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Full text of "A new medical dictionary: containing an explanation of the terms in anatomy ... and the various branches of natural philosophy connected with medicine"


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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

PRESENTED BY 

PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND 
MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID 







;V/2*>v 







QUINCY'S LEXICON-MEDICUM. 




A NEW 



CONTAINING AN 



EXPLANATION OF THE TERMS 



IX 




ANATOMY, || CHYMISTRY, 
PHYSIOLOGY, PHARMACY, 

PRACTICE OF PHYSIC, SURGERY, 

MATERIA MEDICA, 11 MIDWIFERY, 



D THE VARIOUS BRANCHES OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY CONNECTED 
WITH MEDICINE. 



SELECTED, ARRANGED, AND COMPILED, FROM 
THE BEST AUTHORS. 



" Nee aranearum sane texus ideo melior, quia ex se fila 
gignunt, nee noster vilior quia ex alienis libamus ut apes." 

JUST. LIPS. Monit. Pottt. Lib. i. cap. i. 



BY ROBERT HOOPER, M. D. 

OF THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD, AND THE RQYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS OF LONDON ; 
PHYSICIAN TO THE ST. MARY-I/E-BONE INFIRMARY, &C. &C. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

PUBLISHED BY M. CAREY & SON, BENJAMIN WARNER, AND EDWARD PARKER. 

1817. 
Griggs & Co. Printers: 






TO 

WILLIAM SAUNDERS, M.D. F.R.S 

FELLOW OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS ; 
OF THE ANTIQUARIAN AND OTHER SOCIETIES ; 

THIS WORK IS DEDICATED, 

AS A MARK OF RESPECT AND ESTEEM, 
BY HIS SINCERE FRIEND, 

THE AUTHOR. 



M372993 







I 



' 







PREFACE. 



TT HEN Dr. Quincy published the first edition of his Lexicon Me- 

i 

dicum, mathematical principles were generally adopted to explain the 
actions of the animal frame : hence we find in his work a continual 
recurrence to them. Since his time the functions of the animal econ- 
omy and the knowledge of anatomy have received successive im- 
provements, and the fashionable follies of mathematical explications 
have been reduced to their proper standard. To preserve the name 
which Dr. Quincy so deservedly obtained, and to render his work as 
useful as possible, such alterations and amendments were made in 
every following edition, as were suited to the doctrine of the times. 
It nevertheless has so happened, that his work, even in the thirteenth 
edition, contains very many of the absurdities of his day : The ana- 
tomical explanations are given in the language of the old schools, 
too often tedious, and abounding with every hypothesis ; the physi- 
ology of the human body has been almost wholly overlooked; and 
I all useful nosological descriptions omitted. Similar deficiences and 
useless exuberances occur in every other department of the work. 



PREFACE. 

When, therefore, the present editor was solicited to undertake its 
revision, he thought he could not do a more acceptable office to the 
public, than almost wholly new model it. With this view he has 
been careful to collect such information as may render the work 
generally useful. Particular attention has been paid to the deriva- 
tion of the terms, the anatomical description of the various parts, 
and the explanation of their functions ; the diseases are considered 
according to the most approved nosological arrangement, and their 
symptoms and distinctions clearly enumerated : the materia medica 
and the preparations, especially those which enter the last edition of 
the London Pharmacopoeia, have been amply considered ; the im- 
provements of modern Chymistry every where introduced, and the 
terms in Surgery, Midwifery, Medical Botany, and other Branches 
of Natural Philosophy, as far as connected with Medical Science, 
have been fully treated. In doing this, the editor has availed himself 
of the labours of the most eminent writers on the different branches 
of medicine, and has made such extracts, abridgments, translations, 
and selections, as the extent of the work would admit. It was his 
original intention to have given to each writer the merit of the par- 
ticular description selected from his work ; but having occasion to 
consult, frequently to abridge, and sometimes to alter various pas- 
sages in works connected with his subject : and finding it difficult, 
and in many instances impossible to discover the original writer of 
several articles ; and at the same time attended with no particular 
advantage, he prefers making a general acknowledgment of bis obli- 
gations than to particularize the respective labours of each individual. 



PREFACE. 

The following have principally contributed toelucida tethe several sub- 
jects. Jlccum, Mken, Minus, Bell, Bergius, Blanchard, Burns, Burseri- 
us, Callisen, Castelli, Ctiaptal, Cooper, Cruickshank, Cullen, Denman, 
Duncan, Edinburgh Dispensatory, Endinburgh Encyclopaedia, Editors 
ofMotherby's Dictionary, Four croy, Green, Haller, Hunter, Innes,Latta, 
Lavoisier, Lewis, Linnceus, Meyer, Murray, Nicholson, Pott, Richerand, 
Richter, Saunders, Sauvage, Scarpa, Smith, Soemmering, Swediaur, 
Symonds, Thomas, Thomson, Turton, Vaughan, Vossius, Willan, Wil- 
lich's Encyclopaedia, Wilson, WoodvilU. 









Jw 









A NEW 




J\_ A A. ANA. (From ava, which signi- 
fies of each.) A term in pharmacy. 

It is never used but after the mention of 
two of mure ingredients, when it implies, 
that the quantity mentioned of each ingre- 
dient should he taken ; e. g. g*. Potassx 
iiitratis : Sacchari albi aa ^j . i. e. Take the 
nitrate of potash and white sugar, of each 
one drachm. 

ABAM. A term used by some ancient 
chy mists for lead. 

ABACTUS. Abigeatus. Among the an- 
cient physicians, this term was used for a 
miscarriage, procured by art, or force of 
medicines, in contradistinction to abortus, 
which meant a natural miscarriage. The 
moderns know no such distinctions. 

ABACUS. (From a Hebrew word, signi- 
fying dust.) A table for preparations, so 
called from the usage of mathematicians 
of drawing their figures upon tables sprin- 
kled with dust. 

Z\BAISIR. Jlbasis. Spodinm Jlrabum. 
Ivory black ; and also calcareous powder. 

ABALIENATIO. A decay of the body, or 
mind. 

ABALIKNATUS. Corrupted. A part so 
destroyed as to require immediate extirpa- 
tion ; also the fault or total destruction of 
the senses, whether external or internal, 
by disease. 

ABANET. (Hebrew, the girdle worn by 
the Jewish priests.) A girdle-like bandage. 

ABANOA. Adi/. The palm of the Tsknd 
of St. Thomas, from which Thernal's re- 
storative is prepared. 

ABAPTISTA. (From ., priv. et @*.7f]u, 
to plunge.) Abaptiston. The shoulders of 
the old trepan. This term is employed by 
Galen, Fabricius ab Aquapendente, Sculte- 
tus, and others, to denote the conical saw 
with a circular edge, (otherwise called mo- 
diolus, or terebra,) which w:is formerly 
used by surgeons to perforate the cranium. 

ABAPTISTOX. See Jlbaptista. 

ABARNAHAS. Ovum rujfum. A chemi- 
cal term formerly used in the transmuta- 
tion of metals, signifying luna plena, mag- 
lies, or magnesia. 



ABARTAMEX. Plumbum, or lead. 

ABARTICULATION. (From ab, and arti- 
culus, a joint.) That species of articulation 
which has evident motion. See Diarthrosis. 

ABAS. N (An Arabian word.) The scald" 
head ; also epilepsy. 

ABASIS. See Jlbaisir. 

ABBREVIATION. The principal uses of 
medicinal abbreviations are in prescrip- 
tions ; in which they are certain marks, OP 
half words, used by physicians for despatch 
and conveniency when they prescribe, thus : 
readily supplies the place Q? recipe 
h. s. that of ' hora somni n. m. that of nvx 
moschata elect, that of electarium, Sec. ; 
and in general all the names of compound 
medicines, with the several ingredients, are 
frequently wrote only up to their first or 
second syllable, or sometimes to their third 
or fourth, to make them clear and expres- 
sive. Thus Croc, Jlnglic. stands for Crocus 
*%ngkcanus' Conf. Jlromat. for Confectio 
Jlromatica, &c. A point bi ing always pla- 
ced at the end of such syllable shews the 
word to be incomplete. 

ABDOMEN. (From abdo, to hide, be- 
cause it hides the viscera. It is also deri- 
ved from abdere, to hide, and amentum^ the 
caul ; and by others it is said to be only a 
termination, as from lego, legumen, so from 
abdo. abdomen ) The belly. 

The abdomen is the largest cavity in the 
body, bounded superiorly by the diaphragm 
by which it is separated from the chest ; 
inferiorly by the bones of the pubis and 
ischiurn ; on each side by various muscles, 
the short r.bs and oss'i ilii , anteriorly by 
the abdominal muscles, and posteriorly by 
the vertebrae of the loins, the os sacrum and 
os coccygis. Internally it is invested by a 
smooth membrane called peritoneum, and 
externally by muscles and common integu- 
ments. 

In the cavity of the abdomen are con- 
tained, 

1. Jlnterioriy and laterally. 

1. The epiploon. 2. The stomach. 
3. The large and small intestines. 4. The 
mesentery, 5. The lacteal vessels, 6. The 



ADD 



ABO 



pancreas. 7. The spleen. 8. The liver 
and gall-bladder 

Posteriorly, without the, peritoneum, are, 

1. The kidneys. 2. The supra-renal 
glands. 3. The ureters. 4. The recepta- 
culum chyli. 5. The descending aorta. 
6. The ascending vena cava. 
3. Inferiorly in the pelvis, and without the 

peritoneum, 

In men, 1. The urinary bladder. 2. The 
spermatic vessels. 3. The intestinum rec- 
tum. 

In women, beside the urinary bladder 
and intestinum rectum, there are, 

1. The uterus. 2. The four ligaments of 
the uterus. 3. The two ovaria. 4. The 
two Fallopian tubes. 5. The vagina. 

The fore part of this cavity, as has been 
mentioned, is covered with muscles and 
common integuments, in the middle of 
which is the navel. It is this part of the 
body which is properly called abdomen ; it 
is distinguished, by anatomists, into regions. 

The posterior part of the abdomen is 
called the loins, and the sides the Epicolic 
regions. 

Abdominal Hernia. See Hernia Abikmi- 
nalis. 

Abdominal muscles. See Muscles. 

Abdominal ring. See Annulns Abdominis. 

Abdominal regions. See Regions. 

ABDUCENS LABIORUM. A name given by 
Spigelius to the levator anguli oris. See 
Levator anguli oris. 

Abducent nerves. See JVervi abdncentes. 
f Abducent Muscles. See Abductor. 

ABDUCTIO. (From abduco, to draw away.) 
A species of fracture, when a bone is divi- 
ded transversely near a joint, so that each 
part recedes from the other. In Ccelius 
Aurelianus it signifies a strain ; and is men- 
tioned as one of the causes of ischiadic and 
psoadic pains. 

ABDccTon. (From abduco, to draw 
away.) Abducent A name given to those 
muscles whose office is to pull Ix^ck or 
draw the member- to which it is affixed from 
some other, as the abductor pollicis draws 
the thumb from the fingers. The antago- 
nists are called adductores, or adductors. 

Abductor auricularis. See Posterior auris. 

Adductor auris. See Posterior auris. 

Abductor brevis alter. See Abductor pol- 
licis mantis. 

ABDUCTOR INDICIS MAN US. Ab- 
ductor of Douglas. Semi-interosseus indi- 
cts of Winslow. Adductor indicis of Cow- 
per. 

An internal interosseous muscle of the 
fore-finger, situated on the hand. It arises 
from the superior part of the metacarpal 
bone, and the os trapezium, on its inside, 
by a fleshy beginning, runs towards the 
metacarpal bone of the fore-finger, adheres 
to it, and is connected by a broad tendon 
to the superior part of the first phalanx of 
the fore-finger. Sometimes it arises by a 



double tendon. Its use is to draw tl; 
fore -finger from the rest, to\v"ai-cls th e 
thumb, and to bend it somewhat towards 
the palm. 

ABDUCTOR INDICIS PEDIS, An in- 
ternal interosseous muscle of the fore-toe, 
which arises tendinous and fleshy, by two 
origins, from the foot of the inside of the 
metatarsal bone of the fore-toe, from the 
outside of the root of the metatarsal bone 
of the great-toe, and from the os cuneiforme 
internum, and is inserted tendinous into the 
inside of the root of the first joint of the 
fore-toe. Its use is to pull the fore-toe in- 
wards, from the rest of the small toes. 

Abductor long us pollicis mantis. See Ex- 
tensor ossis metacarpi pollicis mantis. 

ABDUCTOR MEDII DIGITI PEDIS. 
An interosseous muscle of the foot, which 
arises tendinous and fleshy, from the inside 
of the root of the metatarsal bone of the 
middle toe internally, and is inserted tendi- 
nous, into the inside of the root oi'the first 
joint of the middle toe. Its use is to pull 
the middle toe inwards. 

ABDUCTOR MINIMI DIGITI MA- 
NUS. Carpo-phalangien du petit doigt of 
Dumas. Extensor tertii internodii minimi 
digiti of Douglas. Hypothenar minor of 
Winslow. 

A muscle of the little finger, situated on 
the hand. It arises fleshy from the pisiform 
bone, and from that part of the ligamentum 
carpi annnlare next it, and is inserted, ten- 
dinous, into the inner side of the upper end 
of the first bone of the little finger. Its use 
is to draw the little finger from the rest. 

ABDUCTOR MINIMI DIGITI PEi)IS. 
Calcaneo-phalangien du petit doigt of Du- 
mas. Adductor of Douglas. Parathenar 
major of Winslow, by whom this muscle ia 
divided into two, Paratltenar major and 
metutarseus. Adductor minimi digiti of 
Cowper. 

A muscle of the little toe, which arises 
tendinous and fleshy, from the semicircular 
edge of a cavity on the inferior part of the 
protuberance of the os calcis, and from the 
rest of the metatarsal bone of the little toe, 
and is inserted into the root of the first 
joint of the little toe externally. Its use is 
to bend the little toe, and its metatarsal 
bone, downwards, and to draw the little 
toe from the rest. 

ABDUCTOR OCULI. Adductor of Doug- 
las and Winslow. Orbito-ihtus-scleroticien, 
orbito-extus-sderoticien of Dumas. Rectua 
Adducens oculi of Albinus. Indignatorius, 
or the scornful muscle. Adducens Iracun- 
dus. See Rectus externus oculi. 

ABDUCTOR POLLICIS MA NUS. Sea- 
phosus'phnlanginien du ponce of Dumas. Ad- 
ductor pollicis mantis, and Adductor brevis 
alter of Albinus. Adductor thenar Riolani 
of Douglas, (the adductor brevis alter of Al- 
binus is the inner portion of this muscle.) 
Adductor pollicis of Co wpe r. 



ABl 



ABO 



A muscle of the thumb situated on the 
hand. It arises by a broad tendinous and 
fleshy beginning, from the ligamcntum carpi 
anmdare, and from the os trapezium, and 
is inserted tendinous into the outer side 
of the root of the first bone of the thumb. 
Its use is to draw the thumb from the fin- 
gers. 

ABDUCTOR POLLICIS PEDIS. Calca- 
neo-phalangien du pouce of Dumas. Abductor 
of Douglas. Thenar of Winslow. Abductor 
polKcis of Cowper. 

A muscle of the great toe, situated on the 
foot. It arises fleshy, from the inside of the 
root of the protuberance of the os calcis, 
where it forms the heel, and tendinous from 
the same bone, where it joins the os navicu- 
lure ; and is inserted tendinous into the in- 
ternal sesamoid bone and root of the 'first 
joint of the great toe Its use is to pull the 
great toe from the rest. 

ABDUCTOR TERTIF DIGITI PEDIS. 
An interosseous muscle of 'the foot, that 
arises tendinous and fleshy from the inside 
and the inferior part of the root of the me- 
tatarsal bone of the third toe ; and is insert- 
cd tendinous in to the inside of the root of the 
first joint of the third toe. Its use is to pull 
the third toe inwards. 

ABEB^OS. (From at, neg. and &&XJK 
firm.) Jlbebeus. Weak, infirm, unsteady A 
term made use of by Hippocrates de Signis. 
ABEB>EUS. See Abebaeos. 
ABELMOSCHUS. (Arabian.) Granum mos- 
chi. Mbschns Arabum. JEgyplia moschatu, 
Bamidmoschata. Alcea. Alcealndica. Alcea 
JEgytiaca "uillosa. _ Abretle, Abelmoscfi. Abel- 
musk. The seeds of a plant called the musk 
mallow, which have the flavour of musk. 
The plant Hibiscus abelmoschus of Linnaeus, 
is indigenous in Egypt, and in many parts 
of both the Indies. The best comes from 
Martinico. By the Arabians the seeds are 
esteemed cordial, and are mixed with their 
coffee, to which they impart their fragrance. 
In this country they are used by the perfu- 
mers. 

Abelm&sch. See Abelmoschus. 
Abelmusk, See Abelmoschus. 
ABEIIUATIO. (From ab and erro, to wan- 
der from.) Lusus nature. Dislocation. 

ABESSI. (Arabian.) Filth. The alvine ex- 
crements. 

ABESUM. Quicklime. 
ABEVACUATIO, (From ab, dim. and era- 
cuo t to pour out.) A partial or incomplete 
evacuation of the peccant humours, either 
naturally or by art. 

ABIES. (From abeo, to proceed, because 
it rises to a great height ; or from tar^ t 
a wild pear, the fruit of which its cones 
something resemble.) Elate T/teteia. The 
fir. An evergreen tree. Linnaeus includes 
the abies in the genus Pinus. Botanists have 
enumerated several species : the four which 
follow, are the principal that afford mate- 
rials for medicinal use. 



1. Pinus Picea, the silver fir-tree, which 
affords the common turpentine. 

2. Pinua abies alba, the Norway spruce 
fir-tree, which yields the Burgundy pitch. 

3. Pinus larix, the common white larch- 
tree, from which is obtained tlie Venice tur- 
pentine. 

4. Pinus sylvestris, the Scotch fir, which 
yields the pix liquida. 

ABIES CANADENSIS. See JBalsamum Ca- 
nadense. 

ABIGEATUS. See Abaclus. 
ABIOTOS. (From at, neg. and iS/oa>, to live.) 
A name given to hemlock, from its dead 
qualities. See Conium. 

ABLACTATIO. (From ab, from, and lac, 
milk.) Ablactation. The weaning of a child 
from the breast. 

ABLATIO. (From affero, to take away.) 
The taking away from the body whatever is 
useless or hurtful ; it comprehends all kinds 
of evacuations. Sometimes it signifies the 
subtraction of a part of the diet, with a 
medical view ; and sometimes it expresses 
the interval betwixt two fits of a fever, or 
the time of remission. 

Chymical ablation is the removal of any 
thing that is either finished or else no longer 
necessary in a process. 

ABLUENTIA (Abluentia, sc. medicamenta t 
from abluo, to wash away.) Abtttrgent*. 
Abluents. Medicines which were formerly 
supposed to purify or cleanse the blood. 

ABLUTION. (From abluo, to wash off.) 
A washing or cleansing either of the body or 
the intestines. 

In chemistry it signifies the purifying of 
a body, by repeated effusions of a proper 
liquor. 

ABOIT. An obsolete term of Arabic ex- 
traction for white lead. 

ABOLITIO. (From abaleo t to destroy.) The 
separation or destruction of diseased parts. 
ABORTION. ("Mortio, from aborior, to 
be steril.) Mourns. Jlmblosis. Diaphthora. 
Ectrosis. Eyambloma. Examblosis. JlpQ* 
pallesis. Jlpopalsis. JlpophtJiora. 

Miscarriage, or the expulsion of the fcctus 
from the uterus, before the seventh month, 
after which it is called premature labour. 
It most commonly occurs between the 
eighth and eleventh weeks of pregnancy, 
but may happen at a later period. In early 
gestation, the ovum sometimes comes ofF 
entire ; sometimes the foetus is first expell- 
ed, and the placenta afterwards. It is pre- 
ceded by flooding, pains in the back, loins, 
and lower part of the abdomen, evacuation 
of the water, si iiverings, palpitation of the 
heart, nausea, anxiety, syncope, subsiding of 
the breasts and belly, pain in the inside of 
the thighs, opening and moisture of the os 
tincje. 

ABORTIVES. ("Jlbbrtiva, sc. medicamenta ; 
from abonor t to be steril.) Amblotica. Echo- 
lica. 
Medicines capable of occasioning 1 an 



ABS 



ABS 



abortion, or miscarriage, in pregnant wo- 
men. It is now generally believed, that 
the medicines which produce a miscarriage, 
effect it by their violent action on the sys- 
tem, and not by any specific action on the 
womb. 

ABRASA. (From abrado, to shave off'.) 
Ulcers attended with abrasion of part of 
their substance. 

ABRASION, fAbrasio, from abrado, to 
tear off.) This word is generally employed 
to signify the destruction of the natural 
mucus of any part, as the stomach, intes- 
tines, urinary bladder, &c. It is also applied 
to^any part slightly torn away by attrition, 
as the skin, &c. 

ABRATHAN. Corrupted from abrotanum, 
southernwood. See Jlbroiannm. 

ABRETTE. See Abelmoschus. 

ABHIC. An absoiete Arabic term for sul- 
phur. 

ABROMA. (From at, neg. et /?/<*, food ; 
i. e. not fit to be eaten.) A tree of New 
South Wales, which yields a gum 

ABROTANUM. (A%CT*VOV, from *, neg. 
and /Sgorof, mortal; because it never de- 
cays : or from etCgo?, soft, and vovoc, exten- 
sion ; from the delicacy of its texture.) 
Common southernwood. Abrotanum mas. 

Artemisia fry,ticosa t of Linnaeus '.Joins 
setaceis rainosissimis. Class, Syngenesia. 
Order, Polygamia snperflua. A plant pos- 
sessed of a strong and, to most people, an 
agreeable smell ; a pungent, bitter, nnd 
somewhat nauseous taste. It is supposed to 
stimulate the whole system, but more par- 
ticularly the uterus. It is very rarely 
used unless by way of fomentation, with 
which intention the leaves are directed. 

ABROTANUM MAS. See abrotanum. 

ABROTONITES. (From abrotannm.} A wine 
mentioned by Diosc.>r;des, impregnated 
with abrotanum^ or southernwood, in the 
proportion of about one hundred ounces of 
the dried leaves, to about seven gallons of 
must. 

ABSCEDENTIA. (From abscedo, to sepa- 
rate.) Decayed parts of the body, which, 
in a morbid state, are separated from the 
sound. 

ABSCESS. (From abscedo, to depart; 
because parts, which were before contigu- 
ous, become separated, or depart from each 
other.) Jlbscessio Jlbscessus. Imposthuma. 

A collection of pus in the cellular mem- 
brane, or in the viscera, or in bones, prece- 
ded by inflammation. 

ABSCISSION. (~Abscissio ; from ab, and 
tcindo, to cut.) Apocope. The taking away 
some morbid, or other part, by an edged 
instrument. The abscission of the prepuce 
makes what we call circumcision. Abscis- 
sion is sometimes used by medical writers 
to denote the sudden termination of a dis- 
ease in death, before it arrives at its decline. 
Celsus frequently uses the term abscissa 
^ox to express a loss of voice. 



ABSINTHIUM. (A>9/ov," from *, neg. 
and 4*v6c?, pleasant : so called from the dis- 
agreeabieness of the taste.) A genus of 
plants in the Lmnxan system. Class, Syn~ 
genesia. Order, Polygamia sttperflua. Worm- 
wood. 

ABSINTHIUM COMMUNE. See Absinthium 
vulgare 

ABSINTHIUM MARITIMUM. Sea wormwood, 
falsely culled in our markets, Roman worm- 
wood. Artemisia maritime,. 

Absinthium Ponticum of Linnaeus :foJiis 
multipart iti a, tomentosis racemis cernuis Jlos- 
culis faemineis ternis. This plant grows 
plentifully about the sea-shore, and in salt 
marshes. The specific differences between 
it and the common wormwood, absinthium 
vulgare, are. very evident. Its taste and 
smell are considerably less unpleasant than 
those of the common wormwood, and even 
the essential oil, which contains the whole 
of its flavour concentrated, is somewhat 
less ungrateful, and the watery extract 
somewhat less bitter than those of the com- 
mon wormwood. Hence it is preferred, in 
those cases where the Artemisia absinthium 
is supposed to be too unpleasant for the 
stomach. A conserve of the tops of this 
plant is directed by the London Pharma- 
copoeia. 

ABSINTHIUM PONTICUM. See Absinthium 
Maritimum 

ABSINTHIUM VULGARE. Common worm- 
wood. Falsely called in our markets Absin- 
thium Komanum, or Roman wormwood. Ah- 
sinth'inn Ponticum of Discorides and Pliny, 
Murray. 

Artemisia Absinthium of Linnaeus : -foliis 
compositis multijidis^floribiis subglobosis pen- 
dutis : receptaculo mUoso. Clas;?, Syngenum. 
Order, Polygamia super flua. This plant is 
a native of Britain, and grows about rub- 
bish, rocks, and sides of roads. The leaves 
of wormwood have a strong disagreeable 
smell : their taste is nauseous, and so in- 
tensely bitter as to be proverbial. The 
flowers are more aromatic and less bitter 
than the leaves, and the roots discover an 
aromatic warmth, without bitterness. This 
species of wormwood may be considered 
the principal of the herbaceous bitters. Its 
virtus, in the words of Bergins, is antipu- 
tredinosa, antacida, anthelminthica, resol- 
vens, tonica, spasmodioa. And although it 
is now chiefly employed with a view to the 
two last-mentioned qualities, yet we are 
told of its good effects in a great variety of 
diseases, as intermittent fevers, hypochon- 
driasis, obstructions of the liver and spleen, 
gout, calculi, scurvy, dropsy, worms, &c. 
See Woodville's Medical Botany. Cullen 
thinks it is possessed of a narcotic power, 
and that there is in every bitter, when 
largely employed, a power of destroying the 
sensibility and irritability of the nervous 
power. 

Externally, wormwood is used in discti- 



ABS 



ACA 



tient and antiseptic fomentations. This 
plant may be taken in powder, but it is 
more commonly preferred in infusion. The 
Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia directs a tincture 
of the flowers, which is, in the opinion of 
Dr. Cull en, a light and agreeable bitter, 
and, at the same time, a strong impregna- 
tion of the wormwood. 

Jlbsorbing vessels. See Absorbents. 

ABSORBENTS. Absorbentia. 

1. Small, delicate, transparent vessels, 
which take up any fluid from the surface 
of the body, or of any cavity in it, and 
carry it to the thoracic duct, to be mixed 
with the blood. They are denominated 
according 1 to the liquids which they convey, 
lacteals and lymphatics. See Lacteals and 
Lymphatics. 

2. Medicines are so termed, which have 
no acrimony in themselves, and destroy 
acidities in the stomach and bowels; such 
are calcined magnesia, prepared chalk, 
oyster-shells, crab's claws, &c. 

ABSORPTION. (From absorbed, to suck 
up.) A function in an animated body, ar- 
ranged by physiologists under the head of 
natural actions. It signifies the taking up 
of substances applied to the mouths of ab- 
sorbing vessels : thus the nutritious part of 
the food is absorbed from the intestinal ca- 
nal by the lacteals : thus mercury is taken 
into the system by the lymphatics of the 
skin, Sec. The principle by which this 
function takes place, is a power inherent in 
the mouths of the absorbents, a vis insita, 
dependent on the degree of irritability of 
their internal membrane by which they con- 
tract and propel their contents forwards. 

ABSTENTIO. Cselius A.urelianus uses this 
word, to express a suppression, or reten- 
tion. Thus, abstentio stercorum, a retention 
of the excrements, which he mentions as a 
symptom very frequent in a satyriasis. In 
a sense somewhat different, he uses the 
word abstenta, applying it to the pleura, 
where he seems to mean, that the humour 
of the inflamed pleura is prevented, by the 
adjacent bones, from extending itself. 

ABSTERGENTS. (Abstergentia, scili- 
ct medicamenta ; from abstergo, to cleanse 
away.) Lotions, or any application that 
cleanses or clears away foulness. The term 
is seldom employed by modern writers. 

ABSTRACTION. (From abstraho, to draw 
away.) A term employed by chymists in 
the process of humid distillation, to signi- 
fy that the fluid body is again drawn off 
from the solid, vvhich'ithad dissolved. 

ABSTRACTITTUS. (From abstraho, to draw 
away.) Native spirit, not produced by 
fermentation. 

ABSTJS. An obsolete term for the Egyp- 
tian lotus. 

ABVACDATIO. (From abracuo, to empty.) 
Local or morbid discharge. A large eva- 
cuation of any fluid, as of blood from a 
plethoric person. 



ACACA. (From , neg. and xax.^ bad.) 
Diseases which are rather troublesome than 
dangerous. 

ACACIA. (AxotKKt) from etxce^y, to 
sharpen.) T-;e name of a genus o> plants in. 
the Li nnaean system. The Egyptian thorn. 

ACACIA GKHMAXICA. Acacia nostras. 
German acacia, or the German black-thorn 
or sloe-tree. Acacia nostras. Succitspruni 
sylvestris. The inspissated juice ot the 
German wild sloe, prunns spinosa, or pru- 
nus sylvestris spinosa of Linnxus ; now fal- 
len into disuse. 

ACACLE GUMMI. Gummi acanthi- 
nwn. Gummi thebaicum. Gummi scorpio- 
nis. Gum-liimac. Gummi senega, or sent' 
ca. Acacia gum, or gum-arabic. The gum 
of the Egyptian thorn. 

Acacia vera, of Willdenow : spinisstipu- 
larlbiis patentibns, foliis bipinnaiis ; partia- 
'libus extimis gfandnla iritertinctis, spicis glo- 
bosis peduncidalis. Cairo and Alexandria 
were the principal marts for^gum-arabic, 
till the Dutch introduced the gum from Se- 
negal into Europe, about the beginning of 
the seventeenth century, and which now 
supplies the greater part of the vast con- 
sumption of this article. 

The tree which yields the Senegal gum, 
grows abundantly on the sands, along the 
whole of the Barbary coast, and particu- 
larly about the river Senegal. There are 
several species, some of which yield a red 
astringent juice, but others afford only a 
pure, nearly colourless, insipid gum, which 
is the great article of commerce. These 
trees are from eighteen to twenty feet 
high, with thorny branches. The gum 
makes its appearance about the middle of 
November, when the soil has been tho- 
roughly saturated with periodical rains. 
The gummy juice is seen to ooze through 
the trunk and branches, and, in about a 
fortnight, it hardens into roundish drops, 
of a yellowish white, which are beautifully 
brilliant where they are broken off", and 
entirely so when held in the mouth for a 
short time, to dissolve the oater surface. 
No clefts are made, nor any artificial means 
used by the Moors, to solicit the flow of the 
gum. The lumps of gum-senegal are usu- 
ally aboutthe size of partridge eggs, and the 
harvest continues about six weeks. This 
gum is a very wholesome and nutritious food; 
thousands of the Moors supporting them- 
selves entirely upon it duringthe t'.me of har- 
vest. About six ounces is sufficient to sup- 
port a man for a day ; and it is besides, mixed 
with milk, animal broths, and other victuals. 
The gum-arabic, or that which comes 
directly from Egypt and the Levant, 
only differs from the gum-senegal in being 
of a lighter colour, and in smaller lumps ; 
and it is also somewhat more brittle. In all 
other respects, the two resemble each 
other perfectly. 
Oum-arabic is neither soluble in spirit nor 



ACA 



ACC 



in oil ; but, in twice its quantity of water, 
it dissolves into a mucilaginous fluid, of the 
consistence of a thick syrup, and in this 
state answers many useful pharmaceutical 
purposes, by rendering 1 oily, resinous, and 
pinguious substances miscible with water. 
The glutinous quality of gum-arabic ren- 
ders it preferable to other gums and muci- 
lages as a demulcent in coughs, hoarseness, 
es, and other catarrhal affections. It is 
also very generally employed in ardor urinse, 
diarrhoeas, and calculous complaints. 

ACACIA INDICA. See Tcnnarindus Indica. 
ACACIA NOSTRAS. See Acacia Germanica 
ACACIA VERA. Accacia -veravel. Succus 
acacice vera. 

1. The expressed juice of the immature 
pods of the tree called Acacia vera by 
Willdenow, and Mimosa Ntlotica by Lin- 
nxus. This inspissated juice is brought 
from Egypt in roundish masses, wrapped, 
up in thin bladders. It is considered as 
a mild astringent medicine The Egyptians 
give it, in spitting of blood, in the quantity 
of a drachm, dissolved in any convenient 
liquor, aud repeat this dose occasionally. 
They likewise employ it in collyria, for 
strengthening the eyes, and in gargles, for 
quincies. It is now seldom used as a me- 
dicine, being superseded. by the use of 
catechu, or terra juponica. 

The inspissated juice of the unripe sloe 
is usually sold for the Egyptian acacia. 

2. The systematic name of the true aca- 
cia or Egyptian thorn : the tree which af- 
fords the gum-arabic. See Acacia gummi. 

ACACIA VERAVEL. See Acacia vera. 

ACACIA ZEYLONICA. Logwood. See 
Lignum Campechianum. 

ACALAI. (Arab ) Common salt, or mu- 
riate of soda. 

ACALCUM. Tin. 

ACAMATOS. (From , neg. and K^CCD, to 
weary.) A perfect rest of the muscles. 

ACANOR. (Hebrew.) A chemical furnace. 

ACAXTHA. (Aa>tstv0at, from CLM a point.) 
A thorn, or any thing pointed, as the skin, 
or spina dorsi. 

ACANTHABOLUS. (From ox*v0*, a thorn 
and &*AAa> to cast out.) An instrument, or 
forceps, for taking out or removing thorns 
or whatever may stick in the flesh. Paulua 
JEgineta* 

AcAsrrflE. The name of the artichoke in 
ancient authors. 

AcANTiiiNuivr. (From *v9at, a thorn.) 
Gum-arabic was so called because it is pro- 
duced from a thorny tree. 

ACANTHCLUS. (From sutsivQ*, a thorn.) A 
surgical instrument to draw out thorns or 
splinters, or to remove any extraneous 
matter from wounds. 

ACANTHUS. (Ax*v9o?, from K*v0* a 
thorn ; so named from being rough and 
prickly.) The name of a genus ot plants 
in the Linnzean system. Class, Didynamia. 



Order, Angicspermia. Bear's breech* 
Brank-ursine. 

ACANTHUS MOLLIS. (AjtstvSo?, from ouuuiBot, 
a thorn; so named from its rough and 
prickly surface. (Bear's-breech or Branck- 
ursine. Acanthus molJis^foliis sinuatis iner- 
mibus of Linnaeus. Branca ursina of the 
shops. The leaves and root abound with 
a mucilage, which is readily extracted by 
boiling or infusion. The roots are the most 
mucilaginous. Where this plant is com- 
mon, it is employed for the same purposes 
to which althica and other vegetables pos- 
sessing similar qualities are applied among 
us. It is fallen into disuse. The herb- 
women too often sell the leaves of hellebo- 
rastei or bear's-foot and of spondylium or 
cow's parsnip for the bear's breech. 

AcAPNxm. (From a, priv. and X.ATTVOS, 
smoke ) Common wild marjoram. Un- 
smoked honey. 

ACARUS. (From x,*g small.) An insect 
which breeds in the skin. 

ACATALEPSIA. (From , neg. and wtTa- 
>.*ju*j'a>, to apprehend) Uncertainty in 
the prognostication orjudgment of diseases. 

ACATALIS. (From *, neg. and ;^*T, to 
want.) The juniper, named from the abun- 
dance of its seeds. 

ACATAPOSIS. From a, neg. and 
to swallow.) Difficult deglutition. 

ACASTATOS. (From a, neg. and 
to determine.) Inconstant. 

1. Fevers are so called which are anoma- 
lous in their appearance and irregular in 
their paroxysms. 

2. Turbid urine without sediment. 
ACAZDIR. Tin. 
ACCELERATOR URIN.E, (From ac- 

celero, to hasten or propel.) Ejaculator 
Seminls, JBulbo-syndesmo carverneux of Du- 
mas. Bulbo-cavernosus of Winslow. 

A muscle of the penis. It arises fleshy 
from the sphincter ani and membranous 
part of the urethra, and tendinous from 
the crus, near as far forwards as the begin- 
ning of the corpus cavernosum penis ; the 
inferior fibres run more transversely, and 
the superior descend in an oblique di- 
rection. It is inserted into a line in the 
middle of the bulbous part of the urethra, 
where each joins with its fellow ; by which 
the bulb is completely closed. The use of 
these muscles is to drive the urine or semen 
forward, and by grasping the bulbous part 
of the urethra, to push the blood towards 
its corpus cavernosum, and the glands by 
which they are distended. 

ACCESSION- (From accedo, to approach.) 
The approach or commencement of a dis- 
ease. A term mostly applied to a fever which 
has paroxysms or exacerbations : thus the 
accession of fever, means the commence- 
ment or approach of the pyrexial period. 

ACCESSOREI OF WILLIS. (Acces- 
son' if sc. nervij from acceilo^ to approach ; 



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having connection with by contact or ap- 
prpach ; so called from the course they 
take.) The name given by Willis to two 
nerves which ascend, one on each side from 
the second, fourth, and fifth cervical pairs 
of nerves, through the great foramen of the 
occipital bone, and pass out again from 
the cranium through the foramina lacera, 
with the /KM* vagum, to be distributed on 
the trapezius muscle. 

ACCE-S Hiui. Being connected by con- 
tact or approach. 

ACCESSORIES LUMBALIS. A muscle of 

the loins. See Sacro-lumbalis. 
ACCIB. An obsolete term for lead. 
ACCIPITER. (From accipio, to take.) 

1. The hawk ; named from its rapacity. 

2. A bandage which was put over the 
nose ; so called from its likeness to the claw 
of a hawk, or from the tightness of its grasp. 

ACCIPITHINA. (From accijriter, the hawk.) 
The herb hawk-weed, which Pliny says 
was so called because hawks are vised to 
scratch it, and apply the juice to their eyes 
to prevent blindness. 

Accuvis. A muscle of the belly, so 
named from the oblique ascent of its fibres. 
See Qbliquus ascendens abdominis. 

ACCOUCHEUR. A midwife. 

ACCOUCHMENT. The act of delivery. 

ACCRETION (From ad t andcresco, to in- 
crease.) Nutrition, growth. 

The growing together of the fingers or 
toes. 

ACCUBATIO. [From accumbo, to recline.) 
Childbed. Reclining. 

ACEDIA. From *, priv. and x*f a?, care 
Carelessness, neglect in the application of 
medicines. Hippocrates sometimes uses 
this word, in his Treatise on the Glands, to 
signify fatigue or trouble. 

ACEPHALUS. (Ax^axos, from at, priv. 
and xf9*A, a head.) A term applied to 
monsters born without heads. 

ACER (Jlcer, sharp ; because of the 
sharpness of its juice.) The name of a 
genus of plants in the Linnsean system. 
Class, Polygamia, Order, Monoecia. 

ACER PSEUDOPLATASTUS. The maple-tree, 
falsely called sycamore. It is also called 
Platanus truga. This tree is common in 
England, though not much used in medicine. 
The juice, if drank whilst fresh, is said to 
be a good antiscorbutic. All its parts con- 
tain a saccharine fluid ; and if the root or 
branches are wounded in the spring, a 
large quantity of liquor is discharged, which 
when inspissated, yields a brown sort of 
sugar and syrup like molasses. Large quan- 
tities of this sugar are obtained from the 
trees in New England and Canada, and is 
much used in France, whereat is commonly 
known by the name of Saccharum Cana- 
dense or Saccharum Acernum, maple sugar. 
It has been supposed that all Europe might 
be supplied from the maples of America, 
but the sugar is coarse and ill tasted. 



ACERATOS. (From a, neg, and ***, or 
xsg4tvvw///, to mix.) Unmixed, uncorrupted. 
Is applied sometimes to the humours of the 
body by Hippocrates. Paulus ^Egineta 
mentions a plaster of this name. 

ACERB. (Jlcerbus, from acer, sharp.) A 
species of taste which consists in*a degree 
of acidity, with an addition of roughness ; 
properties common to many immature 
fruits. 

ACERBITAS. Acidity. Sourness. 

ACERIDES. (From , priv. and ^o?, wax.) 
Soft plasters made without wax. 

ACESCENT. Substances which readily 
run into the acid fermentation. 

ACESIS. (From omtof^at, to cure.) 

1. A remedy or cure. 

2. The herb water-sage, so called from 
its supposed healing qualities. 

ACESTA. (From awtsojua/, to cure.) Dis- 
tempers which are easily cured. 

ACESTIS% Borax. See Boras sodtff. 

ACESTOIIIS. (From eocss^u*/, to cure.) 
It strictly signifies a female physician, and 
is used for a midwife. 

ACESTRIDES. A midwife. 

ACETABULUM. (From acetwn, vine- 
gar ; so called because it resembles the 
acetabulum, or old saucer, in which vinegar 
was held for the use of '.he table.) A name 
given by Latin writers to the cup-like cavi- 
ty of the os innominatum, which receives 
the head of the thigh-bone. 

ACETARIA. (From acetum, vinegar ; 
because they are mostly made with vine- 
gar.) Sallads or pickles. 

ACETAS. An acetate. A salt is so 
called in the new chemical nomenclature 
and pharmacopoeias, which is formed by 
the union of the acetic acid, with an earthy 
metallic or alkaline base. Those used in 
medicine are the acetat of ammonia, lead, 
zinc, and potash. 

ACETAS POTASS^E. Acetated vege- 
table alkali, Kali acetutum. Sal Diureticus. 
Terra foliata tartcri. Sal Sennerti. 

Take of subcarbonnate of potash, a pound 
and a half. Acetic acid, a gallon. Mix 
them together in a large glass vessel, and 
having evaporated the solution to half, 
over the fire, add gradually as much more 
acetic acid as may be necessary for perfect 
saturation. Let the solution be further re- 
duced to one half by evaporation, and 
strain it : then by means of a water-bath 
evaporate it, so that on being removed 
from the fire, it shall crystallize. 

The acetate of potash is esteemed as a 
saline diuretic and deobstruent. It is given 
in the dose of from gr. x. to^s.s. three times 
a day in any appropriate vehicle against 
dropsies, hepatic obstructions, and the like. 

ACETAS AMMONITE. Aceta of am- 
monia. A salt composed of ammonia and 
acetic acid. It is so deliquescent, that it 
is always kepi in the fluid state. See Li- 
qwr ammoniac acetatw. 



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ACETAS PLUMBI. Acetate of lead. 
A metallic salt composed of lead and acetic 
acid. See Liquor plnmbi acetatis. 

ACETAS Zixcr. A metallic salt composed 
of zinc and acetic acid. It is used by some 
as an astringent against inflammation of the 
eyes, urethra, and vagina, diluted in the 
same proportion as the sulphate of zinc. 

Acetated vegetable Alkali, SeeAcetaspo- 
tasste. 

Acetated volatile Alkali. See Liquor ace- 
tatis ammonite. 

Jlcetic Acid. See Acetum. 

ACETIFICATION. A term used by some 
ehymists to denote ihe action or operation 
by wi.ich vinegar is made, 

Acetat of Potash. See Acetas potassx. 

Jlcetat of Ammonia. See Liquor ammonia; 
acetatis. 

Acetat of Zinc. See Acetas Zinci. 

ACETOSA. (From acesco, to be sour.) 
Sorrel. A genus of plants in some systems 
of botany. 

ACETOSA vtrtGAms. Acetosa pratensis. 
Acetosa arvensis Sorrel ; sour-dock. 

Rumex acetosns of Linnaeus : foliis oblon- 
gis sagittatis, Jloribus diceceis. Class, Ifex- 
andria. Order, Tryginia. The leaves of 
this plant are sour, but not the root, which 
is bitter. It grows in the meadows and 
common fields. 

ACETOSA ROMAKA. Acetosa rotundifolia 
hortensis. Roman or garden sorrel. 

Rumex scutatus or helveti :us .faliis cor- 
daio-hastatis, ramis divergentibus, Jioribus 
hermaphrodites, of Linnaeus. It is common 
in our gardens and in many places is known 
by the culinary name of Green-sauce. 

ACETOSELLA. (From acetosa, sorrel ; 
from the acidity of its leaves.) Lnjula. 
Allehija. Wood-sorrel. 

Oxalis acetoceUa, of Linnaeus -.foliis ter- 
natis, scapo unifloro,Jlore albo, capsulis pen- 
tagonis elasticis, radice squamoso-articulata. 
Class, Decandria. Order, Pentagynia. 
This plant grows wild in the woods, and 
flowers in April and May. The leaves are 
shaped like a heart, standing three together 
on one stalk. The ucetocella is totally 
inodorous, but has a grateful acid taste, 
on which account it is used in sallads. Its 
taste is more agreeable than the common 
sorrel, and approaches nearly to that of 
the juice of lemons, or the acid of tartar, 
with which it corresponds in a great mea- 
sure in its medical effects, being esteemed 
refrigerant, antiscorbutic, and diuretic. It 
is recommended by liergius; in inflamma- 
tory, bilious, and putrid fevers. The prin- 
cipal use however of the acetosella is to al- 
lay inordinate heat and to quench thirst ; 
for this purpose, a pleasant whey may be 
formed by boiling the plant in milk, which 
nncler certain circumstances may be pre- 
ferable to the conserve directed by the Lon- 
don College, though an extremely grateful 
and useful medicine. Many have employed 



the root of Lnjula, probably on account of 
its beautiful red colour rather than for its 
superior efficacy. An essential salt is pre- 
pared from this plant, known by the name 
of essential salt of lemons, and commonly 
used for taking ink-stains out of linen. 
What is sold under the name of essential 
salt of lemons in this country, is said by 
some to consist of cream of tartar, with 
the addition of a small quantity of sulphuric 
acid. The leaves of sorrel when employed 
externally in the form of poultices, are 
powerful suppurauts, particularly in indo- 
lent scrofulous humours. 

Acetous Acid. Distilled vinegar. See 
Acetum. 

Acetous fermentation. See Fermentation. 
ACETUM. (From acer, sour.) Vinegar. 
A sour liquor obtained from many vegeta- 
ble substances dissolved in boiling water, 
and from fermented and spiritous liquors, 
by exposing them to heat and contact with 
air; under which circumstances they un- 
dergo the acid fermentation, (see Fermenta- 
tion,') and afford the liquor called vinegar. 
Wine -vinegar . Let any quantity of vi- 
nous liquor be mixed with the acid and 
austere stalks of the vegetable from which 
wine was prepared. The whole must be 
frequently stirred and either exposed to 
the sun, or deposited in a warm place : after 
standing a few days it will ferment, become 
sour and in a fortnight it will be converted 
into vinegar. 

Cyder vinegar, may be made by ferment- 
ing new cyder with the must of apples, in 
a warm room, or in the open air, where it 
should be exposed to the sun, and in the 
course of a week or nine days it will be fit 
for use. 

Another method of preparing vinegar is 
that published by M. Heber : it consists in 
exposing a mixture of 72 parts of water, 
and 4 of rectified malt spirit in a tempera- 
ture of from 70 to 8U of Farenheit, for 
about two months, at the expiration of 
which the acetous process will be effected. 
Tarragon vinegar is manufactured by 
infusing one pound of the leaves of that 
vegetable (which has been gathered a short 
time before it flowers) in one gallon of the 
best vinegar, for the space of 14 days ; 
when it should be strained through a flan- 
nel bag ; and a drachm of isinglass dissol- 
ved in cyder must then be added, the 
whole be carefully mixed and decanted in- 
to bottles for a month. Thus the liquor 
will acquire a most exquisite flavour ; it 
will become remarkably fine and almost" 
colourless. 

The utility of vinegar as a condiment for 
preserving and seasoning both animal and 
vegetable substances in various articles of 
food, is very generally known. It affords 
an agreeable beAcrage, when combined 
with water in the proportion of a table- 
spoonftU of the former to half pint of the 






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iatter. It is often employed as a medicine 
in inflammatory and putrid diseases, when 
more active remedies cannot be procured. 
Relief has likewise been obtained in hypo- 
chondrical and hysteric affections, in vo- 
miting', fainting, and hiccough, by the ap- 
plication of vinegar to the mouth. If this 
fluid be poured into vessels and pkced over 
the gentle heat of a lamp in the apartments 
of the sick, it greatly contributes to dis- 
perse foul or mephitic vapours, and conse- 
quently to purify the air. 

Also as an external application, vinegar 
proves highly efficacious when joined with 
farinaceous substances, and applied as a 
cataplasm to sprained joints ; it also forms 
an eligible lotion for inflammations of the 
surface, when mixed with alcohol and wa- 
ter in about equal proportions. Applied 
to burns and scalds, vinegar is said to be 
highly serviceable whether there is a loss 
of substance or not, and to quicken the ex- 
foliation of carious bone. (Gloucester In- 
firmary.) Mixed with an infusion of sage, 
or with water, it forms a popular and ex- 
cellent gargle for an inflamed throat, also 
for an injection to moderate the fluor albus. 
Applied cold to the nose in cases of haemor- 
rhage, also to the loins and abdomen in 
menorrhagia, particularly the profluvia 
after parturition, it is said to be very ser- 
viceable. An imprudent use of vinegar in- 
ternally is not without considerable incon- 
veniences. Large and frequent doses injure 
the stomach, coagulate the chyle, and pro- 
duce not only leanness, but an atrophy. 
When taken to excess by females, to reduce 
a corpulent habit, tubercles in the lungs 
and a consumption have been the conse- 
quence. 

Common vinegar consists of acetic acid 
combined with a large portion of water, 
and with this are in solution portions of 
gluten, mucilage, sugar, and attractive mat- 
ter from which it derives its colour, and fre- 
quently some of the vegetable acids, parti- 
cularly the malic and the tartaric. 

Distilled with a gentle fire, in glass ves- 
sels, so long as the drops fall free from 
empyreuma, it affords the 

ACIDUM ACETTCUM. 

Take of vinegar, a gallon. 

Distil the acetic acid in a sand bath, from 
a glass retort into a receiver also of glass, 
and kept cold ; throw away the first pint, 
and keep for use the six succeeding pints, 
which are distilled over. 

In this distillation, the liquor should be 
kept moderately boiling, and the heat should 
not be urged too far, otherwise the dis'iikd 
acid will have an empyreumatic smell and 
taste, which it ought not to possess. If the 
acid be prepared correctly, it will be co- 
lourless, and of a grateful, pungent, peculiar 
acid taste. One fluid-ounce ought to dis- 
solve at least ten grains of carbonate of 



lime (white marble.) This liquor is the 
acetum dtstillatum / the acidum acetosum of 
the London Pharmacopoeia of 1787, and the 
acidum aceticum of the last (1809.) 

When the acid of vinegar is greatly con 
centrated, that is, deprived of its water,ii: 
becomes the radical vinegar, or 

CONCENTRATED ACID OP VINEGAR. 
Distilled vinegar may be concentrated 
by freezing : the congelation takes place at 
a temperature below 28 degrees, more or 
less, according to its strength ; and the con- 
gealed part is merely ice, leaving, of course, 
a .stronger acid. If it be exposed to a very 
intense cold, equal to 38 degrees, it shoots 
into crystals ; when the fluid part is with- 
drawn, the crystals liquefy, when the tem- 
perature rises, and the liquid is limpid as 
water, extremely strong, and has a highly 
pungent acetous odour. This is the pure 
acid of the vinegar, any foreign matter re- 
maining in 'he uncongealed liquid. 

Other ^methods are likewise employed to 
obtain the pure and concentrated acid. 
The process of Westendorf, which has been 
often followed, is to saturate soda with 
distilled vinegar, obtain the acetate by 
crystalization ; and pour upon it, in a re- 
tort, half its weight of sulphuric acid. By 
applying heat, the acetic acid is distilled 
over ; and, should there be any reason to 
suspect the presence of any sulphuric acid, 
it may be distilled a second time, from a 
litlle acetate of soda. According to 
Lowitz, the best way of obtaining this pure, 
is to mix three parts of the acetate of soda 
with eight of supersulphate of potass; both 
salts being perfectly dry, and in fine pow- 
der, and to distil from this mixture in a re- 
tort, with gentle heat. 

It may also be obtained by distilling the 
verdigris of commerce, with a gentle heat. 
The concentrated acid procured by these 
processes, was supposed to differ materially 
from the acetous acid obtained by distilling 1 
vinegar ; the two acids were regarded as 
differing in their degree of oxygenizement, 
and were afterwards distinguished by the 
names of acetous and acetic acids. The acid 
distilled from verdigris was supposed to 
derive a quantity of oxygen from the oxide 
of copper, from which it was expelled. The 
experiments of Adet have, however, proved 
the two acids to be identical ; the acetous 
acid, therefore, only differs from the acetic 
acid in containing more water, rendering it 
a weaker acid, and of a less active nature. 

There exists, therefore, only one acid of 
vinegar, which is the acetic ; and its com- 
pounds must be termed acetates ; and the 
salts called acetites have no existence. 

Acetic acid, when concentrated, has a 
fragrant and, at the same time, very pene- 
trating smeli, irritating 1 the nostrils strong- 
ly. It is also so caustic, as to inflame the 
skin. Its acid taste is strong-, even when 
C 



10 



ACH 



diluted with water ; it is colourless, and 
has a specific gravity of 1,0626. . The acid 
is capable, of congelation ; when it forms 
foliated arborescent crystals it is very vola- 
tile ; its odour is dif Fused through the at- 
mosphere, and, when exposed to it, gradu- 
ally becomes weaker. By a moderate 
heat, it is converted into vapour ; this va- 
pour readily cas.ch.es fire on the approach of 
a lighted taper. It combines with water 
in every proportion ; and it combines rea- 
dily with earthy, metallic, and alkaline 
bases, forming salts, which are acetates. 

The compounds of tht- acid of vinegar, 
directed *o be used by the new London 
Pharmacopoeia, are acetum colchici, acetum 
scil/ce, ceratum plumbi superacetatis, liquor 
ammonite acetatis, liquor plumbi acetatis, 
liquor plumbi acetatis dilutus, oxymel, oocymel 
scillaae, potassae acetas, and the liquor ammo- 
niac acetatis. 

ACETUM AROMATIC UM. Aromatic vine- 
gar. A preparation of the Edinburgh phar- 
macopoeia, thought to be an improvement 
of what has been named thieves vinegar. 
" Take of the dried tops- of rosemary ; 
The dried leaves of sage, of each four 
ounces. 

Dried lavender flowers, two ounces. 
Cloves, two drac ms ; 
Distilled vinegar, eight pounds. 
Macerate for seven days, anc' strain the 
expressed juice through paper." Its virtues 
are antiseptic, and it is a useful composi- 
tion to smell at in crowded courts of jus- 
tice, hospitals, &c. where the air is offen- 
sive. 

ACETUM DISTILATUM. See acetum. 
ACETUM SCILL^E. Lond. Pharm. Vinegar 
of squills. B. Squills recently dried, one 
pound ; vinegar, six pints ; proof spirit, 
half a pint. Macerate the squills with the 
vinegar in a glass vessel, with a gentle heat 
for twenty-four hours ; then express the 
liquor and set it aside until the faeces sub- 
side. To the decanted liquor add the spirit. 
This preparation of squills is employed as 
an attenuant, expectorant, and diuretic, 
gutt. xv. to LX. 

ACHEIB. "Without hands. 
ACHICOIUM. By this word Cselius Aure- 
lianus, Acut. lib. iii. cap. 17. expresses the 
fornix, tholus, or sudatorium of the ancient 
baths, which was a hot room where they 
used to sweat. 

ACHILLuEA, (A^zxxxKt, from Achilles, 
who is said to have made his tents with it, 
or to have cured Telaphus with it.) The 
name of a genus of plants in the Linnsean 
system. Class Syngenesia. Order, Poly- 
gamia superjlua. Milfoil. 

ACHILLA AGERATUM. Bakamita 
famina. Eupatorium Mesues. Maudlin or 
M.mdlin tansey. This plant, the agtratum 
of the shops, is described by Linnaeus as 
Jtchilleafoliis lanceolatis, obtusis, acutoser- 



ACH 

ratis. It is esteemed in some countries as 
anthelminThic and alterative, and is given 
in hepatic obstructions. It possesses the 
virtues of tansc y. 

Jlchillxafoliis pinnatis. See Genipi verum. 

ArniLLJEA JHIIIEFOHUM. The systema- 
tic name of the nulftjil. See MiUefohum. 

ACHILLMA. PTAHMICA. The systematic 
name of t lie sueezewort. See Ptarmica. 

ACHILLIS TKNDO. (So c-lled, be- 
cajijse, as fable reports, Thetis, the mother 
ofAchilles, held him by that part when 
she dipped him in the river Styx, lo make 
him invulnerable. Homer describes this 
tendon, and some writers suppose it was 
thus named by the ancients, from their 
custom of calling every thing Jlchitteau, 
that had any extraordinary strength or vir- 
tue. Others say it was named from its ac- 
tion in conducing to swif'ness of pace, the 
term importing so much.) The strong 
and powerful tendon which is formed by 
the junction of the gastrocnemins and so- 
leus muscles, and which extends alo".g the 
posterior part of the tibia from the calf to 
the heel. When this tendos is unfortunate- 
ly cut or ruptured, as it may be in conse- 
quence of a violeiv exertion, or spasm of 
the muscles, of which it is a continuation, 
takes place, the use of the leg is immedi- 
ately lost, and unless the part be afterwards 
successfully united, the patient must remain 
a cripple for life. When the tendon has 
been cut, the division of the skin allows the 
accident to be seen. When the tendon has 
been ruptured, the patient hears a sound 
like that of the smack of a whip, at the mo- 
ment of the occurrence. In whatever way 
the tendon has been divided, there is a sud- 
den incapacity, or at least an extreme diffi- 
culty, either of standing or walking. Hence 
the patient falls down, and cannot get up 
again. Besides these symptoms there is a 
very palpable depression between the ends 
of the tendon: which depression is increased 
when the foot is bent and diminished, or 
even quite remove when the foot is extend- 
ed. The patient can spontaneously bend 
his foot, none of the flexor muscles being 
interested. The power of extending the 
foot is still possible, as the peronei mus- 
cles, the tibialis posticus, and long flexors, 
remain perfect and may perform this mo 
tion. The indications are to bring the 
ends of the divided parts together, and to 
keep them so, until they have become firm- 
ly united. The first object is easily fulfil- 
led by putting the foot into a state of com- 
plete extension ; the second, namely, that 
of keeping the ends of the tendon in con- 
tact, is more difficult. It seem unneces- 
sary to enumeraie the various plans devised 
to accomplish these ends. The following 
is Desault's method : After the ends of 
the tendon had been brought into con- 
tact by moderate flexion of the knee, 



ACH 

and complete extension of the foot, he used 
to fill up the hollows on each side of the 
tendon with soft lint and compresses. The 
roller applied to the limb, made as much 
pressure on these compresses as on the ten- 
don, and hence this part could not be de- 
pressed too much against the subjacent 
parts. Default next took a compress about 
two inches broad, and long enough to reach 
from the toes to the middle of the thigh, 
and placed it under t.ie foot, over the back 
of the leg and lower part of the thigh. He 
then began to apply a few circles of a roller 
round the end of the foot, so as to fix the 
lower ex remity of the longitudinal com- 
press : after covering the whole foot with 
the roller, he used to make the bandage 
describe the figure of 8, passing it under 
the foot and across the place where the 
tendon was ruptured, and the method was 
finished by encircling the limb upward with 
the roller as far as the upper end of the 
longitudinal compress. 

AcHtrs. (A^uc) Darkness, cloudiness. 
It is generally applied to a close, foggy air, 
or a mist. 

Hippocrates, De Morbis Mulierum, lib. 
ii. signifies by this word condensed air in 
the womb. 

Galen interprets it of those, who, during 
sickness, lose that usual lustre and loveli- 
ness observed about the pupil of the eye, 
during health. 

Others express it by an ulcer on the pu- 
pil of the eye, or the scar left there by an 
ulcer. 

It means also an opacity of the cornea ; 
the same as the aligo cornea of Dr. Cullen. 
ACHMADIUM. Antimony. 
ACHMELI.A. Acmella. Achamella. The 
herb and seeds of this plant, Spilanthus 
achmella of Linnaeus, are employed in cases 
of calculus of the kindeys and urinary blad- 
der. The plant is very glutinous and bit- 
ter, and is given in infusion. 

ACHNE. Chaff, scum or froth of the sea. 
A white mucus in the fauces, thrown up 
from the lungs, like froth ; also a whitish 
mucilage in the eyes of .those who have fe- 
vers, according to Hippocrates. It signifies 
also lint. 

ACHOR. (<*#,&>, qn. ct^vag, from a.%vn 
bran ; according to Blanchard it is derived 
from *, priv. and ^wfjoc space, as occupying 
but a smal' compass.) Lactumen : abas : 
acores . cerion : favus. Crusta lactea of au- 
thors. The scald-head ; so called from the 
branny scales thrown off' it. A disease 
which attacks the luiry scalp of the head, 
for the most part of young children, forming 
soft and scaly eruptions. Dr. Willan, in his 
description of different kinds of pustules, 
defines the achor, a pustule of intermediate 
size between the phlyzacium and psydacium 
which contains a straw-coloured fluid, hav- 
ing the appearance of and nearly the con- 



ACI 



11 



sistence of strained honey. It appears most 
frequently about the head, and is succeeded 
by a dull white or yellowish scab. Pustules 
of this kind, when so large as nearly to 
equal the size of phlyzacia, are termedL 
ceria or favi, being succeeded by a yellow, 
semi-transparent, and sometimes, cellular 
scab, like a honey-comb. The achor differs 
from the favus and tinea only in the degree, 
of virulence. It is called favus when the 
perforations are large ; and tinea when 
they are like those which are made by 
moths in cloth : but generally by tinea is 
understood a dry scab on the hairy scalp 
of children, with thick scales and an offen- 
sive smell. When this disorder affects the 
face, it is called crusta lactea or milk scab. 
Mr. Bell, in his treatise on Ulcers, reduces 
the tinea capitis and crusta lactea to the 
same species '>f herpes, viz. the herpes pus- 
tulosus, differing only in situation. 

ACUOIIISTOS. Inseparable. It is under- 
stood of accidents, symptoms, or signs, 
winch are inseparable from the particular 
things Thus, a pungent pain in the side is 
an inseparable symptom of the pleurisy. 

ACHREIOK Useless. It is applied by Hip- 
pocrates to the limbs which, through weak- 
ness, are become useless. 
ACHIIOIA, A paleness. 
ACJHYLCS. Deficient in bile. 
AcHTnoif, (at^wgov.) This properly sig- 
nifies bran or chaff', or straw. 

Hippocrates, de Morbis Mulierum, most 
probably means by this word, bran. A- 
chyron also signifies a straw, hair, or any 
thing that sticks upon a wall. 

ACTA, (From uu, a point.) A needle 

with thread in it for chirurgical operations. 

Acicrs. It signifies weak, infirm, or faint, 

and in this sense it is used by Hippocrates, 

De Morb. lib. iv. 

ACID. That which impresses upon the 
organs of taste a sharp or sour sensation. 
Acids are defined by modern chymists 
to be salts of a sour taste, changing the 
blue colour of various vegetable pig- 
ments to a red. The word sour, which 
is usually employed to denote the simple 
impression, or lively and sharp sensation 
produced on the tongue by certain bo- 
dies, may be regarded as synonymous to 
the word acid. The only difference which 
can be established between them is, that 
the one denotes a weak sensation, whereas 
the other comprehends all the degrees of 
force from the least perceptible to the 
greatest degree of causticity : thus we say 
that verjuice, gooseberries, or lemons, are 
sour ,' but we use the word acid to express 
the impression which the nitric, sulphuric, 
or muriatic acids make upon the tongue. 
The vegetable pigments usually employed 
to ascertain the presence of acids are tinc- 
ture of turnsole or litmus, and syrup of 
violets. Acids readily combine with alka- 



12 



ACI 



ACI 



lis, earths, and metals, and form neutral 
salts. The characteristics, therefore, of an 
acid, are. 

1. A peculiar taste termed acid 

2. Its changing blue vegetable juices 
red. 

3. Combining with alkalis, earths, and 
metals. 

Acids, according to the kingdom of na- 
ture in which they are found, are divided 
into mineral, vegetable, and animal. 

The mineral acids as yet known, are 
the sulphuric or vitriolic, the nitric, muri- 
atic, carbonic, boracic, fluoric, succinic, ar- 
senic, molybdic, tungstic, and chromic. 

The vegetable acids are, the acetic, 
oxalic, tartareous, pyrotartareous, gallic, 
citric, mallic, benzoic, pyroligneous, the 
succinic, pyromucous, camphric, and cor- 
tic. 

Of the animal acids there are eight, viz. 
the phosphoric, lactic, saccholact'C, formic, 
sebucic, prussic, bombic, and lithic, or 
uric. 

Experiment proves that every acid con- 
sists of a peculiar body combined with the 
basis of oxygen gas : hence the origin of 
the word oxygen, which signifies the gen- 
eration of acid, it being regarded as the 
acidifying basis or principle of acidity. 
The bodies which form the other constit- 
uents of acids, are regarded as the ucidi- 
Jiabie basis; thus the principles of phos- 
phoric acid are phosphorus and oxygen ; 
those of carbonic acid, radical carbon and 
oxygen. 

If an acid basis be perfectly saturated 
with oxygen, the acid, thus produced, is 
said to be perfect ; but if the basis predo- 
minate, the acid is considered as imperfect. 
Modern chymists distinguish the former in 
Latin by the syllables ICUM, in English ic, 
and the latter in Latin by OSUM, and in 
English by ous : thus the perfect acid of 
nitre is called accidum nitricum, or nitric 
acid ; the imperfect acid of nitre, acidum 
mtrosum, or nitrous acid. There are some 
cases where an acid is capable of combi- 
ning with an excess or oxygen, in which 
case it is said to be oxygenated , and some- 
times super -oxygenated. If the acidifiable 
basis bf combined with oxygen, yet with- 
out showing 1 ;tny of the properties of an 
acid, the produce is then called an oxyd or 
oxyde : thus iron exposed to the air or 
Water attracts the oxygen, and an oxyd of 
iron, the rust, is formed. The various acids 
employed medicinally are, the acetic, ben- 
zoic, tartaric, carbonic, citric, muriatic, 
oxygenated muriatic, nitric, nitrous, sul- 
phuric and phosphoric. 

Add aerial. See Carbonic acid. 

Add acetic. See Jlcetum. 

For the other Acids look to the word 



Midi/table base. See Add. 



Acidifying 1 base. See Add. 

ACIDIFICATION. The formation of an 
acid ; also the impregnating of any thing 
with acid properties. 

ACIDITT. Additas. Sourness. 

ACIDS, ANIMAL. Those which are ob- 
tained from animals. See Add. 

ACIDS DULCIFIED. These are now called 
./Ethers. See Aether. 

ACIDS IMPERFECT. Those acids are so 
called in the chymical nomenclature, which 
are not fully saturated with oxygen. Their 
names are ended in Latin by osum, and in 
English by ous : e. g. acidum nitrosum, or 
nitrous acid. 

ACIDS, MINERAL. Those acids which are 
found to exist in minerals, as the sulphu- 
ric, the nitric, &c. See Acid. 

ACIDS, PERFECT. An acid is termed per- 
fect in the chymical nomenclature, when it 
is completely saturated with oxygen. 
Their names are ended in Latin by icum t 
and in English by ic : e. g. acidum nitri- 
cum t or nitric acid. 

ACIDS, VEGETABLE. Those which are 
found in the vegetable kingdom, as the ci- 
tric, mallic, acetic, &c. See Acid. 

ACIDULOUS WATER. Mineral waters, 
which contain so great a quantity of car- 
bonic acid gas, as to render them acidulous, 
or gently tart to the taste. See Mineral 
waters. 

ACIDUM ACETICUM. See Acetum. 

ACIDUM ACETOSUM. See Acetum. 

ACIDUM JETHEREUM. The sulphuric acid. 

ACIDUM ALUMINOSUM. The sulphuric 
acid. 

ACIDUM ARSENTCUM. See Arsenic, 

ACIDUM BENZOICUM. See Benzoes. 

ACIDUM BbRAcicuM. See Boracic add. 

ACIDUM CARBONICUM. See Carbonic acid. 

ACIDUM CATHOLICON. The acid of sul- 
phur. 

ACIDUM CITRICUM. See Citric acid. 

ACIDUM MURIATCUM. See Muriatic acid. 

ACIDUM NITRICUM. See Nitric add. 

ACIDUM NITROSUM. Sptritus nitri fu- 
mans, of the shops. The nitrous acid pos- 
sesses the same properties as the nitric, 
but in a much inferior degree. 

ACIDUM NITROSUM DILUTUM. This is the 
common aquafortis. Diluted nitrous acid 
possesses the same properties as the nitric 
acid, but in an inferior degree. 

ACIDUM PHOSPHORICUM. See Phosphoric 
acid. 

ACIDUM PRIMOGENIUM. The sulphuric 
acid. 

ACIDUM SUCCINICUM. See Succinic acid. 

ACIDUM SULPHUREUM. The acid of sul- 
phur. 

ACIDUM SULPHURICUM. See Sulphuric 
acid. 

ACIDUM SULPHURICUM DILUTUM. Ad- 
durn vitrtoScu-m diuutum. Spiritus vitrioli 
tenttis. 



ACO 



AGO 



ACIDUM TERTARICUM. See Tartaric 
acid. 

ACIDUM VITIUOLICUM. See Sulphuric 
acid. 

ACIDUM VITRIOIICUM DILUTUM. See 
Acidum suiplmrkum dilutum. 

Take of sulphuric acid, a fluidounce and 
half. 

Distilled water, fourteen fluidounces and 
half. Add the water to the acid gradually, 
and mix. 

ACIES. Steel. 

ACINESIA. A loss of motion and strength. 

ACINI BILIOSI. (Acinus, a grape-stone; 
so called from their supposed resemblance.) 
The small glandiform bodies of the liver, 
which separate the bile from the blood 
were formerly so called: they are now, 
however, more properly termed pqnitilli. 
See Liver. 

ACINIFORM TUNIC. Tunica acinosa. The 
coat of the eye called the ivrea, because 
the ancients, who dissected brutes, observ- 
ed that, in them, it was usually of the co- 
lour of an unripe grape. 

ACINUS. (A grape.) The glands which 
grow together in clusters are called by some 
acini glandulosi. 

ACMASTICOS. A species of synochus, 
wherein the febrile heat continues of the 
same tenour to the end. Actuarius. 

ACME. (From axf* a point.) The he;ght 
or crisis of a disease. A term applied by 
physicians to that period or state of a dis- 
ease in which it is at height. The ancients 
distinguished diseases into four stages : 

1. the arche, the beginning or first attack. 

2. Anabasis, the growth. 3. The acme, the 
height. 4. Paracme, or the decline of the 
disease. 

ACMELLA. See Jlchmclla. 

ACNE. Acna, eutv. A small pimple* or 
hard tubercle on the face. Foesius says, 
that it is a small pustule or pimple, which 
arises usually about the time that the body 
is in full vigour. 

ACNESTIS. (From *, priv. and xva/v, to 
scratch.) That part of the spine of the 
back, which reaches from the metaphrenon, 
which is the part betwixt the shoulder- 
blades, to the loins. This part seems to 
have been originally called so in quadru- 
peds only, because they cannot reach it to 
scratch. 

ACOE. (Axov) The sense of hearing 

ACOELIOS. (From a. priv. and xci\o; t the 
belly.) Without belly. It is applied to 
those who are so wasted, as to appear as if 
they had no belly. Galen. 

Aco IT us. (AXO/TO?) An epithet for ho- 
ney, mentioned byPlmy: because it has 
no sediment, whicn is called xom. 

ACONION. (AKWCV) A particular form 
of medicine among the ancient physicians, 
made of powders levigated, and probably 
like collyria for the disorders of the eyes. 



ACOWIUM. A little mortar. 

ACONITUM. (Of this plant various 
derivations are given by etymologists ; as, 
OIX.OVH a whetstone or rock, because it is 
usually found in barren and rocky places : 
., neg. and ov, dust ; because it grows 
without earth or on barren situations : 
amovtux), to sharpen ; because it was used in 
medicines intended to quicken the sight : 
cutav, OMM, a dart ; because they poison darts 
therewith : or, ajtow^aw, to accelerate ; 
for it hastens death.) Aconite. Wolfs- 
bane. Monk's-hood. 

1. A genus of plants in the Linnaean sys- 
tem. Class, Polyandria, Tngynia. 

2. The pharmacopoeia! name of the com- 
mon, or blue, wolt's-bane. Monk's-hood. 
Aconite. Camarum. Canicida. Cynococ- 
tanum. 

Jlconitum napellus of Linnaeus :-foliorum 
ladniis lineuribus superne latioribus^ lined 
exaratis. 

The aconite is cultivated in our gardens 
as an ornament, but is spontaneously pro- 
duced in Germany, and some other north- 
ern parts of Europe. Every part of the 
plant is strongly poisonous, but the root is 
unquestionably (lie most powerful ; and 
when first chewed, imparts a slight sensa- 
tion of acrimony, but afterwards, an insensi- 
bility or stupor at the apex of the tongue 
and a pungent heat of the lips, gums, palate, 
and fauces are perceived, followed with a 
general tremor and sensation of chilliness. 
The juice applied to a wound, seemed to 
affect the whole nervous system , even by 
keeping it long in the hand, or on the bo- 
som, we are told, unpleasant symptoms 
have been produced. The fatal symptoms 
brought on by this poison are, convulsions, 
giddiness, insanity, violent purgings, both 
upwards arid downwards, faintings, cold 
sweats, and deuth itself. Dr. Stoerk ap- 
pears to be the first who gave the wolf's- 
bane internally, as a medicine ; and since 
his experiments were published, 1762, it 
has been generally and successfully employ- 
ed in Germany and the northern parts of 
Euiope, particularly as a remedy for ob- 
stinate rheumatisms ; and many cases are 
related where this disease was of several 
years duration, and had withstood the effi- 
cacy of other powerful medicines, as mer- 
cury, opium, antimony, cicuta, &c. yet, in 
a short time, were entirely cured by the 
aconitum. Instances are also given us of 
its good effects in gout, scrophulous swell- 
ings, venereal nodes, amaurosis, intermit- 
tent fevers, paralysis, ulceratiun, and 
scirrhus. This plant has been generally 
prepared as an extract or inspissated juice, 
after the manner directed in the Edin- 
burgh and many of the foreign pharmaco- 
poeias : its efficacy is much diminished on 
being long kept. Like all virulent me- 
dicines, it should first be administered in 



AGO 



ACR 



small doses. Stoerk recommends two 
grains of the extract to be rubbed into a 
powder, with two drams of ^ugar, and to 
begin with ten grains of this powder, two or 
three times a day. We find, however, that 
the extract is often given from one grain 
to ten for a dose ; and Stoll, Scherekb^ck- 
er, and others, increased this quantity con- 
siderably. Instead of the extract, a tinc- 
ture has been made of the dried leaves, 
macerated in six times their weight of 
spirits of wine, and forty drops given for a 
dose. Some writers say that the napellus 
is not poisonous in Sweden, Poland, 8cc. 
but it should be noted that the napellus 
which is not poisonous, is the Aconitum 
lycoctonum of Linnaeus. 

ACOPON. (From a, priv. and XOTTOU, weari- 
ness.) It signifies originally whatever is a 
remedy against weariness, and is used in 
this sense by Hippocrates. Aph. viii. lib. 
ii. But in time, the word was applied to 
certain ointments. 

ACOPA. According to Galen and Pau- 
lus /Egineta, the Acopa Pharmaca are re- 
medies for indispositions of body which are 
caused by long or vehement motion. So 
are medicines against lassitudes. 

Aeon. Acidity. It is sometimes used 
to express that sourness in the stomach 
contracted by indigestion, and from whence 
flatulencies and acid belching arise. 

ACORDINA. An obsolete term for Indian 
tutty. 

ACORIA. (From *, priv. and Ko^ta to sa- 
tiate.) Insatiability. In Hippocrates, it 
means a good appetite and digestion. 

ACORITES VINUM. (From axopov, galan- 
gal.) A wine mentioned by D oscorides, 
made with galangal, liquorice, &c. infused 
with wine. 

ACORN. The fruit of the oak. Acorns 
were the food of the first ages ; but when 
corn was cultivated, acorns were neglect- 
ed. They are of little use with us, except 
for fattening hogs and other cattle and 
poultry. Among the Spaniards, the acorn, 
or glans iberica, is said to have long remain- 
ed a delicacy, and to have been served 
up in the form of a dessert. In dearths, 
acorns have been sometimes dried, ground 
into meal, and baked as bread. Bartholin 
relates that they are used in Norway for 
this purpose. The inhabitants of Ohio held 
out a long siege without any other food ; 
and in a time of scarcity in France, A. D. 
1709, they recurred to this food. But 
they are said to be hard of digestion, and 
to occasion headaches, flatulency, and 
colics In Smoland, however, many in- 
stances occur, in which they have supplied 
a salutary and nutritious food. With this 
view they are previously boiled in water 
and separated from their husks, and then 
dried and ground; and the powder is 



mixed with about one half, or one third 
of corn flour. A decoction of acorns is re- 
puted good against dysenteries and colics ; 
and a pessary of them is said to be useful 
in immoderate fluxes of the menses. Some 
have recommended ihe powder of acorns 
in intermittent fever ; and in Brunswick, 
they mix it with warm ale, and administer 
it for producing a sweat in cases of erysipe- 
las. Acorns roasted and bruised have re- 
strained a violent diarrhoea. For other 
medical uses to which they have been ap- 
plied, see Murray's Appar. Medic, vol. i. 
page 100. 

From some late reports of the Academy 
of Sciences, at Petersburg!!, we learn that 
acorns are the best substitute to coffee 
that has been hitherto known. To commu- 
nicate to them the oilv properties of coffee, 
the following process is recommended. 
When the acorns have been toasted brown, 
add fresh butter in small pieces to them, 
while hot in the ladle, and stir them with 
care, or cover the ladle and shake it, that 
the whole may be well mixed. The acorns 
of the Holm oak are formed at Venice into 
cups about one inch and an half in diame- 
ter, and .somewhat less in depth. They are 
used tor dressing leather and instead of 
galls for dyeing woollen cloth black. 

ACOHTIJJUS. A lupin. 

ACORUS. (A-xopov, from nopi. the pupil; 
because it was esteemed good tor disorders 
of the eyes.) The name of a genus of 
plants in the Linnaean system. Class, Hex- 
andria. Order, Digynia. Sweet-flag. 
Sweeet-rush. 

ACORCS CALAMUS. The systematic name 
for the calamus aromaticus. See Calamus 
aromaticus. 

ACORUS PAI.USTRIS. See Iris palustris. 

ACORCS VERUS. See Calamus aromati- 
cus. 

ACORUS VULGARIS. See Iris palustris. 

Acos. (From sm 0/ st;, to heal.) A remedy 
or cure. 

ACOSMIA. (From *, neg. and wo-pos, 
beautiful.) Baldness; ill health: irregularity, 
particularly of the critical days of fevers. 

ACOSTE. (From cotow, barley.) An an- 
cient food made of barley. 

ACOUSTICA. (Acoustica, sc. medica* 
inenta; AX, O VPMA from aucoustv to hear.) Re- 
medies which, are employed with a view to 
restore the sense of hearing, when wanting 
or diminished. No internal remedies of- 
this kind are known to produce any uniform 
effect. 

Acoustic nerves. See Auditory nerves. 

Acoustic duct. The external passage of 
the ear. 

ACOUSTICS. That branch of general 
science which treats on the origin, propa- 
gation, and perception of sound. 

ACEA. (Arab.) Acrai nymphomania. Ex. 



ivaooiirih I/All P 



ACR 



ACR 



15 



cessive venereal appetite. The time of 
menstruation. 

ACRACIA. (From *, priv. and jt/>*TCff, 
strength.) Jlcrasia. Acratia, Debility, or 
impotence, from relaxation or lost tone of 
the parts. Hippocrates. 

ACRAIPALA. (From <*, neg. and x/jamtxw*, 
surfen.) Acr<epahs. Remedies for the ef- 
fects of a debauch. 

ACRATISMA. (From oMpaflov, unmixed 
wine.) A breakfast among the old Greeks, 
consisting of a morsel of bread, soaked in 
pure unmixed wine. The derivation of this 
word is the same as Jlcrasia t because the 
wine used on this occasion was not mixed 
with water. 

ACRATOMELI. (From ajtpxlov, pure wine ; 
and (WgA/, honey.) Mulsum, or wine mixed 
with honey. 

ACHE. (From aui/>of, extreme.) The ex- 
tremity of the nose, 

ACREA. (From ctjtgo?, extreme.) Acrote- 
ria The extremities, i. e. the legs, arms, 
nose, and ears. 

ACR.EPALOS. See JLcruipala. 

ACREBEIA. (From emp&f, accurate.) An 
exact aiui accurate description and diag- 
nosis, or distinction of diseases. 

ACRID. (*#cm.) A term employed in 
medicine to express a taste, the character- 
istic of which is pungency joined with heat. 

ACRIMONY. (Jicrimonia, from acm, 
acrid.) Thus term is used to express a 
quality in substances by which they irri- 
tate, corrode, or dissolve others. It has 
been supposed until very lately, there were 
acid and alkaline acrimonies in the blood, 
which produced certain diseases ; and al- 
though the humoral pathology is nearly 
exploded, the term venereal acrimony and 
some others are ^till and must be retained. 

ACRIS. Any fractured extremity, 

ACRISIA. (From at, priv. and xgwce, to 
judge or separate.) A turbulent state of a 
disease, which will scarcely suffer any 
judgment to be formed thereof. 

AcHiTtrs. (From at, neg. and xg/va), to 
judge.) Disease without regular crisis, the 
event of wh;ch is hazardous to judge. 

ACROBYSTIA. (From wgo?, extreme, 
and /3va, to cover.) The extremity of the 
prepuce. 

ACROCHEIHIA. (From outgo?, extreme, and 
^g/g, a hand.) An exercise among the an- 
cients. Probably a species of wrestling, 
where they only held by the hands. 

ACHOCHEIRESIS. (From outgo?, extreme, 
and %&, a hand.) Gorraeus says, it signi- 
fies the arm from the elbow to the ends of 
the fingers ; %ag signifying the arm, from 
the scapula to the fingers' end. 

ACROCHORDON. (From outgo?, extreme, 
and o<J, a string.) Galen describes it as 
a round excrescence on the skin, with a 
slender base ; and that it hath its name 
because of its situation on the surface of 



the skin. The Greeks call that excrescence 
an achrochordon, where something hard con- 
cretes under the skin, which is rather 
rough, of the same colour as the skin, slen- 
der at the base, and broader above. Their 
size rarely exceeds that of a bean. 

ACROCOLIA. (From ectgo?, extreme, and 
acDKov, a limb.) These are the extremities 
of animals, which are used in food, as the 
ieet of calves, swine, bheep, oxen, or lambs, 
and of the broths of which, jellies are 
frequently made. Castellus from Budaeus 
adds, that the internal parts of animals 
are also called by this name ; in English 
giblets. 

ACHROLENIOJT. Castellus says it is the 
same as Olicranon 

ACROWANIA. (From eutgo?, extreme, and 
fjonvtet madness.) Total or incurable mad' 
ness. 

ACROMION. (From ax.gov, extremity, and 
o>//of, the shoulder.) A process of the sca- 
pula or shouider-blude. See ScapuLt. 

AcnoMPHALiuM. (Ax.Oju.qit.Kw, from sotgo?, 
extreme, .ma o^aspstxo?, the navel.) Jicrom- 
phalon. The tip of the na\el. 

ACBOTMPHALON. Sex Acromphalium. 

ACRONIA. (From outgov, the extremity.) 
The amputation ol any extremity, as a fin- 
ger or toe. 

ACROPATHOS. (From a*go?, extreme, and 
012160?, a disease.) Jlcropathus. It signifies 
literally a disease at the 'top or superior 
part. Hippocrates in his treatise De Su- 
pertioetatione applies it to the internal ori- 
fice ot the uterus ; and in Praedict. lib. ii. 
to cancers, which appear on the surface of 
the body. 

ACROPATHUS. See Acropathos. 

ACROPIS. (From an^ov, the extremity, and 
o^j l he voice.) Imperfect articulation, from 
a fault in the tongue. 

ACROPOSTHIA (From axgo?, extreme, and 
tzroo-Sw, the prepuce.) The extremity of the 
prepuce ; or that part which is cut off' in 
circumcision. 

ACROPSILON. (From axgo?, extreme, and 
naked.) The extremity of the de 
nuded glans penis. 

ACROSPEIOS (From t^ov, the extremity, 
and ^rxo?, black.) Jlcrospelus. The bromus 
Dioscoridis, or wild oat grass ; so called 
because its ears, or tops, are often of a 
blackish colour. 

ACROSPELUS. See Jlcrospelos. 

ACROTERIA. (From <*xo?, extreme.) The 
extreme parts of the body, as the hands, 
feet, nose, &c. 

ACROTERIA SMUS. (From aucgam;^*, ex- 
tremities, and this from *gcf, summus.) 
The amputation of an extremity. 

AcROTHYMiojir. (From wo?, extreme, 
and 3-i/^uo?, thyme.) Acrothymia. Acrothy- 
mtum. A sort of wart, described by Cel- 
,sus, as hard, rough, with a narrow basis, 
and broad top ; the top is of the colour of 



16 



ACU 



ADA 



thyme ; it easily splits and bleeds. This 
tumour is also called T hymns. 

ACTJEA. (From *.yu>, to break.) Acte. 
The elder-tree, so called from its being ea- 
sily broken. See Sambucus. 

ACTINE. The herb Bunias or Napus. 

ACXINOBOLISMCS. (From cufliv, a ray, and 
/2caxa, to cast out.) Irradiation. It is ap- 
plied to' the spirits, conveying the inclina- 
tions of the mind to the body : it is also 
called Diradiatio. 

ACTION. . (From o-o,to act.) Any fa- 
culty, power, or function of the body, 
which, by physiologists are usually divided 
into vital, animal, or natural. The vital 
functions, or actions, are those which are 
absolutely necessary to life, and without 
which animals cannot exist ; as the action 
of the heart, lungs, and arteries. The natu- 
ral functions are those which are instrumen- 
tal in repairing ihe several losses which 
the body sustains : digestion, and the for- 
mation of chyle, &c fall under this head. 
The animal actions are those which we per- 
form at will, as muscular motion, and all 
the voluntary motions of the body. Each 
part of die body is also said to have an ac- 
tion peculiar to itself. 

ACTON WATER. A purging water 
procured from Acton, a village near Lon- 
don, where is a well that affords it. This 
is one of the strongest purging waters near 
London ; and has been drank in the quan- 
tity of from one to three pints in a morning, 
against scorbutic and cutaneous affections. 
This medical spring is no longer resorted 
to by the public. 

ACTUAL This word is applied to any 
thing endued with a property or virtue 
which acts by an immediate power inherent 
in it : it is the reverse of potential ; thus, 
a red-hot iron or fire is called an actual 
cautery, in contradistinction from caustics, 
which are called potential cauteries. Boil- 
ing water is actually hot ; brandy, produ- 
cing heat in the body, is potentially hot, 
though of itself cold. 

ACTUATION. (From ago, to act.) That 
change wrought on a medicine, or any 
thing taken into the body, by the vital heat, 
which is necessary, in order to make it 
act and have its effect, is called its actua- 
tion. 

ACUITAS. Acrimony. 

ACUITIO. (From acuo, to sharpen.) 
The sharpening an acid medicine by an ad- 
dition of something more acid ; or in gene- 
ral, the increasing the force of any medi- 
cine, by an addition of something that hath 
the same sort of operation in a greater de- 
gree. 

ACULON. (From,*, neg. and xv\oa>, to 
roll round : so called because its fruit is 
not involved in a cup,or sheath,like others.) 
JIculos The fruit or acorn of the ilex, or 
scarlet oak. 



Actaos. See dculon. 

ACUMEN. A point. The extremity of a 
bone. 

ACUPUNCTURA. (From acus, a needle, 
and punctura, a prick.) Acupuncture ; 
bleeding performed by making many small 
punctures. 

ACUREB. Plumbum, or lead. 

ACURON. (From *, neg. and Jtuga, to 
happen.) A name of the Misma : so call- 
ed because it produces no effect if taken 
internally. 

ACUSPASTORIS. A name of the Scandix 
anthriscusy the shepherd's needle, or Ve- 
nus's comb. See Scandix. 

ACUTE. Morbus acutus. A disease 
which is attended with violent symptoms, 
terminates in a few days, and is attended 
with danger. It is opposed to a chronic 
disease, which is slow in its progress, and 
not so generally dangerous. 

ACUTENACULUM. (From acus, a needle, 
and tenacuhim, a handle.) Heister calls 
the portaigu'ille by this name. It is the 
handle for a needle, to make it penetrate 
easily when stiching a wound. 

ACTISIS. (From A, neg. and HUM, to con- 
ceive.) In Vogel's nosology it signifies a de- 
fect of conception, or barrenness in women. 

ACYRUS. (From a, priv and M^OS, autho- 
rity ; so named from its little nute in me- 
dicine.) The Jlrnica montana, or German 
leopard's-bane. See Jlrnica. 

AuJEMosriA. (From A, priv. and fajpa>v, a 
genius or fortune.) The restlessness and 
anxiety felt in acute fevers. 

ADAIGES. Sal-ammoniac, or muriate of 
ammonia. See Murias ammonia. 

ADAMAS. (From a, neg. and fetfjictce, to 
conquer ; as not being easily broken.) The 
adamant or diamond, the most precious of 
all stones, and which was formerly sup- 
posed to contain extraordinary cordial vir- 
tues. 

ADAMITTA. Adamitum. A hard stone 
in the bladder. 

Adam's Apple, See Pomun Jldami. 

ADAM'S NEEDLE. Yucca gloriosa of Lin- 
naeus. The roots of this plant are thick 
and tuberous, and are used by the Indians 
instead of bread; being first reduced into 
a coarse meal. This, however, is only in 
times of scarcity. 

ADARCES. (From A, neg. and ftytce, to 
see.) A saltish concretion found about the 
reeds and grss in rrarshy grounds in Gala- 
tia, and so called because it hides them. It 
is used to clear the skin with, in leprosies, 
tetters, &c. Dr. Plott gives an account of 
this production in his Natural History of 
Oxfordshire I was formerly in repute for 
cleansing the skin from freckles. 
1 ADAHISES. An ammoniacal salt. 

ADARNECK. Auripigmentum, or orpi- 
ment 

ddarticidation See Jlrthrodia. 



ADD 

ADDEPHAGIA. (From a.v, abundantly^ 
and Qx.yuv t to eat.) Insatiability. A vo- 
racious appetite. See Bulimia. 

ADDIT AMENTUM. (From arhlo, to add.) 
A term formerly employed as synonymous 
with epiphysis, but now only applied to two 
portions of sutures of the skull. See 
Lambdoidal and Squamwus Sutures. 

AUDIT AMENTUM COLI. See Appendicu- 
ld Cteci "oermiformis. 

ADDUCT OR. (From ad, and duco, to 
draw.) A drawer or contractor. A name 
given to several muscles, whose office is to 
bring forwards or draw tog-ether those 
parts of tiie body to which they are annex- 
ed. 

ADDUCTOR BRBVIS FEMORIS. Ad- 
ductor femoris secundus of Douglas. Tri- 
ceps secundus of Winslow. A muscle, 
which, with the adductor longus and magnus 
femoris forms the triceps adductor femoris. 
it is situated on the posterior part of the 
thigh, arising- tendinous from the os pubis 
near its joining with the opposite os pubis 
below, and behind the adductor longitz femo- 
ris, and is inserted, tendinous and fleshy, 
into the inner and upper part of the linea 
aspera, from a little below the trochanter 
minor, to the beginning of the insertion of 
the adductor longus. See Triceps adductor 
femoris. 

AnnucTOR FEMORIS PRIMUS. See Ad- 
ductor longus femoris. 

ADDUCTOR FEMOHIS SECUNDUS. See 
Adductor brevis femoris. 

ADDUCTOR FKMORIS TERTIUS. See Ad- 
ductor magnus femoris. 

ADDUCTOR FEMORIS Q.UAUTUS. See Ad- 
ductor magnus femoris. 

ADDUCTOR INDICIS PEDIS. An ex- 
ternal interosseous muscle of the fore-toe, 
whic!) arises, tendinous and fleshy, by two 
origins, from the root of the inside of the 
metatarsal bone of the fore-toe, from the 
outside of the root of the metatarsal bone 
of the great-toe, and from the os cune- 
i forme in f .ernum. It is inserted, tendi- 
nous, into the inside of the root of the first 
joint of the fore-toe. Its use is to pull the 
fore-toe inwards from the rest of the small 
toes. 

ADDUCTOR LONGUS FEMORIS. Ad- 
ductor femoris primus of Douglas. Triceps 
minus of Winslow. A muscle situated on 
the posterior part of the thigh, which, with 
the adductor brevis t and magnus femoris, 
forms the triceps adductor femoris. It arises 
by a pretty strong roundish tendon, from 
the upper and interior part of the os pubis, 
and ligament of its synchondrosis, on the 
inner side of the pectineus, and is inserted 
along the middle part of the linea aspera. 
See Triceps adductor femoris. 

ADDUCTOR MAGNUS FEMORIS. 
Adductor femoris tertius et quartus of Doug- 
las. Triceps magnus of Winslow. A mus- 
cle which, with the adductor brevis fe- 



ADE 



17 



moris, and the adductor longus femoris, 
forms the Triceps adductor femoris. It ari- 
ses from the symphysis pubis, and all along 
the flat edge of the" thyroid foramen, from 
v/hence it goes to be inserted into the linea 
aspera throughout its whole length. See 
7 'riceps adductor femoris. 

ADDUCTOR MINIMI DIGITI .PEDIS. 
An internal interosseous muscle of the foot. 
It arises, tendinous and fleshy, from the in- 
side of the root of the metatarsal bone of 
the little-toe. It is inserted, tendinous, 
into the inside of the root of the first joint 
of the little-toe. Its use is to pull the lit- 
tle-toe in-.vards. 

ADDUCTOR occur. See Rectus tnternus 
oculi. 

ADDUCTOR POLLTCIS. See A dductor polli- 
cis manfis. 

ADDUCTOR POLLICIS MANUS. Ad- 
ductor pollicis. Adductor ad minimum digi- 
turn. A muscle of the thumb, situated on 
the hand," which arises, fleshy, from almost 
the whole length of the metacarpal bone 
that sustains the middle finger; from 
thence its fibres are collected together. It 
is inserted, tendinous, into the inner part 
of the root of the first bone of the thumb. 
Its use is to pull the thumb towards the 
fingers. 

ADDUCTOR POLLICIS PEDIS. Jh 
tithenar of Winslow. A muscle of the great 
toe, situated on the foot : it arises, by a 
long thin tendon, from the os calcis, from 
the os cuboides, from the os cuneiforms 
externum, and from the root of the meta- 
tarsal bone of the second toe. It is insert- 
ed into the external os sesamoideum, and 
root of the metatarsal bone of the great toe. 
Its use is to bring this toe nearer to the rest. 
ADDUCTOR PROSTATE. A name given by 
Sanctor'mi to a muscle which he also calls 
Levater prosf,at& t and which Winslow calls 
Prostaticus superior. Albinus, from its of- 
fice, had very properly called it compressor 
prosetatx. See Compressor prostatce. 

ADDUCTOR TERTII DIGITI PEDIS. 
An internal interosseous muscle of the foot, 
that arises, tendinous and fleshy, from the 
roots of the metatarsal bones of the third 
and little toe. It is inserted, tendinous, in- 
to the outside of the root of the first joint 
of the third toe. Its use is to pull the third 
toe outward. 

ADKG. Sour milk, or butter-milk, 
ADKCIA. See Adectos. 
ADECTOS. Adecia. (From , priv. and 
faxw, to bite.) An epithet of those medi- 
cines which relieve from pain, by removing 
the uneasy situation caused by the stimu-, 
lus of acrimonious medicines. 

ADEL?HIA, ('A^X^, a relation.) Hip- 
pocrates calls diseases by this name that 
resemble each other. 

ADEMONIA. (From , priv. and <f a/^ay, a 
genus or divinity or fortune.) Hippocrates 
uses this word for uneasiness, restlessness, 
D 9 



18 



ADI 



ADI 



or anxiety felt in acute diseases, and some 
hysteric fits. 

ADEN. (AJX a gland.) A gland. A 
bubo. See Gland. 

ADENIFORM. CJldeniformis ; from acTw, 
a gland, a.\\d forma, resemblance.) Glandi- 
form, or resembling a gland. A term some- 
times applied to the prostate gland. 

ADENDEWTIS. An epithet applied to ul- 
cers which eat and destroy the glands. 

ADENOGRAPHY. (From */X a gland, 
and >a<po>, to write.) A treatise on the 
glands. See Gland. 

ADENOIDES. Glandiform : resembling a 
gland. An epithet applied also to the 
prostate gland. 

ADENOLOGY. (From <T W , a gland, 
and Ktyos, a treatise.) The doctrine of the 
glands. See Gland. 

ADEXOUS ABSCESS, (vlbscessus adenosus ; 
from <ry, a gland.) A hard glandular ab- 
scess, which suppurates slowly. 

ADEPHAGIA. (From aJw, abundantly, 
and qieystv, to eat.) Insatiate appetite. See 
JBuliniia. 

ADEPS. Fat. An oily secretion from 
the blood into the cells of the cellular mem- 
brane. See Fat. 

ADEPS ANSERINUS. Goose-grease. 

ADEPS SUILL&). Hog's-lard. 

ADEPTA MEDICINA. So Paracelsus calls 
that which treats of the diseases that are 
contracted by celestial operations, or com- 
municated from heaven. 

ADEPTA PHIIOSOPHIA. Adept philoso- 
phy. It is that philosophy, whose end is 
the transmutation of minerals, and a uni- 
versal remedy. 

ADEPTS. (From adipiscor, to obtain.) 
Skilful alchymists. Such are called so as 
pretend to some extraordinary skill in chy- 
mistry ; but these have too often proved 
either enthusiasts or impostors. The pro- 
fessors of the Jldepta Philosophic, are also 
called Adepts. 

ADFLATUS. A blast : a kind of erysipe- 
las. 

ADHATODA. The Malabar nut-tree, which 
is a species of J-ttsticia. It is used in India 
for expelling the dead fcetus in an abortion, 
which it is said is the meaning of the word 
in the Zeylandic language. 

ADHJESION. (From adhcsreo, to stick 
to. ) The growing together of parts. 

ADHESIVE INFLAMMATION. A 
term lately introduced into Surgery, to ex- 
press that species of inflammation which 
terminates by an adhxsion of the inflamed 
surfaces. 

ADHJESIVE PLASTER, A plaster made of 
common litharge plaster and resin, is so 
called because it is used for its adhesive 
pi'< perties. See Emplastrum resince. 

AmAciiYTos. (From a, neg. and fist^uio, 
to diffuse, scatter, or be profuse.) Decent 
in point of dress. Hippocrates thinks the 
dress of a fop derogatory from the physi- 



cian ; though thereby he hides his igno- 
rance, and obtains the good opinion of his 
patients. 

ADIANTHUM. Adiantum. (anWav, 
from at, neg. and fouva*, to grow wet ; so 
called because its leaves are not easily 
made wet.) Maidenhair. The name of a 
genus of plants in the Linnzean system. 
Class, Cryptogamia. Order, Filires. 

ADIANTHUM CAPILLUS VENER1S. 
Maiden-hair. The leaves of this plant are 
somewhat sweet and austere to the palate, 
and possess mucilaginous qualities. A sy- 
rop, the syrop de caplllaire is prepared 
from them, which is much esteemed in 
France. Orange-flower water and a pro- 
portion of honey,it is said, are usually add- 
ed. It acts chiefly as a demulcent, sheath- 
ing the inflamed sides of the glottis. 

ADIANTHUM ACREUM. The Polytrichum 
commune of Linnaeus. It possesses, in an 
inferior degree, astringent virtues : and was 
formerly given in diseases of the lungs, and 
calculous complaints. 

ADIAPHOROUS. A term which implies 
the same with neutral ; and is particu- 
larly used of some spirits and salts, 
which are neither of an acid nor alkaline 
nature. 

AUIALNEUSTIA. (From the privative 
particle et, and i-ji7rvsu>< perspiro. (A di- 
minution or obstruction of natural perspi- 
ration, and that in which the ancients 
chiefly placed the cause of fevers. 

ADIARRH<EA. (From a, priv. 
to flow out or through.) A total suppres- 
sion of all the necessary evacuations from 
the bowels. 

ADIATHOROSUS. A spirit distilled from 
tartar. 

ADI BAT. Mercury. 

ADICE. (AJW) A nettle. 

ADIPOCIRE. (From adeps, fat, and 
cera, wax.) A substance that resembles 
soap, formed by a conversion of animal 
matter, placed under certain circumstances. 
Whole bodies have been found converted 
into this substance. 

ADIPOSE MEMBRANE. (Jllembrana adipo- 
sa, from adeps, fat.) The fat collected in 
the cells of the cellular membrane. See 
Fat. 

ADIPSAN. So the Greeks called medi- 
cines, &c. which abate thirst. Hippocrates 
applied. this word to oxymel. 

ADIPSIA. (From *, neg. and ^4*. 
thirst.) A want of thirst. A genns of dis- 
ease in the class locales, and oader dyso- 
re.ria of CullenV Nosology. It is mostly 
symptomatic of some disease of the brain. 

ADIPSOS. So the Greeks called the Egyp- 
tian palm-tree, whose fruit is said to be the 
JMyrobalans. The tree is called adipsos* 
because its fruit quench eth thirst. Theo- 
phrastus calls this tree Balanos. Adipsos 
is also a name for liquorice. 

Ammoniacal salt. 



ADV 



AGO 



19 



An.iuTomwM. (From ad and juvo, to 
help.) A name of the humerus, from its 
usefulness in lifting up the fore -arm. 

ADJUVANTIA. Whatever assists in obvi- 
ating disease. 

ADNATA TUNICA. (Adnata, from ad- 
nascor, to grow to.) Jllbu^inea oculi. Tu- 
nica albuginea oculi. This membrane is 
mostly confounded with the conjunctiva. 
It is, however, thus formed : five of the 
muscles which move the eye, take their 
origin from the bottom of the orbit, and 
the sixth arises from the edge of it ; they 
are all inserted, by a tendinous expansion, 
into the anterior part of the tunica scleroti- 
ca ; which expansion gives the whiteness 
peculiar to the fore-part of the eye. It lies 
betwixt the sclerotica and conjunctiva. 

ADOC. Milk. 

ADONION. (From A<T<M 5 the youth from 
whose blood it was feigned to have sprung.) 
Adoniutn. Southernwood. 

ADOPTER. Tubus intermedium Achy- 
mical instrument used to combine retorts to 
the cucurbits or matrasses in distillation, 
with retorts instead of receivers. 

ADOR. A sort of corn, called also spelta. 

ADOS. Water in which red-hot iron is ex- 
tinguished. 

AD PONDUS OMNIUM. The weight of the 
whole. These words are inserted in phar- 
maceutical preparations, or prescriptions, 
when the last ingredient ought to weigh as 
much as all the others put together. 
ADRA HHIZA. Blancard says the root of 
the Aristolochia is thus named. 

ADRACHNK. The strawberry bay-tree. 
A species of Arbutus. 

A DRAM. Fossil salt. 

ADRARAGI. (Indian.) Garden-saffron. 

ADROBOLON. (From o<r<>oc large, and 
/?a>\o?, a globe, bole, or mass.) Indian bdel- 
lium, which is coarser than the Arabian. 

Adatriction. Costivefiess. 

ADSTRINGENTS. See Astringents. 

ADUSTION. An inflammation about the 
brain, and its membrane, with a hollow- 
ness of the eyes, a pale colour, and a dry 
body. 

In Surgery, adustion signifies the same 
as cauterization, and means the application 
of ai>y substance to the animal body, which 
acts like fire. The ancient surgeons, espe- 
cially the Arabians, were remarkably fond 
of having recourse to adustion in local dis- 
eases : but the use of actual heat is very 
rarely admitted by the moderns. 

ADVENTITIOUS. Any thing that acciden- 
tally, and not in the common course of na- 
tural causes, happens to make a part of ano- 
ther ; as the glands in strumous cases are 
said to be adventitious glands, in distinction 
from those which are naturally produced. 
It is also used in opposition to hereditary ; 
thus gout and scrofula are sometimes here- 
ditary, and very often adventitious, they 



having never before been known in the 
family. 

ADY. Abangn. The palm of the island 
of St. Thomas, from which is prepared 
Thernel's restorative. 

ADYNAMIA. (A<W/*/* : from a, priv. 
and Juv*/**?, power.) A defect of vital power. 

ADYNAMIA. The second order of the 
class neuroses of Cullen's Nosology ; it com- 
prehends snycope, dyspepsia, and hypochon- 
driasis. 

ADYNAMON. (From a, neg. and fvv&fjctc, 
strength.) Adynamutn. Among ancient 
physicians, it signified a kind of weak fac- 
titious wine, prepared from must, boiled 
down with water ; to be given to patients 
to whom pure or genuine wine might be 
hurtful. 

JEDOIA. (From <*/cfa>?, modesty ; or from 
*, neg. and J&>, to see ; as not being de- 
cent to the sight.) The pudenda, or parts 
of generation. 

JDOPSOPH i A . (From a/cTa/a, pudenda, n 
4o<pa>, to break wind.) A term used by 
Sauvages and Sagar, to signify a flatus 
from the bladder, or from the womb, ma 
king its escape through the vagina. 

JEoAGROPiLus. (From a^atj/go?, a wild 
goat, and pita, a ball.) &gagrophila. 

1. A ball found in the stomach of deer, 
goats, hogs, horned cattle, as cows, &c. 
It consists of hairs which they have swal- 
lowed from licking themselves. They are 
of different degrees of hardness, but have 
no medicinal virtues. Some rank these balls 
among the Bezoars. Hieronymus Velschius 
wrote a treatise on the virtues of this. 

2. A species of conferva found in Wallen- 
fenmoor, from its resembling these concre- 
tions, is also so named. 

yG i AS. A white speck on the pupil of 
the eye, which occasions a dimness of sight. 

JEGIDES. Aylia. A disorder of the eyes 
mentioned by Hippocrates. Fcesius thinks 
the disease consists of small cicatrices in 
the eye, caused by an afflux of corrosive 
humours upon the part. But in one pas- 
sage of Hippocrates, Fcesius says it signifies 
small white concretions of humours which 
stick upon the pupil, and obscure the 
sight. 

-ZEGiDioN. A collyrium or ointment for 
inflammations and defluxions of the eyes. 

JEcitops. Wild fescue grass. This plant 
is called agilops from its supposed virtue 
in curing the disorder named JEgylops. It 
is a species of JSromus in the Linnaean sys- 
tem. 

^EGINETIA. Malabrian broom rape. A 
species of Orobanche. 

/EGIS. Achlys. A film on the eye. 

J?EGOCERAS. (From 0,1%, a goat, and xg*?, 
a horn : so called, because the pods were 
supposed to resemble the horns of a goat.) 
Foenugreek. See Trigonella Fanum-gracum, 
and B oncer a-s* 



20 

./EGOIETHROIT. (From /, a goat, and 
o\e0gof, destruction; so named from the 
opinion of its being poisonous to goats.) 
Tournefort says it is the QhamcErododrn- 
tlron; now the Azel<ea ponticn of Ldbnaeus, 

/EGONYCHOJT. (From out , n goat, and 
otvu| , a hoof; becau.-e of the hardness of the 
seed.) Cromwell. See Lithospermiim. 

JEGOPQD1UM. (From *i| , a gout, and 
<o- 8 f, a foot ; from its supposed resemblance 
to a goat's foot.) Goatweed. A genus of 
plants in the Linnzean system. Glasfc, Pen- 
tandria Order, Digynia. 

/EROPODIUM. PODAGRARIA. ^Podagraria^ 
from its use in curing the podagra, or gout.) 
Goatweed. This plant is sedative, and 
was formerly applied to mitigate pains of 
gout, and to relieve piles, but not now em- 
ployed. In its earlier state it is tender 
and esculent. 

./EsopRosorox. (From tz, a goat, and 
<arca-a7rsv, a face ; so called because goats 
are subject to defects in the eyes, or from 
having in it some ingredients named after 
the goat.) A name of a lotion for the eyes, 
when inflamed. 

^EGYLOPS. From ot ? |, a goat, and a|, 
an eye.) A disease so named from the sup- 
position that goats were very subject to it. 

The term means a sore just under the in- 
ner angle of the eye. The best modern sur- 
geons seem to consider the segylops only as 
a stage of the fistula lachrymalis. Paiilus 
/Egineta calls it anchylops, before it bursts, 
and aegilops after. When the skin covering 
the lachrymal sac has been for some time in- 
flamed, or subject to frequent returning in- 
flammations, it most commonly happens 
that the puncta lachrymalia are affected by 
it ; and the fluid, not having an opportunity 
of passing off by them, distends the infla- 
med skin, so that at last it becomes sloughy, 
and bursts externally. This is that state of 
the disease which is called perfect aigylops, 
or tsgylops. 

,/EGYPTIA MUSCATA. See Hibiscus abcl- 
moscnus. 

/EGYPTTACUM. A name given to different 
unguents of the detergent or corrosive kind. 
We meet with a black, a red, a white, a 
simple, a compound, and a magistral JEgyp- 
tiacum. The simple JEgyptiacum, which is 
that usually found in our shops, is a compo. 
sition of verdigris, vinegar, and honey, 
boiled to a consistence. It is usually sup- 
posed to take its name from its dark colour, 
wherein it resembles that of the natives of 
Egypt. It is improperly called an unguent, 
as there is no oil, or rather fat, in it. 

JEGYPTIUM PHARMACUM AD AURES. >Etius 
speaks of this as excellent for deterging 
foetid ulcers of the ears, whic.li he says it 
cures, though the patient were born with 
them. 

^IGLUCES. (From am, always and 
sweet.) A sweetish wine, or must. 



,/EIPATHF.IA. (From (tit, always, and 
, a disease.) Any disease of long 
duration. 

/ENEA. (From as, brass, so called be- 
cause it was formerly made of brass.) A 
catheter. 

. The spinal marrow. 

Fermentation. Sprinkling of 
the whole body. 

./EONION. The sedum maj us, or common 
hpuse-kfk 

JEoRA. (From tiaga>, to lift up, to sus- 
pend on high.) Exercise without muscular 
action ; as swinging. A species of exercise 
used by the ancients, und of which Aeiius 
gives the following account. Gestation, 
while it exercises the body, the body seems 
to-be at rest. Of the motion there are se- 
veral kinds. First, swinging in a hammock, 
which, at the decline of a fever, is beneficial. 
Secondly, being carried in a litter, in which 
the patient, either sits, or lies along. It is 
useful when the gout, stone, or such other 
disorder, attends, as does not admit of vio- 
lent motions. Thirdly, riding in a chariot, 
which is of service in most chronical disor- 
ders ; especially before the more violent 
exercises c;vn be admitted. Fourthly, sail- 
ing in a ship, or boat. This produces va- 
rious effects, according to the different 
agitation of the waters, and, in many tedi- 
ous chronical disorders, is efficacious be- 
yond what is observed from the most skilful 
administration of drugs. These are instan- 
ces of a passive exercise. 
^Eq.uE. Ecmally. The same as ana. 
AER. The fluid which surrounds the 
globe. See Air and Atmosphere. 

JEsos An excrescence, or protuberance. 
.IRA. Darnel, or lolium. 
IRITIS The Anagallis, or pimpernell. 
AEROLOGIA. (A^OXO^X : from <*^, the 
air, and A&^G?, a discourse.) Aerologice. 
Aerology. That part of medicine which 
treats of the nature and properties of air. 
AEHOLOGICE. See Jlerologia. 
AEROMELI. Honey, dew ; also a name 
for manna. 

AEROPHOBI. (From *<>, air, and <j>cW, 
fear.) According to Ccelius Aurelianus, 
some phrenetic patients are afraid of a lucid 
and others of an obscure air: and these he 
calls aerophobi. 

AEROPHOBIA. Fear of air, or wind. 
A symptom of the phrenitis ; also a name 
of Hydrophobia. 

AEROSIS. The aerial vital spirit of the 
ancients. 

YROSSUS LAPIS. So Pliny calls the La- 
pis Calaminaris, upon the supposition that 
it was a copper ore. 
^RUCA. Verdigris. 
jEUUGO. (From <es, copper.) Azagor. 
Abnizadir. 

1. The rust of any metal, particularly of 
copper. 



.ETH 



2. Verdigrise. See Verdigrise. 

,EttUGO I'KJEPAHATA. See 

cnpri. 

JLscHiioMrTHESis. The obscene lan- 
guage of the delirious. 

jESCULUS. (jsculus, from esca, food.) 
Horse-chestnut. The name of a genus of 
plants in the Linnaean system. Class, Hep- 
tundria. Order, Afonogynid, 

^SCOll/S HIPPOCASTANUM. The SVS- 

tematic name for the hippocastanum. See 
Hippocast anuin. 

JisECAvuM. Auricalcum, or brass. 

/ESTATES. Freckles in the face ; sun- 
burnings. 

JEsTPHAHA. Incineration, or burning 
of the flesh, or any other part of the body. 

-ffisTUAiuuM. A stove for conveying 
heat to all parts of the body at once. A 
kind of vapour bath. A vapour bath Am- 
brose Parey calls an instrument thus, which 
he describes for conveying heat to any par- 
ticular part. Palmarius, de morbis, conta- 
giosis, gives a contrivance under this name, 
for sweating the whole body. 

TEs-ruATio. The boiling up, or rather 
the fermenting of liquors when mixed. 

./ESTUS VOLATICUS. (From testus, heat, 
and *>o/0, to fly.) According to Vogel, sy- 
nonymous with phlogosis. Sudden heat, or 
scorching, which soon goes off, but which 
for a time reddens the face. 

AETHER. (A/0g, a supposed fine subtile 
fluid.) Liquor xthereus. Ether. JEther 
sulphuricus, nitrosus, muriaticus , according 
to the acid from which it is formed com- 
bined with alcohol. A volatile liquor, ob- 
tained, by distillation, form a mixture of al- 
cohol and a concentrated acid. 

The medical properties of aether, when 
taken internally, are avttispasmodic, cordial, 
and stimulant. Against nervous and ty- 
phoid fevers, all nervous diseases, but 
especially tetanic affections, soporose dis- 
eases from debility, asthma, palsy, spas- 
modic colic, hysteria, &c. it always enjoys 
some share of reputation. Regular prac- 
titioners seldom give so much as empirics, 
who sometimes venture upon large quan- 
tities, with incredible benefit. Applied 
externally, it is of service in the headach, 
toothach, and other painful affections. 
Thus employed, it is capable of producing 
two very opposite effects, according to its 
management; for, if it be' prevented from 
evaporating, by covering the place to which 
it is applied closely with the hand, it proves 
a powerful stimulant and rubefacient, and 
excites a sensation of burning heat, as is the 
case with solutions of camphor in alcohol, 
or turpentine. In this way it is frequently 
used for removing pains in the head or teeth. 
On the contrary, if it be dropped on any 
part of the body, exposed freely to the air, 
its rapid evaporation produces an intense 
degree of cold ; and as this is attended with 
a proportional diminution of bulk in the part 



applied, in this way it has frequently contri- 
buted to the reduction of the intestine, in 
cases of strangulated hernia. 

./ETHEREA HEHBA. The Eryngium was 
so called. 

./ETHEREAL OIL. An animal or vegetable 
oil, highly rectified, partaking, as it were, 
of the nature of aether. 

AETHER SULPHURICIS. JVapthttmtri- 
cli. JEther Vitriolicus. Sulphuric ether. 
Take of rectified spirit, 
Sulphuric acid, of each, by weight, a pound 
and a half. 

Pour the spirit into a glass retort, then 
gradually add to it the acid, shaking it after 
each addition, and taking care that their 
temperature, during the mixture, may not 
exceed 120 degrees. Immerse the retort 
very cautiously to a sand bath, previously 
heated to 200 degrees, so that the liquor 
may boil as speedily as possible, and let the 
aether pass over into a tubulated receiver, 
to the tubulure of which another receiver is 
appiied,-and kept coidby immersion in ice, 
or water. Distil the liquor until a heavier 
part also begins to pass over, and appear 
under the aether in the bottom of the re- 
ceiver. To the liquor which remains in 
the retort, pour on twelve fluidounces more 
of alcohol, and repeat the distillation in the 
same manner. 

It is mos-lly employed as an excitant, ner- 
vine, antispasmodic, and diuretic, in cases 
of spasms, cardialgia, enteralgia, fevers, 
hysteria, cephalagia, and spasmodic asthma. 
The dose is from gt. xx to ij. Externally 
it cures toothach, and violent pains in the 
head. See &ther. 

.ETHER RECT1FICATUS. JEther vi- 
triolicus. 

Take of sulphuric aether, fourteen fluid- 
ounces. 

Fused potash, half an ounce, 
Distilled water, two fluidounces. 
Dissolve the potash in the water, and add 
thereto the aether, shaking them well to- 
gether, until they are mixed. Lastly, by 
means of a temperature about 200 degrees, 
distil over twelve ounces of rectified aether, 
from a large retort into a cooled receiver. 

Sulphuric aether is impregnated with some 
sulphuric acid, as is evident in the smell, 
and with some rctherial oil : and these re- 
quire a second process to separate them. 
Potash unites to the acid, and requires to be 
added in a state of solution, and in sufficient 
quantities, for the purpose of neutralizing 
it ; and it also forms a soap with the oil. It 
is advantageous also to use a less quantity 
of water than exists in the ordinary solution 
of potash : and therefore the above direc- 
tions are adopted in the last London Phar- 
macopoeia. For its virtues, see JEther. 

jETHIOPS. A term applied formerly to 
several preparations, because the powder 
becomes of a black colour, like the skin 
of an .(Ethiopian. 



AFF 



AFF 



,/ETHIOPS ANTIMONATLIS. A prepara- 
tion of antimony and mercury, once in high 
repute, and still employed by some practi- 
tioners in cutaneous diseases. A few grains 
are to be given at first, and the quantity in- 
creased as the stomach can bear it. 

JLTHIOPS MARTiAtis. A preparation of 
iron, formerly in repute, but now neglected. 
jETHiOFS MINERAL. The substance 
heretofore known by this name, is called, 
by the London College, Hydrargyrus cum 
sulphure ; by the Edinburgh., Sulphuretum 
Mydrargyri nigrum; and by ihat of Dublin, 
Hydrargyrum sulphuratum nigrum. 

JEthmoid artery. See Ethmoid artery -. 

JEthmoid bone. See Ethmoid bone. 

vErHNA. A chymical furnace. 

./ETHOCES. JtLtholices. Superficial pus- 
tules in the skin, raised by heat, as boils, 
fiery pustules. 

jETHUSA. (From u0*r* t beggarly.) 
The name of a genus of plants of the Lin- 
nacan system. Class, Pentandria. Order, 
Digynia. 

JETHUSA MEUM. The systematic name 
of the meum of the Pharmacopoeias. See 
Jlleum Athamanticum. 

JTHYA. A mortar. 

JTIOI PHLEBES. Eagle veins. The 
veins which pass through the temples to the 
head, were so called formerly by Rufus 
Ephesius. 

./ETIOLOGY. (A/T/oX6>i* : from cult*, a 
cause, and xo>oc, a discourse.) The doctrine 
of the causes of diseases. 

^ETOCION. JEitolium. The granumc ni- 
dium. 

^ETONYCHIUM. See Lithospermum. 

AFFECTION. (This is expressed in 
Greek by -arafioc: hence pathema, passio.) 
This term indicates any existing disorder of 
the whole body, or a part of it, as hysterics, 
colic, leprosy. Thus by adding a descrip- 
tive epithet to the term affection, most 
distempers may be expressed. We say 
febrile affection, cutaneous affection, &c. 
using the word affection synonymously with 
disease. 

AFFINITY, fjffintout a proximity of 
relationship.) The term affinity is used 
indifferently with attraction. See Attrac- 
tion. 

Affinity of Aggregation. See Attraction 
of Aggregation. 

Affinity of Composition. See Attraction, 
chymical. 

Affinity, compound. When Uuve or more 
bodies, on account of their mutual affinity, 
unite and form one homogeneous body, then 
the affinity is termed compound affinity or 
attraction : thus, if to a solution of sugar 
and water be added spirits of wine, these 
three bodies will form a homogeneous li- 
quid by compound affinity. See Attraction. 

Affinity, double. Double elective attrac- 
tion. When two bodies, each consisting of 



two elementary parts, come into contact, 
and are decomposed, so that their elements 
become reciprocally united, and produce 
two new compound bodies, the decomposi- 
tion is then termed, decomposition by dou- 
ble affinity : thus, if we add common salt, 
which consists of muriatic acid and soda, 
to nitrate of silver, which is composed of 
nitric acid and silver, these two bodies will 
be decompounded ; for the nitric acid unites 
with the soda, and the silver with the muri- 
atic acid, and thus may be obtained two 
new bodies. The common salt and nitrate 
of sliver therefore mutually decompose 
each other by what is called double affinity. 
See Attraction. 

Affinity, intermediate. Appropriate affi- 
nity. Affinity of an intermedium is, when 
two substances of different kinds, that show 
to one another no component affinity, do, 
by the assistance of a third, combine, and 
unite into a homogeneous whole : thus, oil 
and water are substances of different kinds, 
which, by means of alkali, combine and 
unite into an homogeneous substance: hence 
the theory of lixiviums, of washing, &c. 
See Attraction. 

Affinity, quiescent. Mr. Kirwan employs 
the term Quiescent affinity to mark that, by 
virtue of which, the principle of each com- 
pound of two bodies, decomposed by dou- 
ble affinity, adhere to each other; and 
Divellert affinity, to distinguish that by 
which the principles of one body unite and 
change order with those of the other : thus 
sulphate of potash or vitriolated tartar is 
not completely decomposed by the nitric 
acid or by lime, when either of these prin- 
ciples is separately presented ; but if the 
nitric acid be combined with lime, this 
nitrate of lime will decompose the sulphate 
of potash. In this last case the affinity of 
the sulphuric acid with the alkali is weak- 
ened by its affinity to the lime This acid, 
therefore, is subject to two affinities, the 
one which retains it to the alkali, called qui- 
escent, and the other which attracts it 
towards the lime, called divellent affinity. 

Affinity,, divellent. See Affinity quiescent. 

Affinity reciprocal. When a compound 
of two bodies is decomposed by a third ; 
the separated principle being in its turn 
capable of decomposing the new combina- 
ti;-n. 

Affinity, simple. Single elective Attrac- 
tion. If a body consisting of two compo- 
nent parts, be decomposed on the approach 
of a third, which has a greater affinity with 
one of those component ports than with the 
other, then the decomposition is termed 
decomposition by simple affinity ; for in- 
stance, if pure potash be added to a com- 
bination of nitric acid and lime, the union 
which existed between these two bodies 
will cease, because the potash combines 
with the nitric acidj aed the lime being 



AGA 



AGE 



23 



disengaged is precipitated. The reason is, 
that the nitric acid has a greater affinity for 
the pure potash than for the lime, therefore 
it deserts the lime, to combine with the 
potash When two bodies only enter into 
chyinical union, the affinity, which was the 
cause of it, is also termed simple or single 
elective attraction ; thus the solution of 
sugar and water is produced by simple 
affinity, because there are but two bodies. 
See Attraction. 

AFFIOW. AJfium. An Arabic name for 
opium. 

AFFLATUS. (From ad and /are, to blow.) 
A vapour or blast. A species of erysi- 
pelas, which attacks people suddenly, so 
named upon the erroneous supposition that 
it was produced by some unwholesome wind 
blowing on the part. 

AFFUSIO. Pouring a liquor upon some- 
thing ; but sometimes it means the same as 
sitffusio, a cataract. 

After-birth. See Placenta. 

AFFLIUM. An Arabic name for opium. 

ASA CUETENSIUM. The small Spanish 
milk-thistle. 

AGALACTATIO. See Agalactia. 

AGALACTIA. AAO*]**'- from <*, priv, 



and ytxct., milk.) Agalaods, Agalactio. Aga- 
lactatio. A detect of milk in childbirth. 



AGALACTOS. (From A, priv. and 
milk.) An epithet given to women who 
have no milk when they lie in. 

AGALACTOS. See Agaluctia. 

AGALAXJS. See Agalactia. 

AGALLOCHI VERI LIGNUM. See Lignum 
aloes. 

AGALLUGE. Agallugum. A name of the 
agallochum or aromatic aloe. 

Agaric. See Agaricus. 

AGARACOIJDES. A species of agaricus 
or fungus. 

AGARICUS. (Argute; : from Agaria, a 
town in Asia ; or i'rom Agarus, a river in 
Sarmatia, now Malowouda.) Agaric. The 
name of a genus of plants in the Linnaean 
system. Class, Cryptogamia. Order, Fungi. 

AGARICUS CHIRURGORUM. Agaricus quer- 
c&9. Fungus igniarius. Boletus igniarius. 
Agaric of the oak. Touchwood boletus. 
Female agaric. This fungus JSoletus ig- 
niarius of Linnarus : acaulis pufvinatus 
levis, poris tennissimus, has been much used 
by surgeons as an external styptic. Though 
still employed on the Continent, the sur- 
geons in this country have not much confi- 
dence in it. 

AGARICUS ALBUS. The plant known by 
this name in the pharmacopoeias, is the Bole- 
tus laricis of Linnaeus ; so called from 
its being met with on old larch trees, in 
different parts of Europe. Several prepa- 
rations, as troches, an extract, and piiis, 
are ordered to be made with it in foreign 
pharmacopoeias, which are administered 
against phthisical complaints. 



AGALLUGUM. See Agallugi. 

AGARICUS CAMPESTRIS. See Mushroom. 

AGARICUS CHATARELLUS. A species of 
fungus, esteemed a delicacy by the French. 
Broiled with salt and pepper, it has much 
the flavour of a roasted cockle. 

AGARICUS CINSTAMOMEUS. Brown Mush- 
room. A species of agaricus, of a pleasant 
smell. When broiled, it gives a good 
flavour. 

AGARTCUS DELICIOSUS. This fungus well 
seasoned and then broiled has the exact 
flavour of a roasted muscle. It is in season 
in September. 

AGARICUS MUSCARIUS. Bug Agaric, so 
called from its known virtue in destroying 
bugs. This reddish fungus is the Agaricus 
mnscariiis of Linnaeus -.stipitatus, lamellis 
dimidiatis solitariis, stipite vofoato, apice di- 
latato, basi ovato. The use of this vegeta- 
ble is not much known in this country. 
Haller relates that six persons of Lithuania 
perished at one time, by eating this kind of 
mushroom, and that in others it has caused 
delirium. It is employed externally to 
strumous, phagedenic, and fistulous ulcers, 
as an escharotic. 

AGARICUS PIPERATUS. The plant thus 
named by Linnaeus, is the pepper mush- 
room, also called pepper agamic. It is the 
Fungus piperatus albus,lacteo-succo turgens 
of Ray. Fungus albus acris. When freely 
taken, fatal consequences are related by 
several writers to have been the result. 
When this vegetable has even lost its acrid 
juice by drying, its caustic quality still 
remains. 

AGAHICUS PRATENSIS. The Champig- 
nion of Hudson's Flora Anglica. This plant 
has but little smell, and is rather dry, yet 
when broiled and stewed, communicates a 
good flavour. 

AGARICUS VIOLACEUS. Violet mushroom. 
This fungus requires much broiling, but 
when sufficiently done and seasoned, it is 
as delicious as an oyster. Hudson's bul- 
bosus is only a variety of this. 

AGE. The ancients reckoned six stages 
of life : pueritia, childhood, which is to the 
fifth year of our age ; adolescentia, youth, 
reckoned to the eighteenth, and youth pro- 
perly so called, to the twenty-fifth year; 
jnventus, reckoned from the twenty.fifth to 
the thirty-fifth year ; virilis fftas, manhood, 
from the* thirty-fifth to the fiftieth year; 
sense tus t old age,, from fifty to sixty \-crepita. 
cetus, decrepid age, which ends in death. 

AGEKESIA. (A-ytvtn*. : from t, neg. and 
yivt/ji&i, to beg-et.) Impotency in man. A 
term employed by Vcgel. It is synonymous 
with anaphrmKsia and dyspermutismus. 
AER. The common earth or soil. 
Ar-rF.a NATURE. The womb. 
AGKRATUS LAPIS. (Ageratus common.) 
A s'one used by cobblers. It is ridiculously 
said to be disctitient and gently astringent 



24 



AGN 



AGtt 



If it possess any such virtues, it probably 
contains iron ; a supposition countenanced 
by its being used in dyeing'. 

AGERATUM. (Ayi$A]c,v : from a, priv. and 
>?, senectus ; never old, ever green ; be- 
cause its flowers preserve their beauty a 
long 1 time.) See Achill&a ageratum. 

AGES. (From *>?, wicked; so called 
because it is generally the instrument of 
wicked acts.) The palm or hollow of the 
hand. 

AGEUSTIA. (From *, neg. and ytupoau, 
gusto, to taste.) Agheustia, Jlpoguestia, 



A defect or loss of taste. Cullen ranks 
this as a genus of disease in the class 
locales and order dyscesthesix. The causes 
are fever or palsy, whence he forms two 
species : the latter he calls organic, arising 
from some affection in the membrane of 
the tongue, by which relishing things, or 
those which have some taste, are prevented 
from coming into contact with the nerves : 
the other atonic, arising without any affec- 
tion of the tongue. 

AGGLUTi?fAJfTrA. Adhesive medicines 
which heal by causing the parts to stick 
together. 

AGGLUTIJVATIO. Agglutination. The 
adhesive union or sticking together of sub- 
stances. 

AGGLUTITIO. Obstruction in the oeso- 
phagus, or a difficulty in swallowing. 

AGGREGATE GLAXDS. (From aggrego, to 
assemble together.) An assemblage of 
glands, as those of the intestines. 

Aggregation^ affinity of. See Attraction. 

AGIIEUSTIA. See Ageustia. 

AGIS. The thigh or femur. 

AGITATO RI A, Convulsive diseases, of 
those called clonic. 

AOIACTATIO. Defect of milk. 

AGIAXIS. See JEgldes. 

AGXIA. Aglium. A shining tubercle or 
pustule on the face. White specks on the 
eye. 

AGMA. Agrrie. A fracture. 

AGNACAL. A tree, which, according to 
Ray, grows about the isthmus of Darien, 
and resembles a pear-tree, whose fruit is a 
great provocative to venery. 

AGXATA. See Adnata tunica. 

AGNIXA MEMBRAXA. (From ay-voe, a 
lamb, and membraiui, a. membrane.) Aetius 
calls one of the membranes which involve 
the foetus by tins name, which he derives 
from its tenderness. See Amnios. 

AGNOIA. (From , priv and yivaa-icu, to 
know.) Forgetfulness ; a symptomatic af- 
fection in fevers. 

Ac?fus CASTUS. (From &yvoe t a lamb ; so 
called from the down upon its surface, 
which resembles that upon a lamb's skin ; 
and castus, because the chaste matrons, at 
the feasts of Ceres, strewed them upon their 
beds, and lay upon them.) The plain bear- 



ing this name in the pharmacopoeias is the 
Vitex agnns castus of Linnaeus ; -foliis digi- 
tatis, serratis, spicis verticillatis. The seeds 
are the medicinal part, which have, when 
fresh, a fragrant smell and an acrid aromatic 
taste. Formerly they were celebrated as 
antaphrodisiacs ; but experience does not 
discover in them any degree of such virtue, 
and some have ascribed to them an oppo- 
site one. They are now fallen into disuse. 
AGOGE. The deduction or reasoning 
upon diseases from their symptoms and 
appearances. The order, state, or tenour 
of a disease or body. 
AGOMPHIASIS. A looseness of the teeth. 
AGONE. (AyovH : from ., neg. and yovo;, 
offspring.) Hyoscyamus or Henbane ; so 
called because it was supposed to cause 
barrenness. 

AGONIA. Sterility, impotence, agony. 
AGO^ISTICUM. (Aywv/f/Jtoy, from ctycevtx&i, 
to struggle.) A term used by ancient phy- 
sicians to signify water extremely cold, 
which was directed to be given in large 
quantities, in acute erysipela'.ous fevers, 
with a view of overpowering or struggling 
with the febrile heat of the blood. 

AGOKOS. (From A, priv. and yovos, or 
yovn, an offspring ; barren.) Hippocrates 
calls those women so who have not chil- 
dren, though they might have if the impe- 
diment were removed. l 

AGOSTOS. (From otyu, to bring, or lead.) 
That part of the arm from the elbow to the 
fingers; also the palm or hollow of the hand. 
AGRESTA. (Ayptcs, wild.) Verjuice, 
which is made from the wild apple. The 
immature fruit of the vine. 

