'cer. See Carcinoi7ia. 

Can^croid Ulcer. See Rodent Ulcer. 

Can'crum O'ris. Canker of the mouth, 
gangrenous stomatitis, characterized by foul, 
deep ulcers of the buccal surfaces of the 
cheeks or lips. 

Can''dlefish Oil. See Eulachoni Oleum. 

Cane Sugar. See Sacchartim. 

Canine'' {canis, a dog). Partaking of the 
nature of, relating to, or resemliling a dog. 
C. Fossa. See Fossa. C. Teeth, the 
cuspid teeth next the lateral incisors, so 
called from theii- resemblance to a dog's 
teeth. 

Canif'ies. (Lat.) Grayness of the hair. May 
be due to old age, or, in young persons, to 
intense emotion, illness, etc. 

Cannab'inon. See Cannalns. 

Can'nabis. Hemp. Indian hemp. The 
flowering tops of C. saliva, of which there 
are two varieties, C. Indica and C. Ameri- 
cana, the former being the most potent. 
Contain a resin, cannabin, an alkaloid, can- 
nabinon (hypnotic. Dose gr. j-v), and a 
volatile oil. An antispasmodic, anesthetic, 
narcotic, and a powerful aphrodisiac. In 
large doses produces mental exaltation, in- 
toxication and sensation of doul^le con- 
sciousness. A valuable hypnotic in de- 
lirium tremens. Useful in painful affec- 
tions of the bladder and in functional im- 
j^otence. Bhang, Churnis and Ilaschisch 
are the various Indian names by which 



CANNULA 



95 



CAPSULE 



the drug is known. C. Indica, Ext., 
dose gr. ](,-]. C. Ind., Ext. Fld.,;m al- 
coholic preparation. Dose n\j-v. C. Ind. 
Tinct., contains 20 j^er cent, of the drug. 
Dose rr^x-x-^j. Cannabin Tannate, 
the tannate, a glucoside containing cantta- 
I'in. Dose as a hypnotic gr. v-x. 

Can'nula ^dim. of cainia, a tul)e). A 
surgical instrument consisting of a tube or 
sheath obliquely pointed, and a stiletto. 
Used for tapping and draining tumors and 
ca\ities. 

Canthar''ides. PI. of Catttharis. 

Cantha'ris. Cantharides. Spanish Fly. 
'ihe dried body of a species of beetle, 
C. vcsicatoria (nat. ord. Coleoptera). Con- 
tains a powerful poisonous principle, can- 
tliariJiti. lxx:ally applied, cantharis i« a 
ruK-facient and vesicant. Internally an 
irritant, causing gastralgia and vomiting. 
In toxic doses produces severe gastro-en- 
teritis, strangury and priapism. Used 
chiefly as an external counter-irritant in the 
form of " blisters." C. Ceratum, can- 
tharides 35, yellow wax 20, resin 20, lard 
35, alcohol q. s. C. Charta, cantharides 
I, Canada tuqx^ntine I, olive oil 4, .sper- 
maceti 3, white wax 8, water 10 parts, 
spread on pajjer. C. cum Collodio, 
cantharides 60, flexible colknlion S5, chlo- 
roform q. s. C. cum Picis Emplast., 
Burgundy pitch 92, cerat. canthar. 8 
parts. C. Liniment., cantharides 15, 
oil of tuqx.nline q.s. ad loo. C. Tinct. 
contains 5 jxir cent, of tlie drug. Dose 

TT\j-\x. 

Can'thoplasty {Kcn-Oog, tlic angle of the 
eye, -rr/Maau, to form). A surgical opera- 
tion for increasing the si/.e of the palpebral 
fissure by cutting the outer canthus. 

Canthor'raphy [Kcn-fioc, pn(f>t/, a seam). A 
surgical operation to reduce the si/e of the 
palpebral fissure by a suture of the can- 
thus. 

Can'thus {KavOo^). The inner or outer 
an^^li- formed by the juncture of the eyelids. 

Canutil'lo. See 'I'epifote. 

Caout'chouc (a Caribl>ean word). The 
concrete, prepared juice of a Hra/ilian tree, 
Siphitiia elustidj. N'aluable for its clastic 
qualities. .Similar pro])crties are found in 
the juices of other trees. See also Gutlii 
IVr, hit, </. V. 

Cap'illary (mpi/his, a hair). y\ miinite 
blo<><l ves9<.-l c(jnnecling the smallest rami- 
tications of the arteries with those of the 
veins. Also a v<r)- minute- fissure- of the 
skull. Also the iriteriillular biliary pass- 
ages. Capillaries, Pulmonary, a name 



used to designate the plexuses beneath the 
mucous membrane, on the walls and septa 
of the lungs. C. Naevus. See jWrvus 
I'lsru/iiris. 

Cap'ital {caput, the head). Pertaining to 
the head, or to the summit of a bcxiy or 
object. 

CapiteKlum (dim. of caput). The rounded, 
external siu-face of the lower end of the 
humerus. 

Capif'ulum (dim. of caput). A general 
term applied to any protuberance of bone 
received into the hollow part of another 
bone. 

Cap're. See Mulatto. 

Caproylam''ine (Hexylamine). A pto- 
maine found in the putrefaction of yeast. 

CapryUic Acid. An acid combined with 
glycerine, forming a glyceride existing in 
various animal fats. 

Capsel'la. The leaves and stems of C. 
ditrsa-pastons, common in temperate cli- 
mates. It is considered by Ehrenwell an 
excellent hemostatic. Unof. See Lycoper- 
don Gigantca. 

Cap'sicum. Cayenne Pepper. The fruit 
of 6". fastigiatuni, native to tropical Africa 
and America. Odor and hot taste due to 
a volatile oil, capsicin. Irritant to skin 
and mucous membranes. Internally, a 
stomachic tonic, diuretic and aphrodisiac. 
Useful in atonic dyspepsia, flatulent colic, 
and in intennittent fever. C, Emplas- 
trum, prepared from the oleoresin and 
resin plaster. C, Ext. Fid. Dose n\,v- 
3J. C, Oleoresin, ethereal. Dose 
n\j-v. C, Tinct., contains 5 per cent, 
of capsicum. Dose n\,x-_:^j. 

Cap^sular Lig'ament. The sac or mem- 
branous bag which surrounds every mov- 
able joint or articulation. It contains the 
synovial fluid. 

Cap'sule (dim. of capsa, a chest). A tunic 
or b.ig which encloses a part of the l)0(ly 
or an organ. Also, in phaiTnacy, a 
small spheroidal shell com|K)sed of gly- 
cerine and gelatine, divided so that the 
jiarts lit together like box and cover. Used 
for the administration of nauseous and re- 
jHilsive medicines. C.-fiUer, a contrivance 
consisting of a funnel tube and plunger, or 
other device, used lor introducing ine<licine 
into capsules. C. of Glisson, the celhilo- 
va.scular membrane- envelo])ing the hepatic 
vessels. C, Malpighian. See .)/a//<ig- 
hiiiu /ii>,ti,s. C, Suprarenal, the duct- 
less glan<lular IhmIv at the apex of each 
ki<lney. C. of Tenon, the tunica ii/^a- 
nalis, of the eye. 



CAPSULOTOMY 



96 



CARDAMOMUM 



Capsulot^omy {capsula, a capsule, refivu, 

to cut). The operation of rupturing the 

capsule of the crystalline lens in cataract 

operations. 

Cap''uron, Cardinal Points of. See 

Fc/vis. 
Caput (Lat.). The head; also the chief 
part or beginning of an organ, as C. 
Coli, C. Gallinaginis. See Vene- 
viontanum. C. Succedaneum, a tumor 
composed of a sero-sanguineous infiltra- 
tion of the connective tissue situated upon 
the presenting part of the foetus. 

Car'amel. Cane sugar deprived of two 
molecules of water. A viscid, brown- 
colored liquid. 

Car^away. See Canim. 

CarboFic Acid, See Acid, Carbolic. 

Car^bon. Charcoal. C=I2; quantiva- 
lence ii, iv. A non-metal occurring in 
the various forms of diamond, graphite or 
" black lead," and charcoal. In medi- 
cine only the last-named form is employed, 
which may be, — C. Animal. Useful as 
a deodorant and disinfectant. Readily 
absorbs and aids in oxidizing many gases. 
Used internally to absorb fermenting pro- 
ducts of digestion. C. Animal., Purifl- 
cat., purified animal charcoal. Dose gr. 
xx-^:^]. C. Dioxide. The acid, gaseous 
product having the composition of CO.^, 
commonly known as " carbonic acid gas," 
or carbonic acid. It is a colorless gas 
having a sp. gr. of 1. 52, soluble in cold 
water, and possessing a pungent smell and 
an acid taste. Inhaled, it destroys animal 
life by asphyxiation. In solution, an ex- 
cellent refrigerant and stomachic. Its in- 
halation is fatal in a short time, even when 
, diluted with 95 parts of air. It is a product 
of respiration. C. Bisulphide, bisulphide 
of carbon, CS.^, a colorless, transparent liquid 
of offensive odor, highly inflammable, very 
poisonous. A good solvent for caoutchouc. 
Diluted spray recommended in diphtheria. 
Dose TTLss-j. C. Ligni, wood charcoal. 
C. Tetrachloride, anaesthetic, recom- 
mended locally in asthma, by inhalation. 
Unof 

Carbonae'mia [carbon, ai/xa, the blood). 
A word denoting the accumulation of 
carbon dioxide in the blood. 

Carbon^ic Acid. See Carbon Dioxide. 

Carbo^nis Deter''gens Liq. See Fix. 

Carboniza''tion. The process of decom- 
posing organic substances by heat without 
air, until the volatile products are driven 
off and the carbon remains. 

Car-'buncle, or 



Carbun''culus [carbo, a live coal). A hard, 
circumscribed, deep-seated, painful inflam- 
mation of the subcutaneous tissue, accom- 
panied by chill, fever and constitutional 
disturbance. Differs from a boil in having 
greater size, a flat top, and several points 
of suppuration. Erroneously called an- 
thrax. 

Carcino'ma [napiuvoQ, a crab, from appear- 
ance of the veins). A malignant tumor, 
characterized by a network of connective 
tissue whose areolae are filled with cell 
masses resembling epithelial cells. It is 
prone to affect the lymphatics. C, Chim- 
ney-Sweepers'. See EpithcUoDia. C, 
Colloid (Alveolar, or Gum), affects 
chiefly the alimentary canal, uterus, peri- 
toneum, etc. ; the delicate connective tissue 
stroma are filled with colloid matter in 
alveoli or cysts. C, Encephaloid, is of 
rapid growth, small amount of stroma, 
large alveoli, and greater amount of cells 
and bloodvessels. C, Epitheliomatous, 
or Squamous-celled, the cells resemble 
squamous epithelium, and they invade the 
adjacent tissue in a columnar manner. C, 
Medullary. Same as Encephaloid. C, 
Schirrus, or Hard, most commonly in 
the breast ; has a stout fibrillated stroma, 
closely packed with large nucleated cells. 
Hivtnatoid (bloody). Melanotic (pigmen- 
ted), Osteoid (in bones). Villous (papil- 
lary), etc., are other varieties, encephaloid 
in character. C. Lenticulare, C. Me- 
lanodes, C. Tuberosum. See Carci- 
noma Cutis. 

Carcino^ma Curtis. Cancer of the skin. 
(See also Epithelioma^. C. Lenticulare, 
a form of scirrhous cancer, confined at first 
to the skin, characterized by smooth, glis- 
tening, pinkish-red papules or nodules, at 
first separate, but finally involving adjacent 
glands. C. Melanodes, similar to C. 
Lenticulare, but marked by dark-blue, 
brown or black papules, which break into 
fungous growths. C. Tuberosum, a rarer 
form, characterized by large tubercles which 
usually break into ulcers. 

Cardamo'mum. Cardamom, Cardamon. 
The fruit of C. elettaria, cultivated in 
Malabar. Properties due to a volatile oil. 
An aromatic, carminative stomachic, used 
as an ingredient in several "bitters." Use- 
ful when combined with purgatives to pre- 
vent griping. C. Infusum. Unof Consists 
of cardamom "7^], water Oj. Dose wine- 
glassful. C, Tinct., 15 per cent, strength. 
Dose 3J-ij. C, Tinct. Comp., carda- 
mom 20, cinnamon 20, caraway 10, coclii- 



CARDAMON 



97 



CARPUS 



neal 5, glycerine 60, dilute alcohol, q. s. 
ad 1000 parts. Dose .^j-ij. 

Car'damon. See Ciiniijmomum. 

Car'dia \^Knp6ta). The heart. C. of 
Stomach, a name sometimes used to 
designate the cardiac oritice of the stomach. 

Car'diac (^napi^ta). Pertaining to the heart. 
C. Cycle, the total cardiac movement or re- 
volution. C. Dullness, the ret;;iun cover- 
ing the position of the heart, as shown by 
percussion. C. Ganglia, lie in llie ij;rooves 
and sulistance — the principal are Remak's 
and Bidder's, the first on the surface of 
tlie sinus venosus, and the latter (two) at 
the auriculo-ventricular groove. C. Im- 
pulse, the elevation in the fifth left inter- 
costal space, caused by the movement of 
the heart. C. Murmurs. See Mun/turs. 

Cardial'gia (/capfWa, a?.) of, pain). A term 
loosely used as a synon)-m of gastrodynia 
in general, heartburn, and stomachic pains 
on the left side. 

Car'dinal [cardo, a hinge). A chief or 
principal part. C. Flower, a common 
name for several sj^ecies of lobelia. C. 
Points. See Eye. Diagrammatic. C. 
Veins, the venous trunks which, in the 
embrj'onic stage, form primitive jugular 
veins. 

Car'diogram {KapSia, ypanfirj, a line). The 
tracing made of the cardiac impulse by the 
aid of the cardiograph. 

Car^diograph (Kupdia, ypa<f>0), to write). 
An instrument for registering graphically, 
by curved lines, the modifications of the 
IiulsatidMS of the heart. 

Cardio-inhib^itory. Pertaining to the 
diminution cf the heart's action. C.-i. 
Center, located in the medulla. C.-i. 
Nerves, the fibres of the spinal accessory 
su])i)li< il to the vagus. 

Cardio-pneumat'ic [KnpAta, m'sv/m, the 
breath). Pertaining to the heart and the 
breath. C. -p. Movements. Those move- 
ments of the air in the lungs which are 
caused by the pulsations of the heart and 
the larger vessels. 

Cardio-pneu'mograph (KapiSia, m'tv/ia, 
-/pdou, to write). An instrument designed 
for grajihically recording cardio-pneumatic 
movi-incnts. 

Car'duus. The seeds of C. murianits, 
St. Mary's thistle, anfj C. briinlif tus, 
ijlessed thistle. A ilecoction of the former, 
J^ ij ad f )j, constitutes an old and prjpular 
remedy in hremoptysis. The latter is als<j 
a |K>puiar cure all, u.sod mainly as a touic 
bitt<-r^. L'nof 

Car'icin. Sec Papain. 
7 



Ca'ries [carlo, to rot). A chronic inflam- 
mation of lione with rarefaction or absorp- 
tion of l)ony tissue, followed usually by 
pus-fonnation. C"alled, also, rarcfyim; os- 
teitis. C. Fungosa, when there is great 
rapidity of formation and extension of 
granulation ti.ssue. C, Necrotic, when 
portions of bone lie in a suppurating cav- 
ity. C. of Spine, or Pott's Disease, 
osteitis of the botlies of the verlebne and 
intervertebral fibro-cartilage producing cur- 
vature of the spine. 

Ca'rious. Pertaining to caries. 

Carmin'ative [r a r /n r it , a charm). A 
calming or soothing medicine, fhielly for 
children, that acts by relieving pain from 
flatulence. 

Car'mine. .\ coloring matter extracted 
from coihincal, q. v. 

Carnau'ba. The root of Corypha cerifera. 
Used in Brazil as an alterative. Resem- 
bles sarsaparilla in properties. Dose of 
the fld. ext. n\^xxx-3J. Unof 

Carnifica'tion {caro, flesh, fieri, to make). 
A turm indicating the alteration of tissue 
to an unnatural, fleshy appearance. Also, 
the amyloid degeneration of certain tissues. 

Car'nin. A leucomaine isolated from 
American meat-extract, but not from mus- 
cle-tissue itself, — also obtained from yeast 
and wine. It is not thought to be very 
poisonous, but experiments made by Briicke 
showed it caused a fluctuation in the rate 
of the heartbeat. 

Carniv'orous [caro, voro, to devour). In 
surgeiy, a name applied to caustic sub- 
stances. In zoology, flesh-eating animals. 

Car'nose (earnosus, fleshy). Resembling, 
or ha\ing the consistence of flesh. 

Caro'ba. The leaflets of Jaearanda pro- 
eera. A [Kipular IJrazilian remedy as an 
alterative and tonic in s}'])hilis. Dose of 
the fld. ext. n^xv-gj. Unof 

Carof'id (sa/jow, to produce sleej)). The 
great arteries of the neck. (They were 
tliought to give origin to sleep.) See 
Artery. 

Car'pal (<v/;y^//j, the wrist). Pertaining to 
the wrist. 

Carphol'ogy [Kap^q, chaff, and ^)w, to 
collect). A term applied to that symptom 
in delirious and clying persons consi.sting 
in |ii( king at the bed clothes. 

Carpozy'ma (^«/)Tor, fruit, s'i'//v, ferment). 
An alcoholic ferment. C. Apiculata, a 
widely diffused alcoholic fenmnt found in 
all fruits. 

Carp'us. Till- wri^t. The eight bones 
collectively lorming the wrist. 



CARRIAGE 



98 



CASTANEA 



Car''riage. See Ward-carriage. 

Car^ron Oil. See Linttm. 

Car-sickness. The well-known symp- 
toms of sea-sickness produced by journey- 
ing in railway cars. 

Car^thamus. American Saffron or Saf- 
flower. The flowers of C. thtctorius. An 
infusion, " Saffron tea," is a popular domes- 
tic remedy as a diuretic in measles and 
other exanthematous aflections. Unof. 

Car^tilage. Gristle. A white, semi-opaque, 
non-vascular tissue composed of a matrix, 
containing nucleated cells. C, Hya- 
line, distinguished by granular or homo- 
geneous matrix. C, Fibro-, distinguished 
by a fibrous matrix. When boiled, cartilage 
yields a substance called ctumdrine, q. v. 
Cartilages of Larynx. The cartilages 
of the larynx produce the various modula- 
tions of the pitch and intensity of the voice. 
Consist of the thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis, 
and a pair each of arytenoid, conticula 
laryngis and ctmeiform. C. of San- 
torini, a nodule at the apex of each aryte- 
noid cartilage, the corniculum laryngis. 
C. of Wrisberg, the cuneiform cartilages, 
one on each side of the fold of membrane 
stretching from the arytenoid cartilage to 
the epiglottis. 

Ca''runi. Caraway. The seeds of C. cariii, 
indigenous to Europe and an allied species 
native to the Pacific coast of America. 
Odor and taste due to a volatile oil. Valu- 
able in infant colic, but used chiefly as a 
flavor. C. Infusum, unof , 3 j-ij, ad Oj. 
Dose ^ ss-ij. 

Carbuncle (dim. ca7-o, flesh). A small, 
abnormal fleshy growth. C, Lachrymal, 
upon the conjunctiva near the inner can- 
thus. 

Carun''culae [nttis, the skin). The nym- 
phoe. C. Myrtifor^mes, the projections 
of membrane near the orifice of the 
vagina, thought to be the remains of the 
hymen after its rupture. They have also 
been found in the imperforated hymen. 

CaryophyFlus. Clove. The unexpanded 
flowers of Eugenia caryophyllata, distin- 
guished by their pungent, spicy taste. 
Properties due to a volatile oil, which is 
antiseptic, stimulant and irritant. Useful 
as a stomachic, and to prevent griping 
when combined with purgatives. Used 
also by microscopists to clarify preparations 
and tissues for mounting. C. Infusum. 
Unof. A strength of i to 40 recom- 
mended. Dose 3J-ij. C. 01., contains 
an acid and a phenol compound. Dose 
Tivi-iv. 



Cas''ca Bark (Sassy Bark, Ordeal Bark). 
The bark of Erythrophlaitni Gidnense, a 
tree native to Africa. Properties due to 
an alkaloid. Produces nausea and vomit- 
ing. Valuable in intemiittent fevers. C. 
Tinct., 25 per cent, in strength. Dose 
TT^x. Unof. Erythrophline, the active 
alkaloid, unof., locally an ansesthetic. 

Cas^cara Amar^ga. Honduras Bark. The 
bark of a tree native to Mexico. Much 
used as an alterative tonic in syphilis and 
skin aff'ections. C, Fid. Ext. Dose 
^ss-j. Unof. 

Cas^cara Sagra^da (Chittem Bark, Sa- 
cred Bark). The bark of Rhamnus piii'- 
s/iiana, or California Buckthorn. Properties 
due to' a volatile oil. Useful in treatment 
of chronic constipation. C. Cordial, a 
trade preparation. All unof. 

CascariPla. The bark of Croton eluteria. 
Native to the Bahama Islands. An aro- 
matic bitter, increasing the natural secre- 
tions of the digestive organs. A tincture 
and an infusion, both I to 10, freshly pre- 
pared and used in 3J-^j doses. Unof. 

Casea^tion i^caseum, cheese). The precipi- 
tation of casein during the coagulation of 
milk. Also a fatty degeneration of pus, 
tubercle, etc., in which the structure is 
converted into a soft, cheese-like substance. 

Ca^sein (cascu)n). A derived albumin ; 
the chief proteid of milk, precipitated by 
acids and by rennet at 40° C. It is closely 
allied to alkali-albumin, but contains 
more nitrogen and a large amount of phos- 
phoras. It constitutes most of the curd of 
milk. Two varieties of C, Vegetable 
have been described, — Legumin, in peas, 
beans, etc., and Conglutin, in hops and 
almonds. 

Ca^seous (^easeum). Having the nature or 
consistence of cheese. 

Cassa^va. The fecula of manioc, Jani- 
pha maniJiot, separated from the juice. 
Commonly known as bread fruit. Unof. 

Casser^ian Gang'lion. A large crescent- 
shaped ganglion of nerves, situated in a 
depression in the petrous portion of the 
temporal bone. It is the ganglion of the 
larger or sensory root of the fifth nerve. 
From it arise the oplithalmic, the superior 
and inferior maxillaiy divisions. Called 
also the Gasserian Ganglion. 

Cas'sia. Purging cassia. The fruit of a 
tree, C. fistula, growing in tropical regions. 
The pulp in 3J-ij doses is a mild laxative. 

Castan''ea. Chestnut. The leaves of C. 
vesca. Contain tannic and gallic acids 
and other principles whose value is not 



CASTOR BEAN 



99 



CATHETER 



known. I'sed in decoction as a remedy 
for whooping-cough. C, Fid. Ext. Dose 

Gas 'tor Bean and C. Oil. See A'liirii. 

Castra'tion \^,<isO\', to cut oft). The ex- 
cision of one or both testicles. C, Fe- 
male, removal of the ovaries. 

Casts. See 7///v Ctisfs. 

Catacau'sis (Mira, kqiu), to bum). S|X)n- 
tancous combustion. 

CataC'lasis (Kara, k7mu, to break). A 
di.-tortion of the eyelids. Also, a fracture. 

Catacrot'ic (Kara, Kporog, a striking). Ele- 
vations interrupting the line of descent in 
a sphygmogram. 

Cat'alepsy [Kara, ?Mfif3avu, to seize). A 
spa^mcKJic disease marked* by suspension 
of consciousness and sensation, with rigid- 
ity of muscles, without material alteration 
in circulation, ^U. See Sviinuiiiibiilism. 

Catal'ysis (\a-n/.i'(j, to dissolve). In 
chemistry, a reaction which takes place 
owing to the mere presence of another 
Ixxly which apparently undergoes no 
change. 

Catame'nia (\a7a, /;;;i', month). The re- 
current tnonthly discharge of blood during 
sexual life from the genital canal of the 
female. 

Catapha'sia (Kara^acr/f, assent). A con- 
dition of imjxjrfect con.sciousness, in which 
the jxitieiit repeatedly utters the same 
word or words spontaneously, or in reply 
to a question. 

Cataphor'ic {Ka-a^ (popecj, to carry). Per- 
taining to tlie transference of currents 
through membranous sejita in the direc- 
tion of a galvanic current. 

Cataphore'sis (KaToipopto), to bear away). 
The tran.^fer of medicaments by the cata- 
phoric action of tiie diiTusion-electrode 'o 
deep-seated tissues, as, e.g:, chloroform 
into the suljstance of a nerve. 

Cat'aplasm. See PouHiie. 

Cat'aract [KnrapnKriiq, a falling down, or 
over, as of Something ov^-r the vision). 
Diminished transpxrenjy or an opacity of 
the crystalline lens or of its capsule. C, 
Black, the lens is pigment<-d, and of a dark- 
brown color. C, Capsular, consi.sLs in 
non-lranspan-nt de|K)sits nn the inner sur- 
fac<; of the capsuh-. C, Cortical, o|)aci- 
ficalion of the outer layers of tlu- lens. 
C, Diabetic, is a.s.s<x:iated with <liabetes. 
C, Discission of, an ojx-'ration prelinn'- 
nary to aliM)rpliiin, <ir extraction by suc- 
tion, coh>i^ling in rupturing the cajisule, 
Vi that the aiiueous hutnor gains access to 
the lens. C, Extraction of. Kemoval 



of the cataractous lens by surgical opera- 
tion. See Extraction of C. C, Imma- 
ture, or Unripe, only a part of the lens- 
sulstance is cataractous. C, Lamellar, 
or Zonular; certain layers between the 
cortex and nucleus are opaque, the remain- 
ing layers being transparent. C, Mature, 
or C, Ripe. The whole lens-substance 
is cataracious. C, Morgagnian, when 
a liyperiHittiire or oi'crripc C. shrinks and 
leaves a nucleus floating in the dissolved 
outer layers. C, Polar, (anterior or jws- 
terior), the opacity is conlined to one 
pole of the lens. C, Pyramidal, the 
opacity is at the anterior pule and conoid, 
the apex extending forw.uil. C, Recur- 
rent Capsular, or Secondary. Capsular 
cataract, appearing after the extraction of 
the lens. C., Senile, the cataract of old 
persons, the most frequent form, and that 
understood when not specified as congeni- 
ta/, jiroenile, traumatic, soft, etc. C, 
Soft, is especially that of the young; the 
lens-matter is of soft consistency and a 
milky a])pearance. 

Catarrh'' (Kurappsu, to flow down). In- 
flammation of the mucous membrane, espe- 
cially of the respiratory tract, but also used 
of the bladder, etc. See Coryza, In/Iii, nza, 
etc. C, Gastric, gastritis. C, intesti- 
nal, enteritis. C, Nasal, con,-za. C, 
Pulmonary, bronchitis. C, Vesical, 
cystitis. 

Cat'aschasm {Kara, uxarrun, scarified 
part). Deep or thorough scarification. 

Catastal'tic {KnraGrr'A/M, to contract 
downward). Astringent. 

Catat'ony. See Katatonia. 

Catelectrot'onus {cathode, electro, rovog, 
tension). The state of increased irritabil- 
ity of a nerve near the cathode. See Ane- 
lectroto)ius. 

Cat-gut. The intestines of a sheep treated 
to make ligatures. C, Carbolized, ren- 
dered asejitic by soaking in an emulsion of 
carbolic acid. 

Cathar'sis (Kidhupu, to])urge). Purgation. 

Cathart'ic {Kalhiipu). A medicine used 
to iinnluce evacuations of the bowels. A 
purgative. 

Cathelectrofonus. See Catelcctrotomis. 

Cath'cter {Kudtrr/p, a thing put down). A 
tube like instrument for evacuating the 
licjuid of a cavity, usually the bladder. 
C, Eusta'chian, an instrument for ex- 
amining the 1'.. tube, disleiidiiig or making 
np|ilieatioiis to il. C. Fever, disturliance, 
with fe\er, following inlriKluetion of the C 
into the urethra. 



CATHODE 



100 



CELL- BODY 



Cath''ode. See Kathode. 

Cat^ion {Kara, downward, Hfii, to-go). A 
word employed in electrolysis to denote an 
electro-positive element. See Ion. 

Cat^ling. A pointed, two-edged knife for 
amputating. 

Cat^nep. The leaves and tops of the herb 
A'epeta cataria. Stimulant and tonic. A 
popular remedy in chlorosis, hysteria, etc. 
Dose of fld. ext. 3J-ij. Unof. 

Catop^trics {^KaToTrrpiKog, in a mirror). 
The laws of the reflection of light. C. 
Test, the diagnosis of cataract by means 
of the reflection of images from the cornea 
and lens capsules. 

Caud^a Equi^na. The terminal extrem- 
ity of the spinal cord from the second lum- 
bar vertebra, resembling a horse's tail. 

Caud^ate [cauda, a tail). Having, or re- 
sembling a tail. C. Lobe of Liver, a 
small elevation of the liver. C. Nucleus, 
the intra-ventricular portion of the corpus 
striatum. 

Caul (Welsh caul, a covering for the 
bowels). A portion or all of the foetal 
membranes covering the head and carried 
out in advance of it in labor. 

Caus^tic {iiaiu, to bum). A substance 
that disorganizes or destroys living tissue. 
C. Alkali, a pure alkaline hydrate or 
oxide. C, Common, argentic nitrate. 
C, Dubois's, arsenious acid I, mercuric 
sulphide l6, dragon's blood 8 parts. C, 
Lunar, argentic nitrate or nitrate of sil- 
ver. C, Mitigated, argentic nitrate made 
less active by fusion with potassium ni- 
trate or argentic chloride. C. Potash, 
potassium hydrate. See Potassium. C. 
Soda, sodium hydrate. 

Cau^tery (imuo). Primarily, the applica- 
tion of caustics, but more frequently now 
the use of the galvanic cautery or hot 
iron for counter-irritation, removal of tis- 
sue, etc. C, Actual, the use of the white- 
hot iron. C. Button, iron heated in hot 
water. C. Gas, cauterization by a stream 
of burning gas directed upon the part. 
C, Galvanic, a platinum wire heated by 
electricity. C, Paquelin's, or C, Ther- 
mo-, a hollow platinum point kept at a 
uniform temperature by a current of ben- 
zene vapor. C, Potential, or C, Vir- 
tual, the application of caustic substances. 

Cav^alry Bone. A bony deposit in the 
adductor muscles of the thigh. 

Cav^ernous {caverna, a cave). Having 
cave-like spaces or hollow places. C. 
Bodies, the coqoora cavernosa of the 
penis. C. Breathing, the reverberating 



or hollow sound of bronchial breathing in 
dilated or abnormal bronchi. C. Plexus. 
See Flextis. C. Sinus, situate at the 
side of the body of the sphenoid. C. Tis- 
sue, erectile tissue. C. Tumor. See 
Angeioi/ia. 

Cay'enne Pepper. See Capsicum. 

Ceboceph^alus [Kr/j3og, a kind of monkey, 
ne^alT], head). A cyclocephalic monster 
with a complete absence of the nose. 

Ce^cum. See Ccccum. 

Ce^dron. The seeds of C. siinaba. A 
popular external remedy in tropical Amer- 
ica for the bite of venomous insects and 
serpents. Of reputed value in malarial 
fevers. Dose of the fld. ext. n\j-viij. 

Ceke (pronounced theke). A Feejee term 
for elephantiasis of the scrotum. 

Cel'andine. See Chelidonitan. 

-cele {ta])ii]^ a tumor). A suffix denoting 
a tumor. 

CeFery. The stalks of common garden 
celeiy. Contains apiol, an active prin- 
ciple found in wild parsneps. Reputed to 
be antispasmodic and nervine. Dose in- 
definite. C. Seed, used to cover the taste 
of other drugs. Unof. 

Ce^lioscope. See Cocloscope. 

Cell (L. cella, a small, hollow cavity). In 
anatomy, the interstitial spaces and small 
cavities of the bones. In biology, a nucle- 
ated mass of protoplasm capable of repro- 
duction. See Cell-body. C. of Corti, 
the hair-cells on the outer surface of the 
organ of Corti. C. of Deiters, cells with 
fine processes resting on the basilar mem- 
brane of the cochlea, beneath the air-cells. 
C, Giant, the polynucleated bodies of 
protoplasmic matter occuning in tubercu- 
losis, sarcoma, etc. C. Multiplication. 
Cytogenesis. A name given to the process 
of reproduction of cells. May be endo- 
genous, as when the cell-contents break 
up by segmentation into separate nucleated 
masses within the cell wall ; gcmiparous, 
as when new cells bud from the mother- 
cell ; and ftssiparous, as when the mother- 
cell divides by cleavage into two or more 
cells. C, Neuro-muscular, a name 
given to certain cells of lower life-forms, 
which act in part as nerves and in part as 
muscles. 

Cell-body. The mass of a cell, composed 
of two substances, the mitoma, or cyto- 
mitoiiia, and the para-viitoma. The first 
is the thread-like basis of the C.-b,. the 
latter the homogeneous filar and interfilar 
substance. The nucleus is composed of 
karyo-mitoma, or nuclear network, other- 



CELLULITIS 



101 



CENTRUM 



wise called the chromatin ; the nuclear 
sap, or substances contained in the nioshes 
of the cliromalin, anil from its non-slaining 
quality called achromatin ; and the iiucUar 
tiiembranc, made up of two layers, the 
outer achromatic, the inner chromatic, or 
staining. The nucleoli are usually mul- 
tiple, and composed of more rcfractile 
matter. 

Celluli'tis (dim. cclla, itis). A diffuse 
inllainmation of the cellular tissue, due to 
some wound and introtluction of septic 
material. 

Cel'luloid. Zylonite, Xylonite. A sub- 
stance made by heating trinitro-cellulin or 
gun-cotton with cam|)hor, under pressure. 
An excellent substitute for ivory and 
tortoise-shell. Useful in various ways in 
surgen.'. 1 lighly intlaramat)le. Unof. 

Cel'lulose. The b;vsis of vegetable liber. 
Identical in composition with starch. 
Swedish tiltcr-paper is pure C. 

Celot'omy (w/A//, tumor, teuvcj, to cut). 
The operation for strangulated hernia by 
incision of the stricture. 

Cement'um. See Tooth. 

Cenaesthe'sis {Koivnq^ common, 'aicBi^aiq, 
feeling). Used latterly as a synonym for 
the st-nsations of the visceral organs. 

Center (wit/wi'). The middle point or line 
of the Ixxly. The ganglion or plexus 
whence issue the nen'es controlling a func- 
tion. C. Accelerans, a probable C. in the 
medulla SL-nding accelerating fibres to the 
heart. They leave the cord through the 
rami cominunicantes of the lower cervical 
and upper six dorsal nen'es, passing thence 
into the sympathetic. C, Ano-spinal, 
controls defecation; at the 5-6-7th lumbar 
vcrtebr.ie; but for the co-ordinated activity 
it must remain in connccticjn with the 
i^rain. C, Auditory, proi)ably in the 
tem]xjros|}henoidal lobes, ujxjn each side. 
C, Cardio-inhibitory, in the medulla, 
carried by the vagus. C, Cilio-spinal, 
connt.cted with the dilatation of the 
pupil; lower cer\ical part of cord. C. 
for Closure of Eyelids, in the medulla, 
part of the I'acial Center. C, Cough- 
ing, in medulla, alxjve Respiratory C. 
C, Ejaculation, IJudge's Clcnito spinal 
C!., 4tli luitiliar vertebra (raiibit). C, 
Erection, is in the sjiinal cord, but con- 
Iroll.d from the mi-dulla. C. for Masti- 
cation and Sucking, I'acial and IIy|x>- 
(»ll;s^al Outers. C. for Secretion of 
Saliva, llo<x of fourth vcntriili-. C, 
Gustatory and Olfactory, in ili<- um i 
nail- gyru^. C, Hcat-rcgulating or 



Temperature. Mas been assumed by 
some. C, Micturition, the Vesico-spinal 
C. of Budge, at the luniliar vertebne; co- 
orilinatiun reijuires cerebral connection. 
C, Parturition, at 1st and 2d lumbar 
vertebne. C, Respiratory, in the me- 
dulla, between nuclei of vagus and acces- 
sorius; calleil by Floureiis the Xatid 
Vital, or I'ital Point. C, Sensory, or 
Psycho-sensorial Areas, occipital and tem- 
poro-sphenoidal lobes, probably the same, 
or intimately associated with, the motor 
centers of the parts. C, Sneezing, 
same as for nerves for muscles of expira- 
tion. C, Spasm, in the medulla, at 
junction with pons. C, Speech, in the 
third left frontal convolution in right- 
handed people. C, Swallowing, in 
floor of 4th ventricle. C, Sweat, the 
dominating C. is in the medulla, with 
subortlinate spinal centers. C, Upper, for 
Dilator Pupillse, in medulla. C, Vaso- 
dilator, probably exists in medulla, with 
function the opposite of that of the V'aso- 
motor. C, Vaso-motor, in the medulla. 
C, Vesico-spinal. See Micturition C. 
C, Visual, in the occipital lobe, espe- 
cially in the cuneus. C, Vomiting, iiy 
means of auricular branch from the jugu- 
lar ganglion. 

Cent'igrade [centum, a. hundred, ^raJus, 
a step). Abbreviation, C. Having too 
steps or degrees. C. Thermometer, a 
thermometer with zero as the freezing 
p<jint and 100° as the boiling jwint of 
water. To reduce C. to Fahrenheit regis- 
tration, the following formula is useful : — 
%° C. 4- 32 = F. See Thermometer. 

Cenf'igframme. The hundredth of a 
gramme, ei|ual to O.I 543 of a grain avoir- 
du|)<)is, or one-sixth of a grain Troy. 

Cent'ilitre. The hundredth of a litre ; 
equal to 0.6102 of an English cubic inch. 

Cent'imeter. The hunclredth part of a 
metre, equal to 0.39371 (or al>out \) of an 
English inch. 

Cent'rad (,cntruiii, ail). Toward the cen- 
ter, or median line. 

Centrifugal [centrum, fu.^io, to fly). Re- 
ceding from the center. C. Nerves, 
those (mostly motor) conveying impidses 
towaril the peri|)heral parts of the iiody. 

Centrip'etal [centrum, peto, to seek). 
Traveling toward the center. C. Nerves, 
thoS(; (mostly .sensory) conveying impres- 
sions from the |K-ripheral organs toward 
the rerebro spinal system. 

Ccnt'rum. llie cent<r or middle part. 
C. Ovale Major, the large masses of 



CEPHAL^MIA 



102 



CETACEUM 



■white matter appearing when both hemi- 
spheres are cut down to the level of the 
corpus callosum. C. Ovale Minor, the 
white matter appearing when the upper 
part of a hemisphere of the brain is re- 
moved. 

Cephalae'mia {ke^o)-!], aifia, blood). An 
abnormal determination of blood to the 
head. 
Cephalalgia [KE^a^r], aXyog, pain). Pain 

in the head. 
Cephalhsemato^ma (^Ke(^a7,,rj^ aifiaru/ja, a 
bloody fungus). A bloody tumor of the 
head. See Caput Siiccedanetivi. 
Cephalhy^drocele. A tumor formed by a 
collection of cerebro-spinal fluid under the 
scalp as a result of cranial fracture. 
CephaFic. Pertaining to the head. C. 
Index. vSee Index. C. Vein, a vein of 
the shoulder. C. Version. See Vejsion. 
C. Tetanus. See A'opf- Tetanus. 
Cephalog''raphy [KE(f>a?i7/, ypafu, to write). 

A description of the head. 
Ceph'aloid (^KE^altj, eidog, likeness). Re- 
sembling the head. 
Cephalol'ogy (^KE(pa?Lr)^ Pioyog, treatise). 
The science of cranial measurements and 
indications. 
Cephalom'eter (^KE(pa2.rj, fiErpnv, a meas- 
ure). An instrument for measuring the 
head. 
Cephalop''agus {^KEtpalrj^ head, Traystg, 
joined). An ensomphalic monstrosity with 
the heads united at the top. 
Cephalot^omy (/ce^aA;/, To/itj^ section). 
The crushing or breaking-down the head 
of the fcetus in labor. It is effected by 
the cephalotome, an instrument for this 
purpose. 
Ceph^'alotribe {KE(pa?.rj, -pifSu, to crush). 
An instrument for crushing the fostal head 
in ccphalotripsy. 
Cephalotrip^sy {Ke<pa?.!j, TptjicS). The 
operation of crushing the foetal head when 
delivery is otherwise impossible. 
Ce^ra (Lat.). Wax. A mixture of iri?w//r 
acid, cerolein, and myricin, gathered by 
the honey bee from the pollen of flowers 
and the leaves of plants. C. Alba, white 
wax, prepared by bleaching yellow wax. 
Valuable as an ingredient of cerates and 
ointments. C. Flava, yellow wax; pos- 
sesses an agreeable balsamic odor. Solu- 
ble in ether, hot alcohol, and chloroform. 
Cer^asin. See Choke-chei-ry. 
Cerate-. See Kerato-. 
Cera''tum (cera, wax). A cerate. In 
pharmacy an unctuous preparation of white 
wax and lard. There are 8 official cerata. 



Cercomo'nas Intestina^lis. An intesti- 
nal infusorial parasite of men and animals. 

Cerebellum (dim. of cere/inaii). The 
inferior part of the brain, lying below the 
cerel)rum. 

Cerebrasthe-'nia. See Phrenasthcnia. 

Cer^ebrin [cerebriiTn'). A nitrogenous glu- 
coside obtained from brain-tissue. 

Cerebrin^acides. Substances found m 
brain-tissue, derived from or containing 
cerebrose. 

Cerebrin'ic Acid. A name given by 
Thudichum to an organic acid found in 
brain-tissue. Has feebly acid qualities. 

Cerebri'tis (^cerebrum, irig). Inflamma- 
tion of the proper substance of the cere- 
brum, due to traumatism, contiguous in- 
flammation, or septic influence. Headache, 
possible vomiting and convulsions are the 
most marked symptoms. 

Cer^ebrose. A name given to a certain 
crystallized sugar isomeric with glucose, 
occurring in brain-tissue. 

Cer'ebrosides. A name given by Thu- 
dichum to a class of substances occurring 
in brain-tissue, containing cerebrose. 

Cer^ebro-spi'nal. Pertaining to the whole 
of the brain and spinal structure. C. Axis. 
See ylxis. C. Fluid, the fluid between 
the arachnoid membrane and the spinal 
cord. C. System, the brain, spinal cord 
and nerves. 

Cer^ebrum. The chief portion of the 
brain, occupying the whole upper part of 
the cranium. 

Ce^rium. Ce := 140 ; quantivalence II, 
IV. One of the rarer metals. The oxalate 
is the only salt employed in medicine. A 

gastric sedative, useful in the vomiting of 

pregnancy. Dose gr. iv-v. 

Ceru^men (^cera, wax). The wax of the 

ear. 
Cervical {^cervix, the neck). Pertaining 

to the neck. 
Cer^vix. The neck; also the posterior 

part of the neck. Applied also to con- 
stricted parts of other organs, as cervix of 

the bladder, cervix of penis. 
Cest^ode (KEorof, a girdle). Used of worms, 

of wliich Tmnia is a type. 
Ceta'cea [cefus, a whale). An order of 

mammals living in the sea, as the whale, 

dolphin, etc. 
Ceta^ceum. Spermaceti. A fatty sub- 
stance somewhat resembling paraffine in 

its physical properties. Obtained from the 

head of the sperm whale. Soluble in ether, 

chloroform and boiling alcohol. Employed 

only as an emollient. C. Ceratum, con- 



CETRARIA 



10.3 



CIIEXOPODIUM 



tains sjiemiaccti lo, white wax 35, olive 
oil 55 jxirls. 

Cetra'ria. Icilaiul moss. A lichen, ('. 
Jslandka, found in Icclanil and other 
northern countries. Contains a fonn of 
starch which gelatinizes when boiled with 
water. A feebly tonic demulcent, some- 
times recommended in puhnonaiy affec- 
tions. Well known under the name of 
bliinc man^e, when allowed to simmer 
with milk. Official decoction contains 5 
per cent, of the lichen. Dose f^ ij-iv. 

Chala'zae (^ v"^"-'''t hail). The two twisted 
cords or layers of the outer denser part of 
the albumin, extending from the poks of 
the yolk of a hen's egg to near the outer 
\x\\\ of the white. 

Chala'zion ( \-a/oC"'i', a small hailstone). 
A tumor of the eyelid from retained secre- 
tion of the Meibomian glands. A Meibo- 
mian cyst. 

Chalico'sis (.Yn/*/;, gravel). A disease 
of tlie lungs caused by the inhalation of 
dust or sand by workmen. 

Chalk (i-<7/jr, lime). Carbonate of lime. See 
Calcium. C. Stone, gout-stone — deposits 
in the hands and feet of gouty patients. 

Chalyb'eate (^y''^-i"/'j iron). Containing 
irun. 

Cham'berland's Bougie or Filter. See 

Filler. 

Cham'omile. See Aiitlieinis. 

Chan'cre (Kr., same). There is an un- 
fortunate dilTerence and even absolute con- 
tradiction in the definitions of authorities 
regarding this term. The trend of opinion 
seems to be to consider chancre as the 
initial lesion of syphilis, a true infecting 
sore, followed by constitutional .symptoms ; 
and chancroid as a non-infecting sore. C, 
Hard, Hunterian, Indurated, Infect- 
ing, Non-suppurating, or True, the 
ulcer of venereal origin, that is followed by 
con.-itiuitioiial sy])hilis. C, Non-incuba- 
tory, Non-infecting, Simple, or Soft, 
a contagious, suppurating, non-sypiiililic 
venereal ulcer, more properly called chan- 
croid. C, Phagedenic, chancroid with 
a tendency to erosion. C, Serpiginous, 
a variety of the last that spreads superficially 
in curved lines. 

Chan'croid. .See Chancre. 

Change of Life. A common term for the 
C( ss.ilion of the catamcnia. 

Char'bon. 'I'lie French term for anthra.v, 
liX pifluli m i.'i yia. 

Char 'coal. .S<-e Carbon. 

Char'cot-Neumann Crystals. See 
Spermine. 



Char'cot- Robin Crystals. Crj-stals 
forming ujKDn leucocythaniic blood when 
allowed to stand exposed for a few days. 

Char'cot's Disease. An alTection of the 
joints, due to disseminated insular scle- 
rosis. 

Charp'ie [car/o, to pluck). Linen shreds 
for tlressing wounds. 

Char'riere's Guillotine. .\n instrument 
fur excising the tonsils. 

Char'ta (,va/J"'/C, paper). A paper. In 
jiharm.icy, a strip of paper as an excipient, 
the libers oi which are impregnated with tiie 
prescribed medicinal substance. Of the 
three ofi'icial chartic, two arc intended as 
vesicants. C. Epispastica, blistering 
paj^er. C. Sinapis, mustard paper. Also 
a wrapper for holding powders or medi- 
cines. 

Chaulmoo'gra Oil. An oil expressed 
from the seeds of Gynocardia odorata, a 
tree native to the P2. Indies. Soluble in 
alcohol. Pro[x;rties due \.o i:;ynocarJic acid. 
Thought to be useful in leprosy. Recom- 
mended in scaly eczema, psoriasis and 
sy])hilitic skin affections. For external 
use, gr. XX ad 3 j of petrolatum. Internally, 
dose gtt. v-x of the oil, or gr. ss-iij of the 
acid. All unof 

Check'en. The leaves of C. myrtus. Pro- 
perties due to an alkaloid and a volatile oil. 
Diuretic and expectorant. Similar in ac- 
tion to eucalyptus. Servicealile in chronic 
catarrh, laryngitis, t'A". Dose^.ss-j. Unof. 

Cheeks. Ihe sides of the face. Cora- 
posed of fat, areolar tissue, muscles, etc. 

Cheese-rennet. See Ladies' Bed-straw. 

Cheil'oplasty iy\ii}joq, lip, ttAuctctu, to 
form). Plastic operations u]X)n the lip. 

Cheiroponr'pholyx. See Poinpholyx. 

Chelido'nium. Celandine. The leaves 
ancl stems of C. majiis. Properties due to 
a number of alkaloids and acids. A drastic 
cathartic, ami externally an irrilant. Of 
service in jaundice, whLx)|)ing-C()ugh, ami 
catarrhal pneumonia. Dose of the plant 
gr. x-xxx ; of the juice tT\^v-xx. Unof 

Che Moid. See Keloid. 

Che'lonin. See Balmony. 

Chem'istry (.\rab. all-imia). The sci- 
ence of the molecular and atomic structure 
of Ixxlies. 

Chemo'sis {xw->'^'C)- Conjunctival and 
sub cunjunclival swelling. 

Chenopo'dium. American Wormsced. 
The fruit (if ( '. am/>/vsi(iides,a plant native 
to die Uiiilfd States. l'ro|M-rtic> diii- to a 
volatile oil, the only prepuralion u»ed. A 
mild cardiac stinnilant, piomnting the sc- 



CHERRY 



104 



CHLORINE 



cretions of skin and kidneys. A very 
efficient anthelmintic against the round 
worm. Dose of the oil n^v-xv. 

Cher^ry. The bark of the common 
cherry, Fntmis scrotina. A mild bitter 
and tonic, containing tannin. Dose of fid. 
ext. ^ss-j. /'/v/;;///, a concentrated ext. 
Dose gr. j-iij. C. Compound, each Oj 
represents cheny bark ^viij, lettuce ^iij, 
horehound ^iijss, bloodroot, ^j. veratrum 
viride ^ss. Dose Tr^xv-gj. All unof. 

Chest. See Thorax. 

Chest'nut. See Castanea. 

Chew^stick. The bark of Gouania Do?mn- 
gensis. A popular aromatic bitter in the 
West Indies. Dose of the fld. ext. 3 j-iij. 
Unof. 

Cheyne-Stokes Respiration. See Res- 
piration. 

Chi^asm (;i;ia^w, to make a cross, as an X). 
The optic commissure. 

Chick'en-pox. See Varicella. 

Chi^cot. Kentucky Coffee Bean. The 
seeds of Gymnocladiis Canadensis. Con- 
tains a volatile oil and a glucoside. Pro- 
bably a cerebro-spinal stimulant. Some- 
times used as a substitute for coffee. Unof. 

Chignon^ Fun'gus. A name given to 
the fomiation of nodular fungoid growths 
on the hair. Probably due to bacteria. 

Chig^oe. See Pulex. 

Chil'blain (Sax. cele^ cold, blegan, boil). 
An erythematous local inflammation and 
swelling of the skin due to cold. 

Child^bed. The popular term for the con- 
dition of a woman during and after labor. 
C. Fever. See Puerperal Fever. 

ChiFi- Saltpe'ter. See Sodium. 

Chimaph^ila. Pipsissewa, Prince's Pine. 
The leaves of C. uinbellata, an evergreen 
found in the U. S. An astringent tonic 
and excellent diuretic. The bruised leaves 
are used as a rubefacient. Valuable in 
dropsy, several forms of kidney disease 
and affections of the vuinaiy passage. C, 
Fid. Ext. Dose ^ss-ij. C, Decoc- 
tum. I to 17. Dose ,^j-iij. Unof. 

Chi'na Grass. A soft, silky vegetable 
substance used as a surgical dressing. 

Chi^nium Amorph^ium Bo^ricum. 
Amoiphous iJorate of Quinia. See Quinia. 

Chin-jerk, 'iee Jazv-jerk. 

Chinoid^in,or Chinoidin^um. Quinoidin. 
A mixture of amorphous alkaloids ob- 
tained in the manufacture of quinine. Has 
the therapeutic properties of quinine. 

Chinoli^na. Chinoline, Leucoline. An 
alkaloid derivative of quinine and cincho- 
nine, occumng also in coal tar. Now 



generally prepared by heating aniline or 
nitro-benzol with glycerine and a dehydrat- 
ing agent. A valuable antiseptic and anti- 
pyretic. Useful in pneumonia and typhus. 
Commonly used in form of tartrate because 
of the deliquescence of other salts. Dose 
gr. v-xx. Unof. 

Chira^ta. Chiretta. The leaves and lighter 
stems of C. Ophelia. Resembles gentian 
in its therapeutic properties. An excellent 
tonic. Dose of the powdered plant gr. 
xv-xxx. C, Fid. Ext., in glycerine and 
alcohol. Dose tt\^xv-xxx. C., Tinct., 
ten per cent, in strength. Dose ^ss-ij. 

Chiret^ta. See Chirata. 

Chirop'odist [x^ip, the hand, Trovf [gen. 
7ro(5of] the foot). A surgeon or person 
who professionally treats diseases of the 
hands and feet, especially corns, bunions, 
ele. 

Chirur''gia {x^ip, £pyov, work). Surgery. 

Chirur^gical. Pertaining to surgeiy. 

Chit^tim Bark. See Cascara Sagrada. 

Chloas'ma. See Tinea Versicolor. 

Chlo^ral, or Chloral Hydrate. A colorless 
crystalline solid having the composition 
C.,HCl3(H0),; the hydrate of chloral, 
C.^HClaO, improperly called by the latter 
name. A powerful hypnotic, antispas- 
modic and depressant to the cerebral, 
meduUaiy and spinal centers. To a lim- 
ited extent an ancesthetic. Ser%'iceable in 
fevers accompanied by cerebral excite- 
ment, in chorea, convulsions, and all affec- 
tions requiring a cerebral depressant. Ex- 
cellent in delirium tremens, but should be 
used with great caution. Dose gr. v-xx ; 
smaller if combined with potassium or 
sodium bromide. C. Butylicum, crolon 
chloral. A solid occurring in crystalline 
scales, resembling chloral hydrate, but 
made with butyl, C^Hg, as a base, instead 
of ethyl, CjHj. In properties parallel to 
chloral but much feebler. Dose gr. v-xx 
in syrup. Unof. 

Chloralam^ide. A name inaptly applied 
to chloral fomianidate. In doses of 45 
grains it is a hypnotic. 

Chlo'ric Ether. See Ethyl Chloride. 

Chlo'rides, Test for. Add a few drops 
of nitric acid, then gradually add a solu- 
tion of nitrate of silver. A white precipitate 
of silver chloride forms. 

Chlo'rine (;):/opof, green). CI = 35.5; 
quantivalence i. A non-metallic element. 
At ordinary temperatures a greenish-yel- 
low gas, prepared by decomposing sodium 
chloride, NaCl. Highly irritative to the 
skin and mucous membrane, producing 



CHLORODYNE 



10c 



ciiolerinp: 



spasmodic closing of the glottis. The 
most valuable of disinfectants. Chlori 
Aqua, chlorine water, contains 4 percent, 
of the gas in solution. A gocx.! antiseptic 
wa-h. Dose, internally, rt\^x-xxx. Calx 
Chlorinata, " chloride of lime," a hypo- 
chlorite of calcium containing free chlo- 
rine. A valuable disinfectant. Dose, in- 
ternally, gr. iij-vj. C. Chlorat. Liq. con- 
tains I lb. of the salt i^er gallon of water. 
Sodium Chlorat., Liq., Labarraquc s 
S^'/uiion, scKlium carbonate lo, calx chlori- 
nata 8, water ad loo. Dose tT\,x-3J. 

Chlo'rodyne. A proprietary remedy pre- 
pared i>y a physician of London. Supjxjsed 
to contain chloroform, ether, morphine, 
cannabis Indica, hydrocyanic acid, and 
capsicum. The various imitations dift'er 
widelv. Dose n\^\-xxx, 7oifh care. Unof 

Chlo'roform. Methyl Terchloride, CHCI3. 
A heavy, colorless li [uid oiitained by the 
action of chlorinated lime on methyl alco- 
hol. (Commercial article, C. Venule, con- 
tains 2 per cent, of impurities and unlit for 
administration. Internally, produces nar- 
cosis and violent gastro enteritis.) C. is ex- 
cellent in true cholera and similar diseases 
of stomach and bowels. Externally, much 
employed as an ingredient of rubefacient 
and anodyne liniments. Mixed with at 
lea^t 96'^ i)er cent, of air and inhaled, 
it is the most valuable of general anaes- 
thetics, but occasionally (i : 3000) caus- 
ing death by cardiac paralysis. Deep 
injections in the vicinity of the sciatic 
nerve are recommended in sciatica. C, 
Ammoniated, eiual parts of ammonia 
in alcohol and chloroform; antipyretic and 
anodyne. Unof C. Liniment, commer- 
cial chloroform 40, soap liniment 60 parts. 
C. Mistura, |)ure chloroform 8, cam|)ho.' 
2, fresh yolk of egg 10, water 80 parts. 
Dose .^j-5J- C. Spt., pure chloroform 
10, alcohol 90 [>arts. Dose TT\^x- jj 

Chlo'rophane. See Chromopluines. 

Chlo'rophyll (x^xjfmr, <pt</.?nv, leaf). The 
greirn coloring m.atter of leaves. 

Chloro'sis (;f/'.<jpof ). The " green sick- 
ness;" a disease of young women; con- 
nected with anemia and menstrual abnor- 
m ility, u--ually suppression. 

Chlo'rum. See Chlorine. 

Choke-cherry. The fruit of Prunu^{Ce- 
nuns) I'lri^ininna, not the /'. I'iri^iniann 
of the pharm.icoixiia ; common in the U. 
.S. .Vntispasrnfxlic, tonic, ami slightly as- 
tringent. Cent, in, a concentrated extract. 
I)<>si- gr ij-viij. Unof 

Choked Disc. See Papillitis. 



Cholae'mia (jo?-'?, bile, atfia, blood). The 
presence of liile pigment in the blooil. 

Choragogue (,vo>.//, a)u, to expel). .\ 
purgati\e medicine which promotes the 
ilow of bile. 

Chola'lic Acid. See Choloidinic Acid. 

Cholecystec'tomy {x'^'kij, Kvang, bladder, 
eKTiiur/, a cutting out). Excision of the 
gall-Madder. 

Cholecystenteros''tomy (^'O''-'/, Kvartg, 
n'Tepou^ intestine, arofia, a mouth). In- 
cision of the gall-bladder and intestine 
with suture of the intestinal wound to that 
of the gall-bladder. 

Cholecysti'tis. Inflammation of the gall- 
blaililer. 

Cholecystot'omy (,yo?.//, Kvcriq, re/irtj, to 
cut). The operation of incising the gall- 
bladder. 

Chole'dochus (.f"^^'/, Sexo/iai, to receive). 
Receiving or holding bile. C, Ductus 
Communis, the common excretory duct 
of the liver and gall-l)Iadder. 

Chole'ic ix»'/.'/). Pertaining to the bile. 

Chole'in ( v"''-'/)- ■'^" obsolete terra for a 
mixture of several principles of the bile. 

Chol'era {x"''-'/, P^<->, to flow). A disease 
characterized by violent emesis, diarrhtea, 
alxlominal pain and cramps. C, Asiatic, 
a malignant form of the disease existing 
in India during the whole year, and occa- 
sionally spreading as an epidemic over 
large areas. It is characterized by exces- 
sive vomiting, alvine discharges resembling 
flocculent rice-water, severe cramps, and 
collapse. The cause is not with certainty 
known, but is probai)ly of microbic origin. 
Koch has discovered a bacillus (see Spiril- 
lum Cliolenc), the cultures of which have 
in some instances proiluced the disease, and 
in others have failed. C, Bilious, a form 
of the disease attended by excessive Ilow of 
bile. C, Chicken, a very fatal epidemic 
disease of fowls, marked by tumefaction of 
the lymphatic glands, with inllainmationand 
ulceration of the digestive organs and peri- 
cart hum. There are none of the synipioms 
peculiar to cholera. C. Infantum, the 
"sunnner com])laint" of childnii, cliarac- 
teri/ed i>y gxstric pain, vomiting, purgation, 
fever and prostration. C. Morbus, an 
acute catarriial inllamniation (jI ilie imuuus 
membranes of the stomach and intestines, 
witii enteric |)ain, jmrging, vomiting, s|)as- 
nuxlic contractions of the nni.scies, e/c. 
Very similar to .Asiatic C. in its syniptom- 
alology. 

Chol'crinc (dim. of ,//<»/,•;•,;). .\ term ap- 
plied to the mild cases (jf choleraic diiu-- 



CHOLESTEATOMA 



106 



CHOREOID 



rhoea. Also, the initiatory stage of malig- 
nant cholera. Also, the zymotic cause or 
virus of cholera. 

Cholesteato'ma (jo2;;, arearu/m, a seba- 
ceous tumor). A tumor consisting of a 
spermaceti-like substance, occumng most 
frequently at the base of the brain, but 
occasionally in subcutaneous tissue. 

Cholesterae^mia {^cholesterin, a^/za, blood). 
The retention of cholesterin in the blood 
instead of being excreted by the bile ; sup- 
posed (probably erroneously) by Flint to 
produce grave nervous symptoms. 

Cholesferin (;i;ol??, arsapov, stearine). A 
monatomic alcohol, a constituent of bile, a 
normal ingredient of nei-vous tissue. Also 
the fatty substance forming the acid prin- 
ciple of biliary calculi. 

Cholelithi^asis (;i:oA;7,A«^of, stone). For- 
mation of calculi in the gall-bladder. 

Cholet'elin. An amorphous, soluble, yel- 
low pigment derived from bilirubin. 

Cho'lic (;(;o/i?/). Pertaining to the bile. 

Cho^lin. Same as Neurine, q. v. 

Cho^line. A ptomaine found both in animal 
and vegetable tissues. It has been obtained 
from flesh, fish and eggs, and cultures of 
vibrio-proteus and comma-bacillus ; it has 
been found also in toad-stool {Agarictes 
7niiscanus), in hops (and hence in beer), 
in ergot, in numerous vegetable seeds, in 
extracts of belladonna and hyoscyamus, in 
beetroot-sugar molasses, in cotton-seed, etc. 
It is believed that choline is derived from 
the decomposition of lecithin, a complex 
ether, and one of the most widely-distri- 
buted compounds occurring, in greater or 
less quantity, in all of the animal tissues. The 
existence of lecithin in plants is no longer 
doubtful. It is a remarkable fact that in 
ordinary putrefaction, as choline disappears, 
the diamines appear and increase in quan- 
tity, according as the time of decomposition 
is extended. Free choline ordinarily forms 
a strongly alkaline syrup, which combines 
readily with acids to form salts. Choline 
possesses a toxic action when given in 
large quantities, paralyzing like curara. 
Atropine antagonizes the action of choline, 
as well as of the far more poisonous neu- 
rine. 

Choline Group of Ptomaines. Four 
ptomaines — Choline, Neurine, Beta'ine, 
and Muscarine — have been thus classified. 
All these bases may be considered as oxi- 
dation products of trimethyl-ethyl-ammo- 
nium hydrate. 

Choloidin''ic Acid. Derived from Cho- 
lalic Acid, and probably a mixture of this 



with Dyslysin ; all three decomposition pro- 
ducts of bile acids. 
ChoFolith {x'^'kii, AiQoq, stone). A gall- 
stone, or biliai-y calculus. 
Cholu^ria (jo/,//, ovpov, the urine). The 
presence of bile in the urine. Also the 
greenish coloration of the urine. 
Chon^drin (joz'rfpof, cartilage). A sub- 
stance obtained from the matrix of hyaline 
cartilage by boiling. Resembles gelatine 
in general properties, but differs from it in 
not being precipitated by tannic acid. The 
substance yielding it is cJnmdrogen, prob- 
ably an anhydride. 
Chon^drogen. See Choiidrin. 
Chondro'ma (^oirfpof). A cartilaginous 

tumor. See Enchondroma. 
Chondrofomy {^x'^'^'^po^i Tefivu^ to cut). 
The dissection or anatomical analysis of 
cartilage. 
Chon^drus. Irish Moss. The substance 
of the algae C. rrispus and C. viaviniillosus. 
These yield, on boiling with water, a sol- 
uble colloid consisting mainly of mucilage. 
Demulcent and somewhat nutrient. Some- 
times used in making blauc niaiige. Unof. 
Cho^part's Operation. Medio-tarsal am- 
putation of the foot. 
Chor^da (Lat. a cord). A cord, tendon, 
or filament of nerve. C. Dorsalis. See 
A^otochord. C. Tendinae, the tendinous 
strings connecting the camece cobivincE of 
the heart to the auricular valves. C. 
Tympani, a filament of the vidian nerve, 
which enters the tympanum. C. Vocalis, 
one of the vocal cords or th}'TO-aiytenoid 
ligaments. 
Chordae^ (;i;op(5;/', a cord). A symptom in 
gonoirhoea characterized by painful erec- 
tion and downward curvature of the penis. 
Chore'a (;);ope/a, dancing). St. Vitus' 
dance. A functional nervous disorder, 
usually occurring in youth, characterized 
by spasmodic and convulsive contraction, 
and non-rhythmic action of the muscles 
of the extremities, face, etc. It may 
be caused by a number of conditions, 
among which are fright and reflex irrita- 
tions, but it is essentially a disease of the 
later period of childhood, and affects girls 
about three times as frequently as boys. 
C, Electrical. See DitbinVs Disease. 
C, Habit. See Spasm. C. Major, the 
hysterical C. of the French, the movements 
wide in range and regular in sequence, 
causing regular oscillatory movements of 
the parts. C. Minor, that first above de- 
scribed. 
Cho^reoid. Pertaining or similar to chorea. 



CHORIO-BLASTOSES 



lo: 



CHRYSOPHANIC 



Chorio-blasto'ses (chorium, skin, /J/lacr- 
raru, to germinate). Anomalies of growth 
of ihe corium and connective tissue of the 
skin. 

Cho'rio-capilla'ris. The inner layer of 
capillary vcssjis >^i\ the choroid coat of the 
eye. 

Chorioidi'tis. See Choroiditis. 

Cho'rion (^op^oi', the fcetal membrane). 
The enveloping membrane of the fcetus, 
external to the amnion, internal to the 
decidua. C, Primitive, the Vitelline 
inmbrane (or Zona pillttiJa) during the 
time of the development of the hollow, 
structureless villi ujwn its suilace. C, 
Shaggy, or C. Frondosum, when cov- 
ered by villi. C. Laeve, the smooth or 
non-villous portion of the chorion. 

Cho'rio-retini'tis. See Choroido-retini- 
tis. 

Cho'roid (yo/J'oi', the chorion, f»5of, like- 
ness). The second or vascular tunic of 
the eye continuous with the iris in front 
and lying Ijetween the sclerotic and retina. 
C. Plexus, a vascular plexus in the lat- 
eral ventricles of the brain. 

Choroidi'tis. Inll.unin.ition of the choroid. 

Choroid'o-retini'tis. Choroiditis with re- 
tinitis. C.-r., Ametropic, caused by 
Ametropia. 

Choroma'nia (:fo/)Oj", a dance, ftavia, 
madness). A nervous disorder manife-it in 
various times and places, a-id characteri/^ed 
by dancing or other rhythmic movements. 

Chris'tison's Formula. To estimate the 
amount of solids in the urine : Multiply 
the two last figures of a specitic gravity 
expressed in four figures by 2.33 (or by 
2, Trapp ; or by 2.2, Lubisch). This 
gives the amount of solids in every 1 000 
jarts. 

Chromat''ic (Ypwun, color). Relating to 
or jxjss -Sling color. 

Chro'matin ( fpfj/zn). The delicate retic- 
ular network or plexus of fibrils |)ermeat- 
ing the achromatin of a typical cell in 
process of division. Calletl also Nucleo- 
plasm, Karj'oplasma, and Kar}omiton. 
See Oil h Jv. 

Chromatog'cnous [xpuua, yevvau, to Ijc- 
get). I'ro<lucing color. 

Chromatol'ogy. The .science of colors. 
Also the sjxctroscopic investigation of 
color. 

Chromatopho'bia {xp<Jfia,<p<ii3iu, to ter- 
rify). .Mmorm.d fear of colors. 

Chro'matophore (Y/'wwa, <p<>iirij, to bear). 
Sp.ices in the skin of ccphalo|XKla tilled 
will) colored granules. 



Chromatops^ia (xp<Jfiu, w^vf, vision). Ab- 
normal sensations of color. It may be ilue 
to disorders of the optical centers, or to 
drugs, especially santonin. 

Chromid'rosis [xijuua, <''pwf, sweat). 
."-Itearrha'a Nigricans, Seborrhcea Nigricans, 
Pityriasis Nigricans. Colored excretions 
of sweat, usually black, or sepia in color. 
Most commonly from the eyelids, but 
sometimes also from the cheek. In some 
instances has involved the axilhe and 
groins. Of rare occurrence. Certain 
forms of chromidrosis are due to the 
presence of bacteria. 

Chro'mium (^;/;w(/a). Cr=r 52.2 ; <iuan- 
tivalence il and IV. One of the elements 
of the iron grouji. The various salts of 
chromium, especially chromic acid, Cr.^03, 
are much used in the manuHicture of pig- 
ments and in dyeing textile fabrics. Potas- 
sium dichrom.ite (hichromite of potash), 
K.,Cr.^()-, is used in various pharmaceutical 
and chemical o[)erations. 

Chro'mophanes (;j;/jw/ia, (paivu, to bring 
into sight). Coloring matters derived from 
the retina. There is a green, Chloro- 
phane ; a yellow, Xanthophane, and a 
red, Rhodophane. 

Chromop'sia. .See Chronatopsia. 

Chromoptom'eter (,y/jw//«, /zerpoi', a mea- 
sure). A contrivance used by Weber for 
determining the extent of development of 
color-vision. 

Chron''ic (,i'/'oi'"f. time). A term ajiplied 
to the long-continued disease, as distin- 
guished from the acute or violent stage of 
disease. 

Chron'ograph (,tpo^'of. )pn^", to write). 
,\n instruniint for graphically recording 
intervals of time. 

Chronother'mal (.^pofof, Gep^ta, heat). 
Pertaining to the theory that all diseases 
are characterized by periods of intermitting 
chill anil heat. 

Chrys'alis (v^vfTor, gold). The pupa or 
secondary stage in the transformation of 
insects. So called from the golden color 
of certain chry.salides. 

Chrysaro'bin, or ChrysarC'binum. .\ 
sutislance iniproj>irly lallcd " chryMipliaiiic 
acid," extracted by alkaline solutions from 
Uva pinodcr, the product of the decay of 
Andira ararobn, a Hra/ilian tree. A 
gaslroiiite-.linal irritant, which is almost a 
specific when aj)plied locally in psoriasis. 
Hose, internally, gr. J-xx. C, Ung., 
contains lO per cent of the drug with yo 
jK-r tent. Iicn/oated lard. 

Chrysopha'nic. See Chiymiobin, 



CHYLE 



108 



CINCHONINA 



Chyle (;i;v/lof, juice). The milk-white 
fluid absorbed by the lacteals during diges- 
tion. On standing, separates into a thin, 
jelly-like clot and a substance identical 
with serum. 

Chylifica^tion (;i;i;2oiT,y(7f/(', to make). The 
process by which the chyle is formed, 
separated and absorbed by the villi of the 
small intestine. 

Chylo-pericard^ium. An effusion of 
chyle within the pericardium. 

Chylorrhce'a (;^;Mof, pew, to flow). The 
excessive flow of chyle. Also, a diarrhoea 
characterized by a milky color of the faeces. 

Chylu^ria (;^;^'/lof, ovpov, urine). The pas- 
sage of milky-colored urine. Thought to 
be caused by disordered condition of the 
lacteals, and also connected with Filaria 
sanguinis hominum. 

Chyme {]Q)iioq, juice). Food that has 
undergone gastric and intestinal digestion 
from which chyle is absorbed. The con- 
tents of the small intestines after having 
been acted upon by the salivary, gastric, 
biliary, pancreatic and intestinal secretions. 

Chymifica^tion (jD/;of, facio, to make). 
The change of food into chyme by gastric 
and intestinal digestion. 

Cicatri^cial Deformities. Abnormal con- 
tractions caused by cicatrices. 

Cicatric'ula. The Blastoderm of a hen's 

egg- 

Cica^trix (Lat., same). The scar or mark 
left after the healing of a wound. 

Cicatriza'tion. The process of healing. 

Cicu^ta Viro''sa. See Cowbane. 

CiFia [ciliiim, the eyelid or lash). The 
eyelashes. Also, hair-like appendages of 
certain epithelial cells, whose function it is 
to propel fluid or particles along the pas- 
sages that they line. 

CiFiary [ciliw)i). Pertaining to the eye- 
lid or eyelash, and also by extension to the 
C. Apparatus, or the structures related 
to the mechanism of accommodation. C. 
Arteries, — anterior, posterior long, and 

posterior short, branches of the ophthalmic 
artery, supplying the recti muscles, the cili- 
ary apparatus, and the posterior structures 
of the eye, with the exception of the retina. 
C. Body, the ciliary muscle and pro- 
cesses. C. Ganglion, the ganglion at 
the apex of the orbit, supplying the ciliary 
muscle and iris. C. Muscle, the muscle of 
accommodation, whose contraction lessens 
the tension upon the suspensory ligament 
of the lens. C. Nerves, branches of the 
ophthalmic ganglion supplying the anterior 
structures and accommodative apparatus. 



C. Neuralgia, neuralgic pain of the eye, 
brow, temple, etc. C. Processes, circu- 
larly arranged choroidal foldings continu- 
ous with the iris in front. C. Region, 
the pericorneal or "danger" zone corres- 
ponding to the position of the ciliary body. 

Cilium. See Eyelash. 

Ci'mex Lectula^rius. The common bed 
bug. A disgusting insect which infests 
beds, furniture, and the walls of bedrooms, 
and which feeds on the human body, punc- 
turing the skin and injecting an imtating 
fluid to increase the flow of blood. Char- 
acterized by the repulsive odor of its se- 
cretion. 

Cimicifu''ga. Black Snake Root, Black 
Cohosh. The root of C. racemosa, nat. 
ord. Ranunculacese. A stomachic, anti- 
spasmodic, aphrodisiac, and diuretic. Acts 
on the heart similar to digitalis. Efficient 
as a tonic in many cardiac diseases, in 
functional impotence, and ovarian neural- 
gia. C, ext. fid. (alcoholic). Dose X(\y.- 
"7^]. C, Tinct., 20 per cent, in strength. 
Dose gss-ij. Macrotin (unof), a resin- 
ous extract. Dose gr. _J^-ij. 

Cincho^na. Peruvian Bark. • The bark 
of several varieties of cinchona, a tree 
native to the eastern slopes of the Andes 
and cultivated in India, the most valuable 
being C. calisaya. Other varieties are C. 
sticcirnbra, red bark, C. condaminea, pale 
bark, C. pitayensis, pitaya bark, and C. 
7nicrantha. C. bark contains 21 alka- 
loids, of which 4, quinine, cinchonine, 
quinidine and cinchonidine are the most 
important. Cinchona has the same physio- 
logical action and therapeutic uses as its 
chief alkaloid quinia. See Qiiinia. It is 
also an astringent, bitter and stomachic 
tonic, stimulating appetite and promoting 
digestion, beneficial in atonic dyspepsia 
and adynamia. C, Ext. Dose gr. j-v. 
C, Fid. Ext. Dosen\^x-3J. C, In- 
fusum, bark 6, arom. sulph. acid i, water 
93 parts. Dose ^j-^j- C, Tinct., 20 
per cent, of the bark. Dose 3;ss-ij. C, 
Tinct., Comp., red bark 10, bitter orange 
peel 8, serpentaria 2, alcohol 80 parts. 
Dose 3J-^5ss. 

Cinchonid'ia, or Cinchon^idine. An 
alkaloid derived from cinchona. Resem- 
bles quinia in general properties. C. 
Salicylate (unof), has decided antima- 
larial properties. C. Sulph., less bittei 
than quinine and valuable as an antipyretic. 
Dose gr. j-xx or more. 

Cinchoni^na, or Cin'chonine. An otifi- 
cial alkaloid derived from cinchona. Simi- 



CINERARIA MARITIMA 



109 



CLARIFY' 



lar to (]uinine in therapeutic effects, but 
less active, producing much heat-lachc ami 
some muscular weakness. C. Sulph., 
ditVicultly soluMe in water, but soluble in 
aciilulati'd water. Dose gr. v-xx.\. 

Cinera'ria Mariti'ma. The juice of this 
plant has been long used in Venezuela for 
the absorption of cataract. Unof. 

Cineri'tious [r/'/ic-ns, ashes). Ash-like or 
p<.'rtainii)g to ashes. Applied also to the 
cortex of the brain, from the color of the 
same. 

Cin'nabar (Ktwai3api, a pigment). Mer- 
curic >uli)liidf, HgS. See Jlydiarg^'ruDi. 

Cinnamo'mum, i_>r 

Cin'namon. 1 he iimcr liark of the shoots 
of several species of CiniKiinomtiin, native 
to Ceylon and China, the latter Ijeing 
known in commerce under the name of 
ctissiii. Proix;rties due to a volatile oil. 
An agreeable carminative anil aromatic 
stimulant. Useful comi-iined with opium in 
tlatulence, cramp of the stomach, enteralgia, 
etr. C, Aqua, 2 parts of oil in looo 
of water. C, Ext. Fid. Arom., contains 
arom.itic powder lo parts, alcoliol 8 parts. 
C, Oleum, the volatile oil. Dose gtt. j-v. 
C, Spt., ID per cent of the oil in spirit. 
Dose tT^v-xxx. C, Tinct., lo per cent. 
of the ix)wdered bark in alcoliol. Pul- 
vis aromaticus, aromatic |X)wder, cinna- 
mon, ginger a;i 35,cardamon,nutmL'gaa 15. 
Dose gr. x-xxx. 

Cioni'tis (k'/wi', the uvula). Inflammation 
of the uvula. 

Gionot'omy [muv, 70/^7, a section). Exci- 
sinii of (lie uvula. 

Circle of Diffusion. See Diffusion. 

Circle of Willis. The passage between 
the anteiior cereliral arteries anteriorly, 
and the internal carotids and cerebral 
arteries ]X)steriorIy, by communicating ves- 
.scls. 

Circula'tion. The passage of the blood 
through the varioas vessels, distinguished 
a^ capillar)', f'fial, jwrtal, pulmonary, t-fr. 
C, Collateral, dial through branches and 
sccondar)' channels after ^tojipage of the 
principal route. C, First or Primitive, 
that of the embryo, a closed system, carry- 
ing luitrim'iit and oxygen to the embryo. 
C, Second, the f<ilal circulation ri'|)!acing 
the omphalom'-sentcric system. C, Third, 
that of the a<lult. 

CJr'cum-. A prefix meaning ntimn,l. 

It hunt. 

Circumcis^ion (rirninin'(li',U)c\xi around). 
Excision of a circular piece of the pre- 
puce. 



Circumduc'tion. See Motion. 

Cir^cumflex (</;-< 7/////?<vA', to bend about). 
Sunuunding or enclosing; applied to a 
niuiilicr of arteries, veins and nerves. 

Circumpolariza'tion. The quantitative 
estimation of sugar in a sus[x;cted li(|uid by 
the amount of the rotation of jwlari/ed 
light, sugar rotating the ray to the light, 
all>uniin to the left. 

Circumval'late (r/Vrz/wrv/Z/c, to surround 
with a wall). Surrounded by a wall or 
prominence. C. Papillae, certain papilkc 
of the tongue. 

Cirrho'sis (^Kippni;, reddish-yellow ; from 
the cokir of the cirrhotic liver). Increase 
and thickening of the connective tissue of 
an organ, esjiecially of the liver. 

Cir'socele (hv/jffof, a varix, kij7jj, tumor). 
A varicose tumor, especially of the .^j)er- 
matic cord. 

Cir'soid [Kipanc;, firTof, likeness). Resem- 
bling a varix, or dilated vein. 

Cirsom'phalos [Kipaog, o/KpaXo^, navel). 
A varicose condition of the navel. 

Cirsot''omy [Kipaog, rt/zrw, to cut).. Ex- 
cision of a varix. 

Cistern of Pequet. See Rcciptaculuni 
Chvli. 

Cit'rine Oint'ment. See Ilydrar^ynn'i. 

Cit'rus. -See .lui (Uilium. 

Clad'othrix (/c/arJof, a branch, Bpi^, a 
hair). A genus of the family Hacteriacees, 
having long filaments, in jiseudo-ramifica- 
tions, with true six)res. C. Dichotoma, 
found in soft or brackish waters, a sapro- 
phytic fungus, non-ijathogenic, i)recipilates 
oxide of iron and calcareous concretions. 
C. Forsteri, found in the lachrymal canal 
in concretions; is proliably identical with 
C. Dichotomy. 

Clamp (Cier. A7a»i/',). \n instrument 
for compressing the parts in surgical opera- 
tions to fix them or to prevent hivmorrluige, 
f(r. 

Clap. A jx)pular designation of gonor- 
rhu'a. 

Clar'ificant [rlariis, clear). A substance 
used for the purj^se of clearing .solutions 
from insoluble matter. 

Clarifica'tion {c/anis). The operation of 
making a li |uid or naturally transparent 
substance clear. May lie accomplislird liy 
allowing the sus|>i'nded matter to subside, 
I y (he addition of a clariticant or .substance 
which precipitates su.spended matters, or 
by nKHlcralc heating. 

Clar'ify [Jurus). i'o free a linuid or .solu- 
liim from insoluble or lictiiogcneous sub- 
btuuces. Tc) make clear. 



CLARIFYING REAGENT 



110 



CLONUS 



Clar'ifying Rea^gent. Any preparation 
used for purifying microscopic and ana- 
tomical preparations tliat have been 
mounted in gummy media. Oil of cloves, 
turpentine, creasote, xylol, and oil of berga- 
mot are the chief. 

Clasp-knife Rigid^ity. A reflex spas- 
modic action of the legs in increased myo- 
tatic irritability of the cord, in which ex- 
tension is completed with a "spring," as 
in the knife. 

Classifica'tion [c/assfs, a class, /ado, to 
make). An orderly airangement of names, 
objects, diseases, rfc, according to their 
properties and peculiarities. 

Clathrocyst^is [a/ajdpa, a trellis, kvotiq, 
pouch). A genus of microbes with round 
or oval cells, fomiing zoogloese in the foiTa 
of circular layers. 

Claus^trum \clanJo,\.o shut). A barrier; 
used of several apertures that may be 
closed against entrance. Also applied to a 
layer of gray matter in the cerebmm near 
the lenticular nucleus. 

Clav^iceps {clava, club, caput, \y&zA^. A 
genus of fungi. C. Purpurea, the fungus 
producing sclerotis, or the ergot of rye. 

ClaV'icle {clavus, a key). The collar- 
bone. The bone fonning the anterior part 
of the shoulder. 

Cla'vus (c/az'us). A corn. A small, cir- 
cumscribed, flat and deep-seated callosity 
caused by thickening and excessive devel- 
opment of the epideiTnis. Usually caused 
by pressui-e, and occur most frequently on 
the toes! Occurring between the toes, 

• there is frequently considerable maceration, 
causing the "soft" corn. C. Hysteri- 
cus. A local neuralgic pain in hysteria, 
anremia, etc., in the head, as if a nai/ 
were being driven in. 

Claw-hand. A popular expression to 
signify the condition of the hand resulting 
from atrophy of the interosseous muscles. 
(French, main-en-griffc.^ 

Cleans^ings. The lochia. 

Cleav'ers. See GaHitni Aparine. 

Cleft Palmate. A congenital malformation 
of the palate, usually occurring with hare- 
lip. 

Clefts, Vis''ceral. The four slit-like open 
ings each side of the cervical region, in 
the foetus, sometimes called the Branchial 
openings. The slits close (in the human) 
except the upper, from which are devel- 
oped the auditory meatus, tympanic cavity 
and Eustachian tube. 

Clei'do- (K?f/f, the clavicle). A prefix, 
meanin<T a relation to the clavicle. 



Clerk - Maxv>;eirs Experiment. See 

LbzvSs /\iiig. 

Climac^teric [K2.i/j.aKT7/p, the round of a 
ladder). A period of the lifetime at which 
the system was believed to undergo marked 
changes. These were at yearly periods 
divisible by seven. C. Age, in women 
the time of cessation of the catamenia. 
C, Grand, the 63d year. 

ClimatoFogy [K/a/ua, ?ioyog, a discourse). 
A treatise upon climate. 

Clim^ato-ther^apy. The uses of residence 
in different climates as a therapeutic agent. 

Climbing Staff- Tree. False Bittersweet. 
The bark of the root of Celastnts scandens. 
Alterative, diuretic and slightly narcotic. 
Has been advantageously employed in 
syphilitic and scrofulous affections. Dose 
of fld. ext. .^j-ij. Unof. 

Clin^ic {lOaviKoq, pertaining to a bed). 
Medical instruction given at the bedside, 
or with the patient present, whose symp- 
toms are studied and treatment considered. 

Clinodac^tylous (/v?.;vw, to flex or lie, 
6aKTv/MQ, finger). Pertaining to an ab- 
normal flexure, deviation or curvature of 
the fingers or toes. 

Cli'noid {^ulivrj, a bed, f«5of, likeness). 
Resembling a bed. Applied to sundry 
bony stiTictures of the body, as the clinoid 
processes, plate, walls, etc. 

Cliseom^eter [K?ucng, inclination, /xerpov, 
a measure). An instrament for measur- 
ing the degree of inclination of the female 
pelvis. 

Clitoridec'tomy {^K7.eiropig, enTe/xvu, to 
excise). Excision of the clitoiis. 

Cli^toris (^K?ieiTopig). The analogue in the 
female of the penis, attached by two crura 
or branches to the ischio-pubic rami, which 
meet in front of the pubic joint to form the 
body, or corpus. The so-called " gland " 
is such only in appearance or name. C. 
Crises, paroxj^sms of sexual excitement in 
women suffering from tabes. 

Cloa^ca (^cloaca, a sewer). In early foetal 
life the common orifice of the intestine and 
the allantois. In surgery the long canal 
of escape of pus from a necrotic seques- 
trum. The chamber into which open the 
large intestine and urogenital ducts of 
birds, amphibians and monotremata. 

Clon'ic (/cAovof, commotion). Applied to 
convulsive and spasmodic conditions of 
muscles in which alternate contractions 
and relaxations occur involuntarily. 

Clo^'nus {K/Mvoq). Involuntary, reflex, 
irregular contractions of muscles when 
put suddenly upon the stretch. Accord- 



CLOQUET, CANAL OF 



111 



COCILLAXA 



ing to the part stimulated, the jihenomenon 
is sjx)kcn of as ankle, j\>ot, or >\ctus i, 
etc. A valuable diagnostic sign in certain 
cord lesions. See ankle C. 

Clo'quet, Canal of. See Hyaloid Artery, 

Clostrid'ium. See Bacillus Butyrictts. 

Clot. See Coiii^uluin. 

Clof'tage of the Ureters. Xx\ operation 
proposed ill case of li.vniaturia from a kid- 
ney hopelessly crushed or with advanced 
carcinoma. The procedure consists iu 
blocking or corking up the ureter with a 
clot. 

Cloud'herry. The leaves of Ruhus 
clumuiinorus, much used in Russia as a 
diuretic. Dose jj to a cupful of boiling 
water. Unof. 

Cloudy Swelling, rarenchymatous de- 
generation, — a swelling up of the elements 
of a tissue by imbibition or accretion, a 
fonn of hypertrophy with a tendency to 
degeneration. 

Clove. See Ca>yo/>/tylliis, 

Club-foot. See Talipes. 

Club-hand. A deformity of the hand 
similar to that of club-foot. 

Clys''ter i^K/.vartip). An enema. 

Cnido'sis. .'^ee Crticana. 

Coag'ulative Necro'sis. See Necrosis. 

Coag'ulum {coa^^ulo, to curdle). Clot. 
A name applied to the mass of fibrin 
that forms from the plasma of the blood 
after the latter has been drawn from tiie 
botly. .\l>o, the curd of milk, and the 
insoluble form of albumin. 

Coales''cence [coalesco, to grow together). 
Tlie union of two or more parts or things. 

Coapta'tion {cm, together, '//A*, to fit). 
The proper union or adjustment of the 
ends of a fractured booe, the lips of a 
wound, e/c. 

Coarcta'tion [coarcto, to put together). 
A compression of the walls of a vessel or 
canal, thus narrowing or closing the lumen. 

Coarse Disease. .Macrosco|)ic organic 
Iciions, such as tumor, hxinorrhage, etc. 

Coat {coitus, a tunic). A cover, or mem- 
brane? covering a jjart or substance. C, 
Buffy, the U|);)or fil)rinous biyer of the clot 
of coagulated blix^d, marked by its color, 
and absence of red corpuscles. Coating 
of the Tongue, a condition of the tongue 
indicalivir of almormaiity of the <ligestive 
tract. Coating of Pills, a covering of 
varirjus .subsiances to render them teniixj- 
rarily taslelos. 

Co'ca. Sec Erythroxylou. 

Co'caine. The chief alk.iloid extract of 
Lrythroxylon Coca. Al first stimulant and 



afterward narcotic. Resembles caffein in 
its action on nerve-centers, and atropine 
in itseflects on respiratoiy and circulatory 
organs. Long-coniinued use (cocaine 
habit) is followed by insonuiia, decay of 
moral and intellectual [wwers, emaciation, 
and de.ith. Locally, a jxjwerful anasthetic 
to a limited area of surface. Acts most 
rapidly on mucous tissues. Applied to 
conjunctiva of the eye causes also dilata- 
tion of pupil and paralysis of function of 
accommodation. Applieil to tongue temj)0- 
rarily destroys sense of taste. Dose gr. 
^^-ij. C. Hydrochlorate, more properly 
cocaine chloride, most commonly used for 
local auLT^sthesia in 2-5 jicr cent, solution. 
Dose, internally, gr. ^s-'j- C. Oleate, a 
5 per cent, solution in oleic acid, for ex- 
ternal use. 

Cocca'cees (KOKKOf, a kernel). According 
to Mace, the first family of Bacteria, includ- 
ing as genera the ^Iicrococcus, Sarcina, 
Ascococcus and Leuconostoc. The ele- 
ments are normally spherical, reproduction 
usually taking place by division, sometimes 
by spores either in one or several direc- 
tions. 

Coccobacte'ria(«o««jr, a kernel,. ?rt/vT;/pmt', 
a little rod). Ajjplied by Billroth to the 
rod-like or spheroidal bacteria found in 
putrefying liquids, and called by him C. 
Septica. See Bacterium. 

Coc'culus Ind'icus. See Picrofoxin. 

Coc'cus {kdkkdc,). .\ cell or capsule. C. 
Cacti, the cochineal insect. See Cochineal. 

Coccyg^eal. Pertaining to the coccyx. 

Coccygody'nia [kukkv^, oi^vi'i/, pain). 
I'ain in the coccyx. 

CoC'cyx {kokkl'^, the cuckoo) (resembling 
the bill). The last bone of the sjiin.d 
column, formed by the union of four rudi- 
mentary vertebni;. 

Coch'ineal. The dried insects of a species 
of plant lice. Coccus cacti, parasitic ui>on 
the cactus of Mexico and Central America. 
Contains a rich red coloring matter, car- 
Niifte. Used mainly as a coloring matter. 
Thought to be valuai>le in infantile whoop- 
ing-cough. Dose gr. '(. 

Coch'lea (^'*i'/of, a concha shell). A cavity 
of the internal ear resembling a snail .shell. 
De.scril)es two and a half turns al)out a 
central pillar called the inoiiiolusox coluni- 
nclta, funning llie spiral ciinal, aliout I '^ 
inches in length. 'I'he latter is divided 
into three canals or seal e, — the scale tyiii 
panir, vestihuli and inci/iir. 

Cocilla'na. The bark of asiK-ciesof Cun- 
rea, of the family .Muli<uc,r, an emetic and 



COCKLEBUR 



112 



COLLI DINE 



purgative ; poisonous as an irritant narcotic 
in over-doses. It acts locally upon the 
mucous membrane when directly applied 
or when absorbed. Commended in bron- 
chial catairh. Dose of e.xt. Tl^^viiss. Unof. 
Cock^lebur. The leaves of Xanthiitm 
stnimarium. A popular domestic remedy 
for bites of poisonous insects and reptiles. 
An active styptic. Dose of the fld. ext. 
,5j-ij. Unof 
Co^co, or 

Co''coa (Port, cacao). The fruit of Tlieo- 
bi'ovia cacao, largely used as an article of 
diet. See Theobroma. 

Co''deine. An alkaloid extract of opium. 
Mildly calmative. Dose gr. ss-ij. 

Cod-liver Oil. See Morrhiia;. 

Cce'lia [Koilaa.^ the belly). The belly. 

Cce'liac. Pertaining to the belly. C, 
Artery, same as C. Axis. See Artery. 
C. Ganglion. See Ganglion Semilunar. 
C. Plexus. See Plexus. 

Coe'lom i^Koi?M/ja, a cavity). The body 
cavity. 

Cce^loscope [Kot?ua, the belly, ckottfu, to 
observe). An instrument for examining 
the cavities of the body, by means of the 
electric light, enclosed in a flask and 
mounted upon a glass shank. 

Cce'nurus. See Alternations of Genera- 
tion. 

Coffee. See Caffea. 

Cohabita^tion (^con, together, Jiabito, to 
dwell). The living together of a man 
and woman without legal marriage. Sex- 
ual connection. 

Cohe^sion {colmro, to stick together). 
The force whereby molecules of matter 
adhere to each other. The " attraction of 
aggregation." 

Cohn's Liquid. A culture liquid devised 
by Cohn, composed of the following parts, 
in grammes : Distilled water 200 ; tar- 
trate of ammonia 20 ; phosphate of po- 
tassa 20 ; sulphate of magnesia ID; tribasic 
phosphate of lime o.l. 

Co'hosh, Black. See Cimicifnga. 

Coil'ing of the Cord. See Cord. 

Co^itus (yioiti/s). The act of sexual con- 
nection. Copulation. 