AGRESTEA. A name for the common 
tartar. 

AGRESTIS. In the works of some old 
writers it expresses an ungovernable malig- 
nity in a disease. 

AGRIA. Holiy. A malignant pustule, of 
which, the ancient surgeons describe two 
sorts ; one which has been so called, is small, 
and casts a roughness or redness over the 
skin, slightly corroding it, smooth about its 
centre, spreads slowly, and is of a round 
figure ; this sort is cured by rubbing it 
with the fasting spittle. The second ulce- 
rates, with a violent redness and corrosion, 
so as to make the hair fall off'; it is of an 
unequal form, and turns leprous ; it is cured, 
by the application of pellitory of the wall 
in the manner of a poultice. 

AIHUAMPELOS. (From a.ypios, wild, and 
a/^sAof, a vine) The wild vine, or white 
bryony. See Bryonia. 

AGUIELAA. (From aypto;, wild, and ixxix, 

the olive-tree.) The oleaster, or wild olive. 

AGRIFOLIUM. (From tx/?, a prickle, and 

qvxxw, a leaf.) Aquifolium, or holly tree. 

It should rather be called acifolium front 

its prickly leaves. 

AGHIiMONIA. (Aj^waw : from aypoc, a. 



AGR 



AGU 



Reid, ajid /teevo?, alone : so named from its 
being the chief of ail wild herbs.) Agri- 
mony. 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnzan system. 

2. The pharmacopoeial name of a plant ; 
the common agrimony. Agrimonia Eupa- 
toria of Linnaeus :foliis caulinis pinnatis, 

jbtiolis undique serratia, omnibus minntis in- 
ters tinctis,fructibus hispidis. 

This plant is common in fields about 
hedges and shady places, flowering in June 
and July. It has been principally regarded 
in the character of a mild astringent and 
corroborant, and many authors recommend 
it as a deobstruent, especially in hepatic 
and other visceral obstructions. Chomel 
relates two instances of its successful use 
in cases where the liver was much enlarged 
and indurated. It has been used with 
advantage in haemorrhagic affections, and 
to give tone to a lax and weak state of the 
solids. In cutaneous disorders, particu- 
larly in scabies, we have been told that it 
manifests great efficacy ; for this purpose 
it was given infused with liquorice in the 
form of tea ; but according to Alston it 
should be always exhibited in the state of 
powder. It is best used while fresh, and 
the tops, before the flowers are formed, 
possess the most virtue. Cullen observes 
that the agrimony has some astringent pow- 
ers, but they are feeble ; and pays little at- 
tention to what has been said in its favour. 

AGRIMONIA EUPATORIA. (Called Eupa- 
torai ; from Eupator, its inventor ; or quasi 
hepatorium, wretrtpiov : from flr<*g, the liver ; 
because it is useful in disease of the liver.) 
The systematic name for the Agrimonia of 
the pharmacopoeias. See Agrimonia. 

dgrimony t hemp. The Bidens tripartia 
of Linnseus. 

AGRIOCARDA.MUM. (From crypioc, wild, 
and x*.pf<x.{jtov, the nasturtium.) Sciatica 
cresses, or wild garden cress. 

AGRIOCASTANUIM. (From *>/wof, wild, and 
x.*s-av(jy, the chesnut.) Earth-nut or pig-nut. 
AoRiociifARA (From ttyptos, wild, and 
./>*, artichoke.) See Cinara. 

AGHIOCOCCIMELA. (From a^/o?, wild, 
MUMS, a berry, and /*, an apple-tree.) 
The prunus sylvestris. 

AGRIOMELA. The crab-apple. 
AGRIOIN-. Agriophyllon. The peuceda- 
mim silaus, or hog*s fennel, or sulphur wort. 
AGRIOPHTLLON. See JIgrion. 
AoRiopASTitfACA. (From >f!o?, wild, 
and pastinaca, a carrot.) Wild carrot, or 
parsnip. 

ASRIORIGANUM. (From at^/of, wild, and 
e/>/>*w, marjorom.) Wild marjoram. See 
Origanum. 

AGRIOSELINUM. (From atypnt, wild, and 
parsley.) Wild-parsley. 



AGRIOSTARI. (From *y/>/o?, wild, and 
ra/?, wild wheat.) A species of field corn, 
called Triticum creticum. 

AGRIPALMA. (From a.-ypios t wild, and 
-ittycst, a palm tree.) Agripalma gallis* 
The herb mother- wort, or wild palm. 

AGRIPALMA GALLIS. See Agripalma. 

AGRIPP.E. Those children which ar 
born with their feet foremost, are so called, 
because that was said to be the case with 
Agrippa the Roman, who was named at 
eegro partu, from his difficult birth. These 
births, though reckoned preter-natural, arc 
often more safe and easy than the natural. 

AGRIUM. An impure sort of natron, or 
soda. The purer sort was called halmyrhaga. 

Ac ROM. A disease of the tongue pecu- 
liar to the Indians, in which it becomes ex- 
tremely rough and chopped. 

AGRUMIXA. Leeks, wild onions. 

AGRYFNIA. (From et, priv. and vfnot : 
sleep.) Watchfulness : want of sleep. 

AGRYFNOCOMA. (From ttypvlnof, without 
sleep, and xu>p.a., a lethargy.) A lethargic 
kind of watchfulness, in which the patient 
is stupidly drowsy, and yet cannot aleep- 
A species of coma. 

Ague. See Febris Intermittens. 

AGUE CAKE. The popular name for a 
hard tumour on the left side of the belly, 
lower than the false ribs in the region of 
the spleen, said to be the effect of intermit- 
tent fevers. However frequent it might 
have been formerly, it is now very rare, and 
although then said to be owing to the use 
of bark, it is now less frequent since the 
bark has been generally employed. 

AGUE DROPS. This is a medicine sold 
for the cure of agues, composed of arseniate 
of potash in solution in water. 

AGUE-FREE. A name given by some to 
sassafras on account of its supposed febri- 
fuge virtue. 

AGUE TREE. See Lauras. 

AGUIA. (From *, priv. and y-viov, a mem- 
ber.) Paralytic debility. Where the use 
of the members is defective or lost. 

AGUL. (Arab.) Alkagi. The Syrian 
thorn. The leaves are purgative. 

AGUSTINE. A new earth discovered 
in the Saxon Beryl, or Beryl, of Georgien 
Stadt, a stone greatly resembling the Beryl 
of Siberia, by professor Tromsdorff of Er- 
furth in Germany, to which he has given the 
name of agustine on account of the property 
of forming salts which are nearly destitute 
of taste. 

This earth is white and insipid ; when 
moistened with water, it is somewhat duc- 
tile, but is not soluble in that fluid. Ex- 
posed to a violent heat, it becomes extreme* 
ly hard, but acquires no taste. It com- 
bines with acids, forming salts, which have, 
little or no taste. It does not combine 
either in the humid or dry way with alkalies, 



Alii 



AIR 



or with their carbonates. It retains carbo- 
lic acid but feebly. It dissolves in acids 
equally well after having been hardened, 
>y exposure to heat, as when newly preci- 
pitated. With sulphuric acid it forms a 
salt which is insipid, and scarcely soluble, 
but an excess of i>cid renders it soluble, and 
capable of crystallizing in stars. With an 
excess of phosphoric acid it forms a very 
soluble salt. With nitrous acid it forms a 
salt scarcely soluble. 

A&tJTHrUEPOOBi BHAZILIENSIS. (An In- 
dian term.) Arrow-root : dartwort. Es- 
culent and vulnerary, and used by the In- 
dians to cure wounds made by arrows. 

AGTION. See Aguia. 

A&YHT35 (From ctyv^v a crowd of peo- 
ple or a mob ; or from et^e/ga, to gather to- 
gether.) It formerly expressed certain 
strollers who pretended to strange things 
from supernatual assistances ; but of late it 
is applied to all quack and illiterate dabblers 
in medicine. 

AUALOTH. The Hebrew name of lignum 
aloes. 

AHAMELLA. See Achmella. 

AHOVAI TIIEVETICLTJSH. A chesnut-like 
fruit of Brazil of a poisonous nature. 

AHUSAI. Orpiment. 

AJURAZAT. Lead. 

AILJIAD. An Arabian name for anti- 
mony. 

AIMATEIA. A black bilious and bloody 
discharge from the bowels. 

AIMORRHOIS. See Hx-morrhois. 

AIMOHRHOSA. See Hxmorrhagia. 

AIPATHEIA. (From Att always, and W)oc t 
a disease.) A disease of long continuance. 

ATPI. Mpima coxera. Jlipipoca. Indjan 
words for Cassada. A poisonous root of 
India. 

AIR. Common air. Atmospherical air. 
The word air seems to have been used 
at first to have denoted the atmosphere in 
general; but philosophers afterwards re- 
stricted it to the. elastic fluid, which consti- 
tutes the greatest and the most important 
part of the atmosphere, excluding the water 
and the other foreign bodies which are oc- 
casionally found mixed with it. See Atmo- 
sphere. 

Air is an elastic fluid, invisible indeed, 
but easily recognised by its properties. Its 
specific gravity, according to the experi- 
ments of Sir George Shuckburgh, when 
the barometer is at 30 inches, and the ther- 
mometer between 50 and 60 deg. is 00012, 
or 816 times lighter than water. One hun- 
dred cubic inches of air weigh 31 grains troy. 
But as air is an elastic fluid, and com- 
pressed at the surface of the earth by the 
whole weight of the incumbent atmosphere, 
its destiny diminishes according to its 
height above the surface of the earth. 
From the experiments of Paschal, Deluc, 



General Roy, 8tc. is has been ascertained 
that the density diminishes in the ratio of 
the Compression. Consequently the den- 
sity decreases in a geometrical progression, 
while the heights increase in an arithmetical 
progression. Bouguer had suspected, from 
his observations made on the Andes, that 
at considerable heights the density of the 
air is no longer proportional to the com 
pressing force; but the experiments of 
Suussure junior, made upon Mount Rose, 
have demonstrated the contrary. 

Air is dilated by heat. From the ex- 
periments of General Roy and Sir George 
Shuckburgh, compared with those of Trem- 
bley, &c. it appears, that at the tempera- 
ture of 60 deg. every degree of tempera- 
ture increases the bulk of air about l-82d 
part 

The specific caloric of air, according to 
the experiments of Dr. Crawford, is 
1.79. 

Although the sky is well known to have 
a blue colour, yet it cannot be doubted that 
air itself is altogether colourless and invi- 
sible. The blue colour of the sky is occa- 
sioned by the vapours which are always 
mixed with the air, and which have the 
property of reflecting the blue rays more 
copiously than any other. This has been 
proved by the experiments which Saussure 
made with his cyanometer at different 
heights above the surface of the earth. 
This consisted of a circular band of paper, 
divided into 51 parts, each of which were 
painted with a different shade of blue ; be- 
ginning with the deepest mixed with black, 
to the lightest mixed with white. He 
found that the colour of the sky always 
corresponds with a deeper shade of blue, 
the higher the observer is placed above the 
surface ; consequently, at a certain height, 
the blue will disappear altogether, and the 
sky appear black ; that is to say, will re- 
fleet no light at all. The colour becomes 
always lighter in proportion to the vapours 
mixed with the air. Hence it is evidently 
o\ving to them. 

The property which the air has of sup- 
porting combustion, and the necessity of it 
for respiration, are too well known to re- 
quire any description. 

For many ages, air was considered as an 
element, or simple substance. For the 
knowledge of its component parts, we are 
indebted to the labours of those philoso- 
phers in whose hands chymistry advanced 
with such rapidity during the last forty 
years of the eighteenth century. 

Air is a compound of oxygen and nitro- 
gen : but it becomes a question of consi- 
derable consequence to determine the pro- 
portion of these two ingredients, and to 
ascertain whether that proportion is in 
every case the same. Since nitrogen gas, 



AIR 

ci\e of the component parts of that fluid, 
Cannot be separated by any substance with 
which chymists are acquainted, the analysis 
of air can only be attempted by exposing 
it to the action of those bodies which have 
the property of absorbing its oxygen. By 
these bodies the oxygen gas is separated, 
and nitrogen gas is left behind, and the pro- 
portion of oxygen may be ascertained by the 
diminution of bulk ; which, once known, it 
is easy to ascertain the proportion of nitro- 
gen gas, and thus to determine the exact 
relative quantity of the component parts. 

After the composition of the atmosphere 
was known to philosophers, it was taken for 
granted that the proportion f its oxygen 
varies in different times and in different 
places ; and that upon this variation the 
purity or noxious qualities of air depended. 
Hence it became an object of the greatest 
importance to be in possession of a method 
of determining readily the quantity of oxy- 
gen in a given portion of air. Accordingly 
various methods were proposed, all of them 
depending upon the property which a va- 
riety of bodies possesses of absorbing the 
oxygen of the air, without acting upon its 
azot. These bodies were mixed with a cer- 
tain known quantity of atmospheric air, in 
graduated glass vessels inverted over wa- 
ter, and the proportion of oxygen was de- 
termined by the diminution of bulk. These 
instruments received the name of eudiome- 
ters, because they were considered as mea- 
sures of the purity of air. See Eudiometer. 

It is considered as established by expe- 
riment, that air is composed of 0.22 of oxy- 
gen gas, and 0.78 of nitrogen gas by bulk. 
But as the weight of these two gases is not 
exactly the same, the proportion of the 
component parts by weight will differ a 
little : for as the specific gravity of oxygen 
gas is to that of nitrogen gas as 135 : 115, 
it follows that 100 parts of air are composed 
by weight of about 74 nitrogen gas 
26 oxygen gas. 

100 , 

Having thus ascertained the nature and 
the proportion of the component parts of 
air, it remains only to inquire in what 
manner these component parts are united. 
Are they merely mixed together mechani- 
cally, or are they combined chymically ? Is 
air a mechanical mixture, or a chymical 
compound ? Philosophers seem at first to 
have adopted the former of these opinions, 
if we except Scheele, who always consi- 
dered air as a chymical compound. But 
the supposition that air is a mechanical 
mixture, by no means agrees with the phe- 
nomena which it exhibits. If the two gases 
were only mixed together, as their specific 
gravity is different, it is scarcely possible 
that they would be uniformly mixed in every 
part of the atmosphere. Even Mr. Dalton's 
ingenous supposition, that they neither at- 



AIS 2? 

tract nor repel each other, would not ac- 
count for this equal distribution; for un- 
doubtedly, on that supposition, they would 
arrange themselves according to their spe- 
cific gravity. Since, therefore, air is in 
all places composed of the t>ame ingre- 
dients, exactly in the same proportions, it 
follows that its component parts are not 
only mixed, but actually combined. When 
substances differing in specific gravity com- 
bine together, the specific gravity of the 
compound is usually greater than the mean. 
This holds also with respect to air. The 
specific gravity, by calculation, amounts 
only to 00119, whereas it actually is 
0.0012 ; a difference by no means inconsi- 
derable. But perhaps the specific gravity 
of nitrogen and oxygen gas can scarcely be 
considered as known with such precision 
as to entitle us to draw any consequence 
from this difference. 

The difference between air and a mere 
mixture of its two component parts, has 
been demonstrated by the experiments of 
Morozzo and Humbolt. The artificial mix- 
ture is much more diminished by nitrous 
gas than air, even when the mixture con- 
tains less oxygen. It supports flame better 
and longer, and anim.-.ils do not live in it the 
same time that they do in an equal portion, 
of air, but longer. 

The air is, therefore, to be considered 
as a -chymical compound. Hence the reason 
that it is in all cases the same, notwith- 
standing the numerous decomposing pro- 
cesses to which it is subjected The breath- 
ing of animals, combustion, and a thousand 
other operations, are constantly abstracting 
its oxygen, and decomposing it. The air 
thus decomposed or vitiated no doubt as- 
cends in the atmosphere, and is again, by 
some unknown process or other, reconvert- 
ed into atmospherical air. But the nature 
of these changes is at present concealed 
under an impenetrable veil. Thompson. 

Air, alkaline. See Ammonia. 

Air, atmospherical. See Air. 

Air, azotic. See Nitrogen gas. 

Air, fixe d* See Carbonic acid gas. 

Air, fluoric. See Fluoric acid gas. 

Air, hepatic. See Sulphuretted hydrogen 

Air, inflammable. See Hydrogen gas. 

Air, marine. See Muriatic acid gas. 

Air, nitrous See Nitrous Oxyds. 

Air, phlogisticated. - See Nitrogen gas. 

Air, phosphoric. See Phosphoric acid gas. 

Air, sulphureous. See Sulphuretted hydro- 
gen gas. 

Air, vital. See Oxygen gas. 

AISTHETERIUM. (From a.tc-Qa.vofAau, to per- 
ceive.) The sensorium commune, 01 com- 
mon sensory, or seat, or origin of sensation. 
Cartesius and others say, it is the pineal 
gland ; Willis says it is where the nerves of 
the external senses are terminated, which 
is about the beginning of the medulla oft- 



AIX 



ALA 



longata, (or top of the spinal marrow,) in 
the corpus striatum. 

AITMAD. Antimony. 

AIX LA CHAPELLE. Called Aken by the 
Germans. Thermae Aquis-granensis. A town 
in the south of France, where there is a 
sulphureous water, the most striking feature 
of which, and which is almost peculiar to it, 
is the unusual quantity of sulphur it contains; 
the whole, however, is so far united to a 
gaseous basis, as to be entirely volatilized 
by heat ; so that none is left in the residuum 
after evaporation. In colour it is pellucid, 
in smell sulphureous, and in taste saline, 
bitterish, and rather alkaline. The tem- 
perature of these waters varies considerably, 
according to the distance from the source 
and the spring itself. In the well of the 
hottest bath, it is according to Lucas 136, 
Monet 146 ; at the fountain where it is 
drank, it is 112. This thermal water is 
much resorted to on the Continent, for a 
variety of complaints. It is found essenti- 
ally serviceable in the numerous symptoms 
of disorders in the stomach and biliary or- 
gans, that follow a life of high indulgence in 
the luxuries of the table ; in nephritic cases, 
which produce pain in the loins, and thick 
mucous urine with difficult micturition. As 
the heating qualities of this water are as de- 
cided as in any of the mineral springs, it 
should be avoided in cases of a general in- 
flammatory tendency, in hectic fever and ul- 
teration of the lungs : and in a disposition to 
active hxmorrhagy. As a hot bath, this wa- 
ter is even more valuable and more extensive- 
ly employed than as an internal remedy. The 
fcatfcs of Aix la Chapelle may be said to be 
more particularly medicated than any other 
that we are acquainted with. They pos- 
sess both temperature of any degree that 
can be borne, and a strong impregnation 
with sulphur in its most active forms, and a 
quantity of alkali which is sufficient to give 
it a very soft soapy feel, and to render it 
more detergent than common water. From 
these circumstances these baths will be 
found of particular service in stiffness and 
rigidity of the joints and ligaments, which 
is left by the inflammation of gout and 
rheumatism, and in the debility of palsy, 
where the highest degree of heat which the 
skin can bear is required. The sulphureous 
ingredient renders it highly active in almost 
every cutaneous eruption, and in general in 
every foulness of the skin ; and here the 
internal use of the water should attend that 
of the bath. These waters are also much 
employed in the distressing debility which 
follows a long course of mercury and ex- 
cessive salivation. Aken Water is one of 
the few natural springs, that are hot enough 
to be employed as a vapour bath, without 
the addition of artificial heat. It is em- 
ployed both in cases in which the hot bath 
is ust:d, and is found to be a remarkably pow- 
erful auxiliary in curing some pf the worst 



species of cutaneous disorders. With re- 
gard to the dose of this water to be begun 
with, or the degree of heat to bathe in, it is 
in all cases best to begin with small quanti- 
ties and low degrees of heat, and gradually 
increase them, agreeably to the effects and 
constitution of the patient. The usual time 
of the year for drinking these waters, is 
from the beginning of May to the middle of 
June, or from the middle of August to the 
latter end of September. 

Aizoow. (From tut always, and &a> to 
live.) Aizoum. An evergreen aquatic plant, 
like the aloe said to posess antiscorbutic 
virtues. 

A JAVA. (Indian.) A said used in the East 
Indies as a remedy for the cholic. 

AL. The Arabian article which signifies 
the f it is applied to a word by way of emi- 
nence, as the Greek o is. The Easterns ex- 
press the superlative by adding God there- 
to, as the mountain of God, for the highest, 
mountain ; and it is probable that Jll re- 
lates to the word Mia, God : so alchemy may 
be the chgmistry of God, or the most exalted 
perfection of chymical science. 

ALA. A wing. The arm-pit, so called 
because it answers to the pit under the wing 
of a bird. 

ALABARI. Lead. 

ALJEFORMIS. Any thing like a wing 

ALJE AUHIS. The upper part of the ex- 
ternal ear. 

ALJE NASI. Two cartilages of the nose 
which form the nostrils. 

AL VESPERTILIONUM. That part of 
the ligaments of the womb, which lies 
between the tubes and the ovaria ; so 
called from its resemblance to the wing of 
a bat. 

AUE IXTEBJUB MINORES. See JVliw- 
ph<e. 

AZAFI. Alafor. Mafort. Alkaline. 

ALLA PHTHISIS. (From atxa/or, blind, and 
q>6io-tt t a wasting.) A consumption from a 
flux of humours from the head. 

ALAMAD. Jllamed. Antimony. 

ALAMBIC. Mercury. 

ALANDAHLA. (Arab, bitter.) The .bit- 
ter apple, or colocynth. 

ALANFUTA. (Arab.) A vein between the 
chin and lower lip, which was formerly open- 
ed to prevent focted breath. 

AtAPoni, See Bilimbi. 

ALARE EXTERKUM. A name of the ex- 
ternal pterygoid muscle ; so called because 
it takes its rise from the wing-like process 
of the sphaenoid bone. 

ALARTA OSSA. The jping-like processes 
of the sphaenoid bone. 

ALARIS VEXA. The innermost of the 
three veins in the bend of the arm. 

ALASALET Alaset. Ammoniacum. 

ALASI Alafor An alkaline salt, 

ALASTROB. Lead. 

AZ.ATAIT. Litharge. 

ALATEJIITUS. A species of rhamnus. 



ALB 



ALC 



ALATT. Those who have prominent 
scapulae like the wings of birds. 

ALAURAT. Nitre. 

ALBADAL. An Arabic name for the sesa- 
raoid bone of the first joint of the great 
toe. 

ALBAGENZI. Jllbagiazi. An Arabic name 
for the os sacrum. 

ALBAGRAS NIGRA. So Avicenna names 
the lepra ichthyoeis. Others call it lepra 
Graecorum. 

ALBAMENTUM. (From albus, white.) The 
white of an egg. 

ALBANUM. Urmous salt. 

ALBARA. (Chald.) The white leprosy. 

ALBARAS. Arsenic. A white pustule. 

ALBATIO. (From albea, to whiten.) Al- 
dificatio. The calcination or whitening of 
metals. 

ALBERAS. (Arab.) White pustules on the 
face: also staphisagria, because its juice was 
said to remove these pustules. 

ALBESTORE. Quick lime. 

ALBETAD. Galbanum. 

ALBI SUBLIMATI. Muriated mercury. 

ALBICANTIA CORPORA. (From al~ 



agides. It is a variety of Cullen's Caligo 
Corner. 

ALBUHAR. "White lead. 

ALBUM BALSAMUM. The balsam of copaivi, 

ALBUM GHJECUM. The white dung of 
dogs. It was formerly applied as a discu- 
tient, to the inside of the throat, in quinsies, 
being first mixed with honey ; medicines of 
this kind have long since justly sunk into 
disuse. 

ALBUM OLUS. Lamb's lettuce, or corn- 
salad. The Valeriana locusta of Linnaeus. 

ALBUMEN. Jttbumena. Albuminous mat- 
ter. Coagulable lymph. Albumen is very 
abundant in the animal kingdom. It is the 
principal constituent part of the serum of 
the blood, and the lymphatic fluid. It 
forms the cheese in milk, and makes up the 
greater part of the white of eggs. It is com- 
posed of carbon, hydrogen, azot, oxygen^ 
phosphorus, and somewhat of calcareous 
earth. 

ALBUMEN OVI. Jllougo o-vi. Albumen, 
albor ovi, ovi albus liquor, ovi candidum, alba- 
mentum, claret a. The white of an egg. 
ALCAHEST. An Arabic word to express 



beo, to grow white.) The glands of a white an universal dissolvent, which was pretend- 
colour which are usually called Willis's ed to by Paracelsus and Helmont. Some 



glands in the brain. 

ALBIMENT. Orpiznent. See Jluripigmen- 
lum. 

ALBINUM. See GnaphaUum. 

ALBOR. Urme. 

ALBORA. A sort of itch; or rather of 
leprosy Paracelsus says, it is a complica- 
tion of the morphew, serpigo, and leprosy. 
When cicatrices appear in the face like the 
serpigo, and then turn to small blisters of 
the nature of the morphew, it is the albora. 
It terminates without ulceration, but by 
fetid evacuations in the mouth and nostrils ; 
it is also seated in the root of the tongue. 

ALBOREA. Quicksilver. 

ALBOT. A crucible. 

ALBOTAT. Turpentine. 
Turpentine. 
White lead. 
Turpentine. 
A cutaneous 



AVBOTAR. 

ALBOTAT. 

ALBOTIM. 

ALBOTIS. 
boil. 

ALBUGINEA OCULI. 
See Adnata tunica. 

ALBOGINEA TESTIS. (Albuginea ,- from 
albus, white ; so called on account of its 
white colour.) Tunica albtiginea testis. The 
innermost coat of the testicle. It is a strong, 
white, and dense membrane, immediately 



phlegmon or 
(From albuf, white.) 



say that Paracelsus first used this word, and 
that it is derived from the German words 
al and geest, i. e. all spirit. Van Helmont 
borrowed the word, and applied it to his in- 
vention, which he called the universal dis- 
solvent. 

ALCAOL. The solvent for the preparation 
of the philosopher's stone. 

ALCALI. (Arab.) See Mkali. 

ALCALIZATION. The impregnating any 
spiritous fluid with an alkali. 

ALCEA INDICA. See See Hibiscus abelmoscJius. 

ALCEA ./EGYPTIACA VILLOSA. See Hibis- 
cus abelmoschus. 

ALC^A ROSEA. The systematic name for 
the malva arboi ea. See Malva. 

ALC^EA. (From ***, strength.) The 
name of a genus of plants in the Linnsean 
system. Class, Monadelpliia. Order Poly- 
andrla. Hollyhock. 

ALLCAB. Sal almoniac, or muriat of 
ammonia. 

ALCANKA. (Indian word.) See Alkanna. 

ALCEBAR. See Jigallochum. 

ALCEBRIS vivuar. See Sulphur vivum. 

ALCHABRTC. Sulphur vivum. 

ALCHACHIL. Rosemary. 

ALCHARITH. Quicksilver. 

ALCHTEX. This word occurs in the Thea- 



covering the body or substance ot the tes- trtim Chemicum, and seems to signify that 
tide. On its outer surface it is smooth, but power in nature by which all corruption and 

generation are eflected. 

ALCHEMILLA. (So called because it 



rough and uneven on the inner. 

ALBUGINOUS HUMOUR. The aqueous hu- 
mour of the eye. 

ALBUGO OCULORUM. A white opacity of dies' mantle, 
the cornea of the eyes. The Greeks named it 1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
leucoma ; the Latins, albugo^ nebula and nu- Linnaean system. Class Tetraudria. Order, 



was celebrated by the old alchemists.) La- 



becula ; some ancient writers have called it 
jtfnita oculi, om.'c, rmtin, and 



Monogynia. 
3. The parmacopoeial name of a plant 



ALE 



ALE 



called lady's mantle. Alchenulla vulgaris ; 
jfoliis lobatis of Linnxus. It was formerly 
esteemed as a powerful adstringent in 
haemorrhages, fluor albus, 8cc. given inter- 
nally. 

ALCHOIELEC. (Heb.) The Egyptian 
melilot. 

ALCHEMY. Alchemia. JUchimia. Jllkima. 
That branch of chymistry which relates to 
the transmutation of metals into gold ; the 
forming a panacea or universal remedy ; an 
alkahest, or universal menstrum ; a uni- 
versal ferment ; and many other absurdities. 

ALCHIBRIC. See Alkibric. 

ALCHIMILLA. See JUchemilla. 

ALCHITRON. Oil of juniper ; also the 
name of a dentifrice of Messue. 

ALCHCTE. See Morum. 

ALCHYMY. Alchemy. 

ALCHLYS. A speck "on the pupil of the 
eye, somewhat obscuring vision. 

ALCIMAD. Antimony 

ALCOB. Sal-ammoniac, or muriat of am- 
monia. 

ALCOCALUM. (Perhaps Indian. ) Arti- 
choke, or cinara. 

ALCOFOL. Antimony. 

ALCOHOL. See Aikohol. 

ALCOLA. (Heb.) The aphthae, or thrush. 

Paracelsus gives this name to tartar, or 
excrement of urine, whether it appears as 
sand, mucilage, &c. 

ALCOLITA. Urine. 

ACLONE. Brass. 

ALCOR. JEs ustum. 

ALCTE. It is the name of a plant men- 
tioned by Hippocrates. Foesius thinks it is 
the elder. 

ALCCBRITH. Sulphur. 

ALCYONIUM. Bastard sponge, spongy 
plant-like substance, which is met with 
on the seashore: it is of different shapes 
end colours. It is difficult to say what the 
Greeks called by this name. Dioscorides 
speaks of five sorts of it. They are calci- 
ned with a litle salt, as dentifrice, and are 
used to remove spots ou the skin. 

Jllder-tree. See Alnus and Frangula . 

Mderbery bearing. See Praugula. 

ALDER WINE. \Vhenwell fermented, and 
having a proper addition of raisins in it, in 
its composition is frequently a rich and 
strong liquor ; it keeps better than many of 
the other made wines, fora number of years, 
and was formerly supposed to possess many 
medical virtues; but these, experience does 
not seem to sanction : and the virtues of the 
alder, like those of many other simples for- 
merly prized, have sunk into oblivion. 

ALE. Cerevisia. Liquor cereris* Vinutn 
hordeaceum. Barley wine. A fermented 
liquor made from malt and hops, and chiefly 
distinguished from beer, made from the 
. same ingredients, by the quantity of hops 
Used therein ; which is greater in beer, and 
therefore renders the liquor more bitter, and 
filter for keeping. Ale, when well ferment- 



ed, is a wholesome beverage, and seems 
only to disagree with those subject to 
asthma, or any disorder of the respiration 
or irregularity in the digestive organs. The 
old dispensatories enumerate several medi- 
cated ales, such as cerevisia oxydorica, for 
the eyes ; cerexisia antiarthritica, against 
the gout ; cephalica, epileptica, &c. 

ALEARA. A cucurbit. 

ALEBRTA. (Fsom alo, to nourish.) Nou- 
ishing foods, or medicines. 

ALEC. Jilech. Vitriol. 

ALECHAHITH. Mercury, 

ALEIMA. (From *HU$V to anoint.) An 
ointment. 

ALEION. ('AXJ/CI/, copious.) Hippocrates 
uses this word as an epithet for water. 

ALEIPHH. (From oiKvqce, to anoint.) 
Any medicated oil. 

ALELION. (From A?, salt, and t\suzv, 
oil.) Oil beat up with salt, to apply to tu- 
mours. Galen frequently used it. 

ALEMA. (From t priv. and >./,o?, hun- 
ger. Meat, food, or anything that satisfies 
the appetite. 

ALEMBIC. (Some derive it from the 
Arabian particle ', and </, from A/ja.tvo> 
to ascend. Avicenna declares it to be Arab.) 
Moorsheao. A chymical utensil made of 
glass, metal, or earthen-ware, and adapted 
tc receive volatile products from retorts. It 
consists of a body, to which is fitted a coni- 
cal head, and out of this head descends late- 
rally a beak to be inserted into the receiver. 

ALEMBROTH. A chaldee word, import- 
ing the key of art. Some explained it by 
sal mercurii, or sal philosophorumand artis ; 
others say it is named alembrot and sal fusio-' 
nis, or sal fixionis. Alembroth desiccatum 
is said to be the sal tartari ; hence this word 
seems to sifinify alkaline salt, which opens 
the bodies of metals by destroying their 
sulphurs, and promoting their separation 
from the ores. From analogy, it is supposed 
to have the same effect in conquering ob- 
structions and attenuating viscid fluids in the 
human body. A peculiar earth, probably 
containing a fixed alkali, found in the island 
of Cyprus, has also this appellation; and a 
solution of the corrosive sublimate, to 
which the muriat of ammonia has been ad- 
ded, is called sal alembroth. 

ALEMZADAR. Crude sal ammoniac, or 
muriat of ammonia. 

ALEMZADAT. Crude sal ammoniac, or 
muriat of amjnonia. 

ALEPENSIS A species of ash-tree which 
produces manna. 

ALES. (From, x;, salt.) The name of a 
compound salt. 

ALEI-RON. (From ct\tu, to grind.) Meal, 

ALEXANDERS, COMMON. This plant, 
Smyrnium olustram of Linnaeus, was for- 
merly cultivated for sallads. It is now su- 
perseded by celery. 

ALEXANDERS, ROUND LEAVED. Smyrni* 
nm perfoliatum of Linnaeus. The blanched 






ALG 



stalks of this species are far preferable to 
those of common alexanders, and are es- 
teemed as stomachic and nervine. 

ALEXANDRIA. Jllexandrina. The bay- 
tree, or laurel, of Alexandria. 

ALEXANDRIUM. Emplastrum viride. A 
plaster described by Celsus, made with 
wax, alum, &c. 

ALEXICACA. (From atx|a, to drive away, 
and K.ZX.OV, evil. (Jllexicacum. An antidote, 
or amulet, to resist poison. 

ALEXIPHARMICS. (Alexipharmica, sc. 
medicamenta, f.;_w a-tega, to expel, and qao- 
jucuiov, a poison.) Jlntipharmica. Caco-alexi- 
teria. Medicines supposed to preserve the 
body against the power of poisons, or to 
correct or expel those taken. The ancients 
attributed this property to some vegetables, 
and even waters distilled from them. The 
term, however, is now disused. 

ALEXIPYHETICUM. (From a.\eu>, to drive 
away, and m/gs7o?, fever.) A febrifuge. A 
remedy for fever. 

ALEXIPYRETOS. Alexipyrelum. The same 
as alexipyreticum. 

ALKXIU. An elixir. 

ALEXITERIA. Preservatives from con- 
tagion. 

ALEXITERIUM. (From et^ca, to expel, 
and Tga>, to preserve.) A preservative 
medicine against poison, or contagion. 

ALFACTA. Distillation. 

ALFATIDE. Muriat of ammonia. 

ALFASARA. JLlpUesara. Arabic terms for 
the vine. 

ALFADAS. JUfides. Cerusse. 

ALFOL. Muriet of ammonia. 

ALFUSA. Tutty. 

ALGALI. A catheter. Also nitre. 

ALGARAH See Anchilops. 

ALGAROTH. (So called from Victorius 
Agaroth, a physician of Verone, end its in- 
ventor.) Jllgarot, Jllgarothi. Jlfercurius vtt<e. 
Pulvis Algarothi. The antimonial part of the 
butter of antimony, separated from some of 
its acid by washing it in water. It is vio- 
lently emetic in doses of two or three grains, 
and is preferred by many for making the 
emetic tartar. 

ALGEDO. (From ettyo?, pain.) A vio- 
lent pain about the anus, perinaeum, testes, 
urethra, and bladder, arising from the sud- 
den stoppage of a virulent gonorrhoea. A 
term very seldom used. 

AIGEMA. (From <*A^, to be in pain.) 
Mgemodes. Jllgematodes. Uneasiness, pain 
of any kind. 

ALGERIA. Algirie. Lime. 

ALGEROTH. See Algaroth. 
ALGIBIC. Sulphur vitum. 
ALGOR. A sudden chilness or rigor. 
A term met with in Sauvage's and Sagar's 
Nosology. 

ALGOSAREL. The Arabian- term for the 
Daucus sylvestris, or carrot. 
ALG u A DA, A wfeite leprous eruption. 



ALK 31 

ALHAGI. (Arab.) A species of Hedg* 
sarum. The leaves are hot and pungent, 
the flowers purgative. 

ALHANDALA. An Arabian name for co- 
locynth, or bitter apple. 

ALHASEF. (Arab.) Alhaseif. A sort of 
fcetid pustule, called also Hydroa. 

ALIA SQ.UILLA (From ax*o?, belonging 
to the sea, and a-aixxa., a shrimp.) A prawn. 

ALICA. (From ah, to nourish.) In ge- 
neral signification, a grain, a sort of food 
admired by the ancients ; it is not certain 
whether it is a grain or a preparation of 
some kind thereof. 

ALICES. (From ctxtu>, to sprinkle.) Little 
red spots in the skin, which precede the 
eruption of pustules in the small pox. 

ALIENATIO MENTIS. (From alieno, to 
estrange.) Delirium. Estrangement of the 
mind. 

ALIFORMES MUSCULI. Muscles so called 
from their supposed resemblance to wings. 
See Pterygoidaeus. 

ALIMENTARY CANAL. Alimentary 
duct. A name given to the whole of those 
passages which the food pas^rs through 
from the mouth to the anus. This duct may 
be said to be the true characteristic of an ani- 
mal ; there being no animal without it, and 
whatever has it, being properly ranged un- 
der the class of animals. Plants receive 
their nourishment by the numerous fibres of 
their roots, but have no common receptacle 
for digesting the food received, or for carry- 
ing off the excrements. But in all, even the 
lowest degree of animal life, we may ob- 
serve a stomach and intestines, even where 
we cannot perceive the least formation of 
any organs of the senses, unless that com- 
mon one of feeling, as in oysters. 

ALIMENTARY DUCT. The alimentary 
canal. The thoracic duct is sometimes so 
called. 

ALIMOS. Common liquorice. 

ALIMUH. See Arum. 

ALIXDESIS. ('Ax/v^W/?, from a.xivftsp.1, to 
be turned about.) A bodily exercise, which 
seems to be rolling on the ground, or rather 
in the dust, after being annointed with oil. 
Hippocrates says it hath nearly the same 
effect as wrestling. 

ALIPJENOS. (From t, neg. and \t7rntvat, 
to be fat.) Jllipanum. JLlipantos. AD 
external remedy, without fat or moisture. 

ALIPASMA. (From Acf>a>, to annoint.) An 
ointment rubbed upon the body, to prevent 
sweating. 

ALIPB. Remedies for wounds in the 
cheek, to prevent inflammatiou. 

ALIPOW. A species of tureth, found near 
Mount Ceti, in Languedoc. It is a power- 
ful purgative used instead of senna, but 
much more active. 

ALIPTJSJ. (From &\ii<$eo t to annoint.) Ser- 
vants who aRointed the persons after battl- 
ing. 



32 



AL1C 



ALK 



Alisanders. See Smyrnium. 
ALISMA. (From *A?, the sea.) Wa- 
ter plantain. The name of a genus of plants 
in the Linnxan system. Class, Hexandna. 
Order, Polygynia. 

ALISTELIS. (From &\s t the sea.) Ma- 
rial of ammonia. 

ALITT. Jllith. Asafcetida. 
ALKAFIAL. Antimony. 
ALKAHEST. An imaginary universal men- 
struum, or solvent. 

ALKAHEST GLAUBERI. Alkaline salts. See 
Alcatest. 

ALKAHA.T GLAUBERI. An alkali. 
ALKALI. Alkali, in Arabic, signifies 
burnt ; or from al and kali, \. e. the essence, 
or the whole of kali, the plant from which it 
was originally prepared, though now derived 
from plants of every kind.) Alcali, alafi, 
alafor, alafort, calcadis. A term given to 
substances which possess the following pro- 
perties : They are incombustible, and soluble 
in water; they possession acrid, urinous 
taste. When mixed with siliceous sub- 
stances, and exposed to an Intense heat, they 
form a more or less perfect glass. They 
unite with another class of bodies called 
acids, and form new compounds, in which 
both the acid and alkaline properties are 
more or less lost. They render oils misci- 
ble with water. They change various blue 
vegetable pigments to green ; red to violet, 
or blue , and yellow to brown. Blue pig- 
ments, that have been turned red with acids, 
are again restored by alkalies to their pri- 
mitive colours. They emit light on the af- 
fusion of the dense acids when freed from 
water. They attract water and carbonic acid 
from the atmosphere. They unite to sulphur 
by fusion, and by means of water. They ex- 
ert a great solvent power on the cellular 
membrane and animal fibre. They also cor- 
rode woollen cloth, and, if sufficiently con- 
centrated, convert it into a sort of jelly. 

They are only three kinds of alkalis at 
present known : 

1. The mineral, called soda, in the new 
chymical nomenclature. See Soda. 

2. The vegetable, called potassa, in the 
new chymical nomenclature. See Potassa. 

3. Ammonia, or the caustic volatile alkali, 
is the third. See Ammonia. 

To these, some chymists add barytes, and 
some other earths. 

Alkalis are either .fixed, that is, they are 
not reduced to the state of gas, by the most 
intense heat ; or they are -volatile, i. e. the 
common temperature is almost sufficient to 
change their state of aggregation ; potash 
and soda are of the former kind ; and, of 
the latter, ammonia is the only one 
known. 

ALKALESCENT. Slightly alkaline. 

ALKALI, c ITTSTIC. An alkali is so called 
when deprived of the carbonic acid it 



soulams for it then becomes more caustic 
and more violent in its action. 

ALKALI FIXUM. Those alkalis are so 
called that emit no characteristic smell, 
and cannot be volatilized, but with the 
greatest difficulty. Two kinds of fixed al- 
kalis have only hitherto been known, name- 
ly, potash and soda. See Potash and Soda. 

Alkali, Jossile. See Soda. 

Alkali, mineral. (So called because it 
forms the basis of marine salts.) See Soda. 

Alkali, vegetable. (So called because it 
abounds in many vegetables.) See Pot- 
ash. 

Alkali, volatile. (So called because it is 
volatile in opposition to the other alkalis, 
which are fixed ) See j^mwioma. 

ALKALINA. A class of substances de- 
scribed by Cullen as comprehending the 
substances otherwise termed antacida. 
They consist of alkalis, and also of sub- 
stances, into which they enter in combina- 
tion. The principal alkalines in use, are the 
carbonates and subcarbonates of soda, pot- 
ash, and ammonia. 

ALKALIZATIOV. (Alcalizatio, onis, f.) 
Alkalization. The impregnating any thing 
with an alkaline salt, as spirit of wine, &c. 

ALKANET. (Alkanah, a reed. Arab*) 
Radix anchusse. 

ALKAWNA. See Anchusa. 

ALKANNA VERA. Alkauna Orientalis. 
An Oriental plant ; the Lawsonia inermis, 
ramis inermibus, of Linnaeus; principally 
employed in its native place, as a dye. The 
root is the officinal part ; which, however, 
is rarely met with in the shops. It possesses 
adstringent properties, and may be used as 
a substitute for the anchusa. 

ALKASA. Alksoal. A crucible. 

ALCANTHUM. Arsenic. 

ALKANT. Quicksilver. 

ALKEKENGI. (Alkekengi, Arab.) 
Halicabaidro. Winter cherry. This plant, 
Physalis alkekengi of Linnaeus : foliis ge- 
minis integris acutis, caule herbaceo, in- 
feme subramoso, is cultivated in our gar- 
dens. The berries are recommended as a 
diuretic, from six to twelve for a dose, in 
dropsicial and calculous diseases. 

ALKERMES. A term borrowed from the 
Arabs, denoting a celebrated remedy, of 
the form and consistence of a confection, 
whereof the kermes is the basis. See 
Kermes. 

ALKEBVA. (Arab.) Castor oil. 

ALKOHOL. (An Arabian word, which 
signifies antimony : so called from the usage 
of the Eastern ladies to paint their eye- 
brows with antimony, reduced to a moat 
subtile powder ; which at last came to sig- 
nify any thing exalted to its highest perfec- 
tion.) Alcohol. Alkol. Spiritus vinosus rec- 
tificatns. Spiritus vini rectsficatus. Spiritus 
vini concentrates, Spiritus vini rectificatissi- 



ALL 



ALL 



inns. Alcohol is highly rectified spirit of 
wine, freed from all those aqueous particles 
which are not essential to it by duly perform- 
ing 1 rectification. In its purest state, it is 
quite colourless, and clear, of a strong and 
penetrating smell and taste ; capable of be- 
ing set on fire without a wick, and burning 
with a flame, without leaving a residue, and 
without smoke and soot. Alcohol is miscl- 
ble with water in all proportions. It does 
not freeze in any degree of coldness. It is 
the direct menstruum or solvent of resins. 
It dissolves, also, the natural balsams. The 



1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnxan system. Class, Hexandria. Order, 
JMonogynia. Gavlick. 

2. The Fharmacopoeial name of garlick. 
Theriaca rusticorum. JLllium sativum of 
Linnxus : caule planifolio bidbifero, bulbo 
composite, staminibus tricuspidatis. This 
species of garlick, according to Linnseus, 
grows spontaneously in Sicily ; but, as it is 
much employed for culinary and medicinal 
purposes, it has been long very generally 
cultivated in gardens. Every part of the 
plant, but more especially the rooti has a 



resinous and various other parts of plants are pungent acrimonious taste, and a peculiarly 
also soluble in alcohol, hence it is made use offensive strong smell. This odour is ex- 
tremely penetrating and diffusive; for, on 
the root being taken into the stomach, the 
alliaceous scent impregnates the whole sys-- 
tern, and is discoverable in the various ex- 



of for extracting those parts, and for making 
the preparations called elixirs, tinctures, es- 
sences, &c. In England, alcohol is pro- 
cured by distillation from molasses ; in 
Scotland and Ireland, from an infusion ot 



cretions, as in tbe urine, perspiration, milk, 



malt. This last, before its rectification, is Sec. Garlick is generally allied to the onion, 

termed whiskey. In the East-Indies, arrack from which it seems only to differ in being* 

is distilled from rice ; in the West-Indies, more powerful in its effects, and in its ac- 

rum from the sugar cane; and in France tive matter, being in a more fixed state, 

and Spain, brandy from wine ; all these af- By stimulating the stomach they both fa- 



ford alcohol by distillation. On the human 
solids, alcohol acts as a most violent corru- 
gator and stimulus. 

ALKOSOK. Camphire. 

ALKI PLUMB i. Supposed to be acetat 
of lead. 

ALKYMIA. Powder of basilisk. 

ALLABOR. Lead. 

ALLANTOIDES MEMBRANA. ("JIUantoides; 
from .AXO?, a hog's pudding, and ttfcs, like- 
ness , because, in some brute animals, it is 
long and thick.) A membrane of the foetus, 
peculiar to brutes, which contains the urine 
discharged from the bladder. 

ALLELUIA. (Heb. Praise the Lord.J 
The acetosa, or wood-sorrel ; so named from 
its many virtues. See Jlcelocella. 

ALL-GOOD. English mercury. The vul- 



vour digestion, and, as a stimulus, are rea- 
dily diffused over the system. They may, 
therefore, be considered as useful condi- 
ments with the food of phlegmatic people, 
or those whose circulation is languid and 
secretions interrupted ; but with those sub- 
ject to inflammatory complaints, or where 
great irritability prevails,these roots, in their 
acrid state, may prove very hurtful. The 
medicinal uses of garlick are various ; it has 
been long in estimation as an expectorant 
in petuitous asthmas, and other pulmonary 
affections, unattended with inflammation. 
In hot bilious constitutions, therefore, gar- 
lick is improper: for it frequently produces 
flatulence, head-ach, thirst, heat, and other 
inflammatory symptoms. A free use of it is 
said to promote the piles in habits disposed 



gar name for the Chenopodium bonus Henri- to this complaint. Its utillity as a diuretic 

in dropsies is attested by unquestionable 
authorities ; and its febrifuge power has 
not only been experienced in preventing the 
paroxysms of intermittents, (Bergius says 
quartans have been cured by it ; and he be- 
gins by giving one bulb, or clove, morning 



cus of Linnxus ; a plant which may be boil- 
ed-for spinach, and which is in no degree 
interior to it. 

JUL-heal. See Heraclium and Stachys. 

ALLIARIA. (From allium, garlick ; from 
its smell resembling garlick.) Jack of the 



hedge. Sauce-alone, or stinking hedge-mus- and evening, adding every day one more, 



tard. The plant to which this name is 
given, in the Pharmacopoeias, is the Erysis 
mum alliaria ; Joliis cordatis of Linnxus; it 
is sometimes exhibited in humid asthma and 
dyspnoea, with success. Its virtues are 
powerfully diaphoretic, diuretic, and anti- 
scorbutic. 

ALL.ICAR. Vinegar. 

ALLICOA. Petroleum. 

ALLIGATUUA> A ligature, or bandage. 

ALLIOTICUM. (From O.KKIOO> , to alter, or 
vary.) An alterative medicine, consisting 
of various antiscorbutics. Galen, 



till four or five cloves be taken at a dose : 
if the fever then vanishes, the dose is to be 
diminished, and it will be sufficient to take 
one, or even two cloves, twice a day, for 
some weeks ;) but even in subduing the 
plague. Another virtue of garlick is that of 
an anthelminthic. 11 has like wise been found 
of great advantage in scorbutic cases, and 
in calculous disorders, acting in these, not 
only as a diuretic, but, in several instances, 
manifesting a lithrontriptic power. That 
the juice of alliaceous plants in general, has 
considerable effects upon human calculi, is 



ALLIUM. (tfrom oteo, to smell, because to be inferred by the experiments of Lo&b ; 
it stinks ; or from AMU, to avoid, as being and we are abundantly warranted in as- 
unpleasant to most people.) Garlick. serting, that a decoction of the beards of 



ALL 



ALN 



Jeeks, taken liberally, and its use persevered 
in for a length of time, has been found re- 
markably successful in calculous and gravel- 
ly complaints. The penetratingand diffusive 
acrimony of gat-lick, renders its external 
application useful in many disorders, as a 
rubefacient, and more especially as applied 
to the soles of the feet, to cause a revulsion 
from the head or breast, as was .successfully 
practised and recommended by Sydenham. 
As soon as an inflammation appears, the 
garlick cataplasm should be removed, and 
one of bread and milk be applied, to obvi- 
ate excessive pain. Garlick has also been 
variously employed externally, to tumours 
and cutaneous diseases ; and, in certain cases 
of deafness, a clove, or small bulb of this 
root, wrapt in gauze or muslin, and intro- 
duced into the meatusauditorius, has been 
found an efficacious remedy. Garlick m:<y 
be administered in different forms ; swal- 
lowing the clove entire, after being dipped 
in oil, is recommended as the most effec- 
tual, or, where this cannot be done, by 
cutting it into pieces without bruising it, 
may be found to answer equally well, pro- 
ducing thereby no uneasiness in the fauces. 
On being beaten up, and formed into pills, 
the active parts of this medicine soon eva- 
porate ; this Dr. Woodville, in his Medical 
Botany, notices, on the authority of Cul- 
len, who thinks that Lewis has fallen into 
a gross error, in supposing dried garlick 
more active than fresh The syrup and 
oxymel of gariick, which formerly had a 
place in the British Pharmacopoeias, are 
now expunged. It may be necessary to no- 
tice that, by some, the cloves of garlick are 
bruised and applied to the wrists, to cure 
agues, and to the bend of the arm, to cure the 
tooth-ache : when held in the hand, they are 
said to relieve hiccough ; when beat with 
common oil into a poultice, they resolve 
sluggish humours ; and, if laid on the navels 
of children, they are supposed to destroy 
worms in the intestines. 

AM.IUM CEPA. The systematic name for 
the Cepa of the shops. See Cepa, 

ALLIUM POKBTIM. The systematic name 
for the Porrutn of the pharmacopoeias. See 
Porrum. 

ALLIUM SATIVUM. The systematic name 
for Allinm. See Allium. 

ALLIUM VICTOBIALIS. The systematic 
name for the VictoraUs longa of the phar- 
macopoeias. See Victoralis longa, 

ALLOCHOOS. (From AAAO?, another, and 
Ai^oi, to speak.) Hippocrates uses this word 
to mean delirious. 

ALLOKSTS. (From *AM?, another.) Al- 
teration in the state of a disease. 

ALLOETICA. (From AXAC?, another.) Al- 
teratives Medicines which change the ap- 
peaiv.nce of the disease. 

ALLOGNOSIS (From at^xc?, another, andyvcu, 
to know. ) Delirium ; perversion of the judg- 
ment ; incapability of distinguishing persons. 



ALLOPUASI*. (From x\of, another, and 
<*, to speak,) According to Hippocrates, 
a delirium, where the patiem is not able to 
distinguish one thing from another. 

ALLOTHIOPHAGIA. (From axxo7 w ? fo- 
reign, and <j>7/ft), to eat.) A synonym of 
pica. See Pica. In Vogel's Nosology it 
signifies the greedily eating unusual things 
for food. 

ALLOTS. By this word, chymists and ar- 
tificers commonly understand any portion of 
base metal, or metalic mixture, which is 
added to combine metals by fusion into one 
seemingly homogeneous mass. 

Allspice. See Pimento. 

ALMA. Water ; and the first motion of 
a foetus to free itself from its confinement. 

ALMABRI. A stone-like amber. 

ALMAGRA. Bolum cuprum. 

1. Red earth, or ochre, used by the an- 
cients as an astringent. 

2. Rulandus says it is the same as Lotto. 

3. In the Theatrum Chymicum it is a 
name for the white sulphur of the al- 
chymists. 

ALMARAJTDA. Almakis- Litharge. 

ALMANDA CATHABTICA. A plant growing 
on the shores of Cayenne and Surinam, 
used by the inhabitants as a remedy for the 
colic ; supposed to be cathartic. 

AIMARCAB. (Arab.) Litharge of silver. 

ALMACARIDA. Litharge of silver. 

ALMARGEN. Almarago. Coral. 

ALMARKASITA. Mercury. 

ALMARTAK. Powder of litharge. 

AMATATICA. Copper. 

ALMECASITE. Almechasite. Copper. 

ALMLEAILETU. A word used by Avicen- 
na, to express a preternatural heat less than 
that of fever, and which may continue after 
a fever. 

ALMENE. Sal lucidum, or sal gemmae. 

ALTCISA. Musk. 

ALMIZADIR. Verdigris, or muriat of am- 
monia. 

ALMIZADAR. Muriat of Ammonia. 

Almond, bitter. See Amygdala. 

Almond, common. See Amygdala. 

Almond, sweet. See Amygdala. 

ALMONDS OF THE EARS. A popular name 
for the tonsils, which have been so called 
from their resemblance to an almond in 
shape. See Tonsils. 

ALMONDS OP THE THROAT. A vulgar 
name for the tonsils. 

AI.NABATJ. In Avicenna and Scorpion, 
this word means the siliquadulcis, a gentle- 
laxative. 

ALNEC. Stannum, or tin. 

ALNERIC. Sulphur vivum. 
ALN US. (Aim, Ital.) The alder. 
The pharmacopceial name of two plants, 
sometimes used in medicine, though rarely 
employed in the present practice. 

Alnus rotundifolio ; glitfinosa ,- viridis ; 
the common alder-tree, called amtndanus. 

Alnus nigra> \z\frangula ; the rhammis 



ALO 

fraugula of Linnaeus. The black alder, 
called also aunus, 

All the parts of these trees are astringent 
and bitter. The bark is most astringent; 
a decoction of it has cured agues, and is 
often used to repel inflammatory tumours 
of the throat, by way of gargle. The inner 
yellow bark of the trunk, or root, given to 
ij., vomits, purges, and gripes ; but, joined 
with aromatics, it operates more agreea- 
bly. An infusion or decoction in water 
inspissated to an extract, act yet more 
mildly than these. The berries of alder are 
purgative. They are not in use under their 
own name, but are often substituted for 
buck-thorn berries ; to discover which, it 
should be observed, that the berries of the 
black alder have a black skin, a blue juice, 
und two seeds in each of them ; whereas the 
buckthorn berries have a green juice, and 
commonly four seeds. The substitution of 
one for the other is not of material conse- 
quence, as the plants belong to the same 
genus, and the berries do/not differ greatly. 

Dr. Murray, of Gottingen, recommends 
from his own experience, the leaves of alder 
chopped in small pieces, and heated over the 
fire, as the best remedy with which he is ac- 
quainted for dispersing milk in the breasts. 

Aloe. See Aloes. 

ALOEDAHIA. (From *xo, the aloe.) Com- 
pound purging medicines so called from 
having aloes as the chief ingredient. 

ALOEPHAXGINA. Medicines formed by 
a combination of aloes and aromatics. 

ALOES. (From ahlah, a Hebrew word, sig- 
nifying growing near the sea.) The Aloe. 

1. A genus of plants of theLinnxan sys- 
tem. Class, Hexandria. Order, Monogynia. 

2. The pharmacopoeial name of the in- 
spissated juice of some of the aloe plants. 
Fel nature, nature's gall ; so named from its 
intense bitterness. Aloes are distinguished 
into three species, socotorine, hepatic, and 
cabaline ; of which the two first are directed 
for officinal use in our pharmacopoeias. 

The 1st. Aloes Succotorina vel Zocotorina. 
Succotorine aloes, is obtained from the 
Aloe perfoliata of Linnaeus :foliis canli- 
nis dentatis, ample xicaulibus vaginantibus, 
jloribus corymbosis, cernuis, pedunculatis, 
subcylindritis : it is brought over wrapt in 
skins, and is of a bright surface and in some 
degree pellucid ; in the lump, of a yellowish 
red colour, with a purplish cast ; when re- 
duced into powder, it is of a golden colour. 
It is hard and friable in very cold weather ; 
but in summer it softens very easily be- 
twixt the fingers. It is extremely bitter 
and also accompanied with an aromatic 
flavour, but not so much as to cover its 
disagreeable taste. Its scent, though bitter, 
is rather agreeable, being somewhat similar 
to that of myrrh. 

2. Aloes hepatica, vel Barbadensis : the 
common or Barbadoes or hepatic aloes. 
. line perfoliata of Linnaeus : Jloribus pedun- 



ALO 3a 

culatis, cernuis co)*ymbosis t subcytindricis,fo' 
His spinosis, co?)fertis, dentatis, vag-inantibns, 
plants, maculatis. The best is broug'ht from 
Barbadoes in large gourd shells ; an inferior 
sort in pots, and\he worst in casks. It is 
darker coloured than the socotorine, and not 
so bright; it is also drier and more com- 
pact, though sometimes the sort in casks is 
soft and clammy. To the taste it is intensely 
bitter and nauseous, being almost wholly 
without that aroma which is observed in the 
socotorine. To the smell it is strong and 
disagreeable. 

3. Aloes cabaUina vel Guineensis ; Horse - 
aloes. This is easily distinguished from 
both the foregoing by its strong rank smell ; 
in other respects it agrees pretty much with 
the hepatic, and is now not unfrequently 
sold in its place. Sometimes it is prepared 
so pure and bright as scarcely to be distin- 
guishable by the eye, even from the socoto- 
rine, but its offensive smell betrays it ; and 
if this also, should be dissipated by art, its 
wanting the aromatic flavour of the finer 
aloes will be a sufficient criterion. This 
aloe is not admitted into the materia medi- 
ca, and is not employed chiefly by farriers. 

The general nature of these three kinds is 
nearly the same. Their particular differ- 
ences only consist in the different propor- 
tions of gum to their resin, and in their 
flavour. The smell and taste reside prin- 
cipally in the gum, as do the principal vir- 
tues of the aloes. Twelve ounces of Bar- 
badoes aloes yields nearly 4 ounces of resin, 
and 8 of gummy extract The same quan- 
tity of socotorine aloes yields 3 ounces of 
resin and 9 of gummy extract. 

Aloes is a well known stimulating purga- 
tive, a property which it possesses not only 
when taken internally, but also by external 
application. The cathartic quality of aloes 
does not reside in the resinous part of the 
drug, but in the gum, for the pure resin 
has little or no purgative power. Its me- 
dium dose is from 5 to 15 grains, nor does 
a larger quantity operate more effectually. 
Its operation is exerted on the large in- 
testines, principally on the rectum. In 
small doses long continued, it often pro- 
duces much heat, and irritation, particu- 
larly about the anus, from which it some- 
times occasions a bloody discharge ; there- 
fore, to those who are subject to piles, or 
of an hasmorrhagic diathesis, or even in a 
state of pregnancy, its exhibition has been 
productive of considerable mischief; but 
on the contrary, by those of a phlegmatic 
constitution, or those suffering by uterine 
obstructions (for the stimulant action of 
aloes, it has been supposed, may be extend- 
ed to the uterus,) and in some cases of dys- 
pepsia, palsy, gout, and worms, aloes may 
be employed as a laxative with peculiar 
advantage. In all diseases of the bilious 
tribe, aloes is the strongest purge, and the 
best preparations for this purpose are the 



ALO 



ALL 3 



pilula ex aloe cum myrrha, the tinctura 
aloes, or extractum colocynthidis com- 
positum. Its efficacy in jaundice is very 
considerable, as it proves a succedaneum 
to the bile, which in that disease is de- 
fective either in quantity or quality. 
Aloes therefore may be considered as inju- 
rious where inflammation or irritation exist 
in the bowels or neighbouring parts, in 
pregnancy, or in habits disposed to piles, 
but highly serviceable in all hypochondriac 
affections, cachectic habits, and persons 
labouring under oppression of the stomach 
caused by irregularity: Aromatics correct 
the offensive qualities of aloes the most per- 
fectly .The canella alba answers toierably.and 
without any inconvenience; but some rather 
prefer the essential oils for this purpose. 
Dr. Cullen says, " If any medicine be en- 
titled to the appellation of a stomach purge, 
it is certainly aloes. It is remarkable with 
regard to it, that it operates almost to as 
good a purpose in a small as in a large dose; 
that 5 grains will produce one considerable 
dejection, and 20 grains will do no more, 
except it be that in the last dose the opera- 
tion will be attended with gripes, &.c. Its 
chief use is t render the peristaltic motion 
regular, and it is one of the best cures in 
habitual costiveness. There is a difficulty 
we meet with in the exhibition of purg-alives 
viz. that they will not act but in their full 
dose, and will not produce half their effect 
if given in half the dose. For ihis purpose 
we are chiefly confined to aloes. Neutral 
salts in half their dose will not have half 
their effect ; although even from these, by 
large dilution, we may obtain this property; 
but besides them and our present medicine, 
I know no other which has any title to it 
except sulphur. Aloes sometimes cannot 
be employed. It has the effect of stimu- 
lating the rectum more than other purges, 
and with justice has been accused of ex- 
citing hxmorrhoidal swellings, so that we 
ought to abstain from it in such cases,except 
when we want to promote them. Aloes 
has the effect of rarefying the blood and 
disposing to hsemorrhagy, and hence it is 
not recommended in uterine fluxes. Foetid 
gums are of the same nature in producing 
haemorrhagy, and perhaps this is the founda- 
tion of their emmenagogue power." Aloes 
is administered either simply in powders, 
which is too nauseous,or else in composition: 
1. With purgatives, as soap, scammony, 
colocynth, or rhubarb. 2. With aromatics, 
as canella, ginger, or essential oils. 3. With 
bitters, as gentian. 4. With cmmenagogues, 
as iron, myrrh, wine, 8cc. It may be ex- 
hibited in pills as the most convenient form, 
or else dissolved in wine, or diluted alcohol. 
The officinal preparations of aloes are the 
following Pilula Aloes. Pilula Aloes cum 
Assafceticte. Pil. Al. cum Colocynth. Pil. 
Al. cum Myrrh. T. Aloes. T. Al. JEth. 
T. AJ. cum Myrrh. Vin. Aloes Sac. Pil. 



Aloes comp. Pulv. Aloes cum Canell. Puly, 
Al. cum Guaiac. Pulv. Al. cum Ferro. Tinct. 
Aloes comp. Ext. Colocynth. comp. Tinct. 
Benzoes. comp. and some others. 

ALOETICS. Medicines wherein aloes is 
the chief or fundamental ingredient. 

ALOGOTROPHIA. (From axo^o?, dispro- 
portionate, and Tg<j>&>, to nourish.) Unequal 
nourishment, as in the rickets. 

ALOUAR. (Arab.) Alohoc. Mercury. 
ALOES LIGNUM. See Lignum Aloes. 
ALOMBA. (Arab.) JLlooc, Plumbum, or 
lead. 

ALOPECES. (From &xa>7n%, the fox.) The 
psoa muscles are so called, by Fallopius 
and Vesalius, because in the fox they are 
particularly strong. 

ALOPECIA, (from AKODTTH^ a fox; be- 
cause the fox is subject to a distemper that 
resembles it : or, as some say, because the 
fox's urine will occasion baldness.) Athrix 
depilis. Phalacrotis. Baldness, or the fall,- 
ing off of the hair ; when on the sinciput, 
calvities, calvitium. 

ALOSA. (From ctA/a-^a, to take ; because 
it is a ravenous fish.) The chad, Clupea 
nlosa of Linnaeus, whose flesh is by some 
commended as a restorative. 
AI.OSAT. Alosohoc, Quicksilver. 
ALOSANTHO. (From *x?, salt, andatvfls?, a 
flower.) Alosanthum. Flowers of salt. 

ALPHABET ic UM CHTMICUM. Raymond 
Lully hath given the world this alphabet, 
but to what end is difficult to say : 
A signtficat Deum. 

B Mercurium 

C Salts Petram. 

D Vitriolum. 

E Menstruate. 

F Lnnam claram. 

G Mercurium nostrum. 

H Salem purum. 

I Compositium Lunee. 

K Compositum Solis. 

L Terr an compositi Lunae. 

M Jiquam compositi Luna 

N Jrem compositi Lunce. 

O Tewam compositi Solis. 

P Aquam compositi Solis. 

Q JErem cmnpositi Solis. 

II Ignem compositi Solis. 

S Lapidem Album 

T Medicinam corporis rubel. 

U Color em fund secreti. 

X Igriem siccum cineris. 

Y Calorem balnei. 

Z Separationem lignorum. 

Z Alembicum cum cucurbit a. 

ALPHAXTC. .Alphenic. An Arabian 
word (signifying tender) for barley-sugar, or 
sugar-candy. 

ALPHITA. (.Wptrita, the plural of a.\^ircv t 
the meal of barley in general.) By Hippo- 
crates this term is applied to barley-meal 
either toasted or fried. Galen says that 
xyfAva. is coarse meal, uet//>ov is fine 
and axQiT* is a middling sort. 



ALT 



ALU 



ALPHITIDON . Jllphitidum. It is when a 
bone is broken into small fragments like 
dlphita, i. e. bran. 

AtPHoirsiN. The name of an instrument 
for extracting balls. It is so called from 
the name of its inventor Alphonso Ferrier, 
a Neapolitan physician. It consists of three 
branches, which separate from each other 
by their elasticity, but are capable of being 
closed by means of a tube in which they 
are included. 

AUHUS. (atx^o?, from A\^OJVU>, to change ; 
because it changes the colour of the skin.) 
Vitiligo alba. Murphcea alba. Lepra macula- 
sa alba. A species of leprosy, called by the 
ancients vitiligo, and which they divided 
into alphus, melas, and leuce. It is produ- 
ced by a peculiar miasma, which is endemial 
to Arabia. See Lepra. 

ALPINI BALSAMUM. Balm ofGilead. 

ALRACHAS. Lead. 

ALRATICA. A word used by Albucasis, 
to signify a partial or a total imperforation 
of the vagina. It is an Arabic word. 

ALSAMACH. An Arabic name for the 
great hole in the os petrosum. 

ALSINE. (From otxxoc, a grove ; so call- 
ed because it grows in great abundance in 
woods and shady places.) The name of a 
genus of plants in the Linnxan system. 
Class, Pentandna. Order, Trigynia. Chick- 
weed. 

ALSINE MEDIA. Morsus gallince cen- 
tunculus. The name for the plant, called 
chickweed, which, if boiled tender, may be 
eaten like spinach, and forms also an excel- 
lent emollient poultice. 

ALTAFOR. Camphire. 

ALTERATIVES. (Alterantia, sc. medi- 
ramenta : from altero, to change.) Those 
remedies are so called, which are given 
with a view to re-establish the healthy 
functions of the animal ccconomy, without 
producing any sensible evacuation. 

ALTHAEA. (From *xSea>, to heal; so 
called from its supposed qualities in heal- 
ing.) Marsh-mallow. 

1. The name of a genus of plants of the 
Linnaean system. Class, Monadelphia. Or- 
der, Polyandria. 

2. The pharmacopoeial name of the 
marsh-mallow. Althaea officinalis of Lin- 
naeus : -foliis simpUcibus tomentosis. Com- 
mon marsh-mallow. 

The mucilaginous matter with which 
this plant abounds, is the medicinal part of 
the plant : it is commonly employed for 
its emollient and demulcent qualities in 
tickling coughs, honrseness,and catarrhs, in 
dysentery, and difficulty and heat of urine. 
It relaxes the passages" in nephritic com- 
plaints, in which last case a decoction is the 
best preparation. Two or three ounces of 
the fresh roots may be boiled in a sufficient 
quantity of water to a quart, to which one 
once of gum-arabic may be added. The 
following is given where it is required that 



large quantities should be used. An ounce 
of the dried roots is to be boiled in water 
enough to leave two or three pints to be 
poured off' for use : if more of the root be 
used, the liquor will be disagreeably slimy. 
If sweetened, by adding a little more of the 
root of liquorice, it will be very palatable. 
The root had formerly a place in many of 
the compounds in the pharmacopoeias, but 
now it is only directed in the form of syrup. 

ALTEUEA OFFICINAIIS. The systematic 
name of i he marsh-mallow. See Althaea. 

ALTHANACA. Althanacha, Orpiment. 

ALTHEBEGIUM. An Arabian name for a 
sort of swelling, such as is observed in ca- 
chectic and leuco-phlegmatic habits. 

ALTHEXIS. (From atxSaa, to cure, or 
heal.) Hippocrates often uses this word to 
signify the cure of a distemper. 

ALTIHIT. So Avicenna calls the Laser- 
pitiumoftfie ancients. 

ALUD. (Arab.) Aloes. 

ALUDELS. Hollow spheres of stone, glass, 
or earthen-ware, with a short neck project- 
ing at each end, by means of which one 
globe might be set upon the other. The 
uppermost has no opening at the top. They 
were used in former times for the sublima- 
tion of several substances. 

Alum. See Jllnmen* 

ALUMEN. (Jfom.Arab.) Assos.azub, 
aseb, elanula. Sulphas elumina acidulus, 
cum potassd. Super-sulphas alumina et po- 
tassce. Argilla vitriolata. Alum. 

A neutral salt, formed by the combina- 
tion of the earth called alumine, or pure 
clay, with sulphuric acid, and a little pot- 
ash. 

The alum of commerce, and that present- 
ed for medicinal purposes, is afforded by 
ores which are dug out of the earth for this 
purpose, and manufactured by first decom- 
posing the ore, then lixiviating it, evapora- 
ting the lixiviums, and then crystallizing 
the alum, which affects the form oftetra- 
hedral pyramids, applied to each other base 
to base; sometimes the angles are truncated. 

The following kinds of alum are met with 
in the shops : 

1. Ice or rock alum. Jllumen commune .- 
alwnen crystallinum, rupeum, factitium. 
Common alum ; fictitious alum : English 
alum. This is always in very large transpa- 
rent masses, and derives its name from 
Rocca in Syria, now called Edessa, in which 
the earliest manufactory of this salt was 
established ; or from the hardness ar.d size 
the masses. This species is not very pure. 

2. Roman alum. Jllumen Romanwn : alu- 
men rubrum rutilum, rochi Gallis. Called 
rock alum by the French. This species, 
which is prepared in the territory of Civi- 
ta-Vecchia, comes in lumps of the size of 
eggs, covered with a reddish efflorescence. 

Alum, when first tasted, imparts a sweet- 
ness, but is soon felt to be strongly astrin- 
gent ; on account of which virtue it is of 



ALU 



ALU 



very extensive use in medieine and sur- 
gery. 

Internally it is used as a powerful astrin- 
gent in cases of passive haemorrhages from 
the womb, intestines, nose, and sometimes 
lungs. In bleedings ot an active nature, i. e 
attended with fever, and a plethoric state 
of the system, it is highly improper. Dr. 
Percival recommends it in the colica picto- 
num and other chronic disorders of the 
bowels, attended with obstinate constipa- 
tion. See PercivaFs Essays. The dose 
advised in these cases,is from 5 to 20 grains, 
to be repeated every four, eight, or twelve 
hours. When duly persisted in, this remedy 
proves gently laxitive, and mitigates the 
pain. 

Alum is also powerfully tonic, and is gi- 
ven with this view in 10 grains of alum 
made into a bolus three times a day, in such 
cases as require powerful tonic and astrin- 
gent remedies. Another mode of adminis- 
tering it, is in the form of whey made by boil- 
ing a drachm of powdered alum in a pint of 
milk, for a few minutes, and to be taken in 
the quantity of a tea-cup full three times a 
day. Dr. Cullen thinks it ought to be em- 
ployed with other astringent!? in diarrhoeas. 
In active hjemorrhagies, as was observed, it 
is not useful, though a powerful medicine in 
those which are passive. It should be given 
in small doses, and gradually increased. It 
has been tried in the diabetes without suc- 
cess ; though, joined with nutmeg, it has 
been more successful in intermittents given 
in a large dose, an hour or a little longer, be- 
fore the approach of the paroxysm. In gar- 
gles, in relaxation of the uvula, and other 
swellings of the mucous membrane of the 
fauces, divested of acute inflammation, it 
has been used with advantage ; also in every 
state of the cynanche tonsillaris. External- 
ly alum is much employed by surgeons as 
a lotion for the eyes, and is said to be pre- 
ferable to white vitriol, or acetated ceruse 
in the ophthalmia membranarum. Fromtwo 
to five grains dissolved in an ounce of rose 
water, forms a proper collyrium. It is al- 
so applied as a styptic to bleeding vessels, 
and to ulcers, where there is too copious a 
secretion of pus. It lias proved successful 
in inflammation of the eyes, in the form of 
cataplasm, which is made by stirring or sha- 
king a lump of alum in the whites of t\v,o 
eggs, till they form a coagulum v which is ap- 
plied to the eye between two pieces of thin 
linen rag. This substance is also employ- 
ed in the form of injection in cases of gleet 
or fluor albus. 

When deprived of its humidity by expo- 
sure to the fire, by placing it in an earthen 
pan over a gentle' fire, till it ceases to bub- 
ble, it is termed burnt alum, alumen ustrum t 
and is sometimes employed by surgeons to 
destroy fungous flesh, and is a principle in- 
gredient in most styptic powders. Alum 
is also applied to many purposes of life ; in 



this country, bakers mix a quantity with 
the bread, to render it white ; this mixture 
makes the bread better adapted for weak 
and relaxed bowels ; but in opposite states 
of the alimentary canal, this practice is high- 
ly pernicious. The officinal preparations of 
alum are : Alumen purificatum. Lond. Sul- 
phas aluminis exsiccata. Soluti sulphat. cu- 
pri ammon. Eding. Aq. alum. comp. Lond, 

ALUMEN CATINUM. A name of potash. 

ALMEJT TTSTHUM. See Alwnen. 

ALUMINE. Jllwnina. Earth of alum. 
Pure clay. 

Aluminous earth derives its name from 
alum, of which it forms the base It con- 
stitut s the lower strata of mountains and 
plains. It arrests the waters, and causes 
them to rise in springs to the surface of 
the earth. It enters into the natural com- 
position of the schistus, and all these stones 
and earths called argillaceous, such SiSpot- 
ter's-clay, fulled 's-earth, lepidolite, mica, co- 
rundum, &c. Hitherto it has not been found 
pure any where, except in the garden of the 
public schools at Halle in Germany. 

Properties of pure Jllumine, Alumine is 
white, and soft to the touch. It is in- 
sipid, adheres to the tongue, and occasions 
a sense of dryness in the mouth. When 
moistened with a small quantity of water, 
it forms a tenacious, ductile, kneadable 
paste. When heated to redness, it shrinks 
considerably in bulk, and at last becomes 
so hard as to strike fire with flint. After 
being ignited, it is no longer capable of 
being kneaded with water into a ductile 
mass. It recovers however this property 
by solution in an acid and precipitation. 
Alcalies dissolve it in the humid way, and 
form compounds decomposable by acids. 
it dissolves slowly in all acids. It possess- 
es a powerful attraction for lime. The 
most intense heat of our furnaces is not 
able to melt it, but it becomes fusible 
when lime is added. Lavoisier has proved 
that it is capable of entering into a kind of 
fusion like paste, by the action of oxygen 
gas ; it then cuts glass and resists the fil. 
It absorbs water and carbonic acid from 
the atmosphere. By its mixture with wa- 
ter and silex it acquires great solidity. It 
does not unite with any combustible sub-> 
stance, but it becomes fused into coloured 
fnts with metallic oxyds. Its specific 
gravity is 2. It is employed in a multi- 
tude of arts. 

Method of obtaining pure alumine. Take 
any quantity of alum of commerce, dissolve 
it in six parts of boiling distilled water, 
and add to this solution, when cold, liquid 
ammonia, till no further precipitate ensues. 
Then heat the whole nearly to the boiling 
point for a few minutes, and transfer it on 
a filter. In proportion as the fluid passes 
off, pour more water over the precipitate, 
until it passes tasteless. Let the precipi- 
tate obtained, while yet in a pasty state, 



ALU 



AMA 



39 



be transferred into a glass or Wedg- 
wood's bason, and add to it muriatic 
acid in small quant itities at a time, 
until the whole is dissolved. Then eva- 
porate the solution, till a drop of it, when 
suffered to cool on a plate of glass, yields 
minute crystals : on letting it now cool, 
crystals of alum will be deposited. Remove 
these crystals by decanting the fluid, and 
renew the evaporation, until, on further 
cooling, no more crystals are formed. No- 
thing now but pure alumine remains in the 
solution ; the fluid may therefore be de- 
composed by adding to it gradually liquid 
ainmonia till no further precipitate ensues. 
The precipitate thus obtained, when well 
washed and dried, is pure alumine. 

The process recommended in general by 
systematic writers for obtaining alumine, 
differs from this ; it consists in decompo- 
sing a solution of alum of commerce by an 
excess of a carbonated alkali, washing the 
obtained precipitate, and exposing it to 
a sufficient heat to drive off the carbonic 
acid. This method however is imperfect, 
for if the alumine thus obtained be heated 
with charcoal, and a diluted acid is added 
to the mixture, sulphurated hydrogen gas 
will be liberated. It adheres to the tongue, 
and emits a peculiar odour when breathed 
upon. Sure signs that it is not pure. 

It must be obvious that alumine cannot 
be obtained absolutely pure in this manner. 
For alum is a triple compound, consisting of 
alumine, potash, and sulphuric acid in ex- 
cess. When this excess ot acid is saturated, 
by adding to the solution an alkali, or even 
pure alumine, a highly insoluble salt (sul- 
phate of alumine)is produced, differing from 
alum only in the proportion of its base. 
When we therefore gradually add to a so- 
lution of alum, a carbonated alkali, the first 
effect of the alkali is, to saturate the excess 
of the sulphuric acicl^ and the precipitate 
consists principally of the salt which is in- 
soluble in water. A further quantity of the 
alkali effects instantly a decomposition of 
part of the salt, which, in proportion as it 
takes place, becomes mixed with the alu- 
mine : and it is thus covered from the fur- 
ther action of the alkali. This being the 
case, it is obviousthat no subsequent washing 
can do more than separate the sulphate of 
potash, and therefore the residuum, i, ? lead 
of being pure alumine, contains also 4 vari- 
able proportion of true sulphate of alui/^ine ; 
the sulphuric acid of which becoming de- 
composed on heating it in contact U'ith 
charcoal, accounts for the sulphurated 'ii- 
drogen gas produced by the affusion of 
an acid. With the acids it is known tp 
form more than twenty species of neutral 
salts. Of these only one is used in medicine 
and surgery, called alum, or aluminous. 
sulphate. See JHumt-n. " 

ALUMIXOUS WATERS. Waters imprey- 
nutcd with particles of alum, 



ALUSAR. Manna. 

ALVEARIUM. (From alveare, a bee- 
hive.) That part of the meatus auditorius 
externus is so called, which contains the 
wax of the ear. 

ALVEOLI. (From afoeare, a bee-hive ; 
from their resemblance to its cells.) _Bo- 
trion, bothrion ; frena, mortariolum. The 
sockets of the teeth. There are usually six- 
teen of these alveoli, or sockets, in each jaw. 

ALVEUS COMMUNJS. The common 
duct, or communication of the ampullae of 
the membranaceous semicircular canals in 
the internal ear, is so termed by Scarpa. 

ALVEUS AMPULBASCENS. Part of the duct 
conveying the chyle to the subclavian vein. 

ALVIUCCA. (From alvus, the belly, and 
duco, to draw.) Purging medicines. 

ALVIFLUXUS. (From alvtts, and^wo, to 
flow.) A diarrhoea, or purging. 

ALVUS. The belly, stomach and en- 
trails. 

ALYCE. (From *At/a>, to be anxious.) That 
anxiety which is attendant on low fevers. 

ALYPIA. (From <*, neg. and A.IWW, pain.) 
A gentle purgation of the humours without 
pain. 

ALYPIAS. JLlypum. A species of spurge, 
so called because it purges gently and with- 
out pain. 

ALTSMUS. (From axt/w, to be restless.) 
Restlessness. 

ALYSSUM. (From *, neg. and xt/r*-a, the 
bite of a mad dog- : so called because it 
was foolishly thought to be a specific in the 
cure of the bite of a mad dog.) Mad-wort. 
The JWarrubium afysson of Linnaeus, sup- 
posed by some to be diaphoretic. 

ALY.SSUJW GALI::VI. The marrubium. 

ALTSSUM PLIXII. The mottugo. 

ALYSSUM VERTICILLATUM. The marru- 
bium verticillatum. 

ALZ.EMAFOR. Cinnabar. 

AJLZUM. JHdum. Jildrum. The name 
of the tree which produces gum bdellium 
according to some ancient authors. 

AMA. Together. A word used in com- 
position. 

AMALGAM. (From a/**., and ya.fMa t to 
marry.) A substance produced by mixing 
mercury with a metal, the two being there- 
by incorporated. 

AMAMKOS. (From a//*, and /utxta,, an 
apple.) The bastard medlar of Hippo- 
crates. 

AMAIT;E. (From *, priv. and ^av/*, 
madness ; so called, because they are eata- 
ble :;nd not poisonous, like some others.) 
A tribe of fungus productions, called mush- 
rooms, truffles, and moreii.-., and by the 
French, champignions. 

AMARA. (..'t-rnara, sc. medicamenta: from 
amarns, hitter.) Biiters. 

The principal bitters used medicinally 
are: the pure bitters, gcntiana luteu; humuhls 
hipulus ; and quassia amara ; stypic bitters, 
cinchona ojfitinalis; croton cascarilla: 



40 



AMB 



AME 



simarouba ; and aromatic bitters, artitnesia 
absinthium ; anthemis nobilis : hyssopus, &c. 
AMARA nutcis. See Dulcemara. 
AMARACUS. (From ot, neg. and fjutpajvu to 
decay ; because it keeps its virtues a long 
time.) Marjoram. 

AMARAXTHUS. (From the same.) The 
herb goldilocks. 

. AMARANTH ESCULENT. The leaves of the 
amaranthus oleraceous of Linnaeus, and se- 
veral other species, are eaten in India the 
same as cabbage is here. 

AMARANTHUS OLERACEUS. See Amaranth, 
esculent. 

AMATORIA FEBRIS. (From amo t to love.) 
See Chlorosis. 

AMATORIA VENEFICA. (From amo, to 
love, and veneficium, witchcraft.) Philters. 
Love-powders. 

AMATORII. (Jlmatorii, sc. musculi.} A 
term given to the muscles of the eye, by 
which that organ is moved in ogling. 

AMATZQ.UITL. (Indian.) Unedo papyra- 
cea. The arbutus unedo of Linnaeus. A 
decoction of the bark of the root of this 
plant is commended in fevers. 

AMAUROSIS. (Ajwau^oxr/c: from c^cat/goa, 
to darken or'obscure.) Gutta serena. Am- 
bkjopia. A total loss of sight without any 
visible injury to the eye, the pupil mostly 
dilated and immoveable. A genus of dis- 
ease in the class locales, and order dysasthe- 
si<e of Cullen. It arises generally from 
compression of the optic nerves ; amauro- 
sis compressionis ; from debility, amaurosis 
atonica ; from spasm, amaurosis spasmodica ; 
or from poisons, amaurosis vcnenata. See 
also Gutta serena. 

Amber seed. See Hibiscus abelmoschns. 
AMBE. (A(JI, the edge of a rock ; from 
zjuSauuee, to ascend.) An old chirurgical 
machine for reducing dislocations of the 
shoulder, and so called, because its extre- 
mity projects like the prominence of a rock. 
Its invention is imputed to Hippocrates. 
The ambe is the most ancient mechanical 
contrivance for the above purpose, but is 
not at present employed. 

AMBELA. (Arab ) The cornered hazle- 
nut, the bark of which is purgative. 

AMBER. Succinwn. A beautiful bitu- 
minous substance, of a yellow or brown 
colour, either transparent or opake, which 
takes a good polish, and, after a slig'lit rub- 
bing, becomes so electric, as to attract 
straws and small bodies ; hence it was call- 
ed eleclrum by the ancients, and hence the 
xvord electricity. When powdered, it 
omits an agreeable smell. It is dug out 
of the earth at various depths, and often 
contains insects in high preservation ; a 
circumstance which proves that it has been 
liquid. Amber is also found floating on 
the shores of the Baltic, and is met with in 
Italy, Sicily, Poland, Sweden, &c. From its 
colour or opacity it has been variously dis- 
tfnguished; thus white, orange, golden, 



cloudy amber, &c. An oil is obtained from 
it, which, as well as its other preparations, 
is occasionally used in medicine against 
spasmodic diseases. 

AMBERGRIS. (Ambragrisea.} A con- 
crete, bituminous substance, of a soft and 
tenacious consistence, marked with black 
and yellow spots, and of an agreeable and 
strong smell when heated or rubbed. It is 
found in very irregular masses, floating on 
the sea near the Molucca Islands, Madagas- 
car, Sumatra, on the coast of Coromandel, 
Brazil, America, China, and Japan. Seve- 
ral American fishermen assured Dr. Schwe- 
diawer, that they often found this substance, 
either among the excrements of the Physs- 
ter macrocephalus , a species of whale, or in 
its stomach, or in a vessel near the sto- 
mach. The medical qualities of amber- 
gris are stomachic, cordial, and antispasmo- 
dic. It is very seldom used in this country. 

AMBLOSIS. (A^uCxoxn? j from a/xCxoa, to 
cause abortion..) A miscarriage. 

AMBLOTICA. (Amblotica, sc. medicamen- 
Zcr, Afji^KcrDtct : from AfA-Ghoco, to cause abor- 
tion.) Medicines which were supposed to 
occasion abortion. 

AMBLYOPIA. (From a^uCxvs, dull, and 
&4, tne eye.) Hippocrates means by this 
word, dimness, of sight to which old people 
are subject. Paulus Actuarius, and the best 
modern writers, seem to think that amblyo- 
pia means the same thing as the incomplete 
amaurosis. See Gutta serena and Amaurosis. 

AMBLYOSMUS. Amblytes. The same. 

AMBO. (Indian.) The mango. 

AMBON. (From ajmCAtvu, to ascend.) 
Celsus uses this term to signify, the margin 
or tip of the sockets in which the heads of 
the large bones are lodged. 

AM BONE. The same as ambe. 

AMBRA. Amber. Also an aromatic gum. 

AMBRA CINRACEA. (From cineraceus, 
of the colour of ashes.) Ambergris and 
grey amber. 

AMBRA G RISE A. Ambergris. 

AMBRAM. Amber. 

AMBRETTE. See Abelmoschus. 

AMBULATIVA. (From ambulo ) to walk.) 
A species of herpes ; so called because it 
walks or creeps as it were about the body. 

AMUULO. (From st^&OAa), to cast forth.) 
Flo,;* ^furiosus. A periodical flatulent dis- 
ease ijl. caused, according to Michalis, by 
vapours shooting through various parts of 
thevoody. 

^MBUSTIO. (From amburo, to burn.) 
Aybustiem. A burn or scald. 

'AMELLA. The same as achmella. 

AMENORRHCEA. (From *, priv. and 

^v, a month, and ptu, to flow ) A partial 

or total obstruction of the menses in women 

" from other causes than pregnancy and old 

\ ag-e. That this excrementitious discharge 

yiould be regular as to quantity and quality, 

ihdthat itshould observe the monthly period, 

/is essential to h&lth. When it is obstructed, 



AMI 



A MM 



41 



nature makes her efforts to obtain for it 
some other outlet. Whn these efforts of 
nature fail, the consequence may be pyrexia, 
pulmonic diaeases, spasmodic affections, 
hysteria, epilep-ua, mania, apoplexia, chlo- 
rosis, according to the general habit and 
disposition of the patient. Dr. CulU'ii pla- 
ces tins genus in the class locales, and or- 
der episclieses. His species are, 1. Eman- 
sio m&isium : that i ., when the menses do 
not appear so early as is usually expected, 
See Chlorosis. 2. Suppressio mensium, when, 
after "the menses appearing- and continuing 
as usual for some time, they cease without 
pregnancy, occurring 1 . 3. AmenorrhcEadif- 
ficilis, vel Menorrhagia difficilis, when this 
flux is too small in quantity, and attended 
with great pain, &.c. 

AMENTIA. (From at, priv. and mens, 
the mind.) Imbecility of intellect, by which 
the relations of things are either not per- 
ceived, or not recollected. A disease in 
the clas.s neuroses, and order vesuniee of 
Cullen. When it originates at birth, it is 
called amentia con^enita, natural stupidity ; 
when from the infirmities of age, amentia 
senilis, dotage or childishness ; and when 
from some accidental cause, amentia ac- 
f/nisita. 

American Balsam. See JBalsamum Pe- 
ruvianum. 

AMERICANUM TUBEROSUM. The potato. 
An America tuberose root. 

AMETHYSTA PHARMACA. (From a, neg. 
and {A.&V, wine.) Medicines which were 
said either to prevent or remove the effects 
of wine. Galen. 

AMETHYSTUS. (From A, neg. and paQuo-itu, 
to be inebriated.) The amethyst. Aprecious 
stone, so called, because in former times, 
according to Plutrach, it was thought to 
prevent drunkenness. Rnland in Lex.Chem. 
AMICULUM. A little short cloak. It is 
the same as the amnios, but anciently meant 
a covering for the pubes of boys, when they 
exercised in the gymnasium. Rhodius. 

AMMI. (Ap/utt : from ei^o?, sand ; from 
its likeness to little gravel-stones.) The 
herb bishop's-weed, of which there are two 
sort s, the ammi verum and vulgare. 

AMMI MAJUS. The systematic name for 
the ammi vulgar e of the shops. See Ammi 
vulgare. 

AMMI VERUM. The seeds of this plant, 
Sison ammi of Linnaeus ;folii$ tripinnatis, 
radicalibus linearibus^ caulinis setaceis, stipu- 
laribus longioribus, have a grateful smell, 
somewhat like that of origanum, and were 
formerly administered as a carminative. 

AMMI VULGARE. The seeds of this 
plant, Jlmmi majus> of Linnaeus ^foliis in- 
jferioribus pinnatis, lanceolatis, serratis ; su- 
perioribus rmtltifidis, iinearibus, are less pow- 
erful than those of the Sison ammi, but 
were exhibited with the same views. 
AMIDUM. See Amylum, 

A wine produced in Ami- 



naca, formerly a province of Italy ; called 
also Saiernum, Also u strong wine vine- 
gar. Galen mentions Aminaeum Neapoli- 
fanum, and Arninjeuin Siculum. 
A.MMIOX. Ammi urn. Cinnabar. 
.\MMOCUOSIA. (From a^^uo?, sand, and 
%&*>, to pour.) A remedy for drying the 
body by sprinkling it with hot sand. Ori~ 
basins. 

AMMONIA ACETATA. See Liquor Jlmmo- 
ni;e acetatix. 

AMMONIA MURIATA. See JMuriate of 
ammonia. 

AMMONIA PRJEPARATA. See Carbonas 
ammonite. 

'AMMONIA. Ammonia-gas. The sub- 
stance so called, is an aeriform or gaseous 
body. 

Pure ammonia was long supposed to be 
a compound of hydrogen and nitrogen, ren- 
dered gaseous by the addition of caloric; but 
from the experiments of Mr. Davy on the 
alkalis, it appears to be a metallic oxyd. 

Ammonia-gas has a strong and very pun- 
gent odour. It extinguishes flame, yet it 
increases the magnitude of the flame of a 
taper before extinction, producing a pale 
yellow colour round its edge. Animals 
cannot breathe it without death ensuing. 
It is lighter than atmospheric air, in the 
proportion of three to five. It tinges yel- 
low vegetable colours brown, and blue ones 
green. It is rapidly absorbed by cold wa- 
ter ; by ardent spirit, essential oils, ether, 
charcoal, sponge, bits of linen cloth, and 
all porous bodies. 

When a piece of ice is brought in contact 
with this gas, it melts and absorbs the gas, 
while at the same time its temperature is 
diminished. It has no effect upon oxygen 
gas while cold ; but when made to pass 
with it through an ignited tube, it detonates 
and becomes decomposed The same is the 
case with common air. It is also decom- 
posed by phosphorus at high temperatures. 
It does not explode when mixed with hy- 
drogen gas. Nitrogen gas has no effect up- 
on it. Atmospheric air does not combine 
with it at common temperatures, but only 
mixes with and dilutes it. When made to 
pass through ignited charcoal, it forms witTi 
it a substance called prussic acid. If 
brought into contact with acid gases, both 
gases lose their gaseous form, and become 
concrete. It has no sensible action on 
earths, or on the saUno-terrene substances. 
It combines readily with acids, and unites 
to sulphur, when .both are in a state of va- 
pour. It. reduces oxyds of metals to their 
metalic state, 'and is decomposed by them. 
It is also decomposed by electrization, and 
by oxygenated muriatic acid gas, &c. 
When exposed to the temperature of 46 
degrees, it crystallizes, and when suddenly 
cooled down to 8 degrees, it assumes a 
gelatinous appearance, and has scarcely 
any odour. 
G 



AMM 



AMM 



Methods of obtaining Ammonia. 1. Mix 
tog-ether equal quantities of muriate of am- 
monia and quick-lime, separately powder- 
ed ; introduce them into a gas-bottle or re- 
tort, apply the heat of a lamp, and receive 
the gas over mercury. 

Explanation. Muriate of ammonia con- 
sists of mui iatic acid and ammonia ; on add- 
ing 1 lime to it, a decomposition takes place, 
the muriatic acid quits the ammonia and 
unites to the lime, in order to form muriate 
of lime, which remains in the retort, and 
the ammonia flies off in the state of gas. 

Remark. In order to obtain the gas in 
a state of purity, it is essentially necessary 
that a considerable quantity of the gas first 
disengaged, be suffered to escape, on ac- 
count of the common air contained in the 
distilling vessel, and in the interstices of the 
ingredients. 

2. Ammonia may likewise be obtained by 
heating the liquid ammonia of the shops 
(liquor of pure ammonia, Pharm. Lond.} 
in a retort placed in communication with 
the mercurial pneumatic trough. 

In this process the ammonia contained in 
this liquid combines \vhh caloric, assumes 
the form of ammonia-gas, and parts witii the 
water to which it was united. 

Remark. The temperature of the fluid 
must not be carried so high as to cause the 
water to be converted into vapour, or, if 
this cannot well be avoided, a small vessel 
should be interposed between the retort and 
the receiver, which, when kept cool, may 
serve to condense the aqueous vapour 
which is formed, and cause the ammonia-gas 
to pass in a very pure and dry state. 

Ammonia is likewise produced during 
the spontaneous decomposition of animal 
and vegetable substances ; in these cases 
it did not pre-exist in them ready formed, 
but is generated by the union of the hydro- 
gen and nitrogen contained in them. 

In combination with water, this alkali 
forms a soluti -\\ of, or liquid ammoma,which 
is culled, in the London pharmacopoeia, 

LIQ.UOU AMMONIA. 
Take of muriate of ammonia, 
Lime newly prepared, of each two 
pounds. 

Water, a pint and a half. 
Kecluce the munate of ammonia and the 
lime into powder separately; then mix them, 
and introduce them into a large g! .ss retort, 
into winch a pint of water has been previ- 
ously poured. Having pi <ced the retort in 
a sand bath, lute on a tubulated receiver, 
through which the ammonia may pass on 
into a third vessel containing half a pint of 
the water, and cooled Then at first apply 
a gentle heat, and increase it by degrees, 
until the retort becomes red. 

Great care and attention are necessary in 
every part of this process ; the two salts 
are to be powdered separately, before they 
are mixed j for, if they be triturated toge- 



ther, ammonia will be extricated, whicfe 
should be prevented, until the means for its 
collection are adopted. The salts are to be 
shaken well together, rather than rubbed, 
and added to the water in the retort. The 
cold produced by the solution of the salt, 
will counteract the heat produced by the 
slacking of the lime, and a charge so made 
will be manageable until the receiver is 
fitted on, and the heat of the sand-bath ap- 
plied. This heat need not be greater than 
300 degrees, and should be very cautiously 
and slowly raised, to prevent the rapid ebul- 
lition and expansion during the extrication 
from gas of a charge of such density ; and 
for the same reason, a 'arge retort is df- 
rected. The ammonia ri es immediately 
in the form of ga;-;, and a portion of the wa- 
ter is therefore placed in a situation to 
condense it ; in the subsequent stages, water 
will arise from the charge in the retort. 
The third vessel directed in the formula, 
may be either a common bottle, fitting mo- 
derately (for no great pressure is necessary,) 
to a straight tube issuing from the bottom 
of the receiver, and dipping below the sur- 
face of the water it contains ; or Woulfe's 
apparatus may be used ; but, with moderate 
attention, the simpler means will answer 
better, perhaps, than the more complex. 
In either case, the receiving-bottle must be 
kept cold by wet cloths, or ice.; for the 
lower the temperature of the water, the 
greater quantity of ammonia-gas it will con- 
dense, and the condensation is accompanied 
by an increase of its heat. If two bottles, 
each containing half the quantity of water 
directed, be used, they will be most ma- 
nageable, as they may be changed alternate- 
ly, so as to prevent either from being over- 
heated, and the contents of both may be 
mixed together at lust. This preparation is 
colourless and transparent, with a strong 
peculiar smell ; it parts with the ammonia 
in the form of gas, if heated to 130 degrees, 
and requires to be kept, with a cautious 
exclusion of atmospherical air, with the car- 
bonic acid of which it readily unites : on 
this latter account, the propriety of keeping 
it small bottles instead of a large one, has 
been suggested. Water saturated with 
ammonia gas, has a less specific gravity 
than common water. 

This is the aqua ammonite pur<e of the 
shops, and the alkali volatile causicum. 
The preparations of ammonia in use are, 

1. The carbonate of ammonia. See Car- 
bonus ammonite, and Liquor carbonatis am- 
moniac. 

2. The acetate of ammonia. See Liquor 
acetatis ammonite. 

3. The muriate of ammonia. See Mu- 
riate of Ammonia. 

4. Ferrum ammoniatum. 

5. Several tinctures and spirits, holding 
carbonate of ammonia in solution. 

AMMONIACUM. (Apfwuuuv : so called 



AMN 



AMP 



from Ammonia, whence it was brought.) 
Gum-ammoniac. A concrete gummy-resi- 
nous juice, composed of little lumps, or 
tears, of a strong 1 and somewhat ungrateful 
smell, and nauseous taste, followed by a 
bitterness. There has, hitherto, been no 
information had concerning the plant which 
affords this drug. It is imported here from 
Turkey, and from the East-Indies. Gum- 
ammoniacum is principally employed as an 
expectorant, and is frequently prescribed in 
asthma and chronic catarrh. Its dose is 
from 10 to 30 grains. It is given in the form 
of a pill, or diffused in water, and is fre- 
quently combined with squill, or tartrite of 
antimony." In large doses, it proves purga- 
tive. Externally, it is applied as a dis- 
cutient, under the form of piaster, to white 
swellings of the knee, and to indolent tu- 
mours The officinal preparations are : 
Ammoniacum pui ificatum : Emplastrum ex 
ammoniaco cum hydragyro : Mistura am- 
moniacae. 

CAHBOXAS. See Carbonas 



ammonite. 

AMMONIJE MURIAS. See Jtfuriate of am- 
monite. 

AMMONioif. (From ei/x^o?, sand,) ^Etius 
uses this term to denote a collyrium of 
great virtue in many diseases of the eye, 
which was said to remove sand or gravel 
from the eyes. 

AMMONIUM. The metal which with 
oxygen forms the alkali called ammonia. 
See Ammonia. 

AMNESIA. (From e, priv. and /UVHO-IS, me- 
mory.) Amnestia. Forgetfulness ; mostly 
a symptomatic affection. 

AMNESTIA. See jimnesia. 

AMNIOS. Amnion. (From a^wvo?, a lamb, 
or lamb's skin.) The soft internal mem- 
brane which surrounds the foetus. It is very 
thin and pellucid in the early stage of preg- 
nancy, but acquires considerable th ickness 
and strength in the latter months. The 
amnios contains a thin watery fluid, in which 
the foetus is suspended. In the abortion of 
the early months, we find the quantity of 
this fluid very great, in proportion to the 
whole ovum, and tiie amnios forms a deli- 
cate and almost gelatinous substance, and 
is a provision for the regular presentation 
of the head of the child ; for now, the 
foetus being suspended in the fluid, and 
hanging by the umbilicus, and the head and 
upper part of the body greatly prepondera- 
ting, it takes that position with the head 
presenting to the orifice of the womb, which 
is necessary to natural and safe labour, the 
foetus being prevented from shifting, in the 
latter months, fay the closer embracing of 
the child with the uterus. 

AMNIOTIC ACID. Vauquelin and 
Buniva have discovered a peculiar acid in 
the liquor of the amnios of the cow, to 
which they have given the name of amniotic 
acid. 



It exists in the form of a white pulveru- 
lent powder. It is slightly acid, but sen- 
sibly reddens vegetable blues. It is diffi- 
cultly soluble in cold, but readily soluble 
in boiling water, and in alcohol. When ex- 
posed to a strong- heat, it exhales an odour 
of ammonia and of prussic acid. Assisted 
by heat, it decomposes carbonate of potash, 
soda, and ammonia. It produces no change 
in the solutions of silver, lead, or mercury, 
in nitric acid. Exposed to heat, it yields 
ammonia and prussic acid. 

Amniotic acid may be obtained by eva- 
porating the liquor of the amnios of the 
cow to a fourth part, and suffering it to 
cool ; crystals of amniotic acid will be ob- 
tained in considerable quantity. 

Whether this acid exists in the liquor 
of the amnios of other animals, is not yet 
known. 

AMOMUM. (From an Arabian word, sig- 
nifying a pigeon, whose foot it was thought 
to resemble.) The fruit of the amomum 
verum, Tne stone parsley. It is about ihe 
size of a grape, of a strong and grateful 
aromatic taste and penetrating smell. The 
seeds have been given as a carminative. 

AMOMUM CARDAMOMUM The systematic 
name for the cardamomum minus. See 
Cardamomum minus. 

AMOMUM GIIANUM PARADISI. The sys- 
tematic name of the plant which affords the 
grains of paradise. See Grana paradisi. 

AMOMUM ZTNGIBKR. The systematic 
name of the plant which affords ginger. 
See Zingiber. 

AMOHGE. See JLmurca. 
AMPELOSAGRJA. (From at^sxec, a vine.) 
See Bryonia. 

AXPHKMEIUNOS. (From #//, about, 
j//wga, a day.) jtmphetnerina. A quotidian 
fever. A species of ague. 

AMPHIAR THROSIS. (A^/*g0ga>er/? : 
from a.ftqa>, both and otg0go>ovc, an articu- 
lation ; so called from us partaking both 
of diarthrosis and synarthrosis.) A mixed 
species of connexion of bones, which admits 
of an obscure motion, as is observed in the 
metacarpal and metatarsal bones, and the 
vertebrze. 

AMPHIBIOUS. (From a.f*$t, ambo, and 
/3/oc, vita.} Animals are thus called, that 
live both on land and in the water. The 
amphibious animals, according to Linnaeus, 
are a class whose heart is furnished with one 
ventricle and one auricle, in which respira* 
tion is in a considerable degree voluntary. 

AMPHIBLESTROIDES. (From a.pQiK>is-gw t 
a net, and tifos, a resemblance.) The retina, 
or net-like coat of the eye. 
AMPHIBRANCHIA. (From A^i t about, 

and ^yx IA > the J aws ) The tauces or 
parts about the tonsils, according to Hip- 
pocrates and Fassius. 

AMPHICAUSTIS. (From //, about, 
and *i/<rflof,, pudendum muliebre.) A sort of 
wild barley growing 1 aboot ditches. Eusta- 



44 



AMU 



AMY 



chins uses it to express the private parts 
of a woman. 

AMPHIDEOX. (From *//<$', on both sides, 
nndeTct/o), to (livid.-.) Jlmpldbxum. .'Im/i/ii- 
dium. The os tineas, or mouth of the womb, 
which opens both ways, was so culled by 
the ancients. 

AMPHIDIAUTHUOSIS. The same as am- 
phiarthrosis. 

AMPHIMERI^A. (From a./u.q> t , about, and 
//*, a day.) An intermitting fever of the 
qu -lidian kind. 

AMPHI.METAIOIT. (From a^, about, 
and yit'/g*, the womb) dmphimetnum. 
The parts about the womb. Hippocrates. 

AMPHIPLEX (From //<$>/, about, and 
<arxa<7a>, to connect.) According to llut'us 
Ephesius, the part situated between the 
scrotum and anus, and which is connected 
with the thighs. 

AMPUIPXECMA. (From et.tu.Qt, about, 
and wtvp'ji, breath.) A difficulty of breath- 
ing. Dyspnoea. Hippocrates. 

AMPHIPOLOS. (From Aftqt, about, and 
>aro\wa>, to administer.) Amphipolus. One 
who attends the bed of a sick person, and 
administers to him. Hippocrates. 

AM era SMI LA. (From &.u<pi t on both 
sides, and crftth t an incision-knife.) A dis- 
secting knife, with an edge on both sides. 
Galen. 

AMPULLA. (&f*,Gox*& i from ttva*MM, 
to swell out.) A bottle. 

1. AH bellied vessels are so called in cliy- 
mis try, as bolt-heads, receivers, cucurbits, 
&c. 

2. In anatomy this term is applied by 
Scarpa to the dilated portions of the mem- 
branaceous semicircular canals, just within 
the vestibtilum of the ear. 

AMPUI.LESCENS. (From ampulla, a bot- 
tle.) The most tumid part of Pccquet's 
duct is called alveus ampullescens. 

AMPUTATIO. (From amputo, to cut off' 
Ectome. A surgical operation, which con- 
sists in the removal of a limb or viscus ; 
thus we say a leg, a finger, the penis, See. 
when cut off, are amputated ; but when 
speaking of a tumour, or excrescence, it is 
said to be dissected out or removed. 

AMULETUM. (From et/^u*, a bond; be- 
cause it was tied round the person's neck ; 
or rather from <*//twva>, to defend. An amu- 
let, or charm ; by wearing which the per- 
son was supposed to be defended from the 
admission of all evil ; in particular, an an- 
tidote against the plague. 

AMCRCA. (From ctutgyeo, to press out.) 
AmoPge. /A small herb, Mr hose expressed 
juice is used in dying. A ;so the sediment 
of vhe olive, after the oil has been pressed 
from it ; recommended by Hippocrates and 
Galen as an application to M leers. 

AMI-TICA (From -XJUWT?* ui scra-.ch.) Me- 
dicines thm, by vellicating -r scratching as it 
were, the bronchia, stimulate it lo the dis- 
charge of whatever is to be thrown off the 
lungs. 



AMYCHK. (From a.[.w<ra-K>, to scratch.) 
A superficial laceration or ex'sic/T^ion of 
t IK- skir, : a slight wound. ' HippocrMes. 
Scarification. Galen. 

AM vcTir A. (From x/uwcrtree t to vellicate.) 
Medicines which stimulate and veil icate the 
skin, according to Calms Aurelitnus. 

AMYGDALA. (A^wyJrtMsv, Irom ctftucrcrw, 
to ta;'.cinate ; so called, because after the 
gre< :n husk is removed from the fruit, there 
appear upon the shell certain fissures, as it 
were lacerations.) The almond. 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnsean system. Class, Icosandria. Order, 
Monogynia. The almond-tree. 

2. The pharmacopocial name of the com- 
mon almond. Jlmygdaius cornmunis of Lin- 
naeus ifoUis serratis ir.fimis gtendulosis, 
Jhrihiis sessilibus geminis. 

The almond is a native of Barbary. The 
same tree produces either bitter or sweet. 
Sweet almonds are more in use as food than 
med cine ; but they are said to be difficult 
of digestion, unless extremely well com- 
minuted, Their medicinal qualities de- 
pend upon the oil which they contain in 
the farinaceous matter, and which they 
afford on expression, nearly in proportion 
of h;lf their weight. It is very similar 
to olive oil; perhaps rather purer, and is 
used for the same purposes. The oil 
thus obtained is more agreeable to the 
palate than most of the other expressed 
oils, and is therefore preferred for inter- 
nal use, being generally employed with a 
view to obtund acrid juices, and to soften 
and relax the solids,' in tickling coughs, 
hoarseness, costiveness, nephritic pains, 
&,c. externally it is applied against tension 
and rigidity of particular parts, I he 
milky solutions of almonds in watery li- 
quors, usually called emulsions, possess, 
in a certain degree, the emollient qualities 
of the oil, and have this advantage over 
pure oil, that they may be given in acute 
or inflammatory disorders, without danger 
of the ill effects which the oil might some- 
times produce by turning rancid. The 
officinal preparations of almonds, are the 
expressed oil and the emulsion ; to the 
latter, the addition of gum-arabic is some- 
times directed, which renders it a still more 
useful demulcent in catarrhal affections, 
stranguries, &c. 

Bitter almonds yield a large quantity of 
oil, perfectly similar to that obtained from 
sweet almonds ; but the matter remaining 
after the expression of the oil, is more 
powerfully bitter than the almond in its en- 
tire state. Great part of the bitter matter 
dissolves by the assistance of heat, both in 
water and rectified spirit ; and a part arises 
also with both menstrua in distillation. Bit- 
ter almonds have been long known to be 
poisonous to various brute animals; and 
some authors have alleged that they are 
also deleterious to the human species ; but 
the facts recorded upon this point appear to 



AMY 



ANA 



45 



want further proof. However, as the 
noxious quality seems to reside in that mat- 
ter which gives it the bitterness and flavour, 
it is verv pr -liable, that when this is sepa- 
rated hv distillation, and taken in a suffi- 
ciently concentrated state, it may prove a 
poison to man, as is the case with the com- 
man laurel, to which It appears extremely 
analogous Bergius tells us, that bitter al- 
monds, in the form of emulsion, cured ob- 
stinate intermittents, after the bark had 
failed. A simple water is distilled from 
bitter almonds, after the oil is pressed out, 
which posesses 'the same qualities, and in 
the same degree, as that drawn from cher- 
ry-stones. These afforded, formerly, the 
now exploded aqua cerasortim nigrorum, 
or black-cherry-water. 

AMYGDAL*:. The almonds of the ears ; 
from their supposed resemblance to al- 
monds. 

AMYGDALA AMARTK. See Amygdala. 

AMYGDALUS coM^trsrs. The systematic 
name of the plant which affords both sweet 
and bitter almonds. See Jlmygdalu. 

AMYGDALA DULC.ES. See Amygdala. 

AMYCDALUS PEIISICA. The systematic 
name of the common plum-tree. See 
Perpica. 

AMYLA. (From amylwn, starch.) Any 
sort or chymical fxcula, or highly pulve- 
rized residuum. 

AMYLEOJT. Amylion. Starch. 

AMYLUM. (A/UIUMV : from * priv. and 
fMXH, a mill ; because it was formerly made 
from wheat without the assistance of a 
mill.) S'.arch. The foecula of wheat, or 
starch of wheat. The white substance 
which subsides from the water that is mixed 
with wh eaten flour. The starch-makers 
suffer it to remain in the water for a time 
after it has- become aci-.', which makes it 
very white and soft to the touch, and scarce- 
ly sensible to the taste. As starch forms 
the greatest part of flour, it cannot be 
doubted but that it is the principal alimen- 
tary substance contained in our bread. In 
a medical point of view, it is to be con- 
sidered as a demulcent ; and, accordingly, 
it forms the principal ingredient of an offi- 
cinal lozenge in catarrhs, and a mucilage 
prepared from it, often produces excellent 
effects, both taken by the *nouth and in the 
form of a clyster,in dysenteries and diarrhoea, 
from irritation of the intestines. Milk and 
starch, with the addition of suet finely shred 
and incorporated by boiling, was the soup 
employed by Sir John Pringle, in dysente- 
ries, where the mucous membrame'of the 
intestines had been abraded. Externally, 
surgeons apply it as an absorbent in erysi- 
pelas. 

AMYRIS ELEMIFERA. (From *, inten- 
sive, and /ut/gov, ointment, or balm ; so cal- 
led from its use, or smell. The systema- 
tic name of the plant from which it is 
supposed we obtain the resin called gum- 
elemi. See Elemi. 



AMYRIS OPO BALSA MUM. The systematic 
name of the plant from which the balsam 
of Mecca is obtained. See Halsamum Gi- 
leadense. 

AMYUM. (From a, priv. and juva, mus- 
cle.) A limb so emaciated that the mus- 
cles scarcely appear. 

ANA. a, or aa. In medical prescrip- 
tions it means " of each." See A. 

ANABASIS. (From a.v>j.&tvce, to ascend.) 
An ascension, augmentation, or increase of 
a disease, or paroxysm. It is usually meant 
of fevers. Galen. It also signifies equise- 
tum. 

ANABATICA. (From avatfiw, to ascend.) 
An epithet formerly applied to the syno- 
chus, or continual fever, when it increases 
in malignity. 

ANABEXIS. (From a.va7flco to cough 
up.) An expectoration of matter by 
coughing. 

ANABLEPSIS. (From av* and Q^erna, to 
see again. The recovery of sight after it 
has been lost. 

ANABLYSIS. (From OLVO. and \vfa t to gusli 
out again ) Ebullition or effervescence. 

ASTABOLE, (From &vxx.\xa>, to cast up.) 
The discharge of any thing by vomit; also 
dilatation, or extension. Galen. 

ANABROCHESIS. (From O.VA and /3o^e, 
to r^sorb.) The reabsorption of matter. 

ANABROCHISMOS. (From ctvao%eo, to 
reabsorb.) Jlnabrochismus. The taking 
tip and removing the hair on the eye-lids, 
when they become troublesome. Galen. 
JEgineta, and others. 

AXABKOSIS. (From ctvatfyoo-eo, to devour.) 
A corrosion of the solid parts, by sharp 
and biting humours. Galen. 

AXACARmuM OCCIDENTALS. (From AVA, 

without, and KA^ICI, a heart ; without heart 
because the puip of the fruit, instead of 
having the seed enclosed, as is usually the 
case, has the nut growing out of the end of 
it.) The cashew-nut. The oil of this nut is 
an active caustic, and employed as such in 
its native country ; but neither it, nor any 
part of the fruit, is used medicinally in this 
country. 

ANACARIHITM ORIENTALS. Anacardium 
or Malacca bean. The fruit, or nut, so called 
in the pharmacopoeias, is of a shining black 
colour, heart-shaped, compressed, and about 
the size of the thumb-nail. It is the pro- 
duce of the Jlvicennia tomentosa ; foliis cor- 
dato-ovatis, subtus tomentosis, of I^innxus. 
It is now deservedly forgot in this country. 

ANACATHARSIS. (From vst, and K&Q&i- 
go fjt.au, to purge up.) An expectoration of 
pus. It properly denotes a purgation by 
spitting, in which sense it stands contra- 
distinguished from catharsis, or evacuation 
downwards. In this sense the word is used 
by Hippocrates and Galen. Blancard de- 
notes, by this word, medicines which ope- 
rate upwards, as vomiting. &c. 

ANACATHARTICA (From &vttsut6aitOfAau, 
to purge upwards.) T/wracia. Medicines 



46 



ANA 



ANA 



which promote expectoration, or vomits 
which act upwards. 
ANACHHON. Mineral alkali. 
AAACLASIS (From AVUKKSUC, to bend 
back ) A reHexion or recurvature of any 
of tiie members, according to H.ppocrates. 
A VACLISIS. (From AVAKMVCO, to recline.) 
A couch, or sick-bed. Hippocrates. 

ANACOBUASMUS. (From ctvet, and X.O/A/A, 
the bowels.) A gentle purge, which was 
someiimes used to relieve ihe lungs. 

ANACOCHE. (From Avatx.o%tu>, to retard.) 
Delay in the administration of medicines; 
also slowness in the progress of a disease. 
Hippocrates. 

ANACOLLEMA. (From <tv* t and KOKMLIO, 
to glue together.) A collyrium made of 
agglutinant substances, and stuck on the 
forehead Galen.. 

ANAcoNCHYiibMos. (From etvatxc^^o^u, 
to sound as a shell.) A gargar.sm .so cal- 
led, because the noise made in the throat is 
like the sound of a shell. Galen. 

ANECTESIS. (From avaufltfa, to renew.) 
Restoration of strength; recovery from 
sickness. Hippocrates 

ANACUPHISMA. (From avtutttqifa, to lift 
up ) A kind of exercise mentioned by 
Hippocrates, which consists in lifting the 
body up and down, like our weigh-jolt. 

ANACYCESTS. (From oLVMtunaue, to mix.) 
The commixture of substances, or medi 
cines, by pouring one upon another. 

AXACTCLEON, (From ewutwacaj, to wan- 
der about.) JLnacycleus. A mountebank 
or wandering quack. 

ANACYRJOSIS. (From etv*, and xagia,, au- 
thority ) By this word, Hippocrates means 
tha 1 gr ;vr y nd authority which physicians 
should preserve among sick people and 
their attendants. 

ANADIPLOSIS. (From wavrK<x t to re- 
duplicate.) \ reduplication or frequent re- 
turn of a paroxysm, or disease. Galen. 
ANADOSIS. (From ctvce, upwards, and 



ANAGAILIS ARVENSIS. The systematic 
name for the anagallis of the shops. See 
AnagaUis. 

ANAGARGALICTUM. (From avt, and >*. 
>*83v, the tliroat.) A gargarism, or 
wash for the throat. 

ANAGARGARISTUM. The same. 

ANAGLYPHE. (From a.v*.yKv$u> t to en- 
grave,) A part of the fourth ventricle of 
the brain was formerly thus called, from its 
resemblance to a pen. or style. 

ANAGNOSIS. (From etvu'yivctxrx.to, to know.) 
The persuasion, or certainty, by which me- 
dical men judge of a disease from its 
symptoms. Hippocrates. 

ANAGRAPHE. (From avt^gt^, to 
write.) A prescription, or receip.. 

ANALEPSIA. (From ova, and het/u.aiva> } to 
take fagain.) A species of epilepsy, winch 
proceeds from a disorder of the stomach, 
and with which the patient is apt to be sei- 
zed very often and suddenly. 

ANALENTIA A fictitious term used by 
Paracelsus for epilepsy. 

ANALEPSIS. (From etva-^ct^Am, to re- 
store ) A recovery of strength after sick- 
ness. Galen. 

ANA.LEPTICA. (From atroxapfitva, to 
recruit, or recover.) Analeptics. Resiora- 
tive med cines ; medicines, or food, which 
recover the {strength which has been lost 
by sickness. 

ANA.LOSIS. (From AVAKIO-KU, to consume.) 
A consumption, or wasting. 

ANALYSIS. (AV&KVO-IS . from avoiKvu, to 
resolve.) The resolution by chymistry, of 
any matter into its primary and constituent 
parts. The processes and experiments 
which chymists have recourse to, are 
extremely numerous and diversified, yet 
they may be reduced to two species, which 
comprehend the whole art of chymistry. 
The first is, analysis, or decomposition ; the 
second, synthesis, or composition. In ana- 
lysis, the parts of which bodies are com- 



<f *f cep.au, to give- A vomit, or the dislribu- posed, are separated from each other : thus, 

if we reduce cinnabar, which is composed 
of sulphur and mercury, and exhibit these 
two bodies in a separate state, we say we 
have decomposed, or analyzed cinnabar. 
But, if, on the contrary, several bodies be 
mixed together, and a new substance be 
produced, the process is then termed chy- 
mical composition, or synthesis: thus, if by 
fusion and sublimation, we combine mer- 
cury with sulphur, and produce cinnabar, 
the operation is termed chymical compo- 
sition, or composition by synthesis. 

ANAMNESIS, (From avat^/^^a-xa to re- 
member.) Remembrance, or recollection 
of what has been done. Galen. 

ANATWNESTICA. (From the same.) Re- 
medies for bad memory. 

ANANAS. Called by the Brazilians 
yayama. The egg-shaded pine-apple. The 
plant which affords this fruit, is the JBro- 
melia ananas Joliis dhato-spinosis % mucro- 
natis, spica comosa of Linnaeus. It is used 



tion of alimen* all over the body; or diges- 
tion. 

ANADROME. (From <w, upwards, and 
cTge^ta), to run.) A pain which runs from 
the lower extremities to the upper parts of 
the body. Hippocrates. 

ANODES. (From A, priv. and a/cTa?, 
shame.) Shameless. Hippocrates uses 
this word metaphorically for without re- 
straint, copious ; and applies it to water 
rushing into the aspera arteria. 

ANAESTHESIA. (Av*w60v* : from at, 
priv. and otr0aivo,u, to feel ) Loss of the 
sense of touch. A genus of disease in the 
class locales, and order dysaesthesix of Cullen. 

ANAGALLIS. (From otvAytteue, to 
laugh ; because, by curing the spleen, it 
disposes persons to be cheerful.) This 
plant Anagallis arvensis : Joliis indivisis t 
caule procwnbente, of Linnaeus, is small and 
delicateh fo. med, and does not appear to 
possess any particular properties. 



ANA 



ANA 



4f 



principally as a delicacy for the table, and 
is also given with advantage as a refrige- 
rant in fevers. 

ANANCE. (From atvt^;ta>, to compel.) 
Necessity. It is applied to any desperate 
operation. Hippocrates. 

AsAPHALANTtASIS (From cwctq at*VTO?, 

bald.) A thinness of the hair upon the 
eye-brows. Gorrceus. 

ANAPHORA. (From *vat<|>ega, to bring 

up.) A person who spits blood. Gorrceus. 

ANAPHORKXIS. (From a.vx.tyQQua-o-cD, to 

grind down.) The reducing ot any thing 

to dust, or a very fine powder. 

ANAPHRODISIA. (From *, priv. and 
Aqofi<ritx, t the feast of Venus.) Impotence. 
A genus of disease in the class locales^ and 
order dysorexia of Cullen. It either 
arises from paralysis, anaphrodisia para- 
litica ; or from gonorrhoea, anaphrodisia 
gonorrhoica. 

AXAPHBOMELI. (From a, neg. a^go?, 
froth, and jutxi, honey.) Clarified honey. 

ANAFLASIS. (From a,va.7rK<*.<r(ra>, to restore 
again.) A restoration of flesh where it has 
been lost ; also the reuniting a fractured 
bone. Hippocrates. 

ANAPLEROSIS. (From AvttyrM^ou, to fill 
again.) The restitution, or filling up of 
wasted parts. Galen. 

ANAPLEROTICA. (From the same.) Me- 
dicines renewing flesh : incarnatives, or 
such medicines as fill up a wound so as to 
restore it to its original s>hape- Galen. 

ANAPLEUSIS. (From eM&wKtvco, to float 
upon.) The rotting of a bone, so that it 
drops off, and lies upon the flesh ; exfolia- 
tion, or separation of a bone, ffippocrates, 
JEgineta, &c. 

ANAPNEUSIS. (From etva.7rvsvu>, to respire.) 
Respiration. 

ANAPSTOE. The same. 
ANAPTOSIS. (From stv*7rwr7&, to fall 
back.) A relapse. 

ASAPTYSIS. The same as Anacatharsis. 
ANAURHEGNIMIA. (From atv*, and pnyvv/M, 
to break again.) Jlnarrhexis. A fracture ; 
the fresh opening ot a wdfond. 

ANARRHUSA. (From ay*, upwards, and 
fia, to flow.) A flux of humours from be- 
low upwards. Schneider de Catarrho. 

ANARRHOPIA. (From *va>, upwards, and 
ptTroa, to creep.) The same. Hippocrates. 

ANAS DOMESTICA. (From ya>, to 
swim.) The tame duck. The flesh of 
this bird is difficult of digestion, and re- 
quires that warm and stimulating condi- 
ments be taken with it to enable the sto- 
mach to digest it. 

ANASARCA. (From *va, through, and 
raft, flesh.) A species of dropsy from a 
serous humour, spread between the skin 
and flesh, or rather a general accumulation 
of lymph in thecellular system. Dr. Cullen 
ranks this genus of disease, in the class 
Cachexies^ and the order Intumescentia. He 
enumerates the following species, viz. 1. 



Anasarca serosa, as when the due discharge 
of serum is suppressed, &c. 2. Anasarca 
oppilata, as when the blood-vessels are con- 
siderably pressed, which happens to many 
pregnant women, &c. 3. Jinasarcha exan- 
thematica, this happens after ulcers, various 
eruptive disorders, and particularly after 
the erysipelas. 4. Anasarca anaemia^ hap- 
pens when the blood is rendered extremely 
poor from considerable losses of it. 5. Ana- 
sarca debilium, as when feebleness is indu- 
ced by long illness, &c. 

This species of dropsy shews itself at first 
with a swelling of the feet and ankles, to- 
ward the evening, which, for a time, disap- 
pears again in the morning. The tumefac- 
tion is soft and inelastic, and, when pressed 
upon by the finger, retains its mark for 
some time, the skin becoming much paler 
than usual. By degrees the swelling as- 
cends upwards, and occupies the trunk of 
the body ; and at last, even the face and 
eyelids appear full and bloated ; the 
breathing then becomes difficult, the urine 
is small in quantity, high coloured, and 
deposits a reddish sediment ; the belly is 
costive, the perspiration much obstructed, 
the countenance yellow, and a considera- 
ble degree of thirst, with emaciation 
of the whole body, prevails. To these 
symptoms succeed torpor, heaviness, a 
troublesome cough, and a slow fever. In 
some cases, the water oozes out, through 
the pores of the cuticle ; in others, being 
too gross to pass by these, it raises the cu- 
ticle in small blisters ; and sometimes the 
skin, not allowing the water to escape 
through it, is compressed and hardened, 
and is, at the same time, so much distend- 
ed as to give the tumour a considerable de- 
gree of firmness. 

ANASPASIS. (From ay*, and a-Airce, to 
draw together.) Hippocrates uses this word 
to signify a contraction of the stomach. 

ANASSYTOS. (From avo>, upwards, and 
<rtuo{j.sti, to agitate.) Jlnassytus. Driven 
forcibly upwards. Hippocrates applies this 
epithet to air rushing violently upwards, 
as in hysteric fits. 

AXASTALTICA (From AVA&XXU, to con- 
tract.) Styptic or refrigerating medicines. 
AN ASTASIS. (From ayats-i^/, to cause to 
rise.) A recovery from sickness ; a resto- 
ration of health. It likewise signifies a 
migration of humours, when expelled from 
one place and obliged to remove to ano- 
ther. Hippocrates. 

ANASTOMOSIS. (From v*, through, 
and ro^*, a mouth.) The communication 
of vessels with one another. 

ANASTOMOTICA. (From *yt, through, 
and s*o,w*, the mouth.) Medicines which 
open the pores and mouths of the vessels, 
as cathartics, diuretics, deobstruments, and 
sudorifics. 

ANATES. (From nates, the buttocks.) 
A disease of the anus. Festus, Stc. 



48 



ANC 



ANC 



ANATOMY. (AvArofjiiA, or AVATO/UUI : 
from AVA, and -r^v, to cut up.) Aneroto- 
my. The dissection of the human body, 
to expose the structure, situation, and uses 
of every part. 

ANATOMY, COMPARATIVE. Zootomy. The 
dissection of brutes, fishes, polypi, plants. 
&c. to illustrate, or compare them with 
the structure and functions of the human 
body. 

ANA.TRESIS. (From AVX, and <ri\e*a> t to 
perforate.) A perforation like that which 
is made upon the skull by trepanning. 
Galen. 

ANATRIBE. (From AVA!^CC, to rub.) 
Friction all over the body. 

ANATRIPSIS. The same. Moschion de 
Morb. Mulieb. and Galen. 

ANATRIS. Jlntaris. Mercury. Ruland. 

ANATRON. (Arab. A lake in Egypt, 
where it was produced.) Soda, or fixed 
mineral alkali. 

ANATROPE. (From AVAT^Tr/^ee, to subvert. 
Anatrophe. Anatropha. A relaxation, or 
subversion of the stomach, with loss of ap- 
petite and nausea. Vomiting-. Indiges- 
tion. Galen. 

ANATIIUM. Soda. 

ANAUMA. (From a, priv. and AuJ'x., the 
speech.) Dumbness ; privation of voice ; 
catalepsia. Hippocrates 

ANAXYRTS. (From AVA^V^S, the sole.) 
The herb sorrel ; so called because its leaf 
is shaped like the sole of the shoe. 

ANCHA. (Arab, to press upon, as being 
the support of the body ) The thigh. Ari- 
ceana, Forestius, &c. 

ANCHILOPS. (From A-y^i, near, and a^, 
the eye.) A disease in the inward corner 
of the eye, called also ^Egilops. An inci- 
pient fistula lachrymahs. 

ANCHTLE. See Ancyle. 

AS/CHORALIS PROCESSUS. (AnchoraUs ; 
from Ayx.a>v, the elbow.) See C or acaid pro- 
cess. 

ANCHOVY PEAR. This fruit, the pro- 
duce of the Grias cauUflora of Linnxus, is 
eaten by the inhabitants of Jamaica, as a 
pleasant and refrigerant fruit. 

ANCHUSA. (From et^e/v, to strangle ; 
from its supposed constringent quality ; or, 
as others say, because it strangles serpents.) 
Alkanet. 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnsean system, Class, Pentandria. Or- 
der, Monogynia. 

2. The name in some pharmacopoeias for 
the alkanet root. The plant from which it 
is obtained, is the anchusa tinctoria of Lin- 
naeus, which grows wild in France, but is 
cultivated in our gardens. The root is ex- 
ternally of a deep purple colour. To oil, 
wax, turpentine, and alcohol, it imparts a 
beautiful deep red colour, for which pur- 
pose it is used. Its medicinal properties 
are scarcely perceptible. 

ANCHUSA omciHAiis. The systematic 



name for the buglossum of the shops. See 



ANCHUSA TINCTORIA. The systematic 
name for the anihusu or alkanna of the 
pharmacopoeias. See Anchusa. 

ANCHYLOMERISMA. (From Ay^yKo^At, to 
bend.) Sagar uses 'this term to express a 
concretion, or growing together of the soft 
parts. 

ANCHYLOSIS. (From at^i/Ac^/.tobend.) 
A stiff joint. 

ANCI. Those who have a distorted el- 
bow. 

ANCIROMELE. See Ancyromele. 

ANCINAR. Borax. 

ANC ON. (From Ayx,A^of^Ai, to embrace ; 
ATTO Tb AyatiffdAf &Tif>co Gsrtca TO o^iov '. because 
the bones meeting, and there uniting, are 
folded one into another.) The elbow. 

ANCONEUS. (.Anconeus, sc. musculus ; 
from Aywv, the elbow.) Anconeus minor of 
Winslow. Anconeus vel cubitalis Riolani 
of Douglas. A small triangular muscle, 
situated on the back part of the elbow. It 
arises from the ridge and from the external 
condyle of the humerus, by a thick, strong, 
and short tendon : from this it becomes 
fleshy, and, after running about three inches 
obliquely backwards, it is inserted by its 
oblique fleshy fibres into the back part or 
ridge of the ulna. Its use is to extend the 
fore-arm. 

ANCONEUS EXTERNUS. See Triceps ex- 
tensor cubiti. 

ANCONEUS INTERNUS. See Triceps ex- 
tensor cubiti* 

ANCONEUS MAJOR. See Triceps exten- 
sor cubiti. 

ANCONEUS >IINOR. See Anconeus. 

ANCONOID PROCESS. Processes anconoi- 
deus. (From Ayxeev, the eibow.) A process 
of the cubit. See Ulna. 

ANCTER. (A^x.7g, a bond, or button.) 
A fibula, or button, by which the lips of 
wounds are held together. Gorreeus. 

ANCTERIASMUS. (From AytCl^^ a button.) 
The operation enclosing the lips of wounds 
together by loops, or buttons. Galen. 

ANCUBITUS. A disease of the eyes 
with a sensation of sand. Joh. Anglic. Ros. 
Ang. 

ANCYJLE (From A^VKO^ crooked.) A 
species of contraction, called a stiff joint. 
Galen. 

ANCYLOBLEPHARON. (From Aywy, 
a hook, apd (Sxs^gov, an eye-lid.) A dis- 
ease of the eye, by which the eye-lids are 
closed together. JEtiue. 

ANCYLOGLOSSUM. (From A^MM, a 
hook, and yb.axro-A, the tongue.) Anci/lion 
of jEgineta. A contraction of the frsenu- 
lum of the tongue. Tongue-tied. 

ANCYLOMELE. (From Ayx.v\o$ t crooked, 
and PHM, a probe.) A crooked probe, or 
a probe with a hook. Galen, &c. 

ANCYLOSIS. See Anchylosis. 

ANCYLOTOMUS. (From AyxvMi, a hook, 



ANE 



ANE 



and Tkpva, to cut.) A crooked chirurgical 
knife, or bistoury. A knife for loosening 
the tongue. This instrument is no longer 
in use. JEgineta, &c. 

ANCYHA (Ayx-u^*,, an anchor ) A chi- 
rurgical hook. Epich;.rmus uses this word 
for the membrum virile, according to Gor- 
raeus. 

ANCYROIDES. (From jt-yni/^ an anchor, 
and g/^o?, a likeness.) A process of the 
scapula was so culled, from its likeness to 
the beak of an anchor. It is the coracoid 
process. See Scapula. 

ANCYROMELE. See Jlncylomele. 

ANDRIA. A tree of Brazil, the fruit of 
which is bitter and astringent, and used as 
a vermifuge. 

ANDRANATOMIA. vlndranatome . (From 
sw/g, a man, and Tt/Ava, to cut.) The dis- 
section of the human body, particularly of 
the male M. Jiur. Severinus, Zootome De- 
mocrit. 

a slave, and nct7rMs, a dealer.) A crimp. 
Galen calls by this name the person whose 
office it was to anoint and siighty to 
wipe the body, to cleanse the skin from 
foulness. 

ANDRIA. (From vg, a man.) An her- 
maphrodite. Sonnet. 

ANDROCCETESIS (From ivg, a man, 
and xo/?M,~to cohabit with.) The venereal 
act ; or the infamous act of sodomy. Mos- 
chion, &c. 

ANDROGENUS. (From avg, a man, and 
yuvn, a woman.) An effeminate person. 
Hipp. An hermaphrodite. 

ANDRONION. Jindronium. A kind of 
plaster used by ^Egineta for carbuncles, in- 
vented by Andron. 

ANDROTOMIA. Androtome. Human dis- 
section, particularly of the male. 

ANEBIUM. (From aLVctauva>, to ascend.) 
The herb alkanet, so called from its quick 
growth. 

ANEILESIS. (From tvAa, to roll up.) 
Aneilema. An involution of the guts, such 
as is caused by flatulence and gripes. Hip- 
pocrates. 

ANEMIA. (From ctvepos, wind.) Flatu- 
lence. 

ANEMONE. (From ttvi/xoe, wind ; so 
named because it does not open its flowers 
till blown upon by the wind.) The wind 
flower. The name of a genus of plants in 
the Linnaean system. Class, Polyandria. 
Order, Polyginia. 

ANEMONE HEPATICA. The systematic 
name for the hepatica nobilis of the phar- 
macopoeias. See Hepatica nobilis. 

dnemone, meadow. See Pulsatilla nigri~ 
cans. 

ANEMONE NEMOROSA. The systematic 
name of the ranunculus albus of the phar- 
macopoeias. See Ranunculus albus. 

ANEMONE PRATENSIS. The systematic 



name for the puhatilla nigricans of the 
pharmacopoeias. See Pulsatilla nigricans. 

AXENCEPHAI.US. (From d, priv and 
s^xscfcaAoc, the brain ) A monster without 
brains. Foolish. Galen de Hipp. 

ANEOS, A loss of voice and reason. 

ANEPITHYMIA. (From a, priv. and 
iTri&vfJiitt, dexire.) Loss of appetite. 

ANERIC. Jlnerit. Sulphur vivum. 

ANESIS. (From avupt, to relax.) A re- 
mission, or relaxation, of a disease, or 
symptom. *Etius, &c. 

ANESTTM. See Anisum. 

ANETHUM. (Av9ov : from *nu, afar, 
and &a, to run ; so called because its roots 
run out a great way.) Fennel, dill, anet. 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnsean system. Class, Pentandria. Or- 
der Dygynia. 

2. The pharmacopoeial name of the com- 
mon dill, or anet. 

Jlnethum gratoeolens of Linnaeus -fructi- 
hus compressis. This plant is a native of 
Spain, but x cultivated in several parts of 
England. The seeds of dill are directed 
for use by the London and Edinburgh 
Pharmacopoeias : they have a moderately 
Warm, pungent taste, and an aromatic, but 
sickly smell. There is an essential oil, and 
a distilled water, prepared from them, 
which are given in flatulent colics and 
dyspepsia. They are also said to promote 
the secretion of milk. 

ANETUUM FCENICULUM. The systematic 
name for \\\t faniculum of the shops See 
Fcenicidum. 

ANETHUM GRAVEOIENS. The systematic 
name for the Anetlmm of the shops. See 
Anethum. 

ANETICA. (From av//w/, to relax.) Pa- 
regorics ; medicines which assuage pain, 
according 1 *o Andr. Tiraquell. 

ANEURISMA. (Avtvgjcrftsi, from ctveugu- 
v*, to dilate ) An aneurism. A preterna- 
tural tumour formed by the dilatation of an 
anery. A genus of disease ranked by Cullen 
in the class focafes,and order tumores. There 
are three species of aneurism : 1. The true 
aneurism, aneurisma verwn t which is known 
by the presence of a pulsating tumour. The 
artery either seems only enlarged at a small 
part of its tract, and the tumour has a de- 
terminate border, or it seems dilated for a 
considerable length, in which circumstance 
the swelling is oblong, and looses itself so 
gradually in the surrounding parts, that its 
margin cannot be exactly ascertained. The 
first, which is the most common, is termed 
circumscribed true aneurism ; the last, the 
diffused true aneurism The symptoms of 
the circumscribed true aneurism, take place 
as follows '. the first thing the patient p'er- 
ceives, is an extraordinary throbbing- in 
some particular situation, and, on paying a 
little more attention, he discovers there a 
small pulsating tumour, which entirely dis- 
H 



ANE 



ANG 



appears when compressed, but returns again 
as soon as the pressure is removed. It js 
commonly unattended with pain or change 
in the colour of the skin. When once the tu- 
mour has originated, it continually grows 
larger, and at length attains a very consi- 
derable size. In proportion as it becomes 
larger, its pulsauon bt-cumes weaker, and, 
indeed, it is almost quite lost, when the dis- 
ease has acquired much magnitude. Tne 
diminution of the pulsation has b^ en ascri- 
bed to the coats of 'he artery loosing their 
dilatable and elastic quality, in proportion 
as they are distended a \d indurated ; and, 
consequently, t!te aneunsmal sac being no 
longer capable of an alternate diastole and 
systole from the action of the heart. The 
fact is also impu ed t? the coagulated 
blood, deposited on th* inner surface of the 
sac, particularly in large aneurisms, in 
which some of the blood is always inter- 
rupted in its motion. In true aneurisms, 
however, the blood does not coa;julate so 
soon, nor so often as in false ones. Imme- 
diately such coagulated blood lodges in the 
sac. pressure can only produce -t partial 
disapoearance of the swelling. In propor- 
tion as the aneurismal sac grows larger, the 
communication into the anery beyond the 
tumour is lessened. Hence, in this state, 
th" p.-.lse below the swelling becomes weak 
and small, and the limb frequently cold and 
eedemaious. On dissection, the lower con- 
tinuation of the artery is found preteniuui- 
raliy small, and contracted. The pressure 
of the tumour on the adjacent parts, also 
produces a variety of symptoms, ulcerations, 
caries, &c S >:netimes an accidental contu- 
sion, or concussion, may detach a piece of 
coagulum from the inner surface of the cyst, 
and the circulation 'hrough ihe sac be ob- 
structed by it. The coagulum may possibly 
be imp -lied quite into th? artery below, so 
as to induce imnortant changes. The dan- 
ger of an aneurism arrives when it s on the 
point of bursting, by which occurrence the 
patiei.t usually bleeds to death ; and this 
is sometimes in a few seconds. The fatal 
event may generally be foreseen, as the part 
about to give way, becomes particularly 
tense, elevated, thin, soft, and of a dark 
purple colour. 2 The false or spurious 
aneurism, ancurisma spurium, is always 
owing to an aperture in the artery, from 
which the blood gushes into the cellular 
substance. It may arise from on artery 
being lacerated in violent exertions ; but 
the most common occasional cause is a 
wound. This is particularly apt to occur 
at the bend of the arm, where the artery is 
exposed to be injured in attempting to 
bleed. When this happens, as soon as the 
puncture has been made, the blood gushes 
out with iiiiusu.il force, and in a bright 
scarlet, irregular, interrupted current. It 
flows out, however, in an even and less ra- 



pid stream when pressure is applied higher 
up than the wound. These last are the 
most decis ve marks of the artery being 
opened ; for blood often flows from a vein 
with great rapidity, and in a broken cur- 
rent, when the vessel is very turgid and si- 
tuated immediately over the artery, which 
imparts its motion to it The surgeon en- 
deavours precipitately to stop the haemor- 
rhage by pressure ; and commonly occa- 
sions a diffused false aneurism The ex- 
ternal wound in the skin is closed, so rhat 
the blood cannoi escape from it but insi- 
nuates itself into the ceiluLr substance. 
The swelling thus produced is uneven, oft- 
en knotty, and extends upwards and down- 
wards, along the. tract of the vessel. The 
skin is also usually of a dark purple colour, 
hs size increases as long as the int. rnal 
haemorrhage continues, and, if this should 
proceed above a certain pitch, mortifica- 
tion of the limb ensues. 3. The -varicose 
aneurism, aneurisma varicostim ; this was 
first described by Dr W. Hunter. It hap- 
pens when the brachial artery is pnnc.inred 
in opening a vein: the blood then rushes 
into the vein, wh ch becomes v.ricose. 
Aneurisms mxy happen in any part of ihe 
body, except the latter species, which can 
only take place where a vein runs over an 
artery. 

AXEURISMA spvaruM. See Jlneiirisma. 

AxEunisMA VARICOSUM. S^e Jlneiirisma. 

ANEURISMA vEritm. See Aneurisma. 

ALEXIS. (Fro.n w^jx, to pivject.) "A 
swelling, or protuberur.ee. 

ANGEILOLOGIA. (From ayytiov, a ves- 
sel, and M^CC, a discourse.) A dissertation, 
or reasoning, upon tiie vessels of the body. 

ANGEIO TO MY. (From etj^ewv, a ves- 
sel, and Tg/wvo) to cut.) The dissection of 
the blood-vessels of an animal body ; also 
the opening of a vein, or an artery. 

ANOEIOTISMUS. (From ayywv, a vessel, 
and Ttpvca, to cut.) A skilful dissector of 
the v< ssrLs. 

ANGELICA. (So called from its sup- 
posed angeiic virtues ) Angelica. 1. The 
mm.> of a genus of plants in the Linnaean 
system. Class, Pentandria. Order, Digy- 
nia 

2. The pharmacopoeia! name of the gar- 
den-angelica. 

Jlngelica archangelica of Linnaeus : foli- 
orum impart lobato. A plant, a native of 
Lapland, but cultivated in our gardens. 
The roots of angelica have a fragrant. 
agreeable smell, and a bitterish, pungent 
taste. The stalk, leaves, and seeds, which 
are also directed in the pharmacopoeias, 
possess the same qualities, though in an in- 
ferior degree. Their virtues are aromatic 
and carminative. A sweetmeat js made, 
bv the confectioners, of this root, wlvch is 
extremely agreeable to the stomach, and is 
surpassed only by that of ginger. 



ANG 



ANG 



51 



ANGELICA AttCHANGELICA. The SyslC- 

matic name for lie angelica of the shops. 
See Angelica. 

Angelica, Garden. See Angelica. 

ANGELICA SATIVA. See Angelica sylves- 
tris. 

ANGELICA SYLVESTRIS. JingeUca sativa. 
Wild angelica. JingeUca sylveslris of Lin- 
naeus :-foliis tequalibus ovato lanceolatis ser- 
ratis. This spcci'.s of angel ,ca possesses 
similar properties to the garden species, but 
in a much inferior degree Ii is onty used 
when the latter cannot be obtained. The 
seeds> powdered and put into the hair, kill 
lice. 

Angelica, tvild. See Angelica sylvestris. 

ANGELINA CORTEX. The t>tre from 
which this bark is procured it a naiive of 
Grenada. It has been recommended as an 
anthelmintic for children. 

ANGEIOCACOS. Myrobalans, or purging 1 
Indian plums. 

ANGI (From angor, anguish ; because 
of their pain.) Bubors in the groin. Fal- 
lopins de Morbo Galfico. 

ANGIGLOSSUS. (From a,yx.v\n, a hook, 
and yxcecra-y., the tongue.) A person who 
stammers. 

ANGINA. (From *>, to strangle; 
because it is often attended with a sense of 
Strangulation.) A soar throat. See Cynanche. 

ANGINA MALIGN A See Cynanche maligna. 

AVGINA FAROTIDEA. See Cynanche pa- 
rotidea. 

ANGINA PfcCTORIS. An acute con- 
strictory pain at the lower end of the ster- 
num, inclining rather to the left side, and 
extending up into the left arm, accompa- 
nied with great anxiety. Violent palpita- 
tions of the heart, laborious breathings, 
and a sense of suffocation, are the charac- 
teristic symptoms of this disease. It is 
found to attack men much more frequent- 
ly than women, particularly those who 
have short necks, who are inclinable to 
corpulency, and who, at the same time, 
lead an inactive and sedentary life. Al- 
though it is sometimes met with in 
persons under the age of twenty, still 
it more frequently occurs in those who 
are between forty and fifty. In slight 
cases, and in the first stage of the disorder, 
the fit comes on by going up -hill, up-stairs, 
or by walking at a quick pace after a hearty 
meal ; but as the disease advances, or be- 
comes more violent, the paroxysms are apt 
to be excited by certain passions of the 
mind ; by slow walking, by riding on 
horseback, or in a carriage, or by sneezing, 
coughing, speaking', or straining at stool. 
It some cases, they attack the patient from 
two to four in the morning, or whilst sitting 
or standing, without any previous exertion 
or obvious cause. On a sudden, he is 
seized with an acute pain in the breast, 
or rather at the extremity of the sternum, 
inclining to the left side, and extending up 



into the arm, as far as the insertion of 
the deltoid muscle, accompanied by a sense 
of suffocation, great anx;ety, and an idea 
that its continuance, or increase, would 
certainly be fatal. In the first stage of the 
disease, the uneasy sensation &t the end of 
the sternum, with the other unpleasant 
symptoms, which seemed to threaten a sus- 
pension of life by a perseverance in exer- 
tion, usually go off upon the person's 
standing still, or turning from the wind ; 
but, in a more advanced stage, they do not 
so readily recede, and the paroxysms are 
much more violent. During the fit, the 
pulse sinks in a greater degree, and be- 
comes irregular ; the face and extremities 
are pale, and bathed in a cold sweat, and, 
for a while, the patient is perhaps deprived 
of the powers of sense and voluntary mo- 
tion. The disease having recurred more or 
less frequently during the space of some 
years, a violent attack at last puts a sudden 
period to hi* existence. Angii.a pecto- 
ri.s is attended with a considerable degree 
of danger; and it usually happens that 
the person is carried off suddenly. It 
mostly depends upon an ossification of 
the coronary arteries, and then we can 
never expect to effect a radical cure. 
During the paroxysms, considerable re- 
lief is to be obtained from fomentations, 
and administering powerful antispasmo- 
dics, such as opium and aether combined 
together. The application of a blister to 
the breast is likewise attended sometimes 
with a good effect. As the p; ,iful sensa- 
tion at the extremity of the sternum often 
admits of a temporary relief, from an evacu- 
ation of wind by the mouth, it may be 
proper to give frequent doses of carmina- 
tives, such as peppermint, carraway, or 
cinnamon water. Where these fail in 
the desired effect, a few drops of ol. anisi, 
on a little sugar, may be substituted. 

With the view of preventing the recur- 
rences of the disorder, tlte patient should 
carefully guard against passion, or other 
emotions of the mind : he should use a 
light, generous diet, avoiding every thing of 
a heating nature ; and he should take care 
never to overload the stomach, or to use 
any kind of exercise immediately after 
eating. Besides these precautions, he 
should endeavour to counteract obesity, 
which has been considered as a predisposing 
cause ; and this is to be effected most safe- 
ly by a vegetable diet, moderate exercise 
at proper times, early rising, and keeping 
the body perfectly open. It has been ob- 
served that angina pectoris is a disease al- 
ways attended with considerable danger, 
and, in most instances, has proved fatal 
under every mdde of treatment. We are 
given, h-'wever, to understand, by Dr. 
Macbride, that of late, several cases of it 
have been treated with great success, and 
the disease readily removed, by inserting 



ANl 



ANI 



a large issue in each thigh. These, there- 
fore," should never be neglected. In one 
case, with a view of correcting, or draining 
off the irritating 1 fluid, he ordered, instead 
of issues, a mixture of lime-water with a 
little of the spirims junipen comp. and an 
alterative proportion of Huxham's antimo- 
nial wine, together with a plain, light, per- 
spirable diet. From this course the pa- 
tient was soon apparently mended ; but it 
was not until after the insertion of a large 
issue in each thigh, that he was restored to 
perfect health. 

AVGINA TONSILLARIS. See Cynanche 
tonsillaris. 

ANGINA TRACHEALIS. See Cynanche 
trachealis. 

ANGIOLOGIA. (From ctyyaov, a ves- 
sel, and \cyos, a discourse.) The doctrine 
df the vessels of the human body. 

ANGLICUS SUDOH. (From Anglia, 
England, and sudor, sweat.) The sweating 
sickness. Sennertus. 

ANGOLAM. A very tall tree of Malabar, 
possessing vermifuge powers. 

AXGONE. (From ay^ce, to strangle.) A 
nervous sort of quinsey, or hysteric, suffo- 
cation, where the fauces are contracted and 
stopped up without inflammation. 

ANGOR. Intense bodily pain. Galen. 
Avoos. (A^xsf. a vessel.) A vessel; 
a coll >c ion of humours, 

ANGUSTURjE CORTEX. Cortex cus- 
parice. A bark imported from Angostu- 
ra, in South America. Its external appear- 
ances vary considerably. The best is not 
ii'.rous, but hard, compact, and of a yel- 
lowish brown colour, and externally of 
of a whitish hue, When reduced in- 
to powder, it resembles that of Indian 
rhubarb. It is very generally employ- 
ed as a febrifuge, tonic, and adstrin- 
gent. While some deny its virtue in cu- 
ring intermittents, by many it is prefer- 
red to the Peruvian bark : and has been 
found useful in diarrhoea, dyspepsia, and 
scrofula. It was thought to be the bark 
of the Bi'ucea antidysenterica^ or ferru- 
ginea. Wildenow suspected it to be the 
JWagnalia plumieri ; but Humbolt and Ban- 
plancl, the celebrated travellers in Soii'h 
America, have ascertained it to belong to 
a tree not before known, and which they 
promise to describe by the name of cus- 
paria fcbrifnga. 

ANHELATIO. (From anhela, to breathe 
with difficulty.) Anhelitus. Shortness of 
breat&ing. 

ANICETON (From A, priv. and v/*, vic- 
tory.) A name of a plaister invented by 
Crito, and so called because it was thought 
an infallible or invincible remedy for acho- 
res, or scald-head. It was composed of 
litharge, alum, and turpentine, and is de- 
scribed by Gal. n. 

ANIMA. m The thinking principle. 
ALOES. Refined aloes. 



ANIMA ARTICULORUM. Hermodactylus. 
ANIMA HEPATIS. Sal martis. 
ANIMA PULMONUM. The soul of . the 
lungs. A name given to saffron on account 
of its use in asthmas. 

ANIMA. RHABARBARI. The best rhubarb, 
ANIMA SATURNI. A preparation of 
lead. 

ANIMA VEXERIS. A preparation of copj 
per. 

ANIMAL. An organized body endow- 
ed with life and voluntary motion. 

ANIMAL ACTIONS. Actiones animates. 
Those actions, or functions, are so "erm- 
ed which are performed through the means 
of the mind. To this class belong the ex- 
ternal and internal senses, the voluntary ac- 
tion of muscles, voice, speech, watching, 
and sleep. 

ANIMAL HEAT. Heat is essentially ne- 
cessary to life. That of a man in health is 
from about 94 deg. to 100 deg. of Fahren- 
heit. It appears to depend upon the de- 
composition of the air in the lungs. See 
Respiration. 

ANIMAL OIL. Oleum animale. An em- 
pyreumatic oil, obtained from the bones of 
animals, recommended as an anodyne and 
antispusmodic. 

ANIME GUM MI. The substance which 
bears this name in the shops is a resin, the 
produce of the Hymecea coiirbaril of Lin- 
nxus. It is seldom ordered in the prac- 
tice of the present day, and is only to be 
met with in the collections of the curi >us. 

A.NIMI DELIQ.CIUM (From animus, the 
mind, and ddinqtto, to leave.) Fainting. 
See Syncope, 

ANIMUS. This word is to be distinguish- 
ed from anima ; the former expresses the 
faculty of reasoning, and the latter the be- 
ing' in which that faculty resides. 

ANINGA. A root which grows in the 
Antilla islands, and is used by sugar-ba- 
kers for refining their sugar. 

AXISCALPTOR. (From anus, the breech, 
and scalpo, to scratch.) The latissimus 
dorsi is so called, because it is the muscle 
chiefly instrumental in performing this of- 
fice. Burtholin. 

ANISOTACHYS. (From etvra-os, unequal ; 
and *tt%vf, quick.) A quick snd unequal 
pulse. Gomez/-a. 

ANISUM. (From <t, neg. and i<roc, 
equal.) Anise. Anisum vulgare. Pimpi- 
nella anisa of Linnsens ,foliis radicalibus 
trifidis incisis. A native of Egypt. Anise- 
seeds have an aromatic smell, and a 
pleasant, warm, and sweetish taste. An 
essential oil and distilled water are prep;-., 
red from them, which are employed in 
flatulences and gripes, to which children 
are more especially subject ; also in weak- 
ness of the stomach, diarrhoeas, and loss 
of tone in the privnse vise. 

ANISTJN SINENSE. See Anisurn stettatum. 
ANISUM STELLATUM. Anisum si* 



ANO 



ANT 



53 



nense. Semen badian. The plant which 
affords these seeds is the IHicium anisatum 
of Linnaeus. They are used witli the same 
views as those of the Pimpinella anisum, 
The same tree is supposed to furnish the 
aromatic bark called cortex anisi stellati. 
or cortex lavola. 

ANISUM YUIGARE. See Anisum. 

ANNCENTES. (From annuo, to nod.) 
.Some muscles of the head were formerly 
so called, because they perform the office 
of nodding-, or bending- the head down- 
wards. Cowpcr, &c. 

ANNULAR. (Jlnnularia.} Like a ring 1 ; 
thus, annular bone, &c. 

ANNULAR BONE. Circulus osseus. A 
ring-like bone placed before the cavity of 
the tympanum in the foetus. 

Annular cartillages. See Cricoid cartilages. 

ANNULARIS DIGITUS. The ring-finger. 
The one between the little and middle fin- 
gers. 

A NNULAifis PROCESSUS. See Pans varolii. 

ANO. (Ava>, upwards; in opposition to 
xxra, downwards.) Upwards. 

AXOCATHARTICA. (From Avne, upwards, 
andx*9*^o>, to purge.) Emetics ; medicines 
which purge upwards. 

ANOCHEILON. (From *vo>, upwards, and 
%ttMs, the lip.) The upper lip. 

ANODIA. (From a., neg. and cefoc, the 
way.) Hippocrates uses this word for in- 
accuracy and irregularity in the description 
and treatment of a disease. 

AWODYNA. See Jlnodynes. 

ANODYNES. (Anodyna, sc. medica- 
ment a. From a., , priv. and axfiw, pain.) 
Those medicines are so termed which ease 
pain and procure sleep. They are divided 
into three sorts ; paregorics, or such as 
assuage pain ; hypnotics, or such as 
relieve by procuring sleep : and nar- 
notics, or such as ease the patient by stu- 
pifying him. 

ANOHYNUM MINERALS. Sul prunella. 

ANODYNUM MARTIALE. Ferrum ammo- 
niacale precipitated from water by potash. 

ANOMA LOUS. This term is often applied 
to those diseases whose symptoms do not 
appear with that regularity generally ob- 
served in diseases. A disease is also said 
to be anomalous, when the symptoms are 
so varied as not to bring it under the de- 
scription of any known affection. 

ANOMPHAI.OS. (From a., priv. and cp<$x.~ 
Xflj, the navel.) Anomphahts. With- 
out a navel. 

ANONYMUS. (From <*, priv. and ovvp.it a 
name.) Nameless. It was formerly ap- 
plied to the cricoid muscle. 

ANORCHIDES. (From *, priv. and o^/?, 
the testicle.) Children are so termed 
which come into the world without testi, 
cles. This is a very common occurrence. 
The testicles of many male infants at the 
time of birth are within the abdomen. The 
time of their descent is very uncertain, and 



instances have occurred where they had 
not reached the scrotum at the age of ten 
and fifteen. 

ANOREXIA. (From *, priv. and o/wf/f, 
appetite.) A want of appetite, without 
loathing of food. Cullen ranks this genus 
of disease in the class locales, and order 
dysorexia ; he believes it to be generally 
symptomatic, but enumerates two species, 
viz. the anorexia humoralis and the anorexia 
Monica. 

ANOSMIA. (From *, neg. andc,to 
smell.) A loss of the sense of smelling. 
This genus of disease is arranged by Cul- 
len in the class locales, and order dys<esthe- 
sitf. When it arises from a disease of the 
Schneiderian membrane, it is termed anos- 
mia organica , and when from no manifest 
cause, anosmia atonica. 

ANSER DOMESTICUS. The tame 
goose. The flesh of this bird is sometimes 
similar to that of the duck, and requires 
the assistance of spiritous and stimulating 
substances to enable the stomach to digest 
it. Both are very improper for weak sto- 
machs. 

ANSER1NA. (From anser, a goose ; so 
called, because geese eat it.) Argenlia. 
Wild tansey, or goose-grass. This herb, 
Potentilla anserina^ foliis dentatis serratis, 
caule repente, pedunculis vnifloris of Linnaeus, 
was formerly used as an astringent in laxi- 
ty of the intestines and phthisical com- 
plaints, but is now fallen into disuse. 

ANTACIDS. {Jtntadda, sc. medicamen- 
ta. From ai/7/, against, and acidus, acid.) 
Remedies which obviate acidity in the sto- 
mach. Their action is purely chymical, as 
they merely combine with the acid present, 
and neutralize it. They are only palliatives, 
the generation of acidity being to be pre. 
vented by restoring the tone of the stomach 
and its vessels. Dyspepsia and diarrhoea are 
the diseases in which they are employed. 
The principal antacids in use are the alka- 
lies. Liquoris potassae, gutt. xv. or from 5 
to 15 gr. of carbonat of potash, or soda dis- 
solved in water. The solution of soda called 
double soda-water, or potash supersaturated 
with carbonic acid, is more frequently used, 
as being more pleasant. Ammonia has been 
recommended as preferable to every other 
antacid, from 20 to 40 drops of the liquor 
ammoniac in a cupful of water. The liquor 
calcis, or lime water, is likewise used to 
correct acidity, two or three ounces being 
taken occasionally. Greta praeparata alone, 
or with the addition of a small quantity of 
any aromatic chelae cancrorum praeparatae, 
and magnesia also and its carbonate, are 
used for the same purpose. 

ANTAGONIST MUSCLES. Counteracting 
muscles, or those muscles which have oppo- 
site functions. Such are flexor and extensor 
of any limb, the one of which contracts it,the 
other stretches it out ; and also the abduct- 
ors and adductors. Solitary muscles are 



54 



ANT 



ANT 



those without any antagonist, as the heart, 
&c. 

ASTTALGICA. (From etvli, against, and 
**>o?, pain.) Anodynes. Remedies which 
relieve pain. 

ANTALKA LINES. (From &(, again s+, and 
alkali, an alkali.) Medicines whicn possess 
the power of neutrlizing- alkalis. All the 
acids are of this class. 

ASTAPHRODISIACA. (From *v7/, against, 
and Aqpofilti, Venus.) , Anti-venereals, or 
medicines which extinguish amorous de- 
sires. Wedel. Jlmen. Mcd. 

ANTAPHRODITICA. The same. 

ANTAPODOSIS. (From ayforo^ftTa/ut, to 
reciprocate.) A vicissitude, or return of 
the paroxysm of fevers. Hippocrates. Call- 
ed by Galen epidosis. 

ANTARTHRITICA. (From &flt, against, 
and apBiptlie, the gout.) Medicines which re- 
lieve OL repel the gout. 

ANTASTHMATICA. (From &vlt, against, 
and a.cr&/ua, an asthma.) Remedies against 
asthma. 

ANTATROPHICA. (From av7/, against, and 
a7/>o<j>**, a consumption.) Medicines which 
relieve or restore consumption. 

ANTECHESIS. (From a,vlt%ofAau, to resist.) 
A violent stoppage in the bowels, which 
resists all efforts to remove it. Hippo- 
crates. 

ANTELABIUM. (From ante, before, and 
l-abium, a lip. The extremity of the lip. 

AUTTEMBASIS. (From v7/, mutually, and 
tpGetivu, to enter.) A coalescence, or union 
of bone. Galen. 

ANTEMEIICA. (From avli, against, and 
/*&>, to vomit. ) Medicines which stop 
or prevent vomiting. 

AITTENEASMTIS.. (From ttvlt, against, and 
T/v*r,wo?, implacable.) That species of mad- 
ness in which the patient endeavours to 
destroy himself. 

ANTEPHIALTICA. (From atv7/, against, 
and eqiAtfn$; the night-mare.) Medicines 
which prevent the night-mare. 

ANTEPILEPTICA. (From <*v7/, against, and 
tTriM^ts; the epilepsy.) Remedies against 
the epilepsy, and other convulsive disorders. 

ANTERIOR AURIS. One of the com- 
mon muscles of the ear, situated before the 
external ear. It arises, thin and membra- 
neous, near the posterior part of the zygoma, 
and is inserted into a small eminence on the 
back of the helix, opposite to the concha, 
which it draws a little forwards and up- 
wards. 

ANTERIOR INTERCOSTAL NERVE. 
Splanchic nerve. A branch of the great in- 
tercostal that is given off in the thorax. 

ANTERIOR MALLEI. See Laxator tympani. 

ANTHELIX. See Jlntihelix. 

ANTHELMIA. (From a/7/, against, and 
e\(Atv&o?, a worm.) The herb Indian pink, 
or worm-grass, so called, because it was 
thought of great virtue in expelling worms. 
See Spigelia Marylanpica. 

\ "NTTHP.! ,M IMTIf'S. 



medicamenta ; from *v7/, against, and >. 
ptvQoe, a worm ) Medicines which procure 
the evacuation of worms from the stomacli 
and intestmns. The greater nurrber oi 
them act mechanically, dislodging the 
worms, by the sharpness or roughness o{ 
their particles, or by their cathartic opera, 
tion. Some seem to have no other quali 
ties than those of powerful bitters, by 
which they either prove noxious to these 
animals, or remove that deb.lity of the 
digestive organs, by which the food is 
not properly assimilated, or the secreted 
fluids poured in the intestines are not 
properly prepared-, circumstances from 
which it has been supposed the generation 
of worms may arise The principal medi- 
cines belonging to this class, are : Calomel, 
gamboge, Ge.ifFrsea meimis, tanasetum, po- 
lyp- dium filix mas, spigelia Marylandica, 
artimesia santonica, olea Eropaea, stan- 
num pulverisatum, ferri limaturse, and doli- 
chos pruriens : which see under their re- 
spective heaps. 

ANTHEMIS. (From av6v, foreo , be- 
cause it bears an abundance of flowers.) 
Chamomile. 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnsean system. Class Syngenesia. Or- 
der, Polygamia superftua. 

2. The name in the las< London Pharma- 
copoeia for chamomile. See Chamcemelum. 

ANTHEMIS COTUL.A. (Cotula, a dim. of 
co*, a whetstone ; so called from its leaves 
resembling a whetstone.) The systematic 
name for the plant called Cotnhi fcetida in 
the pharmacopoeias. See Cotula fcetida, 

ANTHEIS >OBILMIS. (From avQof, a flow- 
er.) The systematic name for the diarnce- 
inehiin of the shop*. See Chanuemelum. 

ANTHEMIS PYRETHRUWT. The plant is so 
called from which we obtain the pyrethrum 
of the;j)liarmacopoeias. See Pyrethrum. 

ANTHKRA. (From atvfia?, a flower.) 

1. A compound medicine used by the 
ancients; so called from its florid colour. 
Galen. JEgineta. 

2. The nfale part of the fructification of 
plants. 

AKTHOPHTLLI. (From ctvSo?, a flower, 
and efstMAcv, a leaf; so called from the fra- 
grance of the flowers and the beauty of the 
leaves.) Cloves aie so termed \vhen they 
have been suffered to grow to maturity 
G. Bait/tin Pin. 

ANTKORA. (Quasiantithora, AvItBopx.: 
from a-vlt, ;; gainst, and S-cpx., monkshood ; so 
called because it is said to counteract the 
effects of the ihora or monkshood.) A spe- 
cks of Wolislv.-.ne. The root is the part of 
this plant (Acomtum anthora : Jloribus pen- 
tagyniSyfoliorum luciniis lineuribus of Lin- 
nxus,) which is employed medicinally. Its 
virtue* are similar to those of the aconitnm. 
See Jlconitum. 

AUTHOS FLORES. The flowers of the 
rosmarinus are so termed in some pharma- 
conoeias. 



ANT 



ANT 



ANTHRACIA. See Anthrax. 

ANTHRAX (From *vfl/w, a burning 
coal.) Jlnthracia. Anthrocosia. Jlnth.ro- 
coma. Carbunculusi A hard and circum- 
scribed i.ii.immatory tubercle like a boil, 
which sometimes forms on the cheek, neck, 
or back, and in a few days becomes highly 
gangrenous. It then discharges an ex- 
tremely foe lid sanies from under the black 
core, whiclulike a burning coal, continues 
destroying the surrounding parts. It is 
supposed to arise from a peculiar miasma, 
is most common in warm climates, and of- 
ten attends the plague. 

ANTHRACOSIS OCULI. A red, livid, burn- 
ing, sloughy, very painful tumour, occur- 
ring on tlv- eye -lids. JEgineta. 

ASTHB.OPOGBAPBIA. (From tv0/w7ro?, a 
man. and yp-nQw, TO write.) Description of 
man's sr, -\cutre. 

ANTHROPOLOGIA. (From afl/Mwroc, 
a man, and xoyoc, a discourse.) The de- 
scription of man. 

ANTHYPNOTICA. (From <x.vlt, against, 
and VTTVOS, sleep.) Medicines which prevent 
sleep or drowsiness. 

ANTHYPOCHONDRIACA. (From av7/, 
against, and V7n%ovfptst t the hypochondri > f ) 
Medicines ad-pied -o cure low-spiritedness 
or disorders of the hypochondria. 

ANTHYSTERICA. (From *v7/, against, and 
wrsjo*, the womb.) Utermes or medicines 
which relive the hysteric passion. Blanckard, 

ANTl. (Av7/, against.) There are many 
names compounded with this word, as anti- 
asthmatics, antihysterics, antidysenteries, 
&c. which signifiy medicines against the 
asthma, hysterics, dysentery. &c. 

AXTIADES. (From *v7fcia>, to meet.) The 
tonsils are so called, because they answer 
one another. The mumps. JVicPiso. 

ANTIA&RA. (From av7.r, a tonsil, and 
etyfet, a prey.) Antiagri, A tumour of 
the tonsils. t Ulpuin^ Rioland, &,c. 

ANTIARTHIUTJCA. Sec jjntathritica. 

ANTICACUECTICA. (Fr- .'Hi <tv7/, against, 
and Hct^i*, a cachexy.) Medicines against 

cachexy, or bad huibit of body. 

ANTICARDIUM (From *v7/, against, or 
opposite, and lutpfut, the heart.) The hol- 
low at the bottom of the breast, commonly 
called scrobictilus cord is, or pit of the sto- 
mach. 

ANTTCATARUHALIA. (From*v7<, against, 
and *a7#//>o?, a catarrh.) Medicines which 
relieve a catarrh. 

ANTICAUSOTICA. (From *v7f, against, and 
xi^o-or, a burning fever.) Remedies against 
burni; g fevers. We read, .n Corp. Pharm. 
of ' Junken, of a syrupus anticansoticus. 

ANTICHKIR. (From tv7/, against, and 
-/up, the hand. ) The thumb. Galen. 

AHTicKEioy. (From avli, against, or 
opposne, and KV^C, the calf of the leg.) 
That part of the tibia which is bare of 
flesh, and opposite the calf of the leg. 
The shin-bone. Galen 

ANTICOI.ICA. (From v7/, against, and 



i t the cholic.) Remedies against the 
choiic. 

ANTIDIASTOLE. (From av7;, against, and 
<T/4ts-XAa, to disanguish.) An exact and 
accurate distinction of one disease or symp- 
tom, from another. 

ANTIDIJUCA. (From nvlt, against, and 
Jivoc, circumgyration.) Medicines against 
a vertigo, or giddiness. JBlancard. 

AXTIDOTARIUM. (From avltffloc, an anti- 
dote.) A term used by former writers, for 
what 'we now call a dispensatory ; a place 
where antidotes are prescribed ami prepa- 
red. There are antidotaries extant of seve- 
ral authors, as those of Nicholaus, Meuses, 
Myre.pmsi &C. 

ANTlDOrUS. (From afli, against, and 
tT/eTa^u/, to g'sve.) A preservative against 
sickness. A remedy. Galen. 

ANTIDYSKNTERICA. (From tv7/, against, 
and fva-wleptot,, a flux.) Medicines against a 
dysentery, or flux. 

AKTIFEBBILIA. (From ttvli, against, and 
febrii, a fever.) A febrifuge, a remedy 
against fever. 

ANTTHECTICA. [From a.vli, against, and 
SK7/X8C, a hectic fever.) Remedies against a 
hectic fever. 

ANTIHECTICUM POTERII. Antimonium di- 
aphoreticum Joviale. A medicine invented 
by Poterius, formerly extolled as effectual 
in hectic fevers, but now disregarded. It 
is an oxyd of tin and ehalybeaied regulus 
of antimony, in consequence of their defla- 
gration with n>tre. 

ANTIHELIX. (From v7/, against, and 
txig> the helix.) The inner circle of the 
auricle, so called from its opposition to the 
outer circuit called the heiix. 

ANTIHEL>IINTICA. See Jlnthelminlica. 

AVTIHYSTERICA (From ctvli, against, and 
uTiptKA, hysterics.) Medicines which pre- 
vent or relieve h}stencs. 

A>TILKPSIS. (From Av}t\a.^a.vce, to take 
hold of.) The securing ol bandages or 
ligatures from slipping. Hippocrates^ 

ANTILOBIUM. (From wit, opposite, and 
*oo?, the bottom of the ear,) The tragus, 
or that part of the ear which is opposite^the 
lobe. 

ANTILOIMICA. (From &y]t t against, and 
AO//XO?, the plague.) Kennedies or preven- 
tives against the plague. 

AXTTIOPUS. The antelope. An African 
beast resembling a deer, whose hoofs and 
horns were formerly given in hysteric and 
epileptic cases. 

AXTILYSSUS. (From v7/, against, and 
KVO-Q-A, the bite of a mad d ;gv) A medi- 
cine or remedy aifainst the bite of . r i mad dog. 

Jlntimonial powder. See Pulvis aiitimo- 
nialis. 

AjfxiMoxiALE. (From antimtnium.} An 
antimomal, or composition in which antimo- 
ny is a chief ingredient. A preparation of 
antitnony. 

ANTIMONII OXTDUM. See Oxydum anti- 
morni. 



56 



ANT 



ANT 



ANTIMONII SULPHUBETUM PRJECIPITA- 
TUM. Sulphur antimonii praecipitatum. Pre- 
cipituted sulphuretof antimony. This pre- 
paration of antimony appears to have ren- 
dered that called Kerme's mineral unneces- 
sary. It is made thus : 

Take ot'sulphuret of antimony, in pow- 
der, two pounds : of the solution of potash, 
four pints : of distilled water, three pints. 

Mix and boil the mixture over a slow 
fire, for three hours, stirring it well, and oc- 
casionally adding distilled water, so that 
the same measure may be preserved. Strain 
the solution forthwith through a double li- 
nen cloth ; and while it is yet hot, drop in, 
gradually, as much sulphuric acid as may 
be required to precipitate the powder ; 
then wash away the sulphate of potash, by 
hot water ; dry the precipitated sulphu- 
ret of antimony, and reduce it to powder. 

As an alterative and sudorific, it is in high 
estimation, and given in diseases of the skin 
and glanitis ; and joined with calomel, it is 
one of the most powerful and penetrating 
alteratives we are in possession of. 

ANTIMON1UM. See Antimony. 

ANTIJWONIUM CALCINATUM. See Oxy- 
tlum antimonii. 

AXTIMONIUM DIAPHORETICUM. An Old 

name for oxyd of antimony. 

ASTIMONIUM TARTARISATUM. Tartarus 
eineticus. 'Vartarum emcticum. Tartamis 
antimonialis. Tartris antimonii cum potassd. 
Tartarum stibiatum. Tartar emetic is ob- 
tained by boiling an oxyd of antimony with 
acidulous tartrite of potash ; the excess of 
tartarous acid dissolves the oxyd and a tri- 
ple salt is obtained by crystallization. The 
London Pharmacopoeia directs thus : 

Take of oxyd of antimony, two ounces : 
of supertartme of potash, powdered, three 
ounces : of distilled water, eighteen fluid- 
ounces. 

To the water, whilst boiling in a glass 
vessel, add gradually the antimony and su- 
pertartrae of potash, previously mixed to- 
gether, and continue to boil for half an 
hour ; then filter the solution through pa- 
per,|and evaporate it in a gentle heat, so that 
whilst it cools slowly, crystals may form. 

Tartar emetic is the most useful of all 
the antimonial preparations. Its action is 
not dependent on the state of the stomach, 
and, being soluble in water, its dose is easi- 
ly managed, while it also operates more 
epeedily. 

In do-es of from one to three, four, or 
five gruins, it generally acts powerfully as 
an emetic, and is employed whenever we 
wi.sh to obtain the effects which result from 
full vomiting. As patients are differently 
affec'.ed by this medicine, the safest mode 
of exhibiting sr is : ^. Antimonii tartarisati, 
gr. ii:. Jlqucs distillate ^ v. Misce et cola. 
1) -' 3 S: " quadrante quque bora, donee 
supervenient vomiius. 

For children, emetic tartar is not so safe 
an emetic as ipecacuanha powder : when 



great debility of the system is present, even 
a small dose has been known to prove fatal 
to children . Sometimes it proves cathartic. 

In smaller doses it exciies nausea, and 
proves a powerful diaphoretic and expec- 
torant. As an emetic it is chiefly given in 
the beginning of fevers and febrile diseases, 
when great debility is present, and in the 
advanced stages of typhoid fever its use is 
improper and even sometimes fatal. As a 
diaphoretic, it is given in small doses, of 
from an eighth to a qcmrter of a grain : and 
as an expectorant, in doses still smaller. 
Emetic tartar in small doses, combined with 
calomel, has been found a powerful yet safe 
alterative in obstinate eruptions of the skin. 
5f. Jlntimonii tart art sati gr. iv. Hydrargyri 
submuriatis, gr. xvi Confectionis Roste gal- 
lic<e, q. s. Divide in pil. xxiv. Capiat i. 
mane nocteque ex then sassafrass. 

In the form of powder, or dissolved in 
water, it is applied by a pencil to warts 
and obstinate ulcers : it is also given in 
the form of clyster, with a view to produce 
irritation in soporose diseases, apoplexy, 
ileus, and hernia incarcerata. Thv powder 
mixed with any fluid, and rubbed on the 
scrobiculus cordis, excites vomiting. Ano- 
ther property which tartar emetic has, 
when rubbed on the skin, is that of produ- 
cing a crop of pustules very like to the 
small-pox, and with this view it is used 
against rheumatic paius^ whke, and other 
obstinate swellings. The best antidote 
against the bad effects of too large a quanti- 
ty of this and other antimonial preparations, 
is a decoction of the bark of cinchona. 

ANTIMONIUM VITRIFACTUM. Glass of 
antimony. An oxyd of antimony, with a lit- 
tle sulphur. 

ANTIMONY. (Avltfjtoviw. The origin 
of this word is very obscure. The most 
received etymology is, from .vjt, against, 
and /uovo?, a monk ; because Valentine, by 
an injudicious administration ofit, poisoned 
his brother monks ) JLntimonium. Stibi- 
um. A metal found native, but very rarely ; 
it has, in that state, a metallic lustre, and 
is found in masses of different shapes ; its 
colour is white, between those of <in and 
silver. It generally contains a small por- 
tion of arsenic. It is like-wise met with in 
the state of an oxyd, antimonial ochre. The 
most abundant ore ofit is that in which it 
is combined with sulphur, the grey ore of 
antimony, or sulphnret of antimony. The 
colour of tins ore is blueish, or steel-grey, 
of a metallic lustre, and often extremely 
beautifully variegaed. Its texture is ei- 
ther compact, foliated, or striated. The 
striated is found both crystal ized, massive, 
and disseminated : there nre many varieties 
cf this ore. 

Properties of Antimony. Antimony is a 
met, I of a jjreyish \v'>'t r-, having* a slight 
blueish shade, and ver\ b-iUiant I s texture 
is lamented, ; nd exhibi's pintc-s crossing 
each other in every direction, Its surface 



ANT 



ANT 



57 



with herbarlzutions and foliage. Its specific 
gravity is 6.702. It is sutficit ntly lurd to 
scratch all the soft metals, it is very brittle, 
easily broken and pulverizable. Jt fuses 
at 810 U Fahr. It can be volatilized, and 
burns by a strong- heat. When perlec ly 
fused, and suffered to cool gradually, it 
cnstalli/.es in octahedra. It unites \viih 
sulphur and phosphorus. It decomposes 
water strongly* It i* soluble in alkaline 
suipluirets. Sulphuric acid, boiled upon 
antimony, is feebly decomposed. Nitric 
iic (1 dissolves it in the cold. Muriatic acid 
scarcely acts upon it. The ox\ genated mu- 
riatic acid gas infl mes r, and the liquid 
acid dissolves it with facility. Arsenic acid 
dissolves it by heat with difficulty. It 
unites, by fusion, with gold and renders it 
p..le and bntt.e. Pla'ina, silver, lead, bis- 
muth, nickel, copp> r, arsenic, irn, cobalt, 
tin, and zinc, unite with antimony by fusion, 
and form with it compounds, more or less 
brittle. Mercury does not alloy with it 
easily. We are little acquaintc d with the 
action of alkalies upon it. Ni irate of pot- 
a>h is decomposed by it. It fulminates by 
percussion with oxygenated muriate of pot- 
ash. 

Methods of obtaining antimony 1. To 
obtain antimony, heat 32 parts of filings of 
iron to redness, and project on them, by 
degrees, 100 parts of antimony ; when the 
whole is in fusion, throw on it, by degrees, 
20 parts of nitrate of potash, and after a 
few minutes quiet fusion, pour it into an 
iron melting cone, previously heated and 
.greased. 

2. It may also be obtained by melting 
eight purts of the ore mixed with six of 
nitrate of potash, and three of acidulous 
tartritc of potash, gradually projected into 
a red-hot crucible, and ftiseii. 

To obtain perfectly pure antimony, Mar- 
graaf melted some pounds of the sulphura- 
ted ore in alutedcrucible,andthus scorified 
any metals it might contain. Of the anti- 
mony thus purified, which lay at the bottom, 
he took sixteen ounces, which he oxidated 
cautiously, first with a slow, and afterwards 
with a strong heat, until it ceases to smell 
of sulphur, and acquired a grayish white 
colour. Of this gray powder he took four 
ounces, mixed them with six drachms of 
acidulous tartrite of potash, and three of 
charcoal, and kept them in fusion in a we'll 
covered and luted crucible, for one hour, 
and thus obtained a metallic button that 
weighed one ounce, seven drachms, and 
twenty grains. 

The metal, thus obtained, he mixed with 
half its weight of desiccated carbonate of 
soda, and covered the mixture with the 
same quantity of the carbonate. He then 
melted it in a well covered and luted cruci- 
ble, in a very strong heat, for half an hour, 
and thus obtained a button which weighed 
one ounce, six drachms, and seven grains, 
much whiter and more beautiful than the 



former. This he again treated with one and 
a half ounce of carbonate of soda, and ob- 
tained a button, weighing one ounce, five 
drachms, and six grains. The button was 
still purer than the foregoing. Repeating- 
these fusions with equal weights of carbo- 
nate of soda three times more, and an hour 
and a half each time, he at last ob.amed a 
buuun so pure as 'o amalgamate with mer- 
cury with ease, very hard, and in some 
d; giee malleable; the scorix formed in the 
last fusion were transparent, which indica- 
ted that, they contained no sulphur, and 
hence it is the obstinate adherance of the 
sulphur that renders the purification of 
this metal so difficult. 

The preparations of antimony formerly 
in use were very many : those now direct* 
ed to be kept are : 

1. Sulphureturn antimonii. 

2. Oxydum antimonii. 

3. Sulphuretum antimonii prsecipitatum. 

4. Antimonium tartarisatum. 

5. Pulvis antimouialis. 

6. Liquor antimonii tartarisatl. 

Ax TI MX) nis. (From ty7/, against, and 
/uo^of, death, or disease.) A medicine to 
prolong life. 

ANTINEPHRITICA. (From av7/, against, 
and vtypilt-, a disease of the kidneys.) Re- 
medies against disorders of the kidneys . 
Bkmcard. 

ANTiono.NTALoicus. An insect described 
by Gerbi in a small work published at 
Florence 1794, so called from its property 
of allaying the tooth-ach. It is a kind of 
curculio found on a species of thistle, car- 
duns .spinosissimus. If twelve or fifteen of 
these insects in the state of larvje, or when 
come to perfection, be bruised and rubbed 
blowly between the fore-finger and thumb 
until they have lost their moisture; and if 
the painful tooth where it is hollow, be 
touched with that finger, the pain ceases 
sometimes instantaneously. A piece of 
shamoy leather will answer the same pur- 
pose with the finger. If the gums are in- 
flamed the remedy is of no avail. Other 
insects possess the property of curing the 
tooth-ach ; such as the scarabi-us ferrugi- 
neus of Fabricius ; the coccineUa septem- 
punctata, or lady-bird ; the chrvsomela po- 
puli, and the clirysomela sanguinolenta. 
This properly belongs to several kinds of 
the coleoptera. 

AXTIPARALTCTICA. (Erom a.v1t, against, 
and ztrstpttiMTK, the palsy ) Medicines 
against the palsy. 

ASTIPATHKIA. (From en! t, against, and 
i&'j&v;, an affection.) Antipathy. An aver- 
sion to particular objects. 

ANTIPKRISTALTIC. (From a.;1i, against, 
and ^r/!;srxxa', to contract.) Whatsoever 
obstructs the peristaltic motion of the in- 
testines. 

ANTIPERISTASIS. (From tv7/, against, 
and <a-tpi?>ifti t to press.) A compression cm 
all sides. Theophrastus de igne. 



ANT 



ANT 



AXTIPHAARMACA. (From *///, against, 
and <px.pju.Kx.ov, a poison.) Tlie same as 
alexipharmaca. Remedies or preservatives 
against poison. Diascorides. 

ANTtPHLOGlSTlCA. (From *v7i, 
against, and QKeycr, to burn.) Antiphlogis- 
tics. A term applied to tho 3 e medicines, 
plans of diet, and other circumstances, 
which tend to oppose inflammation, or 
which in other words, weaken ihe system by 
diminishing the activity of the vital power. 

ANTIPHTUISICA. (From au7;, against, and 
y&ietc, a consumption.) Remedies against 
a consumption. 

ANTIPHTUORA. (From av7/, against, and 
<p9o/>at, corruption.) A species of woolfibane 
which resists corruption. 

AKTIPUYSICA. (From <*.,?;, against, and 
quo-si., to blow.) Carminatives or remedies 
agai; st wind. 

AvriPLEURiTicA. (From etyli, against, 
and is-Ktvptlts, pleurisy.) Remedies against 
a pieuri.sy. 

AXTIPODAGRICA. (From etvlt, against, 
and <arottaiypA t the gout.) Medicines which 
I'elieve or remove' ti:e gout. 

AXTIPRAJLIA. (From *v7/, against, and 
<&[>ai<r<ra>, to work.) A contrariety of func- 
tions and temperaments in divers parts. 
Contrariety of symptoms. 

ASTIPYRETICA. (From tv7/, against, and 
iwploc, fever.) Antifebrile. Remedies against 
a tever. 

Aim au ART AS ART A. (From av7/, against, 
and quart anum, a quartan tever.) Reme- 
dies against quarvun agues, 

AsTiauARTicuM. The same as Anti- 
quartanaria. 

ANTIRRHINUM. (Avlipftw: from * V 7/, 
against, and pis, the nose ; so called be- 
cause it represents the nose of a calf.) 
Snap-dragon, or calf's-snout. The name 
of a genus of plants in the Linnsean sj-stem. 
Class, Didynanda. Order, Angiospermia. 

A>'TIRRUINU.U LINAKIA. The systematic 
name for the linaria of the pliarmacoporias. 
See Linaria. 

ANTISCOLICA. (From a,v1i, against, and 
s-nuKH^, a worm. Remedies against worms. 
Anthilmintics. 

ANTISCORBUTICS. (Jlntiscorbuiica, 
sc. medtcamtiHta ; from ctvli, against, and 
Korbiitus, the scurvy.) Medicines which 
cure the scurvy. 

ANTISEPTICS. (JliUiseptica. sc. medi- 
camcnta ; from av7/, agair.st, and a-nvee, to 
putrefy.) Those medicines which possess 
a power of preventing animal substances 
from passing into a state of putreiaction, 
and of obviating putrefaction when already 
btgun. This class of medicine compre- 
hends four orders. 

1. Tonic antiseptics, as cinchona, angus- 
turx cortex, chamaemelum, Sec. which are 
suited for every condition of body, and are, 
in general, preferable to other antiseptics, 
for those with relaxed habits. 



2. Rtfrigerating antiseptics, as acids, 
which are principally adapted for the 
young, vigoi'ous, and plethoric. 

3. Stimulating antiseptics, as wine and 
alcohol, besi adapted tor the old and debi- 
litaied. 

4. Anlispusntodic antiseptics, as camphora 
arid assafceiida, which are to be selecied 
tor irritable and hys. erica) habits. 

ANTisp.vsis, (From etvli, against, and 
O-TFAU, to draw.) A revulsion. The turn- 
ing the course of the humours, whilst they 
are actually in motion. Galen. 

ANT18PASMOJD1CS. (Antispasmodica, 
sc. medicameiita ; ironi etvlt, agaius , and 
a spasiv.) Medicine,-, \vluc-. j^os- 
tlie power of allaying, or remo- 
ving inordinate motions in the sy^iem, 
particularly tlio^e involuntary contr.-c ions 
wh.ch take" place in muscles, naturally .--ob- 
ject to the command of ,he will. Spasm 
may arise from various causes. One of 
the most iVeqnent is a siioiig- irritation, 
continually applied; such as iL. tuition, or 
worn:s. In these cases, narcotics prove 
useful, by diminishing irritability and sen* 
sibility. Sometimes spasm arises from 
mere debility ; and the obvious means of 
removing this is by the use of tonics.. Both 
narcotics and tonics, therefore, are occa- 
sionally useful as antispasmodics, such as 
opium, camphor, and ether, in the one 
class, and zinc, mercury, and Peruvian 
bark, in the other. But there are farther, 
several other substances, which cannot be 
with propriety referred to either of these 
classes ; and to these, the title of antispas- 
modics is more exclusively appropriated. 
The principal antispasmodics, properly so 
called, are moschus, castereum, oleum 
unimaie empyr^umaticum, petroleum, am- 
monia, assafoctida, sagapenum, galbanum, 
valeriana, crocus, melaleuca ieucaden- 
dron. 

The narcotics, used as antispasmodics, 
are ether, opium, camphor. 

Tonics used as antispasmodic, are cu- 
prum, zincum, hydraigyrus, cinchona. 

EXAR. (From ;7/, against, and 
, the palm of the hand.) A muscle of 
tlie toot. See Jldditctor pollicis pedis. 

ASTITRAGICITS. Jlnti trains. (dntitra- 
giciis, sc. vnisculus.} One of the proper 
muscles of the ear, whose use is to turn 
up the tip of the antitragus a little out- 
wards, and to depress the extremity of the 
antithellx towards it. 

AXTITRAGUS. (Antitragus, i. m. from 
etvli, and Tg^T/s?, the trains.) An eminence 
of the outer ear, opposite to the tragus. 

ANTivKNK.iKA. (t-'i'om at'Jli, against, and 
renrreus, venereal.) Medicines against tiie 
lues venerea. 

ANTOSTII SANCTI IG.MS. (So called be- 
cause St. Anthony was supposed to cure 
it miraculously In the Roman Missal, 
St. Anthony is implored as being- the pre- 



ANT 



ANT 



server from all sort < of fire.) St. Antho- 
ny V fir. See Erysipelas,. 

ANi<.pHYLLON. (From eiv'jt, against, 
and qv^ev, a leaf; so called because its 
leaves are opposite.) The male caryophyl- 
lus. 

ANTRUM OF HIGHMORE. (From the 
name of an anatomis", \vlio guve tlie first 
accurate description of it.) Jintrum 
Jfi^-iwioriatnim. Jintrnm gen< Sinns 
maxillaris (ntuitarins. Jlntrum maxilla su- 
periotis Maxillary sinus. A large cavity 
in the middle of each superior maxillary 
boiK, between ihe eye and th roof 01 the 
mouth, lined by the mucous membrane of 
the nose. 

One or boiii antra are liable to several 
morbid affections. Sometimes their mem- 
branous Lining inflames, and secretes pus. 
At other tunes, ; n consequence of in- 
flammation, or other causes, various ex- 
credences and fungi are produced in 
them. Their bony parietes an- occasion- 
ally affected wiih exostosis, or caries. Ex- 
traneous bodies may be lodged in them, 
and it is even asserted that insects may be 
gen-rated in them, and cause for many 
years, afflicting pains. Ab- cesses in the 
antrum are by far the most common. Vio- 
lent blows on the cheek, inflammatory af- 
fections of the adjacent parts, and espe- 
cially of the pituitary membrane lining the 
nostrils, exposure to cold and damp, and, 
above all things, bad teeth, may induce 
inflammation and suppuration in the an- 
trum. Tiie first symptom is a pain, at first 
imagined to be a tooth-ach, particularly 
if there should be a carious tooth at this 
part of the jaw. This pain, however, ex- 
U'.nds more into the nose than that usually 
does which arises from a decayed tooth ; 
it also affects, more or less, the eye, the 
orbit, and the situation of the frontal si- 
nuses. But even such symptoms are in- 
sufficient to characterize the disease, tlie 
nature of which is not unequivocally 
evinced till a much later period. The 
complaint is, in general, of much longer 
duration than one entirely dependent on 
a caries of the tooth, and its violence in- 
creases more and more, until at lust a hard 
Tumour becomes perceptible below the 
cheek-bone. The swelling by degrees ex- 
tends over the whole cheek ; but it after- 
wards rises to a point, and forms a very 
circumscribed hardness, which may be felt 
above the back-grinders. The symptom 
is accompanied by redness, and sometimes 
by inflammation and suppuration of the ex- 
ternal parts. It is not uncommon also, for 
the outward abscess to communicate With 
that within the antrum. The circumscribed 
elevation of the tumour, however, does not 
occur in all cases. There are instarfces in 
which the matter makes its way towards 
the palate, causing the bones of the part to 
swell, and at length rendering them carious, 



unless timely assistance be given. There 
are other cases, in which the matter escapes 
between the fangs and sockets of the teeth. 
Lastly, there are other examples, in which 
matter, formed in the antrum, makes its 
exit at the nostril of the same side, when 
the patient is lying with his head on the 
opposite one, in a low position. If this 
mode of evacuation should be frequently 
repeated, it prevents the tumour both from 
pointing externally, and bursting, as it 
would do if the purulent matter could find 
no oilier -vent. This evacuation of the pus 
from the nostril is not very common. 

ANTRUM BUCCIAOSUM. The cochlea of 
the ear. 

ANTHUM PTLOIIT. The great concavity 
of the stomach approaching the pylorus. 

ANTRCM MAXILLARE. See Antrum of 
Uiffhtnore. 

Jlnls, add of. See Formic acid. 

AXTTCLIOW. (From Antyllus, its inven- 
tor.) An astringent application, recom- 
mended by Paulus JEgineta. 

ANUS. (Quasi onus , as carrying the 
burden of the bowels.) 

1. The" fundament; the lower extre- 
mity of the great intestine, named the 
rectum, is so culled ; and its office is to 
form an outlet for tlie faeces. The anus is 
furnished vvi^.h muscles which are peculiar 
to it, viz. the sphincter, which forms a 
broad circular band of fibres, and keeps it 
habitually closed, and the levatores ani t 
which serve to dilate and draw it up to its 
natural situation, after the expulsion of the 
faeces, it is also surrounded, as well as the 
whole of the neighbouring intestine, with 
muscul.'.r fibres, and a very loose sort of 
cellular subs'.ance. The anus is subject to 
various discus s, especially piles, ulcera- 
tion, abscesses, excressences, prolapsus, 
imperfbration in new-born infants. 

2. The term anus is also applied to a 
small opening of' the third ventricle of the 
brain, which leads imo the fourth. 

ANU-., ARTIFICIAL. An accidental open- 
ing in the parietes of the abdomen, to 
which opening some part of the intestinal 
canal leads, and through which the faeces are 
either wholly or in part discharged. \Vhen 
a strangulated hernia occurs, in which the 
intestine is siir.ply pinched, and this event is 
unknown ; when it has not been relieved by 
the usual means ; or when the necessary 
operation has not been practised in time ; 
the protruded part becomes gangrenous, 
and the faeces escape. But if the patient 
should be at last operated upon, his faeces 
are discharged through tlie wound, and the 
intestines are more easily emptied. In 
both cases, the excrement continues to be 
discharged from the artificial opening. 
In this way an artificial anus is formed, 
threugh which tbe excrement is evacuated 
during life. 

ANYDRION. (From A, priv. and va>, 



APE 



APH 



water; so called, because they \vlio eat of 
it become thirsty.) A speccs of night- 
shade, according to IJlancurd. 

AvrpEUTuiNos. (From <*., neg. and 
vTrtuQwc;, hurtful.) Hippocrates, in his Pre- 
cepts, uses this word to signify an acciden- 
tal event, which cannot be charged on 
the physician, anil for which he is not ac- 
countable. 

AORTA. (From aag, air, and mpta to 
keep ; so called because the ancients sup- 
posed that only air was contained in it.) 
The great artery of the body, which arises 
from the left ventricle of the heart, forms 
a curvature in the chest, and descends into 
the abdomen. See Artery. 

A PA LAC HIKE GALLIS. (From AITX-KAHM, to 
repel ; because it is supposed to repel in- 
fection.) See Cassine. 

APARTHKOSIS. (From K.TTO and o^Sgcv, a 
joint) Articulation. 

APAR1XK. (From g , a file ; because 
its bark is rough, and rasp.; like a file.) 
Pliilanthropus. Ampdecarpu*. Omphalo- 
carpus 3. mi s. Aspttrinc, dsperula. Goo-e- 
grass and cleaver's bees. Cleaver's. Goose- 
share. Hay rift'. Thi-> plant, winch is com- 
mon in our hedges and diich; s, is the Ga- 
lium aparine of Linnaeus : foliis octonis 
tanceolatis carinatis scubris reirorsitm acnlcu- 
tis, geniculis vcnosis, fruclu /tiujjiih. The 
expressed juice luis been given \\iih ad- 
vantage as an aperient and diuretic in insi- 
pient dropsies ; but the character in which 
it has of late been chiefly noticed, is that of 
a remedy against cancer. A tea-cup full in- 
ternally, gradually increases to half a pint, 
two or thr.-e times a day, and thv herb ap- 
plied, in cataplasm, externally, has bet n 
said to cure cancers. S;jdi beneficial re- 
sults are not confirmed by the experience 
of others. 

APELLA. (From *, pr.v. and pellis, skin.) 
Shortness of the prepuce. Galen gives this 
name to all whose prepuce, either through 
disease, section, or otherwise, 'will not 
cover the glans. 

AP;.; ir.N.-i PAI.PEBRAUUM ' IIECTUS. See 
.La~vatQr palpcbrx superioris. 

APERIENTS. (Aperientia, sc. medico- 
nientti; from aperio, to open.) Laxa- 
tives. Medicir.es which gently open the 
bowels. 

. (From a., ncg. and TJJ-S- 
surround.) Apcristaton. An epi- 
thet used by Galen, of an ulcer which is 
not dangerous, nor surrounded by inflam- 
mation. 

APKHISTATIUN. See Aperistalus. 

Avi;nTon ocui.1. See J.evater palpebra 
inperioris. 

A PEPSI A. (Apepsidi <e, f. ATTS-^IA: from 
*. priv. and -awr?*, to digest.) Indigestion. 
See Dyspepsia. 

APLUTHTSMK.VUS. (From O.TTO and v6y?, 
straight.) A name formerly given to the 
mtestinum rectum, or straight gut. 



APEX. The extremity of a part; &3 
the apex of the tongue, apex of the 
nose, &c. 

APHANIS.MUS. (From et$a.vtot t to remove 
from the sight.) The removalj or gradual 
decay of a disorder. 

APH.EUKSJS. (From a^>*/i, to re- 
move.) This term was formerly much 
used in the schools of surgery, to signify 
that part of the art which consists in taking 
of!' any diseased or preternatural part of 
tiie body. 

APHEPSE-MA. (From euro, and i-^o>, to 
boil.) A decoction. 

AFHKSIS. (Fiorn aLquipt, to remit.) The 
remission or termination of a disorder. 

APHISTK-IS. (Fiom a.qts-M/*i t to draw 
from.) An abscess. 

Ai'Hoiws. (From ATTO, and eefb?, depar- 
ture ) Excrement. The dejection of the 
body. 

APHONIA. (A$Mft: from A, priv. and 
qeevti, the voice.) A supjn-ession of tlie voice, 
without either syncope or coma. A genus 
of disease in the cla.^s locales, and order 
dyscinesix of Cullen. 

Wlien it takes place from a tumour of 
the fauces, or about the glottis, it is 
termed a'th'jnia guitnralis ; 

When from a disease of the trachea, 
aphonia tracfieaHt ; 

A' d when from a paralysis, or want of 
nervous energy, aphonia atonica , 

APHORISM. (Jlphoritmut; from at<j)9g- 
/^u), to distinguish.) A maxim, or princi- 
ple, comprehended in a short sentence. 

ArmiomsiA. (From A^goJV, Venus.) 
An immoderate desire of venery. 

APHRODISIACS. (Aphra'dinaca, sc. 
medicamenta, AQgofifiiutai : from A^^G^O-IA, 
venery.) Medicines which excite a desire 
for venery. 

APIIUODTSIASTICON. (From a<j>g6f, froth.) 
A trochso called by Galen, because it was 
given in dysenteries, where the stools 
were frothy. 

APUUMDIIHUS wtouBus. (From A.$nhr>i, 
Venus.) The venereal disease. 

APHTHA. See AphtJue. 

APHTHA. (A<p9au: from ATrlee, to in- 
fiame.) The thrush. Frog, or sore mouth. 
Aphtha lictudmen of Souvages. Ulcera 
serpentia oris, or spreading ulcers in the 
mouth, of Ceisus. Puttula nris. Alcola, 
Vesiculje ging-ivnrum. Acacos Aphtha in- 
funtum. A disease to which children 
are very subject. It appears in small 
white ulcers upon the tongue, gums, and 
around the mouth and palate, resem- 
bling small particles of curdled milk. 
When the disease is mild, it is confined to 
these parts ; but when it is violent and of 
long standing, it is apt to extend through 
the whole course of the alimentary canal, 
from the mouth down to the anus ; and so 
to excite severe purgings, flatulencies, and 
other disagreeable symptoms. The dis- 



APN 

ease, when recent and confined to the 
mouth, mr.y in general be easily removed ; 
but when of long standing, and extending 
down to the stomach and intestines, u very 
frequently proves fatal. 

The thrush sometimes occurs, as a 
chronic disease, but in warm climates and 
in those Northern countries where the 
cold is combined with a considerable de- 
gree of moisture, Or where the soil is of a 
very marshy nature It may in -some cases, 
be- considered as an idiopathic affection ; 
but it is more usually symptomatic. It 
shews itself, at first, by an uneasy sensa- 
tion, or burning heat in the stomach, which 
oomt-s on by slow degrees, and increases 
gradually in violence. After some time, 
small pimples, of about the size of a pin's 
lir-'ul, shew themselves on the tip and edges 
of the tongue ; and these, at length, spread 
over the wh.-le inside of the mouth, and 
occasion fetich a tenderness and rawness, 
that the patient cannot take any food of a 
solid nature ; neither can he receive any 
vinous or spirituous liquor into his mouth, 
wthout great pungency and pain being 
txci'ed; little febrile heat attends, with 
dry skin, pale countenance, small pulse, 
and cold extremities. These symptoms 
will probably continue for some weeks, the 
general health being sometimes better, and 
sometimes worse, and then the patient will 
be attacked with acid eructations, or se- 
vere purging, which greatly exhausts his 
strength, and produces considerable ema- 
ciation of the whole body. After a little 
time, these symptoms cease, and he again 
enjoys better health ; hut, sooner or later, 
the acrul matter shews itself once more 
in the mouth, with greater virulence than 
before, and makes frequent translations to 
the s.omach and intestines, and so from 
these to the mouth again, until^at last, the 
patient is reduced to a perefect skeleton. 
Elderly people, and persons with a shatter- 
ed constitution, iue more liable to its at- 
tacks. It is ranked by Cullen in the class 
pyrexix, and order exanthemata. 

APIUM (From ttmot, J)orlce, ATTICS, 
mild ; or from apes, bees ; because they 
are fond of it. 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnxan system. Class, Pentandria. Or- 
der, JJigynia. 

2. The pharmacopocial name of the herb 
small-age. The root, seeds, and fresh 
plant; Jlftiuin graveolens, foliolis caulinis, 
cuneiformibus, umbettts, sessilibus, of Lin- 
naeus, are aperient and carminative. 

APIUM GRAVKOLENS. The systematic 
name for the opium of the pharmacopoeias. 
See Jlpium. 

APIUM PETROBELINUM. The systematic 
name for the petroselinum of the pharmaco- 
poeias. See Petroselimim. 

APNEUSTIJI. (From , neg. and T, to 



APO 



61 



breathe.) A defect or difficulty of respi- 
ration, such as happens in a cold, &c. 
FaestVi, 

APNOXA. The same. Galen. 
A POC APN ISM us. (From ATTO, and 
smoke.) A fumigation. 

APOCATH ARSIS. (From ATTO, and 
fce, to purge.) An evacuation of hu- 
mours ; a discharge downward ; but some- 
times applied, with little discrimination, to 
vomiting. 

APOCAULIZESIS. (From a.Trox.a.vKifa, to 
break transversely.) A transverse frac- 
.ture. Hipocrates. 

APOCKNOSIS. (From ATTO, and xsvoa, 
to evacuate.) A superabundant flux of 
blood, or other fluid, without pyrexia. 
The name of an order in the class locates of 
(Juilen. 

APOCOPE. (From AVO, and x-oyrla, to cut 
from ) Abscission, or the removal of a part 
by cutting \t off. 

Arocuiais. (From ATTO, and xyva, to se- 
crete from.) A st cretion of superabundant 
humours. Hippocrates. 

APOCR'USTINUM. Jlpocrusticon. (From 
ATrojcgtia, to repel.) An astringent or repel- 
knt medicine. Galen. 

APOCRUSTICOX. See Apocrustinum. 
APOCIESTS. ( From euro, and xua>, to bring 
forth.) Parturition, or the bringing forth 
of a child. Galen. 

APODACRYTICA. (From wro, and cT-txgtf, a 
tear.) Medicines which, by exciting te rs, 
remove superfluous humours from twe 
eyes, as onions, Sic. Pliny. 
" Ai'OGEfSiA. See Agheustia. 
APOGEUSIS. See Jlgheustia. 
APOGIJJOMKSIS. (From ATroy-ivo/u.Ai, to be 
absent.) The remission or absence of a 
disease. Hippocrates. 

APOGLAUCOSIS. (From euro, and y\AUH.oc t 
sky-coloured ; so called because, of it* blue- 
ish appearance.) Glaucoma. A cataract 
of the eye. Dioscorides. 

A.PORONUM. (From awe, am 1 - ytvop.3.1, to 
beget.) A living icetus in the womb. Hip- 
pocrates. 

APOLEFSIS. (From euro, and Xdft&tya, to 
take from.) An intercepuon, suppression, 
or retention of urine, or any other natural 
evacuat ion. Hippocrates. 

APOLIXOSTS. (From ano, and x/vov, flax.) 
The method of curing u fistula, according 
to .ffigineta, by the application of raw- 
flax. 

APOLTSIS. (From euro, and *.va>, to re- 
lease.) The solution or termination of a 
disease. The removal of a bandage. Ere- 



APOMAGMA. (From ACTO, and pATrlce, to 
cleanse from.) Any thing used to cleanse 
and wipe away filth from sores, as a sponge, 
&c. Hippocrates. 

APOCATH EM A. (From ATTO, neg. and 
/w*v0eew, to learn.) Hippocrates expresses, 



62 



APO 



APO 



by this term, a forgetfulness of all that has 
been learnt. 

APOMELI. (From ATTO, from, and /USA/, 
honey.) \n oxymel, or decoction, made 
with honey. 

APO NEUROSIS. (From euro, and viw- 
gov, a nerve ; from an erroneous supposi- 
tion of the ancients, that it was formed by 
the expansion of a nerve.) A tendinous ex- 
pansion. See J\fuscle. 

A POM A. (From *, priv. and -row?, pain.) 
Freedom from pain. 

APOMTROSIS. (From O.TI, and v/Tgcv, 
nitre.) The sprinkling an nicer over with 
nitre. 

APOPALLESIS. (From A7ro7rx.KKec t to throw 
off hastily.) An abortion, or premature 
expulsion of a Ibeuis. Hippocrates. 

APOPEDASSIS. (From n/vs, and /rov^a, to 
jump from.) A luxation. 

APOPHLEGMASI A (From ATTO, and cpx*^*, 
phlegm.) A discharge of phlegm, or 
mucus. 

APOPHLEGMATICA. (From O.TTO, and 
$xvyfj. t phlegm.) Jlpophtigmatizaiitia. 
ApophUgmatizanta, Medicines which ex- 
cite the secretion of mucus from the 
mouth and nose. Masticatones. Er- 
rhines. 

APOPHHAXIS. (From O.TTO, and q^sto-o-u, 
to interrupt. A suppression of the men. 
strual discharge. 

APOPHTHAIOIA. (From a.7ro t and <p&s/ga>, 
to corrupt.) A medicine to procure abor- 
tion. 

APOPHTHOUA. (From a.7ro<pBn^ce t to be 
abortive.) An abortion. 

APOPHTAS. (From avroquco, to proceed 
from.) Any thing which grows or adheres 
to another, as a wart to the finger. 

APOPHIADES. The ramifications of the 
veins and arteries. Hippocrates. 

APOPHYSIS. (From wro<j>w t to pro- 
ceed from.) .Appendix. Probole. JZchphy- 
ais. Processus. Productio. Projectura, 
Protnberantia. A process, projection, or 
protuberance, of a bone beyond a plain 
surface ; as the nasal apophysis of the fron- 
tal bone, &c. 

APOPHTHEGMA. (From d&roqQtyytfj.cjLi, to 
speak eloquently.) A short maxim, or 
axiom ; a rule. 

APOPLECTA. A name formerly applied 
to the internal jugular vein; so called be- 
cause, in npoplrxies, it appears full and 
turgid. JBartholin. 

APOPLECTICA. (From CUVOTTK^IA, an 
apoplexy.) Medicines against an apo* 
plexy. 

APOPLEXIA. (From ATTO, and aruio-o-ee, 
to strike or knock down; because persons, 
when seized with this disease, fall clown 
suddenly.) Apoplexy. A sudden abo- 
lition, in some degree, of the powers of 
sense and motion, wiih sleep, and some- 
times snoring ; the respiration and motion 



of the heart remaining. Cu lien arranges it 
in the class neuroses, and order coinatti. 

When it takes place from a congestion 
of blood, it is termed apopiexia sanguined. 

2. When there is an abundance of se- 
rum, as in persons of a cold temperament, 
tipijplexia set-lisa. 

3. If it arise from water in the ventricles 
of the brain, it is called slpoplexia hgdroce- 
phalica. 

4. If from a wound, apopiexia trauma- 
lica. 

5. If from poisons, apoph-xia venenata. 

6. It from the action of suffocating ex-' 
halations, apopiexia suj/'ocat<e. 

7. 1 1 from passions of the m'md,apoplexia 
mentaiis 

8. And when it is joined with catalepsy, 
apopiexia catuifplica. 

Apoplexy makes its attack chiefly at an 
advanced period of life ; and most usually 
on those who are of a corpulent habit, with 
a short neck, and large head) and \vi/o lead 
an inactive life, nuke use of a full diet, or 
drink to excess. The immediate cuu-,e of 
apoplexy, is a compression on the brain, 
produced either by an accumulation of 
blood in the vessels of the head, and dis- 
tending them to such a degree, as to coin- 
press the medullary portion of the brain ; 
or by an effusion of blood from the red 
vessels, or of serum from the exhalants; 
which fluids are accumulated in sucii a 
quamity as to occasion compression. The 
former of these is called a sanguineous and 
the latter a serous apoplexy. These states, 
of over distinction and of effusion, may be 
beought on by whatever increases the afflux 
and impetus of the biood in the arteries of 
the head; such as violent fits of passion, 
gre:u exertions of muscular strength, severe 
exercise, excess in venery, stooping down 
for any length of time, wearing any thing 
too tight about the neck, overloading the 
stomach, long exposure to excessive cold, 
or a verticle sun, the sudden suppression of 
any long-accustomed evacuation, the appli- 
cation of the fumes of certain narcotic and 
metallic substances, such as opium, alcohol, 
charcoal, mercury, &c. and hy blows, 
wounds, and other external injuries : in 
short, apoplexy may he produced by what- 
ever determines too great a flow of biood 
to the brain, or prevents its free remrn to 
it. 

The young, and those of a full plethoric 
habit, are most liable to attacks of the 
sanguineous apoplexy ; and those of a 
phlegmatic constitution, or who are much 
advanced in life, to the serous. Apoplexy 
is sometimes preceded by headach, giddi- 
ness, dimness of sight, loss of memory, fal- 
tering of the tongue in speaking, numbness 
in the extremities, drowsiness, stupor, and 
mglit-mare, all denoting an afieciion of the 
brain ; but it more usually happens that. 



APO 



APP 



63 



without much previous indisposition, the 
person falls down suddenly, the counte- 
nance becomes florid, the face appears 
swelled and puffed up, the vessels of the 
head, particularly of the neck and temples, 
seem turgid and distended witli blood; the 
eyes are prominent and fixed, the breathing- 
is difficult, and performed with a snorting 
noise, and the pulse is strong and full. 
Although the whole body is affected with 
the loss of sense and motion, it nevertheless 
takes place often more upon one side than 
the other, which is called hemiplagia, and 
in this case, the side least affected with 
palsy is somewhat convulsed. 

In forming an opinion as to the event, 
we must be guided by the violence of the 
symptoms. Jf the fit is of long duration, 
the respiration laborious and stertorous, 
and the person much advanced in years, 
the disease, in all probability, will termi- 
nate fatally. In some cases, it goes off 
entirely ; but it more frequently leaves a 
state of mental imbecility behind it, ov 
terminates in a hemiplegia, or in death. 
Even when an attack is recovered from, it 
most frequently returns again, after a short 
period of time, and in the end proves fa- 
tal. In dissections of apoplexy, blood is 
often found effused on the surface and in 
the cavities of the brain ; and in other in- 
stances, a turgidity and distention of the 
blood-vessels are to be observed. In some 
cases, tumours have been found attached 
to different parts of the substance of the 
brain, and in others, no traces of any real 
affection of it cuuid be observed. 

APOPNIXIS. (From ATroTrvtyui, to suffo- 
cate.) A suffocation, frlosddon. 

APOPSOPHKSIS. (From AKO, and -^oqtu, 
to emit wind.) The emission of wind by 
the anus or uterus, according to Hippo- 
crates. 

APOPSVCHIA. (From ATTO, from, and 
4^. the mind.) The highest degree of 
deiiquium, or fainting, according to Galen. 

Ai'OPTOsis. (From a.7rv7rnr<Tu> t to fall 
down.) A prolapsus, or falling down of 
any part, through relaxation. Erotian. 

APOREXIS. (From ATTO, and ^yu> t to 
stretch out.) A play with balls, in the 
gymnastic exercise. 

APO ui. (From A, priv. and <orc>o?, a duct. 
Restlessness, uneasiness, occasioned by the 
interruption of perspiration, or any stop- 
page of the natural secretions. 

APROUHIPSIS. (From a.-,ropfi7rrcc } to cast 
off.) Hippocrates uses this word to signi- 
fy that kind ol insanity where the patient 
tears oft' his clothes, and casts them from 
him. 

APOSKEPARNISMUS. (From ATTCI from, 
and c-xr*gva>, to strike with a hatchet.) 
Deastiatio. A species of fracture, when 
part of a bone is chipped off. Gorrxus. 

APOSCHASIS. Jposckawws. (From cwo, 



and <r%A?n, to scarify.) A scarification. 
Venesection. Hippocrates. 

APOSITIA. Ap'isitius. (From aero, from, 
and o-tTGt, food.) A loathing of food. 
Galen. 

APOSPASMA. (From wTrao-Tr&u, to tear 
oft'.) A violent, irregular fracture of a ten- 
don, ligament, 8tc. Galen. 

APOSPHACELISIS. (From ATTO, and rqa.- 
xe/vcf, a mortification.) Hippocrates uses 
this word to denote a mortification of the 
flesh in wounds, or fractures, caused by 
too tight a bandage. 

APOSTASIS. (From ATTO, and IS-H/M, to re- 
cede from.) 
, I. an abscess, or collection of matter. 

2. The coining away of a fragment of 
bone, by fracture. 

3. When a distemper passes away by 
som< outlet, Hippocrates calls it an aposta- 
sis bj excretion. 

4. When the morbific matter, by its own 
weight, falls and settles on any part, an 
apostasia by settlement. 

5. When one disease turns to another, 
an apostusis % metastasis. 

APOSTAXIS. (From ot5rcr*fa>, to distil 
from.) Hippocrates u-es this word to ex- 
press the deflation or distillation of any 
humo'ir, or fluid : as blood from the nose. 

APOSTEMA. (From t<f>/r^w/, to re- 
cede.) The term given by the ancients to 
abscesses in general. See Mscessus. 

APOSTEMATIAI. Those who, from an in- 
ward abscess, void pus downwards, are 
thus called by Aretseus. 

APOSTEHIGMA. (From ATTOO-M^^ fulsio.) 
Galen uses this word to denote a rest of a 
diseased part, a cushion. 

APOSTO.L.ORUM U>TUENTUM. (From. 
etcToroAc?, an apostle.) Dodccaphartnacwn. 
The apostles' ointment; so called because 
it has twelve ingredients in it, exclusive of 



(From ATTO and rgs?o>, to 
turn frorn.) Thus Paulus -Agineta expresses 
an aversion for food. 

APOSYUIXGESIS. (From ATTO and g/>f, 
a fistula.) The degeneracy of a sore into a 
fistula. Hippocrates. 

APOSYRAIA. (From ATTO and o-jgu>, to 
rub oft'.) An abrasion or desquamation of 
the bone, or skin. Hippocrates. 

APOTANEFSIS. (From ATTO and Tiivea, to 
extend.) An extension, or elongation, of 
any member or substance. 

APOTELMESIS. (From ATTO and Tsfy/st, a 
bog.) An expurgation of filth, or faxes. 

APOTHECA. (A^roflwc;? : from ATroi^x.-ip.i, 
to reposite.) A shop, or vessel, where me- 
dicines are sold or deposited. 

AFOTHECAUlUb. (From *sro, and 
T/6jy*;, ponoy to put; so called from his 
employ being to prepare, and keep in rea- 
diness, the various articles in the JJ/a- 
teria Meitica, and to compound them for 



64 



AFP 



AQU 



the physician's use ; or from **, a 
shop.) An apothecary. In every Euro- 
pean country, except Great Bii.ain, the 
apothecary is the s:tme as, in F.ngland, we 
name the druggist and chynii -I. 

APOTHERAPKIA. (From ^o and St^A- 
rrajot, to cure.) A perfect cure, according 1 
to Htppocr-tes. 

APOTHKH APEUTICA. . (From eL7r&tAjnvu, 
to heal ) Therapeutics; that part of me- 
clicine which teaches the art ot curing dis- 
orders. 

Ai'oTiiKRMun (From euro and S-fg/wx, 
heat.) An acrimonious pickle, with mus- 
tard, vinegur, and oil. Galen. 

APOTHKSIS. (From euro and T/SJI///, io 
replace.) The reduction of a dislocated 
bone, according to H ppocrates. 

AFOTHLIMMI. (From ATTO and 9-A/ba. to 
press fn)in ) The dregs or expressed juice 
of a plant. 

APOPHRAVSIS. (F . m ATTO and 3-g*ya> to 
break) Apocope. The taking away the 
.-plinters of a broken bone. 

APOTOCUS. (From ATTO and TCXTO>, to 
bring forth ) Abortive; prematuie. Hip- 
pocrates. 

APOTRECSTJ. (From euro and T^TTU, to 
turn from ) A resolution or reversion ot a 
suppurating tumour. 

APOTROP.EA. (From awrcTgwai, to avert.) 
An amulet, or charm, to avert diseases. 
Fxsius. 

APOZEM. Jlpozema. (From euro and 
*, to boil ) A decoction. 

APOZETJXIS. (From ATTO and wyvuf*i, to 
separate ) The separation or removal of 
morbid parts. Hippocrates. 

APOZTMOS. (From euro and &fj.H t fer- 
ment.) Fermented. 

APPARATUS. (From appareo, to ap- 
pear, or be ready at hand.) This term im- 
plies the preparation and arrangement of 
every thing necessary in the performance of 
an operation^ or in the application of dress- 
ings. The apparatus varies according to cir- 
cumstances. Instrument.-, machines, ban- 
dages, tapes, compresses, pledgets, dossils of 
lint, tents, &c. are parts of the apparatus, 
as well as any medical substances used. It 
is a rule in surgery to have the apparatus 
ready before beginning an operation. All 
preparations of this kind should not be 
made in the patient's room, when they can 
be avoided, nor any where in his presence, 
as it would agitate him, and render him 
timid and more restless in the operation. 

APPARATUS MINOR. See lithotomy* 
APPARATUS MAJOR. See Lithotomy. 
APPARATDS ALTU->. See Lithotomy. 
APFENDICULA CJECI VEHMIFORMIS A 
vermicular process, about four inches in 
length, and the size of a goose-quill, which 
hangs to the intestinum caecum of the hu- 
man body. 

EPIM.OICJE. .Appendices 



coii adipose. The sm&ll appendices of 1 lie 
colon and rectum, which are tilled with adi- 
pose substance. See Omentum. 

Apple, thorn. See Stramonium. 

APPLE. The common crabAree, pyrvs 
mal-us of Lintaeu.s is the parent of 
ail the vast variety of apples at present 
cultivated. Apples, in gen ral, when ripe, 
afford a pleasant and easily digestible truit 
for the tahle ; but, when the stomach is 
weak, they are verv apt to remain unaltered 
for some days, and to produce dyspepsia. 
Sour fruits are to be considered as un- 
wholsome, except when boiled or baked, 
and rendered soft and mellow by the addi- 
tion of su^ar. 

APRICOT. The fruit of the Primus ar- 
meinaca of Linnaeus. When ripe, they are 
easily digested, and J'.re considered as a 
pleasant and nutritious delicacy. 

APYREXIA. (From a, priv. and rt/g?/a, 
a f VCT.) Apyrexy. Without fever. The 
intermission of feverish heat. 

AQUA. See Water. 

AQ.UA AKHIS FIX i. Water impregnated 
with fixed air. This is liquid carbonic acid, 
or water impregnated with carbonic acid ; 
it sp:.rkles in the glass, has a pleasant acidu- 
lous taste, and forms an excellent beverage. 
It diminishes thirst, lessens the morbid 
heat of the body, and acts as a powerful 
diuretic. It is also an excellent remedy in 
increasing irritability of the stomach, as in 
advanced pregnancy, and it is one of the 
best anti-emeiics which we possess. 

AQ.UA ALUMINIS COMPOSITA. Compound 
solution of alum, formerly called aqua alu- 
minosa bateana. See Liquor alumznis com- 
p'jsitus. 

AQ.UA AMMOJfi-K ACETATE. See Liquor 
ammonite acetatis. 

AQ.UA AMMONIA PUR.'E. See Liquor am- 
monia. 

AQ.UA AXETHI. See Anethum. 

AQ.UA CALCIS. See Liquor caltis. 

AQ.CTA CCELESTIS. A preparation of cu- 
prum. 

AQ.UA CARUI. See Carui. 

AQ.UA CIMXAXOMI. See Cinnamomum. 

AQ.UA CUFRI AMMONIATI. See Liqitdr 
cupri ammoniati. 

Aq.UA CUPRI V1TRIOLATI COMPOS1TA- 

This preparation of the Edinburgh Phar- 
macopoeia, is used externally, to stop he- 
morrhages of the Muse, and other parts. 
It is made thus : 

. Cupri vitriolati, aluminia, sing. ^Si\ 
AqutK pur<e, ^iv. Acidi vitriolic:, \j 

Boil the salts in water until they are dis- 
solved ; then filter the liquor, and add the 
acid. 

AQ.VA DISTILLATA. Distilled water. 
This is made by distiiling water in clean 
vessels, until about two-thirds have come 
over. In nature, no water is found per- 
fectly pure. Spring or river water always 






AQU 



AQU 



65 



contains a portion of saline matter, princi- 
pally sulphate of lime ; and, from this im- 
pregnation, is unfit for a number of phar- 
mac?.utic preparations. By distillation, a 
pcrfecUy pure water is obtained. The 
London College directs ten gallons of com- 
mon water : of which, first distil four pints, 
which are to be thrown away ; then distil 
four gallons. This distilled water is to be 
kept 'in glass vessels. See Water. 

AauA FCENICULI. Sec Ftemculum. 

AauA FORTIS. See Acidum nitrosum di- 
lutum. 

AauA KALI PRAPARATI. See Liquor 
svbcarbonatis potasses. 

AQUA. KALI PURT. See Liquor potasses. 

AaUA Lri-HARCrTRI ACETATI. $66 Li- 

(juor acetatis plunibi. 

AaUA LITHARGTRI ACETATI COMPOSITA. 

See Liquor plumbi acetatis dilutus. 

AauA MENTHA PIPERITA. See Mentha 
piperita. 

AauA MENTHA sATivA. See Mentha 
vlridts. 

AauA MENTH^E VIRIDIS. See JMentha 
viridis. 

AauA PIMESTTA, See Pimento. 

AauA PULEGII. See Pulegium. 

AauA REUIA. Aqua regalis The acid 
now called the nitro-muriatic, was formerly 
called aqua regalis, because it was, at 
that time, the only acid that could dissolve 
gold. See Nitro-muriatic add. 

AauA HOS.K. See Jlosa centifolia. 

AauA STYPTICA. A name formerly given 
to a combination of powerful astringents, 
viz- sulphate of copper, sulphate of alum, 
and sulphuric acid. It has been applied 
topically to check haemorrhage, and large- 
ly diluted with water, as a wash in puru- 
lent ophthalmia. 

AaUA ZINCI V1TRIOLATI CUM CAMPHO- 

RA. Otherwise named Aqua vitriolica cam- 
phorata. This, when properly diluted, is 
a useful collyrium for inflammations of the 
in which there is a weakness of the 
Externally it is applied by sur- 



eyes, 
parts 



geons to scorbutic and phagedenic ulcera- 
tions. 

AaujE DISTILLATE. Distilled waters. 
These are made by introducing vegetables, 
as mint, penny-royal, &c^ into a still with 
water; and draw ing off as much as is found 
to possess the properties of the plams. The 
London College orders the waters to be 
distilled from dried herbs, because fresh 
are not ready at all times of the year. 
Whenever the fresh are used, the weights 
are to be increased. But, whether the fresh 
or dried herbs are employed, the operator 
may vary the weight according to the sea- 
son in which they have been produced and 
collected. Herbs and seeds, kept beyond 
the space of a year, are improper for the 
distillation of waters. To every gallon of 
these waters, five ounces, by measure, of 
proof spirit are to be added. 



MINERALES. See Waters, mineral. 
STILLATITI.E siMPLicEs. Simple 
distilled waters. 

AaUJE STILLATITIJE SPIRITUOS.*. Spi- 

rituous distilled waters, now called only 
spiritus, as spiritus pulegii. 

Aau^EDucT OF FALLOHUS. A canal 
in the petrous portion of the temporal 
bone, first accurately described by Fallo- 
pius. 

Aquatic nut. See Tribulus aqualicus. 

AaUEOUS HUMOtTH OF THE EYE. Tll6 V6- 

ry limpid watery fluid, which fills both 
chambers of the eye. See Eye. 

AaoETTA. The name of a liquid poison, 
made use of by the Roman women, under 
the Pontificate of Alexander VII. It was 
prepared, and sold in drops, by Tophania, 
or TofFania, an infamous woman who resi- 
ded at Palermo, and afterwards at Na- 
ples. From her, these drops obtained the 
name of Aqua Toffania, Jlqua della Toffa- 
na, and also Aqua, di Napoli. This poison is 
said, by some, to be a composition of arse- 
nic, and by others opium and cantharides. 

AauiFOtiuM. (From acus, a needle, and 
folium, a leaf; so called on account of its 
prickly leaf.) The leaves of this plant, 
Ilex aquifolium ; foliis ovatis acutis spinosit, 
of Linnaeus, have been known to cure in- 
termittent fevers ; and an infusion of the 
leaves, drank as tea, is said to be a pre- 
ventive against the gout. 

AauiiA. A chymical name formerly 
used for sal-ammoniac, mercurius praecipi- 
tatus, arsenic, sulphur, and the philoso- 
pher's stone. 

AauiLA ALBA. One of the names given 
to calomel by the ancients. See Submurias 
hydrargyri. 

AauiLA ALBA PHILOSOPHORUM. Jlqua 
alba ganymedis. Sublimed Sal-ammoniac. 

AauiLA CCELESTIS. A panacea, or cure 
for all diseases ; a preparation of mercury. 
AauiLA VENERIS. A preparation of the 
ancients, made with verdigrise and subli- 
med sal-ammoniac. 

AauiLA, among the ancients, had many 
other epithets joined with it, as rubra, salu- 
tifera, volans, &c. 

AaTTiLa5 VEIOE. (From aquila, an eagle.) 
Branches of the jugular veins, which are 
particuiarly prominent in the eagle. 

AauiLJE LIGNUM. Eagle-wood. It is 
generally sold for the agalochum, 

AQUILEGIA. (From aqua, w^ter, and 
lego, to gather ; so called from the shape 
of its leaves, which retain water.) The herb 
columbine. 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
V'innzean system. Class, Polyandria. Or- 
der, Peniatnmia. 

2, The name, in the Pharmacopoeia, for 
the columbine. 

The set;ds, flowers, and the whole plant, 
Aquilegia vulgans , nectariis incwrvii . of 
Linnasus, have been used medicinally, 
K 



XTCB 



AitC 



the first in exanthematous diseases, the lat- 
ter chiefly is an antiscorbutic. Thoygh 
retained in several foreign pharmacopoeias, 
their utility seems to be not allowed in this 
country. 

AauutA. (Diminutive of aqua.) A 
small quantity of very fine and limpid wa- 
ter. This term is applied to the pellucid 
water, which distends the capsule, of the 
crystalline lens, and the lens itself. Paulus 
jgineta uses it to denote a tumour con- 
sisting 1 of a fatty substance under the skin 
of the eyelid. 

Arabic ffum. See Acaciae gummi. 

An AC ALAN. Amulets. 

ARACA MIRI. (Indian.) A shrub grow- 
ing in the Br.izils, whose roots are diuretic 
and antid\ senteric. 

An AC H.V E. (From arag, Heb. to weave ; 
or from ag^vx, a &pitJer.) Thr spider. 

ARACHNOID MEMBRANE. (From 
ctfA^vti, a spider, and <f G?, likeness ; so na- 
med from its resemblance to a spider's 
web.) A thin membrane of the brain, 
without vessels and nerves, situated be- 
tween the dura and pia mater, and sur- 
rounding the cerebrum, cerebellum, me- 
dulla oblongaia, and medulla spinalis. The 
term is also applied by some writers to the 
tunic of the crystalline lens and vitreous 
humour of the eye. 

ARACK. (Indian.) An Indian spiritu- 
ous liquor, prepared in many ways, often 
from rice ; sometimes from sugar, ferment- 
ed with the juice of cocoa-nuts ; frequently 
from toddy, the juice which flows from the 
cocoa-nut tree by incision, and from other 
substances. 

ARADOS. From $*//, to be turbu- 
lent.) Hippocrates uses this term to sig- 
nify a commotion in the stomach, occa- 
sioned by the fermentation of its con- 
tents. 

ARJETICA. (From ag*ia>, to rarefy.) 
Things which rarefy the fluids of the body. 

ARALIA. (From era, a band in the sea; 
so called because it grows upon banks, 
near the sea.) The berry -bearing angelica. 
Of the several species of this tree, the roots 
of the nudicaulis, or naked-stalked, were 
brought over from North America, where 
it grows, and sold here for sarsaparilla. 

ARANEA. (From et^aua, to knit together.) 
The spider. 

ARBOR VIT^. The tree of life. 

1. The cortical substance of the cere- 
bellum is so disposed, that, when cut tra- 
versely, it appears ramified like a tree, from 
which circumstauce it is termed arbor vita. 

~2. The name of a tree, the leaves and 
wood of which were formerly in high es- 
timation as resolvents, sudonfics, and ex- 
pectorants, and were given in phthisical 
affections intermittent fevers, and dropsies. 
It is the Thuya occidentalis / strobilis l<&vi- 
bus, stjuamis obtusiv, of Linnaeus. 

ARBUTUS. The name of a genus of 



plants in the Linnaean system. Class, He* 
camlria. Order, Monogynia. The straw- 
berry tree. 

ARBUTUS UVA TTRSI. The systematic 
name for the officinal trailing arbutus. See 
Uva ursi. 

ARCA ARCANORtTM. The mercury of the 
philosophers. 

ARCA CORDIS. The pericardium. 

ARCANUM. (A secret.) A medicine 
whose preparation, or efficacy, is kept from 
the world, to enhance its value. With the 
chymists, it is a thing secret and incorpo- 
real ; it can only be known by experience, 
for it is the virtue of every thing, which 
operates a thousand times more than the 
thing itself. 

ARCANUM CATHOLICUM. Bezoar, plan- 
tain, and cole hium. 

ARCANUM DUPLEX. Arcanum duplication. 
A name formerly given to the combination 
of potash and sulphuric add, more com- 
monly called vitriolated tartar, and now 
sulphut of potash. 

ARCANUM TARTARI. The acetate of pot- 
ash. 

ARCERTHOS, Juniper. 

ARCHK. A^, the beginning.) The 
first, stage or attack of a disease. 

ARCHJEUS. The universal archaeus, or 
principle of Van Helmont, was the active 
principle of the material world ; it means 
good health also. 

ARCHE. (From t, the beginning.) 
The earliest stage of a disease. 

ARCHENDA. (Arab.) A powder made 
of the leaves of the ligustrum, to check 
the fetid odour of the feet. Detergent. 

ARCHEOSTIS. White briony. 

ARCHIMAGIA. (From t^, the chief, 
and maga, Arab, meditation. ) Chymistry, 
as being the chief of sciences. 

ARCHITHOLUS. (From &$%>>> * ne chief, 
and S-OAO?, a chamber. The sudatorium, or 
principal room of the ancient baths. 

ARCHOS. (From *|o?, an arch.) The 
anus ; so called from its shape. 

ARCHOPTOMA. (From to?, the anus, 
and tfftTrlce, to fall down.) A bearing down 
of the rectum, or prolapsus ani. 

ARCTATIO. (From arcto, to make nar- 
row.) Arctitudo. Narrowness. 

1. A constipation of the intestines, from 
inflammation. 

2. A preternatural straitness of the pu- 
dendum muliebre. 

ARCTIUM. (From y7oc, a bear ; so 
called from its roughness.) The name of 
a genus of plants in the Linnaean system. 
Class, Syngenesia. Order, Polygamia aeqita- 
lis. The burdock. 

ARCTIUM LAPPA. {Lappet} O.TTQ TO K&- 
v, from its seizing the garments of passen- 
gers.) The herb clotbur, or burdock. 
The systematic name for the bardana. See 
Jiardana. 

ARCTUBA. (From arcto, to straiten.) 



ARG 

A inflammation of the finger, or toe, from 
a curvature of the nail. 

ARCCAIIA. (From arcus, a bow.) Ar- 
cualis. The satura coronalis is so named, 
from its bow-like shape ; and, for the same 
reason, the bones of the sinciput are called 
arcualia ossia. JBartholin. 

ARCUATIO. (From arcus, a bow.) A 
gibbosity of the tore-parts, with a curva- 
tion of the sternum of the tibia, or dorsal 
vertebrae. Avicenna. 

ARCUL.SC. A dim. of area, a chest.) 
The orbits or sockets of the eyes. 

ARDAS. (From &$*, to defile.) Filth, 
excrement, or refuse. Hippocrates. 

Jlrdent Spirit. See Alcohol. 

ARDOR FEBRILIS. Feverish heat. 

ARDOR URIN Dysuria. Scalding of 
the urine. Difficulty and pain in making 
water, attended with a sense of heat in the 
urethra. It is a symptom of gonorrhoea, 
and some other affections. 

AIIDOR VEXTRICULI. Heartburn. 

AREA. An empty space. That kind of 
baldness where the crown of the head is 
left naked, like the tonsure of a monk. 

ARECA INDICA. An inferior kind of 
nutmeg. 

AREGOST. (From },, to help.) A 
resolvent ointment ; so called from its valu- 
able qualities. 

AREMAROS. Cinnabar. 

ARENA. Sand, or gravel. 

AREJTAMEL. (From arena, sand; so 
called because it was said to be procured 
from sandy places.) Arenamen. Bole-arme- 
nia. 

AREVATIO. (From arena, sand.) Sabu- 
ration, or the sprinkling of hot sand upon 
the bodies of patients. Andr. Bacdus de 
Therm. 

AREWTES. (From area, to dry up.) A 
sort of ancient cupping-glasses, used with- 
out scarifying. 

AREOLA. (A dim. of area, a void 
space,) A small brown circle, which sur- 
rounds the nipples of females. During and 
after pregnancy, it becomes considerably 
larger. 

ARETE. (Age, virtue.) Hippocrates uses 
this word to mean corporeal or mental 
vigour. 

ARETJEXOIDES. See Arytaenoides. 

AREUS. A pessary, invented by -<gi- 
neta. 

ARFAR. Jlrsag. Arsenic. Ruland, &c. 

ARGAL, Argol. Crude tartar, in the state 
in which it is taken from the inside of wine- 
vessels, is known in the shops by this 
name. 

AnoASTLiis. (From A^-c?, a serpent : 
which it is said to resemble.) The plant 
which was supposed to produce gum -am- 
moniac. 

ARGEMA. (From Ag^/a?, white.) Jbrgemon. 
A small white ulcer of the globe of the eye. 
Erotianus, Galen, &c. . 



ARI 67 

ARGENTI NITRAS. See Nitras argenti. 

ARGENTUM. Silver. See Silver. 

ARGENTUM NITRATUM. See Jfitras an- 
genti. 

AHGENTUM VIVUM. It was formerly, 
by some, called argentum mobile, and ar- 
gentum fusum. See Hydrargyrns. 

ARGES. (From ><;?, white.) A ser.- 
pent, with a whitish skin, deemed by Hip- 
pocrates exceedingly venomous. 

ARGILIA. (From OQ*S, while.) White 
clay ; argil ; potter's earth. 

ARGILLA VITRIOL ATA. Alum. 

ARGYRITIS. (From *>t>or, silver.) Li- 
tharge, or spume of silver. A kind of earth 
was formerly so named, which is taken 
from silver mines, and is bespangled with 
many particles of silver. 

ARGYROCOME. (From *g>-vgoc silver, and 
Kcajuat, hair.) A sort of cudweed, or gna- 
phalium, was so named, from its white sil- 
very floscules. 

ARGYROLIBANOS. The white olibanum. 

ARGYROPHORA. An antidote, in the com- 
position of which there is silver. 

ARGYROTKOPHEMA. (From Agyos white, 
and TgocfJttjW*, food.) A white cooling food, 
made with milk. Milk diet. Galen. 

ARHEDMATISTOS. (From a., neg. and 
ptvfAoLTifw, to be afflicted with rheums.) Not 
being afflicted with gouty rheums. 

ARICIMON. (From Ago. and xuee, to be 
quickly impregnated ) A woman who con- 
ceives quickly and often. 

ARISTALTHTEA. (From ag/ro?, best, and 
i, the althaea.) Althaea, or common 
marsh-mallow. 

ARISTOLOCHIA. (From a^o?, good 
and AO;^/*, or ho%tt*, parturition ; so called 
because it was supposed to be of sovereign 
use in disorders incident to child-birth.) 
1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnxan system. Class, Gynandria, Or- 
der, Hexanuria. Birthwort. 

2. The pharmacopoeial name of the long- 
rooted birthwort. 

Aristolochia longa of Linnaeus : foliis 
cordatis, petiolatis, inlegarrimis, obtusiuscu- 
lis {, cattle injirmo, floribus solitariis. The 
root of this plant only is in use ; it possesses 
a somewhat aromatic smell, and a warm 
bitterish taste, accompanied with a slight 
degree of pungency. The virtues ascribed 
to this root by the ancients were very con- 
siderable; and it was frequently employed 
in various diseases, but particularly in pro- 
moting the discharge of the loc/da / hence 
its name. It is now very rarely used, ex- 
cept in gouty affections, as an aromatic sti- 
mulant. 

ARISTOLOCHIA ANGUICIDA. Snake, 
killing birthwort. 

Aristolochia : -foliis cordatis, acuminatist 
caule volubili, fruticoso , pedunculis solita- 
riisf stipulis cordatis, of Linnaeus. The 
juice of the root of this plant has the 
property of so stupifying serpents, that they 



68 



ARM 



AUR 



may be handled with impunity. One or 
two drops are sufficient; and it' more be 
dropt into the numth, they become con- 
vulsed. So ungrateful is the smell of tiie root 
to those reptiles, that it is said they imme- 
diately turn from it. The juice is also es- 
teemed us a preventive against the effects 
usually produced by the bite of venomous 
serpents. 

ARISTOLOHIA CLEMATITIS. fCfema&'fty 
from XM/U.X, a tendril; from its climbing up 
trees, or any thing it can fasten upon with 
its tendrils.) Th^ systematic name of the 
Aristolochia vufgaris of some pharmaco- 
poeias. See Ariatulochin. vulgar it 

ARISTOI.OCHIA FABACR*. The root of 
this plant, Fwnaria bulbosa of Linnaeus : - 
caule simplici, bracteis ion^itudine Jiorum ; 
was ibrmerly given to restore suppressed 
menses, and as an anthelmintic. 

AHISTOLOCUIA LONGA. The systematic 
name for the aristolochia of our pharma- 
copoeias. See Aristolochia. 

Ani.-Toi,ocHiA ROTUNDA. The root of 
this species of birthwort, Aristolochia ro- 
tunda of JLinnajus: foliis cordatis, subses- 
ciiibus, obtusis ; caule in fir mo ; Jloribits soli- 
tari;s ; is used indiscriminately with that of 
the aristolochia longa. See Aristolochia. 

AnisTOLOcHiA SSRPEXTARIA. The syste- 
matic name for the Serpentaria "virginia.no, 
of the pharmacopoeias. See Serpentaria 
virginiana. 

ARISTOLOCHIA TESUIS. See Aristolochia 
"Bulgaria. 

ARISTOLOCHIA TRILOBATA. Three-lobed 
birthwort. The root, and every part of this 
plant, Aristolochia tnlobata of Linnaeus : 
foliis trilobis, caule volubiii t jloribus maximis , 
is diuretic, and is employed in America 
against the bite of serpents. 

AKISTOLOCHIA VULGAR1S. Arista- 
lochia tennis. An extract is ordered from 
this species, Aristolochia clematitis of Lin- 
naciis : foliis cordatis ; cattle erecto ; Jioribiis 
axillaribus confer tie; by the Wirtemberg 
Pharmacopoeia, and the plant is retained 
in that of Edinburgh. It is esteemed as 
possessing antipodagric virtues. 

AHISTOPHANEION. (From Jlristoplianes, 
its inventor.) The name of an ancient 
emollient plaister composed of wax, or 
pitch. Gorraus. 

ARMATUUA. Hardness. The amnios 
or internal membrane which surrounds the 
foetus. 

ARME. (From <*a>, to adapt.) A junc- 
tion of the lips of wounds ; also the joining 
of the sutures of the head. 

ARM ILIA. (Dim. of armus, the arm.) 
The round ligaments which confine the 
tendons of the carpus. 

ARMORACIA. (From Armorica, the 
country whence it was brought.) See 
Raphanus rusticamia. 

ARXORACIJE RADIX. Horse-radish root. 
Sec JRapfonut rusticating. 



ARNICA. (Agv/K: from *c, a Jamb; 
because of the likeness of the leaf of this 
plant to the coat of the lamb.) Leopard's- 
bane. Arnica. 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system. Class, Syngenesia, Or- 
der, Polygamia superfna. 

2. The pharmacopoeia! name of the Do- 
ronicum Gennanicum. Mountain arnica. 
Arnica montona of Linnaeus : f(>liis watts 
integris ; caulinis geminig sppositis. The 
flowers of this plant are very generally em- 
ployed on the Continent. Ot the advanta- 
ges derived from their use, in paralytic and 
other affections, depending upon n w; of 
nervous energy , there are several proofs ; 
and their extraordinary virtues, as a febri- 
fuge and antiseptic, have been highly ex- 
tolled by Di*. Ccilin. of Vienna. Much cau- 
tion is necessary in regulating the dose> as 
it is a medicine very apt to produce vomit- 
ing, and much uneasiness of the stomach. 

ARNICA MONTANA. The systematic 
name for the arnica of the pharmacopoeias. 
See Jlrnica. 

ARNICA S T JEDENSIS. See Conyza media 

ARNOTTO. (Spanish.) A curious shrub 
in Jamaica, the seeds of which arc covered 
with a kind of wax, from which is made the 
Spanish arnoito. 

AROMA. (From g*, intensely, and 
vCa>, to smell.) Spirt tug reef. or. Each plant 
has its characteristic smell. Thisodorant 
principle is called by the moderns, aroma. 
Water charged with aroma, is called the 
distilled water of the substance made use 
of; thus lavender and peppermint waters 
are water impregnated with the aroma of 
the lavender and peppermint. 

AROMATICUS CORTEX. A name for ca- 
nella alba. 

AROMATICS. (Jlromatica, sc. medica- 
menta ; from agoy/*, an odour.) A term 
applied to all medicines which have a 
grateful spicy scent, and afi agreeable 
pungent taste, as cinnamon bark, car- 
damoms, 5tc. Their peculiar flavour ap- 
pears to reside in their essential oil, and 
arises in distillation either with water or 
spirit. 

AROMATOPOLA. (From *go>/ua, an odour 
and <eru>Ma>, to sell.) A druggist; a vender 
of drugs and spiceries. 

ARQ.UEBUSADE. (A French word, im- 
plying good for a gun shot -n-awid.) Aqua 
sclopetaria. Aqua vulneraria. Jlqna cata- 
pultarum. The name of a spirituous wa- 
ter, distilled from a farrago of aromatic 
plants. 

ARRACK. A spirituous liquor distilled 
from rice, and drank, in the rice countries, 
as we do brandy in this Island. Its effects 
on the animal ceconomy are the same. 

AURAPHUS. (From *, priv. and *<?, a 
suture.) Without suture. It is applied to 
the cranium when naturally without sutures, 

AnRH2BA. (From , neg. and /ja, to 



ARS 



ARS 



69 



iflow.) The suppression of any natural flux, 
as the menses, &c. 

ARROWHEAD. The roots of this plant, 
Sagittaria sagittifolia of Linnaeus, are said 
to "be esculent, but it must be in times of 
very great scarcity. 

AHR.OW-UOOT. Indian arrow-root. See 
Maranta, 

ARSKNIAS. (From arsenicum, arsenic.) 
An arseniate or arsenical salt. A salt 
formed by a combination of arsenic acid 
with different bases, as arseniate of ammo- 
nia, which is produced by the union of am- 
monia with arsenic acid. The only one used 
3n medicine is the arseniate of potash. See 
Liquor arsen'icatis. 

ARSENIC. (From the Arabic term Arsa- 
nek ; or from ag<7v, for A^AV masculns ; 
from its strong and deadly powers.) Arse- 
nicum crystallinum, risagallum, aquala, arfar, 
aquila, zarnick, artaneck. These names 
were all formerly applied to white arse- 
nic. 

Arsenic is a metal scattered, in great abun- 
dance, over the mineral kingdom. It is found 
in black heavy masses of little brilliancy, 
called native arsenic, (testaceous arsenic.) 
This exists in different parts of Germany. 
Mineralized by sulphur, it forms sulphurized 
arsenic, or orpiment. This mineral is met 
with in Italy, about Mount Vesuvius.- 
There are two varieties of this ore, which 
differ from each other in colour, occasioned 
by the different proportions of its compo- 
nent parts. The one is called yellow sul- 
phurised arsenic, or orpiment ; the other, 
red sulphurized arsenic, or realgar, (ruby ar- 
senic /) both are met with in Hungary and 
different parts of Germany. The colour of 
the first ore is a "lemon yellow, inclining 
sometimes to a 'green ; the colour of the 
latter is a ruby red ; it is more transparent 
than the former, and found in compact 
solid masses, sometimes crystallized in 
bright needles. Arsenic united to oxygen, 
constitutes the ore called native oxide of ar- 
senic. This ore is scarce ; it is generally 
found of an earthy appearance, or as an ef- 
florescence, coating native, or metallic arse- 
nic ; its colour is a whitish grey ; it is rare- 
ly met with crystallized. Arsenic exists 
likewise alloyed with cobalt, antimony, tin, 
copper, lead, and various other metals. 

Properties, Arsenic is a brittle metal, 
and in the recent fracture, of a lively bright 
colour, between tin-white and lead gray ; 
but, on exposure to the air, it soon loses 
its metallic lustre, and turns prismatic, 
dull, and at last black. Its specific gravity 
is between 8.310 and 5.763 according to its 
texture. Its hardness surpasses that of 
copper ; but its ductility is so little, and its 
brittleness so great, that it is readily con- 
verted into a powder by the hammer. It 
is entirely volatilized when heated to 356o 
Fahr. It sublimes in close vessels, and then 
crystallizes in tetrahedra, or octahedra. 



When heated with the access of air, it emits 
a strong smell of garlic, and burns with a 
blueish white flame. It combines with sul- 
phur by fusion. It unites to phosphorus, 
and combines with most of the metals. It 
gives a white colour to copper, and renders 
many of the ductile metals brittle. When 
mixed with hyper-oxigenated muriate of 
potash, it detonates strongly by the stroke 
of a hammer. It is soluble in hydrogen gas 
by heat. It does not decompose water 
alone. It decomposes sulphuric acid by 
heat. The nitric and nitrous acids oxidate 
it rapidly. The muriatic acid attacks it 
with heat. The oxigenated muriatic acid 
when in a gaseous state, inflames it instant- 
ly. It is nearly unalterable Hy the fluoric, 
boracic, phosphoric, and carbonic acids. It 
unites with alkaline sulphurets, and hydro- 
sulphurets. It is a deadly poison. 

Method of obtaining Arsenic. In order 
to obtain metallic arsenic, mix two parts of 
the white oxid of arsenic of commerce, 
with one of black flux (obtained by deto- 
nating one part of nitrate of potash with two 
of aciduhnis tartrite of potash,) and put the 
mixture into a crucible, or melting-pot. 
Invert over this, another crucible, lute the 
two together with a little clay and sand, 
and apply gradually a red heat to the lower 
one. The oxid of arsenic will be reduced, 
and be found lining the upper crucible in 
small crystals of a metallic brilliancy. 

The charcoal of the black flux takes in 
this process the oxigen from the white oxid, 
and forms carbonic acid gas ; which flies off 
during the process, and the oxid becomes 
reduced to the metallic state. This reduc- 
tion of the oxid is greatly facilitated by the 
alkali of the flux. 

Remark. In order to obtain arsenic in a 
state of absolute purity, the metal before 
obtained must be reduced to powder, dis- 
solved by heat in nitre-muriatic acid, and 
then precipitated by immersing into the so- 
lulion a plate of zinc. The arsenic is thus 
precipitated in a fine powder, and may 
be reduced to its metallic state, by ex- 
posing it in a covered crucible to a mode- 
rate heat. 

If it he kept under water, its metallic 
brilliancy may be preserved. This effect is 
still better produced by alcohol. 

Arsenic and its various preparations are 
the most active of all poisons. A nausea, 
sickness, and reaching, commonly ensue in 
half an hour after taking it, followed by 
violent vomitings, hiccups, and pains in 
the stomach and bowels ; convulsions, and 
palsies of the limbs presently succeed, with 
intense heats, cold sweats, palpitations of 
the heart, extreme anxiety, prostration of 
strength, thirst and dryness of the mouth 
and throat; loss of reason, and at last 
death. If the quantity taken has been 
considerable, the stomach and intestines 
are often found, upon dissection, corroded. 



ARS 



ARS 



or perforated ; and the blood is fluid, 
though in general the patient expires before 
the action of the poison has proceeded to 
such a length. After death, the body runs 
into sudden putrefaction. When the quan- 
tity taken does not prove fatal, it occasions 
tremors, palsies, or lingering hectics, and 
in the end death. To detect the presence of 
arsenic, whether taken by design, the wick- 
edness of others, or imprudence, it is ne- 
cessary to throw on live coals, the contents 
of the stomach, when a garlicky smell is 
immediately obvious. On polished copper, 
if heated between its plates, a white spot 
is impressed, or in close vessels, the arsenic 
itself will be found sublimed in the upper 
parts. In the stomach, however, there are 
many substances, which may resemble or 
disguise the smell of arsenic, especially 
if the arsenic be in small quantities. We 
are therefore advised by Hahneman, to boil 
the contents of the stomach of the person 
supposed to be destroyed by this poison, in 
a large quantity of river water; to add to one 
third of the filtered liquor, hot and limp.d 
lime-water ; to another third, water satu- 
rated with hepatic gas ; and to the remain- 
der, a solution of copper, in pure aqua 
ammoniac. Each fluid is rendered turbid, 
if the suspected contents contain arsenic, 
and the sediment, thrown on live coals, 
emits the odour of garlic. The sediment 
of the lime-water is again dissolved by a 
recent solution of arsenic ; the orange-co- 
loured sediment, from the hepatic gas 
thrown on the coals, takes fire, and the smell 
of sulphur is observed previous to that of 
the garlic ; while the yellow-green sediment 
of the copper is soluble in pure ammonia, 
and acids of every kind. Arsenic, however, 
is a valuable internal remedy, in its appro- 
priate dose, viz. about one-eighteenth part 
of a grain. Liquor arsenicalis. 

AHSKNIOUS ACID. White arsenic. 
Oxyd of arsenic. The earliest chymists 
were embarrassed in the deiermination of 
the nature of the poisonous white substance 
known in commerce by the name of -while 
arsenic. Subsequent experiments have 
shewn that this substance is metallic arse- 
nic oxygenated in the first degree. The 
name of arsenious add is therefore given to 
it. It is sometimes found in nature in 
sublimed crystals, in volcanoes ; and in 
masses, or in stalactites among the ores of 
arsenic, cobalt, bismuth, and nickel. 

It possesses a weak sub-acid taste, which 
slowly manifests itself. Though of but a 
feeble acidity, it sensibly reddens the tinc- 
ture of cabbage and litmus. If placed on burn- 
ing coals, or on a red-hot iron, it is volatili- 
zed in the form of a white vapour, which 
has a strong smell of garlic. It is slightly 
soluble in water. With phosphoric and 
tx>racic acids it fuses into glass. It decom- 
poses the nitrates and the super-oxygena- 
ted muriate of potash. It unites with ma- 



ny of the earths and alkalies, and forms sa- 
line compounds. 

Methods of obtaining Jlrsenious Acid. 1. 
Pulverize arsenic, and put as much of it 
into a Florence flask as will fill it about 
one half, or less. Introduce a little tow or 
cotton, into the neck of the flask, and apply 
the heat of a lamp. A dense white smoke 
will be formed, and become precipitated 
on the internal sides of the flask. If the 
process be kept up till all the arsenic be 
oxidated, (which may be known by intro- 
ducing a wire into the flask for a moment, 
which will become covered with a white 
crust, if the sublimation be not completed,) 
and the heat be then gradually augmented, 
the sublimed arsenious acid undergoes a 
sort of fusion, and an opake white mass, 
similar to that met with in commerce, is 
obtained. 

2. The arsenious acid of the shops (or 
white arsenic) is chiefly obtained from ar- 
senical ores of cobalt. These ores are 
thrown into a furnace, resembling a baker's 
oven, with a long flue, or chimney, either 
horizontal or winding, into which the fumes 
pass, and are condensed into a greyish or 
blackish powder. This is refined by a se- 
cond sublimation, in close vessels, with a 
little alkali to arrest the impurities. As 
the heat is considerable, it melts the subli- 
med arsenious acid into those opake crys- 
talline masses which are known in com- 
merce by the name of white arsenic. 

Arsenious acid, united with different ba- 
ses, forms salts called AIISENITES. 

ARSENIC ACID. This is arsenic fully 
oxygenated. It is always a product of art. 

It is capable of existing in the solid state. 
It appears in the form of a white pulveru- 
lent matter. It attracts humidity from the 
air. It is soluble in water. The solution 
possesses a considerable acid taste. It may 
be evaporated to dryness, and even con- 
verted into glass. It is decomposable by 
all combustible bodies, and by many oxyds. 
It is soluble in some acids, but without 
change, or intimate combination. 

Method of obtaining Arsenic Acid. Take 
two ounces of white arsenic in powder, and 
put it into a tubulated retort; pour on it six 
or seven ounces of muriatic acid, and apply 
the heat of a lamp until the arsenious acid 
is dissolved. Then add three orfour ounces 
of nitric acid, and heat it again gradually. 
An intestine motion now takes place, and 
much red vapour, or nitrous gas, is extri- 
cated. As soon as in the progress of the 
operation, the red vapours have ceased, an 
ounce of finely powdered arsenious acid is 
to be again added, and the solution effected 
as before, by a gentle ebullition ; to this 
two ounces of nitric acid must be added, 
which will produce a second effervescence 
and discharge of red vapours : the distilla- 
tion must now be continued to dryness, 
and the fire must be urged towards 



ART 



ART 



the end, to such a degree, as to make the 
residual mass thoroughly red-hot. This 
mass is arsenic acid, which may either be 
preserved in that form, or be dissolved in 
boiling distilled water. 

Arsenic acid, united to different bases, 
forms saline compounds, called ARSE- 
NIATES. The only one used in medicine 
is the arseniate of potash. See Liquor ar- 
senicalis. 

ARSBNICI OXTDUM PBSPARATUM. Pre- 
pared arsenious acid. It is sometimes 
used as a caustic. 

ARSENICUM ALBUM. White arsenic. 
Rat's-bane. See Arsenious acid. 

ARSENICAL CAUSTIC. A species of caustic 
said to possess useful properties, indepen- 
dent of those of destroying morbid parts 
to which it is applied. It is composed of 
two parts of levigated antimony to one of 
white arsenic. This is the caustic so ex- 
tensively employed under the name of arse- 
nical caustic, by the late Mr. Justamons, 
in his treatment of cancers. 

Arsenical solution- See Liquor arsenicalis. 

ARTEMISIA. (From a queen of that 
name, who first used it ; or from Ag-re^u/f, 
Diana ; because it was formerly used in 
the diseases of women, over whom she pre- 
sided.) The name of a genus of plants in 
the Linnzan system. Class, Syngenesia. 
Order, Polygamia superfua. Mugwort. 

ARTEMISIA ABROTANUM. The systema- 
tic name for the abrotanum of the pharma- 
copoeias. See Abrotanum. 

ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM. The systema- 
tic name for the Absynthium vulgare of the 
pharmacopoeias. See Jlbsynthium vulgare. 

ARTEMISIA JUDIACA. The systematic 
name for the Santonicum of the pharmaco- 
poeias. See Santonicum, 

ARTEMISIA MARITIMA. The systematic 
name for the Jlbsynthium maritimum of the 
pharmacopoeias. See Absynthium mari- 
timum. 

ARTEMISIA PONTICA. The systematic 
name for the Absynthium ponticum. See 
Jlbsynthium Ponticum. 

ARTEMISIA RUPESTRIS. The systematic 
name for the genipi album of the pharmaco- 
poeias. See Genipi album. 

ARTEMISIA VULGARIS. Mugwort. 
This plant, Artemisia, fnliis pinnatifidis, 
plants, incisis, subtus tomentosis, racemis 
simplicimis recurvatis JJoribns radio quinque- 
Jloro of Linnaeus, is slightly bitter, and, al- 
though in high esteem in former days, is 
now almost wholly forgotten. By beating 
and rubbing* the dried tops of this plant, 
the Japanese prepare a soft substance, 
which they call moxa. See Moxa. 

AUTEMONIUM. (From Artemon, its in- 
ventor.) A coilyrium or wask for the eyes. 

ARTETUA. See Artery. 

ARTKRIACA. (From agT;jg/a, an artery.) 
Medicines formerly used against disorders 
of the aspera arteria. 



ARTBRIJE DiPos^E. The arteries which 
secrete the fat about the kidneys are BO 
called. They are branches of the capsular 
and diaphragmatic, renal, and spermatic 
arteries. 

ARTERIJE VENOS^E. The four pulmonary 
veins were so called by the ancients. 

ARTERIOSUS DUCTUS. See Ductus arte- 
riosus. 

ARTERIOTOMY. (From &$>i$i*, an 
artery, and T /xvw, to cut. The opening of 
an artery. This operation is only perform- 
ed on the temporal artery. 

ARTERY. (From w, air, and Tg, to 
keep ; so called because the ancients sup- 
posed that only air was contained in them.) 
Arteria. Arteries are membranous pulsa- 
ting canals, which gradually become less 
as they proceed from the heart. They are 
composed of three membranes ; a common 
or external , a muscular ; and an internal 
one, which is very smooth. They origin- 
ate from the heart ; the pulmonary artery 
from the right ventricle, and the aorta from 
the left : the other arteries are all branch- 
es of the aorta. Their termination is either 
in the veins, or in capillary exhaling ves- 
sels, or they anastomose with one another. 
It is by their means that the blood is car- 
ried from the heart to every part of the 
body, for nutrition, preservation of life 
generation of heat, and the secretion of the 
different fluids. The action of the arteries, 
called the pulse, corresponds with that of 
the heart, and is effected by the contrac- 
tion of their muscular, and great elasticity 
of their innermost, coat. 

A Table of the Arteries. 

All the arteries originate from the pul- 
monary artery and the aorta. 

The pulmonary artery emerges from the 
right ventricle of the heart, soon divides 
into a right and left branch, which are dis- 
tributed by innumerable branches through 
the lungs. 

The aorta arises from the left ventricle 
of the heart, and supplies every part of the 
body with blood, in the following order : 

a. It first forms an arch / 

b. It then descends along the spine, and 

c. It divides into the two iliacs. 

a. The ARCH or THE AORTA gives off three 
bra.ncb.es. 

I. The arteria innominata, which divides 
into the right carotid and right subclavian. 

II. The left carotid. 
HI. The left subclavian. 

I. The carotids are divided into external 
and internal. 

The external carotids give off 

1. The thyroid, 

2. The lincrual, 

3. The labial, 

4. T! ic inferior pharyngeal, 

5. The occipital, 

6. The posterior aim's, 

7. The internal maxillary, from which the 



ART 



ART 



spinouf artery of the dura main*, the low- 
er maxillary, and several branches about 
the palate and orbit arise, 
8. The temporal. 

The internal carotid affords 

1. The ophthalmic, 

2. The middle cerebral, 

3. The communicant, which innosculates 
with the vertebral. 

II. The subelavians give off the follow- 
ing branches : 

1. The internal mammary, from which the 
thymic, comes phrenici, pericardiac, and 
phrenico-pericardiac arteries arise, 

2. The inferior thyroid, which gives off the 
tracheul, ascending thyroid, and transver- 
salis humeri. 

3. The vertebral, which proceeds within the 
vertebrae, and forms within the cranium 
the basilary artery, from \vhich the ante- 
rior cerebelli, the posterior cerebri, and 
many branches about the bruin are given off, 

4. The cervicaUs profunda, 

5. The cervicaUs superficialis, 

6. The superior intercostal. 

7. The supra-scapular. 

As soon as the subclavian arrives at Hie 
arm-pit, it is called the axillary artery ; and 
when the latter reaches the arm, it is called 
the brachial. 

The axillary artery gives off, 

1. Four mammary arteries, 

2. The sub-scapular, 

3. The posterior circumjlex, ^ 

4. The anterior circumjlex, which ramify 

about the shoulder-joint. 
The brachial artery gives off, 

1. Many lateral branches, 

2. The profunda humeri superior, 

3. The profunda humeri inferior, 

4. The great anastomosing artery, which 

ramifies about the elbow-joint; 

The brachial artery then divides, about 
the bend of the arm, into the ulnar and ra- 
dical arteries, which are ramified to the 
ends of the fingers. 

The ulnar artery gives off, 

1. Several recurrent branches, 

2. The common interosseal, of which the 

dorsal, ulnar, the pulmaris profunda, 
the palmary arch, and the digitals, are 
branches. 
The radial artery gives off, 

1. The radial recurrent, 

2. The superjidalis voice, and then divides 

into the palmarit profunda and the 
digitals. 

b. The DESCENDING AORTA g'lVBS off, 

In the breast, 

1. The bronchial, 

2. The cesophageal, 

3. The intercostals, 

4. The inferior diaphragmatic : 
Within the abdomen, 

1. The caliac, which divides into three 
branches : 
1. The hepatic, from which are given 



off, before it reaches the liver, 
*. The duodena-gastric, which sends off 

the right gastro-epiploic and the pan- 

crcatico-duodenal, 
@. The pilorica superior hepitaca / 
2. The coronaria ventriculi, 
5. The splenic, which emits the great and 

small pancreatics, the posterior gastric, 

the left gastro-epiploic, and the vasa 

bre.via ; 

2. The superior mesentric, 

3. The emulgents, 

4. The spermatics, 

5. The inferior mesentric, 

6. The lumbar arteries, 

7. The middle sacral. 

c. The aorta then bifurcates into the 
ILIACS, each of which divides into external 
and internal. 

The internal iliac, called also hypogastrie, 
gives off, 

1. The lateral sacrats, 

2. The gluteal, 

3. The ischiatic, 

4. The pudical, from which the external 

h&morrhoidal, the perineal, and the ar- 
tertte penis arise, 

5. The obturatory. 

The external iliac gives off, in the groin, 

1. The epigastric, 

2. The circunijlexa iliaca ; 

It then passes under Poupart's ligament, 
and is called the femoral artery ,- and sends 
off, 

1. The profunda, 

2. The ramus anastomoticus magnus, which 

runs about the knee-joint ; 

Having reached the ham, where it gives 
off some small branches, it is termed the 
popliteal. It then divides into the anterior 
and posterior tibial. 