Cola^tion {^colo, to strain). The operation 
of straining. 

Colch^icine. See Colc/iiciim. 

Colch'icum. Meadow Saffron. The corm 
and seed of C. autittnnale. Properties 
due to an alkaloid, colchicine. An emetic, 
diuretic, diaphoretic and drastic cathartic. 
Valuable in acute gout, and used with 
good results in gonorrhoea. C. Rad. Ext., 



dilute acetic acid 35, powdered root loo 
parts, water q. s. Dose gr. ^-ij. C. 
Rad. Ext., Fid. Dose TTiij-x. C. Sem. 
Ext., Fid. Dose lt\,ij-v. C. Rad. Vini., 
40 per cent, in strength. Dose TTLv-xv. 
C. Sem., Vini., 15 per cent, in strength. 
Dose TTi^x— XXX. C. Tinct., prepared from 
the seed; strength 15 per cent. Dose 
tT\^x-xxx. 
Cold (Sax. ceald). The comparative want 
of heat. Used popularly for coryza and 
catarrhal conditions of the respiratory 
tract. 
Cold-blooded. See Pcckilofhertnic. 
Cold-spots. See Temperature Sense. 
Colec'tomy (koTmv, the colon, ektojutj, cut- 
ting out). Excision of a portion of the 
colon. 
CoFic [colicus). Pertaining to the colon. 
The condition vulgarly called belly-ache, 
or a severe griping pain in the bowels, or 
adjacent organs, as, e.g., hepatic, nephritic, 
etc. C, Lead, or C., Saturnine, that 
due to lead poisoning. See below. 
CoFica Picto^num. Painters' Colic. A 
form of colic due to the absorption by the 
system of lead in poisonous quantities. It 
is common among those who use or work 
with lead. 
CoFic Root. See Alefris and Dioscorea. 
Coli^tis {k.o7\.ov, the large intestine). In- 
flammation of the colon. 
CoFlagen (koAAo, glue, ytvvau, to produce). 
A substance existing in various tissues of 
the body, especially bone and cartilage; 
converted into gelatine by boiling. 
Collapse'' [coUabor, to fall together). Ex- 
treme depression and prostration from fail- 
ure of nervous force, as in cholera, shock, 
haemorrhage, etc. 
CoFlar Bone. See Clavicle. 
Collect^ing Tubes of Kid^ney. A name 
given to ducts discharging into the calices 
of the kidneys. 
Collect^or. A device by which any num- 
ber of cells may be taken from or added to 
an electric cunent. 
CoFles' Fracture. See Fractttre. 
CoFlidine. A name given to Nencki's 
ptomaine-base, CgHj^N, isomeric but not 
identical with aldehyde-collidine. The 
ptomaine was obtained from pancreas and 
gelatine allowed to putrefy together in 
water. Its constitution is still unknown. 
The free base is oily, and possesses a 
peculiar, agreeable odor. Nencki lielieved 
it an aromatic base. Its physiological 
action appears to be doubtful. But an 
isomer of it discovered in ox-blood fibrin 



COLLINSONIA CANADENSIS 113 



COLPOCELE 



and l.i putrefied jelly-fish has a poisonous 
effect resembling curara. Frogs poisoned 
by the isomer give out an orange-tlower 
odor. Nencki's coUidine is isomeric with 
collidine obtained from coal-tar. 

Collinso'nia Canaden'sis. Knob-root, 
Horse-weed, Stone-root. A ]K>]iular do- 
mestic remedy used in the Southern States 
as a cure-all. Has antispasmodic proper- 
ties. l)(.>se gr. xv-lx in decoction. Unof. 

Colliqua'tion [co/liipic-o, to melt). The 
liijuef;\ction or breaking down of a tissue 
or organ. 

Collo'dion (ko7J)jj>6jj^, glue-like). See Py- 
roxylin. 

Col'loid (Ko?.?.fl,glue). A non-cr}-stallizable 
and generally soluble organic substance. 
See Diii/ysis. Also, having the nature of 
glue. In chemistiy, amorphous and non- 
crystalline. C. Degeneration of the 
Skin. A rare di>ease, occurring chietly 
on the upper part of the face, in the form 
of small, glistening, translucent, flattish ele- 
vations, and yielding by pressure a small, 
jelly-like mass. 

Col'Ium (Lat.). The anterior part of the 
neck. 

Collyr'ium ( Kn/./.vpiov, an eye-salve). An 
astringent, antiseptic or medicinal lotion 
for the eyes. 

Colobo'ma {ko7x>i3ou, to mutilate). A 
cleavage or fissure of parts of the eye, of 
congenital or traumatic origin. Con- 
genital C. are due to imperfect closure 
of tissurcs during fjetal development. 

CoKocynth, or 

Colocynth'is. Colocynth. The fruit of 
C. Cilrullus, from which seeds and rind 
have l>een rejected. IVoj)erties due to a 
bitter glucoside, colocyiitltin. A tonic an<l 
astringent purgative. Used mainly as an 
ingredient in comjiound cathartic pills. 
Somewhat u.seful in colic, sciatic rheuma- 
tism and neuralgia. C. Ext., alcoholic. 
Dose gr. ^^-ij. C. Ext., Comp., con- 
tains colocynth extract lo, aUjts 50, car- 
damon 6, resin of scammony 14, .soap 14, 
aicfihol 10. Dose gr. v-xx. Pilulae, 
Comp. Cathartic, compound cathartic 
pills; contain «a<h, comj). cxl. of toliKynth 
gr. 1.3, abstract jalap gr. j, calomel gr. j, 
gamlxjgc gr. j. I Jo-<e j -iij pills. Laville's 
Anti-gout Remedy, contains co!<Kynih 
2 • J, ijuininc, cinchoninc aa 5, .S|)anish wine 
8fX), al<oh(4 100, water lOOO parts. 

Colo'gnc. Sec Spirits. 

Co'lon {kii'/'iv, the colon). Tlie first or su- 
[M-ridr part of the large inti-stine. In the 
variou.s |jarts of it.s course it is known as 
8 



the ascefiJitig C, the (h-scciiJini;^ C, the 
t?aiis7't'rse C, and the sig/iioidjlcxurc. 

Coloph'ony. See A\si//. 

Co'lor ((■('/('/■). The ditTerences in the ap- 
pearance of a thing seen, other than diose 
due to shape, relief, t'/r. The tint or hue 
of an oliject, dependent upon the number 
of vibralions of die ethereal stimulus. 
C. -blindness. See B/iiii/iwss. C, 
Complementary, any color that added 
to another color, or to a mixture of colors, 
produces white. C. Contrast, any two 
that, when mixed, .su])plcnKiU tlie jirevail- 
ing tone of the light. Colors, Mixed, 
those produced wlun the retina is excited 
by two or more simple colors. C, Simple, 
those of the spectrum. C, Saturated, 
those containing little or no white. 

Color-blindness. See B/i>i(hu-ss. 

Color-hearing. The hypothesis of the 
excitation of the chromatic centers through 
the auditory nerve. 

Colorim'eter [color, fie-pov, measure). 
An in.stnimcnt for determining the quan- 
tity of coloring matter in a mixture. 

Color-sensation. Depends on the num- 
ber of vibrations of the ether, the same as 
the pitch of a note depends on the number 
of vibrations of the sounding body. Her- 
ing's Theory of C.-s. predicates di.s- 
assiniilation and assimilation (decomposi- 
tion and restitution) of the visual sub- 
stance in vision — white, red and yellow 
representing the sensation of disassimila- 
tion, black, green ami blue of restitution; 
thus endowing the visual sut)stance with 
three modes of chemical metalnjlism. 
Young-Helmholtz's Theory, assumes 
three kinds of nerve-elements correspond- 
ing to the tlirce primary colors. Stimula- 
tion of the first causes red, of the second, 
green, of the third, violet. 

Color-top. A top containing on the sec- 
tors of its disc a number of colors to be 
" mixed " by rapid whirling. 

Colos'trum {lo/ostnini). The first milk 
in the mother's breasts after the birth of 
the child. It is laxative, and assists in 
the exjjulsion of the meconium. 

Colot'omy {ki>?()v, Tt/ivu, to cut). Incision 
of till- colon, either liitiihnr or iii:;iiiii<i/, 
aciordiiig to the region of entrance. 

Colpeur'ynter [ko'/.-im;, vagina, Myirru, to 
widen). An instrument for dilating the 
vagina by means of an intlatable bag or sac. 

Colpi'tis (aoXtoi). Intlammatiun of the 
vagina. 

Col'pocele {ko'Xttoi;, w/A/y, tumor). Ileniia 
or tumor in the vagina. 



COLPOHYPERPLASIA 



114 



COMPOUND OXYGEN 



Colpohyperpla-'sia. A cystic hyperplasia 
of the vagina. 

Colpoperine^oplasty. Plastic operations 
for abnormahties of the vagina and peri- 
neum. 

ColpoptC'sis (/co/lTTOf, TTTuaig, a falhng). 
Prolapse of the vagina. 

Colpor^rhaphy (/coATrof, pacp?/, seam). Su- 
ture of the vagina. 

Colt'sfoot. The leaves of Tiissilago far- 

fara. Demulcent and tonic. Sometimes 
prescribed in chronic coughs. Dose of 
Jj to Oj decoction, a teacupful; of fld. ext. 
3J-ij. Unof 

Colum^bo. See Calumbo. 

ColumeFla. The column-like rod of birds 
and reptiles, a part of the organ of hear- 
ing, corresponding to the auditory ossicles 
of the higher animals. See Cochlea and 
Modiolus. 

CoFumn {columna). A pillar or column. 
Applied to sundry column-like organs of the 
body, and especially to certain parts of the 
spinal cord. C. of Burdach, the postero- 
external column of the cord. C. of Clarke, 
a group of nerve cells in the inner part of 
the neck of the posterior horn in the dorsal 
and lumbar cord. C. of GoU, the postero- 
median column of the cord. C. of Turck, 
the anterior or direct pyramidal tract. Lat- 
eral pyramidal, Direct cerebellar C, etc., 
are other columns or tracts of the cord. 

Colum''na. A column or pillar. C. Bertini. 
That part of the cortical stracture of the 
kidneys which separates the sides of any 
two pyramids, through which the arteries 
and nerves enter, and the veins and lymph- 
atics emerge. C. Nasi, the antero-pos- 
terior septum between the nostrils. C. 
Vertebralis, the spinal column. C. Car- 
neae, muscular columns projecting from the 
cardiac ventricles. 

Co''ma (/CW//0, deep sleep). Abnonnally 
deep and prolonged sleep, with the cerebral 
functions in abeyance ; due to compression 
of the brain, hemorrhage, etc. C. Vigil, 
a comatose condition in which the patient 
lies with open eyes, but unconscious and 
delirious. 

Co'matose. In a condition of coma. 

Combus'tion [co»ibiiro,io burn up). The 
process of oxidation, attended with the 
liberation of heat, and sometimes light. 
Loosely used as a synonym of inflammation. 
C, Spontaneous, that due to heat from 
chemical changes, such as the spontaneous 
ignition of oiled waste or shoddy in woolen 
mills, factories, etc. C, Spontaneous 
Human, the supposed burning of the 



body without the external application of 
heat. 

Com^edone [comedo, a glutton). Black- 
head. A black-pointed cylindrical plug 
formed by the lodgment of sebaceous mat- 
ter within the orilice of the duct. Nearly 
always occurs on the face, neck and chest. 

Com^frey. The root of Symphytum offi- 
cinale. Demulcent, slightly astringent and 
tonic. A common ingredient in domestic 
cough mixtures. Dose of decoction indefi- 
nite; of fld. ext. 3J-ij. Unof. 

Com^ma Bac^illus. See Spirillum 
CholercE. 

Comminu''tion (comminuo, to break in 
pieces). The process by which a solid 
body is reduced to pieces of varying sizes. 
It includes the various operations of cutting, 
rasping, grating, slicing, pulverizing, levi- 
gating, triturating, elutriating, granulating, 
etc. See, also, Fractwe, Comminuted. 

Coni''missure {committo, to unite). A join- 
ing or uniting together. C. Magna, the 
corpus callosum. C, Optic, the union 
and crossing of the two optic nerves in 
front of the tuber cinereum. 

Commu^nicans {communico^. Communi- 
cating. C. Noni. See Nei-ve, 

Com^mutator [commuto, to exchange). 
An instrument for automatically interrupt- 
ing or reversing the flow of an electric 
current, making and breaking the same 
with desired frequency. 

Co^mose [coma, hair). Having much hair. 

Com^pass Plant. See Rosi^i Weed. 

Complement^al Air. See Air. 

Complement^ary Colors. See Color. 

Complex^us [complexus, complex). The 
totality of symptoms, phenomena or signs 
of a morbid condition. C. Muscle. See 
l\Iuscle. 

Complica''tion [complico, to fold together). 
Used of intercurrent or succeeding disease 
or morbid conditions that render treatment 
of the principal affection difterent or more 
difficult. Complicated Fracture. See 
Fracture. 

Composi^tion [conipositio, a putting to- 
gether). Compounding; used of medi- 
cines. The constituents of a mixture. 

Com''pound Cathar^tic Pills. See Colo- 
cvnth^ 

Compound''ing. The mixing, manipula- 
tion, and preparation of the drugs ordered 
in a prescription. 

Com'pound Ox^ygen. A quack cure-all 
consisting of a .strong solution of potassium 
nitrate or' chlorate through which the air 
to be inhaled is drawn. 



COMPRESS 



115 



CONIUM 



Com'press [camprcsstts, pressed together). 
Folded clotlis wetted and applied firmly to 
the part for relief of intlamniation. C, 
Fenestrated, with a hole for drainage or 
insj^ection. C, Graduated, the strip 
applied directly is narrow, the others, pro- 
gressively wider, cover it. 

Compres'sion of Brain. See Brain. 

Compres'sor {^coni/'rimo, to press together). 
An instrument for compressing an arter}', 
vein, «•/(•. Used of muscles ha\ ing a com- 
pressing function, as the C. nar-is, C. vctta 
d.'isiilis pinis,ctc. 

Cona'rium. See Pineal Gland. 

Concentra'tion (<-<>«, together, ccntnim, 
the centre). Evaporation of part of the 
water of a mixture, tlius rendering it re- 
latively stronger. 

Concenf'ric. Arranged in an equidistant 
manner aluiut a centre. 

Concep'tion (Av/iT/'/f', to conceive). The 
fecundation of the ovum by the sjjermato- 
zoid. !^ee Pregnancy. 

Con'cha(/co};ia,ashell). A shell. Used of 
organs having some resemblance to a shell, 
as the patella, vulva, dVr.,and especially of 
tlie C. Auris, or hollow part of the external 
car. C. Narium, the turbinated bones. 

Concoc'tion [coniO(juo, to boil together), 
'llic act of boiling two substances together. 

Con'crete [concresco, to grow together). 
.S.iiidified or condensed. 

Concre'tion. The solidification or con- 
densation of a fluid substance ; used, also, 
of union of parts normally separate, as the 
fingers. 

Concu'bitus {concubo, to lie together). 
t'o])iilation. 

Concus'sion of Brain. See Brain. 

Cond^iment {lonJiinailtirn, sj)ice). Spice, 
sauce, or other aj^jjeti/ing ingredients used 
will) fixxl. 

Cond'om, or CunMum (corrup. oi confon, 
a |)hysician). A sheath worn over the 
jKiiis, during copulation. 

Conduction {cundmo, to draw together). 
The |)a-«sage or transfer of force or mate- 
rial from one i)art to another. 

Conduran'go Bark. A remedy much 
u.sid in .S. .America as an alterative in 
sy|jliilis. Introduced into the U.S. as a 
nmedy for cancer of the .stomach, with 
uiii crtaiii results. Dose gr. x-xxx. Unof 

Con'dyle (KovAv'/nr, a knuckle). The 
routicjcd eminences in the joints of many 
of the Ixjncs, esjjccially Uie fftnur, hit- 
mrrus and jiiw. 

Con'dyloid. Resembling or pertaining to 
the condyle. 



Condylo'ma {kov6v7.oc;). A wart-like 
growth or tumor about the anus or pu- 
dendum of either sex. Applied also to 
syphilitic patches and discolorations. 

Cone'in. .^ee Ccniitin. 

Cones, Graduated. Cone-shaped bodies 
used for measuring the size of orifices of 
vessels, etc., especially In post-mortem ex- 
aminations. 

ConfeC'tion [ccnfcitio, a making). A 
confection. In pharmacy a mass of sugar 
and water, or of honey, as an excipient 
with a prescribed medicinal substance. 
There are two ofticial confcctiones. 

Confec'tioners' Disease. A disea.se fre- 
tjuintl)- occurring in the workpeople manu- 
facturing candied fmits, nuts, etc. It is 
confined to the nails of the fingers of the 
hands; the nail loses its polish, becomes 
black, the periungual jx)rtion becomes 
loosened and raised up. 

Confine'ment. The condition of women 
during childbirth. 

Con^fluent {conjiuo, to flow together). In 
mc'dutnc, a term apjjlied to eruptions which 
run together. Tiie opposite of discrete. 
In anatomy, used of the blending of two 
or more bones originally separate into one. 

Congen'ital [con, together, gcnitus, born). 
Existing from birth. 

Conges^tion [congcro, to heap up). Ab- 
normal collection of blood in a part or 
organ. Used of other liquids besides 
blood. 

Con'gius (a Roman measure). A gallon. 

Conglom'erate (conglonicro, to heap uj)). 
A mass of units witlumt order. C. 
Glands, synonymous with acinous glands. 

Conglu'tin. See Casein. 

Con'gress [congressns, a meeting together). 
An assemblage for deliberative puiiw.se. 
C, Sexual, coition, or carnal intercourse. 

Con'ical Cor'nea. See A'erato-glo/'its. 

Coni'um. Hemlock. The green, fiill- 
grown fruit of the sjX)tted hemlock, ('. 
viaculalum. Contains several alkaloids 
and a volatile oil, I'roperties maiidy due 
to alkaloids conine and niet/iy/i onine. 
Produces motor ])aralysis \\ itlumt loss of 
sensation or consciousness. In toxic doses 
death ensues from jiaralysis of organs of 
respiration. N'aluable in tetanus, bji-phaio- 
s|)asm, asthma and whooping cough. C. 
Abstract, made from conium 2cx), diliile 
hydrochloric aciil 6, sugar of milk and 
alcohol <|. s.,to make loo parts of abstract. 
Dose gr. ss-iij. C. Ext., aUoholic, each 
grain represeniing 1 gr. of <lrug. Dose 
gr. ij-v. C, Fid. Ext., same strength us 



CONJUGATE 



116 CONTINUITY, SOLUTION OF 



preceding. Dose TT\^ij-v-xl. C. Tinct., 

15 per cent, strength. Dose Tl\,x-^j. 
Conine, unof., volatile alkaloid of conium. 
Dose gr. -^q-^q- Coniine Hydrochlor., 
unof. , recommended in spasmodic affections. 
All preparations uncertain in strength. 

Con'jugate [iron, together, ji/gi/m, a yoke). 
Yoked or coupled. C. Focus. See 
J'oats. 

Conjuga''tion. A form of reproduction or 
cell-division in unicellular gregarinn;. 

Conjuncti''va {conjmictivtts, connecting). 
The mucous membrane covering the ante- 
rior portion of the globe of the eye, re- 
flected on and extending to the free edges 
of the lids. Its parts are caWeA palpebral, 
ocular or bulbar. 

Conjunctivi^tis. Inflammation of the 
conjunctiva. It may be catarrhal, croup- 
ous, diphtheritic (or membranous), gonor- 
rhneal, phlyctenular, purulent, etc., in char- 
acter or origin. C, Egyptian, and C, 
Granular. See Trachoma. See also Oph- 
thai 1)12 a. 

Con'nate. See Confluent. 

Connective Tis''sue. See Animal Tis- 
sue. 

Consanguin''ity {con, together, sangui- 
nis, blood). The relationship arising from 
common parentage. Allied in blood descent. 

Conser^va, or Conserve'' {conserve, to 
keep). A confection, q. v. 

Con^sonants {con, sono, to sound). Non- 
vowel sounds produced in speaking at cer- 
tain parts of the resonance-chamber. They 
are sounded only with a vowel. They con- 
sist of Explosives, Aspirates, Vibratives 
and Resonants ; they are also divided into 
four classes, according to the position in 
which they are produced — the Articula- 
tion Positions, — the first being between 
the lips; the second between the tongue 
and hard palate ; the third between the 
tongue and soft palate ; the fourth between 
the true vocal cords. Labials, made at 
the lips, may be explosive {b, f), aspirate 
{/, V, ivS, vibrative (the "burr"), and 
resonant {m). These form the consonants 
of the first articulation position. Those of 
the second position are the explosives / and 
d; the aspirates s, z, sch, th ; the vibrative 
r; the resonant ft. Those of the third 
position are the explosives k and g; the 
aspirates are the unvoiced aspirates, un- 
voiced ch and J; the vibrative, palatal r; 
the resonant, palatal ;/. That of the fourth 
position is the aspirate, the glottis-foiTned h. 

Constant Battery, Element, or Cell. 
One yielding a constant current. A gal- 



vanic battery, of which the most common 
types are those of Bunsen, Callaud, Daniell, 
Grenet, Grove, Leclanche and Smee. 

Constipa''tion [constipo, to crush tightly 
together). Costiveness. Retention and 
hardness of the freces, from functional 
inactivity of the intestinal canal, or from 
abnormalism of the biliary or other secre- 
tions. 

Constit^uents of Or^'ganism. The In- 
organic C, are Water, fomiing 58.5 per 
cent, of the body; Gases, such as oxygen, 
marsh gas, etc ; Salts, of which the chief 
are sodium chloride, calcium phosphate 
(forming more than one-half of the bones), 
sodium phosphate, sodium carbonate, so- 
dium and potassium sulphates, potassium 
chloride, calcium fluoride and carbonate; 
Free Acids, as hydrochloric, sulphuric, 
etc. ; Bases, such as silicon, manganese, 
iron. The Organic C, comprise the 
large classes of the proteids, albuminoids, 
fats, etc. 

Constitu^'tion {constitzio, to dispose). In 
chemistiy, the atomic or molecular compo- 
sition of a body. In phannacy, the com- 
position of a substance. In physiology, 
the general temperament and functional 
condition of the body. 

Constitu^'tional. Pertaining to the state 
of the constitution. C. Diseases, in 
pathology, such diseases as are inherent, 
owing to an abnormal structure of the body. 
Also, inherited diseases. Also, a condition 
in which the disease pervades the whole 
system. 

Constrict''or {constringo, to bind together). 
A name applied to any muscle that con- 
tracts, tightens or straightens any part of 
the body. 

Constrin''gent. Same as astringent. 

Consulta'tion {consulto, to take counsel). 
Now applied to a deliberation between 
two or more physicians concerning the 
diagnosis of the disease of a patient and 
the proper method of treatment. 

Consump^tion {consiinio, to consume or 
wear away). Wasting, denutrition or 
atrophy. A term loosely used as a syno- 
nym of phthisis, q. v. 

Conta^gion {contitigo, to touch). A word 
loosely used to designate the process by 
which a specific disease is communicated 
between persons, either by direct contact 
or by means of an intermediate agent. 
(See, also, Infection.^ Also the specific 
germ or virus from which a communicable 
disease develops. 

Continu^ity, Solution of. See Solution. 



CONTRACTILITY 



11' 



COrROLITH 



Contractil''ity {cotftraho, to draw together). 
That property of certain tissues, especially 
a muscle, Tnaiiitesled in shortening under 
the application of a stimulus. 

Contrac'tion [ii>n/ra/io). Approximation 
i)f the elements of a tissue or organ, 
thus dinimi>hing its volume or content. 
C. -remainder, the st;ige of elastic after- 
vibration or residual contraction persist- 
ing in a muscle after withdrawal of the 
stimulus. 

Contra-indica'tion [confra, against, in- 
t/iio, to point out). A term applied to 
that pathological or modifying condition in 
which a rcmetly or a metlio<l of treatment 
is forbidden which under ordinary cases 
miijht be proper. 

Contrayer''va. The root of Dorstenia C. 
Stimulant, tonic and diaphoretic. Decoc- 
tion mucilaginous. Serviceable in low 
fevers and malignant eruptive diseases. 
1 >ose 5 ss. Unof. 

Con'tre-coup (Fr.). Counter-stroke, a 
variety of injury by indirect violence. 

Contu'sion [conftnido, to bruise). A bruise 
or injur)- by a blunt weajx)n,or by collision, 
withoul breaking the skin or covering. 

Co'nus {kuvo^, a cone). A crescentic 
patch of atrophic choroidal tissue surround- 
ing the optic jjapilla. 

Convalla'ria maja'lis. Lily of the \'al- 
ley. All parts of the plant. Properties due 
to cotn'allariu and cflit-i-a/lainarin, glu- 
cosides. A prompt cathartic, diuretic, and 
cardiac stimulant. \'aluai,le as a heart 
tonic. Unlike digitalis, has no cumulative 
etTect. C, Ext., soluble in water. Dose 
gr. v-xxx. C, Ext., Fid., alcoholic. Dose 
^ ss-ij. C, Infusum, prepared with three 
times its weight of water. Dose J ss-ij. 
Convallamarinum, soluble in water. 
l)o>ic gr. '+-ij. All unof. 

Convales'cence {co/iTn/i-sm, to l)ecome 
well). A tenn applied to the recovery of 
strength after the di.•^appearance of a dis- 
ea.se or ailment. 

Convolu'tion (cotiToho, to roll together). 
A ti-nn aiijilird to the folding and turning 
u|xjn itself of any organ, as the c<-relinnn 
and the sinallir inti-stines. C, Broca's, 
the third lift frontal, the speech-center in 
right liand'd |)<-opIc. 

Convol'vulus pandura'tus. Wild I'o- 
talc). 1 he tuU:r is a mild cathartic. Dose 
gr. xl. I'nof. 

Convul'sant (ronvi-llo^ to pull together). 
A ini-di' iiii- that caases convulsions. 

Convul'sions. 'Hie manifestation of 
nervous di.sorder comm<jnly called Ji/s. 



Eclampsia. Loss of consciousness and 
voluntary control of the muscles, with 
clonic, tonic or mixed contractures, <•/<-., 
constitute the chief symptoms. May be 
due to epilepsy, other functional or or- 
ganic disease of the brain, circulation, :■(<:. 
C, Infantile, due to a number of causes, 
such as rickets, exhaustion, etc. ; sometimes 
called " screaming fits." C, Puerperal. 
See EcliJinpsia. C, Uraemic, due to the 
altered state of the blood in disease of the 
kidney. See, also, EpiUpiy. 

Coordination (cw/, together, ordiiio, to 
regulate). The hannonious function and 
proper se(iuence of operation of the various 
organs of the l)ody. 

Copai^ba. 15alsam of Copaiba. The oleo- 
resin of C. LangsdorJJii ; native to Sou h 
America. A stimulant diuretic, and an 
ex])ectorant. Much used in gonorrhtea, 
but now considered of doubtful value. C. 
Massa, copaiba 94, magnesia b parts. 
Dose tTLx-_:5J. C. Mist. Comp., La- 
fayette's mixture, unof., copaiba ^vij, 
oil cubebs 3J, glyceriti vitelli 3 vij ; tri- 
turate and add syr. aq. piperit. 5 iiss ; then 
add, with constant stirring, li<[. [XDtass. .^ss, 
tinct. cardamon comp. '7^ ij, spt. nitrous 
ether 5 ss, aq. piperit. q. s. to make 5viij. 
Dose _5J-5ss. C. 01. Dose TT\,x-xv. 
C. Resina, mainly copaibic acid. Dose 

Cop''per (Cu''prum). A reddish-brown 
metal not usetl in medicine in its metallic 
form, but represented by several salts. 
The latter are gastrointestinal irritants, 
producing nausea and eme>is. C. Acetas, 
verdigris, used in pulmonary disca.ses, and 
a^ a lotion in sUin dist-ises. Dose gr. 7',-s— I- 
C. Aceto-arsenite, Paris (ireen, used as 
a pigment and an insecticide. C. Ammo- 
niatum, unof, annnonium carbcinate J, 
io|)|)(r sidi)liate 4 parts. L'seful in chorea, 
liy>lnia,(A . Dosegr. ' (j-j. C.,Potassio- 
tartrate Sol., Fehling's solution, unof., 
co])per sulphate gr. 70, distilled water 
irL400: al>o <li.ssolve Kochelle salt, gr. 
41SS, in water n\^l6oo; when re(|uiicd, 
mix and add watt r to make tT\^.?720. 
Used as a test for glucose. C. Sulphas, 
.soluble in water, valuable as an emetic. 
Dose, as an emetic, gr. ij-v, as a tonic, gr. 

Cop^peras (.///;■/ loui, rose of copjier [?])• 
A common name for ferrt)us sulphate. See 
/•'(•rriim. 

Cop'rolith {horT/mr, dung, ?m'>(»c. stone). A 
term applied to hard masses of fatal matter 
wiiiih sometimes form in the IkjwcIs. 



COPTIS 



118 



CORONA 



Cop''tis. Goldlhread. The root of C. 
tri folia. A simple bitter tonic resembling 
quassia. Contains berberine. Dose gr. x- 

XXX. 

Copula''tion [copulo, to couple). The act 
of sexual intercourse. 

Coraco- [Kopa^, a crow). Pertaining to 
muscles attached to the coracoid process, 
as C. BracJiialis. See Aluscles. 

Cor^acoid [Kopa§). A term applied to any 
part having the shape of a crow's beak. 
C. Ligament, a triangular, beak-shaped 
ligament joining the coracoid process to 
the acromion. C. Process, a beak-shaped 
process of the scapula. 

Corral Root. Crawley. The root of 
Corallorhiza odontorhiza. A prompt and 
powerful diaphoretic, much employed by 
the "eclectic" school of pi'actitioners. 
Used in fevers. Dose gr. xxx. C, Fid. 
Ext. Dose iTLxv-xxx. 

Cord (^chorda). Used as a synonym for 
the Umbilical Cord, the vascular, cord-like 
structure connecting the placenta and 
foetus. C, Coiling of, loops about the 
foetus or its members. C, Knots of, real 
knots of the cord formed by the passage 
of the foetus through a loop. False Knots, 
accumulations of WTiarton's jelly at parti- 
cular points. C, Presentation of, descent 
of the cord at the beginning of labor be- 
tween the presenting part and the mem- 
branes. C, Prolapse of, descent at the 
rupture of the bag of waters, incomplete, 
if remaining in the vagina, complete, if 
protmding therefrom. C, Torsion of, 
twisting upon its axis. The blood vessels 
make about 40 spiral turns. Wharton's 
Jelly, the gelatin-like connective tissue of 
the cord. 

Cor^dial {cor, the heart). Pertaining to the 
heart. In pharmacy, an aromatic spiritu- 
ous stimiilant. 

Corec^tomy. See Iridectomy, and Pupil, 
Artificial. 

Corecto^pia {nop?/, pupil, enTuirn^, mis- 
placed). An anomalous position of the 
pupil. 

CorediaFysis {noprj, Si.a?ivu, to liberate). 
The production of an artificial pupil at the 
ciliary border of the iris. 

CoreKysis {Kopr/, Xvaig, a loosening). The 
detachment of iritic adhesions to the lens. 

Coremorpho^sis. See Pupil, Artificial. 

Coreom'eter {nopri, jieTpov, a measure). 
An instrument for measuring the pupil of 
the eye. 

Cor'eplasty. See Pupil, Artificial. 

Corian'der, or 



Corian^'drum. Coriander. The fruit of 
C. sati'i'a. An aromatic carminative and 
stimulant. Used mainly to give flavor to 
other remedies and as a corrective to griping 
purgatives. Dose gr. x-xx. C. Ol., the 
volatile oil. Dose IT^ij-v. 

Co^rium {^corium, leather). The deep layer 
of the cutis. 

Corm [Kopiioq, the trank of a tree). The 
bulbous underground part of certain plants, 
as the crocus. 

Corn [cornu, horn). Local induration and 
thickening of the skin from friction. 

Cor^nea [cornu). The transparent an- 
terior portion of the eyeball, its area oc- 
cupying about one-sixth the circumference 
of the globe. It is continuous with the 
sclerotic, and nourished by lymph from the 
looped blood vessels at its peripheral bor- 
der. It is lined posteriorly by Descemet's 
membrane, and the conjunctiva is firmly 
adherent to its substance in front. C, 
Conical. See Keratoglobus. C, Leu- 
coma of. See Leuconia. C, Tattooing 
of. See Tattooing. C, Transplantation 
of, the operation of engrafting a section of 
transparent cornea from some animal into 
the space of an excised portion of leuco- 
matous human cornea. 

Cornei^tis. See Keratitis. 

Cornic'ula Laryn^gis. A small, hom- 
shaped mass of cartilage on the arytenoid 
cartilages; called also the Cartilages of 
Sautoriiii. 

Corn Smut. See Stigmata ATaydis. 

Corn^u. (Lat.) A horn. A name applied 
to any excrescence resembling a horn. C. 
Ammonis, the liippocamptcs major oiXht. 
brain. C. Cervi, hartshorn or ammonium 
hydrate. C. Cutaneum. A horn of the 
skin. A horny excrescence bearing a resem- 
blance to the horns of lower animals. 
May be any size from that of a pin's head 
to that of the finger. Of rare occurrence. 
C. Sacri, the prominence on each bone 
of the sacrum. 

Cor^'nus. Dogwood. The bark of the 
root of C. fiorida. Properties due to a 
crystalline principle, corniti. A simple 
stomachic, bitter and somewhat antiperi- 
odic. C, Fid. Ext. Dose ITLx-^j. 

Corn^utin. One of the active principles 
of Ergot. Unof 

Cor^ona [corona, a garland). A crown. 
C. Ciliaris, the ciliary ligament. C. Glan- 
dis, the ridge of [he glans penis. C. Ra- 
diata, the convolutions of the brain. C. 
Veneris, syphilitic blotches occurring on 
the forehead. 



CORONAL SUTURE 



119 



CORROSIVE 



Coro'nal Su'ture. The suture joining 
the frontal with the two parietal bones. 

Cor'onary. A term applied to vessels, 
nerves, or attachments which encircle a 
part or organ. 

Cor'oner (corona/or, a crown, an oflRcer 
appointed by the Crown). An olticer who 
inquires by authority of the law into the 
causes of deaths of sudden or violent oc- 
currence. C, Inquest of, the legal 
iuquir)' liefore a jurj- concerning the causes 
of a .'iuddcn or violent deatli. 

Coronil'la. The plant C. scorpeouh's, 
abundant in southwestern Europe. Has 
doubtful value in cardiac affections where 
increased amplitude of pulsation is re- 
([uiretl. Unof. 

Cor'pora (pi. of corpus, a body). A gene- 
ral tenn apj^lied to any part of the body, 
especially of the brain, having a rounded 
or ovoid shape. C. Albicantia or Mam- 
millaria, the two roundetl masses of white 
matter forming the bullisof the fornix. C. 
Arantii, the tubercles, one in the center 
of each segment of the .semilunar valves. 
C. Cavernosa, the cylindrical bodies of 
erectile tissue forming the chief part of the 
penis. Also the two masses of erectile 
tissue comix)sing the clitoris. C. Genicu- 
lata, two small eminences projecting from 
the optic thalami. C. Olivaria, the two 
oval masses behind the pyramids of the 
medulla oblongata. C. Pyramidalia, the 
two bundles of white matter of the medulla 
oblongata, situated l*clow the pons varolii. 
C. Quadrigemina, the optic lobes of the 
lirain, the four rounded eminences situated 
under the corjius callosum. The anterior 
pair are the nates, and the posterior the 
testes. C. Restiformia, the large columns 
or cord-like Ixxlies extending from the 
medulla to the cerel)rum. C. Striata, 
two organs in the lateral ventricles (jf the 
brain, com])Osed of the cauflate and lenti- 
cular nucleas. ITie first, or intraventricular 
p<jrtion, extends into the lateral ventricle. 

Corp'ulcncy (^corpulentns, a large body). 
Obi-,ity, fatness of the lx>dy. 

Corp'us (pi. corpora), {corptts, a body). 
A lody; the human Ixxly. C. Aran- 
tius, tJie cartilaginous tubercle of the 
semilunar valves. C. Callosum. See 
Comttii^uirrs. C.Cavernosum Vaginae, 
tlif '-|>f'ngy tissue of the vagina. C. 
Fimbriatum, the lateral thin edge of the 
tiinia hi|)|KK'ampi. C. Luteum. Sc-i; 
Corpus l.utcuni. C. Spongiosum, the 
sjjfjngy Uxly enclosing tiie urethra, etc. 
C. Striatum. Sec Corpora. 



Cor'puscle (dim. of rorpiis). A name 
loosely applied to almost any small, 
rounded, or oval body. C. of Blood, the 
minute, biconcave, Hat discs, circular in 
man, elliptical in the camel, and oval in 
birds and reptiles. Coqniscles of the blood 
have been distinguished, according to their 
sue — into normoblasts (normal in size), 
megaloblasts (of excessive size),mikro- 
blasts (abnormally small), and poikilo- 
blasts, of irregular sliape and size. Tiie 
red corpuscles in the blood of man are 
about jiVij in. in diameter and yj.fjjTj in. 
thick. They consist of a colorless stroma 
(paraglobulin.cholestcrin, lecithin and ncu- 
rin) intiltrated with coloring matter (hLvmo- 
globin). The white corpuscles are 
flattened, bi- or tri-nucleated cells, about 
joVtf ^'^- ^" diameter, and exist in the ratio 
of I : 400 compared with red coqiuscles. 
They possess a contractile jxiwer, alter 
their shape readily, and in general api>ear- 
ances closely resemble amoilja;. They are 
most numerous in venous blood. C. of 
Krause, the spherical or ovoid corpuscles 
occurring on the ends of the nerve tubules 
which emerge from a nerve plexus. They 
occur in the conjunctiva, the edges of the 
lips and various mucous and glandular sur- 
faces. C, Malpighian, a name applied 
to the splenic coqnisclcs. Also to the 
Malpighian bodies. C, Pacinian, certain 
small coqjuscles occuiring in the subcuta- 
neous cellular tissue of the fingers and toes. 
C, Tactile, of Wagner, the small oval 
boflies found in the paj)illa' of the skin 
and enveloped by nene-iibers. 

Corpuscula'tion. A condition in wliich 
the coqiuscles of the blood have undergone 
hyjx'rplasia, being more large and numer- 
ous than in the normal state. 

Corp'us Lute'um. The yellow body. 
lly|)erlropliy of the me ml) ran a propria, or 
reticulata of the ovisac, after the esca])e 
of the ovule. C. L., False, that result- 
ing when pregnancy does not occur, called 
also the C. L. of Menstruation. C. L., 
True, that when pregnancy takes place, 
called al>o the C. L. of Pregnancy, and 
liilfcring in several res|>ects from the first. 

Correct'lve {corrigo, to correct). A sub- 
stance used to mcKlify (irmakemore pleasant 
the action of a purgative or other renieily. 

Correla'tion. Interdependence; relation- 
ship. 

Corro'sive {eon, rodo, to gnnw). A .sub- 
stance that destroys organic tissue either 
i)y direct chemical means or by causing 
inllammation and suppuration. 



CORROSIVE SUBLIMATE 



120 



CRAMP 



Corro''sive Sub^limate. See Ilydrar- 
gyruin. 

Corruga^tor {corrugo, to wrinkle). That 
which wrinkles. See JMuscle. 

Cor^tex (Sanskrit k7-it, to split). The 
bark of an exogenous plant. The external 
layer of gray matter of the brain. 

Cor''ti. A celebrated Italian anatomist. C, 
Cells of, the external hair-cells of the 
organ of Corti. C, Organ of, a series of 
some 3000 arches contained on the floor of 
the basilary membrane, within the ductus 
cochlear is of the internal ear. C, Rods 
of, the pillars of the arch of the organ 
of Corti. C, Rolls of, the fibers forming 
the inner limb of the arches of Corti. 

Cort^ical {^cortex, bark). Pertaining to the 
cortex or bark. Used of the gray matter, 
cortex, of the brain. 

Coryd^alis. Tmkey corn. The tuber of 
C. fo7-mosa {^Dicentra Canadensis of de 
Candolle). Tonic, diuretic and alterative. 
Dose of-tld. ext. ITLx-xI. Corydalin, the 
alkaloid. Dose gr. j-v. Unof. 

Cory^za {nopvg, the head). Catarrh of the 
mucous membrane of the nasal passages 
and adjacent sinuses. Popularly called a 
" cold in the head." 

Cosmet^ic [Koa/jeu, to adorn). A remedy 
designed to improve or to hide the defects 
of the skin or other external parts. May 
be a white powder, such as starch, mag- 
nesic oxide, calcium carbonate (levigated), 
zinc oxide, mercurous chloride, or bismuth 
subnitrate applied externally ; it may be a 
white substance dissolved in dilute alco- 
hol, which is left upon the face after the 
evaporation of the solvent ; or it may be a 
stimulant to the skin used internally, such 
as arsenic. C. Operation. A surgical 
operation to give a natural appearance to 
a defective or unsightly part. 

Cos^moline. See Petrolatum. 

Cos^tal (^costa, a rib). Pertaining to the 
ribs. C. Cartilages. The 12 cartilag- 
inous extensions of the ribs. 

Cos''tiveness [constipo, to be bound). An 
al)normality of digestion characterized by 
retention and hardness of the faeces. 

Cos''to- [costa, a rib). A prefix denoting 
connection with the ribs. 

Coto'ine. See Coto. 

Cofto. Cotto Bark. The bark of a tree 
native to Bolivia. Irritant to skin and 
mucous membranes. Therapeutic proper- 
ties not known. Recommended in diar- 
rhoea and zymotic fevers. Dose gr. j-xv. 

Cot^ton. See Gossypiutn. 

Cot^ton-seed Oil. See Gossypium. 



Cot''yloid CaV'ity. See Acetabulum. 

Couch-grass. See Triticum. 

Couch^ing (Fr. Coucher). The operation, 
now fallen into disuse, of depressing a 
cataractous lens into the vitreous chamber, 
where it was left to be absorbed. 

Cough^ing. A sudden violent expiratory 
explosion after deep inspiration and closure 
of the glottis. C. Center. See Center. 

Cou^'lomb. The unit of measurement of 
electrical quantity; the quantity of elec- 
tricity that passes during one second in a 
conductor having a resistance of one ohm, 
with one volt of electromotive force. The 
micro-coulomb is the millionth part of 
this amount. 

Count^er-exten''sion. See Extension. 

Count^er-irrita^tion. Superficial and arti- 
ficially produced inflammation, in order to 
exercise a good effect upon some adjacent 
or deep-seated morbid process. Generally 
effected by vesicants, rubefacients, etc. 

Count^er-o^pening. An incision made 
in an abscess or cavity, opposite another, 
generally for purposes of drainage. 

Cours^es. See Menses. 

Court Plaster. See Ichthycolla. 

Couveuse''. See Inczibator. 

Cow^'age. The external hairs of the pod 
of iMucuna pruriens. 

Cow^bane. Water Hemlock. The leaves 
of Ciiuta virosa. An acrid narcotic, highly 
poisonous to cattle, but not affecting sheep 
and goats. Causes intoxication and spasm. 
Sometimes used externally as an anodyne 
in rheumatism. 

Cow'per's Glands. See Glands. 

Cow-pox. See Vaccination. 

Cox^a [coxa, hip). The hip-joint. 

CoxaPgia [coxa, alyog, pain). Pain in the 
hip-joint. See Hip-joint Disease. 

Coxe's Hive Mixture. See Scilla. 

Crab Louse. See Fediculus. 

Crachot^ement. A peculiar reflex follow- 
ing operations upon the utero-ovarian or- 
gans, marked by a desire to spit without 
the ability to do so. It is usually accom- 
panied by a tendency to syncope. 

Cracked-pot Sound. A peculiar sound 
elicited by percussion over a cavity of the 
lung communicating with a bronchus. 

Cra''dle. In surgery, a wire or wicker 
frame so arranged as to keep the weight of 
the bed-clothing from an injured part of 
the body. Employed in fractures, wounds, 
etc. 

Cramp (Teut. kramp). A spasmodic con- 
traction of the muscles attended with sharp 
pain. 



CRANE'S-BILL ROOT. 



121 



CROCUS 



Crane's-bill Root. See Geranium. 

Cra'nioclasm \K\mviov, the skull, K/.au, 
lo break). The operation of breaking the 
fetal head by means of the crunioclii^t. 

Craniol'ogy i^Kpai-ioi\ /o; of , a discourse). A 
treatise on the comparative study of skulls. 

Craniom'eter \Hi>aiioi\ fttrfior, a meas- 
ure). An instrument for gauging the dimen- 
sions of the skull. 

Craniom'etry. See Index. 

Cranios'copy. See Phrenology. 

Cranios'tosis [Kpaviov, oartov, a bone). 
Congenital os-ihcation of the cranial sutures. 

Craniot'omy [spaviof, rour/, a cutting). 
The oi>eraiion of reducing the size of the 
f<-L'tal head by cutting or breaking it up, 
when delivery is otherwise impossible. 

Cra'nium (K//ar/or, the head). The skull. 
The cavity which contains the brain, its 
membranes and vessels. Consists of 22 
bones, of which 14 belong to the face, and 
8 to the cranium proper. See Skull. 

Crassamen'tum [erassus, thick). The 
clot of the blood. 

Craw - Craw. See Filaria Sanguinis 
Iloniinis. 

Craw 'ley. See Coral Root. 

Cream of Tartar. See Potassium. 

Creamom'eter. An instrument for esti- 
mating the amount of cream in milk. 

Crc'asote, or Creaso'tum {xpeag, flesh, 
au^u, to preserve). The product of the 
distillation of wood tar, consisting of a mix- 
ture of phenol com]x>unds. .'\.n inllam- 
malile oily liquid dilfering in this respect 
from carlK)lic acid. Does not coagulate 
albumin and collodion. Most of the com- 
mercial creasote consists of carlx)lic acid 
or contains a large jjercentage of it. Valu- 
able for its antiseptic, astringent, styptic, 
an 1 -tlictic and ocharotic pro|x-rties. C. 
Aqua, a one per cent, solution. Dose 

Cre'atin (Kpcag). A weak organic base 
occurring in various tissues of the body, 
especially in mu>cle. 

Creat'inin («/<f«<;). See Kreatinin. 

Creche (Kr. a crib). See Infant Shelter. 

Cremas'ter (Kpr/tucj, to sup|xjrt). The 
muscle which draws u|> the testis. 

Cremaster''ic Re'flex. Retraction of the 
lolicle on the same side by exciting the 
skin on the inner side of the tliigh. 

Crema'tion (eremo, lo bum). The de- 
struction of the Ijfxly by burning, as dislin- 
giiisli<-d from inlernient. 

Crem'or (i-rentor, broth). Cream. Any 
thick .sul»lancc formed on tlie surface of a 
li'|ui(l. 



Cre'nated {^ircna, a notch). Notched or 
scalloped. In botany, leaves which are 
serrated. See Crenation. 

Crena'tion [erena'). A notched or mul- 
berr)' appearance of the red corpuscles of 
the blood ; may lie spontaneous or due to 
poisoning with Calabar bean. 

Cre'nothrix (k{iiivii, source, 'V^. hair). A 
genus of the family Beggiatoacees, whose 
Hlaments are enveloped in a gelatinous 
sheath. C. Kuhniana, abundant in fresh 
waters. The pathogenic role attributed to 
this variety by Kiinsther in the production 
of typhoid is unjustilied. 

Cre'olin. A coal-tar product deprived of 
carbolic acid. Ha-mostatic and highly anti- 
septic. It is more active than carbolic 
acid on pure cultures of pathogenic mi- 
crobes, but less etiicacious in putrefying 
masses. An excellent non-poisonous de- 
odorizer. 

Crepita'tion, or Crep'itus [crepito, to 
crackle). The noise produced by escaping 
flatus, by the grating of fractured bones, by 
the crackling of the joints, and by tlie 
pressure upon tissues containing an abnor- 
mal amount of air or gas. Also the pecu- 
liar murmur of respiration observed in 
pneumonia. 

Cres'cent, Myopic. See Myopia. 

Crest. The surmounting part of an organ 
or process. 

Cre'ta. Chalk. See Calcium. 

Cret^inism. (Doubtful etymology.) The 
condition of a cretin. An endemic dis- 
ease characterized by goitre, and a condi- 
tion of physical, physiological and mental 
degeneracy and non-development. 

Crib''riform {eribrum, a sieve, forma, 
form). Similar to a sieve in being pcr- 
for.iteil, as the cribriform Plate of the 
Ethmoid Bone. 

Cri^co- (KpiKog, a ring). A prefix denoting 
connection with the cricoid cartilage. 

Cri'coid Cartilage. See Cartilages of 
th,- I.aryn r. 

Cri''sis \crisis). The turning ])oint in a 
disease, fever, time of life, </< ., and in 
disease, marking a change either for the 
better or worse. 

Crisfa Acus''tica (Lat.). A yellow ele- 
vatinii pi()j((iiMg into the e(iuait)r of the 
ampulla of the ear. 

Crist'a GalTi. Cock's Crest. The sui)erior 
triangular process of the ethmoid l)one. 

Crit'ical {crisis ). Pertaining lo a cri>is in 
disi-ase, jx-riod of life, etc. 

Cro'cus. .Saffron. The stigmas of the 
flowers of f. sativus. (Should not be coiv 



CROSSED REFLEXES 



122 



CUBEBS 



founded with American Saffron, Cartha- 
mus tinctorius). An aromatic stimulant 
and emmenagogue, commonly used as a 
cooling agent. C. Tinct., lo per cent. 
in strength. Dose 3J-ij; of the drug, gr. 
v-xx. 

Crossed Re^flexes. An exception to 
the usual law of reflex movements, in 
which, e. g., excitation of one fore limb 
produces movement in the opposite hind 
limb. 

Cross-legged Progres^'sion. A method 
of walking in which one foot gets over or 
in front of the other. A symptom of cer- 
tain cord lesions. 

Crouton Chlo'ral. See Chloral Butylicum. 

Croton-oil. See .Tiglii Oleum. 

Croup (Sax. kropan, to cry aloud). A dis- 
ease of the larynx, trachea, etc., of children, 
of which prominent symptoms are a peculiar 
cough, difficulty of breathing, and often 
accompanied by the development of a 
membranous deposit or exudate upon the 
parts. There is doubt as to the real natui-e 
of the disease, some contending that it is 
either an acute spasmodic laiyngitis or a 
laryngeal diphtheria, while others believe 
it a special type of disease. 

Cru'cial (^crux, a cross). Resembling 
or pertaining to a cross, as a crucial in- 
cision. 

Cru^ra (pi. of crus, a leg). A name 
applied to certain parts of the body from 
their resemblance to a leg or root. C. 
Cerebelli, the peduncles of the cerebellum. 
C. Cerebri, the peduncles of the cere- 
brum. C. of Diaphragm, the muscular 
bundles arising from the vertebrte, etc., and 
inserted into the central tendon. C. of 
Penis, the corpora cavernosi. 

Cru^ral [c7-tis). Pertaining to the thigh. 
C. Arch. See Ligatuent. C. Hernia, 
femoral hernia. 

Crus [crus). The leg; structures resem- 
bling a leg. See the plural. Crura. 

Cruso-creafinine. A leucomaine, iso- 
lated from muscle-tissue. In this and other 
leucomaines of the Creatinine Group, as 
well as in those of the Uric Acid Group, 
hydrocyanic acid plays an important part 
in the molecular structure of the bases. 
Very little is yet known as to the function 
of this Cyanogen Group in relation to the 
vital activity of tissues, but recent investi- 
gations seem to show that the seat of the 
cyanogen formation lies within the nucle- 
ated cell, and is intimately connected with 
the functions of the nuclein molecule. A 
number of leucomaines of fresh muscle- 



tissue are credited with possessing an in- 
tensely poisonous action ; and, if this be 
the case, any accumulation of such bases in 
the system, due to interference with elimi- 
nation, may cause very serious disturb- 
ances. 

Crus^ta. The inferior part of the crura 
cerebri. C. Lactea. See Achor. C. 
Petrosa, a thin layer of bone covering the 
fang of a tooth. C. Phlogistica, the 
yellowish layer of the upper stratum of a 
blood-clot coagulating slowly. 

Crypt [KpvnTU, to conceal). A small sac 
or follicle. Crypts of Lieberkiihn, mi- 
nute tubular depressions of the mucous 
membrane of the small intestine. 

Cryptoceph^alus [kpvtvtoq, hidden, Ke(pa7.ri, 
head). A monster fcetus with imperfectly 
formed and concealed head. 

Cryptoga^mia [KpvnrTog, ya//of, marriage). 
A division of the vegetable kingdom com- 
prising all plants with concealed sexual 
organs, without pistils or stamens. 

CryptophthaFmos {KpvTTTog,o^6a?ijuog, the 
eye). Congenital union of the eyelids, 
usually over imperfect eyes. 

Cryptor^chid, or Cryptorchis (/<pf tttw, to 
hide, op^i?, testicle). A person with re- 
tained testicles, i. e., not descended into 
the scrotum. Monorchid, with one re- 
tained testicle. 

Crysf'allin. The globulin of the crystal- 
line lens. 

Cryst^alline Lens. See Le7is. 

Crystalliza''tion [Kpyaralloq, ice). The 
process by which the molecules of a sub- 
stance anange themselves in geometric 
forms when passing from a gaseous or a 
liquid to a solid state. C, Water of, 
the water of salts that cannot be extracted 
without destruction of their crystalline 
nature. 

Crystallog''raphy [KpvuTaTJ.og ypnipu, to 
write). The science of crystals, their for- 
mation, etc. 

Crys^talloid {KpvaTa2.2.og, eiSog, likeness). 
Having a ciystalline structure, as distin- 
guished from colloid. 

Cu'beba. The unripe fruit of C. ojfficiiialis, 
cultivated in Java. Properties due to a 
volatile oil and an organic acid. An aro- 
matic stimulant, diuretic in small doses. 
Useful in affections of the bladder and 
urethra. A good remedy (applied by in- 
sufflation or smoked in cigarettes) for 
disease of the fauces, in catanh of the air 
passages, ^i".;-. Dose gr. x-^ij. C, Fid. 
Ext., alcoholic. Dose n^x-xxx. C. 
Oleoresina, ethereal. Dose n\,v-xxx. 



CUBIC SPACE 



123 



CURRENT 



C. Ol., the volatile oil. Dose TTLv-xx. 
C, Tinct., loper cent, in .strength. Dose 
IT^x- 5 iij. C. Trochisci, oleoresin gr. }4, 
oil sassafras gr. yV^' ^-^f- glycjTrhiza gr. iv, 
acacia gr. ij, syr. tolu q. s., in each troche. 
Dose j-iij. 

Cubic Space (of air). The amount of 
space retjuired by the patient in ho>i)itals, 
f/c. Alx)ut looo cubic feet to each patient 
is necessary to proper ventilation. 

Cu'bitus [i-n/'i/its, the ellx>\v). The fore- 
arm. 

Cu'boid Bone. A hone of the foot situ- 
ated at the outer anterior part of the 
tarsus. 

Cu'ca. See Erythroxylon. 

Cud Weed. See Life Everlasting. 

Cul-de-sac (Fr. <•///, the bottom, dc, of, 
sac, bag). A cavity of the body closed at 
one end. Douglas's C, a jxjuch between 
the anterior wa-ll of the rectum ami tiie 
posterior wall of the uterus formed by the 
reflection of the peritoneum. Called, also, 
the recto-uterine or retro-uterine C. 

Cu'lex. A mosquito. A well-known in- 
sect which punctures the skin to obtain its 
focxl, the blood. 

Cul'ture (<■<)/<>, cu/tum, to till, cultivate). 
A name loosely and indiscriminately ap- 
plied to the act, the liquid or solid me- 
dium used, and the product of the process, 
in culture ex])eriments upon micro6rj:;an- 
isms. The culture media are of various 
kinds: mineral liquids (see A'au/in's Li- 
quid, Cohn's Liquid, etc.), bouillons of 
various kinds, gelatinous fluids, gelose, 
potato, serum, etc. These media are first 
sterilized, usually by heat (see Oren, .Ster- 
ilization), but possilily also by chemicals, 
by filtration, by cold, by steam, etc. The 
infectious matter is then taken upon a ster- 
ilized platinum needle point, pipette, or 
other instrument, and transferred to the 
culture-medium. When the latter is of 
semi-solid consistency, as gelatin, the inocu- 
lation by the needle is called Stichcultur 
((jr. ) or par piijilre ( Fr.), the needle being 
lhru-.t into the suijslance. When sown 
along the surface in a line it is called 
Slriihcultur ( ( jr. ), or en stries ( I'"r. ). The 
macrfiscopic features of the subse<|uent de- 
velo|)ment give im|)ortant means of differ- 
entiation. I'or example, when the iiiocu- 
lati-d matter forms a mas> in the mc<lium, 
IKjiiitcil Ix.-1<jw and rising like a nail iicail 
aU)ve, it is callcrl en clou, nail-shapccl. 
Tlien the medium may lie li(|uefud or not, 
variously colored, fxiculiarly changed, .sedi- 
ment de(x>sited or not, etc. Sub.sequent 



microscopical examination of the culture- 
product, inoculation experiments uixjn ani- 
mals, etc., complete the study. 

CuUver's Root. See Leptandra. 

Cune'iform Bones (L. cuncus, a wedge). 
The name of three wedge-shaped bones at 
tlie anterior part of the tarsus. 

Cune'us {^cu>/eus). A wedge-shaped con- 
volution on the internal asjject of the cortex 
of the occipital lobe. 

Cu'pola [cupola, a dome). The dome- 
shajjcd extremity of the canal of the coch- 
lea. Also, the summit of a solitaiy gland 
of the small intestines. 

Cup'ping. The application of cupping 
glasses; a method of blood-abstraction. 
C, Dry, without the abstraction of bUxKi 
— a form of counter-irritation. C, Wet, 
with the abstraction of blood after scari- 
fication. 

Cu'prum. See Copper. 

Cura're. Woorara. A vegetable extract 
olitained from Paulinia C. and certain 
members of the Strychnos family. A pow- 
erful paralyzer of the motor nerves and 
the voluntary muscles. Used in S. Amer- 
ica and elsewhere as an arrow poison. In 
toxic doses death occurs by paralysis of 
the organs of respiration. Reported ef- 
fectual in two cases of hydrophobia, and 
has been successful in tetanus. Dose by 
hyjxidermatic injection gr. n'lj-J. 

Curd. The coagulum of milk which sepa- 
rates on the adilition of rennet or an acid. 

Curette (Fr.). An instrument sha|jed 
like a sjxxjn or scoop, for detaching sub- 
stances from one another, as the placenta 
from the uterine wall, etc. 

Cur'rent {curro, to run). In electricity, a 
term api)lied to tlie transference of the 
force, which is arbitrarily likened to the 
flow of a liquid in a confined p;\ssage. 
C, Action, that oidained when an in- 
jured muscle contracts. C, Alternat- 
ing, a term applied to a current which, by 
means of an interrupter, is alternately di- 
rect and reverse. This current is em- 
ployed (in New York) for the execution of 
capital sentences. C, Battery, a gal- 
vanic current. C, Continuous, a con- 
stant, unintermiitcd current in one tiirec- 
tion. C, Demarcation, the muscle cur- 
rent of Du IJois Raymond, the current 
obtained from an injured muscle. C, 
Galvanic, a current generated liy the 
dec<)m|K)sition of aciduiati-d watir liy 
means of met.allic plates. C, Induced, 
or Secondary, a momentary current pro- 
duced when a coil of insulated wire is in 



CURTATE 



124 



CYSTICERCUS 



troduced within the field of another coil 
through which a continuous current is 
passing. When the coil is removed from 
the field there is a momentary current in 
the opposite direction. 

Curt^ate. See Expectation of Life. 

Curv^ature of Spine. See Caries. 

Cusp iyCHSpis, a point). The crown or pro- 
jecting part of a tooth. 

Cuta^neous {cutis, the skin). Pertaining 
to the skin. C. Calculus. See A/ilium. 
C. Horns. See Cornu Cutanetim. C. 
Respiration, the transpiration of gases 
through the skin. 

Cu^ticle (dim. of ciitis, the skin). The 
epidermis or scarf-skin. See Skin. 

Curtis. The derma, or true skin. C, 
Anserina. See Goose Skin. 

Cut-off Muscle. A popular designation 
of the compressor m^ethrae muscle. 

Cyan^ogen {piavoq, blue, yevvacj, to pro- 
duce). A radical molecule having the 
structure CN, an acid compound of carbon 
and nitrogen existing as a colorless, com- 
bustible gas, exceedingly poisonous. Forms 
with hydrogen, hydrocyanic or prussic 
acid; with metals, the cyanides; with 
oxygen, the compound known as fulminic 
acid. Cyanogen and hydrocyanic acid 
are usually distinguished by the odor of 
almonds. 

Cyanop''athy. See Cyanosis. 

Cyano^sis («:«avof). A bluish discolora- 
tion of the skin from non-oxidation of the 
blood, caused by local or general circula- 
tory diseases. 

Cyanotic. Pertaining to Cyanosis. 

Cycli^tis (/cuK/^of, a circle, ltic, inflamma- 
tion). Inflammation of the ciliary body, 
causing a pericorneal circle of congested 
sclerotic tissue. A serious condition, often 
implicating adjacent structures. May be 
serous, plastic, or suppurative. Irido- 
cyclitis, when the iris is also implicated 
in the inflammatory process. 

Cycloceph^alus («:D/c?.of, KE^cikri, head). 
A monstrosity with a Cyclopean eye and 
atrophy of the nose. 

Cyclop'ia. See Synophthalmia. 

Cyclople^gia (/ct)/c/,of, Tv'krjyrj^ a stroke). 
Paralysis of the ciliary muscle of the 
eye. 

Cy'clops (/cm/lof, wi/;). A congenital mal- 
formation consisting in a fusion of the two 
eyes into one. See Rhinocephaliis. 

Cyclot^omy [kvkAo^, TOf-iri, section). An 
operation proposed for the relief of glau- 
coma, consisting in an incision through 
the ciliary body. 



Cydo''nium. Quince Seed. The seeds of C 
vulgaris. Employed mainly for the muci- 
lage contained in the epithelial covering, 
which consists of a compound of gum and 
glucose. C. Mucilago, quince seeds 2, 
macerated in water 1 00 parts. A bland 
demulcent, known in commerce as Bando- 
line, and used as a hair dressing. 

Cylin'drical Lenses. See Lenses. 

Cylindro^ma (/cvAii^rfpof, a cylinder). A 
tumor peculiar to the orbit of the eye and 
to the stomach, composed of cylindrical or 
club-like hyaline processes. 

Cynan'che (/<:i'ui',adog, ayx^^, to strangle). 
An old name for cases of diphtheria, 
croup, tonsillitis, etc., in which the patient 
struggles for breath (as a panting dog). C. 
Tonsillaris. See Quinsy. 

Cynanthro^'pia (kvuv, avdpuirog, man). A 
mania in which the patient believes him- 
self a dog. 

Cypho''sis. See Kyphosis. 

Cypripe^dium. Lady's Slipper. The roots 
of C. pubescens and C. pai'vifloriwi, Ameri- 
can valerian. Properties due to a volatile 
oil and acid. An antispasmodic and 
stimulant tonic. Used instead of valerian, 
which it resembles, in certain parts of the 
U. S. C, Fid. Ext. Dose TTLx-xxx. 
Cypnpedein, unof., an impure alcoholic 
extract. Dose gr. ss-iij. 

Cyrtoni''eter [Kvprog, curved, /lerpov a 
measure). An instrument adapted for 
measuring curves, and especially those of 
the chest. 

Cyst i^Kvartg, a pouch). A cavity contain- 
ing fluid and surrounded by a capsule. 
C, Cutaneous. See Dermoid C. C, 
Dentigerous, containing teeth ; one form 
is found in the ovaries. C, Dermoid, 
congenital; the cyst- wall is like the skin. 
C, Meibomian. See Chalazion. C, 
Retention, fonned by closure of the ducts 
of secreting organs, as in mucous or seba- 
ceous cysts. C, Exudation, from increase 
of exudation, or from exudation into a 
closed cavity. C, Primary, newly formed, 
not from distention. C, Secondary, a 
cyst within a cyst. C, Sublingual. See 
Ranula. C, Synovial, from the disten- 
tion of bursae or synovial sheaths. C, 
Tarsal. See Chalazion. 

CystaFgia (/cwfr^f, akyoq, pain). Pain in 
the bladder. 

Cys^tic. Pertaining to a cyst, especially 
of the urinary or gall bladder. 

Cysticer^cus Cellulc'sae Cu''tis. See 
Altrrnatio>t of Generation. A hydatid, 
or immature form of Tcenia solium, which 



CYSTIN 



125 



DANCE 



is sometimes parasitic upon the sulKutane- 

ous tissues of the skin. 
Cyst'in. A substance, C5H,.,N._,S,0^, found 

in urine in small amount. Test : boil with 

a solution of lead oxide in sotlium hydrate. 

If cystin is present, black lead sulphide is 

precipitated. 
Cyst'is. See Cysf. 

Cysti'tis. Inflammation of the bladder. 
Cyst'itome. See Lystotiune. 
Cyst'ocele {kvgti^, a pouch, wyXv, tumor). 

\'esical hernia. 
Cyst'oplasty [^Kvari^, 7r?.aaa(o, to form). 

Plastic operation ujwn the bladder, espe- 
cially for vesico-vaginal fistula. 
Cysfoscope (Ki-ffr^f, a/co-fw, to examine). 

.\n instrument for examining the interior 

of the bladder. 
Cyst'otome (mvng, rriivij, to cut). A 

knife used in cystotomy and in rupturing the 

cap>ule of the lens in cataract operations. 
Cystot'omy. Incision of the bladder. 
Cythaemol'ysis (KiTog, cell, aifia, blood, 

/iwr, dissolution). Dissolution of the 

corpuscles of the blood. 



Cy'tisin. A cr)'stalline alkaloid of Cytisus 
laburuum. It has marked hypnotic pro- 
{>erties, with diminution of pulse. It has 
lieen used hy]>oilermically with advantage 
in migraine. Dose of the nitrate gr. .,'^. 
Unof. 

Cy'toblast (KVToq, i3?.aa7og, germ). The 
cell nucleus. 

Cytoblaste'ma (hirrof, jVaaTi/iia, germ). 
The genninalive liquid in which cells 
grow. 

Cytodier'esis (nvror, ihnii)rGi(;, division). 
Cell stLjmcntation or divisiun. 

Cytogen'esis. See CW/. 

Cy'toid [KVTog, Eidog, likeness). Resem- 
bling a cell. 

Cytol'ogy (KiTof, ^oyog, account). The 
science of cell formation and cell-life. 

Cy'to-mito'ma. See Ccll-boiiy. 

Cy'toplasma. See Protopiasin. 

Cytozo'on [nvroq, ^uov, animal). Proto- 
pla>mic cell masses, prol)ably parasitic in 
nature, with indei^endent movement; found 
by Ciaule in deiibrinated blood and other 
structures. 



D 



D. Abbreviation of Dioptry and Dexter. 

Dacryoadeni'tis {^nKp\H)x\ a tear, M(5;/r, a 
gland). Inflammation of the lachr}'mal 
gland. 

Dacryoblenorrhce'a. Chronic inflannna- 
tion and discharge of mucus from the 
lachr)'mal sac. 

Dacryocysti''tis {(^aKp\'nv, KvuTig, a sac). 
Inflammation of the lachrymal .sac. 

Dac'ryolite. .See Dacryolitlis. 

Dac'ryoliths {iuKpvov, ?uOog, a stone). 
Calcareous concretions in the Iachr)mal 
jassages or |)aljK*bral conjunctiva. 

Dacryo'ma (i^tiKfuxj, to weep). The clos- 
ure or obstruction of the puncta /iir/irv- 
malia, causing e|>i|)hora, or su|)erabundant 
secretion of tears. 

Dac'ryops ('W/jiwi', wi/i, sight). Cyst of 
the dui ts of the lachrymal gland. 

Dac'tylatc ('Jrtxrr/w, a finger). Resem- 
bling a firigi-r. Possessing tivc rays or ap- 
pendages. 



Daemonoma'nia ((^aiiiuv, a devil, maniay 
madness). A form of mailness in which 
a person imagines hiin>elf iK).sScssed of a 
devil. 

Dalt'onism. \ synonym fur color-blind- 
ness. See Blindness. 

Damia'na. The leaves of Tttrncra aphro- 
(/isidid, found in .Mexico anil l.ower Cali- 
fornia. A stimulant tonic and said to t>e 
a ])owerful a|)hrodisiac. The basis of a 
great number of quack remedies. D., 
Ext. Do.se gr. ij-x. D., Fid. Ext. 
Dose n\_x-^:5J. Dose of the leaves '^j 
daily. .\11 unof. 

Damp'ing Appara'tus. Tin- iniion of 
the lymi)anic membraneof the ear with the 
andit(jry ossicles acting as a damper to pre- 
vent excessive sympathetic vibration for its 
own fundamental note. 

Dance ( I-'r., lAinsi-r). Any measur>'il tread 
or system of sle|)S accompanied by nnisic. 
Also, iuiy motion of the liotly caused by 



DANCING MANIA 



126 



DECORTICATION 



an abnormal nervous stimulus. D., St. 
Vitus'. See Chorea. 

Dan^cing Mania. See Choroinania. 

Dan^delion. See Taraxacum. 

Dan'druff. See Seborrhoca and Pityria- 
sis. 

D'Arsonvals' Oven. See Oven. 

Darto^ic Myo'ma. See Alyoma. 

Darf'os (6aproq, flayed). The contractile 
fibrous layer beneath the skin of the scro- 
tum. 

Dar-'winism. The theory of descent by 
evolution, as moditied by the doctrine of 
the siu-vival of the fittest. Named after 
Charles Darwin, a celebrated naturalist. 

Datu^ra. A genus of Solanacese, or night- 
shade family. D., Stramonium. See 
Stramoniztm. D., Tatu^la, a plant be- 
longing to the nightshade family, closely 
resembling stramonium in its therapeutic 
and physiological properties. Has been 
smoked with advantage in asthma. Unof. 

Daf'urine. See Stramonium. 

Daugh''ter-Nuclei. See Karyokinesis. 

Day-Blindness. See Hcnieralopia. 

Deaf (Sax. deaf). Without the sense of 
hearing. A condition of impaired heai'- 
ing. D. -mutism, a condition of deafness 
or impaired hearing, accompanied by im- 
perfect development (congenital), or loss 
of speech. 

DeaPness. The condition of being deaf. 
D., Paradoxical, called also Paracousia 
Willissii, deafness for speech in silence, 
but with ability, e. g., to hear the same 
voice in a noisy car or street. Said to be 
caused by compression of the labyrinth. A 
form of otopiesis. D., Psychical, the 
deafness from destruction of the central 
area of the auditory center ( Munk) . Sounds 
are heard but not recognized or under- 
stood. 

Death (Sax. death). The cessation of 
life. D., Apparent, a term applied to 
a cataleptic state in which respiration and 
circulation are so feeble as to be unnotice- 
able. D., Black, an exceedingly fatal 
epidemic called the " Plague," which oc- 
curred in Europe during the 14th century, 
during which it is estimated that 20,000,- 
000 people died. D. Rate, a term arbi- 
trarily expressing the mortality of a place, 
based upon the number of deaths for each 
1000 of poj)ulation during a period of one 
year. D., Signs of, certain indications 
of death, such as cessation of the heart's 
action, and respiration, vigor of the body, 
healthiness of the tissues, etc. D., So- 
matic, death of the organism as a whole. 



in distinction from localized D., or necro- 
sis, and gangrene. 

Debove's Membrane. A deep, genni- 
nal layer of flattened cells in the mucous 
membrane of the trachea and extra-pulmo- 
nary bronchi. 

Debri'dement (Fr.). The enlarging of 
a gunshot wound or a hernia with the 
knife. 

Dec^agramme. See Metric System. 

Decalcific^ation {^De neg., calx, lime). 
The loss of the lime constituent of bone 
in some cases of osteitis. 

Decalcifying Fluid. Solutions for the 
puipose of depriving tissue of its earthy 
salts. Chromic acid I grm., water 200 c.c, 
then add 2 c.c. nitric acid, — is commended. 

Decanta''tion. The operation of removing 
the supernatant fluid from a sediment. It 
may be poured off by means of a guiding 
rod, or drawn off by means of a siphon. 

Decapita''tion [de, from, caput, head). Di- 
vision of the neck of the child in labor, 
when delivery and turning are both im- 
possible. Sometimes called decollation. 

Decid'ua {dcciduus, a falling off because 
shed at birth). The membranous envelope 
of the ovum derived from the mother and 
cast off at birth with the placenta, etc. D. 
Reflexa, that part of the decidua growing 
about the ovum and enclosing it as a sac. 
D. Serotina, that part of the decidua vera 
upon which the ovum lies, and where the 
placenta is subsequently formed. D. Vera, 
the thickened, vascular, spongy mucous 
membrane of the uterus. 

Decid^uous Teeth. The temporary or 
milk teeth. 

Dec^igramme, Dec'iliter, Dec^imeter. 
See Ale trie System. 

Decoc^tion [decoquo, to boil down). A 
decoction, or "tea." In pharmacy, a 
preparation obtained by boiling vegetable 
substances in water. There are 2 official 
dec acta. 

Decolla^'tion. See Decapitatioii. 

Decollator. An instioiment for decapita- 
tion. 

Decolora''tion. The operation of discharg- 
ing the color of an organic substance, 
usually by bleaching or by filtration 
through animal charcoal. 

Decomposi^tion {^de, from, compono, to 
put together). The separation of the com- 
ponent principles of a body, either by chemi- 
cal analysis or by putrefactive fennentation. 

Decortica''tion [cortex, the bark). The 
operation of removing or stripping the 
bark or husk of a plant. 



DKCREriTATION 



127 



DELIRIUM 



Decrepita'tion ^crepitus, crackling). The 
crackling noise made by certain crystalline 
bodies when their water of crystallization 
is driven otT by heat. Caused by the con- 
version of the imprisoned water into steam. 

Decu'bitus [t/ccu/fid.\ to lie down). A 
term denoting a recmubent or horizontal 
position. Also, the position of a sick 
per>on while in bed. D., Acute, a form 
of Ixid-sore, due to cerebral ksion^. 

Decus'sate [Jc\-ussi>, to divide crossways). 
To intersect. A term applied to ner\'e and 
to muscle libers which interlace. 

Dedenti'tion [Jc-, and lA-ns, a tooth). The 
shedding of the teeth, especially the milk 
teetli. 

Dee'linae O'leum. A highly relined 
petroleum oil manufactured on the Dee 
River. Said to be valuable for local appli- 
cation in ec/ema, <A-. Unof. 

Defaeca'tion [i/c-fu-t-o, to separate from 
dregs). The evacuation of the bowels, or 
discharge of fieces. 

Deferens. See Fas. 

Deferves'cence {de/en'esco, to cease boil- 
ing). A term applied to periods during 
the course of fevers in which the tempera- 
ture falls. 

Defibrina'tion [Jc, from, Jibriii). The 
removal of hljrin iVom blood or lymph. 

Defini'tion ydcfinio, to lx)und by limits). 
In opiics, the jx)wer of an object-glass to 
show clear outlines of area or structure, 
free from al)crralion or distortion. 

Deflagra'tion {d.-flinyro, to be consumed). 
The oxidation of inorganic sul«lances by 
mi.xing with an ea-ily decomposing oxide, 
such as tlie alkaline chlorates and nitrates. 
Usually attended with violent combustion. 

Deflora'tion {dt\ and/lora, a llower). On 
the part of the female the first se.\u;\l 
connection effected by consent, not by 
ra|x;. The loss of tliose marks or fea- 
turts which indicate virginity, as rupture 
of the hym^-n. 

Deforma'tion iydeformo, to disfigure or 
di-itnrt). A process by which the body or 
any of its |>arts aci|uire an al)normal shape. 

Deform'ity {defonno). That condition of 
a i)o<ly or any part marked by abnormal 
sha|K; or structure. 

Degcncra'tion (^dtf^enero, to differ from 
.1 Deterioration, degradation or 

I ion of the molecular (»r cellular 

structure of a ti>sue, organ (jr cell, so 
thai it can no hnigcr maintain its funrtion. 
Atrophy is a form. D., Amyloid or D., 
Albuminoid, now regarded as an infiltra- 
tion (rom witliout, and not of a degenera- 



tion of the proper cells and fibers. D., 
Calcareous, the deposition of in.soluble 
comixjunds of lime and magnesia within 
the tissues. Caseation, the proieiil con- 
stituents imdergo dry fatty degeneration, 
ani^L are converted into cheese-like masses. 
Cloudy Swelling. See Cloudy Swelling. 
D., Colloid, akin to mucoid, the dis- 
organized material becoming of a struc- 
tureless, serai-solid, jelly-like consistence. 
D., Fatty, the conversion of the proteids 
of a cell or fiber into oil. D., Hyaline, 
the disorganized tissue liecomes shining 
and translucent. D., Mucoid, hyper- 
secretion followed by disorganization of 
the mucus cells. D., Reaction of. See 
Rtaction of Degeneration. D., System, 
when the degenerative process affects a 
system of fibers, in contradistinction to 
insular or scattered D. 

Degluti'tion [^deglutUio, to swallow). The 
act of swallowing. 

Degree' {de and gradtis, a step). Posi- 
tion in a graded series'; quality. The units 
or intervals of thermometric scales. Also, 
a charter or testimonial of qualification 
granted liy a medical or other college. In 
trigonometry the j^j part of the arc of a 
circle. 

Dehydra''tion [de and v^up, water). The 
removal of the constitutional water of an 
organic substance, or the water of crystal- 
lization of a chemical salt. Called, also, 
aiihydration. 

Dei'ters's Cells. Certain cellular struc- 
tures between the outer hair cells of the 
organ of Corti. Also certain nucleated 
cells at the intersection of the fibers of the 
white substance of nerves. 

Dejec'tion {de andyar/o, to throw). The 
discharge of f.ecal or other excremcntitious 
matter. Also, a state of des|x>ntlency. 

Delete'rious [iteleterius, baneful). Hurt- 
ful, injurious. 

DeUhi Boil. See Fttninculiis Orientalis. 

Deliques'cence (I-. delit/itesco, to melt 
away). The absorption of water from tin- 
atmosphere, characteristic of certain suii- 
stances. .Such substances are said to be 
liyi^roscopic. 

Delir'iant {de, out of, lira, the furrow). 
.\n agent wliich acts on the brain, .so as to 
iliMirder the mental faculties and priKliicc 
C(jnfusinn of will jxiwer. 

Delir'ium ((/<•, //>./). A disturbance of 
the cerebral functions manifested in 
tlie impaired action of the nt-rve centers, 
characterized by halhu iiiatioiis, an inco- 
herence of »i)eech, a staggering gait, etc. 



DELITESCENCE 



128 



DENUTRITION 



D., Alcoholic. See D. Tremens. D. 
Ambitiosa, a condition of boastfulness 
which is sometimes manifest in the deh- 
rium of the insane. D., Febrile, the 
dehrium of fever. D. Nervosum, the 
delirium following severe surgical opera- 
tions, or injmies. D., Senile, the delirium 
of old age, dotage. D., Toxic, the deli- 
rium caused by poisons. D. Tremens, 
the delirium arising from alcoholic poi- 
soning, manifested in trembling and hal- 
lucination ; called, also, niania a potu. 

Delites^cence [delitesco, to lie hid). The 
sudden disappearance of inflammation by 
resolution. Also, the period of incubation 
of the virus of contagious diseases, such 
as smallpox, etc. 

Deliv^ery (Fr. delivrer). Parturition, 
childbirth. 

Delomorph^ous {drfkoq, conspicuous, 
fiopip/j, form). With open or conspicuous 
form. D. Cells of Rollet, collections 
of large, oval or angular, well-defined, 
granular reticulated, nucleated cells, be- 
tween the membrana propria and the 
adelomorphous cells of the fundus glands 
of the gastric mucous membrane. Called, 
also. Parietal cells of Heidenhain, or 
oxyntic cells of Langley. The lining 
of the secretory part of the tubes is by 
cells called Adelomorphous, Central, 
or Principal Cells. 

DeFphinae O^leum. The oil of the 
common porpoise. It is said to have all 
the medicinal virtues of cod-liver oil with- 
out the disagreeable properties of the 
latter. 

Delph''inine. See Staphisagria. 

Delt^oid [delta, the Greek letter A). 
Having the shape of a delta, or a triangu- 
lar form, as the D. Muscle. See JMtisele. 

Delu^sion [^de and hisiis, play). A term 
signifying false judgment of objective 
things, as distinguished from illusion and 
hallucination. See Hallucination. 

Demen'tia ((/<?, out of, mens, mind). A 
mild fonn of insanity marked by imperfect 
conception, illogical sequence of expres- 
sion, loss of reflection and impaired per- 
ception. Often a final stage of other forms 
of insanity. 

Demi-. A Latin prefix denoting one-half. 

De^modex Folliculo'rum. An animal 
parasite of the skin which infests the se- 
baceous glands. 

Demog''raphy {(hjiioq, the people, ypacjxj, 
to write). The science of peoples col- 
lectively considered. The individualism 
of a mass of people. 



De Moivre's Hypothesis. That the de- 
crements of population are in arithmetical 
proportion, and that of every 86 persons 
born, one dies uniformly every year until 
all are extinct. 

DemuFcent [de wn Ice o, to smooth). Sub- 
stances which protect the mucous mem- 
branes. Generally of mucilaginous nature. 

Demutiza^tion. The education of deaf- 
mutes to speak and to understand spoken 
language by the movement of the lips, 
signs, etc. 

Den'gue. A zymotic disease somewhat 
resembling remittent fever, but much se- 
verer. It is characterized by racking pain 
in the head and eyeballs, arthralgia, ca- 
tarrhal inflammation of those mucous sur- 
faces that are exposed to the air, by 
swollen salivary glands and measly erup- 
tions. 

Denis's Plas^mine. A precipitate of un- 
coagulated blood with sodic sulphate, and 
treated with sodic chloride. 

Dens (pi. denies). A tooth. See Teeth. 

Den^tal (dens'). Pertaining to the teeth. 
D. Arch, the arch formed by the alveolar 
process of each jaw. D. Arteries, the 
arteries supplying the teeth. D. Canals, 
the canals through which the dental 
arteries pass. D. Caries, a carious or 
putrefactive destmction of the teeth. D. 
Cavity, the cavity in the interior of the 
tooth, occupied by the pulp. D. Groove, 
a fuiTow on the lower border of the upper 
iaw early in foetal life, in which the teeth 
are developed. D. Engine, an instru- 
ment consisting of a treadle and puUies 
which give a rotary motion to the drills, 
files and cutters, used in preparing teeth 
for filling. D. Nerve. See A^erve. D. 
Pulp, the pulp of the tooth. D. Tubuli, 
the tubules occumng in the structure of the 
dentine. 

Denies Sapientiae. The wisdom teeth. 
A name given to the third molar tooth of 
each half of the jaws. 

Den^tifrice [dens, frico, to rub). A sub- 
stance used for cleansing the teeth. 

Denf'ine. The bony structure of the tooth, 
lying under the enamel of the crown and 
the pericementum of the root. 

Denfistry [dens). The science and art 
of the surgery of the teeth. 

Denti^tion [dens). The cutting or first 
appearance of the teeth in infancy. Also 
the arrangement and evolution of the 
teeth. 

Denutri''tion [de, from, niitrio, to nourish). 
The breaking down or atrophy of tissue 



DEOBSTRUENT 



129 



DERMATITIS 



arising from lack of nutrition. The oppo- 
site of nulrilion. 

Deob''struent (L. de and obstruere, to ob- 
struct). A medicine which removes func- 
tional obstructions of the body. An aperi- 
ent. [^luJiJiiiitc and obsolescent^. 

De'odand {deits, God, do, to give). A fine 
funuLrly imix)sed on an inanimate thing 
or animal that had caused tlie injury or 
violent death of a person. 

Deod''orant. A substance that removes 
or corrects offensive odors. 

Deoxida''tion {de, from, oxidatus, having 
oxygen). The separation of an element 
or com|X)und from the oxygen held in 
combination. Reduction. 

Depi'latory (L. de and pihis, the hair). 
A substance used to destroy the hair, — 
usually a caustic alkali. 

Deple'tion {depleo, to empty). The pro- 
cess of diminishing the quantity of any 
tissue or fluid of the body, especially the 
blood. 

Depolariza'tion. Destruction of polarity. 
The neutralization of the opjxjsite poles of 
a magnet. The neutralization or recom- 
bination of light-waves that have been 
separated by means of a Nicol prism. 

Depos''it {de, from, /^ono, to place). A 
gatliering of particles that have been held 
in suspension. A gathering of morbid 
matter in any i)art of the lx)dy. 

Deprava'tion {depmvo, to become viti- 
ated). A deterioration or morbid change 
in the secretions, tissues, or functions of 
the body. 

Depres'sant [deprimo, to press down). A 
medicine which retards or depresses the 
physiological action of an organ. A seda- 
tive. D., Cardiac, lowers the action of 
the heart. D., Cerebral, arrests the func- 
tions of the ceretirum. D., Motor, lowers 
the activity of the spinal cord and motor 
ap|)aratus. 

Depres'sion {Jepnnto'). In anatomy, a 
hollow, or fos.sa. In surgery, pressure on 
the l)rain l)y a fractured part of the cranium. 

Oepress''or [deprimo). A name given to 
a mu.scle or an instnuncnt which de|)resses. 
.Sec Muscle. D. Fibers. See Pressor. 
D. of Sims, an instrument for holding 
liack the v.-iginal w;dl during exploration 
with the >|)cculum. D., Tongue, an in- 
strument for depressing the tongue in order 
to examine the ihrrjat. 

Ocpu'rant { purus, pure). A term s<'»me- 
what Ujostly used to designate a incdicini; 
which purifies the animal economy. In 
pharmacy, to clarify. 

9 



De R. A contraction and symbol of the 
term Kdiction of Degeneration, q. v. 

Deradel'phus ((V/j//, neck, aSt'/.ipjg, bro- 
ther). A monoccphalic dual monstrosity 
with fusion of the bodies above the umbili- 
cus, four lower extremities and three or four 
upper. 

Deradeni''tis {'^Fprj, aih/v, a gland). Inflam- 
mation of the glands of the neck. 

Derbyshire Neck. See Goitre. 

Derenceph'alus {jStpr], evKE<f>a?.o^, brain). 
An anencci)halic monster, the brain, 
cranium, and occijHtal foramen being ab- 
sent, and with a partial arrest of develop- 
ment of tlie upper vertehnv. 

Deriv'ative {deriz'o, to turn aside a stream). 
A tenn fonnerly applied to certain medi- 
cines or modes of treatment that changed 
the form or symptoms of a disease. 

Derm. See I)er»ia. 

Derm^a [depva, the skin). The skin. The 
true skin. See Cutis. 

Derm'al [6epfia). Pertaining to the skin. 

Dermatal'gia ((hp^ua, a?.yoc, pain). Neu- 
ralgia of the skin. Rheumatism of the 
skin. Pain in the skin not due to any 
stmctural change in it. 

Dermati^tis [ihp^ua, irig). A name used 
loosely to include various inflammations 
of the skin induced by external agencies. 
D. Calorica, inflammations cau.sed by 
heat, such as scalds, etc. D. Congela- 
tionis, a name used by Van llarlingen 
and others to denote chilblains. .See /-J/y- 
tliema. D. Contusiformis. See Ery- 
thema Nodosum. D. Exfoliativa. See 
Pityriasis Rubra. D. Gangrenosa, a 
disease marked by the formation of circu- 
cular, erythematous sjwts, wliich Ijecome 
gangrenous and eventually slough. D. 
Gangrenosa Infantum. -See Sphacelo- 
derma. D. Herpetiformis. See Jly- 
droa. D., Malignant, Papillary, Paget's 
disease of the nii)ple. Carcinoma of the 
nipple. See Carcinoma. D. Medica- 
mentosa, enijnions and inflannnalory 
afl"ections of the skin cau.sed by the in- 
gestion of substances used in medicine 
and pharmacy. " I >rug truplions "' ( \'an 
Il.iriingcn). D. Papillaris Capillitii. 
Acne Keloid. A disease of the skin of 
the occijiital region, marked liy enormous 
papillomatous vegetations of granuhu" tis- 
sue wliiih excrete a fetid discharge. D. 
Traumatica, inflammations of tlie skin 
caused by met liaiiii al agents, sucii as 
brui.ses. D. Venenata, eruptions caused 
by |X)i.sonous sulistances, such as jjoisou 
ivy, jKjison oak, etc. 



DERMATOID 



130 



DIABETES 



Derm''atoid [(hp/xa, eiSog, resemblance). 
Like or resembling skin. 

Dermatology [depfia, loyog, a treatise). 
A treatise on the skin, its nature, structure 
and functions. 

DermatoFysis [Sep/ia, Aiwf, a loosing). 
A loosened and pendulous condition of the 
skin. A name given to a rare form of 
Fibro?na, q. v., marked by hyjDertrophy of 
the skin, which is thickened by infiltration 
into unsightly pendulous folds, soft and lax. 

Dermato'ses [6ep/ia). Disorders or dis- 
eases of the skin. 

Dermatozo''a [Sepfia, l^uov, an animal.) 
A term applied to animals parasitic upon 
the skin. 

Der^moid. See Dermatoid. 

Uerodid^ymus (c^fp'/, neck, 6i6viioq, 
double). A sysomic monstrosity with a 
single body, two necks and heads, two 
upper and lower extremities, with other 
rudimentary limbs occasionally present. 

Dassault's Apparatus. See Bandage. 

Des^ault's Splint. See Splint. 

Des^'cemet's Mem^brane. The internal 
or posterior lining membrane of the cornea. 
Descemetitis, inflammation of Descemet's 
membrane. 

Descend'ens (descendo, to go down). 
Having a downward movement. D. 
Noni, a branch of the hypoglossal nerve. 

Descent'' (descendo). The act of going 
down. D. Stage of Labor, one of the 
stages in labor, consisting in the descent of 
the foetal head into the pelvis. D. of Tes- 
ticle. See Testicle. D. of Womb. See 
Prolapsus. 

Desicca^tion [desicco, to diy up). The 
process of removing moisture from solids 
and organic tissues. 

Des''iccative [desicco). A medicine hav- 
ing the property of drying moist tissues, 
especially of drying ulcers and running 
sores. 

Desmobactc'rium [SeafioQ, a band, 

(iaKTTjpiov, a small staff). A group of 

microbes, so-called by Cohn, correspond- 
ing to the genus Bacillus of Klein. 
Desmog''raphy (fltcr/zof , a ligament, ■ypa(pu, 

to write). The description of the ligaments. 
Des^moid [Sfa/i?/, a bundle, eiSog, like). 

Like a small bundle. 
Despuma^tion [despumo, to skim froth). 

The purification of a liquid by removal of 

the scum or froth. Also, the formation of 

froth. 
Desquama''tion [desquamo, to scale off). 

The exfoliation or falling off of the cuticle 

in scales. 



Deter-'gent (detergeo, to cleanse). A drug, 
compound, or solution, used for cleansing 
wounds, ulcers, etc. 
Determina''tion (detertnino, to prescribe 
bounds). The direction to a part or an 
organ, as of blood to the head. 
Detri'tion [detero, to wear off). The act 
of wearing or wasting of an organ or part, 
especially the teeth. 
Detri''tus {deto-o). The waste matter re- 
sulting from ulcerative processes. 
Deutero-aFbumose. See Albiwwse. 
Deuterop^athy {dEvrspo^, second, 7rai?of, a 
disease). A disease that is secondary to 
another, arising from sympathetic action or 
influence of the first affection. 
Deu''toplasm [pEvxEpoq, Tr'Aaafia, a fonn). 
The granules of proteid and fatty matter 
occuiring in the ova of certain echinoder- 
mata. 
Development (Fr. devclopper, to unfold). 
The sequence of organic changes, by 
which the vitalized ovum becomes the 
mature animal or plant. 
Devia'tion (devitis, out of the way). A 
turning aside from the nomial. D., Pri- 
mary. In strabismus the deviation of 
the visual axis of the squinting eye. D., 
Secondary. That of the covered healthy 
eye when the squinting eye fixes. 
Devi^'talize [ile, from, vita, life). To de- 
stroy vitality, as that of living tissue. 
Dewees's Carminative. HeeAsafcetida. 
Dexiocard'ia {6e^ioq, on the right, Kupdia, 
the heart). Transposition of the heart to 
the right side of the thorax. 
Dex''ter (Lat.). Right ; upon the right 
side. 
Dex^trad. Toward the right side. 
Dex''tral. Pertaining to the right side ; 
right-handed. 
Dex''trine {dexter, the right hand). A 
mucilaginous substance produced by the 
action of mineral acid on starch. Inter- 
mediate between starch and glucose. Turns 
polarized ray to the right. The adhesive 
agent of postage stamps and gummed 
labels. 
Dex^trose. See Sugar and Glucose. 
Diabe^tes [Slu, through, fimvu, to pass). 
The common name for diabetes fnellitus. 
D. Insipidus, a disease with many of the 
symptoms of dial^etes mellitus, but without 
glycosuria. D. Mellitus, a disease of 
the metabolic functions of the system 
without great or clearly defined anatomical 
lesions, manifesting itself by glycosuria, 
polyuria, thirst, and progressive loss of 
flesh and strength. See Glycosuria. 



DIABETIC 



131 



di£thvlamine 



Diabe'tic (rf/a/J^r^f). Pertaining to dia- 

Lt'ics. D. Gangrene. See Sp/i,u<:Iouerma. 