The tibialis antica gives off, 

1. The recurrent, 

2. The internal matteolar, 

3. The external malleolar, 

4. The tarseal, 

5. The metatarseal, 

6. The dorsales externa halices. 
The posterior tibial sends off, 

1. The nutritia tibitf, 

2. Many small branchet, 

3. The internal plantar, 

4. The external plantar, from which an arch 

is formed, that gives off the digitals of 
the toes. 

ARTH ANITA. (From ctflot, bread ; be- 
cause it is the food of swine.) The herb 
sow-bread. See Cyclamen. 

AHTHEMBOLUS. (From agSgov, a joint, 
s/xC*A.Aa, to impel.) An instrument for re- 
ducing luxated bones. 

ARTHRITICA. (From a^gtris, the gout.) 
1. The herb ground-pine; so called because 
it was thought good against gouty disorders. 

2. Remedies for the gout. 

ARTHRITIS. (From a/iflgoc, a joint ; 
because it is commonly confined to the 



ART 

joint.) The gout. Dr. Cullen, in his No- 
sology, gives it the name of podagra, be- 
cause he considers the foot to be the seat of 
idiopathic gout. It is arranged in the class 
pyrexice and order phlegmusice, and is di- 
vided imo four species, the regular, atonic, 
retrocedent, and misplaced. The gout is a 
very painful disease, preceded usually by 
flatulency and indigestion, and accompa- 
nied by fever, pains in the joints of the 
hands and feet, particularly in that of the 
great-toe, and which returns by paroxysms, 
occurring chiefly in the spring and begin- 
ning of winter. The only disorder lor 
which it can possibly be mistaken, is the 
rheumatism ; and cases may occur wherein 
there may be some difficulty in making a 
just discrimination : but the most certain 
way of distinguishing them will be, to gi\ e 
due consideration to the predisposition in 
the habit, the symptoms which have pie- 
ceded, the parts affected, the recurrences 
of the disease, and its connexion with 
other parts of the system. Its attacks are 
muchx;orifined to the male sex, particularly 
those of a corpulent habit, and robust bo- 
dy j but every now and then we meet with 
instances of it in robust females. Those 
who are employed in constant bodily la- 
bour, or who live much upon vegetable 
food, as likewise those who make no use of 
wine, or other fermented liquors, are sel- 
dom afflicted with the gout. The disease 
seldom appears at an earlier period of life 
than from five-and-thirty to forty; and, 
when it does, it may be presumed to arise 
from, an hereditary disposition. Indolence, 
inactivity, and too free a use of tartareous 
wines, fermented liquors, and animal food, 
are the principal causes which give rise to 
the gout ; but it may likewise be brought 
on by great sensuality and excess in venery, 
intense and close application to study, long 
Want of rest, grief, or uneasiness of mind, 
exposure to cold, too free a use of accidula- 
ted liquors, a sudden change from a full to 
a spare diet, the suppression of any accus- 
tomed discharge, or by excessive evacua- 
tions ; and that it sometimes proceeds 
from an hereditary disposition, is beyond 
all doubt, as females who have been re- 
marked for their great abstemiousness, and 
youths of a tender age, have been attacked 
with it. 

1. Arthritis regularis. A paroxysm of 
regular gout sometimes comes on sudden- 
ly, without any previous warning ; at other 
times it is preceded by an unusual coldness 
of the feet and legs, a suppression of per- 
spiration in them, and numbness, or with a 
sense of prickling along the whole of the 
lower extremities ; and with these symp- 
toms the appetite is diminished, the sto- 
mach is troubled with flatulency and indiges- 
tion, a degree of torpor and languor is felt 
over the whole body, great lassitude aad 
fatigue are experienced after the least ex- 



ART 73 

ercise, the body is costive and the urine 
pallid. On the night of the attack, the 
patient perhaps goes to bed in tolerable 
health, and, af er a few hours, is awakened 
by the severity of the piin, most common- 
ly in the first joint of the great-toe ; some- 
times, however, it attacks other parts 
of the foot, the heel, calf of the leg, or 
perhaps the whole of the foot. The^pain 
resembles that of a dislocated bone, and 
is attended with the sensation as if cold 
water was poured upon the part ; and 
this pain becoming more violent, is suc- 
ceeded by rigors and other febrile symp- 
toms, together with a severe throbbing 
and inflammation in the part. Sometimes 
both feet become swelled and inflamed, so 
that neither of them can be put to the 
ground ; nor can the patisnt endure the 
least motion, without suffering excruciating 
pain. Towards morning, he falls asleep, 
and a gentle sweat breaks out, and termi- 
nates the paroxysm, a number of which 
constitutes what is called a fit of the gout ; 
the duration of the fit will be longer or 
shorter, According to the disposition of the 
body to the disease, the season of the year, 
and the age and strength of the patient. 
When a paroxysm has thus taken place, al- 
though there is an alleviation of pain at the 
expiration of some hours, still the patient 
is not entirely relieved from it ; and, for 
some evenings successively, he has a return 
both of pain and fever, which continue 
with more or less violence, until morning. 
The paroxysms, however, prove usually 
more mild every day, till at length the dis- 
ease goes off either by perspiration, urine, 
or some other evacuation ; the parts which 
have been affected becoming itchy, the 
cuticle falling oft' in scales from them, and 
some slight degree of lameness remaining. 
At first, an attajck of gout occurs, perhaps, 
only once in two or three years ; it then 
probably comes on every year, and, at 
length, it becomes more frequent, and is 
more severe, and of longer duration, each 
succeeding fit. In the progress of the dis- 
ease, various parts of the body are affected, 
and translations take place from one joint, 
or limb, to another; and, after frequent 
attacks, the joints lose their strength and 
flexibility, and become so st iff as to be de- 
prived of all motion. Concretions, of a 
chalky nature, are likewise formed upon 
.the outside of the joints, and nephritic af- 
fections of the kidneys arise from a depo- 
site of the same kind of matter in them 
which, although fluid at first, becom s dry 
and firm at last, and, when put into acids, 
is perfectly soluble. 

2. Arthritis atonica. Atonic gout. It 
sometimes happens that, although a gouty 
diathesis prevails in the system, yet, from 
certain causes, no inflammatory affection 
of the joints is produced ; in which case, -the 
stomach becomes particularly affected, and 



74 



ART 



the patient is troubled with flatulency, in- 
digestion, loss of appetite, eructations, 
nausea, vomiting 1 , and severe pains ; and 
these affections are often accompanied with 
much dejection of spirits, and oiher hypo- 
chondriucal symptoms. In some cases, the 
head is affected with pain and giddiness, 
and now and then with a tendency to apo- 
plexy; and in other cases, the viscera of 
the thorax suffer from the disease, and pal- 
pitations, famtings, and asthma arise. This 
jfi what is called atonic gout. 

3. Arthritis retrograda Retrocedent 
gout. It sometimes happens that, after 
the inflammation has occupied a joint, in- 
stead of its continuing- the usual time, and 
so going off gradually, it ceases suddenly, 
and is translated to some internal part. The 
term of retrocedent gout is applied to oc- 
currences of this nature. When it fulls on 
the stomach, it occasions nausea, vomiting, 
anxiety, or great pain ; when on the heart, 
it brings on syncope ; when on the lungs, 
it produces an affection resembling asthma; 
and, when it occupies the head, it is apt to 
give rise to apoplexy, or palsy. 

4. Arthritis aberrans, or misplaced gout, 
is when the gouty diathesis, instead of 
producing the inflammatory affection of the 
joints, occasions an inflammatory affec- 
tion of some internal part, and which ap- 
pears from the same symptoms that at- 
tend the inflammation of those parts from 
other causes. All occurrences of this na- 
ture, as well as of the two former, are to 
be regarded as attacks of irregular gout 
and are to be guarded against as much as 
possible. 

ARTHROCACJ:. (From et^B^ov, a joint.) 
An ulcer of the cavity of the bone, 

ARTHRODIA. (From 0|o. to arti- 
culate.) A species of diarthrosis, or move- 
able connexion of bones, in which the head 
of one bone is received into the superficial 
cavity of another, so as to admit of motion 
in every direction, as the head of thehume- 
rus with the glenojd cavity of the scapula. 

ARTHRODYN1A. (From ttfipov, a joint, 
and ufwH, pain.) Chronic pains in the joints, 
without pyrexia. It is one of the termina- 
tions of acute rheumatism. See JKheuma- 
tismus. 

ARTHROPUOSIS. (From apQpov, a joint, 
and tcruov, pus.) jirthropyosis. A collec- 
tion of pus in a joint. It is, however, fre- 
quently applied to other affections, as lum- 
bago psoadica, &c. 

ARTHROSIS. (From *0goo> to articu- 
late, or join together.) Articulation. 

Artichoke. See Cynara. 

Artichoke, French. See Cynara. 

ARTICHOKE, JERUSALEM. Although for- 
merly in estimation for the table, this plant 
ffelianthu* tnberosus of Linnaeus, is now 
neglected, it being apt to produce flatulen- 
cy and dyspepsia. 

ARTUULARIS. A name given to a dis- 



ARU 

ease which more immediately infests the 
articnli, or joints. The moTDUS articula- 
ris is synonymous with the Greek word 
arthritis, and our gout. A branch of the 
basilic vein is called articularis vena, be- 
cause it passes under the joint of the 
shoulder. 

ARTICULATION. (From articuhts, a 
joint.) The skeleton is composed of a 
great number of hones, which are all so 
admirably construcied, and with so much 
affinity xo each oilier, that the extremity 
of every bone is perfectly adjusted to the 
end of the bone with which it is connected; 
and this connexion is termed their articu- 
lation. Anatomists distinguish three kinds 
of articulation: the first they name Diar- 
throsis; the second, Syharthrosis j and the 
third Amphiarthrosis ; which see, under 
their respective heads. 

ARTISCUS. (From a^ros, bread.) Atroch; 
so called because they are made like little 
loaves. 

ARTOCREAS. (From agree, bread, and 
x*7rof, fruit.) A nourishing food, made of 
bread and various meats, boiled together. 
Galen. 

ARTOGALA. (From agi-o?, bread, and 
y*.X(t, milk.) A cooling food, made of bread 
and milk.) A poultice. 

ARTOMELI. (From atgTo?, bread, and 
f4t\i, honey.) A cataplasm made of bread 
and honey. Galfn. 

ARUM. (From the Hebrew word jaron 
which signifies a dart, so named because its 
leaves are shaped like a dart ; or from */>*, 
injury.) 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system. Class, Gynandria. Or- 
der, Polyandria. Arum, or wake-robin. 

2. The pharmacopceial name of the 
common arum, or wake-robin. 

Arum maculatum of Linnaeus : acaule 
foliis hastatis integerrimis, spadice clavato. 
The root is the medicinal part of this plant, 
which, when recent, is very acrimonious ; 
and, upon being chewed, excites an in- 
tolerable sensation of burning and prickling 
in the tongue, which continues for several 
hours. When cut in slices, and applied to 
the skin, it has been known to produce 
blisters. This acrimony, however, is gra- 
dually lost by drying, and may be so far 
dissipated by the application of heat, as 
to leave the root a bland farinaceous ali- 
ment. In this state, it has been made in- 
to a wholesome bread. It has also been 
prepared as starch. Its medicinal quality, 
therefore, resides wholly in the active vo- 
latile matter, and consequently the pow- 
dered root must lose much of its power, on 
being long kept. Arum is certainly a 
powerful stimulant, and, by promoting the 
secretions, may be advantageously em- 
ployed in cachetic and chlorotic cases, 
in rheumatic affections, and in various 
other complaints of phlegmatic and torpid 



I 



ARY 



constitutions ; but more especially in a* 
Weakened or relaxed state of the stomach, 
occasioned by the prevalence of viscid mu- 
cus. It this root is given in powder, great 
cai-e should be taken that it be young and 
newly dned, when it may be used in the 
dose of a scruple, or more, twice a day ; 
bu in rheumatisms, and other disorders re- 
quiring the full effect of this medicine, the 
root snould be given in a recent state; and, 
to cover the .nsupportable pungency it dis- 
covers on the tongue, Dr. Lewis advises us 
to administer it in the form of emulsion, 
with gum-arabic and spermaceti, increas- 
ing the dose from ten grains to upwards of 
a scruple, three or four times a day. In 
this way, it generally occasioned a sensa- 
tion of slight warmth about the stomach, 
and afterwards, in the remoter parts, ma- 
nifestly promoted perspiration, and fre- 
quently produced a plentiful sweat. Se- 
ve'-al obstinate rheumatic pains were re- 
moved by this medicine. The root an- 
swers quite as well as garlic for cataplasms, 
to be applied on the feet in deliriums. The 
London College, in their pharmacopoeia, 
1788, ordered a conserve, in the propor- 
tion of half a pound of the fresh root to a 
pound and a half of double refined sugar, 
beat together in a mortar, which appears 
to be one of the best f )rms of exhibiting 
arum, as its virtues are destroyed by 
drying, and are not extracted by any men- 
struum. It may be given to adults in doses 
of a drachm. 

ARUM MACULATUM. The systematic 
name for the arum of the pharmacopoeias. 
See Arum. 

ARYTJENO-EPIGLOTT1DEUS. Innes. 
Albinus, Jlrytxno-Epiglottici of Winslow. 
A muscle composed of a number of fibres 
running between the arytxnoid cartilage 
and epiglottis. It pulls the side of the 
epiglottis towards the external opening of 
the glottis, and when both act, they pull 
it close upon the glottis. 

ARYT^ENOID CARTILAGE. Cartilago 
arytaemddea. The name of two cartillages 
of the larynx. See Larynx. 

ARYT^ENOIDES. (From aptl***, a 
funnel, and <fo?, shape.) The name of 
some parts, from their being funnel-shaped. 

ARYT^ENOIDEUS MAJOR. See JLrytxnoi- 
deus transversui. 

ARYT^IUOIDECS MINOR. See Arytx- 
fioideus nbUquus. 

ARYTJENOIDEUS OBLIQUUS. In- 
nes. Albinus. and Winslow. JLrytaenoi- 
deus minor of Douglas. A muscle of the 
glottis, which arises from the base of one 
arytaenoid cartilage, and crossing its fellow, 
is inserted near the tip of the other ary- 
tsenoid cartilage. It is a muscle that is 
occasionally wanting; but when present, 
and both muscles act, their use is to pull 
the arytaenoid Cartilages towards each 
other. 



ASA J 

ARYT^ENOIDEUS TRANSVERSUS, of 

Innes, Aibinus, Winslow. Arytaenoideus 
major of Douglas. An azygos, or single 
muscle of the glottis, that arises from the 
sideof one arytaenoid cartilage, from near 
its articulation with the cricoid to near its 
tip. The fibres run across, and are insert- 
ed in the same manner into the other ary- 
tasnoid cartilage. Its use is to shut the 
glouis, by bunging the two aryiaenoid car- 
tilages, With their ligaments, nearer to each 
other. 

ASAFCETIDA. (From the Hebrew word 
asa, to heal.) Hingiseh of the Persians, 
Altiht of the Arabians. By some thought 
to be the a-i^tov, vel, evrof o't^is of Dios- 
corides, Theophratus, and Hippocrates. 
Laser et laserpitian of the Latins. Assa- 
foe< ida gum resin. The plant which affords 
this gum resin, is the Ferula assafcetida of 
L'nnxus ifoltis atternatim sinuatis, obtusia. 
Class, Pentandna. Order, Digynia. It 
grows plentifully on the mountains in the 
province:, of Chorasaan and Laar in Persia. 

The process of obtaining u is as follows : 
the earth x is cleared away from the top of 
the roots of the oldest plants ; the leaves 
and stalks are then twisted away, and 
made into a covering, to screen the root 
from the sun ; in this state the root is left 
for forty days, when the covering is re- 
moved, and the top ot the root cut off 
transversely; it is then screened again 
from ihe sun for forty-eight hours, when 
the juice it exudes is scraped off, and ex- 
posed to the sun to harden. A second 
transverse section of the root is made, and 
the exudation suffered to continue for 
forty-eight hours, and then scraped off. 
In this manner it is eight times repeatedly 
collected in a period of six weeks. The 
juice thus obtained has a bitter, acrid, 
pungent taste, and is well known by its 
peculiar nauseous smell, the strength of 
which is the surest test of its goodness. 
This odour is extremely volatile, and of 
course the drug loses much of its efficacy 
by keeping. It is brought to us in large 
irregular masses, composed of various little 
shining lumps, or grains, which are partly 
of a whitish colour, partly r ddish, and part- 
ly of a violet hue. Those masses are ac- 
counted the best which are clear, of a pale 
reddish colour, and variegated with a great 
number of elegant while tears. This con- 
crete juice consists of two-thirds of gum 
and one-third of resin, its taste and smell 
residing in the resinous part. It yields all 
its virtues to alcohol. Triturated with 
water, it forms a milky-like mixture, the 
resin being diffused by the medium of the 
gum. Distilled with water, it affords a 
small quantity of essential oil. It is the 
most powerful of all the foetid gums, and is 
a most valuable remedy. It is most com- 
monly employed in hysteria, hypochondria- 
sis, some symptoms of dyspepsia, flatulent 



76 



ASA 



colics, and in most of those diseases termed 
nervous, bu. its chief use is derived from 
its antispasmodic effects ; and it is thought 
to be the most powerful remedy we 
possess, for tho^e peculiar convulsive and 
spasmodic affections, which often recur in 
the first o these diseases, both taken into 
the stomach and in the way of enema. It 
is also recommended as an emmenagogue, 
anthelmintic, antiasthmatic, and anodyne. 
Dr. Cullen prefers it ;s an expectorant to 
gum ammoniacum. Where we wish it to 
act immediately as an antispasmodic, it 
should be used in a fluid form, as that of 
tinc.ure, from half a drachm to two 
drachms. When given in the form of a 
pill, or- triturated with water, its usual dose 
is from 5 to 20 grs. When in the form of 
enema, two drachms are to be diffused m 
eight ounces of warm milk or water. It is 
sometimes applied externally as a plaster 
and stimulating remedy, and is much 
used in hysteria, hypochondriasis, dyspep- 
sia, &c. 

ASAPHATUM. (From at, neg. and O-O.QK, 
clear.) An intercutaneous itch, generated 
in the pores, like worms with black heads : 
so called by reason of their minuteness : 
they are hardly visible. 

ASAPHIA. (From <*, neg. and <r*<f>5, 
clear.) A defect in utterance or pronun- 
ciation 

ASARABACCA. See Asarum* 

AFA.UI FOLIA. Asarabacca leaves. The 
leaves of the Asurum Europxum. See 
Asarum. 

AS ARUM. (From a, neg. and <rtttpa>, to 
adorn, because it was not admitted into 
the ancient coronal wreaths.) Asarabacca. 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnzean system. Class, J)odecandria. 
Order, Monogynia. 

2. The pharmacopoeial name of the asa- 
rabacca. 

Asarum Europium of Linnaeus, foliis 
reniformibus obtusis binis. 

It is a native of England, but not very 
common. The leaves of this plant are 
extremely acrid, and are occasionally used, 
when powdered, as a sternutatory. For 
this purpose the leaves, as being less acrid 
than the roots, are preferred, and in mo- 
derate doses not exceeding a few grains, 
snuffed up the nose several evenings, pro- 
duce a pretty large watery discharge, 
which continues for several days together, 
by which head-ache, tooth-ache, opthalmia, 
and some paralytic and soporific complaints 
have been effectually relieved. 

Prior to the introduction of ipecacuanha, 
the leaves and root of this plant were fre- 
quently employed on account of their 
emetic power : the dose of the dried leaves 
was 20 grains ; of the dried roots 10 grains. 
As they were occasionally violent m their 
operation, they have fallen into disuse. 

EUHOPJBUM. The systematic 



ASC 

name of the asarabacca of the shops. See 
Asarwn. 

ASCALONJTIS. A species of onion. 

ASCAUIDES. The plural of ascaris. See 
Ascaris. 

ASCARIS. (From *<na>, to move 
about ; so called from its continued 
troublesome motion.) There are several 
kinds of worms distinguished by this term ; 
but those which claim a place here as be- 
longing only to the human body, are: 

1. Jlscaris vermicularis, the thread or 
maiv worm, winch is very small and slen- 
der, not exceeding half an inch in length : 
they inhabit the rectum. 

2. Jlscaris Iwnbricoides, the long and round 
worm, which is a foot in length, and about 
the breadth of a goose-quill. 

ASCENDEXS OULIQ.UUS. See ObUquus as- 
cendeus. 

ASCIA. An axe or. chissel. A simple 
bandage ; so called from its shape in posi- 
tion. Galen. 

ASCITES. (From cta-nof, a sack, or bot- 
tle : so called from its bottle-like protube- 
rancy.) Dropsy of the belly. A tense, 
but scarcely elastic, swelling of the abdo- 
men from accumulation of \vater. Cullen 
ranks this genus of disease in the class 
^ and order i?itumescenti<s. He 



enumerates two species : 

1. Jlsdtes abdominalis, when the water is 
in the cavity of the peritonaeum, which is 
known by the equal swelling of the parietes 
of the abdomen. 

2. Astiles saccatus, or encysted dropsy, 
in which the water is encysted, as in the 
ovarium ; the fluctuation is here less evi- 
dent, and the swelling is at first partial. 

Ascites is often preceded by loss of ap- 
petite, sluggishness, dryness of the skin, 
oppression at the chest, cough, diminution 
of the natural discharge of urine, and cos- 
tiveness. Shortly after the appearance of 
these symptoms, a protuberance is per- 
ceived in the hypogastrium, which extends 
gradually, and keeps on increasing, until 
the whole abdomen becomes at length uni- 
formly swelled and tense. The distension 
and sense of weight, although considerable, 
vary somewhat according to the posture of 
the body, the weight being felt the most 
on that side on which the patient lies, whilst 
at the same time, vhe distension becomes 
somewhat less on the opposite side. In 
general the practitioner may be sensible of 
the fluctuation of the water, by applying his 
left hand on one side of the abdomen, and 
then striking on the other side with his 
right. In some cases it will be obvious to 
the ear. As the collection of water be- 
comes more considerable, the difficulty of 
breathing is much increased, the counte- 
nance exhibits a pale and bloated appear- 
ance, an immoderate thirst arises, the skin 
is dry and parched, and the urine is very 
scanty, thick, high coloured, and deposits a 



ASI 

lateritious sediment. With respect to the 
pulse, it is variable, being 1 sometimes con- 
siderably quickened, and at other times, 
slower than natural. The principal diffi- 
culty which prevails in ascites, is the being 
able to distinguish with certainty, when the 
water is in the cavity of the abdomen, or 
when it is in the different states of encysted 
dropsy. To form a just judgment, we 
should attend to the following circum- 
stances: When the preceding symptoms 
give suspicion of a general hydropic dia- 
thesis ; when at the same time, some de- 
gree of dropsy appears in other parts of 
the body ; and when from its first appear- 
ance the swelling has been equally diffused 
over the whole belly, we may generally 
presume that the water is in the cavity 
of the abdomen. But when an ascites 
has not been preceded by any remarkable 
cachectic state of the system, and when, at 
its beginning, the tumour and tension had 
appeared in one part of the belly more 
than another, there is reason to suspect an 
encysted dropsy. Even when the tension 
and tumour of the belly have become gene- 
ral, yet if the system or the body in general 
appear to be little affected ; if the patient's 
strength be little impaired ; if the appetite 
continue pretty entire, and the natural 
sleep be little interrupted ; if the menses 
in females continue to flow as usual ; if 
there be yet no anasarca, or though it 
may have already taken place, if it be 
still confined to the lower extremities, and 
there be no leucophlegmatic paleness or 
sallow colour in the countenance ; if there 
be no fever, nor so much thirst and scarcity 
of urine as occur in a more general affec- 
tion : then according as more of these dif 
ferent circumstances take place, there will 
be the stronger grounds for supposing the 
ascites to be of the encysted kind. 

ASEF. A pustule like a millet seed. 

ASEGO:*. Jlsegen. Jlsogen. Dragon's blood. 

ASCLEPIAS. (From Jlsdepias, its dis- 
coverer; or from JEsculapius^ the god of 
medicine.) The herb swallow-wort. The 
name of a genus of plants in the Linnaean 
system. Class, Pentandria. Order, Digynia. 

ASCLEPIAS VIWCETOXICTTM. The systematic 
name for the vincetoxicum of the pharmaco- 
poeias. See Vincetoxicum. 

ASCLEPIOS. (From Asclepias^ its inven- 
tor.) A dried smegma and collyrium de- 
scribed by Galen. 

ASCOMA. (From euwoc, a bottle.) The 
eminence of the pubes at the years of ma- 
turity ; so called from its shape. 

Jlsh. See Fraxinus. 

ASODES. (From oJa>, to nauseate.) A 
nausea or loathing, or a fever with much 
sense of heat and nausea. Jlretceus. 

ASIATICCM BALSAMTTM. Balm of Gilead. 

ASINUS. The ass. Its milk is much 
esteemed in medicine. See Asses' milk. 

ASIJUNTTM LAC. Asses' milk. 

Asm. (From , neg. and <rtrof t . food.) 



ASP rr 

Asitia. Those are so called who take no 
food far want of appetite. 

As JOG AM. (Indian) A tree growing 
in Malabar and the East Indies, whose 
juice is used against the colic. 

ASPADIALTS, A suppression of urine 
from an irnperforated urethra. 

ASPALATHTTM. The aromatic aloe. 

ASPALATHI LIGSUM. See Lignum aloes. 

ASPARAGUS. (A<T7raga>o?, a young 
shoot, before it unfolds its leaves.) 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system. Class, Ifexandria, Order, 
JWonogynia. Asparagus. 

2. The pharmacopoeia! name of the com- 
mon sparage, or sparrow-grass. 

Asparagus officinalis of Linnaeus. The 
root has been esteemed as a diuretic. It 
is mostly employed as a food, but it con- 
tains very little nourishment, 

ASPASIA. (From *, for */**, together, 
and ff-TTAUi, to draw ) A constructive medi- 
cine for the pudendum muliebre. Capivac. 

ASPERA ARTERIA. (So called from the 
inequality of its cartilages.) See Trachea. 

ASPEItULA. (A dimmutrre o. asper, 
the seeYls being rough.) The name of a ge- 
mis of plants in the Linnaean system. 
Class, Tetrandria. Order, Monogynia. Wood- 
roof. 

ASPERULA ODORATA. The systematic 
name for the officinal matrisylva. See 
Mairisylva. 

ASPHALITIS. A kind of trefoil : the 
last vt-rtebra of the loins. 

ASPHODELUS. (From arms, a ser- 
pent, and cTxo?, fearful ; because it destroys 
the venom of serpents ; or from <r7rotkot, 
ashes, because it was formerly sown upon 
the graves of the dead.) Asphodel. 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system. Class, Hexandria. Order, 
Monogynia. 

2. The pitarmacopoeial name of the daf- 
fodil, or branched asphodel. 

Asphodelns ramosus, of Linnaeus : cauls 
nude, fohis ensiformibus, carinatis, fevibuz. 
The plant was formerly supposed to be 
efficacious in the cure of sordid ulcers. It 
is now wholly laid aside. 

ASPHODELUS UAMOSUS, The systematic 
name for the officinal asphodelus. See As- 
phodelus. 

ASPHYXIA. (From at, priv. and o-<$v%t( t a 
pulse.) The state of the body, during- life, 
in which the pulsation of the heart and 
arteries cannot be perceived. There are 
several species of asphyxia enumerated by 
different authors. See Syncope. 

ASPI DISCUS. (From tta-Trit, a buckler.) 
The sphincter muscle of the anus was 
formerly so called from its shape. Callus 
Aurelianus. 

ASPLENIUM. (From *, priv. and nrMiv 
the spleen; because it was supposed to 
remove disorders of the spleen.) The herb 
spleen-wort. 

The name of a genus of plants m the Lin- 



AST 



AST 



naean system. Class, Cryptogamia. Order, 
IWdt. 

AspLEiriuM RUTA MURARIA. The sys- 
tematic name for the ruta muraria of the 
pharmacopoeias. See Ruta muraria. 

AspLEsnuM SCOLOPENDRIUM. The sys- 
tematic name for the scolopendrium of the 
pharmacopoeias. See Scolopendrium. 

AsPLEIflUM TRICHOMANES. The SVS- 

tematic name for the trichomanes of the 
pharmacopoeias. See Trichmnanes. 

ASABA. A shrub found on the coast of 
Guinea, whose leaves are supposed to dis- 
perse buboes. 

ASSAC. (Arab.) Gum ammoniacum. 

ASSAFOSTIDA. See Assafatida. 

ASSALA. The nutmeg. 

ASSANUS. A weight consisting of two 
drachms. 

ASSARABACCA. See Asarum. 

ASSARIUM. A Roman measure of twelve 
ounces. 

ASSARTHROSIS. See Articulation. 

ASSE. A loathing of food, from a con'- 
flux of humours. Hippocrates. 

ASSES' BULK. This is preferred to cows' 
and other kinds of milk in phthisical cases, 
and where the stomach is weak ; as con- 
taining less oleaginous particies, and being 
more easily converted into chyle. 

ASSIMILATION. ("Assimilatio, from ad, 
and simitis, to make like to.) The con- 
version of the food into nutriment. 

ASSISTENTES^ (From aJ, and sisto, to 
stand near.) A name of the prostate gland ; 
so called because it lies near the bladder. 

ASSODES. (From a,<raiopia t to nauseate, 
or from assare, to burn.) Asodes. A con- 
tinual fever attended with a loathing of 
food. Sauvages calls it Tritxphya asso- 
des ; it is arranged by Cullen under the 
tertian remittents. 

Assos. A name given formerly to aiu- 
men. 

ASTXCUS MARINUS. (From*, neg. 
and ratfa, to distil ; so called from the 
hardnt ss and dryness of its shell.) The 
lobster. The black tips of the claws of 
this fish, and of the sea-crab, and the stony 
concretions in the heads of the astacus 
fluviatillis, called crab's eyes, form some 
of the absorbent preparations of the 
shops. 

ASTACUS FLUVIATILIS. The officinal 
crab, crevis,or cray-fish. 

ASTAPIS. (From <ra.$K tiva, passa.) A 
raisin. 

ASTARZOF. The name of an ointment of 
litharge, house-leek, 8tc. ffaracelsus. 

ASTCHACHILOS. A malignant ulcer, by 
some called araneus. 

AsTEAimuM. (From *r/>, a star.) As- 
tericum. The herb pellitury : so called from 
its star-like form. 

ASTHENIA. (From *, priv. and <rflvo?, 
strength.) Kxtreme debility. The asthe- 
nic diseases form one great branch of the 
Brunonian hypothesis. 



ASTHENOLOGT. (From A, priv. and 0-6 -vt^ 
strength, and xcj/o?, a treatise.) The doc- 
trine of diseases arising from debility. The 
disciples of the Brunonian school, as they 
denominate themselves, maintain peculiar 
opinions 0:1 this subject. 

ASTHMA. (From aa-fl/uaf*, to breathe 
with difficulty.) Difficult respiration, re- 
turning at intervals, with \ sense of stric- 
ture across the breast, and in the lungs ; 
a wheezing, hard cough, at first, but more 
free towards the close of each paroxysm, 
with a discharge of mucus, followed by a 
remission. It is ranked by Cullen in the 
class neuroses, and order sfiasmi. There 
are three species of asthma : 

1. Asthma spontaneum, when without 
any manifest cause. 

2. Asthma plethoricum, when it arises 
from pkihora. 

3. Asthma exanthematicum, originating 
from the repulsion of some acrid hu- 
mour. 

Asthma rarely appears before the age of 
puberty, and seems to attack men more 
frequently than women, particularly those 
of a full habit, in whom it never fails, by- 
frequent repetition, to occasion some de- 
gree of emaciation. In some instances, it 
arises from an hereditary predisposition, 
and in many others, it seems to depend up- 
on a particular constitution of the lungs. 
Dyspepsia always prevails, and appears to 
be a very prominent feature in the predis- 
position. Its attacks are most frequent 
during the heats of summer in the dog- 
days, and in general commence at midnight. 
On the evening preceding an attack of 
asthma the spirits are often much affected, 
and the person experiences a sense of ful- 
ness about the stomach, with lassitude, 
drowsiness, and a pain in the head. On 
the approach of the succeeding evening, he 
perceives a sense of tightness and stricture 
across the breast, and a sense of straitness 
in the lungs, impeding respiration. The 
difficulty of breathing continuing to in- 
crease for some length of time, both inspi- 
ration and expiration are performed slow- 
ly and with a wheezing noise ; the speech 
becomes difficult and uneasy, a propensity 
to coughing succeeds, and the patient 
can no longer remain in a horizontal 
position, being as it were threatened with 
immediate suffocation. These symptoms 
usually continue till towards the approach 
of morning, and then a remission common- 
ly takes place ; the breathing becomes less 
laborious and more full, and the person 
speaks and coughs with greater ease. If 
the cough is attended with an expectora- 
tion of mucus, he experiences much re- 
lief, and soon falls asleep. When he 
awakes in the morning, he still feels some 
degree of tightness across his breast, al- 
though his breathing is probably more 
free and easy, and he cannot bear the least 
motion, without rendering this more diffi- 



ATA 



ATL 



cult and uneasy ; neither can he continue 
in bed, unless his head and shoulders are 
raised to a considerable height. Towards 
evening, heag; in becomes drowsy, is much 
troubled with flatulency, in the stomach, 
and perceives u return of the difficulty of 
breathing, which continues to increase gra- 
dually, till it becomes as violent as on the 
night before. After some nights passed in 
this way, the fits at length moderate, and 
suffer more considerable remissions, parti- 
cularly when they are attended by a copi 
ous expectoration in the mornings, and 
that this continues from time to time 
throughout the day ; and the disease going 
oft' at last, the patient enjoys his usual rest 
by night, without further disturbance. 

ASTITES. (From ad, and sto, \o stand 
near.) A name given by the ancients to 
the prostate glands, because they are situa- 
ted near the bladder. 

ASTRAGALUS. (Ar/w^wc, a cockal, 
or die ; because it is shaped like the die 
used in ancient games.) Ballisfas OB : aria- 
trios : talus : quatrio : tetroros ; cavicula 
cavilla : diabebos: peza. 

1. The name of a bone of the tarsus, up- 
on which the tibia moves. Ancle-bone ; also 
called the sling- -bone, or first bone of the 
foot. It is placed posteriorly and superior- 
ly in the tarsus, and is formed of two parts, 
one large, which is called its body, the 
other small, like a process. The part where 
these two unite is termed the neck. 

2. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnxun system. Class, Diadelphia. Or- 
der, Decandria, Milk-vetch. 

ASTRAGALUS EXCAPUS. Stemless 
milk vetch. The root of this plant, Astra- 
galus acaulis excapus leguminibus lunatis,fo- 
liis "villosis of Lin'nse'is, is said to cure con- 
firmed syphilis, especially when in the form 
of nodes and nocturnal pains. 

ASTRAGALUS TRAGACANTHA. The system- 
atic name for the plant which affords the 
gum tragacanth. See Tragacantha. 

ASTRANTIA VULGARIS. From astrum, a 
star ; so called from the star-like shape of 
its flowers.) Astrantia nigra. The herb 
sanicle master wort. A rustic purge. 

ASTRAPE. (From str/'^a'.to corruscate.) 
Lightning. Galen reckons it among the 
remote causes of epilepsy. 

ASTRICTA. (From astringo t to bind.) 
When applied to the belly, it signifies cos- 
tiveness ; thus alvus astricta. 

Astringents. See Jldstringents. 

ASTRONOMIA. (From *<rgov, a star, 
and vo/iw , a law . ) Astronomy, or the know- 
ledge of the heavenly bodies. Hippocrates 
ranks this and astrology among the neces- 
sary studies of a physician, 

ASUAR. Indian myrobalans, or purging 
nut. 

ASUGAR. jrugo sens, or verdigrise. 

Asuou. Fuligo,orsoot,an antispasmodic. 

AT AC. Nitre. 



ATAXIA. (From A, neg. and Tctro-te, to 
order.) Want of regularity in the symptoms 
of a disease, or of the functions of an ani- 
mal body. 

ATAXIR. (Arab.) A tenesmus : a dis- 
ease of the eyes. 

A.TAXMIR. (Arab.) Removal of preterna- 
tural hairs growing under the natural ones 
on the eye-lids. 

ATEBRAS. A chymical subliming vessel. 

ATECNIA. (From a, neg. and TMTTU, to 
bring forth.) Venereal im potency : ina- 
bility to procreate children. 

ATHAMANTA CRETENSIS. The systematic 
name for the daucns creticus of the phar- 
macopoeias. See Daucns creticus. 

ATHAMANTA oREbsELUftiM. The sys- 
tematic name for the officinal oreosehnum. 
See Oreoselinum, 

ATHANA IA (From *, priv. and SawtTo?, 
death ; so called because its flowers do 
not wither easily ) The immortal plant. 
A name given to tansey : because when 
stuffed up the nose of a dead corpse, it is 
said to prevent putrefaction. See Tanace- 
tum. It means also immortality. The 
name of ah antidote of Galen, and another 
ofOribasius: it is the name also of a col- 
lyrium described by jtius, and of many 
other compositions. 

ATHAXOR. (Arab.) A t chymical di- 
gesting furnace. 

ATHAHA. (From *6/>, corn.) A panada, 
or pap for children, made of bruised corn. 

ATHENA. A plaster in much repute 
among the ancients. 

ATHENATORIUM. A thick glass cover 
formerly used for chymical purposes . 

ATHENIONIS CATAPOTIUM. The name of 
a pill in Celsus's writings. 

ATHENIPPON. Athenippum. Diasmyr* 
nes. The name of a collyrium. 

ATHEROM A. (A^ay./.*, pulse, pap.) 
An encysted tumour that contains a soft 
substance of the consistence of a poultice. 

ATHOJTOU. (Arab.) A chymical furnace. 

ATHYMIA. (From a, neg. and dv/tor, 
courage.) Pusillanimity. Despondence 
synonymous with melancholia. 

ATINCAR. (Arab.) Borax. 

ATLAS. (From <*<r,\o4>, to sustain, be- 
cause it sustains the head ; or from the fa- 
ble of Atlas, who was supposed to support 
the world upon his shoulders.) The name 
of the first cervical vertebra. This vertebra 
differs very much from the others. (See 
Vertebra.} It has no spinous process which 
would prevent the neck from being bent 
backwards, but in its place it has a small 
eminence. The great foramen of this is 
much larger than that of any other verte- 
bra. Its body, which is small and thin, is 
nevertheless firm and hard. It is some- 
what like a ring, and is distinguished into 
its great arch, which serves in the place of 
its body, and its small posterior arch. The 
atlas is joined superiorly to the head by 



80 



ATM 



ginglymus ; and inferiorly, to the second 
cervical vertebra, by means of the inferior 
obiiqae processes and the odontoid process 
by trochoides. 

A ; MOSPHERE. (From aflpo;, vapour 
an. ; a-vjwM/)*, a globe. The elastic invisible 
flu vhich surrounds the earth to an un- 
ki , : weight and encloses it on all sides. 

Neither the properties nor the composi- 
tion of the atmosphere seem to have occu- 
pied much the Attention of the ancients. 

Aristotle considered it as one of the four 
elements, situated between the regions of 
water and fire, and mingled with two ex- 
halations^ the dry and the moist : the first 
of which occasioned thunder, lightning 1 , 
and wind ; while the second produced rain, 
snow, and hail. 

The opinions of the ancients were vague 
co* j cfures, until the matter \vas explained 
bv he sagacity of Hales, and of those phi- 
lo- ..e'S who followed his career. 

Boyle proved beyond a doubv, that the 
atmosphere contained two distinct sub- 
stances : 

1. An elastic fluid distinguished by the 
name ul ,;;r. 

2. Waler in a state of vapour. 
Besides "these two bodies it was supposed 

that the atmosphere contained a great vari- 
ety of other substances which were continu- 
ally mixing with it from the earth, and 
which of en altered its properties and ren- 
dered it noxious or fatal. Since the disco- 
very of carbonic acid gas by Dr. Black, it 
has been ascertained that this elastic flu- 
id always constitutes a part of the atmos- 
phere. 

The constituent parts of the atmosphere, 
therefore, are : 

1. A,r. 

2. Water. 

3. Carbonic acid gas. 

4. Unknown bodies. 

For the properties, composition and ac- 
count of the first, See Air. 

2. Water. That the atmosphere contains 
water, has been always known. The rain and 
dew which so often precipitate from it, the 
clouds and fogs with which it is oft n ob- 
scured, and which deposit moisture on all 
bodies exposed to them, have demonstrated 
its existence in every age. Even when the 
atmosphere is perfectly transparent, water 
may be extracted from it in abundance by 
certain substances. Thus if concentrated 
sulphuric acid he exposed to a : ,r, it gradual- 
ly attracts so much moisture, that its weight 
is increased more than t'aree times : it is 
converted into diluted acid, from which 
the water may be separated by distillation. 
Substances which have the property of ab- 
stracting water from the atmosphere, have 
received the epithet of hygroscopic, because 
they point out the presence of that water. 
Sulphuric acid, the fixed alkalies, muri- 
at of lime, nitrat of lime, and in general 



ATM 

all deliquescent salts, possess this property. 
The greater number of animal and vegeta- 
ble bodies likewise possess it. Many of 
them take \Vater from moist air, but give 
it out again to the air when dry. 
These bodies augment in bulk when they 
receive moisture, and diminish again when 
they part with it Hence some of them 
have been employed as hygrometers or 
measurers of the quantity of moisture con- 
tained in the air around them. This they 
do by means of the increase or diminution 
of their length, occasioned by the addition 
or abstraction of moisture. This change 
of length is precisely marked by means of 
an index. The most ingenious and accurate 
hygrometers, are those of Saussure and 
lieluc. In the first, the substance employ- 
ed to mark the moisture is a human hair, 
which by its contractions and dilatations is 
made to turn round an index. In the second, 
instead of a ha;r, a very fine thin slip of 
whalebone is employed. The scale is di- 
vided into 1000. The beginning of the 
scale indicates extreme dryness, the end 
of it indicates extreme moisture. It 
is graduated by placing it first in air made 
as dry as possible by means of salts, and 
afterwards in air saturated with moisture. 
This gives the extremes of the scale, and 
the interval between them is divided into 
100 equal parts. 

The water, which constitutes a compo- 
nent part of the atmosphere, is chymicaily 
combined with air ; but it exists in two 
different states. A small portion is held 
in solution in the state of water, but by far 
the greater proportion is in the state of an 
elastic fluid, whose specific gravity is to 
that of air as 10 to 12, and chymically com- 
bined with air in the same manner as one 
gas is combined with another. As the 
quantity of the water contained in the at- 
mosphere varies considerably, it is impossi- 
ble to ascertain its amount with any degree 
of accuracy. 

3. Carbonic acid ^ns. The existence of 
carbonic gas as a constituent part of the 
atmosphere, was observed by Dr. Black 
immediately after he had ascertained the 
natu' e of that peculiar fluid. If we ex- 
pose a pure alkali or alkaline earth to the 
atmosphere, it is gradually converted into 
a carbonat by the absorption of carbonic 
acid gas. This fact, which had been long 
knwn, rendered the inference that car- 
bonic acid gas existed in the atmosphere 
unavoidable as soon as the difference 
between a pure alkali and its ca'-honat 
had been ascertained to deperd upon hat 
acid. Not only alkalies and alk&line eanhs 
absorb carbonic acid when exposed to 
the air, but several of the metallic oxydes 
also. 

Carbonic acid gas not only forms a con- 
stituent part of the atmosphere near the 
surface of the earth, but at the greatest 



ATMOSPHERE. 



81 



heights which the industry of man has been 
able to penetrate. Saussure found it at 
the top of Mount Blanc, the highest point 
of the old continent ; a point covered with 
eternal snow, and not exposed to the influ- 
ence of vegetables or animals. Lime wa- 
ter diluted with its own weight of distilled 
water, formed a pellicle on its surface after 
an hour and three quarters exposure to the 
open air on that mountain ; and slips of 
paper moistened with pure pot-ash, acqui- 
red the property of effervescing with acids 
after being exposed an hour and a half in 
the same place. This was* at a height no 
less than 15,668 feet above the level of the 
sea. Humbolt has more lately ascertained 
the existence of this gas in air, brought by 
Mr. Garnerin from a height not less than 
4280 ieet above the surface of the earth, 
to which height he had risen in an air- 
balloon. This fact is a sufficient proof 
that the presense of carbonic acid in air 
does not depend upon the vicinity of the 
earth. 

Now as carbonic acid gas is considerably 
heavier than air, it could not rise to great 
heights in the atmosphere unless it entered 
into combination with the air. We are 
warranted, therefore, to conclude that car- 
bonic acid is not merely mechanically mix- 
ed, but it is chymically combined with 
the other constituent parts of the atmos- 
phere. It is to the affinity which exists be- 
tween carbonic acid and air that we are 
to ascribe the rspidity with which it dis- 
perses itself through the atmosphere, not- 
withstanding its great specific gravity. 
Fontana mixed 20,00 cubic inches of car- 
bonic acid gas with the air of a close room, 
and yet half an hour after he could not 
discover the traces of carbonic acid in that 
air. Water impregnated with carbonic 
acid, when exposed to the air, very soon 
loses the whole of the combined gas. 
And when a phial full of carbonic acid gas 
is left uncorked, the gas, as Bergman first 
ascertained, very soon disappears, and the 
phial is found filled with common air. 

It is owing to this strong affinity between 
air and carbonic acid gas, that it is so diffi- 
cult to detect the presence of that gas in 
air by the common tests. Atmospheric air 
does not render lime water turbid, though 
agitated with it ever so long, or made to 
pass through it in ever so great a quantity. 
Neither has it any effect upon the most de- 
licate vegetable blues. The great quanti- 
ty of air with which it is combined, enve- 
lopes it in such a manner that these bodies 
are not powerful enough to abstract it. We 
must employ for that purpose substances 
which have a very strong affinity for that 
acid, as the alkalies, milk of lime, &c. These 
substances detect its presence by acquiring 
the property of effervescing with acids. 

The difficulty of separating this gas from 
air has hitherto prevented the possibility of 



determining with accuracy the relative 
quantity of it in a given bulk of air ; but 
from the experiments which have been 
made, we may conclude with some degree 
of confidence, that it is not very Different 
from 0.01. From the experiments of Hum- 
bolt, it appears to vary from 0.005 to 0.01. 
This variation will by no means appear im- 
probable, if we consider that immense 
quantities of carbonic acid gas must be 
constantly mixing with the atmosphere, 
as it is formed by the respiration of ani- 
mals, by combustion, and several other 
processes which are going on continual- 
ly. The quantity, indeed, which is daily 
formed bv these processes is so great, that 
at first sight it appears astonishing that 
it does not increase rapidly. The conse- 
quence of such an increase would be fatal, 
as air containing 0.1 of carbonic acid ex- 
tinguishes light and is noxious to animals. 
But there is reason to conclude, that this 
gas is decomposed by vegetables as rapidly 
a"s it forms. 

4. Bodies found in the atmosphere* From 
what has been advanced, it appears that 
the atmosphere consists chiefly of three 
distinct elastic fluids united together by 
chymical affinity ; namely, air, vapour, and 
carbonic acid gas ; differing in their pro- 
portions at different times and in different 
places ; the average proportion of each is 
98.6 air 

1.0 carbonic acid 

0.4 water 

100.0 

But besides these bodies which may be 
considered as the constituent parts of the 
atmosphere, the existence of several other 
bodies has been suspected in it. It is not 
meant in this place to include among those 
bodies electric matter, or the substance of 
clouds and fogs, and those other bodies 
which are considered as the active agents 
in the phenomena of meteorology, but 
merely those foreign bodies which have 
been occasionally found or suspected in 
air. Concerning these bodies, however, 
very little satisfactory is known at pre- 
sent, as we are not in possession, of in- 
struments sufficiently delicate to ascertain 
their presence. We can indeed detect se- 
veral of them actually mixing with air, but 
what becomes of them afterwards we are 
unable to say. 

1. Hydrogen gas is said to have been 
found in air situated near the crater of vol- 
canoes, and it is very possible that it may 
exist always in a very small proportion in 
the atmosphere ; but this cannot be ascef. 
tamed till some method of detecting the 
presence of hydrogen combined with a 
great proportion of air be discovered. 

2. Carbonated hydrogen gas is often 
emitted by marshes in considerable quanti- 
ties during hot weather. But its presence 



ATM 



ATR 



has never been detected in air ; so that in 
all probability it is again decomposed by 
some unknown process. 

3. Oxygen gas is emitted abundantly by 
plants during the day. T litre is some rea- 
son to conclude that this is in consequence 
of the property \vhich plants have, of ab- 
sorbing and decomposing carbonic acid 
gas. Now as this carbonic acid gas is 
formed at the expense of the oxygen of the 



together insufficient for that purpose. He 
has put it beyond a doubt, however, that 
this contagious matter is of a compound 
nature, and that it is destroyed altogether by 
certain agents, particularly by those gase- 
ous bodies which readily part with their 
oxygen. lie exposed infected air to the 
action of various bodies, and he judged of 
the result by the effect which these bo- 
dies had in destroying the fetid smell of 



atmosphere, as this oxygen is again re'sto- the air. The following is the result of his 
red to the air by the decomposition of the experiments 
acid, and as the nature of atmospheric air 



remains unaltered, it is clear that there 
must be an equilibrium between these two 
processes ; that is to say, all the carbonic 
acid formed by combustion must be again 
decomposed, and all the oxygen abstracted 
must be again restored. The oxygen gas 
which is thus continually returning to the 
air, by combining with it, makes its com- 
ponent parts always to continue in the same 
ratio. 

4. The smoke and other bodies which 
are continually carried into the air by eva- 
poration, &c. are probably soon deposited 



1. Odorous bodies, such as benzoin, aro- 
matic plants, &.Q, have no effect whatever. 
2. .Neither have the solutions of myrrh, 
benzoin, Stc. in aikahol, though agitated in 
infected air. 3. Pyrolignous acid is equal- 
ly inert. 4. Gunpowder, when fired in in- 
fected air, displaces a portion of it ; but 
what remains still retains its fetid odour. 
5. SulpJuiric acid has no effect ; sulphur- 
ous acid weakens the odour, but does 
not destroy it. 6. Acetous acid diminishes 
the odour, but its actian is slow and in- 
complete. 7. Acetic acid acts instantly, 
and destrovs the fetid odour of infected 



again, and cannot therefore be considered air completely. 8. The fumes of nitric 



with propriety as forming parts of the at- 
mosphere. But there is another set of 



acid, first employed by Dr. Carmichael 
Smith, are equally efficacious. 9. Muri- 



bodies, which are occasionally combined atic acid gas, first pointed out as a proper 

with air, and which, on account of the pow- agent by Morveau himself, is equally ef- 

crful action which they produce on the hu- fectual. 10. But the most powerful agent 

man body, have attracted a great deal of is oxy-muriatic acid gas, first proposed by 

attention. These are known by the name Mr. Cruickshanks, and now employed with 

of contagion. the greatest success in the British navy and 

That there is a difference between the military hospitals. 

atmosphere in different places, as far as re- Thus there are four substances which 

spects its effects upon the human body, has have the property of destroying contagious 

been considered as an established point in matter, and of purifying the air : but acetic 

;annot easily be obtained in sufficient 



all ages. Hence some places have been 
celebrated as healthy, and others avoided 
as pernicious, to the human constitution. 
It is well known that in pits and mines the 
air is often in such a state as to suffocate 
almost instantaneously those who attempt 
to breathe it. Some places are frequented 
by peculiar diseases. It is known that those 
who are much in the apartments of persons 
ill of certain maladies, are extremely apt 
to catch the infection ; and in prisons and 
other places, where crowds of people are 
confined together, when diseases once com- 
mence, they are wont to make dreadful 
havoc. In all these cases it has been sup- 
posed that a certain noxious matter is dis- 
solved by the air, and that it is the action 
of this matter which produces the mis- 
chief. 

This noxious matter is in many cases 
readily distinguished by the peculiarly dis- 
agreeable smell which it communicates to 
the air. No doubt this matter differs ac- 
cording to the diseases which it communi- 
cates, and the substance from which it has 
originated. Morveau lately attempted to 
ascertain its nature ; but he soon found 
the chymical tests hitherto discovered al- 



acid cannot 

quantity, and in a state of sufficient con- 
centration to be employed with advantage. 
Nitric acid is attended with inconvenience, 
because it is almost always contaminated 
with nitrous gas. Muriatic acid and oxy- 
muriatic acid are not attended with these 
inconveniences ; the last deserves the pre- 
ference, because it acts with greater ener- 
gy and rapidity. All that is necessary is to 
mix together two parts of salt with one 
part of the black oxide of manganese, to 
place the mixture in an open vessel in the 
infected chamber, and to pour upon it two 
parts of sulphuric acid. The fumes of 
oxy-muriatic acid are immediately exhaled, 
fill the chamber, and destroy the conta- 
gion. 

ATOCHIA. (From at, neg. and TGICOS, off- 
spring ; from T/XT, to bring forth.) Ina- 
bility, to bring forth children. Difficult 
labour. 

ATONIC. Relaxed, diminution of 
strength, weakness, debility. 

ATONY. (From *, neg. and TV, to 
extend.) A defect of muscular power. 

ATHABIMARI* CAPSULE. See Glandule 
renales. 



ATR 



ATT 



ATRABILIS. Black bile, or melancholy. 

ATRACHELUS. (From *, priv. and T/J*- 
, the neck.) Short-necked. 

ATRAOENE. Viorna. Clematis arthra- 
gene ot'Theophrastus. The Clematis vital- 
da of Linnaeus. The traveller's joy : a 
common shrub in our hedges. It is said 
to have caustic qualities and to raise a blis- 
ter when applied to the skin. 

ATR AMENTUM SUTORIUM. A name of 
green vitriol. 

ATRASIA. (From *, neg. and T/T/>*O>, to 
perforate.) Atresia. Imperforation. A 
disease where the anus or genitals have 
not their usual orifice. 

ATRETARUM. (From at, neg. and -r/i*a>, 
to perforate.) A suppression of urine from 
the menses being retained in the vagina. 

ATRICES. (From *, priv. and 3-/>/f, hair.) 
Small tubercles about the anus upon which 
hairs will not grow. Vaselius. 

ATRICI. Small sinuses in the rectum, 
which do not reach so far up as to perfo- 
rate into its cavity. 

ATRIPLEX FGETIDA. Atriplex olida. 
Vuharia. Garosmum. Raphex. Ch&no- 
podium fcetidum. Blitumfoetidum. Stink- 
ing orach. The very fetid smell of this 
plant, Chenopodium vulvaria .* foliis inte- 
gerrimis rhombeo-ovatis, Jloribus CQnglome- 
rolls axilaribus, of Linnaeus, induced phy- 
sicians to exhibit it in hysterical diseases. 
It is now superseded by more active prepa- 
rations, 

ATRIPLEX IIORTENSIS. The systematic 
name for the atriplex saliva of the pharma- 
copoeias. See Atriplex sativa. 

ATRIPLEX SATIVA. The herb and seed 
of this plant, Atriplex hortensis caulc erecto 
herbaceo, foliis iriangularibm, of Linnaeus, 
have been exhibited medicinally as anti- 
scorbutics, but the practice of the pre- 
sent day appears to have totally rejected 
them. 

ATROPA. (From AT/JOTTOC, the goddess 
of Destiny ; so called from its fatal effects.) 
The deadly night-shade. 

The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system. Class, Pentandria. Or- 
der, Monogynies. 

ATROPA BELLADONNA. The systematic 
name for the belladonna of the pharmaco- 
poeias. See Belladonna. 

ATROPA MANDRAGORA. The systematic 
name for the plant which affords the radix 
mandagor< of the pharmacopoeias. See 
Mandraqora. 

ATROPHIA. See Atrophy. 

ATROPHY. (From a, neg. and fpupu, to 
nourish.) Atrophia. Marasmus. Nervous 
consumption. This disease is marked by 
a gradual wasting of the body, unaccompa- 
nied either by a difficulty of breathing, 
cough, or any evident fever, but usually 
attended with a loss of appetite and im- 
paired digestion. It is arranged by Cullen 



in the class cachexice, and order macrorea. 
There are four species : 

1. When it takes place from too copious 
evacuations, it is termed atrophia inauito- 
rum ; by others called tabes nutricum , su- 
datoria ; d sanguifluxu, &c. 

2. When from famine, atrophia fameHQO" 
rum. 

3. When from corrupted nutriment, atro- 
phia cacochymica. 

4. And when from an interruption in the 
digestive organs, atrophia debilium. 

The atrophy of children, is called paida- 
tropia. The causes which commonly give 
rise to atrophy, are a poor diet, unwhole- 
some air, excess in venery, fluor albus, se- 
vere evacuations, continuing to give suck 
too long, a free use of spirituous liquors, 
mental uneasiness, and worms ; but it fre- 
quently comes on without any evident 
cause. Along with the loss of appetite and 
impaired digestion, there is a diminution of 
strength, the face is pale and bloated, the 
natural heat of the body is somewhat di- 
minished, and the lower extremities are 
cedematous. Atrophy, arise from whatever, 
cause it may, is usually very difficult to cure, 
and not unfrequently terminates in dropsy. 

ATTENUANTS. (Attenuantia, sc. medi- 
camenta ; from attenuo, to make thin.) 
Diluents. Those substances are so termed, 
which possess a power of imparting to 
the blood a more thin and more fluid con- 
sistence than it had previous to their exhi- 
bition ; such are, aqua, serum lactis, &c. 

ATTOLLENS AUREM. (Attollens , 
from attollo, to lift up.) Attollens auricula 
of Albinus and Douglas ; Superior auris of 
Winslow, and Attollens auriculam of Cow- 
per. A common muscle pf the ear, which 
arises, thin, broad, and tendinous, from the 
tendon of the occipito-frontalis, from which 
it is almost inseparable, where it covers the 
aponeurosis of the temporal muscle ; and 
is inserted into the upper part of the ear, 
opposite to the antihelix. Its use is to 
draw the ear upwards, and to make the 
parts into which it is inserted, tense. 

ATTOLLENS OCULI. One of the secti-mus- 
cles which lie upon the upper part of the 
globe and pulls up the eye. 

ATTONITUS ^IORBUS. (From atto?io, to 
surprise ; so called because the person falls 
down suddenly.) Attonitus stupor. The 
apoplexy and epilepsy. 

ATTRACTION. (From attraho t to at- 
tract. Affinity.) 

The terms attraction, or affinity, and re> 
pulsion, in the language of modern phi- 
losophers, are employed merely as the 
expression of the general facts, th^i 
the masses or particles of matter have 
a tendency to approach to, or to recede 
from one another, and to unite to, or re- 
pel each otter, under certain 



ATTRACTION. 



All bodies have a tendency or power to 
attract each other more or less, and it is 
this power which is called attraction. 

Attraction is mutual, it extends to inde- 
finite distances. All bodies whatever, as 
well as their component elementary par- 
ticles, are endued with it. It is not annihi- 
lated, at how great a distance soever we 
suppose them to be placed from each 
other; neither does it disappear though they 
be arranged ever so near each other. 

The nature of this reciprocal attraction, 
or at least the cause which produces it, is 
altogether unknown to us. Whether it be 
inherent in all matter, or whether it be the 
consequence of some other agent, are 
questions beyond the reach of human un- 
derstanding ; but its existence is neverthe- 
less certain. 

Proofs of attraction. 

That the power of attraction really exists 
is obvious from the slightest view of the 
phenomena of nature. It, is proved with 
mathematical certainty that the celestial 
bodies, which constitute the solar system, 
are urged towards each other by a force 
which preserves them in their orbits. It 
is further proved beyond any doubt, that 
this planetary attraction is possessed not 
only by the heavenly bodies as wholes, 
but that it also extends to the smaller par- 
ticles of which they are formed, as may be 
evinced by means of the following experi- 
ments. 

First. If we place two or more globules 
of mercury on a dry glass or earthen plate, 
and push them gently towards each other, 
the globules will attract each other, 
and form one mass or sphere greater in 
bulk but precisely the same in nature. 

Secondly. If a plate of clean glass, per- 
fectly dry, be laid on a large globule of 
mercury, the globule, notwithstanding the 
pressure applied to it, continues to preserve 
its spherical form ; if \ve gradually charge 
the plate with weights carefully, the glo- 
bule will be depressed and become thinner 
and thinner ; but if we again remove the 
weights from the plate, the mercury will 
instantly recover its globular figure and 
push up the glass before it. 

In both these experiments we see that 
there exists an attraction between the par- 
ticles of mercury ; in the first, the globules 
which are in contact with the plate of glass 
leave this substance completely, they at- 
tract each other and form a sphere greater 
in bulk. A mere inert fluid would .n any 
case retain the figure it once possessed. It 
could not be endired with a globular form 
unless a real reciprocal attraction among 
its particles, took place, which in the latter 
experiment is still more striking, for it 
there is not only superior to gravitation, 
but actually overcomes an external force. 
T/iirdly.lf a glass tube of a fine bore 



be immersed in water, contained in any 
vessel, the fluid will ascend to a certain 
height within the tube above its level, and 
its elevation in several tubes of different 
sizes will be reciprocally as the diameter 
of their bores. 

This kind of attraction which takes 
place as well in vacua as in the open air, 
has been called capillary attraction. It is 
this attraction which causes water to rise 
in sponge, cloth, sugar, sand, &c. for all 
these substances may be considered as fine 
tubes in which the fluid ascends. 

Remark. The ascension of fluids in glass 
tubes of a fine bore succeeds best when 
the inside of the tube has been previously 
moistened, which may conveniently be 
done by blowing through it with the mouth. 
And if the water be coloured with a little 
red or black ink, its ascension will be more 
obvious, particularly if the tube be held 
against a sheet of white paper. 

Fourthly. If two plates of glass previ- 
ously wetted, be made to meet on one side, 
and be kept open at the other, at a smull 
distance, by the interposition of a shilling, 
or any other thin substance, and then im- 
mersed m water, the fluid will ascc-nd be- 
tween the two plates unequally. Its upper 
surface will form a curve, in which the 
heights of the several points above the sur- 
face of the fluid will be to one another re- 
ciprocally, as their perpendicular distance 
from the line in which the plates meet, 
The ratio of this attraction is therefore as 
the squares of the increments with which 
the plates open. 

Here then we have two other instances 
that an attraction prevails among the par- 
ticles of bodies. For in both cases part of 
the fluid has left the contiguous mass, con. 
trary to the laws of gravitation. It is 
drawn up as it were, or attracted by the 
tube or plate of glass. 

Fifthly. If we immerse a piece of tin, 
lead, bismuth, silver, or gold, in mercury, 
and draw it out again immediately.the mer- 
cury will attract the metal, and the lat- 
ter will carry with it a portion of the 
former which will stick to it so ob- 
stinately as to be inseparable by mere 
friction. 

There exists therefore an attraction be- 
tween the different metals brought in con- 
tact with each other. 

Sixthly. If a small stick be dipt in water 
or any other fluid, and drawn out again, a 
drop will be found hanging at the end of it 
of a spherical form. The drop is spherical, 
because each particle of the fluid exerts an 
equal force in every direction, drawing 
other particles towards it on every side as 
far as its power extends. 

Thus the very formation of drops ob- 
viously demonstrates that there must exist 
a cause which produces that effect. This 



ATTRACTION. 



85 



cannot be gravity, for agreeable to expe- 
ivence that is rather an obstacle to the 
formation nf drops ; since by the weight 
of the particles, large globules resting an 
solid bodies are flattened, and their regular 
spherical form prevented. 

To explain this phenomenon there re- 
mains only t.ne power of attraction, acting 
between the particles of the liquid body ; 
for if it is supposed that the panicles of a 
substance reciprocally attract e^ch other 
with equal force, and dieir aptitude for be- 
ing moved upon one another be great 
enough to overcome any impediment to 
their motion, it follows by the principles of 
mechanics, that the equilibrium of the at- 
tractive forces can only take place when 
the mass has received a globular form. 

Hence it is that all liquid bodies assume 
a spherical figure when suffered to fall 
through the air, or form drops. 

Division of attraction. 
Though we are unable to discover the 
cause o>'the mutual attraction, experience 
lias proved to us that this agency follows 
certain conditions or laws ; for similar 
phenomena always present themselves, 
whenever the circumstances of experiment 
are the same. 

Observation has taught us that attraction 
'cakes place between bodies of the same 
kind, and bodies of a different kind. The 
first is called attraction of aggregation^ also 
corpuscular attraction ; molecular attraction / 
and attraction of cohesion, or the cohesive 
power. 

The latter is termed chymical attraction, 
chymical affinity, or affinity of composition. 

ATTRACTION OP AGGREGATION. 
Corpuscular attraction, or attraction of 
cohesion or aggregation, is that power by 
means of which the similar particles of 
bodies attract each other, and become uni- 
ted into one mass, without changing in the 
least the chymical properties they possess- 
ed before their union. The bodies may be 
in a solid, fluid, or aeriform state. 

This attraction is different in different 
bodies. It is always in an inverse ratio to 
the power of repulsion, or the quantity of 
caloric interposed between the particles of 
the acting bcniies. 

It becomes obvious from this, that the 
agency of attraction of aggregation consists 
in a mere successive and constant accumu- 
lation of similar particles into one mass ; 
and that it produces adherence of surface, 
or apparent contact in the ratio of the sur- 
face. 

This force is inherent in all the particles 
of all bodies (caloric and light perhaps 
excepted;) we never find the particles of 
bodies in a detached state, but constantly 
in masses of greater or smaller magnitude, 
made up of an indefinite number of parti- 
cles united together by virtue of the force 
Qf cohesion. 



The simplest case of the exertion of the 
attraction of aggregation is that, where 
two bodies placed in mutual contact with 
each other form a direct union without 
changing their chymical properties: thus 
if different particles of sulphur be melted 
together, they form a uniform mass or 
whole, the particles of which are held to- 
gether by virtue of the power of attraction 
of aggregation, but the properties of the 
body are not altered. 

The same effect takes place when pieces 
of the same metal, or particles of resin, 
wax, &c. are united in a similar manner. 

The force of this attraction in solid bodies 
may be measured by the weight necessary 
to demolish it. Thus if a rod of metal, 
glass, wood, &c. be suspended in a perpen- 
dicular direction, and weights be attached 
to its lower extremity till th rod is broken 
by them, the weight attached to the rod 
just before it broke is the measure of the 
cohesive force of the rod. 

Latus of attraction of aggregation. 
1. The agency of attraction of aggrega- 
tion acts x only at insensible distances; its 
force increases as the distance of the bodies 
presented to each other decreases, and as 
the surfaces of apparent contact are more 
numerous : thus, if we take two sections of 
a leaden ball, having each a flat and smooth 
surface, and press them forcibly together, 
they will cohere, and a considerable effort 
is necessary to force them asunder : so also 
two plates of glass wetted with a little wa- 
ter to fill up their inequalities, when laid 
together, will cohere ; and two pieces of 
marble having each a flat, smooth, and well 
polished surface, when moistened and slipt 
upon each other with a gentle pressure, will 
unite, and a considerable force is required 
to separate them. But if the two substan- 
ces placed together, be not sufficiently 
smooth or polished, it will be in vain to try 
to cause them to adhere together, for this 
reason that the particles touch each other 
only in a few points ; whereas on the con- 
trary the particles of the former flat and 
smooth surfaces touch each other in many 
points. It has been noticed that a silk-worm's 
thread can be interposed, but not two. 

The pressure of the atmosphere has no 
influence on these experiments, for they 
succeed equally well in vacua as in the 
open air. 

It is on this account that carpenters 
when they intend to glue pieces of wood 
together, plane the surfaces perfectly 
smooth before they apply the glue : and 
that the surfaces of metals are scraped 
clean before they are soldered, &c. 

Hence the attraction of aggregation al- 
ways vanishes whenever the distance is 
measureable, and becomes exceedingly 
great whenever the distances is exceeding 
ly diminished ; but the particular rate 
which this power follows, is sttfl unknown^ 



ATTRACTION. 



as we have no method of measuring either 
the distance at which it acts, or its relative 
intensity. 

2. Attraction of aggregation acts differ- 
ently in different bodies ; according to the 
degree offeree with which it acts between 
the particles of matter, the bodies appear 
under different forms. 

It is on this account that rock-crystal, 
flint, diamond, and various other precious 
stones are extremely hard, for the attrac- 
tion of aggregation unites the particles of 
these bodies with a great degree of force. 
Hence a considerable mechanical effort is 
necessary to disunite them. 

In blocks of marble, chalk, lime-stone, 
&c. the particles are held together with a 
force considerably less. In these bodies it 
prevents all relative motion among the par- 
ticles themselves, and hence the motion 
of one particle is followed by the motion of 
the whole mass ; or if that is impossible, 
the cohesion is destroyed altogether, and 
the piece breaks. 

The integrant parts of wax, tallow, suet, 
or lard, may be made to change their situa- 
tions, with a less degree of force than the 
former. 

In these substances the motion of one 
particle of the body is not necessarily fol- 
lowed by that of all the rest, neither does 
that motion destroy the cohesion, nor 
break them. 

The particles of water, spirit, and ether, 
move or slide over each other very readily ; 
hence their resistance is considerably less. 

And lastly, vapours, the air of the atmo- 
sphere,and all the gasses,yield to the slight- 
est possible impulse. 

3. Attraction of aggregation may be an- 
nihilated by every effort which tends to 
separate the particles of bodies. 

It need hardly be mentioned that all me- 
chanical forces, such as grinding, cutting, 
iiling, rasping, pounding, breaking, &c. are 
of this nature. 

In all these cases the force applied must 
be more than equal to the force of the at- 
traction ; and as it was stated before, that 
the attraction of aggregation acts with dif- 
ferent degrees of force between the parti- 
cles of different bodies, so different degrees 
of force are necessary to destroy that at- 
traction in different bodies : and hence it 
is that chalk is more easily reduced to 
powder than flint ; wood is easier broken 
than lead ; lead easier than i-ron, &c. 

OliYMICAl AFFINITY. 

Chymical affinity, or affinity of composi- 
tion, is that power, by means of which the 
^articles of bodies, whether simple or com- 
pound, attract each other so intimately as 
to produce a uniform whole, totally inse- 
parable by mechanical efforts, and whose 
characteristic properties are often different, 
and sometimes contrary to those of its con- 
stituent parts. 



It is obvious from this, that the particles 
of those bodies which are united by virtue 
of chymical affinity, form not a mere aggre- 
gate, but an entire new body, which can 
only be altered by the action of another 
chymical power. 

In considering this kind of affinity, it will 
be necessary to state ; In what manner it 
takes place between the particles of differ- 
ent bodies ; In what proportion they are 
capable of combining ; Under what con- 
ditions ; With what degree of force they 
unite; And what takes place when a variety 
ot different substances are made to act upon 
each other at the same time, under certain 
circumstances and in different proportions. 

Hence chymical affinity is of greater im- 
portance than affinity of aggregation, for 
it takes place in all the complex operations 
ofchymistry. 

Instances of chymical affinity. 

To prove that chymical affinity acts dif- 
ferently from attraction of aggregation ; 
that it takes place between the ultimate 
constituent parts of bodies ; and that it 
produces substances possessing properties, 
frequently very different and sometimes 
contrary to those of the constituent parts, 
the following experiments may serve. 

1. Put into a crucible placed in a coal 
fire, equal parts by weight of sulphur and 
mercury ; stir the two substances together 
for a few minutes, and when the sulphur is 
melted, pour the contents out on a marble 
slab, or a piece of glass previously warmed 
and greased. 

The substance obtained by this means is 
a sulphur -et of mercury, in which the mercu- 
ry and sulphur are united by virtue of 
chymical affinity ; for the compound has 
neither the colour, the splendour, the in- 
flammability, the volatility, nor the spe- 
cific gravity of either of its constituent 
parts ; nor can the sulphur and mercury be 
separated by mechanical means ; they are 
therefore chymically united. 

2. If we melt together two very mallea- 
ble and ductile metals, for'instance, tin and 
iron, in equal quantities, the compound pro- 
duced will have totally lost the properties 
which its constituent parts possessed be- 
fore their union, for the alloy formed will 
be a brittle metal which may easily be 
broken by the blow of a hammer. 

3. Put two or three teaspoonfuls of an 
aqueous infusion of red cabbage or syrup 
of violets, into a wine glass of water, mix 
it well, and put half the mixture into 
another glass, By adding a few drops of 
sulphuric acid to one of the glasses and 
stirring it, the blue will be changed to a 
crimson ; and by adding an alkali ; for in- 
stance, potash, to the other glass, the blue 
fluid will be changed into a green. 

If we drop carefully down the sides of 
the glass into the green obtained in this ex- 
periment, a few drops of sulphuric acid, 



ATTRACTION 



crimson will be perceived at the bottom, Law V. The agency of chymical affinity 
f. urple in the middle, and reen at the top. existing between two or more bodies may 
On adding a little alkali to the other glass, be dormant, until it is called into action by 



containing the crimson, these colours will 
appear in an inverted order. 

4. When equal parts of muriate ofam- 
rnonia and slaked lime, both substances 



the interposition of another body which fre- 
quently exerts no energy upon any of them 
in a separate state. 

Law VI. The ratio of the energy of 



destitute of odour, are intimately blended chymical affinity acting- between various 



in a stone mortar, a very pungent gas (am- 
rnonia) becomes evolved. 

5. Water impregnated with ammonia 
j-.nd concentrated muriatic acid, both fluids 
of a strong odour, when mixed together in 
proper proportions, instantly lose their 
odour, and form a fluid void of smell, (mu- 
riate of ammonia.) 



bodies, is different in different substances. 

Law VII. The agency of cbymical af- 
finity is either limited, or unlimited in cer- 
tain bodies ; in other words, chymical af- 
finity is capable of uniting bodies in defi- 
nite, or in indefinite proportions. 

Law VIII. The energy of the chymical 
affinity of different bodies is modified in 



6. Into a saturated solution of muriate of proportion to the ponderable quantities of 



lime, let fall gradually concentrated sul 
phuric acid, a quantity of pungent vapour 
will become disengaged, (muriatic acid 
gas,) and from the two fluids will thus be 
produced an almost solid compound, call- 
ed sulphate of lime. 

7. Let equal parts of fresh crystallized 
acetat of lead and acidulous sulphate of 
alumine and potash, be rubbed together in- 
timately in a stone mortar, the saline 
mixture will soon become soft, and lastly 
fluid. 

A like effect is produced by treating in 
a similar manner equal parts of crystallized 
nitrate of ammonia and sulphate of soda. 

A solid alloy of mercury and bismuth, 



the bodies placed within the sphere of ac- 
tion. 

Such are the leading laws which regulate 
chymical affinity ; they may be demonstra- 
ted by experiments. 

I. Chymical affinity can exert its action 
between a number of bodies simple or 
compound, and unite them chymically into 
one whole ; 

There are an infinite variety of com- 
pounds, consisting of three, four, five or 
more simple substances in nature ; and art 
can also effect combinations in which there 
are many simple bodies chymically united 
into one whole. 

It frequently happens that various sepa- 



and another composed of lead and mercu- rate bodies presented to each other in a flu- 



ry, on being triturated together, instantly 
become fluid. 

It is obvious from this, that when chymi- 
cal combination takes place, the com- 
pound which is formed does not possess 
properties merely intermediate between 
those of its component parts, but has acqui- 
red others more or less new. This however 
does not hold good in all cases. There are 
various combinations in which the proper- 
ties of bodies are only slightly altered. 
Laws of chymical affinity. 



id, unite and form a single mass, which 
possesses all the characters of a homogene- 
ous compound, and which retains these 
characters till its -composition has been al- 
tered by chymical means. 

A considerable number of triple salts 
are known, which consists of three differ- 
ent substances ; for instance, the common 
alum of commerce consists of sulphuric 
acid united to alumine and potash or soda. 
The salt formerly called microcosmic salt, 
or phosphate of soda and ammonia, consists 



Observation has shown that affinity of of phosphoric acid united to soda and am- 



composition offers certain invariable pheno- 
mena, which being founded on a great num- 
ber of facts are regarded by chymists as 
laws, and may be reduced under the fol- 
lowing heads : 

Law I. Chymical affinity can exert its 
action between a number of bodies, simple 
or compound, and unite them chymically 
into one whole. 

Law II. The efficacy of chymical affini*- 
ty is in an inverse ratio to that of attrac- 
tion of aggregation. 

Law III.' The agency of chymical affini- 
ty is influenced by temperature; its action is 
either accelerated, retarded, prevented, or 
rendered efficacious. 

Law IV. Chymical affinity is accompa 



monia, 8cc. When the oxygenated muri- 
ate of mercury is precipitated by the pre- 
cise quantity of carbonate of soda which is 
requisite to effect its decomposition, the 
precipitate obtained contains muriatic acid, 
carbonic acid, and oxyd of mercury in 
excess, 

It is a well known fact, that two, three, 
or more metals may be fused together so 
as to produce compounds whose properties 
are widely different from those of the con- 
stituent parts. 

Melt together in an iron ladle or-crucible, 
eight parts of bismuth, five of lead, and 
three of tin, the fusibility of the metals 
will thus be altered, for the alloy melts at 
212 Fahr. A spoon or any other utensil 



nied by a change of temperature at the in- formed of this compound will therefore 
stant of its Action. melt in water kept boiling. 



ATTRACTION, 



If in a similar manner an alloy be made 
of lead, tin, bismuth, and mercury, their 
proportions being two, three, five, and one, 
the compound produced melts at a heat 
even less than that of boiling water. 

A composition of lead, zinc, and bismuth, 
in equal parts may be kept in fusion upon 
paper over a lamp. 

II. The efficacy of chymical affinity is in 
an inverse ratio to that of corpuscular at- 
traction : 

The cohesion of the particles of a body 
is owing to the mutual affinity existing be- 
tween them. It is this force which must 
be overcome by the action of the substance 
which has a tendency to combine with those 
particles chymically. Chymical affinity 
therefore does not become stronger as the 
affinity of aggregation becomes weaker \ it 
becomes only more efficacious , the absolute 
powers remain the same ; the effect pro- 
duced by that agency increases, be- 
cause the resistance opposed to it de- 
creases. 

Remark. It is from this law that it was 
formeily interred that some or at least one 
of the bodies should be in a state of fluidity. 
This however is by no means necessary. 
It is in general true, that the weaker the 
attraction of aggregation is, the more easily 
chymical affinity takes place, as may be 
evinced by means of the following experi- 
ments : , 

, Let any quantity of dry carbonate of 
soda and tartareous acid be mingled to- 
gether, and put the mixture into a wine- 
glass, no chymical change will be produ- 
ced ; but if water be added, or either of 
the salts be previously dissolved, a violent 
effervescence ensues, and a chymical union 
is obtained. 

The water added is of use merely to over- 
come the resistance which arises from the 
cohesion of the particles of the salts intend- 
ed to be brought into the sphere of action, 
or to increase their mutual contact. 

If we let fall a crystal, or lump of fluor 
spar (fluate of lime) into concentrated sal- 
phuric acid, no sensible action will take 
place, both the sulphuric acid and the fluate 
of lime remain unaltered ; but if the former 
be reduced to powder, and then brought 
into contact witii the acid, a considerable 
action instantly takes place, the sulphuric 
acid unites to one of the constituent parts 
of the fluor spar, namely, to the lime, and 
its other constituent part, the fluoric acid, 
becomes disengaged in the state of white 
vapour, or fluoric acid gas. 

If crystallized sulphate of alumine, or 
sulphate of soda, and acetate of lead are 
brought into contact with each other, the 
indivfduality of these bodies will not be 
destroyed, that is to say, no chymical 
change will take place ; but if they be intU 
mately rubbed together in a, mortar, the 



two solids will act upon each other afld 
form a fluid. 

It is obvious therefore that in order to 
facilitate chymical affinity, the attraction 
of aggregation must be broken ; the bodies 
intended to be chymically united must not 
be presented to each other in their mass of 
contact, but mechanically divided, or redu- 
ced to the smallest moleculx possible : 
hence liquids combine with more facility 
than solids, or even than a solid and a liquid, 
and in like manner vapours combine with 
rapidity and ease. 

III. The agency of chymical affinity is 
influenced by temperature. Its action is 
either accelerated, retarded, prevented, 
or rendered efficacious : 

If we expose phosphorus in an open ves- 
sel to the action of the atmosphere, a 
chymical union will take place between the 
phosphorus and one of the constituent parts 
ot the atmosphere, namely, the oxygen 
gas ; the phosphorus will gradually '(but 
very slowly) disappear and become con- 
verted into a fluid called phosphorus 
acid. 

But if we heat the vessel containing the 
phosphorus, the latter will take fire, and 
become converted into a yellowish white 
substance, which in a short time is changed 
into an acid analagous to the former. 

If equal quantities of muriate of ammo- 
nia and carbonate of magnesia are mixed 
with six or eight parts of water, and suffer- 
ed to stand for some time exposed to the 
ordinary temperature of the atmosphere, 
a mutual decomposition of the two salts 
will take place. For if the mixture, and 
the fluid which passes, are left to evaporate 
spontaneously, muriate of magnesia, and 
carbonate of ammonia will be obtained. 
On the contrary, 

If equal quantities of muriate of magne- 
sia and carbonate of ammonia be exposed 
to a temperature of 200 in about four 
parts of water, the products obtained are, 
muriate of ammonia and carbonate of 
magnesia. . 

If muriate of soda and sulphate of mag- 
nesia be mixed together in any proportion} 
and exposed to a temperature below zero, 
they decompose each other, and muriate of 
magnesia and sulphate of soda are formed, 
but no decomposition takes place at a tem- 
perature above 30. 

Muriate of soda and acidulous sulphate 
of alumine and potash, exhibit precisely 
the same phenomena. 

If ardent spirit and a solution of salt 
an* water be mixed together, the com- 
pound formed is a real chymical union ; but 
if we carefully heat the flwid, the caloric 
applied will be divided between the three 
ingredients according to their respec- 
tive affinities ; the union will be broken, 
for the ardent spirit will first be- 



ATTRACTION. 



come volatilized, and the union of the salt 
and water remain unaltered. On increasing 
the temperature, the water will escape in 
the form of vapour, and the salt will be 
left behind. 

There are numerous cases in which an 
increase of temperature is essentially ne- 
cessary to determine bodies to unite. If 
mercury be exposed to oxygen gas at the 
common temperature of the atmosphere, 
the corpuscular attraction subsisting- be- 
tween its particles is sufficient to prevent 
combination. But if the mercury be heat- 
ed to a certain degree, the force which 
kept its particles united will become an- 
nihilated, and it then combines with the 
oxygen which is present. 

Again, if the oxyd of mercury thus form- 
ed be exposed to a higher degree of tem- 
perature, the union is demolished, and the 
quick-silver re-appears in its metallic state. 

Hence it is obvious that the action of 
caloric favours the union of the oxygen and 
mercury, in consequence of the diminution 
of the mutual affinity of the parts ; but at 
length, by augmenting this difference, it 
again breaks the union, or renders the com- 
bination impossible. 

That increased temperature augments 
the power of chymical union, the solutions 
of salt and water afford instances of. 

A larger quantity of salt is soluble in a 
given quantity of water at a high, than at a 
low temperature, and this larger quantity 
of salt is again separated by cooling. 

IV. Chymical affinity is accompanied by 
a change of temperature at the instant of 
its action : 

When equal parts of concentrated sul- 
phuric acid and ardent spirit are mingled 
together, the mix'ture in a few minutes be- 
comes so hot as to render the vessel in- 
supportable to the hands. 

Tf four parts of sulphuric acid of com- 
merce, and one part, by weight, of water, 
be mixed together, each at the tempera- 
ture of 50, the mixture immediately ac- 
quires a temperature of about 300. 

All the dense acids, ammonia, and ar- 
dent spirit, when mixed with water, have 
the property of raising its temperature re- 
markably: and the same' is the case when 
alkalis are introduced into concentrated 
acids. On the contrary, in many instances 
cold is produced : 

Take one ounce and a half of muriate of 
ammonia and a like quantity of nitrate of 
potash; reduce each of these salts sepa- 
rately to a powder, and blend them inti- 
mately together : having done this, mix 
them gradually in a glass basin, or other 
thin glass vessel, with four ounces of wa- 
ter. The result will be, that the cold pro- 
duced will sink a thermometer immersed 
in it, to 36 Fahr. A new edition of the 
same quantity of salts will cool it to 14, 



which therefore will freeze water in a glass 
tube that is immersed in it, without the 
use of snow or ice. If the water used in a first 
process be used to reduce other water and 
suits to the temperature of about 32, and 
these be applied to the performance of a 
second experiment, the temperature may 
be lowered to 4 below 0. 

A number of experiments have lately 
been made to produce artificial cold by 
means of such freezing mixtures. The most 
complete set of this kind are those of 
Pepys, Lowitz ai>-l Walker. 

V. The agency of chymical affinity be- 
tween two or more bodies may lie dormant, 
until it is called into action by the inter- 
position of another body, which frequently 
exerts no energy upon any of them in a se- 
parate state. 

From this law originates what was former- 
ly called disposing affinity, or that case in 
which two or more bodies are incapable of 
uniting, until the agency is called into action 
by the addition of a third body, which exerts 
no sensible affinity upon either of them. 
This may be proved in thefollowingmanner. 

Water is a compound of hydrogen and 
oxygen ; phosphorus is a simple body ac- 
cording to our present state of knowledge, 
If these be presented to each other, no 
chymical union will take place ; but if we 
add to them an alkali, and then apply heat, 
the water will become decomposed ; that 
is to say, part of the phosphorus will unite 
to the oxygen of the water, and form phos 
phoric acid, and the other part will be dis- 
solved in the hydrogen gas and appear as 
phosphorated hydrogen. 

Here the alkali acts as the substance re- 
quisite to favour the mutual action, or to 
give the disposing affinity. 

If iron and water be brought into contact 
with each other no perceptible change will 
be produced ; but if a little sulphuric acid 
be added to the water and iron, a violent 
effervescence will take place, the water 
will become decomposed, hydrogen gas 
will be evolved, and the iron become dis- 
solved in the acid. 

In this case the sulphuric acid is the con- 
dition necessary to accelerate the chymical 
action. 

VI. The ratio of the energy of chymical 
affinity acting between various bodies, is 
different in different substances. 

This is the most important law of chymi- 
cal attraction. As beginners will find it 
rather difficult to understand what passes 
in this more complicated agency, they 
must remember, that the combination 
which is effected between two or more 
bodies by virtue of chymical affinity be- 
comes broken whenever we present to the 
compound another body, which has an at- 
traction to one of the constituent parts of 
the compound, superior to that attraction 
N 



90 



ATTRACTION. 



by which they were held together: the 
bodies, therefore, between which the strong- 
est attraction prevails, combine, and the 
rest are disengaged, thus : 

If muriatic acid be poured either on 
pure barytes, or on its carbonate, the 
barytes will be dissolved and the com- 
pound will be muriate of barytes, which 
compound is held together by the force of 
affinity existing 1 between the muriatic acid 
and the barytes. On letting 1 fall into this 
solution a tew drops of sulphuric acid, an 
immediate change of principles takes place; 
the whole quantity of the muriatic acid 
which was combined with the barytes be- 
comes disengaged, and the sulphuric acid 
unites to the barytes with a force equal to 
their affinity, minus that of the muriatic 
acid, 

Again, if pure silver be dissolved in pure 
nitric acid, the silver will remain united to 
the acid, till another body is presented to 
it which lias a greater force of attraction to 
one of the constituent parts of the com- 
pound i for instance, if mercury be added 
to this solution of silver, the mercury will 
be dissolved, and the silver becomes pre- 
cipitated or disengaged. The supernatant 
fluid will then be a solution of mercury in 
nitric acid. 

If to the before obtained solution of 
mercury in nitric acid, a piece of sheet 
lead be presented, the lead will be dissol- 
ved, and the mercury become precipitated. 
The fluid will then be a solution of lead in 
nitric acid. 

If iti this solution of lead, a thin slice of 
copper be suspended, the copper will be 
dissolved, and the lead will become disen- 
gaged. The fluid now is a solution &f cop- 
per in nitric acid. 

If in this solution of copper, a thin sheet 
of iron be kept immersed, the iron will be 
dissolved, and the copper become precipi- 
tated. The fluid now is a solution of iron in 
nitric acid 

If to this solution of iron, a piece of zinc 
be pr-sented, the zinc will be dissolved, 
and the iron become precipitated. The 
solution then consists of zinc and nitric 
add. 

If to this solution of zinc in nitric acid 
some ammonia be gradually added, the am- 
monia will join to the acid, and the zinc 
will be precipitated. The solution will 
then be nitrate of ammonia. 

If to this solution of nitrate of ammonia, 
some iime-water be added, the ammonia 
will become disengaged (and manifest it- 
self by a pungent odour) and the solution 
will be nitrate of lime. 

If to this solution of nitrate of lime some 
oxalic acid be added, the lime will be pre- 
cipitated, and M'hat now remains will be 
merely nitric acid. 

We see from these experiments, that 



different bodies have different degrees of 
affinity for one and the same substance, 
which can only be learnt from observation 
and experiments. 

VII. The agency of chymical affinity is 
either limited or unlimited ; mother words, 
chymical affinity is capable of uniting 
bodies in definite, or in indefinite pro- 
portions : 

Experience has convinced us that in all 
bodies there are certain precise limits of 
combinations beyond which their action 
cannot pass, namely a minimum, and a 
maximum ; it remains still to be ascertained 
how bodies cun combine within these limits. 

If we attend to what is known at pre- 
sent, we are forced to acknowledge that 
this law comprehends several modifications, 
which may be arranged under the following 
classes. 

1. Ghymical affinity unites several bodies 
in any proportion whatsoever ; their combi- 
nation is therefore unlimited ; for instance, 

If water and ardent spirit be mingled to- 
gether in any quantity, a chymica! rombi- 
nation ensues ; for the compound obtained 
h:is always a specific gravity different from 
the mean specific gravity of the fluids 
combi-ied. Its bulk is likewise not the 
arithmetical mean of the fluids in a sepa- 
rate state. 

The s&me is the case when liquid acids 
and water, or acids and ardent spirit, are 
combined together. 

2. Chymical affinity combines several 
bodies to a certain extent or maximum 
only. 

To this class belong all those bodies 
which are capable of saturation. 

If we take a quantity of any of the dense 
acids diluted with water, for instance, sul- 
phuric acid, and let fall into it a solution of 
an alkidi, lor example soda, by a little at a 
time, and examine the mixture after every 
addition of the alkali, we find for a con- 
siderable time it will exhibit the properties 
of an acid, it will have a sour taste, and 
convert vegetable blue colours into red ; 
but if we continue to add greater quanti- 
ties of soda, these acid properties will 
gradually diminish, and at last disappear 
altogether. At that point die combination 
is at an end, it has reached its maximum 
in this case ; for if we continue to add 
more alkali, the mixture will gradually ac- 
quire alkaline properties ; it will convert 
blue vegetables into green ; it will have a 
urinous or alkaline taste, &c. These 
properties will become stronger, the great- 
er the quantity of the soda is which is 
added. 

Again, take muriatic acid, and let fall 
into it gradually carbonate of lime, or 
magnesia ; an effervescence will take place, 
for a chymical uuion ensues between the 
acid and the lime, or magnesia, and the 



ATT 



AUC 



91 



carbonic acid, the other constituent of 
these bodies, becomes disengaged. But if 
we continue the addition of the lime, or 
magnesia, until it produces no further 
effervescence, no chymical union will be ob- 
tained ; the lime will fall to the bottom 
unaltered, for the combination is at its 
maximum. 

It is on this account that water can only 
dissolve a certain quantity of salt ; ardent 
spirit a certain quantity of resin, &c. 

The union ot oxygen and hydrogen be- 
longs likewise to this class. 

3. Chymical affinity is capable of uniting 
different bodies in two, three, or more pro- 
portions ; each of these combinations pro- 
duces compounds, possessing peculiar pro- 
perties. 

This peculiarity of combination is highly 
important. 

It is owing to this circumstance that both 
nature and art produce substances of the 
same principles only combined in differ- 
ent proportions, which possess peculiar 
properties, widely different from each 
other. 

An instance of this law may be seen in 
the following experiment : 

Introduce one ounce of copper filings 
into four ounces of muriatic acid, contain- 
ed in a medicine-phial of eight ounces capa- 
city, cork it well, and let it stand undis- 
turbed ; the acid will soon acquire a green- 
ish colour, which becomes deeper in pro- 
portion as the copper becomes dissol- 
ved ; hut in a few days if the bottle be 
now and then agitated, the colour va- 
nishes, and the solution at last becomes 
colourless. 

If we now invert the bottle in mercury, 
or water, and remove the cork under that 
fluid, a quantity of the mercury will rush 
in : an evident proof that part of the air 
contained in the phial has disappeared. 

If we examine the remaining air, we shall 
find that it is incapable of supporting flame, 
and that it is nearly deprived of all its oxy- 
gen. If we now open the phial, the solu- 
tion becomes again green and colourless 
as before. 

The rationale of these phenomena is this : 
The quantity of oxygen which is present in 
the confined quantity of air in the empty 
part of the phial, combines with the copper 
to a certain degree, which then becomes 
soluble in the acid, and exhibits the green 
solution. 

This oxyd is gradually decomposed, 
more copper is dissolved, and the solution 
becomes colourless. If more oxygen be 
admitted, the solution becomes green again 
as before. 

VIII. The energy of the chymical affini- 
ty of different bodies is modified in propor- 
tion to the ponderable quantities of the 
substances placrd within the sphere of 
action. 



It is obvious, from this, that the deno- 
mination of elective affinity is erroneous ; 
since it supposes the union of one entire 
substance wilh another, in preference to a 
third. But this is not the case; a mere 
division of action takes place in instances 
of this kind; that is to say, the substances 
ac? according to the quantity existing with- 
in the sphere of activity. The excess of 
quantity is capable of compensating for 
the deficit ncy of the force of affinity. 
When, therefore, a compound body of two 
substances is acted on by a third, that part 
of the compound which is the subject of 
combination, is divided between the two 
remaining, not only in proportion to their 
respective degrees of affinity, but also ac- 
cording to their ponderable quantities, so 
that by varying this in either, the effect 
produced will be varied. 

Thus Berthollct has proved, that in all 
cases a large quantity of a body is capable 
of absiracting a portion of another, from a 
small portion of a third, how weak soever 
the affinity between the first and second 
of these bodies may be, and how strong 
soever the affinity between the second and 
third. Thus potash is capable of abstract- 
ing part of the acid from oxalate of lime, 
phosphate of lime, and carbonate of lime. 
Soda and lime decompose partially sulphate 
of potash. Nitric acid subtracts part of 
the base from oxalate of lime, &c. 

Tiie following experiment, advanced by 
Berthollet, will prove this more clearly. 

If equal parts, by weight, of sulphate of 
barytes and potash be boiled, in a small 
quantity of water, to dryness, it will be 
found that the sulphuric acid has been di- 
vided between the two bases in the com- 
pound ratio of their mass, and their force 
of affinity. The greater part of the sul- 
phate of barytes will be found undecompo- 
sed ; a small quantity or barytes will be 
found at liberty ; most of the potash will 
also be uncombined, but a certain portion 
will be united with the sulphur c acid which 
the barytes has lost, in the form of sulphate 
of potash. 

It is not merely in the instance stated 
here that this division of one body between 
two others, according to their respective 
masses and affinities, takes place, there 
being scarcely any example to the contrary. 
Avid as the affinities of bodies vary with 
their masses, it is obvious that, when we 
speak of the affinities of bodies, we ought 
to consider them as always acting in certain 
determinate proportions. 

AUAXTE. (From etvztvat, to dry.) A dry 
disease, proceeding from a f rmentat.ion in 
the siomach, described by Hippocrates de 
Morbis. 

AUAPSE. The fame. 
ACCIIKX. (From y^a>, to be proud.) 
The heck, which, in the posture of pride is 
made stiff and erect. 



AUR 



AUR 



Auditory nerve. See J\'ervus auditorius 
and Portia moUis. 

Auditory passage. See Meatus auditori- 
us externus and inter nut. 

AUGUSTUS. An epithet given to several 
compound medicines. 

Auuscos. (From UAO?, a pipe.) A 
catheter, or clyster-pipe. 
AULOS. The same. 

AURA. (From o>, to breathe.) Any 
subtile vapour, or exhalation. 

AURA EPILEPTIC A. A sensation 
which is felt by epileptic patients, as if a 
blast of cold air ascended from the lower 
parts towards the heart and head. 

AURA SEM1NIS. The extremely sub- 
tile and vivifying portion of the semen vi- 
rile, that ascends through the Fallopian 
tubes, to impregnate the ovum in the ova- 
rium. 

AURA VITALIS. So Helmont calls the 
vital heat. 

AURANTII BACCJE. Seville oranges. See 
Aurantium. * 

AURANTII CORTEX. See Aurantium. 
AURANTIUM. (So called ab anreo co- 
lore, from its golden colour, or from Aran- 
tium, a town of Achaia.) Aurantium hispa- 
lense. Mains aurantia major. Mains au- 
rantia. Aurantium vulgare. J\lalus auran- 
tia vulgaris, Mala aurea. Chrysoinelea. 
JVerantia. Martianum pomum. Poma an- 
rantia. Seville orange. This plant is the 
citrus aurantium of Linn sen s:petiolis ala- 
tis foliis acuminatis. Class, Polyadelphia. 
Order, Icosandric.. The China and Seville 
orange are both only varieties of the same 
species ; the latter is met with in our 
pharmacopoeias ; and the floivers, leaves, 
yelloia rind, and juice, are made use of for 
"different medical purposes. 

The flowers, fores naphce, are highly odo- 
riferous, and are used as a perfume ; they 
ure bitter to the taste; they give their taste 
and smell both to water and to spirit, but 
most perfectly to rectified spirit of wine. 
The water which is distilled from these 
flowers, is called aqua Jlarum naphg. In 
distillation, they yield a small quantity of 
essential oil, which is called oleum vel es- 
sentia neroli .- they are brought from Italy 
and France. Orange flowers were, at one 
time, said to be a useful remedy in con- 
vulsive and epileptic cases ; but experi- 
ence has not confirmed the virtues attribu- 
ted to them. 

The leaves have a bitterish taste, and 
yield, by distillation, an essential oil ; in- 
deed, by rubbing them between the fingers 
and the thumb, they manifest considerable 
fragrance. They have been applied for the 
.s:ime purposes as the flowers, but without 
success, 

The yellow rind of the fruit, freed from 
the white fungous part, has a grateful aro- 
matic flavour, and a warm, bitterish taste. 
Infused in bo;ling water, it gives out nearly 



all its smell and taste ; cold water extracts 
the bitter, but very little of the flavour. In 
distillation, a light, fragrant, essential oil 
rises, without the bitter. Its qualities are 
those of an aromatic and bitter. It has 
been employed to restore the tone of the 
stomach, and is a very common addition to 
combinations of bitters, used in dyspepsia. 
It has likewise been given in intermittent!:, 
in a dose of a drachm, twice or thrice a day. 
It is also much celebrated as a powerful 
remedy, in menorrhagia, and immoderate 
uterine evacuations. Its expressed oil is 
essence of Berg a mot. 

The juice of Seville oranges is a grate- 
ful acid, which, by allaying heat, quenching 
thirst, promoting various excretions, and 
diminishing the action of the vascular 
sanguiferous system, proves extremely use- 
ful in both ardent and putrid fevers ; 
though the China orange juice, as impreg- 
nated with a larger proportion of sugar, 
becomes more agreeable, and may be taken 
in larger quantities. The Seville orange 
juice is particularly serviceable as an antis- 
corbutic, and alone will prevent or cure 
scurvy in the most apparently desperate 
circumstances. In dyspepsia, putrid bile 
in the stomach, both lemon and orange 
juice are highly useful. 

AURANTIA CURASSAVENTIA. Aurantium 
Curassavense. Curassoa, or Curassao ap- 
ples, or oranges. The fruit so called seem 
to be the immature oranges, that by some 
accident have been checked in their growth. 
They are a grateful aromatic bitter, of a 
flavour very different from that of the peel 
of the ripe fruit, and without any acid ; 
what little tartness they have when fresh, 
is lost in drying. Infused in wine, or bran- 
dy, they afford a good bitter ibr the sto- 
mach. ,, They are used to promote the dis- 
charge, in issues, whence their name of 
issue peas, and to give the flavour of hops 
to beer. 

AURICULA. (Dim. of tiuris, the ear.) 
The external ear, upon which are several 
eminences and depressions, as the helix, 
antihelix, tragus, antitrcigus, conc/ue auricu- 
lae, schaphu, and lobulus. 

AURICULA JUM. Fungus sambuci- 
nus Agaricus. Auriculae jorma. Jew's 
ears. A membranaceous fungus, Pcziza 
auricula ; concava ruj-asa auriforniis, of 
l-innseus, which resembles the human ear. 
Its virtues are adstringent, and when cm- 
ployed, (by some its internal use is not 
thought safe,) it is made into a decoction, 
as a gargle for relaxed sore throats. 

AURICULA MUHIS. See Pilosella. 

AURICUUB CORDIS. The auricles of the 
heari. See If curt. 

AUR1CULARIS. (Auricularis, sc. digi- 
tus: from auris, the ear.) The little 
finger ; MO called because people generally 
put it into the ear, when the hearing is ob- 
structed. 



AVE 



AXI 



.93 



(A wagoner. Lrtt.) A ban- 
dage lor the sides ; so called because it is 
made like the traces of a wagon horse. 
Galen. 

AURIGO. (Jib aureo colore : from its 
yellow colour.) Thejauridice. See/ctenu. 

AURIPIGMENTUM. (From aurum, gold, 
and pigmentum, paint ; so culled from its 
colour and its u*e to painters. Yellow or- 
piment. See Arsenic, 

AURIS. (From aura, air, as being the 
medium of hearing.) The ear, or organ of 
hearing.) See Ear. 

AUBIS LEVATOR See Le-vator auris. 

AUBISCALPIUM. (From aim's, the ear, 
and scalpo, to scrape.) An instrument for 
cleansing the ear. 

AURIUM SORDES. The wax of the ears. 

AURIUM TINNITUS. A ringing noise in 
the ears. 

AURUGO. The jaundice. 

AUHUM. Gold. 

AUHUM HORIZONTALS. Oil of cinnamon 
Hnd sugar. 

AURUM LEPROSUM. Antimony. 

AUKUM MUSIVUM. A preparation of tin, 
sulphur, sal-ammoniac, and quick-silver. 

AURUM POTABILA. Gold dissolved and 
mixed with oil of rosemary, to be drank. 

AURUS BRAZILIANSIS. Calamus aro- 
maticus. 

AUTHEMERON. (From ctvTOf, himself, 
and f*ta. t a day.) A medicine which gives 
relief, or is to be administered the same 
day. 

AUTOLITHOTOMUS. One who cuts him- 
self for ihe stone. 

AUTOCRA.TEIA. The healing power of 
nature. Hippocrates. 

AuTorsiA. (From aucro?, himself, and 
37r7oju.au to see.) Ocular evidence. 

AUTOPTROS. (From SO/TO?, itself, and 
arygo?, wheat.) Bread made with the meal 
of wheat, from which the bran has not been 
removed. Galen. 

AVESACU. A Molucca tree, of a caustic 
quality. 

AVAN&IS. Avante. Indigestion. 

A V ELL AN \. (VeomMeUa, or avella, 
a town in Campania, where they grew.) 
The hazel nut. 

AVELLANA CATHARTICA. Barbadoes nuts. 
A purgative. 

AVELLANA MEXICANA. Cocoa and cho- 
colate nut. 

AVELLANA FURGATRIX. Garden spurge. 

AUXII.IARII MUSCULI. The pyramidal 
muscles of the abdomen. 

A VENA. (From aveo, to covet ; be- 
cause cattle are so fond of it.) The oat. 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnxan system. Class, Tnandiia. Order, 
Dygynia, 

2. The pharmacopoeial name of the oat. 
A-vena saliva of Linnaeus. It is the seed 

which is commonly used, and called the 



oat. There are two kinds of oats : the 
black and the white. They hav.- similar 
virtues, bat the black are chiefly sown for 
horses. They are less farinaceous, and 
less nourishing, than rice, or wheat ; yet 
ali,id a sufficient nourishment, ot easy di- 
ges'uon, to such as feed constantly on them. 
In Scotland, and some of the Northern 
counties ot England, oats form the chief 
bread of the inhabitants. They are 
much ut>ed in Germany ; but, in Norway, 
out bread is a luxury, among the common 
people. Grueis, made witn the flour, 
or meal, called oatmeal, digest easily, 
have a soft mucuagmous quality, by which 
they obtund acrimony, and are used for 
common drink and food in fevers, inflam- 
matory disorders, coughs, hoarseness, 
roughness, and exulceration of the fauces ; 
and water-gruels answer all the purposes of 
Hippocrates' ptisan. Externally, poul- 
tices, with oatmeal, vinegar, and a very 
little oil, are good for -sprains LIK! bruises. 
Stimulant poultices, with the grounds of 
strong beer, mixed up with oatmea.1, are 
made for; tumours, .c. of a gangrenous 
tendency. 

AVENA SATIVA. The systematic name 
for the avena of the pharmacopoeias. See 
jlvena. 

AVEN.E SEMINA. See *3vena. 

Avens, common. See CaryqpkyUMa. 

AVICENMA TOMEJSTOSA. The systematic 
name for the plant which affords the Jlna- 
cardium orientate ot the pharmacopoeias. 
See Anacardium orientate. 

ATIGATO PEAR. This delicious fruit, the 
produce of the Laums persea of Linnaeus, 
.when ripe, melts in the mouth like marrow, 
which it greatly resembles in flavour. It is 
supposed to be the most nutricious of all the 
tropical fruits, and grows in vast abun- 
dance in the West Indies and New Spain. 
The unripe fruit have but little taste ; yet, 
being very salubrious, are often eaten with 
salt and pepper. The sailors, when they 
arrive at the Havannah, and those parts, 
purchase them in great quantities ; and, 
chopping them into small pieces, with 
green capsicums and a little salt, regale 
themselves heartily with them. They are 
esteemed also for their antidysenteric quali- 
ties, and are prepared in a variety of ways 
for the tables of the rich. 

AXILLA, (Axilla, atzil, Heb. Scaliger 
deduces it from ago> to act ; in this man- 
ner, ago, axo, axa, axula, axilla.) The ca- 
vity under the upper part of the arm, called 
the arm-pit. 

AXILLARY ARTERIES. JLrierLe axillares. 
The axillary arteries are continuations of 
the subclavians, and give off, each of them, 
in the axilla, four mammary arteries, the 
subscapular, and the posterior and anterior 
circumflex arteries, which ramify about 
the joint. 



BAG 



BAD 



AXILLARY NERVE. Articular nerve. A 
branch of the brachial plaxus, and some- 
times of the raclial nerve. It runs out- 
wards and backwards, around the neck of 
the humerus, and is lost in the mucies of 
the scapula. 

AXILLARY VEINS. Vetitc axillares. The 
axillary veins receive the blood from 
the veins of the arm, and evacuate it into 
the subclavian vein. 

Axis. (From ago, to act.) See Denta- 
tus. 

AXUNGIA. (From axis, an axle-tree, 
and ungitOi u anomt.) Hog's lard. 

AXUNGIA CURATA. Purified hog's lard. 

AXUNGIA BE MUBOIIA. Marrow. 

AZAC. (Arab.) Gum ammonkc. 

AZAMAR. Native cinnabar. Vermil- 
lion. 

AZED. A fine kind of campliire. 

AZOT. (From a, priv. ami fa, to live ; 
because it is unfit for respiration.) See 



AZOT, GASEOUS OXYD OF. See Nitrogen, 
gaseous oxyd of. 

AZOTH. An imaginary universal re- 
medy. 

AZUB. Alum. 

AZURIUH. Quicksilver, sulphur, and 
sal-ammoniac. 



AZTGES. (From a, priv. and 
yoke.) The os phenoides was so called, 
because it has no fellow. 

AZYGOS. (From *, priv. and py>c, a 
yoke; because it has no fellow.) Several 
single muscles, veins, bones, &c. are so 
called. 

AZYGOS 3IORGAGNI. A muscle of the 
mouth. 

AZYGOS PROCESSUS. A process of h e 
os sphaenoides. 

AZYGOS UVULJE. Palato-staphilinus of 
Douglas. Staphilinus, or Epi&taphiUnus of 
Winslow. A muscle ot the uvula, which 
arises at one extremity of the suture which 
joins the palate bones, runs down the whole 
length of the velum and uvula, resembling 
an earth-worm, and adhering to the tendons 
of the circumilexi. It is inserted into the 
tip of the uvula. Its use is to raise the 
uvula upwards and forwards, and to short- 
en it. 

AZYGOS VEIN. Vena azygos. Vena sine 
part. This vein is situated in the right ca- 
vity of the thorax, upon the dorsal verte- 
brae. It receives the blood from the verte- 
bral, intercostal, bronchial, pericardiac, 
and diaphragmatic veins, and evacuates it 
into the vena cava superior. 



B 



ABUZICARIUS. (From &tsta>, to speak 
inarticulately.) The incubus, or night- 
mare ; so called because, in this disorder, 
the person is apt to make an inarticulate 
and confused noise. 

BACCA MONSPELIENSIS. See Baccharis. 

BACCALIA. (d baccharum copid, be- 
cause it abounds in berries.) The bay, or 
laurel -tree. 

BACCJE BERMUDENSES. See Saponaria 
cucula. 

BACCJE JUNIPERI. Juniper berries. See 
Juniperus. 

BACCJE LAURI. Laurel berries. See 
Laurus. 

BACCJE NORLANDIC:E. The fruit of the 
Rubus arcticus of Linn sens : foliis alternatis, 
caule inermi vniforo. They are recom- 
mended by Linnaeus as possessing an- 
tiseptic, refrigerant, and antiscorbutic 
qualities. 

BACCJE PiscATORijE. See Cocculus in- 
dicits, 

BACCHARIS. (From bacchus, wine ; 
from its frngrance resembling that 
liquor.) Bacchar. Bacca monspeliensis. 
Corryza tertia Dioscoridis, Eupatoriiim. The 



plant so called is the Imila dysenterica of 
Linnaeus. Ploughman's spikenard. Great 
fleabane. It is sweet-scented, and the 
roots smell like cinnamon, and are said to 
powerfully emmenagogue, and the leaves 
moderately astringent. 

BACKER'S PILLS. Pilule tonics Bacheri, 
A celebrated medicine in France, employed 
for the cure of dropsies. Their principal 
ingredient is the extract of melampodium, 
or black hellebore. 

BACCHIA. (From bacchits, wine ; be- 
cause it generally proceeds from hard 
drinking and intemperance.) Guita rosn- 
cea. A name given by Linnaeus to a pim- 
pled face. 

BACCULI. Is used, by some writers, for 
a particular k*pd of lozenges, shaped into 
little short rolls. Ilildanus likewise uses 
it for an instrument in surgery. 

BACOBA. The Banana. 

BADIAGA. A kind of sponge usually 
sold in Russia, the powder of which is said 
to take away the. livid marks of blows and 
bruises within a few hours. It is only de- 
scribed by Bauxbaum, and its nature is 
not properly understood. . 



BAL 



BAL 



95 



BADIAN SEMEN*. The seed of a tree 
which grows in China, and smells like ani- 
seed. "The Chinese (and Dutch, in imita- 
tion of them) sometimes use the badiane 
to give their tea an aromatic taste. See 
Anisum stellatum. 

BABIZA ACIUA. See Bath water. 

BADRANUM SEMEN- Indian aniseed. 

BADUCCA. (Indian.) A species of cap- 
paris. 

BAnzcHER. An antidote. 

R;EOS. (B*?.) In Hippocrates it means 
few ; but in P. jEgineta, it is an epithet for 
a poultice. 

BAGNIGC.E WELLS. A saline mine- 
ral spring 1 , in London, resembling the 
Epsom mineral. In most constitutions, 
three half-pints is considered a full dose for 
purging. 

BAGNIO, f From bagno, Ital.) A bathing 
or swetting-house. 

BAHEI roroLLi. Ray takes it to be the 
Areca, or Fanfel. 

BVHFL SCIIUM.I. An Indian-tree; the 
Genista spinosa Indira ,- a decoction of 
the roots of which r diuretic. The leaves, 
boiled and sprinkled in vinegar, have the 
same effect, according to Ray. 

BAT AC. w: -.;-.. lead, 

BAT A. T e plantain tree. 

BA'-.ENA MAKROCEPHALA. (Bethmva. from 
&O.KKUI. to c?>*. fr-)Tii its p<.'ver in casting 
up w?.ter ; av-d ^teutgoKtyAAo; ; from ^asotgo?, 
lon^. and xe<p*?u% ". head ; from the length 
of '.* Dead.) TUe systematic name of a 
species of wha!e. 

BALALINUM OLEUM. Oil of the ben-nut. 

BALA.NociST4.K-uM. (From @>a.Ktwoe, a 
nut, ar.dxasttvov, a chestnut; so called from 
its tuberous root.^ The bunium bulbocas- 
tanum, or earth-nut. 

BALANOS. Balavus. (From @<t\\u>, to 
cast ; br-c..U' ; e it sheds its fruit upon the 
ground ) 1. An acorn. 

2. Hippocrates, in his Treatise de Affec- 
tionibus, expresses by it the oak. 

3 Theophrsstus uses it sometimes, to 
express any glandiferous tree. 

4. From the similitude of form, this word is 
used to express suppositories and pessaries. 

5. A name of the glans penis. 

RALAUSTIUM. (From *AIO?, various, 
and *va, to dry ; so called from the va- 
riety of its colours, and its becoming soon 
drv ; or from /Sxetratva, to germinate.) Ba- 
laustia. A large rose-like flower, of a 
red colour, the produce of the plant from 
which we obtain the granatum. See Gra- 
natum. 

BALBUTIES. (From tfitf, to stam- 
mer; or from balbel, Heb. to stammer ) A 
defect of speech ; properly, that sort of 
stammering where the patient sometimes 
hesitates, and immediately after, speaks 
precipitately. It is the Psellismns Balbu- 
tiens of Cullen. 



BAHSTA. (From /Sauxa, to cast.) The 
astragulus, a bone of the foot, was former- 
ly called os bf lisisc, because the ancients 
used to cast it from their slings. 

Balmoney. See Meum athamanticum. 
Balm. SeeJWeKssa. 
Balm of Cilead. See JWoldavica. 
Balm of Mecca. See Balsamum Gilea- 
dense. 

Balm, Turkey. See Moldavica. 
BALLOTE, (From &axa>, to send forth, 
and f, rof, ti\e ear ; because it sends 
forth flower.* like ears ) Ballota. Stinking 
horehound. A nettle-like plant. The 
battote nigra of Linnaeus. 

BALNEUM. A bath, or bathing-house. 
See Bath. 

BALNEUM AMMALE. The wrapping any 
part of an animal, just killed, round the 
body, 8r a limb. 

BALNEUM ARENvE. A sand-bath for 
chymical purposes. See /lath. 

BALNEUM CAL1DUM. A hot-bath. 
See Bath. 

BALNEUM FRIGIDUM. A cold bath. 
See Bath> 

BALNEUM MARINE. Balneum maris. 
A warm -water b*th. See Bath 

BALNEUM MEDICATUM. A bath 
impregnated v ith drsigs. 

BALNEUM SICCUM. Balneum cinereum. 
A dry bath, either with ashes, sand, or iron 
filings. 

BALNEUM SULPHUREUM. A sulphur 
bath. 

BALNEUM TEPIDUM. A bath heated 
from 93 t.. 96 or 98 deg. of Fahrenheit's 
thermometer. 

BALNEUM VAPORIS. A vapour 
bath. 

B A LOON. {Ballon or balon, French) 
A large glass receiver in the form of a hol- 
low globe. For certain chymical operations 
buttons are made with two necks, placed 
opposite to each other; one tfl receive the 
neck of a retort, and the other to enter 
the neck of a second balloon: this appara- 
tus is called enfiladed balloons. Their usd 
is to increase the whole space of the re- 
ceiver, because any number of these may 
be adjusted to erch other. The only one 
of these vessels wlich is generally used, is 
a small oblong balloon with two necks, 
which is to be luted to the retort, and to 
the receiver, or great balloon ; it serves to 
remove this receiver from the body of the 
furnace, and to hinder it from being- too 
much heated. 

BALSAM. (Bahamnm. From baal 
samum, Hebrew.) The term balsam was 
anciently applied to any strong-scented, na- 
tural vegetable resin of about the fluidity 
of treacle ; inflammable, not miscible 
with water, without addition, and sup- 
posed to be possessed of many medical vir- 
tues. All the turpentines, the Peruvian 



96 



BAL 



BAL 



balsam, copaiba balsam, &c. are examples 
of natural balsams. Besides, many medi- 
cines compounded of various resins, or oils, 
and hro'ight to this consistence, obtained 
the name of balsam. Latterly, however, 
the tern has been restricted tothoe resins 
which c<;nta ; n the Benzole acid. Of these 
only three me commonly kno\vn, the gum 
benzoin, b:u am of Toiu, or Peru, and 
storax. 

BALSAM APPLE, MALE. The fruit of the 
momordica e.laterium of Linnaeus. It is the 
faec.ila. ufthe fruit of this plant, which af- 
fords the elateruim of the shops. 

BALSAM, ARTIFICIAL. Compound medi- 
cines are thus termed vvhich are made of a 
balsamic consistence and fragrance. They 
are generally composed of expressed or 
ethereal oils, resins, and other solid bodies, 
which give them the consistence of butter. 
The basis, or body of them, is expressed 
oil of nutmeg-, and frequently wax, butter, 
&c. They are usually tinged with cinna- 
bar and suffron. 

Balsam Canary. See Jlfoldavica. 

Balsam of Canada. See Balsamum Cana- 
dense. 

JBalsam of Copaivce. See Balsamum Co- 
pai"v<e. 

BALSAM, NATURAL. A resin, which has 
not yet assumed the concrete form, but 
still continues in a fluid state, is so called, 
as common turpentine, balsamum copaiva, 
peruvianum, tolutanum, &c. 

Balsam^ Peruvian. See Balsamum Peru- 
vianum, 

Balsam of sulphur. See Balsamum sul- 
phnris. 

Balsam of Tolu. See Balsamum tolutanum. 

Balsam. Turkey. See Moldavica. 

BALSAMATIO. (From balrtamum t si balsam.) 
The embalming of dead bodies. 

BALSAMEA. (From balsumum, balsam.) 
The balm of Gilead fir ; so called from its 
odour. See Balsamum canadense. 

BALSAMEL.SON. (From batsamum, bal- 
sam, and exam, oil.) Balm of Gilead, or 
true balsam um Judaicum. 

BALSAM OLEUM. Balm of Gilead. 

BALS AMIGA. (Bulsamica, sc. medica- 
menta / from fiseyratpov, balsam.) Balsamics. 
A term generally applied to substances of 
a smooth and oily consistence, which pos- 
sess emollient, sweet, and generally aro 
matic qualities. Huffman calls those me- 
dicines by lvs nanv, which are hot and 
acrid, and also the natural balsams, stimu- 
lating gums, &c. by which the vital heat 
is increased. Dr. 'Mullen speaks of them 
under the joint title oi'balsamfca et resinosa, 
considering that turpentine is the basis of 
all balsams. 

BALSAMTFERA BRAZILIESTSIS. The bal- 
sam copaiba tree. . 

BALSAMIFERA IxmcATfA. The Peruvian 
balsam tree. 



BALSAM1TA MAS. (Frombalsamum.j 
Balsumita major. Tanacetum hortense. 
Costus hortorum. Costomary, or alecost. 
The plant which bears this name in the 
pharmacopoeias, is the Tanacetum balsamiti 
of Linnaeus -.foliis ovatis, integris serratis. 

A fragra 1 t-smelling herb, somewhat like 
that of mint ; formerly esteemed as a cor- 
roborant, carminative, and emmenagogue. 

BALSAMITA FfEMiNEA. See Ageratum. 

BALSAMITA LUTEA. The polygonum per* 
sicariu of Linnaeus. See Persicaria. 

BALSAMITA MIKOR. Sweet maudlin. 

BALSAMITA MAJOR. See Balsamita 
mas. 

BASAMUM. (From baal samen, Heb. 
the prince of oils.) A balsam. See Bal- 
sam. 

BALSAMUM JGYPTIACUM. See Balsam- 
wn Gileadense. 

BAL.-AMUM AMERICANUM. See Balsam- 
um Peruvianum. 

BALSAMUM ANODYNUM. A preparation 
made from tacamahacca, distilled with 
turpentine and soap liniment, and tincture 
of opium. 

BALSAMUM ALPINUM. See Balsamum 
Gileadense. 

BALSAMUM ANTIAONII. A remedy 
formerly applied to cancel. 

BALSAMUM ARC^EI. A preparation com- 
posed of gum-elemi and suet. 

BALSAMUM ASIATICUM. See Balsamum 
Gileadense. 

BALSAMUM BRAZILIENSE. See Balsam- 
um copaibtf. 

BALSAMUM CANADENSE. Canada 
balsam. Balsam of Canadian fir. One of 
the purest turpentines, procured from the 
Pinns balsamea of Linnaeus, and imported 
from Canada. For its properties, see Tur- 
pentines. 

BALSAMUM CEPHALICUM. A distillation 
of oils, nutmeg, cloves, amber, &c. 

BALSAMUM COMMENDATORIS. A com. 
position of storax, benzoe, myrrh, aloes, 
&c. 

BALSAMUM COPAIBA. (Many of 
the Americans call all odoriferous resins 
and sweet-seen icd gums, copal , and the 
word iba, or iva. is the name for a tree ; 
hence copaiva ) Balsamum Brazitiense. 
Bahamum copaiba. Balsamum de copaibu. 
Balsamum capivi. Copaiba. 

Copaiba balsam is a yellow- resinous 
juice, of a moderately agreeable smell, 
and a bitterish biting taste, very perma- 
nent on the tongue. The tree which af- 
fords it, is the Copaifera officinalis of Lin- 
naeus. Class, Jlecandria. Order, Monn- 
gynia. It is obtained by making deep in- 
cisions near i'.s trunk, when the balsam 
immediately issues, and, at th^ proper 
sctison, flows in such abundance, that 
sometimes, in ihree hours, twelve pounds 
have been procured. The older tree 



BAL 

afford the best balsam, and yield it two 
or three times in the same year. The 
balsam supplied by the yout.g and vigo- 
rous trees, which abound with the most 
juice, is crude and watery, and is, there- 
fore, accounted less valuable. Wh.le flow, 
ing from the tree, this balsam is a co:our- 
le&s fluid ; in time, however, it acquires a 
yellowish tinge, and the consistence of 
oil ; but, though by age it has been found 
thick, like honey, yet it never becomes 
solid, like other resinous fluids. By dis- 
tillation in water, the oil is separated from 
the resin ; and, in the former, the taste and 
smell of the balsam are concentrated. If 
the operation is carefully performed, about 
one-half of the balsam rises into the re- 
ceiver, in the form of oil. The balsam 
unites with fixed and volatile oils, and 
with spirit of wine. It is given in all dis- 
eases of the urinary organs, when no in- 
flammation is present. In gleets, and in 
gonorrhoea, it was once a favourite reme- 
dy, but is now disused. In diseases of the 
kidneys it is still employed, though less 
frequently than usual ; and in haemorrhoids 
it is occasionally trusted. The dose is from 
20 to 30 drops, twice or three times a day, 
mixed with water, by means of an egg, or 
other mucilage. The balsam ot'copuivae is 
occasionally adulterated with turpen ine, 
but its virtues are not greatly injured by the 
fraud. 

BALSAMUM EMBRYONUM. A prepara- 
tion of aniseed. 

BALSAMUM GENUJNUM ANTIQ.UORUM. 
See Balsamum Gileadense. 

BALSAMUM GILEADENSE. Bal- 
samum, genuinum antiquorum. Bulsamelaeon* 
J&gyptiacum balsamum. Balsamam Jlsiati- 
cum. Balsamum Judiacum. Balsamum 
Syriacum. Balsamum e Mecca Balsamum 
alpini. Oleum balsami. Opobulsamum. 
Xyrobalsamum Balsam, or balm of Gilead. 
A resinous juice, obtained by making in- 
cisions into the bark of the Amyris Gilea* 
densis of Linnaeus: foliis tematis integer- 
rimis, pedunculis umfloris lateralibus. Class, 
Octandria. Order, Monogynia. The tree 
grows spontaneously, particularly near to 
Mecca, on the Asiatic side of the Red Sea. 
The juice of the fruit is termed carpobalsa- 
mum in the pharmacopoeias, and that of the 
wood and branches ocylobakamum. The best 
sort is a spontaneous exudation from the 
tree, and is held in so high estimation by 
the Turks, that it is rarely, if ever, to be 
met with genuine among us. The medicinal 
virtues of the genu ne balsam of Gilead, 
have been highly rated, undoubtedly with 
much exaggeration. The common balsam 
of Mecca is scarcely used ; but its qualities 
seem to be very similar to those of the bal- 
sam of Tolu, with perhaps more acrimony. 
The dose is from 15 to 50 drops. 

BALSAMUM GUAIACINUM. Balsam of 
Peru and spirits of wine. 



BAL 



97 



BALSAMUM GUIDONIS. The same as bal- 
samum anodynum. 

BALSAMUM HUNGARICUM. A balsam 
prepared from a coniferous tree on the 
Carpathian mountains. 

BALSAMUM JUDAICUM. See Balsamum 
Gileadense. 

BALSAMUM LOCATELLI. (LocatelU , so 
called fom its inventor Lucatelius.) Bal- 
samum Lucatelli. A preparation made of 
oil, turpentine, wax, and red saunders ; now 
disused ; formerly exhibited in coughs of 
long standing. 

BALSAMUM MAS. The herb costmary. 
See Balsamitamas. 

BALSAMUM JE MECCA. See Balsamum, 
Gileadense. 

BALSAMUM MEXICANUM. See Balsamum 
Pevuvianum. 

BALSAMUM NOVUM. A new balsam from 
a red fru<t in the West Indies. 

BALSAMUM ODORIFERUM. A preparation 
of oil. wax, and any essential oil. 

BALSAMUM PERUVIANUM. (From 
its country, Peru.) Putzochill. Indian, 
Mexican, and American balsam. Carbareiba 
is the name of the tree from which, ac- 
cording to Piso and Ray, it is taken. 
It is the Myroxylon peruifewm of Lin- 
naeus, which grows in the warmest pro- 
vinces of South America, and is remarkable 
for its elegant appearance. Every part of 
the tree abounds with a resinous juice; 
even the leaves being full of transparent 
resinous points, like those of the orange- 
tree. 

Balsam of Peru is of three kinds ; or ra- 
ther, it is one and the same balsam, having 
three several names : 1. The balsam of in- 
cision ; 2. The dry balsam ; 3. The balsam 
of lotion. The virtues of this balsam, as 
a cordial, pectoral, and restorative stimu- 
lant, and tonic, are by some thought to be 
very great. It is given with advantage from 
5 to 10 or 15 drops for a dose, in dyspepsia, 
atonic gout, in consumptions, asthmas ne- 
phritic complaints, obstructions of the vis- 
cera, and suppressions of the menses. It is 
best taken dropped upon sugar. The yolk 
of an egg, or mucilage of gum-arabic, will, 
indeed, dissolve it ; it may, by that way, be 
made into an emulsion ; and it is less acrid 
in that form than when taken singly. It 
is often made an ingredient in boluses and 
electuaries, and enters into two of the of- 
ficinal compositions : the tinctura balsami 
Peruviani compositi, and the trochisci gly- 
cyrrhyzse. Externally, it is recommended 
as a useful application to relaxed ulcers, 
not disposed to heal. 

BALSAMUM PERSICUM. A balsamum 
composed of storax, benzoe, myrrh^ and 
aloes. 

BALSAMUM RACKASIRA. This balsam, 
which is inodorous when cold, but of a 
smell approaching to that of Tolu balsam 
when heated, is brought from India in 



98 



BAL 



BAN 



gourd-shells. It is slightly bitter to the 
taste, and adheres to the teeth, on chewing. 
It is supposed to be one of the factitious 
balsams, and is scarcely ever prescribed in 
this country. 

BALSAM UM SAMECH. A factitious balsam, 
composed of tartar, dulcified by spirits of 
wine. 

BALSAMUM SAPOSTACEUM. A name given 
to the preparation called opodeldoc. 

BALSAMUM SATURNI. The remedy so 
named is prepared by dissolving the ace- 
tate of lead in oil of turpentine, and di- 
gesting the mixmre till it acquires a red 
colour. This is found to be a good remedy 
for cleansing foul ulcers ; but it is not ac- 
knowledged in our dispensatories. 

BALSAMUM STYRACIS BKIJZOINI. Gum- 
benjoin is so called. See Benxoinum. 
BALSAMUM SUCCINI. Oil of amber. 
BALSAMUM SULPHURIS. A solution of 
sulphur in oil. 

BALSAMUM SULPHCRIS ANISATUM. Balsam 
of sulphur, and oil of aniseed. 

BALSAMUM SULPHCRIS BARBADENSE, Sul- 
phur boiled with Barbadoes tar. 

BALSAMUM SULPHURIS CRASSUM. Thick 
balsam of sulphur. 

BALSAMUM SULPHURIS TEREB'INTHINA- 
TUM. This is made by digesting the sulphur 
with oil of turpentine, and, in the latter, 
adding the oil of aniseed. They are now 
confined to veterinary medicine. 

BALSAMUM SULPHURIS SIMPLEX. Sulphur 
boiled with oil. 

BALSAMUM SYRIACUM. The balm of 
Gilead. See Balsamum Gileadense. 

BALSAMUMTOLUTANUM. Balsam 
of Tolu. The tree Toluifera balsamum 
of Linnaeus, from which this balsam is 
procured, grows in South America, in the 
' province of Tolu, behind Carthagena, 
whence we are supplied with the balsam, 
which is brought to us in little gourd -shells. 
The balsam is obtained by making incisions 
into the bark of the tree, and is collected 
into spoons, which are made of black wax, 
frorfl which it is poured into proper vessels. 
It thickens, and in time becomes concrete : 
it has a fragrant odour, and a warm 
sweetish taste. It dissolves entirely in al- 
cohol, and communicates its odour and 
taste to water, by boiling. It contains 
acid of benzoin. This is the mildest of all 
the balsams. It has been used as an ex- 
pectorant; but its powers are very incon- 
siderable, and it is at present employed 
principally on account of its flavour some- 
what resembling that of lemons. It is di- 
rected, by the pharmacopoeias, in the sy- 
rupus Tolutanus, tinctura Tolutana, and 
syrupus balsamicus. 

BALSAMUM TRAUMATICUM. Vulnerary 
balsam. A form of medicine prescribed in 
the London Dispensatory, intended to sup- 
ply the place of the tincture commonly 
called Friar's balsam, so famous for curing 



old ulcers. The London College have 
named it Tinctura Benzoin! composita. 

BALSAMUM UNIVERSALE. A name given 
to the unguentum saturninum of old phar- 
macopoeias. 

BALSAMUM VERUM. See Balsamum Gilea- 
dense. 

BALSAMUM VIRIDE. Linseed-oil, turpen- 
tine and verdigrise, mixed together. 

BALSAMUM VITM HOFFMANNI. Beaume 
de vie. An artificial .balsam, so named 
from its inventor, and composed of a great 
variety of the warmest and most grateful 
essential oils, such as nutmegs, cloves, la- 
vender, &c. with balsam of Peru, dissolv- 
ed in highly rectified spirit of wine ; but it 
is now greatly abridged in the number of 
ingredients, and but little used. 

BALZOINUM. The gum-benjamin. 

BAMBALIO. (From |&t,Csuya>, to speak 
inarticulately.) A person who stammers, 
or lisps. 

BAMBOO, (Indian.) The young shoots 
of the arundo bambos of Linnaeus, which are 
prepared by the natives of both Indies 
with vinegar, garlic, pepper, Sec. into a 
very excellent pickle, which promotes the 
appetite, and assists digestion. 

BAMIA MOSCHATA. See Jlbelmoschus. 

BAMIER. The n^me of a plant common 
in Egypt, the husk of which they dress 
with meat, and, from its agreeable flavour, 
make great use of it in their ragouts. 

BAN ARBOR. The coffee-tree. 

BANANA. (Indian.) Bananeira. Fi- 
coides. Picas Indica. Jlfusa fructu cucu* 
merino breviori. Senoria. Pacceira. The 
Banana, or Plantain-tree. The most remark- 
able species of this genus of plants are, 

1. The paradisaica, or plantain. 

2. The musa sapientum, or banana-tree. 

Both are among the most important pro- 
ductions of the earth. The first sort is cul- 
tivated in all the islands of the West-In- 
dies, where the fruit serves the Indians for 
bread ; and some of the white people also 
prefer it to most other things, especially to 
the yams and cassada bread. This tree is 
cultivated, on a very extensive scale in 
Jamaica ; without the fruit of which, Dr. 
Wright says, the island would scarcely be 
habitable, as no species of provision would 
supply their place. Even flour, or bread 
itself, would be less agreeable, and less 
able to support the laborious negro, so as 
to enable him to do his business, or to keep 
in health. Plantains also fatten horses, 
cattle, swine, dogs, fowls, arid other do- 
mestic animals. The leaves, being smooth 
and soft, are employed as dressings after 
blisters. The water from the soft trunk is 
astringent, and employed by some to check 
diarrhoeas. Every other part of the tree is 
useful in different parts of rural economy. 
The leaves are used as narpkins and table- 
cloths, and are food for hogs. The second 
sort, musa sapientum, or banana-tree, dif- 



BAR 



BAR 



fers from the pavadisiaca, in having its 
stalks marked with dark purple stripes and 
spots. The fruit is shorter, straighter, and 
rounder ; the pulp is softer, and of a more 
luscious taste. It is never eaten green ; 
but, when ripe, it is very agreeable, eitner 
eaten raw or fried in slices, as fritters, and 
is relished by all ranks of people in the 
West Indies. Both the above plants were 
carried to the West Indies from the Cana- 
ry Islands ; whither, it is believed, they had 
been brought from Guinea, where they 
grow naturally. 

BA^ANEIRA. See Banana, 

BAUCIA. The Elaphoboscum, or wild 
parsnip. 

BANDAGE 



Fascia. An 



Deligatio. 

apparatus consisting of one or several pieces 
of linen, or flannel, and intended for co- 
vering or surrounding parts of the body for 
surgical purposes. Bandages are either 
simple or compound. The chief of the 
simple are the circular, the spiral, the 
uniting, the retaining, the expellent, and 
the creeping. The compound bandages 
used in surgery, are the T bandage, the 
suspensory one; the capistrum, the eigh- 
teen-tail uandage, and others to be met 
with in surgical treatises. 

BA.NDURA. A plant which grows in Cey- 
lon, whose root is said to be astringent. 

BANGUE. Bange. A species of opiate 
in great use throughout the East, for its 
intoxicating qualities. It is the leaf of a 
kind of wild hemp, growing in the countries 
of the Levant, and made into powder, pills, 
or conserves. 

BANICA. The wild parsnip. 
BANILIA. See Vanilla. 
BANILAS. See Vanilla. 
BAOBAB. Bahobab. A species of the 
genus of plants called by Linnaeus Adanso- 
nia. It grows mostly on the west coast of 
Africa, from the Niger to the kingdom of 
Benin. The bark is called lalo ; the ne- 
groes dry it in the shade, then powder and 
keep it in little cotton bags, and put two 
or three pinches into their tood. It is mu- 
ciliaginous, and powerfully promotes per- 
spiration. The mucilage obtained from this 
bark is a powerful remedy against the epi- 
demic fevers of the country that produces 
these trees ; so is a decoction of the dried 
leaves. The fresh fruit is as useful as the 
leaves, for the same purposes. 
BAPTICA coccus. Kermes berries. 
BAPTISTERIUM. (From (Sa^oi, to im- 
merge.) A bath, or repository of water, to 
wash the body. 

BAPTISTRUM. (From faurju, to dye.) 
A species of wild mustard ; so called from 
its reddish colour. 

BARAC. (From borak, Arabian, splendid.) 
JBarach pant*. Nitre. According to Ru- 
landus, nitrum salis. 

BARAS. (Arabian.) In M. A. Severi- 
nus, it is synonymous with Alphus, or Leuce. 



BARATHRUM. (Arabian.) Any cavity or 
hollow place. 

BAHBA. (From barbams, because wild 
nations are usually unshaven.) 1. The 
beard of man. 

2. Some vegetables have the specific 
name of barba, whose ramifications are 
bushy, like a beard, as barba jvrvis, &c. 
BARBA AROKIS. The arum. 
BARBA CUPRIJE. The ulmaria. 
BARBA HIRCI. The tragopogon. 
BARBA JQVIS. Jupiter's beard, or the 
silver bush. Also a name of the semper- 
vivum majus, and of a species of an- 
thy His. 

BARBADOES CHERRY The fruit of the 
Malphigia glabra of Linnaeus, resembling 
the inferior of our cherries. 

Barbadoes nut. See Ridnus major, 
BARBADOES TAR. (So named from 
the island from which it is chiefly pro- 
cured.) The use of this article in medicine 
is limited to its external applipation, at 
times, in paralytic cases. 

BARBAREA. (From St. Barbary, who is 
said to have found its virtues.) The leaves 
of this plant, Erisymum barbartea : foUis 
lyratis, extimo subrotundo of Linnseus, may 
be ranked among the the antiscorbutics.- 
They are seldom used in practice. 

BARBARIA. Barbaricum. An obsolete 
term formerly applied to rhubarb. 

BARBAROSSJE PILULA. Barbarossa's pill. 
An ancient composition of quicksilver, rhu- 
barb, diagridium, musk, amber, &c. It was 
the first internal mercurial medicine which 
obtained any real credit. 

BARB ARUM. The name of a plaister in 
Scribomus Largus. 

BARBATINA. A Persian vermifuge seed. 
BARBEL. Barbo. And oblong fish re- 
sembling the pike, the eating of whose roe 
often brings on the cholera morbus. 
Barberry. See Berberis. 
BARBOTA. The barbut. A small river- 
fish. It is remarkable for the size of its 
liver, which is esteemed the most delicate 
part of it. 

BAHDANA. (From bardus, foolish ; be- 
cause silly people are apt to throw them 
on the garments of passengers, having the 
property of sticking to whatever they 
touch ) Arctium. Betonica. Britannica. 
Ilaphis. Burd' ck. The plant so called 
in the pharmacopoeias, is Arctium lappa: 
foKis cordatis, inermibus y petiolatis, of 
Linnaeus. It grows wild in uncultivated 
grounds. The seeds have a bitterish sub- 
acrid taste ; they are recommended as very 
efficacious diuretics, given eiiher in the 
form of emulsion, or in powder, to the 
quantity of a drachm. The roots taste 
sweetish, with a slight austerity and bit- 
terness : they are esteemed aperient, diu- 
retic, and sudorific ; and are said to act 
without irritation, so as to be safely ven- 
tured upon in acute disorders. Decoctions 



BAR 



BAR 



of them have tf late been used, in rheuma- 
tic, gouty, venereal, and other disorders ; 
and are preferred by some to those of sar- 
saparilla. Two ounces of the roots are to 
be boiled in three pints of water, to a 
quart; to th-s, two drachms of vitriolated 
kali have been usually added. Of this de- 
coct-on, a pint should be taken every day, 
in scorbutic and rheumatic cases, and 
when intended as a diuretic, in a shorter 
per od. 

BAREGE WATER. The small vil- 
lage of B .rege, celebrated for its thermal 
w <ters, is situated on the French side of the 
Pyrenees, about half way between the Me* 
diterranean and the Bay of Biscay. The 
hot springs are four in number. They have 
all the same component parts-, but differ 
somewhat in their temperature, and in the 
quantity of sulphur, the hottest being most 
strongly penetrated wih this active ingre- 
dient. The coolest of these waters raises 
Fahrenheit's thermometer to 73 deg. ; the 
hottest to 120 deg. Barege waters are re- 
markable for a very smooth soapy feel ; 
they render the skin very supple and plia- 
ble, and dissolve perfectly well soap and 
animal lymph ; and are resorted to as a 
bath in resolving tumours of various kinds, 
rigidities, and contractions of the tendons, 
stiffness of the joints, left by rheumatic 
and gouty complaints, and are highly ser- 
viceable in cutaneous eruptions. Internally 
taken, this water gives considerable relief 
in disorders of the stomach, especially at- 
tended with acidity and heart -burn, in ob- 
stinate cholics, jaundice, and in gravel, 
and other affections of the urinary organs. 

BARTGLIA. See Sarritta. 

BARILLA. (Buriglia, the place where 
it was formerly produced ) Bariglia. Ba- 
rittor. j&natron. Natron. Anaton. AV- 
trum antiquorwn. Jlphronitrum. Baurach. 
Sal alkalinus fixus fossilis Carbonas sod<e 
impurus. Sub-carbonas sod<e impums. Soda 
Barilla is the term given, in commerce, 
to the impure mineral alkali, or imperfect 
earbona'e of soda, imported from Spain and 
the Levant. It is made by burning to 
ashes different plants that grow on the sea- 
shore, chiefly of the genus salsola of Lin- 
naeus, and is brought to us in hurd porous 
masses, of a. speckled brown colour. Kelp, 
a still more impure alkali, made in this 
country by burning various sea-weeds, is 
sometimes called British barilla. The ma- 
rine plants, collected for the purpose of 
procuring bar;lia in this country, are the 
S&lsola kali, salicornia Europxa, zostera 
maritima, triglochen maritimum, chenopo- 
dium maritimum, atriplex portulac >ides 
and littoralis, plantago maricima, tamarix 
gallica, eryngium maritimum, sedum tele- 
phium, dipsacus fullonum, &c. &c. 

BARK. A term very frequently em- 
ployed to signify, by way of eminence, 
Peruvian bark. See Cinchona. 



Bark, Carribaan. See Cinchona Jamai- 
ceruis. 

Bark, Jamaica. See Cinchona JamM- 
censis. 

B<<rk, Peruvian. See Cinchona. 

Burk. red. See Cinchona rubra. 

B irk yettoiv. See Cinchona Jlava. 

Barley. See Kordeum. 

Barley, caustic. See Cavidilla. 

Barley, pearl. See Hordeum perlatum. 

BARM A name given to yeast. 

BARNET WATER, it is of a purging 

kind, of a similar quantity to that of Ep- 
som, and about half its strength. 

BAROMETER. (From e$o?, weight, 
and yuirgov, measure.) An instrument to 
determine the weight of the air ; it is com- 
rtionly called a weather-glass. 

BARONES. Small worms; called also 
Nepones. 

BAROPTIS. A black stone, said to be an 
an' 'dote to venomous bites. 

BAROS. (Btgo?.) Gravity. 

1. Hippocrates uses this word to express 
by it, an uneasy weight in any part. 

2. It is also the Indian name for a species 
of camphjre, which is distilled from the 
roots of the true cinnamon-tree. 

BARRENNESS. The same as sterility. 

BARTHOLINIAIT/E GLANDUI^. See Sttb* 
lingual glands. 

BAUYCOIA. (From Bay?, heavy, and 
auueuce, to hear.) Deafness, or difficulty of 
hearing. 

BARYOCOCCALOJT. (From i&tgu?, heavy, 
and jtfKJcjtxof, a nut ; because it gives a deep 
sound.) A name for the stramonium. 

BARTPHONIA. (From /3*gy?, dull, and 
qavH, the voice.) A difficulty of speaking. 

BARYTES. (From ftyue, heavy ; so 
called because it is very ponderous.) Cauk. 
Calk. Terra ponderosa. Baryt. Ponde- 
rou-; earth Heavy earth. 

Barytes does not exist pure in nature. It 
is always found in combination with sulphu- 
ric or carbonic acid. United with the sul- 
phuric acid, it forms the mineral called 
sulphate of baryles, or baroselenite. It is 
found in Staffordshire, Derby^hirp, &c. 
When united to carbonic acid, it is called 
aerate d baiytes, w carbonate of 'barbies \ f ound 
at Anglezark, near Chorley, in Lancashire. 
Both combinations are met with regularly 
crystallized and amorphous. 

Pure barytes has a much stronger affi- 
nity than any other body for sulphuric 
acid; it turns blue tincture of cabbage 
gi-een. It is entirely infusible by heat 
alone, but melts when mixed wi'h various 
earths. Its specific gravity is 4.000. It 
changes quickly in the air, swells, becomes 
soft, and fall-* into a white powder, with the 
aquisition of about one-fifth of its weight. 
This slaking is much more active and 
speedy than that of lime. It combines with 
phosphorus, which compound decomposes 
water rapidly. It unites to sulphur by the 



BAS 



101 



jdrv and humid way. It has a powerful have supposed that it was formed of water, 

attraction for water, which it absorbs with The Giant's Causeway, in the county of 

a hissing noise and consolidates it strongly. Antrim, in Ireland, and the rock of Pere- 

It is -soluble in twenty times its weight of niere, near St. Santdoux, in Auvergne, are 

cold, and twice its weight of boiling water, formed of these stones. The distinctive 

Its crystals are long four-sided prisms of a characters of basaltes are, a regular form, 

satin-like appearance. It is a deadly poi- hardness sufficient to give fire with steel ; 

son to animals. an( i a cinereous, gray colour, inclining to 

Method of obtaining pure Barytes. I. black. 

Take native carbonate of barytes ; reduce it BASANITES. (From &t#<uifa to find 

to a fine powder and dissolve it in a suffi- out.) A stone said by Pliny, to contain 

cient quantity of diluted nitric acid ; evapo- a bloody juice, and useful in diseases of the 

rate this solution till a pellicle appears, and liver ; also a stone upon which, by some, 

then suffer it to crystallize in a shallow ba- the purity of gold was formerly said to be 

sin. The salt obtained is nitrate of barytes ; tried, and of which medical mortars were 



expose this nitrate of barytes to the action of made, 
heat in a china cup, or silver crucible, and 
keep it in a dull red heal for at least one hour, 
then suffer the vessel to cool, and transfer 
the greenish solid contents, which are pure 
barytes, into a well stopped bottle. When 
dissolved in a small quantity of distilled wa- 
ter, and evaporated, it may be obtained in 
a beautiful crystaline form. 
In this process the nitric acid, added to 



Base, addifiable. See Acid. 
Base, acidifying. See Jicid. 
B ASIATIC. (From bado y to kiss.) Ve- 
nerial connection between the sexes. 
BASIATOR. See Constrictor labiorum. 
Basil See Basilicum. 
BASIL ARK os. ( Basilaris ; from @a<rt\tv(, 
a king.) Several bones were so termed by 
the ancients ; as the sphsenoid and occi- 
the native carbonate of barytes, unites to pital bones. 

BASIL A HIS ARTERIA. Basilary artery. 
An artery of the brain. So called be- 
cause it lies upon the basilary process of 
the occipital bone. It is formed by the 
junction of the two vertebral arteries with- 
in the skull, and runs forwards to the sella 
turcica along the pans varolii, which it 
supplies, as well as the adjacent parts, with 
blood, 

BASILARIS PRCCESSUS. Basilary process. 
See Occipital bone. 

BASILIARIS APOPHYSIS. The great apo- 
physis of the os occipitis. 

BASILICA MEDIANA. See Basilica vena. 
BASILICA NUX. The walnut. 
BASILICA VENA. The large vein that 
runs in the internal part of the arm, and 
evacuates its blood into the axillary vein. 
The branch which crosses, at the head of 
the arm, to join this vein, is called the 
basilic median. They may either of them 
be opened in the operation of blood- 
letting. 

Basilicon ointment. See Basilicum un~ 
guentum. 

BASILICUM. (From surt\nco;, royal ; so 
called from its great virtues.) Odmum. 
Basil, The plant which bears this name in 

this word means mm, which is the colour the pharmacopoeias, is the Ocimum basili- 
of the stone.) A heavy and hard kind of cum of Linnaeus -.foliis ovatis glabris / ca- 
stone, chiefly black, or green. It fre- lycibns citiatis. It is supposed to possess 
quently contains iron, has a flinty h ;rd- nervine qualities, but is seldom employed 
ness, is insoluble by acids, and is fusible but as a condiment to season high dishes, 
by fire. The most remarkable property of to which it imparts a grateful odour and 
this substance is its figure, being never taste. 

found in sirata, like other marbles, but BASILICUM trurGUEsrTtra. Unguentum bu- 
always standing up in the form of regular vilicum flavum. An ointment popularly so 
angular columns, composed of a number of called from its having the ocymum ba- 
joints, one placed upon and nicely fitted silicum in its composition. It came after- 
to another, as if formed by the hands of a wards to be composed of wax, resin, &c 
skilful architect. Some regard this fusible and is now called ceratum resinae flavae. 
substance as a volcanic production, others BASILICUS PULVIS. The roval powder. 



the ba-ytes, and expels the carbonic acid, 
and forms nitrate of barytes ; on exposing 
this nitrate to heat, it parts with its nitric 
acid, which becomes decomposed into its 
constituents, leaving the barytes behind. 

2. Pure barytes may likewise ba obtain- 
ed from its sulphate. For this purpose, 
boil powdered sulphate of barytes in a so- 
lution of twice or three times its weight of 
carbonate of potash, rn a Florence flask, for 
about two hours; filter the solution and 
expose what remains on the filter to the 
action of a violent heat. 

In this case the sulphuric acid of the 
barytes unites to the potash, and the car- 
bonic acid of the latter, joins to the ba- 
rytes ; hrmce sulphate of potash and carbo- 
nate of barytes are obtained. The former 
is in solution and passes through the filter ; 
the latter is insoluble, and remains behind. 
From this artificial carbonate of barytes, 
the carbonic acid is driven off by heat. 

BASAAL. (Indian.) The name of an In- 
dian tree. A decoction of its leaves, with 
ginger, in water, is used as a gargle in dis- 
orders of the fauces. The kernels of the 
fruit kill worms. Ray's Hist. 

BASALTES. (In the thiopic tongue, 



102 



BAT 



BAT 



A preparation formerly composed of calo- 
mel, rhubarb, and jalap. Many composi- 
tions, were, by the ancients, so called, from 
their supposed pre-eminence. 

BASILIDION. An itchy ointment was 
formerly so called by Galen. 

BASILIS. A name formerly given to 
collyriums of supposed virtues, by Galen. 

BASILISCVS. (From /W/xev?, a king.) 
The basilisk, or cockatrice, a poisonous 
serpent ; so called from a white spot up- 
on its head, which resembles a crown. 
Also the philosopher's stone, and corrosive 
sublimate. 

BASIO-CERATO-CHOHDRO-GLOSSUS. See Hy- 
oglossus. 

BASIO-GLOSSUM. See ffyog-lossus. 

B-isio-pHARrNGJEUS. See Constrictor 
pharyngis viedius. 

BASIS. (From fauvu, to go : the support 
of any thing,upon which it stands or goes.) 

1. This word is very frequently applied 
anatomically to the body of any part, or to 
that part from which the other parts ap- 
pear, as it were, to proceed, or by which 
they are supported. 

2. In pharmacy it signifies the princi- 
pal ingredient. 

BASIS CEREBRI. A term applied for- 
merly to the paiatum. 

BASIS CORDIS. The broad part of the 
heart is so called, to distinguish it from 
the apex, or point. 

BASSI COLICA. The name of a medicine 
in Scribonius Largus, compounded of aro- 
matics and honey. 

Bastard pleurisy. See Peripneumonia 
notha. 

BATATAS. (So the natives of Peru call 
the potato, which is a native of that coun- 
try, from our word potato.) A species of 
night-shade, solatium tuberosum> Linn. Po- 
tatoes were first brought into Europe by Sir 
Francis Drake, 1486. and planted in Lon- 
don. They are said to be natives of Peru. 

BATH. Balneum. Baths are of several 
kinds. 

I. A convenient receptacle of w-ater, for 
persons to wash or plunge in, either for 
health or pleasure, is called a bath. These 
are distinguished into hot and cold ; and 
are either natural or artificial. The natural 
hot baths are formed of the water of hot 
springs, of which there are many in differ- 
ent parts of the world ; especially in those 
countries where there are, or have evident- 
ly been, volcanoes. The artificial hot 
baths consist either of water, or of some 
other fluid, made hot by art. The cold 
bath consists of water, either fresh or salt, 
in its natural degree of heat ; or it may be 
made colder by art, as by a mixture of ni- 
tre, sal-ammoniac, &c. The chief hot 
baths in our country are those of Bath and 
Bristol, and those of Buxton and Matlock ; 
which latter, however, are rather warm, 
or tepid, than hot. The use of these baths 
is found to be beneficial in diseases of the 



head, as palsies, &c. ; in culicular diseases, 
as leprosies, &c. ; obstructions and consti- 
pations of the bowels, the scurvy, and* 
stone ; and in many diseases of women and 
children. The cold bath, though popular- 
ly esteemed one of the most innocent reme- 
dies yet discovered, is not, however, 
to be adopted indiscriminately. On the 
contrary, it is liable to do considerable 
mischief in all cases of diseased viscera, and 
is not, in any case, proper to be used du- 
ring the existence of costiveness. As a 
preventive remedy for the yoimg, and as a 
general bracer for persons of a relaxed 
fibre, especially of the female sex, it often 
proves highly advantageous ; and in gene- 
ral, the popular idea is a correct one, that 
the glow which succeeds the use of cold or 
temperate baths, is a test of their utility ; 
while, on the other hand, their producing 
chilliness, head-ache, &c. is a proof of their 
being pernicious. 

The Cold Bath. 

The diseases and morbid symptoms, for 
which the cold bath, under one form or 
another, may be applied with advantage, 
are very numerous ; and some of them de- 
serve particular attention. One of the 
most important of its uses is in ardent fever ; 
and, under proper management, it forms a 
highly valuable remedy in this dangerous 
disorder. It is highly important, however, 
to attend to the precautions which the use 
of this vigorous remedial process requires. 
" Affusion with cold water," Dr. Currie 
observes, " may be used whenever the heat 
of the body is steadily above the natural 
standard, when there is no sense of chilli- 
ness, and especially when there is no gene- 
ral nor profuse perspiration. If used du- 
ring the cold stage of a fever, even though 
the heat be higher than natural, it brings 
on interruption of respiration, a fluttering, 
weak, and extremely quick pulse, and cer- 
tainly might be carried so far as to extin- 
guish an mation entirely.'* The most salu- 
tary consequence which follows the proper 
use of this powerful remedy, is the pro- 
duction of profuse and general perspira- 
tion. It is this circumstance that appears 
to give so much advantage to a general 
effusion of cold water in fevers, in prefer- 
ence to any partial application. The cold 
bath is better known, especially in this 
country, as a general tonic remedy in 
various chronic diseases. The general 
circumstances of disorder for which cold 
bathing appears to be of service, according 
to Dr. Saunders, are a languor and weak- 
ness of circulation, accompanied with pro- 
fuse sweating and fatigue.on very moderate 
exertion ; tremors in the limbs, and many 
of those symptoms usually called nervous ; 
where the moving powers are weak, and 
the mind listless and indolent ; but, at the 
same time, where no permanent morbid 
obstruction, or visceral disease, is present. 
Such a state of body is often the conse- 



BATH. 



MS 



quence of a long and debilitating sickness, 
or of a sedentary life, without using- the 
exercise requisite to keep up the activity of 
the bodily powers. -In all these cases, the 
great object to be fulfilled, is to produce a 
considerable reaction, from the shock of 
cold waicFj at the expense of as litde heat 
as possible ; r i: d when cold-bathing does 
form, 11 is precisely where the powers of 
the body are too languid to bring on re- 
ae^uii, -aid the chilling effects remain un- 
opposed. When the ' patient feels the 
shock of imiTu rsion very severely, and, 
from experience of i s pain, has acquired an 
insuperable dread of this application ; when 
he has ielt little or no mindly glow to 
succeed the first shock, but on coming out 
of the bath remains cold, shivering, sick 
at the stomach, oppressed with head-ache, 
languid, drowsy and listless, and verse to 
food and exercise during the whole of the 
day, we may be sure that the bath has been 
too coiu, irie shock too severe, s and no re- 
action produced at all adequate to the im- 
pression ou the surface of the body. 

Tuere is a kind of slow irregular fever, 
or rather febricula, in which Dr. Saunders 
has often found the cold hath of s nguiar 
service. This disorder principally affects 
persons naturally of a sound constitution, 
but who lead a sedentary life, and at the 
same time are employed in some occupa- 
tion which strongly engages their attention, 
requires much exertion of thought, and 
excites a degree of anxiety. Such persons 
h*ve constantly a pulse rather quicker than 
natural, hot hands, restless nights, and an 
impaired appetite; but without any con- 
siderable cu-rungement in the digestive or- 
gans. This disorder will continue for a 
long time, in an irregular way, never en- 
tirely preventing their ordinary occupation, 
but rendering it more than usually anxious 
and fatiguing, and often preparing the way 
for confirmed hypochondnasis. Persons in 
this situation, are remarkably relieved by 
the cold-bath, and for the most part, bear it 
well ; and its use should also, if possible, DC 
aided by that relaxation from business, and 
that diversion of the mind from its ordinary 
train of thinking, which are obtained by 
attending a watering-place. The Doctor 
also found cold bathing hurtful in chlorosis, 
and observes, that it is seldom admissible in 
those cases of disease in the stomach which 
are brought on by high living, and constitute 
what may be termed the true dyspepsia. 

The topical application or cold water, 
or of a cold saturnine lotion, in cases of 
local inflammation, has become an esta- 
blished practice ; the efficacy of which 
is daily experienced. Burns of every de- 
scription will bear a most liberal use of 
cold water, or even of ice ; and this may 
be applied to a very extensive inflamed sur- 
face, without even producing the ordinary 
effects of e-pneral chillintr. whirch wonlH bp 



brought on from the same application to a 
sound arid healthy skin. Another very dis- 
tressing symptom, remarkably relieved by 
cold water, topically applied, is that intole- 
rable itching of the vagina, which women 
sometimes experience, entirely unconnect- 
ed with any general cause, and which ap- 
pears to be a kind of herpes confined to 
that part. Cold water has also been used 
topically in the various cases of strains, 
bruises, and similar injuries, in tendinous 
and ligamentous parts, with success ; also 
in rigiui y ot muscles, that have been long 
kept at rest, in order to favour the union 
of bone, where there appears to have been 
no organic injury, but only a deficiency of 
nervous energy, and in mobility of parts, 
or at most, only slight adhesions, which 
would give way to a regular exercise of 
the weakened limb. Another very striking 
instance of the powerful effects of topical 
cold, in stimulating a part to action, is 
shown in the use of cold, or even iced wa- 
ter, to the vagina of parturient women, 
during the dangerous haemorrhages that 
take place from the uterus, on the partial 
separation of the placenta. 

The Shower Bath. 

A species of cold bath. A modern in- 
vention, in which the water falls, through 
numerous apertures, on the body. A pro^ 
per apparatus for this purpose is to be ob- 
tained at the shops. The use of the shower 
bath applies, in every case, to the cold 
bath, and is of en attended with particular 
advantages. 1. From the sudden' con- 
tact of the water, which, in the common 
cold bath, is only momentary, but which, 
in the shower bath may be prolonged, re- 
peated, and modified, at pleasure; and, 
secondly, from the head and breast, which 
are exposed to some inconvenience and 
danger in the common bath, being here ef- 
fectually secured, by receiving the first 
shock of the water. 

The Tepid Bath. 

The range of temperature, from the 
lowest degree of the warm bath to the 
highest of the cold bath, forms what may 
be termed the tepid. In general, the heat 
of water which we should term tepid, is 
about 90 deg. In a medicinal point of 
view, it produces the greatest effect in ar- 
dent fever, where the temperature is little 
above that of health, but the powers of 
the body weak, not able to bear the vigo- 
rous application of cold immersion. In 
cutaneous diseases, a tepid bath is often 
quite sufficient to produce a salutary re- 
laxation, and perspirability of the skin. 
The Warm Hath. 

From 93 to 96 deg. of Fahrenheit, the 
warm bath has a peculiar tendency to 
bring on a state of repose, to alleviate any 
local irritation, and Uiereby induce sleep. 
It is, upon the whole, a safer remedy than 

thp. rcnlrf hnth nnrl mnrp rprnlrarlv nnnti- 



104 



B.YTH. 



cable to very weak and irritable constitu- 
tions, whom the shock produced by cold 
immersion would overpower, and who 
have sufficient vigour of circulation for an 
adequate reaction. In cases of topical 
inflammation, connected with a phlogistic 
state of body, preceded by rigor and gene- 
ral fever, and where the local formation of 
matter is the solution of the general inflam- 
matory symptoms, experience directs us to 
the use of the warm relaxing applications, 
rather than those which, by exciting a ge- 
neral reaction, would increase the local 
complaint. This object is particularly to 
be consulted when the part affected is one 
that is essential to life. Hence it is that in 
fever, where there is a great determination 
to the lungs, and the respiration appears 
to be locally affected, independently of 
the oppression produced by mere febrile 
increase of circulation, practitioners have 
avoided the external use of cold, in order 
to promote the solution of the fever ; and 
have trusted to the general antiphlogistic 
treatment, along with the topically relaxing 
application of warm vapour, inhaled by 
the lungs. Warm bathing appears to be 
peculiarly well calculated to relieve those 
complaints that seem to depend on an irre- 
gular or diminished action of any part of 
the alimentary canal ; and the state of the 
skin, produced by immersion in warm wa- 
ter, seems highly favourable to the healthy 
action of the stomach and bowels. Another 
very important use of the warm bath, is in 
herpetic eruptions, by relaxing the skin, 
and rendering it more pervious, and pre- 
paring it admirably for receiving the sti- 
mulant applications of tar ointment, mer- 
curials, and the like, that are intended to 
restore it to a healthy state. The consti- 
tutions of children seem more extensively 
relieved by the warm bath than those of 
adults ; and this remedy seems more gene- 
rally applicable to acute fevers in them than 
in persons of a more advanced age, Where 
the warm bath produces its salutary opera- 
tion, it is almost always followed by an 
easy and profound sleep. Dr. Saunders 
strongly recommends the use of the tepid 
warm bath, or even higher, in the true me- 
norrhagia of females. In paralytic affec- 
tions of particular parts, the powerful sti- 
mulus of heated water is generally allow- 
ed ; and in these cases, the effect may be as- 
sisted by any thing which will increase the 
stimulating properties of the water, as, for 
instance, by the addition of salt. In these 
cases, much benefit may be expected from 
the use of warm sea-baths. The appli- 
cation of the warm bath topically, as in pe- 
diluvia, or fomentations to the feet, often 
produce the most powerful effects in quiet- 
ing irritation in fever, and bringing on a 
sound and refreshing repose. The cases in 
which the warm bath is likely to be attend- 
ed with danger, are particularly those 



where there exists a strong tendency to & 
determination of blood to the head ; and 
apoplexy has sometimes been thus brought 
on. The lowest temperature will be re- 
quired tor cutaneous complaints, and to 
bring on relaxation in the skin, during fe- 
brile irritation ; \ lie warmer will be neces- 
sary in paralysis ; more heat should be em- 
ployed on a deep-seated part than one that 
is superficial. 

The Vapour Bath. 

The vapour bath, called also JBalneum 
laconicum, though not much employed in. 
England, forms a valuable remedy in a va- 
riety of cases. In most of the hot natural 
waters on the Continent, the vapour bath 
forms a regular part of the bathing appa- 
ratus, and is there highly valued. In no 
country, however, is this application car- 
ried to so great an extent as in Russia, 
whtre it forms the principal and almost 
daily luxury of all the people, in every 
rank; and it is employed as a sovereign 
remedy for a great variety of disorders. 
The Hon. Mr. Basil Cochrane has lately 
published a Treatise on the Vapour Bath, 
from which, it appears, he has brought the 
apparatus to such perfection, that he can 
apply it of all degrees of temperature, 
partially or generally, by shower, or by 
stream, with a great force or a small one ; 
according to the particular circumstances 
under which patients are so variously 
placed, who require such assistance. See 
Cochrane on Vapour Bath. Connected 
with this article, is the air-pump vapour- 
bath , a species of vapour bath, or machine, 
to which the inventor has given this name. 
This apparatus has been found efficacious in 
removing paroxysms of the gout, and pre- 
venting their recurrence ; in acute and 
chronic rheumatism, palsy, cutaneous dis- 
eases, ulcers, &c. It has also been propo- 
sed in chilblains, leprosy, yaws, tetanus, 
amenorrhea, and dropsy. 

II. When the vessels in which bodies are 
exposed to the action of heat, are not 
placed in immediate contact with the fire, 
but receive the required degree of heat by 
another intermediate body, such apparatus 
is termed a bath. These have been vari- 
ously named, as dry, vapour, &c. Modem 
chymists distinguish three kinds : 

1. Balneum arenx, or the sand bath. 
This consists merely of an open iron, or 
baked clay, sand-pot, whose bottom is 
mostly convex, and exposed to the furnace. 
Finely sifted sea-sand is put into this, and 
the vessel containing the substance to be 
heated, &c. in the sand bath, immersed in 
the middle. 

2. Balneum mari<e, or the water bath. 
This is very simple, and requires no 
particular apparatus. The object is, to 
place the vessel containing the substance 
to be heated, in another, containing water ; 
which last must be of such a nature as to 



I . 



t>e fitted for the application of fire, as a 
common still, or kettle. 

3. The -vapour bath. When any sub- 
stance is heated by the steam, or vapour, 
of boiling 1 water, chymists say it is done 
by means of a vapour bath. 

III. Those applications are called dry 
baths, which are made of ashes, salt, sand, 
&c. The ancients had many ways of ex- 
citing- a sweat, by means of a dry heat ; 
as by the use of hot sand, stove rooms, or 
artificial bagnios; and even from certain 
natural hot steams of the earth, received 
under a proper arch, or hot-house, as we 
learn from Celsus. They had also another 
kind of bath by insolation, where the body 
was exposed to the sun for some time, in 
order to draw forth the superfluous moist- 
ure from the inward parts; and to this 
day it is a practice, in some nations, to 
cover the body over with horse-dung, es- 
pecially in painful chronic diseases. In 
New England, they make a kind of stove 
of turf, wherein the sick are shut up to 
bathe, or sweat. It' was probably from a 
knowledge of this practice, and of the ex- 
ploded doctrines of Celsus, that the no- 
ted empiric Dr. Graham drew his notions 
of the salutary effects of what he called 
earth bathing ; a practice which, in the way 
he used it, consigned some of his patients 
to a perpetual mansion under the ground. 
The like name of dry bath, is sometimes 
also given to another kind of bath, made 
of kindled coals, or burning spirit of wine. 
The patient being placed in a convenient 
close chair, for the reception of the fume, 
which rises and provokes sweat in a plen- 
tiful manner ; care being taken to keep the 
head out, and to' secure respiration This 
bath has been said to be very effectual in 
removing old obstinate pains in the limbs. 

IV. Medicated baths are such as are sa- 
turated with various mineral, vegetable, or 
sometimes animal substances. Thus we 
have sulphur and iron baths, aromatic and 
milk baths. There v can be no doubt that 
such ingredients, if duly mixed, and a pro- 
per temperature be given .to the water, 
may, in certain complaints, be productive 
of effects highly beneficial. Water, impreg- 
nated with sulphate of iron, will abound 
with the bracing and sulphureous parti- 
cles of that metal, and may be useful for 
strengthening the part to which it is 
applied, reinvigorating debilitated limbs, 
stopping various kinds of bleeding, re- 
storing the menstrual and haemorrhoidal 
discharges when obstructed, and, in short, 
AS a substitute for the natural iron bath. 
There are various other medicated baths, 
such as those prepared with alum and 
quick-lime, sal-ammoniac, &c. by boiling 
them together, or separately, in pure rain 
water. These have long been reputed as 
eminently serviceable in paralytic, and all 



fcATH WATERS. 



105* 



diseases arising from nervous and muscular 
debility. 

BATH WATERS. Bathonix aqua So- 
Us aqua, BadigutK aquae . The city of Bath 
has been celebrated, for a Icing series of 
years, for its numerous hot springs, which 
are of a higher temperature than any in 
this kingdom, (from 112 to 116,) and, 
indeed, are the only natural waters which 
we possess that are at all hot to the touch ; 
all the other thermal waters being of a 
heat below the animal temperature, and 
only deserving that appellation from being- 
invariably warmer than the general ave- 
rage of the heat of common springs. By 
the erection of elegant baths, these waters 
are paticularly adapted to the benefit of 
invalids, who find here a variety of esta- 
blishments, contributing equally to health, 
convenience, and amusement. There are 
three principal springs in the city of Bath, 
namely, those called the King's Bath, the 
Cross Bath, and the Hot Bath ; all with- 
in a short distance of each other, and emp- 
tying themselves into the river Avon, after 
having passed through the several baths, 
Their supply is so copious, that all the 
large reservoirs used for bathing are fill- 
ed every evening with fresh water, from 
their respective fountains. In their sensi- 
ble and medicinal properties, there is but 
a slight difference. According to Dr. Fal- 
coner, the former are 1. That the water, 
when newly drawn, appears clear and co- 
lourless, remains perfectly inactive, with- 
out bubbles, or any sign of briskness, or 
effervescence. 2. After being exposed to 
the open air, for some hours, it becomes ra- 
ther turbid, by the separation of a pale 
yellow, ochery precipitate, which gradu- 
ally subsides. 3. No odour is perceptible 
from a glass of the fresh water, but a slight 
pungency to the taste from a large mass of 
it, when fresh drawn ; which, however, is 
neither fetid nor sulphureous. 4. When 
hot from the .pump, it affects the mouth 
with a strong chalybeate impression, with- 
out being of a saline or pungent taste. 
And, fifthly, on growing cold, the chalybeate 
taste is entirely lost, leaving only a very 
slight sensation on the tongue, by which it 
can scarcely be distinguished from common 
hard spring-water. The temperature of 
the King's Bath water, which is usually pre- 
ferred for drinking, is, when fresh drawn 
in the glass, above 116 deg. ; that of 
the Cross Bath, 112 deg. But, after flow- 
ing into the spacious bathing vessels, it 
is generally from 100 to 106 deg. in the 
hotter baths, and from 92 to 94 cleg, in the 
Cross Bath ; a temperature which remains 
nearly stationary, and is greater than that 
of any other natural spring in Britain. A 
small quantity of gas is also disengaged 
from these waters, which Dr. Priestley 
first discovered to contain no more thai) 



106 



BATH WATEUS. 



one-twentieth part of its bulk of fixed air, 
or carbonic acid. The chymical proper- 
ties of the Bath waters, according to the 
most accurate analysers, Doctors Lucas, 
Falconer, and Gibbs, contain so small a 
proportion of iron, as to amount only to 
one-twentieth or one-thirty-eighth of a 
grain in the pint ; and, according to Dr. 
Gibbs, fifteen grains and a quarter of si- 
liceous earth in the gallon. Dr. Saunders 
estimates a gallon of the King's Bath water 
to contain about eight cubic inches of car- 
bonic acid, and a similar quantity of air, 
nearly azotic, about eighty grains of solid 
ingredients, one-half of which probably 
consists of sulphat and muriat of soda, 
fifteen grains and a half of siliceous earth, 
and the remainder is selenite, carbonate of 
lime, and so small a portion of oxyd of 
iron as to be scarcely calculable. Hence 
he concludes, that the King's Bath water, 
is the strongest chalybeate ; next in order, 
the Hot Bath water; and lastly, that of 
the Cross Bath, which contains the smallest 
proportions of chalybeate, gaseous and sa- 
line, but considerably more of the earthy 
particles ; while its water, in the pump, is 
also two degrees lower than that of the 
otl ers. It ^is likewise now ascertained, 
that thess springs do not exhibit the slight- 
est traces of sulphur, though it was former- 
iy believed, and erroneously supported on 
the authority of Dr. Charleton, that the 
subtile aromatic vapour in the Bath waters, 
was a sulphureous principle, entirely simi- 
lar to common brimstone. 

With regard to the effect of the Bath 
Waters on the human system, independent 
of their specific properties, as a medicinal 
remedy not to be imitated completely by 
any chymical process, Dr. Saunders attri- 
butes much of their salubrious influence to 
the nntural degree of warmth peculiar to 
these springs, which, for ages, have pre- 
served an admirable degree of uniformity 
of temperature. He thinks too, that one 
of their most important uses is that of 
an external application, yet supposes that, 
in this respec-, they appear to differ little 
from common water, when heated to the 
same temper; ture, and applied under si- 
milar circumstances. 

According to Dr. Falconer, the Bath 
water, when drunk fresh from the spring, 
generally raises, or rather accelerates the 
puke, increases the heat, and promotes the 
different secretions. These symptoms, in 
most cases, become perceptible soon after 
drinking it, and will sometimes continue 
for a considerable time. It is, however, 
remarkable, that they are only produced 
in invalids. Hence we may conclude, that 
these waters not only possess heating pro- 
perties, but their internal use is likewise 
attended with a peculiar stimulus, acting 
more immediately on the neryes. 



One of the most salutary effects of the 
Bath water, consists in its action on the 
urinary organs, even when taken in mode- 
rate doses. Its operation on the bowels 
varies in different individuals, like that of 
all other waters, which do not contain any 
cathartic salt ; but, in general, it is pro- 
ductive of costiveness : an effect resulting 
from the want of an active stimulus to the 
intestines, and probably also from the de- 
termination this water occasions to the 
skin, more than from any astringency which 
it may possess ; for, if perspiration be sud- 
denly checked during the use of it, a diar- 
rhoea is sometimes the consequence. Hence 
it appears that its stimulant powers are 
primarily, and more particularly exerted 
in the stomach, where it produces a variety 
of symptoms, sometimes slight and tran- 
sient, but, occasionally, so considerable 
and permanent, as to require it to be dis- 
continued. In those individuals with whom 
it is likely to agree, and prove beneficial, 
the Bath waters excite, at first, an agree- 
able glowing sensation in the stomach, 
which is speedily followed by an increase 
both of appetite and spirits, as well as a 
quick secretion of urine. In others, when 
the use of them is attended with head-ache, 
thirst and constant dryness of the tongue, 
heaviness, loathing of the stomach, and 
sickness ; or if they are not evacuated, ei- 
ther by urine or an increased perspiration, 
it may be justly inferred that their further 
continuance is improper. 

The diseases for wbich these celebrated 
waters are resorted to, are very numerous, 
and are some of the most important and 
difficult of cure of all that come under 
medical treatment. In most of them, the 
bath is used along with the waters, as an 
interns! medicine. The general indications, 
of the propriety of using this medicinal 
water, are in those cases where a gentle, 
gradual, and permanent stimulus is re<- 
qii'red. Bath water may certainly be con- 
sidered as a chalybeate, in which the iron 
is very small in quantity, but in a highly 
active form ; and the degree of tempera- 
ture is in itself a stimulus, often of con- 
siderable powers. These circumstances 
again point out the necessity of certain 
cautions, which, from a view of the mere 
quantity of foreign contents, might be 
thought superfluous. Although, in esti- 
mating the powers of this medicine, al- 
lowance must be made for local prejudice 
in its favour, there can be no doubt but 
that its employment is hazardous, and might 
often do considerable mischief, in various 
cases of active inflammation ; especially in 
irritable habits, where there exists a strong 
tendency to hectic fever ; and even in the 
less inflammatory state of diseased and sup. 
purating viscera ; and, in general, wherever 
a quick pulse and dry tongue, indicate a de- 



BAT 



BAT 



ior 



gree of general fever. The cases, there- 
fore, to which this water are peculiarly 
suited, are mostly of the chronic kind ; and 
by a steady perseverance in this remedy, 
very obstinate disorders have given way. 
The following, Dr. Saunders, in his Trea- 
tise on Mineral Waters, considers as the 
principal, viz. 1. Chlorosis, a disease 
which, at all times, is much relieved by 
steel, and will bear it, even where there 
is a considerable degree of feverish ir- 
ritation, receives particular benefit from 
the Bath water; and its use, as a warm 
bath excellently contributes to remove 
that languor of circulation, and obstruc- 
tion of the natural evacuations, which con- 
stitute the leading features of this common 
and troublesome disorder. 2. The com- 
plicated diseases, which are often brought 
on by a long residence in hot climates, af- 
fecting the secretion of bile, the functions 
of the stomach, and alimentary canal, and 
which generally produce organic derange- 
ment in some part of the hepatic system, 
often receive much benefit from the Bath 
water, if used at a time when suppurative 
inflammation is not actually present. 3. 
Another and less active disease of the 
biliary organs, the jaundice, which arises 
from a simple obstruction of the gall-ducts, 
is still oftener removed by both the inter- 
nal and external use of these waters. 4. In 
rheumatic complaints, the power of this 
water, as Dr. Charleton well observes, is 
chiefly confined to that species of rheuma- 
tism which is unattended with inflamma- 
tion, or in which the patient's pains are 
not increased by the warmth of his bed. 
A great number of the patients that resort 
to Bath, especially those that are admitted 
into the hospital, are affected with rheu- 
matism in all its stages; and it appears, 
from the most respectable testimony, that 
a large proportion of them receive a per- 
manent cure. (See Falconer on Bath Wa- 
ter in Rheumatic Cases.) 5. In gout, the 
greatest benefit is derived from this water, 
in those cases where it produces anomalous 
affections of the head, stomach, and bowels ; 
and it is here a principal advantage to be 
able to bring, by warmth, that active local 
inflammtion in any limb, which relieves 
ail the other troublesome and dangerous 
symptoms. Hence it is that Bath water is 
commonly said to produce the gout ; by 
which is only meant th:;t, where persons 
have a gouty affection, shifting from place 
to plaee, and thereby much disordering the 
system, the internal and external use of 
the Bath water will soon bring on a gene- 
ral increase of action, indicated by a flush- 
ing in the face, fulness in the circulating 
vessels, and relief of the dyspeptic symp- 
toms ; and the whole disorder will termi- 
nate in a regular fit of the gout in the 
extremities, which is the crisis always to be 
wished for. 6. The colica pictonum, and 



the paralysis, or loss of nervous power in 
particular limbs, which is one of its most 
serious consequences, is found to be pecu- 
liarly relieved by the use of the Bath 
waters, more especially when applied ex- 
ternally, either generally, or upon the part 
affected. 

The quantity of water taken daily, during 
a full course, and by adults, is recom- 
mended by Dr. Falconer, not to exceed a 
pint and a half, or two pints : and in chlo- 
rosis, with irritable habits, not more than 
one pint is employed; and when the bath 
is made use of, it is generally two or three 
times a week, m the morning. The Bath 
waters require a considerable time to be 
persevered in, before a full and fair trial 
can be made. Chronic rheumatism, ha- 
bitual gout, dyspepsia, from a long course 
of high and intemperate living, and the 
like, are disorders not to be removed by a 
short course of any mineral water, and 
many of those who have once received 
benefit at the fountains, find it necessary 
to make an annual visit to them, to repair 
the waste, in health during the preceding 
year. 

BATH, CAUTERES. A sulphureous 
bath near Barege, which raises the mercu- 
ry in Fahrenheit's thermometer to 131 deg. 

BATH. ST. SAUVEUR'S. A sulphu- 
reous and alkaline bath, in the valley ad- 
joining Barege, the latter of which, raise 
Fahrenheit's thermometer as high as 131 
deg. It is much resorted to from the 
South of France, and used chiefly exter- 
nally, as a simple thermal water. 

BATHMIS. (From j&uva>, to enter.) Bath- 
mns. The seat, or base ; the cavity of a 
bone, with the protuberance of another, 
particularly those at the articulation of the 
humerus and ulna, according to Hippocrates 
and Galen. 

BATHONIJE AQ.U;E. Bath waters. 

BATEIRON. (From $*<ya>, to enter.) 
Bathrum. The same as bathmis ; also an 
instrument used in the extension of frac- 
tured liiribs, called scamnum. Hippocrates. 
And described by Oiibasius and Scul- 
tetus. 

BATIA. A name formerly given to a 
retort. 

BATIXOX-MORON. (From Sttrot, a 
bramble, and /jsgov, raspberry. A rasp- 
berry. 

BATRACHIUM. (From &tvrtx.%jx> a frog; 
so called from its likeness to a frog.) The 
herb crow's foot, or ranunculus. 

BATRACHUS. (From @nrct%oc, a frog; 
so called because they who are infected 
with it, croak like a frog.) An inflamma- 
tory tumour under the tongue. 

BATTARISMUS. (From BATTC?, a Cyre- 
nzean prince, who stammered.) Stam- 
mering ; a detect in pronunciation. See 
Psellismus. 

BATTATA VIRINIAITA. See Potato- 



108 



BE A 



BEE 



EATTATA FEREGRINA. The cathartic 
potato ; perhaps a species of ipomcea. If 
about two ounces of them are eaten at 
bed-time, ihey greatly move the belly the 
next morning. 

BATTARISMUS. Stammering with hesi- 
tation. The psellismus haesitans of Cullen. 
BAUDA. A vessel for distillation was 
formerly so called. 

Jiaulmoney. See Meum athamanticum. 
BAURACH. (Arab. Bourach.) A name 
formerly applied to nitre, or any salt ; 
hence it is that borax took its name, which 
is also thus called, as well as tire mineral 
fixed alkaline salt. 

BAXANA. (Indian.) A poisonous tree 
growing near Ormuz ; called by Kay, ra- 
buxit. 

Bay-cherry. See Lauro-cerasus. 
Hay-leaves. See Laurus. 
BAT-LEAVED PASSIOX-FLOWER. The 
plant so called is the Passiftora laurifolia of 
Linnaeus. A native of Surinam, where the 
fruit grows to the size of a small lemon, 
which it greatly resembles. Its flavour is 
delicately acid, and much esteemed to 
quench thirst. It strengthens the stomach, 
and is a salutary fruit in gastric affections, 
fevers, &c. 

BAY-SALT. A very pure salt, prepared 

from sea-water by spontaneous evaporation. 

BAZCHKR. A Persian word for antidote. 

BDELLA. (From @S**xu> t to suck.) 

Bdellerum. A horse-leech. 

BDELLIUM. (From bedattah. Arab.) 
Madeleon. Bolchon. Balchus. Called by the 
Arabians, mokel. A gum-like, very im- 
pure myrrh. It is one of the weakest of 
the deobstruent gums. It was sometimes 
used as a pectoral and an emmenagogue. 
Applied externally, it is stimulant, and 
promotes suppuration. It is never met 
with in the shops of this country. 

BDELLUS. (From /&T* f to break wind.) 
A discharge of the wind by the anus. 

BDELYGMIA. (From #Ts, to break 
wind.) Any filthy and nauseous odour. 

BEAN. The common bean is the seed 
of the ricia faba of Linnaeus, a native of 
Egypt. There are many varieties. Beans 
are very wholesome and nutritious to those 
whose stomachs are strong, and accus- 
tomed to the coarser modes of living. In 
delicate stomachs they produce flatulency, 
dyspepsia, cardialgia, &c. especially when 
old. See Legumina. 

Bean, French. See Bean, kidney. 
BEAK, KIDNEY. This seed is often 
called the French bean ; it is the pericar- 
pium of the phaseolus vulgaris of Linnaeus, 
which, when young and well boiled, is easy 
of digestion, and delicately flavoured. 
These are less liable to produce flatulency 
than peas. See Legutnina, 

Bean, Malacca. See Anacardium orien~ 
tale. 

Be, an of Carthagena. See Bejuio. 



jBean, St. Ignatius. See Nux vomica se- 
rapionis. 

BEARD. The hair growing on the chin 
and adjacent parts of the face, in adults of 
the male sex. 

Beards-breech. See Acanthus. 

Bear's foot. See Helleboraster. 

Bear's whortleberry. Uva ursi. 

BECCA. A fine kind of resin from the 
turpentine and mastich trees of Greece and 
Syria, formerly held in great repute. 

BECCABUNGA. (From bach bungen, 
water-herb, German, because it grows in 
rivulets.) Jlnagallis aquaticu. Laver Ger- 
manicum. Ver onica aquatica. Cepcea. Wa- 
ter-pimpernef and brooklime. The plant 
which bears these names, is the Veronica 
beccabunga of Linnaeus : racemis laterali- 
bus, foliis ovatis plants, caule repente. It 
was formerly considered of much use in 
several diseases, and was applied externally 
to wounds and ulcers : but if it have any 
peculiar efficacy l it is to be derived from 
its antiscarbutic virtue. As a mild refri- 
gerant juice, it is preferred where an acri- 
monious state of the fluids prevails, indi- 
cated by prurient eruptions upon the skin, 
or in what has been called the hot scurvy. 
To derive much advantage from it, the 
juice ought to be taken in large quantities, 
or the fresh plant eaten as food. 

BECHA. See Bechica. 

BECHICA. (From fa%, a cough.) Be- 
chita. Medicines to relieve a cough. An 
obsolete term. The trochisci bechici albi, 
consist of starch and liquorice, with a small 
proportion of florentine orris made into 
lozenges, with mucilage of gum-traga- 
canth. They are a soft pleasant demul- 
cent. The trochisci bechici nigvi, consist 
chiefly of the juice of liquorice, with sugar 
and gum-tragacanth. 

BECHION. (From /g|, a cough: so 
called from its supposed virtues in relieving 
coughs Bechium. The herb colt's foot, 
or tussilago. 

BECUIBA NUX. (Indian.) A large nut 
growing in Brazil, from which a balsam is 
drawn that is held in estimation in rheuma- 
tisms. 

BEDEGUAR, (Arab.) Bedeguar. The 
Carduus lacetus Syriacus is so called, and 
also the cynosbatos, or rosa canina. 

BEDEXGIAN. The name of the love- 
apples in Avicenna: 

Bedstrato, lady's. See Aparine. ^ 

BEE. Jlpis mellifica. of Linnaeus. This 
insect was formerly exhibited, after being 
dried and powdered, internally, as a diu- 
retic. It is to the industry of bees we are 
indebted for those valuable articles, honey 
and wax. See Honey and Wax. 

Beech-tree. See Fagus. 

BEES' WAX. Cera. The production 
of the honey-comb : it is a hard compact 
substance, and of a clear yellow colour, 
much used for medical purposes externally, 



BEL 



BEM 



109 



in the composition of ointments, cerates, 
and plaisters. 

Beety red. See Beta rubra. 

BEET, WHITE. A variety of red beet. 
The juice and powder of the root are good 
to excite sneezing, and will bring away a 
considerable quantity of mucus. 

BEGMA. (From $H<r<ru> t to cough.) A 
cough. Expectorated mucus, according 
to Hippocrates. 

BEHEN ALBUM. (From bchen, a finger, 
Arab.) Jacea orient alis patula. Raphon- 
ticoides lutea. The true white behen of 
the ancients Centaurea behen of Linnaeus. 
The-root possesses astringent virtues. 

BEHEN OFFICINA.BCM. The spatling pop- 
py ; Cucubalus behen of Linnaeus, former- 
ly used as a cordial and alexipharmic. 

BEHEN RUBRUM. Limomum Limonium 
majus. Behen. Sea-lavender, or red be- 
hen. The Statice limonium of Linnaeus. 
The roots possess astringent and strength- 
ening qualities, but not in a very remarka- 
ble degree. 

BEIDELSAR. Beidellopar. A species of 
Asclepias, used in Africa as a remedy for 
fever and the bites of serpents. The caus- 
tic juice which issues from the roots when 
wounded, is used by the negroes to destroy 
venereal and similar swellings. 

BEJUIO. Habilla de Carthagena. Bean 
of Carthagena. A kmd of bean in South 
America, famed for being an effectual anti- 
dote againt the poison of all serpents, if a 
small quantity is eaten immediately. This 
bean is the peculiar product of the jurisdic- 
tion of Carthagena. 

BELA-ATE CORTEX. (Indian ) Belae. 
A bark of Madagascar, said to be of con- 
siderable efficacy in the cure of diar- 
rhoeas. 

BELEMNOIHES. (From /gsA^vov, a dart, 
and *To?, form ; so named from their dart- 
like shape.) Belenoides. Beloidos. The 
styloid process of the temporal bone, and 
the lower end of the ulna, were formerly so 
culled. 

BELESON. (Indian.) Belilia. The Muft- 
senda frondosa of Linnaeus, a decoction of 
which is, according to Ray, cooling. 

BELLADONNA. (From bella donna, 
Italian, a handsome lady ; so called be- 
cause the ladies of Italy use it, to take 
away the too florid colour of their faces.) 
Solatium melonocerasus Solatium lethale. 
Jllropa belladonna of Linnjeus : caute her- 
baceoy foliis ovatis integris. This plant has 
been long known as a strong poison of the 
narcotic kind, and the berries have fur- 
nished many instances of their fatal effects, 
particularly upon children that have been 
tempted to eat them. The leaves were 
first used internally, to discuss scirrhous 
and cancerous tumours ; and from the good 
effects attending their use, physicians were 
induced to employ them internally, for the 
same disorders; and there are a consi- 



derable number of well authenticated facts, 
whicn prove them a very serviceable and 
important remedy. The dose, at 'first, 
should be small ; arid gradually and cau- 
tiously increased. Five grains are consi- 
dered a powerful dose, and apt to produce 
dimness of sight, vertigo, &c. 

BELLEGU. See Myrobulani bellerici. 
BELLEREGI. See Myrobalani belleriti* 
BELNILEG. See Myrobaiant bellerici. 
BELLERICJE. See Myrobaluni bellerici. 
BELLIDIOIDES. (From befits, a daisy, and 
s/eToc, form.) See Bel Us major. 

15ELLIS. (A bello colore, from its fail- 
colour, ) The name of a genus of plants in 
the Linnsean system. Class, Syngenesia, 
Order, Polygamia superflua. The daisy. 

BELUS MAJOR, Buplithalmum majus. 
Leucantliemumvrdgare. Bellidioides, Con- 
solida media Oculns bovis. Ox-eye daisy. 
Maudin-wort. The pharmacopo;al name 
for the Chrysanthemum leucanthemum of 
Linnaeus : -foliis amplexicaulibus, oblong-is 
superne serratis, inferne dentatis. The flow- 
ers and herb were 'formerly esteemed in 
asthmatic and phthisical diseases, but have 
now deservedly fallen into disuse. 

B ELLIS MINOR. Bellis. The common 
daisy. The Bellis perennis of Lmnseus : 
scapo nudo t or bruise- wort, was formerly 
directed in pharmacopoeias by this name. 
Although the leaves and flowers are rather 
acrid, and are said to cure several species 
of wounds, they are never employed by 
modern surgeons. 

BELLIS PERENNIS. The systematic 
name of the common daisy. See Bellis 
minor. 

BELLOCULTTS. (From bellus, fair, and ocu- 
lusy the eye.) A precious stone, resembling 
the eye, and formerly supposed to be use- 
ful in its disorders. 

BELLON. The Devonshire colic, or coli- 
ca pictonum. 

BELLONARIA. (From BeUona, the god- 
dess of war.) An herb which, if eaten, 
makes people mad, and act outrageously, 
like the votaries of Bellona. 

BELLUTTA TSJAMPACAM. (Indian.) A 
tree of Malabar, to which many virtues are 
attributed. 

BELMUSCHUS. A name given to the Abel- 
moschus. 

BELOERE. (Indian.) An evergreen 
plant of America, whose seeds purge mode- 
rately, but the leaves roughly. 

BELONOIDES. Beloides. The same as 
belemnoides. 

BELULCUM. (Fram xoc, a dart, and 
tKxee, to draw out.) A surgeon's instrument 
for extracting thorns, or darts, 

BELLUZZAR. Beluzaar. The Chaldee 
word for antidote. 

BELZOE. See Benzoinum. 
BELZOINUM. See Benzoinum, 
BEMCUUISI, An Indian shrub used in 



119 



BEN 



BEN 



BEM-T AMARA. (Arab.) The faba -^gyp- 
tiaca. 

BEN. (Arab.) Glans unguentaria, Been 
nitx. Balanus mirepsica. Coattis. The 
oily acorn, or ben-nut. A whitisli nut, 
about the size of a small filberd, of a round- 
ish triangular shape, including a kernel of 
the same figure, covered with a white 
skin. It is the fruit of the Guilandina mo- 
ring a. of Linnaeus : interims, foliis, sub- 
pinnatisy foliolis inferioribus ternatis. They 
were formerly employed to remove ob- 
structions of the primse vise. The oil af- 
forded by simple pressure, is remarkable 
for its not growing rancid in keeping, or, 
at least, not until it has stood for a number 
of years ; and, on this apcount, it is used in 
extricating the aromatic principle of such 
odoriferous flowers as yield little or no es- 
sential oil in distillation. The unalterabi- 
lity of this oil would render it the most 
valuable substance for cerates, or lini- 
ments, were it sufficiently common. It is 
actually employed for this purpose in many 
parts of I ( aly. 

BEN MAGNUM. Monardus calls by this 
name, the avellana purgatrix, which purges 
and vomits violently. 

BEN TAMARA. The Egyptian bean. 

BENATH. (Arab.) Stroll pustules pro- 
duced by sweating in the night. 

BENEDICT. (From benedico, to bless.) 
A specific name prefixed to many compo- 
sitions and herbs on account of their sup- 
posed good qualities ; as benedicta herba, 
benedicta aqua, &c 

BENEDICT A AQ.UA. Lime water was 
formerly so called : also, a water distilled 
from serpyllum, and, in Schroeder, it is the 
name for an emetic. 

BENEDICTA AH'UA COMPOSITA. Com- 
pound lime water. 

BENEDICTA HERBA. See Caryophyllata. 

BENEDICTA LAXATIVA. A compound 
of turbeth, scammony, and spurges, with 
some warm aromatics. 

BENEDICTUM LAXATIVUM. Rhubarb, and 
sometimes the lenitive electuary. 

BKNEDICTUM HCTUM. A term applied 
to Guaiacum. 

BENEDICTUM VINUM. Antimonial wine. 

BENEDICTDS CARDUUS. See Carduus 
benedictus. 

BENEDICTUS LAPIS. A name for the. phi- 
losopher's stone. 

BENEOLENTIA. (From bene, well and 
oteo, to smell.) Sweet-scented medicines, 
as gums, &.c. 

BENG. A name given by the Mahome- 
dans to the leaves of hemp, formed into 
pills, or conserve. They possess exhilara- 
ting and intoxicating po\, ers. 

BENGAUE RADIX. (From Bengal, its 
native place.) See Cassumuniar. 

BENGAL QUINCE. This fruit, which is 
the produce of the Erateva marmelos of 
Linnaeus, of spontaneous growth in several 



parts of India, is about the size of an orange, 
and covered with a hard bony shell, con- 
taining a yellow viscous puip, of a most 
agreeable flavour ; tills is scooped out, and 
being mixed with sugar and orange, is 
brought to the tables of the grandees in 
India, who eat it ds a great delicacy. It is 
also esteemed as a sovereign remedy against 
dysentery. 

BENGALLE INDORUM. (From Bengaly 
its native place.) See Cassuinuniar. 

BENGI EIRI. A species of evergreen, 
Indian ricmus, which grows in Malabar. 

Benitherb. See Caryophyllata. 

BENIVI ARBOR. See Benzoinum, 

Benjamin. See Benzoinutn. 

Jienjumt,n flowers. See Benzole acid. 

BENZO \S. A benzoate. A salt formed 
by the union of benzoic acid, with an al- 
kaline, earthy, or metallic base; as ben- 
zoate of alum me, &c. 

BKNZOE. See Benzoinum. 

BENZOE A.MYGDALOIDES. See Benzoi' 
num. 

BEXZOIC ACID. Jlcidum benzoicum. 

Flares benzoes. Flares benzoini. Benjamin 
flowers. 

This acid exists in several balsams, but 
principally in the concrete balsam, called 
benzoin, (bee Benaoinum.} Chymists have 
obtained it from this balsam in various 
ways, either by sublimation, which gives 
beautiful foliated crystals, but requires to 
be repeated thrice, and pressed between 
bibulous paper after each sublimation, to 
obtain them while and free from any adhe- 
rent essential oil : or, by forming some of 
its soluble compounds, and afterwards de- 
composing them, so as to precipitate the 
acid ; or, by simply boiling the benzoin in 
water, which dissolves the acid, and, as it, 
cools, allows it to separate again. The 
London Pharmacopoeia directs it to be ob- 
tained thus :~- Take of benzoin, a pound 
and a half; fresh lime, four ounces : water, 
a gallon and a half: muratic acid, four 
fluid-ounces. Rub together the benzoin 
and lime ; then boil them in a gallon of the 
water, for half an hour, constantly stirring ; 
and, when it is cold, pour off the liquor, 
Boil what remains, a second time, in 
four pints of water, and pour off the 
liquor as before. Mix the liquors, and 
boil down to half, then strain through 
paper, and add the muriatic acid gradually, 
until it ceases to produce a precipitate. 
Lastly, having poured off' the liquor, dry 
the powder in a gentle heat; put it into a 
proper vessel, placed in a sand bath ; and 
by a very gentle fire sublime the benzoic 
acid. 

The Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia forms a 
benzoate of soda, precipitates the acid by 
sulphuric acid, and afterwards crystallizes 
it by solution in hot water, which dissolves 
a larger quantity than cold. 

Benzoic acid has a strong, pungent, aro- 



BER 

matic, and peculiar odour. Its crystals are 
ductile, not pulverizabie ; it sublimes in a 
moderate heat, forming a white irritating 
smoke. It is soluble in about twenty-four 
times its weight of boiimg water, which, 
as it cools, precipitates 19-20ths of what 
it had previously dissolved. It is soluble 
in alcohol. 

Ben zoic acid is very seldom vised in the 
cure of diseases ; but now and then it is 
ordered as a stimulant against convulsive 
coughs and difficulty of breathing. The 
dose is from one gram to five. 

It combines with alkaline, metallic, and 
earthy bodies; and forms BE* zo ATE s. 

BENZOIFERA. Benzoinum. 

BF.NZOINUM. (From the Arabic 
term benzoah.) Benjoinum. Jlssa duicis. 
Jlssa odorata. Liquor cyreniacus. Bulzo- 
inum. Benzoin. Benjui. Benjuin. Gum- 
benjamin. This substance is classed, by 
modern chytnists, among the balsams. 
There are two kinds of benzoin: benzoe 
amygdaloides, which is formed of white 
tears, resembling aimonds, united together 
by a brown matter ; and common benzoin, 
which is brown and without tears. The 
tree which affords tins balsam, formerly 
called Lauras benzoin. Benzoifera. -Arbor 
benici, is the Siyrux benzoin, Jotiis oblcngis 
acvminatis, subtus tomentosis, racemis com- 
positis longitudine foltorum of Dryander, 
from which it is obtained by incisions. 
The benzoin of the shops is usually in very 
large brittle masses. When chewed, it im- 
parts very little taste, except that it im- 
presses on the pulate a slight sweetness ; its 
smell, espec'ally when rubbed or heated, 
is extremely fragrant and agreeable Ii 
has rarely been used medicinally in a sim- 
ple state, but its preparations are much 
esteemed against inveterate coughs and 
phthisical complaints, unattended with 
much fever ; it has also been used as a cos- 
metic, and in the way of fumigation, for 
the resolution of indolent tumours. The 
acid of benzoin is employed in the tinctura 
camphorx composita, and a tincture is di- 
rected to be made of the balsam. 

BENT.OES FLOB.ES. See Benzaic acid. 

BENZOISI MAGISTEIUM. Magistery or 
precipitate of gum-benjamin. 

BEXKOINI OLEUM Oil of benjamin. 

BERBRRIS. (Berberi, wild. Arab, used 
by Averrhoes and the officinal writers.) 

1. The naiane of a genus of plants in the 
LinnseaU syste\n. Class, Hexandria. Or- 
der, Monogynia. The barberry, or pepper- 
idge bush. 

2. The pharmacopoeia! name for the 
common barberry, or pepperidge bush. 
Oxycantha Galeni. Spina act da. Crespi- 
mis. 

This tree, Berberis vulgaris of Linnaeus : 
pedunculis racemosis, spinis triplicibus, 
is a native of England. The fruit or ber- 
ries, which are gratefully acid, and mode- 
rately adstringent, are said to be of great 



BES 



111 



use in biliary fluxes, and in all cases where 
heav, acrimony, and putridity of Ihe hu- 
mours prevail. The filarm-ms of this shrub 
possess a remarkable degree of irritability ; 
for on being touched near the base with 
the poin*. of a pin, a sudden contraction is 
produced, which may be repeated several 
times. 

BKRBERIS GELATIKA. Barberries boiled 
in sugar. 

BERBKRIS VULCARIS. The systematic 
name for the berbens of the pharmaco- 
poeias. See Berberis. 

BEREDIRAS. An ointment. 

BERENICE. (The ciiy from whence it 
was formerly brought.) Amber. 

BERENICUM. (From <pega>, to bring, and 
VIM, victor)'.) A term applied by the old 
Greek writers to nitre, from its supposed 
power in healing wounds. 

BEREKI SECUM. Mugwort. See Arte- 
misia vnlgaris. 

BKKGAMOTE. A species of citron. 
Citrus tnelia rosa of Lamarck ; and a variety 
of the citrus medica of Linnaeus. It was 
produced, at first, casually, by an Italian 
grafting a citron on a stock of a bergamot 
pear-tree; whence the fiuit produced by 
this union, participated both of the citron 
tree and the pear-tree. The essence pre- 
pared from this fruit is called essence of 
bergamote and essentia de cedra. 

BERIBERI. (An Hindostane word sig- 
nifying a sheep.) Beriberia. A species of 
palsy, common in some parts of the East 
Indies, according to Bontius. In this dis- 
ease, the patients lift up their legs very 
much in the same manner as is usual with 
sheep. Bontius adds that this palsy is a 
kind of trembling in, which there is depri- 
vation of the motion and sensation of the 
hands and feet, and sometimes of the 
body. 

Bermudas berry. See Saponarice miculce. 

BEHNARVI. An electuary. 

BERRIONIS. A name for colophony, or 
black rosin. 

BERS. Formerly the name of an exhi- 
larating electuary. 

BEBDLA. An old name for brooklime.f 

BEBVLA GALMCA. Upright Water pars- 
nip. 

BERTTION. (From Berytius, its inven- 
tor A collyrium described by Galen. 

BES. An eight-ounce measure. 

BESACHAR. An obsolete term for a 
sponge. 

BESASA. Formerly applied to wild rue. 

BESBASE. An old name for mace. 

BESEXNA. (Arab.) JWuscarum Fun- 
gus. Probably a sponge, which is the ni- 
dus of some sorts of flies. 

BESSANFN. (Arab.) A redness of the 
external parts, resembling that which pre- 
cedes the leprosi, ; it occupies the face and 
extremities. Avicenna. 

BESTO. A name in Oribasius for Saori- 
Jrage. 



BET 



EEZ 



BETA. (So called from the river Bxtis, 
in Sp^in, where it grows naturally ; or, 
according to Blanchurd, from the Greek 
letter /2<r*, which it is said to resemble 
when Mirgid with Sc-cd.) 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnjc^n -ystem. Class, l-entandria. Or- 
der, Digyrua. The beet. 

2. The pharmacopoeial name of the com- 
mon beet. 

Beta vulgaris of Linnaeus : -ftoribus con- 
ffestis. The root of this plant is frequently 
ea'en by xhe French ; it m?y be considered 
as nutritions and antiscorbutic, and forms 
a vt-ry elegant pickie with vinegar. The 
root and leaves, although formerly employ- 
ed as laxatives and emollients, are now 
forgotten. A considerable quantity of su- 
gar may be obtained from the root of the 
beet. It is likewise said, that if beet roots 
be dried in the same manner as malt, after 
the greater part of their juice is pressed 
out, very good beer may be made from 
them It is occasionally used to improve 
the colour of claret. 

BETA VULGARIS. The systematic name 
for the beet of the pharmacopoeias. See 
Seta 

BETELE. Beihle. Betk. Betelle. An 
oriental plant, like the tail of a lizard. 
It is chewed by the Indians, and makes the 
teeth black ; is cordial and exhilarating, and 
in very general use throughout the East. 
It is supposed to be the long pepper 

BETON1CA, (Corrupted from Vettoni- 
ea, which is derived from the Veetones, an 
ancient people of Spain.) 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnsean system. Class, Didynamia. Or- 
der, Gymnospermia. Betony. 

2. The pharmacopoeial name for the 
wood betony. 

Betonica purpurea. Vetonica cordi. Be- 
tonica officinahs of Linnaeus : spica inter- 
rupta, coroilarvm labii lacinia intermedia 
emarginatdi .common in our woods and 
heaths. The leaves and tops of this plant 
have an agreeable, but weak smell ; and to 
the taste they discover a slight warmth, 
accompanied with some degree of adstrin- 
gency and bitterness. The powder of the 
. leaves of .betony, snuffed up the nose, 
provoke sneezing ; and hence it is some, 
times made an ingredient in sternutatory 
powders. Its leaves are sometimes smoked 
like tobacco. The roots differ greatly, in 
their quality, from the other parts; their 
taste is very bitter and nauseous ; taken in 
a small dose, they vomit and purge violent- 
ly, and are supposed to have somewhat in 
common with the roots of hellebore. Like 
many other plants, formerly in high medi- 
cal estimation, betony is no\v almost en- 
tire neglected. Antonius Musa, physi- 
cian to the Emperor Augustus, filled a 
whole volume with enumerating its vir- 
tues, stating it as a remedy for no less 
ffc*n forty-seven disorders: and hence in 



Italy the proverbial compliment, You have 
more virtues than betony. 

BKTON1CA AQUATICA. Scrophularia 
aquatica. Greater water-figwort. Water- 
betony. The leaves of this plant, Scrophu- 
laria aquutica of Linnaeus ; foUis cordatis 
obtuszs, petiolatis, decurrentibus ,- caule mem- 
branis angulato ; racemis termtnaUbus, are 
celebrated as correctors of the ill flavour 
of senna. They were, also, formerly in 
high estimation against piles, tumours of the 
scrophulous nature, inflammations, &c. 

BETONICA PAVLI. A species of vero- 
nica. 

BETONICA VULGARIS. The systematic 
name of the betonica of the pharmacopoeias. 
See Betonica. 

Betony, water. See Betonica aquatica. 

BETULA. 1. The name of a genus of 
plants in the Linn scan system. Class, Mo- 
noecia. Order, Tetrandria. Alder and birch. 

2. The pharmacopoeial name of the white 
birch. Betula alba, of Linnaeus ifoliis 
ovatis, acumtnatis, serratis. 

The juice, leaves, and bark of this tree, 
have been employed medicinally. If the 
tree be bored early in the spring, there 
issues, by degrees, a large quantity ot lim- 
pid, watery, sweetish juice : it is said that 
one tree will afford from one to two gallons 
a day. This juice is esteemed as an anti- 
scorbutic, deobstruent, and diuretic. The 
leaves and bark are used externally as re- 
solvents, detergents, and antiseptics. 

BETTTLA ALBA. The systematic name 
for the betula of the pharmacopoeias. See 
Betula. 

RETGZA ALNUS. The systematic name 
for the alnus of the pharmacopoeias. See 
Jllnus. 

BEX. (From fao-ru, to cough.) A cough. 

BEXUGO. The root of the JEmatitis 
Peruviana of Casper Bauhin ; one drachm 
of which is sufficient for a purge. 

BEXAGUILLO. A name given to the 
white ipecacuanha, which the Spaniards 
bring from Peru, as the Portuguese do the 
brown from Brazil. 

BEZAHAN. The fossile bezoar. 

BET.ETTA CGERULEA. Sfaccus heliotropli. 
Lacmus seu tornce. Lacca ccerulea. Lit' 
mm. The juice of the Croton tinctorium; 
foliis rhombeis repandts, capsulis pendulis t 
caule herbaceo, of Linnxus. It is much 
used by chymists as a test. See Tests. 

BEZOAR. (From pa-zohar^ Persian, 
a destroyer of poison.) J^pis beztiardicus. 
Bezoard. A preternatural or morbid con- 
cretion formed in the bodies of land-ani- 
mals. Several of these kinds of substances 
were former^ celebrated for their medici- 
nal viriuesij and distinguished by the names 
o f the countries from whence "they came, 
or the animal in which they were found. 
They were considered as high alexiphar- 
mics, in so much so, that other medicines, 
possessed, or supposed to be possessed of 
a!exipharmic powers, were called bezoar- 



BEZ 



BIG 



113 



lies j and so efficacious were they once 
thought, that they were bought for ten 
times their weight in gold. These vir- 
tues, ho v ever, are in the present day justly 
denied them, as they produce no other ef- 
fects than those common to the saline par- 
ticles which they contain, and which may 
be given to greater advantage from other 
sources. A composition of bezoar with 
absorbent powders, has been much in re- 
pute, as a popular remedy for disorders in 
children, by the name of Gascoigne's pow- 
der and Gascoigne's ball ; but the real be- 
zoar was rarely, if ever, used for these, its 
price offering such a temptation to coun- 
terfeit it. Some have employed, for this 
purpose, a resinous composition, capable 
of melting in the fire and soluble in alco- 
hol ; but Newmann supposed that those 
nearest resembling it, were made of gyp- 
sum, chalk, or some other earth, to which 
the proper colour was imparted by some 
vegetable juice. We understand, however, 
that tobacco pipe clay, tinged with ox- 
gall, is commonly employed, at least for 
the Gascoigne's powder ; this giving a yel- 
low tint to paper, rubbed with chalk, and 
a green to paper rubbed over with quick- 
lime ; which are considered as proofs of 
genuine bezoar, and which a vegetable juice 
would not effect. 

BEZOAR BOVINUM. the bezoar from 
the ox. 

BEZOAH GERMANICCM. The bezoar from 
the alpine goat. 

BEZOAR HYSTIUSIS. Lapis pordnus. 
Lapis malacensis. Pedro del porco. The 
bezoar of the Indian porcupine. Said to 
be found in the gall-bladder of an Indian 
porcupine, particularly in the province of 
Malacca. This concrete differs from others ; 
it lias an intensely bitter taste ; and on be- 
ing steeped in water for a very little time, 
impregnates the fluid with its bitterness, 
and with aperient, stomachic, and, as it is 
supposed, with alexipharmic virtues. Haw 
far it differs in virtue from the similar con- 
cretions found in the gall-bladder of the 
ox, and other animals, does not appear. 

BEZOAR OCCIDENTALS. Occidental be- 
zoar. This concretion is said to be found 
in the stomach of an animal of the stag or 
goat kind, a native of Peru, &c. It is of 
a larger size than the oriental bezoar, and 
sometimes as large as a hen's egg ; its sur- 
face is rough, and the colour green, grey- 
ish, or brown. 

BEZOAR ORIENT ALE. Lapis bezoar ori- 
entalis. Oriental bezoar stone. This con- 
cretion is said to be found in the pylorus, 
or fourth stomach of an animal of the goat 
kind, which inhabits the mountains of Per- 
sia. It is generally about the size of a 
kidney bean, of a roundish or oblong fi- 
gure, smooth, and of a shining olive or dark 
greenish colour. 



BEZOAR MICROCOSMICUM. The calcu- 
lus found in the human bladder. 

BEZOAR PORCINUM. See Bezoar hye^ 
tricis. 

BKZOAR SIMILE. The bezoar of the 
monkey. 

BKZOARDICA RADIX. See Contrayerva. 

BKZOAKDICCM JOVIALE. Bezoar with tin. 
It differed very little from the Jlntihecticurn 
Poterii. 

BKZOARDICUM ICJNALE. A preparation 
of antimony and silver. 

BEZOARDICUM MARTJALE. A prepara- 
tion of iron and antimony. 

BEZOARUICUM MINEHALE. A prepara- 
tion of antimony, made by adding nitrous 
acid to butter of antimony. 

BEZ.OARDICUM SATURN i. A preparation 
of antimony and lead. 

BEZOARDICUS PULVIS, The powder of 
the oriental bezoar. 

BEZOARTICUM MINERALS. An inert calx 
of antimony. 

BEZOAKTICUS SPIRITUS NITHI. The dis- 
tillled acid of the bezoarticum minerale. 

BEZOAS. A common chymical epithet. 

BI;EON. Wine of sun-raisins and sea- 
water. 

BIBINEILA. See Pimpinella. 

BIBITOIUUS. (tiibitorins, sc. musculus ; 
from bibo, to drink ; because by drawing 
the eye inwards towards the nose, it causes 
those who drink to look into the cup.) See 
Rectus internus ocuU. 

BICEPS. (From bis, twice, and caput, a 
head.) Many muscles have this denomina- 
tion, from their having two distinct heads, 
or origins. 

BICEPS BRACHII. See Biceps feocar 
cubiti. 

BICEPS CRURIS. See Biceps JJeocor cru- 
ris. 

BICEPS CUBITI. See Biceps flexor cu- 
biti. 

BICEPS EXTURNUS. See Triceps extensor 
cubiti, 

BICEPS FLEXOR CRURIS. Bicept 
cruris of Albinus* Biceps of Winslow, 
Douglas, and Cowper, and Jschio-femoro- 
peromen of Dumas. A muscle of the leg, 
situated on the hind part of the thigh. 
It arises by two distinct heads ; the first, 
called longus, arises, in common with the 
semitendinosus, from the upper and poste- 
rior part of the tuberosity of the os ischi- 
um. The second, called brevis, arises from 
the linea aspera, a little below the termina- 
tion of the glutseus maximus, by a fleshy 
acute beginning, which soon grows broader 
as it descends to join with the first head, a 
little above the external condyle of the os 
femoris. It is inserted, by a strong tendon, 
into the upper part of the head of the fibu- 
la. Its use is to bend the leg. This mus- 
cle forms what is called the outer ham- 
string ; and, between it and the inner, th 
Q 



114 



BID 



BIL 



nervus popliteus, arteria and vena poplitea, 
are situated. 

BICEPS FLEXOR CUBITI. Biceps 
braehii of Albums. Coraco-radialis, sen 
biceps of Whtslow. Biceps inter nus of 
Douglas. Sleeps inter nus humeri of Cow- 
per. Scnpulo coracoradial of Dumas. A 
muscle of the fore-arm, situated on the 
fore part of the os humeri. It arises by two 
heads. The first and outermost, called 
longust begins tendinous from the upper 
edge of the glenoid cavity of the scapula, 
passes over the head of the os humeri with- 
in the joint, and, in its descent without 
the joint, is enclosed in a groove near the 
head of the os humeri, by a membranous 
ligament that proceeds from the capsular 
ligament and adjacent tendons. The se- 
cond, or innermost head, called brevia, 
arises, tendinous and fleshy, from the co- 
racoid process of the scapula, in common 
with the coracobrachialis muscle. A little 
below the middle of the fore-part of the os 
humeri, these heads unite. It is inserted 
by a strong roundish tendon into the tu- 
bercle on the upper end of the radius in- 
ternally. Us use is to turn the hand su- 
pine, and to bend the fore-arm. At the 
bending of the elbow, where it begins to 
grow tendinous, it sends off an aponeuro- 
sis, which covers ail the muscles on the in- 
side of the fore-arm, and joins with ano- 
ther tendinous membrane, which is sent 
off from the triceps extensor cubiti, and 
covers all the muscles on the outside of the 
foiv-arm, and a number of the fibres, 
from opposite sides, decussate e:>ch other. 
Ii serves to strengthen the muscles, by 
keeping th^rn from swelling too much out- 
wardly, when in action, and a number of 
their fleshy fibres take their origin from it. 
BICEPS INTERNUS. See Biceps flexor 
cubiti. 

BICHICHISS. An epithet of certain pec- 
torals, or rather troches, described by Rha- 
zes, which were made of liquorice, .c. 

BICHOS. A Portuguese name for the 
worms that get under the toe of the people 
in the Indies, which are destroyed by the 
oU of cashew nut. 

BICORN. (Bicornis : from bis, twice, 
and cornu a horn.) An epithet some- 
times applied to the os hyoides, which has 
two processes, or horns ; and likewise, in 
former times, to muscles that had two ter- 
minations. 

BICUSPIS. (Bicuspis . from bis, twice, 
and cuspis, a spear.) The name of those 
teeth which have double points, or fangs. 
See Teeth, 

BIDENS. (From bis, twice, and dens, 
a tooth ; so called from its being deeply 
serrated, or indented.) 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
I/mniean system. Class, Syngenesia, Order, 
Polygamia xqualis. 



BIFURCATED. (Bifurcus : from iris, 
twice, and Jurcn, u fork.) A vessel, or 
nerve is said to bifurcate when it divides 
into two branches ; thus the bifurcation of 
the aorta, Sec. 

BIGASTKH. (Bigaster .- from bis, twice, 
and jdtsTig, a belly.) A name given to 
muscles which have two bellies. 

BIHERMUS. (From bis, double, and 
hernia, a disease so called.) Having a her- 
nia, or rupture on each side of the scro- 
tum. 

BILADKN. A name of iron. 

BILK. (Bilif. Naevius derives it from 
bis, twice, and Us, contention ; as being 
supposed to be the cause of anger and dis- 
pute.) The gall. A bitter fluid, secreted 
in the glandular substance of the liver ; in 
part flowing into the intestines, and in part 
regurgitating into the gall-bladder. The 
secretory organ of this fluid is the penicilli 
of the liver, which terminate in very mi- 
nute canals, called biliary ducts. The bi- 
liary ducts exonerate their bile into the 
ductus hepatic-us, which conveys it into the 
ductus communis choledo chits, from whence 
it is in part carried into the duodenum. 
The other part of the bile regurgitates 
through the cystic duct (see Gall bladder,) 
into the gall-bladder : for hepatic bile, ex- 
cept during digestion, cannot flow into the 
duodenum, which contracts when empty ; 
hence it necessarily regurgitates into the 
gall-bladder The branches of the vena 
portae contribute most to the secivtl.n of 
bile ; its peculiar blood, returning from the 
abdominal viscera, is supposed to be, in 
some respects, d.fterent irom other venal 
blood, and to answer exactly to the nature 
of biie. It is not yet ascertained clearly 
whether th florid blood, in the hepatic ar- 
tery, merely nourishes the liver, or whe- 
ther, at the same time, it contributes a 
certain principle, necessary for the forma- 
tion of bile. It has been supposed, by 
physiologists, that cystic bile was secreted 
by the arterial vessels of the gall-bladder ; 
"but the fallacy of this opinion is proved by 
making a ligature on the cystc duct of a 
living animal. From what has been said, 
it appears that there are, as it were, two 
kinds of bile in the human body : 1. ffcpa- 
tic bile, which flows from the liver into the 
duodenum: this is thin, of a faint yellow 
colour, inodorous, and very slightly bitter, 
otherwise the liver of animals would not 
be eatable. 2. Cystic bile, which regur- 
gitates from the hepatic duct into the gall- 
bladder, and there, from stagnating, be- 
comes thicker, the aqueous p:!rt being ab- 
sorbed by lymphatic vessels, and more 
acrid from concentration. Healthy bile is 
of a yellow, green colour ; of a plastic con- 
sistence, like thin oil, and when very 
much agitated, it froths like soap and wa- 
ter : its smell is faUrous, somewhat like 



BiL 



BIS 



iimsk, especially the putrefying or eva- 
pora'edbile of animals : its taste is bitter. 
The constituent principles of bile are : 1. 
Water, which constitutes the greatest part 
of biie. 2. Jin albuminous principle, pre- 
cipitated by alcohol and mineral acids. 3. 
A resinous principle, obtained by evapora- 
ting- a tincture made of alcohol and bile. 
4. Ji colouring principle, which adheres to 
the resinous part, and gives the colour to 
bile. 5. Soda, in its caustic state : hence 
healthy bile does not effervesce with acids, 
and affords a neutral salt. 6, A phosphated 
calx. The primary uses of this fluid, so im- 
portant hi the ammul economy, are : 1. To 
extricate the chyle from the chyme : thus 
chyle is never observed in the duodenum 
before the chyme has been mixed with the 
bile : and thus it is that oil is extricated 
from linen by the bile of animals. 2 By 
its acridity it excites the peristaltic motion 
of the intestines ; hence the bowels are so 
inactive in people with jaundice 3. It 
imparts a yelloiv colour to the excrements ; 
thus the white colour of faeces in jaundice, 
in which disease the flow of biie into the 
duodenum is entirely prevented. 4. It 
prevents the abundance of mucus and acidity 
in the primae vise; hence acid, pitunous, 
and verminous saburra are common from 
deficient or inert bile. 

BILIART DUCT. Ductus biliosus. The 
very vascular glandules, which compose al- 
most the whole substance of the liver, ter- 
minate in very small canals, called biliary 
ducts, which at length form one trunk, the 
ductus hepaticus. Their use is to convey 
the. bile, secreted by the liver, into the 
hepatic duct : this uniting with a duct from 
the gall-bladder, forms one common canal, 
called the ductus communis choledochus, 
which conveys the biie into the intestinal 
canal. 

BILIMBI, (Indian.) Biting-bing of Bon- 
tius. The mains indica .fmctu pentagono 
of Europeans. It is carefully cultivated in 
the gardens of the East-Indies, where it 
flowers throughout the year. The juice of 
the root is cooling and drank as a cure for 
fevers. The leaves boiled and made into a 
cataplasm with rice, are famed in all sorts 
of tumours, and the juice of the fruit is 
used in almost all external heats, dipping 
linnen rags in it, and applying them to the 
parts. It is drank, mixed with arrack, to 
cure diarrhxas ; and the dried leaves, mix- 
ed with betel leaves and given in arrack, are 
said to promote delivery. The ripe fruit is 
eaten as a delicacy, and the unripe made in- 
to a pickle for the use of the table. 

BILIOUS. A term very generally made 
use of, to express diseases which arise from 
too copius a secretion of bile : thus bilious 
colic, bilious diarrhrea, bilious fever, &c. 
BILIS See Bile. 

BILIS ATRA. Black bile. The supposed 
cause among- the ancients of melancholy. 



Bins CTSTICA. Silts fellea. Cystic bile. 
The rule when in the gall-bladder is so 
called to distinguish it from that which is 
found in the liver. 

Bins HEPATIC A. Hepatic bile. The bile 
when it has not entered the gall-bladder. 

BILOBUS. (From bis, double, and lobus, 
the end of the ear.) Having two lobes, 
resembling the tips of ears. 

BIMESTRIS. (From bis, twice, and 
mensis, month.) Two mouths old. 
Bindweed, See Convolvulus major. 
BIKO.VLX.E. See Casumunar. 
BINOCULUS. (From binus, double, and 
oculus, the eye.) A bandage for securing 
the dressings on both eyes. 

BIKSICA. A disordered mind. Helmont. 
BINSICA. MORS. The binsical, or that 
death which follows a disordered mind. 

BIOLYCHSTIUM, (From /3/or, life, and 
Kv%viov t a lamp.) Vital heat; an officinal 
nostrum. 

BIOTE. (From ,&?, life.) Life. Light food. 
Br THAN ATI. (From /2/o?, life, and &&vaflof t 
death.) Those who die a violent death, OP 
suddenly^ as if there were no space be- 
tween lite and death. 

BIPEMULLA. See Pimpinella. 
BIPEXELI.A. See Pimpinella. 
BIRA Malt liquor or beer. 
BIRAO Stone parsley. 
Birch tree. See Betula. 
BIRDSTONGUE. A name given to the 
seeds of the Fraxinus excelsior of Linnxus. 
BIRSKN (He >. an aperture ) A deep 
ulcer, or \mpos; iiume in the breast. 

iiirth-ivort, climbing. See Aristolochia 
tenuis. 

BISCOCTUS. (From bis, twice, and coquo, 
to boil.) Twice dressed. It is chiefly ap- 
plied to bread much baked, as biscuit. 
Bis cu TELL A. Mustard. 
BISERMAS. A name formerly given to 
clary, or garden clary. 

Bishop's -weed. Sec Animi. 
BISLIKGUA. (From bis, twice, and lin- 
gua, a tongue ; so called from its appear- 
ance of being double-tongued ; that is, of 
having upon each leaf a less leaf.) The 
Alexandrian laurel. 

BISMALVA. (From vismaha, quasi viscum 
malva, from its superior viscidity.) The 
water or marsh-mallow. 

BISMUTH. (Bismut, Germ.) Bis- 
muthum. 

A metal which is found in the earth in very 
few different states, more generally native 
or in the metallic state. Native bismuth is 
met with in solid masses, and also in small 
particles dispersed in and frequently de- 
posited on different stones, at Schreeberg 
in Saxony, Sweden, &c. Sometimes it is 
crystallized in four-sided tables, or indistinct 
cubes. It exists combined with oxygen in 
the oxyd of birmuth (bismuth ochre), found 
in small particles, dispersed, of a blueish or 
yellowish-gray colour, needle-shaped and 



116 



BIT 



capillary; sometimes laminated, forming 
small cells. It is also though more seldom 
united to sulphur and iron in the form of 
a sulphuret in the martial sulphurated bis- 
muth ore. This ore has a yellowish -gray 
appearance, resembling somewhat the mar- 
tial pyrites. And, it is sometimes com- 
bined with arsenic. 

Properties. Bismuth is of a silver-white 
colour inclining- to red. It soon tar- 
nishes and becomes iridescent. It is 
brittle and can easily be '-educed to small 
particles. It is soft enough to be cut with 
a knife. It has a lamellated texture. Its 
specific graviiy is 9.800. It requires less 
heat for fusion than any other metal, tin 
excepted, melting by a heat = 460 deg. 
Fahr. It can be volatilized by heat and 
escapes in the state of grayish-white va- 
pour. It readily unites with mercury and 
with sulphur. When fused, it exhibits on 
cooling, cubical figures on the surface. It 
is soluble in sulphuric, nitric, and muriatic 
acids. The solution in nitric acid is de- 
composable by mere dilution with pure 
water. It inflames in oxygenated muriatic 
acid gas. It is capable of combining with 
the greatest number of the metals ; and 
when in certain proportions, promotes their 
fusibility remarkably. It speedily becomes 
black by sulphurated hydrogen gas. 

BisMUTHujvi. (From bismut. German.) 
See Bismuth. 

Bistort See Bistorta. 

BISTORT A. (From bis, twice, and tor- 
gueo, to bend ; so called from the contor- 
tions of its roots.) Bistort. 

Polygonum bistort a of Linnsnis : crude. 
simplicissimo monustachio, f-tliifi ovatis in 
petiotum decurrentibus. This plant is a 
native of Britain. Every part manifests 
a degree of simplicity to the taste, and the 
root is esteemed to be one of the most 
powerful of the vegetable adstring-ents, and 
frequently made use of as sue];, in disorders 
proceeding from a laxity and debility of the 
solids, for restraining alvine fluxes, af-er 
due evacuations, and other preternatural 
discharges both serous and sanguineous. 
It has been sometimes given in intermitting 
fevers; and sometimes also, in small doses, 
as a corroborant and antiseptic, in acute 
malignant and colliquative fevers ; in which 
intentions Peruvian bark has now deser- 
vedly superseded both these and all other 
adstringents. The comnlan dose of bistort 
root in substance, is 15 or 20 grains: in 
urgent cases it is extended to a dram. Its 
astringent matter is totally dissolved both 
by water and rectifi"d spirits. ' 

BISTOUUT. (Bistvire. French.) Any 
sm 11 knife for surgical purposes. 

BITIJIKOS. A Galenical plaister. 

BITHI.VICI KMPLASTRUM. A plaister for 
the spleen. 

Bitter apple. See Colocyntfus. 

BIT NOBUN. Salt of bitumen. A 



BLA 

white saline substance has lately been 
imported from India by this name, which 
is not a natural production, but a Hindoo 
preparation of great antiquity. It is called 
in the country bit noben, padnoon, and 
soucherloon and popularly khala mimuc, 
or black salt. Mr Henderson, of Bengal, 
conjectures it to be the sal asphaltitea, and 
sal sodomenus of Piiny and G;den. This 
salt is far more extensively used in Hin- 
dostan than any other medicine whatever. 
The Hindoos use it to improve thrir appe- 
tite and digestion. They consider it as a 
spesific for obstructions of the liver and 
spleen ; and it is in high estimation with 
them in paralytic disorders, particularly 
those that affect the organs of speech, 
cutaneous affections, worms, old rheuma- 
tisms, and indeed all chronic disorders of 
man and beast. 

BITUMEN, (artlvfjut, arfoe, pine; be- 
cause it flows from the pine-tree ; or, 
quod vi tumeat e terra, from its bursting- 
forth from the earth.) Bitumens are com- 
bustible, solid, soft, or flu'd substances, 
whose smell is strong, acrid, or aromatic, 
composed of hydrogen and carbon with a 
contamination of earth and other sub- 
stances in small proportions. They are 
found either in the internal part of the 
earth, or exuding through the clefts of the 
rocks, or floating on the surface of waters. 
Like oils they burn with a rapid flame. 
Natural historians have divided them into 
several genera; but modern chymists ar- 
range them according to their chymical 
properties, and are only acquainted with 
six species, which are very distinct from 
each other : these are, naphtha, amber, 
asphaltos, jet, pit-coal, and petroleum. 

BITUMEN BAKBADENSE. See Petroleum 
barb a dense. 

BiTCMEN JUDAICUM. JlsphaltUS. Jews' 

pitch. A solid light bituminous substance, 
of a dusky colour on the outside, and a 
deep shining black within ; of very little 
taste, and scarcely any smell, unless heated, 
when it emits a strong pitchy one. It is 
said to be found plentifully in the earth in 
several parts of Egypt, and floating on the 
surface of the Dead Sea. It is now wholly 
expunged from the catalogue of officinals 
of this country ; but was formerly esteem- 
ed as a cliscutient, sudorific, and emmena- 
gogue. 

BITUMEN LIQ.UIIH T M. See Petroleum. 

BIVENTER, (Biventer , from bis, twice, 
and venter, a belly.) A muscle is so termed, 
which has two bellies. 

BIVEHTEB CERVICIS. A muscle of the 
lower jaw. 

BlVESTTER MAXIiL-fc INFERIOUIS. See 

Digastricus. 

BIXA OUELLANA. The systematic nam* 
for the terra orleaua of the pharmacopoeias; 
See Orleana. 

. The measles. Rhazis. 



BLE 



BLI 



117 



BLACKBEIIBY. The fruit of the common 
bramble, Rtibus fruticosus of Linnaeus. The 
berries are eaten in abundance by children, 
and are wholesome and gently aperient. 
Too large quantities, however, when the 
stomach is weak, produce vomiting and 
great detention of the belly, from flatus. 
See Fruits, summer. 

JB ladder. See Urinary bladder, and Gall- 
bladder. 

Jlladder, inflamed. See Cystitis. 
.Blade-bout. See Scapula. 
BLoisiTAS. (From blatsus.) A defect in 
speech, called stammering'. 

BLJZSUS. (From @\<*.nr]ce t to injure.) A 
stammerer. 

BLAKCA. (Blanc, French.) A purging 
mixture ; so called, because it was sup- 
posed to evacuate the white phlegmatic 
humours. Also white lead. 

BLAVCA MULIEBUBT. White lead. 
BLASA. (Indian.) A tree, the fruit of 
which the Indians powder, and use to de- 
stroy worms. 

BLASTEMA. (From &KO.&I.VU, to germi- 
nate.) A bud or shoot. Hippocrates uses 
it to signify a cutaneous pimple like a 
bud. 

BLABTUM MOSYLITUM. Cassia bark kept 
with the wood. 

BLATTA. (From fi\a.TTct>, to hurt.) A 
sort of beetle, or bookworm; so called 
from its injuring books and clothes : the 
kermes insect. 

BLATTABIA LUTEA. (From blatta ; so 
called, because, according to Pliny, it 
engenders the blatta.) The herb yellow 
moth-mullein. 

BLECHON. (From /Sx^ato^a/, to bleat ; 
so called according to Pliny, because if 
sheep taste it they bleat.) The herb wild 
penny -royal. 

Bleeding. See Blood-letting and Haemor- 
rhage 

Bleeding at the nose. See Epistcxis. 
BLEMA. (From $*xxce, to inflict.) A 
wound. 

BLENDE. A species of zinc ore, formed 
of zinc in combination with sulphur. 

BLENNA. (&KIVV*,.} Blena. Mucus, a 
thick excrementitious humour. 

BLKNNORRHfEA. (From /SAW*, mu- 
cus, and gsa>, to flow.) Gonorrhoea tnucosa. 
A gleet. An increased discharge of mucus 
irom the urethra, arising from weakness. 

BLENNORRHAGIA. (From /3xxva, 
mucus, and ga>, to flow.) The discharge 
of mucus from the urethra. 

BLEPHABA. (Quasi /3x7w <f>*/)o?, as 
being the cover and defence of the sight.) 
The eyelids. 

BLEPH ABIDES. (From /?A^*/>OV.) The 
hair upon the eyelids ; also the part of the 
eyelids where the hair grows. 

BLKPHAROPHTHALM1A. (From 
Qxtq&fn, the eyelid, and o<p6oAjWAM, a disease 
of the eye.) An inflammation of the eyelid, 



BLEPHAROPTOSIS. (From 
the eyelid, and tzr7a<r<?, from <&i7rlu, to 
fall.) A prolapse, or tailing down of the 
upper eyelid, so as to cover the cornea. 

BLEPHAUOTIS. (From @M$*.(>OV> the eye- 
lid.) An inflammation of the eyelids. 

BLEPHABOXTSTON. (From fiM$a.pov, the 
eyelid, and %ta>, to scrape off,) A brush 
for the eyes. An instrument for cleansing 
or scraping off foul substances from the 
eye-lids. 

BLEPHABOXY-.IS. (From $AKJ>I/>OV, the 
eyelid, and |a>, to scrape off) The cleansing 
of the eyeiids. Inflammation of the eyelids. 

Blessed thistle. See Carduns benedictua. 

BLESTRISMUS. (From /&tAAo>, to throw 
about.) Phrenetic restlesness. 

BLETA. A word used by Paracelsus to 
signify white, and applied to urine when it 
is m.lky, and proceeds from a disease of 
the kidneys. 

BLETI. (Bletus, from fi^Kx, to strike.) 
Those seized with dyspnoea or suffocation. 

BLISTER. A topical appl cation which 
when put on the skin raises the cuticle in 
the form x of a vesicle, filled with a serous 
fluid Various substances produce this ef- 
fect on the skin ; but the powder of the 
li/tta vesicatoria t or blistering fly, is what 
operates with most certainty and expedi- 
tion, and is now invariably made use of for 
the purpose. 

When it is not wished to maintain a dis- 
charge from the blistered part, it is suffi- 
cient to make a puncture in the cuticle to 
let out the fluid ; but when the case requires 
keeping up a secretion of pus, the surgeon 
must remove the whole of the detached 
cuticle with a pair of scissors, and dress 
the excoriated surface in a particular man- 
ner. Practitioners u.-;ed formerly to mix 
powder of cantharides with ointment, 
and dress the part wiih this composition. 
But such a dressing not unfrequently oc- 
casioned very painful affections of the blad- 
der, a scalding sensation in making of water, 
and very afflicting stranguries. The treat- 
ment of such complaints consists in remo- 
ving every particle of the fly from the blis- 
tered part, making the patient drink abun- 
dantly (^' mucilaginous drinks, giving 
emulsions and some doses of camphor. 

These objections to the employment of 
salves containing the lytta, for dressing- 
blistered surfaces, led to the use of me- 
zereon, euphorbium, and other irritating 
substances, which when incorporated with 
ointment, form very proper compositions 
for keeping blisters open, which they do 
without the inconvenience of irritating 
the bladder, like the blistering fly. The 
favourite application however for keep- 
ing open blisters, is ihe powder of savine, 
which was brought into notice by Mr. 
Crowther in his book on white swell- 
ings. The following is the form adopted 
by the London College : " Take of fresh 



118 



BLO 



BLO 



leaves of savine bruised, a pound ; yellow 
wax, half a pound ; prepared lard, two 
pounds. Having- melted tog-ether the wax 
and lard, boil therein the savine leaves, and 
strain through a linen cloth." On the use 
of the savine cerate, immediately after the 
Cuticle raised by the blister is removed, 
says Mr. Crowther, it should be observed 
that experience has proved the advantage 
of using the application lowered by a half 
or two-thirds of the unguentum cerae. An 
attention tq this direction will produce less 
irritation and more discharge, than if the 
savme cerate were used in its full strength. 
Mr. Crowther says also, that he has found 
fomenting the part with flannel, wrung 
out of warm water, a more easy and pre- 
ferable way of keeping the blistered sur- 
face clean, and fit for the impression of the 
ointment, than scraping the part, as has 
been directed by oth? rs. An occasional 
dressing of unguentum resinas flavaj, he has 
found a very useful application for render- 
ing the sore free from an appearance of 
slough, or rather dense lymph, which has 
sometimes been so firm in its tex-ure as to 
be separated by the probe, with us much 
readiness as the cuticle is detached after 
blistering As the discharge diminishes, the 
strength of the savine dressing should be 
proportionably increased. The ceraium 
sabinae must be used in a stronger or weaker 
degree, in proportion to the excitement pro- 
duced on the patient's skin. 

BLITUM F(ETIDUM. See Jltripkx fasti da. 
BLOOD. SangiKs. A red homogene- 
ous fluid, of a saltish taste, and somewhat 
urinous smell, and glutinous consistence, 
which circulates in the cavities of the heart, 
arteries, and veins. The quantity is esti- 
mated to be about twenty-eight pounds in 
an adult: of this, four parts are contained 
in the veins, and a fifth m the arteries. The 
colour of the blood is red ; in the arteries 
it is of a florid hue, in the veins darker ; 
except only the pulmonary veins, in which 
it is of a lighter cast. Physiology demon- 
strates, that it acquires this florid colour 
in passing through the lungs, and from the 
oxygen it absorbs. The blood is the most 
important fluid of our body. bY.me physi- 
cians and anatomists have considered it as 
alive, and have formed many ingenious hy- 
potheses in support of its vitality. The 
temperature of this fluid is of considerable 
importance, and appears to depend upon 
the circulation and respiration. The blood 
of man, quadrupeds, and birds, is hotter 
than the medium they inhabit; hence they 
are termed animals of warm blood; whilst 
in fishes and reptiles, animals with cold 
blood, it is nearly of the temperature of 
the medium they inh bit. The microscope 
discovers that the blood contains a great 
number of round globules, which are seen 
floating about in a yellowish fluid, the 
serum. The blood also possesses remark- 



able physical properties ; its taste is saltish, 
and the smell of its halitus or vapour, when 
recently drawn, is somewhat urinous ; it is 
of a plastic consistence, somewhat gluti- 
nous and adhesive. Chymical analysis of 
blood, by means of distillation, diec^vers, 
1. A considerable quantity of insipid ivater, 
which very soon becomes putrid. 2. Em- 
pyrcumutic oil. 3. Jimmoniacal spirit. 4. 
Carbon, which remains behind, is very 
spongy, and with great difficulty incine- 
rated. The ashes, however, consist of a 
small quintity of culinary s .It, soda, phos- 
phorated Hme, and a very small portion of 
iron. White hot, and in motion, the blood 
remains constantly fluid, and red ; when 
it cools, and is at rest, it takes the form of 
a fluid mass, which gradually and spontane- 
ously separates into two parts ; the one, 
which is red, and floating becomes of a 
darker colour, remains concrete, and is 
called the cruor, crassamejitum, or cake; 
the other, which occupies the lower part 
of the vessel, is of a yellow greenish colour, 
and adhesive, and is called the serum or 
lymph. 

The cruor forms more than one half of 
the blood ; it is very plastic, thick, and, 
in consistence, like glutinous jelly. It 
soon putrefies in the temperature of the 
air ; but, dried by a gentle heat, becomes 
a brittle, dark, red mass. It is insoluble in 
water ; and, when boiled in it, is converted 
into a hard grumous mass, internally red. 
The surface of the cruor of the blood, after 
being exposed in a vessel to atmospheric 
air, becomes of a florid red colour ; but 
the inferior surface, contiguous to the ves- 
sel, is of a deep black : the change of colour 
on the surface is owing to the oxygen of 
the atmosphere uniting with the blood. 
The bruor of the blood is composed of, 
1. Red globules, which chymistry demon- 
strates consist of a fibrous gluten and oxy- 
dated iron. The experiments of the ce- 
lebrated Rhades shew, that in twenty -five 
pounds of blood from the human body, 
near two drachms of the oxyd of iron were 
obtained 2. The fibrous gluten of the 
cruor, which remains after washing the 
cruor of blood for a considerable time in 
cold water, and enclosed in a fine linen 
cloth ; in which case the red globules are 
washed away. It the red water obtained 
in this experiment be evaporated, and then 
distilled to dryness, it leaves behind a car- 
bon, exhibiting 1 , when incinerated, a great 
quantity of iron, attractable by the magnet. 
From these experiments it would appear, 
that the redness of the globules is imparted 
from the oxydated iron, for which purpose 
a small quantity is sufficient. 

The serum of the blood is a lymphatic 
fluid, almost inodorous; rather saltish to 
the taste ; pellucid, and of a yellowish 
green colour ; and rather of a plastic con- 
sistence. It forms scarcely one half of thfc 



BOD 



BOD 



119 



blood; and it contains, 1. A large portion 
of water,' from forty -seven ounces of serum, 
forty-three of insipid water were yielded 
by distillation. 2. Albuminous gluten, like 
the white of an egg, obtained by boiling, 
or by stirring it with a stick, or by an ad- 



bodies are inflammable bodies : such are 

the diamond, sulphur, bitumens, &c. 

BODIES, PHOSPHORESCENT. Bodies which 

produce light, though their temperature 

be not increased. 

BODY. Corpus. The human body is 

mixture of alcohol or concentrated'mineral dived by anatomists into the trunk and 
acid. 3. Jelly. If equal parts of water extremities . i. e. the head, and inferior and 
and serum of the blood be coagulated by superior extremities, each of which have 
fire, that part of the serum which is not certain regions before any part is removed, 
coagulated, upon being cooled, puts on by which the physician is enabled to direct 
the appearance of a tremulous jelly. 4. the application of ^blisters and ^ the like, 
Carbonated soda, obtained by pouring a mi- 
neral acid upon recent diluted serum. 5. 
Culinary salt, found in the incinerated car- 
bon of blood. The albuminous principle 
of the serum, more commonly called the 
coagulable lymph, appears to be of very 
considerable importance in the animal 
aconomy, both in diseased and healthy 
states of it : it affords, by analysis, carbon, 

azot, and hydrogen. The importance of frons ; temples, or tempora ; the nose, or 
the blood is very considerable ; it distends nasus , the eyes, or oculi ; the mouth, or os t 
the cavities of the heart and blood-vessels, 
and prevents them from collapsing ; it sti 



and the situation of diseases is better de- 
scribed. 

The head is distinguished into the hairy 
part and the face. The former has five 
regions, viz. the crown of the head or ver- 
tex, the fore part of the head or sinciput, 
the hind-part or occiput, and the sides, 
partes laterals capitis. In the latter are 
distinguished the region of the forehead, 



mulates to contraction the cavities of the 



the cheeks, bitccae ; the chin, or mentum / 
and the ears, or aures. 

The think is distinguished into three 



heart and vessels, by which means the cir- principal parts, the neck, thorax, and ab- 
culation of the blood is performed ; it ge- 
nerates within itself animal heat, which it 
propagates throughout the body : it nour- 
ishes the whole body : and, lastly, it is that 
source from which every secretion of the 
body is separated. 

Blood dragon's. See Sanguis draconis. 
BLOODLETTING. Under this term 
is comprehended every artificial discharge 
of blood made with a view to cure or pre- 
vent a disease. Blood-letting is divided 
into general and topical. As examples of 
the former, venesection and arteriotomy may 
be mentioned ; and of the latter, the ap- 
plication of leeches, cupping-glasses, and 
scarification. 

Blood, spitting of. See Hemoptysis. 
Blood, vomiting of. See fLematemesis. 
Blood-stone. See Haematites. 
Bloody-flux. See Dysenteria. 
BOA (From /2*?, an ox.) A pustulous 
eruption like the small-pox, so called be- 
cause it was cured, according to Pliny, by 
anointing it with . hot ox-dung: also the 
name of a serpent of Calabria ; and of the 
hyclroa. 

BOCHKTUM. A decoction of the woods 
prepared by a second boiling with fresh 
water. 

BOCHIA. A subliming vessel. 
BOCHIVM. A swelling of the bronchial 
glands. 

BODIES, COMBUSTIBLE. This term is 



dcmeii. The neck is divided into the an- 
terior region or pars aritica, in which, in. 
men, is an eminence called pmnurn Adami; 
the posterior region is called nuchx collif 
and the lateriul regions, partes laterales 
colli. 

The thorax is distinguished into tHe an- 
terior region, in which are the sternum and 
nuiminx, and at whose interior part is a pit 
or hollow called scrobiculns cordis ; a pos- 
terior region, called dorsum ; and the sides, 
or later a thoracis. 

The abdomen is distinguished into an 
anterior region, properly the abdomen; a 
posterior region, called the loins, or lumbi ; 
and lateral regions or flanks, called latera 
abdoniinis. The anterior region of the ab- 
domen being very extensive, is subdivided 
into the epigastric, hypochondriac, umbilical, 
and hypogaslric regions, whih are described 
under their respective names. Immediately 
below the abdomen is the mons Veneris, and 
at its sides the groins or inguina. The 
space between the organs of general ion and 
the anus, or fundament, is called the peri- 
nxutn. 

The superior extremity is distinguished 
into the shoulder, summitas humeri, under 
which is the arm-pit, called axilla orfovea 
axillaris ; the brachium, or arm; the anti- 
brachium, or fore-arm, in which anteriorly 
is the bend of the arm, where the veins are 
generally opened, called jferm antibrachU; 



given by chymists to all substances which, and posteriorly the elbow, called angulus 



on account of their affinity with oxygen, 
are capable of burning. 

BODIES, GASEOUS. See Gas. 

BODIES, HTFLAMMABLE. Chymists give 
this name to such bodies as burn with faci- 



cubiti ; and the hand, in which are the car- 
pus or wrist, the back or dorsum mantis, 
and the palm or vola. 

The inferior extremity is divided into, 
1. the region of the femur, in which are 



lity, and flamt in an incrersed temperature ; distinguished the coxa or regio-ischiadica, 
although, strictly speaking-, all combustible and outer and superior part ; 2. the leg, in 



120 



.BOL 



BOX 



which are the knee or genu, the bend or 
cavum poplitis, and the calf or sura ; 3. the 
foot, in which are the outer and inner 
ankle, or mateolus externus and internus, 
the back or dorsum, and the sole or 
planta. 

BOE. (From 0o*u, to exclaim.) Clamour, 
or moaning 1 made by a sick person. 

BOETHEMA. (From 8c,n6ta>, to assist.) A 
remedy. 

BOETHEMATICA. ( From /ZovQtce, to assist.) 
Favourable symptoms. 

Bog-bean. See Trifolium paludosum. 
BOGIA GUMMI. Gamboge. 
Bohea tea. See Ten 
Sois de coissi. See Quassi. 
Solar earths. See >ole. 
BOLK. (Boxo?, a mass.) A friable earthy 
substance, um f ing with water into a smooth 
paste, adhering to the toncrue, and dissolv- 
ing, as it were, in the mouth ; of the argil- 
laceous or clay kind, but more readily im- 
bibing water than the clays strictly so 
called. Those used in medicine, are the 
Armenian and F ench boles. See Bole Ar- 
menian, and Jlolus Gallicu. Many other 
bolar earths have been recommended for 
medicinal uses, and were formerly ranked 
amongst the officinals ; as red boles from 
Armenia, Lemnos, Strigonium, Portugal, 
Tuscany, and Livonia ; yellow boles from 
Armenia, Tockay, Silesia, Bohemia, and 
Blois ; white boles from Armenia, Lemnos, 
Nocera, Eretria, Lamos, Chio, Malta, Tus- 
cany, and Goltborg. Several of these earths 
have been commonly made into little cikes 
or flat masses, and stamped with certain 
impressions; from which circumstance they 
received the name of feme sigillatae, or 
sealed earths. 

BOLE, ARMENIAN. Solus Armenia. 
Bole-armenic. A pale, but bright red co- 
loured earth, which is occasionally mixed 
with honey, and applied to children's mouths 
when afflicted with aphthae. It forms, like 
all argillaceous earths, a good tooth-pow- 
der, when mixed with some aromatic 

BOLETUS. (From a>\c?, a mass, or 
,3a\m?, from its globular form.) 

The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system Class, Cryptogamia. Or- 
der, Fungi. Boletus. Spunk. 
BOLETUS CERVI. The mushroom. 
BOLETUS IGXIARIUS. The systematic name 
for the agaricus of the pharmacopoeias. See 



LARICIS. The systematic name 
for the officinal agaricus albua. See Agari- 
cus albua. 

BOLETUS run LARICIS, A species of 
agaric, 

BOLETUS SUAVEOLEXS. The systematic 
name for \\\z fungus salicis of the pharmaco- 
poeias, See Fungus salicis. 

BOLIBMUS. A voracious appetite, ac- 
cording to Avicenna; but most probably 
meant for bulimus, 

BOLUSi (B\o?, a bole or bolus,) Any 



medicine, rolled round, that is larger than 
an ordinary sized pea, and yet not too large 
to be swallowed. 

BOLUS ALKxii'iiARMicA. A preparation 
of contrayerva. 

BOLUS EX ALUMINE. Alum, bark, and 
nutmeg, 

BOLUS ARMEXA, See Bole Armenian. 
BOLUS ARMEXA ALBA. The white arme- 
nian bole. 

BOLUS ARMOMAC. See Bole Armenian. 
BOLUS BLESSKXSIS. Bole of Blois. See 
Bole Armenian. 

BOLUS GALLTCA. French bole. A pale 
red coloured bolar earth, variegated with 
irregular specks and veins of white and 
yellow. It is occasionally administered as 
an absorbent and antacid, 

BOMBAX. Gossi/pinm. The cotton- 
tree. The seeds of the cotton-tree, Gos- 
sypium herbacetitn of Linnaeus : foiils qitin- 
quelobis subtus eglandukisis, cauls herbaceo, 
are directed for medicinal use in some 
foreign pharmacopoeias ; and are adminis- 
tered in coughs, on account of the mucilage 
they contain. The cotton, the produce of 
this tree is well known for domestic pur- 
pases. 

BOMB1AS. Abombiate. A salt formed 
by the union of the bombic acid with 
different bases; thus bombiat of alumine, 
&c. 

BOMBIC ACID. Jcidum bombicum. 
Acid of the silk-worm. Silk-worms con- 
tain, especially when in the state of chry- 
salis, an acid liquor in a reservoir placed 
near the anus. It is obtained by expres- 
sing their juice in acloth, and precipitating 
the mucilage by spirit of wine, and like- 
wise by infusing the chrysalides in that 
liquor. This acid is very penetrating, of a 
yellow amber colour, but its nature and 
combinations are not yet well known. 

BOMB US. (Bc^Coc.) A resounding 
noise, or ringing of the ears. Also, a 
sonorous expulsion of flatus from the in- 
testines. 

BON ARBOR. A name given to the cof- 
fee-tree. 

BONA. Boona. The phaseolus, or kidney- 
bean. 

BOXDUCH INDOUUM. Molucca or bezoar 
nut. The produce of the Guillandina ban- 
due of Linnaeus. It possesses warm, bitter, 
and carminaive virtues. 

BONE. Os. Bones are hard, dry, and 
insensible parts of the body, of a whitish 
colour, and composed of a spongy, compact, 
or reticular substance. They vary much in, 
their appearances, some being long and 
hollow, others flat and compact, &c. The 
greater number of bones have several pro- 
cesses and cavities, which are distinguished 
from their figure, situation, use, &c. Thus 
processes extended from the end of a bone, 
if smooth and round, are called heads,* and 
condyks, when flattened either above or 
laterally. That part which is beneath the 



BONE. 



12,1 



head, and which exceeds the rest of the 
bone in smallness and levity, is called the 
neck. Rough, unequal processes are called 
tuberosities or tubercles : but the longer 
and more dcute, spinous or styloid pro- 
cesses, from their resemblance to a thorn. 
Thin broad processes with sharp extremi- 
tie s, are known by the name of cristce, or 
sharp edges. . Other processes are distin- 
guished by their ibrm, and called alar or 
pterygoid, mamillary or mastoid> dentiform 
or odontoid* &c. Others, m-m their situa- 
tion, are culled superior, inferior, exterior, 
and interior. 8>>me have their name from 
their direction, as oblique, straight, trans- 
verse, &c. ; and some from their use, as 
trochanters, rotators &c. Furrows, depres- 
sions, and cavities, are destined either for 
the reception ol contiguous bones, to form 
an articulation with them, when they are 
called articular cavities, which are some- 
time.^ deeper, .-sometimes shallower ; or they 
receive hard parts, but do not constitute a 
joint with them. Cavities serve also for the 
transmission and attachment of soft parts. 
Various names are given to them, accord- 
ing to the magnitude and figure of bones. 
If they be broad and large at the begin- 
ning, and not deep, but contracted at their 
ends, they are called fovecs or pits. Fur- 
rows are -jpen canuls, extending longitu- 
dinally m the surface of bones. A hollow, 
circular tube, for the most part of the same 
diameter from beginning to end, and more 
or less crooked, straight, long or short, is 
named a canal. Foramina are the apertures 
of canals, or they are formed of the exca- 
vated margins of two bones, placed against 
each other. If such be the form of the 
margin of a bone,- as if a portion were taken 
out of it, it is called a notch. 

With respect to the formation of bone, 
there have been various opinions. Physiolo- 
gists of the present day assert that it is from 
a specific action of small arteries, by which 
ossific matter is separated from the blood, 
and deposited where it is required. The 
"first tiling observable in the embryo, where 
bone is to be formed, is a transparent jelly, 
which becomes gradually firmer, and is 
formed into cartilage. The cartilage gradu- 
ally increases to a certain size, and when the 
process of ossification commences, vanishes f 
as it advances. Cartilages, previous to the" 
ossific action, are solid, and without any 
cavity ; but when the ossific action of the 
arteries is about to commence, the absor- 
bents become very active, and form a small 
cavity in which the bony matter is deposit- 
ed ; bone continues to be separated, and 
the absorbents model the mass into its re- 
quired shape. The process of ossification 
is extremely rapid in utero : it advances 
slowly after birth, and is not completed in 
the human body till about the twentieth 
year. Ossification in the flat bones, as 
those of the skull, always begins irom cen- 
R 



tral points, and the radiated fibres meet the 
radii ot other ossifying points, or the edges 
of the adjoining bone. In long bones, as 
those of the arm and leg, the clavicle, me- 
tacarpal, and metatarsal bones, a central 
ring is formed in the body of the bone, 
the head and extremities being cartilage, 
in the centre of which ossification after- 
wards begins. The central ring of the body 
shoots its bony fibres towards the head 
and extremities, which extend towards the 
body of the bone. The head and extremi- 
ties at length come so close to the body 
as to be merely separated hy a cartilage, 
which becomes gradually thinner until the 
twentieth year. Thick and round bones, 
as those of the tarsus, carpus, sternum, an4 
patella, are, at first, all cartilage: ossifica- 
tion begins in the centre of each. When 
the bones are deprived of their soft parts, 
and are hung together in their natural 
situation, by means of wire, the whole is 
termed an artificial skeleton ; but when they 
are kept together by means of their liga- 
ments, it is called a natural skeleton. The 
uses of the bones are various, and are to be 
found in the account of each bone ; it is, 
therefore, only necessary to observe, in 
this place, that they give shape to the 
body, contain and defend the vital viscera, 
and afford an attachment to all the mus- 
cles. 

A Table of the Bones. 

.Vo. 
Fiontal ... 1 





Bones of the 1 Q ^i " 


^ 




cranium or<( ..r, 001 ^ 1 a , 

.*//. l^P^f 1 ' ' 
i Ethmoid - - 

LSphsenoid - - 


I 

2 
1 
1 




^Superior maxil. 


2 


p 
<J 


Jugal - - - 


2 


w 
E 

0> 


Bones of the ^ as , al 
face. ^Lachrymal - - 
Palatine - - - 


2 
2 
2 


4- * 


Inferior spongy 


2 


CO 


Vomer - - - 


j 


CJ 


Jnferior maxil. - 


1 





Denies or 5^?*' " " 
teeth j^spidati - - 


8 
4 




(.Molares ... 


20 




Bone of the 7 . , 






tongue. 5 y ldes OS ' ' 


1 




Bones of the f Malleus - . . 


2 




ear, within 1 Incus .... 


2 




the tempo- ] Stapes ... 


2 




.. ral bones. LOrbictilare O s 


2 


i 




CCervical 
^ rVertebrae. -j Dorsal 


r 

12 


H 


^J C. Lumbar 


5 


<u 




i 


5- 1 


cH 1 Coccygis os 


L 


<S 

s 


The thorax. J Sternum 
1 Ribs . . 


1 

24 







The pdvie. Innominata oss 


i r 



122 



BOR 



BOR 



''mi " T C Clavicle 


<2 





1 Scapula - - . 


2 


Pi) 
Pi 


The arm. Humeri os - - 


2 


H 


C Ulna . 


2 


pa 


The fore-arm. ^ Ra( jj ug _ _ _ 


2 


rt 


fNavicuIare os 


2 


AI 


{Lunarc os - - 


2 


P < 


Cuneiforme os - 


2 


<u 


Orbiculare os 


2 


3 


Trapezium os - 


2 


^S 


Trapezoides os - 


2 




Magnum os - - 


2 


8 

c 


^ LUnciforme os 


2 


o 

pq 


Lid 1/f 4 /Ttv*4\1to 


10 






I D7 /y-*Jrt/30 


28 




s fThe ffe>/. Femur - ... 


2 


1 


C Patella - - - 


s| 




The leg. < Tibia -. - - - 


2 





C Fibula - - . - 


2 


3 


("Calcaneus - - - 


2 




j Astragalus - - 


2 


5 


. ("Tarsus -^ Cuboides os - - 


2 


'o 

01 


^ | or in- | N.iviculare os 
**?*< step. l^Cuneiformia ossa 


2 
6 


<U 


CJ I H/f t 


10 


i 




28 




Sesamond bones of the thumb and 7 
great toe, occasionally found 5 


8 


Total 


248 



Hones, growth of. See Osteogony. 

Bonebinder. See Osteocolla. 

BONONIESSTS LAPIS. The Bononian 
stone. Culled also phosphorus bonwiiensis, 
phosphorus kircheri, the light-carrier, or 
Bononian phosphorus. As a medicine the 
stone is caustic and emetic. 

BONUS HEXHICUS. (Henricus ; so called 
because its virlues were detected by some 
one whose name was Henry. ) To (a bona. 
Lapathum linctuosum. Clienopodium. En- 
glish mercury. The plant to which this 
name is given in the pharmacopoeias, is the 
Chenoporfium bonus Henrietta ; foUis triangu- 
lari-sagittaiis integerrimis, spicis compositis 
aphyllis axillaribus, of Linnaeus. Ii is_a 
native of this country, and common in 
waste grounds from June to August. The 
young plant differs little from spinage when 
cultivated ; and in many places the young 
shoots are eaten in spring like asparagus. 
The leaves of this plant are accounted 
emollient, and in this intention have been 
wiade an ingredient in decoctions for glys- 
ters. They are applied by the common 
people to flesh wounds and sores under 
the notion of drawing and healing. 

BORACIC ACID. JLddwn boracicwn.. 
Sedative salt of Homberg. Acid of borax. 
Boracine acid. A concrete salt crystallized 
in small white scales, which may be ob- 
tained from borax, by adding concentrated 
sulphuric, the nitric, the muriatic, and even 
vegetable acids, to a hot solution of borax, 



till the lixivium becomes somewhat acid . 
the solution is then to be cooled, when the 
acid will appear in the shape of bright 
scales. This acid in combination with 
alkalies, earths, and metallic oxyds, forms 
borates. 

BORAS. A borate. A salt formed of 
boracic acid with an earthy, alkaline or 
metallic base: as borate of soda, &c. 

Borage. See Borago. 

Bon A GO. (Formerly written Cor ago ; 
from cor, the heart, and ago, to affect ; be- 
cause it was supposed to comfort the heart 
and spirits.) Borage. 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaein system. Class, Pentandna. Or- 
der, Monvgynia. 

2. The piuirmacopoeial name of the of- 
ficinal borage. Buglossum vernm. Bu- 
glnssiim latifolium. liorago hortenais. 

The leaves and flowers of this plant, 
Burago offidnalis of Linnaeus : .foliis omni- 
bus alturnis, calytibus patcntibus, are esteem- 
ed in some countries as refrigerant and 
cordial. A syrup is prepared from the 
leaves in France, and used in pleurisies and 
inflammatory fevers. Their principal use 
in thi.s island is in that grateful summer 
beverage, known by the name of cool 
tankard. 

BORA GO OFFICINAMS. The systematic 
name for the borage of the shops. See 
Borago. 

BORAS SOD;E. Borate of soda. See 
Sub boras soduc and Borax. 

BOIIATK. See Boras. 

BORAX. (Borak, Arab.) Boras sod<e, 
sub -boras sodx. The obsolete synonyms 
are Chryscolla, capistrwn auri, ancinar, bo- 
raxtrion, anucar, antincar, tincal, amphitane, 
baurach, nitrum factitium, santema, and 
nitrum nativum. This salt consisting of 
boracic acid uniting with soda, the soda 
being slightly in excess, is brought from 
Thibet and Persia, where it is found in a 
native state. This native or crude borax 
is called tincal, tiucor, borech. pounxa, in the 
East Indies, and was formerly purified in 
Europe by the Venetians, when it was 
called refined or Venetian borax ; but it is 
now prepared by the Dutch by solution in 
hot water, filtration, and careful crysfalliza- 
tion. The particular process is no't known. 
Its taste is cool : it is soluble in eighteen parts 
of cold and six of hot water. It is decomposed 
by several of the acids. Borax is rarely used 
internally in modern practice ; and accord- 
ing to Murray it does not appear to possess 
any activity, although it is supposed by 
some to be, in doses of half a drachm or 
two scruples, diuretic and emenagogue. It 
is occasionally given in cardialgia as an 
a:Uacid. Its solution is in common use as 
a cooling gargle, and to detach mucus, &c. 
from the mouth in putrid fever ; and mixed 
with an equal part of sugar, it is used in 
the form of powder to remove the aphthous 



EOT 



BRA 



123 



from the; tongue in children. The 
salts formed by the union of the acid of 
borax with different bases are called bo- 
rates. 

BORBORYGMUS. (From jkfo fo *, 
to make a noise.) The rumbling 1 noie oc- 
casioned by flatus in the intestines. It fre- 
quently precedes hysterical affections. 

BOROZATL. (^thiop.) An epidemic 
disease of the Ethiopians, in appearance 
similar to the lues venerea, 
BORRAOO. See Borago. 
BORRI. (Indian.) Horn-born. Boberri. 
The Indian name for turmeric ; also an 
ointment used there, in which the roots of 
turmeric are a chief ingredient. 

BOSA. An Egyptian word for a mass 
which is made of the meal of darnel, hemp- 
seed, and water. It is inebriating. 

BOSMOHOS. (From fioo-xce, to 'eat, and 
juopos, a part : because it is divided for 
food by the mill.) Bosporas. A species 
of meal. 

BOTALE FORAMEN. A name formerly 
applied to the foramen ovale. 

BOTANY. (Botanica, fiolavuui : from 
fiolctvn, an herb or grass.) That part of 
natural history which considers every thing 
respecting the natural history of vegetables. 
BOTANICON. (From @tT*vn, an herb.) 
A plaster made of herbs, and described by 
Paulus ./Egineta. 

BOTHOU. (Arab.) Tumours: pimples 
in the face : also the small-pox or measles. 

BOTHRION (From fiaQptov, a little pit.) 
Botrium. The alveolus or socket for the 
tooth : also an ulcerated cornea. 

BOTIA. A name given to scrophula. 
BOTIX. A name for turpentine. 
BOTIUM. Bociuin. Indurated bronchial 
glands. 

BOTOTHINUM. The most evident symp- 
tom of disease. 

BOTHRITIS. (From fao-pe, a bunch of 
grapes.) Botryites. A sort of burnt cad- 
mia, collected in the top of the furnace, 
and resembling a bunch of grapes. 

BOTRYS. (Bo7/>i>?, a cluster of grapes ; so 
called because its seeds hang down like a 
bunch of grapes.) The oak of Jerusalem. 

BOTRYS MEXICANA! Botrys qmbrosioiiks 
Mexicana. Chcnopodium Mexicanum. Bvtrys 
Americana* Mexico tea. Spanish tea and 
Artemisian botrys. A decoction of this 
plant, Chenopodium ambrosioides of Lin- 
naeus '.-foliis lanceolatis dentntis, racemis 
foliatis simplicibus, is recommended in pa- 
ralytic cases. Formerly the infusion was 
drunk instead of Chinese tea. 

BOTRYS VULGARTS. Botrys. ./Imbrosia. 
Artimesia chenopodium. Jltriplex odorata. 
Jlrtiplex suaveotens. Jerusalem oak. This 
plant, Chenopodium botrys of Linnaeus : 
foliis oblongis sinuatis, racemis- mtdis multi- 
Jidis, was formerly administered in form of 
decoction in some diseases of the chest ; as 



humoral asthma, coughs, and Catarrhs. It 
is now fallen into disuse. 