Diach'ylon Plaster, oi Ointment. See 

D iagnc/ sis (('/«, }T«j<T/i-, knowledge) The 
distinguishing, tixation, or iuterpretalioa 
of a di>eaic Irom its sj-mptoms. D., Dif- 
ferential, the qualiuitive dislinguishing 
lietwecn two diseases of similar character, 
by coni])arative symptoms. 

Dial'ysis (6ia, through, /rw, to loose). 
The operation of separating crystalline 
from colloid substances by means of a j30- 
rous diapluagm, the former passing tiirough 
the diapliragm into the pure water upon 
which the dialyser rests. 

Diamagnet'ic (J(a, fia-jVtjTt^, magnetism). 
Tile ea--t- and -west orientation of certain 
sub.-tances, notably antimony, copper, and 
gold, wiien placed in the magnetic held. 

Di'amine. See Ainiiic. 

Diapede'sis ((5<a-//t(//ff/f, a jumping 
through). The escape of the elements of 
the blood, especially the while coqiuscles, 
through the vessel wall in inflammation, 
arrest of circulation, etc. 

Diaphanom'eter. See Lactoscope. 

Diaphanos'copy {iSia<^vi}q, translucent, 
ff\()T((j, to see). The examination of 
cavities of the body by means of an in- 
candescent electric light introduced into 
the cavity. 

Diaphoret'ic [diaipopeu, to convey). A 
medicine that induces perspiration or sweat- 
ing. 

Di'aphragm (iha, (^payfia, a wall). The 
wall, muscular at the circumference and 
tendinous at the center, which separates 
the thorax and alxlomcn. The chief 
muscle of respiration and expulsion. 

Diaph'ysis. 1 he middle part or shaft cf 
the long, cylindrical l»ones. 

Diapoph'ysis {6ia, apophysis). The sujje- 
rior or articular transverse ajwphysis, or 
their homologucs. 

Diairhce^a ('W«,/)((j, (oflow). An abnomial 
frequency of evacuation of tlie feces, which 
are watery and sometimes acrid. 

Diarthro''sis ('5ui, ujitliiuaii, articulation). 
A iorm of articulation characterized by 
freely movable joints. 1 he various forms 
are : Aitlirodia, in which the bdnes glide 
U|xm plane surfaces; linarlhrosis, lx.'St 
know n :ls Ijall-and-.socket joint, wilii motion 
inalldirec:(ion'>; 6»7/^'/i'w//j, or hinge joint, 
with backwaril and forward motion ; and 
IK rofiiforiit, with pivotal movement. 

Diastal'tic (»)/«, mi'/'/ju, to .start). A 
synonym for rcllex action. 



Di''astase (d/affracr/f, separation). A nitro- 
genous vegetable ferment that is either 

contained or develoix;d in the fermentation 

of grain, which acts on the molecules of 

starch, converting them into grape sugar or 
glucose. 

Dias'tasis. See Dislocation. 

Diastat'ic Ferments. See Fenitotts. 

Diaste'ma [^6taa~>/fia, a distance). A space 
or cleft. 

Dias^ter. See A'aiyokinesis. 

Dias'tole (^6taaTo?.>/, a drawing apart). The 
perioil of expansion or dilatation of the 
iieait during its rhythmic cycle or beat. 
Applied also to the dilatation of the arteries 
by the heart's contraction. 

Diastoric. Pertaining to diastole. D. 
Impulse, the back-struke. D. Murmur. 
See Murmur. D . Thrill, the vibration 
felt in the region of the heart during 
diastole of the ventricle. 

Diather'mal (Jm, through, ^fp//^, heat). 
A temi applied to certain .sul stances that 
are transparent or diaphanous to the waves 
of radiant heat. 

Diath'esis (6ia, through, TiQjjtxi, to ar- 
range). A state or condition of the body 
whereby it is especially liable to certain 
diseases, such as gout, calculus, diabetes, 
etc. May be acquired or hereditary. 

Diblast^ic ((5/r, double, li/.aarog, a sprout). 
Referring to a theory of disease that as- 
cribes it to a double agency. 

Diceph'alous (J<f, Kega/j/, a head). 
Double-headed. 

Di'chroism (tWf, ,vp"«. color). The phe- 
nomenon of dih'erence of color in bcnlies 
when vi«wed by reflected or by trans- 
mitted light. 

Dicrot^ic (f5(K/)orof, double beat). Double 
beating. D. Pulse, a term a])plied to a 
pulse which imparts the sensation of a 
double beat at each pulsation. 

Dielec'tric (ihn, i/'/.tH-jxiv, amber). A non- 
coni hiding substance that transmits elec- 
tricity by induction. 

Di'et [(SiniTd, a sy.stem or moile of living). 
An arranged selection of food required to 
meet the needs of the body. 

Di'etary (<haiT(i). A system of food regu- 
lation so as to meet the re<|uirements of the 
animal economy. 

Dietetic. Pertaining to diet. 

Dietet''ics. A systematic regulation of 
lh(; diet for liyt^icnic or tlnrapeulic pur- 

|>OmS. 

DicthyPaminc. .\ plom.ilnc, oblaim d 
from |>ike-rish allowed to putrefy for six 
tiays in sinnmer. It is an inflammable 



DIFFERENCE THEORY 



132 



DILUENT 



liquid of strong basic properties, soluble in 
water, boils at 57.5°. Non -poisonous. 
DiFference Theory. A theory to explain 
the galvanic plienomena of living tissues. 
The theory is an expression of the facts : 
Protoplasm when- injured or excited in its 
continuity becomes negative to the unin- 
jured part ; when heated becomes positive ; 
and the surface-polarization diminishes with 
excitement and in the process of dying. 
Called also Alteration Theory {Hermatiri). 
Differen^tial. Pertaining to, or creating, 
adifi'erence. D. Diagnosis, ^ee: Diag- 
nosis. D. Rheotome. See Kheotome. 
D. Tone, a tone produced by two pri- 
mary tones when sounding simultaneously, 
the number of whose vibrations corres- 
ponds to the difference between the two 
primaiy tones. D. Staining, a method 
of staining tubercle bacilli, syphilitic ba- 
cilli, etc., founded upon the fact that if 
deeply colored, and especially with a mor- 
dant, they retain the color in presence of 
certain reagents that decolorize the sur- 
rounding tissues. Koch, Ehrlich and 
Weigert, Ziehl and Neelson, Fiitterer, 
Gibbes, etc., have devised different methods 
of D. S. 

Differentia''tion. Specialization of tis- 
sues, organs or functions. The gradual 
change of homogeneous material into 
special tissues or organs. 
Diffrac^tion (de, apart, fractus, brokes). 
The deflection suffered by a ray of light 
when it passes through a narrow slit or 
aperture. D. Grating, a strip of glass 
closely ruled with fine lines; it is often 
used in the spectroscope in the place of 
the battery of prisms. 
Diffuse^ {de, fiatdo, to pour over). Scat- 
tered or spread about. In medicine, applied 
to diseases that involve a large part of the 
body. D. Aneurism, one caused by a 
rupture of the walls of a blood vessel. D. 
Inflammation. See InJJatiunation. 
Diffu^sion {diffitndo, to spread). A spread- 
ing or dissemination. D. Circle, the 
imperfect image formed by incomplete 
focalization, the position of true focus not 
having been reached or passed. 
Digas^'tric (rf/c, double, yaaTrip, the 
.stomach or belly). Having two bellies. D. 
Muscle. See Muscle. 
DigC'rent (digero, to digest). A digest- 
ant ; also a medicine which excites the 
lualthy secretion of pus in wounds. 
Digest^ant. A fennent or organic acid 
that effects solution of the food in the 
mouth, stomach and intestines. 



Diges''tion i^digero). The action of the 
organs of the digestive tract and of their 
secretions upon the food. D., Artificial, 
the production of peptones outside of the 
body. 

Digit (^digitus, a finger). A finger or toe. 

Dig^ital. Pertaining to the fingers or toes. 
D. Arteries, the arteries of the hands and 
feet supplying the digits. D. Compres- 
sion, the stoppage of a flow of blood by 
pressure with the finger. D. Dilatation, 
the enlarging of a cavity by means of the 
finger. D. Examination, examination or 
exploration with the finger. D. Nerves, 
the nenes of the hands and feet. D. 
Phalanges, the bones of the fingers or of 
the toes. 

Digita^lis (digitus). Foxglove. The 
leaves of D. purpuiea. Contains an amor- 
phous complex substance, digitalin, that 
does not, however, represent the full prop- 
erties of the leaves. A cardiac stimulant 
and excito-motor. In larger doses causes 
severe gastric disturbance. Employed 
mainly in afiections of the heart where the 
latter is rapid and feeble. Dose of the 
leaves gr. ss-iij. D. Abstractum, 
strength 200 per cent. Dose gr. %-}4.- 
D. Ext. ; leaves yield 25 per cent, of ex- 
tract. Dose gr. Ye-yi- D. Ext. Fid., 
strength 1 00 per cent. Dose Tl^j-iij. D. 
Infusum, lyi per cent, in strength. Dose 
^ss-j. D. Tinct., 15 per cent. Dose 
ITLv-xv. Digitalin. Unof. Varies greatly 
in strength. Dose gV^A- 

Dig^itus (Lat.). A finger or toe. 

Dilata^tion [dilato, to spread out). An 
increase of size of the walls of a cavity or 
vessel. D. of Blood-vessel. '&&& Tele- 
angiectasis. 

Dila''tor [dilato). An instrument for stretch- 
ing or enlarging a cavity or opening. 
Barnes' D., an instrument for dilatation 
of the OS and cervix uteri, consisting of 
a rubber bag that, being inserted, is dis- 
tended by water. D., Intra-uterine, 
for dilating the uterine cavity by means of 
air or water. D., Laryngeal, an instru- 
ment with two or three blades that may be 
spread for freeing or dilating the laiynx. 

Dilem^ma (rf/n, laf-tfiavu, to take). In 
experiments to determine the reaction-time 
of psychical processes, if the person is told 
whicli side is to be stimulated, or what 
colored disc is to be presented, etc., the 
time is .shorter. Lack of such foreknowl- 
edge is called the dilemma. 

Dilu^ent [diluo, to wash away). An agent 
that dilutes the secretions of an organ, 



DILUTION. 



133 



DIPSOMANIA 



or one which increases the lluidity of secre- 
tions. 

Dilu''tion. The process of mixing with a 
neutral tluid or substance in order to attenu- 
ate. 

Dimethyramine. A ptomaine found in 
putrefviiig gelatine, old deconijxjsing yeast, 
certain forms of fish-decomposition, itc. 
Not poisonous. 

Dimid'iate. Half round. 

Dimorph'ous (d/f, double, fiofxpT), a form). 
Existing in two forms. In chemistry, 
having th.e quality of two forms of crystal- 
lization. In biolog)', having two forms 
indei>endent of those of se.x. 

Dinner Pills. A name applied to various 
mild cathartic pills taken after meals. 

Dice'cious (('/f.iwo, otKia, a house). Hav- 
ing di-tinct sexis. 

Diop'ter, or Dioptric. See Dioptry. 

Diop'trics (f5(a, through, ottw, to see). A 
branch of optics treating of the refraction 
of light by transparent media, especially 
by the media of the eye. 

Diop'try {fna, o-ru). The new and most 
commonly accepted unit of measurement 
for optical lenses. A positive (or />///s) 
spherical (biconvex) lens of one dioptry 
has a focal distance of one meter ; one of 
two dioptrics, a focal distance of one-half 
a meter, t'/c-. 

Dioscor'ea. Wild Yam, Colic Root. 
The rhi/ome of D. villosa, a creeping 
plant, indigenous to the eastern U. S. Con- 
tains an extractive, Dioscorine. Claimed 
to !« expectorant, diaphoretic and stimu- 
lant to the intestinal canal ; in large doses 
causing neuralgic [xiins and erotic excite- 
mi,-nt. Used, successfully in bilious colic. 
D., Fid. Ext., standard strength n\,xv- 
XXX. .Ml unof. 

Diphthe'ria [^loOepa, a skin or membrane). 
An epidemic, infectious disease, generally 
regarded as of six:cific cont;igious origin, 
attacking the mucous membrane of the air 
jKLvsages, and pro<lucing profound depres- 
sion of the vital forces. It is characterized 
specifically by the formation of layers of 
whitish or yellowi.sh membrane, apparently 
the z<jogl'eic or myco<lermic form of a 
microbic organism. D., Gangrenous, a 
gangrene of the skin and mucous mem- 
brane sometimes accompanying the disease. 
D., Laryngeal, a form involving the 
larynx, thrc.iicnirig dcatli by suffocation. 
D., Malignant, a very fatal fonn, U-giii 
ning with rigor, vomiting, ami altrndrd with 
tyfihoirl symptom-s. D., Nasal, a form in 
which thcdi|»litlR-rilic membrane sjireadsto 



the nasal passages, and is accompanied by 
a fetid, brown discharge. D., Secondary, 
a term designating the occuncnce of the 
disease with other acute atTections, such as 
typhoid fever, scarlatina, I'/c: 

Diphtherit'ic ((5/^fpa). Pertaining to 
diphtheria. D. Conjunctivitis, a fonn 
of conjunctivitis attended wilii an intiitia- 
tion of coagulabk- matter or intlanimatory 
products. D. Membrane, the zoogl<ea, 
mycoderma, or pellicle forming on the 
parts involved. D. Paralysis, a paralysis 
frecjuently atfecting the muscles of the soft 
palate and larynx, after the healing of the 
lesions of these parts. 

Diphthon'gia [t/ts, twice, <f>f)o)yog, a 
voice). The production of a double tone 
of the voice by the incomplete unilateral 
paralysis of the recurrent ner\'e, or by 
some lesion of the vocal cords that causes 
each jxjrtion of the glottis to produce its 
own sound. 

Diplacu^sis {6nr?.oo^, double, a/cv(T<f, hear- 
ing). The hearing of a tone as higher by 
one ear than by the other. Called D. 
Binauralis. 

Diplococ'cus [<h-h)og, kokkoc, kernel). 
Micrococci whose cocci are united in a 
double manner. See Miirococius. 

Dip'loe [^6l-%oi], a fold). The cellular 
osseous tissue between the tables of the 
skull. 

Diplomyel''ia [SlttTmo^, double, //vfAof, the 
marrow). An apparent doubleness of the 
spinal cord, produced by a longitudinal 
fissure. 

Diplo^pia (^Si-}Moq, wi/«f, sight). Double 
vision, one object being seen by the eye 
or eyes as two. D., Binocular, the most 
frequent, is due to a derangement of the 
visual axes, the images of the object being 
thereby thrown u|X)n non-identical points 
of the retinx. D., Crossed, the result 
of divergent strabismus, the image of the 
right eye a])pearing nyn^n the left side, and 
tliat of the left ujKjn the right. D., Direct, 
or D., Homonymous, the reverse of 
Crossed D., due either to paralysis of the 
external rectus or over-action of the inter- 
nal. D., Physiological, that pnuluced 
when an imi)erfect image is seen beyond 
or within the distance of liie object accom- 
modated for and transfixed by the visual 
axes. D., Monocular, or D., Uniocu- 
lar, diplopia with a single eye, usually 
due to jxilycoria or other inijH-rfections of 
the media. 
Dipsoma'nia (''n/'r;, tiiirst, intvin, matl- 
ness). The uncontrollable desire for spir- 



DIPTEROCARPUS 



134 



DISPENSARY 



ituous liquors. Generally considered a 
disease. 

Dipterocarp'us. See Giu-jiai Bahafn. 

Direct^ [dircctus, straight). In a right or 
straight line. D. Current. See Current. 
D. Vision, the perception of an object 
whose image falls upon the macule. 

Direct^or [dirigo, to guide). D., Grooved, 
an instrument grooved to guide the knife 
in surgical operations. 

Dis- [dig, twice). A prefix used to denote 
two or double. Also, a prefix to denote 
apart from. 

Disarticula^tion (dis, apart, articultim, a 
joint). To disjoint, or separate the bones 
of a joint. A method of amputation. 

Disc {discus, a quoit or round plate). A 
circular, plate-like organ or body, espe- 
cially the papilla of the eye, the entrance 
of the optic nerve into the eyeball. Its 
area corresj^onds with that of the blind 
spot. D., Choked. See Papillitis. D., 
Cupping of. See Excavation of the Optic 
Nerve. 

Discis''sion. See Cataract. 

Discrete^ {discretus, separated). A term 
applied to exanthematous eruptions in 
which the pustules or papules remain dis- 
tinct. The opposite of confluent. 

Dis^cus Prolig''erus [fnGKo<;, a quoit, 
proles, offspring, gero, to bear). The ele- 
vated cells of the meinbrana granulosa of 
the ovum, whereby the ovum is attached 
to the same. 

Discu''tient (discuto, to shake apart). A 
medicine supposed to have the power of 
resolving tumors. 

Disdi^aclasts [ptq, Sia, through, kTmolq, a 
breaking down). Small doubly-refractive 
elements in the contractile discs, changing 
their position during muscular contraction 
and relaxation. 

Disease'' [dis negative, ease, a state of 
rest). A condition of the body marked 
by inharmonious action of one or more of 
the various organs, owing to abnonnal 
condition or structural change. D., Acute, 
a disease marked by rapid onset and 
course. D., Addison's. See Addison'' s. 
D., Bright's. See Brig/it's. D., Chron- 
ic, one that is .slow in its course. D., 
Constitutional, one in which a system 
of organs or the whole body is involved. 
D., Duchenne's, a pseudohypertrophic 
paralysis, ^. v. D., Focal, a centrally 
localized disease of the nervous system as 
distinguished from peripherally localized 
affections. D., Functional, abnormality 
of function without discoverable organic 



lesion. D., Graves. See Goitre. D., 
Hodgkin's. See Lyniphadenoma. D., 
Idiopathic, one that exi.sts by itself 
without any connection with another dis- 
order. D., Intercurrent, a disease oc- 
curring during the progress of another. 
D., Septic, one arising from the putrefac- 
tive fermentation of some foreign sub- 
stance within the body. D., Specific, 
one caused by the introduction of a spe- 
cific vims or poison within the body. D., 
Symptomatic, a disease caused by or 
connected with another ailment of the 
body. The opposite of idiopathic disease. 
D., Zymotic, a term used to include the 
whole class of germ diseases, or those 
arising from the introduction and multipli- 
cation of some living germ within the 
body. 

Disinfecfant [dis neg., infiiio, to cor- 
rupt). An agent that destroys disease 
germs and the noxious properties of fer- 
mentation and putrefaction. 

Disin^tegrate [dis, apart, integer, the 
whole). The act of breaking up or de- 
composing. 

Disloca''tion [dis, divided, loco, to place). 
The luxation or abnormal displacement of 
one or more bones of a joint, or of any 
organ from its natural position. D., Com- 
plete, the bones entirely separated. D., 
Compound, the coverings of the joint 
ruptured. D., Consecutive, the displaced 
bone is not in the position as when originally 
misplaced. Diastasis, dislocation of an 
amphiarthrotic joint. D. of Eyeball, dis- 
placement of the eyeball outside of the 
lids. D. of Lens, the crystalline lens 
thrown out of the capsule, or misplaced so 
that it does not occupy its proper position 
behind the pupil. D., Old, inflammatory 
changes having ensued. D., Partial, or 
Incomplete, the articulating surfaces re- 
maining in partial contact ; called, also. 
Subluxation. D., Primitive, the bones 
remaining as originally displaced. D., 
Recent, no inflammatory changes having 
ensued. D., Simple, without laceration 
of the surrounding parts. 

Dis^'parate [dispar, unequal). Not alike; 
unequal or unmated. D. Points, non- 
identical points of the two retinx". Diplopia 
is produced when the images of a single 
object fall upon such points. 

Dispareu^nia [^vaTvapzm'QQ, ill-mated). 
Painful or difficult performance of copula- 
tion from physical incompatibility. 

Dispens''ary [dispense, to distribute). A 
charitable institution where medical treat- 



DISPENSATORY 



13n 



DOXXfe'S TEST 



ment is given the jxwr and medicines dis- 
peiiM-d on prescription. 

Dispens'atory (^i/is/c-zisti/onui//, an apothe- 
cury's di.iry). A treatise on the conijx)si- 
lion and prejxiration of medicines. 

Dispens^ing. The measuring, weighing 
aiid issuing the drugs ordered in a prescrip- 
tion. 

Disper^sion [Ji^/'crsus, scattered). The 
scattering of an intlammation or other mor- 
bid condition. In physics, the separation 
of a ray of white hght into colored rays ; 
also, any scattering of Hght, as that which 
lias passed througli ground glass. 

Dis'pirem. See A'aryokintsis. 

Dis''pora Caucas'ica. See Bacillus Caii- 
fdsicits. 

Dissec'tion (disseco, to cut up). To dis- 
sect and dissociate the organs of a body. 
D., Aneurysm. See Aneurysm. D. 
Wound, injury during dissection, with 
consequent introduction of septic material. 
It may become constitutional and result in 
Se])tic.vmia, or may take the form of warts, 
I'erruca necroi^enira. The sore resulting 
directly from the prick or abrasion is called 
J^ost- mo ft I rii pustule. 

Dissemina'tion {ilis, apart, scniiiw, to 
sow). Tlie scattering or dispersion of dis- 
ease or disease germs. 

Dissipa'tion [tiissipa/us, scattered). A 
di.spersion of matter or of the morbid con- 
ditions which cause disease. 

Dissocia'tion (<//.f, apart, socius, fellow- 
ship). In physiology, the separation of 
the com[X)nent elements of a compound. 
In chemistry, the decomposition of a com- 
pound by means of high temperature. 

Dissolu'tion (Jissolutus, loosened). A 
solution of the continuity of a jiart. De- 
com[Kisition arising from the death of the 
liCKly or Its parts. 

Dissolv'ent. A solvent. 

Dis'sonance (dissono, to disagree in 
sound). When the number of beats of 
two tones are different by a less number 
than 66 ; the maximum i). Ijeing when 
the <litference is ^t,. 

Dis''tal [disto, to Ijc at a distance). At 
the greatest distance from the trunk, heart, 
or medial line. 

Distichi'asis {fiir, twice, oTixoq, a row), 
I he condition of a double row of eyelashes, 
the inner rubljing against the glolie. 

Distilla'tion {destillo, to drop little by 
little). llie double prtxess of vajx)riza- 
tion and condi-nsation of the vaj)or. Used 
mainly in purifying liquids by scjiarating 
them from nonvolatile sub.stances. D., 



Destructive, the decom{X)sition of organic 
substances l)y heat, and the condensation 
of their volatile constituents. D., Frac- 
tional, the successive separation, by dis'.ib 
lation, of substances which vaporize at 
ditterent temperatures. 

Dis^toma ((5(f, twice, aroiia, a mouth). An 
intestinal womi belonging to the family 
Distoiihc, parasitic in its first stage, usually 
upon a mollusk, and known in this form 
as Ccrcariie. In its second stage it becomes 
again encysted, and develojjs into the form 
known as Distoma. It completes its de- 
velopment as a parasite within the body of 
a third host, frequently that of sheep or 
cattle. Making its way to the liver, it be- 
comes the dreaded liver-lluke, the cause 
of the disease known as rot. 

Di'ta Bark. The l)ark of Alstonia sclio- 
Itiris, native to the Philippine Islands. Em- 
ployed as a tonic and antiperiodic in intcr- 
miltents. Dose ^]-iy. L nof. 

Dita'na Digitifo'Iia. A Mexican plant 
said to possess galactagogue properties. 

Diure^sis ((ha, through, ovpru, to make 
water). Abnormal increase in the secretion 
of urine. 

Diuref'ic [(ha, ovpe(j). A medicine that 
increases the secretion and flow of urine. 

Di'vers' ParaFysis. See Caisson Disease. 

Divertic^ulum (dim. of divertus, turning 
aside). A small cul-de-sac or pouch. 
\'arialion from a normal stmcture ; mal- 
formation. D., Meckel's, a sacculation 
of the ileum, owing to the non-obliteration 
of the vitelline duct. 

Doch'mius Duodena''lis. See Anchylo- 
sti'/iiiasis. 

DoC'tor [doctor, a teacher). A teacher. 
A title conferred by a university or college. 
A licensed medical practitioner. 

Dog Button. See Nux Vomica. 

Dog'ma (f5oKf(j, to think). A tenet or 
prineiple taught by authority. A statement 
of medical science. 

Dog'' wood. See Corn us. 

Dolichocephal''ic. See Index. 

Dolichohier'ic. See riatyhicric. 

Dolichoperiic. See riatypellic. 

Do'lor [doleo, to feel pain). Bodily pain 
or sullering. 

Dolo'res Presagien'tes. Precursory pains 
fult by woiiuii in advance of labor. 

Don'ne's Test. For pus in the urine. 
Allow ])us to settle and decant ; stir a 
piete of potassium hydrate into tin- <i(|><)-il. 
Pus will grow thick, ttiugli and gilalinous, 
while nnaus will form llakes and become 
thin. 



DONOVAN'S SOLUTION 



136 



DRUG 



Don-'ovan's Solu''tion. See A>-sen{c. 

Dor'sal [dorsum, the back). Pertaining 
to the back, or to the posterior part of 
an organ. D. Artery. See Artery. D. 
Nerves. See Nerve. 

Dor^so- [dorsum). A prefix used in con- 
nection with the names of such organs as 
have their attachment to or about the back. 

Dor^sum. The back. The rounded part 
of the back. 

Dose [6oGig, a portion). The measured 
portion of medicine to be taken at one 
time. D., Divided, a mode of adminis- 
tration in which the dose is to be taken in 
fractional portions at intervals of a few 
minutes. D., Maximum, the largest 
portion of medicine ordered to produce a 
given result, or the largest consistent with 
safety. In this work both minimum and 
maximum dosage is given under each 
medicine or preparation. 

Dosim^etry [Soaiq, ^lerpov, a measure). 
The accurate and systematic measurement 
of a dose or prescribed portion. 

Do^sis. See Dose. 

Doub^le [ifuo, two, f lien, a fold). Two- 
fold. In pairs. D. Staining. In micro- 
scopy, an ingestion of two colors into a 
structure in order to show its details. 
Bacteriologically the application of such 
staining reagents as will stain the spores 
one color and the rods another. D. Touch, 
the exploration of the vaginal and rectal 
walls by inserting the thumb into the one 
cavity, and the index finger into the other, 
so that, e. g., the presence of any abnormal 
growth may be ascertained. D. Vision. 
See Diplopia. 

Douche (Fr. douche'). A stream of water 
directed against a part, or one used to flush 
a cavity of the body. 

Doug^las, Cul-de-sac or Pouch of. 
vSee Pouch. 

Do''ver's Powder. See Opium. 

Doyere, Eminence of. See Sarcoglia. 

Drachm [(^paxi'V, a Greek weight). The 
eighth part of the apothecaries ounce, equal 
to 60 grains or 3.8 grammes. Also the 
one-sixteenth part of the avoirdupois ounce, 
equal to 27.34 grains. D., Fluid, the 
eighth part of a fluid ounce, equal to 60 
minims. 

Dracun^culus. See Guinea Worm.. 
Drag'on Root. Indian Turnip. The root 
of Arum tryphyllum. Acrid, expectorant 
and diaphoretic. Do.se of fld. ext. Tl\,xv- 
•2^}. Unof 
Drain''age (Sax. drehnigcan, to strain). 
The insertion of a tube or strands of other 



material in a wound or abscess to withdraw 
the fluids therefrom. D. Anchor, a rub- 
ber filament inserted in an abscess or cav- 
ity. D. Tube, a rubber tube with per- 
forations. D. Tube, Decalcified, a de- 
calcified bone (chicken, etc.), used as a 
drainage tube. 

Dras''tic [6pau, to draw). Powerful and 
irritating purgatives, such as scammony and 
gamboge. 

Drench (Sax. drencan). In veterinary 
practice, a draught of medicine. 

Drepanid^ium Rana''rum. A (probably) 
parasitic cytozoon of frogs' blood. 

Dres''sing. The application of a bandage, 
lint or other substance to a wound or 
ulcer. 

Drom^ograph (dpo//of, a course, ypacpu, 
to write). An instrument for measuring 
the velocity of the blood-current. 

Dropped Hand, or Dropped Wrist. A 
fonn of paralysis from lead-poisoning, con- 
sisting in the inability to contract the ex- 
tensors of the forearm. 

Drop'sy [vSpuil', dropsy). See Hydrops. 
D. of Belly, "i^^^ Ascites. D. of Brain. 
See Hydrocephalus. D. of Chest. See 
Hydrothorax. D. of Spine, ^ee Spina 
Bifida. D. of Testicle. Set Hydrocele. 
D. of Uterus. See Hydrometra. 

Drug. A substance, simple or compound, 
natural or prepared, single or mixed with 
other substances, used as a medicine. D., 
Antagonistic, one that neutralizes the 
action of another by a process other than 
chemical. The following table of Brunton 
gives the mutual antagonistic doses of the 
principal powerful poisons with both lethal 
and antagonistic doses, in grains per pound 
weight of the animal : — 











^^ 






rt 


U^ 




° 


ANTAGONISTS. 


^8 


-S HJ 


in 




■0 m 
*^ 




-IQ 


-JQ 


D 


^Q 


I. n. 


I. 


II. 


I. 


II. 


Aconitine and Atropine, . . 


555 


7 


7fn 


If 


" Digitalin, . . 


5sn 


t 


BOO 


1 


" " Strychnine, . 


B05 


lis 


7S0 


ik 


Alcohol and Stryclinine, . . 




5BB 




... 


Atropine and Aconitine, . . 


7 


B^B 




... 


" Chloral, . . . 


7 


7 




... 


" " Hydrocyanic 










acid, .... 


7 


... 






" " Jaborandi, . . 


7 






... 


" " Muscarine, . . 


7 








" " Morphine, . . 


7 


3 






" " Pilocarpine, . 


7 








" " Phytolaccine, . 


7 


... 


... 


... 


" " Physostigniine 


7 


^. 






" " Quinine, . . . 


7 


li 






Bromalhydrate and Atropine 


soo 


7 




... 



DRUM -BELLY 



137 



DURATION OF LIFE 







1 ^. 




I_ . 




u.' 




wj 


rt*— 




H 


15 o 


o 


1 ° 




•c u 


— u 


V 


■S " 


ANTAGONHSTS. 


^S 


^S 


en 

o 


- o 




-"Q 


-JQ 


a 


4° 


I. II. 


I. 


II. 


1. 


II. 


Chloral and Atropine, . . . 


7 


7 


... 


... 


" " I'icrotoxine, . . 


7 






• •• 


" " Physostijiinine, 


7 


A 




• •• 


" " Strychnine, . . 


7 


... 


... 


... 


Chloroform and Aniyl nitrite 


7 




7 


309 


DIgitaline and Acoiiitine, . 




Tis 






" " Muscaria, 


... 


V^0 


... 


• •• 


" " Sapoiiia, . . 






• >• 




Gelsemium and (.)piuin, . . 


4 


ji 


A 


^ 


" " Atropine, . 


3 


7 


3 


f 


Morphine and Catieine, . . 


i 


Ij 


i 




" " Chloroform,. 








... 


Muscarine and .Xtroijine, . 


... 


• <• 


• •. 


.•• 


Opium and .Vtropinc, . . . 




7 


>>> 


• *• 


" " Gelsemium, . . 




7 




..• 


" " Veratrum viride 


... 




... 


... 



Drum'-belly. See Tympanites. 

Drum'ine. .\ name given to the alkaloid 
extractive of Euphorbia dnimmonJii, an 
Australian plant. Said to be a local an- 
aesthetic. Claimed, also, to be an impure 
calcium oxalate. Unof. 

Drum of Ear. See Tympanum. 

Dry Belly-ache. .See Girdle Pain. 

Dry Caries. See Onychomycosis. 

Du'alism {duo, two). A system by which 
all natural phenomena are explained by 
two principles. D., Chancrous, the 
theory of the existence of two forms of 
chancre — the non-infecting, or soft chancre, 
and the inf -cting, or true (hard) chancre. 

Dubin'i's Disease. " Electrical chorea,'' 
a malady met with in Italy, differing from 
chorea in the character of the movements, 
which are sudden and shock like ; in the 
course of the disea.se, which is progressive 
and often fatal; and in the addition of 
muscular palsy and wasting. Etiology and 
pithokigy obscure. 

Dubois''ia. The leaves of D. myoporoidesy 
an Australian tree. Contains an alkaloid, 
duboisin-, thought to be identical with 
hyoscyamine. Resembles the active prin- 
ciple of txrlladonna in |)hysiological and 
thera|K-utic effects. D., Ext. Uose gr. 
Yu-^i- D., Tinct. ho.se tTLv-xx. Du- 
boisinac Sulphas. Dose gr. xJj— tjV- 

Duchenne's Paral'ysis. See J'imdo- 
bypi-rtrophic I'aralvsis. 

Duct (duco, to leatl). A tulie for the con- 
veyance of ci-rtaiii fluids of the liody. 
D. of Bartholin, the ducts of the sub- 
lingual glands, cMciiding along Wiiarton's 
duct. D., Biliary, the biliaiy passages. 
D., Cystic, the excretory duct of the gall- 



bladder. D., Hepatic, the main tnmk 
of the ducts of the liver. D., Prostatic, 
the ducts of the [irosiaie gland. D., Tho- 
racic, the trunk funned by the junction 
of the absorbent vessels. D. of Steno, 
the excretoiy duct of the parotid gland. 
D. of Wharton, the excretory duct of 
the sublingual gland. D., Vitelline, the 
duct that leads from the umbilical vesicle 
of the embryo to the intestinal canal. 
Ducfus [duco, to lead). A canal or duct. 
D. Arteriosus, a continuation in the 
fcetus of the pulmonary artery. In after life 
the atropliicil remains are found attached 
to that vessel. Called also D. Botalli. 
D. Choledochus Communis, the tulie 
formed by the junction of the hepatic and 
cystic ducts. D. Lachrymalis. See 
Lachrymal. 
Duhl'ing's Impeti''go. See fmpefigo. 
Dulcama'ra. Bittersweet. The young 
brandies of J'>. solanum. Contains sev- 
eral glucosides and an alkaloid. Froper- 
ties not well untlerstood. Causes nausea, 
emesis and convulsive muscular movements, 
and in toxic doses is a narcotic poison. 
Now employed in psoriasis and similar 
skin diseases. D., Fid. Ext. Dose.t^j. 
D. Decoctum,uiiof., lo per cent, strength. 
Dose 5J-ij. 
Dumb (Sax. dumb'). Unable to utter ar- 
ticulate sjieech. D. Ague, a popular ex- 
pression for ague or malarial sickness 
marked by obscure sym[)toms. 
Duodenos'tomy [iluodenum, a-oua, a 
UKiuih). The operation of opening the 
duodenum, and its attachment to the walls 
of the abdomen, in order to form an arti- 
ficial mouth and to introduce nutriment. 
Duode'num. (I^t.) The first part of the 
small intestine beginning at the pylorus. 
The inner surface is covered with folds of 
mucous membrane called valvulie conni- 
ventes. 
Du'ra Ma''ter. The outer membrane of 

the lirain and spinal cord. 
Dura'tion of Life. Several methods of 
ascertaining the duration of life are em- 
ployed : I. The Me.an ;\ge at Death; 2. 
the I'n)l)al)le 1 >uialion of Life; 3. the 
Mean hurationof Life; 4. the l'-x])ecta- 
tion of Life, or mean after-lifetime ; and 
5. the number living out of which one 
dies aniuially. According to the I'!iiglish 
Life Table No. 3, the mean age at death 
is 40.9 years, but this test is for several 
reasons fallacious, though it is of excep- 
tional interest when the deaths from vari- 
oas diseases are considered. .See ProhabU 



DWARF 



138 



DYSURIA 



D. of L., Expectatio7i of Life, and Life 
Table. 

Dwarf (Sax. dweorg). A thing or person 
of stunted or arrested growth. D. Elder, 
the root of Aralia hispidia. A valuable 
diuretic. Dose of fld. ext. .tJ-iJ. Unof. 

Dy'ad. See Qnantivalence. 

Dynam''ic (6vvaiii^, energy). Pertaining 
to energy. In medicine, a synonym of 
sthenic, q. v. 

Dynamics. See Mechanics. 

Dy^namite (Jwa^^f)- An explosive con- 
sisting of nitro-glycerine incorporated with 
infusorial earth, to give it consistency. 

Dy^namo (Jvi'a/z/f). A word popularly 
applied to an electrical machine in which 
the current is generated by revolving coils 
of insulated wire through the field of a 
magnet intensified by the same current. 

Dynamog^eny (dvvafUQ, yevvau, to beget). 
The production of energy ; the physio- 
logical generation of force. 

Dynam^ograph {Svva/nQ, ypa(pu, to write). 
An insti-ument designed to measure and 
graphically record muscular strength. 

Dynamom^eter (cWo///f , /u^rpoi', a meas- 
ure). An instrument designed to measure 
force. In physiology, one for the measure- 
ment of muscular strength. 

Dyne. A force sufficient to impart a ve- 
locity of one centimeter per second to a 
mass of one gramme. 

Dysacou^sis. See HypcTakiisis. 

Dysaesthe'sia (di'f, diihcult, aiadj]GiQ, sen- 
sation. Dullness of any sensation, especi- 
ally that of touch. 

Dys-aFbumose. See Albumose. 

Dysba'sia ((Jnf, jSaatc, a step). Difficulty 
of walking. Proposed instead of abasia, 
since in the affection there is rarely abso- 
lute inaliility to walk. 

Dyschromatops''ia {Svg, xP'^i^'^i "V"?) 
sight). Subnormal color-perception. 

Dyscor-'ia (duf, difficulty, aopi], pupil). 
Abnormality of form of the pupil. 

Dyscras^ia (rfvf, Kpaatc;, combination). A 
term latterly restricted to an abnormal or 
impure condition of the blood, due to 
general disease. 

Dys''entery {Svg, evrepov, the bowels). A 
disease marked by inflammation of the 
solitaiy glands and follicles of the large 
intestine, with bloody stools. Prevalent in 
all malarious regions. 

Dyshidrc'sis, or Dysidro''sis. See Po»i- 
phlox. 

DyslaFia (fivq, "ka^Aa, speech). A defect 
of speech due to organic changes or mal- 
formation in the organs of speech. 



Dys''lysin. See Choloidinic Acid. 

Dysmenorrhce^a {6vq, ni]v, month, peu, 
to flow). Obstructed or difficult menstru- 
ation. 

Dysorex^ia [6vq, ope^ig, appetite). A de- 
praved or unnatural appetite. 

Dysos^'mia {6vg. oafiij, odor). An un- 
pleasant or fetid odor. 

Dyspep''sia (rfiif, ketttu, to digest). Im- 
paired or imperfect digestion. D., Atonic, 
a derangement of the stomach, with dis- 
order of its function, due to insufficient 
gastric juice or impaired quality of the 
same. May be due to reflex causes. D., 
Intestinal, due to defects in the pancreatic, 
biliary or intestinal secretions, to deficient 
peristalsis, etc. 

Dyspep^tone. See Hemiprotein. 

Dyssperm^ia (tJuf, oTvepfia, seed). An 
imperfect or abnormal condition of the 
semen. 

Dysperistal''sis. See Peristalsis. 

Dysphag^ia (()vg, ^«j w, to eat). Difficulty 
or inability to swallow. 

Dysphas^ia (6vg, ^aoiq, speech). Imper- 
fect or disconnected speech arising from 
loss of or faulty arrangement of words. 

Dyspho^nia {Svq, ^uvij, voice). A condi- 
tion of defective voice. 

Dysphra^sia (tJvf, (ppaaig, speech). Im- 
perfect speech. Kussmaul's term for a 
mental condition in which the emotion is 
opposed to the words designed to express 
it. 

DyspncE''a {Svg, nveu, to breathe). Diffi- 
cult or labored breathing. 

Dysta^sia [Svg, icittj/lu, to stand). Diffi- 
culty in standing. Proposed for astasia, 
since in the affection there is rarely abso- 
lute inability to stand. 

DysteleoFogy (tJi'f, rekeog, perfect, Xoyog, 
a treatise). A term used by Hackel to 
denote the study of rudimentary and use- 
less organs, such as the vermiform appen- 
dix. 

Dystc'cia {6vg, difficult, roKog, birth). 
Difficult labor. D., FcEtal, difficult labor 
due to such foetal irregularities as dis- 
placement of the arm, excessive size, 
plural pregnancy, monsters, etc. D., 
Maternal, due to some defect upon the 
side of the mother, pelvic deformity, dis- 
ease, etc. 

Dystroph^ia {Svg, rpocpTf, nourishment). 
Imperfect or faulty nourishment. 

Dys^trophy. See Dystrophia. 

Dysu''ria (f^i'f, ovpov, urine). Partial or 
painful urination ; may be due to calculi, 
cystitis, spasm, stricture, etc. 



139 



ECSTASY 



E. Al 'breviation of Eye, and Emmetropia. 

E. M. F. Abbreviation of Electro-motive 
F<,irce. 

Ext. Abbreviation of extractttm. 

Ear. The organ of hearing. Consists of 
the outer or external ear, the middle ear 
or tympanum, and the internal e;u- or 
labyrinth. E.-ache. See Ottil^^ia. E.- 
cough, refle.v coughing from irritation or 
disease of the ear. E., Drum of. See 
lympaniim. E., Inflammation of. See 
Otitis. E. -trumpet, an instrument for 
gathering a larger number of waves of 
sound to a focus, and thus to improve the 
hearing of those partially deaf. E.-wax. 
."^ee Certinien. 

Earths. Certain metallic oxides or sili- 
cates, not soluble in water and not affected 
by a great heat. E., Alkaline, the 
oxides and hydrates of calcium, magne- 
sium, strontium, barium and other metals 
of the same group. E., Fuller's, a clay 
used as an absorbent in sores. 

Ear' wig. An insect {^Forficula auiicti- 
/•iria), erroneously sujjposed to have a 
fondness for secreting itself in the external 
auditoiy m<'atus. 

East'on's Syrup. See Ferritin. 

EbuUi'tion. See Boiling. 

Eburna'tion {chur, ivory). Increase of 
the earthy constituents of l)onc causing 
greater size and density of the same. 

Ecbol'ic (eK.io/.i/, a throwing out). A sub- 
stance used t<3 produce alxirtion. 

Ecchondro'ma (f«, ;|fov(5poc cartilage). 
A tumor growing from cartilage. 

Ecchondro'sis. See Ecchondrovia. 

Ecchymo'ma {iKX'^/'CJ.na). A tumor made 
up of e\trava><ited blood. 

Ecchymo'sis (tKxvuoo/jai, to extravasate 
bjfxxl). Sanguineous extrava>alion of 
blood into the areolar tissue of the lids, or 
skin, the result of traumatism. Sec, also, 
Pill pma. 

Eccoprot'ic (ck, out of, KOTzpoc, dung). A 
medicine that em|)ties the bowels without 
causing lir|uid di.scharge. 

Ecdem'ic {enArifior, away from home). 
Used of diseases originating in a distant 
locality or iM'opie. 

Ec'dysis (»k(5'«j, to cast off). In zoulogy, 
tlic slougliing or casting off the skin. 

Echinococ'cus {fx^'^^* ^ hedgehog, kok- 
Kitr, a Ixrry). An hydatid, or bladrler- 
worm, one of the larval stages of growth 



of the small tapeworm, Ticnia cchinococ- 
ctis, of the dog and woll", infesting the hu- 
man digestive tube. See .l/tenidtioiis of 
Generation. 

Echinorhyn''cus (f,Yn'of, pi'},V''f. a beak). 
A worm parasitic within certain animals, 
aiul occasionally fountl in man. 

Echolal'ia (//.v^. echo, '/.d/.ia, talking). 
An aphasic symptom consisting in a repe- 
tition of words spoken to the patient by 
others. 

Echophot'omy ('/A'Cj <!"J"Of. light). The 
production of the sensation of color by the 
stimulus of a^ial waves, or sound. 

Echo-speech. A peculiar method of ut- 
terance in one type of hypnotism. 

Eclamp'sia {£K?.aii-(j, to shine or burst 
forth, from the suddenness of the attack). 
I'uerperal convulsions. Convulsive or epi- 
leptiform seizures suddenly coming on in a 
woman prior to or during labor, or in the 
puerperal state. The convulsions are first 
tonic and then clonic, finally affect the in- 
voluntary muscles as well as the voluntary; 
consciousness is lost, and the attack is fol- 
lowed by coma or sleep. The etiology is 
obscure, the attack generally repeated, the 
prognosis grave. The tenn E. is also used 
as a general designation of convulsions, 
and besides the puer[ieral form above de- 
scribed there are the infantile and unemic 
tjpcs. See Convulsions. 

Eclecf'ic [eKlcKTiKoq). Pertaining to a 
choosing or selection. Used by a certain 
school of physicians, of themselves, to de- 
note a principle or plan of selecting or 
choosing that which is good from all other 
schools. 

Eclecficism. The doctrine and practice 
of the Eclectirs. 

Econ'omy [lUKia, house, i'o//of, a law). A 
general name for the human being con- 
sidered! as a whole. 

Ecouvil'lon. Sec Ecoiri'i!lona;:;e. 

Ecouvil'lonage (Fr.). The operation of 
cleansing and carrying nu-dieinal agents 
to the inside of the uterus by means of a 
brush. 

Ecraseur' (Kr). An in.stnnnent used in 
amputation of parts, consisting of a eluiin 
or wire loop, lightened by a mtcw, whireby 
the tissue is slowly cru--lu(i apart rallier 
than cut, thus rendering the o|Kration 
easii-r and bloodless. 

Ec'stasy {iharaair, a trance). .\ trance- 



ECTASIS 



140 



ELASTIC 



like, exalted condition of mind, with in- 
sensibility, immobility, etc. A species of 
hyp)2otism. 

Ec^tasis {enTaair, extension). Abnormal 
distention or dilatation of a part. 

Ecthy^ma {eKOvjia, a pustule). An affec- 
tion of the skin, considered by Crocker and 
Tilbur}' to be a form of Impetigo contagiosa, 
developed on tlie trunk and limbs. 

Ecto- (e/vTOf, without). A prefix signifying 
tuithaut, upon the outer side. 

Ec^toblast (e/crof, ^7.aaToq, genu). The 
outside membrane or envelope of a cell. 

Ectocard^ia (f/vrof, Kciptha, the heart). 
Aljnormality of position of the heart. 

Ec^toderm. See Blastodei-in. 

Ectop^agus {ektoc^, nayeig, united). A 
monomphalic monstrosity united laterally 
the full extent of the thorax. 

Ecto^pia [sKTOTvog, displaced). An abnor- 
mality of position. E. Cordis. See 
Ectocardia. E. Lentis, dislocation or 
congenital malposition of the crystalline 
lens. E. Oculi, abnormal position of the 
eyeball in the orbit. E. Vesicae, protru- 
sion of the bladder through the wall of the 
aljdomen. 

Ectop^ic. Pertaining to ectopia. E. Ges- 
tation. . See Gestation. 

Ectozo'a (f/crof, fwov, an animal). Para- 
sites of the external parts of the body, in 
contradistinction from entozoa. 

Ectrom^elus (e/crpwcr/f, abortion, //e/'.of, 
limb). A monstrosity with an aiTested 
development of all the limbs, which are 
mere stumps. 

Ectro^pium [eKrpsTru, to turn from). Ever- 
sion of the eyelid and exposure of the 
conjunctival surface. 

Ec^zema (eKi^eu, to boil over). An in- 
flammation of the skin or mucous surfaces, 
accompanied Ijy papules, vesicles, pustules, 
scabs, etc., and usually attended with the 
discharge of serum. E., Diabetic, from 
the irritation of diabetic urine. E. Erythe- 
matosum, marked by ill-defined patches, 
usually on the face. E. Hyper4rophi- 
cum. See Mycosis. E. Palmare, a 
form usually confined to the hands and 
feet. E. Papulosum, or Lichen Sim- 
plex, distinguished by papular eraptions. 
E. Pustulosum, marked by pustular 
eruption. E. Rubrum, an intense va- 
riety, usually developed from the vesicular 
or pustular form. 

Edenta''tion [e, without, dens, a tooth). 
A deprivation of teeth. 

Ed^ible [edihilis, eatable). Food, the con- 
dition of which is good and wholesome. 



Efferent {effero, to bring out). Applied 
to nerves or vessels carrying from the cen- 
ter. See Centrifugal. 

Effleurage. See Massage. 

Efflores^cence (^cffloresco, to bloom). The 
flowering of plants. The formation of 
minute crystals on the stirface of certain 
crystalline bodies, due to their loss of a 
part or the whole of their water of crys- 
tallization. 

Efflu^vium {cffluo, to flow out). The 
subtle emanations, especially those offen- 
sively odoriferous, of a substance or per- 
son. 

Effu''sion {effundo, to pour out). A pour- 
ing out. The abnormal secretion or trans 
fer of a liquid from its natural organ or 
place of secretion. Used of gases also. 

Eges''ta (pi. of cgcsfuin, fcecal matter). 
The discharges of the bowels. 

Egg. See Ovule. E. Albumin, a native 
albumin, or proteid constituent of the 
human body, of which the unboiled white 
of egg is the type. It is distinguished 
from serum-albumin by its precipitation 
when shaken with ether, and by its un- 
changed reappearance in the urine when 
injected under the skin or into the intes- 
tine. E. Nog, a nutritious and stimulant 
drink, consisting of an egg beaten up with 
four or five ounces of milk, to which from 
half an ounce to an ounce of whisky is 
added. It may be sweetened and flavored 
to the taste. 

Egypt'ian Chloro''sis. See Anchylosto- 
miasis. E. Ophthalmia, See Opkthal- 
viia, Piiriiloit. 

Eich^horst's Cor^puscles. A special 
form of microcyte in the blood of those 
suffering from pernicious antemia. 

Ejacula'tion [ejacu/o!-). The ejection of 
the semen in coition. E. Center. See 
Center. 

Eject^ion (cjicio, to throw out). The 
process of casting out ; applied especially 
to the excretions of the body. 

Elabora^'tion [elaboro, to take pains with). 
Careful and exact working. In physiology 
the process of making crude food into 
higher tissue products. 

Ela^in. See Eleoptene. 

Elas^tic [fkam^u, to urge forward). Re- 
turning to the original form when sprung 
from the same by external traction or force. 
E. Bandage, an India-rubber bandage 
exerting continuous compression of a part. 
E. Stocking, a stocking of the same ma- 
terial and acting the same way. E. Tis- 
sue, a variety of connective tissue, of 



ELASTIN 



141 



ELECTROTONUS 



which some ligaments are composed, hav- 
ing cla>tic jiroperties. 

Elast'in. An albuminoid substance, the 
fundamental element in elastic tissue. It 
yields 36 to 45 per cent, of leucin and }4 
per cent, of tyrosin. 

Elat'erin, or Elate'rinum. A neutral 
principle obtained from Elatcrium cchal- 
liuni, or sijuirling cucumber. A jxDwerful 
hydragogue cathartic. In toxic doses, 
causes emesis, spasmodic respiration and 
death. Dose gr. .vVrV- '^^ Trituratio, 
elaicrin to, sugar of milk 90 parts, thor- 
oughly mixed. Dose gr. ss-j. 

El'bow. Tlie ellx)\v-joint. That part of 
the ann adjacent to the elbow-joint. 

El'der. Sec S<iwi>//<-/ts. 

Elec'tion, Operations of. Considera- 
tions of circumstances, such as age, condi- 
tion in life, business, sex, c/c, determining 
whether to proceed with a certain surgical 
operation or not. Called, also, Operations 
of ComplaiSiince. 

Elec'trical (;//^k7/)oi', amber). Having the 
n.iture of or produced by electricity. E. 
Chore''a. See Duhint s Disease. E. 
Shower Bath, a device for general elec- 
tri/ation : ( )nc of the ix)les is immersed in 
a tub containing an alkaline solution. The 
patient l>eneath this reservoir stands on a 
metallic stool connected with the other 
pole. The falling water completes the cir- 
cuit, dispersing the current over the whole 
\«A\-. E. Sunstroke. See Suiis/roke. 

Electric'ity (///.iK7/wr). One of the forces 
of nature developed or generated bychom- 
ism, magnetism, or friction, and |)rol)aijly 
a mode of ethereal vibration, closely analo- 
gous to and convertible into heat and liglit. 
E., Faradic, that produced by induction. 
E., Franklinic, friclional or static electri- 
city. E., Frictional, that produced Ijy 
friction. E., Galvanic, that which is 
generaterl liy chemical action in a galvanic 
cell. E., Inductive, that imxluced in a 
Ixxiy by |)roximity, without contact, to an 
clectrilied l)udy. E., Magnetic, that rle- 
velo|)cd by bringing a conductor near the 
IMili-s of a m.ignet. See Current. E., 
Medical, tliat used for theraixnitic pur- 
|x>M-s. E., Static, friitional electricity. 
E., Voltaic, same xs galvanic or chemical 
electricity. 

Elec'tro- (v?-r/(r/>oi'). A (Ireek word used 
as a prefix to denote; connection with or 
r<:lation to <•](■( tri<ily. E. -biology, tli<- 
sticnce of the electrical nlalinns and lawr> 
of organic l>cings. E.-bioscopy. .See 
Bioscopy. E. -chemistry, the science 



of the inter-relations and laws of elec- 
tricity and chemistry. E. -magnetism, 
magnetism induccil within iron, steel or 
nickel, by introducing it within a coil 
through which a current is passing. E.- 
pathology, the diagnosis of a disease by 
the aid of electric irritation. E. -physi- 
ology, the study of electric reactions, 
properties, and relations of organs and 
organic tissues. E. -therapeutics, the 
science and art of the application of elec- 
tricity for therapeutical paqxises. See 
Contractions. 
Elec'trode [electricity, o(^oq, a way). The 
a])plication of points or surfaces connecting 
the Inxly with the poles of a battery. E., 
Brush, one end fitted with a camel-hair 
pencil. E., Non-polarizable, zinc wires 
treated and so arranged as to prevent elec- 
trolysis. See Anode and Cathode. 
Electrogen''esis. The results, after with- 
drawal, of the application of a current of 
electricity to the spinal cord, a nerve or 
jiart. 

Electrol''ysis [electricity, Ivu, to release). 
The dissolution of a chemical compound 
by an electric current. Used in the tieat- 
ment of hydrocele, and other surgical dis- 
eases. 
Electro-massage. The transmission of 
a cun-ent of electricity dirough the knead- 
ing instrument. 

Electrom'eter [rj'keKTpov, electro-, fierpov, 
a measure). An instrument for the meas- 
urement of the dilTerence of electrical 
]«tential. 

Electro-mo'tive. Pertaining to the me- 
chanical or motor efl'ects of electricity. E. 
Force, the potential, or tension of a cur- 
rent. It is estimated in volts. See Volt. 
Electromus'cular. Pertaining to the 
action of electricity u]JOn muscles. E. 
Contractility, the contractile resjxjnse of 
a muscle to an electric current. E. Sensi- 
bility, the imjjression u[>on a sensory nerve 
by electric irritation. 
Electropunctura'tion. The use of 
needles as electrodes, which are thru.st 
into the cavity of an aneurysm, with the 
object of coagulating the contained bl<Kxl. 
Electrosta'tics [electricity, aTnTimir, sta- 
tionary). Tin; .scii-nce of static electricity, 
or that devcloiK'd by friction and induc- 
tion. 

Electrot'onus (romr, tension). The 
change of condition in a nerve during the 
application of a current of i-leetrii ity. .See 
Aneleetrotonus, Catelectrotonu, and Klec- 
troi;enesii. 



ELECTUARY 



142 



EMBRYONIC 



Elecf'uary. A confection. See Confcctio. 

Ele^idin. The gi-anules of the superficial 
cells of the stratum granulosum of the epi- 
dermis. 

EFement [elementum, a first principle). 
In chemistry, a body that cannot be decom- 
posed into simpler substances. The ele- 
ments now number about 75. Used in 
biology of the ultimate microscopic struc- 
tures of a tissue. In electricity, one of the 
generating plates in a galvanic cell. 

Elephant's Foot. The herb Eie- 
phantopus (ometitosa. Diuretic, expecto- 
rant and emetic. Dose of the fld. ext. n\^v- 
XXX. Unof. 

El'ephant Leg. See Elephatttiasis. 

Elephanti^asis (e/le^af, an elephant). Ele- 
phantiasis Arabum, Elephant Leg, Buc- 
nema Tropica, Morbus Elephas, Pachy- 
dermia, Barbadoes Leg. A chronic, spo- 
radic, oedematous disease of the skin and 
subcutaneous tissue, characterized by enor- 
mous hypertrophy. Thought to be due to 
a parasitic worm known as filaria, which, 
entering the blood and lymphatics, obstructs 
the latter, insulting in a chronic enlarge- 
ment. Most common in leg and genitals. 

Elephanti^asis Grasco^rum. See Lepi-a. 

Eleopt^ene. The permanent liquid prin- 
ciple of volatile oils. See Stearoptene. 

EPevator {elevo, to lift). The same as 
Lcvatoi-. See Muscle. An instrument 
used in surgery and dentistiy. 

Elimina^tion [e, out, limen, threshold). 
Excretion; the process of putting forth or 
out. 

Elix^ir (Arab, el iksir, the philosopher's 
stone). A sweetened, aromatic, spirituous 
preparation, which is practically a flavored 
syrup designed as an excipient for extracts 
and tinctures. There are many elixira, 
only one of which is official. 

Elm. See Ulnuis. 

Elocu^'tion (<>, loqiwr, to speak). The 
choice, arrangement and delivery of words 
and language, including the use of the 
voice, the action of the lungs, diaphragm, 
etc. 

Elutria^tion [ehifrio, to wash out). A 
water-sifting process whereby the coarser 
particles of an insoluble substance are 
separated from the finer. 

Elytri^tis (eAvrpov, the vagina, iTLq). In- 
flammation of the vagina. 

Ely^troplasty [sTivrpov, n'kaaau, to form). 
Plastic operation upon the vagina, espe- 
cially for vesico- vaginal fistula. 

Elytropto^sis [ihirpov, nTuatr, a falling). 
Prolapse of the vagina. 



Elytror^'rhaphy [eTivrpov, pa<pj], a seam). 
Suture of the vaginal wall. An operation 
to close the opening of the vagina in pro- 
cidentia. 

Emacia'tion {emacio, to make lean). Loss 
of the fat and fullness of the flesh of the 
body. Lean. 

Eman^sio-men^sium (Lat.). Delayed 
menstruation. Amenoirhoea. 

Emascula^tion {emasculo, to make im- 
potent). Removal of the testicles; impo- 
tence. 

Enibalm''ing (Fr. en, in, (5a2</«a, balsam). 
The filling a cadaver with antiseptic and 
preservative substances to keep it from 
putrefying. 

Embed^ding. The fixation of a tissue- 
specimen in a firmer medium before freez- 
ing, and section in order to preserve the 
same intact. 

Embe^lia Ri^'bes. The juice of a fruit 
obtained in Asia Minor. Has reputed 
anthelmintic properties. Unof. 

Em^bolism (f///3o/lof, plug). The obstruc- 
tion of an artery or capillary, usually by a 
blood clot or embolus, brought from another 
point by the blood cuirent. E., Air, by a 
bubble of air. E., Multiple, numerous 
small emboli. E., Pyasmic, the emboli 
are purulent. E., Retinal, occurring in 
the arteria centralis retinos, followed by- 
sudden loss of vision. E., Venous, 
occurring in veins, especially of the lungs 
and liver. 

Em'bolus [tu^okor). A clot of blood 
brought by the blood cun-ent from a distant 
artery, and forming an obstruction at its 
place of lodgment. 

Embroca''tion {Efi(3pExu, to soak in). A 
fluid external application to some injured 
or diseased part. 

Embryon, or 

Em''bryo (efijSpvov). The ovum and the 
product of conception up to the fourth 
month of pregnancy. 

Embryocard^ia [eml/rj/o, Kaptha, the 
heart). An affection of the heart, char- 
acterized by a heart-beat like that of a 
fo;tus. It is usually associated with tachy- 
cardia, and a condition of collapse and 
cyanosis. 

EmbryoFogy i^efiftpvov, 7.oyo^, discourse). 
The science of the evolution of the em- 
bryo, or the study of fcetal development. 

Embryon^ic. Pertaining to the embryo. 
E. Area. See Area. E. Connective 
Tissue, the primitive condition of connec- 
tive tissue when first formed, consisting of 
small, round cells. E. Spot. See Area. 



EMBRYOTOME 



143 



ENCEPHALOID 



Em''bryotome. An instrument used in 
eml'rjotoniy. 

Embryot'omy (f/z^piwc, to^t], section). 
An operation for reduction of the size of 
the fcftus to render possilile its transmis- 
sion through the birth -canal, v^ee Cf/>/ia- 
lotripsy, Cranioclasm, Biisio(n'i>c, Basilvaf, 
Decollatioti, Decapitation, Exenteration, 
Evisceration, Lamination, Perforation, 
Spondylotomy, Transformation. 

Em 'esis (f//t(J, to vomit). Vomiting. 

Emet'ic [efjeriKog, causing vomiting). An 
agent causing emesis. E., Direct, one 
acting directly on the ncr\-es of the 
stomach. E., Indirect, or E., Systemic, 
one acting through the blood u\K>n the 
vomiting center, or by relle.x action from 
other peripheral sources. 

Emeto-cathar'sis. \omiting and purga- 
tinii at the s;uue lime, or produced liy a com- 
mon agent. 

Em'inence (emincntia). A rounded or 
protuberant part of an organ, especially of 
a bone. E., Ilio-pectineal, a ridge on 
the upper surface of the pubic bone. E. 
of Doyere. See Sarco^i^'-iia. 

Eminen'tia. See Eminence. 

Emis'sion (emitto, to send lorth). An 
ejaculation, or sending forth. 

Emmen'agogue (f//////i'«,ihe menses, a/w; 
to expel). A medicine tliat .stinuiiatos the 
menstrual flow. E., Direct, one acting 
directly on the generative organs. E., 
Indirect, one acting only through other 
functions .nnd indirectly. 

Emissa'rium (Lat.). A term for any 
canal or channel conveying a fluid outward. 
Used e.>>|}ccially of the veins of the skull. 

Em''issary Veins. See Emissarittm. 

Emmetro'pia (rr, in; fierpov, measure; 
uV, the eye). Normal or jierfect visian. 
The condition of an eye whose shape and 
refractive media are such that, with sus 
pended accommodation, parallel rays of 
light are brought to a focas upon the 
retina. For practical tests, rays of light 
from a |K>int 20 feet away are considered 
as ])arall(d. 

Em'met's Opera'tion. See Trachelor- 
rlidph V. 

EmoKlient (emollio, to .soften). A sub- 
stance ust:<l by external application to .soften 
the skin. 

Emo'tional (e/mnu-o, to move away). I'er- 
taining to the mental condition of feeling. 
E. Insanity, characleri/ed by exagg«-ra- 
tioii and exaltation of feelings. 

Emphract'ic (///O/wrru, to obslnirt) A 
term u-c'i I'V lli|<|)Otrates to designate any 



agent which obstructs the fimction of an 
organ. 

Emphyse^ma {e/Kpvffau, to inflate). The 
abnomial collection of air in the connective 
tissue of apart, causing swelling and crepi- 
tation. 

Empir'ic {^t/irreipiKog, experiential, practi- 
cal). One practicing medicine without 
philo.sophical or scientific principles, simply 
from the results of his own or others' expe- 
rience. As commonly used, synonymous 
with quack. 

Emplas'trum ie/ii7z?.aaau, to plaster up). 
A pUister. In pharmacy, a cohesive, tena- 
cious substance, insoluble in water, as an 
excipient containing a ])rescribed medicinal 
substance intended to be spread thin upon 
chamois, kid or muslin. The excipient 
is usually lead oleate or Burgundy j)itch. 
(See Leait and /'/>.) There are 17 official 
emp/astra. 

Emprosthot^onos [gfj-poaOfv, forward, 
T£ivu, to stretch). A tetanic condition of 
the muscles of the front part of the body 
whereby the body is bent forward. 

Empye'ma (fi', in, nvov, pus). Pus in 
tlie pleural cavity or in the chest. 

Empye'sis (efinvEu, to suppurate). Dis- 
eases characterized by phlegmonous pim- 
ples gradually filling with purulent lluitl. 

Empy'ocele {n\ m - lor, pus,K7/?.f/,t\imvr). 
A jjurulent scrotal tumor. 

EmuFsin {emutgeo, to milk out). A fer- 
ment contained in bitter almonds. Also 
called Synaptase. Its union with amyg- 
dalin forms hydrocyanic acid. See Amyg- 
dnlin. 

EmuPsion. Water in which oil, in minute 
suiidi vision of its particles, is suspended. 

Emunc'tory [^tminii^o, to blow the nose). 
.\n excretory duct or organ. 

Enam'el. See 'J'ceth. 

Enanth'ema (n', avOtu, to blos.som). An 
eruption within the body in distinction 
from exanthcnta. 

Enarthro'sis. See Diart/irosis. 

Encan'this {n>, kuvHhc;, the angle of the 
eye). A reddi.sh colored morbid growth 
in the inner canthus of the eye. 

Encephalic (eyKtcjxUof:, the brain). I'er- 
lainiiig t(i the encephalon. 

Enceph'alin. A nitrogenous glucoside 
extracted from brain tissue. 

Encephali'tis. (Jeneral inlkunmation of 
the encephalon. 

Enceph'alocele {i)Kr<pa7tir, ki/?i/, tumor). 
.\ iieinia of tin- brain. 

Enccph'aloid. Ke.sembling brain tissue. 
.See Citi , ini'/na. 



ENCEPHALOMA 



144 



ENDOSMOTIC 



Encephalc'ma {syKE^aXog, una, tumor). 
Tumor of the brain. 

Enceph^alon (ev, in, Ketpakr], the head). 
The contents of the cranium. The brain. 

Encephalop'athy(£7/>;e0aZof,7rn^oc,pain). 
A term for indefinite or general disease-of 
the brain. 

Enceph^alotome (evus^aTio^, rofui, sec- 
tion). An instrument for slicing the en- 
cephalon or a part for examination or pre- 
servation. 

Enchondro^ma [ev, ;;\;ovSpog, cartilage, 
oma, tumor). A tumor arising from car- 
tilage or resembling it in texture, etc. 

Enchy^lema [ev, Xv?.o^, juice). The fluid 
enclosed in the meshes of the chromatin. 

En Clou. See CiilHire. 

Encyst^ed [tv, Kvarig, a bag). Enclosed 
in a cyst, or capsule. Aneurysms, hernioe, 
tumors, etc., may become encysted. 

End. The terminal point of a thing. E. 
Bulb, the terminal bulb of a nerve in the 
skin. £7td Bulb of Krause. See Cor- 
puscle. E. Plate, the expanded terminal 
of a motor nerve upon a bundle of muscu- 
lar fibers. E. Organ, the general name 
for the terminal organ or part of a sensory 
nerve-fiber of whatever kind. 

Endarteri^'tis (tvfiov, within, arteritis). 
Inflammation of the intima, or innermost 
coat of an arter)'. 

Endem'ic (ti', in, ^iifioQ, a people). Used 
of diseases that are not brought from with- 
out a particular area or people, but that are 
peculiar to it. E. Verrugas. 'S)tQ Fram- 
liivsia. 

EndemioFogy (ev, Srjiioc;, Tioyog, a treatise). 
The science of endemic diseases. 

Ender^mic (ev, (kp/ja, the .skin). Within 
the skin. Pertaining to a method of admin- 
istering medicines through the skin, by 
rubliing, etc. 

End^o- [£V(hv, within). A prefix, meaning 
li^nthin. 

Endo-ausculta''tion. A method of auscul- 
tation devised by Bianchi by using the 
ordinary oesophageal tube passed into the 
stomach, to auscult the gullet and stomach, 
and through them to a certain degree the 
heart and lungs. 

End^oblast {ev<)ov, ft^aarog, a germ). The 
cell-nucleus. 

Endocardi^tis [nnhv, napfiui, the heart, 
<r/f). Inflammation of the endocardium 
or lining meml)rane of the heart. Acute 
rheumatism is the most frequent cause, 
though pneumonia, gout and septic fever 
may precede. The disease is prone to termi- 
nate fatally or result in permanent injury 



to the valves. Fibrinous deposits or vege- 
tations project into the cavity of the heart ; 
the thickened endocardium is liable to be- 
come atheromatous, with chronic ulcera- 
tion. E., Malignant, or Ulcerative, a 
rapidly fatal type due to septic infection. 
It has also been called Diphtheritic E., in 
the sense of belonging to the diphtheritic 
class of diseases. Microorganisms are 
found in this form. 

Endocard^ium [Evdov,KapSLa). The color- 
less, transparent membrane lining the inte- 
rior of the heart. 

Endocolpi^tis. See Colpitis. 

End'oderm. See Blastoderm. 

End''ogen (ev&ov, yevvau, to produce). A 
plant whose growth is by means of new- 
matter deposited in the interior of the trunk 
or branch. See Exogen. 

End^olymph {tv6ov, fy/jpha,Vfaitx). The 
fluid of the membranous labyrinth of the 
ear. 

Endometri^tis. Inflammation of the en- 
dometrium. E., Cervical, of the cer 
vical portion. E., Decidual, of the de- 
cidual membrane of the impregnated 
uterus. It may be <;//^/«^-(thickening and 
development of connective tissue) or poly- 
poid, with polypoid growths. 

Endome^trium {ev6ov, fJ-ijTpa, uterus). 
The lining membrane of the uterus. 

Endomy^sium (evdov, fivg, muscle). The 
extension of the perimysium between the 
muscular fibers. 

Endoneu^rium (evSov, vevpov, a nerve). 
The delicate connective tissue holding to- 
gether the fibrils of a bundle of nerves. 

Endopath^ic (ei't5ov,7ra9of, suffering). Per- 
taining to the rise of disease from condi- 
tions or causes not derived from without. 
See Exopathic. 

Endopericardi^tis [ev^qv, ivEpi, around, 
KapSia, the heart, iti(;, inflammation). Com- 
bined endocarditis and pericarditis. 

End^oscope (^ev^ov, within, anorreu, to ob- 
serve). An instrument for examination of 
a bodily cavity through its natural outlet. 

Endos^copy [ev6ov, okotteu). The exami- 
nation of cavities or organs within the body 
by means of an endoscope. 

Endosmom''eter. An instrument for 
measuring endosmosis. 

Endosmo'sis {ei'Sov, ua/jog, a thrusting). 
The interchange and passage of two liquids 
through a dividing membrane. 

Endosmot^ic. Pertaining to endosmosis. 
E. Equivalent, the weight of distilled 
water that passes into the flask of the endos- 
mometer in exchange for a known weight 



ENDOSTEITIS 



145 



ENTODERM 



of the soluble substance. This, e. g., for 
salt is 4.3 ; for sugar 7. 1, etc. " 

Endostei'tis (frt'or, ocTtov, a bone, iriq). 
Inflammation of the endosteuni of Iwne. 

Endost'eum. The vascular membranous 
layer of connective tissue lining the medul- 
lary cavity of Ixjnes. 

Endothelio''ma. A tumor of the endo- 
thelium. 

Endothe'lium {e\-6ov, fh/?j), nipple). The 
internal lining membrane of serous, syno- 
vial and other internal surfaces; the homo- 
loj^^e of epithelium. 

En'ema [Evtt/ui^ to inject). An injection 
v( a medicine or food into the rectum. 

Enepiderm'ic [ev, e-jridep/ji^, the epider- 
nii,-). Pertaining to the treatment of dis- 
ease by applications to the skin. 

En'ergy [cvep-}eu, to be active). The 
jowcr or force displayed by an organism. 
E., Conservation of, the law that the 
various forms of energy can be transformed 
one into the other without the loss of any 
part. E., Kinetic, the ]X)\ver of a Ixxly 
in motion. E., Potential, the possible 
jx)wer of a body at rest. Physiologically,* 
its meaiiure is the amount of heat that may 
l)e obtained by complete combustion of the 
chemical compounds representing the po- 
tential energy. 

En'ervate {e/ic-i-'o, to weaken). To 
weaken. 

Eneure'sis. See Enuresis. 

Engage'ment Stage of Labor. See 
Di\cenl-;lni^e. 

English Sweating Fever. See Anglicus 
.Slid r. 

Engorg'ement (Fr. engorge ut en t, a chok- 
ing ujj). Over'-distention of the ves.scls 
of a part and stagnation of the circulation. 
\'asi ular congestion. 

Enophthal'mia {cv, o(f)Ma/./io^, the eye). 
Retraction of the eyeliall in the orbit. 

Enosto'sis (rv, oareov, Ixsne). A tumor 
within the medullary canal of a bone, or 
a lx)My tumor originating in Ixjne. 

En PiqOre. See Culture. 

Ens'iform Append'ix [ensis, a sword). A 
sword-shajx-d, c;util;iginoas process of the 
sternum. 

Ensomph'alus {n>, ou(pn/itr, navel). A 
diiulile munslrosity with practically com- 
plete and functional organisms, iiut united 
tfjgethcr by .some more or less suiK-rlicial 
lond. 

Enta^sia {rvrnntr, a straining). A generic 
I'-nii iitr s[)asmrxlic muscular action. 

EnteraPgia {n'rifniv, intestine, u7.yor, 
|iain). Pain in the Ixiwels. 
10 



Enterec'tomy (cvrepov, intestine, tiarofiT], 
excision). E.xcision of a pait of the intes- 
tine. 

Enter''ic (fiTf/)oi). Pertaining to the in- 
testines. E. Fever, tyjihoid fever. 

Enteri^tis {p'-vpoi', irt^, inflammation). 
Intlanimation of the intestines. 

Ent'ero- [eirepoi'). A prefi.x denoting 
relation to the intestines. 

Ent'erocele [evTepov, k7/?>/, a tumor). A 
heniia containing a loop of intestine. E., 
Rectal, witli a covering of the rectal wall. 
E., Vaginal, with a covering of the 
vagina] wall. 

Enterocly'sis {^evrepm', K7.vaig, a drench- 
ing). Injection of nutrient material with- 
in the intestine in cholera, collapse, etr. 

Entero-coli'tis [nTepor, ko?mv, the colon). 
Combined intlanimation of the intestines 
and colon. 

Entero-epip'locele. See Hernia. 

Entero-gas^trocele {iv-tpov, yaa-j/p, the 
belly, K>//j/, tumor). A hernia containing 
gastric and intestinal walls. 

Ent'erolith [evTepov, 7iill(>c, a stone). A 
stony concretion formed in the digestive 
tube. 

Enterop^athy [evrepov, naffog, suffering). 
Disease of the intestines. 

Entero-peritoni^tis (errepov, irepirovaing^ 
iTig). Combined inflammation of the in- 
testines and adjacent |x:ritoncum. 

Ent^eroplasty (eiTepov, Tr?.nnaUj to form). 
Pla.stic operations upon the intestine to re- 
pair injuries of its walls. 

Enterorrha'gia [t^mpov, pr/yvv^t, to burst 
forth). Intestinal hemoirhage. Excessive 
discharges of any kind from the intestine. 

Enteror'rhaphy (trrFpov^ pcPl, ^ suture). 
Suture of the intestine. 

Enterost^omy (tmpav, arnun, mouth). 
Incision of the small intestine and suture 
of the same to the abdominal wall for in- 
troduction of food by this artificial mouth, 
in case of im]X)ssibility of food-entrance 
by the normal route. 

Enterot^omy [rvTepov, re/zvu, to cut). In- 
cision of the intestine. 

Enterozo''6n {n'repov, (uoVj an animal). 
:\ |)ar;i.site of the intestine. 

Enthet'ic {tyri(h//ii^ to put in). Coming 
from without, usi'd es|)eeially of syphilitic 
and other specific contagious di.seases. 

Enfoblast ('iror, within, ji/acTog, germ). 
The nucleolus, or germinal s|K)t. 

Ent'ocyte (nTor, mtik;, cell). The con- 
tents of a cell, including nucleolus, graiiu- 
lati<ins, (•/(■. 

Ent'oderm. See /i/astix/erm. 



ENTOMOLOGY 



146 



EPIGENESIS 



EntomoFogy (evTOfiov, an insect, 7\.oyoq, 
treatise). Thie science of insect life. 

Entomoph^ilous {^evTOfia, ^ueu, to love). 
Insect-loving or attracting. E. Flowers, 
flowers attracting insects by their secre- 
tions and thus securing cross-fertilization 
through the insects who carry the pollen 
to other flowers. 

Entop^tic {^svTog, OTrrcKog, pertaining to 
vision). Pertaining to the internal parts 
of the eye. E. Phenomena, visual phe- 
nomena caused by peculiarities or imper- 
fections of the eye itself, such as niiiscce 
volitantes, etc. 

Entofic (tvToq, oi»f, ear). Pertaining to 
the internal ear. E. Phenomena, sounds 
caused by abnormalities of the auditoiy 
mechanism itself. 

Entozo'on {tvroq, i^uov, an animal). A 
parasite living within another animal. 

Entro^pium (ev, in, Tpewu, to turn). In- 
version of the eyelids, so that the lashes 
rulj against the'- globe of the eye, produc- 
ing inflammation, pannus, etc. 

Enuclea''tion l^e, out of, nitcleus, a kernel). 
Applied to the operation of exsecting or 
shelling-out from its seat or capsule a 
tumor, etc. E. of Eye, excision of the 
eyeball from the orbit. 

Enure^sis [evovpeu, to be incontinent of 
urine). Incontinency of urine. E. Noc- 
turna, involuntary emptying of the blad- 
der during sleep. 

Envi'ronment (Fr. environner, to sur- 
round). The totality of influences acting 
from without upon the organism. 

En^zymes (ev, sv/^^, leaven). Hydrolytic 
ferments as distinguished from organized 
ferments, such as yeast. They act by 
causing the body to take up a molecule of 
water. They are most active between 30° 
and 35° C, and are destroyed by boiling. 

E'osin. See Fucksin. 

Epend^yma (^cttevSv/Mj an upper garment). 
The lining membrane of the cerebral ven- 
tricles and of the spinal canal. 

Ependymi'tis {^epcndynta, ltlq, inflamma- 
tion). Inflammation of the ependyma. 

Ep'hedra Antisyphilif'ica. See Tepopote. 

Eph^edrene. The active principle of 
Ephedra vulgaris. Proposed as a my- 
driatic by Nagai. A cardiac depressant. 
Unof. 

Ephe^lides. See Lentigo. 

Ephem''era Malig''na. See Angliciis 
Sudor. 

Ephem''eral {E(p7)fiepog, living a day). 
Temporary. Applied to fevers that pass 
away in a day. 



EphiaFtes. See Nightmare. 

Ephid^rosis. See Hyperidrosis. E. Cru- 
enta, bloody sweat. 

Ep'iblast (fTTi, upon, ^Xaarog, a sprout). 
The external or upper layer of the blasto- 
derm, called, also, the ectoderm or neuro- 
epidermal layer, from which is developed 
the central nervous system and epidemial 
tissues, including the epithelium of the 
sense organs. 

Epicanth^us [t-Ki, Kavdog, angle of the eye). 
A fold of skin passing from the nose to the 
eyebrow over the inner canthus of the eye. 

Epicard^ium. The visceral layer of the 
pericardium. 

Ep^icome (em, upon, KOfiTj, hair). A para- 
sitic monstrosity with an accessoiy head 
imited to the principal foetus by the sum- 
mit. 

Epicra-'nium (em, upaviov, the cranium). 
The structures covering the cranium. 

Epicri-'sis [eiriKpiaig, determination). The 
phenomena of disease succeeding the 
crisis. 

Epicystof'omy {e-i, Kvorig, a bladder, 
Tsuvcj, to cut). The suprapubic method 
of incising the bladder. 

Ep^icyte [eki, nvrog, cell). The cell-wall 
or hyaline cuticle of cells. 

Epidem^ic [etvi, 6//juog, people). Used of 
diseases that reach a people, or spread over 
an area from without, in contradistinction 
to endemic. 

Epidemiog^raphy (epidemic, jpa<j)u, to 
write). A description of epidemic dis- 
eases. 

Epidemiol''ogy (epidemic, Tiojog, doctrine) . 
The science of epidemic diseases. 

Epiderm^is (etti, dEpfia, the skin). The 
outer layer of the skin. The scarf-skin, 
consisting of a layer of horny cells that 
protects the true skin. Has neither l)lood 
vessels nor nerve filaments. E., Append- 
ages of, a generic name for the hair, nails, 
etc., growing from the epiderm. 

Epidermiza''tion. The formation of epi- 
derm. 

Epidid'ymis (SiSvfioi, the testes). The 
small body lying above the testes. The 
superior end is the globus major, the infe- 
rior, the globus ininor. 

Epididymi''tis. Inflammation of the epi- 
didymus. 

Epidu^ral Space. The space outside the 
dura mater of the spinal cord. 

Epigas''trium (ett^, yaartip, the stomach). 
The epigastric region. 

Epigen^esis (ETrcyiyvofiai, to be born after). 
The generation of organisms by new and 



EPIGLOTTIS 



14- 



EPOXYCHIUM 



successive formations in contradistinction 
to Syngenesis, in whicli each germ is 
supposed to contain those of all subseciuent 
generations. 

Epiglot'tis. See Glottis. 

Epigna'thus {t-i, yiaOoc, jaw). A para- 
sitic monstrosity in which the jwrasite is 
united to the sujjerior ma.xillary bone. 

Epila'tion (<-, out of, />'7its, a hair). The 
removal of hair. 

Epilato'rium. .\n application for perma- 
nently removing hair. 

Epilep'sy [i-i'/J/il'ig, a laying hold of). 
.\ ner\ous affection characterized by sud- 
den loss of consciousness and [X)wer of co- 
ordination of motion with tonic and clonic 
convulsions, the fits lasting but a short 
time. This form of the disease is the 
"true" affection, or the haut mal of the 
Erench. The petit mal [uliorthe epilepsy, 
epileptic Viftij^o) is less severe, and may 
consist of only a slight loss of conscious- 
ness, with retained coordination of motion. 
E. Cursiva, the fit preceded by a tend- 
ency to run. E., Jacksonian, spasmodic 
contractions in certain groups of muscles 
due to local diseases of the cortex, always 
confined to one-half of the body and with 
retention of consciousness. E. Larvata, 
or E., Masked, the less severe cases of 
the true epilejjsy, in which the patient 
does not fall. E., VasXAaX, Jacksonian E. 
E., Procursive, there is propulsion of 
the iKxly in some special direction. E., 
Reflex, liuc to some reflex neurosis. 

Epilep'tic. Pertaining to or like epilepsy. 
Also one affected with epilepsy. E. Cry, 
the vocal sound or cry in ejiilepsy, from 
lar)ngeal sjxism. E. Hemiplegia, some- 
times follows the fit, especially after uni- 
lateral convulsions. E. Mania, slight 
maniacal tendencies following or taking 
the place of the fit. E. Vertigo, giddi- 
ness is a common sensation of epilepsy, 
but is erroneoasly applied to attacks of 
minor epilc|)sy. 

Epilep'tiform {epHcp-iy, forma, likeness). 
l<e~(iiil)liiig the >ymi>loms of ejjilep.sy. 

Epileptog'enous {epilepsy, yevvau, to pro- 
duce). I'nxlucing epilepsy. 

Epi'lose (c neg.,///(W/., hairy). Without 
hair ; bald. 

Epineu'rium (»-<, vrvf>ov, nerve). The 
nerve-sh'-ath. 

Epipas'tic {rm:rntjau, to s|)rinkle). Per- 
t. lining to plasters sprinkli-il witii s<jme 
:i-^iiii, .IS earitharides, u>.ed as a vesicant. 

Epiph'ora (im^ijxj, to burst u|)<)n). An 
overflow of tears, due to ovcr-secrelion (jr 



impeded outflow of the normal methods 
of excretion. Lachryination. 

Epiph''ysis (z~i,^vi^, to grow). A process 
of bone attached to another bone by carti- 
lage. E. Cerebri, the pineal gland. 

Ep^iphyte (f ~', (^i'7or, a plant). A para- 
^ilic plant living upon another plant. Used 
also of a parasitic plant upon an animal. 

Epip'locele. See Hernia. 

Epip'loon [e-L-7.tu, to float upon). The 
omentum. E. Gastro-colic, the great 
omentum. E. Gastro-hepatic, the les- 
ser omentum. 

Episcleri'tis (em, atCkripoq, hard, «r<f). A 
localized inflammation of the subconjunc- 
tival tissues. 

Episiofraphy {e-kioeiov, pubes, pa^i], 
seam). An operation for the cure of pro- 
lapsed uterus or procidentia. 

Episiot''omy [i-iatiov, 7o«//, section). In- 
cision linough the vulva in childl)irth to 
prevent rupture of the perineum and facih- 
tate labor. 

Epispad''ias {tin, aira^u, to pierce). Ab- 
normal opening of the urethra ujwn the 
upper part of the penis. 

Epispasf'ic [t-L,c~aaiq, a drawing ujxju). 
A vesicatory or substance producing a 
blister. 

Epistax'is (e-iara^u, to distill). Hemor- 
rhage from the nose. 

Epithelio'ma. Carcinomatous formation 
of the skin or mucous membrane, composed 
of epithelial cells. 

Epithc'lium [t-i, upon, rifti/ui, to place). 
The cuticle or cellular structure of mucous 
surfaces, and also the skin of tiie body. 
E., Ciliated, a form in which the cells 
bear vibratile filaments or cilice at their 
free extremities. E., Columnar, distin- 
guished by jirismatic-sliaped or colunmar 
cells. E., Nucleated, consisting of cir- 
cular or hexagonal cells, each containing 
a nucleus. E., Pavement, cubical or 
polygonal cells covering the surfact' like the 
stones of a ])avement. E., Squamous, 
the cells have been reduced to llattened, 
scaly plates. E., Stratified, the cells are 
arranged in distinct layers. E., Tessel- 
lated. Same as /.'., /'aTewent. E., Tran- 
sitional, inlermediate iK'tween simple and 
stratified. 

Epitroch'lea(fT^, Ti)nxii}i<i, a pulley). The 
internal condyle of the humerus. 

Epizo'on (iTTi, C<J"i'. an animal). .\n 
animal living as a parasite U|)on another. 

Epizoof'ic. A contagious disease alTect- 

111^ animals. 
Eponych'ium [em, ui-v^, a finger nail). 



EPOSTOMA 



148 



ERYTHEMA 



A homy condition of the epidermis from 
the 2d to the 8th month of foetal Hfe, indi- 
cating the position of the nail. 

Eposto^ma {st^i, ogteov, bone). An ex- 
ostosis. 

Ep^som Salts. See Magnesium. 

Epu''lis {em, ovla, the gums). A hard, 
fibrous tumor of the alveolar processes of 
the gums. 

Ekiuilib''rium [csquus, equal, libro, bal- 
ance). An even balancing of a body or 
condition. E., Stable, when, after slight 
disturbance, the body will return to its 
original condition or position. E., Un- 
stable, when it will not so return. 

Equi^nia {equiis, a horse). Glanders. 
P'arcy. A contagious, specific disease, 
with both local and general symptoms, 
derived from the horse or ass. Affects 
chiefly the skin, mucous membranes and 
lymphatics. Begins with purulent nasal 
discharges, which extend to the respiratory, 
ocular and oral membranes. Thought to 
be of microbic origin. 

Equiv^alence (aqinis, equal, valco, to be 
worth). Of equal value. The saturating 
power of an element as compared with 
that of hydrogen. 

Era'sion (c, out, 7-ado, to scrape). The 
act of scraping. 

Erect''ile {crigo, to set up). Pertaining to 
stiffening, rigidity or erection. E. Tis- 
sue, that intermediating erection, consist- 
ing of a network of expansile capillaries 
that under stimulus becomes engorged with 
blood. 

Erec'tion [erigo). The condition of full- 
ness and firmness of the penis, clitoris, etc., 
due to sexual excitement, friction, e/c, the 
mechanism consisting in an overfilling of 
the blood vessels. E. Center. See Cejiter. 

Erect''or i^erigo). Pertaining to muscles 
whose function is to erect or elevate a part. 
See Muscle. E. Pili, the unstriped mus- 
cular fibers causing the erection of the hair 
and the phenomenon called goose-Jlesh or 
goose-skin. 

Er^ethism {epedidfiog, irritation). An ab- 
normal heightening of nervous irritability. 

Erg. See C^nif. 

Er^got, or Ergo'ta. A fungus, Clavi- 
ccps purpuia (or Scbiini ccirinituDi), para- 
sitic upon rye. Contains sphacelinic acid, 
ergotinic acid, and cornutin, to which its 
properties are due. A powerful excito- 
motor, haemostatic, and gastrointestinal 
irritant. Used most frequently to promote 
uterine contraction in childbirth. Valu- 
able internally in amenoiTha'a and atonic 



spermatorrhoea ; externally in gonorrhoea, 
conjunctivitis and inflammations of mucous 
membranes. Effects most prompt by hy- 
podennic injection. Dose gr. x-^j. E., 
Ext. Fid., prepared with dilute hydro- 
chloric acid, alcohol, and water. Dose 
^ss-ij. E., Ext., — Ergotin. Dose gr. 
ij-xx. E., Vinum, 15 per cent. Dose 
^j-_^j. Sclerotic Acid, thought to be 
identical with ergotinic acid. 

Er'gotism. The constitutional effects of 
overdoses of ergot, or of the persistent use 
of food containing ergot. These may be 
acute, chronic, gangrenous, or spasmodic. 

Erig'eron. Fleabane. The plant E. 
canadense. Physiological action like that 
of oil of turpentine, but less irritant. Effi- 
cient as a hffimostat in menonhagia. E., 
01., the essential volatile oil of same. 
Dose Ttl^x-^ss. Unof. 

Eriodic'tyon. Yerba Santa. The leaves 
of E. glutinostim, a shrub best known in 
California. An excellent expectorant, and 
valuable as an excipient for quinine, the 
taste of which it largely conceals. Useful 
in bronchial affections. E., Ext. Fid. 
Dose n\,xv-5j. E., Ext. Dose gr. ij-x. 
All unof. 

Ero^sion (erodo, to eat into). Disinte- 
gration of tissue by mechanical, chemical 
or morbid action. 

Erofic (epwf, love). Pertaining to the 
sexual passion. 

Erotoma'nia (fpoif, fLovia, madness). 
Morbid, abnonnal exaggeration of love 
generally; more limited to the imaginative 
than to the carnal aspect of the sentiment. 
See Nyviplioinania, Satyriasis. 

Er^rhine (fi', in, /w, the nose). A medi- 
cine which, applied to the mucous mem- 
brane of the nose, increases nasal secre- 
tions. A sternutatory. 

Eructa''tion (^;y/(7'(', to belch). Belching. 

Erup''tion {cnimpo, to burst out). A 
bursting forth of any kind or from any 
part, but applied especially to the chief 
symptom of certain skin diseases, consist- 
ing in pimples, vesicles, rash, etc. 

Erysip'elas [epvOpog, red, TreTiTm, skin). A 
constitutional febrile disease with a pecu- 
liar redness and inflammation of the skin 
and subcutaneous tissue, generally of the 
face ; of possible bacterial origin. 

Erysip''eloid. A peculiar affection of the 
palms of the hands or soles of the feet, 
characterized by zones of violaceous red 
eruption with burning and itching. 

Erythe^ma {spvOr/fia, a blush). An affec- 
tion of the skin commonly known as " rose 



ERYTIIR,\SMA 



149 



ETHER 



rash "or " inflammatory blush." A con- 
gestion or rcdncs-s of skin that with pres- 
sure tennxjrarily disappe;irs. E. An- 
nulare or Circinatum, a form marked 
by ilie spreading of the disease in ring- 
shaped or circular patches. E. Fugax, 
a transitory redness sometimes appearing 
on the faces and tnmks of children. Usu- 
ally associated with wontis. E. Inter- 
trigo, a congestion arising from the fric- 
tion of adjacent parts of the skin. E. 
Laeve, the redness frequently occurring in 
drop>ical swelling of the legs. E. No- 
dosum, a form marked by symmetrical, 
notledike swellings over the tibi;e, con- 
sidered an expression of rheumatism. E. 
Papulatum, ;m inflammatory fonn marked 
by p.ijRiles and vesicles. E. Paratrim- 
ma, the red patches jireceding the a|>pear- 
ance of bed-sores E. Pernio, a chil- 
blain. E. Roseola, a form marked by 
a dull ret! hue. .May be idiopathic, or the 
symptomatic eruption preceding scarlet 
fever, measles, cti-. E., Scarlatiniform, 
somewhat like that of scarlet fever, imt 
usually in defined patches. Frequently 
accomjwnies septicaemia, puerperal fever, 
etc. E. Simplex, congestion due to ex- 
ternal irritation. E. Urticaria, the early 
stage of urticaria, q. z'. 

Erythras'ma (f/n'rt|jof). A vegetable para- 
sitic di.sease producing brownish patches. 
Appears usually on the folds of the a.xilke 
and inguinal regions. Resembles Titu-a 
Versicolor, but is more insignilicant. Due 
to ver)- minute microspores. 

Eryth'roblast. See Leucocyte. 

Erythrochloro'pia (tin<MiJor, ;f?.wpof, 
green, (ji/', eye). A form of subnormal 
color perception in which green and red 
are the only colors correctly distinguished. 

Erythrodex'trin. A dextrin formed by 
the action of saliva on starch. It gives a 
red eolor with iodine. 

Erythrogran'ulose. A granular sub- 
stance, found in starch grains, coloring red 
with iodine. 

Erythromelal'gia Irpi'Opo^, /ie?.oc, limb, 
u'/.yitf, |>ain). An affection of the extremi- 
ties characterized by great redness ami 
pain. 

Erythroph'leine. See Cusca /i,iri: 

Erythrops'ia (eiivOin^, uij'ir, vision). An 
abnormality of vision in whicli all objects 
a|i|M-3r red. 

Erythrox'ylon. f'oca,C'ura. The leaves 
of /:'. ciirii, a shrub indigenous to the 
Andes Mountains. (Not to l« confouniled 
with cocoa.) Contains an alkaloid, cocaine, 



q. v., to which its properties are mainly 
due. An aromatic tonic and cerebral 
stimulant. Stimulates the brain, produc- 
ing a remarkable power of enduring hun- 
ger and fatigue. Large doses produce 
hallucinations. Efl'ects similar to those of 
cotVee, but more intense. Much used by 
the natives for sustenance during long 
journeys. The leaves, smoked, are bene- 
ficial in hay fever. E., Ext. Fid. Uose 
^ss-ij. Difticult to obtain good leaves. 
^Vines and elixirs of coca are numerous. 

Es'bach's Method. A test for all>umin 
in urine, the albumin being precipitated by 
a solution of picric and citric acids (10-20- 
970 parts of urine) ; the number of grammes 
per 1000 c.c. being indicated on the gradu- 
ated tube of the albumimeter. 

Es'char (fCT^«/w<j, to scab over). The 
slough or scab following cauterization, 
burns, etc. 

Escharofic. A substance which, applied 
to the skin, prcxluces an eschar. A caustic. 

Es'culus Hippocasta'num. Horse- 
chestnut. The fruit of the common 
" buckeye," or horse-chestnut. Recom- 
mended in hemorrhoids. Dose gi-. iij. 
Unof. 

Es''erine. An alkaloid derived from I'hy- 
.sostigina, q. v. 

Es'march's Bandage, or Apparatus. 
The bandage is of elastic rubber, antl is 
used u|K)n a limb to be amputated, in order 
to drive the blood out of it iiy progressive 
ai)plication of turns ai)out the limb toward 
the trunk. 

Esod'ic (£(T(j, within, ofV»;, way). Pertain- 
ing to afferent or centripetal nerves, or 
tliose conveying impressions toward the 
Central nervous system. 

Esopho'ria. See Hcterophoria. 

Esoter'ic (mwrf/jof, within). Secret, mys- 
terious. Arising within the organism. 

Esotro'pia. See .Slrnhisiuiis. 

Es'sence (essen/iir). That (|uality of a 
thing giving it ])eculiaiity of iH)wcr. The 
peculiar ([ualilies of a drug extracted and 
reduced to a small compass. 

Essen'tial. Pertaining to the essence of 
a substance. Pertaining to the iH-culiar 
and distinctive characteristic of a di>ea--e. 

E'ther {,,///er, the u])|)er air). The tenu- 
ous subtle fluid filling space and intir|K-ne- 
trating all Inxlies, the medium of trans- 
mission of the vii)ratory activities called 
light, heat, eleclricily ami magnetism. 
Used also to designate a large class of 
organic com|K)un<ls. S|)«-lle<l al.so </•///</■. 

Esther. A thin, colorless, volatile, luid 



ETHEREAL 



150 



EUONYMUS 



highly inflammable liquid, in composition 
a di-ethylic oxide (C2H5)20. It is used 
mainly as a solvent for fats and oils, and 
as an anaesthetic. Internally it is anodyne, 
antispasmodic, diaphoretic, and narcotic. 
Inhaled it is an anaesthetic, and a cardiac 
stimulant in toxic doses, paralyzing the 
respiratory centers. E., Acetic, proper- 
ties likeethylic ether. Dose V!\^ x-gj. E., 
Commercial, contains 94 per cent, of 
ether. It is unfit for use except as a solvent. 
E. Fortior, should contain 94 per cent, of 
ethylic oxide. Dose Tf\,x-_:5J. E., Hy- 
driodic, unof. Dose for inhalation tT\^xv. 
E., Hydrobromic, unof Dose T\x-^]. 
E. Oleum, contains equal parts ether 
and heavy oil of wine. E., Spt., Comp., 
commonly known as Hoffman's anodyne. 
It consists of ether 30, alcohol 67, ethereal 
oil 3 per cent. Dose Tt\^ v-^:^]. E., Spt., 
Nitrosus, sTiwet spirit of nitre, a solution 
of ethyl nitrite in alcohol. Dose 3 ss- 5 ss. 
Ethe^real. Pertaining to the ether or to 
ether. 

Etheriza^'tion. The administration of 
ether to produce anesthesia. This is 
effected by inhalation of the vapor. 
E'therism. The symptoms of etherization. 
Ethnics [r/0iKog, moral). The science of 
human feelings, thoughts and actions rela- 
ting to duty or morality. E., Medical, 
the duties a physician owes to himself, 
his profession and his fellow-men. 
Ethmoceph'alus {ffifJO(;, ethmoid, KecpaT^rj, 
head). A cyclocephalic monstrosity with 
a rudimentary nose, the two eyes being 
closely approximated. 
Eth'moid [ifii^ioQ, a sieve). The cribri- 
form bone of the nose, perforated for the 
transmission of the olfactoiy nerves. 
EthnoFogy [fOvoq, a nation, Aoyof, a dis- 
course). The comparative study of the 
races of mankind. 
Ethoxy-caFfeine. A remedy recom- 
mended to relieve the pain of herpes 
zoster, and migraine. It is also said to 
prevent the gastric pain often caused by 
cocaine. 

EthyFamine. A ptomaine formed in putre- 
fying yeast, in wheat-flour, and in distilla- 
tion of beet-sugar residues. It is a strongly 
ammoniacal liquid, boiling at 18.7°, — mis- 
ciljle with water in every proportion, — com- 
bustible, and possesses strong basic proper- 
ties. Non-poisonous. 

Eth^yl Chlor^ide. Chloric Ether. An 
anaesthetic resembling chloroform in action. 
Use sometimes followed by corneal opacity. 
Unof. 



Eth''ylene. A hydro-carbon radical, having 
the molecular structure C2H^. It is char- 
acterized by strong affinities, especially for 
chlorine, with which it unites to form an 
oily compound. Hence its common name, 
olefiant gas. 

Ethylidenedi''aniine. A poisonous pto- 
maine obtained from decomposing haddock. 
Injections of the ptomaine in mice and 
guinea-pigs produce aliundant flow of se- 
cretion from the nose, mouth and eyes. 
Pupils dilate and eyeballs project. Violent 
dyspnoea follows and continues until death, 
that does not take place for twenty-four 
hours or more. The heart is stopped in 
diastole. 

Etiola^tion (Fr. etioler, to blanch). The 
paleness or blanching, in plants or man, 
from confinement in darkness. 

EtioFogy (ama, a cause, "koyoQ^ a dis- 
com^se). A treatise on or pertaining to 
the causes of disease. 

Eucalyp^tus. The leaves (lanceolate, 
after 3 years' growth) of the E. globulus, 
or Blue Gum, native to Australia, but now 
cultivated in California. Contains a vola- 
tile oil, which yields eucalyptol, a cam- 
phor, by distillation. An aromatic bitter, 
promoting digestion. Highly antiseptic 
and anti-malarial. Valuable in atonic dys- 
pepsia and in intermittent fevers. E., 
Fid. Ext., alcoholic. Dose rtl^x-gj. E. 
01., the volatile oil. Dose TTLx-xxx, in 
emulsion. E.,Tinct. Unof. Dose ^ss-ij. 

Eudiom'eter {tv&ia, calm weather, /uerpov, 
a measure). An instrument for ascertain- 
ing the composition of tlie air. 

Eudipleu^ra [ev, well, 6cg, twice, TT?i£vpa, 
the side). In biology a designation of 
those organic forms composed of two 
equal and symmetrical halves. 

Eu^genol. A product obtained from the 
residue of the distillation of oil of cloves. 
Antiseptic. Unof. 

Eu'kalyn. A substance similar to inosit, 
arising from the fermentation of melitose. 

Eulach'ion Oil, or 

Eulacho^ni Oleum. Candle-fish Oil. Eu- 
lachon Oil. The oil of the fish T/m/e- 
ichthys pacificus, or candlefish. Less dis- 
agreeable than cod-liver oil, for which it is 
often substituted. Dose ^j-iv. Unof. 

Eu^nuch (evvovxoQ, guardian of the couch). 
One from whom the genital organs have 
been removed or mutilated so as to render 
him impotent. 

EuoiT'ymus. Wahoo. The bark of E. 
atropnrpiircus. An astringent tonic and 
purgative, resembling rhubarb, jalap, aloe, 



EUPATORIUM 



151 



EXCLUSION 



etc., but rather milder. Beneficially em- 
ployed in dropsy and hepatic atVectioiis. 
E., Ext. Dose gr. j-v. Euonymin, 
unof., the essential principle. Dose gr. 
ss-v. 

Eupato'rium. Thoroughwort. Boneset. 
The leaves and flowering tops of E. per- 

foliatiim. A bitter tonic and diaphoretic, 
of value in remittent and typhoid! fevers. 
Thought, also, to be a ta-nifuge. E., Fid. 
Ext. Dose Tr^x— _^j. 

Euperistal'sis. See Pcn'stalsis. 

Euphor'bia Pilulif'era. Has reputed 
value in a.>thnia and cardiac dyspncea. 
Dose of the extract gr. j. Unof 

Eupho'ria (fioo/wK-, easily earned). The 
sense of well-being or health. 

Euphra'sia. Eycbright. A small an- 
nual, formerly much used in eye affections. 
Of utility as an a.stringent lotion in con- 
junctivitis. Valuable in breaking up nasal 
catarrh and in hay fever. E., Tinct., 
strengtli 1.9. Dose Tt\j-v. 

Euplas'tic (fi', well, -'/.acGo, to form). 
Pertaining to lymph of a healthy form, 
consistency, efc. 

Eupnce'a [tv, well, — vfw, to breathe). 
Normal and easy respiration. 

Eustach'ian Cath'eter. An instrument 
for dilating the E. tube, introduced along 
the floor of the nose. 

Eustach'ian Tube. The canal extending 
from the tympanum to the pharynx. 

Euthana'sia (u', well, Haiarog^ death). 
.•\n easy or calm death. 

Euto'cia (romig, childbirth). An easy 
n.atural delivery. 

Evac'uant {tfaruo, to empty). A medi- 
cine which increases the secretion or evacu- 
ation of an organ, especially the bowels. 
A purgative. 

Evacua'tion {n-acuo). Defecation. 

Evapora'tion (e, away, vapor, vapor). 
In i)harmacy, the ])rocess of converting a 
liquid into va|X)r by the agency of heat. 

Eve^ning Prim'rose. The flowering tops 
of (.Enothcra biennis. Recommended in 
asthma with gastric irrital)ility. Dose of 
the fid. ex t. Jss-^j. Unof. 

Eventra'tion (<•, out of, Tcufer, the belly). 
I'trrtainiiig to an extrusion of the alKlomi- 
nal viscera; especially in a monstrosity. 
Used also as a synonym of /\niin/ons 
Abdomen. 

Ever'sion of the Eyelid. A folding of 
the lid u|K)ti itself for the |)ur|xjsc of ex- 
|)Osing the conjunctival surface or sulcus. 

Eviscera'tion (/■•, <mt,7'M<rr(/, the Imwels). 
'ITie removal of flu; viscera. E., of the 



Eye, removal of the entire contents of the 
globe of the eye, leaving the sclerotic 
intact. An operation in place of enuclea- 
tion, and following which some operators 
insert a glass or metal shell globe, called 
artifiiial 7'ifnoiis, to preserve the shai)e, 
etc., of the eyeball. E., Obstetric, the 
removal of the alxlominal or thoracic 
viscera, in embryotomy. 

Evolu'tion (f-7/('A/£', to unroll). Thedevelop- 
nicnt or unrolling of the organs and func- 
tions, and the stages of growth of an organ- 
ism. See Z>(7;-i'/«/.(w. E., Spontaneous, 
a tenn expressive of the occurrence in child- 
birth of a series of changes effected by the 
organisms themselves, whereljy a shoulder 
presentation is transfoniied within the 
pelvis into a combined breech and shoulder 
j)resentation and delivery eflected. 

Evul'sion [eve/lo, to pluck out). Forcible 
tearing or plucking away of a part, as a 
polypus, tonsil, etc. 

Exacerba'tion i^cxacerbo, to be violent). 
Increased violence of the symptoms of a 
disease. 

Exan'thema, or Ex'anthem {e^nvdijiia, 
eruption). An eniption of the skin. 

Excava'tion of the Optic Nerve. A 
hollowing or " cupping "' of the disc, or optic 
nerve-entrance, that may be physiological 
or congenital, and without particular signifi- 
cance; ox pathological, the result of glau- 
coma, optic atrophy, etc. 

Excen'tric Pains. Radiating pains, symp- 
tomatic of s]:)inal disease, due to irritati(.>n 
of the jxDsterior nerve-roots. The pains are 
felt to be in the peripheral organs, hence 
the name al)ove. 

Excip'ient [e.vcipio, to take up). In phar- 
macy, any substance used to give an agree- 
able or convenient form to the ingredients 
of a prescription. 

Excis'ion ((vn/^i/o, tocut off). The opera- 
tion of removing a part or tissue by cut- 
ting. 

ExcitabiFity [excito, to rouse). The ([ual- 
ity of reacting to stimulus. 

Exci'tant. A remedy that stimulates the 
activity of an organ. 

Excito- (e.rcito). A Latin prefix denoting 
stiniulition or excitation. E. -motor, ikt- 
taining to nerves arousing motor function. 
Also, a drug or agent that increases activity 
cf the motor nerve centers. E. -reflex, 
pertaining to a reflex action that ends in 
muscular action. 

Exci'tor. See Sympathetic Ophthalmitis. 

Exclu'sion {excluilo, l<> shut out). A 
sinitting out. E., Diagnosis by, the 



EXCORIATION 



152 



EXPECTORATION 



reaching a final or most probable diagnosis 
by successively excluding one hypothesis 
after another as, from a consideration of the 
symptoms, impossible. 

Excoria'tion (^.r, from, corium, the skin). 
Abrasion of the skin, or removal, partial 
or complete, of a limited portion of the 
same. 

Ex^crement {excerno, to sift out). The 
fteces. 

Excrementi''tious. Pertaining to the ex- 
crement. 

Excres''cence [excresco, to grow out). An 
abnormal outgrowth upon the body. 

Excre^ta {excej-no). The natural dis- 
charges of the body, particularly those of 
the bowels. 

Ex'cretin. A substance extracted from 
human fseces, related to cholesterin ; of un- 
known history and constitution. 

Excre^'tion {excerno). The separation of 
the fluid waste products of an organ, or the 
body as a whole, out of the blood. The 
fluids so excreted. 

Ex^cretory [excerno). Pertaining to ex- 
cretion. E. Duct, a canal conveying the 
excretion from the excretory organ to the 
discharging point. 

Exenceph'alus {e^,£-yKE(pa?iov). A mon- 
strosity with the brain outside the cranial 
cavity, associated with vertebral fissure. 

Exentera^tion (ef, evrepov, intestine). 
Removal of the intestines or thoracic 
viscera in embryotomy. 

Ex^ercise [exerceo, to keep busy). Func- 
tional activity of the muscles. E., 
Active, that exerted by the will of the 
patient. E., Passive, when the part is 
moved by another, or acted upon, as in 
massage. 

Exfolia'tion [ex/o/?'o, to shed leaves). 
The lamellar (or other) separation of bone 
or other tissue from the living structure 
in I?/y AWrosis, etc. 

Exhala^tion [exhah\ to breathe out). The 
vapor, subtle particles, etc., given off by 
the body through the skin, lungs, etc. 

Exhaust^'ion [exhaurio, to pour out). 
Drawing out or emptying. Apj)lied espe- 
cially to great loss of vital and nervous 
power from fatigue, or protracted disease. 

Exhib''it [exhibeo, to give). To adminis- 
ter medicine. 

Exhil'arant (exhilaro, to cheer). An 
agent to enliven and cheer the mind. E. 
Gas, Nitrous Oxide gas. 

Exhuma^tion [ex, humus, ground). The 
digging up after interment, or again bring- 
ing a dead body out, for examination in 



medico-legal inquiries, or for reinterment, 
etc. 

Exod''ic (ffu, out of, oSoq, a way). Ap- 
plied to nerves transmitting impulses out- 
ward from the central nervous system. 

Ex''ogen (ffw, yevvau, to produce). A 
plant whose growth is by means of ex- 
ternal deposit upon the trunk or branch. 
See Endogen. 

Exom^phalos. See Hernia. 

Exopath^ic (efw, nadoq, pain). Pertaining 
to those causes of disease coming from 
without or beyond the organism. See, also, 
Endopathic. 

Exophor^'ia. See Heterophoria. 

Exophthalmic. Pertaining to exophthal- 
mos. E. Goitre. See Goitre. 

Exophthalmos (ef, otpPal/uoc). Abnor- 
mal prominence or protrusion of the eye- 
balls. E., Pulsating, that characterized 
by a bruit and pulsation, due to an aneu- 
rism that pushes the eye forward. 

Exosmo'sis. See Osmosis. 

Exosto'sis (tf, ooTEov, bone). Abnormal 
enlargement or growth of bone, especially 
a deposit of bony tissue upon the surface 
preexisting bone. 

Exoter^ic [e^u-EpiKoq, external). Synony- 
mous w^ith Exopathic. 

Exot^ic [e^uTiKog, foreign). Pertaining to 
plants and products from another country. 

Exotro'pia. See Strabismus. 

Expec^tant (expecto", to look out for). 
Awaiting or expecting ; applied to a plan 
of treatment consisting in watching the 
progress of a disease, and not interfering, 
with therapeutical measures, unless war- 
ranted by special symptoms. 

Expecta^tion of Life. The average num- 
ber of years that persons of a given age, 
taken one with another, live, assuming that 
they die according to a given table of the 
probabilities of life. It thus has no rela- 
tion to the most probable life of a single 
given individual. E. of L., Complete, 
the addition of one-half year to the Cur- 
tate Expectation to allow for that portion of 
a year lived by each person in the year of 
his death. E. of L., Curtate, the average 
number of whole or completed years lived 
by each person. 

Expecf'orant {ex, out, pectus, the breast). 
A remedy that acts upon the pulmonic mu- 
cous memljrane, to promote or modify its 
secretions. 

Expectora^tion [ex, pectus). The fluid or 
semi-fluid matters from the lungs and air 
passages expelled by coughing and spit- 
ting. 



EXPERIMENTUM MIRAHILK ir,3 EXTRACTION OF CATARACT 



Experimen'tum Mirab'ile of Kirch- 
ner. An hvpnutic phciionienou in ani- 
mals; a lien, c". _^'., remaining in a fixed 
position when the head is pressed down 
and a chalk line made from its beak. 

Ex'pert [<x/',-r/its, proved). A person es- 
jx-cially qualified in a science or ait. E., 
Medical, a physician j^ieculiarly fitted by 
e.\ixrience or especial learning to render 
a true opinion in medico-legal or diag- 
nostic questions. 

Expira'tion {c-xpiro, to breathe out). The 
act of breathing forth, or expelling air 
from the lungs. 

Explora-'tion {exploro, to search out). The 
be;irching out the condition of a disea.sed 
organ or part by means of auscultation, 
palpation, percussion, t'A-. Also the search- 
ing a wound to learn its nature, course, 
etc., and if foreign bodies may be present. 
Also the examination of the female geni- 
tal organs by the finger or instrument for 
diagn(.>slic purjwses. 

Explor'atory. Pertaining to exploration. 
E. Puncture, the puncture of a cavity or 
tumor anil extraction therefrom of some of 
the contents to leani the nature of the 
same. E. Trocar, one especially adapted 
for E. puncture. 

Explor'er. An instnmient for use in ex- 
ploration. E., Electrical, an instrument 
for detecting a bullet by means of the elec- 
tric current. 

Explo'sives. See Consonants. 

Expres'sion. \ pres'^ing out. The forci- 
ble separation of linuids from .solids by 
pressure. E. of Foetus or Placenta, 
assisting the exjuilsion of the same by 
pressure u]xin the abdominal walls. 

Expul'sion, Sponta'neous. The extru- 
sion of tin- fiutus or the placenta without 
external aid. 

ExpuKsive {expello, to drive out). Per- 
taining to the extrusion or driving out of 
the fd-tus in childbirth, the voiding of the 
fa-ces, urine, i-tc. 

Exsan'guine (ex, sanguis, WooCl). IJlood- 
le-,^. 

Exsicca'tion {ex, sicca, dry). The process 
of depriving a .solid of its moisture (jr vola- 
tile con.-ilitucnls by the agency of mo<lerate 
heat. 

Ex'strophy {iKtrrpxpu, to evert). Con- 
genital ab.scnce of the anterior wall of the 
bladder and alxlomcn, with extroversion 
of the blarlder. 

Extcn'sion {,tf,-n,/o,Ui stretch out). Trac- 
tion made u|Kjn a fractured or (iJNlotated 
limb in order to bring the jmrts in projjcr 



apix)>ition. E., Angular, a miiluK.1 of 
reilucing and maintaining old dislocations 
of the hip. E., Counter, traction ujwn 
the trunk or the tmnkend of a fractured 
limb in adilition to extension. E., Double, 
upon both limbs in hiji-joint disease, e/r. 
E. Stage in Labor, one of tlie st;iges 
of lalK)r, consisting in the bending of the 
f(Vtal head, the occiput toward the back. 

Exten''sor {rxh-m/o). That which stretches 
out or extends. E. Muscles. See il///5r/i-. 
E. Tet^anus. In general spasms the 
extensor muscles overcome the llexors, and 
the spasm thus becomes an £. T. 

Extirpa'tion (cxtirpo, to root out). 
Thinough excision or out-rooting of a part. 
E. of the Eyeball, comjiletc removal of 
the globe of the eye. Enucleation. 

Extra-. A Latin prefix, meaning oulsidc, 

7i'////i l(t. 

Extraction of Cataract. Removal of the 
cataractous lens by surgical operation. 
The mothotls proi^sed or jiracticed are al- 
most numberless. Daviel's Method, im- 
proved by ySVtV-, was by a semicircular flap, 
upward in Daviel's, downward in Heer's, 
in the cornea, or at the margin, with rupture 
of the capsule and expression of the lens. 
This method is being revived and, with 
modification, adopted by a large number 
of modem ojienitors, and is called the Flap 
Extraction. The Discission Operation 
is used in .soft cataract, and consists in in- 
troducing a needle, whereby the capsule is 
broken and the anueous humor gains access 
to the lens-substance, which then isabsorlied 
or taken out by suction. In v. Graefe's 
Peripheral Linear Method, the Oi-aefe 
lance-knife enters the sclerotic 1. 5 nim. 
from the corneal border, and 2 nun. below 
the horizontal tangent of the upper border 
of the cornea, and is at first directed down- 
ward, but the counter])uncture is finally 
made o])]X)site the ptjint of puncture. The cut 
U])ward is then made jiarallel to tlu' plane 
of the iris, fi)lk)wed by an iridectomy, ca|)- 
sulotomy, and expression of the lens. The 
change in v. Graefe's Modified Linear 
Extraction consists chiefly in bringing 
the section to the corneo sikral juiietion. 
Needling, or the needle -operation. 
See above, under Discission. The Sim- 
ple Method, now advocated by many ()|th- 
thaimic surgeons, consists in a (laj) fonn- 
ing section an<l an <lMli■-^ioll of the iridec- 
tomy. The Suction Method cdusisls in 
the extraction of .soft cataracts by sucking 
the lenlicidar matter through a syringe 
nozzle intriKluced into the lens substance. 



EXTRACTOR 



154 



EYETEETH 



Extracfor [ex, traho, to draw). An instru- 
ment for extracting bullets, sequestrse, etc. 
E., Screw, armed with a screw attach- 
ment ; a tii-efond. 
Extract^um {extraho). An extract. In 
pharmacy, a semi -solid preparation ob- 
tained by dissolving the soluble parts of 
drugs, and evaporating the solution thus 
obtained. Alcohol and water are the most 
common solvents. There are 32 official 
extracta. E. Fluidum, a fluid extract. 
An alcoholic extract or concentrated tinc- 
ture of a strength such that I cubic centi- 
meter represents the medicinal powers of 
I gramme of the drug. Approximately 
I minim of the fluid extract represents i 
grain of the drug. In some of the fluid 
extracts alcohol is used as the solvent; 
in others alcohol and water, and in still 
others alcohol and glycerine. There are 
79 official extracta Jlitida. 
Extra-pol''ar Region. That lying outside 
the electrodes, as opposed to the Intra- 
polar Region, or area, that lying within 
or directly beneath. 

Extra-u''terine (exfj-a, uterus). Without 
theutems. E.-u. Pregnancy. See Fre^- 
nancy. E.-u. Life, that after birth. 
Extravasa^tion [extra, vas, a vessel). 
Filtration or effusion of blood, serum or 
fluid into adjacent tissues. 
Extrin^sic [extrittsiciis, from without). 
External, outward. E. Muscles, those 
attached to the trunk and extending to the 
limbs. 
Extrover-'sion. See Exstrophy. 
Exuda^tion [exudo, to sweat). Filtra- 
tion or oozing of the serum of the blood 
through the walls of the vessels. 
Eye (Sax. edge, Lat. oculns). The organ 
of vision. E., Accommodation of. See 
Acco77imodation. E., Appendages of, 
the eyelids, brows and lachrymal appa- 
ratus. E., Apple of, formerly the eye- 
ball; the pupil. E., Artificial, a thin 



shell of glass, celluloid or other substance, 
colored like the natural eye, placed in the 
socket after enucleation. E., Compound, 
the organ of vision formed of several crys- 
tal spheres, as in the -lower crabs. E., 
Diagrammatic, of Listing, a diagram 
of the eye for the more exact calculation 
of the passage of rays of light through 
the eye. E., Pineal or Epiphysial, the 
rudimentary median eye in some lizards. 
E., Schematic, an ideal or normal eye. 
Eye^ball. The globe of the eye. E., 

Dislocation of. See Dislocation. 
Eye^'bright. See Euphrasia. 
Eye^brow. The supercilium. The con- 
nective tissue, skin and hairs above the 
eye. The hairs serve chiefly to prevent 
the sweat from falling into the eye. 
Eye''-cells. Cup-shaped cells of porce- 
lain enameled black to place over the eye 
after operations. 
Eye-glass. A lens worn in one eye. 
Eye-glasses, pince-nez, worn instead of 
spectacles, and held in position by a spring 
acting upon the bridge of the nose. 
Eye^-ground. A synonym of the fundus- 
oculi or internal aspect of the vitreous 
chamber of the eye. 
Eye'lashes. The cilia; the hairs of the 
eyelid. E., Evulsion of, pulling out 
the same. E., Transposition of, shift- 
ing an excised strip of cilia and lid edge 
containing the hair bulbs to a new position, 
or otherwise altering the direction of the 
lashes by operation. 
Eye^lid. The protective covering of the 
eyeball, composed of skin, glands, con- 
nective and muscular tissue, the tarsus and 
conjunctiva, with the cilia at the free edge. 
Eye -strain. The excess and abnormalism 
of effort with the resultant imtation, caused 
by ametropia or insufficiency. Used also of 
the effects of excessive use of normal eyes. 
Eye'teeth. The canine teeth of the upper 
jaw. 



155 



FAR I'OINT 



F. Abbreviation of Fahreuheit : also of 
Fac^ make, and of Fiat, let there be made. 

Fl. or Fid. Abbreviation of Fluid. 

Ft. Abbreviation of Fiat. 

Face {/acies, the face). A name applied 
to the lower and anterior part of the 
head, including the eyes, nose, mouth, 
cheeks, lips, «•/(•. 

Fac'et (I-r.//. £•//<•, a little face). A small 
plane surface. The articulating surfaces 
of bones. Also, the flat surfaces occa- 
sionally seen in calculi, caused by friction 
upon each other. In Zoology, a segment 
of the com}X)und eye of an insect. 

Facial (/acics). I'ertaining to the face. 
F. Angle, the divergence between a 
line drawn from the upper jaw tangent 
to the forehead, and another to the ex- 
ternal auditory foramen. F. Artery. See 
.■ir/c-ry. 

Facul'tative { /acu/tas, capah'iWty). Per- 
taining to functional or acquired power. 
In bacteriology, ampliibious as to oxygen. 
F. Aerobia. See Aerobia. F. Anaero- 
bia. See Auaerobia. F. Hyperopia, 
a division of manifest hyperopia. F. Para- 
sites, those that develop in non-organ- 
ized media. See, e.g., Kaulins' Liquid. 

Fac'ulty ( facu/tas). A special action of 
the mind through the instrumentality of an 
organ or organs. Also, the corps of pro- 
fessors and instructors of a university and 
its colleges. F., Medical, the corps of 
professors and instructors of a medical col- 
lege. 

Fac'cal {/ux, sediment). Pertaining to 
th<- feces. 

Fae'ces {fax). The dregs of a liquor, as 
wine. Also, the alvine discharges or 
excretions of the lx)wels. 

Fahr'enheit'sThermom'eter. See T/ur- 
tn inettr. 

Faint (Jingo, to feign). A condition of 
languor. Also, a state of syncope or 
swo<jning. 

Falc'iform (yCz/.r, a sickle). Having the 
shajx: of a sickl*;. F. Process, a pro- 
cess of the dura mater which separates the 
liemi>|)lieres of the brain. 

Fairing. Umpiiing; losing one's cqui- 
lil>riui.'i. F. of Womb. .See I'tcnis. 
F. Sickness, a cotnnion ttrm for e|)ilepsy. 

Fallo'pian Tubes. See Ovidurts. 

Fall'-rheotomc. An arrangement where- 
by a weigiit injures a niu-scle, and also 



breaks and makes a galvanometer circuit ; 
by this instrument it was shown that the 
demarcation cuirent took a certain time to 
develop. 

False [fai/o, to deceive). Not genuine. 
Feigning or closely counterfeiting. F. 
Bittersweet. See Clinibitig Staff-tree. 
F. Gromwell, the root of Onos»iodiuin 
virginiaiiuin. Reputed to be tonic and 
diuretic. Dose of fid. ext. n\,xv-3ss. 
Unof. F. Passage, a jiassage foiined by 
the laceration of the urethra, caused by the 
forcible introduction of a catheter or other 
instiiiment in the wrong direction. F. 
Ribs. See /v'//'j. F. Water, a collection 
of tluid in catarrhal endometritis. 

Falx (Lat.). A sickle. F. Cerebelli, the 
sickle-like processes between the lobes of 
the cerebellum. F. Cerebri, the sickle- 
like process of the dura mater. 

Fam'ily [familia, a household). The per- 
sons ])elonging to a household. Inliiology, 
a class of genera similar in organic struc- 
ture. 

Fam'ine {fa»iis, hunger). Severe and 
continued hunger. Also, a general scarcity 
of food, which results in the star^•ation of 
many people. F. Fever. Same as Relap- 
sing Fez'cr, q. v. 

Fang. See Tedh. 

Fan'tome. See Phantom. 

Farad'. The unit of electrical capacity. 
Practically, a capacity suft'icient to hold one 
coulomb of current having a ]xjtential 
of one volt. The micro-farad, ^500555 
part of the theoretical farad, is conmionly 
used. A practical form of condenser of 
one farad capacity consi.sts of 300 leaves 
of tinfoil, each 16 centimeters in diameter, 
se])arated l>y leaves of mica. Tiie entire 
surface is aUjut 1. 1 sq. meters area. 

Farad'ic. The induced current, named 
from its discoverer, Michael I'araday. See 
( ttrreiit. 

Faradiza'tion. The apjjlication of the 
induced current to a diseased part, or in 
disease. 

Far''cy. See Equinia. 

Fari'na {/arina). The ground or pow- 
dered fecula of seeds, especially that of 
corn, liarley, lye and wheat. 

Farina'ceous {farina). Having the 
nature of or yielding flour. Al.su, ap- 
plied to very fine furfuraceous exfoliations. 

Far Point. See J'liHituin Keiitolum. 



FARRANT'S SOLUTION 



166 



FEEDING 



Par^'rant's Solu^tion. See JMounting 
Fluids. 

Far-sight^edness. A colloquial term for 
Ilyperuictropia . 

Fas^cia {fascia, a band). The membran- 
ous fibrous covering of muscles and other 
organs. F., Anal. See F., Jschio-irc- 
tal. F. of Arm [Brachial), invests the 
muscles of the arm, attached to the clavi- 
cle, acromion and spine of the scapula. 
F., Cranial, a firm, dense layer, adherent 
to the skin and occipito-frontalis muscle. 
F., Cervical, Deep, invests the muscles 
of the neck and encloses the vessels and 
nerves. F., Cremasteric, forms a looped, 
thin covering of the spermatic cord. F., 
Cribriform, the sieve-like covering of the 
saphenous opening. F. Dentata, a 
serrated band of gray substance of the 
dentate convolution of the cerebrum. F. 
of the Dorsum of the Foot, forms a 
sheath for the dorsal tendons of the foot. 
F., Iliac, lines the back part of the ab- 
dominal cavity, covering the psoas and 
iliacus muscles. F., Infundibuliform, 
the funnel-shaped-membrane enclosing the 
cord and testis in a distinct pouch. F., 
Intercolumnar, from the margins of the 
external abdominal ring, forming a sheath 
for the cord and testis. F., Ischio-rec- 
tal, covers the perineal aspect of the leva- 
■ tor ani muscle. F. Lata, the dense 
fibrous aponeurosis surrounding the thigh, 
called the Beep F. of the Thigh. F., Deep, 
of Leg, continuous with the last, surrounds 
the leg. F., Lumbar, the posterior 
aponeurosis of the transversalis muscle, 
divided into three layers. F., Obtura- 
tor, continuation of the pelvic, surrounds 
the obturator muscle. F., Pelvic, lines 
the cavity of the pelvis, continuous with 
the transversalis and iliac fascia. F., 
Perineal, the deep, called the triangular 
ligament, closes the front part of the out- 
let of the pelvis, attached to the pubes and 
rami of the ischium. F., Recto-vesical, 
the visceral layer of the pelvic F., invests 
the prostate, bladder and rectum. F., 
Transversalis, continuous with iliac and 
pelvic F., lies between transversalis muscle 
and peritoneum. 
Fascic^ulus (dim. of fascis). A little 
bundle, as the fasciculus of fibers that com- 
pose a nen'e. 

Fat. See lissue and Oil. 

Fatigue^ (faligo). \Vearincss, tiredness. 

That condition of diminished capacity for 

work produced in a muscle by prolonged 

activity. F. -stuffs, the accumulation of 



decomposition products in the muscular 
tissue and to which fatigue is probably due. 

Fat^ty Degen^eration. See Degenera- 
tion. 

Fau^ces (Lat.). The gullet or windpipe. 
Ihe space surrounded by the palate, tonsils 
and uvula. F., Isthmus of, the space 
at the back of the mouth enclosed by the 
margin of the palate, the back of the tongue, 
the pillars of the soft palate and the tonsils. 
F., Pillars of, the fold of mucous mem- 
brane between the base of the uvula and 
the posterior border of the tongue. 

Fau^na [Fau/nes, the god of agriculture). 
The animal life of a locality or epoch. 

Fa^vus {favus, honeycomb). Honey- 
comb Ringwonn, Tinea Vera, Tinea 
Lupinosa, Porrigo Lupinosa, Porrigo Fa- 
vosa. A contagious parasitic affection of 
the skin characterized by sulphvu-yellow, 
cup-shaped crusts within the epidenuis, 
especially in the scalp and hairy parts of 
the body. 

Feb^rifuge [febris, {ever, f /go, to dispel). 
An agent that lessens fever. 

Fe^brile {febris, a fever). Pertaining to 
or having the symptoms of a fever. 

Fe^'bris. See Fever. 

Fences. See Faces. 

Fech^ner's Law. The more expanded 
and accurate statement of Weber's Law 
as to the relation between the intensity of 
stimuli and the changes in the resulting 
sensations, a constant ratio existing be- 
tween the strength of the stimulus and the 
intensity of the sensation. With increase 
of the stimulus the sensation increases only 
as the logarithm of the stimulus. As there 
is a lower limit [threshold) or liminal in- 
tensity of excitation, so there is an upper 
or maximal height of sensibility. Between 
the two is the Range of Sensibility. 

Fec'ula (dim. of fcx, sediment). The 
starchy part of a seed. Also the sediment 
subsiding from an infusion. 

Fecunda'tion [f-cii>idns, fi-uitful). Fer- 
tilization ; impregnation ; the act of mak- 
ing fmitful. F., Artificial, impregnation 
by means of artificial intromission of the 
spermatic fluid in the vagina or uteras. 

Fecund^ity [fecunditas). The capability 
of reproduction. 

Feed^ing. The taking of food or aliment. 
F., Artificial, the introduction of food 
into the Ijody by means of artificial devices, 
such as the stomach-pump or in the form 
of an enema. F. Bottle, a glass flask 
armed with a rubber nipple, used in feed- 
ing liquid food to infants. F. by Rec- 



FEIILIXG'S SOLUTION 



157 



FERMENTS 



turn, the introduction of food into the rec- 
tum in the fonu of an enema or supjwsi- 
tor)-. 

Feh'ling's Solu''tion. As this sohition 
d<->cs net keep well, Prof. Ilolland ailvises 
its manufacture as follows : To be kept in 
two distinct parts. A. Take copj>er sulph. 
34.64 gms. and water enoujjh to make 
500 c.c. M. B. Pure Kochelle salt 173 
gms.; sol. sodium hydrate (sp. g;r., 1. 33), 
100 c.c, and water enough to make 500 c.c. 
For use, mi.\ equal volumes, and thus m:ike 
Fehling's solution. See Copper. 

Feh'ling's Test for Sugar. Boil i inch 
of l'ehling"s solutiun, and while hot add 
urine and Unl again. If no red or yellow 
color appears, add more urine until the 
volume is 1^4 inches. Again raise to toil- 
ing jxjint and set aside. If yellow or red 
cuprous o.xitle appears, the urine is saccha- 
rine. 

Fel Bo'vis (Lat.). O.x-gall. The biliaiy 
litjuid of the domestic ox. Bos taurns. It 
is a dark-green, ropy sul stance, consisting 
mainly of sotlium glycocholate and tauro- 
cholate, together with cholesterine. A 
tonic, antiseptic antl jiurgative, useful in 
emulsifying the fatty jwrtions of food. F. 
B. Inspissatum, 100 parts fresh ox-gall, 
strained and cvajxirated to 15 parts. Dose 
gr. v-xv. F. B. Purificatum, ox-gall 
3, alcohol I jiart. Should stand 24 hours 
before straining; then evajx^rate to con- 
sistence of pilular mass. Dose gr. v-xv. 

Fel'lic Acid. C^jH^qO^. A constituent 
(.f the Mlc. 

Fel'lows' Syrup of Hypophosphites, 
proprietar)'. Unof. Each 3 contains hyjx)- 
phosph. of iron gr. j, quinine gr. 3^, strych- 
nine gr. -f}f, calcium and manganese &&. 
gr. j, ])otassium q. s. Dose ^j. 

Fel'on. See Paiouyrhia. 

Fe'male [/iiiit//ii, a young woman). The 
sex that brings forth the young of a 
species. In surgery, that part of a doublc- 
liml>ed instrument that receives the com- 
plementary [lart. In Igtaiiy, the llower 
that contain.* the ovary. F. Catheter, a 
catheter having a short tul>e witli a slight 
curve. 

Fem'oral (finmr, the thigh l)one). Per- 
taining to the femur. F. Arch, that 
formed by Pou|iart\ liganniit. F. Artejy. 
.Sc-e /{rti-ry. F. Ring, the alKlnniinal end 
of the femoral canal, normally closed by 
the crural septum and the p<rit(jneum. 

Fe'mur (I at.). The thigh l<one, the 
longest anil luaviest l»oni- of the IxKly, 
articulating with the acetabulum and tibiu. 



Fenes'tra (Lat., a window). In anatomy, 
a name given to two apertures of the ear, 
the /•". Ovd/is and /". A'o/i/fi(/<i. 

Fen'estrate {^fenestra). Having apertures 
or openings. 

Fen'nel. See Fatiiiiiliitn. 

Fermenta''tion [fciniiiit/ini, leaven). 
The molecular decomposition of an or- 
ganic stnicture by means of an organized 
or unorganized ferment. F., Acetic, 
the fermentation whereby weak alcoholic 
solutions are converted into vinegar ; 
caused by the Bacillus accti, etc. F., 
Albuminoid ; tlie agents of this decom- 
position are the Bacil/iis iillniiiiiiiis, B. 
ctitcnuln, B. clavifoniiis, B. dislortus, B. 
filifonnis, B. gcnicuUitis, B. scaber, B. 
tennis, B. uroccphalus, etc. F., Am- 
moniacal ; the agent of the ammoniacal 
fenntiitation of urine is the iMicrococcns 
nrcc. F., Butyric, the conversion of 
butter into butyric acid, due to a microbe, 
Bacillus butyyiius. F., Gluconic ; glu- 
cose is transformed by the action of the 
li/icroioccus oblonL;'us. F., Lactic, the 
decomposition or " .souring '" of milk, caused 
liy the microbe. Bacillus lacticns. F., 
Propionic ; the Bacillus cavicit/a decom- 
poses saccharine solutions, producing pro- 
pionic acid. F., Putrefactive, the de- 
comjKisition commonly known as putrefac- 
tion, caused by various microbes, especially 
the J/icrococcus pyogenes {albus, aureus, 
citreus, tenuis, salivarius, etc.). F., Vis- 
cous, the Jl/icrococcus viscosus, secreting 
a gunmiy substance in the culture liquid. 
See, also, Ferments. 

Fer'ments [/eri/ientiini,\c:i\'c\\). Bodies 
exciting chemical changes in other mat- 
ters with which they are brought in con- 
tact. F., Organized, or Living, grow 
and multiply at tiic expense of tlie sub- 
stances in which they occur, — but only .so 
long as the ferment is living. Yeast is the 
representative of the cla.ss, causing fer- 
mentation by splitting u]) sugar into CX)^ 
and alcohol. See Fernienlalion. F., 
Unorganized, nf)n-li\ing, nitrogenous 
ladies |)ro(luced williin the body by the 
vital activity of the proto|)lasm of the cells. 
They are soluble in water, glycerine, and 
can be precipitated by alcohol. The fol- 
lowing is a list of this cla.ss: Ptyalin, in 
saliva, converts starch into maltose. Pep- 
sin, in ga.stric juice, con\ erts proteids into 
l^eplones in an acid medium. There are 
also in ihe gastric juice milk-curdling, 
fat-splitting, and lactic acid fernunts, 
whose function is indicated l>y the niuncb. 



FERN 



158 



FERRUM 



In the pancreatic juice, there is F., Dias- 
tatic or Amylopsin, converting starch 
into maltose ; Trypsin, converts proteids 
into peptones in an alkaline medium; 
F., Emulsive, emulsify fats ; F., Fat- 
splitting, or Steapsin, splits fats into 
glycerin and fatty acids and F., Milk- 
curdling. In the intestinal juice, there is 
a F., Diastatic, changes maltose into 
glucose ; F., Proteolytic, changes fibrin 
into peptone; Invertin chai^ges cane- 
into grape-sugar; and F., Milk-ciirdlhig, 
and /'., Diastatic, are also found in blood, 
chyle, liver, milk, etc. Pepsin and other 
ferments are also found in muscle and 
urine; and, lastly, a Fibrin-forming F. 
is also found in blood. 

Fern (Sax.y>ar«). A name given to the 
cryptogamous plants of the order Filices. 
See Aspidium. 

Ferrein', Tubule of. See Pyramid. 

Fer'ro- i^ferrunt, iron). A prefix used 
with the names of certain salts of iron. 

Fer^rum. (Lat.) [Geti. Ferri.) Iron. 
Fc = 56. Quantivalence 11, iv. A metal 
having a luster varying from silver white 
to gray. In pharmacy, a fine non-elastic, 
soft wire is used. F. Redactum, iron 
by h)drogen, occurs in fine powder ob- 
tained by the reduction of ferric oxide 
by hydrogen. A constituent of the blood, 
to the red corpuscles of which it gives 
color. An irritant in large or long- 
continued doses. In small doses a 
stimulant and slightly astringent tonic. 
Highly valuable in anaemia, but contra- 
indicated in plethora. Externally many 
of the soluble salts are excellent styptic 
and astringent lotions. Dose gr. j-v. 
Ferri Acetat., Liq., a 33 per cent, so- 
lution in water. F. Acetat., Tinct., has 
liq. ferri acetas 50, alcohol 30, acetic ether 
20 parts. Styptic and stimulant. Dose 
gr. X- 5 iij. F. Bromidi, Syr., contains 10 
per cent, of ferric bromide. Sedative tonic, 
recommended in nervous disorders. F. 
Carb., Saccharat., contains 15 per cent, 
of ferrous carbonate. Stimulant to diges- 
tion. Dose gr. ij-x, with food. F. Carb., 
Massa, Vallet's mass; ferrous sulphate 
100, sodium carbonate no, honey 36, 
sugar 25, syrup and distilled water aa 
q. s. ad fac. loo parts. F. Comp., Mis- 
tura, Griffith's mixture; ferrous sulphate, 
myrrh, sugar, aa 18, potassium carbonate 8, 
spt. lavender 50, rose water 900. Essen- 
tially a carbonate of iron. Dose gr. iij-v. 
F. Pilulae, Comp., Griffith's pill, con- 
taining each, ferrous sulphate gr. ^, so- 



dium carb. gr. 3^, myrrh gr. jss, syrup q. s. 
F. Chloridum, strongly acid, astringent, 
haemostatic and styptic. Never used in- 
ternally. F. Chlor., Liq., an aqueous so- 
lution containing 38 per cent, of the salt. 
Dose n\^ij-x ; rarely used. F. Chlor., 
Tinct., contains liq. chlor. ferri 35, alco- 
hol 65 parts. "Very commonly used, and 
one of the best tonic preparations. Dose 
rT\^v-xx. F. Citras, soluble in water, 
insoluble in alcohol. A mild stimulant. 
Dose gr. ij-v. F. Citras, Liq., a solution 
of ferri citras, 35 per cent, in strength. 
Dose gr. v-xv. F. Citras, "Vinum, am- 
monio-ferric citrate 4, tinct. orange peel, 
syrup, aa 12, stronger white wine 72 parts. 
Dose 5J-ij. F. Hypophosphitis, feme 
hypophosphite, soluble in very dilute 
hydrochloric acid. Dose gr. v-x. F. 
lodidum Saccharat., soluble in water. 
Tonic. Dose gr. v-x. F. led., Pil., 
contain reduced iron, iodine, liquorice, 
sugar, acacia, and water, coated with 
balsam of tolu in ether. Dose j-ij 
p'lls. F. lodidi, Syr., contains 10 per 
cent, of the iodide. Dose ITLv-xxx. F. 
Lactas, ferrous lactate, — best solvent, 
sodium citrate. Dose gr. j-iij. F. Ni- 
tratis, Liq., aqueous, contains 6 per cent, 
of salt, styptic and astringent. Dose IT^v 
-XV. F. Oxalas. Dose gr. ij in pill. 
F. Oxid. Hydratum, ferric hydrate, 
prepared by adding aq. ammonia 8 parts 
to a solution of ferric sulphate 10 parts. 
An antidote for arsenical poisoning, pre- 
pared when needed. F. Oxid. Hydrat. 
cum Magnesia, prepared when needed 
from sol. fenic sulphate 1000 gr., water 
2000 grains, to which is added magnesia 
150 gr. water ^ xxxij. An antidote for 
arsenic. F. Emplastrum, strengthen- 
ing plaster; ferric hydrate, dried Canada 
turpentine. Burgundy pitch, aa 10, lead 
plaster 70 parts. F. Trochisci, have 
each of ferric hydrate dried gr. v, vanilla 
gr. jL, sugar and mucilage of tragacanth 
q. s. Dose j-iij each day. F. Phos- 
phas, an adjuvant to laxative pills, gr. v 
-X. F. Pyrophosphas, tasteless and 
non-astringent. Dose gr. ij-v. F. Sul- 
phas, copperas, proto-sulphate of iron, fer- 
rous sulphate, astringent and irritating. 
An ingi-edient of )>il. aloes et ferri, q. v. 
F. Sulph. Precipitat., the foregoing pre- 
cipitated from solution by alcohol. Dose 
gr. ss-ij. F. Subsulph. Liq., Monsel's 
solution, an aqueous solution of basic sul- 
phate of iron, powerfully astringent, st\q)tic 
and haemostatic, rarely given internally. 



FERRUM 



159 



FEVER 



Dose gj- iij-x. F. Sulph. Exsiccat., 
dried ferams sulphate, the most astringent 
and irritating. Dose gr. ss-ij, in pill. F. 
Valerianas, valerianate of iron, soluMe 
in alcohol. Dose gr. i-iij, in pill. F. 
et Ammonii Citras, citrate of iron 3, 
water cif ammonia i part. Dose gr. ij-v. 
F. et Ammonii Sulphas, anunonic- 
sulphate of iron, ferric alum. Least astrin- 
gent of sulphates. Dose gr. ij-v. F. et 
Ammonii Tartras, amnionic tartrate of 
iron. Deise gr. v-xx. F. et Potassii 
Tartras, least disagreeable of all iron 
prejjarations. Dose gr. v-x. F. et 
Quininae Citras, has 12 per cent, of 
quinine. Astringent and stimulant. Dose 
gr. iij-v. F. et Quin. Cit., Liq., of 
douliiful value. Dose ITLv-xv. F. Vi- 
num Amarum, hitter wine of iron, con- 
tains liq. citrate of iron and quinine 8, 
tinct. orange peel 12, S)Tup 36, stronger 
white wine 44. A gocnl sul'Stitute for the 
various "elixirs of cali>aya and iron." 
Dose 3J-iv. F. et Strychninae Citras, 
contains I per cent of strychnine. Astrin- 
gent and stimulating. Dose gr. j-iij. F. et 
Ammonii Acetas, Mist., I'.asham's mix- 
ture, contains tinct. fer. chloride 2, acetic 
acid 3, liq. ammonii acct. 20, elixir au- 
rantii 10, s)Tup 15, water 50 parts. Very 
agreeable, tonic and diuretic. Dose 3 ij-v. 

rNOFFICI.XL rREPARATIONS. 

F. Dialysatum, dialysed iron, a ten per 
cent, oxychloride in water. Astringent 
and stj-jjtic, but only feetly chalybeate. 
I)o.-5e n\^x-xxx. F. Arsenias (not to 
lie confounded with arsen/A- <<( iif)n). 
Do.se gr. yg-'. F. et Manganesii 
lodidi Syr., containing in each tkl. 3 , 
50 gr. of i(xlides in prci|)ortion of 3 of iron 
to I of manganese. I )ose TTLx-xxx- ^]. F. 
et Manganesii Phosphat., Syr., syxup 
of pliosjdiate of iron and manganese. Each 
3 contains 2 gr. phosph. of iron and, I of 
manganese. Dose ^]. F. Mistura 
Aromat., pale cinchona 1 ark 4, ca- 
lumba 2, cloves l.iron wire 2, tinct. carda- 
mon comj). 12, tin(t. orange peel 2, water 
of |«|i]Hnnint 50. Dose ,5J-ij. F. Mist. 
Laxans, ferrous sulphate gr. ij, magnesia 
sul|)hate 3J, dilute sulphuric acid n\iij, 
.spt. chlorofomi TTLxx, water of ])eppermint 
ari fac. ^j. Fcrro-salina, Mist., mag- 
nesium suljihate _^j, |iolas^ium ditartratc 
2J. dried sulphate of iron gr. x, water 
,^xxxij. Dow a wineglassful. F. Phos- 
phatum Quininz et Strychninae, Syr., 
Ea^loii's symp, unof llath ^j contains 



gr. j phosph. of iron, gr. j quinia and gr. 
^'5 strychnia. 

Fer^tile {fertilh, fmitful). Prolific, fruit- 
ful. In botany, applied to flowers having 
a pistil. 

Fertiliza'tion of the Ovum. See /v- 
itinaation. 

Feru'la. Giant fennel. A genus of the 
order Umbellifem;. Also, a splint. 

Festina'tion {/cstino, to hasten). A symp- 
tom of paralysis agitans anil other diseases 
in which the patient shows in walking a 
tendency to take ciuicker and (juicker steps. 
Propulsion or retropulsion are coincident 
symptoms. 

Fe'ver (/rdrts, a fever). A systemic dis- 
ease or symptom of disease whose distinc- 
tive characteristic is elevation of tem])era- 
ture, accompanied also by quickened cir- 
culation, increased katabolism or tissue- 
wa.-te and disordered secretions. F., 
Abdominal. See Typhoid F. F., Af- 
rican. See F., Yellow. F. and Ague. 
See /•'., lutermitlent. F., Anomalous, 
one whose s)Tnptoms are irregular. F., 
Ardent, a malarial fever to which immi- 
grants to a tropical country are peculiarly 
liable. F., Articular. See Dtm^'ue. 
F., Asthenic, one with a low fever tem- 
perature, weak circulation and great loss 
of ner\ous force. F., Atypic. See /'., 
aitoi/iiiloiis. F., Bilious, one accom- 
panying affections of the digestive organs. 
F., Catarrhal, that with catarrhal aftec- 
tions of the air passages. F., Catheter, 
a se%'ere remittent fever sometimes follow- 
ing the passage of the catheter. F., 
Cerebro-spinal, a malignant epidemic 
fever characterized by spasmodic actions 
of the muscles of the neck, retraction of 
the head, hyperasthesia, rfr., with lesions 
of the cerebral and spinal numbranes; due 
to a si)ecil"ic poison. F., Congestive, a 
malignant form of a remittent or intermit- 
tent malarial fever. F., Continued, one 
in which there is a slowly continuous rise 
of temperature until a not high crisis is 
reached, whence the fever ends fatally or 
slowly subsides. F., Enteric. See /'., 
'J'yplioiil. F., Eruptive, that accom 
panied or succeedeil by an eruption of the 
skin. Examples are Scarlet F., Mt-asUs, 
A"df/i('ht, SniiillpoXy V'lKiinnfion, Vnri- 
celln, Fiysipdos, Dens^iif. F., Essen- 
tial. See /'"., liliof.tlhif. F., Idio- 
pathic, one in which no local alletiion 
cau.ses the disorder. F., Inflammatory, 
the .same as sim|)le Citi/iiiiml /. F., 
Intermittent, one in which the symjiloms 



FEVER BUSH 



160 



FICUS 



intermit, with intermediate periods of free- 
dom from the febrile attack. F., Mala- 
rial, remittent, or Fever and Ague. F., 
Jungle, a remittent fever of India. F., 
Malignant, a severe and fatal form. F., 
Pernicious, a malignant fatal type of re- 
mittent or intermittent malarial fever. F., 
Relapsing, an epidemic, contagious type 
due to a specific poison, similar to yellow 
fever. F., Remittent, a paroxysmal fever 
with exacerbations and remissions, but not 
intermissions. F., Septic, due to the 
admission of septic matter into the system. 
F., Typhoid, or enteric fever, an acute, 
self-limited febrile affection due to a spe- 
cific germ, and having characteristic lesions 
in Peyer's patches and the solitaiy glands. 
F., Typho -malarial, a malarial fever 
with typhoid symptoms. F., Typhus, 
ship or jail fever, a contagious specific type 
connected with filth and overcrowding. 
F., Yellow, an acute, infectious, paroxys- 
mal, malignant fever, characterized by 
three stages^the febrile, the remission, and 
the collapse; due to a specific poison. 
Destioyed by frost. 

Fe^ver Bush. Spice-wood. The bark 
and fruit of Benzoin odorifcrum. An aro- 
matic stimulant and tonic. Properties due 
to a volatile oil. Dose of fid. ext. — bark 
5J-ij, of the berries n\^xx-3J. Unof. 

Fe^verfew. The herb Pyrcthrum par- 
thciihtin. A stimulant tonic vv'ith emmena- 
gogue and anthelmintic properties. Dose 
of fld. ext. 3J-ij. Unof. 

Fi''ber [Jibra, a thread). A filamentary or 
thread-like organ or part of an organ. Ap- 
plied to the thread-lilvc filaments of mus- 
cular, cartilaginous and tendinous tissues. 
F. of Corti, See Corti. 

Fibbers of Tomes. Elongated and 
branched processes of the odontoblasts of 
the pulp, filling the dentinal tubules of 
teeth. 

FibriPla (dim. oi Jibra). A small fiber or 
component filament of a fiber. A name 
applied to minute nerve filaments. 

FibriPlar. Pertaining to fibrilke. F. Con- 
tractions, short contractions occurring 
alternately in different bundles of muscular 
fibers. 

Fibrilla^tion. See Fibrillar Contractions. 

Fi^brin {fibra, a fiber). A native albumin 
or ])roteid, a substance that, becoming 
solid in shed blood, plasma and lymph, 
causes coagulation of these fluids. It then 
exists in the shape of innumerable, excess- 
ively delicate, closely-packed, microscopic, 
doubly-refractive fibrils, entangling the 



blood corpuscles, as in a spider's web, and 
with them forming the blood cloior placenta 
sanguinis. Fibrin forms about 0.2 per 
cent, of the blood and is insoluble in water 
and ether. It is changed into syntonin by 
dilute hydrochloric acid. 

Fibrin'ogen (yfi^rm, }evi'a«, to beget). A 
native proteid of the globulin class, obtained 
from blood plasma, serous transudations, 
etc. According to Schmidt it is one of the 
chief elements in the formation of fibrin 
(the other being Paraglobulin), which 
occurs dissolved in the plasma, aided by a 
fibrin ferment. 

Fibrinoplast^in. See Paraglobulin. 

Fi^bro- (_/f(^rrt', afiber). A prefix used with 
words to denote fibrous structure. F.- 
blasts,the formation of new fibrous tissue. 
F. -cartilage, a variety of cartilage having 
fibrous structure. See Cartilage. F.- 
myoma. See Myoma. F.-neuro- 
myoma. See Neuroma. F. -plastic, 
fiber-forming. F.-plastin. See Para- 
globulin. F. -sarcoma, a tumor having 
structural resemblance both to fibroma and 
spindle-celled sarcoma. 

Fi^broid [Jibra, eiSo^, likeness). A term 
applied to such structures as possess a fib- 
rous appearance, but cannot be separated 
into fibers. Also, a fibroid tumor. 

Fi^'broin. An albuminoid, the chief con- 
stituent of the cocoons of insects and spider- 
web. 

Fibro^ma [Jibra, oma, a tumor). Fibroma 
Molluscum, Molluscum Simplex, Mollus- 
cum Pendulum, Molluscum Fibrosum. A 
disease of the skin marked by the pres- 
ence of soft tumors within the connective 
tissue of the deeper layers of the corium 
and subcutaneous tissue. They are usually 
hemispherical, and vary in size from a pin's 
head to that of an orange. Occur on all 
parts of the body, and frequently extend 
to the nerve trunks, where they have 
been found in post-mortem examination. 
Thought to be due to obstmction of the 
lymphatics. F. Fungoides. See Mycosis. 

Fib'ula (L. a buckle). The smaller or 
splint bone at the outer part of the lower 
leg articulating above with the femur, and 
below with the astragalus and tibia. It 
forms the external malleolus. 

Fi''cus. (Lat. a fig-tree.) The fig. The 
fleshy receptacle of F. carica, native to 
Asia Minor, and cultivated throughout 
Europe and tropical America. Contains 
62 per cent, of grape sugar when dry. 
Somewhat laxative and fairly nutritious. 
Constituent of conjeclio settncE. 



FIELD OF VISION , 



161 



FIT 



Field of Vision. Sometimes sjx)ken of 
as simply the fielJ. The extent of indi- 
rect vision with fixation of the visual axis 
upon one jx)int. Its limit for white light 
is alxDut 90° outward, 70° inward and 
alK)ve, and 60° downward. The F. for 
colors is more restricted, that for Mue is 
nearly as large as white, red and green 
more narrow. F., Testing, the. See 
Perinutcr. F., Contraction of the, oc- 
curs in certain retinal and cerebral aflec- 
tions. 

Fig. See Ficiis. 

Fig' wort. The herb Scrophiiltiria nodosa. 
Alterative, diuretic and anodyne. Some- 
times u---ed in form of ointment in piles. 
Dose of tld. ext. 3 ss-j. Unof. 

Fil'ament {fii'uni, a thread). A small 
thread-like structure or part of an origan, 
as a muscle, nerve or tendon. F., Sperm- 
atic, the caudal filament of the sperma- 
tozoa. 

Fila'ria [filtt/n). A genus of thread-like 
worms lielonging to the order A'e»tah>dti. 
Many, if not all of them, are parasitic. F. 
Medinensis, the Guinea IVorm, q. v. 
F. Sanguinis Hominis. Craw Craw. 
A nematode worm native to the Guinea 
coa>t of Africa, which, entering the blood 
and lymphatics, causes lym]>h abscesses 
and certain forms of Elephantiasis, </. v. 

Fil'iform ( /f///w). Thread-like. F. Bou- 
gie. St-e /^'o/ti^ir. F. Papillae, the small- 
e.-.t and most numerous of tlie P. of the 
tongue, occurring over its whole surface. 

Fil'let, Ol'ivary. A fa.sciculus of nerve 
fibers enclosing tlie olivary body of the 
medulla. 

Filo-pres'sure {filiim). Compression of 
a vessel l>y means of a wire. 

Fil'ter (ftUnun, felt). An apparatus for 
.straining and removing from water or otiier 
ii(|uid s<jlutioiis tlie impurities il may con- 
tain. F., Chamberland's, or C.'s Bou- 
gie, a filter of peculiar con.struction that 
allows no microl)cs to pass. 

Filtra'tion (fiiOum). The operation of 
.straining tlirough IjIIjuIous pajK-r. The 
l^'.st white filter paj)cr should l)e used for 
filtiriiig alkaline or alkaloidal .solutions. 

Fi'lum Termina'le. The terminal strands 
of tlic spinal cord, extending from the 
first luml>ar vertebra through the cauda 
c'|tjina. 

Fim'briac (ft»i/ina,a. fringe). Threads; 
a fringe, f". of Fallopian Tube, the 
fringe-like processes of the outer extremity 
<if the oviduct. 

Fing'ers. (Sax.) Tlic digits of the hand. 
II 



Fire-damp. See Marsh Gas. 

Fire'weed. The hcvh ErccJithifcs Iiicraii- 

folia. Infests peppermint fields of Michi- 
gan. Tonic and astringent. Of reputed 
service in dysenterj'. Dose of fld. ext. 
_3ss-j. L'nof 

First Inten'tion. See I/t-aliitg. 

Fish'er's Test. See rhaiyl-hydrazin 
Test. 

Fish''-skin Disease. See lehthyosis. 

Fis'sile yfiiuio, to split). That which may 
be split or cleft. 

Fis'sion {fiiido). Reproduction by split- 
ting into two or more equal parts. 

Fissipara'tion. See Cell. 

Fissip'arous {findo). A sexual genera- 
tion by (ission. 

Fis'sure {fuulo). A groove or cleft. A 
term applied to the clefts or grooves in 
various organs, as F. of Bichat, the 
transverse fissure of the brain. F. Gla- 
serian, the fissure of the glenoid fossa. 
F. Longitudinalis, the cleft in the 
median line on the upper surface of the 
brain. F. of Sylvius, the cleft between 
the anterior and middle lobes of the brain. 

Fist (Sax.yfrj/). The finiily-closed hand. 

Fis'tula {fntilo'). A suppurating, tube- 
like passage in the body. F., Aerial, 
opening into the larynx, trachea, elc. F., 
Anal, about the anus. F., Blind, a va- 
riety of anal, urinary or other fissure with 
but one opening. F., Blind, External, 
an anal F. with but one oi>ening external. 
F., Blind, Internal, anal lissure with hut 
one opening internal. F., Blind, Uri- 
nary, suppurating tracks opening into the 
urethra, but without external openings. 
F., Biliary, of the biliary <lucts or gall- 
bladder. F., Complete, with two open- 
ings, internal and external. F., Fecal, 
abdominal F., opening into the intestine. 
F. in Ano. See .liial /•". F., Mam- 
mary, or Milk, of the mamma or its ducts. 
F., True, one that discharges the secreti^on 
of an organ. In F. recto-labial, recto- 
urethal, recto-vaginal, and recto-vesi- 
cal, the gut connnunicates by a listulous 
track witii tlie laliia niajora, tlie uretiira, 
the vagina, or the bladder, resix'Ctively. 
F., Thiry's, an artificial intestinal V. 
made in the dog to obtain intestinal juice. 
F., Vellas', the same, l>ut so made that 
the 1<K)|) is sujjplied by its own 1)1ikk1 ves- 
sels and nerves, isolated, and with an 
up|KT and lower ajK-ilure. 

Fit (Sax.//, a .song). A i)<)pu!ar name ap- 
plied to any sudden paroxysm of ailisease, 
but especially to one of epilepsy 



FIXATION 



162 



FLUXION 



Fixa''tion {Jixus, fixed). A making firm 
or rigid. F. Forceps, those used for fix- 
ing or holding a part in position during a 
surgical operation. 

Flank {^flacais, sofi). The part of the 
body between the ribs and the upper bor- 
der of the ilium. 

Flap (O. E. Jlappan, to break). A loose 
and partly detached portion of the skin or 
other soft tissue. F. of Amputation. 
See Amputation. F. Extraction. See 
Extraction of Cataract. 

Flat-foot. See Talipes. 

Flafulence [Jlattcs, breath). A condi- 
tion marked by the presence of gases in 
the alimentaiy canal. It arises mainly 
from the fermentation of the contents of 
the stomach and intestines. 

Fla''tus [flatus). A term applied to gases 
in the stomach and bowels. 

Flax-seed. See Linum. 

Flea. See Pulex. 

Flea''bane. See Erigeron. 

Fleece of Stealing. An interlacing of 
fibers passing from the cortex about the 
dentate nucleus. 

Fleischl's Law of ContraC'tion. That 
the excitability of a ner\"e varies at certain 
points in its course. 

Fleit'mann's Test for Arsenic. Put 
some strong potassium hydrate into a test 
tube and a few pieces of pure zinc ; clasp 
over mouth of tube paper wet with silver 
nitrate and boil. If the paper is not 
stained no arsenic is present. 

Flesh (Sax. flense^. The soft tissues of the 
body, especially the muscles. F., Proud, 
a colloquial term for the soft and inflamed 
granulation of the edges of a wound. 

FlexibiFitas Ce''rea. (Lat.) A condition 
of the limbs in catalepsy in which they 
resist passive movement and seem as if 
made of wax. 

Flex''ible {flexus, bent). That which may 
be bent. F. Catheter, a catheter made 
of flexible substance. F. Collodion. 
See Pyroxyline. 

Flexile [flexilis, pliable). Easily bent. 

Flex''ion [flexus). The operation or pro- 
cess of bending. F., Forcible, in surgery, 
a mode of treating aneurism by a forcible 
bending of the limb so as to compress 
the popliteal artery, thereby reducing the 
volume of blood; also, of breaking up 
adhesions of the joints by mechanical 
bending. 

Flex-'ion-stage of Labor. One of the 
stages of labor consisting in a bending of 
the head forward toward the chest. 



Flex''or {flexus'). A name applied to those 
muscles which bend a limb or part. See 
Muscle. 

Flex''ura (Lat., a bending). A bending or 
curve in an organ. 

Floating Ribs. See Hibs. 

Floc^culus (dim. of floccus, a tuft of 
wool). A small lobule of the cerebellum. 

Flood''ing. A popular name for the 
copious bleeding from the womb during 
child-birth. 

Floor of Pelvis. See Pelvis. 

Floor-space. The distance apart of beds 
required for proper ventilation of hospitals. 
It should be not less than jJj o^ the cubic 
space. 

Flor'ida AlFspice. The leaves of Caly- 
canthus fioridus. A pleasant aromatic 
stimulant. Dose of fld. ext. gtt. x-xxx. 
Unof. 

Flou^ren's Doctrine. That the whole of 
the cerebrum is concerned in every psy- 
chical process. 

Flow (Sax. fowan). The free discharge 
of a liquid, as the blood. 

Fluctua''tion [fuctuo, to float or roll). 
Tlie wave-like motion of contained fluid 
upon pressure, or by succussion. 

Flu^id {fuo, to flow). A substance whose 
molecules move freely upon one another. 
Also applied to the liquid tissues of the 
body. 

Fluidrachm''. See Weights. 

Fluores^cence {fuo). A property pos- 
sessed by certain substances, consisting in 
the emission of colors while light is being 
passed through them. Quinine, fluorspar, 
and several structures of the eye, possess 
this power. See also Phosphorescence. 

Fluorescein [fluo). An amoi-phous pro- 
duct of the reduction of fluoresceine, the 
latter an anhydride of resorcin. On account 
of its neutral quality and green fluorescence, 
it has been used to study the movements 
of the intraocular fluids. 

Flu'orine. F=: 19; quantivalence I. One 
of the elements. It has not been isolated, 
but is probably a gas. All the salts are 
highly corrosive and poisonous in their full 
strength. Ammonium fluoride is recom- 
mended by Lucas in h}'pertrophy of the 
spleen. Dose Ti:\^v of a gr. iv to 5J solu- 
tion. Unof. 

Flux {fuxus, flowing). An abnormal flow 
of any of the excretions of the body, espe- 
cially the foeces. Also, a synonym for 
Dysentery. 
Flux''ion ( fluxus'). Gathering of blood 
or other fluid to one part of the body. 



P'OCAL 



163 



FORCEPS 



Fo^'cal {fih'us, a fire-place). Pertaininc; to 
or ctcupying a focus. F. Disease. See 
Disease. F. Haemorrhage, localized H., 
ill contradistinctiun t(.i diltuse or dissemi- 
nated. F. Meningitis, involving but a 
small area of the membranes. F. Mye- 
litis, lucali/ed, in contradistinclion to 
ditTuse or disseminated. F. Sclerosis, 
the chronic indurating fonu, sumeiimes 
called Scli-roHc Myelitis. 

Fc'cus [focus). The princijial seat of a 
disease. Thejx>int (called /;7;/c7/<;//^vw5) 
whereto are gathered the rays of light by 
a convex lens or a concave mirror. F., 
Negative, or Virtual, the imaginary 
focus of an object i)]aced within tlie ])rinci- 
]>al focus. Conjugate Foci, interdepen- 
dent foci. 

Foenic'ulum. Fennel. The fruit of F. 
vulgare. Properties due to a volatile oil. 
A mild stimulant and aromatic carmina- 
tive. F., Aq., 2 parts of the oil in loo 
of water. Dose 3SS-5J. F., Ol., the 
volatile oil. Dose tTLij-v. 

Fce'tal. Pertaining to the foetus. 

Fce'ticide {/a-fus, unliom offspring, cado, 
to kill). The killing of the foetus in the 
worn!) by intent. 

Fce'tid [fateo, to become putrid). Hav- 
ing a foul odor. 

Fce'tus (/<i/us, offspring). Tlie product 
of conception from the fourth month of 
intrauterine life to delivery. Often used 
of the whole ]>eriod of intra-uterine life. 
F., Altitude of, the general form and direc- 
tion of the tiaink and the pc>sition of the 
limbs in relation to it. F., Papyraceous, 
a retained dead fetus inumniilied and 
compressed. F., Presentation of. See 
rrcsentation. 

Fold. A temi applied to the plication or 
doubling together of various parts of the 
IxKly. F., Recto-vaginal, the fold of 
the peritoneum descending in front of the 
rectum. (Called in the male the rccto- 
rf.ioil fold.) 

Folie a deux (Fr.). See Insanity, Com- 
tiiiiiiiiiiteil. 

Fol'liclc (dim. oi follis,z. pair of bellows). 
In anatomy a very small secretory cavity 
or sar, as the follicles of I,iel>crkiihn. F., 
Graafian, the small vesicular i^odies in the 
cnnii al layer of the ovarv', consi.sting of 
flattened granular cells with oval nuclei 
and memlirana |)ropria, each ab<iut yft'.-oy 
inch in dianieier. F., Sebaceous, the 
.sacs lying within the skin which secrete 
the oily fluid with which the skin Ls soft- 
ened. 



Follic^ulose {follis). Full of follicles^ 
liaxing the appearance of follicles. 

Fomenta''tion \^f>//ii)itiim). The appli- 
cation of cloths .soaked in hot medicinal 
solutions, to reduce intlanimation or allay 
pain. Also, the application of hot dry 
cloths. Also, the decoction applied. 

Fons Pulsati''lis. See Foiitoitilh-. 

Fonta'na's Markings. Delicate micro- 
scopic transverse folds of ner\'e-fibers, to 
which is due their non-retraction when 
divided. 

Fontana's Spaces. Those between the 
jjrocesses of the ligamentum pectinatum 
iridis. 

Fontanelle'' (dim. oi foittaiiu, a spring, 
from the ajipearance and feeling). The 
membranous spaces of the infant's head, 
from delayetl ossification of the cranial 
bones. F., Anterior, that at the point of 
union of the frontal, saggital and coronal 
sutures. See also Brigmn. F., Pos- 
terior, that at the point of junction of the 
apex of the lami)doidal sagittal suluu?s. 

Food (Sax. foda). Anything used for the 
nourishment or formation of tissue. The 
substances ordinarily employed as aliments. 
Foods, Isodynamic. Ihose producing 
an eipal amount of heat. F., Plastic, pro- 
teids. F., Respiratory, fats and carbo- 
hydrates. (The nomenclature of the two 
last rests ujwn an eiToncous theory-.) 

Foot (Sax. fdl)- "Hie organ at the ex- 
tremity of the leg ; one of the organs of 
locomotion. In bimana and C|uadrumana it 
consists of the tarsus, metatar.sus, and ] ha- 
langes, or toes. F. Clonus. See Cliiius. 

Fora'men {foio,\.o ])ierce). A passage or 
opening. F. Caecum, the blind jassage 
al tiie root of the spine of the frontal 1 one. 
Ajiplied also to other caeal foranuna. 
F. of Magendie, an opening in the inferior 
boundary of the fourth vintricle. F. 
Magnum. That in the occipital bone 
coninnniicating with the spinal canal. F. 
of Monro, an opening under the arch of 
the fornix. F. Ovale, an 0]>ening be- 
tween the auricles of the fotal heart. F. 
of Winslow, the aperture tliat extends 
between the large sac of the omentum 
and the cavity of the al donien. 

Force {fortis, strong). That which pro- 
iluees or arrests motion. 

For'ceps {forceps, a pair of tongs). An 
instrument with two blades atid handles 
for pur|x")scs of seizing, traction, etc., in 
surgical, obstetrical, and otlier operations. 
F., Angular, fcrcej IS bent for insertion into 
a canal. F., Arterial, specially adapted 



FORCIBLE 



164 



FRACTURE 



for seizing an artery ; many varieties are 
named after inventors. F., Bone, ex- 
ceptionally strong, for use in operations 
upon bones. F., Bullet, of peculiar con- 
struction, to extract bullets. F., Canula, 
long, slender forceps enclosed in a tube, 
that open by protruding the blades. F., 
Craniotomy ; the halves are crossed and 
adapted to embryotomy. F., Dental, 
adapted for extraction of teeth. F., Ec- 
tropion, adapted for seizing the lid in ec- 
tropion operations. F., Gouge, cutting 
forceps for operations upon bone. F., Iri- 
dectomy, delicate forceps for seizing the 
iris. F., Midwifery, or Obstetric, for 
seizing the foetal head in labor and by 
traction aiding its exit ; a great number of 
varieties. 

Forc'ible. With force or power. F. Ex- 
tension. See Extension. 

For^cipressure i^ force, and presser, to 
squeeze). The arrest of a minor haemor- 
rhage by pressing the end of the divided 
vessel with a pair of spring forceps, the 
pressure being continued for 24-36 hours. 

Fore-arm. That part of the arm between 
the wrist and the elbow. 

Fore -brain. The anterior of the encepha- 
lic vesicles into which the primary nei-ve- 
system of the embryo divides at an early 
stage. 

Fore-gut. The cavity in the raised cephalic 
end of the embryo, called also Head- 
gut. 

Fore^head. That part of the face between 
the orbits of the eyes, the hair above, and 
the temples at the sides. 

For''eign Bod''y. A substance in a wound 
or cavity acting as an irritant. 

Foren'sic i^forensis, belonging to the 
fonmi). Pertaining to a court of law. In 
medicine, that part of the science con- 
nected with judicial inquiry. Also, medi- 
cal jurisprudence. 

Forc'skin. The prepuce. 

Forma^tio Reticula^ris (Lat.). The in- 
tercrossing of the fibers in the medulla. 

Form''ative Cells. Large spherical, re- 
fractive cells beneath the hypoblast. 

Formica''tion i^forniica, an ant). A sensa- 
tion like that produced by ants or other 
insects crawling upon the skin. 

Form''ula (dim. oi forma, a. form). A pre- 
scribed method. In pharmacy, a list of 
the names and respective quantities of sub- 
stances entering into a com]30sition. In 
chemistry, a method of representing the 
gravimetric structure of a compound by 
symbols. F., Constitutional, one that 



shows structure and proportionate compo- 
sition of its component parts. F., Em- 
pirical, that showing the constitution of a 
body without showing how the molecules 
are grouped. F., Graphic. Same as 
Constitutional. F., Rational. Same as 
Constitutional. 

For^nix {^fornix, ?es\ arch). The triangular 
lamina of the white substance of the brain, 
extending into the lateral ventricles and 
arching downward. 

Fortifica^tion Spect^'rum. A term used 
of the appearance of a peculiar subjective 
visual sensation in migraine. The luminous 
shape of its outer edge assumes a zigzag 
form, with angles like a fortification. 

Fos^sa {fossa, a ditch). A depression, fur- 
row or sinus. F., Canine, the depression 
on the external surface of the superior 
maxillary bone, forming the origin of the 
levator anguli oris and compressor nasi 
muscles. F., Cranial, any fossa of the 
skull. F., Iliac, the smooth internal sur- 
face of the ilium. F., Lachrymalis, the 
depression in the frontal bone for the recep- 
tion of the lachrymal gland. F., Nasal, 
the nostrils. See Nasal Fossce. F., 
Navicularis, a fossa within the penis, 
foiTned by a dilatation in the spongy por- 
tion of the urethral passage. 

Fossette^ (Fr ). A dimple or small de- 
pression. 

Fourchette^ (Fr., a fork). A fold of mu- 
cous membrane at the junction of the 
labia majora. 

Fove^a [fovea, a small pit). Applied to 
many depressions in the body or its organs, 
but more particularly to \he fovea centralis 
retince, a little pit in the macula lutea op- 
posite the visual axis, the spot of distinct- 
est vision, where the retinal cones are 
massed together and the rods and some 
other parts are absent. 

Fowl'er's Method. See Urea. 

Fowl'er's Solution. See Arsenic. 

Fox-glove. See Digitalis. 

Frac'tional Cultiva'tion. The isolation 
of one variety of microorganism from a 
mixture of several in order to study or cul- 
tivate it. This is done by attenuation of 
the medium so that a drop will proloably 
contain but one organism. Distilled water 
was first used as the attenuating medium, 
but gelatinized media are now used. Bre- 
feld and Nageli suggested the procedure, 
and Lister isolated the first microbe, the 
bacillus lacticus of Cohn. 

Frac'ture {frango, to break). The break- 
ing of a bone, either by external force, or 



FR.ENUM 



165 



FRONTO- 



by the action of the muscles of the body. 
Applied also to the breaking of a cartihige. 
F., Barton's, oblique, of the lower end 
of radius, beginning in the articulating sur- 
face. F.-Bed, a double inclined plane 
for fractures of the hip. F., Capillary, 
consistini; of only a line crack or fissure. 
F., Comminuted, with shattering of the 
bone. F., Colics', one of lower end of 
radius with di>i)lacement backward. F., 
Complete, entirely through the bone. F., 
Complicated, with injur.- to adjacent 
jiaris. F., Compound, with communi- 
cating wouml of the skin. F., Depressed, 
with dejiression of the fractured part be- 
low the normal level, as in fracture of the 
skull. F., Double, one bone is fractured 
in two places. F., Dupuytren's, frac- 
ture of the fibula with retraction and dis- 
placement outward, and with laceialion of 
the ligaments of the foot. F., Epiphy- 
seal, with separation of the epiphysis of a 
bone. F., Greenstick, one side of the 
lone is broken, the other bent. F., Im- 
pacted, with forcible compression of the 
parts into each other. F., Pott's, same 
as Dupuytren's, without laceration of 
the inferior tiliio-fibular ligaments. F., 
Simple, without rupture of the skin or 
mucous membrane. F., Spontaneous, 
with but a slight force to cause it, as in 
diseases of the bone. 

Frae'num (Lat., a curb). A ligament, 
fold of integument, or other part which 
checks or limits the movement of any 
organ, as F. Labiorum, the fourchettc or 
lower commissure of the labia piiiiendi. 
F. Linguae, the bridle of the tongue. 

Fragil'itas (Lat.). Brittlene.ss. In phy- 
siology, a want of flexile strength. F. 
Cri'num, a brittlcncss of the hair, wliieh 
breaks or s|iliis. F. Ossium. Abnormal 
briitieness of the bones. 

Fragmenta'tion [fragmentuni, a piece). 
The suWivision into fragments. F. of 
Calculi, Spontaneous, the exfoliation 
and i»reaking u|) of a calculus i)y the action 
of the uric acid or other morbid products 
in the bladder. 

Framboe'sia. Yaws, Plan, Amlxiyna But- 
ton, I'arangi, Coco, Kndemic Verrugas. 
A contagious disease of the skin character- 
ized iiy dirty nr iiright red raspi)erry-like 
tulK-rcle-s ; a|)|><aring usually on the face, 
tfxrs anfl genital organs. 

Fran'gula. i'.uckthom. 'I"he bark (one 
year old) of /\/iiiiiiiiu! /'*., or ald<-r buck- 
thorn. I'nsh iiark a violent irritant ; old 
bark a non irritant purgative much used in 



constipation of pregnancy. F., Ext. Fid. 
Dose J ss-ij. 

Frank'incense. A name given to a va- 
riety of resinous aromatic substances, espe- 
cially the exudation of Ai>ifs exiflsa. 

Frank'lin Spec'tacles. iiee Bz/'oca/. 

Fra'serin. See A»ic-ncan Columbo. 

Frec'kles. See Lentigo. 

Freea'ing. The congelation of liquids, 
especially of water. F. Fluids, li(|uid 
preparations, syrupy or gummy in con- 
sistence, with boric acid, in which tissue 
specimens are immersed prior to freezing 
and section-cutting. F. Machine, an 
apparatus for producing intense cold by the 
eva^ioration of condensed gases. F. Mi- 
crotome, a microtome attached to a con- 
trivance for freezing artificially the tissue 
to be sectioni/ed. Used with very st)ft 
tissues. F. Mixture, a mixture of salts 
which in undergoing solution absorb heat. 

Frem'itus (I^t., a murmur). A tremor 
caused by the sympathetic vibration of 
the body in consonance with some other 
vibrating body. Also a murmuring. 

Fri'able {frio, to rub). Easily broken or 
ci"umbled. 

Fri'ar's BaFsam. See Benzoin. 

Fric'tion {frico, to rub). The act of rub- 
bing. Tlie process, in medicine, called 
shampooing. Also the inunction of a 
medicinal substance by rubbing. F. 
Sound, the sound observed in ausculta- 
tion, caused l)y the rubbing of adjacent 
parts. 

Fried'reich's Disease. Hereditary 
Ataxia, or Hereditary Ataxic I'aiaplegia ; 
depending on combined posterior and lat- 
eral sclerosis of the cord, differing from 
tabes and ataxic paraplegia in the early 
age, hereditaiy nature and some other 
s\mptoms. 

Frigorif'ic [fngus, cold, facto, to make). 
That which i>roduces extreme cold. 

Fringe-tree. The bark of the root of 
Chioiiitiitliiis I'irginica. A mild diuretic, 
ajierient and reputed alterative. Dose of 
(Id. ext. 3;.ss-j. Unof. 

Fro'mann's Lines. Silver nitrate stain- 
ings of the axis-cylinders of nerves at their 

niHJeS. 

Fronf'al {from.'). Pertaining to the an 
teriori)art or aspect of an organ or body. 
F. Bone, the anterior l)one of the skull and 
suiH-rior of the face. F. Sinuses, tiie 
cavities, one over each orbit, ol the frontal 
liorie. 

Fronto- {/rons). A prefix denoting an- 
terior jxjsilion. 



FROST-BITE 



166 



FURUNCULUS 



Frost-bite. Injury to the skin or a part 
from extreme cold, resulting in inliamma- 
tion and gangrene. 

Frost-wort. See Helianthemum. 

Fructifica''tion [^fructus, fruit, facto, to 
make). The fonnation and development of 
the seed or fi-uit of a plant. Applied also 
to animal reproduction. 

Frugiv^orous [/ru.v, fruit, voro, to de- 
vour). Fmit-eating. 

Friihlingskatarrh. See Vernal Conjunc- 
tivitis. 

Fruit iyfructiis). The developed ovary of 
a plant, and especially the succulent, fleshy 
parts gathered about the same. Also ap- 
plied to the offspring of animals. F. 
Sugar. See Sugar. 

Fuch^sin. Rosei'n, Magenta, Eosin, Ani- 
line Red. The hydrochloride of rosanilin, 
a lustrous, green, crystalline salt imparting 
an intense red to solutions. In large doses 
produces violent emesis and purging. In- 
jected into a vein causes staggering and 
trembling. Very efficient in reducing al- 
buminuria. Dose gr. j^-iv. 

Fu'cus Vesiculo^sus. Bladder-wrack, 
Sea-wrack. A marine alga abundant on 
the seashore. Alterative and tonic. Em- 
ployed in goitre and glandular enlarge- 
ments, but mainly as an empiric remedy 
for the absoiption of fatty tissue in obesity. 
An extract for such purpose is sold under 
the name of anti-fat. Unof. 

FuFminate ( fulinen, lightning). A com- 
pound of fulminic acid with a base, usually 
silver, gold or mercury ; characterized by 
highly explosive qualities. 

Fumiga^tion [fumigo, to smoke). Disin- 
fection by exposure to the fumes of a vapor- 
ized disinfectant. 

Func^tion {fungor, to perform). The nor- 
mal or special action of a tissue, organ or 
part of the body. 

Func'tional [jfungor'). Pertaining to the 
special action of an organ, whether physio- 
logical or pathological. 

Fund^ament [fitndo, to be at the bottom). 
The foundation or base of a thing. Also 
the anus. 

Fund'us [fundus, the bottom). The base 
of an organ. F. Glands, microscopic 
tul^ular glands of the cardiac portion of the 
gastric mucous membrane. F. Oculi, the 
posterior and interior portion of the eye 
seen by the ophthalmoscope, comprising 
chiefly the retina, papilla, retinal vessels, 
etc. 

Fun'giform (//w^^^, a mu.shroom). Hav- 
ing the fonn of a mushroom. F. Papil- 



lae, elevations over the middle and front 
part of the tongue. 

Fun'gus [fungus). An order of plants 
without stems, leaves or roots, consisting 
of juxtaposed cells, without chlorophyl. 
They reproduce by spores. The chief 
classes are the Hyinenomycctes, Basidiouty- 
cetes, AscoiiiyceicSj and Ooinycetes. F. of 
the Dura Mater, a tumor of the skull, of 
malignant nature, originating in the layers 
of osteal cells. F. of Brain, hernia 
cerebri, F. Haematodes, a bleeding 
tumor. 

Fun'gus Foot. Madura Foot, Myceto- 
ma, Ulcus Grave. An endemic disease 
of India affecting the foot or the hand, 
accompanied by mammillaled pustules, in 
each of which is a deep-seated sinus. It is 
now thought that the presence of fungoid 
growths is an incidental feature and not a 
cause. 

Fu^nic [funis, a rope). Pertaining to the 
funiculus. 

Funic^ulus (dim. of funis). The sper- 
matic or the umbilical cord. 

Fu^nis. See Umiuiicus. 

Fun''nel (Old Fr. fond). A wide-mouthed, 
conical vessel ending in a tube, designed 
for the speedy and safe transportation of 
liquids from one vessel to another. Also 
used as a .support for paper filters. 

Furfura'ceous [furfur, bran). Resem- 
bling bran. Applied also to dandriff-covered 
skin. 

Fu^'ror Uteri-'nus. See Nymphomania. 

Furred (Old Fr. forre, a sheath). A 
coating of granular or epithelial scales and 
other matter upon the tongue. 

Fur^rowr (Sax. furh). A groove or trench. 
F., Genital, . a groove in the Wolffian 
body, appearing about the sixth week of 
pregnancy. 

Furun'culous [furunculus,2,hd\\). Per- 
taining to the continuous production of 
furuncles. 

Furun^culus (I,at.). A boil. A local 
inflammatory affection, commonly invest- 
ing a skm-gland or hair-follicle, ending 
in necrosis and central suppuration of 
adjacent parts. It begins with a painful 
induration, followed by a swelling, that 
finally sujjpurates and sloughs the " core." 
F. Orientalis. Oriental Boil, Aleppo Boil, 
Delhi Boil, Biscara Button, Gafsa Button, 
Kandahar Sore, Pendjeh Sore, Natal Sore. 
A local disease, marked by the successive 
formation of papule, tubercle, scab, and 
sharjDly circumscribed ulcer, on the face, 
especially the cheeks and angle of the 



FUSEL OIL 



167 



GALL 



mouth. Common along Uie shores of the 
Mediterranean Sea. 

Fu'sel Oil. .See ALohol. 

Fusible (/usus, melted). That which 
can l>e easily fused or melted. 

Fu'siform [J'ttsus, a spindle). Spindle- 
shaped. 



Fu'sion {/it>i(/<>, to ix)ur out). The process 
of lii|utf\ ing a solid by the agency of heat. 

Fustiga'tion {//is//i;ii, to heat). Fhigella- 
tion. F., Electric, an ai^plication of elec- 
tricity in which the .surface of the hotly 
is rapidly tapped with the electrodes of an 
induced current. 



G. Abbreviation of ^^raww/£\ 

Gal. Abbreviation of gallon. 

Gr. Abbreviation of grain. 

Gtt. Abbreviation of gn/la or g7if((r. 

Gad-fly {god, a goad). A dipterous insect 
belonging to the genus Tabamis, .Mso, ap- 
plied to riies of the genus CEstris. 

Gad'inine (from GaJits callarias, had- 
dock). .\ ptomaine obtained from decom- 
ix»sing hatldock, — also from cultures of the 
Ixicteria of iiuman f.eces. It acts as a de- 
cided poison when given in large doses. 

Gad'uin {gmlus, the codfish). A fatty 
principle occurring in cod-liver oil. 

Gaert'ner, Ducts of. Remains of the 
Wolttian liodies jjersisting in certain ani- 
mals. 

Gaf'sa Button. See I'unininlm Orien- 
talii. 

Gag (Mid. Eng. gaggm, to suffocate). An 
instrument placed between the teeth to 
prevent the closing of the jaws. 

GalaCtagogue ( } «/.«, milk, a) n, to bring). 
An .-igi Ml that increases the secretion of 
milk ill tlie Ireast. 

GalaC'tia [y<i/.n). The family or class of 
di.>>eases, according to (IcxkI's Nosology, 
eml tracing defective or abnormal secretion 
of milk. 

Galac'tocele {yn?Ji, Krp.r/, tumor). A cystic 
tumor of the female breast owing to the 
closure of the milk duct. 

Galactom'eter. See I.artonteter. 

Galactoph''agus {^ya'/xi, <l>uyu, to eat). 
Milk-caling. 

Galactoph'orous {yn?M, tpopro, to lx?ar). 
Milk-licaring. G. Ducts, the excretory 
ducts of tli(- mammif. 

Galactoph'orus. An artificial nipple 
placed over the natural organ in order to 



facilitate suckling and also to protect the 
natural ni]iple when abraded. 

Galacto-phthi'sis {ya?ia, <p6iaig, con- 
sunijttion). Emaciation and debility due 
to excessive secretion of milk. 

Galactophy^gous (jaZa, <ptv)ij, to flee). 
Having the jjower to reduce or arrest the 
secretion of milk. 

Galactopoiet''ic (ya^-ra, nottu, to make). 
A term applied to agents or remedies that 
induce the secretion of milk. 

Galactopo'sia (jaTia, vivo, to drink). 
" Milk-cure." The treatment of diseases 
by the use of milk diet. 

Galactorrhe''a (ya^a, pto), to flow). An 
excessive secretion and flow of milk in a 
nursing-woman. 

Galact'oscope. See Lactoscope. 

Galacfose (}rz/'.«). A carbohydrate ob- 
tained by boiling lactose with dilute min- 
eral acids. It crystallizes, is very ferment- 
alile, and lias the reactions of glucose. 

Galactother'apathy (jo/«, (hpa-tta, 
treatment). The treatment of disea.se in 
suckling infants by the administration of 
the remedies to the mother or wet-nurse. 

Galba'num. A gum resin of lurula gal- 
hiinum, native to Asia. Expectorant, 
stimulant and antisp.ismcxlic. Useful in 
chronic bronchitis and catarrh. Dose gr. 
x-xx. G. Pil. Comp. See Asaftitiita. 
G. Emplastrum, galbanuin 16, turpen- 
tine 2, ilurgundy pitch 6, lead pla-^ter 76 
[larts. 

Ga'lium Apar'ine. (loose ('.rass. A suc- 
culeiu plant, the juice of which is a jM>pu- 
hir remi'dy in strumous allections. I Jose 



.f tl 



le JUICC i, v. 



Unof 



Gall ( \'t>ii, bile). The liile. The jnicc 
normally secreted by the liver. G. Blad- 



GALLA 



168 



GASKELL'S CLAMP 



der, the pear-shaped sac in the right lobe 
of the Uver, constituting the reservoir for 
the bile. G. Stones, the calcareous con- 
cretions occasionally formed in the gall- 
bladder and its ducts. 