BOTUS. Botia. Botus barbatus. A cu- 
curbit of the chymists. 
' BOUBALIOS. See Cucumis agresti3 t and 
Pudendum wuliebre 

Bo u BON. See Bubo. 
BOUGIF,. (French for wax candle.) 
Candela cerea. Candela, medicata. Cathe- 
ters of Swediaur. CeYei medicati of Le 
Uran. Cereotus chirursforwn. A term ap- 
plied by surgeons to a long, slender instru- 
ment, thatis introduced through the urethra 
into the bladder. Bougies made of the 
elastic gum are preferable to those made of 
wax. The c:\ustic bougie differs from the 
ordinary one in having a thin roll of caustic 
in its middle, which destroys the stricture^ 
or any p;rt it comes in contact with. 
Those made of catgut are very seldom 
used, but are deserving of the attention 
of the surgeon. Bougies are chiefly used 
to overcome strictures in the urethra, 
and the introduction of them requires a 
good deal of address and caution. They 
should not be kept in the urethra so long at 
one time as to excite much pain or irrita- 
tion. Before their use is discontinued, they 
should, if practicable, be carried the length 
of the bladder, in order to ascertain the 
extent of the strictures, taking care that 
this be performed not at once, but in a 
gi % adu;l manner, and after repeated trials ; 
for much injury might arise from any hasty 
or violent efforts to remove the resistance 
that imy present itself. There are bougies 
also for the oesophagus and rectum. 

BOULIMU-!. (From ', greatly, and /./^o?, 
hunger ; or from /^AOMAZ, to desire.) A 
canine or voracious appetite. 

BoviLta?:. (Fvom bos, an ox, because 
cattle were supposed subject to it.) The 
measles. 

BOVINA FAMES. The same as bulimia. 

BOVISTA Crepitus Inpi. Puff ball. This 
is the Lycoperdon hoviata { subrotimdum, 
Incerato dchiscens, of Linnaius, which when 
dry contains a powder used by the common 
people to stop the blood in recent cuts, &c. 

Box-tree. See Jiuxvs. 

BRACHERIUM. (From brachiale, a brace- 
let.) A truss or bandage for hernia ; a 
term used by the barbarous Latin writers. 

BRACHI2EUS MUSCTJ'LUS. See Brachialis. 

BR4CHUEUS EXTKRNUS. See Brachialis 
externus 

BRACHIJEUS INTERNUS. See Brachialis 
interims. 

BRACHIAL ARTERY. Arteria bra- 
chialis. The braclml artery is the con- 
tinuation of the axillary artery, which, as 
it passes behind the tendon of the pecto- 
ralis major, receives the name of brachial. 
It runs down on the inside of the arm, 
over the musculus coruco-brachialis, and 
anconxus internus, and, along the inner 



124 



BRA 



BRA 



edge of the biceps, behind the vena basi- 
lica, giving out small branches as it goes 
along. Below the bend of the arm it di- 
vides into the cubitajisand radialis. Some- 
times, though rarely, the brachial artery is 
divided from its origin into two large 
branches, which run down on the arm, 
and afierwards on the fore-arm, where they 
are called cubitalis and radialis. 

BRACHIALE. The word means a brace- 
let : but the ancie;;t anatomical writers ap- 
ply this term to the carpus, the part on 
which the bracelet was worn. 

BRACHIALIS. See Brachialis interims. 

BRACHIALIS EXTERNUS, See Triceps ex- 
tensor cubiti. 

BRACHIALIS INTERNUS. Brachixns 
of Winslow. Brachixus internus of Cow- 
per, and Humero -cubital of Dumas. A muscle 
of the fore-arm, situated on the fore -part of 
the os humeri. It arises fleshy from the mid- 
dle of the os humeri, at each side of the in- 
sertion of the deltoid muscle, covering all 
the inferior and fore-part of this bone, runs 
over the joint, and adheres firmly to the 
ligament ; is inserted, by a strong short 
tendon, into the coronoid process of the 
ulna. Its use is to bend the fore-arm, and 
to prevent the capsular ligament, of the 
joint from being- pinched. 

BRACHIO-CUBITAL LIGAMENT. ' Isigamen- 
turn brachio cubitale. The expansion of 
the lateral ligament, which is fixed in the 
inner condyle of the os humeri, runs over 
the capsular, to which it closely adheres, 
and is inserted like radii on the side of the 
great sigmoid cavity of the ulna ; it is co- 
vered on the inside by several tendons, 
which adhere closely to it, and seem to 
strengthen it very considerably. 

BRACHIO-RADIAL LIGAMENT. J.iga- 
mentum brachio-radiale. The expansion of 
the Literal ligament, which runs over the 
external condyle of the os humeri, is in- 
serted round the coronary ligament, from 
thence all the way down to the neck of the 
radius, and also in the neighbouring parts 
of the ulna. Through all this passage it 
Covers the capsular ligament, and is co- 
vered by several tendons adhering closely 
to both. 

BRACHI os, See Humeri os. 

BRACHIUM. (Bga^/sp, the arm.) The 
arm, from the shoulder 10 the wrist. 

BRACHIUM MOVENS Q.UARTUS. See La- 
tissimus dorsi. 

BRACHUNA. According to Avicenna, a 
species of furor uterinus. 

BRACHY-CHRONIUS. (From ySg*^u?, short, 
and ^ovof, time.) A disease which conti- 
nues out a short time. 

BRACHPYNCEA. (From /Sgat^/f, short, and 
<arveu> t to breathe.) Shortness and difficulty 
of breathing. 

BRACK YS. (From /Sget^y?, short.) A 
tnifscte of the scapula. 



BRACIUM. Copper. Verdigris. 

BRADYPEPSIA. (From *fi/?j slow, and 
<a*rflec t to concoct.) Weak digestion. See 
Dyspepsia. 

BRAGG AT. A name formerly applied to 
a ptisan of honey and water. 

Brain. See "Cerebrum. 

Brain, little. See Cerebel'um. 

BRAN. Furfur. The husks or shells 
of wheat, which remain in the bolting ma- 
chine. It contains a portion of the farina- 
ceous matter and is said to have a laxa-. 
tive quality. Decoctions of bran, sweetened 
with sugar, are used by the common peo- 
ple, and sometimes with success, against 
coughs, hoarsenesses, &c. 

BRANCA. (Branca, Span, a foot, or 
branch.) A term applied to some herbs, 
which are supposed to resemble a p^rticu- 
larfdot; as branca leonis, lion's foot; branca 
ursina, bear's foot. 

BRANCA LEONINA. See Alchemilla. 

BRANCA URSINA. The plant which is 
directed by this name in foreign ph;>rma- 
copoeias, is the Heradeum spondylium of 
Linnaeus : -foliolis pinnatifidis, leevibus ,- 
Jlnribus uniformibus In Siberia \\. grows 
extremely high, and appears to have vir- 
tues in the cure of dysentery, which the. 
plants of this country do not possess. See 
also Acanthus. 

BRANCA LEONIS. See Mcliemitta. 

BRANCHY, (From /8g%, to make 
moist.) Branchi, Swelled tonsils, or glan- 
dulous tumours, of the fauces, which se- 
crete saliva. 

BRANCHUS. (From @t%ee t to moisten.) 
A defluxion of humours from the fauces, 

BRANDY. Spiritus Gallicus A co- 
lourless, slightly opake, and milky fluid, oF 
a hot and penetrating taste, and a strong 
and agreeable smell, obtained by distil- 
ling from wine. It consists of water, ar- 
dent spirit, and a small portion of oil, 
which renders it milky at first, and, after 
a certain time, colours it yellow. It is the 
fluid from which rectified or ardent spirit is 
obtained. Its peculiar flavour depends on 
the nature of the volatile principles, or es- 
sential oil, which come over along 1 with it 
in the distillation, and likewise, in some 
measure upon the management of the fire, 
the wood of the cask in which it is kept, 
&C. It is said, that our rectifiers imitate 
the flavour of brandy, by adding a small 
proportion of nitrous ether to the spirit of 
malt, or molasses. The utility of brandy is 
very considerable, but, from its pleasant 
taste and exhilarating property, it is too 
often taken to excess. It gives energy to 
the animal functions ; is a powerful tonic, 
cordial, and antispasmodic ; and its utility 
with camphire, in gangrenous affections, is 
very great. v 

Branks. The name, in Scotland, for the 
mumps. See Cynanche parotidaa. 



BRA 



BRE 



325 



Brankursine. See. Acanthus. 

BRASILIA. Brazil wood. 

BHASILIENSE LIGNUM. See Hcema- 
toxyttum. 

BRASILIENSIS RADIX. The ipecacuan- 
ha root is sometimes so called. See Ipe- 
cacuanha. 

BRASIUM. (From $gwr, to boil.) Malt, 
or germinated barley 

BRASMA. (From @%x.<r<ru> t to boil.) The 
unripe black pepper. Fermentation. 

BRASMOS The same. 

BRASS. JEs. A combination of copper 
and zinc 

BRASSADELLA. Brassatella. Ophioglos- 
sum, or the herb adder's tongue. 

BRASSiCA. (Varro says, quasi prx- 
sica : from prceseco, to cut off; because it 
is cut from ihe stnlk for use ; or from r- 
jr/*, a bed in a garden where they are 
cultivated.) Crambe. Cabbage. Cole- 
won. 

The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnsean system. See Brassica cnpi- 
tata. 

BIJASSICA ALBA The white cabbnge. 

BRASSICA APIANA. Jagged or crimpled 
cole wort. 

BRASSICA CANINA. The mercurialis 
sylvestris. 

BRASSICA CAPITATA. Cabbage. There 
are several varieties of cabbage, all of 
which are generally hard of digestion, pro- 
ducing flatulencies, and afford very little 
nourishment. These inconvenien.cies are 
not experienced by those whose stomachs 
are strong and accustomed to them. Few 
vegetables run into a state of putrefaction 
so quickly as cabbages ; they ought, there- 
fore, always to be used immediately after 
cutting. In Holland and Germany there 
is a method of preserving them, by cutting 
them into pieces, and sprinkling salt and 
some aromatic herbs among them : this 
mass is put into a tub, where it is pressed 
close, and left to ferment, when it is called 
sour crout, or sauer kraut. These, and all 
pickles of cabbage, are considered as 
wholesome and antiscorbutic, from the 
vinegar and spices they contain. 

BRASSICA CONGTLODES. Turnip cab- 
bage. 

BRASSICA ctfMANA. Red colewort. 

BRASSICA EHUCA. The systematic name 
for the plant which affords the semen erucae. 
See Eruca. 

BRASSICA ERTTCASTRUM. See Eruca 
sylvestris, 

BRASSTCA FLORIDA. Cauliflower. A va- 
riety of the oleracea. 

BRASSICA. GONYLICODES. Turnip cab- 
bage. 

BRASSICA LACTJTURRTA. Brassica lacu- 
turris The savoy plant. 

BRASSICA MARINA, 
Convolvulus nrnritimics. Soldanella. Sol- 



danella. This plant, Convolvulus soldanel- 
la of Linnaeus :foliis reniformibus, pedun- 
cutts unijlorist is a native of our coasts. 
The leaves are said to be a drastic purge. 
It is only used by the common people, 
the pharmacopoeias having now substituted 
more safe and valuable remedies in its 
place. 

BRASISCA NAPTJS. The systematic name 
for the plant from which the semen napi is 
obtained. See Napi. 

BRASSICA OLERACEA. The systematic 
name for the brassica capitata of the shops. 
See Brassica capitata. 

BRASSICA RAPA. The systematic name 
for the plant whose root is called turnip. 
See Jiapa. 

BRASSICA RUBRA. Red cabbage. Mr. 
Watt finds that the red cabbage affords 
a very excellent test both for acids and al- 
kalis, in which it is super. or to li-tmus, be- 
ing- naturally blue, turning 1 green with 
alkalis, and red with acids. 

BB.ASSICA SATIVA. The common gar- 
de,, cabbage. 

BKASSICA SAUAUOA. The savoy plant. 

BRASSIDF.LLICA AHS. A way of curing 
wounds, mentioned by Paracelsus, by ap- 
plying the herb BrassideUa to them. 

BRATHU. (Bg*6y.) An old name for sa- 
vin e. 

BREAD-FRUIT. The tree which af- 
fords this, grows in all the Ladrone Islands 
in the South Sea, in Otaheite, and now in 
the West Indies. The bread-fruit grows up. 
on a tree the size of a middling oak. The 
fruit is about the size of a child's head, and 
the surface is reticulated, not much unlike 
the surface of a truffle. It is covered with 
a thin skin, and has a core about the size 
of a small knife. The eatable part is be 
tween the skin and the core : it is as white 
as snow, and somewhat of the consistence 
of new bread. It must be toasted before 
it is eaten, being first divided into three or 
four parts. Its taste is insipid, with a slight 
sweetness, nearly like that of wheaten 
bread and artichoke together. This fruit 
is the constant food of the inhabitants all 
the year, it being in season eight months. 

BREAST. Mamma. The two globu- 
lar projections, composed of common in- 
teguments, adipose substance, and lacteal 
glands and vessels, and adhering to the an- 
terior and lateral regions of the thorax of 
females. On the middle of each breast is 
a projecting portion, termed the papilla or 
nipple, in which the excretory ducts of the 
glands terminate, and around which is a 
coloured orb, or disc, called the area' a. 
The use of the breasts is to suckle new-born 
infants. 

Breast-bone. See Sternum. 

BREGMA. (From /Sge^w, to moisten ; 
formerly so called because, in infants, and 
sometimes even in adults, they are tender 



126 



BRI 



BRI 



and moist.) An old name for the parietal 
bones. 

BREVIA. (From brevis, short.) A 
specific name of some parts whose ter- 
mination rs not far from their insertion, as 
br evict vasu, the branches of the splenic 
vein. 

BREVIS MCSCULUS. A muscle of the 
scapula. 

BREVIS CUBITI. A musc-e of the fore- 
arm. 

Brevis extensor pollids pedis. See 07- 
tensor brevis pollids pedis. 

Brevis flexor pollids pedis. See Flexor 
brevis pollids pedis. 

BUKVIS PEUONEUS. See Peroneus brevis. 

Brevis pronator radii. See Pronator 
radii brevis. 

BUEYXIA. (An American plant named 
in honour of Dr. Brennius.) A species of 
capparis. 

Briar, wild. See ftosa canina. 

BnicuMuM. A name which the Gauls 
gave to the herb artemisia. 

Brimstone. See Sulphur. 

BRISTOL HOT-WELL. Bristolicnsis 
(igiia. A pure, thermal or warm, slightly 
acidulated, mineral spring 1 , situated about 
a mile below Bristol. The fresh water is 
inodorous, perfectly limpid, and sparkling-, 
and sends fortli numerous air bubbles when 
por.red into a glass. It is very agreeable 
to -.he palate, but without having any very 
decided taste, at least none that can be dis- 
tinguished by a common observer. Its 
specific gravity is only 1.00077, which ap- 
proaches so near to that of distilled water, 
thit this circumstance alone would shew 
that ii contained but a very small admix- 
ture of foreign ingredients. The tempera, 
ture of these waters, Dicing the average of 
the most accurate observations, may be 
reckoned at 74 deg. ; and this does not 
very sensibly vary during winter or summer. 
Bristol water contains both solid and 
gaseous matter, and the distinction be- 
tween the two requires to be attended to. 
as it. is owing to the very small quantity of 
solid matter that it deserves the character 
of a very fine natural spring ; and to an 
excess in gaseous contents, that it seems 
to be principally indebted for its medical 
properties, whatever they may be, inde- 
pendent of those of mere water, with an 
increase of temperature. From the diffe- 
rent investigations of chymists, it appears 
that the principal component parts of the 
Hotwell water, are a large proportion of 
carbonic acid gas, or fixed air, and a cer- 
tain portion of magnesia ai)d lime, in vari- 
ous combinations, with the muriatic, vitri- 
olic, and carbonic acids. The general in- 
ference is, that it is considerably pure for 
a natural fountain, as it contains no other 
solid matter than is found in almost all com- 
mon spring water, and in less quantity. 



On account of these ingredients, espe- 
cially the carbonic acid gas, the Hotwell 
water is efficacious in promoting salutary 
haemorrhages, in green sickness, as well as 
in the blind haemorrhoides. It may be 
taken with advantage in obstructions, and 
weakness of the bowels, arising from ha- 
bitual costiveness; and, from the purity of 
its aqueous par., it has justly been consi- 
dered as a specific in diabetes, rendering 
the urinary organs more fitted to receive 
benefit from those medicines which are ge- 
nerally prescribed, and sometimes success- 
ful. 

But the high reputation which this 
spring has acquired, is chiefly in the cure 
of pulmonary consumption. From the 
number of unsuccessful cases among those 
who frequent this place, many have denied 
any peculiar efficacy in this spring, superior 
to that of common water. It is not easy to 
determine how much may be owing to the 
favourable situation and mild temperate 
climate which Bristol enjoys ; but it can- 
not be doubted that the Hotwell water, 
though by no means a cure for consump- 
tion, alleviates some of the most harassing 
symptoms of this formidable disease. It 
is particularly efficacious in moderating 
the thirst, the dry burning heat of the 
hands and feet, the partial night sweats, 
and the symptoms that are peculiarly hec- 
tical; and thus in the earlier stages of 
phthisis, it may materially contribute to a 
complete re-establishment of health ; and 
even in the latter periods, mitigate the 
disease when the cure is doubtful, if not 
hopeless. 

The sensible effects of this water, when 
drank warm and fresh from the spring, are 
a gentle glow of the stomach, succeeded 
sometimes by a slight and transient degree 
of headach and giddiness. By a continued 
use, in most cases it is diuretic, keeps the 
skirt moist and perspirable, and improves 
the appetite and health. Its effects on 
the bowels are variable. On the whole, a 
tendency to costiveness seems to be the 
more general consequence of a long course 
of this medicinal spring, and therefore the 
use of a mild aperient is requisite. These 
effects, however, are applicable only to 
invalids, for healthy persons, who taste 
the water at the fountain, seldom discover 
any thing in it but a degree of warmth, 
which distinguishes it from the common 
element. 

The season for the Hotwell is generally 
from the middle of May to October; but 
as the medicinal properties of the water 
continue the same throughout the year, the 
summer months are preferred merely on 
account of the concomitant benefits of air 
and exercise. 

It should be mentioned, that another 
spring, nearly resembling die Hotwell, has 



BRO 



BRO 



127 



See Hydrolapa- 



been discovered at Clifton, which is situ- 
ated on the summit of the same hill, from 
the bottom of which the Hotwell issues. 
The water of Sion spring 1 , as it is called, is 
one or two degrees colder than the Hot- 
well ; but in other respects it sufficiently 
resembles it to be employed for all similar 
purposes. 

BRITANNIC A HERBA 
thum. 

BRITISH OIL. A variety of the black 
species of petroleum, to which this name 
has been given as an empirical remedy. 

BROCCOLI. Brussica It alien. As an ar- 
ticle of diet, this may be considered as 
more delicious than cauliflower and cab- 
bage. Sound stomachs digest broccoli 
without any inconvenience ; but in dyspep- 
tic stomachs, even when combined with 
pepper, &c. it always produces flatulency, 
and nauseous eructations. 

BROCHOS. (Bgo^of, a snare.) A bandage. 
BROCHTHUS. (From @$t%a>, to pour.) 
The throat ; also a small kind of drinking- 
vessel. 

BROCHUS. (B^CKO?.) One with a promi- 
nent upper-lip, or one with a full mouth 
and prominent teeth. 

BRODIUM. A term in pharmacy, sig- 
nifying the same with juscnlum, broth, or 
the liquor in which any thing is boiled. 
Thus we sometimes read of Brqdium Salis, 
or a decoction of salt. 

BROMA. (From /ggaxraa, to eat.) Food 
of any kind that is masticated, and not 
drank. 

BROMA-THEON. (From /?g*s-;ia>, to eat.) 
Mushrooms. 

BROMATOLOGY. (Bromatokgia : from 
/%/"*, food, and' AO>OP, a discourse.) A 
discourse or treatise on food. 

BROMELIA ANAXAS. The systematic 
name of the plant which affords the ananas. 
See Ananas. 

BROMELIA KARATAS. The systematic 
name of the plant from which we obtain 
the fruit called penguin, which is given in 
the Spanish WestI ndies to cool and quench 
thirst in fevers, dysenteries, &c. It grows 
in a cluster, there being several of the size 
of one's finger together. Each portion is 
clothed with a husk, containing a white 
pulpy substance, which is the eatable part; 
and if it be not perfectly ripe, its flavour 
resembles that of the pine-apple. The 
juice of the ripe fruit is very austere, and 
is made use of to acidulate punch. The in- 
habitants of the West Indies make a wine 
of the penguin, which is very intoxicating, 
and has a good flavour. 

BROMION. (From ^ja^e?, the oat.) r The 
name of a plaister, made with oaten flour, 
mentioned by Paulus yEgineta. 

BROMUS STERILIS. (From /Sgaxrwa, to 
eat.) The wild oat. 

BRONCHIA. (From Bgoyx^y the 
throat.) See Trachea* 



BRONCHIALES ARTERIJE, Bronchial ar- 
teries. Branches of the aorta given off in 
the chest 

BRONCHIALES GLANDULJE Bronchial 
glands. Large blackish glands, situated 
about the bronchia and trachea, which se- 
crete blackish mucus. 

BRONCHOCELE. (From iggo^oc, the 
windpipe, and KH\M, a tumour.) Botium. 
Hernia guttiiris Guttnr tumidum. Trache- 
lophyma. Gossuin. Exechebronchos. Gongro- 
na. Bocium. Hernia bronchialis. Tracheo- 
cele. Derbyshire neck This disease is 
marked bjfra tumour on the fore-part of the 
neck, and seated between the trachea and 
skin. In general it has been supposed 
principally to occupy the thyioid gland. 
We are given to understand that it is a 
very common disorder in Derbyshire; but 
its occurrence is by no means frequent in 
other parls ot Great Britain, or in Ireland. 
Amongst the inhabitants of the Alps, and 
other mountainous countries bordering 1 
thereon, it is a disease very often met with, 
and is there known by the name of goitre. 
The cause which gives rise to it, is by no 
means certain, and the observations of dif- 
ferent w-iters are of very little practical uti- 
lity. Dr. Saunders controverts the general 
idea of the bronchocele being produced by 
the use of snow water. The swelling is at 
first without pain, or any evident fluctua- 
tion, when the disease is of long standing, 
and the swelling considerable, we find it in 
general a very difficult matter to effect a 
cure by medicine, or any external applica- 
tion ; and it might be unsafe to attempt its 
removal with a knife, on account of the 
enlarged state of its arteries, and its vicini- 
ty to the carotids ; but, in an early stage of 
the disease, by the aid of medicine a cure 
may be effected. 

Although some relief has been obtained at 
times, and the disease probably somewhat 
retarded by external applications, such as 
blisters, discutient embrocations, and sapo- 
naceous and mercurial plaisters, still a com- 
plete cure has seldom been effected with- 
out an internal use of medicine ; and that 
which has always proved the most effica- 
cious, is burnt sponge. The form under 
which this is most usually exhibited, is that 
of a lozenge. . spongiae ustae ss. muci- 
lag. Arab. gum. q. s. fiat trochiscus. When 
the tumor appears about the age of puber- 
ty, and before its structure has been too 
morbidly deranged, .a pill, consisting of a 
grain or two of calomel, must be given for 
three successive nights ; and, on the fourth 
morning, a saline purge. Every night af- 
terwards, for three weeks, one of the 
troches should, when the patient is in bed, 
be put under the tongue, suffered to dissolve 
gradually, and the solution swallowed. 
The disgust at first arising from this reme- 
dy soon wears off. The pills and the purge 
are to be repeated at the end of three 



128 



BRU 



BRY 



weeks, and the troches had recourse to as 
before ; and this plan is to be pursued 
till the tumour is entirely dispersed. 
Some recommend the burnt sponge to 
be administered in larger doses. Sulphu- 
rated potash dissolved in water, in the pro- 
portion of 30 grains to a quart daily, is a 
remedy which has been employed by Dr. 
Ritchter with success, in some cases, 
where calcined sponge failed. The natron 
prxparatum being the basis of burnt spopge, 
is now frequently employed instead of it, 
and, indeed, it is a more active medi- 
cine. 

BRONCHOTOMY. (Bronchotomia . 
from $go>;fcsc, the wind-pipe, and Ttjuvce, to 
cut.) Tracheotomy. Laryngotomy. This 
is an operation in which an opening is 
made into the lurynx, or trachea, either for 
the purpose of making a passage for the air 
into and out of the lungs, when any disease 
prevents thepatientfrom breathingthrough 
the mouth and nostrils, or of extracting fo- 
reign bodies, which have accidentally fallen 
into the trachea ; or lastly, in order to be 
able to inflate the lungs, in cases of sudden 
suffocation, drowning, &c. Its practicable- 
ness, and little danger, are founded on the 
facility with which certain wounds of the 
wind-pipe, even of the most complicated 
kind, have been healed, without leaving 
any ill effects whatever, and on the nature 
of the parts cut, which are not furnished 
with any vessel of consequence. 

BROXCHOS. (Bgo^o?, the wind-pipe.) 
A catarrh ; a suppression of the voice from 
a catarrh. 

BRONCHUS. (From Bgs^fti, to pour.) 
The wind-pipe. The ancients believed that 
the solids were conveyed into the stomach 
by the oesophagus, and the fluids by the 
bronchia ; whence its name. 

Brooklime Speedwell See Beccabunga. 
Broom, Common. See Genista 
BRUCE A. (So named by Sir Joseph 
Banks in honour of Mr. Bruce, the tra- 
veller in Abyssinia, who first brought the 
seeds thence into England.) The name of 
a genus of plants in the Linnxan system. 

BRUCEA ANTI DYSENTERIC A The syste- 
matic name of the pluntfrom which it was 
supposed we obtained the angustura bark. 
See Angusturx cortex. 

BRUCEA FEKRUGINEA. This plant is also 
supposed to afford the angustura bark. 
See Angusturce cortex. 
Bruise-wort. See Saponariu. 
BRUXKLLA. See Prunella 
BRUNNER'S GLANDS. Brunneri glan- 
dule. Peyei-*!* glands. The mucipanous 
glands, situated between the villous and 
cellular coat of the intestinal canal ; so 
named after Brunner, who discovered 
them. 

BRUNUS. An erysipelatous eruption. 
BRPBCI:S. See Ruscus. 
BRTTTA. (Arab.) Instinct. Savine. 



BRUTIA. An epithet for the most re- 
sinous kind of pitch, therefore used to make 
the Oleum Picinum. The Pix Brutia was 
so called from Brutia, a country m the ex- 
treme parts of Italy, where it was produced. 

BRUTIXO. Turpentine. 

BRUTOBOX. The name of an ointment 
used by the Greeks. 

BRUT u A. See Pareifa brava. 

BRUXANELI. (Indian.) A tall tree in 
Malabar, whose bark is diuretic, according 
to Ray. 

BRTAMUS. (From Bgv^ai, to make a 
noise.) A peculiar kind of noise, such as 
is made by gnashing or grating the teeth ; 
or, according to some, a certain kind of 
convulsion affecting the lower jaw, and 
striking the teeth together, most frequently 
observed in such children as have worms. 

BRYONIA. (From Bgy to abound, from 
its abundance.) Bryony. 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linntean system. Class, Dioecia. Order, 
Syngenesia. 

2. The pharmacopoeial name of the white 
bryony. Vitis alba sylvestris. Agrostis. 
Ampelvs. Archeostris. Echetrosis of Hip- 
pocrates. Bryonia aspera. Cedrostis. 
Chelidoniunt. Labrusca. Melothrum. 
Ophrostaphylon. Psilothrum. Bryonia 
alba o' Linnaeus -.foliis palmatis utrinque 
caltoso scabris. 

White bryony, or wild vine, is a very 
common plant in woods and hedges. The 
root has a very nauseous biting taste, 
and disagreeable smell- Bergius states the 
virtues of this root to be purgative, hydra- 
gogue, emmenagogue, and diuretic ; the 
fresh root emetic. This powerful and irri- 
tating cathartic, though now seldom pre- 
scribed by physicians, is said to be of great 
efficacy in evacuating serous humours, and 
has been chiefly employed in hydropical 
cases. Instances-of its good effects in other 
chronic diseases are also mentioned, as 
asthma, mania, and epilepsy. In small doses, 
it is reported to operate as a diuretic, and 
to be resolvent and deobstruent. In pow- 
der, from 5j. to a drachm, it proves strong- 
ly purgative ; and the juice, which issues 
spontaneously, in doses of a spoonful or 
more, has similar effects, but is more gen- 
tle in its operation. An extract prepared 
by water acts more mildly, and wikh 
greater safety than the root in substance, 
given from half a drachm to a drachm. 
It is said to prove a gentle purgative, and 
likewise to operate powerfully by urine. 
Of ihe expressed juice, a spoonful acts vio- 
lently both upwards and downwards; but 
cream of tartar is said to take off its viru- 
lence. Externally, the fre-h root has been 
employed in cataplasms, as a resolvent and 
discutient ; also in iscbiadic and other rheu- 
matic affections. 

BRYOWIA ALBA. The systematic name 
of the white bryony plant- See Bryonia- 



BUC 



BUC 



129 



BRYONIA MECHOACHANA NIGBICANS. A 
name given to the jalap root. 

BBYONIA NIGUA Black bryony, or vine. 
The Tamus communis of Linnjeus. 

BUYONIA PEBUVIAJTA. Jalap. 

Bryony, black. See Bryonia nigra. 

Bryony, white. See Bryonia. 

BBYTHIO*. (Bgi/Q/cv.) A malagma so 
called, and described by Paulus ^gineta. 

BBYTON. (From /3gt/a>, to pour out.) 
A kind of ale, or wine, made oi'.buriey. 

BUBASTECOBDIUM. (From bubastus and 
cor, the heart.) A name formerly given 
to artemisia, or rnugwort. 

BUBO. (From /2jsCav, the groin ; be- 
cause they most frequently happen in that 
part.) Modern surgeons mean, by this 
term, a swelling of the lymphatic glands, 
particularly of those of the groin and ax- 
illa. The disease may arise from the mere 
irritation of some local disorder, when it 
is called sympathetic bubo / from the ab- 
sorption ol some irritating matter, such as 
the venereal poison ; or from constitu- 
tional causes, as in the pestilential bubo, 
and scrophuious swellings, of the inguinal 
and axillary glands. 

BtJBON. (From QovGuv, the groin, or 
a tumour to which that part is liable, and 
which it was supposed to cure.) The name 
of a genus of plants in the Linnsean system. 
Class, Pentandria. Order, Digynia. 

BUBON GALBAXUM. The systematic 
name of the plant which affords the offici- 
nal galbanum. See Galbanwn. 

BUBON MACEDONICUM. The systcma- 
tic name of the plant which affords the 
semen pctroselini Macedonici of the shops. 
See Petro&elinum Macedonicum. 

BUBONIUM. (From &xa>v, the groin.) 
A name of the golden starwort ; so called 
because it was supposed to be efficacious 
in diseases of the groin. 

BUBONOCELE. (From /8W, the 
groin, and MM, a tumour.) Hernia ingui- 
nalis. Inguinal hernia, or rupture of the 
groin. A species of hernia, in which the 
bowels protrude, at the abdominal ring. 
See Hernia. 

BUCCA. (Heb.) The cheek. The hoi- 
low inner part of the cheek, that is inflated 
by the act of blowing. 

Bucc AC BATON. (From bucca, or bitcel- 
ftz, that is, a morsel of bread sopped in 
wine, which served in old times tor a 
breakfast.) Paracelsus calls by the name 
of ucella,the carneous excrescence of the 
polypus in the nose, because he supposes it 
to be a portion of flesh parting from the 
bucca, and insinuating itself into the nose. 

BUCCAL GLANDS. (Glandule buccina- 
l&s: from bucca, the cheek.) The small 
glands of the mouth, undejr the cheek, 
which assist in secreting saliva into that 
cavity. 

BUCCEA. (From bucca, the cheek ; as 
much as can be obtained at one time with- 



in the cheeks.) A mouthful; a morsel; 
a polypus of the nose. 

BUCCELATON. (From buccella, a mor- 
sel.) A purging medicine, made up in the 
form of a loaf; consisting of scammony, 
8cc. put into fermented flour, and then 
baked in an oven 

BUCELLA See Buccea, 

BUCEIXATIO. (From buccellatus, cut 
into small pieces.) Bucelatio. A method 
of stopping an hemorrhage, by applying 
small pieces of lint to the vein, or artery. 

BUCCINATOR (Musculus buccinator. 
So named from its use in forcing the breath 
to sound the trumpet ; from fioumtvov, a 
trumpet.) Refractor anguli oris of Albi- 
nus, and alveola maxillaire of Dumas. The 
trumpeter's muscle. The buccinator was 
long thought to be a muscle of the lower 
jaw, arising from the upper alveoli, and in- 
serted into the lower alveoli, to pull the 
jaw upward ; but its origin and insertion, 
and the direction of its fibres, are quite the 
reverse of this. For this large flat muscle, 
which forms in a manner the walls of the 
cheek, arises chiefly from the coronoid 
process of the lower jaw-bone, and partly 
also from the end of the alveoli, or socket 
process of the upper-jaw, close by the 
pterygoid process of the sphaenoid bone : 
it goes forward with direct fibres, to be 
implanted into the corner of the mouth ; 
it is thin and flat, covers in the mouth, and 
forms the walls of the cheek, and is perfo- 
rated in the middle of the cheek by the 
duct of the parotid gland. These are 
its principal uses : it flattens the cheek, 
and so assists in swallowing liquids ; it 
turns, or helps to turn, the morsel in the 
mouth, while chewing, and prevents it 
from getting without the line of the teeth; 
in blowing wind-instruments, it both re- 
ceives and expels the wind ; it dilates like 
a bag, so as to receive the wind in the 
cheeks ; and it contracts upon the wind, so 
as to expel the wind, and to swell the 
note. In blowing the strong- wind- instru- 
ments, we cannot blow from the lungs, for 
it distresses the breathing', we reserve the 
air in the mouth, which we keep continu- 
ally full ; and from this circumstance, as 
mentioned above, it is named buccinator, 
from blowing the trumpet. 

BUCCUIA. (Dim. of bucca, the cheek.)' 
The fleshy part under the chin. 

BUCKPHALOX, BiiD-i-BiTiTED, The plant 
so called, is the Trophis. Americana of 
Linnseus. Its fruit is a kind oi' rough red 
berry, which is eaten by the inhabitants of 
Jamaica, although its flavour is by no 
means pleasant. 

BUCEHAS. (From /*?, an ox, and x. 
git?, a horn ; so called from the horn- like 
appearance of its seed.) Bnceros. Fenu- 
greek seed. See Fanumgr&cum, 

JB-ick-bean. See Trifiiinm palndosum. 

Jt tick-thorn- See Spinu 
S 



130 



BUL 



BUL 



BUCKWHEAT. The Polygonvm fagopy- 
rum of Linnaeus. 1 he gram of this plant 
constitutes the principal food 01 the inha- 
bitants of Russia, Germany, and Switzer- 
land. 

BUCK-WHEAT, EASTERN. The Polygo- 
ninn divancatum of Linnaeus. The roots, 
reduced imo a coarse meal, are the ordi- 
nary food of the Siberians. 

BucRAjriojf. (From /S*c, an ox, and 
xgowov, the head ; so called from its sup- 
posed resemblance to a cah's snout.) The 
antirrhinum, or snap dragon plant. 

BUCTOST. The hymen, according to 
Piraeus. 

BUGASTTIA. Chilblains. 

Bugle. See Prunella. 

Bugloss. See Buglossum. 

BUGLOSSUM. (From jg, an ox, and 
yXatra-A, a tongue ; so called from the shape 
and roughness of its leaf.) Buglossa. Bu- 
glossum angustifolium majus. Buglossum 
-vulgare majus. Buglossum sativum. Offi- 
cinal bugloss, or alkanet. This plant, Jln- 
chusa officinalis of Linnaeus -.foliis lanceo- 
latis stngosis, spicis secundis imbricatis, caly- 
cibus guinquepartitis, was formerly esteemed 
as a cordial in melancholic and hypochon- 
driacal diseases. It is seldom used in mo- 
dern practice, and then only as an aperient 
and refrigerant. 

BuGLObSUM SYLVESTRE. The stone 
bugbss. 

BUGULA. (A dim. of buglossa.') See 
Consolida media. 

BULBOCASTANUM. (From /SoxU, 
a bulb, and x*r#y<3f, a chesnut ; so called 
from its bulbous appearance.) dlgriocasta- 
num. JVucula terrcstris. Bnlbocastanewn. 
Bulbocastanum majus et minus. Earth nut. 
Hawk-nut. Kipper-nut, and pig-nut. This 
plant, tiie Bunium bulbocastanum of Linnae- 
us, has a root as large as a nutmeg ; hard, 
tuberous and whitish ; is eaten raw, or 
roasted. It is sweetish to the taste, nou- 
rishing, and supposed to be of use against 
btrangury hnd bloody urine. 

BULBOCAVERXOSUS. (Bulbocavernosus, 
sc. musculus : so called from its origin and 
insertion ) See Accelerator wince. 

BULBONACH. (Germ.) The Lunaria 
rediviva of Linnaeus. Satin and honesty. 
It is said, by Ray, to be a warm diuretic. 

BULB us ESCULENTUS. Such bulbous 
roots as are commonly eaten are so called. 

BULBUS VOMITORIUS. Muscari Hy- 
acynthus muscari, of Linnaeus. Musk. 
Grape-flower. Emetic and diuretic, ac- 
cording to Ray. 

Bulge-water tree. The Geofrwa Jamai- 
censis. 

BULIMIA, (From &*, a particle of 
excess, and >.ifxoc, hunger.) Budmiasis, 
Boulimos, Bntimus Bolismos of Avice.n- 
na. Fames canina ^ppetitus caninus. 
PhngedtfTiu. Adcphagia. Bupeina lyno- 
rcjcia. Insatiable hunger, or canine appetite. 



Dr. Cullen places this genus of disease in 
the class locales, and order dysorexix ; 
and distinguishes three species. 1. Buli- 
mia lielluonum , in which there is no other 
disorder oj the stomach, than an excessive 
craving ofr tbod. 2 Bulimia syncopaUs f 
in which there is a frequent desire of food, 
and tiie sense of hunger is preceded by 
swooning. 3. Bulinuu emetica, also cyno- 
rexia ; in which an extraordinary qipetite 
for rood is followed by vomiting. The real 
causes ot this disease are, perhaps, not pro- 
perly understood. In some cases, it has 
been supposed to proceed from an acid in 
the stomach, and in others, from a super- 
abundance of acid in the gastric juice, and 
from indigested sordes, or worms In most 
instances, some consider it as depending 
more frequently on monstrosity than dis- 
ease. An extraordinary and well, at tested 
case of this disease, is related, in the third 
volume of the Medical and Physical Jour- 
nal, of a French prisoner, who, in one 
day, consumed of raw cow's udder, 4 Ibs. 
raw beef, 10 Ibs. candles, 2 Ibs, ; total, 
16 Ibs. ; besides 5 bottles of porter. 

BULIMIA ADDEPHAGI. A voracious appe- 
tite. 

BULIMIA CASTIXA. A voracious appe- 
tite, with subsequent vomiting. 

BULIMIA CARUIALGICA. A voracious 
appetite, with heartburn. 

BULIMIA CONVULSORUM. A voracious 
appetite, with convulsions. 

BULIMIA EMETICA. A voracious appe- 
tite, with vomiting. 

BULIMIA UELLUONUM. Gluttony. 

BULIMIA ESURIGIO. Gluttony. 

BULIMIA SYK'COPALIS. A voracious ap- 
petite, with fainting, from hunger. 

BULIMIA VERMIKOSA. A voracious 
appetite, from worms. 

BULIMIASIS. See Bulimia, 

BULIMUS. See Bulimia. 

BULITKUM. (From fix?, an ox, and \tQos, 
a stone.) A bezoar, or stone, found in the 
kidneys, or gall, or urinary bladder, of an 
ox, or cow. 

BULLA. (A bubble.) A clear vesicle, 
which arises from burns, or scalds; or 
other causes. 

BULLACE. The fruit so called, is the 
produce of the Pmnm insitia of Linnaeus, 
which grows wild in our hedges. There 
are two varieties of bullace, the red and the 
white, which are used with the same in- 
tentions as the common damsons. 

BULLOSA FEBRTS. An epithet applied 
to the vesicular fever, because the skin is 
covered with little vesicles, or blisters See- 



. 

BUNIUM. (From frtw, a little hill; 
so called from thetuberosity of its root.) 

1. The name of a genus of plants in 
the Liniixn system Class, Pentandria, 
Order, Digynia. 

2. The name of the wild parsley. 



RUR 



BUR 



131 



BUNTTES VIHTTW. (From bunium, wild 
parsley.) A w^ne made of bunium and 
must. 

BUNIUM. BULBOCASTANUM. The sys- 
tematic name of a plant whose root is called 
the pig-nut. See Bulbocastanum. 

Buxius. A species of turnip. 

BUPEINA. (From fix, a particle of mag- 
nitude, and KHIVA, hunger.) A voracious 
appetite. 

BUPHAGOS. (From /?*, a particle of 
excess, and <t>nya>, to eat.) The name of 
an antidote which created a voracious ap- 
petite in Marcellus Empiricus. 

BUPHTHALMUM:. (From /??, an ox, 
and oQ&a.hfjioc, an eye ; so called from its 
flowers, which are supposed to resemble an 
eye.) The herb ox-eye daisy. See Bellis 
major. 

BUPHTHALMUM CRKTTCUM. Pcllltory of 

Spain See Pyrethrum 

BuPHTHALMtTM GtllMANICUM. The COII1- 

mon ox-eye daisy. 

BUPHTHILBOJM: MAJus. Great, or ox- 
eye daisy, ^ee Bellis major. 

BUPHTHALMCS, (From $*?, an ox, and 
<pfl*A/uoc, an eye ; so named from its large 
appearance, like an ox's eye.) Ox-eye. 

1. Diseased enlargement of the eye, 

2. Houseleek. 

BUPLEURUM. (From /8, large, and 
*vteuov, a rib ; so named from its having 
large rib-like filaments upon its leaves.) 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
JLinnsean system. 

2 The pharmacopoeial name of the 
Bupleuron Bupleur aides. The herb hare's- 
ear. See Perfoliata. 

BUPLEUKUM ROTUNDIFOLIUM. The 

systematic name of the plant called perfo- 
liata, in the pharmacopoeias. See Perfo- 
Kata. 

Burdock. See Bardana. 

Burgundy pitch. See Pix Burgundica. 

BUKAC. (Arab.) Borax. It also means 
any kind of salt. 

Bums. According to Avicenna, a 
scirrhous hernia, or hard abscess. 

BURNEA Pitch. 

Burnet saxifrage. See Pimpinetta. 

BURNING, Brennlng An ancient me- 
dical term, denoting an infectious disease, 
got in the stews by conversing with lewd 
women, and supposed to be the same with 
what we now call the venereal disease. 

BUBRHI SPIRITUS MATHICALIS. Bur- 

rhu's spirit, for disorders of the womb. 
A compound of myrrh, olibamim, amber, 
and spirit of wine. 

Burnt hartshorn. See Cornu ustum. 

Burnt sponge. See Spongia usta. 

BURSA. A bag 

1. The scrotum. 

2. A herb called Thlaspi bursa pastoris, 
from the resemblance of its seminal follicles 
to a triangular purse. 

BURSALOGY. (From /g y <r*, a bag, 



and xoyoc, a discourse.) The doctrine of 
the bursse mucosse. 

BURSJE MUCOSJE. Mucous bags, 
composed of proper membranes, containing 
a kind of mucous fat, formed by the exha- 
ling arteries of the internal coat. They 
are of different sizes and firmness, and are 
connected by the cellular membrane with 
articular cavities, tendons, ligaments, or the 
periosteum. The use of the bursse muco- 
sx is to secrete, and contain a substance to 
lubricate tendons, muscles, and bones, in 
order to render their motion easy. 
Jl Table of all the Bursts Mucosx. 
In the Head. 

1. Jl bursa of the superior oblique muscle 
of the eye, situated behind its trochlea in 
the orbit. 

2. The bursa of the digastricus, situated 
in the internal surface of its tendons. 

3. Jl bursa of the circumjiexits, or tensor 
palati, situated between the hook-like pro- 
cess of the sphxnoid bone and the tendon 
of that muscle 

4. Jl bursa of the sterno-hyoidcus muscle, 
situated x between the os hyoides and larynx. 

About the Shoulder joint. 

1. The external acromial, situated under 
the acromion, between the coracoid pro- 
cess, deltoid muscle, and capsular liga- 
ment. 

2. The internal acromial t situated above 
the tendon of the infra-spinatus and teres 
major: it often communicates with the 
former. 

3. The coracoid bursa, situated near the 
root of the coracoid process : it is some- 
times double and sometimes triple. 

4. The clavicular bursa, found where the 
clavicle touches the coracoid process. 

5. The subclavian bursa, between the 
tendon of the subckvicularis muscle and 
the first rib. 

6. The coraco-brachial, placed between 
the common origin of this muscle and the 
biceps, and the capsular ligament. 

7. The bursa of the pectoralis major, si- 
tuated under the head of the humerus, be- 
tween the internal surface of the tendon of 
that muscle and another bursa placed on 
the long head of the biceps. 

8. Jin external bursa of the teres major, 
under the head of the os humeri, between 
it and the tendon of the teres major. 

9. Jin internal bursa of the teres major, 
found within the muscle where the fibres 
of its tendon diverge. 

10. Jl bursa of the latissimus dorsi, be- 
tween the tendon of this muscle and the os 
humeri. 

11. The humero-bidpital biirsa, in the 
vagina of the tendon of the biceps. 

There are other bursae mucosae about 
the humerus, but their situation is un- 
certain. 

Near the Elbow-joint. 

1. The radio -bicipita., situated between 



132 






the tendon of the biceps, brachialis, and 
anterior tubercle of' 1 He radius. 

2- The cubi to-radial, between the tendon 
of the biceps, supinator brevis, and the li- 
gament common to the radius and ulna. 

3. The anconeal bursa, between the ole- 
cranon and tendon of the anconeus muscle. 

4. The capitulo-radial bursa, between the 
tendon common to the extensor carpi radi- 
alis brevis, and extensor commums digito- 
rum and round head of the radius. There 
are occasionally other bursse, but as their 
situation varies, they are omitted. 

About the inferior part of the Fore- arm and 

Hand. 
On the inside of the Wrist and Hand. 

1. A very large bursa, for the tendon of 
the flexor pollicis longus. 

2. Four short burs* on the fore-part of 
the tendons of the flexor sublimis. 

3. A large bursa behind the tendon of 
the flexor pollicis longus, between it and 
the fore-part of the radius, capsular liga- 
ment of the wrist and os trapezium 

4. A~la.rge bursa behind the tendons of 
the flexor digitorum prof undus, and on the 
fore-part of the end of the radius, and fore- 
part of the capsular ligament of the wrist. 
In some subjects it 'communicates with 
the former. 

5. An oblong bursa between the tendon 
of the flexor carpi radialis and os trape- 
zium. 

6. A very small bursa between the ten- 
don of the flexor carpi ulnaris and os pisi- 
forme. 

On the bach part of the Wrist and Hand. 

7. JL bursa between the tendon of the 
abductor pollicis longus and the radius. 

8. Ji large bursa between the two exten- 
sores carpi radiales. 

9. Another below it, common to the ex- 
tensores carpi radiales. 

10. A bursa, at the insertion of the ten- 
don of the extensor carpi radialis. 

11. An oblong bursa, for the tendon of 
the extensor pollicis longus, and which 
communicates with 9. 

12. A bursa, for the tendon of the exten- 
sor pollicis longus, between it and the me- 
tacarpal bone of the thumb. 

13. A bursa between the tendons of the 
extensor of the fore,middle,and ringfingers. 

14. A bursu for the extensors of the lit- 
tle finger. 

15. A bursa between the tendon of the 
extensor carpi ulnaris and ligament of the 
wrist. 

'['here are also bursse mncosae between 
the musculi lumbricales and interossei. 

Near the Hip joint. 
On the fore-part of the joint. 

1. The ileo puberal, situated between the 
iliacus interims, psoas magnus, and the cap- 
sul.tr liniment of the head and the femur. 

2. The prctineal) between the tendon of 
the pectineus and the thigh bone. 



MUCOSJE. 

3. A small bursa of thfc gluteus meduis 
muscle, situated between it and the great 
trochanter, before the insertion of the py- 
riibrmis. 

4. A bursa of the gluteus minimus mus"- 
cle between its tendon and the great tro- 
chanfer. 

5. The gluteofascial, between the glu- 
teus maximus and vastus externus. 

On the posterior part of tlie Hip joint. 

6. The tubero-ischiatic bursa, situated be- 
tween the obturator internus muscle, the 
posterior spine of the ichium, and its tu- 
bero'sity. 

7 The obturatory bursa, which is oblong, 
and found between the obturator intermus 
and gemini muscles, and the capsular liga- 
ment. 

8. A bursa of the semi membranosus, un- 
der its origin and the long head of the bi 
ceps femoris. 

9. The gluteo-trochanteral bursa, situated 
between the tendon of the psoas muscle 
and the root of the great trochanter. 

10. Ttvo ghiteo-femoral bursce, situated 
between the tendon of the gluteus maxi- 
mus and os femoris. 

11. A bursa of the quadratus femoris, si- 
tuated between it and the little trochanter. 

12. The iliac bursa, situated between the 
tendon of the iliacus internus and the little 
trochanter. 

J\ *ear the T-'nee joint. 

1. The supra- genual, which adheres to 
the tendons of the vastus and cruralis and 
the fore-part of the thigh-bone. 

2. The infra genual bursa t situated under 
the ligament of the patella, and often com- 
municating with the above. 

3 The anterior genual, placed between 
the tendon of the sartorius, gracilis and 
semitendinosus and the internal and lateral 
ligament of the knee. 

4. The posterior genual, which is some- 
times double, and is situated between the 
tendons of the semi-membranosus, the in- 
ternal head of the gastrocnemius, the cap- 
sular ligament, and internal condyle. 

5. The popliteal, conspicuous between 
the tendon of that muscle, the external con- 
dyle of the femur, the semilunar cartilage, 
and external condyle of the tibia. 

6. The bursa of the biceps cruris, between 
the external part of the tendon, the biceps 
cruris, and the external lateral ligament of 
the knee. 

In the Foot. 
On the back, side, and hind part of the Foot. 

1. A bursa of the t'bialis antic us, be- 
tween its tendon, the lower part of the ti- 
bia^ and capsular ligament of the ankle. 

2. A bursa between the tendon of the 
extensor pollicis pedis longus, the tibia and 
capsnlar ligament of the ankle 

3. A bursa of the extensor digitorum com- 
munis, between its tendons, the tibia, and 
ligament of the ankle. 



BUX 

4. Jl large bursa, common to the tendons 
of the peronei muscles. 

5. Jl bursa of tlie peroneus brevis, proper 
to its tendon 

6. The calcaneal bursa, between the ten- 
do Achillis and os calcis. 

In the Sole of the Foot. 
1. Jl bursa for the tendon of the peroneus 



BUX 



133 



. 

2. Jl bursa common to the tendon ot the 
flexor pollicis pedis-longus, and the tendon 
of the flexor digitorum -pedls communis 
longus profundus. 

3. A bursa of the tibialis posticus, be- 
tween its tendon, the tibia, and astragalus 

4. Five bursts for the flexor tendons, 
which begin a little above the first-joint of 
each toe, and extend to the root of the 
third phalanx, or insertion of the tendons. 

BURSALIS MUSCTTLXJS. (From its re- 
semblance to a bursa, or purse.) See Obtu 
rator externus et iniernus. 

BUSEUNUM. (From 0v, great, and - 
*yov, parsley.) A large species of parsley. 

BUSSII SPIRITUS, BEZOARDICCS. The 

bezoardic spirit of Bussius, an eminent 
physician at Dresden. A distillation of 
ivory, sal-ammoniac, amber, &c. 

Butcher sbroom. See Ruscus. 

BOTIGA. A synonym for gutta rosacea. 

BUTINO. Turpentine. 

Btmmoir. See Iris pahistris, 

BUTTER. (Butyrum : from /Sc, a 
cow, and -ry^o?, congulum, or cream.") A 
concrete and soft substance, of a yellow 
colour, approaching more or less to that 
of gold, and of a mild, agreeable taste. It 
melts by a gentle heat, and becomes 
solid by cooling. Fresh butter is nourish- 
ing, and relaxing, but it readily becomes 
sour, and, in general, agrees with few 
stomachs. Rancid butter is one of the 
most unwholesome and indigestible of all 
food. 

Butter-bur. See Petasites. 

Butter -flower. See Ranunculus. 

BUTTER-MILK. The thin and sour milk 
which is separated from the cream by 
churning it into butter 

Buttertoort. See Pinguiciila. 

BUTUA. See Pariera brava. 

BUTYRUM. See Butler. 

BUTYRUM ANTIMON1L. See JWurittS tt)l- 

timonii 

BUXTON WATERS. Buxtonienses 
aquae. Warm mineral springs, which rise 
in the village of Buxton, in Derbyshire. 
They have been long celebrated tor their 
medicinal properties With respect to 
sensible properties, the Buxton water can- 
not be distinguished from common spring 
water, when heated to the same tempera- 
ture. Its temperature in the gentleman's 
bath, is invariably 82. The principal pe- 
culiarity "in the appearance of this spring, 
is a large quantity of elastic vapour, that 
rises and forms bubbles, which pass through 



the water, and break as soon as they reach 
the surface. The air of these bubbles was 
ascertained, by Dr. Pearson, to consist of 
azotic gas, mixed with a small proportion 
of atmospheric air. Buxton water is fre- 
quently employed, both internally and ex- 
ternally ; one of which methods often 
prove beneficial, when the other would be 
injurious ; but, as a bath alone, it..? virtues 
may not be superior to those of tepid com- 
mon water. As the temperature of 82 is 
several degrees below that of the hi. man 
body, a slight shock of cold is felt on the 
first immersion into the bath ; but this is 
almost immediately succeeded by a plea- 
sant glow over the whole system It is 
therefore proper for very delicate and irri- 
table habits. The cases which derive 
most benefit from the external use of Bux- 
ton waters, are those in which a loss of ac- 
tion, and sometimes of sensation, affects 
particular limbs, in consequence of long- 
continued or violent inflammation, or ex- 
ternal injury. Hence the chronic rheuma- 
tism, succeeding the acute, and where the 
inflammation has been seated in particular 
limbs, is often wonderfully relieved by this 
bath The internal use of the water has 
been found to be of considerable service in 
symptoms of defec.ive digestion, and de- 
rangement of the alimentary organs. A 
judicious use of this simple remedy, will 
'often relieve the heartburn, flatulency, 
and sickness ; it will increase the appetite, 
animate the spirits, and improve the health. 
At first, however, it sometimes occasions a 
diarrhaea, which is rather salutary than de- 
trimental ; but costiveness is a more usual 
effect, especially in sluggish habits It also 
affords great relief when taken internally, 
in painful disorders of the bladders and 
kidneys ; and has likewise been recom- 
mended in cases of gout ; but when taken 
for these complaints, the addition of 
some aromatic tincture is recommended. 
In all cases of active inflammation, the use 
of these waters should be carefully avoided, 
on account of their supposed heating pro- 
perties. A full course consists of two 
glasses, each containing one third of a pint, 
before breakfast ; which quantity should 
be repeated between b'-eakfast and dinner. 
In chronic cases a long residence on the 
spot is requisite to ensure the desired ef- 
fect 

BUXUS. (From *, to become 
hard.) The box tree. 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnseun system. Class, Monoecia. Or- 
der, TricMdria. 

2 The pharmacopo?ial name of the Bnxus 
sempervirejis of Linnaeus, possess a very 
strong nauseous, bitter taste, and aperient 
virtues. They are occasionally exhibited, 
in form of decoction, umong-st the lower 
orders or people, in cases of dropsy and 
asthma, and worms. As much as will lay 



134 



BYS 



upon a shilling, of the common dwarf box, 
dried and powdered, may be given at bed- 
time, every night, to an infant. 

Buxtrs SEMBERviREifs. The systematic 
name of the buxus of the pharmacopoeias. 
See Buxus. 

BYARUS. A plexus of blood vessels in 
the brain. 

BYWG A Chinese name for green tea. 

BYRETHRUM. (Bsretta, Ital. or barette, 
Fr. a cap.) Byretkrus. An odoriferous 
eap, filled with cephalic drugs, for the head. 

BrnsA. (Bi/go-a, leather.) A leather 
skin, to spread plaisters upon. 



BYSATTCBEST. (From $#, to hide, and 
euwv, the neck.) Morbid stiffness of the 
neck. 

BYSSUS. (Heb.) A woolly kind of 
moss. Pudendum muliebre. A kind of 
fine linen. 

BITHOS. (Bw0o?, deep.) An epithet 
used by Hypocrates for the bottom of the 
stomach. 

BYZEH. (From &oeo, to rush together.) 
In a heap ; throngingly. Hippocrates uses 
this word to express the harry in which the 
mensus flow in an excessive discharge. 



c. 



In the Chemical alphabet, means 
nitre. 

CAA-APIA. (Indian.) A Brazil root, 
which, chewed, has nearly the effects of 
ipecacuanha. It is the Dorstenia Brasili- 
ensis of Wildenow. The Brasilians cure 
the wounds from poisoned darts with the 
juice of this root, which they pour into the 
wound. 

CAA-ATATA. (Indian.) A bitter plant 
of Brazil, very powerfully cathartic and 
emetic. It resembles the euphrasia. Ray. 

CAACICA. (Indian.) A Brazilian herb 
applied in cataplasms against venemous 
bites ; called also colubrina Lusitamca. 
Hay. 

CAACO. The name of a species of sensi- 
tive plant, whose root is used by the na- 
tives of America as an antidote to several 
poisons. 

CAAETIMAT. Senecio Brasiliensis. A 
decoction of the plant thus called, is used 
as a wash to cure the itch. Its systematic 
name is unknown. Ray. 

CAAGHIYUYO. (Indian,) Frutex bac- 
cifer Brasiliensis. A shrub of Brazil, 
whose leaves are applied to ulcers, as de 
siccative. 

CAA-OPIA. (Indian.) JLrbuscula gum- 
mifera Brasiliensis. Hypericnm bacciferum 
of modern naturalists. The name of a tree 
in the Brazils, whose bark emits a juice, 
when wounded, which, in a dried state, 
resembles gamboge, except that it is ra- 
ther ot a darker colour. 

CAAPEBA. See Pareira brrvoa. 

CAAPOXGA. (Indian.) The Brasilian 
name for crithmum; also called Trifolia 
spica. Crithmum marinum non spinosum. 
Inula crithmoides of Linnaeus The leaves 
and young stalks are pickled for the use of 
the table, they are gently diuretic. 

CAAROBA. (Indian.) The name of a 
tree which grows in the Mi-axils. A de- 
coction of its leaves promotes perspiration, 
and is given in the cure of the venereal 
disease. Ray. 



CABALISTICA ARS. Cabala. Cabula. 
Kabala. The cabalistic art. It is derived 
from the Hebrew word, signifying to re- 
ceive by tradition. It is a term that hath 
been anciently used, in a very mysterious 
sense, amongst divines : and since, some 
enthusiastic philosophers and chemists have 
transplanted it into medicine, importing by 
it somewhat magical : but such unmeaning 
terms are now justly rejected. 

CabaUine aloes. See Aloes. 

Cabbage. See Brassica. 

Cabbage-bark tree. See Cortex Geoffrea 
Jamaicenais. 

Cabbalistic art. See Cabalistica ars. 

CABUREIBA. Caburiibtt. A name of 
the Balsamum Pernvianum. Ray thinks it 
is the tree which affords that balsam. 



CACAGOGA. (From x*xx, excrement, 
and etyu, to expel.) Cathartics. Oint- 
ments which, being rubbed on the funda- 
ment, procure stools, according to Paulus 
^Egineta. 

CACAHA. (From KJOCOV, bad, and /*v, 
exceedingly ; because it is mischievous to 
the soil on which it grows. (Cacamum. 
The herb wild chervil, or wild carraways, 
formerly said to be pectoral. 

CACAMOTICTLAXO auraoifi. (Indian.) 
Batatas peregrina. The purging potatoe* 

CACAMUM. See Cocalia. 

CACAO. Cacoa. Cocoa. Cacavifera. 
Quahoil. Cacata. The cocoa or choco- 
late nut of Virginia and Jamaica. 

CACAPHOSTIA. (From JMUCO?, bad, and 
<pw, the voice.) Defective articula- 
tion. 

CACART. See Cacao. 

CACATORIA FEBRIS. (From caco, to go 
to stool.) An epithet given by Sylvius to 
a kind of intermittent fever, attended with 
copious stools. 

CACCIOTTDE. A sort of pill recom- 
mended by Baglivi against dysenteries; 
its basis is catechu. 

CACHEXIA. (From K**O?, bad, and 
<, a habit.) A bad habit of body, known 



CAC 

by a depraved or vitiated state of the 
solids and fluids. 

CACHEXIA. A class of diseases in 
Cullen's nosology, embracing three orders, 
viz. marcores, intumescentix, and impe- 
tigines. 

CACHEXIA UTERIITA. The fluor albus 
is sometimes so called. 

CACHEXIA ICTEBICA. The jaundice, 
or a disposition thereto. 

CACHLAN. The bathalmum verum. 
CACHLEX. A little stone, or pebble. 
Galen says, that the cachleces, heated in 
the fire and quenched in whey, become 
astringents and useful in dysenteries. 

CACHISTVATIO. (From cachinno, to 
laugh aloud.) A tendency to immoderate 
laughter, as in some hysteric and maniacal 
affections. 

CACHOBE. A name for catechu. 
CACHOS. (Indian.) A shrub which the 
Indians use as a diuretic, and to expel con- 
cretions from the kidneys. 

CACHUNDE. A medicine highly ce- 
lebrated among the Chinese and Indians, 
made of several aromatic ingredients, per- 
fumes, medicinal earths, and precious 
stones. They make the whole into a stiff 
paste, and form out of it several figures, 
according to their fancy, which are dried 
for use. These are principally used in the 
East Indies, but are sometimes brought 
over to Portugal. In China, the principal 
persons usually carry a small piece in their 
mouths, which is a continued cordial, and 
gives their breath a very sweet smell. It 
is highly esteemed as a medicine in ner- 
vous complaints ; and it is reckoned a pro- 
longer ot life, and a provocative to venery; 
the two great intentions of most of the 
medicines used in the East. 

CACHRYS. Galen says it sometimes 
means parched barley. In Linnaeus s bo- 
tany, it is the name of a genus of which he 
enumerates three species. 

CACHRYS ODONTALGICA. A plant, the 
root of which may be substituted for that 
of the pyrethrum. 

CACHYMIA. (Kaxt/^ww.) An imperfect 
metal, or an immature metalline ore, ac- 
cording to Paracelsus. 

CACOALEXITERIUM. (From KAXO?, bad, 
and &Ktti)eta>, to preserve.) An antidote 
to poison or infectious diseases. Alexiphar- 
mics. 

CACOCOLIA. (From xsoto?, and xoxo?, 
bile.) An indisposition, or disease of the 
bile, 

CACOCHYLIA. (From xajtoc, bad, and xux, 
the chyle. Indigestion or depraved chy- 
lification. 

CACOCHYMIA. (From K*KO?, bad, 
and "xyfj-^y juice, or humour.) A diseased 
or depraved state of the humours. 

CACOCNEMUS. (From jcaxo?, bad, and 
JMUJ^UX, the leg.) Having a natural defect 
m the tibia. 



GAG 13 

CAGOCOREMA. (From xauto?, bad, and 
xogea, to purge, or cleanse.) A medicine 
which purges off the viciated humours. 

CACODJEMON. (From **KO?, bad, and 
cfk/^av, a spirit.) An evil spirit, or genius, 
which was supposed to preside over the 
bodies of men, and afflict them with cer- 
tain disorders The night-mare. 

CACODIA. (From jcajco?, bad, and a>a>, 
to smell.) A defect in the sense of smelling. 
CACOETHES. (From jcsocs?, ill, and 6o?, 
a word wnich when applied to diseases, 
signifies a quality, or a disposition.) Hip- 
pocrates applied this word to malignant 
and difficult distempers. Galen and some 
others, express by it an incurable ulcer, 
that is rendered so through the acrimony 
of the humours flowing to it. Linnaeus 
and Vegel use this term much in the same 
sense with Galen, and describe the ulcer 
as superficial spreading, weeping, and 
with callous edges. 

CACOPATHIA. (From HOMOS, bad, and 
tara-Bos, affection.) An ill affection of the 
body, or part. 

CACOPHGKIA. (From HXX.OS, bad, and 
QUSVH, the voice.) A defect in the organs 
of speech ; a bad pronunciation. 

CACOPRAGIA. (From **xo?, bad, and 
<a-<*.r]ci> } to perform.) Diseased chylopoietic 
viscera. 

CACORRYTHMUS. (From HOMOS, bad, and 
Qpos, order.) A disordered pulse. 
CACOSIS. (From HOMOS, bad.) A bad 
disposition of body 

CACOSTIA. (From HOMOS, and o-fliov, 
food.) An aversion to food, or nausea. 

CACOSPHYXIA. (From KXXQS, bad, and 
c-<j>y;?, pulse.) A disorder of the pulse. 

CACOSTOMACHUS. (From KAHOS, bad, 
and s-o/u.&%ot, the stomach ) A bad or dis- 
ordered stomach ; also food which the sto- 
mach rejects. 

CACOSTOMUS. (From **xo?, bad, and 
ro,w*, a mouth.) Having a bad formed, or 
disordered mouth. 

CACOTHYMIA, (From HUMS, ill, and -9v- 
juo?, the mind. Any vicious disposition of 
the mind ; or a diseased mind. 

CACOTROPUIA. (From xautos, ill, and 
rgo<f;, nutriment.) A vitiated nourish- 
ment ; a wasting of the body, through a 
defect of nutrition. 

CACTUS. The name of a genus of 
plants in the Linnaean system. Class, 
Icosandria. Order, Monogyma. The melon- 
thistle 

CACTUS OPUJTTJA. The systematic 
name of the plant bearing the epithet 
opuntia in the pharmacopoeias. See Opuntia. 
CACUBALUS. (From KO.KO;, evil, and &&\- 
\a>, to cast out ; so named because it was 
thought to be efficacious in expelling poi- 
sons.) The berry -bearing chickweed. See 
Cucubalus. 

C AC ALE, The Arabian term for carda- 
moms, 



136 



CAG 



CACUMEN. The top or point. 
CADAVER. (From cada, to fall ; be- 
cause the body, when deprived of life, 
fells to the ground.) A carcase. A body 
deprived of life. 

CADMIA, (Heb.) Chlimia. Catimia. 
A name given to the lapis calaminaris. See 
Zinc. 

CADMIA METALLICA. A name given, by 
the Germans, to cobalt. 

CAIICCA, (From cado, to fall down.) 
See Decidua. 

CAUUCUS MORBUS. (From cado, to fall 
do\vii ) The epilepsy, or falling sickness. 
CJECITAS. (From caecus, blind.) Blind- 
ness. See Caligo, and Jlmaurosis, 

CAECUM From cacus, blind. (The 
caecum, or blind gut : so called from its 
being perforated at one end only, The first 
portion of the large intestines^ placed in 
the right iliac region, about four fingers' 
breadth in length. It is in this intestine 
that the ileum terminates by a valve, called 
the valve oi ;Lie caecum. The appendicula 
cad vei-miformis is also attached to it. See 
Intestine* 

C/T3ftos. (Ka/gof.) Hippocrates, by this 
word, means the opportunity or moment 
in which whatever is to be effected should 
be done 

CAESARIAN OPERATION. (So called 
because Julius Caesar is said to have been 
extracted in this manner.) Hysterotomia 
Bysterotomatocia. The operation for ex- 
tracting the foetus from the uterus, by di- 
viding the integuments of the abdomen 
and the uterus. 

There are three cases in which this ope- 
ration may be necessary. 1. When the 
foetus is perceived to be alive, and the mo- 
ther dies, either in labour or in the last 
two months. 2 When the foetus is dead, 
but cannoi be delivered in the usual way, 
from the deformity of the mother, or the 
disproportionate size of the child. 3. 
When both the mother *nd the child are 
living, but delivery cannot take place, from 
. the same causes as in the second instance. 
Both the mother and the child, it accounts 
can be credited, have often lived after the 
Caesarian operation, and the mother even 
borne children afterwards. Heister gives 
a relation of such success, in his Institutes 
of Surgery, and others. In England, the 
Caesarian operation has almost always fail- 
ed. Mr. Jarnes Barlow, of Charley, Lanca- 
shire, succeeded, however, in taking a 
foetus out of the uterus by this bold pro- 
ceeding, and the mother was perfectly re- 
stored to health 

CJESAUES. Caesones. Children who are 
brought into the w<jrld by the Caesarian 
operation. 

C^ETCHP. See Cntechu. 
_CAF. (Arab.) C.rfa. Caffa. A name 
given by the Arabs to campinre. 
CAGASTRUM. A babarous term used by 



CAL 

Paracelsus, to express the morbific matter 
which generates diseases. 

CAJAJT. Cat/an. The Phaseohis creticus of 
Linnaeus. A decoction of the leaves restrains 
the haemorrhoids when excessive It ay 

CAJEPUT OIL. Oleum cujejmt*. 
Oleum Wittnebianum. Oleum volatile me- 
hdeuc*. Oleum cajeput. The tree which 
affords this oil, by distillation of its leaves, 
was supposed to be the Melaleuca leucaden- 
dron of Linnaeus, but it appears from the 
specimens of the tree producing the true 
oil, sent home from India, by Mr. Chris- 
topher Smith, that it is another species 
which is therefore named Melaleuca ca- 
jupiti. Thunberg says cajeput oil has 
the appearance of inflammable spirit, i* 
of a green colour, and so completely 
volatile, that it evaporates entirely, lea- 
ving no residum ; its odour of the cam- 
phoraceous kind, with a terebinthinate 
admixture. Goetz says it is limpid, or ra- 
ther yellowish. It is a very powerful me- 
dicine, and in high esteem in India and 
Germany, in the character of a general re- 
medy in chronic and painful diseases ; it is 
used ibr the same purposes for which we 
employ the officinal <etheis, to which it 
seems to have a considerable affinity ; the 
cajeput, however, is more potent and pun- 
gent ; taken into the stomach, in the dose 
ot five or six drops, it heats and stimulates 
the whole system, proving, at the same 
time, a very certain diaphoretic, by which 
probably the good effects, it is said" to have 
in dropsies and intermittent fevers, are to 
be explained. For its efficacy in various 
convulsive and spasmodic complaints, it is 
highly esteemed It has also been used 
both internally and externally, with much 
advantage, in several other obstinate dis- 
orders ; as palsies, hypochondriacal and 
hysterical affections, deafness, defective 
vision, tooth ache, gout, rheumatism, &c. 
The dose is from two to six, or even twelve 
drops. 

CALABA. The Indian mastich-tree. Cato- 
phy'.htm inophyllum of Linnaeus, a native 
of America, accounted vulnerary, resol- 
vent and anodyne 

CALAGUALJE RADIX. Calaguelx radix, 
The root so called is knotty, and some- 
what like that of the polypody tribe. It 
has been exhibited internally at Rome, 
with success, in dropsy ; and it is said to 
be efficacious in pleurisy, contusions, ab- 
scesses, &c. It was first used in America, 
where it is obtained; and Italian physi- 
cians have since written concerning it, in 
terms of approbation. 

CALAMARROSTIS. (From jt^A^of, a 
reed, and at^ar/?, a sort of grass.) Sheet- 
grass. Reed grass. 

CALAMBAC. (Indian.) The agallochum* 
or aromatic aloe. 
CAJ.AJW ACORUS. lodian reed. 

(From xx^o?, a reed.) 



CAL 



CAL 



137 



A sort of fracture which runs along the 
bone, in a straight line, like a reed, but is 
lunated in the extremity. 

CALAMINA PR.EPARATA. Prepared 
calannne. Burn the calamine, and reduce 
it to powder ; then let it be brought into 
the state of a very fine powder, in the same 
manner that chalk is directed to be pre- 
pared. S- e Calamine. 

CAL.YMINB. (From calamus, a reed ; 
so culled from its reed-like appearance ) 
Cadmia. Cuthmia. Cadmta lapidosa aerosa . 
Cadmia fossilis. Calamma. Lapis calami- 
naris. An ore of zinc. A sort 01 stone, or 
mineral, containing zinc and carbonic acid, 
united with a portion of iron, and some- 
times other substances. It is very heavy, 
moderately hard and brittle, of a gray, 
yellowish, red, or blackish brown ; found 
in quarries of considerable extent, in seve- 
ral parts of Europe, and particularly in 
this country, in Derbyshire, Gloucester- 
shire. Nottinghamshire, and Somersetshire ; 
as also in Wales. The calamine of En- 
gland is, by the best judges, allowed to be 
superior in quality to that of most other 
cquntries. It seldom lies very deep, be- 
ing chiefly found in clayey grounds, near 
the surface. In some places it is mixed 
with lead ores. This mineral, or semimetal, 
is an arHcle in the materia medica : but, 
before it comes to the shops, it is usually 
roasted, or calcined, 10 separate some ar- 
senical or sulphureous panicles which, in 
its crude state, it i? supposed to contain, 
and in order to render it more easily re- 
ducible into a fi ie powder. In this state, 
it is employed in collyria, for v* eak eyes, 
far promoting tjie cicatrization of ulcers, 
and healing t xcoriations of the skin. It is 
the basis of an officinal cerate, called Cera- 
tum calaminac, by the London College, 
formerly called ceratum lapidiscalaminaris. 
ceratum epuloticum ; and ceratum car- 
bon is zinci impuri by the Edinburgh 
College. These compositions form the 
cerate which Turner strongly recommends 
for healing ulcerations and excoriations, 
and which have been popularly distinguish- 
ed by his name. The collyria in which the 
prepared calamine has been employed, 
have consisted simply of that substance 
added to rose-water, or elder-flower 
water. 

Calamint^ common. See Calamintha. 

Calamint, mountain. S^e Calainintha 
?nagno Jlore. 

CALAMINTHA. (From **xoe, beau- 
tiful, or Ka,\A/uoe, a reed, and uivBti, mint.) 
Common calamint. Calamintha montana. 
Calamintha vulgaris. Calamintha officina- 
rum Melissa Calamintha of Linnaeus : 
pedunculis aocillaribus, dichotomis, longitu- 
dine foliorum. This plant smells strongly, 
like wild mint, though more agreeable ; 
and is often used by the common people, 
in form of tea, against weakness of the 



stomach, flatulent colic, uterine obstruc- 
tions, hysteria, &c. 

CALAMINTHA ANGLICA. Field calamint. 
Spotted calamint. Calainintha pukgii 
odore. Nepeta agrestis. It is the Melissa 
nepeta of Lim aeus. It was formerly used 
as an aromatic. 

CALAMINTHA HUMILIOR. The ground-ivy. 

CALAMI NTH A MAGNO FLOHE. Calamin- 
tha montana. Mountain calamint. This 
plant, Melissa grandifora of Linnaeus, has 
a moderately pungent taste, and a more 
agreeable aromatic smell than the common 
calamint, and appears to be more eligible 
as a stomachic. 

CALAMIATHA MONTANA. See Calamin- 
tha. 

CALAMUS A word of Arabian deri- 
vation. 

1. A general name denoting the stalk of 
any plant. 

2. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnae:<n system. Class, Hexandria. Or- 
der, Monogynia. 

CALAMUS AROMATICUS. (From 
fcalam, Arab.) Jlcorus verus. Calamus 
odoratus. Calamus vulgaris. Diringa. 
Jucerantatinga. Typha aramatica. Clava 
rugosa. Sweet-flag or acorus. Acorus ca- 
lamus scafi mucrone longissimo foliaceo of 
Linnaeus. The root of this plant has been 
long employed medicinally. It has a mo- 
derately strong aromatic smell, and a warm, 
pungeni, bitterish taste; and is deemed 
useful as a warm stomachic. Powdered, 
and mixed with some absorbent, it forms a 
useful and pleasant dentifrice. 

CALAMUS AROMATICUS ASIATICUS. The 
slcorus calamus of Linnaeus. 

CALAMUS ODORATUS. See Calamus aro* 
tnciticus* 

CALAMUS ROTANG. The systematic name 
of the plant from which we obtain the Dra- 
gon's blood. See Sanruis draconis. 

CALAMUS SCttlPTORlUS. Akir.dof 
canal at the bottom of the fourth ventricle 
of the brain, so called from its resemblance 
to a writing pen. 

CALAMTS VULGARIS. See Calamus aro- 



CALATHIAXA. (From K*\5t6o?, a twig bas- 
ket ; so called from the shape of its flow- 
ers.) The herb marsh-gentian, or Gentiana 
pneumonanthe of Linnaeus. 

CALBIAXUM, The haine of a plaister in 
Myrepsus. 

CAI.CAIJINU-M, Vitriol. 

CALCADIS. An Arabian name for white 
vitroi and alkali. 

CALCANEUM. (From calx, the heel.) 
Calcar 'pterna. Os cahis. The largest 
bone of the tarsus, which forms the heel. 
It is situated posteriorly under the astra- 
galus, is very regular, and divided into a 
body and processes. It has a large tubero- 
sity or knob, projecting behind to form 
the heel. A sinuous cavity t at its fore part 
T 



138 



CAL 



CAL 



which in the fresh subject is filled with 
fa', and gives origin to several ligaments. 
Two prominences, at the inner and fore part 
of the bone, with a pit between them, for 
the articulation of the under and fore part 
of the astragulus. A depression, in the 
external surface of the bone near its fore- 
part, where the tendon of the peronaeus 
longus runs. A large cavity, at the inner 
sid of the bone, for lodging the long flex- 
ors of the toes, together with the vessels 
and nerves of the sole. There are two pro- 
minences, at the under and back part of this 
bone, that give origin to the aponeurosis 
and several muscles of the sole. The an- 
terior surface of the os calcts is concave, 
fot its articulation with the os cuboides, 
and it is articulated to the astragulus by 
ligaments. 

CALCANTHUM. (From ^*x*o?, brass, and 
euflof, a flower ; i. e. flowers of brass.) Cal- 
canthos. Copperas. Vitriol. 

CALCAR. (From ca&r, the heel ; also 
from caleo, to heat.) The heel-bone ; also 
the furnace of a laboratory. 

Calcareous earth See Calx. 
. CALCAHIS FLOS. The Larkspur. 
CALCARIUS LAPIS. Limestone. 
CALCATAK. A ivime for vitriol. 
CALCATON. White arsenic. Troches of 
arsenic. 

CALCATRIPPA. See Consolida media. 
CALCENA. Calcenonius. Calcelus, Pa- 
racelsus uses these words to express the 
tartarous matter in the blood ; or that the 
blood is impregnated with tartarous prin. 
ciples. 

CALCES, METALLIC. Metals which have 
undergone the process of calcination, or 
combustion ; or any other equivalent ope- 
ration. 

CALCEUM EQ.UINUM. (From calceus, a 
shoe, and equus, a horse ; so called from 
the figure of its leaf.) The herb tussilago, 
or colt's foot. 

CALCHITHEOS. (From KSLK^IOV, purple.) 
Verdigrise. 

CALCHOIDES. (From **/!;, a chalk-stone, 
and s/cTc?, form.) Calchoidea ossicula. A 
name of the cuneiform bones. 

CALCIDICIUM. The name of a medicine 
in which arsenic i<; an ingredient. 

CALCIFRAGA. (From calx, a stone, and 
frango, to break ; so named from its sup- 
posed property of breaking the human 
calculus.) Breakstone. The herb spleen- 
wort, or scolopendrium, in Scribonius 
Largus. 

CALCINATION. Oxydation. The fix- 
ed residues of such matters as have under- 
gone combustion are called cinders, in 
common language, and c:dces, but now more 
commonly oxyds, by chymists ; and the 
operation, when considered with regard to 
these residues, is termed calcination. In this 
general way, it has likewise been applied 
to bodies not really combustible, but only 



deprived of some of their principles by 
heat. Thus we hear of the calcination of 
chalk, to convert it into lime by driving off 
its carbonic acid and water ; of gypsum, or 
plaster stone, of alum, of borax, and other 
saline bodies, by which they are deprived 
of their water of crystallization ; of bones 
which lose their volatile parts by this treat- 
ment, and of various other bodies. 

CALCINATUM. Cinificatum. Terms appli- 
cable to calcined substances. 

CALCINATUM MAJUS. It is whatsoever is 
dulcified by the chymical art, which was 
not so by nature ; such as dulcified mercu- 
ry, lead, and the like substances, which are 
very speedily consolidated. 

CALCINATUM MAJUS POTERII. Mercury 
dissolved in aqua-fortis, and precipitated 
with salt water. Poterius used it in the 
cure of ulcers. 

CALCINATUM MINUS. Any thing which is 
sweet by nature, and speedily cures, as su- 
gar, manna, tamarinds &c. 

CALCINONIA. See Calcena, 

CALCIS AQ.UA, See Ldquor calcis. 

CALCIS vivi FLORES. The pellicle on lime 
water. 

CALCIS os. See Calcaneum. 

CALCITARI. Alkaline sah. 

CALCITEA. Vitriol. 

CAICITEOSA. Litharge. 

CALCITHOS. Verdigrise. 

CALCITRAPA. Carduus stellatus. Jaceu 
ramocissima, stellata, rupina Common star- 
thistle. Star-knapweed. The plant thus 
called in the pharmacopoeias, is the Cen- 
taurea calcitrapa of Linnaeus : calycibus sub- 
duplicato-spinosis, sessilibus : foltis pinnatifi- 
dis, linearibus dentatis ; caule piloso ; every 
part of which is bitter. The juice, or ex- 
tract, or infusion, are said to cure intermit- 
tents, and the bark of the root, and the 
seeds, have been recommended in nephritic 
disorders, and m suppression of urine. It 
scarcely differs, in its effects, from other 
bitters, and is now little used. 

CALCITRAPA OFFICINALIS. Carduus stel- 
latns lutea. Carduus solstitialis. Jacea 
stellata Jacea lutea cajrite spinosa minori. 
Leucanthe veterum. St. Barnaby's thistle. 
The Centaurea solstitialis of Linnaeus. It is 
commended as an anticteric, anti-cachectic, 
and lithontriptic, but is, in reality only a 
weak tonic. 

CALCITREA. Vitriol. 

CALCOIDEA OSSICULA. The cuneiform 
bones. 

CALCOTAR. Vitriol. 

CALCULIFRAGUS. (From calculus, a stone, 
and frango, to break.) Having the pow- 
er to br^ak calculi, or stones in the human 
body. 

1. A synonym of lithontriptic. See Li- 
thrtntriptics . 

2. A name sometimes applied to scolo- 
pendrium, or the pimpernel, from its sup- 
posed virtue. 



CALCULUS. 



139 



CALCULUS. (Dim. of calx, a lime- 
stone.) Calculus humanus. Bezoar mi* 
crocosmicum. Gravel. Stone. In En- 
glish we understand by gravel, small sand- 
like concretions, or stones, which pass from 
the kidneys through the ureters in a few 
days ; and by stone, a calculous concretion 
in the kidneys or bladder, of too large a 
size to pass, without great difficulty. Si- 
milar concretions are found occasionally in 
other cavities, or passages. When a dis- 
position to form minute calculi or gravel 
exists, we often find nephritic paroxysms, 
as they are called, (see Nephritis,} which 
consist of pain in the back, shooting down 
through the pelvis to the thighs ; sometimes 
a numbness in one leg, and a retraction of ei- 
ther testicle in men, symptoms arising from 
the irritation of a stone passing through the 
ureters, as these cross the spermatic cord, 
on the nerves passing to the lower extre- 
mities. These pains, often violent, are 
terminated by the painful discharge of small 
stones through the urethra, and xhe patient 
is for a time easy. What, however, is 
meant by the stone is a more serious and 
violent disease. It is singular that these 
discharges of small gravel do not usually 
terminate in stone. Many have experienced 
them during a long life, without any more 
serious inconvenience : while the latter is a 
disease chiefly of the young', and depending- 
on circumstances not easily explained 
If the stone attacks persons more advanced 
in age, it is often the consequence of pa- 
roxysms of gout, long protracted, and ter- 
minating imperfectly. 

When once a stone has acquired a mo- 
derate size, it usually occasions the follow- 
ing symptoms : frequent inclination to 
make water, excessive pain in voiding it 
drop by drop, and sometimes a sudden 
stoppage of it, if discharged in a stream ; 
after making water, great torture in the 
glans penis, which lasts one, two, or three 
minutes ; and in most constitutions, the 
violent straining makes the rectum con- 
tract and expel its excrements ; or, if it be 
empty, occasions a tenesmus, which is 
sometimes accompanied with a prolapsus 
ani. The urine is often tinctured with 
blood, from a rupture of the vessels, and 
sometimes pure blood itself is discharged. 
Sometimes the urine is very clear, but fre- 
quently there are great quantities of slimy 
sediment deposited at the bottom of it, 
which is only a preternatural separation of 
the mucilage of the bladder, but has often 
been mistaken for pus. The stone is a dis- 
ease to which both sexes and all ages are 
liable ; and calculi have even been found 
in the bladders of very young children, nay 
of infants only six months old. 

Women seem less subject to this com- 
plaint than men, either owing to constitu- 
tional causes, or to the capaciousness, short- 
ness, and straightness of their urethra, al- 



lowing the calculi to be discharged while 
small, together with the urine. 

Chymical analysis of urinary' calculi. 

It is only since the time of Scheele that 
we have become acquainted with the nature 
of urinary calculi, this subject having been 
quite in the dark before that great chymist 
discovered, in the year 1776, a peculiar acid 
(the lit hie acid) in them, and at the same 
time found them to contain no lime, a cir- 
cumstance which was soon after confirmed 
by the experiments of Bergman. From this 
period the chymists bestowed a particular 
attention upon the examination of urinary 
concrement^ as appears from the writings 
of Dob.son, Percival, Falconer, Achard, 
Hartenkeit, Tychsen, Link, Titius, Wal- 
ther, Gur'ner, Brugnateili, Peurson, and 
several others, some of whom confirmed 
the discovery of Sc!'eel<% while others con- 
tradicted, and others enlarged it. 

But we are particularly indebted to 
Fourcroy and Vauquelin, who, since 1786, 
had turned their attention on this subject, 
for having made many experiments, by 
which great light is thrown on the nature of 
urin:.ry concrements. The following are 
the interesting results of their chymical in- 
quiries. 

The Seat and Physical Properties of Urinary 
Calculi. 

Calculi are found in different parts of the 
urinary system, in the pelvis of the kidney, 
in the ureters, in the bladder and urethra : 
but as they, for the most part, originate in the 
kidney, the calculi renales make the nucleus 
of the greatest number of urinary stones. 
The calculi renales differ greatly with respect 
to their external qualities; for the most part, 
however, they consist of small, concrete, 
roundish, smooth, glossy, and crystalline 
bodies, of a red-yellow colour, like that of 
wood, and so hard as to admit of polishing. 
On account of their minuteness, they easily 
pass through the urinary passages in form 
of gravel, which being sometimes of a rough 
surface, c.tuse several complaints on their 
passage. But in some instances they are of 
too great a size to be able to pass along 
the ureters ; in which case they increase 
in the kidneys, sometimes to a great size. 
Calculi renales of this kind are generally of 
a brown, dark reel, or black colour, and 
surrounded with several strata of coagula- 
ted blood and pus ; they have also been 
observed of a yellow, reddish, and lighter 
colour : and some consisting ot a homo- 
geneous stony mass : but white or grey cal- 
culi renales are very rarely to be met with. 
Amongst the great number that were ex- 
amined, one or two only were found of a 
grey or blackish colour, and a composition 
similar to those which generally bear the 
name of mulberry-like stones. 

The stones in the ureters, which on pas- 
sing into the ureters, are prevented by their 
size from descending into the bladder, 



-140 



CALCULUS. 



frequently increase very much ; they, how- 
ever, rarely occur ; their colour is white, 
and they consist of phosphat of lime. 

The stones in the bladder are the most 
frequent urinary concrements that have 
been principally examined ; they draw their 
first oricin from the kidneys, whence they 
descend into the bladder, where they in- 
crease ; or they immediately originate and 
increase in the bladder ; or they arise from 
a foreign body that by chance has got into 
the bladder, which not unfrequently hap- 
pens, particularly in the female sex. Con- 
cretions of this kind differ greatly in their 
respective physical qualities and external 
form, which, however, -,s generally spheri- 
cal, oval, or compressed on both sides ; 
and sometimes, when there are several 
stones in the bladder, they have a poly- 
edrous or cubical farm ; their extremities 
are frequently pointed or roundish, but 
they are very seldom found cylindrical, and 
more r;'.reiy with cylinders at their ends. 

There is a great variety in the size of 
the calculi, and likewise in their colour, 
which -is materially different, according to 
their respective nature and composition. 
They occur, 1. of a yellowish colour, ap- 
proaching nearly to red, or brown ; such 
stones consist of iithic acid. 2. Gray, or 
more or less white; these stones always 
contain phosphats of earths. 3. D,<rk gray, 
or blackish ; stones of this colour have 
oxaluts of earths. Many stones shew brown 
or gray spots, on a yellow or white ground, 
generally raised on the surface, and con- 
sisting of oxalat of lime, which is enclosed 
in iithic acid, when the ground-colour of 
the stone is of a wood colour, or in phosphat 
of lime, when it is white. These spots are, 
in general only to be observed in the middle 
of the stone, or at one of its extremities. 

All that is here stated, is the result of 
observations on more than 600 calculi ; 
and different other colours, that are said to 
have bren observed, either arise from he- 
terogeneous substances, or are merely va- 
riations of the above colours. Their surface 
is smooth and polished in some, in others 
only smooth, and in others uneven, and 
covered with rough or smooth corpuscles, 
which are always of a yellow colour ; in 
some, the surface is partly smooth ?nd 
partly rough. The white ones are fre- 
quently even and smooth, half transparent, 
and covered with shining crystals, that ge- 
nerally indicate phosphat of ammonia with 
talc ; or they are faint, and consist of mi- 
nute grains; or rough, in which case they 
consist of phosphat of lime. The brown 
and dark gray stones are, from their si- 
milarity to mulberries, called mulberry- 
stones, and being frequently very rugged, 
they cause the moat pain of all. 

On examining the specific weight of uri- 
nary calculi in more than 500 specimens, 
it was found to be, in the lightest, 1213:1000, 



in the heaviest, as 1976:1060. Their smell 
is partly strong, like urine or ammonia, 
partly insipid, and terreous; especially, 
the white ones, which are like sawed, ivory 
or rasped boae. 

The internal texture of calculi is but 
seldom guessed from their external appear- 
ance, particularly when they exceed the 
size of a pigeon's egg. On breaking them, 
they generally separate into two or three 
strata, more or less thick and even, which 
prove that they are formed by different 
precipitations, at different times. In the 
middle, a nucleus is generally seen, of the 
same mass as the rest. When the place they 
are broken at is finely streaked, and of a 
yellow or reddish colour, the Iithic acid pre- 
dominates ; but when ihey are half trans- 
parent, luminous like spar, they have am- 
moniHCa] magnesia in them, and phosphat of 
lime and then they are brittle and friable ; 
but when they are so hard as to resist the 
instrument, of a smooth surface, and a 
-meil like ivory, they contain saccharic lime. 
It frequently happen?, that the exterior stra- 
tum consists of white phosphat of earth, 
while the nucleus is yellow Iithic acid, or 
oxalat of lime, covered sometimes with a 
yellow stratum of Iithic acid, in which case 
the nucleus appears radiant ; but when it 
consists of Iithic acid, and is covered with 
white phosphate of earth, it is roundish, 
oval, and somewhat crooked. These con- 
cretions have very seldom three strata ; 
namely, on the outside a phosphat of salt, 
towards the inside Iithic acid, and quite 
with inside an oxalat of lime ; but still rarer 
these substances occur in mor^ strata, or in 
another order, as before -mentioned. 

Stones of the urethra are seldom generated 
in the urethra itself; however, there are in- 
stances of their having been formed in the 
fossa navicularis, by means of foreign bodies 
that have got into the urethra. We also 
very frequently observe stony concrements 
deposited between the glans and prepuce. 
All the concretions produced in the inside 
and outside the urethra consist of phosphats 
of earths, which are easily precipitated 
from the urine. There are likewise stones 
in the urethra, which have come out of the 
bladder, having been produced there, or 
in the kidneys ; and they generally possess 
the properties of stones of the kidneys. 
The different constituent Particles of Urinary 
Calculi. 

It has been mentioned before, that 
Scheele found a peculiar acid in the urinary 
concretions, and likewise that phosphat of 
lime was discovered in them. The identity 
of the Iithic acid, however, was much 
doubted by modern chymists, particularly 
by Dr. Pearson, who asserted that it was 
merely an oxyd, whereby he gave rise to 
the discoveries which Fourcroy and 
Vauquelin have since made on this subject, 
because they were induced to repeat the ex- 



CALCULUS, 



141 



periments, in order to examine whether the 
lithicacid were really an acid. Their endea- 
vours were fully rewarded, as they not only 
found the lithic acid and phosphat of lime 
in the different calculi, but also five other 
substances, viz. the lithat of ammonia, ox- 
alat of lime, r-iliceous earth, phosphat ot am- 
moniacai magnesia, and an animal matter. 

1. Of the Lithic or Uric Acid. 
The acid discovered by Mr. Scheele, in 
the urinary concretions, was styled lithic 
acid ; or, according- to Dr. Pearson's Re- 
searches, uric acid, which, after Scheeie, 
has the following- properties. It is insipid, 
without smell, hard, crystallizable, not so- 
luble in cold water, and in boiling water 
only in several thousand times greater 
quantity. The solution, after having be- 
come cool, deposits the acid in form of 
minute yellow needles, easily soluble in the 
lie of fixed alkalis, out of which, however, 
it is precipitated by all acids, even the car- 
bonic acid, except the sulphuric and muri- 
atic acid, which have no effect on it. Con- 
centrated nitric acid, on dissolving it, ob- 
tains a red colour. On distilling the lithic 
acid, it yields a small quantity of sublimed, 
uncleco Tiposed acid, very little oil and water 
crystallized carbonat of ammonia, carbonic 
acid, and a very black coal, which, however, 
contains neither alkali nor lime. Besides 
these properties, it possesses st,ll others. 
On rubbing it with concentrated lie of 
kali or natron, it immediately forms a 
saponaceous, thick, and pulpy mass, which 
is very soluble in water, when supersatu- 
rated with alkali, but little soluble when 
only saturated with it. The saturated com- 
binations have little taste, are not crystal- 
lizable, and when diluted with water, the 
muriatic acid precipitates the uric acid in 
form of small needle-like, shining, some- 
what yellowish crystals. Ammonia receives 
very little of it, which combination is al- 
most quite indissoluble. Lime-water has 
likewise very little effect on it, and the 
carbonats of alkalis none at all. On being 
dissolved ia nitric acid, a part of the lithic 
acfd is changed into oxalic acid. The red 
colour which appears after this combina- 
tion, is said to prove, according to Pearson, 
that substance to be merely an oxyd, but 
it arises from a peculiar animal matter, 
When oxygenated muriatic acid is brought 
in contact with lithic acid, the colour of it 
grows pale, it puffs up, becomes soft and 
gelatinous, and at last obtains the consisten- 
cy of a milky liquor; from which process only 
one-sixtieth of a white, light animal sub- 
stance remains, and a quantity of carbonic 
acid evolves itself under continual slow ef- 
fervescence. The liquor yields muriat of 
ammonia, oxalat of ammonia, both in crys- 
tals, free muriatic and malic acid ; conse- 
quently the oxygenated muriatic acid se- 
parates the uric acid into ammonia, carbo- 
nic acid, oxalic acid, and malic acid, where- 
by we observe that the oxygenated muria- 



tic acid changes the uric acid, first into 
ammonia and malic acid, but on the addi- 
tion of more acid, intooxalic acid; and when 
still more acid is added, into water and 
carbonic acid. The remaining white sub- 
stance is the same, from which the red co- 
lour originates that appears on the com- 
bination of the uric acid with nitric acid, 
and which imparts the cubical form to the 
muriat of ammonia, obtained by the eva- 
poration of the liquor. It remains now to 
be stated what is observed in the distilla- 
tion of that acid, by which it yields, not 
only carbonat of ammonia, but also car- 
bonic gas, very little oil, Prussic acid, 
partly in form of gas, partly in fluid form, 
a considerable quantity of coal that con- 
tains no s.ilt, and a little water. The pro- 
ductions thus obtained have the sme,ll of 
bit;er almonds. The results of these in- 
quiries manifestly shew, that the lithic acid 
is really a distinct acid from all others, con- 
sisting of azote, carbon, hydrogen, and oxy- 
gen. This peculiar acid is an excrementi- 
tious substance, which is carried off by the 
urine, and, at the forming of calculi, com- 
bines itself with a coloured animal matter, 
from which also it probably originates by a 
process still unknown. 

2. Of tlie Lithat of Ammonia. 
This substance seems to have been un- 
known before, or at least not properly dis- 
cerned from the uric acid ; and, though 
Scheele has observed it, he was ignorant of 
its particular nature. It is easily to be dis- 
tinguished, by the small even strata in 
which it is formed, by it? colour, that looks 
like milk coloured wkh coffee, and by its 
forming but small calculi. It dissolves in 
the lees of kali and natron like the lithic 
acid> but with the characteristic difference 
that it discharges ammonia, a phenomenon 
already observed by Scheele. It is more 
soluble in cold as well as warm water, 
than the lithic acid. It is in the same way 
affected by acids, except that a greater 
quantity is required for changing it. It is 
generally mixed with phosphat of ammoni- 
acal magnesia, because it seems only to 
take place after a sufficient quantity of 
ammoniacal magnesia has been formed, to 
saturate the phosphat of kali and the free 
uric acid. 

3. Of the Phosphat of Lime. 

The existence of this substance had hi- 
therto been but inaccurately determined, 
every substance which was not lilhic acid 
being formerly comprised by the name of 
phosphat of lime. It occurs in small fria- 
ble strata, which break in scales, or splints, 
of a grey white colour, and are faint, 
opaque, without any smell or taste, and 
crystallized in a luminous or spar-like form ; 
instead of strata, it is frequently composed 
of friable grains, that slightly cohere, and 
has many holes and pores, like a spongy 
texture. It never forms a calculus by it- 
self, being in a calculus always united with 



142 



CALCULUS. 



an animal gelatinous matter ; on account of 
which circumstance it becomes black by 
exposing it to a strong- heat, and burns to 
coal, exhaling the odour of burned bones ; 
and yields water, oil, carbonat of ammo- 
nia, and a carbonaceous residuum. Being 
calcined white, it only leaves lime, and 
phosphat of lime, without any water of 
crystallization. It is not soluble in cold 
water, but in boiling water a part of its 
gelatine dissolves, spreading an animal 
odour. All <.cids, except the boracic and 
carbonic acid, dissolve it, leaving on the 
bottom of the vessels transparent spots of 
animal matter. These solutions ;;re all pre- 
cipitated by alkalis, but without any de- 
composition, the precipitation remaining 
phosphat of lime. On treating the phos- 
phat of lime with concentrated nitric acid, 
a thick pulpy mass of acid sulphat and 
phosphat of lime will be obtained, on which 
pure alkalis, as well as carbonat of alkalis, 
have no effect. "WV never could find acid 
phosphat of lime, as Brugnatelli pretends 
to have observed. 

4. Of the Phosphat of Jlmmoniacal Mag- 
nesia* 

It consists of scaly, half-transparent, 
hard, and coherent strata ; can be sawed 
without crumbling, and reduced to a fine, 
soft and white powder. Ii is of a sweetish 
insipid taste, somewhat soluble, and crys- 
tallized in rhomboids, or thick kminas, 
dispersed in the cavities of other calculous 
substances ; and it is frequently found 
on the surface of other calculi. It con- 
tains, betwixt its strata, a gelatinous sub- 
stance, but less than the phosphat of lime 
on which account it also blackens by be- 
ing heated. Though it be but little solu- 
ble in water, yet it dissolves in such a 
quantity as to be capable of crystallizing 
by slow evaporation. Acids dissolve it 
more quickly than they do the phosphat of 
lime. Weak sulphuric acid entirely dis- 
solves it, forming sulphat of ammoniacal 
magnesia. In diluted muriatic or nitric 
acid, it disappears more quickly than phos- 
phat of lime. Ammonia, by which that 
salt is made turbid, only precipitates small 
particles of magnesia. The lees of fixed 
alkalis disengage from it ammonia, with- 
out forming with it a solution ; and, de- 
priving it of the phosphoric acid, leave the 
magnesia behind. 

5. Of the Oxalat of Lime. 

It is, according to our observations, only 
found in the mulberry-like calculi, in com- 
bination with a coloured animal matter, 
and consist of strata covered with pointed, 
roundish, rough or smooth protuberances ; 
outside it appeal's of a dark or brown co- 
lour, but internally it is grey, frequently 
with white streaks, of a solid texture, and 
may be polished like ivory ; it breaks in 
scales, or in the shape of shells ; and, on 
being pounded, or sawed, it exhales an ani. 
mal odour, like semen. It is the heaviest 



of all calculous substances, and the only 
one which yields one-third of lime by calci- 
nation. It dissolves with difficulty in acids 
and is precipitated unaltered by alkalis 
from nitric acid. The fixed alkalis de- 
compose it when they are impregnated 
with carbonic acid, and when it is pulve- 
rized, and the solution headed, whereby 
carbonat of lime and oxalat of alkalis are 
obtained. 

The great quantity of animal matter 
which constantly adheres to this oxalat of 
lime is very characteristic, it imparts the 
brown, reddish, blackish colour to the 
above kind of stones, and likewise the 
fine and soiid texture. This substance 
may be obtained by putting small pieces of 
these stones into diluted nitric acid, where- 
by it appears of the same 1 colour, and be- 
comes soft and spongy. The great hard*. 
ness of this kind of calculous substance, 
most probably arises from the intimate 
connexion of its particles, produced by the 
combination of the oxalat of lime with 
ani mall matter, in the same way as lime 
obtains a great degree of solidity by its 
combination with albuminous matter, of 
which, and of a peculiar matter of urine, 
that animal substance seems to consist. 

6. Of the Siliceous Earth. 
Amongst '600 calculi that were exa- 
mined, there were only two which contained 
this earth ; both had the texture of mul- 
berry-like stones, though of a lighter co- 
lour, and by being calcined, lost one-third 
of their weight, without giving free-lime ; 
heated with acids they lost nothing, but 
when melted with four times as much of 
alkali, they yielded siliceous earth by be- 
ing treated with muriatic acid. They con- 
tained phosphat of lime, and an animal 
matter similar to that which is united with 
the oxalat of lime. They were hard, dif- 
ficult to be sawed and pulverized, and the 
powder made scratches in metal. On be- 
ing burnt, they emit an animal odour ; 
they imparted nothing to the boiling water, 
and lo the acids a little phosphat of lime, 
which difficultly separates from the sili- 
ceous earth. Alkalis, either pure, or com- 
bined with carbonic acid, did not affect 
them, merely depriving them of a part of 
their animal matter. Their essential cha- 
racter consists in their being fusible and 
vitrifiable with fixed alkalis. 

7. Of the Animal Matter. 

All the six substances just examined, 
which constitute the urinary calculi of the 
human species, are aiways combined with 
an animal matter, as appears from its beinjf 
burnt to coal from the productions it 
yields by distillation, from its stench on be- 
ing burnt, and from the cellulous membra- 
nous floccula which remain when pieces of 
calculi are dissolved in diluted acids. This 
animal matter has been frequently, and 
with good reason, considered as the basis 
of all urinary concretions, like as in bones 



CALCULUS. 



143 



the gelatinous matter, the first basis of the 
bones, forms an organic texture, in the in- 
tersuces of which the phosphat of lime is 
deposited. It is very remarkable, that 
the different constituary particles of urinary 
calculi ate combined with a dissimilar ani- 
mal matter, which are sometimes albu- 
minous, sometimes gelatinous, sometimes 
composed of both, and frequently united 
with the matter of urine. Thus the litnic 
acid, or the iithat of ammonia, contains a 
third of albuminous matter, combined with 
the matter of urine, the phosphats of earths, 
albuminous matter, gelatine in form ol 
membranes, and laminas,or tela cellulosa ; 
the oxalat of lime, a spongy, yet more solid 
texture, of the colour of albumen, and the 
siliceous earth, a similar substance. On 
the whole, the animal matter seems to unite 
and join together all the acid and saline 
panicles of urinary concretions. 

r Vhc Classification ej Urinary Stones. 

The old classification of urinary calculi, 
made according to their figure and their 
size, cannot at present, where we have ac- 
quired so accurate a knowledge of their 
internal nature, be retained, as they ought 
rather to be classed according to their con- 
stituent particles ; however, no regard is to 
be had to the animal matter, as being 
found in all urinary concretions, and 
having no influence on their respective dif- 
ference. On comparing the results of the 
analyses of more than 600 stones, Fourcroy 
was induced to bring them under three 
genera ; the first of which comprehends such 
stones as are merely composed of one sub- 
stance, besides the animal matter; the second 
contains urinary concretions, consisting of 
two substances, besides the animal mat- 
ter ; and the third comprises all those 
which are formed by more than three cal- 
culous substances. These three genera 
comprehend about twelve species, namely, 
the first genus three, the second seven, 
and the third two ; but it must be remem- 
bered that the number of the genera, as 
well as of the species, is determined after 
the observations hitherto made, and may 
consequently be increased in future. 

1. The first specivs of urinary concre- 
tions consists of lithic acid, and stones of 
this kind most frequently occur, as there 
were, amongst 600, about 150. They are 
easily distinguished by their reddish or high 
yellow colour, much resembling that of 
wood, by their brittle, radiant-like, homo- 
geneous, and fine texture, and by their 
perfect solubility in the lies of fixed alka- 
lis, without disengaging the smell of am- 
monia. Their size varies from the bigness 
of a pea to that of a duck's egg, &c. and 
their figure is roundish, spheroid, com- 
pressed, oval, oblong, &c. the surface po- 
lished like marble, but frequently rough 
and watry ; of a crimson light red, yellow- 
ish, light brown colour, but never white, 
gray, or black ; their strata differ in num- 



ber and thickness, and are frequently of a 
smooth surface. The specific weight of 
these stones is from 1,276, to 1,786, but 
generally more than 1,500. The urinary 
concretions in the kidneys are mostly of 
this species. 

2. The second species is composed of li- 
thate of ammonia, and differs from the 
former by disengaging ammonia on their 
being dissolved in th*- lies oi fixed alkalis. 
Concretions of this kind are generally 
small, of a pale or gray colour, and con- 
sist of fine strata, easily separable from, 
each other ; they mostly contain a nucleus, 
which is easily separated from the strata 
that cover it. Their figure is generally ob- 
long, compressed like aimonda,. and of a 
smooth surface, which is frequently crystal- 
line. Their specific weight varies from 
1,225 to 1,720. They are entirely soluble 
in water, particularly when previously pul- 
verized. All acids, principally the muriatic 
acid, deprive them of the ammonia, leaving 
the pure lithic acid behind. They are fre- 
quently found covered with a thin stratum 
of lithic acid. Amongst 600 calculi there 
were but few of this kind. 

3. The third species, consisting of oxalat 
of lime, are easily to be distinguished by 
the protuberances and inequality of their 
surface, whence they have got the appella- 
tion of mulberry-like stones ; by their 
hardness, gray colour, solid texture, their 
polish like ivory, in the inside, and their 
particular smell on being sawed, wh.ch 
resembles that of semen. A peculiar cha- 
racteristic, which distinguishes them from 
all others, consists in their leaving lime 
after the calciantion, in their being with 
difficulty soluble in acids and not soluble 
in alkalis, and, at last, in their being only 
decomposed by the lees of carbonats of 
alkali. They weigh from 1,428 to 1,976, 
and their size varies from that of a calculus 
renalis to the bigness of an egg, or more ; 
their figure is generally spherical or sphe- 
roid They often make the nucleus of other 
stones, in which case they belong to an- 
other species. In 300 stones they bore the 
proportion of one-fourth or one-fifth. 

4. Stones of this species contain lithic acid 
and phosphat 01 earth, but in a separate 
state. Their surface is white, cretaceous, 
brittle, and half transparent, as it either 
consists of phosphat of lime, or oi plWis- 
phat of ammoniacal magnesia, the kernel 
being formed by lithic acid; thus both 
constituents are exactly separate from each 
other. They were found in the proportion 
of one-twelfth amongst the stones that 
were examined, and they grow bigger 
than any of the rest, as they appear from 
she size of an egg to that of the whole 
bladder, even when extended. They 
generally have an oval form, often pointed 
at one end, of a smooth surface, which, 
however, is frequently covered with 
crystals of phosphat of ammoniacal mag- 



144 



CALCULUS. 



nesia. 'Sometimes the lithic acid in the 
middle is alternately covered with phosphat 
of lime, and phosphat of ammoniacal mag- 
nesia. The specific weight of these stones 
is extremely variable. 

5. The fifth species of calculi contains, 
likewise, luliic acid and phosphats of ears. h, 
but intimately mixed with each other. 
Of these stones a great many varieties are 
observed, depending- on the proportionable 
quantity of their constituent particles, as 
well as on the strata in which they lie 
above one another. The chief constitu- 
ents, the phosphats of earths, are sepa- 
rated in different strata, but sometimes so 
intimately mixed with each other, that it is 
impossible to distinguish them with the 
eye ; and the analysis could only shew 
their difference. From this circumstance 
arise the variety in the colour, figure, and 
number of the strata. The colour, how- 
ever, is generally gray, hut frequently va- 
riegated like marble, sometimes like so;:p. 
Their figure is irregular, oval, or globular, 
and the surface mostly brittle, cretaceous, 
or whitish, as to make us believe that they 
only consist of phosphat of lime. The po- 
lyedrous stones generally belong to this 
species, when they have the appearance of 
being worn away by rubbing. They make 
about one-fifth of the stones that were ex- 
amined. Their specific weight vanes ex- 
tremely, the least being 1,213, the greateat 
1,739. 

6. This species is constituted by li;hat of 
ammonia and phosphat of earth, i. e. of 
lime and ammoniacul magnesia ; and re- 
sembles in its external appearances the 
fourth species. One of the constituents, 
generally the lithat of ammonia, makes 
the nucleus, while a mixture of the two 
others, but rarely one by itself, forms the 
crust. Sometimes, however, the nucleus 
contains also the phosphats, and the crust 
a little lithat of ammonia, which, even in 
some varieties, is mixed with pure lithic 
acid. The strata in stones of this kind are 
more easily separable, and always smaller 
than those of the fourth species. Their 
specific weight is 1,312 to 1,761 ; and they 
are more rarely met with than most of the 
rest. Amongst 600 there were only twenty 
of this kind, 

7. Stones of the seventh species consist 
likewise of lilhat of ammonia and phosphat 
of earths, but intimately mixed with each 
other. They are of a paler colour, much 
lighter than the first species, and disengage 
a great deal of ammonia on their being 
treated with kali. We found them only in 
the proportion of one-fortieth amongst the 
stones which we have analysed. They ne- 
ver grow so large as the two former. 

8. The constituent particles of the eighth 
species are phosphat of lime and phosphat 
of ammoniacal magnesia. The pure white 
colour, the friabilr.y, their being insoluble 
in alkalis, and their easy solubility even in 



weak acids, constitute the chief character- 
istics of this sort of stones, of which about 
60 were found amongst 600 : sometimes 
they are of an enormous size, of irregular 
form, rarely round, but frequently of an 
uneven surface, and resembling an incrus- 
tation. Their texture is formed of white 
brittle strata, sometimes interwoven with 
solid half-transparent crystals of ammonia- 
cal magnesia. The crusts formed on fo- 
reign bodies that happened to penetrate in- 
to the bladder, belong to this spscies; the 
specific weight of which is 1,138 to 1,473. 

9. This species of calculi contains oxaiat 
of lime, but externally uric acid, in more 
or less quantity, and are only 10 be distin- 
guished by the nucleus from the first spe ies. 
The proportion of both constituents, and 
the specific weight, vary extremely, the 
latter being 1,341 to 1,754 Sometimes 
the nucleus, consisting of oxaiat of lime, is 
only covered on one side with uric acid, 
and discernible on the other by protube- 
rances with which the surface is variegated ; 
which variety, however, seldom occurs. 

10. Stones of this species have, in their 
centre, oxaiat of lime, surrounded by 
phosphat of earths ; the kernel is gray, or 
brown, and radiant-like, the crust white 
and cretaceous ; their size and figure dif- 
fer extremely, and their specific wejght is 
from 1,168 to 1,752. They amount to one- 
fit'.h of the 60l) stones that were examined. 

11. This species contains stones com- 
posed of three or tour calculous substances, 
namely, of oxaiat of kali, phosphat of 
earths, and of uric acid, either pure or 
combined with ammonia. They rarely oc- 
cur ; and amongst 60U stones only ten or 
twelve were observed. They often consist 
of three distinct strata, viz. in the interior, 
of oxaiat of lime ; in the middle of lithat 
of ammonia ; and the exterior, of phos- 
phats of earths, which are frequently mixed 
with uric acid or lithat of ammonia, all 
which are distinguished on their being 
sawed through. This species compie. 
hends three varieties ; the first of which 
consists of oxalut of lime, uric ac d, and 
phosphats of earths ; the second contains 
lithat of ammonia, combined with pure 
uric acid, and the two other constituents ; 
the third has, besides these two substances, 
free uric acid and liihut of ammonia, mixed 
with the phosphats of earths. We forbear 
to mention other varieties of this species, 
as being less remarkable and instructive. 

12. The last species of calculi is of a 
very ' complicated composition. The si- 
liceous earth aeems to have taken the place 
of the oxaiat of lime ; it is mixed with uric 
acid and lithat of ammonia, and covered 
by phosphats of earths. Stones of this kind 
are the rarest of all, and there were only 
t-wo amongst 600. 

The Causes of the Generation of Urinary 

Calculi. 
To inquire into the causes by which 



CAL 



CAL 



145 



Which urinary concretions are produced, 
is both interesting- and useful, however at- 
tended with the greatest difficulties. The 
writings of medical authors are full of 
conjectures and hypotheses with regard to 
this subject, on which nothing- could be 
ascertained before we had acquired an ac- 
curate knowledge of the nature of urinary 
concretions. It is owing to this circum- 
stance that the most enlightened physicians 
acquiesced in ascribing the immediate cause 
of them to a superabundance of terreous 
matter in the urine ; and Boerhaave, as 
well as, particularly, Van Swieten, ima- 
gined that the urine of all men contained 
calculous matter in the natural state, and 
that, for the generation of stones, a nucleus 
was only required, to attract it. That this 
may be the case, in some instances, is 
proved by frequent experience ; but stones 
produced by tbreign bodies, that have ac- 
cidentally got into the urethra or bladder, 
are always white and composed of phos- 
phat of earths, and seldom or never cover- 
ed with lithic acid, a substance which is 
observed to form the stones that most fre- 
quently occur ; but even in these the nu- 
cleus consists of a substance formed in the 
body itself, as a particle descended from the 
kidneys, See. which must, therefore, have 
necessarily originated in a peculiar internal 
cause. A superabundance of uric acid in 
stony patients, and its more copious gene- 
ration than in a sound state, though it seems 
to be one of the principal and most certain 
causes, is by no means satisfactory, as it 
only explains the precipitation of stony 
matter from the urine, but not why it 
unites in strata. A coagulating substance 
is required for separating, attracting, and, 
as it were, agglutinating the condensible 
particles that are precipitated. This sub- 
stance is undoubtedly the animal matter 
which we have constantly found in all cal- 
culous masses, and which seems to consti- 
tute the basis of stones, like the membra- 
nous gelatina that of bones. It is known 
that the urine of calculous patients is ge- 
nerally muddy, ductile, in threads, slimy, 
and as if mixed with albumen, which qua- 
lity it obtains at the moment when the am- 
monia is disengaged, or on the addition of 
kali that separates it from the acid in which 
it was dissolved ; and in all cases of super- 
abundance of lithic acid the urine contains 
a great quantity of that animal matter, 
which promotes the precipitation of it, 
and attracts and unites the particles thus 
separated. Hence it appears, that every 
thing capable of increasing the quantity of 
that pituitous gluten in the urine, may be 
considered as the remote cause of the for- 
mation of calculi. And the old ideas op pitui- 
tous temperaments, or superabundant pitui- 
ta,&c.which were thought to dispose people 
to a calculus, seems to be connected with 
the late discoveries on the nature of urinary 
stones. Though the animal matter appears 



to be different in different calculi, yet it ia 
certain, that every calculous substance con- 
tains an animal gluten, from which its con- 
crete and solid state arises ; whence we 
tna"y fairly state the superabundance of that 
substance as the chief and principal cause* 
of the formation of calculi. 

There are, however, other causes which 
seem to have a particular influence on the 
nature of urinary stones, and the strata in 
which they are formed ; but it is extremely 
difficult to penetrate and to explain them. 
We are, for instance, entirely ignorant of 
the manner in which urinary stones are 
formed from the oxalat of lime; though, 
from their occurring more frequently in 
children than in adults, we might be en- 
titled to ascribe them to a disposition to 
acor, a cause considered by Boerhaave as 
the general source of a gieat number of 
diseases incident to the infantile age. This 
opinion seems to be proved by the ideas of 
Bonhomme, physician at Avignon, on the 
oxalic or saccharic acid, as the cause of 
mollities osmium in the rickets ; by this acid 
being discovered in a species of saliva by 
Brugnatelli;. and, lastly, by an observa- 
tion of Turgais, who found this acid in the 
urine of a child diseased with worms. We 
but rarely observe saccharic acid in the 
human body, which appears to be mostly 
adventitious, and by which the animal 
matter is rendered coagulable, and depo- 
sited, or precipitated, with the oxalat of 
lime ; or the oxalic acid decomposes the 
phosphat of lime, and forms an insoluble 
combination, incapable of being any longer 
kept dissolved in the urine. It is, how- 
ever, extremely difficult to determine how 
far the constitution of the body is connect- 
ed with that particular disposition in the 
urine, of precipitating sometimes phosphat 
of lime mixed with oxalat of lime, some- 
times phosphat of ammoniacal magnesia, 
either by itself or mixed with lithic acid, 
&c. &c. Who can explain the reason why, 
of 600 stones, there were only two in which 
siliceous earth could be traced ? Still more 
difficult is it to explain the causes why 
the above substances precipitate either at 
once or in different strata ; but it may suf- 
fice to have shewn how many observations 
and experiments are required, and what 
accurate attention and perseverance are 
necessary, in order to throw light on so 
difficult a subject. 

CALCULUS BILIARIS. See Gall-stone. 

CALDARIUM. (From caleo, to make hot.) 
A vessel in the baths of the ancients, to 
hold hot water. 

CALEFACIENTS. (Calefacientia, sc. medi- 
camenta : from calidus, warm, and/aaa, to 
make. (Medicines, or other substances, 
which excite a degree of warmth in the 
parts to which they are applied ; s& piper, 
spiritus vim, &c. They belong to the class 
of stimulants. 

CALESDULA. (QwdJ singutis c 
U * 



146 



CAL 



CAL 



j. e. mensibns, fareseat , so called because 
it flowers every month.) Marigold. 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnxan system. Class, Syngenesia. Or- 
der, Polygamia necessaria. 

2. The pharmacopoeial name of the Ca- 
lendula sativa. Chrysanthemum- Sponsa 
solis. Caltha ,vulgaris. Single marigold. 
Garden marigold The flowers and leaves 
of this plant, Calendula officinalis of Linn- 
aeus : seminibus cymbiformibus, muricatis, 
incurvatis omnibus, have been exhibited 
medicinally : the former, as aperients in 
uterine obstructions and icteric disorders, 
and as diaphoretics in exanthematous fe- 
vers ; the latter, as gentle aperients, and 
to promote the secretions in general. 

CALENDULA ALPINA. The Arnica montana 
of Linnaeus. See Jlrnica. 

CALENDULA ARVENSIS. The wild mari- 
gold. The Caltha arvensis of Linnaeus. It 
is sometimes preferred to the former. Its 
juice is given, from one to four ounces, in 
jaundice and cachexia ; and the leaves are 
commended as a salad for children afflicted 
with scrophulous tumours. 

CALENDULA OFFICINALIS. The systema- 
tic name of the single marigold plant. See 
Calendula. 

CALENDULA PALUSTRIS. The Caltha 
palustris of Linnaeus. Common single 
marsh marigold. It is said to be caustic 
and deleterious : but this may be ques- 
tioned. 

CALENTURE. A febrile delirium, said to 
be peculiar to sailors, wherein they imagine 
the sea to be green fields, and will throw 
themselves into it if not restrained. Bone- 
tiis gives an account of it ; also Dr. Oliver 
and Dr. Stubbs. It is probably a species 
of phrenitis. 

CALESTUM. (Indian.) A tree which 
grows in Malabar, whose bark, made into 
an ointment with butter, cures convulsions 
from wounds, and heals ulcers. The juice 
of the bark cures the aphthae, and, taken 
inwardly, the dysentery. Ray. 
CALL (Arab.) The same as kali. 
CALICHAPA. The spina alba, or white- 
thorn. 

CALTDUM. In medical language, it is 
commonly used with the adjective animals, 
or innatum, for animal heat, or the vis vitae. 
CALIETA. (From K*A<?, a nest, which it 
somewhat resembles.) Calliette. A fungus 
growing on the juniper-tree. 

CALIGO. A disease of the eye, known 
by diminished or destroyed sight ; and by 
the interposition of a dark body between 
the object and the retina. It is arranged 
by Cullen in the class locales, and order 
dyscesthesix. The species of caligo are 
distinguished according to the situation of 
the interposed body : thus caligo Icntis, 
caligo conieae, caligo pupillce, caligo humo- 
rum, and caligo palpebrarum, 

CALIGO LENTIS. Glaucoma Woulhowi. 
The true cataract. See Cataract. 



C ALIOO coR'sEfls. An opacity of the cornea. 
See Caligo. 

CALIGO PUPILL;E. Synchysis. Jlmyosis. 
Blindness from obstruction in the pupil. 
See Caligo. 

'CALIGO HUMORUM. Glaucoma Vogelii. 
Blindness from a fault in the humours of 
the eye. See Caligo. 

CALIGO PALPEBRAHUM. Blindness from 
a disorder in the eyelids. See Caligo. 

CALIHACHA. The cassia-lignea, or cassia- 
tree of Malabar. 

CALIMIA. The lapis calaminaris. 

CALIX. (Calixyicis, m. ; fr 
to cover.) Calyx. 

1. The term calix is given to the mem- 
brane which covers the papillae in the 
pelvis of the human kidney. 

2. The name of the case, or sheath, in 
which the flqwer of plants is concealed be- 
fore it expands. 

CALLJEUJT. (From xciMvva, to adorn.) 
Calteon. The gills of a cock, which, Galen 
says, is food not to be praised or con- 
demned. 

CALLENA. A kind of salt-petre. 

CALLI. Nodes in the gout. Galen. 

CALLIA. (From xstxoc, beautiful.) A 
name of the chamomile. 

CALLIBLEPHARA. (From xaxo?, good, 
and /8Ag<j>ov, the eyelid.) Medicines, or 
compositions, appropriated to the eye- 
lids. 

CALLICREAS. (From *axo?, good, and 
**?, meat ; so named from its deli- 
cacy as food. ) The pancreas, or sweet- 
bread. 

CALLIGONUM. (From XAAO?, beautiful, and 
yovv, a knot, or joint ; so named from its 
being handsomely jointed, like a cane.) 
The polygonurn, or knot-grass. 

CALLIOMARCHUS. The Gaulish name, in 
Marcellus Empiricus, for tussilago, oi' 
colt's -foot. 

CALLION. A kind of night-shade. 

CALLIPHYLLUM. (From X**AO?, beauty, 
and <j>w/iA.cv, a leaf.) The herb adiantum, or 
maidenhair. See Adiantum. 

CALLISTRUTHIA. (From XAAO?, good, and 
, a sparrow : because it was said to 
fatten sparrows.) A fig mentioned by 
Pliny, of a good taste. 

CALLITRICUM. (From X.&KXO;, beauty, 
and <Srg*|, hair; so named because it has the 
appearance of long, beautiful hair, or, ac- 
cording to Littleton, because it nourishes 
the hair, and makes it beautiful.) The 
herb maidenhair, 

CALLONE. (From jc*.\oc, fair.) Hippo- 
crates uses this word, to signify that de- 
cency and gravity of character and deport- 
ment which it is necessary that all medi 
cal men should be possessed of. 

CALLOSITAS. Callosity, or preterna 
tural hardness. 

CALLOUS. A stirgical term, signify- 
ing hardened or indurated ; thus the cal- 
lous edges of ulcers. 



CAL 



CAL 



147 



CALLUS. Callum. 

I The bony matter deposited between 
the divided ends of broken bones, about 
the fourteenth day after the fracture. 

2. A preternatural hardness, or indura- 
tion, of any fleshy parts. 

CALOCATANUS. (From X*AO?, beautiful, 
and **7*i/cv, a cup ; so called from the beau- 
ty of its flower and shape.) The papaver 
rhaeas, or wild poppy. 

CALOMELAJTOS TUKQ.UETI. So Riverius 
calls a purgative medicine, composed of 
calomel and scammony. 

CALOMELAS. (From K*AO?, good, and 
( </sxtf, 'black ; from its virtues and colour. 
The preparation called vEthiop's mineral, 
or hydrarg-yrns cum sulphurs, was formerly 
and properly so named. But calomel now 
means a white preparation of sublimed 
mercury. ) See Submurias hydrargyri. 

CALORIC. . (Caloricum , from calor, 
heat.) Heat. Igneous fluid. 

Heat and cold are perceptions of which 
we acquire the ideas from the senses; they 
indicate only a certain state in which we 
find ourselves independent of any exterior 
object. But as these sensations are for the 
most part produced by bodies around us, 
we consider them as causes, and judging 
by appearances, we apply the terms hot, or 
' 'fM, to the substances themselves; calling 
,ncvse bodies hot, which produce in us the 
sensation of heat, and those cold, which 
oommur^cate the contrary sensation. 

This s&ibiguity, though of little conse- 
quence in the common affairs of human 
life, has led unavoidably to confusion and 
perplexity in philosophical discussions. It 
was to prevent this, that the framers of the 
new nomenclature adopted the word calo- 
ric, which denotes that which produces 
the sensation of heat. 

Theories of Heat. 

Two opinions have long divided the phi- 
losophical world concerning the nature of 
heat. 

1. The one is : that the cause which pro- 
duces the sensation of heat, is a real, or 
distinct substance, universally pervading 
nature, penetrating the particles or pores 
of all bodies, with more or leas facility, 
and in different quantities. 

This substance, if applied to our system 
in a greater proportion than it already 
contains, warms it, as we call it, or pro- 
duces the sensation of heat ; and hence it 
has been called caloric or calorific, 

2. The other theory concerning heat is ; 
that the cause which produces that sensa- 
tion, is not a separate or self-existing sub- 
stance ; but that it is merely like gravity, 
a property of matter; and that it consists 
in a specific or peculiar tnotiun, or vibration 
of the particles of bodies. 

The arguments in favour of the first the- 
ory have been principally deduced from 
the evolution, and absorption of heat 



during chemical combinations ; those of 
the latter, are chiefly founded on the pro- 
duction of heat by friction. For it has 
been observed, that whatever is capable of 
producing motion in the particles of any 
mass of matter, excites heat. Count Rum- 
ford and Professor Davy have paid uncom- 
mon attention to this fact, and proved, that 
heat continues to be evolved from a body 
subjected to friction, so long as it is ap- 
plied, and the texture or form of the body 
be not altered. 

All the effects of heat, according to this 
theory, depend therefore entirely on the 
vibratory motion of the particles of bodies. 
According as this is more or less intense, a 
higher or lower temperature is produced ; 
and as it predominates over is nearly 
equal or inferior to the attraction of co- 
hesion, bodies exist in the gaseous, fluid, 
or solid state. 

Different bodies are susceptible of it in 
different degrees, and receive and commu- 
nicate it with different celerity. From the 
generation, communication and abstraction 
of this repulsive motion, under these laws, 
all the phenomena ascribed to heat are ex- 
plicable. 

Each of these theories has been support- 
ed by the most able philosophers, and 
given occasion to the most important dis- 
putes in which chemists have been enga- 
ged ; and have contributed in a very parti- 
cular manner to the advancement of the 
science. The obscurity of the subject, 
however, is such, that both parties have 
been able to advance the most plausible 
arguments. 

Setting aside all enquiries concerning- 
the merjts of these different doctrines, we 
shall confine ourselves to the general ef- 
fects, which heat produces on different bo- 
dies. For the phenomena which heat pre- 
sents, and their relation to each other, may 
be investigated with sufficient precision, 
though the materiality, or immateriality of 
it, may remain unknown to us. 
Nature of Heat. 

Those who consider heat as matter, as- 
sert that caloric exists in two states, name- 
ly, in combination, and in a radiant state, 
or at liberty. 

In the first state it is not sensible to our 
organs, nor indicated by the thermometer : 
it forms a constituent part of the body ; 
but it may be brought back to the state of 
radiant or sensible heat. In this state it 
affects animals with the sensation of heat, 
It therefore has been called sensible or 
free heat, or fire ; and is synonymous with 
uncombined caloric, thermometrical calo- 
ric, caloric of temperature, interposed ca- 
loric, &c. expressions now pretty gene- 
rally superseded. 

From the diversity of opinions among 
chemists respecting the nature of caloric, 
several other expressions have been intro- 



148 



CALORIC. 



duced, which it is proper to notice. For 
instance, by specific heat is understood, the 
relative quantities of caloric contained in 
?qual weights of different bodies at the 
same temperature. Latent teat is the ex- 
pression used to denote that quantity of 
caloric which a body absorbs when chang- 
ing in its form. It is, however, move pro- 
perly called caloric of fluidity. The dispo- 
sition, or property, by which different bo- 
dies contain certain quantities of caloric, at 
any temperature, is termed their capacitit 
for heat. Bv the expression of absolute heat, 
is understood the whole quantity of caloric 
which any body contains. 

JiV/.Ws of exciting and collecting Heat. 

Of the different methods of exciting heat, 
the following are the most usual : 

1. Production of Heat by Percussion or 
Collision. 

This method of producing heat is the 
simplest, and therefore it is generally made 
use of in the common purposes of life for 
obtaining fire. 

When a piece of hardened steel is struck 
with a flint, some particles of the metal 
are scraped away from the mass, and so 
violent is the heat which follows the stroke, 
that it melts and vitrifies them. If the frag- 
ments of steel are caught upon paper, and 
viewed with a microscope, most of them 
M'ill be found perfect spherules, and very 
highly polished. Their sphericity demon- 
strates that they have been in a fluid state, 
and the polish upon their surface, shews 
them to be vitrified. 

No -heat, however, has been observed 
to follow the percussion of liquids, nor of 
the softer kind of bodies which yield to a 
slight impulse. 

2. Production of Heat by Friction. 

Heat may likewise be excited by mere 
friction. This practice is still retained in 
some parts of the world. The natives of New 
Holland are said to produce fire in this 
manner, with great facility, and spread it 
in a wonderful manner. For that purpose, 
they take two pieces of dry wood ; one is 
a stick, about eight or nine inches long, 
and the other piece is flat ; the stick they 
point into an obtuse point at one end, and 
pressing it upon the other piece, they turn 
it very nimbly, by holding it between both 
hands, as we do a chocolate-mill, often 
shifting their hands up, and then moving 
down upon it, in order to increase the pres- 
sure as much as possible. By this method, 
they get fire in a few minutes, and from the 
smallest spark they increase it with great 
speed and dexterity. 

If the irons at the axis of a coach-wheel 
are applied to each other, without the in- 
terposition of some unctuous matter to 
keep them from immediate contact, they 
will become so hot when the carriage runs 
swiftly along, as to set the wood on fire ; 
and the fore-wheels, being smallest, and 



making most revolutions in a given time, 
will be most in danger. 

The same will happen to mill-work, or 
to any other machinery. 

It is no uncommon practice in this coun- 
try, for blacksmiths to use a plate of iron as 
an extemporaneous substitute for a tinder- 
box ; for it may be hammered on an anvil 
till it becomes red-hot, and will fire a brim- 
stone match. A strong man, who strikes 
quick, and keeps turning the iron so that 
both sides may be equally exposed to the 
force of the hummer, will perform this in 
less time than would be expected. 

If, in the coldest season, one dense iron 
plate be laid on another, and pressed to- 
gether by a weight, and then rubbed upon 
each other by reciprocal motions, they will 
gradually grow so hot as, in a short time, 
to emit sparks, and at last become ig- 
nited. 

It is not necessary that the substances 
should be very hard ; a cord rubbed back- 
wards and forwards swiftly against a post 
or a tree will take fire. 

Count Rumtbrd and Professor Pictet 
have made some very ingenious and valua- 
ble experiments concerning the heat evolv- 
ed by friction. 
3. Production of Heat by Chemical Action. 

To this belongs the heat produced byr 
combustion. There are, besides this, many 
chemical processes wherein rapid chemi- 
cal action takes place, accompan^d with 
a developement of l;eat, or fire aW flame. 
4. Solar Heat. 

It is well known that the solar rays, when 
collected by a mirror, or lens, into a focus, 
produce the most astonishing effects. 

Dr. Herschell has discovered that there, 
are rays emitted from the sun, which have 
not the power of illuminating or producing 
X'ision ; and that these are the rays which 
produce the heat of the solar light. 

Consequently, heat is emitted from the 
sun in rays, but these rays are not the same 
with the rays of light. 
5. Production of Heat by the Electric Spark, 
and by Galvanism. 

The effects of electricity are too well 
known in this point of view, to need any 
description. 

Galvanism has of late become a powerful 
instrument for the purpose of exciting heat. 
Not only easily inflammable Substances, 
such as phosphorus, sulphur, &c. have been 
fired, but likewise gold, silver, copper, tin, 
and the rest of the metals, have been burnt 
by means of galvanism. 

General Effects of Heat. 

Expansive property of Heat. This is the 
first and most obvious effect which heat 
produces on bodies. Experience has taught 
us that, at all times, when bodies become 
hot, they increase in bulk. The bodies ex- 
perience a dilatation which is greater in. 
proportion to the accumulation of caloric,. 



CALORIC. 



149 



r>r, in otner words, to the intensity of the 
heat. This is a general law, which holds 
good as long as the bodies have suffered no 
change cither in their combination or in 
the quantity of their chemical principles. 

This power which heat possesses, con- 
sists, therefore, in a constant tendency to 
separate Jie particles of bodies. Hence 
philosophers consider heat as the repulsive 
power which acts upon all bodies whatever, 
and which is in constant opposition to the 
power of attraction. 

The phenomena which result from these 
mutual actions, seem, as it were, the secret 
springs of nature. Heat, however, does 
not expand all bodies equally, and we are 
still ignorant of the laws which it follows. 

1. Expansion of Fluid Sadies by Heat. 

Take a glass globe, with a long slender 
neck (called a bolt head) ; fill it up to the 
neck with water, ardent spirit, or any other 
fluid which may be coloured with red or 
black ink, in order to be more visible, and 
then immerse the globe of the instrument 
in a vessel of hot water ; the included fluid 
will instantly begin to mount into the 
neck. If it be taken out of the water and 
brought near the fire, it will ascend more 
and more, in proportion as it becomes 
heated ; but upon removing it from the 
source of heat, it will sink again : a clear 
proof that caloric dilates it, so as to make 
it occupy more space when hot than when 
cold. These experiments may, therefore, 
serve as a demonstration that heat expands 
Jluid bodies. 

It appears that liquids of the least den- 
sity expand most, with the same tempera- 
ture. Thus hydrogen gas dilates more 
with the same degree of heat than atmo- 
spheric air ; atmospheric air more than 
sulphuric ether ; ether more than ardent 
spirit; ardent spirit more than oil; oil 
more than water; water more than acids, 
and acids more than mercury. But if we 
compare the periods of time necessary for 
each fluid to acquire the maximum of rare- 
faction it is susceptible of, there is no law 
to guide us yet known. 
2. Expansion of Jleriform Bodies by Heat. 

Take a bladder partly filled with air, 
the neck of which is closely tied, so as 
to prevent the inclosed air from escap- 
ing, and let it be held near a fire. The 
air will soon begin to occupy more space, 
and the bladder will become gradually 
distended; on continuing the expansion 
of the air, by increasing the heat, the blad- 
der will burst with a loud report. 

3. Expansion of Solid Sadies by Heat. 

If we take a bar of iron, six inches long, 
and put it into a fire till it becomes red- 
hot ; and then measure it in this state ac- 
curately, it will be found l-20th of an 
inch longer than it was before ; that is, 
about 120th part of the whole. That the 
metal is proportionally expanded in 



breadth, will be seen by trying to pass it 
through an aperture which it fitted exactly 
when cold, but which will not admit it 
when red hot. The bar is, therefore, in- 
creased in length and diameter. 

To discover the minutest changes of ex- 
pansion by heat, and the relative propor- 
tions thereof, instruments have been con- 
trived, called Pyrometers, the sensibility of 
which is so delicate as to shew the expan- 
sion from 1-50000 to 1-100000 of an inch. 

It is owing to this expansion of metals, 
that the motion of time-pieces is rendered 
erroneous ; but the ingenuity of artists 
has discovered methods of obviating this 
inaccuracy, by employing the greater ex- 
pansion of one metal to counteract the 
expansion of another ; this is effected in 
what is called the grid-iron pendulum. 
Upon the same principle a particular con- 
struction of watches has been contrived. 

The expansion of metals is likewise one 
of the principal reasons that clocks and 
watches vary in winter and summer, when 
worn in the pocket, or exposed to the open 
air, or w x hen carried into a hotter or a 
colder climate. For the number of the 
vibrations of the pendulum are always in 
the sub-duplicate ratio of its length, and 
as the length is changed by heat and cold, 
the times of vibration will be also changed. 
The quantity of alteration, when consi- 
dered in a single vibration, is exceedingly 
small, but when they are often repeated, 
it will be very sensible. An alteration of 
one-thousandth part in the time of a single 
vibration of a pendulum which beats se- 
conds, will make a change of eighty-six 
whole vibrations in twenty-four hours. 

As different metals expand differently 
with the same degree of heat ; such musi- 
cal instruments, therefore, whose parts are 
to maintain a constant true proportion, 
should never be strung with different me- 
tals. It is on this account that harpsichords, 
&c. are out of tune by a change of tempe- 
rature. 

Bodies which are brittle, or which want 
flexibility, crack or break, if suddenly 
heated or cooled. This likewise depends 
upon the expansive force of heat, stretch- 
ing the surface to which it is applied, while 
the other parts, not being equally heated, 
do not expand in the same ratio, and are 
therefore torn asunder or break. Hence 
thin vessels stand heat better than thick- 
ones. 

Measurement of Heat. 
Upon the expansive property of heat, 
which we have considered before, is found- 
ed its artificial measurement. Various mean* 
have been therefore employed to assist the 
imperfection of our sensations in judging of 
the different degrees of heat, for our feel- 
ings unaided afford but very inaccurate in- 
formation concerning this matter ; they in- 
dicate the presence oi'/ieat, only when the 



150 



CALORIC. 



bodies presented to them are hotter than 
the actual temperature of our organs of 
feeling. When those bodies are precisely 
of the' same temperature with our body, 
which we make the standard of compari- 
son, we then are not sensible of the pre- 
sence of heat in them. When their tern- 
perature is less hot than that of our bodies, 
their contact gives us what is called the 
sensation of cold. 

The effects of heat upon material bodies 
in general, which are easily visible to us, 
afford more precise and determinate indi- 
cations of the intensity, than can be de- 
rived from our feelings alone. The inge- 
nuity of the philosopher and artist has 
therefore furnished us with instruments tor 
measuring the relative heat or temperature 
of bodies. These instruments are called 
Thermometers and Pyrometers. By these, 
all degrees are measurable, from the 
slightest, to that of the most intense 
heat. 

1. Nature of the Thermometer. 

A thermometer is a hollow tube of gluss, 
hermetically sealed, and blown at one end 
in the shape of a hollow globe. The bulb 
and part of the tube are filled with mer- 
cury, which is the only fluid which expands 
equally. When we immerse the bulb of 
the thermometer in a hot body, the mer- 
cury expands, and of course rises in the 
tube ; but when we plunge it into a cold 
body, the mercury contracts, and of course 
falls in the tube. 

The rising of the mercury indicates, 
therefore, an increase of heat ; its falling, 
a diminution of it ; and the quantity which 
it rises or falls, denotes the proportion of 
increase or diminution. To facilitate ob- 
servation, the tube is divided into a num- 
ber of equal parts, called degrees. 

Further, if we plunge a thermometer 
ever so often into melting snow or ice, it 
will always stand at the same point. Hence 
we learn that snoio or ice always begins to 
melt at the same temperature. 

If we plunge a thermometer repeatedly 
into water kept boiling, we find that the 
mercury rises up to a certain point. This is 
therefore the point at which water always 
boils, provided the pressure of the atmo- 
sphere be the same. 

There are four different thermometers 
used at present in Europe, differing from 
each other in the number of degrees into 
which the space between the freezing and 
boiling points is divided. These are Fah- 
renheit's, Reaumur's, Celsius's, and De- 
lisle's. 

The thermometer uniformly used in Bri- 
tain, is Fahrenheit's ; in this the freezing 
point is fixed at 32 the boiling point, at 
212 above or the part at which both 
the ascending and descending series of num- 
bers commence. 

In the thermometer which was first con- 



structed by Reaumur, the scale is divided 
into a smaller number of degrees upon the 
same length, and contains not more than 
80 between the freezing and the boiling 
points. The freezing point is fixed in this 
thermometer precisely at 0, the term be- 
tween the ascending and the descending 
series of numbers 100 is the number of the 
degrees between the freezing and the boil- 
ing points in the scale of Celsius ; which 
has been introduced into France, since the 
revolution, under the name of the Centi- 
grade thermometer; and the freezing point 
is in this, as in the thermometer of Reau- 
mur, fixed at 0. One degree on the scale 
of Fahrenheit, appears, from this account, 
to be equal to 4-9ths of a degree on that of 
Reaumur, and to 5 9ths of a degree on 
that of Celsius. 

The space in Delisle's thermometer be- 
tween the freezing and boiling points is di- 
vided into 150, but the graduation begins 
at the boiling point, and increases towards 
the freezing point. The boiling point is 
marked 0, the freezing point 150. Hence 
180 F := 140 D, or 6 F : = 5 D. To re- 
duce the degrees of Delisle's thermometer 
under the boiling point to those of Fahren- 
heit ; we have F : = 212 6-5 D ; to re- 
duce those above the boiling point F : 
= 212 6-5 D. Upon the knowledge of 
this proportion it is easy for the student to 
reduce the degrees of any of these thermo- 
meters ^nto the degrees of any other of 
them. 

2. Nature of the Pyrometer. 

To measure those higher degrees of heat 
to which the thermometer cannot be ap- 
plied, there have been other instruments 
invented by different philosophers : these 
are called pyrometers. The most celebrated 
instrument of this kind, and which has 
been adopted into general use, is that in- 
vented by the late ingenious Mr. Wedg- 
wood. 

This instrument is also sufficiently sim- 
ple. It consists of two pieces of brass 
fixed on a plate, so as to be 6-10ths of an 
inch asunder at one end, and 3-10ths at the 
other ; a scale is marked upon them, which 
is divided into 240 equal parts, each 1-lGth 
of an inch ; and with this his gauge, are 
furnished a sufficient number of pieces of 
baked clay, which must have been pre- 
pared in a red heat, and must be of given 
dimensions. These pieces of clay, thus 
prepared, are first to be applied cold, to the 
rule of the gauge, that there may no mis- 
take take place in regard to their dimen- 
sions. Then any one of them is to be ex- 
posed to the heat which is to be measured, 
till it shall have been completely penetrated 
by it. It is then removed and applied 
to the gauge. The difference between its 
former and its present dimensions, will 
shew how much it has shrunk ; and will 
consequently indicate to what degree the 



QALORIC. 



151 



intensity of the heat to which it was ex- 
posed, amounted. 

High temperatures can thus be ascertain- 
ed with accuracy. Each degree of Wedg- 
wood's pyrometer is equal to 130 of Fah- 
renheit's. 

Exceptions to the Expansion by Heat. 

Philosophers have noticed a few excep- 
tions to the law of heat expanding bodies. 
For instance ; water, when cooled down to 
the freezing point, instead of contracting 
on the farther deprivation of heat, actually 
expands 

Another seeming exception is manifested 
in alumine, or clay; others occur in the 
case of cast-iron, and various other metals. 
Alumine contracts on being heated, and 
cast-iron, bismuth, 5cc. when fully fused, 
are more dense than when solid ; for, as 
soon as they become so, they decrease in 
density, they expand in the act of cooling, 
and hence the sharpness of figures upon 
iron which has been cast in moulds, com- 
pared to that of other metals 

Some philosophers have persuaded them- 
selves that these exceptions are only appa- 
rent) but not really true. They say when 
water freezes, it assumes a crystalline form, 
the crystals cross each other and cause nu- 
merous vacuities, and thus the ice occupies 
more space. The same is the case with 
fused iron, bismuth, and zinc. The con- 
traction of clay is owing to the loss of 
water, of which it loses a part at every 
increased degree of temperature hitherto 
tried ; there is therefore a loss of matter ; 
and a reduction of volume must follow. 

Mr. Tilloch has published a brief exami- 
nation of the received doctrines respecting 
heat and caloric, in which these truths are 
more fully considered, together with many 
Other interesting facts relative to the re- 
ceived notions of heat. 

Equal Distribution of Heat. 

If a number of bodies of different tem- 
peratures are placed in contact with each 
other, they will all at a certain time ac- 
quire a temperature, which is the mean 
temperature of the different substances ; 
the caloric of the hottest body will diffuse 
itself among those which are heated in a 
less degree, till they have all acquired a 
certain temperature. Thus, if a bar of 
iron which has been made red-hot be kept 
in the open air, it does not retain the heat 
which it had received, but becomes gra- 
dually colder and colder, till it arrives at 
the temperature of the bodies in its neigh- 
bourhood. On the other hand ; if we cool 
down the iron bar by keeping it for some 
time covered with snow, and then carry it 
into a warm room, it does not retain its 
low temperature, but becomes gradually 
hotter, till it acquires the temperature of 
the room. It is therefore obvious, that in 
the one instance the temperature is lower- 
ed, and in the other it is raised. 

These changes of temperature occupy a 



longer or a shorter time, according to the 
nature of the body, but they always take 
place at last. This law itself is, indeed, 
familiar to every one : when we wish to 
heat a body, we carry it towards the fire ; 
when we wish to cool it, we surround it 
by cold bodies. 

Propagation of Heat. 

We have seen, that when bodies of 
higher temperature than others are brought 
into contact with each other, the heat is 
propagated from the first to^he second, 
or the colder body deprives the warmer 
of its excess of heat. We shall now see 
that some bodies do so much more quickly 
than others. Through some bodies caloric 
passes with undiminished velocity, through 
others its passage is prodigiously retarded. 

This disposition of bodies of admitting, 
under equal circumstances, the refrigera- 
tion of a heated body within a shorter or a 
longer time, is called the power of conduct- 
ing heat ; atid a body is said to be a better 
or worse conductor of heat, as it allows the 
refrigeration to go on quicker or slower. 
Those bodies, therefore, which possess the 
property of letting heat pass with facility, 
are called good conductors ; those through 
which it passes with difficulty, are called 
bad conductors, and those through which it 
does not pass at all, are called non conduc- 
tors : thus we say, in the common lan- 
guage, some bodies are warm, or capable 
of preserving warmth ; and from this arises 
the great difference in the sensation ex- 
cited by different bodies, when applied at 
the same temperature to our organs of 
feeling. Hence, if we immerse our hand 
in mercury, we feel a greater sensation of 
cold than when we immerse it in water, 
and a piece of metal appears to be much 
colder than a piece of wood, though their 
temperatures, when examined by means ot 
the thermometer, are precisely the same. 

It is probable that all solids conduct 
heat in some degree, though they differ 
very much in their conducting power. 
Metals are the best conductors of heat ; 
but the conducting powers of these sub- 
stances are by no means equal. Stones 
seem to be the next best conductors. Glass 
conducts heat very slowly ; wood and char- 
coal still slower ; and feathers, silk, wool, 
and hair, are still wor^e conductors than 
any of the substances yet mentioned. 

The best conductors of electricity and 
galvanism are also the beat conductors of 
heat. 

Experiment. Take a number of straight 
wires, of equal diameters and lengths, but 
of different metals ; for instance, gold, sil- 
ver, copper, iron, &c. ; cover each of them 
with a thin coat of wax, or tallow, and 
plunge their extremities into water, kept 
boiling, or into melted lead. The meltiifg 
of the coat of wax will, shew that caloric 
is more quickly transmitted through some 
metals than others. 



152 



CALORIC. 



It is an this account also, that the end 
of a glass rod may be kept red-hot for a 
long time, or even melted, without any in- 
convenience to the hand which holds the 
other extremity ; though a similar metallic 
rod, heated in the same manner, would 
very soon become too hot to be held. 
Liquor and Jl'e'riform Bodies convey Heat by 

an actual Change in the Situation of their 

Particles. 

Count Rumfbrd was the first who proved 
that fluids m general, and aeriform bodies, 
convey heat on a different principle from 
ihat observed in solids. This opinion is 
pretty generally admitted, though various 
ingenious experiments have been made 
by different philosophers to prove the 
contrary. In water, for instance, which 
is, in the strictest sense of the word, a 
perfect non-conductor of heat, the Count 
has proved that caloric is propagated only 
in consequence of the motion which is 
occasioned in the insulated and solitary 
particles' of that fluid. 

All fluids are considered, strictly speak- 
ing, in a similar respect as non-conductors 
of caloric. They can receive it, indeed, 
from other substances, and can give it to 
other substances, but no particle can either 
receive it from or give it to another par- 
tide. Before a fluid, therefore, can be 
heated or cooled, every particle must go 
individually to the substance from which 
it receives or to which it gives out caloric. 
Heat being, therefore, only propagated in 
fluids, in consequence of the internal mo- 
tion of their particles, which transport the 
heat; the more rapid these motions are, 
the more rapid is the communication of 
heat. The cause of these motions is the 
change in the specific gravity of the fluid, 
occasioned by the change of temperature, 
and the rapidity is in proportion to the 
change of the specific gravity of the liquid 
by any given change of temperature. The 
following experiment may serve to illus- 
trate this theory. 

Take a thin glass tube, eight or ten 
inches long, and about an inch in dia- 
meter. Pour into the bottom part, for 
about the depth of one inch, a little 
water coloured with Brazil- wood, or lit- 
mus, and then fill up the tube with com- 
naon water, extremely gently, so as to 
keep the two strata quite distinct from 
each other. Having done th,is, heat the 
bottom purt of the tube over a lamp ; the 
coloured infusion will then ascend, and 
gradually tinge the whole fluid ; the water 
in the upper part of the tube may be made 
to boil, but the colouring matter will re- 
main at the bottom undisturbed. The 
heat cannot act^ downwards to make it 
ascend. 

By thus being able to make the upper 
part of a fluid boil without heating the 
bottom part, water may be kept boiling 



for a considerable time in a glass tube over 
ice, without melting it. 

Other experiments, illustrating the same 
principle, may be found in Count Rum- 
ford's excellent Essays, especially in Essay 
the 7th; 1797. 

To this indefatigable philosopher we are 
wholly indebted for the above facts : he 
was the first who taught us that air and 
water were nearly non-conductors. The 
results of his experiments* which are con- 
tained in the above Essay, are highly inter- 
esting ; they also shew that the conducting 
power of fluids is impaired by the admix- 
ture of fibrous and glutinous matter. 

Count Rumford proved that ice melted 
more than 80 times slower,when boiling-hot 
water stood on its surface, than when the 
ice was placed to swim on the surface of 
the hot water. Other experiments shewed 
that water, only eight degrees of Fahren- 
heit above the freezing point, or at the 
temperature of forty degrees, melts as 
much ice, in any given time, as an equal 
volume of that fluid at any higher tempe- 
rature, provided the water stands on the 
surface of the ice. Water, at the tempe- 
rature of 41, is found to melt more ice, 
when standing on its surface, than boiling 
water. . 

It becomes further evident, from the 
Count's ingenious experiments, that of the 
different substances used in clothing,hares* 
fur and fider-down are the warmest ; next 
to these, beavers* fur, raw silk, sheep's 
wool, cotton wool, and lastly, lint, or the 
scrapings of fine linen. In fur, the air in- 
terposed among its particles is so engaged 
as not to be driven away by the heat com- 
municated thereto by the animal body ; 
not being easily displaced, it becomes a. 
barrier to defend the animal body from the 
external cold. Hence it is obvious that 
those skins are warmest which have the 
finest, longest, and thickest fur ; and that 
the furs of the beaver, otter, and other like 
quadrupeds, which live much in the water, 
and the feathers of water-fowl, are capable 
of confining the heat of those animals in 
winter, notwithstanding the coldness of 
the water which they frequent. Bears, and 
various other animals, inhabitants of cold 
climates, which do not often take the wa- 
ter, have their fur much thicker on their 
backs than on their bellies. 

The snow which covers the surface of 
the earth in winter, in high latitudes, is 
doubtless designed as a garment to defend 
it against the piercing winds from the po- 
lar regions, which prevail during the cold 
season. 

Without dwelling farther upon the phi- 
losophy of this truth, we must briefly re- 
mark that the happy application of this 
law, satisfactorily elucidates some of the 
most interesting facts of the oeconomy of 
nature. 



CALORIC. 



153 



Theory of Caloric of Fluidity t or Latent 
Heat. 

There are some bodies which, when sub- 
mitted to the action of caloric, dilute to 
such a degree, and the power of aggrega- 
tion subsisting- among their particles ia so 
much destroyed and removed to such a 
distance by the interposition of caloric, 
that they slide over each other in every di- 
rection, and therefore appear in a fluid 
state. This phenomenon is .called fusion. 
Bodies thus rendered fluid by means of ca- 
loric are said to be fused, or melted; and 
those that are subject to it, are culled fu- 
sible. 

The greater number of solid bodies may, 
by the application of heat, be converted 
into fluids. Thus metals may be fused ; 
sulphur, resin, phosphorus, may be melted; 
ice may be converted into water ; &.c. 

Those bodies which cannot be rendered 
fluid by any degree of heat hitherto known, 
are called fixed, or infusible. 

If the effects of heat under certain cir- 
cumstances, be carried still further than is 
necessary to render bodies fluid, vapori- 
zation begins ; the bodies then become 
converted into the vaporous or gaseous 
state. Vaporization, however does not 
always require a previous fusion. Some 
bodies are capable of being converted into 
the vaporous state, without previously be- 
coming fluid, and others cannot be vola- 
tilized at any temperature hitherto known. 

Fluidity is therefore by no means essen- 
tial to any species of matter, but always de- 
pends on the presence of a quantity of ca- 
loric. Solidify is the natural state of all 
bodies, and there can be no doubt that 
every fluid is capable of being rendered so- 
lid by a due reduction of temperature ; and 
every solid may be fused by the agency of 
caloric, if the latter does not decompose 
them at a temperature inferior to that 
which would be necessary for their fusion. 
Caloric of Fluidity. 

Dr. Black was the first who proved that, 
whenever caloric combines with a solid 
body, the body becomes heated only, until 
it is rendered fluid : or that, whenever it 
has acquired the fluid state, its temperature 
remains stationary, though caloric is con- 
tinued to be added to it. The same is the 
case when fluids are converted into the 
aeriform or vaporous state. 

From these facts, the laws of latent heat 
have been inferred. The theory may be 
illustrated by means of the following ex- 
periments. 

If a lump of ice, at a low temperature, 
suppose at 22, be brought into a warm 



room, it will become gradually less cold, 
as may be discovered bv mean- of the 
thermometer. After a vi-ry short time, it 
will reach the temperature of 32, (the 
freezing point) ; but there it stops. The 
ice then begins to melt; but the process 
goes on very slowly. During the whole of 
that time its temperature continues at 32; 
and as it is constantly surrounded by warm 
air, we have reason to believe that caloric 
is constantly entering into it ; yet it does 
nut become hotter till it is changed into 
water. Ice, therefore, is converted into 
water by a quantity of caloric uniting 
with it. 

It has been found by calculation, that one 
pound of ice in melting- absorbs 140 of ca- 
loric, the temperature of the water pro- 
duced still remaining at 32. 

This fact may be proved in a direct man- 
ner. 

Take one pound of ice, at 32 degrees 
reduced to a coarse powder ; put it into 
a wooden bowl, and pour over it gradually, 
one pound of water, heated to 172 deg. ; 
all the ice ^vill become melted, and the tem- 
perature of the whole fluid, if examined by 
a thermometer, will be 32 deg.; 140 cleg-, 
of caloric are therefore lost, and it is this 
quantity which was requisite to convert the 
ice into water. 

This caloric has been called latent caloric, 
or rather caloric of fluidity, because its 
presence is not measurable by the thermo- 
meter. 

Dr, Black has also ascertained, by experi- 
ment, that the fluidity of melted wax, tal- 
low, spermaceti, metals, &c. is owing to 
the same cause ; and Ladriani proved that 
this is the case with sulphur, alum, nitrate 
of potash, &c. 

We consider it, therefore, as a general 
law, that whenever a solid is converted 
into a fluid, it combines with caloric, and 
that is the cause of fluidity. 

On the sudden transition of solids into 
fluids, is founded the well known 
Production of Artificial Cold, by Means of 
Frigorific Mixtures. 

A number of experiments have been 
lately made by difTrrent philosophers, in 
order to produce artificial cold. And as 
these methods are often employed in chy- 
mistry, with a view to expose bodies to 
the influence of very low temperatures, \ve 
shall enumerate the different substances 
which may be made use of for that pur- 
pose, and the degrees of cold which they 
are capable of producing. We are indebt- 
ed for them to Pepys, Walker, and Lo? 
witz. 



A TABLE OF FREEZING MIXTURES. 



Mixture*. 

Muriate of ammonia 
Nitrate of potash 
Water .... 


5 parts 
5 
16 


'1 'lit rmo meter Sinks 
From 50 to 10 


Muriate of ammonia 
Nitrate of potash 
Sulphate of soda 
Water .... 


5 
5 

8 
16 


From 50 to 4 


Sulphate of soda 
Diluted nitric acid - 


3 purts 
2 


From .50 to .3 


Sulphate of soda 
\fuvSatic acid ... 


8 parts 
5 


Fr-'m 50" t.> 


Snow .... 
Muriate of soda 


1 pan 
1 


From 32 to 0. 


Snow, or pounded ice 
Muriate of soda 


2 parts 

1 


From to 5. 


Snow, or pounded ice 
Muriate of soda - ' - 
Muriate of ammonia and - 
Nitrate of potash 


1 part 
5 

5 


From 5 to 18. 


Snow, or pounded ice 
Muriate of soda 
Nitrate of ammonia 


12 parts 
5 
5 


From 18 to 25. 


Snov t and 
Diluted nitric acid 


From to -46. 


Muriate of lime 
Snow .... 


3 purts 
2 


From 32 to 50. 


Potash - - 
Snow .... 


4 parts 
3 


From 32 to 51. 


Snow .... 
Diluted sulphuric acid 
Dimted nitric acid - 


2 parts 
1 
1 


From 10 to 56. 


Snow .... 

Diluted sulphuric acid 


1 part 

1 


From 20 to 60. 


Muriate of lime 
Snow .... 


2 pans 

1 


From to 66 P . 


Mur,ate of lime 
Snow .... 


3 pans 
1 


From 40 to 73. 


Diluted sulphuric acid 
Snow .... 


10 parts 
8 


From 68 to 91. 


Nivrate ol ammonia 
Water .... 


1 part 


From 50 to 4. 


Nitrate of ammonia 
Carbonate of soda 
Water .... 


1 part 
1 


From 50 to 3. 


Sulphate of soda 
Muriate of ammonia 
Nitrate of potash 
. Diluted nitric acid 


6 parts 

2 
4 


From 50 to 10. 


Sulphate of soda 
Nitrate of ammonia 
Diluted nitric acid 


6 parts 
5 
4 


From 50 to 14. 


Phosphate ot soda 
Diluted nitric acid - 


9 parts 

4 


From 50 to 12. 


Phosphate of soda 
Nitrate of ammonia - 
Diluted nitric acid - 


9 parts 
4 


From 50 to 21. 


Sulphate of soda 
Diluted sulphuric acid 


5 parts 
4 


From 50 to 3. 



CALORIC. 



153! 



Management of the preceding Mixtures Jor upon examination is found not to be hotter 
producing L'o d. than boiling- water. The caloric is there- 

To produce the effects before stated, the fore absorbed by the steam, and although 
salts mast be reduced to powder, and con- what is so absorbed is absolutely necessary 
tain their full quamitv of w*ter of crjstal- for the conversion of water into the form 
lization. The vessel in which the freezing- of steam, it does not increase its tempera- 
mixture is made should be very ihm, and ture, and is therfore not appreciable by the 
just large enough to hold it, and the mate- thermometer. 

This conclusion is further strengthened 
by the heat given out by steam on its being 
condensed by cold. This is particularly 
manifested in the condensation of this fluid 
in the process of distilling, where, upon 
examining the refrigeratory, it will be 
found that a much greater quantity of 
caloric is communicated to it, than could 
possibly have been transmitted by the calo- 
ric which was sensibly acting before the 
condensation. This may be easily ascer- 
tained by observing the quantity of caloric 



rials should be mixed together as expedi- 
tiously as possible, taking care to stir the 
mixuire at ihe same time with a rod of 
giu^s or wood. 

In i.-rder to obtain the full effect, the 
materials ought to be first cooled to the 
temperature marked in the table, by in- 
troducing them irito some of me other 
frigonnc mixture>, and then m ing ing them 
together in a similar mi||ure. If, for in- 



snow and diluted nitric acid ought to be 
cooled down to 0, by putting the vessel 
which contains each of them into the fifth 
freezing mixture in the above table, before 
they are mingled together. If a more in- 
tense cold be required, the materials to 
produce it are to be brought to the proper 



communicated to the water in the refrige- 
ratory of a still, by any given quantity of 
liquid that passes over. 

1. The boiling points of different fluids 
are influenced by atmospheric pressure. 

The boiling point, or the conversion of 



temperature by being previously placed in fluids into gases, always takes p ace at cer- 
tain temperatures, which is different in dif- 
ferent fluids, provided the pressure of the 



the second freezing mixture. 

This process is to be continued till the 



required degree of cold has been pro- atmosphere be the same 



cured. 

Conversion of Solids and Fluids into tJie 
Aeriform or Gaseous State. 



Put any quantity of sulphuric ether 
into a Florence flask, suspend a thermo- 
meter in it, and hold the flask over an 

We have seen before, that, in order to Argand's lamp, the ether will immediately 
render -solids fluid, a certain quantity of begin to boil, and the thermometer will 
caloric is necessary, which combines with indicate 98, if the ether has been highly 
the body, and therefore cannot be measured rectified, 
by the thermometer ; we shall now endea- 
vour to prove, that the same holds good in 
respect to the conversion of solids or fluids 
into the vaporous or gaseous stale. 



If highly rectified ardent spirit is heat- 
ed in a similar manner, the thermometer 
will rise to 176, and there remain sta- 
tionary. 

If water is substituted, it will rise to 



212. 
If strong nitrous acid of commerce be 



Take a small quantity of carbonate of 
ammonia, m.roduce it into a retort, the 
neck of which is directed under a cylinder 

filled with mercury and inverted in a basin made use of, it will be found to boil at 

of the same fluid. On applying heat to tiie 248 ; sulphuric acid at 546 ; and mer- 

body of the retort, the carbonate of ammo- cury and linseed-oil at 600, &c. 
nia will be volatilized, it will expel the 2 The boiling point of fluids is retarded 

mercury out of the cylinder, and become by pressure. 

an invisible gas, and would remain so, if its Mr. Watt heated water under a strong 
temperature was not lowered. pressure to 400 P . Yet still, when the pres- 
The same is the case with benzoic acid, sure was removed, only part of the water 
camphire, and various other substances. was converted into vapour, and the tern- 
All fluids may by the application of perature of this vapour, as well as that of 
heat be converted into an aeriform elastic the remaining fluid, was no more than 212. 
state. There was therefore 188 of caloric sud- 
When we consider water in a boiling denly lost. This caloric was carried off' by 
state, we find that this fluid, when examined the steam. Now as only about one-fifth of 
by the thermometer, is not hotter, after the water was converted into steam, that 
boiling several hours, than when it began steam must contain not only its own 188 9 , 
to boil, though to maintain it boiling, a but also the 188 lost by each of the other 
brisk fire must necessarily be kept up. four parts ; that is to say, it must contain 
What then, we may ask, becomes of the 188 x 5, or about 940. Steam, therefore, 
Wasted caloric ? It is not perceptible in is water combined with at least 940 of 
the water, nor is it manifested by the caloric, the presence of which is not indi- 
steam ; for the steam, if not compressed, cated by the thermometer. 



156 



CALORIC. 



3 When pressure is removed from the 
surface or bodies, their conversion into the 
gaseous state is greatly facilitated, or their 
boning point is lowered. 

In proof of this the following experiments 
may serve : 

Le; a small bottle be filled with highly 
rectified sulphuric ether, and a piece 
of wetted bladder be tied over its ori- 
fice around its neck. Transfer it under 
the receiver of an a^r-pump, and take away 
the super-incumbent pressure of the air in 
the receiver When the exhaustion is com- 
plete, pierce the bladder by means of a 
pointed sliding wire, passing through a 
collar of leather which covers the upper 
opening of the receiver. Having done this, 

ti\s* rti;,,- 



water, the ice will adhere to it, and may 
thus be drawn out conveniently. 

A person might be easily frozen to death 
during very warm weather, by merely pour- 
ing upon his body, for some time, sulphuric 
ether, and keeping him exposed to a tho- 
rough draught of air. 

Artificial Refrigeration. 

The cooling or refrigeration of rooms in 
the summer season by sprinkling them with 
water, becomes likewise obvious on this 
account. 

The method of making ice artificially in the 
East-Indies depends on the same principle. 
Tile ice-makers at Benares dig pits in large 
open plains, the bottom of which they 
strew with sugar-canes or dried stems of 



the ether w'dl instantly begin to boil, and maize or Indian cjw*n. Upon this bed they 

place a number (W unglazed pans, made of 



become converted into an invisible gaseous 
fluid. 

Take a small retort or Florence flask, 
fill it one half, or less, with water, and 
make it boil over a lamp ; when kept 
briskly boiling', for about five minutes, 
cork the mouth of the retort as expedi- 
tiously as possible, and remove it from the 
lamp 

The water, on being removed from the 



so porous an earth that the water pene- 
trates through their whole substance. 
These pans are filled towards evening in 
the winter season with water that has 
boiled, and left in that situation till morn- 
ing, when more or less ice is found in them, 
according to the temperature of the air ; 
there being more formed in dry and warm 
weather, than in that which is cloudy, 



source of heat, will keep boiling for a few though it may be colder to the human body 



minutes, and when the ebullition begins to 
slacken, it may be renewed by dipping the 
retort into cold water. 



Every thing in this process is calculated 
to produce cold by evaporation; the beds 
on which the pans are placed suffer the 



The water during boiling becomes con- air to have free passage to their bottoms ; 



verted into vapour ; this vapour expels the 
air of the vessel, and occupies its place ; on 
diminishing the heat, it condenses ; when 
the reiort is stopped, a partial vacuum is 
formed; the pres-ure becomes diminished, 



and the pans, constantly oozing out water 
to their external surface, are cooled by the 
evaporation of it. 

In Spain, they use a kind of earthen jars, 
called buxaros, which are only half-baked, 



and a less degree of heat is sufficient to the earth of which is so porous, that the 



cause an ebullition. 

For the same reason water may be made 
to boil under the exhausted receiver at 94 
Fi hr. or even at a much lower degree ; 
alkohol at 56, and ether at 20. 

On the conversion of fluids into gases 
is founded the following experiment, by 
which water is frozen by means of sulphu- 
ric edier. 

T.ike a thin glass tube, four or five inches 
long, and about two or three-eighths of an 
inch in diameter, and a two-ounce bottle 
furnished with a capillary tube fitted to its 
neck. In order to make ice, pour a little 
water into the tube, taking care not to 
wet the outside, nor to leave it moist. 



outside is kept moist by the water which 
filters through it, and though placed in the 
sun, the water in the jar becomes as cold 
as ice. 

It is a common practice in China to cool 
wine or other liquors by wrapping the bot- 
tle in a wet cloth, and hanging it up in 
the sun. The water in the cloth becomes 
converted into vapour, and thus cold is 
produced. 

The Blacks in Senegambia have a similar 
method of cooling water by filling tanned 
leather bags with it, which they hang up 
in the sun ; the water oozes more or less 
through the leather, so as to keep the out- 
ward surface wet, which by its quick and 



Having done ihis, let a stream of sulphuric continued evaporation cools the water re- 
ether fail through the capillary tube upon nurkably. 

that p,.rt of it obtaining the water, which The winds on the borders of the Persian 

by this means will be 'converted into ice in Gulph are often so scorching, that travel- 

a few minutes, and this it will do even near lers are suddenly suffocated, unless they 

a fire, or in the midst of summer. ccover their heads with a wet cloth ; if 

If the glass tube containing the water be this be too wet, they immediately feel an 

exposed to the brisk thorough air, or free intolerable cold, which would prove fatal 

draught ot an open window, a large quan- if the moisture was not speedily dissipated 

tity of water may be frozen in a shorter by the heat. 

time; and if a thin spiral wire be intro- It a cold vessel is brought into a warm 

duced prveiotis to the congelation of the room, particularly where many people are 



CALORIC. 



157 



assembled, the outside of it will soon be- proportion of their quantities. It will be 

come covered with a sort of dew. found on examination to be only 47. 

Before some changes of weather, the On the contrary ; if the pound of 

stone pavements, the walls of a house, the mercury be heated to 44 and the wa- 

balustrades of staircases and other solid ter to 110, then on stirring them toge- 



objects, feel clammy and damp. 

In frosty nights, when the air abroad is 
colder than the air within, the- dampness 
of this air, for the same reason, settles on 



ther the common temperature will be 
107. 

Hence if the quicksilver loses by this 
distribution 63 of caloric, an equal weight 

the glass panes of the windows, and is there of water gains only 3 from this loss of 63 
frozen into curious and beautiful figures. of heat. And on the contrary, if the water 

Thus fogs and dews take place, and in the loses 3, the mercury gains 63. 
higher regions clouds are formed from the When, instead of comparing the quanti- 
cdndensed vapour. The still greater con- ties of caloric which equal -weights of dif- 
densation produces mists arid-rain, ferent bodies contain, we compare the 

Capacity of Bodies for containing Heat. quantities contained in equal volumes, we 

The property which different bodies pos- still find that the same difference takes 
sess, of containing at the same temperature, place. Thus it is found by experiment, 
and in equal quantities, either of mass or that the quantity of caloric necessary to 
bulk, unequal quantities of heat, is called raise the temperature of a given volume of 
their capacity for heat. The capacities of water any number of degrees, is, to that 
bodies for heat are therefore considered as necessary to raise an equal volume of'mer- 
great or small in the ratio as their tempera- cury, the same number of degrees as 2 to 
tures are either raised or lowered by \he 1. This is therefore the proportion between 
addition, or diminished by the deprivation the comparative quantities of caloric which 
of equal quantities of heat. these two bodies contain, estimated by 

In homogeneous bodies, the quantities of their volumes ;and similar differences exist 
caloric vy Inch they contain are m the ratio with respect to every other kind of matter. 



of their temperature and quantity of mass ; 
for instance, when equal quantities of water, 
oil, or mercury, of unequal temperatures, 
are mingled together, the temperature of 
the whole will be the arithmetical mean 
between the temperatures of the two quan- 
tities that had been mixed together. It is 
a self-evident truth that this should be the 
case, for the particles of different portions 



of the same substance being alike, their ef- compared. 



From the nature of the experiments by 
which the quantities of caloric which bodies 
contain are ascertained, it is evident that 
we discover 'merely the comparative, not 
the absolute quantities. Hence water has 
been chosen as a standard, to which other 
bodies may be referred ; its capacity is 
stated as the arbitrary term of 1000, and 
with this the capacities of other bodies are 



fects must be equal. For instance : 

Mix a pound of water at 172, with 
a pound at 32, half the excess of heat 
in the hot water will quit it to go over 
into the colder portion ; thus the hot 
water will be cooled 70, and the cold will 



It need not be told that pains have been 
taken to estimate on these experiments 
that portion of heat which diffuses itself 
into the air or into the vessel where the 
mercury and water are blended together. 
As however such valuations cannot be 



receive 70 of temperature ; therefore 172 made with complete accuracy, the numbers 

70, or 32-{-70=102 will give the heat of stated above'are only an approximation to 

the mixture. To attain the arithmetical truth. 

mean very exactly, several precautions how- Radiation of Caloric. 

ever are necessary. Caloric is thrown off or radiates from 

When heterogenous bodies of different heated bodies in right lines, and moves 

temperatures are mixed together, the tern- through space with inconceivable velocity, 

perature produced is never the arithmetical It is retarded in its passage by atmospheric 

mean of the two original temperatures. air, by colourless fluids, glass, and other 

In order to ascertain the comparative transparent bodies. 

quantities of heat of different bodies, equal If a glass mirror be placed before a fire, 

weights of them are mingled together ; the the mirror transmits the rays of light, but 



experiments for this purpose being in gene 
ral more easily executed than those by 



not the rays of heat. 

If a plate of glass, talc, or a glass vessel 



which they are compared from equal filled with water be suddenly interposed 
bulks. 

Thus, if one pound of mercury heated 
to 110 Fahr. be added to one pound 
of water of 44, the temperature of the 



between the .fire and the eye, the rays of 
light pass through it, but the rays of caloric 
are considerably retarded in its passage ; 
for no heat is perceived until the inter- 



blended fluids will not be changed to posed substance is saturated with heat, or 
77, as it it would be if the surplus of heat has reached its maximum. It then ceases to 
were divided among those fluids in the intercept the rays of caloric, and allows 



158 



CALORIC. 



them to pass as freely as the rays of 
light. 

It has been lately shewn by Dr. Herschel 
that the rays of caloric are refrangible, but 
less s\> than the I'ays of light ; and the same 
philosopher has also proved by experiment, 
that 11 is not only the rays of caloric emitted 
by the sun, which are refrangible, but like- 
wise the rays emitted by common fires, by 
candles, by heated iron, and even by hot 
water. 

Whether the rays of caloric are different- 
ly refracted, in different mediums, has not 
yet been ascertained. We are certain, how- 
ever, that they are refracted by all trans- 
parent bodies which have been employed 
as burning glasses. 

The rays of caloric are also reflected by 
polished surfaces, in the same manner as 
the rays of light. 

Tins was long ago noticed by Lambert, 
Saussure, Sheele, I'ictet, and lately by Dr. 
Herschf.il. 

Professor Pictet placed two concave 
metallic mirrors opposite to each other at 
the distance of about twelve feet. When a 
hot body, an iron bullet for instance, was 
placed in the focus of the one, and a mer- 
curial thermometer m that of the othej:, a 
substance radiated from the bullet ; it 
passed with incalculable velocity through 
the air, it was reflected from the mirrors, 
it became concentrated, and influenced the 
thermometer placed in the focus, according 
to the degree of its concentration. 

An iron ball, two inches in diameter, 
heated so that it was not luminous in the 
dark, raised the thermometer not less than 
ten and a halt degrees ot Reaumur';* scale, 
in six minutes. 

A lighted candle occasioned a rise in the 
thermometer nearly the same. 

A Florence flask, containing two ounces 
and three drachms of boiling water, raised 
Fahrenheit's thermometer three degrees. 
He blackened the bulb of his thermometer, 
and found that it was more speedily in- 
fluenced by the radiation than before, and 
that it rose to a greater height. 

M. Pictet discovered another very singu- 
lor fact ; namely, the apparent radiation of 
cold. When, instead of a heated body, a 
Florence flask full of ice or snow is placed 
in the focus of one of the mirrors, the 
thermometer placed in the focus of the 
other immediately descends, and ascends 
again whenever the cold body is removed. 

This phenomenon may be explained on 
the supporition, that from every body at 
every temperature caloric radiates, but in 
less quantity as the temperature is low ; so 
that in the above experiment, the ther- 
mometer gives out more caloric by radia- 
tion, than it receives from the body in the 
opposite focus, and therefore its tempera- 
ture is lowered. Or, as Pictet has supposed, 



when a number of bodies near to each 
other have the same temperature, there is 
no radiation ot caloric, because in all of 
them it exists in a state of equal tension ; 
but as soon as a body at an inferior tem- 
perature is introduced, the balance ot ten- 
sion is broken, and caloric begins 10 radiate 
Irom all of them, till the temperature of 
that, body is raised to an equality with 
theirs. In the above experiment, therefore, 
the placing tne snow or ice in the focus 
of the mirror causes the radiation of ca- 
loric from the thermometer, and hence 
the diminution of temperature which it 
suffers. 

These experiments have been lately re- 
peated by Dr. Young and Professor Davy, 
at the theatre of the Royal Institution. 
These gentlemen inflamed phosphorus by 
reflected caloric ; and proved that the heat 
thus excited was very sensible to the organs 
of feeling. 

It is therefore evident that caloric is 
thrown oft' from bodies in rays which are 
invisible, or incapable of exciting vision, 
but winch are capable ot exciting iieat. 

These invisible rays of caloric are pro- 
pagated in right lines, with extreme velo- 
city, and are capable of the laws of re- 
flection and refraction. 

The healing agency however is different 
in the different coloured rays of the pris- 
matic spectrum. According to Dr. Hers- 
chei's experiments, it follows inversely the 
order of the refrangibtlity of the rays of 
light. The least refrangible possessing it 
in the greatest degree. 

Sir Henry Engietield has lately made a 
series ot experiments on the same subject, 
from which we learn that a thermometer, 
having its bah blackened, rose when placed 
in tne blue ray of the prismatic spectrum 
in 3' from o5 y to 56 ; in the green, in 3' 
from 45 W to 58 W ; in ihe yellow, in 3' from 
56* to 62*'; iii ihe full reu t m 2 I-/ from 56 
to 7^ ; in the confines of Hie red, in 2' 
ti-oni 5d u to 73 10-^uij and quite out of the 
visible tight, in 2' from 61 to 79. 

Between each of the observations, the 
thermometer was placed m the shade so 
long, as to sink it beiow the heat to which 
it had risen in the preceding observation, 
of course its rise above that point could 
only ue the effect of the ray to which it 
was exposed, it was continued m the 
focus long after it tiad ceased to rise ; there- 
tore the lieau iveu are the greatest effects 
of the several rays on the thermometer in 
eacn observation. A thermometer placed 
constantly in tiie shade near the apparatus, 
was found scarcely to vary during ihe 
experiments. 

Sir Henry made other experiments with 
thermometers with naked balls, and with 
others whose balls were painted white, for 
which we refer the reader to the interesting 



CAL 



CAM 



159 



paper of the Baronet, from which the above boiling water, and cleared from extraneous 

experiments are transcribed. matters. See Lime. 

The coloured rays emitted from the sun CALX ANTIMOTUI. See Oxydum antimonii. 

and combustible bodies, since they excite CALX CUM KALI PURO. The preparation 

heat and vision, must consist of a mixture formerly called by this name is now term- 

of heat-making rays, and rays of light. ed, in the London pharmacopoeia, potassa 

And as the rays of heat and light ac- cum calce. 

company each other when emitted from CALX HYDRARGYRI ALBA. See hydrargy- 

luminous bodies, the velocity with which rua praecipitatus albus. 

the rays of caloric move must be equal to CALX VIVA. See Calx. 

that of light, and hence its particles must CALYPTER. (From x&>,v7r<rto, to hide.) A 

be equally minute. They differ however carneous excrescence covering the hemor- 

in this particular, that the rays of light pro- rhoidal vein. 

duce the sensation oi vision, and possess CAMARA. (to./**?*, a vault.) Camarinm. 

certain chemical properties, whilst in those The fornix of the brain : also the vaulted 

of caloric the peculiar agency of heat re- part of the auricle of the heart, 

sides. CAMARIUM. (From K^pa, a vault.) 

CALORIMETER. An instrument by See Camaru. 

which the whole quantity of absolute heat CAMAROMA. (From **//*/>*, a vault.) 

existing in a body in chemical union can be Camarosis. Camaratio. A fracture of the 

. V , !,.,, II il 



ascertained. 
CALTHA. 



(Kstxfl*, corrupted from 



skull, in the shape of an arch or vault. 

CAMBIN-G. A tree of the Molucca islands, 

yellow, from whence, says Vossius, whose bark has been recommended in dy- 
conie caltliula, caldula, caledula, calendu- senteries. 
la.) Marsh marigold. 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnsean system. Class, Polyandria. Order, 



Polyg-ynia. 



CAMBIREA. So Paraselsus calls the vene- 
real bubo. 

CAMBIUM. (From cambio, to exchange.) 
That nutricious humour which is changed in- 

4^ 4-K . i?...!- ! ~1, 4.1 1 !__*_ 



2. The pharmacopceial name of the herb to the matter of which the body is composed, 
marigold, so called from its colour. See CAMBODIA. See Gambogia. 
Calendula arvensis. 

CALTHA PALUSTRIS. The marsh mari- 
gold. The young buds of this plant make, 
when properly pickled, very good substi- 
tutes for capers. 

CALTHA VULGARIS. See Calendula 



The caltha is so called. 



arvensis. 

CALTHULAi 

CALTROPS. 

of Linnaeus, whose fruit is said to be m .- 
tritious and demulcent, and to be useful in 
diarrhoeas from abraded bowels, and against 
calculus. 

CALUMBA. The name now adopted 
by the London college of physicians for the 
columbo. See Columbo. 

CALVA. (From calviu t bald.) The scalp 
or upper part of the cranium or top of the 
head; so called because it often grows 
bald first. 

CALVARIA. (From calvus, bald.) The 
upper part of the cranium which becomes 



CAMBOGIA GUTTA. See Gambogia. 

CAMBOGIUM. (From the province of Cam- 
bogia, whence it was brought.) See Gam- 
bogia. 

CAMBRO-BHITANNICA. See Chamcemorus. 

CAMBUCA, Cambuta membrata. So 
Paracelsus O'lls the venereal cancer. Also 
b> some it is described as a bubo, an ulcer, 



A name of the Trapa natans an abscess on the pudenda : also a boil in 
the groin. 

CAMBUI. The wild American myrtle of 
Piso and Margrave, which is said to be 
astringent. 

Camel's hay. See Juncus odoratns. 

CAMERA. The chambers or cavities 
of the eye are termed camera. 

CAMRATIO. See Camaroma. 

GAMES. Camet. Silver. 

CAMI^OA. See Canella alba. 

CAMIXUS. A furnace and its chimney. 
In 'RuJandus it signifies a bell. 

CAMISIA FCETUS. (From the Arabic 



soon bald. It means all above the orbits, term kamisah, an under garment.) The 
temples, ears and ocipital eminence. shirt of the foetus. It is frequently put for 

CALVITIES. (From calvus, bald.) Cal- 
vitium Baldness ; want or loss of hair, 
particularly upon the sinciput. 

CALX. (Kalah, to burn. 

1. Chalk. Limestone. 

2. Lime. Calx viva. The London College 
direct it to be prepared thus : Take of 



Arab.) 



limestone one pound. Break it into small brings men to a miserable end.) A species 



the chorion; 

Camomile. See Chamtemelum. 

Camomile, stinking. See Cotulafcetida. 

CAMOMILLA. Corrupted from chamae- 
melum. 

C AMMO RUM. (x.&ju.ju.6pw t qiiia homines^ 
ftcpot, perimat ; because, if eaten, it 



pieces and heat it in a crucible in a strong 
fire for an hour, or until the carbonic acid 
is entirely driven off, so that on the addition 
of acetic acid, no bubbles of gas shall be 
extricated. Lime may be made by the same 



of monkshood. See Jtcamt-um, 

CAMPANA. A bell. In Chemistry, a recep- 
tacle like a bell, for making sulphuric acid ; 
thus the oleum sulphuris per campanam. 

CAMPANULA. (From Campana, a bell, 



process from shells previously washed in named from its shape.) The bell-flower. 



160 



CAM 



CAM 



The name of a genus of plants in the Lin- 
nsean system. Class, Pentandria. Order, 
Monogynia. 

CAMPE. (From K^TT, to bend.) A 
flexure or bending. It is also used for the 
ham, and a joint, or articulation-: 

Campeachy -wood. See Ligmim canipe- 
chense. 

CAMPECHTENSE LIGNUM. See Lignum Cam- 
pechense. 

Camphire. See Camphora. 

Camphor. See Camphora. 

CAMPHORA. (Cumpliura, Arab. The 
ancients by camphor meant what now is 
called asphaltum, or Jews' pitch ; x.a.qxpx.. ) 
Catnphura. Caf. Cafar. Ligatura veneris. 
Caphora. Capur. JLlkoxor. Jiltesor. Camphire. 
Camphor. A peculiar concrete substance 
prepared by distillation from the Launis 
camphora of Linnaeus \-folV'.- triplinerviia 
lanceoluto-ovatis, utree indigenous to Japan, 
where it grows abundantly. The camphii e 
is found to lodge every whei*e in the inter- 
stices of the fibres of the wood, pith, and 
knots of the tree. The crude camphire, 
exported from Japan, appears in small grey- 
ish pieces, and is intermixed with various 
extraneous matters ; in this state it is re- 
ceived by the Dutch, and purified by a se- 
cond sublimation ; it is then formed into 
loaves, in which state it is sent to England. 
When pure, it is white, pellucid, somewnat 
unctuous to the touch ; of a bitterish, aro- 
matic, acid taste, yet accompanied with a 
sense of coolness ; of a fragrant smell, and 
approaching to that of rosemary, but much 
stronger. It is totally volatile and inflam- 
mable, soluble in vinous spirits, oils, and 
the mineral acids ; not in water, fixed nor 
volatile alkaline liquors, nor in acids of the 
vegetable kingdom. The use of this im- 
portant medicine, in different diseases, is 
very considerable. It has been much em- 
ployed, with great advantage, in fevers of 
all kinds, particularly in nervous fevers 
attended with delirium and much watchful- 
ness. The experienced Werlhoff has xvit- 
nessed its utility in several inflammatory 
diseases, and speaks highly in favour of Ls 
refrigerant qualities. T!;e benefit dt-rived 
from it in putrid fevers, where bark and 
acids are contra-indicated, is remark, ble. 
In spasmodic and convulsive affections it 
is also of much service, and even in epi- 
lepsy. In chronic diseases this medicine is 
likewise employed ; and against rheumatism, 
arthritis, and mania, we have several ac- 
counts of its efficacy. Nor is it less effic t- 
cious when applied externally in certain 
diseases : it dissipates inflammatory tumours 
in a short time ; and its antiscepiic quality, 
in resisting and during gangrene, is very 
considerable. Another property peculiar 
to this medicine must not, however, be 
omitted ; the power it possesses of obvi- 
ating the strangury that is produced by 
cantharides, when sprinkled over a blister. 



The preparations of camphor are, spiritus 
camphoratus, oleum camphoratum, linimentun* 
camphors, tinctura opii camphorata, and the 
mistura camphorata. Camphor dissolved in 
acetic acid, with some essential oils, forms 
the aromatic viregar. 

CAMPHORS FLOUES. The subtile sub- 
stance which first ascends in subliming cam- 
phor. It is nothing more than the camphor. 

CAMPHORS FLORES COMPOSITI. Camphor 
sublimed with gum benzoin. 

CAMPHOROSMA. (From camphcra, 
and OO-/UH, to smell ; so called from its smell- 
ing of camphire.) The camphor-smelling 
plant. 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnxan system. Class, Tetrandria. Or- 
der, JWonogynia 

2. The pi-iarmacopocial name of the cam- 
phorala. See Camphorala. 

CAMPHORASMA. (From camphora: so call- 
ed from its camphor-like smell ) Balm of 
Gilead. See Moldavica. 

CAMPHORATA. Chamaepeuce. Camphorata 
hirsuta. Camphorasma Monspeliaca. Stink- 
ing ground-pine. This plant, Camphorosma 
Monspeliensis of Linnaeus :foliis hirsutis 
linear i bus, took its name from its smell re- 
sembling so strongly that of camphor : it 
has been exhibited internally, in form of de- 
coction, in dropsical and asthmatic com- 
plaints, and by some is esteemedin fomen. 
tations agains pain. It is rarely or ever 
used inmodern practice. 

CAMPHORAS. A salt formed by the 
union of the camphoric acid with different 
bases : thus, camphor at ofallumin, camphor at 
of ammoniac, &c. 

CAMPHORATUM OLEUM. A mixture of 
olive, oil, two parts, with one of camphor: 
of use in inflammatory swellings of the 
throat, if mixed with a proper cataplasm, 
and applied to it. In ascites, when the ab- 
domen is much distended, if rubbed on 
freely every night and morning, it is sup- 
posed to be useful. 

CAMPHORIC ACID. JLddum camphori- 
cum. If nitric ::c'ul be distilled several times 
(s:x or eight) from camphor, a crystallized 
salt is obtained, called the acid of camphor, 
which reddens syrup of violets and the tinc- 
ture of turnsole. Its taste is bitter, and it 
differ.-* from oxalic acid in not precipitating 
lime from the muriatic acid. Th^ union of 
ihis acid with different bases forms what is 
ca'led camp?. orates, none of which i ave yet 
been used medicinally. 

CAMPHOROSMA MOKSPELIEXSIS. The 
systematic name of the plant called cam- 
phorata in the pharmacopoeias. See Cam' 
phorata. 

CAMPTEH. (From xsi^ca-?*, to bend.) An 
inflexion or incurvation. 

CAMPULXJM. (From K&f*7r<ra>, to twist 
about.) A distortion of the eyelids or other 
parts. 

CAMPYLOTIS. (From xayusryTve?, bent. 



CAN 



CAN 



161 



A preternatural incurvation, or recurva- 
tion of a part. A distortion of the eye- 
lids. 

CAMPILUM. See Campylotis.. 

CANABIJ,. A sort of medicinal earth. 

CAJTABINA AQ.UATICA. See JSidens. 

CANABIS INBICA. See Banque and Can- 
nabis 

Canada Balsam. See Balsamum Cana- 
dense. 

CANABIS PEREGRINA. See Cannabis. 

CANADENSIS. (Brought from Canada.} 
A name of the copuiva and other balsams. 

CAN ALES SEMIC1RCULARES. Three 
semicircular canals placed in the posterior 
part of the labyrinth of the ear. They 
open by five orifices into the vestibulum. 
See Ear. 

CANALICUUJS. (Dim. of canaUs, a chan- 
nel.) That blood-vessel, which in a foetus 
is situated between the pulmonary artery 
and the aorta, but in the adult is extinct, 
is called the canaliculus arteriosus. The 
same as canalis arteriosus. 

CANALIS. (From <tvo?, an aperture, 
or rather from canna, a reed.) A Canal. 
A hollow round instrument like a reed, for 
embracing and holding a broken limb. The 
hollow of the spine. Also it is specifically 
applied to many parts of the body ; as ca- 
nalis -venosus. 

CANALIS ARTERIOSUS. Canalis Bo- 
tatii. A blood-vessel peculiar to the foetus, 
disappearing after birth ; through which 
the blood passes from the pulmonary artery 
into the aorta. 

CANALIS NASALIS. A canal going 
from the internal canthus of the eye down- 
wards into the nose : it is situated in the 
superior maxillary bone, and is lined with 
the pituitary membrane continued from the 
nose. 

CANALIS PET1TIANUS. A triangular 
eavity, naturalhy containing a moisture, be- 
tween the two laminae of the hyaloid mem- 
brane of the eye, in the anterior part, form- 
ed by the separation of the anterior lamina 
from the posterior. It is named after its 
discoverer, M. Petit. 

CANAUS SEMISPETROS. The half bony 
canal of the ear. 

CANALIS VENOSUS. A canal pecti- 
liar to the foetus, disappearing after birth, 
that conveys the maternal blood from the 
porta of the liver to the ascending vena 
cava. 

Canary balm. See Melissa Turcica. 

CANCAMUM GRJECORUM. See Courbaril. 

CANCELLI. Lattice-work ; generally 
applied to the reticular substance in bones. 

CANCELLUS. (From cancer, a crab.) The 
wrong heir. Bernard the hermit. A spe- 
cies of cray-fish supposed to cure rheuma- 
tism, if rubbed on the part. 

CANCER. (From Kx.px.noc, a crab ; so 
called by the ancients, because it exhibited 
large blue veins like crab's claws.) 



1. The name of a disease likewise called 
Carcinoma, carcinos by the Greeks, Lupus 
by the Romans, because it eats away the 
flesh like a wolf. Dr. Cullen places this 
genus of disease in the class locales, and 
order tumores. He defines it a painful 
scirrhus tumour, terminating in a fatal 
ulcer. Any part of the body may be the 
seat of cancer, though the glands are most 
subject to it. It is distinguished according 
to its stages into occult and open ; by the 
former is meant its scirrhous state, which 
is a hard tumour that sometimes remains, 
in a quiet state for many years. When the 
cancerous action commences in it, it is 
attended with frequent shooting pains : the 
skin that covers it becomes discoloured, and 
ulceration sooner or later takes place ; when 
the disease is denominated open cancer. 
Mr. Pearson says, " When a malignant scir- 
rhus or a warty excrescence, hath proceeded 
to a period of ulceration, attended with a 
constant sense of ardent and occasionally 
shooting pains, is irregular in its figure, and 
presents an unequal surface; if it discharges 
sordid, sanious or fetid matter ; if the edges 
of the sore be thick, indurated, and often 
exquisitely painful, sometimes inverted, at 
other times retorted, and exhibit a serrated 
appearance ; and should the ulcer in its 
progress be frequently attended with 
haemorrhage, in consequence of the erosio.n 
of blood-vessels ; there will be little hazard 
of mistake in calling it a cancerous ulcer." 
In men, a cancer most frequently seizes 
the tongue, mouth, or penis ; in women, the 
breasts, or the uterus, particularly about 
the cessation of their periodical diseharges ; 
and in children, in the eyes. The following 
description of Scirrhus and Cancer, from 
the above writer, will serve to elucidate the 
subject. A hard unequal tumour that is 
indolent and without any discoloration in 
the skin is called a scirrhus ; but when an 
itching is peceived in it, which is followed 
by a pricking, shooting or lancinating pain, 
and a change of colour in the skin, it is 
usually denominated a cancer. It generally 
is small in the beginning and increases 
gradually ; but though the skin changes to 
a red or livid appearance, and the state of 
the tumour from an indolent to a painful 
one, it is sometimes very difficult to say 
when the scirrhus really becomes a cancer, 
the progress being quick or slow according 
to concurring causes. When the tumour 
is attended with a peculiar kind of burning, 
shooting pains, and the skin hath acquired 
the dusky purple or livid line, it may then 
be deemed the malignant scirrhus or con- 
firmed cancer. When thus far advanced in 
women's breasts, the tumour sometimes in- 
creases speedily to a great size, having a 
knotty unequal surface, more glands becom- 
ing obstsucted, the nipple sinks in, turgid 
veins are conspicuous, ramifying around and 
resembling a crab's claw. These are thfe 
Y 



CAN- 



CAN 



bharacteristics of an occult cancer on the 
external parts ; and we muy suspect the 
existence of one internally when such pain 
and heat as has been described, succeed in 
p&rts where the patient hath before been 
sensible of a weight and pressure, attended 
with obtuse pain. A cancerous tumour 
never melts down in suppuration like an 
inflammatory one : but when it is ready to 
break open, especially in the breast, it ge- 
nerally becomes prominent in some minute 
point, attended with an increase of the 
peculiar kind of burning-, shooting 1 pain, 
felt before at intervals, in a less degree and 
deeper in the body of the gland. In the 
prominent parts of the tumour, in this state, 
a corroding 1 ichor sometimes transudes 
through the skin, soon forming an ulcer ; 
at other times a considerable quantity of a 
thin lymphatic fluid tinged with blood from 
eroded vessels is found on it. Ulcers of the 
cancerous nature discharge a thin, fetid, 
acrid sanies, which corrodes the parts, hav- 
ing thick dark-coloured ivtorted lips ; and 
fungous excressences frequently rise from 
these ulcers, notwithstanding the corrosive- 
ness of the discharge. In this state they 
are often attended with excruciating, pun- 
gimtj lancinating, burning pains, and some- 
times with bleeding. 

Though a scirrhus may truly be deemed 
a cancer, as soon as a pain is perceived in it, 
yet every painful tumour is not a cancer ; 
nor is it always easy to say whether a cancer 
is the disorder or not : irregular hard lumps 
may be perceived in the breast ; but on 
examining the other breast, where no un- 
easiness is perceived, the same kind of -tu- 
mours are sometimes found, which renders 
the diagnostic uncertain. Yet in every case, 
after the cessation of the cutamenia, hard 
unequal tumours in the breast are suspi- 
cious ; nor, though without p;iin, are they 
to be supposed indolent or innoxious, 

2 The name of a crib-fish, from which 
the chdtf cancrorum, oculi cancrorum, or lapi- 
-des cancronnti are produced The shell-fish 
so calied is the Cancer -astacus of Linnaeus: 
the ,fficinal preparations are nevertheless 
obl'i-r.evl also from the cancw gammarus, 
macurus and pagarns of Linnaeus. Crab's 
cl \v ud crab's eyes, as they are called, 
which ai-f cerebral concretions, are of a cal- 
careous quality and possess antacid virtues. 
They are exhibited with their compounds 
in pyrosis, diarrhoea, and in infantile convul- 
sions from ac'.dity. 

CANCER ttUNuiTonuM. Chimney-sweep- 
er's cancer. 

CANCHHYS Cachrys. IJbanotis. Galen 
? VH it sometimes means parched barley. 

''AN-CHUNA. Paracelsus uses this word 
;.! >f j/aitgi scna. 

d HUM CHEL.TE Crab's claws. See 

r cakis durior. 

HHOHUM OCULI. $QeCarboims cal- 



CANCHIIUM ouis. (From cancer, a spread- 
ing ulcer.) Canker of the mouth ; called 
also aphtha: serpentes, gangrxna oris, &c. 
See Jlphtfuc. 

CANDELA. (From candeo, to shine.) A 
candle. 

CANDELA FTTMAT.IS. A candle made of 
odoriferous powders and resinous matters,, 
to purify the air UK! excite the spirits. 

CANDELA REGIA See Candelaria. 

CANDELAIUA. (From candela, a candle, 
so called from the resemblance of its stalks 
to a candle.) The herb mullein. See Ver- 
bascum. 

Candij carrot. See Daucus Creticus.. 

CANELA Sometimes used by the ancients 
for cinnamon, or rather cassia. 

CANELLA. (CaneUa, dim. of canna, a 
reed : so named because the pieces of bark 
are rolled up m the form of a reed.) The 
name of a genus of plants in the Linn scan 
system. Class, JJodecandria. Order, Mo~ 
nogynia. The canella-tree. 

CANELLA, ALBA Tlie pharmacopoeial 
nnmc of the laure-leaved canella Cortex 
Winter amis spurius. Cuncila cubana Ca- 
nella alba of Linnaeus. The tree which pro- 
duces the b.^rk so called, is a native of the 
West-Indies. It is brought into Europe in 
long quills, somewhat thicker than cinna- 
mon ; their taste is moderately warm, aro- 
matic, and bitterish ; arid of an agreeable 
smell, somewhat resembling that of cloves. 
Canella alba has been supposed to pos- 
sess considerable medicinal powers in the 
cure of the scurvy and some other com- 
plaints. It is now merely considered as a 
useful and cheap aromatic, and is chiefly 
employed for the purpose of correcting, and 
rendering less disagreeable the more pow- 
erful and nauseous drugs ; with which v<ew 
it is used in the tinctura amara, vinum ama- 
rum, vinum rhtfi, &c. of the Edinburgh 
Pharmacopoeia. 

CAXELLA CUBANA. See Canella alba. 

CANELLA CUURDO. The true cinnamon- 
tree. 

CANELLA MALABARICJE CORTEX. See 
Cassia lignea. 

CANELIFERA MALABARICA. See Cassia 
lignea. 

CAXEON. (From X.O.VVH, because it was 
made of split cane.) A sort of tube or in- 
strument, mentioned by Hippocrates, for 
conveying the fumes of antihysteric drugs 
into the womb. 

CANICA. A spice used m the Island of 
Cuba, probably the pimento; or from some 
of the species of myrrhs. 

CANICJE. (From canis.) Coarse meal 
was so called by the ancients, from canis, a 
dog, because it was food for dogs. Hence 
pants caniceus, very coarse bread 

CANICIDA. (From canis, a dog, and c<edo, 
to kill ; so called because dogs are destroy- 
ed by eating it.) The herb dog's bane or 
aconitum. 



CAN 

. CANICIDITTM. (From cants, a dog;, and 
c<edo, to kill.) The anatomical dissection 
of living dogs. 

CANIJTA BRASSICA. The mercurialis syl- 



CAN 



ids 



CANINA LIXGUA. The cynoglossum. 

CAXIXA MALUS. The mandragora. 

C A NINA RABIES. The hydrophobia. 

CANIXE. Whatever partakes of, or has 
any relation to the nature of a dog. 

Canine appetite. See Bulimia. 

Canine: madness. See Hydrophobia^ 

CANINE TEETH. Denies canini. Cyno- 
dontes. Cuspidati of Mr. John Hunter ; 
because they have the two sides of 
their edge sloped off to a point, and this 
point is very sharp or cuspidated. Coln- 
mellares of Varro and P!iny. The four 
eye-teeth are so called from their re.sem- 
btance to those of the dog. They are 
situHted, two in each jaw, on the side of 
the four middle or incisor .teeth. Their 
fangs ure longer than those of the incisores, 
and therefore, from the fungs of those in 
the upper j:nv heing supposed to extend 
the greatest part of the way to the eye, 
they have been called the eye-teeth. 

CANINUS. (Caninus, sc. musculus ; be- 
cause it arises near the canine or eye-tooth. ) 
See Levator angidi oris. 

CAXINUS SEXTIS. (From canis, a dog, 
and sentis, a thorn ; from its being prickly, 
like a thorn.) See Cynosbatos. 

CASURAM. (Indian.) See Nux vomica. 

CAXIRUBUS. (From canis, and rubus, a 
bramble.) See Cynosbatos. 

CANIS. A dog. The white dung of 
this animal called album gr<ecum, was for- 
merly in esteem? but now disused. This 
term was also applied to the fraenum of the 
penis. 

CANUS IXTERFECTOR. Indian caustic bar- 
ley or cevadilla. 

CAXIS PONTICUS. See Castor. 

CANXA. (Heb ) A reed or hollow cane : 
also a name of the fibula, from its resem- 
blance to a reed. 

C A NJTA FISTULA. See Cassia Jistiila. 

CAN^A INDICA. The Sagittaria alexi- 
pharmica. 

CANNA MAJOR. The tibia. 

CANXA MINOR CRTJRIS. A name formerly 
applied to the fibula. 

CANNABINA. (From canna, a reed ; 
named from its reed-like stalk.) So Tourne- 
fort named the Dali^ca. 

CANNABIS. (From Kitvvat,, a reed. 
K&VVX.COI *re foul springs, wherem hemp, &c. 
grow naturally. Or from kanaba, from 
kanah, to mow. Arab.) Hemp. 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system. Class, Dioecia. Order, 
Pentandria. 

2. The pharmacopoeial name of the Can- 
nabis sattva of Linnaeus. It has a rank ssmell 
of a narcotic kind. The effluvia from the 
fresh herb are said to affect the eves and 



head, and that the water in which it has 
been long steeped is a sudden poison. 
Hemp -seeds, when fresh, afford a con- 
siderable quantity of oil. Decoctions and 
emulsions of them have been recommended 
against coughs, ardor urinae, &c. Their 
nse, in general, depends on their emollient 
and demulcent qualities. The leaves of an 
oriental hemp, called bang or bangue, and 
by the Egyptians assis, are said to be used 
in Eastern countries, as a narcotic and 
aphrodisiac. See Banq-ue. 

CAKXABIS SATITA. The systematic name 
of the hemp plant. See Cannabis. 

CANXACORUS RADICE CHOCEA. See Cur- 
cuma. 

CANNULA. (Dim. of canna, a reed.) 
The name of a surgical instrument. See 
Canula. 

CAKOX. (K*va>p.) A rule or canon, by 
wh : ch medicines are compounded. 

CASTOXIAI. (Kctvcvw.) Hippocrates in 
his book. De Acre, &c. calls those persons 
thus, who have straight, and not prominent 
bellies. J-le would intimate that they are 
disposed, as it were by a straight rule. 

CAXOPICOX. (From xy-vuTrov, the flower 
of the elder.) A sort of spurge named from 
its resemblance ; also a collyrium, of which 
the chief ingredient was elder-flowers. 

CAXOPITE. The name of a collyrium 
mentioned by Celsus. 

CANOPUM. (Kstmrov.) The flower or 
bark of the elder-tree, in Paulus JEgineta. 

CAKTABRTCA. Convolvulus minimus spicae 
foliis. Convolvulus linarid folio. Convol r 
wilus Cantabrica of Linnaeus. Lavender- 
leaved bindweed. Pliny says ic was dis- 
covered in the time of Augustus, in the 
country of the Cantabri in Spain ; whence 
its name. It is antheimintic and actively 
cathartic. 

CANTABRUM. (From kanta. Heb.) In 
Coelius Aurelianus it signifies bran or fur- 
fur. 

CAXTACON. Garden saffron. 

CASTTARA. The plant which bears the 
St. Ignatius's bean. 

CANTARI FIGULINI. Earthen cucur- 
bits. 

CANTMARIS (CantharSs, pi. cantha- 
rides ; from n^.vBa.po^, a beetle, to whose tribe 
it belongs.) Musc<s Hispanicae Lytta vesi- 
catoria of Linnaeus. The blistering fly. 
Spanish fly. The importance of these flies, 
by their stimulant, corrosive, and epispastic 
qualities, in the practice of physic and sur- 
gery, is very considerable ; indeed, so much 
so, as to induce many to consider them as 
the most powerful medicine in the materia 
medica. These flies have a green shining 
gold b r :dy, and are common in Spain, Italy, 
France, and Germany, The largest come 
from Italy, but the Spanish cantharides are 
generally preferred When applied on the 
skin, in the form of a plaster, it soon raises 
a blister full of serous matter, and thus 



164 



CAP 



relieves inflammatory diseases, as phrenitis, 
pleuritis, hepatitis, phelgmon, bubo, myosi- 
tis, arthritis, &c. The tincture of these 
flies is also of great utility in several cutane- 
ous diseases, rheumatic affections, sciatic 
pains, &c. but ought to be used with much 
caution. See Blister. 

CATVTHCM. Sugar-candy. 

CANTHUS. (K*y9a>?, the iron binding 
of a carl-wheel. Ur. Turton, in his glos- 
sary, supposes, from its etymology, that it 
originally signified the circular extremely of 
the eye-lid.) The angle or corner of the 
eye, where the upper and under eye-lids 
meet. That next the nose is termed the 
internal or greater canthus, and the other, 
the external or lesser canthus. 

CAUTION. An epithet for sugar. 

CANTUARIEXSIS AQ.VA. Canterbury wa- 
ter is strongly impregnated uith iron, 
Sulphur, and carbonic acid gas ; recom- 
mended in disorders of the stomach, in 
gouty complaints, jaundice, diseases of the 
skin and chlorosis. 

CANULA. (Dim. of canna y a reed.) A 
tube adapted to a sharp instrument, with 
which it is thrust into a cavity or tumour, 
containing a fluid ; the perforation being 
made, the sharp instrument is withdrawn, 
and the banula left, in order that the fluid 
may pass through it. 

CANUSA. Crystal. 

CAOUTCHOUC. See Indian rubber. 

Capaiva balsam. See Balsumum Copaiba. 

CAPELIKA. (From capelinc, a woman's 
hat, or bandage, French.) A double- 
headed roller put round the head. 

CAPELLA. A cupel or test. 

Caper- bush. See Cappuris. 

CAPETUS. (Ka^-gVo-;, per aphseresin, pro 
fnA7rf]of : from o->tx.7rlto, to dig.) Hippocrates 
means by this word a foramen, winch is 
impervious and needs the use of a chirur- 
gicul instrument to make an opening ; as 
the anus of some new-born infants. 

CAPHORA. (Arab.) Camphire. 

C PHURA BAROS iNBOKUM. A name for 
camphire. 

CAPHUHJJ OLEU^I. An aromatic essential 
oil distilled from the root of the cinnamon- 
tree. 

CAPILLARES VKHMICULI. See Crinones 
and Dracunculi. 

CAPILLARY VESSELS. (Vasa capll- 
laria ; from capillus, a little hair ; so call- 
ed from their resemblance to hairs or 
fine threads.) The very small ramifications 
of the arteries, which terminate upon the 
external surface <>f the body, or on the 
surface of internal cavities. 

CAPILLATIO. (From capillus, a hair.) A 
capillary fracture of the cranium 

CAPILLUS. (Quasi capitis pilus, the 
hair of the head.) The hair. Small, cylin- 
drical, transparent, insensible, and elastic 
filaments, which arise from the skin, and 
are fastened in it by means of small roots. 



CAP 

The human hair is composed of a spongy, 
cellular texture, containing a coloured 
liquid, and a proper covering. Hair is 
divided into two kinds : long, which arises 
on the scalp, cheek, chin, breasts, of men, 
the anterior parts of the arms and legs, 
the arm-pits, groins, and pelvis : and shorty 
which is -softer than the long, is present 
over the whole body, except only the palm 
of thv: hand and sole of the foot. The hair 
originates in the adipose membrane from an 
oblong membraneous bulb, which has ves- 
sels peculiar to it. The hair is distinguished 
by different names in certain parts : as, 
capillus, on the top of the head ; crinis, on 
the back of the head; circrinnus, on the 
temples ; cUium, on the eye-lids ; superci- 
lium, on the eyebrows ; vibrissa, in the 
nostrils ; barba, on the chin ; pappus, on 
the middle of the chin ; mystax, on the 
upper lip ; piluf, on the body. 

CAPILLUS VENERIS. See Adianthum. 

CAPILLUS VENERIS CAXADE^SIS. The 
Adiantum Canadense. 

CAPIPLEXIUM. (From caput, the head, 
and plenus, full.) A catarrh. It is a bar- 
barous word ; but Baglivi uses it to signify 
that continual heaviness or disorder in the 
head, which the Greeks call Carebaria, 



CAPISTRATIO. (From capistrum, a bri- 
dle ; so called because the przepuce is 
restrained as it were with a bridle.) See 
Phymosis. 

CAPISTRUM. (From caput> the head.) 
A bandage for the head is so called. In 
Vogei's Nosology it is the same as Trismus. 

CAPITAL. The upper part of an alem- 
bic ; likewise called the head. 

CAPITALIA. (From caput, the head.) 
Cephases : medicines which relieve dis- 
orders of the head. 

CAPITELLUM. The head or seed vessels, 
frequently applied to mosses, &c. Some 
say it signifies soapy water, others say it is 
a lixivium. 

CAPITILUVIUM. (From caput, the head, 
and iavo, to wash. A lotion or bath for 
the head. 

Capitis obliqnus inferior et major. See 
Obliquus inferior. 

Capitis par tertium Follopii. See Corn- 
plexus minor. 

Capitis posticus. See Rectus major ca- 
pitis, 

Capitis rectns. See Rectus minor capitis. 

CAPITULUM. (Dim. of caput, the head-) 
An alembic. In anatomy, a small head or 
protuberance of a bone, received into the 
concavity of another bone. 

CAPIVI. (Indian.) A tree of Brazil, 
which affords the drug called balsam of 
capivi. See Jialsamum copaibte. 

CAPNELJEUM. (From MTUO;, smoke, and 
tKtuov, oil ; so named from its smoky ex- 
halations when exposed to heat) In Ga- 
len's works, it is said to be a ret/in. 



CAP 



CAP 



165 



CAPNIAS. (From x#.7rvos, a smoke.) A 
jasper of a smoaky colour. Also a kind of 
vine which bears white and part black 
grapes. 

CAPNISTOM. (From x*5rve?, smoke.) A 
preparation made of spices and oil, by 
kindling' the spices and fumigating the oil. 

CAPNITIS. (From JMCTW, smoke > so 
called from its .smoky colour.) Tutty. 

CAPXOIDES. (From mtTrvoc, fumitory, and 
<T?, likeness.) A species of fumitory. 

CAPNOS. Kflijrvof. Fumitory: so called, 
says Blanchard, because its juice, if applied 
to the eyes, produces the same effect and 
sensations as smoke. 

CAPO MOLAGO. The Piper Indictim. 

CAPPA. (a-capite, from the head; so 
called from its supposed resemblance.) 
The herb monkshood. 

CAPPARIS. (From cabar, Arab or 
ayaLfiA TO x,*7r'?rctvttv ctf{*.v, from its curing mad- 
ness and melancholy.) The caper plant. 

1. The name of a genus of plants m the 
Linnsean system. Class, Polyandria. Or- 
der, Monogynia. 

2. The pharmacopoeial name of the Cap- 
pans spinosa of Linnaeus; pcdunculis so- 
Ktariis uniftoris, stipuUs spinosis, foliis 
annuis, capsulis ovalibus. The buds or 
unexpanded flowers of this plant, are in 
common use as a pickle, which is said to 
possess antiscorbutic virtues. The bark 
of the root was formerly in high esteem as 
adeobstruent. 

CAPPARIS SPINOSA. The systematic 
name of the caper plant. See Cupparis. 

CAPUEOLAIIIS. (From capreolns, a ten- 
dril.) Capreolatus. Resembling in its 
contortions, or other appearance, the ten- 
drils of a vine ;- as the spermatic vessels. 

CAPIIEOZATUS. See Capreolaris. 

CAPREOLUS (Dim. of caprea, a ten- 
dril.) It means the helix or circle of the 
ear, from its tendril-l.ke contortion. Dr. 
Turton suggests its derivation from caper, 
a goat, whose horn its contortions some- 
what resemble. 

CAPRICOJINUS. Lead. 

CAPHIFICUS. (From caper, a goat, and 
Jicus, a fig ; because they are a chief food 
of goats.) The wild fig-tree. 

CAPRIZANS. Is by Galen and others 
used to express an inequality in the pulse, 
when it leaps, and, as it were, dances in 
uncertain strokes and periods. 

CAPS EL LA. (Dim. of capsa, a chest, 
from its resemblance.) A name in Mar- 
cellus Empiricus for viper's bugloss. 

CAPSICUM. (From **zr7a>, to bite, on 
account of its effect on the mouth. > 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnajan system. Class, Pentandria. Qr- 
der,Monogyni<e. Guinea pepper. 

2. The pharmacopoeial name of the Cap- 
sicum annunmof Linnxus. What is general- 
"ly used under the name of Cayenne pepper, 

is an indiscriminate mixture of the powder 



of the dried pods of many species of cap- 
sicums, but e.-pecially of the capsicum 
minimum, or bird pepper, which is the hot- 
test of all. These . peppers have been 
chiefly used as condiments. They prevent 
flatuletrce from vegetable food and g,ve 
warmth to the stomach, possessing all the 
virtues of the oriental spices, without pro- 
ducing those complaints of the head which 
the latter are apt to occasion. An abuse 
of them, however, gives rise to visceral 
obstructions, especially of the liver. In 
the practice of medicine, there can be 
little doubt that they furnish us with one 
of the purest and strongest stimulants 
which can be introduced into the stomach. 
Dr. Adair who first introduced them into 
practice, found them useful in the cachexia 
Africana, which he considers as a most fre- 
quent and fatal predisposition to disease 
among the slaves. Dr. Wright says, that 
in dropsical and other complaints where 
chalybeates are indicated, a minute por- 
tion of powdered capsicum forms an ex- 
cellent addition and recommends its use in 
lethai'gio Elections This pepper has also 
been successfully employed in a species of 
c\ nanche maligna, which proved very fatal 
ni the West Indies, resisting the use of 
Peruvian bark, wine, and other remedies 
commonly employed. In tropical fevers, 
coma and delirium are common attendants, 
and in such cases cataplasms of capsicum 
have a speedy and happy effect. They 
redden \he parts., but seldom blister unless 
when kept on too long. In ophthalmia from 
relaxation, the diluted juice of capsicum 
is found to be a valuable remedy. Dr. 
Adair gave six or eight grains for a 
dose, made into pills ; or else he prepared 
a tincture by digesting half an ounce of the 
pepper m a pound of alcohol, the dose of 
which was one or two drachms, diluied 
with a sufficient quantity of water. A 
tinctura capsaci is now for the first time 
introduced into the London pharmaco- 
poeia. 

CAPSUIA. (Dim. of capsa, a chest cr- 
ease.) A term given by anatomists to any 
membranous production enclosing a part 
of the body like a bag ; as the capsular 
ligaments, the capsule of the crystalline 
lens, &c. 

CAPSULE ATRABILAHI;E. See Renal- 
capsules. 

CAPSULE RESALES. See Renal capsules. 

CAPSULAR LIGAMENT. (Capsu- 
laris : from capsa, a bag.) Ligamentuni 
capsulare. The ligament which surrounds 
every movable articulation, and contains 
the synovia like a bag. 

CAPSULE OF GLYSSON. Capsule 
communis. Gtissonii. Vagina portce. Vagina 
Glyssonii. A strong tunic, ibrmed of cel- 
lular texture, which accompanies the vena 
portae, and its most minute ramifications 
throughout the whole liver. 



166 



CAR 



CAR 



CAPULUM. (From x.a./ui7rTta , to bend.) 
A contortion of the eye-lids, or other 
parts. 

CAPUU. (Arab.) Camphor. 

CAPUT. (From capio, to t' ke ; be- 
cause from it, according to Va^ro, the 
senses take their origin.) The head, cra- 
nium rr skull. It is sittiaied above or 
upon the trunk, and united to the ceivical 
vertebrae 

For its hon- s, see Skull. It is distin- 
guished into skull and f.ice. On the skull 
are observed vertex or crown ; sinciput, 
or fore-part; occiput, or hinder part ; and 
the temples. The parts distinguished on 
the face are well known ; as the fore- 
head, nose, eyes, &c. The arteries of 
the head are branches of the carotids ; 
and the veins empty themselves into the 
jugulars. 

CAPUT GALLINAGINIS. Veruman- 
tanum. A cutaneous eminence in the ure- 
thra of men, before the neck of the blad- 
der, somewhat like the head of a cock in 
miniature, around which the seminal ducts, 
and the ducts of the prostate gland, 
open. 

CAPUT MORTUUM. A fanciful term, 
much used by the old chymists, but now 
entirely rejected. It denoted the fixed re- 
sidue of operations. As the earlier chy- 
mists did not examine these, they did not 
find any inconvenience in one general 
term to denote them : but the most slender 
acquaintance with modern chymistry must 
show that it is utterly impracticable to de- 
note, by one general term, all the various 
masters that remain fixed in certain de- 
grees of heat. 

CAPUT OBSTIPUM. The wry neck, 
mo-.tly a spasmodic complaint.' 

CAPUT PUHGIA. (\ barbarous word, 
from caput, the head, und purgo, to purge.) 
Medicines which purge the head. Errhines. 
Masticatories. 

CAPYUIDION. (From Ka/rygo?, burnt.) 
Gapyrion A medicated cake, much baked. 

CAPTRIOX. See Capyridion. 

CAKABE. (Persian.) Amber. 

OARABE rr^EiiuM. A nume given to 
bitumen. 

CARABUS. A genus of insects of the 
beetle kind. Two species, the chry>;oce- 
plulus and ferruginous, have been recom- 
mended for the tooth-ach. They must be 
pressed between the lingers, and then rub- 
bed on th^ gum and tooth attected. 

CABACOSMOS. A name of the sour 
mare's milk, so much admired by the Tar- 



The common aloe of 



tars. 

CAIIAGUATA, 
Brazil. 

CAWA^NA, Caragna. Caramue gummi. 
(Spanish.) liresilis. A concrete resinous 
juice, that exudes from a large tree, of 
which we have no particular account. It 
is brought from New Spain and America, 



in little masses, rolled up in leaves of flags ; 
externally and internally it is of a brown- 
ish colour, variegated with irregular white 
streaks. When fresh, it is soft and tena- 
cious, but becomes dry and friable by 
keeping. Pure caranna has an agreeable 
aromatic smell, especially when heated, 
and -a bitterish slightly pungent taste. It 
was formerly employed as an ingredient in 
vulnerary balsams, strengthening, discu- 
tient, and suppurating plaisters ; but its 
scarcity has caused it to be forgotten. 

CABA scnutti. (Indian ) Frutex In- 
dica spinosa. An Indian shrub, like the 
caper-bush. A decoction of the root 
proves diuretic. Ray. 

Caraiuayseed. See Carum. 

CARBASUS. (Katg&woc.) Scribonius Lar- 
gus uses this word (or lint. 

CARB.O. (Carbah, Heb. burnt, or 
dried.) Coal. In medicine and chymisiry, 
it is commonly understood to mean char- 
coal, and receives its name from its mode 
of preparation, which is by burning pieces 
of light wood into a dry black coal. 

CARBO LIGNI. Charcoal. As an external 
application, powdered charcoal has been 
recommended in the cure of gangrene, 
from external causes, and all descriptions 
of foetid ulcers. Meat which has acquired 
a mawkish or even putrid smell, is found 
to be rendered perfectly sweet by rubbing 
it with powdered charcoal. 

CARBON. (From carbo, coal.) The 
chymical name of charcoal. It is the black 
residue of vegetables, which have suffered 
a complete decomposition of their volatile 
principles by fire. Charcoal is black, brittle, 
sonorous and light. It is placed among 
simple bodies, because no experiment has 
hitherto shown the possibility of decom- 
posing it. It exists in the animal, vege- 
table, and mineral kingdom. When it is 
required to procure carbon in a state of 
gre;-,t purity, it must be dried by strong 
ignition in a closed vessel. The diamond 
when burnt in oxygen gas forms charcoal. 
Charcoal is therefore considered to be an 
oxyd of diumond, and the diamond pure 
carbon. 

CARBON, GASEOUS OXll) OF. 
Gaseous, oxyd of carbon was first described 
by Dr. Priestley, who mistook it for a 
hydro-carbonate. With the true nature 
of it we have been only lately, acquainted. 
It was first proved to be a peculiar 
gas, by Mr. Cruikshank, of Woolwich, 
who made it known to us as such, in 
April 1801, through the medium of 
Nicholson's Journal for that month. 
Several additional properties of this gas 
were soon afterwards noticed by Desorines, 
Clement and others. Gaseous oxyd of car- 
bon forms an intermediate substance .be- 
tween the pure hydro-carbonates and car- 
bonic acid gas ; but not being possessed of 
acid properties, Mr. Cruikshank has called 



CAR 



CAR 



167 



it conformable to the rules of the chymical 
nomenclature, gaseous oxyd of carbon, for 
it consists of oxygen and carbon rendered 
gaseous by caloric. 

Though the gaseous oxyd of carbon has 
some of the properties peculiar to the com- 
mon hidro-carbo'nates, the following 1 charac- 
teristic properties sufficiently prove that 
none of those at present known are similar 
to it. We are, therefore, entitled to con- 
sider it as a peculiar gas. 

Properties- Gaseous oxyd of carbon is 
considerably lighter than any of the hydro- 
carbonates. It is lighter than common air, in 
the proportion of 22 to 23 When mingled 
with common air, and ignited, it does not 
explode, but burns with a lambent blue 
flame, and the product is carbonic acid. It 
is very little absorbuble by water ; it is void 
of taste and odour. A mixture of 20 parts 
of gaseous oxyd of carbon and 8 of oxygen 
gas, fired over mercury, by electricity, 
diminishes to a volume equal to about 18 
or 19 parts, which is carbonic acid gas. 
It contains neither water nor the basis of 
that fluid. It is exceedingly noxious ; ani- 
mals die in it instantly ; when breathed for 
a few minutes only, it produces giddiness 
and famtings. Neither light, heat, nor 
electricity have any effect upon it. When 
equal quantities of gaseous oxyd of carbon 
and hydrogen gas are passed through a 
red-hot glass tube, the tube is lined with 
charcoal, water is formed, and an excess of 
hydrogen makes its escape. If a piece of 
iron be put into the tube, it is oxydated, 
but not converted into steel. Neither ni- 
trogen gas nor sulphur have any action on 
it even at high temperatures. It is capa- 
ble of dissolving a minute quantity of char- 
coal, and increases in bulk. It dissolves 
phosphorus and acquires the property of 
burning with a yellow flame. The alkalies 
have no effect on this gas. It is not altered 
when passed with ammonia through an 
ignited tube. When the red oxyd of mer- 
cury is heated in it, a commencement of 
reduction takes place. Neither sulphuric, 
nitric, nor nitro-muriatic acids, alter it, 
when passed with it through a red-hot tube. 
Four parts of oxygenated muriatic acid gas 
left with one of carbonic acid gas, decom- 
pose it completely. Nitrous gas has no ef- 
fect upon it. Wisen mixed with sulphurated" 
hydrogen gas, and passed through a red-hot 
tube, sulphur is deposited, and sulphurated 
hydrogen gas remains mixed with gaseous 
oxjd of carbon. 

Methods of obtaining Gaseous Oxyd of 
Carbon. Gaseous oxyd of carbon may be 
obtained by a decomposition of carbonic 
acid at high temperatures, by means of 
various fixed substances which have a con- 
siderable affinity to oxygen. This may be 
done by distilling a mixture of charcoal 
with any of the metallic oxyds, or by ex- 



posing to a strong red heat, a mixture of 
carbonate of lime or barytes, and filings of 
iron, zinc, &c. 

The method of obtaining the gaseous 
oxyd of carbon in a stale of purity, recom- 
mended by Mr. Cruikshank, is the follow- 
ing : 

1. Take one part of chalk, previously ex- 
posed to a low red heat, for about ten mi- 
nutes, mix it with an equal quantity of per- 
fectly dry filings of z:nc ; let the mix ure 
be introduced into a retort, and expose it 
to a heat gradually increased. As soon as 
the retort becomes of a dull red heat, pas 
Will be disengaged in great abundance. 
The gas which comes over first is carbonic 
acid gas, but as soon as the retort becomes 
thoroughly ignited, pure gaseous oxyd of 
carbon is liberated in a prodigious quantity, 
which may be collected in the usual manner 
over water. 

In this process, a decomposition of the 
carbonic acid of the chalk takes pl;.ce in its 
nascent state. The zinc robs the carbonic 
acid of part of its oxygen at a high tempera- 
ture, and becomes to a cer'ain degree ox- 
ydated. The carbonic acid, by being thus 
deprived of part of its oxygen, becomes con- 
verted into a new inflammable gas, which 
is the gaseous oxyd of carbon. 

Carbonaceous acid. See Carbonic acid. 

CARBONAS A carbonate. A neutral 
salt, formed by the union of carbonic acid 
with an alkaline, earthy, or metallic base. 
The carbonates employed in medicine are 
some of them perfect and some imperfect. 

The imperfect carbonates in use are- 

1. The subcarbonas potassae. 

2 The subcarbonas sodse. 

3. The subcarbonas sodae exsiccata. 

4. The' subcarbonas plumbi. 
The perfect carbonates are 

1. The carbonas ammonias. 

2. The liquor carbonatis ammonix, 

3. The carbonas potassze. 
4 The carbonas sodae, 

5. The creta pr separata. 

6. The carbonas magnesias. 

7. The carbonas fe- ri 

CARBONAS AMMONLE. Carbonate 
of ammonia. This preparation was former- 
ly called ammonia pneparata, and sal vola- 
tiKs sails ammoniuci, and sal volatilis. It is 
made thus : take of muriate of ammonia, a 
pound ; of prepared chalk, dried, two 
pounds. Reduce them seperately to pow- 
der ; then mix them together, and sublime 
in a heat gradually raised, till the retort 
becomes red. 

This salt possesses nervine and stimu- 
lating powers, and is highly beneficial in 
the close of from two to eight grains, in 
nervous affections, debilities, flatulency, 
from acidity and dyspepsia. 

CARBONAS CALCIS. Carbonate of 
Several of these are used in medi- 



168 



CAR 



CAR 



cine ; the purest and best are* the creta 
preparati, chelae cancrorum, testae ostrea- 
rum, testae ovoruun, and occuli cancrorum. 
CARBOXAS PLUMBI. See Cerussa. 
CARBON AS POTASS^. Carbonate 
of potash. This preparavion, whicl) has 
been long- known by the name of Kali (era- 
turn, appeared in the last London pharma- 
copoeia, for the fijrst time. It is made 
thus : Take of subcarbonate of potash, 
made from tartar, a pound ; carbonate of 
ammonia three ounces ; distilled water, a 
pint. Having- previously dissolved the 
subcarbonate of potash in the water, add 
the carbonate of ammonia : then, by means 
of a sand-bath, apply a heat of 180 for 
three hours, or until the ammonia shall be 
driven off; lastly, set the solution by, to 
crystallize. The remaining- solution may 
be evaporated in the same manner, that 
crystals may again form when it is set by. 

This process was invented by Bertholet. 
The potash takes the carbonic acid from 
the ammonia, which is volatile, and passes 
off in the temperature employed. It is, 
however, very difficult to detach the am- 
monia entirely. Potash is thus saturated 
with carbonic acid, of which it contains 
double the quantity that the subcarbo- 
nate of potash does : it gives out this pro- 
portion on the addition of muriatic acid, 
and may be converted again into the sub- 
salt, by heating; it again a short time, to 
redness. It is less nauseous to the taste 
than the sttbcarbonate ; it crystallizes, and 
does not deliquesce Water, at the com- 
mon temperature, dissolves one, -fourth its 
weight, and at 212, five-sixths ; but this 
latter heat detaches some of the carbonic 
acid. 

The carbonate of potash is generally 
used for the purpose of imparting carbonic 
acid to the stomach, by giving a scruple in 
solution with a table spoon-ful of lemon- 
juice, in the act of effervescing. 

CARBONAS SOILE. Carbonate of 
soda. Tiike of the subcarbonate of soda, 
a pound ; of the carbonate of ammonia, 
three ounces ; of distilled water, a pint. 
Having previously dissolved the soda in the 
water, add the ammonia : then, by means 
of a sand-bath, apply a heat of 180 for 
three hours, or until the ammonia is driven 
off Lastly, set the solution by, to crys- 
tallize. The remaining solution may, in 
the same manner, be evaporated, and set 
by, that crystals may again form. 

* This salt which is called also aerated soda 
and natron, bears to the subcarbonate of 
soda, the same relation that the carbonate 
of potash does to its subcarbonate. It is 
prepared in the same way, possesses the 
same comparative advantages, and contains 
double the quantity of carbonic acid. 

CARBONAS MAGNESIJS. Magnesia 
alba. The carbonate of magnesia. This 



preparation is variously prepared. The 
college of physicians of London direct it 
thus : Take of sulphate of magnesia, of 
subcarbonate of potash, of each a pound ; 
water, three gallons. Dissolve the sub- 
carbonate of potash in three pints of 
the water, and strain. Dissolve also the 
sulphate of magnesia separately, in five 
pints of the water, and strain ; then add 
the rest of the water to the latter solution, 
apply heat, and, when it boils, pour in the 
former solution, stirring them well toge- 
ther j next, strain through a linen cloth ; 
lastly, wash the powder repeatedly with 
boiling water, and dry it upon bibulous pa- 
per, in a heat of 200 deg. 

Carbonate of magnesia is esteemed as an 
aperient and antacid, and is given against 
constipation, flatulency, acidity of the sto- 
mach, and its effects. The dose is from 
ten grains to a drachm. 

CARBONAS FERRL Ferrum pr*ci- 
pitatum. Carbonate of iron. This prepara- 
tion is made by decomposing the sulphate 
of iron by the subcarbonate of soda, thus 
Take of the sulphate of iron, eight ounces ; 
subcarbonate of soda, ten ounces ; boiling 
water, a gallon. Dissolve the sulphate of 
iron and subcarbonate of soda separately, 
each in four pints of water ; next mix the 
solutions together, and set it by, that the 
precipitated powder may subside ; then, 
having poured off the supernatant liquor, 
wash the carbonate of iron with hot water, 
and dry it upon bibulous paper, in a gentle 
heat. 

This salt is a subcarbonate of iron, and 
not a perfect carbonate. It is substituted 
for the rubigo ferri of the former pharma- 
copoeias. It is much esteemed as a mild 
chalybeate, and is given in the dose of 
from five grains to a scruple. 

CARBONATED HYDROGEN GAS, 
LIGHT. Light carbonated hydrogen gas 
is hydrogen gas holding charcoal in solu- 
tion. There are several combinations of 
this kind of gas obtained by different pro- 
cesses, which differ in their properties, and 
in the proportion of their constituent prin- 
ciples. 

Properties. Light carbonated hydrogen 
gas has a foetid odour. It is neither absorbed 
nor altered by water. It is inflammable, and 
burns with a denser and deeper coloured 
flame than hydrogen gas. It is unalterable 
by acids or alkalies, and by water. Its 
specific gravity is greater than that of hy- 
drogen gas, or that of common air. Its 
combustion with a due proportion of oxy- 
gen gas, is productive of water and carbo- 
nic acid. When passed through melted 
sulphur, it becomes converted into sulphu- 
rated hydrogen gas, and charcoal is depo- 
sited. Electrization dilates it perma- 
nently to a little more than twice its ori- 
ginal bulk. The air thus expanded, re- 



CARBONATED HYDROGEN GAS. 



169' 



quires a greater quantity of oxygen to de- 
compose it, than the same quantity of gas 
not dilated by electricity; 100 cubic inches 
of pure carbonated hydrogen gas weigh from 
16 to 24 grains. 

Light carbonated hydroden gas may 
be obtained from animal, vegetable, or 
mineral substances. Nature produces it 
ready formed in marshes and ditches, 
on the surface of putrid water, in bury- 
ing-places, common sewers, and in those 
situations where putrid animal and vege- 
table matters are accumulated. It is also 
generated in the intestinal canal of living 
animals. 

1. Light carbonated hydrogen gas may 
be plentifully procured from most stagnant 
waters .- to do this, fill a wide-mouthed 
bottle with the water, and keep it inverted 
therein, with a funnel in its neck; Ihen, 
with a stick, stir the mud at the bottom, 
just under the funnel in the bottle, sc as to 
let the bubbles of air, which rise from the 
mud, enter into the bottle ; when, by thus 
stirring the mud in various places, and 
catching the air in the bottle, it is filled, it 
must be corked under water. 

2. It may be also obtained during the 
distillation of animal and vegetable mat- 
ters. For instance : 

Let shavings of wood, or saw-dust, be 
put into a retort, and begin the distillation 
with a gentle heat, increasing it gradually, 
till the retort becomes red hot ; a great 
quantity of gas will be liberated, which 
may be caught over water. On examining 
this gas, it will be found to consist of car- 
bonic acid gas and carbonated hydrogen 
gas. In order to obtain the latter in a 
state of purity, the whole must be mixed 
with lime-water, or with a caustic alkaline 
solution; The carbonic acid gas will be 
absorbed, and the carbonated hydrogen gas 
left behind, in a pure state. 

The production of this gas in this man- 
ner, is the result of a partial analysis of 
the wood. It- proves that, wood con- 
tains solid hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen. 
When the intensity of the heat has reached 
a certain degree, a part of the charcoal 
unites with part of the oxygen and pro- 
duces carbonic acid, which, by means of 
caloric, is melted into the gaseous state, 
and forms carbonic acid gas; at the same 
time, a part of tlve hydrogen of the wood 
combines with another portion of carbon 
and caloric, and forms carbonated hydrogen 
gas. 

Remark. The flame of burning wood, 
&c. is the inflamed carbonated hydrogen 
gas, liberated on the application of caloric 
to such bodies. 

3. Charcoal is in general made use of fr 
obtaining light carbonated hydrogen gas. 
For this purpose, put some moistened 
charcoal into an earthen retort, apply heat, 
and increase it till the retort becomes ig- 



nited ; gas will be evolved, consisting 
partly of carbonic acid gas, and partly of 
light carbonated hydrogen gas, which may 
be separated as before. 

In this case a decomposition of the 
water takes place, by means of the char- 
coal. The oxygen forsakes its hydrogen, 
and unites to part cf the charcoal, at 
this temperature, and forms carbonic acid 
gas, in conjunction with caloric; the libe- 
rated hydrogen assisted by caloric, dis- 
solves another portion of the charcoal, and 
forms with it light carbonated hydrogen 
gfts. 

4, Light carbonated hydrogen gas may 
be formed in a direct manner, by dis- 
solving charcoal in hydrogen gas. This 
may be effected by directing the rays of 
the sun collected in the focus of a mirror, 
upon a small piece of charcoal placed on 
mercury, In a receiver filled with hydrogen 
gas. 

CARBONATED HYDROGEN GAS, 
HEAVY. This gas was first brought into 
notice by a society of Dutch chymists, 
consisting of Deiman, Troostwyk, Bond,, 
and Laurenburgh. They observed in this 
gas the particular property, that when it 
was combined with oxygenated 'muriatic 
acid gas, in a certain proportion, the elas- 
tic form of both fluids became clestroyed s 
and an oil was produced ; for which reason 
they called it Olefiant gas. 

Properties. -Heavy carbonated hydrogen 
gas is not absorbed or altered by water. Its 
weight, compared with common air, is as 
909 to 1000. It has a disagreeable foetid 
odour, different from that of light carbo- 
nated hydrogen gas. It burns with a 
strong compact flame, similar to that of a 
resinous oil. When mixed \viih oxygenated 
muriatic acid gas, its bulk is diminished, 
and an oil is formed. When the mixture of 
these two gases is fired, a quantity of char- 
coal is immediately deposited, in the form 
of fine soot. Sulphuric, sulphureous, ni- 
tric, nitrous, and muriatic acids do not act 
upon it ; neither does nitrous gas,- nor any 
of the fixed alkalies. Ammonia adds to its 
volume without occasioning any other 
change. Phosphorus heated in it, even to 
fusion does not affect it. When made to 
pass through an ignited glass tube, it does 
not diminish in volume, but loses the pro- 
perty of forming oil with oxyengated muri- 
atic acid gas. Electric shocks passed 
through it, dilate and likewise deprive it of 
this property. When passed through an 
ignited porcelain tube, it affords hydrogen 
gas mingled with carbonic acid, and carbon 
is deposited. When passed through a tube 
with sulphur in fusion, sulphurated hydro- 
gen gas is obtained, and charcoal deposited. 
When burnt with oxygen gas, or when 
passed through a red-hot tube, filled with 
oxyd of manganese, carbonic acid gas is 
formed, 

7 



iro 



CARBONIC ACID GAS. 



carbonated hydro- 
gen gas is obtained by decomposing 1 alco- 
hol by sulphuric acid, at high temperatures. 
It is also obtained in abundance when al- 
cohol or ether is passed through a red-hot 
earthen tube. Sulphuric ether mixed 
with sulphuric acid, and subjected to heat, 
also affords it, but in a less pure state. 

The Dutch chymists observed, that if 
the vapour of ardent spirit or ether be 
mude to pass through a glass tube, over 
the component parts of the earthern tube, 
namely, alumine and silex, this gas was 
also produced; or bypassing it through a 
red-hot tube of pipe-clay. 

In order to obtain this gas the following 
method may serve : 

Let four par! s of concentrated sulphuric 
acid, and one of highly rectified ardent 
spirit, be mingled together gradually in a 
glass retort ; heat will be developed, the 
mixture will become brown, and heavy 
carbonated hydrogen gas will be extricated 
without the application of external heat. 
When a moderate heat is applied, the 
action is very violent, and the gas is libe- 
rated very copiously, and may be received 
over water. 

The gas obtained, is always mixed with 
a considerable quantity of sulphureous acid 
gas, from which it may be freed by agi- 
tating it in contact with lime-water, or a 
solution of potash. 

Remark. In this operation the heat 
ought to be regulated with great care, and 
Ihe retort holding the mixture ought to be 
very capacious, otherwise the matter will 
be forced over into the receiver. The 
heat of a candle, or lamp, is sufficient, 

CARBONIC ACID GAS. Acidum Car- 
bonicwn. Fixed air. Carbonaceous acid. 
Aerial acid. Carbonic acid gas is the first 
elastic aeriform fluid that was known. We 
find that the ancients were in some measure 
acquainted with it. Van Helmont called it 
the gas of Must, or of the vintage, or gas 
sylvestre. 

We are indebted to Dr. Black of Edin- 
burgh for the knowledge of some of the 
most remarkable properties of this fluid. 
In the year 1755 he discovered the affinity 
between this gas and alkalies : and Berg- 
man, in 1772, proved that it was an 
acid. 

Properties. Carbonic acid gas is in- 
visible. It extinguishes flar.<e. It is fatal 
to animal life. It exerts powerful effects 
on living vegetables. Its taste is pun- 
gent and acid. Its energy, as an acid, 
is but feeble, although distinct and cer- 
tain. Neither light or caloric seem to 
produce any distinct effect upon it, ex- 
cept that the latter dilates it. It mixes 
without combining with oxygen gas. It 
unites with water slowly. These two fluids, 
after considerable agitation, at last com- 
bine, and form a sub-acid fluid. The 



colder the water, and the greater the pres- 
sure applied, the more carbonic acid gas 
will be absorbed. The water impregnated 
with it, sparkles upon agitation; ir has a 
pungent acidulous taste, and reddens 
tincture of litmus. Heat again disengages 
the gas from the water. This gas precipi- 
tates lime, strontia, and baryte.*, from 
their solutions in water. It is greedily 
attracted by all the alkalies. It undergoes 
no -alteration by light. Its specific weight 
is to that of atmospheric air, as laOO to 
1000. It may be poured out of one vessel 
into another. It is not acted upon by oxy- 
gen, nor is it altered by any of the simple 
combustible bodies at common tempera- 
tures ; but phosphorus, iron, and lime, 
are capable of decomposing it, when as- 
sisted by heat. 

Methods of obtainimg Carbonic Acid Gas. 
Of all the gases, carbonic acid gas is 
that, perhaps, which is diffused in the 
greatest abundance throughout nature. It 
is found in three different states : 1st, 
In that of gas ; 2dly, In chat of mixture ; 
and 3dly, In that of combination. The 
various processes for obtaining it are the 
following ; 

1. Put into a common glass-bottle, or 
retort, a little marble, chalk, or lime- 
stone, and pour on it sulphuric acid, di- 
luted with about six times its weight of 
water, an effervescence will ensue, and 
carbonic acid gas will be liberated, which 
those who have an opportunity may collect 
over mercury ; but a mercurial apparatus 
is not absolutely necessary, since the gas 
may be collected over water, if it is to be 
used immediately when procured. 

In this instance the carbomc acid is 
disengaged from the state of combina- 
tion, and reduced to the ae>iforna state 
of gas. The marble, lime-stone, or 
ch;:lk, consists of this acid and lime ; on 
presenting to it sulphuric acid, a decom- 
position takes place, the sulphuric acid has 
a greater affinity to the lime than the car- 
bonic acid has ; it therefore unites to it, 
and forms sulphate of lime, disengaging at 
the same time, the carbonic acid in the 
state of gas, at the temperature of our at- 
mosphere. 

Remark. Carbonic acid gas may, in this 
manner, be disengaged from all its combi- 
nations with alkahes ; by using indifferently 
any other dense acid, posses- ing a superior 
affinity to the a:kali in the common ac- 
ceptation of the word. 

2. It may likewise be obtained from the 
same substances by the action of caloric. 

For this purpose, reduce marble, or 
chalk, to powder ; introduce it into a gun- 
barrel, which must be placed across a fur- 
nace ; adapt a bent tube to its lower extre- 
mity, and insert it below a receiver in the 
pneumatic apparatus. Maintain a strong 
heat, till the barrel is brought to a state of 



CAR 



CAR 



, and at that temperature carbonic 
acid gas will be liberated in abundance. 

In this case, a decomposition of the 
marble or carbonate of lime takes place, 
on account of the action of caloric, 
which at a high temperature breaks the 
affinity of the carbonic acid and lime ; 
it unites with the first, and leaves the lime 
behind in that state whicn is generally 
called quick lime. 

3. Carbonic acid gas may also be obtain- 
ed by burnt .g charcoal in oxygen gas. 

Take a beh-giass, filled with oxygen gas, 
resting inverted in a basin of mercury ; 
pass up into it some bits of nw-macle char- 
coal, with some touch-paper affixed to 
them ; set fire to them by means of a lens 
collecting the iiun's rays, and carbonic acid 
will be produced by the combustion of the 
charcoal. 

Carbonic acid gas is often found occu- 
pying the lower parts of mines, caverns, 
tombs, and such other subterraneous places 
as contain materials for producing it. It 
is called choke, or chalk-damp. The grot- 
to del Cane, near Naples, has long been 
famous for the quantity of carbonic acid 
gas produced there, which runs out at the 
opening like a stream of water. The 
quantity of carbonic acid gas generated in 
this cavern, is so great, that a dog, or any 
other animal, is immediately killed if his 
nose be thrust into it. 

The carbonic acid, existing naturally in 
the state of gas, may be collected by 
filling bottles with water and emptying 
them into the atmosphere of this gas ; 
the gas takes the place of the water, and 
fills the bottles, which must then be 
corked. 

Carbonic acid gas is likewise formed 
during fermentation ; on account of its 
great weight, it occupies the apparently 
empty space, or upper part of the vessel, 
in which the fermenting process is going 
on. It may in this case, be collected in a 
manner similar to that above. 

Carbonic acid gas is also obtained during 
the reduction of metallic oxyds, and during 
the deflagration of nitrates with combus- 
tible bodies. This gas is much esteemed 
in the cure of typhus fevers, and irritability 
and weakness of .stomach producing vomit- 
ing. Against the former diseases it is 
given by administering yeast, bottle porter, 
and the like ; and for the latter it is dis- 
engaged from the carbonated alkali by 
lemon juice in a draught given while effer- 
vescing. 

CARBUNCLE. (Dim. of earbo, a burn- 
ing coal.) Carbo. Rubinus verus. Code- 
Bella. Erythema gangranosum. Grana- 
tristrum. Pruna. Persicus ignis of Avi- 
cenna. An mflammitory tumour which 
soon becomes gangrenous. See Anthrax. 

CARBUNCULUS. See Carbuncle. 

CARCARCS. C&rcaros. (From **/, 
to resound.) A kind of fever in which the 



patient has a continual horror and trem- 
bling, with an uncesasing sounding in his 
ears. 

CABCAS. The Barbadoes nut-tree, the 
Cataputia. 

C ABC AX. (From *,, a head,) A spe- 
cies of poppy, with a very large head. 

CARCER. Paracelsus means by it, a 
remedy proper for restraining the disorder 
by motions of body and mind, as in curing 
the chorea Sancli Viti. 

CARCHESIUS. (K*g^^o?.) A name of 
some bandages noticed b\ Galen, f;nd de- 
scribed by Oribasius. Properly it is the 
top of a ship's mast. 

CARCINOMA. (From mtgiav 1 , a can- 
cer, and fjiiva>j to feed upon.) b^e Cancer. 

CARCINOS. (K*gK;v(^, a cancer.) See 
Cancer. 

CARD AM ANTIC A. (From x^gcfst^ov, the 
nasturtium.) A species of\sciauca cresses. 

CARDAMELEUM. A medicine of no note, 
memioned by Galen. 

CARDAMINE. (From wegJX the heart ; 
because it acts as a cordial and streng-then- 
er ? or from its having the taste of carda- 
mum, that is, nasturtium, or cress.) 
Cuckoo-flower. 

1 . The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnsean system. Class, Tetradynamia. Or- 
der, SiUquosa. 

2. The pharmacopoeial name of the 
common lady's smock x or cuckoo flower. 
Cardamine pratensis of Linnaeus :-~foliis 
pinnatis, foMotis radicalibus subrotundis, 
caulinis lauceolatis. This plant is also called 
Cardamantica. Nasturtium aquaticum. Culi 

Jlos. Iberis sop/iia. It is the flower of this 
plant which has a place in the materia me- 
dica, upon the authority of Sir George 
Baker, who has published five cases, two of 
chorea Sancti Viti, one of spasmsodic asth- 
ma, and hemiphlegia, and a case of spasmo- 
dic affections of the lower limbs, wherein 
thejlores cardamines were supposed to have 
been successfully used. A variety of vir- 
tues have been given to this plant, which do 
not deserve the attention of practitioners. 

CARDAMINE PRATENSIS. The systematic 
name of the plant called cardamine in the 
pharmacopoeias. See Cardamine. 

CARDAMINES F LORES. See Cardamine. 

CARD4MOMUM. (From K^A^V, 
and Afjicefjiov: because it partakes of the 
nature, and is like both the cardamum and 
amomum.) The cardamom seed, or grains 
of Paradise. 

CARD AMOMUM MA JUS. A large, 
brown, somewhat triangular husk, the 
thickness of one's thumb, and pyramidial. 
The seeds resemble the grana parodist ; 
their virtues are similar to those of the car- 
damomum minus. 

CARDAMOMUM MEDIUM. The 
seeds correspond, in every respect, with 
the lesser, except in size, they being twice 
as long, but no thicker than the cardamo- 
mum minus. 



372 



CAE 



CAR 



CARDAMOMUM MINUS. Officinal 

cardamom. Jtmwnum repens, sen le, carda- 
iwme de la cute de Malabar, of Sonnerat. 
Elettaria cardamomum, of Maton in Act. 
Soc. Lin. Class, Monandna. Order, J\Io- 
nogynia. The seeds of this plant are im- 
ported in their capsules or husks, by which 
they are preseved, for they soon lose a 
part of their flavour when treed from this 
covering-. On being chewed they impart a 
glowing aromatic warmth, and grateful pun- 
gency ; they are supposed gently to stimu- 
late the stomach, and prove cordial, car- 
minative, and anlispasmodic, but without 
that irritation and heat which many of the 
other spicy aromatjcs are apt to produce, 
Simple and compound spirituous tinctures 
are prepared from them, and they are or- 
dered as a spicy ingredient in many of the 
officinal compositions. 

CARDAMOMUM PIHERATIJM. The grains 
of Paradise. 

CARDAMOMVM SIBERIENSE. The Ani- 
sum Indicum. 

CARDAMUM. (From *//*, the heart; 
because it comforts and strengthens the 
heart.) Garden cresses. 

CARDIA. (From M*$, the heart; so 
xhe Greeks called the heart.) The supe- 
rior opening of the stomach. 

CARDIACA. (From xagcT**, the heart.) 

1. Cordials. See Cordials. 

2. The pharmacopoeial name of mother- 
wort. So named from the supposed relief 
it gives in faintings and disorders of the 
stomach. Agripalma gallis. JUarrubiwn. 
Cardiaca crispa. Leonurus cardiaca of 
Linnaeus : foliis caulinis lanceolatis, trilobis. 
The leaves of this plant have a disagreeable 
.smell and a bitter taste, and are said to be 
serviceable in disorders of the stomach of 
children, to promote the uterine discharge, 
and to allay palpitations of the heart. 

CAHDIACA CONFECTIO. See Confectio aro-> 



CAHDIACA PASSIO. The cardiac passion. 
Ancient writers frequently mention a dis- 
order under this name, but the moderns 
always speak of it as a syncope. 

CARDIACUS MORBUS. A name by which 
the ancients called the typhus fever. 

CARDIALGIA. (From x*/xft, the car- 
dia, and Axytu> t to be pained.) Pain at the 
stomach. The heartburn. Dr. Cullen 
ranks it as a species of dyspepsia. Heart- 
burn is an uneasy sensation in the stomach, 
with anxiety, a heat more or less violent, 
and sometimes attended with oppression, 
faintness, an inclination to vomit, or a plenti- 
ful discharge of clear lymph, like saliva, 
This pain may arise from various and dif- 
ferent causes ; such as flatus / from sharp 
humours, either acid, bilious,or rancid; from 
worms gnawing and vellicating the coats of 
the stomach ; from acrid and pungent 
food, such as spices, aromatics, &c. ; as also 
from rheumatic and gouty humours, or 
-ifi'fe.its : from too frrn a nsp nf ten. oi 



watery fluids relaxing the stomach,. Sec. ; 
from the natural mucus being abraded, par- 
ticularly in the upper orifice of the sto- 
mach. 

CARDJALGIA IOTLAMMATORIA. Inflam- 
mation in the stomach. 

CARDIALGIA SPUTATORIA, i- e. pyrosis. 
See Pyrosis. 

CARDIM:&LECH. (From Kstg<T/#, the heart, 
and meleck, Heb. a governor.) A fictitious 
term in Dolxus's Encyclopaedia, by which 
he would express a particular active prin- 
ciple in the heart, appointed to what we 
call the vital functions. 

CARDIMOMA. A name for Cardialgia. 

Cardinal flowers, blue. See Lobelia. 

CARDINAMEHTUM. (From car do, a hinge.) 
A sort of articulation like a hinge. 

CARDIOGMUS. (From **gcfWrra>, to 
have a pain in the stomach.) The same as 
Cardialgia. Also an aneurism in the aorta, 
near the heart, which occasions pain in the 
praecordia. 

CARDIONCHUS. (From x*<f**, the heart, 
and oynof, a tumour.) An aneurism in the 
heart, or in the aorta near the heart. 

CARDIOTROTUS. (From xatgcfo*, the heart, 
and T/Tgaiff-jta), to wound.) One who hath 
a wound in his heart. 

CARDITIS. (From **<&, the heart.) 
Inflammation of the heart. It is a genus 
of disease arranged by Cullen in the class 
pyrexia, and order phlegmasite. It is known 
by pyrexia, pain in the region 'of the sto- 
mach, great anxiety, difficulty of breathing, 
cough, irregular pulse, palpitation, and 
fainting, and the other symptoms of inflam- 
mation. 

CARDO. (A hinge.) The articulation 
called Ginglymus ; also the second vertebra 
of the neck. 

CARDONET. A wild artichoke, esculent. 

CARDONIUM. So Paracelsus calls wine 
medicated with herbs. 

CARDOPATIA. The low carline thistle, 
said to be diaphoretic. 

CARDUUS. (a carere, quasi aptus ca- 
rendx. lanx, being fit to tease wool; or from 
MIQUI, to abrade ; so named from its rough- 
ness, which abrades and tears whatever it 
meets with.) The thistle, or teasel. The 
name of a genus of plants in the Linnsean 
system. Class, Syngenesia. Order, Poly- 
gamin cequaUa. 

CARDUUS ACANTHUS. The bear's breech, 

CARDUUS ALTILIS. The artichoke. 

CARDUUS BENED1CTUS. Cuicus syl- 
vestris. Blessed or holy thistle. Centaurea 
benedicta j calycibus duplicate spinosis lanatia 
involucratis, foliis semi decurrentibus denticu- 
latO'Spinosts of Linnaeus. Class, Syngenesia. 
Order, Polygamia frustranea. This exotic 
plant, a native of Spain and some of the 
Archipelago islands, obtained the name of 
Benedictus, from its being supposed to pos- 
sess extraordinary medicinal virtues. In 
loss of apetite, where the stomach was 
iniured bv irregularities, its crood effects 



CAR 

have been frequently experienced. It is a 
powerful bitter tonic and adstringent. Ber- 
g-ius considers it as antacid, corroborant, 
stomachic, sudorific, diuretic, and eccopro- 
tic. Chamomile flowers are now general- 
ly substituted for the carduus benedictus, 
and are thought to be of at least equal 
value. 

CARDUUS HJEMORRHOIDALIS. (So called 
because it is said to relieve the pains of the 
haemorrhoids, if beat into a poultice and ap- 
plied.) Also called carduus vinearum re- 
pens, sonchi folio, cirsium arvense, ceano- 
thos. The common creeping way thistle. 
Serratula arvensis of Linnaeus. 

CARDUUS LACTEUS. See Carduus Marias. 

CARDUUS LACTEUS SYRIACUS. The 
Spanish milk-thistle. Stomachic and ano- 
dyne. 

CARDUUS MARINE. Carduus albis ma- 
culis notatus vulgaris, C. B. Common 
milk-thistle, or Lady's thistle. The seeds 
of this plant, Carduus marianus ,- foliis am- 
plexicaulibus, hastato-pinnatifidis^ spinosis , 
calijcibus aphyllis ; spirits caniliculatis, du- 
plicalo-spinosis, of Linnaeus, and the herb 
have been employed medicinally. The 
former contains a bitter oil, and are re- 
commended as relaxants. The juice of 
the latter is said to be salutary in dropsies, 
in the dose of four ounces ; and, according 
to Millar, to be efficacious against pungent 
pains. 

CARDUUS MARIANUS. The systematic 
name of the officinal Carduus mariae. 

CARDUUS SATIVUS. The artichoke. 

CARDUUS SOLSTITIALIS. The calcitrapa 
officinalis. 

CARDUUS TOMENTOSUS. The woolly this- 
tle. The plant'distinguished by this name 
in the pharmacopoeias, is the Onopordium 
acanthium of Linnaeus : calydbus squarro- 
sis ; squamis patentibus ,- fotiis ovato-oblongis^ 
siniiatis. Its expsessed juice has been re- 
commended as a cure for cancer, either ap- 
plied by moistening lint with it, or mixing 
some simple farinaceous substance, so as 
to form a poultice, which should be in con- 
tact with the disease, and renewed twice 
a-day. 

v CAREBRARIA. (From #*, the head, and 
/Sago?, weight.) A painful and uneasy heavi- 
ness of the head. 

CARENUM. (From *, the head.) Ga- 
len uses this word for the head. 

CARENUM VINUM. Strong* wine. 

CAREUM. From Carea, the country 
whence they were brought.) The caraway. 

CAREX. (From eareo, not quia riribus 
careat, but because, from its roughness, it 
is fit ad carendum, to card, tease, or pull.) 
Sedge. The name of a genus of plants in 
the Linnaean system. Class, Monoecia. Or- 
der, Triandria. 

CAREX ARENARIA. The systematic name 
of the officinal sarsaparilla Germanica. See 
Sarsaparilla Germanica. 

CARICA. (From Carica t the place 



CAR 



173 



where they are cultivated.) Ficus. Fi- 
cus vulgaris. Ficus communis. 2uxn of the 
Greeks. The fig. The plant which affords 
this fruit is the Ficus Canca of Linnaeus. 
Fresh figs, are, when completely ripe, soft, 
succulent, and easily digested, unless eaten 
in immoderate quantities, when they are 
apt to occasion flatulency, pain of the 
bowels, and diarrhoea. The dri-d fruit, 
which is sold in our shops, is pleananter to 
the taste, and more wholsome and nutri- 
tive. They are directed in the decoctum 
hordei compositum, and. in the electuarium 
leniti-vum. Applied externally, they pro- 
mote the suppuration of tumours ; hence 
they have a place in maturing cataplasms ; 
and are very convenient to apply to the 
gums, and, when boiled with milk, to the 
throat. 

CARICA PAPAYA. Papaw tree. Every 
part of the papaw tree, except the ripe fruit, 
affords a milky juice, which is used, in the 
Isle of France, as an effectual remedy for 
the tape worm. In Europe, however, whith- 
er it has been sent in the concrete state, it 
has not answered, perhaps from some 
change it had undergone, or not having 
been given in a sufficient dose. 

CARICUM. (From Caricus, its inventor.) 
Carycum* An ointment for cleansing ul- 
cers, composed of hellebore, lead, and can- 
tharides. 

CARIES, (From carah, Chald) Rot- 
tenness, or mortification of the bones. 

CARIMA. The cassada bread. 

CARIJTA. A name formerly applied to 
the back-bone. 

CARIUM TERRA. Lime. 

CARIVILLANDI. A name of sarsaparilla 
root. 

CARLINA. (From Carolus, Charles the 
Great, or Charlemagne ; because it was be- 
lieved that an angel shewed it to him, and 
that, by the use of it, his army was preserv* 
ed from the plague.) Carline thistle. The 
name of a genus of plants in the Linnaean 
system. Class, Syngenesia. Order, Poly, 
gamia aquaUs. The officinal name of two 
kinds of plants. See Chamamelon album 
and Carlina gnmmifera. 

CARLINA ACAULIS. The systematic name 
of the chamemelon album. 

CARLINA GUMMIFERA. Carduus pinea. 
Ixine. Pine thistle. This plant is the 
Jltractylis gummifera of Linnaeus. The 
root, when wounded, yields a milky, vis- 
cous juice, which concretes into tenacious 
masses, at first whitish, resembling wax, 
when much handled growing black ; it is 
said to be chewed with the same views as 
mastich. 

Carline thistle. See Chameleon album. 

CARLO SANCTO RADIX. St. Charles's 
root ; so called by the Spaniards, on ac- 
count of its great virtues. It is found in 
Mechoachan, a province in America. Its 
bark hath an aromatic flavour, with a bit- 
ter acrid taste. The root itself consists of 



174 



CAR 



CAR 



slender fibres. The bark is sudorific, and 
strengthens the gums and stomach. 

CARMEN. (A verse ; because charms 
usually consisted of a verse.) A charm ; an 
amulet. 

CARMES. (The Carmelite friars, Fr.) 
Carmelite water ; so named from its inven- 
tors ; composed of baum, lemon-peel, &c. 

CARMINANTIA. See Carminatives. 

CARMINATIVES. (Carminativa, sc. 
medicament a . from carmen, a verse or 
charm ; because practitioners, in ancient 
times, ascribed thtir operation to a charm 
or enchantment.) A term applied to those 
substances which allay pain, and dispel 
flatulencies of the primse viae. The princi- 
pal carminatives are the semina cardamomi, 
anisi et carui; olea essentialia carui, anisi et 
juniperi ; confectto aromatica; pnlvis aro- 
maticus ; tinctura cardamom! ; tinctura cin- 
namomi composita ; -zinziber ; tonics., bit- 
ters, and astringents. 

CVRNABADIUM. Caraway seed. 

CARNEY COLUMN^. The fleshy piU 
lars or columns in the cavities of the heart. 
See Heart. 

CARNICULA. (Dim. of caro, carnis, the 
flesh.) The fleahy substance which sur- 
rounds the gums. 

CANTIFORMIS. (From caro, flesh, and 
forma, likeness.) Having the appearance 
of flesh. It is commonly applied to an ab- 
scess where the flesh surrounding the ori- 
fice is hardened and of a firm consistence. 

CARO Flesh. The red part or belly of 
a muscle ; also the pulp of fruit. 

CARO ADNATA. The recent swelled 
testicle. 

CAROLINA. See Carlina. 

CAROPI. The amomum verum. 

CARORA. The name of a vessel that re- 
sembles an urinal. 

CAROSIS. See Cams. 

CAROTA. See Daucus. 

CAROTTDI^E ARTERIJE, See Carstides. 

CAROTID ARTERY. (From K*goa>, 
to cause to sleep ; so called because, if 
tied with a ligature, they cause the an;mals 
to be comatose, and have the appearance 
of being asleep. The carotids are two 
considerable arteries that proceed, one on 
each side of the cervical vertebras, to the 
head, to supply it with blood. The right 
carotid does not arise immediately from 
the arch of the aorta, but is given off 
from the arteria innominata. The left 
arises from the arch of the aorta. Each 
carotid is divided into external and inter- 
nal, or that portion without and that with- 
in the cranium. The external gives off 
eight branches to the neck and face, viz. 
anteriorly, the superior thyroideal, the sub- 
lingual, the inferior maxillary, the exter- 
nal maxillary ; posteriorly, the internal max- 
illary, the occipital, the external auditory, 
and the temporal. The internal carotid 
or cerebral artery, gives off four branches 



anterior cerebral, the posterior, the central 
artery of the optic nerve, and the internal 
orbital. 

CAROUM. The caraway seed. 

CARPASUS. (So named tirstgt, TO XO-QOV 
srw<rsti : because it makes the person who 
eats it appear as if he was asleep.) An 
herb, the juice of which was formerly call- 
ed opocarpason, opocarpathon, or opocalpa- 
son : according to Galen it resembles 
myrrh; but is esteemed highly poison- 
ous. 

CAR"PATHICUS BALSAMUS. Oleum Ger* 
man-is. Carpathicum. This balsam is ob- 
tained both by wounding the young 
branches of the Pinus ceinbra of Linnxus : 
foliis quints, laevibus, and by boiling them. 
It is mostly diluted with turpentine, and 
comes to us in a very liquid and pellucid 
state, rather white. 

CARPENTARIA. (From C'arpentarius* a 
carpenter ; and so named from its virtues 
in healing cuts, and wounds made by a 
tool.) A vulnerary herb ; but not properly 
known what it is. 

CARPHALEUS. (From xg<j>a>, to exsiccate.) 
Hippocrates uses this word to mean dry, 
opposed to moist. 

CARPHUS. (From **<}>, a straw.) In 
Hippocrates it signifies a mote, or any small 
substance. A pustule of the smallest kind. 
Also the herb fenugreek. 

CARPIA. (From carpo, to pluck off, as 
lint is from linen cloth.) Lint. See Lint. 
CARPISMUS. The wrist. 

CARPOR \LSAMUM. (From **groe, 
fruit, and jSat^o-at^wov, balsam.) See Balsa' 
mum Gikadense. 

CARPOI.OGAI. (From carpo, to pluck or 
pull gently.) Picking the clothes, as in 
dangerous fevers. 

CARPUS. (K*7ro ? , the wrist.) The 
wrist, or carpus. It is situated between the 
fore arm and hand. See JBones. 

Carrot. See Daucus. 