GaKla (Lat.). Nut-gall. An excrescence 
on the leaves of dyer's oak, Quenus lusi- 
tanica, caused by the deposited ova of an 
insect. Contains tannic acid from 10-75 
per cent., gaUic acid 5 per cent. G., 
Tinct., 20 per cent. Dose ^ss-iij. G. 
Unguentuna, 10 per cent. See Add, 
Tannic. 

Gal'lic {galla, an oak-gall). Pertaining 
to the oak-gall or nut-gall. G. Acid. See 
Acid, Gallic. 

Gallon. A standard unit of volumetric 
measurement, having in the United States 
a capacity of 231 cu. in., and equivalent 
to a weight of 58,328.8 grains of distilled 
water at maximum density. In Great 
Britain its capacity is 277.27 cu. in. 

Gallon's Whistle. An instrument for 
testing the power of hearing shrill notes. 

Galvan''ic {Galvani, an Italian physician 
and scientist). Pertaining to galvanic or 
chemical electricity. G. Battery. See 
Battery. G. Belt, a belt composed of 
alternate plates of copper and zinc sepa- 
rated by pieces of felt moistened with 
dilute acid. Designed to be worn around 
the waist. G. Cautery. See Cautery. 

Galvaniza'tion. The transmission of a 
current of low electro-motive force through 
any part of the body, for the purpose of 
diagnosticating or curing disease. 

Galvan''o- i^Galvani). A prefix denoting 
connection with chemical or current-elec- 
tricity. G. -cautery. See Cautery. G.- 
puncture, the introduction of fine needles, 
that complete an electric circuit, into the 
skin or other tissue. Also a form of 
galvano-cautery employing a current of 
the necessary electro-motive force to heat 
the needle to whiteness. 

Galvanom''eter [fieTpov,a measure). An 
instrument used for the qualitative deter- 
mination of the presence of an electric 
current. 

Gamboge''. See Cainbogia. 

Gang^liform {^ganglion and fonna, a 
form). Formed like, or having the nature 
of, a ganglion. 

Gang^lion (ya}7/l<ov, a knot). A sepa- 
rate and semi-independent nen'ous center 
communicating with other ganglia or 
nerves, with the central nervous system and 
peripheral organs. Used also of an en- 
larged bursa in connection with a tendon. 



Ganglia, Basal, the ganglia at the base 
of the brain, comprising the corpus stria- 
tum (caudate and lenticular nucleus), optic 
thalamus and corpora quadrigemina. Bid- 
der's Ganglia, two ganglia at the auricu- 
lar groove of the frogs heart. An alpha- 
betical table is appended of the principal 
ganglia, showing their location, roots and 
distribution (see p. 169). 

Gangrae''na Oris. See Sto?natitis. 

Gan^grene [jayypaiva, a sore, from ypaivu, 
to gnaw). Mortification or death of a part 
of the body from failure in nutrition. The 
putrefactive fermentation of a dead limb or 
tissue. G., Constitutional, that dependent 
upon systemic disease, such as diabetes, or 
circulatory disease. G., Dry, shriveling 
and desiccation from insufficiency of blood. 
G., Embolic, caused by an embolus that 
cuts off the supply of blood. G., Hos- 
pital, a contagious form arising in crowded 
conditions without antiseptic precautions. 
G., Moist, with abundance of serous 
exudation and rapid decomposition. G., 
Primary, without preceding inflammation 
of the part. G., Secondary, with pre- 
ceding inflammation. G., Senile, that 
attacking the extremities of the aged. G., 
Symmetric, attacking corresponding parts 
of opposite sides. Called, also, Raynaud^ s 
G. See, also, SpJuiceloderma. 

Gan''grenous. Pertaining to or being of 
the nature of gangrene. 

Gaps, Cra^nial. Certain occasional con- 
genital fissures of the skull. 

Garb^age. The refuse materials of kitch- 
ens, cookery, etc. 

Gar^gle (dim. of garga, the throat). To 
rinse or wash the interior of the throat and 
upper part of the pharynx. Also, a wash 
for the throat. 

Gar^lic. See Alliiirn. 

Gar^rot (Fr. ga rotter, to bind). An in- 
strument for compression of an artery 
by twisting a circular bandage about the 
part. 

Garru-'lity. See Vuh'a. 

Gar''rya. California feverbush. The leaves 
of G. Fremotitii. A bitter antiperiodic, 
popular on the Pacific coast as a remedy 
in malarial diseases. Dose of the fld. ext. 
TTLx-xxx. Unof. 

Gas (Dutch, geest, a ghost). Any sub- 
stance which is normally aeriform. Sub- 
stances normally in a liquid or solid state 
are usually called vapors when changed to 
an aeriform condition. 

Gas''keirs Clamp. An instrument for 
compression of the heart so that the pulsa- 



TABLE OF GANGLIA (ALPHABETICAL), 



Name. 


Location. 


Roots. 


Distribution. 


Abdominal. 


See Semilunar. 






Andersch (Petrous 
or Inferior). 


Petrous Portion 
Temporal Bone. 


Hypoglossal. 


Nerves at Base of Skull." 


Arnold. 


See Otic. 






Cardiac (IVris- 


Beneath Arch of 
Aorta. 


Cardiac Plexus. 


Cardiac Plexus. 


Carotid. 


Carotid Artery. 


Carotid Plexus. 


Carotid Plexus. 


Cervical (Inferior). 


Last Cervical Ver- 
tebra. 


7th and 8ih Cervical, Mid- 
dle Cervical. 


Cardiac Nerves and Plexus, etc. 


Cervic.-il (Middle or 
Thyroid). 


Opp. 5th Cervica 
Vertebra. 


Cervical and Spina 
Nerves and Ganglia. 


Cavernous Plexus, Laryngeal, 
Cardiac, etc. 


Cervical (Superior). 


Opp. 2d and jd Cer- 
vical Verlcbrie. 


Cer\'ical, Petrosal, Pncu- 
mogastric, Hypoglos- 
sal, etc. 


Suji., Inf., Ext., Int. Branches 
Carotid and Cavernous Plex- 
uses, etc. 


Ciliary. 


See Ophthalmic. 






Diaphragmatic. 


Under Surface Dia- 
phragm. 


Phrenic Plexus. 


Inf. Vena Cava, Supra-renal 
Capsule, Hepatic Plexus. 


Gasserian. 


Petrous Portion 
Temporal Bone. 


Fifth. 


Oplnlialmic, Su >. Maxillary 
and Inf. Maxi lary. 


Jugular (or Supe- 
rior). 


Jugular Foramen. 


Hypoglossal. 


Continuation of Hypoglossal. 


Lenticular. 


See Ophthalmic. 






Meckel. 


See Spheno-Pala- 
tine 






Ophthalmic. 


Back of Orbit. 


Ophthalmic of the Fifth, 
Third, Sympathetic. 


Short Ciliary. 


Otic {Arnold). 


Foramen Ovale. 


Inf. Maxill.-\iy,Int. Ptery- 
goiti, Auriculo-Tempo- 
ral, Sympathetic, 
Glosso-Pharyngeal, Fa- 
cial. 


Tensor Tympani, Tensor Pa- 
lati, Chorda Tympani. 


Ribes. 


Ant. Communicat- 
ing Artery. 


Cords of Sympathetic. 


Cords of Sympathetic. 


Semilunar. 


See Gasserian. 






5emilunar-3. 


Front of Crura of 
Diaphragm. 


Solar Plexus. 


Solar Plexus. 


Spheno-Palatine. 


Spheno- maxillary 
Fossa. 


Su|). Maxillary, Facial, 
Sympathetic. 


Ascending (Orbit\ Pcscciiiiing 
(I'alalc), Internal iNosi), Pos- 
terior (Pharynx). 


Submaxillary. 


Above Sub -maxil- 
lary Oland. 


Gustatory, Cliorda Tym- 
paiii, Syinpalhi-tic. 


Mouth and S u b in a x i 1 1 a r y 
Gland. 


Supra-renal. j 


'unction of Great 
Splanchnic. 


Solar Plexus. 


Su]>ra-rcnal Capsule, 


Thyroid. ! 


5ee Cervical (Mid- 
dle). 







\WJ 



GASP 



170 



GAULTHERIA 



tions of the am-icles and ventricles may be 
separately registered ; used in the study of 
cardiac pulsation. 

Gasp (Ice. gaispa, to yawn). To catch 
for breath. To breathe spasmodically with 
open mouth. 

Gasse^rian. See Ganglion. 

Gas''tero- (7a(Tr;?p, the belly). See Gastro. 

Gas'tral {yaariip). Pertaining to the 
stomach or abdomen. 

GastraFgia [yaarjjp, aXyo^, pain). Pain 
of the stomach. A mild form is sometimes 
called gastrodytiia. 

Gastrec^tomy {ja<jT7]p, ekto/.i?/, a cutting 
out). Resection of the pyloric extremity 
of the stomach. 

Gas^tric '{^yaarrjp'). Pertaining to the 
stomach. G. Digestion, that part of the 
digestion of food performed by the gastric 
juice ; the conversion of albuminous bodies 
into peptones. G. Fistula, a perforation 
or communication other than the normal 
one, between the stomach and peritoneal 
cavity, or with the outer part of the body. 
G. Follicles. See Glands, Peptic. G. 
Juice, the normal secretion of the tubular, 
peptic glands of the stomach. A clear, 
colorless liquid, having an acid reaction 
containing from .5 to 2 per. cent, of solid 
matter in solution. A small amount of 
hydrochloric acid .2 to .4 per cent., and a 
ferment called pepsin, are the essential 
elements. 

Gastri'tis (yaCTr;/^, (r<f, inflammation). In- 
flammation of the coats of the stomach. 

Gas^tro- [yaarr/p). A Greek prefix denot- 
ing connection with or relation to the 
stomach. G. -colic, pertaining to both 
the stomach and the colon. G. -colitis, 
concurrent inflammation of the stomach 
and large intestine. G.-colpotomy, the 
operation of the Cesarean section in which 
the opening is made through the /inea alba 
into the upper part of the vagina. G.- 
duodenal, pertaining to the stomach and 
duodenum. G.-elytrotomy. See Ca:sa- 
rean Operation. G.-enteralgia, concur- 
rent pain of the stomach and bowels. G.- 
enteric, pertaining to both stomach and 
bowels. G. -enteritis, concuirent in- 
flammation of stomach and bowels. G.- 
enterostomy, formation of a fistulous 
connection between the .stomach and duo- 
denum in obstruction of the pylorus. G.- 
enterotomy, intestinal incision through 
the abdominal wall. G. -epiploic, per- 
taining to stomach and omentum. G.- 
hysterectomy. See Cctsarean Operation. 
G.-hysterotoniy. See Ccesarean Opera- 



tion. G. -stenosis, a stricture or morbid 
contraction of the stomach. 

Gas^'trocele (yaarr/p^ mfki], hernia). A 
hernia of the stomach. 

Gastrocne^mius. See Muscle. 

Gastrodyn'ia {yaaT7/p, odvvrj, pain). A 
mild pain of the stomach. See also Gas- 
tralgia. 

Gas''trolith {yaarrjp, Tiidog, a stone). A 
calcareous formation in the stomach. 

GastroPogy {ynanjp, Aoyog, a treatise). A 
treatise on the stomach and its functions. 

Gastromala^cia [yacrn/p, /iia?MKia, soften- 
ing). An abnormal softening of the struc- 
tural tissue of the stomach. 

Gastrop^athy [yaarr/p, nadog, suffering). 
Any disease or disorder of the stomach. 

Gastrorrha^gia [yaarrip, p//yvvfii, to break 
forth). See Jleviateinesis. 

Gastror''raphy {jaGT?]p,'pap], suture). Su- 
ture of wounds of the abdominal wall or 
stomach. 

Gastrorrhce''a [yaarr/p, peu, to flow). A 
regurgitant flow of gastric mucus or liquid 
from the mouth. 

Gast^roscope [yaaT?/p, gkowcu, to see). An 
instrument for viewing the interior of the 
stomach. Consists essentially of a tube with 
incandescent electric light and reflecting 
prisms. 

Gastros''copy. The inspection of the inte- 
rior of the stomach by means of the gastro- 
scope. 

Gastro''ses {yaaTrjp). A general term for 
diseases of the abdomen or of the stomach 
only. 

Gastros''tomy {yoGrrjp, arofia, mouth). 
The establishing a fistulous opening into 
the .stomach. 

Gastrot^omy (jaari/p, Ts/urtj, to cut). Inci- 
sion of the abdomen or stomach. 

Gastrox^ia [yaar/ip, o^vg, acid). Abnormal 
acidity of the contents of the stomach. 

Gas^trula [yuarf/p). In Haeckel's classi- 
fication, the larval form of all animals 
above the protozoa. 

Gath^ering. A popular name for abscesses, 
pustular inflammations and suppmating 
sores. 

Gaule's Experiment. See Cytozodn. 

Gaulthe^ria. Wintergreen, Teaberry, 
Methyl Salicylate. The leaves of winter- 
green, G. procumbcns, an evergreen plant. 
Properties due to a volatile oil, tliat is 
also found in black birch and several other 
plants. Stimulant, astringent, and antipy- 
retic. Used in rheumatism and gout, or 
where salicylate acid is indicated. G., Ol., 
oil of wintergreen, much used as a flavor. 



GAUZE 



171 



GENITALIA 



Dose n\_iij-x. G., Spt., oil of wintergrecn 
3, alcohol 97. 

Gauze. See Anfisr/<fii\ 

Gavage'' (Fr.). Forced feeding. Applied 
to the feeding of weak infants by the aid 
of an ( I'sophage.xl tube. 

Gel'atine {g^/o, to congeal). An albuminoid 
substance of jelly-like consistence, obtained 
by boiling skin, connective tissue, and bones 
of animals in water. The glue of com- 
merce is an impure variety. G. Capsules, 
ca[>suk'S of gelatine designed for containing 
medicines of nauseating taste. G., Medi- 
cated, a soft basis consisting of gelatine 
3, zinc oxide 3, glycerine 5, water 9 parts, 
to which antiseptic or other medicaments 
may be added. IVeferable to greasy oint- 
ments. All unof. G. Culture-medium, 
a jelly made by a solution of the best com- 
mercial food gelatine in the proportion of 
6, 8 or 10 parts to loo of water, with i or 
2 parts of dried peptones or glucose (the 
latter not u-^ed if the culture is to be made 
on slides), for increased nutritive value. 
Bicarl)onate of soda is used to neutralize 
the acid reaction. This in bacteriology is 
simply known as Gelatine. 

Gelat'inous. Resembling, or having the 
nature of gelatine. G. Tissue. See 
Animal Tissue. 

Gel'Dse. A culture-medium used in bac- 
teriological investigation. Gelatine lique- 
fies at 23° or 24° C., and is thus inferior to 
gelose, for those cultures that retjuire a 
higher degree of heat for their proper devel- 
opment. The base of gelose is a vegetable 
mucilage, derived from an Indian sea- 
weed, Gelidiuni spiniformc, of which a 
jelly is made, 2 to 3 parts (to 100) of dried 
I>eptones added; lo to 15 parts of this 
sul)stance to 50 parts of water, with I to 5 
of glycerine, forms the nutritive jelly called 
gelose. 

Gel'osine. A mucilage extracted from a 
species of alga found in Japan. Soluble 
in water and alcohol. An excellent ex- 
cipient for jxjwders, tinctures and salts. 
Unof 

Gelsem''ium. ^'ellow Jasmine. The root 
of G. senipen'irens,'!i\)\iw\M\\. in the .south- 
em U. S. Pro[)erties mainly due to an 
alkaloid, ^^/t^*////';/', a jx)werful motor de- 
pressant, antispasmodic and <liaphorelic. 
In toxic floses produces diplopia, extreme 
muscular weakness, and an.estliesia, death 
<KCurring from as|)hyxia. Useful in exal- 
tation of nerve action, cerebros])inal men- 
ingitis, etc. E.s|x:cially valuable in remit 
tent and malarial fevers. Dose gr. ij-xx. 



G., Ext. Fid., alcoholic. Dose IT^^ij-xx. 
G., Tinct., 15 ix;r cent, in strength. Dose 
n\^v-xxx. Gelsemina, the alkaloid. l)ose 

Gemel'lus (dim. of >,'-<'w/;///.f, twin). 
Double. In pairs. G. Muscle, the gas- 
trocnemius muscle, on account of its double 
origin. See Miiscle. 

Gem'inate {^geviinus). In pairs. In 
l>otany, i)arts that are disposed in pairs. 

Gem'inous. Simic as Ge/ninate. 

Gemma'tion. See Budding. 

Gen'erate [genero, to beget). To beget, 
to produce of the same kind. 

Genera'tion (^'fwt'rf?//*', a begetting). The 
begetting or production of otispring. G., 
Organs of, those that are functional in 
reproduction; the genitalia. G., Spon- 
taneous, the supposed production of or- 
ganic matter or beings, from inorganic 
matter. G., Alternations of. See Altcr- 
iitj/ions of G. 

Gener''ic {^gettus, a kind). Pertaining to 
the same genus. 

Gene''siai {yeveaiq, origin). Pertaining to 
generation. G. Cycle, the periods of 
ovarian, uterine, and mammary activity, into 
which the reproductive life of the female 
is divided; the first extending from puberty 
to conception, the second from conception 
to gestation, and the third from gestation 
through lactation. 

Gen^'esis ()ere(T/f). The act of begetting. 
Generation. 

Genefic (^eveaiq, generation). Pertaining 
to generation. Also, anything inherited. 

Genic'ulate Bodies. Two oblong, flat- 
tened bodii-s on the outer side of the 
coqiora nuadrigemina and under the back 
part of the optic thalamus. 

Gen'io- (yeviiov, the chin). A prefix denot- 
ing connection with the chin. 

Gen'ital {genitalis, pertaining to genera- 
tion). Pertaining lo the organs of genera- 
tion or to reproduction. G. Cord, tlie 
union of the two ducts of Wolfl and of 
Miiller to form a common cord in the 
emi'iyo. G. Eminence, or Tubercle, 
an eitvation appearing about the 6tli wei-k 
of embryonic life, in front of tlie cloaca, 
and from which the ]>enis or clitoris is 
developed. G. Fissure, a fuirow extend- 
ing from the genital eminence of the 
embryo to the cloaca. G. Folds, two 
plications at the side of the orifice of the 
cl< aca. G. Sense, the degree of vigorous- 
ness of the development of ovisacs. 

Gcnita'lia {^^enitiilis). The organs of 
generation. 



GENITO- 



172 



GIACOMINI'S METHOD 



Gen''ito- {^genitus, begotten, from gigno, to 
be born). A prefix denoting connection 
or relation to the genital organs. 

Gen^tian, or Gentia'na. The root of G. 
lutea, a European, and of G. catesbai, an 
American species. A simple, non-astrin- 
gent bitter. Highly esteemed as a sto- 
machic tonic in convalescence from acute 
diseases and malarial fever. G., Ext. Dose 
gr. j-v. G., Ext. Fid. Dose ^ss-j. G., 
Infusum Comp., unof., gentian lo, bitter 
orange peel 2^, coriander 2^, alcohol 
40, water to make 320. Dose 3J-5J. 
G., Mist. Alkalin., unof, dil. hydrocyanic 
acid tT\^iij, sodium bicarb, gr. xv, infus. of 
gentian comp. to make ^j. Dose 5J. G. 
et Sennae Mist., unof., infus. of senna 
^^^iij, comp. tinct. cai'damom ^j, comp. 
infus. of gentian ^vj. Dose ^x. G., 
Tinct. Comp., contains gentian 8, bitter 
orange peel 4, cardamom 2, dil. alcohol 
to make 100. Dose ^ss-ij. 

Gen^u (^f'/n^, the knee). Pertaining to the 
knee. G. Extrorsum, outward bowing 
of the knee, — bow-legs. G. Valgum, in- 
ward curving of the knee, — knock-knees. 
G. Varum. Same as G. Extrorsum. 

Gen''uclast {^genu, tOiau, to break). An 
instriiment for breaking irreducible adhe- 
sions of the knee-joint. 

Gen^u Cor''pus Callo'si. A name given 
to the reflected part of the corpus cal- 
losum. 

Genuflex'' {^genu, flexus, bent). Bent at, 
or like, the knee. Also, bent at any joint. 

Ge'nus [genus, a family). A species or a 
number of species marked by one or more 
common characteristics that distinguish 
them from the species of another family. 

Genyplast^y [yevvg, the cheek, n-^aaau, to 
form). The operation for reforming or 
restoring the cheek imperfect either from 
injury or from congenital malformation. 

Geog^raphy (77/, the earth, jpa^u, to write). 
In medicine, a description of the earth's 
surface with reference to climatology, and 
the distribution of disease, with relation to 
origin and locality. 

GeoFogy [jt], 7Myoq, a treatise). The sci- 
ence treating of the structural development 
of the earth. 

Geom''etry [yrj, /lerpov, sl measure). That 
branch of mathematical science treating of 
the relations of magnitudes. 

Geoph''agism [jt/, tpayu, to eat). The 
practice of earth- or clay-eating, practiced 
in a few localities. 

Gera''nium. Cranesbill-root. The root 
of G, maculatum. Properties due to tan- 



nic and gallic acids. Useful in diarrhoea, 
infant colic, etc. G., Ext. Fid. Dose 

GeratoFogy (yrjpag, old age, Tioyoc, a treat- 
ise). A treatise concerning old age. 

Ger^Iach's Network. An exceedingly 
delicate fibrous network of the finest nerve 
fibrils in the gray matter of the cord. 

Ger^lach's Theory. Pertains to the con- 
nection of the nerve-fibers and ganglionic 
cells of the cord. 

Gardner's Disease. An affection (of farm- 
hands) characterized by sudden paroxysms 
of ptosis, vertigo, muscular paresis, and 
cervico-occipital pain. 

Germ [gerz/wn, a sprout). The ovum, 
spore, or zoospore that, by fecundation, 
is capable of developing into an organism 
like that whence it was derived. G. of 
Disease, the special virus or spore by 
which a disease becomes communicable. 
G. of Sac, the vesicle constituting the 
blastoderm of mammals. G., Specific, 
same as Germ. G. Theory of Disease, 
the theory that contagious and infectious 
diseases are communicated by means of the 
transference to and development of a spe- 
cific seed or spore within the organism of 
the animal infected. 

German Breast Tea. A decoction of 
althaea, </. v. 

German Chamomile. See Matricaria. 

Germ Epithe^liurn. Cylindrical cells on 
the surface of the median plate of the me- 
soblast. 

Ger^minal. Pertaining to a germ or the 
genesis of a tissue or organ. G. Area, 
the area gerniinaliva, or euibryonal shield, 
a white round spot upon one side of the 
vitelline membrane in which the blasto- 
demi becomes double. G. Matter. See 
Protoplasm. G. Membrane, the blasto- 
derm. G. Spot. The nucleolus of the 
ovule. G. Vesicle. The nucleus. 

Germina''tion [germinatio, a sprouting). 
The sprouting of a seed. The beginning 
of the development of an ovum, spore or 
germ. 

Gero''ni Specic'sa. An Andean plant, 
having a reputation as a local remedy in 
syphilis and rheumatism. Unof. 

Gerontox''on. See Arcus Senilis. 

Gesta''tion [gero, to bear). Same as 
Pregnancy. 

Giacomini's Method of Preserving 
the Brain. Immerse in a saturated solu- 
tion of chloride of zinc ; turn several times 
daily and inject 600 grms. of the liijuid 
through the carotids. Remove membranes 



GIANT 



173 



GLAND 



in 48 hours. Allow to remain in solution 
until it begins to sink, then immerse in 
alcohol for lo days. Immerse in glycer- 
ine until it sinks ; remove, allow to dry, 
and varnish. 

Gi'ant ( i,'-4'<;-f, lai^e or ponderous). An 
adult of a sjiecies excessively developed in 
stature and proportions. 

Gibbos'ity {^nddosus). The condition of 
being giblious. 

Gib'bous {gil'bosus , hunchbacked). 
Bunched or bulged out. Abnonnully 
crot)ked. 

Gi'Dert's Syrup. See Hydrargyrum. 

Gid'diness (^Sa.\. i^'ddiati, to be merry). 
A sensation of whirling or unsteadiness 
of llie Iwdy, usually accompanied by more 
or le.-is nau>ea. 

Gig'gcr. See Piihw. 

Gimbernat's Ligament. See Lii^ameni. 

Gin. See Spiritus ; a.\>o,Juni/'t:rus. 

Gin'ger. See Zingiber. 

Gingi'va (Lat.). Ihe vascular tissue sur- 
rounding the necks of the teeth and 
covering the alveoli. In the plural it is 
popularly known as the gums. 

Gingi'va! [gingiva). Pertaining to the 
gums. G. Line, the blue or purplish 
line along the gums where they meet 
the teeth, indicative of chronic lead-poi- 
soning. 

Gingivi'tis {gingiva). Inflammation of 
the gums. 

Gin'glymoid()7)7/'.i^,uof,ahinge). Resem- 
tiling a liinge-joint. 

Gin'glymus. See Diar't/trosis. 

Gin'seng. The fleshy root of several spe- 
cies of J'anax. An aromatic bitter with 
tonic projXTties. Unof. 

Giral'des, Organ of. The vasa aberrantia 
of the Wolfilan Bodies. 

Gir'dle (Sax. gyrJcl, a waistband). Any 
band designed to go around the Ixxiy. G., 
Pelvic, the l>ones (or cartilages) form- 
ing the supix)rt for the lower limbs of 
vertelirates. In mammals they consist of 
the ilium, ischium and os puliis. G. Sen- 
sation, ux Pain, a sensation as thoiigli a 
band liad been tied around the ])elvis, or 
one of the limlis. A .symptom of atlections 
of the spinal conl. 

Giz'zard (Old Kr. Gisier). The strong 
muscular stomach of l)irds. 

Glabella (dim. of ;7(//v/-, sm<K)th). The 
triangular spate l>clweeii tlie eyeiirows. 

Gla'brous (glaher). .SukhjiIi. In Ixitany, 
de.stitutc of hairs or down. 

Gla'cial (x'/ac/Vj, ice). Icy Rcscml'ling 
ice in a[)|x;arancc. 



Glacia'tion [g/aciis). Assuming a condi- 
tion like that of ice. Also producing ero- 
sive elTects like those of moving ice. 

Gladi'olin. A certain alkaloid occurring 
in brain tissue. 

Gladio'lus ^^dim. of gladius, a sword). 
The middle or second piece of the sternum. 

Glair'ine. See Banginc-. 

Glai'ry [glair, the white of egg). Slimy. 
.\lso, alliuminous. 

Gland [g/ans, an acorn). A name given 
to various small racemose or ovoid organs 
of the i)ody, both secretive and excretive 
in function, withdrawing from the blood 
material for other puqKases, or that is 
injurious or of no use to the economy. In 
structure they may be sini])le, saccular or 
tubular. Also, the bullions end of the penis 
and clitoris. G., Arytenoid, the small 
muciparous glands in front of the arytenoid 
cartilage. G. of Bartholini, two small 
glands, one on each side of the vagina, 
opening through ducts on the iiuier surface 
of the nymphce. Also, the .sublingual 
glands. G., Bowman's, tubular glands 
of the olfactoiy region. G., Brunner's, 
the granular l)Oilies occurring in the duo- 
denum. G., Buccal, the glands between 
the buccinator muscle (of the cheek) and 
the adjacent mucous membrane. G., 
Cervical, the lymphatic glands of the 
neck, also called ceifica/ gang/ion. G., 
Ceruminous, the glands that secrete 
the wax of the ear. G., Coccygeal, a 
gland at the tip of the coccyx. G., Cow- 
per's, two small glands anterior to the 
prostate gland. G., Duodenal. See (7., 
Brunner's. G., Ebner's, serous glands 
of the tongue. G., Epiglottic, the mu- 
ciparous glands about tiie epiglottis. G., 
Gastric, the glands of the stomach — tuliu- 
lar and peptic. G., Haversian, the 
fatty bodies lying iichind the synovial 
fringes of most joints. G., Iliac, the 
glands, six or eight in number, lying on 
both sides of the iliac vessels, that re- 
ceive certain lymj)hatics and the ellerent 
vessels of tiie inguinal glands. G., La- 
bial, the racemose glands near the edges 
ofthelii)s. G., Lachrymal. See /,(/,/// r- 
tnal Glands. G., Laryngeal, the nuui- 
parous glands scattered about the region 
of the larynx G., Lieberkiihn's, the 
columnar gbmds di.striiiuled over the 
nmcous membrane of the inlistiiies. G., 
Lingual. See S.ilnuiry C'linds. G. 
of Littri, the gl inds in the subnmeous 
ti.ssue of the uretiira. G. of Luschka. 
See Ccitygeal Gland. G., Mammary, 



GLANDERS 



174 



GLIOMA 



the milk-secreting glands in the breasts of 
the female. G., Meibomian, the minute 
follicles between the cartilage and conjunc- 
tiva of the eyelids. G., Molar, the 
glands between the masseter and bucin- 
nator muscles of the cheek. G., Moll's, 
sweat glands opening into the hair-follicles 
of the eyelashes. G. of Naboth, the small 
glandular bodies within the mouth of the 
uterus. G., Nuhn's, mixed glands near 
the tip of the tongue. G., Odoriferae, the 
glands behind the cervix of the penis, ex- 
creting the smegma. G., CEsophageal, 
the glands in the submucous tissue of the 
oesophagus. G., Pacchionian, the so- 
called granulations clustered about the outer 

■ surface of the dura mater, pia matar, and 
certain sinuses of the brain. G., Palatine, 
the small glands forming a continuous 
layer near the surface of the hard palate 
and about the soft palate. G., Parotid. 
See Salivary Glands. G., Peptic, the 
glands situated all over the mucous coat of 
the stomach secreting the gastric juice. 
G., Payer's, the clustered glands near the 
lower end of the ileum. G., Pharyngeal, 
the racemose glands of the pharynx. G., 
Pineal. See Pineal Gland. G., Pitui- 
tary. See Pituitary Body. G., Pros- 
tate. See Prostate Gland. G., Salivary. 
See Salivary Glands. G., Sebaceous, 
the minute saccular glands in the corium 
of the skin, that secrete the sebum. G., 
Solitary, the glands scattered through the 
mucous membrane of the smaller intes- 
tine. G., Sublingual. See Salivary 
Glands. G., Submaxillary. See Sali- 
vary Glands. G., Sudoriferous, the 
glands of the skin that secrete sweat. G., 
Suprarenal, the suprarenal capsules. See 
Capsule. G., Thymus, a temporary organ 
lying mainly in the neck, attaining its full 
growth at two years and practically disap- 
pearing at puberty. G., Thyroid, a lobu- 
lated gland in the upper part of the trachea. 
G., Tracheal, the minute ovoid glands 
abundant in the posterior part of the trachea. 
G. of Tyson. See G. Odorifercr. G., 
Uterine, the tubular follicles distributed 
throughout the mucous membrane of the 
uterus. G., Vulvo-vaginal, the gland 
of Bartholini. G., Weber's, mucous 
glands near the root of tongue. 

Gland^ers. See Eqidnia. 

Glans Pe^nis. The conical shaped body 
forming the head of the penis. 

Glass (Sax. gltzs). A brittle, hard, and 
transparent substance consisting usually of 
the fused, amorphous silicates of potassium 



and calcium, or sodium and calcium, with 
an excess of silica. When glass of a high 
refractive index is required, lead silicate is 
also added. G. -blowers' Disease, a 
term formerly used to designate any infec- 
tious disease of the lips, especially syplii- 
litic eruptions. Also, applied to pulmo- 
nary emphysema. G., Crown, a very 
hard glass, made from sodium sulphate 
and lime. Has a low refractive index but 
considerable chromatic dispersion. Used 
in lenses of optical instruments. G., Flint, 
composed of lead and potassium silicates. 
Has a very high refractive index. Used in 
lenses of optical instruments. G., Solu- 
ble, potassium or sodium silicate. 

Glas^ses. A synonym of spectacles or 
optical lenses. 

Glau^ber's Salt. See Sodium. 

Glauco^ma (jMlvko^, sea-green). A dis- 
ease of the eye whose essential and char- 
acteristic symptom is an abnormally height- 
ened intraocular tension, resulting in hard- 
ness of the globe, excavation of the pa- 
pilla or optic nerve, a restriction of the 
field of vision, corneal ansesthesia, colored 
halo about lights, and lessening of visual 
power that may, if unchecked, proceed to 
blindness. The etiology is obscure. G. Ab- 
solutum, or Consummatum, the com- 
pleted glaucomatous process, with blind- 
ness. G. Acutum, the first or the re- 
newed attack, with the characteristic and 
inflammatory symptoms, generally intermit- 
ting after a few days. G. Fulminans, 
an acute attack coming on with great sud- 
denness and violence. G. Hsemorrha- 
gicum, that associated with retinal haemor- 
rhage. G., Secondary, that consequent 
to other ocular diseases. G., Simplex, 
without inflammatory symptoms. 

Gleet (Sax. glidan, to slip down). The 
chronic stage of gonoiThoea with muco- 
puiiilent discharge. 

Glen-'oid {yh/v?/, a cavity. A name given 
to any part or organ having a shallow 
cavity. 

Gli^a Cells. See Deitcr's Cells. 

Gli'adin. See Gluten. 

Glio^'ma {ylia, glue). A name given by 
Virchow to a variety of round-celled sar- 
coma, consisting of a tumor of neuroglia 
cells, occurring in the central mass of the 
brain, or of the spinal cord. G. of the 
Retina (" encephaloid of the retina "), a 
glioma .springing from the connective tissue 
of the retina, usually occurring in the young, 
and involving the choroid, optic nerve, 
and extending finally into the brain. G., 



GLIOMATOSIS 



175 



GLUCOSINE 



Pseudo-, of the Retina, metastatic puru- 
lent choroiditis, simulating the appearance 
of retinal glioma. 

Gliomato'sis. Exul)erant masses of glio- 
ma-like tissue in S)Tingo-myelia. 

Gliomyxo'ma. A term applied to tumors 
having the character both of glioma and 
viyx'»ia. 

Gliosarco'ma. Such tumors as have both 
the neuroglia cells of glioma and the fusi- 
form cells of sarcoma. 

Glis'son. See Capsule. 

Globe of the Eye. The eyeball. 

Glo'bin (x'^o/'ies, a globe). A native pro- 
teid of the globulin class, one of the 
products of the decomposition of hamo- 
glol'in. 

Glob'ular (dim. of ^^M'us). Having the 
shape of a glol>e or sphere. 

Glob'ule [dim. of j^'/o/'us). A small globe. 
In biology, any minute spherical structure. 
In phannacy, a small pill or pellet. 

Glob'ules of Donne. See Blood-PIntes. 

Glob'ulin. One of the native proteids of 
the general class called glolmlins ; it is 
obtained from the crystalline lens. 

Glob'ulins. A class of native proteids 
comprising (jlobulin, Vitellin, Para-, or 
Serum-globulin, Filirinogen, Myosin and 
Globin. They are ins<.iluble in distilled 
water, but solul'le in dilute neutral saline 
solutions. These solutions are coagulated 
by heat, and precipitated by a large amount 
of water. They yield acid-albumin when 
acted upon by dilute acids, and alkali-all 'U- 
min by dilute alkalies. Vegetable Glob- 
ulins have l)een studied, and named 7<xv- 
toble Myosin, I 'iUlliit, and Panv^lt liuliii, — 
found in the seeds of plants. 

Glo'bus (I .at.). A ball or globe. G. 
Epididymis. See Kpididyiiiis. G. 
Hystericus, the "lump" or choking 
sensation occurring in hysteria, caused 
prolialily by spasmodic contraction of the 
frsfjphagus and pharyngeal muscles. G. 
Major, the larger end or head of the epi 
didymis. G. Minor, the lower end of 
the epididymis. 

Glom'erate {:;lo»trro, to wind around). 
A descri|jtive term applied to any gland 
consisting of vessels bunched together like 
a iiall of thread. 

Glomer''ulus, or Glom'erule (dim. of 
f^loHiiis). A knot or small njundctl m.ass. 
G. Malpighii. See Miilpif^hian Ihidifs. 

Glos'sa {'I'fxjrnii). 'Hie tongue; al.so the 
f.K ulty of articulate s|x-cch. 

Gloss^al (y'/xjoaa). Pertaining to the 
tongue. 



Glossal'gia (jP-uctcto, a/.)Of, pain). Any 
pain in the tongue. 

Glossec'tomy [-^/uaaa, eKroin/, excision). 
.Amputation or e.xcision of the tongue. 

Glossi''tis {^Auaaa, iTtg, inflammation). 
Inllammation of the tongue. 

Glos''so- (jAtxTCTtt). A prefix denoting 
connection with the tongue. G.-hyal, 
pertaining conjointly to the tongue and 
the hyoid bone. G. -pharyngeal, per- 
taining jointly to the t(.ingue and the pharynx. 
G. -pharyngeal Nerve. See A'crve. 
G. -spasm, s|)asni of the tongue. 

Glossog'raphy (j/wfrira, --/ijaijxj, to write). 
A descriptive treatise upon the tongue. 

Glossology [y/.uaaa, ?.o-}og^ a treatise). 
A treatise concerning the tongue. 

Glossophy'tia (}/<j(t<to, <pi<roi\ a plant). 
l>lack Tongue. A dark discoloration of 
the tongue, due to accumulations of .si>ores, 
dead epithelium and accidental impurities. 

Glossople'gia [y/.cjaaa, rrAT/yTi, a stroke). 
Paralysis of the tongue. 

Glossot^omy [^/.(jaaa, refivu, to cut). 
The dissection of the tongue. Also, the 
excision of the tongue. 

Glos^sy Skin. See Alrophodervia. 

Glot^tis (;/w77«, the tongue). The ritna 
glottidis. The opening between the ary- 
tenoid cartilages, or the interv^al betwein 
the vocal chords. Over it is the e])iglottis, 
a thin lamella of cartilage covering the 
lary-nx during deglutition. 

GIu''cose (; T^vKvq, sweet). Dextrose, Levu- 
lose, Grape Sugar, Starch Sugar. A sub- 
stance obtained from starch by the action 
of the natural ferment diastase, and by the 
catalytic action of mineral acids on starch. 
Less soluble, and therefore less sweet than 
cane sugar, but equally nutritious. Much 
used as an adultiTant of cane sugar. 
Dextrose differs from levulose in its beha- 
vior to the ix)larized ray that is turned by 
the former to the right, and by the latter 
to the left. 

Glu'coside {glucose, eifioq, like). A name 
given to a series of com|>ounds that may 
be resolved by the presence of acids into 
glucose and another ])rinciple. 

Glu'cosine. N'arious i)toiiiainc-bascs ob- 
tained by the action of ammonia on glu- 
cose. One of these, tn'lin^A*^ =^ ^)' 
corresjxmds in fornuila and gmeral prop- 
erties to a remarkable unnamed I ase 
fonned during the alcoholic fermenlatiun 
of sugar or molas.ses, — Morin's baj«, 
C",H,„N.^: — a colorless, strongly refract- 
ing, very mobile oil, with a nau.senus, 
pyritline like odor. It prtKluces sluixir, 



GLUE 



176 



GOITRE 



paralysis, diminution of sensibility, dilata- 
tion of pupils, lowering of pulse and 
temperature, coma, and death. Alkaloidal 
bases have also been found in petroleum, 
paraffine-oil, chloroform, benzole, ether, 
amyl alcohol, and in most solvents in com- 
mon use. 

Glue. An impure gelatine obtained from 
the hides and hoofs of animals. 

Glute^al [yXovTog, the buttock). Pertain- 
ing to the gluteal muscles or to the but- 
tocks. G. Artery. See Ariery. G. 
Nerve. See Nei-ve. G. Reflex, a con- 
traction of the gluteal muscles when the 
skin over the buttock is stimulated. 

Glu''ten ly gluten, glue). A substance re- 
sembling albumin, with which it is proba- 
bly identical. Occurs abundantly in the 
seed of cereals in the form of cubical cells 
surrounding the starchy fecula of the seed. 
It consists mainly of gluten-fibrin, gluten- 
casein, gliadin and mucedin. 

Glyc'erine [^'\vkv<;'). Propenyl hydrate. 
A viscous, syrupy, colorless substance de- 
rived from certain fats — mainly palm oil — 
by decomposing them with superheated 
steam. Pure glycerine is an emollient; the 
impure article an irritant to the skin. 

Glyc'erine Cu''pric Test (for sugar). 
To an inch of potassium hydrate in a test- 
tube add a few droj)s of copper sulphate 
and a few of glycerine. Boil and add 
suspected urine by small amounts up to 
less than one inch in the tube. Sugar 
will throw out the cuprous oxide, red or 
yellow. 

Gly'cerite, or 

Glyceri^tum. A glycerite, or mixture of 
medicinal substances with glycerine. There 
are two official glycerites. 

Gly'cin. Called, also, glycocoll, amido- 
acetic acid, or gelatin sugar; derived from 
gelatin. 

GlycochoFic Acid (j'kvK.vq, x^'^^Vt bile). 
An acid found in the bile. 

Gly^cocol. See Glycin. 

Gly^cogen {y7\.vKvq, jEvvau, to produce). 
A white amorphous powder, tasteless 
and odorless, forming an opalescent solu- 
tion with water, insoluble in alcohol. Com- 
monly known as animal starch. Occurs 
in the blood and the liver, by which it is 
elaborated. Changed by diastasic ferments 
into glucose. 

Gly^conin. See Vitellus. 

Glycosu^ria (^yTMKvq, ovpov, the urine). 
The existence of grape sugar in the urine. 
See Diabetes. G., Tests for. See Boctt- 
cher's, Fehling's, Glycerine, Cupric, In- 



digo-carmine, Favfs, Picrosacchari- 
?netcr, Phenyl-hydrazin, Roberts' Differ- 
ential Density, Saccharonieter, TnmiDiers. 

Glycyrrhi^za. Liquorice Root. The root 
of G. glabra. A demulcent and mild lax- 
ative, of sweet taste. In combination with 
other medicaments, an excellent expector- 
ant. Much used as an excipient in pills, 
troches, etc. G., Ext., the liquorice of 
commerce, occurring in black rolls. G., 
Ext. Purum, made with aq. ammonia 
and water by percolation and evaporation. 
G., Fid. Ext., prepared with water and 
alcohol. G., Mist. Comp., Brown mix- 
ture, pure extract, sugar, acacia, aa 3 parts, 
tinct. opium camph. 12, vin. antimony 6, 
spt. nitrous ether 3, water 70. Dose 3 j- 5 ss. 
G. et. Opii Trochisci, have each G. ext. 
gr. ij, ext. of opium gr. ■^■^, acacia, sugar, 
oil of anise q. s. Dose j-ij. G. Ammo- 
niatum, the sweet principle of the root 
made soluble by ammonia. Dose gr. 
v-xv. 

Gme''lin-Heintz Reaction. A test for 
bile-pigments in urine. Nitric acid con- 
taining some nitrous acid is added to the 
liquid, and if bile-pigments be present, a 
play of colors follows, beginning with 
green and passing through blue, violet, red 
to yellow. 

Gme^lin's Test. See Gnielin-Heintz Re- 
action. 

Gnat (Sax. gmct). A dipterous insect, the 
Cnlex pipiens, differing but slightly from 
the common mosquito, with which it is 
popularly included. The " bite " consists 
in a piercing of the skin and the with- 
drawal of a minute quantity of lilood. It 
has no sting nor poison glands. 

Gna'thic [yvaHoc;, the cheek bone). Per- 
taining to the cheek or the upper jaw. 

Goad^by's Solution. A solution of salt 
and corrosive sublimate in water, for pre- 
serving meat against putrefaction. 
■ Gob'let Cells. Chalice-like cells lying 
between the epithelial cells of the intestinal 
villi. 

Gog^gles (E. goggle, to roll the eyes). 
Spectacles with colored lenses and wire or 
cloth sides, to protect the eyes from ex- 
cessive light, dust, etc. 

Goi^tre [gut/ur, throat). Enlargement, 
particularly if hjrpertrophic, of the thy- 
roid gland. Called, also, Bronchocele and 
Tracheocele. It generally accompanies 
cretinism. G., Exophthalmic, a disease 
characterized by one or more of three 
symptoms — cardiac palpitation, goitre and 
exophthalmos. 



GOKRHU 



177 



GRACILLIS 



Gok'rhu. The fruit of Pcdalium nturex, 
found in East Indies. Much used by the 
natives in enuresis and spemiatorrhoea. 
Used in infusion of 3J to Dj of boihng 
water. Dose mi lib. L'nof. 

Gold. See Aurum. 

Golden Rod. The leaves of Solidago 
odcra. Aromatic stimulant and carmina- 
tive. A volatile oil distilled from the |>iant 
is used in llatiilence. Dose of the Hd. ext. 
5J-ij ; of the oil n\^ij-x. Unof. 

Golden Seal. See Hydrastis. 

Gold'-thread. See Cof-tis. 

Goltz's Balancing Experiment. Ani- 
mals lose their jxjwcr of e(|uilil)riuni witli 
removal of the midbrain or corjx)ra quad- 
rigemina. 

Goltz's Croaking Experiment. A pithed 
male frog croaks when the skin of its back 
or tlanks is stroked. 

Goltz's Embrace Experiment. During 
the breeding season the body of the male 
frog between the skull and fourth vertebra 
embraces even.- rigid object with which it 
is brought into contact. 

Goltz's Statical Theory. Every position 
of the head causes the endolymph of the 
semicircular canals to exert the greatest 
jiressure upon some part of the same, thus 
in varj-ing degree exciting the nerve-termi- 
nations of the ampulkv. 

Gompho'sis. See Synitrthrosis. 

Gona'gra (yoi'v, the knee, ay()a, a seizure). 
Gout of the knee or knee-joint. 

Gonarthri''tis {yovv, apHpov, a joint). In- 
Hammatinn of the knee-joint. 

Gonarthroc'ace (;"Jt, aptlpov, kuktj, evil). 
A cancerous or ulcerated afiection of the 
knee-joint, popularly known as white swel- 
ling. 

Gonarthrof'omy (yorv, affipov, a jfiiit, 
TtfjiD, to cut). Incision into the knee- 
joint. 

Gonecysf'ic {yn'j], semen, Kvarc^, a blad- 
• Icr). Pertaining to the veiicidcB scniiiialcs. 

Gonepoiet''ic {yovri, iroieu^ to produce). 
I'crt.iining to the secretion of semen. 

Gonococ'cus {yot>r/, kokko^, a kernel). 
A micTol>e thought to be the specific cause 
of gonorrh'ira.. See (Jonurrliaa. 

Gon'ion. See Skull. 

Gonorrhcc'a ( yr;/, /</(j, to flow). Etymo- 
l<4;ically, an involuntary di.-.charge of se- 
m<'n,but generally ap|)lii.-d lo an infectious 
pus-ljke discharge from the genital organs. 
The gonococcas of Neisscr is believed to 
\k. the S[)ecific microlK.* of goiiorrhcea. It is 
a diplococcus, found in clumps of from 10 
to 2a, surrounded by a mucous envcloiie. 
12 



G. Balani, affects the glans penis. G. 
Ophthalmia. See Ophthalmia. G. 
Rheumatism, a rheumatic affection of 
the joints ;is a scf|ucl of gonorrhti-a. 

Gonos^cheocele (yoi//, oaxtor, the scro- 
tum, K///J/, a tumor). A swelling of the 
testicle with semen. 

Gonyon''cus (}oi'i', the knee, oyKo^, a 
tumor). A tumor or swelling of the knee. 

Goose Grass. See Galium Apariue. 

Goose Skin. Cutis Ansera, Goose Flesh. 
A jx)pular name for a well-known condi- 
tion of the skin marked by prominence 
about the h.air follicles of acute papules. 
See Arnrtor Pili Muscle. 

Gor'get {j;ur<;'es, a chasm). A channeled 
instmnient .similar to a grooved director. 
It may be blunt, cutting, hooked, etc: 

Gossyp'ium. Cotton. The hairs of the 
seed of 6\ herbaceuvi. Freed from imi)uri- 
ties, and deprived of natural fatty matter, 
it becomes the absorbent cotton of surgery. 
Soluble in an ammonio solution of copper 
sulphate. The root is thought to have 
emmenagogue properties ; the oil is an ex- 
cellent substitute for olive oil. G. Rad. 
Cortex, cotton-root bark. Dose gr. xxx- 
5J. G. Rad. Ext. Fid., prepared with 
glycerine and alcohol. DosetT\^ xxx-^j. 
G. Seminis Ol., the expressed oil, consti- 
tutes most of the so-called olive oil of 
commerce. See, also, Pyroxylin. 

Gouge (Fr.). An instrument for cutting 
or removal of bone or of other hard struc- 
tures. 

Gou'lard's Extract. See Lead. 

Gout [s^utta, a drop). A disease character- 
ized by an excess of uric acid or alkaline 
urates, esjjecially sodium urate, in the fluids 
of the body. The latter is first dei)Ositi'<l 
alx)ut the articular surfaces of the small 
joints, but in time the arteries, cardiac 
valves and connective tissue of the kidneys 
may i)e involved. The metatarso-phalan- 
geal of the great toe is, curiously, tiie 
favorite ]X)int of attack, and the helix of 
the ear is another favorite seat. To])hi form 
al)OUt the alfccted part. To decreased 
solui)ility of the urates, due to increased 
acidity of the blood ; increased fonnation 
of uric acid, and failure in function of the 
kiilniy, — is ascrilicd the cause of gout. 

Gow'ers' Method, — of counting tin- cor- 
jniscks of the blood by the hiemacylo- 
metcr. 

Graaf^ian Fol'licles. See I'csicle. 

Grac'ilis. See .Muscle. G. Experiment, 
an cxijerinient ix-rformrd upon the ^jraciiis 
muscle of the frog, showing that pure 



GRADUATED CONES 



178 



GRAVITY 



muscular excitation does not travel back- 
ward from the muscle to' the nerve. 

Grad^uate [gradus, a step). To take a 
degree from a college or university. Also, 
a person on vi^hom a degree has been con- 
ferred. Also, in pharmacy, a glass vessel 
upon which the divisions of liquid measure 
have been marked. 

Grad^'uated Com^press. A compress 
made of pieces decreasing progressively in 
size, the apex or smallest piece being ap- 
plied to the focus of pressure. 

Graduated Cones. See Cones. 

Grafe's Symp^tom. In exophthalmic 
goitre, when the eyeball is directed down- 
ward, the upper lid does not, us usual, fol- 
low, but remains in a state of spasmodic 
elevation. 

Graft (ypaOig, a style). A small portion of 
skin, bone, periosteum, nerve, e/c, inserted 
into or upon a raw surface or tissue deficient 
in the special structure desired. G-, 
Sponge, the insertion of antisepticised 
sponge to act as a framework for the granu- 
lations. 

Grain (^gramim, corn). A general name 
applied to starch-producing seeds, or those 
of the cereals. Also, any small seed. In 
pharmacy, a small pill. Also, the ^y g^f 
part of the Troy pound. 

Graminiv^orous [grainen, grass, voro, to 
devour). Feeding upon grass. 

Gramme [ypa/i/xa, a Greek weight). The 
weight of a cubic centimeter of distilled 
water at its maximum density. The gravi- 
metric unit of the metric system of weights 
and measures. See Metric System. 

Gram's Method. See Grani's Solution. 

Gram's Solution. A decoloring agent 
used in bacteriological studies, consisting of 
iodine i part, potassium iodide 2, water 300. 
The preparation is taken from the color- 
bath, washed and plunged into this solution 
until it takes a blackish tinge, then washed 
in alcohol until decoloration is complete. 
This process is called Gram's Method. 

Grana^tum. Pomegranate. The cortex 
of the root of Pitnica G. contains a liquid 
alkaloid, pelletierine. One of the most 
efficient anthelmintics against tapeworm, 
rarely failing to bring away the whole 
worm. G., Fid. Ext. Dose ^ss-jss. 
G., Decoctum, fresh bark gxvij, water 
,^xvij, boiled to ^ xij and strained. Dose 
t^ iv-vj. Pelletierine Tannas, tannate 
of the alkaloid, known as a patent medi- 
cine under the name of Tanret's Pelle- 
tierine. Dose gr. ss-j, followed by a quick 
purgative. All unof. 



Grandry's Corpuscles. Occiu- in the 
beak and tongue of the duck and goose, in 
the epidermis of man and mammals, etc. 
They are terminations of sensory nerves, 
and are also called Tactile or Touch Cor- 
puscles of Merkel. 

Gran^ular Lids. See Trachoma. 

Granula^tion (dim. of grauum, a grain). 
The operation of reducing coarsely ciystal- 
line substances to particles of uniform size 
by solution and rapid evaporation, with 
constant stirring. Some substances, like 
ferrous sulphate, are best granulated by 
filtering a strong solution into alcohol. 

Granula^tions [grattuhim-). Papilla-, or 
grain-like growths that spring up in the 
healing of wounds and ulcers. 

Gran^ule [graiittlum). In anatomy, any 
small rounded grain, such as is found in 
the Malpighian bodies of the spleen. Also 
a spore or an isolated cell. In pharmacy, 
a small pill. G., Elementary, irregular 
protoplasmic bodies in blood, smaller than 
ordinary corpuscles. 

Granulo^ma {grnniilnm). A term used 
by Virchow to include such neoplasms as 
do not advance beyond the stage of granu- 
lation tissue. G., Fungoides. See 
Mycosis 

Gran^'ulose. The starch granules or staixh 
enclosed by coats of cellulose. 

Gran^um. See Grain. 

Grape Sugar. See Glucose. 

Graining [grata). A frame or screen 
composed of bars. Also a sound produced 
by the friction of very rough surfaces 
against each other. In optics, a glass ruled 
with exceedingly fine parallel lines to pro- 
duce chromatic dispersion in the ray of 
light reflected from it. 

Grattage'' (Fr.). A method of mild 
scraping or curetting the internal walls of 
the uterus by means of a brush. 

Grav^el. In surgery, a common name for 
the larger calculi or urinary concretions. 
Also, any difficult or painful micturition. 
G. Plant. See Trailing Arbutus. G. 
Root, Queen of the Meadow, the root 
of Eupatorium purpureum. Therapeutic 
properties like those of Boneset. See 
Eupatcn'ium. 

Graves's Disease. See Goitre, Exoph- 
thalmic. 

Grav^id [gi-avo, to load). With child. 
Pregnant. G. Uterus, the womb during 
pregnancy or gestation. 

Grav^ity {gravis, heavy). The property 
of possessing weight. Also, a condition 
of serious import. G., Specific, the 



GRAY MATTER 



GUANO 



measured weight of a substance com- 
pared with that of an equal volume of 
another taken as a standard. For gaseous 
fluids hydrogen is taken as the standard ; 
for liquids and solids, distilled watej at its 
maxinuim density. 

Gray Matter. See Brain. 

Great Lau'rel. The leaves of Rhoiioden- 
J>\^n Niiixiintini. An expectorant. Use- 
ful in obstinate coughs. Dose of fld. ext. 
TTLv-xv. Unof. 

Green. A simple color of the spectrum. 
G. Dragon. The corm of Amni dra- 
r,'nfiii>n. Kxj>ectorant and diaphoretic. 
Dose of fld. ext. ny-x. Unof. G. 
Osier, the hark of Contiis circinata. -An 
astringent tonic and febrifuge. Dose of 
fld. ext. n\^ x.\-3J. Unof. G. Sickness. 
See Chlorosis. 

Gregarin'idae {grex, a herd). A cla.ss of 
jjarasitic protozoa, of extremely simple na- 
ture. 

Griffe. See Mulatto. 

Griffith's Mixture. See Ferriim. 

Griffith's Pills. See Ferrum. 

Grinde'lia. The leaves and flowering top 
of G. roluista, found in California. An 
antispasmodic and motor depressant, in 
large doses producing mydriasis. \'alu- 
able in asthma, bronchitis and whooping- 
cough. Dose of the fld. ext. ITLx-^j. 
G. Squarrosa, common ague weed. An 
herb popular in the western U. S. as a 
remedy for ague and malarial diseases. 
1 lis proved serviceable in chronic rheuma- 
tism. Dose of the fld. ext. Tt\^xv-xxx. 
Unof. 

Grind'ers' Asth'ma. A chronic affection 
of the lungs resulting from the inspiration 
of metallic or siliceous dust, accumulating 
in the lungs, and producing symptoms 
similar to those of consumption. Called 
also G. Kot and G. Disease. 

Grippe. .See Iitjliicnza. 

Groin. Tlie depression between the belly 
and the thigh. 

Groove {\'>..,groof, a channel). A furrow, 
or channel. G., Dental. See Dental 
Groove. G., Infraorbital, the furrow at 
the jxjstcrior of the suiK.'ri<ir maxillary 
1/onc on its orbital surface, which fmally 
develops inio a canal of the same name. 
G., Occipital, the furrow on the inner 
surface of the temjKjral bone, in which 
the fxcipital artery lies. 
Ground Laurel. See Trailint^ Arbutus. 
Ground-nut Oil. I'lranut Oil. A hxed 
oil expressed fr<im the embryo of the seed. 
of llic |)eaDut, Arachis liypogaa. Kcscui- 



bles olive oil in general properties, for 
which it is often substituted. 

Growing Pains. A temi apjilied to neu- 
ralgic pains of the limbs occurring during 
youth. 

Growth (Sax. gro-wan, to increase). The 
augmentation of the hotly taking place 
between infancy and manhood. Also, 
the increase of any part of the lx)dy by 
addition to the number of its cellular ele- 
ments without the production of structural 
abnormality or differentiation into unlike 
tissues. 

Gru'el (dim. of grutiiin, meal). A decoc- 
tion of com- or oat-meil boiled to a thick 
paste in water. 

Gru'mous. Knotted, or in granular masses. 

Gru'tum. See Milium. 

Guacha'ta. The flowers of a Mexican 
plant ; contains several bitter tonic princi- 
ples. 

Gua'co. The leaves of Mikania G., 
much used in S. America in snake-l'ites. 
Thought to be of value in chronic rheuma- 
tism. Dose of fld. ext. ^ss-j. Unof. 

Guai'acol. An active constituent of 
crea.sote. Has been recommended instead 
of creasote in phthisis. DoseTTLJ-iij. Unof 

Guai'acum. Lignum Vita;. The heart 
of the tree, and also tlic oleo-resin of G. 
officinale. A prompt diaphoretic, expecto- 
rant and alterative. Efticient in tonsillitis, 
neuralgic dysmenorrhnca, amenorrhtva and 
rheumatism. Formerly much used as an 
antisyphilitic. G., Tinct., strength 20 
per cent. Dose IT^v-^jin »iuiila:^i: 
G., Tinct. Ammoniat., has guaiac 20, 
arom. spt. annnonia So parts. Dose n\,v 
- 7, ss. 

Guan'idine. A toxic derivative from 
guanine. 

Gua''nine {t^iano). A leucomaine dis- 
covered by Unger in 1844, as a constituent 
of guano. Since then it has been proved 
one of the deconiposilion-prtxlucts of im- 
clein in both animal and vegetal )lc organ- 
isms. In the case of the lower animals it 
is evidently the endjiroduct of kataliolic 
change. Guanine and creatine a|)pear to 
mutually replace each other — tioth being 
substituted guanidines. It is an interme- 
diate pro<luct in the formation of urea. It 
is non-ixji.sonous and a musclestinuilant. 

Gua'no (I'eniv. /iiianti, dung). The 
excrement of sea fowl found on certain 
islands in the rainless n gion> of the I'a- 
cific Ocean, ("onsists essentially of alka- 
line urates and phosphates. U.->cd exter- 
nally in certain skin di:>eascs. 



GUARANA 



180 



GYRI 



Guara^na. A dried paste prepared from 
the seeds of PatilUnia sorbilis, found in 
Brazil. Contains an alkaloid, guaranine, 
identical with caffeine. Employed chiefly 
in nervous sick headache. Commercial 
preparations not always trustworthy. Dose 
of the fid. ext. rr^ x-3 ij. 

Gubernac^ulum Testis (Lat.). The 
conical-shaped cord attached above the 
lower end of the epidydimis and governing 
the descent of the testes in foetal growth. 

Gubler's Tumor. A prominence over 
the carpus of the dorsum of the hand in 
chronic wrist-drop from lead-poisoning. 

Guillotine. A surgical instniment for 
excision of the tonsils or growths in the 
larynx, etc. 

Guin''ea Worm. A nematode worm of 
tropical countries, that in the human tis- 
sues in which it burrows may develop to a 
length of several feet, producing inflamma- 
tory ulceration, unless removed. 

GuFlet. See Oesophagus. 

Gum. A name loosely applied to con- 
creted juices of plants. Chemically, a 
.substance yielding vincic acid when treated 
with nitric acid. See, also, Gums. 

Gum Arabic. See Acacia. 

Gum-boil. Abscess of the jaw. 

Gum Dammar. The resin of a species 
of pine, Daminara orien talis, native to the 
East Indies. An ethereal solution is 
used by microscopists as a mounting fluid. 

Gum'ma (Fr. Gomme). Gum-like tumors, 
resulting from a peculiar caseation of terti- 
ary syphilitic inflammatory deposit. 

Gums. See Gingiva. 

Gun Cotton. See Pyroxylin. 

Gurgling Sound. The peculiar sound 
caused by air passing through a li<]uid. It 
is heard in breathing, when the bronchi 
or pulmonary cavities contain a fluid sub- 
stance. 

Gur''jun BaFsam. Balsamum Diptero- 
carpus, Wood Oil. An oleo-resin obtained 
from several species of Diptocarpus, a tree 
native to Southern Asia. Similar to Copaiba 
in therapeutic effects. Dose TTLx-^ij, in 
emulsion. Unof. 

Gus''tatory (gusto, taste). Pertaining to 
the special sense of taste and its organs. 

Gut. A common name for intestine. 

Gufta (Lat.). A drop. Also, freely used 
as a minim or sixtieth part of a fluid 
drachm. G. Nigra, or Black Drop, a 
dilute acetic acid containing saffron, and 
flavored with sugar and nutmeg. Unof. 
G. Rosacea. See Acne. G. Serena, 
a synonym of Amawosis. 



Gufta Per''cha. The elastic gum exud- 
ing from Isonandra gutta, a tree growing 
in the East Indies ; the best solvents are 
chloroform, oil of turpentine and carbon 
disulphide. G. P. Liq., a solution in 91 
parts of commercial chloroform with 9 
parts lead carbonate. I'or protective appli- 
cation to slight wounds and eruptions. See, 
also, Traiimaticinc. 

Gutta^'tim [gutta). A pharmaceutical 
term signifying drop by drop. 

GmVXmt [g2ittur,ihQ throat). The throat 
with reference to the trachea. 

Guftural (guttu?-). Pertaining to the 
throat. 

Gufturo-tef'any [gicttur, tetany). A 
form of stuttering in which the pronuncia- 
tion of such sounds as g, k, q, is difficult. 

Gymna^sium [yvfivoc, naked). A place 
designed and fitted with appliances for the 
systematic exercise of the muscles and 
other organs of the body. Also, in Ger- 
many, a high school. 

Gymnasf'ic [yvfjvog). Pertaining to the 
science of preserving health by bodily ex- 
ercise. 

Gymnas''tics (yvjuvo^). The science of 
preserving (and formerly of restoring), 
health by bodily exercise. G., Medical, 
any physical exercise designed to restore 
or promote health. G., Ocular, regular 
muscular exercise of the eye, to overcome 
muscular insufficiency of the eye. G., 
Swedish, a system of exercises to restore 
paretic muscles. 

Gynaecology [yvvr;, a. woman, Tioyo^). A 
A treatise on the diseases of woman. 

Gynaecomast^ia {ywr/, fiaa-og, a breast). 
A term used to denote the excessive devel- 
opment of the breasts of a man, either with 
or without atrophy of the testicles. 

Gynan^dria {yvvrj, avrjp, a man). The 
same as Hermaphroditism. 

Gynatre'sia {yvvri, a, without, Tirpr/jui, to 
perforate). The obliteration or imperfora- 
tion of the vagina. 

Gynoplasf'ic (}i»i7/, Tr/laor/Kor, suitable for 
moulding). Pertaining to the closing of 
unnatural openings, or the dilatation of 
contracted, narrow openings in the female 
organs of generation. 

Gyp'sum [yvijiog, lime). Native calcium 
sulphate. See Calcium. 

Gyra^tion (gyro, to turn or whirl). A 
turning in a circle. Also, giddiness. 

Gy'ri (pi. of gyrus, a circuit). A name 
applied to the spiral-shaped cavities of the 
internal ear, and also to the convolutions 
of the brain. 



GYRUS 



181 



H.EMATIC 



Gy'rus {x}'rus, a circle). A term applied 
to the convolutions of tlie brain. Also, the 
winding of the cochlea. G., Angular, 
the jX)Sterior division of the lower parietal 
lobule of the brain. G., Annectant, the 
first and second external occipital gyri. 
G., Ascending Frontal, the anterior 
central gyrus. G., Ascending Parietal, 
the }X)sterior central g^ms. G., Anterior 
Central, the convolution Ixjunding an- 
teriorly the fissure of Rolando, extending 
from l)ehind that fissure backward to the 
margin of the great longitudinal fissure of 
the brain. G., Posterior Central, the 
convolution lx)unding posteriorly the fissure 
of Kolantlo, joining the anterior central 
g)Tus at the upper and lower ends. G., 
Cuneus, the small convolution joining 



the posterior end of the gyrus fomicatus 
with the apex of the cuneus. G., Den- 
tate, a small notched convolution of giay 
matter in the hijipocampal fissure. G., 
Frontal Inferior, a convolution of the 
frontal lobe of the brain, called also the 
third frontal convolution. G. Hippo- 
campi, the convolution at the inferior 
median edge of the upper lobe of the 
brain. G., Marginal, the convolution on 
the inner surlace of tlie great longitudinal 
fissure of the cerebrum. G., Occipital, 
a name given to several convolutions, one 
of which, the G. Occipital Primus, or 
first annectant of Huxley, connects the 
jiarietal and occipital lobes. G., Tem- 
poral, a convolution on the under surface 
of the temjxjral lobe. 



H 



H. Abbreviation of hypermeiropia. In 
chemistry, the symbol of hydrogen. In 
I)harmacy, the abbreviation of haustus, a 
draught. 

Haben'ula [habrna, a rein). A ribbon-like 
structure. In anatomy, the sujierficial gray 
nucleus of the optic thalamus in front, 
and superior to the posterior commissure. 

Hab'it {haheo, to have). That condition 
or quality that one naturally possesses, or 
that may be acijuired. The tendency to 
rei)eat an action or condition. In biology, 
the apiKiarance and mode of living of an 
organi/eil Inking. 

Hab'itat {hahito, to dwell). The natural 
locality, or geographical range of an ani- 
mal or plant. 

Habita'tion {hahito). A dwelling place. 
The natural locality of an animal or a 
plant. 

Hab'itus {/labeo, to have). A habit. 

Hae'ma- {(Kim, bkxxl). A Greek prefix 
signifying blrxxl. 

Haemacy'anin (niua, Kvaro^, blue). A 
blue coloring matter found in the blood 
and the bile. 

Haemacytom'cter. See lf,cmoc\toiiuler. 

Hacmadynamom'cter. See /Acmoiiyiia- 
momettr. 



Hae'magogue [ai/m, ayu, to expel). A 
remedy or agent that excites or increases 
menstpjal discharge. 

Hae'mal {aifja). Pertaining to the blood 
or vascular system. 

Haemalo^pia {niua, oij', the eye). Effu- 
sion of blood in the eye. Kiythroiwia. 

Haemarthro'sis (atfia, njAtiJot^, a joint). 
I'.llusion of blood into a joint. 

Haemastat'ics {(I'/^n, (JTariKoq, standing). 
That l>ranch of ])hysiology treating of the 
laws of tlie ei|uilibrium of the blootl. 

Haemastheno'sis {mun, anthiua, weak- 
ness). A weakening or deterioration of 
the blood. 

Haematachom'eter. See ILcmolachom- 
tier. 

H3ematangio''sis {ai/in, ayyemv, a blood 
vessel. Any disease of the blood vessels. 

Haematemc'sis {nifin, r/zfu, to vomit). 
\'omitiiig of blood, from any cause. 

Haematenceph'alon {aiint, r-)KKj)ii?.iii\t\\{^ 
i>rain). \ h.euKirrhage or bleeding witliin 
the brain. 

Haematherm''ous («',"", '^'/'/"A heat). 
Having warm blooil. 

Haemaf'ic {<iiiiii). liloody. IVrliining 
III, full of, or having tin; color of blotKl. 
Al.so a tonic t<j the blocnl. 



H.EMATIDROSIS 



182 



HtEMATOSPONGUS 



Haematidro''sis [ai/ja, idpuatg, sweat). 
Bloody sweat. Ephidrosis druenta. A 
sanguineous perspiration of the sweat glands 
caused by the extravasation of blood into 
the coils and ducts, whence it is carried to 
the surface mixed with sweat. 

Hae^matin {^aifia). An amorphous prin- 
ciple of the blood with steel-black metal- 
lic luster. It is insoluble in water, alco- 
hol, or ether, but dissolves freely in dilute 
acids and alkaline solutions. Should not 
be confounded with hematin, a synonym 
of kcE/natoxylin. 

Haemato- {aijia). A Greek prefix signi- 
fying blood. 

Hae''matoblasts {^atjua, ^laarog, a cell). 
Hayem's tenii for blood-plates. 

Hse'matocele [a/./ia, kt/X?/, a tumor). A 
tumor fonned by the extravasation and 
collection of blood in a part. 

Haematoceph^alus [at/ua, Ke<l)aX/}, the 
head). An effusion of blood, or a san- 
guineous tumor of the brain. Also, a 
monstrosity characterized by the effusion of 
blood into the cerebral hemispheres. Also, 
a vascular tumor that is sometimes ob- 
served in the pia mater of anencephalic 
monstrosities. 

Haematocol'pos (a///a, /co/lTTof, the vagina). 
HDemorrhage into the vagina. Also a 
■ collection of menstrual discharges within 
the vagina. 

Hae^matocyst [anm, Kvarig, a bladder). 
A cyst containing blood. Also an effusion 
of blood into the bladder. 

Haemato^des. See Hamatomyces. 

Haematogen'ic [at^a, yeveaq, birth or 
origin). Pertaining to the formation of 
blood. 

H3ematog''enous [aifia, yevog, a kind). 
Derived from, or having its origin in, the 
blood. 

Hsematoglobin. See Hcvmoglobin. 

Haematohidrc'sis. See Hamatidrosis. 

Haematoid'in (aifxa, ecdog, resemblance). 
A derivative of hsemoglobin, probably 
identical with the bile-pigment, bilirubin. 

HaematoFogy [ai/ia, T'.oyoq, a treatise). A 
treatise on the blood, its nature and func- 
tions. 

HaematoFysis (af/^a,^!'^;^, a solution). A 
solution, or an imperfect coagulation of the 
blood. 

Haemato^ma (aifia, ufia, tumor). A tu- 
mor, fungus, or swelling containing blood. 
H. Auris, an effusion of blood or serum 
between the cartilage of the ear and its 
covering, occurring in various forms of 
insanity. H. of Dura Mater, an effusion 



under the dura mater, consisting of flattened 
sacs containing blood. 

Haematom^eter. See Hcemodynamonieter. 

Haematome''tra [aifia, /^yrpa, the womb). 
Haemorrhage in the womb. Also, a collec- 
tion or distention of the uterine ca^•ity 
with menstrual discharge, due to obstruc- 
tion. 

Hsematoinphal''ocele [aifia, ofKpalog, the 
navel, Kr//Ji, a tumor). A tumor or a her- 
nia at the navel distended with blood. 

Haematom^yces {aifia, fivKT/g, a fungus). 
A ha;matoid variety of encephaloid cancer. 
Called, also, Fungus Ha-matodes. 

Haematomye^lia {aijia, ^wAof, marrow). 
Haemorrhage into the spinal cord. The 
symptoms vary with the seat, but paralyses, 
vasomotor and trophic changes, loss of 
sensation, etc., are common. 

Haematomyeli''tis [aifia, juve?Mg, irig, in- 
flammation). An acute myelitis in which 
there is paralysis arising from effusion of 
blood into the spinal cord. 

Haematopericar^dium (atfia, TrepiKapdiov, 
the pericardium). An effusion of blood 
into the pericardium, due to rapture or 
perforation of the walls of the heart. 

H3ematoph''agous [ai/ia, (payu, to eat). 
Blood-eating ; pertaining to insects such as 
the gnat, mosquito, (?/r., that suck the blood. 

Haematoplasfic [ai/ia, irXaariKog, plastic). 
Blood-forming. 

Haematopoie'sis [ai^ua, ttouu, to make). 
Blood-making. See, also, //amafost's. 

Haematopor^phyrin [aifia, iropcpvpni', pur- 
ple). Iron-free hajmatin, a decomposition 
product of haemoglobin. 

Haematops''ia [ai/ua, wi/', the eye). An 
extravasation of blood in the subconjuncti- 
val tissues of the eye. Bloodshot. 

Haemator^rhachis {^ai^ua, 'pax^S, the spine). 
Spinal haemorrhage. 

Haematorrhce'a (aifittj peu, to flow). A 
passive flow or discharge of blood. A 
haemorrhage. 

HaematosaFpinx [aifj.a, aaTiTny^, a tnim- 
pet). A distention or obstruction of the 
Fallopian tubes with blood. 

Haematos'cheocele [aiua, oax^ov, the 
scrotum, w/?./;, a tumor). A tumor or dis- 
tention of the scrotum with blood. 

Haematos^copy (aii-ia, gkottsu), to see.) 
Examination of the blood and blood-discs. 

Haematosep'sis. See Septicccmia. 

Haem^atosine. See Ilccniatin. 

Haemato''sis [aifiaToio, to make bloody). 
The process of the formation of blood and 
the development of blood corpuscles. 

Haematospon'gus. See I/ic/nato/nyces. 



H.tMATOXIC 



183 



H.^iMORRHAGE 



Haematox'ic (^aifia, to^ikov, a jxjison). 
Pertaining to a poisoned or impuie con- 
diiion of the blood. 

Haematox'ylon. Logwood. The heart 
of //. campcchiiinum. Occurs in dark 
brown ra:>pings or coarse i)owder. Con- 
tains tannic acid and a coloring principle, 
hicmatoxxlin, that becomes grayish - red 
by tiie action of light. A mild astringent. 
H. Ext. Dose gr. v-xx. H. Decoc- 
tum, strength I to 17. Dose 3J-ij. Uiiof. 

Haematozo'on (aiua, fwor, an animal). 
Any living organism or animal in the 
blood. 

Haematu''ria [ai^a, ovpov, urine). Blood 
in the urine. Called, also, /lumaftorsis. 
It is due to injur)', local disease, general 
disorder, or the presence of entozoa. 

Haemautog'raphy [aiua, avrog, self, 
-jpiiou, to write). The tracing of the pulse- 
c\iT\e by the jet of blood from a divided 
arterj- caught upon paper drawn in front 
of it. 

Haemid'rosis. See Hirmathidrosis. 

Hae'min. Chloride of h.i^matin. A doubly 
retractive pleochromatic crystalline sub- 
stance derived from blood. H. Test (for 
blood in urine) ; from the colored earthy 
phosphates hsmin may be extracted in 
several ways. 

Haemochro'mogen [aifia, xP'^t^^^ color, 
yEvvau, to beget). A reduced alkali-ha:- 
matin. 

Hsemocryst'alline. See Ilicnioi^'loHn. 

Haemocy'anin. A substance correspond- 
ing to hemoglobin, found in the plasma 
of iiivertebrala. 

Hae'mocyte [aifia, Kvrng, cell). A gene- 
ral term for the corpuscles of the blood. 

Haemocytol'ysis {(n/m, /ciTof, '/.v(j, to un- 
loose). The dissolution of blood cor- 
pu.>clcs under heat. 

Haemocytom'eter [aifia, Kvroq, a cell, 
fitTfMiv, a measure). A device for esti- 
mating the relative number of corpuscles 
in the blood. 

Hacmocytotryp''sis {nt/in, Kvrnr, cell, 
Tftiijiu, to ruli). The breaking U[) of blood 
cor|/U.selcs under strong pressure. 

Haemodromom'cter [ni/in, Aim/iog, s\xe(i, 
fteT(xiv, a measure). An instrument for 
mca.suring the rate of the flow of i)lcxxl 
in the bloofl-vcssels. 

Hacmodynamom'eter {ai/m, 6vva/tig, 
strength, iiirjiiiv, a measure). A con- 
trivance for measuring the tension or pres- 
sure of blood agaitist the walls of (he 
arteries. Careful ex|x.Timents .show that 
ID man, the pre.ssure of bloo<l in the 



carotid artery is about that of six inches of 
mercury. 

Haemoglo'bin (aifia, glohits, a round 
body). HaMnatoglobin, HKmocrystalline. 
A doubly refractive, pleochromatic colloid 
or crystalline matter existing in the cor- 
puscles of the blood, to which the red 
color of the latter is due. In man the 
amount is 13-77 percent., in woman 12.59 
percent., reduced by pregnancy to 9 to 12 
per cent. 

Haemoglobinoni''eter {Jurmoglobin, //fT- 
^oi\ a measure). An instrument for the 
quantitative estimation of hemoglobin by 
comparing the color of a solution of an un- 
known with that of a known strength. 

H3emoglobinu''ria [Jiiciiioglobin, ovpov, 
the urine). The presence of h.xmoglobin, 
red coloring matter of the blood, in the 
urine, due to its solution from the red 
corpuscles and subsequent transmission to 
the urine. It occurs after transfusion of 
blood, during certain stages of septicaemia, 
and after severe burns. It is not attended 
with the presence of any structures of the 
blood in the urine, thus diltering from lucma- 
turia. H. Test: to a suspected sample 
add a drop of acetic acid and boil ; a red 
coaguluni indicates h.vmoglobin. See, also, 
Alincns Test, Ilionin and Htllcr. 

Haem'oid [ai/ia, the blood, e/rfof, likeness). 
Having the appearance of or resembling 
blood. 

Haemom'eter. See Ilici)iody)iamomcter. 

Haemome'tra [ai/ia, fa/rpa, the womb). 
The retention of menstrual discharge in the 
womb or uterine cavity owing to obstruc- 
tion. 

Haemophil'ia {ni/ia, (l)i?.ia, love of). An 
alnionnal tendency to hemorrhage, or ease 
of lileeding. 

Haemophthal''mia {ai/in, o6fia7tio(;, the 
eye). A h;vmorr]iage into the interior of 
the eye. It may arise from roiitusitin, from 
iridectomy, or by rupture of a vessel. 

Haemopneumotho'rax («'/'«, nvevfca, 
wind, Ihjpii^, the chest). An effusion of 
air and blood within the pleura. 

Haemop'tysis {(u/ia, rrri'w, to spit). The 
spitting of l)l<i<xl. 

Haem'orrhage [ni/in, /^r/yvvfii, to burst 
forlii). Tile llowingof blood from wounded 
or broken vessels. H., Accidental, finm 
|)reinature detachment of the |ilacenta when 
nonnally placed. H., Capillary, oo/ing 
of i)loo<l from a wound witliout a llnw from 
large vessels. H., Collateral, in acute 
inlianunations. H., Complementary, 
succeeding to another hiemorrliagi- that iiiis 



HEMORRHOIDS 



184 



HANGING 



been cut short. H., Consecutive, ensu- 
ing some time after injury. H., Critical, 
occurring at the turning point of some other 
disease. H., Post-partum, prh/iaiy, 
within 24 hours after labor; secondary, 
after 24 hours. H., Unavoidable, from 
detachment of a placenta prsevia. H., 
Vicarious, abnormal discharge of blood 
from some other part of the body than the 
vagina, and occurring in suppression of the 
menses. 

Haem^orrhoids {^//amorrhois, -pWts). Piles. 
An anal disease consisting of inflammatory 
swellings of the tissues about the anus, 
sometimes with eversion of the rectal mu- 
cous membrane. H., External, situated 
without the sphincter atti. H., Internal, 
within the anal orifice. 

Haemostat''ic (aifia, araniiog, stationary). 
Having the property to arrest hemorrhage. 
Also, an agent or remedy that arrests or 
restrains bleeding. 

Haemotachom^eter {ai/xa, raxoc, swift- 
ness, fiETpov, a measure). An instrument 
for measuring the rate of flow of arterial 
blood. 

Haemothor''ax [ai/ja, 6opa^). The empty- 
ing of a wounded or ruptured vessel within 
the thoracic cavity. 

Hae^ser's Formula. See Christison^s 
Fonmda. 

Haid'inger's Brushes. A visual phe- 
nomenon seen upon directing the eye to- 
ward a source of polarized light, due to the 
double-refractive character of the elements 
of the macula. 

Hair. The hirsute appendage of the skin. 
Each hair consists of a bulb and a shaft. 
The former is situated in the true skin, but 
is enveloped in a sheath of epidermis. 

Hair-cap Moss. Robin's Rye. The 
leaves and stems of Polytrichum juni- 

pertim. A powerful diuretic. Dose of 
the decoction"a^/?(^. ; of the fld. ext. 3J-ij. 
Unof. 

Half^-breed. A popular term applied to 
offspring whose parents belong to different 
races. 

Halistere^sis. The loss by fully formed 
bones of ^ to |^ their lime-salts, resulting 
in osteomalacia. 

Ha^litus (Lat., a vapor). A vapor. Also, 
expired breath. H. Oris Fcetidus, tainted 
or foul breath. H. Sanguinis, the cha- 
racteristic smell of the blood, peculiar to 
each kind of animal. 

Hallucina^tion [allucijior, to wander in 
mind). The highest degree of subjective 
sensation, dependent alone upon patholo- 



gical stimulation of the sensory cortical 
centers. (Illusion is where sensations are 
modified and mistaken by the sensorium.) 

HaFlux, or HaKlus [hallux). The great 
toe. The great toe when ovemding the 
second toe. H. Valgus, displacement of 
the great toe outward, or its contraction. 

Ha^lo (aAwf, a threshing floor). The 
brownish circle about the female nipple, 
called also the areola ; the luminous or 
colored circles seen by the patient about 
light in glaucoma. 

Ha^logen {alq, a salt, yevvau, to produce). 
A term fomaerly applied to chlorine, bro- 
mine and iodine, as acid elements, other 
than oxygen, that formed salts when com- 
bined with bases. 

Ha^loid {d'Ag, eiSog, likeness). A term 
sometimes applied to the chlorine, bromine 
and iodine salts of the various bases. 

Ham (Sax. Jianim'). That part of the leg 
between the knee and hip joints. 

Hamame^lis. Witch Hazel. The leaves 
of H. virgmica. Properties not fully 
known. Thought to be tonic, styptic and 
sedative. Appears to affect circulation 
in a manner similar to aconite. Highly 
recommended as a haemostatic. A prep- 
aration of this drug is sold under the 
name of Pond's Extract. H., Fid. Ext. 
Dose TTLJ-^j. Hamamelin, unof, an 
extract of uncertain composition. Dose 

gr- j-ij- 
Ham''mer, Thermal. Same as Cautery, 

butt 071. 

Ham^mer-toe. A distortion of the second 
toe, in which it is bent upward. 

Ham^mock (Span. Iiainaca). A couch or 
bed made of netting or canvas, suspended 
at the ends. Much used aboard vessels 
and in tropical regions. 

Ham^string. The tendons of the posterior 
muscles of the thigh. Also, to cripple by 
cutting the tendons of the muscles of the 
thigh. H., Inner, the tendons of the 
semimembranosus, sartorius, and semiten- 
dinosus muscles. H., Outer, the tendons 
of the biceps flexor cruris. 

Ham^ular [hanius, a hook). Pertaining 
to or shaped like a hook. 

Hand (Sax.). The organ of prehension 
in bimana and quadrumana, composed of 
the carpus, the palm and the fingers. 

Hang^ing. Death by suspension of the body 
from the neck, by a rope provided with 
a slip noose. The immediate cause of death 
may be asphyxia, cerebral hemorrhage 
(from strangulation), or dislocation or 
fracture of the cervical vertebrae. 



HANGNAIL 



185 



HEARING 



Hang'nail (Sax. angHirs^l, a sore by the 
nail). A partly detached piece of epi- 
dermis at the root of the nail, the friction 
against which has caused intlammation of 
the abraded surface. 

Haphemet'ric. .See ^sthesionuter. 

Hap'loscope ((It/ooc, single, ffMiTfw, to 
see). An instrument for measuring the 
visual axes. 

Hard'hack. The leaves and twigs of 
Spima tomentosa. Astringent and tonic. 
A popuhu- New England remedy in diar- 
rhtea and cholera infantum. Dose gr. 
v-xv, in decoction, — of fld. ext. gss-j. 
Uncf. 

Hare'lip {hare, lip). Congenital fissure 
of tlie lip. H., Complicated, with cleft 
or niallbrmation of the l>one also. H., 
Double, two clefts of the lip, or one of 
each lip. Twisted or Harelip Suture, 
figure-of-S suture a!)OUt a pin thrust through 
the lips of freshened edges of the cleft. 

Har'rison's Groove. A depression, later- 
ally, from the xiphoid cartilage in persons 
with chronic difficulty of breathing. 

Harts'horn. A name po[iularly given to 
ammaninm hydrate. See Aniinoninm. 

Har'vest Bug. See Leptiis .littitmnalis. 

Hasch'isch. See Cann<i/>is. 

Has'sall's Corpuscles. Concentric, gran- 
ular, nuclear, endothelial cells in the me- 
dulla of the thymus. 

Hatters' Disease. A fonn of constitu- 
tional mercurial ]X)isoning. Also a skin 
disease arising from the use of mercury and 
arsenic. Also an acute irritation of the 
respiratory tract caused iiy the fumes of 
nitrogen tetroxide ; all these chemicals 
being used in hat-making. 

Haunch ( Fr. hanche). The part of the 
l)o<ly including the hips and buttocks. 

Haust'us (//a//r/'(>, tojxjur out). In phar- 
macy, a dratight. A jxtrtion of medicine 
ill the form of a draught. 

Haul Mai. See l-'.pilcpsy. 

Havef'sian Canal. See Bone. 

Hawlc'ing. ( learing the throat by a pe- 
culi:ir exjiiratory current of air. 

Hay Asth'ma. See Hay Fner. 

Hay'craft's Method. See Uric Acid. 

Hay'den's Vibur''num Compound. .See 
/ 'it'll mil in. 

Hay Fever. .\ disexse of the mucous 
membranes of the nasal and respiratory 
j)a->sages, als'j at times involving the con- 
junctiva and fycl>all. Il i^ mirkt-d by 
catarrhal iiidammation, cory/a luxl abun- 
dant lachrjination. It is thought to l>e 
due to the [Kjllcn of the grains and (iiiicr 



grasses. It is also attributed to the influ- 
ence of microbes that float in the air. 

Hay's ReaC'tion. See Strassl'iirg's '/est. 

Hay's Test. Eor the presence of bile- 
acids, tliat lower the surface-tension of 
fluids in which they are dissolved. Throw 
a small cjuantity of sulphur on the surface 
of the fluid containing bile-acids, and the 
sulphur will sink and be precipitated in a 
few minutes. 

Head (Sax. heafod). The anterior or 
upper part of the body. That part of 
the body containing the brain or central 
ner\'e-system. Also, the upper end of a 
long bone, as, the femur. 

Head'ache. Any [lain in tlic head, gen- 
eral or local, arising from any cause what- 
ever. According to llughlings-Jackson, 
frontal headaches, such as "sick" and 
"bilious" headaches, are due to disorders 
of the digestive system ; headache at the 
vertex, to cerebral troubles; and occipital 
headache, to anivmia. Eye-strain is a fre- 
quent source of headache, especially of the 
frontal region. 

Head^-breeze, Electro-therapeu''tic. A 
device for general static cephalic electriza- 
tion by a head-plate with numerous in- 
sulated pencils for subdividing and accu- 
mulating strong currents, and giving more 
gradual elVects. See Static Breeze. 

Head'-fold. An inflection or tucking-in 
of the layers in front and beneath the head 
of tiie cml)ryo. 

Head'-gut. See Fore-i^ut. 

Head** -locking. A tenn in ob.stetrics de- 
noting the entanglement of the heads of 
twins at the time of birtii. 

Heal'ing (Sax. hn-lan). Union and cica- 
trization of a wound. Ajijjlied generally 
to the cure of disease. H. by First In- 
tention, without llie granulating jirocess. 
H. by Second Intention, by the inter- 
mediation of granulations. H. by Third 
Intention, the direct union of twt> already 
granulating surfaces. 

Health (Sax. hiclth). That condition of 
the iKidy and its organs necessary to the 
proi>cr ])erformance of their normal func- 
tions. A hale, or whole condition of 
i>ody. 

Hear'ing (Sax. hyran). The special sense 
liy whicii the .sonorous vilirations of the 
air are conununicated to the mind. Tiie 
cereliral center is excited i)y the vibration 
of the fluid contents of tiie laliyriiith, or 
terminal organs of the auditory nerve. 
.Sound is com|X)sod of three factors, |)itch, 
intensity and timbre. The first depeiidf 



HEART 



186 



HELLEBORE 



upon the number of the aerial viljrations ; 
the second upon their amphtude ; the third 
upon their form. 

Heart. The organ giving the initiative 
and chief impulse to the circulation of the 
blood. It is enveloped by a membranous 
tissue called- the pericardium. Consists 
essentially of four cavities, a right auricle 
and ventricle, and a left auricle and ven- 
tricle. H., Dilatation of, the abnormal 
increase in size of any or all of the cavities 
of the heart. H., Hypertrophy of, an 
abnormal increase of the muscular tissue 
of the heart. H., Sounds of, the sounds 
observed in the auscultation of the heart, 
occurring synchronously with the con- 
traction and the closure of the valves, etc. 
H., Valves of. See Valz'e. 

Hearf^burn. A burning feeling at the 
stomach and lower part of the chest, caused 
by the acetic or putrefactive fermentation 
of the food. 

Heat. A mode or rate of vibration of 
ethereal or physical wave-motion. Within 
certain limits of intensity it is essential to 
the development of all organized beings; 
above a certain degree, destructive to all 
organization and life. As regards the 
body, a temperature above 98.6° F. Also, 
in physiology, the period of sexual excite- 
ment in the females of many animals. 
H., Animal, the heat generated within 
the bodies of living animals by the libera- 
tion of the latent heat contained in the 
food. H., Latent, physiologically the 
potential energy existing in a complex 
proteid molecule, and which is liberated 
by the simplification of the latter, or the 
katabolic processes of the organism. H., 
Prickly. See Ui-ticaria. H., Specific. 
See Specific. H. Stroke, a nervous 
affection characterized by sudden syn- 
cope, enfeebled circulation and respira- 
tion, caused by exposure to intense heat. 
Called also Sunstroke. 

Hebephre^nia (';//3?7, puberty, <^priy, the 
mind). A special form of mental de- 
rangement occurring in young persons of 
both sexes at or soon after the age of 
puberty. 

Heb^etude (Jiebeto, to be blunt). Dull- 
ness of the senses and intellect. A term 
applied to the state of partial stupor in 
affections of the brain. 

Hec'tic [mTLKoq, habitual or consumptive). 
Habitual. A word now commonly used 
in connection with certain constant symp- 
toms of phthisis, as H. Fever, the febrile 
symptoms concurrent with pulmonary con- 



sumption. H. Flush, the flushed cheek 
accompanying pulmonary consumption. 
H. Spot, same as //. Flush. 

Hec^togramme [ckutov, one hundred, 
grai)i?iu'). One hundred grammes. 

Hec^tolitre [kKarov, liter). One hundred 
liters. 

Hec^tometre {ekutov, fiieter). One hun- 
dred meters. 

Hedeo^ma. Pennyroyal. The leaves and 
tops of H. pulcgioides, distinguished by 
their aroma. Properties due to a volatile 
oil. Stimulant and canninative. Has 
some value as an emmenagogue. Useful in 
flatulent colic of children. Odor ex- 
tremely repulsive to fleas and mosquitoes. 
H. 01., the volatile oil. Dose n\^ij-x. 
H. Spt., unof., 10 per cent, of the oil in 
alcohol. 

Hed^rocele [iSpa, the anus, ot;?.?/ a tumor). 
A hernia in which the part protrudes 
through the notch of the ischium. Also, 
prolapsus of the anus. 

Heel (Sax. held). The hinder part of the 
foot 

Helco''sis {i?iKuaig, ulceration). The for- 
mation and development of an ulcer. 

HePcoid (f/Aof, an ulcer). Resembling 
an ulcer. 

HePenin. See Inula. 

HelianthePla. The root of //. temiifolia. 
Aromatic, expectorant, antispasmodic, and 
in large doses emetic. Of reputed service 
in pulmonary complaints. Dose of the 
fid. ext. TTLv-xxx. Unof 

Helianth''emuni. Frostwort, Rock Rose. 
The herb //. canadense. Astringent, aro- 
matic, tonic and alterative. Useful in 
diarrhoea, scrofula and secondary syphilis. 
Dose of fld. ext. TT\^v-xx. Unof. 

HePicine [p^^S,, a spiral). Tortile, or 
spiral in structure. H. Arteries, arteries 
proceeding from the profundie penis 
branches of the pudic, and from the dorsal 
arteries of the penis. 

Heli^coid (eA;f). Having a structure with 
S])i rally arranged parts. 

HelicotrC'ma. The opening connecting 
the scala tyiupaiii and vestibuli of the 
spiral canal of the cochlea. 

Heliother'aphy i^rjlioq, the sun, deprnveia, 
treatment). The treatment of disease by 
exposure of the body to sunlight. Sun- 
bathing. 

Heliotro''pin. See Piper. 