Carrot, candy. See Daucus Creticus- 

Carrot poultice. See Cataplasma dauci. 

CARTHAMUS. (From *a6*jga, to 
purge. ) 1. The name of a genus oi plants 
in the Linnsean system Class, Syngenesia. 
Order, Polygamia cequalis. 

2. The pharmacopoeial name of the saf- 
fron flower, Carthamus tinctorhis of Linnae- 
us : foliis ovatis, integris, serrato-aculeatis : 
called also Cnicus, Crocus Saracenicus, Car- 
thamum ojficinarwn, Carduus sativus. The 
plant is cultivated in many places on ac- 
count of its flowers, which are used as-a 
yellow die. The seeds, freed from their 
shells, have been celebrated as a gentle ca- 
thartic in a dose of one or two drachms. 
They are also supposed to be diuretic and 
expectorant ; particularly useful in humo- 
ral asthma, and similar complaints. The 
carthamus lanatus is considered in France, 
as a febrifuge and sudorific. The dried 
flowers are frequently mixed with saffroq, 

' 



rtaniiim 



CAR 



CAR 



175 



CARTHAMUS TINCTOKITTS. The systema- 
tic name of the safflower plant. See Car- 
thamus. 

CARTHUSIAWUS. (From the Monks of 
that oroer, v/iio first invented it.) A name 
of the precipitated sulphur of antimony. 

CARTILAGE. (Quasi carnilago ; from 
can, carnis, flesh.) A white elastic, glis- 
tering substance, growing to bones, and 
commonly called gristle. Cartilages are 
divided, by anatomists into abducent, 
which cover the muveable articulations of 
bones ; inter-articular, which are situated 
between the articulations, and uniting car- 
tilages, which unite one bone with another. 
Their use is to lubricate the articulations of 
bones, and to connect some bones by an 
immoveable connexion. 

CARTILAGO ANNULARIS. See Car- 
tilago cricoidea. 

CARTILAGO ARYT^ENOIDEA. See 
Larynx. 

CARTILAGO CRICOIDEA, The cri- 
coid cartilage belongs to the larynx, and 
is situated between the thyroid and aryte- 
noid cartilages and the trachea; it consti- 
tutes, as it were, the basis of the many 
annular cartilages of the trachea. 

CARTILAGO ENSIFORMIS. Cartila- 
go xyphoidea. Ensiform cartilage. A car- 
tilage shaped somewhat like a sword or 
dagger, attached to the lowermost part of 
the sternum, just at the pit of the stomach. 

CARTILAGO SCUTIFORMIS. See Thyroid 
cartilage. 

CARTHAGO THYROIDEA. See Thyroid car- 
tilage. 

CARTHAGO XYPHOIDEA. See Cartilago 
ensiformis. 

CARUI. (Caruia, Arabian.) The cara- 
way. See Carum. 

CARUM. (Kstgo? : so named from Caria, 
a province of Asia.) The caraway. 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system. Class, Pentandria. Or- 
der, Monogynia. 

2. The pharmacopoeial name of the ca- 
raway plant. It' is also called 'Card, Cu- 
minum pratense. Caros. Caruon. And is 
the Carum carui of Linnaeus. The seeds 
are well known to have a pleasant spicy 
smell, and a warm aromatic taste ; and, on 
this account, are used for various econo- 
mical purposes. They are esteemed to be 
carminative/ cordial, and stomachic, and 
recommended in dyspepsia, flatulencies, 
and other symptoms attending hysterical 
and hypochondmcal disorders. An essen- 
tial oil and distilled water are directed to be 
prepared from them by the London college. 

CAHUM CARTTI. The systematic name 
for the plant whose seeds are called cara- 
way. See Carum. 

CARUNCLE. (Diminutive * of caro, 
flesh.) Carimcula. A little fleshy excres. 
cence ; as the carunculse myrtitbrmes, ca- 
runcute lachrymales, &c. 



CARUNCULA LACHRYMALIS. A 

long conoidal gland, red externally, si- 
tuated in the internal canthus of each eye, 
before the union of the eyelids. It ap- 
pears to be formed of numerous sebaceous 
glands, from which many small hairs grow. 
The hardened smegma observable in this 
part of the eye in the morning, is separated 
by this caruncle. 

CARUSFCUL/E CUTICULARES ALJE. The 
nymph x. 

CARUNCUUE MAMMILLARES. The extre- 
mities of the tubes in the nipple. 

CARUNCULA MYRTIFORMES. When 
the hymen has been lacerated by attrition, 
there remains in this place two, three, or 
four caruncles, which have received the 
name of myrtifbrm. 

CARUNCULA PAPILLARES. The pro- 
tuberances within the pelvis of the kidney, 
formed by the papillous substance of the 
kidney. 

CARUJTCULOSA ISCHURIA. A suppres- 
sion of urine, from caruncles in the ure- 
thra. 

CARuofr. See Carum. 

CARTJS. (K*oc: from **, the head, as 
being the part affected.) Caros. Carosis. 

1 Insensibility and sleepiness, with quiet 
respiration. 

2. A profound sleep, without fever. A 
lethargy. 

3. The name of the caraway-seed. 
CARVA. The cassia lignea. 
CARYEDON. (From **gy*, a nut.) Co- 

rydon. A sort of fracture, where the bone 
is broken into small pieces, like' the shell 
of a cracked nut. 

CARYDOX. See Caryedon. 

CARYOCOSTINUM. (From mtguftv, the ca- 
ryophyllus, and xorzvo?, composed of the 
costus.) An electuary, named from its in- 
gredients. 

CARYOPHYLLATA. (From *uo<f>t/x- 
\ov, the caryophyllus ; so named because it 
smells like the caryophyllus, or clove July 
flower.) Herba benedicta. Caryophyllus 
"vulgaris. Gtiryophilla. Janamunda. Avens, 
or herb bennet. The root of this plant, 
Geum urbanum of Linnaeus : -Jinribus erec- 
tiSy fructibus globosis villosis, aristis uncina- 
tis mtdis, foliis lyratis, has been employed 
as a gentle styptic, corroborant, and sto- 
machic. It has a mildly austere, somewhat 
aromatic taste, and a very pleasant smell, 
of the clove kind. It is also esteemed, on 
the continent, as a febrifuge. 

CARYOPHYLLOIDES CORTEX. See CuU- 
lawan. 

CARYOPHYLLUS. (K*wo^yxxov : from 
*t/ov, a nut, and cpyAMJv, a leaf; so named 
because it smells like the leaves of the In- 
dian nut, or clove-tree.) The clove-tree. 

The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system. Class, Polyandria. Or- 
der, Monogynia. 

CARYOPHYLLUM AROMATICUM. 



176 



CAS 



CAS 



The clove. The tree which affords this 
spice is the Eugenia caryophyllata of Wilde- 
now, which grows in the East Indies, the 
Moluccas, &c. The clove is the unexpand- 
ed flower, or rather the calyx; it lias a 
strong- agreeable smell, and a bitterish, 
hut, not very pungent, taste. The oil of 
cloves, commonly met with in the shops, 
and received from the Dutch, is highly 
acrimonious, and sophisticated. Clove is 
accounted the hottest and most acrid of the 
aromatics ; and, by acting as a powerful 
stimulant to the muscular fibres, may, in 
some cases of atonic gout, paralysis, &c. 
supersede most others of the aromatic 
class ; and the foreign oil, by its great ac- 
rimony, is also well adapted for several ex- 
ternal purposes : it is directed by several 
pharmacopoeias, and the clove itself enters 
many officinal preparations. 

CARYOPHYLLUM RUBRUM. Tuni- 
ca. Vetonica. Betonica. Coronaria. Ca- 
ryophilUs hortensis. Clove pink. Clove 
gilliflower. Clove July flower. This fra- 
grant plant, Dianthus caryophyllus of Lin- 
naeus :-fioribiis solitariis, squamis calydnis 
stibovatis, brevissimis, corolUs crenatis, grows 
wild in several parts of England ; but the 
flowers, which are pharmaceutically em- 
ployed, are usually produced in gardens : 
they have a pleasant aromatic smell, some- 
what allied to that of clove spice : their 
taste is bitterish and sub-adstringent. 
These flowers were formerly in extensive 
use, but are now merely employed in form 
of syrup, as a useful and pleasant vehicle 
for other medicines. 

CARYOPHYLLUS AROMATICUS AMERICAKUS. 
The piper Jamaicensis. 

CARYOPHYLLUS HORTENSIS. The caryo- 
phyllum rubrum. 

CARYOPHYLLUS VULGARIS. The caryo- 
phyllata. 

CARYOTIS. (From x*gyov, a nut.) Ca- 
ryota. Galen uses this word to mean a su- 
perior sort of dates, of the shape of a nut. 

CASCARILLA. (Dim. of cascara, the 
bark, or shell. Span.) Chocarilla Elu- 
theria. Eluteria. The tree that affords the 
cascarilla b*rk, is the Croton cascarilla of 
Linnaeus. The bark comes to us in quills, 
covere'd upon the outside with a rough, 
whitish matter, and brownish on the inner 
side, exhibiting, when broken, a smooth, 
close, blackish brown surface. It has a 
lightly agreeable smell, and a moderately 
bitter taste, accompanied with a considera- 
ble aromatic warmth. It is a very excel- 
lent tonic, adstringent, and stomachic, and 
is deserving of a more general use than it 
has hitherto met wHli. 

CASCHU. See Catechu. 
Cashew nut. See Jlnacardium occidentals. 
CASHOO. An aromatic drug of Hindos- 
tan, said to possess pectoral virtues. 
CASIA. See Cassia. 
CASMINARIS, The cassamunia of Bengal. 



CASSA. (Arab.) The thorax, or breast, 
. CASSABA. See Cassava. 

CASSAMUM. The fruit of the balsam 
tree. 

CASSAVA. Cassada. Cacavi. Cas- 
sare. Pain de Madagascar. Ridnus minor. 
Maniot. Yucca. Maniibar. Jlipi. Mpi- 
ma coxera. Jlipipoca. Janipha. The 
plant so called is the Jatropha manihot of 
Linnxus. The leaves are boiled, and eaten 
as we do spinage. The root abounds with 
a milky juice, and every part, when raw, 
is a fatal poison. It is remarkable that the 
poisonous quality is destroyed by heat : 
hence the juice is boiled with meat, pepper, 
&c. into a whdlesome soup, and what re- 
mains after expressing the juice, is formed 
into cakes, or meal, the principal food of 
the inhabitants. This plant, which is a 
native of three quarters of the world, is one 
of the most advantageous gifts of Pro- 
vidence, entering into the composition of 
innumerable preparations of an economiaal 
nature. 

Cassada roots yield a great quantity of 
starch, called tapioca, exported in little 
lumps by the Brazilians, and now well 
known to us as diet for sick and weakly 
persons. 

CASSADA. See Cassara. 

CASSIA. (From the Arabic katsia, 
which is from katsa, to tear off; so called 
from the act of stripping the bark from the 
tree.) The name of a genus of plants in 
the Linnxan system. Class, Decandria. 
Order, Monogynia. Cassia and Seneca be- 
long to this genus. See Cassia Jistularis t 
and Senna. 

CASSIA CARYOPHYLLATA. Clove 
bark tree. The bark of this tree, Myrtus 
caryophyllata of Linnaeus : pedunculis tri- 
fido-multifioris, foliis ovatis, is a warm aro- 
matic, of the smell of clovespice, but 
weaker, and with a little admixture of the 
cinnamon flavour. It may be used with the 
same views as cloves, or cinnamon. 

CASSIA FISTULA. The systematic name 
of the purging cassia. See Cassia fistularis. 

CASSIA FISTULARIS. Cassia nigra. 
Cassia fistula. Alexandrina. Chaiarxam- 
bar. Canna. Cassia solutiva. Tlai. Xiem. 
Purging cassia. This tree, Cassia fistula of 
Linnaeus : foliis quinquejugis avatus acumi- 
natis glabris, petiolis eglandulatis, is a na- 
tive of both Indies. The pods of the East- 
India cassia are of less diameter, smoother, 
and afford a blacker, sweeter, and more 
grateful pulp, than those which are brought 
from the West-Indies-. Those pods which 
are the heaviest, and in which the seeds do 
not rattle on being shaken, are commonly 
the best, and contain the most pulp, which 
is the part medicinally employed, and to be 
obtained in the manner described iti the 
pharmacopoeias. The best pulp is of a 
bright shining black colour, and of a sweet 
taste, with a slight degree of acidity. It 



CAS 

has been long used as a laxative medicine, 
and being gentle in its operation, and sel- 
dom disturbing the bowels, is well adapted 
to children, and to delicate or pregnant 
women. Adults, however, find it of little 
effect, unless taken in a very large dose, 
as an ounce or more; and, therefore, to 
them this pulp is rarely given, but usually 
conjoined with some of the brisker purga- 
tives. The officinal preparation of this 
drug, is the confectio cassiae ; it is also an in- 
gredient in the confectio sennae. 

CASSIA ARAMENTUM. The pulp of cas- 
sia. 

CASSIA FLORES. What are called 
cassia flowers in the shops, are the flowers 
of the true cinnamon tree, Laurus cinnamo- 
mum of Linnaeus. They possess aromatic 
and adstringent virtues, and may be suc- 
cessfully employed in decoctions, &c. in 
all cases where cinnamon is recommended. 
Se Cinnamomum. 

CASSIA LtGNEA. Cortex candle 
Malabaricae. CassiaUgnea Malabarica. Xylo- 
cassia. Canella Malabarica et Javensis. Kar- 
va. Canella Cubana. .Arbor Judaic a. Cassia 
canella. Canellifera Malabarica, Cortex 
crassior. Cinnamomum Malabaricum. Ca- 
Hhacha canela. Wild cinnamon-tree. Ma- 
labar cinnamon-tree, or cassia lignea tree. 
Cassia lignea is the bark of the Laurus cas- 
sia of Linnaeus :foliis triplinerviis lanceola- 
tis t whose leaves are calledyofta malabathri 
in the shops. The bark and leaves abound 
with the flavour of cinnamon, for which 
they may be substituted; but in much 
larger doses, as they are considerably 
weaker. 

Cassia t purging. See Cassia Jistularis. 

CASSIA SENNA. The systematic name 
of the plant which affords senna. See 
Senna. 

CASSIA PDIPA. See Cassia fistularis. 

CASSOB. An obsolete term for kali. 

CASSOLETA. Warm fumigations described 
by Marcellus. 

CASSONADA. Sugar. 

CASSTTMMtJNiAR. (Of uncertain deri- 
vation, perhaps Indian.) Casumunar. Cas- 
inina. Risagon. Bengale Indorum. The 
root, occasionally exhibited under one of 
these names, is brought from the East In- 
dies. It comes over in irregular slices of 
Various forms, some cut transversely, others 
longitudinally. The cortical p trt is marked 
with circles of a dusky brown colour : the 
internal part is paler, and unequally yellow. 
It possesses moderately warm, b'tter, and 
aromatic qualities, and a smell like ginger. 
It is recommended in hysterical, epileptic, 
and paralytic affections. 

CASTANEA. ( Cast anea, K*r*vov : from 
Castuna, a city in Tliessaly, whence they 
were brought.) Lopima. Mota. Glans 
Jovis Theophrasti. Jupiter's acorn, and 
Sardinian acorn. The common chesnut. 
The fruit of this plant, Fagu* cagtanea of 



CAT 



. 177 



Linnarus -.foliis lanceolatis, acuminato-ser- 
ratist subtus nuilis, are much esteemed as 
an article of luxury, after dinner. Toasting 
renders them more easy of digestion ; but, 
notwithstanding, they must be considered 
as improper for weak stomachs. They are 
moderately nourishing, as containing sugar, 
and much farinaceous substance. 

CASTANEA EQ.UIITA. The horse-chesnut. 
See Hippocastanum. 

Castanea Jlore albo. Coffee. 
CASTLE-LEOD WATERS. A sulphureous 
spring in Rosshire, celebrated for the cure 
of cutaneous diseases and foul ulcers. 

CASTOR FIBER. The generic name of 
the beaver. See Castoreum Russicum. 
Castor. See Castoreum Russicum. 
Castor oil. See Ridnus. 
Castor, Russian. See Castoreum Russi- 
cum. 

CASTOREUM RUSSICUM. (Casto- 
reum, from **ra>g, the beaver, quasi 
>*ra> ; from >^s*#<, the belly ; because of 
the largeness of its belly ; or d castrando t 
because he is said to castrate himself in or- 
der to escape the hunters.) Castoreum. Rus- 
sian castor. A peculiar concrete substance, 
obtained from the Castor fiber of Lin- 
naeus, or beaver, an amphibious quadruped 
inhabiting some parts of Prussia, Russia, 
Germany, &c. ; but the greatest number of 
these animals is met with in Canada. The 
name of castoreum is given to two bags, 
situated in the inguinal regions of the male 
beaver, which contain a very odorous sub- 
stance, soft, and almost fluid when recently 
cut from the animal, but which dries, and 
assumes a resinous consistence in process of 
time. This substance has an acrid, bitter 
and a nauseous taste ; its smell is strong-, 
aromatic, and even foetid. It is used medi- 
cinally, as a powerful antispasmodic in 
hysterical and hypochondriacal affections, 
and in convulsions, in doses of from 10 to 
30 grains. It has also been successfully 
administered in epilepsy and tetanus. It 
is occasionally adulterated with dried blood, 
gum-ammoniacum, or galbanum, mixed 
with a little of the powder of castor, and 
some quantity of the fat of the beaver. 

CASTORIUM. See Castoreum Russi- 
cum. 

CASTRATION. Celotnmia. Orchoto- 
mia. A chirurgical operation, by which a 
testicle is removed from the body. 

CASTRENSIS. (From casfra, a csmp.) A 
name applied to those diseases with which 
soldiers, encamped in marshy places, are 
afflicted. 

C ATA BASIS, (From je*Ttava>, (to de- 
scend.) A descent or operation down- 
wards. 

CATABIBASIS. (From **TstC/^at^, to cause 
to descend.) An exclusion, ot expulsion 
of the humours downwards. 

CATABLACEUSIH. (From x*T*fC\suMw, to 
be useless.) Hippocrates uses this word 
A A 



CAT 



CAT 



to signify carelessness and negligence in the 
attendance on, und administration to the 
sick. 

CATABI.EMA. (From x.^-rct^AX\ee ) to throw 
round.) The outermost fillet, winch se- 
cures the rest of the bandages. 

CATABHO> CHESTS. (From **]*., and@pffy%9t 
the throat ; or uQfiCffwtfvt to swallow.) 
The act of swallowing.. 

CATACAUMA. (From x.^lctn.Aiui ) to burn.) 
A burn, or scaid. 

CATACAUSIS. (From **7axia, to burn.) 
The act of combustion, or burning 1 . 

CATACECLIHENUS. (From x.*lMi\ivoju.ai t 
to lie down.) Keeping the bed, from the 
violence of a disease. 

CATACECRAMENUS. (From xx^swcsgaww^w/, 
to reduce to small particles.) Broken into 
small pieces. It is used of fractures. 

CATACKRASTICA. (From K^OM^AWU^I, 
to mix together.) Medicines which ob- 
tund the acrimony of humours, by mixing 
with them and reducing- them. 

CATACHLIDESIS. (From x.-jil&xKii' ou t to 
indulge in delicacies.) A gluttonous in- 
dulgence in sloth and delicacies, to the ge- 
neration of diseases. 

CATACHRYSTOS. (From x.^1 entice t to 
anoint.) An unguent, or ointment. 

CATACHRYSMA. An ointment,. 

CATACLASIS. (From *7A*x*a>, to break, 
or distort.) Distorted eyelids. 

CATACLEIS. (From xa7*, beneath, and 
jtxtic, the clavicle.) The subclavicle, or 
first rib, which is placed immediately un- 
der the clavicle. 

CATACLIXES. (From x.alctx.\tvu>, to lie 
down.) One who, by disease, is fixed to 
his bed. 

CATACLISIS. (From x.-/]oM\tva> t to lie 
down.) A lying down. It means also in- 
curvation. 

CATACLYSMA. (From x.*i*H.>,vfa, to wash.) 
A clyster. 

CATACLYSM us. (From x.aflaut.\uu>, to 
wash.) An embrocation. A dashing of 
water upon any part. 

CATACHR-EMJTOS. (From **?*, andxgjf^u- 
vof, a precipice.) Hippocrates means, by 
this word, a swoln and inflamed throat, 
from the exuberance of the parts. 

CATACBUSIS. (From jt*7*a>, to drive 
back.) A revulsion of humours. 

CATABOULESIS. (From )ist]*JxMeo, to 
enslave.) The subduing of passions, as in 
a phrensy, or fever. 

CAT.EGIZESIS. (From K^ltuyi^ to re- 
pel.) A revulsion or rushing back of hu- 
mours, or wind in the intestines. 

CATZOKESIS. (From mflAtovtce, to irri- 
gate.) Irrigation by a plentiful affusion 
of liquor on some part of the b<xly. 

CATAGMA. (From **7, and oyee, to 
break.) A fracture. Galen says a solution 
of the bone is called catagma, and elcos is 
a solution of the continuity of ;he flesh : 
that when it happens to a cartilage, it has 



no name, though Hippocrates calls it ca- 
tagraa. 

CATAGMATICA. (From K*?^^*, a frac- 
ture.) Catagmatics. Remedies proper 
for cementing broken bones, or to promote 
a callus. 

CATAGOGE. (From xaflaeyofAeu, to abide.) 
The seat or region of a disease or part. 

CATAGYIOSIS. (From xoflatyviov, to de- 
bilitate.) An /imbecility and enervation 
of the strength and limbs. 

CATALEPSIS. (From ^**&ft&tn, 
to seize, to hold.) Catoche. Catochus. 
Congelatio. Detentio. Encaialepsis ; and 
by Hippocrates uphonia ; by Antigenes 
anauditif by Caelius Aurehanus apprehensio, 
oppressio , comprehensio., Jlpoptexia catalep- 
tica of Cullen. A sudden suppression of 
motion and sensation, the body remaining 
in the same posture that it was in when 
seized. 

Dr. Cullen says, he has never seen the 
catalepsy except when counterfeited ; and 
is of opinion, that many of those cases re- 
lated by other authors, have also been 
counterfeited. It is said to come on sud- 
denly, being only preceded by some lan- 
guor of body and mind, and to return by 
paroxysms. The patients are said to be for 
some minutes, sometimes (though rarely) 
for some hours, deprived of their senses, and 
all power of voluntary motion ; but con- 
stantly retaining the position in which 
they were first seized, whether lying or 
sitting; and if the limbs be put into any 
other posture during the fit, they will keep 
the posture in which they are placed. 
When they recover from the paroxysm, 
they remember nothing of what passed 
during the time of it, but are like persons 
awakened out of a sleep. 

CATALOTICA. (From jea7aa<Ktw, to grind 
down ) Medicines to soften and make 
smooth the rough edges and crust of cica- 
trices. 

CATALYSIS. (K/raAy<r/f : from jc*Taxt/a>, 
to dissolve or destroy.) It signifies a palsy, 
or such a resolution as happens before the 
death of the patient ; also that dissolution 
which constitutes death. 

CATAMARASMUS. (From fut/etfutgeuw, to 
grow thin.) An emaciation, or resolution 
of tumours. 

CATAMASSESIS. (From jc*7*jaa<nn>yaau, to 
manducate.) The grinding of the teeth, 
and biting of the tongue ; so common in 
epileptic persons. 

CATAMENIA. (From **7*, according 
to, and /AM the month.) Menses. The 
monthly discharge of blood from the uterus 
of females, between the ages of 14 and 
45. Many have questioned whether the 
catamenial discharge arose from a mere 
rupture of vessels, or whether it was o wing- 
to a secretory action. There can be little 
doubt of the truth of the latter. The secre- 
tory organ is composed of the arterial 



CAT 



CAT 



179 



vessels situated in the fundusof the uterus. 
The dissection of women who have died 
during- the time of their menstruating-, 
proves this. Sometimes, though very rare- 
ly, women, during pregnancy, menstruate ; 
and when this happens, the discharge takes 
place from the arterial vessels of the va- 
gina. During pregnancy and lactation, 
when the person is in good health, the ca- 
tarnenia, for the most part, cease to flow. 
The quantity a female menstruates at each 
time, is very varied ; depending on climate, 
and a variety of other circumstances. It 
is commonly, in England, from five to six 
ounces : it rarely exceeds eight. Its dura- 
tion is from three to four, and sometimes, 
though rarely, five days. With respect to 
the nature of the discharge, it differs very 
much from pure blood ; it never coagulates, 
but is sometimes grumous, and membranes 
like the decidua are formed in difficult 
menstruations : in some women it always 
smells rank and peculiar ; in others it is 
inodorous. The use of this monthly secre- 
tion is to render the uterus fit for the con- 
ception and nutrition of the foetus ; there- 
fore girls rarely conceive before the cata- 
menia appear, and women rarely after their 
entire cessation ; but very easily soon after 
menstruation. 

CATANANCE. Succory. 

CATANIPHTHIS. (From xjfl&viTflcc, to 
wash.) Washed, or scoured. It is used 
by Hippocrates of a diarrhoea washed and 
cleansed by boiled milk. 

CATANTLEMA. (From K*7*v7x*w, to pour 
upon.) A lotion by infusion of water, or 
medicated fluids. 

CATATTTLESIS. A medicated fluid. 

CATAPASMA'. (From va.a-<ru>^ to sprinkle.) 
Catapastum. Conspersio. Ejripaston. Pus- 
ma .sympasmata. Aspersio. Aspergines. 
The ancient Greek physicians meant by this, 
any dry medicine reduced to powder, to be 
sprinkled on the body. Their various uses 
may be seen in Paulus of Egina, lib. vii. 
cap. xiii. 

CATAPAUSTS: (From K-jila.7ra.via, to rest, or 
cease.) That rest or cessation from pain 
which proceeds from the resolution of un- 
easy tumours. 

CATAPELTES. (From t7*, against, and 
/srsA7, a sheild.) This word means a sling, 
a granado, or battery ; and is also used to 
signify the medicine which heals the wounds 
and bruises made by such an instrument. 

CATAPHORA. (From UO-TO.^^, to make 
sleepy.) Coma somnolentwn. A preterna- 
tural propensity to sleep. A mild apoplexy. 

CATAPHORA ARTHRITICA. Apoplexy from 
gout. 

CATAPHORA COMA. Sanguineous apo- 
plexy. 

CATAPHORA EXANTHEMATICA. A lethargy 
in eruptive diseases. 

CATAPHORA HYDiiocErHAiiCA. Serous 
apoplexy. 



CATAPHORA SCORDUTJCA. Apoplectic 
symptoms in scurvy. 

CATAPHORA TIMOR. A lethargic dispo- 
sition. 

CATAPHRACTA. (From **72<pg*a-o-a, to for- 
tify.) A bandage on the thorax. 

CATAPLASMA. (From **7*7rAcrsra>, to 
spread like a plaister.) A poultice. The 
following are among- the most useful. 

CATAPLASMA ALUMIXIS. This appication 
was formerly used to inflammation of the 
eyes, which was kept up from weakness of 
the vessels ; it is now seldom used, a solu- 
tion of alum being mostly substituted. 

CATAPLASMA ACETOSTB. Sorrel poultice ; 
$t. Acetosae, ibj. To be beaten m a mor- 
tar into pulp. A good application to scor- 
butic ulcers. 

CATAPLASMA ^ETIATUM. See Cataplasma 
fermenti. 

CATAPLASMA CICUT.E. Hemlock poul- 
tice. ^. Herbxcicutae exfoliatse, 5jj, Aquas 
fontanse, Ibjj. To be boiled till only a pint 
remains, when as much linseed meal a* ne- 
cessary is to be added. This is an excellent 
application to many cancerous and scrophu- 
lous ulcers, and other malignant ones ; fre- 
quently producing great climunition of the 
pain of such diseases, and improving their 
appearance. Justamond preferred the herb 
fresh bruised. 

CATAPLASMA CUMINI. This is a warm- 
and stimulating- poultice, and was formerly 
much used as an irritating antiseptic appli- 
cation to gangrenous ulcers, and the like. 
It is now seldom ordered. 

CATAPLASMA BAUCI. Carrot poultice, $? 
Iladicis datici recentis, Jbj. Bruize it in a 
mortar into pulp. Some, perhaps with rea- 
son, recommend the carrots to be first boil- 
ed. The carrot poultice is employed as an 
application to ulcerated cancers, scrophu- 
lous sores of an irritable kind, and various 
inveterate malignant ulcers. 

CATAPLASMA FERMESTI. Vest cataplasm. 
Take of flour a pound ; yest half a pint. 
Mix and exopse to a gentle heat, until the 
mixture begins to rise. This is a celebra- 
ted application in cases of sloughing and 
mortification. 

CATAPLASMA LIXI. Linseed poultice, *. 
Farinse lini, Ibss. Aquas ferventis, ib jse. 
The powder is to be gradually sprinkled in- 
to the water, while they ure quickly blend- 
ed together with a spoon. This is the best 
and most convenient of all emollient poul- 
tices for common cases, and has, in a great 
measure, superseded the bread and milk 
one, so much in use formerly. 

CATAPLASMA LTTHAnGTRI ACETATI. R>. 

Aqtix Uthargyri acetati, %]. Aquae distill. 
ibj. Micx panis, q. s. Mice. Practitioners 
who place much confidence in the virtues 
of lead, often use this poultice in cases of 
inflammation. 

CATAPLASMA Q^TERCUS MARIXI. This is 
prepared by bruizing a quantity of the 



180 



CAT 



CAT 



marine plant, commonly called sea-tang, 
which is afterwards to be applied by way 
of a poultice. Its chief use is in cases of 
scrophula, white swellings, and glandular 
tumours more especially. When this vege- 
tlabe cannot be obtained in its recent state, 
a common poultice of sea-water and oat- 
meal has been substituted by the late Mr- 
Hunter, and other surgeons of eminence. 

CATAPLASMA SIJTAPEOS. See Calaplasma 
sin apis. 

CATAPLASMA SINAPIS. Mustard cata- 
plasm. Take of Mustard-seed, linseed, of 
each powdered half a pound ; boiling vine- 
gar, as much as is sufficient. Mix until it 
acquires the consistence of a cataplasm. 

CATAPLEXIS. (From <ar\w<ru>t to strike.) 
Any sudden stupefaction, or deprivation of 
sensation, in any of the members, or organs. 

CATAPOSIS. (From x*Twa>, to swallow 
down.) According to Aretxus, it signifies 
the instruments of deglutition. Hence also 
catapotium. 

CATAPOTIUM. (KafrarcT/ov ) A pill. 

CATAPSTXIS (From 4 w ^ a) to refrige- 
rate.) A refrigeration without shivering, 
either universal, or of some particular part. 
A chilliness, or, as Vogel defines it, an un- 
easy sense of cold in a muscular or cutane- 
ous part. 

CATAPTOSIS. (From x*T*5777rTa>, to fall 
down.) It implies such a falling down as 
happens in apoplexies ; or the spontaneous 
falling down of a paralytic limb. 

CATAPUTIA. (From x*7*rt>0a>, to have 
an ill savour ; or from the Italian, cacapuzza, 
which has the same meaning; so named 
from its foetid smell.) Spurge. 

CATAPUTIA MAJOB. See Ricinus. 

CATAPUTIA MIITOB. The plant so called 
in the pharmacopoeias, is the Euphorbia 
lalhyris ; umbella, quadrifida, dichotoma,fo- 
liis oppositis integerrimis, of Linnaeus. The 
seeds possess purgative properties ; but if 
exhibited in an over dose, prove drastic and 
poisonous ; a quality peculiar to all the 
euphorbia. 

CATARACT. (Cataracta / from KX.TA. 
%*<r<ru>, to confound or disturb ; because the 
sense of vision is confounded, if not destroy- 
ed.) The Caligo lentis of Cullen. 

Hippocrates calls it y^nv^at/utt. Galen, 
v7ro%yfjtai. The Arabians, gutta opaca. 
Celsus, suffusio. A species of blindness, 
arising almost always from an opacity of 
the crystalline lens, or its capsule, pre- 
venting the rays of light passing to the op- 
tic nerve. It commonly begins with a 
dimness of sight ; and this generally con- 
tinues a considerable time before any opa- 
city can be observed in the lens. As the 
disease advances, the opacity becomes 
sensible, and the patient imagines there are 
particles of dust, or motes, upon the eye, 
or >n the air, which are called muscoe vott- 
tantes. This opacity gradually increases till 
the person either becomes entirely blind, or 



can merely distinguish light from darkness. 
The disease commonly comes on rapidly, 
though sometimes its progress is slow and 
gradual. From a transparent state, it changes 
to a perfectly white, or light gray colour. In 
some very rare instances, a black cataract 
is found. The consistence also varies, be- 
ing at one time hard, at another entirely 
dissolved. When the opake lens is either 
more indurated than in the natural state, or 
retains a tolerable degree of firmness, the 
case is term-d, a Jtrm or hard cataract. 
When the substance of the lens seems to be 
converted into a whitish or other kind of 
fluid, lodged in the capsule, the case is de- 
nominated a milky or fluid cataract When 
the substance is of a midling consistence, 
neither hard nor fluid, but about as con- 
sistent as a thick jelly, or curds, the case 
is named a soft or caseous cataract. When 
the anterior or posterior layer of the crys- 
talline capsule becomes opake, after the 
lens itself has been removed from this little 
membranous sac, by a previous operation, 
the affection is named a secondary membra- 
nous cataract. There are many other dis- 
tinctions made by authors. Cataract is 
seldom attended with pain ; sometimes, 
however, every exposure to light creates 
uneasiness, owing probably to the inflam- 
mation at the bottom of the eye. The real 
cause of cataract is not yet well under- 
stood. Numbers of authors consider it 
as proceed ng from a preternatural con- 
traction of the vessels of the lens, arising 
from some external violence, though more 
commonly from some internal and occult 
cause. The cataract is distinguished from 
gutta serena, by the pupils in the latter be- 
ing never affected with light, and from no 
opacity being observed in the lens It is 
distinguished from hypopyon, staphyloma, 
or any other disease in the fore part of the 
eye, by the evident marks which these af- 
fections produce, as well as by the pain at- 
tending their beginning. But it is difficult 
to determine when the opacity is in the 
lens, or in its capsule. If the retina 
(which is an expansion of the optic nerve in 
the inside of the eye) be not diseased, vision 
may, in most cases, be restored, by either 
depressing the diseased lens, or extracting 
it enterely, which is termed couching. 

CATABBHEUMA. (From **7aa>, to flow 
from.) A catarrh, or defluxion of hu- 
mours. 

CATABBHEXIS. (From xaflA^Hyvvce, to 
pour out.) A violent and copious eruption, 
or effusion, joined with noi\ta.e : it is a co- 
pious evacuation from the belly, and some- 
times alone it is of the same signification. 
In Vogel's Nosology, it is defined, a dis- 
charge of pure blood from the intestines, 
such as takes place in dysentery. 

CATABBHfficus. (From xa7atgsa>, to flow 
from.) A word applied to diseases, pro- 
ceeding from a discharge of phlegm. 



CAT 



CAT 



181 



CATARRHOPA PHTMATA. (Ktfioggo*'* <pu- 
*.) Tubercles tending downward ; or, 
as Galen relates, those that have their apex 
on a depending part. 

CATARRHOPOS NOUSOS, -(KATaggosro? v- 
<roc.) A remission of the 'disease, or its de- 
cline, and opposed to the paroxysm. 

CATARRHUS. (From **7*gga>, to 
flow down.) Coryza. A catarrh. An in- 
creased secretion of mucus from the mem- 
branes of the nose, fauces, and bronchia, 
with fever, and attended with sneezing, 
cough, thirst, lassitude, and want of appe- 
tite. It is a genus of disease in the class 
pyrexice, and order profluvia, of Cullen. 
There are two species of catarrh, viz. ca- 
tarrhus d frig-ore, which is very common, 
and is called a cold in the head ; and catar* 
rhus d contagione, the influenza, which 
sometimes seizes a whole city. Catarrh is 
also symptomatic of several other diseases. 
Hence we have the catarrhus rubeolosus ,- 
tussis variolosa, verminosa, caleulosa, phthi* 
sica, hysterica, d dentitione, ffravidarum, me- 
tallicolarum, &c. 

CATARRHUS A FRIGORE. Catarrh from 
cold. 

CATARRHUS BELLINSULAKUS. Mumps, or 
cynanche parotidaea. 

CATARRHUS A COXTAGIO. The influ- 
enza. 

CATARRHUS SUFFOCATIVUS. The croup, 
or cynanche tracheahs. 

CATARRHUS VESICJE. Strangury, with 
discharge of mucus. 

CATARTISMUS. (From xa7*7/fw, to make 
perfect.) According to Galen, a is a trans- 
lation of a bone from a preternatural to its 
natural situation. 

CATASARCA. (From x*7*. and <ragf, flesh.) 
The same as dnasarca. 

CATASBESTIS. (From xst7t, and <rivvv/*i, 
to extinguish.) The resolution of tumours 
without suppuration. 

CATASCHASMUS. (From x.yflaurxao> t to 
scarify.) Scarification. 

CATASEISIS. (From x*7*, and <rna> t to 
shake.) A concussion. 

CATASPASMA. (From KafleurTnuo, to draw 
backwards.) A revulsion or retraction of 
humours, or parts. 

CATASTAGMOS. (From X*T*, and s-a>, to 
distil.) This is the name which the Greeks, 
in the time* of Celsus, had for a distillation. 

CATASTALTICUS. (From Kttsret.o-'T&.Xto, to re- 
strain, or <rTtx\ee, to contract.) It signifies 
styptic, astringent, repressing. 

CATASTASIS (KstTawraw/c.) The consti- 
tution, state, or condition of any thing. 

CATATASIS (From )utlaQwa> t to extend.) 
In Hippocrates it means the extension of a 
fractured limb, or a dislocated one, in or- 
der to replace it. Also the actual replacing 
it in a proper situation. 

CATAXIS. (From xat?at)/a>, to break.) A 
fracture. Also a division of parts by an 
instrument. 



CATECHOMENUS. (From x*7^, to re- 
sist.) Resisting and making ineffectual 
the remedies which have been applied or 
given. 

CATECHU. Catechu. It is said, that, 5n 
the Japanese language, kate Dignities a tree, 
and cAw, juice.) Terra Japonica. Japan earth. 
An extract prepared in India, it was supposed 
till lately, from the juice of the Mimosa ca- 
techu of Linnaeus : vpinis stipularibus^ foliis 
bipinnatis muttijugis, glandutis parrialium 
singuUsi spicis axillaribus geminis seu ternis 
pedunculatis ; by boiling the wood and eva- 
poratii-g the decoction by the heat of the 
sun. But the shrub is now ascertained to be 
an acacia, and is termed Acacia catechu. 
In its purest state, it is a dry, pulver- 
able substance, outwardly of a reddish co- 
lour, internally of a shining dark brown, 
tinged with a reddish hue ; in the mouth it 
discovers considerable adstrmgency, suc- 
ceeded by a sweetish mucilaginous taste. 
It may be advantageously employed for 
most purposes where an adstringent is in- 
dicated, and is particularly useful in alvine 
fluxes, where astringents are required. 
Besides this, it is employed also in ulerine 
profluvia, in laxity and debility of the vi- 
cera in general ; and it is an excellent topi- 
cal adstringent, when suffered to dissolve 
leisurely in the mouth, for laxities and nice- 
rations of the gums, aplithous ulcers in the 
mouth, and similar affections. This ex- 
tract is the basis of several formulae in our 
pharmacopoeias, particularly of a tincture : 
but one of the best forms under which it 
can be exhibited, is that of a simple infu- 
sion in warm water with a proportion of 
cinnamon, for by this means it is at once 
freed of its impurities and improved by the 
addition of the aromatic. Fourcroy says 
that catechu is prepared from the seeds of 
a kind of palm, called areca. 

CATEIAPION. (From KOLTO., and *, a 
blade of grass.) An instrument, having at 
the end a blade of grass, or made like a 
blade of grass, which was thrust into the 
nostrils to provoke a haemorrhage when 
the head ached. It is mentioned by Are- 
txus. 

CATELI.US. (Dim. of catulus, a whelp.) 
A young whelp. Also a chymical instru- 
ment called a cupel, which was formerly in 
the shape of a dog's head. 

CATH^ERESIS. (From xstfiA/ga, to take 
away.) The subtraction or taking away 
any part or thing from the body. Some- 
t'unes it mean* an evacuation, and Hippo- 
crates uses it for such. A consumption of 
the body, as happens without manifest 
evacuation. 

CATHJERETICA. (From Jt5t8auga>, to take 
away.) Medicines which consume or re- 
move superfluous flesh. 

CATHARMA. (From jt*05t/go>, to remove.) 
The excrements, or humours, purged OK 
from the body. 



182 



CAT 



CAT 



CATHAHMUS. (From actBui^, to remove.) 
A purgation of the excrements, or humours. 
A cure by incantation, or the royal touch. 

CATHARSIA. (From **0sga>, to purge.) 
Cathartics, having- a purging property. 

CATHARSIS. (From **6fla>, to take 
away.) A purge, or purgation of the ex- 
crements, or humours, either medically or 
naturally. 

CATHARTICS. (Calhartica, sc. medi- 
camenta : x,x,Qetri)ix, : from xaifla/g*, to purge.) 
Those medicines which, taken internally, 
increase the number of alvine evacuations. 
The different articles referred to this class 
of medicines are divided into five orders : 
1. Stimulating cathartics, as jalap, aloes, 
and bhter apple, which are well calculated 
to discharge accumulations of serum, and 
are mostly selected for indolent and phleg- 
matic habits, and those who are hard to 
purge. 

2. Refrigerating cathartics, as Glauber's 
salts, Epsom suits, sal polychrest, and cre- 
mor tartar. These are better adapted for 
plethoric habits, and those with an inflam- 
matory diathesis. 

3. Adstringent cathartics, as rhubarb and 
damask roses, which are mostly given to 
those whose bowels are weak and irritable, 
and subject to diarrhoea. 

'4. Emollient cathartics, as manna, malva, 
castor oil, and olive oil, which may be 
given in preference to other cathartics, to 
children and the very aged. 

5. Narcotic cathartics, as tobacco, hyos- 
cyamus, and digitalis. This order is never 
given but to the very strong and indolent, 
and to maniacal patients, as their operation 
is very powerful. 

Murray, in his Materia Medica, considers 
the different cathartics under the two di- 
visions of laxatives and purgatives ; the 
former being mild in their operation, and 
merely evacuating the contents of the in- 
testines ; the latter being more powerful, 
and even extending their stimulant opera- 
don to the neighbouring parts. The fol- 
lowing he enumerates among the principal 
laxatives : Manna, Cassia fis-tularis, Tama- 
rindus Indicu, Ricinus communis, Sulphur, 
Magnesia. Under the head of purgatives, 
he names Cassia senna, Rhaeurn palma- 
tum, Conyolvulus jalapa, Helleborus ni- 
ger, Brionia alba, Cucumis colocynthis, 
Momordica elaterium, Rhamnus catharti- 
cus, Aloe perfoliata, Convolvulus scammo- 
nia, Gambogia gutta, Submurias hydrar- 
gyri, Sulphas magnesias, Sulphas sodae, 
Sulphas potassx, Supertartris potassae, Tar- 
tris potass*, Tartris potassx et sodse, Phos- 
phas sodae, Murias sodse, Terebinthina ve- 
neta, Nicotiana tabacum. 

CATHARTICUS SAL. See Sulphas magne- 
six, and Sulphas soda. 

CATHARTICUS HISPANIC us SAL. A kind 
of Glauber's salt, produced near Madrid, 
from some springs. 



CATHARTICUS GLAUBEHI SAL. See Sul- 
phas soda. 

CATHEDRA. (From x.8tfy/*ttt, to sit.) 
The anus, or rather, the whole of the but- 
tocks, as being the part on which we sit. 

CATHERETICA. (From x.a.Ba.1^ to re- 
move.) Corrosives. Medicines which, by 
corrosion, remove superfluous flesh. 

CATHETER. (From x*6/<u/, to thrust 
into.) A long and hollow tube, that is in- 
troduced by surgeons into the urinary blad- 
der, to remove the urine, when the person 
is unable to pass it. Catheters are either 
made of silver or of the elastic gum. 
That for the male urethra is much longer 
than that for the female, and so curved, 
if made of silver, as to adapt itself to the 
urethra. 

CATHETERISMUS. (From */*&%, 
a catheter.) The term given by P. jgi- 
neta to the operation of introducing the 
catheter. 

CATHIDRYSIS. (From tcctB^uco, to 
place together.) The reduction of a frac- 
ture. The operation of setting a broken 
bone. 

CATHMIA. A name for litharge. 

CATHODOS. (From X.*T, and odof.) A 
descent of humours. 

CATHOLCEUS. (From K.ATA, and o**ga>, 
to draw over.) An oblong fillet, made to 
draw over and cover the whole bandage of 
the head. 

CATHOLICON. (From x.&vst, and ox/xo?, 
universal.) A panacea, or universal medi- 
cine. A term formerly applied to medi- 
cines that were supposed to purge all the 
humours. 

CATHYjpjaA. (From XATA, and rmo?, 
sleep.) A profound but unhealthy sleep. 

CATIAS. (From x.*6iHfju, to place in.) 
An incision knife, formerly used for open- 
ing an abscess in the uterus, and for ex- 
tracting a dead foetus. 

CATILLUS. See Catellus. 

CATIXUM ALUMEW. A name given to 
potash. 

CATINUS. (Kafravov.) A crucible. 

Catmint. See JVepeta. 

CATOCATHARTICA. (From .a.ree, down- 
wards, and jt*9;uga>, to purge.) Medicines 
that operate by stool. 

CATOCHE. (From KATI^M, ^to detain.) 
See Catalepfis* 

CATOCHEILTJM. (From xa.ru>, beneath, 
and xjukos, the lip.) The lower lip. 

CATOCHCS. (From KAT*;^, to detain.) 
A catalepsy. Also a tetanus or spasmodic 
disease in which the body is rigidly held 
in an upright posture. 

CATOCHUS CERVINTTS. Tetanus, particu- 
larly affecting the neck. 

CATOCHUS DIURNUS. An occasional te- 
tanus. 

CATOCHUS HOLOTONTCUS. Another name 
for tetanus. 



CAU 



CAU 



183 



CATOMISMUS. (From KX.TCV, belgw, and 
o>/*o?, the shoulder.) By this word, P. -gi- 
neta expresses a method of reducing 1 a lux- 
ated snoukler, by raising the patient over 
the shoulder of a strong man, that, by the 
weight of the body the d.sioc&tion may be 
reduced. 

CATOPSIS. (From x.*,<To7r<rof*a.t, to see 
clearly.) An acute and quick perception. 
The acuteness of the faculties which accom- 
panies the latter stages of consumption. 

CATOPTER, (From xjtT*, and onrrojuuti, to 
see, and, by metaphor, to probe.) A probe. 
An instrument called a speculum ani. 

CATOHCHITES (From KATOL, and o%ts the 
orchis.) A wine in which the orchis root 
has been infused. 

CATORETICA. (From xx.ru>, downwards, 
and , to flow.) Catoteretica, Catoterica. 
M- dicmes which purge by stool. 

CATOTERETICA. See Catoretica. 

CATULOTICA. (From K&TXKVU, to cica- 
trize.) Medicines that cicatrize wounds. 

CA TUTRIPALI. A name of the pi|)er Ion- 
gum. 

CAUCALIS. (From H&VX.IOV, a cup ; or 
from JkwwAK, the daucus.) Bastard pars- 
ley, so named from the shape of its flower. 
Also, the wild carrot. 

CAUCALOIDES. (From caucalis, and ufoc, 
a likeness ; from its likeness to the flower 
of the caucalis.) The patella is sometimes 
so called. 

CAUDA. (From cado, to fall ; because 
it hangs or falls down behind.) A tail. 

1. The tail of animals. 

2. A name formerly given to the os coc- 
cygis, that being in tailed animals the be- 
ginning of the tail. 

3. A fleshy substance, protuberating 
from the lips of the vagina of the pudendum 
muliebre, and resembling a tail, according 
to vtius. 

4. Many herbs are also named cauda, with 
the affixed name of some animal, whose tail 
the herb is supposed to be like ; as cauda 
equina, horse-tail ; cauda muris, mouse -tail ; 
and in many other instances. 

CAUDA EauiNA. The spinal marrow, 
at its termination about the second lumbar 
vertebra, gives off a large number of nerves, 
which, when unravelled,resemble the horse's 
tail ; hence the name. See also Equisetum. 

CAUDATIO. (From cauda, a tail.) An 
elongation of the clitoris. 

CAUL. The English name for the omen- 
turn. See Omentum. 

CAULEDON. (From xau/xoc, a stalk.) A 
transverse fracture, when the bone is bro- 
ken, like the stump of a tree. 

CAULIFLOWER. A species of brassica, 
whose flower is cut before the fructification 
expands. The observations which have 
been made concerning cabbages are appli- 
cable here. Cauliflower is, however, a far 
more delicious vegetable. 

CAUUS. (Kalab. A Chaldean word,) 



1. The stem or stalk of a plant. 

2. A c bbage. 

3. It means too the penis of a man. 
CAULIS FLORIDA. Cauliflower. 
CAULODES. (From x&u\os, the cabbage.)' 

The white or green cabbage. 

CAULOTOX. (From KauAo? a stem: be- 
cause it grows upon a stalk.) A name gi- 
ven to the beet, 

CAUMA. (From jt<o>, to burn.) The 
heat of the body or the heat of the atmo- 
sphere, in a fever. 

CAU VGA. A name of the areca. 

CAUSIS. (From x-xtco, to burn.) A burn ; 
or rather, the act of combustion^ or burn- 
ing. 

CAUSODES. (From **;&>, to burn.) A 
term applied by Celsus to a burning fever. 

CAUSOMA. (From x.auu> t to burn.) An 
ardent or burning heat and inflammation. 
A term used by Hippocrates. 

CAUSTIC ALKALI. The pure alkalis are 
so called. See Alkali. 

Caustic barley. See Cevadilla. 

CAUSTICS. (Caustica, sc. medicamen- 
ta ; fronv **/, to burn ; because they al- 
ways produce a burning sensation.) See 
EscharoticS' 

CAUSTICUM AMERICANUM. The ceva- 
dilia. 

CAUSTICUM ANTIMONIALE. See Muriate 
of antimony. 

CAUSTICUM COMMUNE FORTIUS. See Po- 
tassa cum calce. 

CAUSTICUM LUNARE. See Nitras ar- 
gentL 

CAUSUS. (From KAKO, to burn.) A 
highly ardent fever. According to Hip- 
pocrates, a fiery heat, insatiable thirst, a 
rough and black tongue, complexion yel- 
lowioh, and. the saliva bilious, are its pecu 
liar characteristics. Others also are par- 
ticular in describing it ; but whether an- 
cients or moderns, from what they relate, 
this fever is no other than a continued 
ardent fever in a billious constitution. In it 
the heat of the body is intense; the breath 
is particularly fiery; the extremities are 
cold ; the pulse is frequent and small ; the 
heat is more violent internally than exter- 
nally, and the whole soon ends in recovery 
or death. 

CAUSCS, ENDEMIAI,. The name given, by 
Dr. Mosely, to the yellow fever of the 
West Indies. 

CAUTERY. (From x*iu>, to burn.) 
Cauteries were divided, by the ancients, 
into actual and potential ; but the term is 
now given only to the red-hot iron, or, 
actual cautery. This was formerly the only 
means of preventing haemorrhages from 
divided arteries, till the invention of the 
ligature. It was also used in diseases, 
with the same view as we employ a blister. 
Potential cautery was the name by which 
kali purum, or "potassa, waa distinguished 
in the former dispensatories of Edinburgh, 



184 



CEL 



CEN 



Surgeons understand, by this term, any 
caustic application. 

CAVA. The name of a vein, and also of 
the pudendum nmliebre. See Veins. 

CAVERJXA. (From cavus, hollow.) A 
cavern. Also the name of the pudendum 
muliebre. 

CAVIARE. Caviarium. A. food made of 
the hard roes of sturgeon, formed into 
cakes, and much esteemed by the Russians. 

CAVICULA. (Dim. of cavltta.} See Ca- 
villa. 

CAVILLA. (From cavus.) The ankle, 
or hollow of the foot. 

CAV1TAS. (From cavus, hollow.) Any 
cavity, or hollowness. The auricle of the 
heart was formerly called the cavitas inno- 
minata, the hollow without a name. 

Cayenne pepper. See Piper Indicum. 

CAZABI. See Cassada. 

CEASMA. (From a>, to split, or divide.) 
Ceatmus. A fissure, or fragment. 

CEBEK. (Arab.) The agallochum. Also 
the capparis. 

CEBIPIRA. (Indian.) A tree which 
grows in Brazil, decoctions of whose bark 
are used in baths and fomentations, to re- 
lieve pains in the limbs, and cutaneous dis- 
eases. 

CEDAR. See Cedrinum lignum. 

CEDMA. (From *ftfta>, to disperse.) A 
defluxion, or rheumatic affection, scattered 
over the parts about the hips. 

CEDRA, ESSEHTIA BE. See Bergamotte 

CEDKINUM LIGNUM. Cedar ot Leba- 
nus. Vinus cedrus of Linnaeus. An odori- 
ferous wood, more fragrant than that of the 
fir, but possessing similar virtues. 

CEDRITES. (From x&fgoc, the cedar-tree.) 
Wine in which the resin which distils from 
the cedar-tree has been steeped. 

CEDRIUM. Cedar. It is also a name 
for common tar, in old writings. 

CEDROMELA. The fruit of the citron- 
tree. 

CEDRONELLA, Turkey baum. 

CEDKOSTIS. (From xfcTgoc, the cedar-tree.) 
A name of the white bryony, which smells 
like the cedar. 

CEDRUS. (From Kedron, a valley where 
they grew abundantly.) The Pinus cedrus 
of Limiaeus, or the cedar-tree. 

CEDRTJS AMERICASTA. The arbor vitx. 

CEDRUS BACCIFERA. The savine. 

CEIRIA. (From *a>, to abrade.) The 
tape-worm ; so called from its excoriating 
and abrading the intestines. 

Celandine. See Chelidonium majus. 

CELASTRUS. (From xtK*,, a dart or pole, 
which it represents.) Ceunolhus America- 
mis of Linnaeus. Some noted fndians de- 
pend more on this than on the lobelia, for 
the cure of syphilis, and use it in the same 
manner as lobelia. 

CELK. (From xx.) A tumour caused 
by the prolusion of any soft part. Hence 
the corop Jund terms hydrocele, bubonocele. 



CELERY. The English name for a variety 
of the apium graveolens. 

Cettac artery. See Coeliac artery. 

CEIIS. (From *, to burn.) A spot 
or blemish upon the skin, particularly that 
which is occasioned by a burn. 

CELLA TURCICA. See Sella turcica. 

CELLULA. (Dim. of cella, a cell.) A 
little cell or cavity. 

CELLUUE MASTOIDEB See Temporal 
bone. 

CELLULAR MEMBRANE. Membra- 
na cellulosa Tela cellulosa. Panniculus adi- 
posu*. Membrana adiposa, pinguedinosa, et 
reticularis. The cellular structure of the 
body, composed of laminae and fibres vari- 
ously joined together, which is the connect- 
ing medium of every part of the body. It is 
by means of the communication of the cells 
of this membrane, that the butchers blow 
up their veal. The cellular membrane is, 
by some anatomists, distinguished into the. 
reticular and adipose membrane. The 
former is evidently dispersed throughout 
the whole body, except the substance of 
the brain. It makes a bed for the other 
solids of the body, covers them all, and 
unites them one to another. The adipose 
membrane consists of the reticular sub- 
stance, and a particular apparatus for the 
secretion of oil, and is mostly found imme- 
diately under the skin of many parts, and 
about the kidneys. 

CELOTOMIA. (From **, hernia, and 
Ttftvce. to cut.) The operation for hernia. 

CELSA. A term of Paracelsus's, to sig- 
nify what is called the beating of the life in 
a particular part. 

CEMENTERIUM. A crucible. 

CE VCH RAM is. (From xej/^o?, millet.) 
A grain or seed of the fig. 

CENCHRIUS. A species of Herpes tliat 
resembles xej^go?, or millet. 

CENEANGEIA. (From xevoa, to empty, 
and ityyoe, a vessel.) The evacuation of 
blood, or other fluids, from their proper 
vessels. 

CENIGDAM. Ceniplam. Cenigotam, Ce- 
nipolam. Thename of an instrument ancient- 
ly used tor opening the head in epilepsies. 

CENIOTEMICM. A purging remedy, 
formerly of use in the venerial disease, 
supposed to be mercurial. 

CESTOSIS. (From xtyoc, empty.) Eva- 
cuation. It must be distinguished from 
Catharsis. Cenosia imports a general eva- 
cuation; Catharsis means the evacuation 
of a particular humour, which offends with 
respect to 'quality. 

CENTAUREA. (So called from Chiron, 
the centaur, who is said to have employed 
one of its species to cure himself of a 
wound accidentally received, by letting one 
of the arrows of Hercules fall upon his foot.) 

The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnzean system, of the Order Polygamia 
frustanea. Class, Syngenesis 



i CEN 

. CENTAUREA BEHEN. The systematic name 
of the officinal behen album. See Behcn 
album. 

CENTAUREA BENEPICTA. The syste- 
matic name of the blessed thistle. See 
Carduus benedictus. 

CEHTAUREA CALCITRAPA. The syste- 
matic name of the calcitrapa. See Calci- 
trapa* 

CENTAUREA CYANUS. The systematic 
name of the plant which affords the fares 
cyani. See Cyanus. 

CENTAURIOIDES. Thegratiola. 

CENTAURIUM MAGNUM MA Jus. The great 
centau ry. 

CENl'AURIUM. (From*v7*yoc, a cen- 
taur ; so called because it was feigned that 
Chiron cured Hercuies's loot, which he 
had wounded with a poisonous arrow, with 
it.) Centaurium minus vulgare. Cen- 
taiirium parvum. Centauriuin minus. Cen- 
taury. Chironia centaurium of Linnse- 
us : corollis gumquefidis mfundibuliformi- 
bus, caule dichotomo, pistillo simplici. This 
plant is justly esteemed to be the most 
efficacious bitter of all the medicinal 
plants indigenous to this country. It has 
been recommended, by Cullen, as a sub- 
stitute for gentain, and by several is 
thought to be a more useful medicine. The 
tops of the centaury plant are directed for 
use by the colleges of London and Edin- 
burgh, and are most commonly given in 
infusion ; but they may also be taken in 
powder, or prepared into an extract. 

Centaury. See Centaurium. 

CENTAURIUM. MINUS. See Centaurium. 

CENTIMORBIA (From centum, a hun- 
dred, and morbus, a disease.) Nummula- 
ria, or moneywort; named from jts sup- 
posed efficacy in the cure of a multitude of 
disorders. 

CENTINODIA. (From centum, a hun- 
dred, and nodus, a knot.) The herb jloly- 
gonum ; so called from its many knots, or 
joints. 

CENTIPEDES. . (From centum, a hundred, 
and pes, a foot.) Woodlice, named from 
the multitude of their feet. 

CENTRATIO. (From centrum, a centre.) 
The concentration and affinity of certain 
substances to each other. Paracelsus ex- 
presses by it the degenerating of a saline 
principle, and contracting a corrosive and 
exulcerating quality. Hence Centrum Sails. 
is said to be the principle and cause of 
ulcers. 

CENTRIUM. (From M.tv?rtu> t to prick.) 
A plaister recommended by Galen against 
stiches and pricks in the side. 

CENTRUM. (From xevr&a>, to point or 
prick.) The middle point of a circle. 
In chymistry it is the residence or founda- 
tion of matter. In medicine, it is the point 
in which its virtue resides, In anatomy, 
the middle point of some parts is so 



OErf 



IS* 



named, as centrum, nerveum the middle or 
tendinous part of the diaphragm. 

CENTRUM OVALE. When the two he- 
mispheres of the brain are removed on a 
line with the level of the corpus Callosum, 
the internal medullary part presents a 
somewhat oval centre ; hence it is called 
centrum ovale. .Vieussenius supposed all 
the medullary fibres met at this place. 

CENTRUM TENDINOSUM. The tendinous 
centre of the diaphragm is so called. See 
Diaphragm. 

CENTRUM NERVKUM. The centre of 
the diaphragm is so called. See Dia- 
phragm. 

CENTUMNODIA. (From centum, a hun- 
dred, and nodus, a knot ; so called from its 
many knots, or joints.) Common knot- 
grass. This plant, Polygonum aviculare of 
Linnaeus, is never used in this country ; it 
is said to be useful in stopping haemor- 
rhages, diarrhoeas, &c. but little credit is 
to be given to this account. 

CENTUNCULTJS. Bastard pimpernel. 

CEPA.^ (From JCWS-QC, a woolcard, from 
the likeness of its roots.) The onion. 
This bulbous root belongs to the AlUum 
cepa of Linnaeus : scapo nudo inferne ven- 
tricoso longiore y foliis teretibus. Dr. Cullen 
says, onions are acrid and stimulating, and 
possess very little nutriment. With bilious 
constitutions they generally produce flatu- 
lency, thirst, head-ach, and febrile symp- 
toms ; but where the temperament is phleg- 
matic, they are of infinite service, by stimu- 
lating the habit and promoting the natural 
secretions, particularly expectoration and 
urine. They are recommended in scorbu- 
tic cases, as possessing antiscorbutic pro- 
perties. Externally, onions are employed 
in suppurating poultices, arid suppression 
of urine in children is said to be relieved 
by applying them, roasted, to the pubf.s. 

CEPJEA. A species of onion which used 
to be esteemed for salads in spring, but is 
now disregarded. 

CEPHIL^EA. (From **$**., the head.) 
The flesh of the head, which covers the 
skull. Also a long continued pain of the 
cerebrum, and its membranes. 

CEPHALALGIA. (From xs<jjsa, the 
head, and ctxyos, pain.) Cepkadea. The 
head-ach. It is symptomatic of very many 
diseases, but is rarely an original disease 
itself. When mild, it is called cephalaigia ; 
when inveterate, cephalsea. When one 
side of the head only is affected, it takes 
the names of hemicrania, migrana, hemipa- 
gia, and megrim,- in one of the temples 
only, crotaphoy / and that which is fixed to 
a point, generally in the crown of the head, 
is distinguished by the name of davit?. 

CEPHALAI.GIA CATARRHALTS. Head-ach, 
with catarrh, from cold. 

CEPHALALGIA INFLAMMATORIA. Phreni- 
tis, or inflammation of the brain. 

1* B 



186 



CER 



CER 



CEPHALAL&IA SPASMODICA. The sick 
head-ach. A species of indigestion. 

CEPHALARTICA. (From *<?**, the head, 
and Apvtfa to make pure.) Medicines 
which purge the head. 

CEPHALE. (K<j>*x.) The head. 

CEPHALIC VEIN. (Vena cephalica , so 
called, because the head was supposed to 
be relieved by opening it.) The anterior 
vein of the arm, that receives the cephalic 
of the thumb. 

CEPHALICA. (From xpeMr, the head.) 
Cephalics. Such remedies as are adapted 
for the cure of disorders of the head. Of 
this class are the snuffs, which produce a 
discharge from the mucous membrane of 
the nose, &c. 

CEPHALICA fotticis. A branch from 
the cephalic vein, sent off from about the 
lower extremity of the radius, running su. 
perficially between the thumb and the me- 
tacarpus. 

CEPHALICCS PULVIS. A powder prepar- 
ed from asarum. 

CEFHALINJE. (From xs^Htxw, the head.) 
The head of the tongue. That part of the 
tongue which is next the root and nearest 
the fauces. 

CEPHALITIS. (From M$O* the head.) 
Inflammation of the head. See Phrerritis. 

CEPHALOHOSTJS. (From M^AM, the head, 
and voros, a disease.) This term is ap- 
plied to the febris hungarica, in which the 
head is principally affected. 

CKPHALO-PHABYNGErS. (From Jt(f>5tX, 

the head, and <j>*fy}, the throat.) A 
muscle of the pharynx, otherwise na- 
med constrictor pharyngis inferior ; which 
see. 

CEPHAIOPOXIA. (From K^*A, the head, 
and tvovos, pain.) Head-ach ; heaviness of 
the head. 

CEPINI. Vinegar. 
CEPTTLA. Large myrobalans. 
CERA. Wax. Bees* wax. A solid 
concrete substance, collected from vege- 
tables by bees; and extracted from their 
combs after the honey is got out, by heat- 
ing and pressing them. With rectified spi- 
rit it forms, by the assistance of he:it, a ge- 
latinous liquid. It is pf-rfectly insoluble 
in watery liquors. When melted, it as- 
sumes the appearance of oil, and in this 
state is easily combined wi'h oils and liquid 
fats. It is very inflammable, and burns 
totally away. In the state in which it is 
obtained from the combs, it is called yel- 
low wax, cera favcif and this, when new, 
is of a lively ytilow colour, somewhat 
tough, yet easy to break : by age it loses 
its fine colour, and becomes harder and 
more brittle. Ydlow wax, after being 
reduced into thin cakes, and bleached by 
a long exposure to the sun and open air, is 
again melted, and formed into round cakes, 
culled virgin's wax, or white wax, cero, alba. 



The chief medicinal use of wax, is in 
plaisters, unguents, and other like exter- 
nal applications, partly for giving the re- 
quisite consistence to other ingredients, and 
partly on account of its own emollient 
quality. 

CERA ALBA. See Cera. 

CERA DICARDO. The carduus pinea. 

CERA FLAVA. Yellow wax. See 
Cera. 

CERJEIE. (From *eg*c, a horn.) So 
Rufus Ephesius calls the cornua of the ute- 
rus. 

CEHANITES. (From xtgxvvt/^/, to tem- 
per together ) A name formerly applied 
to a pastil, or troch, by Galen. 

CERAS. (K^*?, a horn.) A wild sort of 
parsnip is sf named from its shape. 

CERASA NIGRA ( Ktgacrof, the ch erry- 
tree ; trom Keg*cov?, a town in Pontus, 
whence Luculius first brought them to 
Rome ; or from *, the heart ; from its 
resemblance to it in shape and colour.) 
Eucoilia, because cherries keep the body 
open. The black cherry. The ripe fruit 
of the Prunits avinin of Linnaeus: *umbellis 
sessilibus, foliis ovato-lanceolatis, subtus pu- 
bescentibits, conduplicatis. The flavour of 
these is esteemed by many, and if not taken 
in too large quantities, they are extremely 
salutary. A gum exudes from the tree, 
whose properties are similar to those of 
gum arabic. 

CERASA RUBRA. Cerusa sativa, or 
anglica The red cherry. The ripe fruit 
of the Prunus cerasus of Linnaeus : umbel- 
Us subpedunculatis, foliis ovnto-Umceolatis, 
glabris, cvnditpHcatia. I his species possesses 
a plea-^an , acidulated, sweet flavour, and 
is extremely proper in fevers, scurvy, and 
bilous obstructions. Red cherries are 
mostly eaten as a luxury, and are very 
wholesome, except to those whose bowels 
are remarkably irritable 

CERASIATCM. (From cerasus, a cherry.) 
A purging medicine in Libavius ; so called 
because the juice of cherries is an ingre- 
dient. 

CEHASIUS, Crasios, (From cerasus, a 
cherry.) The name of two ointments in 
Messue. 

CEUASMA. (From M*vwfjit, to mix.) 
A mixture of cold and warm water, when 
the warm is poured into the cold. 

CERASUS. (From Kgat<rov<r a town in 
Pontus, from whence Luculius is said 
first to have brought them to Rome.) The 
cherry-tree. 

CERATE. (From cerum, wax.) Cera- 
turn The obsolete synonyms, are cerelea, ce- 
romata t ceronia cerota. Ceratomalgamata. 
Cerates take their name from the wax which 
enters into their composition, and to which 
they owe their consistence, which is inter- 
mediate between that of plaisters and that 
of ointments ; though no very definite rule 



; CER 

for this consistence is, in fact, either given 
or observed. 

CEHATIA. (From *y*f, a horn, which its 
fruit is supposed to resemble.) Ceratium. 
Ceratoma. The siliqua dulcis. 

CERATIA DIPHYLLUS. See CourbariL 

CEAATO-GL-OSSUS. (From */><*?, a horn, 
and }\urT&i a tongue.) A muscle, so named 
from its shape and insertion into the tongue. 
See Hyoglossus. 

CERATO-HYOIDEUS. (From the oa hyo- 
ides.) See Stylo-hyoides 

CtRA-roiDEs. (From *gg7of, the genitive 
of xsgaf, a horn.) See Cornea. 

CERATO-MALGAMA. A cerate. 

CERATONIA SIHQ.UA. The systematic 
name of the plant which affords the sweet 
pod. See Siliqua dulcis. 

CEKATUM. See Cerate. 

CERATUM COMMUNE. Common cerate. 
Take of olive oil, six fluid ounces ; yellow 
wax, lour ounces. Having melted the 
wax, mix in the oil. 

CERATUM ALBUM. See Ceratum cetacei. 

CERATUM CALAMELANOS. # Culom. ^j. 
Cerat. calam. ^ss. Misce. Some practitioners 
are partial to this as a dressing for chancres. 

CERATUM c A LAMINAE. Formerly called 
eeratum lapidis calaminaris, and ceratam 
epuloticum. Calamine cerate. Take of pre- 
pared calamine, yellow wax, of each half 
a pound; olive oil, a pint. Mix the oil 
with the melted wax ; then remove it from 
the fire, and, as soon as it begins to 
thicken, add the calamine, and stir it con- 
stantly, until the mixture becomes cold. 
A composition of this kind was first intro- 
duced under the name of Turner's cerate. 
Its virtue is desiccative, epulotic, and is 
well calculated to promote the cicatrization 
of* ulcers. 

CERATUM CETACEI. Ceratum spermatis 
ceti. Cerutum album. Spermaceti cerate. 
Take of spermaceti, half an ounce ; white 
wax, two ounces ; olive oil, 4 fluid-ounces. 
Add the oil to the spermaceti and wax, 
previously melted together, until the mix- 
ture becomes cold. This cerate is cooling 
and emollient, and applied to excoriations, 
&c. and may be applied with advantage 
to all ulcers, where no stimulating sub- 
stance can be applied, being extremely 
mild and unctuous. 

CERATUM CICUTJE. Hemlock cerate. 
&. unguenti cicutse Ib.j. Spermatis ceti ^jj. 
Cerae albae 3; in. Misce. One of the formulae 
of St. Bartholomew's hospital, occasionally 
applied to cancerous, scrophulous, phage- 
denic, herpetic, and other inveterate sores. 

CERATUM CITRINUM. See Ceratum re 
simp, 

CERATUM EPULOTICUM. bee Ceratum 
calamin<e. 

CI.RATUM LAPIDIS CALAMINARIS. See 
Ceratum caluminne. 

CERATUM LITHARGYRI ACETATI COMPOSI- 
TUM. See Ceratum plumbi composition. 



CEU 



187 



CERATUM LTTT^E. Ceratum cantharidie. 
Cerate of blistering fly. Take ot sperma- 
ceti cerate, six drachms; blistering flies, 
very fine powder, a drachm. Having sof- 
tened the cerate by heat, add the flies, and 
mix them together. 

CERATUM PLUMBI SUPERACETATIS. Un- 
guentum cerussx acetate. Cerate of su- 
peracetate of lead. Take of superace- 
tate of lead, powdered, two drachms ; 
white was* two ounces ; olive oil, a pint. 
Dissolve the wax in seven fluid-ounces of 
oil ; then gradually add thereto the super- 
acetate of lead, separately rubbed down 
with the remaining oil, and stir the mix- 
ture with a wooden slice, until the whole 
has united. This cerate is cooling and de- 
siccative. 

CERATUM PLUMBI COMPOSITUM. Cera- 
turn Uthargyri acetati compositum. Com- 
pound cerate of lead. Take of solution 
of lead, two fluid-ounces and a half; 
yellow wax, four ounces; olive oil, nine 
fluid ounces ; camphor, half a drachm. 
Mix the wax previously melted, with eight 
fluid ounces of oil ; then remove it from 
the fire, and, when it begins to thicken, 
add gradually the solution of acetate of 
lead, and constantly stir the mixture with a 
wooden slice, until it gets cold. Lastly, 
mix in the camphor, previously dissolved 
in the remainder of the oil. Its virtues are 
cooling, desiccative, resolvent against chro- 
nic rheumatism, &c. &c. ; and as a proper 
application to superficial ulcers, which are 
inflamed. 

CERATUM RESIN*. Ceratum resinaflenxK* 
Ceratum citrinum. llesin cerate. Take of 
yellow resin, yellow wax, of each a pound; 
olive oil, a pound. Melt the resin and wax 
together, over a slow fire; then add the- 
oil, and strain the cerate, while hot, through 
a linen cioih. Digestive. 

CERATUM SABIN^. Savine cerate. Take 
of fresh leaves of savine, bruised, a pound ; 
yellow wax, half a pound ; prepared lard, 
two pounds. Having melted together 
the wax and lard, boil therein the savine 
leaves, and strain through a linen cioth. 
This article is of late introduction, for the 
purpose of keeping up a discharge from 
blistered surfaces. It was first described 
by Mr. Crowther, and has since been re- 
ceived into extensive uie, because it doe 
not produce the inconveniencies that follow 
the constant application of the common 
blistering cerate. A thick while iayei* 
forms daily upon the part, which requires 
to be removed, that the cerate may be ap- 
plied immediately to the surface from 
winch the discharge is to be made. 

CERATUM SAPUKIS. Soap cerate. Take 
of hard soap, eight ounces ; yellow wax, ten 
ounces; semi-vitieous oxyd of lead, pow- 
dered, a pound; olive oil, a pint ; vinegar, 
a gallon. Boil the vinegar, with the oxyd 
of lead, over a slow fire, constantly stirring, 



188 



CEIl 



until the union is complete ; then add the 
soap, and boil it again in a similar manner, 
until the water is entirely evaporated-, then 
mix in the wax, previously melted with the 
oil. Resolvent ; against srophulous tu- 
mours, 8cc. It is a convenient, application 
iti fractures, and may be used as an external 
dressing for ulcers. 

SPERMATISCETI. See Cercitum 



cetacei. 

CERBERUS. (Ksg&fof.) A fantiful name 
given to the compound powder of scammo- 
ny, because, like the dog Cerberus, it has 
three heads, or principal ingredients, each 
of which is emminently active. 

CERCHNALEUM. (From */>;&>, to make a 
noise.) A wheezing, or bubbling noise, 
made by the trachea, in breathing. 

&ERCHJTOS. (From Ktf>%o>, to wheeze.) 
Wheezing. 

CERCHJTOBES. (From M$%U>, to wheeze.) 
One who labours under a uense breathing, 
accompanied with a wheezing noise. 
CERCHODES. The same as cerchnodes. 
CERCIS. (From xe^a, to shrit-k.) This 
word literally means tne spoke of a wheel, 
and has its name from the noise which 
wheels often make. In anatomy it means 
the radius, a bone supposed to be like a 
spoke. Also a pestle, from its shape. 

CERCOSIS. (From K^XO?, a tail.) A 
polypus of the uterus. It is sometimes ap- 
plied to an enlargement of the clitoris. 

CEREA. (From cera, wax.) The ceru- 
men auriuna, or wax of the ear. 

CEREALIA. (Solemn feasts to the god- 
dess Ceres.) All sorts of corn, of winch 
bread or any nutritious substance is made, 
come under the head of cerealia, which 
term is applied by bromatologists as a ge- 
nus. 

CEEBELLA URINA. (Paracelsus thus 
distinguishes urine which is whitish, of the 
colour of the brain, and from which he 
pretended to judge of some of its dis- 
tempers. 

CEREBELLUM. (Dim. of cerebrum.') 
The little brain. A somewhat round 
viscus, of the same use as the brain ; com- 
posed, like the brain, of a cortical and me- 
dullary substance, divided by a septum 
into a right and left lobe, and situated un- 
der the tentorium, in the inferior occipital 
fossae. In the cerebellum are to be ob- 
served the crura cerebetti t the fourth ventri- 
cle, the vahmla magna cerebri, and the pro- 
tuberantix vermiformis. 

CEREBRUM. (Quasi carebrum; from 
tga, the head.) The brain. A largr round 
viscus, divided superiorly into a right and 
left hemisphere, and interiorly into six 
lobes, two anterior, two middle, and two 
posterior; situated within the cramium, 
and surrounded by the dura and pia mater, 
and lunica arachnoides. It is composed of 
a cortical substance, which is external ; and 
* medullary, which is internal. It has three 



CER 

cavities, called ventricles ; two anterior, or 
lateral, which are divided from each other 
by the septum licidum, and in which is the 
choroid plexus, formed of blood-vessels ; 
the third ventricle is a space between the 
thalami nervorum opticorum. The prin- 
cipal prominences of the brain are, the 
corpus ctdlosum, a medullary eminence, 
conspicuous upon laying aside the hemi- 
spheres of the brain ; the corpora striata, 
two striated protuberance:*, cne in the an- 
terior part of each lateral ventricle ; the 
thalami nervorum opticorum, two whitish 
eminences behind the former, which ter- 
minate in the optic nerves ; th^ corpora 
quadrigemina, four medullary projections 
called by the ancients, nates and testes ; 
a little cerebrine tubercle lying upon the 
nates, called the pineal gland ; and lastly, 
the crura cerebri, two medullary columns 
which proceed from the basis of the brain 
to the medulla oblongata. The cerebral 
arteries are branches of the carotid and 
vertebral arteries. The veins of the head 
are called sinusses, 'which return their 
blood into the internal jugulars. The use 
of the brain is to give off' nine pairs ot 
nerves, through whose means the various 
senses are performed, and muscular mo- 
tion excited. 

CEREBRUM ELONGATUM. The medulla 
oblongata. 

CEREFOLIUM. (A corruption of chaero- 
phyllum.) Chaerophyttum. Chaerefolium. 
Chervil. This plant, Scandix cerefolium of 
Linnaeus : semtntbus nitidis, ovato-subula- 
tis ; umbellis stssiiibus, lateralibus, is a sa- 
lubrious culinary herb, sufficiently grate- 
ful both to the palate and stomach, slight- 
ly aromatic, gently aperient, and diu- 
retic. 

CEREFOLIUM HISPANIC UM. The plant 
called by us Sweet-cicely. 

CEREFOLIUM STLVESTRE. See Cerefo- 
Kum. 

CEREI MEDICATI. See Bougies. 

CEREL.EUM (From xxgcf, wax, and tKtttov, 
oil.) A cerate, or liniment, composed of 
wax and oil. Also the oil of tar. 

CEREVISI.E FERMENTUM. Yeast. 

CEREV1SIA (From ceres, corn, of 
which it is made.) Ale. Beer. Any 
liquor made from corn. 

CEREVISI^ CATAPLASMA. Into the grounds 
of strong beer stir as much oatmeal as 
will make it of a suitable consistence. 
This is sometimes employed as a stimulant 
and antiseptic to mortified parts. 

CERIA. (From cereus, soft, taper.) Ce- 
rix, The flat worms which breed in the 
intestines. 

CERION. (From x/ov, a honey-comb.) 
A kind of achor. 

CEROMA. (From xgo?, wax.) Geranium. 
Terms used by the ancient physicians 
for an unguent, or cerate, though ori- 
ginally applied to a particular compo- 



CEV 



CHA 



189 



sition which the wrestlers used in their 
exercises. 

CEROPISSCS. (From xgc?, wax, and 
*r*o-<r*, pitch.) A pluistcr composed of 
pitch and wax. 

CEROTUM (Ksgai-ov.) A cerate. 
CERUMEN AUIUUM. (Cerumen; dim. of 
cera, Wax.) Curium sorcles. Marmorata 
aurium. Cypsele. Cypselis fugue. The 
waxy secretions of the ears, Situated in the 
meatus iuaitorius externus. 

CERUSSA. (Arab.) Cerusse, or white 
lead. A subcarbonate of lead. See Sub- 
carbonas plumbi. 

CERUSSA ACETATA. See Super-acetas 
plumbi. 

CERVI SPINA. See Rhamnus catharti- 
cus. 

CERVICAL. (Cervicalis ; from cervix, 
the neck.) Belonging to ihe neck ; as cer- 
vical nerves, cervical muscles, &c. 

CERVICAL ARTERIES. Arteria cervicales. 
Branches of the subclavians. 

CERVICAL VERTEBRA. The seven up- 
permost of the vertebrae, which form the 
spine. See Vertebra. 

CERVICARIA. (From cervix, the neck; 
so named because it was supposed to be 
efficacious in disorders and ailments of the 
throat and neck.) The herb throat-wort. 

CERVIX. (Quasi cerebri via ; as being 
the channel of the spinal marrow.) The 
neck. That part of the body which is 
between the head and shoulders. The cer- 
vix uteri is the neck of the uterus ; or that 
part at' it which is immediately above or 
beyond the os tmcse. This term is also 
applied to other parts, as cervix vesicae, 
ossis, &.c. 

CESTHITES. , (From xsrgov, betony.) 
Wine impregnated with betony. 

OESTRUM. (From x.is-%*., a dart ; so culled 
from the shape of its flowers, which resem- 
ble a dart ; or because- it was used to ex- 
tract the broken ends of darts from 
wounds.) The herb betony. 

CATERACH. (Bianchard says this word 
is corrupted from Pteryga, tftypv^Q. v. as 
peteryga, ceteryga, and ceterach.) Scolo- 
pendria vera. Dorodilla? Spleenwort. 
Miluvaste. This small bushy plant, Asple- 
nium ceterach of Linnaeus -.frondibus pin- 
natifidtSy lobis alternis confluentibus obtusis, 
grows upon old walls and rocks. It has 
an herbaceous, mucilaginous, roughish 
taste, and is recommended as a pectoral. 
In Spain it is given, with great success, in 
nephritic and calcnlous diseases. 

CEVADILLA. (Dim. of ceveda, barley. 
Spanish.) Cevaditla Hispanorum. Sevadilla. 
Sabadilla. Hordeitm causticum. Canis in- 
ter sector. Indian caustic barley. The 
plant whose seeds are thus denominated, 
* is a species of veratrum : they are power- 
fully caustic, and are administered with 
very great success as a vermifuge. They 



are also diuretic and emetic. The dose to 
a child, fiom two to four years old, is two 
grains ; from hence to eight, five grains ; 
from eight to twelve, ten grains. 

Cayenne pepper. See Capsicum. 

CHAA. A Chinese name for tea. 

CHJEROFOLIUM. See Cere folium. 

CnJEROPHYLLtTM. (XttlfO^VX^OV I from 

^a/g*, to rejoice, and QV^KCV, a leaf; so cal- 
led from the abundance of its leaves.) 
Chervil. 

1. The name of a genus of plants in the 
Linnaean system. Class, Pentandria. Or- 
der, Digynia. 

2. The pharmacopoeial name of sonre 
plants. See Cicutaria and CerefoUitm. 

CHJEROPHYLLUM SYLVRSTRE. See Cicu- 
taria. 

CHACARILLJE CORTEX. See Cascarilla. 

CH^TA. (From %ta>, to be diffused.) 
The human hair. 

CHALASIS. (From ^,*xw, to relax.) 
Relaxation. 

CHALASTICA. (From ^stxa*, to relax.) 
Medicines which relax. 

CHALAZION. (From ^0.^0,^0., a hail- 
stone.) Chalaza. Chalazium Grando. 
An indolent, moveable tubercle, on the 
margin of the eyelid, ake a hailstone. A 
species of hordeolum. It is that well- 
known affection of the eye, called a stye, 
or stian. It is white, hard, and encysted, 
and differs from the crithe, another species, 
only in being moveable. Writers mention 
a division of Chalazion into scirrhous, can- 
cerous, cystic, and earthy. 

CHALBANE. (K*xCsty.) Galbanum. 

CHALCAXTHUM. (From ^OAXS?, brass, 
and etvflo?, a flower.) Vitriol; or rather, 
vitriol calcined red. The flowers of brass. 

CHALCEION. A species of pimpinella. 

CHALCOIDEUM os. The os cuneiforme of 
the tarsus. 

CHALK. Creta. A carbonate of lime, 
Pure chalk is a neutral salt, formed by the 
union of the cretaceous acid with lime. 
It is much used as an absorbent and anta- 
cid, to stop diarrhoeas, accompanied with 
acidity. See Carbonas calcis. 

CHALK STONES. A name given to the 
concretions of calcareous matter in the 
hands and feet of people violently afflicted 
with the gout. 

CHALICRATVM. (From **/?, an old 
word that signifies pure wine, and K^AVVV/^I, 
to mix.) Wine mixed with water. 

CHALINOS. Chalinus. That part of the 
cheeks, which, on each side, is contiguous 
to the angles of the mouth. 

CHALYBEATE. (Chalybeata, sc.medi- 
camenta ; from cJialybs, steel.) Of or be- 
longing to iron. A term given to any me- 
dicine into which iron enters ; as chalybeate 
mixture, pills, waters, &c. 

CHALYBEATE WATERS. Any mi- 
njeral water which abounds with steel, or 



190 



CHA 



CHA 



iron; such as the waters of Tunbridge, 
Spa, Pyrmont, Cheltenham, Scarborough, 
and Harttel ; and many others 

CHALYBIS RUBICO PR.EPARATA. See 
Carbonas ferri. 

CHALYBS. (From Cha'ybes, a people 
in Poivus, who dug iron out of the earth.) 
Acies. Steel. The best, hardest, finest, 
and the closest -grained forged iron. As a 
med cme, it differs not from iron. 

CHALYBS TARTARISATUS. The ferrum 
tartarisatum. 

CHAMJEBALANUS. (From %<t/*ou, on the 
ground, and y3*A.*vc?, a nut ) Wood peas. 
Earth nuts. 

CHAMJSBCXUS. (From ^tfta, on the 
ground, and <ari/fo?, the box-tree.) The 
dwarf box-tree. 

CHAM^ECEDRUS. (From w/ut&t, on the 
ground, and *aT^oc, the cedar tree.) Cha- 
maecedrys. A species of dw;a-f abrotanum. 

CHAM.BCISSUS. (From %&(*"'* on tne 
ground, and /<r<roc, iv\.) Ground ivy. 

CHAMyEDRYS. "(From ^*^^, the 
ground, and Jguf, the oak; s< called from 
its leaves resembling tho>e of the oak.) 
Chamtedrys minor repim, vulgans. Quer- 
cula calamandrina. Trissago. Chamcedrops 
of Paulus Agineta and Oribasius. Tins 
plant, creeping- germander, small german- 
der, and English treacle ; Teucrium chainx- 
drys of Linnaeus '.foliis cuneiformi-ovatis^ 
incisis, crenatis, petiolatis ; Jioribus terms ; 
caulibus procumbentibus, subpilosis t has a 
moderately bitter and somewhat aromatic 
taste. It was in high repute amongst the 
ancients in intermittent fevers, rheumatism, 
and gout ; and where an aromatic bitter is 
wanting, germander may be administered 
with success. The best time for gathering 
this herb is when the seeds are formed, and 
the tops are then preferable to the leaves. 
When dry, the dose is from jss to gj. Ei- 
ther water or spirit will extract their vir- 
tue ; but the watry infusion is more bitter. 
This plant is an ingredient in the once cele- 
brated powder called from the Duke of 
Portland. 

CHAM^EDRIS INCANA MARITIMA. The 
marum syriacum. 

CHAMJEDRYS FRUTESCENS. A name for 
teucrium. 

CHAM/EDRYS PALUSTRIS. A name given 
to scordmm. 

CHAM^EDRYS SPURIA. A name given to 
veronica. 

CHAM&LEA. (From /***, on the 
ground, and exaw*, the olive-tree.) Chame- 
l<ea. The herb widow wail, or Daphne 
alpina of Linnaeus. A sort of dwarf olive- 
tree, said to be purgative in the dose of 
3ij. The mezereon is also so called, be- 
cause it has leaves like the olive-tree. 

CHAM/ELEAGNUS. (From */"/, on the 
ground, and t\<u*.yvos t the wild olive.) The 
myrtus brabantica. 



CHAM/ELEMA. (From */uaw, on the 
ground, and Aeyua, ivy.) The ground- 
ivy 

CnAMyELEOK. (From %*(jia.i, on the 
ground, and xv, a lion, i. e. dwarf lion.) 
The chamxleon, an animal supposed to be 
able to change its colour at pleasure. Also 
the name of many thistle--, so named from 
the variety and uncertainty o their colours. 

CHAMELEON ALBUM. Carlina. 

Cardopatium. Carline thistle. Carltna 
acaulis of Linnaeus : caule unifloro, fiore 
brtviore. The root of this plant is bitter, 
and said to possess diaphoretic and anthel- 
mintic virtues. It is also extolled by fo- 
reign physicians in the cure of acute, ma- 
lignant, and chronic disorders. 

CHAMALEOBT VEHUM. The distaff 
thistle. 

CHAM^ELEDCE. (From ^atyteu, on the 
ground, and \tux., the herb coltVtbot.) 
Tnssilago, or colt's-foot. 

CHAM^ELISUM. (From ^at/uau, on the 
ground, and x/vov, fl^x ) Linum calharti- 
cum, or purging of flax.) 

CHAMvEMELUM. (Fwm %*/***, on the 
ground, and /MI\OV, an apple ; because it 
grows upon the ground, and has the smell 
of an apple.) Cham&melum nobile. Cha- 
momilla romana. Euanthemon of Galen. 
Jlnthemisof the last London pharmacopoeia. 
Common chamomile. Anthemis nobilis of 
Linnseus :-foliis pinnato-compositis linea- 
ribns acutis subvillosis. Both the leaves 
and flowers of this indigenous plant have 
a strong, though not ungrateful smell, and a 
very bitter, nauseous taste : but the latter 
are the bitterer, and considerably more 
aromatic. They possess tonic and stoma- 
chic qualities, and are much employed to 
restore tone to the stomach and intestines, 
and as a pleasant and cheap bitter. They 
have been long successfully used for the 
cure of intermittents. as well as of fevers 
of the irregular nervous kind, accompanied 
with visceral obstructions. The flowers 
have been found useful in hysterical affec- 
tions, flatulent or spasmodic colics, and 
dysentery ; but, from their laxative quality, 
Dr. Cullen tells us they proved hurtful in 
diarrhoeas. A simple infusion is frequently 
taken to excite vomiting, or for promoting 
the operation of emetics. Externally, they 
are used in the decoctum pro fomento, and 
are an ingredient in the decoctum pro ene- 
mate. 

CHAM./EMELUM CANARIEJTSE. The Chry- 
santhemum frutescens ot Linnaeus. 

CHAMJEMEI/UM CHHYSANTHEMUM. The 
bupthalmum germ;tnicum. 

CHAMMELUM FOSTIDUM. The jintlie- 
mis cotuta of Linnaeus. 

C'HAMJEMEtUM F10JIE PLENO. Chamtf- 

melum nobile flore multiplici. IJouble cha-* 
momile. A variety ot the antkemis nobilis. 
See Cham&mtlum. 



CHA 



CHE 



191 



CHAMJEMELUM MOBILE. See 
! nm 

CHAM2EMELUM vutoAKE. Cliamomilla 
nosfrus. Le.ucantliemum of Dioscondes. 
Common wild c rn, or d"g's chamomile. 
The plant directed under this name in the 
pharmacopoeias, is the Matricaria chamo- 
iniHa of Linnaeus: receptaculis conicis / ra- 
(Mis prtentibus ; sqitamis ca'ycinis, margine 
aqualibus. Its vimies are similar to those 
of the cliamaemeium, but in a much inferior 
degree. 

CHAM^EMORUS, (From */**<, on the 
ground, and /wage*, the routbeiry tree,) 
Chamcerubus folris nbis Angiicx. Rubus 
palustrts humilis. Vaccinium Lanctistrense. 
Hubus alpinus humilis. Angliciis Cioud- 
berr es, -nd knot berries The ripe fruit 
of this pinnt, Rubus channemorus if Lin- 
naeus .-fobis simpdcibus lobatis caule inter' 
no uniforo, is prepared into a jam : and is 
recommended t r > aiiay thirst, &c. in fevers, 
phthisical diseases, "haemoptysis, &c As 
an andscorbu ic, it is said to excel the scur- 
vy-grass and vegetables of that tribe in com- 
mon use. 

CHAMJKPEUCE. (F'< m ^,*^c*/, on the 
ground, and <ortviut, the pine-tree ) Cum- 
phorata, or stink, ng ground-pine, formerly 
said to be antir heumatic. 

CH A \LffiWTYS. (From x&i**t, the 
ground, and <or/<w, the pine-tree.) Arthe- 
tica. Arthretica -Ajuga. Jlbiga Iva 
arthritica. ffu/ocyron. Ionia. Sideritis. 
Common ground-pi' e. This low hairy 
plant, Teucrium chamepitys of Linnae-ts .- 
Joliis trifidis, Lineanbtis, intergerrimis ; 
Jloribits sessihbus, lateralibus, solitaries / 
can le diffuso, has a moderately bitter inste, 
and a resinous, not disagreeable smell, 
somewhat like that of the pine. The tops, 
or leaves, are recommended as aperients 
and corroborants of the nervous system, 
an^ said to be particularly serviceable in 
female obstructions -and paralytic disor- 
ders. 

CHAIWLUPITTS .MOSCHATA. Iva moscha- 
ta tnonspeliensium. Chamxpytis anthyllis. 
The Teucrium iva of Linnae-ts. French 
ground pine. I ! - is weaker, but of similar 
virtues to chamaepity. 

CHAMJEPHON. A name in Oribasius for 
erysimum, or hedge mustard. 

CHAMJEnApHAxuM. So Paulus ^Egi- 
neta c;ills the upper part of the root of the 
apium. 

CHAM^ERAPHATOTS. From %*/*&, on the 
ground, and gat<f>*vo?, the radish.) The up- 
prr part of the rooi of apium, according to 
P. ^Eginetrj. The smaliage, or parsley. Al- 
so dwarf radish. 

CHAMJERIPHES. The palma minor. 

CHAM^RODODENDROW (From ^*/u*/, on 
the ground, and goJc^v^ov, the rose laurel.) 
The Azelxa ponttca of Linnaeus. 

CHAMJEHUBUS. (From X,*!**** on tne 
ground, and rubus, the bramble.) The 
chamaemorusr 



(Frf>m ^a^eau, on the 
ground and trva^riov , Spanish oronm.) The 
genista, tincU^ti 

CH \MBERS The space between the 
capsule '.f the crystalline lens ard the cor- 
nea of the eye, is divided by the iris into 
two spaces called chambers ; the space be- 
fore the iris is termed the anterior cham- 
ber; and that behind it, the posterior. 
They are filled with an aqueous flird. 

CHAMOMILLA NOSTRAS S-e Chamcemelurn 
vulgare. 

CHAMOHILIA HOMANA. See Chatnaeme- 
lum. 

CHANCRE. (From Jt*^/vo?, cancer.) 
A s-ise which arises irom the din-ct appli- 
cuti'tn of the venereal po'son to any part 
of the body. Of course it mostly occurs 
on ihe genitals Such venereal sores as 
break out fr >m a general contamination of 
the system, i.< consequence of absorption, 
never have the term chancre applied to 
them. 

CHAOMAJTHA sroxA. So Putacelsus 
calls those prognostics that are *nkr -n from 
observations of the air; and i!u-.' skill of 
doing this, the same author calls Chaoman- 
cia. 

CHAOSDA. Paracelsus uses this word as 
an epithet for 'h.^ plague. 

CHARABE (Arab.) A name given to 
amber. See Sucdnum. 

CHARAPRA. (From ptgaw<ra>, to excavate.) 
The bowels, or sink 01 the body. 

CHAIIAM AIS. Purging hazel-nut. 

CHARAXTIA. The mornordica elaterium, 

Charcoal. See Carbon. 

CHAKBONK. Tlv- Cinar^ spinosa. 

CHARISTOLOCHIA. (From ^*g/c, joy, and 
Ko%ttt, the flux of women ufter child-birth ; 
so named from its supposed usefulness to 
women in childbirth.) The plant mugwort, 
or artemisia. 

CHARME. (From x*ipu> t to rejoice.) 
Charmis. A cordial antidote mentioned 
by Galen. 

CHARPIE. (Fre -ch.) Scraped linen, or 
lint. 

CHARTA. (Chald.) Paper. The amnois, 
or interior foetal membrane, was called the 
charta virgmea, from its likeness to a piece 
of fine paper. 

CHARTKEUX, POUDRE BE. (So culled be- 
cause it was invented by some friars of the 
Carthusian orpcr.) A name of the kermes 
mineral. 

CHASME. (From ^SMV*, to gape.) Chas- 
mus. Ossification. Gapmg 

Chaste tree The Jlgnus castus. 

CHATE. The cuctimis vfigyptia. 

Cheekbone. See Jugate os. 

CHEKSE. The coagulum of milk. 
When prepared from r.ch milk, and well 
made, it is very nutritious in small quanti- 
ties : but mos ly indigestible when hard 
and ill prepared, especially to weak sto- 
machs. 

CHEIIOCACE. (Brom *a\e?. a lip, and 



192 



CHE 



CHE 



, an evil.) The lip-evil. A swelling 
of the lips, or canker in the mouth. 

CHEIMELTOS. (From %ttf**. t winter.) 
Chilblains. 

CHEIRANTHUS. (From %ti$> a hand, 
and fitvOsf, a flower ; so named from the like- 
ness of its bloss6ms to the fingers of the 
hand.) The name of a genus of plants in 
the Linnxan system. Class, Tetradynamia. 
Order, Siliquosa. The wall flower. 

CHKIRANTIIUS CHEIRI. The systematic 
name of the wall-flower. See Cheiri. 

CUEIIVAPSIA. (From ^e/, the hand, 
and ATTTOfActi, to scratch.) The act of 
scratching ; particularly the scratching one 
hand with another, as in the itch. 

CHEIRI. {CJieiri, Arab.) Leucoium 
futeum. Viola lutea. Common yellow 
wall-flower. The flowers of this plant, 
Cheiranthus che'irl of Liunwus .- -foliis lan- 
ceolatis, acutis, glabris ; ramis anguiatiz ; 
caule fruticoso, are recommended as pos- 
sessing nervine and deobstruent virtues. 
They have a moderately strong, pleasant 
smell, and a nauseous, bitter, somewhat 
pungent taste. 

CHETIUATER. (From ;t, the hand, 
and lafyoc, a physician, A surgeon whose 
office it is to remove maladies by opera- 
tions of the hand. 

CHEIRISMA. (From %u[>ifyfAaj, to labour 
with the hand-) Handling. Also a manual 
operation. 

CHEIHIXIS. (From WS&f**, to labour 
with the hand. The art of surgery. 

CHEIRONOMIA. (Erom ^e/govo^ws*, to ex- 
ercise with the hands.) An exercise men- 
tioned by Hippocrates, which consisted of 
gesticulations with the hands, like our 
dumb-bells. 

CHELA. (From #x, forceps ; from *, 
to take.) A forked probe, tor drawing a 
polypus out of the nose- Fissures in the 
ieet, or other places. 

CHEL.E CANCRORFM. See Cancer. 
CHELIDOST. The bend of the arm- 
CHELIDONIUM MAJUS, (From x<u- 
JW the swallow. It is so named from an 
opinion that it was pointed out as useful 
for the eyes by swallows, who are said to 
open the eyes of their young by it ; or be- 
cause it blossoms about the time when 
swallows appear.) Papaver corniculatum, 
luteum. Tetterwort, and great celandine, 
The herb and root of this plant, CheliJoni- 
um majus of Linnxus ; pedunculis umbella- 
tis, have a faint, unpleasant smell, and 
a bitter, acrid, durable taste, which is 
stronger in the roots than the leaves. They 
are aperient and diuretic, and recommend- 
ed in icterus, when not accompanied with 
inflammatory symptoms. The chelidoni- 
um should be administered with caution, 
as it is liable to irritate the stomach and 
bowels. Of the dried root, from ^ss to 5j 
is a dose ; of the fresh root, infused in wa. 
ter, or wine, the dose may be about gss. 
Thp. r1pr.nr.tinn of the fresh root is used in 



dropsy, cachexy, and cutaneous complaints. 
The fresh juice is used to destroy warts and 
films in the eyes; but, for the latter pur- 
pose, it is diluted with milk. 

CHELIDONIUM MINUS. Scrophula- 
ria minor. CheKdonia rotundifttlia minor- 
Ciirsutna kaemorrhoidalis herba. Ranunculus 
vermiS' Lesser celandine, and piu-.vi-ort. 
The leaves and root of this plant, Ranuncu- 
lus ficaria ; foliis cordatis angulatis petiola- 
ris, caule unifloro, of Linnaeus, are used 
medicinally. The leaves are deemed anti- 
scorbutic, and the root reckoned a specific, 
if beat into cataplasms, and applied to the 
piles. 

CHELONE. (^sxww.) The tortoise. An 
instrument for extending a limb, and so 
called because, in its slow motions, it re- 
presents a tortoise. This instrument is 
mentioned in Oribasius. 

CHELOKION. (From %t\a>v, the tortoise ; 
so called from its resemblance to the shell 
of a tortoise.)- A hump, or gibbosity in the 
back. 

CHELTENHAM WATER. One of the 
most celebrated purg ng waters in Eng- 
land and the reputation of it is daily in- 
creasing, as it possesses both a saline and 
chalybeate principle. When first dr;;wn it 
is clear and colourless, but somewhat 
brisk ; has a saline, bitterish, chalybeate 
taste. It does not keep, nor bear trans- 
porting to any distance; the chalybeate 
part being lost by precipitation of the iron, 
and in the open air it even turns foetid. 
The salts, however, remain. Its heat, in 
summer, was from 50 to 55, or 59 Q , when 
the medium heat of the atmosphere was near- 
ly 15 higher. On evaporation, it is found 
to contain a calcareous earth, mixed with 
ochre and a purging salt. A general sur- 
vey of the component parts of this water, 
according to a variety of analyses, shows 
that it is decidedly saline, and contains 
much more salt than most miner*! waters, 
By far the greater part of the salts are of a 
purgative kind, and therefore an action on 
the bowels is a constant effect, notwith- 
standing the considerable quantity of 
selenite and earthy carbonates which may 
be supposed to have a contrary tendency. 
Cheltenham water is, besides, one pf the- 
strongest chalybeates we are acquainted 
with. The iron is suspended entirely by 
the carbonic acid, of which gas the water 
contains about an eighth of its bulk ; but, 
from the -abundance of earthy carbonats, 
and oxyd of iron, not much of it is uncom- 
bined. It has, besides, a slight impregna- 
tion of sulphur, but so little, as to be 
scarcely appreciable, except by very deli- 
cate tests. The sensible effects produced 
by this water, are generally, on first taking 
it, a degree of drowsiness, and sometimes 
head-ach, but which soon go oft' spontane- 
ously, even previous to the operation on the 
bowels. A moderate dose acts powerfully, 
and speedily, as a cathartic, without occa- 



CHE 



CHE 



sioning griping, or leaving- that faintness 
and langour which often follow the act ion of 
the rougher cathartics. It is principally 
on this account, but partly too from the 
salutary operation of the chalybeate, and 
perhaps the carbonic acid, that the Chel- 
tenham water may ue, in most cases, per- 
severed in, for a considerable length of 
time, uninterruptedly, without producing 
any inconvenience to the body ; and during 
its use, the appetite will be improved, the 
digestive organs strengthened, and the 
whole constitution invigorated. A dose of 
this water, too small to operate directly on 
the bowels, will generally determine pretty 
powerfully to the kidneys. As a purge, this 
water is drank from one to three pints ; in 
general, from half a pint to a quart is suffi- 
cient. Half a pint will contain half a 
drachm of neutral purging salts, four grains 
of earthy carbonats, and selemte, about 
oiie-third of a grain of oxyd of iron ; toge- 
ther with an ounce in bulk of carbonic acid, 
and half an ounce of common kir, u ith a 
little sulphurated hydrogen. Cheltenham 
water is used, with considerable benefit, 
in a number of diseases, especially of the 
chronic kind, and particularly those called 
bilious : hence it ha;> been found of essen- 
tial service in the cure of glandular ob- 
struction, and especially those that affect ihe 
liver, and the other organ* connected with 
the functions of the alimentary canal. Per- 
sons who have injured then- biliary organs, 
by a long residence in hot climates, and 
who are suffering under the symptoms ei- 
ther of excess of bile or deficiency of bile, 
and an irregularity in its secretion, receive 
remarkable benefit fr'>m a course of this 
water, judiciously exhibited. Its use may 
be here continued, even during a conside- 
rable degree of debility; and from the 
grea f . determination to the bowels it may 
be employed with advantage to check the 
incipient symptoms of dropsy, and general 
anasarca, which so often proceed from an 
obstruction of the liver. In scrophulous 
affections, the sea has the decided prefe- 
rence ; in painful affections of the skin, called 
scorbuticeruptions,whichmaketheirappear- 
ance at stated intervals, producing a copious 
discharge of lymph, and an abundant desqua- 
mation, in common with other saline pur- 
gative springs, this is found to bring- relief; 
but it requires to be persevered in for a 
considerable time,, keeping up a constant 
determination to the bowels, and making 
use of warm bathing externally. The sea- 
son for drinking the Cheltenham water is 
during the whole of the summer months. 

CHELYS. (xtxvs, a shell.) The breast 
is so called, as resembling, in shape and 
office, the shell of some fishes. 

CHEtYsciosr. (From x? Xv ^> tne breast.) 
A dry, short cough, in which the muscles 
of the breast are very sore. 

CIIEMA. A measure mentioned by the 



Greek physicians, supposed to contain two 
small spoonfuls. 

CHEMIA. (Arab.) Chimia. Chymistry. 

CUYMICAL APPARATUS. A general ex- 
pression, denoting the instruments, vessels, 
machinery, furnuu; e, and utensils of a la- 
boratory. 

CHYMISTRY. (xypt*, and sometimes 
M/utsi ' ehamia, from chama, to burn, Arab. 
tins science being the examination of all 
substances by fire.) The learned are not 
yet agreed as to the most proper definition 
of chymistry. Boerhaave seems to have 
ranked it among the aris. According to 
Macquer, it is a science, whose object is to ^ 
discover the nature and properties of all 
bodies by their analyses and combinations. 
Dr. Black says, it is a science which 
teaches, by experiments, the effects of heat 
and mixture on bodies; and Fourcroy de- 
fines it a science which teaches vne mutual 
actions of all natural bodies on each other. 
" Chymistry,'* says Jacquin, " is that 
brancl> of natural philosophy which unfolds 
the nauire of al) material bodies, deter- 
mines the number and properties of their 
component parts, and teaches us how 
those parts are united, and by what means 
they may be separated and recombined." 
Mr. Heron defines it, "That science 
which investigates and explains the laws 
of that attraction which takes place be- 
tween the minute component particles of 
natural bodies." The objects to which the 
attention of chymists is directed, compre- 
hend the whole of the substances that com- 
pose the globe. 

CHEMOSIS. (From %tva> t to gape; be- 
cause it gives the appearance of a gap, or 
aperture.) Inflammation of the conjunc- 
tive membrane of the eye, in which the cel- 
lular structure, or white of the eye, is dis- 
tended with a florid fluid, and elevated 
above the margin of the transparent cornea. 
In Cullen's Nosology, it is a variety of the 
ophthalmia membranarum, or an inflamma- 
tion of the membranes of the eye. 

(From chenopodium 



and ^cgcv, the mulberry ; so called because 
it is a sort of ckenopodium, with leaves like 
a mulberry.) The herb mulberry-blight, 
or strawberry -sp'n'di. 

CHENOPODIUM. (From , a goose, 
and <ar*?, a foot ; so called from its sup- 
posed resemblance to a goose's foot ) The 
herb chenopody, goose's foot. The name 
of a genus of plants in the Linnsean sys- 
tem. Class, Pentandria. Order, Digy- 
nia. 

CHENOPODICM AMBuosioTDEs. The svs- 
tematic name of the Mexican tea-plaut. 
See Botiys Mexicanu. 

CHEXOPOJIIUM AKTHEI/MIWTICUM. The 
seeds of this plant, Chenopodium anthelmin- 
thuin of Linnseus : -foliis ovato-oblongis 
dentatis, rucemis ciphyUiS) though in great 
esteem in America for the cure of worms, 

C c 



194 



CHI 



are netvr exhibited in this country. They 
are powdered and mad j into -an electuary, 
wi h .ny proper syi up, orcor.seive. 

CHEKOPODIUM BOTIITS. The systemic 
navue of the Jerusalem oak. See Botrys 
vulgaris. 

CHEKOPODIUM BONUS HEIOUCUS The sys- 
terr.i'ic n-nu- ot the English mercury. See 
Bonus henricus. 

CHSXOFOIUUM VULVARIA. The system;.- 
tic nam - t T he stinking orach. See Am- 
pkx fatida 

CHr.i AS (From %tu> to pour out.) The 
stnm;a, or scruphuia. 

CHEREFOLIUM. See Chasrophyllnm 

CHER^KS. (Arib.) A >m..ll berry, full 
of mst-cts like worm^ : the juice of which 
was formerly made into .: confection, called 
corfecno aikernifis, which has been long" 
di-uscd. Also the worm itself 

CIIKRMES MINK KALIS. See Sulphuretum 
anfmnnii pr<- ipiiatum. 

CHERJVIBIUM. Chernibion. In Hippo- 
cr;->--* it sis.-; 'ities an urit:;-l. 

CHEROIA. (J'r m Xtt^uv, the Centaur.) 
S .f (J ait annum- 

Cherry. See Ceruxa nigra and Cerasa 
r libra. 

Cterry, bay. The Laura- cerasus. 

Cherry, laurel. The. Lanro-cerasus. 

Cherry, winter. The Alkekengi. 

CHEKVILLUM. See CerefnLwn. 

Chesnut, horse. Se.- liippocastanum. 

CHEUSIS. ^From Xeae, to pour out.) Li- 
quation. Infusion. 

CHEVAVTRE. A double-headed roller, 
applied by its middle below the chin ; 
then running on each side, it is crossed on 
the i op of '.he head ; then passing to the 
nape of the neck i>-. there crossed: it. then 
passes under the chin, where crossing, it is 
carried to the top of the head, &c. until it 
is all taken up, 

CHEZANAKCE. (From %6fa> t to go 1o 
Stool, and a.v*yw t necessity.) It signifies 
an- thing that reates a necessity to go to 
stool , but, in P. jE.Jneta, ii is the nanie of 
an ointment, with which the anus is to be 
rubbed, for promoting stools. 

CHIA (From X;sc, ;u island wh.^re 
they were f rm; rly propisguted.) A sweet 
fig of the island of Chio, or Scio. /Vlso un 
eaith from that island, formerly used in 
fevers. 

CHIACUS. (From X/o?, the island of Scio.) 
An eni..het of a collyrium, whose chief in- 
gredient was wine of Chios. 

CHIADUS I's Paracelsus it signifies the 
sam< us furunciitus. 

Chi an pepper Set- Capsicum. 
Chian turpentine Se Chio turpentine. 
CHIASMUS (Froni ^*fa>, to ferm like 
the let er X, chi ) Tl.v iiame of a bandage, 
whoj-c shape is like the Ciretk letter x. chi. 
CHIASTOS. The name of a cruciale 
bandage in Onb.-.siiis; so culltd from its 
resembling the letter X, chi. 



CHI 

CHIASTTIE. The name of a bandage for 
the temporal ar'ery. It is a double-headed 
roller, Uie middle of which is Applied to 
the side of the head, opposite to that in 
which the artery is opened and, when 
brought round to the part affected, it is 
crossed upon the compress that is laid upon 
the wounds and then, the continuation is 
ovrr the ci ronal suture, and under the chin; 
then cros-.ing on the compress, the course 
is, at the first, rour.d the head, &c. till the 
whole roller is laken up. 

CHIBOIT. A spuriotss species of gum- 
elemi, spoken of by the faculty of Pans, 
but not known in England. 

CHI BUR. Sulphur. 

CHICHIJTA. Contracted from China chinse. 
See Cinchona 

CHICHOS Chirces. The affectio bovina, 
or distemper ot black cattle. 

Chicken pox. See Varicella. 

duckweed. See Alsine media. 

CHILBLAIN. Pernio. An inflammation 
of the, extreme parts of the body, from the 
application of cold ; attended with a violent 
itching, and soon forming a gangrenous 
ulcer. 

CHILI, BALSAM DE. Salmon speaks, but 
without any proof, of its being brought 
from Chili. Tie Barbadoes tar, in which 
are mixed a few drops of the oil of aniseed, 
is usually sold for it. 

CHILIODYSTAMO?*. (From ^x/ov, a thou- 
sand, and <fuva.(jw< virtue.) An epithet of 
the herb Potimoniwn. In Dioscorides, this 
name is given on account of its many vir- 
tues. 

CHILON. (XtiKuv.) An inflamed and 
swelled tip. 

CHILPELAGCA, A variety of capsicum. 

Chilterspin A species of capsicum. 

CHIM*THLOX. A chilblain. 

CIIIMIA. Sec- Chen.ia. 

CHI.MIATER. (From chemia, chymistry, 
and /ATgo?. u physician.) A physician who 
maid s he science of chymistry subservient 
to the purposes of medicine. 

CHIMOLEA LAX A. Paracelsus mean 1 -, by 
thii w-.n\i, the sublimed powder winch is 
sepyra.'.'.-i'i fr >ri Uie flowers of saline ores, 

CHINA. (So named from the country 
of Ci a -, from whence it was brought.) 
China orientulis. Sankioa. Guaqnara. 
Smilax aspera Chinensis. China ro(t. It 
is ob'ained fr;mi the Stnilax china of Lin- 
iiKtis : caitle aculeate, teretiuncUio / JoKis 
inernns, ovato-cordatis, quinqne nerviis. It 
was formerly m esteem, as sarsapafilla now 
is, in the cure of the venereal disease, and 
cutaneous disorders. 

CHINA CHI.VJK. A name given to the 
Peruvian bark, a native of some parts in 
China. 

CHINA OCCIDE>TAI.IS. China spuria 
naclosa. Smilax pseudo-China. Smilax In- 
dica spin-sa. American or Wesi-Iu'ian 
Cuina. The root is chiefly brought from 



CHI 



CHL 



195 



Jamaica, in large round pieces, full of 
knots. In scrophulous disorders, it has 
been preferred to the oriental kind. In 
other cases it is of similar but inferior vir- 
tue. 

CHINA SUPPOSITA. Senecio madraspa- 
tanus. Senescio pseudo-China of Linnaeus. 
Bastard China. It grows in Malabar. The 
root greatly resembles the China root in 
appearance and qualities. 

CHINCUINA. See Cinchona. 

CHIXCHIXA CARIB.EA. See Cinchona 
Caribaea. 

CHINCHINA BE SANTA FE. There are 
several spec es of bark sent from Santa Fe : 
but neither their particular natures, nor the 
trees which afford them, are yet accurately 
determined. 

CHINCHIXA JAMAICENSIS. See Cinchona 
Carabtea. 

CHINCHINA RUBRA. See Cinchona ob- 
long if olia 

CHINCHINA DE ST. LUCIA. St. Lucia bark 
is collected from" the Jinchona flovibuuda of 
Swartz : -Jloribns paniculatis glabns, capsn- 
Ks tnrbinatis laevibus, foliis eltipticis acumi- 
natis glabns ; it has an adslringent, biter 
taste, somewhat like gemain. It is re- 
commended in intermit; enis, putrid dysen- 
tery, and dyspepsia : it should always be 
joined with some aromatic. 

Chincough. S<-e Pertussis. 

CHIXESSE. The aurantmm sinene, or 
Chinese orange. 

CHINESE sail LAX. See China. 
_ CHIO TURPENTINE. Terebinthina 
tie Chio. Cyprus turpentine. Chum tur- 
pentine. This sub tance is classed among 
the resins. It is procured by wounding 
the bark of the trunk of the Pistachia tere- 
binthus of Linmeus. The best Chio tur- 
pentine is about the consistence of honey, 
very tenacious, clear, and almost trans- 
parent; of a white colour, inclining- to 
yellow, and a fragrant smell, moderately 
warm to the taste, but f ee from acrimony 
and bitterness. Iis medicinal qualities are 
similar to those of the turpentines. See 
Turpentine. 

CHIOLI. In Paracelsus jt is synonymous 
with furunculus. 

CHIQ.UKS. A name for the worms which 
get into the toes of the negroes, and which 
are destroyed by the oil which flows out of 
the cashew nut-shell. 

CHIRAGRA. (From />, the hand, 
and <*>/>*, a seizure.) The gout in the 
joints of the hand. See Arthntes. 

CHIHONES. (From %et$ t the hand.) 
Small pustules on the hand and feet, en- 
closed in which is a troublesome worm. 

CHIRONIA. (From C/iiron, the Cen- 
taur, its inventor.) 1. The name of a ge- 
nus of plants in the Linnxan system. Class, 
Pentandria. Order, Jllonogynia. Centau- 
jy. See Centaurium. 

2. (From ;^e/f, the hand.) An affection 



of the hand, where it is troubled with 
cliirones, 

CHIRONIUAT. (From X/gw, the Cen- 
taur, who is said to have been the first who 
healed them.) A malignant ulcer, callous 
on its edges, and difficult to cure. 

CHIROTHECA. (From g, the hand, 
and nfafAi, to put.) A glove of the scarf- 
skin, with the nails, which is brought oft' 
from the dead subject, after the cuticle is 
loosened by putrefaction, from the parts 
under it. 

CHIUURGIA. (From g, the hand, 
and igyw, a work; bfcaue surgical ope- 
rations are performed by the hand.) Chi- 
rurgery, or surgery. 

CHITON. (%ircev ) A coat or membrane. 

CHIUM. (From X/o?, the island wher^ it 
was produced.) An epithet of wine made 
at Scio. 

CHILASMA. (From %Ki*tvoe* to make 
warm.) A w< rm fomentation, called also 
thermasrna 

CHLOUASMA. (From %xa>i*eo, to become 
green.) Cn'orosis. 

CHLOROSIS. (From ^xagof, green 
pale ; frorii the yellow-greenish lo^k th>se 
have who are affected with it.) Febris 
alba. Febris amatoria. Icterus albus. 
The green Mckness. A genus of d.sea^e in 
the class cac/iexia, and order impettgines of 
Cullen. It is a disease which affects young 
females who Ubour under a suppression of 
the menses. Heaviness, listlesness to mo 
tion, fatigue on the least exercise, palpi- 
tations of the heart, pains in the back, 
loins, and hips, flatulency and acidi-ies in 
the stomach and bowels, a preternatural 
appetite for chalk, lime, and various other 
absorbents, together with many dyspeptic 
symptoms, usually attend on this disease. 
As it advances in its progress, the face 
becomes pide, or assumes a yellowish hue ; 
the whole body is flaccid, and likewise 
pale ; the feet are affected with oedema- 
tous swellings ; the breathing' is much hur- 
ried by any vigorous exertion of the body ; 
the pulse is quick, but snv 11 ; and the per- 
son is apt to be affected With many of the 
symptoms of hysteria. To procure a flow 
of the menses, proves in some cases a 
very difficult matter ; and where the dis- 
ease has been of long standing* various 
morbid affections of the viscera are often 
brought on, which at length prove fatal. 
Dissections of those who have died of chlo- 
rosis, have usually shewn the ovaria to be 
in a scirrhous, or dropsical state. In some 
cases, the liver, spleen, and mesenteric 
glands, have likewise been found in a dis- 
eased state. 

CHNUS, (From x vttvu> > to grind, or rasp.) 
Chaff". Bran. Also fine wool, or lint, 
which is, as it were, rasped from lint- 

CHOKE DAMP. The name given by 
miners to a noxious air, occasionally found 
in the bottom of mines and pits. It is 



196 



CHO 



CHO 



heavier than common air, therefore lies 
chie'h at the bottom of the pils ; it extin- 
guishe flame, and is noxious to animals. 
It is probably carbonic acid. See Carbonic 
add. 

CHOAXA. (From ^toe, to pour out.) It 
is properly a funnel, but is used lo signify 
the infundibulum of the kidney and brain. 

CHOA^US. (^CO.VA ) a funnel.) A furnace 
made like a fun , el, for melting- metals. 

CHOCOLATE. (Dr. Alston soys this 
word is compounded of two Indian words, 
choco, sound, and atte, water; because of 
the noise made in its preparation.) An 
article of diet prepared from the cocoa- 
nut ; highly nourishing-, particularly when 
boiled with milk and eVrgs. It is frequently 
recommended as a restorative in cases of 
emaciation and consumption. 

CHIEMCIS. The trepan, so called by 
Galen and P. jE^ineti, from WVIXK, the 
nave of a wheel. 

CIHERADES. (From ;^o/go? f a swine.) 
Chcerades. The same as scrofula. 

CHCRRABOLETHRGX. (From o/go?, a swine, 
and oxgQgo?, destruction ; so named 'f om 
its being- dangerous if eaten by hogs.) Hog- 
bane. A name in jEtius for the Xanthium, 
or louse-bur. 

CHOIRAS. (From ^o/go?, a swine ; so 
called because hogs are diseased with it.) 
The scrophula. 

CHOLADES. (From %Q\, the bile.) So 
the smaller intestines are called, because 
they contain bile. 

CHOLAGO. The same as cholas. 
CHOLAGOGA. (From MM, bile, and 
et),a>, to evacuate.) Cholegon. By cho- 
lagogues, the ancients meant only such 
purging medicines as expelled the in- 
ternal faeces, which resembled the cystic 
bile in their yellow colour, and other 
properties. 

CHOLAS. (From %oK t the bile.) All 
the cavity of the ilium is so called, be- 
cause it contains the liver which is the 
strainer of the gall. 

CHOLE. (Xcx.) The bile. 
CHOLEDOCHUS DUCTUS. (Chok- 
dochus ; from %oH t bile, and J^o^a/- to 
receive ; receiving or retaining tne gall.) 
Ductus commnnis choledochus. The com- 
mon biliary duct, which conveys both cys- 
tic and hepatic bile into the intestinum duo- 
denum. 

CHOLEGON. The same as cholagoga. 
CHOLERA. (From ^OA, bile, and 
ptu t to flow.) 7)iarrheea cholericti. Felli- 
Jlua passio Cholera, A genus of disease 
arranged by Cn'ilen in the class neuroses, 
and order spasmi. It is a purging and vo- 
miting of bile, with anxiety, painful gri- 
pings, spasms of the abdominal muscles, and 
those of the thighs. There are two species 
of this genus: 1 Cholera sponranea, which 
happens, in hot se-.sons, wi'hon ;ny mani- 
fest cause. 2. Cholera accidental s t which 



occurs after the use of food that digests 
slowly, and irritates. In warm climates 
it is met with in all seasons of the \ear, 
and its occurrence is very frequent : but 
in England, and other c<!d climates, it is 
apt to be most prevalent in the middle of 
summer, particularly in the month of Au- 
gust ; and the violence of the disease has 
usually been observed to be greater in pro- 
portion to the in tenseness nfthe heat. It 
usually comes on wth soreness, pain, dis- 
tension, and flatulency in the stomach and 
intestines, succeeded quickly by a severe 
and frequent vomiting, and purging of bi- 
lious matter, heat, thirst, a hurried respi- 
ration, and frequent b*a weak and flutter- 
ing pulse. When ^he disease is not violent 
these symptoms, afer continuing fora day 
or two, cease gradually, leaving the patient 
in a debilitated and exhausted state ; but 
where the disease proceeds with much vio- 
lence there arise.- s great depression of 
strength, with cold cLmmy sweats, con- 
siderable anxiety, a hurried and short re- 
spiration, and hiccups, with a sinking, and 
irregularity of the pulse, which quickly 
terminate in death ; an event that not un- 
frequently happens within the space of 24 
hours, 

CHOLERICA. (From ^oxsga, the cholera.) 
Medicines which relieve the cholera. Also 
a bilious flux of the bowels, without pain 
or fever. 

CHOLICELE. (From %oxn, bile, and 
JCA, a tumour.) A swelling formed by 
the bile morbidly accumulated in the gall- 
bladder. 

CHOLO^IA. (From ^^o?, lame, or 
maimed.) Galen says that, in Hippocrates, 
it signifies any distortion of a limb. In a 
particular sense, it is taken for a halting or 
lameness in the leg. 

. CHONPROGI.OSSUS. (From %ovfycv, a car- 
tilage, and yxuxro-H, the tongue.) A muscle 
so named from its insertion, which is in the 
basis or cartilaginous part of the tongue. 
See Hyoglossus. 

CHONDROLOGY. (Chondrologia / 

from ;t,cvJ<o?, a cartilage, and ACJXJ?, a dis- 
course.) A discourse or treatise on carti- 
lages. 

CHoxDRo-pHAUYycjEus. (From x,w<fpo?, 
a carti'uge, and qa.euy%, the upper p^rt of 
the fauces.) A muscle so named because 
it rises in the cartdaginous part of the 
tongue, and is inserted in 'he phr.rynx. 

CHONDHOS. (XovJgo?.) A food of the 
ancients, thr> same as alica. Also any gru- 
mou* concretion, and a cartilage. 

CHONDROSTXDESMUS. (From ^ov/goc, 
a cartilage, and crwSece, to tie together.) A 
cartilaginous ligament. 

CHONDRUS. See Chondros, 

CHONE. (Xo>w.) The infundibulum. 

CHORA. (Xa>t.) A region. Galen, in 
his book De Usu Partium, expresses by 
it particularly the cavities of the eyes ; but, 



CHO 

in others of his writings, he intimates by it 
any void space. 

CHORDA. A cnrd. A tendon. A pain- 
ful tension of the penis in venereal disease. 
See Chordee. Sometimes the intestines 
are called chordae. 

MAojfA. A name of the tendo 



CHO 



197 



CHORDA TYMPANI A branch of the 
seventh pair of nerves that passes through 
the tympanum 

CHORDS TENDING. The tendinous 
and cord-like substances which connect the 
cornea cohimnce of the ventricles of the heart 
to the aut-'cular valves. 

CHORDS W1LLISII. The small fibres 
which cross the sinuses of the dura mater. 
They are so termed, because Willis first 
described them 

OOIIDAPSUS. (From ^o/><T, a cord, and 
a5r7a, to knit ) A sort of painful cholic, 
where the intestines appear to be twisted 
into knots, like pieces of string*. / 

CHORDEE. (Chord^ French.) A 
spasmodic contraction of the penis, that 
sometimes attends gonorrhoea, and is of, en 
followed by a haemorrhage. 

CHOREA SANCTI VITI (Chorea, 
oga) from ^ogoc, a chorus which of old 
accompanied dancing. It is called St. Vi- 
tus's dance, because some devotees of St. 
Vitus exercised themselves so long in dan- 
cing, that their intellects were disordered, 
and could only be restored by dancing again 
at the anniversary of St. Vitus.) St. Vitus's 
dance. Convulsive motions of the limbs, 
as if the person were dancing. It is a 
genus of disease arranged by Cullen in the 
class neuroses, and order spas mi- These 
convulsive motion^, most generally, are 
confined to one side, and affecting princi- 
pally the arm and leg^ When any motion 
is attempted to be made, various fibres of 
other muscles act which ought not ; and 
thus a contrary effect is produced from 
what the patient intended. It is chiefly in- 
cident to young persons of both sexes, and 
makes its attack from between the agf of 
ten and fifteen, occurring but seldom after 
that of puberty. 

By some practitioners it has been con- 
sidered rather as a paralytic affection than 
as a convulsive disorder and has been 
thought to arise from a relaxation of the 
muscles, which, being unable to perform 
their functions in moving the limbs, shake 
them irregularly by jerks. Chorea sancti 
Viti is occasioned by various irritations, as 
teething, worms, offensive smells, poisons, 
&c. It arises likewise in consequence of 
violent affections of the mind, as horror, 
fear, and anger. In many cases it is pro- 
duced by general weakness ; and in a few, 
it takes place from sympathy, at seeing the 
disease in others. 

The fits are sometimes preceded by a 
coldness of the feet and limbs, or a kind 
of tingling sensation, that ascends like co!4 



air up the spine, and there is a flatulent 
pain in the left hypochondrium, with obsti- 
nate costiveness. At other times, the ac- 
cession begins with yawning, stretching, 
anxiety about the heart, palpitations, nau- 
sea, difficulty of swallowing, noise in the 
ears, giddiness and pains in the he;id and 
teeth ; and then come on the convulsive 
motions. 

These discover themselves at first by a 
kind of lameness, or instability of one of 
the legs, which the person draws after him 
in an odd and ridiculous manner ; nor can 
he hoid the arm of the same side still for a 
moment ; for if he lays it on his breasr, or 
any other part of his body, it is forced 
quickly from thence by an involuntary mo- 
tion. If he is desirous of drinking, he uses 
many singular gesticulations before he can 
carry the cup to iiis head, and it is forced 
in various directions, till at length he gets 
it to his mouth ; when he pours the liquor 
down his throat with great haste, as if he 
meant to afford amusement to the /by- 
standers. Sometimes various attempts at 
running^ and leaping take place, and at 
others, the head and trunk of the body 
are affected with convulsive motions. In 
many instances, the mind is affected with 
some degree of fatuity, and often shews the 
sarne causeless emotions, such as weeping 
and laughing, which occur in hysteriae. 
When this disease arises in children, it 
usually ceases before the age of puberty ; 
and in ad lilts, is often carried off' by a 
change from the former mode of living. 
Unless it passes into some other disease, 
such as epilepsy, it is never attended with 
danger. 

CHORION. (From >, to escape ; 
because it always escapes from the uterus 
with the foetus ) Shaggy chorion. The ex- 
ternal membrane of the fetus in utero. 

CHOROID MEMBRANE. (Membrana 
choridea ; from %opa>v, the chorion, and 
#JW, resemblance.) The second tunic of 
the eye, lying immediately under the scle- 
rotica, to which it is connected by vessels. 
The true knowledge of this membrane, 
is necessary to a perfect idea of the iris 
and uvea. The tunica choroidea com- 
mences at the optic nerve, and passes for- 
wards, with the sclerotic coat, to the be- 
ginning of the cornea transparens, where 
it adheres very firmly to the sclerotic mem- 
brane, by means of a cellular membrane, 
in the form of a white fringe, called the 
ciliary circle. It then recedes from the 
sclerotica and cornea and ciliary circle, 
directly downwards and inwards, forming 
a round disk, which is variously coloured ; 
hence blue, black eyes, &c. This colour- 
ed portion, reflected inwards, is termed 
the iris, and its posterior surface is termed 
uvea. The choroid membrane is highly 
vascular, and its external vessels are dis- 
posed like stars, and termed vasa vorticosa. 
The internal surface of this membrane is 



198 



CHR 



CHR 



covered with a black pigment, called the 
pigrnent of the chorold membrane. 

CHOROID PLEXUS Plt-xua choroi- 
dta A plexus of blood-vessels, situated 
in the lateral ventricle* of the br-in. 

CHOR- IE TUNIC. See Choroid membrane. 

CH^ISIS (From %%ia>, to anoint.) An 
inunction, or ..noiming 1 of ariy punt. 

Christmas -ose. Se Hclleborus niger. 

CHnis'.-'rx'. (From %j>ite, to anoint.) An 
unguen', n* mu-nent o- any kind. 

CHROMAS. A chr^rnate, or salt, 
fo. inea by the union of e..ri.hy, metallic, or 
alkaline bases, with chromic acid; a-- chro- 
mat e of leu 1. &c 

CHHOMATISMUS. (From ^f*/"*?/^, to 
colour.) The morbid di.scot. rati<;. of any 
of the secretions, as of ihe urine, or 
blood. 

CHROME. (From zguu*, colour ; be- 
cause its primary cornbna.ions impart its 
colour to all secondary ones.) A white 
metal, inclining to a grey, very bri'tie, 
and crystallizabie at an elevated tempera- 
ture, in feathered filaments on the surface. 
Its internal fracture presents in some parts 
close grains, in other parts needles crossing 
each other. It is an ingredient in the fos- 
sil, known by that name in Siberia. 

Natural History. This meial, which 
is extremely scarce, and exists only in 
the state of a metallic oxid, was disco- 
vered by Vauquehn. He found it in an ore 
called red-lead ore of Siberia, or chro- 
mate of lead. The colour of this ore is red, 
with a shade of yellow; when reduced 10 
po'* der, it is of 3 bright orange. Chrome 
has likewise been found in combination 
with iron, alumine, and si lex, (chromaie of 
iron and alumine,} in the department of 
Var, in France. It is met with in irregu- 
lar masses. Its colour is brown ; it has 
very liule metallic lustre. Pontier has 
lately found chrome combined with iron 
(chromate of iron,} in a quarry near Gus- 
sin in the road to Cavalaire. It sometimes 
forms large masses. The emerald of Peru 
and spinel ruby owe their colours to this 
melal. 

Properties. Chrome is obtained in small 
agglutinated masses of a white colour, 
inclining to yellow; it is very hard