He^lix (f/'i/f, a coil). The margin of the 
external ear. 

HePlebore, or Helleb''orus. The root of 
//. 7iiger, black hellebore. Properties due 



HELLEBOREINE 



187 



HEMIEHLEPSY 



to two glucosides, helhhorin and helle- 
boretn. A drastic hydragogue cathartic, 
and emmenagogue. Formerly a popular 
remedy in insanity, dropsy, and amenor- 
rhcea. HelUhordn is somciimes used in 
cardiac affections as a subsiilute for digi- 
talis, its action being obtained by smaller 
doses-and less irritation. H. Nigri., Ext. 
Unof. Dose gr. j-x, cautiously . H. 
Nigri., Ext. Fid. Unof. Dose n\,ij-xv. 
Helleborin. Unof. Poisonous, insoluble 
in water. Helleborein. Unof. Very 
solui'le in water. Dose gr. x,t~To- 

Hellebore 'ine. See ILllebor\\ 

Heller's Blood-test. A test for blood in 
urine : Add to urine half its volume of 
solution of caustic potash and heat gently. 
The earthy phosphates are precipitated and 
carry the hamatin with them, falling as 
garnet-red tlocculi. 

Heller's Test (for albumin in urine). 
Pour down the side of the test-glass con- 
taining the urine, pure nitric acid. A 
white zone of coagulated albumin between 
the acid and urine indicates the presence 
of albumin. (.See, also, Roberts' Reai^cnf). 

Helminth'agogue. See Anthcl>nintic. 

Helminthi'asis {Diuvg, a worm). A con- 
dition marked by the presence of parasites 
in the body, especially of intestinal worms. 
.Also, disorders or lesions caused by worms. 

Helmin'thics. See Antlielntititics. 

Helminthorogy (i'/.iuvq, ?.n-,og, a treatise). 
A treatise on worms, especially those para- 
sitic ujxin the body. 

Helminth'ous (i'/.uiv). Wormy. 

Helo'des (fZ-of, a swamp). Swam])y, or 
mar-h y. Also, a fever attended by profuse 
sweating. Also, marsh fever. 

He'ma-. See I fa; in a to-. 

Hem'atin. A synonym for hirmatoxylin. 
.Sec Uuiiidloxylon. 

Hemeralo''pia ('^/icfxi, day, <ji/>, the eye). 
Night-blindness, a .symptom of several dis- 
ea.->es of the eye, of failure of general nutri- 
tion, fU. Vision is good in day or strong 
light, but fails at night. An unfortunate dif- 
ference of detinition |)revails in reference to 
this won! and Xydalopia. Sometimes it is 
defined as a condition the reverse of that 
given alxjve. 

Hemi- (''/,«'. half). A Clreek ])refix, mean- 
ing one-half. In anatomy and physiology 
it is ap|)lied to one of the two lateral 
liahes of the Uxly. 

Hcmiachromatops''ia {'T//navf, ;j'^6j/i«, 
»<)lor, "V'f, ^'H''')- Defective, or absent 
color vision in corres|X)ndiiig halves of the 
field of vision. 



Hemi-albumin. See Anti-a!l>umiii. 

Hemialbu'minose. The same as Hemi- 
albiiiuose. 

Hemial'bumose. See Peptones. 

Hemianaesthe'sia ('/////, avaiath/ata, want 
of feeling). Partial or complete loss of 
the sense of feeling in a lateral half of 
the body. 

Hemiano'pia. See Hemianopsia. 

Hemianops''ia (''////, half, av neg, oi/>/f, 
sight). Blindness of one-half of the visual 
field. It may be bilateral (binocular) or 
monolateral (monocular or uniocular), ac- 
cording as it affects one or both eyes. H., 
Binasal, due to an.v.sthesia of the tem- 
poral halves of the retina, the nasal fields 
thereby becoming invisible. H., Bitem- 
poral, the reverse of the last. H., 
Crossed or Heteronymous, a general 
term for either binasal or bitemporal II. 
H., Homonymous, the most common 
form, affecting the inner half of one lield 
and the outer of the other. H., Inferior 
and Superior, the upjjer or lower halves 
of the retina are insensitive. 

Hemiatax'ia ('7/", ara^ia, disordered 
movement). Inability to produce orderly 
or systematic movements on one side of 
the body. 

Hemiathetc'sis {'iiut^aBETO(;, without fixed 
po>ition). A term for athetosis or invol- 
untary rhythmic movements of one side of 
the body only. 

Hemiat^rophy ('?///<, arpcvpia, lack of nour- 
ishment). Imperfect or impaired nutrition 
confined to one side of the body. 

Hemiceph'alus {'>/in, KKpa/.//). A name 
applied to a monster fcetus in which the 
cerel)ral hemispheres and skull are absent 
or undeveloped. See Anencephalus. 

Hemichore'a (')///<, jopf/n, a convulsive 
twitching). A form of chorea in which 
the convulsive movements are confined to 
one side of the Ixxly only. 

Hemicra^nia (>///', Kpavmv, he.ad). Neu- 
ralgia or headache of one-half of the head. 

Hemidiaphore'sis ('//'/, ihuoDpi/mr, sweat- 
ing). .Sweating of one lateral half of the 
Ixxly only. 

Hemidysaesthe'sia (''/"', '^'C, dithcuU, 
(iiilh/(Tir^ sensation). Enfeebled or dulled 
sensation in a lateral half of the bixly, or 
in half of one of the organs of .sense. 

Hemienceph'alus {'r//ii, cvKcipn/m;). A 
monstrosity without organs of .sense, but 
|xjs.sessing otherwise a nearly normal 
brain. 

Hemiep'ilepsy (V////, rTTi?tpj>in, epilepsy). 
A form of epilepsy in which the con 



HEMIHIDROSIS 



188 



HEPATOGRAPHY 



vulsions are confined to one lateral half of 
the body. 

Hemihidro''sis ('?//», hlpug, sweat). The 
same as henndiaphoresis. 

Hemim^elus (V///<, IjLe}^^, limb). An eclro- 
melic monstrosity with deficient or atro- 
phied forearms, legs, feet and hands, with 
normal arms and thighs. 

Hemiop'ia (V//zi, u-\p, eye). The older term 
for hemianopsia. Hemiopia refers to the 
seeing half of the retina, hemianopsia to 
that part of the field not seen. 

Hemip^agus (V;//<, Trajog, united). A 
monomphalic monstrosity united by the 
thoraces, and with a common mouth. 

Hemiparaple^gia ('////<, irapaTrh/yia, paral- 
ysis of the limbs). Paralysis of a lower 
limb on one side only. 

Hemipar^esis {'vfic, Tvapeatg, impairment 
of strength). Paresis, or weakening of the 
strength on one side of the body only. 

Hemi-pep'tone. See Peptones. 

Hemipho^nia (V//yz, (^uvt], the voice). 
Speech having the characteristics of half- 
voice, half- whisper; used by patients in 
great weakness and exhaustion. 

Hemiple^gia (V;//y, Trhiyr], a stroke). 
Paralysis of the motor nerves of one side 
of the body, due usually to a lesion of 
some part of the coipus striatum and in- 
ternal capsule, or of the cms cerebri, of 
the opposite side of the brain. H., Al- 
ternate, unilateral injury to the pons, 
causing paralysis of the facial nerve on 
the same side, but paralysis of the oppo- 
site side of the body. H., Cerebral, the 
ordinary form first described above. H., 
Crossed, paralysis of the muscles of the 
eye supplied by the third nerve on the 
opposite side to the one otherwise affected. 
H., Facial, motor paralysis of one side 
of the face. H., Hephsestic, from the 
use of the hammer by smiths ; not properly 
a special type. H., Spastic, a form oc- 
curring in infants, in which the affected 
limb is subject to convulsive twitchings. 
H., Spinal, paralysis of one side or of 
the whole body without loss of sensation 
of the opposite side. Due to disease of 
the spinal cord. 

Hem^ispasm {'rifu, ajraafiog, a spasm). A 
spasm or convulsive movement affecting 
only one side of the body. 

Hem^isphere {'r//ii, afaipa, a ball). Half 
a sphere. H., Cerebral, either lateral 
half of the cerebrum. 

Hem''lock. See Coiiium. 

He^mo-. See Hccmo-. 

Hem-'orrhage. See Hemorrhage. 



Hem'orrhoids. See HcEtnorrhoids. 
Hen'bane. See Hyoscyatnus. 
Henle, Fenestrated Membrane of. The 
layer of longitudinal elastic fibers of the 
inner coat of arteries. H., Loop of. See 
Tiilndi Urinifcri. 
Hensen's Experiment. Proving that the 
so-called auditory hairs of the crustacean 
Mysis vibrated to a particular note. 
HepataFgia (^i]~ap, the liver, aAyog, pain). 
Pain in the liver, but more especially the 
paroxysmal pain occasionally affecting the 
right hypochondrium. 
Hepatec'tomy ['rjirap, turefivu, to cut out). 
Excision of a protruding portion of the 
liver. 

Hepaf'ic ['rjirap). Pertaining or belonging 
to the liver. H. Duct. See Duel. H. 
Lobes, the natural anatomical divisions 
of the liver, usually designated as right, 
left, quadrate, spigehan and caudate lobes. 
H. Zones, certain areas in an hepatic 
lobule. The central area, capillaries and 
cells form the Hepatic Vein Zone, specially 
liable to cyanotic changes ; the area next 
the periphery of the lobule is the Portal 
Vein Zone; and the area between the 
two the Hepatic Artety Zone. 
Hepatiza''tion ('7;7ra/3). An abnormal 
change in lung-tissue, in which it becomes 
solid and friable, somewhat resembling 
that of the liver. H., Gray, the condition 
of a lung in the third stage of pneumonia. 
H., Red, that in the second stage of 
pneumonia. H., 'White, the condition 
of the lungs in stillborn s}q3hilitic children. 
H., Yellow, the condition of the lung in 
the third stage of pneumonia when tinted 
by numerous pus cells. See Pneumonia. 
Hepati^tis ['rjirap, nig, inflammation). In- 
flammation of the liver. 
Hep^atocele ['rjivap, K7/lr], a tumor). A 
form of hernia in which the liver pro- 
trudes through an opening in the abdo- 
minal wall. 
Hepatocirrho''sis {'/jnap, Kippog, yellow). 

CiiThosis of the liver. 
Hepatocysf'ic ('r/irap, Kvarog, a bladder). 

Pertaining to the liver and gall-1 (ladder. 
Hepatodyn^ia ['//Trap, oSvvij, pain). Pain 

in the liver. 
Hepatogen''ic {'yrrap, yevvau, to beget). 
Pertaining to conditions produced by the 
liver, as H. Icterus, also called absorp- 
tion icterus, or jaundice, caused by the 
absorption of bile already formed in the 
liver. 
Hepatog^raphy {r/~ap, ypacpu, to write). 
A description of the liver. 



HEPATOLITIIIASIS 



189 



HKKPES 



Hepatolithi''asis {r'/-ap,?j0iaaic, presence 
of calculus). A disease characterized by 
gallstones or other concretions in the 
liver. 
Hepatorogy {>i~ap, Pojof, a discourse). 
A treatise on the nature, structure and 
functions of the liver. 
Hepatomala'cia [I'lrrap, /laXoKO^, soft). 

Softenint; of the liver. 
Hepator'rhaphy {r'/~(ip, pa<p'], suture). 

.Suture of the liver. 
Hepatorrhex'is {rprap, prj^tc, a rupture). 

Burstini; or rupture of the liver. 
Hepatot'omy {'j~ap, -tuvu, to cut). Inci- 
sion of tlie liver. 
Herb [ herba, grass). Any annual or peren- 
nial plant that yearly dies to the root. In 
pharmacy, the leaves, stems and tlowers of 
an annual or perennial. 
Herbiv'ora {herl>a, vo>o, to devour). A 
name foimerly given to a division of mam- 
malia. .\nimals that feed on vegetation. 
Herbiv'orous {/icrlm^voro). A descriptive 
tenn applied to animals that subsist on 
vegetation. 
Herbst's Corpuscles. Sensory end- 
organs in the tongue of the duck. 
Hered'itary (^>iires, an heir). Acquired 
by inlieritance. H. Disease, one trans- 
mitted to the offspring by the parent. H. 
Syphilis. See Syphilis. 
Hered'ity {/wres). The law by which nat- 
ural form, structure, and conditions, both 
of mind and l>ody, are repeated in offspring 
or de.-CL-iidants. 

Hering's Theory. See Cohr-seiimlion. 
Hermann's Difference Theory. See 

J >ijjFc'> eii: c. 
Hermaph'rodite [Epfir/c;, Mercury, A(ppn- 
Sirr/, Venus). One with some congenital 
malfcrm.ation of the genital organs, such as 
epispadias, hyjxjspadias, cleft of the scro- 
tum, <■/<•., that makes the dclermination of 
sex somewhat doubtful. H., Apparent, 
the external non-essential organs are the 
only ones of the ojJiKJsite sex. H., Bi- 
lateral, a testicle u|»n each side. H., 
Female, essentially female, but with simu- 
Ial<--<1 male organs. H., Lateral, a testicle 
ujx'n "iKf side, an ovary u|K)n the other. 
H., Male, the reverse of //. /■;■///<//<• H., 
Neuter, with no organs essentially male or 
female. H., Spurious, non-essential pctu 
liaritics (as the beard in a female) witlmut 
abnormality of the genital organs. H., 
Transverse, the exiem.il organs of one 
sex, the internal (jf another. H., True, 
essential organs of JKjth sexes present. H. 
with Excess, the individual j)Osscsscs all 



the organs of one sex with some of the 
opposite sex. 

Hermef'ical [Epiirig, the god Mercury, the 
reputed founder of alchemy). Pertaining 
to chemistry. Also, having resistance to 
chemical action. H. Sealing, the closure 
of an outlet by cementatitm or fusion, so 
that it is impervious to air. Also, the 
closing or covering of a wound by imj)er- 
vious dressings. 

Her''nia [/leniia, from tpvoq, a sprout). A 
tumor formed by the protrusion of the con- 
tents of a cavity (usually the abdominal) 
through its wall. Hernias maybe called 
after their locality, as Epigastric, Ecmoraly 
LigitinalyPcj-ineal, Scrotal, Umbilical, etc.; 
according to their condition, as Encysted, 
RcJucililc, Strangulated, Purulent, etc. ; 
according to the contents, as Cerebral, In- 
testinal, Omental, Vesical, etc. ; or, lastly, 
according to their origin, as Acquired, 
Congenital, Infantile, etc. H., External, 
one ap|>earing upon the external surface of 
the body. H., Femoral, the protrusion 
takes place through the femoral ring be- 
neath I'oupart's ligament. H., Humor- 
al, swelled testicle. H., Incarcerated, 
a strangulated, obstructed or irreducil>le 
II., — variously used. H., Incomplete, 
not fully ])assed through the opening. H., 
Inguinal, passing aliove Poup.art's liga- 
ment. H., Inguinal, Direct, to the inner 
sitle of the epigastric artery, not following 
the course of the spennaiic cord. H., 
Oblique Inguinal, through the inguinal 
canal following the course of the sperm- 
atic cord. H., Irreducible, that cannot 
be put back, but that is not strangulated. 
H., Obstructed, obstruction, but not 
jx)sitive strangulation. Hernial Sac, the 
serous membrane pushed before it liy a 
hernia. H., Strangulated, such con- 
striction as to prohibit ])assage of blood 
and fivces. H., Umbilical, appearing at 
the navel. H., Ventral, tliidugh the 
alnlominal wall in fiont other tli.m at the 
alxiominal ring. 

Herniopunc'ture [hernia, puiirtura, a 

|)riikini,'). The ])uncture of a hernia. 
Her'niotomy (//(•/;//,;, 7f7/i'(.),tocut). (Oper- 
ation for tlie relief of hernia by .section of 
the constriction. 

Heroph''ilus, Torcu'larof. See Torculir. 
Her'pes (//ito, to creep). Fonnerly 
cree|)ing eru|)tioiis, now appliecl to eni|)- 
tions marked iiy the presence of groups of 
tlie same U])<in an exantiiem itous bilsc. 
H. Circinatus Bullosus. .See llydroa. 
H. Esthiomenos. "iiic I.upus. H. Faci- 



HERPETIC 



190 



HETEROTOPIA 



alis or Labialis, an eruption on the lower 
part of the face, most frequently about the 
mouth. Thought to be of neurotic origin. 
Called also //. Fcbrilis and Hydroa Fe- 
brilis. H., Gestation. See Hydroa. 
H. Iris. See Erythema. H. Progeni- 
tal, consists of vesicles grouped upon an 
inflamed base, on the genitals, especially 
the prepuce and labia, frequently a sequel 
of gonorrhoea and soft chancre. H. 
Tonsurans. See Pityriasis Rosea. H. 
Zoster. See Zoster, Herpes. 

Herpet^ic (fpirr/f, a disease of the skin). 
Pertaining to herpes. 

Herpet^iform {^pT^^^, for7na, a form). 
Having a likeness to herpes. 

HerpetcFogy {epirr/g, ?ioyug, a treatise). 
A treatise on skin diseases. 

Hes^selbach's Triangle. See Triangle. 

Heteradelph^us [erepog, other, ads'Acjioc, 
brother). The same as Heteropagtis. 

Heteradc'nic {krtpoq, aSi/v, gland). Per- 
taining to or consisting of tissue that is 
unlike normal glandular tissue, though 
essentially glandular. 

Heteradeno^ma. Tumor foimed of hetera- 
denic tissue. 

Het^ero- [irspoc, other). A Greek prefix 
denoting diversity or unlikeness. 

Hetero-aFbumose. SeeAtinmoses. 

Hetero-autoplasty, grafting of skin from 
one person upon the body of another. 

Heteroceph^alus (irepog, KEcpaArj, the 
head). A foetal monstrosity with two heads 
of unequal size. 

Heterochron^ic {irepog, xpovog, time). Ir- 
regular in occurrence. Occurring at dif- 
ferent times, or at other than the proper time. 

Heterod^ymus [erspog, diSv/uog, twin). A 
double monster, the accessory part being 
but an imperfect head. 

Heterog^amy (erfpocya/iof, marriage). A 
term applied to different forms of sexual 
development arising from difference in nu- 
trition or environment. It is typified in 
the Phylloxera vastatrix, the development 
of which is far more complex when the 
insects are bred under ground, on the 
roots of the grape vine, compared with that 
when the insects breed upon the leaves of 
the vine. In the latter case the successive 
generations consist of apterous, oviparous 
females only ; in the former the cycle con- 
sists of male insects, apterous females for 
peq^etuating and winged females for spread- 
ing the species. 

Heterogenc'ity (krtpog, yevog, a kind). 
The condition or quality of being hetero- 
geneous. 



Heteroge'neous (erepof, ysvog). Differ- 
ing in kind or nature; composed of differ- 
ent substances, not homogeneous. 

Heterogen^esis {erepog, yeveaia, genera- 
tion). Organic deviations in the situation 
or character of organs, ete. Also, the fact 
of a living parent giving rise to offspring 
that pass through a totally different series 
of states from those exhibited by the pa- 
rent, and not returning into the parent's 
cycle of changes. 

Heterogenet^ic {krepog^ ysveaia). Pertain- 
ing to heterogenesis. 

Heteroinfec^tion {Erepog, iajino, to taint). 
Infection transmitted by a person who is 
himself not infected. 

Heterologous [ETspog^ loyog, an account). 
Differing in structure or form from the 
normal. H. Series, a series derived from 
each other by chemical metamorphoses. 
H. Tissues, morbid tissues that have 
no structural relation with the nonnal tis- 
sues of the part. H. Tumors, tumors 
having a different tissue from that of the 
pan in which they are situated. 

Heteromorph''ism {erepog, p.op<pTi, form). 
A condition marked by difference in form, 
as compared with the normal form. In 
chemistry, the property of crj'stallizing in 
different forms. 

Heteron''oinous {erepog, vo^uog, a law). 
Abnoiinal. Deviating from ordinary laws 
or types. 

Heterop''agus {erepug, other, Trayiog, 
united). A parasitic monstrosity with nor- 
mal head, upper and lower extremities, 
but with a parasite attached to the anterior 
abdominal wall. 

Heterop^athy {ererog, rradog, affection). 
The treatment of a disease by inducing a 
different morbid condition to neutralize it. 
Abnormal reaction to stimulus or irritation. 

Heteropho^ria {erepog, different, (popog, a 
tending). A tending of the visual lines in 
some other way than that of parallelism. 
It may be Esophoria, a tending of the 
lines inward; or Exophoria, outward ; or 
Hyperphoria, a tending of the right or 
left visual line in a direction above its fel- 
low. Hyperesophoria, a tending of the 
visual lines up and inward. Hyperexo- 
phoria, up and outward. 

Heteroplast^ic. See Pletei-ologotts. 

Heterotax''ia {erepog, ra^ig, order). A 
congenital, but not hereditary, displace- 
ment of an organ or part. Especially a 
malposition of internal organs. 

Heterotop'ia {erepog, roTror, a place). Ab- 
normal positioii. Misplacement of an or- 



HETEROTROriA 



191 



HISTOGENESIS 



gan or part. Also, any abnormal g^wth 
of tissue fureii:;n to that part of the bot'.y 
wherein it is situated. 

Heterotrop'ia. See Strabismus. 

Heterotyp'ic {hepoq, rvrof, a pattern.) 
AppHcd to a monstrosity consisting of a 
willdcvelopeil fivtiis from whicl) grows 
an immature sccondarj' fietus. 

Heteroxanth''ine. A leucomaine isolated 
from urine in 1SS4. In comix)siiion, it is 
methyl-xanthine, and is intermediate be- 
tween xanthine and paraxanthine or di- 
methyl-xanlhine ; exists in the urine of 
man in tlie same proportion as paraxan- 
thine. But it exists in urine of the dog 
iiiiiUiOm/'tinieJ by paraxanthine, and the 
same fact has been observed in the urine 
of leucoc)'tha'mic j^ersons. It is thou<j;ht 
by Solomon to have its origin in the kid- 
ney. Its physiological action is not yet 
fully known. Xanthine, heteroxanthine, 
and ])araxanthine form normally a homolo- 
gous series of xantliine l)odies in the urine. 

Hewson's Experiments. To prove that 
the blood vessels exert a restraining in- 
fluence on coagulation. 

Hexicol'ogy {iiiq, state or condition,?/)yof, 
science). The relations of a creature to 
its environment. 

Hia'tus {/;/(', to gai^e). A sjiace or open- 
ing. Also, the vulva. H. of Fallopius, 
the shallow groove on the petrous portion 
of the tem])oral l)one. 

Hiberna'tion (/lilieniiis, winter). The 
dormant condition or winter sleep of cer- 
tain animals, notai^y bears, hedgeliogs, 
etc., in which animation is almost sus- 
pended. Respiration and circulation are 
greatly reduced, and nutrition is performed 
mainly at the expense of the fatty tissues 
of the animal. 

Hic'cough {/tir, a mimic word; cough). 
A s|)asmodic contractinn of the dia])hr;igm 
causing inspiration, followed iiy a sudden 
closure of the glottis. 

Hick'ory. The barkof shelll)ark hickory, 
Oiryn alba. Tonic and anti-intermittent. 
Useful in malarial fevers. Dose of lid. 
ext. !5ss-j. Unof. 

Hide-bound Disease. See Sr/,-roi/t-r»in. 

Hi'dro- (i<i/j(jc, sweat). A prefix signify- 
ing ssveat. 

Hidropede^sis (<''V"^f. ~'/<^'J<"C, a leaping). 
Exce.vsivc sweating. 

Hidropoiii'sis ((''/"■'C. ^"ir(J, to make). 
( aiLsing the formation and cxcretirm of 
sweat. 

Hidros^chesis {i^i>cjr, a,xif":, retention). 
Ketcntion or suppression of the sweat. 



Hidro'sis [U^puq). The formation and 
excretion of sweat. 

High'more, Antrum of. Tlie l.irge cavity 
in the body of the superior maxillary bone. 

Hi'lum (Lat. a little thing). A small fis- 
sure, notch, or depression, especially the 
notch on the internal or concave border 
of the kidney. 

Hind'brain (Ger. hinterJiirn'). A division 
of the brain, developing from a funnel- 
shaped tube in the embryo to an anterior 
lobe that becomes the cerebellum, and a 
posterior lobe that becomes the medulla 
oitlongata. 

Hinge -joint. See Diarthrosis. 

Hip (Sax. hype). The upper part of the 
thigh at its junction with the buttocks. 

Hip-joint Disease. An arthritis of the 
hip-joint ; an affection of early life, and ac- 
cording as it begins in the head of the 
femur, the acetabulum, or in the synovial 
membrane and proper structures of the 
joint, is divided respectively into Femora/, 
Acetalnilar and Arthritic. Its etiology is 
obscure, its symptoms pain (coxalgia), 
swelling, and deformity. Coxalgia is in- 
correctly used as a synonym. 

Hippocamp''us (iTrrof, horse, Ka^tnog, a 
sea monster). A name applied to the con- 
volutions, // major and //. minor, the 
former situated in the inferior, and the lat- 
ter in the posterior horn of the ventricles 
of the brain. 

Hippocory'za. See Eqiiitiia. 

Hippu'ric Acid. Kenzoylamidoaccticacid. 
An odorless, monobasic acid occurring in 
large amount in the urine of heri)ivora, 
and in them the chief end-product of the 
metabolism of nitrogenous substances. 
Human urine contains a small amount 

Hip'pus {\--oq, horse, from analogy to the 
movement of the same). Spasmodic j)upil- 
laiy movement, independent of the action 
of light. 

Hir''sute [hiisutiis, shaggy). Covered with 
hair or 1 eristics. Shaggy. 

Hirsu'ties (///;-.r////^f). llypertrichiasis. Ily- 
jjerlrichosis. I'olytriciua. Trichauxis. Ily- 
]>crtrophy, excessive, or abnormal growth 
of tlie hair cither in quantity or in position. 

Histioid. See J/istoit/. 

Histochem'istry (('(Trof, a web or tissue, 
ihiiiiistry). The chemistry of organic 
ti.ssue. 

Histodial'ysis ('ffror, (ha7vcor, a resolu- 
tion). The dissolution of organic tissue. 

HistOgen'csis (((iror, )iir<n.>, to beget). 
Tlie study of the origin and ilevelopment 
of organic tissues. 



HISTOH^MATIN 



192 



HOMOLOGOUS 



Histoh3e''niatin ((crrof, heematin). A pig- 
mentary extractive of the suprarenal bodies. 

Hist^oid (('ffrof, EidoQ, likeness). Pertain- 
ing to tissue derived from the mesoblast, 
as a histoid tumor. See Neoplasfn. 

Histology {^iGToq, TMyoq, a treatise). The 
study of the intimate structure of tissues. 

Histolysis (icrrof, 7,vaig, dissolution). Dis- 
integration and dissolution of organic tis- 
sue. 

Histon''oiny (iorof, vo/xog, a law). The 
laws of the development and airangement 
of organic tissue. 

HistophysioFogy [larog, (pvaig, nature, 
2x)yog, a treatise). A treatise concerning 
the functions of the various tissues. 

Histot^omy [larog, refivu, to cut). The 
dissection of any organic tissue. 

Hives. A name loosely applied to almost 
any papular eruption of the skin. In 
Great Britain, applied to croi/p and to 
chicken-pox ; in the United States, limited 
to a transitory form of urticaria. 

Hoang Nan. A Chinese preparation ob- 
tained from Strychnos gaullhcria. Proper- 
ties due to small percentage of strychnine. 
Recommended as an alterative in syphilis, 
leprosy and similar diseases. An alleged 
preventive of hydrophobia if given in large 
(gr. xv) doses during period of incubation. 
Dose gr. ^-K- Unof. 

Hoarse'ness (Sax. has). Harshness of 
voice depending on some abnormal condi- 
tion of the larynx or throat. 

Hodg''kin's Disease. See Lympkade 
noma. 

HofTs Malt Extract. See Malt. 

HoKagogue (oAof, whole, ayuyog, leading). 
A medicine or remedy that expels or 
drives out the whole of a morbid substance. 
A radical remedy. 

Holm'gren's Tests. See Blindness, 
Color. 

Ho^lo- [pMq, entire). A Greek prefix sig- 
nifying entirety. 

Holoblasf'ic {o\oq, jUaarog, a sprout). 
Pertaining to the segmentation of the 
ovum. 

Homat''ropine. See Atropine. 

Home''sickness. Nostalgia. An urgent 
desire to return to one's home. May be 
accompanied by a morbid sluggishness of 
the functions of the various organs of the 
body, developing into profound melan- 
choly. 

Hom'icide [homo, a man, ccedo, to kill). 
The killing of a human being without 
malice or intent, as distinguished from 
murder or manslaughter. Also, the taking 



of human life in general by another. Also, 
one who takes the life of another. 

Ho^mo (Lat.). Man. The sole genus of 
the order Biviana. 

Homocent^ric [piiog, the same, K^vrpov^ 
a center). Concentric. Having tlie same 
center. H. Rays, a pencil of light-rays 
either cone-shaped or rod-shaped. 

Homocer^ebrin (6/zof, cerebrin). A nitro- 
genous glucoside obtained from brain- 
tissue. 

Hom^ceo- [oixoioq, like). A Greek prefix 
signifying like or similar. 

Homceomorph^ous {ojioiog, /uop<pT/, a 
form). Like or similar in form and struc- 
ture. 

Homceop^athy [o/ioiog, like, Tradog, ail- 
ment or disease). A word applied by 
Hahnemann to a system of treatment of 
disease by the use of an agent that, ad- 
ministered in health, " would produce 
symptoms similar to those morl)id condi- 
tions for the relief of which the agent or 
medicine is given." The hypothesis ex- 
pressed by the adage, " similia si}nililms 
cnrantnr." See Regular, and Allopathy. 

Homceoplast''ic. Pertaining to a neo- 
plasm resembling its matrix-tissue in tex- 
ture. One diflering widely in this respect 
is heteroplastic. If separated in posi- 
tion, it is said to be heterotopic ; in date, 
heterochronic. 

Homogene^ity [pnog, alike, yzrog, a kind). 
The condition of being homogeneous. 

Homoge^neous. Having the same nature 
or qualities. Similar or identical in struc- 
ture. 

Homogen''esis [ojiog, yevvau, to beget). 
A term used to denote the fact that a liv- 
ing parent gives rise to offspring that 
passes through the same cycle of changes 
as itself. 

Homog''eny. See Ilomogenesis. 

Homog^onous' (o//of, yovog, seed). With 
like or similar offspring. 

Homoiother^mal (6//owf, like,fffp//;ii, heat). 
Pertaining to animale that are " warm- 
blooded," or that maintain a uniform 
temperature despite variations in the sur- 
rounding temperature. 

HomoFogous [ofio?ioyia). Having the 
same structural form, use, or type. H. 
Series, in chemistry, a graduated series 
of compounds having a common difference. 
See Hydrocarbon. H. Tissues, those 
identical in type of structure. H. Tu- 
mor, a name given by Virchow to a tumor 
consisting of tissue identical with that of 
the organ whence it springs. 



HOMOLOGUE 



193 



HUMERUS 



Hom'ologue (o/^o/ojof). A particular 
organ common to any numl)er of sjK'cies, 
classes, or orders of animals. 

Homol'og^ (ouog, /.ojof, a treatise). The 
science treating of the comj>arative study 
of the same part or organ in different 
species and orders of animals, and also to 
the study of organs or parts develojied 
from the same eml)ryonic structure. Also, 
the nioqjhological identity of parts or 
organs in different animals. 

Homon'omous {opog, vofu>g, a law). Gov- 
t.nied by or under the same law. 

Homon'ymous {o/ior, ovvua, a name). A 
term applied to names that have the 
same sound or pronunciation, but different 
mexnings. 

Homother'mic [6^og, Oep/it/, heat). 
1 laving uniformity of tenn^erature or bodily 
heat. 

Hom'otype {ouog, rv-ng^ a pattern). A 
part corresponding and similar to an- 
other part, as the humerus to the femur, 
fU. 

Hondu''ras Bark. See Cascara Amarga. 

Honey. See ^/c/. 

Honeycomb Ringworm. See Flavtis. 

Hook (Sax. hoc). A cur^'ed instrument. 
H., Blunt, an instrument described by its 
name, for exercising traction uixin the 
fnetus in an arrested breech presentation. 
H., Tyrrell's, a blunt, slender hook for 
oi)erations u|kjii the eye. 

Hop. See Jfumitlus. 

Hope'ine. See Ilumithis. 

Horde'olum {/lonitum, a grain of barley). 
A stye ; a furuncular inflammation of the 
connective tissue of the lids, near the hair 
follicle. 

Hor'deum (Lat.). Barley. H. Decorti- 
catum, barley deprived of its husk ; cun- 
nioiily called pearl barley. H. Germi- 
natum, malt, q. v. 

Hore'hound. See Marmbium. 

Hori'zon [lnuluv, the horizon). The line 
separating the visible from the invisible 
part of the earth f'-om a single ixjint of 
view. 

Horizon'tal (npi<,un>). Parallel to the hori- 
zon. 

Hor''mion. Sec Skull. 

Horn (Sax., //(TM). The hard projection 
u.sed as a defensive weajHin, growing on 
the heads of certain animals. Horns may 
Ijc |)cruianenl, a.s in the ox; or deciduous, 
a.s in the deer. Also, the hardened epi- 
thelial .substance of wlii< h the horn is 
com|Kj.s<<l. H., Cutaneous. Sec C'crz/M 
(Juliitifiim. 

»3 



Horner's Muscle. The Tensor Tarsi 
Muscle. 

Horop'ter (o/iof, a loundaiy, oirrr/p, an ol> 
servcr). Tiie sum of all the points seen 
single by the two retiniv while the fixation 
point remains stationary. 

Horripila'tion [liorreo, to stand on end, 
/i/t/s, the hair). A sensation as if the 
hairs of the skin were stiff and erect. 

Hor'rors [liorn-o). A ix)pular name for 
delirium tremens, q. v. 

Horse-Chestnut. See Esculus Jlippo- 
idstanum. 

Horse-Radish. The fresh root of Cock- 
lea ria (irHtortieia. Properties due to a vola- 
tile oil. Stimulant, diuretic, and exter- 
nally a rubefacient. Much used as a condi- 
ment. Dose of fld. ext. 3J-ij. Unof. 

Hos^pital [Ih'spiliile, a large house). A 
building for the care and treatment of sick 
or infirm people. H. Fever, a feveri.sh 
condition formerly common in hospitals, 
due to ill-ventilation and unsanitary con- 
ditions. Also, the fever symptomatic of 
gangrene. See Fever, H. Gangrene, 
a contagious, phagedenic gangrene occa- 
sionally attacking wounds or open sores. 
It is confined mainly to military hospitals, 
and believed to l">e of microbic origin. 

Hos^'pitalism. The morbific influences 
arising from the gathering of diseased per- 
sons in a hospital, which seems to have a 
tendency to produce septic diseases. 

Host [liostis, a stranger). A landlord. The 
organic l>ody u\K>n which parasites live. 

Hot-spots. See Temperature Sense. 

Hot^tentot Apron. See Apron. 

Hound's Tongue. The leaves and root 
of Cynoglossum officinale. Anodyne, de- 
mulcent and astringent. Dose of fld. ext. 
_^ss-j. Unof. 

Hour-glass Contrac'tion. See Uterus. 

Housemaid's Knee. See Abscess, Bur- 
sal. 

Howship's Lacu'nae. Depressions in 
which lie the osteoclasts of eroded or 
s|>ongy I Mine. 

Huin'gan. The seed of a plant native to 
the Andes. Infusion used in urinary 
affections. 

Hum. A low rhythmical murmur. H., 
Venous. .See Venous. 

Humec'tant (huinecto, to make moist). 
A diluent. Also a substance used to 
moisti-n. 

Hu'meral {humerus'). Pertaining to the 
liunierus. 

Hu'merus. (I.at.) Tiie largel)oncof the 
upjK-r arm. Also the shoulder. 



HUMIDITY 



194 



HYDRANGIOLOGY 



Humid^'ity (Jntmor, moisture). The state 
or quality of being moist. 

Hummer lyhumor). Any fluid or semi-fluid 
part of the body. H., Aqueous, the 
transparent fluid that fills the anterior 
chamber of the eye. H., Vitreous, the 
transparent gelatine-like substance filling 
the posterior chamber of the eye. 

Hu^moral {Jniinor). Pertaining to the 
natural fluids of the body. H. Path- 
ology, a theoiy among the Greeks that all 
diseases resulted from a disordered or ab- 
normal condition of the fluids or humors 
of the body. 

Hu^mulus. Hop. The fruit-cones of 
// lupulus. Contains various principles, 
hopeine and lupulin being most important. 
A bitter stomachic tonic and feeble hyp- 
notic, increasing cardiac action. A poul- 
tice of hops is a favorite remedy in inflam- 
mations. H. Infusum, unof, ^ss-Oj. 
Dose 5J-iv. H. Tinct., 20 per cent, in 
strength. Dose ,^j-ij. Lupulinum, the 
glandular powder. Dose gr. v-xv. L. 
Fid. Ext., alcoholic Dose ^ss-ij. L. 
Oleoresina, ethereal. Dose gr. ij-v. L. 
Tinct., unof., strength I2j^ per cent. 
Dose gss-ij. 

Hun^ger (Sax. /mngot-). A condition 
marked by a sensation of emptiness of the 
stomach and intense desire for food. 

Hunte^rian Chancre. See Chancre. 

Hunt^er's CanaF. See Canal. 

Hunts^man's Cup. See Trumpet Plant. 

Hutch^inson's Teeth. A notched or 
furrowed condition of the free edges of the 
permanent teeth, especially the central in- 
cisors of the upper jaw; due to inherited 
syphilis. 

Hux''hani's Tincfure. Red cinchona 
bark 5 iv, orange peel ,^iij, serpentaria 
gr. Ixxx, Spanish saiTron gr. clx, cochineal 
gr. Ixxx, brandy ^ xl, digested four days. 
Dose ^^ss-ij. 

Hy'alin {halMq, glass). A translucent sub- 
stance, called, also, canalized fibrin, that 
sometimes occurs in miliary tubercle. 
Also, the membrane or sac forming the 
wall of hydatid cysts. 

Hy^aline (iicAof). Resembling glass in 
transparency. H. Cast, or Cylinder, a 
clear, nearly transparent urinary tube-cast. 
H. Degeneration, a degeneration of 
fibrous tissue that becomes transparent, 
jelly-like, and homogeneous in stracture. 

Hyali^tis (va\oq, irig, inflammation). In- 
flammation of the hyaloid membrane. Used 
a.s a synonym for inflammation of the vit- 
reous humor. 



Hy'aloid (m/lof, eiSog, like). Transparent; 
like glass. H. Artery, in the .embiyo, a 
branch of the arteria centralis retina;, tra- 
versing the vitreous humor to the posterior 
capsule of the lens. Its hyaloid sheath 
forms the Canal of Cloquet. Persistence 
of this artery after birth has been observed. 
H. Membrane, a delicate, transparent 
membrane surrounding the vitreous humor, 
except in front, where it becomes fibrous 
and strong and forms a leaflet of the zo- 
nula of Zinn. 

Hyaloidi^tis, See Hyalitis. 

HyaFoplasma. See Protoplasm. 

Hy^brid {Jiybrida, a mongrel). A term 
signifying the offspring of two individuals 
of distinct but closely related species. 
Among animals, the mule is the best known 
hybrid. 

Hydarthro''sis. See Hydrarthrosis. 

Hydaf'id [ydajiq, a vesicle). The cyst of 
the embryo of Tcenia echinococciis in the 
human body; frequently, also, loosely ap- 
plied to vesicular tumors and cysts of many 
kinds. They are most frequent in the liver, 
but are found in most any tissue, even in 
bone. Synonymous with H. Cyst. H. 
Mole. '6&e. Mole,Hydatidiform. H. of 
Morgagni, certain short processes of the 
tunica vaginalis testis. 

Hydatid'iform [vdarig, forma, form). 
Having the foiTn of a hydatid. Resem- 
bling a hydatid. H. Degeneration of 
Chorion, or Vesicular Mole. See Mole. 

Hydrac^id. A term sometimes used in 
chemistry denoting an acid formed by a 
combination of hydrogen and some acid 
element or radical other than oxygen. 
Hydrochloric acid, HCl, and hydrogen or 
hydric sulphide, H^S, are examples. 

Hydradeno^ma. Adenoma with serous 
or watery contents. 

Hydrae^'mia (hdup, water, mfia, the blood). 
A watery condition of the blood due to de- 
fective renal secretion, or to imperfect fibri- 
nation. Accompanies albuminuria and 
certain other exhausting diseases. 

Hy^dragogue {y6up,ayu,io ex\ie\). A pur- 
gative that causes liquid alvine discharges. 

Hydram^nios {vdup, water, a/Ltviov, foetal 
membrane). An abnormal amount of 
amniotic fluid. 

Hydran^gea. The root of JI. arhorescens, 
a saxifrage. Much used by the Cherokee 
Indians in calculi of the bladder, and said 
to be of certain utility. Dose 3 ss-ij. Unof. 

HydrangioFogy (/'(Jwp, ayytiov, a vessel, 
/lojof, a treatise). A treatise on the nature 
and functions of the lymphatics. 



HYDRARGYRIA 



195 



HYDRATE 



Hydrargyr''ia. See Mcriurialisin. 

Hydrargyri'asis. See McnuriaHsm. 

Hydrar'gyrum. Mercury, llg ^= 200; 
qu;uuiv;ilence II, IV. Tlie only liquid 
metallic element, hence the common name, 
quicksxXsQX. In medicine the metal, its 
nitrate, o.xides, chlorides and iodides are the 
salts most commonly, the suljihide and cya- 
nide less frequently, used. A tonic, purga- 
tive, and alterative in small doses continued 
not too long a time. In larger doses, or too 
long contiimed, is apt to produce ptyalism. 
In " biliousness," mercurial purgatives have 
long been a favorite remedy, blue mass, 
and mercurous chloride or calomel being 
usually employed. In syphilis mercuiic 
chloriile and iodide are generally con- 
sidered a specific. In the form of calomel, 
useful in glandul.ir inllamniations. For- 
merly much used in the same form in 
typlKiid and malarial fevers. The soluble 
salts of mercury are highly poisonous. 
H. Ammoniatum, ammoniated mercury, 
" white precipitate," mercur-ammonium 
chlnride. Used externally. H. Ammo- 
niatum Ung., " white precipitate tiint- 
ment," — ammoniated mercury 10, iienzo- 
ated lard 90 parts. H. Chloridum Cor- 
rosivum, corrosive chloride of mercury, 
mercur/c chloride, " bichloride of mercuiy," 
"corrosive sublimate." Soluble in water 
and alcohol; antisyphilitic. l>osegr. s'fj-j'j. 
\'ery |xjisonous. H. Chloridum Mitis, 
mild chloride or subchloride of mercury, 
mitxcwxoiis chloride, "calomel," — laxative, 
tonjc and anti]5)Tetic. Insoluble in water 
and alcohol. 1 'ose gr. .-.'.(-x. H. cum 
Ammonia, Emplastrum. .See Aiumo- 
niuin. H. cum Creta, mercury with 
chalk, "chalk mixture," "gray powder," 
contains mercury 38, sugar of milk 12, 
prejjared chalk 50, ether and alcohol c|. s. 
Dose gr. ss-x. H. Cyanidum, mercuric 
cyanide. Soluble in water and alcohol. 
Recommended in diphtheria, with aconite. 
Dose gr. yJij-r'fj. roi.soncus. H. Em- 
plastrum, mercurial plaster, — Mercury 
30, (.live oil 10, resin 10, lead-ijlastcr 50 
j»arts. H. et Arsenii lod., Liq., Dcmo- 
van's Solution. See Arsenic. H. Flav. 
Lotio, unof., "yellow wash" for syphi- 
litic s<ires, — corrosive sublimate- gr. xviij, 
lime water _^x. Gibert's Syrup, unof., 
Iiyrlrarg. binio<lid. gr. iij, ]x>lass. icnlid. 
gr, cij, wati-r Vt^ iij, .syrup (|. s. ml f^ x. 
H. lodid. Viride, ^nen icxlide of nur- 
i ury. iiK rcurc/^r iixlidc. Dr).sc gr. joj. 
H. lodid. Rubrum, red iiMlide or binio- 
dide of mercury, mercuri't iodide. Soluble 



in solution of potassium iodide. Poisonous. 
Dose gr. jV'i^fi- ^- Massa, " blue 
mass," " blue pill," ha.s mercury })^, licorice 
5, ahhiva 25, glycerine 3, confection of 
rose 34. Used mainly as a purgative. 
Dose gr. ss-xx. H. Nigra Lotio, unof., 
"black wash" for s)-philitic sores, — calo- 
mel gr. XXX, lime water 5x. H. Nitrat. 
Liq., solution of mercuric nitrate. Used 
as an escharolic. H. Nitrat. Rub., Ung., 
unof., red ointnienl of miTcuric nitrate, 
brown citrine ointment; made with cod- 
liver oil. H. Nitrat., Ung., citrine oint- 
ment, — mercury 7, nitric acid 17, lard oil 
76. H. Oleat., contains yellow oxide 10, 
oleic acid 90. H. Oxid. Flav., yellow 
oxide of mercur}'. Insoluble in water; 
solulile in nitric and hydrochloric acids. 
Used in preparation of ointments, etc. H. 
Oxid. Flav., Ung., contains 10 j^er cent, 
of the oxide. H. Oxid. Rub., red oxide 
of mercury. L)o.se gr. tjV— j'j. H. Oxid. 
Rub., Ung., contains 10 j:>er cent, of the 
oxide. H. Subsulph. Flav., )ellow 
subsulphatc of mercury, basic mercuric 
sulphate, " tuqjcth mineral." Soluble in 
nitro-hydrochloric acitl. Dose, for emesis, 
gr. ij-v. H. Succinimidum. Has been 
recommended for hypodermic use. H. 
Sulph. Rub., red mercuric sulphate, 
"cinnabar." Used only in fumigation. 
H. Unguent., mercurial ointment, "blue 
ointment," — mercuiy 450, lard 225, suet 
225, comp. tinct. benzoin 40, old mercurial 
ointment 100 ; triturated until the globules 
of mercury disap])ear under a magnifying 
glass. Used to produce mercurial ellect 
by inunction. 

Hydrarthro'sis (v6up, water, ai)OfMv, 
j(,pint). An effusion of fluid in a joint as a 
result of chronic synovitis. Called also 
Hydrops Articuli, dropsy of the joint, 
white swelling, c/c. 

Hydrar'thrus. See Ilydraiihrosis. 

Hydras''tis, Golden Seal. The roots of 
JI. ciiNu/ensis. Properties due to several 
alkaloids, the principal l)eing hydrastine. 
A simple, bitter tonic with antii)erio<lic 
properties. Anx'sts the nn)venients of 
white blocxl corpuscles. An excellent 
remedy in catarrh of stomacli and urinary 
organs, and u.seful as a lotion in jjonorrluea 
and gleet. Do>e of the lid. ext., tt\_x-x\x ; 
of the tinct. — 20|)crcent. — ^^ss-ij. Hy- 
drastin, unof, consi.sls mainly of chlo- 
ride of JK-rberine. Dose, gr. iJ-v. 

Hy'drate (/('(.'/<, water). A com|><iimd of 
an t'icnK'iilary atmn, or of a radical, with 
the radical hyili\ixyl ll-(.J-or-() II, its 



HYDRATION 



196 



HYDROCOLLIDINE 



the hydrogen atom maybe positive or nega- 
tive. Practically a hydrate is considered as 
a molecule of water with its basic atom of 
hydrogen replaced by another electroposi- 
tive atom, as potassium hydrate, K-O-H, 
is derived from water, H-O-H. 

Hydra^tion [vSup). The process by which 
a body or substance becomes impregnated 
or saturated with water. 

Hydrenceph'alocele. See Meningocele. 

Hydrenceph'alus. See Hydrocephalus. 

Hydri'asis. See Hydi'o-therapeutics. 

Hy^dro- {{'6up, water). A prefix signify- 
ing 7uait'i-, or that water fonns a structural 
part. See, also. Hydrate. 

Hydro''a (Mwp). Hydroa herpetiform, 
Dermatitis herpetiformis. Pemphigus pruri- 
ginosus, Herpes gestationis, Heq^es circi- 
natus bullosus. A bullous or papular emp- 
tion accompanied with erythematous lesions 
and intolerable itching, appearing on un- 
covered parts of the body, as the face, 
hands and wrists. Occasionally resembles 
Herpes Zoster and Erythema circinatum. 
The recognized varieties are H. Gesta- 
tionis, of pregnancy, and H. BuUeux, 
in which the emption is attended with 
bullee instead of papulte. H. Febrilis. 
See Herpes. 

Hydrobiliru''bin. Derived from bilirabin, 
a coloring matter of fneces, identical with 
stercobilin. 

Hydrocar-'bon. A name applied to any 
one of a multitude of compounds com- 
posed mainly of hydrogen and carbon, but 
also under certain conditions containing 
other elements as substitution products. 
The possibilities of the number of such 
compounds may be seen in the following 
series, perhaps the simplest, carbon, 
C, being a tetrad, and reciuiring four monad 
atoms to saturate its quantivalence : — 
In 



Methane, CH^. 
Ethane, CjHg. 
Propane, CjHg. 
Butane, C^Hk,. 



Pentane, 



C5H12. 



either of these 
one or more atoms 
of hydrogen may be 
replaced by other 
atoms or radicals 
without altering the 
structure of the com- 
pound 



It will be noticed that the members of the 
series differ by CHj in the present case. 
The various members of the Fat Series are 
usually indicated as follows : — 
Paraffine Series, CnH2n -|-2> ) ii^ which n 



Olefines, CjHjn, 
Acetylenes, C^Hjn —<i, 
of carbon atoms. Thus, 
corresponding member of 



>■ stands for 
J any number 
if n = 3, the 
the Paraffine 



series would be CgHg, etc. All the hydro- 
carbons are inflammable. They occur in 
nature as marsh gas (fire damp), natural 
gas, naphtha, petroleum, asphaltum, ozocer- 
ite, etc., in a multitude of forms. 

Hy^drocele [v6up, k;//1 77, tumor). A collec- 
tion of serous fluid in the tunica vaginalis, 
or in connection with the testicle or cord. 
Applied, also, to a seious tumor in other 
locations. 

Hydroceno''sis (w5wp, KEvuaiq, evacua- 
tion). An evacuation of water either by 
the use of hydragogue cathartics or by the 
operation of "tapping" the cavity contain- 
ing the accumulation of fluid. See Para- 
ceiifesis. 

Hydroceph''alic (ySup, KEcpaTiTj). Pertain- 
ing to or affected with hydrocephalus. H. 
Cry, the shrieks of pain of the hydroceph- 
alic child during the exacerbations. 

Hydroceph^alocele (iJw/o, KscpaTirj, the 
head, k//2,tj, a tumor). Congenital hydro- 
cephalus in which the encephalon pro- 
tioides through the ununited or undeveloped 
crarial wall. 

Hydroceph^aloid [vSup, /cf^o?.)/, the head). 
Pertaining to or resembling hydrocephalus. 
H. Disease, a disease resembling hydro- 
cephalus, sometimes observed in poorly 
nourished infants just after weaning. 

Hydroceph^alus [vSup, Ke(pa?[)/, head). A 
collection of fluid in the cerebral ventricles, 
preventing closure of the fontanelles and 
causing enlargement of the skull. 

Hydrocholecys''tis {vSup, x^^V, the bile, 
Kvar/g, a bladder). Dropsy of the gall- 
bladder. 

Hydrocirs''ocele [vSup, Kipaog, a venous 
enlargement, kt/?.?j, a tumor). Hydrocele 
accompanied with varicose veins of the 
spermatic cord. 

Hydrocce''lia (m^up, KoiTna, the belly). 
Dropsy of the belly or abdominal region. 

HydrocoFlidine. A highly poisonous 
ptomaine-base, so named by Gautier and 
Etard, and declared by them to be identi- 
cal with the hydrocollidine obtained by 
Cahours and Etard by the action of sele- 
nium on nicotine. Nencki, on the other 
hand, asserted its identity with a base iso- 
lated by him in 1876, to which he had as- 
cril)ed the fonnula CgHjjN. The formula 
of Gautier and Etard's hydrocollidine is 
CgHj^N. This ptomaine was obtained from 
chloroformic extracts, from putrefying 
mackerel, and putrefying horse flesh and 
ox flesh. The free base is an almost color- 
less, alkaline, oily fluid, having a strong, 
penetrating odor like syringa. So small a 



HYDROCOLPOCELE 



197 



HYDROrilTIIALMIA 



dose as 0.0017 gram of the hydrochloride 
injected into birds, produces di/.ziness, 
paraly>is and death. 'I'lie pupils are nor- 
mal, and the heart stops in diastole. 

Hydrocorpocele (i'<S<jp, Ko?.rTog, K7/?.r}, 
tuMKT). A seruus tumor of the vagina. 

Hydrocofyle. Pennywort. The leaves 
of //. asiatica. Active principle vellariitc, 
a bitter tonic and alterative, very ser\'ice- 
able in skin diseases, syphilitic sores and 
leprosy. Unof. 

Hydrocyan'ic. See Cyanogen, and Acid, 
J/\J)\h\aiiic. 

Hy'drocyst (Wu/j, Kvarig, a bladder). A 
cyst containing a water-like liquid. Syn- 
onymous with hydatid. 

Hydroderm'a {^h^up, Sepfxa, the skin). 
I )rLip.-y of the skin. 

Hydro-electric [ii^up, (lectticih'). Per- 
taining to electricity develojied by the phy- 
sical action of fluids or in connection with 
water. H. Bath, a bath in which the 
metallic lining of the tub is connected 
with one pole of a batter)-, the other being 
in contact with the person of the patient. 

Hy'drogen (I'f'up, }fi'rau, to produce). 
H ^ I. Quantivalence i. A gaseous ele- 
ment, one liter of which weighs .0896 
gramme. It is feebly basic and occurs in 
nature combined with oxygen in the fonii 
of water 11,0. It has been liiiuefied at a 
temjjerature of — 286° F. under a tension 
of 650 atmospheres — a pressure of about 
4.7 tons per square inch. In combination 
■with carlx)n, oxygen and nitrogen, it fonns 
a multitude of radicals formerly known as 
"organic " compounds, but now often syn- 
thetically formed. Used largely in the 
qualitative determination of arsenic and 
antimony, and for combustion with-oxygen 
to produce intense heat. Ha.s al.so been 
used by inhalation in consumption. H. 
Peroxide, an unstable comjxjund having 
the com|»sition H2O2. A {)Owerful anti- 
septic and germicide. Used as a disin- 
fectant in diphtheria, glandular swellings 
and suppurative inllammations. It is the 
basis of most hair bleaching solutions. 
I)ose, ^ss-ij. Unof. 

Hydrohae'mia (iMtjp, «<//«, the blood). 
Watery, or ix)or c(jndition of the iihxd. 

Hydrol'ogy (i'''(.'/', ^">"C, ^ treatise). A 
tre.it is<' (Jii the nature and uses of water. 

Hydrolyfic (»' f^u/J, ^-fw, to di.s.solve). Per- 
taining to tlie decompf)sition of water, or 
the lilK-Tation of water during a chemical 
rcaciif)n. H. Ferments, tlic)sc causing a 
comiiinaiion with tin- cK-mcnls of water in 
the 8ul<8tances they dccomijosc. 



Hydro'ma (rJwp). A cyst or sac filled 
with water or serous fluid. Also, an 
cvdematous swelling. Also, the dilatation 
of a lymphatic of the neck from a cystic 
tumor. 

Hydromeningi''tis {ii^up, fir/i'f)^, a mem- 
brane). Intlammalion of the membranes 
of the brain or cord, accompanied by ef- 
fu.-ion of watery fluids. 

Hydromenin'gocele (/(^wp, /ir/rr/i, ktjIt], 
a tumor). A watery tumor of the men- 
inges, protruding through the skull. Al.so, 
a watery tumor in the arachnoid cavity 
or in the continuation of the subarachnoid 
space. 

Hydrom'eter (I'fTw/j, perpov, a measure). 
An instrument for determining the specific 
gravity of liiiuids or solutions containing 
water. 

Hydromc'tra {^itVop, /i?/rpa. uterus). A 
collection of water or mucus in the womb. 

Hydrom^phalus (i(5wp, o/i(pa?og, the na- 
vel). A tumor at the navel distended 
with water. May arise either from ascites 
or umbilical hernia. 

Hydromy'elus {i'''(^p, pvel.oq, maiTow). 
A congenital cavity of the spinal cord. 
Also, distention of the spinal cord caused 
by the effusion of water or serous fluid. 

Hydron'cus {h^up, oyKig, a mass). A dis- 
tention or swelling caused by an accumu- 
lation of water. See, also, CEi/c/z/a and 
A)!tjsi7rra. 

Hydronephro'sis {vi^up, vetfipo^, kidney). 
A collection of urine in the kidney from 
obstructed outflow. 

Hydrop'athy [v(^up, naOng, suffering). 
The treatment of diseases by the use of 
water, externally and internally. 

Hydropericar''dium [vi^uf), TvipiKapfhov, 
(the jK-ricanliuni). Dropsy of the peri- 
cardium. Also, an effusion of water or 
serous fluid into the pericardium during 
pericarditis. 

Hydroperitonae''um. See Asciti-s. 

Hydropho'bia (l(^up, <l>r>i'iog, dread). A 
symptom of rabies in man, consisting in 
fear of water, or inability to swallow it. 
Used commoidy as a synonym of A'aln'es, 
anfl jiarticuiarly of the disease in man. 
H., Pseudo-. See J'.uiiiio-/iyi/ro/</ii</>itt. 

Hydropho'bic (i(Suii>,tUt,iiic). Pertaining 
to or liaving the nature of hydinphobia. 
H., Tetanus. See Kopf tti<niiis. 

Hydrophobopho'bia (// v J r o ph obi a , 
(poiiiir). A morbid and intense dreail of 
iivflroplioliia. 

Hydrophthal'mia {t^up, water, ittfiiMpng, 
eye). An increase of the fluid contents of 



HYDROPHTHALMOS 



198 



HYGROMETRIC 



the eye, resulting in glaucoma, kerato- 
globus, staphyloma, etc. 

HydrophthaFmos. See Keratoglobus. 

Hydrophysoni''etra [y6up, (pvaa, wind, 
fiTjTpa, the womb). An abnormal collec- 
tion of water, or other fluid, and gas in the 
womb. 

Hydrop'ic (iVtpoTrwtof, dropsical). Per- 
taining to dropsy. 

Hy'droplasm. According to Nageli, a 
fluid constituent of protoplasm. 

Hydropneumato^sis (irfwp, Trvev/uaTuaig, 
inflation). An abnormal or morbid col- 
lection of water, or other fluid, and air 
within any of the tissues of the body. 
See, also, Hydropnmmonia. 

Hydropneumo^nia (yiup, tvvevjiuv, the 
lung). A disease thought to consist of a 
serous infiltration within the lung ; also, 
an effusion within the pleura sometimes 
accompanying pneumonia. 

Hydropneumopericard^ium [v6up, ivvev- 
fin, air, TVf pi impdi.ov, the pericardium). 
A morbid collection of air and water within 
the pericardium. It causes the clacking 
sound commonly known as the " water- 
wheel" sound. 

Hydropneuinotho''rax. See Pncumato- 
thorax. 

Hy^drops ('I'rfpwi/', dropsy). Dropsy; an 
almormal collection of fluid in a cavity or 
part of the body. See Anasarca. H. 
Paralyticus, that in paralyzed parts. H. 
Spurious, from obstruction of the natural 
outlet of a secreting organ. 

Hydroquin^one. Obtained from Uva 
Ursi. Valuable as an antipyretic without 
producing injurious after-effects. Effects 
temporary. Dose, gr. xv-xx. Unof. 

Hydrorrhachi^tis. See Spina ( Vciitosd). 

Hydrorrhoe^a (wJwp, pom, a flow). A 
flow of water. H. Gravidarum. An ab- 
normal discharge of liquid from the preg- 
nant uterus. 

Hydrosadeni'tis ('vAjp, adenitis). In- 
flammation of the sudoriparous follicles. 

Hydrosalpinx {h8up,r>a'kmyS,, a trumpet). 
A distention of the Eallopian tube with a 
fluid substance, and its obstruction at the 
fimbriated extremity, caused by inflamma- 
tion. Frequently a result of gonorrhoea. 

Hydrosar'cocele. See Sarcocele. 

Hydros^cheocele ('lAjp, oax^nv, the scro- 
tum, and Krfkr], a tumor). ' Dropsical hernia 
of the scrotum. 

Hydrostat^ic ('r'(yw/),(7ra(7/f, standing). The 
science treating of the conditions and 
properties of liquids in a state of equilib- 
rium. 



Hydrotherapeu''tics ('wTwp, QepaiiEvu, to 
heal). That part of balneology treating 
of the hygienic use of cold water, and of its 
therapeutic application to the body. See, 
also, Bath and Aqua. 

Hydrothionu^ria ('uAjp, Qiov, sulphur, 
ovpov, the urine). Hydrogen-sulphide in 
the urine. 

Hydrothc'rax {ySup, dupa^, chest). Dropsy 
of the chest. 

Hydrot^omy {'wlup, te/ivu, to cut). A 
method of dissecting certain tissues by the 
forcible injection of water into the arteries 
and capillaries whereby the structures of 
the tissues are separated. 

Hydrova^rium ['v6up, ovar/'u///, an ovaiy). 
Ovarian dropsy. 

HydroxyFamine. An amine having the 
composition NH.^(HO), and much re- 
sembling pyrogallic acid in physiological 
properties. It has been successfully used 
as a local application in psoriasis. It does 
not discolor the skin. The following 
fonnula is used by Fabiy : hydroxylamine 
hyd'-ochlorate 2-5, alcohol 1 00 parts, chalk 
to neutralize. Unof. 

Hydrozo''a ['vSup, ^uov, an animal). 
A class of the Coelenterata including 
the Siphonophera, Ctenophora and Hy- 
droids. 

Hygei^a ['Tycia, the goddess of health). 
State or condition of health. 

Hy^giene ['vyteivo^, good for the health). 
That science treating of the laws of health 
in its broadest sense. 

Hygreche''ma {'vypo^, moist, 7ixv, sound). 
The peculiar sound produced by a liquid 
as observed by the stethoscope, or by per- 
cussion. 

Hygrin^ic Ether. A substance of uncer- 
tain composition, said to have mydriatic 
properties. Unof 

Hy'gro- {'vypoc, moist). A prefix denot- 
ing /noist or zvet. 

Hygro''ma {^vypoQ, oma, tumor). A serous 
cyst. The bacillus of tuberculosis, has 
been found in four cases of hygroma con- 
taining rice bodies. 

Hygrom^eter ['vypog, jusTpov, a measure). 
An in.strument for determining quantita- 
tively the amount of moisture in the air. 
This amount, constantly varying, is ex- 
pressed in terms of the percentage re- 
quired to saturate the air at the particular 
temperature observed. 

Hygromet^ric {'vypog, jjerpov). Per- 
taining to hygrometiy, or the quanti- 
tative determination of atmospheric mois- 
ture. 



HYCROrillLIA srixosA 



199 



HYPERDICROTIC 



Hygroph'ila Spino'sa. A shrub used 
in Ceylon ami India as a diuretic in dropsy. 
I'nof. 

Hygroscop''ic ('r}pof, aso-eu, to see). 
Having the properly of absorbing moisture 
fr<,>ni the air. 

Hy'lonite. See Celluloid. 

Hy'men \^vnr,x\ a membrane). The fold 
(.if mucous membrane at the vaginal en- 
trance. H., Imperforate, a con!:;enital 
abnomiality, the hjinen without an open- 
ing, thus closing the vaginal outlet or 
inlet. 

Hyme'nal ('t'//;/i). Pertaining to the hy- 
men. H. Tubercles. See Myrtifonn 
Canmcles. 

Hymenol'og^ {'v/ir/v, ?.o-)og, a treatise). A 
treatise on the nature and structure of 
membranous tissue. 

Hymenomala''cia {'vur/r, iia/aKoq, .soft). 
.\n aliKirnial softening of membranous 
ti-sucs. 

Hymenomyce'tes {'vinjv, ^ivKr/^, a fungus). 
An order of fungi having the hymenium 
or uml:)rella. All the edible mushrooms 
i>elong to this class. 

Hymenop'tera ('vfirp', Trrepov, a wing). 
An order or family of insects distinguished 
by two pairs of membranous wings. In- 
cludes ants, bees, wasp, ichneumon, flies, 
e/r. 

Hy'o-. A prefix denoting attachment to 
or connection with tlie liyoid bone. 

Hyoglos^sal {/lyoul, y'Auaaa, the tongue). 
Pertaining to the hyoglo.ssus. Extending 
l)etween the hyoid lx)ne and the tongue. 

Hyoglos'sus. .See Musclt-. 

Hy'oid Bone (Tof/fiz/f, similar to Greek 
upsilon). A bone situated between the 
root of the tongue and the pharynx, su])- 
|)orting the tungue and giving attachment 
to its miLscles. 

Hy'oscine. See I/yostyariius. 

Hyoscy'amus. Henbane. The older 
leaves of //. tiii^'er. Contains an alkaloid, 
hyoscyamine, isomeric with and similar to 
atrojiinc; also, a derivative hyoscine. An 
excellent narcotic, calmative and hypnotic, 
less irritating than l^elladonna and stramo- 
nium. Useful in mania antl the delirium 
of fevers. Hyoscyamine is u.seful when 
ever atropine is indicated. A |Kiw<rfiil 
but uncertain mydriatic. H. Abstract. 
l>tjsc gr. iij-v. H. Ext., Alcoholic. 
I)<<sc gr. j (of uncertain .strength). H. 
Ext., Fid. Dose n\,v-xv. H. Tinct., 
15 JxT cent, in sln-ngth. Do.se Z^] iv; 
as a hypnotic ^ss j. Hyoscyamine 
Sulph. I;ose,byixxlennic,gr. ^i^-j'j; by 



mouth gr. J4 -j. Hyoscine Hydrobrom. 
I nof. Dose jij-^V- ' 

Hypacou'sis, 

Hypacu^sia, 

Hypacu'sis or 

Hypaku'sis ('fTro, aKtivaiq, to hear). Hard- 
ness of hearing from defect of the auditory 
nerve. 

Hypalbumino'sis. Morbid diminution 
in the proportion of the albuniin in the 
blood. 

HypaKgia ('I'vro, alyog, pain). Diminished 
sensibility to pain. 

Hy'per- ('I'Tt/), above). A Greek prefix 
signifying ti/>t>7'C, beyond ox excessive. 

Hyperacou''sis. See Hypcraktisis. 

Hyperae''mia ('iwfp, aiiia, blood). A con- 
dition of pletliora or congestion of blood, 
esjiecially in the capillaries of the skin. 
H., Active, caused by an abnormal sup- 
ply of blocKl. H., Passive, caused by 
an impediment to the removal of the 
blood. 

Hyperaesthc'sia ('r'~fp, aiaOi/aic, sensa- 
tion). Excessive or exalted sensibility of 
the skin. May be symptomatic or idio- 
pathic. 

Hypersesthet'ic {'v-ep, aicOijai^). Per- 
taining to hypeni:sthesia or an unusual 
sensibility to impressions in the sensory 
nerves. 

Hyperaku^sis {^v-aep, amvaig, hearing). 
An excessive or exalted sensibility of the 
sense of hearing. Also, a highly devel- 
ojK'd sensitiveness to the discernment of 
pitch and timbre of musical sounils. 

Hyperalbumino'sis. An unusual rich- 
ness of albumins in the blood. 

Hyperalge'sia {^tmep, a'Ayrjaig, sense of 
|>ain). Excessive sensibility to pain. 

Hyperal'gia ('vTrep, «/}<(f, pain). Exces- 
sive ])ain. H., Acoustic, excessive hy- 
pe rakusis. 

Hyperaph^ia {'vrrrp, a<p^, touch). Exces- 
sive sensitiveness of the tactile surfaces of 
the bcKly. 

Hypercathar''sis ['v~ip, linOupmr, cUans- 
ing). E.xcessive purging, or too free use 
of cath.irtic medicines. 

Hyperchro''ma ('»'Tr/i, xt"-',""t color). 
'Ilic hy|x;rsecreti<)n of the |)i|4inent of the 
skin, as in ])litliiriasis, syphilis, (•/(■. 

Hypercrin'ia ('t'Trtp, Kpnu, to .sejiarate). 
Abnorm.d or excessive .secretion. 

Hypercye^sis ^'vTrtp, Kvi/aig, conception). 
Superfi tation. 

Hyperdicro'tic. Pertaining to the pulse 
when till- |iulsc curve shows the aortic 
notch l>elow the base line. 



HYPERDISTENTION 



200 



HYPERTONIC 



Hyperdisten^'tion ['vnep, distendo, to 
stretch). Forcible or extreme distention. 

Hyperdiure^sis (^vnep, diovpeu, to pass 
urine). Excessive secretion of urine. 

Hyperdynam'ia ['vrrep, Svvafii^, energy). 
Excessive strengtli or exaggeration of ner- 
vous or muscular functions. 

Hypereme''sis ['vTzep, efiectg, vomiting). 
Excessive vomiting. 

Hyperencep h^a 1 u s (^'v-rrep, eyKe(l>a?iov, 
brain). An exencephalic monstrosity with 
lack of the superior part of the cranium, 
the brain protruding. 

Hyperephidro^sis ('vttep, EipiSuaig, slight 
perspiration). Excessive or long-continued 
sweating. 

Hyperesopho''ria. See Heteropho7-ia. 

Hyperexophc'ria. See Heterophoria. 

Hypergen-'esis ['virep, -yevvao), to beget). 
A general term signifying excess or re- 
dundancy of the parts or organs of the 
body. It may be normal, as in the increase 
of the tissue of a muscle ; or abnormal, 
as seen in monstrosities. Also, an exces- 
sive production of the elements of a tissue 
or organ. 

Hypergeu''sia ['vivEp, yEvatg, taste). Abnor- 
mal increase of the sense of taste. 

Hyperglobu''lia. Polycythcemic plethora. 
An abnormal increase of the red-blood 
corpuscles. 

Hyper^icum. St. John's Wort. The flow- 
ering tops of //. perforatum, abundant 
in temperate climates. A long- known and 
useful remedy, applied locally in contusions 
and ecchymoses. Unof. 

Hyperhidro''sis or 

Hyperidro''sis ('vTrep, Mpwf, sweat). 
Idrosis, Ephidrosis, Sudatoria. Excessive 
sweating. A functional disorder of the 
sweat glands marked by excessive secre- 
tion. May be general or local. 

Hyperin''osis. {'virEp, ivog, muscle). Ab- 
normal increase in the fibrin-factors in the 
blood. 

Hyperinvolu'tion {'virEp, involve, to roll 
around). A diminution in size of the 
uterus, due to the abnormal involution oc- 
curring after pregnancy. 

Hyperkerato''sis ['vTrsp, Kepag, horn, cor- 
nea). Hypertrophy of the cornea either in 
extent or thickness. 

Hyperkinc'sia {'vttep, Kivrjoiq, energy). 
A general terra to denote any exaggerated 
spasm or muscular contraction. 

Hyperkinefic {'vrrEp, KivijoLg). Pertaining 
to hyperkinesia. 

Hypermas^tia {'viTEp, iiaarnq, the breast). 
Excessive development or hypertrophy of 



the mammary gland, which remains nonn:il 
in structure. 

Hypermetro''pia. Same as Hyperopia. 

Hypermnc'sis ['vnEp, /j.v//ai(;, memory). 
Abnormal exaltation of the power of mem- 
ory. 

Hyperodontog''eny {'vKEp, odovg, a tooth, 
■yEvvau, to beget). The phenomenon of a 
third dentition late in life. Supposed to 
be due to development of one or more su- 
perfluous tooth-genns which have remained 
dormant. 

Hyperop''ia ('vrrEp, uip, the eye). That 
condition of the refractive media of the 
eye in which, with suspended accommoda- 
tion, the focus of parallel rays of light is 
behind the retina ; it is due to an abnormally 
short antero-posterior diameter of the eye, 
or to a subnormal refractive power of its 
media. H., Latent, that part of the total 
that cannot be overcome by the accom- 
modation, or the difference between the 
manifest and total. H., Manifest, that 
the accommodation can overcome, or that 
corrigible by a convex glass with acting 
accommodation. 

Hyperos''mia {'vttep, oa/xr/, odor). An ab- 
normal and usually morbidly acute sense 
of smell. 

Hyperosto'sis ('t;7rfp,o(Treov,bone). Exos- 
tosis or general hypertrophy of bony tissue. 

Hyperphc'ria. See Heterophoria. 

Hyperpla''sia (^vTTzp, TzTiaaLq, moulding). 
The excessive deposit or augmentation of 
the elements of the tissue composing an 
organ. 

Hyperplasf'ic {'vTvsp, irTiaaTLKog, fit for 
moulding). Pertaining to hyperplasia. 

Hyperporc'sis {'vttep, irupuaig, cementing 
or uniting). An excessive formation of 
callus in the reuniting of fractured bones. 

Hyperprax''ia {'vTrep, Trpa^cg, exercise). 
The excessive restlessness of movement 
characterizing certain forms of mania. 

HyperpselaphC'sia {'vTtep, ifir/'Aafi/ma, 
touch). Abnormal increase of tactile sen- 
sibility. 

Hyperpyret^ic {'vTrep, nvp, fire). Pertain- 
ing to hyperpyrexia. 

Hyperpyrex^ia {'vttep, nvp, exu, to have). 
A condition marked by excessively high 
temperature or febrile symptoms. 

Hypersecre^tion. Excessive secretion. 

Hypersthen^ia {'vwEp, aOsnog, strength). 
A condition of exalted strength or tone of 
the body. 

Hyperton^ic {'vttep, rovog, tone). A con- 
dition beyond the natural tension or tone. 
Also, irritability. 



HYPERTRICHIASIS 



201 



HYPOPLASIA 



Hypertrichi'asis. See Hirsulits. 

Hypertricho'sis. See Hirsuties. 

Hypertroph'ic('iTfp,7/joo/;, nourishment). 
A condition of h}'pertrophy or excessive 
size. 

Hyper'trophy ('i'tf/j, Tp(xf>f/). Excessive 
nourishment or increase in size of any part 
or oryan of the Injily. H., Cardiac, may 
be caused by valvular disease, or by dis- 
ease of the kidneys and other distant 
organs, or by constitutional disease. H., 
Concentric, thous^h the wall be hyjjer- 
tro[)hied, the cavity of the heart is con- 
tracted. H., Eccentric, cardiac H. with 
dilatation. H., Idiopathic, when wiihout 
further disease of the heart's strucluro, or 
those of other organs. H. Numerical, 
an increase in the nunil)er of the con- 
stituent cells or structures. 

Hypertro'pia. See Strubis/nus. 

Hyphae'mia ('i'to, a/z/a, blooil. ILvmor- 
rhage within the glol)e of the eye. 

Hjrphidro''sis ('uto, 'wlup, water). Defi- 
ciency of water. I^ss than the noiTnal 
amount of water in the tissues of the 
Ixxly. 

Hypino'sis ('uto, <f [gen. n-of], a fiber). 
\ deticiency of fibrin in the blood. 

Hypino'tic ('uxo, iq [ trof], the fiber of 
flesh). Pertaining to hypinosis. 

HypnoFogy ('uxrof, htyoq, a treatise). A 
treatise Ujxjn sleep and its hygienic etfects. 

Hyp'none. See Aci'lophenonr. 

Hypnop'athy ('uTvof, naOoq, disease). 
.Sleep due to a diseased or morbid condi- 
tion of the body, brain, or mind. 

Hypno'sis ('v-voc). An artificial condi- 
tion jjroluced by hypnotizing. Also, the 
gradual approach of sleep. 

Hypnot'ic (I'Ti'of). A remedy that causes 
slce|). .\ soixirihc. Also, |x-rtaining to 
hyj)n')iism. 

Hyp'notism {'vTvor). A state of artificial 
somnambulism; may \>e produced by vari- 
ous means, as, for example, looking with 
concentrated attention at any small object 
.so near that effort is reriuired to converge 
the axes of the eyes. It is characterized 
by a partial or complete absence of volition, 
sensation and self- consciousness, except 
that which comes from the hypnotizer or 
s<jine dominating will or idea. See, al.so, 
Somtiiiinbuli'^m. 

Hypnoti''zablc. Susceptibility in being 
hypnoti/cd. 

Hypnotiza'tion. The emj)loyment of the 
means us<-d to hy|)ii(<tizc a [M-Tson. 

Hy'poblast ( i-to, under, ,<X/wror, a sprout), 
llie internal layer of the blastoderm, called, 



also, the endodenn, entoderm or epithelio- 
glandular layer, from which is developed 
the intestinal epithelium (except that of 
the mouth and anus) antl that of the glands 
opening into the intestines ; also the epi- 
thelium of the air passages. 

Hypobro^mite Meth^od. A method of 
estimating the urea in urine, based upon 
the tact that when urea is acted upon by 
sodium hyiX)bromite (or calcium hypochlo- 
rite) it is decomix)sed into nitrogen, car- 
bon dioxide and water. 

Hypochon''driac {^v-o, xov^pnr^, cartilage). 
IVrt.iining to the hj-j^ochondriuni. 

Hypochondri'asis ('i'-", ,t'"''V""''"C> one 
altecled in the hypochondrium). A dis- 
turbance of the functions of the nervous 
system similar to melancholia, in which the 
patient believes himself suffering from 
bodily disease. Characterized liy alternate 
spells of moodiness and excitability. 

Hypochon'drium. See Abdomen. 

Hypochro'mia ('i'~o, jj-pwHO, color). Ab- 
normal pallor or trans])arency of the skin, 
occurring in certain skin diseases. 

Hypodermaf'ic ('I'-o, Jfp/za, the skin). 
Pertaining to that which is under the skin, 
or to the introduction of medicines beneath 
the skin. 

Hypoder'mic. See Hypoderrnatic. 

Hypodermocly'sis ('n-o, Sepfia, skin, 
K?.vaig, a drenching). The hypodermatic 
injection of nutrient material beneath the 
skin in the algid stage of Asiatic cholera, 
collapse, t'/r. 

Hypogas^tric {'v~o, yaa-r/p, the belly). 
Pertaining to the hyixigastric region. See 
Abdomen. 

Hypogas'trium. See Abdomen. 

Hypogeu'sia ('uto, yevnig, taste). Dimi- 
nution in the sense of taste. 

Hypoglos''sal ('uto, y?.(.)r!na, the tongue). 
Liider the tongue. H. Nerve. See 
A'en'e. 

Hypoglof'tis ('uTTo, yhjrTa, the tongue). 
The under |)art of the tongue, adherent to 
the lower jaw. y\lso, a swelling at the 
under part of the tongue. 

Hypognath'us {'vrro, bene.alh, yrnOnq, 
jaw). A monstrosity in which the parasite 
is attached to the inferior maxillary l>one. 

Hypoma'nia ('i'~", /lavin, madness). A 
inudir.itr degree of maniacal exaltation. 

Hyponeu'ria ('j'To,i'»iywi',anerve). .Slight, 
or diminished nerve |X)wer. 

Hypoph'ysis ('rn-u, ^lu, to l)c developed). 
Ihe jiituitary iKxly; sometimes called the 
H. Cerebri. 

Hypopla'sia. Sec ////<;«</. 



HYPOrSELAPHESIA 



202 



HYSTEROLITH 



Hypopselaphc'sia ('vjrn, ijir/laipTjaic, 
touch). Diminution of the sensitiveness 
of tactile sensation. 

Hypop^'yon ['v~o, ttvov, pus). A collection 
of pus in the anterior chamber of the eye, 
secondary to inflammation of adjacent 
tissues. 

Hypos''mia ('dttu, ocr/^v, a smell). Diminu- 
tion of the sense of smell. 

Hypospad^ias ['vtto, avrau, to draw). An 
abnormal opening and ending of the ure- 
thra upon the under surface of the penis. 

Hypos''tasis('v7ro(Tr«(T;f, a standing under). 
A word loosely used to denote faeces, or 
any sediment falling from a liquid, especi- 
ally the sediment of urine. Also, a form 
of passive hyperaemia caused by the de- 
pendent position of the part affected. 

Hyposthen^ic ['v~o, adevo^, strength). 
That which reduces strength, especially 
diseases that are more than ordinarily en- 
feebling. Also, a medicine that reduces 
the action of the heart without affecting its 
rhythm. 

Hypoth^'enar ['vTvoOsvap). The fleshy 
eminence on the palm of the hand over 
the metacarpal bone of the little finger. 
Also, the prominences on the palm at the 
base of the fingers. Also, the ball of the 
thumb. 

Hypother^mal ('vrro, Oepfit], heat). Tepid. 
A temperature placed arbitrarily between 
59° and 68° F., or 15° and 25° C. Also, 
pertaining to the reduction of the temper- 
ature of the body. 

Hypoth^'esis i^vrco, Oeaiq, a position). A 
supposition set forth for discussion or dem- 
onstration. A theory. 

Hypoxan'thine. A leucomaine, also 
known as Sarcine or Sarkine. Occurs, 
accompanying adenine and guanine, in 
nearly all the animal tissues and organs 
rich in nucleated cells. In minute quan- 
tities it is a normal constituent of urine. 
It has also been found in plants, seeds, 
ferments and wines. Hypoxanthine ap- 
pears to be one of the products formed by 
the decomposition and successive oxidation 
of proteid matter previous to formation of 
uric acid and urea. It arises from adenine 
by action of nitrous acid. It is non-poi- 
sonous. 

Hys^'sop. The leaves and tops of // offi- 
cinalis. An aromatic stimulant, carmina- 
tive and tonic. Much employed in chronic 
catarrh. Dose of fld. ext. jj-ij. Unof. 

Hy sclera (^vr^-epa, the womb). The uterus 
or womb. Also, the vulva. Also, the 
placenta or afterbirth. 



HysteraKgia ['varepaj aTiyog, pain). Any 
pain in the womb. Also restricted to 
neuralgic pains. 

Hysteratre^'sia ['varepa, a, without, tet- 
paivu, to perforate). An imperforate or 
impei-vious condition of the mouth of the 

• womb. 

Hysterec'tomy ['varepa, ektoutj, a cutting 
out). Excision or removal of the womb 
by surgical operation. 

Hyste^ria ['vtjTepa). A functional dis- 
turbance of the nervous system, supposed 
by early physicians to be due to disor- 
dered condition of the womb. It is now 
often considered a reflex neurosis ; not 
with certainty known whether it is due 
to structural alteration of any part of the 
central nervous system, or to abnormal 
blood supply, efr. Paralyses, impairment of 
vision, convulsions, e^c, are usually promi- 
nent symptoms. Major and minor types 
are differentiated. The popular signifi- 
cance of the term is that of feigned disease. 
The physician usually considers the affec- 
tion real. Hypochondriasis is often the 
analogue in men. 

Hyster^ic ['varepa). Pertaining to hysteria, 
(7. v. Also, pertaining to the womb. 

Hyster''ics. A popular term for hysterical 
or convulsive movements and conditions. 

Hysteri^tis. See Metritis. 

Hysterocat''alepsy {'varepa, Karah/ijjig, 
catalepsy). A fonn of hysteria accom- 
panied by catalepsy. 

Hysteroclei''sis ('i'(Trfpn,/c/l«cr<f, a closure). 
The closure of the os uteri by scarifying 
and suturing the labia — an operation for- 
merly employed in vesico-uterine fistula. 

Hysterocye'sis ('varspa, KV7/aiq, preg- 
nancy). Uterine pregnancy. 

Hysterodyn''ia ['varepa, oSvvi/, pain). Pain 
in the womb. 

Hys''tero-ep''ilepsy {Jiysteria, ETriAr/iInn, 
falling sickness). A form of hysteria ac- 
companied by convulsions resembling those 
of epilepsy. Gowers advises the term 
hysteroid in reference to these seizures. 

Hys''tero-epileptog^enous {Jiysteria, 
ETriTirj-ipia). Producing hysteria and epi- 
lepsy. 

Hysterogen''ic Jiysti-rM,yevvau, to beget). 
Causing or producing hysteria. 

Hys^teroid. Resembling hysteria. See 
Hystero-epilepsy. H. Convulsions, con- 
vulsional movements with hysterical symp- 
toms in various organic diseases of the 
brain, in epilepsy, and in hydrophobia. 

Hys-'terolith ['I'a-'pn, h.Hoq, a stone). Cal- 
culus or stone in the womb. 



HYSTEROMALACIA 



203 



ICHTIIYOLITE 



Hysteromala'cia ('ivrrfpo, ua/.aKo^, soft). 
SoAcniiig; of the tissues of the wonil), ren- 
dering it liaMe to rupture at time of hibor. 

Hysteromalaco'ma {JvarffMi, /i«/a«(f). 
Softening of the womb or of any part of it. 

Hysteroma'nia. See Xymphomania. 

Hysterom'etry ('i^rrfpa, fterpov, a meas- 
urch The nuasurement of the womb. 

Hysteromyo'ma ['I'OTepa, niyomu). My- 
oma or fibro myoma of the womb. 

Hystero-neuro'sis (^varepa, rrv/wf, a 
ner\'e). -V reflex action resulting from 
irritation of the uterus. 

Hystero-paral'ysis {'t'orepa, napahvig, 
palsy). Faral}-sis or weakness of the walls 
of the womb. 



Hysteropath'ia {'ivrrpa, -aftjf , sufl'ering). 
Any disease or disorder of the womb. Also 
hysteria. 

Hysteropex''ia ('wrrepfl, 7r;7}a'i'/Y/, to fasten). 
Abdominal li.\ation of the uterus. 

Hysteropto'sis {'varepa, Trruaig, a fall- 
ing). Falling of the womb. See JVo- 

IilpSIIS. 

Hysterorrhex''is {'larepa, }>i]^(q, rupture). 
Rupture of the womb. 

Hysterotomy. See Qcsivean Opera- 
tion. 

Hystrici'asis {'varpi$, a hedgehog). A 
disease of the hair in which the latter 
".stares" or stands out like the hair of the 
hedgehog. 



I 



I. The symlx)l of Iodine. 

lamatol^ogy {tnua, a remedy, Poyof, 
science). .\ treatise on remedies. 

latralip'tic {larpoc^, a physician, a?.ei(j)u, to 
anoint). Pertaining to the cure of diseases 
by inunction. 

lat'ric (larpor;). Pertaining to the physi- 
cian or to the science of medicine. 

latro- {larpevij, to heal). A Cireek prefix 
signifying /o heal, and in comjX)sition, 
relating to medicine or physicians. 

latrophys'ics {larpnc, ipirriKnr, pertaining 
to nature). The relation of |)hysics or use 
of physics in disca.se or theraj^eutics. The 
materialistic explanation of disease. 

Iatrotech''nics [tarpnij^ Tcx^tj, art). The 
art of healing. 

Ice (Sax. is). The solid form that wafer 
takes l)elow o° C. or 32° V. I. Bag, a 
bag of wateqjroof material filled with ice, 
for application to any {>art of the Ixxiy. 
I. Cap, a bladder or nibi)er cap filled witli 
jjounfied ice for apijlication to tiie Ik.-kI 
in f ongcslinn. 

Icc'land Moss. Sec Cetraria. 

Ice^land Spar. A lrans|)arent calcium 
carlxinatecrysialli/cd inrhoml>oidal jirisrns. 
It has the pro|xrty of dividing and doulily 
ri-fr.u ting a ray of light. 

I'chor ('.t'*'/', I'U^). An atrirj and thin 
puriform discharge from an ulcer or wound. 



I'chorous ('V'-'P)- Pertaining to pus con- 
taiiiiuL; ulcerative, serum-like ]iro(lucts. 

Ichorrhae'mia (/,:iw/j, atfia, the lilood). 
The di.seased condition of the blood due 
to the absorption of septic matter. Also, 
jjyncmia. 

Ich'thin, or Ich''thidin. An albuminous 
sul 'Stance obtained from fishes. 

IchthyocoFla. Isinglass. The air blad- 
der of the sturgeon, Acipcnser. Occurs 
in homy, translucent, white sheets, that 
fomi a jelly with hot water. The jnirest 
form of gelatine. I'sed as a food, for 
clarifying li(iuids, and as a test for tannic 
acid. I. Emplastrum, court-plaster; 
consists of isinglass 10, glycerine I, alco- 
hol 40, water and tinct. ben/oin (|. s., spread 
u|)on fine white silk l>olting cloth and 
dried. 

Ichthyog''raphy (/,v"i'f, ypnd^u), to write). 
A description of fishes and their distribu- 
tion. 

Ichthyoid (/,Yfl''f. f'^'T, a form). Re- 
sembling a fish. 

Ich'thyol ( ',v"''C )■ -^ preparation ob- 
tained from certain vnrielies of a.splialtum 
occurring in the Tyrolese .Alps. It is 
alleged to be efficient in ee/ema and 
psoriasis. 

Ich'thyolitc ('v"'''.". '''""C. ^ stone). A 
fossil |K'trifaetion or imprint of a fish. 



ICHTHYOLOGY 



204 



IDIOPLASM 



Ichthyology (/^Y^i'f, /ioyog, a treatise). 
A treatise on fishes. 

Ichthyoph^agus {ix^vg, (pajeiv, to eat). 
Fish-eating. A word apphed to such ani- 
mals as subsist on fish. 

Ichthyc'sis {'x^vg). Xeroderma. Fish- 
skin disease. A chronic, hypertrophic, con- 
genital disease of the skin characterized 
by extreme dryness and excessive develop- 
ment of scales and warty growths. I. 
Hys''trix, a form characterized by thick, 
enormously hypertrophied warty papillae, 
usually localized and morbid, and con- 
sidered by Van Harlingen as a distinct 
disease. I. Sauroderma, " lizard-skin," 
a variety of /. Simplex. I. Sebacea. 
See Seborrhoea. I. Simplex, a scaliness 
developing most commonly on the arms, 
legs and back, and not attended by con- 
stitutional disturbance. 

Ichthyotox''icuin [ix^vg, to^ikov, poison). 
A name loosely given to poisoning irom 
eating the flesh of certain fish, and also 
to the poisonous principle. It may be due 
to a natural poisonous principle, or to pu- 
trefactive fermentation of the substance of 
the fish. It is probably a ptomaine. 

I''con [ecKuv, an image). An image or 
model. 

Iconog''raphy [eiKuv, ■Ypa(pu, to write). A 
description by means of pictorial illustra- 
tion. 

Icterepati^tis [iKTspng, jaundice, hepatitisy 
inflammation of the liver). Jaundice at- 
tended with inflammation of the liver. 

Ic'teric [iKTspog). Pertaining to jaundice. 

Ic'terode [iKTspog). Having jaundice or 
affected by it. 

Ic'teroid [iKTspog). Resembling or having 
the nature of jaundice. 

Ic^terus {iKTepog). Jaundice, i/. v. I., 
Hepatogenic. See Hepatogenic. I . 
Neonatorum, that which is sometimes 
observed in an infant during the first few 
days after birth ; probably an indirect result 
of tying the umbilical cord. 

Ic'tus (Lat., a stroke). A stroke or attack 
of disease coming without premonition. 

-ide. A sufiix used in chemistry to denote 
a combination of two elementary sub- 
stances. 

Ide^a (<(Jert, form or semblance). A men- 
tal representation of something perceived. 
I. Chase, a condition in acute mania in 
which disconnected ideas and fancies flow 
rapidly through the mind. A term much 
used by German authors. I., Fixed, that 
form of mania in which one dominant idea 
controls all actions. 



Ident^ical Points. Corresponding points 
of the two retinae, or the two positions in 
normal eyes where the image of an object 
is focused upon the retinae. 

Ident^ist {idein,i\\^ same). A term formerly 
applied to such writers as held gonorrhoea, 
hard and soft chancre, to be due to the 
same specific virus. 

Idenfity (/(/^/«). Absolute sameness. I., 
Personal, that which is commonly proved 
by establishment of similarity or sameness 
of age, sex, physical characteristics, marks, 
and peculiar habits. 

Ideo-mo''tor [idea, a mental image, moveo, 
to move). Pertaining conjointly to idea- 
tion and movement. I. Center, that 
part of the gray matter which, influenced 
by ideation, excites muscular movement. 
I. Movements. Unconscious movements, 
due to impulses of the mind when the 
attention is otherwise absorbed. 

Ideoplasf'ic (»5e«, appearance, Trlaaau, to 
form). That stage of hypnotism in which 
the idea impressed on the brain of the 
agent is translated into action. 

-ides l^eiSog, resembling in form). A suf- 
fix denoting resemblance to the object with 
the name of which it is combined. 

-ideus lyLSiog, one's own). A sufiix having 
the sense of possession or o^vnership. 

Idiempre''sis {jSiog, efiTTprjatg, burning). 
Spontaneous combustion. Also, sponta- 
neous inflammation. 

Id^io- (((5wf). A Greek prefix signifying 
peculiar to one's self. 

Id^iocy [iSiojTTig, a private person). A con- 
dition of mental deficiency, usually accom- 
panied by physical degeneracy. See Idiot. 

Idio-mus''cular [uhor, musculus, muscle). 
Peculiar to muscular tissue. I. Contrac- 
tion, the contraction of a fatigued or tired 
muscle under certain conditions of stimulus, 
influence, etc. 

Idioneuro''sis (<(J/of, VEwpoy, a nerve). An 
affection due to some disturV)ed or abnor- 
mal condition of the nerves supplying the 
affected part. 

Idiopath^ic [iSiog, iradog, suffering). Per- 
taining to any disease not consequent or 
dependent upon another. The antithesis 
of sympathetic, deuteropathic, etc. 

Idiophren'ic [iSiog, <pp)iv, the mind). A 
temi employed by Tuke to denote insanity 
due to disease of the brain. 

Id^ioplasm [ixhog, nlacfia, anything 
formed). A word sometimes used to de- 
note the solid part of protoplasm, or that 
part capable of transmitting to offspring 
the peculiarities of the parent. 



IDIOSPASM 



205 



ILIO-LUMBAR 



Id''iospasm (i^ioc, a-aafiog, a convulsion). 
A spasm or crainp confined to one part. 

Idiosyn'crasy [idioavjUiiaata, peculiarity 
of tenure rami- III). Any s|>ecial or jjeculiiu- 
characteristic or temjx^rament by which a 
person difiers from other persons of ordi- 
nary habits. 

Id'iot [ti^iurrjg, a private person). A jierson 
of imperfect, deficient or arrested mental 
development, either congenital, or due to 
causes arising so(.>n after birth. 

Id'iotism. The state of idiocy. 

Idro^sis. See Jlypcridrosis. 

Igasu'ric Acid. An acid occurring in 
:?t. Ignatius bean, and certain other plants 
containing strychnia. 

Igna'tia. St. Ignatius Bean. The seed 
of Stiychnos Igtuitii. Properties due to 
the alkaloids strychnine and brucine, of 
which the plant contains of each about i 
per cent. Therapeutic effects similar to 
those of nux vomica, q. v. Recommended 
in hysteria. Highly efficient in control- 
ling the functions of the cerebro-spinal axis. 
I. Abstractum. Dose gr. ss-j. I. 
Tinct., lias lo per cent, of the drug. 

Ignipunct'ure [t^'nis, fire,///;/'.//^;v7, punc- 
ture). A method of cauterization and 
treating certain forms of hypertrophy by 
the introduction of platinum needles heated 
to whiteness by the electric current. 

Ig'nis (l^t.). Fire. Combu^ticm distin- 
guished i)y rapid oxidation. I. Actualis, 
actual cautery. I. Fatuus, the plienome- 
non known as Jack o' lantern, \Vill o" the 
Wisp, e/c. Its origin is not known. I. 
Sacer, an obsolete name for er}sipclas. 
I. Sancti Antonii, Suint .Int/ionys lire, 
a common name for erysipelas. 

Igni''tion {ignis'). The process of heating 
solids, csj)ecially inorganic com]X)unds, at 
a white-hot temperature until all volatile 
matter has been driven off. 

Il'eac Passion [ei/jor, a colic or grijjing). 
An ailment characterized by severe gri|)ing 
pains and vomiting of facal matter, to- 
gether with .spasm of the abdominal 
muscles. 

IleadeKphus (/A/^w, fMf/i/ior, brother). A 
moiioceplialic dual monstrosity with l>otlies 
united at the pelvis, with four lower and 
twf) uplK-r extremities. 

ll'co- (i/ii4»i). A prefix signifying con- 
nection fir relation to the ileum. 

Ileo-cae'cal (ilen/n, arium). IVrtaiiiing 
or U-Umging to ix)th ileum and t;ecum. 
I. Fossa, a dej)rcssion in the lower part 
of the small intestine at the lixsc of the 
vermiform process. I. Valve, a valve 



consisting of two folds of mucous mem- 
brane that guards the passage between the 
ileum and ca-cum. 

Ileo-coKic [i/fum, colon"). Pertaining con- 
jointly to the ileum and the colon. 

Ileo-coli'tis [i/rnni, cc/on). Inflamma- 
tion of the lower part of the ileum and 
the colon. It is commonly known as in- 
testinal catarrh. 

H'eum [et?.fu, I tum). The lower half of 
the small intestine. Receives its name 
from its peristaltic movements. 

Il'iac {i/i(i, the fianks). Pertaining to the 
ilium or to the flanks. I. Aneurism, one 
occurring at the groin. I. Artery. See 
Artery. I. Crest, the upper free margin 
of the ilium to which tlie abdominal 
muscles are attached. I. Muscle. See 
Muscle. I. Region, one of the regions 
into which the abdomen is conventionally 
divided. See Ahdonun. 

Ili^acus. See JMttscle. 

IliadeFphus {ilio, a(h?.(pog, brother). A 
term applied to fatal monsters united at 
the pelvis but double above. 

Il'io- {ileum). A Greek word used as a 
prefix to denote relation to, or connection 
with the ilium. 

Ilio-capsula''ris {ilium, capstila, a little 
chest). A muscle occasionally found in 
man, originating at the anterior lower S]>ine 
of the ilium and inserted into the ilio- 
femoral ligament. 

Ilio-fem^oral {ilium, femur, the thigh 
bone). I'ertaining conjointly to the ilium 
and the femur. I. Ligament, an inverted 
V-shaped ligament extending obli(iuely 
across the hip joint, from a spine of the 
ilium to the trochanters of the femur, pre- 
venting over-extension of the joint. I. 
Triangle, a triangle consisting of a base 
drawn from the summit of the great tro- 
chanter to the anterior upjier spine oi the 
ilium, with an ai)ex fornud by lines drawn 
backward from the anterior upper spine 
and u])ward from the summit of the tro- 
chanter. 

Ilio-hypogas'tric {ilium, vTrnyaaTpiov, 
the lower belly). Pertaining conjointly to 
the ilium and the hypogastrium. I. Nerve. 
See A'en'e. 

Ilio-in'guinal {ilium, im^nten, the groin). 
Pirtaining to the ilium and the groin. I. 
Nerve. See A'cnr. 

Ilio-lum''bar {ilium, luml'it^, the loin). 
Pertaining conjtiintly to the ilium and the 
loins. I. Artery, a branch of the [Kisie- 
rior division of the internal iliac ailery, 
supplying tlie iliacus, and also the psoas, 



ILIO-PECTINEAL 



206 



IMMUNITY 



and quadratus lumborum muscles. I. 
Muscle, that part of the quadratus lum- 
borum muscle that is inserted at the tips 
of the processes of the lumbar vertebrae. 

Ilio-pectine^al. Pertaining conjointly to 
the ilium and the pectineus muscle. I. 
Ligament, that part of the iliac fascia 
which attaches Poupart's ligament and the 
sheath of the crural vessels to the os pubis. 
I. Line, the ridge reaching from the spine 
of the OS pubis to the auricular surface of 
the ilium. 

Ilio-pePvic. Pertaining conjointly to the 
ilium and the pelvis. I. Abscess, a sup- 
puration sometimes occurring over the ili- 
acus muscle during first labor, and com- 
monly due to the laceration of muscular 
fiber. 

Ilio-pso'as. The iliacus and psoas mus- 
cles taken conjointly. 

IPium (Lat.). The upper part of the os 
i)inominatiiin. The haunch bone. 

Illaquea^tion {illaqiiea, to ensnare). A 
method of changing the direction of mis- 
placed cilia, by withdrawing them by a 
noose, througli an opening in the adjacent 
tissue of the lid. 

lUegit^imacy (//;, not, legitiinus, according 
to law). The condition of being unlaw- 
ful, or not legitimate. 

lUegit^imate (in, legitiimis). Not in ac- 
cordance with statutory law. I. Child, 
one born out of lawful wedlock ; a bastard. 

Illequa^tion. See Illaqueation. 

lUic^ium. Star Anise. The frait of 77- 
liciiim aiiisatum. Properties due to a 
volatile oil identical with oil of anise. 

Illumina''tion {illiiniiiio, to make light). 
A light produced by a luminous body, 
and reflected by surrounding objects. I. 
of Eye, the lighting up of the interior of 
the eye by means of the ophthalmoscopic 
mirror. I., Oblique, in microscopy, an 
illumination produced by throwing the rays 
upon the object at any angle of inclination. 
In ophthalmology, of the cornea, etc., by 
focusing a pencil of rays obliquely upon 
the part. 

Illu^sion [illusio, a mocking). See Hal- 
lucination. 

Im^age {imago, a likeness). The picture 
of an object formed by the focalized rays 
of light proceeding from it. I., Diffu- 
sion of. See Diffusion. I., Erect, that 
of the fundus oculi as seen by the ophthal- 
moscope, the details of the fundus being 
in their natural position. I., Inverted, 
that olitained by interposing between the 
mirror and observed eye, a high-power lens ; 



it is an aerial image at the focus of the lens 
used. I., Real, that made by the focal- 
ized reflected rays. I., Virtual, that pro- 
duced by the imaginary focus of the rays, 
as, e.g., behind a miiTor. 

Imagina^tion (/wrt^'-<j). The picture-mak- 
ing power of the mind. The faculty by 
which one creates mental ideas or pictures 
by means of the data derived from ex- 
perience, ideally revivified, extended, and 
combined in new forms. 

Ima^go. An image. Also, the mature or 
winged stage of insects. 

Im^becile [inibecilliis, weak). Feeble in 
mind. 

ImbeciPity (imbecillus). Mental weak- 
ness or defect. Similar to that of idiocy, 
but of less degree. 

Imbibe'' [imbibo, to drink). To drink or 
suck in. 

Imbibi'tion {imbibo). The sucking up, or 
capillary absorption, of moisture, liquids, 
or gaseous substances by inorganic, or by 
dead or torpid organic bodies. 

Im'bricated [imbrex, a roof tile). Dis- 
tinguished by overlapping. Applied to 
the position and arrangement of scales in 
certain squamous diseases of the skin. 

Imita''tion (imitor, to be alike). A pro- 
duction that is similar to or a copy of 
another object or process. I., Morbid, 
the occurrence of a convulsive or mental 
affection brought about by observing a 
similar affection in another. 

Imme^diate (m, not, medio, the middle). 
Direct. Without anything intervening. I. 
Contagion, that from a direct source. I. 
Union, union by first intention, or without 
suppurative granulation. 

Immed^icable {in, not, medico, to cure). 
That which does not yield to medicine or 
treatment. Incurable. 

Immer^sion {in, mergo, to dip). The 
plunging of a body into a liquid. In medi- 
cine, treatment by a continued bath. I. 
Bath, the liquid employed for the immer- 
sion. I. Battery, a form of battery in 
which, by inclining the cell, the elements 
are immersed in the litjuid. I., Objective, 
a microscope objective, usually of high 
power, the lower lens of which is im- 
mersed in a drop of water, glycerine or oil, 
placed on the cover glass of the object 
under examination. 

Immune^. Having the power of immu- 
nity. 

Immu''nity {immunitas, exemption). The 
condition of an organ, or of the body, 
whereby it resists the development of in- 



IMMUNIZATION 



207 



IN 



fectious or morbid processes. The inocu- 
lation of attenuated virus and of chemical 
compounds are examjiles of methods by 
which I. is gained. It has also been shown 
that inriammatur)" action is destnictive i.)f 
bacterial development. I., Acquired, 
that from a previous attack of the same 
disease or a modified form, as varioloid. 
I., Natural, the natural resistance of the 
tissues, or system. Immmii/ation may be 
transient or jx'nnanent. 

Immuniza'tion. The act or process of 
tnddwiiii^ with immunity. 

Im 'munize. To give or acquire immunity. 

Im'pact (///,//«;'•(>, to drive into). A for- 
cible striking against. 

Impacfed (///, />/«.,<)). Driven a^jainst 
and retained, as a weilge. I. Fracture, 
one in which the fragments of bone are 
driven into one another in such a manner 
as to shorten the bone. 

Impale'inent (/;/, /><?/, a pale or picket). 
Tlie perforation of the body or a part by a 
nxl or stake. 

ImpaFudism (/;/, /xi/us, a marsh). The 
morbid predisixjsition to malarial diseases 
Common to dwellers in marshy regions. 

Im'par [i/i, not, />ti/; e-iual). Odd or un- 
equal. I., Ganglion, a small ganglion on 
the coccyx. 

Imper'forate {ifi,neg., per/oro, to pierce). 
Congenital and abnormal closure of an 
opening of the IxKly, as the anus, vagina, 
(•/'■. .'^ce Oiclusicii and Olislruction. 

Imperfora''tion (///, neg., perforo, to bore 
through). Occlusion, es])ecially used of 
the .\nu>, Hymen, Vagina, </<-. 

Imper'meable i in, not, per, through, mea- 
tus, an Oldening). Not capable of being 
traversed. 

Imper''vious [in, po-vius, capable of pas- 
sage). Not permitting a passage through. 

Impeti''go (I -at.). I'orrigo contagiosa. 
A term formerly used to include almost 
ever)' form of pustular inllammation of the 
skin, mo.st of which are now classified witii 
other disea.ses. The following are recog- 
nized \>y Tilbury Kox : I. Contagiosa, 
marke<l by di.scret<-n(ss of vesicles and 
pastulcs, caused by inoculation wilii morliid 
pus. Ixrsions occur mainly aU)ut ninutli, 
no.striLs, chin and occijmt. I., Duhling's, 
differs from tlie foregoing in being noii- 
infictious. I. Herpetiformis, an inflam- 
matory <lisea-<(; of the skin dc'cribrd iiy 
i hbra, ronsisting of su|M-rtR ia! pw-lulrs of 
I in Iliad si/c, densely crowded into groups. 
Usually circular in sha|H:. Very rare in 
America, and occasional in Kurope. 



Implanta^'tion (/>/, phuito, to set). The 
act of setting in. Also, the transplantation 
of a tooUi from the jaw of one person to 
that of another. Also, the engrafting of 
epidermis from the skin of one jxrson upon 
the Inxly of another. I., Hypodermatic, 
the intrcKlucti(.>n of a medicine in the form 
of a soluble bolid under the skin for thera- 
peutic jiurposes. I., Teratological, a 
fetal monstrosity consisting of an imperfect, 
joined to a perfect Retus. 

Impond'erable (///, not, /<)«(/£7(?/'/7w, that 
which can be weighed). That which can- 
not be weighed. I. Fluids, an obsolete 
term, formerly applied to light, heat and 
electricity. 

Importa'tion (///,/(>/-/(>, to carry). Trans- 
ference from anollier locality or foreign 
country. I. of Disease, the carrjing of 
the contagion of di.sease. 

Impos'thume {cnroari/fia, standing away 
from). A corrupt form of apostcnta. An 
abscess. 

Im'potence {in, not, possum, to be able). 
Lack of power, applied especially to male 
incapacity of procreation. 

Impregna^tion {in, pirgii(nis,w\\\\ child). 
The slate of being pregnant. Fecunda- 
tion. Fertilization. 

Impres^sion {imprimo, to press ujwn). 
A hollow or depression. Ajjplicd to a 
number of such in the body. I., Digital, 
the mark made by finger pressure. 

Impu'beral (/;/, noi, pit/u-/; ripe). Desti- 
tute of hair on the puiies. Not of adult 
age. 

Im'pulse (/w/t'/Zc, to drive against). Any 
communicated fcirce. Also, the shock and 
reverberation on tlie chest-walls caused by 
the beating of the heart. Also, a sudden 
s|X)ntaneous emotion of the mind or in- 
fluence acting upon it. I., Cardiac, the 
systolic beat of the heart occiu-ring at the 
apex, and ft-lt in the fifth intercostal space. 
I., Morbid, any strong, unnatural im- 
pulse, especially one of an insane cliarac- 
Icr. 

ImpuFsion {impillo). The act of driving 
or urging onward, either mentally or physi- 
cally. 

Impur'ity (///, not, purus, pure or clean). 
Want of ]iurity or cleanliness. In chem- 
istry the condition of containing some sub- 
stance other than that desired. .Adultera- 
tion. In nie<litine, a want of elearne>s in 
the .sounds of tlie heart, bill llol sullieielit 
lo eau.se a iiiuriiiur. 

In A Latin prefix signifying /// or within. 
Alst), a particle signifying negation. 



-IN 



208 



INCUBATOR 



-in, or -ine. A suffix added to the names 
of the halogen elements, chlorine, bromine, 
iodine and fluorine. Also, a distinctive 
termination used to distinguish organic 
bases, particularly the class known as al- 
kaloids. It is also loosely applied to cer- 
tain organic radicals. 

Inan^imate (w, not, aiii/iiHSjliie). Not 
animate. Dead. Without life. 

Inani^tion (z«ff«/f,tomake empty). Empti- 
ness of the organs of digestion for want of 
food. Also, wasting of the body from 
starvation or disease. 

Inap^petence [in, not, appeto, to desire). 
Loss or want of appetite. 

Inartic^'ulate {in, not, articiihis, a joint). 
Not jointed or articulated. Also, vocal 
sounds not capable of aiTangement into 
syllables, or of being understood. 

Inassim'ilable {in, not, assimulo, to make 
like). Incapable of assimilation. 

Incandes^cent {incandesce, to become 
white hot). A term applied to a substance 
that has been heated to the degree of emit- 
ting light. I. Electric Light, one con- 
sisting of a film of carbon of high resistance 
enclosed in a vacuous glass globe. The 
film emits a white light when the cuirent 
passes through it. 

Incar^cerated. See Hernia. 

Incarcera^tion {in, carcero, to imprison). 
The condition of imprisonment or confine- 
ment of a part. See Hernia. 

Incarna^tion. See Conception. 

In^cest {incestus, not chaste). Carnal in- 
tercourse between persons of near relation- 
ship. 

In^cidence {incido, to fall). A falling upon. 
The direction in which one body strikes 
another. I., Line of, the path of a ray 
or a projectile. I., Point of, the point 
upon which the ray or projectile is reflected 
or strikes. 

In'cident {incido). Falling upon. 

Incinera^tion {cineres, ashes). The process 
of heating organic substances in contact 
with the air until all organic matter is 
driven off, and only the mineral ash re- 
mains. 

Inci^sed (2«(7V/(7j to cut). Cut. I. Wound, 
one made by a sharp-edged instrument. 

Incis^ion {incido). The act of cutting into 
any tissue of the body. 

Inci^'sive {incido). Having the quality of 
cutting. Pertaining to the incisor teeth. 
I. Teeth. See Incisor. 

Inci^sor {incido). Any cutting instrument. 
I. Nerve, the branch of the inferior dental 
nerve supplying the incisor and canine 



teeth. I. Teeth, the four anterior teeth 
in each jaw. 

Incisu^ra {incido). A notch. Also, an 
incision. 

Inclu^sio Fceta''lis. (Lat.) A form of 
ftt^tal parasitism in which the parasite is 
more or less included and overgrown by 
the tissues of the autosite. 

Inclu^sion {inchtdo, to enclose or shut 
in). The state of being shut in. Also, 
the act of shutting in. 

Incohc'rent {in, not, cohcEro, to stick 
together). Not connected or coherent. 
Inability to express that sequence of 
words or of ideas necessary to convey 
meaning. 

Incompafible {in, not, compatibilis, en- 
durable). A term used to designate such 
compounds as are incapable of mixture 
without undergoing such chemical or phys- 
ical changes as impair or destroy their 
value. Also, substances physiologically 
antagonistic, and therefore useless to pre- 
scribe. 

Incotn'petence {in, not, compatior, to 
suffer together). Inability to perform 
natural functions. I., Mental, a disorder 
of mind sufficient to produce irresponsi- 
bility. I., Valvular. See Insufficiency. 

Incon^tinence (/;/, not, contineo, to con- 
tain). Inability to restrain the faeces or 
the urine ; involuntary evacuation. Some- 
times used as a synonym of venereal indul- 
gence. 

Incoordination {in, not, con, together, 
ordino, order). Not in natural or normal 
order. In pathology, the inability to pro- 
duce voluntary muscular movements in 
proper order or sequence. I. of Ocular 
Muscles. See Insufficiency. 

Incorpora''tion (/;/, corpus, a body). The 
process of intimately mixing the particles 
of different bodies into a practically homo- 
geneous mass. 

Increma^tion. See Cremation. 

In^crement {incrcnientuni, growth). In- 
crease or growth. 

Incrusta''tion {incrusto, to cover with 
rind). The formation of a crust. Also, 
the formation of a calcareous deposit in 
organic tissue due to senility or disease. 

Incuba^tion {incuho, to sit on eggs). In 
medicine, the period between the implant- 
ing of the contagion and the development 
of the disease. 

In^cubator {incubo). A device for the 
artificial hatching of eggs or cultivation of 
microscopic plants. I., Crede's, a copper 
tube made with double walls, between 



INCUBUS 



209 



INDOL 



which water at the desired temperature 
may be put, and withdrawn by means of 
pipes and stop-cocks. I., Tarnier's, an 
apparatus for the rearing of premature 
children, consisting of a l)OX with two 
compartments, one containing the cliiid, 
the other, and lower compartment, being 
filled with warm water, so as to keep a 
uniform temperature of S6°-SS°. 

In'cubus. See .\/>/;/;«</rt-. 

Incunea'tion. See Impaction. 

Incu'rable (///, euro, to care for). That 
which cannot be cured or restored to 
wholeness. 

In'cus (i/itus, an anvil). A small bone 
of the internal ear between the malleus 
and stapes. 

Indenta'tion {in, dens, a tooth). A con- 
dition of being notched or serrated. I. of 
Tongue, the notches on the borders of 
the toni^ue made by the teeth, and visible 
especially during inflamm.ition of the 
tongue. 

In'dex, (Lat.) The first finger. Also, the 
relation or ratio of one part to anotlier, taken 
as a standard. I., Altitudinal, the height 
of a skull multiplied by loo and divided 
by its length. I., Alveolar, the degree of 
prominence of the jaws, measured by the 
basi-alvcolar length multiplied by loo and 
divided iiy the ba-si-nasal length. N\ hen 
the alveolar index is le.ss than 98, the skull 
is orthognathic, when more than I03, 
prognathic, when intermediate mesog- 
nathic. I., Cephalic, the breadth of a 
skull multii^ilied I'y loo and divided by its 
length. When tins is below 75, tlie skull 
is called dolichocephalic, wlien above 
80, it is called brachycephalic, between 
these limits, mesaticephalic. I., Nasal, 
the greatest nasal widtli iiuiltiplied by loo, 
and divided by the nasal length. \\ hen 
the nasal index exceeds 53, the nose is 
platyrhine, when less than 48, it is .said 
to Xni. hptorhine, if between these num- 
l)ers, mesorhine. I., Orbital, the or- 
bital height multiplied by IOC and divided 
by the orbital width. If the oriiital index 
Ijc alxne 89, it is called megaseme, if 
unrler 84, microseme, if bi Iween, meso- 
seme. I., Thoracic, taken at its widest 
|>art is icx> times the sagittal, divi(le<l by 
the transverse measurement. 

In'dian. Pertaining to India, the West 
Indiis, or to the alMjriginal Americans. 
I. Black-root, tlic rfx>t of Pterocaulon 
Pyinoilaehium. lias reputed alterative 
pr(i[xrrlies. Dose of flil. extract TT\^xv- 
XXX. Unof. I. Corn. See /.ea Mays. 
14 



I. Physic, American Ipecacuanha, the 
bark of the root of Gillenia trifoliata. 
A mild emetic and cathartic. Dose of (Id. 
ext. n\,x-xl. Unof. I. Turnip. See 
Drai^vn A'oct, 

Ind'ia-rub'ber. The prepared concrete 
juice obtained mainly from an Indian tree, 
J-ieus elastieus, and a South American 
tree, Siphonia elustiea. It is valuable 
chiefly for its elasticity and its insolubility 
in water. It is ditl'icultly soluble in oil of 
tuq)entine, and highly soluble in carbon 
disulphitle. Also, called Caoutchouc. 

Ind'ican. A glucoside forming the basis 
of indigo. May be obtained from the leaf 
in the form of a yellowish-brown syruj), 
having an acid reaction. 

Indig''enous {indii, in, ^':^no, to be bom). 
Kative. Originating or belonging to a cer- 
tain locality or country. 

Indigest^ion (in, digestOy to dissolve). 
Same as Dyspepsia. 

Indigita'tion (z«, digitus, a finger). A 
term applied to the displacement of a part 
of the intestine by intussusception. 

In'digo. A blue pigment foniied during 
the fermentation of Indigofera anil, I. 
tinetona and other species. It is insoluble 
in alcohol or water, but freely soluble in 
strong sulphuric acid. Used mainly in the 
arts as a dye-stuff Chemically, it is a 
mixture of several ])rincipk'S, the chief 
being a blue coloring matter, indigotin. 
Therapeutically, it is an irritant to the 
mucous membrane of the alimentary tract, 
jiroducing intense nausea. It has been 
used advantageously in epilejisy, chorea 
and convulsions, in <loses var)'ing from 
^ ij- _^ ij daily. Unof I. -Carmine Test 
for Sugar. Put in 30 minims of water 
one pellet indigo-carmine and sodium car- 
bonate; heat gently to solution ; add one 
drop of urine and boil ([uietly. A change 
to red or yellow indicates sugar. 

In^digogen. See L'roxanthin. 

Indirect' {in, dingo, to be in a straight 
line). Not direct. I. Vision, that jier- 
ception of an object in which the image 
falls on some other s]Kit than the macula. 
I. Division of Cells. See Katyo- 
kinesis. 

Indisposi'tion {in, di.':pono,Xo be out of 
]ilace). ,\iiy slight illness or disturbance 
of the fiMHtions of the botly. 

Indissol'uble. See Insoluble. 

In'dol. A |)rfKlucl of intestinal putrefac- 
tion ; formed, also, when jiroteifK are iieated 
with alkalies or by sui)erheating with water 
to 200° C. 



INDOLENT 



210 



INFIRMARY 



In^'dolent (/;;, not, dolco, to feel pain). 
Sluggish. Without pain ; applied to ul- 
cers, tumors, etc. 

Induced' (/«(//<(ro, to lead into). Made or 
produced by the agency of any means. I. 
Current. See Ctirroit. 

Induc'tion [induco). The establishment 
of an abstract law or proposition by means 
of specific or particular illustrations. I. 
Balance, in physics, an instrument used 
for the detection of currents too weak to 
affect the galvanometer. I. Current. See 
Current. I. of Labor, the bringing on 
of labor by artificial means. 

Inducto'rium. A magneto-induction ap- 
paratus for physiological purposes. 

In'durated (^indiiro, to harden). Hard- 
ened. I. Bubo, a hard inflammation of 
the lymphatic glands, usually of syphilitic 
origin. 

Indura''tion [indurd). The hardening of 
a tissue without alteration of structure. I., 
Brown, a hardening of lung-tissue with 
accumulation of pigmentary matter. I. 
of Chancre, a hard nodule, or a cup-like 
ring, about the margin of a chancre or 
syphilitic ulcer. 

Inebria'tion (inebrio, to make drunk). 
The condition of dninkenness. 

Iner'tia (/«, not, ars, skill). Sluggish- 
ness. In physics, the inability of matter 
to change its condition except by means 
of an external force. In physiology, in- 
activity of any organ or function of the 
body. I., Uterine, the failure or slug- 
gishness of uterine contractions in labor. 
I., Intestinal, toi-por of intestinal action, 
or peristalsis. I. of Drugs, lack of 
power of same, from inferior quality, to 
produce their customary physiological re- 
actions. 

In extrc'mis (in, at, extremis, end). A 
Latin phrase, meaning at the end. The 
common form, "in extremis mortis,^' is in- 
excusable. ■ 

In'' fancy [infans, a little child). Early 
childhood. I., Diseases of, those to 
which infants are peculiarly lialjle. 

In'fant [infans'). A babe. According to 
English law, one not having attained the 
age of twenty-one. I., Overlaying of, 
suffocation of an infant by the lying upon 
it of an adult in sleep. I. Shelter, a 
day nursery where the infant children of 
working mothers are kept at a moderate 
expense during the hours of labor. In 
France, a criche. 

Infant'icide {infans, cccdo, to kill). The 
murder of an infant. 



In'farct [infircio, to fill in). An obstruc- 
tion or plug. In pathology, an organ or 
part filled to distention with a coagulum. 

Infarc'tion [infarcid). The plugging or 
clotting of a vessel by an embolus ; the 
masses of extravasated blood in the tissues 
in embolism. 

Infect'' (inficio, to put in, or corrupt). To 
communicate or transmit the specific virus 
or germs of disease. 

Infec'tion [inficid). The communication 
of disease-germs or virus, by any means, 
direct or indirect. 

Infec'tious [iiificid). Having the quality 
of transmitting disease or the agents that 
cause it. 

Infecund''ity {in, not, fecundns, fruitful). 
Sterility, Barrenness. 

Infe'rior (comp. of inferus, low). Lower. 

Infibula'tion {in, fibula, a clasp). An 
operation formerly employed to prevent 
the retraction of the prepuce over the 
glans penis in order to prevent copulation. 
It consisted of passing a ring through 
opposite edges of the prepuce. In a simi- 
lar manner a ring was passed through the 
labia of the vagina in order to insure the 
chastity of females. 

Infiltrate {in, Fr., filtrer, to strain). To 
ooze into the interstitial spaces of a tissue ; 
also, the substance thus having passed. 

Infiltra'tion {in, Yx., filtrer). The ab- 
normal diffusion of any fluid from with- 
out into an organ or tissue, affecting it 
mechanically so as to destroy its function. 
I. of Bone, a tubercular infiltration of 
bone, consisting either of matter that be- 
comes puriform, or else of gray cancellous 
matter. I., Calcareous, deposits of lime 
or other calcium salts within any tissue 
of the body. I., Cellular, the primary 
exudation into a tissue, conveying white 
coipuscles. I., Fatty, the existence of 
oil or fat globules in the interior of a 
cell. I., Plastic, that of a character 
from which new norma] growth may de- 
velop. I., Sanguineous, an extravasa- 
tion of blood. An ecchymosis. I., Tu- 
berculous, a confluence of tuberculous 
granulations. 

Infinite Distance. A term in optics to 
denote parallelism of the light-rays. Abso- 
lute parallelism does not exist, but, practi- 
cally, rays from an object 20 feet away 
are so considered and called. 

Infirm'' {infirnius, not strong or firm). 
Weak or feeble. 

Infirm''ary {infirmus'). A hospital. An 
institution where ill and infinn people 



INFIRMITY 



211 



INGRAVESCENT 



are maintained during the period of treat- 
ment. 

Infirm'ity [itifirmns). Weakness. Feeble- 
ness due to disease or senility. 

Inflame'' {in/Iammo, to set on fire). To 
undergo inflanimation. To become unduly 
heated and turgid with blood, owing to a 
morbid condition. 

Inflamma'tion (////f./wwc). A condi- 
tion of nutritive disturbance character- 
ized by hj-pcnvmia, with proliferation of 
the cells of a tissue or organ, and attended 
by one or more of the syni]itonis of 
pain, heat, swelling, discoloraii(.in and 
disordered function. I., Adhesive, a 
synonym of Ihalittg by First Intention. 
I., Aplastic, and I., Plastic. See 
Lymf^h. 

Inflam'matory {injlammo). Pertaining 
to inflammation. I. Exudation, the fluid 
exuded from an inflamed part. I. Focus, 
the central or culminating spot of an in- 
flamed part, or that at which su])puration 
begins. I. Fungoid Neoplasm. See 
Mycosis. I. Infiltration, the exudation 
escaping into the interstices of an inflamed 
tissue and not removed by the Ij-mphat- 
ics. I. Zone, the area of gangrenous 
formation bounded by the line of demarca- 
tion l)etween dead and living tissue. Also 
the line of demarcation. 

Infla'tion (/«/7i', to puff up). Distention 
with air. In surgery, distention of the 
Ixiwels with air to relieve obstnaction ; or 
of the lungs for artificial respiration ; or 
of the Eustachian tuljc for the purpose of 
examination. 

Influen'za (Lat., an influence [thought 
to l>e due to the stars]). A contagious, 
epidemic, inflammatory aflection of the 
mucoas membrane of the respiratory tract, 
accorajjanied by a muco-purulent discharge, 
fever, and prostration. Popularly called 
by its I'Vench name, la f^rippe. 

In'flux (/;7,y7«", to flow). An inflow. The 
act of flowing in. 

Infra- (infra, beneath). A Latin prefix 
meaning beneath. 

Infra-ax'illary [infra, axilla, the arm- 
pit). I{r!(jw the armpit. 

Infraclavic'ular (infra, chn>iiula, the 
collar Ixjnc). Hehjw the collar-l)one. 

Infracost^al (//;y>-a, rcj/a, the ribs). Below 
the ribs. 

Infrac'tion (///./r^r/iV, breaking). Incom- 
plete fracture of a lionc Alstj, an inden- 
tation or driving iiiwanl. 

Inframax'illary (infra, maxillium, the 
jaw). Iklow or under the jaw. 



Infra-orb'ital {infra, orbita, the orbit). 
Beneadi or below the orbit. I. Artery, 
the branch of the internal maxillary- artery 
traversing the infra-orbital canal. I. Canal, 
the canal in the superior maxillaiy bone 
that ti-ansmits the infra-orbital vessels and 
nerves. I. Foramen, the aperture in 
tlie superior maxillaiy bone through which 
the infra-orbital artery passes. I. Groove, 
the groove leading to tl>e infra-orbital 
canal. I. Nerve, the name of the supe- 
rior maxillary nerve at its entrance to the 
infra-orbital canal. 

Infrascap'ular (infra, scapula, the shoul- 
der-blade). Below the shoulder-blade. 

Infraspina'tus. See Muscle. 

Infrasternal (infra, sternum, the breast 
bone). Beneath the sternum. I. Depres- 
sion, the depression of the ensiform car- 
tilage, commonly called the pit of the 
stomach. 

Infundib'uliform {infunJibulum, a fun- 
nel, y^rw,/, a ftirin). Funnel-shaped. I. 
Fascia, the funnel-shaped membranous 
layer that invests the spermatic cord. 

Infundib'ulum (htfundo, to pour into). 
A funnel. I. of Brain, a funnel-shaped 
mass of gray matter attached to the jiitui- 
tary gland. I. of Cochlea, a sniall cavity 
at the end of the modiolus. I. of Heart, 
the arterial cone from which the pulmonary 
arteiy arises. 

Infu'sion. See Infusum. 

Infuso'ria (infusum, an infusion). A class 
of microscopic, ciliated organisms belong- 
ing to the order of Protozoa. They repro- 
duce by fission and budding, and also by 
eggs or germs. 

Infu'sum (Lat.). An infusion. In ]ihar- 
macy, a jjreparation made by treating a 
vegetable sulistance with hot or witli cold 
water without lulling. Infusions should, 
in the absence of sjxicific directions, con- 
tain I part of the substance to lo of water. 
There are 5 official infusa. 

Inges'ta (im^ero, to cany into). Sub- 
stances introduced into the body, especially 
for purjKjses of alimentation. 

Inges'tion (im^ero). Tin- introduction of 
footl or imtritiim into the inuutli or stomach. 

In'gluvin. A preparation obtained from 
the gi/zard of the fowl, u.sed as a substi- 
tute for pepsin and pancrcaiin. Very cfli- 
cient in tlie vomiting of pregnancy. Dose 
gr. XX. 

Ingras'sias, Processes, or Wings of. 
The less<r wings of the splunoiil Ume. 

Ingravcs'cent (ini^ravesco, to become 
heavy). Increasing in weight or in sc- 



INGRAVIDATION 



212 



INNOMINATE 



verity. I. Apoplexy, probably due to 
slowly increasing cerebral hemoirhage. 

Ingravida^tion. See Impregnation. 

Ingre^dient {ingredior,\.o step into). Any 
part that enters into the formation of a 
compound. 

In-growing Nail. See Onychogryphosis. 

In^guinal [inguen, the groin). Pertaining 
to the groin. I. Canal, the canal trans- 
mitting the spermatic cord in the male, 
and the round ligament in the female. It 
is situated parallel to and just above Pou- 
part's ligament. I. Glands, the super- 
ficial and the deep glands of the groin. I. 
Hernia. See Hernia. 

Inguino-Abdom''inal. Pertaining con- 
jointly to the groin and abdomen. 

Inhala''tion {inlialo, to draw in). The 
in-breathing of air or other vapor. I. 
Diseases, those due to the inspiration of 
air containing dust or any finely divided 
matter. See Grinders' Disease. I. of 
Medicines, the introduction into the air- 
passages or lungs of medicinal substances, 
in the form of vapor or fine spray. 

Inhale'' [inlialo). To inspire or draw air 
or other vapor into the lungs. 

Inha^ler {inlialo'). An instrument for ap- 
plying, or for inhaling the vapor of a liquid 
medicine. 

Inher^ited [inhcereo, to cleave to). De- 
rived from an ancestor. I. Disease, a 
disease that has been transmitted to a child 
by its parent. 

Inhib^it [inhibeo, to check). To check, 
restrain, or suppress. 

Inhibi''tion [inliibeo). The act of check- 
ing, restraining or suppressing. Inhibitory 
nerves and centers, are those intermediating 
a modification, stoppage or suppression of 
a motor or secretory act already in pro- 
gress. I., Vasomotor, an influence ex- 
erted on the contractile walls of the blood 
vessels, that causes their dilatation by a 
diminution of their tone. I., Voluntary, 
the checking or temporary restraint of a 
reflex by force of will. 

Inhib'itory [inhibeo). Having the power 
to restrain or hold in check. I. Center 
of Setschenow, a cerebral center in the 
optic lobes of the brain of the frog, the 
stimulation of which checks reflexes. I. 
Nerves of the Heart, those of the vagus 
supplied by the cardio-inhibitory center, 
through the spinal accessory nerve. I. 
Nerves of Respiration, certain afferent 
fibers in the laryngeal branches of the 
vagus nerve, that exert an inhibitoiy action 
on the inspiratory act of respiration. 



Inhuma'tion {inhiivio, to put in the 
ground). Burial of the dead in the 
ground. 

In^ial (^iVLov, the occiput). Pertaining to 
the inion. The posterior aspect of the 
head. 

Inienceph''alus [iviov, eyKecpaTiov, brain). 
A class of exencephalic monstrosities, the 
brain protruding through an occipital fis- 
sure. 

In^ion i^iviov). The external protuberance 
of the occipital bone. 

Ini^tial [in, eo, to go). Beginning or 
commencing. I. Sclerosis, the primary 
induration of a hard chancre. I. Stage 
of Labor. See Labor, Stages of. 

Injecf (in, jacio, to throw). The introduc- 
tion of a liquid into any cavity of the body, 
natural or artificial, by means of a s}Tinge 
or similar instrument. In pathology, a 
condition of distention of the capillaries 
with blood. 

Injec'tion [in, jacio). Aqueous or other 
solutions thrown into the vessels, beneath 
the skin or into any cavity of the body. 
I., Anatomical, filling the vessels of a 
cadaver or of an organ with preservative 
or coagulating solutions, for purposes of 
dissection, etc. I., Coagulating, injection 
of coagulating solutions into the cavity of 
an aneurism. I., Hypodermatic, by a 
syringe in the tissue beneath the skin. I., 
Nutrient, injection of nutritive fluids into 
the rectum or other cavity. I., Opaque 
Naked-eye, for anatomical or microsco- 
pical purposes, made of plaster-of- Paris, 
tallow, vermiHon and gelatine, acetate of 
lead and bichromate of potash (yellow in- 
jection), or acetate of lead and carbonate 
of soda (white). I., Transparent Micro- 
scopic, made with carmine for red, ferro- 
cyanide of potassium for blue, chromate of 
potash for yellow, etc. 

In^jury [in, not, jiis, a right). Any dam- 
age or harm to the body or any of its 
parts. 

In^let of the PeKvis. The heart-shaped 
space within the brim of the pelvis. 

Innerva''tion [in, nei-vits). The discharge 
of nervous impulse from a ganglionic 
center. The manifestation of nervous 
force. 

Innom''inate [in, without, noinett, a 
name). A term applied to several parts 
of the body to which no other definite 
name has been given. I. Artery. See 
Artery. I. Bone, the irregular-shaped 
bone forming the sides and anterior wall 
of the pelvic cavity. 



INNUTRITION 



213 



IN SITU 



Innutri'tion [in, tiutrio, to nourish). 
Want of nutrition or nourishment. 

Inocula'tion (inoi-u/o, to engraft). The 
introduction into the circulation of the 
virus of infectious diseases, or of certain 
medicinal agents. I., Jennerian, vacci- 
nation, or the I. of cowjxix virus. I. of 
Smallpox, inoculation with the contagium 
of smallpox to protiuce a mild ty|)e of the 
disease. I., Preventive, inoculation of 
some virus to act as a preventive of a more 
serious disease or t}']>e of the same disease. 

I'nogen [tg [gen. u'of], fiber, yevrao), to 
produce). A name given to a hyix)thetical 
substance held to occur in muscular tissue, 
and to be decomjxjsed, during contraction, 
into carbon dioxide, sarcolactic acid, and 
myosin. Because of this behavior it is 
considered the energy-producing substance 
of muscle. 

Inorgan^ic [ht, organtan, an instnmient). 
A temi applied to a body or a sul stance 
that possesses none of the possibilities of 
development, growth or life. I. Constitu- 
ents. .*^ee Cintstitiu-nts. 

Inoscula'tion {in, o:cuIo, to kiss). The 
joining, at their mouths, of the branches of 
blood vessels, especially the extremities of 
arteries with the origins of veins. 

Inosin'ic Ac'id. An ammonia derivative 
from muscle ; of unknown constitution. 

Pnosit. See Sus^ar. 

In'quest [in, qinrro, to ask). A judicial 
in'juirv'. I., Coroner's, an in^iuiry con- 
cerning the cause of the death of one who 
has died by violence or in some other un- 
known way. 

Inquisi'tion (?*;/, ^«^rr^). The ini|uiryor 
hearing lx;fore a jury or commission con- 
cerning the sanity or lunacy of a criminal 
or a]>tr«on charged with crime. 

Insaliva'tion (/;/, j<7//zw, the spittle). The 
mixture of the food with saliva during 
mastication. 

Insane' (/«, not, ^(7««j, sound). Deranged 
or di.seased in mind. I. Ear. See //uf-wa- 
toma Aiiris. 

Insan'ity (///, santa:^. A derangement or 
abnormal condition of one or more of the 
mental faculties, without loss of volition or 
consciousness, arising from causes other 
than l)0<lily disease. I., Acquired, that 
arising after a lon^; [><-rii><l of life of mi-nlal 
integrity. I., Alcoholic, that iinluced liy 
alcoholic excess, usually a n suit of he- 
reditary tendencies. I., Communicated, 
that transmitted by intercourse with an in- 
.satic |K-rs<^)n. I., Epidemic, a form occa- 
sionally manifested among a numljcr of 



people in common association, as in con- 
vents or schtx)k. I., Febrile, a maniacal 
form, occasionally resulting from acute in- 
flammation, fever, or from similar cause. 
I., Hereditary, that ac'iuired by virtue of 
hereditary weakness or taint, and not in- 
duced by other apparent causes. I., Idea- 
tional, a term applied to any form in which 
there is maiked perversion of the reasoning 
powers. I., Impulsive, a form in which 
the patient possesses an uncontrollable de- 
sire to commit acts of violence. I., Moral, 
a form marked by perversion and dejiravity 
of the moral sense, without Impairment of 
the reasoning and intellectual faculties. I. 
of Pregnancy, a form occurring during 
pregnancy, characterized by melancholia, 
suicidal intent, and abhorrence of friends 
and relatives. I., Primary, a forni, often 
congenital, that arises with the develop- 
ment of the body. It may also proceed 
from injury or disease of the brain in early 
life. I., Puerperal, a term sometimes 
applied to the delirium of childlirth, but 
more j^roperly to the mania occurring after 
delivery. I. Simultaneous, when two 
or more persons hereditarily inclined be- 
come aflected at the same time. I., Voli- 
tional, such forms as are marked by de- 
rangement of the will. 

Insa''tiable Appetite. See Bulimia. 

Insectiv'ora [iuse<tuvi, an insect, vnro, 
to devour). An order of plantigrade ani- 
mals belonging to the viamvtalia. 

In'sect Pow'der. The jiowdered flowers 
of several species of Fyiethnon or " bu- 
hach," an insecticide in common use. In 
the United States the flowers of P. ciiierrr- 
folium are extensively cultivated for this 
purpose. 

Insemina'tion {/«j^w?'«(', to jilant seed). 
The ]ilanting of seed. The introduction 
of semen. 

Insens'ible (/;/,not, scntio, to feel). With- 
out the sense of feeling. Incap.able of 
being jjerceived or recognized by the 
senses. 

Inser'tion (inscro, to set in). The act of 
setting or placing in ; or, that which is set 
in. I, Velamentous, the in.sertion of 
the margin of the umbilical cord upon the 
chorion. 

Insid'ious (///i/'(//<r, an ambush). Peceit- 
ful. Hidden from external view. I. 
Disease, one that shows no apparent 
sym|)loms. 

In si'tu (/'«, sifu, position). A latin 
phrase meaning in a given or na/unil 

J>oiition. 



INSOLATION 



214 



INTENSIVE 



Insola''tion (/;?, sol, the sun). Exposure 
to the sun, either as a prophylactic treat- 
ment or a cause of disease. Sunstroke. 
In pharmacy, the ckying or bleaching of 
substances by exposure to the sun. 

InsoFuble \in, neg., solnbilis, soluble). 
Incapable of solution. 

Insom''nia (in, neg., somnus, sleep). 
Want of sleep. Inability to sleep. 

Inspec^tion [inspedus, a beholding). In 
medicine, the examination of the body, or 
of any part of it. 

Inspira^tion [in, spiro, to breathe). That 
part of respiration consisting of the draw- 
ing in of the breath. 

Inspis^sate [Jiispisso, to thicken). To 
make thick by evaporation or by absorp- 
tion of the liquid menstruum. 

Instaura^tion {instaiiratio, a removal). 
The first appearance of a physiological 
condition. 

In''step [visfop, the bend of the foot). 
The arch of the foot. 

Instilla''tion {instillo, to put in little by 
little). The pouring of a liquid gtittatiin, 
or little by little. 

In'stinct [instinguo, to impel). An in- 
herited natural impulse unassociated with a 
reasoning conception as to cause and effect. 

In''stitute [instihio, to set up). A state- 
ment of principles. Also, any establish- 
ment for the statement or dissemination of 
principles. I. of Medicine, the expla- 
nation or philosophy of the laws of the 
science of medicine ; pathological physi- 
ology. Used sometimes as a synonym of 
pathology. 

In^strument [instnto, to build). Any 
mechanical tool or device used in opera- 
tion or treatment. 

Insuffi''ciency [in, sub, under, facio, to 
make). Incapacity of normal action. I. 
of Muscles, Active, a phenomenon of a 
muscle acting on two or more joints when 
the joints over which it passes are so 
changed that it cannot contract actively 
any further than to the extent of the short- 
ening from which it begins to be active. 
I. of Muscles, Passive, the analogue 
of the phenomena of active I. in many 
jointed muscles, whereby motion of the 
part is prevented from the position of the 
joint, the muscle being too short to act 
under such circumstances. I. of the Ocu- 
lar Muscles, weakness or paresis of the 
same, in high degrees resulting in strabis- 
mus, asthenopia, diplopia, etc. I. of the 
Cardiac Valves, imperfect closure, per- 
mitting regurgitation. 



Insuffla''tion (/«, siifflo, to puff). The 
blowing of any finely divided substance 
upon a surface or into a cavity. 

In^sufflator (in, stifflo). A small instru- 
ment for blowing fine powders into a cavity 
or on a surface. Also, one for blowing air 
into the lungs. 

In'sula (Lat.). In anatomy, the island 
of Reil. 

In''sular (insula, an island). Isolated in 
condition, also, pertaining to the island of 
Reil. I. Sclerosis, or disseminated scle- 
rosis — scattered islets of sclerosis in the 
brain and cord. It is called sclerose en 
plaques disseniinees by the French, and 
multiple sclerosis by the Germans. Its 
etiology is obscure. The symptoms vary 
according to the position of the islets : 
Motor derangements, a jerky tremor, pare- 
sis or paralysis, eye-changes, etc., are the 
most common. The prognosis is grave, 
and treatment of little avail. 

In^sulate (insula). To isolate or separate 
from surroundings. In electricity, to sur- 
round a conductor with a non-conducting 
substance or with one having an exceed- 
ingly high resistance. 

In^sult (ifi, upon, salto, to leap). The 
beginning of a paroxysm or of an attack 
of a disease. I., Apoplectic, an apo- 
plectic stroke. 

In^tegral (integer, whole). Entire. Es- 
sential. 

Integ^rity [integer). Wholeness. En- 
tirety. Also, virginity. 

Integ^ument (in, upon, ^^^f^^^, to cover). A 
covering, especially the skin. In botany, 
the envelope surrounding the ovule of 
phanerogamous plants. 

In'tellect (inter, between, lego, to choose). 
The mind or reasoning power. I., De- 
ranged. See Insanity. 

Intelligence (intellectns, a perceiving). 
The understanding that comes from the 
perception of qualities and attributes of the 
objective world and manifested in the pur- 
posive employment of means to attain an 
end. 

Intem-'perance (in,r\o\.,temperanfia, mild- 
ness). Want of moderation. Immoderate 
indulgence, especially with reference to 
alcoholic liquors. 

Inten'sity (intcnsns, strong). Concentra- 
tion of energy or activity. Also, a high 
degree of energy or power. I., Specific. 
See Specific. 

Inten'sive (intensiis). Increased in force 
or energy. Strengthening or increasing 
the sexual passions. 



INTENTION 



215 



INTERNAL 



Inten'tion. See ILalinz. 
Inter- {inter, between). A Latin prefix 
iigiiifying (h-ticc-t-n. 
Interartic'ular (in/tr, articulns, a joint). 
Suuated between joints. L Fibro-carti- 
laje, the tlattened cartilaj^inous plates, ir- 
regular in shape, between the articular 
cariiUiges of certain joints. 

Interca'dence {inter, aiJo, to fall). The 
irregular beating of the pulse that seems 
occa.^ionally to have an additional beat 
between nunnal pulsations. 

Inter^'calary {inter, calo, to insert). Placed 
or inserted l)etween. L Growth, a term 
applied to gjrowths of new material inter- 
stitiaily de|X)sited. 

Interce/lular {inter, cellula,^^. small cell). 
Amoiit; or between cells. 

Intercen''tral {inter, centnan, a center). 
Between centers. 

Intercil'iuin. See Glabella. 

Interclavic'ular {inter, clavicula,\h& col- 
lar-loiie). I'.etwecn the clavicles. 

Intercolum'nar. See Fascia. 

Intercon'dylar, or 

Intercon^dyloid {inter, KovMoq, a knob). 
Hetween condyles. I. Eminence, the 
S[pine or knob .separating the two con- 
dylar portions of the tibia. I. Fossa, the 
notch l)etween the condyles of the femur. 
L Line, a transverse line separating the 
popliteal and patellar fossa;. I. Notch. 
Same as /. Fossa. 

Intercos''tal [inter, costa, a rib). The 
space between ribs. I. Arteries, the 
aortic arteries of the intercostal spaces. 
I. Muscles. See Muscles. L Nerves, 
the anliri(jr part> nf the dorso-spinal ncr\es. 

Intercosto-hu'meral {infer, costa, hinne- 
rtts, the lx:)neof the upiJerarm). Pertaining 
to the arm and the space between the 
ribs. 

In'tercourse (intercursus, commerce). 
Communication. L, Carnal, sexual com- 
merce. 

Intercur'rent {inter, cttrro, to run). Oc- 
curring or taking place i)ctwcen. L Dis- 
ease, a term loosely applied to disc.xses 
occurring S|xiradically during a period of 
prevailing c-nd<mic or epidemic di.seases. 
Al.vj us«-d of a disfa.se arising or progress- 
ing during the existence of another dis- 
ca.s<- in the same jK-rsfm. 

Interdent'al {infer, Jens, a tcK)th). Pe- 
tween the ti-'lh. L Splint, a si>linl used 
in fracture of llicr jaw, coiisi-'ting of a me- 
tallic frame at the neck of the teeth, held 
by wire vulun-s |>a.ssing between the teeth. 

Intcrdig^ital {inter, di^'itus, a linger). 



Between fingers. L Membrane, the 
skin between the toes of palmate looted 
animals. L Space, that between adja- 
cent lingers. 

Interdigita^tion {inter, diipius). The 
locking or dovetailing of similar j)arts, as 
the lingers of one hand with those of the 
other ; or of the ends of the obliquus ex- 
terniis muscle with those of the serratiis 
tna^^nus. 

Interfascic'ular {inter, fascicn/ns, a bun- 
<lle). Situated between fasciculi. 

Interfer'ence {inter, and ferio, to strike). 
Interposition. L of Light, the mutual 
neutralization of waves of light, as shown 
in Newton's rings, when the crest of one 
wave fills upon the trough of another. I. 
of Sound, the neutralization of two sound 
waves, one by the other. 

Interlob'ular {inter, lobtts, a lobe). Be- 
tween lobes or lobules. 

Intermax'illary {inter, viaxilla, the jaw- 
bone). Between the maxillary bones. I. 
Bone, a small bone between the superior 
maxillary bones of the foetus that re- 
ceives the incisors. It also occurs in most 
mammals. 

Interme'diate {inter, medio, the middle). 
Situated between. 

Intermenin''geal {inter, firjviy^, the mem- 
brane enclosing the brain). Between 
the dura mater and the arachnoid ; or, 
lietween tlie latter and the pia mater. I. 
Haemorrhage, a h.emorrhage between 
the meninges. 

Internment {in, terra, the earth). The 
burial of the liotly. 

Intermetacar^pal {inter, metacarpus'). 
Between metacaii)al bones. 

Intermetatar'sal {inter, metatarsus'). 
Between metatarsal bones. 

Intermis'sion(/«A7-ww.vM,abrcaking-off). 
The interval between the paroxysms of a 
fever. Also, an interval when the pulse 
fails to beat in rhythmic time. 

Intermit'tent {inter, initto, to send or oc- 
cur). ( kcuring at intervals. I. Fever. 
See Fe-i>er. I. Pulse, a pulsation marki'd 
by irregular pauses inlirrupling its rliyth- 
mic action. 

Intermus''cular {infer, musciilus, a mus- 
cle). Situated between mu.scles. 

Intcf'nal {intermis, inward). On the in- 
side. I. Capsule, the band of nerve mat- 
ter between the optic thalamus ancl the 
interventricular |Mirtion of the corpus stria- 
tum. I. Capsule, Knee of, ttie angle 
formed by the two divisions of the internal 
capsule. 



INTERNODE 



216 



INTESTINAL 



In''ternode [inter, nodus, a knot). The 
space between adjacent joints or knots. 
That part of a nerve-fibril between Ran- 
vier's nodes is called the internodal seg- 
ment. 

Internun''cial [inter, nuncius, a messen- 
ger). That which forms a connecting or 
serving medium, as the nerves and their 
relation to the muscles and the will. 

Inter^nus. See hiternal. 

Interorb^ital [inter, orbita, the orbit). 
Situated between orbits. I. Bone, the 
median bone of fishes! I. Plate and 
Septum, a stmcture of the fore-brain, 
with its extension, found in certain fishes 
and reptiles. 

Interos''seous [inter, ossa, a bone). Be- 
tween bones. I. Arteries, a name given 
to various branches of the dorsal, palmar, 
plantar and metatarsal arteries of the 
hand, foot and forearm. I. Muscles, a 
name given to certain muscles of the 
hand, foot and forearm. I. Nerves, the 
nerves supplying the foregoing muscles. 

Interpari^etal [inter, paries, walls). Be- 
tween walls. I. Bone, a term sometimes 
applied to the upper, squamous and non- 
cartilaginous part of the occipital bone. I. 
Suture, the sagittal .suture, or that formed 
by the parietal bones. 

Interpedun^cular [inter, peduncuhis, a 
little foot). Situated between peduncles. 
I. Space, the pons Tarini, or posterior 
perforated space that forms the posterior 
floor cf. the third ventricle. 

Interphalang^eal [inter, <j>a2.ay^, a finger). 
Between the fingers or the toes. I. Articu- 
lations, the ginglymoid articulations of 
the fingers and toes. 

Interpu''bic [inter, pubis). Situated be- 
tween the pubic bones. I. Disc, the fibro- 
cartilaginous mass forming the symphyses 
of the pubis. 

Interscap'ular [inter, scapula, the shoul- 
der-blade). Between .shoulder-blades I. 
Region, the part of the chest between the 
inner border of the shoulder-blade and the 
.spine. 

Interspi''nous [inter, spina, the spine). 
Situated between the vertebrae. 

In''terstice [inter, status, fixed or set). A 
space or interval. Also, a pore. 

Intersti'tial [interstitium, space between). 
Pertaining to any space or interval between 
parts or organs. I. Absorption, in ab- 
scesses, the absorption of tissues between 
a cyst and the skin. Also, any similar 
absorption. I. Atrophy, a condition ob- 
served in certain diseases of the bones 



[arthritis defor77ians'), in which the min- 
eral matter has been absorbed to such an 
extent that only reticulated laminoe remain, 
I. Hypertrophy, a condition in certain 
diseases of the bones ia which there is an 
excessive deposit of mineral matter in the 
Haversian canals and lacunce. Often ac- 
companied by diminution in the size of the 
bone. I. Keratitis. See Keratitis. I. 
Pregnancy. See Pregnancy. 

Intertransversa^les [inter, transv;rsus, 
turned across). A name given to the short 
bundles of muscular fibers extending 
between the transverse processes of con- 
tiguous vertebrre. 

Intertri''go [inter, tero, to rub). An ery- 
thematous emption or lesion of the skin 
produced by friction of adjacent parts. 
See Erythema. 

Intertrochanter''ic [inter, trochanter). 
Between the trochanters. I. Line, a ridge 
on the upper end of the femur between 
the great and the lesser trochanter. 

Intertu^bular Sub''stance. The translu- 
cent, granular substance of the dentine of 
the tooth, containing most of its earthy 
elements. 

In''terval [infer, vallum, a rampart). A 
space or lapse either of time or distance ; 
as the interval between the paroxysms of 
a fever, or between two organs or parts of 
the body. L, Focal, the distance between 
the anterior and posterior focal points. 

Interventric'ular [inter, ventriculum, a 
ventricle). Between ventricles, as, of the 
heart. I. Septum, the fibrous septum or 
partition between the ventricles of the 
heart. 

Interver''tebral [inter, ve7-tebra, a bone of 
the spine). Between the vertebroe. I. 
Discs, the lenticular discs of fibro-cartilage 
between the adjacent surfaces of the verte- 
brae. L Notch, the notch at the base of 
the pedicle of the laminae on the sides of 
each vertebra. I. Substance. Same as 
/. Discs. 

Intes''tinal (/;?/«//;;«;;/, the intestine). Per- 
taining to the intestine. L Absorption, 
the absorption of the peptonized products 
of digestion by the capillaries, veins and 
lacteals of the inner surface of the intestine. 
L Arteries, the arteries of the intestines, 
of which the principal trunks are the coeliac 
axis and the mesenteric branches. The 
lower part of the rectum is supplied by the 
hemorrhoidal branches of the iliac and 
pudic arteries. L Canal, the entire in- 
testinal passage from the stomach to the 
anus. L Fistula, a fistula or unnatural 



INTESTINE 



217 



INULA 



aperture in any p;ut of an intestine. I. 
Obstruction, ;iny cause or agent that ar- 
rests or impedes the prop-ess of the forces. 
I. Tract, or Tube. Same as /. Canal. 
Intes'tine {in/ut, within). The p.art of 
the digestive tube extending from the 
stomacli to the anus. I., Large, com- 
prises tlie cacum, colon and rectum. I., 
Small, consists of the duodenum, jejunum 
and ileum. 
In'tima (^infinius, lowest). Used instead 
of tiDiica iutima ; the innermost coat, or 
thin, transparent endothelium of vessels, 
consisting of a layer of irregular, long, fusi- 
form, nucleated, squamous cells. 
Intol'erance (/;/, toU-ro, to l>ear). Want 
of endurance or ability to stanil pain. Im- 
patience. .Mso, the inability to endure the 
action of a medicine. 
Intona'tion (ititcno, to thunder). The 
rumbling or gurgling sound produced by 
the movement of tlatus in the ix)wels. 
Intoxica'tion (/;/, toxicum, a poison). A 
wtmi ix>|3ularly u.sed to denote the excessive 
use or an overdose of an alcoholic liquor. 
L, Septic. See .S'c///V^w/(7. I.,Ur3emic. 
See L'ramia. 
In'tra- {intra, within). A Latin prefix 
signifying wit/iin. I.-abdominal, within 
the cavity of the abdomen. I.-articular, 
within a joint. I.-capsular, within the 
cai)>ular ligament of a joint. 
Intracra'nial (intra, cr,iniuin, the skull). 
Within the skull. I. Haemorrhage, cere- 
bral h.emorrhage. 
Intralob'ular {intra, lolms, a lobe). Within 
a lolie or lobule. I. Vein, the vein ex- 
tenfling from the apex to the base of the 
liver. 
Intrameningc'al (intra, /trfi'iy^, the me- 
ninges). .Situ.ated within the substance of 
the membranes of the brain and spinal 
cord. I. Haemorrhage, an effusion of 
bloo<l into the s.-ic of the <iura mater. 
Intramu'ral (intra, iniira, a wall). In- 
trapariital. NVitliin the substance of the 
walls of an organ. 
Intra-oc'ular {intra, nculns, the eye). 
Within the glol)eof the eye. I. Haemor- 
rhage, an effusion of bkxxl into any part 
of the eye. I. Pressure, or Tension. 
See Tension. 
Intra-or^bital (intra, orhita, an orbit). 
Within the orbit. L Aneurism, an 
aneurism within the orbit of the eye, 
and usually involving a branch of the 
0|)hthalmic artery. L Haemorrhage, a 
haTnorrhagc taking place wiiiiin tin- oriiit 
but Ix-bind the capsule of Tenon of tlic eye. 



Intrapari'etal {intra, />anVs, a wall). 
^\ iihin the walls or the substance of the 
walls of an organ. 
Intraperitone'al {intra, Trepirnminv, the 
jxjritoneutn). Within the peritoneum or 
membranous sac that contains the viscera. 
Intrapolar [intra, poins, the end of an 
axis). Between the poles or ends of an 
axis. See, also, Extrapolar 
Intra-uterine {intra, uterus, the womb). 
Within the womb. I. Amputation, a 
spontaneous aiii|)utation occurring occa- 
sionally to some part of the fatus in utcro 
that becomes constricted by the umbilical 
cord or from other causes. I. Fracture, 
that which occurs to a fatus in titero. I. 
Life, that period of the existence of an 
animal between conception and birth. 
Intrave'nous {intra, vena, a vein). 
Within the vein. I. Infusion, the intro- 
duction of a solution or a liijuid into the 
vein. I. Injection, same as /. Infusion. 
Intrin''sic {intritisecus, on the inside). In- 
herent, inward. 
Intro- {intra, within). A Latin prefix 
signifying 'within. 

Intro^itus {intra, ea, to go). Any aperture 
or opening in the body. I. Pelvis, the 
inlet of the pelvis. I. Vaginae, the ex- 
ternal a])ertiire of the vagina. 
Intromis''sion {intra, tnitta, to send). The 
introduction of one body within the walls 
of another, as of the penis into the vagina. 
Introsuscep'tion {intra, susri/ia, to re- 
ceive). The slipping or telescoping of a 
part of the intestine upon itself. 
Introver''sion [intra, 7hrta, to turn). A 
turning within, as, introversion of the 
uterus. 
Intuba''tion (///, tubus, a pipe). The pas- 
s.agc (if a tube into or jiast the lar}'nx, to 
allow the entrance of air to the lungs in 
croup, diphtheria, etc., or to dilate a stric- 
ture, etc. 
Intumes^cence [intunusco, to swell). A 
swelling, (if any character whatever. Akso, 
an increase of the volume of any organ or 
part of the body. 
Intussuscep'tion [intus, within,. t/M ///<>, 
to receive). Inxaginationor involulinn of 
one ])art of the intestine by andllur, pro- 
ducing ()bstru(.tion, etc. 
Insula. Llecampane. The root of /. 
helcniuin. I "ontains a crystalline substance, 
helenin, and fmm 20 to 40 ])er cent, of a 
starch, known as inulin. \ gentle stimu- 
lant employeii in iironchilis and to hasten 
the ap|M-arancc of the skin symjitoins in 
cxanthematous fevers. Dose gr. xx-gj 



INULIN 



218 



IODOFORM 



of the root, or ^j-ij of a 3 ss to the Oj 
decoction. 

Insulin. A form of starch occurring in 
Inula heleniuni and other plants. It is 
colored yellow by iodine, being different 
in this respect from normal starch, which 
is colored blue. 

Inunc^tion [initngo, to anoint). The act 
of rubbing an oily or fatty substance into 
the skin. Also, the substance used for 
anointment. 

Invagina^tion (invagino, to ensheathe). 
The sheathing or telescoping of a part or 
organ by a canal-like structure, as the in- 
testine. An operation for obliterating the 
canal of a hernial opening by the inflam- 
mation resulting from pushing the skin 
inward and suturing the part fast. 

I n^ valid {in, valeo, to be well). One who 
is not well, especially one who is chroni- 
cally ill or whose convalescence is slow. 

Inva^sion [in, vado, to go). The begin- 
ning or attack of a disease. Also, the 
manner in which the disease begins its 
attack. 

Invermina^tion (/;/, verminatio, wormy). 
A condition of having intestinal worms. 

Inver^sion {in, vcrto, to turn). A turning 
or jjlacing in a position the opposite of the 
normal position. I. of Bladder, a con- 
dition in which the bladder is in part or 
completely pushed into the dilated urethra. 
Occurs in females only. I. of Eyelashes. 
See Entropion. I. of Image, an image 
projected by a convex lens or concave 
mirror, at a point beyond the focus. 

Invertebra''ta {in, verteln-a, backbone). A 
term applied to animals that have no spinal 
column. One of the four divisions in 
which it was formerly customary to divide 
the animal kingdom. 

Invert^in. See Ferments. 

In^vert-sugar. A variety of glucose that 
turns the polarized ray to the left. It is 
practically a mixture of dextrose and levu- 
lose, or fruit-sugar. 

Invisca^tion {in, viscttm, bird-lime). The 
mixing of food with the saliva during 
mastication. 

Involu''crum {involvo, to enwrap). The 
covering of a part. The sheath of bone 
enveloping a sequestrum in dry necrosis. 

Involuntary {in, not, volo, to will). Not 
by an act of the will. A term applied to 
certain motions and functions of the vari- 
ous organs of the body that are not con- 
trolled by, or are not dependent on the will. 
I. Contraction, muscular contractions 
not resulting from an act of will. I. 



Muscles, those that are not governed by 
the will. 

Involu^tion {involvo, to roll upon). The 
retrogressive change to their normal con- 
dition that certain organs undergo after 
fulfilling their functional purposes. I. of 
Uterus, the return of the uterus, that after 
gestation weighs about two pounds, to its 
normal weight and condition. 

I''odine, or ledum. I = 127; quan- 
tivalence i. A non-metallic element with 
metallic luster. Volatilizes at a low tem- 
perature, giving off crimson-pm-ple vapor. 
Occurs in cod-liver oil, most marine plants, 
and shell-fish. Soluble in alcohol, in solution 
of potassium iodide, and in solution of salt. 
In its elementary state an irritant to the skin, 
and much used as a tincture to produce coun- 
ter-iiritation. Potassium iodide, the princi- 
pal form for internal use, is an alterative, 
ranking as a specific in tertiary syphilis, 
and with mercuiy, available in all forms of 
that disease. An excellent remedy in 
hepatic cirrhosis and chronic bronchitis. 
Combined with ammonium it is valuable in 
catarrhal affections. Acidi Hydriodici 
Syr., contains l per cent, of the absolute 
acid. Dose .^j-iv. Ammonii lodidum. 
See Amnioniitni. Iodized Phenol, unof , 
a mixture of iodine and carbolic acid, 
usually I to 4. For local use. lodi Liq. 
Comp., Lugol's solution — iodine 5, po- 
tassium iodide lo, water 85 parts. Dose 
TTL j-x, diluted. I., Tinct., 8 per cent, in 
alcohol. For local use. I. Trichlorid., 
unof, recommended by Langenbach as an 
antiseptic in surgery. I., Ung., iodine 4, 
potassium iodide I, water 2, benzoated lard 
93 parts. Amylum lodatum, iodized 
starch, iodine 5» starch 95 parts, distilled 
water 100 parts, triturated and dried. Dose 
3J~5J- Potassii lodidum. Dose gr. 
v-^j. Potass. lodid., Ung., contains 
potass, iodide 12, sod. hyj^osulph. I, boiling 
water 6, benzoated lard 81 parts. Sodii 
lodidum, deliquescent. Dose gr. v-^^ij. 

Fodism (zwJ^f). A condition arising from 
the prolonged use of iodine or iodine com- 
pounds, marked by redness of conjunctiva 
and mucous membrane of the res]:iiratory 
passages, furiy throat, and lachrymation. 

Iod''oform. Tri-iodo-methane, CHI3. A 
compound containing about 9I per cent, 
of iodine. An antiseptic and feeble an- 
issthetic highly useful for local application 
to wounds, abrasions and indolent sores. 
Internally a tonic. Its odor may be cov- 
ered with thymol or oil of rose. Dose, in- 
ternally, gr. j-v. 



lODOL 



Hi 



IRREDUCIBLE 



I'odol. All iotlo C;irl)anii(le in the fomi of 
an amoq>hous l)ro\vn jK)\vilor. .soluble in 
ether and oil. More antiseptic than iodo- 
form and free from odor. Locally anaes- 
thetic. Favors granulation. U[ reputed 
service in s}-philitic sores, eU. Unof. 

lo'dum. See loiHnc. 

\'oTi (<(Ji', going). An element set free by 
electrolysis, and classified as an anion or 
iation, according as it is set free at the 
positive or negative plate. I., Migration 
of, the transference of an ion from one 
pole to another. 

Ip'ecac. See Ipecacuanha. 

Ipecacuan''ha. Ijiecac. Tlie root of 
Ccpitiieiis /., found in Brazil. Contains 
an alkaloid, emetine. An emetic, e.xixcto- 
rant, and chohigogue ; in very small doses, 
gr. ^s, a mild tonic. Used mainly as a 
safe and prompt emetic, in membranous 
croup, and in the summer dyscnterj' of 
children. Dose as an expectorant gr. ss-ij ; 
as an emetic gr. xv-xxx. I., Ext. Dose 
n\^j-v. I., Syr., 5 per cent, strength. 
Dose 5J-5ss. I., Vin., 7 per cent, in 
strength. DoseTTLJ-^j. I. Trochisci, 
contain each I4 gr. of the drug. I. at Mor- 
phinae, Trochisci, contain each, moq:)]iine 
sul])!). j'j, ipecac y^j, with llavoring oil and 
sugar. I. et Opii, Pulvis, Dover's jx)\v- 
der, contains ipecac and 0]iium each ID, 
sugar of milk 80 jjarts. Dose gr. ij-xv. 
I. et Opii, Tinct., deodorized tinct. of 
opium 100, evaixjrate<l to 85, fld. ext. ipecac 
10, alcohol fj. s. ad loO. Dose TT\,v-xxx. 
Em^'etine. Dose as expectorant gr. y|^g- 
—i^\ as emetic \-\. 

Ipomce'a Caeru''lea. Tlie seeds of this 
pl.iiit have l)e(.n recommended as a stimu- 
lant of the intestinal glandular appa- 
ratus. 

Iridec'tomy ('/)/f, tKTOfit], excision). The 
cutting out of a part of the iris. I., An- 
tiphlogistic, one iKTformed in inllamma- 
tory [>rocesses to reduce the same. In 
Optical I., the piece of iris excised is 
over a jwrtion of the lens or l)cneath a 
pfirtion of cornea clearer than that exix)Se<l 
in the natural ]nipil, whence arlditional 
vision is gained by tiie iridcclomy. Sec 
/'/////, artifiiial. I., Preliminary, is i)er- 
formcfl in a<lvance of the extraction of 
calarart, instea<l of at the same time. 

Iridenclci''sis, or Iridenklci'sis. See 
In.lndeiii. 

Iridere''mia. See Aniridia. 

I'ridin. .See Iris. 

Iridochoroidi'tis. 'ombined inllamma- 
tion of the iris and choroid of the eye, the 



form usually assumed in sympathetic oph~ 
thalmia. 

Iridocycli'tis. See Cyclids. 
Iridod''esis ('/5'f, fteaiq, a binding together). 
.\ disused method of displacing the normal 
])upil by ligature, instead of iridectomy. 
Iridodial'ysis. See Coredialysis. 
Iridodone'sis (/p/f, iovijaiq, a trembling). 

Tremulousness of the iris. 
Iridon'cus ('/"f, oyKog, a mass). A tumor 
or swelling of the iris. 
Iridople'gia(^p/f, tt?.;?)';?, a stroke). Paraly- 
sis of the S[)hincter of the iris. 
Iridot'omy [iptq, ro/ir/, section). An in- 
cision of any kind into the iris. 
Fris. Blue Flag. The roots of /. Terst- 
color. Contains a resinous princijile, iridin. 
The fresh rhi/.omc is purgative, emetic and 
diuretic. Ser%-iccable in catarrh of the 
duodenum, malarial ailments, etc. I., Ext. 
Dosegr.j-v. I., Ext. Fid. DoseTTLv-3J. 
Iridin. Unof. Dose gr. j-v. 
I''ris ('P'C, a colored halo or circle). The 
anterior portion of the vascular tunic of 
the eye, attached to the pectinate ligament 
and ciliary bo<ly ; its central aperture 
forms the pupil. I., Absence of. See 
Iridereniia. I., Angle of, thatfurmed by 
the cornea and iris. I., Prolapse of (or 
Hemia of), protrasion through a corneal 
or .scleral aperture; when adherent it is 
called an anterior synechia : when adher- 
ent to the lens behind, it is called posterior 
synechia. I., Tremulous, arises from 
non-sup]X)rt of the iris in aphakia or dislo- 
cation of the lens. 
Irish Moss. See Chondrus. 
Iri'tis ('p'C. ""'Ci inflammation"). Inflam- 
mation of the iris, called after its origin, or 
character, blennorrhagic, rheumatic, syphil- 
itic, ])laslic, .serous, etc., etc. 
Irit'omy. See Iridotomy. 
Fron. See I'ernim. 

I'ron Wood. The heart woo<l of Ostvra 
Mrginica. Ttmic, aiUiperiodic and ahera- 
tive. Has been successfully used in ma- 
larial diseases, neuralgia and stnniious 
affections. Dose of the fid. ext. ^ ss-j. 
Unof. 
Irra'diating (irradio, to emit rays in every 
direeliiin). Radiating from a center, as a 
pain arising from a delinite focus of irrita- 
tion. In physics, that ])henomenon causing 
any light-colored object in a dark back- 
grf)und to stand out stereographically atul 
ap]M-ar larger than it really is. 
Irredu'cible (///, not, rci/nro, to had 
baek). That whieh cannot be redueed or 
restored lo its normal condition. In ciiein- 



IRRIGATION 



220 



ISOBAR 



istry, applied to a compound that cannot 
be separated. In surgery, applisd to a 
fracture or dislocation that cannot be re- 
placed. I. Hernia. See Hernia. 

Irriga^tion [irrigo, to lead water to). The 
application of water, especially a stream, 
to an inflamed or abnormal tissue for pur- 
poses of moistening, antisepsis, cooling, or 
flushing the part. 

Irritability (irrito, to provoke). The 
quality of being susceptible to excitement 
or irritation. I., Faradic, the muscular 
contraction caused by a secondaiy or 
induced current. I., Galvanic, the mus- 
cular contraction produced by the direct 
current. I., Muscular, the inherent 
contractile quality of a muscle. I., 
Nervous, the capacity of a nerve to trans- 
mit an impulse after receiving a stimulus. 

Ir^ritable [irrito). Easily inflamed. Sus- 
ceptible to irritation. I. Bladder, a con- 
dition of the bladder marked l^y constant 
desire to void urine. I. Breast, a neu- 
ralgic condition of the mammary glands 
usually associated with uterine affections, 
or with intercostal neuralgia. 

Ir^ritant {irrito). An agent or remedy 
that produces irritation or inflammation. 
I., Chemical, one acting by virtue of its 
affinity for the elements or compounds of or- 
ganic tissue, as nitric acid, caustic potash, 
etc. I., Mechanical, that causing lesions 
or inflammations by mechanical operation, 
as cuts, contusions, pressure or distention. 
I., Nervous, one acting through the me- 
dium of the nerves, as in sympathetic in- 
flammations, etc. 

Irrita''tion [irrito^. A condition of undue 
excitement. Also, an inflamed state. Also, 
the stimulus necessary to the performance 
of the functions of an organ. 

Ischae^mia (^cr;^;«, to check, aifia, blood). 
Bloodlessness. Imperfection of the sup- 
ply of l)lood to a part. Local anaemia. 

Is^chial [laxio^', the ischium). Pertaining 
or belonging to the ischium. 

Ischiat^ic [laxtov). Pertaining to the 
ischium. I. Notches, the notches, greater 
and lesser, of the ischium. The former 
transmits the pyriformis muscle, gluteal 
vessels and superior gluteal nerve, the 
latter, the tendon of the olDturator internus, 
its nerve, and the pudic vessels and nerve. 
Called also sacro-sciatic notches. 

Ischidrc'sis ('ff;f<J, to suppress, iSpug, 
sweat). Suppression of sweat. 

Is^chio-. A Greek prefix indicating re- 
lationship to the ischium. I.-anal,i5ertain- 
ing to the ischium and the anus. I. -bul- 



bar, pertaining to the ischium and the bulb 
of the urethra. I.-cavernosus, the mus- 
cle that compresses the veins of the crus 

penis and assists in the erection of the 
penis. It has a similar relation to the 
clitoris. See Muscle. I. -neuralgia, 
sciatica. 

Is^chiocele {taxt-ov, ktjTit], a tumor). Is- 
chiatic hernia. 

Ischiop'agus {^laxi-ov, Trayeig, united). A 
monomphalic monstrosity united by the 
ischia. 

Ischioperinae''al [uxxiov^ Tvspivaiov, the 
pcrinieum) . Belonging to or pertaining to 
both ischium and perinaeum, the space be- 
tween the anus and scrotum. 

Ischiorect^al [laxiov, rectwn). Pertaining 
to both ischimn and rectum. I. Abscess 
or I. Cellulitis, an inflammation of the 
areolar tissue of the ischiorectal fossa involv- 
ing the rectum and thigh. Suppuration 
may occur at any part of the inflammation, 
but is ordinarily near the anus. I. Fascia. 
See Fascia. I. Fossa, a deep fossa filled 
with fatty tissue situated on both sides of 
the intestine, between it and the ischium. 

Is^chium [loxi-ov). The inferior part of 
the OS innominatum or hip-bone ; that 
upon which the body rests in a sitting pos- 
ture. It fonns a part, also, of the aceta- 
bulum. 

Isch^nous (icxvoq, thin). Emaciated. 

Is^cho- (<ffjw, to suppress). A Greek pre- 
fix meaning to suppress. 

Ischo-galac^tia (<ffjw, yaAa, milk). Sup- 
pression of the natural flow of milk in the 
breasts. 

Ischonie''nia {icxu, fifiviam, the menses). 
Suppression of the menstrual flow. 

Ischuret^ic («cr;(;u,oty)oi', urine). A remedy 
or agent that relieves retention or suppres- 
sion of urine. 

Ischu''ria {icfx'^j ovpov). Retention or sup- 
pression of lirine. 

I''singlass. See Ichfhyocolla. 

Island of Reil. The central lobe of the 
hemisphere of the brain, situated at the 
base, behind the fissure of Sylvius. 

Is''o- («Tof, equal). A Greek prefix signify- 
ing equality. 

Iso-amylam^ine. A ptomaine obtained 
in the distillation of horn with potash ; 
also occurs in the putrefaction of yeast. 
Boils at 95°. Non-poisonous. 

Iso-a^piol. A substance obtained from 
apiol, exercising a powerful influence upon 
the vasomotor system. 

Psobar (idof, fiapoc, weight). In meteor- 
ology, a term denoting a line drawn 



ISOCHROMATIC 



221 



ITER 



through points having the same syncliro- 
niius barometric pressure. 

Isochromafic (<ffof, ;^puua, color). Hav- 
ing tlie same color. 

Isoch'ronous ('<T')f, xitovor). Having or 
occupying equal intervals of time. 

Iscco'ria ^/aof, equal, ko/j;/, pupil). Ecjuality 
in diameter of the two pupils. Aniso- 
coria, inequality of the same. 

Isodynam'ic [lao^, diTuui^, force). Hav- 
ing ccjual force. I. Foods, those that 
produce an equal amount of heat in 
undergoing the chemical changes of diges- 
tion. 

Is'olate (/.iY>/<7, an island). To separate 
one from another. In chemistr)-, to sepa- 
rate an clement from its combination. In 
electricity, to insulate. 

Isorogous [laog, equal, ?Myog, a word or 
law). Identical in comix)sition with those 
belonging to a series, as, the essential oils, 
all vi which have the composition <-"io''i6- 

Isomer'ic (ico^, fifi>oc, a part). In chem- 
istry, applied to substances having the same 
centesimal composition, but whose mole- 
cules have an essentially dilTerent struc- 
ture and chemical projierties, as aldehyde 
and ethylene oxide, both of which have 
the formula C.^H^U. The former, however, 
has the structure 

Methyl. Carbonic 
oxide. 

CH, — CO — H, 

while the latter is composed of two mole- 
cules of ethylene, joined by an atom of 
oxygen, thus (CII.J— O— (CHJ. This, 
the most common type of isomerism, is 
sometimes called iiictdinerisrii. .Mso, ap- 
plied to substances having the same cen- 
tesimal composition, but whose molec- 
ular weights are in even multiples, a tyjie 
of isomoq)hi>m commonly called polvmcr- 
ism. Also, in crystallograjjliy, applied to 
any substance that crystal li/.es in more 
than one fonn. Also, applied to a sub- 
stance existing in two or more forms, a tyjje 
of i>omeri^m called allotropism. 

Isomet'rical Act. The tension of a 
nui-.tle when stimulated, its length re- 
m:iiniiig constant. 

l8omorph''ism ( "T'K", fiop^t], a form). Siini- 
liir in crystalline form. Al.v), the replace- 
ment of one element in a crystalline .salt 
by anolhcr, wiilidut altcratiun lA form or 
syst< m. I., Hctcromcrous, a cf>n<lition 
of dissimilarity in molecular com|x)siiion. 
I., Isomerous, a condititjn of siinilaiily 
in molecular coin|x>siti(iti. I., Polymeric, 
the suln>lilutioD of two or more atonu of 



one element for one of another, withou'. 
alteration of crystalline form. 

Isop'athy (^ffof, nath^, suffering). A 
term used to denote the treatment of dis- 
ease by the administration of one or more 
of its own prtxlucts. Thus, smalljxjx 
would be treated by the administration in- 
ternally of the variolous excretions, f/c. 

Iso-propyKamine. See Propyhuiiinc. 

Isop^ters (iCTof, o-Ti/p, an observer). The 
relative visual acuity of the retina at dif- 
ferent distances from the macula, both for 
fonn and color. 

Fsoscope {taog, okotteu, to see). An in- 
strument consisting of two sets of parallel 
vertical wires, one of which can be super- 
imposed on the other; designed to show 
that the vertical lines of separation of the 
retina do not correspond exactly to the ver- 
tical meridians. 

Isother'mal {laog, depfir], heat). Of equal 
or uniform temperature. I. Lines, in 
physical geograi)hy, lines drawn through 
places ha\ ing the same average tempera- 
ture for a given period of time. Inasmuch 
as it fiecjuently happens that two places 
having the same annual a\erage tempera- 
ture may have, one a climate of great ex- 
tremes, the other a very ecjuable climate, it 
is now customary to display comparative 
isothenns for the six wami and the six 
cold months of the extra tropical regions. 
I. Zones, zones bounded l)y isothermal 
lines. 

Isot'ropous {i(yog,Tpo7!-r/, a turning). Hav- 
ing the same shape and appearance from 
whatever jx)int observed. 

Is''sue (Kr. I'ss/tf, from, (•.ir*', to go out). \ 
discharging ulcer, esijecially that made arti- 
ficially for puqxjses of drainage, counter- 
irritation, r/c. 

Is^tarin. .\ nitrogenous, ]ihosphori/cd sub- 
stance of complex structure occurring in 
brain tissue. I'roperties not investigated. 

Isth'mo- ((CT^///'«;, a neck). A Greek pre- 
fix signifying Ihe /aucc's. 

Isth'mus {laO/iog). The neck or con- 
stricted part of an organ. I. of Fauces, 
till- >|)arc between tile arclies of the palate. 
I. of Thyroid Gland, the transverse cord 
connecting the lol)CS of the thyroid Ijotly. 

Italian Leprosy. See Pellagrit. 

Itch. See S((i/iit:';. 

-ite. .\ suffix employed in mitieralog)' de- 
n<iting a mineral, or of mineral origin. 
A contraction of //Wof, a stone. 

I'ter iitfr, a journey). A passage com- 
niuiiicating between two or more |)arts. I. 
ad Infundibulum, the passage betweeu 



223 



JAWS 



the third ventricle of the brain and the in- 
fiindibulum. I. a Palati ad Aurem, 
ihe Eustachian tube. I. a Tertio ad 
Quartum Ventriculum, the aqueduct 
of Sylvius extending from the third ventri- 
cle to the fourth. 



-itis. A suffix used to denote inflamma- 
tion of the tissue or organ when terminat- 
ing the name of the organ. 

Ixo^des. A wood tick. An insect of the 
natural order Acaridea. I. Ricinus, a 
species parasitic on human beings. 



Jaboran''di. The leaves of Pilocarpus 
pinuatifolius. See Pilocarpus. 

Jacaran^da. The leaves of a South Ameri- 
can plant, J. lancifolia, used by the natives 
in venereal disease. Dose of an 5 ij to Oj 
tincture TT^xv. 

Jack''et iyjacqiie, a coat of mail). A short 
coat. J., Plaster-of-Paris, a mould of 
plaster-of- Paris cast upon the body or part, 
for keeping it rigid and fixed in a desired 
position, in sprain or dislocation of the 
spine, etc. J., Straight, a system of 
leather straps used to bind violently insane 
persons in order to prevent self-inflicted 
injury. 

Jacksc'nian Ep''ilepsy. See Epilepsy. 

Ja^cob's Mem^brane. A name some- 
times applied to the layer of rods and cones 
of the retina 

Ja^cobson's Nerve. The nerve of the 
tympanum. J.'s Organ, two narrow tubes 
in the lower and anterior part of the nasal 
septum. 

Jacob's Ulcer. See Rodent Ulcer. 

Jactita''tion {^jactito, to pour forth). The 
restlessness and tendency to frequent 
changes of position that characterize severe 
distress in disease. 

Jadelot's Furrows. Certain furrows of 
the face of children in serious illnesses. 
Three sets are distinguished : The Genal 
F., from the mouth almost to the malar 
bone ; this and the nasal are said to indi- 
cate disease of the gastro-intestinal tract 
or visceral organs ; the Labial F., from the 
angle of the mouth outward to the lower 
part of the face, and " should direct atten- 
tion to the lungs"; the Nasal F., from 
the nasal alje in a semicircle about the 
mouth; the Oculo-zygomatic F., begin- 
ning at the inner canthus of the eye, 



and passing outward beneath the lower 
lid to be lost on the cheek, — said to point 
to disorders of the cerebro-nervous sys- 
tem. 

Jal'ap, or 

Jala^pa. The tuber of Exogonititn pur- 
gata. Properties due to two resins, jala- 
pin and convolvulin. An active hydra- 
gogue cathartic, especially useful in com- 
bination with calomel. J. Abstractum, 
an ingredient of pil. comp. cath. Dose 
gr. j-v. J. Resina, precipitated from the 
tincture by water. Dose gr. ij-v. J. 
Pulv. Comp., contains jalap 35, potas- 
sium bitartrate 65. Dose gr. x-^lj. 

Jama^ica Dogwood. See Piscidia. 

Jam^bu As^su. The root of Ottonia jabo- 
ratidi, a Brazilian tree. Thought to be 
stimulant and febrifuge. Properties not 
definitely known. Dose of the fld. ext. 
TTLx-xx. Unof 

James^town Weed. See Stramonium. 

Ja^nus, or 

Jan'iceps [Jatius, a two-faced divinity, 
caput, head). A sycephalic monstrosity 
with two faces. 

Jas''mine, Yellow. See Gelsemium. 

Jasun^di. See Saraca Indica. 

Jaun''dice (Fr. jaitnisse, yellow). A dis- 
ease arising from diseases of the liver, 
obstruction of the biliary passages, etc. 
It is characterized by yellow coloration of 
the skin, preceded by languor, malaise and 
nausea. J. Hepatogenic. See Hepato- 
genic. 

Ja^va Tea. The leaves of OrlhosypJwn 
staminuns. Reputed to be diuretic in 
5J-ij doses. 

Jaw-jerk. A tendon reflex obtained by 
suddenly depressing the lower jaw. 

Jaws. See Maxillary Bones. 



JEJUNOSTOMY 



i3 



JURISPRUDENCE 



Jejunos'tomy {/ejunurn, arofta, the 
mouth ). The making of an arliticial open- 
ing through the aUlominal wall into, aiid 
the lips of the same to become adherent 
with, the jejunum. The operation is de- 
signed to pennil the introduction of food in 
cases of cancer of the pylorus and simihir 
atVi'Ctions. 

Jeju'num (Jtjunus, em]ity, because thought 
to l)e empty after death). The upj>er two- 
fifths of the small intestine, or that be- 
tween the ducKlenum and the ilium. 

Jel'ly [grlcr, to freeze). In jjiiamiacy, a 
soft, non-viscid, but somewhat ehislic sub- 
stance of which hydratcd gelatine is the 
best example. Dome^c fruit jellies consist 
of the inspissated juice of the fruit with 
one or two |)arts of sugar, together with 
the natural mucihige of the seeds of the 
fruit. Many of the im]K)rted jellies .sold 
in the United .States contain no fruit juice, 
lieing for the greater part ordinary animal 
gelatine acidified with tartaric acid, and 
liavored with artificial Havors. 

Jenner'ian. Pertaining to Jenner or to 
the theory or practice of vaccination. 

Jequi'rity. See Al»-us Precatorius. 

Jers'ey Tea. ^tt Red {Root). 

Jes'uits' Bark. Cinchona. 

Jig'ger Flea. See Ptilcx. 

Johnson's Picro-saccharim''eter. .See 
Ric?\'-saiiharimi(cr. 

Johns^wort. St. John's Wort. The 
(lowering tops of Ilypcrictun perforatum. 
Re|)utcd diuretic, astringent and sedative. 
Dose of ext. gr. x-xx; of fld. ext. 3J-ij. 
Unof. 

Joint. See Articulation. 

Joint'-disease. Any morbid affection in- 
volving the joints an<l their surrounding 
tissues. J., Charcot's, a disease of the 
joints accom|)anying tabes ilorsalis. It 
is char.-icterized by a swelling, due to effu- 
sion of lluid into the cavity and about the 
surrounding tissues, followed by a lax con- 
dition, and ending in distortion ordefonnity 
of the joint, with di!nini.shed range of 
motion. J., Hip. .See //ipjoiiit Disease. 

Ju'das Tree. Red Ikid. The bark of 
Cenis catiaJensis. Astringent. Much used 
in diarrlxia, and as an injection in leucor- 
rh'i-a. 1 lose of the lid. ext., n\^xv-^:5J. 
Unof 

Ju'gal [jut^um, a yoke). Connecting or 
uniting, as by a yoke. J. Bone, tlie 
malar Inine. J. Process. S*'e /.Vipoma. 

Ju'glans. Iluttcrniit. 'I'lie inner iiark 
(collected in aiitiitnn i of th<* r<x)t of /. cine- 
rea. A mild cathartic, very |K)pular in 



dysentery and chronic constipation. Dose 
of the ext., gr. v-x. 

Ju'gular {jiti^u/unt, the throat). Pertain- 
ing to the throat. J. Veins. See Vein. 

Ju'gum (Lat.). A yoke. J. Penis, a 
cushioned forceps or compressor applied to 
the i>enis to prevent incontinence of urine. 

Juice {jns, broth). The fluid or li(|uid 
tissue of an animal or plant. J. Canals, 
spaces within the connective tissues, the 
origins of the lymphatic vessels. 

Jum'pers. A name applied to those af- 
Ihcted with a neurosis characterized by 
mott>r iiicoortlinatioii and convulsive move- 
ments of any part of the botly, but espe- 
cially of the lower extremities, so that 
springing or jumping movements follow 
eflbrts to walk, etc. 

Jung'le Fever. See Fever. 

Ju'niper, or 

Junip'erus. Junijier. The fruit of J. 
coininttnis. Properties mainly tlue to a 
volatile oil. A stomachic tonic, diu- 
retic and aphrodisiac. The oil is elimi- 
nated by tlie kidneys. Valuable in chronic 
j)yelitis and cystitis. J. Infusum, unof, 
consists of juniper berries 5 j, boiling water 
Oj. J. 01., the volatile oil. DoseTr\^v-xx. 
J. Spt., 3 parts of llie oil in 97 of alcohol. 
Dose oi~.oJ- J- ^P^- Comp., the gin of 
commerce; oil of juniper 10, oil of cara- 
way I, oil of fennel 1, alcohol 3000, water 
(].s. ad 5000 parts. Dose .^ss-j. Oil of 
Cade, unof, a tar obtained l)y the liistil- 
lalion of juniper wood. Sometimes used 
externally in eczema and psoriasis. 

Junk ( Port. y//«((), a rush). In surgery, a 
quilted cushion forming a sling in which 
to sus]H-nd a fractured limb. It was for- 
merly made of rushes or reeds. 

Junk'et. Curds and whey ; a delicacy for 
invalids, prepared by taking 'j pint of 
fresh milk heated a.s hot xs agreeable to 
the mouth, .add I teaspoonful of rinnet or 
essence of ])epsin, and stir eiumgh to mix. 
Let it stan<l till curdled, and si-rve with 
sugar and nutmeg. 

Ju'nod's Boot. A Imot-shaped case, usu- 
ally (if stilT leather, m.ade to enclose the leg 
so that the air being exhausted, the blood 
vessels and tissues of the limb are dilated 
by the excess of blo<Kl. It has been em- 
|)loyed to relieve inflammation and con- 
gestion of the viscera. 

Jurispru''dcnce(y//j, law, //7/(/f'«//<;, skill). 
The- science of the inter] intali-m and appli- 
eatii.n of tlur law. J., Medical, the ap- 
l)lieati()n of nu'dieal knowledge to the 
principles of common law. 



JURY 



224 



KARYOLYSIS 



Ju'ry [juro, to swear). A body of men 
legally appointed to deteiinine the guilt or 
innocence of a prisoner, or to determine 
the facts in judicial inquiries. J. of 
Matrons, a body of twelve matrons, for- 
merly empaneled in England to determine 
if a murderess, for whom such plea was 
made, were pregnant. J. Mast, an appa- 
ratus for suspending the head in the treat- 
ment of diseases of the vertebrae. 



Jus^culum {jiisctilum, a decoction). A 
vegetable soup commonly known as Ju- 
lienne. 

Jute. The fibers of the bark of an Indian 
plant, Corchorus capstilaris, and other sim- 
ilar plants. The fibers are used as a dress- 
ing in surgery. 

Juven^tus (jnvcnis^ young). A term for- 
merly applied to that period of life between 
the ages of twenty-five and thirty-five. 



K 



K. The symbol of Kaliiun, or its more- 
used equivalent, Potassium. 

K., or Ka. In electrotherapeutics, the 
abbreviation of Kathode, or of Kathodic. 

Kabbalist^ic. Pertaining to the Kabbala, 
or system of the treatment of diseases by 
supernatural agencies. 

Kai^rine. An artificial alkaloid prepared 
from chinoline. Valuable as a very power- 
ful antipyretic. Produces diaphoresis and 
emesis ; sometimes followed by collapse. 
General properties similar to antipyrene. 
Dose gr. iij-xxx. Unof. 

Kairoli'na. An antipyretic resembling 
kairine, but less efficient. Unof 

Kak^ke. A disease occurring in Japan, 
similar to, if not identical with. Beriberi. 

Kakos^mia [kqko^, foul, oa/j./], smell). 
A repugnant or disgusting smell. K., 
Subjective, a disturbance of the olfactoiy 
nerve or center, either from hysteria or 
from disease, giving rise to the percejjtion 
of an offensive smell. 

Kakot'rophy. Ill nutrition. Anaemia. 

Ka^li. An obsolete term for potassium. 

Kalim^eter. See Alkali7Hcter. 

Ka'line. See Alkaline. 

Ka^lium. A synonym for Potassium , q. v. 

KaFmia. Laurel, Mountain Laurel, Sheep 
Laurel, Broad-leaved Laurel, Calico Bush. 
The leaves of K. latifolia, a well-known 
evergreen common in the U. S. Altera- 
tive, cardiac sedative, and astringent. A 
pojjular cure-all. Has proved valuable in 
diarrhoea and syphilitic affections. Dose 
gr. xx-xxx; of the fld. ext. tTLxx-^ss. 
Unof. 



Kam''ala. Rottlera. The glands and hairs 
from the capsules of Mallotus philippcnsis, 
native to Southern Asia and Abyssinia. A 
purgative and anthelmintic much used 
against lumbricoid and other parasitic 
worms. Dose 3J-^j of an ^ vj to 5 xvj 
alcoholic tincture. 

Kan'dahar Sore. See Furiincuhis Orien- 
talis. 

Kan^dol. A volatile constituent of coal 
tar. Proposed as a local ana-sthetic. Its 
rapid evaporation freezes the surface tissue. 
Possibly identical with Rhigolene. Unof. 

Ka^olin. White clay. Ihe silicate of 
aluminum. Obtained from the decompo- 
sition of felspar. Sometimes used as a 
protective application in eczema. Unof. 

Kapo''si's Disease''. See At/ophoderma 
Pi;^mentosiim. 

Kar'dio-. See Cardio-. 

Karyokinc'sis [Kapvov, a nut, KivTjaiq, mo- 
tion). The complicated j^rocess of cell- 
division, 'and especially the changes in the 
nucleus called Indirect Division, Mito- 
sis, or Karyokinesis. There is first 
fonned out of the chromatin the wreath, 
rosette, or spirem, subsequently a star- 
shaped form the Aster, and then the barrel 
form, or Pithos, followed by the Diaster, 
or double star. Then follows the separa- 
tion of the protoplasm into two parts, in 
each of which the chromatin rearranges 
itself into a coil, the whole called the 
Dispirem. Two daughter nuclei are 
thus derived from one mother nucleus. 

KaryoPysis (Kapvov, Arw, to loose). The 
segmentation of the nucleus of the cell. 



KARVO-MiruMA 



225 



KERAru(JLuBUS 



Karyo-mito'ma. See Cell-body. 

Karyom'iton. See Chromatin. 

Karyoplas'ma. See Chromatin. 

Katab'olism \Ka-a, ,iu'/Mj, lo throw down). 
The change in cells wherel)y their molecule 
is rendered less complex, and contains less 
force. Called, also, Dcstructi-.e Metabol- 
ism. See Ana!\>lism and Mitabolism. 

Katadic'rotism (^unray (S/A/wrof, double 
healing). The occurrence of a divided or 
double pulsation in the downward stroke 
of the sphygniograph. 

Kat'alepsy. See Catalepsy. 

Katal'ysis. See Catalysis. 

Kat'aplasm. See Poultiee. 

Katato'nia [Kiira, -ovoq, tension). Accord- 
ini; to Kahlbaum, a form of mental de- 
rangement progressing from melancholia 
successively through mania and stupidity 
to iinl-ccility and tonic convulsions. 

Katelectrot'onus. .See Cateleetrotonus. 

Kathar'ophore. An instrument for cleans- 
ing the urethra. 

Kathar''sis. See Catharsis. 

Kath'ode {KaTa, o6nq, path). The nega- 
tive jX)le of a galvanic battery. 

Kathod'ic. Pertaining to the cathode or 
negative ]X)le of a battery. K. Closure 
Contraction, the muscular contraction 
occurring when the circuit is closed with 
the rhco|)hore on a motor point. K. Open- 
ing Contraction, the same when the cir- 
cuit is ojjened. 

Kat'ion. See Cation and Electrolysis. 

Ka'va-Ka'va. .\va-Kava. The root of 
Piper melhysticum, a shrub native to .South 
America and the South Sea Islands. \ 
diuretic and motor-depressant, producing 
intoxication when taken in large doses. In 
small and moderate doses rescml)les coca 
in its .iction in allaying fatigue. Unof. 

Keep'er. .See Armature. 

Ke'fir. See A'ephvr. 

Keh'rer's Opera'tion. See Cccsarean 
Operation. 

Ke'lectome {kji'/.tj, a tumor, cktojij], a cut- 
ting). A cutting instrument intro<luced 
into a tumor, by means of a canula, in order 
to obtain a part of the substance for ex- 
amination. 

Kc'loid {x'f^^i ^ claw). Cheloid, Alii)ert's 
Keloid. A connective tissue neoplasm 
marked by irregular, smooth, firmly-elastic 
cicatrice-like lesions. Begins as a small 
nrxlulc on the skin, that finally .-Lssumes 
an oval, crab-shap<-<l form ; most conunon 
<ivcr the sternum, Imt occurs al.sf) oti tiic 
mamin:e, n<ck, arms and ears. K. of 
Addison, forms contractions of ibc skin 



and fasciae, giving a hide-bound look to 
the part. Arises sixjntaneously from the 
sites of cicatrices and other injuries to the 
skin. 

Kelot''omy. See Herniotomy. 

Ken'tro - kine^sis (kevtimv, a center, 
Kiv!/aic, motion). A tenn used by Ferricr 
to denote the intlueuce of any motor-nerve 
center. 

Kentucky Coffee Bean. Sec Chicot. 

Kepharic. Sec Cepltatie. 

Keph'alins {Ket^a/.ri^ the head). A series 
of substances occurring in brain-tissue, con- 
taining the radicals kephalyl, slcaryl, gly- 
ceiyl, and neuryl. ( )ccur usually as an 
amor])]ious, colloidal mass. 

Kephalom'eter. See Cephalometer. 

Ke'phyr. A kind of fermented milk used 
in Transcaucasia. Unof. See Kumyss. 

Ker'asin [Ktpa^, a horn). A cerebroside 
occuning in brain-tissue. 

Keratecta'sia (sfpaf, cKraaig, extension). 
The forward protrusion or bulging of the 
cornea. 

Ker'atin [nepng). The basis of homy tis- 
sues, hair, nails, feathers, ete. A mixture 
of various complex substances. Decom- 
posed, it yields leucin and tyrosin. Neuro- 
keratin, the substance composing the 
sheath of the axis-cylinder and the white 
substance of Schwann. 

Kerati'tis («f/)af, trig, inflamm.ition). In- 
llammation of the cornea. K., Astig- 
matic, a form of K. said to be due to 
uncorrected astigmatism. K., Interstitial, 
inflammation of the interstitial lamella- of 
the cornea, usually due to inherited syiihilis. 
K., Punctate, characterized by minute 
punctate six)ts on Descemet's membrane. 
K., Traumatic, that consecjuent to wounds 
or other injury of the cornea. 

Ker'atocele [Kepng, Kt//i/^ tumor). A her- 
nia of Descemet's membrane through the 
cornea. 

Kerato-conjunctivi'tis {Ktpng, conjunc- 
tivitis). .Sinuillancous inllaunnation of the 
cornea and conjuncti\a. 

Kerato-conom^eter (Kepng, Kuvog, a cone, 
fuTpov, a measure). An instrument for esti- 
mating astigmatism by the images retlected 
from the cornea. 

Keratoco'nus. See A'eratoi^lobns. 

Keratog'enous (Kipnr, yifixu,), to beget). 
Pertaining to the fonnation of horny 
growths. K. Membrane, that part of the 
skin or layer of curium which develo|js 
into nails, claws and hoofs. 

Keratoglc'bus {mpdc, f^lobns, a ball). 
Distention an<l protrusion of the cornt?. 



KERATO-IRITIS 



226 



KINETIC 



The sclerotic may also become distended 
in severe cases. When so extensive as to 
prevent closure of the lids, it has been 
called buphthalmus. When the distention 
is transparent, regular and cone-shaped, 
the apex of the cone being the center of 
the cornea, it is called keratoconus, or 
conical cornea. When the protrusion is 
opaque, or connected witli synechia of the 
iris, it is called staphyloma of the cornea, 
or anterior staphyloma. 

Kerato-iri^tis I^Kepag, iritis, inflammation 
of the iris) . Combined inflammation of the 
cornea and iris. 

Kerato^ma. See Callositas. 

Ker^atome [nepag, ro/xz;, a cutting). A knife 
with a peculiar trowel-like blade, used for 
making the incision into the cornea in the 
operation of iridectomy. 

Keratomyco''sis {^Kepag, fiVK-?/^, a fungus). 
A fungoid growth on the cornea. 

Ker'atoplasty [nepag, irAaaau, to form). 
Plastic operations upon the cornea, espe- 

■ cially the transplantation of a button or 
excised portion of cornea from an animal 
eye to that of the human. This is effected 
by means of a peculiar trephine, by which 
the tissue to be transplanted is removed 
from the animal's eye, and the place for 
its reception is made in the human eye. 
Sometimes called trephining the cornea. 

Ker'atoscope [nepag, c/coTrew, to observe). 
An instrument for examining the cornea, 
and testing the symmetry of its meridians 
of curvature. 

Keratos^copy. See Retiiioscopy. 

Kerato'ses [Kcpag). A class of skin dis- 
eases characterized by thickened epidermis, 
and the presence of such callosities as horns, 
warts, etc. 

Kerato''sis Pila^'ris [Kepag, pihis, hair). 
Called, also. Lichen pilaiis, and L. spinii- 
losHS. An affection of the skin marked by a 
pin-head-sized conical elevation investing 
the hair follicle and somewhat resembling 
gooseflesh and ichthyosis. 

Ker^atotome. See Keratoine. 

Kc'tone. In chemistry, an organic com- 
pound consisting of the unsaturated radical 
^C=0 united to two alcohol radicals. 
May be considered as derivatives of second- 
ary alcohols, bearing the same relation to 
them as the aldehydes bear to the primary 
alcohols. 

Kibe. See Chilblain. 

Kid''neys (Mid. Eng. kidneer). The two 
large glandular bodies situated in the lum- 
bar regions, by which the urine is secreted. 
They consist of the kidney proper, and ex- 



cretory duct or ureter. The former consists 
of an outer cortical substance, and an inner 
medullary matter. K., Bright's Disease 
of. 'AeeBrighCs Disease. K., Floating, 
one misplaced or movable. K., Large 
Mottled, that of parenchymatous nephritis, 
mottled with gray patches. K., Large 
Red, the kidney of Bright's disease extrava- 
sated with blood. K., Large White, one 
affected with lardaceous degeneration ; also, 
that of the advanced stage of Bright's dis- 
ease. K., Pelvis of, the funnel-shaped ex- 
pansion of the ureter formed by the infundi- 
bula. K., Small White, the final stage 
of the large white kidney after loss of its 
substance from atrophy. K., Surgical, 
a name sometimes given to pyelo-nephritis, 
or distention of the kidney attendant with 
inflammation, abscesses of the cortex, and 
retention of urine mixed with foetid pus. 

Kies''tine. See Kyesteln. 

Kilogramme (;j;</lwi, one thousand, 
ypafi^a, a gramme). One thousand 
grammes, or 2.2 pounds avoirdupois. 

Kilogramme^'tre (jAw/, ypa/ifia, juerpov, 
a measure). A term denoting the energy 
required to raise one kilogramme one meter 
in height; equivalent to 7.233 foot-pounds. 

KiFolitre [x^Xioi, Turpa, a liter). One 
thousand liters, or 61,027.05 cu. in. 

KiPometre (;t7?ao<, fierpov, a measure). 
One thousand meters, or 1093.6 yards. 

Kinaesthe-'sis [mveu^ to move, aiad>/atg, 
sensation). That quality of sensations 
whereby we are aware of our positions and 
movements, especially those of the auto- 
matic type; distinct from the muscular 
sense. 

Kinemafics [Kivr//ia, a motion). The 
science of motion without reference to its 
origin or effects. 

Kinesiat^rics. Same as Kinesipathy. 

Kinesiom^eter {kivijok;, fiErpov, a meas- 
m-e). An instrument for detennining 
quantitatively the motion of a part. 

Kinesioneurc'ses [mvy/aig, vevpov, a 
nerve). Functional abnormalism of the 
motor centers or nen'es. 

Kinesip''athy {Kivr/aig^ ivaOog, suffering). 
The treatment of disease by gymnastic or 
calisthenic movements of the parts of the 
body involved. 

Kinesod''ic [klv7]glq, o6og, a way). Per- 
taining to those nerve fibers conveying 
motor influences. Also, the motor tracts 
of the nerve-system. 

Kinet'ic [Kivt/aig). That which produces 
motion. Pertaining to those forces that 
produce motion. 



KING'S EVIL 



227 



KRESOL 



Kings Evil. A name foniK-rly jwpularly 
applied to scrofula, on account of a belief 
that it could be cured by the touch of the 
kiiiij. 
King's Yellow. See Orpinunt. 
Ki'no. The inspissated juice of Pl^ro- 
tiirptts niarsiipiit»i,io\xxnl'\n India. .Sinii 
lar in action to tannic aciil, and u-cd 
mainly as a constituent of j^argles and 
diarrhifa mixtures. K., Tinct., lo |)er 
cent, of the drag. L)o»e TTLx-.^ij. K., 
Pulv. Comp., unof., kino 15, opium I, 
cinnamon 4. Dose gr. v-xx. 
Kinom'eter (\/rftj, lo put in motion, //frpor^ 
a measure). An instrument to measure the 
amount of displacement of ihe uterus in c;\se 
of tumor or cellular inflammation of the 
jK'lvis. 

Ki'otome (kiuv, the uvula, tout], a section 
or cutting;). An instrument for amputating 
the uvula, or for dividing strictures. 
Kis'singen Water. A laxative tonic 

mineral water of Bavaria. 
Klang. See Timbre. 
Kleptoma'nia (/c/.fTru, to steal, finvia, 
madness). A form of emotional insanity 
manifested by a morbid desire to commit 
theft. It is sometimes accompanied by 
impaired intellect, and is often hereditary. 
Knead'ing. The same as Petrissage. 
Knee (^Sax. cneo). The joint of the l)ones 
of the thigh and foreleg. K. Cap, the 
patella. K. Joint, a hinge-joint con- 
sisting of the articulation of the condyle 
of the femur with the up|)er extremity of 
the tibia and the jxistcrior surface of the 
patella. K., Housemaid's. See Ah- 
Siisu Bur:a/. K. Jerk, Patellar Tendon 
Reflex, K. Reflex, or K. Phenom- 
enon, arellex of the tendon, consisting of a 
slight convulsive kick, due to a light blu'v 
on the p.itclla tendon. K. Pan, the patella. 
K. Knock. See Giiik. 
Knife (^.Sax. <.ni/). An instrument for cut- 
ting. In surgery, knives are of various 
sha|H.-s and sizes, according to their use. 
Knit'ting. The union and becoming rigid 
of a fracture. 

Knock -knee. See Genu. 
KnuckTes. The joints of the phalanges 
with the nietacar])al Ix^nes and with each 
other; alMj a loop cjf intistinc. 
Kce'nig's Manomet'ric Flames. 
Toothed or zigzag flame |)i(. lures seen in 
a revolving mirror, and pro<luced by the 
viiiTalions of the voice against a thin mem- 
brane that sc|»arales the gits chamber sup- 
plying a small liurner frcnn the air cliamU-r 
into which one speaks. The form of the 



flame picture is cluiracteristic for each 
vowel, and varies with the pilch. 

Ko'la Nut. The seed of Su-riitliti <7<u- 
inntata. Used in [wirls of Central Africa 
as a substitute lor tea and cofl'ee. Contains 
an alkaloid similar to caflein. A cerebral 
stimulant and cardiac tonic. Dose of a 20 
per cent, tincture, 3J. Unof. 

KoFpo-. See Colpo-. 

Kolpo-perine'oplasty (ko'/.-o^, nepivaiov, 
TT/Aiaau, to k)rm). An operation for the 
cure of procidentia. 

Kommabacil'lus. See Spirillum C/ioIene. 

Koos'so. .See Brayera. 

Kopf-tet'anus. Cei)halic tetanus, due to 
wounds of the head, chiefly in the region 
of the liflh nerve. Initial trismus is asso 
ciated with paralysis of the face on the siile 
of the injury. In some cases there is also 
phaiyngeal s]iasin, so that the name Hy- 
drophobic Tetanus has also been given 
to this form of tetanus. 

Kopio'pia {Ko-oq, weakness, wi/', ihe eye). 
A .Synonym of asthenopia. K. Hysterica, 
a term applied to those symptoniN which in- 
dicate hypeniisthesia of the liflh and optic 
nerves. 

Kor^e-. See Core-. 

Koros^copy, See Retinoscopy. 

Kou^miss. See Kumyss. 

Kous'so. See Brayera. 

Krame^ria. Rhatany. The root of K. 
tiianJra and A', tomcntosa, shrubs native 
to South America. Possesses the same 
astringent qualities as tannic acid. A popu- 
lar remedy for fissure of the anus, spongy 
gums, etc. K. Ext., in water. Dose gr. 
v-x. K. Ext., Fid. Dose n\,v-3J. K. 
Syr., contains of the fluid extract 35, syruj) 
65. Dose 3ss-,5ss. K. Trochisci, con- 
tain each gr. j of the extract. 

Krauro'sis {hiKii'iiuoiKii, lo become dry). 
.Slirivelingand dryness of a pari, especially 
of the vulva. 

Krause's End-bulbs. Terminal bodies 
of .sensory nerves in the skin and mem- 
branes of all mannnals. They are" elon- 
gated, oval, or rt)und botlies 0.075 '" o'4 
mm. long. 

Kre'atin (Ay>fof, flesh). A con.siituent of 
muscular and other ti.ssues having basic 
prn|)crties. 

Krea'tinin (xprnf). C^II^NjO. A deriv- 
ative of kreatin ; astrong organic base occur- 
ring in normal urine. 

Kre'sol. An aromatic substance united 
with sul|>li<inic aiiil, occurring in urine, in 
two (nrnis, orthokresol, and parakresol; 
metakresol is an isomer of the latter. 



KRINOSIN 



228 



LABOR 



Krin^'osin. A nitrogenized fatty substance 
of the brain, occurring in long tilamentai'y 
crystals. Soluble in boiling ether and al- 
cohol. 

Kryptophan''ic Acid. Said to occur as a 
free acid in urine, though regarded by 
Landwehr as an animal gum. 

Kiihne's Pancreas Powder. Prepared 
by the prolonged extraction of fresh pan- 
creas of ox with alcohol and then with ether. 

Ku^myss. Koumiss. Originally, fermented 
mare's milk. Of high repute among Rus- 
sians as a food for phthisical patients. 
Largely made in the United States, by fer- 
menting cow's milk ^ xxix with yeast 5 ss, 



and grape sugar 5 ij. Made in quart bottles 
and drawn with a champagne faucet. An 
excellent food in general debility or chronic 
affections of the kidneys. 

Ku^rung Oil. See Fongamia. 

Kyes^tei'n (^K.v?/aig, conception, eodijg, a cov- 
ering). A lilmy deposit of decomposing 
urine, at one time thought to be diagnostic 
of pregnancy. 

Ky^mograph i^Kv/ia, a wave, ypafu, to 
write). A wave- writer. An instrument 
for reproducing graphically the variations 
in the pressure of the blood. 

Kypho^sis (/cy^wcif, hump-back). Hump- 
back. Angular curvature of the spine. 



L. The abbreviation of Lf//, and also of 
Lih'a, a pound. 

Labarraque's Solution. See Chlorine. 

La'bia (Lat., a lip). The lips. Applied 
to lip-like structures and to the edges 
of an incised wound. L. Majora or L. 
Pudendi Majora, two folds of skin of the 
female external genital organs, arising just 
below the mons veneris, surrounding the 
vulval entrance, and meeting at the ante- 
rior part of the perineum. L. Minora, or 
Nympha, two folds of skin at the inner 
surfaces of the labia majora. 

La^bial [labia). Pertaining to the lips. 
• L. Bone. See Intermaxilla)y . 

La''bials [labia'). The consonant sounds 
which are formed mainly by the lips. See 
Consotiants. 

Labidom'eter {laliiq, forceps, fierpov, a 
measure). A forceps designed to measure 
the dimensions of the head of a foetus in 
the pelvis. 

La'bile [labor, to glide). Easily falling 
off. In electro-therapeutics a labile appli- 
cation is the passing of the electrode — 
usually the negative — along and touching 
the skin over the track of a nerve. 

La^bio- glos''so- larynge''al Paralysis 
[labium, a lip, }'/i(j(7r7«, the tongue, Aa/ivy^, 
the larynx). See Bulbar. 

Labio - glosso - pharyngeal ( la b in m , 
yAwffffa, (papvy^, the gullet). Per- 



taining conjointly to the lips, tongue and 
gullet. 

La^biomancy [labituii, fiavreua, a divina- 
tion). The power of understanding what 
is said by observing the motions of the lips 
in speech. 

Labioplas''tic [labium, nXaaau, to form). 
Pertaining to an operation for restoring the 
lip, after injury or partial destruction of the 
same. 

LabiotenaC'ulum [labium, tenaculum, an 
instrument for gripping). An instrument 
for holding the lips in a position required 
for examination or operation. 

La^bium (Lat.). A lip. Also, any structure 
consisting of a strip or flap of elastic tissue 
that closes upon an orifice. 

La'bor (Lat.). "Work. Parturition ; bring- 
ing forth young: the process whereby the 
foetus and its appendages are expelled 
from the mother. L., Artificial, when 
effected or aided by other means than 
the forces of the maternal organism. L., 
Conduct of the, management, hygienic, 
medical or surgical , of the parturient woman. 
L., Difficult. See Dystocia. L., Dry, 
when there is a deficiency of the liquor 
amnii, or when there has been a prema- 
ture rupture of the l)ag of waters. L., 
False, or False Pains. See Pains, 
L., Insanity of. See Insanity. L., In- 
strumental, one requiring the use of in- 



LABORATORY 



229 



LACTIFEROUS 



stniments to extract the child. L., Mech- 
anism of, the inoveraenl.s of ailjustment 
whereby the fcctus is accomnnnlateil to the 
dimensions and variations of the liirtli-canal 
in its [xissiige llirough it. L., Missed, 
retention of the dead fttus /// itU-ro le 
yond the [Kriotl of nonnal jjcstation. L., 
Natural, or Normal, or Physiological, 
•when eltecied by the sole [xiwer of the \w.\- 
temal orijani>m. L., Pathological, wiicn 
devialinj; from the normal type by reason 
of weakness of the maternal forces, anoma- 
lies of the pelvis, or of tlie ftttus, or of 
complications, all being causes of ob- 
structed L. L., Postponed, ilehiyed 
beyond nine months. L., Premature, 
taking place before the normal period of 
ge>tation, but when the fcetus is viable. 
L., Stages of, the tirst begins with dilata- 
tion of the OS, and ends with complete di- 
latation, so the Iiead can jiass; the second 
ends with the expulsion of the child ; the 
third {^placental) includes the expulsion 
of the placenta. 

Lab'oratory {laboratoritinf). A room or 
place ilesigned for experimental work in 
chemi>ir}-, physiology, biology, etc. 

Lab'rador Tea. The leaves of Ledum 
latifolium. Demulcent, expectorant and 
tonic. Dose of fld. ext., 3J-ij. Unof. 

Labur'num. The leaves of Cyslisiis I. 
I'roiK-rties due to an alkaloid, cyslisiii. In 
small doses diuretic and resolvent. In 
larger doses jX)isonous, irritating the ali- 
mentary tract, and producing purging, 
vomiting and exhaustion. Unuf. 

Lab''yrinth {/.(i.ivptvlhq'). A name given to 
the series of cavities of the internal ear, com- 
prising the vestibule, cochlea and the semi^ 
circular canals. L., Bony. See L., osseous. 
L., Membranous, the membranous cav'- 
ty witliin the osseoas labyrinth, frf)m which 
it is partly separated by the i)erilym|ili. It 
comjirises two sacs contained witliin the 
vestibule, the .semicircular canal and the 
canal of the cochlea. L., Osseous, the 
Ixjny capsule of the internal ear, coninniiii- 
cating in front with the cochlea and behind 
with the semicircular canals. L. Pit. 
See .-tui/ifoiy. 

Lac (Lat.). Milk. Also, the resinous sub- 
stance d(|)o^ited on trees by an insect of 
the gcnas io<rus. 

Laccra'tion {/aerro, io tear). Meciiani<al 
rupture by a tearing acticjn. L. of Pcri- 
nxum, a tciU'ing through the wall se|>a- 
rating the vagina and ix-rin.iuni, which 
occurs 'x:tasionally to a female in child- 
birth. 



Lachnan'thes Tinctoria. Red Root. 
A plant ])opular in j)arts of the U. S. as 
an expectorant and alterative in phthisis. 
I )ose of a ID per cent, tincture, \\x. 
Unof. 

Lach^rymal (Jachryma, a tear). Having 
reference to the organs of the secretion, 
transfer, or excretion of tears. L. Appara- 
tus, the lachrymal gland, ducts, canal, 
sac, and nasal duct. L. Artery, the first 
branch of the ophthalmic, supplying the 
gland. L. Bone, upon the nasal side 
of the orbit, articulating with the frontal, 
tlie ethmoid and superior maxillar}' bones, 
in which levins the lachiynial groove and 
na.-al duct. L. Canals, or Canaliculi, 
superior and inferior^ extend from the 
puncta to the sac, and sene to convey the 
excess of tears from the eye to the nose. 
L. Ducts, seven to fourteen in number, 
extending oblit|uely from the gland to the 
fornix conjunctiva;, carrying the tears to 
the conjunctival surface of the globe. L. 
Gland, the gland secreting the tears, situ- 
ated in a depression of the frontal bone, 
the L. fossa, at the u]iper and outer angle 
of the orbit. L. Probe, a probe for 
exploring or dilating the canaliculi and 
na.'^al duct. L. Puncta, the minute orifices 
of the canaliculi, upon the eyelids near the 
innercanthus. L. Sac, a saccifomi enlarge- 
ment of the up]icr part of the nasal duct, 
into which the canaliculi empty. L. Style, 
a probe used in stricture of the nasal duct. 

Lach'ryma (Lat.). A tear. 

Lachryma'tion. An excessive secretion, 
or an overllow, of tears, from any cause. 

Lacin'iate {laeinia, the llap of a gar- 
ment). Jagged or fringed. 

Lac'mus. Sec Litmus. 

Lac'rimal. See Ltuhrymal. 

Lactalbu'min (/</<■, allntiiuit). An alka- 
loid asserted to have been found in milk. 

Lacta'tion (/at/c, to suckle). Suckling. 
Api)lled also to the period during which 
the child suckles. 

Lac'teal (A/r, milk). IVrtaining to milk. 

Lactcals. The lymphatics of the small in- 
testine which take up the chyle. 

Lac'telne {Inc). Same as l.aitoliue. 

Lac'tic (A/r). IVrtaining to milk or its 
<lerivalives. L. Acid. See Aciii, Litetie. 
L. Fermentation. Sec Fermentation. 

Lac'tide. A crystalline substance obtained 
by heating lactic acid or any of its i.somers. 

Lactiferous {he, ferro, to carry). A 
term ap|>lied to vessels that convey milk. 
L. Ducts, the ducts of the mammaryglaiid. 
L. Glands, the mammary glands. L. 



LACTIFUGE 



230 



LALLATION 



Swelling, a distention of the breast aris- 
ing from the obstruction of a lactiferous 
duct. 

Lac^tifuge {iac, fugo, to put to flight). 
Any medicine or agent that checks the 
secretion of milk. 

Lactig^enous (/^r, yevvau, to produce). 
Milk-producing. 

Lac^tinated (/«(). Containing sugar of 
milk. 

Lac'tis (gen. of lac). Pertaining to milk. 
L. Redundantia, an excessive flow of 
milk. L. Retentis, suppression of the 
flow of milk. 

Lactiv'orous {lac,voro,\.o devour). Sub- 
sisting on milk. 

Lacto-. A Latin prefix denoting connec- 
tion with or relation to milk. L. -pepsin, 
a proprietary mixture claimed to contain 
pepsin, diastase, and pancreatin, acidulated 
with lactic and hydrochloric acids. One 
drachm should peptonize ^ viij of albumin, 
casein or fibrin, or emulsionize ^ xvj of 
cod-liver oil. See Pepsin. Unof. L.- 
peptone, same as L.-pepsin. L. -Phos- 
phate, any phosphate combined with lac- 
tic acid. L. -protein, a derivative of milk. 

Lac''tocele. See Galactocele. 

Lac^toline. Condensed milk. 

Lactom'eter [lac, [leTpov, a measure). An 
instrument for determining the ([uantitative 
constituents of milk by its specific gravity. 

Lac'tone. An aromatic, colorless, inflam- 
mable fluid, derived from the dry distilla- 
tion of lactic acid. 

Lac^toscope i^lac, milk, CKOTceu, to ex- 
amine). An instrument for estimating the 
proportions of water and milk-globules of 
milk. 

Lac^tose {fnc). Sugar of milk. A con- 
stituent of the milk of mammals. Cjg- 
^24^1 2* Sweet, but less soluble than 
cane sugar. Much used in pharmacy for 
triturations. The vehicle of most homoeo- 
])athic preparations. 

Lactosu^ria [lactose, sugar of milk, ovpov, 
the urine). A term for the presence of 
sugar of milk in the urine. 

Lactuca^'rium. Lettuce. The milky juice 
of Lactuca virosa, a biennial plant. Con- 
tains a crystalline substance, lactiicerin, 
to which its properties are thought to be 
due. A mild hypnotic with sedative and 
diuretic properties. Somewhat similar to 
opium, but without depressant after-effects. 
PVequently an ingredient of patent cough 
mixtures. L. Ext., Fid. Dose TTLx-^^^j. 
L. Syr., contains 5 per cent, of the drug. 
Dose 3J-^j. 



Lactu''cerin. See Lactucarium. 

Lactu''cerol. The isomeric components 
of lactucerin. 

Lactu''cin. A crystalline extractive of 
lettuce. 

LactU''con. Same as Lactiicin. 

Lactu''men [lac, milk). A synonym of 
Porrigo larvalis. Also, applied to that 
form of aphthfe in which the spots have a 
fanciful resemblance to clots of curd. 

Lacu^na [lacus, a lake). A little hollow 
space. A mucous or lymphatic follicle. 

Lacunae. Irregular cavities of bone arranged 
concentrically around the Haversian canals. 

Lacu^nar [lacus). Pertaining to the lacu- 
na;. L. Spaces, the iixegular fissures 
between the fasciculi of connective tissue, 
forming the beginnings of the lymphatic 
vessels. 

La^cus (Lat.). A small hollow or cavity 
in a tissue. L. Lachrymalis, the space 
at the inner canthus of the eye, in which 
the tears collect, near the punctum. 

Ladies' Bed-straw. Cheese Rennet. The 
herb Galium verum. Refrigerant and 
diuretic. Dose of fld. ext. ^ss-j. Unof. 

Ladies' Slipper. See Cypripcdium. 

LsemoparaPysis [T^ai/nog, the gullet, irapa- 
Avaig, palsy). Paralysis of the oesophagus. 

Laemosteno^sis [Aaifwr, a-svuniq, a stric- 
ture). Constriction of the phaiynx and 
oesophagus. 

Lae^sis. See Lesion. 

LaetiPicant [Icefijico, to make glad). A 
term applied to any remedy acting as a 
stimulant tonic in melancholy and languor. 

Laevogy'rous [lazuis, Xeh, gyrus, a circle). 
Having the quality of rotating the polar- 
ized ray to the left. 

Laevoro''tatory [Iccinis, roto, to turn). Same 
as La'vogyrus. 

Lae^vulin (Jaivus). A name sometimes 
given to a substance probably identical with 
glucose, occurring in immature grain and 
the tubers of certain composite flowers. 

Lae^'vulose. See Levidosc. 

La Fayette's Mixture. See Copaiba. 

Lag^arous (T^ayapoq, lax). Lax, loose or 
soft. 

Lagnei''a (A«yve/a, coition) Same as 
Satyriasis. Also, coition. Also, the semen. 

Lagne^sis {^kayvi]q). Same as Satyriasis. 

LagophthaFmus (/lrtyuf,.a hare, from the 
popular notion that a hare sleeps with open 
eyes). Inability to close the eyes. 

Lagos''toma. See Hare-lip. 

Lalla^tion [Icikoc^, bal)l)ling). Any unin- 
telligible stammering of S]:)eech, such as 
the prattling of a babe. More properly, 



LVLONEUROSES 



231 



LANGUAGE 



the defect or peculiarity of speech, usually 
racial, in which / is substituted for r. 

Laloneuro'ses (^/a/.of, vevpov, a ner\e). 
All impairment of speech arising from 
spasniLKiic action of the nenes. It in- 
cludes stammering and aphthoiigia. 

Lalop'athy (/^/.of, ;ra<^of,sufiering). Any 
ilisordcr of speech. Also, aphasia. 

Lamarck''ism. The theoiy of evolution as 
held by the disciples of Lamarck. It is 
based on Lamarck's theory that matter 
acted uf>on by heat, light and electricity 
may spontaneously generate life of low, 
homogeneous organisms, and that such or- 
ganisms would develop (]ualities of hetero- 
geneity and organs as governed liy their 
surroundings, and esjx;cially by their wants 
or desires. To this pre]X)nderating influ- 
ence of new wants Lamarck ascribes the 
chief r6le in evolution, while Darwin em- 
phasize.", the advantage of accidental varia- 
t'ons in the struggle for existence. 

Lamb'da. See Skull. 

Lambdoid'al [/ui/Ji3(^a, ei6nc, resem- 
blance). Resembling the Greek letter A. 
L. Suture, the suture connecting the oc- 
cipital with the two parietal l>ones. 

Lambert's Method. A metliod of mix- 
ing colors by colored wafers and a slip of 
glass. Hy means of reflections from the 
surface of the latter a color may be in part 
reflected and superimjxjsed on another 
color. 

Lamel'la (dim. of lamina, a plate). A 
descriptive term ai)plied to any foliation or 
.scale like apjx-arance. L. of Bone, the 
concentric rings surrounding the Haversian 
canals. 

Lamel'lar (A7w^7/f7, a thin plate). Having 
the nature of, or resembling any thin, osse- 
ous or membranous tissue. L. Cataract. 
Sec Cataract. 

Lame'ness. The condition of inability to 
use the limbs freely, or without pain. 

Lam'^ina [lamina, a plate or scale). A 
descriptive term used to designate foliated 
structure. Also, any thin layer of Ixinc, 
membrane, or otlurlissue. L., Bowman's, 
the stnictureless mi-mbrnne between the 
anterior layers of epithelium and the fibrous 
ti.ssuc of the cornea of the eye. L. Cinera, 
the connecting layer of gray matter l)etween 
the cor])us callosum and the optic com- 
missure. L. Cribrosa of the Sclerotic, 
the jfcrforaterj hunitia through whicli the 
«ij)tic nerve enters tlie glolx- of the <-ye. 
L. Cribrosa of the Temporal Bone, a 
.sm;tll lamin.'iled lone forming the end of 
the internal auditory meatus. L. Dor- 



salis, one of the two ridges bordering the 
medullaiy groove, th.it unite to foi-m a canal 
which finally develops into the cerebro- 
spinal canal. L. Fusca, the pigmentary 
tissue of the sclerotic fonning the outer 
layer of the perichoroidal sinus. L. Spi- 
ralis, a thin jilate in the ear, osseous in the 
inner part and membranous in the outer, 
that divides the spiral tube of the cochlea 
into the sfala tvvipaiii and siala Vistihuli. 
L. Spiralis Ossea, a thin jilate of bone 
that winds spirally around the mcKliolus 
of the cochlea. L. Superchoroidea, the 
delicate membrane of the outer surface of 
the choroid tunic of the eye. 

Lamina^ria [lamina). The cured lower 
part of the stem of L. ihntitp7ti. .L. Bou- 
gie, a l)ougie made of the stalk ; u.sed for 
urethral dilatation. L. Probe, a prolie 
made of the stalk, used to dilate the cana- 
liculi and nasal duct. L. Tent, a tent 
made of the stem of the plant, for dilata- 
tion of the ci'n'ix ulcri. 

Lamina''tion [lamina). Arranged in 
plates or layers. An operation in embry- 
otomy, consisting in cutting the skull in 
slices. 

Lam'ium Al'bum. The leaves and 
stems of the jjlant Z. album. Properties 
due to an alkaloid. Lamina. Useful in 
mcnorrhagia. Dose of the tincture ^ ss-ij. 
Unof. 

Lanc^eolate [lancola, a little spear). 
Having the form of a lance-head. 

Lan'cet (dim. lancca, lance). A two- 
edged surgical instrument for incising 
tumors, etc. 

Lanc'inate [lancitto,io tear). To lacerate, 
pierce, or tear. 

Lanci^si, Nerves of. The stri,,- Imii^itii- 
dinalts. The elevated longitudinal bands 
of white matter of the coqius callosum of 
the i)rain iiounding the raph(^. 

Lan'dry's Paral'ysis. A form of paraly- 
sis descril)ed by Landry, characterized i>y 
loss of motor ]X)wer in the lower extremi- 
ties, gradually extending to the upper ex- 
tremities, and to the centers of circulation 
and respiration. 

Land Scurvy. See Purpura. 

Lan''essin. A preparation of wool fat 
similar to lanolin. 

Langerhan's Cells. Certain m<idilie<l 
epithelial cells forming thesimj>le>t nerve- 
endings. 

Lang''uage [lini^ita, the tongue). The 
arti( ulate smnuN, signs, or syniboK whereby 
tiiought is conununicated. L., Center 
for. See Aphasia. 



LANGUOR 



232 



LARYNGEAL 



Lang''uor (Lat. faintness). Lassitude. 
Disinclination to take bodily exercise, or 
to exert one's self. 

Lan^olin. A cholesterine fat obtained 
from sheep's wool. Recently introduced 
as a basis for ointments. It does not 
saponify or become rancid and is charac- 
terized by remarkable penetrative powers. 
Unof. 

Lan^tanine. An alkaloid extractive of 
yerba sagrada. Asserted to have antiperi- 
odic and antipyretic properties. Has been 
successfully used in intermittents. Dose, 
gr. XV— XXX. Unof. 

Lan^'termann's Notches. The appear- 
ance of the intemodal segments of the 
nerve-sheath under the influence of cer- 
tain reagents, dividing the same into strips 
obliquely cut at the ends. 

Lanu^go [latta, wool). The down-like 
hair that appears upon the foetus about 
the fifth month of gestation. 

LapaC'tic {7.aKaaau, to empty). Empty- 
ing. Also, any pm-gative medicine or 
substance. 

Lap''aro- (lanapa, the abdominal walls). 
A Greek prefix denoting connection or rela- 
tion to the abdomen or abdominal walls. 

Laparo-colofomy (laivapa, koTiov, the 
colon, TO/17/, a cutting). Inguinal colotomy. 

Laparo-cystec'tomy {lanapa, kvgtlq, a 
cyst, EUTOjiT], an excision). The excision 
of an extra-uterine fostus with its cyst 
through an incision of the abdominal 
wall. 

Laparo-cystot''omy (TMwapa, Kvorig, to/^tj, 
a cutting). An incision through the pa- 
rietes into a cyst containing an extra-uterine 
foetus, for the purpose of removing the 
same. 

Laparo-elytrot''omy, See Cesarean Ope- 
ration. 

Laparo-enterot''omy {T.aTrapa, evTspov, 
an intestine, tout?, a cutting). An incision 
into the intestine in the iliac region, for 
the relief of an intestinal obstruction. 

Laparo-gastrot'omy [laivapa, yaGTijp, 
the stomach, to/it], a cutting). An incision 
through the abdominal walls for the pur- 
pose of reaching the stomach. 

Laparo-hysterecfomy (lairapa, vorepa, 
the womb, sKTOfiTf, an excision). The re- 
moval of the womb through an incision in 
the abdominal walls. 

Laparo-hystero-oophorec'tomy. See 
Cesarean Operation, Porro's Opn-ation. 

Laparo-hysterot^omy. See Gastro-en- 
terotomy. 

Laparo-ileof'omy (AoTrapa, ileum, to^ij. 



a cutting). The formation of an artificial- 
anus in the groin. 

Laparos''copy {/.airapa, okotteo), to exam- 
ine). The examination of the abdomen 
by the stethoscope, plessimeter, or by other 
instrumental means. 

Laparo-splenofomy [lanapa, ff7r/l?/T, the 
spleen, tojii], a cutting). The surgical 
incision or entrance upon the spleen, 
through the abdominal walls. 

Laparot-'omy. See Cesarean Opera- 
tion. 

La''pis (Lat. a rock). An alchemic teitn 
applied to any non-volatile substance. L. 
Divinus, a mixture of cupric sulphate, 
potassium nitrate and ammonio-potassium 
sulphate, aa l6 parts. L. Mitigatus. 
See Argentuni. 

Lap^'pa. Burdock. The root of the com- 
mon burdock, L. officinalis; contains a 
bitter principle, a resin, and tannin. Aperi- 
ent and diuretic. Has some reputation as 
an alterative in constitutional blood dis- 
eases. A tincture of the seed has been 
recommended in skin diseases. Dose of 
the root 3J-ij, in infusion or tinctmre. 

Lard. See Adeps, 

Larda''cein. An animal proteid, an indi- 
gestible amyloid substance, chiefly occur- 
ring as a pathological infiltration into 
various organs, as the liver, spleen, etc. 

Larda''ceous. See Amyloid. 

Lark''spur. The seed of Delphinum 
consolida. Diuretic and emmenagogue. 
Dose of fld. ext. H\,j-x. Unof. 

Lar^va {larva, a ghost). That form insects 
take in emerging from the egg, com- 
monly known as the caterjaillar or "grub" 
stage. Also, applied to the immature form 
distinguishing many of the lower verte- 
brates before maturity. 

Lar'val [la>i<a^. Pertaining to or existing 
in the condition of a larva. 

Larynge''al [Tiapvy^, the larynx or wind- 
pipe). Pertaining to the larynx. L. Artery, 
the superior thyi-oid artery. L. Cough, 
a shrill, metallic cough of nervous origin, 
occuiring occasionally without symptoms 
of disease of the lungs. L. Crisis, an 
acute laryngeal spasm, occurring in the 
course of tabes dorsalis. L. Dilator, an 
instrument designed to dilate the larynx, 
when the latter has become constricted by 
cicatricial tissues, or from other causes, 
L. Mirror, a small circular, silvered-glass 
miiTor used in laryngoscopy. L. Nerve. 
See Nerve. L. Paralysis, a loss of power 
of some or of all of the muscles of the 
larynx. L. Spaces, the upper, middle, 



LARYNGECTOMY 



233 



LATEX 



and lower parts into which the lajnix may 
l>e convcnii.ntly divided. 
Laryngect^omy [?.apv}^, eKTour;, a cutting 
out). An operation for the extirpation of 
the hirjiix. 
Laryngis'mus {?.apt'yyiCu, to vociferate). 
Atemi loosely applied to various spasnKxiic 
aft'ections of the lar)nx. L. Stridulus. 
Same as LarjTigospasm. 
Laryngi'tis (/.apv)^, iric, inflammation). 
A calairhal inflammation of the laiynx 
accompanied liy sore throat, hoarseness, 
and, usually, painful deglutition and cough. 
In severe cases there may be oedema, 
dyspnoea, and suffocation. In infants it is 
much the same disease as croup. It also 
accompanies malignant afibctions of the 
throat and trachea, such as diphtheria, 
cancer, c-tr. 
Laryn'go-fis''sure [7.apvy^, Jissura). 
Division of the laniiix for the removal of 
tumors or foreign bodies. 
Laryngog'raphy (}.apv)'^, ypaijxj, to 

write). A description of the larynx. 
Laryngology (/o/>''}f, /-oyog, a treatise). 
A treatise on the lar}'nx. 
LaryngoparaKysis (/api^'f, TzapalvGig, 
palsy). Loss of the voice or paralysis of 
the vocal cords from nervous affections, not 
local di <ea.se. 
Laryngop'athy (Pa/jvyf, "Kadog, a suffer- 
ing). A tenn including all affections of 
the lar\-nx. 
Laryngophan'tom (lapv)-^, ipavracrfia, a 
vision). An artitkial larj'nx designed for 
illustrative puqx)Ses. 
Laryn'go-pharynge'al (?apvyS, ^"/"'>s, 
the throat). Pertaining conjointly to both 
lar}'iix and pharj-nx. 
Laryngoph^ony [}Mpvy^,<puvi], the voice). 
The sfjund of the voice ob.served in the 
aascultaiion of the larynx with the stetho- 
scoi>e; also the sound of the voice observed 
in the auscultation of a large cavity in the 
lung. 
Laryngople''gia (?npvy^, T^^vyv, a .stroke). 

Paralysis of the muscles of the larynx. 
Laryn'gospasm {?MpvyS, aran/ior, a 
S|).-i.sm). .S|)asmo(Iic Cfintract ion or closure 
of the glottis; s|).ismr>ilic cri>u|), as dis- 
finguish<d from inflammatory croup. 
Laryn'goscope (/"/"'/i^, okoziu, to ol)- 
scrvc). An inslfumetit for examination of 
the larynx. 

Laryngo-steno'sis {?.apvy^, arrvucir^ a 
contraction). Contraction in size of the 
larv'nx. 

Laryngot'omy {?uiptiyS, rr/jvu, to cut), 
'llic ojK.Tation of incision of the larynx. 



Laryngo-trache'al [?Mpi'y^, rpnxFta, the 
windpipe). I'ertaining conjointly tu the 
larynx and the trachea. 

Laryngotracheot^omy {?iapvy^, rpaxfia, 
ro/i;?, a section). That fonn of the operation 
of tracheotomy in wliich the cricoid carti- 
lage, and some of the upper rings of the 
trachea are divided. 

Lar''ynx (Tuipv) f ,). The upper part of the 
air passage, between the trachea and tlie 
base of the tongue. It comprises three 
single cartilages, the thyroid, cricoid, ami 
epiglottis, and three pairs of cartilages, the 
arytenoid and those of Santorini and Wris- 
berg. It is lined with an extremely sensi- 
tive mucous membrane, which fonns two 
transverse lipi^ed folds that constitute the 
vocal cords. 

Lasciv''ious (/(7.fr/r7(7,wantonness). Libidi- 
nous. Wanton. Having an unlawful desire. 

Las''situde {lassi/s, tired). A state of ex- 
haustion or weakness, arising from causes 
ottier than fatigue. 

La'ta. See Aliryachit. 

La'tency [/ateo, to be hid). The condition 
of being latent or concealed. 

La'tent [latco). Concealed. Not manifest. 
In pliysics, applied to heat that apjia- 
rently disappears when a litjuid is vapor- 
ized or a solid melted. L. Period, the 
time required for the inculcation of a disease. 

Lat'erad [In/ us, the side). Toward the 
lateral aspect of. 

Lat^eral {^/atcrii/is). At, belonging to, or 
pertaining to the side. The aspect of the 
side viewed from the middle. L. Col- 
umn, that column of the spinal cord 
between the anteio- and posterolateral 
fissures. L. Operation, that form of oi)era- 
tion in lithotcuny in which tlie opening is 
made on the left side of the perinaum. 
L. Plates, the part of the mesol)last lying 
external to the proverlebrx. L. Sinuses, 
the two veins of the dura mater situated in 
the attached margin of tlie tentorium cere- 
belli. 

Lateri''tious (/afrr, brick). Pt-rtaining to 
aw uriiiaiy sediment resembling brick-dust. 

Latero-cervi''cal {/d/rrn/is, (I'l-'ix, the 
neck). At or alwut the side of tlie neck. 

Latero-dor'sal {/aft-ralis, dorsum, the 
back). At or near the side of the back. 

Latero-flex'ion {lateralis, JlectOyXo i)end). 
Pending to one side. 

Lateropul'sion (la/crali.':, ftello, to drive). 
y\n involuntary motion or bearing to one 
si<le. 

La'tex (L.al., Iii|uid). The saj) or the juice 
of the tui)es or vessels of plants. 



LATHYRUS CICERA 



234 



LEIPOTHYMIA 



Lath^yrus Cic^era. A species of vetch, 
commonly known as " chick-pea." See 
Lathyrism. 

Lath^yrism (^aBvpiq, spurge). The con- 
vulsive movements, tremors and paraplegia 
arising from the use of the seeds of Lathy- 
riis cicera. 

Latis^'simus (superl. of latus, vi'ide). An 
adjective signifying vi^idest. It is used as 
a descriptive temi with certain muscles. 
L. Colli. See Muscle i^Platysma lily- 
oides). L. Dorsi. See Muscle. 

Laud^anin. One of the alkaloids of opium. 
It is soluble in chloroform and alkaline 
solutions. 

Laud'anum. See Opium. 

Laugh^'ing (Sax. hlehhan). A succession 
of rhythmic, spasmodic expirations with 
open glottis and vibration of vocal cords. 
L. Gas. See Nitrogen. 

Laur'el. See Kalmia. 

La''va (Lat., a flood or torrent). The 
molten ejecta of a volcano. 

Lavage (Fr.). Irrigation or washing out 
the stomach. 

Lavamen^tum (Javo, to wash). An in- 
jection. 

Lav^ender, or 

Lavan''dula. The flowers of L. vera. 
Properties due to a volatile oil. Aromatic, 
stimulant and carminative, but used mainly 
as a flavor and adjuvant of other medi- 
cines. L. Ol., the volatile oil distilled 
from the whole herb. Dose tr^j-v. L. 
Ol. Florum, the oil distilled from the 
fresh flowers, preferable to preceding. 
Dose Tty-v. A constituent of Spt. Odor- 
atus. L. Spt., 3 parts of the oil in 97 of 
alcohol; a perfume. Dose ^ss-j. L. 
Tinct. Comp., oil of lavender 8, oil of 
rosemary 2, cinnamon 18, cloves 4, nut- 
meg 10, red Saunders 8, alcohol 680, water 
270, dilute alcohol to make 1000. Dose 
,::5ss-ij, a constituent of Fowler's solu- 
tion. 

Laveran, Corpuscles of. See Bacillus, 
of Malaria, and Plasviodium. 

Lax [laxo, to loosen). Loose. Not tense. 

Lax^ative [laxo). An agent that loosens 
the contents of the bowels. A mild pur- 
gative. 

Laxa''tor i^laxo^. That which loosens or 
relaxes. A name applied to various muscles. 
L. Tympani. See Muscle. 

Lay^er (Sax. leger, a couch). A mass of 
uniform, or nearly uniform, thickness, 
spread over or covering a considerable 
area. 

Lazaret''to (Ital., a pest house). A quar- 



antine establishment. Also, a place for 
fumigation and disinfection. 

Lead. See Plunibum. 

Lead-poisoning. Either due to acci- 
dental or industrial introduction of lead into 
the system. The symptoms are disturbed 
nutrition, anaemia, the gingival line, lead 
colic, constipation, pains in the limbs, local 
muscular paralysis (wrist-drop) and wast- 
ing, saturnine encephalopathy, etc. The 
treatment consists in stopping ingress of 
lead to the system, its elimination by 
iodide of potassium, aperients, etc. 

Leaf Cup. See Bearsfoot. 

Lean^ness. A condition of having less 
than the normal amount of flesh. It may 
be natural, or the result of disease. 

Leav^en {Jevo, to raise). A name given 
to several species of ferments belonging to 
the class of saccharoinycetes, of which the 
culture known as "sour dough" is a com- 
mon example. 

Lec^ithin ('XekiOoq, yolk of egg). A class 
of nitrogenized, phosphorized substances 
occurring in brain- and nerve-tissue. 

Lectua'lis (dim. of lectus, a bed). Per- 
taining to a bed or couch. Also, diseases 
that confine one in bed. Also, a patient. 

Lec^tulus (dim. of lectus). A bed or 
couch. Also, a couch or mattress contain- 
ing medicinal substances. L. Medicatus, 
a dry fermentation. 

Leech (Sax. Iwce, physician). Hirudo 
Medicinalis, of the order Hirudinea, class 
Annelida, sub-kingdom Vermes. To extract 
blood by leeching. L., Artificial, the 
apparatus for cupping. 

Lees (A. S. hvs, dregs). The dregs or solid 
matter held in suspension by a lii|uid, that 
finally settles at the bottom of the vessel. 
Especially the sediment of vinous liquors. 

Leg. The lower extremity of man, espe- 
cially that part from the knee to the ankle. 
An organ of locomotion of man and 
other animals. 

Legif'imacy {legiti77to, to make lawful). 
The condition of being within the bounds 
of the law. Also, the statutory recogni- 
tion of a child born within wedlock, or 
within a period of time necessary to gesta- 
tion, which may elapse after the death of 
the father. 

Legu''min. See Casern. 

Leiomyo^ma (Aewf, smooth, ^/vf, a 
muscle). A forai of myoma characterized 
by unstriped muscular fiber. 

Leipothy^mia (AfZTrw, to relin(|uish, i9v//of, 
the mind). A term denoting fainting or 
syncope. 



LEITER'S TUBES 



235 



LEPROSY 



Lei'ter's Tubes. Tubes of soft, flexible 
metal designed for bending about any 
j>art of tlie body. Cold water is passed 
through the tul>es, thereby reducing the 
tcmi>erature of the parts encased. 

Lem'on. See l.imon. 

Lens (Lat., a lentil). A regularly-sha]ied 
piece of glass or cr)'stal for the refraction 
of rays of light. The crystalline lens of 
the eye. L., Achromatic. See Achro- 
tnatic. L., Biconcave, a thick-edgetl lens 
having concave spherical surfaces upon 
its opposite sides, called al>o a negative or 
minus lens; used in spectacles to correct 
myopia. L., Biconvex [positive or //us 
lens), a thin-edged lens; it has two con- 
vex surfaces ; used to correct hypero])ia. L., 
Cylindrical (either minus or //us), one 
ground upon a cylindrical tool, i.e., one 
witii a plane surface in one axis and a con- 
cave or convex surface in the axis at right 
angles to the same. L., Decentered, 
one in which the optical center is not 
opjKisite the pupil of the eye. L., Peri- 
scopic, one with concavo-convex or 
convexo-concave surfaces, the opposite 
sides being of different curvatures; to 
avoid spherical aberration, and to gain a 
greater field of clear vision, called tneniscits 
lenses. L., Plano-concave, Plano- 
convex, Piano-cylindrical, has a plane 
surface upon one side and a curved surface 
u|xjn tlie reverse. L., Spherical, one 
whose cur\x'd surface is a segment of a 
sphere, either concave or convex, in con- 
tradistinction to a cylindrical lens. L., 
Sphero-cylindrical, one with a spherical 
surface ujxin one side, and a cylindrical 
u|>on the reverse, used for the correction of 
either myopia or hyperopia, combined with 
astigmatism. See S/eetacle- Lenses. 

Lentic'ular (dim. of /ens'). Pertaining to 
orn-M-mliling a kns; also a descriptive term 
applied to an inslr.imcnt witli a cur\ed 
cutting edge for removing the rough edges of 
iKjnc m.ide by the trephine. L. Ganglion. 
See (J<in:;/ion. L. Nucleus, the extra- 
ventricular [lortion of the ciirjius striatum. 

Lenti'go (/ens). Freckles, Kphelides. 
C'ircuinscrilH-d s|)Ots or patches of i)ig- 
mcnt, small in size and occurring mainly 
on the face and hands. I'rcckles rarely 
occur lH:fore eight years, and arc not com- 
mon in aged jx-rsons. Mo.st fre<|uent among 
people of light Complexion. 

Len'tor [len/us, adhesive). V'i.scidity of a 
li'iuid. 

Lconti'asis (leo, a lion). See E/e/hanti- 
asis. L. Ossa. See Oiteitis. 



Lep'er (P.fTrpof, scaly). One affected with 
leprosy. 

Lep'ido- (/'.fTT^f, a scale). A Greek pretix 
signifying a scale, or scaly. 

Lep'idoid (/f^^f). Having the appear- 
ance of a scale. 

Lepidoplas'tic (/fjr^f, Tr^adtrw, to form). 
Funning scales. 

Lepidop'tera (^cmf, Trrfpov, a wing). An 
oriler of insects distinguished l)y feather- 
like scales antl a sjiirally coiled suctorial 
apparatus. The order includes butterflies 
and moths. 

Lepid'osis (?.£-/f). Same as Ichthyosis. 
Also, a .synonjTii for Lepra. 

Lep'ocyte (/f-oc, a husk or sheath, Kvrof, 
a cell). A nucleated cell. 

Lep'othrix (/.^770f, (^)iS,, a hair). A condi- 
tion of the hair, es]>ecially that of the arm- 
pits, in which the shaft becomes encased 
in a sheath of hardened sebaceous matter. 
Also, tlie topical ihrcad-like form assumed 
by certain species of bacteria of the order 
Sell izvmyeetes. 

Lep'ra [Xenpa, a leper). Leprosy. F^le- 
pliaiitiasis Gnvcorum. Leontiasis. Psori- 
asis. An endemic, chronic, and highly 
malignant disease, somewhat analogous to 
sy]ihilis in pathological character. Preva- 
lent in Europe and Asia, especially along 
the Mediterranean shores. Rare in Korth 
America, except on Pacific coast. A con- 
stitutional disease preceded by malaise, 
debility and languor, ft)llowed by character- 
i>tic bullous, macular, or tubercular lesions 
of the skin. L., Tuberculated, charac- 
terized by massive infiltrations and the 
formation of tui)ereles, connnonly on the 
face, breasts, scrotum and penis. L., 
Non-tuberculated, a form of the disease 
characterized by macular patches that 
spread peri])hera!ly, until much or the 
whole of the skin is involved. In later 
.stages the disca.se extends into the subcu- 
taneous tissues, muscles and bones, re>ult- 
ing in disarticulation and destruction of the 
joints of the fingers and toes. This form 
of leprosy is nearly always marked i)y 
anaslhesia of the |iarts involved. L., 
Mixed Tuberculated, involves l)Oth 
fonns of thedisea.se. There is very .strong 
evidence in favor of the contagious ih.ir- 
acler of the disea.se, and, also, that it is 
intimately connected with the develop- 
niint of a six'cifie baiiiliis. 

Lepropht hal'm ia (//t/u/, i»i>lln?/ior, 
the eye). Ophthalmia of a leprous cliar- 
acter. 

Lep'rosy. See I.e/ra. 



LEPTANDRA 



236 



LEUCOCYTOSIS 



Leptan^dra. Culver's Root. The rhizome 
and rootlets of L. virginica. Properties 
thought to be due to a glucoside, leptan- 
drin. A tonic, laxative, and cholagogue. 
Indicated in indigestion and chronic con- 
stipation. Dose of the ext. gr. j-iij, of 
the fld. ext. n\^xx-_:^j. 

Lep^to- (^igTrrof, thin, small, slender). A 
Greek prefix, signifying small or slender. 

Leptoceph^alic, or 

Leptoceph''alous (?.eT-of, Ke(pa7vTj, head). 
Having an abnormally small head. 

Leptoceph^alus. A monstrosity with an 
abnormally small head. 

Leptomeningi''tis [lETrTog,fir]viy^, a mem- 
brane). Inflammation of the pia and 
arachnoid of the brain and the spinal cord, 
in contradistinction to Pachymeningitis, 
though meningitis alone usually signifies 
the same as leptomeningitis. See Menin- 
gitis. L. Cerebralis, an inflammation, 
confined usually to the pia mater of the 
convex siuface of an anterior lobe of the 
cerebram. L. Spinalis, any inflamma- 
tion of the pia mater of the spinal cord. 

Lep^torhine. See Index. 

Lep^tothrix (XzTtroq, Opi^, a hair). A 
genus of the family Bactei-iacces, whose 
elements form straight filaments, often of 
great length. Possibly indistinguishable 
from the genus Bacillus. The only L. 
studied is L. Buccalis, very common in 
the mouth, playing a large part in the for- 
mation of dental tartar and the production 
of caries of the teeth. L. Gigantea, found 
in tartar of the teeth. 

Lep'tus Autumna''lis. Harvest Bug. 
Mower's Mite. A parasite that burrows 
under the skin, causing lesions similar to 
those of itch. 

Le^sion [Irdo, to hurt). Any injury, hurt 
or wound in any part of the body. In 
pathology, any morbid change. L. of 
Continuity, a division or break in any 
part that is normally continuous. L. of 
Nutrition, any pathological alteration in 
the capillary system, consisting of increase 
or decrease in the amount of blood required 
for assimilation and absoiption. 

Lc'thal (/l7/ff//, a forgetting). Deadly. Per- 
taining to or producing death. 

Leth^argy {/'if^i). A condition of drowsi- 
ness or stupor that cannot be overcome by 
the will. See, also, Somnambulism. L,., 
African. See African Lethargy. 

Let^tuce. See Lactucarium. 

Leucae^mia. See LciicocytJuvmia. 

Leucas''mus, Acquired. See Leuco- 
derma. 



Leuchae''mia. See Leucocytha:7nia. 

Leu''cin (Aewf^f, white). A crystalline 
substance probably identical with amido- 
caproic acid, occurring in the pancreas, 
spleen, thymus gland and other parts of 
the body. It is a product of pancreatic 
digestion. 

Leu''co- (Zemof). A Greek prefix signify- 
ing white. 

Leu''coblast. See Lencocyte. 

Leu^cocyte (AEiwof, kvtoq, cell). The col- 
orless or white corpuscles of the blood, 
probably derived from the lymph glands, 
and also from the spleen and marrow. 
Similar corpuscles are found in many other 
tissues, and appear thickly wherever in- 
flammation is set up. They are without 
envelope, and are capable of amoeboid 
movements. Tliey average about 25^^ ^^ 
an inch in diameter, but three classes are 
differentiated : The small, with one or two 
nuclei, and a small amount of protoplasm ; 
those the size of the red corpuscles ; the 
large amoeboid, with much protoplasm. A 
phagocytic function has been ascribed to 
them. They are divided into two kinds, 
leucoblasts and erythroblasts, the latter 
transformed into colored blood corpuscles 
in the spleen and bone marrow. 

Leucocythae''mia (Afi'/iof, Kvrog, hollow, 
aiiia, the blood). A disease of the blood- 
making organs, characterized by an abnor- 
mal increase of the number of white cor- 
puscles, together with enlargement of the 
spleen, lymphatics, and disease of the me- 
dullaiy substance of the bone. The liver 
and kidneys are also sometimes involved. 
The etiology is obscure ; the haemoglobini- 
zation of the leucocytes does not take place, 
and hence the increase of untransformed 
white corpuscles. Anaemia, breathlessness, 
muscular lassitude, hemorrhages, retinal 
and other pain in bones, etc., are the most 
frequent symptoms. See Charcot-Robin 
Crystals. 

Leucocytogen^esis (Ievko^, yevvau, to 
beget). The formation of white corpuscles 
in the blood. 

Leucocyto'mata [levKoq, K.vTog, a hollow). 
A word used to include all tumors contain- 
ing cellular growths similar in constitution 
to the white corpuscles of the blood, such 
as tubercle, lupus, lepra, etc. 

Leucocyto'sis (Ariwof, Kvrog). A tran- 
sient increase in the number of white cor- 
puscles in the blood, not accompanied, 
as in leucocythnemia, by splenic and glan- 
dular enlargement or disease of the bone 
marrow. 



LEUCODERMA 



237 



LEUCOPATHIA 



Leucodef'ma (Pfivcof , while, depfta, skin). 
\'itiligo ; ac'|uircd Icucasmus ; leuco- 
patliia ; piebald skin. An acquired dis- 
ease marked by the existence and growth 
of white patches with iiTegular rounded 
borders of darker skin. L., Congenital, 
see AlHnism. 

Leu'coline. See Chinolina. 

Leuco'ma (/maoc). An opacity of the 
cornea the result of an ulcer, wound, or in- 
flammation, and giving it the ajijiearance 
of ground gla^s. 

Leu'comaines [/^vKufia, white of egg). 
" Uasic substances found in the living 
tissues either as the products of fermenta- 
tive changes or of retrograde metamor- 
phosis." Bouchard and SchSr believe 
they are generated in the intestinal tract 
and absorL)ed thence into the system. They 
are divided into two groups, according to 
tlieir relations with the analogue chosen as 
a tyix: : the Uric Acid Group comprises 
Adenine, IljiHjxanilune, Guanine, Xan- 
thine, llctero.xanthine, Para-xanthine, Car- 



mine, Pseudoxanthine, and Spermine. The 
Creatinine Group comprises Cruso- 
creatinine, Xanthocreatinine, Amphicre- 
atinine and two unnamed bases. Among 
yet undetermined Icuconiaines are bases 
known to exist in expired air, and animal 
exhalations. The aqueous extract of 
vajxDrs exhaled by dogs has been Riund to 
cause death w ilhin 24 hours, when injected 
into the veins of other animals. The same 
violent poison is said to produce pulmonary 
phthisis in contined air by contiimous in- 
fluence. Sewer-air is thought to contain a 
kinilred poison. The Icuconiaines of the 
saliva are also yet undetemiined — though 
it is known that normal saliva contains 
several toxic substances, and that the 
aqueous solution of saliva at 100° poisons 
or narcotizes birds. The leucomalnes of 
the venom of poisonous snakes are also 
still undetermined. There are, also, 
several undetermined leucomalnes of urine 
and of animal tissues. The following 
table is from \'aughan : — 



TABLE 


OF LEUCOMAINES. (VAUGHAN 


AND NOVN.) 


NAME. 


1 

FORMULA. 


DISCOVERER. 


SOURCE. 


PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. 


Adenine. 


CsH.N, 


Kossel. 


Nuclein-containing or- 
Rans. 


Non-poisonous. Muscle- 
stinuilant. 


Hypoxanthine. 


C.H.N.O 


Scherer. 


Nuclirin-containing or- 
gans. 


Non-poisonous. Muscle- 
stitnulaiu. 


Guanine. 


C.H.N.O 


L'ligel. 


Nuclein-containing or- Non-poisonous. Muscle- 
gans; Guano. stinuilant. 


Xanthine. 


C.H.N.O, 


Marcet. 


Nuclein-coiUaining or- Non-poisonous. Muscle- 








gans; Calculi. 


stimulant. 


Hcleroxanthine. 


C.H.N.O, 


Salomon. 


Urine. 




Paraxanthinc. 


C,H,N«0, 


Thuiiichum, 
Salomon. 


II 




Camine. 


C,H,N\0, 


Wcidcl. 


Licbig's Meat Extract. Not known to be poison- 










ous. Muscle slimulauL 


Pseudoxanthine (?) 


C^H.N.O 


Gautier. 


Muscle. 




Sinrrniiiic. 


C,H.N 


Schrcincr. 


Spcrma. In tissues of 
Icucocylha-mics. 




Cruso-creatinine. 


C.H.N.O 


Gautier. 


Muscle. 




XaTitho-crcatiiiine. 


C.M.oN'iO 


II 


II 


Poisonous. 


Ainiihi-crcaiinc. 


C.H,.N,0. 


tt 


II 




L'nitamed. 


C,,H,.N,„0. 


II 


■1 




II 


C,H.,N.(>, 
CjM.NO, 


II 
Pouchct. 


II 
Urine. 




II 




II 





* Leuco'matous {7 rvKuftn). Having the 

nature of Icucoma. Affecte<l with hucoma. 

LeucomycIi''ti8 {'/ivKor, /tvi'/nr, marrow). 

Inflammation of the me<lullary .substance 

of the spinal cord. 

Leuconecro'sis {?JVKnr, vrKftuntr, death). 
A fonn of dr)' gangrene, disliiiguisln-d by 
light or nearly n.itural color instc ad of the 
Usual dark color of gangrene. 



Leuconos''toc. A genus of the family of 
C'occacees having its eKim'nts dis|><)St-d in 
chains and envek)iH(l in a slieath nf tnugh 
jelly. L. Mesenteroides, abundant in 
molasses, l>eet root juice, and in sugar 
relineries. 

Lcucopath'ia {'/ivhuv, -^rdHor, suffeiing). 
Albinism. L., Congenital. SvvA//ini\»k 
L., Acquired. See l.cucodcniia. 



LEUCOPHLEGMASIA 



238 



LIEBIG 



Leucophlegma'sia [TievKog, (pXeyjua, 
phlegm). A condition marked by a ten- 
dency to dropsy, accompanied by a pale, 
flabby skin, and general oedema of the 
whole body. Also, subcutaneous emphy- 
sema. 

Leucopla''sia [XevKog, TrXaaig, formation). 
A name given to formations of white spots 
or plates on the epidermis and epithelium. 

Leucorrhce^a [TievKog, pEu, to flow). An 
ailment characterized by a mucopurulent 
discharge from the female genital canal, 
attended with catairhal inflammation. The 
pus is usually filled with Trickoinonas vagi- 
nalis, a large rod-like bacterium, in addi- 
tion to the various species of leptothrix and 
micrococcus normally present. According 
to the secreting part it is termed, cervical, 
uterine, vaginal, vulvar, etc. 

Leuco^ses (/iev/cof). Diseases of the lym- 
phatic system. 

Leuco'sis {XtvKoq'). Abnormal whiteness 
of the skin. Also, the development and 
progress of leucoma. 

Leukae^mia. See Leucocyihivmia. 

Leu^kocyte. See Leucocyte. 

Leukocyto'sis. See Leucocytosis. 

Leukoder^ma. See Leucoderma. 

Leukoplak^ia (AfVKOf , TT/laf , a flat surface). 
Certain white fungoid patches, sometimes 
forming on the dorsum of the tongue and 
mucous surface of the cheeks and lower 
lip. 

Leu''sin. A crystalline body found in 
brain-tissue. 

Levant^ Wormseed. See Santonica. 

Leva^tor {Icvo, to lift). That which 
raises. A name given to several muscles. 
See Muscle. 

Levatc'res Costa'' rum. See Muscle. 

Leviga-'tion [Icvigo, to make smooth). The 
trituration of a substance made into a 
paste with water or other liquid. When 
perfomied with a muUer on a slab of por- 
phyry it is called porphyrization. 

Lev^ulose. The natural sugar of fruits. 
See Sugar and Glucose. 

Ley^den Battery. A series of Leyden 
jars connected tandem. 

Leyden Jar. A glass jar coated within 
and without with tinfoil, reaching nearly 
to the neck, and suiTnounted by a knobbed 
conductor connecting with the inner coat- 
ing. It is designed for the temporary 
"accumulation" of electricity, or rather 
for the preservation of the high potential 
to which the inner foil may be charged. 
It is discharged by connecting the outer 
foil with the knob. 



Lia''tris Odoratis''sima. Southern Va- 
nilla. Contains ciintarin, the flavoring 
principle of the tonka bean. Unof. 

Libid^inous [Jibidinosus, lustful). Char- 
acterized by strong sexual desire. 

Li^bra [libra). A weight of twelve troy 
ounces, or 5760 grains. Also, applied to 
the avoirdupois pound of sixteen ounces, 
or 70CX) grains. 

Lice. See Louse. 

Li^cense [licentio). An official permit or 
authority conferring on the holder the right 
and privilege of exercising his profession. 

Licen^tiate [licentio). A term sometimes 
applied to a person who practices a pro- 
fession by the authority of a license. 

Li^chen {leixTiv, a lichen). A term now 
restricted to those diseases in which in- 
flammatory papulae undergoing no change 
are the main feature of the disease. L. 
Ruber, an inflammatory disease marked 
by pin-head or pea-sized papules, which 
may be smooth, but more often scaly, and 
deep red. May be discrete or confluent. 
The most common form in the U. S., known 
as L. ruber, or planus, is distinguished by 
angular spots. The acuminate form, L. 
Acuminatum, is rare. L. Scrofulosus, 
characterized by small and chronic inflam- 
matory, red papules, usually arranged in 
circles, and occumng in scrofulous subjects. 
According to Van Harlingen it is rarely 
met with in the U. S. L. Pilaris. See 
Keratosis Pilaris. L. Simplex. See 
Eczema. L. Spinulosis. See Kerato- 
sus pilaris. L. Tropicus. See Milia- 
ria. 

Licheni''asis. The condition of one af- 
fected by the disease lichen. 

Li'chenold of the Tongue. A peculiar 
chronic and spreading rash of the tongue, 
at first appearing in light crescentic bands 
The etiology is obscure. 

Lid. See Eyelid. 

Lic'ben's Test (for acetone in the urine). 
Acidulate with hydrochloric acid and distill. 
When treated with tincture of iodine and 
ammonia there is a turbidity, due to the 
formation of iodoform. 

Lie^berkiihn's Jelly. An alkali-albumin 
produced by the action of strong caustic 
potash upon egg-albumin. 

Lie'bermann's Reac^tion. A test for 
proteids. A violet-red color is obtained by 
boiling animal proteids with concentrated 
hydrochloric acid. 

Lie^big. A celebrated German physiolo- 
gist. L.'s Beet Tea, the soluble extrac- 
tive matter of lean meat. It is prepared by 



LIEN 



239 



LIGHT 



macerating a pound of lean meat, free from 
fat and cut into small pieces, in a pint of 
cold water, in which Ttlxxx of hydro- 
chloric acid and gr. xl of scxlium chloride 
have l>een dis.-olved. The liquid is ex- 
pressed and strained. L.'s Bouillon. 
See Bouillon. L.'s Extractum Carnis, 
a proprietary preparation, consisiing ol the 
soluble librin of meat with the natural 
mineral salts and a flavoring principle os- 
ma/!ome. L.'s Infant Food, a proprie- 
tary subjtance, having the following com- 
jxisition : wheat Hour, malt tlour, aa 3 ss, 
potassium bicarl)onate gr. vij, distilled 
water _^j, cow's milk ^^ v, mix thoroughly 
and l>oil. L.'s Method. See Urea. 

Li'en (I.at.). The spleen. 

Lienomala'cia ^^//Vw, ^laf.aKia, softening). 
Softening of the tissue of the spleen of a 
morbid character. 

Li'entery (/.f/of, smooth, ei'repor, an in- 
testine). A kind of diarrhtta in which 
the food passes rapidly through the bowels 
without undergoing digestion. 

Life (Sax. ///"). The force or principle 
underlying or causing the phenomena of 
organized beings. The power by which 
an organism exists and exercises self-move- 
ments in response to emotions or sensations 
and adapts itself to its environment. L., 
Change of, that jieriod in the life of a 
female at which menstruation ceases. L., 
Duration of. See Probable. 

Life Everlasting. Cud weed. The 
herbs Gtitiphiiliunt mari^antaceuin and G. 
polycephalum. Tonic, astringent and ano- 
dyne. A domestic remedy of some repute 
in affections of the chest and bowels. 
Dose of a decoction ad lib. ; of the lid. ext. 
TT\^xv-:5J. Unof. 

Life Root. Ragwort. The herb Senecio 
aureus gathered in flower. Expectorant 
and tonic. Formerly ased by the Indians 
as a vulnerary ; a favorite remedy of tiie 
eclectic jjractitioners. Dose of a decoction 
ad lib. ; of fld. ext. tT\_xxx-3J. Unof. 

Life Table. A table constructed to .show 
the numi)er and ages of the living, and the 
numl)cr and ages of tin- dying in a com- 
munity or sfK-iely. Halley's, the earliest 
English tai'le, was constructed in the 
second half of the iSth Century, and sug- 
gested De Mf)wre's Hy]xjtiicsis (q. t».). 
Price's Northampton L. T. was ased 
by the Iv)uitaMt l.ilc .\ssurance < o, u|K/n 
its establishment in 1762. These tallies 
were not construi ted by a compari.son of 
the deaths and the living at each age, 
but from the deaths only, and since births 



and deaths are not equal, and since migra- 
tion also disturbs the stationariness of 
population, these tables are not correct, as 
they overstate the mortality of young adults 
ancl tlo not dissociate males and females. 
Dr. Farr constructed three English L. T., 
de>ignated respectively, Nos. i, 2 and 3, 
and various other tables have been made, 
called the Healthy Districts, the Upper 
Class Experience, the Healthy Males, 
the Clerical Experience Tables, etc. 
The last notewortliy table is the New 
English L. T., by Dr. t)gle, that starts 
with a million males and a million females 
and shows the number surviving at each 
age, and the mean exj^ectation of life at 
each age. 

Lig'ament (Jigo, to bind). A band of 
flexible, compact membranous tissue con- 
necting the articular ends of the bones, 
sometimes enveloping them with a capsule. 
L., Poupart's, the crural arch or lower 
border of the aponeurosis of the external 
oblique muscle. L., Gimbernat's, that 
part of the aponeurosis of the external 
oblique muscle which is reflected down- 
ward and outward, toward the os pubis. 
Also called the third insertion of Poupart's 
gland. L. of Zinn. See Zonula. 

Liga'tion {Hgo'). The operation of tying; 
used especially of arteries. L. of Cord, 
applying a ligature aliout the umbilical 
cord of the newborn child. 

Lig'ature {Jigo). A cord or thread of any 
material for tying arteries, etc. L., 
Animal, made from sheep or catgut, the 
tendons or sinews of various animals, etc. 
L., Antiseptic, rendered free from infec- 
tive material by soaking and cleansing with 
germicidal solutions. L., Intermittent, 
the tourniquet, relaxed at times. L., 
Lateral, partial occlusion only of the 
lumen by a loose ligature. L., Metallic, 
made of silver or other metal. 

Light (Sax. led/it). That form of ethereal 
vibration or undulation which, when im- 
])inging u])on the retina, produces the 
sen.sation of vision. L., Diffused, that 
reflected simultaneously from an inlinite 
number of surfaces, or that has been scat- 
tered by means of a concave mirror or 
lens. L., Dispersion of. See /,., .S/'cc- 
trum of. L., Electric, that prcxluced by 
the |)a.s.sage of electricity through a me- 
dium having liigli resistance, such as the 
carbon lihn of the im aiidescent, or the in- 
terval of air between the carbons of the arc 
light, the medimn of high resistance iieing 
heated to whiteness. L., Monochro- 



LIGHTNING 



240 



LINE 



matic, that which, on being analyzed by 
a prism, consists approximately of waves 
of one length only. L., Reflection of, 
that property by which a ray of light strik- 
ing an object rebounds, or is bent back. 
Rays falling on a plane surface are re- 
flected at an angle equal to that of the 
incident ray. Objects are perceived by the 
light reflected by them. L., Refraction 
of, that property by which a ray or pencil 
of light, when passed through a prism, is 
bent out of its course. Refraction occurs 
when a ray of light passes through media 
of differing densities. L., Spectrum of, 
a name given to a ray of light that has 
been decomposed, its primary component 
parts unequally refracted and projected 
upon a screen. See Wave-Lengths. 
Lightening. An atmospheric discharge of 
electricity. In the form commonly known 
as "chain" or "bolt" lightning, the elec- 
tricity has an extremely high potential, and 
a stroke under such circumstances is in- 
variably fatal when the discharge passes 
through a living body. The form known 
as "sheet" lightning is a "brush" dis- 
charge of low potential, and harmless. L^ 
Pains, the sharp, momentary pains occur- 
ring in tabes. 

Lig^neous {lignis, wood). Having the 
nature of wood. 

Lig^num Vi''tae. See Guaiacum. 
Lig^ula (dim. of lingua, a tongue). A 
little tongue. Also, a name given to the 
tongue of an articulate. Also, a genus of 
cestoid worms. See Lingula. 
Li^lac. The leaves and fruit of Syninga 
vulgaris. A bitter tonic with reputed anti- 
periodic properties. Unof. 
Lily of the Valley. See Convallaria 

Majalis. 
Limb (Sax, lim, a twig). An arm or leg. 
An organ of prehension or locomotion. L., 
Artificial, a mechanical substitute for an 
arm or a leg. L. Plexus, the supposed 
rearrangement of nerve-strands so as to 
connect nerves derived from different parts 
of the spinal cord with particular groups of 
muscles. 
Lim'bus {limlms, a border). A border or 
hem. The circumferential edge of any flat 
organ or part. L. Corneae, the edge of 
the cornea at its juncture with the sclerotic 
coat. 

Lime (Per. litnu, a lemon). The fruit of 
several species of Citrus. L. Juice, the 
juice of the lemon or lime. Should con- 
tain, when bottled, a small percentage of 
sulphurous acid to prevent fermentation. 



Lime. The popular name for calcium 
oxide, CaO (quick lime), and calcium 
hydrate, Ca(HO). 

Limbic {Tuijioq, hunger). Pertaining to 
hunger. 

Lim^inal Inten''sity. ^&q Fechner's Laiu. 
Lim^itans, or 

Lim^iting. Bounding. L. Membrane, 
the thin membrane on which the epithe- 
lial tissue of the various glands rests. 
Limitro'phic {limitropiis, a name given 
to Roman lands furnishing subsistence to 
soldiers). Remak's name for the great 
ganglionic cord of the sympathetic nerve- 
system. 
Limnomephi''tis (liiivrj, a pond, mephi- 
tis, a noxious odor). A general name for 
noxious odors arising fi-om marshy ground 
or swamps. 

Li'mon (gen. limonis^. Lemon. The fruit 
of Citrus limonwn. Of the same genus as 
the orange and the lime. The rind contains 
a volatile oil identical in structure with oil 
of turpentine. The pulp yields about 7 per 
cent, of citric acid, which has about the 
same properties as acetic acid, but has 
much value as a refrigerant and antiscor- 
butic. The expressed juice is largely em- 
ployed as a refrigerant drink in fevers. 
L. 01., the volatile oil. Dose 1i\j-v. L. 
Syr., lemon juice 40, lemon peel 2, sugar 
60, water q. s. ad loo. L. Spt., "essence 
of lemon," 6 parts of oil and 4 of peel in 
90 parts of alcohol. Acidi Citrici, Syr., 
citric acid, water, aa 8, spt. lemon 4, water 
980. 
Limoph''thisis (/l^uof, hunger, 0&<(Tif, wast- 
ing). The wasting of the body due to pri- 
vation and lack of food. 
Limopsc'ra [hfiog, ipupa). A kind of 
scabies (or pruritus?) asserted to attack 
man and other animals after long priva- 
tion from food. 
Limo^sis (ilz/zof). Unnatiu-al appetite. 
Also, a name given to a class -of diseases 
distinguished by depraved appetite. 
Limother^apy {Itfioq, Oepaneia). The 
treatment of disease by partial or total de- 
privation of food. 

Line {linum, athreadof flax). In geometry, 
that extension of dimension which has 
length, but neither breadth nor thickness. 
Also, the -^^ part of an inch. In anatomy, 
an imaginary conventional boundary or 
guide-mark. L., Axillary, a vertical 
line drawn through the anterior fold of the 
axilla. L., Blue, or L., Burton's, the 
gingival line. L., Curved, of Ilium, 
projecting curved lines on the dorsum of 



LINEA 



241 



LINI 



the ilium. L., Curved, of Occiput, pro- 
jecting lines arching outward on each side 
of the occijntal protuberance. L., Facial, 
the line joining the most prominent part 
of the forehead with the alveolar process 
of the upjier jaw. L., Focal, the meri- 
dional or a.\is line of a cone of light-rays. 
L., Holden's, a sulcus below the fold of 
the groin, starting from the femoro-scrotal 
furrow, and dying away between the 
great trochanter and sujx^rior iliac spine. 
It crosses the middle of the capsule of the 
hip. Ls., Incremental, wavy lines of 
dentine granules traversing the dentine of 
a tooth, showing its stages of growtli. L., 
Internal Supracondyloid, the lower ex- 
tension of the inner angle of the shaft of 
the humerus, to which the intermuscular 
septum is attached. Ls., Lizars', a line 
joining the posterior iliac spine and a ]X)int 
midway between the tuber ischii and the 
great trochanter; also a line from the 
posterior iliac sjjine to the inner point of 
trisection of a line between the tuber and 
the trochanter. The upper point of trisec- 
tion of the former indicates the emergence 
of the gluteal artery ; tlie middle of the latter, 
the six)t where the sciatic artery leaves the 
pelvis. L., Mammary, a vertical line 
drawn through tlie nipple. Ls., Median, 
Anterior and Posterior, the lines whose 
plane divides the body into symmetrical 
lateral halves. L., Nelaton's, the line 
passing across the middle of the acetabu- 
lum and over the top of the trochanter, 
joining the superior spine and tuber ischii. 
L., Parasternal, a line separating the 
median from tlie lateral regions of the 
thorax. Ls., Sternal, vertical lines dropped 
from the sternal ends of the clavicles, one 
on each side. L., Thompson's, a red 
line of vascular tissue along the margin of 
the gums, frequently noticeai^le in phtliisis. 
Lin'ea (I^at.). An imaginary or real line 
use<l as an anatomical boundary or guide- 
mark. L. Alba, the median fusion of the 
tendons of the alxioininal mascles, extend- 
ing from the mcta^lc^lUIn to the pui)es. 
L. Albicantis, certain irregular glistening 
slri.e often observed in the skin after child- 
birth. L. Aspera, the narrow, prominent 
buttress ridge along tli<.- hinder a•^IH•ct 
of the femur. L. Cephalica, a line 
of the palm of the hand, extending 
from the level of the metacari)0-phalan- 
gcal joint to the middle of the fifth 
metaciiq>al. L. Hepatica, a vertical 
line of the jKilm of the hand, extending 
Lorn the rasccta to the vallecula uf the 
l6 



middle finger. L. Ilio-pectinea, or 
Ilio-pubi, a line forming the brim of the 
pelvic cavity. L.ae Nuchales Superi- 
ores, lines on l>oth sides of the occipital 
protuberance passing outward and becom- 
ing continuous with the hinder edge of the 
mastoid process. L. Quadrata, a faint 
line in the femur, descending from a small 
roughness vertically above the level of the 
lesser trochanter; it receives the insertion 
of the quadrati femoris. L. Semilunaris, 
a curved line, concave inward, extending 
from the cartilage of the eighth rib to the 
pubes; it marks the outer edge of the rec- 
tus abdominalis muscle. L. Solea, an 
obliciue line of the tibia at the attachment of 
the soleus muscle. L. Splendens, the 
line of pia mater substance along the an- 
terior median fissure of the spinal cord. L. 
Sterno-mastoides, a line drawn from 
the interval between the two heads of the 
sterno-mastoid to the mastoid process. 
L.ae Transversae, white depressed ab- 
dominal lines, one at the level of the um- 
bilicus; one opposite the tenth rib; and 
one at the seventh rib cartilage. They 
mark the lines of the tendinous intersection 
of the rectus abdominalis with its attach- 
ment to the overlying tendons. 

Lin'eament {/iiiea, a line). The outline 
of the face. Also, the outline of the cm- 
1 ir)o. 

Lin'ear [linca). A line. A twelfth part 
of an inch. L. Extraction. See Cata- 
ract. 

Lin'gam. See Phallus. 

Ling'ism. See Ling's System. 

Ling's System. A method of treatment 
of disease by gymnastic and other rhythmic 
movements of the body, employed by Ling, 
a Swedish ]:)hysician. 

Ling''ual. Sha{)ed like the tongue. Per- 
taining to the tongue. L. Bone. See 
J/yoid. 

Linguet'ta Lamino'sa. See Lini^iila. 

Lin'gula (dim. of liiii^na, a tongue). A 
transversely lamellose lobule between the 
valve of Vieussens and the central it)biiie 
of the cerebellum. Called, also, the Hit- 
gut-tta laminosti. Also, a thin, lamellated 
|iart of the petrous process of the sphenoid 
l)one. It is also called the li'xi'l', and 
also the procfssus f<,tiostt$ attficiis. L. 
Mandibularis, the prominent, thin scale 
of Ixine partly surrounding the largo fora- 
nun of the lower jaws; it scn'es as the 
attachment of the spheno-mandibuhu" liga- 
ment. 

Li'ni. I'l. oi liititm. 



LINIMENTUM 



242 



LISTERIAN METHOD 



Liniment^um [lino, to smear). A lini- 
ment. A thin, liquid ointment for external 
application, usually a solution of a medici- 
nal substance in an excipient of oil or oil 
mixtures. There are ten official liuimenta. 

Lin''seed. See Linuin. L. Oil. See 
Liniim. 

Lint {Jlnum, flax). A loosely woven or 
partly felted mass of broken linen fibres, 
made by scraping and " picking" old linen 
cloth. It is universally used as a dressing 
for wounds and raw surfaces. 

Lignum (Lat.). Flaxseed. Linseed. The 
seeds of L. tisitatissimitni^ the common 
flax plant, containing 30-40 per cent, of 
fixed (linseed) oil in embryo of seed, and 
15 per cent, of mucilage in epithelium. A 
demulcent, emollient and expectorant, use- 
ful in all inflammations of mucous mem- 
branes. L. 01., the fixed oil of flaxseed 
expressed cold, a glyceride of linoleic acid. 
Dose ^ss-ij. L. Infus., unof, "flaxseed 
tea," flaxseed ^iij, liquorice root '^],viZ.Xsx 
^x, infused four hours. Dose indefinite. 
Carron Oil, linseed oil emulsified in lime- 
water. 

Lio-myo''ma. See Myoma. 

Lipacidae'mia (/l^Trof, fat, acidiis, sour, 
aiiia, blood). The presence of fatty acids 
in the blood, with diminution of its alka- 
linity. 

Lipacidu''ria (A^Trof, aciJus, ovpov, urine). 
An excess of volatile fatty acids in the 
urine. 

Lipae''mia {^Xnrog, atfia). The presence 
of an emulsion of fine oil globules in the 
blood. 

Lip^'arocele (/IzTrapof, fat, «:?//l;/, a tumor). 
A tumor of the scrotum. 

Liparom''phalus (Aiirapof, o/i(palog, the 
navel). A fatty tumor situated at the 
navel, or involving the umbilical cord. 

Liparoscir^rhus [TiLirapog, OKippog, a can- 
cerous growth). A fatty, scirrhous tumor. 

Lip''arous {liirapoq). Fat. Obese. 

Lipemania. See Lypemania. 

Lipo'ma (Airrof, fat). A fatty tumor. 

Lipomatc'sis (AiTrof). The production of 
lipoma. 

Lip^pia. The leaves of L. mexicana. 
Demulcent and expectorant. Does not 
nauseate. Dose of the tincture 3 ss-j. 
Unof 

Lippitu''do [lippus, watery condition of the 
eyes). A condition marked by a moist and 
raw margin of the eyelids, which discharge 
purulent matter. 

Lips. The fleshy folds surrounding the 
orifice of the mouth. See also Labium. 



LiquefaC'tion {liqiiefacio, to change to 
liquid form). The condition of having 
been changed to a liquid. 

Liq^uid [liquo, to melt). That form of a 
substance in which the molecules are in a 
state intermediate between attraction and 
repulsion. Water between 0° and 100° C. 
is the best example. 

Li^quor (Lat.). A liquid. In pharmacy, 
any solution in water of non-volatile sub- 
stances, except infusions, decoctions, syrups, 
but including the solution of gutta-percha 
(in chloroform). There are 28 official 
Uqiiores. In anatomy, any fluid of the 
body. L. Amnii, the liquid in which the 
foetus lies. At the middle of pregnancy 
it equals in weight that of the fstus. If 
serves a number of useful functions, and 
in labor protects the foetus and cord from 
pressure, dilates the os and lubricates the 
genital canal. L. Cotunnii, the perilymph 
secreted by the fibro-serous membrane of 
the internal ear